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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. or Mollein. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. the closer we shall approach to the . or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. the present day. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). which are naturally produced by the opening lips. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or.NURSERY IMITATIONS. but nothing she herself knows the animals. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. when neither name for the object to be designated. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. or. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. with an initial m or I. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. is given to a cow or calf. and. name of the cow. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. the baaing of the sheep. and mully or mully cow is the . mind of the of the animal. persons of different tongues at the present day. to the syllables which are significant to the child. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. by whom the be understood. and where we are seeking. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. in other words. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. come Moolls. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. when we is represent to our children of the cow. The syllables moo (mu. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. Molli. in language of the present day. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. muK) and mae (rfie.

I had watched the growth of this word. to eat. for everything fit to eat. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw.' he says. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. and some were very clear and distinct. He would now say good. A member of my own new sfop.). And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. for things. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. . We have. . Gradually. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. analogous to Magyar mammogni. he called to to drink. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. partly from sounds which the child caught. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. Gr. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited.. family. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. as well as the mind of the utterer. had nim. On one occasion he said^e nim. Heinicke. First. to For instance.' In ordinary speech mump. nineteen years old. then. by the natural humming sound. schipp. his nurse adopting the word with him.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. fiafifi&v (Hesych. in children's language. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. and nim came to signify everything edible. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. to work over with the mouth. mumm. for bad. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. nim. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. when hungry. became more perfect. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. 72). hm. and which we might express thus. repulsive to eat. p. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. &c. Finally an n was placed before it.

to taste . to take. Nimm'd up. to smack in eat. South Jutland hiamsk. nobis vix permittitur. A negro proOr. ' Motherwell. i8o. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. to eat mampfen. djamdjamgoda (to say djam.' — Lersch. to move the lips in continued chewing. we can call them so. mumpfeln. the Scotch poet. Africa) nimi. crab nam buckra man.' says Quintilian. ut tinnitus aeris. nyam nyam. as to . j ing . Swedish dialect gamsa. or word-making. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. memmexen. (in chil- dren's language). snatched (Whitby Gl. aves tinnire. to fill the mouth. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). make djamdjam). in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. and some of them . yamming.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. oves lalare. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). and the crab — p. mujnpa. at hiamske i sig. nam. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. mumpfen. delicacies. to mump. to eat. palatable. lita. Africa) nimnim. Soosoo (W. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere.). stolen. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Galla djam djeda. to be pleamind . dial. agreeing with Ein. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. greedy . aptantes adfectibus vocem. buckra man's language the white man. taken up hastily on the sly. Primitive Culture. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. sweet (Koelle). to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . and the fizzing (and Series. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. namnam.ONOMATOPCEIA. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. and thence to be tasteful. clangorqae tubarum. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. Gothic niman. ' id est.minis. jamsa (yamsa). . nvrnma. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat .' says the author of Modern Slang.' And Diomedes. as well as the Sw. p. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. on. food (Tylor. jumla. i. Wolof nahenahe. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. to Sw. 1 86). mumble. Vei (W. to chew laboriously. tidbits nama . voracious. savory. 130-1. jammla. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). eating. iii.

grunting or squealing of hogs. cooing or crooing of doves. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. bumping of bitterns. Indeed. a lamb. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. dove and cooing. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. gobbling of a turkey-cock. not of a moo of Lect. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. or thoughts of our hearer. that there is When Man. snarling. whether it deserves the name of language. snarling of dogs. p. twittering of swallows. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. or. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh.' he says. purring or mewing of cats. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. hooting of owls. might be used as the designation of it. bleating of sheep. chattering of pies or monkeys. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. baaing or maeing of lambs.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. for the purpose of bringing the animal. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. 'I doubt. chirping of sparrows or crickets. before the in other words. 89) with less hesitation. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. not of a baa. do not speak of a bowwow. We . and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. sparrow and chirping. yelping. but of a dog. might be used. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. neighing or whinnying of horses. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. between dog and harking. croaking of frogs or ravens. Yet we ing. lowing of oxen. barking. howling. yelping. ^6^. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. intended in the instance to represent the cry. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . bellowing of bulls. listen in vain for between goose and cackling.' — We speak of a cow. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds.' And elsevs^here (p. cackling or gaggling of geese. anything connected with it. und growling. when circumstances required.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER.

is kuM) for the cuckoo. and gaggele or gagkelein. Columbia kahkah. crow. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. a daw. gackem. kauwe.. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo.). 380. in g. it announces (Salaberry). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Arabic kdk. ghak. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. kuho. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. 'Kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. caller. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. or quawk. coccolare. In Basque. a crow (Pictet). kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and Bavaria respectively. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. In Lat. 4th ed. caw kuhii-rava (rava. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. He to is therefore derives kdka. Barabra koka. Georgian quaki. Kdrava. Hungary. birds. kae. Aoo-Aoo. and the sound of that direction. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. kdka.' kd). Sometimes the hoarse i . so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. a bird that is be driven away. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. according to Durga). We imitate the sound with a modulated. lion.' common sense. whose sound (Pictet. Picard cau. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Manchu The kaha. in is Gr. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. KOKKvi. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Malay gdgak. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Sauscr. sound). is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. ist ed. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. a crow.). Origines Indo-Europeennes). koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. 349. e. crow. and means a shouter. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Bav. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. a a crier (p. having a general predicative power. layitavya .IMITATIVE NAMES. fi-om apakd- i. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo.

Magy. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. ghughu. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. a crow . have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part.. a crow lish Lith. 219. Hindi. kraeyen. while crouk. tortbla. kraeye. or Gr. giving turtur (and thence It. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Du. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. uhu. p. to hoot. kirren. The consonants p. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. to croak. 6. Sp. Dutch kievit. coqueri- Languedoc. to crow. Malay kukuk. coucouva. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. to cry loudly. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. by the verbs gurren or girren. gugu. The crowing of cot in Fr. to croak. name of its is the bird. turtle) as the Lat. are represented. name. either in the same or in related dialects. Pers. in the North of England. tor. k. kuku. tuquheit. the name of an animal will gen- . tbrtora. kukko. kukhuta. tur. wood-pigeon. kraukti. kruk. reduplicate form. French dishuit. teewhoop. German kielitz. lulo. krahe. as well as of Sanscr.. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. lilits. the name for a crow. to howl or Lat. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. German and Eng- krahen. Heb. Ibo akoka. xi. Du. It. great variety of oKokv^uv. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. another. Albacuculi a dove. Walachian coucouveike. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Yoruba koklo. libufs. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. yell.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. to crow. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. krauklys. and e. Esthonian kikkas. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin.Gr. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. Fr. korren. So we have Polish krukac. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. kurre. Mod. and sometimes both together. "Welsh hwan from hwa. and e. girre. hibou. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Swedish kowipa. koeren. a crow. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Scotch peeweip. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . coccovaec. t. tbrtola. Lettish kiekuts. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Da. gufo. cock. lUyrian kukurekati. Arabic tdtwit. Zulu kuku. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. synonymous forms of similar structure). German luhu.

We may compare the Parmesan tananai. schwirren. loud rumour. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. (Jieuschrecke) . Australian bumberoo. Sanscr. a drone. a beetle druna. to shrill sound sharp. give a faint sound. a bee. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. The name of the cricket indeed. The Arabic sarsor. PofijivXwg. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. to creak Bret. a sharp sound as of a 6. German hummel. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. g. flight its sting considered as a horn. there are infinite varieties. and yelping cry. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. zirken. to chirp . Danish dron. hollow noise. knetta. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. to sound. Lithuanian tranas.' —Tennyson. a hornet. skryle.vf3. booming. grillen. German drohne. with or Fr. or a gnat fly. common. in allusion to its music. droning is . name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. dhran. Albanian tsentsir. ' Sanscr. Lith. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Speaking of a cricket he says. schrickel. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. to grumble. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. 337. e.IMITATIVE NAMES. Danish gnaddre. Gaelic dranndan.' — i. Naturalist on the tocano. to chirp J may be compared with . whirr). resound. German dronen. Fin. humming. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. swirplys with 6. g. We may cite Gr. as . glass cracking (Schmeller). resounding of musical instruments. representing a short sharp sound. to hum. sound. gives rise to chwymores. pip-pi-ta. schrecke. skril with n.' Amazons. The drone peal. bee. ajo. i. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. to be compared with Sanscr. to rustle. ta-na-nd. from schrick. The Welsh chwyrnu.or bumble-bee. the drone or non-working bee . succeeding each other — with noise. words imitative of humming . growling. thunder. Northern Farmer. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . buzzing. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. and not from E. chirk. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. North of England. grille. Arabic tantanat. Sc. the humble. sirkka. of England it is to the b 2 . bamba. cricket is from crick. buzzing. a small as hawk is . skirl. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). a fly (Tylor) . and probably indicates that g. oE. In the N. g. kong-kong. shrill.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. — Catafogo. horniss and from the buzzing The. and he kong-ko-rong. Lat. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. ' — Pictet . schirke. grylhis. din. 'The natives call it tanand. from the humming. little intermission. Corean sirsor. bambhara. which they make in their flight very .

Lat. is inadmissible. a bullock. w. to bump as a bittern Illyr. muJiati. grumble as distant thunder . Manx booa. — ^Tylor. Galla boa. Gael. mugler. Thus from miau. a bull.XX called booing. Lat. that the imitative syllable are Lith. bukati. bae. The Galla lilbil. Hottentot bou (Dapper). or with on. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. to from bau. biibnas. miau-l-er. a heifer. a cow. to boohoo. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to or bark. amuse. bu. boo. representmake bow. or a z to the imitative syllable. and from to ring. Fr. mae. say. fivKaofiai. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. On the same principle. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. whence baula. ox. Da. k or g. bugle. or moo. baula. to . NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. lulauti (to hoo-loo). in same way. From baa. Norse bu. bae. to mew. It. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. loge. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Illyr. a drum . His analysis leads cow. OFr. verb is evidently identical with our shout. maukati. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. in a imitation of a ringing sound. a Geiger. Zulu lulula. to shout. to make a loud deep sound. the animal. mamoo-heeheek. or bau-l-i. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. From the same lioao). bugler. The Piedm. to bellow like a bull. bubenti. as that of the cow by boo. bullock. and in Hottentot baa was the . be-l-er. bwla. With these analogies. (iove. bovis. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. agreeing exactly with Lith. w. to weep. are (with a subsidiary k). baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. buculus. from the imitative moo instead of boo. p. bullus and e. 167. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. Cult. to shout. to make a noise. bos. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. cattle. verbal form given to the say. Fr. make to it laugh. to low. bull. and thence Lat. mugire. bolt. and djeda. to sound. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. bue. the Fr. forms a. bubati. bucula. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to the uses goda. make poo. to beat hard. Lat. or formed Lat. shoot . to make. to low or bellow. btibleti. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. as the Illyr. a buffalo. bauli. to bow- own bawl. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bo. to ba-L-are. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to low . has bilbilgoda. Piedmontese fi bau. representing the mew of a cat. to make. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo.

hundi). And it is true there between hog and grunt. a sow. lecco. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. Gael. meugler. as the proper name of a tame sheep. a. mekegni. Da. mutter. we have Sanscr. Manx meilee. menAda (ndda. as lou of an ox. leg-et-ni. corresponding to ohg. to themselves. a sheep. hunon. lambs. ^. and with the subsidiary k or g. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. From the imitative mae. grogner. for the voice of the ox). Illyr. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. hound. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). /xijeao/iat. or in any ! way ! persuading. leknuti. and snorke. mecati. naskia. name of a sheep. grumble. hund. undoubtedly imitative. grumbhng. may be identical with Esthon. in Wolof bae. a pig Fin. a grunt. Illyr. may with to snarl. nire. . grunlike a pig in eating. in v. to growl. kurre. and hoc'h. a sow. 6. houch. to bleat. knurfisk. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a pig. a wolf. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. curmurring. meckern. The g. goats.' Moor's Suffolk words. hunt (gen. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. grunt. sus-sus. groin. to rumble. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a dog. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea.). the designations of a dog the term cur. Illyr. grugno. rumbling. a (Hesych.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. oe. Africa laa. to bleat . of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. . purr). Hence Breton hoc ha. Gr. Magy. /xj/caScj. smack and naski. with the root ypaipm. although the imitation embodied in Lat. and grumphie. sound. guttural tone. karra. Kurren und murren. Gr. a goat. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. grumble. a hog. It. cry). it and e. Fr. meil. name of the animal itself. cite as by grunt. — . Idgge (Rietz). he would hardly. grumpf. hadg- Magy. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. growl. (iriKov of forms like Sw. to grunt. Welsh and Breton). leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. lek-eg-ni. to bleat. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. It is probable also that e. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. and thence groin. Gr. does not produce a e. a sheep or ewe. from knurre. by which the shingle gives rise to It. a sheep or a goat. sheep or goat. hwch. signifying a snarling. and of (maelon). to grunt. Fr. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. grunny. the snout of a pig.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. kurren. meketati. Moreover. ' In driving. . applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. to howl. lekavica. and Circassian maylley. from hundama. a goat. / The same Gr. a goat firixal^ta. G. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. With gen. meigeal. Among dog. this obstinate race. a sheep (Lowe). name.

). but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. ^6<. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). There are of course some names. hottihuh. a little am- bling horse. to go backwards. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. But words of this kind are. 91. If onomatopoeias can . as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. of the character in question. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. hobin. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt.' 2nd Series.. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself.). g. M). hobben. the cry to stop or back a horse. hoppe. . houpy in Craven. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. to whine. a mare. from the cry animal. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. as in Yorkshire highly right. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da.' — ist Series. p. cockade. coquelicot. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. a horse. turn a horse to the is In Finland.. (Craven Gloss. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. such as cuckoo. hobby. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. humma. p. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. Thus we are led to the Fr. Sc. to the left. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. Esthonian hoibo. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. e. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share.root. like artificial flowers. animal. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. when he found peculiarity. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. .' ticular bird. hiine. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. without a — we root. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. So Sanscr. coquette. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil).

hukkup. redpole. runniken. . Indian It is not unlikely that the on. frenschen. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. nitrire. nounced with a guttural). and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Lettish sweegt. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. animals or certain kinds of sound. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Irieschen. wrena. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. but whether there kind between them and other words. g. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Du. little speak for themselves. lapwing. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. Sw. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. wiehern. signified It. giggle. hresh. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . command of language was attained. hikkd. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. form corresponding hresh. ance or habits of the animal. e. swift. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. groan. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. sol. titter. whitename in in- throat. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. cough. to neigh. rinchar. to Sanscr. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. horse.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. woodpecker. hross. wrenska. Sp. than to the sounds represented. diver. goatsucker. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. as sigh. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. moan. Fr.D. Sanscr. fehtati. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. creeper. wagtail. ginniken. hennir. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Bohem. xxiii ginal object. Pl. hresh.

or the w. for in such sound of blows. to sneeze. tisio (tisho). atchian. tlirob. haw. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . ping came the bullets about their ears. Mei gbengben. . bang ' ! trenches. for the sound of a blow. 1865. shriek. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. for the sound of milking. scream. the God of thunder . a large bell. oren : Klapp. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. bang. beat. for the creaking of a wheel. beat of a clock child . hoo ping ping. It is represented in e. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. &c. knack. thunder (Tylor) .' it both sides went. the dashing of the sea . haitshu. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. — Sanders. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. Vei gbangba. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . pit-a-pat. to ham. to hammer . To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. for the for the sound of . on the chops is represented also by pratx. klatsch. for blows with a rod. Australian bungbung ween. knarr. —Brem. in a nail Let. hang. snore. debhes-lungotais (deifies. pump. &c. lumm.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. Of a like forma- drum . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . aritischane. ding. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. are familiar in ' to every one. mer. DingBang. heart tick-tack. ting-ting. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the sound of a fall. White Lies. snort.' 'Haw. to knock. went the cannon. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga.' So imac.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. a kind of drum. for that of breaking. atchini. to throw violently down. clap ! A smack Puff. to drive on. banga. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. to beat.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow.' ! ! ! ! — dong. Zulu bongo. strippstrapp-stroll. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. root kshu. dong Read. or tliat is accomit. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. Da. snukkup). for a small one. fitsche-falsche. Wtb. plitsch-platsch. an attempt would be made to by the voice.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. hoo. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. a more expressive than the e. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. banke. bangas. heaven). whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. wheeze.

or a piailler. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. e. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. ducing the sound. young child . At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Mantuan pipiare. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. Lat. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. is of expression. not- . as in other subjects of study. pipelni. is pfeife. It seems to him that the teeth t. and whimper. to squeak. which he added to intensify the expression. pipegni. to peep It. of a word will appear supposed to represent. as k. De Brosses. bleat.sc. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. young bird. cry of young birds . The pi. to cry pi. pigolare. peep. mobility excavation and hollow ^. laugh. Fr.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. far pipi. pipe. to cheep like a bird or a young It.' instead. pipilo. or the uneducated different consonants are man. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. the voice of chickens (Cot. chickens (Tylor). child. to designate cavity and hollow. cry. and so forth. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. piou. a or cheep. doubtless. part of the What consciousness has the child. pipe. scream. had been used laugh ? two. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. . where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. He Yet asks. pigiolare. pu. pi. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. — . piou. a chicken or gosling. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pipio. piauler. —Lyndsay. has been un- employed to designate fixity. used as a call to . pippione. a (young) pigeon. calls S. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. piccione. Gr. a fife or musical pipe. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. In cases such as these. a whelp.) a chick. G. peep. pipio. as the simplest implement for proFr. a fowler's bird call is lost. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. Magyar pip. Florio. to cry like imrli^u). The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. pule. pigione. Lat. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pipare. and their relations.

garren. knuks. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. Indian chack-chack. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. along with tinnio. girren. &c. to grumble). kniks. to cluck. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to gargle . to hawhaw or laugh loud. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word.. Poppopvi^to. a short sharp sound. gurren. kirkirdnd. rumble.Gr. cluck. to grumble. u. kniks. It. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. where the variation. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to ring pipio. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. or kaka-faka. tintino. to creak knirren. kuruk. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. . loud laughter. to bubble.) Mod. grumble. to clack. karkarana. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. sound). a. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. cricli. murmur (by . crack.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. some small vowel or consonantal sound. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. to gorgogHare rattle. and lugh. Pacific aka-aka. lachen. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . as the click of a latch or a trigger.. {to It. the side of g. ioriogliare (to make borbor). either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. the clucking of a j hen . murren. to laugh. to pant bejii- zela. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . borrelen. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. thunder oil . Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. a prolonged sharp sound. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . chack. laqfF. rumble (Fl. when it force than biscuit. to pant violently (Colenso). Pefuxela. turtur. coo. a drum W. . a closed or obscure sound. to grate the teeth . to growl. to cry pi. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. to rattle. a sharp short one. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. knurren. Zulu raraza. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). bubble. Manchu kaka-kiki. tontonare. in German. to be compared with Sc. sound of dry breaking. rumble. pi . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to gurgle. as representing the sound made when something breaks. creak. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. preserved by Kilian. make wood a clinking noise. to jar. crash. lachachen. along with Du. knaks. of something fine and thin. to thunder. tonare. or springing back. to crackle like in boiling . of a loud strong sound. Hindoo tomtom. like the noise of a glass breaking . Hindustani karak is rendered. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. i. be cate to go on laughing loud . Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. vaake gorgor) . to fizz like fat in frying. is very common.

as Fr. or of bells ringing. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. fumtu. 1871. or to Du. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). chut. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. clash of arms. quarren. while cacd / used in e. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. especially one who beats.* the heart. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. for the ringing of illustrate bells. or the bubbling up of to a spring. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. corresponding in e. box on the ear imitation of the . sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. of keys or tinkling of bells. djeda (to say tub). KaKog. 192). Galla tuma. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. a smith.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. Maori pata. caca and Finnish adkkd. bent her head. to whisper. compared with Gr. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. coughing or clearing the throat. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. chinking of coin. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. for the sound of privy whispering. Newman). is based on the same imitation as the e. identical with g. are applied to the is excrements of children. for the clinking Lat. to be compared with g. noise. . a nightingale. clango. drops of i. tumwata. a drum . the sound of a stringed instrument. tup. make djamdjam). Prim. koXiw. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to beat. clink.' Member for Paris. shout. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. rifiirayov. the tingling Ming-Hang. borrelen. bubble up. the gingling of glasses. to strike. a workman. a boy's whistle. sound). answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. and bilhila. wail. rvir (in tvittio. as of Tamil muromurmur. and her heart went thump. a nightingale. jingle. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. uproar. disturbance (F. thump. correspond to e. to knock. and e. awater* ' The Mme P. tumult. indicating the origin of Gr. champ. e. agrees with g. to the purling of a brook. Magyar csamm-ogni. Calt. jangle. The syllables lil-bil. kiling-kalang. bulbiil. bad. Fr. muro and e. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . chuchoter. for chut-chiit-er. rain (Tylor. Sanscr. hala-hald-faMa (falda. halaidlac'h. Tiie Galla gigiteka. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. and Gr. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . and the imitative nature of tivgle. croaking of frogs. word. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. klirren. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. csam-csogni. cry. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. 368). E. at an accelerated note. call. Manchu kaka. ding-dong. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. sound. brings us to Fr. simmer. kl'mg-kling. to ring or jingle. for a tTviror). and Gr. tubh. . The whispering of the wind I. spring of water in the a bell. is Manchu tang-tang. clank. Scotch sough or sooch. to say chut. Turk. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e.and e. to giggle.

tymmesll. and Fr. flop. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. to is blow. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. disturbance. smack. by rubadub. crunch.. answering to g. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. fizz. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. whack. report of a gun. ' Der puff. patter. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . chink. bang. smash. tinkle. boom. and the French pouf. hum. crack. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. But although and also found in Lat. craunch. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. thump. while e. gurgle. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. squall. rap. lash. gargle. the Germans puff. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. according to the strictest phonetic rules. creak. slash. dabble. clack. douse. flap. Fr. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. din. tingle. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. squeak. blubber. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. murmur. squeal. pop. swash. thump. Humboldt. rumble. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. guggle. to fall. brumberum. or v^hether jectional. clink. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. clash. clang. and soufflet. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. rataplan or rantanplan. for (Sanders). sputter. a applied as well to the force of the bang. parapatapan. clap. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. splutter. clank. The beating of drum is represented in e. dash. and Grimm. in e. rattle. clatter. splash. snap. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. crash. tomber. whine. tap. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. tumbian (to beat the ground). Nevertheless. jingle. at a door tarapatan. So in Fr. paddle. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. thump. it is fallj AS. It. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos.' — Nohden. The use of g. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. thwack. ring. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. we have buffet or cuff. souse. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. plump. whizz. mutter. whirr. tum-ultus. 'pat. chatter. blow. without the intervention of orthodox roots. hiss. puff. bubble. twang. to dance. w.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp.

that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. and uttering plaintive sounds. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. is Thus ah!. knows them. the inteij. or stubble is meaner name. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. or of any if wood.' If chaos. in the rushing waters. and thus they become signs of despair. stractions. 94. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. without a thought of symbolising to them. At the first beginning of life. xxix on the contrary. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. or any unsatisfied want. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . because they are spontaneous. grief. little who has time to want of her nurseling. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. formerly cited. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. of horror. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. ugh . of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. but if we must not complain on the beach.' . in the case of the animal or of the infant. and found in the building of be burnt up. wringing the hands. that he has taken the step in rational speech. Grimm or Bopp. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. the interj. an imitation of a sigh . —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. by the nature of the cry.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . If. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. the kind of action that is desired of them. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. are made known by an instinctive cry. Crying. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. p. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. every little pain. hay. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them.'.

! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. ^6g And to the same effect 371. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage.' — ist Series.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. coughing. p. may become traditional. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. should be remem- . it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . If I wish to make a person of an . the lowing of a cow. more eloquent than a long speech. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. to solve the I shall call first. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. more to the point. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. or which is of me as suffering pain. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. And again. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. and the eye. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse.' p. which are frequently so toned down cance. groaning. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. and some of them the composition of words. they are involuntary interjections. p. be more powerful. shrieking. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. as who them spontaneous utterances. 32. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. One short interjec- tion may fact. sneezing. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. interjections. of all the mouth. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. 344. he cites from Home Tooke. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. Language begins where interjections end.. He says. them to exercise it.

but the less am at a loss what to say. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. in Fin. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. hahota. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. some kind of language might have been formed. in Magy. Kayxa^u). is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. demolishing here. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. bered. Lat. and more or less limited . speaking. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. I am not hearer. hohottaa. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. kahkahah. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. Koxafw.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. hahottaa. Tooke in truth. for example. and others from interjections. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and thus. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. he says. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. Gr. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. interjections. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. then speech begins. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. cachinno. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. it them. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. when I arp humming and hawing. loud laughter.

It as has ing their most striking features. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. makes them stand and walk upon the table. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. . but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. if taken as a whole. of the nature of this great movement. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. The following account is given by Kruse. words receiving the meanings they now bear. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. Though. the critical question should be. What strikes him . and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. a deaf-mute himself.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. of the world. like peewit and cuckoo. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. But here nature soon conies to his help. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes.' he says. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. And so in the case of language. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and go where we now say stand. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. and not. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. dumb is the language of signs. a Picture-language. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is.

letter To hold the two fingers apart.' In the Institutions. and with his thought. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. or To pull and flap with the arms. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. becomes roast meat. walkest. and to taste. walker. that air. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. he. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. the lan- guage cultivates itself. but if I depress it instead. can do better and more easily abstract terms. such objects. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. for walk. he. or the verb to be. his action. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. thought is already broken. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. signs are taught for yet. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. among themselves. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. most striking outline of an object.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. The same sign stands and the act itself. and forms further and further. for child. thou. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. like a V. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. to name. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. walked. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and it is flesh or meat. it seems. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. it means little. nay. the sorecalling them to his memory. and gestures. as it now opens out. for single objects. push it towards the person addressed for thou.GESTURE most. particular sense in properly so called. the whole secret. called Gesture-language. that signifies great . and fully serves to j . what more. for the agent. And is. such as than the educated man. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and we have roast goose. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and And thus he makes himself a language. xxxiii him between one thing and another. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. The of sign for left hand. many when or but these. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. that. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas.

or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. and the as. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. or an act. Do not bang the it is a verb. as when Bang ! went the gun. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. You beaten . a colour red. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. and thus performs the part of an adjective. qualifies the against the wall. or action. He gave door a bang. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. the garden. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. a number of alternatives are suggested. would be simply beginning of speech. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. in fact. might be the knife. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or something of the kind. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. substantive or adjective. and so is an adverb. to indicate the action of a certain person. whether by additions or otherwise. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. as in die it is a noun. it called an interjection. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. according to the circumstances of the case. The same word . or a passive scene of existence. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. depend entirely upon the use. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. . I say.' dener's knife. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. in other instances sentence. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. Who is has beaten you ? would be. putting it into his pocket. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR.xxxiv asking. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. when I say. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. as But when it is meant door. When I say. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. When a verb. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. the ture of white term pink is and red. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or a quality. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children.

some outward display of the affection. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. that is. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. that admits itself in of audible representation. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. grie^ horror. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. Jii ta. but often self-evident. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. commencement of speech. wonder. and to be great. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. middle. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. and may be used language. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. whereof. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. with a stick. wherewith. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. 255. or nei. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. or with elements expressing relations of time. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. Thus tafu signifies a great man. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. inquiry. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. in the sense of great. verb nor noun has yet been developed. wherefore. coalesces with the personal pronouns. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. as kuo cung. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. inside.. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. which is an old y ting (use stick). a sigh of oppression and . a groan.^ — Miiller I. or some relation between it and another object. the man is great. pain. contempt. &c. whereto. wherehy. a noun. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. Latin. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. . as cung. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. in the is indicated by the syllable y. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. greatness.

vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. ochan. to . to sound yapyap. och. la. dchzen. wai-l.ez. w. howl. ocAJ. miau-l-er. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. vei-a. al. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. ach. ing action I. ai. lau-l-e. Lat. ache. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. vce. 6. ! ! Goth. pain. miau-n-is. guaj-ire. ach. oval. on. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. ah. to make). is Ay di me I Gr. It. and to bark . e. on. achen. misery. or r. In this way from the root guai. in Gr. wai. Lat. gwe-l-a. to yell formed e. as. vaj. wd. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. Thus from springs otjucifw. j. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly.-l-are. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). It. . It. suffering. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. The form corresponding to Lat. to ache.'). he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. ui. die wehen. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. weinen. pain. Such are g. misfortune. oh. lament from oimi. ach. weh. w^wa. gwae. g. are ol-ire. gwae. to wail. probably a deeper groan. oi. the pangs of childbirth. e. w. to cry at. grief. axofiai. to cause pain. to bewail oneself. to lament. to weep. n. grief. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. I oi[iot. o'i. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. representing Illyr. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to lament. Fr. A widespread It. ah. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. to groan. cece. Illyrian vaj. jao. weh schreien. guaj- or cry out pitifully. . &. to chirp. wehthun. ohi. to wail or cry alas . och. lament. form. to ache. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. ohg. ochain. Illyr. to weep. 6. jaoh. ochan. however. first person. to rriourn. It. mostly a ! %. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. waiidt. och. wai. e. wehen (Schmeller). djamdjam goda (goda. to do woe. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. ace. ahi. seen in Gr. a groan or lamentation vir. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. Gael. and cacak djeda (to say crack. tirr-djeda. to make bow-wow. aiai^to. vce. headache. Jar lau-lau. woe. to hurt Let. to injure. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. pain. as. grief] affliction. guai.. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. guajo. Bret. hei. to cry n. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. g. oh. at the close of the radical syllable. representing a cry of pain. wAwa. Let. found in g. to gargle. mew. oimare. Gr. . woe. . We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. has more kopfweh. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. xxxvi grief. Gr. . is w. miau-l-is. Gr.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. that. the nursery da-da. In the expression Da. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. when 1859. Phil. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. Sanders (Germ. but the truth is. saying : there the ad- Trans. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. or that it is. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. and may be rendered. • The child. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. is-te).' this. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). that is it.' person. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. child. and by a variety of expressions besides. der da-ige. But. da. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. When we pointing. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. ToSe (or in Attic E. The Fr. a specified were by pointing him out. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.' all is is — their consent. Dr Lottner observes. Thank you. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. ' sees an object. according to Menage. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired.' then points to his wife. give me that cheese. says da-da-da. to here . Bav. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. well as Goth. Please. I add) . as to express. more emphatically roSj)j that. or carry me thither. thata (ta-ta). or give me it. . with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. give. implying the direction of its good will towards them. nurseries. when he wants something. Sie. we may translate this by there (it is). his trowsers' pocket. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. and so on.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. as. da. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. 'nay. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. is we I believe. for instance. or wants to name something. case. as it Dieser da (as Lat. indeed. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. this here. Diet. that gratifies me. a word of many applications in g.

sounds. make dadada). The da is dodem. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. to say to oneself. — Cot. its desire. speech.' says Lottner interior. which thus exertion. strike. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. moving. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. standing. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to knock. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. to walk. takes it — as When the soul. to move step by step.^ its ' utters : a cry. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. pay. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to chatter. of which any one may. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. or dalliance. to beat. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. childish toying. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. reality. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. sinking. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing.' says Muller. and shapes it into an . stutter. to tion to another. Thus Gr. the original is that which he places first. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. beat. or metaphor. in every mode of expressing the idea. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. meanings. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. tasting. then instinctively interest. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. dadee. thinking. p. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. . tattle.' • liv ANALOGY. and one in particular must. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series.

extended to the exercise of the understanding. to glisten Dan. So firom Lat. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. splendour. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. ghsten. suspect Bav. knistre. . scheteren. to . In the case of sparkle. to smack or taste. from the . bilbil). beorhtian. snuff the sniiten. snutrs. magnificence. scTiateren. taste. bilbilgoda (to make . esclat). bright. we have and the and beorht. and. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to glitter. a brilliant light kilid. may be quoted gUt. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. kimistd. firom the Gael. schiteren. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. sapere (which signifies the nose. smell. chime). man of nice taste. iclat (in Old Fr. Bavarian bracht. noise. may be it explained . wamara. spraka. to glitter e. to shine. also wise. The 6. to quiver. . while sapere itself. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . tumult. schmecken. which in ohg. knittre. to crackle. — 1. to sound clear In Galla. to glitter. Lith. to crackle gnistre. sense of brightness. air. same imitative root with Sw. in popular language. to sparkle. kiimottaa. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. sound. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to be wise. pracht. and thence e. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. a dis- cernment.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. gnittre. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. wilistd. to tinkle. is used in the origin. smell. to resound. snudra. Finnish. sprageti. snotor. (parallel bilbila. then to sparkle. rattle. wise. as. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. discreet. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. the equivalent of g. tinkling. and schmecker. &c. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to ring as a glass willata. think. splendour. tintelen. to have Sapiens. as kilind. wilahtaa. judicious. unlella. outcry. to shine. in the domain of movement. to 5 ghtter. Heo Du. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. brilliancy. fiapfiaipw. prudent. make a loud noise. a ringing . to sniff. savour. to glitter. Again. Du. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. 1654. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. a rustling sound Gr. properly a clap or explosion. beam. to snilF. In the same way the Goth. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. on. to ring. to shriek with laughter . snot. for example. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. signified a clear sound. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to flash. a with kimmaltaa. to sniff out. search . Fr. clang. and figuratively.

sharp. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. oily. wool. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. pvfi^Civ. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. gluey. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. in of his works. 6\tadaveii'. whirl. and vepres. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. the cross. eo ut res vol. within. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin).' he says. pleasure soft to the ear . Kpovtiv. of dressing loud. itself letters are felt as sofl. . the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. flow and flux. or . power of the letter-sounds. he says. strike. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. rough to the ear. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. extremely loose. And observing that n kept the voice within. roughness. rend. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. shatter. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. rough both ways. we hear of screaming colours. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. which The Stoics. rough. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. tremour. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. discusses the tone of a picture. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. &c. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. break. inside. soft. rough. ipuKuv. the bleating of sheep. he framed the words ivSov. Kep^arl'ieiv. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. the neighing of horses. to slide. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. Much of the same has been often quoted. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. briars.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. KoWiiSije. accordance with the way in which by touch. fitting the letters to the sense. v. The BpavEiv. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. then in rpd/xoe. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. as soft by the ear. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. crux. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. the clank (stridorem) of chains. is felt Lana. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. 1. Tpa)(yg. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. Acre. smooth. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. in truth. kvTOQ. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. mel. \nrap6e.

to signify varieties of movement. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. rug. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. jig. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. the case of the voice. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. to jogj sac-cade. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. degree of roughness sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. jag. as when. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. or checks as they are called by Muller. jih. cular effort Again. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. a rough and sudden . while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. sag-oter. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. dag. shag. stag (in stagger. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. for exis ample.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. 138). stab. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. shog. p. g. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. Fr. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. t. 'and consequently form.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. joli. and in the utterance of a high or or low. A greater felt. dig. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to reel abruptly from side to side). p. corresponding to the ineor. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. tug. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. jog. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. k. d. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. ii. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes.

as tot. lead to Spanish tocar. Fr. a little bit. however. to stir. The train of . to utter a slight kick. Hence Lat. to take a thing on tick. Welsh cicio. to glitter. chiquet. Dutch kicken. a crum. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. chicoter. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. mik. Mucken. Then. to ring a bell. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. foot. Bolognese tocc. to winkj micati is Lat. a piece or bit of anything. to have it ticked or marked on the score . zack. to mutter. and e. is lanese toch. chic. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. then. so to Italian toccare. tecche-tocche. a jog. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. a cracker. e. sound Fr. as Italian tocco. motion. to move rapidly to and fro. or check. toch-toch. to beat or play on a musical instrument. Sukkeln. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. It. that we never can be sure. mica. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. &c. is made to signify movement. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. g. chique. passing to the signification of motion. tock. to strike It. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. properly a small lump'of . for the sound of knocking at a door. to touch. kik. zigzag. rough horse. an old worthless horse or carriage. is so frequent a consequence of movement. Thus we have B. to mark it with a touch of the pen . sound barely audible. a good piece of road . like English tick. and analogous movements. a stroke with a French toucher. (mitsati). to incite by light touches. a small bodily object.. to On the same principle j we have g. to tickle. in cases like the foregoing. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. it produces Dutch micken. cica. schockeln. Accordingly the g. a quid of tobacco. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. To tick a thing off. Ene olde suksuk. schuckeln. and It. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. then. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. mot. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . tack. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. The production of sound. mie. an infant . not to utter a syllable. The syllable suk is jerk. figuratively.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. kuk. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . The analogy then carried a step further. used interjectionally to represent a . Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. a playiug-marble. micare. to pulses being knock. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. a . tech-tech. Fr. to say a word . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. The Mipen or pencil. also to stir. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. movement.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. Brescian toch. Illyrian migati. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. S-panish miga.

mot. . e. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . this . of movement in totter. tittle. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . The following table from Tylor (Prim. a small horse. tot. tottle. 0. here. To jot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. Fr. mutter. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. there '(at a short distance). move slightly to . taut. little j to that of a small bodily object. Malagasy to. to touch. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. gno. So. anything . small titlark. lump of earth. . anything small flax. tot. lix Sp. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. a small kind of lark. mut. and mite. or the like its It. gni. that. n. often entirely arbitrary. titilh. tiny. a whisper. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. totle. This kind. small of kind. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. tozzo. the vowel sound. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). a morsel. to dot. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. a girl. or o toi. ticktack. 199). a little titty. iki. But the same is language has re Javan. a e. a morsel girl . to make a slight mark. Halliwell. motta. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. that iku. you. further off. . Pm. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. is shown in murmur. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. Then. a. little. fait. neither moit nor an atom. to e. to whisper (Pr. mossche. at where the order is inverted. I. a light quick blow. ri that. to jot down or note with a fro. and out there. there (further of!) ao. and dot. the least visible insect. for the three personal pronouns. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. zitella. a bit. 48) cites from the African Tumale. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. tit.) . and a small lump of something. citto. a small lump or pat. mote. bunch or flock of wool. to touch lightly with a pen. . titter. subdued manner. zitio. . this. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. for the beating of a clock. a lad citta. to tremble. to movement of the pen . or the converse. here (close hand). where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. (Halliwell) Da. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. In a similar the relations of place. corresponding to the personal pronouns. Du. syllable mot. to jog. there.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. a tot . . tot. titmouse (Du. a certain conception. clay . ika. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. e. not because the pendulum makes a different left. Cult. tit. and toddle like a child titter. a bit. a sparrow). motte. gnu. and he.n. we have e. tot. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. i. a small bird. jot. mutter j dust. a small quantity. the same organ touched with the man. seesaw. not to utter a syllable. chico. . fragments It. . as in e. not an atom . eo.- a jot or little It.

/e«. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. here . . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ita. there. . from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. here j ka. there. here . nne. probably initial of distinction that the k. Chilian tva. ndi. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. Fernandian az. (tt). that.. Lat. that. tiiio. mother. here 5 Yoruba na. for the male. It seems to (fen. this . man erne. is father. thou ni. ^. j Canarese ivanu. . km. thou. Sahaptin (America) kina. mother.) nna. . that (intermediate) j wana. . uta. father k . ni. there. there. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Mutsun ne.e^. that. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. you. there. akha. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing.. child. Botocudo ati. Magyar ez. mas cheche. olo. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. loo). no constant rule is observed. as Mr Tylor remarks. here feraa. respectively. young one. Japan ko. . Gr. father. there. that. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. ukko. 6. this ole.araM. Tamul i. here j abe. this <t. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. this . In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. /wo. It Carib lala. I . ofj. usho. Abchasian aSn. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. Guarani nde. that.. and a for the female.) pronunciation of i or e. this . that. w. ne. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). bi. an old . and origin. Zulu ajoa. minution further. ni. child. ojOo. femina ama. small (Pott. is Here. Carib ne. qu. that in the distance. Dhimas isho. /mya. . there. as in Italian Fin. that. me probable that • Vei also little. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. that. little. that. he. this . as the act of pointing was ta. biii. thou . an old woman chacha. Then. he. this fi. Ossetic am. to. Tarahumara ibe. here this .. ta to ka. Mm. ulri. . mother. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix.

to leap. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. wean. titta. barking of a dog. The sound trapp . this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. as ding-dong. has tittafrem. to feet. pepin. Thus we have Wolof sopa. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. trippen. or chink. &c. to teet.' making the voice as small as possible. Fr. 401. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. analogous to winy-piny. murmur. i Sw. And perhaps the E. Da. little To sup up. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. a little yellow beard. . little. fretful. the nursery few j Sc. nil.' — Merrv Wives. keeh. to begin to appear . of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. trippelen. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. the pip or pippin. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. wenig. the simplest mode by the g. trSpigner. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. repetition It. to make its way through the bursting envelope. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. don-don.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. of smaller things. nipple. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. to peep through. Clank represents the sound of something large. to peep. A little wee face with little. sound of bells . stairs. tion. a child. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. at pippe frem is to spring forth. or even. trap. The Sw. nab. for a succession of light blows low-wow. looking through between obstacles. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. is to express simple continuance of action. for the . for instance. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. — Douglas Virgil. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. trappen. and in the Pacific dialects. to tread. lift 8. trappa. a step. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. the idea is called. din-din.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb.) . From cases like the foregoing. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. A little weeny thing. in old e. whence Fr. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. as j money. Top. just beginning to appear. knob. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. the principle of reduplication. dance (Kil.

to to call. Again. or in Fr. Thus in the Pacific loa. Thus in E. a clattering noise. kenda. the lungs. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. or imitative syllables. hardness. in familiar use with ourselves. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. instead of being actually repeated. rapidity and strength. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). click. and the words express a continued sound of rack. the and clique. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. is language. to rock. to skip. puka- puka. child . as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. and Fr. kendagenda. er. rack. Malay ayun. The same principle of 196. a spot. to talk at to walk. Mandingo ding. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. . very great. to cover e. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh.. So from clamo. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. rack click. clamito. kamha-gamla. to vi^alk about for flax. from Maori muka. to love. calling. mpolu is uttered. puka. tach-et-er. to treat with contempt. a grasshopper. tache. racket. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . Cult. to call frequently from Fr. 99).Ixii REPETITION. the agent in panting . repetition or continsignify long. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. if very young. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. or a little tee--ny thing. bad . (to use a to speak. And generally. serves to show and in this way. i. Susa di. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. ayunayunan. to or rub. ratsi-ratsi. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. clash of weapons. 97). child . sopasopa. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration.' expression is — ^Tylor. . ding-ding. or el. didi. mawhitiwhiti. could readily be conceived. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. little child (p. properly speaking. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. cliqu-et-is. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. mawhiti. smallness. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. keep spots. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. or very very great. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to pant. are echoed by the rudimentary et. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. &c. very long (Pott. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. a cradle. very bad. amusement. the comparative degrees of greatness. or rdtchi. to say pooh It is ! to. loloa. random . may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. lololoa.

where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. kneel. to bark like a dog. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. Piedmontese bau-l-S. crack. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. rubber. to hand-le. or in e. in some applications. bub. or fi bau. rynel. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. wavering. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. such asjlap. to make bau-bau. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. from puka. itself. to rock. miauler andpiauler. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. dabble. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. g. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. the knie-en to E. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. wancol. dab. which. and in as. wankel.Jicol. The contrivance with any particular noise. mew and baa . bubble. to make gug. to make a succession of shoves. miauler and beler correspond to E. to continue dragging. to hand. guggle. to crackle. as to handle. wagas ging. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . shuffle. the lungs (the puffers of the body). has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to move to and fro. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to wail woe . as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. draggle. wankeln. he who rubs. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. Jickfacken. is In e. in Fr. In cases like these. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to make a succession of grabs . compared with g. fickle. smack. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . others. a succession of cracks to rattle. or omitted. waggle. or Maori puka-puka. it. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . by the side of wanken. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. without the intervention of the frequentative element. are to cry mew and pew . to puff. or by association. to rock or wag. Ihre remarks under gncella. The Fr. joggle. syllable clat . to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. jogging.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. a from ayun. as mAS. where all direct connection with sound is lost.

The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. or in mode of use. or how generally. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. at was more familiarly known. known in Italian. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. deceit. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. to the separation between the broken parts. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. which is the origin of the word. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. and comparatively few easily deceived. Breton. There is. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. to cry ugh at. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). which. on a moment's reflection. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. Dupe comes to us from the French. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. moreover. A gull or a dupe same sense. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in aptness to combine with other elements. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . by a hard body breaking. will continue to be felt in daily speech. although it is not difficult. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. Polish. the breach. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate.

But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the word is used in a secondary sense. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. founded in manifest blunder. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. nor any limited of ideas. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. however. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. language is . and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. Hitl^erto. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. is. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. life. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. . As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes.

' — But even tendency to in civilised life. hearing. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. Welsh. Naturalist on the Amazons. guages in South America. If English. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. evique. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. in the course of many years' isolation. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. and vescovo. French. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . and 'Russian. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. 330. unintelligible to other hordes. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. circle perpetrates a new slang term. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. i. change. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. I think it very probable. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. therefore. out. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. of material things. compared with the duration of man. episcopus.

tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. is MN. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. ao8). which are idenr Figures 5. . that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. i. 9. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 7.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. The combination of the symbols I and 2. the actual it which would to represent. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. it will leave figures 3 and 4. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. A key must unlock more doors than this. ancient Greek M . 8. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. or whatever the proportion may be. and . Nor is there one of the letters. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. 6. to be taken (Prim. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . Cijlt. as shown in the subjoined illustration. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum.

and the only safe beneficent Creator. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. or. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. his fellows. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. which either by direct resemblance of sound. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. We must either suppose that in a civilised state.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. leading him to utterances. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed.' should be discovered. known to us as yet. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. for instance. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. in the shape either of direct inspiration. had its origin in imitation of sound. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. what comes to the same thing. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races." the use of a change of vowel in as. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense.

race were speaking men or not. for instance. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or not. by animal without a trace name of Man. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. the conduct of Ixix life. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. as elephants. of using imitative conduct . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. that he started from the lowest grade. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. until the progeny. and rose towards a higher state of being. and when we look back as far as history will reach. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. or beavers. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives.COMPLETION OF MAN. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. or else. and sooner or later. or of their own reflected thoughts . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . in the course of generations. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races.

Supplement to Dueange.. 1850.-Eng. Douglas' Virgil. Gr. Cotgrave. Esth. dialect of the Sette Commune. Sup. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Castr. Teutonico-Lat. Bav. Provincial dialect. Baile/sEngl. Grammar Boh. Danish. 1857. ^Ifr. 1766. Diet. Da. Bohemian or Czech.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Dief. or Dan. Anglo-Saxon. Dueange. Biglotton seu Diet. Dief. Infimse Latini- D. Carpentier. Wtb. Fin.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Due. Fr.Nieder. Diet. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. de la langue Cat. Diefenbaeh. Supplement to Bret. 1768. Dueange. Dutch. at the end of Somner's Diet. Bremisch.V. Cimbr. E. Dn. 1737. Cimbrisch. Catalan. Esthonian. Bigl. AS. B. Brem. Diefeiibach. Elfric's Fl. Gothischen 1851. Diet. Carp. Bavarian. Finnish. . English. Couzinid. dial. Cot. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. 1654. Romano - Cas- traise.



deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Askance woud r. plowied budowaer. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. alUger ahaverie r. r.>. puHti r. r.nokkutama willekem.5 ERRATA. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.. woman r. baltresca nokkutomax. cruccio deyrie. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. ^i?^i2! r. cti. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. Blob plowied r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .percurrunt kimista^x. word allagerr. sveritet Asknace r. kilistaa bugiie r. willekom Blab r. (/ijtf r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. haverie crtOT r. r. katowai perairrantr. yjnaifia r. buque 118 brodiquin r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.


ifter. his.t G. Abs-. said. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. ur. AS. be-ceftan. in. whatever he be. iway from. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. on-lic. have entire dominion over. "rom a height. plesyt him. rule. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. into the Romance ftrseg . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. o/j of or . particular 1 . 843. Jvery man shewid baft. OHG. of-dune. abaft. sion of 'an abandoned character. away. K . erwachen. command. announcement. alike. and secondarily in that of command. a washing off to abstain. out of. A. . might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. behind. in the same sense. to awake. ar. ab. on. us. Abaft. implying a completion of J. dominion. baftan. Dent posture. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. the er. Lat. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. to hold . ibandonner. downwards. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. to sauff the king or spill. ir. and — Chaucer. but now )bsolete). on-bsec . compounds. Thou spelds of mychty iction. as. among. Passing tongues. a. away from. To abuse is to use iway. to subdue. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. onis aback. a/tan. this word beand Spanish. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. vs. off. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. dominion. Parson's Tale. Again. Immediately from Fr. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. an edict or proclamation. abs. to arise. In Lat. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. as. orders. Ab-. —Bruce. The word Ban is common orders. literally. Abandon. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. 244. Thus ip N3S. bandon in French. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Hence on-bceftan. in a manner other than it should be ablution.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. state of sleep . until the event jlace . on.he Goth. AS.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. from. er. power : Than Wallace thing. from a is to wake to abide.

Hart in Jamieson. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure.' the surrender of a ' K. to overthrow. to bate something of the price abbatersi. person. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. abandonly. burny was formerly burnish . It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. abbatis. weaken. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. or admiration. terminedly. to gape. Abbess. to strike sail . Many English verbs of a similar deriv. esbahissais. to abaw or astonish. R. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. to beat furnish. Abbot. by Wall. And he thereof was all abashed. abate. to make lower. Abbey. See Abide. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr.fournir. of fear.On princes. to put to con. to diminish the force of any. esba. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. astony. baba. confound. Castrais. abbatere dal prezzo. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. bawi. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. with or without a final sh. impulse.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. R. and it that that it — . to strike Froiss. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. R. esbahir. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. and sets them all agape. of the Fr. may be explained. — — . esbahissant. father. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. as ravish. and that from Syrian abba. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. . to happen. thing abbatere le vela. castle. abbattre. and grooms besmeared with gold. abaundunem-ent. d. ne more vermeille. abbatere. to excite admiration. law term abatement. baer. vol. c. or society of abbots or monks. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. Beat. merely the terminations ons. Milton. abbas. In or. other. and the verb was written in Eng.— — . his mouth. On the other in use as well as hand. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Hence the OE. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. his eyen shene. polish. Hence Lat. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. 364s. To Abate. to ruin. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. abbatia. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. depress. where custom (Grandg. . ant. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . Originally. Wall.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. — Neccham. of wonder.down.Prov. so common in the found in the OFr. ais. 1520. bandon. drink. down. Fr. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. to astonish. A.esbawi. See . beer. It. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. de. from ravir. Cotgr. overthrow. son bandon. 1 1 8.— R. from Lat.) . betrash. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. More correctly written abbat. an abbey. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. to light upon. Baba ! Mod.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. burny. lish to abaisse orabaish. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. impetuously. faire tomber. to take possession of an estate. shame. I was abawid for merveille. to hit. Custom. in the active form. uncontroUedly. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. et prirent terre. effect of shame.polir. iv. at his own the lips. to The . astonish. adverbial expressions at abandon. Bate. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say.

also to OFr. abidan. and in E. to attend on . ' ' . Norm. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. qui iaaille. to expect gabeidan. Boethius. forbearance. deceiving. aspirer. m Abeyance. watch. tical with It. Norm. — II. exciter. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. ^couter avec dtonnement. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. OFr. to be intent upon. — signifies to suspend action. Du. abet. delay. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. abeyance. desire. E. In We . bada. Pol. delay. to desire earnestly. beidan. wait. tarrying . from Halo. baier. to hook. in Fr. speaking of the Holy places. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. were called Brothers. while the monks under his control ing. Thus we have It. Abie. — . F. house. de Champ. baier compared with It. to look. baier. expectfamily. literally white tree. expectation. warten. Gloss. us. Q. to expect. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. attendre See Bait. to remain or endure. to stay. b^er. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. to open bader. a right in suspense . In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. Prov. we sceolon ON. tempting. abet. regarder.. . forms with the d effaced are OFr. to open the mouth. bida. badar. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. or do we AS. or absorption watching. endurance. bialodrze-w. lingering. attendre avec en^pressement. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. incite . to In great amaze. bie. To Abet. to desire. to ance. ne chastised them. 1 • . With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news.' is in AS. badare. take notice. Thus G. listen. abbadare. inciter. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . beguile. beguiling on the other. white. Corresponding to keep in suspense. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. bidan. Quant voit le serpent. gola badada. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. to gape . Fabl.— Roquef. and alluring to his own destruction. . badigliare. ceive. — ABELE Epiphanius. bide of the d endure. badare. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. abie. bida. endurArt thou he that should come. abetter. on the one hand. beidan. to tarry. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. waiting. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. 366. to It. bhr. have seen abide. —Raynouard. songer. bana. suffer b.Fr. says. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to deceive. abSiance. to wait. delay. to deanimer. pense. to attend to. with badia. signifies the direction of tend. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention.was formerly used in the sense of look. look for another. wait To Abide. to mind. beijen. to yawn. to be intent upon. beter. which the mind to an object. (Vocab. compared with (Bosworth). syllable ba. beijen. and Prov.— Chaucer. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. open the mouth. desirer (Roquef. and E. Cat. intent observation. Ni engigner ni abiter. expectation. Guernsey beth. othres abidan' The effacement expect. a bay or opening in the coast. Cat. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. bder. gridare. ne wist what way to chuse. listening. verbeijen Sw. bouche bdante. is idenwait. John. covet. The verb atwaiting. to wait. abeter. or in Fr. . . usbeisnei. abaier. deceit. baer. From abahier. bie compared with Dan. Abele. The white poplar. the verb of abeyance.) abayer. bocca badata. abayer. trick abetar. aspire to. to wait. bouche b^ante. guardare. abiiance. Gloss. tity of E. abie. in Dan. badare. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). Goth.— ^richer. take care. which is certainly related to It. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. suspense. K. Ducange. tenere a bada. to abide . the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. beijden. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. de Berri) Prov. to stay. Corant sens lui. See Abide. with open mouth . inciting. . to suffer death in Du.to wait.

bidan. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. power. Chaucer. God. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. to wear away. to pay the purchasemoney. powerful. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. without special reference to the notion of retribution. abolir. purpose. Wickliff in Richardson. while in later examples As I . bide. aboleo. to have .ynes. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. abie. being disabled in the highest degree. to pay the penalty. ! ! Cotgr. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. She shall abie that trespass dere. him with che. in for any special purpose. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. from AS. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. fault being simply clothing. the Pardoner In the original. R. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. abilh. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. convenient. the Fr. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. to draw fowls. Fr. R. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. able. habile. as habiller du chanvre. Prol. O If tion. suffer the Jul. at hand). abide. al- be found so some will dear abide it. to perish. — P. . ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. L. abidge. For on board. at kasta fyri bord. sufficient. Q. atling hem to her proper offices. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. from Lat.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. and the simple buy. consequences of anything . or bie. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. abycgan. durance in both applications. willing to schewe his wrathe. though sometimes confounded with it. abeye. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. properly abuy. beidan. was often used in the same sense. when compared with Aboard. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. use. strong. In this to erase or annul. fit. F. habilis is closely preserved. Mids. — e. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. Lat. 2. abie to Goth. Boucher. forbid for mother's children should abye. adapted . Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. The —Boucher. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. habilis (from habeo. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. —Bacon in R. and death for handsel pay. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. on board . Tr. to . Abie. a board. must suffer for it. the Sir Tristrem. — Able. and Cr. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. Fr. abigg. N. P. Innan bords. abilej Prov. 2nd Tale. ON. have-like. to redeem. If it badare. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. i. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. God — dear. It. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. is the verb abie. P. as E. Milton. &c. bord. Dr.^and to make his power knowne. to dress hemp. de la volatile. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. abicgan. within the walls of a ship. the side of a ship. within the ship. Spenser. Cassar. Merch. AS. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. expert.

his contemporaries. and also to abridge.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to grow together. side. from . to light a fire the Abraid. hard. as the duty of nourdisposition. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. Gael alaich. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. which passed into English under Abominate. abowen.' Parson's rence.. snatch In English we speak of away. butan. currence. to progress. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. AS. literally. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat.' Ymb hancred utan. Above. onbutan. motion. to grow up. to beget or give birth to children. Sc. common in Chaucer and Abominable. Fr. pedigree from brevis. leading immediately to Fr. sec seftre — Chaucer. disastrous portent in some passing oc. awaking.the older form. OSw. while the verb alleThe root el. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. above. Of these synonymous adolescere. and bidden him abregge. and also. Prov. the OSw. to let sleep. gravis. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. Abray. D. life. outward. that greatly agredge their sin. See -und-. ABOMINABLE adolesco. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. OE. af-oleii. or cut short. heavy. Tale. to AS. ala is made to signify to rear. See To Bray. To Abound. Abrdger itself. to rear. or young forth. be-ufan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to fatten. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. abrdger. brood.ger. is a ively. abracan. breaking out in language. natural ed direct from the latter language.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. on high. Severe the threatened evil. AS. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. d. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. full ofte his words for to Fr.) . shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. below. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. The radical idea is to feed the flame. boven. s —Casdmon.aboon. abrcBgdan. agredge. whence the Fr. titan. the form a&^^. to nourish. but from Lat. . progeny. to main.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. adolere. to feed. about cockcrow. way Sw.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. ol. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. For on broach. Lat. Thonne Abroach. Finnish stock. The primitive idea seems that of beget. be-utan. to break off. af-oolden. a portent). abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. abominor (from ab and omen. ala. abredan. nourish. to feed. the idea of breaking about .1. to awake.— Abbreviate. .. — ' — — preceding verb. Virg. to start. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. to aggravate. OE. Thence to regard greugetat. coalesco. the vital spark. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. break out. Abundant. to produce. nurse. abbrechen. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. abufan.ymbutan. while the sense of beget. seems aras. explains soboles Lat. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. levis to the Romance languages. becomes leu in Prov. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to bring up. from Fr. the man dwindles away. of any kind . In the same brevis . Quod abominor. alan. To abray or abraid. al is growth. to turn. abbreviare. to rear. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. kindling. which may God avert. — . so that here also we to deprecate the omen. the hair grow. parent. vital PI. nurse Lat. alUger. alere capillos. gravity. by the to bring up. So in Lat. ufan. as AS. and alere flammain. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. to cut short. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. to snatch. the identity of which with ting. around on the out. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). for ligeth butan. Du. without. alan. Goth. is not from G. greu. en. oil. Then. Kiittner. draw out. as withotityn and without. abbrechen. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. and in-d-oles. bufan. abutan.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. Melibaeus. giving birth to. agreujar.foda signifies to beget. AS.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Jorioc. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. separate. from in and cudere. were andouiller the second.D. before. wealth. Mannequin. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. from Stephanus. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Gr. and devils. from an. or antique single chamber. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. — — — . to go in strange disguises. work. choke. Thus from gabe. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. from an and — - . Apart. set aside. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Gr. three antike pillers. were chiefly of the former class.— . spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. which by anvild. or in a ridiculous dress. a few. from ante. Lat. to strike. separate purpose.. part. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. swaged. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. to have. Anxious. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. to open. E. Lat. anxi. from the imitative habits of monkeys. villan Gloss. Any.—Aperture. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. from ango. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. from eigan. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. like a jack-pudding. to support. eigs. transferred to the grotesque characters. a small quantity. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. antifena. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. whence Prov. ambeld. Fr.legacy of given against. In like manner. i. fauns. plenteously with red. Percutere. Anvil. before. strangle. Antique. verberas. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. something ler in R. left as the . 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. incus. panis. Gr. a termination equivalent to Goth. d<popi(xnbs. post. press. anapoz. some one. from. to strain. G. white. Hence the applica. to bring forth. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. what Roman civilisation. from. Hall's Chron. anticus. avri^ava. from avTiipoiuia). younger child. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. To go antiquely. gabeigs. to sound in answer. all of gold. AS. AS. such as savages. : . In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. panar. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. one. whence anthem. rich. but the expresent day. one at the least. to display pario. Pezron fiUist.is to be given. —Spencer. on. as the Italians. See Cover. So Lat. d. inAgain from the same author cudis. amboltj Du. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Lat. To ape. trouble. Lat. anfilts Pl. cenig. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. a definite . the anticks — behind. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. as we call it. Ful- Apanage. Ilvtwotov. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Aphorism. aside. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. a preventative . Prov. Antler. a gift. andouillers. Antidote. in Shakespear. of. to strike G. Fr. vex. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. apanage. as posticus. to nourish. a block to hammer on. a puppet or an anti^hona. and claret wine. antefn. surimitation of the ancient models. apatiar. af. As the browcalled antiques. Fr. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. bread. Aperient. burnished.made out. . ReApe. Apartment. ab. aperio. Otfried. apertum. to imitate gestures. should be received. stem. Antick. Apartment. and ig. one having wealth. AS. anxius. as from as.

w. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Friar's Tale. Apostle. Mod. Gr. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Ir. appaiser. a learner. piteux poind. APRICOT off. Fr. — prehendere.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. 23 . — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. kind of action. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. obolys. Formerly apricock. apal. approcdare. D. Gr. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Prov. To cause to pall (see Pall). apprentis. to approach. apin R. ap. pronounce good. pertain or belong to. Pliny. from aTroorlXXu. purpose. Fr. xv. of. horror. iwKjToKri. apropchar. to take away or lose the vital powers. to learn. Fr. From Gr. ciously than nede is. avail. to mark to define a bound.parecchio. fit- — ness. and in the sense of condition. to set a price on. Hence It. to come near. pronounce fitting). was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. It. like. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. and also as appraise. in fact. Hence appoind. opportunity. appareiller. agreeing with "LtA. an epistle or letter. prover. to commend. . esteem. a crime. Apoplexy. e. From Lat. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. prope (comp. appris. prohts. rise to \t. Apple. in Chaucer. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. apar. to deter- to strike. OFr. To praise.parejo. properly to join like to like. allow. approcher. a price. Fabian in R. 5w. Lith. a thing for one's purpose. after his mind . near. The Fr. probare. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. to make a thing Apparel. Cotgr. Nouv. Appease. poind. away. aptly. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. good.t. one is in. agree. one the MLat. . despatch on some service. to which it is often referred. to suit. apprehendere. to rate. appartenir. AS. ON. Apotliecary. to send to. seiden of the stones. equal. Fr. appellare. find Then like Fr. They werin his approvirs privily. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. H. in good season prendre son d. a'^opi'Jw. irpaiKOKiaov. to be open to view. N. proper time came. case. to accord. to Lat. taking. to approve. apprise. make a composition between parties. prize. approver. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. order. 'LaX. to lose one's senses. cepl. —^Apparent. Gr. when the . An old appalled wight. one for his defence. in commendation. in data. d-n-o. habiliments. to catch hold of. The PI. And among other of his famous deeds. to announce. known. diminutive pariculus.probare. become dizzy . manner. plight. corresp. . one sent out. Fr. to store or put Appal. apropid. I prise ware. —Diez. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. to — — .propius). peler. to assign or grant over unto. dress. to send off. quoth the frere. Apprehend. that it outfit. ai. par. like. lAfiaam. Cent Nouv. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond.his giving evidence against his principal. appareo. (cited by Diez from a late author). to deaden. To Appraise. pragigua or prixcoda. Yr. trim. — Appurtenance.prix. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade.pareil. Appareil. peace. Approach. to fit. ar. off. praise. En peach. and appoinder (to find fitting. poind. Prov. — Approve.— . — Apprise. S^. apparecchiare. They were considered To Appoint. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. habilUr. consent unto. Parson's Tale. to finish a controversy. or E. word was specially applied to clothing. diroBrjKr}. 11. to call. to dress in this fashion. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. set a price on. From Lat. to — . diroTrXriaatii. Walach. 'L-zX. to disable oftat. to understand. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. to strike down. jabloko. laven is used both as E. i. — dirondtfiu. or the like. apprendre. Lat. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Gr. whence the e. the good. landmark. from paix. aparelhar. Cotgr. to deem good. Fr. array. And whanne sum men Lat. apal. value apprdder. A — . to call for judgment. pretium. Fr. Epistle. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ.—Apprentice. mine. Cotgr. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Palsgr. For their acquaintance was not come of new . decree. : — — speak 'Lz. to learn. ^wss. oVooroXof. To Appear. from. Sp. were formed appropiare ejar. to seize. preparation. Fr. Apo- good time. APO sentence opoQ. Yr.

con. arbiter in re censendS. As is a pretty parlour. found in Fin. arwelo. of of divination arpa-mies. la nappe. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. arbiter. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. conjicio. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. Roquefort. properly the arwella. a soothsayer. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . conjectura conjec^ra. nawl and awl. ahva. Flower and Leaf. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. nected. . Arbour. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Lat. sorcerer. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. aestimo. grande nappe. suitable. OHG. arbitror arwaaja. Albanian. Pm. Prol. Marsh. derived. sortium ductor. Gr. OE. It may be doubted. however. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. shortdr. From OE. symbol. Arbitrate. Now one of the points — — — . The loss or addition of n very common. ap. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron.sors. . . a cloth. a lot. 2. aa. divining rod. short. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. aro. 331. Lat. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. as an eye-witness. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. rofe and all. Maan initial . and the one who gives oracles. — . arpa.' —About. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a pleasure-ground. words derived from arpa.. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. P. account for either of these significations. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. intensitive of nape. man. ear. Naprun. ughe. herbere. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. and taken away before dessert. or barm-cloth. It is certain that the apricot oracle. naperon. Hall. delon. C.) E. and with turfis new Goth. Beryn. Aquatic.shrubs {arbor).meaning at Shrewsbury. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. sestimatio arbitraria. — napkin is Naperon.] in the N. to plough. This path Aqueous. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. a lot. P. . a river. quod he. the spelland umpire. She made. pracoqua was not an adapt. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. Lat. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. wata. fastened close. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. Pr. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. to decide by lot. J. a lot. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. and a protection of the clothes. opinio. garden. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Now we find in Fin. proper. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. however. hariolus arpelen. arbitrium. aptus. From OFr. be That it inne groweth. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. to preserve it from stains. and thence fit. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. arwaus. and sortilegus ation. scr. is taken in is a soothsayer. Alban.o. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. A. 31. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. aha. tion under trial. auguror. water Which that benchid was. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . as ihe diminutive. doubtless is the origin of E. Thus we have natiger and auger. aqua. {mies ^=ia3. Freshly turnid Arable. or eft.

Brem. and Kpurka. ON. ardIn G. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. sluggish. in Due. ramo (pi. AS. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. apxri. And thou as arwe coward. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. ardor. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Gr. Sp. G. ruling by the nobles. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Gr. . . Fr. Lat. man. a bow. un petit rusd. Aristocracy. a branch. Lat. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. et vulgari verbo. Lat. signifies chief or principal. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. patus). high. arm. a burning or setting on fire. There can be no doubt that E. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. een erg kind. which is derived from it. timid. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Arson. Ardour. to rule. ramend). Uo^a^. earm. wanton. un malin enfant. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Lat. to Arch. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . aridus. W. to be in comp. bad. to burn . kpxi- beginning. a rule (princiruler. to demonstrate. the a brute. arma. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. an arch-deceiver . an extent of flat surface. From apxeiov was formed Lat. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. are formed the participial nouns. earg. gwyrek. — Architect. weapon may be simply an application of annus. ardeo. curved. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. arrant Arms. D. it is posculine inflection en of the PI.aioj. contemptible. troublesome. shoulder. first. TiKToiv. arm'ee. is essentially the same word. aj-f. adjective. arga. bad of its kind. as the arch of a bridge. exercise lordship). Ardent. as in E. which has been referred to W. apxtipfve. ^Argument. and our army. Arcliives. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight.. a noble. * ArchjAiTaxit. the court of a magistrate. mischievous. arson. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. the best. worker. G. arm. Perhaps erz-wticherer. Lat. stuff. and not with apx. earh. ' — Argue. ars. arsum. . The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. fainthearted. archangel. Arcadia in R. Fr. arguo. vescovo. Arm. armada. det arrigste snavs. A construct. receptacle where the public acts were kept. an arrant usurer.. apxtlov. 2. mischievous. Arid. Dan. ancient. arcA in e. burning heat. to be on fire. branch. a chief builder. armata. a court yard. government. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. bravest. while the Fr. Cot. wretched OE. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Fr. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves.In E. faint-hearted. ein arger knabe. 3340. an arch boy. arch-bishop. curved line. sly. apx^iv. raineno. Area. sly. a threshing-floor.' Paul Warnefrid. arduus. The . Du. shoulder Boh. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. from areo. especially shoulder-joint. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. malicious. arcus.' the Gr. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front.' Lex. . — Wtb. Applied in modern E. ill-tempered. Langobard. arrig. From the verb armare. Lat. by Russ. arwe. the most arrant trash. difficult to reach.is the natural weapon of offence. erz-bischof. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Arduous. fabricate). ers-betriiger. erz in G. arg. Lat. Gr. Gr. i. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Alisaunder. a bare plot of ground. it signifies roguish.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. Sax. . apxh. an arrant rogue. vocaveris. erg. armee. forearm . argr. weapon. ardre. to arm. Du. Arch in composition.4 rir/. taxed with cowardice. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. morally bad. make clear or prove. argvitugr. the terminaGael. a. Lat. rame. and must be identified with Dan. from nixa. gwyro to bend. to dry. It.— Army. lofty. bad. whence the body of the nobles collectively. area.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

bdlkr. tum. other while. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. to plough for a boundary between lands. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. to pack Da. Bowl. a But making way for death at large to walke. to be ill. balva-vesei. — A — — . Bret. weak liquor. Sw. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. ballotta. a beam. It. calamity. TtaKKa a pail or tub . bala. balk. baalie. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. Fr. and the dim. to rock. In like manner Fr. I. vcdra bdlkr. Baulke of land. a dance. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. bolawy. torment. palla. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. separaison. ON. blister. bbllr bulla J. Fr. to bale out. to shake or jog. Bale. to Not sparing wight. and evil in general. may exhibit the original development of the signification. ballan. e. * Balk. dial. a. to avoid it. at giore en balk. sick. a great ball. says Ray. Hence. Hence Dan. balja. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. G. similar connection is seen in Sp. pain. dial. boleii. a ballot). to partition off . balk. shouting. to dance. sickness. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. It. AS. balka. balle. a clod of earth water. trouble. N. Bohem. a skin. pilula. Sw. plague. to dance. It. Wotton.). balle. bolyaf. . balla (with the augm. boll. balka hopar. ballare. the beam of a ship. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. bol. ne leaving any balke. are applied to a From the same analogy. 2. hooting. Rouchi ban. gen. It. grieve . ball. afbalka. to stir. (Hesych. to ache. bold. a ball. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. a water-skin dim. ache. a dance. balare. balk. a ball balla. pallo. misery Du.ing. Russ. to speak an un.—Ballad. ballare. Boll. ill. balle. bolyatchka. as in a barn or cow-house. on. stage or scaffold. bjdlki. . Da. ball.— Ballet. from bacquet. Balloon. G. Ballot. balle. a washing-tub. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . We have then separate dial. OSw. to signify washy drink. ballone. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. To Bale out water. Q. the object of his expectation. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Sw. Sw. a balk of foul weather. ballo. To baulke the Sir H. a ballad. globule. on. baloier. . heap up. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). bal. to cause another to miss pustule. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Ball. Sp. on the shore. to be balker. dial. package of goods. taich. bola. pila. pallo. balveins. a clump . Fr. the ballet of the theatres. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. uveirs bolk. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a globe. Sw. F. mass. See Gall. bealwes. whether of wood or stone. to grieve . malefacGower in R. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. maan pallikka. to roll. a partition. ball. hue et illuc inclinare. chapurrar. pallikka. 3. w. Perhaps on. . Sw. . a clapping or flapping of wings.Lat. roof. palcare. balge. destruction. balloon. Fin. to wave. baalien. to ail. bol. a continued noise of waves gently beating . bielke. beaten road. bolker. a ball. balken. a together in the form of a ball. A balk. Venet.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. OFr. dial. as we say. ball. Gr. to paddle in water . Grief. cka. Da. Goth. pallukka. a ball. from the more general notion of moving up and down. a ball or pack. a pestilence. vacillare.Fr. a scene acted in dancmg. the breadth from side to side . . ballar). The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a division of the old laws. i. Du. with the perhaps from balg. on. Du. baler. a pill. to plank. ' is a piece or confused talking. E.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Sw. Sw.of men . bal. bal. lealo. bacgtteter. a ball. a separate portion. Pol. to by beams. probably Lat. ban. The primary sense seems as in G. It. Dan. a boil. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. a pail. bollr. Gael. wickedtorment ON. bal-daed. a beam. wickedness ness . palloilla. ballare. balka bunge. . ballet. to move. Mid. balk. OHG. floor. Ugutio in Due. sorrow.' speak gibberish champurrar. balkr. ing. a bubble. Ballata. balken. a wooden partition . to on Holmedon's plain. Ball. to see-saw. maleficium.

bamein. Ballast. baltresac.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. To Ban. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. more serious objection is . and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Venet. baU. a fragrant gum. or ballast of a ship. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. barandado. lastagium signified not only ballast. objects to the foregoing derivation. bertesca. 1854. a young babe. Report Pennsylv.Lat. ^a\Ba\iov. age. curse. Lest. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. sorcerer. A — — . baUa. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. To proclaim. &c. R. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. it is forced to take in stones or sand. to preserve equilibrium.' And Kil. Sp. lest. It is explained back by Adelung. ballast. Fr. Mr Marsh whether the a load. by met. Du. from bara or vara. — — oltriga. bumbazed. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. of balusters. deceiver. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. small railing. In OSw. called Bait. from Lat. barauste. paid for the right of carriage. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption.that the going vessels. To Bam. lastra. ballustre) is a corruption. Baltic. a small balustrade. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. the flower of the pomegranate. and Mid. To make fun of a person. . terraces. is in Sweden and Norway. as he says. Bamour. enchanter. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. . inutile onus. a false tale or jeer. &c. balustrade barandilla. for a load or goods (Roquef. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. like Fr. baranda. deceive. inutilis sarcina. 43 — Cot. fonts. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. Fr. When a ship discharges. Bret. endormir par des contes. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. It. It. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. little round and short pillars. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. dial. Gr. Bret.000 tons. forbid. bam. Sc. railing around altars. make fun of a person. Balluster. Sept. to walk. analogous to what is seen in It. galleries. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. or movement of one who walks. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. the act of walking. ballustres. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. explains ballast. a nettle. denounce. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. the backload. last. baume. a rod. because. seems the original form of the word. Balsam. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. Said to be from balaustia. But Fr.. This is the backload. bambocciolo. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. i860. ranked on the outside of cloisters. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. bamboccio. Balm. but loadage. urtica. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. a useless load. astonished. balsamum. Cotgr. To deceive.). lastre. also with flatteries and . for want of other freight. Dan. back of the ship. 1. The Baltic sea. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. a battlement . company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. to enchant. If bambocciolare were child of one. puzzled. an Old dotard or imbambolare. bag-lest. in the first place. balconies. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. The Sp. bag-las. Lat. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. lestage. To Bamboozle. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. ^Arbuthnot in R. mare Balticun. a duty on goods last. more frequently than outward-bound. command. bambolo. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt.

ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). power.is further developed. acquired the sense of proclamation. Spebifid. bannire in exercitum. change to the feminine gender in banda. bann. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. &c. also the band or of marriage. says Muratori. to reprove. banda. Cot. we constantly find the expression. It seems this signification has arisen. — To partito d'alcuno. Bandus.e. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. then the signification w. Fr. . 'A son bandon. OE. 2. and It. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. side.^ bandy. E. banda. bande. Baud. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. passing on from proclamation to command.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. R. It. to . to follow a faction. bound. hoc est vexillo. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit.—John Villani in Due. bando. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Commun^ment son bandon. ligue Taboada). Band. band. bundun. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. It. fahne. Leg. A. &c. bandon somewhat party. is That with which anything AS. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. . Ripuar. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. to take one to task. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. banda the colour or material. Wyntoun. bandon was used in the same sense. to form parties. banner marked the place of assembly. bande. bannum or bandum. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. a coast. 1. a company. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. tener da alcuno. in Fr. R- He Translated by Chaucer. G. There is some doubt how Fr. and in E. parti. in hostem convocare. bandera ground at his mill. at his own discretion. To Bandy. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Sp. summoning to serve So in Swiss. The to . to ctide. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. authority. Les saiges avait et les fols d. eiiseigne. — R. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Bandear. to bring corn to be fahne.Lat. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. Mag. ex. to unite with a band. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Car. sostener Torriano. In a special sense the term company itself. border. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. to ban. side. whether by way of injunction or for- command. biddal. bannire exercitum. 813. 26. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . In like manner we find bannire adplacita. permission. Sp. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. 15. D. Assises de Jerusalem. bande. i. he assembled his host. to publish) banna. admolendinum. Fr. populum. and thence to any proclamation. bindan. 19. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. the ensign or banner. Thus the word is also used in both senses. curse. he bannede his ferde. from at the Lord's courts. Goth. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to side or to bandy (Florio). From the verb to banda. In Fr.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. bandi. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. — excommunication bann-lysa. banns pany of footmen serve. v. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. —R. See Abandon. region. to excommunicate {lysa.. Capitul. It. flag. Se il — Romance languages. theodscipe ut abannan. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. faction. Sw. band. those who side together (bande. Diss. etc. Goth. margin. ba?idare.

ON. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). a sand-bank. &c. to work in wood. Draw. de sable. banco. Lat. banka. to publicly order one out of the realm. Hudibras. to beat. . Diaconus in Due. Ripuar. bance. Bankrupt. Milton in R. banditti acquired the like signification. a bench. 45 — — Bandit. to knock. . —^Vocab. banke. to slay. The word is in E. distinguishes bekkr. Brewer. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bow. beat. has bang-bang. Bandy. bank of a river. Benchi. bana.: . — — whence E. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. death-wound. broken. se joindre. to bend a. beating. Africa. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . se reunir. for shame. AS. clouds. When a man fails Lat. Bacon in R. a bank. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. to proclaim. a table. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. The ridge of a hill is AS. to join in league with others against Cotgn. eminence. a bankrupt merchant. Bang. language of W. banca his creditors. and OFr. tumult bangas. panca. See Banish. desk. hammering. in the same way that E. Bane. 2. bander tin arc. ruptus. in R. Your stool. a long raised seat. . Du. . bandear. counter. Benvoglio. murderer. and bakki. as of an explosion or a blow. disturbance banga. From a desk . for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. Banister. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. bana-sott. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. To Bandy. banc.HG. death-sickness. Tibalt. It. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. The child cries bang! fire. banqueroute. in the sense of a pirate. Mid. Mercutio. bench. outlam came to signify a robber. death-blow . the slope of a hill. and therefore tied up. the same verb the It. — Kil. many a bang. Lingua. ON. Dan. bandi. hricg. bana.^ knock. Fr. was formed the OFr. standard. stir. rap hatike et som The Susu. bane. — Paulus drive in a nail. But natheless wife at I bank. Roquefort. forbear this outrage. eminence. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. the former Fr. banca fallita.z. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. a counter. among rotta. a bench. It is in this sense nounce. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Fr. follow a party. bench. &c. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Bantze. to knock. g. bank of river. Fr. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. dorsum was applied to ject. put under the ban of the law. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bent as a bow. A Shipman's Tale. in the sense of place of business. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. and hence. banja. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. With many a stiff thwack. pastoralis. seat . bakke. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. N. the back. It. banish. bander. at canis peciiarius. . destruction . a de Vaud. to make a stir banke. and poise Their lighter wings. a blow. bana. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. back of a knife. roupt. Goth. bander. shoal. bank. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. E. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. AS. b'ang. benk. bana-sdr. a i. bankruptcy. band-dog. See Balluster. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Diez. to cabal. — . to hammer in a nail. a wound OHG. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. banc G. a bench. The ing. bandire. — Fr. bannire. Sw. It. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Banditti. of bandying words. From Mid. whence the mod. canis vinculis assuetus. home — Bandog. bang. large dog kept for a guatd. See Band. bank. Bank. band-hond. a rising bank. Banner. s'associer. from banc. Fl. ON. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. bank of Dan. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. to foment factions. Bandy legs are crooked legs. de- party. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. that the word is used by Romeo.

and the work is done.aTa Kul nest. a bench or table . would rupted from Fr. OHG. barbe. Lat. an animal a year old. either in the Gr. To mock or jeer one. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Fr. senhal.— Swift in R. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. jSa'pjSapoc. banchetto. that the noise of voices Bantling. Banneret. The original import of their own banner in the field. bandiera. uncivilised. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Lat. a barrier or stoppage. Bap. men. inferior to a baron. Barbe. heri-pau. speaking of battle. milites bannarii. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. &c. i. a bantling. a.the analogous syllable viur. rarii. ban- Baptise. —Cot. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. to bend. a sign. from reifa. . ON. Hence Fr. Barbar. It. barre. probably corSymbol. wrapped.hinder.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. himself in Pontus. a war-beacon or war-signal. Flesche barbeUe. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. and from ensign or banner Prov. A It. ingly very generally known by a name branches. barriire. Barb.. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Barb. such as the Roman Eagle. To Banter. of wind. and with an initial s. arineXov. as they call it. E. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. senheira. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. from the same source. a ban. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. banda hendi. merki. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. and it was accord. Hence ner. Fr. sparro. banneret was a higher class of knights. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. The barb of an arrow is the sign . by a repetition of the syllable bar. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. G. senhal. bandva. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. barba. According to Diez the It. — We A . branch. iandvo. barrou-gwez. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. 2. a beam or long pole of wood. banner. in Gr. senh. signuin. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. sign. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. Fr. barreau.cruel. dim.. The origin is in all probability Goth. rod of any rigid substance. and even of calling it banter. Duo. says. banne. top. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. Leduchat. Thus Ovid. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. ing term appears in other languages. hence a repast. branches of a tree {gwezen.46 BANNERET . an intimation made by bending the head or hand. knight Bardd. token. Banquet. to beckon . Celtic bar. banneret. a tree). This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. It may be thing. E. It. barbed or trapped as a great horse. Fr. Fr. It. a bearded or Cot. Gr. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. period vexillarii. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. In a similar manner are formed yearling. nestling. barrack. Lat. to wash. inur. barrer. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. bar. 3. Sw. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. brushwood. ^oTrriKio. manu anto make signs nuere. to having that signification. remarked. then branches. Bret. or of this bantering. banda. Fr. The spar. of a sign in general. Gael. barra. &c. Gr. a which the barrister addresses the court. benda. which is surely in barbed arrow. indeed. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. ON. of banco. banniire. jSdirTO). or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. bannereti. E. chan. to wrap. barbarus. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. summit. OHG. to dip. the word came to signify rude. privileged to raise Barbarous. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. OFr. sparre. sbarra. Besides it must be by Barbary horse.8ap6^o)voe. out of a wound. barde. and he would seem to derive Goth. then fell among the foot.

borbulhar. . bardd. twcEtta. bdla-khaneh. saddle-cloth. coping. Etym. brim. which was of talking. such as houses are covered Bardelle. and foolishly. ala. Thus the on. to stammer. — . uncovered. Gr. baragouin. bdsiis. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. bhasad. in poetic language Bard for poet. border of a garden bed. to stammer. Cotgr. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. bdsas. lb. . coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. to bubble or boil. Bret. muttering. quarrel . small pack-saddle. borbotar. Gr. a tumultuous assembly. stutter. It. haggle. Arab. Mod. barbugliare. used 2. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. tree. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Sp. Festus in Diet. bds.— — Pm. w. Diez. grumble (Lowndes. Barbican. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. the nakedness of a woman. to plash or dabble. axilla. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. barz. fortia —Strabo. Bardeau. barbacane. barbaris. murmur .' Cot. to gurgle. barboter. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. horse armour covering the front. — Cot. i. tattle. Mod. Port. skirmish. guazzolare. barbelin. and Sc. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. Fr. the flap of a hat. Barberry. guaszare. barbeau. bar. to chafbargain. OFr. barda. back. The Pers. Bargain. barbarkama. Pr. Barbel. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. mutter. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. and in Flanders to vociferate. Hatt-bard. brabble in the making of a bargain. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. An outwork for the defence of a gate. to prattle. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. borboglio. to bubble or spring up. ready money. Sp. jargon. Lith. and the word was used in OE. bare baskojis. gibberish. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Lex. as well as thwcEtta. berj G. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. barbar. Bare. skirt. baar. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. uproar. G. the beard. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. on. to grunt. barbel. upper chamber. is lb. berries. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. a bardelle. Bard. barefooted Sanscr. Cot. Hindost. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. also to bind or tie across. barS. — — Hence. border. scouthouse. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Etym. to wash. — . barbeter. g. albarda'ah. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Hall in R. to rumble. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. also to wallow like a seething pot. a rumbling. Lucan.— BARBEL merit of water.) . open. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Russ. or more properly (says fer. to barbe or trap horses. albarda. to boil or bubble up . It. Exposed to view. Barber. in the sense of fight. dial. skola. waschen. baares geld. Fr. barbier. boil. A7 to the and warlike. Fr. as well as the modern twaddle. barbulla. Applied in E. to It. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Barde. a shingle or small board. twattle. — — — men. a pack-saddle. bardes. borbollar. unqualified. in Fr. /3£pjSepi^w. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . to mumble or mutter words. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. powdered all over. to make an outcry . their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. barguigner. Fr. Fl. barda.) to wrangle. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Cotgr. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. albardilla. barbeum. But Sp. and flanks. skialldar-bard. Sp. name Fr. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. the quilted with. Port. Barder. /3opj3opwJu. a jetty or outnook in a building. borborinha. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning.— Fl. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. speak confusedly.

altercation. fray. the A — Ihre. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Bailey. but the woman for the man. skutr. border. prominent part of a thing. and the word. barii. Garlick. berma. 2. to shufSe. Prov.' bardagi. as in the case of Lat. i. the or prow of a ship. a receptacle for barley or corn. borkr. Barge. baron)^ Fr. — Zeuss. Antiq. It. a place. baimeach. a baking place or oven. Du. baralhar. and 1. Lith. commonly explained from bere. To Bark. to cheat. barone. . ON. baratta. Baron. — Barnacle. barn. also to exchange. hemlock. — battle. a beak. entangle. Ibid. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. the fore or after end of a boat . skuta. baarm. bcern. corn-shed. a barn. chaffer. Originally man. AS. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. The origin may be throat. confusion. beorcan. bcerme. herbs. barn. barley. barja. a load. bern. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. the slimy substance brewing of beer. barizeins indicates a noun baris. and ern. contest. dispute . limpets. bere. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. houbartij fsnile. barafunda. baarn. to chop. barlys {bara. Kil. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. a lantern. bargain. wine. baaren. Romance barsie. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. bark . ON. am. . Ripuar. Port. dispute . From Fr. Bret. bamagh. a. —Bark. barms. See formed Yeast. Gl. ber (ace. as. astringent. * Barnacles. Leg. . to wrangle. — de Berri. Provj bar (ace. meta foeni. Sw. tumult. struggle. baragouin. Sp. barlys. as baces-ern. berem. adj. So also ON. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. barnis. aheap. The Goth. in Nat. Dan. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues.. bard). berm. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Barbour in Jam. ThS man was not created for the woman. Alam. a heap . Rayn. strife. dispute barattare. OFr. Port. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . to strive. v. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. then honoured man. As Goth. OSw. from an imita- Barley. baratta. is simply the Bret. put to confusion. quarrel Port. as well as Scandinavian tongues. Swab. baaring. strife. Barn. . at barka. was barlic. tion of the sound. the G. squabble. we pass to the vert) barguigner. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. Bemiques. Bark. lap. baralha. to scold. and llysiaw. edge. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. (Ihre. barley. and hence probably (by a metaphor. a lap. dispute. mhg. bread-corn. in the Brim. limpet. Acervus. barley. berm hoys. to all the barca. See Barm. dispute. quarrel. On the other hand. Cornub. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. Tarn baronem quam feminam. a heap. dregs of oil. The older form in e. AS. hay-loft. hlaSa. Camus. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barki. and may therefore be an Eastern word. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. ON. to skin over barkandi. It. beornt. trouble. Leg. Sp. dial. baerm. barmr. barnacles. disorder. bernac. husband. varen. then the bows pectus navis. barretor. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles.. Spectacles. bosom . limpets . Du. berm. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. a boat. barajar. OFr. the rack or manger. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. plants). So ON. Vocab. barafustar. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. brenig. prasepe . a stack. Manx bayrn.Barum vel feminam. strife. Dan. barlich. Isidore in Rayn. W. a cap . and is probably a true bartig. contest. Gael. quant a perdu sa barja. barge. bosom. barn. beer. as. louzou. bern. charlock. baron. hladi. to rout. Uzen. one who stirs up strife. spectacles. bread. baniffa.) lihtes-ern. barahunda. name being given to spectacles. also a boat . w. E. 2. Sp. giving rise to It. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. ON.^Voc^. kani.

— A . It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. This word introduced into Fr. barraca. from a tree to which a man is hanged. AS. nobles. E. barrila.' that Barrier. Fr. barri. as. barrique. See Barter. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. a horse. from beran. barrack. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. gwr. On chet — We — — their resemblance. especially those killed in battle.— Gibbon. An ing. Joshua vii.root signifying confused noise. 2. Fr. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. w. Russ.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. change of goods seems. by early examples. a hut or booth. a kind of coarse camlet. Baron andfemme. braeck. perhaps through Prov. to carry. sterilis. implement for carryAS.parchanttuech. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. bredhan. qui have not much light on the pre. iver. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Bohem. signifying. breinej Du. a man. staves. a bar. fallow. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. strife. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. whenever Barrow-hog. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. Antiq. bara. which would barragdn. a barrel. brushwood. A. composed of dry branches ofer. garment still used in Morocco. the braw. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. barrique. berwen. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. vel pretiosos burellos. became bidre. Bamnculus a baronet. booth.have been named from the haggling and gant. hut. Goth. to shelter. beorh. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. facture. fear. (Schmeller).. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Nominale of the from braeckland. Gael. rolls of Parliament. 26. branches. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. heap. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. an obstruction. uncultivated. then traffick4 Barrow. Sp. vair. Barratry. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. Sp. alongside of barrow.' Op. calico. or simply bahre. Bret. It. StiU he shows conclusively. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. dispute. Barren. barchent.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. baroncelli. bearg . a. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. habeant. and in several instances. Formed from Fr. whence Barrow. D. also termed bannerets. in the first instance. a hiU. Sp. Barrack. 1. the two names. as cavalcade. Barrel. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. baraignej Picard. boar. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. OFr. a word is always used in the plural number. Barricade. It was not until the time of James I. It. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. baragan. squabble. ^Vocab. The feudal tenants next Fr. — — 15th Cent. cover. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. over him. vir. beorg. a bier. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. Bern. from cavallo. todtenbahre. bera. fortification. G. bier. a. barre. S. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. AS. bark&n. a barrow. bara. ^Barrator. baronculi. bahre. It. sepulchre. OE. ibid. semen non accipiens landiEL. — Kil. mound. in Nat. MHG. beorgan. shed. litter. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. cise formation of the word. gravis et authenticus vir. barril. man.. barile. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. baracca. baronetti. seem to be radically the same with Lat. like bargain. It should be observed that. to * Barragan. bouracan. baronuU. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. a castrated hog . barBombicinus. berewe. Bargus or moreland. borov'. Gael. were sometimes confounded. The Sp. man and wife. See Bar. G. Barrister. tomb. barrier. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. barague. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. and not from Fr.

AS. Fris. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. barley. bast. Du. netting. to long — a British word by Martial. Lend me your hands. and tun. barter. bass-matting. imbastire. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. court-yard. but he dreth presently. husk bast van koren. Basket. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. basta. It. a tying. partieren. then cheating. fhe outhouses and yards. The original meaning. curtus. PaaiKhms. bastear. a king. Sylvester's Dubartas. Al is dai. OFr. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. to cheat. also the demesne lands of a manor. truck. Sw. beretun. beguile. to bind. plaiting of splinters basged. a halter. Bast. Kil. MS. G. as It. submovet omne Lucan. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). Sw. also to Cotgr. the manorhousfe itself. Newman. /«r<fSp. But according And Dan. as the diadem of the basilisk. found in Turkish . Sp. HaUiweU. mock not. baraet (from Fr. Sp. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. basso. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. lattice-work. MHG. There is not one that. inclosure. See Bath. or running away with the ship. bestcn. the a wide open vessel. fornication. beortun. to bind. to cheat. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . It. basg. Bartizan. Sicamb. aiKcig. to stitch . Apparently of Celtic origin. embastir. ' Bosworth. pressed down. w. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. from bere. the thin skin Dan. Basilisk. low part of the Hickes in Rich. Fr. bast-maatte. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Swed. Barbara de pictis veni patch. bds. discourse Nay. BassuS. cog. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. ibid. to truck. foist in bargaining. baratar. Sp. Bastard. besst-u-b£nd&t. or wic. It. To stitch. Bass. commonly A joined with the word binda. HaU in HaUiwell. of the same sense. Isidore. flat. bran. baste. ing for profit. humilis. See Brattice. exchange. Dan. crassus. scale in music. Arthur and Merlini. barter. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. exchange. shallow. descended of an honorable lineage. lust. God it wot. MHG. baratear. said Base. HoUinshed. Bass. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire.looketh upon his eyes.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. To Baste. berewic. ' He was begetin o bast. baste. bareter. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . besst. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. basta. low. fits de bas. low. would be. binding. lift me above Parnassus. mavult dicere Roma suam. bas. which covers the grain Ger.). chasa ogli a bastard. . . to baste. leviter consuere. to bargain. F. n' is n' is bacino. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Halliwell. stitch. but born in baste. a ftiesh. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Pl. preparatory stitching. pdrdt. a deceiver. bast-reb. bast. he. Lap. a basket masg.D. rope for — . more noble in blood than notable in learning. on a. Fr. bark. low note.' Gl. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. and Bret. chasa. thick. him. mean . To Bask. ohg. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). It is mentioned as . — hanging. bassin. bast. . to baste piece of cloth. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. It. over-reaching. imbastire. peel. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. bestan. ^Is de bast. baste. bdtir. piiiguis. back. It. a ipgli So Turk. — in Rich. basso. to bind hand and foot.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. — Bassoon.' Papias. baraand especially teria. dwelling. at basta og binda. Du. fraud. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. which sets up its hood when angry. according from Gael. come near. OFr. a bastard. basgod. The like property hath the iasilisk. a court-yard. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. 516. Bassus. to Diez. It. A fabulous serpent. corn-farm. to deceive. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Fr. oe. i. baos. tierer. fornication. baxoj w. Gr. from /3aR. Barton. Dan. the — — to kill those that look upon it. unrighteous gain. cheating. a bass rope. hoops of a cask.

For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. pre. basa. Pm. beysta. to rub. a bastion. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . to build. To beat or bang soundly. ON. bastear. quelqu'un son roulet. baston. Mid. to rub gently. compared with blakka. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. stryk. Prov. the bat . seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to cudgel. a barSp. ment. R. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. to build. vespertilio. blows. back. has bastine. Cot. bastida. Antiq. vespertilio. bat. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. bastille. batta lucifuga. 11864. translation to a bat. For the loss of the / in back. blaka. Rayn. to belabour. contriving. iastir. to pack a saddle i. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . like the owl and the bat. stryka.Lat. contrive. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. a pad. bak. To donjon. to devise or begin. a blow cloth for dinner. whence ledrblaka.— . to quilt or stitch wool into it. 2. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. to flap. victuals. also the ricado. to Due. bastonFr. night-bat. bastonnir.baste or knock soundly. Fr. . A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . liiake. bastine. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. It. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. . I. but this is hardly satisfactory. a sconce. put it together. to beat. bastonada. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. That yche blak y dar wel telle. packsaddle. nade. aftonbakke. flyinge best. the winged . — Bakke. the clapper of a bell. blakta. the night-jar or goat-sticker. Sp. passage Imbasto. dial. to beat. a bird which. bastimento. in the Romance languages. natt-blakka. 2. bdion. disposer. Sw. niammal. Florio. the original has corneille. Bastinado. staff. blatta.fortress or castle furnished with towers. to teach one before. Dieiif. R. or implement for 4 * A . It seems to me that the sense of stitching. Sc. Pr. bastilde. vledermus. blacta. frame. a with a stick. to give him a sound bastingi 3. and Arabs. frotter. club. which in the E. provisions. explains Sp. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. guerra bastir. bastione.— Bailey. 164). raise. Sp. to set on foot a war Bastion. It. All from bastir. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. and ditches bastion. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. BAT neither. set up. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. a blockhouse.stick. is explained by Cot. 2. devise. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. a.stitching in general. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. Perhaps baska. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. ari instruineht for beating. e.. to spread bread and butter. — — — . iinbastire. Supp. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. to stroke. erect. bastia. which to rest the load. worth (Nat. settiilg up. Sw. set up. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. basta. to whip. E. blakra. bladier. Derived by Diez from iasi. To baste one's hide . to drub. the E. * Bat. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. a things prepared for future use. Sw. baston. Cot. 'iJipistreUo. bakie-bird . blakka.'CaB. bastir. Sw. p. badger. comp. a packsaddle. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. beating. It. blatta. also to cudgel. basto. and Cot. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. cudgelling. bastir. Dan. a stick. boste. Fr. business (Altieri). as weU as besteau. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Fr.-^ Chaucer. to thrash . military term of a bat-horse). This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. dial. in the use of the E. Fr. bast. from Fr. to lay the Sp. Dan. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. For the origin of baston see Baste. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. a pad or packsaddle. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. — — Fl.

Holz bdhen. battre. of bread is so much baked zX one time. betten. squadron. battere. a battalion. Plkkis. howis. In some parts of England it is striking. To Bate. Flem. Mgy. In OE. busk. Bate. A batch as wood. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . abattre. PLD. to foment. as wood-en. — Cot. Bailey. batna. It. in the case of a wall. Fr. To Batten. a main battle. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. to fire or in the sun. gabatnan. bat-en. battaglia. and with staffslyng. Battery. bat. Sp. to thrive. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Goth. or break down. bake. tradire. as E. lessen. fortress or castle. From OFr.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. Bret. gebdck. battle was used beath wood. dispute. I baske. solbase. Baka sik vid elld.Hence in the augmentative form It. bdda vidjor. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Fr. tagUone. It. . to bathe oneself. and as a verb. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Batter. to become convalescent. quell. badask. to warm oneself. Barbour in Jam. a blow with a light instrument. bdda. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. trahtr to It. altercation. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. a stick. baeddu. in the sun. a from ON. Pr. Slav. to warm oneself at the fire. remit. the heat of the It. Batyn. dial. Fr. made of — A made by one Batcii. bdhen. oneself at the A into faggots. A Bath. to beath wood Battledoor. Florio. wet linen in washing. adapted for defence. Sw. quhar he suld assaill.— . Batten. fashes basking in the sun squadron. dial. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. a band of armed men arranged basa. to heat . From bat in the sense of rod . a great seems related to baden as Fr. w. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. as E. buask made like a fortress. to become fat. whence the sun burns . Hence pro. sich bakern. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. Pr. to warm. Ayenst the sunne. to beat se battre. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Eggs. better. a blow. to dial. battre las ailes. to flutter with the wings. for biia sik. batir. To thrive. Sp. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. beat. a stirrer-up of strife. G. water whether warm or cold. to refresh oneself in language. a beating. to fell. baquetazo. from battre. . is in falling. is a simple adoption of Fr. Fr. Sw. Pm. beat. 2. bada. to foment. allay . to heat. Hal. battere. hot. baz. a washing beetle. . at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Battalion. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. batterie. Battle. G. to be profited. the root of e.— To Bask. G. Battery. makebate. bataille. or make debate. batador. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. flour. I. Bat. Jurgor. as signifying warm baths. pak. from on. a battle. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Gael. Fr. to beat. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Jeddris and covering. ON. to feed.Bathe. battre. debat.' Palsgr. dial. made of bats. to betake oneself. to foment with hot applica. basa. to bathe. baden. to beat. bludgeon. also. baka. I bathe in water viz. gebdcke. and about an inch thick. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to get better. term in falconry . bastille. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. certain bend. solen baddar. strife. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Chaucer. badda. bet. a Baiffi. Strife. or a dry stick. more. to beak. The bat with which a brot bdhen. batte sig. also a sun badfish. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. abate. Du. an arrangement for giving blows. cudgel. heat. by projections or in any licoure. to cudgel. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Battlement. Fr. perhaps first used adjectivally. batacazo. on the fire. battions. to beat. and milk beaten up together. E. badda. on. was formed bastilU. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. to toast bread. e. — — — ' — . beat down. signifying to give repeated blows. — To . Pm. dial. then to warm by the application of hot water. bdt. to fight. a staff. See Better. to for fighting.

to void the bowels. baue. Prov. From Bret. The It. faisceau. bal. rotten. Baw — . to me-wl. baubare. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. lewd . — Pm. ground. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. A name of the badger. Ball-seirc. E. sword-belt. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. to bark . Pr. whence pouacre. c. 8. Fr. balderich. OFr. dial. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. a tassel. excrement. to talk Lacombe. 2. bobbin or cluster of thread. Jam. a belt. librillo. dacchino. also more Bawdekin. the Swiss baben. to trifle away ment. E. instead oi s. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. child. trifles. speckled. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. fields. exactly corresponds Fr. i. Lat. a plot of Chaucer. or Cot. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. Batylment of a wall. whence the E. the white of his leg or foot. W. represented by the syllable miau. and authorities in note. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. Baldrick. ish baubles. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. disgusting. was simply a field gold. miauler. having a white streak down Bagdad. ballach. baw. bow-wow. because made of cloth of white. bouaila. as Fr. javelle. filth. Irel. tab. s. a tassel or hanging bunch . obstrepere. baban. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. babiole. bow (as in our nursery Diez. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. It. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. ! Bauble. a horse with white legs. and Sp. Zalli. baudrat. dirt.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. propugnaculum. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). divided between black and white. is Bagdad stuff. s. collar. Pm. bal. balbob. an embattled wall. expressive of disgust. mew. Beaus^ent. to make the noise Baudrick. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. to low or bellow as corn. It. Cotgr. — — ' Lydgate. or the animal so marked. Hal. filth. It. —R. a horse marked with a procession.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Cloth of gold. babbole. OFr. baugant. ON.. bauch. Bavin. baudrdj OHG. on the face of animals. bablyn or waveryn. E. P.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. bobine. brush faggot. to bark. spotted. an object. horse. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. in OE. to cry.. Pr. whimwham. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. fe bau. zano. scarf. form with an initial seen in Fr. from Baldacca. bausan. The word may perhaps be sticks. a lump. a dog). sorry. Cot. Ball. to the same origin. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Cot. a spot. R. ball. Bawson. In like manner Grisons filthy. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. P. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . pie- . dung. Descript. to vociferate. to play the babby. guigaw. From ! an interjection of disgust. An analogous noisily. or toys. baula. Piedm. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. is used for a sented by bau.— P. Filthy. a white mark Bawdy.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Sc. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. dente. b \% bouala. an — — — A — g — — — . Formed from baw. and to-tore also. nastiness. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. Swiss Rom. BAWSON Swiss. cluster. pegma. from Fr. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like.guage). bauU. toys. or sheaf of Bridel. tille. trifle. baffe. babsmall toy to play withal. a gavel. Gael. Fr. fagot. Fl. spot. vacillo. Bagdad. a lump or cluster babhaid. a zan. the face. also the canopy carried part of his body. balGael. E. to 53 manure the To baw. Fr. dirty. P. fooleries or fond To Bawl. bau. bad. It is all bawdy. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards.' ' Pegma.

representing the sound made in opening the mouth. It. to betray. It. and keeps them in check for a while. baiare. from badar. is perhaps not directly from Lat. Catalan hadia. . To Bay. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. dividere. Piedm. bahia. especially beans. . the laurel-bay. laurel of the ancients. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood.c. Abide. baier. or to have been first used at the Cot. Holland's Pliny in R. to gape. 1. It. Mod. 1859. bajo. a cluster of bacon. to keep at a bay. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. life. to stand watching one. grapes or nuts. baer. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. husk. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. It. or berries. . A — he brought her to stand listening to him. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. badia to Sp. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. w. baher. bate. Bayonet.. aux dehniers abois. house . garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. yellow . when. bay. |8i'os. gate. &. window-sill. ist. a berry. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. as if to signify a window of curved outline. bilyega. Sp. Fr. Bay-tree. or window ' (in Fortification). as they do not obstiruct the light or air. badarse. Fr. bdcr. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Such Antaeus seemed to me. barn of two bays. expresr sion tenere a bada. so called from its bearing bays. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. abbabayer. Earth — By Nature made to till. to split. and the To bark as a dog. large window in a handsome . Bay. AS. to iiitent nected PoL white. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Arts. baca. BauSfi)/. 25. a beast. corrupted into Bow-window. Gr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. to mark. batibari. beothach. beonj Gael. badarc. a'uno. tradire to Fr. F. a hole. From the former verb is the It. weary of running. It has been shown under Abie. &c. — Schmid. baye. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. baja. Vielp. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. desiring. bahia. Gael. he turns and faces his pursuers. trahir. —F. to keep one waiting. to be Bohem. bay. berries. Serv. like a pie. at his last gasp. overture. It. the cod of peas. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. stare. put to his last shifts. arose two forms of the verb. from an imitation of the sound. Swiss beie. Drayton in R. Feb. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. living Ir. Swab. bde. Lat. baccello. beo. Q. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. as gazing. watching intently. baionette. siege of Bayonne in 1665. waiting . bacca. Cot. in order to keep the enemy in check. badius. white. Sp. See Bald.' Bailey. bai. Gael. buidhe. the step is the same as from It. Fr. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. to amuse stare a bada. that from ba. bayo. buidhe- The ruadh. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. ing-floor. the world Gr. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. by the term rendre les abpis. bilyejiti.— Stalder. baga. The — Fr. window . The word bay. S. a mark. Prov. OSp. and zndly. * To Be. which however. BAY marked with bjly. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. life. alive. BE Probably conRuss. or recess in an apartment in modern times. bijel. a dagger. — A At Bay. A hollow in the 'line of coast. —Bay-windo'W. . to open. Sp. stood watching him stoop. to open as a blossom. baca. —Diez. Fr. the cod or husk of beans or the like. to on anything.. bioth. See At Bay. or at bay. berry. From Cat. Fr.' — — 54 bald. &c. baya. bialo. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. bayen-stein. Fr.—Journal Soc. bagaid. dehiscere . open the mouth. baie. living thing . See Bawl. A stag is said to stand at bay./^ bau. hddhe-dhonn. Lat. Bay. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Q.

good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Pardoner's Tale. ohg. g. Lat. to beckon. or beic. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. beans. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. OSax. nokkima. He says. It is BEAR SI court. G. atUndre. to nod . A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. or however. signifying individuality. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. AS. Du. a prayer. ffci. Beckon. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Fr. an attendant. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Catalan becar. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. a sign. ffaen. Sw. bidan. beic. a single bean. AS. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bairan. Be. Beadle. Hackluyt in R. a tree. boom. bagms. fd or faVf beans. Fr.from AS. badmr. bM. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Beck. ON.ad. — to bow or nod . to bellow. a single bean. would say. Gael. Moreover the name.fer-re j Gr. bean. bakkje. Bret. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. gebed. * Beagle. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. — : Beam. . not applied to the yelping of dogs. Chapters on Lang. fero. signifying a point. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. ON. pierced for hanging on a string. bohne. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. N. E. 54.. was introduced from England sea. be. backe. into France. The origin seems preserved in E. bidello.' adheres to the root. as.' Hall's Chron. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Goth. -phxr. bearti. beic. on. bee. — Bellenden in Jam. pig. Beacon. A two-year old nephew of mine p. The wild beast. a nod OHG. as. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Bear. Q wait upon him. Trans. bydel. The nutu significare. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. To Bear. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Slavon. vii. faba. like most nautical terms. support. Bret. Boom. a tree. the part overflowed by the tide. beugler. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. It. beacen. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Bean. vol. fromthe danger. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. which is. tale of prayers or doxologies. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter.' Suetonius in Diez. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. and Lat. a hill. —F. bdkna. W. The immediate shore of the Menage. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. salve his hurts. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. It forms a. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. Gr. W. or breathing. Gael. bokan. Gael. post. Thus the final en. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. A Esthon. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. to produce young. rising ground. bakke. prodigy bauhnjan. . Farrar. as well as f& or fav. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. bar. bob. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. or any action done with a pointed thing. bauhan. Goth. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. bedm. a curtsey. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. a beak. bek. Netherlands or North Germany. bead. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. beacnian. G. baun. Beach. into a snjall river. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. stock. Beak. becco. however. fayen^ nou or faeiinou.fui. faba is Kvavoq. to nod the head. to wait. — bedeau. to carry. according to of Sanscr. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. It. to wait-. baum. «va\ioQ. bohnej ON. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. See To Bid.to have a French origin.fuis5e. l^ax. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. a presage. fora-bauhan. beck. . bank.

to be incumbent upon him. to happen. AS. 2. The moveable part of a helmet.of being very angry. fitanimal. barf. behkr. to be fulfilled. bard. from the same in the sense of bear2. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to appertain. Fr. bett. Lat. obtain. badi. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best.AS. Thcem. See Beacon. G. biber. bekommen. the ece thurhwuniath. It. bearing. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. beatanj It. Bosworth. to hem. riviera. suitable. bave. or special purpose. den. get J ' He got very angry. brook. agreeable. baurthei. duty. biivre. E. bellus. g. beo. Beck. See Bat. Fr. As rivus. gelimplic. bring forth. bekkr. bebrus. — . the beard. Goth. perhaps a living thing. Chaucer. to bear children. opportune. Beckon. to happen. Thus OY. Fr. now confined To Become. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. to assume a certain form or Turk. baviire. It.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. G. o. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. Beat. I do thee pray. to the brook itself. to dabble . Cal. covered the face. Do no To It fallith favour. fallinn. The fitting or suitable. decorous. produce. e. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. byw. which.S6 fero. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to fall. comely. edge. dushmak. . seemly. riviire. bobrowai. E. beauts. ting. bcek. ON. limplice. ON. formerly a happen. bobr. or a feeling to be gratified. G. to get. whence baveux. limpan. venient. a brook. dize or dtzen. agreeable. to live. bach. bello. convenient.getiman. Slav. tidig. boroda.' ' He became very angry. becuman. proper . to arrive at. becuman. an notion of being convenient. pretty. border. when up. To load with ornament. Lat. it is probable that here also the to become. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. Boeth. OSw. Diez. imitative of the case happen as we would have them.fit. receive.to clothe to slobber. to happen. Beauty. bavec. to the good hapHalbard. gebank. to please. slobber. to G. Dan. tidy. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. a bank. ON. and on. to carry. iida. AS. e. talkative. G. a bank. as the babble of the child. but now a river only. nothing to thy name make. bestiaj Gael. baba.' are equivalent expressions. Beaver. R. taste. connected with ripa. living. to fall mode of being. brada. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. place to lie down. while from Shep. and to acquire. burdr is used in the sense of a car. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. On the same principle. G. our taste. bel. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Lat. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. gabaurths. name applied originally to the bank then proper . bib or slobbering cloth. rying. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. See becymth anfeald yvel. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. dress with unbecoming richness . and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. befall. blast. Secondarily applied to a hat. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. to happen. brook . Bedizen. ziemen. birth. to come to or upon. fitly . Prov. Now the Beast. fit. i. bedr. Beck.we call the arrangement becoming. proper. bava. R. from beau. Russ. pens unmixed evU. to sleep on. suitable. and Fr. Bo. bequem. 1.— Kiittner. because made of the fur of the beaver. if sound of a sharp blow. and also in that of birth. barba. to happen. decent. gefallen. judgment. pleasing. bart. a lip. a. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. — A — A — . happening as it ought. Lith. i. to attain to the lot of any one. Lat. bave i. to fall in with our bavard. ON. to wade through the water like a beaver. Sp. con. That thou mayest attain Goth. to shore. limpian.' every way suited to a prince. bur. Perhaps from Pol. In like manner condition. babrad. fiber. to be a part of his to. the latter are derived It. byrcti. handsome. W. Fr. as. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. or river. godum with ON. befit. nod or sign. Prick of Conscience. to those goods which endure for ever. chin. E. from baver. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. He becom on sceathan. timan. The OFr. battere. The quadruped. Fr. See Bank.

bukva. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. 1. Fr. waarin. piwo. also bienst. cow has calved. of beatmg. fall. . clog for a dog b'oteln.' So Gr. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. ris. D. 'La Gl. g. drink. E. trees in a forest .substance as to render navigation imtiriso. The beer al for te shenche bate. 1. Esthon. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. to parget or rough-cast . a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. . which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. sang vermeilh betatz. 57 — Palsgr. cozen. beest. For that was law of lend. drink. calleBedlam. biiren. beach.). water. cousin. Bethlehem. bably named from the destructive quali| T. cogionare. Rom. Fr. stakes. It. Let. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. as in It. PI. qui de lecto surgere non potest . may be from K. Bee. i. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. an Beetle. wedges. bove. translation beOj. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. may be shpped on and off. desert. Confined to bed. from jtst-. bedde-redirj ohg.ing of the word is curdled. The first milk after a dizen. turn (a garment). the biter. comprehending both wine let for beating flax.possible. an ox. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. 1 to drink. door. beach-each. Lat. . buka. KXlvoTTiT^e. a agulatum in the original Latin. thick. thick. Ant. . Arab. beetle also signified the impiti. whose face is clotty. taglio.'— GL ^Ifr. kivih. as. bossen. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. turn. madhouse. knock. to twist poorma. /SXirov. Fr. used for boull. crespir. bitel. Dan. 1156. fagus. on. paralyticus. an inhabitant of the desert. a horse-fly . the loppered sea. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. betel. Fr. a Properly a cover that biiren. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. de Fierabras in Diez. the meat of spinach.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. ' MordiThe Lat.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. bbtel. prigione. bette or blettej Lat. In a passage of an Old Fr. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. beer.(paddi. Beef. Cot. pude-vaar. speach. Beet. from the hos. biene. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. E. to beat bossel. a pillow case. in Nat. extant in Bohem. Gael. Gr. G. I put the flax upon it to spin. a wandering Prov. bet. P1. blow or thrust. a wasp.ON. Fr. Horn.D.— B. briest. AS. biest-milch. poculum. . Bernese. a pad or cushion). bedskiissen-bUren. to colour with lime-wash. also the bite or sting of a bees. bos. imperative pi. by-flugaj G. to and ale. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds._t from the root pi. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. a bed-tick. to change . a clapper. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Slav. Cot. from blood. to curdle or lopper. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida.— JI14. byst. doubtless. a cover. in Schmeller. bovis. Pl. a wasp. comb. bibere is a re. a stinging bieUe. duplicated form of the root.. briesch-milch. beutel. buk. by the analogy of bedaivb. cushion-cover . ir'm. whence familiar. as the milk of a that purpose in London. woman that is newly delivered. boytle.cz//aj. to drink. a paviour's beetle batail. red curdled Arab . G. G. from Lat. . Bav. a pillow-case. sela que environna la terra. vaar. from leberen. a cup or implement for AS. a mallet. to poordma. beost. a drink potus. bitela. garden-herb. buche. I A pillow-beer. cited by Diez. which also 2. Fr. beyki. But possibly bedizen 2. boeuf. Pett. to fall. to become Beech. pital of St Mary. Originally. kiissen-biere. * Beestings. curded or beesty.^ drink. It. tree. a malsense of drink. Lat. erroneously modified in form. to flatten In OE. to turn. Fin. ProBeer. batAfter mete in sale. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. AS. &c. and lebermer in G. mars betada. AS. Bed-ridden. The honey-producing insect. badigeonner. It. to coagulate. bytl. to knock. Bedouia. a bee. cugino. Beetle. prisons Venet. case. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. from risan. I dysyn a dystaffe. and in driving piles. beta. The meanpainting. to rough- cast. the ox. pettiriso.D. GaeL bior. bedawi. ^.' the last word corresponds to cofly . Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. bletumj Gr. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. Grimm.

When Q. yivofiai. Fr. affected. beginning. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. P.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. P. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. in E. genus. ip AS. Deutsch. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. a bag or poke. beitel. 25. tale. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. image is cleft out of the trunk.' for ye shall lament and weep. is com. can.quently used in OE. aginnan. It will . Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. to go a begging. &c. yivtrri. He did alight. the fundamental notion of attaining to. a scrip euXaiciJoi. but in the same language from poc. duginnan. The tother seand the dint cum. viii. & go a begging. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. Of brede full ycrammed. and Lat. Creed. Nov. 168. also called Bigots. P. to be born. it is both to acquire and to beget. word. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Cold-begone. as alighting is a momentary operation. seizing. at geta talad. to reduce him to beggary. beis- plement driven by blows. Mod. a wedge for cleaving wood. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. to bear young. 2. to begaan. P. a little bag). beutel.bag full of the G. oppressed with woe. a — wedge. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. 'Dz. — yivsaiQ. appears improbable at first. To produce children is to acquire. a bag. baigeir. origin. sel. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. a scrip. gan. To Beg. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. cans. gen. to be acquire. beriolare. on further examination. to be able. ' Begone. ysgrepan. to begin. or Of a pure poor man. y/yvo/iat. 'Aboutin undern monly. a beggar-boy. Lith. V. ornamented phoc. Beghardus. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Du. incipere. 1430. although it ' the future. ykvog. It. 142. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. ken. P. Du. 'ex quo. two betels —a grete oke. to cleve. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. from whete G. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. V. Florio. ' ' . Into the are D.— . pose-pilte. Ancren Riwle. on the tramp. a wallet. anfangen. P. Political Songs. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . giving in Gr. of Gr. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. V. Bruce. fangen and Lat. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. 1867. referred gan this Erie alight. Mundart.' about undern he got down. to beg. So from Gael. vir mendi. gigno. to get children . gan provyde To eschew The Flem. whence the E. above quoted to get beaten ON. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. a stone-cutter's chisel. a beggar . ytyvwfT'Kw. ysgrepanu. touched with emotion — .D. P. Goth. su with gold. From w. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. not began to alight. Schm. steinbosil. one after that other. chisel.' A. bag {baigean. can. OHG. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. a bag . signifying to conceive. covered with gold D. bertola. ken. — Stillingfleet. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. to take. Gr. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. capere. a beggar.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. P. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. ' . 40. 58 BEG BEGONE G. in D. lapidicinus. P.3. be^nnan. to know. kind. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. &c. woe-begone. Vocab. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Lollards.n. In Luc vi. To Begin. Du. chap. Skinner's derivation from bag. Barbour. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . a chisel.pose. begging. air a . yiyvo/uat. literally.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. is formed pocair. onginnan. beissel. on the bag. beitel. in Lat. to arise. P. hags. taking up. yivwajcw. but probably erroneously. AS. krapszas. Si'Xa/coc. begger. iv.

what he wishes another to do . hces. vow. name of the head is used to express what hbva.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. commonly expressed. to be suitable or becoming . to have. advantage. on. to be obliged to do a thing. tion. is supported by many analogies. to R. obliged. to lead.). behces. betragen. to lift. hafwa. fixed upon any object). to keen or hold. hafjan. Aan iemand bid one welcome. gehat. to take away. the distance of anything. a follower. to look. ge' hatan. to follow. to vow. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to carry corn into the barn . take yourself off. to look upon it as true . from tragen. to be be named. observe. guardare. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to keep. garder. to command. zijn. is on the top of or opposite to. promise or a command. to meet. to gehouden. —Hest. behind. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. heeten. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . han- — js Kil. The It. to hold. N. behoof. use.to vow. habere. Robert in Warton. R. Goth. to promise. habban. The seyn. gehouden.the figure of throwing at a mark. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to raise. to call. To Behave. when the verb will hoof. G. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. Sw. Sw. to carry. hofwa. beholden to him. to halten. to keep. to turn one out . hantyri. heeten willekem. exhort. Kiittn. Plautus. to the equivalent of Du. To look steadily upon. To place are most naturally ex. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. gehaben. G. AS. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. hove.for throwing it. to call. K. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. And so from hania. as in the case of E. Sw. to name. the two verbs seem radically the same. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. us-hafjan. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to be obliged to one. hevja. hcef tig bort. to bers of the body. To Behold. to feed. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. At the back of The re. seeing to. at the tail of. have the sense of calling or naming.' Richardson. behefe. adjust. laborare. injunccommand. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . or necessary. to behave. nittaa. portarsi.— . keeping. hafwa bort. and the E. bound. G. ifl fact. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. behatan. se porter) to fare well or ill. or the hence advantage. behete. to regard. Command. hevja. holding is originally derived from that of looking. ward. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to lift. to be fit. But. to hold. by the compound observare. — Behest. to command. to fit. promise. behat. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to heave. hatan. right. To be expedient. It. invoke. behaviour. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. ufhaban. to hit the mark. to be well pleased out. tail. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. promise . The supposition then that the notion of preserving. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to bring forwards. gecall. beperson addressed. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to vow. G. what is so required.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. is also found in the sense of looking. zu etwas gehalten haitan. taking notice or care of (Gloss. 17. AS. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. heita. healdan. G. to tend. gehalten seyn. vow. the equivalent of E. servare. to cast or throw. OE. behold. AS. keeping. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. solicitum esse. heave. or purpose. hovast. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to carry. to be named. and (as Fr. the name adapt. The Lat. Thus in Finnish the heave. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to carry. according as the * To Behove. hafwa ram. furtherance. premi curi alicujus rei. AS. hafwa. Paladino. AS. hcefwa in seed. take heed of. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. G. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. and their senses intermingle.

Hence to simple approbation. Northamptonshire. to belay. galaubs. Det er ofwer er hofwa. a little shed. esteemed . to boke. Fr. stand. Pl. bell. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe.D. to roar. distance to which a piece will carry. bealcan. Another application of the same word is in Pl. to give leave. to cry out bell. beffroit. fitness. promising. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. loven. to bolk. to give leave Dan. b'ola. certain rate. to praise. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. belja. fringe. cela est audessus de votre portde. bolken. appearing in Mid. erlauben. and Du. esteeming good and valid. to promise or engage. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. and. Fr. ON. To Belch. garnish.D. or high estimation. leaf geleafa. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . lyfan. and E. promiser. legsel. In the middle voice hofwas. consent. ON. Du. tain a certain end. bertefredum. precious. AS. to make it fast. OHG. berfroi. measure. to be required for a certain purpose. to express approval. a tower for defence . to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to bellow. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . satisfaction. filu-galaubs. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. on. Du. overspread. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to befit. beleggen. Goth. Fair sir and Fair lady. a. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. on. laubjan. portion. bercvrit. Sw. to estimate them at a To believe. and bergan. laven. to fix a price upon one's wares. honoured. lofa.Lat. a vessel made for dishonour. Du. bulken. . mark ON. to to make A Templorum campana boant. reputation. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr.Lat. giving leave or permission. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. permitting or giving leave. is used in the sense of approving. Q. behove. bylja. praising.D. To Believe. loben.alyfan. — mankind. true. praise. to believe. then. — . to extol the worth of anything.. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . See Gain. moderation. under the forms belfredum. Bell. gelyfan. resonare. bervrit. Du. to der swaren lave. In Mid. —F. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. is an easy progress. ornament. G. galaubjan. if a narration. beau sire and bel dame. beffroi. to sanction an arrangement. to promise. bounds. beset. 6o BELAY BELL loven. properly belonging to the church tower. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. P1. allow. range. It. then. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. Then. From AS. battefredum. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. bettifredo. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to permit. locus securitatis Schilter. lov. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to praise. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt.. ley/a. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. are innate . which has been shown to be derived from laudare. to praise. loven. border. from mhG. OFr. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. or house. bellan. to put a high price or value on. . bealcettanj OE. were civil terms of address. to lay be- around. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. leave . laven. Pl. are other modifications of the same imitative root. if a promise. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to give leave. ungalaub kas. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. with the consent of the heirs. AS. glauben. to sound loudly . The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. frid. to hit hafi. peal. belief . the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. hesfa. in nautical language. turris. a tower. and E. is (Sternberg). for purposes of low estimation . to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. to believe. The word be- Belfry.. a watch tower. an implement for making a loud noise. bialla. we have Goth. . To Belay. bellow. to resound. met. reach. aim. orloven. to lay the cable round the bits. boare. to a loud noise. — Diicange. permission. verloben. to believe. or a sconce.D. pro3. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to protect.

Benign. G. fyle To dirty. Javanese perfume. To belong is thus to reach up to. . bag. langen. I soyle it or araye it. In E. becwathan. ^To Beray. pod. to use words of good omen. ON. a round or bubble-shaped root. is The word balg. by itself. cod or husk of pulse. Belt.polch. Fr. or a It is times the to signify services. to touch. dirt. Lat. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Beneath. wallet Benefit. leather sack. from another modification of the word for bubble. one who does good. — Ducange. taken absolutely. bilbila. bander un arc. . The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. binsen. the word. . to bless. on. a bellows. benefacere. Benzoin. OFr. to hallow. to exert force. Lat. to belong. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. balg. bellows. ball. Bav. Benediction. pouch. a kindness. a speaking well of one. Bench. a border. bless. to bend a bow . or fyle with myre. ray. benedicere. or simply djawt.' Palsgr. bendaj as. to hold to one. I araye. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. To Belong'. hem. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. See Bank. Lat. benehusk. or sometimes louban. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. a spring. welt of a shoe gwald. belly. bienfait.pinuz. G. to become one's property . the ipsi Caddono concessimus. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. Gum benjamin. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. generous. Fr. Fr. I marre a thyng. Gael. from which is also bulbus. — See Numb. Was das belanget. loubdn djawt. bcelg. a blow. vulgarly the belly. benjoin. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. balg. a accusative. Benefice. benejicium. To Benum. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. a benefit. are stripped off whole blase-balg. volva. G. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. See Nether.' — Hie fimus. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Kil. gwaldas. Eenison. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. bandoir. bendan. Benedico. as. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. belly. disposed to oblige. ON. attinere. Benignant. bilbil-goda. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. from cwcsthan. blast-bcelg. a water-bubble builge. skin.Fr. I say). G. hence with ashes. Lat. See I . belt. benir. Dozy. pertinere. est matris in lucem editus. benjoim. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. attingere. needs no ex. Ptg. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). bimaissen. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. was in Mid. pervenire. bolch. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. incense of Java. belch. The ing-skin. from benedictio. belliJ Lat.' The term had been previously planation. . To Bequeath. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. blister balgan-snamha. to come to the crown belangen. . OUG. se bander. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. — ray. the skin of those animals that factor. bellows. J'emboue. wallet. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. border. well. belgr. has assumed a plural form. as concerning that. means seeds of plants. benedictio {bene^ and dico. Sw. to touch one. to arrive at. pertinere. vulva. to attain belangen. to do good to one . for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. rise against external force . Benefactor. Bret. rushes. to stretch it on a frame. benignus (opposed to malignus). to make bilbil. because bcelg. Lat.. the womb. Du. welt of a shoe. to concern. to ring. bolg. To Bend. to concern. beneison. bimpsen. a good deed. w. to attain to. fens et hie liraus. is a kindred form. balteus . Bent. Lat. . poX^ri.videtur. Gael. pino3. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. — root consisting of concentric skins. an inflated Lat. to reach. a leather bag. ' . benaigon. to say.— Belly. binssen. from Arab.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. From OFr. gelangen. . used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. kind. bell. Quoth. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. ' I beraye. bellows. bene/actum. See Bind. a bellows . bolg. attinere.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. bags or bellows. skin. to. a blessing." — — .

a berry. profit. as conversely a besom is called broom. From abet. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. of ffeed a fire. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. it seems hard to separate as. baete. BETE dirty'. think more probable. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to supply a want. an incendiary. Sw. E. sets fire to. To Bestow. put. bat. earg. as Du. person to lie in. is to perform a serviceable office to him. BEREAVE Wall. Hfence backing. vol. Sw. supporting on the one side Lat. boeten. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. what does it better a man. small eatable fruit. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. To Bet. Du. roju. beorgan. dust rojahtaa. stede. bal oppbota. scopse spartis. bdt. besje^ Sanscr. fearful. bota. noise. The proper meaning of the bale. bouter. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter.D. stow. to entreat. but in practice. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. To help. To Gl.• 62 Antiq. one who shelter. brem-bessen. a fire. reafian. seems twigs or rods. to thrust. barthless. Beere. When men of mekeness him baet. ship for a make amend. berry. and Du. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. peto. or. I from lew. boteith Goth. eld up- On is to be placed A — . barth may be for barf. beseech. — . mud. to thrust. Tusser. G.— Hal.bhaksh. fyrbotare. to defend. buttare. G. berwe. ^•n. — Chaucer. vi. making better. to strip. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. improve.—^fake. — amendment. So Lat. besmas. to To Bereave. berwham. AS. See Reave. to exercise on a definite object. dung . rubbish. as. supply. Du. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. bacca.ot-i. AS. OE. to seek. p. ropahtaa. Du. . as. boeten. advantage. Zeitschr. a horse collar. bestow. broom twigs. roju. to kindle the fire. So too Yorkshire arf. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. R. p. solicit. 3. to word is shelter. to fall with roisto. same word with the provincial barth. as in growth. as. dial. from grow. bdt. to amend. to be-place. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. from AS.fish the other hand. sheltered from the wind. Devon. the guardian . Grose. Du. To seek something from a person. Esthon. reparation. amendment. jnore. as. * To Bete. bet.X.irova. To Beseech. Beet. arwe. * Berth. encouraging. AS. betan. buttafuoco. roe.t. as bouter selle. compared with bargham. earh. to on the other Goth. Fr. Besom. to light the fire . bereafian. ariierf to 113. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. hva mannan. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. ^akka. preferably. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Goth. Beit. to make better. or to bestead one. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. because used for making besoms. — Biglotton. burrow. besnij Pl. advantage. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. basya. . basjaj Du. Rob. the side bhakshya. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. make better . Kil. So roto rattle down. to mend. botesward. to put on the saddle. See Better. to the place boarded off in a. from It. Fin. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. It is the restore fyr betan. Ihre. dirt. R. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. repair. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . place. betan. protect . to cast. sweepings. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. dirt .— VixHsm. might have been . a place . Best. besein. het vuur The serise of Boeten. lewth. position. and on which the wager is laid. to give a place to. bur-we. in the sense ctf beria. E. besIn sen. Tha het he micel fyr betan. The dry. to fire a funeral pile of . reparation. to to deprive of. better. barfham. what does it boot. to make it. Fr. lay out. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. baete. Berry. On the other hand. stealth from steal. put forth.iooA. to stand one in good stead. To bete his Jam. houseless. The origin is AS. — bota. and also to entreat. an incendiary. fall with sound. boutefeu. Bestead. or the space kept clear betan. boeten. but it is specially applied mister. besen. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. rods.

evidence of life. Goth. to drink . bouter davantaige. bet. ruogia. deign. bevere. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. tradire. are there Regt R. G. a bevy. AS. abash j from polir. betray. Ober D. Best. It. better. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. wrogia. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. for measuring angles. To Beteem. E. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. to happen. a traitor. Chaucer. Fr. fitting. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. bibere. betaemen. E. Fris. Tinia eigi at lata eit. two. obeish. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. are commonly to one's lot. whence beveraggio Fr. bevde. trahison. polish. his eyen sheen. betweoh. Thus from dbahir. and thence twegen. of pheasants. moveable and compass branches. dispose (whence schicksal. Bav. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. zemen. be fitting or suitable. tima. afford. baet. The as. dir. Golding's Ovid in R. trakir. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. betriigen. — See To Bete. Fr. Lat. to accuse. To vouchsafe. Dii. Sw. awry. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. suitable. Pl. Better. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. /alia. larks. find it good: Goth. batizo. e. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. To Betray. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. R. taemen. I approve of beveau. Bevy. to deliver up in breach of trust. bet. BETEfiM translated. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. roja. verbs in ir with a double ss. bedriegen. trahir. fate. Now the stirring of an object. *Ah. as trahissons. in the same way Lat. . better. springs from ON. gatiman. G. zimet. Fl. better. make manifest. more. to fall Some call it a bevel. trahissais. &c. ziemen. Car son umbre si le trahit.D. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. which may be compared as to form with amid. i. Buveau. a different form of twa. from invadere. AS. fallinn. to discover. thy speech bewrayeth thee. From the former of these are AS. Sahissais. Du. against. of quails. betwuh. bat. i. progress. betera. from Fr. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. 88. as one would have it fall. in the middle of two. taemen. to fall. tweoh. some attention. It. amidst. betst. -to appoint. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. On the same principle ON. betweox. to Teem. is used for the — R. to deliver tip. Between. e. is treason. said he. Ik tame mi dat nig. sloped off.D. twain. Mich self a good glass of wine. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. The inflections of Fr. the being pushed to the frbnt. spritigs from schicken. To Bewray. regen. to happen. — of the authorities. to deceive. to Hence It. Dit tungomal rendered in E. find in one's heart. has — In a like sense tanie>i. Fr. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. from Lat. pair of compasses. as envahir. In like manner folissais. what does It is forward him. Hence last G. To boot in coursing (i. riigen. Cot. gesiemen. tradere. Percy Soc. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. traditor. an instrument opening like a a thing. from. Slant. r'ojer dig. vrohjan. OE. lot). beuvrage. by two. beverage. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. tima. or with again. to make forwards. From It. batista. Fr. kein leben mehrin no signs . suitable. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. roebucks. A — drink. Goth. a brood. become. as from obdir. R. in the middle of twain. to cheat. a drinking . not to have the heart to give up a thing. ON. by a final sh. betest. G. his mouth. In the water anon was seen His nose. beva. treachery. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. amiddes. e. betweohs. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel.— . G. R. deem suitable.' Dialogue on Witches. wreia. betwuxt. order. Pl. proficere. traitre. x. Det sig sjelft. best. — that schickiich. — Betwixt. E. In like manner from twain is fothied between. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. gezimet eines dinges. advance. ON. Friar's Prol. it bewrays itself. as tlock. to stir. obdissais.

inferiority. The It. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. bescompte. stock still.to drink much. —Bickering'. kwijlen. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. — crooked. of the sliced off. bickai. to move. bibo. slippery. a slabbering-bib. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. kwijl-bab. crooked. In comp. liwell. Fr. it were the mouth. Bice. presence. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Bezoar. . Hal. Pers. to sip. biax. wraggeln. To skirmish. in him. twice. whey count . Gr. slanting . Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to make tongue Du. sbrisso. Bibelsworth in Nat. Misc. pddzahr. by throwing of stones.as in Biped. To Bib. sbrissare. aslope sbisciare. to glide or slip as upon. Bezel. Cat. its clothes. rogge. a bezle. bibaculus. to stir. discover.D. sbieco. 78). Uprogen. or in and out. It is especially applied in Sc. to shake. Hal- — do something aslant. I Wallon. from pdd-. Fr. to slaver . has a singular stone-picker. to it evident to sense. wrogen. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. per\'erted belief. Ant. sloped. sbiasciai. Du. Sp. An inferior blue. Cat. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Diet. the papyrus. (according to the Fr. Ci^. metaphor). and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Bias. sbiescio. to well up with Cot. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. babbefore the eyes. To Bicker. though such a change of form would be very unusual. two- footed. bending. a Galilean. rogt un bogt sik nig. Fr. bible.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. sik beregen. bias-wise. Piedm. and zahr. To bicker in NE. baviere. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. as an eel or a snake. See Wriggle. Bib. lips. Sard. In Arab. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. whence Du. bark of which paper was first made. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. Schiitze.D. reveal. Pl. bihais. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. An excellent Basil. sbias. ber-laita (for bes-laita). biascio. bavon. it becomes (Jz-. notice. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. bisdare. to give signs of life. aslope. Lat. . dial. in two ways for duis. biberen. Fris. in Fr. oblique. to cut in two. biberon. /3i/3Xof a book originally. bebble. to the stirring of their conscience. to be a paring. The train of thought is then. asure-bice (Early E. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). bezling or skueing. to stir. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. to a fight with stones. to slaver or drivel. to Jam. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. Prov. beslei. used in precisely stone . misFr. like guzzle. he is Wtb. —Dozy. Fr. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. biais. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. the basil Sc. bis. bestemps. snout. Piedm. biascia. kwijllap. Mantuan. a sloping edge. b&zahr. Lat. To drink hard.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. to stir up . biberer. to tipple. OE. besanca. Probably. the word became bddizahr. a stone-hewer . a bibber. sbiesso. sbrisciare. To Bibble. a fragment bieco. 172. Fr. bickel-sieenken. baverole. one who drinks in excess.{ioin dua. sbiscio. Oh when shall I bizzle. pible. bring under ' Thy accuse. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. E. him. It. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. edge of a plate of looking-glass. bickeler. ice . bes-azur. — Bi-. Biseau. Fr. makes ble. or kwijl-slab.or from obliquus.s bellum for duellum. It. beregen. petit-lait. winding or crawling in and out. which good bibbeler. shows the P1. to tipple. tailU en biseau. sbriscio. poison. Dan. bickel. . Yes. to dispute. sliding. convicts thee of being drink. foul weather. Bible. .a. roggle. Bisect. To Bezzle. expelling or preserving against. wrangle. is explained to clatter.two. sbiagio. Jamieson. love first begins to life signs of him. babbi.' bibble. bickelen. bisel. . to purl. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. dial. specially in a bottle. Sardin.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. evident. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. to creep or crawl sideling. or by any rapid motion. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . biaiser. to stir.

verbieten. iiQ. balg. G. W. and consequently ordering or reGoth. called the tertiary order. OSw. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. Compare also Sp. from belgia. to forbid . Jam. BIGOT beidan. as. porrigere. of More ' in Richardson. bolga. inhabit Du. explaining the Sc. to look for. bend of a shore or of a rope. belly. bua. — prepare. — — — Halliwell. bulk.Leta). bis and in comp. a swelling. beodan. Analogous expressions are G. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. ten. AS. repair. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. proud. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. swoln. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. Bigot. bilge or bulge. to build. by seek and beseech. to offer. bow. are also used in the sense of asking for. to ask. to bid one good day. . qucero. bug. to curve. Big. From Gr. to abide or wait on. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. bidill." buque with E. ON. Bigamy. to inflate E. to E.' Pope in R. R. forwards. bidan. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. praestare. swelling. pressing on one's notice. form. belly. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. Einem einen guten tag bieten. ON. The original Swollen. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bulge. bidel. biegen. to have one called before him. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bath. bo. bugt. AS. to cultivate. With respect to logical pedigree. bauen to cultivate. and Gael. to presimpler pare. to belly. and the Sw. bedun. be bug. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. in the sense of ask for. as tears from the eyes. offerre. who. to offer it to public notice. G. bugan. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. 1. . bit- bidja. swaggering. To bid the banns. or bad. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. and yajiBui. byggia. or. faurbjudan.t. cultivate. Bickelen. becoming in Lat. to bend. Bight or Bought. athird class. to swell. inhabit. gebeden j G. biddan. bulky. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. Kil. a suitor. bigan. Wallace in Jam. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. Du. A bjudan in anabjudan. to pray one to dinner. to pro- command. Hence Sc. — To Bid. bolginn. The ON. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bidjan. a flexure. beidast. to marry. bead. bidan. spelling seems to used in the N. The loss of the / gives Dan. besides the professedmonks and nuns. from bidan. to build. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. 2. from seek. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. Palsgrave in Halliwell. AS. to bicker. bygga. bog. to bend. to inhabit. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bend. build. ON. bced. Big-swol- . ' Bug as a Lord. beadle. bolgna). To Bid ' Big . has leta. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to forbid . buga. A pose to one to come to dinner. gebodenj G. The ON. byggan. abidan. To Big. bulge. the belly of a ship. twice. The 'La. bat . to ask. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to arrange.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P.peto. consisting both of men and women. to look for. bi-. to solicit. or third order of penitence. It must be observed that the word bidja. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bouwen. the meaning of bid. bieten. boa. to bulge. G. anleta. to dwell. ewes. to offer one the wish of a good day. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. quiring something to be done. as G. a chip. bugne (answering to ON. The . praebere. pray. to start out. einen vor Gericht bieten.uddered len heart. related to big or bug. OSw. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bag. bieden. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for.. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. which is stiU. P. rising up. ON. to move quickly. an entire skin.' Addison. to build G. Two verbs are here confounded. England for swollen. BID of stone.

'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. bigotta. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes.D. and hence the variations bigutta. signifying bagmen or beggars.' translated by Muratori. corruption would easily creep in.' Chart. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. ac labores manuum detestantes. biso. A. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. a blockhead. &c. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. Bighini. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. and also unlearned common men. 560. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. a dunce.D. D. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. author quoted in N. was formed bigello. beghino. all apparently derived from Ital. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh.a. beghart. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. They wore a similar dress.' Matthew Paris. Beguttce. S. A. bigio. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. Bighiotti). vol.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude.' says one of of bigio. grey. perch^ i Terziari di S.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. In a similar manner from bigello. Bizocco. the other form Per te Tribune.' says an Venet. Hence the OE. the nobles to Rienzi. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. vocati Fraticelli. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. dark-coloured cloth. which must not be confounded with begardo. G.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. alii Apostolici. From bigio. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. bighellone. and Q. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. rustical. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. In the same way Fr. with reference to A. absque votorum religionis emissione. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. grey. homespun cloth. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. Augustini dotarint. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Flor. sed maxim^ in muliebri.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. aliqui Begardi. 15 18. A. 1243. as well as bizocco. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. natural grey or sheep's russet. ix. clownish. Francisci communiter appellabant.. says. bighiotto.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. Bizoccki. 1499. borel. begutta. to adopt a similar course of life.D. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. face VIII. xx.— Ducange. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. coarse woollen cloth. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. probably from biso. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. alii de paupere viti. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. honesti plebeii amictus.— BIGOT bigardo. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. both men and women.

Billette.— — — . . Langued. A slang term for a sword. at sea Billet. In English the meaning has received a further development. billard or billart. bulla. a hypocrite. blaa. Sw. gleischner (Frisch). as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. a of the sea. 2. and a billard. In the same way are related Pol.' mariners. to swell with rage). su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. — — ' . Kil. bila. AS.. Dan. NFris. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. the beak of a bird. bolghe. So in Gr. bla-berry. Ludwig. seems to be rather the unda. weapon . a beak. names bill-berries. boja. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. OFr. topor. bull-berries. a seal. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. on. boeye. See Bull. A lorum tam in — Diez. b'olja. dissimulation . tepati. The proper meaning bylgia. the bill of a bird. Bilbo. to be angry (i. from OSw. Bilge. p. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. a hatchet. and in Lat. Bigin. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. beghart. BILBERRY nated. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bile. an axe . to job. Billet. 2. a devotee.' in Richardson.' bilio. the trunk of a tree. from Mid. dziobad. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. bulgja. to strike. bwyell. See Bulk. billot. Kil. used in legal proceedings. bille. fluctus maris. obsolete. irons or set in a kind of stocks. blamand. as craneberry. whortle-berries.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. — Cot. genus vincu- Bilboes. billard also signified at billyards. beil. w. belghen. Bille. Du. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a bigot or hypocrite. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. to strike. a short note. bisoch. a floating log to mark the place of some. Gascoigne in R. buie. Gael. Du. Bohem. deceit. and dziobas. that of swell. e. symbolum. is properly a sealed instrument. bigot. fetters. 5 * . Bill. bullet. of E. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. crowberry. inscriptum. biilge. now A Bilboa blade. To defraud one of expected sinking. in the same sense. buoy [i. bigot. — bigardia. bigotto. bill of exchange. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Deutsch. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. The Du. belgan. Du. bui. horn of an animal. Prov. an ingot of gold or silver. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). billet is the diminutive of this. Tartuffe. procella Kil. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Dan. bulghe. loi. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Johansen. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Sp. Bilberry. gan. Bojce. an adze . ferrese quam ligneae. a shackle. 3. a negro. The origin of the term is probably from bole. abelthe fetter itself. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. an ingot. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Lat. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . . a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. person of religion leading a loose life. AS. Fr. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. G. bil. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. as a bill of indictment. Fr. Piedmontese bigot. the o changing to an i to express diminution. I. 'tumidi fluctus. billet. an axe. Bill. boia. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. An instrument for hewing. an axe. top. an axe. Roquef. clog to a fetter. plog-bill. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. ^Billiard. Sw. of boja. bill in parliament. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Sw. in the sense of a writing. bigardo. to peck. buail. Billow. the swelling G. bill. axe. e. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. false pretender to reUgious feeling. blue . To Bilk. Mundart. to pick a millstone. bizocco. dziob. Aurelles. however. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Fr. a sword. . Lat. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . a seal. AS. from the dark colour. Thus we find in It. a name given to a.

life. a bump or knob. Bin. beize. Then added division in a granary. i. a little dog. an overseer. in Swabia. biccej ON. a gallinaceous bird. qui nisi propius Blind. beitan. bunt. berkas (z=:Fr. — Surrey in R. . evigue. Lat. Goth. &c. to be derived from Ibfiaq. copus. from pondus. a heap. wine. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. evegue. Bing. a corn. Bird. to hang. piccione. bircej Sw. episcopus. videt. bundun. bundle. It. — Kil. to knot nets for fish. the young of an animal. To — — —D. brid. burt. or baked. brut. are commonplaces. forth. bitill. Fr. Bittacle or Binnacle. to net. a bunch. a bitch. earnes brid. betsel. to plait. a knob. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. j). bunga. v. to bind at . lusciosus et myops. To Bite. propius videre bij sicndc. a weight. ge- from AS. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. i. The term ON. band. AS. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Birch. AS. by binda. When compared with Fr. Bisom. evesgue. See Belly. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. Lap. Goth. IV. bindan. the young of birds . to form a knotted structure. — See Bittacle. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. AS. to bring Biscuit. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. We — A Birth. Habitacle. biscotto. Thus I suppose the Gr. vescovo.' and the like. Bitch. binge. beisseii. pinnii. Sw. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Dan. to bulge. pullus. from Gr. poule. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. expressed by Sw. bij sien. e. bunki. AS. an eagle's young G. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Lith. V. E. ON. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bundt. See Breed. is in Scotland applied to ivy. bitacora. beran. properly a young pigeon. from Lat. bij sienigh. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Fr. — — .. The bitol. G. Gr. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. poultry. truss. is rendered in ON. a bitch applied also to other animals. bunch. bin-wood. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. . Lith. Bisson. from \t3\. Sp. pippione. — properly near-sighted. .. or bin. a female stag. isfiw. viz. pittjo. bikkia. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. hith. EpisETTiTOOTToe. where the compass stands. . to swell. Sanscr. H. bjork. to cook). than vice versi. Lat. while bind-wood. fowl. Lat. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. a house./«idere. sc. a brood or hatch of young. a pig petz. Fr. ON. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. which is expressed in E. . doubtless a stone. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E.68 BIN Bio-. a truss. a habit- Binnacle. beitsl. G. or ben-wood. Bizened. bund. bord. BITTACLE /Siof. habitacle. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bindan. The proper meaning is a heap. to bind together. I would derive the verb to knit. AS. In like manner from knot. a bear. G. hiindiiin. Bailey. overlooker. Bisen. a weight of 48 pounds. and of Fr. pin-ti. biclie. or petze. terial. also a stone weight. nodus. bita. to bear. twice cooked. bigne. a hind or female stag. to fasten it together. It. See To Bear. beorth. Bindweed.. Bind. 'tumens sequor. AS. a female dog hindinn. biscuit. to build. Sw. pinnu. and especially to a small poor horse. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. piiiti. binda nat. Du. . bund. bundle. G. Fr. to wreathe. a bitch. bundt. Fr. Lat. bhurja. by the verb knit or net. pundas. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. admota non Bit. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Bine. a heap. to twine.

The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. small guard-house. Mund. Black. Gael. Mag. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. thoughtlessly . baboyer. bites. discoloured . blubber-lipped. biti.' G. a babbler. To or he can speake. The Gz. plappem. blob. Nagt huis. to let out whai should have been concealed. babbe. mona mid Dan. In Legrand's Fr. first. Cotgr. plabartaich. Sp. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. bitones. blab. a fluttering noise. Fr. ON. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. blob.— Blabber-lip. Bivouac. iroxafealo. 't kompas huis. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. pale yellow. G. pale.' by Haldorsen. bitter. Wit hung her mourn. Sw. It. Sp. Applied in Hin ON. as of wings . as in that of pale and white on the other. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. AS. buft". on. blakki. confusedly. gabble. white lead. faded. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. quoted by Ihre. mouth. A a rail. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. whitish. Fr. synonymous with baber-lip. bleich.€i. white. brunblakk. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. to the sharpness of a weapon. butorj OE. Hist. to wax pale or bleaked. from whence we have adopted the.. or water beating gently on the beach .. ON. is placed. Sp. "uivac. an edge is sharpest sword. pale. G. beuni. as of a body falling into water. Bav. a large lip. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. a large coarse lip . — Collins in Hal. 332. blunt we say it will not bite. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . a childe dothe gasouille. gulblakk. term. AS. to chops. Percy Soc. Se bleek. Hald.' It would thus acle. blepLith. out the tongue. Bohem. to bivouac. So Fr. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Du. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. bitts of Bitts. 't huisje. ^chops. . a stammerer. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Pl. Blabber-lip. blob. blabbre. to speak Dan. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. pins of the capstern. bittour. Mantuan babbi. to loll it out. pale brown . pale. blac-hleor ides. pale yellow . yellowish. cut. Je N. Bleak. chatter babbler . to To blabber blabber with the lips. round which the cable is made fast. NE. viz. Sp. The bitas. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. x. Again. to talk much. is apprehension of danger. a* mast . bird of the heron tribe. blabbern. ^aj'/^r. blake. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. indistinctly. leohte .' by Gudmund. an additional watch. a shelter for the steersman. as of water gently beating the shore. I blaber. Gael. night guard. Goth. — cheeked maid. Fr. his blacan light. yellow .plab is used to . a flapping. Bittern. corrupted in Fr. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. a continued soft sound. beitr. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. to watch. In a similar manner Gael. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. whiteness (candor sine It. Lydgate. faded. bleg. Why presumest And laam's asse. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). to babble. to babble. ON. ' plabraich. ' Biovac. obscurus. dusky. Alex. blesmer. dark.. blebberis.). blanc. bleikr. . Fieldfare. blank. blabhdach. 156.D. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. from wachen. Cot. blabaran. . things —Palsgr. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. Fr. —Neumann. bitr. quick. as is seen in sputter and splutter. on the one side. beiwache. To Blab the anchor. bittore. shining. In like manner E. v. fallow . white. babbling. blakk. a tati. /ealo-/or. fallow fawn-coloured. Ai-mstrong. — Hollyband. Hal. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. stutterer. light-coloured. 'fuscus. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. mouth. whitish. garrulous. blobach. a beam in a house or ship. even humour seemed and beuin. unintelligible talk plabair. Deutsch. the palebleff. shine. biacca. black. ON. bihovac. apparently from its biting the tongue. bitor. in contempt. maculS. baitrs.

dial. Cot. a bladder or pustule. coat. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. is identical with Flanders borlen. the ON. blaeren. to omit. blanqne. blena. the leaf of a tree. roar. It. to make or become white blanc. Jan. to bleak in the sun. with all other loose idle masterless men. on. branches . black. blister. Play in Nares. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. &c. leaf. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blather. flap of a Du. and others engaged in dirty work. speak impiously. white. smother. to bubble. Reliqu. livido . blasphemare. mud. To blank. blister. leaves. the origin of . pXaatpiiiiHv. bladder. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. bladder . plate. See Blubber. blame. commonly called the Black-guard. Lat. Blain. . all signify to wash as well as to tattle. linkboys. also jabber. — — — to jabber. as. bladeren. piatto. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. or a mass of bubbles. a bubble. a leaf. blanchet. and he shall be sure to have O. —We Bladder. a pustule . whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. candidus. bladre. a blank ticket. But perhaps a more Gr. reproach. a. name originally given Blackguard. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Gr.—Blatter. . vagabonds. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. The present forms then should be classed with blether. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. sheet of paper. his meat burnt. as scullions. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. and thence to babble. whitish. borrelen. To Blare. or of an oar G. Bav. smore. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Hist. blanchet. mire. to Hence Ital. as. blatter. revile. Dan. and wandering men and women. blegen. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. pallido. on. bladra. contracted from bladeren. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blein. e. blether.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. Du. Blank "verse. blactra. to blow. Fr. bladdra. probably ate. also white woollen cloth . irXariQ. G. board. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. plat. a bubble. Dan. blatt. to dabble in water. a white or unwritten ticket. blegne. Now. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. to vocifer- — Cot. 1854. blinken. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. as blader. dripping-pans. Sc. and the agitation of liquids. a boil. polished. chatter. or blafich. chatter. foolish talk. 86. shining. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. Blank.—Blatant. blad. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. to To bellow. Sw. plat. blatter. Torriano. a buible. also tanned by the sun. skola and thwatta. Du. . blather. PI. blad. in R. defame. waschen. madder.— Kil. which we . verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. to disappoint. variable than the signification of words designating colour. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. to purl. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. pluddre. mud. whitish. rogues and wanderers. Fr.— ^o thehotsun. Du. leafy. blanc. Fr. tree. as Lat. p. pimple. Eadmer. to shine. to shine. Sir. Wott. — . with divers other lewd and loose fellows. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. biastner. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. The radical bubble. and E. mus-blackt.. G. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. bladder. Besides the examples of this connection given above. imbrunire. Sw. gabble. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. most complete example of leafy structure. Blancli. Blame. blahen. blaere. boys. moere. and Q. Du. Perhaps from blegen. G. pass over. to glitter. — Sw. —^Webster. — rura. Bacon in R. Blanket.. slush. I am degraded from a cook. leaf of a. from candere. white. blanchir. blister. to —Blaspheme. Dan. bladder. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. tattle. to glow. Fr. Du. a blanket a bed. biasimare. pladdern. vagrants. blister. D. broad. 7. to blanch. or as E. Blade. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. and G. 5/^a/^ of colour. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. cited in N. blank.

blass. Fr. Du. A strong flame. AS. . indeed. to blow . friend Cornelius. Sw.sound a trumpet. and. But now. 2. Blast. ther it was erst not knowe. Blaze. oron-blasare. blose. much plausibility. Golden Book in R. a torch . might And sain. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. bles. to cut off prematurely. a MS. the noisy. ON. Fr. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. — — ' : bless. Sw. Cot. bawling. blus.whence the Fr. a whisperer. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. to blow. Lye. and to make him word blaze. laudes (Kil. blaterare. G. a coat of arms. a shield. She roade at peace through his heraldry. loud . a flame . See Blare. an empty and two theories are proposed.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. commendation blason funebre. ing of arms. has also blencke. blast. a funeral oration . Du. blorach. Du. to trumpet forth. blcesett. light-coli. blasonner. fire. i. blezo. blaser vid. To Blaze. G. of an animal. AS. to extol. blesse. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. or to the sound which it produces. braise. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. quus. Du. proclaim the virtues of. abroad. Dan. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. blysa. also only pains and excellent endurance. g. to publish the praises. beast. brasa. in the same way as we 2. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . whence Blazonry. blaodhrach. e. a lamp blasere. embraser. biter. as a verb. Du. — ^Jam. A blaze is so intimately Then. blateroon. how. Troilus and Cressida. blys. blase. blaesen. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. . a voice Jr. to de. blesse. like the in English. A gust of wind. baladron. blason. I. blazen. baladrar. ON. blossi. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. a flame. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. OE. ill-speaMng their proper colours . blcest. Fr. bldsse.' painted or figured . it is manifest. used. noisy blor. also praeblczse. a blast. blaeteren. Du. 'op een trompet blaazen. to proclaim. As Kilian. To blast. blaodh. and which.). a shining spot. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. to blow. . brasa. Gael. magniloquus. — Elazen. blasa. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. blis. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. coloured prints. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. on whose behalf the herald appeared. With inversion of the liquid. is the imme. ventosus. splendour. magnilo. might spring from the same origin by a . Sc.' to fastum . blcEsan. clamorous. bleis. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Blatant. — ' — stroy.— . kept up. somewhat different train of thought. a torch. blcEsan. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. blatero. stultd loqui. If armour. abroad. the matter incendiary . each of boaster. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. to bellow. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. a flame. First from the E. to spread news. a loud noise. Prov. to set on fire. besides blesse. blase. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. is used in the sense of manifestatio. The origin of this exSp. Blanches illuminies. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. or blazening. Cot. redness . also blazon or the blazSpenser. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. Dan. by stripping off a portion of the bark. gloriosus. blason. oured. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. among other . blcese. Gudmund. declaratio. To blow AS. bliEsan. proflare tues. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. to blaze Sp. thraso. Kil. blasoen. is from AS.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. to publish. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blaze. shield or surcoat. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. an conium. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. live coal . a shout. senses. The other derivation. pale. in that of praise. boasting. The AS. visui patet.

pale Du. bloken. to wink at it. pimple . which are blurred with the have shewed you. tumanid. and thence to a bruise. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. blemissemeiit. on. blcecan. B. inflamed eyes. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. I chaunge colour. tutnan is a cloud. confound him. ' . See Blood. See Black. a spot. blister. Blear-eyed j having sore i. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. to blear one's eye. AS. souiller. guenchir. plama. like one that has long P1. N. to stain one's honour or reputation. to make him feel blank. a boil. Bailey. 115. start vor den augen. blakna. to spot . blac includes the notion of pale and dark. And now are these but mansbond (i.' to deceive one. dead-coloured Cotgr. Sw. Manuel de Pecch&. novice. Fr. ^Xiixaoftai. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. See Black. blesmir. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. . bleikr. is Blench. wheal. pale . goda nainn. drop of water. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. bleakness. So in Sw. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. Mac. a disgrace. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. Bejaune. And By a similar metaphor Pol. Sir J. to start away from. to disgrace one's name. ' — — ' : — — . blur before their eyes. (faith or creaunce) Be war. a red watery eye. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. blarren. livid. .v. paleness. a spot. flack. As AS. from on. a been distinct. a spot. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. Bleed. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. to blare been weeping. Blear. in the expression reputation. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. — — R. Gr. spSt. to bleat as sheep. a fault. Ancren Riwle. light-coloured. to whiten by exposure to sun and air .'he cried till the tears ran down. G.filerren. boggle at something. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. ' — — eye. a stain. geplerr. whitish. to spot. To salir. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. while the agent ac- From . or blemish. To Bleat. c. The term blear. as of dust or mist . is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. bldmi. to wink the eye. or blemysshen — blaken. or to low as oxen. . Bleak. Bleb. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. A stain in a man's reputation. to become livid. wan. to cry or weep. . to cast a mist before the eyes. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. darkness of vices. BLENCH obfusco.' God in his wordes. Palsgr. blesmissure. 419. wanness. blema. a blotch plerr. p. what blenched him therwith. sugillatio. to humbug.D. sinen langen tranen. the livid colour of a bruise. . — blink the question is to shrink from it. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. splamii!. Blancher. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. blot.P. ^Blencher. Pol. blot. avoid looking it in the face. A Blab. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. to bleach. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. the formal equivalent of English wink. blink. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. a blemish in one's 2. To totally different from the foregoing. Gower in R. blench came to be used for a trick. Schmel.' the devil makes a vain back. to soil. color plumbeus bldma. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. pier vor den augen eyes. tacher. Blemisli. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. a blot or smear blanking one. ' He blarrede or roar. a spot. Richardson. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. livor. exposed. spla7nU sie. from the than schal I go. 242. From the OFr. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly.

blitzen. wink. as in the case of blaze. . G. lovely Bohem. moment. Wtb. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. the Slavonic languages. blissian. plonsen. blican. — A A — .blinkard . well blagaya. to lighten. mixing in general. a glance. F. blund. as a blind entry. sweet. To blunder water. glitter. burn up.wink . Tany. a dead nettle. Swab. sung. the G. to dash wine with water. Serv. a look. livid. a wink. to fall into water with a sudden noise. a glance Swiss blenden. G. happy . cascultare.' To — blunge clay.blinze. . Blind. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. bluiter. in potters' language. III. Kiittner. — Goth. goods. glitter.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. to bluiter. Swiss (obsolete). —Brera. an entry which leads to nothing . thou knave. blink. Needle. joyful. happy . glance. Paradises blidnissu. blotzen. a.corn. good. . Sw. tire. plotzen. sertion of the nasal. joy. to stir or puddle. blet. Nares. fortunately. joy . (=bene dicere). to glitter. also to wink. blazeny. a blick-ooghen. blinzdugig. . . blicken. to bless. lightning sweet blago. . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. To Blend. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. or nettle which does form. to flash. — . The sound of k before an s. to bluiter up with water. window-blind. vious one in the order of formation. be glad flash. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. From the action of the hand making Sw. mix from blekken. a. lightning. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. blink-eyed. to be blind. flash of light . . although in the in the next article. Russ. to plunge. . to shut the eyes. to mix. blent. a flash. blahos. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . happy . well blahy blick and blink. bleg. pockets. to rejoice. blidu. pale. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. shine. blindselen. OHG. Du. blick. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. Du. to shine. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. Dan.eyed. as in Du. ^Jam.. blithe. to pro. blindr. — when he — Bailey. to dazzle . blendian. wink of sleep . blide.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. AS. to bless . blogi. to dabble in water. G. glimpse. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. glitter. Du. Sc. blind. the verb to bless is some. 375. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. liquid filth to bluther. Du. gives blinzen. Blazena Bea. blessed. a wink With the bletsian. Blight. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. AS. dazzle . to glitter ful . to blithsian. a gleam. A . riches . to twinkle. trix. to rejoice. j). blac. to glitter . to — make it thick and muddy. to consecrate . is I shall Gurt. to act like a — .Q. bliss look . Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. . but by no means therefore a pre. AS. as a vatn i vin. to merry. . glad. blind- ON. Blink. Sc. The term then self or others. AS. Du.blunda. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. bludder. graceful. a blessing. Biglotton. ON. Pol. giving (Fr. blende. blaziti. to shine. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. to shut the eyes G. Deprived of sight. . pearance of the blighted . joy.nasal. G. weaklaveny. blinde fenster. blahoslaviti to twinkle.blinken. seems the simple netel. lighten. blatida. blanssen. to glance. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blitz. blicksem. to churn. blicken. riches blajennii blicksem. The inblissful. blincken. gladness. ' Pl. happily. . to dilute too much . tative source of the word is wholly lost. blich-fiur. De Sonne ' verblekken. money. false windows. Thence apblinds. OHG. blinzeln. as taschen. blessed. make these hands 3. with or without the nasal. readily passes into a /. lightning. blag. To Bless. to make happy. Bliss. Owl and Nightingale.not sting thiiren. I hold thee a grote thee. to shine. blithe blis. a nounce happy. and joys of Paradise bliden. csecubrandish. the sign of the cross while blessing one. doors. blinzler. tless —Gamm. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window.D. blend. blago. to make a rumbling noise.

horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. to desire the male. a bubble. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. expressed by cognate roots. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. . Hence E. speaking rapidly any . bausen.pusta. bloc. blot. B. pusula. to cure by smoke. ON. blad. viscid. bleiths. Blond. weak. Du. blobbes or droppes of water. separate portion. Boyd in Jam. Thus we have blab and babble. like manner the coloured. pausten. is also used in the sense of swelling . busten. fiustula. To a smoking or drying by the fire. in bulk. plub. to soak. buclde. blister. bloc. round. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. shells. any lump or mass of things. a drop of water. or the mark which it makes. Sw. or is inserted or omitted. a small lump of anything thick. to block up the way. —Bailey. blijde. to steep. buckle. bluyster. strawclod. cooking. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. while Lat. To Blissom. See Blot. and bouclette.— Hal. . Dan. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. joyful. Mod. The blow E. G. Block. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. — Sw. must be referred to AS. Lat. to close it with a solid mass. Egillson. fish blind person. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. must be classed with forms like Gr. light yellow. frequentative. biota. blidr. Sc. blot. blaud. it is must be observed. to dash liquid. a bubble. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. Gael. blond. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. A solid blouquette blisters. blod. blab. stone. blindsehn. — — — — — From blabber. merciful ON. ^Jam. a . orbicular. For this. taken altogether. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Blister. — . to swell. to to puff and be noisy. a blister. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. The stem or trunk of a tree. to breathe hard. swell. from blcsr. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. signifying in the first instance to soak. an unformed mass. to blow. blinzel-maus. like clot. or the like.. formed spot. sloppy dirt. ^vaaa. whence blast. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. to bubble. gentle OHG.plisg. lagga i blot. inde humiditate tumidus. Hence. a blot or spot. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. pimple. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. bloated. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Du. a blain. pods. soft. Fr. to blissom. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. In Fin. The roots /. a little blisg. Dan. or blinde-kiih. and easily changes its place. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blide. Blob. to blow. in Nares. to blow. as a blab of ink. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. — Blob. husks. Langued. repre- pusula. Cotgr. It may be formed Blithe. N. soft. To Bloat. soft. as blinzeln. blot. kostia. is formed squad. kostua. mild. in the lump or mass of wood. a ram. W. blindman's-buff. in gusts. blautr. . puff. Kil. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. A under this name was imported into England. Blob. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Of sheep. and pisg. blouca and Fr. having an unsound swollen look. blobber. Sw. I believe. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. also to set See Bless. boucler. Bav. Jonson. the unhewn bole of a tree. G. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. senting the dashing of water. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. a block or log en bloc. Svt. Bleb. in the sense of a soft tint. Ibid. a blister . a bubble. blister blasan. and F. And so from squatter. Gael. a dirty blister. Fr. blotfisk. or bleb. pustula. blubber. ON. as if soaked in water. soak in water cured fish.—Bloated. blaustem. blote. and inarticulately. blcesma. . B. bubble and blubber.— Bailey. mild.—Bloater. blesme. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. a lumpish head plubach. as in E. bluster. blithe. mass. a See Blot. soaked. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. Goth.

. the bright to blot paper morsels. to strike . platt-voll. mud. Wflz<^«. blatte. — Stalder .^ Kil. Stalder. pladdern. a flower. Sw. to glow. blaeuwe ooghe. to strike with something soft or flat. livid . coloured (Diaz. bloed. glister . gammon. a Schmid. blust. to be red. a blow. platz-regen. blond is used in blatt. bliithe. . to dabble in water. Dan. blaeuw. platz-voll. to From . blomstr. a flower. — — . to blot the land was in a leme. platschern. blase. Dan. to spot or blot.D. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a torch blusse. . AS. bfys. blus.properly to scatter liquid . in v. OFr. bldmi. white blatte. E. glossi.platter. bloetnsel. great leaf of cabbage. blue. . pale. — gush. Prov. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. ON. blondheid. blosma. pladern.' the rain is driving and blue . yellow. lump flower. — Blotch-paper. Du. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. to be red with blot. blodelsa and blawelsa. biado (of which the evidence plattern. fall to overflowing. . blue. bldts. See Blow. G. 2. blotte. to dash down. blowen. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. on. platsch-voll. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. a lump. blond en blaauw slaan. E. AS. colour of the cheeks. bleustern. Sw. Schilter. bleistern. . to patter. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. gloss. glus. bloemen. It should be of filth blak-blatte. gleam. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. to shine . shine . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. flower. of a blow with something lios. a Usaae. bliise. lump of anything soft to blad. cow-dung. lustre. wan. D. E. light. Fr. to blaze . to scribble. fair in en blat vand. plottra. a. to flame. plotterwis. . dial. plattata. kuh-plader. blysa. bloto. a pelting shower). blou. Hatch. bloi. proto shine with bright colours .platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. Bloom. blotter. . bloi. It. blosen. Jios. blooth. glose. to splash. —Barbour. a blaze. gfyssa. a drop of water or colour. splendour . E. straw. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). en blau ach. to glisten . as the skin or hair. leme. Blow. parallel form with ON. to slap. pale biavo. blauwel. plot of land is a spot or small rage. to exists in biadetto. to dabble in water . brilliancy. to blush . Fris. Blotcli. or the sound of it . plet. PI. The G. E.— . a cow-dung. sbiadare. blue. ^lys. blad. clod. to grow pale). plants which prepares the seed. ON. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. a Halm a. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. Lat. S-wiss pladern. splashing full. Harmar in R. Ein platsch milch. Ir. — Cot. a water ploutsche. bloi. Sc. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. to squat or lie close. Du. Schmid. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Du. kobladde. See Blow. ])erly Du. Sc. Blad. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . ' — . Plots. spot pletter i solen. soft or flat. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Sw. dial. blois. redness. Blood. blostma. blond. blawels. (of cattle) to dung. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. Blot. Wendish blodo. ^Bleed. a gush of milk . skam. blotting-paper. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Pl. to blaze. to slap. G. a flower. bloeme. ON. Du. blue . a black eye Du. blaeuwen. bliihen. Florio). pale tint. blat. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. from the bright colour which 7'vci. a nature. to strike with such these objects exhibit. the bright colour of the cheeks . spots in the sun. from G. yellowish It's G. blosa. to sparkle. bletister. bluish. Erploten. lidmr. Fris. bloedsd. bit by bit. dirty spot on the cheek. blut. Blossom. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen.blauschlagen. blose. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. couleur livide. Russ. blady. blistaf. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blosem. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. E. a beater. whence plader. j^ blottir. to dirty. Dan. Schwenck. a spot or blot. fall down . livid marks. a The form platschefz. bloutre. to squander. a blot or spot. glasi. probably connected with Pol. a deli. to dash down Du. blue.

to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. and closely allied with Du. is very frequent. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. d in Sc. |8A)'. Du. ler. puff. sound like water. bliithe. to make blue. blue. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. to shine with bright From colours. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. dirty. and thence. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. bluod. — — Mundart. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . a gurgling . to flap like loose clothes. to hard. grow pale. G. — . to exhibit bright colours. a flower. To Blow. jabber. Blowze. to make bubbles in drinking. ^Jam. Bret. ' BLUE or guggling. bliuwan. glowing coal . to blow. 1292. And. gUd. disordered in head-dress. bruised Prov. A. G. blodelsa. gliihen. like manner Lat. vi^ound. Deutsch. cheeks bedabbled with tears. bloes. Jla-re. bloi. blao. fiubbem. to breathe bouteiUis. Lat. meurtrissure Roquefort.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to puff up. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). sponds with Sw. pale. — Bluther. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. to fade.to blossom. P1. blut. plubraich. blady. corre. gloeyen. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. fied vowel. to'disorder. plustrig. blubbern. blazir. — To blubber. blazi. bruk. to blurt out. 1. flower OHG. OHG. OFr.. B. a paddling in wate r. the red fluid of the body . blodern. sense. G. florere. 51. blebber.' Hamburgh Archives. glaodh and blaodh. or gr. in rapid or indistinct utterance. fem. glow. blahen. plubair. gloeden. to blow. fqded.— . Pl. Pl. wan. Wtb. Notwithstanding the We . and the forms mentioned under Swab. bledniai. blue . or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. to spot. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. to blow. We . bloeyen. Langued. blust. The primary sense is to shine. foam.xo'»'. blduen. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blass. Bav. bldt. v. blow. grey. blaw j biavo. a continued noise of agitated water. 92. pale. Deutsch. to glow. bludder. To Blow. pale . 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. to beat. plusig. to glow. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. AS. w. blosen. where the word may be compared bliggman.D. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. It.D. . a. chatter. to Plodern. Prov. OHG. blodyn. in E. wan. glas. bloeden. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. glede. . -ii. Chaucer.nify bubble. — . — To Blubber. to fade. especially with respect to the hair. bluh. blawan. y\r)yi»v. blezir. boasting. flower w. is confined to the — . into flower. . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. grug. a bruise. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. Her sweet bloderit face. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. bloom. pale OFr. to show flower. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blubonciti. little apparent resemblance. may cite for example G. Pludern. Gr. blois.' — Palsgr. gliihen. bluther. a blast. to beat with a mallet. Danneil. red-faced bloted wench. glas. marking some application from that bladder. Kil. blava. Gael. to bruise Roquef. . blubbern. a Blossom. /idXavoc. In agitation of water. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. These are — Bludder. bl. —SchmelIt. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. bloemen. disordered. bliihen. heath. to gabble. withered. glansj Ir. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to with Bohem. E. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. plodern. to fade. The radical sense is shown in Gael. The aUied forms. piusen. The interchange of an initial gl. a fat. Blue. bliihen. E. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. It is howbliuwen. to flourish. closely difference in of blabber. MHG. coup. boil. to inflate. a herb Gr. toused. blau. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. plubartaich. to gush. green. Mund. . .Jlasa. Blowzy. br. to guggle. pludern. G. a blow.D. Sik upplustem. blau. 2.D. to bubble up. to breathe G. Chaucer.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Raynouard. tache. Tumbled. Du.

like Du. G. contrasted with the dle. falb. to puddle. and Du. to work To blunder out a fronto. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. a shore abruptly rising. blunt. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. glundra.make a noise. discoloured {plowiee. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. is. sense of yeUow. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. and bustle . as well as sbiadafe. disturb. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Flor. blunder. blue. dial. bawling. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. to blunder water. Halma. a flounder. bullern. Bodge. Hal. an ill-done job. Dan. in water dobbelen. a blunderbuss. The word is here synonymous with amplus. blunderhead. — — — . to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. superficie plani. OFr. to fall suddenly on the ground. herbe. glundr.• BLUFF biado. blaf.D. liebefactor. and metaphorically. 't — —Hal. blac. or an abrupt manner. from the brilliant green of the young E. sloppy drink. Pl. from an imitation of the sound. blanssen. Blunderer or blunt worker. It is remarkable however that the E. to fade). flav-us. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Biada. flodderen (Weiland). I blonder. Kiittner. See Blunt. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. A bluff manner. like the Celtic glas. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. which is rendered by Florio. Dief. Analogous forms are Du. bUich. Kil. Altieri. polterer. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. non rotunda. a plain coin herausplatzeu. To blunder is then. biavo. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. biada. Ditton in R. je perturbe. blake (identical with AS.. Bladum. to lose colour. blue. speech. bulmanner. to dabble in the mud. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. The Du. Hence we pass to Prov. Roquefort. blue. and sbiadare. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. Romance bluiter. verdure. and biavo (Diez). We Blunder. to become pale or wan. G. to mix it up with water. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Bohem. something. plo-wy. Blavoyer. verdoyer. G. in plur. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. yellowish red.//aay. buller-bas. bluish. pale yellow. blond. applied to green as well as blue. used for the work of an unskilful performer. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . to dabble Biglotton E. to become pale or livid. abrupt. blahir. to agitation of liquids. to plump into the water. segetes virentes. to blunge clay. a fore. bloi. Supp. . pale straw-coloured. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Lat. blunder. bleu et blanc. as well as biado. earth and water mixed together. trahir. It then signifies something done at once. pludder. rustic. fawn-coloured. find accordingly It. mix It. Blunt. — Pr. without image or superscription. And blunders on and staggers every pace. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. has donder-bus. . and then generally idle talk. Pm. Dryden in R. pale. Pol. planus. Bluff. jaune. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. ploffen. tradire to Fr. blavus. all representing the — . fallow. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. polter-hans. Roquefort. Sw.' trouble. poltern. originally growing up turf and water. blave is moreover. mistake. Kil. See Blurt. Then with the nasal. in the same way as from It'. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. pale) is provincially used in the. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. his business with much noise. puddle. biava. Du. devenir vert blavoie. from the Lat. Palsgr. blutter. buller-bak. - reddish yellow. to confound. sbiavare. Du. G. corn. Hence a Slcelton in R. E. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country.— . From G. — . having a bluff forehead. confusion. blandum. Blaffart.in mud or water. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. a boisterous violent man. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. corn. yellow. plomp. The Du. to become pale. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre.

Du. dull. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. bluntschen. united in Gael. to plump down. bare. used in both senses. pale. as Sw. biosso. plump. good plump person. of a knife which not cut. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. blout. nature. pressions. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. obtusus. Bluntet. plump. plump. void.— — — . without Maolaich. dull. to blurt. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. The syllables blot. that the sense of bare. — Kil. or blab out a thing Kiittner . the absence of sharpness. it will be observed. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. raw. Sc. .—D. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. from the loud report a fire-arm. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Won by degrees. blutten. poor Sc. a portion To inquire for slaves. A light blue colour. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. duU. blunt. inaKil.to fall into the water. awkward. Blaitie-bum. blait. forestis. through which a man is so blont. A modification of the same root. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. heavy. Sc. — — pidus. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. V. ineffectual reason. rude. insensible. or heraus plumpen. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. is thrown. G. bare. silly. blunt. clownish. bleak. to make a noise of such a Stalder. platz-regen. fling down . Probably radically hlekit. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. plumbeus. bald. but of something soft thrown on the ground. like a thing thrown down with a noise. heavy. Molof something wet. to blunt a thing out. Stalder. plotz. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. naked. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. naked. blue. awkwardly. blunder. and in the same sense. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. Plontp. to plump into the water. Ford in R. unpolished. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Sir T. More in Richardson. plutz T)\i. Q. blait. hebes. azure. Bare and blunt. The blait body. It. sheepish. seems to be derived. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. maol. Chaucer. Then cometh indevotion.pludse. without horns. ang. Kiittner. F. to bring it suddenly out. figuratively. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. clumsy. . V. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . rudely. unwrought. to make foliage. Halma. nis. to handle a thing bluntly. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. blunt. plonsen. plump J to plump out with it. naked. edgeless. Swab. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Plump. in Richardson. a simpleton. viz. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. viz. plotsen. and an unintelligent. bloss. fooUsh. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. and hath swiche languor in his soul. a thick and will person. without the nasal. mit etwas heraus-platzen. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. platzen. blotta sanningen. as cow-dung. is The word dull. Now the Swiss bluntsch. a bluntie. Pol. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. that it not easy to discover the connection. biotto. bus. blott. blockish. unfledged Sw. —D. obtusus. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. — blunt. heavy. Blunt. inactive Swiss bluntschi. stupid fellow. massive. down. Dan. —D. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. wan. and the like. V. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. homo stolidus. bare or blunt. absence of preparation. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. and. G. exactly corresponding to the G. blat. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Woddis. Sw. naked. Plump mit etwas umgehen.plompen. plains The large bech. It is from this notion of suddenness. Kiittner. plump. blunsch. blatte. It will be seen that the G. blunt. pointless. with or without the nasal. a blot. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. unceremonious manner. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Dan. dial. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. identical with E. thick. it will be well to point out a sense. rough. without preparation. as in E.

Bot zeggen. . With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. botte. G. a flurt with one's fingers. See Boisterous. Du. berd. a grows to a great bigness. blirt of greeting. blunt. Pl.—Bobbin. crack made by bursting open. bluter. batello. a tassel. Lat. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. As the as. to puff. De Boat. whence bob. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. gabble Sw. to blur. — To Bob. Wallace. to dirty. a blot. bateau. Kil. to guggle. ader. c. bord. my dear. blurra. voce intonare. blaere. it implies that it is empty sound. lacerta. To Blurt. ground. BLUR Boar. To splirt. skin. outward edge. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to make mouths. gabble. &c. sudden. on. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. A large snake. acre. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. eafor. to make a noise with the mouth. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. chicchere. to endeavour to terrify. bludder.— . this root are formed Sc. pluddre. ever-swin. or bog also thread. Wtb. margin. 29. To tinct. beacon fire. It. bliise. a mist before the eyes plerren. an edge. and swimmeth very well. swagger. It. a tassel. a. See Blossom. mire. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Halma. to crying. be a crack or loud sound. or blurt with one's mouth. blubber. to smear. planks raised up outside the roofs. to blaze. planks or boards.D. boord. BOB 79 — To Blur. aper. to puff. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. puddle. To move quickly up and down. as in Du. table. Supp. Du. pof. blot. bdtr. a club foot . bit. to roar. baiag. burra. Hal. cocodrUlus. to puff. AS. primarily signify loud noise. to spurt out. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. board. lindwurm. Schmeller. Fr. violent G. Sverris Saga. strong. pludern. a mistiness. and the latch . or backwards and forwards. pausten. to sound like water boiling. To blow in puffs. P. Swiss blodern. i. baban. to blore. 'Ba. to glow . Comp. table. Gael. to blubber. beer. a small lump. Du. pfludern. bord. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. blader. Boa. both used in the sense of boasting. and boisterous. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. To brag and to crack. fringe. — From mouth. to talk quick and indistinctly . Board. bobbin. flat. boccheggiare. 156. to bark. blaustem. bot. is formed Du. AS. of the word seems . 1.pusten. E. Gael. to blush. as splurt to splutter. dull. a Jam. margin. and E. It. to dabble. Sc. coarse. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Du. a torch blusse. bora. plump.y. blodern. blaffen and baffen. Wright's ed. Fl. to threaten. e. bdta. an end or stump. boistous. puffen. Blush. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. — a blaze. dial. AS. Fl.' — Red Riding-hood. a board or plank. ON. to disfigure with E. G. the Brem. Bluster. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. to brag grande loqui. stellio. to breke. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. a smear. Related to blutter. bobine. imitated by has also In like . blur. a burst of tears. a short thick body. blasen and See Burr. blotch and botch. bustuous. Boa. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Du. borrar. to dangle. cluster. to chatter. and Du. Hal. — — — * Boast. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. to render indisbhir. Bav. bladdra. brett. and when applied to vaunting language. OE. boot. to be out of temper. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. cheeks glow. G. bhis. E. a bladder . blast. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. w. margin. . to snuff. geplerr. blaste?i. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to rumble. border. bur. short pieces of any filthy mud. to say bluntly. bot-voet. whence bordvidr. large. edge. properly noisy. The to radical meaning D. 274. rude. blose. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bausen. to bounce. bakke bleustern. a baU of thread the mud. . . Dan. to make a noise in boiling. to jabber. 9396. rude. blarra. Explained by Jam.plodem. violent. a blow . . will fly up. splurt and spirt. dial. literally edge-wood.the syllable bot. bluther. a border. — — . The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. — ' Dief. to blow. a dangling object. eber. common. blosken. Du. bdd.plerr. bar. a blotch. then applied to indistinct vision . pustern. Boost is used for the boast. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. boa. blusse i ansigtet. edge. to blurt out. bord. bludder. bleuster. to give a crack. Sc. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. Pull the bobbin.v. hot. blot. the sound of a blow poffen. Fr. Du. V. Slur. an ear of corn. stupid.

corset. Schmel. biodeachan. whence paUchen. See Baber-lipped. Gael. . To make bad work. to start start and back as from a bugbear. a round body both. . as in stammering or staggering. swelling. bogadh. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. move. '£. barrique. To Bodge. . Body. gog.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun.' A — Sherwood's Diet. corset from corps. to thrust. Lith. badyti. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. VI. body of a shirt bol. potacha. boftich. To portend good or bad. shaking . shake. exhibit another modification of the root. Gael. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame.. gagei. bog. bodi. thrust with something pointed. Ptg. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bodig. anything protuberant. bodilo. The Sp. bottich are derivatives. bog. busti. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. . stutter gogmire.\\i\c\iset. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. and the word is well explained by Bailey. the body of a shift gaguejar. BOGGLE trunk and G. potig. the trunk of the animal body. a ghost . gogach. formerly bodies. — as well as the body of an animal. the belly. barriga.a (i\ia. bottig. to stick. — H. e. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. gebod. and E. where bogs form Gael. bodak. toss. AS.' Bogglie. baboyer. pall. Bodice. biodag. a messenger . Crist. by the syllable patsch. quakmg. ^Jam. to bob. stuttering. calf of the leg. quagmire). thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. Ptg. a prickle. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. belly. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. so large a feature in the country. anything soft. of which the E. strike with the horns. to blurt a thing out. Thy i. to waver. . an announcement. corpset. bogan. to fail. To Bode. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. to fail. Banff. bayonet. the stem of a tree . bogle. bodnu. 3. or stem of a tree. unsteady. AS. bodat. — Grandg. bogadaich. needle. to stir. a quagsoft. stitch. bayonet . . With With this we charged again We bodged again. to smack. to make a mow at. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . Bohem. unsteady. arise E. bolr. to be unsteady tich. French bouter. bodene. to stammer. meaning the round part of his body. to bodge. Gael. whence Fr. or a pair of bodies. a cask. moist mire. goggle. to butt. butt. round. potacha. then from the yielding. Bodkin. bob. Ir. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. to deliver a message. a command. as a horn. point. palleg. boll. In like manner E. .! . See To Botch. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. nodding.rabodi. It introduced from Ireland. bodian. Lap. gago. daubed or dabbled with blood. wavering. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. a prick. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. stumpy. nave of a wheel. to make. to roll. Gl. body and G. to be uncertain what to do. an awl. potahha. Reliq Antiq. dies. bod. rounded. the body. bod. gag. bo tich. And waves. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. bodetz. Cot. We . Supp.gmh:t. to commit a blunder. Wall. expression hogglin an bogglin. woman's stays. bagges. . bodi. a spur. a body. moving backwards and forwards. to prick. bodhag. from fitting close to the body. as signifying anything spherical or round. * To Boggle. a sting . to blabber with the lips faire la babou. the boss of a buckler. a . Now unskilful action is conmire. is identical with Fr.hollow. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. a puddle. is a lump. to scruple. So BOB To Bob. The signification of the root bot. Commonly explained as if from Sc. a dagger. bog (equivalent to E. To mock. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. waving. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bodies. bot. message boda. patsche. precept. fickle . See Bid. . or bag. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Bret. mud. Russ. cask bottich. speak of the barrel of a horse. to dabble or paddle. agitate. Shakespear has badged with blood. to push with the horns. W. — 2. gog in gog-mire. Bog. gagoula. a cask. 43. ON. bogach. the thick part of anything. a bog or morass. bothog. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. Miracle-plays. corpses pot. bole.

a bubble. wag. as E. to boil. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. to the belly as the or dislike. Lap. hakogni. * Boisterous. bulla. to stumble. and then applied to other husks. confident. bald. as. . tomentum. the gurgling sound of water rush. furfures. notes. bagaji.' Mrs Baker. bold. brave. to puff. a swelling in ice. . balder. boil . a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. belc'hj. ballr. tar. * Bolster. rough. Cot. tartle. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. E. bhster. tulum. A. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Du. buller. swelling. ON. To Bolter. bouil. fiausten. The bob. animal as distinguished from the limbs. as those of nuts. strong. bolzBold. Sw. ^Boistous. insolent baude. strong. G. bol. whence bulla. may be identified with It. G. chatter. shake. bog. caput scapulse. In the same way Sc. treated under Bowl. boystousnesse. bol. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. perpendicular. polc'h. Stalder. The round stem of a tree. a bakazikni. a boil or swelling Du. bulla. stameln vel bochken. folliculus grani. . Bret. bolc'h. bul. Boil. G. warlike. swelling. the body . ON. Kit. a fastening for a door. is probably a modification of boll. stutSw. bald. Pr. a bubble. intrepid. used. bout is explained by Kil. bula. or the like. Boystous. — ' — tagliare. impetuosity. sels of flax. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up.Du. boutpijl. bal. see Boast. pimple ON. prince. to swell. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. Bole. bSlstr. cows the people from speaking. This iv. bolt. Lat. cheerful. capitellum. glass phial. boly. to be prominent. to tattle. Kil. which are not used for a similar purpose. bolla. ^Vocab. Da. in speaking. bald. bochken (titubare. scruple. ohg. poppy (Bailey). coarse. as. pustule. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. courageous. trunk of a tree . (of Mons) b^guer. — — which the cushion is stuffed. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. noise. i.palleg. by which it is moved to and fro. boggle. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. merry. bold. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. gerade signifies straight to the mark. boss. See Bulk. from the branches. to hesitate from doubt. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . haughty. tartajear. 374. strong. Swab. repagulum. b^gayer. then violent. To Boil. obex. tartalear. also a blister. bag or bog are derived Piedm. Bustuous. V. balldr. boll. bola. bolr. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw.. hollow. — 6 . as baltha. roydeur.— D. OG. a quaking mire. Mund. Du. but that Bolt. bold. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. to be at a loss a shirt. bullire. stud. bolster. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bola. Wall. bok. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . to stagger. Du. excellent. dint in a metal vessel. Sc. chaff of corn siliqua. bolzen. OHG. bol. stramenta. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. bulr. flax-boU. Fr. pusten. bul. Chaucer. 45. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). Gael. 304). Boll. biiilen. to give a hoUow sound. bout. w. Love. Pm.rounded part of the body. beule. It. a head . in the sense of handsome . to stammer. . The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. bolt upright. and manace for to de. 1430 in Deutsch. from Du. buile. Sp. huge. E. to stammer. Westerwald bollern. styffe or rude . the. Lat. blow. a bubble. capiing into a cavity. a bump. ON. quick. Fr. G. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. The term applies in — — impressed . If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. properly represent belly. Me doth awate. courageous. bolstar. to waver or hesitate. globular bod)'. puilen. Goth. Du. Fr. bollen (Kil. bog. bealder. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. ON. puile. Daring. hero. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. the body of a man or of ter. up of bubbles.).— — . the lir. Properly noisy. Test. baud. bolster. bolleken. proud. Magy. pall. round the first instance to the materials with . He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. a cushion.D. pillow. he will speak out. the husk of nuts. free.w. Chaucer seems Dan. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. gluma. bolle.

Brem. bolt. have Lat. a clod cloth. Bav. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. by the representation of a racketing sound. tuft. to coagulate.).agitation of the meal in the bolter. vessel with narrow opening.through a cloth of loose texture. buletel. Lang. bortelen. to bolt flour burato. as above explained. staff which sounds tar. 2. on the one hand. lumpy. crash. hammer. jolting. from G. to make a knocking. to shake. a clap of thunnences. brattle. ' Holler poller / bulter. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. cro. projections. die treppe pressed. Here the radical image is the violent O. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. boss. Dan. buUire. Dauphiny a sudden movement. holier poller. sestuare.D. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. bullern. a clump of turf. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. protuberance. representing a rat.D. a rattling carriage. tantara. a round glass ending — bultig. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. kloteren. . to become lumpy. taratantarum. small heap. btilt. bulstrig. hulch. Du.noise {brattle of thunner. as of a trumpet. . the wheels groaned. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. as Fr. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. So also we pass from Lat. barutela. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. The ment and the operation. we der Brocket). to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. buretter{CQ\. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. . Hence Palsgr. The ulti. Schiitze. fied bot. Sanders. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. a clod. . poltern. Pl. to agitate. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief.by forms like G. a bunch. a . budeln daz mele . baruta. buideln. OFr. tar. a crashing or racketing noise. crotlar. barutare. And as the agitation of cream in . to come rattling downstairs. and the Thus from So. also to curdle. G. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. Du. and to crash. agitari (Kil. je bulte. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. bolting to that of form. as snow balling on a horse's foot. zare. swelling. burclct. uneven. a sod (Schiitze). bultred. bultig. Bulte-pook or bulstar. hole. . bolzaugen.. to clack. hulter de bulter. cruddle.). indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. bulio. a bolter or implement for bolting. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. It. a club-foot. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. as a rabbit from its baritel. with E. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. bulk or quantity . pattern. gebolder. knob. pull. beluter. we see that the one consists of a words. we have Du. bulk. the sense of right on end. to knock. racket gepolter. bluter. poltern. the name of bolter mixed flour and water.D. . curdle. taratarrum. to form lumps. to start with palpitate. rugged. Fr. hammer.protuberance.nature of the operation. OFr. to significance of the term was overlooked. tumultuari. ex•wagen. to bolter. loud and fast. ler. Mid. a bolter Prov. or the like. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter.) E. taraabout. we pass to Du.thump or blow. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. . ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. On this account Mid. tling or crashing noise. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. buletare. Pm. Supp.On the same principle. . OFr. barutela. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. to start out. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to talk pulzen.— . clump.. ' — — ! ! : — . bolt-foot. : ' — — . Sw. bolzen. to E. then to knock. bulla. to bolt meal barutel. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. a millpoltzet augen. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. uneven.u.as the essential element signifying the talum. In the next place. Lat. poll. Pl. bolt head is a retort. Prov. Wtb. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. a small portion. beliitea. or a racer from the course. a rattle.Lat. or ill. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. / is transposed in Fr.fe/2?. to bolt meal barutel.D. in S'W plotter. Pr. hump.clack. — — — . abolter. rugged. pultare. Hence. one after the other. I boulte meale in a boulter. Champagne burtcau. blotttre. projecting eyes pul. crod. P1. grasbulten. bolzauget) Sp. mole-hill. zen. croler. to spring forth E. MHG. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface.i5a//^«. a rattling noise and a jolting motion.

In legal language. When ture. thick-legged. bombicina.bast. baum-bast. Du. a thundering noise bomre. assuming the of leg : special signification W. and called in Mid. to boult meal. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. Butterglas. silk-worm. a —Bombasine. bombasine. G. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. bwmbwry mar. . bombe. must be explained Fr. q. a drum bombammen. bonds. butteln. Antiq. beuteln. from boom. from teu. i. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. It. is supported by the analogy of G. barate. gunpowder. a string. It. bambagioj whence It. Gascoi^e in R. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. bombast. Du. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bone of the . bongam. Bibelesworth in Nat. booming over the water.Su?. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. a beacon. Dan. iuttern. beil'n. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. ^o/j. builen. bopin. bond. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. basin. It. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. a ligature.) . bonog.D. sijde. Dan. Near 6 * . to cast to and fro. to shake. bambagino. a stock. rimbombare. baun. band. silk. tie. to which the leg. . banitola (Fl. again. . produced the Pl. Bomb. Kil. to bind G. buidelen. bombice. Bone. ODu. thick from shaking. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. band.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . sije. Castrais barato. butteln. Banstead. as Banbury. derivation. bombase. sericum arboreum. and also the leg. G.). whence bomme. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. bambacium. bommer. term is appropriated in G. bombdra. OE. bras. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. a churn for butter. borel. a boulter of meal. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bon. as in . — AS. tiffany. biire. buidelen. bunden. raw silk. cotton.Lat. cotton stuff. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Schm. achsel bein. bwmbwr. the silk-worm. Mid. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. . any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. 83 Gr. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. or trunk word in W. — having a stem or stalk. been. d. e. PoUitriduare. to bolt meal. thick. to ring bells. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. to shake (as to shake the head. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. to thump W. As cotton was used for padding clothes. bomba. sye. It. to thunder. has repeatedly varied. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. we speak of a gun to resound. Fr. crook-shanked bondew. agreement. a hollow sound. tie. bolting-cloth. buttel trueb (of liquids). bande. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. to resound. E. also thick-shanked. . a stem or base. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. &c. bauniwolle. and Mod. gossipium. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Fr. tree. . Du. The material called by this name. bommen. bombarda. lana lignea. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bulter from It. HoUybandin R. band pi. beuteln. to shake down fruit from a tree. coarse. a bone in general. an implement of binding. a word of which we have traces in several English names. It. bureau. G. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. ties. a baker. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. the leg.^Altieri. boulenger. and in fact we find the and Du. bonfras. however. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. brust-bein. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. — Bombard. 155. From builen. . bein. bureau. the Fr. Bonfire. the shank the shoulder-bone. It. the contracted form of Du. stuff. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. to beat a drum. the murmuring of the sea. burato. and Du. stump. Fl. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bombasin. and Bond. Moreover. In E. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Need you any ink and bonibase. breast-bone. and that from Fr. — bombast came guage. bindan.

— From the participle present. b&ber. Trans. Hal. Basa. dress. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. a vessel for holding liquids. foolish. — . buandi. bas. one who dwells nigh. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. head-dress wai^g. petition. pero. dress. however. bote. dial. the stubble of beans. Build. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. dog-kennel. short boots. relief from sorrow. Sp. ass. to yawn. signifying beech. writing bokos. from beida (E. Schm. Perhaps. * Boose. a bonfire. to gape.. bua. bolt. a silly fellow. wondering signifies not only straw. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Boot. in Phil. bauen. N. bAkva. pole. . badaud. the possessor of the farm. 13. of wonder On the same principle Sp. to set in order. Bonnet. 232. See Butt. gaping hoyden — Cot. p. quest. Gl. bose. babin. the cultivator. bonad. boa. w. countryman. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. till. bobo ! interj.n. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. boandi. help. set in order. Kil. G. reparation. and thence Rouchi baia. AS. a dry stalk. boer.^ —P. which one gaping and staring about. Jr. house. betere thing werse. Du. build. Mrs Baker. boutig. See Bomb. by itself for head-dress. boo. It. succour Bailey. as a lying-place for cattle. gawney. clown. petition. babb^o. boten-shoen. remnants of hay or straw. Boor. inhabit. comes bondi. Hal. and from AS. and fig. tigh.Boos. simpleton. litter. by arbitours sholde bote the P. Swab. See Bown. — To boot. Pm. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. gehyred. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. AS. hu?idbusa. But bosg. Wall. beiSne. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. The latter is the original AS. at everything. Bonnefyre. botte. Thus from the syllable ba. nachbar. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field.—Bootless. bene. ganian. Fr. a bag of skin or leather. build. Du. Gael. the first consonant of the alphabet. master of the house. a head-dress. Boom. from Du. chaff. Palsgr. desire. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . bdn. to cultivate. tall. biikui. botte. . Goth. but stall. — — . or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. a. Bun. Hufwud-bonad. . ON. Mrs Baker explains bun. bobo. Du. bosig. letter. the alphabet. the name of the letter b. bua. baier. ON. dial. as the Brecknockshire Banns. a good turn or re- meaning. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. to prepare. boutig. tapestry. From bo. OSlav. E. G. to strew with straw. in w. to cultivate. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. from badare. bota. boia. literally cow-house. . . or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. The origin of the word is probably the W. G. also called Brecknock Beacons. are formed Fr. pig-sty. a letter . prayer. . is Du. Bootless. a lofty blaze. Boot of bale. a scribe G. bos. often cut for burning and lighting fires.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. OW. Fr. boom. a letter Russ. feu de behourdis. To Boot. — Bailey. The i. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. busu. stabulum. — e. Book. Kil. bds. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. or Vanns. remedy of evil. Prov. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. the scriptures bokareis. b^er. to gape. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. bonad. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. bid). and Gael. swinbusa. where a cross (or a gun. Binau Brychyniog. A peasant. high. Fr. . inhabit. whence ban-ffagl. till. b'ukvdry. bonnet. bommen. a tree. Fr. . ON. dolt. gaby. It is commonly explained as identical with It. Ox. boubi^. a lying-place for dogs or swine. a stall. The character of folly is i860. wall hangings. bosih. Busk. Thin ben Luke i. babau. ben. a hollow skin. Booby. to ask. botta. Pr. booby. Boon. bonaid. bowwen. been. without ad- . blockhead. . fool. E. bossen. In nautical language. to dress. to aid. A favour. bauer. \ais-band. although in the OG. A stall for cattle. to litter bosu. from gape. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. lofty. beam. boubair. buch-stab. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. . ON. bd. ty Gael. a. netis stall. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. and Ban in w. the mouth. a simpleton. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. prayer.

Gael. ON. boede. the . a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. nor E. boeten het vier. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. borracha. to importune. purra. bolino. The as G. borino. Sp. • — To Bore. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. . a shop budowati. hut. bottino. pu purro (saha =: saw . Burke in R. purro. See Bower. both. struere ignem. byte points to the verb byta. Booth. in Ihre. dust. fire. swell bara. to expiate boeten den dorst. or anything pointed. a word.. . a booth or shed. make . ON. from borra. to quench one's thirst . cellar. budowai. Fin. from bord. It is admitted that Fr. extremitas Bore. or the gradual working a hole in anything. sharp. admovere titiones. better. Du. drillen. and thence to eat build. bauen. to bite. a. OHG. purra. a sharp-pointed tooth. To Bore. in Lap. . &c. baara. . a wave. uzboro. hem or gard of a garment. to surge. scalpo. a shop. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. OSw. a shed. remedy. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Bohem. amendment. . sculpo 05\xiik. puru. bud. recovery bata. are derived from G. bardure. Fin. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a borer . kvit-bara. puras. bdra. baete. 3. to . Another derivation from Fin. — ON. puras. chewed food for infants. to stick unto as a bur. ora. AS. bothag. boards. Gael. piercer. to pierce. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. bohren. sawroot. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. cottage. Alexand. bordi. limbus. exchange or divide. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Palsgr. to mend. A phorically a drunkard. a great bur. And so in ON. Booty. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. scsdes-bod. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). to build buda. Esthon. rof. a tusk. to foam. dens mordens vel caninus. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. Compare Manx birrag. batr. Kil. mat-bod. bord. lappalare. bora. are parret. Fr. a leather bag or bottle for wine.. The ON. . butin is explained by Flor. a bladder. to The Sw. wave. Pol. terebra sculptoria purastoa. Fin. to hut. a cupboard. to restore. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. comminuted by either kind of action. puru. See To We speak in E. bothan. making good again . and hence to fine. . terebro. and parrets. . Border. It. which are probably from the same root. boete. botjan. a border. a responding forms . leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. to bore. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. a borer. a borer. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. to to . to boot. G. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. wine-skin. BOOTH vantage. welt. p. yfirbdt. urboro. to patch. differs only in termination. The cor. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to swell. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bata. to repair. to profit.par. betan fyr. and meta- Fr. The Fin. Fr. Esthon. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. to divide. ON. BoracMo. bite. to bite. repair. Magy. a granary . reparation. edge. Gael. cure Sw. is purin. bower. of an edge that will not bite. a shelter of branches. beute. a hut or tent. to anything Neither G. 266. to bete the properly to mend the fire. amendment boeten. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. In the Fin.por. bdt. chisel. a hut. to build. an engraver's chisel. Bete. Lat. furni. tent. borracha. fimbria. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument.— Return from Parnassus I inR. as afford a satisfactory explanation. butin. bauda. abode. budka. forare. from deila and skipta. on. It. pi. furd. N. to profit Goth. burin. biorag.—Burin. 1. lappolone. and E. See Burgeon. But probably the E. limbus. Fl.. cup- awl. boeye. aid. pointed. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a bothy. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. a chisel. . Mag. barn. margin. Du. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce.

a city . borh. boussi. to strike so as to Bureau. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. a surety. baurgs. Altieri. secure. or head-borough. botch.' if thou give money on loan. pitch. Hal.any round sweUing. . I. when that system was forgotten. (1867). that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. to save. borei. or perhaps it may be See Bury. into borsholder. . The other. It. a boss. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. knock and a knob . in contradistinction to the more polished knock. pego. D. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. a. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. a citizen. Sc.. a giving rise to It. huschen. boss. AS. vain. bosse. to protect. gesylle. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. hollow. connected. See found in Bav. empty. burgess. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w.' the chief of the ' borh. botsen. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. to contain. borg.bucklers. to save Sw. beorgan. bail biirgen. that which biirge. ' — — . to knock or strike. or because a blow berga. whether from the fact preserve G. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . Fr. Russ. viipyoc. bundle. Fr. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. bussa coarse. It. a herb. head. destitute. borel.' or system of bail. the North Wind. striking. undyed wool of brown sheep. busse. Jam. a boor. boss sound. an eminence. a citizen. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. byrig. without. clownish. boss of the side. borgo. &c. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. boss or knob of a buckler . A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. the sun sets. is used in the sense of bussare. to take in. loan. a pushing or striking out. the Sc.vr\. Du. bussi. whence the burg. Cot. the N. storm. borough or chief constable. to give bail or answer for an. pegou. to strike . surety. Bailey. ^o^^flj. tuft. bos. Turk.' Vegetius in Diez. Bos a surety. agrees with E. rustic. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. In like manner It. ON. and thus could not shake off the old burr. plain rude fellow. as if from the verb to hold. basse. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. knocking. cnap. nonsense.mass. — ' wind burya. And that unsittynge is to here degre. botch. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Hence knot. Bunch. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. Du. northern. Gr. to conceal. projection. from their grey clothing. tempest. to protect. bourg. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Borowholder. G. ^ma. borg. bump. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. /3oraMK6f. while Gael. a wen. in instead of without. cob. So Du. E. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. The primi. Goth. or perhaps also To Borrow. primarily signifying coarse sound . empty. bierge. bergen. Jam. to pick or cull plants. of bail throughout the country. is probably radically Boss. Lang. i. Botany. borgese. hollow bucklers. bos. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Newbury. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. the hollow between the Borsholder. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. which now signifies a knob. boschen. Boreal. (Bridel). borealis. as we speak of a thumping potato. Borrow. knur. bossen.' every man be under bail. Borough. bosseu. poor. to give a hollow bizo. f graauw. Hence borhes ealdor. Swiss Rom. borough-holder. the must have arisen burgensis. gum vocant. — — — A — . by which of or belonging to plants. less. burel.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. AS. a knob. formerly used in the sense of knocking. one who sticks to you like a bore. bom. grey). a bunch or hump. in the body struck. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. The origin seems to be the Goth. rude. and borough in the sense of a town. was origin of the term is the OFr. from AS. botse. Lat. a little blow. bttssel. Fr. boss. cormpted.ribs and the side. bosh. a blow. to keep. empty. AS. beorgan. bump is used in lump or piece. . tive idea seems to bring under cover. bunch. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. burh. knob. unpolished. useCanterbury. brown cloth. to save. a tower. ' pledge. poor. butsen. coarse cloth made of the Du. 106. plant. butse. cnoc. cnag signifies both a clergy. a bouncing baby . V. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Bosh. blow on a hollow object. . bourgeois. the ordinary a swelling.

Stalder. the bud of a flower . blister. podge. pozzanghera. a boil or swelling Halma. Botcli. to give a sounding blow. to fall : with a sound batsch. ON. — — . AS. Danneil. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. botse. It. a wisp. is also a bubble. . botte. a lump of somebatschen. bdsser. Fr. an imperfect and bunbutt end. whisper. Bouteille. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. gling piece of work. to make a make a noise. . . and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. however. Mudu. fundus. H^cart. boss. to froth as beer . bide. shoes. botte. to mend (kettles. Judwi. Hal. signify a in OE. abbution. bot. botel. G. ' G. stem or base. what pushes outwards. boitean. a botcher of shoes. A horses. Jtidu. abbi. Wedu. boden . It. to stir and mix together. ixorapudder. the other hand. thing soft batsch. bulderen. schuhbosser. a cobbler. On the other hand. any round ball or bowl to play withal. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. potra. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. a tinker schuhbiisser. botn. See Butt. you two. pozzo. bAdtr. a pit. bozza. a knock. — — belly-worm. dabble). Du. a. ba. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. the lowest part. beggtaj Goth. buts. bile. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. Du. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. dial. to mend. bulder. a pock. Canut. mess. baiothsj Sanscr. a bunch. by met. BOTCH understood). ambo. bosser. abbi-diwij Slavon. from the dashing of water. ledge It. mess. boil. bluster.ments of the same root. See To Bodge. butwo. To Botch. botel foenn.D. &c. Fr. a humpback. Fyre to botme. bunch. disturbance to . a bottle. we two. AS. OSax. pother. bativa. to dash about . Kil. a bottle of hay. It. ing out. bodem. both. botch. blow. To confuse with noise. Diez. N. we have Swiss batscken. patch. the science or knowledge of plants. btitse. to dip in liquid (to Gael. nets. A — oba-dwaj Lat. bozza. — Dief. gipuozan. bun. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. to simmer. Butu. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Both. — . in the sense of mend the fire. 212. Again. to stir and mix together . tumour. bund. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bottigUa. Bottle. a slop. ON. Prov. AS. biissen. From the dim. — . i. for a bud. round lump. Bret. Pl. mutter. as Fr. Dan. to put on a patch. ^kvBoQ. . empty or hollow. maggots in barley. House-bote. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. fire-bote. abbu.foundation. — Bottom. oba. a bubble. ON. • Bott. a waterfall. Decorde.) . The Gr. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. botm. On — Du. corresponding to . a bott . to smack. — Jidwi. mend. * To Bother. Bailey. e. botola. Bouds. bundle. an abyss or bottoniless pit. to strike . abyss. w. stump. turmoil. or plague sore . See Bound. pocciar. to bcBta. j3i/9os. Bochu. disturbance.— Swift in R. repara- — — See To Bete. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Here the radical image seems a bubble. as a push or windgaU. butse. any plain round viol glass bozzo. scuohbuzere. to from the root bot. burgi vel pontis refectionem. botus. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. stroke. a plague-boil Kil. butsen. . bossu. is boteau. a root. Gael. bots. &c. botte. a pit. — duj Lett. Fl. the first rough draught 2. E. a cess. they two. See Boss. contusion . buideal.of a ball of thread. especially in Gael. buddeln. noise.' to the fiery Csedm. . bethia. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a slop. bdt. a patch patschen. a bump or swelling. hurly-burly. a cask. poltern.— Hal. — — A 2. boiteal. Lith. a bundle of straw or hay. Hal. Leg. I. Podge. Lith. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. stock.^Dec. Parmesan poccia. a vessel for holding liquids. a depth. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. to podge. to knock. to work without order or know.— . noise. — Fl. gen. kessel-biisser. boute. bouteille. . Boa two. blain. was called a push. and ajSvamg. of botta. buazen. ubhau. whence the name ol pool to podge. botsen. bSn. knock. a maggot. batschen. buddl. a cesspool pass. puddle. Lat. a bottle. to rage. to make better. Gael. And so we speak of an eruption. stock. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. to botch or patch. Fl. dim. bottom. to we have OHG. Ancren Riwle. A bottom depth. and E. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . boccia. pimple. boiteag. putra. G.

Q. bunsen. p. Bough-pot. to fix limits. jungen. — No i ausiratz parlar. the bay of Benin. Bonny. bamsen. Dan. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Bout. Nor a centinel whistle. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. 3. from AS. Raynouard. So It. Fr. a round body both. bonndn. as that of E. ni frestelar. ing.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. Halma. a blow. bumper. Bough. — — leap. Coxcomb.— Cot. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. to knock at the door. he fell so that it sounded. Primarily to strike. bondir. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. contusi. strapping. mcn-bomi. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. and Prov. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. to hum. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Bret. bugt. Webster. . boh. — Take care my house be handsome. a large stone rounded by the action of water. Pm. to turn. boujtce. iv. a bud. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant.' B. botwm. E. a boundary stone (men stone). Ducange. in contrast to klappersten. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. its kind. to resound. and F. — — Bight.'— Charter of K. bouton. as a nosegay. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . tnndo. the smaller ones. Mid. bons. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. To Bound. to set bounds. butina. a button. Fr. Ni gacha cor bondir. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. . See Bunch. Boulderstone. or Bow-pot. To Bounce. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. to set out by metes and bounds. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. . The W. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bounbounejha. Bound. boundina. the larger kind of pebbles. to bow. Probably from the Celtic root bon. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. dial. an de dor bunsen. a boss. gulf. bend. boss of a buckler. Bought. Sw. The Bight of Benin. Pr. bone. nave of a wheel bothel. came home with his face all to-bounced. whence buj7isen. march. language a * Boulder. I assure you. dial. a stock. to thunder. see Boss. limit. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. bodina. to spring. to make a loud noise. as a bout of fair or foul weather. bonna. thumping. Fr.. turn. knock it sounds again. root (see Bottom). Du. signifies a sliort thick mass. has hot. of thread. by Bujns or Buns. boriie. Brem.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. bay. a bound. a bouncing apple. bunda. debodinare. a turn or time. nor horn sound.— — — - 88 BOUGH . carpet. pothel." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. bun. Alpine Re- — gions. a blister. from volgere. baby. See To Bolt. to thundering big one hum. suorum recognoverunt agrorum.>a bout. bog. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. round. bend. A Langued. to spring. from bugan. bolder. And the new stools set out. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. bonzen. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. 2. pimple Richards bothog. signifying in nautical coil of rope.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. till The dat et bunsede. 136. geration. From Sw. an occasion.D.— F. the verb bondir in OFr. the hollow of a bay. mere. Bodinare. jump. To Boult. buUersten. volta. in the absence of actual e. — strike. bugan. winding. like bobbin. a large pebble. Bowlder. bullra. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.' round and round in similar circles. AS. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. Bunche. to knock. The branch of a tree. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. bottom. ni motz brugir. Wtb.— Boundary.

hence musical accompaniment. ready to pike or spear . to hum as a bee. biegen. G. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. address. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. spring. their time -With "wailful tunes. ridicule buirte. repartee. the shoulder of the vessel. to bow or incline the . Dan. potio. sport. a from Du. lance. prepared for. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. also the humming or ON. It is the participle past buinn. to bulge. schenkelbug. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. i. to mutter. Immediately from Fr. that ON.. Eown. to take breath. . spelling the word iox bound. bonitas. A water. bend Sw. set out. ready. bogha. crutch. to drink deep. bog. firm. to trick. patesten. analogous to Fr. — probably through this latter signification. pared. to swell. Spenser in R. cudgel. to — Hal. a cup kroesen. buga. buizen. drunken. deceit. Gael. Gael. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. and that probably from a Celtic root. is. a — — . bunaiteach. bourdon. Bow. Du. Sc. to draw a deep breath. . Du. ing. Burgeon. bending. Bourd. a sing-song. purlBav. a go to. and not in the sense of curvature in general. flagon. A —Cot. sotich. bourdon. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. pot. brausen. the fixed. a jibe. Dan. beygja. schulter-bug. Sp. . bow to shoot with. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. joke. to tipple. Bret. Prov. drone of a bagpipe. bourde in the same sense. language of folly or ridicule. Bounty. AS. hous^ Man in the Moon. mockery. It is remarkable that we find vary. So Sc. grumble Sw. — — — A pare. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. g. bordone. pausen. cheat. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. — — . to pre2. Gael. springbiirn. bagna. addressed to. to draw a deep breath. shoulder-blade. an arch. Chaucer in R. Goth. to tope. bug. burdan. bugna. buzz. Bourdon. a drone of a bagpipe. burreti. bugan. souf. brummen. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. or of an Gael. Du. when we speak of. the ting of a bell. burn. a mill-post. to take deep draughts. buyse. bourd. to banter or laugh at. the burden of a song. to take one in. are applied to the bow of a ship. epaule du vaisseau. It. Bound. bommen. a jibe Shaw bururus. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. puff out. buzzing of bees. burlare. a. a brook. purra. a well. fun of one . bordon. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Sw. bordo. sense durd. bonus. bending. game. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. way ba7n. limit. a pot. as was for.bass of a stringed instrument. bog. a corToward the garden. . identical with E. like quaff. the big end of a club. of the ON. Dan. warbling. a for New York. different modification gives ON. steady. Borden. bogen. Cot. drink deep. a drone or dor-bee. pusta. burt. Cot. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. . must be referred to the same root. good. Bourdon. G. The foregoing derivation seems.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. verb bua. head Fr. to indulge in his cups . borne. bovne. bwa. Comp. . burdan. bogna. to tope W. buys. Du. When used alone it . ^<7r«i?. a humming noise Macleod. taunt. Burden. to our bous. bugne. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. saufen. belly out. pre. a prop. Dan. It is bov. Lat. to hum. whence buysen. Swiss bausen. bdgi. a. Fr. biugan. G. beogan. on. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. w. . Gael. ruption of bonne. The meaning of bound. Gael. As the Gael.which see. bending of a joint knie-bug. And there in mourning spend Sw. from spring. Sw. Fr. gurgling. on the whole. whether by sound or gesticulation. bontS. buigen. brunna. kroes. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. burd. Fr. Sw. bov. G. bue. has also buirleadh. jest. bound. explaining Sw. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. btiga.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. bausen. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. trick. tinton. bugna. to drink deep. a humming noise. a bow. bage. in Fr. the Bourdon. bogr. sausen. fresh* water. staff. bend. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . curvature. it is probable that the It. to bow.

In like manner the Pol. the bogna. iri'iaQ. bhugna. bouzellou. A Bulk. to raise the back boll OHG. box. to swell. . pusspan. to yield to one.. bwr. Bret.a. kupu. ku^o. &c. a polla. ne. Thus we have Esthon. W. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. bulk compared with Sw. swell. honse-bur. . Fr. See Crab.). busse. to bubble up. heafod bolla. spring as water bugya. boxtree. bur. . . knob From the former modification we have bolla. A . boss. bog. * Bowels. bulla in aqua. belly. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. to bow buck. ttuJic. The / a bow. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. pocket. It is more probably from the G. lump . bogla. peated in Magy. round glass phial. a bud. E. to buckle G. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. buchsbaum. bow. beutel. . . similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. . tumour . Bohem. bugyni. to puff up. beuz. buello. a wardrobe . to bulge. buckel. . hollow wooden case. bugy. convexity. globular. different position in ODu. biisse. a bubble. a the other by the loss of the / into ON.D. . bugyola. guestchamber . bending. bugyani. convex. biiske. a little box . bubble. a round glass or bolg. a stud. similar shape. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. botulus. a bubble bolli. globe or spherical body. then by the loss of the /. a wine-can . to bend. ken. compared with Fr. purse. the head.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. Du. painter's easel. a box. and on swollen. a box Lat. bowel Box. a bubble. bosso. budello. or in e. OFr. bhuj. pullo. Fr. biichse. boxtree pusska. boudin. to stoop biickling. and to a coachbox in particular. bolgna. a sleeping-room . budel. buxus. acsian. bola. tumour. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. head of a cabbage. without the and grits. ^o/a. boss.). a boil. bolle. gut. busskai. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bol. Bret. bolla.cup Du. hiidel. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. intrenchment. Sw. sausage. Buckle. bulne. a knot. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. See Boil. Hence. Gr. the box-tree and articles made of it G. Pol. a box. ON. bouellou. boucle. bouge. Bower. a ball. bulb of an onion bolleyield. a black pudding. PLD. Hal. The word may probably be identical with Fris. dial. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. AS. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. ON. See MHO. Bowl. Fr. to guggle. box in both senses. folliculus . make obeisance. with inversion of the round. Du. kupula. buk. AS. OE. in both senses.\s. or. Du. the box-tree It. bulge. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl.flask It. boil. Sanscr. round bead. Lat. passing on stud. kupukka. is applied to a coach-box. . . spherical Dan. bossola. . . . swoUei) Lat. bulka. Dan. a hump on the back rossbollen. the crop of a bird. utibur. of a wooden ball to play with and — . Bav. . the head. buigen. a separate apartment . G. a ball. fata-bur. wisp of straw . bog. polla. bow. prominence. buckelig gehen. . buga. a box. fyn. as well as the name of a. the barrel of a gun. bock. bowl . . in walking appears in a . give in to. Cable. Sw. anything globular. a. the skull or brainpan . bwra. From the other form are G. to make crooked . while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bocka. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. ask. buis. . crooked. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. koziel. bol. inclinare se (Kil. bolne. G. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. crown of a hat. kuppelo. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. blister. a parlour. ^o«/«. . . hill. the box-tree. puffy. Dan. a box. a protuberance. Boll. at the e. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bowels. a thing of liquid. bubble. hollow place Fr. . a bubble Fin. bollen. bukke. a drop of pullistaa. . hollow. bolla. W. trestle. w. bug. a croft by a house. signified by forms like Gael. a pot.) to incline oneself . belly of a cask. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. to puff up pullakka. cumena-bur. an outhouse AS. stream forth bugyogni. a sack. a bowl. to stoop. (in pass . a swelling or rising up. bucka. a bundle. bur. ON. Sw. a buck. water pulli. biicken. as in AS. belly. . boor. bent. a chamber swefnbur. a hen-coop . an inclosure. boel. mausbollelein. as in E. Sp. a ball . bulcken.. to bend down. a iDubble. globular body. zich onder jemand under to him. bulla. . bugna.

— . bou^ba. spaniel. to crack. and string of his bow.nated by dirt. cramp-iron holding things together . Cot. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. defect Du. to give a sounding blow defect. which has many representatives in the other Europe. the first instancebya physical tie. A — — . . rakke. brague. Boy. Thus brack. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras.puddle. Brach. bracer. Rouchi Then as an adj. To fight with the fists. brace on and Du. brageuses. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. the arm. ON. matter. braecke. to stammer. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. land spoilt Kil. to want. bouibo. boy bouba. bruxula. s. pube.. Lett. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. to fall. Lat. compressing. breach. brae. to burst. . bresta. flaw.with a noise. brack. brakke Bracelet. foul. Du. Gael.. as noticed under Box. . bray. strike. in R. Prov. unmarried man . A to halt between two derivations. G.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. defect. armour for the arm. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. OE. to slap. Du. moral or physical. brechen. babble. then from break. a braceOFr. fault . priated to the original sense. buah. bracha. The different meanings of the brageux. AS. boy. beagle. an languages. . to smack the hand batschen. In like manner the It. ratch. . to give a gebrechen. See Brake. Fr. con. a comworld Rayn. race. Prov. bracket. brabbelen. bitch Du. A brace probis. ' — A — — — . Pr. breptati. . — . want. to give a blow with the fists. damaged board a ship. odorinsecus. Fr. Water rendered boubo. brostia. a pair of braces. OFr. thwack. It is B. brakke grund. It. dog that hunts by scent. and then Pl. Prov.. Heligoneed. — . which sigof straining. brek. wrack. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . filth . braquet. baukscheht. La ville ou y avait Brace. a bubbling dura del mun. Brack. dog Sw. On the same principle from the buksteht. Swiss Rom. bragos. brek. . . variation of babble. youth. or defect. braco. to Swiss batschen. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. — . a crack. brae. ghebreck. — . baske. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. Kil. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. dog in general. briche. a sounding blow. See Broker. pus. Bracket. let. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. bube. break. braca. his eyes are failing him). boussole. to be wanting. rakka. braic. Kil. mud. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. rakki. salo sive aqua marinS. Sp. Sp. posh. Ptg. brassard. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. need. G. brec. by an overflow of sea water. is a rope holding G. breach. bracke. disturb. Sp. in R. . brasselet. whelp as. and F. wristband. Brack. loud smack. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. — — . brae. ON. brago. confining. boiste. pupus. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Fr. 91 the Dan. Swiss bub. Fr. bue. to is derived brestr. salsus. To Brabble. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. want. Prov. a girl. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . land batsken. mud. a guard to torf. defect. Pl. Pm. braque. Kil. ing from a mixture of salt.D. a boy pupa. flaw. Swab. by the same inversion of J and k. lalear-eyed Prov. murmur. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. mud.— D. a grown youth Cimbr. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. braco. Brackish. fuse. suppuration. bracco. fault. Brak-goed. merely in our mode of considering them. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. I sal slyng. isolated part of the text. acidus. clay. want. brae. or bracer Cot. to stutter. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . taneous talking. &c. a box. to box the ears. OFr. rack. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. bracon. bracil. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. from a root brak. flap. root). whence a as by a mixture of sea water. To brace is to draw together.. corruptse. quarrel Bohem. It. dirty. MHG. brechen ihm. wnzC/J. BOX To Box. Hdcart. refuse. parallel with OK. bask. Bracelet. a bog or pass Fr. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. s. V. One girl. brack. breuque.D. It. jabber.

empty pride. . gay. expensive. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to make a noise. crash. dhbrailler. Faire le brave. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk.—— . or from braie itself.aburst. braga. brazo. brabhdadh. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. braicli. a carriage for breaking in horses . to brail up a sail. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . vanter une chose. finery. in numerous dialects. Fr. Walloon bress. braske. brag or jet it braguard. vain glory. an iron for holding Zalli. be noisy . to Rouchi brMer. fine. also derived Fr. braga. —Spenser in R. spot. smart. and that from e. Lith. to cord a bale of tie up. to unbrace or let down the breeches. well-dressed. a roisterer. 92 Cot. The plant y^r«. . Chaucer. binding anything together. brag. Cot. to shout. slight modificajoining the two legs. cry. in the sense of the Lat. swagger. brake in the sense of constraining. splendid. bully . Fr. Brake. se donner trop de licence. handsome. Primarily to crack. make a noise . braga. blusterer.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Bray. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. i. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood.^ Sp. breghe. brails. the opposite of which. fine. brake is. to strut. an inclosure for cattle . w. To Brag. Rom. Cot. to boast or brag. braver. breach. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. goods. to boast of his own worth. The meanings included under — Bragget. ^Brave. hectoring. to stand upon terms. fine.breeches. The meanings of brake are very numerous. . Fris. power. brayete. AS. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). ative fellow. flaunting. brave. bragd. BRAG Piedm. brag. Dan. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . braggard also valiant. It. bravacherie. braguer. compressing. . bragging of his own valour. 2. brave. bravache. fine. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . flaunt in fine clothes . se parer de beaux habits. h-avare and Fr.i5nz^. brachittm. gorgeous. Wallachian bratsou. brabhdair. used in the sense of force. courageous. bravado j Fr. Brake. riches. was formed brayele. bra!. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. brae. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources..explosion. vaunting. swaggerer. brave. bushy . See Bray. to rattle. braka. — Equivalent forms are Gael. strength. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . breghen. &c. as the type of exertion and strength. Turk bazu are used in both senses. de Vaud. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brao. Sc. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. braies. Thus we are brought to the OE. the feathers ON. affront. bullying. braw. Bret. From sprouted corn. A — Hal. showy bravery. stately. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. bragging. Thus Bret. Sp. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. is identical with Gael. to swagger. bravo. confining.. gay. to sprout malt. gallant (in apparel) also proud. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. braske. Bret. that will carry no coals. would be to brace. called by our braggard. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. subigere. crack. . a noisy talkboasting. also tion of this was brayeul. Haldorsen Gael. be found. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. — Chaucer. — From W. and it is very likely that the root brak.Shepherd's Cal. valiant The head are sumptuous. boast. to crack. boasting. the arm.^Vocab. It is certain that the word for arm is. From brayel. to flaunt. brave. idle talk. Hecart. crash ON. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. — A — . Brail. See Brace. Hence E. Dan. — . bragaireachd. gayly dressed. se pavaner.%. in order to prevent its catching the wind. or by gaudy dress and show. Langued. gallant. braszketi. Lat. . From Fr. beautiful. breagh. braka. brav. breyne. . braegenj Du. drawers. noisy ostentation. subduing. To Brail. . is Cot. Brain. To Braid. stout. proud. Brag was then used brisk. about the hawk's fundament. brave. Cot. excellent. also insolenter se gerere . 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . bragio. torture .

— — . cover G. braka. cetur. broyer. glebas subigere. flachs brechen. dial. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. The Fr. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. —Ovid. braca. for — Due. brolium. We — . or overthrow of trees by the wind. nemus. tris). low wet land bruch. thicket. gebroge. to bray in a mortar. to harrow (Lat. gebiisch. breaking in the operation. to row. G.bracan. been confounded with the verb break. briser. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. broken fratta. In ON. Fr. Biglotton. to bend or direct a cannon. bushes. properly braking or subduing them. bredza. —Bracken. Dan. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. bregar. brambles. brook.D. conSo in G. brog above mentioned. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. — Fl. broeck. murtaa. quarry from Fin. break flax PLD. broillet. brambles. referred brake. where from Esthon. to subdue. brog or brake. it is not surprising that the word has here. to break or fracture. a harrow. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brage. to break. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. is formed murd. thing is brought under control. or A A ' . Gr. Corrfeze bredgea. to fracture. OFr. brook. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. to break. Prov. brake. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. brook. to brush. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brogille.' It. in northern climates. Dan. a spinning-wheel. . a stream. gebroge. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. bregar brake. bush. brage. Fr. a marsh. broilium. Swiss Rom. Brake. bruch. to rub. in usus braca. brake. brcekke.. ^raca. Sp. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. In the sense of a thicket. gebroge. Dan. to The ON. brog. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. braquer un canon. or a wood in a marshy place . The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. and when once thrown down. a brace on board a ship. is braukti. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. gebrUche. a swampy Mid. as in the case of horse-breaking. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. as in Du. to head must be bit. el arco. a thicket. and Lat. and G. braecken het vlasch. a fen. Voc. have thus Du. frangere linum. ing of flax or hemp. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . the lever by which the string was drawn up. signifying to sweep. farinam in mortario subigere. 2. gebrUche.D. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. fratto. Fr. Pl. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. Brake. braeken. brak is a frame in which strip. riguus. gilum. BRAKE to external force. bush. any thicket of brakes. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. 3. copse-wood. To the same bend a bow. tnurdma. brego. as in Sp. briers. It. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. might come to signify a swamp. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. the original meaning of G. to knead or mix up in a mortar. bregille. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. marsh. In the case of the ne. de Vaud. subigere. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Lat. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. t° moisten. marsh or swamp. brega. game. Gael. to stiffen against Taboada). to exert force in different ways. watered. iSpsx". word. to bend a bow. pasture. broor bushy place Hal. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. as well as in the case of the e. e. It. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. It may be sus- . brushwood. to distinct. In like manner Lat. P&. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other.— . murran. casser le \va. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. break of such a kind. a horse's a horse's twitch. to pound. murrokko. broil. braken. breuil.

pfropf. bruk. That beareth the red hepe. Branch. ground full of briers. and thence a shoot. breanan. G. berneux.. Russ. Diez. bushes. brughera. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. heath. sedge burkni. restrain. . a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. AS. . brano. It. thorns and Gen. heath. and waste growths. braeme. bruch. brandmurk. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. what is cast out as worthless. brug. that is to say. brug). brugek. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brosst. also a marshy low ground or fen . brin d. E. sawdust. bruch. a burning fragment of wood. brandello. branco. young twig {brom-beisser. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. Bret. pfriem in the sense of an awl. i. or other plants of a like nature. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. Bret. Serv. Fr. brandiiialil. to -brugen. bruskoad. snotty . Brank. Thus in Lat. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. Thus we have w. a shrub from Bret. hallier. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . Bret. may be so called in analogy with Bret.D. breun. virgultum. young buisson fort epais.D. the thorn apple or stramonium. Grisons bruch. a roA. to bridle. it glitters — — . brejo. bruk. nasty. Port. and E. bromboli. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. a bud. brambles. Pl. brenn hesken. brandr. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. — . a bud. brushwood. Bav. brang. braam. brin (as It brano)." The bmno a • on . or ling. sprouts. to gripe. a shoot. bruk. clutch. Bran. a briery plot.). from Servian pnit. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. Brand. So Swiss gaggi. heath ON. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. to or iron. a rod or twig. a vine twig Bav. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. piecemeal brindelles. —Ducange. or with It. sweet broom. a firebrand. Bramble. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . The same form becomes in It. pfriemen. brass. briars. bracken or fern . bran. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. as AS. brancas. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. thicket of brambles Cot. heath. Bret. 2. . in the sense oi fern. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. gebriiche. &c. cabbage sprouts Fl. . from gaggi. a shoot or twig. titio. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. Gael. from brand. brem. constrain. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake.G. broust. &c. brouskoad. heath (Bret. a bridle or bit . Broom. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a small deri\'ation . brok. . Sir Topaz. branchia. a single plant of heath. Thornas and bremelas. brog. to burn. gebroge. a bud It. broccoli. bretnel. cack. Then by comparison with claws or arms. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. from Lat. . bronbo. bren. brank. bit by bit. Gael. dirt . — branca. piece of anything. Fr. As ON. brwnt. the bull-finch. Piedm. brom. Brancare. A mark made by burning. broembel-CBppel. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. bro7n. prufye. Dan. But we find It. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. pected that brake. breme j Sw. to brank. the branch of a tree. chaff. 1 8. G. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. w. Rouchi bren d'orMe. also pfriemkraut. broom. brein. . a shrub . excrement. brand. in the same sense. ear-wax mud. broom. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . is the draff or excrement of the com. It. as. brin. a heath. brenda. See Brush. brenn. iii. Fr. In like hrst. brank. G. bren. broem. a thick bush. brenna. G. brous. a dunghill. brake. . compress. . We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. from virga. Pl. broussaille. bramble Du. ordure . The naof strain. branche. wood composed of twigs. It will be found that shrubs. w. heath. apiece orbitbrandone. from brug. a halter. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Fr. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brarn. stink . bran. burning brennen.

bransella. With top trimbling. live coals. totter. bracea. a pan of hot coals. ish. bragia. brasil. Manx bransey. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to bicker 2nd. to hurl with great force. Bailey. crackle. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. brascct. to quarrel. De Goes. to glisten or flash. brazil. to make display . weinbrenner. to crackle . to Bailey. to brustle. branler. plained by Florio. put. brandende wijn. forms brasil. In the same way the set on fire . arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . The corresponding form in Gael. gebrannter wein. make an outcry. all. brazeiro. 59. to French brawl or brangle. Kil. brastlian. given to the country. urens. Fr. to shake. bruire. bracia. to make sense of a bright red dye. from to vociferate. bruzi. apparently very distinct from each other. to roar. Hume in brand in ON. brangle or brawl in E. branler. e. aqua ardens. The tre brangillis. briiler. braser. brasca. comes from thence. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. G. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to burn. to rustle. eldibrandr. — ting to confusion. Fr. as again by well as the blade of a sword. to shake The word brisil.. Formerly brandy-wine. to braze or lute. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. bresil. Fr. hot Fr. brin.pan of coals. brandiller. Fr. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. Chron. V. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. d'Angl. Fr. Fl. brus^. splinter. N. morsel. and branchis shaiand D. to and fro in the hand. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. a round dance. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. the spelling to kindle. brustle. as Fr. a roaring fire. then brandr. stake. brasa. bransle. before the discovery of America in the brandir. from used in dyeing cloths. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. du Roi et laine. braza. E. brouir. became ashes Pied. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. to totter. — . WaUon. embraser.well. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. set on fire. G. crackle. a fragment. brane-wood. shake. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. to distil . glowing embers . faire fracas. bryne. to blaze. brennen. To brand. firewood. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. hoisting to the fall. conbillet. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. billet. ist. to dash. brausen. Braser. to brandle. Port. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. in Marsh. The name Brandy. brandolare is exbrandish. bum. to murmur. To brase AS. to shake. Brase. Jam. make a — . — . Sw. bruciare. bruan. Gris. to confuse. noise. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. a stick. Diez. braise. to burn. Lye. AS. bragale\ wood. It. is bntan. prasseln. spirit distilled from wine. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. distilled wine. braise. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. E. Sw. to burn. and scold. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. brush. was in use Fr. Thus the bound up again. to solder iron. n. to shog. bra?ier. as Jamieson explains it. Brasil. brasa. Guill. flagrans. It. so. braise or hot coals. branla. to make shine with shaking. to sound of the Fr. or in stick. fire-wood. a brusler. brandigh. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Brangle.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. firebrand. Bret. brasca. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. Ija. to brandle or The It. Chron. incendium. perplex. — . It. to brangle. brand. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Milan. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. a To Brandish. So. Du. the colour than hitherto known. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. not.^Brandle. brandiller. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. and bruir.

bribe de viande.D. pil. brat. frame of laths. brett. Many gambes. It. brdto (ace. breyon d'chaur. Cot. a. slut. solder. Jam. bransle. a rag. brass. buttock Sc. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. to carbonado. to tear piecemeal. Bailey. Cot. any piece. as scrawl from scrabble. Pm. Pisana in Mur.D. brat. a plank or board. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. Brave. fraiche.— Remade. Brass. — . or whether it be from Fr. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. saillies. bras. discord. Sc. Du. bmhon for brado7i. bretesche.walle — Pr. trul. braeye. bartising. a lump of flesh. breyon de kinds of . KiL Prov. ON. luncheon. —-Jam. a wooden tower. bradon. braede. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bretays). and bronzo. a contempt- banner. braser Fargent. to cry. in the first instance of boards. contignatio. ' A vraale. a lump of flesh. neita girl). a cloak. Swiss bradle. pan- — Rayn. burning coals. OHG.brettysing. bred.D. rag. a fortification. bradlete. roar.— Braid. brandillo. a lath. Sup. Hist. bratid calf of the leg. branle. baltresca. Paris. equivalent to the Du. to braze. a lump. lat'te. as lattice. breyon. breteque. esbraotier. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. tasce.propugnaculum. bronzare. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. strepitus 2. frequentative of braire. It. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a — A from the confused noise. See Brandish. bartisan. braion. brazen. is The word — uous name for a woman. a loud noise. or on the top of a wall. OFr. then a parapet. ship. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. slibro. cloth. A dispute or squabble. Florio. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. A land of dance. braiio. It . The muscular part of the body. Fr. a rag . le repasser un peu sur la braise. at brasa. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. coassatio. Math. braoilich. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. slakker-bortchen. to shake. P1. bratdn). from branler. A. 2. brat. as a brawling brook. a mantle. braon. a parapet. Betrax of a —^Jam. Fr. . calf of the leg. a battle-girdle. to Gael. berd. Brawl. brces. a clout. &c. Brattice. to scold . ni autres choses sur Due. muscular parts of the body. The verb is probably derived from the brase. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . a slabbering-bib. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. Cologne broden. 1156. OFr. Brawn. ^Altieri. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. A.' Hal. See Bray. braodhlach. to talk at bralle op. calf of the leg. Mundart. ferruminare. from Fr. brailler. to copper.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Sp. squall. Certainly a little girl.— Fl. borderinge. Fris. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray.— Diez. to solder. cob. bas morceau de viande brawhng. brettys. as rashers upon quick burning coals. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. —^Bronze. bralle. bronzacchiare. So also See Brag. Westphal. Bartizan. as criailler of crier. boarding being sbranare. whether contracted from brabble. a rag . a Lap. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. noise. bran. a patch of cloth. G. 368. Brangle. the calf of the leg. bruir.96 Roquefort. Dan. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. bratidone. boutures. flesh of a leg of pork. Gael. apron. a contemptuous name for a young child. W. slibro {neita. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. from Sc.^ — Sverris Saga. Fr. Circumeunt cibertesca. Kil. The same correspondence is seen between It. Wall. bretesque. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. — Deutsch. bratach. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Lorraine bravon. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. the buttocks. For the application to a^child compare Bret. especially that used in the working of iron . bronze. I.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Brat. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. 1224. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. AS. deblaterare. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship.

fracas. bregar. braa. bregda. braea. G. Breach. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. the miller's dog. I'll live and die a maid. crepo and E. to braid. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. noise . to N. to cry Port. to break Fr. to roar. to bellow. as the notion of turning crack. F. brage. a rag f . 7 . Fr. R. to roar as the sea. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. bruire. Cot. bratsche. ON. to start. to rub Fr. instantane. to work up in a mortar. The same He might don us both a villany. is . To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. &c. at braga eftir euium. G. cyprinus latus. braa. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. AS. bragd — ON. as OE. Fin. brak. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. . crackle . to tear Bret. ybrayid. Then is simply.ch. Swiss bratschig. crash. a brake for hemp or flax. relation is seen between Lat. V. &c. e. to rumble. Beryn. and to signify the fracture itself. bru. verb to break. will. to rush. to bray like an ass. Prov. braidir. crash. as the voice of the ass. with or without a final d.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. roar. breach. And with a traid I tumyt me about. brak. bruzir. R. V. rattle. ON. i. the sound — of arms.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Chaucer. imitate or resemble one. And at a braid he gun it bende. brand. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. twist. 2. Chaucer. or cry out loudly . brikan.g. to pretend. Q. to braid the hair. D.^ Fr. disturbance. Lat. &c. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no.ear rog. ^p&xia. mos. . to knead. a rent. kind. vapna-brak. to cry out. . W. which has given much trouble to commentators. rogi. Then. — . to braid. to smack or the eye. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen.. Cat. the clash of ai-ms Dan. Goth. to roar or bellow. Ppvxia. and make a hideous noise. broyer. The Lat. roar. fish. Dunbar braessem. Du. braid. bragd is also applied nets. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. rangere. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to t. Gr. father. brice. the sword was out break. breche. to resemble. to resemble. yell. to bawl. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. breuan. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. turn. The ON. Bailey. bray. riAprjyvvfu. ser. and fracasously. To Break. to bray in a mortar. — koa. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. a crash. Bread. V. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. brame. See Brake. rustle. — — — explained motus loud noise. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. paste or dough. at a braid. brugier. yell. father. D. upbraid. a brack. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare.y. to the seijauntes. to break. to scold. D. To rub or grind down Sp. k. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. plait. a . fractus j Gr. make a disturbance. brot. Bread.' To Bray. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to The cup was uncoverid. broad. 145. &c. to break. paxog. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to snatch. bragr. at once. augnabragd. Fr. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to have the lineaments of one's ON. regi. in Jam. From the or brack in a wall. fragor. to resemble him. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. braire. OE. soft . gestus. resound . to sound very loud and very harshly. on. Wal. and frangere. bregar. braidar. to crash. brechen. bradar. weave The ON. a wink. a breach Cot. ing. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. or wound. to break. explaining a very obscure application of the E.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. to crash. Prov. starts crackling up. appearance Hal. E. baiyl. to cry out. abraid. a mill. Bret.

brinisa. bremse. from brace. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. britze. broza. brcekur j It. QNtsterviald) pritschen. brache. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. E. Breeze. bris. grill. to rattle (as hail). breost. applied to shivering. chillness or shivering. AS. brijsen. bratscher. briosa. forms analogous to E. and brought beneath between the legs. of straining. brise. brciz. — See Broth. a crum Du. an into shiver. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brut. or the blow itself. — . simmering. The Breech (Prov. to murmur. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. a cold and windy mist or frost . trusts. bris. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . to brew. OFr. sheep's droppings bruss. of trees. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. braga. grillare. i5r(Z^.t. noise. brossi!. to smack. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. to roast. Lat. PI. subligaculum. braga. orts. met de bridse slaan. from ligare. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Prov. Gl. — . chilly. bretilles. a horse's twitch. to fry . clout for a child. — And blood. bris de charbon. so AS. Originally probably the word signified steam. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. . may be from the wurh fesser. windy withal. of E. breath. forms. switch. Russ. Sw. braich. b}-as. body brostia. Breath. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Fris. Fr. a crum. braia J OFr. a girdle. brasiare. brezling. murmur—Vocab. the soler./ssus.vare. de bridse geveii. brimme. crush. are in like manner ' . Dev. fastening . bruzir. to breech. de Vaud. and other rubbish dibris. &c. breson. brumtnen. brissle. to fry Then from a Gl. briosat'. Hume in Jam. to resound. Fr. malt. then to broil. murmur. Isidore and Tatian. broil. braca. with It. broiiwen. brasser. simmer. trembling. brodel. bandage or truss for a rupture. as. Swiss AS. Breeze. Biglotton. to feize or feaze. cloven. Hence the Lat. G^nev. to whip. as the G. Swiss Rom. It. Du. vapour. grillen. Fr. rubbish. drawers. as by the Sc. G. Du. Lat. briiz. Du. braciarc. to be misty and cold. to bray. brire. Bret. bruzun. Compare OE. as commonly explained. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. to crush to break. properly to crackle. from AS. brusc. bryi^ga. Breast. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. brimsa. singing bone. are related to Prov. breinse. binding. to hum. broden. point to G. G. briig. brezza. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Dan. Du. bruise. Dtyden. bracecs . . corresponding to G. a gadfly. Gael. Bruise. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. a box. Gl. little bits of wood Berri briser. Rom. G. braguier. the dry spines of furze broken off. sprouted corn. einem de britze geven. G. coaldust. a to lay fly-flap. See Brick.D. Briss and buttons. as in the case of twitter. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. brcEth. Piedm. an odour.britschen. brew. bridsen.).98 borst. brodem. brasiuiii. the bust. bruc. brisd. . a smack. Breeze. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. — Brist. G. burst. brugga. zare. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. briste. — — strument for smacking. Gael. — Halma. rubbish. malt. xyligogio castigare. to crackle. to brew. as. braies. to shiver for cold. and E. —Briss. E. brisoler. in Schilter. to bind. their stings draw . Goth. to burst. Prov. bresilles. a twitch for a horse. To Brew. to break. bark Fr. . . instead of being derived from 'La. . the breech or buttocks. So ON. brison. braies. Bracha. Swiss brdtsch. brijselen. break. We bragezj on. a cramp-iron for holding things together. griller. a cool wind. remains of leaves. /esses. The Teutonic verbs. brok. fitzen. braie. peitschen. but more probably the E. breeze. brezzare. polenta. also to chill and shiver with cold. fail. braucn. bragues. brdtschen. Breeches.'— Gl. scent. representing the sound of a blow. Bret. brisciare. brist. brustia. braca. Brize. siibligar. briosa. morsel. braux. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. AS. bre- I'os qui bresole. dial. to buzz. to simmer. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. w. bra. brosame.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. Piedm. breme.

pavement. Priodi. Neumann. to rub. Ducange. a little king's writs. to Isrew. corresponding or letter. to press. bo. broken. Gael. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Trovarfor bride-ale. fervere. to prepare. twopares Lat. masted vessel. is still used in this sense. Lat. jipaaaiii. bread. to pave brukkti. a beggar. bribour. bruk. collect bits of food. has briguer.groom. brygga. daughheath. The origin of the word is the w. Diez. which however is undoubtedly from brace. So It. Thom. E. privus. a lump of bread briber. a bit. Ihre.bergantino. owned also propriate. a sow. . bruk. in the sense of OSw. AS. but probably Bricoteau. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. fit. conjux. bridge. birbone. OHG. Gael. to press in. AS. malt.It. bruarium. boiling up brocoliere. brug. then the marriage itself. sponsa. brA. brocaly. Rouchi brife. a heath. imprint. lipdZu}. to meet together. to boil. stone-bridge bnikkoti. broken bread. of burial. In E. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. a man. bulicame. to break. AS. sugga. AS. W. buskins. Du. to circulate. peculiar. OSw. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. — — — — — — . crew. a boiling. priod-ferch. brar. and that from It.gfiugga. It. bricou. G^n^v. broosekens. bruyere. betonica. piece of burnt clay. the newly. fastningar-ol. ON. E. birbante. bryd-eale. feast. In the patois of briccia. buckler J ON. beaten way Dan. betony brulicame. brilt. son. Fr. from Bridegroom. nurus G. a fragment. w. or brizo. remarkable that the Gr. Bribe. a quoit of stone. E.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. arf-ol. . fragment. a bride. a heath brughera. Mid. bygga. pier. brutg. brittil. bro. consort with. Flor. If the foregoing were not so clear. division of an army. a wedding priod-fab. a cheat. briicke. to break to pieces bricalio. brice. brigade. Hdcart. to appropriate. a proprietor. troop. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. hlafes brice. a lump of bread. to boil.privatus. whence berw. feast of espousals. Applied ous words derived from break. So in The Prov. bricge j G. Sp. AS. Brick. to pave. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. broken victuals. from the last 99 of which. — . berwi. priod. . . gf2o. from Bret. to tlie brico. but to a paved road. a lump of bread. to beg one's bread. brasser. It — is Kil. brughiera. Pol. to boil. bribe de pain. — . funeral. brieden. bitill. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. brakes of high-grown ferns. Fr. to brew. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. Fr. to stamp. the Fr. Gl. Bridge. as so. brere. two-masted vessel. breve or brevis. ment of anything broken. Brique. . It. a married man guma. any jot or crum. bryd-gutna. the marriage si in brigata. Grisons bruch. ' . heath. ' — . a briole. E. Due. Diefenbach com. and ODu. a Bride. thick appropriated. Brewis. Cot. briiths. pavement brolegge. frayer. Pro(merch=:maid). berwedd. bride. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. a rogue. bretonica. malt. briwo.. brahi. A bribe is A — — arval. bara briw. httle bit. with transposition of the r. In the G. bably contracted from brigantine. bride. ap. a brig or priodor. bridelj OHG. BRIGADE dead. ibrukkti. bro is applied not only to a bridge.pritil . Hence OE. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. bruskr and buskr. graf-ol. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. briw. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. Goth. from bit. Lang. brigantine. from the Normans. brood. Bridal. Bridal. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. a fragment. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. ter-in-law. Brief. jetty. pavement Lith. bidsel. braut. the equivalent of to the dial. guma.rough with brambles and bushes. brigata. a crum. a bride Brig. barren land priodas. especially to a letter or command. . Brigade. Brier. Walach. Dan. groom (mab=:son). . brukkas. as. See Broth. brau. married. and berweddu. Fl. grug. brique de pain. . . a bush. AS. company. fraoch. it is applied to the letter to OE. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client.Fr. a rogue . served (Patois de Bray). bro. a married man or woman Lat. bruith. appropriate. Bridle. a crum. A — A — . The Sw. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. one's ovin.

— Probably then to strive. riis ' — Chron. malandrini. inde squammatus. It. splcnornd de brigandine. schiteren. Gall. tinnitum clarum movco. clear sound. clangour. brigant. and secondly. biartr. Xa/iTTii). to make a loud noise. — Beowulf. rover either by sea or land. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . cange has 'Veles. jurgia. there are many armour. outcry. Lat. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. clarus. in the first instance. a spark. . would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set .' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. the bench-notes resounded. on his — own account. — Brigantine. tuilahtaa. OHG. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. briga. to contend with another. — — . far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. necessary business. lay was sung. bairhts. — Due. Adelung. speech. Brilliant.glampa. bright bearhtm. tion. willata. then. brdgen. dine. Bav. and. and diligence. —Capgrave. to cry 'Schmid OE. clear.D. bray. twinkling. to glamr. The E. Du. squamma . The Ir. in the sense of a robber. — Briganbriga. kilistua. combat. It. They or brigantini. Goth. to bend a bow It. glitter. labour. Mid. himself to serve men of merit. to shine. clear. Flor. In the same way to strive is. glbram. to glitter. clear. bryhtm. Due. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. brigan. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. to ring. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. brebrigare.' The passage from the sense of a light. a brigantine. sound. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. to shift for with care. \oice. Beorktode bene sweg. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. loo BRIGAND lor. seems to be to exert force gar el area. briga. strife. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. may play the pirate or thief at sea. shriek with laughter. A strepere. AS. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. bracht. Brigata. XafXTTpoQ. glamra. — A A .clare ^tinniens. clare lucens. also called briganders. dine. Brigand. transparent. splendour. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. glir. at a later period. and hence be explained glampi. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . a pirate. clang.' in Due. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. manifest ON. and. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. In Fin. to resound. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. representing a sudden noise. show the origin of Lat. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to rove. wilella. the grew high. tinkle. and led it away. to strive for.' The sense of strife or combat express.' torum. kii:'a. to cry. brawl. brcEhtin. Bright. Wilista. 1351. to rob. and to associate with them. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. Swab. brak. to shine. and ner me hit iherde. the gleeman's song. braid. etincelle. is easily understood. rixa. So G. a small light pinnace pro. — brigante. It. beorht. secondarily. splendour. See Brake. Gr. tinnitus. noise.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. hell. a glittering. brigare. brigandare.pracht. Schmeller.— .Lat.shine. splendens . to reservavit. in later times a robber or highway-man. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. Owl and beorhtian. 1654. brigare. that of Fr. bregar.dorem clarum reflecto. to piracy. glamm. . It. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. moment. The primary meaning of Sp. and the E. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. A. From ON. briegen. bragen. Heo — song That AS. 312. — brigante. Florio. pugna. tumult. praht. schateren. with respect either to sound or colour. to sound. from hall. a sound. a noise.

Prov. Tresiller. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Closely connected is OE. surface of the ocean. breziller. Du. margin. 1 1 64.' Elyot in Way. bramar. to creak. to storm. originally the lap folding over the breast. finds the Fr. sparkle. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. griller. rugire (cervorum. broiled. A . FJ. Said of swine when in heat. brissle. Swiss Rom. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. briller. : ' — bone). or violent action. glisten. crackle . rugire. In Fr. frequently interchange. from brandr. brame. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). brunft.its vent in cries and roaring.D. brant. the heat of animals. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. 1. 754. bray as an ass bramire. Brimstone. brennistein.' d'etre marie . to sparkle. s. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. Thus Lat. bremas. vigorHal.— BRIM . Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. hence the bosom. reecho. to burn. To Brim. greDiet. whether of desire or anger. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. bremmen. the edge. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. burning. brame. rut. Subo. whence bilbil-goda (literally. ter. bryn. brdnnsten. tience. crackle. a long. fire. Kil. brumft. the verbs Flor. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. griller). brand-krossottr. to shimmer. Brindled. Sw. Rayn. a streak. E. to shine. Langtoft. Dan. brandr and Fr. excited. beam. to . lap. bramire. edge Pol.) brimi. Streaked. to quaver with the voice. greedily to covet Cot. Lith. breme. which seems identical with rim. on. striped or streaked. barm-cloth or barmskin. . to fret . brummen : de soge brummet. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. and 1. grisler. Brim. It. also to reflect. broil . brim. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. brommen. a border. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. dial. gresiller. to glitter. komottaa. bremmen. . barmr. voux. to creak. Sc. as of meat in broiling . barm. ON. Tutschek. bresoler (Gloss. kimina. an apron. grdzil. AS. bramer. bar.). a stick. chime). fimbria) . It. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. to parch. parched. sprainged. Hence with an initial s. as in Langued. briller (related to each other as OFr. komista. lip of a vessel. post. to broil. Fr. — — So Fr. perent. to crackle. Brem. — . to roar. vattubryn. (poet. lap of a garment . as in ing or earnest desire bramare. 154. to shine. Wtb. to make bilbil). and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. clangor tinniens. the singing of Sodom — — . ring. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Supp. . que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. The meaning of the Fr. In the same way Sw. from bringe. of the eye. as well as bl and gl. brimmen. brastlian. to sound deep or hollow. pMiller. AS. — Rim. earnestly . brinfire. noise made by meat in broiling. border. a rod. the lap or bosom. to wish or covet. brullo. glit.preni. fierce. bramar. ling noise and a sparkling light. brim Magy. It. G. The identity of ON. to make a crackling noise. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. to utter cries. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. have then in Fr. rym^. to roar. to twinkle. brama. kimista. brisoler.— Brinded. griller d'impatience. grisser. The E. to glitter distance . breme. sonitum edere bremen. to resound. breziller. kommata. brmdottr. furious. spraing. brillare. ous. identical with passion. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. as is the case also with Pl.ioTiviS acutus. brow of a hill. small gravel. with an initial br instead of gr. fringe . ardere desiderio. that the original meaning of the Sc. a borDu. Sc. ON. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. border. s. der. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. coloured in stripes. briller. burning stone. to shine. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. kimmaltaa. the eye-brow. to glitter . Dief. gresiller. leonum). fringe (Lat. — — — . is used of raging. the heat of animals. brezil. Rugere. os qui bresole. — g. Fl. the meaning is transL' amour. The expression is now confined to the sow. border. the sow is brimming. cross-barred in colour. to shake. kajata. grullo. bry7ie. to long for a thing. ON. and corresponding to these. shine. brummen. to crackle. kiimottaa.

A similar relation may be observed between Sp. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. brimhliod. See Spread. — — . a rebours. a fragment. Bohem. flame. Fris. fierce. bringe.Lat. or — . Fr. setting the hair on end. has under It. /3pE^m. trembling. Berri. p. and Sc. brot. Fr. See Brand. roar of the sea saltr. to broach a business. shoot. bruched (Fr. brissle. brim. to broil. Then as the effect of shivering. brodden. bringe traced through the brano. a stitch brocher.. Pectusculum. thick — A elastic hair. brocco. Brittle. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. i. spricka. brocar. humorous. to shiver for Sold or for fear. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. spur. to set it a going. . a projecting tooth It. to turn up the point of anything. quick.rcendij'i. a spit. like the Broad. — A . rash. bronchus. reburrus.). angry. broche. Hence ribrezzare. eager. a bit . Gl. brocchus. Sw. to spit. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. birstle. brisk in taste. aculeus. britar.. to bud. Du. to break. as. bryde. Mid. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. In the N. broca. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. brittle. Brisk. broc. a peg sbrocco. braidsj ON. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. birs. setting the hair on end compare It. fragile. Liquamen vel garum. brim (poet. It. Commonly explained as from Fr. breaking of the waves brim sior. . can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Fr. Breeze been connected with the Sc. breast. brusco. from AS. Zeuss. It. Bret. Da. — bryme. brin. Sp. birssy. to crack. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. cK) the . sprout. ON. or the full • . a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to burn. byrst. briser. brusque. to begin upon it. a crum. Brocade. smart taste. broccare. Brine. suddenly angry. is to erect the hair. as unripe fruits. an awl. as a noun. Formerly written brotil. hot-tempered. emotions which produce it. Dan. borzos (struppig). G. birse. Bret.' Nat. the brisket or . NE. brusk. bryne. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Lat. crabbed. breaking out into growth. Brooch. to spur. brisciare. brimme.g. ' breast. Russ. brockle. brime. . rude. brog. a belly. brote. Antiq. sprouts. brytan. very salt brimi. rebursiis. saulmeure. to stab Gael. brichet. bringue. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. brandello. a morsel. expression. It. is called a birssy day.D. fantas'* tical. brittle. ribrezzoso. prick with Sw. as. man's throat. bresk. startling. — in Due. Cot. to stick. flames. apt to break. 'V^. as. . metaphorically. Compare also E. wine of a sharp.'— Vita'abbatum S. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. a slip or sprig of an herb . . the surf. strong itself. brezza. bruckle. form bris. . a button broche. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Ptg. b. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. a shoot or sprig. Prov. borzen. sprocco. the twigs of a besom. a skewer. Boh. a bud. Prov. Walach. to birstle. Du. Brym. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). brijn (Kil. sharp. Salte sand is called brimsand. briota. e. stitch.procio. sour. a cold and windy mist or frost. against the grain . lively. brezzare. Palsgr. to break. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Brickie. a deluge. briota. breidr. ruffling. brindelles de balai. Gr. birsle. coli. Fr. Swiss to stand out . It. briocho. Sc. The Pl. brcit. to spur. to stitch. bruskett. a rod or twig. and forms on. Alfr. 222. britar. brocco. Brisket. broca. to goad. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to put one in a rage . brocciare. chest. rebrousser. brioshko. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. brim. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. ' .). Russ. bros. Port. whence may be explained the Sc. brocher. brich. broccata. bros. Abroacli. craw of a bird. Fr. a morsel . from break. Bristle. harsh vin brusque. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. borstel. brddj Goth. — . to scorch. a brad or tack. grim. and hence. Hal. brust. bricho (with the diminutives. bristly . a clasp. borst. brissko). a bud. and. the surf. brickie. See To Brim. Fr. Sc. from brande. of astonishment. sticking up . Prov. fiscbryne. to roar. of E. to break. a stormy brimsea . to set up one's birse. britchet. to shoot. to thrust. are used in the sense of brittle. a brooch.

brusuole. bordo. B. to On the other hand the Sp. bustling. a quarrel. houx. shuffle. Cot. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. breard. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. — The proper sense is that of Fr. Fr. freckled. ToBroider. A badger. to embroider. Cot. trouble. brasuole. Ihre has guU-bord. broder. speckled. brizen. of pointing out their latent defects. knobby . broighlich. a To Broil. a flake of snow sion. sparks E. to streaked or speckled in the face. embroidery. brych. a point. AS. broud. a brouhaha. ciare. grislement. So from Pol. to spur. silkes-borda. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Sp. parti-coloured. with Sc. Dan. gold and silver. Sc. The ON. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. streaked. a confused streaked face of the animal. braird. kled breac. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. briefh. birsle. brusler. — — . Fr. parti-coloured. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. Broker. here. age was termed a pricket.— B. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brocach. to crackle. broiled. a freckle. froco. a brim. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. brod. W. brodio. It. broukit. parched. It. brastlian.tumultuous. broil. brasolare. the line of development has been something different. and w. a badger. brocart. to embroider. a b?-ustolare. to crackle. tufted ornaments. q. hart of two years old. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. a freckle. bordar. to crackle. brooked. prod. to stud broccoso. Hal. brouFr. Here to ornament with needle-work. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. speckled. bmsciare. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. Compare G. v. Sc. gresiller. brullare. frecSee Brawl. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. bawling. bj'oil. to darn. noise. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. bram. embroidering. initial . Fr. a border. a fallingThe sense has been out. a brecJi. brasiller. storms. piebald . . to crackle as a shell in the fire. Icnotty. brocco. It of br the Fr. Contracted from Fr. border ornamented with silk. or salted fish on coals. to instigate. brerd. broccato was used to signify stuff . a border ornamented with gold. stump. — Fl. Gael. brouda. brasiller. parch. brychau. or roast on the braise. badger . atoms . that these are themselves modifications of a common original. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. broc. prasseln. Compare also AS. a flock or Gael. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. tumult broighleach. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. or snag. — Gower in It. b?-od.sound. brucilare. Brocket. spots. From direct imitation of Brock. blusters. frocadura. to burn. bramowanie. a peg. Florio. Grisons brascla. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. Thus brod. fundamental origin. The Bret. hurly-burlies. R. Bret. to knots or loops. dar seems derived from borde. broglio. to scorch. — brissle. or glowing coals broged. ornamented with a raised pile. briz. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. has grisser. sting. Surrey in R. brucach. and bord or bred. broice. agree in being the extremity of a thing. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). confound. E. forming to jumble. margin. grullo. rinj'. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brasbrasciuolare. precisely analogous to the Sc. noisy. from the white. Gael. a mole. brustle. thread. Ptg. point to an origin in Bret. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . . an edge. scorch.. To roast upon hot coals. and AS. brindled. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance.. trouble. rustle. carbonado. borprick. A fried or boiled steaks). a prick. broccuto. whence broccare. 103 embroidered. motes. to parch or broil. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. border. the shoot of corn. to crackle. broc. to boss. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. to broil. spotted. creak. to prick. — . onbryrdan. bruler. to burn. broil. tori shows that. or It.

Teutonic class : Du. brak. damaged. 396. tan. G. inspect. faulty. trumpery. brak. brakyne. brack-gut (Sanders). find fault — — — fuse matter. in which sense the OHG. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. find fault with. reject. Lat. glowing coals. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. . bridde. broen. bric-a-brac. to scorch. phlegm. nounce unsound. It. embers. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned.D. and as an adj. vrage. bronze. filth. sunburnt. keep warm. hot. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to sort brakovanie. a cough Hal. to throw blame upon. progeny of birds. — a spark. OFr. Fl. brokers' goods. . Du. — Fl. from break. want. bronze. refuse Fr. et A. abject. from makel. to hatch. couratier. The Langued. wrack-good. In the . Du. ordure. brwd. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. to sort goods . bracker. try . refuse wares. Alb. ODu. slaae vrag paa. e. as. hraki. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters.— Breed. screatio Junfus . bronzo.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. racher. : ' . embers. Pro v. mud. brut. a broker. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. to hatch G. analogous to Bohem. Bronzare. brasa. Dan. briiten. Sp. . It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. or brascla. bredan. the spawn of fishes. rejection Pol. spittle. to be wanting. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. cherish. Kil. On • tliis principle the G. criticise (makeln). Russ. wraken. to sit on eggs. matter of blame weak place. G. to brew. burning. merchandises de rebut G. bring eggs and spawn into active life. This word shows the same relation to It. Fr. inspection. brands. to . to hatch. 38. with. goods damaged by sea-water. bronze. to blame. The use sunburn. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. Grisons brinzla. dial. to pick. cracker. an . damaged. Per manus et old worthless horse. to — garble. S. fermenting. to nourish. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. Bret. mediationem quorundam J. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. brid. a makeln. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. rejected.D. an outcast or rejected sheep. and to reject the damaged and unsound. fish-spawn broden. Pl. to pro- to reject . See Wreak. tussis. wreak. to sparkle. blur. . to criticise. hrak. brokoti. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brydio. to braze. vile.— Lib. braeck goed. find fault with. corrector. brackefi. See Broth. vile. refuse brakovat. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. cast Lith. brieden.— — . to spit . Pl. but from the primary sense of the It. an operation performed over hot coals. . brass does to Sp. pan metal. sort. a chicken. hot. term was correcfo^ir. to roast on the embers. brack-gut. Prov. To correct an exercise is to Lib. — . brokas. warm. a brood . raca. wrak. in the sense of rejection. refuse. Alb. abbronzanchiare. brod.D. It may be compared with It. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. embers to brund. brunds. Sc. lack. make out. Jam. selection. spittle . has exactly the force of G. which E. brod. to pick and choose. try out. Bronze. to reject. i. brae. whence the modern courtier. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. braken. dirty. brot. and fishes . as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. G. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. Brood. ON. to be hot. buy and sell by commission. broiid. on. fault censure. If to vomit . — broeden. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. refuse. brack. insects. a fault.D. sbrinzlar. designation is indkler. raquer. stain. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. brasa. In those countries the term braker. racaille. . correctarius. the young of any animal . • . to garble. See Brackish. For the same reason the Kiittner. whnake. to copper. To blame mens ware. brumo. Tooke's Catherine. refuse brakowad. a breach or flaw. — point out the faults. refuse goods. Pl. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. w. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. Abbronzare. bronce. to emit sparks. Adelung. brechen.

. vigour. brue . waves. &c. brouter. surDu. to boil bruithe. bruith. bruno. a . Kil. A — . to sprout.spross. brow. to bear patiently.) . Serv. brouches. Catalan brossa. broit. frater. a spring. bntdien. face. brotar. bruich. laissent Domunculum. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. . brodem. brukjan. broza. brwd. brmi. It. chen. to burn. to browse. G. noise. eye-brow. brodo. brogues. . broud. bank. thairj w. juice of meat. Bohem. seethe. — . . brozia. spuma. Brow. bruscosd quam de arabili. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. Du. to scald. Sp. a bud.D. shoots. a hill. who is steaming with sweat. brouic. brosses. to shoot. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. brotar. dumetum. sprot. sprout. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. signifying twigs. broth Brown. OHG. enjoy Goth. breh. pour boiling water over. cabbage soup . Mid. bruich. broem bark. eye-lash . simmer from the murmuring AS. boiled . eye-lid. breg. BROOK brook w. from Goth. as small-pox. brass. steam from heated bodies. bruceti. to bubble up with noise.braubiti. circuindedit cum familia. Wtb. or broken up . 105 Brook. brouet. edge. shrubs. brabruach. and Sc. Commonly Teutonic. strength. may be connected with Russ. It is Brother. eye-brow. a bud brous-koad. The AS. brushbroccoli. bushes. strength Ir. Roquef. Fr. borde. grow brossa. AS. heath. . brdtaj Gael. brewis. to roar. juice of briars. Gael. shore. margin. infusion. t— Cot. sprouts . maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. a caldron. OFr. bryn. brstiti. broeye. branches. to use. brlgh. to boil. bros. Russ. brink. infusion the barley bree. shrub with leafless pointed edging. bryn.— Overyssel Almanack. a hill. pottage. broden. brd. briihe. Fr. a sprig. was originally used in the innocent sense of . bor. from ripa. as rhododendrons. Prov. as Fr. riviere. bordeau. bordel. the bubbling or springing up of water. briu. buds. w. a confused noise of winds." Serv. pith. spirit. . or shoot. Fr. . brucan. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . Tam de terrS. fur Broom. shoot. . has briw.' Due. augen-braune. Celtic. or bushes and scrubby growths. thicket. Pol. wood . fabric consists. brosst. Sanscr. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. edge. Prov. broc. eat. brawdj Slavon. break out brewet. a shrub broust. juniper. sprout. broca.. Bret. G. and It. grow into a bush. Brothel. heath. a shore. brouskaol. &c. Gael. brpuster. sproc. sodden. Bav. to boil. brus. . plants composed of twigs. of plants broust. . of which the variety of forms. sap. heat. in which brinnan. frui. To digest. Ger. heat explaining the Prov. useful G. It. breg. broccola. ceales briw. Du. brocco. bank. brennen. to murmur. b7-un. Ppim. bree. frucius. the colour of things burnt. Fr. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. riviera. G. warmth ch'an. hot. bruth. brew . on. Gael. Manx broie. broth. . bryii. a bruth. brothas. rage. a little house or cottage of timber. and Slavonic families. to spring . ale . . to border. brost. braew. G. Gr. — ' . . brau. thick bush brousta. sense the Sc. hovel. broo. braussa. AS. brauwe. brun. cabbage water. The origin is a re. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Sc. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Bohem. brosses. a river. sprocco. brio. to browse. a sprout. brusmalt. broi. bruc. a hut or cottage It. Pl. brudi. border. 'Lzt. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. bros. house of ill fame. braces. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. bruddeln. brad. broth brothaire. Lat. Limousin broudi. hut. and also border. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. breg. briar. brost. on. eminence . The softening down of the consonant bud. to Pl. brow of a hill. w. brouser. bruitheati. bud. brst. surface of Broth. protecting the eye. broieii. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Russ. to make sprouts brous-gwezen.brink. eye-brow. pfriemkraut. eye-brow. verge. . deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts.D. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. low The AS. brous. forms appear related to the Ir. a little . Here we find throughout the Romance. bhratrj Zend. broth. to use. kail brose. See Bramble. It. to use bruks. — exiit et heath. cia. Bohem. mettle. Browse. shore . rerum decoctarum. &c. bruach. a source Gael. Gael.brons. . (for brodem). meal. broth the ocean Sw. bank. braun. Due. signifying low wet land (Brem. to boil. dialects is very different. Cot. — . awl-plant. broth is sometimes used . . &c. OHG. bank. brov. sordes seu strigmata young branch. eye-lid. borda. perhaps burnt coloilr. vigour. Gris. Sp. bruithim. G. iVlanx broogh. Dan. browys. Fr. Bret. properly boiling water briihen. bregh. bratrj Lat. But the Walach. a derived from the boards.

The same relation holds good between G. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. to butt. Allit. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. to stumble. Fr. a bud. ON. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Pr. Cot. seems named from burst(on. brizeto. . borste. E. Bav. rubbish. brusc (Diet. effort. . appearin Goth. brusg. brous. bruc. biirste. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Port. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband.— — i. brosse. brustia. The Lat. also a head-brush. splinters. insultus. a brush. it schall be al Sw. bricalio. bruscolo. brus. quasi twigs. a bud or sprout Bret. biirste. E. Gael. to cleanse. modification of the same root which gives the E. a bush of hair. brist. . bruise exOFr. Sp. Pr. G. a brush . Piedm. briketo.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. tremely. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface.). borste. AS. brustid. a blow. rods. a brush . Gael. abroncar. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. brist. borste. OE. Fr. Broach. and It. quisquilise. brik. p. Gael. rubbish. bruskr. Prov. Pr. twig. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. a little brizal. burs. . borste. but on whom it schall to brisen him. twig. It. Fr. Lang. a flax comb. Beryn. a — — (Agea) said. brosst. G. broza. brottcher. Sw. irruo. Pr. fescue . and sighid therewithal. — OE. a horse-brush. and in the second place a besoiB. a rumbling. and Piedm. —Fabyan. brikan. dust. bross. a noise. B?-usske. mg Cat. dust. NE. Palsgr. * Brunt. ling or heath for brushes. bush. wool-card. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. — Fr. a bristle. briser. crush. a mote. to break. Wicliff. of twigs. a brush Swiss bruske. borste. brossa. a brush . desbrisar. brossa. and .). Hall in R. a brush . Bret. bruzir. detergere . to make a rumbling. a briser. Bruit. 174. bruyere. brMt. broustia. a brush. Text Soc. Brunt of a daunger. borst. Piedm. britar. bris. brisd. flax-comb brossettes. Brush. to make brusshes on. 134. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. — those signifying a sprig. E. broza. brise. orts. wool-card. Brunt. —Chaucer. It. fasx . Poems. to crush. to break to bits . the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brunt. See next article. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. wool-card. dust. Gael. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. a tuft of heath . bris. or shoot. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Prov. Sw. Cot. fragments. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. a brush. Fl. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. burt. Castr. Diez. bud. crum bit . bruscia. and actually come in collision. brusco. brico or brizo. Bruise. Fr. That in all haste he wouli. Fr. and also Brush. . dust. brusca. sordes.). an enmy. A. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. into a multitude of points. Prov. or sodenly comyn' dust. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brist. In E. . bruito. coal See Breeze. To brush then would be to dust. brit. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. a shrub composed of small twigs . shock. brisar. brosst. brista) or breaking out . Prov. break.— Palsgr. brysan. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. to break or burst. bruiser. shivers. brushwood. bruscolo. . britar. bris. brust. broust. ca7-bo>i. heath. as It. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. wood composed OE. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. 201. bushy ground. remnants of hay or fodder. Lang. broken. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . It. blow burcar. tuft of grass or hay. to brush. bross. chips. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. K. brousso. a crum. And that best is. brusca. brist j Port. brossar. rubbish. — a bush. bris. to strike the foot against an obstacle. OFr. bruit. bruire. field. brugir. escousse. briiis (in the pi. Pm. insilio. The Bav. brous. brusco. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. bruis (sing. a bristle. On the other hand. to break. Pm. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. brosse. shoot brouskoad. brustia. Alexander.

to knock the type of anything round and swelling. bukke. molle.boukaat. very generally designated by the same puk. buquer.tare. bucata. tuft. From an imita. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. to soften . — .D. bugd. lye. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. the upper for coifee. Gael. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. a steep for flax. mokry. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bube. Formerly. to a place used for the mouillir.byka. watery bud. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. thunder gently . to filter. caned' Hence those who established them. to stick. bduclien. buck-ashes. This bubette. maban and baban. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. bucaIndies. It. de la Floride. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. soft. Fr. soft It. faire la lessive. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. . because bucare does not in Marsh). to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. Sc. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. . a bubble . the lower soak in lye. I. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. tender. says Laudon. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. lye. Fr. and Fr. mollire. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. Bubble. blast or strike with the forehead. bubiti. Sp. The name. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. w. and as a verb. top. buck-ashes.derivation has been much discussed. hump. . boc. or projecTo Buck. boh. Pref A. See Dupe. who resorted to the islands beichen. from weich. to butt. bublati. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). open lath-work. to bubble. soft . hog dressed whole). to soften. byge. it is beuchen. boil animals. bouk. colada. Bret. to butt. bokni. bub. a ashes. a push. Esthon. buborek. not so plentiful a commodity. as a buck rabbit. rap. pokka7na. Etym. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. A . a knock word. the linen at buck. moist. as G. But see Bristle. from colar. to soften. Dan. to Gael. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. is 1. ac. boc. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. moczyd. bifbel. a. bubBuck. . bouc. The natives of Florida.lessiver. to which in their language they call bou. w. buquer. a. 1586. In G. to wet Pol. . pup. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. designation of a knob. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. bwch. to butt or jurr Dan. Diet. knock. March 28. tap . — — ' A : ' ' . Bohem. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs.to allow a free current of air. at a door. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. mote. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. tender. The term bocan is still ap. Cot. bub. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. The place of such a 2. Illust.steep or soak. also applied Una. The cipally on the Spaniards. — . Fr. or mok. the first wheal.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. to murmur. bucquer. to bump as a bittern.' Palsgr. wood. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. soft. in which the flesh dish. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . . little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. boucaner. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. 1857.buchen. to soak foul linen before washing. News. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun.-wtt miekki. of wind. and the bunch. bucking. bog-aske. mieknad. and exercised their cruelties prin. drying of produce. a to the male deer. a hole. a bubble. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Bret. Fin. was called in Fr. . bugada. buerj It. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. blister. . bubauti. set of pirates in the spread. does not hold. Magy. when soap was tion is commonly taken. hump. Bohem. bubseti. pukkata. The word was very generally Buccanier. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. was called bucking the linen. Pol. 17th century. The male goat. erweichen. plied in the W. Our next illustration represents the Bocan.wet Lat. buchen. different form.biiken j Svi. It. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. soft. BUBBLE bruschetta.— . ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. It. to buck. and then to other wild tumour Lith. to soak. Sp. a fescue. to soak. Magy. Pol. bubbola. to strain. a bubble. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin.

Sw. a bud. bukke-blad. bucket Fl. bloquier. loud Cot. dinted. ' . to butt. to thrust. to stir. bub. II I'a feru desor I'escu. bolgia. Budget.' Boccaccio. a small shallow and open tub.. trunk of wood covered with leather. Port. a stump buckle up. bul. bloca. Fr. a little coffer or turgidus.n. Prov. Buck-bean. OFr. rump of fowls . bogla. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot.' Hal. pulga. in the beginning of to pierce holes. . turgere buczendig. a buclder or shield budge. a pustule bout.r//'. knob dwfr yn boglynu.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. to budge. scion. boucle./a. bod. and the reference to It. brobrocchiere. also a leather tuft . bouger. Mid. protuberance. boaLat. butt .). a boss. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. as in Fr. boucler.chissima. no business to do that. skins pushit'. boulj. w. Pied. bucherame. a buckle or protuberance. Fr. . bouge. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. Fr. set of a plant in bulk. a fold ceilio. bo. In Lat. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. ble. to boss or swell out G. a shield. bouton. the root of the Slavonic words gran. a bubble three thyngis.Lat. ON.poot. swelling. . and of the Lat. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bug. boucaran. W. Bav. weich. It. explaining Fr. bloca. Du. dim. bucherare. Prov. bdden. boucle. G. a curl. Buckler. a leathern sack. butzen (Du. bouter. ' . stud. bud butzen. knock. bunch . of a surface. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. thrust. to move. budge. jSouKoXiKog. sboge. potz. Hence quel. — . bunch. bouprobably identical with inok. See Bulk. to bud or bocla. K. push forwards. pwt o Fr. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. The word is a ddyn. Bret. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. Swab. inboachen. water message. bollire. boiling.anything short of its kind. dint . bocla. w. ein. buckel. prick in a target. a pail or flowers. The entire train of thought is bucket. words is converted into b.' And this sacrament bus have dial. of bac. boglyn. weichen. or male of to boil . Russ. * Bud. male or botzen. Mid. boss. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. — . nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. So on. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. a wallet. Fr. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. convexity. and weichen. It. knob . soft. from Gr. to pen cattle. pulga. a . Dan. goat's hoof. Bret. motus creber.stumpy man. It termination is lost. bullion. bouk is a pail and with the dim. is doubtless fallacious. to swell. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. Wtb. from bo. To thrusting part of a long body. boccula. bedde. a cowherd. a budget. a boy. no wheel bogeilio. whom it is still much in use. A buckle or fastening for botch. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. . from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. to graft or bud trees. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. to un bout d'homme. Gael. Fr. agreeing with Gael. were To Budge. Fr. become bochen. Bucolic. — — . call bo. a bump. butzen K. Fr. bulka. stir. Behoves. seen in Hesse botz. wallet. * Buckle. call. butzen. cattle. a navel. built. with let. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. of bouge. above mentioned. Cot. to line with fur. bugnir.may probably be explained by N. — — . the word w ' — . . butzen. OHG. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. boqueranmis. weich. bump. clump. clasp of a book. boach. . from bugr. bod. ornamental stud. It. a ring. NE. child. Du. having a boss.. bode. It. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. call. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. the radical image seems to be a set plants. imbuere. bucolicus. bouljein. to word. probably from the notion of bubbling. a servant. to poke. bulais daqui. butze. don't stir from hence. bulga. pote. mani. excrescence. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Bus. bolgetta. noise . a budget. bulla.) as to soak. boss of a shield. lump. a shoot. Bav. don't a baby).. The knob or projection formN. ' . a dumpy gin. botzen. a boss. This expression boglire. A water-plant with leaves and gille. Pol. bougette. stroke. where the G. Budge. a short thick man. The dressed fur of lambs. . bulb.stuff. to 'soak.pode. hump. . a tuft. Dan. buachazlle. like a bean. swelling. to boil. fur. gjeit-klauv. . . a trough).) . blow. Prov. great pouch. butz. bouclier. boucle. with a central boss. bougette. crack. botzen. Lat.t-le!L{ * Bud. put.' Schm.goa. with which it was ornamented. bog and G.— . pwtio. need. * Bucket. Hardly identical with Fr. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. is to shrivel up. The Fr. macero. rabodS. case of leather . belonging to the calling of the chen. Sp.

bugle. Buff. W.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. A — Bug. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. boo. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. bau ! children. botffon. bolgetta. to excite terror in Macleod. a clap. Sc. scarecrow . bauwi. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. A blow. buffalo. as from Lith. a budget. as wine that hath taken wind. a jester. le reste emplissant d'eau. a goblin). buffen. — La Crusca. buffetto. a puff. God's boast seemed feare children. bubaRuss. breath. Swiss baui. things in Jam. and in Fr. buffeteur. Limousin bobal. bubach. Magy. tastes. Thus buffet would a tapster. bw! It. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. puff. duff^ dull. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. buffare. bufHe. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Cot. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. also the skin or heck of a buffe. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. The use of the exclamation children. btifetarius. Buffoon. bobaow.D. Fr. bouffer. 265. — thence it has been transferred in E. buffa. or wild ox. buffare. Sc. Mid. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. w. — retailing buffeter buffetier. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. bufogni. buffer. a cuff or buffet. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Gael. Buffeter. from souffler. wine may The verb in taverns. — — — Buffet. Fr. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. dull sound. buMagy. made by a person. the buffe. dial. to beat. Romola. to blow . Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Hence the E. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. a dull BUG From 109 — A . a hollow sound. Cot. bukow Ikow.— Buflae. often blown upon. buffle. Fr. buff leather. From buff! of terror. popo. — Z. as Diez remarks. Lith. a hobgoblin. Buffalo. to strike face to represent the unknown. G. een duffen toon. —Boggart. Fr. rebuff. for this purpose is very widely spread. by metaphor. bouffer. It. bubiti. yar^aa. E. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bolgia. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. buffets. him but Boyd iugges. buffet.—Buffet. a skin. wauwau. . also a G. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. to marre often tasting it ./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . ' They rether puffed at him. tabernarius. human. bw. Fl. bubus. to blow souffleU. It. dausa. buffet. Buff. to a representation of his voice. a bugbear. The cry made to excite terror is then used. to signify an indefinite object of terror. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. mumming. smells . thus be translated to tap. a block-headed noddy. to give a as of a blow. Esthon. often covering his E. From bulga. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . site The two — — iii. bufogni. buffle-headed. It. to jest or sport. bwg. Pl. baubau. senses. Lat. Pl.D. word other cases. made to —Bugbear. bugs. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. from It. as emblematically making light of an object. of colours. buffet. stupid. mingled with water. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. boman. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. cuff .D. to give benti. while in Sp. bumann. Fr. air. buivol. Bufetarium. bo ! an interj. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. soufflet. or hath been Cot.' perfield. It. pulse . Teet-bo. a In . Lith. &c. Lat. to bellow . caupo. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror.' La Crusca.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. A puff with — Fl. colour. dausinti. sounds. to puff. leathern bucket. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. to rePl. to blow. — Bogle. bugbear. to frighten . a buffle or a bugle. The children were playing in an oppocomer. confused. blurt or puff with one's mouth. the place whence the wine was drawn. either alone or with various terminations. a side-board. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. to puff. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. deadened.

buculus.. boa-peep. pugaf. bug. and is Deutsch. A similar applica. . bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Swiss ing. The w. insect. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. bauginti. oxen. * 2. Swiss booggen. poggl. bucula. any disgusting animal. bogk. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Lett. — — terror. Fl. biignt. Lap.Fr. protuberant. superbire. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Lith. It. w. bug-bear. Grose. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Hal. a silk-worm. pugalo. the black a maggot. It. bugle. troll. rose-bug. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. with more or less modification represents bau. Lesachthal. boo. Bug. Cheval de trombugti. Magy. Parolone. high. Swelling. a bug-bear. to creeping things. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. fear. bug dung-beetle. proud. and bugle. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. an insect. pujalo. 2. gad. bwg and E. threatening. is the dim. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. . earwig bau da grascha. bogil bo (e. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. saucy. The name of bug is — . Deut. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. il brutto Demonio. 1551.. blustering. also a bug-bear. Serv. tion of the beetle tribe. and a boggarty ing. mask ' . Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. disgust. a proud overbearing man pujat'. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bok. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. a bugbear for children. Grisons bau. terrifying ward. Manx boa. then a horn for drinking. I. fierce. bug-bear. bugbear. Same as buffle. — . quos what produces dread or disgust. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. i. a goblin. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. a buffalo. swollen.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bukati. . forSc. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . The final guttural of W. buba. according to Coles. Illyr. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. scarecrow . buffle. to frighten scarecrow. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. well as the terrific object. Bible. bold. coco. Magy. fette. a boogg. as an object of dread. the Devil. long. monster. An ornament of female dress condread. Bogge. Schmidt. baco. Bdronie. W. . 493. insect. bukashka. provincially an insect. shepe and gootes. worm. Stalder bog. Mundart. to origin in the expression bugs words. Big. larva (a bug-bear. Sp.loud noise. iv. to take bug. thus connected with bug. Chaucer. as Buffalo. ghost. to roar Aasen. vermin. big. roarHal. used in the same sense. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear.— . to take fright. boeuf sauvage. bugler. paws the ground . bugar. a misshapen person. 3. a. xiv. banian boube. bug-bear. Bug as a lord. Russ. of bugabo was given. bogle. bogil. bau (Pureiglia. great or bug words. beugler. to bellow. hert. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. especially to beetles or winged insects. a rabme. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. tumble-bug. given in Chaucer. Mid. Hence bugle-horn. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. Sw. bwgar. — boogg. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. (Spurrell). an object of terror. the buggaboo w. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. threatening.Lat. bogk. to bellow. buggabod). — — ' . hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. tion of the word signifying an object of 2.3uhtii&:. bbgni. the word is lin) bbgge. dial. of pipes sewn on. Bugle. is very common. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. BUGLE Tentennino. See The name terror). bwgwl. a beetle. booggen. roo. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. E. bobal. : no BUG . also a bug-bear. language any kind of insect. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. a bug-bear. also a baco-baco. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. b'dgni. to take fright. Fl. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. and in Lat. high-sounding words. affright. — — . and in child's Magy.

compare Da. trunk. Bulge. buc. bukr. belly. bouge. bellows builgean. to swell. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. formed a farm. bulcke. tumeo. sedes. byli. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. To Build. bubbling up. bolle. dial. G. bullka. Jno. to build. bauch. a bubble. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bol. bolgna. skin bag. gebolgen. a. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. boss. Gr. Pr. bouk. . Dan. to gather. bulgen. head . or cargo of a ship.' Fl. a leathern sack or portmanteau. balg. thorax buick. boa. vulva. From till. to blow. trunk. belly van de kerche. It. bulki. blister. villa. acervus. . . a bunch. belly. OSw. hull of a ship. swell. jnake bulch. to bubble up. . whence bylja. bugue. Lat. OSw. bolg. bulbe. bulg. crowd. womb. See Bulk. For the latter sense ' — My . the womb. Lat. The radical sense is shown in Russ. . a bulb Du. ne. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. a heap. . pocket. inhabit. bunch or projection. bulk or capacity of anything. to swell. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot.pulks. to bubble up Pol. Mister. bulked or bumped out. blow. mass. herd^ swarm pulkd. projection. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb).' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Muratori. anything prominent. to raise a habitation. G.— . — . beuck. Pm. bolle. principal portion. to belly out. as well as is very variable. be protuberant. turgeo bolnyd. He found a country fellow dead drunk. Pm. has bulbuk. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. . 1388. puff. bulgen. a straw corn-vessel.' Palsgr. leather sack. I. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. the belly. boulge. bolgan. bilge. to break bulk. G. . Bourser. bulbus. bolgia. bua. on. Bulch. — . bolgetta. ball. bulka.' Cot. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bulge or convex part of a cask. belly Cat. . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. Dan. bulk is a partition of boards. a leather sack or budget Fr. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. knob. pulkas. . Othello. lump. bubble. or. and bulbukd. MHG. — — . See how this tode bolneth. ' . bubble. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. balco. balcone. ON. Lith.). unevenness Sw. swollen. and N. . bulkaf. Bav. bo. Boss^. blister Manx bolg. the body Du. body. Melancholy. pod ON. globule bolg-lhuingey. boss of shield. hollow. a protuberance. belgja. bulwis.d. bulk. — — . Kil. Lith. bulge or bilge. . bulbe. The addition of a dim. a prominence. bulle. Pr. the head of an onion. at riufa bulkann. bubble {palgan tiisge. bladder. mass. body of an animal. a. boss. cumulus. of E. belly. swell. — Bulb. to spring. a stage or scaffold. balgs. snorting on a bulk. A — ' — Bulk. Here stand behind this bulk. domicilium. pouch builgeadh. w. bed of a river. chest. to bol. bug. to undo the cargo. bale. a tuberous or bulbous root . PoXj3a. (3oX|8oc. Lett. cultivate. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. of an inflated skin. . the contents of the hold. Ptg. ^ — . the capacity or burden of a ship. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bol. in Sc. the position of liquids in the word In English. habitaculum. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. swell. to puff up bolginn. The Walach. buk. nave or body of the church van 't schip. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. the potato G. Gr. body of a ship . belly Sw. . belly.' Festus. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. Hal. knobby. it again. tumidus. in bulk. a bubble Gael. a globe. bag. and put it home. as it was merly written in English to bylle.' Anat. blister.'— Cot. Palco. belgr. bolnyn. the carcase. . a round bulky body bwlgan. Bulk. or feminine termination gives Bav. See bollekeii next article. Bolke or hepe. or bear out as a full purse. in vessel. In the representation of natural sounds. Sp. van loock. m um Placentiae. bolso. Mandeville. pimple. swollen OE. balg. . bauen. as water beginning to boil bolg. bol. wallet. Hence e. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. a water-bubble). a lump or mass. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. ' . bole. biilken. bwlg. to throw out a convexity. a dint in a metal . knob. skin of an animal. knot in thread. bubble. ON. straight will he 2. — — . hold or bilge of a ship. boss of a buckler. . husk. bulne. buhe. With these must probably be classed ON. were a habitation. belly. stuffed bag. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. lump. trunk of the body. ' . skin flayed whole.

bullern. bolli. child by the represents the hobgoblin. 2. signifying roaring. The final element tergeist. BuUiou. polten. a tadpole. pimple. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. bulla. w. Eullrusli. BulUiead. bulke. a wasp. it is boulet de canon. &c. any great-headed or studded nail. lumpheaded . balgeting. N. a seal. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. whence Mod.. bollar. boss or stud. sloes. . Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. urchens. a scare-bug. bugbear.. a seal. pwl. bullos. Bullace. bietebau. large.' do not go by the dangerous water. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bauli. a hobgoblin. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. and thence terror. a bowl. a hornet. Bret. bwbach. ba.D. bole or trunk of a tree. beams or boards. boulct. elves. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. Pm. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bolos Fr. A papal rescript. many to protuberant objects. It. G. bollon. a stud. boss. — — Bull. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. scarecrow. from the noise. Dan. embossed work. stud. The male W.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. This word is used in several senses. a tadpole . bouillon. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers.. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. blunt. of boule. See Bowl. hhint. coarse. to tical with Sw. a little fish nearly all head. bollos de relieve. 2. Lith. And The word bullerbak. as geting. Fr. bolla. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bulk. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. poli-cheannan. The wild plum. bellow. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. however. It. dial. bulle. a blockhead. Du. Bullet. the seal affixed to the document. on the contrary. poltern. W. lumpish. a bul-begger. a bull. as a mill-dam or the like. to bubble. leraures nocturni nigri.'— ' Palsgr. Cot. from baula. G. bullocks. to boil. boillon.Fris. bubble. from Lat. bullus. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. billon.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a hobgoblin. as in E. /SouWivu. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna.Gr. — A tition in a ship. bulk of a thing. i. Du. stamp. Pl. bullebak. bulderen. of Witchcr. billoti in Fr. the matrix or die . brass-headed nail . a bulox polos. a cow. eth and frighteth. I. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch.D. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. but is more probably iden- palchetto. pollach. A lace tree. a framework of balks. bal. any embossed work. as It. whence bullire. stupid . and vellon in Sp. bellocier. Fr. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. Sp. is called a ball. large of its kind. bulloi. to seal. bolli. Bullbeggar. to bellow. blister. Du. a beam or rafter. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. which may probably be the origin of the name. bwlas. in N. is of a class with Pl. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. The bullfrog. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . — Fl. of the ox kind.. a noisy violent fellow. spirits. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. thick. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. penbwl. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. Bully. G. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. a bull Swiss bullen. Gael. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. See Billet. from the Lat. 3. b2iggaboo. in the sense of base metal. Terriculamentum. Gold or silver uncoined. witches. stud. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Bullfrog. as the ornanails. round glass phial. w. Du. stamped money. also a parFl. from Fr. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. ON. bouillon. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. poll-cheannach.D. is said to make a loud bellowing noise.lle de fusil. also of the tadpole or young frog. Scot's Deso. dim. bulla. to emboss . it may be observed that a bullet in E. bwla. biitzibau. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. assito. from the use of the equivalent terms. baula. G. tition of deals instead of a wall.

boisterous fellow. 2. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. bustle. The Sw. to . IIL st.D. primarily the ramparts of a town. is bullion — A — buller. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. buller-bak. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. D. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. — — plate d'argent. ^i^/«. Philip le Bel in Due.d. argentum and silver.' reals of standard currency. buller-bas. block-werck. Bum. AS. — Boom. Du. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Hal. on the other hand. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. vallum. a boisterous. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. ^Bully-rook.' agger. &c. 9 E. ON. blunder-buss.' for the purpose of exchange.. The 27 Ed. to drum Lat. G. blaterare. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. bol-werck.' Again. up was termed monnaie de billon. or a humblebee. polterer. a floor. violent overbearing person. boulevard. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. To bum. 4 Hen. bommele. a noisy blustering fellow. IV. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. It. Fris. Du. to make a noise . but now is the central part of the town. bastion. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Bum-bailiff.D. — bombam?nen. agrees with e. ground. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. honunele. sound. minari verbulderen. beat a — Hal. — Bumto . and porter au billon. legaggio di metallo. to make a droning Du. III. to dun. 2. Miege in Hal. droning. bomtnen. a hectoring. propugnaculum.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. blunder-buss. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. buller-brook. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. boene. The Stat. The cry of the bittern. Kil. provides. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. ierd-boeyme. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. a blunderhead. Thus ' ble. The decried coin. — Bump. c. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. provides. perturbare saevis dictis. To bully is to bluster.the ramparts. buller-bas. Bully. the soil. hum. from boden. furious man. 'lega. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. resonare. 1305. c. G.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Fr. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. bulderen. or work of defence. is called bumping or bells. Kiittner. bodem. baluarte. violent. un faux brave. biihne. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. bombilare. Du. bolderen.. bottom. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. 1687). a bumble-. scaffold. ierd-beame.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. botm. Hence bom and ban. Bailey. 14. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . c.' Stat. buene. by corruption boulevart. bottn. To bum. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. From the notion of a humming. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. buller-jaan (bully. to terrify by noise and clamour. debacchari. a stage. then in general a rampart.' ' mettre au billon. BULLY with which coins were stamped. Hence — . intonare. poltem. G. 10. St. Kil. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. Sw. To Bum. a. Etym. Fris. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Bully-rock. For bottom. 2. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. noise. A. clamour. John). a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings.

stubble of beans. a boss Lith. inconsiderately. See Boss. bugno. strapping. bu<rnone. Pm. throw down with a bang. an old stump of a horse. any round knob or bunch. a rabbit. should probably be a short tail. bignet. bum-boot. a very wide boat used by fishers in S.' Bun. bun with ON. to bang down. Again. Bumboat. one ever saw the word in that shape. while bulch was traced through Gris. ner. from bunsen. bung. a heap. bmidt.. — stalk . binge. seems to unite Gael. bun. to . tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a round mass . or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bulse. bunnion. Pl. Pm. the Pr.D. bans.D. E. knochen. a lump on the foot bunny. — — — — ' — knock. bunke.— Pr. foundation w. root. Bang sen. especially girls. Sc. H. a knob. Related on the one side to Pl. bugnone. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. a into Dan. strike E. a person employed to dun one for a debt. bottom. Holland and Flanders. — — Bun. from knock) It. bunsen. . . A clumsy. a pocket Sw. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot.). a bud. bugno. banke. cluster. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Fl. pompon. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). to beat. clown. Then.! . bunch— Hal.D. truss E. Moor. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Pr. w. Hal. bonnock. root. Bump. are dim.D. Bony. Probably from bump. bulto. Du. stem or base. stalk. Manx bonkan. a large . bunny. gibber. . to bang ON. a dry No . Mrs Baker. Bunch. bunka. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a bunch. pwmp. Suffolk bonnka. . bunkc. Bums it's hit. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bunga. a. E. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. a bunch Magy. passes Sw. S. a swelling from a blow. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. gibbus. so the form btmk. See Bunch. pumpurras. bunki.^Cot. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. . mto Sp. bottom bun feoir. bugnet. the tail of a hare. He fult dat et bunsede. a wallet. dial. lungeous. pwmpio. a bump. callus. lenten loaves. to thump.pummel. as in other cases. a dried hemp-stalk. a heap or cluster. Pm. Ir. . ! — knocking. . tundo. bunt. forms. bumtel. stubble Manx bun. Fr. Bunk. . round mass of anything. poumpido. bunan. pompette. bumsen. bun eich. or to the mass by which it is given.' Palsgr. knuckles. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. pwmpl. calamus. . also for taking a pilot to a ship. Sc. — Marine Diet. Bung^. Gael. a knock. pumpa. To bam. dial. bongie. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Daal bu7iseti. a Sp. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Gael. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow.-^Fl. noise. bottom. a heap OSw. bunga. . hdk passing and E. a tail (Macleod). buns. a rabbit. awkward. to ' . bund. bump. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. 1. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a boil (punkos bot. a heap. bunken. — — de dor bunsen. . Radically identical with Dan. and signifies consequently a mass. — round fruit. Hal. stump. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. applied to young persons.' he fell with a bang. or grete knobbe. Pl. E. knob or heap. Hal. — — Bun. Dan. bmike. w. hay stubble . a pumpion or gourd. bolsa. &c. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. bannock. bonge. stump. Li cake. blain. to knock . Bunewand. a knob . bundle. il me pousse. a knob. Bun. bune or boon. clumsy. bulscha. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Bumpkin. bon. Bunch. to beat. and related with ON. large. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. awkward clown. —Bunny. Bumsen. lump. bull. nor would it concern the public if he did. a boil or blain. a heap Wall.P. poumpi. stock. a bowl P1. It. any round knob or bunch.. Lang.— Bunnion. A Du. a hump. a knotty stick) Sw. Forby. bonuach. Hal. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. explaining E. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Thus e. trunk. stock. abrupt manbuns-wise. Probably for bun-boot. a bag or sack. to . a button. a purse . banga. boi7ieog. a. protuberance. He buncheth me and beateth me. bungersome. as we have seen E.S. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. Roding. . a swelling. . Dunchyn or bunchyn. See Bounce. to bang. Dan. bamgetroffen. to swell out E. Fr. a hemp-stalk. butt end. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Hence E. OSw. . Kyx or bunne. botn.

also a piinple in the face. bongani. clumsy performance. OG. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bourion. Hal. OFr. stocks or such OSw. to push. to bud forth. Fl. boya. with the head. to work at carpentry bangan. unskilful working. bou^e. — btiruii. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. . to knock. Fr. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing.— . See Borel. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to float. to bolt meal. Johansen. . ho-tapp. a bunch. bury. the bung of a barrel Lim. byndel. p. A load. bommen. sprig. to cobble. AS. boil or bubble up. bummle.D. or used as a receptacle for papers. bonde. * Buoy. Burganet. ' — work . From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker.punt. OFr. Burly. to bear. See Bourdon. — . Bung of a tonne or Lith. to hum. Fr. bongun. Cot. la Borgonota. boj. Fr. to push with the head del. and now more Bailey. bourgeon. bang. bondelj bundell. bag to catch the wind. to Somerset is to sift. The belly or hollow of a sail. — — To Bungle. bangla. to stnmi on an instrument. on. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. See Barbarous. bondeau. byrthen. russet. to kick. buret. burion. the stopper of a cask). modem bummle. and Du. the middle part of it. buret. bond. G. anchor or of a net boyar. buove. Burble. Rietz. Du. to gingle. Biu'geon. was formerly pronounced buro. a boye. guggle as water. The Fr. bourjon. Russ.Fris. racket. The stopper for the hole in a boia. bon. bindini. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. bundt. Bunting. stilmpern. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to shove. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Sp. or tuft. Sp. Banff. are from bouscfie. reddish brown. a water bubble made by rain. halm-tapp. especially in wood. clogs. coassatio et Du. whence in bure. to strum on an instrument. a botch. bundel. dark grey bura. to work ineffectually. shackles. Fr. knocking. The Magy. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bimge. bang. that the primitive meaning of shackle . the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. The Italian buio. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. klempern. borboUar. racket . tapp (whence tceppa. driving in the bung. A bubble. a cork. is originally a wisp or bunch . Pl. Bung. rumble as the bowels. bui. loosed from bonds. bote. noise. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bouchon. B. Lat. ghebundte. Sw. bourguignote. dial. would be the earliest float for an anchor. dial. tap. to hum. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. E. generally known as the material of which bud. So in Pol. It. bondir. gyves. bundle.' Festus in Diez. shove . Bunt. punishments for prisoners. Burden. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. A Dan. and van t' vat. G. 202. an anchor buoy. Prov. So Du. Burden. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. . a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. properly a Burgundian helmet. To bunt. knock. to in to stop the hole. a bung. of a song. bangla. to pype. to stop. B. . To burgeon. the young cloth used for sifting flour. contignatio. — Bureau. do a thing bunglingly. burboloti. a wisp of hay or straw. bondel-loos. to bungle. whence bunting. Sp. biirde. and bomme. bonde. buie. to stop. To do anything awk- wardly. bondon. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Kil. fetters. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. AS. and E. a bungler. to botch. bounta. boucher. The word is flags are made. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. to resound. Muratori. banghagr. to knock. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. To Bunt. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. a bunch Burbulas. the noise of drums. bolting-cloth. — — . Sw. Bunny. bunta. from beran. colligatio. to gingle. banga. Sw. Palsgr. . to hum. however. Bret. a drum . stiimpeln. See Bun. klimpem. Bundle. bunsen. borgonota. the loose open grow big about or gross. the float of an bundle. Sp. tinkle. Cat. bouche. dark. to push ghebondte. on. a sort of helmet. knocking. boei. tinker . fascis. Prov. Compare G. and the Sw. bove. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. or putting forth of a vine. in is Fr. bungande. N. dicimus rufum. working in wood (especially with an axe).

the flocks. bururus. bremmen. bourglairs. bourd. bud or sprout forth. Burryn. become big and proud. Todd. ' rugiens. the word seems Pm. G. From the same root E. jest of. to bouronna. to roar. to hum. Castrais bourril. Antiq. brunnr. surge or dashing of the sea . It. a lie. Burly. he rustle. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. 56. bouril. ridicule.. a gurgling ^. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. . Pren7ien. A legal term from the Lat. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. repartee . swelling borr-shuil. bears. borr. OE. Bret. It. The in. mockery. the er is a dresser of cloth. — .— . to sharpen on a whetstone. brima. Burler. compared with G. 122. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. to surge. must be explained on the same principle from G. roguing beggars. ends of thread. abourioner. boure. to effervesce. to swell oneself out as birds borras. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. thence.Ps. bruzir. From Fr. tumentum. angular . borni. to grind on a whetstone. Hence Bridel. Pm. burlare. Pr. a bubble. tahkoa. i5«r4 biiirte. to give an edge to. brinna. schleiffen. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. ^ttsa. from the roaring sound of flame. Limousin bourdo. a bubble to spring as water. brandung.' Cot. OFr. Goth. to Gael. brunna. to ridicule. burgi latro. brunnen. protuberance. OFr. A burl. the J in OFr. Burglar. as the / in purl. with little iron nippers called burling irons. knob. N. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu.' a jibe. to To Bum. brase. — Han to bruser op. brAler.— Pr. a bladder. brustle. to roar (as lions. Bouffer. briis^. a bud. Lang. like the wind in trees. and OG. Swiss Rom. Dief. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. singe or scorch with fire. brook. a margin. Probably. embraser. and the Burnish. pressa puret. Bav. fire. watery. which has given much trouble to etymologists. ON. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Gael. laer. bruse. Bav. crackle wood in burning Hal. with Dan. It. water.or bubbling up. spring-water bumach. to polish helmets. language of folly or ridicule. — — . j. to swell. swell up or strout out. de Vaud. a prominent eye borracka. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. See Berough. toast. to ridicule. like straw or small .bryna. . as of suggests. joking. The primary origin of the word. Walach. to burn. a wine skin. to roar 5. sea. grancelli. to set on fire.sharpen.. Bestiary. Fl. ^Notk. lorra. to burn.). See under Bore. robber. de Vaud. occupying much space. brun. to rub. burgeois. boiirre. bururus. a whetstone. Sw. So also Sw.). brimmen. brausen. brunir.ireui£r:e. borracka. condemnentur morti.. as in cousteau. &c. Fr. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. bourou. a spring a robber. big. Cot. to burgen or wax big. barrel. leo Fin. Fl. to murmur. to sharpen. purling. borujon. sicut sound. dial. flocks. warbling. ample of polishing metal. See Burgeon. born. is termed burling. to roar. — — . buirleadh. brinii. Fr. to polish. to bud . Burgher. a knob. to tell lies. to polish. Probably a modifica. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. explaining Sp. in Schm. brynsten. . a jest. and Dan. to puff up borr^ . pur (see Burgeon). See Burr. — — . brasa. a well. to roar. borrelen. burn. The Gael. taunt. to fiy. tahko. — . to swell with pride. to make a So from Fin. In the manu. a fountain. Burgess. burly. ii6 BURGESS Gael. is connected with brim. boura. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. Burgh. tion of the root which gave the OE. Supp. OE. burgen. lerre. Burlesque. is an Thus G. an edge. Fr. and the Burin. an &c. Compare also Piedm. Nat. has also borr. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Sp. Swiss Rom. ends of thread. to have acquired the sense of polishing. fires up. BURNISH i5«r/. a jest. In the same way ON. brinnen or Also ein roar. . brim or edge of anything. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Lang. burle of cloth. a purling hiwe brennen. like. brusler being a faulty spelling. A — — . a blaze. explaining the E. from Lat. brustolare. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. the roaring surge of the — — — . to bourda. purra. Sw. Schm. purrata. G. from bryii. to puff. sidiary element.. burgensis.j'own. sbornoi. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow.). brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. It is probable indeed that Fr. E. to roar.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Burn. bunch. blow. Prov.. broil. it of the knots. as Diefenbach bud. burren.

appears under the Lang. byrgan. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. ptcrren. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. to break. brizeto. bourse. preserve. To Burst. as it is still pronounced in N. burgisli. preserve. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. brest. g. brisd. Burse. brokil and brotil. bristeach. mentioned under Burgeon. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. In a met.. from AS. swell. its own protection. shuffling. iii. a sepulchre. ON. moss. bourrelet. . AS. Mid. to hide . tomb. an exchange. britar. casting bullets. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Fr. ultimately resting on the Gael. to bury .Lat. 5150. G. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. brittle. straw. bur. borre. peluca to Fr. &c. G. brisdeach. talk fast and indistinctly. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. the officer who bears the purse. E. that birds make their nests with. Burr. leather. byrsa. blurra. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. Burse. Compare also OE. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Swiss burren. a. chips or anything else Fl. foretell great storms at 3. 2. Sw. AS. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. pipaa. Burrow. — Translated by Kemble. any kind of quilting or stuffing. berstan. burre. byrstan. Shelter. the — — castle or fortress. from whence we pass through Sp. Burial. I. a wallet or scrip. borra. bris. purr. brast. byrigels. verbergen. brist. shales. The root forms brik. OHG. bris. i5(7&a. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. borre. brico. Gael. borsa. 225. a pad. caer is a — — — ' ' : . borra. stuffing. when they spring So in W. a barn or cupboard. to P'air. Hal. bourlet. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. to mutter Sw. bersten. Fr. borrow. Port. also ' any such trash as chaff. coo. as from Sp. brittle. Fris. borsia. a harness or collar maker) . shelter. dial. explained E. . bourse. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. bristen. Fr. idiom if 4. ' BURR AS. Beowulf. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. husks. break . Burr is related to buzz as protect. Cot. to save. brjota. be more in accordance with AS. a purse. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn.' The same word with burgh. to hide. as for the protection of a child's head. but it is more probably a development of It. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . shearing of cloth. Sexy. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. This word seems safety. Jam. Sw. Brun on bane. To Bury.' edge grew weak. save. Dan. &c. bolsa to It. fortify. to buzz. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. of England. and spelling. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. brista. karborre. and met. to stuff. makes the disbursements of the college. barza.— . cover. birr. whirr and burr. birigean. signifying protrude. an annular swelling. In OE. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. any rapid whirling biarga. byrgen. burial place. borsa.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. byrgels. whirr. Hence Fr. a purse. birgan. perruque. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. from Fr. and thence flocks 'of wool. keep.' Harris in Todd. Du. hair. brickie. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. brit. a rabbit burrow. brown. briketo. and. . brist. See Bulge. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. Burser. bres- — tan. bergen. impetus. beorgan. to burst. — Clare. ON. Du. buscha.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. It. -Grisons bulscha. briser. bur. dial. With a slightly different ghen. bourre. some people in pronouncing the letter r. bourrer. root borr. a port. whence Kil. of a body hurled through the air. ber•whirr to whizz. Bursar. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. prsnuti. also all such stuff as hay. OHG. -burse. ' ' — — burren. a place of defence. skin. briso. as in Northumberland. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. bolgia. S w. cwning-gaer. burra. It. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. beurs. a morsel. See Burgeon. A rabbit burmotion. force.

is thus accounted for. Brunne. hunch Du. the idea of knocking. mount. bosc. ' —P. the Moors and of Morocco.-^Bushel. and from the Fr. Fr. bousse. boucher. bua. OFr. for at buasc. thicket of thorns . berghen. in the For Skirnis . borseof trees. bousche. condere. The primary sense of hair . to dress. Du. to bow. barsc in Heimskringla. bulk.' The word is explained by — — . To Busk. It. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. Ptg. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. boisseau. Bush. borghen. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. make ready. knot. . bramble. tow. . fiast. Prov. bustellus. buxta. preserve. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. Malberg. gave Lat. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. diminutives. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. R. : — . And her ful sone tuft. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. van wijnbesien. a little box Dan.gur bidst austur um EySascog. It. busse. the past participle of the same verb bua. a bush. to prepare. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. in OE. a tuft. boistel. at bua sig. -idis. oneself. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. roquies. a box. Gr.' The buskin is said Bret. AS. a rampart. basse. then a tuft Sp. So from Fr.' a box. abdere. clusprobably Morocco leather. bundle. to stop. bussellus. apparently a secondary verb. Sibriht that I of told. a bush. occultare K. a tuft of hair. a clot of phlegm sart. The word frequency with which to busk is used. BUSH hreaw. iriCtf -ifoe. and not directly (as Du. boiste. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. Du. Brunne. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bousIn the other copy ser. besom). ieorh. tuft. Sw. Thus Froister . Le roy Richard mort. Harold G. bos. bairgan. whence at bua sik. defence. a gun biichse. induere vestes . to forest of Eyda. Sc. to direct one's course towards. . buxula. ' . The radical idea is seen in Goth. busk. ' . and he cites wisp bauschen. buysschen. to keep. a bunch of twigs. to bend one's steps. cluster. 2. busken. borcegui. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. boissa. to turn. projection.Lat. which would later have truast. G. and we actually find bushel. ' . a tuft guini.P. aheap of stones. buskr. AS. protect . bosta. brodequin tout noir. from the ON.Lat. verb. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bossida. Thence byrigean. bunch. . They busked and malced them boun.— ' ii8 {chreo. a box. brodiquin. to swell. Fris. Sir Tristram. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. hjul-bosse. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bush.fiasc. Mid. Layamon. as synonymous with to inake one boun. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. a hump. buxida. to sepulchre. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. boxta. barst. bush. In to Brutaine.) to hide in the ground. il fut couch6 l^jkema). bulge. lump. a grove bosch van haer. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. —Busk. burial mound. a been written buasc. or — Busk. bussare. bundle * Buskin. beorgan. . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. 410. bausen. rad. to bury. at buast. wisp. bouche. Du.boisteau. . a -tavern bush. to enclose in a case or box. a troop. bossen. whente beorg. bustula. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. bussel. Bouchet. sur une litifere. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. that the lend had lorn thorn. we have Fr. grapes. a wisp. OFr. dead. signifying to entomb. as boun is simply buinn. biichse. and thence Mid. To prepare. a bundle. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. 'at bua sik. brake. truasc. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. Bush. The bone in a woman's stays. or the like. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. a bunch. qualster-boscken. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. basse. See Box. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bosch (a diminutive ?). box wood to bush. to dress.' sheath. a tuft. See Bust. whence bouchon. bo7ich (Fr.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a box for measuring corn. ch). ' . thicket {buski. the land. a corpse).

bussen. a large cljest or particular applibox. otarda.' Plin. busto. besongne. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. a bush. crack . These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. a mouth. mouth. a kiss. its slowness of flight. To hurry or make a great B. ON. 7o\. 22. ottarda. Fris. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Prov. 1372. . mosequin. . butz. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. representing a blow. Comp. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. to Swab. — — — — It is like the smouldering. Bav. bnist. a Mid. Busk. body. or avutarda. business. a kiss. ' BUSY 2. putta. to make use of. of the human body (Grandg. says. lip. sunt quas Hispania aves . to bustle. besoigAe.). thick end. borcegui. an ostrich. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Bustard. So Wes- terwald munds. B. See Boss. and by transposition morchequi. — — difications of the same word. a blow. beso. pussa. baiser. bukr. Buss. also a It. Prov. tuft. Bust. ON. bulk. plated body or other quilted thing. morsequi. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). signifying trunk of a the body. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. also a busk. a projection. Walach.D. Sp. On the other hand. to occupy. the long. a boat or small vessel .pjik. Cot. a bulk or trunk without a head. a sleeveless truss or doublet. occupation. brostia as well as bostia. stir. forest. love gestures. a blow. Business. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . would explain the G. Lindenbr. Du. To Bustle. bust. Fr. to make a splash in the water. forms morseqiiill. lips.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. body of a man. as in moharra from harbe. — clattering about. the point of a lance. as in ON. employment bisgan. bruskras well as buskr. Gael. a bunch of flowers . buta.— . 2. sera. kiss. Hal. a great billet Cot. mons. beezig. busc. buquer. trunk. to knock . avuDiez. ^A. trunk. Sp. stem. Box. buc. a. I. mohedairova. — hardly be distinct from Fr. biist. a kiss of reverence. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. statue of the upper part of Fr. brut. I go strepo) . trunk of a tree. body of a woman's dress It. stump. especially of a woman's dress. a tree. trunk of Cot. knock. occupied bezigen. windbutsch. brusc. bysgian. betarda. box. Sw. a fishing vessel. geidha.d. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. worn to make the body straight . outard. Pol. lump. smack. in Diaz Gris. busche. Swiss butschen. Edrtst. the breast. body. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. lip. body without arms and legs. Busitiess :c3iVi . bisg. a log. bisegung. ViM. I bustle. btcc. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a backstock. and supposes that the common Arab. 10. 119 bi{tr. mouth. outarde. A A busquer (Sigart).' ON. a bust. bus. A wisp. a stroke of wind. Fl. Rouchi. buc. Cat. — . bisgung. stump. putschen. busch.bezig. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. body of garment. bacio. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. The form brust. abutarda.> Also written buskle. Fr. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. mogangas from gonj. A great sluggish fowl. bist. — Thus we should have mocherqui. busq. tarda. the trunk. busta. bucha. austarda. inde discurro et operosus sum. ship Sp. chest. bussa. work. bust. 1555. and then with avis again prefixed. or chest in which the vitals are contained. Busy. snout. Lang. kupata. The proceedings of Parliament. made stiff. small. Bulch. kiss. bu. Sp. Fr. Hence probably au-tarda. biseg. Nained from Proximse iis zia. So in Fin. but. ' bistardej It. bustla. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. buc. hipista. busch. 2l box. the body without arms busque. arbor ramis trunGloss. knock. utarda. Bust. from jnund. bysgje. With respect to bust. BUSS Dozy from Arab. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. or Cherqui. a kiss. also a flagon. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Fr. of a doublet. vessel employed in the herring fishery. busy. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. basiuin. buyse. a ship of some size. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Prov. bus and Pol.Lat. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. Namur — Champagne Fr. a busk. bus. body . The Prov. I. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Lat. abotarda. buz. cata — . Xerqui. AS. log . Port. an affair. and also a sounding blow. fe^a.

' or ' there is not but one body of a man.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. bouz. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Fr. Where at an earthen jar . the mouth). botija. rumpf. or what in in charge of the pantry. a butcher . But In Sc. bolr. botte. bitlga. bochier. we find ben.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. bodifie. bag. Fr. ont jhi^ton.streets. a budget.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. then hoUow trunk. Sp. "PLT) . also a hollow vessel . Lang. a small winebag. belly. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Sp. butan ce. Whatever is in addition to Butler. . when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. except. earthen which the debtor has adverted. and the real origin of the and within . beyond the Piedm. barriga. body of a shirt w. of the wine and drink. a baiTel . the belly. from as. — . without buiten-man. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. without punishment . . is put in a class by himself. viz. hull of a ship. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . a wooden cask. But It. calf. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. Here the but implies the existence of an. as Pantler. ' Besides all that. boteria. bitten dai. the bottles. bole of a tree. similar train of thought is seen in ON. moreover.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. the body of a tree or of a man. boquier. gives at least two pounds sterling. skin-bag. original sense of without.The Sp. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. be out.' Thus Chaucer says. that which would be translated by Fr. being wholly unten. Sp. add. properly a butan wite. bounds of. boucher. but one thing. the store of ten. besides that . Prov. AS. binnan._ bitten j biiten door. OFr. ox. young mais. It. beccaria. belly. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. a butcher. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. butan. and with It. hollow case. beta. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery.' ' write. ways. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. — we acle for liquors. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. able. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. a bottle. Butcher. the jug and in E. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. The E. by the mode in which he is treated. Du. Buttery. a cask. the Perhaps besogne — . from boc. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. a goat. Ben-house. the principal apartment. without law. to-boot. bout. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. Butler. bol. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . an outlaw from bouche. bhcciero. without care. As a conjunction but is in every portion. beccaro. trunk. ' 1 am that I may have but a but .' — — ' . the body of an animal. G. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. a leathern bag. a barrel. bouteillier. viz. rotundity of the body. without the house kept in bottles. bolgia. the precise correlative of but. outside that moreover. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. tinction between but. the servant in charge of the original object. (children) boc. Lang. sup- meat and drink. the present day we should say. If that where now we should compiler. belly. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. Wall. the full expres.' there is really a negation to be supplied. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. those in beccaio. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bocin. slaughter-house. is well explained by Tooke. in addition. collection of casks. bute. buta. mais. wooden receptthing to be done. ' There is leathern bottle. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. which the word corresponds to the Fr. So in Italian from becco. Butt. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. A A . my is called the adversative use of but. the name must have arisen before the within. equivalent of AS. botilla. bola. boccino. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship.in which his brethren are included. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. a goat (and not besides . the trunk or body of an animal. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. bisgung. Fr. But when will you pay it ? the belly. a butchery. without. Tooke's dis. are.jamin. calf of the ' say. bous. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. large barrel. and bot. bountifully. biitait slaughterer of goats .

a button. Du. G.arbre. buttals. from notirrir. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. bot. . pwt. a. Schmell. Du. to be con. botten. Gael. then the thigh or leg of an to push . a leg of mutton. Du. Fris. a bot. &c. a boss. nourrissons. Halma. Hal. to butt. R. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. a heap of merly called pushes. Du. nursling. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. a wall butor butt on. Kil. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. From Du. short thick thing pimple. poke. the store of while bottich. Fr. trapu. Btetter-schmalz. Butter. Perhaps corrupted Lat. povrvpov. hillock . to strike. on. to cast. Butter-glass. botwm. able that Chaucer. oir spike with a k coup . To come full butt against a butts. grease that sets by merely standing. to thrust Fr. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . Schmell. bot blijven staan. Buttrice. Buttery. a corner horses' hoofs. . who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. It. boter-vogel. from the large knobbed head of botto. bud. as rejeton. — A . a flying buttress. an ox. bout. aim whence to make a support to a wall. to heap up earth or ihrust. Button. the rosebud. See Butler. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. at. geboogsaem. e. so as to make a sounding blow. leg of lamb. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. a stroke di animal. a bun. tress. — A . a but in the W. but this is probably from Fr. butt of a person. are the strips at the edges of the field. a mound of turf in a field to sup. pwtiaw. butyrum. in the R. the edge forwards. a button. Gr. from rejeter. end . any small projection. a blow. suddenly . Fr. Buttock. any short thick thing. to throw . thrust. — — — — . botte. fle>(ible. Kil. a button. Fr. thick. Buttel-triib. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning.thum and not button. stump. buttern.to push. boil. Fr. to bow. butz.. botto. a ribbed glass for dient. AS. Bav. a. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. a barrel. bottig. butte. w. dripping. * Buxom. lams-bout.. The Bavarian potig. bothog. a thrust the thigh-bone. The word body itself seems identical with G. boding. to thrust. bouter. a little push . to thrust. gigot. bouton. of the present day. from bugan. Lang. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . -ez. a stump or club foot. a hill. A — — — . a large belly. what is kept in a blow. to touch at the end. signify a cask or tub. bottich. the Butter-fly. to thrust . fowl. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. a blow. — . the trunk.' thick from shaking. potacha. An erection built up as a Fr. or or shore post. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. a dle . boiUer. boter-vliege. bouton. to thrust. give way. botta. caput scapula bout van f been. a bolt. a mound. from bouter. coxa. to blad. a cask. Buttress. by boE. to boult flour. To Butt. Hal. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. butt. Mur-buttant. waste ground. a scope. bodi. bocsam. boter-schijte. and the true derivation boar. bot. bout. butter. W. thrust forwards. boutoir. is formed the augmentative buttatich. rabodd. to push earth . humble. butt. botta. bodi'. but. large head. submit shaking up salad sauce. to abut on. W. nourrisson. a buttrice. Fr. &c. tout seat or breech. stump of a tree Fr. . : .rejected thing. from stossen. to abut a stone roof. the thigh of a goose. Cot. Fr. a boss. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. buttock of beef is called butr. So in English pimples were fora clod. courtaud.— BUTT leg . From the noise of drinkables in a house. bouter. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. butter un. obedient. buter. butte. butter. Boutant. boteria. buhsom. Fr. an etwas anstossen. Gris. striking end. strike. bott. Kil. buttare. Bout van het schouderIt. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. obeto shake backwards and forwards. pied. To strike with the head bags. as in G. Sp. both. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. to so close to the Fr. or person Schmeller .against another which needs support . Bav. butteln. Grandg. boutis. Boutje. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. ment being supposed to resemble butter. a tub. a buttress Cot. butt.putan. clumsy . i. Du. of E. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. bata. the thick end. From Grisons biitt. bocgsuin. put. as if from Povg. — . clunis. the prick in the middle of a target. to femur. having a rotundity .

bauhta. Du. Sw. ON.— P. It. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation.. bar. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. to wit. A by. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. AS. 116. ii. from whom it was addressed. bij. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Many good mological explanation. 200. Lat. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. 21. farm. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Pecock Repressor. buzarg. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. . Originally the law of a particular town. 519. lb. The sense of buxom. blessing me with their of side. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. to swear with him by . iii. buzac. big. bylove. buzzicare. to buzz. \s\xy. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. called Cabala or Tradition. bugjan. good-humoured one. byr. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. also say. to whisper. buso. The ON. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. bei. favourable. Buzzard. buteoj Fr. CABAL Goth. OE. confusedly. a borough. Goth. byar-rettr. village. Then applied to speaking low. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. son. P. bycgan. 3. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. To Buy. a beetle. leges urbanse ON. bi. Verstegan in R. bi. who makes abigg. bylag. to pass by. Cabal. as Fr. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. tions by one. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. a meke thynge with — alle. a buzzard or puttock. Etynj. to jan. town having separate jurisdiction. Mercy hight that mayde. as heedless as a cock-chafer.. groat in token of his good heart towards him. A A We — — — days' wonder. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. and would have been lost in E. abozzago. and it is of good will. stall. Sw. Byre. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. frabttg- To Buzz. G. a town. . and boxome of speche xviii. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. bygge. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. cow-house. as in Da. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton.P. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. byar-log. By-law. gracious. . p. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. to sell. to stand at his side . to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view.— Diet. harty prayers and God speedes. bees. to purchase for money.in N. from by. bohte. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. —gracious of speech. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. It.busardj Prov. jus municipii. See Abie. indistinctly. train of thought which has become obso. AS. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. bozzago. & Q. a by-path is a side path . lete. favourably to a petition. Dan. — 122 BUY P. A ful benygne buirde. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. depends upon a esteem in falconry.

OFr. cabaii. calabre. Brushwood — — B. and Ptg. cabarino. caables. — Kil. gaban. cadabula. . w. OFr. caable.. brassica — capitata. Neckam — by the wind. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. caqueter. —Diet. or rush basket. OSp. kabaSsen. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. ceach / exclamation of guages.. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. E. hoard together. ckaable. the Prov. Etym. cadabulum. Coticesserint Swiss aa. hut. and as we find stones Mid. It. bad. origin is the OFr. Very generally used. cacare. — Tarbe. Didot. cabre. The Sp. case. Finn. kabas. Choux cabus. heady. especially shepherd's frock. cabane. Due.ticula. chaable. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. The name of the engine. OFr. whence Fr. or cadable. a jacket Fr. — Ibid. It. — the ON. the bowels. main. a tunic. lactuca capitata. as Turk. vile. gaggi.. dirty. cab lis. a booth or hut. Du. &c. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . to hurl down. : — from violence without blood. Sp. as it must have stood in French. 'habl.' Due. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . Cabbage. The double a in the OFr. a headed cole or cabbage . cab. maim. Item habeat vocant. akista. geese. to crush. chaable. chadabula. cabbage. It. Mid. Du.Lat. Fr. disgust cac. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. Castr. has kabbel. Fr. . aakkat'a. to chatter. Sp. caable (in legal language). to strain in such a manner . From It. Kil. Cabin. Imitative of the cry of hens. gatsch. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. traboccare. properly windfalls. cabuccio. cabo. covering. a car- We convasare. whence Lang. cabus. su/Furari. deponat a store closet. cabasser. cabas. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Katr-iT-aKt. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. to put or pack up in a frail. . cabre. mdhaigner. cables. Capstan. giiare. a frail. is probably unconnected. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. caboche. manticuKil. from trabocco. disgusting such an engine was exerted. — . signifies down. headed or cabbage lettuce. precisely in the sense of the lari E. for the origin of which see Carabine. Fr. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. It is remarkable that the Esthon. cdble. hovel. come the Fr. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. To Cabbage. cacare . laitue cabusse. CABBAGE effecting a purpose .Gr. chabla. . accablcr. Celtic. dirty. gaggele. Mid. in which sense are explained The the OFr. stercus. a shed. cadabalum. to hurl in Nat. aeggi. head. and Finnish lanLat. . kakla. dirt and the Fr. kabat. nasty. E. cabacho. it would seem fundain children's language. Cablisb. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. string. Lat. prostratio ad terram. the Slavonian. kabane. round or great headed. overwhelm. serious injury — In like manner It. It. kakaloH. ! — . as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. Cabinet. capo. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. Cot. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. form kactal. cabuyskoole. cadabulum. filth. forms indi. caable. agge. a rope. or as an interjection of disMod. gabardme. Lith. Mid. wilful). a head (whence cabochard. originally an Gael.. a cabbage . Ptg. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Cot. agge machen (in nurses' language). capuccio. Lang. capanna.Lat. and the Arab. Fr. (ca/coe. a rope or cable. name of the projectile engine. Due. cabulus. aak! tandi like Fr. cadabola. would correspond to cable. cabo. Fr. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut.). havyar to caviare. Common to Lat. as an expression of Gr. signifying properly a rope's end. &c. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. a covering. cable . manganare. Sw. Gaggle. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. from manganum.Lat. dung. vincially used in E. and Or. a cloak of felt or Cack. agga. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. overwhelm (Diet. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. a rope. as Diez supposes). Du. to keep or Du. band. headed. Cappa in OSp.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. disgust. surripere. To steal or pocket. — . Antiq. a rope. Tugurium. . an engine for casting stones.

a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Lat. and troublesomely attached to. of which. It. kalfi. Lat. cadaver. Calp is riadh.— . a car. Cadaverous. dead body. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. An open travelling chariot. kuchen. taking it Sp. kaka. calba. Calf of the Leg. — in a kiln. B. kola. It is another form of the E. frolicsome kaad mund. Serv. kukje. to throw themselves into the sea. koeck. desire of land. calesa. to heat. Calamary. Sp. a wheel . a hollow place. babbhng. calf of leg. Calash. Cadet. cadenza. wanton. Fr. Flo. Gascon capdet. a dence. KxiKivh^o^. or smooth Hnen cloth. Arab. cage. a calesh. kalem. coll. a circle. Dan. a wheel .warmth . the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. caliche. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. ben- kalf. a tea-chest. calamus. calidus. ' .— Calliper. Cauldron. kdtr. Caldron. Mrs B. &c. A hooded carriage. calibre. frisky. cadet. calendrer. reed-pen. form) calderone. cadence. collop. Dan. to cackle . To Calender. The young G. calcis. Lat. Lat. javioler. gabble. chattering. dial. a wretch. —Atkinson. lord. calamitas. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. . prate. Cajol. signifies a waggon. Cake. cykevie. to treat like lime. kalb. chetif. kolo. See Kiddier. Russ. It. Fr.Gr. is probably delusive. kage. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. kolasa. Cage. . CALIBRE a sea inkstand. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. little chief. limestone. Sp. the younger son of a family said to be from . from Gr. kakulla. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. kaad. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. cattivo (from Lat. gavia. G. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. cageoler. * Calibre. a corpse. a common cart. Cot. to — Fr. cavea. a cylinder. principal and interest. a roller. joyous . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Du. . a caFr. pen Mod. kolesb. one unduly indulged by. Caitiff. loss. calpa. Calandre. cabdillo. incolumis. jabber. cha'cmie cadence. It. or colpa na coise. a small stone. Fr. kolyasochka. a vessel for heating water. a wheel . directly representing the chattering cries of birds. bad .— Cot. a counter used in casting accounts. when they are said to poor. G. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. to . The Calf. calessa. Calcialate. Fr. In the same way Fin. As Du. wretched. calentura. KaKKat. ever and anon. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Cot. the calf of the leg. Sw. Lat. disease of sailors from tivus). an ugly waggon kolaska. * Cade. Cot. Fr. safe. Turk. kolesnitza. gabberen is identical with E. caioler. Calendar. the lump and the increase. cage. pi. capCalenture. the bore of a cannon. whence calash. a falling. its mother. calidus. hot . the pith or soft part of wood. Du. Sw. kolo. from calendcE. . Fr. . an inkstand . pith. or prattle. Fr. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. caldaria. Lat. kat. captive. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. unruly . so gabble corresponds with Fr. a reed. cuttle-fish. ON. 124 prattle . a mischievous dial. (in the augm. for green fields. capitetum. Calocli. from the ink-bag which it contains. — — — Dan. chaudiere. Lat. kauwe. En kaka br'od. of the nature of lime to calcine. from calculus. kdfich. calentar. calculo. to gabble. Sp. Gael. Lat. From lerie. lindrus. colibro. pet lamb. to prate much to little purpose. to compute. just falling. the pi. The Lat. to sleek hence a den. of oxen and similar animals. Fr. master. Pol. cake. Caddy. misfortune. loss. Calc-. To Cajole. to cage. marrow. a waggon . gaggle. a fever. especially of something soft. A cuttle-fish. Calamity. a calash . Cadge*. It. Due. Perhaps from w.uv. gabbia. kaeckelenj Gr. kolo. Tea-caddy. N. kail. rattaat (wheels). from the Chinese catty. boy. a low note. a loaf of bread. ratas. Originally from a Slavonic source. calendarium. Roman reckoning. calx. a lump or large piece. A — fall. caldarius. Du. gabbia. cauldron. gaggia. kalfvan hout. Cadence. Turk. naXaiidpi. a cake or loaf. lime whence calcareous. Lat. hence musical rhythm. on. It. It. coop. without loss. kolyaska. cadere. Lat. Du. a wheel. Sw. hot. chaudron. Lat. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. A . calibre. roller. whence Lat.

KaXka. to say. or mould.meaning of the word. abto suppose that E. kal. scold. sestus. Calm. sence of wind. NE. Callow. i. moso. them &c. seems to donrebusse vel be heat.' Winter's Tale. To call. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Kil. AS. and E. overscalmaccio. Hard. a feathers. callum. calc. Diet. coulevrine. To century was Squalibre. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. brawny. Lat. So It. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. to calk. nautique). Lang. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. colubrina. and sometimes a handgun. .from Ka'tm. saucy. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. calcare. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. Kil. whehce it was first brought. Heb. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. kallo. calare. kal. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Derived by some from Arab. to burn. Fr. sound. on. given. Among these were the turn. to call. the latter of chamber. calibre. calca. calvus. hallottaa. or languishing drought is . Unfledged. Fin. quiet. couleuvre. scalmato.' But it is hard Du. colubraria canna. to callet. caliver. Mid. done with heat Alt. having a thick skin. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. form. to be of a good or bad quality. vulgo Coluvrine. According to Jal (Gl.piicede Lat. an adder.— . Turk. Due. callus.' Whitby Gl. to proclaim. faint. quality. Sup. of the bore of a firearm met. glotton. coluber also. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . overheated. alta voce ploro. prattle. moist. and heat.en~ kinds of firearms.' Slange. cauque. Du. Gael.(jaa= ice). heat. cauma.Lat. cotton cloth. dragonder. calo. calor. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey).' Chaucer. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. Sc. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. To Calk. the day. Diez. calicot. which has its memory preserved in Du. It. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. a good calling. the heat of Now these Du. ' rine. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. CALM to press or stuff. femme frivole et babillarde. whereas in troth it is not. Sir John Smith in Grose. Fr. tittle-tattle. which is as much as to say. to abuse . u to an I in such a colubrum. Fr. and dragon. to prattle. ' pert. coluber. oldire from audire. calk. calgua. to tread. serpentina. however. calma. klover. caillette. drive. Fin. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. licht stuk The change from a. dragoon. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. donderbuchs Sp. Dief. word of mouth . from Calicut in the E. the Fr. — — — — — . To drive tow or oakham. Mahn derives it from Lat. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Indies. E. chatter kallen. koluvre. the Fr. a round of abuse. ram. B. piece of bigger circuite. bombarda Cauma incendium. tapulta. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. The origin is Gr. depreciatory term for a woman. calat of leude demeaning. Call. calcaich. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim.position is much less common than the geschut. fistula. Lat. Mil. to hear. skin hardened by labour. kahcwe. Ca. longior. ululo Turk. hot. kil-u-kal. people's remarks. calme. a. harquebus or handgun. . — Fl. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. calma. whence couleuv. calclover. The reference to heat is preserved in. kind heat of the sun. voice. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. qAlab. calibre. calleting. khalif. — — — — — . culverin. Gr. of a column. Bi. caluw. Ibid. serpens. diameter of a ball. harden by pressure. Caliph. to affirm. push violently. cahna. the scalp or skull. water-tight. The word was also written cawme in OE. Kavfia. by many that the weapon Callous. quA librd. but is only a jda-kallo. Antiq. trull. a last. kalla. heat. * Callet. to call. or caliever. Fr. a successor. to rail or scold . Sp. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. bald. sclopus. can be distinct from ODu. chatter. form in the kalib. Sp. kol. 125 Prov. faint. to cram. try. a soldier who the It. dial. kael.. hollaing. the hard surface of the ground. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Calico. a drab. * Caliver. gossiping. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Ptg.

Turk. Mod. is Candle. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. . or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Fr. camisa. field . Bret. the calix. Lat. Canine. a may have acquired that signification from plain. From fluting or furrow in a column . cainahelus. arched. campo. It. champagne. canis. cere : Lat. monk. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. aspirant. Lat.— Chandelier._ kamm. open and level ground. or Caribs. died in 1526. B. cancer. chommer. campo. camahutus. also an eatmg sore. cambrer. Fr. Lat. camp. crooked. whence the Fr.— B. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Kakoycpos. cup. a. the spersed with white flakes like curd. icaSoytipoe. Calyx. ation. when its substance appears inter. lame. a crab. Calumny. paign. Peter Martyr. ckaouma. a. camelot. Calver of cane. a field Greek monk. crook. KafitjUe. Mid. In a different application It. to bend. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. E. to the force of the wind. Camel. an eating.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. cup. a basket. Camp. Campaign. Fr. canalis. India Islands.' Forme of Cury in Way. Lat. — B. Fr. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Cameo. to break. champ. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. sore. properly good country.—Candidate. sugar.. It was distinfrom work. See Canker. bis. higher in the middle than Fr. fresh. chaitcre. crooked. a large drinking . — Lat. toile some of whom. is Cambering. . campagna. Canker. The Grisons cauina. An eater of human flesh. It. campagna. Sp. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Candy. Sp. to bend. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. calutmiia. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. to jut. ko/utuXoc.—Cambrel. aged. Pers. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. E. Cann. across — Bellenden in Jam. water chamlet .conduit-pipe. whence Fr. It.Lat. Properly calver in the field during a war. campagne. Cot. Camlet. to bow. the bed of a stream. camafeo. canna. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. candidus. and yspiuv. from candere. Cambric. Sp. samon.' ' Quhen a lattice. having an aquiline nose. mg Canister. crooked. a dog. clothed in white. arched. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. co7nbar. a piece. It. cancello. Lat. callar. the salmondis faillis thair loup. lattice. spot for cattle. the space of false imputation. Candid. crooked-stick. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. Gr. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. candela. cambr^. the type of a hollow pipe. Fr. Lat. a goblet bud. the heat. Arab. campus.Gr. unwater chamelot . camisade. Or the word Lat. Gr. callour. brought from Fr. Fr. different sections of the like the Chinese. cam^e.— Hackluyt in R. Caloyer. Cambray. Ptg.who their language. hooked. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Canibal. to warp. camiscia. slander. salmon. kanna. Cancer. Sanson khanda. chamold man. Palsgr. cAouma. Fr. B. camiscieia. at the ends. camber-nosed. on. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. to glow.—Jam. chandelle. From campus was formed Lat. Cambrav—Cam. white. catmneo. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. campren. canistrum. cambren. frank and sincandidatus. would plenier. — Cancel. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. lie level. KafivTu. Lat. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Canal Channel. nia. It. camaien. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. a caught. A — the Cannibals. It. campaign. good. — — — A — — escume de saumon. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. w. had no r in de bric— Cot. Fr. cambre. Camisade. fair. camelus. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. calj'x. se cameloter. E. a' Sc. from xaXbg. arch. or hollow of a flower. Cambrel.

Du. border Dan. canteau. . canon. part. It. was formed Kavtiiv. caparazon. a drinking glass. It. If the word had been from cantherius. . corner. haitt. carcase . Fin. . Mod. canoa. a cane. Cot. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. cannevaccia. capevole. To Canonise. speech. the quartile. Again we have Lat. lump. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. from . a cloak. from a Canter. A . Canton. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a straight rod. a reed. cannu. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Diez. cantle then is a corner of a thing. cappe. territorial hundred. rumme. signifying cover. a cap. Canteen. kapamak. to contain. hemp. It. Cape. Cannoii. has kahn. that the G.n. astrology. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. hirnschlapple. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Fr.^on. is found languages of very different stocks. able to receive. The meserseum and the mesentericum. as a cantle of bread. regular. a cloak kapali. trine. Kavt\. canonicus. Hence Lat. gnat. Gugel. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine.Gr. Sp. kantr. to sing. and tref. region. schlappen. the part easiest broken off. a — A — Cannel Coal. Schwab. from Dan. canvas. and the sex- &c. From Gr. kynnel. Coal burning with bright flame. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. capace. being a yard or thereabouts . tain. and hence a gobbet. shut. Cantle. Esthon. a scull- — here.— Cot. a boat. Capacious. B. he discourseth of dissection. properly a large Prov. cannevo. Canvas. W. cappa. a tube. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. hood. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. kwvwxIi. a hundred. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. a hunch of bread. kanta. Jonson. But it may be different source. a small boat. canapa. &c. The — . a pipe. a ruler. border. pipe. capa. to shut. &c. leiwan kanta. say. which is not the case. name. capello Italis. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. from cant. KaTTiram. cover . can. a rule or standard of excellence. contain. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. like a torch or candle. kyndel. side. coat. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a Fr. Alamannis. measure for cloth. cannone. cover kapi. chape. Sp. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. N. language. schlapp. Prov. a wine-cellar or vault. cane. cane. Wtb. a horn of the moon . as. quarter. cantone. canonici. quito curtain. From Lat. a division of a country. ON. and met. hemp. Canopy. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Lat. a reed. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral.. cantina. kaput. to con- rummer. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. A piece of anything. a ship canot. Goldast — in in Schmid. Gael. kand. cheese. margo panis diffracta. Picard. cantred. quarter . Of vena cava and of vena porta. chantel. canton. a door . the tried list of saints. Capari. cope. to put upon sacred writers. Fr. It. hamlet. or hold. the heel. OFr. root cap. It. To canvas — . cappe. coarse hempen cloth Fr. a gelding. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. the heel. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Cope. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. clqse. Capable. call. To his judicial And trowl the tile. a side. a torch. a cover Turk. Swab. Palsgr. cantref.Gr. KCLvva. Canoe. cane. capax. it would have been found in the continental languages. canevas. also a measure. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. kandt-broodts. Germanis kdppen. See Capt-. Cant. kq. edge. from canna. cannabis. a corner. Mod. cape. Fr. It. Canon. canto. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. cainnt.CANNEL vessel. coarse hemp. or cantell of bread. covered. See Chape. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Sp. A slow gallop. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Kil. chanteau. It. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. cane. . a cantle of bread. canapaccia.

prickly husk of chestnut. <I>pi'?oe. or goat's leap (done by a horse). brissle. grisser. where Burton adds in a note. It. A headland. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. grisser. fansuddenly angry. frissoner. herissonnement. And similarly to yearn. Fr. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. erica. or other things. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . p. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Sp. wriggle. capriole. bristling. eruca compared with It. ribrezzo. cover of a saddle. Griller d'im' patience.Gr. to crackle. frisson- ner . The true derivation lies in a different direction. according to the Hindoos.' Cot. Capital. sault. greziller. I have shivered with love. brisciare. curl. arricciarsi. chattering of the teeth. principal.'— Trev. crackling sound Cape.impressions on the ear. hi. curly. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. The same imitation of Capon. a separate division of a matter. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. caprice.— 128 CAPE a rustling. the head. upon terms Sp. brisoler. capitulare. See Chief. So from Sw. II bresole (Gl. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. Torriano. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. . a caper in dancing. then to be in a state of vibration. then to shiver or shudder. knis. and 7tucc. A . ^piKos. It. for which he cites the Comask nucia. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. and OHG. Lang. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. explained by Diez from capra. belonging to From caput. the principal part of the debt. or. capillus. It. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. compared with Bret. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . ericius. shivering. It. gives rise to Sc.' — (Supp. kid. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. to shiver. Genevese bresoler. 75. to parch. alcaparra. Caprice. a caterpillar. shrub. Fr. frisser {frissement d'un trait. a hedge-hog. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. birsle. is either wholly lost. horripilation. to ruffle the surface of water. Unexpected pleasure. a kid. arricciarsi. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. bruco. greziller. brezilia. gricciare. to shudder. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . Mod. capro. Lat. — to yearne. grillcr. gives rise to brezza. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. caprice It. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. the hair to stand on end. frort^Lat. rissoler. a yearning through sudden fear. cappriccio. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. a goat. horror. Fr. to broil. Lat. with joy' Vikram. toy. Fl.) d'etre The It. capitalis. to . the singing'bone). end. a ch illness. a head.) grezille marid. castrated cock. as Fr. and his body bristled We to castrate. castrated. hair. brug. as the means of earning profit. To treat Capitulate. to shiver for cold. G^' Many words — ' ndv. grug. cut. Capers. brisciare. — — A a hair. to fry. capriol or caper in dancing. chief. rihrczzoso. cut off. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject.standing on end.— Fl. airoKOTrrw. s'hdrisser. roughening of the skin.). cApre. aggricciare. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. Cot. a . caj)o. curling. ziki. Acad. of a coach. capparis. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. It. or represented by the syllable e. a chevret. of a tremtdoiis sound. of a fowl. shivering. capriola. heath. the head. as Fr. as Fr. humorous. to twitter as birds. Arab. a little head. It. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. It. riccio. It. It is probable that Gr. as in Lat. ticchio. knis-hujwud . Capillary. Hair-like. hedge-hog. gricciare. also the capriole. and with an initial gr instead of br. Hal. Caper. capar. Hence capitalis the sum lent. the hair to stand on end. abridge amKoTroq. the initial mute of forms like Gr. bristling. to crackle. h^risser. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. a buck. a young kid met. Lat. caper j caprio. Fr. to desire earnestly. frizzle. Lat. w. to from capitulum. algabr. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. then find the symptoms of shivering. to broil. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. they longed extremely to see it. a capriol. CAPRICE twittering. or Lat. brisciare.

Capt-. intercept. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. char. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. trestle. Lat. of the Sp. Captain. It is a standing crab. caThe hrestante. shivering fit (Altieri). charret. and tropically. Nordfoss. capitano. Derivatives are Fr. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. and has thus descended unaltered to English. to this is It. It. dim. It. accept. karista. precept. capsula. See Caper. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . chirriar. . seize. calabrin. i The meaning Car. karrende waegen. carabin. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Lat. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. It. a sudden will. Capsule. concept. It. Sp. 129 — receive. — —Diet. recepte. Carry. contain. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. whence capture. capio. where it forms a very large class of compounds. fantastic. box.of these compound verbs. deception. also a kind of rack. Du. calabrino. a capuchin. captive. except. cabrestante (whence e. In the S. chevre. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. also tresFl. Fr. charger. cabestrantej Fr. The It. Neumann. as in OFr. Passing on into E. a kind of torture. It. to please. In cases. Fr. captus. a sawing-block or trestles. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. recipere. conception. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. Fr. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. -ceive. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. to take. verbs gives rise to the element . a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. &c. Fin. Du. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. di cappa. Fr. Etym. karren. Lat. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. conceit. de- price. decepte. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. OSp. perceive. at least. Fr. recipio. to load . to take to. — — Capstan. to take baclc. Capuchin. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. capitis. concevoir. as the dragoons (Du. captivate. as in accipio. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. Carabine.). dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. conceive. fancy. Capriole. cabestan. and of captus to an e. crepo. Castr. a windlass. an engine for throwing stones. Crab. &c. Lat. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. cams. capra. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. concipere. bock. charrier. latterly. a reception. one odd. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. deceit. a she-goat. tnoschetta. Carbine. to carry .. carro. Fr. kerren. Fl. commander. cabreia. Carabin. Cot. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French.s. crab s. also to carry on a car . acceptus. cabra. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. however. a cart. caricare. chirrion. to creak. recevoir. Cot. to creak. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. and has accordingly been lost in E. a cloke) capuccino. was converted into -ceb. a coffer. from head. caput. a fantastical humour. strideo. Kiittner. concebir. Sp. a head man. recibir. carretta. oisr. receptus. Fr. caprice. Cart. sels. a taking back. hold. G. &c. It. -cept. krul. Capstern. Thus the musket.or -cib-. or the (capo-riccio). was originally a missile . case. Caseneuve in Diet. the -cevofthe Fr. to accept. capuccio. a hooded friar. -cept. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. — crab or instrument to wind up weights.). CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. a creaking waggon.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). a hood (dim.. It. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. of capsa. karra. to receive receptio. desire. capp%tccio. was a kind of horse soldier. a. a sudden fear apprehended. a.

poison eiz. carbh. to comb. winding. OHG. carcaij. an ulcer. tcapKaai. a he-goat. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. to curry horses karsztuwas.. a winding staircase. a case or chest . quse vocant karabd. wool card. winding carach. Carcase. of carbo). kerwan. caraffe. cabrita. a skeleton. Carrob. carquois.— — — . turning. Gael. to card wool. Cot. &c. matter. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. copperas. Carat. chevre by the name of the goat. Venet. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Sp. a quiver . a wool card. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Mod. a dead carcase. a small weight. It. a ship. ancient springald.Gr. a twist. ON. carere. decanter. card.' From the same source are SicU. to card wool. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. carmiiiarc. Sp. Lat. Arab. to creak. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. carta. wine- bottle. Carcax. in the same way that the Sp. It. the core of fruit . a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Sp. cabreia. caraffa. Bohem. a gem resembling a live coal. Lat. a lock of wool . Sp. carcanet. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Exot. a thistle. carcame. Parmesan cassiron. carcasa. boch. Pers. a goat. skeleton. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. It. car. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. karszti. bock and Fr. military engines made for hurling stones. mural attack. a ripple for flax. Caravel. of the same Caravan. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Gael. carabba. Sp. carquasse. a collar or chain for the neck. I. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. and catapulta. Gael. An implement for dressing wool. krciti. Fr. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning.Gr. is the word used in modern Lat. Ptg.. Fr. to ripple flax. to comb wool . The Trjg xeXwwac. cerran. Cat. case. turn of a horse. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. burning coal. . cassa. p. or framework. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. caracal. . the dead body of any creature. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. fire . caravela. eit. shell. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. confining. a quiver . a kind of ship. W. . casso. black dye. the case of the flesh. carch. skeleton. karra. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. the husk or cod of beans. cardo.charcoal . Fr. also (as Gr. the carob bean. Derived in the first edition from Mod. alia sunt majora. a card or comb . Card. also a small weight. Comp. From the battering-ram. eitar. the trunk or chest of the body . an engine for hurling stones. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. carduus. kard boyd. designated in the case of G. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . It. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). constraining .z. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. garafa. cabra. avSpaS. a snail. Carbuncle. Gr. espi7igarda. for a gun. Cot. vitriol. a quiver. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. contract. Gael. bend. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. &c. &c. word is only an adoption of the Turk. . restraint . skeleton toise. properly a siege machine. a coffer. karri. a firelock. the carcase of a fowl.. a battering-ram). a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . KtpaTwv. . a thistle. cramp. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg.. cdrlag. — seems to be something holding together. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a machine for casting large darts.. to draw in. coming to four grains. a prison. carcanada. carbo. Caraool. silique. a crane. Carboy. «capa'|8i. the . Gr. carbunculus (dim. It. to hiss (as gee^e). seed of carob. curry-comb.applied to a battering-ram (G. carabe. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. kirat. carate. is the chine. The radical meaning . a quiver. Lith. Fr. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. AS. See Carpenter. the shell of a torcarcasso. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. Carbonaceous. the name might naturally Mod. to turn. quilato. carquan. ' Vasa vitrea.

caru. murren. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. carriera. Dan. the flesh of animals . W. . Cot. Fin. beans. caritia. kargr. Bret. at murmuring. carena. what is felt as grievous. carnalis. cearig. to load. de Parthenay. AS. mutter. winding. Carl. Fr. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. from Lat. sorrow. sensual. Fr. parched or carled. road. Cot. Mur. caricatura. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. x'»P'"^s)) paper. care on. kribina. meet at a head. Fr. to growl. compared with Fin. car. carnavale. four. grief. — — Diez. Carnage. carcus. murista. or street. to scrape . msstus. ON. and murhet. Gael. an overloaded representation of anything. charta (Gr. male person. Translated in MS. charger. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. cura may be ror. quarreG. a hinge. dear. No ' place there had. ceorl. It. Cargo. solicitous. — — . to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. caricare. scharren. charag. cdrle. that Fl. fleshy . A place where four roads Mid. karout. carFrom carrus. Peas steeped and fried. sgritudo animi. as quadrivium from Carnaval. zanken . an endearment. cearian. also a career on horseback. caMid. Card. one of those ac- 9 * . principal. and G. carena. as peas. Cark. — Carfax. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. crawl. the load of a ship. is This however Shrove tide. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. a man. the time during which to Rom. . carrefourg. Cot. Fr. from the keel to the water . For the root of carminare. in N. carian. Fr. AS. see Garble. Sept. to comb wool. a turn. the old theory of humours. OFr. Ptg. to love. soUicitus OSax. ignarus. Carlings. stingy. . cardo. Properly a car-road. 273. Lat. It. to fry or broil. karl. . care. Roquef.— CARD karr-kambar. 8. carnasciale. W. is to say. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries.— Charter. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Champ. immediately before the long fast of Lent. to fry. . Carminative. Venet. camovale. to lie on its side. to eat flesh. from carus. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. essere in carena. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. love. to whirr (schnurren). It. crowl. 2. Sp. wool cards. or grumbling —Due. carcare. Lat. 1S66. as carminare. carnal. from caricare. cargar. and compare Bret. that on wliich the matter hinges. affection. Cath. Groler. to rumble. It. Fin. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. surrata. G. karantez. place for exercise on horseback. carch. From. karrig. p. gakaran. giierlir. charnel. regar. stridere. Farewell flesh. the hull of a ship. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. A quirito ut infans. in St Jerome. whence carricare. the several meanings of the words above Rom. like connection may be seen between Fin. karista. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis.. to load. G. Properly. carminare. quadrifurcum from quameet. in Carp.Lat. quaver a lazar's clack. clown or churl. chartre. tuorfurcm (Burguy). but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. — — — : Cardinal. caresse. A mod-carag. Carled peas.Lat. Probably the origin of the word is the . to scratch. voce strepo stridente. kumra. charneux. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. asper. Fr. from carrus. . morosus. It.' Slceat. carnis. . to comb flax or hemp. strideo. Care. to care unkarja. — To Careen. crosier. appertaining to the flesh. charg. intrasset caro. W. ress. . Fr. AS. grolU. A medical term from line —Boerio. fundamental. E. charie. cura intenta. carener.. — — — Caress. It. a card. niggardly . to clean the bottom of the ship. carezza. tremble. Coll. karry. cardinis. be anxious. Fl. hoed. Carnal. kara. act of moaning. and sum. kurista. combing them out like the knots in wool. record. w. bottom. a highway. Fr. &c. piger. Chart. Carenare. morosus sum. rixosus. to parch. sorrow. croller. & Q. astutus. Charnel. kroU-erbser. Caricature. and thin. weyes. to take Goth. to load. to distress growl. Cartel. kummer. charnage. carriire. OHG. carina. Bois crolant d'un ladre. murahtaa. ON. tenax. careless take care of. to shake. Bret. It. a deed. graller. Trin. the keel of a vessel. to card wool. karg. the keel. cargo. moeThe Lat. Sp.

Cot.— R. Carpet. a wheelwright. . charpentier.Lat. garrire. fabulor. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. In a MS. Lat. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. tymmer. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. used for stuffing mattresses. zimmer. Teut. Shrove Tuesday. maker of waggons It. ship.' Reg. and F. Pr. qui sacco. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. carpende fast Carol. a wheelwright. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. balade from It. Pm. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. a song accompanying a dance then. skraf. carpere. to find fault with. Bohem. chatter skra/a. carnelascid). This Bretons renged about the felde to E. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. — — ' ' — — — I — — . And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. carbh.gonnella. chirp. ON. Here's to you still my captains friend. gonna.' Ordo Eccles. at midnight which derivation from kroes. to rustle. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. pluck. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. worker in timber Fr. Mid. course. ' ' — .' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. sense. koroll. to dance. Analogous R. Pref. Nomin. The tippling sots. CarTo quaff carouse do use. lint. The ' ' a chariot. So gone they forthe. biheld without. carpo. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Sup. to reel. Beggars Bush. peta. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. ! Carouse. a car carpentarius. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. whence the form carnasciale. or loose as a couch without further preparation. Ant. From Lat. 94). — . chariot carbad. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. e. 2. Lat. 2. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz.Why give's some wine then. Olr. carpenter only in the latter sense.Lat. querole. culcitra. Carpenter. to pluck. act of drinking a full Eq. carpia. to talk.— Patriarchi. carduz. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. in Carp. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. The custom. To pledge them thou refuse. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. on that. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Gael. Other names of the sea. krapati. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Carnevale. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.D. a drinking cup. carpentum. On the other hand bumper to one's health.— Drant in R. carpita. Discov. differing To Carp. carpenticre. as Fr. was formed Mid. quoted by Carpentier. Gower in Way. in Nat. to dance. carpenta. to chatter coroli.' Raleigh. I drink all out. tattle. to pull asunder. Properly a round dance. as the Lat. pluck at.— Neum. carpetam (a quilt?). all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. cxciv. chatter. vel coopertorio carebit. i. in Due. as E. Fr. 1 1 30.' says Motley (United Neth. or a carouse fully drunk up. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. cited by Marsh. On this. yede tham about. W. I quaught. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G.]e bois Carnelevale. Mid. The word seems of Celtic origin. carpat (Stokes). 216. krapanj. as carnaval from carnelevamen. Lat. All out B. a plank. and Carnem laxare (It. a dance. Alluz (G.Lat. linteamen. litter. Chanson de carole. Carpyn or talkyn. . cariielevamen or carnis levamen. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. 760. cardos. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. charpie. garrulo. In Dominica d'autant. all aus). of Guiana. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis.'— Stat. Fr. is erroneous. Palsgr. Carnelevale. i. carpetrix. The karole of the stones behelde. Sp. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. A. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. . to gather. bier. Mediol. Templariorum — ' — Due. Biheld within.: . zimmerspan. ballare. Carole. a carder. gar aus / all out is correct. Bret. Dief.

Probably. cartouche. It. annul. to break. casualis. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. casag. Lat. shell or carcase of a house. packing ' cloth. Sp. cartoccio. See Case. ' Casa-matta. to convey in a cart. Carrion. cut with scissors. paper. helmet. a merchant's cash or counter. AS. augmentatives of carro. kasseren. casser. a paper case. Fr. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Fr. carreaggio. to slay. to dash. To Carve. Lat. mord-keller. properly to convey in a car. casa. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Sp. caxa. des rideaux A'carp^ie. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. See Gristle. case. crown of a hat. krat. coffer. Lat. cassa. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. discharge.to annul. It. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Lat. to — — also casse. Cot. Fr. Gael. carriaggio. Rouchi carter. cartilage. casitiste. as we . of carta. carota. caisse. from It. where Fr. Cascade. a loopscale the wall. from the sound it makes when Alban. Fl.. kirpti. Fr. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . carroc- carrozza . void cassare. cancelled. hull of a ship. The Sp. to bear or carry. afterwards any written challenge. kerben. carretta. bag and baggage of a camp. To quash an indictment. Cart. The carrying of anything. a coffer or small case for jewels. Preparatory drawing of a It. quasser. mord-grube. ceorfan. casa-maita. a car. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Fr. Fr. casso. vault hole in a fortified wall. cascade. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. charrier. Fr. and matar. long man's gown with a close body. an act of falling. Du. from It. Rouchi caroche. Case. caroach. also the carriage.' — Hdcart. cascata. mata. Casuist. cascare. fortuitous.' Bailey. quash. — — . to fire on the enemy. casus. and the OE. Cask. — Cartoose. To Carry. abrogate. case-maiej Sp. slaughter-house. Fr. for the security of the defenders. tion from Sp. cassus. Cartel. gristle. carrosse. cartella. augm. like all the names of tendon. Cash. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. kerven. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. kerpu. blotted out. a canonry or slaughterhouse. cassette. a chest. dim. Du. cartone. Cot. caroche. to crack. from Lat. to hold. Rouchi carpHe. Casual. turn out of service. It. to fall. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. caisse. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. It.' Fl. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. ignominiously exposed. Fr. corresponding to the G. a of water. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Fr. Hence casket. Walach. and that apparently from capio. to shear. Fr. from casa. to cut or carve . Carriage. cascar. hollow. discharge It. one who reasons on cases put. carroccio. AS. It. the money chest. a fall. charrette. made void. a chance or accident. cassa. to an- — Kil. cashiered. Cartoon. — FI. It. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. casco signifies a skull. bitten. It. casuelj Fr. a car. Rouchi carone. Fr. cassere. G.— Fl. Ready money. CartOTicli. house. Casket. OE. something that actually occurs. fall It. Fl. crush. a hut. capsa (Diez). break to pieces. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. to notch. coffin of paper for groceries. To Cashier. It. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. casacca. Carrot. carretto. carogna.' Cot. It. an augmentative from Lat. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. — Cartridge. Lith. Hence a challenge openly hung up. subject for a picture. gristle. caisse. Cassock. luggage. not reaching to the height of the ditch. card. caro. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. charogne. a long coat. As defence from shells became more important. cancel. Case-mate. casaque. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. empty. Casque. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Flor. Case. — — nul the proceeding. See Card. of carro. hung up in some place and to be removed. the charge of — — Fr. pasteboard. cia. To duash.

chaleur. To It. V. koshka. Cast. Pol. Mid. an enumerlist. torture. In the dialect of Picardy. klakka. Fr. crush .Rouchi Scaches. castellum. Fr. 120. The E. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. on. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. kottr. catch. kaJoivad. Fr. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. V Lith. in the fire. KarapaKrr]g. casipola. kasi. kakka. arpi^m. It. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat.. tails. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. KaTappaKTrjQ. katze. cash. chasuble. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. being Fin. a Cataract. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Chase. n. ating. stilts. probably from an imita. kic' kicil are used chasser. the earlier sense of catch. bot-kotis. castana. casser. cacciare fuora. to crackle. by the loss of with several pitched cords. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Sp. Pm. to dash. a garment for performing the mass in. . Yz. however. squash. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. accastiare. and from the castus. kasta. Pic. kissa. a whip on the other into latch. . which has been retained in E. Lat. to close. to hurl See Awgrim. chasser. B. the stalk of plants. under chi caleur. Etym. or bruise together. Catalogue. . squash. Thus we have Caste. speak of dashing a thing down.. represented by the syllable quash. casule. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. chasser. the ground . Gr.to drive out. handle of an axe. burst cascare. Sp. Roukind. or comba. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. rack. coming to us through different dialects of French. image accasciare. to hunt. a thump.'— Pr. mino. to drive Cat o' nine tails. to break. like that of It. Brunne. .the / or c respectively.Lat. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. kat. a cat . and tomba. Lang. ON. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. name.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. kotas. drive away. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Gr. dash. cojz^/a. cassa / cry for the same purpose. heat . punch. a fortified place. to turn overturn. It. castello. same word with break. puss / for calling them. kotas. castro. Fr. from water Karappaaaiii. to bring to an crack given by the joints. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. dim. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. 'Vaaaw. Fr. cast. to drive away. cat. signifying breed. ichasses. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. first made ordinary Fr. cacciuolo. sue. and KviilSog. down. chat. Hal. from the first of Castrate. Hence castaneta. while kiss / Pol. is not satisfactory. dashing it to pieces. second chase. ecrevisse. OFr. to lash. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Cot. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. catar. was introduced. Cat. KaTaarpifm. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. KaraXoyog. to fall as over a precipice.— Fl. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . Others explain it from Kara. perhaps from which we have E. To Catch. Castle. force j Rouchi equerviche. which. — We a cavity. follow after. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. fer toTa. a cat koshki. race. or Rouchi cat. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. down. Catastrophe. ' Catchyn away abigo. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. shaft of a 1 push. a vault. The Diet. 134 CAST Catacomb. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. _G. fall. cascar. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. to Fl. to look at. execu. Fr. to torture. casupola. to crack. Fr. a little house or hut. Gael. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Lat. to make clean or chaste. of castrum (castra). to is Essentially the Sp. It. R. So also from It. the castanets for or implement . of sarabands does Gr. to end. cat-o'-nine. &c. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). puras E. Fr. castanetazo. cacciarc. dashing it out of the window. to scourge. Castanets. to cast or beat to tioner . away. a chesnut . to clack. . Fr.out cacciare . casulla. Isidore — in Diez. lance. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche.

sound. a whip or Kuttner. cross-bow that carries but a From poll.from Bard and ayopsw. with and without an / after the c. In the XV'e. to chat. silkworm. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). smack. such a sound or the stroke which produces it.V. seize. the elements of a science. Gael. chase. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. ecachoire. Caterer. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. a whip Rouchi cachoire. the the same principle he was Fr. as of the latch of a As ! — . ictus resonans. wild-beast. weevils. children's name for cat . Fr. Swiss Lombard G. bichano (pussy). klinke. klatsch. compare G. 135 — Aasen.P. happe-chair. Fr. E. Kil. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. catc?u. GaUa catchiza. E. whip. ' ' word catch. icarrix'Ki^. c or ^. Kil. to crack GATES cache. a little dog). de Bray. Grandg. chassoire. Du. catch-flesh. e. . to take. apprehend a person. Tutschek. an officer of taxes. Cates. blow. KaTtix'so. door when it is shut. companaige. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. a caterpillar Milanese can. and answer. klatscherei. head. snatching it with a any one. gliong. kletsen. a whip. gattola. — Kiittner. — explained. which all . gingle. Sp. chenille {canicula. . Cot. worm. chacepol. Guernsey pilleure. called dog or Galla catchamza. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. to catch strength. resound. called in Fr. devouring mite or weevil. flap klatsche. latch of. OFr. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Cot. woodlice. On Catechism. s. resono ictu lash. a pill. catch. Metivier. G. or any kind of relishing food tuals. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the .' ^Jam. to clap hands. an accusing. fragor kletsoore. i. .yopl(. cagnon (a dog). chachara. formerly called cliket. Sc. clatter. — B. caucht. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. Chate peleuse. chink. ' Fr. a clap. is said that he got a claucht of it. predicament. dainty vic- a form lash. chasse. Claucht. Du. bicho. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . verberare kUts. to teach by oral instruction. clap with the hand. chatter . to snap. to snatch (said of dogs). Wal. klatsche and Norm. catch. a cornIn the s. quincailler. — Catcli-poll. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. caker. — with a whip. cache. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. insect. from Gr. snatching. kaetse. Ptg. to kythe D.) .j. e. chatter. the OE. instruction in forms. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . to chatter with the teeth cake. P. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. snatched. in order). properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. a — gatta. . pedes. the distance to which the ball is struck. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. to A bailiff.s. E. glcu. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. 'Bxn. a. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. Kartiyopta (/cari. dainties. clap. ArbaUte de courte chasse. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene.V. from shutting with a click. latch. Diez.. to the crack. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. Guernsey chafer. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Rouchi clincailleux.' CATCH Fr. has both or of charming by sound. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. . — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. 'Horxa. Fr. Gr. Gael. klatschen. ketsoore. claquer. a smack. — tinman. * Caterpillar. * Cates. Du. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. kletse. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. a whip. to harangue. — . a carter's Pat. millecaterpillars. cat is not apparent. a.

catons. achepter. catkin Pol. Causeway. Bessie of Bednall. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. from chaud. Fr. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. It. Cavalier. Gael. mutz. also to pave .Lat. Caustic. kocie. koparet. Ka^afriKOQ. Lat. cal^ar. Caballus. Cathartic. Russ.^Hal. hollow. B. caudex . A warm comforting drink. kobuiV.Y\\Xea. Lat. Cauldron. to shale or peel. calceata. . Port. Fr. . Chaud. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. It. kin. kopista. — . little cat. via strata. klopfend knallen. Rete. Cavalcade. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept.^ acheter (Lat. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. puss. make clean. OE. what . Kil. caple. kassije. net or caul-work. Thus Bav. to sound like a blow . Pr. chausser. reticella. otherwise written kell. Fr. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. any Fl. Sx. chaudiire. cauHs. calidus. fur. hazel. ce^l. 2. a mare. cavaliere. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. adcaptare. a horse. chaussJe. walnut with the husk on challer. puss. Cathedral. fur in general. kautsije. and spareth for no perell. Jonson in R. macska. Cause. . a branding from koiio. KaPaWrii. kocianki.. Du. catkin mitz. Jaubert. Fr. Richly she feeds. cheval. lamb. Provider. Caudle. shaled or picked Fr.—— — 136 correct. Cave. to shoe . puss. Lat. despencier. CATHARTIC sense. to burn. Lat. CAVE Caul. ' Gr. challe was ther of a temple. a pavement. kobyla. Lat. chair. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Fr. Kavrfipiov. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. to purge. Mid. catkin Magy. cabbage. calceta. katte. acater. • — — See Chattel. calotte. the. Boethius. Dryden in R rete. Cavern. katteken. KaHSpa. capull. a pulpit. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. On the other hand. &c. and at the rich man's cost By sea. a The peel. It. Cavity. hot. apt to burn iron. Palsgr. deyntie meates. That he was ay before in his estate. from caveo (p. a horse . caldo. Caution. from KaSaipio. Lat. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. — Cauterise. Cavalry. cautis. Palsgr. Gr. cale. cabbage-stalk. kopano. Catkin. Fr. cautus).willow. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. . minon. to shoe. Gr. to ac- — Fr. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Fin. Du. but the acates that are sent him. chevalier.' Elyot in Way. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. cat maczoka. Kavrijp. .Lat. chauderon. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. causa. the stones of a street. . w. accapitare Rouchi acater. a road calceata. catkins . 4. chaudroii. a receptacle for small things. hot. dumpf tonen. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. cale. cavus. Fr. Manciple's Tale. Pol. quire. The word — . . by land. acaptar. a paved road. a seat. a kind of skull-cap. caballus.p. accattare. flock. Diez). is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . kaussijde. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. It. choufleur {choii. a stalk. is Prologue. It. to buy. Fr. green husk of a calon. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. — — cavallo. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. of delicates the most Her cater seeks.' B. Fr. flue. Delycates. little cap is . a horse . chatideau. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. mudet. Wyatt in R. Fr. kdtzchen. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. cabbage).. the caul of the liver. having the property of cleansing. from delf^gato. kitten kotki. a kettle for heating water. Gr. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Mid. a horseman. KiwariKog. to beware. and hence a skull-cap. Cattle. calqada. whence cathedralis. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. G. rete A — Prov. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. primitive is meaning a shale or off.

Lat. of E . hollow. thelu. caveqon. heaven. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. in Hal. 32. a board. selar. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. wainscot thiljar (in pi. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. a halter. flooring E.' Rutland papers. Soc. koppeli. departure from this life. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. step away. canopied. seele. sill in window-sill. Lat. jaa. a log. .). give place. plank. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. p. but hang around at the sides. komo. In the N. a fir-plank. cessum. and that from Sp. wuoren komo. — — — toyour soverane. hollow. quibble. little house. 43. pp. 7. ciel is so unbroken. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings.' Hall. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. So from Fin. E. And seik — Cessation. . CEILING The kynge to souper is set. In the same way G. curved. post. thel. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. &c. . cease. the deck of a ship at thilja. VIII. empty. is applied to a canopy. excess. a canopy. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. . The importation of Fr. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . hollow ice . Cavil. augm. Sir 137 pit . Ceiling. crooked kopio. . applied to a canopy. -cede. Hence concede. H. . menuiserie. cavezzone. Cam. CAVESON kopera or kowera. to go forth. cedo. — komo tain). and zaum. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. Fr. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. kapp-zaum.. heaven. dil. as. board . -ceed. syl. del into English without ' translation gave cele. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. to canopy siled. or of a bed. also a seeling of boards. recede. Fr. to seele or close with boards plancher. —Decease. komista. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. kommata. A — A false accommodation produced G. sky. cabega. cellar. . tester of a bed. bridle. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. The sense of roofing. See -cede. . semely on syll. B. in Jam. syle. sybire. column E. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. The line of descent from Fr. a boarded floor. selure. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. that. Hal. To seele a room. .' Cot. .' — Gawan . a beam. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. proceed. dille. with their substantives concession. as if from happen. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. to plank or floor with planks. a log. deal. sus-lambris. . a severe bridle. Lat. Fr. a head. the testern of a bed. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. and then to gape.'— Z. thil. -cess. ceiling. Cease. a log. Fr. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. lambris. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. It. death. a planking or boarding tkilian. The It. hung. . Sp. Cede. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. Plancher. hivtmel. cabegon. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. thili. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. a canopy. rafter. &c. — . cavillor. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. to plank ON. Boyd in Jam.j have come from this source. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. -cease. . in Jam. Wore. the roof of a coach. succeed. ciel de lit. departure. dScis. sill. the inner roof of a room of state. Gawaine & Sir Gol. lambrisser une chambre seeling. exceed. plank. of cavezza. door-sill J Sc. cyling (W. a plank. an aquiline nose. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. thil. thiling. were met. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. &c. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. cesso.' Marriage of James IV. p. ceiling. 5.' del. Sherwood. and Gol. a hut. &c. IV.. to argue capto tiously. thilja. decessus. nailes will begin to cling. yield. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. to panel or wainscot MHG. — .). coffer. beam. wall. cielo. to cut. Cot. dayntily diglit. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. Lat.' Ordinances and Reg.

ciglio.of the r. Lat. become heated with anger. irot\oe. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Lat. to set on fire. ' . to bury). -cevoir. Coehim. -ciper. /ctj/rsw. and thence censer. see. to chafe. Lat. Fl. concerner. — A . -civer {conciver— Roquef. what to set in a chafe.— Chafing-dish. from Saa-rw. Lat. Cereal. rough from the quarry. For sess from assess. encens. See Celibacy. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. sure. centum. . sting. as in some places burnt. Cot. solemn (of per. (and thence also) to hoodwink. Gr. much frequented. -cebre ifoncebre. for building. to think. a Cemetery. swift.unmarried. Cess. to -sum. point. of heating. make angry. Lat. a tomb. to attend on object with. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. cilibat. OFr. in comp. S. judge. is totally distinct from the foregoing.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. -cern. Certain. or any bird's. siller les yeux. -i^oivre. calefare. hollow. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. To seel or close the eyes.— Cellar. Ta^oe.). of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. Assess. candeo. a storehouse Chafe.ing a room where there is not fire. to glow. a solemnity. Lat. Incensum. Lat. or expression of Ennius. goad. censura. and met. Lat. to rub for the purpose a hut. to rate. caber. pick out. to course of people. but was gradually lost in conceit. a numerous con. distinIt. Cij(fe5j. the point round which a circle is drawn. eyelid. to distinguish. K^'ivut. conceipt. thence belonging to or connected with corn. sift. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. decide. observe. a solemnity. Fr. cerealis. -cepire. as entering largely into the derivative certo. — . a registration of one's self. a hundred centuria. to take. with the eyes. eschattffer. celeber certus. mortar.' Celebritas. Fr. Assize. contend. -cense. quarters for slaves. syll. Accelerate. abundance. In Celebrate. in comp. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. to take. Census Censor. the talk of men. To chafe is for wine. to seele or sew up the eyelids . -CEIVE a shaft. Lat.). Celerity. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. tax.j 138 thill. to burn incendo. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. cretum. census. Censer. It. cencer. to visit in numbers. Lat. and — — — possessions. rubble. Fr. Sc. — . his office. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. dchauffer. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. value. — . Celebrity. to warm. to twinkle darkness. deceit. -ceit. Century. assess. to sleep). decebre) . tax. and so of that other. receipt. age. in accordance with the Fr. cillier. -oept. capio. -cipio. Centurion. a prick. Lat. being taken from Fr. then to rub without reference Cement. ceremonia. and put it through the over eyelydde. To Incense. a valuation of every man's estate. the place where the de. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. ciller. blind. .. a hundred of what- — . cenio. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. to contend. -cess. confounded ist from It. camentum. the officer appointed to take such returns . — . KsvTpov. Cell. from censeo.. {cori)cipere. Censor. Sherwood. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. oil. Take the nedyll and threde. a shaft horse. Prov. 1. Fr. zens according to their property. Gr. Censure. sacred show. renown be embodied with. cot. family. we have a modified form of (of a place). — . is the opposite of disora virum. keep in It. riscaldarsi. sile. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. chaufferette. -ceptjun. cella. Gr. census. — — Cenotapli. -ceive. single or unwedded life. Chafe. judge Lat. criticism. a religious observance. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to prick. parted sleep. stones to the production of heat. Fr. materials It. also grave opinion. Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. Centre. Ceremony. — . to celebrate. to concern. festive. the hollow the Lat. &c. deceipt. incense. to be regarded as one celebro. cceremonia. heaven. cigliare. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. to incense. and thence to conceal. -cepere. See Cede. judge. thronged the participle cretus. concernor. crevi. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. empty. with transposition hence (of a day). Gr. guish. concetto. chauffer. appertain. calefacere. capturn. estimate. to blindfold. celer.cern. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. to separate. It. in Marsh. to ensile the haukes that ben taken.' Book of St Albans. Fr. to heat. an eyelash. &c. The term cilium. Lat. oil. Fr. Cot. to sepap rate. Fr.

Camera. chaire. chicane. snuff. limare. to a seat. calice. E. from the shark-skin. Wall. baras of ants. Fr. Kuttn. kuhista. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. Bouffard. chafing. chawe. Fr. Pr. great chafe. to gnaw. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. vel susurro. care. kever. calonja. cauvette. Cot. kahu. from Swiss kafeln. grief. G. to claim. chafeter. to buzz. . quisquilise offence. to calumpnjamen. in a monstrous fume. chaine. clamare. matter by combat. — — — . kiaftr. . calix. Perhaps Pm. any insect of the beetle kind. chambre. Gr. Due. Lat. calumnia. Chayire. and signifies to consume with anger. gewolb. Lat. chaulx. lime. that leneth e per I'autra. Piedm. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. In like manto huff. ON.. OFr. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. keffen. bargain. kaff. from of the G. a vault or arched roof. From the To Chaff. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. To buy and sell. lime . kauchen. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. . to Latin calumniare. to puff and blow. preise. hght Chalk. — — — . the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. p. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. breathe KaOa^oiiat. to caw chawer. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Fl. fume. Hal.' Rayn. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. ing rapidly repeated cries. khah. kuhuja. Cot. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. as a carriage is a moveable seat. and as this was the beginning of man. chaps Chamber. far lima-lima. fern-chafer. hiss. So from dominio. rustle Challenge. hordeum vel let. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. catena. place See Cheek. to babble. Fr. Chalice. green sagrin. chaise. vis. kahuja.. cadieira. tattle cheep. de Brai. to sit. on. chalanger. kahista. dongio. chaffare. false accusation. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. idle words. chayire. kedja. 35. Fr. to ner It. — — ' — — — A . Pat. G. Lat. also to prattle. keuchen. kdfer. . cam. in a cana. camera. sagrindse. 11. cathedra. ing a hard case to their wings. to file. a pulpit. B. Fr. Gr. talkative. to gnaw. refuse. care. ckapfare. a jackdaw. From to go to law. kiqfta. kaff. to move the jaws. KoBiSpa. to institute anforensic action. leviter crepo Then. without chap/are makiinde. or puff with snorting.nium. Came. ceaf. a prattling woaction. snort. difficulty . Lat. Bav. Prov. of. Du. cadena gives chain. Fr. a chough. contestation. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. to chatter or talk lightly. ple^. kdfelen. Fr. Chagrin. to fret inwardtronfo. Halma. a goba rustling . kiamta. kuhata. Chain. a chain. — . yap. chamar. chagrin. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. fa sagramen de calompnia. From Port. charge with. Du. as. cathedra. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Fr. jaw. a double operation * Chafer. to call. now a chair. haggle. sagri. .— — . Fin. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade.sure carriage. rustling corn. P. with a:n arched roof. thick and short. swelling with anger. tattle. The jaw chafty. In vulgar language. Cheffern. cadera. Probably from According to Diez. taubes korn oder hafer. often puffing. &c. Prov. to action arose. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Prov. crooked. kuhina. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. — — — — — — . (ca'e'ra) to chair. much blowing.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. much more Genoese sagrind. muzzle. to bark. chaene. cup. calx. breathe hard. Adelung. Pers. Ayenbite. to tattle. Chair. a rustling noise. puffed or ruffled with ly. refuse barley . Kaiiapa. De Ir4. rustling motion challenge. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. avena vilior. sborfare. have a mind to parley. grief. chatter. songe. cadena. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. dispute. to pant. a pulpit Cot. rally one. Fr. to dispute. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. calonjar. puff. ceafer. call in question for an ley). havOFr. signal by drum or P. Lat. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. ^Altieri. Fr. tronfio. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Lat. shaIt. Lat.

act of falling. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to happen {ad and cadere. cample). kampa. to fall. to Hal. champ. . fight. kempen.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. a game at football. cadere. champ. campus. Champarty. Champion. sukibti. to fasten oneself to another . kinipen. luctare. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. The happening of things Chance. dial. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. chain. .' SherI'altro ' ' . caer. Hence (with the nasal) w. or less ignorant. chance. kampeln. Fr. cameratus.edley. head armour. Lith. chanfrar. wood. Lat. athlete. ciambellano. Chance-n3. kanip. to — — champ. champion Du. to bevel. dial. bundle. Fr. to be eminent. kabinti. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. game campio. escazenza. hng. cempa. Partnership. move the jaws. Campar. keiiipe. to excel. from chaud. to hold . to strive at games . — Hal. campus partitus . a court of justice. a hollow chanfreiner.' ' Pr. cazer. as swine. accidere. Lat. chajnbellan . To them naturally fell the office of keep- . to hang.—Tutschek. Sp. . . campar. . Fr. kapp. kabMe. Fr. received the petitions of the suitors. giving rise to the as. CHANCEL It. See Camp.' melleia. Carpentier. Champaign. is explained by serrarsi. Chancery. hot.140 CHAMBERLAIN . from cheoir. Magy. to cample. to slope out the . to debate. excellent. Chancel. broil. camerlengo. boys speak of capping verses. kippo. a field of battle. gekrUmmt. chamfrain. chamble. chdance. So in e. Fr. chanfrein. Chamfron. dricka i kapp. fighting place. Lat. — Ch-amberlain. kimpUma. from Fr. a feat. calidameya. . kiinp. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. kempa. camp. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. . a bundle. chaude mesUe. kimbu. to hollow out. or player at football. to move the jaws kiamt. Prov. a scufSe. To cope or contend with. Get campers a ball To camf . campear. Meleare. and mesUe. who stood ad cancellos. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. chance. zs jeopardy. to to chew champ. jeu parti. gewolbt. To hollow out in chanPtg. a warrior. an athlete. to talk. kiammi. kimppu (Lap. E. The E. pedilusor. contention kappi. Sup. — KiL . kabintis. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. ciamberlano.Lat. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. bickering. a jaw kianisa. Commonly derived from campus. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . . kimpustella. — masterly Sp. termediaries between them and the judge. Champ. to stick to. Chancellor. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. The word is preserved in E. jocus partitus. Gall. Pm. chanfreindre. ON. at the railings. to chew. compound. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. top of a borehole. combat. fight. e. contend or argue G. rare. divided game. Du. to . ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. ON. Dief. Lat. accident. to wrestle. chanfrein. kablys. Fin. to groove bevel off a right angle. champ. schmatzen s. slope of a bevelled angle. M. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). to fasten on. to quarrel (comp. Sp. s. a hook . a horse-race. mesleiare. camp. dial. to flute as a column. to slope. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. which seems another form of the root. The G. calida et sans aguet. kabe. therewithal. to tread The sound heavily. kibti. cancelli. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. E. dial. camp. Fr. to fall). champ parti. contest. —Chamfrain. to smack the lips in eating. G. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. certare. Ptg. pinch. the chafldn. hamper. to fasten oneself on to another . reusement — fight in single combat. fray. — ^Tusser. prize-fighter. ing. to wrestle. tsammogni. hero Sw. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. and acted as inofficers of . cahir. To Chamfer. Prov.—Charfron E. kappd). tsamtsogni. as in It. surpassing. zampettare. difficulty . nels. to paw the ground E. kampeln. dial. ON. i. kriimmen gebogen. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. champ. It will. When the to quarrel. kampen. dispute Hal.

kaupa. Da. AS. chanter. Sp. . to swap. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. . canalis. Probably from chap. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. ^Jam. like the knocking of hard things together. kvar kjceften. cambiar. to break . from chandler. Hal. shift. exchange. Man of Law's Tale. surfaces striking together. as skin chapped hands. Du. jaw. Chip. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Chap. chop. a money-changer. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to deal. And N.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. as corn-chandChandry. to cut up into small pieces. to spht a chip. chapeletas de imbornales. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. . and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . hard bodies. cantare. esclapo. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. debeant conjurare. Fr. A fellow. Lat. kiceft as well as kjakje. — . 2. Commonly derived from capella. changer. to peck. Channel. Compare chark. from canna. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. any hollow for conveying water. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. kennel. to cut off . Lang. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. a small plate of flat metal. from clap. to hack. as those on a trunk. to — cut. leather. the chaps . I. kapoti. cambium. to creak. a reed. a jaw. prune. — — —Marculfus in Due. klepan. skipta. a pipe. to coat. Sp.^. Bret. to plate. Fr. clapet. kappen. jaw. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. cobio. the place where candles ler. chaps. ceaplas. Cheek. Hal. That wide were sentin their spicery. a dealer in candles then. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. chapear. the clappers of the scupper holes. Da. Chap. cambiare. Prov. — : Lat. a chap is a crack or fissure. camjar. kjaakaa. a strip of metal plate. not a soul. —Ordericus Vitalis. lips of an animal. throat of an animal. Hence chantry. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. while the broader vowels a. to paw like a horse . or the cracking of one. kiceft. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. It is also used in the sense of the E. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. to strike. Chap. to apply one flat thing to another. the loose flesh of the cheeks. chap. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. the mouth. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. kemma. Lith. chancery. ceaflas. . Russ. to cut. gab. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. chapeta. chapilla. a small metal plate Port. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. to peck. —Chantry. muzzle. Hence It. and the modern canal. Aasen. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. exchange. flat . The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . chiappa. to sing. Walach. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. cheek. may be compared with ON. chapelete de una bomba. Fr. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Chape. and also to chap or crack. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to strike with a sharp edge. chancellerie. W. to strike. wood. also a clap. E. properly in a hard body. To Change. ON. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Chaps or chops. extended to other trades. esclapa. as It. cangiare. Sc. hack . Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Chandler. is used in the same sense . or the like chapar. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. chapa. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. to plate. as chancery . to change. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to chap at a door. 140. waterconduit. Chapel. See Chop. are kept. to put on fresh clothes. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. to truck. In like manner Walach. as to chap hands. Chop. Fr. chop. schimbd. chandelier. the gutter that runs along a street. schimbu. chap. See Chant. exchange schimbatoriu. Molbech. .

to turn Gael. dim. Charade. cher um cher. to chirp. charcoal burners. From Norm. Sp. Bret. a The OFr. a dispute . from Charade. in turns. Charlock.czirksti. ject). chat. AS. gnash. to sing or chirp as birds. babdistinction. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. charge an enemy is to lay on. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. kurkti. A weed among com AS. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. a cricket karkti (schnarren. es ist mi cheer. w. caricare. czurksti. Fr. to chirp as sparrows. burning without consuming the substance.' Boccaccio in Diez. babbling. the nature of a thing. chatter. tattler. caritas. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Deutsch. Justin. It. as. hadka. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. See Charlatan.. Lang. charer. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. carmo. Cot. capella. the turtle pitre. . It. turn. to turn. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Yx. Chirk. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to dove . be- e. charade. ghirlanda seor garland. creak. of chapel. Fr. Macduff. dear. siarad (pronounced — sharad). to prattle. 2. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. Hence carminare. cam. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. to charcoal. eapitulo. char. Mundart. a riddle. that turned decken . Swiss. It.Lat. Sp. chirlar. chirk. return. Fr. Chaplet. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. a garland of roses. Du. wreath for the head. to love. schreien. . a riddle. charger. decken. cerran. * Charcoal. . called kedlock. carus. talking. Chapter. keeren. as Pol. to prattle. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. . a turn cerran. Sup. a mark of a mountebank. chapelet. seems to be derived charade. Chapman. to croak as a frog . and at line 2520 it runs Charm. ceap-man. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. — spell. AS. turn about. occasional turn. kirkti. from capa. condo il volgar francese. bler. as a beetle. chirriar. Inst. gaggle . — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. charlatan. czurliwoti. clack. dear(in both senses). cearcian. Charge. Character. corona. &c. Lat. to converse. kurkelis. which was incantation. cedeleac. Prov. (eucharistie. called in Sp. Lat. a charm. chapel. chara. canne. capital. cluck kirklys. twist. and in It. a head or division of a book. chapitre. Charlatan. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads.charme. tegere.whirr. Ptg. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. — a car. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. a verse. to talk . came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. a rhyme. to of the governing body. to creak. properly to place — . creak. capellare. prattling quacksalver. It. for the same reason rosario. karout. from carrus. gadka. OE. krachzen). cabildo. Chare. Fr. cha. carricare. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. See Cheap. from cape or cope. czirbti. capitolo. jabber. beloved. And damned be he who first cries Hold. In that work the verb is written caire. charlar. charitas. Sp. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. —— . To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. w. Boh.). Lith. in To ness Charity. go. surris seu Lat. To Char. eyre. carregar. to load . a mark made on a thing. Lat. affection. to chirp. a merchant. Gr. from gadai. Mid. used in the sense of magic Fl. colliers that charred coal. ciarlatore. cluck. — — — turned to coal. Charcoal was ciarlare. twitter. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. . Lay on. a hood. carmen. Chark. wood to coal. hiss Lith. Fr. The crash. enough. from capitulum. chatter. it is my turn. to tattle. to . 370. The G. pohadka. An enchantment. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. car.

clean. to clap. — Hal. Gr. gazzolare. letters p. kippen. clean. root of the Lat. Hal.). In like manner Russ. a yawning. a gap. as turnip-chaits. i. from xoAn. Parallel with E. fragments. nommer. See Card. karg. blackthorn-chats. Fr. to set a jewel. — sharp sound of a crack. an enchantress. . to cut and faggoted. Pol. chick. To Chase. flesh. the bird is iiown. ferire. —Bailey. Du. nome and . cassa s. eclats. to chirp. a word. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. cearig (from cearian. Chamel. a branch. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. To chit. kastaa. CHATS fit 143 to name. pure. a chatter-box. to care). gazeuiller. scraps of for fuel. Malay. shivers. knatiern. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Fr. the cry of the bat. a shrine for a relic. charmer.). It. tittle-tattle. csacsogni. To Chasten. splinters. —Jam. as we speak of olive branches. warble. knacken. sordidus. carnisj bones kept. chikat'. chits. chit-chat. a plate of metal. the handle of a razor . chaste. be wide open. To chitter or chipper. chatter. to cry as a chicken . — Fr. Fl. speak . g. gazzettare.ppen. the young shoots . limpid. a young man .. gazzerare. to chatter or prattle . Pol. magpie. in Jam. as from nomen It. kata. gazzogliare. shout OE. Chat-wood. chisf. s. noise. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. whence a charm of goldfinches. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. Chary. chaste. pure. Kil. kna. chit. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Magy. pure. V. enchasser. used to represent a sharp note. from purus. warble. — Palsgrave. niggardly. jackdaw . B. To talk. chick. From carinen was formed It. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. chip. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. See Cistern. Fl. castus. snap. to baptize. or the cry of a bird or the like. csatora (Magy. Cot. also to germinate or spring forth. germinate . Diez. chip. G. Lat. also a youth. to chirp. from pure. as in the E.house. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. gadu-gadu. — — . or a bird out of the egg. Kil. D. caro. talk. noise. %aafi. See Catch. xi'i-'^vui. a flock of those birds. gallan or ogan. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. a churchyard or charnel-house. czysty. charm. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. Chat. or equivalent forms. kata-kata. or pop. . chair. clap. So in Gael. the noise of birds. The egg is chipped. cyrm.— Chatter. clack. is to represent the chamier.a. chary. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. To work plate as silversmiths do. prattle. Chasm. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. ch). chit in the latter sense Du. schioppare. to crack. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). It t. to make a noise. — The . also to hatch. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. fragments or leavings of food. carme and Fr. la chasse d'une rose. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. to wet. a twig Suffolk chaits. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. to gape. discourse. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. to crack. carmen is presented in AS. To Chase. Fr. It. — Yorkshire chat. incassare. chykkyn (Pr. Fr. — = Chats. whistle. to talk. or suckers on rough borders. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. crackle. the calix of a rose. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. careful. geug. castus. OE. a branch and a young female. as purgare Fr. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. occasionally Forby. Chart. clear. —Charter. as. tenax. to chirp as a bird to cheep. racket . Pm. An imitative word. cs E. Chaste. chat. ch&tier. karigh. chip.— Chit. to separate in morsels. parcus. clatter. csaterdzni. clean. little sticks cudere. To chip is then to crack. gaddc. —Chastise. It. to burst open. Lat castigare. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. make a noise as birds do. a crack or a flaw . to which it bears the same relation as chape. Russ. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. csacsogany. to enchase it . talk much . prate. It. converse. Cot.

kauf. in Fr. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. syllables ^ag-. agreeing upon. look. cera. kik. Hal. kaufen. cozener. kaupon. See Chess. 144 the It.— Cattle. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. and. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. cheeks. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. cattle. to coff—Yisi. the principal ' colloquial E.kakot.. to chop and change. to laugh. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. OFr.' kezen. Fr. to nauseate (to retch). upon a checked cloth. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. to act as a rogue. Bohem. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. cara. bon marche.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. catalliim. dchec. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. It — Brompton in Due. Fl. Fr. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. kok. exAS. which is the word in ceap. cita. a canting knave. — — —Chowl. the face. which is used in the to stutter. CHATTELS has ciio. gagkern. tradesman. to negotiate. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. a repulse. Hence to cheat. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. to fetch the breath with difficulty. G. Gr. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Check. CHEEK zitella. chatel. goods.— Chole. horse-couper. . Pro v. NE. keck. frown.. welcome heartily. kichen. OFr. ceap. with the exception of land. the Confessor. stuttering. Chear. giggling. to swap goods . . sense of bargaining. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap.-^. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . jaws. Chew. with Dief. kek.— . make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. us. kakkaset. to buy. ceahhetan. — We ' . Ek dry and hard.' to exchange to gasp. favour. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. kak. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. to coup s. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Cheek. Pr. retching. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. It.— Chaps. sob E. Bav. society. to . See Cheek. are represented piti. The gutGoth. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. jaw.ing. any cheating. — To check an account. to stutter gigken. lower. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. sum in a loan. farm for farm. hawkmann. cachinnari. Fin. KaviiXog. a dealer in horses. Pm. Cheat. from AS.. Soc. kaupiti. a dealer. to buy. the Lat. 'li^'opa jord i jord. countenance. a cheater. Modern Slang. while it Bret.—Choke. kikottaa. chiere. chuckle. chear in the sense of victuals. snout. . to cough and hence either buying or selling. et juxta catalla sua. cattle. a young boy or girl. . It. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. thers. to deal ON. citello. the countenance Fr. giving or taking in exchange. kakaista. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. visage. whence captale. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. force of the word. a willing look and unwilling heart. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. to make inarticulate sounds in . mandibula. in widely separated languages by the Lat. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. . where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. Then. to — . e. cattle. prattlingchete. chire. s. Cot. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. price. changing. Cam. lead to OE. laughing. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. Du. koopen. gig. a piece of moveable property. chaptel. chatal. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. to cluck like a hen. entertain kindly. capitale. equiva. a tavern-keeper. chavylbone or chawlbone. stuttering. caupo. aspect of a man. chop. from Lat. Sp. sale. ceafl. ku. goods. Slav. kaupa. teeth . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Lat. the tongue.of the throat in coughing. chapman. entertainment. to vomit. ceaflas. and hence the E. Ingulphus. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. to clear the throat . gagkezen. Faire bonne chire. &c. Chattels. choule. truffa. Sc.

Sp. Chess. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. then end. quok. cerise j G. cherir. whence kasa-leipa. It would Cheese. Lat. E. X'C&s. to geahl. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Du. Fin. old bread. kdkel. cheek. Fr. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Lat. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Sc. the throat. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. cheeks. a heap. hasten. gill of fish AS. Pm. /Ji2^/(W. carnium. (Kil. kirsche. caru. quoka. a rafter . The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. mouth kek. w. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. cireggia. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. equal squares of opposite colours. chops. takes place in the formation of cheese. E.D. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. Chevisance. kapen. . chevir. kikna. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. chevron. Du. condition of being taken. rupted into chess.. kikna of dorum coacervatio. kjceve. cerasus. Prov. kdke. See Case. chesten. to boken. ceaflas. Da. squeak as a mouse. suffo. ceocian. kasa. N. like a young chicken. .' to w. dear. kopen. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. Fr. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. jaws. accomplishment cayed. giffle. by laying up in a covered heap. kaecke. gabe. kjakje. Fr. achever. gapen. cabiron. cheek. OHG. to kep. gous forms are G. geagl. the mouth. throat. cough. Kil. king). subacidus. kistej Lat. w. chasi. jaw . chiffe. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. incaseatus. ON. subjected to this process with that which the throat . An imitative word. the hke. Lith. See Alchemy. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. the The use of the word kcesir. to belch. ost. E. gap. veluti piscium. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. to year. mollium congeries. throat. It. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. cufd. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion.cirieggia. skratt.their struggle for independence. frame by which the exertion is made. Cher. the final guttural is retained in writing. things Da. to hold dear. Sw. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. whence czypulas. made rancid koka. F*-. to gasp. to prevent the attack of cavalry. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Prothroat of an animal . jowl.pose of acidifying them kasadr. rafters in heraldry. E. Achievement. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. chaps. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. — — . for cheese itself. ca' — . From them the plish. kok. cese. the neck. cegio. clear the throat. Pl.G. make an end. Sc.Xo belch. jouffle. caseus. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . rattle in the throat. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. as. G. — — . Chef. AS. cams. — 10 . to choke. schach. Cherish. kjcebe. ceg. As the board to gasp i. to choke with laughter. food. G. prevail with. gullet. Lat. . Sp.. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. as meat and butter. to bring to an end. cheek. cabrio. geafl. Lat. rennet. Fr. jaws Sw. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. ation. Analo. w. to heap up such things for the purchoke. . In these latter forms we see the transIt. the palate Chequer. Sw. cheken. schach. the loose the game of checks. gaghel. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. e. to accomThis they call hdrsk. acquisition. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. kasiiUPr. Chekenyd or querkenyd. to make a noise different word. The name of creak as shoes. chAtaigne. kesten. Cherry. Fris. &c. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. cyse. scacco. ceaplas. Fr.). cisty G. AS. kces. Hence chesten-nut. See Chess. Tutschek. Thus "we are brought din. — — . which in the case of cough has Chesnut. ichec. To Cheep. CHE. . nish source. treat with affection. to kasa.perly head. Chemistry. castaneusj Fr.peep in the same sense. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. a cricket.koppen. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. to swallow. xaque. kastr. dersen . jaw. AS. chests in OE. a chicken. Lith. jaw.D. To make a shrill noise Chest. kastanie. cista. to gape gab. chops. ceac. czypti. by laying it in come to an agreement with. The Sw. to love.EP CHEVRON 145 on. Jam. caws. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Chevaux de frise.

Chaw. chieftain. Pm. W. cild. s. to Du. when the vibrations become very rapid. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. from little to little. chicaner. — Fin. Chitter. a hen. mountain top . branchy. tiukka. kuwe. Chigue. kippa. Payer chiguet A chiguet. to chirp or peep like a chicken. kibr.^ Hal.— . machouere. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . tiukkua.). pipio. Imitative of a loud clear sound. to crackle.D. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. tiukkata. gosling. kime. capu. The Pl. stake. as pointing out the origin of the E. tintelen van koude. czypulas. chill. cabarach. deer's horn. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. grelot). Palsgr. chillness or shivering. to smart. — It. then cold. to pettifog. a chicken. head. Da.. the young of animals in general. zitterti. E. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Fr. For the see word Doit. Fr. Fl. ach. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. or as E. pole. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Du. kaw. Fin. w.. to chime. kauwe. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. or chick. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Fin. or qf people talking rapidly. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. a young bird. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. Pm. Du. and from the third E. acute. aner. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. It. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. chef. cidan. the same principle I regard On birds. mouth. : — a lump. in Walach. Prov. creak. greloter is to shiver for cold. chicken. cib. kilderkin. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill.-ill. to raise the rim. a chicken. chaps. cap. chiler. And hence. kind. chillar. crepo. sonorous. tremble with cold. gills of a fish.' my finger tingles with cold. jaws . De chic en chic. . into a continuous shriU sound. Sp. CHJME the radical form is unusual. — — Mother Hubbard. tremble. caprioru. lead through the synonymous E. as. cabar. horns of the house. capete. Probably from Fr. and not vice versd. captain. Fin. a chicken. cebr. E. to contest. kinderen. to gasp for breath (Hal. to go. or the broken noise of birds. to the brim. knirschen. cica cica. quivering sound which passes. has probably the same origin. ]). chimb. See Chimmer. Tintillo.D. CHEW . cheek. to contest about trifles. Kil. Lat. knarren. queror. Chief. alter. while the Magy. k'imm s. A To Chew. kidata. Chick. capo. cabriones. Gael. pipe. to titter is Du. kindeken. The loss of the syllable it in Du.peep. G. kitista. ultimate origin of the Mite. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chicoter. jaw. Chimb. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. knit the brow cib-led. rafter. chew or chaw. G. Magy. pululo. caput. — . kieken. Now gan some courage unto him to take. to scold. a cup cibaw. Fl.. from the first of which is Lith. horn wood. the head. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. Swiss kiden. — Du. kimista^ . chillrar. AS. rafter . kopf Du. Pr. pi. a cup. to use the jaws. the jole. Child. chawbone. the Ptg. pipio. strideo. a jaw. Pr. are formed Du. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. pip. kouwe. klagend tonen. killen. . Chime. chikat'. chiquei. Halm. a head. a little bit. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. keichen. Walach. De finger killet mi for kalte. to chew. To Chide. a cup. from the second Lat.— Cot. kimme. Brezza. tyuk. the throat. . chol. to twitter. ' . by driblets. Chill. kop. Pl. chavel. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Bret. a finch. the least imaginable jot. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. also the horizon. rafter . kauchen. a quid of tobacco.. term is ssaru fu. 146 brial. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Gattel. chavel. the rim or edge of a vase. kimia. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. twitter. Fr.— Gattel. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. the cry of young . signifying properly shivering. a small cask OFr. tiuk. Russ. then as G. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. killen. antler. To chitter. E. 'Among these the G. cabar beinne. choule. jaw. chin. kaau•wen. chic. caferu. kauen.^ to resound as a bell. beam.

as the/ is preserved tering. Chimera. to sizel. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. The small entrails of a hog. Lat. komista. et garrire . Chyrme or chur. but or cry as a parrot. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. a Kuttn. to tattle. to chine. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. See Chark. 147 kimina. Magy. kumista. Chintz. It. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Du. tinnire. as the chink of money. epine. Sp. A . sound on beginning to boil. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. do. ykvvQ.Lat. spina. Pm. Fr. genawi. zirken. killed by Bellerophon. stridere. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. — . Chip. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. klincken. the mouth (jaws) . have been used to designate the spine. Kil. ciseau (for cisel). to chirre. tremulous motion. from Lat.to divide or Du. Bav. eschin^e (de pore).schricken. backe. the whooping cough. chin . then of a fabulous monster part goat. Cot. cheek. to squeak in It. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. to chirp. pare also Walach. bx-eak the back of schena. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E.Huloet in Hal. and bodily movement in shimm. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. KinneGr. Chink. chink. See Chats. caminsects.iron. part lion. in the same crack. komia. ciarlare. It. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. kieck hoest. yivtiov. to gape. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. to chirp . as a large bell . crepare. sonus the backbone Lat. sonants. Gower in Hal. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Fr.). a surkik hosta. schina. a crowing sound in recovering breath. also vibrans. a hall Mid. sound. i. E. a thorn. clashing of weapons. sparkle. . Ptg. Chisel. Chitter. to prattle czirpti. to open chirriar. to chink. caminata. — . backBut she withal no worde may soune. a thorn. Caminatum. representing connected together. schrick. as a bell kommata. clipping of coin. to creak. Chimney. rustle. Chit. Lith. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. chirp. See Bright. simmer. hiss Pm. disCot. skina. chick. bone . kinne. squittire. cinne.' Phaer's Virg. fyr. Fr. cincel. genou (pi. Chitterling. . and light. kumina. — . ter. tsengeni. gena. chhint. cinan. Gascoigne in Todd. Diez de. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. Bret. To chink with laughter. Chin-coug^h. verynge or dyderinge. to murmur. E. name Then. quavering of the voice. — — — — — . to tremble. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Sw. up and down. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. as birds the mouth. quivering or shakyng for colde. eschiner. . or chyFrigutus. . AS. keich husten.to chirp.sharp. hollow. To Chimmer. Sp. The desig. cheminde. schetteringe. the cheek (jaw) . To Chitter. Fr. tsongeni. Chat. the jaw. a chink or fissure. companied. sounding deep. Chine. See Chap. schiena. the chine. and chim-mer. It. Sp. applied to tremulous motion. chatter . vincially used in the sense of a crack. shiver and the chyver of Pr. — . The change from the sound ter \s. spina. Hindost. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. gen. hiss chirlar. the jaw. and from a similar sound to boil gently. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . kink hoest. chits. hus. clangor tinniens kummata. a szemrcU. Chink-cough. It. dial. Fr. It. j^lf. cisaille. to sound deep or the Gr. from 10 * ' Chia. twinkling light. cisello. eschine. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. from the geon's lancet. twitter caminus.. are In like manner E. to sound. Chymerynge. fissure. the cheek. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Prov. a fire-place. Sp. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. schetteren. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. To chirp or twitter.er. . cleft. caperd. in Hal. Du. esquina. Gloss.czirbti. to simmer. G. to creak. czirszkti. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. In the same sense. a chap. pork) . esquena. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate.. G. resonance . to chink with laugh2. flaw Hal. and the Du. tschirpen. to prattle . the chin . then to any narrow crack or AS. Primarily a shrill sound. zirpen. Huloet. Pr. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. plodere. all these imitative terms being minata.

a ruff. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. to taste. signify to kiss. Fr. kaup. coro. Fr. — Chock-full. cut up into — See Chats. a twittering. try. koren. . or original meaning is preserved in G. — — — . To Choke. Cavalry. ^S. krussyi. kustigen. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. from kraus. by which they are Fr. choppe. a blow. &c. heaped measure. Serv.' who shall not taste death. a company of singers or dancers. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. — Cholera. skifa. gusten. to break off in small shive. in the same language. disposition. try. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. wrath. kbhren. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. shoot . chap hands. from chevalier. chock full. Prov. to chap at a door . chives. . arkiusan. developments of the same radical image. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. OHG. Body and Soul. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. chattering. a fragment. 19. As kushnuti. to chap.freze. scheve. experience valerie. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr.D. to try. taste. full. the ridges prove. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to taste . word is more likely to be from Lat. chippe. Choice is probably direct from Fr. to choose. The Sc. Chap. to ^cleave . a heap. also calPs. The . Enn Sigridur sem ' . i. wein didder for cold. pieces . to hack.. cepa. gekrose. lead us on to Lat. kiusan. cape.ffrill. full to overflowing. select. to turn. approve. a young . Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. a knight. a chive. to Compare also Pol. a ruff or frill. to taste. schoch. kushevati.' Verie coinme Cot. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. chceur. —Chorus. kushati. to taste. %o\ifa. pluck. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. all seem slate . . •- Russ. and N. to palpitate . kalbs gekrose. and Vf. to clap up Hal. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side.vonic languages are Pol. To Chop. chatter. &c. the small parts of the roots of plants. chimp. kiesen. prove. to try. cive. See try. to experience. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. Chuck-full. then to try. a scale or fragment P1. kausjan. to try .ceosan. kor6n. caperd. g'schochet voll. propagated. and in kosten. to ing is doubtless to taste. to stop geschoppt voll. Gr. ruffs. Choice. a small slice or slip of anything . Walach. chorus. curly .' At last he dwelt . Yr. schiefer. as with a blow. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. bile. to shiver. gdnse gekrose. of E.gust. whence choleric. chaup. chawdron. schevel-steen. to wrinkle. chife. G. . ON. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Gr. then to shiver.yEuffM. causir. a calf's pluck or chaldron . anger. ments of the knightly class. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . Luc. kiezen. gustare. keypa. Chives. Lat. of an angry — — — ' ' — . xiv. to strike hands . specially with an application to theatrical performances. ent quarter. rare. kusid. haslets. 2. Swiss kust. fine threads of flowers. Schmid. G. to exchange horses. Warwickshire coff. * To Choose. G. the inwards of an animal. whence Lat. Goth. CHOP kros. Swab. a calf's chaldern of E. ON. The manners and senti. to taste. a wine taster. Boh. x^poc. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio.V)^x. friller. kiusan. The I go to prove them. cke. and in this sense the * small pieces. are used in the same sense. ^euw. called cMtters in the N. seallion or unset leek. to taste. to tempt. . crammed Choir. . — See Cheek. Chivalry. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. fresure. civette. an onion. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. wkusit' prikushat. taste. coup. Gr. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. shiver. I. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. from %u\i). and It. as green as leeks.— B jag E. chiffe. to prove. to try. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Equivalents in the SlaFr. Fr. choix. kruszki. kieser. chibble. keuren. a rag. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. Choleric.. a goose's giblets. . the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. it is probable that the root kus. Jam. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. okusyti.

a thick piece. gobio capitatus. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. I bring you the Cloughs. who took in the Turk- clack. civetta. kobe. and we actually find champman for chapman. gull. ceo. the same word with the It. a small fish with a large head. Madam. chack. yiSA. klompe. Fr. chatter . sent before him a Chiaus. quappe. kubb. xop5>}. chroniques. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. —Shakespeare. cresmeau. syllables chat. as in Fr. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. a stump. applied to an owl in that language. — Quabbe. Anachronism. Jam. dealing. forms are Chrism. Chrysalis. chronicles. Du. choucas. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird.\^s. one who buys and sells horses or cows. a trafficker in souls. to cant. p. See Change. Borgoens happen. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. that will thank chiaus — you richly. klopper. whence apparently the Sup. kubbr. whence e. What do you think of me. Lat. the teeth to chatter . in Chaucer.(. for to defraud. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. See Chaff. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Gr. to clack. equivalent to the E.povucd. fat. in i6io. XpvaaXic. Fr. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. high clog. the string of a musical instrument originally. cavena. OE. chrysalis (Plin. monedula. E. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. cauc. the intestine of an animal. Chub. chevane. ley in Giiford. cheviniau. Come. -chron-. capitanus. koppe.. In Sc. Nominale in Nat.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Gr. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. chuet. dial. merchant. chrisme. a messenger or envoy. whence — E. kaw. xftovoq. To coup.• — . cambiare. a bullhead. thumb Fl. cangiare.). In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. caker. Fr. Cot. which was written 27. capitone. to speak thieves' slang. E. &c. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chub. Chough. In the Alchemist. G. claquer.— Landnamabok.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. traffic. kaufen. to knock. Fr. time ra . chevin. Fr. The Turk was here As one should say. Du. noble Doctor. clat. connected with G.—Chuokstone. thick-set. cauvette j Fr. A jackdaw. To Chouse. Kil. e. A fish with a thick snout and head. cheap. Chronicle. That Face. Sw. peace. to overturn. caqueter. an offence against the fitness of times. — — — .. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. to turn over. ' ' What's that? Dap. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Chuck. i. prattle . chapineria. dial. slipper . Gr. cob. Gr. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. Wall. Ant. If I discover. Chopino. To Chop logick.' They are forebuyers of quheit. by the Robert Shirley. .— Chevin. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. chouette. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. P. plump. 4. xpi'^lia. kaulhaupt (club-head. to chatter. Alchemist. kowe. Sp. gold. capita. of which such strings are made.). E. Peace. a The What dhy ^. caphatenus. kaej Lith. because she would not endure this husband chopping. chapma?i.sohola. kauwe. a lump or piece chump. Marin. from kloppen. kolbe (club). Confounded with the bullhead. we find the following passage Dap. soul-couper. From the Turkish Chiaus.X. overset. E. gull. kowej Sax. whence the Fr. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. 49. or miller's kaycke . capito. short piece kubbug. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. Chord. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. AS. as Du. chouquette.' Jam. — Dief. cow-couper. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. chevane. — Chrisom. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. . to strike in the hand. chapin. ON. e. bearand aits. chop. clogs. — . Picard.

* Cinder. a cutting round. chofu. AS. . dust. to make a aiKipa. ladre from Lazare. -cisuiri). to separate the kernel of the milk. tie about). dial. to To Chuckle. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Ir. Sicerawry face ceffata. but by way of explan. ccedo. cado. male person. as a board. ON.' And cold. cendre. Aasen. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov.for the residue of stone coal. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. Lat. flower. a cutting an old chuff. a man. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. accido. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. sicera. sintel. blow on the I io6 in Mur. ceaplas. an old man. swollen or puffed up Cot. The derivation from Kvpiasov.. or. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. kerl. gffe. incido. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. calx. Du.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. a resounding object. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. e. fat-cheeked. ON. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. residue of burnt coals. -eris. cheek. from Lat. ceffo. Probably from It. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. &c. pith. surly. Wall. — — A — ' ' — . and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description).rendered by Kil. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . In Sc. whence ON. to make a rippling noise. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. ceffore. comp. G. from Lat.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. See Cheek.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. cinders used disjunctively. a girding on. to throw out sparks. a pebble. cidre. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. chakil. cut off. G. Cieling. Du. Lat. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. ceorl. Gr. or choice part of a thing . KvptaKolg. in Sc. countryman. Cider. cinctura {cingo. to fall. . but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. set kerti. Fr. a lump.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on.D. OFr. Gothic nations. to jaw chack or snap. as Fr. sive piratiam facere sciant. as in E. kakka. a man. Wall. to strike clatter. To chuck in the fall from. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. Diss. log of wood. to cause the milk to grain. jaws.V//a'6'?. to Newsp. as water running over rocks or stones. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. sindra. -cise. Du. Lat. scoria. that the word is an adoption of Fr. calculus. chofe (Grandgagnage). a husband. to turn from blossom to fruit. . &c. kaerle. then the on oh StX iv roXt. kjami. . a man. kirna. Sw. ceaflas. has been impugned which it has really no connection. to form grains of butter.— . a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. -cis-. ashes. The origin ation. Fr. a rustic . chuffy. with It the Lord's house. however. in circumcision. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. See Ceiling. sindr. . so as to make the happen . whence church. whence deciduous (of trees). sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Fris. karl. kiorne. lamak. chife. thence a belt. i. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. to cut decide. . marrow. Sc. cinctus. chaps. — . Jennings. 24. i. a pebble . Cleland in Jam. kernjen. klakka. domhnach. cinis. the kernel. we have to chack. joufflu. The spelling of chider has Chump.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. the snout of an animal. chack or stane-chacker. to churn. a fellow. Ka-^aiva. Churn. -cido. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . tindra. Church. As AS. x^^i?.' he adds. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. chack-stone. It is certain. pp. Hence -cid-. geaflas. to gird. in the face. a miser. — of the two words. giffle. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. a douse on the tores. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Da. Gr. spuma metalli. casum (in comp. to fall at or on. ciuffo.^. as Epkema explains it. to sparkle. See Cheek. joffu. kern. -cide-. sindel. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. chops. cheeks Cincture. Lat. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). to fall upon decide. Chuff. AS. Cob. have given rise. to him a sudden blow. KaxXij?. e. Chunk.— Chu%. to determine incision. C^z^j^ churHsh. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. ChurL husbandman. ON. sinter.

cittd. clapping of klacke. circum. cry. Du. chupon. fall. a clod Russ. cifra. Arab. clack-dish. klap. clasp. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. klappe. clat. clap. . cieo. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. klabb. to chatter . a circle. In Fr. We . Scion. from chupar. babble . E. excite. hringr. a ball. compared with It. of citta. * Ciplier. —Civil. cittadella. To Claim.. clog. klumbr. Citadel. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. . cion. klepati. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. clamras. chupon. civitas. Lat.— . lump of wood or with the nasal. circum. CION See Tinder. to cleanse. claim. klemte. Bohem. Lat. a ball. claquer crash. cion. kringla. klater-busse. So a light. klak. or clap-dish. scion or sucker. a circle. clot ON. a rattle . noise — — a cistern. a young and tender plant. sindri. . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. clangor avium . to clack. to call. about. Circum-. claquet de moulin. . chest. Lat. mass . to make to go. Lat. klacke-busse. lump. as in Sp.' sione. clump. empty Golius. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. parallel root is slam. prattle. the tongue. and. E. and clash. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Circle. Lat. noise. cisterna. vociferation. klammer. a city. a kind of pipe. . slam. Comp. a clod. ciste. clatCot. radical identity of the Fr. a lump Lat. a cistern. a citizen . -cite. ball kloben. or quill to draw waier through Fl. Mack. G. around. clack. 'mass. log. lash . lump. Lat. &c. klacken. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. cluster. to cluck. uproar. or split with noise. Sp. clack-box. See Circle. Recite. ring. klekotati. to chatter. Alt. cista. citrus. ON. Excite. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. accordingly find the roots dab. a shoot. Dan. Sw. — (Dozy) ing blow. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. to summon or call on. and E. trunk. lucerna. as caverna from cavus. to appeal. Du. to call. globus. Du. cito. clamp. outcry. It. around. rattle. . a block. clap. a lemon tree. circa. sound. . sound of blow. civilis. The syllables clap. KpiKoe. Hence Incite. . gutter. as. ON. Clump. to clap at a theatre. G. bunch. civis. a circle. a cleansing place. a lump Du. To Clack. to knock. City. to cry out. the place of . * Cistern. claquer. W.to suck. glamm. It. city. dob. klamp. cry out . clapper. cisterna. belonging to cities or social life . clobyn. to bawl. Lap. lump . Gael. may cite w. klateren. to gnash the teeth. to call by name. a judgment cern. stimulate. . Gael. clamer. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. castus). klompe. to be empty. The Gr. Hal. Fr. Gr. See -cid-. sip. . Fr. tinnitus . Clamp. ter. to strike. ON. It. to go. twig. glam. to mention. clambar. crack. sound- — hands figures. lump. glambar. to toll . kringr. clamare. whence cistiti. Cite. a place See place hiddern. -cis-. Chaste. chatter . to set in motion by means of the voice. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Cot. circle. a whirlwind. a pop-gun. rattle . a rattle Fr. a mass. Fr. smack. Citron. a whip. a split. Clam. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). crack. lump. suck). to chatter. and Sp. ruin. a loud uksa slamketi. a city. sifr. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a Pol. bunch . chijfre. creak les dents. Gr. prattle. cit^. —Circuit. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . klimp. clack. forms — — — parent plant. a kind of rattle. with an initial s instead of c. From Arab. is traced by Gr. citujn. a ring. in the frequentative form. circ2tlus. sajira. to clatter. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a. wasserkasten (water chest). domern. kluV. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. sprig. Fr. klappen. the door was slammed J slamem. klopati. a for water. for Cion. a reservoir Probably from Lat. klump. a block. biw. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . klambr. a knob. cittade. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. . a Lat. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. We . a'upiav. a hiding-place. clamp. Lat. sphere gleba. klubb. dim. See Crankle. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Sw. a boss . klqb. The notion of a lump. scion. ern. area. claquer. KipKog. Dan. crack.

to clutch or cling oneself up. tremble . beat. to knock. hands or claws to grasp. Dan. conceal. viscous.' klibba. is used in the sense of secretly. kluppel. klatten. dientes. klettern. chatter. of which the locative case. yf. salafa. to do anything with a clap. closely analogous to that of the fast. Dan. run to lumps Clandestine. uproar. compress. gliong. offspring. klemmen. cream Manx doan. daver. . then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klang. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. descendants . klynge sig op. a hawk. to climb. dapier. Russ. Swiss kldbem. clear sound. To sticky. to seize. resonance klingen. klamre. To clap in E. klebern. as the Lat. kleppen. clajnmy. clangor. See Clam. damor. klavre. diver. cling. to Hal. dial. and hence moist. who occuG. Lat. — Cot. accent. Dan. clang. Bohem. cramp. narrow. coagulated cream. dang. Halma. to hide. to hold fast with the . These words To are closely connected with damp. gripe. E. a place underground where rabbits breed. Gael. privately. to cleave or stick. dink Du. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. compression. of money Gael. . rumour. to daub pinch. a rattle . The Fr. &c. a claw . clamber. These are imitations of a loud.er. from birdlime. klappen. sound of the trumpet . klampen. clann. dapi^. damras. cleave. glambar. tingle. bond. kleppe. to glue. gum. tight. a noose . klemmen. nature . to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . . E. dial. clap. c). pressed close or hard together. buckle klamp. a heap of stones. clandestine. sticky Hal. klammern. cluster. a craCmp. Sw. Clang. clammy brace. dienklebber. seize. a sound made by a lighter clink. scendants. sound. to climb. to climb . for tame conies. a whip. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. Clamp. clink. dren. klappen.p correspond- ' without order. Lang. to dame. hold. dam. apprehend . Du. klammer. kloben. klam. ney. hook. ancestor. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. chief. E. prison. knocking. . where- A — unto they retire themselves. dia. Bav. to pinch. OE. To Clamber. G. also to clog up. The equivalent of Lat. bandage. salaan. to knock. to. The E. klibber. dandestinus. klippe. adopted Lat. dam immediate modifications — . sound . strait. klepanie. Fr. A i. solid. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. anything hidden. dam. grasp. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. stick. G. clapas. Du. tenacious. Clap. to clap. . klemmen. tone. children. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. klynge. a sound. In like manner Du. a heap of stones or other things piled up . — Climb. to claw oneself up. contraction. . clap. Swiss kletten. a stick. to stick conceal. klopfen. Dan. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. and hence to pinch . G. Clink. to climb. viscosity . clapper of conies. B. AS. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . massy. a sound made by a still . a burr. to stick or glue. or klamp-vogel. crowd . cramp-iron. dank. The root which gives rise to klibb. but perhaps not directly from it. the in many languages. klubber. B. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. dap up. brawl. rattle. holdfast. G.. a stone See Claim. klepati. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. sound. — — . to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. to cling. chatter. klette. to Sw^. Du. klank. dapier. Clamour. to clap on. E. to glue. klem-vogel. — Lat. kleppe. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. — with hunger. and that from celo. Salainen. Hence the Fr. to hook things together.' to take coals to Newcastle. children. a loud tingle. dambar. Clank. take hold of. dam. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. klepel. beating. kleben. klobber-saen. Du. Clan. — . as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. to patronus. from the w. to climb. sound object . tattle. klamme. klappre. as the clapping of hands.1. a trap. with cramp-irons. to climb. klam7n. a claw. G. celo produces Fin. clibby. to beat. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. Clapper. a bird of prey. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. pinching. dem. strain . clav\f. substances of a stickydam.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. to gingle. tinkle. clasp. of the children. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. club . to starve. to clamp. ring as metal. in a hidSen place. Mampe. dee. originally a heap of large stones. klimmeii. grimper. is a nasalised form of gripper. G. whence sala. G. klamm. to hold to pinch.

and through v into a. klatschen. Lat. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Du. Fr. teren. &c. it is called clamming. klatscha pop-gun. hook. Cot. Thus from clamp. G. ghespe. to cleave. Clasp. — Clarion. Mask ! plask ! thwick. clew or fasten upon a thing. a claFr. a kind of small. rion. is used in Sc. klos. schnalle. Lang. applied in their harness. Lat. Originally clasis. klijven. cluster. Du. to snap. Russ. same class with w. The collar-bone. biichse. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. a. clump. a sphere .ck a whip. Du. But clasp or elapse. klatsche.). claw (what fastens together. Lat. to do anything with a . Dan. a little hook . klaterbusse. stop of an organ. klauwe. a lump . thence a definite head of an edict or law. klucz. globus. to fasten together . a heap. — tells us. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. clairon. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. with a reddish tint. clarin. a buckle. a complete sentence. fracas. clausum. a lump. Identical with ON. clausula. to knock. Du. clatter. chatter. Clavicle. a clod. a bunch. It. biichse. a key origmally a crooked nail. It. bawling. Claw.It. klase. a claw. a. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Class. To clew. pet. cinnamon. Analogous Jam. or as G. seizes) . he of white and red grapes mingled together. waU. clairon of a trumpet— It. ictus resonans. buckle. from clinging to the tree which supports it.Z. chiizjj-o. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. Eya-klasi. kluczka. from its use in fastening things together. clamp. a clasp. nawith stanis. — Kiittner. klaskad. and clavis. diver. glcis. a lash. e. K\a. rubellum. clavis. Commonly made. vinum helvolum. to shut. insularum nexus . to rattle . Du. klampvoghel. . Rayn. to clash as arms. nail. sphaera. Kil. vin claret. Claret. globus. clarinado. Fr. an ending. ivy. Du. From claudo. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Owl and that by which cleave to. which signifies a ball in E. a water made of aquavitse. klc^i. clew. blab. ansa. row aii/iaTos. fragor . 269. pellet . In E. skeria-klasi. &c. a distribution of things into groups.. chiarello.\x\xvn. klot. mass. a ball. Clash. kletse. Gr. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. klaeret. Prov. klamme. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. to end. klauw. sound of the foregoing description. to patter. Pol. from scknallen. kiosk bicza. mass. Wyutoun in Jam. compression. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. Clatter. clas. as Mod. claret win e. klampe. klatschen. Fr. to clap .to cra. kleeven.— CLARET clamp. the primary origin clapa. Sp. sauna de classes. klouwe (Kil. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. assembly. a key. to fasten. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. also a knell for the dead. chasguear. Clause. fibula. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. So Pol. from the resemblance to a key. the collar-bone. Clew. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. kleuen.w or u on the other. chiaro clear. cloi. Thus from Lat. Serv . vin clairet. is preserved in Lang. Nawith stavis. straight-mouthed. crying. a key KKtitid. thwack . whence kleuer. the cracking of a whip. a nail. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. to ring in such a manner for the dead. E. The b readily passes into gleba. subrubidum. dap. in the sense of a claw. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. KXeiSi. chiarino. Lat. puUs. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Sw. as it is written by Chaucer. noise. locket of a door. Nightingale. under three modifications dava. The form clew. to draw it up into a bunch. classis. and shrill-sounding trumpet.oi. an on the one hand. to animals Sp. as G. i. hawk. in the sense of a mass or lump. Klatsch- a pop-gun .Gr. klouwe. a bird with powerful talons. clavus. climp. From clairet. a club or massy stick. and old red rose-water. syrtium junctura. uproar. Eau clairette. clopa. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. — Clarinet. flap. In the same way is formed the OE. forms are the Du. . gaspe. we pass to the E. clair. —Kil. somewhat clear. contraction.

a cleft. the latch of a door. kluft. to chink. . Sc. to clench. pure. opposite senses. to Brilliant. This word is used in two business is finished off. glint. clay . as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. to separate into parts. a cleft. to clinch a nail. a plate. calm. lump. Lat. klinken. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. Du. rift. neat. to clink or sound. Sw. from nitere. klirren. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. clean. klinke. to fasten E. river. Da. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. dial. or of a tree. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Halma. a lump. glatt. kluit. klouen. or from being divided into two parts. clink. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. See Clog. splendid pohshed. a claw or talon. ON. the original . The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. klinken. gleit. W. G. date is AS. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. provinciaUy termed dout. cloven wood. polish . E. voice. Bav. nitidus. Fr.— Claggy. This is probably one of the clean. either by the coherence To Clepe. together . to shine. clean. and. as Fr. To call. kla:g. klank. as ON. rivet. klov.' was nailed to a rock. that was Torriano. to be composed. gaklankjan. door-latch. that was a striking proof. clear. bogs cous. From clap. cliquet. clear. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. glance . the fork of the body. holding together. clibby. Probably a modification of the word doitt. Cleft. a fissure. glitta. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. daggy. A — A Clement. famous. klyft. a mass. glbr. to stick or adhere . to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. a in that of sphtting. a bunch of When flax). clear. a noose. kleverig. clean. words applicable sight. Thus from G. diquetcr. Da. it cleave together. 2. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. a one end. dams. radiant. glan. a clincher. split. dut. klieuen. E. as the Du. See Clam. neat. — : A rivet. a — — . ON. smooth. glorious. klink. rive. klove The Dan. Kil. pretty. kleg. (Cot. Wilbraham. sticky earth. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . and Celtic glan. sleek. a key. pure. dedgy. kleg. klag. an object is simply cleft. glan. klinke. the two parts of Du. geklonken. and Dan. G. From dob.). viz. a fissure or division See Cleave. Clean. clemens. sticky . klouen. cleave. clout. pure . Da. Clemency. klieben. clash. to dag ox dog. and E. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. Cleat. hook. kleben. vissticky . to fasten. vice. klinka. a mass. glor-mhor. glandse. loam. the To Cleave. The word may be — . to clinch GB. glitnir. Die zaak is zS. E. klutsch. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. polished. The proper meaning of the word is shining. viz. 154 CLAY dutch. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. kluyte. dags. i. Sc. a flash. shine. Clay. G. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . dinquet kleeven. kluftholz. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. glent. Du. . Clinch. klincke. seem formed dial.— . AS. dench. . as explained under G. klor. Du. gingle. clean. bright. from diquer. The Dan. The word is . Lat. to stick to. give a shrill sound Jr. glindse. glan. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. chaps in the skin. klinke.Q. doggy. sticky. Du. kloue. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. found in other cases. of iron worn on shoes by country people. B. to tear or cleave asunder. speech . explained from the klinken. in two ways. ON. kloben. kldnkelein. klinken. danche. a noise. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. kloben. Mar. to 2. kloben. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . bend in a stream. as Lat. a cleft or fissure. gentle. kleevig. G. klijveii. doff. . Du. to glitter. G. merciful. Gael. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. klirre. celebrated . Sw. to sound or make a noise . To Clench. Du. Sw. mud.— Clag. . klafwa. . klceg. a lump. tongs. a latch. glbram. is fast and sure. Clear. deot. pellet. Dan. to fasten. dag. from the clinking of the latch. to shine . Omklinken. conserere antklankjan. to cleave. Axletree clouts.

to catch. cave . — have the notion of a short quick in E. deuck. a cliff. Lat. Hence Lat. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). hamraklif. clyf. 3. dial. to sound an alarm to clap. Du. as Sc. cliquet. a latch. duik. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . a latch . verge). rock. light-fingered. glomus. from clifian. as from derido. syn. clif. 3. Now the OE. a cleft in a rock . Klover i munden. corresponding to Fr. kleppe. abrupta rupes . Sp. . d See Clan. call. a lazar's clicket or clapper. has also deik. to cleave. climate. name. pulsare.) Brai. and (with the nasal) — clincher. nimble. to rattle. Sw. in precisely the same sense as the E. cliof. clever. Climb. CLINCH De . chat. IS5 Du. derjon. a latch. &c. to cry. Lat. In I Peter v. Commonly derived from deliver. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. to stir. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. . klikklakken. kliket. a claw or clutch. diofian. a hump. dook (identical with E. sonare. click. -Toe (from KXivm. Claw. Cliff. ized . precipice. lively. clif- stanas. a clicket or clapper. deik. klippe. which is used in Scotch and N.. dial. region not observe it. frap- per rudement une personne. crack. declivity. what so men clappe or crie. dial. cleft in a rock. derigo. Lat. klinket. Du. Jam. or Sc. Clerk. a precipice. ginally from dob (extant in W. to tattle. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. — — A . on. to wink. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. snatch. on. kleppen. babble. cleopian. clima. dek. sink. Du. expeditious. skard. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. Det er en Mover kerl. the knocker of a door. from Gael glac. Happen. globus. stein- kluppen. derecia. Somner. corresponding to the Sc. Click. dutch). rapidus from rapio. click. clever. klever. catching. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. click it. See Clamber. and hence climate. The origin is the Gr. Chaucer. a lump. whence Fr.— Clue. cleke. pen. that is a clever feUow. chatter. dink. klok klep- crepitare. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a mill-clack . implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. duke. rock. clypian. click. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. . —Vocab. Clam. Da. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. say. a sphere. dough. dichet. dicher. kliv. had a form. The Sc. klinke. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. chatter. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. above the pole. kloof.Lat.— Clicket. cart that tilts over. OE. prattle. an inclination. temperature. seize (Hal. the clergy. klinge. a trigger. klif. cleft. clep. clatter. to talk as a parrot. a hold. would have been derida. speak. cliquer. quick of perception. one of the clergy. Boh. chatter. cligner. as Lat. to clack. G. clerus. or an object character- Clerical. with hamarskard. /cXi'fia. cautes. CLERK sound of a blow. to seize. klikker. quick in motion. littus. it must be observed. the dick of a latch or a trigger. Client. a ladder. diver. in rhetoric. scar. a child's or clack . See AS. call. a hook. Gr. Bav. Norm. a tumbril. to snatch. a baU of yarn. ready of speech. dergi. as a click with the tongue. diquette. and hence deik. clap. precipices. deik. to tattle. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. G. Cot. de ripa. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. to prate.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. a clerk . dob.' ii. Dunbar in Jam. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Clever. . klaffen. Climate. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. klouwe. klev. a figure mentioned. ravine. Clew. exactly Gr. deudi. dever. klika. to teU tales. cliff. in the sense of active. klaiv. to confess . derigon.). to catch. rugged ascent. AS. Sc. icXi/ja?. cleugh. to move. a ball of twine. crackle. KkrifoQ. is NE. has kl'dver. deuch. a lot. gleg. slope . Rouchi cliche. claw or talon to dek or deik. rupes . Climax. Fr. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. But the Dan. to bend. one admitted to the tonsure. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. cleft of a hill. klippe. agile. crepare. clack. a clew. which in Mid. neither as having lordship in the.dergie! Wiclif in R. score7i clif. the clergy clericus. See Clench. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. We movement catch. Clergy. e. dexterous. highest is attained.

I. outcry.ginglej Fr. To Cling. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. four of the bell. dial. hlinen. — clot. straits. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. a woman's mantle . OHG. brett-glocke. knippen. g. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. club). klik. sloping downwards . tuft. Swiss klungele. a beU. a faction. the participial form is the nearer to the original root.D. a lump of butter. Fr. to beat on the board. ON. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg.— Clot. a separate portion. Een kliks bolter. klo^gen. S w. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. See Cowl. to shrink up. to pinch. as we now say three or four o'clock. Cliofue. chcng. Sw. Sw. . cloche.. — a mantle. kliks. . klingen. a clog or fetter for a beast . a rising ground. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. . . E. glocke. pinch. klipa. to bend downwards . to cluster. Sw. hluk. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl.— KSS. Ang. clino. speaks of a ' clung bat. a lump G. to knock. kima. a hood. to resound.. klok. ten. . So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Da. Kil. -CLINE make pinch. See Clang. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. compress . to snap tongs. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. to beat. especially of something soft or clammy. G. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. . also to form a compact mass. Sw. to slope or bend . Fr. Sw. hill . Decline. knot klynge. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. Gael. . . kol- The word . from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. pinch. clog. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. knippchen. klungeln. and 'E. klippen. kleppe. to wither. a bell. dial. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. To Clip. to strike. 'Till famine cling thee. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail.' for a dry stick. to shrink up. as thick or curdled liquids. from klepati. a bell. klincke. or bagging clothes. Cloak. to clink auf. klunge. to snip. kolki-laud. Ir. hlinian. a snare. toga muliebris.. to wither. clique. at first probably on a wooden board. quincailler. dial. a cluster. klocke. Flem.und zuk-lippen. to crowd together klynge sig ved. nip. recline. klippe. The notion of a loose moveable substance. parva ruptura. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. rima. sloping upwards procUvis.' From Pl. klynge. * Clod. clingan. kukla. disposed to a thing. clock is a variation of clack. kluben. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. and a similar syllable without the /. sloping forwards. Swiss klokken. a ball of thread . klunker. klungelin. acclivis. klinken. claw. Du. also to wink . toga. a clock. to lean. as to snip in the same sense from snap. kluppe. ring clag. incline. N orman clincailler. hluccti. to snap or fillip schnippen. G. to lean backwards. Clink. ON. to snap kneipen. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. sticky. to clap or clack. ' . klupen. shears. E. fetter. clivus. knippe. verklungeln. cloak. cochl. noise. w. met. to clunge. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. G. klicke. whence E. Walach. klocke. Clock. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Bohem. to cling to a thing. G. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. klaka. kolbe to E. klippa. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. gUong. To cut with shears. The E. klippa. klak. Esthon. G. Bi klik uti klak.'— Shaks. ON. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. pallium. declivis. 156 -cline. G. clinker. klepalo.. a lump. and so' to contract. Serv. To stick to. Gr. clutch. in Schmeller) klunk. kldpp. by bits. klocka. hooded . to pinch klupe. gang. &c. dag. dial. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. incline.D. Hal. related to clock. like cling. clips. Du. to AS. Pl. klinka. kXiVu. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. -atum. clato make a noise. . to clip. to form one mass with. iissura. difficulty . -cliv-. clangere. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. klippur. to sound sharp. Bohem. bow. Du. to ring. difficulty. clinke. schnippen. to crowd or squeeze chingy. globulus' (Gl. Du. slant. Lat. as G. to . a tinman. 2. Sussex peasant AS. to make a loud noise. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. glungelin. Lat.

of a body of any kind. -cludo. pattens G. claggy.). loppered (of milk). kloteispaen. a Christmas log. lag. lumps of butter. Klottermelck. . spatter. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. -clusum. lunch. inclose. bemired. aspersion. Hence inclose. mud klcEg. clogs for the feet klakk. He was a man without a dag. TZoxapov. E. slab. tJokok. from Du. . lobberen. to spill liquids. klokotat. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. shut up. enOE. slops slodderen. spot of dirt. to flounder in the wet. to flap as loose clothes. The origin of clod and clot is to . clog or overshoe. paddle or dabble in the wet. Du. Pm. je amoncele. m&se noch stain. da- . close. a clod Swab. gelatinous. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. schlattern. 3. doitre. a log. In the same way Dan. cloth. dag. Clog. Closhe. figer. dirt. G. or loppern. lump of mud on the clothes . analogous plan to clod or club. dab. slabberen. tuditare. . kloteren. kladde. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. we pass to Schlatter. motte. clogs. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. claudo. . lump of something soft . clotted milk klotte. The game called ninepins. schlottern. I clodde. watery. terminate. slobberen. claque. unctuous. • lump. Swiss schlott.' end. Gr. . klunkern. Pr. kleck. Russ. . Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. or E. to play at bowls. a skittle-ground klos- sen. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. slobbe. splash. then liquid or loose substance. to rattle or shake to and fro. to close against one. schlotter. . to shut. Yule-clog. loose. Idppern. . -clus-. truncus. klateren. a blot.D. a clod. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. lopperig. g. klakk. -close. in comp. a portion of something soft and adhesive. . kl'dnken. laggyn. shaky. lump of butter. . of something clammy or heavy. and Gael. mire. laggery. congeler. klag. to dash like heavy rain. fors. Klak also. loose trowsers. Lat. schlott. is a blot on one's character. clausum. clorre. Lat. thick spoon . zoccoli. dangle. dial. plod. bespotted with mire E. be found rattle. to rattle.— Clothe. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. to wabble. klotz. IV. dirt. to a. to shut up. shut up. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to shut. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. to rattle.1a. pludre. daustrum. rattle. slobber. klos. Fr. or drablyn with separate existence. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). a field inclosed clos. boil. a bal!. lobbig. a blot. to bedaub.D. paddle. Dan. blot. Fr. Du. a lump from Du. Fr. I clodde. and thus seem endowed . kloden. schlettern. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. klakken. loppe. slob. the radical sylla. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. bloutre. in accordance with It. beklakken. clos. Pr. wabbling from Du. zocco. loose mud. G. klottern. wide bagging clothes. to cling locks. log. a clog. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. to bubble. slops). It. a dirty wench claggy. is connected with pludder. miry laggerit. lopin. mud. whence klack. neither spot nor hang loose. His heart was franlc without a flaw. and E. To Clog. klos-bane. kloten. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. in accordance with Pl. . in forms like Du. we pass to E. a monastery. to claggock. Fr. a trowelful of mortar.'^ Palsgr. . klot. clos. forbidden by 17 Ed. hanging loose and full. Bav. to shut in. ! . to dabble. MHG. clotted locks Dan. clatk. to lobberig. . compared with clump. AS. like G. Close. thick sour milk. without. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. dunch). kloster. chiuso. with Fr. to bodies. To hinder by the adhesion Sc.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. paludosus. klod. curdled. a log. to paddle in the wet. klotzschuh. clot. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. fat. a spot. Cloister. I doda clod. . to dabble. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. to sup up liquid food. separate part. Mat. a block. motzen.. klac. chiudere. E. bowl . closed. A — — A Thus from Bav. foreclose. meat from Du. a babbler. and Du. A . lob. Sc. clausum. .rge lump.. Pl. lobberen. from claudo. clammy loam. from Fr. be&c. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. an imputation.dial. kleck or lack. loblolly. or Sc. slop. daggerey. finish . tramp in wet or mire. to slop or spill liquids. geschlotter (as E.

and clout d eudaich. diboter. cobble. klu77ip. eine to slop. AS. Das volk hat sich in splitten. lunch). CLOUD an awkward clod . klqb. kloete. from kloven. clothes ment. Sw. a patch. clunch.Fris. kloven. Clump. dabosser. knob. sheltered . zolla. formed lump or thick mass. unpolished. a.158 . Du. clod. Clover. clump. botsen. lump of earth aria. de Champ. botch. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. little nails. of nagel. hebes (Kil. clue. clump of a clout on the head. a cover or coverture .D.D. caillebottes. The priClout. to strike . . klcBdi. Move. E. choke or stop up. klebek. clot . dial. the air. to beFr. lie clyd. .bar. with lout. lump. Coventry Mysteries in Hal.). warm. del mattond. a bunch. loggish. make warm. strike. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. w. log. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. cludadh. clammy earth. cloud Delfortrie. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). a knot of people. . the terms expresssplit. but confounded with cailler. clothes). to splash. a lump. and closely do conspire. stock. klubb. a garthas. To Cloy. cludaim. a bobbin. lumps of curd. klonte. a clod or clot.ft. Imitative of the note of a society. bunch. a bousche. Pl. Club. a fissure. klieven. Clown. dirt. N. Kiittner. a clot or keeps one warm. a boss. clod is used in both senses . vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clunch. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. a clown. when something has got into the touch-hole. Rouchi dapoter. clotted milk or cream. to tramp in the kluyve. clobyn. lump. to cloy. klubb. sticky. a sticky. and -the word Clove. nagelein. mass. Du. block. So Fr. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Cloud. ON. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. The significations of a clod or lump. to stop. dut. a log. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. lump. w. klubbe. to lump mend clumsily. Mabousfrom Lat. group of people Sw. E. klotsen. AS. and clay. tuft. aglio. kluppe. sheltered up warm. In the same way E. a ball. dial.). whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. to cover Bret. Clumpered in balls of clouds. clou de girofle. een klaven kruflook. klove. boucher. klump. I. dump. are also used in the sense of a stopper. esdaboter (Roquef. a . to cleave. clot. knob. klumba. clothe. a nail. nourish . to cleave or the splashing of water. chiodo di girofano. (kruyd =. kldverj P1. Fr. of a lump of earth and that figure. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. cluster. Du. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. — — — . The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. indispalte knoblauch. dash (Cot. a thick mass. a blabber. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. clyd. also homo obtusus. From dog. of sloppy materials. mire. klotzig. piece Cot. G. cob. klumpfot. More in R. milk run to lumps. a log. To Cluck. in the same sense. warm place . klever. to cherish. dillad bumkin. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI.). klaven. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. a nail) Fr. Then applied to a lump of mate. E. a clove of garlick. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. are often connected. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. Du. a ball. and tapp. warm. tered . duthaich. Gael. ON. . mud (Pat. to a lump. to strike. shel- kloen. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . a sky Cot. The radical sense seems to be an unE. nelke (dim. G. . A division of a root of garlick.clod. coarse. Du. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. a breach. CLUCK rustic. blockish. puddle. a clod. ball of thread Russ. rustic. dob. of thumping clumsy action. eene ODu. naegel. 2. and of a rustic unpolished person. G. G. dote.). cluth mhor. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. Gael. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . Du. daggy. dial. . Met. clog. klobbersaen. matte. It. probably from daboter. Ir. ser. kl'dnne. a lump. kUid. spice) G. a clubfoot klabb. to curdle. from Du. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. clavo di especias. cobio. klunds. a bunch. clods. mary sense is a blow. wisp. from OFr. klubba. Cld. motte. a ball of twine .' Sanders. Sp. a bunch. clydion. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. zolla dell' . a curdled sky. clot. A kind of spice resembling Du. Properly that which covers and Du. as Fr. klotz. — . dys. a ball. dabaire. warm clothes {dillad. Dan. Sw. kluV. davus.D. from W. clumhar.

klomen. dussomed (Wilbrabam). Clutch. Champ. clointer. klamp. to pinch. kichlemmit. E. It. clabosser. MHG. duke. dumps. fingers (familiar). ment.D. to stick together . a lump or compact mass. clutch. to gingle. Hence cleik. Muster. clopiner. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. klister. or aclommyde. klompen. Graff in Klamjan. log.pare P1. to wash. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. Ang. -olus-. glocire. to grip.E. ill-made .' Benecke. doquear. Boh.forklomme (Outzen). klunt. n. cleik. -close. MHG. In the same way Du. klampa. finish. and koetse. glousser. Clutter. unhandy. beklommen. -CLUDE hen Du. . from klupen. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . wooden shoes. with a quick. a noise. whence koetse. verkommelen. acomelydfor could Pr. hand to cleuk. —To Clumsyd. But clunchy.— — . Isaiah. a clove Sw. a bunch. Cath. to collect in lumps. unfashioned. -clusum.. bunch. 130. unhandy. properly to do anything Fr. a block. &c. ball of snow on horse's foot . exclude. lump of soft mate. OHG. Gr. Fr. ether comelia P. klette. Cluster. claws. pladdern. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. klomje.D. Pl. klikaty. — Cot. awkward. inclusive. klcise. cleuk. xXvariip. gelidus.Ancr. to tramp or tread heavily. a clod or lump. dumpse. ' Clumper. eene beklum. unwieldy Hal. also a cluster. are the nasalised forms of klotte. cluster. plad or plod. cliboter. eviratus. Teulazy. heavily. in v. as Fr. Hindust. dek. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. to shut. . The Fr. Ray. wagen. COAL dumpish. a ball. cleche. a lump. clotted cream. thick and clumsy. smart motion. . klobber in klobbersaen. crooked inwards . From the notion of sticking together. idle. The sense of awkward. to wash. splash. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. beklummen. klontet. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. benumbed with cold. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. obstructum.D. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. Du. Lat. a lump. limp. to curdle. 159 E. calling her chickens. to rinse. a pinching time. to tramp. Sw. E. as from seken. Fr. Clump. to benumb with cold.' Comfort ye dumsid. dial. an instrument for nasal form e. kluntfrom KKvKdi. Analogous forms with a tongs. — sen. to squeeze. having the Pl. and make ye strong feeble knees. lay hold of. or from Sw. Riwle. paste. G. klikonosy. to tramp. might be reached from clump. awkward. Hence snatching. koetsen. to curdle. a claw. strum on an instrument. and klonteren. esclaboter. claw. ' . a nasalised form of club. Fris. * Clump. koetsDa. ' Thou clontsest for cold. klisse. rial. Lat. OE. a litter. clump. dumpers. —More. algidus. Sc. a clod clunter. klods. close. klump. may recline. Hesse. Du. klunsen. the word is more probably connected with OE. — Hence include.' Vegecius in Way. clip or pinch. coccolare. klumpig. through the senses of lumpish.'— animal. to lie. . a coach. conclude. klemma. Variation of clatter. carriage in which you klodset. Com. claudo. Sw. dial. wooden sole. klonte. klont. Fr.P. klimpern. -clus-. enervatus. clook. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. hands stiff with cold.D. — ' — — tonista. from ON. in comp. differing only in the absence of the duik. hooknosed. klocken. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. * Clumsy.D. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. clutch. cluntClyster. dial. clausum. of garlick. a couch. klamen. See reclusion. kol. Beklummen van kelde.mene tied. to paddle or dabble. a clot klissen. G. verklomen. klemmen. klonte. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids.e. koetsie. Pm. Lincolns. -cludo. viscous material. A group. and klotteren.' Wycliff. kohle. -elude. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. klos. Sp. Cheshire. a ball . G. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. coucher became in unhandy. klummerhdndt. koetblockish. Du. a clod or The noclot. to syllable click. with E. Coal. seize. dystere. of Du. clumsy. lavesen. to to snatch. dial. pinched. eviratus. er. klummklummshandt. from laver. to curdle. tight — — . ' Uorte (for clogs. as clumper. Coach. G. to klotz. Compare Swiss klupe. See -elude. Du. hondis. a clod or lump. Pl. dek. Du. ON. conclusion. klumpern. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. — . havi. ball as snow.

COCHINEAL Cobber. Coarse.— Cobble. ordinary as in the expression of course. a pock mark. pock. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. glow. A plausible origin. a coat or frock. walk clumsily. large coals. to knock. cobcoals. side .inflated with air or liquid. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. an egg. ignem. pryf-coppyn. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. to be hot. . in Du. united. to stammer.' Nares. a nest. gull. Sp. coste. or cobble. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. acomelyd or aclommyd. e. probably from the Fr. The Fris.' And colo. habble. a great falsehood. glow jvalaya. ailina or colina. klabbsmed. kolna. are round stones or round coals of small size. haggle. verkommelen. H^cart. In the E. k'dlla.. Dan. Formerly written course. a kitchen. imbecille. cob. kuppa. . pustule. from bearing a bag. cobble. a crea. * To Cobble. The contrast between the bee • Cob. — Cleveland Gl. bredouiller. hakkelen.' — Thus from (Hal. any kind of coat. Sanscr. used in — . from some fancied resemblance. to kindle jvAla. Coast. as in arr. cob is a dumpy horse. a cobweb. Lat. ON. inflammation. When the . a sow. 3. Cocasse.. to stutter.(pi. — — — E. dial. koljarn. E. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. cule cocosse. v. Pm. as shown in dob and cob. to worship. dim. and the spider as collectors. cacd). in Essex Jow*2c^. Colina' the place where a fire is made. Lat. blaze.). cokes was a simpleton. according to the ordinary run of events. a rib. tuft. dial. and thence a lump cobnut. to pdt with We may cite Fr. may be A found in Sw. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . woman is said to be very ordinary. nursery lang. kop-ar. to bungle Sc. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. to speak or act confusedly. The OE. an old idiot. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. — Cobbler. Fin. caleo. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. and jval. cob. See Cot. OE. grown together. Du. then to work unskilfully . while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. to burn. — Pr. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb.—Atkinson. a bungler. meaning that she is plain and coarse. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. to glow . quele. verklomen. a darling. Du.. Outzen. koppen-gespin. atter-kop. numb. dial. petrilla. to stutter. klabbare. Fr. . and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. give the full meaning of the word. cochinilla. Flem. a firesteel Lat. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. Coalition. cotta. plaisant. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. niais. cotte. a similar According to Ihre. is one of thump. and E. unfledged bird. burning. one Pr. pustule. tempered clay for building. Coat. things. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. large stones . Coalesce. the one of thump. are often connected. itself is Nescock .a spider. of poison. flame. to kindle or cause to burn . gull. throw a blow. a thumper. to strike. a woodlouse. kylla. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. pockbecility and liability to imposition. Fr. cluster. a bubble. frock. small pox (pocks) .the water boils. glowing embers. rivation are found in Sw. Pm. to cob. . universally taken as the s