P. 1
Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

|Views: 583|Likes:
Published by zwuuf@yahoo.com

More info:

Published by: zwuuf@yahoo.com on Feb 24, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • 2 ABASH
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BALL
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • My
  • BUSY 119
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CAVE
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CLAM 151
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • COAL 159
  • COCK
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIRE
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LOLLARD 395
  • LULL
  • LYRE 403
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MITE 425
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • PAD
  • PALTER 459
  • PARAPET 461
  • PATE
  • PEEL 467
  • PESTER 471
  • PITTANCE 479
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • POTATOE 49
  • PROP
  • QUID
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RARE
  • RAVE
  • REEF 529
  • RET
  • RIME
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCUD
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SHOE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLAG
  • SLUR 603
  • SMITH 607
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUASH 635
  • 644 STATUE
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • Dm



original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


is given to a cow or calf. muK) and mae (rfie. and. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. and mully or mully cow is the . the present day. name of the cow. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. or. and where we are seeking.NURSERY IMITATIONS. in other words. when we is represent to our children of the cow. in language of the present day. Molli. the closer we shall approach to the . when neither name for the object to be designated. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. come Moolls. mind of the of the animal. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. the baaing of the sheep. by whom the be understood. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. The syllables moo (mu. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. but nothing she herself knows the animals. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. to the syllables which are significant to the child. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. or Mollein. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. with an initial m or I. persons of different tongues at the present day. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures.

had nim. schipp. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. p. He would now say good. Gradually. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. became more perfect. On one occasion he said^e nim. family. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. partly from sounds which the child caught.. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. We have. for bad. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. for everything fit to eat. A member of my own new sfop. Gr. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. fiafifi&v (Hesych. in children's language. to eat. as well as the mind of the utterer. to For instance. I had watched the growth of this word. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. hm. mumm. and some were very clear and distinct. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. and nim came to signify everything edible. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. for things. nineteen years old. analogous to Magyar mammogni. repulsive to eat. Finally an n was placed before it. &c. . interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. . And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. and which we might express thus. by the natural humming sound. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself.). First.' he says. to work over with the mouth. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. 72). nim. he called to to drink. his nurse adopting the word with him. then.' In ordinary speech mump. when hungry. Heinicke. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. But soon the growing mind began to generalise.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD.

to chew laboriously. A negro proOr. delicacies. jammla. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. make djamdjam). Nimm'd up.ONOMATOPCEIA. ut tinnitus aeris. to eat mampfen.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. aptantes adfectibus vocem. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. jumla. aves tinnire. South Jutland hiamsk. to taste . chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. as well as the Sw. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. Gothic niman. ' Motherwell. to move the lips in continued chewing. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. to smack in eat. to Sw. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. (in chil- dren's language). crab nam buckra man. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. mumpfeln. to be pleamind . i8o. to fill the mouth. agreeing with Ein. snatched (Whitby Gl. Galla djam djeda. on. i. Africa) nimi. iii. oves lalare. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.). to mump. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. stolen. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. and thence to be tasteful. clangorqae tubarum. as to . and some of them . taken up hastily on the sly. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Africa) nimnim. savory. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to take.' And Diomedes. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. or word-making. Swedish dialect gamsa. the Scotch poet. and the crab — p. j ing . ' id est. to eat. at hiamske i sig. we can call them so. Soosoo (W. jamsa (yamsa). namnam. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. dial. tidbits nama . food (Tylor.' — Lersch. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. greedy . Vei (W. 130-1. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). eating. nyam nyam. yamming. mumpfen. palatable. buckra man's language the white man. 1 86). and the fizzing (and Series. sweet (Koelle). p. Wolof nahenahe. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). The Chinese child uses nam for eat. nobis vix permittitur. lita.' says Quintilian. voracious. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Primitive Culture. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.minis.' says the author of Modern Slang. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. mujnpa. mumble. . nvrnma. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . memmexen. nam.

gobbling of a turkey-cock.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. chirping of sparrows or crickets. when circumstances required. chattering of pies or monkeys. whether it deserves the name of language. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. a lamb. snarling of dogs. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. yelping.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. p. snarling. 89) with less hesitation. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. dove and cooing. before the in other words. anything connected with it. between dog and harking. Yet we ing. purring or mewing of cats. grunting or squealing of hogs. listen in vain for between goose and cackling.' he says. Indeed. yelping. but of a dog. cooing or crooing of doves. howling. lowing of oxen. neighing or whinnying of horses. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. bumping of bitterns. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. cackling or gaggling of geese.' And elsevs^here (p. croaking of frogs or ravens. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . for the purpose of bringing the animal. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. We . sparrow and chirping. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. might be used as the designation of it. ^6^. twittering of swallows. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. do not speak of a bowwow.' — We speak of a cow. und growling. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. or. might be used. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. 'I doubt. baaing or maeing of lambs. intended in the instance to represent the cry. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. not of a baa. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. barking. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. not of a moo of Lect. bellowing of bulls. bleating of sheep. or thoughts of our hearer. that there is When Man. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. hooting of owls.

ghak. Arabic kdk. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. according to Durga). whose sound (Pictet. In Basque. lion. crow. a bird that is be driven away. Sauscr. a crow (Pictet). In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. He to is therefore derives kdka. e. having a general predicative power. Aoo-Aoo. Barabra koka. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. sound). kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. a crow. kae. In Lat.' kd). which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen.). ist ed. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and the sound of that direction. kuho. 'Kdka. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Picard cau. layitavya . Malay gdgak. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Kdrava. KOKKvi. Manchu The kaha. kdka.' common sense. coccolare. 380. in g. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. 349. and gaggele or gagkelein.). gackem. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. We imitate the sound with a modulated. a daw. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. and means a shouter. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Sometimes the hoarse i . Origines Indo-Europeennes). he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. in is Gr. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. Hungary. caw kuhii-rava (rava. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. it announces (Salaberry). most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. Columbia kahkah. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. caller. Bav. or quawk.IMITATIVE NAMES. kauwe. Georgian quaki. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. and Bavaria respectively. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. crow. 4th ed. birds. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. a a crier (p. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo.. fi-om apakd- i. 4th century before Christ is earliest times.

by the verbs gurren or girren. teewhoop. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. lulo. Sp.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. reduplicate form. Du. koeren. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. tuquheit. The consonants p. It. Mod.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. libufs.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. tortbla. synonymous forms of similar structure). to howl or Lat. yell. either in the same or in related dialects. German and Eng- krahen. to crow. kuku. So we have Polish krukac. coqueri- Languedoc. Du. tbrtola. another. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Lettish kiekuts. the name for a crow. Dutch kievit. a crow . kirren. kurre. kruk. Scotch peeweip. in the North of England.. kraeye. German luhu. are represented. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. lUyrian kukurekati. name of its is the bird. k. gufo. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. 219. as well as of Sanscr. French dishuit. Esthonian kikkas. ghughu. to croak. coccovaec. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. the name of an animal will gen- . Walachian coucouveike. to croak. Pers. t. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. gugu. and sometimes both together.. to crow. krahe. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Zulu kuku. turtle) as the Lat. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Yoruba koklo. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g.Gr. girre. 6. The crowing of cot in Fr. Fr. Arabic tdtwit. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. xi. giving turtur (and thence It. Ibo akoka. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. to hoot. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. kukhuta. Malay kukuk. or Gr. lilits. a crow lish Lith. and e. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. uhu. kukko. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. p. tur. Heb. tbrtora. cock. wood-pigeon. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. while crouk. kraukti. and e. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. great variety of oKokv^uv. Albacuculi a dove. Da. korren. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. to cry loudly. tor. German kielitz. Magy. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . krauklys. coucouva. Hindi. hibou. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kraeyen. Swedish kowipa. a crow. "Welsh hwan from hwa. name.

of England it is to the b 2 . to chirp J may be compared with . Lat. pip-pi-ta. zirken. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. and he kong-ko-rong. in allusion to its music. and probably indicates that g. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. booming. 'The natives call it tanand. bee. skirl. hollow noise. to rustle. sirkka. a bee. e. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. flight its sting considered as a horn. gives rise to chwymores. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . a small as hawk is . ' — Pictet . Northern Farmer. little intermission. skryle. which they make in their flight very . and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. schrecke. and yelping cry. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. German dronen. a hornet. German hummel.' —Tennyson. bamba. to grumble. bambhara. a fly (Tylor) . i. a beetle druna. 337. Sanscr. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. glass cracking (Schmeller). common. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. Albanian tsentsir. kong-kong. to creak Bret. Corean sirsor. In the N. din. — Catafogo. there are infinite varieties. oE. buzzing. ajo. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Lith.' Amazons. Australian bumberoo. dhran. Arabic tantanat. North of England. schirke. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. the drone or non-working bee . droning is .IMITATIVE NAMES. g. and not from E. The drone peal. grylhis. to sound. give a faint sound. Speaking of a cricket he says. schrickel.' — i. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. g. grille. thunder. with or Fr. knetta. a drone. whirr). ' Sanscr. PofijivXwg. skril with n. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). buzzing. Sc. sound. or a gnat fly. cricket is from crick. swirplys with 6. a sharp sound as of a 6. chirk. the humble. to chirp . words imitative of humming . We may cite Gr. Fin. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. German drohne. to hum. growling. Danish gnaddre. The name of the cricket indeed. succeeding each other — with noise.or bumble-bee. as . No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. to be compared with Sanscr.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Lithuanian tranas. loud rumour. schwirren. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. resound.vf3. to shrill sound sharp. (Jieuschrecke) . shrill. Gaelic dranndan. ta-na-nd. resounding of musical instruments. Danish dron. grillen. The Arabic sarsor. Naturalist on the tocano. g. representing a short sharp sound. horniss and from the buzzing The. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. from the humming. from schrick. The Welsh chwyrnu.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. humming.

to shout. muJiati. Hottentot bou (Dapper). fivKaofiai. With these analogies. or formed Lat. bue. a bullock. mugire. agreeing exactly with Lith. Fr. bwla. Cult. say. to beat hard. or bau-l-i. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to make a noise. Thus from miau. bae. miau-l-er. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. Piedmontese fi bau. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. to low. to make. Fr. bu. and in Hottentot baa was the . to make. bugler. the Fr. to the uses goda. Zulu lulula. to make a loud deep sound. maukati. bucula. From the same lioao). representmake bow. to weep. be-l-er. Gael. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to bump as a bittern Illyr. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. make poo. Illyr. to from bau. boo. is inadmissible. a Geiger. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bugle. a heifer. a cow. grumble as distant thunder . to low . to ba-L-are. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. mamoo-heeheek. btibleti. Norse bu. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. ox.XX called booing. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. On the same principle. biibnas. Lat. It. bullock. a drum . are (with a subsidiary k). Manx booa. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. from the imitative moo instead of boo. w. as the Illyr. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. (iove. a buffalo. verbal form given to the say. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. to shout. the animal. The Galla lilbil. mae. and djeda. shoot . From baa. or moo. mugler. verb is evidently identical with our shout. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. bae. make to it laugh. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. and from to ring. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. — ^Tylor. to boohoo. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. w. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to . bolt. to or bark. to low or bellow. a bull. OFr. in same way. or a z to the imitative syllable. Lat. bubati. bullus and e. bo. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. in a imitation of a ringing sound. bubenti. and thence Lat. as that of the cow by boo. The Piedm. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. baula. 167. to bellow like a bull. His analysis leads cow. has bilbilgoda. representing the mew of a cat. forms a. buculus. Galla boa. loge. cattle. amuse. whence baula. bull. bukati. or with on. lulauti (to hoo-loo). bovis. bauli. p. to mew. to bow- own bawl. Lat. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to sound. that the imitative syllable are Lith. bos. Da. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. k or g.

a goat. Africa laa. for the voice of the ox). and Circassian maylley. grunny. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. rumbling. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. corresponding to ohg. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Illyr. /xijeao/iat. and hoc'h. grumpf. with the root ypaipm. leknuti. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. G. Moreover. Among dog. sus-sus. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. from knurre. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. sound. / The same Gr. And it is true there between hog and grunt. as lou of an ox. Illyr. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. to bleat . curmurring. Fr. to grunt. hundi). a grunt. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. purr). hunon. meugler. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. to themselves. hwch.). and thus explains the origin /3^k»). in v. to bleat. a (Hesych. ^. hound. grumble. he would hardly. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a sow. leg-et-ni. and of (maelon). a sheep. lecco. does not produce a e. and grumphie. by which the shingle gives rise to It. name. houch. may be identical with Esthon. Da. Gr. may with to snarl. a goat. the designations of a dog the term cur. . Hence Breton hoc ha. to grunt. and with the subsidiary k or g. Welsh and Breton). mutter. meil. a pig. grumbhng. Manx meilee. meckern. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. lekavica. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. we have Sanscr. signifying a snarling. in Wolof bae. Kurren und murren.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. ' In driving. a wolf. it and e. undoubtedly imitative. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. hadg- Magy. It is probable also that e. growl. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. smack and naski. Gael. or in any ! way ! persuading. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. nire. name of a sheep. . guttural tone. meigeal. grumble. knurfisk. Idgge (Rietz). sheep or goat. mecati. a. to bleat. groin.' Moor's Suffolk words. grunt. grogner. a hog. naskia. mekegni. a dog. grugno. a goat firixal^ta. although the imitation embodied in Lat. Gr. the snout of a pig. (iriKov of forms like Sw. kurre. Magy. The g. a sheep or a goat. oe. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. cry). name of the animal itself. With gen. a sheep (Lowe). Fr. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. and snorke. and thence groin. meketati. hunt (gen. karra. grunlike a pig in eating. It. from hundama. to howl. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. Gr. goats. 6. . a pig Fin. to growl. cite as by grunt. kurren. hund. lek-eg-ni. to rumble. a sheep or ewe. From the imitative mae. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. this obstinate race. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. Illyr. /xj/caScj. lambs.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. menAda (ndda. — . a sow.

from the cry animal. ^6<. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.' 2nd Series. hobby. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. There are of course some names. hobin.. Thus we are led to the Fr. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. the cry to stop or back a horse. 91. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.root. . hobben. . and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). a horse. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. animal. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. to whine. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. hoppe. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. If onomatopoeias can . They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. to go backwards. cockade. hottihuh. p. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. g. humma. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. (Craven Gloss. houpy in Craven. such as cuckoo. p. as in Yorkshire highly right. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. M). a little am- bling horse.. turn a horse to the is In Finland. Esthonian hoibo. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. without a — we root. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound.' — ist Series. when he found peculiarity. coquelicot. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself.). In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. So Sanscr. coquette.). of the character in question.' ticular bird. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). like artificial flowers. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. hiine. e. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. But words of this kind are. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. Sc. to the left. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. a mare. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed.

and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. runniken. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. hresh. diver. lapwing. hross. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. giggle. xxiii ginal object. Lettish sweegt. titter. Sanscr. moan. wiehern. wagtail. but whether there kind between them and other words. groan. cough. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. horse. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. fehtati. form corresponding hresh. Bohem. redpole. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. little speak for themselves. hresh. creeper. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. command of language was attained. wrena. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. wrenska. nitrire. g. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. signified It. sol. Irieschen. ginniken. Fr. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. hikkd. Du. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. animals or certain kinds of sound. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Pl. to neigh.D.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. rinchar. than to the sounds represented. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Sw. e. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Sp. swift. whitename in in- throat. frenschen. ance or habits of the animal. nounced with a guttural). as sigh. woodpecker. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. to Sanscr. . hennir. goatsucker. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. hukkup. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source.

It is represented in e. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. klatsch. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. for a small one. knack. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. Zulu bongo. shriek. snukkup). to knock. for the sound of a blow. the God of thunder . I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. for the sound of milking. 1865. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . for the for the sound of . familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. dong Read. ding. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. plitsch-platsch. for in such sound of blows. heaven). The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. Vei gbangba. an attempt would be made to by the voice. a large bell. lumm.' ! ! ! ! — dong. haw. bang ' ! trenches. to sneeze. a more expressive than the e. ping came the bullets about their ears. are familiar in ' to every one. . for that of breaking. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. to throw violently down. —Brem. hoo. ting-ting. Mei gbengben.' it both sides went. bang. or the w. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . oren : Klapp. snore. on the chops is represented also by pratx. beat. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. aritischane. knarr. scream. — Sanders. to ham. Of a like forma- drum . clap ! A smack Puff. root kshu. in a nail Let. for the creaking of a wheel. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. &c. atchini. went the cannon. atchian. bangas. Wtb.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. Australian bungbung ween. tisio (tisho). to drive on. or tliat is accomit. hoo ping ping. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. to hammer . on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. strippstrapp-stroll. hang. mer. to beat.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. Da. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. pit-a-pat. haitshu. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. wheeze. the dashing of the sea . DingBang. for blows with a rod. banke. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp.' 'Haw. thunder (Tylor) . tlirob. fitsche-falsche. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo.' So imac. a kind of drum. heart tick-tack. pump. debhes-lungotais (deifies. beat of a clock child . for the sound of a fall. &c. White Lies. snort. banga.

and so forth. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pule. not- . is of expression. a fife or musical pipe. pipio. is pfeife. young bird. to peep It. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. cry. Magyar pip. piauler. — . He Yet asks. pipe. pi. It seems to him that the teeth t. to designate cavity and hollow. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. Fr. peep. and whimper. had been used laugh ? two. scream. which he added to intensify the expression. used as a call to . G. to cry pi. Lat. Lat. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in.sc. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. . pipe. pigiolare. ducing the sound. young child . has been un- employed to designate fixity. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. Gr. —Lyndsay. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. piccione. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. a or cheep. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pipilo. Mantuan pipiare. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. a chicken or gosling. The pi. a fowler's bird call is lost. to cheep like a bird or a young It. pipare. a whelp. far pipi. e. of a word will appear supposed to represent. pipelni. pu. as k. De Brosses. doubtless. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. part of the What consciousness has the child. pipio. pigione. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. piou. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. the voice of chickens (Cot. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. as the simplest implement for proFr. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. Florio. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications.' instead. to squeak. cry of young birds . Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. or a piailler.) a chick. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. pigolare. and their relations. child. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. as in other subjects of study. laugh. calls S. bleat. to cry like imrli^u). xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. In cases such as these. mobility excavation and hollow ^. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. peep.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. piou. pippione. pipegni. chickens (Tylor). being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. a (young) pigeon.

to grate the teeth . sound). there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. in German. to gargle . to pant bejii- zela. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. or springing back. crack. preserved by Kilian. vaake gorgor) . sound of dry breaking. of something fine and thin. lachen. to creak knirren. Hindustani karak is rendered. to pant violently (Colenso). to fizz like fat in frying. creak. a sharp short one. bubble. murren. grumble. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). kniks. to thunder. i. laqfF.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . along with Du. rumble. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. a drum W. lachachen. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. cricli. pi . {to It. kuruk. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. Zulu raraza. to cluck. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). coo. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. kirkirdnd. Hindoo tomtom. to gurgle. tontonare. to ring pipio. a prolonged sharp sound. along with tinnio. is very common. turtur. Indian chack-chack. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Manchu kaka-kiki. to cry pi. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. where the variation. ioriogliare (to make borbor). as representing the sound made when something breaks. to grumble. to laugh. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. It. thunder oil . .Gr. when it force than biscuit. Poppopvi^to. Pefuxela. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . be cate to go on laughing loud . karkarana. to jar. make wood a clinking noise. loud laughter. girren. Pacific aka-aka. some small vowel or consonantal sound. to be compared with Sc. crash. knuks. garren. to gorgogHare rattle. tintino. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. and lugh. or kaka-faka. borrelen. to bubble.) Mod. cluck. to growl. to hawhaw or laugh loud. gurren. rumble. kniks. &c. to clack. like the noise of a glass breaking . The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. knaks. the clucking of a j hen . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . of a loud strong sound. as the click of a latch or a trigger. u. chack. a closed or obscure sound. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks.. to grumble). . The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. knurren. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. a. murmur (by . to crackle like in boiling . the side of g. tonare. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. a short sharp sound. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. rumble (Fl.. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to rattle.

disturbance (F. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. call. to be compared with g. 1871. sound). may be compared with Australian pitapitata. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . . are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. or of bells ringing. Scotch sough or sooch. Tiie Galla gigiteka. as Fr. e. and e. uproar. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . to strike. tup. kl'mg-kling. csam-csogni. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Fr. noise. to ring or jingle. bad. for the clinking Lat. rifiirayov. at an accelerated note. halaidlac'h. rain (Tylor. bent her head. fumtu. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. Galla tuma. croaking of frogs. E. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). corresponding in e. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. kiling-kalang. clink. chuchoter. champ. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. compared with Gr. to say chut. Manchu kaka. agrees with g. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. Prim. tubh. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. rvir (in tvittio. to giggle. a smith. brings us to Fr. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. and Gr. shout. drops of i. tumult. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to knock. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. indicating the origin of Gr. 192). Turk. for the sound of privy whispering. a nightingale. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. while cacd / used in e. Newman). ding-dong. is based on the same imitation as the e. The whispering of the wind I. klirren. for chut-chiit-er. and Gr. koXiw. to beat. coughing or clearing the throat. make djamdjam). muro and e. correspond to e. the tingling Ming-Hang. a workman. the sound of a stringed instrument. wail. the gingling of glasses. hala-hald-faMa (falda. clash of arms. KaKog. sound. borrelen. clango. jingle. or to Du. cry. to the purling of a brook. to whisper. tumwata. of keys or tinkling of bells. is Manchu tang-tang. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. especially one who beats. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha.and e. 368). chut. jangle. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. a boy's whistle. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Calt. and bilhila. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. or the bubbling up of to a spring. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. box on the ear imitation of the . Sanscr. and her heart went thump. a drum . identical with g. a nightingale. simmer. for a tTviror). clank. spring of water in the a bell. awater* ' The Mme P. . bulbiil. as of Tamil muromurmur. djeda (to say tub). word. chinking of coin. The syllables lil-bil. are applied to the is excrements of children. thump.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. bubble up. Magyar csamm-ogni. and the imitative nature of tivgle. quarren. Maori pata.' Member for Paris.* the heart. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. caca and Finnish adkkd. for the ringing of illustrate bells.

smack. squeak. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. Nevertheless. But although and also found in Lat. clatter. Fr. lash. it is fallj AS. paddle. rumble. disturbance. and soufflet. to is blow. tinkle. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. So in Fr. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. 'pat. rattle. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. plump. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. parapatapan. tumbian (to beat the ground).. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. chatter. tum-ultus. whizz. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. ' Der puff. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. or v^hether jectional. din. crack. crash. to fall. slash. thump.' — Nohden. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. hum. swash. jingle. splutter. puff. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . It. mutter. clang. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. whine. ring. squeal. douse. a applied as well to the force of the bang. thump. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. tomber. tingle. chink. Humboldt. the Germans puff. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. guggle. snap. The beating of drum is represented in e. and the French pouf. dabble. brumberum. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. tap. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. at a door tarapatan. The use of g. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. without the intervention of orthodox roots. sputter. report of a gun. gargle. for (Sanders). souse. tymmesll. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. fizz. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. answering to g. in e. flap. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. blow. by rubadub. pop. clack. splash. clash.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. gurgle. clap. creak. while e. whack. bang. clank. patter. w. crunch. rap. thwack. we have buffet or cuff. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. boom. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. whirr. murmur. smash. hiss. dash. clink. rataplan or rantanplan. bubble. to dance. and Fr. according to the strictest phonetic rules. twang. blubber. flop. and Grimm. squall. thump. craunch. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement.

xxix on the contrary. and thus they become signs of despair. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. 94. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. the interj. in the case of the animal or of the infant. or stubble is meaner name. grief. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind.'. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. without a thought of symbolising to them. p. or of any if wood. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. the inteij. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. Crying. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. Grimm or Bopp.' . and uttering plaintive sounds. At the first beginning of life. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. are made known by an instinctive cry. stractions. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. the kind of action that is desired of them. but if we must not complain on the beach. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. is Thus ah!. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. by the nature of the cry. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. and found in the building of be burnt up. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. in the rushing waters. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. that he has taken the step in rational speech. of horror. ugh . every little pain. If. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. wringing the hands. hay. an imitation of a sigh . little who has time to want of her nurseling. or any unsatisfied want. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea.' If chaos. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. because they are spontaneous. formerly cited. knows them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build .INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING.

or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. they are involuntary interjections. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. And again. more eloquent than a long speech. and the eye. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. be more powerful. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. the lowing of a cow. them to exercise it.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. Language begins where interjections end. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. p. and some of them the composition of words. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. or which is of me as suffering pain. groaning. He says. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. as who them spontaneous utterances. One short interjec- tion may fact. should be remem- . of all the mouth.. sneezing. more to the point. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. he cites from Home Tooke. to solve the I shall call first. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. p. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. coughing. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. may become traditional. 32. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. 344. shrieking. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations.' p.' — ist Series. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. which are frequently so toned down cance. If I wish to make a person of an . have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. interjections. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371.

when I arp humming and hawing. bered. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. kahkahah. Koxafw. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. in Fin. hohottaa. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. interjections. demolishing here. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. then speech begins. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. hahottaa. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. I am not hearer. it them. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. and thus. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. but the less am at a loss what to say. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. loud laughter. some kind of language might have been formed. in Magy. cachinno. hahota. Lat. and more or less limited . is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. Gr. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. for example. speaking. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Tooke in truth. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. he says. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. and others from interjections. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. Kayxa^u).

and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. And so in the case of language. the critical question should be. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. The following account is given by Kruse. But here nature soon conies to his help. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. It as has ing their most striking features. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. a deaf-mute himself. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and not. of the nature of this great movement. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. if taken as a whole. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us.' he says. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and go where we now say stand. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. Though. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. words receiving the meanings they now bear. makes them stand and walk upon the table. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. like peewit and cuckoo. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. dumb is the language of signs. a Picture-language. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. . What strikes him . of the world.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.

that signifies great . ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. among themselves. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. And is. xxxiii him between one thing and another. like a V. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and fully serves to j . the lan- guage cultivates itself. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. thou. The of sign for left hand. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. walkest. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. The same sign stands and the act itself. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. thought is already broken. and gestures. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear.' In the Institutions. for walk. many when or but these. his action. and forms further and further.GESTURE most. for single objects. for child. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . walker. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. the whole secret. nay. it seems. called Gesture-language. such as than the educated man. or To pull and flap with the arms. what more. for the agent. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. can do better and more easily abstract terms. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. walked. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. push it towards the person addressed for thou. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and with his thought. such objects. signs are taught for yet. that air. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. to name. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. particular sense in properly so called. or the verb to be. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. and we have roast goose. but if I depress it instead. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. it means little. as it now opens out. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and And thus he makes himself a language. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. the sorecalling them to his memory. he. that. becomes roast meat. most striking outline of an object. and to taste. he. and it is flesh or meat.

and thus performs the part of an adjective. in fact. a colour red. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. in other instances sentence. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. would be simply beginning of speech. substantive or adjective. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. as But when it is meant door. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. He gave door a bang. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. as in die it is a noun.' dener's knife. or something of the kind. to indicate the action of a certain person. Who is has beaten you ? would be. The same word . putting it into his pocket. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. according to the circumstances of the case. as when Bang ! went the gun. the ture of white term pink is and red. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. or a passive scene of existence. You beaten . qualifies the against the wall. depend entirely upon the use. When I say. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. or a quality. whether by additions or otherwise. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. I say. or an act. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. a number of alternatives are suggested. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. when I say. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. and so is an adverb. When a verb. the garden. Do not bang the it is a verb. and the as. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. might be the knife. it called an interjection. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun.xxxiv asking. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. . or action.

but often self-evident. Thus tafu signifies a great man. contempt. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. &c. 255. the man is great. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek.. wonder. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. Latin. which is an old y ting (use stick). as kuo cung. as cung. wherehy. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. verb nor noun has yet been developed. wherewith. whereof. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. Jii ta. wherefore. commencement of speech. or some relation between it and another object. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. a noun. some outward display of the affection. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain.^ — Miiller I. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. a groan. with a stick. in the sense of great. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. pain. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. inside. middle. and to be great. whereto. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. grie^ horror. and may be used language. . in the is indicated by the syllable y. coalesces with the personal pronouns. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. that is. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. that admits itself in of audible representation. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. inquiry. greatness. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. or with elements expressing relations of time. or nei. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. a sigh of oppression and . word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection.

la. miau-l-er. wai-l. o'i. I oi[iot. or r. to chirp. on. seen in Gr. och. al. dchzen. wd. in Gr. vaj. to make). to rriourn. found in g. to do woe. It. A widespread It. Bret. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. vce. &. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. first person. wai. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . guai. to hurt Let. och. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. miau-l-is.. e. Fr. weh. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. Gael. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. representing Illyr. oi. to yell formed e. to sound yapyap. suffering. gwae. . misfortune. form. to groan. the pangs of childbirth. w^wa. It. oval. g. to wail or cry alas . probably a deeper groan. ach. Illyrian vaj. oimare. ah. Let. Lat. ace. n. pain. oh. e. ochan. cece. guajo. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). gwe-l-a. guaj- or cry out pitifully. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. to ache. lau-l-e. ach. och.ez. ! ! Goth. Thus from springs otjucifw. jaoh. to lament. jao. to ache. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. djamdjam goda (goda. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. is Ay di me I Gr. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to . mew. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. w. oh. mostly a ! %. ohi. guaj-ire. grief. and cacak djeda (to say crack. g. j. Illyr. to weep. 6. The form corresponding to Lat. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. representing a cry of pain. has more kopfweh. ing action I. Gr. ache. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. ui. to injure. ochain. axofiai. It. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ai. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. . to weep. pain. to cry n. It. vce. . to make bow-wow. waiidt. ah. woe. In this way from the root guai. to cry at. however. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. vei-a. are ol-ire. achen. aiai^to. to gargle. woe. wehthun. Jar lau-lau. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. grief.'). ocAJ. xxxvi grief. ahi. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. miau-n-is. die wehen. weh schreien. to bewail oneself. hei. as. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. . lament. is w. e. headache. on. ach.-l-are. as. gwae. Lat. Such are g. . to cause pain. ochan. at the close of the radical syllable. misery. to lament. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. ohg. Gr. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. wehen (Schmeller). howl. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. weinen. to wail. wAwa. pain. w. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. Gr. a groan or lamentation vir. and to bark . grief] affliction. tirr-djeda. lament from oimi. 6. wai. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it.' then points to his wife. as. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. for instance.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. give. Diet. Phil. to here . and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. When we pointing. Sanders (Germ. when 1859. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. more emphatically roSj)j that. or give me it. and may be rendered. and by a variety of expressions besides.' all is is — their consent. Dr Lottner observes. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. da. The Fr. da. or carry me thither. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. But. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. a word of many applications in g. is-te). nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. his trowsers' pocket. this here. is we I believe. implying the direction of its good will towards them. I add) . because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. but the truth is. and so on. we may translate this by there (it is). Thank you. give me that cheese. a specified were by pointing him out. the nursery da-da. nurseries.' person. ToSe (or in Attic E. 'nay. that. der da-ige. that is it. case. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. ' sees an object. Sie.' this. or wants to name something. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. when he wants something. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. as it Dieser da (as Lat. thata (ta-ta). is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. says da-da-da. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Please. according to Menage. saying : there the ad- Trans. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. as to express. Bav. . • The child. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. well as Goth. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. or that it is. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. child. that gratifies me. In the expression Da. indeed.

and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. — Cot. to beat. thinking. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. and shapes it into an . then we have a pronoun demonstrative. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. Thus Gr. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. and one in particular must. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. dadee. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. The da is dodem. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. then instinctively interest. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. strike. of which any one may. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. in every mode of expressing the idea. speech. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. tattle. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sinking. to knock. stutter.' says Muller. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing.' says Lottner interior. beat. its desire. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. .^ its ' utters : a cry. standing. make dadada). sounds. to say to oneself. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. or dalliance. to walk. moving. childish toying. to tion to another. takes it — as When the soul. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. to move step by step. the original is that which he places first. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified.' • liv ANALOGY. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. tasting. p. which thus exertion. or metaphor. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. reality. meanings. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. pay. to chatter.

suspect Bav. air. to shine. firom the Gael. to crackle gnistre. a ringing . on. beorhtian. to glisten Dan. Again. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. Bavarian bracht. as. wise. search . man of nice taste. beam. to shriek with laughter . snot. wilahtaa. may be quoted gUt. to . splendour. magnificence. schmecken.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. taste. is used in the origin. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. scheteren. The 6. snudra. to 5 ghtter. knistre. tinkling. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . which in ohg. to shine. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. and schmecker. to resound. may be it explained . It is The word bright had a similar In as. to tinkle. signified a clear sound. to sound clear In Galla. Du. In the same way the Goth. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to flash. properly a clap or explosion. noise. to ring as a glass willata. Finnish. esclat). and thence e. pracht. Lith. brilliancy. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. Fr. to glitter. bright. savour. to glitter. fiapfiaipw. kiimottaa. discreet. schiteren. to ring. snutrs. ghsten. and figuratively. prudent. a rustling sound Gr. for example. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to snilF. we have and the and beorht. 1654. sound. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. the equivalent of g. also wise. from the . outcry. scTiateren. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to quiver. to sniff out. to sniff. sense of brightness. unlella. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. make a loud noise. in popular language. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. snotor. spraka. sprageti. to have Sapiens. wilistd. Heo Du. iclat (in Old Fr. splendour. smell. to sparkle. smell. a with kimmaltaa. to smack or taste. &c. In the case of sparkle. wamara. and. tintelen. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to glitter e. then to sparkle. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. (parallel bilbila. judicious. rattle. tumult. So firom Lat. clang. as kilind. bilbil). a brilliant light kilid. snuff the sniiten. — 1. kimistd. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. a dis- cernment. gnittre. same imitative root with Sw. sapere (which signifies the nose. bilbilgoda (to make . to glitter. while sapere itself. . to be wise. extended to the exercise of the understanding. . Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to crackle. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. chime). think. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. knittre. in the domain of movement.

' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. tremour. fitting the letters to the sense. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. kvTOQ. v. discusses the tone of a picture.' he says. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. within. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. pleasure soft to the ear . with these the similitude of touch comes into play. mel. break. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. rough. strike. roughness. soft. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. the bleating of sheep. briars. Acre. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. \nrap6e. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. crux. rough both ways. Kep^arl'ieiv. The BpavEiv. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. whirl. he framed the words ivSov. as soft by the ear. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. in truth. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. to slide. smooth. extremely loose. wool. he says. and vepres. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. KoWiiSije. rough. in of his works. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). power of the letter-sounds. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. eo ut res vol. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. And observing that n kept the voice within. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. flow and flux. the neighing of horses. Kpovtiv. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. Tpa)(yg. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. 6\tadaveii'. . which The Stoics. itself letters are felt as sofl. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. oily. rough to the ear.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. sharp. ipuKuv. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. 1. pvfi^Civ. gluey. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. we hear of screaming colours. inside. Much of the same has been often quoted. accordance with the way in which by touch. the clank (stridorem) of chains. is felt Lana. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. rend. &c. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. shatter. then in rpd/xoe. or . of dressing loud. the cross.

that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. jig. A greater felt. jag. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. to jogj sac-cade. a rough and sudden . stab. shog. rug. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. shag. dig. Fr. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. k. d. g. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. to reel abruptly from side to side). jog. t.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. tug. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. for exis ample. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. 138). smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. or checks as they are called by Muller. and in the utterance of a high or or low. the case of the voice. 'and consequently form. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. sag-oter. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . joli. cular effort Again. degree of roughness sound. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. ii. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. as when. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. p. jih. corresponding to the ineor. stag (in stagger. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. to signify varieties of movement. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. dag. p. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound.

as Italian tocco. a small bodily object. to tickle. to ring a bell. so to Italian toccare. The Mipen or pencil. mot. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . chiquet. tecche-tocche. Ene olde suksuk. (mitsati). Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. properly a small lump'of . to On the same principle j we have g. figuratively. Brescian toch. to winkj micati is Lat. in cases like the foregoing. The analogy then carried a step further. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. It. The syllable suk is jerk. cica. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. chicoter.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. sound Fr. Thus we have B. Sukkeln. tock. a quid of tobacco. however. lead to Spanish tocar. rough horse. then. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. used interjectionally to represent a . passing to the signification of motion. mica. schockeln. a piece or bit of anything. an infant . to take a thing on tick. to touch. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. The train of . Dutch kicken. tack. Fr. to glitter. like English tick. to mutter. and e.. mie. and analogous movements. Welsh cicio. kik. zack. Then. Hence Lat. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a good piece of road . the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. not to utter a syllable. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. To tick a thing off. a jog. g. to say a word . Fr. is lanese toch. chique. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. motion. a little bit. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. an old worthless horse or carriage. or check. a cracker. to stir. kuk.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. Illyrian migati. also to stir. and It. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. schuckeln. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. chic. sound barely audible. tech-tech. mik. S-panish miga. it produces Dutch micken. to beat or play on a musical instrument. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. foot. toch-toch. e. to pulses being knock. movement. a crum. is so frequent a consequence of movement. a stroke with a French toucher. as tot. Bolognese tocc. to utter a slight kick. for the sound of knocking at a door. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. then. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . &c. a playiug-marble. is made to signify movement. to mark it with a touch of the pen . to strike It. The production of sound. Accordingly the g. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. zigzag. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. to incite by light touches. Mucken. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to have it ticked or marked on the score . that we never can be sure. micare. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. a . to move rapidly to and fro.

a light quick blow. mot. to touch. and toddle like a child titter. and he. or the like its It.- a jot or little It. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . tittle. you. syllable mot. ri that. To jot. or o toi. . mote. this. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. mutter. small of kind. a small quantity. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. motta. of movement in totter. this . for the beating of a clock. Then. Pm. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). a certain conception. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. Halliwell. a sparrow). a small bird. a small lump or pat. a bit. tot. and out there. a whisper. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. often entirely arbitrary. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. mut. tozzo. chico. tottle. fait. further off. or the converse. not an atom . to make a slight mark. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. neither moit nor an atom. seesaw. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. zitio. i. bunch or flock of wool. (Halliwell) Da. to whisper (Pr. Fr. I. . . zitella. to dot. the vowel sound. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. to tremble. as in e. a girl. The vowel changes from to tick-tack.) . to touch lightly with a pen. little. to jog. gno. 199). here. the least visible insect. Cult. there. mossche. totle. anything . at where the order is inverted. tot. eo. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to jot down or note with a fro. . that iku. to e. anything small flax. . e. not because the pendulum makes a different left. a lad citta. iki. lix Sp. not to utter a syllable. to movement of the pen . mutter j dust. a little titty. ticktack. we have e. little j to that of a small bodily object. But the same is language has re Javan. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. a tot . and a small lump of something. fragments It. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. here (close hand). So. n. . lump of earth.n. 48) cites from the African Tumale. 0. and mite. . This kind. corresponding to the personal pronouns. tot. a morsel girl . The following table from Tylor (Prim.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. subdued manner. the same organ touched with the man. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . titmouse (Du. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. tiny. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a small horse. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. taut. e. gni. a e. tit. citto. jot. small titlark. a. titilh. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. In a similar the relations of place. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. that. there (further of!) ao. a bit. a morsel. there '(at a short distance). motte. is shown in murmur. a small kind of lark. Malagasy to. ika. titter. move slightly to . passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. Du. for the three personal pronouns. clay . gnu. tot. tit. . and dot.

ni. no constant rule is observed. man erne. thou . this ole. Dhimas isho. is Here. as in Italian Fin. that. here j ka. ni. Chilian tva. Mm. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. this fi. mother. that. is father. Japan ko. there.) pronunciation of i or e. . that. Guarani nde. Carib ne. Botocudo ati. Tamul i. that (intermediate) j wana. It Carib lala. j Canarese ivanu. that. there. here 5 Yoruba na. usho. that. here j abe. 6. child. thou. . to. . this . ojOo. here . uta. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix.. /mya. this <t. Tarahumara ibe. that. ulri. . Fernandian az. ne. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. mas cheche. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. (tt). that in the distance. /wo. ukko. this . minution further. Then. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. little. here feraa. as Mr Tylor remarks. ndi.. km. ita. Gr. probably initial of distinction that the k. biii. there. It seems to (fen.. Ossetic am. I . thou ni. . olo. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. Sahaptin (America) kina. and origin. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. an old woman chacha. there. mother. mother. child. here . father. Lat. you. loo). Abchasian aSn. qu. there. father k . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size.araM.e^. ta to ka. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. nne. femina ama. ofj. tiiio. that. here this .) nna. an old . that. this . . /e«. Zulu ajoa.. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. small (Pott. respectively. he. akha. bi. there.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. me probable that • Vei also little. for the male. that. as the act of pointing was ta. Magyar ez. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. and a for the female. Mutsun ne. . there. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. this . w. he. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). young one. . ^.

nil. for a succession of light blows low-wow. &c. titta. trippelen. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. trSpigner. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. A little weeny thing. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. analogous to winy-piny. trap. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. The Sw. fretful. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. A little wee face with little. as j money. wenig. nipple. just beginning to appear. Clank represents the sound of something large. has tittafrem. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. or chink. to tread. little To sup up. knob. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. stairs. tion. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. don-don. a little yellow beard. the pip or pippin. or even. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. looking through between obstacles. dance (Kil. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. . trippen. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. the idea is called. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. lift 8. wean. repetition It. trappa. the simplest mode by the g. barking of a dog. Da. is to express simple continuance of action. i Sw. 401. — Douglas Virgil.' making the voice as small as possible. to leap. to teet. for the . trappen.) .' — Merrv Wives. pepin. nab. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. The sound trapp . for instance. in old e. keeh. And perhaps the E. murmur. a child. to begin to appear . It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. to make its way through the bursting envelope. From cases like the foregoing. Top. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. of smaller things.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. at pippe frem is to spring forth. as ding-dong. little. a step. sound of bells . Fr. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. to peep. the nursery few j Sc. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. and in the Pacific dialects. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to peep through. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. din-din. to feet. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. the principle of reduplication. whence Fr. Thus we have Wolof sopa.

amusement. Malay ayun. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. Again. a spot. the comparative degrees of greatness. properly speaking. Thus in E. the and clique. to rock. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to to call. ratsi-ratsi. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. repetition or continsignify long. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. or el. The same principle of 196. kenda. if very young. kendagenda. puka- puka.. to treat with contempt. rack. puka. or imitative syllables. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. random . Cult. . hardness. is language. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. instead of being actually repeated. &c. very long (Pott. kamha-gamla. a grasshopper. bad . and the words express a continued sound of rack. to pant. (to use a to speak. tache. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. racket. child . That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. Susa di. to say pooh It is ! to. to vi^alk about for flax. Mandingo ding. child . lololoa. the agent in panting . to talk at to walk. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. mawhitiwhiti. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. to love. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. keep spots. cliqu-et-is. smallness. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. rack click. a cradle. could readily be conceived. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. didi.Ixii REPETITION. clash of weapons. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. calling. mpolu is uttered. serves to show and in this way. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to skip. sopasopa. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. click. or rdtchi. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. mawhiti. or a little tee--ny thing. are echoed by the rudimentary et. to or rub. little child (p. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. ayunayunan. And generally. . without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. tach-et-er. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. to call frequently from Fr. a clattering noise. 99). In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . very great. loloa. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. er. very bad. or very very great. or in Fr. the lungs. ding-ding.' expression is — ^Tylor. i. Thus in the Pacific loa. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. in familiar use with ourselves. clamito. and Fr. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. 97). from Maori muka. to cover e. So from clamo. rapidity and strength.

in Fr. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to rock. to rock or wag. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. and in as. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. joggle.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. wankeln. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. in some applications. itself. wagas ging. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. wankel. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. dab. to make a succession of shoves. to bark like a dog. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. or omitted. the lungs (the puffers of the body). from puka. fickle. smack. waggle. such asjlap. to hand. is In e. miauler and beler correspond to E. to make a succession of grabs . as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. Piedmontese bau-l-S. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. the knie-en to E.Jicol. miauler andpiauler. without the intervention of the frequentative element. are to cry mew and pew . mew and baa . guggle. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to continue dragging. to make gug. to crackle. In cases like these. rynel. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. syllable clat . where all direct connection with sound is lost. kneel. as mAS. bub. dabble. to hand-le. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. which. to make bau-bau. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. wavering. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. others. compared with g. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . a from ayun. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. wancol. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . Ihre remarks under gncella. he who rubs. it. g. bubble. shuffle. as to handle. rubber. or fi bau. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. by the side of wanken. to move to and fro. to wail woe . we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. crack. The Fr. draggle. a succession of cracks to rattle. or in e. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. The contrivance with any particular noise. Jickfacken. or Maori puka-puka. to puff. or by association. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. jogging. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. In like manner crack imitates the sound made .

and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. at was more familiarly known. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. deceit. it is obviously a mere chance how long. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. to the separation between the broken parts. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. Breton. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or in aptness to combine with other elements. which. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. and comparatively few easily deceived. to cry ugh at. known in Italian. by a hard body breaking. Polish. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. There is. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. on a moment's reflection.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. moreover. A gull or a dupe same sense. or in mode of use. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. which is the origin of the word. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. the breach. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Dupe comes to us from the French. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. although it is not difficult. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. or how generally. will continue to be felt in daily speech. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source.

Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. . founded in manifest blunder. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. is. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. however. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. language is . and the word is used in a secondary sense.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. Hitl^erto. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. life. nor any limited of ideas. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression.

! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. episcopus. evique. hearing. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. 330. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. If English. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. and vescovo. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . Welsh. circle perpetrates a new slang term. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. French. change. and 'Russian. guages in South America. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. compared with the duration of man. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. therefore. Naturalist on the Amazons. in the course of many years' isolation. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. unintelligible to other hordes. out.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. I think it very probable. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. of material things. i. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language.

6. as shown in the subjoined illustration. The combination of the symbols I and 2. which are idenr Figures 5. . Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. A key must unlock more doors than this. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. i. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 7. Cijlt. the actual it which would to represent. to be taken (Prim. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. ao8). we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. and . Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. it will leave figures 3 and 4. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. or whatever the proportion may be. 9. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. ancient Greek M . is MN. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. 8. Nor is there one of the letters. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water.

ready instructed in the arts necessary for . an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. what comes to the same thing. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. for instance. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. and the only safe beneficent Creator. or. his fellows. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised.' should be discovered. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. had its origin in imitation of sound. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. known to us as yet.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. in the shape either of direct inspiration. leading him to utterances. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence." the use of a change of vowel in as. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. which either by direct resemblance of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races.

or of their own reflected thoughts . or not. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. in the course of generations. until the progeny. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves.COMPLETION OF MAN. race were speaking men or not. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and sooner or later. or beavers. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . or else. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . of using imitative conduct . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. by animal without a trace name of Man. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and when we look back as far as history will reach. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. that he started from the lowest grade. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. the conduct of Ixix life. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. for instance. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. as elephants. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and rose towards a higher state of being. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows.

Grammar Boh. AS. Couzinid.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Fr. Cimbrisch. Due. 1654. Carpentier. Bav. B. Anglo-Saxon. dialect of the Sette Commune. 1857. 1850. Dief. Bremisch. Dutch. English. Provincial dialect. Diet. Castr. . Esthonian. or Dan. Baile/sEngl. at the end of Somner's Diet. Bigl. 1768. Cotgrave. Cot. Danish. Dueange. Esth. dial. Wtb. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Diet. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Finnish. 1737. Diefenbaeh. ^Ifr. Catalan. 1766. Da. Bavarian. Romano - Cas- traise. Supplement to Dueange.V. Bohemian or Czech. Diet. Dueange. Elfric's Fl. Gr. Brem.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Diefeiibach. Dn. Dief. Supplement to Bret.. Teutonico-Lat. Biglotton seu Diet. Carp. Sup. Gothischen 1851.Nieder. de la langue Cat. Fin. Douglas' Virgil. Infimse Latini- D. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Cimbr. E.-Eng.



7 28 2 13* head ' ^. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. cruccio deyrie. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. alUger ahaverie r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r.percurrunt kimista^x. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. cti. puHti r. buque 118 brodiquin r. yjnaifia r. willekom Blab r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . kilistaa bugiie r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . plowied budowaer. (/ijtf r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. r. katowai perairrantr. ^i?^i2! r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.5 ERRATA. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. Blob plowied r. baltresca nokkutomax.. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.>. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Askance woud r. r. haverie crtOT r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. word allagerr. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. r. woman r.nokkutama willekem. sveritet Asknace r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.


in the same sense. to subdue. a/tan. iway from. Thou spelds of mychty iction.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. ur. ibandonner. out of. baftan. ir. away from. 843. Hence on-bceftan.t G. whatever he be. —Bruce. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. Lat. as. his. Abs-. sion of 'an abandoned character. until the event jlace . into the Romance ftrseg . to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. on. alike. the er. plesyt him. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. In Lat. abaft. vs. bandon in French. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. to hold . state of sleep . to sauff the king or spill. erwachen. Thus ip N3S. The word Ban is common orders. us. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. ab. orders. Jvery man shewid baft. off. on-bsec . particular 1 . power : Than Wallace thing. . AS. abs. to awake. dominion. and secondarily in that of command. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. Abaft. implying a completion of J. said. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. command. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. A. this word beand Spanish. To abuse is to use iway. ar.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . OHG. Ab-. as. be-ceftan. literally. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. on. to arise. Passing tongues. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Abandon. er. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. from a is to wake to abide. in. downwards. Again. from. on-lic. and — Chaucer. AS. compounds. "rom a height. a. o/j of or . ifter. away. Parson's Tale. 244.he Goth. behind. onis aback. an edict or proclamation. have entire dominion over. rule. but now )bsolete). of-dune. announcement. Dent posture. K . among. in a manner other than it should be ablution. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. dominion. a washing off to abstain. Immediately from Fr.

as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. and grooms besmeared with gold. drink. burny was formerly burnish . an abbey. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. abbatis. Milton. to happen. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Abbey. to gape. esbahir. of wonder. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. . Abbess. to strike Froiss. Originally. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. — Neccham. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. Abbot. abbatia. shame. weaken. esbahissais. impetuously. abaundunem-ent. to make lower. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. may be explained. his eyen shene.— — .' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. in the active form. Wall. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. faire tomber. from Lat. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to take possession of an estate. To Abate. R. beer. — — . Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. et prirent terre. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. to strike sail . 1 1 8. vol. betrash. to overthrow. Baba ! Mod. to put to con. It. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. with or without a final sh. Beat. and sets them all agape. where custom (Grandg. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. depress.— R. A.) . or society of abbots or monks.Prov. to ruin. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Castrais. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . abbas. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. castle. abbatere dal prezzo. person. and the verb was written in Eng. to bate something of the price abbatersi. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. Fr. by Wall. Bate. On the other in use as well as hand. iv. from ravir. other. uncontroUedly. and it that that it — . bawi. astony. abandonly. c.down. ais. burny. abbatere. to excite admiration. bandon. son bandon.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. See Abide.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. father. to light upon. of fear. baba.fournir. terminedly. R. and that from Syrian abba. lish to abaisse orabaish. to astonish.polir. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. to The . Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. esbahissant. law term abatement. baer.' the surrender of a ' K. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. . Cotgr. his mouth. effect of shame. to diminish the force of any. at his own the lips. astonish. or admiration. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. as ravish. confound. to hit. thing abbatere le vela. See . to abaw or astonish. Hence the OE. I was abawid for merveille. 364s. down. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. d. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. so common in the found in the OFr. 1520.On princes. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Hart in Jamieson. In or. And he thereof was all abashed.esbawi. ne more vermeille. More correctly written abbat. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Custom. abbattre. esba. de. to beat furnish. adverbial expressions at abandon. R. polish. overthrow. Hence Lat. of the Fr. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. merely the terminations ons. abate. ant. impulse.

m Abeyance.— ^richer. from Halo. house. we sceolon ON. and Prov. which the mind to an object. bie compared with Dan. to yawn. ceive. Fabl. bidan. to wait. aspirer. suspense. syllable ba. abet. forbearance. badar. beguiling on the other. bouche b^ante. inciting. songer. . pense. Abie. with open mouth . to open bader. — ABELE Epiphanius. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. Corresponding to keep in suspense. listening. a bay or opening in the coast. in Dan. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. in Fr. bida. Thus we have It. E. expectation. wait To Abide. with badia. signifies the direction of tend. abeter. to suffer death in Du. look for another. or in Fr. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. compared with (Bosworth). waiting. beguile. the verb of abeyance. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. (Vocab. bada. tarrying . attendre avec en^pressement. usbeisnei. OFr. Ducange. endurArt thou he that should come. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Boethius. beidan. Gloss. badare.was formerly used in the sense of look. ne wist what way to chuse. open the mouth.' is in AS. lingering. to stay. endurance. abetter. tity of E. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. In We . bder. Norm. bide of the d endure. desire. Ni engigner ni abiter. and in E. gola badada. says. watch. guardare. listen. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. badare. gridare. bouche bdante. a right in suspense . to mind. to hook. abeyance. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. and alluring to his own destruction. Cat. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. expectfamily. attendre See Bait. abet. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. deceiving. to attend to. to remain or endure. The white poplar. ^couter avec dtonnement. while the monks under his control ing. The verb atwaiting. to expect. tenere a bada. abiiance. Norm. See Abide. othres abidan' The effacement expect. —Raynouard. Du. beijen. have seen abide. to be intent upon. tical with It. abbadare. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. incite . delay. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Q. expectation. which is certainly related to It. beidan. From abahier. Prov. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open.. to deceive. speaking of the Holy places. wait. badare. Guernsey beth. trick abetar. literally white tree. abayer. baier compared with It. were called Brothers. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. bana. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. to tarry. Corant sens lui. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. to gape . to desire earnestly. de Berri) Prov. to be intent upon. beter. intent observation. is idenwait. bhr. to open the mouth. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. — signifies to suspend action. Cat. bialodrze-w. covet. John. F. to ance. b^er. K. forms with the d effaced are OFr. . Gloss. Pol. or absorption watching. abie.— Roquef. abidan. ' ' . baer. abie. exciter. to attend on . — . to deanimer. abSiance. desirer (Roquef. To Abet. Quant voit le serpent. beijen.— Chaucer. tempting. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable.to wait. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. beijden. to expect gabeidan. to stay. inciter. aspire to. us. bocca badata. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). or do we AS. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to wait. badigliare. take notice. delay. 1 • . ne chastised them. bie.Fr. verbeijen Sw. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. suffer b. deceit. warten. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. baier. to abide . also to OFr. to desire. . abaier. de Champ. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. . delay. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. on the one hand. 366. to wait. regarder. — II. . bida. baier. to look. and E. Goth. Abele. white.) abayer. qui iaaille. take care. Thus G. to In great amaze. to It.

to draw fowls. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. to wear away. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. and Cr. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. 2. the Sir Tristrem. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. For on board. abidge. abigg. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. O If tion. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. the Pardoner In the original. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Prol. R. Mids.^and to make his power knowne. atling hem to her proper offices. without special reference to the notion of retribution.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. bide. Fr. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Wickliff in Richardson. adapted . the side of a ship. power. God. — Able. The —Boucher.ynes. use. AS. from AS. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. or bie. to pay the penalty. de la volatile. If it badare. though sometimes confounded with it. him with che. beidan. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. 2nd Tale. willing to schewe his wrathe. — P. abolir. bord. when compared with Aboard. being disabled in the highest degree. P. Fr. i. to perish. expert. Innan bords. was often used in the same sense. Dr. and the simple buy. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. abide. from Lat. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. a board. suffer the Jul. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. abeye. Merch. habilis is closely preserved. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. — e. Chaucer. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Q. in for any special purpose. on board . convenient. to dress hemp. abilh. Cassar. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Milton. abie. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. to pay the purchasemoney. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. R. abicgan. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. abilej Prov. aboleo. Boucher. Lat. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. It. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. as E. powerful. within the ship. abie to Goth. able. at hand). bidan. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. durance in both applications. .— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Spenser. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . F. habilis (from habeo. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. is the verb abie. &c. She shall abie that trespass dere. fault being simply clothing. abycgan. to have . N. habile. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. consequences of anything . fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. In this to erase or annul. —Bacon in R. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. the Fr. fit. as habiller du chanvre. to . and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. strong. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. have-like. ON. properly abuy. forbid for mother's children should abye. purpose. L. God — dear. at kasta fyri bord. P. sufficient. must suffer for it. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. while in later examples As I . Tr. ! ! Cotgr. Abie. and death for handsel pay. within the walls of a ship. to redeem.

abufan. Tale. to rear. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Severe the threatened evil. d. nourish. snatch In English we speak of away. draw out. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. greu. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. to grow up. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. giving birth to. abbreviare. sec seftre — Chaucer.) . Kiittner. onbutan. around on the out. becomes leu in Prov. as AS. Lat.ger. ol. abbrechen. literally. Abrdger itself. above. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. boven.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. The radical idea is to feed the flame. explains soboles Lat.aboon. butan. af-oolden. to beget or give birth to children.— Abbreviate. his contemporaries. side. without. abbrechen. agreujar. Abray.. AS. coalesco. to break off. to cut short. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. to awake. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. break out. Fr.ymbutan. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. and to do something to avert abbreviate.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. leading immediately to Fr. hard. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to main. common in Chaucer and Abominable. disastrous portent in some passing oc. ala is made to signify to rear. breaking out in language. way Sw. bufan. ala. to and of giving birth to a litter of young.1. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. and bidden him abregge. Above. as the duty of nourdisposition. s —Casdmon. ufan. whence the Fr. abowen. — ' — — preceding verb. OSw. is a ively. To Abound. abrcBgdan. heavy. AS. awaking. abredan. Goth. to produce. D. to nourish. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. Sc.. the form a&^^. In the same brevis . Melibaeus. nurse. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. or young forth. alan. be-ufan. gravis. abominor (from ab and omen. progeny. Prov. en. to aggravate. as withotityn and without. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. — . to start. Of these synonymous adolescere. alan. pedigree from brevis. by the to bring up. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. adolere. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. Abundant. So in Lat. motion. Quod abominor. to fatten. to feed. . to progress. to feed. See -und-. kindling. the OSw. about cockcrow. . but from Lat.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. oil. a portent).abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. and in-d-oles. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to light a fire the Abraid. and also to abridge. the vital spark. alUger. the man dwindles away. AS. natural ed direct from the latter language. currence. ABOMINABLE adolesco. to snatch. Thence to regard greugetat. OE. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.' Ymb hancred utan. from . See To Bray. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. Then. vital PI. on high. of any kind . which may God avert. to rear. to AS. For on broach. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. agredge.the older form.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. nurse Lat. be-utan. Du. that greatly agredge their sin. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abracan. titan. abutan. which passed into English under Abominate. from Fr. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to let sleep. is not from G. parent. OE. outward. full ofte his words for to Fr. below. life. abrdger.foda signifies to beget. al is growth. to turn. alere capillos. and alere flammain. The primitive idea seems that of beget. To abray or abraid. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. while the verb alleThe root el. seems aras.' Parson's rence. the identity of which with ting. gravity. and also. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. the idea of breaking about . or cut short. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. brood. levis to the Romance languages. Gael alaich. while the sense of beget. to grow together. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. Finnish stock. af-oleii. Thonne Abroach. the hair grow. to bring up. Virg. for ligeth butan.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. to open. from. G. aperio. but the expresent day. Ilvtwotov. and devils. work. : . Ful- Apanage. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. before. Aphorism. from. what Roman civilisation. So Lat. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Antick. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. a puppet or an anti^hona. finally applied to a whether grotesca. a preventative . Percutere. Antler. villan Gloss. anxi. of. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. the anticks — behind. Prov. plenteously with red. one. incus. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. To go antiquely. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. eigs. rich. on. Hence the applica. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Otfried. Fr. in Shakespear. transferred to the grotesque characters.. before. Antique. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. aside. Gr.D. whence Prov. apatiar. Aperient. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. from Stephanus. a block to hammer on. to nourish. part. Thus from gabe. surimitation of the ancient models. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. which by anvild. In like manner. Fr. swaged.—Aperture. white. from avTiipoiuia). Any. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. to strain. to display pario. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. avri^ava. as the Italians. should be received. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. from an and — - . to strike. Pezron fiUist. from the imitative habits of monkeys. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. separate. andouillers. antefn. whence anthem. apanage. AS.— . ambeld. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. a definite . d. Apart. Jorioc. See Cover. as posticus. to have. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. apertum. verberas. antifena. strangle. af. cenig. Lat. Lat. E. AS. Antidote. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to support. AS. As the browcalled antiques. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Hall's Chron. bread.th centuries the recognised models of antic. burnished. ab. Gr. Apartment. a gift. or in a ridiculous dress. anxius. from in and cudere. fauns. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. gabeigs. one at the least. stem. vex. . something ler in R. anfilts Pl. and claret wine. as from as.is to be given. press. one having wealth.legacy of given against. to strike G. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. three antike pillers. to go in strange disguises. anticus. amboltj Du. Mannequin. separate purpose. or antique single chamber. like a jack-pudding. Anxious. left as the . to imitate gestures. Anvil. such as savages. — — — . a few. d<popi(xnbs.made out. Lat. from ango. ReApe. from ante. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. a small quantity. set aside. Apartment. —Spencer. as we call it. post. some one. all of gold. wealth. To ape. from an. Gr. inAgain from the same author cudis. were andouiller the second. from eigan. choke. were chiefly of the former class. trouble. panar. i. panis. a termination equivalent to Goth. Fr. Lat. and ig. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. to sound in answer. younger child. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. to bring forth. anapoz.

to take away or lose the vital powers. to call. agree. one is in. case. Fr. 23 . word was specially applied to clothing. order. Lat. consent unto. — dirondtfiu. to send to. manner. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. that it outfit. when the . OFr. Appease. Appareil. approcher. Gr. one the MLat. aptly. apar. appareo. ai. To Appear. a price. find Then like Fr. to mark to define a bound.parejo. one for his defence. praise. taking. allow. away. to learn. Ir. (cited by Diez from a late author). is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. the good. APRICOT off. esteem. quoth the frere. apprendre. xv. aparelhar. Walach. The Fr. Fr. . to come near. Apple. Hence It. pronounce fitting). value apprdder. peace. . ciously than nede is. prover. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to announce. —^Apparent. a thing for one's purpose. known.parecchio. The PI. Epistle. were formed appropiare ejar. And whanne sum men Lat. H. Cent Nouv. diroBrjKr}. landmark. to catch hold of.— .probare. —Diez. i. habilUr. fit- — ness. Mod. to assign or grant over unto. opportunity. to finish a controversy. To cause to pall (see Pall). prize. to commend. pretium. Fabian in R. iwKjToKri. Gr. to rate. Apo- good time. array.t. An old appalled wight. become dizzy . approver. corresp. poind. d-n-o. poind. to — — . near. piteux poind. Prov. cepl. N. Fr. to deter- to strike. to — . — prehendere. good. plight. — Approve. Fr. Gr. to be open to view. from aTroorlXXu. from. to understand. Formerly apricock. pronounce good. From Lat. and in the sense of condition. to disable oftat. They werin his approvirs privily. whence the e. to lose one's senses. : — — speak 'Lz. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. e. obolys. From Lat. despatch on some service. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. ar. rise to \t. or E. Fr. 11. appellare. En peach. Cotgr. ^wss. Pliny. equal. to send off. purpose. — Apprise. — Appurtenance.prix. in fact. Palsgr. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. pertain or belong to. apropchar.his giving evidence against his principal. to approach. Yr. in commendation. to learn. Fr. apprentis. To Appraise. diroTrXriaatii. an epistle or letter.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. 'LaX. Sp. and metaphorically to take the meaning. APO sentence opoQ. mine. in Chaucer. 'L-zX. trim. avail. to make a thing Apparel. Friar's Tale. w. prohts. . apprise. whether through age or sudden teiTor. ap. horror. pragigua or prixcoda. And among other of his famous deeds. Lith. diminutive pariculus. appareiller. Fr. Apoplexy. decree. from paix. apal. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. probare. off. set a price on. It. Approach. kind of action. in good season prendre son d. to suit. Fr.propius). par. to Lat. Gr. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. of. Cotgr. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. like. oVooroXof. and appoinder (to find fitting. From Gr. Nouv. preparation. make a composition between parties. Yr. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to deaden. Parson's Tale. apprehendere. apropid. appris. to fit. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Apotliecary. to set a price on. to which it is often referred. a learner. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. one sent out.—Apprentice. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. I prise ware. to dress in this fashion. properly to join like to like. irpaiKOKiaov. to call for judgment. lAfiaam. a crime. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. to strike down. D. appaiser. like. ON. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. apal.pareil. apin R. apparecchiare. habiliments. proper time came. to deem good. dress. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. peler. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. S^. 5w. Hence appoind. to approve. to seize. a'^opi'Jw. agreeing with "LtA. jabloko. to accord. A — . to store or put Appal. They were considered To Appoint. seiden of the stones. For their acquaintance was not come of new . in data. To praise. or the like. and also as appraise. AS. Prov. prope (comp. Apostle. Cotgr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. approcdare. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. after his mind . Apprehend. laven is used both as E. appartenir.

scr. however. a lot. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. la nappe. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash.sors. conjectura conjec^ra. herbere. C.meaning at Shrewsbury. Pr. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. sortium ductor. Gr. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. aa. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. Albanian. the spelland umpire. P. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Hall. words derived from arpa. of of divination arpa-mies. Flower and Leaf. Aquatic. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. OHG. grande nappe. The loss or addition of n very common. and sortilegus ation. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. suitable. hariolus arpelen. sestimatio arbitraria. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. sorcerer. nected. As is a pretty parlour. Maan initial . wata. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . J. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. arbitrium. arpa. Prol. Lat. man. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. aptus. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Alban. aqua. aestimo. and with turfis new Goth.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Now we find in Fin.' —About. delon. conjicio. naperon. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. Naprun. and the one who gives oracles. arbiter in re censendS. aro. however. 2. doubtless is the origin of E. Freshly turnid Arable. symbol. water Which that benchid was.. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. proper. a cloth. pracoqua was not an adapt. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Lat. . From OFr. — napkin is Naperon. account for either of these significations. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Arbour. rofe and all. ap. a pleasure-ground. opinio. or barm-cloth. derived. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. arwaus. divining rod. . a river. She made. Beryn. nawl and awl.] in the N. and thence fit. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. Marsh. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. arbitror arwaaja. ahva. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. as an eye-witness. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Roquefort. fastened close.o. It may be doubted. A. . ear. P. . a lot. auguror. tion under trial. found in Fin. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. Thus we have natiger and auger. Pm. to plough. OE. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. It is certain that the apricot oracle. — . a soothsayer. From OE. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. be That it inne groweth. to decide by lot. aha. Lat. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit.shrubs {arbor). ughe. This path Aqueous. intensitive of nape. arwelo. or eft. quod he. Arbitrate. shortdr. {mies ^=ia3. properly the arwella. to preserve it from stains. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. con.) E. Now one of the points — — — . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. a lot. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. short. as ihe diminutive. and taken away before dessert. garden. and a protection of the clothes. arbiter. 31. 331. is taken in is a soothsayer.

to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. det arrigste snavs. Arcadia in R. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. wanton. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb.. mischievous. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. earh. Cot. forearm . Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. A construct. receptacle where the public acts were kept. Du. sly. ' — Argue. Lat. arm'ee. Gr. arguo. . the a brute. curved line. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. to rule. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. apxri. armada. Brem. Lat. — Architect. Gr. as in E. ramend). difficult to reach. From apxeiov was formed Lat. * ArchjAiTaxit. an arrant rogue. a. whence the body of the nobles collectively. From the verb armare. rame. vocaveris. armee. earg. wretched OE. a noble. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. armata. the court of a magistrate. Lat. arg. ardeo. een erg kind. Fr. Uo^a^. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON.. ardor. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. There can be no doubt that E. patus). Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. apxtipfve. arm.— Army. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. TiKToiv. a burning or setting on fire. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. arch-bishop. man. stuff. ers-betriiger. adjective. ein arger knabe. argr. are formed the participial nouns. 2. Sax. Fr. erg. to be on fire. gwyro to bend. Arson. to demonstrate. Area. G. Arid. to arm. a bare plot of ground. Gr. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. taxed with cowardice. i. burning heat. to burn . arma. to dry. arrant Arms. the best. Arm. Langobard.is the natural weapon of offence. archangel. make clear or prove. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. sly. apxtlov. Lat. aridus. apx^iv. gwyrek. Arduous. Ardour. arduus. morally bad. ancient. Lat. W. timid. a branch. as the arch of a bridge. Fr. sluggish. and must be identified with Dan. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. it signifies roguish. the terminaGael. ill-tempered. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. — Wtb.In E. . Perhaps erz-wticherer. from areo.' Lex. Gr. ^Argument. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. first. raineno. earm. arcus. an arch-deceiver . while the Fr. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed.aioj. et vulgari verbo. lofty. an arrant usurer. arga. . apxh. weapon may be simply an application of annus.' Paul Warnefrid. government. which is derived from it. from nixa. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. to Arch. branch.' the Gr. ramo (pi.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. arwe. bravest. an extent of flat surface. a rule (princiruler. G. Du. a bow. a court yard. arrig. exercise lordship). and our army. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. curved. and not with apx. Aristocracy. vescovo. in Due. ardre. Applied in modern E. weapon. And thou as arwe coward. Arcliives. is essentially the same word. worker. aj-f. kpxi- beginning. area. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. arcA in e. argvitugr. Lat. and Kpurka. fainthearted. un malin enfant. un petit rusd. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. bad of its kind. Lat. arsum. Lat. troublesome. bad. faint-hearted. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Ardent. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. to be in comp. ON. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil .4 rir/. mischievous. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. D. ardIn G. high. Dan. erz in G. which has been referred to W. bad. signifies chief or principal. The . Sp. malicious. shoulder Boh. . shoulder. a threshing-floor. arson. the most arrant trash. contemptible. arm. It. 3340. Arch in composition. ruling by the nobles. especially shoulder-joint. . AS. fabricate). Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. ars. an arch boy. a chief builder. Alisaunder. erz-bischof. by Russ. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot).


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a dance. N.— Ballet.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . bol. Gael. a dance. to on Holmedon's plain. ' is a piece or confused talking. . which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. balla (with the augm. a ballad. baalie. the beam of a ship. Bret. a bubble. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. ballar). wickedtorment ON. bolker. shouting. on. Ballata. on the shore. balken. ballan. bold. tum. Hence. Fin. Ballot. bacgtteter. Wotton. to ail. baloier. on. balle. ballone. ne leaving any balke. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. other while. bjdlki. wickedness ness . balare. 2. to avoid it. — A — — . G. a beam. Mid.Fr. a pestilence. to plank. To Bale out water. Sw. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. bealwes. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. It. a. separaison. Ball. a skin. weak liquor. Da. a clump . boleii. package of goods. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. . a pail. We have then separate dial. a scene acted in dancmg. bal. palcare.' speak gibberish champurrar. To baulke the Sir H. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. ball. maan pallikka. beaten road. Sp. a separate portion. ache. Sw. ban. afbalka. cka.—Ballad. to move. a clapping or flapping of wings. a partition. balle. to speak an un. AS. ballare. a boil. to bale out. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. uveirs bolk. as in a barn or cow-house. with the perhaps from balg. to be ill.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. are applied to a From the same analogy. plague. pallo. balk. a ball. Gr. Sw. . baler. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Perhaps on. a ball. the object of his expectation. heap up. Balloon. and the dim. vacillare. Bale. a beam. a clod of earth water. ballare. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. It. to dance. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a But making way for death at large to walke. boll. dial. balva-vesei. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). The primary sense seems as in G. Goth. to plough for a boundary between lands. Sw. Ball. balge. at giore en balk. . sickness. to be balker. Boll. balka hopar. Sw. 3. to paddle in water . to Not sparing wight. balka. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. destruction. and evil in general. balk. OFr. balken. a water-skin dim. a division of the old laws. Sw. to pack Da. lealo. bolyaf. TtaKKa a pail or tub . It. ballare. ball. a great ball. on. calamity. gen. malefacGower in R. a ballot). A balk. taich. probably Lat. a ball or pack. says Ray. a balk of foul weather. torment. roof. ballet. Sw. bbllr bulla J. to grieve . to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. the ballet of the theatres. palla. * Balk.of men . or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. dial. bolyatchka. the breadth from side to side . ing. bola. Q. OSw. a ball. hooting. a continued noise of waves gently beating . Hence Dan. maleficium. a together in the form of a ball. pallikka. In like manner Fr. Bowl. Fr. G. stage or scaffold. w. to dance. palloilla. balle. It. bdlkr. bolawy. balloon. . It. blister. from the more general notion of moving up and down. I. Rouchi ban. pallukka. bal-daed. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. (Hesych. misery Du. Du.). For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. whether of wood or stone. balk. to signify washy drink. to partition off . bal. from bacquet. See Gall. ballotta. floor. bal. a globe. similar connection is seen in Sp. bol. e. sorrow. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. Da. Fr. bala. pallo. dial. chapurrar. bielke. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a pill. OHG. Russ. grieve . ballo. may exhibit the original development of the signification. vcdra bdlkr. to by beams. to ache. a washing-tub. balka bunge. . to see-saw. baalien. ball. pilula.Lat. balveins. sick. . ON. balkr. a wooden partition . to roll. Baulke of land. to cause another to miss pustule. balk. a ball. balja. Pol. balle. bollr. hue et illuc inclinare. E. i. F. Sw. to wave. to shake or jog. Grief. dial. Fr. mass. Ugutio in Due. trouble. Venet. Dan. to rock. Bohem. as we say. pain. ill.ing. pila. a ball balla. to stir. globule. Du. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . ball.

bertesca. like Fr. i860. Bamour. To make fun of a person. To deceive. In OSw. command. Said to be from balaustia. as he says. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. urtica. A — — . a battlement . Sp. last. a small balustrade. 1. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Ballast. explains ballast. puzzled. lastagium signified not only ballast. ballast. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. To proclaim. forbid. baume. . little round and short pillars. bam. small railing. ^a\Ba\iov. ballustre) is a corruption. Lest.). even calls in question last syllable is the Du. If bambocciolare were child of one. It. ^Arbuthnot in R.' And Kil. To Ban. Baltic. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. by met. barandado. baUa. more frequently than outward-bound. back of the ship. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. balconies. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. a duty on goods last. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. bamboccio.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. but loadage. astonished. from Lat. to walk. Report Pennsylv. for want of other freight. is in Sweden and Norway. Cotgr. because. a young babe. Balsam. This is the backload. Balluster. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Fr. lastra. inutile onus. Sept. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. lestage. Mr Marsh whether the a load. To Bamboozle.that the going vessels. or ballast of a ship. objects to the foregoing derivation.000 tons. Du. balsamum. barauste. Bret. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. 43 — Cot. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. It is explained back by Adelung. sorcerer. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. inutilis sarcina. Bret. to enchant. the flower of the pomegranate. Fr. called Bait. Balm. also with flatteries and . a fragrant gum. It. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. an Old dotard or imbambolare. a nettle. Dan. baU. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. baranda. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army.Lat. ranked on the outside of cloisters. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. 1854. a rod. denounce. a useless load. more serious objection is . make fun of a person. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. bag-las. When a ship discharges. — — oltriga. curse. bambolo. Gr. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. ballustres. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. baltresac. Venet. &c. from bara or vara. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. terraces. lest.. for a load or goods (Roquef. But Fr. a false tale or jeer. The Baltic sea. analogous to what is seen in It. bag-lest. The Sp. to preserve equilibrium. deceive. of balusters. balustrade barandilla. bumbazed. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. fonts. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. bamein. galleries. the act of walking. and Mid. deceiver. railing around altars. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. &c. paid for the right of carriage. endormir par des contes. in the first place. enchanter. seems the original form of the word. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. dial. mare Balticun. R. bambocciolo. age. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Lat. . the backload. or movement of one who walks. Sc. lastre. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. To Bam.

to unite with a band. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). hoc est vexillo. Sp. from at the Lord's courts. theodscipe ut abannan. bannire in exercitum. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. those who side together (bande. bandon somewhat party. to publish) banna. Diss. 15. bandera ground at his mill.. To Bandy. at his own discretion. D.^ bandy. The to . Assises de Jerusalem. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. sostener Torriano. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Sw. Bandus. Baud. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. bound. Commun^ment son bandon. Les saiges avait et les fols d. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. a coast. A. in hostem convocare. Sp. curse. Mag. 26. banda. banner marked the place of assembly. Se il — Romance languages. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. OE. It. Car. . parti. to ban. to follow a faction. ex. faction.Lat. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. 'A son bandon. passing on from proclamation to command. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. a company. banda. and thence to any proclamation. side. 1. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. It. In a special sense the term company itself. to . Spebifid. In Fr. &c. — To partito d'alcuno. It seems this signification has arisen. and It. he assembled his host. Thus the word is also used in both senses. i. admolendinum. banns pany of footmen serve. to form parties. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno.—John Villani in Due. to ctide. Leg. Ripuar. Fr. bann. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Bandear. we constantly find the expression. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. banda the colour or material. region. E. he bannede his ferde. fahne. etc. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. populum. to reprove. Band. biddal. —R. Capitul. ligue Taboada). Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. border. is That with which anything AS. tener da alcuno. 19. bundun. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. G. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. then the signification w. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. eiiseigne. change to the feminine gender in banda. bannum or bandum. acquired the sense of proclamation. bandon was used in the same sense. to excommunicate {lysa. — R. It. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. flag. permission. band. and in E. to take one to task. authority. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. also the band or of marriage. bandi. bannire exercitum. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. to side or to bandy (Florio). v. power. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. says Muratori. ba?idare. . and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. whether by way of injunction or for- command.is further developed. in Fr. &c. Goth. 2. Wyntoun. band. Cot. From the verb to banda. margin. There is some doubt how Fr.e. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. bande. bande. See Abandon. bindan. — excommunication bann-lysa. side. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Fr. bande. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. summoning to serve So in Swiss. 813. bando. to bring corn to be fahne. the ensign or banner. R- He Translated by Chaucer. Goth. R. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore.

With many a stiff thwack. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Benvoglio. bank. bane. bankruptcy. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. . 45 — — Bandit. . bank of river. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. to beat. Bandy. Bankrupt. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. — . took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. and poise Their lighter wings. Fr. and bakki. bent as a bow. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. — Fr. The word is in E. from banc. pastoralis. and OFr. bander tin arc.HG. eminence. broken. Tibalt. to publicly order one out of the realm. Milton in R. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. to knock. banca his creditors. Goth. se reunir. counter.^ knock. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. banditti acquired the like signification. bance. Fr. banco. tumult bangas. in R.: . a bench. From Mid. follow a party. among rotta. home — Bandog. a counter. It. Banister. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. beating. hricg. . to proclaim. rap hatike et som The Susu. bana-sdr. banke. band-hond. Bantze. disturbance banga. a bench. See Balluster. large dog kept for a guatd. many a bang. shoal. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. seat . bana-sott. A Shipman's Tale. —^Vocab. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. for shame. as of an explosion or a blow. death-wound. See Band. destruction . she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. canis vinculis assuetus. . bandear. bana. Brewer. Bane. roupt. was formed the OFr. a wound OHG. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Bank. Bandy legs are crooked legs. a long raised seat. AS. See Banish. the same verb the It. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. To Bandy. to knock. a sand-bank. ON. &c. It. . Banditti. From a desk . a rising bank. in the same way that E. and hence. Ripuar. to bend a. Banner. dorsum was applied to ject. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. 2. the former Fr. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Diez. clouds. beat. Mid. se joindre. It is in this sense nounce. of bandying words. Lat. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. benk. Benchi. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. g. and therefore tied up. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. forbear this outrage. stir. banc. to join in league with others against Cotgn. bakke. death-sickness. bandi. hammering. a i. standard. desk. has bang-bang. banc G. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. outlam came to signify a robber. back of a knife. put under the ban of the law. Diaconus in Due. bow. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. the back. Sw. band-dog. bana. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Roquefort. — Paulus drive in a nail. a bankrupt merchant. whence the mod. bander. N. in the sense of a pirate. at canis peciiarius. E. de- party. a bench. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. a blow. to make a stir banke. bana. When a man fails Lat. ON. banja. The child cries bang! fire. distinguishes bekkr. death-blow . that the word is used by Romeo. to cabal. But natheless wife at I bank. ON. Mercutio. to slay. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. in the sense of place of business. AS. banish. bannire. banka. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. a bank. ruptus. It. Your stool. The ing. bank. bench. bench. s'associer. a table. eminence. Draw. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. &c. Dan. the slope of a hill. Lingua. Bang. Bacon in R. language of W. to work in wood. bank of Dan. Fl. bandire. to foment factions. Du. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers.z. Hudibras. — Kil. to hammer in a nail. The ridge of a hill is AS. Fr. de sable. a de Vaud. bank of a river. murderer. b'ang. banca fallita. Africa. banqueroute. bander. bang. — — whence E. panca.

barreau. brushwood. senheira. The spar. Gr. a. barrou-gwez. milites bannarii. inur. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. to bend. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. According to Diez the It. merki.the analogous syllable viur. or of this bantering. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. ON. Leduchat. &c. Duo. period vexillarii. OFr. himself in Pontus. banneret. in Gr. Barb. i. banda hendi. sign. rod of any rigid substance. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. token. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. Gr. manu anto make signs nuere. barrack. then fell among the foot. banniire. branches of a tree {gwezen. to having that signification. banda.aTa Kul nest. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. a bearded or Cot. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. a which the barrister addresses the court. Flesche barbeUe. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. and with an initial s. G. rarii. Thus Ovid. says. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. banneret was a higher class of knights. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. probably corSymbol. arineXov. ^oTrriKio. Lat. OHG. It may be thing. bandva. sparre. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Barbe. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. Celtic bar. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Banquet. the word came to signify rude. Fr. banne. and from ensign or banner Prov.. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. a bantling. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. . as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. — We A . of wind. that the noise of voices Bantling. barba. In a similar manner are formed yearling. to dip. Fr. barbarus. —Cot. Banneret. either in the Gr. It. 3. OHG. bannereti. bar. The barb of an arrow is the sign . signuin.hinder. privileged to raise Barbarous.cruel. barre. Bap. E. from the same source. barbed or trapped as a great horse. senhal. bandiera. such as the Roman Eagle. branch. To Banter. benda. a war-beacon or war-signal. A It. to wash. barra. Gael. a bench or table .Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. ban- Baptise. of banco. sbarra. to beckon . bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. hence a repast. and the work is done. of a sign in general. Hence ner. dim. barrer. and it was accord. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. ing term appears in other languages. banchetto. out of a wound. chan. a ban.8ap6^o)voe. an animal a year old. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes.. Fr. senh. barde. senhal. banner. summit. as they call it. Bret. E. &c. Fr. top. E. nestling. jSdirTO). hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. indeed. uncivilised. to wrap. iandvo. by a repetition of the syllable bar. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Hence Fr. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j.— Swift in R. men. To mock or jeer one. The original import of their own banner in the field. sparro. knight Bardd. a tree). Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. jSa'pjSapoc. Sw. 2. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. inferior to a baron. It. which is surely in barbed arrow. It. and even of calling it banter. remarked. Fr. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. then branches. wrapped. Lat. a barrier or stoppage. heri-pau. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. a sign. Fr. ON. barriire. would rupted from Fr. and he would seem to derive Goth.46 BANNERET . from reifa. Barbar. The origin is in all probability Goth. Lat. a beam or long pole of wood. barbe. Barb. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. ingly very generally known by a name branches. speaking of battle.

the flap of a hat. borboglio. Cotgr. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. Port. to bubble or spring up. barbelin. stutter. dial. Pr. barS. which was of talking. It.) to wrangle. barbeum. Festus in Diet. bdsas. formerly used in the sense of tattle. barbar. speak confusedly. bar. uproar. Thus the on. name Fr. muttering. /3£pjSepi^w. back. berj G. Fr. Sp. brim. barbulla. Russ. in poetic language Bard for poet. But Sp. Barbel. Hall in R. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Diez. skialldar-bard. Barberry. Etym. to bubble or boil. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich.— — Pm.— BARBEL merit of water. Gr. Bret. — Cot. Barbican. axilla. bds. to prattle. guazzolare. skola. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. the edge of a shield hval-barct. the nakedness of a woman. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. brabble in the making of a bargain. boil. also to bind or tie across. bardd. — . Sp. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Bargain. barbugliare. and Sc. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. tattle. Fr. on. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. ala. and flanks. Mod. albardilla. bardes. uncovered. G. skirt. baar. Fr. barbeau. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. barz. to wash. Applied in E. Hatt-bard. to barbe or trap horses. skirmish. scouthouse. w. to stammer. Cot. border of a garden bed. a jetty or outnook in a building. fortia —Strabo. Barder. quarrel . saddle-cloth. The Pers. and the word was used in OE. such as houses are covered Bardelle. to boil or bubble up . baragouin. barbel. . a long saddle for an ass or mule. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. grumble (Lowndes. a shingle or small board. the quilted with. i. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. It. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation.— Fl. Lex. to rumble. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. Barber. barefooted Sanscr. . the beard. waschen. to stammer. guaszare. barbaris. twattle. Barde. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. a pack-saddle. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended.' Cot. borbulhar. a rumbling. used 2. upper chamber. small pack-saddle. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. OFr. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. albarda'ah. mutter. and in Flanders to vociferate. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. a tumultuous assembly. bare baskojis. ready money. baares geld. border. Lith. borborinha. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. also to wallow like a seething pot. berries. barboter. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. borbollar. gibberish. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Mod. g. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Lucan. Etym. Arab. in Fr. Gr. powdered all over. Bare. jargon. Bard. — — — men. Fr. or more properly (says fer. barguigner. borbotar. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. as well as the modern twaddle. /3opj3opwJu. Hindost. Bardeau. barbeter. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. tree. bdla-khaneh. barda. to make an outcry . Cotgr. a bardelle. — — Hence. in the sense of fight. unqualified. horse armour covering the front. murmur . to plash or dabble. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw.) . haggle. to chafbargain. to gurgle. to It. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Exposed to view. Sp. — . and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. A7 to the and warlike. bdsiis. is lb. barbarkama. to grunt. and foolishly. coping. open. albarda. barbacane. barbier. to mumble or mutter words. as well as thwcEtta. twcEtta. lb. Fl. barda. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. bhasad. Port.

The origin may be throat. baron)^ Fr. barley. and ern. as. as. dispute . barone. trouble. a heap . E. barafunda. astringent. On the other hand. ber (ace. bread-corn. baerm. baarm. name being given to spectacles. a barn. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. brenig. charlock. dispute. kani. Du. plants). am. the or prow of a ship. baratta. dregs of oil. baimeach. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. dial. the fore or after end of a boat . in Nat. Vocab. edge. a. Leg. OFr. barizeins indicates a noun baris. (Ihre. Barbour in Jam. tion of the sound. — battle. berma. bern. The older form in e. barn. the rack or manger. barahunda. OFr. ThS man was not created for the woman. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. varen. limpets . Port. Uzen. giving rise to It. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. berm hoys. put to confusion. baratta. Gael. To Bark. barki. a place. Sp. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. — Zeuss. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. a boat. barafustar. . and the word. Bemiques. W. baaren. Lith. bargain. bcern. quarrel. Swab. barii. quarrel Port. i. Bailey. spectacles. barlys. adj. squabble. beorcan. Rayn. . quant a perdu sa barja. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. OSw. bernac. commonly explained from bere. Gl. border. then the bows pectus navis. to cheat. barlich. wine. barn. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Sw. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. hlaSa. and llysiaw. prasepe . and hence probably (by a metaphor. a receptacle for barley or corn. Barn. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. baaring. barge. beornt. Barge. herbs. baron.' bardagi. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. Ibid. Provj bar (ace. then honoured man. Prov. barley. Antiq. Bark. . So ON. contest. baragouin. As Goth. Spectacles. the G. meta foeni. Dan. It. bread. Isidore in Rayn. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. contest. struggle. barms. 2. AS. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6.Barum vel feminam. baarn. skuta. baralha. from an imita- Barley. bosom . fray. Camus. is simply the Bret. bard). hladi. louzou. a cap . w. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. dispute. So also ON. to wrangle. bamagh. we pass to the vert) barguigner. It. was barlic. barajar. in the Brim. barn. limpets. Kil. Ripuar. Sp. v.. mhg. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. entangle. at barka. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. altercation. Cornub. also to exchange. * Barnacles. See formed Yeast. Baron. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . limpet. prominent part of a thing. a stack. skutr. dispute barattare. Romance barsie. Acervus. Manx bayrn. See Barm. as baces-ern. Originally man. Tarn baronem quam feminam. baniffa. berm. disorder. Leg. a lantern. to all the barca. barmr. but the woman for the man. to chop. houbartij fsnile. bark . bosom. a heap. also a boat .) lihtes-ern. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. to strive. as well as Scandinavian tongues. berm. hemlock. barja. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. as in the case of Lat. to shufSe. — de Berri. dispute . from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. AS. barlys {bara. a beak. chaffer. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Du. ON. strife. husband. hay-loft. Dan. to scold. a baking place or oven. the A — Ihre. barley. ON. baralhar. bere. the slimy substance brewing of beer. Port. barretor. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. lap. tumult. ON. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. confusion. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. barnacles. strife. —Bark. a lap. to skin over barkandi. corn-shed. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Bret. ON. The Goth. beer.^Voc^. bern. and 1. Sp. 2. From Fr.. barnis. strife. berem. a load. and is probably a true bartig. . one who stirs up strife. to rout. — Barnacle. aheap. Alam. bcerme. Garlick. borkr.

man. tomb. to shelter. Bohem. a bar. An ing. Sp. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. fear. A. Barrister. barile. Sp. litter. ^Vocab. baroncelli. the braw. bahre. Fr. squabble. implement for carryAS. a man. a hut or booth. baronuU. Nominale of the from braeckland. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. mound. 1. Barrack. StiU he shows conclusively. nobles. ibid. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. a. AS. Formed from Fr. facture. 26. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. Joshua vii. to carry.' that Barrier. qui have not much light on the pre. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. semen non accipiens landiEL.. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. bouracan.root signifying confused noise. shed. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. barague. a bier. AS. barrila. bera. as.— Gibbon. Sp. cise formation of the word. vair. where baronetti is written in the printed copies.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Bern. like bargain. Barren. alongside of barrow. ^Barrator. Gael. dispute. bearg .—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. See Bar. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. perhaps through Prov. baragan. S. composed of dry branches ofer. hut. The Sp. staves. from a tree to which a man is hanged. in the first instance. a castrated hog . gravis et authenticus vir. or simply bahre. especially those killed in battle. It. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. It. sterilis. whenever Barrow-hog. also termed bannerets. heap. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. whence Barrow. bark&n. garment still used in Morocco. Fr. rolls of Parliament. Gael. borov'. bredhan. breinej Du. beorg. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. a hiU. sepulchre. man and wife. barrique. barrique. — A . as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. a barrow. vir. a. to * Barragan. boar. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. a kind of coarse camlet. barrier. a horse. berwen. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. It. the two names. in Nat. Antiq. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. Baron andfemme. The feudal tenants next Fr. vel pretiosos burellos. E. as cavalcade. baronetti. Goth. over him. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. berewe. barri. and not from Fr. signifying. an obstruction. cover. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. brushwood. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer.parchanttuech. baronculi. barril. were sometimes confounded. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. (Schmeller). braeck. gwr. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. Barricade. 2. MHG. barchent. then traffick4 Barrow. D. beorh.. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. G. change of goods seems. Bret. barraca. beorgan. Bargus or moreland. branches. It was not until the time of James I. G. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. bier. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. calico. bara. a word is always used in the plural number. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. fallow. from beran. Barrel.' Op. baracca. Bamnculus a baronet. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. — Kil. todtenbahre. baraignej Picard. a barrel. and in several instances. uncultivated. which would barragdn. See Barter. barBombicinus. Russ. Barratry. fortification. habeant. This word introduced into Fr. On chet — We — — their resemblance. w. iver. booth. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr.have been named from the haggling and gant. by early examples. bara. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. barre. seem to be radically the same with Lat. barrack. — — 15th Cent. It should be observed that. became bidre. strife. OFr. OE. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. from cavallo.

imbastire. low. fhe outhouses and yards. Newman. n' is n' is bacino. To Bask. bast-maatte. It. basso. as It. Lend me your hands. beortun. a king. fornication. the manorhousfe itself. oe. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. PaaiKhms. from bere. then cheating. and Bret. HaU in HaUiwell. baratar. MHG. bareter. bast. bass-matting. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. chasa ogli a bastard. according from Gael. mock not. peel. Arthur and Merlini.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. imbastire. as the diadem of the basilisk. ohg. baxoj w. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Bast. rope for — . — hanging. basg. more noble in blood than notable in learning. a tying. Kil. descended of an honorable lineage. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. ' Bosworth. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). him. Lap. See Bath. . to long — a British word by Martial. exchange. a deceiver. lift me above Parnassus. also to Cotgr. low note. OFr. barter. corn-farm. truck. It. Sylvester's Dubartas. low part of the Hickes in Rich. flat. berewic. ^Is de bast. But according And Dan.looketh upon his eyes. which covers the grain Ger. said Base. unrighteous gain. bestan. fraud. Al is dai. also the demesne lands of a manor. to bind hand and foot. . commonly A joined with the word binda. pressed down. court-yard. at basta og binda. the a wide open vessel. — Bassoon. basta. Isidore. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. a bass rope. a basket masg. lust. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. bas. bast. bastear. baste. basta. Fr. Swed. the thin skin Dan. HaUiweU. exchange. or wic. baratear. Fr. dwelling. chasa. A fabulous serpent. bran. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. God it wot. a ftiesh. but born in baste. The like property hath the iasilisk. to baste. w. Gr. from /3aR. of the same sense. To Baste. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . he. to cheat. AS. 516. F. or running away with the ship. Sw. MS. Dan. to Diez. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. partieren. to truck. to bargain. basso.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. There is not one that. inclosure. Bass. foist in bargaining. Pl. baste. i. Sp. barley. netting. baos. mean . and tun. leviter consuere. bark.). a bastard. fits de bas. stitch. over-reaching. It. Bastard. The original meaning. besst. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. It. ing for profit. beguile. to bind. Bassus. submovet omne Lucan. . To stitch. come near. bassin. See Brattice. back. — in Rich. Sicamb. Sp. Basket. baste. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. BassuS. Barton. to cheat. which sets up its hood when angry. shallow. Fris. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. bast. Bartizan. curtus. Dan. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). pdrdt. MHG. Basilisk. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. plaiting of splinters basged. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Fr. tierer. hoops of a cask. barter. G. humilis. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. beretun. thick. piiiguis. lattice-work. cheating. cog. found in Turkish . It is mentioned as . bdtir. scale in music. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. a court-yard. Du. Du. HoUinshed. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . low. Bass.' Papias. baraand especially teria. baraet (from Fr.' Gl. bast-reb. husk bast van koren. the — — to kill those that look upon it. bds. Apparently of Celtic origin. OFr. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. mavult dicere Roma suam. embastir. to baste piece of cloth. ibid. binding. a halter. aiKcig. to bind. crassus. fornication. basgod. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. It. It. a ipgli So Turk. but he dreth presently. preparatory stitching. bestcn. on a. Sw. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. Sp. to deceive. Halliwell. /«r<fSp. besst-u-b£nd&t. to stitch .D. Barbara de pictis veni patch. discourse Nay. would be. ' He was begetin o bast.

erect. blaka. Supp. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. bast. ment. Sp. whence ledrblaka. the E. put it together. For the loss of the / in back. to pack a saddle i. also the ricado. to whip. It. bastir. Sp. flyinge best. back. Dan. blakka. It. beating. To beat or bang soundly. comp. night-bat. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. 'iJipistreUo. as weU as besteau. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. batta lucifuga. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . Antiq. bastille. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. blakra. R. beysta.Lat. or implement for 4 * A . bastilde. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. to build. translation to a bat. guerra bastir.-^ Chaucer. vespertilio. to thrash . Cot. a barSp. basta. business (Altieri). aftonbakke. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. set up. staff. to set on foot a war Bastion. blatta. which in the E. baston. basto. set up. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. to rub. bat. a pad or packsaddle. a bird which. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . bastida. bastia. bastine. vespertilio. Sw. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. — Bakke. like the owl and the bat. Fr.'CaB. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. contrive. and Arabs.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. to beat. . e. also to cudgel. is explained by Cot. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. R. a blockhouse. to build. Cot.. devise. liiake. the bat . Sw. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. cudgelling. passage Imbasto. blows. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. a bastion. in the Romance languages. bastir. to rub gently. bastione. a blow cloth for dinner. It. To donjon. Dieiif. bastonFr. 164). p. and Cot. to teach one before. from Fr. to devise or begin. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. 2. a pad. blacta. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. ON. dial. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. contriving. to cudgel. bastimento. club. a sconce. explains Sp. Pr. All from bastir. frotter. packsaddle. Dan. bakie-bird . the winged . has bastine. a stick. bak. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. a things prepared for future use. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . Prov. dial. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. To baste one's hide . Perhaps baska. Fr. frame. and ditches bastion. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. stryka. iastir. iinbastire. provisions. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. bastonada. Fr.— . SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. Sw. badger. to Due. worth (Nat. For the origin of baston see Baste.— Bailey. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. to quilt or stitch wool into it. to give him a sound bastingi 3.stitching in general. . stitching of a quilt or mattrass. 11864. raise. to belabour. blatta. Rayn. compared with blakka. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. military term of a bat-horse). bastear. victuals. That yche blak y dar wel telle. quelqu'un son roulet. Fr. the original has corneille. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. Sw. 2.baste or knock soundly. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. nade. E.fortress or castle furnished with towers. bdion. the clapper of a bell. blakta. Florio. disposer. Sc. — — — . 2. which to rest the load. — — Fl. stryk. Pm. but this is hardly satisfactory. to beat. a packsaddle. the night-jar or goat-sticker. to drub. a. a with a stick. niammal. boste. in the use of the E. ari instruineht for beating. bladier. baston. Mid. basa. to flap. * Bat. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. to spread bread and butter. natt-blakka. Bastinado. bastonnir. pre. to stroke. I.stick. vledermus. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. to lay the Sp. Derived by Diez from iasi. settiilg up. BAT neither.

See Better. To Bate. bdda vidjor. heat. Hence pro. trahtr to It. Fr. to thrive. Batter. a blow with a light instrument. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to foment. bdda. a washing beetle. baden. wet linen in washing. dial. In some parts of England it is striking. to beat se battre. solen baddar. batir. bludgeon. bastille. in the sun. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. I baske. battre las ailes. . on. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. The bat with which a brot bdhen. and as a verb. Sp. as wood-en. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. allay . beat. of bread is so much baked zX one time. quhar he suld assaill. bat-en. is a simple adoption of Fr. Sp. by projections or in any licoure. from battre. To Batten. Du. to warm oneself at the fire. gabatnan. to be profited. howis. then to warm by the application of hot water. as E. 2. Sw. for biia sik. Gael. Hal. certain bend. Batyn. as signifying warm baths. In OE. battere. hot. to heat. bdt. . a main battle. Fr. Bret. Slav. made of bats. to beat. the heat of the It. a staff. bet. a great seems related to baden as Fr. — To . The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. battre. PLD. batte sig. and milk beaten up together. bataille. also a sun badfish. tradire. to beak. batacazo. made of — A made by one Batcii. Bailey. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. It. a stick. to bathe oneself. battions. Bat. the root of e.Bathe. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Battalion. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. to flutter with the wings. a from ON. From bat in the sense of rod . G. Pr. A Bath. to fight. to beat. abattre. to beat. a Baiffi. bada. badask. bat. and about an inch thick. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. gebdck.— . fashes basking in the sun squadron. a beating. battre. dial. to foment. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. G. beat down. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights.' Palsgr. batna. Chaucer. I bathe in water viz. more. . to dial. quell. Pr. gebdcke. bdhen.Hence in the augmentative form It. dial. baeddu. A batch as wood. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. to warm. an arrangement for giving blows. is in falling. to fire or in the sun. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Jurgor. Sw. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Battery. buask made like a fortress.— To Bask. from on. to feed. Batten. squadron. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to toast bread. to warm oneself. pak. term in falconry . fortress or castle. E. basa. Barbour in Jam. makebate. Battlement. whence the sun burns . — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. busk. baquetazo. to become fat. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. to fell. Battery. to get better. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. was formed bastilU. betten. baz. to refresh oneself in language. baka. abate. Florio. Ayenst the sunne. oneself at the A into faggots. water whether warm or cold. to bathe. Plkkis. badda. bake. Fr. or make debate. on the fire. perhaps first used adjectivally. Bate. tagUone. Fr. cudgel. badda. a blow. Holz bdhen. to heat . battle was used beath wood. a battle. battere. From OFr. a band of armed men arranged basa. batador. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Strife. w. adapted for defence. It. to become convalescent. or break down. batterie. G. Fr. dial. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. a stirrer-up of strife. flour. better. to cudgel. Jeddris and covering. I. a battalion. or a dry stick. — Cot. e. battaglia. solbase. strife. and with staffslyng. lessen. remit. beat. Baka sik vid elld. — — — ' — . in the case of a wall. Pm. To thrive. Mgy. Battle. also. as E. Eggs. debat. Flem. to for fighting. dispute. signifying to give repeated blows. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. ON. to betake oneself. to foment with hot applica. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Goth. Pm. to beath wood Battledoor. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. altercation. Fr.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. sich bakern.

guage). Gael. or toys. a gavel. bau. An analogous noisily. 8. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri).— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. — — ' Lydgate. The word may perhaps be sticks. Bavin. trifles. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. dial. Batylment of a wall. bad. divided between black and white. Pm. Baw — . baban. cluster. to the same origin. or the animal so marked. E. balderich. tille. fagot. a tassel or hanging bunch . filth. a belt. sorry. librillo. BAWSON Swiss. in OE. brush faggot. fe bau. a tassel. s. Descript. the Swiss baben. — Pm. c. spotted. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. also the canopy carried part of his body. and Sp. faisceau. fooleries or fond To Bawl. tab. It. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. also more Bawdekin. Jam. Cloth of gold. baula. disgusting. toys. babsmall toy to play withal. Lat. E. Irel. bouaila. bablyn or waveryn. Beaus^ent. s. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Sc. an object. or Cot. balGael. Baldrick. or sheaf of Bridel.' ' Pegma. ON. baugant. to void the bowels. Piedm. excrement. baw. collar. bauch. mew. P. a lump. fields. to play the babby. 2. to vociferate. E. instead oi s. sword-belt. OFr. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. dung. obstrepere. bow-wow. bobbin or cluster of thread. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. OFr. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . It. a lump or cluster babhaid. a horse marked with a procession. dirty. scarf. to make the noise Baudrick. babiole. Cot. whence the E. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. bobine. represented by the syllable miau. bal. Fl. is Bagdad stuff. baffe. Hal. zano. baudrdj OHG. and to-tore also. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. baudrat. b \% bouala. javelle. ball. miauler. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. Ball. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. was simply a field gold. filth. The It. whimwham. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. to talk Lacombe. In like manner Grisons filthy. dente. —R. i. Bagdad. exactly corresponds Fr. a white mark Bawdy. P. a zan. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. horse. ish baubles. Cotgr. pegma. Cot. an — — — A — g — — — . It is all bawdy. It. P. dacchino. and authorities in note. to 53 manure the To baw. From ! an interjection of disgust. lewd . Swiss Rom. From Bret. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. babbole. from Baldacca. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. ground. ! Bauble. to low or bellow as corn. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. vacillo. baubare. A name of the badger. a horse with white legs. to bark . bal. to me-wl. E. bow (as in our nursery Diez. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. on the face of animals. having a white streak down Bagdad. Fr. a dog). baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael.— P. speckled.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. bauU. guigaw. baue.. Filthy. Bawson. an embattled wall. expressive of disgust. W. to bark. Prov. nastiness. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. whence pouacre. the face. a spot. to cry. as Fr. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. spot. Zalli. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Pr. R. Ball-seirc. from Fr. Pr. Fr. propugnaculum. Formed from baw. rotten. the white of his leg or foot. child. pie- .' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements.. to trifle away ment. bausan. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a plot of Chaucer. balbob. ballach. because made of cloth of white. form with an initial seen in Fr. Fr. is used for a sented by bau. trifle. dirt.

laurel of the ancients. The word bay. batibari. to be Bohem. from an imitation of the sound. siege of Bayonne in 1665. A hollow in the 'line of coast. Holland's Pliny in R. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. open the mouth. Sp. beothach. buidhe. so called from its bearing bays. a berry. beonj Gael. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. OSp. —F.— Stalder. bde. To Bay. 1. gate. baya. aux dehniers abois. window-sill. life. that from ba. It. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. which however. yellow . buidhe- The ruadh. 1859. arose two forms of the verb. the cod of peas. to iiitent nected PoL white. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. It. badia to Sp. badius. From the former verb is the It. ing-floor. From Cat. he turns and faces his pursuers. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root.. Fr. the world Gr. to mark. A stag is said to stand at bay. The — Fr. —Diez. bagaid. Q. Bay-tree. BE Probably conRuss. living thing . Gr. and keeps them in check for a while. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. dehiscere . or to have been first used at the Cot. Piedm. waiting . —Bay-windo'W. bdcr. baccello. put to his last shifts. stood watching him stoop. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. the step is the same as from It. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. to open./^ bau. S.—Journal Soc. BauSfi)/. &. bahia. — A At Bay. window . baja. badarc. watching intently. Serv. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. See Bawl. especially beans. berry. living Ir. baga. ist. baye. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. Drayton in R. Fr.c. baca. Fr. See Bald. or at bay. to betray. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. and the To bark as a dog. baionette. Mod. when. large window in a handsome . abbabayer. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. weary of running.' Bailey. bijel. badarse. bay. Fr. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. or window ' (in Fortification). husk. Abide. bayo. bayen-stein. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. &c. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. or berries. bai. * To Be. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. in order to keep the enemy in check. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. to split. baier. Lat. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. from badar. Arts. to on anything. grapes or nuts. to amuse stare a bada. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. Bay. the laurel-bay. Cot. dividere. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. It. bajo. a beast. is perhaps not directly from Lat. like a pie. as if to signify a window of curved outline. to keep one waiting. baer. Bayonet. expresr sion tenere a bada. bacca. to open as a blossom. baie. life. F. . or recess in an apartment in modern times. barn of two bays. to gape. Prov. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. the cod or husk of beans or the like. Such Antaeus seemed to me. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. Fr. by the term rendre les abpis. berries. 25. . baca. as gazing. It. Earth — By Nature made to till. Q. bialo. overture. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. at his last gasp. beo. Vielp. — Schmid. Feb. w. trahir. desiring. tradire to Fr. Gael. hddhe-dhonn. and zndly. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. a'uno. stare.. Lat.' — — 54 bald. Gael. house . Bay. bahia. a hole. bioth. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. bilyega. Swiss beie. bay. bilyejiti. Swab. Catalan hadia. a mark. to keep at a bay. AS. &c. . It has been shown under Abie. See At Bay. baiare. corrupted into Bow-window. alive. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. BAY marked with bjly. |8i'os. Sp. It. Sp. Fr. baher. a dagger. to stand watching one. white. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. . bate. a cluster of bacon.

bek. bob. an attendant. bydel. bearti. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. bM. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Gr. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Slavon. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. nokkima. Beacon. into France. —F. G. . post. like most nautical terms.fui.fuis5e. bedm. a single bean. He says. — to bow or nod . bank. bidello. bee. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. pierced for hanging on a string. signifying a point. a tree. — : Beam. G. bead. ffaen. beans.' Hall's Chron. — Bellenden in Jam. a beak. backe. OSax. gebed. Beak. according to of Sanscr. into a snjall river. bdkna. atUndre. Chapters on Lang. which is. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. vii. W. Bret. Lat. not applied to the yelping of dogs. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. «va\ioQ. signifying individuality. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. a single bean. It. a sign. beic. becco. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Farrar. l^ax. beacnian. Moreover the name. The origin seems preserved in E. N. Sw. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. stock. fd or faVf beans. boom. ffci. vol. bar. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. fromthe danger. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. The wild beast. on. or any action done with a pointed thing. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. Fr. Gael. bakkje. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. was introduced from England sea. ohg. as. Beckon. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Beadle. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. bidan. — bedeau. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Goth. to nod the head.from AS. baun. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. salve his hurts. pig. W. a curtsey. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. bean. to wait-. faba. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. faba is Kvavoq. g. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. bairan.' Suetonius in Diez. Netherlands or North Germany. To Bear. fora-bauhan. the part overflowed by the tide. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. beck. Thus the final en. Pardoner's Tale. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Du. beacen. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. 54. baum. ON. Goth. to carry. rising ground. as well as f& or fav. Beck. bagms. The nutu significare. prodigy bauhnjan. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. a hill. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. Bean. Gael. or breathing.. to wait. A Esthon. bohne. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Bear. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. It is BEAR SI court. tale of prayers or doxologies. Trans. * Beagle. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. . to beckon. or beic. E. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Beach. AS.fer-re j Gr. Q wait upon him.ad. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Be. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. a tree. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. to produce young. Bret. ON. Catalan becar. to nod . Hackluyt in R. AS. beugler.' adheres to the root. and Lat. to bellow. however. would say. See To Bid.to have a French origin. bauhan. badmr. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. The immediate shore of the Menage. bakke. fero. a presage. a nod OHG. a prayer. as. Boom. Fr. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Gael. be. A two-year old nephew of mine p. or however. bohnej ON. bokan. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. -phxr. It. . beic. support. It forms a.

Slav. to be a part of his to. to happen. gefallen. if sound of a sharp blow. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. bib or slobbering cloth. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. Bedizen. riviire. our taste. fiber. to get. to G. biivre. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen.— Kiittner. i. E. a bank. to dabble . Dan. fitanimal. Prov. bobr. it is probable that here also the to become. obtain. bel. 2. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. ON. As rivus. Fr. to wade through the water like a beaver. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. bebrus. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. proper. — . beo. Beauty. bekkr. gelimplic. proper . Now the Beast. OSw. tidy. and Fr. G. AS. R. E. Beck. bavec. brook . to happen. to attain to the lot of any one. g. Secondarily applied to a hat. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. Russ. as the babble of the child. to be fulfilled. limplice. pens unmixed evU. ting. agreeable. but now a river only. Goth. while from Shep.we call the arrangement becoming.' every way suited to a prince. ON. to bear children. On the same principle.getiman. bello. Beaver. slobber. behkr. baba. godum with ON. to appertain. Fr. as. edge. perhaps a living thing. birth. The OFr. brada. bach. judgment. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. See becymth anfeald yvel. G. bett. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. comely. byrcti. border. handsome. Fr. to assume a certain form or Turk. from baver. barf. becuman. That thou mayest attain Goth. to the brook itself. to fall. ziemen. R. name applied originally to the bank then proper . Fr. battere. now confined To Become. taste. He becom on sceathan. pretty. pleasing. bellus. the latter are derived It. dushmak. limpian. which. whence baveux. to happen. The quadruped. to happen. brook. Beckon. rying. fallinn. fit. Bosworth. The fitting or suitable. seemly. convenient. See Beacon. blast. biber. Thcem. decent. Beat. e. fitly . when up. Cal. See Bat. Bo. suitable. a lip.' are equivalent expressions. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. a brook. to be incumbent upon him.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. bur. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to those goods which endure for ever. beatanj It. e. den. covered the face. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. To load with ornament. It. to shore. from beau. i.to clothe to slobber. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. an notion of being convenient. ON. Lat. suitable. bave.of being very angry. Beck. connected with ripa. Lith. . gabaurths. bekommen. to carry. or river. the beard. bring forth. or special purpose. to the good hapHalbard. to happen. Chaucer. AS. bava. 1. to fall mode of being. place to lie down. The moveable part of a helmet. I do thee pray. iida. happening as it ought. because made of the fur of the beaver. baviire. beauts. burdr is used in the sense of a car. and on. receive. G. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. badi. chin. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. Boeth. to sleep on. barba. bequem. formerly a happen.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. to live. or a feeling to be gratified.' ' He became very angry. See Bank. Perhaps from Pol. agreeable. to fall in with our bavard. W. a bank. Lat. babrad. duty. G. Do no To It fallith favour. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Diez. befall. It. o. get J ' He got very angry. opportune. ON. decorous. dress with unbecoming richness . a. bcek. to please. bard. baurthei. bave i. and to acquire. byw. Lat. venient. timan. bestiaj Gael.S6 fero. bobrowai. bearing. from the same in the sense of bear2. E. to hem. bart. riviera. gebank. Lat.fit. In like manner condition. con. Fr. to arrive at. living. befit. the ece thurhwuniath. and also in that of birth. G.AS. boroda. dize or dtzen. limpan. becuman. nod or sign. Prick of Conscience. nothing to thy name make. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. produce. Thus OY. talkative. Sp. — A — A — . bedr. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. tidig. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. to come to or upon.

(paddi. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. case.' So Gr. cow has calved.— B. The meanpainting. bably named from the destructive quali| T. prigione. cogionare. Fr. .ing of the word is curdled. drink. Beetle. cugino. a paviour's beetle batail. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. curded or beesty. 'La Gl. from Lat. a bee.^ drink. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. I put the flax upon it to spin. tree. to twist poorma. a horse-fly . Dan. beta. the ox. whence familiar. to parget or rough-cast . Bee. a mallet. g. The first milk after a dizen. in Schmeller. to knock. to drink. stakes._t from the root pi. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. Beet. a pad or cushion). drink. paralyticus. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. as the milk of a that purpose in London. Bethlehem. beer. 1. garden-herb. &c. kiissen-biere. which also 2. Lat. Slav. pital of St Mary. kivih. to poordma. * Beestings. Esthon. buk. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. translation beOj. bet. by-flugaj G. to change . sang vermeilh betatz. beost. Pett. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. beyki. to flatten In OE. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. and lebermer in G. door. poculum. Fr. The honey-producing insect. bovis. G. Let. badigeonner. i. Beef. used for boull. bletumj Gr. batAfter mete in sale. bitela. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. also bienst. a stinging bieUe. madhouse. . crespir. cozen. taglio. to coagulate. bossen. imperative pi. prisons Venet. to colour with lime-wash. an Beetle. piwo. Bernese. Gr. bitel. Cot. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. desert. cushion-cover . The beer al for te shenche bate. Grimm. water. an ox. . qui de lecto surgere non potest . knock. bedawi. Fr. thick. to curdle or lopper. as. Bedouia. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Ant. bedde-redirj ohg. buche. Horn. to fall. AS. briest. and in driving piles. calleBedlam. a pillow-case. comb. erroneously modified in form. as in It. to rough- cast. betel. Bav. E. beest. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. pettiriso.. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.). biiren. the loppered sea. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. cousin. ' MordiThe Lat. vaar. It. boytle. doubtless. trees in a forest .possible. to beat bossel. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. turn. blow or thrust. to become Beech. of beatmg. 1156. Fr. buka. biene. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. a cup or implement for AS. beach. Arab. It. byst. from the hos. woman that is newly delivered. It. by the analogy of bedaivb. bbtel. a malsense of drink. to turn. ^. speach. Bed-ridden. duplicated form of the root. bukva. bibere is a re. a Properly a cover that biiren. beutel. the meat of spinach. to and ale. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. also the bite or sting of a bees. ris. bedskiissen-bUren. KXlvoTTiT^e. E. AS. a clapper. G.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. wedges. thick. briesch-milch. beetle also signified the impiti. . Originally. a cover. ir'm. boeuf. a pillow case.' the last word corresponds to cofly . Fin. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. D. may be shpped on and off. 1. Gael. an inhabitant of the desert. a wasp. sela que environna la terra. biest-milch. from leberen. Confined to bed. Cot. de Fierabras in Diez. whose face is clotty. I dysyn a dystaffe. Pl.— JI14. In a passage of an Old Fr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. bos. fall. from risan. GaeL bior. ProBeer.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. For that was law of lend. extant in Bohem. on. Lat.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. cited by Diez. in Nat. /SXirov.cz//aj. a wasp. the biter. from jtst-. from blood. turn (a garment). G. mars betada.D. bette or blettej Lat. beach-each. PI. I A pillow-beer. bove. red curdled Arab . bytl. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. may be from K. Fr. P1.ON.D. waarin. pude-vaar. Rom. clog for a dog b'oteln.'— GL ^Ifr. Fr. . a bed-tick. a agulatum in the original Latin. 1 to drink. a drink potus. fagus. a wandering Prov. But possibly bedizen 2. . 57 — Palsgr. AS.

not began to alight. but probably erroneously. to begin. a stone-cutter's chisel. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. appears improbable at first. 2. ysgrepan.D. and Lat. but in the same language from poc. tale. ' ' . P. 1867.bag full of the G. as alighting is a momentary operation. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. to be acquire. Political Songs. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find .' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. a bag . Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. to bear young. capere. one after that other. Lollards. P. The tother seand the dint cum. Schm. P. Ancren Riwle. To Beg. signifying to conceive. Barbour. He did alight. P. begging. AS. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. to cleve. a wedge for cleaving wood. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. or Of a pure poor man.' A. Gr. In Luc vi. origin. kind. su with gold. can. ysgrepanu. fangen and Lat. Du. ornamented phoc. &c. image is cleft out of the trunk. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Cold-begone.3. chap. to take. it is both to acquire and to beget.' for ye shall lament and weep. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai.quently used in OE. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. beitel. Vocab. yiyvo/uat. 40. P. V. to reduce him to beggary. Deutsch. Florio. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. to know. on further examination. — Stillingfleet. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. ip AS. affected. y/yvo/iat. iv. although it ' the future. onginnan. steinbosil. woe-begone. covered with gold D. viii. gen. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. P. to go a begging. air a . P. to arise. a scrip. krapszas. Fr.pose. 'Aboutin undern monly. V. 'ex quo. Creed. So from Gael. Nov. be^nnan. vir mendi. begger. yivtrri. V. two betels —a grete oke. a bag. sel. is formed pocair. genus. a chisel.' about undern he got down. 25. of Gr. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Goth. gigno. a wallet. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . 58 BEG BEGONE G. gan. yivofiai. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. in Lat. from whete G. giving in Gr. lapidicinus. &c. whence the E. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. literally. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. to be born. referred gan this Erie alight. ken. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. to get children . pose-pilte. a beggar . above quoted to get beaten ON. P. To Begin. Into the are D. Mod. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. hags. — yivsaiQ. on the bag. Mundart. It will . It. in E. aginnan. ken. oppressed with woe. 142. Bruce. to beg. Skinner's derivation from bag. a beggar. OHG. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. beriolare. P. When Q. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. ' Begone. a bag or poke. the fundamental notion of attaining to. a beggar-boy. in D. bag {baigean. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. 168. beitel. Beghardus. ykvog. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. word. a little bag). touched with emotion — . seizing. beginning. chisel. To produce children is to acquire. a scrip euXaiciJoi. ytyvwfT'Kw. beissel. duginnan. Du. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. also called Bigots. baigeir. Of brede full ycrammed. P.— . on the tramp. bertola. 1430. a — wedge.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. to begaan. yivwajcw. incipere. 'Dz. anfangen. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. to be able. Lith. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. cans. & go a begging. is com. From w. can.n. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. taking up. beis- plement driven by blows. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Du. Si'Xa/coc. beutel. at geta talad. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. ' .

behefe. ward. Thus in Finnish the heave. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. G. holding is originally derived from that of looking. behatan. servare. to be suitable or becoming . hofwa. hovast. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. And so from hania. But. to be be named. take yourself off. to vow. obliged. or necessary. promise or a command. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. at the tail of. Sw. to carry corn into the barn . zijn. and the E. to command. zu etwas gehalten haitan. tion. —Hest. promise . adjust. G. AS. the distance of anything. is also found in the sense of looking. healdan. AS. portarsi. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. OE. hafjan. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. or the hence advantage. to gehouden. what he wishes another to do . gehouden. heita. us-hafjan. to be obliged to one. use. to bring forwards. to carry. to carry. exhort. to turn one out . to meet. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to vow. to halten. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to R. G. to call. gehalten seyn. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. betragen. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. hatan. vow. and their senses intermingle. behaviour. furtherance. what is so required. hevja. to have. to regard. AS. premi curi alicujus rei. Goth. the equivalent of E.to vow. have the sense of calling or naming. AS. habban. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . Sw. from tragen. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to promise. injunccommand. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. solicitum esse. the name adapt. to take away. heeten. keeping. to be fit. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to cast or throw. name of the head is used to express what hbva. by the compound observare. laborare.for throwing it. heeten willekem. beperson addressed. the two verbs seem radically the same. to keep. and (as Fr. commonly expressed. nittaa. to look. to tend. behold. To Behold. hafwa ram. behete. to bers of the body. To be expedient. promise. to lead. R. right.— . invoke. tail. At the back of The re. observe. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. To Behave. hove. is on the top of or opposite to. to feed. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. a follower. Kiittn. to fit. to command. to follow. to hold. on. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . as in the case of E. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to keep. guardare. to name. Sw. or purpose. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. behind. hcefwa in seed.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. hafwa. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. hevja. to heave. take heed of. to lift. when the verb will hoof. to behave. gehat. according as the * To Behove. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to lift.). behces. Aan iemand bid one welcome. behoof. Paladino. ufhaban. to be obliged to do a thing. G. behat. to raise. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. advantage. han- — js Kil. Robert in Warton. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. garder. It. hces. to carry. to hit the mark.the figure of throwing at a mark. to be well pleased out. hafwa bort. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. G. gecall. bound. N. — Behest. to be named. to call. gehaben. fixed upon any object). K. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. The It.' Richardson. hafwa. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. To place are most naturally ex. to hold. ge' hatan. is supported by many analogies. ifl fact.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. heave. to look upon it as true . keeping. G. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. Plautus. Command. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. hantyri. se porter) to fare well or ill. beholden to him. seeing to. to the equivalent of Du. hcef tig bort. to keen or hold. The Lat. To look steadily upon. 17. The seyn. vow. AS. habere.

a. esteeming good and valid. allow. . or high estimation. properly belonging to the church tower. glauben. were civil terms of address. leave . Sw. portion. and Du. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . or a sconce. to praise. pro3. Du. bialla. beffroi. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. Det er ofwer er hofwa. border. The word be- Belfry. to hit hafi. To Believe. — mankind. from mhG. certain rate. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. is an easy progress. honoured. to sanction an arrangement. stand. we have Goth. to roar. It. — Diicange. to protect.Lat. promiser. Pl. Fair sir and Fair lady. to believe. beffroit. consent. loven. Then. to extol the worth of anything. bettifredo. .. to bolk. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. beleggen. to promise or engage. In Mid.alyfan. belja. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to befit. Northamptonshire. —F. a tower. bertefredum. to estimate them at a To believe. lov. appearing in Mid. Du. to put a high price or value on. satisfaction. To Belch. tain a certain end. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. To Belay.. praising. filu-galaubs. lofa. to give leave Dan. bolken. a little shed. Bell. range. frid. Fr. to boke. To praise is essentially Xo prise. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. giving leave or permission. verloben. ungalaub kas. ley/a. an implement for making a loud noise. bellow. to be required for a certain purpose. loben. to give leave. ON. bulken. peal. bercvrit. to to make A Templorum campana boant. permission. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. lyfan. measure. Another application of the same word is in Pl. From AS. . orloven. to praise. are innate . precious. galaubjan. erlauben. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. if a narration. to resound. for purposes of low estimation . to lay the cable round the bits. a tower for defence . is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . bell. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. battefredum. hesfa. b'ola. on. a watch tower. belief . boare. on. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. loven. behove. bealcettanj OE. bervrit. overspread. mark ON. and. to cry out bell. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. Hence to simple approbation. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to promise. AS. then. to bellow. permitting or giving leave. to fix a price upon one's wares. to belay. Pl. beau sire and bel dame. to der swaren lave. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. moderation. Fr.D. cela est audessus de votre portde. legsel. fitness. and E. beset. reputation. met.Lat.D. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to a loud noise. praise. laven. and E.D. with the consent of the heirs. P1. In the middle voice hofwas. bellan. resonare. turris. and bergan. is used in the sense of approving. fringe. Du. OHG. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. bounds. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. then. to make it fast. are other modifications of the same imitative root. bylja. locus securitatis Schilter. galaubs. a vessel made for dishonour. AS.. to lay be- around. to praise. distance to which a piece will carry. gelyfan. berfroi. to sound loudly . and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. laubjan. esteemed . to permit. true. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. Q. Du. promising. Goth. aim. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. ornament. G. in nautical language. garnish. is (Sternberg). See Gain. under the forms belfredum. bealcan.D. laven. to believe. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. OFr. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. if a promise. leaf geleafa. or house. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . — . it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. reach. to express approval. ON. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to believe. to give leave.

a blow. benjoim. balg. Quoth. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. a speaking well of one. Lat. bellows. Beneath. See Nether. was in Mid. I araye. bienfait. Javanese perfume. See Bank. to touch one. to do good to one . bene/actum. from Arab. OUG. benaigon. G. I say).. means seeds of plants. fyle To dirty. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. w. See I . — Ducange. bags or bellows. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans.— Belly. G. bellows. Gum benjamin. G. Lat. bolg. benejicium.pinuz. pod. pino3. because bcelg. the skin of those animals that factor. or fyle with myre. welt of a shoe gwald. ON. pervenire. incense of Java. on. I marre a thyng. Lat. bimpsen. by itself. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. poX^ri. a bellows. a benefit. pertinere. to come to the crown belangen. bag. or sometimes louban. Benediction. welt of a shoe. to touch. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. bander un arc.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. attinere. a round or bubble-shaped root. a good deed. generous. ' . given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Bret. are stripped off whole blase-balg. benedicere. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. Benefactor. a leather bag.videtur. bless.' The term had been previously planation. est matris in lucem editus. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . ' I beraye. skin.Fr. vulva. . rushes. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. To Bend. cod or husk of pulse. See Bind. to arrive at. hem. as concerning that. . a accusative. — ray. Gael. hence with ashes. Belt. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. pertinere. beneison. to bend a bow . to belong.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. from benedictio. From OFr. to become one's property . vulgarly the belly. to use words of good omen. is The word balg. belch. bilbil-goda. benedictio {bene^ and dico. bendan. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. leather sack. Kil. disposed to oblige. to ring. Lat. dirt. to exert force. Sw. gelangen. bolch. to concern. bandoir. to bless. ON. pouch.' Palsgr. kind. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. a blessing. . Bav. a bellows . Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. needs no ex. one who does good. To Bequeath. loubdn djawt. from cwcsthan. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. to attain to. To belong is thus to reach up to. belt. To Benum. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. benignus (opposed to malignus). Benignant. taken absolutely. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). attinere. or simply djawt. belgr. to make bilbil. ball. bell. to stretch it on a frame. volva. langen. belly. balg. I soyle it or araye it. rise against external force . to say. attingere. Ptg. to attain belangen. benir. bimaissen. to reach. as. to. Fr. a border. . an inflated Lat. belliJ Lat. is a kindred form. The ing-skin. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. has assumed a plural form. bcelg. Lat. from another modification of the word for bubble. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. bilbila. binsen. to concern. OFr. Benign. balteus . Gael. . binssen. well. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Benefice. border. bendaj as. Fr. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. belly. se bander. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. In E. . To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. wallet. fens et hie liraus. Eenison. from which is also bulbus. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. blister balgan-snamha. to hallow. Benedico. benefacere. Lat. . Du. wallet Benefit. skin. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. becwathan. Benzoin. Fr. to hold to one. the word. G. Bent. bolg. a spring.polch. blast-bcelg. benjoin. benehusk. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. ^To Beray. the womb. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bellows. — See Numb. a kindness. Dozy.' — Hie fimus. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. — root consisting of concentric skins. gwaldas. To Belong'." — — . J'emboue. or a It is times the to signify services. Bench. ray. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. a water-bubble builge. Was das belanget.

to to deprive of. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. * Berth. — bota. to word is shelter. mud. advantage. Fr. het vuur The serise of Boeten. as. to fire a funeral pile of . Devon. to defend. what does it boot. Fr. barthless. It is the restore fyr betan. to fall with roisto. See Reave. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. To Beseech. the side bhakshya. dung . bal oppbota. Grose. as conversely a besom is called broom. earh. besen. vi. reparation. and also to entreat. bouter. to cast. as Du. . Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position.• 62 Antiq. Esthon. earg. rods. G. burrow. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. sweepings. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Du. to entreat. making better. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. to seek. amendment. small eatable fruit. or. roju. preferably. ^•n. From abet. a horse collar. E. to stand one in good stead. fyrbotare. advantage. because used for making besoms. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. The origin is AS. to mend.— VixHsm. besnij Pl. person to lie in. it seems hard to separate as. boeten. dial. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . place. a fire. AS. to make it. To help. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. I from lew. dirt . from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. to make better. botesward. Du. better. Ihre. Du. scopse spartis. bestow. berwham. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. position. to kindle the fire. beseech. from grow. — Chaucer. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. The dry. AS. Besom. compared with bargham. bdt. betan. to light the fire . besein. noise. boeten. sheltered from the wind. Tha het he micel fyr betan.—^fake. profit. barth may be for barf. basya. to exercise on a definite object. Beet. and Du. berwe. On the other hand. baete. R. or to bestead one. seems twigs or rods. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. Sw. Du. Fin. When men of mekeness him baet. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. Beit. p. Tusser. the guardian . dust rojahtaa. to strip. To Gl. — amendment. and on which the wager is laid. bacca. reafian. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. rubbish.ot-i. besmas.bhaksh. to thrust. a place . Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. besIn sen. reparation. make better . To bete his Jam. bereafian. arwe.X. To Bet. beorgan. vol. OE. improve. Kil. p. ariierf to 113. put forth. from It. . to supply a want. E. roju. Rob. of ffeed a fire. bota. boutefeu. as bouter selle. Sw. think more probable. stow. G. eld up- On is to be placed A — . hva mannan. repair. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. — . barfham. — Biglotton. broom twigs. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. lay out. buttare. to thrust. to be-place. baete.iooA. put. bur-we. but in practice. a berry. Best. fall with sound. berry. basjaj Du.fish the other hand. brem-bessen. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. as. peto. as. but it is specially applied mister. fearful. houseless.t. sets fire to. Zeitschr. 3. as in growth. Berry. So roto rattle down. besje^ Sanscr.irova. one who shelter. BEREAVE Wall. AS. to To Bereave. lewth. same word with the provincial barth. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. to give a place to. See Better. Bestead. jnore. to on the other Goth. the origin of which is to be found in ON. boteith Goth. R. supply. to the place boarded off in a.D. roe. bdt. bet. solicit. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. To seek something from a person. betan. ^akka. boeten. ropahtaa. The proper meaning of the bale. To Bestow. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. So too Yorkshire arf. BETE dirty'. to amend. what does it better a man.— Hal. encouraging. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. bat. an incendiary. as. * To Bete. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. Beere. buttafuoco. So Lat. or the space kept clear betan. protect . stealth from steal. to put on the saddle. Hfence backing. in the sense ctf beria. Goth. ship for a make amend. an incendiary. might have been . supporting on the one side Lat. from AS. is to perform a serviceable office to him. dirt. stede.

to discover. x. to fall Some call it a bevel. Fr. kein leben mehrin no signs . a different form of twa. Pl. not to have the heart to give up a thing. G. to happen. zimet. A — drink. traditor. from Lat. dispose (whence schicksal. of pheasants. 88. better. roja. to Hence It. gezimet eines dinges. Fl. be fitting or suitable. against. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. R. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. ON. verbs in ir with a double ss. treachery. baet. betweox. AS. — of the authorities. i. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. betray. his eyen sheen. ON. bouter davantaige. make manifest. beverage. OE. Fr. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. Sw. i. obeish. bat. Bevy. Best. Slant. springs from ON. Ober D. has — In a like sense tanie>i. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. tradere. larks. tradire. gesiemen. fitting. Car son umbre si le trahit. beuvrage. To Beteem. ruogia. abash j from polir. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. to cheat. to drink . To vouchsafe. e. In like manner folissais. Fris. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. for measuring angles. I approve of beveau. order. are there Regt R. which may be compared as to form with amid.D. tweoh. tima. fallinn. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. Between. in the middle of two. Goth. deem suitable. taemen. obdissais. from invadere.D. Golding's Ovid in R. whence beveraggio Fr. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Lat. The as. to stir. G. ziemen. It. a traitor. Friar's Prol. to deliver up in breach of trust. betaemen. E. roebucks. in the same way Lat. it bewrays itself. as from obdir. beva. to accuse. find in one's heart. In like manner from twain is fothied between. trahissais. r'ojer dig.— . betwuxt. advance. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. trahir. — See To Bete. Pl. Buveau. R. Bav. is used for the — R. in the middle of twain. better. by a final sh. betwuh. his mouth. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. G. Det sig sjelft. Goth. the being pushed to the frbnt. batista. polish. two. suitable. pair of compasses. deign. On the same principle ON. From the former of these are AS. trahison. betest. dir. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. regen. moveable and compass branches. batizo. tima. Cot. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. twain. Now the stirring of an object. sloped off. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. riigen. AS. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. of quails. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. bevere. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. taemen. Fr. To boot in coursing (i. as trahissons. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. betst. fate. bevde. to Teem. from. trakir. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. as envahir. Hence last G. gatiman. are commonly to one's lot. e. — Betwixt. -to appoint. bet. vrohjan. Sahissais. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. as tlock. a drinking . Mich self a good glass of wine. betweohs. Du. or with again. to fall. suitable. better. betriigen. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. In the water anon was seen His nose. progress. by two. wrogia. . E. said he. wreia. To Bewray. become. Ik tame mi dat nig. betera. an instrument opening like a a thing. E. To Betray. find it good: Goth. traitre. bibere. Fr. /alia. R. to deceive. Better. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. It. Chaucer. Dit tungomal rendered in E. to deliver tip. is treason. Thus from dbahir. from Fr. — that schickiich. &c. e. a brood. betweoh. *Ah. From It. as one would have it fall. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. evidence of life. some attention. bedriegen. afford. proficere. lot).' Dialogue on Witches. to make forwards. more. spritigs from schicken. amiddes. what does It is forward him. awry. Dii. and thence twegen. The inflections of Fr. bet. thy speech bewrayeth thee. a bevy. best. amidst. Tinia eigi at lata eit. BETEfiM translated. zemen. G. Percy Soc. to happen.

Misc. and zahr. to the stirring of their conscience. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. sbrissare. bibaculus. convicts thee of being drink. kwijlen. Jamieson. lips. Du. to stir. Bias. 172. to stir up . To Bibble. bark of which paper was first made. a stone-hewer . Lat. oblique.D. biberer. Diet. two- footed. sliding. to sip. a Galilean. snout.D. slippery. to Jam. Bib. as an eel or a snake. a sloping edge. Mantuan. An inferior blue. 78). and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. bisdare. bestemps. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. bickelen. or by any rapid motion. bezling or skueing. Gr. wraggeln. to dispute. though such a change of form would be very unusual. . formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. sbrisso. to stir. to slaver . . le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. — crooked. To bicker in NE. to purl. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Yes. winding or crawling in and out. To Bezzle. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. it were the mouth.{ioin dua. misFr. dial. bis. Bezoar. Fr. or kwijl-slab. sbiagio. dial. foul weather. Bible. to tipple. in him. a slabbering-bib. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. biascia. Oh when shall I bizzle. b&zahr. The It. To Bib. to move. slanting . Ci^. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Dan. Piedm. like guzzle. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. /3i/3Xof a book originally. Fr. per\'erted belief. sbias. Pers. Fr. sbriscio. —Bickering'. metaphor). Piedm.s bellum for duellum. The train of thought is then. To skirmish. — Bi-. ber-laita (for bes-laita). A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. its clothes. besanca. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . by throwing of stones. Bice. Probably. To Bicker. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. notice. sbiesso. Fr. Fr. biberon. is explained to clatter. pible. . biberen. baverole. Cat. . sbrisciare. (according to the Fr. bisel. of the sliced off. bickeler. presence. bring under ' Thy accuse. the basil Sc. sloped.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. has a singular stone-picker. crooked. discover. to slaver or drivel. petit-lait. which good bibbeler. to a fight with stones. Fris. aslope sbisciare. —Dozy. Sp. sik beregen. biaiser. he is Wtb. bescompte. wrogen. liwell. wrangle. In comp. twice. biax. inferiority. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. in Fr. or in and out. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. beslei. shows the P1. specially in a bottle. one who drinks in excess. a fragment bieco. baviere.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. him.to drink much. bias-wise. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Sardin. Ant. bending. pddzahr. whence Du. makes ble. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Uprogen. Fr. roggle. a bibber. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to cut in two. In Arab. Bibelsworth in Nat. evident. To drink hard. to make tongue Du. bihais. to well up with Cot. poison. bible. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. expelling or preserving against. bickai. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. it becomes (Jz-. to give signs of life. reveal. biascio. beregen. E. It is especially applied in Sc. kwijllap. bibo. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. Prov. Bezel.or from obliquus. to it evident to sense. tailU en biseau. biais. to stir. to glide or slip as upon. in two ways for duis. Cat. rogge. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). to creep or crawl sideling. Sard. Hal.as in Biped. to tipple. to be a paring.a. An excellent Basil. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin.two. Bisect. the word became bddizahr. to shake. sbiescio.' bibble. babbefore the eyes. the papyrus. It. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. rogt un bogt sik nig. sbieco. Hal- — do something aslant. OE. aslope. bickel-sieenken. sbiscio. bavon. It. . used in precisely stone . Pl. Lat. kwijl-bab. bebble. bickel. babbi. Schiitze. Biseau. bes-azur. from pdd-. whey count . I Wallon. love first begins to life signs of him. ice . See Wriggle. sbiasciai. asure-bice (Early E. stock still. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. a bezle.

— To Bid. praebere. The 'La. bat . The loss of the / gives Dan. to start out. To bid the banns. bend of a shore or of a rope. proud. OSw. einen vor Gericht bieten. bulk. to cultivate. bend. as tears from the eyes. the meaning of bid. iiQ. R. Analogous expressions are G. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. who. bauen to cultivate. bieten. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. Bigot. Du. bedun. or third order of penitence. Big. belly. besides the professedmonks and nuns. To Big. W. form. ' Bug as a Lord. ON. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bilge or bulge. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bug. bulge. biegen. Kil. To Bid ' Big . without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. an entire skin. bidel. bolginn. to build. bis and in comp. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. Jam. to forbid . build.. bced. to belly. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. A bjudan in anabjudan. biddan. 2. consisting both of men and women. the belly of a ship. and yajiBui. Einem einen guten tag bieten. to look for. The original Swollen. to solicit. to build G.' Pope in R. 1. bugne (answering to ON. G. athird class. OSw. Bight or Bought.uddered len heart. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to build. . gebeden j G. as. Compare also Sp. repair. from belgia. called the tertiary order. bugan. . verbieten. swelling. related to big or bug. to look for. A pose to one to come to dinner. bath. becoming in Lat. qucero. Wallace in Jam. AS. gebodenj G. — prepare. inhabit Du. boa. to dwell. anleta. of More ' in Richardson. a flexure. to forbid . abidan. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to swell. BID of stone. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bigan. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. in the sense of ask for. balg. and the Sw. bidan. bolga. to offer one the wish of a good day. a swelling. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. a suitor. to bicker. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to inflate E. AS. to marry. spelling seems to used in the N. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. Bickelen. G. pressing on one's notice. bag. ewes. P. offerre. to bid one good day. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. inhabit. praestare. to pray one to dinner. ON. The ON. G. pray. to have one called before him. rising up. to inhabit. bi-. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bouwen. to ask. bolgna). beodan. buga. AS.Leta). bieden. to pro- command. to ask. swaggering. byggan. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to bend. swoln. from seek. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. bidill. cultivate. bit- bidja. from bidan. to abide or wait on. are also used in the sense of asking for. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bidjan. to E. bog. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bead. ON. has leta. may plausibly be derived from Goth. Bigamy.' Addison. to bend. It must be observed that the word bidja. Hence Sc. bugt. or. or bad. twice. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bulky. a chip. quiring something to be done. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. porrigere. England for swollen. Two verbs are here confounded. byggia." buque with E. Big-swol- . to offer.peto. The ON. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. to presimpler pare. beidast. beadle. and Gael. bygga.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. From Gr. bow. explaining the Sc. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. With respect to logical pedigree. to move quickly. ten. BIGOT beidan.t. bidan. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. faurbjudan. by seek and beseech. as G. bo. bulge. to bulge. The . which is stiU. belly. ON. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. bua. forwards. to arrange. be bug. to offer it to public notice. and consequently ordering or reGoth. — — — Halliwell. to curve.

such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders.' says one of of bigio. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.— BIGOT bigardo. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. 560. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate.' translated by Muratori. absque votorum religionis emissione.D. with reference to A. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. alii de paupere viti. ix. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. A. beghart.D. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. D. perch^ i Terziari di S. face VIII. xx. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. Bizocco. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. a blockhead. bigotta. From bigio. clownish. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. Bighiotti).' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. which must not be confounded with begardo. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. the other form Per te Tribune.' Chart. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Hence the OE. 1243. aliqui Begardi. the nobles to Rienzi.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. both men and women. Bighini. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. grey.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. sed maxim^ in muliebri. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • .' Matthew Paris. 15 18. Flor. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. vol. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.. rustical. natural grey or sheep's russet. and also unlearned common men. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. was formed bigello. author quoted in N. biso. Francisci communiter appellabant. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. bigio. 1499. and hence the variations bigutta. A. a dunce. In the same way Fr. grey. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. S.D. In a similar manner from bigello.— Ducange. corruption would easily creep in. begutta. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. borel. signifying bagmen or beggars. G. Bizoccki. ac labores manuum detestantes. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. probably from biso. bighellone. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. coarse woollen cloth. honesti plebeii amictus. beghino. to adopt a similar course of life. as well as bizocco.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Beguttce. dark-coloured cloth. and Q. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. A. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. alii Apostolici. homespun cloth. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. bighiotto. vocati Fraticelli.' says an Venet. says. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. They wore a similar dress. &c. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. all apparently derived from Ital. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. Augustini dotarint.a.

Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. bill. bui. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Dan. a hypocrite. buie. 'tumidi fluctus. the swelling G.' mariners. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Sw.' bilio. topor. Bill. Kil. Bilbo. to be angry (i. the o changing to an i to express diminution. an axe. an ingot. bila. gan. and in Lat. bill of exchange. deceit. symbolum. Billow. AS. blaa. AS. Bill. to strike. a seal. Bille. dziob. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. is properly a sealed instrument. The proper meaning bylgia. names bill-berries. as a bill of indictment. bwyell. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Gael. whortle-berries. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Du. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. billard or billart. bigot. at sea Billet. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). beil. See Bulk. gleischner (Frisch). however. loi. Sp. belghen. 3. . an ingot of gold or silver. ^Billiard. belgan. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. blamand. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. billet. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. genus vincu- Bilboes. in the sense of a writing. a shackle. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Thus we find in It. of E. Bohem. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Aurelles.. weapon . a name given to a. 5 * . bull-berries. Gascoigne in R.' in Richardson. from Mid. inscriptum. to strike. Langued. and dziobas. Ludwig. The Du. Bigin. dziobad. to peck. and a billard. blue . OFr. b'olja. — — ' . horn of an animal. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. the bill of a bird. Bilberry. bulla. bolghe. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. bille. seems to be rather the unda. fetters. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Mundart. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. buail. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal.— — — . bullet. The origin of the term is probably from bole. fluctus maris. Prov. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Deutsch. To defraud one of expected sinking. . a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. on. a seal. Bojce. buoy [i. a of the sea. an axe. a short note. See Bull. Lat. bigot. a floating log to mark the place of some. 2. a beak. bile. person of religion leading a loose life. An instrument for hewing. now A Bilboa blade. clog to a fetter. Billet. Lat. axe. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Billette. procella Kil. a devotee. AS. Fr. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. Dan. bizocco. So in Gr. in the same sense.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. used in legal proceedings. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. false pretender to reUgious feeling. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. In English the meaning has received a further development. G. To Bilk. to job. Roquef. Sw. to pick a millstone. Du. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. of boja. from the dark colour. a bigot or hypocrite. biilge. top. as craneberry. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Du. crowberry. e. Tartuffe. billard also signified at billyards. bulghe. Piedmontese bigot. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. w. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. BILBERRY nated. p. tepati. bil. bisoch. a negro. billet is the diminutive of this. plog-bill. — bigardia. ferrese quam ligneae. might be taken to express a hypocrite. the beak of a bird. boia. an axe . abelthe fetter itself. bigotto. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. bla-berry. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. billot. bill in parliament. an adze . 2. In the same way are related Pol. Bilge. A slang term for a sword. beghart. NFris. — Cot. from OSw. an axe. bulgja. a hatchet. Fr. a sword. Fr. Johansen. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. I. dissimulation . . that of swell. boja. obsolete. bigardo. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. the trunk of a tree. Kil. to swell with rage). A lorum tam in — Diez. Sw. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. boeye. e. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . syngraphum In Danish the are reversed.

Gr. a hind or female stag. to twine. binda nat. a weight of 48 pounds. V. poultry. Fr. biclie. . AS. a female stag. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. bunga. to hang. fowl. from Lat. copus. BITTACLE /Siof. bunt. vescovo. life. — — . Goth. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. E. lusciosus et myops. to plait. Sp. bircej Sw. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. is in Scotland applied to ivy. pin-ti. propius videre bij sicndc. a knob. a bunch. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. doubtless a stone. Dan. in Swabia. H. bund. biscuit. from pondus. hith. to build. or baked. Birch. bigne. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. twice cooked. bjork. a truss. — Kil. pundas. AS. G. ON. The term ON. See Breed. beorth. to knot nets for fish. band. bikkia. a weight. to be derived from Ibfiaq.. an overseer. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. berkas (z=:Fr. earnes brid. Habitacle. Bisson. truss. overlooker. Bird. while bind-wood. burt. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. It. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. AS. biccej ON. Sw. than vice versi. videt. bitill. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. — See Bittacle. expressed by Sw. Lat. where the compass stands. the young of birds . Lith. by binda. bindan. brid. a corn. a bitch. bundt. bundle. brut. The bitol. and especially to a small poor horse. To — — —D. AS. G. bhurja. Bailey. Lat. bund. Fr. Thus I suppose the Gr. bin-wood. ON. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. a bear. Bing. In like manner from knot.68 BIN Bio-. a gallinaceous bird. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. e. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. are commonplaces. viz. from Gr. a habit- Binnacle. Du. See To Bear. i. bord. — Surrey in R. Bind. j). Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow./«idere. To Bite. . habitacle. admota non Bit. AS. a heap. beize. Lat. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. &c. Bizened.. pippione. a heap. I would derive the verb to knit. biscotto.. When compared with Fr. It. qui nisi propius Blind. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. bita. a bitch applied also to other animals. evegue. poule. to form a knotted structure. pittjo. and of Fr. forth. a brood or hatch of young. . evesgue. Sw. a bump or knob. AS. — properly near-sighted. The proper meaning is a heap. to cook). bindan. Fr. bij sienigh. Bittacle or Binnacle. Bisen. sc. also a stone weight. Bitch. to swell. G. binge. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. . an eagle's young G. which is expressed in E. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. hiindiiin. Fr. bunki. is rendered in ON. . This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. G. Lap. to bind together. i. Lat. piccione. Goth. v. a little dog. beitan. bundt. the young of an animal. by the verb knit or net.' and the like. beitsl. a pig petz. bunch. a bitch. to bear. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. to bulge. bundun. EpisETTiTOOTToe. from \t3\. piiiti. wine. Bisom. to net. or ben-wood. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. pinnii. ge- from AS. beisseii. beran. Bine. IV. Then added division in a granary. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. terial. a female dog hindinn. Bin. to fasten it together. to bring Biscuit. or petze. nodus. evigue. to wreathe. Lith. Bindweed. to bind at . betsel. or bin. isfiw. pullus. pinnu. episcopus. a house. We — A Birth. properly a young pigeon. Sanscr. See Belly. bij sien. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. 'tumens sequor. bitacora. bundle. Fr. .

then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. bitones. to bivouac. thoughtlessly . /ealo-/or. viz. blakki. blob. pale yellow.. a beam in a house or ship. gulblakk. shining. Goth. black. Deutsch. Hist. fallow . In a similar manner Gael. biacca. bihovac. a childe dothe gasouille. Wit hung her mourn. ON. to wax pale or bleaked. whiteness (candor sine It.. Bivouac. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. Hald. So Fr. Applied in Hin ON.plab is used to . a shelter for the steersman. bites. confusedly. ON. mouth. — Hollyband. brunblakk. Bittern. is placed. ON. Ai-mstrong. a fluttering noise. pale. Hal. unintelligible talk plabair. It is in fact radically identical with Fr.' by Haldorsen. The Gz. Fr. in contempt. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Why presumest And laam's asse. blabbre. . v. dusky. iroxafealo. white. even humour seemed and beuin. Cotgr. indistinctly. blabbern. quick. Bav. buft". blesmer. to speak Dan.€i. an edge is sharpest sword. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. garrulous. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. blac-hleor ides. round which the cable is made fast. blake. bitor. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . Mantuan babbi. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Bohem. baboyer.' G. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Gael. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. bittore. Fr. pale brown . Nagt huis. chatter babbler . discoloured . white. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. as of wings . . The bitas. on the one side. beuni.' It would thus acle. 156. blobach. AS. blanc. an additional watch. things —Palsgr. corrupted in Fr. bittour. It. to let out whai should have been concealed. blob. Du. light-coloured. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast.). blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. blabhdach. to talk much. Cot. plappem. a babbler. faded. Fieldfare. Blabber-lip. from wachen. G. 't huisje. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. beiwache. as in that of pale and white on the other. obscurus. to chops. as of water gently beating the shore. bitr. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). leohte . shine. bitts of Bitts. Fr. blebberis. whitish. a continued soft sound. maculS. ^chops.— Blabber-lip. Mag. a tati. ' plabraich. Sw. bird of the heron tribe. gabble. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. as of a body falling into water. bleg. pins of the capstern. Alex. small guard-house. to To blabber blabber with the lips. synonymous with baber-lip. "uivac. to the sharpness of a weapon. NE. Se bleek. I blaber. pale yellow . first. 't kompas huis. quoted by Ihre. ' Biovac. dark. mona mid Dan. Fr. whitish. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. yellowish. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Sp. babbe. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. babbling. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. To or he can speake. x. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. biti. Percy Soc. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. cut. Pl. blakk. plabartaich. bleich. blunt we say it will not bite. from whence we have adopted the. a stammerer. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. apparently from its biting the tongue. is apprehension of danger. blob. a large coarse lip . to loll it out. a* mast . Again. to babble. Sp. baitrs. Mund. 332. AS. out the tongue. — cheeked maid. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. to watch. or water beating gently on the beach . But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. ON. bitter. — Collins in Hal. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. —Neumann. a flapping. on. . blabaran. his blacan light. blank. as is seen in sputter and splutter. pale. blab. Gael. bleikr. to babble. butorj OE. Sp. night guard. A a rail. Black. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim.D. Je N. blepLith.. term. In like manner E. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. fallow fawn-coloured. Sp. mouth. G. white lead. pale. To Blab the anchor. stutterer. Bleak. the palebleff. faded. 'fuscus. a large lip.' by Gudmund. Lydgate. blubber-lipped. beitr. ^aj'/^r. yellow . In Legrand's Fr.

a pustule . blaeren. leaf. to omit. Blain. blanqne. to vocifer- — Cot. mus-blackt. and G. blatter. also jabber. blanchet. chatter. — — — to jabber. blister. linkboys. commonly called the Black-guard. But perhaps a more Gr. imbrunire. Now. blank. or of an oar G. blaere. smore. to dabble in water. a bubble. pass over. a bladder or pustule. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. Blancli. contracted from bladeren. and others engaged in dirty work. dial. chatter. borrelen. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. to bubble. Gr. Sw. vagrants. Blame. Dan. blether. slush. a blank ticket. Bav. The present forms then should be classed with blether. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. leaf of a. to disappoint. bladder. Torriano. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. pladdern. blatter. plat. — . which we . with all other loose idle masterless men. leaves. candidus. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. bladder. leafy. Du. to To bellow. —^Webster.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. mire. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. bladeren. Lat. revile. to glow. white. biasimare. blein. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. roar. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. to —Blaspheme. I am degraded from a cook. to glitter. and E. It. pimple. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. in R. vagabonds. . probably ate.. boys. blame. bladra. and he shall be sure to have O. Reliqu. to bleak in the sun. whitish. irXariQ. also white woollen cloth . or as E. blinken. plat. blanchir. Blanket. To blank. blanc. the ON. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. dripping-pans. PI. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. bladder. &c. Blank "verse. a blanket a bed. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Hist. biastner. to shine. to shine. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. blasphemare. madder. Eadmer. Du. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Blade. Dan. the leaf of a tree. pallido. mud. moere.— ^o thehotsun. blahen. e. blatt. branches . broad. pluddre. speak impiously. The radical bubble. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. 7. mud. and Q. and thence to babble. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. — rura. blanchet. blather. bladre. bladder . blister. gabble. Fr. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. to make or become white blanc. or blafich. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blegen. blegne. —We Bladder.— Kil. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Dan. whitish. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Fr. from candere. defame. or a mass of bubbles.. on. Du. blister. as. flap of a Du. coat. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. white. most complete example of leafy structure. Du. tree. piatto. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. waschen. Jan.—Blatter. shining. Sc. and wandering men and women. and the agitation of liquids. Fr. skola and thwatta. tattle. blactra. to purl. a bubble. . 1854. his meat burnt. plate. Blank. is identical with Flanders borlen. bladdra. Du. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. as scullions. blad. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. — Sw. G. blister. See Blubber. board. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. 5/^a/^ of colour. as blader. a. livido . 86. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. To Blare. variable than the signification of words designating colour. to blanch. cited in N. sheet of paper. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. as. black. Bacon in R. G. on. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. Perhaps from blegen. as Lat. to Hence Ital. blena. pXaatpiiiiHv. . Fr. reproach. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. a boil. D. rogues and wanderers. polished. name originally given Blackguard. p. a buible. G. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blather. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. a leaf. a white or unwritten ticket. Sw. Cot.—Blatant. foolish talk. blad. to blow. Wott. Play in Nares. smother. Sir. the origin of . also tanned by the sun.

might spring from the same origin by a . to de. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. might And sain. a shining spot. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. kept up. to set on fire. brasa. blysa. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. loud . to bellow. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . to trumpet forth. beast. To blast. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. ON. to proclaim. to cut off prematurely. OE. fire. magniloquus. a flame. brasa. to publish. 'op een trompet blaazen. a torch. besides blesse. blason. like the in English. a torch . Dan. is the imme. A blaze is so intimately Then. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. blys. Du. blason. commendation blason funebre. blass. to extol. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. The other derivation. I. light-coli. blaesen. gloriosus. Gudmund. an conium. baladron. blasonner. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Lye. to blow. embraser. a lamp blasere. a shield. whence Blazonry. coloured prints.— . a blast. of an animal. a funeral oration . blasa. ing of arms. ill-speaMng their proper colours . With inversion of the liquid. Prov. To Blaze. declaratio. a voice Jr. Cot. Troilus and Cressida. oured. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Fr. To blow AS. She roade at peace through his heraldry. The origin of this exSp. or to the sound which it produces. pale. it is manifest. bldsse. Gael. blaterare. to spread news. . — ' — stroy. Du. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. is from AS. and to make him word blaze. — — ' : bless. blateroon. blesse. blatero. ventosus. stultd loqui. bleis. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. also praeblczse. Du. a MS. — Elazen. blaodhrach. blezo.). Blaze. blaeteren. blorach. Golden Book in R. blasoen. an empty and two theories are proposed. to blow . each of boaster. A gust of wind. a whisperer. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. is used in the sense of manifestatio. quus. also only pains and excellent endurance. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. A strong flame. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Blanches illuminies. and. to blow. i. G. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. a coat of arms. bliEsan. a loud noise. . blase. on whose behalf the herald appeared. abroad. blose. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. AS. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. friend Cornelius. Du. has also blencke. But now. much plausibility. live coal . If armour. or blazening. used. shield or surcoat. Fr.whence the Fr. Blast. the matter incendiary . blcEsan. oron-blasare. blcesett. by stripping off a portion of the bark. Blatant.sound a trumpet.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. Fr. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. ther it was erst not knowe. blcest. a shout. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. visui patet. ON. Sw. As Kilian. AS. blazen. blase. baladrar. Du. blaze. thraso. e. The AS. First from the E. Cot. abroad. senses. in that of praise. as a verb. See Blare. bawling. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. . somewhat different train of thought. proflare tues. biter. a flame. g. and which. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw.' painted or figured . blis. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. laudes (Kil. indeed. blast. blcEsan. noisy blor. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour.' to fastum . in the same way as we 2. blcese. G. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. bles. also blazon or the blazSpenser. blaodh.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. among other . clamorous. boasting. blus. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blaser vid. magnilo. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. Dan. Kil. blossi. the noisy. to blaze Sp. braise. how. a flame .the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. to publish the praises. splendour. blesse. proclaim the virtues of. Sc. — ^Jam. Sw. 2. redness . Du.

wanness. BLENCH obfusco. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. a spot. a been distinct. start vor den augen. blot. a boil. Sw. Mac. to disgrace one's name. Bleb. on. bloken. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. spSt. to wink the eye. and thence to a bruise. Bleak. to spot . (faith or creaunce) Be war. See Blood. a red watery eye. blarren. flack. I chaunge colour. ' — — eye. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. blench came to be used for a trick. wan. to spot. wheal. sugillatio. . tumanid. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja.filerren. blesmir. And now are these but mansbond (i. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. bldmi. to wink at it. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. 242. blesmissure. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. blakna. to start away from. Bailey. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. blemissemeiit. exposed. blister. p. while the agent ac- From . So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. c. is Blench. Ancren Riwle. to make him feel blank. what blenched him therwith. tutnan is a cloud. Gr. — blink the question is to shrink from it. Gower in R. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. . Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. . ^Blencher. ' — — ' : — — . light-coloured. The term blear. B. To Bleat. the formal equivalent of English wink. livor. From the OFr. to soil. bleikr. plama.' God in his wordes. in the expression reputation. to stain one's honour or reputation. 419. As AS. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Schmel. the livid colour of a bruise. livid. .P. or blemysshen — blaken. a fault. A Blab. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. goda nainn. drop of water. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. AS. blema. color plumbeus bldma. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. to cry or weep. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. Fr. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. a blemish in one's 2.v. as of dust or mist . though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. 115. to blear one's eye. Manuel de Pecch&. Palsgr. And By a similar metaphor Pol. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. dead-coloured Cotgr. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Sir J. splamii!. a spot.'he cried till the tears ran down. a blotch plerr. pale . avoid looking it in the face. boggle at something. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. spla7nU sie. to blare been weeping. souiller. tacher. to humbug. pimple . ^Xiixaoftai. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. Blemisli. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. a blot or smear blanking one. sinen langen tranen. — — R. like one that has long P1. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. Pol. bleakness. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. To salir. Richardson. from on. G. ' He blarrede or roar. novice. Blancher. to become livid. Blear-eyed j having sore i. ' . See Black. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. pier vor den augen eyes. a disgrace.' the devil makes a vain back. to bleach. To totally different from the foregoing. A stain in a man's reputation. Bejaune. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. darkness of vices. Bleed. So in Sw. blcecan. inflamed eyes. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. to bleat as sheep. whitish. guenchir. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. geplerr. paleness. See Black. N.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. a spot. blink. a spot. .' to deceive one. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. or to low as oxen. to cast a mist before the eyes. from the than schal I go. Blear. blur before their eyes. a stain. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. blot. pale Du.D. confound him. or blemish.

Blink. to stir or puddle. blende.eyed. also to wink. glitter. III.not sting thiiren. blissian. happy .blinken. as in the case of blaze. to make happy. — A A — . tire. blinzeln. The sound of k before an s. blend. wink. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. as taschen. sertion of the nasal. to glitter . . blich-fiur. The inblissful. plonsen. blessed. to make a rumbling noise. but by no means therefore a pre. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. Biglotton. fortunately. a flash. — Goth. joy. . blindr. Swiss (obsolete). cascultare. The term then self or others. Owl and Nightingale. blicken. G.blinze. . A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Blind. to dabble in water. To Blend. mix from blekken. Serv. lighten. blink-eyed. blessed. 375. to bluiter. . trix. To Bless. bludder. . plotzen. Sw. happily. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. Needle. G. the verb to bless is some. blotzen. lightning. giving (Fr. blac. OHG. to pro. to bless. Bliss. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. tative source of the word is wholly lost. false windows. to dazzle . Pol. to shut the eyes. — . blick. to rejoice. shine. blag. as a vatn i vin. blahos. livid. a nounce happy. bliss look . a blessing. seems the simple netel. ' Pl. a blick-ooghen. to twinkle. Russ. gladness. Du. blendian. Du. Du. Sc. blind- ON. pearance of the blighted . AS. glitter. goods. tless —Gamm. a wink. glance. csecubrandish. glitter. OHG. AS. blidu. happy . blide. bleg. De Sonne ' verblekken.blunda. . to flash. blitz. dazzle . ^Jam. moment. good. blent. blithe.. glad. blanssen. to merry. blahoslaviti to twinkle. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. blund. sung. joyful. graceful. Deprived of sight. Sc. to rejoice. G. as a blind entry. . is I shall Gurt. blazeny. pockets. a. in potters' language. wink of sleep . with or without the nasal. blindselen.D. . I hold thee a grote thee. well blahy blick and blink. to dilute too much . to glitter ful . blincken. to shut the eyes G. —Brera. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. — when he — Bailey. blican. AS. window-blind. to shine. From the action of the hand making Sw. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . j). well blagaya. gives blinzen. the G. blogi. burn up. lightning. to churn. to bluiter up with water. doors. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. to dash wine with water.corn. Nares. to shine.blinkard . be glad flash. to lighten. to be blind. happy . Blazena Bea. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Wtb. AS. A . to consecrate . liquid filth to bluther. to glitter.wink . G. to glance.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. . lightning sweet blago. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blicksem. to blithsian. a gleam. blink. To blunder water. thou knave. blind. to mix. although in the in the next article. vious one in the order of formation. blinde fenster. Du. . . mixing in general. money. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. Tany. to bless . make these hands 3. blithe blis. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. the sign of the cross while blessing one. joy. to act like a — . blinzler. and joys of Paradise bliden. lovely Bohem. (=bene dicere). Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. a glance Swiss blenden. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. Thence apblinds.Q. flash of light . Kiittner. to plunge. a wink With the bletsian. joy . a glance. blicken. Paradises blidnissu. to fall into water with a sudden noise. . the Slavonic languages. as in Du.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. to shine. an entry which leads to nothing . to — make it thick and muddy. Swab.' To — blunge clay. riches blajennii blicksem.nasal. pale. ON. riches . blitzen. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blinzdugig. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blet. F. or nettle which does form. sweet. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blago. Blight. weaklaveny. a. blatida. Dan. glimpse. bluiter. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. a dead nettle. readily passes into a /. a look. blaziti. Du.

Blob. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. In Fin. expressed by cognate roots. B. Mod. formed spot. husks. fiustula. . have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. busten. orbicular. The roots /. a blot or spot. Sw. blautr. — Blob. a blister . blcesma. . Thus we have blab and babble. a lumpish head plubach. blijde. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. —Bailey. B. buclde. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. — Sw. while Lat. in gusts. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. in bulk. sloppy dirt. Bleb. Blond. taken altogether. a little blisg. a drop of water. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a small lump of anything thick. senting the dashing of water. to close it with a solid mass. in the sense of a soft tint. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. to steep. I believe. blod. To a smoking or drying by the fire. plub. in the lump or mass of wood. pausten. blond. weak. Fr. To Blissom. Du. boucler. kostua. a block or log en bloc. Blob. ON. blaustem. a See Blot. mass.— Bailey. fish blind person. is also used in the sense of swelling .. Of sheep. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. soaked. Dan. a dirty blister. bluyster. also to set See Bless. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. like clot. separate portion. the unhewn bole of a tree. blindsehn. as if soaked in water. Gael. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. lagga i blot. The stem or trunk of a tree. blister. mild. must be classed with forms like Gr. buckle. Kil. an unformed mass. as blinzeln. To Bloat.plisg. to blissom. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. blot. a bubble. pimple. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. to bubble. or bleb. blab. See Blot. And so from squatter. Boyd in Jam. or blinde-kiih. repre- pusula. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. inde humiditate tumidus. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. It may be formed Blithe. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Egillson. soft. soft. pustula. biota. bloc. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Block. blad. cooking. A solid blouquette blisters. merciful ON. is formed squad. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it.—Bloater. to blow. Sw. pusula. viscid. soft. . blithe. Ibid. blindman's-buff. to swell. ^Jam. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. a blain. Gael. blister blasan. pods. blobber. in Nares. to to puff and be noisy. W. puff. bausen. and inarticulately. blaud. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. G. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. . A under this name was imported into England. and F. a . speaking rapidly any . soak in water cured fish. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blubber. Lat. bubble and blubber. and easily changes its place. a ram. Hence. it is must be observed.— Hal. whence blast. to block up the way. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. and bouclette. shells. blesme. to desire the male. and pisg. Dan. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. any lump or mass of things. to soak. to blow. kostia. Du. to cure by smoke. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. — . Fr. gentle OHG. ^vaaa. Goth. a bubble. — — — — — From blabber. to dash liquid. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. The blow E. blotfisk. mild. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. blinzel-maus. frequentative.—Bloated. bloc. must be referred to AS. Svt. or the mark which it makes. to blow. having an unsound swollen look. like manner the coloured. ON. or the like. Blister. Langued. a blister. a bubble. Sc. round. bluster. bleiths. stone. blot. swell. to breathe hard. bloated. joyful. blot. Hence E. Cotgr. light yellow. G. as in E. as a blab of ink. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Bav.pusta. N. signifying in the first instance to soak. strawclod. blote. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. blobbes or droppes of water. For this. from blcsr. or is inserted or omitted. blouca and Fr. blide. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Jonson. blidr.

white blatte. PI. blosma. bloto. Du.properly to scatter liquid . tions of sound similar representaare formed G. blotting-paper.' the rain is driving and blue .^ Kil. blose. Dan. E. to blaze . . a drop of water or colour. to shine . blomstr. blostma. It. Dan. AS. blosen. bloutre. bletister. to strike with such these objects exhibit. a deli. Sc. lump flower. the bright colour of the cheeks . on. pale. bluish. blat. — — . spots in the sun. (of cattle) to dung. to spot or blot. a lump. to be red. blaeuwe ooghe. lump of anything soft to blad. platz-voll. pale biavo. of a blow with something lios. couleur livide. Ein platsch milch. to squander. the bright to blot paper morsels. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. pladern. E. fall to overflowing. pale tint. Plots. biado (of which the evidence plattern. to be red with blot. . to squat or lie close. bldmi. Sw. Ir. en blau ach. . bloemen. bloetnsel. ON. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. ' — . blosa. splendour . bloi. a torch blusse. to exists in biadetto. . bloed. glister . blase. sbiadare. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. AS. — gush. See Blow. a flower.— . a Halm a. plottra. light. blodelsa and blawelsa. kobladde. to blush . blust. to dabble in water . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. blotter. Sw. Hatch. ])erly Du. blond is used in blatt. It should be of filth blak-blatte. Lat. blue. brilliancy. gloss.D. blond. blaeuw. pladdern. Bloom. Jios. E. E. to slap. straw. leme.platter. to dash down. blois. See Blow. Wendish blodo. to glisten . Fris. Schilter. a The form platschefz. ON. plotterwis. blaeuwen. lustre. mud. bleustern. glose. a water ploutsche. a Schmid. Sc. coloured (Diaz. Florio).blauschlagen. Blood. to glow. bloedsd. Stalder. a Usaae. Blad. bleistern. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. redness. a flower. as the skin or hair. —Barbour. wan. blondheid. blosem. glus. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. a spot or blot. blou. bliithe. flower. plot of land is a spot or small rage.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. G. blysa. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). Pl. splashing full. to flame. platschern. Russ. . bldts. Wflz<^«. livid marks. a flower. to dirty. or the sound of it . blowen. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. proto shine with bright colours . 2. cow-dung. colour of the cheeks. parallel form with ON. blauwel. Du. D. to dash down Du. a blow. The G. a black eye Du. to strike . Blow. blotte. glossi. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. a blaze. clod. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. bloeme. blond en blaauw slaan. blistaf. — Stalder . glasi. blady. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. blut. to strike with something soft or flat. fall down . to blot the land was in a leme. to slap. dirty spot on the cheek. to scribble. bliihen. to splash. E. probably connected with Pol. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. fair in en blat vand. bloi. blue. OFr. whence plader. a nature. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Dan. bliise. ON. bloi. bit by bit. Blotcli. in v. a beater. . plet. yellow. — Cot. Erploten. to grow pale). to From . dial. E. blue . blawels. plattata. lidmr. ^lys. Prov. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Schwenck. gammon. Du. . blatte. platt-voll. Blot. from G. Blossom. blus. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blue. yellowish It's G. from the bright colour which 7'vci. spot pletter i solen. kuh-plader. Fr. G. shine . a gush of milk . plants which prepares the seed. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. soft or flat. ^Bleed. S-wiss pladern. gfyssa. great leaf of cabbage. to sparkle. Du. Sw. to blaze. platsch-voll. a blot or spot. skam. Fris. a pelting shower). Schmid. livid . a cow-dung. a. Harmar in R. j^ blottir. dial. to dabble in water. — Blotch-paper. blad. blue. . blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. bfys. gleam. blooth. platz-regen. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. to patter.

E. disordered. to hard. Tumbled. bl. to guggle. 51. We . P1. to fade. G. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. fqded. Langued. blue . br. wan. grey. glas. blubonciti. boil. To Blow. a continued noise of agitated water. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. v. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water.D. closely difference in of blabber. . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd.xo'»'. blau. to breathe G. plubartaich. to bruise Roquef. blass. a Blossom. blust. bruk. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. pludern. bloeyen. to fade. AS. coup.. little apparent resemblance. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. and closely allied with Du. to glow. to Plodern. red-faced bloted wench. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. . piusen. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. /idXavoc. gliihen. plusig. The primary sense is to shine. It. fiubbem. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w.D. OHG. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Notwithstanding the We . is very frequent. The interchange of an initial gl. flower OHG. blue. plodern. bruised Prov. to make blue. blodern. a bruise. Bav. chatter. withered. a blast. Deutsch. to flap like loose clothes. bloemen.D. and the forms mentioned under Swab. flower w. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. bliithe. and thence. Lat.' Hamburgh Archives. pale. to gush. Pl. blow. blut. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). Chaucer. These are — Bludder. And. bloom. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red.— . |8A)'. d in Sc. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. Du. a flower. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. glaodh and blaodh. plubraich. bluh. blazi. blezir. blubbern. may cite for example G. — To blubber. to gabble. a fat. to beat with a mallet. ler. pale OFr. blahen. Pl. Blowzy. glas. bloes. Jla-re. blebber. blao. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. to blow. G. to blow. marking some application from that bladder. blau. The aUied forms. — Bluther. OHG. to spot. Bret. a herb Gr. . blduen. —SchmelIt. blosen. cheeks bedabbled with tears. heath. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. . sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . MHG. blady. plustrig. glow. blodelsa. glowing coal . to glow. a paddling in wate r. B. bldt. . fied vowel. E. Blue. Gr. bloeden. florere. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. 1. bliihen. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. 2. G. gUd. like manner Lat. fem. Prov. where the word may be compared bliggman. blodyn. to breathe bouteiUis. puff. ^Jam. to'disorder. OFr. to fade. gloeden. 92. to show flower. foam. A. sense. w. grug. bloi. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. the red fluid of the body . . — . a gurgling . thus identify the Celtic glas with G. especially with respect to the hair. in rapid or indistinct utterance. blawan. to bubble up. a blow. glansj Ir. or gr. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. G. to inflate. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. Pludern. bludder. — To Blubber. It is howbliuwen. to beat. glede. bliuwan. to with Bohem. tache. to exhibit bright colours. green. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. — — Mundart. bluod. Mund. to puff up. Raynouard. The radical sense is shown in Gael. into flower. -ii. y\r)yi»v. disordered in head-dress. 1292. sponds with Sw. toused. to make bubbles in drinking. To Blow. In agitation of water.D. plubair. meurtrissure Roquefort.to blossom. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. to blow. wan.' — Palsgr. sound like water. to shine with bright From colours. gliihen. bluther. boasting. Wtb. to flourish. pale. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak.Jlasa. blava. corre. Sik upplustem. jabber. a. ' BLUE or guggling. Blowze. blaw j biavo. blois. Deutsch. Danneil. pale . in E. bliihen. gloeyen. to blurt out. blubbern. Du. bledniai.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Her sweet bloderit face. — . Chaucer. blazir. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. is confined to the — .nify bubble. dirty. Gael. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. grow pale. vi^ound. Kil.

biava. Bluff. liebefactor. herauspoltem or sloping shore. as well as sbiadafe. without image or superscription. to agitation of liquids. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. jaune. blunt. a plain coin herausplatzeu. speech. and biavo (Diez). . Bohem. pludder. or an abrupt manner. glundr. blunder.' trouble. We Blunder. applied to green as well as blue. bawling. blue. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. fallow. To blunder is then. Du. blunder. Sw. flav-us. Flor. A bluff manner. in plur. blaf. has donder-bus. blunderhead. The Du. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Pl. something. bullern. devenir vert blavoie. contrasted with the dle. from the brilliant green of the young E.• BLUFF biado. Pol. herbe. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. falb. The Du. ploffen. pale yellow. buller-bas. to plump into the water. Lat. Biada. bluish. Analogous forms are Du. to blunge clay. plo-wy. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. polterer. earth and water mixed together. a fore. his business with much noise. non rotunda. which is rendered by Florio. blave is moreover. yellowish red. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Dan. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. sense of yeUow. Altieri. Ditton in R. Hence we pass to Prov. And blunders on and staggers every pace. biavo. je perturbe. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. blavus. bleu et blanc. pale. to dabble in the mud. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. poltern. From G. Pm. find accordingly It. superficie plani. plomp. planus. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. dial. abrupt. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. to confound. an ill-done job. used for the work of an unskilful performer. 't — —Hal. Hence a Slcelton in R. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. The word is here synonymous with amplus. E. tutte le semente ancora in erba. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. rustic. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. - reddish yellow. Bodge. confusion. Hal. and then generally idle talk. bloi. tradire to Fr. See Blurt.make a noise. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Roquefort. . yellow. It is remarkable however that the E. G. Blavoyer. from an imitation of the sound. sbiavare. blandum. to work To blunder out a fronto. blake (identical with AS. mix It. like the Celtic glas. — — — . The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . a flounder. buller-bak. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. and metaphorically. Blaffart. and bustle . as well as biado. blanssen. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. to blunder water. is. trahir. — . Blunt.//aay. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. corn. Blunderer or blunt worker. in water dobbelen. G. in the same way as from It'. verdoyer. Dryden in R. and Du. blac. polter-hans. to puddle. to fade). to become pale or wan. blond. and sbiadare. a blunderbuss. biada. Roquefort. Romance bluiter. See Blunt. blue. Dief. Bladum. from the Lat. to fall suddenly on the ground. Kiittner. Then with the nasal. blutter. mistake. G. bUich. segetes virentes. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. to mix it up with water. corn. fawn-coloured. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. to become pale or livid. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. pale) is provincially used in the. verdure.D. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. — Pr. to lose colour. OFr. all representing the — .in mud or water. a shore abruptly rising. Kil. flodderen (Weiland). glundra. I blonder. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. to become pale.— . to and not introduced by degrees or cere. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. pale straw-coloured. having a bluff forehead. sloppy drink. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place.. discoloured {plowiee. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. Halma. originally growing up turf and water. blue. a boisterous violent man. to dabble Biglotton E. disturb. G. Palsgr. like Du. puddle. It then signifies something done at once. Supp. blahir. bulmanner. Kil. Du. to stir or pudcorn in the spring.

blunt. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. used in both senses. plumbeus. united in Gael. as Sw. Plontp. nature. pointless. like a thing thrown down with a noise. plump. bleak. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. but of something soft thrown on the ground. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. nis. Swab. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. bare. and an unintelligent. without preparation. naked. — blunt. biotto. Bluntet. Won by degrees. rude. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. G. with or without the nasal. to plump down. blockish. a bluntie. naked. plotsen. Plump mit etwas umgehen. to bring it suddenly out. Sir T. void. naked. blunt. —D. exactly corresponding to the G. azure. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. absence of preparation. without Maolaich.— — — . blunt. Woddis. Probably radically hlekit. mit etwas heraus-platzen. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Then cometh indevotion. It. viz. It is from this notion of suddenness. plump J to plump out with it. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. It will be seen that the G. a portion To inquire for slaves. Ford in R. homo stolidus. blout. the absence of sharpness. plump. bare. blait. blunt. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Molof something wet. hebes. dull. massive. in Richardson. — Kil. blatte.pludse. obtusus. blutten. or blab out a thing Kiittner . heavy. inaKil. V. Kiittner. inactive Swiss bluntschi. to blunt a thing out. or heraus plumpen. duU. The blait body. ineffectual reason. clumsy. raw. rough. as cow-dung. plutz T)\i. — — pidus. to blurt. to plump into the water. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. naked. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. blat. seems to be derived. to make foliage. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. blait. unwrought. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. to handle a thing bluntly. Sw. The syllables blot. thick. plotz. is thrown. obtusus. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. identical with E. platzen. V. a simpleton. Q. without horns. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. and hath swiche languor in his soul. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Bare and blunt. Halma. good plump person. . —D. a blot. Du. through which a man is so blont. plump. sheepish. ang. awkwardly. biosso. Blaitie-bum. bus. bluntschen. to make a noise of such a Stalder. from the loud report a fire-arm. edgeless. plains The large bech. that the sense of bare.—D. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Now the Swiss bluntsch. insensible. is The word dull. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. F. down. G. blue. dull. unpolished. plump.to fall into the water. clownish. that it not easy to discover the connection. A light blue colour. unfledged Sw. a thick and will person. it will be well to point out a sense. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. forestis. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Dan. Blunt. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/.plompen. Dan. fooUsh. and in the same sense. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. without the nasal. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. . stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. silly. viz. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Chaucer. Sc. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. V. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. unceremonious manner. plonsen. heavy. A modification of the same root. wan. blunder. blunsch. fling down . Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . maol. pressions. stupid fellow. blott. blotta sanningen. pale. heavy. of a knife which not cut. figuratively. as in E. dial. bald. Stalder. More in Richardson. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. bare or blunt. Plump. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. poor Sc. platz-regen. Sc. awkward. and the like. it will be observed. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Pol. rudely. bloss. Kiittner. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. and.

Schmeller. Fl. puddle. blasen and See Burr. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. 29. border. to say bluntly. plump. margin. margin. lacerta. stellio. blaste?i. blaffen and baffen. blubber. It. to blush. a. blodern. this root are formed Sc. boot. or bog also thread.plerr. bur. crack made by bursting open. a flurt with one's fingers. Sc. Lat. dial. voce intonare. Hal. Slur. to talk quick and indistinctly . or blurt ^ih one's uppi. bot-voet. bludder. bhis. short pieces of any filthy mud. 274. to sound like water boiling. blot. dial. batello. blotch and botch. margin. bora. lindwurm. G. a mistiness. AS. Wright's ed. blur. Fr. Kil. bleuster. e. bord. blose. pludern. Pl. bakke bleustern. and swimmeth very well. 156. Wallace. Bluster. bord. blirt of greeting.pusten. 1. — — . to blow. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. planks raised up outside the roofs.' — Red Riding-hood. The to radical meaning D. to puff. swagger. See Blossom. and when applied to vaunting language. — — — * Boast. puffen. large. to crying. table. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. to rumble. common. the Brem. to blore. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Bot zeggen. to brag grande loqui. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. to roar. as splurt to splutter. bluther. whence bordvidr. literally edge-wood. and the latch . to guggle. pluddre. Related to blutter. Du. bluter. blosken. board. ader. — To Bob. aper. blot. mire. a baU of thread the mud. a border. both used in the sense of boasting. a mist before the eyes plerren. geplerr. bausen. sudden. a tassel. It. Comp. G. a torch blusse. or blurt with one's mouth. stupid. As the as. beer. baban. and Du. . bot. planks or boards. blusse i ansigtet. bdtr. a small lump. whence bob. to blaze. primarily signify loud noise. P. to make a noise in boiling. See Boisterous. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. violent. a Jam. a bladder . Du. boistous. to be out of temper. properly noisy. Sverris Saga. bobine. Du. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. to blurt out. Board. To move quickly up and down. will fly up. gabble Sw. or backwards and forwards. berd. an ear of corn. a dangling object. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to blur. to bounce. i. to make a noise with the mouth. a grows to a great bigness. hot. Pull the bobbin. Boa. to blubber. pfludern. Du. it implies that it is empty sound.v. Du.y. AS. to snuff.plodem. Swiss blodern. . to glow . Supp. then applied to indistinct vision . ON. blaere. and boisterous. a blow . dull. a tassel. the sound of a blow poffen. bar. G. flat. to spurt out. Sc. cheeks glow. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to dirty. bobbin. cocodrUlus. to smear. a short thick body. BLUR Boar. &c. outward edge. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. c. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. edge.the syllable bot. to give a crack. eber. violent G. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. rude. strong. a club foot . borrar. pausten. blurra. It. coarse. to render indisbhir. blarra. Dan. pof. as in Du. a blot. baiag. Blush. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. boa. acre. bit. skin. Wtb. Bav. bord. like the parapets (viggyrdil. To brag and to crack. V. blaustem. blader. to make mouths. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. a board or plank. . be a crack or loud sound. a burst of tears. pustern. table. To tinct. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. cluster. BOB 79 — To Blur. to breke. my dear. to disfigure with E. brett. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. botte. w. — a blaze. to bark. boord. AS. bustuous. bliise. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. blunt. To blow in puffs. blast. . Explained by Jam. to puff. 'Ba. beacon fire. . an edge. to dabble. Hal. to endeavour to terrify.—Bobbin. OE. eafor. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to puff. Gael. E. boccheggiare. ever-swin. a blotch. — ' Dief. imitated by has also In like . — From mouth. is formed Du. an end or stump. bladdra.D. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Boa. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. To Blurt. De Boat. bludder. chicchere. bdta. of the word seems . to jabber. Gael. to threaten. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. bateau. to dangle. To splirt. Boost is used for the boast. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. ground. Fl. and E. a smear. on. Du. rude. 9396. gabble. Du. Fr. burra. A large snake. to chatter. bdd. E. Halma. fringe.— . splurt and spirt. edge.

— H. speak of the barrel of a horse. gagoula. stitch. then from the yielding. badyti. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bagges. Lith. bog (equivalent to E. bodak. a ghost . Bohem. potig. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. Lap. Cot. a prick. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. as a horn. a command. unsteady nature of a soft substance. baboyer. to waver. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. toss. expression hogglin an bogglin. Body. move. e. bodig. stuttering. W. bodhag. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. To Bodge. bodi. and E. bogadaich. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. The signification of the root bot. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bole. Gael.gmh:t. and the word is well explained by Bailey. to prick. AS. To mock. moving backwards and forwards.' A — Sherwood's Diet. to dabble or paddle. a body. bot. bayonet. Commonly explained as if from Sc. to blurt a thing out. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. boftich. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bodene. calf of the leg. swelling. an announcement. as signifying anything spherical or round. corpses pot.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. stutter gogmire. quakmg. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. bothog. busti. strike with the horns. dies. 43. . bogach. rounded. Bodice. palleg. unsteady. bog.! . bogle. AS. Gael. To portend good or bad.rabodi. butt. to smack. to bob.. round. .' Bogglie. arise E. from fitting close to the body. a spur. the thick part of anything. gebod. an awl. — as well as the body of an animal. to stir. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips.hollow. or stem of a tree. . or bag. to make. waving. The Sp. corset from corps. the body of a shift gaguejar. exhibit another modification of the root. BOGGLE trunk and G. Crist. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Supp. a . bog. bottich are derivatives. to deliver a message. Banff. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. moist mire. Thy i. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. gago. shake. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. to butt. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Ptg. bodi. is a lump. stumpy. gag. thrust with something pointed. bottig. of which the E. bodetz. a dagger. French bouter. to commit a blunder. bodnu. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. to be uncertain what to do. needle. by the syllable patsch. body of a shirt bol. '£. the body. so large a feature in the country. bob. Now unskilful action is conmire. to stammer. to make a mow at. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Wall. point. Bret. as in stammering or staggering. barrique. woman's stays. bayonet . idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. — 2. ^Jam. . In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. Bodkin. . — Grandg. biodeachan. a bog or morass. bod. precept. It introduced from Ireland. belly. anything protuberant. So BOB To Bob. to roll. or a pair of bodies. Gl. See To Botch. the boss of a buckler. formerly bodies. to thrust. corpset.\\i\c\iset. a cask. unsteady. . a puddle. pall. Ptg. Reliq Antiq. bogadh. the belly. to bodge. nave of a wheel. shaking . to be unsteady tich. patsche. a messenger . agitate. bodat. a cask. cask bottich. fickle . . thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. bodian. See Bid. to stick. To Bode. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . 3. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. a round body both. a sting . Gael. bodilo. nodding. In like manner E. Russ. to push with the horns. gogach. boll. Bog. Miracle-plays. a prickle. Shakespear has badged with blood. gog in gog-mire. potacha. bogan. mud. whence Fr. Ir. to fail. daubed or dabbled with blood.a (i\ia. where bogs form Gael. is identical with Fr. to scruple. to fail. bolr. whence paUchen. barriga. potahha. gog. to start start and back as from a bugbear. message boda. goggle. bodies. the trunk of the animal body. wavering. potacha. . meaning the round part of his body. * To Boggle. ON. bod. To make bad work. bo tich. See Baber-lipped. VI. a quagsoft. gagei. Schmel. anything soft. And waves. the stem of a tree . With With this we charged again We bodged again. body and G. . corset. We . biodag. quagmire).

whence bulla. excellent.— D. Swab. E. to puff. pustule. Westerwald bollern. glass phial. bald. * Boisterous. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. G. Pm. which are not used for a similar purpose. The round stem of a tree. The bob. pusten. strong. the body . b^gayer. to stammer. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. boll. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren.rounded part of the body. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up.— — . sels of flax. biiilen. haughty. bolzen. caput scapulse. bealder. See Bulk. he will speak out. bolr. bochken (titubare. beule. bola. bold. boly. The term applies in — — impressed . free. Sw. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. capiing into a cavity. notes.D. to swell. bag or bog are derived Piedm. Bole.palleg. bolster. and then applied to other husks. To Boil. bagaji. quick. . is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. furfures. globular bod)'. impetuosity. Sc. then violent. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . shake. bolstar. proud. bold. . folliculus grani. swelling. is probably a modification of boll. bSlstr. hero. the gurgling sound of water rush. blow. bouil. bolle. treated under Bowl. OHG. Fr. bolzBold. dint in a metal vessel. Pr. a bubble. ON. Cot. a cushion. to boil. to hesitate from doubt. to give a hoUow sound. Lat. . Lat. OG. Gael. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. hollow. boss. * Bolster. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. puile. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. ON. bout. stramenta. merry. . It. tartle. Du. round the first instance to the materials with . The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. ^Vocab. bolt upright. bol. Daring. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. G. a bump. bul. — ' — tagliare.). bulla. see Boast. as E. Properly noisy. properly represent belly. bulr. bol. Test. but that Bolt. Boil. A. strong. by which it is moved to and fro. may be identified with It. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. stameln vel bochken. swelling. coarse. This iv. boystousnesse. roydeur. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. stud. flax-boU. bout is explained by Kil. to be prominent. balldr. In the same way Sc. to stagger. a head . bul. up of bubbles. as those of nuts. scruple. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). prince. bula. obex. ON. Boystous. puilen. huge. to stumble. Du. boil . gluma. boggle. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. confident. styffe or rude . i. belc'hj. tartalear. pall. bhster. ballr. Fr. bolc'h. V. E. from the branches. boutpijl. to be at a loss a shirt. to stammer. bolla. tar. ohg. Stalder. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . fiausten. bolleken. w. 45. strong. Me doth awate. wag. in speaking. courageous. Kil. rough. tartajear. Chaucer seems Dan. tomentum. as. (of Mons) b^guer. Kit. a bubble. or the like. — 6 . buile. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. G. poppy (Bailey). — — which the cushion is stuffed. also a blister. Du. the husk of nuts. insolent baude. polc'h. bald. a quaking mire. tulum. animal as distinguished from the limbs. chatter. to the belly as the or dislike. bol. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work.' Mrs Baker. Goth. Sp. balder. in the sense of handsome . bullire. To Bolter.w. chaff of corn siliqua. 304). Chaucer. as baltha. a bakazikni. Mund. Da. cows the people from speaking. a boil or swelling Du. perpendicular. intrepid. courageous. capitellum. bold. used.Du. bok. to waver or hesitate. Love. Magy. bolster. Bret. bollen (Kil. ON. the. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. 1430 in Deutsch. Boll. pimple ON. Bustuous. bolt. bulla. warlike. as. bog. a bubble. noise. gerade signifies straight to the mark. buller. a swelling in ice. bog. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. G. cheerful. Du. and manace for to de. brave. a fastening for a door. the body of a man or of ter. from Du. pillow. bal. bald. the lir. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. Wall. ^Boistous. hakogni. Fr. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. to tattle. Lap. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. baud.. bola. trunk of a tree . 374. stutSw. repagulum.

jolting.noise {brattle of thunner. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff.by forms like G. holier poller. crod. bultred. to bolter. cro. to significance of the term was overlooked. clump. taratantarum.i5a//^«. to form lumps. . a bolter Prov. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. to knock. boss. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. kloteren.D. bolt. knob.. ex•wagen. bulk. buletare. then to knock. as snow balling on a horse's foot. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. . a clod. zen. buletel. beliitea. P1. taraabout. Fr. barutela. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. Bav. — — — . Wtb. . buideln. to talk pulzen. to coagulate. ler. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. pattern. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. bultig. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. fied bot. we see that the one consists of a words. barutela. bulk or quantity . pultare.u. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. uneven.agitation of the meal in the bolter. in S'W plotter. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. from G. . gebolder. .On the same principle.). hole. we der Brocket). . blotttre. The ulti. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. die treppe pressed. hump. Dauphiny a sudden movement. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. poll. poltern. bulla. MHG. racket gepolter. hulter de bulter. Pm. Hence. a small portion. bulio. Dan. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. rugged. bolt head is a retort. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. I boulte meale in a boulter. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. mole-hill. beluter. Pl. OFr. crotlar. a clap of thunnences. Sanders. a rattling carriage. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Du. sestuare. budeln daz mele . projections. one after the other. buUire. and the Thus from So. Here the radical image is the violent O. as of a trumpet. also to curdle. burclct. The ment and the operation. Lang. baruta. Pr. 2. barutare. grasbulten. buretter{CQ\. a club-foot. bluter. small heap. a sod (Schiitze). Ging_ es to bolt buletellum.— .D. with E. the wheels groaned. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. vessel with narrow opening. tling or crashing noise. brattle. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. or the like. Supp. bullern.Lat. bolzen. series of jolts or abrupt impulses.as the essential element signifying the talum. taratarrum. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Brem. pull. btilt. to bolt flour burato. curdle. Du. OFr. . Hence Palsgr. by the representation of a racketing sound. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. the sense of right on end.through a cloth of loose texture. to E. to agitate. tar. Mid. to come rattling downstairs. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. bortelen. ' — — ! ! : — . Sw. to bolt meal barutel.protuberance. je bulte. to become lumpy. a crashing or racketing noise. poltern. rugged. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. hammer. cruddle. and to crash. Bulte-pook or bulstar.. or a racer from the course. to spring forth E. have Lat. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . tantara. we pass to Du. protuberance. And as the agitation of cream in . hulch. bolt-foot.) E. So also we pass from Lat. Pl. tuft. Schiitze. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. a . agitari (Kil. Lat. a bolter or implement for bolting. a bunch.nature of the operation. a rattle. on the one hand. OFr. a clod cloth. Champagne burtcau. swelling.fe/2?.D. projecting eyes pul. we have Du. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to start out. bolzaugen. to bolt meal barutel. as above explained. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. crash. to make a knocking. hammer. ' Holler poller / bulter.D. In the next place. the name of bolter mixed flour and water.clack. lumpy. .). a clump of turf. It. Prov. tumultuari. or ill. loud and fast. croler.thump or blow. bolting to that of form. a millpoltzet augen. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. a round glass ending — bultig. / is transposed in Fr. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. bolzauget) Sp. uneven. G. bulstrig. abolter. to start with palpitate. to shake. : ' — — . as a rabbit from its baritel. staff which sounds tar. as Fr. On this account Mid. representing a rat. to clack. zare.

— having a stem or stalk. a hollow sound. Bone.^Altieri. bein. ties. tree. buidelen. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. biire. been. and that from Fr. It. bone of the . stuff. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. q.bast. bureau. to cast to and fro. thick-legged. G. a thundering noise bomre. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. butteln. . sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. brust-bein. Kil. to ring bells. Dan. Fl. bon. bombarda. . thick from shaking. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. gossipium. breast-bone. a beacon. and Bond. produced the Pl. a stem or base. bommen. derivation. a stock. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. PoUitriduare. bauniwolle. the contracted form of Du. Du. to thunder. to thump W. bambagioj whence It. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Banstead. Moreover.Su?. booming over the water. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. When ture.) . The material called by this name. band. butteln. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. sijde. Bomb. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. a word of which we have traces in several English names. E. we speak of a gun to resound. however.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. sye. cotton stuff. . beuteln. Mid. to shake (as to shake the head. 83 Gr. burato. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. assuming the of leg : special signification W. term is appropriated in G. band pi. the silk-worm. bond. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. Schm. buidelen. a bone in general. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. It. Du. raw silk. bombicina. Fr. Gascoi^e in R. to shake. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. It. tiffany. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. banitola (Fl. sericum arboreum. . bureau. bindan. band. lana lignea. is supported by the analogy of G. ODu. and Mod. sije. bras. bomba. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bande. bombice. bulter from It. bunden. the murmuring of the sea. coarse. basin. beuteln. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . Dan. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. whence bomme. bombdra. Near 6 * . to resound. Bibelesworth in Nat. Castrais barato. rimbombare. bombe. G. tie. barate. It. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. i. As cotton was used for padding clothes. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. again. — bombast came guage. and called in Mid. baun. baum-bast. borel. buttel trueb (of liquids). But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter.). thick. also thick-shanked. . a boulter of meal. the Fr. has repeatedly varied. bombasin. or trunk word in W. e. HoUybandin R. bambacium. a baker. to bolt meal. stump. Antiq. crook-shanked bondew. a churn for butter. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. — AS. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. a ligature. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. iuttern. from boom. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . silk-worm. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. OE. a string. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. achsel bein. as in . builen. agreement. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. bwmbwry mar. bommer. and also the leg. G. Butterglas. to which the leg. &c. to shake down fruit from a tree. to bind G. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. Fr. bombasine. Bonfire. to boult meal. and in fact we find the and Du. a —Bombasine.Lat. to beat a drum. bombase. . Du. the shank the shoulder-bone. a drum bombammen. 155. bonfras. the leg. an implement of binding. Need you any ink and bonibase. bonog. bonds. In E. bopin.D. gunpowder. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bongam. from teu. From builen. cotton. beil'n. as Banbury. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bolting-cloth. bombast. — Bombard. d. ^o/j. tie. It. In legal language. must be explained Fr. bwmbwr. bambagino. boulenger. It. . and Du. silk.

countryman. . The i. a tree. See Bown. Fr. bd. botta. babau. to gape. from beida (E. bonaid. Hal. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. G. as the Brecknockshire Banns. biikui. tigh. build. swinbusa. bossen. Build. tall. one who dwells nigh.Boos. from gape. But bosg. till. bolt. Jr. bua. bote. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. The latter is the original AS. boia. . short boots. Mrs Baker. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. Mrs Baker explains bun. Bonnefyre. — e. Basa. The character of folly is i860. b^er. Pr. set in order. the first consonant of the alphabet. OSlav. Gl. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. . build. bose. by itself for head-dress. a lying-place for dogs or swine. prayer. bobo ! interj. boubi^. AS. Boot. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. without ad- . bonad. is Du. writing bokos. a hollow skin. boo. buch-stab. OW. Bun. comes bondi. — To boot. as a lying-place for cattle. From bo. Du. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Thin ben Luke i. w. boutig. Fr. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Palsgr. in w. head-dress wai^g. tapestry. and Ban in w. chaff. boutig. bos. bommen. lofty. Gael. Busk. Bonnet. bdn. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. and thence Rouchi baia. bowwen. boa. the cultivator. help. literally cow-house. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie.n. blockhead. boom. ass. Bootless.^ —P. Fr. bonad. ben. or Vanns. a head-dress. Schm. bAkva. botte. a dry stalk. inhabit. It. See Butt. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. bauer. a stall. bosih. Trans. to litter bosu. E. a lofty blaze. also called Brecknock Beacons. . alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. to gape. inhabit. wall hangings. litter. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. 232. E. Thus from the syllable ba. a bonfire. Binau Brychyniog. remedy of evil. . bota. See Bomb. dial. and from AS. boer. botte. . bosig. babb^o. house. bua. the alphabet. by arbitours sholde bote the P. bas. gaby. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. gawney. Hufwud-bonad. b&ber. a silly fellow. the stubble of beans. desire. ty Gael. of wonder On the same principle Sp. . 13. Hal. the scriptures bokareis. bobo. to dress. babin. ON.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. from badare. Goth. It is commonly explained as identical with It. bene. \ais-band. pole. — From the participle present. Du. the mouth. at everything. — Bailey. ON. whence ban-ffagl. the possessor of the farm. ganian. where a cross (or a gun. buandi. to prepare. Booby. which one gaping and staring about. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. although in the OG. ON. clown. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. feu de behourdis. been. * Boose. . Perhaps. however. to ask. Swab. pero. are formed Fr. in Phil. busu. a letter . remnants of hay or straw. gehyred. Pm. bds. boubair. ON. wondering signifies not only straw. To Boot. gaping hoyden — Cot. . hu?idbusa. simpleton. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. The origin of the word is probably the W. petition. Boot of bale. signifying beech. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. nachbar. AS. G. a good turn or re- meaning. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Book. to aid. succour Bailey. stabulum. a vessel for holding liquids. G. pig-sty. In nautical language. to cultivate. a. A peasant.. Prov. — . till. badaud. Fr.—Bootless. N. to strew with straw. the name of the letter b. bonnet. Boon. relief from sorrow. A favour. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. foolish. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. petition. fool. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. a bag of skin or leather. Boom. to cultivate. often cut for burning and lighting fires. bid). Boor. Sp. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. master of the house. — — . A stall for cattle. a. boandi. letter. a letter Russ. prayer. betere thing werse. netis stall. beam. from Du. Ox. Kil. and Gael. booby. and fig. Du. high. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. dolt. quest. p. dial. boten-shoen. but stall. . Kil. b'ukvdry. bauen. reparation. a simpleton. dress. Wall. dog-kennel. beiSne. to yawn. baier. a scribe G. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. dress. to set in order. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour.

a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. scalpo. See Burgeon. The cor. an engraver's chisel. to boot. bohren. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting.. to build buda. Fr.— Return from Parnassus I inR. puru. to build. bolino. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). The ON. byte points to the verb byta. bdra. admovere titiones. Fin. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. It is admitted that Fr. 1. But probably the E. rof. scsdes-bod. to bite. differs only in termination. bord. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. urboro. Gael. Du. baete. edge. Burke in R. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. to foam. bardure. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. p. or the gradual working a hole in anything. lappalare. It. to hut. is purin. beute. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. a word. abode. barn. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. wine-skin. bower. terebra sculptoria purastoa. puru. to to . . cure Sw. — ON. tent. . to patch. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. nor E. yfirbdt. a wave. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. Du. aid. a tusk. to . a. Lat. Kil. bata. amendment boeten. boeten het vier. To Bore. Bete. a shop. limbus. a shed. bothag. boeye. batr. baara. Alexand. are parret. borracha. OSw. Fin. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. It. to importune. comminuted by either kind of action. See To We speak in E. to bete the properly to mend the fire. a borer. reparation. bdt. to anything Neither G. to surge. exchange or divide. bud. Mag. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. and thence to eat build. cup- awl. to divide. . to profit Goth.—Burin. biorag. from bord. &c. Esthon. purra. budka. to bore. drillen. a border. cellar. . not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. burin. Pol. to repair. a bladder. a booth or shed. piercer. BOOTH vantage. butin is explained by Flor. AS. Fl. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. a chisel.por. uzboro. a granary . an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . to expiate boeten den dorst. fire. ON. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. dens mordens vel caninus. to stick unto as a bur. Fin. cottage. extremitas Bore. kvit-bara. in Ihre. ON. on. to mend. in Lap. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. furni. margin. . boards. Gael. hut. a great bur. a leather bag or bottle for wine. bauen. A phorically a drunkard. and parrets. sculpo 05\xiik. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. from borra. And so in ON. . use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. Magy. . borino. bottino. Border. welt. the . phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. Palsgr. budowai. butin. to profit. or anything pointed. a shop budowati. repair. Esthon. Another derivation from Fin. to bite. lappolone. bora. remedy. a shelter of branches. and meta- Fr. of an edge that will not bite. puras. Fr. better. bothan. to quench one's thirst . bauda. purro. betan fyr. a bothy.. The as G. to The Sw. bordi. limbus. a borer . See Bower.par. mat-bod. . to restore. Sp. forare. amendment. and hence to fine. borracha. chewed food for infants. fimbria. chisel. make . Bohem. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. from deila and skipta. bite. a sharp-pointed tooth. boede. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. . pointed. dust. are derived from G. to swell. as afford a satisfactory explanation. 3. making good again . G. wave.. purra. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. sawroot. terebro. boete. BoracMo. hem or gard of a garment. recovery bata. • — To Bore. furd. botjan. Gael. which are probably from the same root. pu purro (saha =: saw . the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. Booth. a cupboard. Compare Manx birrag. ON. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. Booty. pi. The Fin. puras. OHG. a borer. both. N. ora. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. In the Fin. sharp. swell bara. 266. a responding forms . a hut or tent. and E. to pierce. struere ignem. a hut.

D.. Turk. Fr. as we speak of a thumping potato. a city . vain. baurgs. the hollow between the Borsholder. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Hence borhes ealdor. the Sc. hollow bucklers. Borrow. burgess. — — — A — . grey). less. . agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. whether from the fact preserve G. ' — — . both senses of a blow and a protuberance. borei. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East.vr\. to give bail or answer for an. Goth. V. projection. bos. Bunch. borg. knock and a knob . G. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. burel. and thus could not shake off the old burr. pego. or perhaps it may be See Bury. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. boussi. bergen. ' pledge. Fr. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . Fr. to strike so as to Bureau. knur. It. striking. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben.' the chief of the ' borh. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Bailey. ^ma. cnoc. bump. a little blow. botse. from their grey clothing. nonsense. butse. bourgeois. the must have arisen burgensis. in the body struck. bail biirgen. boss of the side. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. botsen. Jam. when that system was forgotten. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. as if from the verb to hold. bosh. tive idea seems to bring under cover. Sc. agrees with E. botch. clownish. borough-holder. or perhaps also To Borrow. botch. boss. Hence knot. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. a surety. of bail throughout the country. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. bussa coarse. Borowholder. a boss. AS. secure. to contain. and borough in the sense of a town. borealis. beorgan. a knob. tempest. which now signifies a knob. unpolished.' or system of bail. It. Swiss Rom. a giving rise to It. bos. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. head. a pushing or striking out. boss sound. boss. viipyoc. a tower. to protect. Botany. in instead of without. The other. i. to give a hollow bizo. that which biirge. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace.bucklers.' Vegetius in Diez. pitch. a blow. f graauw. plant. to pick or cull plants. coarse cloth made of the Du. a citizen. borh. burh. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. E. . primarily signifying coarse sound . to knock or strike. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch.any round sweUing. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. I. boschen. Bosh. Cot. to save Sw. In like manner It. borgese. plain rude fellow. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. knob. bom. gum vocant. useCanterbury. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. gesylle. . Hal. to protect. borg. empty. a boor. cnap. a bunch or hump. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. the N. huschen. whence the burg. knocking. to become is emitted by a hollow body. borel. The primi. rustic. a citizen. to take in. — ' wind burya. hollow. beorgan. AS. bossen. blow on a hollow object. basse. Du. storm. Bos a surety. 106. ^o^^flj. one who sticks to you like a bore. destitute. Borough. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. bump is used in lump or piece. rude. ON. bunch. Lang. is probably radically Boss. cnag signifies both a clergy. Gr. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. an eminence. poor. . cormpted. by which of or belonging to plants. while Gael. undyed wool of brown sheep. Russ. Altieri. bosse. Newbury. empty. And that unsittynge is to here degre. bosseu.ribs and the side. Lat. bttssel. empty. AS. or because a blow berga. a herb. /3oraMK6f. to save. to strike . borough or chief constable. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. to keep. Jam. is used in the sense of bussare. from AS. The origin seems to be the Goth. without. boss or knob of a buckler . cob. butsen. bundle. bussi. poor. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. pegou. bierge. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. byrig. So Du. &c. was origin of the term is the OFr. connected. brown cloth. the sun sets. (1867). borgo. to save.mass. bourg. surety. tuft. to conceal. busse. into borsholder. Boreal. a. a bouncing baby . formerly used in the sense of knocking. northern. Du. loan. the ordinary a swelling. or head-borough. See found in Bav.' every man be under bail. (Bridel).' if thou give money on loan. a wen. the North Wind. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent.

buazen. bAdtr. a. ing out. bottigUa. ba. Here the radical image seems a bubble. both. an abyss or bottoniless pit. * To Bother. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Dan. however. for a bud. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. Ancren Riwle. to work without order or know. Bottle. w. A bottom depth. signify a in OE. blow. Canut. nets. dim. a waterfall. On — Du. noise. mutter. scuohbuzere. N. . To Botch. a cask.D. Bailey. Du. bundle. It. A horses. was called a push. — . ubhau. is also a bubble. Diez. j3i/9os. Lith. disturbance to . a knock. boiteag. buddeln. From the dim. to put on a patch. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. especially in Gael. bunch. e. &c. . Parmesan poccia. we have Swiss batscken. bund. Butu. a bott . It. to mend. dabble). Jtidu. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. pother. a pit. Judwi. Decorde. bdt. schuhbosser. in the sense of mend the fire. to fall : with a sound batsch. bozza. podge. to podge. Stalder. I. bossu. a cess. AS. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. House-bote. Podge. ledge It. — Jidwi. or plague sore . bdsser. botte. blister. to rage. To confuse with noise. pocciar. to stir and mix together . G. oba. a bottle of hay. . a depth. contusion . botte. a plague-boil Kil. bethia. maggots in barley. fundus. AS.' to the fiery Csedm. stock. pozzanghera. btitse. A — oba-dwaj Lat. butsen. patch. bulderen. burgi vel pontis refectionem. to dash about . 212. pimple. knock. Gael. buts. Fl. botse. — . Lat. shoes. Bret. a tinker schuhbiisser. the lowest part. Leg. a cobbler. the bud of a flower . of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. and E. It. gipuozan. to make a make a noise. — — belly-worm. boss. a lump of somebatschen. See Butt. botus.) . Again. a vessel for holding liquids. a humpback. what pushes outwards. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. ^kvBoQ. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. a bottle. biissen. bile. the first rough draught 2. round lump. See To Bodge. Boa two. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. a bottle. botch. ambo. a pock. botte. as a push or windgaU. of botta. boiteal. disturbance. gen. Botcli. ON.— Swift in R. Both. to bcBta. to from the root bot. • Bott. a maggot. repara- — — See To Bete. a pit. Mudu. hurly-burly. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters.of a ball of thread. E. to mend (kettles. a botcher of shoes. bottom. poltern. — — . fire-bote. kessel-biisser. stump. buddl. bozza. boil. ' G. batschen. to botch or patch. bSn. bodem. G. Bochu. as Fr. Fl. Hal. puddle. blain. bativa. a patch patschen. boden . abyss. putra. to make better. to strike . bide. i. to simmer. bulder. abbu. ON. boute. they two. &c. to dip in liquid (to Gael. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. bots. mend. and ajSvamg. Bouteille. Lith. And so we speak of an eruption. botel. boccia. a bump or swelling. the other hand. a slop. Fr. Fr. a bundle of straw or hay. — Dief. butse. you two. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. stem or base. AS. See Boss. H^cart.— Hal. to knock. to we have OHG. a root. Wedu. bouteille. butwo. Danneil. to froth as beer . mess. botel foenn. bot.^Dec.— . — Fl. thing soft batsch. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. . botsen. — — A 2. is boteau. pozzo. Hal. Kil. to stir and mix together. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. ON. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. tumour. Fyre to botme. Gael. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. an imperfect and bunbutt end. any plain round viol glass bozzo. See Bound. whence the name ol pool to podge. The Gr. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. OSax. bosser. noise. whisper.foundation. a slop. ixorapudder. Bouds. — Bottom. botn. bluster. Pl. On the other hand. abbution. Prov. — duj Lett. abbi-diwij Slavon. the science or knowledge of plants. stroke. Du. to smack. by met. a cesspool pass. mess. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. . we two. gling piece of work. stock. corresponding to . boitean. botola. bun. dial. abbi. botm. buideal. beggtaj Goth. . a boil or swelling Halma. from the dashing of water. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . baiothsj Sanscr. a bubble. to give a sounding blow. . empty or hollow. potra. a bunch. a wisp.ments of the same root. BOTCH understood). turmoil.

Wtb. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. bun. Fr. Pr. ing. Bough-pot. to set out by metes and bounds. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. E. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. bone. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. bugan. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. botwm. to set bounds. bullra. Bound. — Take care my house be handsome. Q. bodina. Ducange. The W. a bud. pothel. bumper. an de dor bunsen. to thunder. Du. So It.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. Alpine Re- — gions. Raynouard. And the new stools set out. 2. Bunche. a blister. tnndo. From Sw. turn. . bouton. nor horn sound. boriie. butina. p. to fix limits. strapping. Probably from the Celtic root bon. to make a loud noise. 3. the hollow of a bay. Sw. a boundary stone (men stone). Boulderstone. a turn or time. dial.'— Charter of K.D.' round and round in similar circles. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Bough. baby.— Cot. as a bout of fair or foul weather. bolder. to knock. Bowlder.>a bout. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to bow. its kind. an occasion. to thundering big one hum. bonndn. the bay of Benin. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. bonna. Nor a centinel whistle. Fr. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. in the absence of actual e. bamsen.— F. and F. the larger kind of pebbles. Halma. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. Bout. Brem. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. the verb bondir in OFr. — No i ausiratz parlar. march. winding. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. ni frestelar. to spring. — — leap. bounbounejha. from AS. Ni gacha cor bondir. The branch of a tree. frequently used in the same sense with bound. See Bunch. language a * Boulder. To Bounce. Pm.— Boundary. AS. gulf. to resound. to turn. came home with his face all to-bounced. a large pebble. like bobbin.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Dan. of thread. Webster. . boss of a buckler. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. carpet. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. pimple Richards bothog. in contrast to klappersten.— — — - 88 BOUGH . See To Bolt. Coxcomb. a boss. bunsen. root (see Bottom). knock it sounds again. dial. bugt. thumping. jungen. debodinare. bay. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. A Langued. geration. Bodinare. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. nave of a wheel bothel. a bouncing apple. to knock at the door. iv. see Boss. mcn-bomi. volta. The Bight of Benin. — strike. from volgere. I assure you. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . boundina." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. mere. — — Bight. or Bow-pot. contusi. to hum. signifies a sliort thick mass. by Bujns or Buns. a round body both. bend. a bound. limit. buUersten. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. whence buj7isen. a stock.' B. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bog. To Bound. signifying in nautical coil of rope. boujtce. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. boh. . and Prov.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Mid. bunda. Fr. 136. he fell so that it sounded. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. Bonny. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. a large stone rounded by the action of water. as a nosegay. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. the smaller ones.. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. to spring. a blow. has hot. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. bondir. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. ni motz brugir. Bought. as that of E. To Boult. round. from bugan. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. bonzen. bend. Primarily to strike. bottom. jump. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Bret. till The dat et bunsede. a button. bons.

to take deep draughts. g. Sp. patesten. shoulder-blade. fun of one . Bow. Bret. that ON. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. a brook.bass of a stringed instrument. has also buirleadh. . buys. springbiirn. biugan. bdgi. Sw. sense durd. Cot. address. their time -With "wailful tunes. Dan. Borden. ready to pike or spear . Prov. burreti. Du. — — — A pare. the Bourdon. whether by sound or gesticulation. bugna. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. burdan. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Cot. cudgel. drunken. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . it is probable that the It. curvature. bend Sw. Sw.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Spenser in R. head Fr. pre. G. repartee. the shoulder of the vessel. Gael. addressed to. Chaucer in R. bending. also the humming or ON. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. explaining Sw. Sw. Gael. joke. are applied to the bow of a ship. a for New York. a drone of a bagpipe. bogha. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. whence buysen. Dan. to tipple. schenkelbug. limit. to draw a deep breath. Swiss bausen. ing. a corToward the garden. Gael. spelling the word iox bound. souf. bourdon. It is remarkable that we find vary. bov. bourdon. AS. to swell. gurgling. to pre2. Gael. purra. beogan. bunaiteach. to take breath. the fixed. pot. bog. ruption of bonne. to bulge. burt. grumble Sw. to drink deep. mockery. . a go to. sport. a humming noise Macleod. a jibe Shaw bururus. kroes. Lat. as was for. warbling. buigen. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. a jibe. pusta. bugan. an arch. a cup kroesen. It is bov. borne. It is the participle past buinn. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. Burgeon. As the Gael. a sing-song. buzz. Gael. Eown. and not in the sense of curvature in general. So Sc. brunna. bordon. bourd. — probably through this latter signification. burd. bogr. saufen. bordone. w. puff out. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bontS. Sc. btiga. a humming noise. to — Hal. and that probably from a Celtic root. to mutter. schulter-bug. different modification gives ON. G. hous^ Man in the Moon. beygja. to draw a deep breath. is. drink deep. fresh* water. bagna. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. a. a from Du. A —Cot. Fr. a drone or dor-bee. Bourd. Bound. It. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. or of an Gael. a — — . Fr. G. a bow. firm. drone of a bagpipe. Immediately from Fr. bommen. bow to shoot with. to tope W. buyse. of the ON. G. Burden. staff. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Bounty. to bow or incline the . bonus. bovne. jest. to trick. When used alone it . a pot. bend. bausen. Comp. the burden of a song. tinton. sausen. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. when we speak of. buzzing of bees. hence musical accompaniment. burn. deceit. way ba7n. belly out. a ship bound pilgrim's staff.. ready. a prop. to drink deep. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. identical with E. Du. purlBav.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. on. analogous to Fr. set out. crutch. to hum as a bee. The meaning of bound. pared. good. . bogna. A water. a. to bow. bending. to indulge in his cups . brausen. bug. spring. to tope. a well. prepared for. bue. biegen. bogen. Goth. i. bonitas. flagon. . He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. must be referred to the same root. bourde in the same sense. Bourdon. ^<7r«i?. Du. . bugna. taunt. Fr. steady. bugne. lance. to banter or laugh at. on the whole. brummen. bog. verb bua. to our bous. bound. language of folly or ridicule. trick. bage. cheat. a mill-post. Bourdon. bending of a joint knie-bug. ridicule buirte. like quaff. And there in mourning spend Sw. the ting of a bell. . to take one in. from spring. — — . . more probable than the one formerly given from Du. game. to hum. pausen.which see. buga. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. the big end of a club. in Fr. epaule du vaisseau. bwa. burlare. bordo. Du. sotich. burdan. Dan. buizen. The foregoing derivation seems. Dan. potio.

a pot. to stoop biickling. bubble. Du. bwr. heafod bolla. Bav. Pol. bock. bogla. w. buckel. . kuppelo. to stoop. then by the loss of the /. to raise the back boll OHG. (in pass . iri'iaQ. the skull or brainpan . ^o/a. bulne. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. the crop of a bird. convexity. spring as water bugya. a box. Cable. lump . buchsbaum.D. buckelig gehen. AS. inclinare se (Kil. kupula. See Boil. bulk compared with Sw. as well as the name of a. compared with Fr. a ball . bolne. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a buck. pocket. bol. bur. bollen. stream forth bugyogni. a bubble. bwra. biicken. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. PLD. . a wardrobe . a hump on the back rossbollen. fyn. Lat. bent. honse-bur. a sack. . bugy. a bubble bolli. a bubble. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. ask.. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. a knot. bulb of an onion bolleyield. an inclosure. bulcken. Buckle. beutel. . boudin. Sp. anything globular. a boil. bolle. ON. E. . G. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bubble. box in both senses. to bend. or in e. without the and grits. The word may probably be identical with Fris. boss. head of a cabbage. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. a separate apartment . mausbollelein. fata-bur. ku^o. Bret. give in to. bolla. knob From the former modification we have bolla.) to incline oneself . bugyni. ON. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. as in E. ON. boil. . kupu. W. is applied to a coach-box. buello. Du. bucka. buga. Dan. gut. the box-tree and articles made of it G. a bud. sausage. bola. bhugna. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. buigen. Gr. round glass phial. bowels. peated in Magy. a bubble Fin. a bowl. bukke. Bohem. a box Lat. belly. bog. as in AS. . to bend down. to guggle. Fr.. Du. bossola.flask It. purse. in both senses. blister. a little box . Hence. a polla. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. Fr. Bret. polla. bouzellou. W. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . hill. . a protuberance. acsian. guestchamber . beuz. See MHO. to yield to one. folliculus . tumour . . with inversion of the round. the head. make obeisance. convex. at the e. in walking appears in a . a black pudding. G. . . the barrel of a gun. Sw. Fr. swoUei) Lat. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. a ball. an outhouse AS. painter's easel. . bog. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. or.cup Du. bouge. a drop of pullistaa. bowl . crown of a hat. the bogna. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. a box. ken. bocka. hollow. . zich onder jemand under to him. buxus. swell. Sanscr. bouellou. From the other form are G. pusspan. boucle. utibur. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin.a. bolgna. bolla. a stud. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. budel. biichse. buis. a iDubble. pullo. globular body. a box. bulka. a thing of liquid.). signified by forms like Gael. See Crab. Hal. passing on stud. . boxtree. . boor. . boss. a swelling or rising up. hiidel. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bur. bol. koziel. The / a bow. . biisse. OFr. a chamber swefnbur. bending. to puff up. different position in ODu. a. . a box. . . dial. Boll. a sleeping-room . a round glass or bolg. . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink.). to swell. and to a coachbox in particular. Bowl. bugna. to puff up pullakka. ne. bow. a ball. to bulge. belly. a hen-coop . puffy. cumena-bur. bhuj. to buckle G. crooked. Thus we have Esthon. bulge. to bow buck. hollow wooden case. bosso. the box-tree It. boxtree pusska. bugyani. bow. bugyola. boel. the head. bulla in aqua.\s. buk. . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. kupukka. belly of a cask. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. and on swollen. the box-tree. It is more probably from the G. bulla. similar shape. bowel Box. spherical Dan. . Sw. prominence. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. OE. Dan. budello. busskai. a wine-can . containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. intrenchment.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. In like manner the Pol. busse. a bundle. . bug. globular. Sw. * Bowels. botulus. round bead. box. ^o«/«. tumour. a parlour. hollow place Fr. A Bulk. AS. globe or spherical body. to make crooked . Bower. a croft by a house. trestle. &c. ttuJic. to bubble up. water pulli. A . wisp of straw . biiske.

his eyes are failing him). Kil. murmur. buah. wnzC/J. a pair of braces. defect Du. the first instancebya physical tie. spaniel. It is B. To Brabble. breptati. and F. Sp. brageuses. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. a comworld Rayn. brek. A to halt between two derivations. salo sive aqua marinS. is a rope holding G. Fr. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Lat. merely in our mode of considering them. let. Brack. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . I sal slyng. Boy. strike. It. Swiss bub. bray. acidus. . to box the ears. braque. Bracket. as noticed under Box. root). brostia. braquet. briche. to crack. ghebreck. brae. bou^ba. rack. One girl. brabbelen. Du. It. beagle. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. fuse. &c. breach. brace on and Du. pus. boy. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. Brack. flaw. parallel with OK. breach. boussole. salsus. Heligoneed. ON. jabber. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. to is derived brestr. a guard to torf. — . bue. moral or physical. which sigof straining. a box. corruptse. A brace probis. braic. want. On the same principle from the buksteht. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. Fr.. mud. loud smack.D. a braceOFr. compressing. . ratch. land spoilt Kil. bracket. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. by the same inversion of J and k. Brach. AS. Prov. Swiss Rom. breuque. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Lett. pube. bruxula. damaged board a ship. thwack. or bracer Cot. Hdcart. in R. filth . an languages. isolated part of the text. lalear-eyed Prov.. . clay. babble. G. matter. brack. bracke. to give a sounding blow defect. brechen. Pm. whelp as. to stammer. In like manner the It. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. s. boy bouba. To brace is to draw together. . a boy pupa. want. Pl. boiste. . and then Pl. Brackish. brague. to stutter. BOX To Box. Sp. need.. rakki. — . brack. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. to fall. . defect.D.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. — .with a noise. — . a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. G. a grown youth Cimbr. dirty. posh. bragos. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. race. Thus brack. bitch Du. bouibo. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. wrack. Prov. Pr. . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. s. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. brechen ihm. mud. Kil. in R. defect. by an overflow of sea water. The different meanings of the brageux. Prov. brakke grund. Du. dog that hunts by scent. bracha. to give a gebrechen. to want. land batsken. odorinsecus. want. Water rendered boubo. ing from a mixture of salt. to burst. OFr. bracil. brakke Bracelet. bracer. bask. Fr. To fight with the fists. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. V. braco. pupus. — — . youth. ' — A — — — . flap.puddle. armour for the arm. It. Cot. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Prov. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . break. Kil.. flaw. taneous talking. baske. baukscheht. wristband. unmarried man . to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. dog in general. to give a blow with the fists. fault . to be wanting. to Swiss batschen. fault. a bog or pass Fr. braco. to slap. brae. Gael. from a root brak. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. brasselet. suppuration. A — — . Sp. a girl. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. bresta. disturb. Bracelet. OFr. a sounding blow. or defect. braca. brassard. Rouchi Then as an adj. brae. brek. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. brec. bube. OE.nated by dirt. 91 the Dan. cramp-iron holding things together .— D." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. a crack. ON. variation of babble. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . the arm. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. See Brake. . Ptg. brago. dog Sw. Swab. rakke. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. confining. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Brak-goed. refuse. — . and string of his bow. . rakka. mud. then from break. La ville ou y avait Brace. quarrel Bohem. brae. braecke. foul. to smack the hand batschen. priated to the original sense. bracon. a bubbling dura del mun. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. MHG. See Broker. bracco. con. Fr.

a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. used in the sense of force. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . to stand upon terms. in numerous dialects. The plant y^r«. a roisterer. . fine. about the hawk's fundament. Brag was then used brisk. to strut. h-avare and Fr. The meanings included under — Bragget. be noisy . gallant (in apparel) also proud. bragging of his own valour. gay. in order to prevent its catching the wind. braw. that will carry no coals.explosion. bra!. splendid. expensive. an inclosure for cattle . binding anything together. idle talk. spot. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere.aburst. Fris. gorgeous. the feathers ON. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. an iron for holding Zalli. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. Bret. braegenj Du. riches. bullying. 2. brayete. Sp. braies. To Braid. Haldorsen Gael. to swagger. brae. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. &c. to Rouchi brMer. stately. bravado j Fr. also derived Fr. brake is. It. braguer. is Cot. ative fellow. blusterer. breghe. vain glory. From brayel. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. Langued. A — Hal. Cot. . Cot.^Vocab. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. also insolenter se gerere . goods. braver. braka. be found. brave. smart. noisy ostentation. well-dressed. to cord a bale of tie up. From sprouted corn. brachittm. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. to shout. compressing.%. finery. fine. gayly dressed. de Vaud. would be to brace. the opposite of which. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. to unbrace or let down the breeches. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. Hence E.. handsome. to crack. — From W. See Bray. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . crash.. Dan. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. braszketi.i5nz^. — . — Equivalent forms are Gael. vaunting. and that from e. flaunting. Wallachian bratsou. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). cry. to sprout malt. brabhdadh. proud. or from braie itself. From Fr. or by gaudy dress and show. Chaucer. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. braga. braggard also valiant. empty pride. subduing. swaggerer. brave. breyne. also tion of this was brayeul. Fr. brazo. breagh. excellent. bravo. brails. bravacherie. Sc. braga. bully . se parer de beaux habits. the arm. Brake. is identical with Gael. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . bragio. To Brag. to flaunt. subigere. i. —Spenser in R. bragaireachd. braicli. crack. fine. Brain. . . slight modificajoining the two legs. It is certain that the word for arm is. To Brail. strength. bravache. showy bravery. Walloon bress. See Brace. BRAG Piedm. gallant.—— . Bret. a noisy talkboasting. . But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. Cot. drawers. Brail. Thus we are brought to the OE. Lith. . — A — . 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . brag or jet it braguard. Faire le brave. a carriage for breaking in horses . braske. Bray. brave. Brake. . brag. brake in the sense of constraining. in the sense of the Lat.breeches. AS. se donner trop de licence. The meanings of brake are very numerous. confining. to brail up a sail. breghen. courageous. brave. to boast of his own worth. vanter une chose. make a noise .^ Sp. Primarily to crack. gay. affront. — Chaucer. Thus Bret. bragd. swagger. Turk bazu are used in both senses. stout. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud.Shepherd's Cal. brao. valiant The head are sumptuous. brave. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. flaunt in fine clothes . braka. se pavaner. boast. braga. crash ON. torture . Rom. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. hectoring. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. as the type of exertion and strength. w. to make a noise. Lat. ^Brave. was formed brayele. power. boasting. Hecart. bragging. 92 Cot. braske. . to rattle. breach. brav. Fr. and it is very likely that the root brak. brag. fine.hy which this idea is con\eyed. beautiful. bushy . dhbrailler. brabhdair. called by our braggard. Dan. to boast or brag.

marsh or swamp. Fr. broil. In ON. t° moisten. brambles. brcekke. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brog. broilium. It may be sus- . broeck. in northern climates. the original meaning of G. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. been confounded with the verb break. briers. In the case of the ne. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. a spinning-wheel. bregille. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. braken. it is not surprising that the word has here. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. iSpsx". nemus. Dan. or a wood in a marshy place . Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. Prov. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. broillet. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. glebas subigere. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. game. is formed murd. In the sense of a thicket. Lat. fratto. to break. brake. broken fratta. murran. braecken het vlasch. a horse's a horse's twitch. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . to pound. 2. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. to bray in a mortar. bush. G. murrokko. farinam in mortario subigere. Gr. breuil. cover G. gebiisch. To the same bend a bow. to break or fracture. brushwood. a fen. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. and when once thrown down.. conSo in G. el arco.— . murtaa. . to break. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. to brush. to bend a bow. Swiss Rom. or A A ' . to rub. bregar. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. braka. a marsh. de Vaud. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. gebrUche. low wet land bruch. brook. brolium. Corrfeze bredgea. where from Esthon. to row. bregar brake. 3. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. broor bushy place Hal. —Bracken. a brace on board a ship. The Fr. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. Fr. for — Due. as in the case of horse-breaking. brambles. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. as in Sp. as in Du. thicket. OFr. In like manner Lat. Brake. Dan. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. a swampy Mid. referred brake. flachs brechen. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. ing of flax or hemp. brego. brega. brogille. ^raca. gilum. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. gebroge. a harrow. tnurdma. braquer un canon. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. riguus. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. copse-wood. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. and G. to harrow (Lat. thing is brought under control. Biglotton. to stiffen against Taboada). broyer. word. brake. braca. breaking in the operation. Pl. brog or brake. brook. to The ON. briser. to exert force in different ways. in usus braca. bruch. Dan. the lever by which the string was drawn up. dial. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. to distinct.D.' It. We — . to head must be bit. frangere linum. bush. is braukti. Fr. subigere. to fracture. a stream. as well as in the case of the e. brak is a frame in which strip. watered. tris). to bend or direct a cannon. casser le \va. It. brook. braeken. bushes. signifying to sweep. — — . a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. Voc. e. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brage. break flax PLD. BRAKE to external force. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. pasture.bracan. It.D. a thicket. to subdue. gebroge. have thus Du. cetur. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. marsh. bredza. might come to signify a swamp. or overthrow of trees by the wind. and Lat. gebrUche. —Ovid. P&. — Fl. gebroge. properly braking or subduing them. to knead or mix up in a mortar. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. break of such a kind. brog above mentioned. any thicket of brakes. Brake. Gael. Sp. brage. quarry from Fin.

—Ducange. a roA. Gael. brok. It. breun. Bret. chaff. breanan. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. gebriiche. and thence a shoot. bronbo. broom. Thornas and bremelas. Bret. Branch. . heath. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. . cack. sawdust. Bav. prufye. titio. brake. may be so called in analogy with Bret. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Bran. Fr. dirt . to brank. bruskoad. Bret. a burning fragment of wood. bit by bit. the branch of a tree. Brand. Fr. Fr. heath. &c. G. or with It. — . brancas. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. So Swiss gaggi. Diez. what is cast out as worthless. from brand. as AS. and waste growths. bretnel. &c. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. bushes. heath. brog.G. breme j Sw. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. from gaggi. a rod or twig. G. constrain. brugek. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brug. . Brancare. sprouts. sweet broom. restrain. cabbage sprouts Fl. nasty. heath (Bret. Fr. young twig {brom-beisser. a dunghill. . G. broem. ear-wax mud. a heath. brambles. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. also pfriemkraut. broembel-CBppel. branche. braam. excrement. a single plant of heath. Bret. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. brarn. brughera. 1 8. in the sense oi fern. brenda. iii. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . or other plants of a like nature. briars. That beareth the red hepe. Rouchi bren d'orMe. A mark made by burning. . Bramble. Port. ordure . to burn. brejo. gebroge. snotty . pfropf. branco. thicket of brambles Cot. Piedm. bran. a bridle or bit . brand. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. bracken or fern . The naof strain. In like hrst. bruk. braeme. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. the thorn apple or stramonium. is the draff or excrement of the com. berneux. broom. bruch. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. pfriem in the sense of an awl. brenn hesken.). bruk. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brenna. apiece orbitbrandone. broccoli. a bud. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. that is to say. a small deri\'ation . thorns and Gen. also a marshy low ground or fen . a halter. brug). It will be found that shrubs. wood composed of twigs. heath. The same form becomes in It. a bud It.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. piecemeal brindelles. brenn. virgultum. bro7n. Pl. . . AS. Gael.D. Dan. brang. burning brennen. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. i. a bud. brwnt. brandiiialil. from Lat. brouskoad. from virga. bren. bruk. It. to -brugen. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. broussaille. piece of anything. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . w. a shrub from Bret. a firebrand. it glitters — — . G. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. from Servian pnit. a vine twig Bav. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. As ON. See Brush. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. Thus in Lat. bran. Pl. brin (as It brano). bromboli. broust. brin. brushwood. brem. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. bruch. brano. sedge burkni. Thus we have w. brandello. Broom. Sir Topaz. brous. and E. brin d. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. pected that brake. . to bridle. a briery plot.D. compress. hallier. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . 2. branchia. a shoot. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. the bull-finch." The bmno a • on . pfriemen. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. . clutch. or ling. Russ. Brank.. to or iron. brom. But we find It. heath ON. Serv. brank. brass. bramble Du. w. a shrub . salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. a thick bush. brandmurk. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. from brug. E. brank. — branca. young buisson fort epais. stink . are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. bren. ground full of briers. as. Grisons bruch. brosst. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. to gripe. brandr. in the same sense. a shoot or twig. brein.

to hurl with great force. from to vociferate. apparently very distinct from each other. to crackle . eldibrandr. set on fire. brustle. — . brush. aqua ardens. Bret. The tre brangillis. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Thus the bound up again. to quarrel. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Fr. comes from thence. to shake. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. hot Fr. brascct. faire fracas. brazil. brandiller. a fragment. urens. flagrans. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. Lye. — . bresil. brouir. conbillet. In the same way the set on fire . brin. in Marsh. to roar. shake. Sw. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. brus^. Fr. brasa. Du. bruan. was in use Fr. to totter. Chron. Fr. to rustle.^Brandle. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. to bicker 2nd. the spelling to kindle. branler. braise or hot coals. a round dance. to distil . crackle. and scold. G. bruire. G. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. braza. to shog. It. brangle or brawl in E. prasseln. — ting to confusion. brausen. Milan. AS. to make sense of a bright red dye. the colour than hitherto known. make a — . Fr. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. fire-wood. brasca. bragia. Bailey. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. WaUon. brazeiro. brandolare is exbrandish. briiler.. noise. Diez. morsel. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. V. embraser. forms brasil. bracea. bracia. to murmur. Port. crackle. to dash. To brase AS. De Goes. then brandr. brennen. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. n. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. e. glowing embers . and branchis shaiand D. to brangle. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. perplex. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. live coals. firewood.well. given to the country. to sound of the Fr. to Bailey. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. Guill. With top trimbling. to brandle. before the discovery of America in the brandir. to confuse. Brasil. became ashes Pied. Brase. as again by well as the blade of a sword. It. bryne. So. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. Fr. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. ish. to French brawl or brangle. as Fr. to brandle or The It. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to burn. a brusler. bum. branler. brasil. Brangle. plained by Florio. a stick. brandigh. Gris. Hume in brand in ON. to make shine with shaking. Jam. Chron. braise. — . bruzi. E. Braser. The corresponding form in Gael. to shake. to burn. brastlian. bransella. a pan of hot coals. It. braise. make an outcry. Formerly brandy-wine. distilled wine. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. E. to brustle. Ija. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. from used in dyeing cloths. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Sw. to glisten or flash. not. stake. 59. to shake The word brisil. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. hoisting to the fall. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brane-wood. a roaring fire. spirit distilled from wine. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. to and fro in the hand. du Roi et laine. to burn. bragale\ wood. billet. brasa. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to braze or lute. To brand. totter. d'Angl. brandiller. Kil. brandende wijn. branla. is bntan. ist. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. put. to blaze. firebrand. as Jamieson explains it. bruciare. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. or in stick. braser. gebrannter wein. all. brasca. so. a To Brandish. bransle. splinter. Fl. to solder iron.pan of coals. weinbrenner. brand. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. The name Brandy. to make display . and bruir. N. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. bra?ier. Manx bransey. incendium.

Dan. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. boarding being sbranare.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. bran. flesh of a leg of pork. muscular parts of the body. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. calf of the leg. brces. a loud noise. bretays). bratach. brat. coassatio. breteque. Fr. brailler. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Sup. is The word — uous name for a woman. from Sc. bratidone. So also See Brag. Wall. lat'te. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. much and high and make a disturbance bawl.' BRASS BRAY et AS. a lath. to talk at bralle op. saillies. —^Bronze. neita girl). AS. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a Lap.— Braid. rag. OFr. a clout. Brawl. from Fr. Kil. as scrawl from scrabble. to solder. bradon. pil. a. Lorraine bravon.D. slibro {neita. baltresca. Bartizan. See Bray. a fortification. to tear piecemeal.— Remade. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a plank or board. ' A vraale. a mantle. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. le repasser un peu sur la braise. braede. Brangle. trul. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Cot. breyon d'chaur. brett. Brattice. brat. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. a rag . bartising. braon. OHG. a wooden tower. breyon de kinds of . Cologne broden. from branler. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. a — A from the confused noise. . any piece. pan- — Rayn. Certainly a little girl. braiio. brdto (ace. Brave. brettys. 1156. Brass. Many gambes. Jam. a lump of flesh. Math. 1224. as rashers upon quick burning coals. a lump. braodhlach. a contempt- banner. bras. bretesche. to copper. A. or whether it be from Fr. Bailey. I. Brat.walle — Pr.brettysing. —-Jam. slut. frame of laths. bronzare. Sc. A land of dance. a rag. bretesque. to carbonado. It. noise. bribe de viande. a patch of cloth. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship.D. esbraotier. the buttocks. &c. solder. calf of the leg. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. cob. Sp. strepitus 2. a parapet. bronze. breyon. tasce. especially that used in the working of iron . 368. then a parapet. Gael. 2.— Fl. to scold . trulen or pilen (in the feminine form).propugnaculum. to cry. brazen. slakker-bortchen. Betrax of a —^Jam. boutures. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. as criailler of crier. bred. whether contracted from brabble. Fr. The muscular part of the body. — Deutsch. The verb is probably derived from the brase. ship. Fr. braser Fargent. brat. It. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. bronzacchiare. G. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. equivalent to the Du. as a brawling brook. a lump of flesh. Mundart. a cloak. squall.D. bratid calf of the leg. contignatio. a rag . bralle. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. bartisan. burning coals. roar. ni autres choses sur Due. bratdn). brass. braoilich. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Pm. cloth. bmhon for brado7i.96 Roquefort. Cot. Brawn. slibro. ^Altieri. berd. — .— Diez. A dispute or squabble. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. a contemptuous name for a young child. Paris. Fris. a slabbering-bib. in the first instance of boards. The same correspondence is seen between It. KiL Prov. deblaterare. bradlete. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri.' Hal. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. OFr. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant.^ — Sverris Saga. braion. P1. ferruminare. to shake. to Gael. brandillo. frequentative of braire. buttock Sc. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. branle. Du. at brasa. bruir. bransle. A. fraiche. Swiss bradle. Florio. discord. as lattice. braeye. and bronzo. Westphal. See Brandish. W. Hist. It . and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. apron. borderinge. Circumeunt cibertesca. a battle-girdle. or on the top of a wall. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. Pisana in Mur. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. ON. the calf of the leg. luncheon. For the application to a^child compare Bret. to braze. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done .

to bellow. mos. Wal. &c. a wink. rogi. roar. at once. &c. Dunbar braessem. Bread. brugier. or wound. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to knead. . bru. brak. AS. is . fractus j Gr. to braid. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. gestus. To Break. disturbance. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. See Brake. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. twist. V. braea. the clash of ai-ms Dan. E. The same He might don us both a villany. starts crackling up. D.. to resemble. breuan. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. upbraid. bragr. a mill. at a braid. paste or dough. ing. V.y. the sword was out break. Fr. a rag f . to break Fr. soft . Ppvxia. to bawl. to rush. to crash. father. make a disturbance. or cry out loudly . the miller's dog. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. a brack. — koa. 145. brame. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. OE. to t. brot. to cry out. noise . to crash. bregar. verb to break. yell. 7 . to roar or bellow. ON. turn. broyer. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Lat. R. G. kind.g. appearance Hal. the sound — of arms. bruire. . ^p&xia. to the seijauntes. iU-favouredly — in Jam. And at a braid he gun it bende. Fin. Beryn.ch. to bray in a mortar. a brake for hemp or flax. abraid. ser. as OE. G. Bread. D. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Breach.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. braidar. D. — . rangere. crash. Cat. to scold. ybrayid. to cry Port. instantane. From the or brack in a wall. imitate or resemble one. braire. to tear Bret. broad. roar. Bret. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. a crash.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. brage. . Q. yell. Then. braa. crash. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. e. braid. to break. to break. brak.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. vapna-brak. to resemble. on. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. bruzir. regi. to resemble him. Chaucer.^ Fr. rattle. to snatch. The ON. R. Then is simply. i. k. to work up in a mortar. as the notion of turning crack. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to smack or the eye. &c. rustle. to break. V. To rub or grind down Sp. Prov. at braga eftir euium. to rumble. to have the lineaments of one's ON. with or without a final d. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to start. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Goth. Bailey. as the voice of the ass. to cry out. riAprjyvvfu. bragd is also applied nets. augnabragd. The Lat.' To Bray. crackle . brechen. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. resound . to roar.ear rog. &c. 2. breach. F. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. explaining a very obscure application of the E. Cot. Du. fragor. ON. a rent. will. fish. bradar. a . to braid the hair. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself.fracas. a breach Cot. to rub Fr. And with a traid I tumyt me about. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. baiyl. I'll live and die a maid. to bray like an ass. Chaucer. brikan. to braid acquires the sense of bend. bratsche. to roar as the sea. to N. crepo and E. Fr. cyprinus latus. bregda. and to signify the fracture itself. to braid. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. W. Gr. bragd — ON. relation is seen between Lat. to sound very loud and very harshly. to The cup was uncoverid. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. weave The ON. Swiss bratschig. — — — explained motus loud noise. braidir. Prov. and frangere. which has given much trouble to commentators. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. and fracasously. braa. father. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. brand. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. bregar. paxog. and make a hideous noise. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. in Jam. breche. to pretend. plait. bray. brice.

xyligogio castigare. de bridse geveii. but more probably the E. griller. Sw. Du. — And blood. brezling. G. . a cramp-iron for holding things together. Dtyden. b}-as. braucn. bris. brimme. AS. braie. Russ. peitschen. break. Brize.D. a twitch for a horse. brcEth. bandage or truss for a rupture. Du. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. britze. the soler. crush. zare. Hume in Jam. Fris. G. siibligar. binding. broden. Swiss brdtsch. to feize or feaze. braia J OFr. Goth. to bray. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. bris de charbon. /esses. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. Breeches. corresponding to G. instead of being derived from 'La. Gl. of straining. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brasiare. Piedm. brew.t. grillare. See Brick. brasser. may be from the wurh fesser. breson. remains of leaves. to buzz. The Teutonic verbs. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. brison. sprouted corn.vare. as by the Sc. to breech. brasiuiii. Compare OE. subligaculum. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. orts. Biglotton. brijselen. braga. to brew. trusts. bark Fr. brustia. to fry . so AS. braich. a girdle. brossi!. to rattle (as hail). Fr. and E. braca. QNtsterviald) pritschen. to brew. rubbish. Breath. brisoler. brezzare. to hum. G. met de bridse slaan. Du. are related to Prov. sheep's droppings bruss. brache. murmur—Vocab. Prov. scent. braguier. a crum Du. braies. properly to crackle. vapour. bris. briste. bretilles. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. G. forms. It. . to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. brinisa./ssus. Breeze. Breast. brire. brezza. and brought beneath between the legs. brosame. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. fail. We bragezj on. Swiss Rom. are in like manner ' . brise. Swiss AS. brist. noise. — Halma. einem de britze geven.). braca. of E. a cool wind. bresilles. singing bone. G. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brdtschen. coaldust. fitzen. to break. malt. braga. bre- I'os qui bresole. Gael. representing the sound of a blow. dial. the bust. briig. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. . bruzun. Dan. their stings draw . as the G. . the sound of a blow with the flat hand. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. from ligare. of trees. from AS. the dry spines of furze broken off. So ON. as. — Brist. breme. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. broiiwen. breinse. drawers.98 borst. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. simmer. to roast. to burst. simmering. Dev. to murmur. the breech or buttocks. briosat'. rubbish. bra. a horse's twitch. —Briss. trembling. w. braies. one on the breech so that (klatschet). clout for a child. a smack. polenta. . OFr. to simmer. a crum. with It. — . Originally probably the word signified steam. windy withal. braciarc. Lat. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. briiz. The Breech (Prov. brimsa. Bruise. as. brusc. to whip. an into shiver. Hence the Lat. brisciare. then to broil. brok. Bracha. brissle. to smack.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. grill. bratscher. Briss and buttons. bridsen. breath. in Schilter. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to fry Then from a Gl. brcekur j It. bremse. Isidore and Tatian. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. to crackle. brugga. murmur. a cold and windy mist or frost . AS. . brodel. Bret. forms analogous to E. to be misty and cold. point to G. E. fastening . to crush to break. Prov. Gl. malt. briosa. bruc. Lat. as commonly explained. E. brciz. Breeze. broil. bracecs . To Brew. breeze. Rom. breost. Fr. Bret. a gadfly. burst.'— Gl. morsel. — . from brace. cloven. body brostia. a to lay fly-flap. or the blow itself. bryi^ga. switch. de Vaud. an odour. PI. to shiver for cold. Du. to resound. brut. &c. grillen. — — strument for smacking.britschen. G^nev. also to chill and shiver with cold. brijsen. — See Broth. briosa. little bits of wood Berri briser. brodem. bruise. brumtnen. a box. brisd. bruzir. chilly. Fr. broza. as in the case of twitter. applied to shivering. bragues. to bind. and other rubbish dibris. chillness or shivering. braux. Piedm. Gael. i5r(Z^. Breeze.

then the marriage itself. buskins. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. a boiling. to break to pieces bricalio. — . privus. Gl. bruk. barren land priodas. briw. brique de pain. fit. with transposition of the r. ap. to Isrew. served (Patois de Bray). crew. brilt. to circulate. In the patois of briccia. appropriate. bygga. Bribe. broosekens. OSw. bribour. owned also propriate. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a bit. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat.bergantino. bitill. and ODu. Brique. Lang. two-masted vessel. brahi. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. httle bit. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. brukkas. If the foregoing were not so clear. imprint. married. bo. brakes of high-grown ferns. The original sense thus seems to be to ram.It. bridelj OHG.. but to a paved road. a little king's writs.gfiugga. Trovarfor bride-ale. a fragment. pavement Lith. buckler J ON. Hence OE. any jot or crum. a bride Brig. fragDictante legationis suae brevem.Fr. betony brulicame. a married man guma.rough with brambles and bushes. a briole. fragment. a bush. In E. collect bits of food. one's ovin. conjux. a crum. Walach. groom (mab=:son). to boil. Ducange. Bridge. Ihre. is still used in this sense. The Sw. bruyere. brygga. AS. grug. the equivalent of to the dial. masted vessel. ' . consort with. AS. priod. Lat. a Bride. ibrukkti. thick appropriated. a lump of bread. So in The Prov. whence berw. from the Normans. birbante. frayer. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. brau. a brig or priodor. to rub. ' — . company. Cot. AS. bride. boiling up brocoliere. in the sense of OSw. from Bret. So It. Applied ous words derived from break. sugga.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. AS. Diez. briwo. a sow. ON. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. from Bridegroom. a quoit of stone. The origin of the word is the w. briicke. especially to a letter or command. to pave brukkti. which however is undoubtedly from brace. w. brA. bryd-gutna. A bribe is A — — arval. Bridal. briiths. brigata. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. bruk. to prepare. Brier. to meet together. brieden. to stamp. to boil. E. beaten way Dan. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. bricou. bretonica. bruarium. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Gael. Priodi. bruith. Bridle. stone-bridge bnikkoti. from the last 99 of which. Brewis. jetty. a bride. nurus G. broken. AS. Du. feast. — — — — — — . and berweddu. Fr. . AS. a lump of bread briber. fervere. E. a rogue . priod-ferch. a cheat. but probably Bricoteau. brere. BRIGADE dead. a fragment. malt. broken bread. Sp. birbone. to pave. Pol. the newly. brug. has briguer. . graf-ol. brittil. Due. to press. In the G. It — is Kil. son. funeral. bulicame. bruskr and buskr. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. to boil. braut. the marriage si in brigata. Flor. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. to tlie brico. brar. Mid. Fr. — . Gael.privatus. bro. Brick. troop. from bit. a crum. a man. See Broth. or brizo. Goth. Brief. bricge j G.groom. heath. a married man or woman Lat. breve or brevis. Brigade. bride. ter-in-law. Thom. . corresponding or letter. feast of espousals. a heath. a proprietor. as so. A — A — . Fr. peculiar. pier. Grisons bruch. pavement. E. lipdZu}. gf2o. brigantine. bably contracted from brigantine. E. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bro. and that from It. as. daughheath. brasser. . bridge. . bread. it is applied to the letter to OE. Fl. Bridal. hlafes brice. twopares Lat. It. to press in. arf-ol. berwi. a lump of bread. to break. division of an army. the Fr. . W. . a beggar. brocaly. to brew. Neumann. bribe de pain. remarkable that the Gr. bidsel. G^n^v. pavement brolegge. piece of burnt clay. a wedding priod-fab. . Pro(merch=:maid). guma. betonica. ment of anything broken. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. brughiera. a rogue. bryd-eale. bara briw. Dan. brice. Diefenbach com. brood. brutg. sponsa. to appropriate. OHG. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. fastningar-ol. malt. . of burial. berwedd. jipaaaiii. bro is applied not only to a bridge. It. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. fraoch. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . to beg one's bread. broken victuals. Hdcart. brigade.pritil . a heath brughera. Rouchi brife.

OHG. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . — Beowulf. Xa/iTTii). and. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. riis ' — Chron. to shine. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. and to associate with them.clare ^tinniens. willata. may play the pirate or thief at sea. to reservavit. brigant. —Capgrave. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. 1654. rixa. — brigante. Swab. — Briganbriga. . to cry 'Schmid OE. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. Lat. is easily understood. to shift for with care. Wilista. secondarily. kilistua. They or brigantini. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. to make a loud noise. brigandare. glamra. to bend a bow It. wilella. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. the bench-notes resounded. See Brake. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. — Probably then to strive. that of Fr. a spark. clear. outcry. biartr. and diligence. Florio. to resound. the gleeman's song. schateren. clarus. also called briganders. splendens . The E. sound. From ON. kii:'a.dorem clarum reflecto. there are many armour. brak.pracht. at a later period. and hence be explained glampi.' in Due. tinkle. It. briga.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. Goth. and led it away. glitter. — A A . Mid. A strepere. in later times a robber or highway-man. brcEhtin. bregar. bryhtm. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . tumult. Gr. \oice. praht. the grew high. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers.' The sense of strife or combat express. brdgen. in the sense of a robber. lay was sung. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Brigand. Due. a sound. necessary business. A. 312. splendour. cange has 'Veles. with respect either to sound or colour. Du.— . brigare. brigan. clear. brebrigare. Beorktode bene sweg. and the E. bairhts. and. glamm.D. rover either by sea or land. bright bearhtm. a brigantine. show the origin of Lat.shine. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set .' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. brigare. a noise. XafXTTpoQ. to sound. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Adelung. manifest ON. glbram. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. to cry. splcnornd de brigandine. on his — own account. bray. Gall. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. etincelle. inde squammatus. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. malandrini. Bright. noise. Bav. strife. clare lucens. to rove.Lat.glampa. In the same way to strive is. to rob. Brilliant. In Fin. tuilahtaa. It. briegen. in the first instance. — brigante. jurgia. brawl. from hall. tinnitum clarum movco. squamma . — Due. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. glir. moment. Flor. beorht. dine. The Ir. pugna. to strive for. to ring. hell. speech. clear. — Brigantine. to piracy. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. clang. tion. Owl and beorhtian. a small light pinnace pro. to shine. Heo — song That AS. to glamr. and secondly. dine. The primary meaning of Sp. a pirate.' torum. tinnitus. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. shriek with laughter. It. a glittering. Schmeller. loo BRIGAND lor. clangour. — — . to contend with another. AS. braid. combat.' The passage from the sense of a light. clear sound. himself to serve men of merit. then. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. bragen. labour. representing a sudden noise. bracht. Brigata. So G. to glitter. splendour. schiteren. seems to be to exert force gar el area. and ner me hit iherde. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. transparent. It. 1351. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. twinkling. . briga.

coloured in stripes.' Elyot in Way. to twinkle. as is the case also with Pl. to crackle.— BRIM . is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. ON. Sc. rugire. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. bramar. ardere desiderio. to broil. to shine. brastlian. perent. bremas. margin. post. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. pMiller. cross-barred in colour. greedily to covet Cot. the meaning is transL' amour. brama.' d'etre marie . komista. kimmaltaa. brmdottr. brillare. bry7ie. kommata. to burn. sprainged. barm-cloth or barmskin. grdzil. bramar. Brindled. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to shine. E. — — — . fringe . lip of a vessel. identical with passion. have then in Fr. s. briller. griller d'impatience. a borDu. the singing of Sodom — — . bramire. fimbria) . the heat of animals. Closely connected is OE. glit. dial. : ' — bone). In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. (poet. In Fr. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. whether of desire or anger. to make bilbil). to sparkle. noise made by meat in broiling. The identity of ON.— Brinded. brdnnsten. brisoler.) brimi. briller. 754. — Rim. Tresiller. hence the bosom. whence bilbil-goda (literally. to glitter distance . breziller. griller. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Hence with an initial s. ON. to utter cries. der. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. brandr and Fr. to wish or covet. a rod. that the original meaning of the Sc. a long. brissle. parched. to shimmer. small gravel. a stick. to . rym^. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Dief.ioTiviS acutus. breme. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. to shine. Langtoft. Rugere. and corresponding to these. vigorHal. from brandr. — . Fl. rut. vattubryn. with an initial br instead of gr. from bringe. — g. brame. grisser. which seems identical with rim. voux. to glitter. brommen. . ON. kiimottaa. AS. to roar. the lap or bosom. brinfire. Supp. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. kimista. the edge. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. the eye-brow. border. brame.D. Sc. broiled. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. A . . crackle. or violent action. Kil. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. breme. brummen. the heat of animals. originally the lap folding over the breast. rugire (cervorum. — — So Fr. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. It. . as in Langued. broil . brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. Swiss Rom. bryn. ling noise and a sparkling light. os qui bresole. brennistein. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. Wtb. AS. to quaver with the voice. Brim. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. s. a border. gresiller. burning. fierce. brand-krossottr. Lith. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. finds the Fr. It. barm. brim. Thus Lat. furious. grisler.its vent in cries and roaring. bremmen. The E. earnestly . The expression is now confined to the sow. tience. breziller. briller (related to each other as OFr. 1 1 64. Tutschek. kimina. to storm. to roar. lap. ter. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. Said of swine when in heat. bar.preni. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. to shake. an apron. chime). G. to parch. a streak. as well as bl and gl. beam. surface of the ocean. grullo. bray as an ass bramire. Brimstone. ring. It. barmr. as of meat in broiling .). brim Magy. and 1. Sw. to glitter . as in ing or earnest desire bramare. bresoler (Gloss. to creak. burning stone. 154. edge Pol. brimmen. spraing. sparkle. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. FJ. brumft. brunft. to fret . to creak. to resound. greDiet. to sound deep or hollow. lap of a garment . sonitum edere bremen. Brem. excited. Fr. the verbs Flor. leonum). bremmen. Streaked. to crackle. fringe (Lat. kajata. reecho. is used of raging. 1. glisten. brummen : de soge brummet. brezil. komottaa. of the eye. border. to long for a thing. brullo. brow of a hill. ous. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. Prov. frequently interchange. also to reflect. In the same way Sw. The meaning of the Fr. clangor tinniens. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. bramer. the sow is brimming. striped or streaked. To Brim. Dan. Rayn. border. brant. Subo. to make a crackling noise. shine. griller). fire. crackle . Du. gresiller. on.

bronchus. broc. brioshko.procio. brusco. brocco. to thrust. roar of the sea saltr. to break. the brisket or . from AS. 222. ruffling. sticking up . Bristle. borstel. a crum. brim. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. birs. sharp. brytan. saulmeure. brin. grim. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). to stitch. briocho. Fr. to spit. a deluge. brocco. broche. Da. crabbed. brockle. metaphorically. to shoot. — . bresk. Du. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Fr. Brickie. Swiss to stand out . brocciare. Brittle. to spur. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. Prov. smart taste.Lat. bros. brissko). /3pE^m. a rebours. brijn (Kil. broca. . fiscbryne. to burn. It. of E. brittle. Sc.). brindelles de balai. brime. britar. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. brichet. Brisk. to stick. brodden. i. emotions which produce it.). wine of a sharp. brot. brust. coli. — in Due. Prov. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. as. to broach a business. Lat. Salte sand is called brimsand. expression. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. — A . stitch. a projecting tooth It. to birstle. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Mid. to turn up the point of anything. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. bryne. brocar. chest. bringe. brocher. borzos (struppig). a cold and windy mist or frost. Brym. britar. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Brine. to break. brisk in taste. to scorch. Fris. to stab Gael. to roar. of astonishment. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. breaking of the waves brim sior. Bret. Abroacli. to goad. a belly. flame. the surf. In the N. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. . ' . is called a birssy day. as unripe fruits. a button broche. setting the hair on end. cK) the . birstle. bros. Ptg. as. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Commonly explained as from Fr. a skewer. Bret. Hal.' Nat. and hence. Pectusculum. broccare. Fr. very salt brimi.g. Then as the effect of shivering. brog. brittle. rebursiis. brimhliod. or — . fierce. . Sw. G. against the grain . setting the hair on end compare It. spricka. trembling. brickie. a brad or tack. Liquamen vel garum. reburrus. bricho (with the diminutives. a morsel. aculeus. broca. . a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. has under It. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. briota. britchet. to set up one's birse. like the Broad. suddenly angry. to shiver for Sold or for fear. or the full • . breidr. broccata. rebrousser. flames. e. See Spread. harsh vin brusque. fantas'* tical. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. bryde. the surf. Cot. brandello. strong itself. to set it a going. ' breast. a shoot or sprig. a rod or twig. brezzare. sprout. craw of a bird. from brande. NE. and Sc. to spur. It. Hence ribrezzare. whence may be explained the Sc. Compare also E. hot-tempered. It. brcit. to break. brusk. birssy. Zeuss. Gr. a peg sbrocco. an awl. bringe traced through the brano. thick — A elastic hair. a morsel . . braidsj ON. 'V^. a fragment. Walach. Alfr. startling. as. ON. bristly . eager. Breeze been connected with the Sc. spur. a slip or sprig of an herb . to bud. and forms on. fragile. The Pl. sour. a bud. Sp. brim.D. is to erect the hair. Gl. bruskett. a spit. brissle. rash. a stitch brocher. Boh. prick with Sw. sprocco. birse. Sc.'— Vita'abbatum S. borst. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. brote. shoot. bringue. Berri. brisciare. are used in the sense of brittle. form bris. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. rude. See To Brim. p. a stormy brimsea . quick. bruched (Fr. Brisket. bruckle. ribrezzoso. It. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. to put one in a rage . Palsgr. birsle. breaking out into growth. Fr. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brusque. to broil. borzen. humorous. . Brocade. Russ. to begin upon it. — bryme. Fr. byrst. as a noun. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. Port. breast. briser. lively. a clasp. See Brand. Antiq. b. brddj Goth. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Russ. and. briota. Formerly written brotil. a bud.. Du. apt to break.. a bit .rcendij'i. brich. the twigs of a besom. man's throat. angry. a brooch. Fr. brocchus. brezza. Prov. brimme. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. from break. to crack. Brooch. brim (poet. Dan. sprouts. — — . Bohem.

or salted fish on coals. age was termed a pricket. Compare G. to darn. houx. thread. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. to spur. brullare. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). point to an origin in Bret. ornamented with a raised pile. ToBroider. frecSee Brawl. brychau. a mole. a peg. and AS. precisely analogous to the Sc. has grisser. Ihre has guU-bord. a flock or Gael. — Gower in It.. a border. to crackle. brindled. A badger. a brim. Sc. brasolare. — The proper sense is that of Fr. trouble. AS. rustle. or It. Cot. Ptg. gold and silver. Cot. — — . brych. broice. It. B. breard. with Sc. bawling. and bord or bred. brocart. From direct imitation of Brock. Thus brod. ciare. . of pointing out their latent defects. brastlian. broil. agree in being the extremity of a thing. initial . It. brerd. embroidery. 103 embroidered. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. storms. motes. brouda. bordo. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. — Fl. speckled. tumult broighleach. Here to ornament with needle-work. brodio. brucilare. broccuto.— B. broc. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. Surrey in R. to broil. carbonado. brizen. onbryrdan. Compare also AS. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. noisy. broil. gresiller. broud. briefh. to boss. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. to parch or broil.tumultuous. brusuole. The Bret. The ON. to streaked or speckled in the face. broighlich. Bret. broder. or roast on the braise. Contracted from Fr. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. to On the other hand the Sp. birsle. creak. brouFr. stump. margin. rinj'. border ornamented with silk. a badger. Fr. braird. Sp. forming to jumble. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. fundamental origin. brasbrasciuolare. borprick. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. prod. hart of two years old. Sc. confound. Florio. or snag. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to embroider. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. bj'oil. a prick. Icnotty. Dan. brasuole. to prick. brucach. shuffle. to burn. grislement. a point. blusters. — brissle. embroidering. kled breac. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. here. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. E. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. brod. spotted. a brecJi. to knots or loops. bustling. broccato was used to signify stuff . Gael. tori shows that. to stud broccoso. a fallingThe sense has been out. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. Fr. It of br the Fr. dar seems derived from borde. a confused streaked face of the animal. brasiller. to crackle. whence broccare. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. broiled. a flake of snow sion. v. freckled. sparks E. a b?-ustolare. to scorch. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. q.sound. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. to crackle as a shell in the fire. the shoot of corn. an edge. — . to instigate. tufted ornaments. scorch. bmsciare. brustle. brooked. border. atoms . Grisons brascla. Broker. and w. streaked. knobby . a freckle. R. brasiller. to crackle. a To Broil. . spots. piebald . Gael. bram. brusler. a border ornamented with gold. hurly-burlies. to crackle. b?-od. So from Pol. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. to embroider. bruler. a freckle. parch. a quarrel. broukit. grullo. brocco. W. To roast upon hot coals. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. bordar. the line of development has been something different. Hal. speckled. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. sting. from the white. noise. froco. bramowanie. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. badger . briz. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . broglio. parched. prasseln. frocadura. parti-coloured. trouble. to burn.. Fr. Brocket. brocach. broc. parti-coloured. A fried or boiled steaks). or glowing coals broged. a brouhaha. silkes-borda.

merchandises de rebut G. sort. in which sense the OHG. or brascla. trumpery. to be hot. • . to hatch G. brieden. from break. ODu. . is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. refuse brakowad. make out. bronce. to . braken. Russ. inspect. The use sunburn. Lat. to sort goods . G. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. vile. 396. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. designation is indkler. Bret. brydio. bronzo. It may be compared with It. 38. et A. criticise (makeln). brod. i. lack. dirty. wreak. warm. ON. w. mud. from makel. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. Fr. Dan. Bronzare. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. bric-a-brac. Kil. find fault with. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. to be wanting. a broker. matter of blame weak place. to pick. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. sbrinzlar. selection. to pick and choose.— Lib. — a spark. glowing coals. The Langued. brumo. brasa. bredan. a makeln. an . rejected. couratier. — broeden. to pro- to reject . to spit . . to nourish. broen. fault censure. — point out the faults. to hatch. Sp. G. try out. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. fish-spawn broden. Pl. to sort brakovanie. braeck goed. . — . wrak. rejection Pol. find fault — — — fuse matter. a fault. In the . Sc. raquer. ordure. burning. Per manus et old worthless horse. hraki. G. phlegm.D. embers. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. reject. See Wreak. which E. spittle. To correct an exercise is to Lib. refuse. refuse wares. buy and sell by commission. wraken. brass does to Sp. Grisons brinzla. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. to sparkle. to throw blame upon. slaae vrag paa.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. keep warm. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. brokoti. Du. Teutonic class : Du. spittle . bring eggs and spawn into active life. fermenting. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. to roast on the embers. bronze. — Fl. bracker. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. whence the modern courtier. Pl. goods damaged by sea-water. blur. Fl. brokers' goods. Bronze. brack. sunburnt. brechen. hot. a chicken.D. and as an adj.— Breed. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. OFr. want. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei.— — . has exactly the force of G. brasa. See Brackish. bridde. a cough Hal. the spawn of fishes. insects. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. corrector. a breach or flaw. correctarius. stain. hrak. broiid. embers to brund. mediationem quorundam J. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. In those countries the term braker. Pl. tussis. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. filth. to garble. refuse goods. brae. brwd. refuse Fr. brokas. an operation performed over hot coals. refuse. abject. bronze. brands. Adelung. to reject. inspection. refuse brakovat. abbronzanchiare. If to vomit . bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. the young of any animal . vrage. . To blame mens ware. : ' . brak. find fault with. whnake. See Broth. tan. bronze. on. and to reject the damaged and unsound. to criticise.D. It. analogous to Bohem. hot. brot. brackefi. For the same reason the Kiittner. to copper. pan metal. brunds. brak. to brew. racaille. to hatch. Du. brid. to emit sparks. vile. damaged. brod. Pro v. to sit on eggs. nounce unsound. damaged. Alb. cast Lith. brack-gut. Brood. S. to — garble. a brood . e. This word shows the same relation to It. brut. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. term was correcfo^ir. Alb. cracker. an outcast or rejected sheep. brack-gut (Sanders). and fishes . dial. wrack-good. Prov. raca. in the sense of rejection. .D. Abbronzare. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. racher. briiten. to blame. as. to scorch. try . Tooke's Catherine. embers. cherish.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. On • tliis principle the G. brakyne. . faulty. screatio Junfus . but from the primary sense of the It. with. progeny of birds. Jam. to braze. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned.

Gael. Browse. who is steaming with sweat. braces. infusion the barley bree. meal. bruithim. brauwe. bushes. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. signifying low wet land (Brem. bank. brouter. G. brennen. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. pfriemkraut. a shore. shrub with leafless pointed edging. bryii. to use. bor. Here we find throughout the Romance. brouskaol. to sprout. AS. to boil.— Overyssel Almanack. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Bohem. brpuster. BROOK brook w. w. — exiit et heath. to browse. in which brinnan. brozia. Bohem. bordel. broden. signifying twigs. brmi. brewis. bruscosd quam de arabili. a bud." Serv. bruc. boiled . Catalan brossa. Celtic. as small-pox. eminence . broth. and Slavonic families. plants composed of twigs. Cot. to boil. broud. of plants broust. shoots. brawdj Slavon. breg. Du. sense the Sc. broc. eye-lid. Pl. Wtb. brotar. simmer from the murmuring AS. from ripa. as rhododendrons. riviere. a caldron. broi. Serv. useful G. AS. Roquef. ceales briw.) . brushbrothas) gives the OE. 'Lzt. . breg. branches. rage. — . from Goth. brouic. . Mid. as Fr. Prov. heat. a hill. vigour. browys. juniper. brous. braussa. frui. bank. brost. Prov. brouet. broeye. warmth ch'an. Sp. OFr. heat explaining the Prov. border. . forms appear related to the Ir. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . cabbage water. brad. Fr. to spring . fur Broom. to scald. dumetum. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. fabric consists. brucan. brukjan. a spring. Brothel. brouser. broo. mettle. brst. Due. brocco. to bubble up with noise. surface of Broth. eye-brow. It. infusion. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. kail brose. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. brov. bruich. braun. brass. bregh. pith. cabbage soup . shore. to boil bruithe. bruno. vigour. . thicket. brow of a hill. Gael. Du. . riviera. sap. to roar. surDu. eye-brow. to use bruks. brink. Dan. juice of briars. spirit. bree. hut. bud. a shrub broust. rerum decoctarum. bruth. grow into a bush. &c. thick bush brousta. broth the ocean Sw. briar. brd. Bret. on. edge. brodem. ale . 105 Brook. Pol. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. has briw. broth. a confused noise of winds. seethe. See Bramble. brosst. and also border. Tam de terrS. a little house or cottage of timber. Kil. bruich. Sp. brstiti. a little . brau. bank. iVlanx broogh. the colour of things burnt. It. bruach. or bushes and scrubby growths. brlgh. bruceti. broth Brown. Bret. sodden. brew . w. hovel. OHG. shore . chen. — . . a sprig. sprot.brons. the bubbling or springing up of water. bryn. heath. broccola. to shoot. edge. was originally used in the innocent sense of . of which the variety of forms. sproc. Gael. strength Ir. awl-plant. Commonly Teutonic. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. dialects is very different.D.brink. . noise. frater. eye-lid. Russ. brosses. bntdien. breh. brue . a hill. Ger. a bruth. low The AS. on. and It. pour boiling water over. bruddeln. borde. G. brdtaj Gael. shoot. brabruach. eye-brow. Sc. brio. broieii. borda. Manx broie. . Russ. hot. sprouts . broit.spross. bros.. broth is sometimes used . Lat. brudi. sprout. Fr. brun. or shoot.braubiti. Brow. brow. waves. face. brodo. protecting the eye. bhratrj Zend. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. brogues. a derived from the boards. bordeau. frucius. G. A — . The ridge surrounding and To Brook.' Due. eye-lash . . To digest. to bear patiently. may be connected with Russ. broca. braew. a river. &c. strength. brusmalt. bryn. Gael. perhaps burnt coloilr. to boil. G. verge. a hut or cottage It. Fr. Fr. brotar. briu. bratrj Lat. . sprout.D. . G. shrubs. — ' . bruitheati. augen-braune. grow brossa. &c. brothas. Ppim. a sprout. &c. . Sanscr. . spuma. sordes seu strigmata young branch. It is Brother. laissent Domunculum. . break out brewet. bros. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. and Sc. b7-un. bruith. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. Limousin broudi. breg. Bav. The softening down of the consonant bud. broza. a . OHG. sprocco. margin. to murmur. It. heath. (for brodem). The AS. Fr. brouches. . or broken up . steam from heated bodies. Gris. enjoy Goth. brost. eye-brow. circuindedit cum familia. a bud brous-koad. brus. a source Gael. wood . eat. pottage. broem bark. buds. t— Cot. thairj w. juice of meat. to browse. brwd. briihe. to Pl. The origin is a re. But the Walach. to border. bank. broth brothaire. to burn. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. properly boiling water briihen. cia. brushbroccoli. Bohem. house of ill fame. brosses. Gr. . to use.

brousso. . britar. a bud or sprout Bret. E. Bav. wood composed OE. Hall in R. The Lat.— — i. Sw. borste. Pm. NE. Piedm. —Chaucer. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. bruzir. to strike the foot against an obstacle. of twigs. brik. broza. Gael.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. a brush . To brush then would be to dust. to butt. Cot. a tuft of heath . brusco. crum bit . Fl. biirste. and in the second place a besoiB. 134. E. crush. . brosse. E. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Sp. brusca. Beryn. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. a bush of hair. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brista) or breaking out . and also Brush. bris. brossar. it schall be al Sw. fasx . a brush . flax-comb brossettes. Allit. — those signifying a sprig. a noise. a horse-brush. and sighid therewithal. G. Bret. brossa. shivers. to break or burst. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. ca7-bo>i. — OE. Broach. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bush. brit. to break. Prov. to make brusshes on. twig. Prov. bruc. bushy ground. orts. It. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . 174. or shoot. escousse. Gael. brise. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. insultus. Piedm. Bruise. dust. It. and It. rods. brysan. wool-card. shoot brouskoad. Prov. brugir. AS. rubbish. Palsgr. a bristle. borste. brustia. brikan. to brush. In E. ling or heath for brushes. or sodenly comyn' dust. brushwood. brizeto. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Fr. bris. brisd. bross. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. desbrisar. brunt. mg Cat. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. quasi twigs. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. to break. The same relation holds good between G. a blow. a brush Swiss bruske. bruscolo. brico or brizo. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish.). broza. wool-card. Brush. brous. K. Brunt of a daunger. Fr. Gael. tuft of grass or hay. detergere . to make a rumbling. irruo. brusco. into a multitude of points. Pr. borste. brist. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. That in all haste he wouli. A. heath. Pr. Lang. biirste. modification of the same root which gives the E. Sw. Poems. .). ON. brosst. Fr. a flax comb. Port. bruscolo. briiis (in the pi. an enmy. a brush. and actually come in collision. also a head-brush. Pm. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. . a bud. Prov. chips. burs. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brottcher. twig. brusc (Diet. break. quisquilise. . bricalio. B?-usske. . brous. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. burt. brust. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bruit. a mote. — Fr. borste. brosse. dust. rubbish. a bristle. Text Soc. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. bud. The Bav. as It. sordes. Fr. bruire. a brush. and Piedm. to crush. Cot. brist j Port. bruskr. G. bross. Lang. tremely. briketo. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. shock. bruis (sing. brus. remnants of hay or fodder. a little brizal. * Brunt. but on whom it schall to brisen him. broustia. 201. brusca. brMt. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. to break to bits . a crum. OE. Fr. fragments. See next article. to stumble. Brunt. a — — (Agea) said. seems named from burst(on. — a bush. bruyere. a brush . Alexander. It. Gael.— Palsgr. wool-card. And that best is. bris. brustid. insilio. dust. bruito. Castr. Pr. borste. bruiser. abroncar. brisar. a brush. broust. coal See Breeze. Wicliff. a briser. Pr. . rubbish. bris. splinters. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. —Fabyan. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. a shrub composed of small twigs . dust. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bruscia. and . bruise exOFr. to cleanse. brist. a brush . OFr. On the other hand. brist. Bruit. brusg. borst. britar. briser. a rumbling.).! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. blow burcar. brustia. appearin Goth. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. p. Diez. brossa. effort. brosst. fescue . broken. field.

which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building.byka. — .' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. . to buck. bubauti. Gael. Etym. also applied Una. bugada. when soap was tion is commonly taken. and exercised their cruelties prin. to Gael. a bubble . In G. at a door. Magy. buquer. . buerj It. boil animals. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Sc. and then to other wild tumour Lith. blast or strike with the forehead. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. boh. or mok. Fr. bog-aske. to strain. . to soften. bucaIndies. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . soft It. watery bud. to butt. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). de la Floride. was called bucking the linen.derivation has been much discussed. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. or projecTo Buck. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. bub. to which in their language they call bou. bube.to allow a free current of air. Dan. The word was very generally Buccanier. from weich. buborek. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Pol. maban and baban. buchen. a steep for flax. caned' Hence those who established them. The place of such a 2. Cot. . bub. Illust. hump. 1586. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. who resorted to the islands beichen. boc. bubBuck. smokipg meat were called buccaniers.D. was called in Fr. thunder gently . erweichen. soft. the upper for coifee. Bohem. to murmur. The male goat. bugd. Bret. lye. mollire. to butt or jurr Dan. See Dupe. Magy. designation of a knob. a. March 28. bucata. hog dressed whole). rap. bwch. Fr. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun.biiken j Svi. Fin. a hole. drying of produce. News. knock. as G. Bohem. very generally designated by the same puk. moist. mote. pokka7na. The natives of Florida. It. From an imita. But see Bristle.' Palsgr. does not hold. buquer. to soften . Esthon. to bump as a bittern. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw.steep or soak. because bucare does not in Marsh). Formerly. 17th century. set of pirates in the spread.— .buchen. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. and Fr. faire la lessive. Pol. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. . bukke. ac. bifbel. different form. Fr. A . to stick. Pref A. bublati. to soften. pukkata. This bubette. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. as a buck rabbit. Sp. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. BUBBLE bruschetta. tender. buck-ashes. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. bubseti. w. to soak foul linen before washing. I.wet Lat. bucquer. to wet Pol. and as a verb. top.boukaat. . to a place used for the mouillir. the first wheal. from colar. w.-wtt miekki.tare. The term bocan is still ap. it is beuchen. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. soft. a fescue. colada. pup. to butt. The cipally on the Spaniards. plied in the W. The name. the linen at buck. the lower soak in lye. hump. 1857. boc. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. byge. to soak. a bubble. — . of wind. tap . open lath-work. boucaner. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. bokni. . a bubble. buck-ashes. Sp. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. to soak. bubbola. not so plentiful a commodity. bucking. a push. says Laudon. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. soft . It. lye. to bubble. soft. blister. It. a. — — ' A : ' ' . . a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. bubiti. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. Bubble. Diet. mieknad. tuft. and the bunch. moczyd. tender. a knock word. bouk. is 1. to filter. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. bduclien. in which the flesh dish.lessiver. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. molle. a ashes. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. wood. a to the male deer. bouc. Bret. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. mokry.

a . The knob or projection formN. budge. rabodS. need. buckel. bog and G. fur. a navel. — — . bump. * Bucket. * Bud. a boy. The Fr. Bret. imbuere.may probably be explained by N. In Lat. bod. to move. or male of to boil . w. is doubtless fallacious.goa. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bouge. a servant. II I'a feru desor I'escu. ' . Bret. bo. pwtio. . weich. a ring.. It. . great pouch. prick in a target. a shield. bug. to boil. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. scion. bouter. macero. bdden. . lump. Fr. gjeit-klauv.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bukke-blad. boglyn. Du. Buck-bean. push forwards. bouclier. a budget. So on. words is converted into b. butz. Bav. Budget. of bouge. Fr. brobrocchiere. bub. It. It. boucle. bode. butt . set of a plant in bulk. Gael. ' . a pail or flowers. weichen. a wallet. boucler. a trough). built. butzen K. buachazlle.stuff.) . in the beginning of to pierce holes. dim. Dan. probably from the notion of bubbling. bougette. boqueranmis. the word w ' — . a bubble three thyngis. thrust. to line with fur. jSouKoXiKog. noise . boss of a shield. botzen. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. Mid. boach. bulais daqui. bedde. case of leather . a tuft. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. also a leather tuft . ein. Du. bunch. bulb. . motus creber. to un bout d'homme.t-le!L{ * Bud. Dan. Buckler. . butzen. . A water-plant with leaves and gille. a stump buckle up. a little coffer or turgidus. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. NE. bloca. child. boucle. bloca. like a bean. Lat. loud Cot. — . Fr. ON. rump of fowls . bulga. The dressed fur of lambs. See Bulk. as in Fr. stroke. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. pote. bocla. a leathern sack. A buckle or fastening for botch. bollire. knob dwfr yn boglynu. Mid. bouton. bucherare. This expression boglire. Prov.Lat. bouk is a pail and with the dim. whom it is still much in use. blow. bulla. Swab. To thrusting part of a long body. bolgia. explaining Fr. turgere buczendig. soft.' Schm. boiling. to butt. and of the Lat. wallet. bogla. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. to budge. bunch . protuberance. G. ornamental stud. clump. with which it was ornamented.anything short of its kind.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. butzen (Du.pode. call.' Hal. knob . cattle.) as to soak. don't a baby). bolgetta. Prov. bud butzen. agreeing with Gael. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. boulj. is to shrivel up. . mani. bucolicus. from Gr. to boss or swell out G. inboachen. the radical image seems to be a set plants. with a central boss. belonging to the calling of the chen. trunk of wood covered with leather. a buckle or protuberance. a bud. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Bucolic. and the reference to It. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. boucle. to word. swelling. Behoves. convexity. pulga. Cot. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. swelling. male or botzen. ble. Pied. W. boaLat. to bud or bocla. OHG. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. put. boccula. Fr. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. excrescence.' Boccaccio. Fr. potz.). bouger. to graft or bud trees. Bav. Port. a buclder or shield budge. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. bod. butzen. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. K. * Buckle. seen in Hesse botz. weich. hump. botzen. Pol. from bo.r//'. bucket Fl. Sw. The entire train of thought is bucket.n. a boss. goat's hoof. OFr. having a boss. Sp. butze.. the root of the Slavonic words gran. call bo. bouljein. water message. a shoot.stumpy man. skins pushit'. The word is a ddyn. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. a bump. pulga. to poke. Budge.chissima. don't stir from hence. above mentioned. . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. clasp of a book. bulka. bul. . and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. a short thick man. a fold ceilio. bougette. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair.. a pustule bout. It. bouprobably identical with inok. stud. a cowherd. It termination is lost. Russ. . Hardly identical with Fr. boucaran. to swell. to thrust. bloquier. stir. ' . Hence quel. and weichen. to stir. knock. no wheel bogeilio. — . a boss. to 'soak. to pen cattle. call. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. a curl. dinted. Fr. bugnir. — — . a budget. where the G. bullion. no business to do that. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. a small shallow and open tub. w. boss. It is explained by Miiller (MHG.— . were To Budge. crack. with let. become bochen. Fr.poot. pwt o Fr. of a surface. Wtb. of bac./a. a dumpy gin. from bugr. bucherame. sboge. dint . Prov. Bus.

puff. bw. buffle-headed. confused. to give benti. bau ! children. E. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. — retailing buffeter buffetier. —Boggart. le reste emplissant d'eau. Mid. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Cot. Bufetarium. to frighten . bw! It. soufflet. Buffalo. mumming. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. buffare. deadened. Cot. a goblin). a bugbear. human. buffle. to excite terror in Macleod. Lat. Sc. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Esthon. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. colour. to blow souffleU.' La Crusca. boo. dausa. as emblematically making light of an object. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both .D. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. made by a person. buffer. Swiss baui. made to —Bugbear. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bo ! an interj. bumann. as Diez remarks. It. either alone or with various terminations. bufogni. Fr. God's boast seemed feare children. Romola. breath. as from Lith. to blow .BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. air. btifetarius. buffets. pulse . while in Sp. word other cases. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. — La Crusca. bouffer. bufHe. a buffle or a bugle. often covering his E. Thus buffet would a tapster. often blown upon. Teet-bo. Sc. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Limousin bobal. buffare. for this purpose is very widely spread. tastes. or wild ox. buffalo. Gael. bolgia. to marre often tasting it . The children were playing in an oppocomer.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Buffeter. bouffer. to signify an indefinite object of terror. by metaphor. thus be translated to tap. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. things in Jam. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. or hath been Cot. A — Bug. botffon. bufogni. to puff. to blow. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. to puff. as wine that hath taken wind. a In . a skin. een duffen toon. Pl. — Z. bubus. buffet. W. cuff . bugs. a clap. bubaRuss. wine may The verb in taverns. bugle. mingled with water. dull sound. &c. Buffoon. a block-headed noddy. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. The use of the exclamation children. yar^aa. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. The cry made to excite terror is then used. w. buffeteur. bobaow. sounds. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. tabernarius. wauwau. to jest or sport. bauwi. to rePl. Lith. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Pl. It. a side-board. buffet. Fr. From bulga. bubiti. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Fr. ' They rether puffed at him. smells . buffen. — Bogle. scarecrow . Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. dausinti. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. . a jester. A puff with — Fl. buff leather. bubach. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . G. leathern bucket. buffet. baubau.D. also a G. — thence it has been transferred in E. It. buMagy. a hollow sound. buffetto. blurt or puff with one's mouth. bwg. From buff! of terror.D. duff^ dull. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. the place whence the wine was drawn. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Lith. from souffler. a puff. and in Fr. bugbear. to give a as of a blow. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. A blow. It. bukow Ikow.— Buflae. of colours. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. to strike face to represent the unknown. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . from It. Buff. a budget. buivol. buffa. site The two — — iii. Lat. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. to bellow . Fl. the buffe. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. bolgetta.' perfield. rebuff. stupid. 265. Hence the E. caupo. him but Boyd iugges. also the skin or heck of a buffe. boman. to a representation of his voice. senses. — — — Buffet. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. a cuff or buffet. popo. Fr. a hobgoblin. Fr.—Buffet. dial. Buff. to beat. Magy.

2. bugar. bogk. to origin in the expression bugs words. mask ' . as an object of dread. roo. Lesachthal. an insect. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. BUGLE Tentennino. threatening. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. bug-bear. bogil. long. to take fright. Bdronie. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . rose-bug. Manx boa. tumble-bug. boa-peep. also a bug-bear. proud. — — ' . bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Big. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. quos what produces dread or disgust. a bug-bear. . The w. a misshapen person. vermin. affright. used in the same sense. Cheval de trombugti. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. also a bug-bear. bold. threatening. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. — — terror. then a horn for drinking. Bug as a lord. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. buggabod). high. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Magy. bugbear. scarecrow . Lap. a goblin. baco. swollen. .loud noise. Parolone. Illyr. See The name terror).— . W. — . tion of the beetle tribe.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. a beetle. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Lith. and in Lat. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bok. shepe and gootes. — — . The final guttural of W. of bugabo was given. i. insect. Same as buffle. Hal. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Fl. . Bogge. Serv. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. biignt. bug-bear. iv. a buffalo. Magy. given in Chaucer. is the dim. bwgar. and a boggarty ing. according to Coles. buba. well as the terrific object. fierce. bug-bear. Hence bugle-horn. . but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Lett. Swiss ing. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. dial. bogle. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. a. bobal. b'dgni. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. as Buffalo. a rabme. a boogg. booggen. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. especially to beetles or winged insects. also a baco-baco. with more or less modification represents bau. to roar Aasen. earwig bau da grascha. Sp. provincially an insect. the buggaboo w. bwgwl. il brutto Demonio. The name of bug is — . bwg and E. the black a maggot. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. to bellow. pugalo. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. Grose. bugler. * 2. superbire. It. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. to creeping things. bogil bo (e. gad. Deut. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. 493. Chaucer. Swiss booggen. A similar applica. a bug-bear. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. 3. bucula. the word is lin) bbgge. Bug. bugle. terrifying ward. boo. beugler. to frighten scarecrow. xiv. saucy. Schmidt. is very common. bbgni. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. fette. coco. and is Deutsch. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. thus connected with bug. Swelling. worm. to take fright. banian boube. and in child's Magy. bukashka. larva (a bug-bear. bukati. Grisons bau. boeuf sauvage. insect. bau (Pureiglia. Bugle. an object of terror. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bogk. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. buculus. hert. language any kind of insect. w. ghost. Russ. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. any disgusting animal. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. It. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. great or bug words. high-sounding words.. monster. Fl. poggl. roarHal. Bible. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. (Spurrell). forSc. bug. An ornament of female dress condread. a bugbear for children. buffle. 1551. blustering. fear. a silk-worm. : no BUG .Fr. pujalo. paws the ground . disgust. bug dung-beetle. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. bauginti. troll. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. and bugle. protuberant. of pipes sewn on. E. pugaf. Sw. oxen. I.3uhtii&:. to bellow. the Devil. Mundart. Mid.Lat. Stalder bog.. — boogg. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. to take bug. big.

a. boa. In the representation of natural sounds. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. belly. . the contents of the hold. bouge. skin bag. bulne. OSw. Bolke or hepe. boulge. From till. the body Du. The addition of a dim. compare Da. Mister. the head of an onion. a bunch. body. belgja. belgr. herd^ swarm pulkd. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. mass. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bukr. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. sedes. puff. to throw out a convexity. The radical sense is shown in Russ. knot in thread. balg. to break bulk. balcone. a bubble Gael. I. buhe. to bubble up Pol. ne. bua. mass. the potato G. biilken. bulge or convex part of a cask. Gr. . to undo the cargo.' Cot. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Dan. byli. on. Pm. thorax buick. Muratori. a lump or mass. bolle. be protuberant. head . . Melancholy. straight will he 2. See Bulk. swollen OE. See how this tode bolneth. Bav. a protuberance. whence bylja.' Anat. acervus. swell. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. blister. Lith. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. G. cumulus. to spring. bag. bo. 1388. body of an animal. Pr. pod ON. bug. trunk. bolle. bulkaf. m um Placentiae. bellows builgean. as it was merly written in English to bylle. Mandeville. in Sc. blow. The Walach. pocket. bulgen. bol. a bubble. womb. bolg. skin flayed whole. in vessel. knob. . G. Dan. ball. a round bulky body bwlgan. Palco. Bulch. Boss^. Bourser. bolso. bolgan. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. — . leather sack. bauen. bulbe. body of a ship . G. .— . bolnyn. to puff up bolginn. bulwis. . — — . . With these must probably be classed ON. anything prominent. a leathern sack or portmanteau. bulka.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. bugue. domicilium. the womb. belly Sw. boss. bauch. dial. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. . . Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bulk is a partition of boards. Lett. beuck. ' . bwlg. . hollow. belly. lump. bulcke. knob. bulked or bumped out.d. inhabit. cultivate. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. balco. van loock. Jno. and bulbukd. bilge. wallet. or cargo of a ship. . bulki. Bulge. were a habitation. pulkas. snorting on a bulk. buk. a. bubbling up. a heap. bulge or bilge. balg. belly. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. and put it home. Gr. Here stand behind this bulk. Pr. . skin of an animal. bulg. (3oX|8oc. to gather. — — . Pm.' Fl. belly van de kerche. tumidus. Lith. To Build. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. swell. to swell. It. balgs. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. husk. . to build. bubble {palgan tiisge. turgeo bolnyd. — Bulb. bubble. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. has bulbuk. MHG. swollen. blister.' Festus. or of what is shaped like a bubble. and N. bol. stuffed bag. Othello. Ptg. ' . the capacity or burden of a ship. a dint in a metal . a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work.). bulbus. the carcase. jnake bulch. hull of a ship. . gebolgen. Kil. a prominence.' Palsgr. ^ — . bubble. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bouk. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. bed of a river. habitaculum. bol. hold or bilge of a ship. bubble. — — . bulle. A — ' — Bulk. bulgen. to blow. crowd. pimple. bunch or projection. a stage or scaffold. bole. Lat. ON. or feminine termination gives Bav. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. PoXj3a. a bulb Du. a tuberous or bulbous root . to bol. or. the belly. boss of a buckler. to belly out. See bollekeii next article. the position of liquids in the word In English. belly Cat. lump.pulks. unevenness Sw. a straw corn-vessel. trunk of the body. . a globe. chest. projection. a water-bubble). belly. Sp. Hal. pouch builgeadh. knobby. to raise a habitation. trunk. globule bolg-lhuingey. as well as is very variable. in bulk. a leather sack or budget Fr. principal portion. blister Manx bolg. of an inflated skin. ' . For the latter sense ' — My . boss. vulva. He found a country fellow dead drunk. . bulbe. bolgetta. Bulk. to bubble up. . ON. bolgna. Hence e. to swell. swell. buc. bulk. tumeo. or bear out as a full purse. it again. bullka. of E. bulk or capacity of anything. formed a farm. nave or body of the church van 't schip.'— Cot. villa. — . bale. w. belly. bolgia. at riufa bulkann. Lat. OSw. boss of shield. bladder. as water beginning to boil bolg.

spirits. embossed work. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. any great-headed or studded nail. bwla. billon. child by the represents the hobgoblin. a blockhead. See Billet. i. whence Mod. bolla. bellow. boulct. w. a sight that frayHigins in Pr.' do not go by the dangerous water. a framework of balks. large of its kind. lumpheaded . — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. Cot. . bugbear. bullocks. Du. a seal. it is boulet de canon. from the noise. G. poltern. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. Terriculamentum. G. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. is of a class with Pl. a wasp. bulke. Bullet. a bul-begger. eth and frighteth. — Fl. G. 3. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. And The word bullerbak. bolli. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . bulle. as in E. The wild plum. as the ornanails. a little fish nearly all head. BulUiead. bwlas. which may probably be the origin of the name.Gr. a bowl. bollar. a hobgoblin. bellocier. the matrix or die . Pm. stud.'— ' Palsgr. bullebak. a hornet. bwbach. assito. urchens. stamped money. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. a noisy violent fellow.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. to seal. is called a ball. from baula. as It. The male W. but is more probably iden- palchetto. a tadpole. bollos de relieve. bulk. however.Fris. See Bowl. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion.lle de fusil. Pl. to emboss . ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. bulloi. 2. as geting. beams or boards. bulderen. Gold or silver uncoined. from the use of the equivalent terms. of the ox kind. of boule. Du. from Lat.. w. bulla. BuUiou. penbwl. 2. Sp. elves. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. on the contrary. pimple. bullos. Bullbeggar. — A tition in a ship.D. bolos Fr. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. leraures nocturni nigri. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. stupid . N. bullern. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. The final element tergeist. a bull Swiss bullen. ba. any embossed work. a bull. Lith. and vellon in Sp. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. Bret. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. It. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bulk of a thing. billoti in Fr. boss.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. stud. lumpish. of Witchcr. in N. poll-cheannach. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. W. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. large. pollach. &c. bole or trunk of a tree. ON. Scot's Deso. boss or stud. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. round glass phial. to bellow. dim. from Fr. The bullfrog. a bulox polos. stamp. baula. boillon. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. as a mill-dam or the like. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna.D. G. bollon. This word is used in several senses. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bolli. Gael. hhint. a beam or rafter. bal. whence bullire. coarse.D. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. a tadpole . to tical with Sw. sloes. in the sense of base metal. Bullfrog. bouillon. blunt. witches. it may be observed that a bullet in E. thick. a cow. also a parFl. Dan. dial. a stud. Du. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Du. signifying roaring. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. to bubble. I. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. Eullrusli. bietebau. A lace tree. Fr. A papal rescript. poli-cheannan. from the Lat. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. polten. to boil. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. tition of deals instead of a wall. bauli. pwl. brass-headed nail . It. many to protuberant objects. b2iggaboo.. the seal affixed to the document. biitzibau. blister. scarecrow. — — Bull. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl.. bubble. bullus. balgeting. Fr. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. /SouWivu. a seal. and thence terror. bulla. a hobgoblin. also of the tadpole or young frog. a scare-bug. bouillon.. Bully. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Bullace.

a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. — Bumto . From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. sound. Kil. intonare. Etym. c. a noisy blustering fellow. a stage. — Boom. — Bump. St. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. The Stat. It. to make a droning Du. then in general a rampart. bomtnen. hum.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Kil. biihne. or a humblebee. blaterare. bustle. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. ierd-boeyme. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. buller-bas. AS. 14.D. c. bulderen. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of .. a hectoring. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. Philip le Bel in Due. buller-bak. IIL st. boene. To bum. bol-werck. ^Bully-rook. buller-jaan (bully. To Bum. a bumble-. Bum-bailiff. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. 'lega. — — plate d'argent. Hal. to . block-werck. blunder-buss. bottom. buller-brook. Du. violent overbearing person. D.' Again. vallum. is bullion — A — buller. on the other hand. IV. 4 Hen. resonare. ground. Sw. Fris. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. up was termed monnaie de billon. by corruption boulevart. 2. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. debacchari. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. a blunderhead. The cry of the bittern. Thus ' ble. Du. a.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. or work of defence. Hence — . G. Bully. honunele. the soil. ^i^/«. blunder-buss. to drum Lat. Bailey. c.the ramparts. agrees with e. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. is called bumping or bells.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. and porter au billon. III. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. poltem. to behave tyrannically or imperiously.' agger. polterer. bommele. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. bodem. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. — bombam?nen. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . bombilare. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. buller-bas. Bum. The Sw. 2. BULLY with which coins were stamped. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. ON. 9 E. From the notion of a humming. propugnaculum. botm. Du. For bottom. furious man. ierd-beame. Bully-rock.d. violent. bottn.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Miege in Hal. bastion. 10.' reals of standard currency.. Fris. To bully is to bluster. The 27 Ed.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. primarily the ramparts of a town. The decried coin. provides. droning. G. legaggio di metallo. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. to terrify by noise and clamour. A. but now is the central part of the town. John). clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. noise. a boisterous. 1687). Hence bom and ban. buene.' for the purpose of exchange. boisterous fellow. boulevard. Kiittner. Fr. from boden. argentum and silver. minari verbulderen. baluarte. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. 1305. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. scaffold. G.D. un faux brave. &c. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. beat a — Hal.' Stat. 2. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. perturbare saevis dictis. bolderen. clamour. To bum. to make a noise . to dun. a floor. provides.' ' mettre au billon.

blain. Fr. to knock .' Bun. . Hal. lump. a dry No . a. or grete knobbe. awkward. any round knob or bunch. stalk. il me pousse. a. a rabbit. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. to beat. a boss Lith. butt end. to bang. a boil (punkos bot. bunga. He buncheth me and beateth me. should probably be a short tail.P. Forby. Suffolk bonnka. bumsen. Pm. a hemp-stalk. . Moor. as in other cases. bunga. Bunch. a heap.-^Fl. Radically identical with Dan.D. a lump on the foot bunny. Bang sen. forms. trunk. bun with ON. pwmpl. ner. — — — — ' — knock. bonuach. . a tail (Macleod). to thump. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. gibber. bunt. to . bunka. so the form btmk. hay stubble . awkward clown. botn. bune or boon. a bunch Magy. bugnone. and signifies consequently a mass. Gael. Dan. bignet. banke. . pompette. He fult dat et bunsede. bull. bmike. pwmp. bunki. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' .^Cot. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. E. bottom. the Pr. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Li cake. Mrs Baker. Ir. lenten loaves. a knob. — Marine Diet. hdk passing and E. a person employed to dun one for a debt. to bang down. bamgetroffen. lungeous. . Hence E. bulse. Daal bu7iseti.. any round knob or bunch. bunsen. Fl. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bundle.! . See Bounce. . a wallet. Pl. bumtel. pumpurras. — — Bun. protuberance. stump. Pl. bulscha. Hal. large. S. bugnet. Pm. a bag or sack. Holland and Flanders. OSw. a heap or cluster. stubble Manx bun. a swelling from a blow. Dan. inconsiderately. and related with ON. mto Sp. bunke. — — Bun. w. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow.S. bungersome. a swelling. seems to unite Gael. a bunch. To bam. knochen. knob or heap. Sc. bunan. — round fruit. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. as we have seen E. banga. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bonnock. gibbus. Bunk. Pr. a bump. a Sp. strapping. bmidt. Again. Kyx or bunne. bolsa. a rabbit. 1. bu<rnone.D. . bulto. callus. Probably from bump. a knob. calamus.. throw down with a bang. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. a dried hemp-stalk.— Pr. Pm. nor would it concern the public if he did. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. H. one ever saw the word in that shape. root. bugno. to bang ON. applied to young persons. a heap OSw. . bunnion.pummel. Manx bonkan. or to the mass by which it is given. bunken. bottom. to beat. bugno. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. —Bunny. stock. . poumpi. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Bung^. Then. foundation w. bottom bun feoir. cluster. &c. a hump. truss E. Thus e. round mass of anything. A clumsy. root. from bunsen. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. E. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. to ' . Bumboat. Fr. a heap Wall. — stalk . to strike so as to give a dull sound. It. bon. buns. a bud. a pumpion or gourd. See Bunch. dial. the tail of a hare. stubble of beans. A Du. bannock. Hal. a knob . . bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. pwmpio. bongie. a bowl P1.' he fell with a bang. Probably for bun-boot. also for taking a pilot to a ship. . Hal. Lang. especially girls. stump. clumsy. ! — knocking. . bunny. passes Sw. poumpido. w. a boil or blain. from knock) It. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a heap. — — de dor bunsen. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. . an old stump of a horse. knuckles. bonge. a button. to . boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bund. tundo. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. clown. . the large prominent bones of an animal (as G.D. Dunchyn or bunchyn. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Bunewand. while bulch was traced through Gris. bans. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). a knotty stick) Sw. a round mass . Bumsen. Bun. a purse . pompon. boi7ieog.D. bung. abrupt manbuns-wise. Bump. noise. bun. stem or base. a knock. to swell out E. E. binge. bump. Bumpkin.— Bunnion. bunch— Hal. are dim. BUNCH bum-bailiff. bum-boot. pumpa. Related on the one side to Pl. Bony. Bunch. See Boss. dial. bun eich. a large . Sc.' Palsgr. a pocket Sw. Bums it's hit. Du. Roding. bunkc. a into Dan. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. strike E.). the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. stock. explaining E. Gael.

a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. to float. a wisp of hay or straw. — btiruii.— . bimge. unskilful working. a drum . Du. la Borgonota. bouchon. to bolt meal. buret. Fr. to work ineffectually. fascis. generally known as the material of which bud. russet. bundel. with the head. a bungler. Fl. bummle. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. to stnmi on an instrument. would be the earliest float for an anchor. B. to hum. or putting forth of a vine. colligatio. p. on. anchor or of a net boyar. do a thing bunglingly. Sp. gyves. bou^e. bag to catch the wind. tap. AS. Sp. . the loose open grow big about or gross. noise.' Festus in Diez. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Cot. biirde. Bung. Bret. Bunting. See Borel. bangla. to stop. dial. shackles. bourjon. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. — . bang. in is Fr. The Magy. to knock. Burganet. ' — work . the bung of a barrel Lim. dial. also a piinple in the face. to stop. to kick. the noise of drums. Fr. klimpem. an anchor buoy. bommen. Prov. punishments for prisoners. dark. bunta. See Bourdon. clogs. AS. stocks or such OSw. bote. the stopper of a cask). So Du. to push ghebondte. . to gingle. properly a Burgundian helmet. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. borboUar. The belly or hollow of a sail. contignatio. Sw. racket. to work at carpentry bangan. a water bubble made by rain. Muratori. dicimus rufum. bove. bongun. and van t' vat. clumsy performance. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. . to bear. To bunt. A load. Pl. stilmpern. bondeau. to pype. Kil. a cork. driving in the bung. G. and the Sw. to push with the head del. Russ. bondon. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bonde. shove . byrthen. OFr. and Du.Fris. boei. buie. * Buoy. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . klempern. stiimpeln. to push. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. to botch. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb.punt. So in Pol. The stopper for the hole in a boia. . a sort of helmet. a bunch. bunsen. on. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. Prov. or tuft. Compare G. E. dark grey bura. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Sw. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Bung of a tonne or Lith. to resound. to cobble. Lat. bondir. Cat. especially in wood. bang. Sw. and E. Biu'geon. Burble. to bungle. bourion. fetters. a bunch Burbulas. reddish brown. burion. guggle as water. To burgeon. bondel-loos. bui. G. of a song. — — To Bungle. Bunt. was formerly pronounced buro. The Italian buio. It. 202. buove. bundle. bouche. to bud forth. however. See Barbarous. tinker . loosed from bonds. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. to shove. modem bummle. bonde. a bung. Burly. Sp. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. The word is flags are made. Johansen. a boye. halm-tapp. bon. boil or bubble up. A bubble. bundt. A Dan. banga. boya. to strum on an instrument. bury. Fr. bangla. Burden. Rietz. Hal. are from bouscfie. bond. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. tapp (whence tceppa. Banff. whence bunting. buret. to Somerset is to sift. To Bunt. bongani. boucher. a botch. bourguignote. . Fr. burboloti. To do anything awk- wardly. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. from beran. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. — Bureau. Palsgr. Bundle. sprig. rumble as the bowels.D. See Bun. bounta. whence in bure. coassatio et Du. to in to stop the hole. to gingle. knock. OG. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. bourgeon. is originally a wisp or bunch . ho-tapp. bolting-cloth. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. the young cloth used for sifting flour. tinkle. borgonota. the middle part of it. bungande. bondelj bundell. that the primitive meaning of shackle . or used as a receptacle for papers. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. bindini. and bomme. N. byndel. to hum. boj. — — . to hum. Sp. working in wood (especially with an axe). something bound together (Mrs Baker). to knock. The Fr. and now more Bailey. Burden. racket . knocking. banghagr. B. OFr. Bunny. the float of an bundle. knocking. ghebundte.

barrel. is connected with brim. ' rugiens.Ps. borni. a bubble to spring as water. ^Notk. to burn. Burn.bryna. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. It. born. to ridicule. a bladder. fires up. and Dan. laer. watery. E. to hum. in Schm. Supp. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. grancelli. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. purling. a wine skin. Lang. to polish. Bav. Probably a modifica. language of folly or ridicule. leo Fin. a well. swelling borr-shuil. OE. to roar. with Dan. ample of polishing metal. Nat. burlare. as the / in purl. compared with G. borujon. to To Bum. a lie. brinna. In the manu. a bubble. Burglar.ireui£r:e. A legal term from the Lat. G. a margin. crackle wood in burning Hal. It. OFr. must be explained on the same principle from G. Goth. become big and proud. an &c. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. See under Bore. has also borr. roguing beggars. tahko. Burler. tahkoa. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. borrelen.sharpen. swell up or strout out. OE. brandung. burn. burly. the roaring surge of the — — — . Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. a purling hiwe brennen. Bouffer. Sw. a jest. surge or dashing of the sea . brima. is an Thus G.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. to murmur. Fl. See Berough. word would thus signify water springing To Burl.— . 122. brinnen or Also ein roar. bruse. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. a whetstone. tumentum. occupying much space. to bouronna. a bud. Probably. a gurgling ^. big. — — . brasa. mockery. to set on fire. sidiary element. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. sea. burgen. to bourda. like straw or small . Bret. . Compare also Piedm. So also Sw. to fiy. Burgess. to puff. bururus. repartee . Swiss Rom. a jest. to roar (as lions. lerre. See Burgeon.' a jibe. with little iron nippers called burling irons. — Han to bruser op. brausen. jest of. to give an edge to. brAler.' Cot. — — . From the same root E. brim or edge of anything.or bubbling up. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. a spring a robber. It is probable indeed that Fr. as Diefenbach bud. Castrais bourril. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. to polish helmets. dial. protuberance.). See Burr.. purrata. brimmen. to roar. bouril. j. thence. brusler being a faulty spelling. to make a So from Fin. A — — . condemnentur morti. Sp. to sharpen on a whetstone. a blaze. the flocks.. brunna. ends of thread. Hence Bridel. i5«r4 biiirte. brunnr. ON. Schm. In the same way ON. to sharpen. to ridicule. burgensis. to puff up borr^ . to surge. bears. de Vaud. bourd. brustolare. purra. warbling. borracka. sicut sound. a prominent eye borracka. lorra. . to burn. the J in OFr. Fr. It. From Fr. &c. Lang. pur (see Burgeon). from the roaring sound of flame. knob. to Gael. from Lat. abourioner.. as of suggests. 56. flocks. taunt. toast. fire. Bestiary. ^ttsa. Antiq. to burgen or wax big.). The in. he rustle. to effervesce. bud or sprout forth. Fl. Burryn. to roar 5. brynsten. Dief. — . cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. OFr. burgi latro. a knob. borr. Todd. explaining the E. to roar. Burly. pressa puret. to bud . Cot. burgeois. from bryii. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. an edge. The Gael. which has given much trouble to etymologists. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. embraser. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Bav. like. to polish. the word seems Pm. to have acquired the sense of polishing. brunnen. the er is a dresser of cloth. to rub. ii6 BURGESS Gael. Prov. it of the knots. Burlesque. Limousin bourdo.). to tell lies. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. boiirre. singe or scorch with fire. explaining Sp. burle of cloth. ridicule. brunir. A burl. Walach. — .. broil. to grind on a whetstone. Burgh. joking. brinii. to swell. brun. water. bourou. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. is termed burling. brase. bururus. to roar. brook. Pr. schleiffen. Pm. to swell with pride. blow.. briis^. Swiss Rom. Fr. de Vaud. burren. and OG. . robber. brustle. The primary origin of the word. tion of the root which gave the OE. as in cousteau. buirleadh. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. BURNISH i5«r/. to swell oneself out as birds borras. bruzir. angular . sbornoi. Gael. boura. Burgher. a fountain. Sw. N. and the Burin. boure. G. Fr. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. — — . spring-water bumach. and the Burnish.j'own. bourglairs. . like the wind in trees. Pren7ien. bunch.— Pr. ends of thread. bremmen.

brisd. Fr. byrigels. ON. mentioned under Burgeon. beurs. To Bury. ' ' — — burren. iii. Sw. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. to burst. talk fast and indistinctly. prsnuti. OHG. brown. -Grisons bulscha. a rabbit burrow. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. tomb. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. and thence flocks 'of wool. brit. Cot.. brast. to save. ultimately resting on the Gael.— . bolgia. a. when they spring So in W. Dan. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. coo. a port. a pad. AS. Fris. as from Sp. an exchange. shuffling. burre.' edge grew weak. AS. berstan. byrgen. Hence Fr. bristen. a sepulchre. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. and. bur. brittle. that birds make their nests with. and met. burial place. foretell great storms at 3. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. swell. See Burgeon. burra. brista. S w. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. a barn or cupboard. -burse. bourse. bourse. ptcrren. borra. Port. verbergen. bres- — tan. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. karborre. borre. Hal. — Clare. straw. keep. birigean. Fr. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. to bury . G. any rapid whirling biarga. to buzz. brist. husks. peluca to Fr. See Bulge. to mutter Sw. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. as in Northumberland. shelter. bourre. OHG.Lat. cwning-gaer. whirr and burr. makes the disbursements of the college. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. dial. bourrer. perruque. bergen. Burial. briser. caer is a — — — ' ' : . its own protection. shearing of cloth. brizeto. preserve. Burr. . to stuff. brokil and brotil. . explained E. to hide. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. To Burst. Jam. The root forms brik. byrgan.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. byrgels. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. root borr. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. from Fr. borra. ber•whirr to whizz. Sexy. pipaa. a place of defence. also ' any such trash as chaff. bris. Bursar. to break. ON. whence Kil. preserve. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . In a met. 2. brjota. &c. brickie. g. shales. be more in accordance with AS. G. briketo. Compare also OE. Burr is related to buzz as protect. as for the protection of a child's head.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. also all such stuff as hay. blurra. dial. borsa. Fr. i5(7&a. Burser. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. save. britar. bolsa to It. bersten. some people in pronouncing the letter r. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. Gael. borsia. brisdeach. Brun on bane. It. byrstan. byrsa. the — — castle or fortress. a wallet or scrip. stuffing. of a body hurled through the air. a harness or collar maker) . an annular swelling. barza. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. moss. buscha. Shelter. borrow. casting bullets. This word seems safety. A rabbit burmotion. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. to hide . leather. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. as it is still pronounced in N. cover. whirr. of England. borre. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. chips or anything else Fl. — Translated by Kemble. Swiss burren.' Harris in Todd. bristeach. Mid. brest. skin. signifying protrude. but it is more probably a development of It. Burrow. from whence we pass through Sp. ' BURR AS. a purse. force. impetus. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. birr. bourlet. break .' The same word with burgh. With a slightly different ghen. bur. Du. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. from AS. In OE. the officer who bears the purse. hair. brist. beorgan. burgisli. fortify. any kind of quilting or stuffing. . E. a purse. bourrelet. a morsel. Burse. borsa. Burse. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Du. to P'air. bris. &c. I. purr. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Beowulf. It. birgan. brico. 225. briso. and spelling. Sw. 5150. idiom if 4. brittle. appears under the Lang.

. a hump. Ptg. to sepulchre. aheap of stones. . wisp. buysschen. bouche. projection. bussel. a bush. brake. from the ON. borseof trees. Sibriht that I of told. abdere. Brunne. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. brodiquin.' a box. thicket {buski. To prepare. Bush. iriCtf -ifoe. It. besom). The bone in a woman's stays. Harold G. bosch (a diminutive ?). 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. berghen. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. See Bust. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. AS.Lat. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. bush. grapes.Lat. bulge. ' . which would later have truast. preserve. that the lend had lorn thorn. boissa. a corpse). in the For Skirnis . by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. beorgan. the Moors and of Morocco. condere. Du. induere vestes . sur une litifere. to bury. buxida. a been written buasc. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen.P. bundle. dead. a rampart. a -tavern bush. and we actually find bushel. bossen. to bend one's steps. to enclose in a case or box. boistel. as synonymous with to inake one boun. van wijnbesien. rad. So from Fr. Fr. a box. bairgan. R. bunch. a bundle. a troop. bausen. a little box Dan. AS.' sheath. box wood to bush. . That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. gave Lat. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. diminutives. a tuft guini. defence. buskr. busk. whence at bua sik. bramble. bousche. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. -idis. biichse. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. ' —P. to dress. a bunch. 2. make ready. Layamon. and not directly (as Du. Bush. a wisp. mount. Sw. to bow. qualster-boscken. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. a grove bosch van haer. bua. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. The primary sense of hair . bundle * Buskin. to turn. to forest of Eyda. hunch Du.boisteau. G. verb. Malberg. bustellus. lump.' The word is explained by — — . bo7ich (Fr. Brunne. to keep. ' . the idea of knocking. in OE. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. boisseau. a bush. burial mound. oneself. And her ful sone tuft. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. ' . buxula. a clot of phlegm sart. truasc. bossida. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. then a tuft Sp. a box. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. a tuft of hair. to prepare. boiste.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. busse. ieorh. is thus accounted for. to direct one's course towards. a tuft. brodequin tout noir. signifying to entomb. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bustula. ' . To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. . Sc. Mid. bulk. Sir Tristram. or — Busk. borcegui. whence bouchon. as boun is simply buinn. tuft. a bunch of twigs. Du. OFr. the land. ch). to swell. They busked and malced them boun. and from the Fr.) to hide in the ground.gur bidst austur um EySascog. . barsc in Heimskringla. busken. —Busk. roquies. a box for measuring corn. to dress. Prov. boucher. barst. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. The radical idea is seen in Goth. hjul-bosse.fiasc. Bouchet. In to Brutaine. bussellus. tow. occultare K. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. apparently a secondary verb. Thus Froister . : — . bos. It. boxta. OFr. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bush. thicket of thorns . bussare. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. whente beorg. at buast. clusprobably Morocco leather. for at buasc. fiast. 410.' The buskin is said Bret. basse. Thence byrigean. and he cites wisp bauschen.-^Bushel. See Box. bousIn the other copy ser. a gun biichse. Fris. to stop. a tuft. The word frequency with which to busk is used. 'at bua sik. the past participle of the same verb bua. basse. il fut couch6 l^jkema). . Du. and thence Mid. Le roy Richard mort. bosta. protect . contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him.— ' ii8 {chreo. cluster. buxta. borghen. bosc. To Busk. at bua sig. BUSH hreaw. or the like. Gr. we have Fr. bousse. knot.

a log. busq. I. bist. baiser. bulk. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. A A busquer (Sigart). Swiss butschen. especially of a woman's dress. trunk. but. lip. sera. bust. basiuin. body of a woman's dress It. — hardly be distinct from Fr. putta. Walach. Fr. — — — — It is like the smouldering. a stroke of wind. Bulch. bu. forms morseqiiill. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. hipista. Prov. bus and Pol.). Busy. mohedairova. also a It. busta. mons. Fr. the long. business. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. buc. bucha. Sp. as in moharra from harbe. 22. Lindenbr. trunk of Cot. Cat. bisgung. a tree. to knock . busto. AS. plated body or other quilted thing. Business.— . — Thus we should have mocherqui. bisg. box. its slowness of flight. The proceedings of Parliament. A great sluggish fowl. ' BUSY 2. lips. Bust. employment bisgan. mouth. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Edrtst. the point of a lance. sunt quas Hispania aves . ' bistardej It. Fr. Prov. a large cljest or particular applibox. a backstock. Du. to Swab. Fl. bysgje. ottarda. To hurry or make a great B. . and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. bussa. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. or chest in which the vitals are contained. tarda. 1372. the trunk. a kiss. busche. a kiss of reverence. lump. See Boss. Gael. stir. The form brust. Sw. an ostrich. a fishing vessel. snout. biseg. I. thick end. betarda. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Port. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. lip. bussen. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Fris. buz. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. or Cherqui. ON. would explain the G. putschen. a busk. Comp. I go strepo) . Pol. trunk. outard. Cot. Nained from Proximse iis zia. abutarda. to make use of. representing a blow. an affair. stump. 2l box. brut. B. a blow. buquer. crack . austarda. outarde. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana.d. to make a splash in the water. small. 2. kiss. a sleeveless truss or doublet. arbor ramis trunGloss. Xerqui. buc. made stiff. Bav. and then with avis again prefixed. — . body without arms and legs. says.bezig.> Also written buskle. cata — . or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. a bush. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. of the human body (Grandg. btcc. a great billet Cot. a. knock. kupata.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. bus. With respect to bust. Lat. Hal. bnist. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. a bunch of flowers . inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. buc. body. biist. The Prov. ^A. of a doublet. ship Sp. A wisp. So in Fin. geidha. Buss. Bust. log . Box. from jnund.Lat. occupied bezigen. tuft. bukr. Rouchi. body of garment. Prov. pussa. busy. besoigAe. Busk. bruskras well as buskr. worn to make the body straight . bacio. a bust. Sp.' Plin. stump. and also a sounding blow. also a flagon. borcegui. a projection. brostia as well as bostia. to occupy. a mouth. signifying trunk of a the body. to bustle. occupation. beso. Hence probably au-tarda. mogangas from gonj. 10. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. mosequin. Lang. trunk of a tree. busch. bisegung. the breast. Busitiess :c3iVi . avuDiez. vessel employed in the herring fishery.pjik. a boat or small vessel . the body without arms busque.D. knock. abotarda. busc. forest. a ship of some size. and by transposition morchequi. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . body . in Diaz Gris. To Bustle. smack. work. statue of the upper part of Fr. utarda. Fr. beezig. So Wes- terwald munds. BUSS Dozy from Arab. windbutsch. brusc. kiss. — — difications of the same word. body. Namur — Champagne Fr. a blow. Bustard. buyse. ViM. bus. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. . a kiss. a kiss. besongne. — clattering about. a Mid. 7o\. also a busk. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Sp. bustla. fe^a. morsequi. chest. or avutarda. ON. busch. 119 bi{tr. butz. bust. stem. I bustle. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. buta. On the other hand.' ON. 1555. a bulk or trunk without a head. mouth. inde discurro et operosus sum. love gestures. bysgian. and supposes that the common Arab. as in ON. otarda. body of a man.

skin-bag. able. a bottle. a cask. A A . a butcher. Fr. bochier. — we acle for liquors. of the wine and drink. bisgung. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bountifully. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. the servant in charge of the original object. and bot. Here the but implies the existence of an.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. Tooke's dis. As a conjunction but is in every portion. Lang.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. trunk. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. an outlaw from bouche. butan ce. the present day we should say. ox. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. then hoUow trunk. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. bol. tinction between but. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen.The Sp. — . (children) boc. from boc. and with It. gives at least two pounds sterling. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. bolr. barriga. the precise correlative of but. the principal apartment. ' Besides all that. biitait slaughterer of goats . ' There is leathern bottle.' — — ' . G. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. But In Sc. a barrel. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten.' there is really a negation to be supplied. It. calf. Sp. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. belly. Du. Butler. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. similar train of thought is seen in ON.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. . nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bouteillier. is put in a class by himself. "PLT) . ont jhi^ton. the body of an animal. Butcher. The E. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Where at an earthen jar . we find ben. besides that . except. hollow case. bocin.streets. the jug and in E. beta. be out. a goat. the Perhaps besogne — . beccaro. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. belly. But It.' ' write. as Pantler. bute.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. without. being wholly unten._ bitten j biiten door. bout. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. bounds of. Whatever is in addition to Butler. bitten dai. Ben-house. properly a butan wite. boteria. that which would be translated by Fr.in which his brethren are included. . the body of a tree or of a man. a butcher . bitlga. belly. by the mode in which he is treated. which the word corresponds to the Fr. without care. to-boot. Prov. without punishment . bole of a tree. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. Buttery. bhcciero. bodifie. the bottles. the trunk or body of an animal. beccaria. the store of ten. OFr. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. rotundity of the body. ways. Wall. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . Coutume d'Alost in Diet. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . botte. Sp. body of a shirt w. also a hollow vessel . butan. viz. collection of casks. If that where now we should compiler. botija. young mais. add. those in beccaio. a butchery. Fr. bag. wooden receptthing to be done. slaughter-house. equivalent of AS. in addition. hull of a ship. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. Fr. and the real origin of the and within . Butt. So in Italian from becco. earthen which the debtor has adverted. bolgia. is well explained by Tooke. a small winebag. boccino. from as. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. beyond the Piedm. outside that moreover. Lang. bouz. my is called the adversative use of but. a budget. buta. calf of the ' say. Sp. original sense of without. a baiTel . without buiten-man. botilla. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. But when will you pay it ? the belly. AS. rumpf. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. moreover. large barrel. the belly. or what in in charge of the pantry. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. boquier. the name must have arisen before the within. are. binnan. boucher. mais.jamin. bola. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. without law. a goat (and not besides . a leathern bag. without the house kept in bottles. viz. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . sup- meat and drink. the full expres. bous. the mouth). a wooden cask.' Thus Chaucer says. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. but one thing.

boutoir. to be con.— BUTT leg . to strike. striking end. Buttock. thrust forwards. the thick end. Fris. a buttrice. bot. Btetter-schmalz. signify a cask or tub. — — — — . Fr. a bot. a little push . — . ment being supposed to resemble butter. Buttress. any short thick thing. bout. a but in the W. bocgsuin. a boss. grease that sets by merely standing. botta. a mound of turf in a field to sup. boiUer. buttare. lams-bout. bottig. butt. of E. bott. submit shaking up salad sauce. or or shore post. fle>(ible. butte. Gr. the rosebud. a stump or club foot. is formed the augmentative buttatich. Mur-buttant. Kil. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. from the large knobbed head of botto. W. put. coxa. to thrust. bouton. botte. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. nourrisson. the prick in the middle of a target.against another which needs support . a barrel. a tub. of the present day. From Du. bodi. as if from Povg. Cot. Hal. boter-vliege. butt of a person. a. Hal. Boutje. e. but this is probably from Fr. humble. Kil. to throw . Fr. buttock of beef is called butr. Butter. pwtiaw. . to blad. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . From the noise of drinkables in a house. to push earth . any small projection. a dle . Button. to bow. obedient. Halma. from bouter. bottich. butz. . a scope. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning.thum and not button. what is kept in a blow. courtaud. a flying buttress. a. on. by boE. a heap of merly called pushes. botten. bouter. the store of while bottich. to abut on. to touch at the end. or person Schmeller . bocsam. the edge forwards. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. from rejeter. i.rejected thing. bot blijven staan. a bun. bothog. a blow. Bout van het schouderIt. at. Du. a bolt. Du. buhsom. W. suddenly . Gael. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Fr. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Du. butte. botta. then the thigh or leg of an to push . buter. Perhaps corrupted Lat. thick. dripping. bata. and the true derivation boar. R. An erection built up as a Fr. It. Grandg. nursling. Kil. butt. Buttery. pied. give way. Du.putan. obeto shake backwards and forwards. caput scapula bout van f been. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. an etwas anstossen. the Butter-fly. a hill. aim whence to make a support to a wall. end . an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. a blow. short thick thing pimple. boutis. trapu. Du. botto. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. boteria. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . butter. stump. Fr. waste ground. Butter-glass. See Butler. Gris. geboogsaem. from bugan. strike. to so close to the Fr. from stossen. the trunk. stump of a tree Fr. tout seat or breech. able that Chaucer. a stroke di animal. a mound. nourrissons. potacha. The Bavarian potig. w. boil. Bav. To Butt. boter-schijte. boter-vogel. oir spike with a k coup . Buttrice. both. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. leg of lamb. buttern.. povrvpov. AS. bouter. butt. to boult flour. From Grisons biitt. Fr. -ez. a button. a corner horses' hoofs. So in English pimples were fora clod. to femur. G. as in G. to thrust . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. a button. bouton. large head. bot. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. Sp. to cast. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. .arbre. a thrust the thigh-bone. * Buxom.. bout. To come full butt against a butts. Boutant. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . pwt. Fr. poke. bud. a buttress Cot. bodi'. are the strips at the edges of the field. to heap up earth or ihrust. botwm. — A . Lang. clunis. buttals. a wall butor butt on. &c. Buttel-triib. having a rotundity . butyrum. a leg of mutton. to thrust. The word body itself seems identical with G. clumsy . a ribbed glass for dient. butter un. Schmell. so as to make a sounding blow. — . Schmell. a large belly. : . a button. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. to butt. in the R. — A . who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Bav. A — — — . tress. to abut a stone roof. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. thrust. gigot. to thrust. boding. a boss.to push. butteln. &c. from notirrir. butter. a cask. rabodd. Fr. to thrust Fr. hillock . an ox. as rejeton.' thick from shaking. the thigh of a goose. To strike with the head bags. but. fowl.

A ful benygne buirde. to buzz. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. byar-rettr. byr. abozzago. Lat. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Many good mological explanation. frabttg- To Buzz. indistinctly. Goth. bylove. confusedly. to jan. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. son. bylag. byar-log. Pecock Repressor. harty prayers and God speedes. Originally the law of a particular town. from by. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. from whom it was addressed. ii. 21. to sell. to stand at his side . and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. to wit. buzarg. gracious. blessing me with their of side. stall. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. buteoj Fr. bees. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. buzzicare. as in Da. A A We — — — days' wonder.. buso. OE. bauhta. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. See Abie. 519. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. bar. bozzago. a borough. lete.. good-humoured one. Mercy hight that mayde. — 122 BUY P. The sense of buxom. \s\xy. Sw. P. a beetle. cow-house. groat in token of his good heart towards him. It. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for .busardj Prov. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Etynj. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. and boxome of speche xviii. bygge. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. depends upon a esteem in falconry. Byre. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. Buzzard. ON. A by. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bycgan. Du. . p. Dan. a buzzard or puttock. called Cabala or Tradition. bi.P. also say. Then applied to speaking low. 3. who makes abigg. CABAL Goth. train of thought which has become obso. lb. and would have been lost in E. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By.— P.— Diet. To Buy. bi. bohte. favourably to a petition. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. to swear with him by . buzac. to pass by. G. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. . favourable. —gracious of speech. village. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. AS. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). a town. as Fr.in N. a by-path is a side path . tions by one. town having separate jurisdiction. iii. AS. . but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. a meke thynge with — alle. farm. & Q. 200. It. bij. The ON. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. bei. leges urbanse ON. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Sw. big. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. to whisper. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. and it is of good will. 116. bugjan. as heedless as a cock-chafer. By-law. jus municipii. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. Verstegan in R. Cabal. to purchase for money.

. gabardme. disgust. OFr. cabulus. The name of the engine. calabre. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. aak! tandi like Fr. filth. maim. Du. It. cacare. cabus. vincially used in E. laitue cabusse. main. Due. cable . — Ibid. overwhelm (Diet. prostratio ad terram. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. agga. it would seem fundain children's language. properly windfalls. case. w. Very generally used. cabane. . in which sense are explained The the OFr. aakkat'a. To steal or pocket. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. a headed cole or cabbage . The Sp. agge. capuccio. to hurl down. (ca/coe. a jacket Fr. name of the projectile engine. the Prov. . a shed. string. signifies down. accablcr.Gr. caable (in legal language). . as Turk.Lat. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Imitative of the cry of hens. agge machen (in nurses' language). a head (whence cabochard. disgusting such an engine was exerted. cabarino. chaable. overwhelm. bad. geese. Sp. cadabulum. OFr. form kactal. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. cadabola. Common to Lat. kakaloH. cabo. a rope. Etym. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. cabasser. manganare. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. headed. caable. especially shepherd's frock. Coticesserint Swiss aa. dirty. a car- We convasare. havyar to caviare. Lang. kabas. Fr. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. precisely in the sense of the lari E. Capstan. whence Lang. cabuyskoole. deponat a store closet. nasty. — the ON. or cadable. hovel. kakla. round or great headed. surripere. cabo. a tunic. Gaggle. giiare. as it must have stood in French. would correspond to cable. caqueter. Lat. Fr. manticuKil. Cabin. — Kil. . — . E. has kabbel. Mid. &c. hut. heady. : — from violence without blood. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. is probably unconnected. and Finnish lanLat. Du. band. chadabula.. Antiq. Katr-iT-aKt. It. su/Furari. Didot. covering. to put or pack up in a frail. Cabbage. kabaSsen. To Cabbage. cabaii.ticula. dung. mdhaigner. a booth or hut.. cabacho. Neckam — by the wind. stercus. Sw. ! — . and a cabal is a conclave of persons. caable. a covering. OSp. E. —Diet. ckaable. gatsch. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. to crush. OFr. cadabalum.Lat. gaggi. Cot. Brushwood — — B. the Slavonian. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . originally an Gael. &c. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. disgust cac. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . aeggi. cadabula. vile.). forms indi. gaggele. from trabocco. whence Fr.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. cabre. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. a rope. cabuccio. to chatter. cabbage. Lith. Due. Finn.. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Cappa in OSp. akista. headed or cabbage lettuce. cabas. and as we find stones Mid. gaban. traboccare. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. and Ptg. wilful). and Or. Mid. kabane. as Diez supposes). an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. — . cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Cot. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. hoard together. cadabulum. cabre. dirty. . cacare . caboche. from manganum. cables. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. signifying properly a rope's end. The double a in the OFr. Castr.Lat. to hurl in Nat. Ptg. an engine for casting stones. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. and the Arab. the bowels. a rope or cable. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. origin is the OFr. From It. or as an interjection of disMod. Cabinet.' Due. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Fr. serious injury — In like manner It. cab lis. to keep or Du. It. Fr. dirt and the Fr. ceach / exclamation of guages. Mid. or rush basket. as an expression of Gr. a cloak of felt or Cack. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. — Tarbe. CABBAGE effecting a purpose .. a frail. for the origin of which see Carabine. kabat. to strain in such a manner . brassica — capitata. come the Fr. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. 'habl. a rope. head. Fr. Item habeat vocant. Choux cabus. capanna. Celtic. Cablisb. Sp. Tugurium. caables. chaable. Du. It. chabla. lactuca capitata. Kil. a cabbage . capo. cab. cdble.

Fr. Roman reckoning. . As Du. Calc-. In the same way Fin. Fr. Turk. cake. . a wheel . The Lat. a common cart. master. cadence. just falling. kukje. colibro. a car. a wheel. To Cajole. the pi. cageoler. the calf of the leg. pet lamb. The Calf. calf of leg. from calculus. principal and interest. a wheel . ben- kalf. Lat. It is another form of the E. Calp is riadh. the younger son of a family said to be from . calcis. gabbia. naXaiidpi. Calf of the Leg. gaggia. Lat. kage. bad . Pol. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. KxiKivh^o^. kalfi. a fever. kolo. a counter used in casting accounts. G. marrow. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Calash. Sw. a circle. Cot. Gael. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Fr. KaKKat. Du. — in a kiln. is probably delusive. the pith or soft part of wood. Lat. cage. unruly . The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. a lump or large piece. kaad. prate. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. a low note. its mother. whence Lat. loss. —Atkinson. jabber. frolicsome kaad mund. little chief.uv. when they are said to poor. a wretch. a calesh. kalem. kolesb. javioler.— Cot. whence calash. It. a cake or loaf. kalfvan hout. lord. signifies a waggon. A . to gabble. A cuttle-fish. Lat. kdfich. Caitiff. Lat. ratas. gavia. chattering. incolumis. gabbia. a caFr. Lat. calendrer. Caldron. from the ink-bag which it contains. cuttle-fish. of oxen and similar animals. Du. Sp. kail. capitetum. Calcialate. cha'cmie cadence. Du. Sw. hot . Cadet. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. on. kakulla. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. without loss. capCalenture. Sw. a wheel . boy. . — — — Dan. calibre. limestone. kolyasochka. calentar. a tea-chest. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Arab. Lat. cavea. gabberen is identical with E. calidus. Calamary. Serv. It. kaka. En kaka br'od. form) calderone. kolo. ON. dial. kaeckelenj Gr. a mischievous dial. calamitas. Cadaverous. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. cykevie. * Cade. calibre. a roller. kolyaska. gabble. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Originally from a Slavonic source. cadenza. . frisky. joyous . calamus. wretched. the bore of a cannon. a hollow place. cadet. lime whence calcareous. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. pi. calendarium. kolesnitza. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. an inkstand . a small stone. cattivo (from Lat. Gascon capdet. hot. calx. Perhaps from w. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). kolo. calessa. (in the augm. Fr. collop. N. caldaria. Sp. chaudron. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. a cylinder. a loaf of bread. Cage. to compute. to — Fr. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Flo. calesa. from the Chinese catty. especially of something soft. calidus. ' . Fr. Mrs B. Calocli. ever and anon. Due. pen Mod. Fr. cabdillo. kuchen. cadere. to . Fr. kola. koeck. safe. taking it Sp. It. and troublesomely attached to. Cadence. desire of land. Caddy. Dan. kdtr. kauwe. cadaver. It. Cauldron. loss. of the nature of lime to calcine. coll. dead body. to sleek hence a den. gaggle. to cage. wanton. captive. misfortune. chetif. cauldron. It. kolasa. reed-pen. from calendcE. kalb. a corpse. See Kiddier. the lump and the increase. caliche. Russ. . A hooded carriage. Lat. Cot. calba. A — fall. Cot. The young G. a calash .— .Gr. or prattle. or colpa na coise. Lat. calculo. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. a reed. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. babbhng. Lat. from Gr. Dan. hence musical rhythm. An open travelling chariot. to treat like lime. to cackle . 124 prattle . coop. calpa. chaudiere. calentura. G. From lerie. Lat. Calendar. Cadge*. disease of sailors from tivus). one unduly indulged by.warmth . cage. Cake. a falling. caldarius. It. kat. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. roller. Calamity. Fr.— Calliper. Turk. to heat. Tea-caddy. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. &c. Sp. for green fields. caioler. To Calender. to throw themselves into the sea. Cajol. rattaat (wheels). a vessel for heating water. of which. a dence. Calandre. * Calibre. lindrus. Du. or smooth Hnen cloth. pith. to prate much to little purpose. a waggon . B. an ugly waggon kolaska.

and heat. B. however. kal. Sc. fistula. To drive tow or oakham. calleting. a round of abuse. Sp. ram. scold. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the .' Whitby Gl. Heb. calat of leude demeaning. caliver. Among these were the turn. sclopus. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. . longior. Hard. or languishing drought is . or mould. dragoon. to be of a good or bad quality. serpens. Fr. CALICO Calliper-compasses. i. To call. donderbuchs Sp. According to Jal (Gl. bombarda Cauma incendium. ' pert. quiet. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Du. sestus. to prattle.— . the scalp or skull. hot. scalmato. people's remarks. femme frivole et babillarde. Bi. the Fr. E. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. ululo Turk. calma. calca.. to calk. * Callet. calcare.position is much less common than the geschut. Sp. quality. hollaing. Indies. It. harquebus or handgun. to burn. callus. Lat. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. coluber also. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Antiq. Caliph. Turk. prattle. u to an I in such a colubrum. to callet. a last. an adder. caluw. — Fl. to affirm. and dragon. culverin. given. Dief. calc. on.piicede Lat. Fr. To century was Squalibre. gossiping. Calm. chatter. Sir John Smith in Grose. Gr. Kil. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. Due. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). kil-u-kal. heat. to tread. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. callum. them &c. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. calo. So It. KaXka. push violently. calme. cauque. faint.' Winter's Tale. calgua. alta voce ploro. by many that the weapon Callous. — — — — — . couleuvre. khalif. depreciatory term for a woman. to cram. diameter of a ball. Unfledged. which is as much as to say. To Calk. calcaich. Fr. The word was also written cawme in OE. from Calicut in the E. NE. glotton. Diez. harden by pressure. nautique). tapulta. koluvre. to call. overscalmaccio. Lang. try. tittle-tattle. Ca. 125 Prov. calclover. whereas in troth it is not. coluber. a soldier who the It. voice. calare. Ibid. dragonder. form in the kalib. caillette. cauma. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. kahcwe. hallottaa. the heat of Now these Du. serpentina. qAlab. calicot. Mil. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word.(jaa= ice). into the seams of vessels to make Lat. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is .en~ kinds of firearms. licht stuk The change from a. Lat. chatter kallen. dial. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim.' Chaucer. and sometimes a handgun. kalla. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. and E. of a column. quA librd. — — — — — . colubrina. sence of wind. to proclaim. trull. Call. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Ptg. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. to hear. to say. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Sup. Derived by some from Arab. calk. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. a good calling. which has its memory preserved in Du. whehce it was first brought. whence couleuv. Mahn derives it from Lat. the day. to call. The origin is Gr. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. CALM to press or stuff. the Fr. kael. Fr. calibre. coulevrine. water-tight. Kil. klover. the latter of chamber. kol. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. a. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. The primitive colubrina bombarda. brawny. cotton cloth.from Ka'tm. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea.' But it is hard Du. Fin. a drab. a feathers. Diet. word of mouth . cahna. saucy. abto suppose that E. kind heat of the sun. having a thick skin. or caliever. bald. done with heat Alt. the hard surface of the ground. Gael. Callow.meaning of the word. form. calvus. calor. calma. vulgo Coluvrine. * Caliver. sound. faint. moso. Kavfia. Fin. The reference to heat is preserved in. ' rine. skin hardened by labour. heat. can be distinct from ODu. kallo. AS. to abuse . Mid. but is only a jda-kallo. kal. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. piece of bigger circuite. of the bore of a firearm met. to rail or scold . oldire from audire.Lat. moist. . Calico.' Slange. colubraria canna. calibre. overheated. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. drive. a successor.

lie level. Fr. open and level ground. chaitcre. aged. at the ends. Camisade. Cambrel. having an aquiline nose. Candid. It. camber-nosed. and yspiuv. Lat. It. paign. the space of false imputation. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. It. Calumny. It was distinfrom work. Lat. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Lat. Sp. camafeo. It. Palsgr. Lat. Kakoycpos. In a different application It. champagne. to bend. It. Fr. a large drinking . crooked-stick.—Jam.— Hackluyt in R. a piece. candidus. camelot. higher in the middle than Fr. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. spot for cattle. Cann. Canine. canistrum. callar. Cambray. Turk. canna. on. whence the noun signifying an applicant. water chamlet . properly good country. sugar.Lat. to bend. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Fr. — B. — — — A — — escume de saumon. KafitjUe.' Forme of Cury in Way. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Mod. white. cup. to warp. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Cameo. camelus. E. cambrer. camiscia. to the force of the wind. Lat. cAouma. when its substance appears inter. camp. KafivTu. Lat. cambre. across — Bellenden in Jam. bis. campaign. campagna. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. lattice. Fr. icaSoytipoe. Fr. India Islands. Candy. frank and sincandidatus.— B. campagne. A — the Cannibals. or Caribs. cainahelus. Camel. The Grisons cauina. Canibal. B.—Candidate. From fluting or furrow in a column . aspirant. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. cancello. the salmondis faillis thair loup. E. crooked. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. campo. camaien. Mid. the calix. crooked. cambr^. campo. Canker. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. An eater of human flesh. Arab. Gr. Sanson khanda. calj'x. whence Fr. fresh. . the type of a hollow pipe. Sp.—Cambrel. kanna. arch. B. salmon. E. nia. canalis. champ. a may have acquired that signification from plain. ation. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. candela. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat.Gr. different sections of the like the Chinese. Camlet. Properly calver in the field during a war. a' Sc. w.' ' Quhen a lattice. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. would plenier. Ptg. is Candle. to bow. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Camp. to break. is Cambering. Pers. ko/utuXoc. camisade. callour. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. cup. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. Calver of cane. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. the spersed with white flakes like curd. from candere. died in 1526. Or the word Lat. crooked.who their language. campagna. Caloyer. the bed of a stream. ckaouma. whence the Fr. It.conduit-pipe. a. cambren. Calyx. samon. arched. from xaXbg. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. camahutus. a field Greek monk.— Chandelier. Cambric. lame. fair. a crab. Lat. a goblet bud. a caught. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. good. arched. slander. canis. catmneo. Fr. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. campus. See Canker. toile some of whom. crook. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. also an eatmg sore. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. monk. mg Canister. Peter Martyr. chandelle. Canal Channel. camisa.. chamold man. co7nbar. clothed in white. had no r in de bric— Cot. Cambrav—Cam. se cameloter. Bret. Cot. cancer. sore. calutmiia. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. camiscieia. — Cancel. Sp. . The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. cere : Lat. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. field . the heat. brought from Fr. chommer. campren. to jut. Cancer. an eating. a dog. Fr. cam^e. Campaign. a. Fr. a basket. From campus was formed Lat. unwater chamelot . Gr._ kamm. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. to glow. — Lat. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. hooked. or hollow of a flower.

or cantell of bread. canoa. side. Sp. and the sex- &c. a tube. border. It. Palsgr. a door . It. a scull- — here. signifying cover. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Gael. It. Capari. Sp. he discourseth of dissection. Kavt\. Du. a rule or standard of excellence. and hence a gobbet. rumme. coarse hemp.. cannone. cheese. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. capello Italis. cantone. a boat. Germanis kdppen. cappa. capax. canvas. tain. as. Again we have Lat. Fr. canteau. chanteau. Mod. regular. root cap. a — A — Cannel Coal. hemp. cane. kynnel. lump. covered. Kil. schlappen. a ruler. cane. hamlet. cantref. a reed. cantred. cover kapi. canapaccia. . chape. canonici. Cant. from cant. Prov. a cloak. The meserseum and the mesentericum. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. cope. ON. chantel. Cot. schlapp. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. See Chape. coat. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. A piece of anything. leiwan kanta. W. Canvas. a ship canot. Canon. is found languages of very different stocks. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. being a yard or thereabouts . To canvas — . canonicus. the part easiest broken off. Fr. cape. capevole. cannabis. cantle then is a corner of a thing. cappe. Hence Lat. the quartile. . to shut. speech. quarter . A slow gallop. To his judicial And trowl the tile. kwvwxIi. or hold. astrology. to contain.— Cot. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. The — . has kahn. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. canto. Goldast — in in Schmid. it would have been found in the continental languages. cover . and tref. cannevaccia. From Gr. a drinking glass. B. a pipe. Cope. a hunch of bread. a side. a hundred. See Capt-. kaput. a corner. gnat. capace. and met. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. . which is not the case. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Canton. Picard. part. a division of a country. hirnschlapple. the heel. To Canonise. Schwab. Esthon. It. canton. border Dan. contain. Canopy. Sp. can. to sing. language. canevas. from . Capable. Wtb. from a Canter. region. edge. Alamannis. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. able to receive. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Canoe. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. name. shut. say. It. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. a horn of the moon . But it may be different source. The word seems to be taken from Gael. that the G. Diez. Cantle. cannevo. From Lat. hemp. to con- rummer. Jonson. It. a small boat. kq. cane. from Dan. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. a wine-cellar or vault. kantr. capa. canon. also a measure. clqse. Capacious. quarter. from canna.^on. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. haitt. A . cannu. margo panis diffracta. a cantle of bread. like a torch or candle. a Fr. trine. Coal burning with bright flame.n. kand. measure for cloth. call. Cannoii. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Gugel.Gr. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. hood. cappe. carcase .CANNEL vessel. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. to put upon sacred writers. Mod. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. Cape. OFr. canapa. quito curtain. a cap. a straight rod. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. If the word had been from cantherius. . and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. Lat. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. It. kyndel. Canteen. a cover Turk. cane. kapamak. a cane. &c. Fin. the tried list of saints. Probably only the augmentative of canto. cantina. was formed Kavtiiv. caparazon. KCLvva. KaTTiram. cainnt. territorial hundred. the heel. corner. N. Swab. Fr. properly a large Prov. kanta. as a cantle of bread. a reed. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a cloak kapali. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. a torch. pipe. &c.Gr. kandt-broodts. a gelding.

G^' Many words — ' ndv. Capital. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. erica. It is probable that Gr. capitalis. or other things. a head. Fr. and 7tucc. It. Cot. It. Arab. gricciare. Fr. knis-hujwud . To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. frisson- ner . ticchio. of a coach. they longed extremely to see it. algabr. Mod. to broil. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. a caterpillar. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. cover of a saddle. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame.impressions on the ear. is either wholly lost. a capriol. a ch illness. principal. to crackle. Caper. Hence capitalis the sum lent. upon terms Sp. to twitter as birds. the hair to stand on end. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . 75. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. of a tremtdoiis sound. shivering. chattering of the teeth. belonging to From caput. Genevese bresoler. as the means of earning profit. — — A a hair. ericius. rihrczzoso. or goat's leap (done by a horse). to crackle. hair. eruca compared with It. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. heath. caper j caprio. birsle. of a fowl. to from capitulum. to shiver. greziller. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. — to yearne. gives rise to Sc. to desire earnestly. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. Lat. as Fr. then to be in a state of vibration. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. capparis. Capers. h^risser. Capillary. cut. the head. bruco. a chevret. as Fr. capro. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. roughening of the skin. caprice It. . brisciare. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. A . capitulare. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. and his body bristled We to castrate. It. a yearning through sudden fear. caprice. gricciare. humorous. also the capriole. frizzle. to ruffle the surface of water. Torriano. a kid. cut off. compared with Bret. a young kid met. knis. grillcr. to . riccio. The same imitation of Capon. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. alcaparra. the head. brissle. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. capillus. Griller d'im' patience. It.). shrub. or Lat. horripilation. Hal. w. A headland. To treat Capitulate. shivering. a .Gr. aggricciare. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . a caper in dancing. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. to parch. Caprice. hedge-hog. Fl. or represented by the syllable e. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Lat. and OHG. Fr. abridge amKoTroq. capriole. the initial mute of forms like Gr. capriola. arricciarsi. to shudder. a buck. ribrezzo. prickly husk of chestnut. to broil.' Cot. wriggle. grisser. Lat. frisser {frissement d'un trait. airoKOTrrw. curly. herissonnement. It. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . grug. p. curling. the hair to stand on end. cappriccio. frort^Lat. rissoler.— Fl. s'hdrisser. brezilia.standing on end. a goat. So from Sw.— 128 CAPE a rustling. gives rise to brezza. <I>pi'?oe. arricciarsi. to fry. horror. I have shivered with love. Acad.) grezille marid. bristling. See Chief. explained by Diez from capra. Sp. And similarly to yearn. as in Lat. curl. brisciare. then to shiver or shudder. caj)o. CAPRICE twittering. end. castrated cock. brug. Lang. capar.' — (Supp. castrated. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. ziki. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. It. bristling. or. sault. according to the Hindoos. as Fr. The true derivation lies in a different direction. It. then find the symptoms of shivering. Hair-like. cApre. brisciare. and also a skittish or humorous tastical.) d'etre The It. hi. crackling sound Cape. the singing'bone). greziller. with joy' Vikram. Fr. to shiver for cold. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. chief.'— Trev. It. a hedge-hog. capriol or caper in dancing. a little head. kid. Lat. Unexpected pleasure. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. frissoner. and with an initial gr instead of br. fansuddenly angry. brisoler. II bresole (Gl. the principal part of the debt. for which he cites the Comask nucia. grisser. ^piKos. toy. where Burton adds in a note. a separate division of a matter.

oisr. a reception. krul. a cart. Lat. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. It is a standing crab. Capriole. also a kind of rack. cabestrantej Fr. caprice. kerren. char. dim. Capsule. Caseneuve in Diet. Sp. Etym. recibir. Kiittner. from head. and has accordingly been lost in E. capuccio. Castr. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. concebir. the -cevofthe Fr. In cases. to creak. Capuchin. to please. to take. as in OFr. Thus the musket. Sp. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . to load . a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly.. fantastic. a windlass. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. verbs gives rise to the element . to receive receptio. &c. capio. commander. decepte. It. recepte. box. to accept. deceit. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. Lat. precept. &c. Carbine. latterly. as in accipio. acceptus. calabrin. Fr. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Crab.s. perceive. an engine for throwing stones. a coffer.). conceit. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. a sawing-block or trestles. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. concept. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Derivatives are Fr. -cept. conceive. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. -cept. cabra. to take to. capp%tccio. capitano. was converted into -ceb. Fl. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. recipio. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. a sudden fear apprehended. chirrion. G. bock. accept. a she-goat. Neumann. karra. Captain. Cot. Capstern. captus. concevoir. or the (capo-riccio). — —Diet. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. carabin.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). cabreia. to this is It. Du. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. of capsa.). karren. cams. capitis. In the S. — — Capstan. cabestan. was originally a missile . capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. chevre. Fr. was a kind of horse soldier. Fr. and has thus descended unaltered to English. a kind of torture. The It. caThe hrestante. a creaking waggon. crepo. It. a hood (dim. to creak. to carry . . at least. Fr. calabrino. capra. Carabin. 129 — receive. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Fr. OSp. Cart. and tropically. charrier. It. recipere. &c. and of captus to an e. It. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Lat. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. a capuchin. a. Capt-. a taking back. a fantastical humour. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. carro. caricare. See Caper. hold.. capsula. concipere. karista. strideo. Carabine. karrende waegen. carretta. case. to take baclc. however. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. Passing on into E. contain. intercept. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. It. cabrestante (whence e. charret. a sudden will. de- price. charger. also to carry on a car .of these compound verbs. sels. captivate. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. chirriar. a. a cloke) capuccino. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. a hooded friar. whence capture. receptus. Fin. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. also tresFl. desire. caput. Lat. Cot. fancy. tnoschetta. Nordfoss. recevoir. crab s. seize. -ceive. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. i The meaning Car. of the Sp. one odd. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it.or -cib-. conception. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. captive. trestle. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a head man. di cappa. shivering fit (Altieri). Fr. as the dragoons (Du. Du. where it forms a very large class of compounds. deception. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. It. It. Fr. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. except. Carry.

Sp. a card or comb . seed of carob. ancient springald. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. the carob bean. the husk or cod of beans. Cat. Arab. a snail. Carcase. a twist. . properly a siege machine. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. decanter. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot.Gr. a quiver . a goat. Fr. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Carbonaceous. to comb wool . . Carrob. Parmesan cassiron. a skeleton. Gael. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck .. cdrlag. cassa. is the chine. carquois. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a dead carcase. carabe. Ptg. caraffe. a gem resembling a live coal. fire . to card wool. Gael. An implement for dressing wool. the core of fruit . Lat. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. and so could not have given its name to the carboy.' From the same source are SicU.. curry-comb. Fr. carcasa. OHG. to card wool. Carat. a case or chest . espi7igarda. It.charcoal . carcaij. Venet. skeleton. carabba. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. cerran. a small weight. tcapKaai. a collar or chain for the neck. a ship. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. a crane. karra. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan.Gr. mural attack. karri. of the same Caravan. black dye. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. quse vocant karabd. caracal. eit. also a small weight. a quiver. turn of a horse. case. Lat. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. to turn. designated in the case of G. &c. Caravel. It. vitriol. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. winding. a wool card. word is only an adoption of the Turk. Gr. karszti. &c. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. turning. Sp. carcanet. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. garafa. carta. Fr. eitar. the shell of a torcarcasso. . of carbo). the trunk or chest of the body . to curry horses karsztuwas. carquasse. for a gun. copperas. carcanada. a winding staircase. From the battering-ram. cardo. wine- bottle. Fr. Carcax.applied to a battering-ram (G. krciti. Gael. avSpaS. contract. a kind of ship. the name might naturally Mod.. carbh. a he-goat. a firelock. See Carpenter. confining. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a quiver . alia sunt majora. . to comb. cabreia. military engines made for hurling stones. kerwan. to draw in. Caraool. burning coal. is the word used in modern Lat. Cot. Mod. Exot. skeleton toise. a lock of wool . A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. kirat. Gael. Derived in the first edition from Mod. restraint . caravela. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians.— — — . and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. The Trjg xeXwwac. Sp. winding carach. or framework. bend. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. carmiiiarc. a thistle. ON. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. It. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. the case of the flesh. also (as Gr. constraining . quilato. and catapulta. — seems to be something holding together. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. carere. p. a ripple for flax. casso. an ulcer.. cabra. card. ' Vasa vitrea. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. the . wool card. carate. kard boyd. Sp. Sp. Carbuncle. to ripple flax. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. It. Gr. the dead body of any creature. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. The radical meaning . boch. carch. chevre by the name of the goat. AS. «capa'|8i. I. Comp. carquan. the carcase of a fowl. poison eiz. skeleton. &c. carcame. W. matter. bock and Fr. It. Bohem. a coffer. KtpaTwv.. coming to four grains. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. a thistle. carbunculus (dim. Carboy. shell. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . carbo. . a machine for casting large darts.z. a quiver. silique. cabrita. in the same way that the Sp. carduus. caraffa. to creak. a battering-ram). car. Card. an engine for hurling stones. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. a prison. Cot. cramp. to hiss (as gee^e). 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. Pers. Lith.

Dan. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. the old theory of humours. Fr. W. murren. to shake. Carnal. quadrifurcum from quameet. Carenare. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Fr. four. G. astutus. AS. Sp. W. Translated in MS. Bret. carnasciale. kurista. cura intenta. a highway. karout. solicitous. combing them out like the knots in wool. care. carnis. camovale. — — — : Cardinal. Bret. morosus. giierlir.' Slceat. act of moaning. crawl. charie. to lie on its side. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. the hull of a ship. Fin. 8. scharren. A place where four roads Mid. Fr. one of those ac- 9 * . croller. tuorfurcm (Burguy). karry. chartre. Card. mutter. Ptg. . Mur. Carminative. that Fl. . the time during which to Rom. No ' place there had. affection. in Carp. Coll. is to say. surrata. to load. kribina. to load.. zanken . charneux. karrig. Groler. Gael. a man. AS. be anxious. carnalis. W. ignarus. OHG. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Charnel. fleshy . cardinis. kargr. — — . . Care. sensual. fundamental. kumra. asper. to comb wool. caMid. to clean the bottom of the ship. to care unkarja. to fry or broil. Sept. 2. Fr. record. Roquef. Fr. place for exercise on horseback. karg. from caricare. cargo. kummer. carriera. — Carfax. kroU-erbser. that on wliich the matter hinges. from carrus. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. carina. Caricature. Carled peas. quarreG.Lat. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Lat. beans. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Venet. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. the flesh of animals . murahtaa. msstus. carnal. Lat. as peas. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. charta (Gr. morosus sum. carminare. sorrow. to scratch. or street. weyes. ceorl. a card. voce strepo stridente. carian. to fry. cardo. karista. immediately before the long fast of Lent. rixosus. — — — Caress. what is felt as grievous. Fin. carrefourg. a turn. A medical term from line —Boerio. Peas steeped and fried. as quadrivium from Carnaval. A mod-carag.— CARD karr-kambar. 273. to scrape . winding. the several meanings of the words above Rom. an overloaded representation of anything. carcare. love. as carminare. like connection may be seen between Fin. from carus. Fl. cearian. caru. and compare Bret. charnage. Farewell flesh. cdrle. sgritudo animi. car. to take Goth. x'»P'"^s)) paper. carezza. parched or carled. Fr. tremble. Carl. Fr. carcus. Cot. principal. a deed. karantez. Probably the origin of the word is the . It. Cot. care on. From. carriire. to eat flesh. cargar. and thin. It. cura may be ror. to load. Cark. grief. carena. — To Careen. Cargo. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. . Properly. to growl. caricare. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. It. intrasset caro. in St Jerome. Properly a car-road. Cath. male person. murista. from Lat. charnel. graller. wool cards. to card wool. caricatura. bottom. For the root of carminare. &c. at murmuring. p. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. and G. to distress growl. an endearment. crowl. gakaran.. 1S66. crosier. essere in carena. and murhet. Cot. also a career on horseback. caresse. carnavale.Lat. strideo. ress. stingy. Bois crolant d'un ladre. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. the keel. — — Diez. to parch. cearig. It. Trin. careless take care of. .— Charter. whence carricare. It. charag. . to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. to whirr (schnurren). carener. or grumbling —Due. from the keel to the water . niggardly . Carnage. is This however Shrove tide. A quirito ut infans. dear. OFr. Champ. ON. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. It. compared with Fin. to comb flax or hemp. a hinge. carena. w. caritia. Cartel. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. piger. soUicitus OSax. sorrow. moeThe Lat. regar. karl. carch. hoed. and sum. . to love. grolU. charger. meet at a head. the load of a ship. to rumble. G. . clown or churl. E. in N. tenax. kara. the keel of a vessel. quaver a lazar's clack. charg. appertaining to the flesh. road. stridere. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Carlings. It. Chart. Sp. see Garble. Fr. de Parthenay. & Q. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. AS. carFrom carrus. ON.

Bohem. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. carpat (Stokes). Carnelevale. all aus). and F. skraf. to chatter coroli. in Due. On this. carpende fast Carol. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. to pull asunder. pluck at.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. All out B. vel coopertorio carebit. ship. Nomin. is erroneous.'— Stat. bier. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. a car carpentarius. peta. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Mid. as carnaval from carnelevamen. used for stuffing mattresses. gonna. a dance.: . about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. to dance. Carpet. or loose as a couch without further preparation. litter. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. 216. Chanson de carole. 1 1 30. From Lat. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. garrulo. or a carouse fully drunk up. Palsgr. Here's to you still my captains friend. a wheelwright. Bret. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. 760. Beggars Bush. maker of waggons It. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Dief. To pledge them thou refuse. ballare. Gael.]e bois Carnelevale. carpia. charpentier. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Pr. The tippling sots. A. carbh. zimmer. Analogous R. to find fault with. course. and Carnem laxare (It. . Teut. in Nat. Pref. Carnevale. chirp. carpetrix. koroll.— R. as the Lat. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing.' Raleigh. charpie. was formed Mid. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Properly a round dance. Olr. querole. . 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. W. tymmer. yede tham about. Shrove Tuesday. of Guiana.' says Motley (United Neth.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. carpenter only in the latter sense. Sup.gonnella. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit.Lat. Sp. fabulor. zimmerspan.D. carpere. Mid. In Dominica d'autant. Ant. differing To Carp. balade from It. to reel. to rustle. to gather. Pm. cxciv. cited by Marsh. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. I quaught. — . . to pluck. act of drinking a full Eq. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. whence the form carnasciale. The karole of the stones behelde. on that. In a MS. a drinking cup. carpita. 94). e. chatter. pluck. The ' ' a chariot. carpetam (a quilt?).Why give's some wine then. Lat. at midnight which derivation from kroes. The word seems of Celtic origin.' Ordo Eccles. Gower in Way. So gone they forthe. lint. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Lat. tattle. cardos. Cot. linteamen. krapanj. ' ' — . Other names of the sea.— Neum. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. to dance. Biheld within. Discov. biheld without. carpenticre. Templariorum — ' — Due. quoted by Carpentier. i. On the other hand bumper to one's health.Lat.Lat. culcitra. ! Carouse. carpentum. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. a song accompanying a dance then. Carpitam habeat in lecto. garrire. a carder. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Fr. a plank. a wheelwright. carpenta. as Fr. i. I drink all out. to talk. Alluz (G. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Carole. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Carpyn or talkyn. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Fr. ON. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. — — ' ' — — — I — — . carduz. as E. in Carp. 2. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. chatter skra/a. carpo. gar aus / all out is correct.— Patriarchi. chariot carbad. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. qui sacco. krapati. carnelascid). But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. sense. The custom. Mediol.— Drant in R. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. worker in timber Fr. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. 2. The true derivation is : seen in Mid.' Reg. Lat. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Carpenter.

Casket. cassa. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. subject for a picture. empty. casus.' Fl. corresponding to the G. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. Carriage.— Fl. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. the money chest. a long coat. It. carrosse. It. To Carve. and the OE. casitiste. to cut or carve . like all the names of tendon. to fire on the enemy. CartOTicli. Cash. Fr. as we . charrier. AS. Sp. Ready money. caro. Fr. void cassare. charogne. Probably. to fall. Du. Fl. To quash an indictment. blotted out. crush. Fr. to slay. bag and baggage of a camp. augm. a loopscale the wall. Fr. casuelj Fr. — FI. luggage. It. Cartel. fall It. slaughter-house. cashiered. of carta. kerven. caroche. To Cashier. Lat. cartouche. casacca. hollow. a hut. charrette. helmet. to dash. Gael. casa-maita. Case-mate. — — . kasseren. See Gristle. casco signifies a skull. carota. cascade. cartoccio. to hold. Fr. casser. Case. Lat. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. cia. mord-grube. coffer. carroc- carrozza . cascar. cascata. kerpu. a car. It. ceorfan. vault hole in a fortified wall.' — Hdcart. something that actually occurs. — — nul the proceeding. a merchant's cash or counter. abrogate. to break. Fr. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. kirpti. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. the charge of — — Fr. The carrying of anything. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. To duash. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Cask. cartilage. of carro. a paper case. to shear. to an- — Kil. to notch. See Card. casag. fortuitous. Casque. Fr. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . carriaggio. OE. to convey in a cart. cancelled. ignominiously exposed. hull of a ship. caisse. Lat. from casa. carretto. quash. casaque. Fr. — Cartridge. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. mata. — Cartoose. one who reasons on cases put. from the sound it makes when Alban. gristle. capsa (Diez). Du. a chest. paper. shell or carcase of a house. Sp. Cassock. break to pieces. Hence a challenge openly hung up. It. tion from Sp.' Bailey. also the carriage. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. pasteboard. Walach. Rouchi carone. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. casualis. from It. The Sp. Fr. It. Casual. ' Casa-matta. a chance or accident. long man's gown with a close body. an augmentative from Lat. It. quasser.' Cot. Lat. carroccio. hung up in some place and to be removed. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. a fall. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. to bear or carry. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. cassus. from Lat. to crack. mord-keller. properly to convey in a car. Rouchi carpHe. caroach.. bitten. dim. carreaggio. case. Fr. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. carretta. annul. an act of falling. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Cart. from It. cassere. discharge It. casa. house. where Fr. augmentatives of carro. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. for the security of the defenders. packing ' cloth. caisse. cassette. made void. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. and that apparently from capio. not reaching to the height of the ditch. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Preparatory drawing of a It. cut with scissors. cascare. carogna. cartella. To Carry. krat.to annul. See Case. It. It. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Carrot. cancel. afterwards any written challenge. card. gristle. AS. discharge. Cartoon. turn out of service. a car. kerben. Carrion. Flor. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Cot. cassa. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. to — — also casse. cartone. Cot. and matar. a coffer or small case for jewels. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Fr. casso. Rouchi caroche. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. coffin of paper for groceries. case-maiej Sp. Fl. Case. Cascade. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Fr. a of water. caxa. caisse. Hence casket. G. Casuist. As defence from shells became more important. crown of a hat. Rouchi carter. Lith.

a Cataract. to lash. cash. same word with break. It. KaTappaKTrjQ. Lat. Sp. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . while kiss / Pol. signifying breed. and from the castus.Lat. stilts. Sp. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Fr. Pm. shaft of a 1 push. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. of castrum (castra). name. V Lith. rack. fer toTa. perhaps from which we have E. in the fire. kottr. kaJoivad. . to break. &c. chaleur. n. or bruise together. kotas. Pic. dashing it to pieces. puss / for calling them. follow after. crush . have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Gael. . to crack. R. punch. Cat. squash. Castle. to turn overturn. To Catch. Pol. down. bot-kotis. cacciare fuora. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. to cast or beat to tioner . being Fin. a fortified place. to look at. Fr. castanetazo. Gr. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. In the dialect of Picardy. dash. kissa. or Rouchi cat. which has been retained in E. to make clean or chaste. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. kic' kicil are used chasser. casulla. which. drive away. — We a cavity. 120. castana. dashing it out of the window. 134 CAST Catacomb. . To It.out cacciare . kakka. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . to dash. to torture.to drive out. KaraXoyog. cassa / cry for the same purpose. down. Chase. cacciarc. Fr. cast. to bring to an crack given by the joints. koshka. heat . dim. cat.. the stalk of plants. or comba. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. to hurl See Awgrim. to hunt. second chase.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Etym. Catalogue. castello. casser. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). force j Rouchi equerviche. was introduced. from water Karappaaaiii. by the loss of with several pitched cords. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. arpi^m. kasi. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. Roukind. Hal. Isidore — in Diez. a chesnut . Yz. squash. Fr. Others explain it from Kara. chat. casule. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. to is Essentially the Sp. Cot. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Thus we have Caste. ' Catchyn away abigo. KarapaKrr]g. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Castanets. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. a little house or hut. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. execu. speak of dashing a thing down. a cat . ating. the castanets for or implement . first made ordinary Fr. OFr. castellum. away. the ground . puras E. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. . kotas. sue. image accasciare.Rouchi Scaches. klakka. _G. mino. Lang. Fr. kat. Gr. .the / or c respectively. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. 'Vaaaw. like that of It. torture. catar. of sarabands does Gr. The E. the earlier sense of catch. represented by the syllable quash. casupola. Cast. burst cascare. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. katze.'— Pr. fall. an enumerlist. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. a whip on the other into latch. V. a garment for performing the mass in. lance. is not satisfactory. a thump. cacciuolo. ON. castro. to fall as over a precipice. Mid. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. to end. Fr. however. Fr. and tomba. cascar. catch. chasser. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. kasta. B. from the first of Castrate. Fr. chasser. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. cojz^/a. to crackle. handle of an axe. chasuble. casipola. to drive Cat o' nine tails. to scourge. KaTaarpifm. a vault. It. under chi caleur. Lat. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Brunne. coming to us through different dialects of French. to clack. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio.— Fl. ichasses. So also from It. probably from an imita. and KviilSog. race. Catastrophe. accastiare. on. Hence castaneta. It. ecrevisse. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. to Fl. Fr. a cat koshki. tails. to drive away. cat-o'-nine.. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. The Diet. to close. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.

In the XV'e. devouring mite or weevil. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. head. Gael. a cornIn the s. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. 'Horxa. children's name for cat . * Caterpillar. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. a whip or Kuttner. — . lash of a whip corresponding to the G. glcu. On Catechism. Cot. Cot. OFr. Ptg. to harangue. chassoire. an officer of taxes. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. chasse. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. Sp. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. bichano (pussy). E. klatscherei. to A bailiff. kletse. Du. de Bray. . in order). a clap. formerly called cliket. chenille {canicula. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. a smack. smack. gingle. Kil. Kartiyopta (/cari. — tinman. the distance to which the ball is struck. chacepol. ' ' word catch. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Caterer. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . E. called dog or Galla catchamza. flap klatsche. klatsche and Norm. dainties. to teach by oral instruction. chachara. — Catcli-poll. quincailler. to snap. cat is not apparent. weevils. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. a whip. a pill. Gael. kletsen. * Cates. chatter. icarrix'Ki^. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. Gr.s. dainty vic- a form lash. Diez. Wal. to chatter with the teeth cake. a whip Rouchi cachoire. which all . ' Fr. companaige.P. latch of. catch-flesh. snatched. Grandg. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. gattola.) . Guernsey pilleure.V. . seize. i. — B. P. ArbaUte de courte chasse. — Kiittner. sound. clatter. to chat. to take. . the elements of a science. klinke. 135 — Aasen. resono ictu lash. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. . ictus resonans. claquer. wild-beast. Chate peleuse. c or ^.from Bard and ayopsw. chase. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. silkworm. is said that he got a claucht of it. called in Fr. Tutschek. 'Bxn. to kythe D. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Swiss Lombard G.' ^Jam. to crack GATES cache. a whip. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Rouchi clincailleux. clap. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it.' CATCH Fr. ketsoore. cagnon (a dog). chink. as of the latch of a As ! — . obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. GaUa catchiza. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. s. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. chatter . to clap hands. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. to snatch (said of dogs). the OE. caker. Cates. Fr. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. gliong. snatching it with a any one. — with a whip. Du. door when it is shut. a. . millecaterpillars. with and without an / after the c. verberare kUts. a — gatta. has both or of charming by sound. Metivier. apprehend a person. a. blow.yopl(. fragor kletsoore. catch. ecachoire.V. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. snatching. kaetse. KaTtix'so. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. E. from Gr. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. catc?u. pedes. and answer. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. the the same principle he was Fr. Fr. a carter's Pat. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). clap with the hand. compare G. Sc. or any kind of relishing food tuals. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. e. Du. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. klatschen. caucht. cache.j. worm. latch. e.. woodlice. bicho. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. G. to the crack. Fr. Claucht. resound. catch. Kil. klatsch. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . instruction in forms. — explained. Guernsey chafer. a caterpillar Milanese can. whip. from shutting with a click. an accusing. a little dog). insect. happe-chair. to catch strength. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . predicament.

puss. acater. Pr. fur. Manciple's Tale. capull. Lat. Diez). Cavalry. A warm comforting drink. a horseman. hot. walnut with the husk on challer. little cap is . cabbage. kobuiV. a paved road. G. the stones of a street. caudex . Gr. koparet. to purge. from KaSaipio. puss. Caballus. calceta. hazel. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. from caveo (p. ' Gr. Dryden in R rete. flock. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. 2. caballus. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. puss. kocie. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. KaPaWrii. Gr. Rete. Kavrfipiov. catkin Pol. Cave. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. to sound like a blow . Bessie of Bednall. CAVE Caul. . in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Fr. acaptar. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. B. Fr. kobyla. a pulpit. a kettle for heating water. cheval. and at the rich man's cost By sea.^ acheter (Lat. KaHSpa. That he was ay before in his estate. to buy.p. Kavrijp. . a mare. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. calidus. OE. by land. Pol. causa. despencier. — Cauterise. Cause. cavus. Mid. chaussJe. apt to burn iron. Caustic. dumpf tonen. a horse. chaudroii. primitive is meaning a shale or off. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. minon. little cat. It. the. Caudle. chaudiire. Fr. cat maczoka. to shale or peel. . cale. macska. Provider.—— — 136 correct. a stalk. Du. Sx. Palsgr. Catkin. a horse . Lat. net or caul-work. to shoe . also to pave . what . whence cathedralis.^Hal. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix.. Palsgr. a pavement. shaled or picked Fr. mutz. adcaptare. deyntie meates. the caul of the liver. catkin Magy. caldo. It. klopfend knallen. and hence a skull-cap. cautis. is used in the sense of cat-skin. catons. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. chatideau. kaussijde. — . It. lamb. catkins . to beware. Fin.. chausser. katteken. calqada. a road calceata. kdtzchen. choufleur {choii. a horse . any Fl. cautus). Lat. Gr. calotte. Cathartic. Jonson in R. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. chevalier.Lat.' Elyot in Way. KiwariKog. from delf^gato. quire. green husk of a calon. Fr. cal^ar. . Fr. On the other hand. Chaud. kopista. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. kocianki. accapitare Rouchi acater. catkin mitz. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. otherwise written kell.Y\\Xea. a branding from koiio. . ce^l. Du. Thus Bav. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. The word — . challe was ther of a temple. to shoe. &c. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. accattare. a receptacle for small things. . Port. Cavalier. to ac- — Fr. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. — — cavallo. to burn. Cattle. cabbage). Jaubert. Cavern. Lat. having the property of cleansing. 4. It.Lat. w.willow. katte. Fr. Cathedral. . shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cale. a seat. from chaud. kin. Cauldron. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Kil. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. but the acates that are sent him. Fr. • — — See Chattel. Delycates. chair. make clean. fur in general. CATHARTIC sense. chauderon. caple. kassije. hollow. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . rete A — Prov. mudet. a The peel. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. hot. achepter. flue. Cavity. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. reticella. Gael. Fr. Boethius. cavaliere. Ka^afriKOQ. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. calceata. Caution. kautsije. cabbage-stalk. cauHs. Russ. Fr. Lat. Lat. and spareth for no perell. It. Wyatt in R. Cavalcade. via strata. Fr. is Prologue. a kind of skull-cap. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. kitten kotki. kopano. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Causeway. Mid. Richly she feeds.' B.

cavillor. board . 43. plank. that. lambris. Cease. . Fr. And seik — Cessation. . also a seeling of boards. and zaum. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. in Jam. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven.' del. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. wainscot thiljar (in pi. dayntily diglit. . excess. canopied. a halter. Cam. sus-lambris. &c. empty. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. In the N. and that from Sp. a log. seele. . Ceiling. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. with their substantives concession. cease. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. but hang around at the sides. Lat. So from Fin. Sp. of E . to seele or close with boards plancher.' Marriage of James IV. heaven. The importation of Fr. 5. CAVESON kopera or kowera. as if from happen. Sir 137 pit . succeed. koppeli. is applied to a canopy. plank. . to plank ON. cesso. — . step away. . wall. tester of a bed. dil. a beam. IV.j have come from this source. hollow. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. deal. exceed. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. sill in window-sill. Fr. It. were met. a log. — . syl. semely on syll. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. komo.' Cot. an aquiline nose. In the same way G. The line of descent from Fr. To seele a room. — komo tain). the inner roof of a room of state. 7. cedo. to go forth. . to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. thili. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. departure. cessum. Hence concede. a hut. rafter. in Hal. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. caveqon. ciel is so unbroken. — — — toyour soverane. B. recede. bridle. -cede. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. a head.). flooring E. column E. as. Cede. death. dScis. menuiserie. &c. the deck of a ship at thilja. VIII. Soc. -cess. the roof of a coach. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. A — A false accommodation produced G. p. pp.' Ordinances and Reg. Lat. to plank or floor with planks. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. yield. crooked kopio. to canopy siled. &c. departure from this life. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. dille. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. or of a bed. a log. selure. Boyd in Jam. door-sill J Sc. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. a plank. coffer. hollow. in Jam. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. cellar. hivtmel. and then to gape. kapp-zaum. hollow ice .'— Z. heaven. cavezzone. a canopy. a severe bridle. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Fr. thil. . lambrisser une chambre seeling. proceed.). and Gol. cabegon. del into English without ' translation gave cele. .. a planking or boarding tkilian. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling.' — Gawan . give place. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. applied to a canopy. to panel or wainscot MHG. thil. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. cielo. ceiling. Gawaine & Sir Gol. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa.' Rutland papers. cyling (W. ceiling. p. . Plancher. the testern of a bed. H. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. thiling. thelu.' Hall. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. Cot. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. . komista. —Decease.. . jaa. -ceed. nailes will begin to cling. a canopy. curved. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. sky. augm. a fir-plank. beam. thel. 32. The It. sill. selar. syle. Fr. -cease. Lat. decessus. Cavil. The sense of roofing. wuoren komo. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Lat. quibble. &c. little house. of cavezza. . to cut. Hal. a boarded floor. See -cede. cabega. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. thilja. Wore. E. ciel de lit. Sherwood. sybire. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. a board. to argue capto tiously. kommata. hung. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. post. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt.

to be regarded as one celebro. It.ing a room where there is not fire. -civer {conciver— Roquef. rough from the quarry. empty. then to rub without reference Cement. parted sleep. to prick. riscaldarsi. &c. is totally distinct from the foregoing. to twinkle darkness. judge. — . Fr. irot\oe. festive. to rate. to warm. to seal a pigeon's eye. a Cemetery. and — — — possessions. Fl. judge Lat. For sess from assess. to distinguish. Prov.j 138 thill. dchauffer. to sleep). (and thence also) to hoodwink. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. cceremonia. is the opposite of disora virum. rubble. in comp. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. quarters for slaves. Lat. to -sum. cella. Fr. much frequented. oil. cencer. ciller. -cern. to sepap rate. or expression of Ennius. concernor. to concern. OFr. census. Lat. hollow. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi.). — A . sting. eyelid. to heat. solemn (of per. Fr. Lat. See Celibacy. sift. conceipt. Assize. deceit. Fr. to take. keep in It. renown be embodied with. Century. censura. Lat. Centurion. Censure. -ceive. in Marsh.' Book of St Albans. cretum. swift. a tomb. distinIt. Lat. confounded ist from It. sacred show. for building. to incense. Sc. and thence to conceal. Lat. the officer appointed to take such returns . Census Censor. Coehim. with transposition hence (of a day). The term cilium. in comp. chaufferette. -cepere. Lat. a solemnity. Ceremony. -cebre ifoncebre. the point round which a circle is drawn. Sherwood. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned.' Celebritas. goad. calefacere. to think. and met. a numerous con.— Chafing-dish. -cepire. in accordance with the Fr. Fr. -ciper. value. Celerity. receipt. a solemnity. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. chauffer. abundance.of the r. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. ceremonia. cillier. point. KsvTpov. single or unwedded life. cenio. -cipio. It. tax. — . a hundred centuria. a prick. a shaft horse. what to set in a chafe. to attend on object with. from censeo. Fr.. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. -cevoir. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Cereal. To Incense. Certain. the hollow the Lat. Censer. a valuation of every man's estate. Celebrity. pick out. to set on fire. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. K^'ivut. estimate. Gr. — — Cenotapli.. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. zens according to their property. to burn incendo. Ta^oe. Incensum.). — . and put it through the over eyelydde. syll. contend. age. and so of that other. Lat. tax. Lat. family. census. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Cell. decebre) . a hundred of what- — . thronged the participle cretus. or any bird's. to chafe. to course of people. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. /ctj/rsw. -cess. Cess. to separate. Cot. Cot. . cigliare. the talk of men. with the eyes. as in some places burnt. In Celebrate. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. become heated with anger. — . Centre. see. blind. capturn. and thence censer. cot.unmarried. sile. to visit in numbers. to celebrate. Censor. an eyelash. cilibat. caber. we have a modified form of (of a place). to seele or sew up the eyelids . ' . make angry. {cori)cipere. criticism. . Assess. To chafe is for wine. -i^oivre. to bury). judge. Cij(fe5j. -CEIVE a shaft. encens. -ceptjun. sure.cern. from Saa-rw. See Cede. eschattffer. calefare. oil. assess. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. concetto. To seel or close the eyes. thence belonging to or connected with corn. Take the nedyll and threde. observe. also grave opinion. stones to the production of heat. S. Gr. celeber certus. Accelerate. but was gradually lost in conceit. deceipt. Lat. candeo. Lat. guish. centum. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. ciglio. capio. Gr. -cense. materials It. being taken from Fr. Chafe. — . -ceit. a religious observance. appertain. cerealis. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. mortar. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. to rub for the purpose a hut. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to blindfold. Fr. Lat. incense. to take. his office. celer. decide. &c. concerner. — . of heating. crevi. to contend. camentum. a registration of one's self. Lat. 1. -oept.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. siller les yeux. to glow. heaven. Fr.— Cellar. Gr. a storehouse Chafe. the place where the de.

lime. to institute anforensic action. sborfare. fa sagramen de calompnia. much more Genoese sagrind. vel susurro. . Wall. gewolb. kever. Fin. p. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. . refuse. Chair. chafing. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Cot. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. ple^. and as this was the beginning of man. a pulpit. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. G. chaps Chamber. ceafer. songe. or puff with snorting. Pers. The jaw chafty. green sagrin. puffed or ruffled with ly. Fr. bargain. grief. — — — — — — . OFr. call in question for an ley). muzzle. shaIt. to gnaw. chagrin. that leneth e per I'autra. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. ing a hard case to their wings. From Port. ceaf. Lat. Perhaps Pm. ckapfare. signal by drum or P. chafeter. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. to babble. to bark. Due. to sit. keuchen. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. chaine. to Latin calumniare. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. charge with. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. any insect of the beetle kind. to puff and blow. kedja. kiaftr. rally one. kiamta. Lat. calx. calonjar. chicane. Pat. Camera. 11. cadera. a prattling woaction. to dispute. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. talkative. In vulgar language. calice. lime . kdfer. idle words. to chatter or talk lightly. Lat. a chough. chawe. chamar. cathedra. Came. dispute. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). sagrindse. taubes korn oder hafer. — . . Fr. as a carriage is a moveable seat. refuse barley . (ca'e'ra) to chair. cadena. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. Lat. a jackdaw. to a seat. without chap/are makiinde. thick and short. place See Cheek. B. Fr. snuff. a chain. E. yap.— — . limare. kiqfta. Fl. Cheffern. cam. cadieira. Fr. de Brai. hiss. cauvette. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. chaise. of. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. De Ir4. — — ' — — — A . make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. care. ^Altieri. camera. to buzz. Chayire. havOFr. rustling motion challenge. kdfelen. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. care.' Rayn. puff. &c. a vault or arched roof. Lat. Gr. to action arose. Chagrin. breathe KaOa^oiiat. to tattle. to call. a rustling noise. calonja. Lat. From the To Chaff. ON. Piedm. tattle. Fr. leviter crepo Then. rustling corn. to ner It. haggle. to caw chawer. Chain. far lima-lima. ing rapidly repeated cries. G. To buy and sell. difficulty . Bouffard. rustle Challenge. calumnia. Fr. with a:n arched roof. Kaiiapa. Gr. to pant. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. Ayenbite. often puffing. Pr. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. fern-chafer. . to calumpnjamen. In like manto huff. a goba rustling . consisting chiefly of husks limestone. false accusation. fume. dongio. a pulpit Cot. snort. and signifies to consume with anger. calix. in a monstrous fume. have a mind to parley. tronfio. — — — . 35. Prov. chaulx. kahista. to move the jaws. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. P. Fr. from of the G. Hal. cathedra. So from dominio.. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. also to prattle. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. from Swiss kafeln. cup. kauchen. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. chayire. chalanger. Fr. chaffare. Fr. jaw. kaff. as. Bav. From to go to law. tattle cheep. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. — — — . baras of ants. kuhina. great chafe. Prov. now a chair. Cot. chaire. kahuja. vis. in a cana. Probably from According to Diez. hordeum vel let. chatter. kuhuja. to gnaw. Du. Adelung. Fr. clamare. from the shark-skin. hght Chalk. crooked. contestation. breathe hard. chaene. Chalice. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. kahu. kuhata. khah. cadena gives chain. avena vilior. chambre. kaff. grief. sagri. Kuttn. kuhista. to file. to fret inwardtronfo.nium. catena.. Halma. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS.sure carriage. much blowing. preise. keffen. quisquilise offence. matter by combat. on. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. . Du. Lat.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. swelling with anger. to claim. a double operation * Chafer. KoBiSpa. Prov.

to . who stood ad cancellos. kabinti. act of falling.' melleia. accident. received the petitions of the suitors. The E. — KiL . combat. cempa. camerlengo. kappd). Lat. The G. gewolbt. . origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. a jaw kianisa. as in It. giving rise to the as. . to fasten oneself on to another . or less ignorant. to move the jaws kiamt. dial. to fasten on. fray. Fr. champ. to chew. E. to be eminent. to flute as a column. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp.Lat. The word is preserved in E. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. sukibti. a hollow chanfreiner. fight. to fall). M. . Lat. to paw the ground E. head armour. pinch. a horse-race. chanfrar. contest. to excel. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. divided game. champion Du. Fr. game campio. to cample. to slope. kampeln. kabintis. to bevel. Fr. campus. a field of battle. hot. — ^Tusser. ON. — Ch-amberlain. kimppu (Lap. dricka i kapp. Magy. which seems another form of the root. kiammi. kabe. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. dial. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . champ. chain. ON. mesleiare. accidere. hero Sw. To Chamfer. Meleare. Lat. camp. compound. to quarrel (comp. chanfrein. chance. Sp. ciambellano. keiiipe. prize-fighter. difficulty . gekrUmmt. Gall. to wrestle. Fr. nels. broil. Champarty. dial. to debate.' ' Pr. move the jaws. champ parti. kibti. to groove bevel off a right angle. calida et sans aguet. chamble. jocus partitus. contend or argue G. certare. or player at football. chanfreindre. Lat. campus partitus . kampeln. campear. to fall. kanip. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. Partnership. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Chancel. to hang. an athlete. reusement — fight in single combat. chanfrein. at the railings. —Chamfrain. chance. bickering. kabMe. to strive at games . kippo. to happen {ad and cadere. When the to quarrel. . and acted as inofficers of . a game at football. CHANCEL It. Chamfron. Ptg. a hook . Campar. caer. See Camp. G. Prov. dial. kinipen. hamper. cazer. wood. kablys. Carpentier. champ. Dief. to to chew champ. chamfrain. a bundle. luctare. e. ciamberlano. Champ. Chancery. as swine. — masterly Sp. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel.140 CHAMBERLAIN . Fr. from chaud. Pm. camp. camp. . to Hal. Du. chdance. tsammogni. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. kimpUma. Commonly derived from campus.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. pedilusor. kimpustella. . kempen. escazenza. surpassing. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . kimbu. dial. a scufSe. kempa. kiinp. governed by laws of which we are more OFr.—Charfron E. chajnbellan . Fr. to smack the lips in eating. a warrior. ON.—Tutschek. hng. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. athlete. E. to wrestle. therewithal. cahir. to tread The sound heavily. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. is explained by serrarsi. to slope out the . . Sp. kampa. termediaries between them and the judge. jeu parti. Champaign. cameratus. chaude mesUe. i. excellent. ing. from Fr. s. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). fight. a feat. top of a borehole. calidameya. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. contention kappi. It will. cample). to — — champ. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. — Hal. fighting place. Champion. bundle. to fasten oneself to another . Chancellor. campar. to hollow out. Lith. kapp. to hold . So in e. zampettare. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. slope of a bevelled angle. kampen.' SherI'altro ' ' . To cope or contend with. Sup. a court of justice. The happening of things Chance. boys speak of capping verses. Prov. dispute Hal.edley. rare. . cancelli. zs jeopardy. Get campers a ball To camf . Chance-n3. Fin. from cheoir. champ. Hence (with the nasal) w. schmatzen s. cadere. tsamtsogni. the chafldn. to stick to. To hollow out in chanPtg. and mesUe. to talk. kriimmen gebogen.

Chip. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. — : Lat. from chandler. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. as skin chapped hands. chapear. gab. cambiar. throat of an animal. the mouth. jaw.^. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Aasen. cangiare. Probably from chap. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. exchange. chapelete de una bomba. chanter. to chap at a door. chapa. a small plate of flat metal. wood. as to chap hands. chap. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. to plate. Russ. Walach. . Molbech. Fr. any hollow for conveying water. chapeletas de imbornales. to break . every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to plate. to swap. to strike with a sharp edge. chop. Sp. In like manner Walach. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. skipta. Fr. a dealer in candles then. kiceft. the clappers of the scupper holes. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. ceaflas. Chapel. debeant conjurare. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Sp. Da. from clap. extended to other trades. jaw. kapoti. to coat. while the broader vowels a. A fellow. . I. to spht a chip. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Sc. E. to change. Chandler. Chape. To Change. may be compared with ON. cambiare. 2. properly in a hard body. ^Jam. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Hal. flat . kennel. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. cheek. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . —Ordericus Vitalis. also a clap. not a soul. as corn-chandChandry. Compare chark. chancery. and also to chap or crack. as chancery . to cut. a reed. to apply one flat thing to another. shift. the chaps . to paw like a horse . the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. is used in the same sense . kappen. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. —Chantry. to cut up into small pieces. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Hence It. to strike. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. cobio. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. as It. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Hence chantry. to hack. ceaplas. cambium. kiceft as well as kjakje. exchange schimbatoriu. canalis. to cut off . Chaps or chops. clapet. Lang. See Chant. . chap. to peck. chaps.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. surfaces striking together. kemma. Chop. to put on fresh clothes. to deal. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. . — . cantare. — — —Marculfus in Due. camjar. a chap is a crack or fissure. Man of Law's Tale. Commonly derived from capella. changer. Da. It is also used in the sense of the E. W. Cheek. Fr. chapilla. . the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. a jaw. Bret. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. schimbu. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. chiappa. as those on a trunk. to sing. Hal. kvar kjceften. like the knocking of hard things together. or the like chapar. And N. Lith. That wide were sentin their spicery. waterconduit. chapeta. a strip of metal plate. are kept. Chap. to strike. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. to creak. klepan. esclapo. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to truck. See Chop. 140. Du. esclapa. and the modern canal. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chap. a money-changer. the place where candles ler. hard bodies. kaupa. Lat. leather. chancellerie. Prov. a pipe. to — cut. from canna. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. prune. exchange. hack . or the cracking of one. chop. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Chap. ON. Fr. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. lips of an animal. to peck. AS. chandelier. a small metal plate Port. muzzle. schimbd. Channel. the gutter that runs along a street. kjaakaa.

from cape or cope. Charlock. czirbti. chirk. tegere. —— . for the same reason rosario. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. A weed among com AS. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Inst. Fr. AS. grave or make incised marks on an ob. beloved. a merchant. carmen. . Swiss. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. a dispute . a The OFr. AS. twitter. hiss Lith. to converse. Prov. . Bret. Mundart. as Pol. a riddle. Chare. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. of chapel. . charer. chat. Du. Charge. turn about. properly to place — .czirksti. called in Sp. turn. Charcoal was ciarlare. babbling. — — — turned to coal. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Fr. occasional turn. Yx. to load . 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. wreath for the head. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. keeren. to creak. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. Justin. Lat. wood to coal. babdistinction. kurkelis. charger. talking. to turn. Fr. car. — spell. charitas. Hence carminare. from capitulum. cluck. hadka. Chapter. cearcian. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. It. to of the governing body. karout. kirkti. to sing or chirp as birds. from capa. Gr. canne. chapelet. from Charade. a riddle. chapitre. a head or division of a book. caricare. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. a garland of roses. as. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. to chirp. Deutsch. charade. corona. It. gadka. a hood. Charade. prattling quacksalver. go. a mark made on a thing. a mark of a mountebank. carmo. a rhyme. to prattle. czurksti. caritas. return. pohadka. decken. from gadai. be- e. capella. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman.Lat. bler. surris seu Lat. creak. charge an enemy is to lay on. Chirk. a charm. 2. ceap-man. To Char. to croak as a frog . a verse. See Charlatan. to love. to turn Gael. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. charlatan. From Norm. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. enough. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Charlatan.charme. krachzen). as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Lat. to charcoal. cher um cher. to . charlar. in To ness Charity. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. creak. Macduff. Chapman. Fr. twist. eyre. in turns. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Sp. Cot. Sup. es ist mi cheer. Lay on. chirriar. carregar. capellare. chirlar. to dove . schreien. gnash. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. chara. w. Sp. It. cabildo. w. The crash. And damned be he who first cries Hold. . cluck kirklys. clack. to talk . dim. capital. a cricket karkti (schnarren. (eucharistie. condo il volgar francese. cam. ject). that turned decken . The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. chapel. Sp. siarad (pronounced — sharad). it is my turn. Lith. from carrus. seems to be derived charade. An enchantment. called kedlock. . which was incantation. See Cheap. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. chatter. Boh. to tattle. the turtle pitre. Lang. ghirlanda seor garland. gaggle . chatter. Chaplet. burning without consuming the substance. cedeleac. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. char. carus. The G. to chirp. It. the nature of a thing.' Boccaccio in Diez. as a beetle. Chark. czurliwoti. carricare. ciarlatore. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. 370. to prattle. — a car. to chirp as sparrows.. OE. * Charcoal. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. Lat. Character. Fr. and in It. Ptg.). eapitulo. Mid. used in the sense of magic Fl. a turn cerran. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal.whirr. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. colliers that charred coal. jabber. tattler. kurkti. In that work the verb is written caire. affection. charcoal burners. &c. cerran. dear(in both senses). cha. capitolo. dear.

to chirp as a bird to cheep. magpie. pure. a yawning. be wide open. careful. To talk. as purgare Fr. gaddc. to talk. fragments. speak . to set a jewel. Russ. letters p. root of the Lat. shout OE. castus. a young man . as that made by the crack of a hard substance.house. ch). a flock of those birds.a. chip. clack. Du. knatiern. the noise of birds. nommer. V. — We ornamental work the to signify E. as turnip-chaits. CHATS fit 143 to name. chick. — = Chats. chit. Lat. or pop. ch&tier. used to represent a sharp note. chaste. It. racket . cearig (from cearian. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. to cry as a chicken . occasionally Forby. to cut and faggoted. See Catch. incassare. csacsogany. to wet. to separate in morsels. a plate of metal. Kil. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. to make a noise. whence a charm of goldfinches. from purus. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. the calix of a rose. Chamel. whistle. warble. See Card. make a noise as birds do. kna. gazeuiller. g. chisf. carme and Fr. Gr. —Chastise. To Chase. tittle-tattle. charm. An imitative word. a branch. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. See Cistern. clean. castus. charmer. crackle. flesh. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. To Chase. czysty. enchasser. —Charter. carmen is presented in AS. little sticks cudere. clean. geug. a word. niggardly. It t. Chat. Pol. — The . from pure. clear. nome and . shivers. chip. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. G. carnisj bones kept. is to represent the chamier. Fl. i. Cot. kata. gazzettare. To chip is then to crack. OE. clean.— Chatter. kippen. Fr. Kil. chit-chat. pure. Fr. D. It. or equivalent forms. cassa s. chat. chit in the latter sense Du. la chasse d'une rose. schioppare. warble. discourse. Parallel with E. clap. clatter. noise. Diez. —Bailey. gazzogliare. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. a chatter-box. . In like manner Russ. a branch and a young female. It. the cry of the bat. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. . To chitter or chipper. karigh. cyrm.). to enchase it . csaterdzni. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. the handle of a razor . — Fr. as. chick. a shrine for a relic. eclats. talk much . chaste. talk. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. chatter. to chirp. jackdaw . parcus. to crack. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. chikat'. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. Magy. gazzerare. a gap. So in Gael. gazzolare. It. knacken. sordidus. or suckers on rough borders. in Jam. splinters. an enchantress. To chit. to crack. fragments or leavings of food. Fl. To Chasten. to chirp. Pol. converse. gadu-gadu. Lat castigare. to clap. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2.— Chit. Fr. chykkyn (Pr. prattle. as from nomen It. chip.ppen. or the cry of a bird or the like. kata-kata. chits. chair. or a bird out of the egg. pure. tenax. Hal. the young shoots . germinate . also to hatch. Chat-wood. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. karg. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. The egg is chipped. — Yorkshire chat. limpid. %aafi. Chaste. From carinen was formed It. Chart. a twig Suffolk chaits. xi'i-'^vui. noise. Fr. the bird is iiown. to gape. prate. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. Malay. kastaa. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. from xoAn.). to burst open. to which it bears the same relation as chape. — Hal. to care). — sharp sound of a crack. Cot. a churchyard or charnel-house. — — . to chatter or prattle .. csacsogni. ferire. caro. chary. — Palsgrave. B. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . also a youth. to baptize. csatora (Magy. Chasm. Pm. as in the E. a crack or a flaw . Chary. To work plate as silversmiths do. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. as we speak of olive branches. —Jam. s. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). blackthorn-chats. gallan or ogan. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. cs E. scraps of for fuel. also to germinate or spring forth. snap.

agreeing upon. and. NE. Du. cattle.ing. mandibula. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. — To check an account. to buy. kakkaset. laughing. KaviiXog. Lat. to vomit. giving or taking in exchange. changing. See Cheek. gagkern. caupo. cattle. to clear the throat . to negotiate. Cheek. e.— . Hence to cheat. prattlingchete. catalliim. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. to buy. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. from Lat. kek. &c. look. See Chess. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. welcome heartily. cozener. kak. Slav. Bav. bon marche. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. capitale. lead to OE. a repulse. OFr. chuckle. dchec. ceafl. Fr. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Ek dry and hard. kakaista. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as.kakot. chear in the sense of victuals. farm for farm. chop. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. visage. to stutter gigken. goods. cera. jaw. whence captale. . It. to cluck like a hen. price. equiva. kaupa. to coff—Yisi.' kezen. choule. entertainment. exAS. Soc. — — —Chowl. hawkmann. a canting knave. a cheater. Ingulphus. to chop and change. sense of bargaining. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. in widely separated languages by the Lat. Cheat. horse-couper. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. ceaflas. CHATTELS has ciio. chire. upon a checked cloth. Then. aspect of a man. a dealer in horses. frown. CHEEK zitella. chiere. a tavern-keeper. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. kaufen. The gutGoth. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. kaupiti. . Hal. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. Faire bonne chire. — We ' .of the throat in coughing. to fetch the breath with difficulty. a piece of moveable property. to act as a rogue. a young boy or girl. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. 144 the It. truffa. teeth . the principal ' colloquial E. giggling. the countenance Fr. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. to nauseate (to retch). from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. the face. . countenance. to swap goods . Fin. snout. chatal. 'li^'opa jord i jord. which is the word in ceap. Pr. et juxta catalla sua. ceahhetan. retching. entertain kindly. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. kauf. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. goods. the tongue. a dealer. ceap.' to exchange to gasp. the Lat. with Dief. Chew. in Fr. Pm. to coup s.. to laugh. to make inarticulate sounds in . lower.— Chole. while it Bret. Sp. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Fl. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. gig. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Chattels. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as.-^. to — . thers. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. kok. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. kik.— Chaps. which is used in the to stutter. any cheating. ku. Cot. Chear. favour.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. jaws. are represented piti. sob E. Modern Slang. chaptel. kichen. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. It.—Choke. citello. gagkezen. s. Bohem. and hence the E. kaupon. the Confessor. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. a willing look and unwilling heart.— Cattle. with the exception of land. to . G. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. keck. chatel. Cam. cara.. cheeks. . chapman. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. us. kikottaa. Sc. a rogue or person who used the canting language. cattle. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. It — Brompton in Due. stuttering.. society. sum in a loan. to deal ON. stuttering. sale. Fr. . and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. tradesman. cachinnari. force of the word. from AS. Pro v. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Gr. koopen. chavylbone or chawlbone. Check. syllables ^ag-. OFr. cita.

See Case. to gape gab. jaws Sw. Chef. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. Analo. Prov. to swallow. made rancid koka. to choke with laughter. schach. An imitative word. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. hasten. mouth kek. E. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. CHE. clear the throat. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. to kasa. gabe. cheek. &c. Lith. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. Jam. kopen. jowl. Thus "we are brought din. AS. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh.pose of acidifying them kasadr. skratt. schach. Chekenyd or querkenyd. cabrio. veluti piscium. cegio. w.their struggle for independence. ca' — . rattle in the throat. To make a shrill noise Chest. The name of creak as shoes. old bread. ON. kastr. chasi. e. acquisition. chesten. As the board to gasp i. kirsche. the palate Chequer. Fin. Sp. throat. F*-. gullet. chops. rafters in heraldry. Du. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Cherry.. /Ji2^/(W. AS. Sw. Pl. . X'C&s.Xo belch. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. jaws. caru.' to w. cabiron. prevail with. gap. kikna. food. ceaflas. Sp.G. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. chevir. Cher. frame by which the exertion is made. . though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Kil. Fr. Da. Du. Lat. (Kil. caseus. chests in OE. make an end. accomplishment cayed. mollium congeries. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. N.cirieggia. takes place in the formation of cheese. as meat and butter. like a young chicken. E. E. chiffe. quoka. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to bring to an end. gaghel. practice seems to have been communiChevron. gill of fish AS. by laying it in come to an agreement with. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. squeak as a mouse. Chess. suffo. czypti. cerasus. The Sw. cista. whence kasa-leipa. achever. to choke. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. kikna of dorum coacervatio. w. cams. to make a noise different word. kastanie. to gasp. incaseatus. geafl. AS. In these latter forms we see the transIt. to boken. cireggia. subjected to this process with that which the throat .perly head. kces. chevron. Prothroat of an animal . subacidus. to year. cherir. geagl. jaw . treat with affection. chAtaigne. Fr. to hold dear. — 10 . breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Lat. ceac. Lith.D. cese. cerise j G. to kep. quok. Chemistry. scacco. ceaplas. Fr. a cricket.). jouffle. gapen. as. Sc. G. castaneusj Fr. dear. to geahl. It. jaw.. . Tutschek. kjcebe. things Da. w. a heap.peep in the same sense. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. G. Lat. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. kjceve. cheek. nish source. — — . Pm.D. cufd. cough. kistej Lat. king). seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. throat. chops. cyse. the mouth. the loose the game of checks. equal squares of opposite colours. kasa. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Sw. Lat. . chaps. — — . a rafter . Fris. carnium. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. ichec. . rupted into chess. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. See Chess. — — . cheken. jaw. rennet. Sc. From them the plish. Fr. kok. to belch. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. kdkel. dersen . The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. Chevaux de frise. cisty G. the throat. gous forms are G. ceg. kaecke. giffle. OHG. Hence chesten-nut. ation. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. by laying up in a covered heap. xaque. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Chevisance. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. It would Cheese. To Cheep.EP CHEVRON 145 on. See Alchemy. Cherish. the hke. cheek. to prevent the attack of cavalry. a chicken. the The use of the word kcesir. Fr.koppen. cheeks. condition of being taken. the neck. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. ost. ceocian. Achievement. kjakje. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. kdke. for cheese itself. kesten. then end. kasiiUPr. kapen. to love. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. the final guttural is retained in writing. whence czypulas. to accomThis they call hdrsk. caws. E.

. Pr. kauchen. to contest about trifles. by driblets. to chew. It. the cry of young . chew or chaw. cabriones. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E.— Gattel. into a continuous shriU sound. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. as pointing out the origin of the E. to go. horns of the house. — — Mother Hubbard.. Pm. Fin. kop. has probably the same origin. Prov. tyuk. kibr. jaw. cabar beinne. gosling.). keichen. chieftain. cib. Gattel. chavel. sonorous. Chimb. Imitative of a loud clear sound. Payer chiguet A chiguet. Chaw. Probably from Fr. Tintillo. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. pipio. — It. killen. kouwe. a cup. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Fr. a quid of tobacco. Chief. to chirp or peep like a chicken. grelot). creak. lead through the synonymous E. rafter . kauen. Chick. — Fin. Sp.D. Du. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. De chic en chic. a finch. De finger killet mi for kalte. deer's horn. the least imaginable jot. See Chimmer. also the horizon. tremble. . Da. Gael. cebr. a chicken. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . kippa. while the Magy. kimia. — Du. chillrar. to gasp for breath (Hal. pipe. pi. tiukkata. from the second Lat. to contest.— Cot. rafter . kopf Du.^ to resound as a bell. to crackle.— . the same principle I regard On birds. aner. The loss of the syllable it in Du. knarren. rafter. ]). kitista. kidata. are formed Du. to chime. jaws . knirschen.peep. greloter is to shiver for cold. to use the jaws. cabar. pole. Fr. twitter.' my finger tingles with cold. Chill. czypulas. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. beam. stake. kinderen. Fin. Chime. the Ptg. knit the brow cib-led.D. kuwe. chiler. caprioru. Fl. Kil. kindeken. kimista^ . — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. in Walach. G. choule. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. then cold. the head. kilderkin. crepo. E. And hence. kimme. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. zitterti. to titter is Du. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Russ. a hen. chillar. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. or as E.-ill. A To Chew.. kaw. tiuk. k'imm s. capete. chawbone. Child. a jaw. alter. captain. mouth. to scold. to raise the rim. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. head. CHJME the radical form is unusual. chicaner. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. kind. tiukkua. chiquei. cica cica. horn wood. 146 brial. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. branchy. ultimate origin of the Mite. or qf people talking rapidly. pululo. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. or the broken noise of birds. Swiss kiden. and not vice versd. killen. to the brim. acute. CHEW . W. G. chavel.. as. strideo. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. a young bird. jaw. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. caferu. chin. Brezza. mountain top . a cup cibaw. chaps. chicoter. To Chide. The Pl. chol. Now gan some courage unto him to take. a chicken. pip. kauwe. to twitter. kieken. Du. chill. To chitter. from the first of which is Lith. . signifying properly shivering. a small cask OFr. to smart. Halm. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. or chick. chic. then as G. Pr. . capu. a little bit. queror. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. Fin. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. the jole. E. hiss as meat on the gridiron.^ Hal. a cup. Lat. cidan. cild. : — a lump. cap. cheek. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. the rim or edge of a vase. tremble with cold. machouere. tintelen van koude. the young of animals in general. pipio. AS. — . from little to little. 'Among these the G. the throat. klagend tonen. a chicken. gills of a fish. Fr. Chigue. cabarach. kime. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. tiukka. quivering sound which passes. w. chikat'. and from the third E. Walach. when the vibrations become very rapid. For the see word Doit. kaau•wen. Pl. to Du. Bret. Chitter. Magy. chef. capo. antler. to pettifog. caput. ach. s. ' . Fl. E. chimb. Pm. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Palsgr. term is ssaru fu. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. chillness or shivering. chicken. a head.

j^lf. cinan. schiena. Chink-cough. Huloet. quivering or shakyng for colde.. Chitter. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. schina. — . a surkik hosta. sound. Chat. The desig. Chine. also vibrans. klincken. name Then. the chine. — . Chymerynge. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. a fire-place. To chirp or twitter. a crowing sound in recovering breath. . To Chitter. tinnire. Lith. killed by Bellerophon. and the Du. hollow. in the same crack. cleft. bone . the cheek (jaw) . spina. but or cry as a parrot. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. from Lat. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. chick. to chink with laugh2. Fr. Diez de. cincel. AS. Gascoigne in Todd. clipping of coin. See Chap. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . To chink with laughter. are In like manner E. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. kink hoest. caperd. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. schetteren. cheminde. a Kuttn. caminata. which differ from each other only as Chirk. It. . — — — — — . also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. Gower in Hal. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . It. hiss Pm. E. zirpen. keich husten. czirszkti. komia. chink.' Phaer's Virg. Fr. backe. to squeak in It. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. It. then to any narrow crack or AS. to creak. Hindost. schetteringe. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. pare also Walach. the cheek. Chin-coug^h. quavering of the voice. Sw. KinneGr. Fr. simmer. Sp. G.iron.Huloet in Hal. fyr. To Chimmer. from 10 * ' Chia. chatter . A . a hall Mid. G.. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Kil. to chirre. the mouth (jaws) . . plodere. caminsects. Chitterling. squittire. as a bell kommata. hiss chirlar. kumina. skina. stridere. pork) . Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Gloss. a thorn. have been used to designate the spine. as the/ is preserved tering. Chit. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. eschin^e (de pore). in Hal. to murmur. to prattle czirpti. the jaw. ykvvQ. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Pr. esquena. sonus the backbone Lat. clangor tinniens kummata. kumista. sound on beginning to boil. . gen. to simmer. the chin . as the chink of money. Magy. representing connected together. eschiner. Cot. chits. Chip. to prattle . See Bright. Du. tsengeni. — . as a large bell . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. E. companied. — . Prov. ciarlare. zirken. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. to sizel. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. a chap. Ptg. i. spina. all these imitative terms being minata. disCot. to chink. crepare. kieck hoest. and bodily movement in shimm. clashing of weapons. Chisel. as birds the mouth. ciseau (for cisel). a thorn. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. twinkling light. Fr. Chintz. bx-eak the back of schena. Bav. dial. yivtiov. Pm. epine.er. and from a similar sound to boil gently.to chirp. fissure. cheek. to tattle. to sound deep or the Gr. cinne. flaw Hal. It. genou (pi. then of a fabulous monster part goat. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. The change from the sound ter \s. In the same sense. hus.sharp. the jaw. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Bret. tschirpen. applied to tremulous motion. See Chats. See Chark. esquina. sonants. to chirp . a szemrcU. shiver and the chyver of Pr. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. tsongeni. a chink or fissure. cisaille.schricken. to open chirriar. and chim-mer. eschine. . up and down. do. chin . the whooping cough.Lat. vincially used in the sense of a crack. Du. to sound. Sp. rustle. Fr. Caminatum. The small entrails of a hog. 147 kimina. cisello. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. sounding deep. part lion. Primarily a shrill sound. et garrire .to divide or Du. twitter caminus. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. schrick. chhint. Lat. kinne. genawi. or chyFrigutus. Chyrme or chur. to tremble. verynge or dyderinge. to creak. Chimney. Sp.). ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Chink. It. chirp. Chimera. from the geon's lancet. sparkle. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. to gape. gena. komista.czirbti. tremulous motion. and light. ter. resonance . to chirp. Sp. to chine.

chiffe. * To Choose. to shiver. to experience. Equivalents in the SlaFr. kor6n. then to try. to ^cleave .' Verie coinme Cot. to try. a ruff. kbhren. a calf's pluck or chaldron . Enn Sigridur sem ' . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance.ffrill. a blow. the inwards of an animal. then to shiver. chock full. &c.' who shall not taste death. to choose. all seem slate . G. disposition. a calf's chaldern of E. as green as leeks. civette. gustare. to hack. choix. from %u\i). Chives are also a kind of small onion. pluck. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to try . to wrinkle. and Vf. schiefer. %o\ifa.' At last he dwelt . To Chop. x^poc. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. schoch. approve. kausjan. a knight. Choice. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. a young . a heap. gusten. G. the small parts of the roots of plants. a twittering. Warwickshire coff. of E. . kieser. chives. kiusan. CHOP kros. of an angry — — — ' ' — . kalbs gekrose. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. crammed Choir. choppe. kaup. Prov. to try. .yEuffM. chimp. to stop geschoppt voll. to ing is doubtless to taste. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. chife. to break off in small shive. to prove. . — Chock-full. kruszki. kushati. ^S. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. Gr. whence Lat. to palpitate . Fr. cut up into — See Chats. and in kosten. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. ON. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . keuren. by the vibrations of sound or motion. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. cape. ments of the knightly class. to strike hands . Fr. &c. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. xiv. prove. a scale or fragment P1. The manners and senti. kiesen. Jam. chatter.vonic languages are Pol. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. a rag. Boh. . propagated. kiezen. skifa. word is more likely to be from Lat. to tempt. . scheve. Chives. —Chorus. to exchange horses. — See Cheek. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. a company of singers or dancers. Chap. to taste. chceur. schevel-steen. in the same language. caperd. also calPs. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. cepa. from chevalier. and N. full to overflowing. . Serv. signify to kiss. to taste. and It. Swab. chippe. gdnse gekrose. it is probable that the root kus. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. to taste. from kraus. taste. causir. chorus. gekrose. shoot . Fr. rare. Schmid. I. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. keypa. seallion or unset leek. The . chattering. developments of the same radical image. Cavalry. heaped measure. chawdron. OHG. a chive. fine threads of flowers. The I go to prove them. taste.. a ruff or frill. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to try. Chuck-full. an onion. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. haslets. select. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. kustigen. experience valerie. or original meaning is preserved in G. To Choke. cke. wkusit' prikushat. as with a blow. Lat. ent quarter. to turn. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. ruffs. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. Goth. cive. g'schochet voll. specially with an application to theatrical performances. friller. koren.. Gr. coro. anger. a small slice or slip of anything . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. Yr. Body and Soul. 2.D. . and in this sense the * small pieces. a wine taster.gust. a goose's giblets. the ridges prove. Choice is probably direct from Fr. G.— B jag E. The Sc. coup. ON. Walach. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. try. wein didder for cold. kiusan. ^euw. are used in the same sense.freze. to Compare also Pol. to chap at a door . in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. arkiusan. called cMtters in the N.ceosan. to clap up Hal. whence choleric. Choleric. Chivalry. okusyti. — — — . try. chap hands. kusid. •- Russ. — Cholera. to chap. krussyi. to taste. pieces . chaup. full. i. lead us on to Lat. chibble. shiver. wrath. As kushnuti. Gr. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. a fragment. to taste. curly . See try. fresure. kushevati. Luc. 19. bile. to taste . by which they are Fr.V)^x. Swiss kust.

and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. e. e. chroniques. Cot.— Chevin. gull. Gr. capitone. Fr. Chough. time ra . Chopino. E. cauvette j Fr. Peace.povucd. xop5>}. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. Sw. &c. — .xl—Shirbe ridiculous. — Dief. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. merchant. slipper . plump. traffic. capitanus. klompe. a trafficker in souls. for to defraud. Fr.• — . chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. chevane. i. chouquette. Fr. — Chrisom. AS. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. connected with G. ley in Giiford. — Quabbe. What do you think of me. In the Alchemist. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. in Chaucer. capita. chevin. 4.—Chuokstone. klopper. choucas. cresmeau. chronicles. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. kolbe (club). kauwe. syllables chat. Anachronism. the teeth to chatter . cangiare. one who buys and sells horses or cows. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. monedula. chapma?i. From the Turkish Chiaus. cow-couper. to speak thieves' slang. E. whence apparently the Sup. See Change. Nominale in Nat. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. cheap. I bring you the Cloughs. a stump. To coup. kowej Sax. high clog. Madam. capito. cob. Fr. ON. chatter . where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Jam. chuet. the same word with the It. overset.X. Borgoens happen. a bullhead. soul-couper. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. kowe. applied to an owl in that language. xpi'^lia. Gr. as Du. noble Doctor. cambiare. equivalent to the E. to clack. cauc. by the Robert Shirley.. caqueter. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. the intestine of an animal. dealing. kaulhaupt (club-head. of which such strings are made. to cant. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. To Chop logick. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. To Chouse. kobe. sent before him a Chiaus.\^s. koppe. an offence against the fitness of times. A fish with a thick snout and head. thumb Fl. a lump or piece chump. In Sc. . chapineria. E. Du. kaej Lith. Gr. The Turk was here As one should say. Wall. Chronicle. yiSA. to strike in the hand. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . — — — . thick-set.sohola. a messenger or envoy. cavena. G. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. we find the following passage Dap. Fr. whence — E. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. or miller's kaycke . Du. short piece kubbug. chack. See Chaff.(. chapin. caker. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Lat. chouette.. and we actually find champman for chapman. xftovoq. E. XpvaaXic. Kil. bearand aits. Confounded with the bullhead. forms are Chrism. a thick piece. to overturn. gold. If I discover. p.). cheviniau. chop. which was written 27. in i6io. Chord.' Jam. Chub. chrisme. That Face. to chatter. whence the Fr. to turn over. OE. chevane. claquer. kaufen. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. because she would not endure this husband chopping. that will thank chiaus — you richly. . A jackdaw. a The What dhy ^. whence e. Chrysalis. kubbr. Picard.). chrysalis (Plin. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. the string of a musical instrument originally.— Landnamabok. ' ' What's that? Dap. 49. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. civetta. Gr. Marin. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. prattle . caphatenus. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Alchemist. dial. kubb. who took in the Turk- clack. ceo. kaw. dial. a small fish with a large head. clogs. Ant. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. to knock. P. —Shakespeare. from kloppen. clat. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Come. gull. Sp. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. fat. gobio capitatus. as in Fr. peace. quappe. chub. -chron-. Chuck.

and thence an ugly face far ceffo. a cutting round. to Newsp. then the on oh StX iv roXt. chops. chakil. cidre. cendre. to fall at or on. sinter. fat-cheeked.' And cold. AS. to separate the kernel of the milk. Gothic nations. ceffore. geaflas. kakka. from Lat. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Churn. casum (in comp. to strike clatter. to make a aiKipa. Fr. Chuff. ceffo. joufflu. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Du. -eris. . that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. chofu. flower. as Fr. chife. cheek. pith. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Sicerawry face ceffata. &c. a rustic . Chunk.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. a cutting an old chuff. It is certain. chuffy. comp. to form grains of butter. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). dial. chofe (Grandgagnage). The derivation from Kvpiasov. cheeks Cincture. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. calculus. KaxXij?. ON. as water running over rocks or stones. whence church.' he adds. e. Lat. a man.D. The origin ation. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. See Cheek.^. jaws. Cleland in Jam. G. See Ceiling. we have to chack. to throw out sparks. Gr.V//a'6'?. sindel.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. kjami. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. sintel. accido. cut off. Jennings. whence deciduous (of trees). Sw. a lump. cado.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. In Sc. kernjen. -cido. -cide-. or. klakka. to cut decide. spuma metalli. have given rise. kirna. set kerti. karl. -cise. scoria. To chuck in the fall from. surly. as in E. an old man. a man. a douse on the tores. ON. cinctus. sindel is although only this canon directly dis.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. sindr. dust. to fall. * Cinder. giffle. ChurL husbandman. Hence -cid-. marrow. a husband. . C^z^j^ churHsh. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. Gr. ciuffo. kerl. Wall. ceaplas. chack or stane-chacker. that the word is an adoption of Fr. i. Probably from It. to him a sudden blow. Fr. ceorl. to To Chuckle. kern. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. in the face. a miser. Du. to gird. the kernel. whence ON.for the residue of stone coal.. to cause the milk to grain. sicera. OFr. Aasen. Lat. tie about). to jaw chack or snap. so as to make the happen . kaerle. sindra. G. thence a belt. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . ashes. Fris. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. with It the Lord's house. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . however. As AS. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. log of wood. blow on the I io6 in Mur. -cisuiri). sive piratiam facere sciant. male person. cinders used disjunctively. The spelling of chider has Chump. a pebble . or choice part of a thing . in Sc. . has been impugned which it has really no connection. to fall upon decide. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). in circumcision. Ir. Cider. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. pp. AS. ccedo. ON. kiorne. Church. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. Lat. e.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. -cis-. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. to churn. . lamak. cinctura {cingo. residue of burnt coals. countryman. Cob. chack-stone.— . i. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. ceaflas. — of the two words.rendered by Kil. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. See Cheek. domhnach. to sparkle. Du. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. from Lat. calx. but by way of explan. chaps. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. KvptaKolg. a resounding object. ladre from Lazare. a man. swollen or puffed up Cot. Diss. joffu. a pebble. Ka-^aiva. to determine incision. Wall. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. . tindra. incido. 24. Lat. . a fellow. Sc. as Epkema explains it. — . &c. a girding on. to make a rippling noise. cinis. x^^i?. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. — — A — ' ' — . to turn from blossom to fruit. Cieling. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. gffe. the snout of an animal. Da.— Chu%. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. as a board.

cit^. a ball. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Fr. fall. vociferation. creak les dents. babble . radical identity of the Fr. around. a place See place hiddern. Mack. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. ON. a split. lump. scion or sucker. to clatter. a circle. a clod. CION See Tinder. &c. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. klateren. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. Lat. clapper. . cisterna. * Cistern. clack-box. circle. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Lat. a Lat. glamm. glambar. a whirlwind. It. klamp. cisterna. Excite. Lap. -cite. circ2tlus. to make to go. hringr. Du. Arab. crack. to cluck. See Circle. a'upiav. clobyn. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . It. to go. klubb. klimp. Lat. dim.' sione. sprig. to toll . Cot. civitas. circa. a ball. The Gr. a cleansing place. a loud uksa slamketi. Gr. the place of . a. clack. clack. castus). citujn. G. . lucerna. globus. a whip. a young and tender plant. sifr. claquer. —Civil. Gr. forms — — — parent plant. So a light. lump . claquet de moulin. ring. Lat. with an initial s instead of c. to strike. ter. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. klabb. to gnash the teeth. . Clump. G. sound. domern. sajira. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Sw. the door was slammed J slamem. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. cittadella. a circle. The syllables clap. Gael. ruin. to appeal. clat. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. a city. claquer. bunch . latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. From Arab. To Clack. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. To Claim. See Crankle. Cite. a judgment cern. civis. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. We . Comp. Fr. clump. klump. to summon or call on. . suck). Citadel. klompe. log. to call. klappen. about. to call. to be empty. is traced by Gr. mass . Scion. -cis-. Gael. and. a shoot. a rattle . klqb. kringla. twig. crack. a lemon tree. E. prattle. chupon. Hence Incite. to cleanse. a lump Lat. sip. sindri. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. cista. . claim. We . ON. clap. cion. clatCot. klopati. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. city. tinnitus . prattle. clangor avium . empty Golius. trunk. for Cion. sphere gleba. lash . lump. klumbr. a ring. The notion of a lump. ciste. a cistern. cry out . to set in motion by means of the voice. clamare. chupon. clasp. belonging to cities or social life . Lat. circum. rattle . Fr. a reservoir Probably from Lat. around.— . lump of wood or with the nasal. —Circuit. a citizen . compared with It. lump. E. a city. cittade. klekotati. the tongue. Citron. a lump Du. to clack. kluV. a kind of pipe. cluster. W. to chatter. Sw. klepati. klappe. In Fr. . sound of blow. civilis. City. gutter. or quill to draw waier through Fl. as. to chatter . to bawl. Lat. a mass. clamp. cry. Du. . claquer crash. KpiKoe. outcry. lump. clack-dish. from chupar. * Ciplier. clapping of klacke. clot ON. bunch. as in Sp. a circle. a block. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Dan. clog. and clash. slam. parallel root is slam. cifra. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. chest. a boss . clambar. citrus. . See -cid-. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. and E. in the frequentative form. cieo. 'mass. to chatter. stimulate. Fr. ON. a block. klacken. klemte. Hal. accordingly find the roots dab. clamras. of citta. excite. noise. sound- — hands figures. scion. Du. cittd. Bohem. rattle. a knob. ball kloben. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a hiding-place. or clap-dish. Circle. a rattle Fr. a pop-gun.to suck. Recite. Sp. . and Sp. ern. klammer. chatter . glam. klater-busse. or split with noise. a Pol. may cite w. to mention. a clod Russ. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . It. biw. kringr. as caverna from cavus. smack. clap. Lat. to clap at a theatre. uproar. klap. whence cistiti. klacke-busse. noise — — a cistern. klak. Chaste.. — (Dozy) ing blow. KipKog. Circum-. cito. to knock. Clamp. dob. . Clam. area. a for water. . also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). clamp. chijfre. crack. Alt. to cry out. wasserkasten (water chest). Dan. klambr. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. circum. cion. clamer. a kind of rattle. to call by name.

dam. holdfast. in a hidSen place. clap. In like manner Du. clamber. These words To are closely connected with damp. Swiss kldbem. dam immediate modifications — . of money Gael. buckle klamp. to pinch. a claw . pinching. The Fr. tinkle. gliong. cling. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to cleave or stick. . ney. — — . klette. tenacious. — Lat. Bav. sound. To sticky. clammy brace. of which the locative case. . clandestine. of the children. dapier. E.er. crowd . G. dienklebber. tight. to clutch or cling oneself up. beat. as the clapping of hands. clangor. Swiss kletten. Hence the Fr. G. nature . beating. klappre. clasp. B. to clap on. with cramp-irons. to knock. To clap in E. to gingle. G. dink Du. Clapper. and that from celo. AS. a hawk. to beat. klubber. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. Bohem. ancestor. dem. dam. — with hunger. klebern. to climb. klappen. clapas. where- A — unto they retire themselves. sound. klamre. hands or claws to grasp. conceal. substances of a stickydam. klynge. to patronus. cluster. as the Lat. dren. Clink. clink. klettern. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. klemmen. but perhaps not directly from it. or klamp-vogel. E. clap. klippe. These are imitations of a loud.' to take coals to Newcastle. klem-vogel. Clank. klibber. to Hal. to climb. salaan. . kloben. dientes. Gael. seize. rattle. to stick or glue. klemmen. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . uproar. stick. chatter. klemmen. dapier.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. klank. E. kleppe.p correspond- ' without order. kleppen. grasp. contraction. dank. . sound . accent. compression. — . clann. hold. Halma. a trap. from the w. The root which gives rise to klibb. a sound made by a lighter clink. to hide. to. to knock. The E. to dame. klimmeii. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. a claw. compress. to do anything with a clap. Du. Russ. to claw oneself up. cramp-iron. a noose . tingle. klamm. solid. &c. descendants . Lat. to glue. a stone See Claim. See Clam. klepati. rumour. clibby. Clan. kleben. club . Dan. sound object . sound of the trumpet . to glue. scendants. anything hidden. klynge sig op. to hold to pinch. to climb. to hook things together. cream Manx doan. dapi^. Du. prison. a heap of stones or other things piled up . children. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. To Clamber. ring as metal. whence sala. clav\f. Mampe. to Sw^. take hold of. bond. clang. dial. E. to climb. salafa. dap up. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. clear sound. klamme. klang. brawl. Du. a burr. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. Dan. G. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. a sound made by a still . kleppe. to climb. Du. tone. originally a heap of large stones. dambar. yf. — Cot. closely analogous to that of the fast. knocking. klappen. klepanie. chatter. Dan. a heap of stones.' klibba. Fr. Dan. a rattle . dandestinus. children. Lang. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . to daub pinch. Clamp. Salainen. cleave. damras. klobber-saen. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klam7n. klatten. c). Clang. hook. a whip. OE. bandage. grimper. klam.1. Sw. . to hold fast with the . B.. — Climb. apprehend . a sound. diver. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. dia. cramp. to clamp. to starve. a loud tingle. and hence moist. to climb . daver. resonance klingen. pressed close or hard together. klammern. dee. klepel. run to lumps Clandestine. massy. glambar. offspring. kluppel. privately. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. G. klopfen. for tame conies. a craCmp. strain . to seize. a bird of prey. to stick conceal. adopted Lat. clapper of conies. who occuG. viscosity . chief. gripe. also to clog up. to cling. A i. dang. klampen. narrow. the in many languages. dam. . Clap. and hence to pinch . klavre. tattle. tremble . clajnmy. is used in the sense of secretly. viscous. damor. a stick. celo produces Fin. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. from birdlime. gum. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. dial. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. G. strait. Clamour. coagulated cream. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. to clap. klammer. G. is a nasalised form of gripper. sticky Hal. a place underground where rabbits breed. The equivalent of Lat.

straight-mouthed.Z. in the sense of a claw. and clavis. ictus resonans. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. clairon of a trumpet— It. klc^i. The collar-bone. locket of a door. applied in their harness. an ending. to ring in such a manner for the dead. a distribution of things into groups. Fr. 269. Owl and that by which cleave to. and shrill-sounding trumpet. clairon. &c. — Clarinet. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. sauna de classes. a sphere . globus. classis. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. is preserved in Lang. stop of an organ. So Pol. skeria-klasi. from the resemblance to a key. But clasp or elapse. Clash. G. K\a. klaterbusse.— CLARET clamp. blab. Du. insularum nexus . Thus from Lat. Lat. Eya-klasi. somewhat clear. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. nawith stanis. hawk. the primary origin clapa. a. and old red rose-water. klaeret. contraction. From clairet. Clew. a bird with powerful talons. diver. E. to shut. syrtium junctura. a lump. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. It. the cracking of a whip. clew or fasten upon a thing. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Klatsch- a pop-gun . clatter. To clew.to cra. clavus. and through v into a. flap. Cot. clew. chiarello. to knock. a. clarin. klauwe. It. klatscha pop-gun. klase. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. a water made of aquavitse. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. to rattle . vin clairet. mass. same class with w. which signifies a ball in E. chiarino. clump. kleuen. Class. klatsche. . subrubidum. clausula. ansa. From claudo. to animals Sp. klot. chiizjj-o. Du. thwack . —Kil. Eau clairette. uproar. Du. claret win e. e. Identical with ON. to end. a heap. mass. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. vin claret. biichse. globus. a ball. chatter. klauw. or as G. cinnamon. it is called clamming. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Serv . The form clew. an on the one hand. claw (what fastens together. — tells us. compression. to do anything with a . a lash. &c..Gr. clopa. nail. ivy. he of white and red grapes mingled together. klatschen. Sp. chiaro clear. clamp. i. dap. a clod. Prov. clas. a clasp. from scknallen. a claFr. crying. is used in Sc. sound of the foregoing description. In E. Nawith stavis. fibula. rubellum. Wyutoun in Jam. a complete sentence. also a knell for the dead. Clatter.). Dan. a claw. in the sense of a mass or lump. Lat. Clavicle. buckle. Pol. Originally clasis. under three modifications dava. fracas. Fr. with a reddish tint. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. kluczka. a little hook . Sw. pellet .w or u on the other. Russ. klucz. teren. klijven. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. rion.It. KXeiSi. Claret. from its use in fastening things together. Claw. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Du. forms are the Du. klos. The b readily passes into gleba. schnalle. a nail. gaspe.ck a whip. ghespe. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. klamme. puUs. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. a key KKtitid. we pass to the E. seizes) . If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. hook. clausum. Lang. row aii/iaTos. sphaera. pet. klatschen. as G. Clasp. Commonly made. Kil. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Gr. biichse. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. assembly. Clause. as it is written by Chaucer. Nightingale. klaequivalent to clack or clap. kleeven. vinum helvolum. fragor . glcis. — Kiittner. to clap . waU. climp.\x\xvn. a club or massy stick. clarinado. klouwe. clavis. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. whence kleuer. klouwe (Kil.oi. to fasten. Lat. to patter. klampe. the collar-bone. a bunch. Rayn. Lat. cloi. to clash as arms. cluster. a key. a key origmally a crooked nail. Du. to cleave. . Fr. a kind of small. to snap. Analogous Jam. chasguear. Thus from clamp. clair. noise. Du. a lump . a buckle. to draw it up into a bunch. In the same way is formed the OE. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. kletse. klampvoghel. bawling. kiosk bicza. to fasten together . With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. klaskad. as Mod. — Clarion.

to clink or sound. and Celtic glan. or of a tree. as ON. Mar. Sc. to clinch a nail. kla:g. To Clench. danche. neat.— . cloven wood. Du. ON. to cleave. rivet. Lat. klafwa. clout. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. a bunch of When flax). a key. E. the latch of a door. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. to Brilliant. . doggy. glance . polished. the original . to shine. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. dial. See Clam. Kil. Axletree clouts. pure . rift. The word is . pretty. Da. to clinch GB. kleevig. . CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klinke. merciful. From dob. clash. Sw. To call. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a cleft. AS. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. from the clinking of the latch. dams. to tear or cleave asunder. klinke. klinken. glbram. — : A rivet. smooth. famous. to separate into parts. from diquer. sticky earth. klinka. W. sticky . voice. river. to dag ox dog. See Clog. to fasten. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. a claw or talon. in two ways. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to shine . the fork of the body. that was Torriano. a mass. Du. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. to stick or adhere . clemens. dut. it cleave together. gaklankjan. glitta. dench. glitnir. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. tongs. klyft. klouen. clear. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. Cleat. klinken. ON. kluit. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. pure. gingle. a clincher. This word is used in two business is finished off. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . and E. to sound or make a noise . neat. Gael. kleverig. Bav. kloben. explained from the klinken. klieuen. Sw. Wilbraham. a fissure. klceg. .Q. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . pure. mud. is fast and sure. daggy. a fissure or division See Cleave. klag. . Lat. a cleft. klink. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Du. glent. From clap. glorious. clean. kluft. Cleft. clear. a plate. that was a striking proof. kleben. to glitter. klutsch. bogs cous. The Dan. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. a mass. nitidus. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. a lump. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. Clear. Omklinken. polish . a one end. G. loam. Thus from G. G. (Cot. G. Sc. cliquet. give a shrill sound Jr. as Lat. shine. E. clean. and. klov. clean. a — — .).' was nailed to a rock. The word may be — . dedgy. chaps in the skin. the To Cleave. Die zaak is zS. glan. G. klieben. conserere antklankjan. celebrated . to stick to. klove The Dan. Dan. seem formed dial. clibby. dinquet kleeven. kleg. provinciaUy termed dout. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. and Dan. diquetcr. B. to 2. to clench. kloben. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. G. splendid pohshed. lump. glint. E. viz. kloben. viz. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. from nitere. radiant. glbr. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. clean. klirren. geklonken. Probably a modification of the word doitt. gleit. to be composed. glandse.— Clag. Da. a noise. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Da. vice. door-latch. klirre. kloue. date is AS. kleg. found in other cases. clink. either by the coherence To Clepe. Du. Clean. Sw. Clay. a latch. or from being divided into two parts. sleek. glor-mhor. Clemency. split. as Fr. bright. This is probably one of the clean. pellet. ON. vissticky . klouen. a in that of sphtting. gentle. opposite senses. a lump. Halma. hook. A — A Clement. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. clay . klinken. 154 CLAY dutch. doff. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. . kluftholz. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. klincke. to fasten. dags. .— Claggy. calm. Du. glatt. klor. dag. glan. klijveii. a flash. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. kldnkelein. together . rive. the two parts of Du. glan. cleave. as explained under G. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. bend in a stream. a cleft or fissure. glindse. speech . 2. Clinch. as the Du. to chink. an object is simply cleft. a noose. Fr. holding together. clear. to fasten E. kluyte. deot. The proper meaning of the word is shining. words applicable sight. Du. i. sticky. klinke. klank.

See Clench. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. Du. claw or talon to dek or deik. chatter. an inclination. Lat. a child's or clack . diofian. dough. Clergy.) Brai. rock. The Sc. to cleave. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. to clack. G. Du. to catch. Claw. . CLINCH De . one admitted to the tonsure. dial. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. Gr. expeditious. to catch. whence Fr. sink. a cleft in a rock . clypian. to seize. OE. -Toe (from KXivm. . a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. Sw. declivity. littus. click. klaffen. 3. kliv. klok klep- crepitare. as from derido. to stir. temperature. pulsare. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . klika. cleft. a cliff. climate. to sound an alarm to clap. deuck. Commonly derived from deliver. a precipice. klever. on. Clam. Now the OE. cliquet. in precisely the same sense as the E. The origin is the Gr. dial. Clerk. Lat. and hence climate. dever. a hook. snatch. clever. babble. deik. klouwe. highest is attained. Norm. as a click with the tongue. corresponding to Fr. cleugh. call.— Clue. derigon. from Gael glac. cliquer. speak. clap. verge). a lump. See Clamber. chatter. Climb. rapidus from rapio. diver. duik. klippe. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. chat. klif. dook (identical with E. kliket. deudi. nimble. clima. clep. to wink. a ladder. rock. a ball of twine. is NE. kloof. agile. to prate. derjon. klinge. region not observe it. a lazar's clicket or clapper. de ripa.' ii. dob. Det er en Mover kerl. neither as having lordship in the. derigo. Hence Lat. a claw or clutch. klinke. duke. say. &c. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. We movement catch. that is a clever feUow. quick of perception. 3.. klinket. rupes . to tattle. as Sc. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). in rhetoric. cligner. IS5 Du. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. icXi/ja?. above the pole. as Lat. /cXi'fia. Jam. a latch . the dick of a latch or a trigger. it must be observed. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. derecia. to rattle. See AS. diquette. syn. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. Rouchi cliche. click. a lot. to confess . precipices. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. KkrifoQ. clif. Clever. to teU tales. prattle. Cot. AS. — have the notion of a short quick in E. Somner. a clerk . seize (Hal. crepare. clerus. a clew. click it. dek. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. dexterous. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. dial. a trigger. dutch). Sp. precipice. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. Du. Climax. glomus. cleke. stein- kluppen. and hence deik. with hamarskard. crack. G. a latch. to bend. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. ready of speech. dicher. dichet. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. Sc. a latch. Da. quick in motion. scar. clever. klikker. Clew. dink. Klover i munden. has also deik. or an object character- Clerical. exactly Gr.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. to cry. a sphere. abrupta rupes . klippe. d See Clan. slope . cliof. call. a figure mentioned. . Click. ginally from dob (extant in W. deik. ized . the knocker of a door.). a hold. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. cleft in a rock. klev. cart that tilts over. e. Climate. skard. cleopian. clyf. gleg. in the sense of active. a mill-clack . crackle. to snatch. a baU of yarn. cautes. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. clack. lively.dergie! Wiclif in R. In I Peter v. a clicket or clapper. what so men clappe or crie. cleft of a hill. score7i clif. which is used in Scotch and N. Dunbar in Jam. rugged ascent. on. But the Dan. klaiv. pen. hamraklif. to tattle. clif- stanas. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. would have been derida. Boh. —Vocab. Cliff. chatter. klikklakken. catching.Lat. Bav. — — A . Happen. Fr. Chaucer. cliff. Lat. the clergy. or Sc. one of the clergy. the clergy clericus.— Clicket. deuch. kleppen. and (with the nasal) — clincher. a hump. kleppe. cave . to talk as a parrot. CLERK sound of a blow. Client. . ravine. click. light-fingered. frap- per rudement une personne. corresponding to the Sc. which in Mid. had a form. a tumbril. dergi. from clifian. to move. clatter. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . globus. sonare. has kl'dver. name.

dag. difficulty. klungelin. knippen. Du. nip. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. Clock. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. . kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. — a mantle. E. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. clock is a variation of clack. a tinman. compress . a clock. outcry. parva ruptura. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. recline. brett-glocke. whence E.. Gael. G. . Ir. kol- The word . to lean backwards. pinch. Fr. — clot. See Clang. dial. Cliofue. Fr. klepalo. a hood. Sw. Flem. disposed to a thing. w. Sw. to snip. a lump G. G. to make a loud noise. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. klunge.ginglej Fr. The notion of a loose moveable substance. from klepati. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. especially of something soft or clammy. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . to knock. a snare. To cut with shears. klaka. Du. hluccti. kldpp. klak. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. Bohem.D. See Cowl. clivus. Bi klik uti klak. four of the bell. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. clips. ON. Swiss klokken. a faction. kluben.' for a dry stick. to AS. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klunker. claw. declivis. To Clip. a clog or fetter for a beast . Swiss klungele. at first probably on a wooden board. hooded . to shrink up. a bell. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. like cling. G.'— Shaks. hlinian. in Schmeller) klunk. klinka. klupen. sloping downwards . E. fetter. kolbe to E.D. klinken. 2. to cluster. OHG. to pinch klupe. toga. as thick or curdled liquids. . 156 -cline. a ball of thread . Sw. ten. G. a bell. gUong.' From Pl. incline. acclivis. . a rising ground. quincailler. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. to form one mass with. kluppe. * Clod. klippa. klippe. noise. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. klincke. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to . to cling to a thing. Bohem. clutch. Walach. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. gang. pinch. and so' to contract. bow.. verklungeln. schnippen. clangere.. Esthon. to pinch. Pl. Cloak. &c. ON. kXiVu. Kil. sloping forwards. hill . klok. to wither. iissura. ON. tuft. ring clag. as to snip in the same sense from snap. S w. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl.— Clot. G. N orman clincailler. a cluster. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. to clap or clack.und zuk-lippen. cochl. klippur. kleppe. glocke. To stick to.. . as we now say three or four o'clock. Da. speaks of a ' clung bat. sticky. a lump. by bits. klingen. to beat on the board. klocke. shears. a woman's mantle . 'Till famine cling thee. to sound sharp. knippe. to snap kneipen. clino. klipa. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. klocke. dial. klicke. clog. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. klik. pallium. cloak. -atum. chcng. g. klippa. to snap tongs. Serv. a lump of butter. Hal. clinke. to shrink up. clique. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. G. dial. kima. sloping upwards procUvis. knot klynge. klo^gen. to snap or fillip schnippen. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. to clip. -cliv-. I. cloche. kolki-laud. Een kliks bolter. Sw. Decline. Clink. rima. toga muliebris. to clink auf. to slope or bend . a separate portion. dial. clinker. clingan. hlinen. hluk. Lat. globulus' (Gl. or bagging clothes. as G. club). related to clock. Ang. klungeln. The E. difficulty . incline. to clunge. Lat. clato make a noise. to resound. Du. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim.— KSS. to beat. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. and a similar syllable without the /. . and 'E. to crowd together klynge sig ved. klocka. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to ring. kukla. Du. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. also to form a compact mass. to wither. . Gr. ' . kliks. slant. met. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. To Cling. to strike. to lean. Sw. knippchen. . also to wink . to crowd or squeeze chingy. -CLINE make pinch. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. klynge. straits. a beU. to bend downwards . klippen. . glungelin. Sussex peasant AS.

The origin of clod and clot is to . schlotter. Pr. and Gael. a Christmas log. IV. dunch). klottern. tramp in wet or mire. dirt. -clus-. clorre. Pl. and E. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. Fr. unctuous. bespotted with mire E. klod. clos. m&se noch