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Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

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  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • 2 ABASH
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BALL
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • My
  • BUSY 119
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CAVE
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CLAM 151
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • COAL 159
  • COCK
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIRE
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LOLLARD 395
  • LULL
  • LYRE 403
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MITE 425
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • PAD
  • PALTER 459
  • PARAPET 461
  • PATE
  • PEEL 467
  • PESTER 471
  • PITTANCE 479
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • POTATOE 49
  • PROP
  • QUID
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RARE
  • RAVE
  • REEF 529
  • RET
  • RIME
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCUD
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SHOE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLAG
  • SLUR 603
  • SMITH 607
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUASH 635
  • 644 STATUE
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • Dm



original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. the baaing of the sheep. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. and mully or mully cow is the . or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. and where we are seeking. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. when we is represent to our children of the cow. is given to a cow or calf. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. with an initial m or I. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. or Mollein.NURSERY IMITATIONS. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. Molli. come Moolls. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. when neither name for the object to be designated. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. to the syllables which are significant to the child. in other words. The syllables moo (mu. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. in language of the present day. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and in imitates the cry are used withitself. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. persons of different tongues at the present day. by whom the be understood. mind of the of the animal. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. or. muK) and mae (rfie. the closer we shall approach to the . children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. name of the cow. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. the present day.

which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man.). for things. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. He would now say good. We have. as well as the mind of the utterer.' In ordinary speech mump. A member of my own new sfop. fiafifi&v (Hesych. p.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. became more perfect. analogous to Magyar mammogni. and nim came to signify everything edible. for everything fit to eat. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. On one occasion he said^e nim. partly from sounds which the child caught.' he says. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. schipp. Gradually. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. repulsive to eat. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. . Finally an n was placed before it. for bad. to work over with the mouth. when hungry. in children's language. First. . which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. Gr. &c. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. hm. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. to For instance. mumm. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. to eat. family. by the natural humming sound. had nim. nineteen years old. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. and some were very clear and distinct. 72). and which we might express thus. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.. he called to to drink. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. then. Heinicke. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. nim. his nurse adopting the word with him. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. I had watched the growth of this word.

nobis vix permittitur. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. ' Motherwell. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). i. voracious. to chew laboriously.). The Chinese child uses nam for eat. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. oves lalare. memmexen. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. . thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. jamsa (yamsa). as well as the Sw. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. p. and the crab — p. to taste . To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. mumpfeln. crab nam buckra man. to eat. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Vei (W. Africa) nimnim. to be pleamind . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate.' says the author of Modern Slang. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. taken up hastily on the sly. ut tinnitus aeris. to fill the mouth. to eat mampfen. Gothic niman. aptantes adfectibus vocem. Nimm'd up. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). ' id est. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. to Sw. and thence to be tasteful. or word-making. to move the lips in continued chewing. j ing . agreeing with Ein. savory. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. mumble. sweet (Koelle). Sprach-philosophie der Alten. nvrnma. iii. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. mumpfen. tidbits nama .' says Quintilian. as to . Africa) nimi. lita. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. Wolof nahenahe. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. and some of them . stolen. clangorqae tubarum.ONOMATOPCEIA. to mump. jammla. at hiamske i sig.minis. A negro proOr. make djamdjam). namnam. yamming. jumla. and the fizzing (and Series. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. nyam nyam. buckra man's language the white man. nam. Swedish dialect gamsa. on. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . dial. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. we can call them so. snatched (Whitby Gl. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . to take. eating. to smack in eat. Soosoo (W. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.' And Diomedes. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. food (Tylor. South Jutland hiamsk. aves tinnire. delicacies.' — Lersch. Galla djam djeda. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. i8o. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). the Scotch poet. greedy .' White man eat [or steal] the crab. palatable. (in chil- dren's language). mujnpa. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. 1 86). 130-1. Primitive Culture.

not of a moo of Lect. howling. We .' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. baaing or maeing of lambs. a lamb. snarling. bleating of sheep. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. barking. grunting or squealing of hogs. 89) with less hesitation. croaking of frogs or ravens. bellowing of bulls. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. purring or mewing of cats. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. p. bumping of bitterns. or. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. but of a dog. between dog and harking. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language.' he says. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. might be used as the designation of it. Yet we ing. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. sparrow and chirping. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. ^6^. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . anything connected with it. might be used. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. intended in the instance to represent the cry. or thoughts of our hearer. not of a baa. chirping of sparrows or crickets. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. yelping. neighing or whinnying of horses. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. before the in other words.' — We speak of a cow. yelping. chattering of pies or monkeys. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. hooting of owls. twittering of swallows. Indeed. that there is When Man. when circumstances required. 'I doubt. gobbling of a turkey-cock. lowing of oxen. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. cooing or crooing of doves.' And elsevs^here (p. cackling or gaggling of geese.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. snarling of dogs. do not speak of a bowwow. und growling. dove and cooing. for the purpose of bringing the animal. whether it deserves the name of language.

gackem. 380. In Lat. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck.' kd). most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. and means a shouter. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. kae. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. kauwe. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. or quawk. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. ist ed. in g. a bird that is be driven away. 349. In Basque. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Arabic kdk. it announces (Salaberry). a daw. and gaggele or gagkelein. fi-om apakd- i. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. kuho. coccolare.' common sense. Malay gdgak. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Hungary. Sometimes the hoarse i . Manchu The kaha. birds. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. a crow (Pictet). and Bavaria respectively. Picard cau. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. caller. whose sound (Pictet. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. 4th ed. lion. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. He to is therefore derives kdka. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. in is Gr.IMITATIVE NAMES. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. KOKKvi. a a crier (p.. Georgian quaki. crow. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Barabra koka. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Aoo-Aoo. e. We imitate the sound with a modulated. having a general predicative power. crow. sound). Kdrava. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Columbia kahkah. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. 'Kdka. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. layitavya . is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. kdka. ghak.). and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. caw kuhii-rava (rava. and the sound of that direction. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Sauscr.). roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Bav. according to Durga). a crow.

produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. "Welsh hwan from hwa. wood-pigeon. synonymous forms of similar structure).. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. krauklys. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Fr. while crouk. The consonants p. coqueri- Languedoc. Zulu kuku. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. another. are represented. ghughu. the name for a crow. Albacuculi a dove. kuku. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. Mod. libufs. by the verbs gurren or girren. kraukti. name. 219. tbrtora. German kielitz. coccovaec.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Du. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. girre. and e. Esthonian kikkas. to crow. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kukko. either in the same or in related dialects. coucouva. gugu.Gr. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. to howl or Lat. kukhuta. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. krahe. lilits. to croak. The crowing of cot in Fr. gufo. or Gr. teewhoop. hibou. Heb. So we have Polish krukac. p. name of its is the bird. Malay kukuk. Yoruba koklo. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. cock. and e. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Ibo akoka. korren. yell.. giving turtur (and thence It. kruk. Scotch peeweip. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. uhu. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. tuquheit. Swedish kowipa. Du. German and Eng- krahen. Sp. t. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. tortbla. Hindi. It. xi. great variety of oKokv^uv. a crow. Pers. lUyrian kukurekati. kraeye. the name of an animal will gen- . a crow lish Lith. tur. reduplicate form. tor. in the North of England. to hoot. to croak. to crow. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. to cry loudly. turtle) as the Lat. kurre. as well as of Sanscr. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. kraeyen. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. lulo.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Magy. k. French dishuit. Walachian coucouveike. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Dutch kievit. and sometimes both together. kirren. a crow . koeren. German luhu. Lettish kiekuts. 6. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . tbrtola. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Arabic tdtwit. Da.

from schrick. a drone. to chirp J may be compared with . and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. oE. give a faint sound.IMITATIVE NAMES.vf3. with or Fr. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. from the humming. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. hollow noise. bamba. Lithuanian tranas.' —Tennyson. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. a small as hawk is . 'The natives call it tanand. which they make in their flight very . may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. to grumble. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. droning is . Lith. in allusion to its music. ta-na-nd.or bumble-bee. there are infinite varieties. gives rise to chwymores. resound. In the N. The Welsh chwyrnu. schirke. and probably indicates that g. sound. chirk. words imitative of humming . Danish dron. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. zirken. representing a short sharp sound. pip-pi-ta. bee. North of England. skirl. Gaelic dranndan. grylhis. thunder. g. Danish gnaddre. booming. Speaking of a cricket he says. knetta. or a gnat fly. to hum. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. glass cracking (Schmeller). German dronen. 337. and yelping cry. grille. Albanian tsentsir. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. PofijivXwg. Northern Farmer. buzzing. the humble. flight its sting considered as a horn.' — i. The Arabic sarsor. the drone or non-working bee . to rustle. as . and not from E. skril with n. resounding of musical instruments. grillen. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. German hummel. bambhara. schrickel. (Jieuschrecke) . buzzing. German drohne. Sc. of England it is to the b 2 . a bee. kong-kong. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. shrill. to chirp . swirplys with 6. to sound. cricket is from crick. We may cite Gr.' Amazons. g. skryle. The name of the cricket indeed. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. Fin. g. a beetle druna. ' — Pictet . din. to creak Bret. ajo.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. succeeding each other — with noise. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). i. to be compared with Sanscr. Arabic tantanat. Naturalist on the tocano. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . humming. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. ' Sanscr. common. horniss and from the buzzing The. growling. whirr). name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Lat. dhran. a sharp sound as of a 6. a hornet. The drone peal. little intermission. Corean sirsor. Sanscr. sirkka. and he kong-ko-rong. Australian bumberoo. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. a fly (Tylor) .y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. schrecke. loud rumour. to shrill sound sharp. e. schwirren. — Catafogo. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E.

On the same principle. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. to bow- own bawl. grumble as distant thunder . is inadmissible. to shout. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. muJiati. Cult. to the uses goda. representmake bow. bwla. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. The Piedm. a heifer. or moo. bugle. boo. or a z to the imitative syllable. a Geiger. shoot . The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. Lat. ox. forms a. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. The Galla lilbil. the Fr. make poo. to low . bucula. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to make. Lat. Gael. Thus from miau. that the imitative syllable are Lith. and thence Lat. Norse bu. With these analogies. to make a noise. maukati. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. amuse. to ba-L-are. and djeda. to low. 167. a bull. to bellow like a bull. bubenti. representing the mew of a cat. w. say. from the imitative moo instead of boo. biibnas. Galla boa. to low or bellow. to shout. in same way. Zulu lulula. miau-l-er. bue. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bae. Manx booa. to bump as a bittern Illyr. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. fivKaofiai. bolt. or formed Lat. in a imitation of a ringing sound. to beat hard. and in Hottentot baa was the . as that of the cow by boo. Fr. a cow. buculus. to weep. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. His analysis leads cow. as the Illyr. has bilbilgoda. bull. baula. bubati. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. a bullock. to or bark. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. a drum . make to it laugh. to . verbal form given to the say. loge. are (with a subsidiary k). p. mugler. agreeing exactly with Lith. or with on. bovis. btibleti. be-l-er. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. bukati. bullus and e. to boohoo. bos. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to make a loud deep sound. to from bau. to sound. From baa. cattle. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. the animal. mugire. Hottentot bou (Dapper). or bau-l-i. whence baula. lulauti (to hoo-loo). bae. Fr. Lat. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bullock.XX called booing. — ^Tylor. mae. bugler. Da. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. w. bo. bauli. a buffalo. mamoo-heeheek. to mew. bu. From the same lioao). to make. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Piedmontese fi bau. and from to ring. (iove. It. k or g. OFr. Illyr. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr.

Idgge (Rietz). cite as by grunt. a sow. meugler. with the root ypaipm. corresponding to ohg. With gen. menAda (ndda. a sow. a wolf. may be identical with Esthon. or in any ! way ! persuading. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. a (Hesych. grumble. groin. smack and naski. — . is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. from hundama. purr). this obstinate race. to grunt.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. Fr. sound. kurren. a hog. ' In driving. Gr. to bleat . a dog. hunt (gen. name of the animal itself. signifying a snarling. and hoc'h. to growl. It is probable also that e. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. in Wolof bae. for the voice of the ox). oe. Welsh and Breton). the designations of a dog the term cur. it and e. Gr. sheep or goat. hwch. kurre. and snorke. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. grugno. grumpf. meketati. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. by which the shingle gives rise to It. Africa laa. and thence groin. lecco. a sheep or ewe. he would hardly. to bleat. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Among dog. a goat. to rumble. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. /xj/caScj. as lou of an ox. meigeal. knurfisk. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. nire. a sheep. (iriKov of forms like Sw. from knurre. a. Illyr. . may with to snarl. a pig Fin. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. to howl. and grumphie. undoubtedly imitative. /xijeao/iat. to themselves. grunny. mecati. houch. to bleat. a goat firixal^ta. does not produce a e. naskia. the snout of a pig. goats. From the imitative mae. 6. a pig. guttural tone. lekavica. Magy. cry). we have Sanscr. hundi). ^. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. name. Manx meilee. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. mutter. Gael. lek-eg-ni. Hence Breton hoc ha. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. Da. grumbhng. Illyr. lambs. . curmurring. and Circassian maylley. Moreover. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. hadg- Magy. to grunt. grunt. growl. in v. It. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. hund. hunon. a sheep or a goat. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. / The same Gr. as the proper name of a tame sheep. G.' Moor's Suffolk words. Fr. hound. The g. leg-et-ni. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. mekegni. leknuti. Gr. grunlike a pig in eating. rumbling. meil. although the imitation embodied in Lat. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Illyr. sus-sus. and with the subsidiary k or g. a grunt. grumble. Kurren und murren. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout.). grogner. and of (maelon). . karra. a sheep (Lowe).NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. name of a sheep. meckern. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a goat.

. humma. hobben. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. to the left. like artificial flowers. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. coquelicot. houpy in Craven. animal. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. So Sanscr. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. Thus we are led to the Fr. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. g. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. (Craven Gloss. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. of the character in question.' 2nd Series. hottihuh. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. e. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. hobby. to whine. There are of course some names.. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. a horse. a little am- bling horse. to go backwards. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. M). which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. without a — we root. If onomatopoeias can . 91. hiine. turn a horse to the is In Finland. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen).root. cockade. p.' — ist Series. as in Yorkshire highly right.). hoppe.). hobin. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. the cry to stop or back a horse. But words of this kind are. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. Esthonian hoibo. p. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. a mare. from the cry animal. . coquette. when he found peculiarity. ^6<.' ticular bird. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. such as cuckoo. Sc.

turtur and its derivatives had been lost. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. Bohem. moan. to Sanscr. but whether there kind between them and other words. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . runniken. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. hross. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. animals or certain kinds of sound. Sp. wiehern. xxiii ginal object. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. wrenska. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Fr. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. hresh. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. nounced with a guttural). a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Pl. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. ance or habits of the animal. command of language was attained. to neigh. giggle. titter. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. diver. . rinchar. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. horse. hukkup. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. signified It. fehtati. as sigh. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. lapwing. hikkd. g. hennir. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. cough. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. Du. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Sanscr. whitename in in- throat. Sw. e. redpole. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle.D. hresh. wagtail. nitrire. frenschen. creeper. Lettish sweegt. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. wrena. goatsucker. sol. ginniken. woodpecker. form corresponding hresh. swift. than to the sounds represented. groan. little speak for themselves. Irieschen.

for the sound of milking. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. hoo. or tliat is accomit. ding. for in such sound of blows. heart tick-tack. strippstrapp-stroll. a large bell. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. haw. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Vei gbangba. for that of breaking. . for blows with a rod.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. &c. knack. are familiar in ' to every one. beat. bang ' ! trenches. to drive on. wheeze. beat of a clock child . for the sound of a fall. Da. the dashing of the sea . snort. to knock. hang. snore. &c. snukkup). bangas. plitsch-platsch. shriek.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. banke. ting-ting.' ! ! ! ! — dong. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. pit-a-pat. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. — Sanders.' it both sides went. Wtb. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. in a nail Let. for the creaking of a wheel. oren : Klapp. a more expressive than the e.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. tlirob. ping came the bullets about their ears. lumm. DingBang. —Brem. aritischane. scream. tisio (tisho). to throw violently down. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. the God of thunder . mer.' So imac. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. for the sound of a blow.' 'Haw. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. Of a like forma- drum . on the chops is represented also by pratx. dong Read. went the cannon. for a small one. heaven). and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. to beat. for the for the sound of . and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. an attempt would be made to by the voice. knarr. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. bang. clap ! A smack Puff. pump. a kind of drum. banga. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. thunder (Tylor) . White Lies. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. to sneeze. It is represented in e. klatsch. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. Australian bungbung ween. Mei gbengben. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . fitsche-falsche. hoo ping ping. debhes-lungotais (deifies. to hammer . or the w. 1865. atchini. to ham. atchian. Zulu bongo. root kshu. haitshu.

child. piou. and whimper. . Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. peep. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. and their relations. a fowler's bird call is lost. piccione. a whelp.sc. pipare. to designate cavity and hollow. pipe. as in other subjects of study. which he added to intensify the expression. young child . where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. part of the What consciousness has the child. Magyar pip. to cry pi. laugh. of a word will appear supposed to represent. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. Lat. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. It seems to him that the teeth t. piou. He Yet asks. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. as k. to cheep like a bird or a young It. far pipi. pipio. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. piauler. not- . Gr. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. is pfeife. De Brosses. doubtless. the voice of chickens (Cot.' instead. peep. pipio. as the simplest implement for proFr. Lat. pippione. calls S. or the uneducated different consonants are man. bleat. pipelni. to squeak. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. is of expression. or a piailler. Florio. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. —Lyndsay.) a chick. cry of young birds . to peep It. The pi. pipegni. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. pigolare. — . Mantuan pipiare. cry. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. pigione. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. used as a call to . Fr. In cases such as these. has been un- employed to designate fixity. had been used laugh ? two. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. G. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. a (young) pigeon. pi. e. pipilo. ducing the sound. a or cheep. chickens (Tylor). is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. scream. young bird. a chicken or gosling. pu. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. to cry like imrli^u). pipe. pule. mobility excavation and hollow ^. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pigiolare. a fife or musical pipe. and so forth.

or kaka-faka. to laugh. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . laqfF. &c. rumble (Fl. to grumble. knuks. Indian chack-chack. chack. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. knaks. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. Pacific aka-aka. a sharp short one. . to clack. rumble. where the variation. Zulu raraza. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno.) Mod. to grumble). or springing back. to gargle . to cluck. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. Hindoo tomtom. {to It. It. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). as the click of a latch or a trigger. and lugh. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to gurgle. to bubble. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Hindustani karak is rendered. u. a short sharp sound. borrelen. kniks. murmur (by . gurren. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. to thunder. tonare. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to gorgogHare rattle. of something fine and thin.. sound). Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. sound of dry breaking. to growl. bubble. to pant violently (Colenso). a prolonged sharp sound. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to crackle like in boiling . Poppopvi^to. . a. crack. knurren. of a loud strong sound. to hawhaw or laugh loud. murren. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du.Gr. kniks. grumble. lachachen. loud laughter. to be compared with Sc. cricli. vaake gorgor) . some small vowel or consonantal sound. kirkirdnd. to creak knirren. is very common. Manchu kaka-kiki. karkarana. garren. ioriogliare (to make borbor). crash. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. make wood a clinking noise. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . like the noise of a glass breaking . along with tinnio. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. a closed or obscure sound. to ring pipio. to rattle. thunder oil . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. tintino. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). preserved by Kilian.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. i. to fizz like fat in frying. pi . turtur. the clucking of a j hen . to jar. girren. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. along with Du. it is If laugh were written as pronounced.. kuruk. tontonare. be cate to go on laughing loud . Pefuxela. to cry pi. to pant bejii- zela. when it force than biscuit. coo. a drum W. in German. the side of g. as representing the sound made when something breaks. lachen. creak. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. cluck. rumble. to grate the teeth .

corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. a nightingale. box on the ear imitation of the . and bilhila. kl'mg-kling. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Sanscr. and e. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. to beat. indicating the origin of Gr. agrees with g. while cacd / used in e. is based on the same imitation as the e. bubble up. cry. word. shout. noise. chinking of coin. and Gr. and Gr. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. clank. the gingling of glasses. sound. Maori pata. uproar. the sound of a stringed instrument. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. . The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Fr. croaking of frogs. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. djeda (to say tub). Turk. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. jingle. csam-csogni.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. for the sound of privy whispering. to whisper.* the heart. muro and e. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. . corresponding in e. 192). rvir (in tvittio. or to Du. for the clinking Lat. as of Tamil muromurmur. bent her head. bulbiil. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to say chut. call. tumwata. rifiirayov. fumtu. to giggle. to the purling of a brook. especially one who beats. brings us to Fr. bad. of keys or tinkling of bells. klirren. caca and Finnish adkkd. a boy's whistle. awater* ' The Mme P. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. Prim. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. Tiie Galla gigiteka. identical with g. hala-hald-faMa (falda. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. halaidlac'h. drops of i. The syllables lil-bil. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. compared with Gr. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. to strike. spring of water in the a bell. tup. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. clango. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. or the bubbling up of to a spring. and her heart went thump. koXiw. for chut-chiit-er. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. Magyar csamm-ogni. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. for the ringing of illustrate bells. borrelen. as Fr. champ. simmer. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . quarren. clash of arms. The whispering of the wind I. clink. rain (Tylor. coughing or clearing the throat. sound). is Manchu tang-tang. make djamdjam). kiling-kalang. may be compared with Australian pitapitata.' Member for Paris. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). Galla tuma. a drum . Newman). witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. thump. jangle. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. a nightingale. and the imitative nature of tivgle. tubh. wail. 368). ding-dong.and e. chut. Calt. disturbance (F. or of bells ringing. e. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . KaKog. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. to knock. a smith. E. a workman. at an accelerated note. Manchu kaka. 1871. tumult. correspond to e. are applied to the is excrements of children. the tingling Ming-Hang. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. Scotch sough or sooch. chuchoter. to be compared with g. to ring or jingle. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. for a tTviror).

tomber. craunch. The use of g. clink. rap. patter. squall. flop. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. swash. crunch. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. a applied as well to the force of the bang. plump. whack. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. clack. splutter. answering to g. blow. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. rattle. The beating of drum is represented in e. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. for (Sanders). squeak. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. the Germans puff. thump. clash. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. flap. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. twang. crash. Nevertheless. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows.. whine. lash. at a door tarapatan. clap. rataplan or rantanplan. puff. sputter. smash. blubber. clank. we have buffet or cuff. fizz. slash. without the intervention of orthodox roots. brumberum. paddle. whizz. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. But although and also found in Lat. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. or v^hether jectional. according to the strictest phonetic rules. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. thump. w. and Grimm. Fr. clatter. rumble. dash. murmur. creak. thump. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. tingle. tinkle. to is blow. in e. gargle. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. thwack. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. tum-ultus. chatter. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. and Fr. bang. souse. ' Der puff. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. parapatapan. to fall. hiss. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. boom. It. jingle. clang. crack. hum. to dance. 'pat. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we .' — Nohden. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. bubble. guggle. dabble. ring. tap. tymmesll. and the French pouf. din. smack. squeal. mutter. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. tumbian (to beat the ground). and soufflet. report of a gun. So in Fr. by rubadub. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. it is fallj AS. whirr. splash. disturbance. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. while e. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. pop. chink. douse. Humboldt. snap. gurgle.

an imitation of a sigh . we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. that he has taken the step in rational speech. knows them. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. ugh . then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. in the rushing waters. xxix on the contrary. or stubble is meaner name. formerly cited. stractions. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. p. and found in the building of be burnt up. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. are made known by an instinctive cry. the inteij. little who has time to want of her nurseling. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. or of any if wood. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. by the nature of the cry. the kind of action that is desired of them. Crying. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. grief. 94. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain.' . or any unsatisfied want. At the first beginning of life. wringing the hands. but if we must not complain on the beach. is Thus ah!. Henceforth rational beings may produce them.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. of horror. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. every little pain. because they are spontaneous. and thus they become signs of despair. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. without a thought of symbolising to them. the interj. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. and uttering plaintive sounds. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. in the case of the animal or of the infant. hay.'. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection.' If chaos. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. Grimm or Bopp. If. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires.

and the eye. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed .XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley..' p. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings.' — ist Series. If I wish to make a person of an . them to exercise it. be more powerful. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371. the lowing of a cow. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. which are frequently so toned down cance. to solve the I shall call first. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. p. sneezing. more eloquent than a long speech. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. coughing. more to the point. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. as who them spontaneous utterances. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. Language begins where interjections end. he cites from Home Tooke. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. should be remem- . passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. and some of them the composition of words. they are involuntary interjections. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. or which is of me as suffering pain.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. may become traditional. interjections. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. He says. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. 32. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. shrieking. of all the mouth. And again. p. groaning. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. 344. One short interjec- tion may fact.

yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. in Magy. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and more or less limited . then speech begins. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. cachinno. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Lat. bered. Koxafw. hahota. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. hahottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. it them. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. but the less am at a loss what to say. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. interjections. hohottaa. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and others from interjections. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. kahkahah. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. demolishing here. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. in Fin. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. for example. when I arp humming and hawing. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. and thus. some kind of language might have been formed. speaking. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. I am not hearer. Kayxa^u). is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. loud laughter. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. he says. Tooke in truth. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. Gr. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language.

with the exception of words which are evidently imitative.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. words receiving the meanings they now bear. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. makes them stand and walk upon the table. a Picture-language. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. the critical question should be. . we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. of the nature of this great movement.' he says. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. dumb is the language of signs. of the world. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. and go where we now say stand. a deaf-mute himself. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. Though. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. But here nature soon conies to his help. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. What strikes him .' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. And so in the case of language. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. The following account is given by Kruse. and not. like peewit and cuckoo. It as has ing their most striking features. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. if taken as a whole. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun.

by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and we have roast goose. and And thus he makes himself a language.' In the Institutions. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. nay. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. but if I depress it instead. thou. walker. such as than the educated man. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. letter To hold the two fingers apart. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . it means little. that signifies great . The same sign stands and the act itself. for single objects. most striking outline of an object. becomes roast meat. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. that air. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. And is. what more. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. like a V. his action. among themselves.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. The of sign for left hand. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. signs are taught for yet. that. and forms further and further. walkest. it seems. called Gesture-language. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and with his thought. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. can do better and more easily abstract terms. or To pull and flap with the arms. or the verb to be. and it is flesh or meat. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and gestures. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. for the agent. the sorecalling them to his memory. and fully serves to j . he. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. such objects.GESTURE most. thought is already broken. as it now opens out. particular sense in properly so called. for walk. the whole secret. many when or but these. to name. he. and to taste. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. for child. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. walked.

and thus performs the part of an adjective. as in die it is a noun. or a quality. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. putting it into his pocket. . in other instances sentence. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. The same word . it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. He gave door a bang. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun.xxxiv asking. it called an interjection. would be simply beginning of speech. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable.' dener's knife. as But when it is meant door. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. or something of the kind. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. to indicate the action of a certain person. when I say. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. depend entirely upon the use. I say. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. You beaten . hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or action. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. or a passive scene of existence. substantive or adjective. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. Who is has beaten you ? would be. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. the garden. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. or an act. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. a number of alternatives are suggested. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. according to the circumstances of the case. qualifies the against the wall. and so is an adverb. might be the knife. in fact. as when Bang ! went the gun. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and the as. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When a verb. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. whether by additions or otherwise. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. When I say. the ture of white term pink is and red. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. Do not bang the it is a verb. a colour red.

that is. in the is indicated by the syllable y. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. which is an old y ting (use stick). inquiry. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. wherefore. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. 255. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. and to be great. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. . as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. a sigh of oppression and . as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or nei. inside. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself.^ — Miiller I. or some relation between it and another object. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. some outward display of the affection. wherewith. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. with a stick. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. middle. as kuo cung. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. grie^ horror. commencement of speech. coalesces with the personal pronouns. wonder. a noun.. pain.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. a groan. and may be used language. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. the man is great. Jii ta. whereof. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. greatness. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. Thus tafu signifies a great man. whereto. verb nor noun has yet been developed. contempt. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. &c. Latin. wherehy. as cung. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. but often self-evident. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. in the sense of great. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. that admits itself in of audible representation. or with elements expressing relations of time. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. signifying an attribute of this person or of that.

tirr-djeda. oval. on. pain. wehen (Schmeller). he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi.. a groan or lamentation vir. 6. grief] affliction. weh schreien. Let. Illyrian vaj. mew. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. to make bow-wow. achen. ache. to ache. suffering. to weep. ah. Lat. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ahi. ach. to gargle. w. to weep. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. oh. seen in Gr. cece. representing a cry of pain. misery. as. . is Ay di me I Gr. g. miau-n-is. guaj- or cry out pitifully. e. found in g. to wail or cry alas . lament. Fr. in Gr.-l-are. or r. ochan. to . to make). ocAJ. Gr. Thus from springs otjucifw. It. woe. 6. aiai^to. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. gwae. guajo. vei-a. la. to groan. to yell formed e. Such are g. to lament. ohg. e. and to bark . to lament. as. oh. wai-l. oimare. hei. vce. . mostly a ! %. to cry n. misfortune. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. probably a deeper groan. wai. It. w. wAwa. j. oi. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. Lat. to hurt Let. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. vce. to cry at. representing Illyr. at the close of the radical syllable. dchzen. ! ! Goth. ach. ochain. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. djamdjam goda (goda. grief. al. pain. Bret. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. is w. och. to sound yapyap. och. pain. Illyr. waiidt. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. grief. jao. to ache. o'i. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. to do woe. . as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. n. miau-l-is. to chirp. The form corresponding to Lat. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. ace. ui. It. I oi[iot. weh. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. on.'). however. gwae. ohi. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. e. g. guai. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . xxxvi grief. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ah. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. woe. miau-l-er. to wail. . headache. Gael. wehthun. guaj-ire. &. vaj. to rriourn. form. the pangs of childbirth. weinen. to injure. ing action I. wai.ez. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). och. It. to cause pain. Gr. has more kopfweh. lau-l-e. jaoh. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. ochan. lament from oimi. are ol-ire. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. A widespread It. axofiai. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. ach. gwe-l-a. die wehen. ai. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. Jar lau-lau. to bewail oneself. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. Gr. w^wa. wd. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. . first person. In this way from the root guai. howl. and cacak djeda (to say crack.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

or give me it. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. as to express. Dr Lottner observes. Bav.' person. or carry me thither. When we pointing. da. we may translate this by there (it is). or that it is. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. the nursery da-da. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. as it Dieser da (as Lat. . that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. der da-ige. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.' this. Phil. and may be rendered. but the truth is. is-te). a specified were by pointing him out. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. nurseries.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them.' then points to his wife. ' sees an object. child. this here. implying the direction of its good will towards them. give. his trowsers' pocket. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. indeed. The Fr. according to Menage. • The child. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. well as Goth.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. Sie. and by a variety of expressions besides. ToSe (or in Attic E. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. thata (ta-ta). properly (give) be compared with by which a g. more emphatically roSj)j that. But. to here .* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. saying : there the ad- Trans. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. that gratifies me. da. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. Please. when 1859. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. give me that cheese. for instance. 'nay. as. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. Thank you. In the expression Da. Sanders (Germ. or wants to name something. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. Diet. that. that is it. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. I add) . in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. case. and so on.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. says da-da-da. is we I believe. when he wants something. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr.' all is is — their consent. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. a word of many applications in g.

to walk. or metaphor. or dalliance. of which any one may. moving. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. takes it — as When the soul. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. in every mode of expressing the idea. and one in particular must. tasting. then instinctively interest. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. and shapes it into an .' • liv ANALOGY. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall.' says Muller. childish toying. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. pay. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. . — Cot. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. which thus exertion. to knock. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. meanings. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. to say to oneself. beat. to beat.' says Lottner interior. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. its desire. make dadada). Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. sinking. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. dadee. to chatter. strike. to tion to another. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. to move step by step. sounds. speech. reality. standing. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. tattle. the original is that which he places first. p. stutter. Thus Gr. The da is dodem. thinking. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food.^ its ' utters : a cry.

The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. to have Sapiens. gnittre. and figuratively. a ringing . Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . So firom Lat. . snuff the sniiten. Lith. to crackle. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. chime). schmecken. tumult. to flash. as kilind. to quiver. in popular language. to glitter. knittre. signified a clear sound. tintelen. to sound clear In Galla. sound. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. for example. tinkling. smell. magnificence. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. scheteren. to 5 ghtter. Again. (parallel bilbila. may be quoted gUt. schiteren. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. to be wise. Fr. bilbil). on. Finnish. taste. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. &c. Heo Du. Du. discreet. to ring as a glass willata. noise. 1654. air. smell. snutrs. extended to the exercise of the understanding. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. wilistd. a brilliant light kilid. sapere (which signifies the nose. wamara. brilliancy. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. suspect Bav. judicious. to crackle gnistre. to snilF. and thence e. to . the equivalent of g. clang. same imitative root with Sw. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to glitter. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. make a loud noise. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. from the . ghsten. may be it explained . prudent. beam. In the same way the Goth. to shine. to shriek with laughter . man of nice taste. to sniff out. kiimottaa. sprageti. in the domain of movement. spraka. kimistd. to smack or taste. to resound. scTiateren. is used in the origin. sense of brightness. search . to glitter. . to glisten Dan. snotor. to shine. a with kimmaltaa. to tinkle. firom the Gael. wise. a dis- cernment. bright. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. esclat). snudra. and schmecker. a rustling sound Gr. splendour. pracht. splendour. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. wilahtaa. to ring. snot. to sparkle. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. It is The word bright had a similar In as. then to sparkle. also wise. we have and the and beorht. fiapfiaipw. and. beorhtian. as. to glitter e. unlella. which in ohg. rattle. to sniff. outcry. properly a clap or explosion. while sapere itself. The 6.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. think. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. In the case of sparkle. knistre. — 1. savour. iclat (in Old Fr. Bavarian bracht. bilbilgoda (to make .

' he says. strike. eo ut res vol. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. in truth. break. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. flow and flux. the bleating of sheep. within. accordance with the way in which by touch. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. pvfi^Civ. of dressing loud. kvTOQ. pleasure soft to the ear . the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. smooth. roughness. gluey. The BpavEiv. as soft by the ear.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. which The Stoics. he framed the words ivSov. inside. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). with these the similitude of touch comes into play. then in rpd/xoe. and vepres. the cross. power of the letter-sounds. rough. the clank (stridorem) of chains. KoWiiSije. Kpovtiv. rough to the ear. fitting the letters to the sense. extremely loose. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. whirl. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. we hear of screaming colours. \nrap6e. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. crux. wool. Much of the same has been often quoted. v. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. Tpa)(yg. oily. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. And observing that n kept the voice within. soft. to slide. the neighing of horses. discusses the tone of a picture. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. tremour. itself letters are felt as sofl. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. 6\tadaveii'. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. is felt Lana. &c. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. sharp. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. mel. ipuKuv. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. briars. Kep^arl'ieiv. rough. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. Acre. . in of his works. rend. 1. shatter. he says. or . rough both ways. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it.

the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. 'and consequently form. for exis ample. degree of roughness sound. p. cular effort Again. k. joli. jag. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. dig. rug. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. Fr.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. 138). to jogj sac-cade. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . to reel abruptly from side to side). and in the utterance of a high or or low. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. shag. corresponding to the ineor.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. shog. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. A greater felt. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. or checks as they are called by Muller. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. the case of the voice. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. as when. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. dag. g. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. ii. jog. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. jig. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. sag-oter. stab. to signify varieties of movement. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. a rough and sudden . and the limits of the signification would be so vague. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. jih. d. tug. t. p. stag (in stagger. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline.

is lanese toch. a crum. (mitsati). g. Brescian toch. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. e. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. as Italian tocco. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. lead to Spanish tocar. to stir. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. chiquet. mik. it produces Dutch micken. rough horse. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. and It. passing to the signification of motion. tock. chique. to ring a bell. to On the same principle j we have g. a playiug-marble. motion. to say a word . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. Fr. a . The syllable suk is jerk. a jog. kuk. then. mot. Dutch kicken. a good piece of road . so to Italian toccare. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. Sukkeln. tecche-tocche. sound Fr. to beat or play on a musical instrument. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. The train of . like English tick. figuratively. kik. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . not to utter a syllable. The production of sound. to mark it with a touch of the pen . a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Accordingly the g. It. mie. or check. also to stir. schuckeln. toch-toch. to utter a slight kick. to move rapidly to and fro. to winkj micati is Lat. however. to incite by light touches. a quid of tobacco. an old worthless horse or carriage. Thus we have B. to glitter. S-panish miga. properly a small lump'of . Mucken. then. to mutter. chicoter. a stroke with a French toucher. to have it ticked or marked on the score . zack. micare. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. tech-tech. Welsh cicio. movement. &c. sound barely audible. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. and e. to strike It. to pulses being knock. tack. Ene olde suksuk. is made to signify movement. The analogy then carried a step further. a piece or bit of anything. a little bit. cica. Then. Illyrian migati. Fr. schockeln. a small bodily object. a cracker. an infant . zigzag. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. To tick a thing off. used interjectionally to represent a . foot..'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Hence Lat. Bolognese tocc. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. mica. and analogous movements. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. The Mipen or pencil. chic. to take a thing on tick. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to tickle. that we never can be sure. is so frequent a consequence of movement. for the sound of knocking at a door. in cases like the foregoing. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. as tot. to touch.

Pm. to touch lightly with a pen. 199). fragments It. to jot down or note with a fro. a girl. tot. gno. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. a small lump or pat. tittle. that. a small quantity.- a jot or little It. seesaw. a. or o toi. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. But the same is language has re Javan. a little titty. a small kind of lark. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. ika. a e. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. little. small titlark. The following table from Tylor (Prim. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. a tot . there '(at a short distance). Malagasy to. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. to dot. In a similar the relations of place. to jog. . tozzo. at where the order is inverted. Cult. gnu. So. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. chico. I. a whisper. to tremble. we have e. corresponding to the personal pronouns. of movement in totter. that iku. . to whisper (Pr. bunch or flock of wool. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. . a morsel girl . (Halliwell) Da. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . not to utter a syllable. titmouse (Du. a light quick blow. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. . tottle.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. tit.) . in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. e. ticktack. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. Du. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . clay . or the like its It. mutter. Then. 0. i. This kind. mutter j dust. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. here. and he. syllable mot. titter. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. titilh. tot. Fr. lump of earth. mut. this . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. . gni. zitella. anything . further off. motte. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. . a small bird. mossche. citto. a lad citta. this. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. fait. . lix Sp. the least visible insect. anything small flax. Halliwell. here (close hand). the same organ touched with the man. To jot. to make a slight mark. eo. a small horse. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. a certain conception. taut. as in e. mot. to touch. for the beating of a clock. and mite. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. a morsel. motta. there. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. a sparrow). neither moit nor an atom. and dot. small of kind. . is shown in murmur. subdued manner. totle. and a small lump of something. to e. tit. you. tot. a bit. tot. and toddle like a child titter. n. there (further of!) ao. little j to that of a small bodily object. the vowel sound.n. tiny. move slightly to . a bit. and out there. 48) cites from the African Tumale. jot. zitio. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. e. mote. to movement of the pen . for the three personal pronouns. not an atom . ri that. not because the pendulum makes a different left. often entirely arbitrary. or the converse. iki.

that. father k . here feraa. here 5 Yoruba na. biii. probably initial of distinction that the k. that. mother. Tamul i. child. an old . that. is Here. Japan ko. Mutsun ne. here .) pronunciation of i or e. me probable that • Vei also little. this fi. this ole. bi. ukko. mother. /mya. that. . little. father.. that. . Mm. this . uta. mother. small (Pott. no constant rule is observed. ita. this <t. (tt). Carib ne. I . Gr. thou . femina ama. to. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. w. this . Fernandian az. j Canarese ivanu. ne. It seems to (fen. you. this . The vowels a and o sound of the voice. he. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. Lat.araM. an old woman chacha. as Mr Tylor remarks. . thou ni. qu. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. olo. /wo. that. Ossetic am. there. here . . ofj. minution further. Guarani nde. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. for the male. Botocudo ati. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. respectively. Zulu ajoa. Dhimas isho. there. is father. there. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote..e^. there. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Then. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. km. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. that. as in Italian Fin. ^. . tiiio.) nna. and a for the female. this . Magyar ez. Chilian tva. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. ndi.. here this . there. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. Tarahumara ibe. child. that in the distance. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. loo). and origin. thou. usho. . 6. that. ulri. he. that. It Carib lala. ni. Abchasian aSn. mas cheche. . ni. here j abe. as the act of pointing was ta. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). here j ka. nne. man erne. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. young one. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. there. ta to ka. /e«.. ojOo. Sahaptin (America) kina. akha. that (intermediate) j wana. there. . In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-.

to begin to appear . din-din. and in the Pacific dialects. to feet. as ding-dong. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. nil. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. 401. the pip or pippin. nab. little. as j money. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. a little yellow beard. A little weeny thing. titta. analogous to winy-piny. Fr. a child. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. at pippe frem is to spring forth. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. pepin. the principle of reduplication. little To sup up. Clank represents the sound of something large. &c. trSpigner. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. just beginning to appear. fretful. The sound trapp . signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. for a succession of light blows low-wow.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. is to express simple continuance of action. — Douglas Virgil. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. to make its way through the bursting envelope. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. Thus we have Wolof sopa. or chink. trappen. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. wenig. the simplest mode by the g. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. for the . From cases like the foregoing. for instance. trappa. to teet.' making the voice as small as possible. looking through between obstacles. i Sw. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. nipple. sound of bells . Da. in old e. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. the nursery few j Sc. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. dance (Kil. repetition It. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. a step. the idea is called. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. don-don. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. barking of a dog. . trap. to peep. lift 8. murmur. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon.' — Merrv Wives. of smaller things. trippelen. keeh. Top. The Sw.) . wean. A little wee face with little. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. whence Fr. has tittafrem. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. or even. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. to tread. to leap. tion. stairs. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. knob. And perhaps the E. to peep through. trippen. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du.

to skip. or imitative syllables. from Maori muka. 97). mawhitiwhiti. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great.Ixii REPETITION. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. clash of weapons. puka- puka. or a little tee--ny thing. didi. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. to or rub. kamha-gamla. little child (p. Malay ayun. kendagenda. cliqu-et-is. to call frequently from Fr. ratsi-ratsi. to treat with contempt. and Fr. ding-ding. kenda. er. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. Mandingo ding. a grasshopper. or very very great. is language. . In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . . as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et.. So from clamo. amusement. properly speaking. to talk at to walk. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. serves to show and in this way. &c. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. hardness. to love. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. rack. and the words express a continued sound of rack. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. tache. smallness. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. click. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. rack click. calling. child . to pant. mpolu is uttered. sopasopa. keep spots. the lungs. i. or in Fr. the agent in panting . are echoed by the rudimentary et. very bad. to rock. repetition or continsignify long. in familiar use with ourselves. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. Again.' expression is — ^Tylor. bad . And generally. the and clique. ayunayunan. to to call. rapidity and strength. to say pooh It is ! to. very great. clamito. to cover e. loloa. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. The same principle of 196. (to use a to speak. Susa di. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to vi^alk about for flax. mawhiti. instead of being actually repeated. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. Thus in the Pacific loa. very long (Pott. lololoa. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. child . random . Cult. could readily be conceived. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. a spot. or el. tach-et-er. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. racket. or rdtchi. the comparative degrees of greatness. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. 99). puka. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. a cradle. if very young. Thus in E. a clattering noise. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax).

to move to and fro. to rock. to puff. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . Jickfacken. shuffle. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. are to cry mew and pew . to make a succession of grabs . wankel. joggle. a from ayun. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. kneel. by the side of wanken. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. in Fr. wagas ging. rynel. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. in some applications. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. dab. to rock or wag.Jicol. or in e. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. wavering. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. fickle. The contrivance with any particular noise. syllable clat . When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. to crackle. dabble. compared with g. to hand-le. the knie-en to E. is In e. where all direct connection with sound is lost. as mAS. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. such asjlap. g. The Fr. to make bau-bau. waggle. itself. bub. and in as. which. or fi bau. wancol. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. jogging. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to wail woe . or by association. a succession of cracks to rattle. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. or omitted. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. miauler andpiauler. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. Ihre remarks under gncella. In cases like these. from puka. Piedmontese bau-l-S. he who rubs. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to bark like a dog. draggle. to continue dragging. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . wankeln. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. without the intervention of the frequentative element. crack. smack. to make gug. the lungs (the puffers of the body). as to handle. bubble. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. rubber. guggle. it. mew and baa . or Maori puka-puka. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to hand. to make a succession of shoves. others. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. miauler and beler correspond to E. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee .FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS.

at was more familiarly known. on a moment's reflection. deceit. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. moreover. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. Dupe comes to us from the French. known in Italian. or in mode of use.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. or how generally. although it is not difficult. the breach. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. A gull or a dupe same sense. by a hard body breaking. it is obviously a mere chance how long. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). which is the origin of the word. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. or in aptness to combine with other elements. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. There is. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. Polish. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and comparatively few easily deceived. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. to cry ugh at. to the separation between the broken parts. will continue to be felt in daily speech. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Breton. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. which.

and the grounds of lie shortcomings. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. founded in manifest blunder. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. however. is. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. Hitl^erto. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. . language is . ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. life. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. nor any limited of ideas. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the word is used in a secondary sense. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle.

! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. i. hearing. therefore. unintelligible to other hordes. French. Naturalist on the Amazons. in the course of many years' isolation. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. evique. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. Welsh. compared with the duration of man. episcopus. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. I think it very probable. out. of material things. guages in South America. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. If English. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. change. 330. and vescovo. and 'Russian. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). circle perpetrates a new slang term.

Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. as shown in the subjoined illustration. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. to be taken (Prim. A key must unlock more doors than this. which are idenr Figures 5. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. the actual it which would to represent. and . as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. ancient Greek M . i. Cijlt. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 8. is MN. ao8). The combination of the symbols I and 2. Nor is there one of the letters. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. it will leave figures 3 and 4. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. . But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. 6. or whatever the proportion may be. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. 7. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. 9.

And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence.' should be discovered. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. known to us as yet. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. for instance." the use of a change of vowel in as. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. his fellows. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. and the only safe beneficent Creator. which either by direct resemblance of sound. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . in the shape either of direct inspiration. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. had its origin in imitation of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. leading him to utterances. what comes to the same thing.

there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. or of their own reflected thoughts . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. by animal without a trace name of Man. until the progeny. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life.COMPLETION OF MAN. or beavers. and rose towards a higher state of being. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. that he started from the lowest grade. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. in the course of generations. for instance. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and when we look back as far as history will reach. or else. and sooner or later. the conduct of Ixix life. or not. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. of using imitative conduct . as elephants. race were speaking men or not.

Bremisch. Biglotton seu Diet. E. Diet. 1654. Dueange. Cotgrave. Baile/sEngl. 1766.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Fr.Saehsiches Worterbueh. 1850. Gothischen 1851. English. Teutonico-Lat. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Sup. Infimse Latini- D. Dueange. 1737. Diefeiibach. Bav. 1768. Esth. Esthonian. Diet. AS. Gr. Couzinid. Diet.-Eng. Bigl. Finnish.V. de la langue Cat. B. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Catalan. Dief. Douglas' Virgil. Castr. Cimbrisch. Wtb. Brem. Carpentier. Supplement to Dueange. Romano - Cas- traise. Provincial dialect. or Dan. Cimbr. Cot. Bavarian. Fin. Grammar Boh. . Supplement to Bret. Carp. Danish. Anglo-Saxon.. Dn. Dutch. Elfric's Fl. Due. Da. at the end of Somner's Diet. 1857. Dief. ^Ifr. Bohemian or Czech.Nieder. dial. Diefenbaeh. dialect of the Sette Commune. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache.



i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . kilistaa bugiie r. word allagerr. plowied budowaer. willekom Blab r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r.5 ERRATA. r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.percurrunt kimista^x. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . buque 118 brodiquin r. (/ijtf r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.nokkutama willekem. Askance woud r. Blob plowied r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r.. cruccio deyrie. cti. puHti r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. alUger ahaverie r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. katowai perairrantr. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. r. sveritet Asknace r. haverie crtOT r. baltresca nokkutomax. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. yjnaifia r.>. woman r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. ^i?^i2! r. r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r.


a/tan. sion of 'an abandoned character. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . and secondarily in that of command. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. be-ceftan. K . is commonly :he remnant of the AS.he Goth. to hold . literally. AS. announcement. A. this word beand Spanish. downwards. as. out of. to subdue. ar. and — Chaucer. to awake. behind. ab. Hence on-bceftan. in. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Thou spelds of mychty iction. Again. in a manner other than it should be ablution. have entire dominion over. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. away from. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. on. vs. in the same sense. o/j of or . "rom a height.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. until the event jlace . whatever he be. us. Passing tongues. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. dominion. er. Ab-. an edict or proclamation. but now )bsolete). that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. abs. The word Ban is common orders. on-lic. baftan. In Lat. implying a completion of J. ifter. to sauff the king or spill. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. his. Dent posture. Thus ip N3S. bandon in French. off. ir. ibandonner. of-dune. on. power : Than Wallace thing. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. erwachen. 244. Immediately from Fr. —Bruce. 843. the er. iway from. ur. alike. Parson's Tale. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. AS. state of sleep . An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. on-bsec . into the Romance ftrseg . plesyt him. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. a washing off to abstain. said. abaft. particular 1 . Lat. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. command. rule. from a is to wake to abide. Abaft. as. Abandon. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. . dominion. OHG. among. onis aback. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good.t G. compounds. to arise. Jvery man shewid baft. orders. a. from. away. To abuse is to use iway.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Abs-.

abbattre. down. beer. to diminish the force of any. . Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. Custom. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was.esbawi. bawi. A. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. to happen. astonish. esbahissais.' the surrender of a ' K. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. bandon. of wonder. terminedly. to beat furnish.down. On the other in use as well as hand. and sets them all agape. ne more vermeille. in the active form. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. abandonly. betrash. c. abbatere dal prezzo. confound. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . uncontroUedly. person. polish. Abbess. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. It. to light upon. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. to hit. Originally. I was abawid for merveille.polir. baba. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. from Lat. to excite admiration. to strike sail . esbahissant. Abbot. so common in the found in the OFr. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. to bate something of the price abbatersi. And he thereof was all abashed. merely the terminations ons. of fear. . abate. esbahir. esba. or admiration. — — . which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. lish to abaisse orabaish. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. Cotgr. See Abide. abaundunem-ent. son bandon. and grooms besmeared with gold. to make lower. depress. Wall. 364s. by Wall. abbatis.fournir. as ravish.Prov. with or without a final sh. to put to con. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. where custom (Grandg. R. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. To Abate.) . faire tomber. and it that that it — . R. iv. abbas. to astonish. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Beat. and that from Syrian abba.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. astony. to strike Froiss. abbatere. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. de. at his own the lips. baer. and the verb was written in Eng. ant. See . to abaw or astonish. Hence Lat. abbatia. vol. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. of the Fr.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. weaken. to The . Bate. shame. Milton. burny was formerly burnish . The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to overthrow. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. — Neccham. Baba ! Mod.— R. other. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Hence the OE. ais. to gape. his mouth. or society of abbots or monks. effect of shame. thing abbatere le vela. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. Abbey. overthrow. More correctly written abbat. Fr. father. R. et prirent terre.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. castle. 1520. In or. to take possession of an estate. Castrais. to ruin. impulse.— — . The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. an abbey. law term abatement.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. d. from ravir. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. burny.On princes. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. Hart in Jamieson. adverbial expressions at abandon. 1 1 8. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. impetuously. drink. may be explained. his eyen shene.

to yawn. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. badar. speaking of the Holy places. bida. . to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. which the mind to an object.Fr. waiting. —Raynouard. deceiving. inciting. or absorption watching. also to OFr. syllable ba. warten. bocca badata. beguiling on the other. forbearance. abet. Ni engigner ni abiter. 1 • . Thus G. trick abetar. to deceive. John. — . to desire. literally white tree. bida. Guernsey beth. Cat. desirer (Roquef. suspense. to be intent upon. verbeijen Sw. to deanimer. to gape . shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. abeyance. Prov. delay. to tarry. Corant sens lui. baier. take care. to remain or endure. look for another. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. open the mouth. 366. to suffer death in Du. desire. to desire earnestly. tarrying . — ABELE Epiphanius. In We . chaand either from feelings of such a nature. (Vocab. to It. us. bder. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . covet. Abele. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to attend to. badare. suffer b. with badia. ceive.to wait. delay. b^er. abidan. have seen abide. songer. baier. exciter. aspire to.) abayer. to open the mouth. Ducange. tenere a bada. listening. m Abeyance. abie. bide of the d endure. deceit. Pol. or do we AS. bana. bialodrze-w. Thus we have It. expectation. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. tempting. Abie. abie. K. in Dan. usbeisnei. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Gloss. — II. expectfamily. white. a right in suspense . abaier. house. de Berri) Prov. a bay or opening in the coast. which is certainly related to It. says. . . is idenwait. guardare. to ance. qui iaaille. attendre See Bait. abbadare. bouche b^ante. from Halo. tical with It. Fabl. abiiance. Corresponding to keep in suspense. abet. to mind. ^couter avec dtonnement. to stay.— Chaucer. delay. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. Norm. attendre avec en^pressement. to expect gabeidan. badare.— ^richer. to wait. forms with the d effaced are OFr. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. gola badada.— Roquef. bhr. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. The white poplar. on the one hand. badare. de Champ. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. intent observation. beidan. signifies the direction of tend. beidan. Norm. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. From abahier. bie compared with Dan. bouche bdante. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. ' ' . and in E. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool.was formerly used in the sense of look. and E. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. to wait. abetter. with open mouth . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. wait. gridare. abeter. bidan. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to look. watch. Quant voit le serpent. pense. ne chastised them. Q. To Abet. in Fr. abayer. take notice. The verb atwaiting. badigliare. beter. the verb of abeyance. beijen. to stay. abSiance. to open bader. and alluring to his own destruction. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. listen. we sceolon ON. beijen. lingering. to be intent upon. to expect. aspirer. and Prov.. incite . endurArt thou he that should come. to abide . tity of E. to wait. were called Brothers. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. inciter. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. Boethius. F. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. See Abide. or in Fr. while the monks under his control ing. regarder. Du. bada. — signifies to suspend action.' is in AS. ne wist what way to chuse. . compared with (Bosworth). Cat. endurance. to hook. wait To Abide. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Gloss. to attend on . expectation. beguile. baer. E. beijden. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. bie. Goth. OFr. baier compared with It. to In great amaze.

Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. and Cr. to pay the penalty. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. atling hem to her proper offices. the Fr. or bie. P. to . If it badare. P. the side of a ship. 2. from Lat. habilis (from habeo. fault being simply clothing. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. the Pardoner In the original. must suffer for it. to draw fowls. . Fr. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. without special reference to the notion of retribution. sufficient. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. Abie. abigg. —Bacon in R. Milton. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. R. on board . God. Innan bords. Q. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. the Sir Tristrem. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. fit. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. bidan. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. For on board. when compared with Aboard. to wear away. expert. Chaucer. adapted . abie to Goth. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. to pay the purchasemoney. Fr. though sometimes confounded with it. ! ! Cotgr. abidge. Merch. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. properly abuy. abie. in for any special purpose. was often used in the same sense. abicgan. at hand). Prol. habilis is closely preserved. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. within the ship. In this to erase or annul. is the verb abie. and the simple buy. aboleo. as habiller du chanvre. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. It. a board. being disabled in the highest degree. as E. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. abeye. strong. use. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. forbid for mother's children should abye. willing to schewe his wrathe. Boucher. suffer the Jul. while in later examples As I . AS. beidan. to redeem. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. habile. purpose. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. from AS. — P. God — dear. F. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss.^and to make his power knowne. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. de la volatile. She shall abie that trespass dere. and death for handsel pay. to perish. him with che. able. convenient. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. power. Lat.ynes. 2nd Tale. durance in both applications. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. to dress hemp. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. bord. within the walls of a ship. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. O If tion. at kasta fyri bord. Mids. R. Cassar. Tr. have-like.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. abolir. consequences of anything . The —Boucher. N. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. i. bide. abilh. powerful. — Able. Wickliff in Richardson. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. abycgan. — e. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. L. to have . al- be found so some will dear abide it. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. abide. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. ON. Spenser.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. abilej Prov. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Dr. &c.

Kiittner. coalesco. greu. to awake. abbreviare. which passed into English under Abominate. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Thence to regard greugetat. abbrechen. The radical idea is to feed the flame. . all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. Thonne Abroach. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. gravis. butan. to turn. explains soboles Lat. and also to abridge. from Fr. natural ed direct from the latter language. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to light a fire the Abraid. vital PI. See -und-. and to do something to avert abbreviate. sec seftre — Chaucer. adolere. alUger. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. by the to bring up. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. is not from G. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. to bring up. and in-d-oles. or young forth. to AS. life. Abundant. to fatten. and alere flammain. abutan.1. of any kind . to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. nurse. So in Lat. to grow up. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. that greatly agredge their sin. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat.) . oil.ymbutan. OE. and also. abrdger. disastrous portent in some passing oc. AS. In the same brevis . abredan. abowen. and bidden him abregge. the hair grow. way Sw. to break off. ufan. is a ively. Quod abominor. while the sense of beget. leading immediately to Fr. Tale.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. becomes leu in Prov. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. to feed.aboon. abominor (from ab and omen. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. levis to the Romance languages. the vital spark.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. be-ufan. ala. — . motion. but from Lat. to let sleep. to rear. the OSw. ABOMINABLE adolesco. The primitive idea seems that of beget. abracan. Prov. seems aras.— Abbreviate. Then. brood. break out. progeny. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. to snatch. a portent). Severe the threatened evil. to feed. alan.' Parson's rence.foda signifies to beget. — ' — — preceding verb.writers in the sense of starting out of rence.the older form. hard. Fr. outward. full ofte his words for to Fr. Abray. the man dwindles away. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. Virg. which may God avert. breaking out in language. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. abufan. as withotityn and without. Melibaeus. side. the idea of breaking about . as the duty of nourdisposition. titan. . To Abound. To abray or abraid. alere capillos. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. AS. Finnish stock. Above. pedigree from brevis. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. giving birth to. snatch In English we speak of away. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. to nourish. ol. Du.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. literally. agredge. about cockcrow. parent. to aggravate. abbrechen. d. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. be-utan. Lat. heavy. For on broach. without. Goth. to grow together. below. af-oolden. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. whence the Fr. to cut short. OE. Gael alaich.ger. OSw. Sc. kindling. awaking.. See To Bray. nourish. draw out. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abrcBgdan. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. AS. to main. ala is made to signify to rear. Abrdger itself. to produce. around on the out.. the form a&^^. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. to beget or give birth to children. to progress. his contemporaries. common in Chaucer and Abominable. bufan. Of these synonymous adolescere. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. on high. agreujar. nurse Lat. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. from . or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. above. boven. for ligeth butan. as AS. onbutan. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. s —Casdmon. al is growth. to rear. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. alan. to start. D. or cut short. gravity.' Ymb hancred utan. while the verb alleThe root el. en. currence. af-oleii. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. the identity of which with ting.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


AS. stem. Gr. Thus from gabe. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. plenteously with red. villan Gloss. inAgain from the same author cudis. d. panar. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned.D. So Lat. Gr. anxi. E. something ler in R. on. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. aside. AS. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. were chiefly of the former class. See Cover. trouble. Prov. Antick. from Stephanus. from an. anxius. Apartment. AS. antifena. whence anthem. Lat. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Antique. anapoz. bread. ab. as posticus. to strike G. such as savages. finally applied to a whether grotesca. like a jack-pudding. ReApe. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. what Roman civilisation. white. Otfried. verberas. Percutere. swaged. Fr. Anxious. cenig. from. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Mannequin. a puppet or an anti^hona.. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. apatiar.— . Lat. before. as from as. eigs.legacy of given against. left as the .—Aperture. some one. before. Gr. as the Italians. a few. or antique single chamber. separate purpose. the anticks — behind. Lat. to imitate gestures. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. andouillers. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. and ig. one at the least. to display pario. to bring forth. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. d<popi(xnbs. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. surimitation of the ancient models. to have. a definite . Any.is to be given. to sound in answer. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Anvil. from ango. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. from avTiipoiuia). Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College.made out. were andouiller the second. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. a gift. to nourish. set aside. all of gold. to open. should be received. three antike pillers. to strain. choke. post. Apartment. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. from ante. : . G. Hall's Chron. Fr. avri^ava. part. apanage. Lat. burnished. As the browcalled antiques. i. To ape. to strike. from eigan. a block to hammer on. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Jorioc. gabeigs. as we call it. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. in Shakespear. press. aperio. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. anfilts Pl. Aperient. To go antiquely. Ilvtwotov. vex. a termination equivalent to Goth. a small quantity. panis. Aphorism. work. In like manner. of. Hence the applica. transferred to the grotesque characters. one having wealth.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Fr. strangle. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. incus. Apart. and claret wine. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. apertum. Antler. Pezron fiUist. from an and — - . one. younger child. — — — . fauns. from the imitative habits of monkeys. amboltj Du. which by anvild. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. rich. wealth. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. Antidote. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. anticus. and devils. to support. —Spencer. ambeld. but the expresent day. to go in strange disguises. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. whence Prov. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. or in a ridiculous dress. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. af. . from. Ful- Apanage. from in and cudere. antefn. separate. a preventative . 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner.

like. iwKjToKri. Yr. — dirondtfiu.prix. Appareil.parecchio. 'LaX. AS. to take away or lose the vital powers. APO sentence opoQ. to lose one's senses. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. Fr. prize.— . From Lat. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. the good. appareiller. Palsgr. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. after his mind . Sp. or the like. to catch hold of. Lat. . . 'L-zX. proper time came. Hence It. array. in Chaucer. — Appurtenance.probare. . par. En peach. Cent Nouv. praise. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to which it is often referred. And among other of his famous deeds. from paix. purpose. oVooroXof. Gr. Nouv. apprendre. to disable oftat. e. one is in. off. apal. From Lat. from. diroTrXriaatii. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. to Lat. in commendation. corresp. to come near. w. ap. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. to be open to view. landmark. 23 . prohts. to set a price on. diminutive pariculus. decree. appartenir. were formed appropiare ejar. approver. aparelhar. habilUr. ON. avail.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. They were considered To Appoint. one sent out. Friar's Tale. set a price on. become dizzy . apprise. Cotgr. ar. Apotliecary. Fabian in R. a price. to suit. trim. pertain or belong to. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Appease. one the MLat. i. — Apprise. A — . to — — . apparecchiare. opportunity. Cotgr. D. lAfiaam. H. Pliny. to announce. approcher. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to learn. a thing for one's purpose. — prehendere. esteem. ai. prover. Fr.his giving evidence against his principal. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Approach. preparation. to assign or grant over unto. mine. and also as appraise. APRICOT off. Mod. poind. Gr. to deaden. to deter- to strike. horror. To Appear.t. —^Apparent. An old appalled wight. Gr. to approve. S^. irpaiKOKiaov. (cited by Diez from a late author). Cotgr.propius). like. laven is used both as E. to approach. whether through age or sudden teiTor. known. The PI. prope (comp. to dress in this fashion. Fr. Hence appoind. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. make a composition between parties. appellare. approcdare. Prov. apropid. kind of action. To cause to pall (see Pall). rise to \t. allow. diroBrjKr}. find Then like Fr. The Fr. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. seiden of the stones. to rate. to seize. and metaphorically to take the meaning. pragigua or prixcoda. d-n-o. To Appraise. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to — . I prise ware. to deem good. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. quoth the frere. obolys.—Apprentice. properly to join like to like. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. Walach. piteux poind. to mark to define a bound. : — — speak 'Lz. apin R. appris. It. to store or put Appal. — Approve. to accord. to make a thing Apparel. apal. apropchar. appaiser. habiliments. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Yr. pronounce fitting). fit- — ness. probare. Fr. 5w. Epistle. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Fr. whence the e. appareo. when the . taking. ciously than nede is. pretium. agree. ^wss. one for his defence. to send off. Apostle. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. despatch on some service. in fact. away. order. or E. a crime. value apprdder. Apoplexy. Fr. —Diez. consent unto. plight. Parson's Tale. to commend. agreeing with "LtA. good. and appoinder (to find fitting. poind. dress. Gr. to understand. to fit. in data. apprentis. pronounce good. And whanne sum men Lat. in good season prendre son d. jabloko. Apo- good time. From Gr. apprehendere. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. to call. cepl.parejo. Ir. N. They werin his approvirs privily. peace. to learn. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to finish a controversy. that it outfit. a learner. To praise. to call for judgment. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. OFr. manner. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. apar. case. peler. xv. Fr. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. Apprehend. from aTroorlXXu. word was specially applied to clothing. Lith. of. to strike down. 11. Apple. and in the sense of condition. an epistle or letter. to send to. aptly. Formerly apricock. equal. Prov. near.pareil. Fr. a'^opi'Jw.

) E. . is taken in is a soothsayer.' —About. suitable. Thus we have natiger and auger. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. doubtless is the origin of E. arbitrium. intensitive of nape. naperon. be That it inne groweth. opinio. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. and sortilegus ation. rofe and all. proper. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. OE. . divining rod. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. She made. OHG. 331. and the one who gives oracles. conjectura conjec^ra. A. ap. derived. found in Fin. Marsh. Arbitrate. arpa. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. the spelland umpire. ahva. Naprun. Pr. words derived from arpa. herbere. sortium ductor. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. and taken away before dessert. grande nappe. delon. a lot. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. conjicio. however. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. short. wata. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter.] in the N. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. aa. of of divination arpa-mies. nawl and awl. aptus. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. a river. auguror. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. arbitror arwaaja. From OE. Hall.o. sestimatio arbitraria. 31. or eft. shortdr. Albanian. tion under trial. pracoqua was not an adapt. Pm. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. and with turfis new Goth.meaning at Shrewsbury. Arbour. This path Aqueous. It may be doubted. Now one of the points — — — . and a protection of the clothes. ear. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used.. From OFr. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. Now we find in Fin. account for either of these significations. Lat.shrubs {arbor). scr. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. a lot.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. Flower and Leaf. Prol. aro. The loss or addition of n very common. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. nected. C. Beryn. Gr. arwaus. 2. a lot. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. {mies ^=ia3. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. and thence fit. P. quod he. man. hariolus arpelen. to decide by lot. P. a cloth. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. aha.sors. Maan initial . As is a pretty parlour. . SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. arbiter in re censendS. Lat. Freshly turnid Arable. — . la nappe. Aquatic. water Which that benchid was. properly the arwella. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. — napkin is Naperon. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. arwelo. fastened close. to preserve it from stains. or barm-cloth. Alban. aestimo. however. to plough. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. most conspicuous situation in the garden . The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. . a pleasure-ground. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. It is certain that the apricot oracle. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. as an eye-witness. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. as ihe diminutive. a soothsayer. ughe. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. garden. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. arbiter. Lat. Roquefort. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. aqua. sorcerer. J. symbol. con. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat.

gwyrek. wanton. are formed the participial nouns. earh. vocaveris. armada. Du. apxtipfve. Gr. arwe. a noble. arm'ee.4 rir/. Sax. arcA in e. . . ardeo. Ardent. A construct. Aristocracy. Gr. earm. forearm . arduus. det arrigste snavs. the terminaGael. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. troublesome. ein arger knabe. bad of its kind. a court yard. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. aj-f. as the arch of a bridge. shoulder Boh. receptacle where the public acts were kept. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. branch. Alisaunder. while the Fr. to Arch. Lat. an arrant usurer. arrig. taxed with cowardice. contemptible. Arson. difficult to reach. Gr. 2. to be in comp. Arid.— Army. From the verb armare. un malin enfant. to dry. Lat. un petit rusd. high. Lat. bad. It. Arm. patus). apxri. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Gr. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. stuff. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. weapon. ^Argument. Applied in modern E. exercise lordship). a bare plot of ground. make clear or prove. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. apxtlov. erz in G. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. a bow. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. arm. G.is the natural weapon of offence. i. Perhaps erz-wticherer. . burning heat. Dan. arcus. erz-bischof. worker. ardre. a. to rule. Arduous. and must be identified with Dan. lofty.. and not with apx. Du. arm. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). — Wtb. ardIn G. argvitugr. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. to demonstrate.' the Gr. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. to burn . Ardour. which has been referred to W. D. arch-bishop. especially shoulder-joint. G. wretched OE. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. sly. Uo^a^. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. Arcliives. from areo. ill-tempered. armata. Lat. arson. is essentially the same word. a rule (princiruler. aridus. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. Lat. in Due. an arch boy. Lat. ' — Argue. apx^iv. weapon may be simply an application of annus. arg. ars. mischievous. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. erg. ardor. the court of a magistrate. adjective. .' Lex. — Architect. W. arma. The . signifies chief or principal. raineno. an arch-deceiver . fabricate). the best. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. and our army. curved. archangel. morally bad. mischievous. malicious. first. et vulgari verbo. an extent of flat surface. arga. een erg kind. Area. Langobard. arguo. arsum. Brem. arrant Arms. the most arrant trash. Lat. whence the body of the nobles collectively. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. shoulder. From apxeiov was formed Lat. ramo (pi. 3340. fainthearted. which is derived from it. And thou as arwe coward. to be on fire. an arrant rogue. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. ramend). a chief builder. as in E. Arcadia in R. AS. Fr. government. the a brute. curved line. from nixa. Fr. and Kpurka. There can be no doubt that E. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. sly. a branch. TiKToiv. it signifies roguish. by Russ. Fr. armee. apxh. bravest. rame. . bad. a burning or setting on fire. Sp. timid. ancient.In E. vescovo. Cot. * ArchjAiTaxit. a threshing-floor. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . man.' Paul Warnefrid. sluggish. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. kpxi- beginning. ruling by the nobles. ON. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Lat. argr. to arm. area.aioj.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. gwyro to bend.. Arch in composition. ers-betriiger. earg. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. faint-hearted.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

whether of wood or stone. a globe. malefacGower in R. a clod of earth water. as we say. a ball or pack. wickedness ness . ache. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. to dance. ball. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). balka. ing. on the shore. a clump . (Hesych. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. a division of the old laws. separaison. pallo. bollr. grieve . a ballot). balja. balla (with the augm. Grief. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. maan pallikka. hooting. . a clapping or flapping of wings. .— 42 BALE to BALL heap . on. ' is a piece or confused talking. palcare. to cause another to miss pustule. ban. E. and evil in general. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. balkr. to speak an un. I. It. Fin. to move. bacgtteter. Hence. bdlkr. ill. ballar). shouting. . Fr. balle. ballone. bbllr bulla J. Ballot. to shake or jog. to avoid it. a ball. a together in the form of a ball. at giore en balk. a. a But making way for death at large to walke. a scene acted in dancmg. bal. Sw. ballo. Sw. taich. . Goth. G. calamity. roof. Da.). a boil. pallo. balk. balken. . Da. to partition off . bal. a water-skin dim. a separate portion. ballan. to be ill. bielke. similar connection is seen in Sp. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a wooden partition . torment. balken. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. bealwes. Boll. balka hopar. the breadth from side to side . palloilla. balka bunge.— Ballet.' speak gibberish champurrar. balva-vesei. to paddle in water . pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. In like manner Fr. a balk of foul weather. It. bold. Sw. package of goods. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. heap up. beaten road. to grieve . sickness. w. on. Russ. wickedtorment ON. Ball. It. bola. to dance. a pail. ball. dial. with the perhaps from balg. balle. Pol. other while. to bale out. Venet. ballotta. G. baloier. to Not sparing wight. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. bolyatchka. It. pila. We have then separate dial. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. bol. probably Lat. Ugutio in Due. bal-daed. Sw. from bacquet. Mid. Fr. to plank. a ballad. to rock. It. to pack Da. may exhibit the original development of the signification. Du. balge. Sw. to see-saw. baalien. balveins. To baulke the Sir H. — A — — . a great ball. dial. to ail. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. to stir. AS. as in a barn or cow-house. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. to be balker. balare. blister.Fr. Du. a dance. Fr. floor. ball. baalie. to signify washy drink. balloon. ON. Perhaps on. Bohem. a continued noise of waves gently beating . Bret. boll.Lat.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. chapurrar. a bubble. the ballet of the theatres. The primary sense seems as in G. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. ne leaving any balke. Rouchi ban. bjdlki. mass. a beam. N. Q. to on Holmedon's plain. trouble.—Ballad. a dance. F. balk. pilula. Bowl. the object of his expectation. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. and the dim. OFr. a ball. stage or scaffold. ballare. globule. A balk. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. Baulke of land. to ache. . or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. to plough for a boundary between lands. balk. a ball balla. uveirs bolk.ing. 3. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. to by beams. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. afbalka. Balloon. Gr. i. a washing-tub. bal. vcdra bdlkr. to roll. says Ray. Ballata. to wave. Sw. Bale. Wotton. a ball. ballare. Sw. Dan. a pill. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . See Gall. a pestilence. dial. gen. a beam. balle. lealo. Sw. pain. bala. plague. Gael. maleficium. 2. ball. the beam of a ship. balk. TtaKKa a pail or tub . a skin. e. weak liquor. Sp. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Ball. ballare. are applied to a From the same analogy. cka. ballet. Hence Dan. To Bale out water. OHG. pallukka. baler.of men . vacillare. bolawy. . pallikka. palla. OSw. sorrow. dial. destruction. boleii. misery Du. tum. bol. hue et illuc inclinare. bolker. a partition. balle. sick. bolyaf. a ball. * Balk. on.

curse. or ballast of a ship. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. Sept. To proclaim. dial. because.that the going vessels. ballustre) is a corruption. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. sorcerer. Dan. Report Pennsylv. puzzled. denounce. Gr. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. fonts. to walk. Balluster. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. small railing. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. enchanter. lestage. back of the ship. ^Arbuthnot in R. deceive. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. The Sp. objects to the foregoing derivation. baUa. more serious objection is .' And Kil. bamboccio. a young babe. Lat. a small balustrade. This is the backload. called Bait. ballustres. inutile onus. Venet. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. from bara or vara. bam. Cotgr.). that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. To deceive. Balsam. lastagium signified not only ballast. bamein. bag-las. 1. To Ban. by met. baranda. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. Du. or movement of one who walks. balsamum. 43 — Cot. the backload. Bamour. endormir par des contes. bertesca. galleries. barandado. for want of other freight. a useless load. explains ballast. Sp. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. Fr. To Bamboozle. but loadage. from Lat. to preserve equilibrium. a false tale or jeer. the flower of the pomegranate. Said to be from balaustia. barauste. a nettle. Bret. Lest. in the first place. more frequently than outward-bound. deceiver. to enchant.Lat. Balm. lastra. last. ballast. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. a battlement . astonished. lest. . bambolo. If bambocciolare were child of one. Ballast. for a load or goods (Roquef. like Fr. lastre. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. urtica. bag-lest. is in Sweden and Norway.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. a duty on goods last. Mr Marsh whether the a load. To make fun of a person. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. R. — — oltriga. make fun of a person. paid for the right of carriage. Baltic. . inutilis sarcina. It is explained back by Adelung. it is forced to take in stones or sand. &c. a rod. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. In OSw. baU. of balusters. Sc. mare Balticun.000 tons.. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. When a ship discharges. The Baltic sea. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. a fragrant gum. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. also with flatteries and . balustrade barandilla. Fr. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. command. bumbazed. A — — . baltresac. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. little round and short pillars. seems the original form of the word. ranked on the outside of cloisters. railing around altars. ^a\Ba\iov. terraces. age. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. bambocciolo. It. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. baume. 1854. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. forbid. Bret. But Fr. To Bam. It. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. balconies. analogous to what is seen in It. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. i860. &c. the act of walking. and Mid. an Old dotard or imbambolare. as he says. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal.

e. Assises de Jerusalem. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. 15. to unite with a band. biddal. Band. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Mag.. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. i. eiiseigne. power. etc. It. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bound. bannum or bandum. The to . term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. a company. Capitul. Spebifid. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. to excommunicate {lysa. D. It seems this signification has arisen. band. banda. margin. in hostem convocare. border. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. also the band or of marriage. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . bannire in exercitum. to ctide. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. banner marked the place of assembly. In Fr.—John Villani in Due. admolendinum. ba?idare. to . — R. Car. and thence to any proclamation. those who side together (bande. bandon somewhat party. to side or to bandy (Florio). In like manner we find bannire adplacita. then the signification w. the ensign or banner. R. side. There is some doubt how Fr. to reprove.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. OE. side. A. whether by way of injunction or for- command. 2. &c. authority. 'A son bandon. and It. bindan.^ bandy. bann. Ripuar. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. Bandear. from at the Lord's courts. Sp. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Diss. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. sostener Torriano. Wyntoun. he assembled his host. bandon was used in the same sense. is That with which anything AS. populum. Goth. bandi. 19. — To partito d'alcuno. in Fr. banda the colour or material. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. bandera ground at his mill. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. to form parties.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Goth. parti. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. bando. bannire exercitum. —R. Bandus. banns pany of footmen serve.is further developed. Fr. bande. Cot. E. From the verb to banda. Sp. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. passing on from proclamation to command. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. to ban. It. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Commun^ment son bandon. fahne. says Muratori. theodscipe ut abannan. at his own discretion. — excommunication bann-lysa. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. he bannede his ferde. tener da alcuno. summoning to serve So in Swiss. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. v. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Les saiges avait et les fols d. permission. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. hoc est vexillo. &c. It. banda. bande. region. we constantly find the expression. flag. ligue Taboada). In a special sense the term company itself. Fr. to publish) banna. bande. to follow a faction. 1. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. to take one to task. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). bundun. Baud. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. Se il — Romance languages. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. a coast. . See Abandon. . Leg.Lat. G. ex. acquired the sense of proclamation. curse. band. 813. Sw. 26. faction. To Bandy. R- He Translated by Chaucer. change to the feminine gender in banda. and in E. to bring corn to be fahne.

banc. to slay. shoal. rap hatike et som The Susu. eminence. AS. to cabal. a bench. a counter. banca his creditors. eminence. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. has bang-bang. that the word is used by Romeo. &c. Goth. The word is in E. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. a long raised seat. bander tin arc. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). ON. But natheless wife at I bank. se reunir. seat . band-dog. a wound OHG. a de Vaud. It. and bakki. Fr. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. large dog kept for a guatd. band-hond. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. banc G. bandire. dorsum was applied to ject.z. for shame. death-sickness. See Banish.: . From a desk . retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. Africa. Brewer. From Mid. bow. bance. banja. . Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Diez. . Bacon in R.HG. among rotta. Draw. bane. bandear. 45 — — Bandit. put under the ban of the law. It is in this sense nounce. . &c. a table. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Bang. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. destruction . the former Fr. whence the mod. disturbance banga. bana. from banc. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Roquefort. stir. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Fl. to knock. Your stool. Bane. se joindre. a blow. language of W. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Banister. beating. . banke. to publicly order one out of the realm. ruptus. panca. bana-sdr. Fr. to proclaim. To Bandy. — Kil.^ knock. benk. to join in league with others against Cotgn. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. It. and hence. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. the same verb the It. hammering. a bench. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. outlam came to signify a robber. . E. bander. s'associer. in R. A Shipman's Tale. standard. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. AS. banka. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . bank. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. Ripuar. desk. Sw. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. a rising bank. banco. banqueroute. back of a knife. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. bakke. a sand-bank. Bantze. hricg. bang. bander. bent as a bow. banditti acquired the like signification. bandi. bank of Dan. Bankrupt. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. Du. When a man fails Lat. follow a party. bank of a river. in the same way that E. of bandying words. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. the back. bana-sott. ON. — Fr. Benvoglio. forbear this outrage. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. canis vinculis assuetus. Fr. counter. See Balluster. Lat. broken. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. Benchi. and therefore tied up. It. b'ang. de sable. —^Vocab. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. The child cries bang! fire. clouds. many a bang. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Bandy. and OFr. to beat. tumult bangas. murderer. to work in wood. Bank. banish. in the sense of place of business. bench. was formed the OFr. bana. Hudibras. Diaconus in Due. banca fallita. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. ON. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. beat. Banner. bannire. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. a bank. in the sense of a pirate. distinguishes bekkr. pastoralis. at canis peciiarius. a bench. bana. bankruptcy. roupt. de- party. Milton in R. Dan. — . to bend a. a i. bank. g. to hammer in a nail. The ridge of a hill is AS. home — Bandog. The ing. as of an explosion or a blow. death-blow . to foment factions. to knock. — Paulus drive in a nail. Banditti. bank of river. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. — — whence E. death-wound. Mid. a bankrupt merchant. N. Tibalt. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. See Band. bench. Bandy legs are crooked legs. and poise Their lighter wings. 2. the slope of a hill. Lingua. Mercutio. With many a stiff thwack. to make a stir banke.

Thus Ovid. Gr. token. from the same source. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. &c. sbarra. barre. banneret was a higher class of knights. The original import of their own banner in the field. Duo. a war-beacon or war-signal. Fr. heri-pau. to having that signification. To Banter. a beam or long pole of wood. barba. merki. that the noise of voices Bantling. chan. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. ban- Baptise. It may be thing. barbed or trapped as a great horse. 2. 3. as they call it. to wrap.— Swift in R. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barrou-gwez. inferior to a baron. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. E. Fr. sparro. says. a. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. It. summit. Fr. rarii. Flesche barbeUe. In a similar manner are formed yearling.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. in Gr. Lat. arineXov.cruel. The spar. wrapped. then branches. and even of calling it banter. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Banneret. a tree). banda hendi. Barb. rod of any rigid substance. then fell among the foot. knight Bardd. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. would rupted from Fr. and he would seem to derive Goth. banchetto. Leduchat. It. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. banniire. top. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. branch. a which the barrister addresses the court. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. G. . milites bannarii. iandvo. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. by a repetition of the syllable bar. speaking of battle. manu anto make signs nuere. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Gael.. and the work is done. of banco. To mock or jeer one. bandiera. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. a ban. &c. barbarus. Fr. a sign. Gr. men. ON. jSa'pjSapoc. banneret. or of this bantering. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. barde. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. barreau. an animal a year old. hence a repast. sparre.8ap6^o)voe. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. It. bandva. banda. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. E. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. A It. barbe. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. bannereti. uncivilised.46 BANNERET . ON. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. — We A . a bantling. Bret. the word came to signify rude. to wash. branches of a tree {gwezen.hinder. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. banner. remarked. out of a wound.the analogous syllable viur. to dip. signuin. from reifa. a bench or table . benda. ingly very generally known by a name branches. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. and it was accord. which is surely in barbed arrow. senheira. of wind. E. ing term appears in other languages. OHG. Hence Fr. and with an initial s. According to Diez the It. Fr. such as the Roman Eagle. ^oTrriKio. OFr. Lat. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. barra. himself in Pontus. Hence ner. banne. dim. privileged to raise Barbarous. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. senhal. jSdirTO). Barb. nestling. senhal. i. Celtic bar. and from ensign or banner Prov. barrack.aTa Kul nest. —Cot. Barbar. Fr.. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. a bearded or Cot. sign. Banquet. either in the Gr. to beckon . period vexillarii. senh. barriire. barrer. bar. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. indeed. brushwood. OHG. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Lat. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Barbe. a barrier or stoppage. inur. The origin is in all probability Goth. to bend. Sw. of a sign in general. probably corSymbol. Bap.

Fr. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Hall in R. albarda. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. quarrel . Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. speak confusedly. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. uproar. the quilted with. brabble in the making of a bargain. Port. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Bare. /3opj3opwJu. scouthouse. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. small pack-saddle. Barbican. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. and Sc. Etym. skirmish. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. barefooted Sanscr. Gr. to stammer. barbeau. and foolishly. barbel.— Fl. waschen. A7 to the and warlike. also to wallow like a seething pot. Arab. barda. to stammer. tattle. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. a pack-saddle. A shrub bearing acid Diet. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. barbulla. barbeter. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. which was of talking. such as houses are covered Bardelle. ala. open. the flap of a hat. Lith. upper chamber. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. barda. boil. a jetty or outnook in a building. bdsas. coping. . Hindost. G. barbarkama. Thus the on. Cotgr. a bardelle. Port. name Fr. to prattle. to barbe or trap horses. berries.) . baragouin. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. — — — men. Bargain.' Cot. It.) to wrangle. to boil or bubble up . guaszare. back. — . — — Hence. bare baskojis. the beard. axilla. Gr. i. murmur . is lb. jargon. stutter. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Bret.— — Pm. Barber. baar. barz. and the word was used in OE. in the sense of fight. dial. But Sp. Applied in E. as well as thwcEtta. skialldar-bard. on. powdered all over. Barder. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. to grunt. or more properly (says fer. Fr. twattle. lb. Fr. Pr. skirt. fortia —Strabo. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show.— BARBEL merit of water. It. and flanks. to bubble or boil. muttering. to bubble or spring up. unqualified. An outwork for the defence of a gate. barbar. Mod. . — . a rumbling. Bard. haggle. to make an outcry . to wash. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. used 2. tree. barguigner. berj G. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. grumble (Lowndes. a long saddle for an ass or mule. saddle-cloth. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Sp. Sp. Fr. the nakedness of a woman. Etym. borbulhar. also to bind or tie across. Russ. in Fr. barbelin. Sp. formerly used in the sense of tattle. to rumble. bds. bar. barbacane. Barbel. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. ready money. skola. Lucan. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . borborinha. to gurgle. to It. and in Flanders to vociferate. as well as the modern twaddle. the edge of a shield hval-barct. brim. a tumultuous assembly. Hatt-bard. Diez. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Mod. in poetic language Bard for poet. albarda'ah. Bardeau. baares geld. Lex. — Cot. bhasad. Barberry. borboglio. to chafbargain. barS. bdla-khaneh. bdsiis. to plash or dabble. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. guazzolare. Festus in Diet. borbollar. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. barbeum. bardes. Cotgr. twcEtta. /3£pjSepi^w. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. gibberish. w. to mumble or mutter words. uncovered. barbugliare. mutter. OFr. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. barbaris. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. g. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. The Pers. borbotar. a shingle or small board. Fl. border of a garden bed. Barde. Exposed to view. border. barboter. barbier. horse armour covering the front. albardilla. bardd. Cot.

quarrel. w. meta foeni. hay-loft. tumult. hladi. strife.) lihtes-ern. astringent. baragouin. Baron. squabble. am. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. dial. bern. to scold. Gael. in Nat. borkr. from an imita- Barley. limpet. name being given to spectacles. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. barafustar. baarn. . Kil. Dan.. Isidore in Rayn. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. wine. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. berm. baratta. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Barge. also a boat . barajar. lap. struggle. dregs of oil. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. a baking place or oven. contest. to cheat. 2. bard). As Goth. barizeins indicates a noun baris. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. Du. berem. Leg. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. Sw. plants). See Barm. strife. a lantern. baniffa. a beak. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. barlys {bara. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. . and hence probably (by a metaphor. i. bark . fray. barlys. tion of the sound. Dan. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Ripuar. confusion. The Goth. Bark. barn. Antiq. Port. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. barge. prominent part of a thing. baralhar. but the woman for the man. spectacles. Sp. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. varen. ThS man was not created for the woman. Vocab. OFr. OFr. barley. Sp. barretor. Barn. as well as Scandinavian tongues. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . the slimy substance brewing of beer. Manx bayrn. barnis. ON. From Fr. Spectacles. Camus. baerm. and 1. a lap. kani. aheap. at barka. Originally man. baarm. and llysiaw. as. (Ihre. dispute . . limpets. as. barone. quarrel Port. charlock. barms. then honoured man. bamagh. baron)^ Fr. as in the case of Lat. Garlick. a barn. * Barnacles. quant a perdu sa barja. It. baron. Bret. barja. Leg. is simply the Bret. barley. mhg. Cornub. Du. the A — Ihre. Romance barsie. to chop. herbs. beornt. bcerme. a load. bcern. a heap . The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. E. barii. Bailey. — battle. berm. Prov. brenig. disorder. a. the or prow of a ship. — de Berri. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. beer. Tarn baronem quam feminam. On the other hand. W. barn. to rout.' bardagi. bosom . baimeach. AS. prasepe . AS. then the bows pectus navis. barlich. berma. adj. berm hoys. It. a heap. barmr. Bemiques. bargain. the fore or after end of a boat . hemlock. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barnacles. See formed Yeast. So ON. Rayn. barki. Alam. giving rise to It. skuta. to all the barca. a boat. Provj bar (ace. Acervus. Swab. husband. Uzen. Lith. entangle. bernac. To Bark. chaffer. ON. baralha. bread-corn. barahunda. to strive. barley. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. border. . 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. as baces-ern. barafunda. and is probably a true bartig.. The origin may be throat. altercation. houbartij fsnile. dispute. in the Brim. ber (ace. to shufSe. one who stirs up strife. — Barnacle. limpets . also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. bread. the rack or manger. to skin over barkandi. a place. bosom. to wrangle. contest. a stack. — Zeuss. Gl. trouble. was barlic. OSw. Port. strife. hlaSa. a receptacle for barley or corn. —Bark. dispute . put to confusion. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. and the word.^Voc^. beorcan. barn. skutr. So also ON. bere. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Barbour in Jam. commonly explained from bere.Barum vel feminam. Ibid. and ern. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. ON. baaren. Sp. corn-shed. louzou. v. dispute barattare. dispute. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. The older form in e. a cap . edge. also to exchange. bern. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. baratta. ON. the G. baaring. 2.

a. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. change of goods seems. especially those killed in battle. seem to be radically the same with Lat. whence Barrow. bouracan. strife. alongside of barrow. fear. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. a bier. semen non accipiens landiEL. branches. boar. signifying. baroncelli. ibid. 26. brushwood.. over him. baronetti. the braw. bier. breinej Du.' that Barrier. It should be observed that. barrique. a bar. barri. A. Bargus or moreland. bredhan. It. barril. barchent. StiU he shows conclusively. or simply bahre. became bidre. Formed from Fr. and in several instances. w. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. barague. tomb. whenever Barrow-hog. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. Goth. uncultivated. hut. Russ. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. qui have not much light on the pre. vel pretiosos burellos. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. barBombicinus. beorh. fortification. OFr. An ing. barre. in Nat. Barrack. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. to shelter.parchanttuech. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. The Sp. AS. — Kil. Antiq. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. barraca. perhaps through Prov. bera. facture. bara. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. It was not until the time of James I. G. Barratry. dispute. baragan.have been named from the haggling and gant. See Bar. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. in the first instance. gwr. shed. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Nominale of the from braeckland.root signifying confused noise. composed of dry branches ofer. were sometimes confounded. G.— Gibbon. rolls of Parliament. Gael. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. vair. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. nobles. habeant. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. mound. a barrel. heap. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a castrated hog . This word introduced into Fr. berwen. beorgan. sterilis. cise formation of the word. a. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. from beran. Barricade. ^Vocab. ^Barrator. braeck. See Barter. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. borov'. a hiU. as. The feudal tenants next Fr. Bohem. beorg. baraignej Picard. Barren. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. cover. Sp. MHG. Joshua vii. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. then traffick4 Barrow. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Sp. Baron andfemme. barrila. from a tree to which a man is hanged. the two names. gravis et authenticus vir. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. berewe. iver. Bern. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. bahre. an obstruction. Barrel. calico. baracca. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. a hut or booth. to * Barragan. (Schmeller). It. baronuU. staves. a barrow. Fr. like bargain. Bamnculus a baronet. barrack. squabble. litter. as cavalcade. a man. which would barragdn. also termed bannerets. garment still used in Morocco. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. todtenbahre. Gael. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. a horse. Sp. 1. from cavallo. bark&n. vir. S. man. Barrister. by early examples. to carry. 2. booth. a kind of coarse camlet. — — 15th Cent. barile.. D. sepulchre. barrique. bearg . Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. a word is always used in the plural number. E. barrier. Bret. AS. implement for carryAS. Fr.' Op. and not from Fr. OE. — A . man and wife. bara. It. baronculi. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. fallow.

A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Dan. to deceive. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). the thin skin Dan. to cheat. chasa ogli a bastard. bast. ^Is de bast. basta. come near. beretun. baste. Fr. ohg. Bartizan. BassuS. ' Bosworth. HaUiweU. also to Cotgr. bds. It. tierer. Newman. Bass. would be. . a ftiesh. Sicamb. binding. partieren. hoops of a cask. plaiting of splinters basged. besst-u-b£nd&t.D. baraand especially teria. or running away with the ship. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. him. A fabulous serpent. the — — to kill those that look upon it. cheating. It. pdrdt. husk bast van koren. mavult dicere Roma suam. Basket. Du. court-yard. See Bath. beguile. See Brattice. thick. oe. fornication. piiiguis. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Sp. 516. lift me above Parnassus. It is mentioned as . besst. Fr. baratear. Bast. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. fits de bas. The like property hath the iasilisk. preparatory stitching. to bind hand and foot. dwelling. a tying. — Bassoon. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. HoUinshed. low. fornication. MHG. shallow. PaaiKhms. of the same sense. Bass. then cheating. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Sw. peel. fraud. OFr. beortun. bdtir. n' is n' is bacino. low part of the Hickes in Rich. AS. imbastire. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). Probably from reports of the cobra capel. crassus. basgod. The original meaning. which sets up its hood when angry. Barton. bast-maatte. discourse Nay. Bastard. ' He was begetin o bast. . basso. also the demesne lands of a manor. basso. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . submovet omne Lucan. It. baraet (from Fr. to bind. at basta og binda.' Gl. It. Sp. he. from /3aR. foist in bargaining. to bind. bastear. embastir. Sw. OFr. curtus. Lap. a bass rope. the a wide open vessel. imbastire. the manorhousfe itself. as It. a basket masg. but born in baste. Al is dai. exchange. It. Barbara de pictis veni patch. Apparently of Celtic origin. — in Rich. scale in music. Dan. Pl. Gr. Kil. Fris. basta. bassin. pressed down. inclosure. stitch. bast-reb. baos. lust. To Bask. It. baste. berewic. bark. MS. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. more noble in blood than notable in learning. a bastard. barter. unrighteous gain. But according And Dan. found in Turkish . MHG. leviter consuere. bareter. i. chasa. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. barley. a court-yard. — hanging. Isidore. Arthur and Merlini. Sylvester's Dubartas. to truck. to baste.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. to long — a British word by Martial. from bere. to stitch . bass-matting. a ipgli So Turk. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. rope for — . There is not one that. low. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. /«r<fSp. God it wot. commonly A joined with the word binda. ibid. bas. and tun. Swed. as the diadem of the basilisk. flat. to Diez.' Papias. Basilisk. HaU in HaUiwell. and Bret. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. mock not.). Fr. bast. cog. lattice-work. To stitch. To Baste. bran. aiKcig. basg. baxoj w. Halliwell. a deceiver. bestcn. back. exchange. according from Gael. Lend me your hands. a halter. Icegge eeii i baand og bast.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. or wic. netting. fhe outhouses and yards. bast. w. corn-farm. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . a king. low note. on a. G. humilis. truck.looketh upon his eyes. descended of an honorable lineage. but he dreth presently. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. to bargain. F. Sp. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. said Base. ing for profit. . over-reaching. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. to baste piece of cloth. baste. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Bassus. baratar. mean . Du. which covers the grain Ger. bestan. barter. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. to cheat.

club. e. or implement for 4 * A . nade. beysta. stryk. I. to whip. to thrash . BAT neither. a with a stick. is explained by Cot. Fr. bastione. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Cot.Lat.baste or knock soundly. a stick. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. basa. blakka. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. back. blatta. 164). Sc. niammal. bastonada. as weU as besteau. to give him a sound bastingi 3. For the loss of the / in back. That yche blak y dar wel telle. bastine. and ditches bastion. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. natt-blakka. to drub. business (Altieri). to stroke. to pack a saddle i. frame. 2. disposer. Dan. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. basta. pre. ON. to set on foot a war Bastion. a bastion. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. dial. blatta. raise. bastear. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. flyinge best. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. guerra bastir. Supp. bastille. to flap. * Bat. liiake. boste. worth (Nat. To baste one's hide . R. It. military term of a bat-horse). a blow cloth for dinner. the original has corneille. It. Florio. vespertilio. from Fr. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. and Cot. Perhaps baska. night-bat. passage Imbasto. contriving. frotter. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. Cot. blacta. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. a sconce. whence ledrblaka. a. badger. vespertilio. explains Sp. Fr. ment. the bat . For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to spread bread and butter. Antiq. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. ari instruineht for beating. bastia. set up. bastilde. blakra. a packsaddle. put it together. dial. — — Fl. set up. compared with blakka. a barSp. packsaddle. the winged . stryka. to devise or begin. Pr.fortress or castle furnished with towers. batta lucifuga. blows. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. Sp. victuals. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. Dan. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. To beat or bang soundly. the clapper of a bell. also the ricado. bastonnir. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to rub gently. Fr. R. Derived by Diez from iasi.. translation to a bat.— . blaka. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . bat. For the origin of baston see Baste. aftonbakke. — Bakke. 11864.-^ Chaucer. a pad. to belabour. a blockhouse. staff. Pm. bastir. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. like the owl and the bat. Mid. bast. devise. . a things prepared for future use. bak. which in the E. bladier. E. bastida. to lay the Sp. Fr. 2. p. to build. iastir. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. to beat. contrive. Bastinado. in the use of the E. in the Romance languages. also to cudgel. the night-jar or goat-sticker. iinbastire. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. erect.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. It. the E. bdion. Sw. blakta. vledermus. comp. All from bastir. baston. to rub. and Arabs. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. bastonFr. quelqu'un son roulet. to quilt or stitch wool into it. Sw. cudgelling. to Due. to beat. to teach one before. but this is hardly satisfactory. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. to build. To donjon.'CaB. provisions. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. bastimento. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. . may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Rayn. bakie-bird . Sw. 'iJipistreUo.stick. settiilg up. beating. Sp. Sw. Prov. a pad or packsaddle. 2.stitching in general. Dieiif. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . a bird which. bastir. has bastine. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. which to rest the load. basto. to cudgel. baston. — — — .— Bailey.

and milk beaten up together. more. bdda. an arrangement for giving blows. Batter. to betake oneself. to foment with hot applica. bat-en. Sp. on the fire. Mgy. battre las ailes. Jurgor. Fr. Florio. Pr. Fr. bada. to beat se battre. badda. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Hence pro. G. from on. to for fighting. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. a beating. gabatnan. the heat of the It. strife. — To . to dial. bludgeon. 2. squadron. a main battle. Fr. to fell. allay . Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte.' Palsgr. Strife. a blow with a light instrument. the root of e. bake. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. as signifying warm baths. for biia sik. water whether warm or cold. Bate. battre. better. beat down. a Baiffi. to be profited. From bat in the sense of rod . badda. a from ON. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. baz. a band of armed men arranged basa. by projections or in any licoure. buask made like a fortress.Hence in the augmentative form It. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. quell. to toast bread. to beat. debat. Sp. . To Bate. to beat. term in falconry . certain bend. baeddu. busk. abate. bet. solen baddar. beat. also a sun badfish. — — — ' — . tradire. It. batacazo. then to warm by the application of hot water. or make debate. to become convalescent. to warm. in the case of a wall. Eggs. to foment. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. trahtr to It. remit. or break down. Bret. oneself at the A into faggots. heat. to feed. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. batna. to bathe. betten. battaglia. made of bats. and with staffslyng. altercation. a staff. bataille. of bread is so much baked zX one time. to foment. Fr. Pm. Sw. dispute. A Bath. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . signifying to give repeated blows. abattre. and about an inch thick. gebdcke. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Battery. fortress or castle. baden. a great seems related to baden as Fr. G. I. to warm oneself. whence the sun burns . also. Batten. dial. howis. to thrive. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. batador. pak. bdhen. to warm oneself at the fire. sich bakern. dial. I baske. A batch as wood. made of — A made by one Batcii. as wood-en. Battle. badask. battere.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. See Better. a blow. e. batir. Du. is a simple adoption of Fr. to get better. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. quhar he suld assaill. Flem. It. In OE. . to bathe oneself. to refresh oneself in language. Goth. bdda vidjor. Fr. a battle. battle was used beath wood. Baka sik vid elld. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Battalion. a battalion. as E. Ayenst the sunne. in the sun. Gael. cudgel. to fight.— . whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. In some parts of England it is striking. as E. Barbour in Jam. From OFr. to beak. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Battlement. The bat with which a brot bdhen. beat. G. E.— To Bask. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. . to fire or in the sun. I bathe in water viz. Bat. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. Slav. and as a verb. Pr. Batyn. to beat. battre. Battery. gebdck. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. baka. to beath wood Battledoor. adapted for defence. lessen. dial. ON. battions. from battre. was formed bastilU. basa. to cudgel. Bailey. baquetazo. — Cot. To Batten. Holz bdhen. PLD. to heat. bdt. batterie. Plkkis. fashes basking in the sun squadron. batte sig. Hal. battere. solbase. flour. Sw. Jeddris and covering. To thrive. makebate. a stick. is in falling.Bathe. a stirrer-up of strife. Chaucer. perhaps first used adjectivally. a washing beetle. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. w. to flutter with the wings. on. or a dry stick. dial. to heat . bat. Pm. to become fat. bastille. tagUone. Fr. wet linen in washing. hot.

Swiss Rom. a spot. pegma. from Baldacca.. speckled. Batylment of a wall. P.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Pr. dirt. bal. Fr. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. whence the E. and authorities in note. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. form with an initial seen in Fr. In like manner Grisons filthy.. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). fagot. E. Fl. Pr. to cry. c. baubare. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. babsmall toy to play withal. trifle. ish baubles. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Sc.— P. or toys. faisceau. Beaus^ent. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. librillo. s. to bark. exactly corresponds Fr. Lat. a tassel or hanging bunch . to the same origin. — — ' Lydgate. a dog). Zalli. bal.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. ! Bauble. an — — — A — g — — — . P. It is all bawdy. baudrat. baugant. Bavin. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. horse. Pm. to talk Lacombe. E. to bark . baue. ball. or the animal so marked. —R.guage). Ball-seirc. pie- . a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. to 53 manure the To baw. obstrepere. collar. bad. Bagdad. bauU. a lump or cluster babhaid. bobbin or cluster of thread. an object. balderich. from Fr.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. 2. child. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. P. filth. Piedm. Cot. dung. zano. is used for a sented by bau. a gavel. baula. Ball. whimwham. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. tille. BAWSON Swiss. disgusting. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. nastiness. spotted. bau. 8. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. a horse marked with a procession. to make the noise Baudrick. is Bagdad stuff. excrement.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. baudrdj OHG. guigaw. ON. babbole. the face. Jam. baffe.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. spot. to vociferate. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. The It. bouaila. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. E. fooleries or fond To Bawl. ballach. represented by the syllable miau. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. scarf. or sheaf of Bridel. balGael. in OE. Prov. propugnaculum. W. divided between black and white. A name of the badger. dente. expressive of disgust. because made of cloth of white. dirty. It. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. i. also more Bawdekin. and to-tore also. bauch. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. having a white streak down Bagdad. a belt. a zan. instead oi s. dial. Gael. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. s. OFr. Filthy. also the canopy carried part of his body. bausan. The word may perhaps be sticks. Hal. a tassel. Cotgr. to low or bellow as corn. filth. as Fr. miauler. the Swiss baben. From Bret. or Cot. Formed from baw. to trifle away ment. — Pm. dacchino. From ! an interjection of disgust. a white mark Bawdy. a horse with white legs. sword-belt. b \% bouala. It.' ' Pegma. vacillo. sorry. ground. javelle. fields. Baldrick. trifles. OFr. Bawson. balbob. E. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Descript. an embattled wall. Irel. was simply a field gold. fe bau. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. to void the bowels. the white of his leg or foot. to play the babby. baban. bow (as in our nursery Diez. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Fr. mew. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. bow-wow. rotten. lewd . Fr. whence pouacre. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. on the face of animals. Baw — . icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. R. tab. babiole. baw. Cloth of gold. bobine. Cot. and Sp. It. brush faggot. a lump. cluster. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a plot of Chaucer. bablyn or waveryn. toys. An analogous noisily. to me-wl.

Bay. Sp. corrupted into Bow-window. 1859.—Journal Soc. Cot. which however. to iiitent nected PoL white. like a pie. window-sill. baca. bay. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. badarc. &. —F. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. Fr. baja. to be Bohem. dehiscere . white./^ bau. by the term rendre les abpis. or recess in an apartment in modern times. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. Vielp. F. the cod or husk of beans or the like. —Bay-windo'W.. buidhe- The ruadh. 25. . life. baya. at his last gasp. Mod. yellow . that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Gael.— Stalder. w. See Bawl. . and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Lat. — Schmid. ing-floor. bahia. It. or window ' (in Fortification). which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. BE Probably conRuss. beonj Gael. baga. Drayton in R. Catalan hadia. as if to signify a window of curved outline. to keep at a bay. bdcr. Such Antaeus seemed to me. bagaid. Lat. tradire to Fr. hddhe-dhonn. barn of two bays. bay. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. * To Be.. Arts. Swab. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. expresr sion tenere a bada. Fr. from badar. watching intently. desiring. dividere. window . Said to have been invented at Bayonne. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bijel. the step is the same as from It. . batibari. bahia. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. living Ir. Bay. baier. beothach. the cod of peas. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. when. . It has been shown under Abie. living thing . The word bay. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. bayen-stein. life. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. bayo. siege of Bayonne in 1665. he turns and faces his pursuers. The — Fr. abbabayer. baye. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. house . berry. waiting . A stag is said to stand at bay. stare. open the mouth. so called from its bearing bays. baccello. badia to Sp. ist. From Cat. to on anything. baer. Earth — By Nature made to till. To Bay. It. is perhaps not directly from Lat. badarse. a berry. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. a hole. |8i'os.c. to split. From the former verb is the It. to mark. Fr. — A At Bay. bilyega. laurel of the ancients. buidhe. a'uno.' — — 54 bald. It. bde. bioth. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. BAY marked with bjly. to keep one waiting. &c. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. and zndly. a mark. to open as a blossom. baiare. bacca. stood watching him stoop. and keeps them in check for a while. Fr. Feb. &c. in order to keep the enemy in check. See At Bay. the laurel-bay. OSp. Q. It. badius. to stand watching one. Fr. to betray. aux dehniers abois. BauSfi)/. grapes or nuts. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. alive. gate. arose two forms of the verb. husk.' Bailey. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. bate. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. beo. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. weary of running. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. to open. Bay-tree. large window in a handsome . baher. Holland's Pliny in R. baie. Piedm. AS. S. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. as gazing. See Bald. Bayonet. from an imitation of the sound. baca. or berries. bilyejiti. or at bay. Sp. to amuse stare a bada. a beast. the world Gr. —Diez. Gr. bialo. 1. baionette. put to his last shifts. Gael. that from ba. berries. Swiss beie. overture. Abide. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. Serv. trahir. Q. bai. It. a cluster of bacon. Prov. a dagger. Fr. especially beans. Sp. to gape. or to have been first used at the Cot. bajo. and the To bark as a dog. A hollow in the 'line of coast.

Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. fd or faVf beans. Fr. was introduced from England sea. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. however. bairan. ffci. To Bear.fuis5e. Trans. a tree. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking.ad. signifying individuality. Beach. to nod . faba. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Gael. bauhan. ON. gebed. as. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. OSax. The origin seems preserved in E. Fr. be. Hackluyt in R. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. nokkima. stock. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. bydel. * Beagle. as. fora-bauhan. to carry. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. beic. bagms. AS. like most nautical terms. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. A two-year old nephew of mine p. beck. vii. signifying a point. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. bohnej ON. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. W. to bellow. E. a sign. pierced for hanging on a string. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Bret. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. post. a beak. — : Beam. support. G. bakke. Bear. Gael. prodigy bauhnjan. Lat. The immediate shore of the Menage. bee. bek. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. according to of Sanscr. Bean. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. a single bean. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. 54. to beckon. bean. a single bean. a hill. a curtsey. Netherlands or North Germany. W. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. — Bellenden in Jam. bearti. a tree. Du. bar. to produce young. fero. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. ffaen. bead. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. becco. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. Q wait upon him. vol. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. bohne. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Moreover the name. . badmr. Goth. N. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. G. bM. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem.to have a French origin. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. He says. AS. on. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. g. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. bokan. It. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. It forms a. bakkje. It is BEAR SI court. — to bow or nod . through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Bret. Farrar. a presage. which is. Slavon. or however. Goth. beacen. or any action done with a pointed thing. beic. Be. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. backe. pig. -phxr. — bedeau. Catalan becar. beugler.from AS. bdkna. beans. Beak. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. A Esthon. bidan. Gael. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Chapters on Lang. bedm. See To Bid. or beic. ohg. into a snjall river. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Beadle. or breathing.' Suetonius in Diez. to wait. bank. Beacon. The nutu significare. a prayer. —F. . officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. would say. Pardoner's Tale. «va\ioQ. a nod OHG. to wait-. into France. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. fromthe danger. faba is Kvavoq. rising ground. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. bob. the part overflowed by the tide.fui. l^ax.fer-re j Gr. atUndre. to nod the head. . The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E.' adheres to the root. baum. Beckon. ON. It. baun. Beck. Boom. The wild beast. as well as f& or fav. Gr. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i.' Hall's Chron. an attendant. tale of prayers or doxologies. salve his hurts. bidello. and Lat. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. boom. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. not applied to the yelping of dogs. beacnian. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. Sw.. Thus the final en. We haled our bark over a bar of beach.

Fr. to assume a certain form or Turk. Lat. the beard. con.' every way suited to a prince.S6 fero. covered the face. agreeable. to happen. suitable. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. pleasing. riviera. Secondarily applied to a hat. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. iida. See Bank. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. bart. to fall. limpian. blast. when up. to fall mode of being. to be a part of his to. a bank. or river. agreeable. to the good hapHalbard. See Bat. to hem. decent. bobrowai. formerly a happen. bekkr. befall. to be incumbent upon him. rying. nod or sign. gabaurths. to arrive at. gefallen. bedr. — A — A — . to be fulfilled. to get. brook. to the brook itself. to appertain. Sp. a brook. Now the Beast. comely. fallinn. baba. Lat. brada. bach. biivre. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. ziemen. W. taste. Lat. fitly . godum with ON. It. bequem. E. Fr.AS. The moveable part of a helmet. proper . fit. to fall in with our bavard. He becom on sceathan. to carry. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. 2. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. See Beacon. Lat. Do no To It fallith favour. Fr. o. Bosworth. tidy. becuman. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. Fr. to please. biber. bur. Chaucer. pretty. On the same principle. bava. The OFr. The quadruped. E. ting. to happen. bobr. i. nothing to thy name make. That thou mayest attain Goth. Thcem. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Fr. and Fr. badi. Beck. bearing. to dabble . from beau. name applied originally to the bank then proper . to happen. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. opportune. byw. G.getiman. See becymth anfeald yvel. As rivus. It. whence baveux. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. timan. becuman. . and on. which. bavec. happening as it ought. to those goods which endure for ever. dress with unbecoming richness . place to lie down. riviire. behkr. to bear children. bett. a. Goth. Slav. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. chin. perhaps a living thing. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. talkative. or special purpose. slobber. Lith. to live. Diez.of being very angry. To load with ornament. a bank. beauts. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. fitanimal. barba. dushmak.we call the arrangement becoming. from baver. tidig. Beck. the latter are derived It. ON. bcek. baurthei. g. R. to sleep on. G. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. to happen.fit. if sound of a sharp blow. suitable. pens unmixed evU. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. bebrus. limplice. The fitting or suitable. befit. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. a lip. bring forth. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. battere. judgment. obtain. Bedizen. it is probable that here also the to become. decorous. — . produce. den. bellus. connected with ripa. R. beo. Beckon. seemly. while from Shep.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. 1. OSw. burdr is used in the sense of a car. Cal. Dan. or a feeling to be gratified.to clothe to slobber. get J ' He got very angry. to attain to the lot of any one. Beauty. birth. e. G. as the babble of the child. an notion of being convenient. limpan. convenient. brook . handsome. bave. ON. to happen. edge. I do thee pray. bekommen. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. beatanj It.' ' He became very angry. Beat. and to acquire. boroda. bib or slobbering cloth. bave i. dize or dtzen. i. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. AS. Prov. bello. barf. living. E. bel. G.' are equivalent expressions.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. but now a river only. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Russ. to G. venient. Prick of Conscience. ON. and also in that of birth. G. because made of the fur of the beaver. duty. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. AS. gebank. to come to or upon. border.— Kiittner. byrcti. proper. from the same in the sense of bear2. Bo. as. Boeth. In like manner condition. now confined To Become. to wade through the water like a beaver. gelimplic. receive. our taste. to shore. bard. Thus OY. e. Perhaps from Pol. fiber. babrad. baviire. the ece thurhwuniath. bestiaj Gael. ON. Beaver.

erroneously modified in form. Bee. vaar. also bienst.D. from risan. crespir. a pad or cushion). I put the flax upon it to spin. cugino. a Properly a cover that biiren. i.. bitela. an inhabitant of the desert. buka. in Nat. In a passage of an Old Fr.— JI14. bet. red curdled Arab . beest. byst. thick. PI. kiissen-biere. cited by Diez. pude-vaar. a mallet. Horn. P1. on. buche. drink. Let. Fin. Pl. Bernese. ProBeer. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. clog for a dog b'oteln. a drink potus. sela que environna la terra. door. I A pillow-beer. beach-each. knock. 'La Gl. tree. to drink. 1. poculum. For that was law of lend. cushion-cover . as in It.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. biest-milch. KXlvoTTiT^e. AS. bedde-redirj ohg. and in driving piles. to colour with lime-wash. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. The meanpainting. Cot. from the hos. cozen. to flatten In OE. ^. Esthon. turn (a garment). 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. bitel. badigeonner. boeuf. The beer al for te shenche bate. trees in a forest . to parget or rough-cast . Fr.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Bethlehem. woman that is newly delivered. G. . beta. beutel. Ant. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. beetle also signified the impiti. betel. Cot. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. fagus. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Confined to bed. It. Bav. a agulatum in the original Latin. Arab. to become Beech. a stinging bieUe. an Beetle. whose face is clotty. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. It. case. bukva. a horse-fly . taglio. bbtel. a paviour's beetle batail. a wandering Prov. to and ale. bette or blettej Lat.^ drink. mars betada. whence familiar. which also 2. the loppered sea. from Lat. I dysyn a dystaffe. desert. a wasp. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. ris. bytl. beer. Lat.'— GL ^Ifr. to coagulate. beyki. bovis. by the analogy of bedaivb. . to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. E. kivih. ' MordiThe Lat. duplicated form of the root. prisons Venet. Slav. to change . de Fierabras in Diez. buk.). G. to poordma. pital of St Mary. . wedges. bos. Fr. a malsense of drink. &c. bove.possible. turn. Fr. bibere is a re.ing of the word is curdled. a bee. 1. as the milk of a that purpose in London. to fall. boytle. . to curdle or lopper. blow or thrust._t from the root pi. speach. qui de lecto surgere non potest . biiren. to beat bossel. curded or beesty. used for boull. from leberen.' So Gr. beost. fall. may be shpped on and off. briesch-milch. in Schmeller. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. a cup or implement for AS. E. The honey-producing insect. a cover. /SXirov. a bed-tick. translation beOj. beach. to rough- cast. drink. But possibly bedizen 2. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. the ox. a pillow-case. a pillow case. Bed-ridden.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. 57 — Palsgr. sang vermeilh betatz. Beef. imperative pi. waarin. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. pettiriso. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. as. Rom. Fr. Fr. garden-herb. an ox. a wasp. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. a clapper. doubtless. bably named from the destructive quali| T. from jtst-. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Grimm.cz//aj. madhouse. the meat of spinach. D. from blood. to twist poorma. to knock. g. G. cousin. The first milk after a dizen. stakes. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Bedouia. briest. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. bedawi. cogionare. biene. of beatmg. ir'm. Beet. calleBedlam. 1156. Beetle. AS. paralyticus. bedskiissen-bUren. thick. by-flugaj G. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. 1 to drink. to turn. Dan. bletumj Gr. GaeL bior. Originally. It. extant in Bohem. piwo. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. * Beestings. . AS. bossen. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. The same metaphor is seen in Fr.— B.ON. Gr. . The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab.D. Lat. batAfter mete in sale. cow has calved. the biter.(paddi. prigione.' the last word corresponds to cofly . also the bite or sting of a bees. and lebermer in G. water. Gael. Fr. may be from K. Pett. comb.

' Begone. ytyvwfT'Kw. He did alight. 168. giving in Gr. is formed pocair. P. Du.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Of brede full ycrammed. to arise. to be born. can. capere. a bag . vir mendi. a wallet. yiyvo/uat.— .3. P. gigno. hags. genus. gen. baigeir. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Creed. AS. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . image is cleft out of the trunk. aginnan. on the tramp. To produce children is to acquire. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein.' for ye shall lament and weep.pose. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Nov. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. ken. &c. ip AS. to begin.bag full of the G. To Beg. So from Gael. can. a scrip. to begaan. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . to be able. oppressed with woe. V. cans. a bag. & go a begging. duginnan. yivwajcw. Cold-begone. P. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. the fundamental notion of attaining to. beissel. beutel. — Stillingfleet. as alighting is a momentary operation. ykvog. incipere. onginnan.quently used in OE. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. It will . a beggar-boy. 'ex quo. Mod. in Lat. a scrip euXaiciJoi. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE.' about undern he got down. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. affected. In Luc vi. 'Dz. to get children . Lith. su with gold. yivtrri. a bag or poke. ' . 1430. 2. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. 40. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. 25. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. Political Songs. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. gan. seizing. kind. word. to beg. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. to bear young. one after that other. on further examination. ornamented phoc. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. in D. above quoted to get beaten ON. Gr. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. origin. Mundart. V. woe-begone. P. a beggar .n. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. also called Bigots. P. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. P. It. at geta talad. from whete G. P. is com. Barbour. literally. whence the E. Schm. ' ' . to cleve. Si'Xa/coc. not began to alight. To Begin. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. in E. krapszas. a wedge for cleaving wood. Florio. anfangen. a chisel. When Q. referred gan this Erie alight. fangen and Lat. Goth.D. P. signifying to conceive. ysgrepanu. lapidicinus. viii. or Of a pure poor man. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. bertola. begger.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. it is both to acquire and to beget. covered with gold D. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. chisel. From w. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. OHG. of Gr. beitel.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Into the are D. beriolare. appears improbable at first. a — wedge. to go a begging. Du. touched with emotion — . ken. y/yvo/iat. Bruce. taking up.' A. Deutsch. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. beis- plement driven by blows. a beggar. air a . sel. iv. a little bag). Du. ysgrepan. 58 BEG BEGONE G. but probably erroneously. pose-pilte. be^nnan. to take. although it ' the future. tale. V. begging. 'Aboutin undern monly. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. steinbosil. Vocab. on the bag. beitel. but in the same language from poc. to reduce him to beggary. Skinner's derivation from bag. beginning. 142. 1867. bag {baigean. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Fr. Ancren Riwle. chap. two betels —a grete oke. P. &c. Beghardus. The tother seand the dint cum. and Lat. P. — yivsaiQ. yivofiai. to know. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. to be acquire. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Lollards. a stone-cutter's chisel.

and (as Fr. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. promise. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . habere. ge' hatan. to tend. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. It. G. invoke. to be fit. guardare. to fit. taking notice or care of (Gloss. beholden to him. have the sense of calling or naming. hafwa bort. Thus in Finnish the heave. Sw. The seyn. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to cast or throw.to vow. G. gehat. and the E. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . G. injunccommand. or the hence advantage. to command. to call. behete. advantage.the figure of throwing at a mark. to name. and their senses intermingle. behaviour. zu etwas gehalten haitan. hcefwa in seed. to keep. AS. furtherance. To Behold. Sw. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. behind. right. hatan. take heed of. obliged. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. ifl fact. To look steadily upon. R. behold. hafwa. to carry. solicitum esse.— . to carry. Kiittn. when the verb will hoof. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. zijn. And so from hania. hafwa ram. to look upon it as true . garder. betragen.for throwing it. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to be named. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. vow. to behave. is on the top of or opposite to.' Richardson. hevja. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to the equivalent of Du. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to have.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. behat. To be expedient. bound. AS. heave. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. or purpose. Sw. fixed upon any object). hofwa.). to carry corn into the barn . servare. portarsi. is also found in the sense of looking. to R. hantyri. behatan. han- — js Kil. AS. keeping. gecall. — Behest. The It. to lead. to lift. promise or a command. to hit the mark. observe. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. hovast. to vow. ward. hove.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. Paladino. commonly expressed. to be be named. to halten. what is so required. To place are most naturally ex. to carry. G. by the compound observare. The Lat. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. tail. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to feed. to call. heita. laborare. behces. us-hafjan. a follower. hcef tig bort. premi curi alicujus rei. to be obliged to do a thing. as in the case of E. beperson addressed. to be suitable or becoming . K. to keen or hold. ufhaban. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. hafwa. seeing to. holding is originally derived from that of looking. OE. se porter) to fare well or ill. Robert in Warton. N. G. to promise. is supported by many analogies. healdan. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. But. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. AS. the distance of anything. 17. adjust. behoof. promise . hevja. tion. behefe. to vow. to look. to hold. vow. to heave. to take away. habban. from tragen. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to gehouden. to be well pleased out. at the tail of. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. use. Goth. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. Plautus. To Behave. keeping. heeten willekem. Command. to keep. or necessary. to raise. to regard. to bers of the body. to hold. exhort. to turn one out . BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. gehouden. heeten. to follow. the name adapt. on. what he wishes another to do . hces. G. the two verbs seem radically the same. to be obliged to one. AS. to lift. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. —Hest. At the back of The re. to meet. nittaa. gehalten seyn. gehaben. take yourself off. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to bring forwards. hafjan. to command. according as the * To Behove. the equivalent of E. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad.

to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. aim. to extol the worth of anything. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . on. bolken. loven. To praise is essentially Xo prise. in nautical language. bylja. peal. — mankind. ungalaub kas. on. Du. to der swaren lave. gelyfan. ON. is used in the sense of approving. In Mid. to to make A Templorum campana boant.alyfan. then.D. To Belay. to boke. or a sconce. leaf geleafa. honoured. to praise. giving leave or permission. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. is (Sternberg). galaubs. which has been shown to be derived from laudare.Lat. Then. Du. bounds. laubjan. to give leave Dan. to permit. bellow. to roar. filu-galaubs. to give leave.D. legsel. ON. beau sire and bel dame. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to hit hafi. a tower. Northamptonshire. ley/a. to estimate them at a To believe. to lay be- around. to praise. if a promise. if a narration. bealcettanj OE. an implement for making a loud noise. orloven. to befit. verloben. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve.D. loven. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. leave . moderation. OHG. to belay. Q. —F. See Gain. praising. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to express approval. certain rate. loben.Lat. and. are other modifications of the same imitative root. we have Goth. beleggen. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to praise. from mhG. reach. to promise or engage. pro3.D. to lay the cable round the bits. to a loud noise. — . Doubtless an imitation of the sound. AS. to cry out bell. Pl. hesfa. beffroi. Bell. to sound loudly . locus securitatis Schilter. frid. garnish. bervrit. border. From AS. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. stand. properly belonging to the church tower. Fair sir and Fair lady. a vessel made for dishonour. then. distance to which a piece will carry. In the middle voice hofwas. and E. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. under the forms belfredum. reputation. behove. a. Goth. b'ola. To Belch. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. It. with the consent of the heirs. Du. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. beffroit. bellan. Du.. galaubjan. to make it fast. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. allow. lov. promiser. laven. satisfaction. Fr. range. . praise. or house. Another application of the same word is in Pl. Fr.. esteeming good and valid. portion. Pl. true. Sw. to resound. laven. a tower for defence . battefredum. To Believe. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. . bercvrit. to promise. permitting or giving leave. erlauben. — Diicange. belief . G. OFr. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. a watch tower. and bergan. Hence to simple approbation. lofa. measure. to give leave. to bellow. bealcan. to protect. bettifredo. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. and E. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. overspread. glauben. to sanction an arrangement. to believe. precious. bialla. appearing in Mid. to believe. are innate . — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. beset. belja. bulken. mark ON. a little shed. esteemed . fringe. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . Det er ofwer er hofwa. to believe. to be required for a certain purpose. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. berfroi. permission. 6o BELAY BELL loven. bell. cela est audessus de votre portde. P1. turris. tain a certain end. lyfan. to bolk. . the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. AS. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. and Du.. or high estimation. is an easy progress. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. for purposes of low estimation . bertefredum. ornament. The word be- Belfry. promising. met. were civil terms of address. boare. to put a high price or value on. resonare. fitness. to fix a price upon one's wares. consent.

to arrive at. or fyle with myre. to hallow. J'emboue.' Palsgr. Bench. bless. hem. or simply djawt. Beneath. a round or bubble-shaped root. or sometimes louban. from benedictio. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Benign. bendan. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. to touch one. on. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge.— Belly. leather sack. See Bank. because bcelg. Fr. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. From OFr.Fr. a accusative. as concerning that. Bent. bellows. To Benum. to do good to one . est matris in lucem editus. gelangen. I say). to make bilbil. To Belong'. rise against external force ." — — . to hold to one. Lat. a benefit. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. a bellows . the word. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. a kindness. Quoth. Belt. . I soyle it or araye it. Gum benjamin. skin. Lat. to bless. beneison. See I . balg. was in Mid. skin. blast-bcelg. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. benjoin. by itself. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. Sw. Javanese perfume. a bellows. vulva. bendaj as. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. bcelg. to ring. a blow. to attain to. border. from another modification of the word for bubble. To Bend. Dozy. Gael. means seeds of plants. the skin of those animals that factor. bolch. welt of a shoe gwald. Fr. to touch. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. belly. pertinere. . a water-bubble builge. w. ' I beraye. volva. benejicium. welt of a shoe.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. G.polch. binssen. benaigon. — See Numb. belt. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. to reach. dirt. bimaissen. vulgarly the belly. is The word balg.videtur. attingere. Benefactor. blister balgan-snamha. a border. to attain belangen. G. generous. Fr. from Arab.' The term had been previously planation. ON. hence with ashes. ' . to belong. — ray. OUG. bag. balg. bell. from cwcsthan. incense of Java. benir. as. belgr. See Nether. Benediction. Du. bolg. fyle To dirty. . pervenire. G. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. benefacere. has assumed a plural form. benehusk. belly. gwaldas. . Benignant. bilbila. to use words of good omen. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. an inflated Lat. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. G. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. from which is also bulbus. are stripped off whole blase-balg. The ing-skin. pouch. bandoir. bienfait. Bret. bimpsen. . Commentary on Neccham in Nat. bellows. cod or husk of pulse. — Ducange. bags or bellows. Bav.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. I marre a thyng. benedictio {bene^ and dico. a blessing. Benefice. kind. to come to the crown belangen. binsen. To belong is thus to reach up to. a spring.' — Hie fimus. Lat. fens et hie liraus. one who does good. se bander. OFr. is a kindred form. Lat. Eenison. to become one's property . Benedico. Lat. Gael. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . balteus . the ipsi Caddono concessimus. ON. Benzoin. . belch. . or a It is times the to signify services. to concern. loubdn djawt. langen. disposed to oblige. bander un arc. Was das belanget. poX^ri. benignus (opposed to malignus). to stretch it on a frame. taken absolutely. rushes.. Ptg. to say. ball. wallet Benefit. bilbil-goda. benedicere. to. Kil. to concern. the womb. To Bequeath. ^To Beray. to exert force. pertinere. a good deed. ray. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. attinere. attinere. See Bind. wallet. bellows. benjoim. — root consisting of concentric skins. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. becwathan. needs no ex. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bolg. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. a speaking well of one.pinuz. belliJ Lat. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. a leather bag. pod. bene/actum. pino3. to bend a bow . well. Lat. I araye. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. In E. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla.

a horse collar. * Berth. to stand one in good stead. and on which the wager is laid.fish the other hand. and also to entreat. R. betan. See Better. eld up- On is to be placed A — . stow. jnore. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. to strip. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. botesward. baete. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . from grow. making better. — bota. basjaj Du. The origin is AS. because used for making besoms. Besom. Sw. reafian. better. to word is shelter. and Du. scopse spartis. supply. barth may be for barf. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. of ffeed a fire. reparation. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. Best. advantage. Zeitschr. an incendiary. think more probable. AS. in the sense ctf beria. might have been . Du. R. Esthon. bereafian. BETE dirty'. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. To Bet. to light the fire . to supply a want. bestow. bota. as. sweepings. position. Du. or. ariierf to 113. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. roju. boeten. earh. is to perform a serviceable office to him. besen. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as.D. . was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. from AS.— Hal.• 62 Antiq. to amend. bur-we. basya. place. peto. berwe. — . bdt. mud. beseech. as. It is the restore fyr betan. * To Bete. lewth. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to make better. stealth from steal. brem-bessen. fall with sound. or to bestead one. ropahtaa. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. So Lat. G. — Biglotton. to on the other Goth. broom twigs. betan. dirt . hva mannan. to make it. Tha het he micel fyr betan. seems twigs or rods. bet. To seek something from a person. preferably. Grose. G. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. To bete his Jam. roe. to cast. sets fire to. Goth. When men of mekeness him baet. to mend. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. besnij Pl. BEREAVE Wall. buttare. dung . to give a place to. sheltered from the wind.X. rubbish. supporting on the one side Lat. boeten. houseless. besje^ Sanscr. bacca. noise. From abet. or the space kept clear betan. The dry. fearful. repair. dirt.t. profit. to thrust. Devon. dust rojahtaa. besein. the origin of which is to be found in ON. ^•n. — amendment. Beere. Beit. stede. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. it seems hard to separate as. a fire. to be-place. Kil. 3. bal oppbota. from It. to fire a funeral pile of . — Chaucer. compared with bargham. berry. the guardian . encouraging. same word with the provincial barth. make better . Du. as conversely a besom is called broom. To help. small eatable fruit. So too Yorkshire arf. bdt. Fin. to fall with roisto. E. To Beseech.— VixHsm. what does it better a man. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. See Reave. advantage. Berry. The proper meaning of the bale.—^fake. earg. Du. to the place boarded off in a. Fr. AS. To Gl. boteith Goth. p. het vuur The serise of Boeten. as. E. Bestead. to seek. but in practice. To Bestow.iooA. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. to To Bereave. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. to entreat. So roto rattle down. ^akka. reparation. amendment. the side bhakshya. one who shelter. OE. to kindle the fire. dial. Ihre. vol. Hfence backing. AS. Beet. bat. a berry. Sw. solicit. put. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. vi. put forth. buttafuoco. berwham. fyrbotare. to exercise on a definite object. to to deprive of. arwe.bhaksh. rods. a place . barthless. an incendiary. as Du. as. On the other hand. Fr. burrow. what does it boot. to thrust. besIn sen. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. to defend.irova. barfham. . to put on the saddle. beorgan. p. besmas. boutefeu. person to lie in. as in growth. improve. baete. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. I from lew. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. but it is specially applied mister. roju. as bouter selle. ship for a make amend. bouter. Tusser. lay out.ot-i. boeten. protect . Rob. then ordered he a shelter for cattle.

to Hence It. Pl. what does It is forward him. from. some attention. trahir. — of the authorities. To Bewray. polish. in the middle of two. Percy Soc. The inflections of Fr. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. be fitting or suitable. roebucks. sloped off. ziemen. G. deem suitable. advance. find it good: Goth. obdissais. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. From It. e. E. Buveau. and thence twegen. Du. has — In a like sense tanie>i. A — drink. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. Better. In the water anon was seen His nose. order. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. Slant. Dii. Dit tungomal rendered in E. Car son umbre si le trahit. batizo. against. gatiman. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. from Fr. ON. In like manner from twain is fothied between. tradire. pair of compasses. Sw. On the same principle ON. trahison. tima.— . bet. obeish. by a final sh. beverage. E. his eyen sheen. Sahissais. to deceive. betwuh. gesiemen. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. fate. AS. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. to happen. twain. G. in the middle of twain. Cot. Fr. betaemen. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. are there Regt R. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. amiddes. Bevy. Ik tame mi dat nig. evidence of life. To boot in coursing (i. deign. betray. batista. a drinking . bevde. dir. &c. Now the stirring of an object. Goth. a traitor. betera. awry. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. afford. as envahir. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. Det sig sjelft. become. G. verbs in ir with a double ss. R. larks. wrogia. a bevy. Fr. vrohjan. more. fitting. ruogia. betwuxt. betest. It. Thus from dbahir. It. Pl. as trahissons. bevere. make manifest. Ober D. Chaucer. betriigen. better. spritigs from schicken. trahissais. progress. to deliver up in breach of trust. To Beteem. Hence last G. trakir. taemen. In like manner folissais. tweoh. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. not to have the heart to give up a thing. to discover. zimet. to deliver tip. Tinia eigi at lata eit. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. R. beuvrage. whence beveraggio Fr. The as. Fris. taemen. R. best. lot). — Betwixt. said he. i. betweox. To vouchsafe. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. zemen. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. Fl. suitable. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. gezimet eines dinges. Lat. proficere. bet. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. baet. which may be compared as to form with amid. to fall Some call it a bevel. OE. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. From the former of these are AS. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. tradere. his mouth. as one would have it fall. traditor. . Best. -to appoint. Mich self a good glass of wine. from Lat. are commonly to one's lot. to happen. 88. G. suitable. regen. riigen.' Dialogue on Witches. E. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. of pheasants. to drink . in the same way Lat. — See To Bete. by two. roja. r'ojer dig. Fr. to fall. BETEfiM translated. is used for the — R. treachery. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. AS. kein leben mehrin no signs . betweoh. find in one's heart. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. Between. x. I approve of beveau. dispose (whence schicksal. an instrument opening like a a thing. from invadere. wreia. to stir. — that schickiich. Goth.D. traitre. Fr. it bewrays itself. /alia. bedriegen. beva. ON. fallinn. betst. bouter davantaige. of quails. i. *Ah. to accuse. a brood. a different form of twa. to make forwards. two. for measuring angles. bat. or with again. as from obdir. To Betray. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Golding's Ovid in R. springs from ON. as tlock. moveable and compass branches. bibere. tima. to cheat.D. the being pushed to the frbnt. betweohs. e. better. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. Friar's Prol. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. Bav. amidst. abash j from polir. to Teem. e. better. is treason.

to tipple. Bisect. dial. —Dozy. slanting . per\'erted belief. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. to move. it becomes (Jz-. makes ble. biais. /3i/3Xof a book originally. sbiagio. as an eel or a snake. sbrissare. or in and out. to a fight with stones. to tipple. to slaver . metaphor). sbiesso. Pers. kwijllap. Bezoar. biascio. Pl. pddzahr. the basil Sc. Fr. bihais. whence Du. to slaver or drivel. sbriscio. specially in a bottle. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Oh when shall I bizzle.' bibble. biax. Misc. to shake. Fr. bes-azur. sbiasciai. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. 172. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. besanca. sbieco. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin.to drink much. biaiser. to purl. whey count . Ci^. tailU en biseau. to cut in two. Hal. It. or kwijl-slab. bescompte. Bible. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Bibelsworth in Nat. sloped. presence. bis. liwell. bickel. expelling or preserving against. is explained to clatter. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. bickai. he is Wtb. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. In Arab. Yes. Cat. notice. to give signs of life. shows the P1. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. beslei. to creep or crawl sideling. sliding. snout. rogt un bogt sik nig. Sard. Du. Piedm. sbrisciare. . —Bickering'. An excellent Basil. in two ways for duis. lips. Fris. — crooked. To Bib. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to sip. I Wallon. biberon. bias-wise. bending. him. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . The It. evident. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Lat. sbias. . a stone-hewer . Diet. to stir. To Bibble. bickeler. It. Sardin. Jamieson. a Galilean. Prov. aslope sbisciare. In comp. convicts thee of being drink. to dispute. Gr. baverole. bickel-sieenken. bark of which paper was first made. foul weather. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. to the stirring of their conscience. bible. asure-bice (Early E. wraggeln. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. the word became bddizahr. See Wriggle.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. wrogen. roggle. Piedm. Bib. . then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. OE. bestemps. Lat. sbiescio. babbefore the eyes. biascia. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. misFr. Fr. used in precisely stone . ber-laita (for bes-laita). to Jam. stock still. 78). oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). love first begins to life signs of him. petit-lait. Ant. . biberer. the papyrus. sbrisso. in him. kwijl-bab. inferiority. a bezle. Fr. a bibber. to glide or slip as upon.as in Biped. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). rogge.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Bezel. aslope. Schiitze. Bias. dial. which good bibbeler. b&zahr. sik beregen. one who drinks in excess.D. It is especially applied in Sc. bisdare.{ioin dua. poison. a slabbering-bib. to stir up .or from obliquus.D. to make tongue Du. a sloping edge. two- footed. has a singular stone-picker. by throwing of stones. bickelen. bisel. baviere. babbi. To skirmish. beregen. to well up with Cot. bring under ' Thy accuse. Biseau. kwijlen. pible.two. An inferior blue. its clothes. to it evident to sense. The train of thought is then. a fragment bieco. bebble. To bicker in NE. Bice. bezling or skueing. of the sliced off. E. bibo. from pdd-. and zahr. discover. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. twice. winding or crawling in and out. Mantuan. Dan. Hal- — do something aslant. . ice . ground slanting from the general surface drinking. To Bezzle.s bellum for duellum.a. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. wrangle. or by any rapid motion. Probably. To drink hard. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. it were the mouth. bavon. — Bi-. slippery. reveal. Uprogen. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. To Bicker. Cat. (according to the Fr. biberen. like guzzle. to stir. crooked. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. in Fr. to stir. to be a paring. oblique. Fr. Fr. Sp. bibaculus. sbiscio. edge of a plate of looking-glass.

bolginn.uddered len heart. A pose to one to come to dinner. ON. forwards. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. The loss of the / gives Dan. Analogous expressions are G.' Addison. AS. explaining the Sc. bend of a shore or of a rope. the belly of a ship. biegen. qucero. Du. to have one called before him. twice. praebere. inhabit. The ON. the meaning of bid. faurbjudan. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. bog. bieden. bolgna). ein paar verlobte aufbieten. Compare also Sp. bis and in comp. bug. belly. The . from bidan. BIGOT beidan. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bauen to cultivate. be bug. and the Sw. quiring something to be done. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. praestare. einen vor Gericht bieten. proud. bilge or bulge. bend. Palsgrave in Halliwell. belly. bulk. to bicker. 2. or. porrigere. to look for. to curve. verbieten. related to big or bug. as G. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. To Bid ' Big . bead. or bad. bulky. may plausibly be derived from Goth. The original Swollen. to start out. R. It must be observed that the word bidja. to bend. to build. who. bag. to ask. called the tertiary order. consisting both of men and women. bugt. and Gael. bouwen. to swell. pray. inhabit Du. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. Bigot. bo. BID of stone. bi-. an entire skin. bua. byggia. 1. of More ' in Richardson. byggan. bow. to offer one the wish of a good day. to move quickly. — prepare. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers.t. To bid the banns. to bid one good day. bidill. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. to inhabit. bugne (answering to ON. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. G. or third order of penitence. form. bieten. to pro- command. ' Bug as a Lord. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. to ask. bidel. bced. to E. AS. from seek. bugan. bidan. has leta. becoming in Lat. to bend. Bickelen. rising up. to forbid . bolga. to belly. — To Bid. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. Bight or Bought. to cultivate. to abide or wait on. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. G. W. swelling. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. To Big. Wallace in Jam.' Pope in R. Two verbs are here confounded. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. From Gr. England for swollen.Leta). a flexure. anleta. to presimpler pare. to marry. . Big-swol- . AS. besides the professedmonks and nuns. Bigamy. to offer it to public notice. The 'La. cultivate. boa. buga. to arrange. to pray one to dinner. swoln. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. to build.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bulge. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bygga. ON. bit- bidja. athird class. to dwell. from belgia. repair.peto. G. pressing on one's notice. bedun. With respect to logical pedigree. which is stiU. beodan. bidan. bath. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. iiQ. a suitor. to look for. a chip. and yajiBui. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to bulge. OSw. Hence Sc. to solicit. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. a swelling. and consequently ordering or reGoth. to forbid . bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. ten." buque with E. abidan. to offer. Kil. by seek and beseech. balg. The ON. build. bigan. gebeden j G. to inflate E. bulge. as. beadle. swaggering. — — — Halliwell. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to build G. A bjudan in anabjudan. offerre. are also used in the sense of asking for. OSw. ON. Einem einen guten tag bieten. beidast. ON. Big. Jam. bidjan. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. as tears from the eyes. ewes. bat .. . spelling seems to used in the N. gebodenj G. P. biddan. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. in the sense of ask for.

In the same way Fr. both men and women.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. signifying bagmen or beggars. ix. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.' Matthew Paris. a blockhead. Bizocco. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. dark-coloured cloth. bigotta. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. ac labores manuum detestantes. probably from biso.D. natural grey or sheep's russet.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. the other form Per te Tribune. all apparently derived from Ital. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. coarse woollen cloth. rustical. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. From bigio.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. Beguttce.' says an Venet. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. They wore a similar dress. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii.. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. with reference to A.D. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.D. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. D. alii Apostolici. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. Bighini. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. begutta. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. and Q. Bizoccki. Augustini dotarint. homespun cloth.' says one of of bigio. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. &c. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. bigio. vocati Fraticelli. bighellone. grey. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. A. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . A.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. 1499. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. a dunce.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. honesti plebeii amictus. 1243. which must not be confounded with begardo. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. Hence the OE. sed maxim^ in muliebri. In a similar manner from bigello. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. to adopt a similar course of life. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. perch^ i Terziari di S. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. author quoted in N. vol. bighiotto. Flor. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. the nobles to Rienzi. clownish.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.— Ducange. and hence the variations bigutta. A. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. Francisci communiter appellabant. S. grey. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. was formed bigello.a. Bighiotti).— BIGOT bigardo. beghart. 560. corruption would easily creep in. as well as bizocco. face VIII.' Chart. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. says. alii de paupere viti. absque votorum religionis emissione. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. borel. G. beghino. aliqui Begardi. 15 18. xx. and also unlearned common men. biso. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.' translated by Muratori.

2. fluctus maris. bill of exchange. Ludwig. bwyell. to swell with rage). The Du. a hatchet. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Billow. Billet. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bile. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. blamand. in the same sense. blue . A lorum tam in — Diez. b'olja. gleischner (Frisch).— — — . 2. and dziobas. Bohem. billot. boeye. belghen. In English the meaning has received a further development. buail. an axe. bigot. bisoch. Thus we find in It. however. AS. bull-berries. An instrument for hewing. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Bill. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. e. Johansen. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. beghart. — — ' . as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. billard also signified at billyards. a negro. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. To Bilk. To defraud one of expected sinking. to peck. Bill. a beak. top. to strike. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. dziob. w. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. . Kil. Dan. is properly a sealed instrument. to pick a millstone. an axe. horn of an animal. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Billette. whortle-berries. bigardo. an ingot of gold or silver. bizocco. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. plog-bill. to strike. of E. obsolete. from the dark colour. person of religion leading a loose life. . the trunk of a tree. inscriptum. the bill of a bird. The proper meaning bylgia. Bilbo. bille. as craneberry. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. buie. buoy [i. from OSw. a of the sea. bila. an ingot. an axe . the beak of a bird. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. and a billard. billard or billart. bill in parliament. Langued. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bulghe. as a bill of indictment. bolghe. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Du. a seal. Lat. seems to be rather the unda. fetters. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. in the sense of a writing. See Bulk. Sw. bil. crowberry. that of swell. p. bigotto. at sea Billet. bulgja. Sw. a seal. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Piedmontese bigot. topor. A slang term for a sword. the swelling G. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. Bille. Bilge. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a hypocrite. bui. e. an axe. might be taken to express a hypocrite. ferrese quam ligneae. Du. bullet. — bigardia. clog to a fetter. axe. Lat. NFris. false pretender to reUgious feeling. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. from Mid. 5 * . Mundart. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. to job. Fr. weapon . a bigot or hypocrite.' in Richardson..' bilio. belgan. bigot. procella Kil. now A Bilboa blade. to be angry (i. Fr. abelthe fetter itself. used in legal proceedings. loi. bulla. Aurelles. dissimulation . bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Bilberry. Du. deceit. BILBERRY nated. The origin of the term is probably from bole.' mariners. Deutsch. a floating log to mark the place of some.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Prov. AS. tepati. Bigin. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. boja. 3. Tartuffe. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. a short note. an adze . . while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Sp. bla-berry. on. a name given to a. Gascoigne in R. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). names bill-berries. So in Gr. a devotee. a man who rests on a stick in walking. bill. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. of boja. G. the o changing to an i to express diminution. I. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. beil. a sword. biilge. and in Lat. symbolum. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Fr. In the same way are related Pol. — Cot. Sw. billet. billet is the diminutive of this. 'tumidi fluctus. genus vincu- Bilboes. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. See Bull. boia. Kil. OFr. a shackle. ^Billiard. gan. dziobad. blaa. Dan. AS. Gael. Roquef. Bojce.

truss. pundas. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. copus. a gallinaceous bird. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. beisseii. to swell. To Bite. Habitacle. a female dog hindinn.. It. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. vescovo. . bis-coctus {bis and coquo. isfiw. pittjo. AS. while bind-wood. 'tumens sequor. bij sienigh. bin-wood. lusciosus et myops. binda nat. by binda. — Kil. bindan. a female stag. Sw. . We — A Birth. I would derive the verb to knit. to cook). Bing. burt. Gr. viz. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Lith.68 BIN Bio-. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bundun.. poultry. overlooker. Fr. evegue. fowl. terial. bjork. is rendered in ON. — properly near-sighted. bitill. which is expressed in E. pinnu. — — . This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. twice cooked. bunt. pippione. AS. is in Scotland applied to ivy.' and the like. . bundt. To — — —D. BITTACLE /Siof. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. to bulge. Bird. AS. sc. earnes brid. beorth. When compared with Fr./«idere. or baked. forth. Bisson. band. from Lat. to form a knotted structure. beran. wine. to hang. The proper meaning is a heap. admota non Bit. Du. AS. biclie. a knob. i. biccej ON. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. and especially to a small poor horse. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. piccione. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Then added division in a granary. biscotto. by the verb knit or net. a habit- Binnacle. a bunch. from pondus. bord. pinnii. ON. Fr. in Swabia. brut. videt. a house. . Sanscr. bunch. berkas (z=:Fr. Bitch. the young of an animal. bunki. The bitol. habitacle. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. . a bear. ON. to bear. betsel. IV. Bind. to plait. are commonplaces. Lat. an overseer. beize. a truss. to bring Biscuit. than vice versi. . i. the young of birds . bundle. Bin. bund. to build. a heap. brid. beitsl. Dan. to fasten it together. to net. AS. Thus I suppose the Gr. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. G. bhurja. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. The term ON. a heap. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. See To Bear. bij sien. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. episcopus. a little dog. a bitch. E. life. G. Fr. bircej Sw. a weight of 48 pounds. In like manner from knot. Lat. from Gr. binge. V. propius videre bij sicndc. Bizened. &c. beitan. evigue. a bitch applied also to other animals. Lap. to be derived from Ibfiaq. from \t3\. evesgue. a corn.. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. bigne. a bitch. Lat. bundle. Fr. Bindweed. piiiti. G. H. where the compass stands. Sw. v. qui nisi propius Blind. to twine. to bind at . bindan. Bisen. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. See Belly. also a stone weight. See Breed. Bisom. bikkia. or ben-wood. bundt. a hind or female stag. and of Fr. AS. Birch. a weight. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. nodus. j). G. pullus. — Surrey in R. Bine. Lat. It. ge- from AS. hith. Sp. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. doubtless a stone. to wreathe. bita. Lith. a pig petz. pin-ti. expressed by Sw. — See Bittacle. an eagle's young G. or petze. to bind together. EpisETTiTOOTToe. Bittacle or Binnacle. bund. poule. or bin. Goth. bunga. hiindiiin. Fr. biscuit. Goth. a bump or knob. Bailey. e. properly a young pigeon. to knot nets for fish. a brood or hatch of young. bitacora.

to the sharpness of a weapon. white. Hal. blabaran. Bleak. buft". In Legrand's Fr. blunt we say it will not bite. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). — Collins in Hal. a shelter for the steersman. to babble. stutterer. as is seen in sputter and splutter. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. It. quoted by Ihre. yellow . yellowish. to speak Dan. Applied in Hin ON. — Hollyband. blabbre. A a rail. bitts of Bitts. beiwache. blab. Blabber-lip. Bohem. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. blobach. corrupted in Fr. Cot. Sw. as of water gently beating the shore. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. blabbern. AS. Fr. v. small guard-house.' by Gudmund. viz. Wit hung her mourn. whitish. Mund. indistinctly. AS. Sp. To or he can speake.plab is used to . brunblakk. light-coloured. leohte . as in that of pale and white on the other. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. to talk much. ^chops. — cheeked maid. bitor. Bittern. pale yellow. Fieldfare. pins of the capstern. baboyer. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. on. dark. to let out whai should have been concealed. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. a babbler. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. thoughtlessly . Sp. Du. blake. 156.€i. bites. dusky. to watch. Cotgr. biacca. pale. NE. first. . a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey.). as of a body falling into water. on the one side. a stammerer. ON. The bitas. Mantuan babbi. white lead. black. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. things —Palsgr. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. blabhdach. blesmer. G. to babble. ON. Gael. whitish. is apprehension of danger. whiteness (candor sine It. blank. the palebleff. bleikr. baitrs. pale. Je N. Mag. from whence we have adopted the. pale. Ai-mstrong. ON. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. to To blabber blabber with the lips. bleg. faded. Hald.' It would thus acle. to loll it out. . babbe. a flapping. in contempt. blob. an additional watch. Bav. Why presumest And laam's asse. Deutsch. bitter. to wax pale or bleaked. his blacan light. Alex.D. blakki. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . a large lip. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise.. shine. blepLith. fallow fawn-coloured. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. an edge is sharpest sword. discoloured . garrulous. Fr.' by Haldorsen. blob. night guard. blanc. x. Sp. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. —Neumann. bittore. to bivouac. faded. from wachen. Pl. white. pale yellow . town guard to keep order at night bivouac. In a similar manner Gael. quick. confusedly. term. Fr. mona mid Dan. Lydgate. a childe dothe gasouille. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. chatter babbler . blubber-lipped. plappem. blob. a* mast . bitones. babbling.' G. bitr. I blaber. . out the tongue. Sp. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Nagt huis. blakk. pale brown . beitr. mouth. ' Biovac. Se bleek. fallow . biti. So Fr. blac-hleor ides. Bivouac. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Gael. /ealo-/or. a large coarse lip . a continued soft sound. shining. unintelligible talk plabair. In like manner E. bleich.. 't kompas huis. even humour seemed and beuin. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. Goth. G. ON.. bihovac. Again. Hist. beuni. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. blebberis. Percy Soc. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Fr. 'fuscus. To Blab the anchor. Black. synonymous with baber-lip. gabble. iroxafealo. is placed.— Blabber-lip. as of wings . apparently from its biting the tongue. cut. round which the cable is made fast. bittour. butorj OE. ' plabraich. a tati. 332. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. ^aj'/^r. 't huisje. plabartaich. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. or water beating gently on the beach . maculS. The Gz. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. mouth. "uivac. obscurus. bird of the heron tribe. to chops. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. a fluttering noise. a beam in a house or ship. gulblakk.

piatto. e. which we . Du. Fr. Eadmer. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. and he shall be sure to have O. G. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water.—Blatant. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. cited in N. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. pallido. Blancli. blanqne. &c. also white woollen cloth . foolish talk.—Blatter. leaf of a. bladra. polished.. blena. whitish. blister. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. to bleak in the sun. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. Jan. boys. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. bladdra. linkboys. . defame. blether. roar. blactra. Gr. to blanch. blad. 5/^a/^ of colour. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. to blow. bladeren. or blafich. with all other loose idle masterless men. to glow. . Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. commonly called the Black-guard. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. — Sw. G. Sw. on. dial. blame. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. a blanket a bed. chatter. mud. irXariQ. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. dripping-pans. as Lat. See Blubber. a. name originally given Blackguard. revile. bladder. also tanned by the sun. madder. pladdern. also jabber. to disappoint. Hist. pXaatpiiiiHv. white. blather. smore. rogues and wanderers. Bav. Blame. slush. to make or become white blanc. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. in R. Blank "verse. Besides the examples of this connection given above. D. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. a white or unwritten ticket. most complete example of leafy structure. and others engaged in dirty work. a boil. To blank. It. blein. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. G. to glitter. as.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. Dan. black. Blank. a buible. tree. blegne. 7. vagrants. — . Wott. Play in Nares. The present forms then should be classed with blether. to Hence Ital. The radical bubble. Fr. branches . blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. blanc. borrelen. plate. candidus. reproach. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Blain. the ON. Du. waschen. plat. mus-blackt. 1854. mire. Sir. pimple. as scullions. white. tattle. to bubble. blaere. imbrunire. blank. blister. PI. variable than the signification of words designating colour. a leaf. blather. the origin of . blasphemare. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. bladre. Cot. Du. biastner. Dan. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk.— Kil. blister. is identical with Flanders borlen. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. to omit. — — — to jabber. chatter. and thence to babble. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. and G. To Blare. to shine. blanchet. pluddre. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. —We Bladder. Sw. as. blahen. . leaves. Fr. Reliqu. the leaf of a tree. a pustule . speak impiously. I am degraded from a cook.. vagabonds. as blader. Blanket. biasimare. from candere. Now. smother. to shine. Torriano. bladder. livido .— ^o thehotsun. whitish. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. coat. or of an oar G. gabble. bladder. and the agitation of liquids. his meat burnt. leaf. pass over. blaeren. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. a bladder or pustule. plat. blegen. blinken. blatter. blister. — rura. blatt. or as E. and E. sheet of paper. and wandering men and women. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. to To bellow. Dan. leafy. to —Blaspheme. to vocifer- — Cot. a bubble. flap of a Du. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Du. board. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. blad. Perhaps from blegen. contracted from bladeren. moere. broad. on. Du. bladder . Bacon in R. mud. Sc. or a mass of bubbles. to dabble in water. blanchir. Fr. skola and thwatta. shining. probably ate. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. p. 86. —^Webster. and Q. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. to purl. a blank ticket. Lat. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Blade. blanchet. a bubble. blatter. But perhaps a more Gr.

blateroon. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blase. Gudmund. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. Prov. to extol. blaterare. Fr. blcesett. biter. might And sain. also praeblczse. Lye. She roade at peace through his heraldry. But now. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. embraser. a torch . blis. Troilus and Cressida. Dan. blaodhrach. AS. Cot. a loud noise. magnilo. To blow AS. a coat of arms. a flame. and. clamorous. Gael. used. to blow. also only pains and excellent endurance. quus. blezo. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. I. proclaim the virtues of. — ' — stroy. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. each of boaster. blaesen. Blanches illuminies. the matter incendiary . whence Blazonry. an conium. . in the same way as we 2. Sw. baladron. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. blose. AS. bleis. braise. . Du. Blatant. might spring from the same origin by a .sound a trumpet. senses. the noisy. a shield. noisy blor. blcEsan. blast. an empty and two theories are proposed.' to fastum . blaser vid. oured. Du. stultd loqui. or to the sound which it produces. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Du.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. A gust of wind. Du. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Dan. blcEsan. visui patet. blaze. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. baladrar.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. brasa. splendour. blesse. blasoen. ill-speaMng their proper colours . — — ' : bless. a torch. A blaze is so intimately Then. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. To Blaze. how. The other derivation. ventosus. Golden Book in R. live coal . blus. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. 2. The origin of this exSp. magniloquus. light-coli. blase. See Blare. bliEsan. beast. blcest. Fr. to set on fire. blaodh. With inversion of the liquid. in that of praise. ing of arms. to publish. bldsse. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. 'op een trompet blaazen. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. coloured prints. — ^Jam. fire. boasting.whence the Fr. a shining spot. as a verb. blason. abroad. blazen. to cut off prematurely. somewhat different train of thought. blcese. Blast. to de. gloriosus. besides blesse. or blazening. a funeral oration . much plausibility. like the in English. laudes (Kil. has also blencke. by stripping off a portion of the bark. thraso. A strong flame. If armour. shield or surcoat. to blow . to proclaim. of an animal. brasa.). blossi. oron-blasare. also blazon or the blazSpenser. a shout. is from AS. to blaze Sp. a MS. G. blesse. a voice Jr. bles. loud . and which. ON.' painted or figured . e. among other . OE. Fr. to publish the praises. a flame . it is obvious shield on which they were painted. to trumpet forth. blysa. i. indeed. a lamp blasere. kept up. G. Blaze. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. . ther it was erst not knowe. Sc. blorach. blass. Sw. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blasonner. redness . Kil. Du. ON. g. pale. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. blason. blasa. blaeteren. abroad. is the imme. friend Cornelius. proflare tues. declaratio. and to make him word blaze. blys. The AS. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . to spread news. to bellow. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. to blow. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Cot. Du. blatero. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. commendation blason funebre. First from the E. — Elazen. bawling. a blast. To blast.— . a flame. As Kilian. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. it is manifest. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. is used in the sense of manifestatio. a whisperer.

a spot. Manuel de Pecch&. A stain in a man's reputation. to wink the eye. is Blench. AS. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. flack. a disgrace. in the expression reputation. spSt. Bejaune. . wanness. Sir J. .— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. sugillatio. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . what blenched him therwith. Palsgr. See Black. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. ' . light-coloured. . geplerr. a spot. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Blancher. to make him feel blank. (faith or creaunce) Be war.'he cried till the tears ran down. Gower in R. blarren. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. blister. From the OFr. to start away from. like one that has long P1. B. livor. Pol. to cast a mist before the eyes. Bailey. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. paleness. exposed. tumanid. color plumbeus bldma. blink. blot. The term blear. from the than schal I go. novice. bldmi. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. guenchir. Schmel. souiller. to wink at it. while the agent ac- From . and thence to a bruise. Blear.D. wheal. a boil. to cry or weep. G. plama. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. — blink the question is to shrink from it. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. spla7nU sie. p. tutnan is a cloud. c. Sw. blcecan. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a blotch plerr. on. To Bleat. Bleb. bloken. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. Richardson. to spot. avoid looking it in the face. ^Blencher. to bleach. Fr. ^Xiixaoftai. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. as of dust or mist . from on. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. to bleat as sheep. blakna. bleikr. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. pale Du. dead-coloured Cotgr. drop of water. blench came to be used for a trick. to spot . or blemish. a fault. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. a spot. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. or blemysshen — blaken. blot. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Bleed. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. ' — — ' : — — . An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. start vor den augen.P.' to deceive one. a stain. I chaunge colour. a blot or smear blanking one. And By a similar metaphor Pol. 242. To totally different from the foregoing.' the devil makes a vain back. blesmissure. BLENCH obfusco. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. Blear-eyed j having sore i. Bleak. Blemisli. inflamed eyes. pale . confound him. a blemish in one's 2. 419. 115.' God in his wordes. sinen langen tranen. the livid colour of a bruise. livid. ' He blarrede or roar. . pimple . shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. a red watery eye. to soil. N. wan. darkness of vices. See Black. Mac. to stain one's honour or reputation. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. to blear one's eye. to become livid. Gr. goda nainn. — — R. See Blood. . a spot. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. To salir. As AS.v. ' — — eye. Ancren Riwle. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. blema.filerren. blur before their eyes. to blare been weeping. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. A Blab. the formal equivalent of English wink. So in Sw. blesmir. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. pier vor den augen eyes. splamii!. And now are these but mansbond (i. boggle at something. to humbug. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. which are blurred with the have shewed you. or to low as oxen. blemissemeiit. tacher. a been distinct. to disgrace one's name. whitish. bleakness.

pale. lightning sweet blago. blende. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. joy . blago. Paradises blidnissu. glitter. to make a rumbling noise. cascultare. . riches blajennii blicksem. . vious one in the order of formation. Thence apblinds. Blazena Bea. a gleam. blithe. to plunge. to shut the eyes. as in Du. a look. blink. The sound of k before an s. Swab. . money. well blahy blick and blink. blahos. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. Owl and Nightingale. but by no means therefore a pre. —Brera. Blight. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. a glance. blotzen. G. to bluiter up with water. blican. bluiter. OHG. Dan. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. a. well blagaya. Du. lightning. csecubrandish. The term then self or others. false windows. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. a. to dabble in water. blinzeln. mix from blekken. flash of light . Pol. happy . representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. ON. From the action of the hand making Sw. joy. blindr.blinken. graceful. to glitter ful . blanda one or prevent one from seeing. sertion of the nasal. glance. to stir or puddle. blend. . gives blinzen. to shine. glimpse. lightning. Wtb. pockets. be glad flash. blind.' To — blunge clay. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. as taschen. a glance Swiss blenden. to dilute too much . blag. although in the in the next article. sung. Sc. blink-eyed. a wink. G. blinzdugig. an entry which leads to nothing . to merry. tire. shine. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. fortunately. mixing in general. the verb to bless is some. — when he — Bailey.not sting thiiren. dazzle . to shut the eyes G. . . Bliss. a flash. Tany. happy . to churn. G. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. to shine. j). blick. — Goth. AS. a nounce happy. blatida. To Bless. glitter. blicken. blahoslaviti to twinkle. giving (Fr. wink of sleep .blunda. trix. AS. blindselen. Needle. — A A — . happily. Russ. blet. liquid filth to bluther. to blithsian.. window-blind. to flash. to bless. A . blund. To blunder water. or nettle which does form. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. a wink With the bletsian. AS. bludder. weaklaveny. the Slavonic languages. also to wink. a dead nettle. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to glitter . — . Deprived of sight. happy . to shine. to pro. Blink. tless —Gamm. blincken. . to bless . Serv. 375. to consecrate . I hold thee a grote thee. moment. thou knave. ' Pl. glitter. blogi. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. to dazzle . is I shall Gurt. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. lovely Bohem. to rejoice. Du.nasal. livid. in potters' language. a blessing. Nares. . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to bluiter. Du. blidu. to glitter. to lighten. sweet. joyful. a blick-ooghen. G. readily passes into a /. blent. as in the case of blaze. plonsen. blide.eyed. and joys of Paradise bliden. blinde fenster. blicksem. to rejoice. . blind- ON. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. pearance of the blighted . glad. Swiss (obsolete). . A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. (=bene dicere).D. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blitzen. blaziti. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to dash wine with water. doors. riches . to be blind. F. joy. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. goods. the G. Sw. De Sonne ' verblekken. Du. . gladness. blessed. Blind. blicken. burn up. blac. bliss look . blissian. . plotzen. blazeny. blinzler. AS. tative source of the word is wholly lost. bleg. to make happy. to glance. To Blend. blessed.wink . blendian. with or without the nasal. Du. Kiittner. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. the sign of the cross while blessing one. blich-fiur. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. ^Jam. OHG. blithe blis. III.blinze. lighten. blanssen. to twinkle. seems the simple netel. as a blind entry.corn.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. make these hands 3. good. Sc. to act like a — . as a vatn i vin.blinkard . to mix. wink. blitz. The inblissful.Q. to — make it thick and muddy. Biglotton.

kostua. to blow. Of sheep. Bav. a blot or spot. blister. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. shells. — — — — — From blabber. a ram. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. blouca and Fr. Boyd in Jam. soaked. senting the dashing of water. busten. Blob. like manner the coloured. blaud. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. —Bailey. Sw. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. The roots /. round. blab. in the sense of a soft tint.plisg. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. the unhewn bole of a tree. pustula. or the mark which it makes. To Blissom. kostia. blijde. an unformed mass. Sc. ON.—Bloater. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Blob. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. and bouclette. And so from squatter. a blain. Goth. joyful. lagga i blot. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. Dan. a . The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. plub. to cure by smoke. — Blob. puff. — Sw. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. For this. Lat. or the like. N. bloated. orbicular. to close it with a solid mass. to blow. a lumpish head plubach. blotfisk. blobber. Ibid. speaking rapidly any . blindsehn. Cotgr. merciful ON. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. as in E. sloppy dirt. or is inserted or omitted. blautr. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. pimple. in gusts. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Blond. expressed by cognate roots. bleiths. The stem or trunk of a tree. blesme. gentle OHG. also to set See Bless. To Bloat. Du. bubble and blubber. swell. See Blot. and F. fish blind person. G. as if soaked in water. a blister . Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. any lump or mass of things. Thus we have blab and babble. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. or blinde-kiih. A solid blouquette blisters. stone. G. must be referred to AS. to blow. blot. signifying in the first instance to soak. soak in water cured fish. pusula. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. A under this name was imported into England. a bubble. and pisg. to swell. a See Blot. . buclde. a block or log en bloc. blot. to breathe hard. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Bleb. Du.— Hal. blister blasan. bloc. blot. blobbes or droppes of water. while Lat. a blister. The blow E. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. B.. mild. a small lump of anything thick. pausten. to steep. strawclod. It may be formed Blithe. Blister. a dirty blister. to dash liquid. bausen. husks. Gael. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. frequentative. to make oneself wilfully blind to it.— Bailey. light yellow. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blad. Hence. a bubble. repre- pusula. as a blab of ink. mild. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blaustem. is formed squad. in bulk. a little blisg. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. to bubble. Hence E. bluyster. viscid.pusta. blote. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. To a smoking or drying by the fire. taken altogether. in Nares. separate portion. a drop of water. whence blast. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. ON. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. blubber. In Fin. Block. Gael. soft. to block up the way. Egillson. to blissom. must be classed with forms like Gr. Fr. . it is must be observed. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. . fiustula. boucler. ^vaaa. inde humiditate tumidus. blod. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision.—Bloated. biota. is also used in the sense of swelling . soft. Langued. blcesma. blide. Kil. bluster. like clot. I believe. a bubble. B. to soak. blindman's-buff. Jonson. blinzel-maus. Svt. ^Jam. weak. and easily changes its place. blithe. cooking. Mod. to to puff and be noisy. Dan. and inarticulately. as blinzeln. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. soft. buckle. from blcsr. or bleb. Fr. mass. blidr. having an unsound swollen look. pods. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. W. formed spot. — . to desire the male. . bloc. Sw. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. blond. in the lump or mass of wood.

properly to scatter liquid . Russ. bloto. fair in en blat vand. glasi. to be red. a Usaae. a blot or spot. plotterwis. to sparkle. a water ploutsche. Lat. plottra. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. bloemen. en blau ach. Blad. lump of anything soft to blad. great leaf of cabbage. j^ blottir. blosa. platz-regen. blue . coloured (Diaz. PI. ^lys. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. skam. kuh-plader. bluish. to dirty. blotting-paper. Harmar in R. a torch blusse. Fris. to exists in biadetto. bliithe. . Blotcli. to glow. sbiadare. Ein platsch milch. blaeuw. bfys. Bloom. blosem. dial. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere.blauschlagen.D. blus. to From . to blot the land was in a leme. bloeme. bloi. bit by bit. proto shine with bright colours . to dabble in water . . yellow. to dash down Du. Plots. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). platz-voll. blue. to glisten . to dabble in water. Pl. gloss. Dan. OFr. Ir. Schmid. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. glister . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. Erploten. blosen. the bright colour of the cheeks . blomstr. a. E. livid . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. clod. It. blond en blaauw slaan.' the rain is driving and blue . or the sound of it . bloi. Wendish blodo. wan. to strike with such these objects exhibit. — — . splashing full. couleur livide. Florio). blotter. blond is used in blatt. plet. bloetnsel. gammon. of a blow with something lios. straw. blaeuwe ooghe. as the skin or hair. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. tions of sound similar representaare formed G.— . Wflz<^«. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Sw. blostma. a spot or blot. a Halm a. cow-dung. a cow-dung. E. a lump. blut. a blaze. 2. flower. blue. plot of land is a spot or small rage. to scribble. It should be of filth blak-blatte. bletister. to blaze . a blow. ON. colour of the cheeks. glossi. blooth. Blow. Stalder. to strike .platter. dial. to slap. to spot or blot. E. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. splendour . Blossom. Sc. gfyssa. Du. See Blow. bldts. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. glus. blondheid. bldmi. ^Bleed. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. from G. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. white blatte. Sw. — Cot. Fr. Dan. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. blosma. parallel form with ON. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bliihen. lidmr. blowen. spots in the sun. blaeuwen. dirty spot on the cheek. to grow pale).platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. . — Stalder . — Blotch-paper. in v. redness. blodelsa and blawelsa. blust. blose. to strike with something soft or flat. biado (of which the evidence plattern. gleam. S-wiss pladern. Schilter. blawels. to be red with blot. Schwenck. blou. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. to squat or lie close. from the bright colour which 7'vci. blond. AS. a beater. a pelting shower). a Schmid. livid marks. blauwel. to patter. yellowish It's G. . ON. a flower. bliise. fall to overflowing. blady. leme. Hatch. plants which prepares the seed. a nature. glose. to shine . a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. a The form platschefz. blistaf. lump flower.^ Kil. Prov. blad. Blot. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. a deli. Dan. blatte. pladdern. G. Sc. Du. blysa. pale biavo. to blaze. plattata. bloedsd. blat. to dash down. to splash. a flower. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. lustre. brilliancy. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. platschern. ON. ' — . platt-voll. bloi. blase. the bright to blot paper morsels. E. bloed. pale. blue. light. a flower. . G. blue. —Barbour. shine . E. — gush. blois. a drop of water or colour. Jios. kobladde. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. bleustern. D. . bloutre. Sw. probably connected with Pol. to flame. fall down . pale tint. See Blow. AS. Du. to blush . Fris. to slap. Du. The G. (of cattle) to dung. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Blood. on. pladern. . ])erly Du. whence plader. platsch-voll. a gush of milk . soft or flat. to squander. spot pletter i solen. blotte. a black eye Du. mud. bleistern. E.

pale OFr. w. . blady. .nify bubble. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. plusig. to blow.to blossom. blaw j biavo.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. florere. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. G. blodern. bloi. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. corre. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blau. bliithe. or gr. chatter. gliihen. blubbern. Blowze. Langued. The interchange of an initial gl. Deutsch. jabber. cheeks bedabbled with tears. 51. The primary sense is to shine. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit.D. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. These are — Bludder. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. to blow. gliihen. blodelsa. marking some application from that bladder. to breathe bouteiUis. blue. to blurt out. bliihen. and thence. bledniai. to hard. And. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. blow. The aUied forms. bluh. blao. flower OHG. G. blois. B.D. blezir. green.D. bruised Prov. 92. -ii. glansj Ir. to glow. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. a continued noise of agitated water. to blow. . flower w. Blue. to bruise Roquef. /idXavoc. Bret. to breathe G. pludern. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. may cite for example G. fiubbem. Pludern. . |8A)'. grug. blosen. ler. bloom. 1. blazir. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. — To Blubber. — Bluther. It. to'disorder. to make bubbles in drinking. to show flower. blava. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. 1292. fied vowel. where the word may be compared bliggman. Lat. boil. glas. Chaucer. G. AS. to make blue. to glow. a paddling in wate r. blodyn. bruk. in E. Mund. grey. Wtb. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. closely difference in of blabber. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). bliuwan. to puff up. sound like water. Bav. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. to exhibit bright colours. 2. plodern. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. —SchmelIt. a Blossom. especially with respect to the hair. . little apparent resemblance. fem. piusen. puff. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Notwithstanding the We . d in Sc. gloeden. glas. grow pale. toused. blass. bloemen. to bubble up. bluther.Jlasa. bliihen. disordered in head-dress. Deutsch. is confined to the — . plustrig. — — Mundart. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. OFr. Prov. a herb Gr. to shine with bright From colours. Danneil. To Blow. v.xo'»'. E. Du. Gr. sense. Raynouard. Tumbled.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . A. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. Chaucer. y\r)yi»v. . ^Jam. G. — To blubber. — . like manner Lat. glow. pale . foam. MHG. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. OHG. bloes. and the forms mentioned under Swab. coup. blawan. plubraich. bl. withered. Pl. pale. a. To Blow. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. pale. tache. OHG. bldt. and closely allied with Du. blahen. sponds with Sw.. bloeyen. blau. plubartaich. a bruise. blubonciti. to inflate. vi^ound. bludder. P1. The radical sense is shown in Gael. Sik upplustem.' — Palsgr. in rapid or indistinct utterance. wan. Blowzy. gloeyen. a gurgling . E. the red fluid of the body . Pl. We . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to flap like loose clothes. to beat. blebber. heath. to spot. glowing coal . fqded. Jla-re. is very frequent. bloeden. dirty. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. blduen. Her sweet bloderit face. glede. to Plodern. blubbern. — . to fade. Kil. to with Bohem. to gabble. boasting. to fade. to guggle. br. to beat with a mallet.D. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. into flower. a blast. It is howbliuwen. to gush. a flower. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. a blow. Gael.— . plubair. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. bluod. blue . blust. red-faced bloted wench. ' BLUE or guggling. to fade. glaodh and blaodh. wan. Du. a fat.' Hamburgh Archives. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. blut. gUd. blazi. meurtrissure Roquefort. disordered. In agitation of water. to flourish.

superficie plani. and bustle . blond. verdoyer. to work To blunder out a fronto. blue. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. to blunder water. Roquefort. flav-us. plo-wy. Analogous forms are Du. Palsgr. I blonder.— . and biavo (Diez). blunder. falb. OFr. in plur. buller-bas. And blunders on and staggers every pace. all representing the — . pludder. speech. jaune. and Du. from an imitation of the sound. bullern. Dief. originally growing up turf and water. puddle. bloi. to become pale or wan. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. Sw. non rotunda. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. to dabble Biglotton E. Kil. Halma.//aay. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. is. blue. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. fallow. from the brilliant green of the young E. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. See Blunt. blave is moreover. Blunderer or blunt worker. glundra. Hence we pass to Prov. mix It. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. contrasted with the dle. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. and metaphorically. - reddish yellow. G. The Du. fawn-coloured. Bladum. his business with much noise. having a bluff forehead. Dan. blake (identical with AS. which is rendered by Florio. an ill-done job. blac. blavus.• BLUFF biado. blanssen. herauspoltem or sloping shore. to dabble in the mud. disturb. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Bluff. bawling. and then generally idle talk. A bluff manner. polterer. polter-hans. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Hence a Slcelton in R. corn. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. without image or superscription. glundr. planus. Dryden in R. Romance bluiter. like Du. buller-bak. from the Lat. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. ploffen. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. verdure. Pol. From G. blahir. bluish. trahir. to fade). segetes virentes. sbiavare. 't — —Hal. It is remarkable however that the E. a flounder. in the same way as from It'. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. We Blunder. earth and water mixed together. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. tradire to Fr. like the Celtic glas. something. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. corn. blutter. Ditton in R. mistake. je perturbe. abrupt. Lat. — — — . bleu et blanc. as well as sbiadafe. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. Biada. Blaffart. See Blurt. .make a noise. blandum. a plain coin herausplatzeu. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . devenir vert blavoie. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. as well as biado. pale yellow. yellow. bUich. applied to green as well as blue. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. yellowish red. Pl. Blunt. rustic. to become pale or livid. confusion. to lose colour. to fall suddenly on the ground. pale straw-coloured. Du. liebefactor. Altieri. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Bodge. blue. G. to blunge clay.. to puddle. find accordingly It. sense of yeUow. has donder-bus. to mix it up with water. biada. in water dobbelen. Hal. and sbiadare. Kil. blunderhead. a blunderbuss. a boisterous violent man. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. The word is here synonymous with amplus. to agitation of liquids. biava. to plump into the water. Kiittner. Roquefort.in mud or water. It then signifies something done at once. Flor. a fore. to confound. Bohem. — . pale) is provincially used in the. E. To blunder is then. plomp. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. herbe. blaf. Then with the nasal. dial. a shore abruptly rising. flodderen (Weiland). used for the work of an unskilful performer. Supp. Blavoyer. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. blunder. blunt. — Pr. The Du. sloppy drink. to become pale. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. Pm. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. discoloured {plowiee. Du. tutte le semente ancora in erba.' trouble. . or an abrupt manner. G. poltern. biavo. G. bulmanner. pale.D. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan.

blott. Blunt. blat. plump. from the loud report a fire-arm. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. good plump person. as Sw. Dan. Chaucer. or blab out a thing Kiittner . F. seems to be derived. sheepish. viz. . it will be observed. plumbeus. platzen. bleak. edgeless. a thick and will person. heavy. fooUsh. identical with E. Ford in R. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. is The word dull. blait. Woddis. absence of preparation. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. blue. plump. exactly corresponding to the G. obtusus. pressions. clownish. blockish. dull. Sir T. V. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. to blunt a thing out. that it not easy to discover the connection. plotsen. unceremonious manner. Sc. rough. Plontp. bare. massive.to fall into the water. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. awkward. plutz T)\i. blunder. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. and. with or without the nasal. insensible. naked. wan. figuratively. rudely. Probably radically hlekit. clumsy. Dan. Now the Swiss bluntsch. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Sc. without preparation. Molof something wet. — — pidus. united in Gael. down. bloss. to plump into the water. to handle a thing bluntly. azure. without Maolaich. platz-regen. —D. More in Richardson. stupid fellow. unpolished. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. maol. biosso. void. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Kiittner. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. of a knife which not cut. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. bare. like a thing thrown down with a noise. G. ang. Du. pointless. Q. nature. inaKil. nis. and in the same sense. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . —D. the absence of sharpness. raw. hebes. blunt. ineffectual reason. unfledged Sw. through which a man is so blont. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blunt. awkwardly. plump J to plump out with it. as in E. blunsch. without the nasal. a blot. Pol. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. that the sense of bare. naked. The blait body. plump. unwrought. without horns. blunt. to make a noise of such a Stalder. homo stolidus. A light blue colour. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. biotto. V. blunt. thick. naked. duU. blotta sanningen. a simpleton. bus. and the like. . The syllables blot. Stalder. pale. It is from this notion of suddenness. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. V. Then cometh indevotion. and an unintelligent. plonsen. plotz. or heraus plumpen. plains The large bech. is thrown. mit etwas heraus-platzen. blutten. bluntschen. It will be seen that the G. obtusus. — blunt. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has.plompen. inactive Swiss bluntschi. Halma. heavy. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root.—D. Swab. to make foliage. rude. it will be well to point out a sense. A modification of the same root. a portion To inquire for slaves. blait. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Plump. bald. and hath swiche languor in his soul. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz.— — — . Sw. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. dull. G. — Kil. a bluntie. in Richardson. It. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Kiittner. plump. poor Sc. used in both senses. dial. Won by degrees. heavy. to bring it suddenly out. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. fling down . blout. Plump mit etwas umgehen. forestis. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — .pludse. as cow-dung. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. blatte. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. Bare and blunt. to blurt. but of something soft thrown on the ground. to plump down. Bluntet. bare or blunt. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. naked. Blaitie-bum. silly. viz.

— a blaze. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. AS. and when applied to vaunting language. It. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. this root are formed Sc. to be out of temper. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. ader. blunt. boistous. to blaze. to dirty. Boa. bhis. Fr. literally edge-wood. puffen. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. blurra. Schmeller. bur. A large snake. Wright's ed. Blush. Boa. pfludern. 156. to endeavour to terrify. as in Du. to brag grande loqui. blodern. a short thick body. bdd. V. eafor. Du. ground. violent. BLUR Boar. blur. pludern. . blubber. a smear. the Brem. Sc. Dan.' — Red Riding-hood. to disfigure with E. a mistiness. to blurt out. it implies that it is empty sound. borrar. to make a noise in boiling. bludder. of the word seems . a tassel. board.y. — To Bob.v. a bladder . Du. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. and swimmeth very well. edge. Wallace. to chatter. an ear of corn. Bluster. — From mouth. &c. strong.plerr. to snuff. ever-swin. G. bluther. berd. cocodrUlus. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Boost is used for the boast. to render indisbhir. blaere. BOB 79 — To Blur. rude. whence bordvidr. and boisterous. will fly up. As the as. to roar. bar. — — . stupid. a torch blusse. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. primarily signify loud noise. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. bobbin. acre. bakke bleustern. bora. to blubber. bord. be a crack or loud sound.the syllable bot. planks or boards. blast. to threaten. margin. blaste?i. dial. skin. bot. a grows to a great bigness. pluddre. blaustem. beer. dial. edge. Board. bord. a club foot . to puff. blot. Sc. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. to jabber. a burst of tears.—Bobbin. to talk quick and indistinctly . De Boat. to make a noise with the mouth. Bot zeggen. burra. OE. To move quickly up and down. bustuous. blarra. boa. Slur. boot. to bark. 274. 1. to dabble. to blush. i. to puff. a Jam. beacon fire. voce intonare. table. dull. a baU of thread the mud. AS. to spurt out. and the latch . coarse. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. bluter. Gael. blot. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. lacerta. to glow . — — — * Boast. common. crack made by bursting open. to blur. or blurt with one's mouth. It. — ' Dief. The elision of the d is very to chatter. bliise. Wtb.— . a tassel. plump. bit. to blow. rude. like the parapets (viggyrdil. w. bausen. geplerr. Du. a board or plank. and Du. swagger. properly noisy. to dangle. gabble. stellio. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. brett. AS. a blow . blosken. an edge. flat. Pull the bobbin. 'Ba. planks raised up outside the roofs. baiag. table. blirt of greeting. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. Fr. To blow in puffs. hot. Explained by Jam. outward edge. and E. To tinct. bot-voet. imitated by has also In like . or blurt ^ih one's uppi. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. . is formed Du. bdtr. eber. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. Pl. P. 9396. Du. or bog also thread. pausten. a small lump. or backwards and forwards. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. See Blossom. Supp. a blot. c. To Blurt. short pieces of any filthy mud. Fl. pof. gabble Sw. Sverris Saga.D. bateau. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. to crying. pustern. E. both used in the sense of boasting. bord. whence bob. to sound like water boiling. as splurt to splutter. Du. a flurt with one's fingers. ON. baban. to puff. bdta. to make mouths. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. on. blaffen and baffen. a mist before the eyes plerren. blader. boccheggiare. See Boisterous. lindwurm. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Comp. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. aper. margin. puddle. margin. G. chicchere. . blusse i ansigtet. mire. bludder. E. Du. e. Kil. to smear. botte. an end or stump. bladdra. Bav. large. Related to blutter. border. . G. my dear.pusten. bobine. violent G. fringe. bleuster. cluster. Lat. to give a crack. to rumble. blasen and See Burr. Hal. a dangling object. cheeks glow. a border. To brag and to crack. to say bluntly. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. splurt and spirt. Fl. . a.plodem. Swiss blodern. It. to bounce. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. sudden. then applied to indistinct vision . boord. a blotch. to blore. Hal. Du. To splirt. the sound of a blow poffen. blose. to guggle. blotch and botch. 29. batello. Halma. to breke. Gael. The to radical meaning D.

With With this we charged again We bodged again. French bouter. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. corset. gagoula. or bag. to stir. bog. To Bodge. fickle .hollow. a spur. palleg. to butt. barrique. a dagger. quakmg. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Bodkin. a bog or morass. gagei. patsche. and E. a cask. a round body both. '£. woman's stays. — 2. of which the E. stumpy. bog (equivalent to E. Bohem. gog.rabodi. exhibit another modification of the root. Commonly explained as if from Sc. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bodetz. Gael. . In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. to stick. message boda. biodeachan. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. . Bodice. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. boftich. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. busti. It introduced from Ireland. a ghost . baboyer.! . shake. to fail. And waves. the trunk of the animal body. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. to push with the horns. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. AS. pall. to make a mow at. to deliver a message.. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . . body and G. to bob. bodene. round. ^Jam. move. bodilo. is a lump. In like manner E. biodag. dies. .' A — Sherwood's Diet. quagmire). unsteady. stuttering. moving backwards and forwards. to smack. is identical with Fr. corpses pot.\\i\c\iset. Crist. Gael. strike with the horns. where bogs form Gael. speak of the barrel of a horse. corpset. bodi. unsteady. Gael. Body. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bothog. — Grandg. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. Lap. anything soft. potacha. See Bid. Reliq Antiq. — as well as the body of an animal. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. rounded. The signification of the root bot. boll. a cask. daubed or dabbled with blood. . — H. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. stitch. To Bode. bodies. bodhag. a prick. Russ. bagges. an awl. to start start and back as from a bugbear. bogle. so large a feature in the country. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. ON. then from the yielding. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. Bog. waving. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Gl. mud. BOGGLE trunk and G. to fail.a (i\ia. stutter gogmire. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. formerly bodies. 43. barriga. swelling. potacha. bottich are derivatives. bottig. the thick part of anything. Ptg. the belly. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. Bret. The Sp. a command. bo tich. needle. W.' Bogglie. or a pair of bodies. belly. to blurt a thing out. to be unsteady tich. the body of a shift gaguejar. body of a shirt bol. gog in gog-mire. Miracle-plays. meaning the round part of his body. from fitting close to the body. bayonet . to roll. the boss of a buckler. moist mire. point. Ir. cask bottich. Thy i. a . Supp. bob. whence Fr. * To Boggle. as signifying anything spherical or round. to dabble or paddle. bot. To portend good or bad. bogadaich. nave of a wheel. butt. a messenger . bog. See To Botch. shaking .gmh:t. potig. To mock. VI. arise E. bole. as a horn. precept. goggle. Wall. to thrust. to scruple. bodi. . So BOB To Bob. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. a puddle. gogach. bodak. or stem of a tree. the stem of a tree . potahha. badyti. Shakespear has badged with blood. nodding. by the syllable patsch. thrust with something pointed. To make bad work. expression hogglin an bogglin. bodat. bogadh.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. Schmel. and the word is well explained by Bailey. bodnu. AS. to commit a blunder. bod. bogach. a prickle. bogan. gago. gebod. to be uncertain what to do. anything protuberant. gag. to stammer. a body. Lith. Ptg. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. to make. Cot. . whence paUchen. bolr. Banff. . to waver. bod. 3. the body. as in stammering or staggering. bodig. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. to bodge. . We . bodian. calf of the leg. corset from corps. an announcement. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. toss. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. to prick. Now unskilful action is conmire. bayonet. a sting . See Baber-lipped. agitate. a quagsoft. wavering. e.

G. from the branches. Magy. ^Vocab. Du. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. w. sels of flax. Sp. flax-boU. (of Mons) b^guer. coarse. bullire. bolla. Gael. cheerful. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. It.— D. as baltha. ^Boistous. boil . caput scapulse. pimple ON. hakogni. shake. bolt upright. the body of a man or of ter. in speaking. bolr. Boll. chaff of corn siliqua. a head . puilen. boystousnesse. boss. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bola. to stumble. Love. hero. 374. Lat. hollow. The round stem of a tree. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. dint in a metal vessel. G. to waver or hesitate. stutSw. Me doth awate. boly. A. properly represent belly. to give a hoUow sound. globular bod)'. baud. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. bolzen. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Lat. bolster. bold. prince. capitellum. bolc'h. stramenta. bul. bald. as those of nuts. and manace for to de. to swell. Fr. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. OG. confident. stud. bolleken.' Mrs Baker. notes. warlike. Chaucer seems Dan. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . Westerwald bollern. as. bochken (titubare. scruple. furfures. Chaucer. ON. free. strong. 304). gluma. balder. bout. huge. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. the. bolstar. V. merry. from Du. gerade signifies straight to the mark. or the like. polc'h. the lir. and then applied to other husks. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise.. glass phial. rough. bulr. bolle. insolent baude. bagaji. ON. OHG. Mund. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. excellent. perpendicular. G. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. Bustuous. Goth. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. proud. tomentum. brave. to the belly as the or dislike. a bubble. Fr. wag. to stagger. Sw. to hesitate from doubt. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Boystous. i. the gurgling sound of water rush. b^gayer. impetuosity. the husk of nuts. see Boast. buile. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. whence bulla. boutpijl. See Bulk. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. Du. Kil.Du. may be identified with It. chatter. used. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. . a bubble. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection.palleg. ohg. a quaking mire. Test. To Boil. to stammer. Du. Sc. Pr. tulum. Lap. is probably a modification of boll.w. bula. bold. biiilen. cows the people from speaking. To Bolter. balldr. trunk of a tree . bald. courageous. bal. bok. bald. beule. . a bubble. — ' — tagliare. courageous. to boil. bul. bold. Bole.rounded part of the body. to puff. pall. noise. tartajear. Stalder. bolster. tartle. bulla. which are not used for a similar purpose.— — . to tattle. folliculus grani. Boil. boll. * Boisterous. up of bubbles. 45. Bret. repagulum. blow. styffe or rude . bol. Pm. roydeur. bouil. ballr. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. — — which the cushion is stuffed. bealder. poppy (Bailey). intrepid. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . then violent. Fr. This iv. * Bolster. a bump. . stameln vel bochken.). — 6 . a fastening for a door. bulla. in the sense of handsome . 1430 in Deutsch. In the same way Sc. a bakazikni. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. bout is explained by Kil. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. treated under Bowl. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. bollen (Kil. E. but that Bolt. pusten. belc'hj. a swelling in ice. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bola. Da. bog.D. strong. by which it is moved to and fro. strong. Kit. round the first instance to the materials with . capiing into a cavity. swelling. swelling. also a blister. bolt. boggle. pustule. bol. ON. bol. to be at a loss a shirt. bag or bog are derived Piedm. to stammer. a cushion. ON. bSlstr. tartalear. pillow. Daring. Wall. The term applies in — — impressed . tar. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. the body . obex. haughty. he will speak out. . bog. a boil or swelling Du. fiausten. bolzBold. buller. puile. Properly noisy. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Cot. bhster. Swab. to be prominent. as. quick. Du. as E. E. The bob. G.

to spring forth E. buletare. racket gepolter. a bunch. to bolt meal barutel. in S'W plotter. bultig. poll. to make a knocking. then to knock. a bolter Prov. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. a sod (Schiitze). Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. . representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. a bolter or implement for bolting. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. The ment and the operation. .thump or blow. buletel. Prov. as Fr. poltern. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. Du. taratantarum. to clack. taraabout.. to bolt flour burato. staff which sounds tar. to significance of the term was overlooked. bortelen.fe/2?. croler. bulk. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Supp. . a clod. bolting to that of form. bolzen. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. hump. budeln daz mele . rugged. to start out. bulk or quantity . to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. bolzaugen. On this account Mid.) E. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated.. : ' — — . ' Holler poller / bulter. taratarrum.D. sestuare. abolter. we pass to Du. tumultuari. hammer. also to curdle. .clack. hammer. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. swelling. the wheels groaned. a rattle. bolt-foot. . a crashing or racketing noise. or ill. . barutela. tling or crashing noise. Brem. we der Brocket). baruta. buUire. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. or the like. barutela. to start with palpitate. Dauphiny a sudden movement. The ulti. small heap. bulla. one after the other. brattle. uneven. to shake. crotlar. with E. bulstrig. crash. Du. Wtb. — — — . grasbulten. Pl.nature of the operation. the sense of right on end. boss. a club-foot. Mid. bolt.through a cloth of loose texture. bolzauget) Sp. blotttre. we have Du. agitari (Kil. curdle. a small portion. uneven. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. bullern. to come rattling downstairs. jolting. cruddle. die treppe pressed. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. rugged. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. a clap of thunnences. je bulte. to become lumpy. Fr. OFr. from G. And as the agitation of cream in . mole-hill. Bav.— . lumpy. crod. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. to E. gebolder. as of a trumpet.D. knob. hulch. bolt head is a retort.by forms like G. cro. Pl. So also we pass from Lat. ler. G. and to crash. / is transposed in Fr. In the next place. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. zare. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. buideln. Lang. to agitate. as above explained. hole. Sanders. beliitea. a clump of turf. beluter. to form lumps. .D. vessel with narrow opening. tar. Sw. bluter. hulter de bulter. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Bulte-pook or bulstar. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. to coagulate. Champagne burtcau. loud and fast. It.). . polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. a round glass ending — bultig. have Lat. zen. protuberance. to bolt meal barutel. as a rabbit from its baritel. 2. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. OFr.On the same principle. buretter{CQ\. holier poller.agitation of the meal in the bolter. a millpoltzet augen. clump. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. bulio. MHG. a rattling carriage. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to bolter. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. a clod cloth. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . and the Thus from So. as snow balling on a horse's foot. pattern. btilt.as the essential element signifying the talum. pull. Dan. poltern. or a racer from the course.i5a//^«. Schiitze. a . Pr. Lat. Pm. representing a rat. I boulte meale in a boulter. P1.u. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. Hence Palsgr. bultred. to talk pulzen.D. fied bot. Here the radical image is the violent O. projecting eyes pul. tuft. ex•wagen. burclct. kloteren. Hence. tantara. projections. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. by the representation of a racketing sound. OFr.protuberance. ' — — ! ! : — . to knock. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. we see that the one consists of a words. barutare.noise {brattle of thunner. on the one hand.).Lat. pultare.

and Mod. boulenger. cotton. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. an implement of binding. tie. Schm. tiffany. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. bambacium. biire. sye. bonds. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. agreement. raw silk. silk-worm. bolting-cloth. brust-bein. band pi. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. and that from Fr. bein. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. to ring bells. Castrais barato. ^o/j. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . — Bombard. barate. beil'n. 155. bindan. . Bone. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. builen. It. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. baun. breast-bone. bombasine. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. .Lat. bommen. is supported by the analogy of G. bambagino. Near 6 * . HoUybandin R. It. PoUitriduare. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. OE. gunpowder. must be explained Fr. coarse. thick. buidelen. achsel bein. sijde. baum-bast. beuteln. Gascoi^e in R. the contracted form of Du. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. The material called by this name. butteln. crook-shanked bondew. — bombast came guage. Dan. bond. a churn for butter. a word of which we have traces in several English names. It. and also the leg. has repeatedly varied. bulter from It. iuttern. bomba. 83 Gr. sericum arboreum. derivation. a beacon. Need you any ink and bonibase. Bibelesworth in Nat. Fr. Butterglas. to shake (as to shake the head. bonfras. Bomb. band. and Du.) . a drum bombammen. to cast to and fro. Fr. a boulter of meal. the leg. Mid. to beat a drum. thick-legged. basin. bombe. It. &c. sije. as in . a material quite unfit for bolting meal. bonog. however. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. i. or trunk word in W. tree. bwmbwr. borel. bombice. It.). e. term is appropriated in G. to bolt meal. burato.^Altieri. buttel trueb (of liquids). bommer. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. gossipium. bande. band. Du. ties. — AS. a baker. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. silk. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. the Fr. bureau. been. Moreover. from boom. we speak of a gun to resound. E. G. banitola (Fl. bras. stuff. bauniwolle. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter.D. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bon. assuming the of leg : special signification W. bombasin. to boult meal. a ligature. and in fact we find the and Du. bombase. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . . also thick-shanked. to shake. d. bone of the . . bombast. bombarda. and called in Mid. In E. a bone in general. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. As cotton was used for padding clothes. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. from teu. q. . signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. to thump W. a hollow sound. It. When ture.Su?. bwmbwry mar. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. tie. to shake down fruit from a tree. ODu. and Bond. lana lignea. the murmuring of the sea. to which the leg. a thundering noise bomre. bombdra. Du. whence bomme. G. Fl. a stem or base. bunden. bongam. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bureau. a stock. Du. the silk-worm. cotton stuff. — having a stem or stalk. bambagioj whence It. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. Bonfire. beuteln.bast. to thunder. booming over the water. Antiq. Kil. G. a —Bombasine. bopin. In legal language. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. to resound. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. . rimbombare. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. buidelen. thick from shaking. to bind G. bombicina. Banstead. Dan. . butteln. From builen. the shank the shoulder-bone. a string. produced the Pl. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. stump. again. as Banbury. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk.

Gl. in w. A peasant. help. Boot of bale. to prepare. swinbusa. the name of the letter b. Sp. Pr. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Ox. To Boot. E. as the Brecknockshire Banns. \ais-band. a tree.^ —P. head-dress wai^g. are formed Fr. bose. and thence Rouchi baia. the possessor of the farm. . bas. master of the house. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. to litter bosu. bos. to gape. and Gael. at everything. bowwen. babb^o. petition. A stall for cattle. bobo. a bonfire. Gael. b^er. to set in order. The i. countryman. beiSne. a dry stalk. . Fr. bene. — . one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. . bauen. Mrs Baker explains bun. badaud. Trans. to dress. and from AS.—Bootless. A favour. . or Vanns. G. — From the participle present. Wall. in Phil. letter. Booby. ben. AS. b&ber. OSlav. Hal. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. to strew with straw. G. bd. Bootless.. comes bondi. remedy of evil. — Bailey. the cultivator. gaby. boia. to gape. netis stall. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. however. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. whence ban-ffagl. the stubble of beans. ty Gael. although in the OG. set in order. bote. botta. writing bokos. The origin of the word is probably the W. The latter is the original AS. the scriptures bokareis. a vessel for holding liquids. — — . to yawn. Boot. — To boot. boutig. Mrs Baker. by itself for head-dress. succour Bailey. of wonder On the same principle Sp. Busk. been. to cultivate. Du. dress. E. ganian. a bag of skin or leather. Basa. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. dial. but stall. boubair. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. See Bown. Bonnet. high. babin. a letter . also called Brecknock Beacons. bonad. Prov.Boos. Build. But bosg. G. Bun. a stall. ON. The character of folly is i860. without ad- . foolish. dial. Binau Brychyniog. dolt. a silly fellow. . a head-dress. Swab. biikui. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. tigh. one who dwells nigh. boer. — e. Bonnefyre. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. booby. a lying-place for dogs or swine. boa. Palsgr. Du. nachbar. baier. fool. tall. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. from Du. build. Jr. a simpleton. * Boose. ON. prayer. bommen. Hufwud-bonad. build. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Hal. bolt. bonnet. Thin ben Luke i. the mouth. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. till. house. wall hangings. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. bosig. b'ukvdry. bonad. from gape. It is commonly explained as identical with It. a lofty blaze. inhabit. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. It. botte. often cut for burning and lighting fires. signifying beech. Fr. bosih. pig-sty. Schm. to aid. busu. Goth. from beida (E. pero. dress. . boandi. buch-stab. chaff. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce.n. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. a good turn or re- meaning. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. OW. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. literally cow-house. a hollow skin. botte. bdn. a scribe G. ON. bauer. boom. where a cross (or a gun. till. petition. and Ban in w. boubi^. by arbitours sholde bote the P. a. . feu de behourdis. beam. to cultivate. pole. Du. babau. to ask. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. 13. inhabit. boo. AS. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. a letter Russ. Boon. relief from sorrow. Fr. as a lying-place for cattle. buandi. bua. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. lofty. prayer. which one gaping and staring about. p. Boor. tapestry. hu?idbusa. See Bomb. remnants of hay or straw. Thus from the syllable ba. Book. simpleton. ass. desire. bossen. bua. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . clown. bds. ON. Boom. gehyred. and fig. N. blockhead. w. gawney. betere thing werse. bid). boutig. the first consonant of the alphabet. Kil.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. bonaid. from badare. short boots. boten-shoen. Fr. the alphabet. 232. reparation. . . litter. See Butt. gaping hoyden — Cot. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. wondering signifies not only straw. Pm. . dog-kennel. Kil. Perhaps. bobo ! interj. a. From bo. In nautical language. is Du. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. stabulum. quest. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. bota. bAkva.

a bothy. ON. bower. in Ihre. terebra sculptoria purastoa. 266. bdra. Burke in R. In the Fin. making good again . remedy. Sp. a borer. a shed. furd. to build. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. amendment. Bohem. bothag. repair. . mat-bod. BOOTH vantage. bud. a hut. bora. burin. to expiate boeten den dorst. boeten het vier. yfirbdt. . It. comminuted by either kind of action. sculpo 05\xiik. purra. a responding forms . recovery bata. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. A phorically a drunkard. and hence to fine. boards. furni. a sharp-pointed tooth. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. botjan. cellar. a shop budowati. Lat. terebro. See To We speak in E. bata. abode. kvit-bara. a. scsdes-bod. to bete the properly to mend the fire. batr. puras. hem or gard of a garment. Esthon. are parret. sawroot. G. bardure. and parrets. bauen. . barn. and E. Gael. or anything pointed. betan fyr. budka. Esthon. a hut or tent. fire. a shop. edge. to anything Neither G. to stick unto as a bur. baete. OHG. to repair. to to . of an edge that will not bite. BoracMo. an engraver's chisel. And so in ON. bauda. sharp. make . from bord. to foam. a shelter of branches. better. 1. scalpo. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru.. pi. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. Pol. to swell. Gael. Fin. to importune. limbus. to profit. biorag. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. to . flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. or the gradual working a hole in anything. ON. wave. piercer. to hut. bordi. a borer . . &c. — ON. purra. Fl. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. differs only in termination. a tusk. . budowai. bottino. . leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. chewed food for infants. • — To Bore. fimbria. nor E. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. drillen. The as G. a bladder. p. cottage. . limbus. See Bower. to bore. See Burgeon. Fr. to restore. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. pointed. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. tent. amendment boeten. Fin. The Fin. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). rof. Booty. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. to mend. struere ignem. . to divide. The ON. a chisel. a booth or shed.par. bdt. N. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. ora. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. forare. Compare Manx birrag. which are probably from the same root. Booth. cure Sw. lappolone. exchange or divide. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. from deila and skipta. It.. Palsgr. Another derivation from Fin. from borra. butin is explained by Flor. lappalare.—Burin. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. boete. extremitas Bore. Gael. Bete. OSw. admovere titiones. AS. ON. . to bite. both. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. dust. dens mordens vel caninus. to surge. as afford a satisfactory explanation. Fin. puru. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. cup- awl. wine-skin. bolino. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. in Lap. Border. byte points to the verb byta. to pierce. butin. pu purro (saha =: saw . are derived from G. and meta- Fr. a word. bite. bord.. chisel. a granary . the . To Bore. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. 3. Alexand. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . is purin. swell bara.por. welt. to quench one's thirst . puru. boeye. margin. It is admitted that Fr. uzboro. bothan. a border. purro. Kil. on. The cor. borino. and thence to eat build. urboro. to The Sw. beute. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. boede. Magy. borracha. borracha. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. to patch. reparation.— Return from Parnassus I inR. to boot. baara. a great bur. to bite. puras. a cupboard. Mag. to build buda. a borer. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. But probably the E. hut. bohren. Fr. a leather bag or bottle for wine. Du. to profit Goth. a wave. Du. aid.

botse. beorgan. boss or knob of a buckler . a. Bunch. cob. Fr. Sc. ' pledge. cnap. in the body struck. tive idea seems to bring under cover.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. Turk. undyed wool of brown sheep. one who sticks to you like a bore. a citizen. when that system was forgotten. Hence borhes ealdor. borei. is used in the sense of bussare. plant. to become is emitted by a hollow body. bosse. borough-holder. AS. In like manner It. to contain. vain. borg. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. projection. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . a bouncing baby . Gr. cnag signifies both a clergy. storm. burgess. byrig. primarily signifying coarse sound . empty. botsen. loan. whence the burg. borh. the must have arisen burgensis.any round sweUing. a herb. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. as if from the verb to hold. to conceal. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. as we speak of a thumping potato. to protect. It. So Du. bourgeois. which now signifies a knob. a bunch or hump. knock and a knob . AS. boss. And that unsittynge is to here degre. tuft. bierge. bail biirgen.. to give a hollow bizo. . Du. baurgs. a giving rise to It. D. Borough. a blow. Bos a surety. a knob. to knock or strike. pitch. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. Bailey. boussi. boss. the hollow between the Borsholder. burel. pegou. Hal. See found in Bav. a wen. Boreal. bunch. i. or head-borough. 106. bourg. huschen. viipyoc. and borough in the sense of a town. Borowholder. the N. bundle. rustic. bussa coarse. empty. /3oraMK6f. — — — A — . Lat. The origin seems to be the Goth. boss of the side. or because a blow berga. the ordinary a swelling. bump. brown cloth. while Gael. boss sound. Hence knot. to pick or cull plants. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Borrow. a surety. . butsen. northern. bussi. Fr. knob. botch. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. agrees with E. The primi. AS. &c. Newbury. . to take in. ON.' every man be under bail. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. from AS. a little blow. to strike . Jam. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. to save. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. ^o^^flj. connected. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum.' if thou give money on loan. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. poor. Bosh. boschen. or perhaps it may be See Bury. rude. cormpted. a tower. pego. Du. gum vocant. without. — ' wind burya.' Vegetius in Diez. useCanterbury. destitute. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Swiss Rom. of bail throughout the country. I. Fr. borealis. the North Wind. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. borel. unpolished. beorgan. Russ. empty. or perhaps also To Borrow. Lang. surety. a pushing or striking out. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. cnoc. Goth.mass. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. bos. is probably radically Boss. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. to save Sw. to strike so as to Bureau. bom. burh. secure. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. (1867). bossen. head. to give bail or answer for an. E.' the chief of the ' borh. knocking. coarse cloth made of the Du. hollow bucklers. from their grey clothing.' or system of bail. a city . butse. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. ^ma. in instead of without. Jam. knur. blow on a hollow object. an eminence. to save. botch. and thus could not shake off the old burr. bos. bosh. the Sc. f graauw. less. a boor. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. grey). to protect. a citizen. striking. bttssel.ribs and the side. bosseu. a boss.bucklers. borough or chief constable. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. that which biirge. whether from the fact preserve G. clownish. was origin of the term is the OFr. plain rude fellow. nonsense. borgo.vr\. borgese. Botany. to keep. It. hollow. Cot. by which of or belonging to plants. bump is used in lump or piece. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. borg. Altieri. G. the sun sets. into borsholder. V. tempest. busse. gesylle. basse. The other. . poor. (Bridel). ' — — . formerly used in the sense of knocking. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. bergen. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns.

w. buddeln. N. &c. botte. a pit. boden . Judwi. and E. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. a cask. ledge It. It. Fyre to botme. a lump of somebatschen. pocciar. gipuozan. botte.^Dec.foundation. as Fr. bozza. Hal. * To Bother. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. Mudu. fire-bote. ' G. Ancren Riwle. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. botus.— Hal. AS. whence the name ol pool to podge. Botcli. Decorde. Lat. corresponding to . abbi-diwij Slavon. H^cart. ixorapudder. To confuse with noise. bunch. Lith. — Jidwi. to dip in liquid (to Gael. buazen. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a waterfall. noise. ON. a maggot. a bubble. disturbance. to we have OHG. On the other hand. a plague-boil Kil. a bump or swelling. boil. Gael. to smack. a pock. blister. — Dief. stump. Bailey. schuhbosser. burgi vel pontis refectionem.' to the fiery Csedm. bottigUa. bile. batschen. Diez. A horses. Fl. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . to put on a patch. Fr. bottom. ON. for a bud. to work without order or know. contusion . Bouds. G. abbi. fundus. a bottle. ing out. Prov. a. — — A 2. you two. . abyss. j3i/9os. bouteille. It. A — oba-dwaj Lat. an abyss or bottoniless pit. a tinker schuhbiisser. a botcher of shoes. Bouteille. Fr. the science or knowledge of plants. botel foenn. mutter. to simmer. stroke. bossu. butwo. to fall : with a sound batsch. podge. scuohbuzere. bdt. oba. ba. bozza. BOTCH understood). a bunch. however. baiothsj Sanscr. bSn. gen. botsen. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. mess. stock. pozzo. is boteau. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. potra. blow. It. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Bret. The Gr. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. Leg. a pit. See Butt. — duj Lett. to give a sounding blow. the lowest part. ambo. to podge. Du. &c. pimple. kessel-biisser. to mend. blain.— Swift in R. botel. signify a in OE. boiteag. beggtaj Goth. Dan. tumour. btitse. Podge.) . Canut. bdsser.of a ball of thread. to bcBta. is also a bubble. buideal. boiteal. a slop. to strike . bluster. a vessel for holding liquids. See Boss. See To Bodge. what pushes outwards. a boil or swelling Halma. maggots in barley. OSax. pother. knock. to mend (kettles. — . shoes. abbution. . . to dash about . butsen. — .ments of the same root. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. especially in Gael. bun. I. in the sense of mend the fire. as a push or windgaU. putra. the other hand. pozzanghera. a wisp. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Parmesan poccia. Du. dial. patch. Bottle. botse. a depth. Jtidu. . round lump. we two. a cobbler. empty or hollow. nets. AS. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. whisper. a knock. bativa. bundle. Pl. thing soft batsch. buddl. AS. biissen. Both. — Fl. Stalder. ON. a humpback. dim. botch. buts. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. a slop. • Bott. we have Swiss batscken. boitean. to stir and mix together. bAdtr. — — . Bochu. Lith. a patch patschen. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. Again. Butu. stock. A bottom depth. To Botch. bots.— . stem or base. the bud of a flower . poltern. a cess. and ajSvamg. turmoil. mess. to from the root bot. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. they two. botm. any plain round viol glass bozzo. bodem. to froth as beer . dabble). any round ball or bowl to play withal. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Danneil. abbu. And so we speak of an eruption. 212. a cesspool pass. a bottle of hay. Wedu. was called a push. bot. of botta. ubhau. noise. Boa two. butse. Kil. E. bund. House-bote. ^kvBoQ. boute. gling piece of work. boss. by met. or plague sore . Here the radical image seems a bubble. both. to stir and mix together . to make a make a noise. botn. from the dashing of water. G. a bundle of straw or hay. e. to knock. bethia. . to rage. Gael. bulder. an imperfect and bunbutt end. — Bottom. See Bound. . disturbance to . botte. hurly-burly. to botch or patch. . bide. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a bott . Fl. repara- — — See To Bete. From the dim. Hal. — — belly-worm. to make better. puddle. On — Du. bulderen. i. boccia. bosser.D. mend. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. the first rough draught 2. botola. a root. a bottle.

136. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bunda. Brem. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. See Bunch. See To Bolt. came home with his face all to-bounced. the smaller ones. botwm. pimple Richards bothog. Bough. march. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. a large stone rounded by the action of water.. to hum. to turn. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. turn. like bobbin. by Bujns or Buns. pothel. the verb bondir in OFr. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . a boss. Pm. So It. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. a large pebble. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. to knock at the door. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. to knock. p. bugan. And the new stools set out. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. signifies a sliort thick mass. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. bun. ing. and F.— Boundary. The W. bamsen. an occasion.' B.— Cot. Bough-pot. dial. Bunche. From Sw. from volgere. Bought. a stock. Halma. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Du. Bout. — — Bight. Bret. jump. — strike. the bay of Benin. signifying in nautical coil of rope. bonna. contusi. of thread. I assure you. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. . has hot. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Raynouard. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. root (see Bottom). mcn-bomi. a bound. in contrast to klappersten. Coxcomb. Q. a bud. Ducange. mere. buUersten. bullra.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. to set out by metes and bounds. a boundary stone (men stone). Probably from the Celtic root bon. . the hollow of a bay. — — leap. till The dat et bunsede. to bow. boss of a buckler. The Bight of Benin. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. a bouncing apple. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. ni frestelar. geration.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. bugt. boh. knock it sounds again. in the absence of actual e. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Mid. a turn or time. Fr. bay. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. thumping. gulf. the larger kind of pebbles. a blister. Pr. E. volta. bonzen.>a bout. to thunder.'— Charter of K. Wtb. bonndn. boundina. 3. carpet. strapping. bounbounejha. limit. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. language a * Boulder. bouton." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. bog. a round body both. round.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. to spring. boriie. To Boult. to resound. from bugan. bone. its kind. Fr. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. to set bounds. bend. A Langued. ni motz brugir. bumper.D. nave of a wheel bothel. iv.' round and round in similar circles. The branch of a tree. a button. to make a loud noise. Nor a centinel whistle. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. Bound. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. bons. AS. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling.— F. bodina. debodinare. as that of E. Bonny. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. see Boss. Webster. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. nor horn sound. whence buj7isen. a blow. and Prov. To Bounce. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. jungen. — No i ausiratz parlar. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. bunsen. tnndo. Fr. — Take care my house be handsome. to fix limits. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. baby. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. to spring. To Bound. bondir. Bowlder. bolder. winding. 2. Alpine Re- — gions. Primarily to strike. to thundering big one hum. frequently used in the same sense with bound. bottom. . Boulderstone. dial. as a nosegay. he fell so that it sounded. from AS. or Bow-pot. bend. Ni gacha cor bondir. boujtce. Dan. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. butina. Sw. an de dor bunsen. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar.— — — - 88 BOUGH . Bodinare.

potio. ing. to tope W. ridicule buirte. whence buysen. btiga. bugan. bommen. burdan. bage. Chaucer in R. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. Prov. address. purra. Burden. a humming noise Macleod. analogous to Fr. Eown. a prop. Borden. way ba7n. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. a sing-song. bending of a joint knie-bug. Sp. Fr. curvature. bending. to bow. Gael. bog. Bow. saufen. bound. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. a humming noise. fun of one . ready. Bourd. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bogen. Dan. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Goth. cheat. good. biegen. from spring. Sc. set out. and that probably from a Celtic root. g. bending. bwa. to draw a deep breath. Sw. tinton. Dan. burreti. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. burd. to pre2. buys. to tope. It is bov. souf. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. prepared for. deceit. Gael. . jest. — — . ready to pike or spear . Bourdon. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. steady. bonitas. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. also the humming or ON. bugna. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. hous^ Man in the Moon. sport. brummen. Dan. AS. head Fr. whether by sound or gesticulation. mockery. Fr. burn. to mutter. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. the ting of a bell. warbling. in Fr. w. Du. to drink deep. drunken. Fr. as was for. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. a from Du. bugne. The meaning of bound. Comp. biugan.bass of a stringed instrument. epaule du vaisseau. Burgeon. Gael. shoulder-blade. schulter-bug. Bourdon. trick. a pot. like quaff. When used alone it . Cot. . drink deep. So Sc. schenkelbug. bordo. cudgel. springbiirn. a. bdgi. a well. to bow or incline the . language of folly or ridicule. to draw a deep breath. bov. explaining Sw. a — — . bordon. Swiss bausen. the big end of a club. bourdon. Spenser in R. A —Cot. bordone. . nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. an arch. the burden of a song. buzzing of bees. a jibe Shaw bururus. must be referred to the same root. a brook. buyse. ruption of bonne. are applied to the bow of a ship. bogna. It is remarkable that we find vary. bogr. bontS. bunaiteach. grumble Sw. i. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. — — — A pare. Bret. brausen. a for New York. bourdon. a. bugna. beogan. It is the participle past buinn. their time -With "wailful tunes. it is probable that the It. the shoulder of the vessel. and not in the sense of curvature in general. buzz. to drink deep. to indulge in his cups . to take one in. bogha. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. sense durd. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. hence musical accompaniment. to tipple. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root.which see. burlare. a drone of a bagpipe. Bounty. different modification gives ON. beygja. to bulge. pusta. a jibe. a drone or dor-bee. is. bue. pausen. bausen. brunna. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . has also buirleadh. a mill-post. to banter or laugh at. . to swell. of the ON. bow to shoot with. bend Sw. Lat. purlBav. pot. or of an Gael. spelling the word iox bound. the Bourdon. drone of a bagpipe.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. — probably through this latter signification. Du. burt. The foregoing derivation seems. bog. gurgling. Du. Dan. a corToward the garden. buigen. to take breath. flagon. borne. bovne. on the whole. kroes. Du.. to hum as a bee. bourde in the same sense. G. belly out. taunt. G. . staff. identical with E. Gael. patesten. verb bua. buga. Immediately from Fr. Cot. lance. pre. to our bous.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. fresh* water. Sw. joke. Sw. G. puff out. repartee. . sotich. buizen. that ON. limit. Gael. bug. G. to hum. . crutch. It. to take deep draughts. sausen. to trick. a cup kroesen. bourd. A water. ^<7r«i?. burdan. pared. addressed to. As the Gael. And there in mourning spend Sw. bonus. the fixed. bend. game. firm. when we speak of. on. bagna. a go to. to — Hal. spring. Bound. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. a bow. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness.

make obeisance. a black pudding. A Bulk. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. compared with Fr. intrenchment. (in pass . Du. bow. See MHO. tumour. pocket. a ball. PLD. as in E. In like manner the Pol. as in AS. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bulla in aqua. bwr. to yield to one. in walking appears in a . . spherical Dan. . beutel. biicken. head of a cabbage. . a pot. painter's easel. knob From the former modification we have bolla. ^o«/«. zich onder jemand under to him. a bubble bolli. bolne. acsian. pullo. . a buck. bugna. crooked. give in to. dial. fyn. Sanscr. kupula. beuz. Lat. to swell. The word may probably be identical with Fris. a stud. . the crop of a bird. box in both senses. . buigen. kupukka. botulus. The / a bow. budello. . a polla. boor. bulcken. Bret. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. a thing of liquid. . OFr. . . to guggle. Sw. convex. is applied to a coach-box. ku^o. heafod bolla. cumena-bur. utibur.) to incline oneself . or. ken. a bud. buis. trestle. peated in Magy. . and to a coachbox in particular. bolla. bolla. bubble. hollow place Fr.. . fata-bur. hiidel. ne. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. Sp. Fr. in both senses. Hence. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. . bouge. ON. wisp of straw . to bend. bulge. . bugyola. a iDubble. bhugna. . bur. the box-tree and articles made of it G. signified by forms like Gael. bowel Box. OE. the box-tree It. bowels. globular body. koziel. a chamber swefnbur. to puff up pullakka. . a sack.. swoUei) Lat. bogla. boxtree. a parlour. mausbollelein. bouellou. Bower. bowl . bwra. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. Buckle. buckelig gehen. Fr. bocka. similar shape. AS. convexity. W. the head. to buckle G. to puff up. Bowl. a bubble Fin. Pol. honse-bur. belly. It is more probably from the G. to stoop. See Boil. buckel. swell. Fr. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. round bead. ^o/a. to raise the back boll OHG. boil. different position in ODu. and on swollen. globular. Hal. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm.\s. the barrel of a gun. globe or spherical body. guestchamber . round glass phial. . bug. passing on stud. Dan. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. &c. kuppelo. a knot. the box-tree. a box. a croft by a house. without the and grits. buxus. boucle. to bend down. From the other form are G. puffy. an outhouse AS. boss. a box Lat. . boudin. bolgna. bog. a bundle. Sw. biichse. purse. the skull or brainpan . lump . Du. bulk compared with Sw. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. biisse. E. buga. . bog. a bubble. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. bossola. a sleeping-room . or in e. bulla. of a wooden ball to play with and — .flask It. A . iri'iaQ. bucka. bending. hollow. stream forth bugyogni. . bhuj. a little box . with inversion of the round. * Bowels. a.). Bav. to bulge. hollow wooden case. bouzellou. a swelling or rising up. sausage. buk. budel. bosso. bock. an inclosure. bukke. hill. belly. prominence. W. polla. Boll. a ball. water pulli. Bret. a box. to make crooked . the head. ON. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. buello. a ball . a box. boel. a hump on the back rossbollen. kupu. biiske.). spring as water bugya. Du. bent. G. .a. busse. a round glass or bolg. blister. bugyani.cup Du. gut. bola. a boil. boss. Thus we have Esthon. busskai. ask. Gr. bugyni. to stoop biickling. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. G. Bohem. Cable. a bowl. AS. bulka. at the e. a protuberance. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. Sw. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bollen. a drop of pullistaa. to bow buck. pusspan. bulb of an onion bolleyield. Dan. to bubble up. boxtree pusska. bubble. . a hen-coop . box. a separate apartment . bol. buchsbaum. . bol. a bubble. a wardrobe . anything globular. bow. the bogna. ON. folliculus . bolle. bur. bugy. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. a wine-can . the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. crown of a hat. w. . tumour . bent or rounded object must be attained bowl.D. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . belly of a cask. bulne. a box. inclinare se (Kil. See Crab. as well as the name of a. then by the loss of the /. ttuJic.

want. bracke. salo sive aqua marinS. refuse. to stutter. in R. brae. from a root brak. confining. a bubbling dura del mun. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. then from break.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Bracket. strike. rakke. A — — .. bruxula. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. unmarried man . pupus. brae. Bracelet. The different meanings of the brageux. bitch Du. bracket. bracer. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. G. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. a comworld Rayn. Pm. Fr. quarrel Bohem. to stammer. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. isolated part of the text. s. brae. brek. his eyes are failing him).. breuque. . Prov. baukscheht. odorinsecus. to Swiss batschen. To brace is to draw together. a guard to torf. dirty. or bracer Cot. a sounding blow. want. break. Swab. Brackish. dog in general. baske. let. corruptse. race. brassard. merely in our mode of considering them. fault. is a rope holding G. babble. Swiss bub. V. bray. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. boy bouba. youth. to fall. To fight with the fists. bue. braquet. bask. and F. Kil. — . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. thwack. It is B. whelp as. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. In like manner the It. brae. fuse. Lett. 91 the Dan. wrack.— D. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. defect Du. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. bracil. Kil. land batsken. Fr. pube. On the same principle from the buksteht. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. breach.. . land spoilt Kil. brechen ihm. Pl. compressing. mud. brace on and Du. rakki. a braceOFr. OFr. . loud smack. Swiss Rom. Prov. fault . to want. s. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. brague. breptati. to give a sounding blow defect. mud. MHG. Gael. ON. Sp. taneous talking. rakka. Du. priated to the original sense. which sigof straining.nated by dirt. to give a blow with the fists. Brak-goed. It. bracha. braca.D. boy. a girl. bracco. a grown youth Cimbr. flaw. bracon. bragos. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. brabbelen. and string of his bow. dog that hunts by scent.D. the first instancebya physical tie. spaniel. &c. ing from a mixture of salt. buah. bresta. Rouchi Then as an adj. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. suppuration. Thus brack. — — . BOX To Box. bouibo. Hdcart. cramp-iron holding things together . Lat. moral or physical. I sal slyng. — . armour for the arm. Water rendered boubo. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. disturb. — . to is derived brestr. brageuses. an languages. defect. brakke grund. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. in R. to box the ears. Brach. braque. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach.puddle. braecke. root). The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. G. Brack. . to be wanting. murmur. — . brasselet. or defect. Boy. acidus. brack. a bog or pass Fr.. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. filth . mud. braic. beagle. flaw. breach. a pair of braces. briche. the arm. variation of babble. brack. as noticed under Box. defect. parallel with OK. Du. . matter. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . by the same inversion of J and k. lalear-eyed Prov. A brace probis. Prov. brec. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. ON. jabber. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. posh. by an overflow of sea water. ratch. a box. brechen. and then Pl. ' — A — — — . Heligoneed. a crack. . La ville ou y avait Brace. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. To Brabble. OE. OFr. Pr. a boy pupa. . It. to burst. want. A to halt between two derivations. . need. One girl. to crack. to give a gebrechen. Fr. It. clay. foul. brostia. Sp. Sp. boiste. brek. which has many representatives in the other Europe. salsus. con.with a noise. Kil. flap. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. wristband. See Broker. damaged board a ship. pus. rack. Ptg. braco. to slap. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. brakke Bracelet. bube. Brack. bou^ba. brago. to smack the hand batschen. ghebreck. Prov. dog Sw. boussole. See Brake. Fr. — . AS. braco. . wnzC/J. Cot.

braegenj Du.aburst. an inclosure for cattle . to cord a bale of tie up. drawers. brave. boast. brao. . and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. the opposite of which. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. See Brace. riches. Brake. — Equivalent forms are Gael. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). Langued. brake is. is Cot. . to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. . to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. noisy ostentation. Lith. . ^Brave. to Rouchi brMer. braga. braske. ative fellow. braka. and that from e. make a noise . crash. subduing. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brag. a roisterer. gay. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. be noisy . hectoring. a noisy talkboasting. braicli. bushy . braguer. braw. bragaireachd. swaggerer. Cot. used in the sense of force. gallant (in apparel) also proud. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. bragio. i. breyne. gallant. gay. bra!. Lat. It. brag or jet it braguard. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. binding anything together. Bret. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . slight modificajoining the two legs. boasting. brae. Cot. braszketi. —Spenser in R. 2. brake in the sense of constraining. de Vaud. Thus we are brought to the OE. Chaucer.breeches.%. fine. an iron for holding Zalli. also tion of this was brayeul. courageous. gorgeous. braggard also valiant. Haldorsen Gael. also insolenter se gerere . Walloon bress. braga. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . Brake. as the type of exertion and strength. also derived Fr. Fr. that will carry no coals. brav. brazo. Brail. braga. smart. Hecart. is identical with Gael. in order to prevent its catching the wind. cry. brabhdadh. finery. h-avare and Fr.i5nz^.explosion. bravo. — A — . a carriage for breaking in horses . well-dressed. Fris. splendid. stately. See Bray. the feathers ON. . Sp. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . would be to brace. affront. fine. expensive. From sprouted corn. flaunt in fine clothes .hy which this idea is con\eyed. proud. From Fr. Wallachian bratsou. w.Shepherd's Cal. brails. brave. called by our braggard. goods. beautiful. crash ON. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . brabhdair. blusterer. brave. to swagger.—— . braies. Dan. — . to strut. about the hawk's fundament. to make a noise. vanter une chose. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. flaunting. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. bragging. Thus Bret. excellent. in numerous dialects. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. was formed brayele. Primarily to crack. or by gaudy dress and show. to sprout malt. The meanings of brake are very numerous. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. To Braid. &c. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. brayete. BRAG Piedm. fine. bravado j Fr. to crack. brag. to boast or brag. Brain. breghen. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. The plant y^r«. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. bravache. valiant The head are sumptuous. breagh. and it is very likely that the root brak. se donner trop de licence. Fr. Rom. handsome. compressing. Hence E. vaunting. 92 Cot. brave. Turk bazu are used in both senses.. Cot. bragging of his own valour. torture . subigere. to stand upon terms. be found. confining. bullying. se pavaner. Brag was then used brisk. vain glory. strength. or from braie itself. power. showy bravery. dhbrailler. braver. The meanings included under — Bragget. in the sense of the Lat. spot. . . From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. It is certain that the word for arm is. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. Bret. the arm. From brayel. . idle talk. stout.^ Sp. brave. to brail up a sail. to unbrace or let down the breeches. AS. swagger. bravacherie. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . breghe. empty pride. Dan. To Brail. braske. A — Hal. brachittm.^Vocab. braka. breach. to rattle. crack. Sc. bragd. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. to boast of his own worth. — Chaucer.. Bray. to shout. gayly dressed. to flaunt. se parer de beaux habits. fine. — From W. bully . It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. To Brag. Faire le brave.

it is not surprising that the word has here. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. Brake. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. Biglotton. properly braking or subduing them. referred brake. break of such a kind. Dan. braken. broillet. where from Esthon. Swiss Rom. Gael. braquer un canon. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. farinam in mortario subigere. Corrfeze bredgea. braka. brolium. tris). ing of flax or hemp. or A A ' . to head must be bit. to subdue.' It. OFr. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. In like manner Lat. — — . el arco. might come to signify a swamp. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. broken fratta. to distinct. been confounded with the verb break. and G. casser le \va.D. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. the original meaning of G. have thus Du. or a wood in a marshy place . a brace on board a ship. Lat. to fracture. watered. brushwood. signifying to sweep. tnurdma. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. In ON. is formed murd. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. Dan. to exert force in different ways. word. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. breaking in the operation. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. to row. nemus. briers. gilum. braecken het vlasch. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground.bracan. e. gebroge. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. is braukti. copse-wood. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. To the same bend a bow. iSpsx". reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. BRAKE to external force. broyer. as in Du. gebrUche. and when once thrown down. de Vaud. subigere. game. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). t° moisten. Prov. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. It. broeck. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. a spinning-wheel. ^raca. In the sense of a thicket. P&. brogille. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. broor bushy place Hal. bush. to The ON. glebas subigere. a harrow. fratto. pasture. to knead or mix up in a mortar. to break. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. cetur. quarry from Fin. a thicket. to brush. to bend a bow. In the case of the ne. any thicket of brakes. murtaa. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. as in Sp. broil. —Bracken. Brake. as in the case of horse-breaking. 3. briser. brak is a frame in which strip. break flax PLD. flachs brechen. to break or fracture. brog or brake. murran. a marsh. . to stiffen against Taboada). breuil. or overthrow of trees by the wind. conSo in G. brambles. G. to bend or direct a cannon. brega. Gr. bushes. marsh or swamp. brook.— . the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. We — . dial. bredza. a fen. brage. —Ovid. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. It may be sus- . to break. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. low wet land bruch. 2. thicket. — Fl. thing is brought under control. broilium. bregar brake. brook. brake. Fr. braeken. a swampy Mid. brego. brambles. the lever by which the string was drawn up. brake. gebroge. brog. in usus braca. brage. to bray in a mortar. braca. gebroge. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. as well as in the case of the e. Pl. a stream. brook. for — Due. Voc. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. to harrow (Lat. Fr. to rub. brcekke. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. bruch. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. marsh. bush. frangere linum. Sp. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. and Lat. cover G. The Fr. gebiisch. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. It. bregille. Fr.D. Dan. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brog above mentioned. gebrUche. bregar. in northern climates. murrokko.. to pound. riguus. a horse's a horse's twitch.

Diez. brarn. Bret. It will be found that shrubs. nasty. AS. . may be so called in analogy with Bret. Fr. to gripe. Thus we have w.G. bretnel. broom. a briery plot. Sir Topaz. or ling. hallier. bushes. bren. to bridle.). brang. . a bud It. broom. Fr. pected that brake. from brand. prufye. pfriemen. apiece orbitbrandone. burning brennen. brank. brog. a bud. Piedm. brenn hesken. is the draff or excrement of the com. brem. iii. or other plants of a like nature. G. . Bret. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Broom. branche. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. a rod or twig. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. But we find It. virgultum. to brank. Serv. heath. from gaggi. a burning fragment of wood. brenn. to -brugen. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. As ON. berneux. Thus in Lat. The naof strain. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. broust. Fr. Bret. brom. Russ. a heath. dirt . A mark made by burning. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. piece of anything. a bud. braeme. brwnt. heath (Bret. brass.. bruk. Dan. brandmurk. It. bit by bit. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. branco. Gael. bruch. Bran. brandello. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. sprouts. brug. to or iron. Rouchi bren d'orMe. in the same sense. brano. Bramble. from Lat. a shoot. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . w. brank. brin. or with It.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. brugek. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . broussaille. breanan. brambles. clutch. excrement. Port. In like hrst. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. sedge burkni. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. bromboli. G. w. i. Branch. a dunghill. — .D. &c. brand. a vine twig Bav. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. Thornas and bremelas. bro7n. bran. pfriem in the sense of an awl. chaff. bren. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. also pfriemkraut. a shoot or twig. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. that is to say. what is cast out as worthless. briars. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . bran. a bridle or bit . brin (as It brano). and waste growths. the branch of a tree. heath. cack. — branca. brancas. brouskoad. Bret. The same form becomes in It. . That beareth the red hepe. branchia. as. young twig {brom-beisser. . brein. brushwood. brenda. bramble Du. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. stink . broembel-CBppel. G. brenna. bruk. gebriiche. . . sawdust. bracken or fern . also a marshy low ground or fen . bruch. pfropf. heath. brosst. brok. and thence a shoot. brake. . is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brug). ear-wax mud. E. brandiiialil. . the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. braam. bronbo. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. from virga. bruk. a firebrand. It. ordure . a single plant of heath. a thick bush. broccoli. breun. Pl. from Servian pnit. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. it glitters — — . as AS. wood composed of twigs. the bull-finch. brejo. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. heath. brughera. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. restrain. constrain. See Brush. titio. Brand. a shrub . Fr. Bav." The bmno a • on . broem. Then by comparison with claws or arms. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. Pl. piecemeal brindelles. bruskoad. thicket of brambles Cot. a halter. Brank. brin d. a shrub from Bret. 2. ground full of briers. and E. cabbage sprouts Fl. heath ON. G. young buisson fort epais. the thorn apple or stramonium. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. a small deri\'ation . a roA. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. compress. Gael. brandr. gebroge. to burn. brous. from brug. —Ducange. breme j Sw. Grisons bruch. So Swiss gaggi. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. snotty .D. 1 8. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. &c. in the sense oi fern. thorns and Gen. Brancare. sweet broom.

to braze or lute. Formerly brandy-wine. Fr. hot Fr. E. bruan. to brandle or The It. E. G. bruire. WaUon. live coals. make a — . ish. With top trimbling. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Guill. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. a round dance. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. eldibrandr. gebrannter wein. not. forms brasil. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Manx bransey. incendium. a stick. to make shine with shaking. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. to make sense of a bright red dye. to roar. a roaring fire.. e. To brase AS. Fr. d'Angl. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Brangle. bryne. to rustle. Braser. from to vociferate. a pan of hot coals. make an outcry. before the discovery of America in the brandir. G. braise. became ashes Pied. to bicker 2nd. the colour than hitherto known. then brandr. to French brawl or brangle. It. braise. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. De Barros considers vinum ardens. To brand. billet. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. comes from thence. splinter. distilled wine. n. in Marsh. to shake. braser. to murmur. Chron. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. to make display . brasa. N. Port. to glisten or flash. brandolare is exbrandish. glowing embers . brus^. Brasil. 59. flagrans. brasca. firebrand. — . also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. briiler.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. bum. In the same way the set on fire . bragia. to brangle. bransella. noise. Fr. braise or hot coals. bransle. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. was in use Fr. Jam. as again by well as the blade of a sword. bresil.^Brandle. brausen. crackle. to totter. firewood.well.pan of coals. bruzi. brush. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. fire-wood. totter. Milan. to confuse. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. to sound of the Fr. branler. Kil. to distil . to solder iron. brazeiro. crackle. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. branla. Lye. — . given to the country. to brustle. The corresponding form in Gael. perplex. shake. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. urens. du Roi et laine. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to and fro in the hand. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. faire fracas. brandiller. bracea. to burn. brin. embraser. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Diez. Fr. branler. prasseln. — . also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. bra?ier. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. brasca. spirit distilled from wine. bracia. to brandle. brastlian. to shake The word brisil. Chron. braza. Brase. stake. put. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. brennen. to quarrel. apparently very distinct from each other. weinbrenner. — ting to confusion. The name Brandy. It. bruciare. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. from used in dyeing cloths. brand. as Jamieson explains it. the spelling to kindle. conbillet. bragale\ wood. or in stick. set on fire. to dash. to shake. to shog. So. all. brangle or brawl in E. is bntan. morsel. brandigh. and branchis shaiand D. to crackle . Fl. brustle. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. as Fr. to hurl with great force. Thus the bound up again. Bailey. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. brasa. De Goes. to burn. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Gris. to Bailey. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Bret. Ija. to blaze. AS. ist. brasil. brandiller. and bruir. Fr. aqua ardens. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. so. plained by Florio. a fragment. brazil. hoisting to the fall. a brusler. brouir. and scold. brandende wijn. It. brane-wood. Sw. to burn. Hume in brand in ON. Du. The tre brangillis. brascct. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. a To Brandish. V. Sw.

D. the buttocks. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . A bretise or bretage is linguarum. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. slakker-bortchen. brettys. a contempt- banner. Brawn. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. cloth. bralle. 1156. G. a lath. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275.96 Roquefort. boutures. ferruminare. a lump.— Braid. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. bartisan. bred. Du. Betrax of a —^Jam. 2. pan- — Rayn. ' A vraale. a. . a slabbering-bib. a contemptuous name for a young child. a rag . the calf of the leg. The same correspondence is seen between It. braion. to shake. —-Jam. a plank or board. discord. bronzacchiare. as criailler of crier. Circumeunt cibertesca. A. to scold . bran.— Fl. from branler. a lump of flesh. a mantle. See Bray. or whether it be from Fr. especially that used in the working of iron . brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. ON. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Florio. Paris. Cot. —^Bronze. AS. bretays). pil. braoilich. slut. See Brandish. to tear piecemeal. trul.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. luncheon. bretesche. bratdn). borderinge. Sup. bras. to copper. A dispute or squabble. bruir. bribe de viande. brailler. flesh of a leg of pork. cob. braiio. So also See Brag. KiL Prov. OHG. a Lap. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. berd. brass. baltresca. Mundart.' BRASS BRAY et AS. bmhon for brado7i. a rag .brettysing. Bailey. Pisana in Mur.— Remade. brazen. bradlete. solder. brandillo. as scrawl from scrabble. buttock Sc. fraiche. in the first instance of boards. then a parapet. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. and bronzo. roar.D. at brasa. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. bronzare. is The word — uous name for a woman. to carbonado. brat. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. braede. as rashers upon quick burning coals. bratid calf of the leg. breyon de kinds of . equivalent to the Du. Brass. braser Fargent. brat. a cloak. esbraotier. a battle-girdle. Wall. Many gambes. as lattice. ship. Jam. brett. Westphal. lat'te. a — A from the confused noise. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a loud noise. Gael. P1. a fortification. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Certainly a little girl. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Sp. Bartizan. Cot. braon. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. or on the top of a wall. squall. The verb is probably derived from the brase. bronze. coassatio. Cologne broden. braodhlach. saillies. brat. Sc.walle — Pr. brdto (ace. slibro. a patch of cloth. strepitus 2. Brave. Math. bas morceau de viande brawhng. A. Pm. brces. bransle.D. slibro {neita. Fr. from Sc. to braze. frequentative of braire. Dan. ^Altieri. The muscular part of the body. any piece. a lump of flesh. Brattice. neita girl). &c. Kil.^ — Sverris Saga. bradon. — . — Deutsch. frame of laths. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.' Hal. a parapet. Fris. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. W. calf of the leg. whether contracted from brabble. Brat. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. bretesque. bratach. to Gael. Lorraine bravon. OFr. branle. For the application to a^child compare Bret. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a wooden tower. bratidone. from Fr. rag. braeye. a rag. Fr. Brangle. A land of dance. ni autres choses sur Due. It . Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. I. bartising. Brawl.— Diez. 368.propugnaculum. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. breteque. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. to talk at bralle op. noise. It. a clout. contignatio. OFr. burning coals. breyon d'chaur. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. 1224. Hist. deblaterare. It. breyon. Swiss bradle. to cry. as a brawling brook. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. apron. le repasser un peu sur la braise. boarding being sbranare. to solder. tasce. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). muscular parts of the body. Fr. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. calf of the leg.

E. AS. a rent. starts crackling up. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. From the or brack in a wall. brage.y. &c. Prov. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. Cat. rattle. D. the miller's dog.ch. to tear Bret. See Brake. breuan. at a braid. the clash of ai-ms Dan. bregar. to knead. and frangere. bregda. to crash. to braid the hair. father. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to roar as the sea. vapna-brak. breach. To Break. G. bratsche. braire. Beryn. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. braea.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. brak.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. baiyl. roar. to smack or the eye. braa. rogi. or cry out loudly . V. a brake for hemp or flax. and make a hideous noise. a crash. to start. appearance Hal. soft . To rub or grind down Sp. &c. relation is seen between Lat. riAprjyvvfu. to resemble. to braid acquires the sense of bend. ON. as the voice of the ass. kind. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov.fracas. 7 . Cot. to bawl. breche. to sound very loud and very harshly. Fr. a rag f . Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. at braga eftir euium. will. broad. ON. to scold. make a disturbance. The same He might don us both a villany. W. with or without a final d. crash. the sword was out break. to braid. Lat. explaining a very obscure application of the E. Goth. i. bragd — ON. to rush. or wound. augnabragd. a breach Cot. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. brice. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. to resemble. is . Gr. the sound — of arms. a mill. bray. to work up in a mortar. and fracasously.' To Bray. Prov. to roar. bragr. instantane. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to have the lineaments of one's ON. disturbance. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. bragd is also applied nets. paste or dough. — koa. to roar or bellow. e. to N. broyer. The ON. to the seijauntes. Q. to break. V. . rustle. roar. on. braidir. ing. bregar. paxog. yell. a wink. resound . crackle . Fr. as OE. Bread. crash. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. And at a braid he gun it bende. Fin. cyprinus latus. noise . Chaucer. twist. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. Bret. in Jam. bruire. regi. I'll live and die a maid. bradar. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to crash. as the notion of turning crack. to braid. D. brand. Then. to cry out. bruzir. Bread. a brack. ser.ear rog. to break. weave The ON. at once. brot. to rumble. abraid. braidar. brame. upbraid. brechen. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. to bellow. verb to break. which has given much trouble to commentators. gestus. to pretend. Breach. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. 145.. braa. to bray in a mortar. brugier. to rub Fr. rangere. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to break. k. The Lat. R. ybrayid. &c. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. to snatch.g. F. to t. imitate or resemble one. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to resemble him. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. father. brak. ^p&xia. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. — . plait. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. G. . To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. crepo and E.^ Fr. D. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. Bailey. R. braid. 2. Du. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. . Dunbar braessem. fractus j Gr. to The cup was uncoverid. fish. OE. Wal. a . Chaucer. Swiss bratschig. V. &c. to cry Port. Ppvxia. to cry out. turn. fragor. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to bray like an ass. yell. to break Fr. mos. brikan. and to signify the fracture itself. bru. — — — explained motus loud noise. Then is simply.

einem de britze geven. point to G. G. /esses. of trees. brasiuiii. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. bremse. a smack. — . body brostia. Rom. braies. brodel. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. braga. cloven. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. to brew. trembling. drawers. to crush to break. met de bridse slaan. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. Prov. and E. to bray. representing the sound of a blow. a box. w. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Fr. a cold and windy mist or frost . brimsa. braux. E. brache. Isidore and Tatian. burst. properly to crackle. a cramp-iron for holding things together. rubbish. as. as commonly explained.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to fry . braca. switch. bratscher. breinse. brezzare. to bind. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. It. The Breech (Prov. sprouted corn. brut. corresponding to G. from AS. bre- I'os qui bresole. Hence the Lat. brossi!. may be from the wurh fesser. fitzen. to burst. singing bone. briig. a twitch for a horse. Bruise. dial. Fr. orts. murmur—Vocab. bretilles. brissle. grill. chilly. murmur. brew. Dev. fail. We bragezj on. braich. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. braguier. binding. simmering. Swiss Rom. Hume in Jam. so AS. Gl. . — Brist. Swiss brdtsch. brumtnen. brasiare. zare. Swiss AS. brcekur j It. rubbish. briosa. brosame. sheep's droppings bruss. the breech or buttocks. E. an odour. Gael. broden. bruzun. Breeze. Prov. remains of leaves. Breast. braga. to rattle (as hail). brok. grillen. — See Broth. breeze. coaldust. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. noise. Du. applied to shivering. britze. with It. to whip. . Fr. are in like manner ' . braies. briiz. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. brustia. but more probably the E. PI. brire. siibligar.D. brise. bryi^ga. — — strument for smacking. . bragues. Du. malt. and other rubbish dibris. Breeches. Breeze. brusc.). a gadfly. ./ssus. are related to Prov. malt. then to broil. i5r(Z^. Compare OE. brinisa. a crum. brciz. brezza. . briosa. or the blow itself.t. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. to be misty and cold. to feize or feaze. subligaculum. one on the breech so that (klatschet). brezling. forms analogous to E. clout for a child. brison. brijselen. breost. braca. bris. morsel. brist. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. also to chill and shiver with cold. G. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. broza. a cool wind. G^nev. — And blood. to brew. —Briss. brisciare. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. Sw. &c. little bits of wood Berri briser. — . Briss and buttons. Dtyden. de Vaud. as. bra. brcEth. braucn. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . bris.'— Gl. See Brick. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. as in the case of twitter. G. brdtschen. to roast. forms. bruise. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. Lat. a horse's twitch. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. to breech. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches.98 borst. de bridse geveii. to shiver for cold. braia J OFr. braciarc. simmer. from ligare. an into shiver. as the G. Originally probably the word signified steam. brijsen. xyligogio castigare.vare. peitschen. to crackle. break. G. bandage or truss for a rupture. Brize. to resound. Bracha. and brought beneath between the legs. breath. Breath. Fris. their stings draw . the soler. breme. chillness or shivering.britschen. brimme. to fry Then from a Gl. to break. briosat'. to smack. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. bris de charbon. Bret. brisoler. Piedm. griller. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. Goth. . to murmur. instead of being derived from 'La. to simmer. a girdle. Bret. bruc. bresilles. bark Fr. The Teutonic verbs. a to lay fly-flap. as by the Sc. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. vapour. to buzz. brisd. To Brew. Du. Gl. fastening . braie. windy withal. the dry spines of furze broken off. broil. brugga. bridsen. the bust. Dan. Piedm. AS. Breeze. Du. of straining. brodem. crush. trusts. b}-as. OFr. bracecs . Gael. G. QNtsterviald) pritschen. Russ. Lat. polenta. brasser. scent. grillare. broiiwen. So ON. of E. breson. from brace. AS. briste. to hum. a crum Du. — Halma. bruzir. in Schilter. Biglotton.

At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. AS. pavement brolegge. the marriage si in brigata. brigantine. bruarium. Brier. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a crum. fraoch. braut. bricou. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. priod-ferch. a proprietor. Cot. ap. bride. from the Normans. ' — . In the G. with transposition of the r. brA. to circulate.. groom (mab=:son). birbante. company. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. bryd-gutna. bably contracted from brigantine. bryd-eale. brigade. to pave brukkti. then the marriage itself. a wedding priod-fab.rough with brambles and bushes. a lump of bread. imprint. feast. a lump of bread briber. boiling up brocoliere. masted vessel. See Broth. bruith. Pol.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. especially to a letter or command. brug. Priodi. to pave. So in The Prov. but probably Bricoteau. a fragment. a briole. consort with. . E. . a boiling. of burial. breve or brevis. — . AS. fit. bricge j G. Dan. graf-ol. BRIGADE dead. brittil. E.It. has briguer. buckler J ON. fragment. collect bits of food. brughiera. brasser. is still used in this sense. briicke. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. a beggar. E. Neumann. to tlie brico. Gael. a heath brughera. feast of espousals.groom. . brar. brocaly. Bridge. briwo. peculiar. twopares Lat. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. fervere. A bribe is A — — arval. brakes of high-grown ferns. Goth. heath. buskins. bretonica. bro. . to boil. from the last 99 of which. division of an army. a bride. Gl. one's ovin.privatus. The origin of the word is the w. thick appropriated. the newly. Hdcart.bergantino. bygga. In E. broken bread. bribour. pavement. married. from Bret. barren land priodas. to boil. bro. guma. bo. AS. ment of anything broken. grug. httle bit. brilt. to press. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. as so. a rogue . and ODu. W. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. Hence OE. broosekens. Lang. . a rogue. a quoit of stone. Flor. sugga. ibrukkti. crew. a Bride. Brigade. . to appropriate. — — — — — — . berwi. malt. ter-in-law. fastningar-ol. a sow. The Sw. two-masted vessel. nurus G. to press in. Fr. to Isrew. a heath. OHG. Lat. as. brice. daughheath. w. bruskr and buskr. piece of burnt clay. betonica. bruk. AS. bro is applied not only to a bridge. bread. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. If the foregoing were not so clear. ' . Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Brief. brieden. broken. the Fr. bribe de pain. stone-bridge bnikkoti. priod. conjux. Ihre. bulicame. Brique. to boil. a brig or priodor. brukkas. from bit. and berweddu. birbone. AS. son. sponsa. in the sense of OSw. Rouchi brife. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. Bribe. to meet together. OSw. frayer. In the patois of briccia. a little king's writs. brood. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. which however is undoubtedly from brace. a married man guma. Diefenbach com. Thom. Due. Ducange. bara briw. G^n^v. a lump of bread. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. to break to pieces bricalio. beaten way Dan. . of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. arf-ol. a cheat. Pro(merch=:maid). pier. brere. Bridal. Fl. bridge. brigata. Fr. ON. appropriate. briw. briiths. So It. jipaaaiii. bruk. a crum. Diez. Grisons bruch. bruyere. brahi. corresponding or letter. to rub. a bride Brig. betony brulicame. Gael. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. Bridal. bidsel. privus. served (Patois de Bray). whence berw. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. hlafes brice. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. a man. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . funeral. Du. the equivalent of to the dial. any jot or crum. malt. brique de pain. broken victuals. Trovarfor bride-ale. remarkable that the Gr. lipdZu}. or brizo. It — is Kil. owned also propriate. Brick. bitill. pavement Lith.gfiugga. troop. It.pritil . a married man or woman Lat. to prepare.Fr. berwedd. brau. . Mid. gf2o. Fr. and that from It. — . AS. to break. bridelj OHG. Walach. but to a paved road. brutg. a fragment. bride. to beg one's bread. it is applied to the letter to OE. Sp. E. . Brewis. It. Applied ous words derived from break. to stamp. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. A — A — . from Bridegroom. brygga. jetty. a bit. Bridle. to brew. a bush.

a glittering.D. brebrigare. clear. brdgen. See Brake. in the first instance. noise. — Brigantine. OHG. From ON. squamma . and hence be explained glampi.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. to contend with another. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. brawl. a noise. and the E. — Beowulf. bryhtm.dorem clarum reflecto. dine. Bright. It.Lat. Wilista. — brigante. to glitter. there are many armour. shriek with laughter. In Fin. Beorktode bene sweg. It. may play the pirate or thief at sea. and secondly. glamm. tuilahtaa. splendour. glamra. AS. dine. jurgia. Adelung. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. with respect either to sound or colour. A strepere. outcry. inde squammatus. a pirate. loo BRIGAND lor. clarus. clare lucens. strife. beorht. in the sense of a robber. — Briganbriga.— . to ring. the bench-notes resounded.' in Due. to glamr. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. 1654. a sound. Heo — song That AS. Swab. tinkle. brigare. the gleeman's song. Brilliant. Xa/iTTii). willata. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Bav. representing a sudden noise. — brigante. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . — — . cange has 'Veles. clear sound. and. splendour.clare ^tinniens. . a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. then. Flor. sound. a brigantine. the grew high. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. to bend a bow It. tion. etincelle. and ner me hit iherde. and to associate with them. glitter. tumult. brigan. It. — A A . 1351. rover either by sea or land. on his — own account. and diligence. clear. The E. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. bray. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. that of Fr. to shine. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. bracht. twinkling. biartr. Brigand. to cry 'Schmid OE. Schmeller. speech. brigandare. briegen. manifest ON. schiteren. to reservavit. Gr. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. — Due. Du. schateren. to piracy. glbram. transparent. clear. \oice. Mid. Goth. briga.glampa. brigant. brcEhtin. at a later period. riis ' — Chron. a spark. secondarily. rixa. XafXTTpoQ. pugna.' torum.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. It. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. labour.pracht. Gall. seems to be to exert force gar el area. from hall. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . In the same way to strive is. bragen. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. moment. to rove. kii:'a. and led it away. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . — Probably then to strive. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. to cry. is easily understood. splcnornd de brigandine. Owl and beorhtian. Due. bright bearhtm. clang.' The passage from the sense of a light. and. to shine. The primary meaning of Sp. himself to serve men of merit. to resound. to sound. tinnitum clarum movco. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. briga. to shift for with care. malandrini. 312.' The sense of strife or combat express. tinnitus. show the origin of Lat. bregar. in later times a robber or highway-man. also called briganders. hell. glir. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. splendens . clangour. They or brigantini. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. a small light pinnace pro. to rob. lay was sung. . Lat. brigare. Brigata. brak. So G. kilistua. wilella. —Capgrave. bairhts. A. necessary business. The Ir. braid. praht. to strive for. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Florio. to make a loud noise.shine. combat.

spraing.ioTiviS acutus. brastlian. brillare. ardere desiderio. gresiller. dial. to burn. pMiller. the lap or bosom. rugire. — . to shine. bramar. glit. to fret . The E. fire. from bringe. to . have then in Fr. brandr and Fr. burning stone. to creak. Langtoft. lap of a garment . as well as bl and gl. komista. a border. reecho. Sc. chime). — — So Fr. Rugere. brezil. : ' — bone). briller. from brandr. the sow is brimming. grullo. lip of a vessel.D. 1 1 64. margin. grisler. an apron. to glitter. the heat of animals. Streaked. crackle . small gravel. griller d'impatience. brinfire. Hence with an initial s. to sound deep or hollow. Brimstone. to crackle. sprainged. bramire. voux. to parch. Fr. s. edge Pol. perent. grisser. sparkle. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. is used of raging. vattubryn. Brem. crackle. bar. Lith. Said of swine when in heat. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. cross-barred in colour. also to reflect. brummen : de soge brummet. to twinkle. to utter cries.preni. barmr. Brim. border. brimmen. a long. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. AS. to quaver with the voice. broil . s. to storm. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. briller. ON. to long for a thing. griller). post. Wtb. barm-cloth or barmskin. Du. a stick. to roar. Dan. breziller. that the original meaning of the Sc. brissle. brim Magy. of the eye. Tresiller. bremmen. vigorHal. or violent action. and corresponding to these. to broil. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. border. identical with passion. to roar. bremas. the edge. bray as an ass bramire. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. G. to make bilbil). brow of a hill. bramer. fimbria) . — — — . a rod. the singing of Sodom — — . Sw. Fl. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. — Rim.— BRIM . to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. with an initial br instead of gr. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. beam. earnestly . gresiller. striped or streaked. breziller. It. to sparkle. burning. 754. Kil.its vent in cries and roaring. fringe (Lat. kajata. ous. kiimottaa. brand-krossottr. noise made by meat in broiling. Swiss Rom. ON. greedily to covet Cot. Sc. excited. grdzil. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Thus Lat. bry7ie. brumft. brdnnsten. — g. whence bilbil-goda (literally. hence the bosom. to shake. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. 154. . breme. brullo. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. shine. bremmen. bresoler (Gloss. Prov. der. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. leonum). as in Langued. Closely connected is OE.— Brinded. as of meat in broiling . brunft. kimista. 1. parched. barm. to glitter . brommen. To Brim. brummen. A . . surface of the ocean. . In the same way Sw. lap. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. bryn. border. to make a crackling noise. The meaning of the Fr. rugire (cervorum. Subo. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. a streak. It.' Elyot in Way. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. coloured in stripes. to glitter distance . E. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. os qui bresole. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). AS. brama. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. originally the lap folding over the breast. komottaa. to crackle. Tutschek. the heat of animals. to shine. kimina. brame. breme. brmdottr. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. sonitum edere bremen. which seems identical with rim. tience. griller. rym^. whether of desire or anger. In Fr. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. as is the case also with Pl. to shimmer.). finds the Fr. The identity of ON. bramar. The expression is now confined to the sow. to shine. glisten. brim. and 1. brame. the verbs Flor. the meaning is transL' amour. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. ON. Dief. the eye-brow.' d'etre marie . brisoler. clangor tinniens. on. fringe . to resound. kommata. to wish or covet. fierce. Brindled. FJ. Supp.) brimi. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. furious. ling noise and a sparkling light. kimmaltaa. brant. (poet. ter. frequently interchange. Rayn. brennistein. It. to creak. ring. greDiet. a borDu. rut. briller (related to each other as OFr. broiled.

Lat. brimme. Liquamen vel garum. of E. sprout. to crack. — A . brisk in taste. Da. Bohem. See Spread. See To Brim. bricho (with the diminutives. birse. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. to spur. to begin upon it. to break. Cot. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. a button broche. . brezzare. or — . setting the hair on end compare It. sticking up . a rod or twig. borst. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. as a noun. — in Due. brockle. bristly . brich. is to erect the hair. a bud. quick. brusque. brisciare. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. harsh vin brusque. 222. britar. broca. The Pl. a deluge. a slip or sprig of an herb . Berri. . — — . a cold and windy mist or frost. the brisket or . rebursiis. brocco. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. brcit. borzen. from brande. — bryme. . to scorch. a skewer. brissko). . It. prick with Sw. G. reburrus. bringue. brust. to set it a going. Swiss to stand out . bringe traced through the brano. Formerly written brotil. broccare.' Nat. Bristle.. . Brym. angry. crabbed. a stormy brimsea . Sw. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. a brad or tack. bruskett. Walach. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). ribrezzoso. is called a birssy day. and Sc. Russ. fantas'* tical. the surf. to broach a business. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. . from AS. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brocar. It. It. briocho. grim. bruckle. brickie. brindelles de balai. a morsel . like the Broad. a rebours. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague.). Abroacli. and. rash. brot. brissle. birssy. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. /3pE^m.. craw of a bird. Brooch. brocher. Sp. Fr. or the full • . fiscbryne. bringe. bryne. to put one in a rage . — .). bros. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. a fragment. a bit . brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. brimhliod. brezza. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. trembling. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Dan. Ptg. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. hot-tempered. Breeze been connected with the Sc. brin. broche. britar. breast. bruched (Fr. Pectusculum. bronchus. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. Fr. to stab Gael. from break. borzos (struppig). Palsgr. rebrousser. emotions which produce it. to birstle. coli. to stitch. 'V^. Brittle. as. braidsj ON. a peg sbrocco. smart taste. ' . a brooch. Prov. fierce. roar of the sea saltr. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. brocchus. to spur. Boh. metaphorically. brichet. an awl. Brisket. Mid. whence may be explained the Sc. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Gr. as. Du. breaking of the waves brim sior. a clasp. suddenly angry. Fr. Bret. humorous. and hence. byrst. shoot. to break. to roar. broca. brytan. wine of a sharp. has under It. a spit. a bud. breaking out into growth. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. to break. flame. as unripe fruits. spricka. aculeus. Compare also E. Bret. sprocco. Brocade. fragile. saulmeure. of astonishment. as.procio.g. b. Zeuss. sour. brddj Goth. to thrust. brim. setting the hair on end. Hence ribrezzare. a morsel.rcendij'i. broccata. startling. to burn. brioshko. britchet. bresk. brog. ruffling. brittle. NE.D. to spit. a belly. Brisk. brusco. thick — A elastic hair. brodden. Lat. Prov. Russ. man's throat. to bud. Hal. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. ON. broc. brote. to turn up the point of anything. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. briota. Sc. Du. bryde. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. cK) the . a crum. a shoot or sprig. to shoot. a projecting tooth It. spur. Fr. to broil. form bris. strong itself. Salte sand is called brimsand. birsle. Antiq. brusk. Commonly explained as from Fr. Fr. birstle. bros. the twigs of a besom. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. brijn (Kil. against the grain . chest. Then as the effect of shivering. birs. expression. Port. Fr. stitch. Alfr. Prov. brime. Sc. sprouts. eager. apt to break. briser. brim. In the N. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. It. breidr. p. a stitch brocher. brandello.'— Vita'abbatum S. i. Fris. very salt brimi. brittle. sharp. e. Brickie. to set up one's birse. lively. brim (poet. rude. ' breast. to shiver for Sold or for fear. Gl. Brine. to goad. brocciare. briota. are used in the sense of brittle. borstel. to stick. the surf. See Brand. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. flames. brocco. and forms on.

Thus brod. tufted ornaments. a peg. brucach. brusuole. birsle. prod. ToBroider. Gael. brullare. badger . brasbrasciuolare. Hal. creak. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. From direct imitation of Brock. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. bruler. Here to ornament with needle-work. knobby . is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to burn. Contracted from Fr. breard. to streaked or speckled in the face. freckled. 103 embroidered. speckled. parti-coloured. bawling. streaked. Ihre has guU-bord. dar seems derived from borde. a quarrel. broglio. v. margin. brasolare. whence broccare. brerd. embroidery. It. A badger. to prick. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. broighlich. . ciare. Gael. a b?-ustolare. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. or It. sting. to On the other hand the Sp. frocadura. the shoot of corn. . gold and silver. agree in being the extremity of a thing. blusters. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. — . to spur. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. brodio. age was termed a pricket. Fr. trouble. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. Broker. broccuto. broder. initial . braird. Dan. Fr. a prick. a fallingThe sense has been out. bordo. silkes-borda. a point. to scorch. thread. brizen. frecSee Brawl. broil. parch. to instigate. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. briz. to burn. Cot. to crackle. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. bmsciare. brooked. Sc. brychau. parti-coloured. Icnotty. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . a confused streaked face of the animal. an edge. broccato was used to signify stuff . somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. froco. a To Broil. grullo. noise. brocach. trouble. broud. Sp. kled breac. a brecJi. from the white. broice. prasseln. or glowing coals broged. border. border ornamented with silk. brasiller. or roast on the braise. bustling. Cot. Fr. Compare G. with Sc. a flake of snow sion. AS. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. forming to jumble. Surrey in R. the line of development has been something different. here. bram. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. onbryrdan. brustle. B. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. brocart. gresiller. brouda. borprick. Grisons brascla. b?-od. a border. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. sparks E. tori shows that. E. piebald . to darn. and AS. brych. Compare also AS. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. a brouhaha. to crackle.— B. point to an origin in Bret. Ptg. brastlian. to knots or loops. storms. to crackle. Bret. to crackle. a freckle. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to boss. to embroider. broukit. a border ornamented with gold. or salted fish on coals. to stud broccoso. — The proper sense is that of Fr. Brocket. speckled. or snag. To roast upon hot coals. houx. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. A fried or boiled steaks).sound. Florio. noisy. hart of two years old. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. — Gower in It. brucilare. broil. ornamented with a raised pile. to embroider. hurly-burlies. brusler. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. — Fl. embroidering. bordar. — brissle. The ON. broiled. brindled. precisely analogous to the Sc. R. grislement. So from Pol. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). to crackle as a shell in the fire. fundamental origin. brasiller. a freckle. It of br the Fr. The Bret. — — . stump.. Sc. spotted. scorch. confound. briefh. broc.. It. bramowanie. to parch or broil. to broil. bj'oil.tumultuous. brocco. and w. rinj'. tumult broighleach. carbonado. of pointing out their latent defects. and bord or bred. q. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. brouFr. a brim. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. brod. W. motes. rustle. brasuole. spots. parched. has grisser. atoms . shuffle. a badger. a mole. broc. a flock or Gael.

spittle . . et A. and to reject the damaged and unsound. fermenting. bronze. a breach or flaw. whence the modern courtier. to reject. to braze. damaged. sunburnt. to sort brakovanie. slaae vrag paa. tussis. a makeln. cracker. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. briiten. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to blame. brae. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. The Langued. Bronzare. from break. insects. — a spark. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. an operation performed over hot coals.D. brack. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. to — garble. analogous to Bohem. fault censure. brasa. To correct an exercise is to Lib. bredan. Per manus et old worthless horse. brak. to sparkle. to hatch. 38. : ' .) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. Alb. blur. refuse wares. G. brasa. Pro v. to pro- to reject . brass does to Sp. dirty. dial. to sit on eggs. braeck goed. bric-a-brac. wreak. raca. find fault with. On • tliis principle the G. matter of blame weak place. S. Du. sbrinzlar. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. e. brackefi. cherish. racher. has exactly the force of G. the spawn of fishes. vile. lack. and as an adj. bracker. Russ. abbronzanchiare. . filth. Dan. to pick. brunds. try . embers to brund. buy and sell by commission. to throw blame upon. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. . couratier. refuse goods. the young of any animal . selection.D. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. which E. to roast on the embers. try out. stain. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. braken. merchandises de rebut G. mud. refuse. pan metal. a broker. a chicken. refuse brakowad. bronzo. to brew. — Fl. in which sense the OHG. to scorch. to hatch G. See Wreak. want. brack-gut (Sanders). bronze. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. w. . brut. bridde. inspection.— Lib. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. brod. Sp. but from the primary sense of the It. racaille. to sort goods . hrak. to nourish. brak. fish-spawn broden. brieden. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. to pick and choose. . — point out the faults. brwd. damaged. nounce unsound. — broeden. an . rejection Pol. . keep warm. bronze. refuse. brid. ODu. to be hot.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. It may be compared with It. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. brokoti. See Brackish. raquer. and fishes . Lat. make out. This word shows the same relation to It. Bronze. 396. i. wraken. whnake. glowing coals. brokas. Fl. — . from makel. Prov. Fr.D. Abbronzare. find fault — — — fuse matter. brack-gut. brydio. Grisons brinzla. In the . wrak. designation is indkler. brot. If to vomit . Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. as. term was correcfo^ir. goods damaged by sea-water. Sc. The use sunburn. trumpery. to garble. a cough Hal. criticise (makeln). In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. • . to . Brood. find fault with. with. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. to copper. For the same reason the Kiittner. to be wanting. Alb. brechen. sort. a fault. tan. Du. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. to criticise. Kil. to hatch. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. bring eggs and spawn into active life. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. on. to emit sparks. Pl. brod. Jam. refuse Fr. broen.— — . vile. cast Lith. G. hot. G. phlegm. an outcast or rejected sheep. OFr. reject. warm. In those countries the term braker. Adelung. broiid. mediationem quorundam J. burning. faulty. embers. progeny of birds. hot. See Broth. abject. correctarius. Pl. in the sense of rejection. Pl. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. Bret. brokers' goods. To blame mens ware. a brood . rejected. refuse brakovat. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. brakyne. Tooke's Catherine.D. to spit . corrector. wrack-good. embers. or brascla. screatio Junfus . brands. inspect. Teutonic class : Du. brumo. ordure. It. ON. bronce. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. spittle.— Breed. hraki. vrage.

Limousin broudi. and It. bruno. as small-pox. Browse. brushbroccoli. heat. and Slavonic families. a shore. cabbage soup . Lat. to border. verge. w. brus. Mid. sodden. It is Brother. Fr. a little house or cottage of timber. . (for brodem). G. break out brewet. or broken up . brwd. BROOK brook w. Serv. briu. . grow brossa. briar. shoots. eye-brow. Gael. sproc. &c. a river. Du. a little . brau. AS. broth the ocean Sw. vigour. bank. Fr. Ppim. Dan. Catalan brossa. The softening down of the consonant bud. brun. brdtaj Gael. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. forms appear related to the Ir. &c. brozia. brad. bryn. shore. broieii. braces. broth is sometimes used . 105 Brook. spuma. brio. heath. or bushes and scrubby growths. bruceti. Russ. See Bramble. AS. bruithim.D. margin. on. buds. bryii. rerum decoctarum. bruddeln. brosses. brous. a spring. useful G. bank. surface of Broth. breg. hut. sprot. circuindedit cum familia. brukjan. sprocco. bushes. dialects is very different. — . eat. briihe. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. to spring . It. brpuster. on. brd. perhaps burnt coloilr. of plants broust. frater. to murmur. a . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brotar. pith. Gris. to Pl. sordes seu strigmata young branch. Gael. broit. to use bruks. was originally used in the innocent sense of . a hut or cottage It. bntdien. branches. brstiti. brogues. Roquef. borde. pottage. juice of meat. bruc. breg. brauwe. warmth ch'an. brew . Kil. a sprig. simmer from the murmuring AS. w. broth brothaire. low The AS. bor. vigour. broca. to browse. bruith. heat explaining the Prov. broeye. &c. fur Broom. edge. brouskaol. brass. pfriemkraut. The AS. sense the Sc. bordeau. broth. brue . borda. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. a derived from the boards. edge. to use. Sc. thick bush brousta. . — . Gael. boiled . eye-lash . broo. strength Ir. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. brennen. border. shoot. plants composed of twigs. broza. OHG. frui. steam from heated bodies. a bud. Ger. riviera. OHG. shore . Bret. bruscosd quam de arabili. to roar. rage. brouet. brushbrothas) gives the OE. t— Cot. cia. eye-lid. waves. brewis. bryn. kail brose. from ripa. broth Brown. brmi. sprout. brosses.) . a confused noise of winds. strength. bruich. to browse. shrub with leafless pointed edging. broden. Brow. wood . may be connected with Russ. awl-plant. chen. bank. or shoot. eye-lid. G. hot. heath. bregh. eminence . Due. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. bruth.' Due.— Overyssel Almanack. Gr. spirit. A — . broc. Bohem. G. . Commonly Teutonic. a bruth. frucius. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. bree. brodem. . braussa. hovel.brink. augen-braune. a shrub broust. brouic. brotar. a sprout. . maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Tam de terrS. Wtb. . bruitheati. broem bark. brabruach. brow. Sp. infusion. eye-brow. G. bros. brudi. bordel. broth. — exiit et heath. brink. ceales briw. to boil. the bubbling or springing up of water. eye-brow. broi. ale . brost. and Sc. from Goth. Du. brothas. protecting the eye. . to boil. Prov. broud. bratrj Lat. But the Walach. grow into a bush. to boil. shrubs. brow of a hill. brouser.brons. a source Gael. Russ. . surDu. iVlanx broogh. The origin is a re. face. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. Cot. laissent Domunculum. braun. and also border. It. bhratrj Zend. pour boiling water over. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. juniper. It. sap. to shoot. signifying twigs. bros. Gael. Pl. breh. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Brothel. house of ill fame. of which the variety of forms. juice of briars. bruach. riviere. sprouts . the colour of things burnt. brost. Sp. Manx broie. Sanscr. to scald. enjoy Goth. b7-un. bank. . browys. infusion the barley bree. has briw. Celtic. Pol. Bohem. OFr. brosst. as Fr. Prov. cabbage water. Bohem. a caldron. braew. Fr. a bud brous-koad. brawdj Slavon. . — ' . breg. bruich. properly boiling water briihen. eye-brow. who is steaming with sweat. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. Bret. to bear patiently. brouches. Fr. brodo. mettle. Here we find throughout the Romance. to boil bruithe. brouter. . brst. bud. to sprout. . sprout.. To digest. brucan. . signifying low wet land (Brem. G. &c. . to use. noise. to burn. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. as rhododendrons. Bav. . (which is barely pronounced in Gael. 'Lzt. dumetum. thicket. brov. meal. a hill. thairj w." Serv.spross.D. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . fabric consists. seethe. brlgh. brusmalt. in which brinnan. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. a hill.braubiti. Fr. to bubble up with noise. brocco. broccola.

burt. brossa. wood composed OE. modification of the same root which gives the E. brist j Port. Pm. to break to bits . impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. crush. splinters. OE. borste. bruscolo. shock. brist. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. brosst. twig. briiis (in the pi. Gael. Gael. bruzir. to break or burst.). Port. bruit. brust. brista) or breaking out . . Pr. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . brusca. p. Fr. it schall be al Sw. shivers. rubbish. break. borste. also a head-brush. . borste. bris. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. AS. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. bruc. rods. Bruise. Allit. to crush.). flax-comb brossettes. as It. dust. Cot. bud. mg Cat. Poems. and in the second place a besoiB. a bud or sprout Bret. heath. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. . . — OE. brizeto. Cot. dust. Piedm. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Fr. Prov. Hall in R. a brush . and It. brMt. a brush . and sighid therewithal. brusco. rubbish. Piedm. a bud. to brush. a brush . a briser. The same relation holds good between G. effort. broza. — Fr. Lang. wool-card. And that best is. brus. fasx . the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. It. brusg. of twigs. a brush . It. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. brisar. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. wool-card. tuft of grass or hay. fescue . a flax comb. biirste. bruskr. bricalio. * Brunt. borst. and also Brush. a brush. brottcher. ling or heath for brushes. B?-usske. or sodenly comyn' dust. brisd. wool-card. a bristle. Sp. Prov. G. brossa. fragments. a noise. and Piedm. ca7-bo>i. Text Soc. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. brosse. 134. E. a little brizal. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Gael. 174. . biirste. Sw. a — — (Agea) said. quisquilise. tremely. broza. an enmy. borste. blow burcar. . to butt. a mote. brosst. bushy ground. Fr. ON. brusca. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish.— Palsgr. remnants of hay or fodder. quasi twigs. broust. field. bruscolo. brosse. brikan. —Chaucer. briketo. Bav. On the other hand. brico or brizo. brysan. Pr. brunt. brusc (Diet. Broach. into a multitude of points. Lang. brik. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface.— — i. brist. orts.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. brit. escousse. brustia. Palsgr. Sw. bruyere. a horse-brush. to break. coal See Breeze. bruire. — a bush. borste. brise. abroncar. Gael. to break. Pm. Pr. K. That in all haste he wouli. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. or shoot. brusco. In E. To brush then would be to dust. The Bav. a brush. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. dust. bris. bruise exOFr. brossar. to cleanse. . bruiser. NE. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. broken. seems named from burst(on. E. a bush of hair. Wicliff. Brunt of a daunger. dust. Fr. Beryn. Prov. Castr. bush. to make brusshes on. a brush Swiss bruske. a crum. chips. brous. Fr. shoot brouskoad. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. bris. — those signifying a sprig. brous. britar. a blow. Diez. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. broustia. brustia. It. bruscia. G. to stumble. rubbish. Bruit. to make a rumbling. appearin Goth. insultus. sordes.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Prov. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. desbrisar. a tuft of heath . britar. irruo. The Lat. bruito. brushwood. Pr. brousso. a bristle. 201. a rumbling. See next article. Fl. Alexander. twig. —Fabyan. a shrub composed of small twigs . Brush. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. OFr. crum bit . brugir. A. burs. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. and actually come in collision. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. detergere . briser. a brush. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bris. bross. insilio. Brunt. brustid.). are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. E. brist. bruis (sing. bross. Bret. and . to strike the foot against an obstacle.

top. bublati. bduclien. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. . Fr. a steep for flax. The natives of Florida. bugd. tap . rap. bouk. different form. March 28. Magy. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bouc. to soak foul linen before washing. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bubbola. Cot. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. blast or strike with the forehead. to stick. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. a hole. 1586. to murmur. . Etym. w. because bucare does not in Marsh). from colar. bube. bokni. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. I. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . erweichen. Dan. caned' Hence those who established them. lye. BUBBLE bruschetta. boh. — — ' A : ' ' . pokka7na. colada. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. ac. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. was called in Fr. to strain. a. maban and baban. it is beuchen. The term bocan is still ap. a bubble. wood.' Palsgr. buchen. soft It. lye. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. and Fr. boc. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. Pol. faire la lessive. News. Pref A. bub. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. bifbel. Esthon. the upper for coifee. Bohem. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. In G. buerj It. . of wind. and the bunch. soft. a bubble. Fr. to filter. soft . The male goat. designation of a knob. to wet Pol.to allow a free current of air. and as a verb. This bubette. . to soften . at a door. thunder gently . Sp. Bret. Sp. mollire. to soak. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti.steep or soak.tare. a to the male deer. bubseti. The cipally on the Spaniards. .derivation has been much discussed.wet Lat. set of pirates in the spread. molle. to butt.biiken j Svi. bukke. It. drying of produce.buchen. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. a bubble . bucquer. bugada. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. It. and exercised their cruelties prin. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. buck-ashes. Bubble. tender. pup. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. See Dupe. 17th century. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. open lath-work. also applied Una. in which the flesh dish. Pol. .' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. or mok. bubiti. Sc. tender. knock. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. watery bud. . The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. moist. to bump as a bittern.-wtt miekki. tuft. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. . does not hold. bwch. when soap was tion is commonly taken. or projecTo Buck. It. to a place used for the mouillir. From an imita. to soften. not so plentiful a commodity. — . mieknad. Bohem. as G. mote. hump. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. as a buck rabbit.boukaat. bub. Diet. buck-ashes. Fr. byge. bubauti.lessiver. The place of such a 2. buquer. Gael. Illust. to soften. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. de la Floride. buborek. boil animals. a knock word. a ashes. bucking. bog-aske.— . from weich. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Bret. soft. was called bucking the linen. says Laudon. very generally designated by the same puk. hump. A . and as in and b so often infor cocoa. — . blister. is 1. a push.D. 1857. to buck. bucata. mokry. But see Bristle. the first wheal. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. bucaIndies. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. boc. to soak. bubBuck. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. plied in the W. the linen at buck. The word was very generally Buccanier. a fescue. Fin. The name. a. to butt. Formerly. pukkata. to butt or jurr Dan. to which in their language they call bou. w. buquer. boucaner. hog dressed whole). and then to other wild tumour Lith. to Gael. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. Magy. to bubble. soft. moczyd. who resorted to the islands beichen. the lower soak in lye. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr.byka.

. bucolicus. The Fr. bulais daqui. botzen. to boss or swell out G. So on. buachazlle. bougette. where the G. bouclier. dinted. ein. bod. a small shallow and open tub. don't stir from hence. weich. Prov. a bubble three thyngis. bougette. Du. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. crack. is doubtless fallacious. pote. bump. as in Fr. no business to do that. above mentioned. budge. set of a plant in bulk. a shoot. II I'a feru desor I'escu. bul.r//'. . . . boucler. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. Wtb. trunk of wood covered with leather. dint . boqueranmis. prick in a target. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. clump. to word. pulga.. Bav. a pustule bout. knob dwfr yn boglynu. knock. protuberance. to stir.' And this sacrament bus have dial.stuff.t-le!L{ * Bud. a cowherd. See Bulk. Pied. is to shrivel up.' Schm.goa. Behoves. . a trough). boccula. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. don't a baby). bloca. bugnir. bo. bog and G. It. OHG. bouton. a buckle or protuberance. no wheel bogeilio. boiling. potz. lump. Fr. bulb. . boaLat. the word w ' — . boulj. need. or male of to boil . Hence quel. Prov.n. Sp. from bo. w. — — . words is converted into b. pwt o Fr. to un bout d'homme. pwtio. inboachen. boss of a shield. butzen K. a bud. water message. bug. Sw. male or botzen. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. a navel. to pen cattle. and of the Lat. a tuft. bud butzen. case of leather . from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. from Gr./a. OFr.) . botzen. loud Cot. stroke. bucherame. knob . butzen. Lat. the root of the Slavonic words gran. thrust. call bo. bulka. fur. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. butze. boglyn. and the reference to It. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. a dumpy gin.). . ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. mani. bouk is a pail and with the dim. A water-plant with leaves and gille. Fr. with a central boss. skins pushit'. scion. bulla. convexity. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. to poke. of bac. to thrust. ' . * Buckle. bollire. bloca.' Boccaccio. bunch. to 'soak. — — . The knob or projection formN. stud. boss. a boss. bucherare. put. excrescence. rump of fowls . Russ. swelling. to graft or bud trees. bucket Fl. stir. explaining Fr. weich. bouprobably identical with inok. * Bud. of a surface. Fr. . — . boucle. of bouge. It. a buclder or shield budge. ble. bunch . Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Mid. like a bean. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. goat's hoof. gjeit-klauv. imbuere. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. a budget. a bump.anything short of its kind. butt .stumpy man. A buckle or fastening for botch. blow. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. boach. Bucolic. a budget. turgere buczendig.. belonging to the calling of the chen. brobrocchiere. hump. In Lat. seen in Hesse botz. boucle. sboge. in the beginning of to pierce holes. child. a . a short thick man. weichen. ' . bedde. a curl. Pol. It. a pail or flowers. swelling. . cattle. bod. to budge.. clasp of a book. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Cot. motus creber. * Bucket. to boil. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. bulga. a leathern sack. It. a wallet. with let. bogla. a boy. Du.) as to soak. Gael.poot. W. push forwards. — . Bret. The entire train of thought is bucket. also a leather tuft . movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bolgia. were To Budge. great pouch. Fr. The word is a ddyn. having a boss. to line with fur. Buck-bean.Lat. soft. to bud or bocla. ornamental stud. G. . bouger. K. wallet. bouter. Dan. bullion. built. buckel. a boss. whom it is still much in use. Fr.' Hal. This expression boglire. Budge. bouge. NE. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bode. Port. boucaran. butz. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. Budget. a little coffer or turgidus. Bus.chissima. butzen.pode. a fold ceilio. w. Mid. and weichen. call. to butt. noise . bloquier. Bret. It termination is lost. Bav. macero. boucle. Dan. Fr. Hardly identical with Fr. call. bolgetta. bdden. dim. ' .— . agreeing with Gael. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. bocla. Swab. with which it was ornamented. to swell. butzen (Du. pulga. bukke-blad. rabodS. a shield. Fr. probably from the notion of bubbling. Prov. become bochen. a ring. to move. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. ON. bouljein. a stump buckle up. jSouKoXiKog. To thrusting part of a long body. The dressed fur of lambs. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. bub.may probably be explained by N. a servant. from bugr. Buckler.pastoral nations of Slavonic race.

Hence the E. a dull BUG From 109 — A . popo. een duffen toon. bufHe. soufflet. W. buffalo. a puff. then peeping out again to see how she bore it.D. bugs. a side-board. to puff. &c. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Buff. yar^aa. to beat. tabernarius.—Buffet. as wine that hath taken wind. the place whence the wine was drawn. wine may The verb in taverns. bw! It. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. — Bogle. smells . buffets. while in Sp. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. a jester. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. made to —Bugbear. le reste emplissant d'eau. duff^ dull. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. G. bw. to a representation of his voice. Limousin bobal. human.' La Crusca. by metaphor. 265. bwg. mingled with water. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. w. bobaow. The cry made to excite terror is then used. of colours. from souffler. buffa. a In . Pl. dausa. E. or wild ox. bolgetta. buffet. often blown upon. Buffeter. buffen. a budget. often covering his E. from It. It. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Esthon. air.— Buflae. ' They rether puffed at him. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. A blow. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . colour. Cot. From buff! of terror. — retailing buffeter buffetier. buivol. either alone or with various terminations. buff leather. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. baubau. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. sounds. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. to blow.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. bouffer. — Z. Fr. buffare. to give a as of a blow. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. .BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. God's boast seemed feare children. wauwau. a bugbear. to jest or sport. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. as emblematically making light of an object. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. buffet. — La Crusca. a skin. buffle. to rePl. bubach. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . a buffle or a bugle. Sc. btifetarius. to signify an indefinite object of terror. Cot. Fr. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. tastes. for this purpose is very widely spread. botffon. also a G. blurt or puff with one's mouth. senses. bau ! children. a block-headed noddy. and in Fr. a cuff or buffet. bubiti. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Teet-bo. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Pl. Swiss baui. to marre often tasting it . bauwi. a clap. to bellow . Fr. — — — Buffet. a hollow sound. breath. buffare. as from Lith.D. scarecrow . stupid. to frighten . Buffalo. The children were playing in an oppocomer. the buffe. bubus. to give benti. caupo. Magy. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. Buffoon. — thence it has been transferred in E. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. to puff.' perfield. rebuff. or hath been Cot. It. leathern bucket. bumann. boman. bubaRuss. Bufetarium. as Diez remarks.D. confused. a goblin). to blow souffleU. The use of the exclamation children. Gael. Fr. bo ! an interj. It. buffeteur. A puff with — Fl. Mid. —Boggart. boo. A — Bug. to strike face to represent the unknown. Lat. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. Fl. dausinti. things in Jam. bufogni. Sc. bukow Ikow. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. buffetto. From bulga. bufogni. deadened. puff. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. dial. site The two — — iii. bugbear. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. bugle. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. bolgia. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. pulse ./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . thus be translated to tap. Lith. bouffer. Thus buffet would a tapster. word other cases. buffer. Lith. to blow . made by a person. dull sound. cuff . It. buffet. to excite terror in Macleod. a hobgoblin. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. Romola. mumming. him but Boyd iugges. buMagy. buffle-headed. Fr. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. Lat. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. Buff.

booggen. forSc. bukashka. a bug-bear. affright. pugalo. Serv. Bug as a lord. . 493. Bogge. the Devil. the black a maggot. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. gad. bwgwl. also a bug-bear. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. terrifying ward. Illyr. Big. a beetle. Hal. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. — — terror. See The name terror). according to Coles. Fl. W. oxen. i. Lett. language any kind of insect.3uhtii&:. E.Lat. to take fright. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. to creeping things. threatening. buffle. Deut. Stalder bog. ghost. insect. bau (Pureiglia. a buffalo. then a horn for drinking. bok. swollen. bogil. Grose. saucy. threatening. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Bible. It. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. il brutto Demonio. banian boube. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. to bellow. of pipes sewn on. buba. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. — . provincially an insect. Schmidt. shepe and gootes. also a bug-bear. bauginti.. Swelling. to take fright. beugler. bugle. bwgar. . and in Lat. Mid. an insect. Bugle. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. 1551. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. and a boggarty ing. bogle. monster. a bug-bear. baco. bucula. Grisons bau. is the dim. It. bukati. big. bug. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Chaucer. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. to bellow. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. dial. to frighten scarecrow.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. especially to beetles or winged insects. roarHal. boo. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Hence bugle-horn. coco. also a baco-baco. high-sounding words. well as the terrific object. fear. mask ' . pugaf. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. BUGLE Tentennino. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. a boogg. Sw. Bdronie. an object of terror. w. given in Chaucer. a misshapen person. scarecrow .loud noise. poggl. Same as buffle. as an object of dread. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. . bugbear. Russ. disgust. xiv. biignt. great or bug words. A similar applica. 2. protuberant. Parolone. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. bogk. bug-bear. — boogg. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. * 2. The w. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. to take bug. — — . b'dgni. bug-bear. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. bwg and E. Mundart. superbire. Lith. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. vermin. pujalo. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. boa-peep. bugler. An ornament of female dress condread. Cheval de trombugti. bbgni. proud. roo. fierce. as Buffalo. bobal. Swiss booggen. and bugle. any disgusting animal. of bugabo was given. is very common. worm. 3. boeuf sauvage. bogil bo (e. bugar. Bug. I. a goblin. The final guttural of W. the word is lin) bbgge. Swiss ing. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. buggabod). hert. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bug dung-beetle. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. tumble-bug. paws the ground . and is Deutsch.Fr. to origin in the expression bugs words. rose-bug. the buggaboo w.— . and in child's Magy. with more or less modification represents bau. a bugbear for children. Lap. The name of bug is — . or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. larva (a bug-bear. troll. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. a. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. iv.. bogk. : no BUG . Magy. . Lesachthal. bug-bear. earwig bau da grascha. insect. Magy. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. — — ' . a silk-worm. tion of the beetle tribe. (Spurrell). thus connected with bug. used in the same sense. blustering. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. fette. to roar Aasen. buculus. long. bold. Fl. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Manx boa. a rabme. high. quos what produces dread or disgust. Sp.

bol. Bulk. — . to bubble up Pol. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. a bulb Du. To Build. Mister. and N. belly. I. knob. Here stand behind this bulk. balg. A — ' — Bulk. formed a farm. PoXj3a. tumeo. hold or bilge of a ship. Palco. belly van de kerche. blister Manx bolg. . a lump or mass. a straw corn-vessel. buc. ne. villa. bolgna. at riufa bulkann. ON. a leathern sack or portmanteau. Pm. a leather sack or budget Fr. It. as well as is very variable. pod ON. to bubble up. mass. bulne. to break bulk. Lith. in Sc. of E. bol. husk. belly. MHG. trunk.'— Cot. bo. . unevenness Sw. sedes. to belly out. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. bulbe. a bubble Gael. bulbe. skin bag. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. . boulge. gebolgen. bole. balcone. a water-bubble). herd^ swarm pulkd. . projection. tumidus. to swell. wallet. . bol. a bubble. . pouch builgeadh. puff.d. boss. of an inflated skin. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bulcke. to build. From till. vulva. — Bulb. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bladder.' Fl. bulkaf. the head of an onion. chest. has bulbuk. principal portion. — . . Lat. a prominence. were a habitation. balgs. jnake bulch. — — . stuffed bag. — — . Pr. thorax buick. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bale. a dint in a metal . belly Cat. to undo the cargo. Bulch. boss of shield. anything prominent.). bouge. . Melancholy. knobby. See Bulk. body of an animal. Lett. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bulwis. belgja. a stage or scaffold. buhe. bulgen. the potato G. bug. bulge or bilge. blister. hull of a ship. belly. bolso. . a tuberous or bulbous root . See bollekeii next article. ball. bulg. lump. swell. pulkas. blister. and bulbukd. Bav. bubble. Dan. bolle. bauen. The radical sense is shown in Russ. Lat. nave or body of the church van 't schip. beuck. byli. See how this tode bolneth. van loock. Bulge. Jno. w. bubble. bubble. on. to throw out a convexity. the carcase. bauch. a. or of what is shaped like a bubble. the body Du. .' Anat. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. Gr. belly. bellows builgean. or bear out as a full purse. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. bullka. Pr. bugue. cumulus. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. Pm. Mandeville. or feminine termination gives Bav.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Bourser. Sp. Hal. to spring. bukr. bulge or convex part of a cask. . Boss^. pocket. pimple. ' . Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bed of a river. a protuberance. bubbling up. bouk. — — . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. dial. to blow. snorting on a bulk. belly Sw. domicilium. ' . crowd. to puff up bolginn. biilken. bulle. bolle. bolgan. bulbus. With these must probably be classed ON. compare Da. Gr. bulki. be protuberant. the womb. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. in vessel. bolgia. womb. swell. bua. to gather. a. Kil. a round bulky body bwlgan. to swell. The Walach. the belly. leather sack. For the latter sense ' — My . bulgen. the contents of the hold. Dan. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. turgeo bolnyd. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb).' Festus. boa. inhabit. as it was merly written in English to bylle. bunch or projection. ON. ' . bag. boss of a buckler. a globe. to raise a habitation. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. . swollen OE. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bolg. m um Placentiae. the position of liquids in the word In English. skin flayed whole. to bol. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. knob. head . the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. lump. body. in bulk. Lith. . body of a ship . The addition of a dim. whence bylja. trunk. G. . belgr. or. as water beginning to boil bolg. bulked or bumped out. a heap. mass. OSw. G. bubble {palgan tiisge.— . bulk is a partition of boards. . OSw. globule bolg-lhuingey. boss. G. Muratori. ^ — . swell. balco. belly. swollen. blow. knot in thread. . In the representation of natural sounds. a bunch.' Cot. 1388. skin of an animal. .' Palsgr. habitaculum. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bolgetta. He found a country fellow dead drunk. bilge. bwlg. Ptg. it again. and put it home. trunk of the body.pulks. straight will he 2. the capacity or burden of a ship. cultivate. Hence e. balg. Othello. Bolke or hepe. buk. or cargo of a ship. acervus. bulk or capacity of anything. bolnyn. (3oX|8oc. bulka. bulk. hollow.

and vellon in Sp. as It. poli-cheannan. dim. /SouWivu. any great-headed or studded nail. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. a tadpole. &c. bolla. from the noise. 2. bal. bwla. also a parFl.D. Bullet. bulle. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Bret. as in E. bollar. large. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bolli. child by the represents the hobgoblin.. a wasp. pwl. round glass phial. also of the tadpole or young frog. Eullrusli. embossed work. stud. BuUiou.. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb.. a stud. and thence terror. Cot.lle de fusil. G. G. bwbach. G. assito. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. — Fl. a hobgoblin. W. to bubble. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. i. as a mill-dam or the like. the seal affixed to the document. any embossed work. b2iggaboo. bellow. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. from the Lat. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. a bull Swiss bullen. thick. hhint. Dan. poll-cheannach. biitzibau.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow.Gr. boillon. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. bietebau. a seal. dial. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. ba. from the use of the equivalent terms. many to protuberant objects. it may be observed that a bullet in E. a seal. bulla. the matrix or die . bolli. a scare-bug. This word is used in several senses. bolos Fr. a hornet. — A tition in a ship. pollach. which may probably be the origin of the name. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. stupid . a tadpole . Bully. bulk. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. eth and frighteth. The final element tergeist. Du. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. penbwl. w. to tical with Sw. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. bulla. boss or stud. in the sense of base metal. bauli. spirits. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bullebak. bouillon. Bullace. but is more probably iden- palchetto. from baula. The male W. a beam or rafter. tition of deals instead of a wall. a framework of balks. Bullbeggar. whence bullire. coarse. bollon. bullern. A lace tree. See Bowl. 3. It. elves. billoti in Fr. Pm. billon. as the ornanails. is of a class with Pl. bollos de relieve. Du. a blockhead. poltern. to boil. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense.D. boulct. bulderen. sloes. from Lat. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Sp. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. a little fish nearly all head. of boule. of Witchcr. bouillon. . stamp. a bulox polos. The wild plum. The bullfrog. signifying roaring. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. scarecrow. baula. in N. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a noisy violent fellow. bullos. See Billet. bulloi. Gael. large of its kind. a bowl. bulke.Fris. is called a ball. Fr. blunt. a hobgoblin. a bul-begger. And The word bullerbak. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. pimple. Du. Bullfrog. I. bullus. leraures nocturni nigri. Pl.D. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bullocks. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . Fr. It. to emboss . Du. bulk of a thing.. Gold or silver uncoined. lumpish.' do not go by the dangerous water. of the ox kind. witches. Scot's Deso. Terriculamentum. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. whence Mod. ON. bellocier. bubble. Lith. balgeting. bugbear.'— ' Palsgr. boss.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. bole or trunk of a tree. A papal rescript. bwlas. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. urchens. stamped money. 2. polten. however. beams or boards. it is boulet de canon. w. lumpheaded . to seal. on the contrary. as geting. G. a bull. stud. from Fr. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. brass-headed nail . a cow. — — Bull. to bellow. blister. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. BulUiead. N.

'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. perturbare saevis dictis. bommele. debacchari. Bully. blunder-buss.D. bastion. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. The Stat. Miege in Hal. is called bumping or bells. buller-bak. St. a stage. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. un faux brave. droning. 2. ground. To bum. vallum. a boisterous. To bum. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. baluarte. Thus ' ble. Kil. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made.' Stat. minari verbulderen. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . to . A. a hectoring. Du. Du. 2. bustle. Du. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Sw. a bumble-. bolderen. poltem. but now is the central part of the town. Hence bom and ban. block-werck. The decried coin. boisterous fellow. Bully-rock. honunele. III. Hal. primarily the ramparts of a town. 4 Hen. boene. The Sw. or a humblebee. Etym. hum. or work of defence. 1687). Kil. to drum Lat. 10. a blunderhead. The cry of the bittern. propugnaculum. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. buller-bas. D. Bum-bailiff.' Again. a noisy blustering fellow.d. 1305. ^i^/«. G. and porter au billon. Philip le Bel in Due. c. ierd-boeyme. blaterare. bulderen. BULLY with which coins were stamped.. scaffold.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. bottn. Fris. provides. then in general a rampart. a floor. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. ON. by corruption boulevart. c.D. the soil. It. For bottom. a. bomtnen. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. bol-werck.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. From the notion of a humming. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Bum. blunder-buss. to make a noise . — — plate d'argent. Hence — .' reals of standard currency. clamour. from boden. G. intonare. bodem. To bully is to bluster. bottom. legaggio di metallo. — bombam?nen. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. on the other hand.the ramparts. polterer. argentum and silver. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. boulevard. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Fr. — Boom. resonare. beat a — Hal.' for the purpose of exchange. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. to terrify by noise and clamour. to dun. violent overbearing person. 9 E. violent. agrees with e. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. bombilare. is bullion — A — buller. IIL st. Fris. ierd-beame. furious man. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. up was termed monnaie de billon. noise. 'lega. ^Bully-rook. sound. Bailey. to make a droning Du. c. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. &c. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . botm. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. buene. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. 14. John). — Bump. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. AS. buller-jaan (bully. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. — Bumto . buller-bas. biihne.. provides. To Bum. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. buller-brook.' ' mettre au billon. The 27 Ed. Kiittner.' agger. 2.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. G. IV.

Lang. bonnock. w. Forby. Daal bu7iseti. to bang ON. a large . a heap Wall. and related with ON. bonuach. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. il me pousse. poumpi. bump. Related on the one side to Pl. — — de dor bunsen. bun eich. a heap or cluster. bunan. bans.D. dial. bunnion. bune or boon. A clumsy. a bag or sack. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Kyx or bunne. bunki. S. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. He buncheth me and beateth me. bulscha. Fl. bunke. bunt. Pl. Probably for bun-boot. inconsiderately. See Bounce. from bunsen. pwmpl. It. a bunch.-^Fl. bumtel. stalk. stock. a boil or blain. bignet. pwmpio. bmike. bunken. awkward clown. Bunewand. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. Holland and Flanders. Suffolk bonnka. — — Bun. bottom bun feoir. and signifies consequently a mass. — round fruit. while bulch was traced through Gris. Moor. boi7ieog. Pl. A Du. ner. a rabbit. a purse . . — — — — ' — knock. bunkc. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. forms. bugno. Probably from bump. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. . On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. clown.pummel. to beat. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bunsen. Pm.! . 1. a lump on the foot bunny. root. stem or base. noise.' Bun. Thus e. pompette. Bung^. knuckles.. bu<rnone. a button. strapping. Hence E. OSw. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Hal. Ir. round mass of anything. explaining E. bund. a knob. pumpa. callus. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. any round knob or bunch. blain. stubble of beans. nor would it concern the public if he did. applied to young persons. gibbus. stubble Manx bun. Bumpkin. stump. lungeous. See Boss. bugnone. Bump. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Pm. Hal. Hal. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. clumsy. Then. Dan. bugno. bumsen. Sc. a bowl P1. Gael. buns. a heap OSw. bung. . Bun. a dry No . bull. Bony. Hal. To bam. Gael. bungersome. to beat. bulse. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. root. pumpurras. awkward. H. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. as we have seen E.D.). Bunk. stump. . a boil (punkos bot. tundo. E. Manx bonkan. should probably be a short tail. any round knob or bunch. bunka. are dim. Du. a round mass . a hemp-stalk. a bunch Magy. gibber. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a wallet. a heap. a Sp. knob or heap. to . Sc. E. Fr. passes Sw. as in other cases. bunga. bongie.^Cot. —Bunny. binge. a hump. a knob. cluster. Bang sen.— Bunnion. to bang. pompon. Bumsen. to knock . Dan. calamus. Pm. strike E. ! — knocking. Li cake. . Bunch. a. hdk passing and E. butt end. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a heap.' Palsgr. an old stump of a horse. He fult dat et bunsede. bundle. lenten loaves. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. one ever saw the word in that shape. dial. a pumpion or gourd. truss E. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. . bunny. Bums it's hit. to thump. Bunch. a. . botn. bunga. pwmp. to swell out E. Fr. from knock) It. lump. bamgetroffen. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. large. a bump. &c.' he fell with a bang. bolsa. E. the tail of a hare. abrupt manbuns-wise. bugnet. Mrs Baker. a boss Lith. bottom. a rabbit.D. a into Dan. . . Radically identical with Dan. a knotty stick) Sw. . hay stubble . a knob . bonge. stock. bannock. bulto. a pocket Sw. a knock.. bun with ON. — stalk . — Marine Diet. . See Bunch. a dried hemp-stalk. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Bunfeaman (stump-tail). Dunchyn or bunchyn. signifying one who does things in a thumping. to bang down. a bud. knochen. Roding. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Bumboat. bum-boot. — — Bun. or to the mass by which it is given. mto Sp. a swelling. bon. or grete knobbe. poumpido. also for taking a pilot to a ship. a swelling from a blow.S. bunch— Hal.P. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. the Pr. protuberance.D. Pr. Again. to strike so as to give a dull sound. . . bottom. a tail (Macleod). so the form btmk. bun. banga. to . seems to unite Gael. w. banke. foundation w. bmidt. especially girls. to ' . throw down with a bang. a person employed to dun one for a debt. trunk.— Pr.

Sw. tinkle. To do anything awk- wardly. to stop. OG. byrthen. on. shackles. See Bourdon. dicimus rufum. burion. a boye. See Barbarous. to gingle. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. do a thing bunglingly. N. to bud forth. to kick. bondeau. . See Bun. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. to Somerset is to sift. a cork. To bunt. The stopper for the hole in a boia. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. tinker . Sp. or tuft. to knock. to shove. * Buoy. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. bon. to push. — . bummle. It. The word is flags are made. and E. bongun. bounta. AS. Fr. ' — work . impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. bundle. bundt. to work at carpentry bangan. to stnmi on an instrument. the float of an bundle. bangla. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Kil. bourion. — — To Bungle. p. to in to stop the hole. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. gyves. Fr. bondel-loos. Bunting. contignatio. 202. noise. with the head. Hal. OFr. knocking. an anchor buoy. bury.Fris. Sp. to cobble. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. Sp. on. Cat. — btiruii. reddish brown. to hum. A load. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. So in Pol. B. anchor or of a net boyar. So Du. coassatio et Du. Palsgr. Sw. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. loosed from bonds. clumsy performance. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bongani. a botch. stiimpeln. boei. unskilful working. the noise of drums. the middle part of it. . boya. Sw. banghagr. B. bang. Burden. Bret. bondelj bundell. to pype. Fl. and now more Bailey. .— . colligatio. Russ. Du. bou^e. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. Rietz. fetters. biirde. knock. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. modem bummle. bolting-cloth. bonde. from beran. boucher. bag to catch the wind. especially in wood. Burly. G. bunta. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. to botch. — — . Burble. Pl. the young cloth used for sifting flour. Prov. punishments for prisoners. and bomme. shove . clogs. a bungler. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. — Bureau. To Bunt. a water bubble made by rain. OFr. AS. ghebundte. and the Sw. klempern. in is Fr. Sp. banga. knocking. of a song. ho-tapp. G. sprig. The belly or hollow of a sail. to gingle. a bunch. burboloti. Cot. bond. and Du. to float. the bung of a barrel Lim.' Festus in Diez. is originally a wisp or bunch . To burgeon.D. Bunny. bommen. to push with the head del. the stopper of a cask). to bolt meal. whence in bure. to strum on an instrument. dial. boil or bubble up. are from bouscfie. Fr. Fr. to bungle. boj. halm-tapp. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bindini. Bundle. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. stilmpern. Prov. tap. a bung.punt. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. See Borel. to resound. also a piinple in the face. buret. or putting forth of a vine. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Bung. klimpem. The Fr. racket . a wisp of hay or straw. Burganet. The Magy. Bunt. Banff. The Italian buio. la Borgonota. that the primitive meaning of shackle . rumble as the bowels. dark. bourgeon. the loose open grow big about or gross. to hum. bangla. Biu'geon. Lat. something bound together (Mrs Baker). working in wood (especially with an axe). bourguignote. stocks or such OSw. to bear. dial. bote. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bui. bondir. Muratori. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bunsen. bundel. bungande. bourjon. guggle as water. whence bunting. driving in the bung. Bung of a tonne or Lith. to work ineffectually. properly a Burgundian helmet. bang. to stop. Burden. or used as a receptacle for papers. Compare G. borgonota. to hum. buove. buret. . racket. bove. was formerly pronounced buro. however. a drum . a sort of helmet. bondon. russet. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. dark grey bura. to knock. buie. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bouchon. E. bimge. A Dan. . to push ghebondte. bonde. byndel. and van t' vat. generally known as the material of which bud. Johansen. a bunch Burbulas. borboUar. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. A bubble. fascis. tapp (whence tceppa. bouche.

to bouronna. explaining Sp. angular . to puff. Cot.j'own.sharpen. the flocks. Bav. . See Burr. swell up or strout out. OFr. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. to give an edge to. leo Fin. tion of the root which gave the OE. burn. Burgh. in Schm. laer. a jest. Pr. to swell with pride. Sp. brima. A legal term from the Lat. a bladder.or bubbling up. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. sicut sound. from the roaring sound of flame. is connected with brim. bremmen. warbling. to ridicule. E. with Dan. like the wind in trees. The Gael. singe or scorch with fire. compared with G. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to polish. Limousin bourdo. as Diefenbach bud. to roar 5. an &c.. ON. it of the knots. bourglairs. a well. roguing beggars. as of suggests. bouril. an edge. sidiary element. burgeois. G. Sw. Fr.). Hence Bridel. to have acquired the sense of polishing.bryna. From Fr. brustle. joking. — . brunna. a spring a robber. Burglar. brun. bruse. bruzir. surge or dashing of the sea .. the roaring surge of the — — — . purra. the J in OFr. brusler being a faulty spelling. to rub. Fl. blow. mockery. bururus. . sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Burlesque. explaining the E. to make a So from Fin.ireui£r:e. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. OE. burlare. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. BURNISH i5«r/. a jest. a bubble. brustolare. swelling borr-shuil. to tell lies. to surge. burle of cloth. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. purrata. bourou.. and the Burin. to burgen or wax big. Todd. robber. Burn.). Goth. born.Ps. a fountain. See Burgeon.' Cot. to swell oneself out as birds borras. boiirre. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. It. to grind on a whetstone. A — — . to Gael. to bud . which has given much trouble to etymologists. occupying much space. as the / in purl. Gael. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. Fr. must be explained on the same principle from G. brim or edge of anything.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. to roar. Probably. to polish. fires up.. bourd. to hum. &c. a margin. — — . boure. burly. a whetstone. Fl. to burn. a wine skin.' a jibe. . borr. fire. tahkoa. From the same root E. lorra. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to roar. Walach. borracka. It. It. to fiy. Swiss Rom. from Lat. ii6 BURGESS Gael. a prominent eye borracka. Supp. brausen. Schm. brinii. In the manu. to sharpen. brase. 122. crackle wood in burning Hal. Bret. Pren7ien. Castrais bourril. A burl. sea. flocks. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. broil. Nat. 56. brynsten. j. Dief. Lang. brasa. Burler. abourioner. to sharpen on a whetstone. ample of polishing metal. Antiq. Swiss Rom. language of folly or ridicule. and OG. Burgess. protuberance. G. — — . ends of thread.— . ^Notk. from bryii. to roar (as lions. briis^. tahko. Pm. brinnen or Also ein roar.. tumentum. borrelen. brunnr. Fr. — — . boura. to bourda. with little iron nippers called burling irons. Bav. and the Burnish. bururus. jest of. ^ttsa. bunch. a knob. he rustle. lerre. thence. burgensis. The primary origin of the word. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. brimmen. to To Bum. See Berough. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. Burgher. Burly. Probably a modifica. is termed burling. to puff up borr^ . hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. bears. burgi latro. become big and proud. watery. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. borni. to murmur. OE. brunir. It is probable indeed that Fr. big. a gurgling ^. spring-water bumach. brandung.). water. brAler. to ridicule. The in. like. burgen. a purling hiwe brennen. N. purling. ' rugiens. de Vaud. knob. a bubble to spring as water. brunnen. See under Bore. like straw or small . the word seems Pm. buirleadh. toast. borujon. ridicule. to roar. de Vaud. . OFr. has also borr. Sw. Bestiary. i5«r4 biiirte. repartee . pur (see Burgeon). a blaze. embraser. condemnentur morti. Bouffer. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Prov. bud or sprout forth. — Han to bruser op. a lie. Compare also Piedm.— Pr. pressa puret. So also Sw. to polish helmets. dial. Burryn. to roar. taunt. grancelli. schleiffen. In the same way ON. brinna. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. the er is a dresser of cloth. — . burren. and Dan. to effervesce. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. to swell. Lang. to set on fire. to burn. a bud. sbornoi. is an Thus G. ends of thread. as in cousteau. brook. barrel.

a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. prsnuti. appears under the Lang. explained E. In OE. Du. It. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. a purse.' The same word with burgh. impetus. dial. birr. byrgels. purr. ON. burre. AS. A rabbit burmotion. shales. preserve. root borr. also all such stuff as hay. an annular swelling. borsa.' edge grew weak. In a met. a place of defence. This word seems safety. bristen. coo. . stuffing. pipaa. bersten. casting bullets. borra. burgisli. from whence we pass through Sp. borrow. See Bulge. as it is still pronounced in N. Fr. brast. bris. . borra. birgan. a purse. perruque. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon.Lat. as for the protection of a child's head. foretell great storms at 3. swell. a harness or collar maker) . cwning-gaer. a barn or cupboard. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. To Bury. Burr. to break. brista. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. byrsa. an exchange. OHG. 2. a morsel. Burrow. briser. borre. its own protection. also ' any such trash as chaff. Shelter. that birds make their nests with. bur.' Harris in Todd. to buzz. beorgan. — Clare. Sexy. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. skin. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. to P'air. verbergen. bourrer. S w. Burial. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Swiss burren. 5150. a. brisd. brokil and brotil. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Fr. to stuff. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. beurs. bris. ' BURR AS. brown. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. — Translated by Kemble. buscha. ptcrren. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. ' ' — — burren. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. of England. caer is a — — — ' ' : . Gael. E. to hide .of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. makes the disbursements of the college. byrgan. husks. Burr or Bur is used in several senses.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. 225. burial place. save. byrigels. brico. . bourse. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. birigean. -Grisons bulscha. the — — castle or fortress. The root forms brik. Du. Compare also OE. See Burgeon. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. some people in pronouncing the letter r. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. hair. With a slightly different ghen. blurra. Fr. Jam. borsa. whence Kil. of a body hurled through the air. &c. force. preserve. whirr and burr. karborre. mentioned under Burgeon. to mutter Sw. Dan. to bury . &c. cover. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. briso. briketo. Sw. ON. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. Hence Fr. Burse. bourse. chips or anything else Fl. shearing of cloth. a wallet or scrip. dial. G. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. shuffling. ber•whirr to whizz. bur. bolgia. shelter. brit. and spelling. when they spring So in W. burra. from AS. fortify. barza. break . The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. bristeach. brittle. Brun on bane. OHG. tomb. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bres- — tan. berstan. It. any rapid whirling biarga. leather. Cot. g. Hal. Burr is related to buzz as protect. Fris. borre. i5(7&a. peluca to Fr. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. bergen. keep. be more in accordance with AS. to burst. a rabbit burrow. a sepulchre. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . a port. bourre. bourlet. idiom if 4. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . brittle. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. bourrelet. whirr. brjota. I. brizeto. To Burst. brest. Burser. ultimately resting on the Gael. Port. and met.— . Bursar. Beowulf. britar. as from Sp. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Sw. brist. and thence flocks 'of wool. a pad. brickie. borsia. -burse. brisdeach. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. Burse. from Fr. AS. byrgen. signifying protrude. bolsa to It.. and. brist. as in Northumberland. the officer who bears the purse. iii. Mid. G. byrstan. to hide. moss. straw. talk fast and indistinctly. to save. but it is more probably a development of It.

as synonymous with to inake one boun. In to Brutaine. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. Fr. Bush.P. Brunne. iriCtf -ifoe.boisteau. . bulge. aheap of stones. a bunch of twigs. It. Layamon. and he cites wisp bauschen. signifying to entomb. a corpse). whente beorg. brodiquin. to bury. ch). knot. The word frequency with which to busk is used. bustellus. boxta. bossen. . which would later have truast. sur une litifere. Malberg. for at buasc. a bush.Lat. OFr.Lat. buxta. and we actually find bushel. busse. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . verb. van wijnbesien. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bulk. bramble. to sepulchre. induere vestes . wisp. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. tuft. abdere. barst. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a tuft guini. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. R. a box for measuring corn. lump. beorgan. brodequin tout noir. boistel. Harold G. Sc. the Moors and of Morocco. borghen. and not directly (as Du. BUSH hreaw. Gr. bossida. ieorh. Bouchet. And her ful sone tuft. borcegui.gur bidst austur um EySascog. Sir Tristram. a tuft. cluster. or — Busk. gave Lat. OFr. Prov. ' . See Bust. a hump. Le roy Richard mort.' sheath.' meaning of bua is simply to bend.' The word is explained by — — . or the like. bairgan. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bussel. a tuft. the idea of knocking. Sibriht that I of told. ' .-^Bushel. dead. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. buskr. a rampart. basse. whence bouchon. brake. bos. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. bouche. to prepare. a gun biichse. to direct one's course towards. to keep. protect . Thence byrigean. occultare K. bundle. as boun is simply buinn. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. clusprobably Morocco leather. Sw. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. burial mound. boissa. diminutives. bo7ich (Fr. borseof trees. make ready. mount. 2. tow. So from Fr. : — . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. projection. buxula. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. to bend one's steps. bousche. from the ON. They busked and malced them boun. preserve. bousse. bundle * Buskin. AS. bussellus. to forest of Eyda. at buast. box wood to bush. il fut couch6 l^jkema). boucher. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. The primary sense of hair . that the lend had lorn thorn. qualster-boscken. busk. a bunch. ' . Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. G.' The buskin is said Bret. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. It. thicket {buski. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. rad. apparently a secondary verb. a clot of phlegm sart. boisseau. bustula. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. buysschen. a box. ' . bunch. 410. bosch (a diminutive ?).— ' ii8 {chreo. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. Du. thicket of thorns . Ptg. boiste. bussare. whence at bua sik. bosta. defence.) to hide in the ground. Fris. hunch Du. busken. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. at bua sig. . to bow. . Mid.' a box.fiasc. bush. the past participle of the same verb bua. then a tuft Sp. -idis. . besom). a wisp. bosc. to turn. a tuft of hair. Bush. Brunne. and from the Fr. grapes. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. bausen. to swell. a been written buasc. a bundle. bush. and thence Mid. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. in the For Skirnis . ' —P. barsc in Heimskringla. truasc. a little box Dan. berghen. to dress. Thus Froister . a troop. is thus accounted for. Du. basse. biichse. . a grove bosch van haer. buxida. the land. To Busk. AS. To prepare. we have Fr. —Busk. bua. a bush. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. a -tavern bush. bousIn the other copy ser. to enclose in a case or box. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. Du. in OE. See Box. The bone in a woman's stays. hjul-bosse. condere. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. to stop. to dress. oneself. a box. fiast. roquies. 'at bua sik. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out.

1555. lips. plated body or other quilted thing. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk.> Also written buskle. a bunch of flowers . A A busquer (Sigart). a mouth. Prov. baiser. fe^a. ON. Bav. bukr. Sp. beezig. mouth. austarda. Buss. a blow. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . abutarda. also a flagon.D. brusc. avuDiez. bustla. a kiss. a stroke of wind. and then with avis again prefixed. brostia as well as bostia. Hence probably au-tarda. 2. the point of a lance. Port. bu. Fr. and by transposition morchequi. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a kiss. ' BUSY 2. Bulch. beso. abotarda. says. ' bistardej It. hipista. utarda. B. would explain the G. BUSS Dozy from Arab. — . bust. Prov. bacio. or chest in which the vitals are contained. Fr. To Bustle.' ON. or avutarda. kiss. Fris. Fl. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. stir. tarda. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. kupata.' Plin. putschen. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. of a doublet. basiuin. buz. mouth. Busitiess :c3iVi .— . thick end. a sleeveless truss or doublet. 2l box. body of a woman's dress It. AS. besongne. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. busta. log . I. Bust. small. from jnund. of the human body (Grandg. trunk. a kiss.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. a Mid. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. The Prov. busch. — Thus we should have mocherqui. smack. lump. . to occupy. 119 bi{tr. Namur — Champagne Fr. cata — . buta. also a busk. bisg. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. a bust. I bustle. bucha. So in Fin. a blow. windbutsch. lip. Cat. made stiff. brut. body. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. I. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. A great sluggish fowl. an ostrich. mosequin. sera. body of garment. biist. bust. Fr. ship Sp. kiss. ON. On the other hand. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. in Diaz Gris. Swiss butschen.pjik. The proceedings of Parliament. a backstock. employment bisgan. crack . a large cljest or particular applibox. buyse. bysgian. bussen. body without arms and legs. a great billet Cot. also a It. geidha. snout. signifying trunk of a the body. worn to make the body straight . a projection. knock. Fr. Sp. a busk. 22. Edrtst. tuft. butz. buc. morsequi. bruskras well as buskr. the trunk. chest. mogangas from gonj. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. I go strepo) . bus and Pol. bus. stem. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. bnist. stump. Cot. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. — — — — It is like the smouldering. box. otarda. arbor ramis trunGloss. a tree. besoigAe. stump. statue of the upper part of Fr. a. mohedairova. bisegung. ViM. . So Wes- terwald munds. Rouchi. 7o\. bysgje. to make a splash in the water. body of a man. bulk. a kiss of reverence. buquer. pussa. biseg. outarde. A wisp. trunk of Cot. 10. work. to bustle. Business.Lat. See Boss. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. forms morseqiiill. btcc.bezig. to Swab. the breast. knock. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. an affair. a boat or small vessel . 1372. trunk of a tree. busch. Box. especially of a woman's dress. Du. Comp. Lat. the long. Bust. love gestures. busq. bussa. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). busc. a bush. forest. a fishing vessel. Sw. body. To hurry or make a great B. — hardly be distinct from Fr. but. occupation. Pol. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. putta. With respect to bust. — clattering about. and also a sounding blow. and supposes that the common Arab. a log. buc. Bustard. Gael.). mons. to knock . a bulk or trunk without a head. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. inde discurro et operosus sum. Walach. body . as in ON. The form brust. its slowness of flight. trunk. Prov. borcegui.d. Sp. buc. ottarda. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Lindenbr. Nained from Proximse iis zia. bus. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. busche. a ship of some size. as in moharra from harbe. occupied bezigen. to make use of. bist. — — difications of the same word. Xerqui. the body without arms busque. busto. Busk. Lang. betarda. outard. lip. Busy. or Cherqui. Hal. sunt quas Hispania aves . representing a blow. busy. business. ^A. bisgung. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir.

Butler. bous. ont jhi^ton. bitlga. (children) boc. and the real origin of the and within . The E. the belly. my is called the adversative use of but. gives at least two pounds sterling. by the mode in which he is treated. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. an outlaw from bouche. Du. calf. botija. the name must have arisen before the within. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . which the word corresponds to the Fr.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. — . Wall. and with It. biitait slaughterer of goats . I20 la Court BUT du Roi. the present day we should say. the servant in charge of the original object. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. able. As a conjunction but is in every portion. except. properly a butan wite.' — — ' . barriga. we find ben. bolr. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . without the house kept in bottles. moreover. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. Butcher. G. the jug and in E. being wholly unten. bole of a tree. Sp. belly. If that where now we should compiler. a butchery. OFr. Lang. a small winebag. viz. binnan._ bitten j biiten door. AS. without buiten-man. ' Besides all that. but one thing. rotundity of the body. sup- meat and drink. a cask. that which would be translated by Fr. similar train of thought is seen in ON. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. are. is well explained by Tooke. bola. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. bhcciero. a wooden cask. beyond the Piedm. the bottles. and bot. a baiTel . the body of an animal. Ben-house. a goat. a leathern bag. from as. bisgung. those in beccaio.' ' write. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. But In Sc. Prov. a goat (and not besides . body of a shirt w. tinction between but. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. bouteillier. bol. the full expres. the Perhaps besogne — . bouz. beccaro. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree.' there is really a negation to be supplied. boucher. "PLT) .The Sp. is put in a class by himself. skin-bag. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum.in which his brethren are included.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt.streets. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. a budget. buta. as Pantler. a butcher. ' There is leathern bottle. a bottle. a butcher . Where at an earthen jar . boccino. original sense of without. Tooke's dis. boteria.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. the trunk or body of an animal. Sp. mais. belly. trunk. So in Italian from becco. viz. beta. without law. But It. large barrel. the body of a tree or of a man. hull of a ship. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. A A . be out. bout. It. earthen which the debtor has adverted. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. without. from boc. belly. then hoUow trunk. equivalent of AS. bolgia. bitten dai. . plain the conjunction as signifying boot. butan. Buttery. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. bochier. a barrel. slaughter-house. or what in in charge of the pantry. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. butan ce. wooden receptthing to be done. the principal apartment. ways. outside that moreover. add. bounds of.' Thus Chaucer says. to-boot. boquier. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. . plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. rumpf. in addition. Butt. ox.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. bag made of the entire skin of an animal.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. bocin. calf of the ' say. young mais. bodifie. hollow case. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. botte. collection of casks. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. bute. bag. — we acle for liquors. bountifully. also a hollow vessel . the store of ten. the mouth). Whatever is in addition to Butler. beccaria. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. besides that . of the wine and drink. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. But when will you pay it ? the belly. Fr. botilla. Lang.jamin. Fr. Sp. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . without care. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Fr. without punishment . the precise correlative of but. Here the but implies the existence of an.

tress. any small projection. bata. butt. from rejeter. butt. boter-vogel. boteria. Btetter-schmalz. to strike. striking end. bocgsuin. the store of while bottich. suddenly . — A . to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Kil. to thrust . fle>(ible. a leg of mutton. bouter. potacha. bodi'. buttock of beef is called butr. as if from Povg. Perhaps corrupted Lat. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Buttock. bot blijven staan. of E. fowl. to blad. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. stump. butter. a heap of merly called pushes. as in G. * Buxom. to push earth . botto. To come full butt against a butts. butyrum. w. from the large knobbed head of botto. a blow. Cot. pied. a ribbed glass for dient. so as to make a sounding blow. in the R. any short thick thing. the trunk. obeto shake backwards and forwards. A — — — .— BUTT leg .. buhsom. at. a button. caput scapula bout van f been. the Butter-fly. end . a large belly. Lang. buttern. butter. Du. i. bout. An erection built up as a Fr. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. butte. — A . rabodd. nourrisson. botta. a. ment being supposed to resemble butter. povrvpov. Butter. Du. From the noise of drinkables in a house. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. a boss. a mound of turf in a field to sup. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bocsam. Fr. To strike with the head bags. Gael. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a button. Button.rejected thing. boiUer. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. The word body itself seems identical with G. : . boter-schijte. courtaud.arbre. gigot. butt of a person.putan. a stump or club foot. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. oir spike with a k coup . both. bothog. buttals. humble. botwm. to abut on. boding. a wall butor butt on. Boutje. G. thrust. clumsy . Halma. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. boutis. Fr. Bout van het schouderIt. bot. W. nourrissons. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. strike. It. from stossen. an etwas anstossen. .' thick from shaking. a bot. From Du. So in English pimples were fora clod. from notirrir. Buttel-triib. give way. Du. Du. Fr. to touch at the end. what is kept in a blow. bot. bodi. and the true derivation boar. pwtiaw. a boss. -ez. — — — — . &c. to thrust. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. waste ground. Sp. trapu. thick. a. See Butler.thum and not button. a stroke di animal. a cask. to femur. stump of a tree Fr. a but in the W. Fr. to bow. Hal. to boult flour. Fr. Butter-glass. or person Schmeller . a barrel. on. clunis. to thrust. botten. to thrust Fr. the prick in the middle of a target. thrust forwards. as rejeton. a bolt. To Butt. a bun. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Bav. obedient. Buttress. Fr. grease that sets by merely standing. &c. The Bavarian potig. nursling. having a rotundity . Grandg. a button. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a little push . botta. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. to butt. AS.to push. lams-bout. poke. signify a cask or tub. buttare. — . botte. to throw . From Grisons biitt. to cast. to heap up earth or ihrust.. R. Hal. Kil. tout seat or breech. but. Du. butt. bout. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. W. the thigh of a goose. a mound. Schmell. butz. a flying buttress. a tub. boter-vliege. geboogsaem. bouter. Buttrice. the rosebud. a corner horses' hoofs. Kil. large head. Schmell. the edge forwards. coxa. boutoir. but this is probably from Fr. bouton. — . bouton. Boutant. the thick end. a dle . is formed the augmentative buttatich. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. from bouter. then the thigh or leg of an to push . by boE. boil. to so close to the Fr. pwt. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . butter un. hillock . a thrust the thigh-bone. bud. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . a scope. to abut a stone roof. a buttress Cot. able that Chaucer. a blow. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. . butte. dripping. an ox. bottig. bottich. a buttrice. are the strips at the edges of the field. of the present day. . a hill. or or shore post. bott. butteln. short thick thing pimple. to thrust. put. buter.against another which needs support . Mur-buttant. Buttery. from bugan. Fr. Bav. Gr. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. submit shaking up salad sauce. e. to be con. leg of lamb. Gris. Fris.

and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. buso. The ON. stall. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. big. Many good mological explanation. to buzz. favourable. abozzago. village. bei. to purchase for money. To Buy. a meke thynge with — alle. bi. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. who makes abigg. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. buzac.— P.P. indistinctly. OE. bozzago. favourably to a petition. frabttg- To Buzz. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Du. bar. See Abie. AS. a beetle. CABAL Goth. a town. . 200. as heedless as a cock-chafer. from whom it was addressed. depends upon a esteem in falconry. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. gracious. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). Mercy hight that mayde. to whisper. to sell. bylove. iii. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. . Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. bij. p. A ful benygne buirde. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Pecock Repressor. to jan. bi. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Sw. and it is of good will. A by. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. a buzzard or puttock. lb. bycgan. bylag. jus municipii. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Byre. to swear with him by . Then applied to speaking low. buzarg. The sense of buxom. ON. byar-log. bohte. A A We — — — days' wonder. and boxome of speche xviii. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. to wit. AS. to stand at his side . ii. Sw. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. bauhta. lete. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. It. —gracious of speech. bugjan. Lat. confusedly. Goth. bees. to pass by. as Fr. bygge. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. \s\xy. . byr. 3. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . Originally the law of a particular town. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour.in N. P. son. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. blessing me with their of side. Dan. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. It. a borough. town having separate jurisdiction. Etynj. & Q. train of thought which has become obso. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. buteoj Fr. 519. groat in token of his good heart towards him. farm. Buzzard. G.busardj Prov. harty prayers and God speedes.. from by. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. cow-house. called Cabala or Tradition. 21. leges urbanse ON. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. a by-path is a side path . By-law. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. also say. buzzicare.. Verstegan in R. 116. tions by one.— Diet. and would have been lost in E. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. good-humoured one. byar-rettr. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. — 122 BUY P. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. as in Da. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Cabal.

Due. the bowels. gatsch. a rope. It. vincially used in E. head. headed or cabbage lettuce. Ptg. to hurl down.Gr. calabre. precisely in the sense of the lari E. from trabocco. hovel. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. to chatter. bad. to strain in such a manner . Mid. Antiq.. a headed cole or cabbage . Coticesserint Swiss aa. hoard together.Lat. Cappa in OSp. manganare. Celtic. cabbage. cabulus. E. capanna. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. To steal or pocket. and as we find stones Mid.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. a cabbage . cabus. (ca/coe. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cabas.). cabre. — the ON. come the Fr. Capstan. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. signifies down. cadabulum. cabaii. — Kil. prostratio ad terram. it would seem fundain children's language. a cloak of felt or Cack. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . kabane. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. cabo. cadabola. Due. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid.. accablcr. and Ptg. wilful). hut. w. dirt and the Fr. — Ibid.. Cot. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. aeggi. mdhaigner. It. dirty. It is remarkable that the Esthon. : — from violence without blood. kakaloH. signifying properly a rope's end. covering. Cablisb. to crush. cabuccio. a rope or cable. cadabulum. dirty. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. gabardme. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Fr. . kabaSsen. Lang. OFr. cadabalum. aak! tandi like Fr. Fr. cable . OFr. caable. &c. string. . a booth or hut. Lith. brassica — capitata. Finn. cabre. is probably unconnected. kabat. and Finnish lanLat. disgust cac. or cadable. giiare. OSp. Common to Lat. whence Lang. Tugurium. disgust. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. a car- We convasare. band. Mid. kabas. traboccare.. cacare . overwhelm (Diet. Didot. Sp. Brushwood — — B. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. especially shepherd's frock. To Cabbage. chadabula. Very generally used. the Slavonian. gaggele. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Fr. akista. a frail. serious injury — In like manner It. cadabula. Cabin. su/Furari. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Castr. a shed.Lat. Katr-iT-aKt. cab lis. chabla. a head (whence cabochard. as it must have stood in French. Cabinet. surripere. headed. — . for the origin of which see Carabine.Lat. capo. cabasser. name of the projectile engine. main. agga. OFr. It. stercus. Imitative of the cry of hens. as Diez supposes). a jacket Fr. Lat. an engine for casting stones. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. forms indi. Item habeat vocant. It. aakkat'a. . cables. agge machen (in nurses' language). to put or pack up in a frail. Cabbage. laitue cabusse.' Due. filth. to hurl in Nat. a rope. would correspond to cable. deponat a store closet. caable. cabane. . —Diet. round or great headed. manticuKil. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . Du. From It. kakla. . Kil. The name of the engine. cab. and Or. caables. gaggi. heady. ckaable. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Du. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. case. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. Fr. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Neckam — by the wind. properly windfalls. Choux cabus. from manganum. cabuyskoole. havyar to caviare. — Tarbe. caboche. Etym. a tunic. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . The Sp. maim. dung. or as an interjection of disMod. the Prov. Sw. chaable. &c. capuccio. cabarino. ceach / exclamation of guages. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. originally an Gael. Mid. origin is the OFr. ! — . vile. The double a in the OFr. caable (in legal language). geese. and the Arab. caqueter. gaban. 'habl. a covering. Du. cacare. to keep or Du. cabacho. Sp. or rush basket. whence Fr. . nasty.ticula. as Turk. has kabbel. cdble. as an expression of Gr. a rope. chaable. form kactal. E. Fr. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Cot. cabo. agge. lactuca capitata. overwhelm. Gaggle. — .

KaKKat. a common cart. The Calf. little chief. a lump or large piece. kaad. javioler. kauwe. Pol. pi. It. cavea.— Cot. calentar. desire of land. of which. a car. Fr. or prattle. Cadge*. kolo. to . In the same way Fin. A cuttle-fish. loss. cabdillo. so gabble corresponds with Fr. cageoler. prate. kuchen. lindrus. kolesnitza. Lat. Cadence. a reed. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. gabbia. to treat like lime. * Calibre. Cauldron. G. jabber. Sp. Flo. to — Fr. kola. kaka. boy. form) calderone. kukje. chaudiere. to compute. kolyasochka. — in a kiln. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. and troublesomely attached to. gaggle. coll. caldarius. Cadet. wanton. Cake. a wheel . the pith or soft part of wood. Lat. ever and anon. calendrer. for green fields. caliche. Mrs B. It. kail. a calesh. Calash. cha'cmie cadence. a wheel. gabble. Fr. Arab. an inkstand . Due. It. kat. captive. caldaria. cuttle-fish. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. from the Chinese catty. Turk. collop. a corpse. a wheel . master. The Lat. Perhaps from w. cykevie. calidus. Calc-. a falling. It. the pi. Du. calx. ON. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. an ugly waggon kolaska. kalfi. Du. pith. calibre. principal and interest. Gascon capdet. babbhng. to prate much to little purpose. limestone. cadenza. a calash . cake. is probably delusive. whence Lat. a mischievous dial. Calf of the Leg. Calocli. signifies a waggon. a loaf of bread. It. gabberen is identical with E. a circle. gaggia. Fr. gavia. a low note. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. rattaat (wheels). — — — Dan. calf of leg. Calamary. kalfvan hout. Dan. The young G. To Calender. a cylinder. its mother. loss. It is more likely a word formed like cackle.— . lime whence calcareous. Sw. a caFr. whence calash. hence musical rhythm. to sleek hence a den. Serv.warmth . Calp is riadh. pet lamb. without loss. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. coop. Turk. See Kiddier. to cackle . kolo. colibro. * Cade. calentura. . Originally from a Slavonic source. cadere. Du. chaudron. kalem. calculo. the bore of a cannon. calibre. from calendcE. Cadaverous. Calendar. marrow. or colpa na coise. From lerie.— Calliper. kalb. Caddy. Calamity. 124 prattle . lord. . Lat. A — fall. Lat. Lat. taking it Sp. (in the augm. capitetum. Sw. Lat. cage. calpa. kage. a counter used in casting accounts. frisky. caioler. from calculus. cadaver. to throw themselves into the sea. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. gabbia. ben- kalf. kdfich. to gabble. Fr. kaeckelenj Gr. B. kdtr. kakulla. Cot. Sw. kolesb. —Atkinson. naXaiidpi. kolasa.uv. Calandre. cauldron. Fr. Cage. Lat. of oxen and similar animals. unruly . cage. when they are said to poor. KxiKivh^o^. a cake or loaf. or smooth Hnen cloth. a dence. to heat. one unduly indulged by. misfortune. Fr. . . to cage. dead body. G. calesa. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. a small stone. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. disease of sailors from tivus). Roman reckoning. calidus. Lat. N. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. ratas. Lat. hot. incolumis. a hollow place. roller. Du. especially of something soft. capCalenture. It is another form of the E. pen Mod. reed-pen. chetif. the younger son of a family said to be from . a vessel for heating water. just falling. a wretch. cattivo (from Lat. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. wretched.Gr. koeck. frolicsome kaad mund. A . a waggon . calamitas. cadence. Russ. calessa. Cot. Sp. a fever. of the nature of lime to calcine. from the ink-bag which it contains. ' . Lat. calamus. Lat. hot . safe. An open travelling chariot. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. joyous . En kaka br'od. Gael. As Du. Fr. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. calcis. Caitiff. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Cot. &c. a tea-chest. on. calba. Dan. Sp. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. a roller. kolyaska. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Caldron. It. from Gr. cadet. To Cajole. Calcialate. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. calendarium. chattering. . Tea-caddy. A hooded carriage. dial. a wheel . Cajol. the calf of the leg. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. kolo. Fr. bad . the lump and the increase.

of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. form in the kalib. which has its memory preserved in Du. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Sc. To call. kind heat of the sun. Call. calma. Caliph. Dief. to calk. The word was also written cawme in OE. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. i. Kil. moist. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. the day. quiet. Lang. to call. The reference to heat is preserved in. to tread. Fr. Indies. Kil. to hear. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. having a thick skin. kalla. serpentina. * Caliver. dragonder.position is much less common than the geschut. culverin. Lat. a soldier who the It.en~ kinds of firearms. calcaich. whence couleuv. Sp. or caliever. calo.Lat. calgua. calclover. kal.' But it is hard Du. CALICO Calliper-compasses. diameter of a ball. them &c. heat. a feathers. from Calicut in the E. 125 Prov. a successor. to affirm. Ptg. skin hardened by labour. Calico. saucy. the Fr. hot. calme. people's remarks. u to an I in such a colubrum. 'A callet of boundless tongue. couleuvre. the hard surface of the ground. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. but is only a jda-kallo.meaning of the word. sound.' Whitby Gl. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. prattle. Sir John Smith in Grose. cauma. can be distinct from ODu. nautique).' Slange. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. drive. or languishing drought is . KaXka. sestus. caillette.— . saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. coluber. kil-u-kal. Bi. harden by pressure. Fin. callus. Diet. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. fistula. try. calare. and E. sclopus. a. According to Jal (Gl. given. Fin.' Winter's Tale. however. kael. chatter. calicot. bald. Fr. calma. calleting. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Fr. cahna. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Hard. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. the Fr. callum. kallo. Fr. a drab. heat. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Kavfia. Callow. calibre. alta voce ploro. abto suppose that E. to proclaim. Mahn derives it from Lat. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. to say. bombarda Cauma incendium. To century was Squalibre. the scalp or skull. calvus. to burn. Mil. overscalmaccio. Diez. calcare. Lat. . Due. coluber also. calc. colubrina. glotton. to rail or scold . overheated. hallottaa. koluvre. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. quality. which is as much as to say. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. by many that the weapon Callous. kol. — Fl. a good calling. whehce it was first brought. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. and dragon. chatter kallen. cotton cloth. calibre. AS. to callet. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Probably from the sound of one hallooing. voice. of a column. Antiq. Sp. a last. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. ' pert. the latter of chamber. Derived by some from Arab. ram. form. tittle-tattle. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. Calm. oldire from audire. scalmato. — — — — — . vulgo Coluvrine. to be of a good or bad quality. push violently. . Turk. piece of bigger circuite. Sup. ululo Turk. donderbuchs Sp. B. Heb. So It. Unfledged. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . water-tight. faint.from Ka'tm. faint. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. caluw.piicede Lat. CALM to press or stuff. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. sence of wind. Among these were the turn. trull. Gr. * Callet. moso. tapulta. on. Du. klover. khalif. a round of abuse. and heat. calca. the heat of Now these Du. kal. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. to call. The origin is Gr.' Chaucer. calat of leude demeaning. hollaing. gossiping. To Calk. whereas in troth it is not. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. kahcwe. to prattle. coulevrine. harquebus or handgun. brawny. Mid. of the bore of a firearm met. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . It. NE. serpens. dragoon. depreciatory term for a woman. Gael. cauque. word of mouth . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). colubraria canna. — — — — — . dial. to cram. calk. Ca. caliver. to abuse . licht stuk The change from a.(jaa= ice). which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. E. ' rine. femme frivole et babillarde. quA librd. and sometimes a handgun. scold. longior. an adder.. or mould. calor. done with heat Alt. To drive tow or oakham. Ibid. qAlab.

callour. Calver of cane.Gr. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Campaign. Turk. Sp. campus. crooked. champagne. the salmondis faillis thair loup. arched. Sp. co7nbar. and yspiuv. a' Sc. It. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. arch. a dog. a goblet bud. water chamlet . From campus was formed Lat. good. campagne. lattice. campaign. India Islands. cere : Lat. clothed in white. canistrum. Canine. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. se cameloter. canna. Lat. Fr. chaitcre. fresh. whence Fr. Lat. icaSoytipoe. paign. Canibal. to warp. It. cancer. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Camel. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. ckaouma. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. sugar. Canker. a caught. cup. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Cameo. B. KafivTu. sore. Candid. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. properly good country. Camisade. Fr. Fr. It. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. unwater chamelot . to avoid enemy in their shirts. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. cambre. camahutus. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab._ kamm. Ptg. a basket.—Jam. canis. E. camisa. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. fair.Lat. An eater of human flesh. a field Greek monk. camelot. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang.— B. to glow. or hollow of a flower. champ. Fr. crooked-stick. . a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. different sections of the like the Chinese. Kakoycpos. Camp. Properly calver in the field during a war. chommer.conduit-pipe. calj'x. cambr^. crook. Fr. w. on. cainahelus. arched. camber-nosed. cambrer. It. camiscia. kanna. crooked. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. salmon. E. would plenier. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. Fr. Mod. toile some of whom. chamold man. cambren. Cann. white. calutmiia.. to jut. Cambray. Gr. Sanson khanda. the space of false imputation. camaien. the type of a hollow pipe. Lat. slander. a large drinking . when its substance appears inter. It. Lat. A — the Cannibals. — Cancel. aged.who their language. aspirant. — B. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Caloyer. chandelle. or Caribs. is Cambering. to break. Lat. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. It was distinfrom work. In a different application It. a. to bow. Pers. Sp. hooked. whence the Fr. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. at the ends. Lat. campagna.— Hackluyt in R. campagna. lie level. The Grisons cauina. See Canker. KafitjUe. catmneo. Bret. candidus. lame. — Lat. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. B. camiscieia. camp. From fluting or furrow in a column . Fr. Calumny. bis. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals.— Chandelier.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. field . a. a may have acquired that signification from plain. samon.—Cambrel. cam^e. crooked. campo. the calix. Cot. Gr.—Candidate. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. the bed of a stream. ko/utuXoc. is Candle. a crab. having an aquiline nose. from xaXbg. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. to bend. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. campo. a piece. callar. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t.' ' Quhen a lattice. Cancer. higher in the middle than Fr. Mid. across — Bellenden in Jam. to the force of the wind. Arab. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. died in 1526. ation. . nia. Fr. cup. Peter Martyr. monk. cancello. camisade. mg Canister. from candere. Palsgr.' Forme of Cury in Way. brought from Fr. E. camelus. camafeo. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. cAouma. Candy. campren. also an eatmg sore. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. to bend. an eating. the heat. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. It. had no r in de bric— Cot. open and level ground. Camlet. spot for cattle. Canal Channel. candela. Cambrav—Cam. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Calyx. — — — A — — escume de saumon. frank and sincandidatus. Lat. Or the word Lat. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Cambrel. canalis. Cambric.

Cant. Fr. caparazon. kand. Cope. a door . kwvwxIi. Cannoii. hemp. as. Canvas. it would have been found in the continental languages. the part easiest broken off. from . Mod. speech. cantone. canoa. cover . the heel. a cloak kapali. Diez. and the sex- &c. canapaccia. also a measure. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. cappa. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. kantr. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. chantel. Sp. Capable. say. from a Canter. coat. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Gael. carcase . clqse. cantle then is a corner of a thing. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. to con- rummer. kynnel. a gelding. capa. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. properly a large Prov. Cantle. Jonson. a division of a country. shut. hood. lump. Hence Lat. the quartile. Goldast — in in Schmid. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. chape. . Cot. cannevaccia.n. From Gr. chanteau. a reed. quarter. canapa. It. Sp. the heel. canton. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W.Gr. Capari. cainnt. and met. a side. a ship canot. Fr. the tried list of saints. . a cover Turk. edge. cannone. like a torch or candle. Alamannis. Canteen. quarter . Kavutiriiav bed curtain. measure for cloth. cane. Schwab. part. Again we have Lat. cane. cane. kaput. Lat. OFr. name. cane. a reed. Capacious. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. canteau. Probably only the augmentative of canto. KaTTiram. haitt.. tain. To canvas — . able to receive. a small boat. . A slow gallop. KCLvva. he discourseth of dissection. Du. cheese. coarse hempen cloth Fr. N. Palsgr. region. It. a ruler. or hold. Germanis kdppen. kapamak. and hence a gobbet. language. canonici. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. trine. cannu. The — . border Dan. from canna. schlappen. Mod. Picard. is found languages of very different stocks. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. canevas. From Lat. cantina. contain. was formed Kavtiiv. border. canvas. as a cantle of bread. Canoe. root cap. margo panis diffracta. coarse hemp. corner. signifying cover. cantref. territorial hundred. cappe. To Canonise. a — A — Cannel Coal. Wtb. cope. If the word had been from cantherius. a drinking glass. &c. Esthon. astrology. It. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. Swab. a torch. W. a straight rod. . although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. being a yard or thereabouts . capevole. Gugel. can. It. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. covered. a hundred. a wine-cellar or vault. a cane. a cantle of bread. a rule or standard of excellence. a horn of the moon . It. a Fr. pipe. and tref. B. canto.Gr. regular. cover kapi. kyndel. A . To his judicial And trowl the tile. kq. Cape. hemp. The word seems to be taken from Gael. It. A piece of anything. Fr. capello Italis. Canon.— Cot. from Dan. Coal burning with bright flame. a cap. side. has kahn. It.^on. hamlet. capace. See Capt-. to shut. a pipe. The meserseum and the mesentericum. a tube. Kavt\. hirnschlapple. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. a corner. which is not the case. Sp. kandt-broodts. schlapp. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Canopy. from cant. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. capax. to contain. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. a scull- — here. a hunch of bread. cape. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. kanta. gnat. rumme. leiwan kanta. ON. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. cannevo. Canton. canon. canonicus. a boat.CANNEL vessel. or cantell of bread. to put upon sacred writers. Fin. But it may be different source. that the G. &c. Kil. a cloak. Prov. to sing. quito curtain. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. See Chape. cantred. call. cappe. cannabis.

to crackle. or goat's leap (done by a horse). algabr.' Cot. ericius. It. also the capriole. brisoler. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. capriola. G^' Many words — ' ndv. wriggle. the initial mute of forms like Gr. or other things. Unexpected pleasure. to . roughening of the skin. greziller. of a coach. crackling sound Cape. brisciare. or. So from Sw. and with an initial gr instead of br. bristling. cut. a chevret. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. chief.Gr. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. a caterpillar. then to shiver or shudder. Lat. — — A a hair. to desire earnestly. of a fowl. a hedge-hog. Hal. h^risser. gricciare. bristling. a . and also a skittish or humorous tastical. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. p. brisciare. rihrczzoso. ribrezzo. grug.— Fl. curl. It. or Lat. a ch illness. caj)o. castrated cock. Capital.' — (Supp. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. hair. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. Griller d'im' patience. airoKOTrrw. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. capitulare. as Fr. grisser. belonging to From caput. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . Lat. ^piKos. for which he cites the Comask nucia. grillcr. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. The true derivation lies in a different direction. arricciarsi. It. cappriccio. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. with joy' Vikram. caper j caprio. — to yearne. sault. horripilation. Caper. a caper in dancing. Lat. as in Lat. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . shrub. toy. castrated. capparis. It. curling. according to the Hindoos. Lat. rissoler. ticchio. chattering of the teeth. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire.) grezille marid. Acad. s'hdrisser. and his body bristled We to castrate. Caprice. cut off.standing on end. Fl. herissonnement. CAPRICE twittering. kid. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. capriole. to broil. to twitter as birds. cover of a saddle. as Fr. a capriol. knis-hujwud . ziki. frisser {frissement d'un trait. riccio. heath. It. a little head. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. grisser.). the hair to stand on end. to shiver. they longed extremely to see it. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. A . a goat. to from capitulum. explained by Diez from capra. and OHG. Lang. cApre. a yearning through sudden fear. frort^Lat. Hair-like. to crackle. 75. compared with Bret. the singing'bone). brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. The same imitation of Capon. aggricciare. Fr. a young kid met. bruco. It. capitalis. prickly husk of chestnut. to fry.— 128 CAPE a rustling. Mod. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. hi. a head. principal. w. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. alcaparra. brisciare. <I>pi'?oe. fansuddenly angry. frissoner. horror. gricciare. then to be in a state of vibration. Capillary. to broil. It is probable that Gr. the head. capillus. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver.impressions on the ear. as Fr. of a tremtdoiis sound. to shiver for cold. curly. Hence capitalis the sum lent. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. capriol or caper in dancing. hedge-hog. a separate division of a matter. brissle. Capers. I have shivered with love. It. upon terms Sp. Fr. Fr. To treat Capitulate. It. end. frizzle. brezilia. to parch. Genevese bresoler.'— Trev. Torriano. capar. capro. humorous. a buck. II bresole (Gl. arricciarsi. and 7tucc. birsle.) d'etre The It. Arab. the head. Fr. And similarly to yearn. to shudder. Sp. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. brug. shivering. shivering. greziller. then find the symptoms of shivering. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. as the means of earning profit. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. eruca compared with It. Cot. abridge amKoTroq. frisson- ner . the principal part of the debt. erica. See Chief. to ruffle the surface of water. gives rise to Sc. the hair to stand on end. gives rise to brezza. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. caprice It. where Burton adds in a note. knis. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. . that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. or represented by the syllable e. a kid. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. A headland. is either wholly lost. caprice.

sels. seize. Fl. as the dragoons (Du. Capuchin. a sudden will. case. strideo. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. chevre. to this is It. and of captus to an e. a windlass. It. cabreia. Lat. char. karista. In the S. of the Sp. a cloke) capuccino. to take. also tresFl. G. and has accordingly been lost in E. charrier. conception. capitano. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. conceive.s. a hooded friar. It. cams. Caseneuve in Diet. deceit. Etym. Carbine. or the (capo-riccio). . commander. was converted into -ceb. Fr. Sp. decepte. and tropically. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. dim. calabrin. capra. -ceive. It. one odd. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. OSp. recepte. from head. Kiittner. — —Diet. Fr. to load . Carabine. a reception. also a kind of rack. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip.. also to carry on a car . capuccio. cabestrantej Fr. Thus the musket. carretta. a fantastical humour. Fr. Fr. and has thus descended unaltered to English. captivate. bock. Nordfoss. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. recipio. Cot. krul. Fr. de- price. &c. to please. verbs gives rise to the element . 129 — receive. Du. carro. as in accipio. deception.). to take baclc. karren. The It. charger. caprice. &c. conceit. Passing on into E. acceptus. tnoschetta. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. concebir. at least. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. -cept. crepo. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. — — Capstan. Lat. a capuchin. In cases. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. a kind of torture. kerren. cabra. concipere. recipere. contain. capp%tccio. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Derivatives are Fr. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. Crab. intercept. crab s. whence capture. caput. a. caThe hrestante. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. captus. di cappa. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. carabin. shivering fit (Altieri). an engine for throwing stones. charret. It. trestle.). Cot. It. calabrino. a cart. where it forms a very large class of compounds. a creaking waggon. Capriole. a taking back. i The meaning Car. Cart. It. captive. capio. capsula. as in OFr. Carry. concevoir. a. box. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. a sawing-block or trestles. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. -cept. &c. Capstern. desire. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. cabestan. Neumann. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal .or -cib-. Lat. chirriar. a coffer. a sudden fear apprehended. caricare. karra. a head man. Fr. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. fancy. precept. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. capitis. concept. of capsa. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. chirrion. Castr. to take to. See Caper. to creak. a hood (dim. Lat. Fin. the -cevofthe Fr. was a kind of horse soldier. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. perceive. latterly. It. hold. however. oisr. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus.. accept. a she-goat.of these compound verbs. cabrestante (whence e. Fr. to creak. It is a standing crab. Capsule. karrende waegen. recevoir. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. to receive receptio. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. except. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Carabin. fantastic. recibir. to accept. receptus. Captain. Capt-. was originally a missile . to carry . Sp. Du.

Derived in the first edition from Mod. karszti. carere. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. Cat. a ship. a thistle. Comp. Sp. a dead carcase. in the same way that the Sp. a collar or chain for the neck.. also a small weight. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. to turn. avSpaS. . ancient springald. a quiver . . kirat. Carat. fire . — seems to be something holding together. carmiiiarc.— — — . decanter. OHG. a lock of wool . the . An implement for dressing wool. Carbuncle. KtpaTwv. Gr. Sp. Fr.. carduus. properly a siege machine. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a prison. quilato. to ripple flax. caracal. cassa. «capa'|8i. Carbonaceous. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. casso.z. a quiver. caravela. Carboy. karra. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Cot. designated in the case of G. and catapulta. carcanada... The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . carabe. a gem resembling a live coal. a coffer. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. carta. Gael. a snail. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Sp. Gael. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a ripple for flax. It. espi7igarda. shell. . Lat. coming to four grains. turning. carcame. carquasse. card.Gr. Parmesan cassiron. wool card. krciti. carbh. mural attack. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. tcapKaai. to comb. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Ptg. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . the name might naturally Mod. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. the trunk or chest of the body . the case of the flesh. Gael. curry-comb. case. the shell of a torcarcasso. Pers. a thistle. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. a wool card. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . eitar. an engine for hurling stones. contract. cerran. to curry horses karsztuwas. poison eiz. quse vocant karabd. a he-goat. caraffa. the core of fruit . winding. bock and Fr. car. confining. Carcax. a kind of ship. Lat. for a gun.. military engines made for hurling stones. The Trjg xeXwwac. Mod. From the battering-ram.Gr. is the chine. It. Card. cramp. Arab. Venet. kard boyd. of the same Caravan. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. a winding staircase. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. I. turn of a horse. carcanet. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. skeleton. chevre by the name of the goat. It. to comb wool . Gael. to card wool. the carob bean. See Carpenter. Cot. carch. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. a case or chest . W. &c. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Sp. copperas. to card wool. wine- bottle. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. It. a crane. Fr. winding carach. to hiss (as gee^e). ' Vasa vitrea. carquan. carate. Carcase. Gr. skeleton toise. a twist. a small weight. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. matter. restraint . The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. the carcase of a fowl. word is only an adoption of the Turk. Fr. AS. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East.charcoal . Bohem. carcaij. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. also (as Gr. seed of carob. &c. Lith. boch. Sp. &c. skeleton. carcasa. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. black dye. a quiver. vitriol. a goat. cdrlag. to draw in. Caravel. cabra. . carbunculus (dim. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. Exot. cabrita. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a battering-ram). carbo. a card or comb . the husk or cod of beans. carquois. bend. silique. eit. constraining . karri. cardo. a quiver . alia sunt majora. . ON. a machine for casting large darts. of carbo). is the word used in modern Lat. Carrob. Caraool. It. an ulcer.' From the same source are SicU. burning coal.applied to a battering-ram (G. cabreia. The radical meaning . The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Fr. or framework. caraffe. the dead body of any creature. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. to creak. garafa. a firelock. carabba. kerwan. p. a skeleton.

A medical term from line —Boerio. giierlir. Bret. carrefourg. murahtaa. to comb wool. graller. Carenare. a card. cdrle. mutter. Coll. carnalis. appertaining to the flesh. & Q. Dan. to growl. Sp. . Chart. murren. de Parthenay. stingy. clown or churl. niggardly . the part of a town where four streets kratzen. four. quarreG. caritia. whence carricare. and G. to scrape . karista. Mur. in Carp. kumra. voce strepo stridente. carnal. sgritudo animi. cardo. — — — Caress. as peas. Card. also a career on horseback. grief. that on wliich the matter hinges. AS. to load. to distress growl. to fry.Lat. carcus. charnel. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. w. the load of a ship. Ptg. — — — : Cardinal. camovale. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. care on. Cath. Carnage. to lie on its side. Fr. OHG. dear. zanken . Fr. Fin. — To Careen. astutus. Fr. meet at a head. Probably the origin of the word is the . Groler. the old theory of humours. to scratch. karg. like connection may be seen between Fin. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. — — . Fin. quadrifurcum from quameet. . Cot. to shake. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. essere in carena. crawl. carminare. It. be anxious. carener. stridere. road. karout. the keel. kurista. from the keel to the water . Translated in MS. It. Cark. Fr. Roquef. AS. cura may be ror. winding. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Cot. carcare. carena. x'»P'"^s)) paper. beans. fundamental. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. surrata. . msstus. Caricature. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. carina. ceorl. and thin. &c. a man. see Garble. A quirito ut infans. kribina. care. affection. the flesh of animals . W. Bois crolant d'un ladre. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. croller.— Charter. record. cearian. carnavale. to eat flesh. crowl.— CARD karr-kambar. Fr. It. Fl. ignarus. a hinge. ON. charta (Gr. tuorfurcm (Burguy). The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. place for exercise on horseback. caricare. sorrow. karl. is to say. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. to card wool. W. It. caMid. carnasciale. and sum. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. to clean the bottom of the ship. wool cards. Lat. carena. murista. Carnal. asper. to rumble. E. Lat. It. to care unkarja. one of those ac- 9 * . kummer. an overloaded representation of anything. to whirr (schnurren). an endearment. G. car. p. carnis. morosus sum. Venet. charie. G. Carl. grolU. ress. piger. at murmuring. what is felt as grievous. male person. moeThe Lat. Cargo.. strideo. morosus. 1S66. Champ. charag. Fr. Cartel. Fr. as carminare. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. W. Sept. the several meanings of the words above Rom. .. karry. from carus. rixosus. in St Jerome. scharren. sorrow. cardinis. Gael. OFr. to load. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. soUicitus OSax. carriera. crosier. caru. karrig. regar. or street. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. principal. to parch. Sp. carriire. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. A place where four roads Mid. cargar. to take Goth. Trin. Fr. tremble. . — Carfax. chartre. cargo. from caricare. kargr. that Fl. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. 273. to love. or grumbling —Due. karantez. is This however Shrove tide. Farewell flesh. Properly. charger. . For the root of carminare. to comb flax or hemp. a deed. cura intenta. Peas steeped and fried. . intrasset caro. the keel of a vessel. carezza. Care. Carled peas. the hull of a ship. a turn. Carlings. combing them out like the knots in wool. carian. caresse. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. the time during which to Rom. to fry or broil. love. charneux. A mod-carag. Bret. bottom. sensual. It. a highway. from carrus. It. ON. 2. Properly a car-road. as quadrivium from Carnaval. from Lat. fleshy . Cot. immediately before the long fast of Lent. and murhet. Carminative. solicitous. . AS. weyes. in N. From. quaver a lazar's clack. gakaran. caricatura. and compare Bret. hoed. charg. — — Diez. charnage.Lat. parched or carled. cearig.' Slceat. act of moaning. tenax. Charnel. No ' place there had. kroU-erbser. 8. careless take care of. carch. compared with Fin. to load. carFrom carrus. kara.

A. W. ! Carouse. Biheld within.— Patriarchi. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. and Carnem laxare (It. linteamen. i. cariielevamen or carnis levamen.gonnella. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. pluck at. Dief. maker of waggons It. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Carole. So gone they forthe. Mid. Lat. Carpyn or talkyn.' says Motley (United Neth. carpo. Sup. Teut. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. chatter skra/a. carpenta. zimmerspan. ship. In a MS. chariot carbad. carpetrix. Lat. skraf. Here's to you still my captains friend. used for stuffing mattresses. Carnevale. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. is erroneous. gonna. to rustle. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century.]e bois Carnelevale. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. litter. Beggars Bush. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. charpie. Bret. as E. All out B. Carpet. act of drinking a full Eq. Gower in Way.— Drant in R. carpetam (a quilt?). each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. carbh. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Templariorum — ' — Due. in Due. Olr.Lat.Why give's some wine then. 2.— Neum. krapati.: . all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. krapanj. to reel. qui sacco. a carder. Pref. to dance. To pledge them thou refuse. a drinking cup.Lat. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Pm. Mid. a dance. zimmer. Cot. In Dominica d'autant. vel coopertorio carebit. in Carp. On the other hand bumper to one's health.' Ordo Eccles. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. i. a song accompanying a dance then. I quaught. Discov. 1 1 30. or loose as a couch without further preparation. On this. The word seems of Celtic origin. carduz. carpia. Carpenter. carpere. Other names of the sea. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Palsgr. Lat. Alluz (G. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. cxciv. pluck. Fr. carpentum. ballare. chirp. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. querole.— R.' Reg. koroll. Properly a round dance. . culcitra. Shrove Tuesday. gar aus / all out is correct. — . to gather. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. as Fr. e.Lat. a car carpentarius. ON. Carnelevale. carpat (Stokes). all aus). balade from It. worker in timber Fr. From Lat. 2. Nomin. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. garrulo. Gael. to chatter coroli. tymmer. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. on that. . Bohem. was formed Mid. and F. Fr. 760. in Nat. quoted by Carpentier. yede tham about. — — ' ' — — — I — — .' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. bier. a wheelwright. fabulor. The custom. charpentier. I drink all out. biheld without. to pull asunder. or a carouse fully drunk up. to find fault with. carnelascid).'— Stat.' Raleigh. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. carpende fast Carol. Analogous R. The tippling sots. Sp. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. sense. 94). . Mediol. course. carpenticre. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. a plank. The ' ' a chariot. 216. to dance. ' ' — . differing To Carp. to talk. as the Lat. Pr. cited by Marsh. chatter.D. Chanson de carole. tattle. garrire. whence the form carnasciale. Carpitam habeat in lecto. carpita. The karole of the stones behelde. Ant. as carnaval from carnelevamen. cardos. carpenter only in the latter sense. lint. of Guiana. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. CarTo quaff carouse do use. peta. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. a wheelwright. to pluck.

helmet. It. cancel. Fl. It. casag. — Cartoose. abrogate. mata. caisse. casser. bag and baggage of a camp. The Sp. house. — — nul the proceeding. a of water. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. ignominiously exposed. an act of falling. charrette. cascade. casitiste. capsa (Diez). of carta. a paper case. Fr. card. hull of a ship. Du. casuelj Fr. cartella. charrier. CartOTicli. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. where Fr. casso. vault hole in a fortified wall. caroche. something that actually occurs. It. Cot. also the carriage. Fr. Rouchi carpHe. casus. a car. gristle. cascar. case-maiej Sp. casa-maita. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. cashiered. Gael. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Fr. made void. Cascade. blotted out. and that apparently from capio. casa. OE. G. Rouchi caroche. annul. hollow. dim. carretto. a coffer or small case for jewels. It. caro. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. AS.' Cot. shell or carcase of a house. to fire on the enemy. hung up in some place and to be removed. Carrot. a fall. ' Casa-matta. to notch. Fl. to break. Cartel. kasseren. carretta. Case-mate. Fr. To Carry. kerben. cia. a chest. properly to convey in a car. — FI. to convey in a cart. mord-keller. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Fr. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. a merchant's cash or counter. mord-grube. Fr. a loopscale the wall. carrosse. like all the names of tendon. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Fr. carriaggio. augm. krat. cassere. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. as we .' Bailey. fortuitous. It. pasteboard. Casket. paper. See Gristle. to shear. to crack. void cassare. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. casco signifies a skull. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. kirpti. Cot. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. Lat. Fr. caroach. It. Casuist. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. Casque. discharge It. for the security of the defenders. gristle. Probably. caisse. to cut or carve . cassa. cartouche. to bear or carry. It. Cartoon. See Case. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Flor.. luggage. Cash. casaque. To duash. casualis. Rouchi carone. To Cashier. It. from It. Ready money. Hence casket. a hut. Fr. cascata.— Fl. Rouchi carter. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Carrion. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate.' Fl. turn out of service. Case. from Lat. and the OE. cancelled. to — — also casse. quasser. cartoccio. from It. and matar. not reaching to the height of the ditch. caisse. one who reasons on cases put. Lat. break to pieces. crush. an augmentative from Lat. Sp. cassette. cut with scissors. fall It. crown of a hat. To Carve. charogne. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. cartone. AS. subject for a picture. a chance or accident. Walach. carroccio. Carriage. See Card. cassa. packing ' cloth. casacca. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. empty. corresponding to the G. cartilage. to slay. It. Lat. Fr. As defence from shells became more important. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. of carro. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. coffin of paper for groceries. — Cartridge. Lith. from the sound it makes when Alban.' — Hdcart. long man's gown with a close body. discharge. cassus. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. The carrying of anything. carreaggio. to an- — Kil. Fr. tion from Sp. carogna. bitten. a car. a canonry or slaughterhouse. from casa. cascare. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Cart. Lat. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Cassock. to fall. afterwards any written challenge. the money chest. To quash an indictment. carroc- carrozza . kerpu. Sp. Casual. to dash. Du. quash. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Case. the charge of — — Fr. coffer. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. — — . Cask. a long coat. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Preparatory drawing of a It. kerven.to annul. caxa. Fr. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. slaughter-house. case. carota. des rideaux A'carp^ie. augmentatives of carro. to hold. ceorfan.

'— Pr. and KviilSog. Fr. to break. probably from an imita. to turn overturn. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. cascar. kottr. Roukind. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Pm.out cacciare . In hke manner Rouchi cacher. . away. . cacciarc. by the loss of with several pitched cords. to end. Hal. OFr. puss / for calling them. castanetazo. while kiss / Pol. represented by the syllable quash. which. Lat. Mid. perhaps from which we have E. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to hurl See Awgrim. Fr.Rouchi Scaches. an enumerlist. to bring to an crack given by the joints. on. &c. casule. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. to lash. casser. kic' kicil are used chasser. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. chasser. a garment for performing the mass in. force j Rouchi equerviche. cash. 'Vaaaw. It. Gael. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Fr. coming to us through different dialects of French. dash. Fr. Gr. . the earlier sense of catch. ecrevisse. cast. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. KaraXoyog. castana. arpi^m. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. to crack. same word with break. handle of an axe.. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. ichasses. sue. of castrum (castra). which has been retained in E. katze. Others explain it from Kara. down. cacciuolo. second chase. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. chaleur. . to drive away. Lat. a cat koshki. signifying breed. a chesnut . Brunne. cat. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Lang. V Lith. dashing it out of the window. kissa. dashing it to pieces. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr.Lat. cassa / cry for the same purpose. ON. squash. stilts. fer toTa. shaft of a 1 push.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. first made ordinary Fr. Cot. Fr. cat-o'-nine. was introduced. V. Pol. ' Catchyn away abigo. klakka. to cast or beat to tioner . a fortified place. Etym. Cast. a whip on the other into latch. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. 134 CAST Catacomb. B.. to scourge. crush . to fall as over a precipice. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. the stalk of plants. in the fire. to dash. So also from It. fall. Fr. Hence castaneta. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. bot-kotis. casulla. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. of sarabands does Gr. like that of It. 120. a little house or hut. kasi. kasta.— Fl. castellum. KarapaKrr]g. Fr. and from the castus. burst cascare. . to make clean or chaste. Castanets. to drive Cat o' nine tails. follow after. dim. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). to close. a cat . It. from water Karappaaaiii. catar. KaTappaKTrjQ. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. The Diet. execu. Gr. image accasciare. — We a cavity. rack. or bruise together. squash. Fr. Cat. to clack. _G. heat . The E. castro. casipola. chasser. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . to Fl. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Yz. punch. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. Isidore — in Diez. Castle. is not satisfactory. Catalogue. kaJoivad. Chase. kat. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. being Fin. torture. to crackle. It. In the dialect of Picardy. mino. kotas. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. under chi caleur. Catastrophe. however. a thump.to drive out.the / or c respectively. accastiare. puras E. To Catch. speak of dashing a thing down. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. and tomba. kotas. Sp. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. the castanets for or implement . koshka. ating. casupola. castello. cacciare fuora. to hunt. or comba. from the first of Castrate. cojz^/a. Fr. n. to torture. catch. to is Essentially the Sp. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Sp. kakka. to look at. chat. name. tails. To It. R. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. down. KaTaarpifm. chasuble. Thus we have Caste. lance. or Rouchi cat. race. Pic. a vault. drive away. the ground . a Cataract. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis.

chachara. cache. latch of. verberare kUts. Grandg. cagnon (a dog). in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. a caterpillar Milanese can.P. chassoire. fragor kletsoore. door when it is shut. klatscherei. kletsen. ' ' word catch. clatter. claquer. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way.) . lash of a whip corresponding to the G. chase. an accusing. quincailler. bichano (pussy). Gr. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. to chatter with the teeth cake. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. ArbaUte de courte chasse. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. which all . and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. Guernsey pilleure. catch. a — gatta. Caterer. klatschen. resound. catch. e. icarrix'Ki^. . clap with the hand. catch-flesh. e. and answer. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. gingle.V. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. apprehend a person. — explained. a whip or Kuttner.yopl(. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). the OE. is said that he got a claucht of it. head. millecaterpillars. Guernsey chafer. to snap. i. E. chatter. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. c or ^. klatsche and Norm. — . worm. Fr. GaUa catchiza. In the XV'e. . formerly called cliket. Swiss Lombard G. E.' CATCH Fr. Fr. gliong. Du. Du. companaige. Cot. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. snatching it with a any one. Fr. a smack. to the crack. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. On Catechism. to crack GATES cache. snatched. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. as of the latch of a As ! — . Cates. snatching. Ptg. children's name for cat . the distance to which the ball is struck. Kartiyopta (/cari. to catch strength. — Kiittner. a clap. a. .. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . Kariicatching one a box on the ear. OFr. an officer of taxes. 'Bxn. Sp. devouring mite or weevil. s. Tutschek. from Gr. latch. P. happe-chair. Wal. Sc. catc?u. from shutting with a click.s. a whip. bicho. a whip. caucht.j. called dog or Galla catchamza. Gael. cat is not apparent. * Caterpillar. in order). to take. * Cates. Cot. a pill. Gael. chasse. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. to kythe D. silkworm. kletse. predicament. caker. KaTtix'so. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. kaetse. or any kind of relishing food tuals. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. . let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. chacepol. Metivier. to A bailiff.from Bard and ayopsw. to chat. Kil. the the same principle he was Fr. ' Fr. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. — B. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. chatter . de Bray. resono ictu lash. 135 — Aasen. ictus resonans. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. ecachoire. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. a. woodlice. — Catcli-poll. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. to harangue. compare G. sound. . dainty vic- a form lash. called in Fr. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Chate peleuse. Diez. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. pedes. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. a cornIn the s. a whip Rouchi cachoire. wild-beast. glcu. flap klatsche. Claucht. to clap hands. gattola. blow. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. klinke. instruction in forms. G. a carter's Pat. the elements of a science. smack. chink. dainties. ketsoore.V. a little dog). In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. has both or of charming by sound. seize. to teach by oral instruction. chenille {canicula. to snatch (said of dogs). Kil. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. with and without an / after the c.' ^Jam. E. — with a whip. Rouchi clincailleux. clap. Du. weevils. whip. 'Horxa. insect. klatsch. — tinman.

All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. is used in the sense of cat-skin. to purge. Lat. what . Fr. calceata. &c. caballus.' Elyot in Way. a receptacle for small things. — com en achate or buying Chaucer.p. kin. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. whence cathedralis. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. catons. Cathartic. kobyla. cabbage-stalk. and spareth for no perell. 4. a branding from koiio. Gr. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. cauHs. catkin Pol. B. dumpf tonen. That he was ay before in his estate. Sx. the stones of a street. hot. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Caudle. deyntie meates. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. CAVE Caul. Port. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. adcaptare. It. little cap is . It. 2. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. a horseman. . also to pave . Fr. hot. a kind of skull-cap. Thus Bav. . choufleur {choii. accattare. Lat. capull. A warm comforting drink. quire. chaussJe. Lat. caudex . of delicates the most Her cater seeks. cal^ar. chaudiire. and hence a skull-cap. katte. Wyatt in R.willow. Bessie of Bednall.. . kobuiV.' B. — . Diez). fur in general. by land. via strata. primitive is meaning a shale or off. calidus. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. OE. catkin mitz. Fr. Palsgr.. Du. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. • — — See Chattel. — — cavallo. KaHSpa. Fr. caldo. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. kopista. cautus). chauderon. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Gr. accapitare Rouchi acater. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe.^Hal. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. cale. shaled or picked Fr. net or caul-work. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Caution. but the acates that are sent him. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Cavalcade. Provider. Richly she feeds. apt to burn iron. cat maczoka. chausser. Cavity. Manciple's Tale. a horse . cautis. G.Lat. kopano. It. mutz. Pr. Kavrijp. Catkin. despencier. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Fr. w. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Cattle. Cathedral. to shoe. chevalier. causa. puss. Chaud. Lat. ' Gr. Du. is Prologue. a paved road. from delf^gato. a pulpit. Kil. a stalk. Lat. Caballus. catkins . catnever sells — — Cauliflower. any Fl. katteken. ce^l. hollow. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cabbage. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. achepter. acater. a road calceata. hazel. Kavrfipiov. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . The word — . a horse . cavus. klopfend knallen. to shoe . On the other hand. Mid. kocianki. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. the caul of the liver. Cave. Cauldron. It. rete A — Prov. kitten kotki. little cat. koparet.^ acheter (Lat. make clean. cheval. Fr. chaudroii. to ac- — Fr. lamb. walnut with the husk on challer. It.Y\\Xea. from caveo (p. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. minon. Gael. Fr. Cavalier. catkin Magy. to shale or peel. flue. KiwariKog. chair. a The peel. cavaliere. Rete. a pavement. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Fr. CATHARTIC sense. cabbage). Jonson in R. Cause. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Fr. Jaubert. challe was ther of a temple. . mudet. otherwise written kell. calotte. a mare. — Cauterise. Russ. acaptar. a kettle for heating water. from chaud. fur. kocie. from KaSaipio. puss. Ka^afriKOQ. Fin. Fr. chatideau. to beware. . Cavern. having the property of cleansing. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. a horse. Causeway. calqada. Cavalry. to sound like a blow . . calceta. cale.—— — 136 correct. Caustic. KaPaWrii. Palsgr. Dryden in R rete. Delycates. kdtzchen. the. to burn. reticella. puss.Lat. . Gr. Boethius. macska. kassije. flock. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. green husk of a calon. Mid. a seat. to buy. kaussijde. Lat. Pol. caple. kautsije.

Cot. In the N. to plank ON. syl. thel. the testern of a bed. To seele a room. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. cavezzone. seele. Cam. syle. koppeli. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. and Gol. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. ceiling. -cede. empty. -cease. to cut. -cess. a fir-plank. . crooked kopio.'— Z. augm.' Marriage of James IV. selure. — — — toyour soverane. in Jam.' — Gawan . to seele or close with boards plancher. is applied to a canopy. dayntily diglit. and that from Sp. lambris. cellar. to canopy siled. beam. plank. Ceiling. that. Lat. It. 32. ciel is so unbroken. caveqon. curved.' del. sus-lambris.). bridle. del into English without ' translation gave cele. dille. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting.' Cot. . which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. the inner roof of a room of state. Lat. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. wall. cavillor. . Fr. . In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. thil. . cielo. p. sill. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. . From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. kapp-zaum. Soc. See -cede. a board. rafter. an aquiline nose. Lat. cesso. Lat. p. sybire. in Jam. thelu. or of a bed. with their substantives concession. kommata. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. plank. succeed. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. Cavil. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. jaa. in Hal. heaven. — . E. post. Plancher.. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. selar. Cease. and then to gape. a planking or boarding tkilian. hollow ice . applied to a canopy.' Hall. The It. lambrisser une chambre seeling. little house. Fr. a halter. -ceed. .. the deck of a ship at thilja. The sense of roofing. a head. nailes will begin to cling. Gawaine & Sir Gol. . —Decease. thili. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. In the same way G. CAVESON kopera or kowera. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa.' Ordinances and Reg. dScis. ciel de lit. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. Fr. Wore. decessus. hollow. . column E. cedo. IV. step away. menuiserie. exceed. A — A false accommodation produced G. .j have come from this source. deal. wuoren komo. thil. board . giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. to plank or floor with planks. 7. Cede. hollow. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. as if from happen. also a seeling of boards. were met. quibble. cabega. to argue capto tiously. flooring E. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. &c. . Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. . — . hivtmel. excess. the roof of a coach. . tester of a bed. 43. departure from this life. hung. recede. &c. as. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. wainscot thiljar (in pi. give place. semely on syll. a log. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . heaven. sill in window-sill. a plank. of E . a hut. cease. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. — komo tain). thilja. Hal. a beam. Sir 137 pit . sky. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. So from Fin. but hang around at the sides. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. And seik — Cessation. The line of descent from Fr. &c. departure. Fr. death. cessum. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. Sherwood. cabegon. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. Hence concede. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. a boarded floor. thiling. a log. coffer. B. a canopy. to go forth. CEILING The kynge to souper is set.' Rutland papers. proceed. 5. to panel or wainscot MHG. ceiling. a log. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. H. Sp. pp. door-sill J Sc. The importation of Fr. komista. a canopy. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. a severe bridle. dil. of cavezza. &c. Boyd in Jam. cyling (W. komo. yield. VIII.). canopied. and zaum.

a prick. Cot. guish. assess. to celebrate. Fr. to heat. Lat. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. and thence censer. or expression of Ennius. Centre. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. conceipt.— Chafing-dish. the point round which a circle is drawn. a religious observance. Lat. cigliare. see.). what to set in a chafe. To chafe is for wine. heaven. a registration of one's self. Fr. and put it through the over eyelydde. to bury). ciller. To seel or close the eyes. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. &c.ing a room where there is not fire. Assess. Sc.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. to -sum.unmarried. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest.' Book of St Albans. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. to glow. ceremonia. census. Cell. a shaft horse. to course of people. eyelid. to be regarded as one celebro. Lat. oil. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. S. Certain. receipt. deceipt. The term cilium. to rate. cot. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. {cori)cipere. concetto. rough from the quarry. -civer {conciver— Roquef. with transposition hence (of a day). to sepap rate. judge. abundance. with the eyes. and thence to conceal. — A . It. to think. cella. to set on fire. Gr. oil. in Marsh. in comp. deceit. mortar. distinIt. Coehim. /ctj/rsw. -oept. to take. to contend. K^'ivut. blind. to visit in numbers. Lat. Cij(fe5j. but was gradually lost in conceit. the talk of men. Census Censor. to separate. -ceive. cerealis. to sleep). — — Cenotapli. Gr. OFr. encens. an eyelash. capio. chauffer. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Lat. riscaldarsi. or any bird's. stones to the production of heat. calefacere. — . celer. siller les yeux. age. estimate. tax. Celerity. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Lat. Lat. Centurion. Gr. become heated with anger. Celebrity. to prick. single or unwedded life. -ceptjun. irot\oe. swift. -cevoir. It. to take. to twinkle darkness. to attend on object with. confounded ist from It. the place where the de. 1. judge. sacred show. Assize. (and thence also) to hoodwink. from Saa-rw. to chafe. In Celebrate. Fr. Incensum. thronged the participle cretus. — . -ceit. is the opposite of disora virum. cretum. Censure. Gr. censura. cillier.. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. pick out. cenio. then to rub without reference Cement. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Lat. Fl. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. appertain. the officer appointed to take such returns . Ceremony. Lat. -cebre ifoncebre. See Celibacy. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. Censor. sure. -cepire. being taken from Fr. capturn. to distinguish. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. celeber certus. and so of that other. renown be embodied with. Fr. To Incense. much frequented. -cense. quarters for slaves. caber. crevi. a solemnity. -cipio. -ciper. decide. contend. cceremonia. Chafe. we have a modified form of (of a place). — . Cot. to rub for the purpose a hut. dchauffer. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. in comp. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Sherwood. hollow. Accelerate. as entering largely into the derivative certo. family. — . -cess. to blindfold. to warm.— Cellar. decebre) .cern. a hundred of what- — . &c. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. and — — — possessions. judge Lat. Lat. cencer. keep in It. his office. parted sleep. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. -cern. a solemnity. For sess from assess. Fr. — . a valuation of every man's estate. Fr. tax. in accordance with the Fr. Fr. criticism. also grave opinion. Cess. point. syll. eschattffer. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. chaufferette.of the r. to burn incendo. calefare. materials It. Prov. rubble. cilibat. to incense. centum. Cereal. ' . and make them faste und the becke that she se not. a Cemetery. zens according to their property. goad.j 138 thill. -CEIVE a shaft. empty. Century. Censer. thence belonging to or connected with corn. -cepere. for building. Lat. Lat. incense. Fr. as in some places burnt. Ta^oe. and met. . solemn (of per. . value. — . census. candeo. concernor. make angry. concerner. a storehouse Chafe. sile. sting..' Celebritas. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. the hollow the Lat. a hundred centuria. a numerous con. camentum. a tomb. of heating. from censeo. KsvTpov. observe. -i^oivre. ciglio. See Cede. sift. Take the nedyll and threde. to concern. festive.).

jaw. swelling with anger. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. G. a jackdaw. calice. quisquilise offence.' Rayn. Camera. to gnaw. refuse. Fin. to file. a rustling noise. chicane. chafeter. Pr. kahista. fern-chafer. Adelung. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. kaff. from of the G. to bark. clamare. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. difficulty . idle words. Lat. preise. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Fr. (ca'e'ra) to chair. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). rustling motion challenge. contestation. Lat. kedja. Fr. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Fl. kever. Fr. a chain. havOFr. Du. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. breathe hard. any insect of the beetle kind. . a pulpit Cot. in a cana. chaffare. cathedra. to call. — — ' — — — A . as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Chalice. sborfare. to caw chawer. crooked. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Chayire. Cot. gewolb. Hal. lime . leviter crepo Then. sagrindse. dispute. Chagrin. to institute anforensic action. . Piedm. Bav. kiqfta. Lat. to Latin calumniare. Fr. cadieira. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to puff and blow. De Ir4. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. to tattle. Lat. chamar. chaise. Fr. often puffing. cathedra. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. . B. signal by drum or P. to action arose. bargain. Halma. as. camera. cadera. sagri. In like manto huff. Cot. avena vilior. The jaw chafty. and signifies to consume with anger. cam. Fr. puffed or ruffled with ly.sure carriage. khah. a vault or arched roof. Gr. to buzz. kuhuja. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Ayenbite. To buy and sell. kuhina. ckapfare. vis. with a:n arched roof. From to go to law. — . as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. keffen. tattle cheep. &c. have a mind to parley. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. kuhata. kahuja. ceaf. yap. chaps Chamber. without chap/are makiinde.nium. Fr. keuchen. cadena gives chain. chayire. rustling corn. Gr. refuse barley . trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. hght Chalk. 11. as a carriage is a moveable seat. to dispute. hordeum vel let. snort. chaene. ing rapidly repeated cries. taubes korn oder hafer. cup. Probably from According to Diez. kiamta. Fr. vel susurro. Du. green sagrin. from the shark-skin.. dongio. matter by combat. From Port.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. chawe. chagrin. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. calonjar. fume. Due. — — — — — — . cauvette. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. to claim. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. From the To Chaff. to chatter or talk lightly. Lat. to babble. a pulpit. . calumnia. muzzle. haggle. kahu. ceafer. Lat. a prattling woaction. hiss. chaulx. Kuttn. kiaftr. G. care. kuhista. — — — . rustle Challenge. chatter. Bouffard. chambre. Pat.— — . thick and short. So from dominio. charge with. to move the jaws. false accusation. Kaiiapa. 35. and as this was the beginning of man. calonja. to pant. songe. tronfio. cadena. Prov. kauchen. limare. . rally one. Chair. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. kaff. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. ing a hard case to their wings. a goba rustling . place See Cheek. far lima-lima. KoBiSpa. Cheffern. de Brai. Prov. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. ^Altieri. — — — . catena. ple^. grief. Pers. Prov. P. lime. Perhaps Pm. fa sagramen de calompnia. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. a chough. talkative. snuff. In vulgar language. p. in a monstrous fume. ON. from Swiss kafeln. calix. to gnaw. chalanger. shaIt. Wall. much more Genoese sagrind. on. to a seat. calx. OFr. puff. or puff with snorting. also to prattle. that leneth e per I'autra. of. to sit. care. grief. chaine. chafing. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. a double operation * Chafer. to ner It. kdfer. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. E. baras of ants. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. call in question for an ley).. chaire. Lat. great chafe. now a chair. to fret inwardtronfo. to calumpnjamen. Fr. Fr. Came. tattle. much blowing. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. kdfelen. Chain.

Chance-n3. kampa. zs jeopardy. M. kippo. Lat. camerlengo. to fall. . ON. to Hal. game campio. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Dief. who stood ad cancellos. camp. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Lat. champ. Magy. pinch. chamble. kappd). differs only in the transposition of the letter m. which seems another form of the root. chdance. chance. Gall. combat. kimbu. to happen {ad and cadere. Chancery. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. mesleiare. bickering. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . ing. Champion. or player at football. kabe. to talk. To cope or contend with. or less ignorant. kabintis. chance. kabMe. e. campar. received the petitions of the suitors. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. a hook .' ' Pr. Sp. Fr. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. It will. kempen. G. is explained by serrarsi. dricka i kapp. Partnership. campus partitus . kimpUma. Champaign. to wrestle. to excel. reusement — fight in single combat. — KiL . ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner.—Tutschek. . . accidere. cameratus. jeu parti. caer. Meleare. to hollow out. kapp. Fr. kiinp.edley. compound. Pm. kempa. kabinti. Champ. to to chew champ. kiammi. top of a borehole. therewithal. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. When the to quarrel. To Chamfer. kimpustella. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. cahir. a game at football. The E. contention kappi. dial. champ. chanfrein. To hollow out in chanPtg. to wrestle. a feat. to strive at games . s. surpassing. to slope out the . to debate. escazenza. ON. to move the jaws kiamt. from cheoir. Ptg. Prov. kibti. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. —Chamfrain. fighting place. So in e.140 CHAMBERLAIN . to flute as a column. to fasten oneself to another . governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to hang. Sup. champ. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. champ parti. kampen. kinipen. a hollow chanfreiner. bundle. giving rise to the as. kablys. chanfreindre. Fr. calidameya.' SherI'altro ' ' . The word is preserved in E. to stick to. camp. Hence (with the nasal) w. cempa. kampeln. fray. dial. ON. wood. ciambellano. dial. difficulty . to be eminent. . chaude mesUe. camp. to fasten on. rare. CHANCEL It. kanip. and acted as inofficers of . And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. — masterly Sp. Get campers a ball To camf . an athlete. and mesUe. broil. hero Sw. Campar. accident. to cample. head armour. from Fr. a court of justice. . calida et sans aguet. act of falling. at the railings. a bundle. Commonly derived from campus. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to chew. champ. cancelli. — ^Tusser. champion Du. campus. See Camp. chajnbellan . to fasten oneself on to another . to hold . boys speak of capping verses. cazer. certare.—Charfron E.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. move the jaws. Lat. chamfrain. a warrior. Lat. a scufSe. to . zampettare. gekrUmmt. dispute Hal. from chaud. kimppu (Lap. Du. athlete. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. contest. as in It. tsammogni. slope of a bevelled angle. Fr. fight. termediaries between them and the judge. The happening of things Chance. nels.Lat. hot. campear. chanfrein. to tread The sound heavily. hng. i. kampeln. Carpentier. gewolbt. contend or argue G. tsamtsogni. divided game. Fin. a field of battle. . Chancel. a horse-race. Chancellor. to groove bevel off a right angle. . sukibti. excellent. to — — champ. keiiipe. luctare. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. prize-fighter. The G. pedilusor. E. to bevel. . an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. cample). ciamberlano. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . as swine. Fr. Chamfron. jocus partitus. to slope. to paw the ground E. a jaw kianisa. Lith. to smack the lips in eating. cadere. dial. chanfrar. — Hal. Fr. Prov. to quarrel (comp. chain. kriimmen gebogen. to fall). E. Sp. fight. — Ch-amberlain. Champarty. the chafldn.' melleia. hamper. dial. schmatzen s.

are kept. a small plate of flat metal. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. to peck. and the modern canal. Chop. while the broader vowels a. like the knocking of hard things together. chapa. prune. not a soul. a small metal plate Port. to spht a chip. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. cambiar. to swap. wood. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . W. cambium. as It. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. chapilla. Da. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. to deal. kapoti. klepan. gab. ^Jam. To Change. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. a jaw. Chap. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . exchange schimbatoriu. to sing. esclapo. Fr. E. Chip. to cut. — — —Marculfus in Due. —Ordericus Vitalis. And N. to strike. to cut up into small pieces. clapet. Lang. Fr. debeant conjurare. lips of an animal. to paw like a horse . chiappa. flat . is used in the same sense . from chandler. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. a strip of metal plate. 140. Sp. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. hard bodies. to put on fresh clothes. chancery. chapear. . In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true.^. muzzle. the mouth. Aasen. cobio. Molbech. Hence chantry. a dealer in candles then. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. surfaces striking together. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to coat. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. canalis. It is also used in the sense of the E. hack . — .— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. throat of an animal. . the place where candles ler. as those on a trunk. cangiare. Russ. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. chapelete de una bomba. Probably from chap. esclapa. schimbu. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. changer. or the cracking of one. Du. Prov. may be compared with ON. the chaps . jaw. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Commonly derived from capella. extended to other trades. to strike with a sharp edge. as skin chapped hands. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to change. kemma. skipta. to — cut. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chap. Man of Law's Tale. ON. kennel. schimbd. the gutter that runs along a street. In like manner Walach. chop. to hack. Fr. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to cut off . to strike. camjar. cantare. kiceft. as corn-chandChandry. Hal. ceaflas. chapeletas de imbornales. from clap. chapeta. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Cheek. properly in a hard body. Hence It. . Chaps or chops. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to creak. waterconduit. Compare chark. to plate. exchange. — : Lat. kaupa. Channel. shift. the clappers of the scupper holes. kappen. also a clap. Chapel. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. a reed. chap. a money-changer. I. as chancery . Fr. See Chop. chop. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to apply one flat thing to another. chap. to peck. See Chant. Walach. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. chanter. Chandler. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. AS. kjaakaa. Chap. to break . Bret. to truck. a pipe. kvar kjceften. —Chantry. any hollow for conveying water. ceaplas. kiceft as well as kjakje. Sp. exchange. as to chap hands. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to chap at a door. and also to chap or crack. Hal. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. cambiare. A fellow. chaps. to plate. jaw. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Lat. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. chandelier. from canna. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Da. Lith. or the like chapar. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. chancellerie. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Sc. That wide were sentin their spicery. Chape. leather. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. . cheek. . a chap is a crack or fissure. 2.

— spell.czirksti. chirlar. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. Mid. eapitulo. talking. 2. capital. caritas. go. chirk.). burning without consuming the substance. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. twist. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. cam. kurkelis. — a car. a head or division of a book. of chapel. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Hence carminare. ciarlatore. It. carricare. Du. twitter. . a turn cerran. in turns.whirr. a rhyme. cluck. clack. Sup. dear(in both senses). to prattle. Prov. car. from cape or cope. as Pol. charlatan. &c. charger. —— . Sp. Lat. Lat. Charge. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. used in the sense of magic Fl. Sp. charcoal burners. called kedlock. to croak as a frog . It. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. babbling. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. (eucharistie. a mark made on a thing. pohadka. cedeleac. cerran. Deutsch. from capitulum. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. jabber. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. charade. See Charlatan. the turtle pitre. Swiss. carmo. . To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. AS. caricare. from carrus. a verse. turn about. capella. gaggle . It. czirbti. cluck kirklys. hiss Lith. charge an enemy is to lay on. Fr. charitas. seems to be derived charade. Gr. which was incantation. that turned decken . as a beetle. to chirp as sparrows. a hood. — — — turned to coal. decken. Fr. A weed among com AS. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Chirk. The G. ject). In that work the verb is written caire. babdistinction. w. it is my turn. Fr. An enchantment. corona. affection. ceap-man. cearcian. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. See Cheap. prattling quacksalver. called in Sp. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Mundart. chatter. w. from Charade. to turn. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . occasional turn. wreath for the head. . gadka. a dispute . The crash. dear. Sp. karout. cabildo.. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. to chirp. keeren. from gadai. Ptg. creak. Lat. wood to coal. be- e. chirriar.charme. and in It. beloved. surris seu Lat. a merchant. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Cot. carmen. hadka. to load . Character. kirkti. AS. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. as. to .' Boccaccio in Diez. to talk . for the same reason rosario. Charlock. capellare. to turn Gael. cha. kurkti. It. Boh. siarad (pronounced — sharad). also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. condo il volgar francese. the nature of a thing. To Char. Chark. a mark of a mountebank. Justin. OE. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. creak. a garland of roses. chapitre. to dove . eyre. Lang. Lay on. chat. charer. chapelet. to converse. a The OFr. chatter. bler. to tattle. in To ness Charity. a riddle.Lat. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . And damned be he who first cries Hold. from capa. Chare. a riddle. gnash. Charlatan. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. cher um cher. dim. Lith. es ist mi cheer. to charcoal. canne. to sing or chirp as birds. enough. . properly to place — . to creak. tattler. chara. . Chapman. turn. chapel. to of the governing body. Fr. czurliwoti. colliers that charred coal. return. schreien. to love. Fr. Yx. tegere. a cricket karkti (schnarren. * Charcoal. carus. grave or make incised marks on an ob. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. 370. ghirlanda seor garland. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. From Norm. Chapter. Charcoal was ciarlare. charlar. krachzen). Inst. czurksti. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. capitolo. Bret. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. to chirp. carregar. Charade. Macduff. a charm. char. to prattle. Chaplet.

to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. to enchase it . or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. chit. To work plate as silversmiths do. clean. tenax. as we speak of olive branches. schioppare. a shrine for a relic. gazzogliare. is to represent the chamier. or a bird out of the egg. See Catch. chaste. talk much . Pm. Russ. to chirp as a bird to cheep. chit in the latter sense Du. B. Lat. prattle. Chart. . clap. chat. also to hatch. to cry as a chicken . make a noise as birds do. to crack. also a youth. to separate in morsels. to set a jewel. shout OE. to care). shivers. G. —Charter. chip. the noise of birds. a branch. be wide open. csaterdzni. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. — Palsgrave. xi'i-'^vui. Diez. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. Fr. Fr. gazeuiller. chick.). jackdaw . as in the E. karg. Chasm. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. root of the Lat. Chat. Lat castigare. gazzolare. clack. Cot. chair. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. Chamel. V. chatter. converse.house. prate. pure. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). caro. carmen is presented in AS. i. used to represent a sharp note. kna. a crack or a flaw . karigh. careful. csacsogni. gazzettare. kata. —Chastise. carnisj bones kept. chisf. to wet.— Chit. The egg is chipped. as. a twig Suffolk chaits. charmer. the young shoots . g. letters p. parcus. gadu-gadu. Malay. carme and Fr. It. —Bailey. blackthorn-chats. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. speak . See Card. pure. noise. clean. kastaa. to chirp.). warble. whistle. or equivalent forms. or suckers on rough borders. So in Gael. chit-chat. the handle of a razor . a flock of those birds. gazzerare. To Chase. a branch and a young female. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. fragments or leavings of food. warble. To chit. — We ornamental work the to signify E. to baptize. — The . whence a charm of goldfinches.— Chatter. clatter. chykkyn (Pr. racket . in Jam. Gr. or the cry of a bird or the like. It. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. To Chase. magpie. germinate . crackle. to which it bears the same relation as chape. as from nomen It.a. — Fr. to burst open. occasionally Forby. Cot. to clap. nome and . — Hal. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. Pol. —Jam. Pol. cearig (from cearian. csacsogany. Du. CHATS fit 143 to name. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. To chip is then to crack. niggardly. little sticks cudere. s. ch&tier. clean. To Chasten. the cry of the bat. talk. nommer. clear. From carinen was formed It. chick. from xoAn. Chary. kata-kata. a churchyard or charnel-house. %aafi. chaste. Fr. czysty. — — . Magy. charm.ppen. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. or pop. chip. discourse. scraps of for fuel. enchasser. to crack. See Cistern. snap. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. limpid. kippen. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. to chirp. to cut and faggoted. Kil. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. an enchantress. ch). also to germinate or spring forth. csatora (Magy. It t. cs E. castus. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. the calix of a rose. gallan or ogan. fragments. incassare. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. To talk. a chatter-box. splinters. Parallel with E. flesh.. noise. OE. a young man . Fr. knacken. An imitative word. It. from purus. to gape. eclats. geug. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. chary. a word. Hal. cyrm. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . It. Fl. knatiern. a yawning. chikat'. In like manner Russ. chits. la chasse d'une rose. To chitter or chipper. to talk. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. — = Chats. Chat-wood. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. as turnip-chaits. castus. the bird is iiown. sordidus. pure. ferire. gaddc. a plate of metal. to make a noise. as purgare Fr. . — sharp sound of a crack. chip. from pure. tittle-tattle. D. a gap. cassa s. Kil. to chatter or prattle . Fl. Chaste. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. — Yorkshire chat.

Fr. kaufen. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. cera. to buy. chire. changing. to cough and hence either buying or selling. The gutGoth. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. OFr.kakot. koopen.' kezen. to — . the tongue. sale. ceafl. a young boy or girl. It — Brompton in Due. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. kikottaa. &c. Cheek.— Chaps. to chop and change. 'li^'opa jord i jord. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. horse-couper. cattle. to nauseate (to retch). kak. Pr. a canting knave.-^. equiva. to buy. Chew. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. kaupon. — To check an account. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Fin. choule. giggling. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. gig. with Dief. . chapman. CHATTELS has ciio. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. a rogue or person who used the canting language. stuttering. sob E. 144 the It. goods. a tavern-keeper. to act as a rogue. to coff—Yisi. Check. agreeing upon. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. Lat.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. kaupiti. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. from AS. cattle. to laugh. See Chess. chuckle. the Lat. lower. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. upon a checked cloth. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. a repulse. ceap. Chattels. cachinnari. sense of bargaining. capitale. Bav. kok. chatal. aspect of a man. Fl.. Du. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. society. hawkmann. s. G. Hence to cheat.. to cluck like a hen. the countenance Fr. cattle. chear in the sense of victuals. exAS. Pm. sum in a loan. to negotiate. to make inarticulate sounds in . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Faire bonne chire. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. stuttering. and. frown. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. ku. kichen. whence captale. chavylbone or chawlbone. catalliim. giving or taking in exchange. caupo. Cot. farm for farm. a willing look and unwilling heart. dchec. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. chiere. See Cheek. Chear. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Cheat. prattlingchete. from Lat. which is the word in ceap. syllables ^ag-. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. CHEEK zitella. to clear the throat . chatel. to vomit. the Confessor. Then. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. et juxta catalla sua. to . kik. Sc. Sp. . a dealer. which is used in the to stutter. Fr. It. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. chop. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. . look. . Soc.of the throat in coughing. chaptel. Modern Slang. laughing. bon marche. visage. lead to OE. a dealer in horses. ceahhetan. Cam. — — —Chowl. Pro v. Gr. kakaista. ceaflas. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. e. . welcome heartily. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. kauf.— . Bohem. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. to stutter gigken. citello. Hal. kakkaset. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . favour. with the exception of land. Ingulphus. cara. OFr. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. entertainment. snout. force of the word. NE. the face. cita. tradesman. us. jaws. It. Ek dry and hard. while it Bret.— Cattle. a cheater. countenance. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king.' to exchange to gasp.ing. goods. KaviiXog. in widely separated languages by the Lat.. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. in Fr. retching. truffa. cozener. mandibula. to deal ON. Slav. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. gagkern. to fetch the breath with difficulty. jaw. a piece of moveable property. to coup s. any cheating. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. the principal ' colloquial E. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment.—Choke. price. are represented piti. and hence the E. teeth . thers. — We ' .— Chole. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. kaupa. gagkezen. entertain kindly. cheeks. to swap goods . kek. keck.

cherir. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Lith. AS. dersen . to accomThis they call hdrsk. cese. . hasten. kok. caru. gap. It. to swallow. Fr. jaw. carnium. quoka. quok. Hence chesten-nut. schach. cufd. a rafter . Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. by laying it in come to an agreement with. Cher. chops. gill of fish AS. to belch. cheek. The name of creak as shoes. king). which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. chAtaigne.Xo belch. to gape gab. for cheese itself. to choke with laughter. jaws. Thus "we are brought din. clear the throat. AS. cheek. the palate Chequer. E. Sw. the throat. Lat.D. AS. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Fin. Lith. caws. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. Sp. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. to heap up such things for the purchoke. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . acquiring a flavour of old cheese. gullet.peep in the same sense. Prov. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. ON. cireggia. Cherry. kastr. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. As the board to gasp i. Pl. to kasa.. N. ceocian. Fr. mollium congeries. czypti. a heap. Sc. Hence kikna is identical with OE. cough. made rancid koka. practice seems to have been communiChevron. to love. Sw. To Cheep. w. kopen. to kep. Du. gapen. giffle. Tutschek. w. G. whence kasa-leipa. jaws Sw. X'C&s. equal squares of opposite colours. Fr. w. jaw. xaque. Sp. gaghel. /Ji2^/(W. Sc.). Fr. old bread. gabe. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. chests in OE.pose of acidifying them kasadr. kasiiUPr. as. suffo. by laying up in a covered heap. chaps.cirieggia. treat with affection. ceac. kastanie. skratt.G. geagl.perly head. From them the plish. cyse. Chevisance. incaseatus. kikna of dorum coacervatio. It would Cheese. kces. See Case. caseus.. nish source. veluti piscium. cheeks. the mouth. jowl. a chicken. Chekenyd or querkenyd. to choke. throat. kdkel. the hke. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Da. Lat. Pm. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. F*-. prevail with. OHG. . rafters in heraldry. . kirsche. as meat and butter. cegio. accomplishment cayed. rupted into chess. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. &c. subjected to this process with that which the throat . To make a shrill noise Chest. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. scacco. cista. rattle in the throat. In these latter forms we see the transIt. rennet. Kil. Fris. Lat. gous forms are G. Cherish. Analo. kistej Lat. See Alchemy. — — . veteris casei sapore Ancatus. cerasus. castaneusj Fr. cabiron. jaw . takes place in the formation of cheese. achever. jouffle. kikna. kapen. then end.' to w. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. dear. ceg. An imitative word. . — — . to hold dear. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. cheken. Chemistry. — — . squeak as a mouse. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. Chevaux de frise. the loose the game of checks. E. to prevent the attack of cavalry. schach. . (Kil. chiffe. CHE.koppen. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. kaecke. Prothroat of an animal . the neck. chesten. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. food. chops. condition of being taken. to geahl. frame by which the exertion is made. the The use of the word kcesir. to bring to an end. ation. Fr. See Chess. Achievement. the final guttural is retained in writing. like a young chicken. ca' — . Jam. Du. to year. chasi. a cricket. chevir. kasa. G. subacidus. — 10 . shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. cerise j G. throat.D. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. chevron. kjceve. E. ost. cams. kjcebe. cheek. whence czypulas. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. acquisition. kesten. things Da. make an end. The Sw. cabrio.EP CHEVRON 145 on. e. kjakje. ceaplas.their struggle for independence. mouth kek. Lat. E. geafl. to gasp. cisty G. ceaflas. to make a noise different word. kdke. Chess. Chef. to boken. ichec.

kauwe. kop. k'imm s. Pm. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. or qf people talking rapidly. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. beam. pi. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. ' . Chill. ]). kindeken. a chicken. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. cabar. — It. pipe. tiukkata. lead through the synonymous E. tiukkua. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. then cold. a young bird. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Sp. kieken. killen. from the second Lat. ultimate origin of the Mite. greloter is to shiver for cold. cib. chicoter. Halm. kuwe. a head. kauen. — Fin. cabriones. a small cask OFr.' my finger tingles with cold. chicken. chieftain. Prov. queror. caput. — Du. pipio. the throat. the jole. kimista^ . Fin. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. chicaner. to pettifog.D. acute. then as G. chill. to chew. Fin. chin. Probably from Fr. to go. 'Among these the G. gosling. cabarach. sonorous. head. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. cidan. chaps. caprioru. . Chime. Chief. keichen. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. chavel. choule. mouth. chillness or shivering. the head. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . kibr. alter. a chicken. . E. caferu. chef.— Gattel. as pointing out the origin of the E. Gattel. a finch. : — a lump. also the horizon. tintelen van koude. Chick. grelot). to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. to chirp or peep like a chicken. the least imaginable jot. kinderen. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Walach. capo. See Chimmer.D. captain. ach. 146 brial. zitterti. cild. to gasp for breath (Hal. branchy.^ Hal. jaw. or chick. a little bit. tiuk. the young of animals in general. chavel. pululo. a cup. Tintillo. pole. mountain top .peep. klagend tonen. when the vibrations become very rapid. tremble. horn wood. Fin. by driblets. and from the third E. The loss of the syllable it in Du. s. or as E. To chitter. W. to Du. It. kime. gills of a fish. chillrar. Fr. to scold. a jaw.— Cot. to contest about trifles. while the Magy. cebr. a hen. to titter is Du. cica cica. from little to little.. strideo. G. A To Chew. cheek.. has probably the same origin. in Walach. Chaw. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. a quid of tobacco. as. kippa. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. chimb. a cup. kimme. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. chillar. while didder is to shiver or citteren.). The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. into a continuous shriU sound. aner. chiquei. a cup cibaw. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. knit the brow cib-led. Bret. Gael. Pm. Russ. deer's horn. kilderkin. Swiss kiden. creak. chiler.. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. kouwe. from the first of which is Lith. knarren. kind. jaws . twitter. jaw. to raise the rim. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. to contest. killen. a chicken. Da. antler.-ill. Magy. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. — . rafter . Child. are formed Du. tremble with cold. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. chawbone. to twitter. term is ssaru fu. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Pr. chic. the Ptg. crepo. Imitative of a loud clear sound. And hence. Chitter. E. the rim or edge of a vase. Brezza. to use the jaws. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. kaau•wen. kopf Du. machouere. capete. Now gan some courage unto him to take. Du. Fr. . — — Mother Hubbard.— . De chic en chic. chol. kaw. the cry of young . To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. to the brim. capu.^ to resound as a bell. signifying properly shivering. Fl. chikat'.. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. rafter. to smart. cabar beinne. Fr. pipio. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. De finger killet mi for kalte. kimia. CHEW . Du. quivering sound which passes. chew or chaw. pip. czypulas. CHJME the radical form is unusual. E. The Pl. tiukka. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. cap. kitista. or the broken noise of birds. kauchen. tyuk. Chimb. AS. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. Chigue. Palsgr. To Chide. to crackle. Payer chiguet A chiguet. G. Pl. kidata. and not vice versd. rafter . For the see word Doit. to chime. Fl. the same principle I regard On birds. w. stake. knirschen. Kil. horns of the house. Lat. Pr.

crepare. pork) . epine. Sp. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. Chimera. tschirpen.' Phaer's Virg. To Chimmer. hus. komia. Bret. Chit. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. kinne. See Chats. twinkling light. and the Du. .schricken. keich husten. bx-eak the back of schena. hiss chirlar. Fr. have been used to designate the spine. to prattle czirpti. schrick. Chitter. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. . in the same crack. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. eschine. schetteringe. to tremble. gena. chhint. The change from the sound ter \s. Chisel. esquina. yivtiov. resonance . ciseau (for cisel). kumista. et garrire . to open chirriar. It. sparkle. as a large bell .iron. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. representing connected together.. killed by Bellerophon. zirken. chirp. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to chink with laugh2. Huloet. the jaw. to prattle . is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. a szemrcU. are In like manner E. to gape. Hindost. to simmer. clipping of coin. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. cheminde. to creak. dial. all these imitative terms being minata. It. genou (pi. sound on beginning to boil. ciarlare. Sw. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. It. the chine. Fr. hollow. Chip. shiver and the chyver of Pr. and from a similar sound to boil gently. It.sharp. eschiner. to tattle. do. kieck hoest. A . . sounding deep. chatter . a crowing sound in recovering breath. AS. Cot. Ptg. to murmur. and light. gen. to sound. Chintz. j^lf. komista. a chap. To chink with laughter. to chirre. the mouth (jaws) . We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. In the same sense. bone . chits. Du. then to any narrow crack or AS. Chink-cough. vincially used in the sense of a crack. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. sonus the backbone Lat. schiena. It. companied. caperd. rustle. cisaille. G. Fr. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. pare also Walach. stridere. to chirp . — . tinnire. a surkik hosta. spina. applied to tremulous motion. to squeak in It. Gower in Hal. i. which differ from each other only as Chirk. esquena. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. as a bell kommata. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . and bodily movement in shimm. Magy. and chim-mer. kumina. Pr. fissure. the jaw. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. chick. Sp. to sizel. a hall Mid. Lith. then of a fabulous monster part goat. disCot. but or cry as a parrot. backe. . plodere. — — — — — . sonants. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. a Kuttn. Gascoigne in Todd. Lat. part lion. from 10 * ' Chia. to creak. E. cinne. czirszkti. Gloss. Chimney. Chine. Fr. Caminatum. zirpen. Chat. to chink. also vibrans. ter. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. as the/ is preserved tering. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . eschin^e (de pore). The small entrails of a hog. fyr. a thorn. verynge or dyderinge. to chirp. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. KinneGr. in Hal. a chink or fissure. name Then. clangor tinniens kummata. twitter caminus. clashing of weapons. caminsects. a fire-place. simmer. squittire. schina. cheek. Chyrme or chur. Diez de. hiss Pm. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds.. Sp.czirbti. Chink. genawi. the cheek (jaw) . — . originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body.). a thorn. skina.Huloet in Hal. klincken. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. E. quavering of the voice. to chine. tremulous motion. Pm. as the chink of money.Lat. Primarily a shrill sound. chink. kink hoest. Sp. cincel. cisello. G. The desig.to divide or Du. . — . — . Chin-coug^h. the cheek. spina. See Chap. sound. or chyFrigutus. as birds the mouth. cinan. Fr. flaw Hal. schetteren. Bav. See Chark. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. To Chitter. from Lat. caminata. the chin .er. cleft. See Bright. quivering or shakyng for colde. 147 kimina. backBut she withal no worde may soune. ykvvQ. Chymerynge. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. tsengeni. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. chin . Du. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. the whooping cough.to chirp. Chitterling. Kil. To chirp or twitter. up and down. to sound deep or the Gr. Prov. from the geon's lancet. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. tsongeni.

civette. The I go to prove them. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. coro. Fr. Chuck-full. i. specially with an application to theatrical performances. from chevalier. cke. Serv. kieser. to taste . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. chorus. to try.vonic languages are Pol. signify to kiss. a fragment.V)^x. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste.yEuffM. 19. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. Choice is probably direct from Fr. to try . schiefer. 2. kiezen.. Cavalry. whence choleric. called cMtters in the N. to wrinkle. to break off in small shive. the small parts of the roots of plants. in the same language. cepa. Gr. cive. kausjan. crammed Choir.ffrill. kaup. select. Enn Sigridur sem ' . kbhren. Jam. curly . a calf's chaldern of E. anger. Choleric. chife. I. koren. chimp. Boh. ON. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. the inwards of an animal. The . word is more likely to be from Lat. kustigen. •- Russ. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. chattering. then to shiver. Chap. seallion or unset leek. chippe. haslets. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Body and Soul. pluck. a small slice or slip of anything . to turn. Choice. &c. a calf's pluck or chaldron . okusyti. Swiss kust. ruffs. * To Choose.' who shall not taste death. chock full. ON. . Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. a rag. bile. heaped measure. kusid. approve. kiesen. and in this sense the * small pieces. gekrose. wkusit' prikushat. ^S. Schmid. lead us on to Lat. As kushnuti. try. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. to strike hands . Chives are also a kind of small onion. arkiusan. Warwickshire coff. g'schochet voll. of E. . from %u\i). kiusan.' Verie coinme Cot. chawdron. — See Cheek. an onion. kushevati. Luc. all seem slate . G. a wine taster. . to ing is doubtless to taste. %o\ifa. rare. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. Goth. gdnse gekrose. to tempt. are used in the same sense. See try. cut up into — See Chats. Lat. shiver. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. kushati. to stop geschoppt voll. Gr. to clap up Hal. to shiver. to prove. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. to taste. a twittering. xiv. kruszki. To Choke. choppe. a ruff. The Sc. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. . keypa. kalbs gekrose. — — — . Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to chap at a door . as green as leeks. . and It. from kraus.' At last he dwelt . the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — .gust. to chap. prove. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. gusten. ments of the knightly class. to taste. caperd. fresure. a chive. and Vf. a heap. chceur.. by the vibrations of sound or motion. krussyi. Walach. to experience. to ^cleave . a ruff or frill. to try. taste. Chives. chap hands. full. kiusan. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. skifa. whence Lat. to try. x^poc. to taste. . ent quarter. friller. ^euw. coup. Gr. Swab. a young . a blow. to Compare also Pol. developments of the same radical image. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. gustare. — Cholera. disposition. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. &c. to choose. Fr. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. wein didder for cold. taste. CHOP kros. fine threads of flowers. . chives. to exchange horses. schoch. chibble. to taste. Chivalry. cape. also calPs. the ridges prove. wrath. try. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile.freze. to palpitate . a scale or fragment P1. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . shoot . chatter. G. full to overflowing. experience valerie. to taste. G. keuren. or original meaning is preserved in G.ceosan. and N. pieces .— B jag E. to hack. Prov. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. choix.D. chiffe. chaup. Yr. and in kosten. kor6n. OHG. The manners and senti. as with a blow. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. Equivalents in the SlaFr. it is probable that the root kus. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. a goose's giblets. a company of singers or dancers. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. a knight. propagated. To Chop. then to try. causir. — Chock-full. —Chorus. scheve. schevel-steen. by which they are Fr. Fr.

That Face. cob. xftovoq. we find the following passage Dap. A fish with a thick snout and head. Borgoens happen. p.\^s. -chron-. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. — Chrisom. I bring you the Cloughs. Fr.X. to knock. cambiare. to chatter. chouquette. ON. Chough. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. chapin. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. short piece kubbug. e. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. i. time ra . xpi'^lia. the intestine of an animal. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. kowe. Nominale in Nat. chapineria. equivalent to the E. chop. Jam. cow-couper. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. G. Lat. &c. kaufen. gull. The Turk was here As one should say. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. monedula. plump. a lump or piece chump. caphatenus. the string of a musical instrument originally. chevane. peace. slipper . Fr.sohola. xop5>}. a small fish with a large head. In Sc. merchant. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. clogs. capito. cavena. caker. Chord. bearand aits. ' ' What's that? Dap. In the Alchemist. gobio capitatus. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. chrisme. who took in the Turk- clack. sent before him a Chiaus.. — . chatter .' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Du. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. to cant.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Alchemist. whence — E. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Picard. Cot. fat. E. kauwe. which was written 27. See Change. Chronicle. that will thank chiaus — you richly. Chopino. as in Fr. Anachronism. Confounded with the bullhead. klompe. dial. kowej Sax. thick-set. one who buys and sells horses or cows. chronicles. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. soul-couper. to speak thieves' slang. a bullhead. — — — . from kloppen. thumb Fl. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. kaej Lith. gull. because she would not endure this husband chopping. 49. an offence against the fitness of times. whence apparently the Sup. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. cresmeau. klopper. AS. syllables chat. to strike in the hand. Gr. to clack. to overturn. — Quabbe. e. chapma?i. as Du. choucas. a trafficker in souls. 4. OE. P. cauvette j Fr. —Shakespeare. chevane. cheap. chroniques. or miller's kaycke . To coup. Fr.povucd. in Chaucer. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed.. A jackdaw. dial. See Chaff. ceo. gold. Kil. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og.). a thick piece. Sp. Ant. What do you think of me. connected with G. whence the Fr. kaw. capita. chuet. kubb. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. . cangiare. forms are Chrism. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Gr. From the Turkish Chiaus. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . of which such strings are made. capitanus. by the Robert Shirley. If I discover. quappe. a stump. whence e.• — . claquer. Gr. Chuck. — Dief. in i6io. overset. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. To Chouse. Chrysalis. To Chop logick. capitone. for to defraud. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. clat.— Landnamabok. caqueter. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. applied to an owl in that language.' Jam. Wall. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. traffic. and we actually find champman for chapman. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Marin. Madam. to turn over.).—Chuokstone. E. Fr. kolbe (club). koppe. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. kaulhaupt (club-head. Gr.— Chevin. E. the teeth to chatter . a The What dhy ^. kubbr. Sw. Fr. the same word with the It. high clog. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. prattle . chouette.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Come. chevin. Peace. . chrysalis (Plin.(. ley in Giiford. a messenger or envoy. yiSA. kobe. chack. Du. cheviniau. XpvaaXic. dealing. noble Doctor. Chub. cauc. chub. E. civetta.

to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. -cisuiri). The spelling of chider has Chump. . The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. joufflu. To chuck in the fall from. have given rise. e. cheeks Cincture. to Newsp. chife. chack-stone. Fr. Lat. ciuffo. Du. sindel. to make a rippling noise. cendre. to form grains of butter. e. to fall. cinders used disjunctively. 24. that the word is an adoption of Fr. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. — — A — ' ' — . set kerti. karl. Gr. Da. then the on oh StX iv roXt. Du. Lat. Hence -cid-. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. as in E. cheek. we have to chack. chofe (Grandgagnage). chaps. as Fr. Cob.^. ceaflas. it is carrying scruples to In Germany .rendered by Kil. chofu.' And cold. kakka. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. chack or stane-chacker. scoria. ladre from Lazare. -eris. as a board. swollen or puffed up Cot. . to him a sudden blow. G. kerl. . The derivation from Kvpiasov. Ka-^aiva. accido. sintel. a husband. countryman. * Cinder. ChurL husbandman. from Lat. to determine incision. an old man. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . kiorne. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. G. Fris.. kernjen. pith. Fr. a man. Cieling. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. ceffo. in circumcision. Sw. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. Jennings. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-).is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. as Epkema explains it. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. a lump. sive piratiam facere sciant. to separate the kernel of the milk. geaflas. i. Chunk. -cis-. lamak. surly. Church. jaws. spuma metalli. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. kjami. pp. Lat. from Lat. whence church. whence deciduous (of trees). a rustic . residue of burnt coals. gffe. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. ceffore. Wall. cado. has been impugned which it has really no connection. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. See Cheek. thence a belt. Gr. to jaw chack or snap. klakka. a man. a cutting round. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. cinctus. ccedo. C^z^j^ churHsh. ashes. sindra. ceaplas. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. sindr. to churn. cinctura {cingo. Probably from It. KvptaKolg. Sc. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Sicerawry face ceffata.— Chu%. with It the Lord's house. kirna. in the face. — of the two words. flower. OFr. the kernel. to To Chuckle. however. KaxXij?. . domhnach. cinis.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. See Ceiling. AS. &c. See Cheek. male person. whence ON. As AS. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Cleland in Jam. chakil. chuffy. but by way of explan. calculus. marrow. cidre. in Sc. to gird. or. dust. Wall. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. cut off. Aasen.V//a'6'?. a douse on the tores.' he adds. comp. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. ceorl. tindra. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Du. a pebble. a fellow. Diss. to cut decide. to sparkle. kern. Chuff. a cutting an old chuff. or choice part of a thing . ON.— . that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. dial. tie about). fat-cheeked. -cide-. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). a pebble . . chops. &c. so as to make the happen . — . as water running over rocks or stones. a girding on. a man. the snout of an animal. incido. sinter. -cido. to fall upon decide. kaerle. to cause the milk to grain. It is certain. -cise. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. giffle.D. Ir. to make a aiKipa. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. The origin ation. calx. a miser.for the residue of stone coal. casum (in comp. ON. log of wood. x^^i?. to strike clatter. joffu. sicera. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. Cider. to throw out sparks. Churn. a resounding object. Gothic nations. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Lat. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. to turn from blossom to fruit. to fall at or on. AS.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. In Sc. . ON. i.

dim. clangor avium . cisterna. clasp. The syllables clap. klumbr. globus. ciste. clamer. Lap. a city. about. klepati. klqb. radical identity of the Fr. the tongue. a circle. to summon or call on. Bohem. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. Fr. Fr. Du. Excite. is traced by Gr. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. to cluck. noise — — a cistern. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. Dan. chatter . citrus. klater-busse. a Pol. Lat. lump. . as caverna from cavus. crack. to call. Sp. Clam. cieo. with an initial s instead of c. ON. to toll . in the frequentative form. -cis-. a split. . klammer. a knob. The notion of a lump. to be empty. to cry out. Mack. -cite. bunch . The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . wasserkasten (water chest). . ON. rattle . kringr. cista. —Circuit. Fr. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). or clap-dish. glamm. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. klak. Du. dob. Circle. klamp. to chatter. and clash. area. twig. klap. —Civil. creak les dents. E. clack. lump. ball kloben. Hence Incite. to clatter. as in Sp. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . a circle.. cion. Cot. sound of blow. a reservoir Probably from Lat. a boss . 'mass. outcry. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. See -cid-. Clump. crack. klopati. belonging to cities or social life . prattle. Hal. Arab. klappen. a lump Lat. chest. parallel root is slam. See Crankle. CION See Tinder. W. Citadel. as. klekotati. the door was slammed J slamem. chupon. a clod. . ON. prattle. lump. to call. klubb. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a loud uksa slamketi. civis. a place See place hiddern. . a block. accordingly find the roots dab. to chatter . to gnash the teeth. a rattle Fr. for Cion. chijfre. claquer. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. . cit^. Citron. claquer. Fr. Clamp. crack. * Cistern. lucerna. sphere gleba. around. Sw. to knock. forms — — — parent plant. civilis. of citta. whence cistiti. G. City. Lat. Circum-. Lat. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. hringr. claim. a clod Russ. excite. from chupar. stimulate. To Clack. sifr. sound- — hands figures. Recite. lump. a whirlwind. Cite. smack. Scion. G. * Ciplier. cluster. citujn. rattle. and. clap. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. a ball. to strike. clamare. may cite w. circ2tlus. chupon.to suck. KpiKoe. to call by name. See Circle. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. lash . clump. Lat. compared with It. clapping of klacke. klacke-busse. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. cittade. a lump Du. KipKog. uproar. ruin. to set in motion by means of the voice. to go. a circle. cisterna. . and Sp. a. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. E. a'upiav. a young and tender plant. empty Golius. kluV. a lemon tree. trunk. cito. clack-dish. cittadella. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. cry out . biw. city. Lat. to mention. cry. klabb. It. Comp. Gr. It. domern. a mass. klompe. clamp. To Claim. cittd. Chaste. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. The Gr. ter. Gr. . Gael. slam. lump of wood or with the nasal. It. a ring. sajira. cion. clamras. around. lump . a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup.— . We . klappe. a for water. . a city. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a judgment cern. log. ring. a cleansing place. sip. klacken. claquer crash. clat. bunch. clobyn. clack. fall. tinnitus . Gael. suck). clatCot. to clap at a theatre. glam. vociferation. a pop-gun. castus). Alt. gutter. In Fr. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. — (Dozy) ing blow. sindri. a kind of pipe. Lat. circle. clapper. So a light. clog. to bawl. Sw. ern. Lat. a ball.' sione. to make to go. mass . sprig. scion. circa. civitas. circum. a kind of rattle. clamp. klump. or split with noise. Du. the place of . kringla. a Lat. Dan. a rattle . scion or sucker. . to appeal. clambar. sound. &c. glambar. clack-box. to chatter. klemte. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. and E. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. clap. a block. cifra. to clack. klateren. We . a shoot. or quill to draw waier through Fl. a hiding-place. klambr. a whip. clot ON. a cistern. to cleanse. a citizen . klimp. . noise. From Arab. circum. claquet de moulin. babble .

Clink. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. clajnmy. a hawk. Du. dia. from the w. B. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. children. to stick conceal. dam. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . beat. Sw. klemmen. knocking. OE. sound . cramp. a whip. clibby. kleben. — Cot. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. a place underground where rabbits breed. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. resonance klingen. Du. to dame. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. a loud tingle. for tame conies. cluster. — with hunger. dientes. Salainen. chatter. to gingle. sticky Hal. privately. viscous. to knock. dapier. klamm. klobber-saen. klammern. uproar. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klebern. to. accent. klam7n. closely analogous to that of the fast. to do anything with a clap. a rattle . tingle. to claw oneself up. in a hidSen place. clapper of conies. Mampe. klepanie. to climb. ring as metal. to clap on. klopfen. dial. Clamour. the in many languages. kleppe. to starve. to hold fast with the . grasp. to patronus. klappen. E. as the Lat. clandestine. to glue. klynge sig op. to cleave or stick. to climb. klatten. Dan. Clang.er. seize. G. .1. E. — — . to pinch. kleppen. a sound. dam. to stick or glue. hold. to clamp. beating. klam. To Clamber. descendants . clasp. Dan. To sticky. to beat. and that from celo. to knock. to daub pinch. Fr. hands or claws to grasp. Clan. to Sw^. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. sound. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben.. daver. klamre. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. chief. . with cramp-irons. Dan. dink Du. G. Lang. tone. cleave. coagulated cream. dam. to hide. Russ. and hence moist. klepati. clangor. c). to climb. klemmen. to clap. but perhaps not directly from it. tight. E. klepel. buckle klamp. to climb . nature . See Clam. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. brawl. G. G. glambar. salafa. a heap of stones or other things piled up . a heap of stones. dial. compress. to glue. klavre. klemmen. These are imitations of a loud. holdfast. narrow. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. bond. to climb. A i. dank. sound of the trumpet . crowd . of money Gael. Clapper. dren. klang. a claw . clapas. of the children. G. Lat. klette. G. sound object . — . compression. viscosity . solid. Clamp. These words To are closely connected with damp. dap up. &c. anything hidden. dapier. Du. tremble . klem-vogel. Du. klimmeii. dem. a sound made by a lighter clink. The E. — Climb. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. . strait. Clap. In like manner Du. and hence to pinch . klettern. contraction. klappen. klappre. diver. kleppe. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. a stone See Claim. a burr. Swiss kletten. G. is used in the sense of secretly. clap. Hence the Fr. klynge. also to clog up. a sound made by a still . celo produces Fin. AS. Clank. Halma. clear sound. clink. salaan. cramp-iron. gum. clang. sound. cream Manx doan. cling. . to Hal. prison. dang. klank. a trap. Bohem. klibber. tinkle. kluppel. from birdlime. massy. a craCmp. to cling. dapi^. to climb. conceal. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. strain . To clap in E.' to take coals to Newcastle. klamme. a stick. gliong. Bav. damras. grimper. Dan. rattle. pinching. dam immediate modifications — . Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. pressed close or hard together. dienklebber. dandestinus. . klampen. dee. stick.' klibba. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. clann. scendants.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. ancestor. B. a claw. The root which gives rise to klibb. tattle. tenacious. yf. kloben. where- A — unto they retire themselves. or klamp-vogel. chatter. clap. originally a heap of large stones. a bird of prey. klammer. dambar. klubber. E. offspring. adopted Lat. rumour. substances of a stickydam. children. clamber. clammy brace. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . Gael. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. clav\f. From small tribe subject to a single Gael.p correspond- ' without order. as the clapping of hands. damor. klippe. to seize. club . The equivalent of Lat. of which the locative case. run to lumps Clandestine. take hold of. to hook things together. bandage. to clutch or cling oneself up. ney. to hold to pinch. gripe. a noose . — Lat. apprehend . whence sala. hook. is a nasalised form of gripper. . Swiss kldbem. The Fr. who occuG.

as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. teren. klauw. syrtium junctura. a distribution of things into groups. Du. Fr. Gr. also a knell for the dead. In the same way is formed the OE. Fr. stop of an organ. klase. Eya-klasi. klatscha pop-gun. klucz. whence kleuer. — Kiittner. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Serv . from clinging to the tree which supports it. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . 269. The form clew. nail. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. a nail. subrubidum. Du. klauwe. a clasp. flap. klaeret. to fasten together . is used in Sc. kletse. glcis. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a key origmally a crooked nail. &c. klatschen. and through v into a. from the resemblance to a key. clair. clump. fracas. KXeiSi. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. K\a. Claret. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. to end. Nightingale. clew or fasten upon a thing. From clairet. to draw it up into a bunch. clavis. as it is written by Chaucer. &c. a heap. Clash. clatter. fibula. chiizjj-o. to snap. Lat. klatsche. he of white and red grapes mingled together. locket of a door. Sp. e. ivy.to cra. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. vin clairet. hawk.— CLARET clamp. a lash.w or u on the other. Prov.Z. G. with a reddish tint. is preserved in Lang. to clap . Mask ! plask ! thwick. an on the one hand. a complete sentence. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. uproar. a water made of aquavitse. Thus from Lat. From claudo. dap. Clatter. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. the cracking of a whip. rion. sauna de classes. So Pol. Class. — Clarinet. and old red rose-water. i. The collar-bone. clamp. it is called clamming. Pol. diver. chatter. an ending. row aii/iaTos. Kil. cinnamon. Lat.. or as G. under three modifications dava. a lump . kleeven. Dan. a claFr. Du. ansa. kiosk bicza.\x\xvn. To clew. klaterbusse. chasguear. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. — Clarion. Eau clairette. clausula. forms are the Du. claw (what fastens together. biichse. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du.It. rubellum. klaskad. But clasp or elapse. . schnalle. klos. globus. E. Lat. Russ. sound of the foregoing description. buckle. clavus. we pass to the E. kleuen. and shrill-sounding trumpet. climp. kluczka. in the sense of a mass or lump. compression. a claw. a bird with powerful talons. cloi. Lang. a little hook . With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. It. Clause. Originally clasis.oi. Cot. clausum. klampvoghel. seizes) . somewhat clear. Clavicle. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Lat. klijven. the collar-bone. clairon of a trumpet— It. —Kil. clew. skeria-klasi. to rattle . a clod. clairon. to knock. a ball. fragor . It. to animals Sp. straight-mouthed.). a sphere . gaspe. Rayn. pet. klot. which signifies a ball in E. klc^i. sphaera. Claw. ictus resonans. klatschen. Du. assembly. a key. a kind of small. chiaro clear. klampe. pellet .ck a whip. Clasp. to shut. a buckle. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. clas. Identical with ON. crying. Owl and that by which cleave to. contraction. to do anything with a . claret win e. to patter. In E. a key KKtitid. Commonly made. applied in their harness. Nawith stavis. bawling. ghespe. as G. chiarello. puUs. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Du. a club or massy stick. Wyutoun in Jam. and clavis. Du. to ring in such a manner for the dead. klaequivalent to clack or clap. nawith stanis. to fasten. the primary origin clapa. hook. waU. same class with w. Fr. Clew. klamme. clarinado. clarin. clopa. biichse. Klatsch- a pop-gun . to clash as arms. a bunch. klouwe. classis. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. as Mod. from its use in fastening things together. a lump. from scknallen. vinum helvolum.Gr. vin claret. insularum nexus . a. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. to cleave. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. cluster. globus. chiarino. Sw. blab. in the sense of a claw. . a. thwack . klouwe (Kil. Analogous Jam. — tells us. noise. The b readily passes into gleba. Thus from clamp. mass. mass.

loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. from nitere. Du. merciful. Die zaak is zS. glor-mhor. gingle. words applicable sight. to clinch a nail. as Lat. the To Cleave. give a shrill sound Jr. a key. klor. Du. and E. kloue. glint. E. a cleft or fissure. hook. klceg. Sc. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. clean. Du. clout. bogs cous. mud. Fr. cleave. Du. Probably a modification of the word doitt. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . Sw. from diquer. pure. the original . dinquet kleeven. clear. kluft. to fasten. viz. a latch. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. glan. W. Omklinken. either by the coherence To Clepe. a cleft.— . diquetcr. Da. See Clam. rift. is fast and sure. loam. 2. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. The Dan. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. clay . a bunch of When flax). clean. Dan. klirre. or from being divided into two parts. as the Du. glindse. To Clench. the fork of the body. clibby. a mass. glan. kloben. a one end. radiant. Lat. kleverig. and. in two ways.— Claggy. as explained under G. cloven wood. pure. glatt. neat. and Dan. to 2. Du. — : A rivet. a cleft. sticky . an object is simply cleft. a fissure or division See Cleave. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. to fasten E. clear. G. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. Clay. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr.— Clag. glandse. provinciaUy termed dout. to fasten. dial. kla:g. vice. kleevig. rive. clean. deot. klouen. holding together. vissticky . glan. A — A Clement. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. geklonken. cliquet. clink. split. From dob. a mass. viz. klouen. to be composed. klove The Dan. Clean. G.' was nailed to a rock. ON. a plate. to Brilliant. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. pure . G. See Clog. or of a tree. kleg. dedgy. a noose. klinken. glent. glbr. found in other cases. doggy. Gael.Q. a fissure. kloben. klinke. klyft. klijveii. splendid pohshed. The word is . a flash. the two parts of Du. klinke. dut. klieuen. tongs. Lat. clemens. to stick or adhere . The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. a noise. that was Torriano. dench. a lump. a in that of sphtting. E. seem formed dial. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. This word is used in two business is finished off. glbram. to shine . smooth. conserere antklankjan. Cleft. to shine. doff. gaklankjan. glorious. klafwa. . river. B. to chink. to tear or cleave asunder. danche. kleg. to clink or sound. chaps in the skin. klieben. dams. bend in a stream. kluftholz. Du. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. Thus from G. Cleat. explained from the klinken. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. 154 CLAY dutch. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. opposite senses. pellet. From clap. Clear. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. gleit. Kil. kloben. . This is probably one of the clean. klinken. Da. klank. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. date is AS. to sound or make a noise . a lump. i. nitidus. famous.). neat. speech . G. sleek. daggy. G. to clinch GB. klincke. . a — — . probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. The word may be — . and Celtic glan. voice. as ON. kleben. klutsch. bright. Clemency. The proper meaning of the word is shining. clash. sticky earth. klov. klinken. . gentle. AS. from the clinking of the latch. klink. (Cot. Wilbraham. . The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. a clincher. klinke. lump. a claw or talon. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . together . to separate into parts. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Axletree clouts. klirren. shine. kluit. calm. Bav. ON. to glitter. Halma. kluyte. clear. Sw. ON. to cleave. polish . Sc. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. of iron worn on shoes by country people. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klag. . pretty. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. polished. klinka. kldnkelein. glance . Da. door-latch. Mar. E. To call. it cleave together. rivet. glitnir. Sw. to dag ox dog. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. to stick to. as Fr. that was a striking proof. clean. dags. dag. sticky. glitta. celebrated . the latch of a door. to clench. Clinch.

to stir. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . chatter. on. rapidus from rapio. clatter. Sc. deik. had a form. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. 3. declivity. Du. or Sc.Lat. chat. expeditious. deik. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Claw. Sp. cleft in a rock. —Vocab. precipices. scar. frap- per rudement une personne. dichet. a claw or clutch. CLINCH De . cleft. ized . Clerk. an inclination. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. Jam. as a click with the tongue. a latch. agile. See Clench. sink. clever. diver. cleugh. dek. the knocker of a door. from clifian. cart that tilts over. a tumbril. cliff. to tattle. temperature. clap. a ball of twine. and hence climate. rock. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . say. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. which is used in Scotch and N. to cleave. has kl'dver. &c. rupes . deuck. a lot. Now the OE. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). Dunbar in Jam. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. dough. babble. a figure mentioned. that is a clever feUow. dink. a baU of yarn. hamraklif. a hook. AS. to seize. above the pole. G. to sound an alarm to clap. a mill-clack . a hold. light-fingered. cleft of a hill. Cot. abrupta rupes . score7i clif. clif. klika. klinge. seize (Hal. a latch. Happen. . Sw. In I Peter v. We movement catch. to teU tales. a ladder. Fr. Clam. cliof. klinke. ready of speech. clif- stanas. kleppe. crepare. pulsare. call. icXi/ja?. Chaucer. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. KkrifoQ. diquette. klaiv. Det er en Mover kerl. gleg. click. Climax. glomus. catching. dial. klev. in rhetoric. chatter. cautes. diofian.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. would have been derida. ravine. G. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. klippe. nimble. Boh. Clever.. syn. crack. klever. cleke. duik. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. from Gael glac. dook (identical with E. . chatter. duke. to move. dever. climate. a hump. it must be observed. Rouchi cliche. dergi. . Somner. cleopian. pen. The origin is the Gr. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. deuch. kleppen. Du. clyf. in precisely the same sense as the E. See AS. region not observe it. klikker. snatch. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. to talk as a parrot. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. derjon.— Clicket. precipice. cligner. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. speak. a child's or clack . as Sc. klouwe. call. a trigger. clima. Bav. what so men clappe or crie. as from derido. — have the notion of a short quick in E. kliket. to confess . d See Clan. or an object character- Clerical. OE. Climate. /cXi'fia. prattle. corresponding to the Sc. highest is attained. to snatch. Commonly derived from deliver. corresponding to Fr. Du. Da. kliv. The Sc. which in Mid. dial. crackle. globus. derigo. cliquer. click it. a latch . Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. claw or talon to dek or deik. But the Dan. deudi. to catch. klikklakken.) Brai. 3. dexterous.dergie! Wiclif in R. the clergy clericus. Click. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. klinket. Lat. to tattle. the clergy. to catch. skard. the dick of a latch or a trigger. -Toe (from KXivm. clack. Cliff. and hence deik. kloof. clever. quick of perception. CLERK sound of a blow. IS5 Du. quick in motion. Climb.' ii. sonare. a cliff. with hamarskard. a precipice. Gr.).— Clue. dutch). klif. de ripa. dob. slope . ball of thread oriTo CUnch. and (with the nasal) — clincher. klok klep- crepitare. rock. Hence Lat. Clergy. Norm. derecia. click. a lazar's clicket or clapper. one of the clergy. has also deik. exactly Gr. stein- kluppen. clep. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. one admitted to the tonsure. to wink. lively. — — A . dicher. as Lat. klaffen. ginally from dob (extant in W. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. cliquet. Clew. to prate. Lat. klippe. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. is NE. a clew. derigon. on. dial. name. Client. neither as having lordship in the. littus. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. . to cry. in the sense of active. to rattle. to bend. See Clamber. a lump. clypian. a clerk . to clack. whence Fr. a clicket or clapper. clerus. e. Klover i munden. Lat. a cleft in a rock . click. cave . verge). rugged ascent. a sphere.

gUong. klupen. as we now say three or four o'clock. G. fetter.D. hluk. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. The E.— KSS. also to form a compact mass. to knock. bow. sloping forwards. hlinian. cloak. to AS. tuft. a lump of butter. chcng. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. OHG. a separate portion. kluppe. G. klunge. klippa. hluccti. clock is a variation of clack. N orman clincailler. from klepati. glocke. to crowd or squeeze chingy. hlinen. Serv. a hood. Hal. knippe. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. S w. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. dag.D. parva ruptura. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. to ring. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Sussex peasant AS. kolbe to E. to clap or clack. difficulty . iissura. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. klik. hooded . klocka. klo^gen. g. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. toga muliebris. . declivis. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. ' . * Clod. — clot. ring clag. to pinch. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. or bagging clothes. G. to snap or fillip schnippen. &c. klunker. in Schmeller) klunk. kleppe. klynge.ginglej Fr. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. to beat. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. difficulty. and 'E. klicke. Du. clinker. Decline. klocke. knippen. 2. pinch. to wither. toga. speaks of a ' clung bat. Sw. quincailler. To Clip. Ang. a lump G. sloping downwards . as to snip in the same sense from snap. a snare. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Bohem. compress . dial. I. met. sticky. . ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty.— Clot. klippa. kldpp. . to wither. Sw. kukla. Du. Cliofue. clivus. -cliv-. Een kliks bolter. E. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to shrink up. klungelin. four of the bell. to snip. to strike. To Cling. a beU. . a faction. glungelin. -CLINE make pinch. klingen. To stick to. Lat. clog. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. as G. Sw. Fr. to pinch klupe. Pl. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Walach. Du. brett-glocke. clingan. dial. klinka. to bend downwards . verklungeln. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. claw. — a mantle. clino. hill . clato make a noise. clangere. klocke. kliks. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. ON. Swiss klokken. clinke. a rising ground. dial. to lean backwards. a clock. ON. klok.. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Sw. klipa. clips. incline. Clock. kluben. to snap kneipen. clutch. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. w. . schnippen.' From Pl. to shrink up. to form one mass with. G. dial. to snap tongs. shears. a ball of thread . to sound sharp. . gang. . whence E. kol- The word . Swiss klungele. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . Bi klik uti klak. clique. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. Cloak. kXiVu. Bohem. 156 -cline. a clog or fetter for a beast . like cling. pinch. noise. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Da. to slope or bend . Kil. .. Ir. to clunge. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. kolki-laud. Flem. klinken. Gr. to . by bits. a woman's mantle . Gael. Du. as thick or curdled liquids. club). to lean. knot klynge.. ten. acclivis. -atum. a tinman. rima. to make a loud noise. klippe. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. disposed to a thing. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.' for a dry stick. E. to cling to a thing. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Esthon. and so' to contract. a cluster. . and a similar syllable without the /. cloche. See Clang. Clink. slant. a lump. kima. straits. Sw. outcry. globulus' (Gl. G.. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. To cut with shears. to crowd together klynge sig ved. to clink auf. pallium. to resound. to clip. especially of something soft or clammy. klippen. recline. a bell. klungeln. klak. 'Till famine cling thee. ON. also to wink . G. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. klippur. sloping upwards procUvis. to cluster. a bell. cochl. klincke.'— Shaks. Lat. klepalo. knippchen. incline.und zuk-lippen. to beat on the board. nip. See Cowl. at first probably on a wooden board. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klaka. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. related to clock. Fr.

to claggock. clorre. or loppern. lump of something soft . to dabble. -clus-. He was a man without a dag. lump of mud on the clothes . indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. da- . bemired. chiudere. a skittle-ground klos- sen. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something so