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Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

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  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • 2 ABASH
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BALL
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • My
  • BUSY 119
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CAVE
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CLAM 151
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • COAL 159
  • COCK
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIRE
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LOLLARD 395
  • LULL
  • LYRE 403
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MITE 425
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • PAD
  • PALTER 459
  • PARAPET 461
  • PATE
  • PEEL 467
  • PESTER 471
  • PITTANCE 479
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • POTATOE 49
  • PROP
  • QUID
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RARE
  • RAVE
  • REEF 529
  • RET
  • RIME
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCUD
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SHOE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLAG
  • SLUR 603
  • SMITH 607
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUASH 635
  • 644 STATUE
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • Dm



original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). the baaing of the sheep. with an initial m or I. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The syllables moo (mu. the present day. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. is given to a cow or calf. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and where we are seeking. persons of different tongues at the present day. in language of the present day. in other words. and. by whom the be understood. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. to the syllables which are significant to the child. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. but nothing she herself knows the animals. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. when we is represent to our children of the cow. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. muK) and mae (rfie. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. Molli. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. name of the cow. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. or Mollein. when neither name for the object to be designated. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. come Moolls.NURSERY IMITATIONS. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. mind of the of the animal. or. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. the closer we shall approach to the . and mully or mully cow is the .

had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made.' he says. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. and nim came to signify everything edible.. p. to work over with the mouth. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. &c. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. fiafifi&v (Hesych. for everything fit to eat. Gradually. 72). to eat. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. in children's language. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.). he called to to drink. to For instance. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. became more perfect. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. A member of my own new sfop. analogous to Magyar mammogni. and which we might express thus. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. On one occasion he said^e nim. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. Finally an n was placed before it. hm. . mumm. Heinicke. for bad. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. He would now say good. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. We have. family. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. then. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. had nim.' In ordinary speech mump. . for things. I had watched the growth of this word. by the natural humming sound. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. partly from sounds which the child caught. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. Gr. nim. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. nineteen years old. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. his nurse adopting the word with him. when hungry. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. schipp. repulsive to eat. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. First. as well as the mind of the utterer. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. and some were very clear and distinct.

nvrnma. jammla. aptantes adfectibus vocem. South Jutland hiamsk. to smack in eat. ut tinnitus aeris. buckra man's language the white man.' says the author of Modern Slang. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Wolof nahenahe. at hiamske i sig. delicacies. mujnpa. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). (in chil- dren's language). Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. as well as the Sw. mumble. i. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Africa) nimnim. we can call them so. . j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. greedy . oves lalare. nobis vix permittitur.' And Diomedes. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. taken up hastily on the sly. to eat. mumpfeln. and the crab — p. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. memmexen. to Sw. p. and the fizzing (and Series. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. jumla. lita. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. to take. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Gothic niman. sweet (Koelle). iii. clangorqae tubarum.' — Lersch. Swedish dialect gamsa.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. j ing . Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Africa) nimi. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. Nimm'd up.). dial. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. jamsa (yamsa). Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. food (Tylor. agreeing with Ein. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. savory. and some of them . in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. to move the lips in continued chewing. to eat mampfen. nam. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. as to . Galla djam djeda. to fill the mouth. stolen. Primitive Culture. make djamdjam). snatched (Whitby Gl. to be pleamind .' says Quintilian. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. i8o. palatable. ' Motherwell. the Scotch poet. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. 1 86). yamming. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. namnam.minis. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to chew laboriously. eating. and thence to be tasteful. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . or word-making. ' id est. voracious. nyam nyam. Soosoo (W. Vei (W. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). mumpfen. aves tinnire. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. 130-1. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to taste . tidbits nama . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. on. crab nam buckra man.ONOMATOPCEIA. A negro proOr. to mump. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate.

twittering of swallows. might be used as the designation of it. that there is When Man. und growling. grunting or squealing of hogs. gobbling of a turkey-cock. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. 89) with less hesitation.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. baaing or maeing of lambs.' — We speak of a cow. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . not of a baa. cackling or gaggling of geese. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. when circumstances required. neighing or whinnying of horses. snarling of dogs. hooting of owls. or thoughts of our hearer. bumping of bitterns. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. chattering of pies or monkeys. croaking of frogs or ravens. Yet we ing. howling. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. Indeed. chirping of sparrows or crickets. between dog and harking. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. We . dove and cooing. do not speak of a bowwow. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. bleating of sheep. sparrow and chirping. before the in other words. ^6^. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. a lamb. yelping. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing.' And elsevs^here (p. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. purring or mewing of cats. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. intended in the instance to represent the cry. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. whether it deserves the name of language. 'I doubt. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. not of a moo of Lect. but of a dog. p.' he says. cooing or crooing of doves. barking. yelping. or. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. might be used. for the purpose of bringing the animal. snarling. anything connected with it. bellowing of bulls. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. lowing of oxen.

it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us).' common sense. kdka. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Kdrava. having a general predicative power. a a crier (p. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. crow. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. crow. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. layitavya . ghak. Picard cau. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.IMITATIVE NAMES. Columbia kahkah. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. 4th ed. Hungary. 'Kdka. a bird that is be driven away. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. gackem. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. caw kuhii-rava (rava. In Lat. a daw. it announces (Salaberry). In Basque. Arabic kdk. or quawk. Aoo-Aoo. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. according to Durga). in is Gr. kuho. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. e. lion. and gaggele or gagkelein. in g. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. 349.' kd). a crow (Pictet). We imitate the sound with a modulated.. fi-om apakd- i. Bav. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. He to is therefore derives kdka. Sometimes the hoarse i . But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. kae. Barabra koka. whose sound (Pictet. coccolare.). ist ed. Manchu The kaha. and the sound of that direction. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. kauwe. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Georgian quaki. sound). caller. 380. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among.). he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. KOKKvi. birds. is kuM) for the cuckoo. and means a shouter. and Bavaria respectively. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. a crow. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. Malay gdgak. Sauscr.

kukko. to cry loudly. Heb. Arabic tdtwit. German and Eng- krahen. either in the same or in related dialects. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Magy. Pers. Malay kukuk. turtle) as the Lat. It. Ibo akoka. yell. hibou. as well as of Sanscr. 6. So we have Polish krukac. to crow. t. French dishuit. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Walachian coucouveike. Da. koeren. great variety of oKokv^uv. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . name. krauklys. Du. name of its is the bird. cock. kirren. another. and e. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation.. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kraeyen. Scotch peeweip. kraeye. gufo. to howl or Lat. tbrtola. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. while crouk. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Albacuculi a dove. Esthonian kikkas. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. to crow. 219.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. or Gr. reduplicate form. lilits. coucouva. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. Fr. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. synonymous forms of similar structure). tortbla. lUyrian kukurekati. and sometimes both together.Gr. coccovaec. k. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. Yoruba koklo.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift.. Dutch kievit. the name for a crow. are represented. wood-pigeon. a crow . by the verbs gurren or girren. teewhoop. in the North of England. tur. to hoot. Du. lulo. krahe. The consonants p.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. xi. Zulu kuku. the name of an animal will gen- . In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Sp. kruk. ghughu. giving turtur (and thence It. kukhuta. korren. Lettish kiekuts. to croak. tuquheit. The crowing of cot in Fr. Swedish kowipa. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. and e. coqueri- Languedoc. girre. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. p. kurre. kraukti. Hindi. German kielitz. gugu. Mod. to croak. tor. libufs. a crow. kuku. tbrtora. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. German luhu. "Welsh hwan from hwa. uhu. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. a crow lish Lith. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak.

to sound. from schrick. Lat. glass cracking (Schmeller). grillen. skirl.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba.or bumble-bee. oE. Sc. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. of England it is to the b 2 . a hornet. to grumble. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Corean sirsor. booming. with or Fr. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. to rustle. 337. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). buzzing. to creak Bret. (Jieuschrecke) . kong-kong. and probably indicates that g. or a gnat fly. as . i. Australian bumberoo. the humble. We may compare the Parmesan tananai.' — i. from the humming. — Catafogo. and not from E. representing a short sharp sound. which they make in their flight very . No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. ' Sanscr. dhran. words imitative of humming . and he kong-ko-rong. chirk. bamba. whirr). and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. horniss and from the buzzing The. resounding of musical instruments. schrecke. The drone peal. din. common. grylhis. grille. a small as hawk is . Northern Farmer. little intermission.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. zirken. The Arabic sarsor. to chirp . hollow noise. German drohne. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. The Welsh chwyrnu. a bee. Albanian tsentsir. Lith. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. give a faint sound. succeeding each other — with noise. Danish dron. bee. knetta. loud rumour. a sharp sound as of a 6. ta-na-nd. g. Speaking of a cricket he says. the drone or non-working bee . may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. g. Danish gnaddre. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. skryle. German dronen. schwirren. cricket is from crick. resound. a drone. buzzing. In the N. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. bambhara. Fin. to be compared with Sanscr. to chirp J may be compared with .' Amazons. humming. PofijivXwg. thunder. gives rise to chwymores. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. g.vf3. a fly (Tylor) . Arabic tantanat. pip-pi-ta. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry.IMITATIVE NAMES. sound. The name of the cricket indeed. ajo. Sanscr. droning is . and yelping cry. growling. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . a beetle druna. German hummel. Lithuanian tranas. Naturalist on the tocano. shrill. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. schirke. in allusion to its music. schrickel. 'The natives call it tanand. e. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. to shrill sound sharp. to hum. North of England. flight its sting considered as a horn. swirplys with 6. sirkka. there are infinite varieties. ' — Pictet . We may cite Gr. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo.' —Tennyson. skril with n. Gaelic dranndan. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E.

bovis. whence baula. to the uses goda. amuse. Manx booa. bo. Lat. a bull. to or bark. From baa. is inadmissible. w. a cow. — ^Tylor. Fr. bubati. grumble as distant thunder . that the imitative syllable are Lith. The Piedm. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. to low. bullus and e. to . Galla boa. bue. as the Illyr. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. muJiati. to from bau. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. or formed Lat. mamoo-heeheek. buculus. say. mugler. to shout. the animal. Da. bolt. Hottentot bou (Dapper). representmake bow. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. Piedmontese fi bau. p. 167. mugire. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Cult. agreeing exactly with Lith. baula. (iove.XX called booing. to bellow like a bull. to sound. to make. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. k or g. mae. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. cattle. Thus from miau. btibleti. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. or with on. With these analogies. The Galla lilbil. verbal form given to the say. to make. bae. bauli. forms a. From the same lioao). In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. shoot . Norse bu. to weep. a Geiger. bullock. It. On the same principle. in a imitation of a ringing sound. w. has bilbilgoda. and in Hottentot baa was the . But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. and djeda. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. bwla. or a z to the imitative syllable. biibnas. loge. to shout. bos. to beat hard. to boohoo. or bau-l-i. to ba-L-are. bukati. to bow- own bawl. be-l-er. to make a noise. Illyr. maukati. to bump as a bittern Illyr. fivKaofiai. to low or bellow. bugle. Lat. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. bae. OFr. a bullock. bucula. miau-l-er. are (with a subsidiary k). lulauti (to hoo-loo). boo. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to make a loud deep sound. in same way. to low . bull. make poo. Fr. representing the mew of a cat. bubenti. from the imitative moo instead of boo. the Fr. and from to ring. bu. His analysis leads cow. a heifer. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. Zulu lulula. to mew. Lat. bugler. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. ox. a drum . and thence Lat. Gael. as that of the cow by boo. a buffalo. verb is evidently identical with our shout. make to it laugh. or moo. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav.

may be identical with Esthon. — . knurfisk. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. we have Sanscr. and snorke. cite as by grunt. this obstinate race. and of (maelon). name of a sheep. hunon. rumbling. a sheep. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. . kurre. from knurre. goats. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Gael. from hundama. to howl. guttural tone. meketati. and thence groin. Africa laa. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. in v. to bleat.). hound. leg-et-ni. curmurring. meigeal. although the imitation embodied in Lat. and grumphie. ^. oe. grumbhng. From the imitative mae. to grunt. Da. With gen.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. the designations of a dog the term cur. karra. signifying a snarling. Manx meilee. groin. Illyr. hwch. Moreover. Fr. a goat. a. cry). naskia. grumble. name of the animal itself. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). lambs. a sow. The g. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. Gr. a sheep or a goat. to grunt. grugno. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. with the root ypaipm. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. a sow. hund. mekegni. by which the shingle gives rise to It. grumble. does not produce a e. mecati. lecco. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. sheep or goat. a (Hesych. mutter. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. Idgge (Rietz). sus-sus. / The same Gr. hadg- Magy. G. grogner. and Circassian maylley. grunlike a pig in eating. to bleat. the snout of a pig. a hog. in Wolof bae. And it is true there between hog and grunt. purr). a wolf. (iriKov of forms like Sw. 6. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Gr. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. Fr. hunt (gen. leknuti. a pig. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. grumpf. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. for the voice of the ox). a sheep (Lowe). Illyr. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch.' Moor's Suffolk words. name. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. it and e. . hundi). meugler. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. as lou of an ox. to themselves. and with the subsidiary k or g. corresponding to ohg. a goat. It. Welsh and Breton). a goat firixal^ta. a sheep or ewe. or in any ! way ! persuading. to bleat . may with to snarl. grunt. Magy. Kurren und murren. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. kurren. ' In driving. lek-eg-ni. /xj/caScj. sound. a grunt. smack and naski. Hence Breton hoc ha. grunny. lekavica. undoubtedly imitative. menAda (ndda. and hoc'h. nire. meil. meckern. a dog. he would hardly. Gr. to growl. to rumble. It is probable also that e. Among dog. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. houch. Illyr. /xijeao/iat. growl. a pig Fin. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. .

which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. hobben.' 2nd Series. hobby. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. to go backwards. coquette. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. the cry to stop or back a horse. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. such as cuckoo. hoppe. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. as in Yorkshire highly right.' — ist Series. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. a mare. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. (Craven Gloss. a horse. Thus we are led to the Fr. e. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. cockade. coquelicot. humma. . but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. from the cry animal. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. hottihuh. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. If onomatopoeias can . the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. and it is behind that wall that language really begins.. Sc. 91. like artificial flowers.root. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. But words of this kind are. when he found peculiarity. a little am- bling horse. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. g. houpy in Craven. p. without a — we root. ^6<.). to the left. There are of course some names. hobin. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. of the character in question. . hiine. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language.). and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. Esthonian hoibo. turn a horse to the is In Finland.' ticular bird. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. p.. to whine. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. M). animal. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. So Sanscr. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.

Indian It is not unlikely that the on. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. sol. e. fehtati. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. Bohem. xxiii ginal object. lapwing. whitename in in- throat.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. Sw. woodpecker. cough. Du. animals or certain kinds of sound. runniken. command of language was attained. form corresponding hresh. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Irieschen. hennir. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. wrena. to Sanscr. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. nitrire. . nounced with a guttural). moan. wrenska. diver. creeper. giggle. swift. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. wagtail. hikkd. but whether there kind between them and other words. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. redpole. ginniken. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. as sigh. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. frenschen. Sanscr. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. to neigh. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Fr. titter. hresh. groan. rinchar. Sp. goatsucker. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. hresh. wiehern. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. little speak for themselves. signified It. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. hross. hukkup. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. ance or habits of the animal. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. horse. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. than to the sounds represented. Pl. g. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility.D. Lettish sweegt.

the dashing of the sea .' 'Haw. pit-a-pat. White Lies.' it both sides went. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . went the cannon. for the creaking of a wheel. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. bang ' ! trenches. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. It is represented in e. tisio (tisho). tlirob. snore. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. for the for the sound of . plitsch-platsch. ping came the bullets about their ears. Of a like forma- drum . The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. heaven). Mei gbengben. thunder (Tylor) . an attempt would be made to by the voice. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . klatsch. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. pump. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. or tliat is accomit. lumm. bang. knack. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. or the w. the God of thunder . for the report of a musket (Colenso) . snukkup). hang. fitsche-falsche. to throw violently down. aritischane. to ham. a large bell. ting-ting. for that of breaking. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. snort. for the sound of a blow. DingBang. strippstrapp-stroll. for in such sound of blows. — Sanders. wheeze. haitshu. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. to beat. atchini.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. &c. haw. Zulu bongo. bangas. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. to sneeze. heart tick-tack. to drive on. knarr. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. 1865. a more expressive than the e. oren : Klapp. scream.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for blows with a rod. Vei gbangba. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. hoo ping ping. mer. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. beat. Australian bungbung ween. Wtb. hoo. to hammer . to knock. dong Read. on the chops is represented also by pratx. Da. clap ! A smack Puff. banga. beat of a clock child . are familiar in ' to every one. banke. for a small one. &c. for the sound of milking. shriek. ding. . and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. in a nail Let. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser.' So imac. root kshu.' ! ! ! ! — dong. for the sound of a fall. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. atchian. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. debhes-lungotais (deifies. a kind of drum. —Brem.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp.

young bird. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. young child . bleat. to cry pi. pipio.' instead. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. which he added to intensify the expression. as in other subjects of study. and whimper. of a word will appear supposed to represent.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. to peep It. pi. pipare. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. piauler. to designate cavity and hollow. G. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. cry. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. pipe. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. . we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. a whelp. pipe. is pfeife. It seems to him that the teeth t. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. Lat. pipegni. used as a call to . has been un- employed to designate fixity.sc. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. a chicken or gosling. mobility excavation and hollow ^. not- . piou. a fowler's bird call is lost. pigolare. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. He Yet asks. Magyar pip. scream. pule. a (young) pigeon. ducing the sound. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. as k. Fr. Mantuan pipiare. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. chickens (Tylor). to cry like imrli^u). a or cheep. and so forth. laugh. pigione. De Brosses. In cases such as these. child. to cheep like a bird or a young It. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. doubtless. Gr. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. piou. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. piccione. or the uneducated different consonants are man. The pi. peep. had been used laugh ? two. pigiolare. e. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. to squeak. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena.) a chick. pippione. Florio. as the simplest implement for proFr. cry of young birds . is of expression. pipelni. Lat. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. — . but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. the voice of chickens (Cot. peep. pipilo. —Lyndsay. part of the What consciousness has the child. calls S. and their relations. far pipi. pu. pipio. or a piailler. a fife or musical pipe.

crash. u. knuks. a sharp short one. {to It. where the variation.. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. sound of dry breaking. Indian chack-chack. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. when it force than biscuit. cricli. to pant bejii- zela. along with tinnio. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). murmur (by . yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to ring pipio. kuruk. knaks. rumble. to gurgle. the side of g. to pant violently (Colenso). lachen. kniks. a short sharp sound. garren. to be compared with Sc. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. a closed or obscure sound. Pefuxela. Hindoo tomtom. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. Manchu kaka-kiki. and lugh. to cluck. the clucking of a j hen . to cry pi. sound). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. kniks. along with Du. to creak knirren. preserved by Kilian. in German.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. coo.Gr. like the noise of a glass breaking . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . be cate to go on laughing loud . or springing back. &c. to gargle . as the click of a latch or a trigger. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to bubble. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to fizz like fat in frying. to grate the teeth . ioriogliare (to make borbor). to clack. It. Pacific aka-aka. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. .. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Hindustani karak is rendered. turtur. girren. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. as representing the sound made when something breaks. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. grumble. creak. . knurren. murren. rumble (Fl. tintino. to rattle. tontonare. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. to laugh. lachachen. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. karkarana. bubble. crack. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to jar. a prolonged sharp sound. some small vowel or consonantal sound. to thunder. kirkirdnd. is very common. a drum W. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . make wood a clinking noise. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . pi . to grumble). loud laughter. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. borrelen. laqfF. vaake gorgor) . to grumble. chack. rumble. Zulu raraza. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. of something fine and thin. gurren. to gorgogHare rattle. to growl. a. to crackle like in boiling . Poppopvi^to. tonare. to hawhaw or laugh loud. i. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. of a loud strong sound.) Mod. or kaka-faka. thunder oil . cluck.

Scotch sough or sooch. as of Tamil muromurmur. caca and Finnish adkkd. is Manchu tang-tang. . Turk. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. e. kl'mg-kling. fumtu. csam-csogni. muro and e. halaidlac'h. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. for chut-chiit-er. djeda (to say tub). for the Manchu hak for the sound of . koXiw. for the sound of privy whispering. and e. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. shout. clash of arms. of keys or tinkling of bells. brings us to Fr. croaking of frogs. rain (Tylor. are applied to the is excrements of children. to giggle. clink. borrelen. especially one who beats. rvir (in tvittio. Magyar csamm-ogni. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. for a tTviror). for the clinking Lat. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Prim. a nightingale. uproar. KaKog. The whispering of the wind I. sound). tubh. rifiirayov. noise. box on the ear imitation of the . klirren. the sound of a stringed instrument.' Member for Paris. jangle. a nightingale. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. tumwata. agrees with g. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. and Gr. jingle.* the heart. to be compared with g. chut. corresponding in e. The syllables lil-bil. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). thump. simmer. a smith. a boy's whistle. Galla tuma. to knock. tup. quarren. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Maori pata. sound. ding-dong. Manchu kaka. 192). or the bubbling up of to a spring. to whisper. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. while cacd / used in e. Newman). Calt. chuchoter. make djamdjam). awater* ' The Mme P. correspond to e. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. clank. for the ringing of illustrate bells. kiling-kalang. and her heart went thump. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. champ. 368). repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. 1871. Tiie Galla gigiteka. hala-hald-faMa (falda. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. bad. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. identical with g. at an accelerated note. the gingling of glasses. clango. disturbance (F. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and the imitative nature of tivgle. compared with Gr. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. call. bubble up. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to beat. to ring or jingle. chinking of coin. drops of i. to strike. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. spring of water in the a bell. indicating the origin of Gr. or of bells ringing. to say chut. word. bulbiil. or to Du. Fr. and bilhila. a workman. the tingling Ming-Hang. E. to the purling of a brook. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . is based on the same imitation as the e. . Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. coughing or clearing the throat. bent her head. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. a drum . and Gr. Sanscr. cry. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. as Fr.and e. wail. tumult.

whirr. it is fallj AS. tingle. by rubadub. whack. crack. flop. parapatapan. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. mutter. and Fr. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. plump. ' Der puff. without the intervention of orthodox roots.' — Nohden. we have buffet or cuff. the Germans puff. rataplan or rantanplan. din. for (Sanders). answering to g. bang. paddle. tomber. tum-ultus. or v^hether jectional. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. report of a gun. lash. creak. dabble. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. clang. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . dash. So in Fr. pop. blow. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. clap. ring. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. bubble. rumble. w. clack. brumberum. blubber. splash. rap. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. tumbian (to beat the ground). the sound of a blow or shock souffler. chink. to dance. whizz. Nevertheless. squall. flap. puff. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. crash. disturbance. in e. Humboldt. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. The beating of drum is represented in e. craunch. 'pat. to fall. snap. and Grimm. according to the strictest phonetic rules. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. rattle. squeak. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. Fr. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. clash. clatter. douse. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. gurgle. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. a applied as well to the force of the bang. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. splutter. twang. while e. boom. souse. thump. murmur. crunch. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. jingle. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. It. patter. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. to is blow. at a door tarapatan. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. guggle. swash. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. and soufflet. chatter.. thwack. thump. hiss. clank. whine. tinkle. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. smash. fizz. sputter. tymmesll. The use of g. and the French pouf. squeal. thump. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. hum. smack. gargle. slash. clink. tap. But although and also found in Lat.

and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. little who has time to want of her nurseling. formerly cited. grief. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. or stubble is meaner name.'. knows them. is Thus ah!. an imitation of a sigh . In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. the kind of action that is desired of them. the interj. p. At the first beginning of life. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. If. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. are made known by an instinctive cry. but if we must not complain on the beach. xxix on the contrary. ugh . and found in the building of be burnt up. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . that he has taken the step in rational speech. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection.' If chaos. or any unsatisfied want. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. Grimm or Bopp. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. 94. in the rushing waters.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. by the nature of the cry. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. or of any if wood. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. of horror. stractions.' . every little pain. wringing the hands. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. because they are spontaneous. the inteij. in the case of the animal or of the infant. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. Crying. and thus they become signs of despair. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. hay. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. and uttering plaintive sounds. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. without a thought of symbolising to them.

assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. Language begins where interjections end. more to the point.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. groaning. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. should be remem- . 32. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. and some of them the composition of words.' — ist Series. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . as who them spontaneous utterances. p. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. of all the mouth. more eloquent than a long speech. the lowing of a cow. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. or which is of me as suffering pain. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. He says. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. interjections. to solve the I shall call first. and the eye. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. ^6g And to the same effect 371. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. If I wish to make a person of an . ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. p. And again. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. be more powerful. them to exercise it. shrieking. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. 344..XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. One short interjec- tion may fact. they are involuntary interjections. sneezing. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. he cites from Home Tooke. may become traditional. which are frequently so toned down cance. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. coughing. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings.' p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.

in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. and more or less limited . then speech begins. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. but the less am at a loss what to say. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. and others from interjections. loud laughter. Gr. demolishing here. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. hahota. Kayxa^u). Tooke in truth. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. it them. bered. hohottaa. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . Koxafw. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. and thus. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. he says. Lat. speaking. in Magy. in Fin. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. some kind of language might have been formed. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. for example. when I arp humming and hawing. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. hahottaa. interjections. cachinno. kahkahah. I am not hearer. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine.

with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. And so in the case of language. if taken as a whole. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. have understand them studying as claim to consideration.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. of the nature of this great movement. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. Though. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. and go where we now say stand. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. a Picture-language.' he says. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. and not. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. What strikes him . But here nature soon conies to his help. The following account is given by Kruse. dumb is the language of signs. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. of the world. . signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. makes them stand and walk upon the table. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. It as has ing their most striking features. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. like peewit and cuckoo.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. words receiving the meanings they now bear. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. a deaf-mute himself. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. the critical question should be.

as it now opens out. his action. can do better and more easily abstract terms. nay.' In the Institutions. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. or the verb to be. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. or To pull and flap with the arms. and fully serves to j . man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . among themselves. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. walked. the whole secret. it means little. like a V. the lan- guage cultivates itself. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. for walk.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. for single objects. it seems. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. the sorecalling them to his memory. and to taste. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. And is. and forms further and further. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. he. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. what more. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers.GESTURE most. such as than the educated man. particular sense in properly so called. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. and we have roast goose. becomes roast meat. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. walkest. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. letter To hold the two fingers apart. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. thought is already broken. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. that signifies great . called Gesture-language. many when or but these. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. push it towards the person addressed for thou. walker. to name. but if I depress it instead. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. The of sign for left hand. signs are taught for yet. such objects. that. and it is flesh or meat. he. and with his thought. most striking outline of an object. thou. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and And thus he makes himself a language. The same sign stands and the act itself. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. for the agent. and gestures. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. that air. for child.

in other instances sentence. the garden. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. in fact. . or a passive scene of existence. depend entirely upon the use. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. Do not bang the it is a verb. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or something of the kind. Who is has beaten you ? would be. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses.' dener's knife. when I say. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. or a quality. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. whether by additions or otherwise. to indicate the action of a certain person. When I say. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. as in die it is a noun. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. a colour red. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. would be simply beginning of speech. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. When a verb. according to the circumstances of the case. it called an interjection. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. and so is an adverb. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. and the as. or action. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. You beaten . and thus performs the part of an adjective. a number of alternatives are suggested. might be the knife. qualifies the against the wall. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. substantive or adjective. or an act. putting it into his pocket. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. the ture of white term pink is and red. He gave door a bang. The same word . The office of all words at the jections at the present day. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim.xxxiv asking. as But when it is meant door. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. as when Bang ! went the gun. I say.

but often self-evident.^ — Miiller I. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. or some relation between it and another object. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. Thus tafu signifies a great man. contempt. and to be great. pain. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. wonder. verb nor noun has yet been developed. whereto. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. inside. as kuo cung. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. wherefore. a groan. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. grie^ horror. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. Jii ta. middle. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. inquiry. . as cung. Latin. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. in the sense of great. that admits itself in of audible representation. with a stick. or with elements expressing relations of time. and may be used language. a sigh of oppression and . that is. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds.. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. which is an old y ting (use stick). wherewith. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. wherehy. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. coalesces with the personal pronouns. a noun. whereof. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. some outward display of the affection. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. in the is indicated by the syllable y. &c. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. or nei. the man is great. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. 255. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . commencement of speech. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. greatness.

-l-are. vei-a. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. dchzen. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. on. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. grief] affliction. oi. to yell formed e. oval. ochain. wAwa. pain.ez. Lat. wai. . the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. ai. ochan. g. miau-n-is. and to bark . ! ! Goth. Gr. vce. representing Illyr.. grief. e. to weep. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ach.'). oh. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). to hurt Let. . and cacak djeda (to say crack. in Gr. miau-l-is. on. ocAJ. are ol-ire. guaj- or cry out pitifully. wehen (Schmeller). Thus from springs otjucifw. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. e. w. aiai^to. to lament. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. to rriourn. to injure. guajo. ochan. oh. lament from oimi. . In this way from the root guai. w^wa. It. found in g. to cry n. woe. j. weh. die wehen. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. achen. headache. first person. to ache. suffering. representing a cry of pain. vaj. as. Gael. guai. oimare. to cause pain. ing action I. gwe-l-a. vce. A widespread It. g. to make). Illyrian vaj. to bewail oneself. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. as. n. la. gwae. a groan or lamentation vir. to lament. Bret. waiidt. Fr. och. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. probably a deeper groan. Jar lau-lau. to wail or cry alas . wai-l. al. ach. och. jaoh. och. to sound yapyap. ace. Gr. ache. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to . tirr-djeda. misfortune. Illyr. wd. guaj-ire. at the close of the radical syllable. the pangs of childbirth. Gr. misery. grief. 6. mew. xxxvi grief. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . lament. is Ay di me I Gr. seen in Gr. mostly a ! %. to wail. ach. . or r. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. e. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. axofiai. wai. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. has more kopfweh. lau-l-e. . pain. ahi. w. I oi[iot. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. gwae. woe. to make bow-wow. cece. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. Such are g. weh schreien. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. ah. jao. It. weinen. 6. It. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. ohg. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. to chirp. Lat. ah. to groan. pain. to gargle. to ache. howl. It. form. however. wehthun. to weep. o'i. Let. hei. The form corresponding to Lat. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to do woe. djamdjam goda (goda. ohi. &. is w. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. ui. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to cry at. miau-l-er.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

or that it is. and so on. implying the direction of its good will towards them. and by a variety of expressions besides. Thank you. or give me it. a specified were by pointing him out. I add) .' then points to his wife. saying : there the ad- Trans. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. In the expression Da. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. But. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. this here. well as Goth. Dr Lottner observes. Bav. a word of many applications in g. The Fr. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. child indicates or asks for an object of desire.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. as. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. case. when he wants something. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). for instance.' this. says da-da-da. ToSe (or in Attic E. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Sie. but the truth is. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. . Sanders (Germ. when 1859.' all is is — their consent. 'nay. that. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. When we pointing. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. da. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. that gratifies me. der da-ige. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. his trowsers' pocket. give me that cheese. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. ' sees an object. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. the nursery da-da. da. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. nurseries. according to Menage. and may be rendered. indeed. child.' person. give. to here . that is it. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. more emphatically roSj)j that. thata (ta-ta). is we I believe. we may translate this by there (it is). • The child. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. as it Dieser da (as Lat. or wants to name something. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. is-te). or carry me thither. as to express. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. Phil. Please. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. Diet.

— Cot. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. tasting. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. or metaphor. takes it — as When the soul. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself.' says Muller. pay. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. moving. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. speech. sounds. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. beat. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to tion to another. the original is that which he places first. . stutter. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. p. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. thinking. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. or dalliance.^ its ' utters : a cry. Thus Gr. make dadada). its desire. sinking. tattle. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. to beat. standing. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. dadee. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. and shapes it into an . sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. The da is dodem. then instinctively interest. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language.' says Lottner interior. which thus exertion. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. childish toying. in every mode of expressing the idea. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. to knock. to walk. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing.' • liv ANALOGY. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. meanings. to say to oneself. reality. of which any one may. to move step by step. and one in particular must. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to chatter. strike.

knistre. discreet. to crackle. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to resound. splendour. as kilind. scheteren. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. wilistd. to shine. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. Heo Du. and thence e. sense of brightness. snuff the sniiten. on. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. suspect Bav. — 1. to glitter. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. rattle. Lith. may be quoted gUt. to be wise. air. . bilbilgoda (to make . as. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. beorhtian. and. gnittre. schiteren. also wise. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. tumult. unlella. snudra. to 5 ghtter. to glitter e. to have Sapiens. to sniff. the equivalent of g. bilbil). is used in the origin. a dis- cernment. in the domain of movement. Fr. clang. firom the Gael. to ring. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. scTiateren. which in ohg. noise. wamara. to smack or taste. to flash. think. sound. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to glitter. iclat (in Old Fr. outcry. Bavarian bracht. It is The word bright had a similar In as. savour. brilliancy. The 6. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. So firom Lat. sapere (which signifies the nose. while sapere itself. properly a clap or explosion. to shriek with laughter . to glitter. to crackle gnistre. may be it explained . to shine. Du. fiapfiaipw. esclat). (parallel bilbila. search . taste. a ringing . man of nice taste. Again. splendour. to snilF. kimistd. bright. make a loud noise. extended to the exercise of the understanding. snutrs. &c. to tinkle. Finnish. wise.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. beam. prudent. and schmecker. snot. pracht. and figuratively. in popular language. to quiver. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. smell. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. chime). ghsten. schmecken. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. same imitative root with Sw. tintelen. judicious. from the . to sound clear In Galla. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. snotor. a with kimmaltaa. to sparkle. smell. then to sparkle. to ring as a glass willata. to glisten Dan. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. knittre. In the same way the Goth. In the case of sparkle. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. magnificence. a rustling sound Gr. to . . we have and the and beorht. signified a clear sound. a brilliant light kilid. tinkling. for example. sprageti. kiimottaa. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. 1654. spraka. wilahtaa. to sniff out.

was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. eo ut res vol. and vepres. within. kvTOQ. &c. 1. the neighing of horses. rough to the ear. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. power of the letter-sounds. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. wool. Kpovtiv. the cross. ipuKuv. Tpa)(yg. itself letters are felt as sofl. briars. he says. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. extremely loose. Much of the same has been often quoted. sharp. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. as soft by the ear. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. to slide. accordance with the way in which by touch. in of his works. discusses the tone of a picture. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. . tremour. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. roughness. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). rough both ways. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. which The Stoics. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. pvfi^Civ. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. shatter. oily. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. \nrap6e. then in rpd/xoe. whirl. in truth. v. The BpavEiv. is felt Lana. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. Kep^arl'ieiv. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. KoWiiSije. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. rough. And observing that n kept the voice within. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. or . fitting the letters to the sense. the clank (stridorem) of chains. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. Acre. crux. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. the bleating of sheep. smooth. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. inside. pleasure soft to the ear . which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. gluey. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. 6\tadaveii'. soft. break. of dressing loud. mel. flow and flux. he framed the words ivSov. we hear of screaming colours. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. rough.' he says. rend. strike.

together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. corresponding to the ineor. and in the utterance of a high or or low. as when. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. jih. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. for exis ample. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. stag (in stagger. d. a rough and sudden . joli. Fr. tug. 'and consequently form. to signify varieties of movement. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. shog. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. shag. dig. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. or checks as they are called by Muller. sag-oter. to jogj sac-cade. jig.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. degree of roughness sound. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. t. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. stab. ii. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. jag. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. jog. 138). the case of the voice. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. p. k. cular effort Again. rug. dag. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. g. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. p. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. to reel abruptly from side to side). the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. A greater felt.

tech-tech. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. is made to signify movement. to On the same principle j we have g. chicoter. Mucken. to ring a bell. tack. figuratively. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. kuk. an old worthless horse or carriage. a cracker. to tickle. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. a quid of tobacco. kik. then. a little bit. to move rapidly to and fro. &c.. Brescian toch. sound barely audible. g. to have it ticked or marked on the score . lead to Spanish tocar. The analogy then carried a step further. not to utter a syllable. Fr. then. zigzag. sound Fr. mot. a jog. to incite by light touches. passing to the signification of motion. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. foot. Ene olde suksuk. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a good piece of road . to stir. it produces Dutch micken. Fr. It. to glitter. a . mik. a stroke with a French toucher. rough horse. chique. or check. micare. a crum. Sukkeln. used interjectionally to represent a . Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. tecche-tocche. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. motion. The train of . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. chic. is lanese toch. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. mica. also to stir. as Italian tocco. a piece or bit of anything. as tot. is so frequent a consequence of movement. The Mipen or pencil. a small bodily object. Thus we have B. an infant . a playiug-marble. To tick a thing off. like English tick. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. to winkj micati is Lat. however. schockeln. Accordingly the g. to touch. S-panish miga. The syllable suk is jerk. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. to pulses being knock. chiquet. e. and e. schuckeln. Then. Welsh cicio. Dutch kicken. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. and analogous movements. (mitsati). or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. toch-toch. in cases like the foregoing. tock. to say a word . being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. The production of sound. zack.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to mark it with a touch of the pen . cica. to utter a slight kick. and It. properly a small lump'of . to take a thing on tick.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. for the sound of knocking at a door. to mutter. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. Hence Lat. Illyrian migati. to beat or play on a musical instrument. that we never can be sure. mie. Bolognese tocc. movement. to strike It. so to Italian toccare.

a girl. syllable mot. or the converse. here (close hand). a morsel. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. to tremble. at where the order is inverted. bunch or flock of wool. not an atom . a certain conception. here. titilh. to dot. there '(at a short distance). the least visible insect. neither moit nor an atom. small titlark. and out there. little j to that of a small bodily object. tozzo. to whisper (Pr. and mite. eo. a small kind of lark.n. a tot . passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. Malagasy to. a. Then. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. mutter. there (further of!) ao. I. titter. the same organ touched with the man. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. or o toi. . Cult. So. tittle. fragments It. as in e. to movement of the pen . to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). . a small quantity. move slightly to . tot. a light quick blow. clay . gnu. a bit. n. a bit. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. . mot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. anything small flax. further off. anything . ticktack. gni. i. to jot down or note with a fro. lump of earth. This kind. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. to make a slight mark. of movement in totter. Pm. that iku. mut. citto. In a similar the relations of place. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. motte. not because the pendulum makes a different left. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . e. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. you. to jog. is shown in murmur. . or the like its It. often entirely arbitrary. and he. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. chico. . titmouse (Du. fait. tot. a little titty. jot. tiny. 199). ri that.- a jot or little It.) . taut. e. tit. to e. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. and toddle like a child titter. Halliwell. Du. 48) cites from the African Tumale. gno. The following table from Tylor (Prim. 0. we have e. and a small lump of something. a morsel girl . subdued manner. not to utter a syllable. To jot. a e. totle. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. a lad citta. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. this . zitella. there. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. tot. small of kind. a sparrow). iki. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. But the same is language has re Javan. corresponding to the personal pronouns. Fr. to touch. little. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. (Halliwell) Da. mutter j dust. tottle. a small horse. a small lump or pat. a whisper. a small bird. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. for the beating of a clock. ika. to touch lightly with a pen. . tot. . zitio. lix Sp. the vowel sound. this. seesaw. and dot. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. that. motta. mote. mossche. tit. for the three personal pronouns. .

Mm. that. that. usho. as Mr Tylor remarks. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. here . ^. Gr. father. Zulu ajoa. uta. as in Italian Fin.. and a for the female. me probable that • Vei also little. that. man erne. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Ossetic am. thou ni. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. . mother. Then. mas cheche. this . here j abe. there. Mutsun ne. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. an old woman chacha. this <t. It seems to (fen. Guarani nde. child. 6. is Here. minution further. . tiiio. . here j ka. is father. Tamul i. It Carib lala.) nna. ni. thou. Japan ko. you. Chilian tva. . akha. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. this .araM. that. I . there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. km. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. he. Fernandian az. there. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. here .) pronunciation of i or e. this fi. loo). femina ama. ukko.e^. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. that. little. ndi. qu. . which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. . (tt).. Abchasian aSn. . that. as the act of pointing was ta. ojOo. and origin. he. that in the distance. for the male. there. nne. that. mother. ne. . there. Magyar ez. there. that. child. ta to ka. Carib ne. Tarahumara ibe. this ole. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. Lat. biii. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. here feraa. here 5 Yoruba na. j Canarese ivanu. there. w. father k . probably initial of distinction that the k. respectively.. ofj. ni. Sahaptin (America) kina. Botocudo ati. young one. ulri. that (intermediate) j wana. there. /wo. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. no constant rule is observed. /mya. Dhimas isho. here this . olo. an old .* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. small (Pott. /e«. mother. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. to. ita. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. bi.. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). this . this . that. thou .

a little yellow beard. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. looking through between obstacles. trappen. repetition It. has tittafrem. to tread. pepin. knob. trSpigner. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. the germ from whence the plant is to spring.' making the voice as small as possible. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. stairs. keeh. Top. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. don-don. the simplest mode by the g. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. dance (Kil. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. nipple. in old e.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. din-din. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb.' — Merrv Wives. a step. the idea is called. fretful. a child. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. Thus we have Wolof sopa. or even. and in the Pacific dialects.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. — Douglas Virgil. tion. analogous to winy-piny. &c. whence Fr. as ding-dong. to begin to appear . It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. Fr. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. trippen. is to express simple continuance of action. A little wee face with little. to peep. And perhaps the E. trippelen. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. The sound trapp . signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. of smaller things. little. titta. trappa. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. murmur. to feet. 401. nil. lift 8. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. for a succession of light blows low-wow. for instance. wean. trap. From cases like the foregoing. to leap. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. the pip or pippin. to teet. at pippe frem is to spring forth. . for the . principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. the nursery few j Sc. sound of bells . they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. the principle of reduplication. i Sw. to peep through. barking of a dog. little To sup up.) . to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. wenig. to make its way through the bursting envelope. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. Clank represents the sound of something large. nab. The Sw. or chink. just beginning to appear. as j money. A little weeny thing. Da.

and Fr. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. mawhiti. And generally. or imitative syllables. Cult.. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. a grasshopper. are echoed by the rudimentary et. could readily be conceived. clash of weapons. ratsi-ratsi. the lungs. 99). mawhitiwhiti. to pant. kamha-gamla. hardness. little child (p. kenda. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. clamito. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. a spot. The same principle of 196. 97). tach-et-er. calling. to skip. to say pooh It is ! to.' expression is — ^Tylor. to talk at to walk. rapidity and strength. Thus in E. in familiar use with ourselves. rack. click. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to vi^alk about for flax. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. instead of being actually repeated. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. mpolu is uttered. racket. very long (Pott. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. if very young. &c. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. keep spots. a clattering noise. properly speaking. from Maori muka. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. . to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. So from clamo. to to call. the comparative degrees of greatness. to cover e. child . is language. bad . Again. very bad. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). to call frequently from Fr. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. didi. or el. kendagenda. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. smallness. or in Fr. tache. serves to show and in this way. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. i. puka- puka. cliqu-et-is. to love. the and clique. child . Thus in the Pacific loa. Malay ayun. Susa di.Ixii REPETITION. the agent in panting . . or rdtchi. lololoa. rack click. amusement. ding-ding. (to use a to speak. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. Mandingo ding. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. to rock. to or rub. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. or very very great. loloa. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. sopasopa. or a little tee--ny thing. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. very great. a cradle. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. repetition or continsignify long. and the words express a continued sound of rack. ayunayunan. puka. to treat with contempt. random . to express repetition or continuance in a general way. er.

to make gug. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. miauler and beler correspond to E. kneel. g. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to hand. or by association. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to make a succession of shoves. draggle.Jicol. is In e. are to cry mew and pew . The contrivance with any particular noise. dab. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. others. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. to make bau-bau. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. jogging. dabble. such asjlap. wagas ging. Piedmontese bau-l-S. Jickfacken.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to wail woe . in used for dealing with an object by the hand. a from ayun. mew and baa . without the intervention of the frequentative element. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . The Fr. or Maori puka-puka. bub. to rock or wag. to make a succession of grabs . wankel. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . itself. In cases like these. joggle. shuffle. in Fr. guggle. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. rubber. or fi bau. to rock. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. in some applications. smack. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. Ihre remarks under gncella. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. he who rubs. syllable clat . by the side of wanken. compared with g. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. from puka. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . as to handle. as mAS. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. or omitted. crack. bubble. the knie-en to E. to bark like a dog. and in as. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. the lungs (the puffers of the body). fickle. rynel. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to puff. it. wankeln. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. where all direct connection with sound is lost. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. miauler andpiauler. to continue dragging. wavering. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to crackle. to move to and fro. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. waggle. which. wancol. to hand-le. a succession of cracks to rattle. or in e. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail.

A gull or a dupe same sense.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. Polish. at was more familiarly known. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . moreover. to the separation between the broken parts. deceit. known in Italian. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. or in aptness to combine with other elements. although it is not difficult. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. Breton. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. and comparatively few easily deceived. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. by a hard body breaking. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. on a moment's reflection. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. or in mode of use. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. it is obviously a mere chance how long. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. will continue to be felt in daily speech. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). to cry ugh at. or how generally. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. the breach. Dupe comes to us from the French. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. which is the origin of the word. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. There is. which.

But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. . life. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. founded in manifest blunder. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. language is . as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. is. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. however. and the word is used in a secondary sense. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. nor any limited of ideas. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. Hitl^erto. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another.

signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. and vescovo. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. If English. guages in South America. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. change. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. in the course of many years' isolation. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. 330. compared with the duration of man. and 'Russian. out. Welsh. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. i. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. Naturalist on the Amazons. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. of material things. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. therefore. French. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. evique. unintelligible to other hordes. episcopus. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. I think it very probable. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. hearing. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. circle perpetrates a new slang term. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants.

COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. The combination of the symbols I and 2. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. Nor is there one of the letters. it will leave figures 3 and 4. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. the actual it which would to represent. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. ao8). Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . ancient Greek M . that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. or whatever the proportion may be. which are idenr Figures 5. 7. A key must unlock more doors than this. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. i. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. Cijlt. 9. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 8. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. and . is MN. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. to be taken (Prim. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. 6. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. as shown in the subjoined illustration. .

ready instructed in the arts necessary for . Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or. known to us as yet. in the shape either of direct inspiration. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance.' should be discovered. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and the only safe beneficent Creator. what comes to the same thing. leading him to utterances. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. his fellows." the use of a change of vowel in as. had its origin in imitation of sound. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. for instance. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. which either by direct resemblance of sound. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT.

and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . race were speaking men or not. that he started from the lowest grade. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and when we look back as far as history will reach. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events.COMPLETION OF MAN. or of their own reflected thoughts . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. or beavers. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. as elephants. by animal without a trace name of Man. and sooner or later. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. of using imitative conduct . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. in the course of generations. the conduct of Ixix life. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. for instance. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . or else. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or not. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . until the progeny. and rose towards a higher state of being.

1737. Infimse Latini- D. Diefeiibach. Cotgrave. Dief. Dn. Cot. Fr. de la langue Cat.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Bigl. E. Douglas' Virgil. dial.V. Diefenbaeh.. Finnish. Gr. Grammar Boh. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Bohemian or Czech. AS. Due. Catalan. Bav. ^Ifr. or Dan. Sup. 1654. Dueange. Danish. Teutonico-Lat. Anglo-Saxon. Supplement to Bret. Diet.Nieder. Gothischen 1851. Romano - Cas- traise. Carpentier. Supplement to Dueange. Da. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. B. at the end of Somner's Diet. Cimbrisch. English. Cimbr. 1768. 1857. Dief. .-Eng. Bavarian. Couzinid. Brem. dialect of the Sette Commune. Baile/sEngl. Esth. Diet. Dueange. Esthonian.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Bremisch. Dutch. Carp. Wtb. 1766. Elfric's Fl. Provincial dialect. Castr. Biglotton seu Diet. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Diet. Fin. 1850.



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ur. K . ar. plesyt him. 244. as. onis aback. to arise. implying a completion of J. to hold . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. on. baftan. command. to sauff the king or spill. bandon in French. on-bsec . —Bruce. Ab-. on. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. downwards. iway from. a. state of sleep . is commonly :he remnant of the AS. among. 843. in a manner other than it should be ablution. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. A. the er. away. of-dune. announcement. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . Abandon. be-ceftan. behind. o/j of or . on-lic. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. . dominion. Hence on-bceftan. Thus ip N3S. and — Chaucer. dominion. abs. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. erwachen. to awake. Passing tongues. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. er. a washing off to abstain. this word beand Spanish. Thou spelds of mychty iction. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. have entire dominion over. ifter. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. us. an edict or proclamation. sion of 'an abandoned character. Parson's Tale. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. literally. Immediately from Fr. as. rule. "rom a height. vs. his. abaft. compounds.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. power : Than Wallace thing. said. from a is to wake to abide. To abuse is to use iway. Abaft. Lat. Again. ab. from. ibandonner. until the event jlace . but now )bsolete). into the Romance ftrseg . AS. AS. In Lat. whatever he be. in. Abs-. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Dent posture. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. away from. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. a/tan. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. to subdue. orders. Jvery man shewid baft. in the same sense. and secondarily in that of command.t G. out of. alike. OHG. ir.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. particular 1 . off. The word Ban is common orders.he Goth.

abbatia. son bandon. faire tomber. A. lish to abaisse orabaish. abbatere dal prezzo. merely the terminations ons. uncontroUedly. astony. other. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. R. In or. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. to light upon. by Wall. See Abide. ais.Prov. law term abatement. thing abbatere le vela.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. weaken. bandon. abandonly. an abbey. of fear. baer. so common in the found in the OFr.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. esbahir. at his own the lips. impetuously. down. On the other in use as well as hand. castle. overthrow. impulse. d. to excite admiration. R. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. of the Fr. person. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. his eyen shene. abbatis. Hart in Jamieson. and that from Syrian abba. to gape. to take possession of an estate. Fr. to bate something of the price abbatersi. to strike Froiss. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape.polir. . to make lower. Beat. and sets them all agape. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. to put to con. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. It. Bate. Milton. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. esbahissais. as ravish. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. from ravir. Hence Lat. ne more vermeille. And he thereof was all abashed. Castrais. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. See . confound. to beat furnish. Hence the OE. bawi. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to happen. Abbey. — Neccham.— — . or admiration. Wall. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. abaundunem-ent. depress. Baba ! Mod. to strike sail . father. drink. to abaw or astonish. R. and it that that it — . Many English verbs of a similar deriv. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. adverbial expressions at abandon. polish. to overthrow. terminedly. to astonish. abate. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Abbot.— R. to diminish the force of any. ant. 1520. iv. de. esbahissant. abbattre. esba. et prirent terre. shame. may be explained. effect of shame. in the active form. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to hit. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. his mouth.fournir. Cotgr. 1 1 8.down. baba. More correctly written abbat. burny. c. . where custom (Grandg. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. betrash.esbawi. and grooms besmeared with gold. 364s. and the verb was written in Eng. abbas. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. To Abate. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Abbess. Originally. from Lat. vol. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. astonish. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. I was abawid for merveille. — — .On princes. burny was formerly burnish . of wonder. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections.) . and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. with or without a final sh.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. abbatere. Custom. to ruin. to The . beer.' the surrender of a ' K. or society of abbots or monks.

abidan. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Cat. de Berri) Prov. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. gola badada. look for another. suffer b. beguiling on the other. Quant voit le serpent. and E. K. delay. — signifies to suspend action. abie. bouche b^ante. to hook. bida. Abie. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. baier. regarder. E. See Abide. The white poplar. abiiance. bialodrze-w. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. Thus we have It. to wait. Norm. bouche bdante. exciter. To Abet. Thus G. the verb of abeyance. abayer. beidan. abie. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. de Champ. also to OFr. bie compared with Dan. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. lingering. . is idenwait. with open mouth . endurArt thou he that should come. tempting. forms with the d effaced are OFr. Guernsey beth. — . expectfamily. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth.was formerly used in the sense of look. deceiving. from Halo. badare. abet.— ^richer. In We . Gloss. to attend to. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. b^er. to stay. beidan. abet. baer. —Raynouard. verbeijen Sw. Corant sens lui. inciter. wait To Abide. expectation. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. F. deceit. 1 • . watch. badare. trick abetar. pense. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to In great amaze. John. wait. bie. Cat. to gape . or absorption watching. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. tenere a bada. bhr. baier. guardare. covet. — ABELE Epiphanius. inciting. endurance. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. warten. beijen. abeyance. othres abidan' The effacement expect. listen. to abide . bder.to wait. take care. ^couter avec dtonnement. attendre See Bait. which the mind to an object. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. to yawn. . ne chastised them. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. to open the mouth. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to remain or endure. Du. delay. songer. while the monks under his control ing. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. or in Fr. to be intent upon. Q. says. have seen abide. suspense. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Boethius. and in E. compared with (Bosworth). take notice. a right in suspense . beguile. abeter. Gloss. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. forbearance. incite . and Prov. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. intent observation. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. — II. badigliare. to be intent upon. us. Goth. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to wait. beijden. . ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. From abahier. to desire. Abele. with badia. ' ' . delay. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. OFr. beter. to deceive. abbadare. bidan. waiting. expectation. to ance. ne wist what way to chuse. literally white tree.) abayer.Fr. speaking of the Holy places. listening. syllable ba. bada. ceive. badar. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. 366. abetter. Norm. we sceolon ON. baier compared with It. to deanimer. tarrying . abSiance. . on the one hand. tical with It. bida. aspire to. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish .. usbeisnei. in Dan. beijen. to open bader. to attend on . tity of E. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. badare. . which is certainly related to It. The verb atwaiting. Corresponding to keep in suspense. Prov. in Fr. open the mouth. aspirer.— Roquef. attendre avec en^pressement. gridare.— Chaucer. white. a bay or opening in the coast. to desire earnestly. desire. Ducange. abaier. were called Brothers. to wait. to tarry. m Abeyance. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to mind. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. desirer (Roquef. house. bana. (Vocab. to It.' is in AS. to expect. to expect gabeidan. to suffer death in Du. Pol. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Ni engigner ni abiter. to stay. and alluring to his own destruction. bide of the d endure. qui iaaille. Fabl. or do we AS. to look. signifies the direction of tend. bocca badata.

abilh. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. Lat. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Innan bords. the side of a ship. expert. P. abie. purpose. ! ! Cotgr. at hand). Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. durance in both applications. have-like. Wickliff in Richardson. strong. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death.ynes. abeye. and the simple buy. . God tokeneth and assigneth the times. and death for handsel pay. and Cr. being disabled in the highest degree. though sometimes confounded with it. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. N. O If tion. to wear away. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. within the walls of a ship. If it badare. within the ship. fault being simply clothing. to perish. F. to . the Fr. Abie. as habiller du chanvre. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Fr. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. abicgan. on board . ON. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. — Able.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Cassar. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. i. to redeem. — e. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. powerful. She shall abie that trespass dere. atling hem to her proper offices. abie to Goth. is the verb abie. Merch. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Fr. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. adapted . Q. abilej Prov. bord. Milton. AS. properly abuy. without special reference to the notion of retribution. habilis is closely preserved. use. &c. to draw fowls. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. abigg. Chaucer. the Pardoner In the original. beidan. habilis (from habeo. God. power. or bie. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. In this to erase or annul. P. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. habile. to dress hemp. aboleo. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. while in later examples As I . from Lat. Dr. Mids. R. in for any special purpose. Boucher. abolir. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. as E. L. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. For on board. willing to schewe his wrathe. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. to have . R. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Tr. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. to pay the purchasemoney. suffer the Jul. Spenser. must suffer for it. at kasta fyri bord. a board. It. fit. The —Boucher. sufficient. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. from AS. abycgan. —Bacon in R. forbid for mother's children should abye. — P. when compared with Aboard. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. bidan. consequences of anything . convenient. abide. able. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. 2nd Tale. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard.^and to make his power knowne. bide. him with che. God — dear. was often used in the same sense. the Sir Tristrem. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. abidge. to pay the penalty. de la volatile. 2. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Prol.

So in Lat. be-ufan. break out. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. AS. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. D. natural ed direct from the latter language. the identity of which with ting. to awake. his contemporaries. breaking out in language. Fr. abrdger. AS. To Abound. common in Chaucer and Abominable. around on the out. abufan. to feed. alere capillos. which passed into English under Abominate. heavy. seems aras.ymbutan. oil. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. abominor (from ab and omen. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. For on broach. Above. to feed. vital PI. and also to abridge. as withotityn and without. but from Lat.' Parson's rence. OE. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. agredge. to let sleep. be-utan. the form a&^^.) . In the same brevis . showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. Quod abominor. s —Casdmon. Sc.foda signifies to beget. The radical idea is to feed the flame. Prov. AS. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. to beget or give birth to children. sec seftre — Chaucer. that greatly agredge their sin. kindling. as the duty of nourdisposition. Thonne Abroach. draw out. abutan. to AS. of any kind . progeny. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow.' Ymb hancred utan. Gael alaich. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. side. to grow up. snatch In English we speak of away. or young forth. for ligeth butan. from . to rear. Finnish stock. is not from G. to rear.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. abbrechen. Of these synonymous adolescere.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. motion. brood. levis to the Romance languages. while the sense of beget. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. the hair grow. Abrdger itself. leading immediately to Fr. to grow together. adolere. OE. Then.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to produce. alan.the older form. The primitive idea seems that of beget. about cockcrow. to snatch.. abrcBgdan. abowen. Kiittner. gravity. ABOMINABLE adolesco. butan. parent. abredan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. below. abracan. without.. literally. nurse Lat. Abundant. hard. to fatten. to aggravate. d. to main. coalesco. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. the OSw. currence. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. OSw. abbrechen. af-oleii. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. ala. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. alUger. . Virg. Tale. en. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. onbutan.1. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. greu. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). — ' — — preceding verb. as AS. gravis. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. explains soboles Lat. Thence to regard greugetat. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. above. al is growth. pedigree from brevis. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. and in-d-oles. boven. to break off. Abray. while the verb alleThe root el. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates.aboon. See -und-. bufan. agreujar. a portent). Severe the threatened evil. by the to bring up. to light a fire the Abraid. and bidden him abregge. To abray or abraid.ger. nourish. to bring up. whence the Fr. to nourish. Lat. and alere flammain. outward. which may God avert. Du. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. disastrous portent in some passing oc. ol. to cut short. becomes leu in Prov. from Fr. the vital spark. the man dwindles away. . awaking. is a ively. af-oolden. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. ufan. to turn.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. — . abbreviare. or cut short. ala is made to signify to rear. to progress. and to do something to avert abbreviate. full ofte his words for to Fr. way Sw. See To Bray. Goth. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. life. Melibaeus. giving birth to. to start. the idea of breaking about . and also. on high. alan. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. titan. nurse.— Abbreviate.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


or in a ridiculous dress. Aperient. apanage. a preventative . finally applied to a whether grotesca. See Cover. as from as. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. a few. Ful- Apanage. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. to imitate gestures. the anticks — behind. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation.—Aperture. cenig. or antique single chamber. which by anvild. from in and cudere. as we call it.legacy of given against. fauns. to nourish. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en.made out. vex. one having wealth. Fr. post. Antick. Anxious. antifena. Thus from gabe. some one. apertum. Lat. whence anthem. af. Gr. avri^ava.— . such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. a definite . To go antiquely. separate purpose. from ango. part. on. one at the least. but the expresent day. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. apatiar. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. villan Gloss. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. inAgain from the same author cudis. Apart. transferred to the grotesque characters.D. Lat. i. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. were andouiller the second. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. AS. verberas. a gift. to go in strange disguises. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. anxi. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Jorioc. rich. before. to support. Gr. Mannequin. amboltj Du. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. andouillers. swaged. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. E. incus. anxius. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. a small quantity. Antique. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. to open. Apartment. panar. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. ReApe. from avTiipoiuia). from the imitative habits of monkeys. from Stephanus. bread. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. as posticus. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. burnished. such as savages. Apartment. set aside. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. from an. Anvil. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. all of gold. as the Italians. press. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. from. a block to hammer on. G. whence Prov. surimitation of the ancient models. d. eigs. As the browcalled antiques. and ig. Fr. Prov. anticus. and devils. Lat. to bring forth. one. ambeld. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. aperio. So Lat. gabeigs. In like manner. Gr. to sound in answer. were chiefly of the former class. Antler. . strangle. like a jack-pudding. d<popi(xnbs. To ape. white. three antike pillers. and claret wine. to strike. something ler in R. choke. —Spencer. should be received.. ab. to display pario. a termination equivalent to Goth. stem. a puppet or an anti^hona. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. AS. plenteously with red. from eigan. Antidote. Hence the applica. Lat.is to be given. what Roman civilisation. anfilts Pl. Fr. from. to strain. anapoz.th centuries the recognised models of antic. from an and — - . separate. antefn. Ilvtwotov. from ante. to strike G. of. AS. before. in Shakespear. panis. Any. : . Pezron fiUist. Hall's Chron. trouble. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. younger child. left as the . work. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. wealth. Otfried. Aphorism. Percutere. — — — . executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. to have. aside.

to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. AS. of. — dirondtfiu. pragigua or prixcoda. apprendre. from paix. To Appear.prix. and also as appraise. Ir. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. For their acquaintance was not come of new . proper time came. xv. find Then like Fr. prover. a learner. good.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. laven is used both as E. appareo. Prov. to take away or lose the vital powers. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. order. Fr. Apo- good time. From Lat. . to fit. Fr. apprentis. opportunity. — Approve. apar. APO sentence opoQ. prope (comp. landmark. cepl. Mod. apparecchiare. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. and appoinder (to find fitting. Cotgr. 23 . Fr. irpaiKOKiaov. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. decree. I prise ware. pertain or belong to. — prehendere. diroBrjKr}. appris. apin R. lAfiaam. poind. d-n-o. preparation. Walach. Prov. to be open to view. to make a thing Apparel. consent unto. Fabian in R. to store or put Appal. appartenir. Nouv. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. purpose. Apoplexy. and in the sense of condition. array. habiliments. become dizzy . An old appalled wight. Parson's Tale. The PI. habilUr. off. Fr. to suit. pretium. to come near. OFr. to Lat. a price. Pliny. S^. poind. set a price on. apal. Yr. approcdare. It. Cotgr. corresp. Fr. from aTroorlXXu. whether through age or sudden teiTor. kind of action. equal. ap. To Appraise. And among other of his famous deeds. to assign or grant over unto. one the MLat. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. APRICOT off. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. is a man who has lost his vigour through age.—Apprentice. To praise. to send to. trim. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. (cited by Diez from a late author). and metaphorically to take the meaning. to finish a controversy. like. 5w. horror. — Apprise. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. in good season prendre son d. 'LaX. allow. one for his defence. aparelhar. to mark to define a bound. fit- — ness. —^Apparent. ai. an epistle or letter. approcher. piteux poind. plight. Yr. esteem. Fr. were formed appropiare ejar. to call. . They werin his approvirs privily. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to send off. away. to learn. make a composition between parties. From Gr. seiden of the stones. obolys. agreeing with "LtA. Formerly apricock. to commend. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. to catch hold of. to approach. appellare. Gr. known. And whanne sum men Lat. Cotgr. They were considered To Appoint. to rate. peler. N. to strike down. in fact. . diminutive pariculus. agree. rise to \t.propius). appareiller. a thing for one's purpose. Approach. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to learn. peace. Appease. apal. From Lat. prohts. Friar's Tale. from.parejo. Palsgr. Gr. one is in. after his mind . to dress in this fashion. Apple. Apotliecary. despatch on some service. to set a price on. —Diez. taking. value apprdder. 11. i. w. ON. jabloko. or the like.probare. to deaden. aptly. Apprehend. to call for judgment. to — . Hence appoind. Fr. Lith. Epistle. manner. ciously than nede is. appaiser. e. D. — Appurtenance. a'^opi'Jw. diroTrXriaatii. apropchar. pronounce good. to which it is often referred. to accord. near. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. Hence It. in data. when the . to understand. in commendation. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. approver. ar.— . to deem good. Sp. Gr. Fr. a crime. to deter- to strike. Cent Nouv. apprise. apprehendere.parecchio. quoth the frere. to announce. Lat. case. dress. praise. to seize. to lose one's senses. one sent out. Gr. ^wss.his giving evidence against his principal. whence the e. par. properly to join like to like. prize. The Fr.t. H. to approve. in Chaucer. word was specially applied to clothing. To cause to pall (see Pall). to — — . the good. : — — speak 'Lz. to disable oftat. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing.pareil. like. En peach. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. that it outfit. pronounce fitting). or E. avail. apropid. Apostle. A — . oVooroXof. iwKjToKri. 'L-zX. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. probare. mine. Appareil.

o. or eft. wata. ahva. Lat. a lot. conjicio. ap. to decide by lot. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. rofe and all. ear. derived. and with turfis new Goth. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. aestimo. la nappe. account for either of these significations. hariolus arpelen. or barm-cloth. This path Aqueous. . The loss or addition of n very common. Arbitrate. as ihe diminutive. sortium ductor. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. Aquatic. pracoqua was not an adapt. Albanian. — . Lat. herbere. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. OHG. aha. Beryn. — napkin is Naperon. nected. sorcerer. Roquefort. a soothsayer. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. and a protection of the clothes. man. aqua. 31. water Which that benchid was. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. to plough. answers queswas introduced from Armenia.sors. Prol. and thence fit. It may be doubted. however. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. proper. arpa. symbol. Naprun. a pleasure-ground. Thus we have natiger and auger. She made. Pm. Now we find in Fin.meaning at Shrewsbury. . intensitive of nape.shrubs {arbor). as an eye-witness. Now one of the points — — — . a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. 2. As is a pretty parlour. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. con. arbitrium. From OE. Arbour. P. a cloth. 331. found in Fin. It is certain that the apricot oracle. opinio.] in the N. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. quod he. arwelo. ughe. tion under trial. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. nawl and awl. most conspicuous situation in the garden . the spelland umpire. short. divining rod. {mies ^=ia3. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. From OFr. arbiter.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. doubtless is the origin of E. naperon.' —About. and taken away before dessert. Maan initial . words derived from arpa. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. OE. Freshly turnid Arable. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Pr. grande nappe. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. is taken in is a soothsayer. auguror. Flower and Leaf. garden. however. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. A. a lot. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . J. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. arbiter in re censendS. aro. Marsh. sestimatio arbitraria.. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. C.) E. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . Lat. Alban. Hall. aa. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. P. to preserve it from stains. suitable. a river. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. delon. fastened close. a lot. and the one who gives oracles. properly the arwella. shortdr. aptus. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. . Gr. scr. be That it inne groweth. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. and sortilegus ation. arbitror arwaaja. conjectura conjec^ra. . in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. of of divination arpa-mies. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. arwaus.

— Architect. ers-betriiger. aj-f. Aristocracy. and our army. arm'ee. et vulgari verbo.aioj. the court of a magistrate. From the verb armare. malicious. burning heat. arch-bishop. arcA in e. Lat. sly. to be on fire. There can be no doubt that E. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. apx^iv. is essentially the same word. armata. Fr. to rule. a chief builder. ill-tempered. 2. to burn . curved. arrig. an arch boy.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. . . The . arduus. an arrant rogue. Arcliives. ars. Arm. from areo. ramend). lofty. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. which has been referred to W. bravest. arwe. From apxeiov was formed Lat. ardor. by Russ. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Dan. troublesome.' the Gr. arguo. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. un petit rusd. kpxi- beginning. G. un malin enfant. gwyrek. contemptible. . faint-hearted. ein arger knabe.. a court yard. as in E. to Arch. apxtipfve. Lat. Lat. especially shoulder-joint. Applied in modern E. apxri. a bare plot of ground. Perhaps erz-wticherer. bad. bad. arrant Arms. argvitugr. and Kpurka. een erg kind. fabricate). — Wtb. branch. argr. Langobard. high. make clear or prove. shoulder Boh. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. to be in comp. Gr. * ArchjAiTaxit. forearm . earg. morally bad.In E. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Uo^a^. shoulder. receptacle where the public acts were kept. fainthearted. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. apxtlov. to dry. arcus. adjective.' Lex. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. W. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. Lat. a. Sp. . And thou as arwe coward. aridus. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Du. a bow. G. a threshing-floor. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. AS. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. a noble. whence the body of the nobles collectively. arm. an extent of flat surface. ON. A construct. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. stuff. earm. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. armada. ancient. apxh. Arson. a branch. i. worker. 3340. from nixa. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour.. earh. the terminaGael. to arm. and must be identified with Dan. Gr. in Due. which is derived from it. man. difficult to reach. Area. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. ardeo. Gr. bad of its kind. It.4 rir/. mischievous. timid. Ardent. curved line. Gr. mischievous. while the Fr. patus). armee. arsum. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. the most arrant trash. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. weapon may be simply an application of annus. arga. det arrigste snavs. ardIn G. as the arch of a bridge. ardre. taxed with cowardice. Ardour. Lat. it signifies roguish. Brem. TiKToiv. Lat. a rule (princiruler. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. first. wretched OE. the best. government. exercise lordship). Cot. ^Argument. Fr. rame. ruling by the nobles. archangel. an arrant usurer. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. and not with apx. Arid. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). D. arma. Lat. vescovo.' Paul Warnefrid. sluggish. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. arson. an arch-deceiver . raineno. vocaveris. Fr.is the natural weapon of offence. erz-bischof. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. arm. gwyro to bend. the a brute. Sax. arg. weapon. Alisaunder. are formed the participial nouns. ' — Argue. erg. Du. signifies chief or principal. sly. a burning or setting on fire. erz in G. . Arduous. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil.— Army. Arcadia in R. area. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Lat. wanton. Arch in composition. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. to demonstrate. ramo (pi. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a boil. G. to ache. Ballata. bdlkr. balken. a ballot). on. Rouchi ban. baler. to pack Da. Hence. ON. balkr. dial. Da. Bowl. ball. balk. malefacGower in R. the ballet of the theatres. to shake or jog. Gr. as we say. to signify washy drink. balk.' speak gibberish champurrar. a dance. a ball or pack. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. ill. Boll. a ballad. balk. Pol. dial. ball. Sw. . Wotton. may exhibit the original development of the signification. i. G. To Bale out water. bealwes. a division of the old laws. baalien. bold. Russ. Q. dial. Bret. wickedness ness . bolyaf. 3. palloilla. Ballot. balla (with the augm. trouble. bal. 2. pallikka. a continued noise of waves gently beating . Sp. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. chapurrar. E. floor. baloier. probably Lat. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. a ball. and the dim. dial. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. a pail. vcdra bdlkr. package of goods. ballare.—Ballad. It. OHG.Fr. hooting. balveins. Sw. To baulke the Sir H. a dance. balle. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. bol. Sw.— Ballet. to avoid it. . Ball. bal. balka bunge. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. balk. on the shore. balle. N. Sw. Grief. bbllr bulla J. a clod of earth water. destruction. bacgtteter. to Not sparing wight. Dan.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a separate portion. ache. It. to dance. w. palla. Sw. roof. to stir. Goth. a clump . tum. says Ray. ballet. plague. a wooden partition . to rock. grieve . the object of his expectation. OSw. to roll. globule. e. to cause another to miss pustule. maleficium. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. ' is a piece or confused talking. to paddle in water . A balk. on. pallo. (Hesych. a ball. balken. a clapping or flapping of wings. ball. a scene acted in dancmg. baalie. uveirs bolk. Fin. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. afbalka. a But making way for death at large to walke. ballar). pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. a water-skin dim. Baulke of land. I. to be ill. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. stage or scaffold. balka hopar. sick. ballo. balka. bol. a washing-tub. at giore en balk. bola. a together in the form of a ball. to see-saw. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. vacillare. a ball. taich. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. blister. balloon. misery Du. a bubble. to partition off . Fr. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. torment. Perhaps on. with the perhaps from balg. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Gael. ballone. the breadth from side to side . wickedtorment ON. lealo. sickness. It. on. to dance. OFr. a pestilence. a partition. See Gall. maan pallikka. Sw. balle. pilula. ne leaving any balke. It.Lat. other while. . from bacquet. bal-daed. balja. to ail. to on Holmedon's plain. whether of wood or stone. are applied to a From the same analogy. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. ball. balva-vesei. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . a beam. — A — — . which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. The primary sense seems as in G. Ball. pallo. as in a barn or cow-house. a pill. Bale. bolyatchka. to grieve . . ing. bal. . a ball balla. pain. to bale out. separaison. balare. sorrow. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. heap up. bolawy. ban. cka. to plank. Hence Dan. Mid. to wave. to be balker. . Ugutio in Due. balle. weak liquor. ballan. TtaKKa a pail or tub . palcare. beaten road. balge. to move. a great ball. mass. ballare. boll. AS. Balloon. a ball.). a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). similar connection is seen in Sp. ballare. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. to by beams. pila. * Balk.of men . gen. shouting. Du. a beam. In like manner Fr. bollr. ballotta. the beam of a ship. Bohem. Fr. bjdlki. hue et illuc inclinare. Sw. a balk of foul weather. bolker. calamity. We have then separate dial. F. a.ing. to plough for a boundary between lands. bala. It. Du. Fr. to speak an un. and evil in general. a globe. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Da. Venet. bielke. boleii. Sw. pallukka. a skin. .— 42 BALE to BALL heap .

lastra. because. make fun of a person. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. railing around altars. . The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. baUa. ballustres.' And Kil. A — — . the flower of the pomegranate. deceiver. mare Balticun. is in Sweden and Norway. age. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. . and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. seems the original form of the word. Lat. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. — — oltriga. The Sp. or movement of one who walks. explains ballast. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. This is the backload. more serious objection is . Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. To proclaim. inutilis sarcina. deceive. balustrade barandilla. called Bait. balconies. galleries. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. ranked on the outside of cloisters. Ballast. baU. urtica. Said to be from balaustia. objects to the foregoing derivation. a battlement . Bret. barandado. 1. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. But Fr. Balluster. To Bamboozle. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. bamein. lastagium signified not only ballast. bambolo. To Bam. a fragrant gum. for a load or goods (Roquef. to walk.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. If bambocciolare were child of one. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. little round and short pillars. Fr. to enchant. an Old dotard or imbambolare. ballast. Sc. ^a\Ba\iov. Fr. a useless load. of balusters. but loadage. 1854. analogous to what is seen in It. Sp. astonished. Balm. from bara or vara. small railing. To make fun of a person. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current.. as he says. Report Pennsylv. The Baltic sea. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. in the first place. command. Venet. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. a rod. inutile onus. from Lat. or ballast of a ship. like Fr. baranda. R. bag-lest. a false tale or jeer. lestage. baume. also with flatteries and . enchanter.Lat. 43 — Cot. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Du.). &c. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. denounce. the backload. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. balsamum. Balsam. barauste. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Bamour. Gr. the act of walking. In OSw. Baltic. dial. To deceive. It. Dan. and Mid. a small balustrade. bag-las. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them.000 tons. To Ban. Sept. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. When a ship discharges. Lest. by met. sorcerer. forbid. baltresac. bambocciolo. bertesca. Bret. terraces. a nettle. fonts. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. more frequently than outward-bound. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. paid for the right of carriage. bamboccio. lest. for want of other freight. puzzled. ^Arbuthnot in R. ballustre) is a corruption. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. lastre. back of the ship. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. &c. a young babe. endormir par des contes.that the going vessels. Cotgr. last. curse. to preserve equilibrium. It. bam. i860. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. Mr Marsh whether the a load. bumbazed. It is explained back by Adelung. a duty on goods last.

But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . See Abandon. bundun. to unite with a band. curse. passing on from proclamation to command. — R. also the band or of marriage. eiiseigne. permission. to reprove.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. &c. bandera ground at his mill. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. side. 19. to excommunicate {lysa. 1. border. theodscipe ut abannan. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Band. 'A son bandon. banda the colour or material. Capitul. ex. Sp. — To partito d'alcuno. bandon was used in the same sense. bound. A. band. from at the Lord's courts. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. Cot. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. — excommunication bann-lysa. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit.Lat. v. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. is That with which anything AS. From the verb to banda. bandi. Baud. In a special sense the term company itself. acquired the sense of proclamation. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Leg. in Fr. to follow a faction. power. 26. then the signification w. margin. flag. bandon somewhat party. the ensign or banner. bande. . region. and thence to any proclamation. to ctide. to form parties. Diss. those who side together (bande. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Car. hoc est vexillo. populum. tener da alcuno. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. 15. Sw. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. in hostem convocare. ligue Taboada). biddal. bannum or bandum. a coast. admolendinum. Les saiges avait et les fols d.—John Villani in Due. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. band. we constantly find the expression. etc. Sp. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. R. Thus the word is also used in both senses. a company. Commun^ment son bandon.is further developed. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. whether by way of injunction or for- command. OE. Bandear. It. bindan. D. ba?idare. Goth. he bannede his ferde. says Muratori. sostener Torriano. fahne. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. to . banns pany of footmen serve. Mag. Spebifid. There is some doubt how Fr. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. In Fr. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Se il — Romance languages. bande. bannire exercitum. . E. Wyntoun. banner marked the place of assembly. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner).e. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl.. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. The to . banda.^ bandy. banda. and in E. Fr. to ban. Assises de Jerusalem. It seems this signification has arisen. bannire in exercitum. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. authority. —R. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. It. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. bande. to publish) banna. he assembled his host. i. 813. R- He Translated by Chaucer. 2. Fr. parti. to bring corn to be fahne. at his own discretion. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. to take one to task.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. summoning to serve So in Swiss. faction. &c. Goth. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Bandus. bando. change to the feminine gender in banda. G. to side or to bandy (Florio). bann. To Bandy. It. and It. Ripuar. side.

bang. pastoralis. With many a stiff thwack. hammering. many a bang. counter. eminence. follow a party. AS. Banditti. Hudibras. back of a knife. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). to knock.z. banc G. and bakki. bana. . a sand-bank dorsum jugi. seat . bank of a river. a table. Draw. The word is in E. put under the ban of the law. banco. the same verb the It. beating. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. to cabal. eminence. N. bandi. Mid. a blow. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. for shame. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. 45 — — Bandit. death-wound. in the sense of a pirate. and OFr. bank. —^Vocab. bandire. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. From Mid. to join in league with others against Cotgn. standard. tumult bangas. bent as a bow. banke. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. to foment factions. Benchi. bane. — Kil. Benvoglio. To Bandy. bander tin arc. bander. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. whence the mod. shoal.^ knock. ON. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. — Fr. It. Bacon in R. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. s'associer. and therefore tied up. bana. 2. &c. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell.HG. Fr. AS. Bane. panca. From a desk . from banc. &c. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. language of W. bance. Lat. — — whence E. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. band-hond.: . a long raised seat. and hence. Banner. a rising bank. in R. rap hatike et som The Susu. Africa. Fr. Mercutio. murderer. Dan. Fl. E. Ripuar. Roquefort. outlam came to signify a robber. Lingua. bander. Du. as of an explosion or a blow. Bang. de sable. destruction . to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. a bench. Sw. bench. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. a bench. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. bank. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. banditti acquired the like signification. bankruptcy. See Band. a de Vaud. ON. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. It is in this sense nounce. the slope of a hill. a bank. It. Brewer. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. a counter. a sand-bank. of bandying words. bana-sott. banca fallita. forbear this outrage. See Balluster. a i. See Banish. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Bank. death-sickness. canis vinculis assuetus. and poise Their lighter wings. was formed the OFr. the back. Bandy legs are crooked legs. among rotta. se joindre. to slay. When a man fails Lat. hricg. bakke. bana-sdr. Bankrupt. to work in wood. A Shipman's Tale. banja. bannire. The ridge of a hill is AS. roupt. bandear. band-dog. Bantze. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. benk. Tibalt. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. bana. to hammer in a nail. banish. beat. at canis peciiarius. Bandy. It. to proclaim. desk. death-blow . g. Fr. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. to bend a. . so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. ON. bow. home — Bandog. clouds. in the sense of place of business. But natheless wife at I bank. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Banister. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . bench. banc. to knock. bank of river. dorsum was applied to ject. bank of Dan. . ruptus. a bankrupt merchant. to publicly order one out of the realm. to beat. banka. has bang-bang. banca his creditors. b'ang. the former Fr. a bench. . to make a stir banke. Goth. stir. Your stool. — Paulus drive in a nail. — . disturbance banga. The child cries bang! fire. Diez. de- party. banqueroute. in the same way that E. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. The ing. distinguishes bekkr. that the word is used by Romeo. . Milton in R. broken. a wound OHG. Diaconus in Due. large dog kept for a guatd. se reunir.

nestling. Fr. To Banter. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. bandva. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. branches of a tree {gwezen. that the noise of voices Bantling. heri-pau. Fr. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. himself in Pontus. iandvo. OHG. Celtic bar. ON. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Banneret. men. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. an animal a year old. a bearded or Cot. a beam or long pole of wood. Bap. Sw. summit. hence a repast. out of a wound.the analogous syllable viur. and with an initial s. rarii. ing term appears in other languages. remarked. A It. and it was accord. Gr. Lat.aTa Kul nest. The spar. bar. a tree). period vexillarii. either in the Gr. inferior to a baron. G. It. benda. a. &c. to wrap. Barb. senheira. to having that signification. Banquet. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. as they call it. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. signuin. in Gr. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. sbarra. barre. It. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Fr. i.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. a which the barrister addresses the court. a ban. dim. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. milites bannarii. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. from the same source. OFr. inur. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. Fr. Barbar. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. The barb of an arrow is the sign . which is surely in barbed arrow. Hence ner. Thus Ovid. and he would seem to derive Goth. sparro. of wind. and from ensign or banner Prov. a barrier or stoppage. barra. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. Barbe. a bench or table . says. branch. to dip. banda hendi. knight Bardd. manu anto make signs nuere. barriire. E. Bret. banne. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. senh. indeed. of a sign in general. banneret. wrapped. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. . Fr. Gael. ^oTrriKio.. then branches. Hence Fr. from reifa. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. barrack.8ap6^o)voe. banner. E. then fell among the foot. rod of any rigid substance. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. It may be thing. barreau. senhal. barde. would rupted from Fr. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Barb. Flesche barbeUe. to wash. banda. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. E. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. senhal. According to Diez the It. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. or of this bantering. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. merki. speaking of battle. and even of calling it banter. To mock or jeer one. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Leduchat. 3. 2.. to beckon . brushwood. a war-beacon or war-signal. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. privileged to raise Barbarous. barbe. bandiera. top. ban- Baptise. barbed or trapped as a great horse. bannereti.— Swift in R. and the work is done. — We A . sparre. barbarus. to bend. chan. &c. In a similar manner are formed yearling. ON. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. BARBAROUS reiflingr. such as the Roman Eagle. banniire. uncivilised.hinder. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Lat. barba. the word came to signify rude.cruel. Gr. sign. jSdirTO). banchetto. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language.46 BANNERET . Duo. by a repetition of the syllable bar. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. barrou-gwez. arineXov. a bantling. token. It. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. barrer. of banco. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. jSa'pjSapoc. a sign. Lat. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. OHG. Fr. The original import of their own banner in the field. —Cot. banneret was a higher class of knights. probably corSymbol. The origin is in all probability Goth.

a shingle or small board. to grunt. such as houses are covered Bardelle. in Fr. It. formerly used in the sense of tattle. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Sp. murmur . Gr. dial. Port. to wash. /3opj3opwJu. . made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. ready money. name Fr. skialldar-bard. to stammer. barbelin. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Festus in Diet. Barbel. a long saddle for an ass or mule. gibberish. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. or more properly (says fer. a rumbling. barbeter. speak confusedly. OFr. barbier. barbacane. grumble (Lowndes. to make an outcry . Barbican. in poetic language Bard for poet. bdsiis. mutter. to It. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. twattle. also to wallow like a seething pot. quarrel . bhasad. Hindost. bdla-khaneh. barguigner. uncovered. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. muttering. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. lb. It. Fr. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. and in Flanders to vociferate. brim. ala. bdsas. brabble in the making of a bargain. border. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Fl. bare baskojis. Mod. barz. as well as thwcEtta. An outwork for the defence of a gate. scouthouse. and flanks. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. barbarkama. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. to prattle. is lb.' Cot. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Bret. barda. baragouin. — — Hence. Barder. i. bar. coping. Cotgr. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning.) . bardes. on. in the sense of fight. horse armour covering the front. barbulla. Lith. the flap of a hat. the edge of a shield hval-barct. But Sp. G. berries. baar. barS. to boil or bubble up . Pr. berj G. Barberry. w. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. — — — men. borborinha. g. waschen. barbugliare. Gr. /3£pjSepi^w. guazzolare. Bargain. haggle. the nakedness of a woman. barbeau.— BARBEL merit of water. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods.) to wrangle. the beard. Exposed to view. Lucan. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. barbeum. to bubble or boil. A7 to the and warlike. borbotar. — Cot. borbulhar. Hatt-bard. borboglio. to stammer. fortia —Strabo. the quilted with. skirt. Hall in R. open. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Barde. Bardeau. to gurgle. twcEtta. stutter. — . to plash or dabble. Arab. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. and Sc. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. albarda'ah. barefooted Sanscr. Fr.— Fl. jargon. Sp. saddle-cloth. as well as the modern twaddle. boil. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. Russ. back. barboter. Etym. a jetty or outnook in a building. tattle. Port. — . skola. Diez. . to mumble or mutter words. used 2. a tumultuous assembly. to bubble or spring up. a pack-saddle. albardilla. barbar. guaszare. bardd. and foolishly. borbollar. bds. The Pers. which was of talking. axilla. tree.— — Pm. Mod. Thus the on. and the word was used in OE. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. barbaris. albarda. to rumble. Fr. small pack-saddle. uproar. also to bind or tie across. Fr. Bard. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. upper chamber. Cot. barda. a bardelle. powdered all over. skirmish. Lex. Cotgr. Etym. Barber. barbel. Applied in E. Bare. Sp. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. to chafbargain. baares geld. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. border of a garden bed. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. unqualified. to barbe or trap horses.

Barn. Romance barsie. a barn. * Barnacles. edge. in the Brim. put to confusion.) lihtes-ern. squabble. baerm. to skin over barkandi. barretor. hladi. baratta. berma. Acervus. OSw. Sp. trouble. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Kil. Uzen. . barizeins indicates a noun baris. bark . beer. altercation. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. contest. Barge. bcerme. skutr. strife. at barka. prasepe . Isidore in Rayn. — de Berri. Sw. bosom . barley. Ripuar. ThS man was not created for the woman. fray. barn. also to exchange. Du. (Ihre. confusion. See Barm. barn. barajar. AS. baarm. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. baarn. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat.Barum vel feminam. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. baragouin. barlys. Bark. as baces-ern. AS. and llysiaw. in Nat. corn-shed. OFr. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. a heap . baralhar. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . quarrel Port. border. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. beorcan. Lith. — Barnacle. and may therefore be an Eastern word. skuta. the A — Ihre. Dan. Sp. dispute.^Voc^. bread-corn. barki. the rack or manger. Antiq. W. barnacles. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. and hence probably (by a metaphor. the G. w. Dan. is simply the Bret. barley. chaffer. bargain. ber (ace. Camus. a load. a. tion of the sound. to all the barca. a stack. barley. was barlic. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. limpets . The Goth. Vocab. As Goth. struggle. baron)^ Fr. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. to shufSe. barahunda. the fore or after end of a boat . barlich. ON. as well as Scandinavian tongues. houbartij fsnile. hemlock. but the woman for the man. then honoured man. dispute . dispute. then the bows pectus navis. kani. charlock. plants). meta foeni. quant a perdu sa barja. Prov. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. and ern. one who stirs up strife. dial.. berm. Swab. to strive. bard). aheap. From Fr. ON. a lap. as. and the word. Gl. Port. barja. as in the case of Lat. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. Rayn. So also ON. spectacles. Bret. contest. am. On the other hand. v. Du. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. limpet. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. The origin may be throat. . we pass to the vert) barguigner. berem. limpets. barn. To Bark. bern. Provj bar (ace. to rout. adj. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. a receptacle for barley or corn. bread. bernac. and is probably a true bartig. bcern. 2. See formed Yeast. — Zeuss. to cheat. . hlaSa. ON. bern. . entangle. Baron. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. brenig. berm hoys. berm. OFr. — battle. to chop. dregs of oil. baralha. a baking place or oven.' bardagi.. dispute . Bailey. 2. a place. baratta. baaren. Ibid. i. prominent part of a thing. baniffa. ON. a boat. strife. It. the slimy substance brewing of beer. barafunda. from an imita- Barley. It. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Barbour in Jam. to scold. E. a lantern. borkr. barmr. bamagh. astringent. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. —Bark. Sp. dispute barattare. baimeach. baaring. Spectacles. as. beornt. bere. baron. Leg. barlys {bara. Port. a heap. The older form in e. giving rise to It. barone. barii. to wrangle. Garlick. Cornub. the or prow of a ship. Bemiques. Originally man. varen. lap. tumult. barge. a cap . Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. disorder. barafustar. strife. So ON. bosom. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. louzou. husband. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. barms. Leg. herbs. and 1. mhg. commonly explained from bere. Gael. name being given to spectacles. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. barnis. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. quarrel. a beak. also a boat . wine. Alam. Manx bayrn. hay-loft.

The Sp. mound. — Kil. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. It was not until the time of James I.parchanttuech. barchent. Baron andfemme. Fr. OE. G. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. over him. which would barragdn. a hut or booth. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Antiq. bark&n. from beran. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. bahre. from a tree to which a man is hanged. It should be observed that. garment still used in Morocco. by early examples. Bargus or moreland. as. — — 15th Cent. baronetti. branches. staves. berewe. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Sp. Sp. also termed bannerets. bouracan. — A . See Barter. ibid. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. sepulchre. seem to be radically the same with Lat. todtenbahre. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. in the first instance. It. Russ. vir. baronculi. StiU he shows conclusively. bara. a. cise formation of the word. a word is always used in the plural number. barile. facture.have been named from the haggling and gant. Gael. bearg . a bier. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. ^Barrator. dispute. barre. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. barril. vair. Sp. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. as cavalcade. w. gwr. boar. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. sterilis. AS. berwen. 26. braeck. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. gravis et authenticus vir. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. booth. an obstruction. cover. the two names. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. barrier. fortification.. See Bar. brushwood. implement for carryAS. the braw. vel pretiosos burellos. a barrow. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. hut. Barrack. barrique. habeant. Barrel. a horse. This word introduced into Fr. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. Bern. Bret. MHG. strife. beorgan. barrack. Barrister. signifying. Fr. calico. Goth. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. a castrated hog . G. S. alongside of barrow. It. qui have not much light on the pre.' that Barrier. An ing. bara. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. to * Barragan. breinej Du.— Gibbon. especially those killed in battle. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. from cavallo. then traffick4 Barrow. tomb. It. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. composed of dry branches ofer. like bargain. barri. barrique. barBombicinus. The feudal tenants next Fr. Barricade. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. uncultivated. Barratry. bera. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. baraignej Picard. shed. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. iver. barrila. semen non accipiens landiEL. Bohem. OFr. Bamnculus a baronet. ^Vocab. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. AS. man and wife.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. fear. whence Barrow. Gael.root signifying confused noise. On chet — We — — their resemblance. change of goods seems. 1.. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. in Nat. Formed from Fr. a barrel. Nominale of the from braeckland. a hiU. borov'. beorg. nobles. barague. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. Barren. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. E. litter. Joshua vii. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. 2. heap. to carry. were sometimes confounded. to shelter. bredhan. a bar. man. and not from Fr. baragan. a kind of coarse camlet. whenever Barrow-hog. baronuU. A. rolls of Parliament. D. squabble. became bidre.' Op. barraca. (Schmeller). but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. and in several instances. or simply bahre. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. beorh. baracca. bier. a. baroncelli. perhaps through Prov. a man. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. fallow.

Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Bass. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. bds. baste. pressed down. Fr. Basket. Fr. OFr. But according And Dan. It is mentioned as . baste. basgod. humilis. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . also to Cotgr. embastir. mock not. or wic. submovet omne Lucan. Barton. The like property hath the iasilisk. a ftiesh. from /3aR. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. .' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. w. to baste. — in Rich. Sw. Pl. ing for profit. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. bran. ' He was begetin o bast. a bastard. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. OFr. . a halter. baratar. bast-reb. as the diadem of the basilisk. him.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. thick.' Papias. from bere. flat. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. bassin. said Base. bestan. exchange. baxoj w. mean . Al is dai. court-yard. baste. found in Turkish . but born in baste. It. HoUinshed. Arthur and Merlini. the a wide open vessel. cog. binding. also the demesne lands of a manor. Sp. to Diez. fraud. rope for — . AS. at basta og binda. Newman. lift me above Parnassus. descended of an honorable lineage. Kil. . lattice-work. to bargain. according from Gael. chasa. basta. which sets up its hood when angry. on a. bdtir. which covers the grain Ger. Bassus. ' Bosworth. to bind. HaUiweU. Swed. barley. A fabulous serpent. besst-u-b£nd&t. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Apparently of Celtic origin. of the same sense. a ipgli So Turk. beortun. a court-yard. low note. There is not one that. but he dreth presently. 516. i. basso.' Gl. over-reaching. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. tierer. would be. inclosure. beretun. and tun. peel. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Bastard. bestcn. Lend me your hands. To stitch. husk bast van koren. ibid. scale in music. the manorhousfe itself. Du. more noble in blood than notable in learning. n' is n' is bacino. bast. See Bath. Du. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. F. It. bareter. imbastire. crassus. then cheating. It. Fr. To Baste. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. corn-farm. the thin skin Dan. Basilisk. Halliwell. basg. God it wot. The original meaning. — hanging. Gr. fits de bas. Fris. ohg. pdrdt. barter. a basket masg. /«r<fSp. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . baratear. foist in bargaining. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. bast. Dan. leviter consuere. back. bark. Bartizan. Sylvester's Dubartas. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. a bass rope. to baste piece of cloth. preparatory stitching. Sicamb. It. baos. to deceive. berewic. PaaiKhms. It. fornication. — Bassoon. a deceiver. and Bret. low. beguile. basso. shallow. he. Dan. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics.). bast. mavult dicere Roma suam. bass-matting. hoops of a cask. Barbara de pictis veni patch. low. plaiting of splinters basged. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. or running away with the ship. unrighteous gain. ^Is de bast. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). to truck. G. baraet (from Fr. Lap. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). baraand especially teria. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. MHG.D. exchange. fhe outhouses and yards. oe. aiKcig. Bast. See Brattice. cheating. a king. basta. BassuS. come near. the — — to kill those that look upon it. to stitch . lust. bast-maatte. imbastire. to long — a British word by Martial. It. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. to cheat. fornication. as It. to cheat. MHG. Bass. Isidore. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. To Bask. bastear. netting. barter. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. discourse Nay. a tying. bas. stitch. to bind hand and foot. truck. to bind. dwelling. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. besst. HaU in HaUiwell. curtus. Sp. commonly A joined with the word binda. partieren. by imbezzling their goods Bailey.looketh upon his eyes. low part of the Hickes in Rich. MS. chasa ogli a bastard. Sw. Sp. piiiguis.

to spread bread and butter. a pad or packsaddle. which to rest the load. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. like the owl and the bat. Fr. bastine. Sp. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . quelqu'un son roulet. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. explains Sp. bastilde. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. vespertilio. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. basa. to pack a saddle i. erect. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. bat. to build. Fr. Fr. frame. R. Pr. to devise or begin. a with a stick. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. beating. bastir. Pm. contrive. Sc. To donjon. from Fr. Antiq. aftonbakke. Prov. liiake. boste. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. the E. a barSp. basto. and Cot. compared with blakka. to quilt or stitch wool into it. to beat. raise. in the use of the E. victuals. to rub gently. Dan. Rayn. . E. batta lucifuga. blatta. 2. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. bladier. Cot. and Arabs. bastille. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. baston.stick. to stroke. the original has corneille. blakka. It. It.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. military term of a bat-horse). vespertilio. bast. in the Romance languages. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. worth (Nat. All from bastir. Dieiif. bastione. to belabour. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. iastir. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. ment. a bird which. bastimento. basta. ari instruineht for beating. 2. niammal. bak. pre. Perhaps baska. bdion. That yche blak y dar wel telle. to set on foot a war Bastion. dial. to drub. Sp. stryka. the winged . to beat. the clapper of a bell. translation to a bat. a things prepared for future use. to lay the Sp. back. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. a sconce. and ditches bastion. Sw. ON. bastida. blatta. contriving. p. the night-jar or goat-sticker. settiilg up. For the origin of baston see Baste. club. passage Imbasto. bastonada. Supp. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. bastear. Sw. Florio. To baste one's hide .'CaB. Sw. — — — . 11864. vledermus. Cot. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. whence ledrblaka. staff. — — Fl. business (Altieri). a blockhouse. cudgelling. nade. a. . Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. a blow cloth for dinner. For the loss of the / in back. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. a pad. Dan. disposer.stitching in general. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. a packsaddle. natt-blakka. bastonFr. R. Mid. provisions. set up. the bat . beysta. to flap. 'iJipistreUo. It. flyinge best. Derived by Diez from iasi. put it together. to cudgel. badger. to rub. guerra bastir. Fr. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do.Lat. is explained by Cot.-^ Chaucer. Sw. night-bat. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. blows. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . bastonnir. e. has bastine. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. — Bakke. I. to Due. bakie-bird .fortress or castle furnished with towers. blacta. also the ricado. blaka. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. devise. packsaddle. to whip.— Bailey. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . a stick. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. frotter. stryk. to build. or implement for 4 * A . BAT neither.. which in the E. To beat or bang soundly. to thrash . to give him a sound bastingi 3.— . bastir. blakra. * Bat. Bastinado. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. to teach one before. bastia. iinbastire. blakta. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. comp. but this is hardly satisfactory.baste or knock soundly. dial. 2. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. 164). as weU as besteau. set up. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. a bastion. baston. also to cudgel.

a blow with a light instrument. of bread is so much baked zX one time. A batch as wood. baden. It. G. made of — A made by one Batcii. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Bailey. Eggs. Baka sik vid elld. Flem. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . is a simple adoption of Fr. heat. the heat of the It. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. To thrive. bat-en. howis. baeddu. to beat. bet. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. wet linen in washing. solbase. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. a blow.— . on the fire. to dial. Hence pro. trahtr to It. Sp. to flutter with the wings. fashes basking in the sun squadron. To Batten. or make debate.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. as E. a stirrer-up of strife. Pr. whence the sun burns .— To Bask. or break down. flour. to thrive. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. the root of e. to beat se battre. Pm. a staff. 2. Florio. to for fighting. battre. I. Fr. dial. From bat in the sense of rod . allay . to beath wood Battledoor. to bathe oneself. badda. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. . batte sig. quhar he suld assaill. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. cudgel. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. also. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Chaucer. bdda. In OE. battle was used beath wood. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . or a dry stick. lessen. from battre. remit. a band of armed men arranged basa. term in falconry . Battery. batador. pak.Bathe. abattre. From OFr. Goth. Slav. made of bats. to fire or in the sun. better. Plkkis. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. Strife. e. to betake oneself. hot. bastille. — To . Bat.Hence in the augmentative form It. tradire. Fr. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Sw. Battalion. a beating.' Palsgr. . batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. To Bate. dispute. to beak. by projections or in any licoure. batna. bataille. and with staffslyng. Batten. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Hal. Fr. from on. to get better. Sp. Battlement. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. bat. Fr. Bret. I bathe in water viz. Battery. gebdcke. and about an inch thick. to refresh oneself in language. PLD. Sw. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. dial. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. batir. bada. perhaps first used adjectivally. baz. signifying to give repeated blows. then to warm by the application of hot water. beat. water whether warm or cold. battre. Ayenst the sunne. battions. is in falling. to bathe. Fr. fortress or castle. to heat. battre las ailes. batterie. G. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Pr. baka. on. as wood-en. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Mgy. quell. to foment with hot applica. certain bend. bdt. A Bath. gabatnan. sich bakern. to heat . Gael. Du. and milk beaten up together. also a sun badfish. to toast bread. makebate. batacazo. a Baiffi. Holz bdhen. In some parts of England it is striking. dial. to be profited. . Jurgor. — Cot. abate. to warm oneself. Barbour in Jam. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. bake. strife. a washing beetle. basa. bdda vidjor. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Pm. to warm. a stick. to feed. bludgeon. to fell. debat. in the sun. more. betten. in the case of a wall. gebdck. Batyn. and as a verb. was formed bastilU. to foment. Battle. a battalion. w. battere. altercation. to beat. baquetazo. It. bdhen. battaglia. badda. a from ON. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. an arrangement for giving blows. ON. to cudgel. — — — ' — . a great seems related to baden as Fr. as E. a main battle. as signifying warm baths. buask made like a fortress. battere. to fight. Fr. solen baddar. I baske. to become convalescent. to foment. Jeddris and covering. oneself at the A into faggots. for biia sik. See Better. Batter. busk. to become fat. G. adapted for defence. E. tagUone. a battle. squadron. beat down. to warm oneself at the fire. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. beat. badask. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to beat. Bate. dial.

— interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. bow (as in our nursery Diez. or toys.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. E. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. tab. to trifle away ment. a belt. excrement. form with an initial seen in Fr. to bark. In like manner Grisons filthy. cluster. exactly corresponds Fr. javelle. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. P. ON. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. bobbin or cluster of thread. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. W. to low or bellow as corn.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Fr. to void the bowels. toys. is Bagdad stuff. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. to vociferate. BAWSON Swiss. the white of his leg or foot. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. nastiness. dung. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Jam. OFr. a lump or cluster babhaid. babbole. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. It. and authorities in note. librillo.' ' Pegma. pegma. It is all bawdy. a spot. The It. to the same origin. A name of the badger. to me-wl. speckled. sword-belt. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. a gavel. From Bret. fields. a tassel or hanging bunch . Piedm. dacchino. Swiss Rom. guigaw. baula. spotted. a plot of Chaucer. Baw — . or the animal so marked. Beaus^ent. from Fr. ish baubles. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . pie- . tille. baugant. as Fr. 8. Formed from baw. Gael. a horse marked with a procession. bablyn or waveryn. faisceau. dente. Ball. From ! an interjection of disgust. whimwham. and to-tore also. dial. bau. sorry. Bagdad. bal. Cotgr. balbob. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. or Cot. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. collar. fagot. Cot. Batylment of a wall. E. trifles. b \% bouala. whence pouacre. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. expressive of disgust. babiole.— P. fe bau. Zalli. dirty. instead oi s. baubare. bausan. ground. in OE. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. an object. lewd . dirt.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. bad. rotten. balGael. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. brush faggot. having a white streak down Bagdad. an — — — A — g — — — . spot.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. — Pm. filth. a lump. also the canopy carried part of his body.. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. also more Bawdekin. bauch. baban.guage). Pr. — — ' Lydgate. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Filthy. The word may perhaps be sticks. It. was simply a field gold. an embattled wall. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. a white mark Bawdy. An analogous noisily. Baldrick. P. from Baldacca. Lat. trifle. baudrat. s. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. mew. babsmall toy to play withal. Hal. a zan. divided between black and white. R. the face. ! Bauble. Pm. to bark . —R. E. baffe. Descript. Cot. or sheaf of Bridel. a horse with white legs. bouaila. ball. c. baue. Pr. scarf. miauler. a dog). represented by the syllable miau. filth. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. zano. bobine. balderich. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. to 53 manure the To baw. a tassel. whence the E. propugnaculum. Fr. to talk Lacombe. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. to make the noise Baudrick. Fr. E. and Sp. obstrepere. OFr. disgusting. s. Fl. It.. baw. P. to cry. baudrdj OHG. Bavin. Cloth of gold. because made of cloth of white. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. ballach. is used for a sented by bau. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). to play the babby. on the face of animals. fooleries or fond To Bawl. Sc. Bawson. the Swiss baben. horse. Irel. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Ball-seirc. 2. i. child. bal. Prov. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. bow-wow. vacillo. bauU.

It. life. dividere. Bay. to mark. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. bai. Gael. —Bay-windo'W. living Ir. Lat. It. bajo. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. See Bald. a berry. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. bilyejiti. . buidhe- The ruadh. weary of running. hddhe-dhonn. bahia. baccello. he turns and faces his pursuers. grapes or nuts. laurel of the ancients. a cluster of bacon.—Journal Soc. the world Gr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. life. house . and the To bark as a dog. bacca. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. window . living thing . window-sill. baiare. Drayton in R. Sp. from an imitation of the sound. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. is perhaps not directly from Lat. It. bahia. gate. Q. beonj Gael. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. bay. or recess in an apartment in modern times. baye. It. put to his last shifts. Sp. tradire to Fr. Fr. F. See Bawl. to open.' — — 54 bald. 25. husk. Cot. aux dehniers abois. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Holland's Pliny in R.c. bioth. to betray. Piedm. baja. buidhe. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. especially beans./^ bau. dehiscere . Fr. to amuse stare a bada. Earth — By Nature made to till. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay.' Bailey. or at bay. Bay-tree. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. or berries. open the mouth. The — Fr. A hollow in the 'line of coast. a mark. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. badarse. white. bdcr. * To Be. . that from ba. baier. Such Antaeus seemed to me. at his last gasp. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. Arts. to iiitent nected PoL white. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. a'uno. siege of Bayonne in 1665. as gazing. bilyega. alive. baga. or to have been first used at the Cot.— Stalder. the cod or husk of beans or the like. Bayonet. beo. bayen-stein. bialo. yellow . by the term rendre les abpis. badia to Sp. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. a dagger. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. OSp. berries. Fr. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. Q. abbabayer. and keeps them in check for a while. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. bde. a hole. &. to split. like a pie. Bay. —Diez. from badar. Prov. when. which however. —F. BauSfi)/. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. the laurel-bay.. stare. to gape. — A At Bay. to be Bohem. expresr sion tenere a bada. baya. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. From Cat. to stand watching one. BE Probably conRuss. BAY marked with bjly. Fr. Lat. baionette. to keep at a bay. baie. Gr. The word bay. baher. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. |8i'os. Swab. bayo. baer. and zndly. trahir. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. — Schmid. Fr. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. w. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. desiring. a beast. so called from its bearing bays. S. watching intently. AS. &c. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. in order to keep the enemy in check. arose two forms of the verb. batibari. bijel. Sp. Feb. as if to signify a window of curved outline. Catalan hadia. ing-floor. ist. bay. large window in a handsome . badarc. Swiss beie. barn of two bays. Serv. corrupted into Bow-window. or window ' (in Fortification). Fr. waiting .. . A stag is said to stand at bay. baca. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. berry. Gael. Vielp. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. 1. to open as a blossom. It has been shown under Abie. It. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. stood watching him stoop. the cod of peas. To Bay. Mod. 1859. baca. beothach. badius. overture. the step is the same as from It. to keep one waiting. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bate. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. . bagaid. See At Bay. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. to on anything. Abide. From the former verb is the It. &c.

to have a French origin. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. gebed. Farrar. Beacon. — bedeau. Moreover the name.fuis5e. * Beagle. as. a hill. g. fora-bauhan. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Beak. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. bauhan. post. Fr. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. ohg. Netherlands or North Germany. a single bean. Pardoner's Tale. however. . pierced for hanging on a string. It forms a. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. — to bow or nod . that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. OSax.ad. bohne. -phxr. on. or however. ffaen. bokan. Goth. as well as f& or fav. Miss Gurney in Philolog. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Be. bdkna. bohnej ON. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. a tree. N. into France. Lat. salve his hurts. The origin seems preserved in E. boom. l^ax. — : Beam.. baum. a presage. which is. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. a beak. bedm. fd or faVf beans. faba. Catalan becar. The nutu significare. AS. bead. Beach. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. an attendant. atUndre. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. backe. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. W. like most nautical terms. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Du. beic. to bellow. bakkje. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. to wait. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. or any action done with a pointed thing. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. bidello. bidan. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Goth. becco.' Hall's Chron. Beck. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. be. 54. ON. It. Beadle. bee. bearti. Bear. —F. faba is Kvavoq. Bean. pig. Gael. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. baun. Bret. AS. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. a prayer. stock. a single bean. . to nod the head. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. «va\ioQ. bydel. W. the part overflowed by the tide. not applied to the yelping of dogs.' adheres to the root. to carry. tale of prayers or doxologies. The immediate shore of the Menage. signifying individuality. beck. He says. bar. beans. Bret. a nod OHG. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. beic. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. signifying a point. fromthe danger. bM. beugler. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. a sign. Thus the final en. or beic. Chapters on Lang. bakke. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. to nod . In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. Q wait upon him. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. beacen. Sw. bob.fer-re j Gr. Hackluyt in R.fui. into a snjall river. It is BEAR SI court. prodigy bauhnjan. The wild beast. would say. E. and Lat. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. See To Bid. a curtsey. support. as. bek. bank. vol. rising ground.' Suetonius in Diez. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life.from AS. ffci. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. a tree. A Esthon. fero. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. ON. was introduced from England sea. A two-year old nephew of mine p. vii. Gael. to produce young. G. Fr. Slavon. Trans. bairan. or breathing. to beckon. Beckon. bean. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Gr. To Bear. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bagms. . and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. according to of Sanscr. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. to wait-. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. beacnian. — Bellenden in Jam. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. badmr. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Gael. It. nokkima. G. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Boom.

or special purpose. o. riviera.' are equivalent expressions. to come to or upon.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. See Bank. biber. bello. bib or slobbering cloth. bett. It. to please. duty. handsome. a bank. battere. bava. a bank. i. AS.S6 fero. a. OSw.we call the arrangement becoming. from beau. from the same in the sense of bear2. AS. to happen. to carry. Diez. nod or sign.getiman. to bear children. ON. — . ziemen.to clothe to slobber. byw. to appertain. I do thee pray. bequem. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. living. or river. bavec. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. ting. See becymth anfeald yvel. if sound of a sharp blow. birth. from baver. limplice. fitanimal. behkr. See Bat. agreeable. bave i. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. venient. fallinn. ON. and Fr. name applied originally to the bank then proper . to wade through the water like a beaver. slobber. bearing. and to acquire. Lat. baba. bur. pretty. bestiaj Gael. R. nothing to thy name make. to fall mode of being. timan. babrad. Beaver. to G. obtain. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. to get.AS. Dan. G. byrcti. befall.fit.' ' He became very angry. place to lie down. con. to hem. to live. Lat. becuman. Chaucer. barf. G. bel. or a feeling to be gratified. now confined To Become. covered the face. bedr. ON. convenient. 2. Now the Beast. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. beo. Fr. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. as. to happen. to those goods which endure for ever. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. perhaps a living thing. befit. . e. bebrus. gebank. agreeable. dushmak. suitable. In like manner condition. dize or dtzen. it is probable that here also the to become. to shore. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Lith. to the brook itself. bobr. bart. The OFr. W. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. As rivus. opportune. but now a river only. biivre. Thcem. Bo. limpan. and on. suitable. i. fitly . Lat. bekommen. as the babble of the child. 1. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. Beck. Thus OY. brada. border. burdr is used in the sense of a car. beauts. whence baveux.— Kiittner. chin. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. the latter are derived It. On the same principle. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. proper . bekkr. Fr. Secondarily applied to a hat. an notion of being convenient. the beard. The moveable part of a helmet. den. See Beacon. Prov. bobrowai. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to fall in with our bavard. R. happening as it ought. when up. baviire. dress with unbecoming richness . Fr. to sleep on. the ece thurhwuniath. Perhaps from Pol. limpian. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. to happen. Slav. e. receive. tidy. Beauty. to attain to the lot of any one. taste. Cal. bcek. gabaurths. riviire. judgment. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. to happen. connected with ripa. decorous.of being very angry. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Beck. to dabble . and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. It. E. G. Boeth. boroda. That thou mayest attain Goth. to be a part of his to. — A — A — . The quadruped. G. which. produce. bring forth. Goth. Beat. becuman. proper. iida. because made of the fur of the beaver. and also in that of birth. while from Shep. gelimplic. Russ. Sp. bard. The fitting or suitable. g. get J ' He got very angry. a lip. tidig. rying. Bosworth. to assume a certain form or Turk. to be incumbent upon him. beatanj It. talkative. To load with ornament. our taste. to be fulfilled. imitative of the case happen as we would have them.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. bach. E. G. fiber. decent.' every way suited to a prince. to the good hapHalbard. comely. Beckon. baurthei. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. Lat. pleasing. ON. edge. brook . Prick of Conscience. a brook. gefallen. pens unmixed evU. to happen. E. godum with ON. Bedizen. barba. He becom on sceathan. Do no To It fallith favour. brook. bellus. seemly. to arrive at. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Fr. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. fit. Fr. blast. badi. bave. formerly a happen. to fall.

to and ale. a malsense of drink. AS. Gr. boytle. by-flugaj G. to twist poorma. Pl. It. paralyticus. Bernese. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. badigeonner. bitel. speach. drink. turn (a garment). 1156. bedde-redirj ohg. pettiriso. a cover. bibere is a re. drink. briest. a pad or cushion). an inhabitant of the desert. a clapper. erroneously modified in form. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. a cup or implement for AS. a horse-fly . byst. beta.— B. beest. bovis. E. betel. imperative pi.possible. Rom. cousin. an Beetle. D. as the milk of a that purpose in London. beer. of beatmg. to coagulate. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Let. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. fall. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. G. Cot. cozen.' the last word corresponds to cofly . * Beestings. Fr. /SXirov. ProBeer. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. taglio. which also 2. 'La Gl. Pett. The first milk after a dizen. a agulatum in the original Latin. the biter.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. ^. But possibly bedizen 2. buche. to become Beech. bossen. PI. pital of St Mary. AS. Beef. from jtst-. biest-milch. a mallet. prisons Venet. briesch-milch. beach-each. madhouse. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. red curdled Arab . Gael. It. vaar.D. also the bite or sting of a bees. pude-vaar. prigione. P1. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. woman that is newly delivered. tree. . to parget or rough-cast . cited by Diez. bette or blettej Lat.— JI14. The meanpainting. i. stakes. 1 to drink.D. In a passage of an Old Fr. Fin. mars betada.' So Gr. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a bee. Fr. a wandering Prov. Beetle. to flatten In OE. from the hos. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr.ON. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. a drink potus. . to knock. to poordma. a wasp. door. kivih. from Lat.). or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. g. bove. and in driving piles. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. doubtless. Confined to bed. Slav. bbtel. G. turn. clog for a dog b'oteln. knock. ris. case. Dan. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. buka. 57 — Palsgr. beach. thick.(paddi. a paviour's beetle batail. piwo. from leberen.^ drink. The beer al for te shenche bate. may be from K.'— GL ^Ifr. wedges. to turn. water. bet. biiren. de Fierabras in Diez. bos. qui de lecto surgere non potest . a pillow case. sang vermeilh betatz. trees in a forest . Beet. 1.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. boeuf. Fr. . a bed-tick. Horn. G. to fall.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. to drink. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. an ox. to colour with lime-wash. I dysyn a dystaffe. from blood. bitela. &c. also bienst. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. It. beost. GaeL bior. biene. beetle also signified the impiti. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. ' MordiThe Lat. whence familiar. poculum. cushion-cover . crespir. Lat. to beat bossel. 1. Esthon. as. . bedskiissen-bUren. kiissen-biere. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. translation beOj. ir'm. E. bytl. Grimm. thick. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. bukva. Bethlehem. cugino. may be shpped on and off. in Schmeller. Originally. in Nat. Bedouia. KXlvoTTiT^e. by the analogy of bedaivb. whose face is clotty. Arab. I put the flax upon it to spin. For that was law of lend. bedawi. waarin. the ox. and lebermer in G. Ant. duplicated form of the root. on. the loppered sea. Bed-ridden. . sela que environna la terra. beyki. to change . garden-herb. extant in Bohem. calleBedlam. curded or beesty. The honey-producing insect.cz//aj. cow has calved. a Properly a cover that biiren. Bav. Cot. batAfter mete in sale. .ing of the word is curdled. bably named from the destructive quali| T. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Fr. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. desert. comb. cogionare. buk. I A pillow-beer. from risan. used for boull.. Fr. as in It. beutel. fagus. Fr. AS. Lat. a pillow-case. the meat of spinach. a stinging bieUe. blow or thrust. to curdle or lopper._t from the root pi. bletumj Gr. a wasp. Bee. to rough- cast.

a — wedge. fangen and Lat. & go a begging. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. be^nnan. at geta talad. ' ' . be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. duginnan. ' . iv. begger. incipere. affected. one after that other. referred gan this Erie alight. tale.D. gigno. Mod. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. V. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. ytyvwfT'Kw. — Stillingfleet. to arise. P. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. of Gr. on the bag. 2. a wedge for cleaving wood. a stone-cutter's chisel. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . to cleve. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. yivofiai. 58 BEG BEGONE G. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . beutel. beitel. Nov. ysgrepan. The tother seand the dint cum. can. Gr. whence the E. a beggar. P. to beg. to take. a beggar . in D. signifying to conceive. Florio. AS. to reduce him to beggary. P. to be acquire. 1430. Political Songs. in E. to be born. It. above quoted to get beaten ON. not began to alight. sel. a wallet. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. appears improbable at first. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. beginning. Cold-begone. aginnan.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. When Q. to begaan. Lollards. seizing. viii. ykvog. woe-begone. it is both to acquire and to beget. beitel.' about undern he got down. also called Bigots. So from Gael. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Vocab. V. as alighting is a momentary operation. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . To Begin. 40. to know. is formed pocair. a scrip. yivtrri. a beggar-boy. Goth. 'Aboutin undern monly. genus.— . a chisel. although it ' the future. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. covered with gold D. is com. In Luc vi.pose. Du. cans. y/yvo/iat. a bag. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. ' Begone. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. origin. Fr. beis- plement driven by blows. on the tramp. 'ex quo. Beghardus. To Beg. P.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. to get children . kind. V. Mundart. Du. 25. P. lapidicinus. chisel. a bag or poke. can. anfangen. Deutsch. gan. Into the are D. 142. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. P. pose-pilte. image is cleft out of the trunk. Creed.quently used in OE.n. capere. or Of a pure poor man. a little bag). bag {baigean. Lith. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. in Lat. the fundamental notion of attaining to. taking up. to bear young. 1867. to begin. Bruce. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. air a . to be able. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. from whete G. P. ip AS. onginnan. vir mendi. but probably erroneously. yivwajcw.' A. 'Dz. su with gold. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. Ancren Riwle. on further examination. two betels —a grete oke. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. beissel. To produce children is to acquire. ornamented phoc. word. but in the same language from poc. Skinner's derivation from bag. gen. From w. oppressed with woe. hags. OHG. krapszas. begging. Schm. touched with emotion — . In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. He did alight. chap. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. P. ken.3.bag full of the G. — yivsaiQ. bertola. a scrip euXaiciJoi. Si'Xa/coc. steinbosil. Du. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. ken. literally. P. beriolare.' for ye shall lament and weep. &c. Of brede full ycrammed. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. It will . &c. baigeir. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. to go a begging. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. and Lat. ysgrepanu. 168. giving in Gr. yiyvo/uat. a bag . Barbour. P.

AS. And so from hania. hove. keeping. behatan. betragen. to feed. Paladino. to be named. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to meet. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. nittaa. to hold. AS. ufhaban. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. is supported by many analogies. hovast. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. Goth. to hit the mark. to vow. — Behest. to carry. han- — js Kil. behind. to bers of the body. to be obliged to do a thing. promise or a command. to be suitable or becoming . to raise. servare. fixed upon any object). solicitum esse. OE. K. promise. to cast or throw. hatan. bound. gehouden. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. hcefwa in seed. behaviour. right. taking notice or care of (Gloss. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. us-hafjan.). behefe. to call. to be well pleased out. It. to be obliged to one. to call. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to promise. hafwa bort. to heave. To Behave. the distance of anything. the name adapt. name of the head is used to express what hbva. tail. to command. invoke. to keep. to take away. behold. ifl fact. seeing to. To place are most naturally ex. the two verbs seem radically the same. as in the case of E. premi curi alicujus rei. beperson addressed. heeten willekem. hafwa. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke.the figure of throwing at a mark. gehaben. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. AS. holding is originally derived from that of looking. hantyri. to behave. AS. to hold. gehalten seyn. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. But. to follow. G. habban. R. to be be named. G. and their senses intermingle. beholden to him. Sw. habere. obliged. and the E. garder. se porter) to fare well or ill. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. heita. to carry corn into the barn . Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. guardare. At the back of The re. or purpose. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. The It. to regard. on. to have. to fit. Robert in Warton. heave. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. a follower. Thus in Finnish the heave. what he wishes another to do . Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. tion. to command. to name. according as the * To Behove. hafwa ram. heeten. zijn. adjust. vow. healdan. ward. to look. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. To look steadily upon. and (as Fr. is also found in the sense of looking.to vow. or the hence advantage. is on the top of or opposite to. Sw. to R. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. gehat. To be expedient. 17. hevja. G. portarsi. laborare. what is so required. G. —Hest. to tend. N. to vow. to halten. furtherance. The seyn. vow. gecall. to carry.— . G.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. take heed of. Command. behces. G.for throwing it. behat. hafwa. to keen or hold.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. To Behold. at the tail of. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. the equivalent of E. hevja. or necessary. to gehouden. exhort. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. hofwa. commonly expressed. hcef tig bort. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . when the verb will hoof. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . have the sense of calling or naming. keeping. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. Plautus. to lift. from tragen. ge' hatan. advantage. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. observe. to turn one out . to lead.' Richardson. to lift. to bring forwards. Sw. Kiittn. to the equivalent of Du. to carry. Aan iemand bid one welcome. promise . to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. hces. AS. The Lat. injunccommand. to be fit. use. hafjan. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. by the compound observare. behete. to look upon it as true . The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to keep. behoof. take yourself off.

border. consent. Fair sir and Fair lady. Then. Fr. esteemed . overspread. beffroit. bylja.D. mark ON. —F. to hit hafi. berfroi. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. beset. to roar. belja. Another application of the same word is in Pl. then. pro3. a watch tower. galaubs. allow. fitness.D. .Lat. aim. resonare. to praise. to a loud noise. bealcettanj OE. belief . peal. ON. laubjan.. measure. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. to promise. beleggen. Fr. 6o BELAY BELL loven. OHG. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. . to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. behove. a tower for defence . to bellow. hesfa. — Diicange. garnish. and Du. gelyfan. galaubjan. distance to which a piece will carry. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. lofa. to express approval. and. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. for purposes of low estimation . range. To Belay. AS. if a narration. esteeming good and valid. permission. to promise or engage. is (Sternberg). to sound loudly . to belay. if a promise. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. From AS. to extol the worth of anything. under the forms belfredum. portion. erlauben. to make it fast. to befit. OFr. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. we have Goth. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. ornament. Du. bellow. to believe. or house. P1. praise. Northamptonshire. ungalaub kas.. In Mid. to cry out bell. bervrit.Lat. bounds. battefredum. reach. The word be- Belfry. a little shed. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. laven. verloben. legsel. laven. to give leave Dan. — mankind. is an easy progress. to boke. bettifredo. an implement for making a loud noise. Du. then. or a sconce. to sanction an arrangement. to praise. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. boare. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to lay be- around. to be required for a certain purpose. To Believe. cela est audessus de votre portde. Q. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. are other modifications of the same imitative root. Goth. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. promising. promiser. moderation. to estimate them at a To believe. to praise. bertefredum. turris. AS. — . orloven. precious. met. b'ola. and bergan. to believe. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to give leave. beffroi. Hence to simple approbation. In the middle voice hofwas. bialla. with the consent of the heirs. . Sw. on. praising. to protect.D. loven. satisfaction. ley/a. is used in the sense of approving. a tower. frid. locus securitatis Schilter. leaf geleafa. Du. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. permitting or giving leave. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to resound. beau sire and bel dame. certain rate. loven. Du.alyfan. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. See Gain. lyfan. in nautical language. G. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to permit. bolken. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. bulken. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. ON. a vessel made for dishonour. loben.. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to der swaren lave. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to bolk. tain a certain end. glauben.D. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . and E. true. to give leave. leave . Bell. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . To praise is essentially Xo prise. It. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. reputation. giving leave or permission. appearing in Mid. are innate . bell. filu-galaubs. lov. on. to lay the cable round the bits. bellan. bealcan. bercvrit. and E. honoured. to put a high price or value on. properly belonging to the church tower. stand. to fix a price upon one's wares. or high estimation. Pl. to believe. To Belch. Det er ofwer er hofwa. Pl. from mhG. a. were civil terms of address. fringe.

pervenire. attinere. benjoin. The ing-skin. a bellows . — See Numb. bolch. ON. Javanese perfume. Beneath. bilbil-goda. Fr. fens et hie liraus. the womb. to attain belangen. From OFr. pertinere. — Ducange. ' I beraye. taken absolutely. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. benejicium. bendan. benedicere. leather sack. rise against external force . balg. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. . To belong is thus to reach up to. from which is also bulbus. a good deed. vulva. See I . as concerning that. w. pouch. Benediction. langen. bene/actum. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. hem. blast-bcelg. the skin of those animals that factor. bendaj as. bienfait. to arrive at.pinuz.videtur. attinere. pod. to touch. on. to become one's property . . to bend a bow . binssen. welt of a shoe. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari).' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. Fr. from Arab. bless.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. Benzoin. — root consisting of concentric skins. means seeds of plants. Benefice. border. wallet. benefacere. Gum benjamin. Lat. to hold to one. In E. binsen. benedictio {bene^ and dico. Gael. to say. Benign. I marre a thyng. . ray. poX^ri. se bander. a bellows. bimpsen. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows.' — Hie fimus. Bench. are stripped off whole blase-balg. Bent. OFr. generous. to concern. is a kindred form. Lat. Quoth. to belong. kind. has assumed a plural form. Bav. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. bolg. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. or simply djawt. to make bilbil. rushes. Commentary on Neccham in Nat.' Palsgr. to ring. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans.polch. because bcelg. OUG. loubdn djawt. To Bequeath. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. fyle To dirty. is The word balg. one who does good. or a It is times the to signify services. ON. Lat. to come to the crown belangen. Fr. attingere. from another modification of the word for bubble. a spring. bcelg. G. to stretch it on a frame. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Was das belanget. bandoir. disposed to oblige. est matris in lucem editus. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. benir. Sw. to concern. skin. a leather bag. benignus (opposed to malignus). gelangen. welt of a shoe gwald. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case." — — . pino3. becwathan. Belt. bander un arc. as. cod or husk of pulse. Benignant. benjoim. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. to exert force. bell. bags or bellows. benehusk. the word.Fr. an inflated Lat. To Belong'. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. a kindness. well. a blessing. To Benum. wallet Benefit. a blow. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . belly.— Belly. bilbila. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Benefactor. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. a round or bubble-shaped root. Gael. belch. balg. J'emboue. to reach. To Bend. . a accusative. Ptg. skin. bellows. I soyle it or araye it. benaigon. a water-bubble builge. needs no ex. ball. Kil. ^To Beray. bellows. . by itself. hence with ashes. G. to hallow. balteus . bimaissen. I say). to touch one. Eenison. . vulgarly the belly. belt. belgr. gwaldas. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Benedico. Dozy. incense of Java. to bless. Bret. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. See Nether. or fyle with myre. See Bind. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. belliJ Lat. bolg. ' . See Bank. I araye. a speaking well of one. . to attain to. Lat.' The term had been previously planation. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life.. from cwcsthan. G. to. bag. Du. or sometimes louban. blister balgan-snamha. — ray. dirt. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. Lat. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. to do good to one . from benedictio. beneison. belly. was in Mid. bellows. volva. a border. a benefit. to use words of good omen. pertinere. G. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. Lat.

mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it.X. besnij Pl. stealth from steal. bota. to the place boarded off in a. amendment. as. stow. * Berth. dirt. dung . To Beseech. Du. — . R. The origin is AS. To Gl. So roto rattle down. to put on the saddle. berwe. stede. boutefeu. sheltered from the wind. boeten. to fall with roisto. To seek something from a person. barth may be for barf.—^fake. Sw. and on which the wager is laid. Fin. as conversely a besom is called broom. boeten. Esthon. E. to mend. think more probable. hva mannan. because used for making besoms. broom twigs. . betan.ot-i. To Bestow. barfham. to seek. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. and Du. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. 3. as in growth. besje^ Sanscr. Bestead. AS. — Biglotton. to entreat. to make it. put. baete. Tha het he micel fyr betan.irova. to cast. bestow. Tusser. preferably. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. Ihre. to thrust. bur-we. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to exercise on a definite object.• 62 Antiq. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. it seems hard to separate as. bat. but in practice. and also to entreat. basjaj Du. to supply a want. place. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. from AS. a place . what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. earg. betan. bouter. the guardian . might have been . a horse collar. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. to To Bereave. — Chaucer. scopse spartis. advantage. to fire a funeral pile of . Besom. besein. bet. lay out. earh. ship for a make amend.iooA. noise. solicit. eld up- On is to be placed A — . from It. bal oppbota. as bouter selle. Zeitschr. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to make better. See Reave. Hfence backing. an incendiary. Du. On the other hand. I from lew. ropahtaa. From abet. Beet. to defend. make better . beorgan. Goth. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. roju. So too Yorkshire arf. baete. buttare. to strip. — amendment. To bete his Jam. Berry. houseless. supply. Rob. as Du. To Bet. to kindle the fire. advantage. barthless. besmas. Grose. BEREAVE Wall.bhaksh. fearful. Kil. It is the restore fyr betan. p. to be-place. When men of mekeness him baet. to stand one in good stead. of ffeed a fire. to give a place to. ^•n. E. as. put forth.D. a berry. AS. boeten. boteith Goth. jnore. bdt. sweepings. So Lat. reafian. reparation. R. or the space kept clear betan. the side bhakshya. compared with bargham. botesward. G.— VixHsm. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Best. in the sense ctf beria. protect . berwham. or. basya. encouraging. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. reparation. ^akka. same word with the provincial barth. the origin of which is to be found in ON. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. roe. Fr. profit. brem-bessen. to on the other Goth. person to lie in. To help. Du. Beit. mud. rods. as. what does it boot. arwe. to to deprive of. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. The dry. better. from grow. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. bacca. one who shelter. what does it better a man. AS. repair. improve. BETE dirty'. making better. besIn sen. ariierf to 113. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw.— Hal. seems twigs or rods. Fr. but it is specially applied mister. dial. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Beere. beseech. a fire. OE. vol. to amend. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet.t.fish the other hand. Sw. position. fall with sound. — bota. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . lewth. supporting on the one side Lat. See Better. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. besen. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. peto. The proper meaning of the bale. dust rojahtaa. is to perform a serviceable office to him. . fyrbotare. bdt. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. to thrust. small eatable fruit. bereafian. p. Du. to light the fire . Devon. as. burrow. * To Bete. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. vi. roju. to word is shelter. rubbish. or to bestead one. dirt . G. berry. sets fire to. an incendiary. buttafuoco.

BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. gezimet eines dinges. and thence twegen. Pl. baet. against. E. said he. betweox. to discover. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. e. Cot. Goth. Between. i. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. twain. as trahissons. is used for the — R. tradere. r'ojer dig. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. i. traitre. to fall Some call it a bevel. ziemen. It. bevere. Bevy. betaemen. Sw. AS. In like manner from twain is fothied between. abash j from polir. advance. wrogia. treachery. fitting. bibere. Fr. E. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. a brood. obeish. Now the stirring of an object. betweohs. — Betwixt. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. his eyen sheen. larks.— . to cheat. batista. find it good: Goth. order. trahissais. Better. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. . become. obdissais. to make forwards. from Lat. amidst.' Dialogue on Witches. e. Fris. zimet. awry. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. taemen. which may be compared as to form with amid. ON. Lat. bat. deem suitable. as one would have it fall. Sahissais. -to appoint. or with again. the being pushed to the frbnt. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. find in one's heart. to Teem. Best. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. BETEfiM translated. better. trahir. not to have the heart to give up a thing. x. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Pl. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. Hence last G. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. taemen. zemen. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. — See To Bete. In like manner folissais. Golding's Ovid in R. an instrument opening like a a thing. wreia. amiddes. bouter davantaige. to drink . AS. Thus from dbahir. R. From It. OE. bedriegen. betwuh. G. gatiman. dispose (whence schicksal. progress. from. Dii. tradire. Tinia eigi at lata eit. is treason. to happen. To vouchsafe. spritigs from schicken. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. of pheasants. a bevy. polish. ON. from invadere. To Beteem. be fitting or suitable. E. G. to stir. I approve of beveau. ruogia. From the former of these are AS. Bav. A — drink. trahison. It. pair of compasses. To Betray. are there Regt R. Dit tungomal rendered in E. betwuxt. two. thy speech bewrayeth thee. afford. betriigen. In the water anon was seen His nose. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. suitable. /alia. evidence of life. better. as envahir. Fr. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. — that schickiich. trakir. what does It is forward him. moveable and compass branches. tima. Percy Soc. sloped off. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. roja. Fr. has — In a like sense tanie>i. R. for measuring angles. lot). Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. traditor. kein leben mehrin no signs . The inflections of Fr. roebucks. Fl. bet. to deliver tip. as tlock. a different form of twa.D. To boot in coursing (i. springs from ON. betst. suitable. bevde. make manifest. to deceive. whence beveraggio Fr. beverage. vrohjan. e. a drinking . Ik tame mi dat nig. Mich self a good glass of wine. better. some attention. betera. *Ah. betest. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. Chaucer. to fall. On the same principle ON. in the middle of twain. of quails. dir. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. G. tweoh. gesiemen. Ober D. Du. beuvrage. — of the authorities. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. R. regen. bet. deign. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. a traitor. To Bewray. are commonly to one's lot. riigen. to happen. betray. The as. beva. Buveau.D. by two. Slant. to deliver up in breach of trust. tima. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. his mouth. by a final sh. G. to Hence It. &c. best. Car son umbre si le trahit. Goth. Det sig sjelft. proficere. more. betweoh. verbs in ir with a double ss. from Fr. it bewrays itself. as from obdir. fallinn. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. in the middle of two. fate. Friar's Prol. 88. to accuse. batizo. in the same way Lat. Fr.

bezling or skueing. makes ble. to cut in two. sbrissare. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. to tipple. lips. evident. To bicker in NE. sbiagio. Bibelsworth in Nat.D. babbefore the eyes. bickeler. kwijl-bab. Bezel. one who drinks in excess. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Prov. stock still. Du. rogge. of the sliced off. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. inferiority. in Fr. (according to the Fr. Cat. to stir up . It. winding or crawling in and out. to shake. To skirmish. Bice. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe.as in Biped. bickai. notice. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. presence. pible. it becomes (Jz-. sbrisso. bibaculus. a bezle. to a fight with stones. the word became bddizahr. Uprogen.or from obliquus. It is especially applied in Sc. bark of which paper was first made. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. In Arab. . Cat. Fr. Jamieson. . slanting . biascia. to glide or slip as upon. See Wriggle. to creep or crawl sideling. dial. biaiser. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. bring under ' Thy accuse. a sloping edge.{ioin dua. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. specially in a bottle. per\'erted belief. to it evident to sense. kwijllap. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. which good bibbeler. to slaver or drivel. biais. To Bezzle. To Bibble. . in him. tailU en biseau. sliding. 78). a bibber. Piedm. reveal. biberon. love first begins to life signs of him. him. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. misFr. sloped. Ant. In comp. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Sp. a Galilean. to be a paring. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Bib. sbriscio. aslope sbisciare. petit-lait. convicts thee of being drink. liwell. bis. or in and out.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. Bible.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. sbiescio. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. in two ways for duis. asure-bice (Early E. To drink hard. to sip. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Yes. sbiasciai. 172. It. expelling or preserving against. Lat. to stir. To Bicker. Schiitze. The It. baviere. E. metaphor). bebble. by throwing of stones. bickelen. foul weather. has a singular stone-picker. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Hal- — do something aslant. aslope. poison. Biseau. two- footed. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to make tongue Du. bes-azur. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. roggle. to tipple. whence Du. sbieco. Hal. kwijlen. Misc. Bezoar. To Bib. to well up with Cot. bihais. and zahr. biberen. Hzzle f Deldkar in R.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Dan. . is explained to clatter. wraggeln. from pdd-. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. to slaver . sbias. Sard. beregen. its clothes. to stir. Bias. b&zahr. Fr. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Pers. An excellent Basil. — crooked. Fr. to dispute. to stir. besanca. bavon. beslei. wrangle. Probably. bescompte. snout. Fr.a. Sardin. or by any rapid motion. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. dial. bickel. to move. Oh when shall I bizzle. Mantuan. to purl. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). to Jam. bible. sik beregen. biax. Fr. rogt un bogt sik nig. Piedm. bibo. biascio. bickel-sieenken. Diet. The train of thought is then.two. —Bickering'. to give signs of life. /3i/3Xof a book originally. sbrisciare. discover.s bellum for duellum. a fragment bieco. the papyrus. Fris. Fr. Gr. wrogen. An inferior blue. whey count . oblique. Bisect. pddzahr. or kwijl-slab. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. as an eel or a snake. the basil Sc. like guzzle. ice . . a stone-hewer . — Bi-. I Wallon. baverole. OE. sbiesso. bias-wise. sbiscio. a slabbering-bib. used in precisely stone . —Dozy. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. shows the P1. slippery. babbi. Lat. twice.D. bisel. to the stirring of their conscience. biberer. bestemps.to drink much. Ci^. bisdare. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. it were the mouth. he is Wtb. bending.' bibble. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. crooked. Pl.

bua. OSw. . — prepare. inhabit. bugne (answering to ON. to solicit. from seek. gebodenj G. The ON. be bug. bugan. With respect to logical pedigree.' Pope in R. bidill. bag. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to start out. bolga. Jam. bow. to forbid . ten. an entire skin. ' Bug as a Lord. bulk. or bad. to offer it to public notice. to inflate E. to build G. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bced. who. bit- bidja. beadle. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. Bight or Bought. It must be observed that the word bidja. Bigamy. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to build. belly. Kil. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. rising up. pray. W. OSw. bug. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. The 'La. bidel. and yajiBui. 2. form. bilge or bulge. G. bieden. Bickelen. inhabit Du. anleta. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bugt. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. swaggering. to build. of More ' in Richardson. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to offer. spelling seems to used in the N. bat . buga. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. consisting both of men and women. BID of stone. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to arrange. proud. to belly. AS. a flexure.Leta). signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. the belly of a ship. ON. bend of a shore or of a rope. AS. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. A pose to one to come to dinner. to have one called before him. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bulky. a swelling. bath. to ask. bulge. to bulge." buque with E. to curve. to E. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bog. to abide or wait on. as G. explaining the Sc.t.' Addison. To bid the banns. einen vor Gericht bieten. bi-. quiring something to be done. bis and in comp. bend. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. besides the professedmonks and nuns. bygga. athird class. to offer one the wish of a good day. from belgia. porrigere. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. praestare. becoming in Lat. related to big or bug. to swell. biddan. The loss of the / gives Dan. bieten. qucero. to inhabit. boa. by seek and beseech. offerre. . gebeden j G. AS. bidan. belly. cultivate. to bid one good day. and the Sw. The original Swollen. bouwen. A bjudan in anabjudan. Du. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to forbid . To Bid ' Big . The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to marry. abidan. bidjan. bidan. BIGOT beidan. repair. — To Bid. Wallace in Jam.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. to ask. forwards. byggia. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. balg. to look for. faurbjudan. swelling. bedun. to bend. are also used in the sense of asking for. swoln. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. twice. Analogous expressions are G. bauen to cultivate. The . For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. which is stiU. a suitor. These admitted into the ranks of their followers.uddered len heart. P. R. beodan. may plausibly be derived from Goth. from bidan. The ON. to bend. England for swollen. bolgna). to cultivate. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. pressing on one's notice. build. and consequently ordering or reGoth.peto. to bicker. byggan. ON. to look for. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. or third order of penitence. Hence Sc. bigan. bulge. or. Big-swol- . G. as tears from the eyes. ON. beidast. bo. as. 1. and Gael. Bigot. verbieten. Big. iiQ. to pro- command. to presimpler pare. Compare also Sp. ewes. to dwell. biegen.. — — — Halliwell. in the sense of ask for. bead. bolginn. Palsgrave in Halliwell. called the tertiary order. has leta. ON. praebere. the meaning of bid. a chip. to move quickly. Two verbs are here confounded. To Big. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to pray one to dinner. G. From Gr.

' Chart. perch^ i Terziari di S. xx. From bigio. alii Apostolici.. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. a dunce. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • .— BIGOT bigardo. Francisci communiter appellabant. clownish. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. ac labores manuum detestantes. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. grey. begutta. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. In the same way Fr. A.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. author quoted in N. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. coarse woollen cloth. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. Bizocco. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. which must not be confounded with begardo.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Augustini dotarint. Flor. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. bighellone. alii de paupere viti.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. bighiotto. honesti plebeii amictus.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. was formed bigello. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. a blockhead.' They were however by no means confined to Italy.D.D. signifying bagmen or beggars. vol. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. all apparently derived from Ital.' translated by Muratori. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. as well as bizocco.— Ducange. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. S. A. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.D. Beguttce. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. and hence the variations bigutta. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. 15 18.' says an Venet. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. 560. Bizoccki. Hence the OE. biso.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. with reference to A. dark-coloured cloth.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. rustical. In a similar manner from bigello. aliqui Begardi. corruption would easily creep in. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. says. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10.' says one of of bigio. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. 1499. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. the nobles to Rienzi. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. the other form Per te Tribune. borel. bigotta. natural grey or sheep's russet. Bighini. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant.' Matthew Paris. ix. 1243. &c. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. bigio. and also unlearned common men. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders.a. G. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. homespun cloth. and Q. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. A. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. vocati Fraticelli.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. both men and women. face VIII. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. They wore a similar dress. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. D. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. absque votorum religionis emissione. beghino. probably from biso. sed maxim^ in muliebri. beghart. to adopt a similar course of life. grey. Bighiotti).

and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Kil. loi. used in legal proceedings. fluctus maris.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. an adze . false pretender to reUgious feeling. OFr. the o changing to an i to express diminution. to strike. Aurelles. blaa. p. a name given to a. a of the sea. an axe. 3. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. bull-berries. boeye. a sword. as craneberry. a seal. buie. belghen. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. to job. bisoch. ^Billiard. Kil. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. BILBERRY nated. as a bill of indictment. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. b'olja. 'tumidi fluctus. Gael. Dan. in the sense of a writing. bulgja. See Bull. weapon . Billette. topor. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. To defraud one of expected sinking.' bilio. from OSw. boja. beghart. Lat. Sw. A slang term for a sword. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. a floating log to mark the place of some. e. however. crowberry. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. A lorum tam in — Diez. clog to a fetter. an axe. buoy [i. Bigin. The origin of the term is probably from bole. the beak of a bird. Fr. a man who rests on a stick in walking. and a billard. to pick a millstone. procella Kil. See Bulk. Fr. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. billet is the diminutive of this. bizocco. NFris. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bill of exchange. Billow. belgan. dissimulation . AS. dziob. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. bigardo. to strike. Bojce. bwyell. Deutsch. The proper meaning bylgia. Bohem. buail. Langued. I. Du. bile. The Du. Prov. on. Du. horn of an animal. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. seems to be rather the unda. from the dark colour. Johansen. to swell with rage). AS. bigotto. bill in parliament. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Gascoigne in R. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. Sw. Ludwig. a short note. AS. An instrument for hewing. Piedmontese bigot. bill. . blamand. bila. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Sw. Mundart. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. person of religion leading a loose life. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. — — ' . is properly a sealed instrument. a beak. the swelling G.— — — . The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Fr. abelthe fetter itself. Bill. — bigardia. To Bilk. Billet. fetters. the trunk of a tree. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. bille. billet. biilge. Roquef. an ingot.' in Richardson. a shackle. Sp. a hatchet. e. a hypocrite. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). genus vincu- Bilboes. tepati. 2. a seal. plog-bill. to be angry (i. from Mid. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Tartuffe. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. boia. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Bilge. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. inscriptum. blue . So in Gr. bulghe. Bille. in the same sense. G. Thus we find in It.' mariners. Du. In the same way are related Pol. irons or set in a kind of stocks. w. an ingot of gold or silver. axe. bulla. Bill. dziobad. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. to peck. beil. a devotee. gan. names bill-berries. bullet. bigot. — Cot. symbolum. bigot. bla-berry.. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. 2. Bilberry. . whortle-berries. Dan. an axe. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. obsolete. billard also signified at billyards. Bilbo. now A Bilboa blade. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. top. an axe . . and in Lat. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. at sea Billet. and dziobas. of E. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. 5 * . syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. In English the meaning has received a further development. Lat. bil. bui. deceit. a negro. of boja. ferrese quam ligneae. billard or billart. might be taken to express a hypocrite. the bill of a bird. bolghe. billot. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. gleischner (Frisch). a bigot or hypocrite. that of swell.

j). betsel. bundun. AS. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. a pig petz. by binda. V. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Sw. G. a bitch applied also to other animals. which is expressed in E. twice cooked. overlooker. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. BITTACLE /Siof. to cook). EpisETTiTOOTToe. Sp. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. Lat. The proper meaning is a heap. binge. Bizened. propius videre bij sicndc. copus. than vice versi. poule. bjork. beorth. . bindan. fowl. to knot nets for fish. a knob. a bitch. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. bunt. forth. ON. brut. a gallinaceous bird. a female stag. pin-ti. H. i. pittjo. — Kil. binda nat. Bin. sc. e. pundas. to bring Biscuit. Thus I suppose the Gr. evesgue. lusciosus et myops. isfiw. to plait. a hind or female stag. bund. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. a weight of 48 pounds. . beisseii. bitacora. or petze. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. or bin. Lat. — — . is rendered in ON. Goth. episcopus. life. Du. to wreathe. Then added division in a granary./«idere. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Habitacle. . the young of birds . a bump or knob. bunga. &c. Bind. Sw.68 BIN Bio-. from Gr. truss. To — — —D. Birch. AS. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. to net. — properly near-sighted. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. piiiti. to bear. hiindiiin. Bindweed. the young of an animal. bundle. beize. nodus. from \t3\. an overseer. from Lat. AS. to hang. bita. AS. to form a knotted structure. a house. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. a female dog hindinn. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Lat. to bind together. where the compass stands. a weight. Bing. bindan. doubtless a stone. bunch. by the verb knit or net. bhurja. G. vescovo. Fr. I would derive the verb to knit. v. Fr. or baked. bunki. . The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Fr. qui nisi propius Blind. Bitch. IV. wine. Goth. i. berkas (z=:Fr. properly a young pigeon. . G. hith. to build. beran. AS. a bitch. biscuit. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump.' and the like. Gr. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. to twine. bund. See Breed. — Surrey in R. biclie. burt. pullus. beitsl. to bind at . evigue. Bisom. biccej ON. pinnii. Lap. band. brid. Dan. to be derived from Ibfiaq. G. Bittacle or Binnacle. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. to swell. expressed by Sw. Lith. Fr. E. We — A Birth. from pondus. Bine. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. habitacle. bin-wood. a corn. earnes brid. ge- from AS. bigne. Bailey. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. pinnu. The bitol. in Swabia. Lat. are commonplaces. .. evegue. It. to bulge. Fr. bircej Sw. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. viz. bundt. Lith. and especially to a small poor horse. pippione. To Bite. bikkia. In like manner from knot. See Belly. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. piccione. a brood or hatch of young. or ben-wood. a little dog. bundle. bord. ON. poultry. bitill. Bisson. videt. 'tumens sequor. When compared with Fr. beitan. Bisen. is in Scotland applied to ivy. — See Bittacle.. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. to fasten it together.. Sanscr. It. bij sien. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. AS. bij sienigh. bundt. a heap. an eagle's young G. a habit- Binnacle. a bear. See To Bear. terial. a bunch. a truss. biscotto. The term ON. while bind-wood. also a stone weight. and of Fr. a heap. admota non Bit. Bird.

To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. In a similar manner Gael. blebberis. mouth. pale. x. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . a large lip. night guard. as in that of pale and white on the other.' G. mona mid Dan. a shelter for the steersman. ^chops. to speak Dan. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. — Hollyband. Fr. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. pale yellow. v.' by Gudmund. shine. a babbler. babbe. Deutsch. corrupted in Fr. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. whitish. Fr. Why presumest And laam's asse. Sp. a flapping. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. AS. a stammerer. even humour seemed and beuin. a large coarse lip . blesmer. blobach. to the sharpness of a weapon. blake. ' Biovac. to bivouac. Fr. beiwache. ON. Sp. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. maculS. a tati. white. /ealo-/or. blanc. term. bitones. dark. Again. Mag. leohte . Cot. pale.— Blabber-lip. pale brown . The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference.). garrulous. Du. Black. to let out whai should have been concealed. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. iroxafealo. obscurus. In like manner E. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter..' It would thus acle. 332. blab. quick. Bittern.€i. 156. blob. ON. In Legrand's Fr. to watch. cut. Gael. Je N. to To blabber blabber with the lips. beitr. blob. gulblakk. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. confusedly. quoted by Ihre. The Gz. plabartaich. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. ' plabraich. bleg. Alex. biti. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Mund. a continued soft sound. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Mantuan babbi. G. pale yellow . blank. to loll it out. Se bleek. shining. a fluttering noise. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. a* mast . brunblakk. is apprehension of danger. faded. ON. bitor. fallow . synonymous with baber-lip. discoloured . Applied in Hin ON. Gael. blob. white. blepLith. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. buft". A a rail. Hald. blunt we say it will not bite. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. The bitas. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. bihovac. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. his blacan light. indistinctly. as of a body falling into water. fallow fawn-coloured. —Neumann. Bleak. an edge is sharpest sword. on the one side. . Lydgate. black. yellow . stutterer. from wachen. Fr. AS. as of water gently beating the shore. is placed. gabble. It. apparently from its biting the tongue. white lead. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. bitts of Bitts. blabbre. Pl. unintelligible talk plabair. Sw. blakki. Bohem. So Fr. to wax pale or bleaked. I blaber. blabaran. blac-hleor ides. faded. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Sp. pale. small guard-house. Sp. mouth. to babble. ^aj'/^r. Bivouac. bitter. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. blabhdach. Hal. babbling. . Wit hung her mourn. bites. NE. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). an additional watch. or water beating gently on the beach . parallel with Fris — — — When bite. biacca. bittore.plab is used to . dusky. Percy Soc.. on. blabbern. Fieldfare. round which the cable is made fast. . whitish. G. — cheeked maid. Hist. things —Palsgr. the palebleff.. a childe dothe gasouille. baitrs. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. Cotgr. Nagt huis. Goth. beuni.D. blakk. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. — Collins in Hal. bittour. thoughtlessly . light-coloured. yellowish. To or he can speake. "uivac. to babble. chatter babbler . butorj OE. from whence we have adopted the. first. Ai-mstrong. to chops. in contempt. viz. 'fuscus. as of wings . pins of the capstern. to talk much. a beam in a house or ship. Blabber-lip. bleich. baboyer. as is seen in sputter and splutter. bitr. ON. 't huisje. 't kompas huis. Bav. blubber-lipped.' by Haldorsen. out the tongue. plappem. bird of the heron tribe. To Blab the anchor. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. bleikr. whiteness (candor sine It.

image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blanchir. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. and wandering men and women. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. bladra. to To bellow. blister. his meat burnt. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. blame. blein. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. Blade. 7. and thence to babble. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. biastner. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON.— ^o thehotsun. with all other loose idle masterless men. Perhaps from blegen. a bladder or pustule.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. to make or become white blanc.— Kil. —^Webster. mud. D. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. pass over. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. the origin of . PI. livido . or as E. chatter. as scullions. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. reproach. Blancli. dial. speak impiously. pXaatpiiiiHv. which we .—Blatant. Blank. also tanned by the sun. To blank. Sc. to dabble in water. as. linkboys. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. to shine. plat. G. — . verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Du. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. p. leaf of a. waschen. board. blasphemare. to —Blaspheme. whitish. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. a pustule . Play in Nares. 1854. a boil. skola and thwatta. or blafich. — Sw. as. most complete example of leafy structure. a bubble. Fr. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blanchet. Wott. to Hence Ital. madder. .. blatter. on. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. leaves. Du. defame. vagabonds. Dan. blinken. Eadmer. blatter. I am degraded from a cook. e. imbrunire. blahen. revile. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. Gr. pluddre. white. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. — — — to jabber. to glitter. or of an oar G. broad. Bacon in R. Bav. probably ate. bladdra. G. Hist. and others engaged in dirty work. bladder.. Blanket. to bubble. the leaf of a tree. The present forms then should be classed with blether. Fr. also jabber. Lat. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. blank. smother. slush. gabble. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. . plate. mud. a leaf. 86. Blame. Sw. flap of a Du. and the agitation of liquids. blactra. bladre. to omit. Du. boys. bladder . It is commonly connected with _/?«/. pallido. — rura. blister. the ON. piatto. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. blegne. Jan. blanchet. coat. pladdern. Cot. plat. blad. bladeren. and he shall be sure to have O. blegen. to vocifer- — Cot. bladder. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. sheet of paper. and E. mus-blackt. Now. black. mire. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. rogues and wanderers. a blank ticket. a white or unwritten ticket. Sw. blaere. to purl. from candere. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. blether. as blader. smore. a blanket a bed. white. roar. borrelen. Dan.—Blatter. and G. and Q. Du. also white woollen cloth . Fr. on. blather. blatt. tattle. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. to blanch. Torriano. to bleak in the sun. Du. cited in N. It. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. The radical bubble. branches . From being made of white wooUen for cloth. blanqne. leaf. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. in R. a. blaeren. name originally given Blackguard. or a mass of bubbles. whitish. chatter. blister. Besides the examples of this connection given above. moere. Sir. blather. polished. variable than the signification of words designating colour. Blank "verse. blister. bladder. G. To Blare. leafy. is identical with Flanders borlen. Blain. —We Bladder. biasimare. commonly called the Black-guard. candidus. to disappoint. blena. &c. Reliqu. Dan. to shine. shining. . as Lat. pimple. foolish talk. dripping-pans. tree. a buible. vagrants. to blow. 5/^a/^ of colour. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. See Blubber. a bubble. blad. irXariQ. contracted from bladeren. Fr. But perhaps a more Gr. blanc. to glow.

To blast. to bellow. redness . With inversion of the liquid. embraser. each of boaster. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Blatant. brasa.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. much plausibility. blcesett. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Prov. abroad. Sw. to blow. baladron. — ' — stroy. Sc. splendour. to set on fire. blaeteren. to blow . . — Elazen. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. If armour. The other derivation. blasa.). to extol. a whisperer. Du. . blazen. blaze. Golden Book in R.' painted or figured .— . blys. blorach. 2. boasting. indeed. stultd loqui. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. Fr. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. e. Cot. blcese. the matter incendiary . blose. has also blencke. also praeblczse. baladrar. proflare tues. But now. how. Du. blaser vid. to blow. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. i. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. a coat of arms. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. to spread news. blcEsan. ther it was erst not knowe. Dan. a MS. friend Cornelius. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. ventosus. Troilus and Cressida. blasoen. blateroon. blaesen. blezo. is the imme. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. is from AS. light-coli. a shining spot. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. blason. AS. blysa. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. declaratio. Du. a torch. somewhat different train of thought. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. thraso. First from the E. I. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. it is manifest. magnilo. blase. and. oured. brasa. live coal . Gael. blcEsan. — — ' : bless. gloriosus. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. noisy blor. To blow AS. To Blaze. bleis. Dan. . AS. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. a lamp blasere. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. to de.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. the noisy. Du. a shout. ON. braise. is used in the sense of manifestatio. The origin of this exSp. The AS. Kil. besides blesse. clamorous. loud . OE. Blast. kept up. blatero. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. of an animal. ON. beast. senses. a blast. among other . A blaze is so intimately Then. also blazon or the blazSpenser. to publish. fire. an empty and two theories are proposed. blesse. blast. G. bliEsan. 'op een trompet blaazen. G. a flame. blase. magniloquus. Blanches illuminies. Gudmund. See Blare. a funeral oration . used. pale. a voice Jr. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . whence Blazonry.' to fastum . ing of arms. Sw. blis. blason. abroad. a loud noise. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. bawling. might spring from the same origin by a . As Kilian. blaodh. to cut off prematurely. blcest. Fr. blass. oron-blasare. to proclaim.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. by stripping off a portion of the bark. commendation blason funebre. A strong flame. to publish the praises. an conium. and to make him word blaze. to trumpet forth. as a verb. also only pains and excellent endurance. visui patet. Du. in the same way as we 2. quus. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Lye. a flame . Cot.whence the Fr. laudes (Kil. blasonner. proclaim the virtues of. a flame. and which. blus. Du. Fr. ill-speaMng their proper colours . or blazening. g. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. shield or surcoat. or to the sound which it produces. — ^Jam. blaodhrach. blossi. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. Blaze. bles. in that of praise. A gust of wind.sound a trumpet. to blaze Sp. a shield. might And sain. coloured prints. a torch . like the in English. bldsse. biter. blaterare. blesse.

— blink the question is to shrink from it. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. blema. dead-coloured Cotgr. blench came to be used for a trick. Mac. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. on. tacher. bloken. To salir. a blotch plerr.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. exposed. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. — — R. Bailey. light-coloured. From the OFr. A stain in a man's reputation. Bleed. a spot. to wink the eye. avoid looking it in the face. and thence to a bruise. novice. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. 242. Palsgr. pier vor den augen eyes. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. N. pale Du.v. 419. Gower in R. as of dust or mist . To Bleat. pale . More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. spSt. Blear. Blear-eyed j having sore i. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a disgrace. to humbug. wan. Sir J. a blot or smear blanking one. which are blurred with the have shewed you. ' He blarrede or roar. blemissemeiit. a stain. (faith or creaunce) Be war. to start away from. 115. Schmel. from the than schal I go. what blenched him therwith. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. ' — — eye. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to make him feel blank. tutnan is a cloud. Blemisli. The term blear. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . blister. confound him.'he cried till the tears ran down. sinen langen tranen. . So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. . color plumbeus bldma. To totally different from the foregoing. wanness. I chaunge colour. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. blakna. a boil. blesmissure. livor. geplerr. goda nainn. to blare been weeping. guenchir. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. drop of water. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. to bleat as sheep. blink. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. G. bleakness. from on. to spot. Fr. Sw. while the agent ac- From . And By a similar metaphor Pol. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. See Black. to wink at it. As AS. See Black. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. to spot .' God in his wordes. sugillatio. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. in the expression reputation. or blemysshen — blaken. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. AS. blur before their eyes. start vor den augen. Bleb. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. So in Sw. spla7nU sie. . Pol. like one that has long P1. paleness. BLENCH obfusco. splamii!. ^Xiixaoftai. blesmir. A Blab. . not only pale but livid or dark of hue. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. Bejaune. Richardson. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak.' the devil makes a vain back. a been distinct. blcecan. livid. Bleak. or blemish. p. a red watery eye. bleikr. wheal. See Blood. boggle at something. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. to stain one's honour or reputation.P. a spot. B. blarren. darkness of vices. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to soil. Gr. souiller. Ancren Riwle. the livid colour of a bruise. or to low as oxen.' to deceive one. blot. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. the formal equivalent of English wink. a spot. ' . to concealing something that had originally discomfit. c. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. pimple . And now are these but mansbond (i. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. . to cast a mist before the eyes.D. to become livid. is Blench. to cry or weep. plama. to blear one's eye. bldmi. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. whitish.filerren. to bleach. to disgrace one's name. ' — — ' : — — . Blancher. blot. ^Blencher. inflamed eyes. a blemish in one's 2. Manuel de Pecch&. flack. tumanid. a fault. a spot.

bludder. to shine. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. . be glad flash. trix. glance. to be blind. to plunge. riches blajennii blicksem. . mixing in general. — Goth. AS.blunda. to dazzle . as in the case of blaze. OHG. seems the simple netel. Sc. lightning. . well blagaya. AS. a. flash of light . moment. also to wink. happy .nasal. to act like a — . Du. G. blac. G. Biglotton. readily passes into a /. gladness. cascultare. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to shut the eyes. Du. Dan. The inblissful. glitter. to shut the eyes G. although in the in the next article. to shine. and joys of Paradise bliden. . glitter. to dabble in water. blendian. a blessing. to consecrate . Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. Russ. joyful. To blunder water. —Brera. an entry which leads to nothing . Needle. glimpse. blink-eyed. (=bene dicere). wink.blinkard . blent. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blick. blet. blende. . the G. The sound of k before an s. liquid filth to bluther. Sc. to rejoice. blitzen. ON. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. shine. A . lovely Bohem. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. tative source of the word is wholly lost. . — when he — Bailey. Paradises blidnissu. bliss look . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. Blazena Bea. blicken. I hold thee a grote thee. pale. happily. glad. blincken. Du. to stir or puddle. Swab. Blight. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. blotzen. blaziti. blitz.. to make a rumbling noise. to twinkle. blindselen. . For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Sw. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. csecubrandish. blind. wink of sleep . the Slavonic languages. to — make it thick and muddy. a gleam. The term then self or others. blag. tless —Gamm. mix from blekken. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. . bleg. to mix. tire. to pro. blicksem. AS. riches . blazeny. to flash. to fall into water with a sudden noise. a flash. thou knave. blogi. Owl and Nightingale. Wtb. to lighten. blidu. happy . lightning sweet blago. From the action of the hand making Sw. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Serv. money. blinzeln.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. Bliss. Kiittner. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.' To — blunge clay. . OHG. make these hands 3. as a blind entry. 375. blind- ON. goods. livid. a.blinze. pockets. AS. plotzen. to merry. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. with or without the nasal. To Blend. the verb to bless is some. ' Pl. pearance of the blighted . blissian. to bluiter. blicken. ^Jam. dazzle . happy . to glitter ful . a wink. false windows. as taschen. blago. — . to blithsian. Du.blinken. burn up.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. Du. to bless. a dead nettle. Tany. blican. blide. blinzler. a look. blithe blis. joy. to churn. sung. Blink. fortunately. to make happy. F. Nares. blessed. . Deprived of sight. joy. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blund. joy . to rejoice.Q. Swiss (obsolete). window-blind. blanssen. a glance Swiss blenden. to bluiter up with water. giving (Fr. good.corn. to bless . or nettle which does form. blindr. to dash wine with water. but by no means therefore a pre. to glitter. j). a wink With the bletsian. blithe. G. graceful. To Bless. to dilute too much . to glance. . is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blinzdugig. blahoslaviti to twinkle. sweet. . to shine. blich-fiur. blinde fenster.D. a blick-ooghen. — A A — . to glitter .eyed. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. glitter. Pol. a glance.not sting thiiren. De Sonne ' verblekken. is I shall Gurt. lightning. blatida.wink . doors. weaklaveny. lighten. a nounce happy. blink. blend. as in Du. blessed. gives blinzen. bluiter. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Blind. blahos. as a vatn i vin. in potters' language. G. sertion of the nasal. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . III. vious one in the order of formation. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. Thence apblinds. well blahy blick and blink. plonsen.

A solid blouquette blisters. strawclod. Hence. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. blidr. must be classed with forms like Gr. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. in Nares. bloc. Svt. blobbes or droppes of water.—Bloated. a small lump of anything thick. signifying in the first instance to soak. soft. a drop of water. blod. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. sloppy dirt. Boyd in Jam. and bouclette. to dash liquid. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. B. joyful. or the like. as blinzeln. like manner the coloured. cooking. ON. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. blad. ON. a dirty blister. For this. a . Goth. swell. as a blab of ink. weak. a bubble. bubble and blubber. . to block up the way. repre- pusula. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Sw. To a smoking or drying by the fire. is also used in the sense of swelling . The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. — . a bubble. expressed by cognate roots. in gusts. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. mild. It may be formed Blithe. bleiths. light yellow. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. or is inserted or omitted. to steep. formed spot. N. pausten. Fr. blot. a See Blot. In Fin. separate portion. mass. round. ^Jam. as if soaked in water. Gael. Blond. or the mark which it makes. pusula. puff. Du. like clot. any lump or mass of things.— Bailey. soak in water cured fish. bloc. a blain. fiustula. Bav. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Of sheep. it is must be observed. Lat. Sw. senting the dashing of water. blijde. a blot or spot. To Blissom. and easily changes its place. G. a blister. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. The stem or trunk of a tree. and inarticulately. Jonson. in the sense of a soft tint. blinzel-maus. a block or log en bloc. biota. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. shells. blond. The blow E. fish blind person. — Blob. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. or bleb. to blow. an unformed mass. Blob. Fr. plub. blaud. to to puff and be noisy. blaustem. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. as in E. Hence E. —Bailey. to swell. blotfisk. And so from squatter. ^vaaa. the unhewn bole of a tree. to desire the male. and pisg. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. in the lump or mass of wood. frequentative. a ram. busten. bausen. and F. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. W. Du. also to set See Bless. blcesma. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blide. soaked. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision.. bloated. blister. a bubble. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. pimple. inde humiditate tumidus. B. having an unsound swollen look. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. or blinde-kiih. to blow. while Lat. blab. taken altogether. blautr. Mod. from blcsr. Blister. G. blithe. bluster. Bleb. stone. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. in bulk.—Bloater. to soak. buclde. to close it with a solid mass. blote. blot. is formed squad. merciful ON. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. kostia. to blow. Ibid. Cotgr. pods. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. to bubble. Dan. gentle OHG. — Sw. . Blob. to breathe hard. Thus we have blab and babble. Kil. Dan. blouca and Fr. boucler. I believe. blot. Gael. blobber. The roots /. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. Sc. viscid. soft. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. A under this name was imported into England. Langued. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. whence blast. buckle. Block. must be referred to AS. bluyster. orbicular. See Blot. a lumpish head plubach. blindman's-buff. lagga i blot. kostua. mild. to cure by smoke. blister blasan. soft. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. — — — — — From blabber. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. blesme. To Bloat. . blubber. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. a blister . to blissom. husks. speaking rapidly any . blindsehn. a little blisg. . pustula.pusta.— Hal. Egillson.plisg.

Blossom. to patter. to glisten . E. . lump of anything soft to blad.' the rain is driving and blue . to flame. blatte. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to be red with blot. on. Fris. AS. PI. Pl. blond is used in blatt. Ein platsch milch. straw. a blaze. a black eye Du. Dan. to sparkle. to dabble in water . See Blow. fair in en blat vand. ON. bluish. light. Sw. bit by bit. E. bleustern. dial. . blotte. bloed. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. . Schmid. a pelting shower). wan. bloeme.— . let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. gleam. a lump. pladdern. to strike with such these objects exhibit. G. Wflz<^«. to exists in biadetto. Hatch. Prov. . blut. couleur livide. whence plader. clod. or the sound of it . ])erly Du. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. Sc. to scribble. blodelsa and blawelsa. blond.D. to blush . sbiadare. en blau ach. Russ. blust. blotter. blomstr. bleistern. a. to From .platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. a Usaae. blosem. kobladde. ^lys. blase. blue. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. from G. to shine . Du. to dash down Du. S-wiss pladern.platter. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Stalder. leme. . colour of the cheeks. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. fall to overflowing. Blotcli. Sw. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a Schmid. a water ploutsche. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. as the skin or hair. spot pletter i solen. Blow. to spot or blot. D. dirty spot on the cheek. Plots. AS. Schilter. 2. ' — . brilliancy. to dirty. bloto. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). kuh-plader. skam. bloi. parallel form with ON. of a blow with something lios. yellow. bletister. blaeuwen. spots in the sun. to strike with something soft or flat. plants which prepares the seed. in v. livid marks. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. Dan. biado (of which the evidence plattern. blowen. cow-dung. to blaze . bloutre. probably connected with Pol. yellowish It's G. ON. Erploten. gloss. plattata. coloured (Diaz. gammon. — Cot. to slap. — Stalder . blistaf. blue. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. glister . bliihen. Du. to splash. to squat or lie close. blondheid. plet. a spot or blot. a The form platschefz. E. to strike . a deli. OFr. Blood. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. bloedsd. soft or flat. great leaf of cabbage. a beater. Du. Fris. bldmi. to blot the land was in a leme. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. to grow pale). lump flower. a blow.blauschlagen. Jios. Sw. blady. glossi. to glow. blostma. blou. blue. Lat. bloi. to blaze. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blose. blond en blaauw slaan. E. blosen. a gush of milk . blysa. bloemen. to squander. white blatte. the bright colour of the cheeks . Du. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . blotting-paper. pale tint. Wendish blodo. fall down . blus. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. G. j^ blottir. blue . Harmar in R. the bright to blot paper morsels. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. livid . a cow-dung. bldts. gfyssa. The G. — gush. blosa. bloetnsel. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. a Halm a. lustre. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Fr. a drop of water or colour. mud. bloi. lidmr. — — .properly to scatter liquid . redness. Blot. It should be of filth blak-blatte. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Ir. blawels. — Blotch-paper. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. to dash down. platt-voll. ^Bleed. bfys. a flower. Bloom. a flower. blosma. glasi. to slap. platsch-voll. plotterwis. to be red. pale biavo. . Blad. ON. E. blad. pale. See Blow. pladern. a torch blusse. plottra. bliise. blat. a blot or spot. splendour . bliithe. blauwel. platz-regen. Florio). of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. Dan. to dabble in water. flower. splashing full. . a flower. blois. glus. blaeuw. Sc. It. proto shine with bright colours . blooth. plot of land is a spot or small rage. E. platz-voll. a nature. . from the bright colour which 7'vci. platschern. shine . —Barbour. dial. blue. (of cattle) to dung. blaeuwe ooghe. glose.^ Kil. Schwenck.

to bubble up.xo'»'. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. It is howbliuwen. -ii. blao. Chaucer. ^Jam. pale. bloes. and the forms mentioned under Swab.D. to Plodern. pale. bruised Prov. plubair. glas. G. blodern. 51. bluh. glow. blahen. E. pale . in E. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. florere. a blow. blebber. wan.D. boasting. Langued. to exhibit bright colours. sound like water. — To Blubber. to fade. Blowzy. Gael. Gr. bloemen. bliihen. Sik upplustem. to show flower.D. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. glaodh and blaodh. blubbern.. The radical sense is shown in Gael. to fade. to fade. to with Bohem. jabber. A. to make bubbles in drinking. grey. /idXavoc. Notwithstanding the We . to shine with bright From colours. . Wtb. to beat with a mallet. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. a bruise. . blezir. corre. blubonciti. is very frequent. Raynouard. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. meurtrissure Roquefort. blodelsa. to inflate. Mund. pludern. |8A)'. Kil. blau. a herb Gr. Prov. fied vowel. glansj Ir. The primary sense is to shine. blodyn. Blue.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. to gush. gloeyen. bloeyen. To Blow. — . plubartaich. bludder. chatter. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. may cite for example G. — . It. into flower. blady. OFr. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. w. bloi.nify bubble. a fat. vi^ound. blue . bliuwan. a blast. especially with respect to the hair. blaw j biavo. fiubbem. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. And. These are — Bludder. blduen. foam. The interchange of an initial gl. The aUied forms. 2. bloom. B. blut. blue. Bret. G. Tumbled. heath. bloeden. blosen. 92. blawan. blau. puff. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. plodern. and thence. to glow. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to gabble. plusig. Bav. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. coup. to hard. to blow. a continued noise of agitated water. boil.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to spot. bledniai. to'disorder. a Blossom. flower OHG. Deutsch. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON.to blossom. MHG. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. to beat. piusen. E. gliihen. —SchmelIt. 1. dirty.' Hamburgh Archives. to flap like loose clothes. cheeks bedabbled with tears. wan. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. G. d in Sc. to blurt out. tache. gliihen. blazir. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. marking some application from that bladder. P1. blazi. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blass. red-faced bloted wench. disordered. in rapid or indistinct utterance. 1292. — — Mundart. Du. a flower. grow pale. Lat. bluod. a paddling in wate r. glede. to glow. In agitation of water. bluther. sponds with Sw. to blow. Pludern. plustrig. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. pale OFr. br. Deutsch. bruk. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker).— . Du. Jla-re. gUd. to breathe bouteiUis. Pl. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. . We . to guggle. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. blust. green. blois. or gr. fqded. bldt. OHG. blava. — To blubber. Danneil. disordered in head-dress. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. little apparent resemblance. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. Her sweet bloderit face. where the word may be compared bliggman. like manner Lat. — Bluther. is confined to the — . glowing coal . to make blue. bliihen. ' BLUE or guggling. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. y\r)yi»v. . withered. . AS. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. to blow. to breathe G. plubraich. Chaucer. a gurgling . OHG. v. to bruise Roquef. blubbern. a. . and closely allied with Du. ler.Jlasa. fem. blow. Blowze. closely difference in of blabber. to flourish. sense. glas. grug. toused. the red fluid of the body . G.D.' — Palsgr. gloeden. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. To Blow. Pl. to puff up. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. bl. flower w. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. bliithe.

tutte le semente ancora in erba. poltern. to plump into the water. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. from an imitation of the sound. to lose colour. speech. The Du. to blunder water. a flounder. pludder. a shore abruptly rising. to become pale or livid. Hence a Slcelton in R. Roquefort. from the Lat. and Du. G. flodderen (Weiland). Bluff. See Blurt. Roquefort. which is rendered by Florio. sloppy drink. To blunder is then. is. discoloured {plowiee. OFr. Du. to blunge clay. Bladum. to fall suddenly on the ground. or an abrupt manner.. je perturbe. puddle. Altieri. to work To blunder out a fronto. Romance bluiter. G. bulmanner. originally growing up turf and water. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. to fade). to become pale. as well as biado. Kil. herbe. to puddle. From G. glundr. blac. Sw. buller-bak. liebefactor.' trouble. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. to dabble in the mud. mistake. a plain coin herausplatzeu. applied to green as well as blue. jaune. contrasted with the dle. planus. . We Blunder. E. to confound. bleu et blanc. without image or superscription. blaf. Dryden in R. and bustle . It then signifies something done at once.— . — — — . bullern. blutter. mix It. having a bluff forehead. to agitation of liquids. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. The Du. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. blandum. — . Pl.//aay. It is remarkable however that the E. blunt. corn. rustic. Ditton in R.• BLUFF biado. - reddish yellow. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. blunder. blavus. fawn-coloured. Dief. Du. blanssen. sense of yeUow. fallow. as well as sbiadafe. herauspoltem or sloping shore. . Pm. bawling. Halma. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. a boisterous violent man. and sbiadare. biavo. disturb. 't — —Hal. And blunders on and staggers every pace. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. to dabble Biglotton E. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. from the brilliant green of the young E. Blunt. a fore. Biada. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . G. pale. buller-bas. pale) is provincially used in the. ploffen. Blavoyer. abrupt. Pol. to mix it up with water. blond. verdoyer. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. like Du. Flor. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. — Pr. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Blunderer or blunt worker. earth and water mixed together. and biavo (Diez).make a noise. non rotunda. biada. a blunderbuss. and then generally idle talk. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. superficie plani. dial. in the same way as from It'. biava. falb. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Hence we pass to Prov. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. bloi. I blonder. blake (identical with AS. Then with the nasal. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. something. find accordingly It. confusion. polterer. yellow. all representing the — . segetes virentes. See Blunt. pale straw-coloured. yellowish red. blue. G. plomp. Hal. The word is here synonymous with amplus. blue. blunderhead. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . an ill-done job. to become pale or wan. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. in plur. Bodge. and metaphorically.D.in mud or water. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. sbiavare. Blaffart. trahir. Analogous forms are Du. has donder-bus. corn. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. tradire to Fr. used for the work of an unskilful performer. flav-us. plo-wy. in water dobbelen. Kiittner. blave is moreover. Bohem. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. bUich. glundra. Dan. polter-hans. verdure. A bluff manner. Palsgr. pale yellow. blue. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. his business with much noise. like the Celtic glas. devenir vert blavoie. blahir. Kil. blunder. Lat. Supp. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. bluish.

with or without the nasal. heavy. . Plump. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. viz. rudely. unfledged Sw. clownish. inaKil. and in the same sense. awkwardly. and. V. blunt. Plump mit etwas umgehen. fling down . poor Sc. the absence of sharpness. Kiittner. platz-regen. blait. in Richardson. obtusus. Bare and blunt. blockish. to plump down. blunder. massive.— — — . —D.pludse. It is from this notion of suddenness. Sc. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. Blunt. pointless. bare. obtusus. unwrought. biosso. ang. blunt. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Ford in R. to make a noise of such a Stalder. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. but of something soft thrown on the ground. down. wan. naked. thick. edgeless. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. plump J to plump out with it. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. plotsen. is The word dull. plumbeus. blunt. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . F. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Plontp. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. to blunt a thing out. plump. dull. Q. platzen. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Probably radically hlekit.to fall into the water. a bluntie. from the loud report a fire-arm. figuratively. dull. without Maolaich. naked. clumsy. Chaucer. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. ineffectual reason. plump. nis. The blait body. — — pidus. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Now the Swiss bluntsch. identical with E. naked. Du. — Kil. to bring it suddenly out. bare or blunt. More in Richardson. bare. united in Gael.plompen. as in E. plonsen. Sir T. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. heavy. Molof something wet. to make foliage. nature. forestis. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. bald. Blaitie-bum. absence of preparation. and an unintelligent. stupid fellow. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. viz. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . homo stolidus. Kiittner. to blurt. Pol. Stalder. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. heavy. Swab. G. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Dan. raw. bleak. awkward. insensible. blatte. It will be seen that the G. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. without the nasal. that the sense of bare. it will be well to point out a sense. duU. used in both senses. plutz T)\i. plains The large bech. biotto. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. a blot. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. maol. blait. unpolished. plotz. The syllables blot. Won by degrees. Halma. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. blat. G. or heraus plumpen. to plump into the water. to handle a thing bluntly. V. and the like. inactive Swiss bluntschi. bluntschen. blunt. blotta sanningen. that it not easy to discover the connection. without preparation. a simpleton. without horns. void. bloss. silly. Then cometh indevotion. Woddis. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. seems to be derived. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. blott. Sc. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. It. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. of a knife which not cut. sheepish. fooUsh. blunsch. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. a thick and will person. plump. or blab out a thing Kiittner . pale. dial. blout. V. Dan. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. naked. rude. pressions. through which a man is so blont. Sw. plump. is thrown. azure. as cow-dung. it will be observed. A modification of the same root. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished.—D. like a thing thrown down with a noise. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. blue. good plump person. hebes. blutten. . and hath swiche languor in his soul. — blunt. bus. mit etwas heraus-platzen. —D. Bluntet. as Sw. A light blue colour. unceremonious manner. rough. a portion To inquire for slaves. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. exactly corresponding to the G.

swagger. short pieces of any filthy mud. i. dial. literally edge-wood. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. or blurt with one's mouth. stellio. whence bob. Explained by Jam. common. a mist before the eyes plerren. boa. burra. To move quickly up and down. to crying. a dangling object. Sverris Saga. bord. will fly up. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. imitated by has also In like . bausen. blaere. a bladder . to puff. Du. beacon fire. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. E. boistous. eber. or bog also thread. bora. — From mouth. blasen and See Burr. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. to blow. a. Du. Halma. violent G. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. pfludern. and the latch . bur. e. cocodrUlus. gabble. hot. ader. a mistiness. to dangle. and E. blose. and when applied to vaunting language. this root are formed Sc. to rumble. a tassel. ON. Swiss blodern. an ear of corn. bludder. an end or stump. it implies that it is empty sound. bord. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Schmeller. both used in the sense of boasting.plodem. bluter. to be out of temper. to blore. lacerta. blirt of greeting. Sc. Boa.pusten. skin.—Bobbin. a burst of tears. to guggle. to blur. Supp. to endeavour to terrify. — — . Slur. to bounce. a baU of thread the mud. blaustem. strong. blaffen and baffen. Fr. a short thick body. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. blot. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. a border. coarse.D. crack made by bursting open. to say bluntly. to disfigure with E. bdd. Comp. It. As the as. boord. a club foot .v. bladdra. to chatter. margin. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Du. G. to sound like water boiling. blotch and botch. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. 29. to talk quick and indistinctly . board. acre. — ' Dief. cluster. beer. bakke bleustern. See Boisterous. blunt. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. rude. — To Bob. bot.plerr. sudden. bit. 1. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Bot zeggen. E. G. a board or plank. a flurt with one's fingers. — a blaze. margin. Boost is used for the boast. a small lump. blubber. a tassel. To brag and to crack. bdtr. bludder. pludern. pof. as in Du. to puff. Gael.the syllable bot. chicchere. blader. 274. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. and boisterous. botte. splurt and spirt. as splurt to splutter. bar. Dan. puffen. brett. Pl. to blush. dull. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. border. Blush. to render indisbhir. To tinct. Wright's ed. The to radical meaning D. blodern. pustern. OE. then applied to indistinct vision . to dabble. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. outward edge. stupid. a grows to a great bigness. 9396. bdta. . Du. a blow . to make a noise in boiling. A large snake. table. 'Ba. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to threaten. to blaze. margin. G. to dirty. a Jam. It. bot-voet. and Du. whence bordvidr. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. batello. AS. or backwards and forwards. Board. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Bav. Fr. Gael. AS. The elision of the d is very to chatter. boccheggiare. is formed Du. Kil. ever-swin. baban. to bark. to roar. Du. the sound of a blow poffen. to spurt out. c. Bluster. of the word seems .— . large. blarra. Wtb. bord. boot. mire. . Lat. voce intonare. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. cheeks glow. to give a crack. blusse i ansigtet. . a torch blusse. to breke. V. gabble Sw. De Boat. To blow in puffs. Fl. blosken. bateau. table. eafor. bobine. be a crack or loud sound. pluddre. my dear. berd. baiag. bustuous.' — Red Riding-hood. Fl. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. to blubber. Hal. to smear. To splirt. and swimmeth very well. — — — * Boast. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. &c. lindwurm. to make a noise with the mouth. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. blast. plump. BLUR Boar. Du. violent. To Blurt. to glow . properly noisy. It. fringe. w. aper. to snuff. pausten. Pull the bobbin. . bobbin. the Brem. to blurt out. Related to blutter. P. puddle. edge. to jabber. 156. a blot. to brag grande loqui. edge. blur.y. planks or boards. to puff. rude. Boa. flat. to make mouths. Hal. BOB 79 — To Blur. Wallace. Sc. bleuster. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. blurra. ground. . a smear. See Blossom. planks raised up outside the roofs. dial. geplerr. Du. on. bluther. borrar. bhis. blaste?i. blot. a blotch. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. an edge. AS. bliise. primarily signify loud noise.

expression hogglin an bogglin. toss. bod. from fitting close to the body. bodilo. bog. gebod. stutter gogmire. is identical with Fr. palleg. bogan. Bohem. It introduced from Ireland. a . — as well as the body of an animal. Bodkin. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller.gmh:t. to stammer. a ghost . and E. where bogs form Gael. . or stem of a tree. to smack. So BOB To Bob. and the word is well explained by Bailey. Lap. anything soft. a bog or morass. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. And waves.. boftich. bogadh. the belly. See To Botch. precept. Schmel. . butt. bodene. bodi. W. bodak. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. a cask. Lith. to fail. stitch. To Bode. potig. Ptg. Supp. or bag. corset. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. to dabble or paddle. Bog. Commonly explained as if from Sc. wavering. bothog. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. a dagger. Ir. gagoula. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. belly. to blabber with the lips faire la babou.a (i\ia. shaking . bottich are derivatives. bodat. See Bid. Thy i. * To Boggle. swelling. gog in gog-mire. to butt. quakmg. bogle. gog.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. to scruple. an awl. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. Russ. daubed or dabbled with blood. baboyer. corpset. bottig. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. goggle. by the syllable patsch. . bolr. To portend good or bad. so large a feature in the country. busti. Cot.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bodian. calf of the leg. . potacha. boll. to start start and back as from a bugbear. fickle . an announcement. speak of the barrel of a horse. potacha. move. of which the E. waving. — Grandg. With With this we charged again We bodged again. In like manner E. Gael. stuttering. nave of a wheel. bodhag. AS. Gael. to stick. BOGGLE trunk and G. a cask. gag.hollow. the body. bodnu. to make a mow at. unsteady. VI. Gael.' Bogglie. or a pair of bodies. bog (equivalent to E. bod. meaning the round part of his body. To mock. Body. unsteady. round. to push with the horns. Miracle-plays. bole. to blurt a thing out. bodig. . See Baber-lipped. stumpy. bo tich. ON. Gl. thrust with something pointed. pall. — H. We . Wall. agitate. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. the trunk of the animal body. message boda. to bodge. Banff. Bret. a body. woman's stays.\\i\c\iset. to bob. gogach. whence paUchen. to prick. gago. Ptg. bob. The Sp. French bouter. a messenger . bagges. — 2. a round body both. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. bayonet . bodies. bayonet. moist mire. formerly bodies. Crist. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. . We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Now unskilful action is conmire. to be unsteady tich. arise E. as a horn. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. quagmire). Bodice. as in stammering or staggering. a puddle. rounded. badyti. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. corpses pot. AS. bogadaich. the body of a shift gaguejar.rabodi. needle. unsteady nature of a soft substance. point. cask bottich. the boss of a buckler. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. shake. bog. gagei. is a lump. to deliver a message. To Bodge. as signifying anything spherical or round. bogach. e. '£. Shakespear has badged with blood. a command. 3. . a spur. mud. to be uncertain what to do. body of a shirt bol. whence Fr. to make. the thick part of anything. to fail. 43. barrique. biodag. . Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. to waver. strike with the horns. . corset from corps. to roll. to thrust. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. to commit a blunder. a prickle. biodeachan. the stem of a tree . barriga. anything protuberant. bodi. ^Jam. dies. nodding. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . Reliq Antiq. a prick. body and G. a quagsoft. then from the yielding. bot. exhibit another modification of the root. The signification of the root bot. To make bad work. potahha. bodetz. patsche. moving backwards and forwards.! . a sting . to stir.

Kit. then violent. bolc'h. Bret. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. to tattle. intrepid. up of bubbles. bald. capitellum. pillow. * Bolster. ohg. bhster. tartalear. bald. Lap.— D. a quaking mire. Love. bolster. OG. as those of nuts. roydeur.w. perpendicular. tomentum. to boil. sels of flax. Pr. styffe or rude . courageous. brave. cheerful. Daring. stameln vel bochken. stutSw. Fr. is probably a modification of boll. and then applied to other husks. bagaji. bealder. Bole. Kil. as. fiausten. w. polc'h. In the same way Sc. bout is explained by Kil. balder. from the branches. To Boil. as E. bolzBold. strong. caput scapulse. Goth. prince. bola. 1430 in Deutsch. bol. Magy. Test. Westerwald bollern. i. bulla. swelling. The round stem of a tree. bold. to be at a loss a shirt. but that Bolt. obex. — ' — tagliare. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . used. Gael. as. beule. Swab. bold. he will speak out. 304). Fr. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. G. See Bulk. boggle. haughty. ballr. . bolle. in speaking. E. tulum. Fr.' Mrs Baker. a bump. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). to stumble. treated under Bowl. impetuosity.. a fastening for a door. the. belc'hj. chaff of corn siliqua. bok. Chaucer seems Dan. OHG. baud. huge. bolt. properly represent belly. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. courageous. tartajear.D. bola. Boystous. — 6 . Mund. to waver or hesitate. ^Vocab. ON. bald. the husk of nuts. proud. bolleken. G. bog. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. tar. a bubble. hakogni.Du. . glass phial. merry. buller. boll. pimple ON. bol. a bakazikni. Du. V. G. noise. a boil or swelling Du. warlike. boystousnesse. A. ON. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. or the like. bout. Pm. (of Mons) b^guer. bag or bog are derived Piedm. pall. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. and manace for to de. Sw. cows the people from speaking. the body . boss. Bustuous. bolster. swelling. a bubble. from Du. 45. flax-boU. pusten. in the sense of handsome . Sp. hollow. Boil. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Cot. the lir. biiilen. shake. bul. a swelling in ice. Du. pustule. strong. coarse. insolent baude. bSlstr. boil . bog. by which it is moved to and fro. Lat. Wall. to hesitate from doubt. the gurgling sound of water rush.). bulla. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Properly noisy. The term applies in — — impressed . bolr. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. bul. folliculus grani. free. Chaucer. a bubble. scruple. repagulum. to give a hoUow sound. globular bod)'. the body of a man or of ter. bullire. bulr. excellent. ^Boistous. stud. rough. Du. puilen. poppy (Bailey). E. blow. G. confident. * Boisterous.rounded part of the body. . b^gayer. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bolla. To Bolter. to stagger. which are not used for a similar purpose. . the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . boly. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. whence bulla. a cushion. It. bolt upright. trunk of a tree . balldr. bollen (Kil. to be prominent. to stammer. to puff. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Stalder. bula. bochken (titubare. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. gerade signifies straight to the mark. wag. Du. to the belly as the or dislike. Lat. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. buile. Me doth awate. Sc. 374. bold.— — . thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. bal. furfures.palleg. ON. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. quick. may be identified with It. round the first instance to the materials with . to swell. boutpijl. as baltha. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Da. strong. chatter. puile. gluma. bol. notes. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. The bob. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. This iv. ON. also a blister. capiing into a cavity. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. Boll. — — which the cushion is stuffed. dint in a metal vessel. tartle. bouil. hero. bolstar. see Boast. to stammer. a head . bolzen. stramenta.

Lang.nature of the operation. or a racer from the course. a bunch. Wtb. 2. Du. Lat. — — — . The ulti. Dan. curdle. btilt. a sod (Schiitze). Pl. a millpoltzet augen. to clack. also to curdle. bolt. je bulte. kloteren. : ' — — . beluter. ex•wagen. we pass to Du. In the next place. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. Pr. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. bluter. a clap of thunnences. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. bullern. swelling. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to form lumps. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. cro. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. to shake. Fr. Pm. racket gepolter. bultig. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to bolt meal barutel. pultare. cruddle. And as the agitation of cream in .. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. Brem. .agitation of the meal in the bolter. hole. hump. or ill. to start out. a small portion. uneven. Hence. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack.by forms like G.D. knob. in S'W plotter. The ment and the operation. rugged. to make a knocking.through a cloth of loose texture.D. a clump of turf. to bolt meal barutel. to spring forth E. boss. or the like. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. taratarrum. representing a rat. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du.as the essential element signifying the talum. from G. taraabout. by the representation of a racketing sound. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. / is transposed in Fr. a rattle. and the Thus from So. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. OFr. So also we pass from Lat. tantara. burclct. bortelen. . to coagulate. barutela. as a rabbit from its baritel. blotttre. jolting. Dauphiny a sudden movement. P1. beliitea. . gebolder.Lat. abolter. a club-foot. protuberance. bolt-foot. pattern. G. . bulla. a bolter or implement for bolting. to significance of the term was overlooked. bulstrig. bolting to that of form.thump or blow. have Lat. . On this account Mid. bulk. as snow balling on a horse's foot. projections. zare. zen.On the same principle. a bolter Prov. hammer. poltern. and to crash. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. ler. MHG. we have Du. sestuare. pull. buideln.noise {brattle of thunner. bolzaugen.). It. to come rattling downstairs. Prov. the sense of right on end. hulch. a clod. tuft. to agitate. we der Brocket). bulk or quantity . Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. ' Holler poller / bulter. a clod cloth. a round glass ending — bultig. as Fr.fe/2?. staff which sounds tar. Sw. croler. to bolt flour burato.D. Champagne burtcau. Schiitze. Bav. bolzauget) Sp. hulter de bulter. one after the other. tling or crashing noise. agitari (Kil. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. fied bot. to E. I boulte meale in a boulter. . crash. Hence Palsgr.u. lumpy. Sanders. taratantarum. budeln daz mele . to bolter. uneven. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. crod. as above explained.. Du. projecting eyes pul. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. OFr. baruta.) E. buletare. . a rattling noise and a jolting motion. vessel with narrow opening. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to knock. Mid. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. rugged. the wheels groaned. barutela. buretter{CQ\. OFr. tar. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. Here the radical image is the violent O. a rattling carriage.). on the one hand.protuberance. hammer. Bulte-pook or bulstar. loud and fast. to become lumpy. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. we see that the one consists of a words. a . tumultuari. small heap. mole-hill.D.i5a//^«.clack. as of a trumpet. . buUire. die treppe pressed. buletel. to talk pulzen.— . to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. grasbulten. then to knock. bolt head is a retort. poltern. bolzen. bulio. with E. bultred. clump. to start with palpitate. Supp. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. ' — — ! ! : — . crotlar. poll. barutare. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. Pl. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. brattle. holier poller. a crashing or racketing noise. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.

The material called by this name. and in fact we find the and Du. silk-worm. bambagioj whence It. Near 6 * . bommer. bongam. . . sye. In E. Schm. Castrais barato. to boult meal. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. from boom. to ring bells. whence bomme. bein. ODu. It. beuteln. bombicina. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. When ture. a word of which we have traces in several English names. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. the silk-worm. to resound.) . Moreover.Su?. Kil. sijde. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. beil'n. and also the leg. baun. E. a stem or base. gunpowder. we speak of a gun to resound. assuming the of leg : special signification W. Banstead. borel. bombasin. bonog. and called in Mid.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. q.). a stock. Fl. to shake (as to shake the head. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. Need you any ink and bonibase. to bind G. bande. a string. crook-shanked bondew. builen. &c. HoUybandin R. a drum bombammen. G. It. butteln. It. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. a —Bombasine. a hollow sound. butteln. coarse. and Bond. buidelen. 155. It. agreement. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bond. barate. thick from shaking. and Mod. Bibelesworth in Nat. ties. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. to cast to and fro. — Bombard. to shake. bombice. Butterglas. the shank the shoulder-bone. and that from Fr. bindan. gossipium. thick-legged. Mid. a ligature. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. — having a stem or stalk. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. must be explained Fr. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. bombase. bombasine. Du. tie. sije. breast-bone. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. booming over the water. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. As cotton was used for padding clothes.D. stump. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. . bunden. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. are applied to BONFIRE Bom.^Altieri. OE. 83 Gr. a baker. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. the Fr. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. a churn for butter. or trunk word in W. a boulter of meal. to thump W. been. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. . also thick-shanked. Bonfire. bolting-cloth. band. Bone. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. to which the leg. to shake down fruit from a tree. from teu. bopin. has repeatedly varied.Lat.bast. bwmbwr. Fr. thick. term is appropriated in G. a thundering noise bomre. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. buidelen. ^o/j. a beacon. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. raw silk. however. . stuff. biire. bonds. brust-bein. beuteln. band pi. bambacium. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. buttel trueb (of liquids). to bolt meal. cotton. tree. i. bulter from It. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. d. G. — AS. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bauniwolle. burato. bone of the . . produced the Pl. to thunder. PoUitriduare. derivation. lana lignea. Du. band. as in . bureau. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. It. a bone in general. the murmuring of the sea. is supported by the analogy of G. Du. bras. achsel bein. Antiq. basin. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. — bombast came guage. sericum arboreum. baum-bast. bombe. and Du. From builen. Dan. . Fr. bambagino. bommen. bwmbwry mar. tiffany. bonfras. again. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. to beat a drum. the contracted form of Du. an implement of binding. Gascoi^e in R. the leg. bon. cotton stuff. G. bureau. bombast. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. It. as Banbury. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. silk. iuttern. boulenger. bombarda. banitola (Fl. e. In legal language. Dan. Bomb. bombdra. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . tie. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. bomba. rimbombare.

A favour. simpleton. ass. babin. to dress. Fr. from badare. tall. although in the OG. which one gaping and staring about. Bootless. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. desire. the scriptures bokareis. the name of the letter b. a simpleton. OSlav. botte. till. to yawn. where a cross (or a gun. N. blockhead. netis stall. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. to prepare. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. betere thing werse. bose. a stall. Boom. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. . succour Bailey. bauen. are formed Fr. hu?idbusa. Bonnefyre. Trans. to ask. . badaud. is Du. to litter bosu. buch-stab. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. dial. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. a tree. bobo. 13. p. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. been. beiSne. Pr. The character of folly is i860. ON. to gape. from gape. the possessor of the farm. high. bosig. botte. See Butt. or Vanns. See Bown. bas. boia. A peasant. Thus from the syllable ba. from Du. tapestry. Hal. gehyred. . and from AS. boutig. Kil. to cultivate. dress. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. — — . the mouth. as a lying-place for cattle. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. The i. Mrs Baker. E. pig-sty. boer. remedy of evil. lofty. by itself for head-dress. pero. from beida (E. ON.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. a letter . E. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. stabulum. pole. It. the stubble of beans. inhabit. — . boom. bid). busu. beam. bossen. Goth. often cut for burning and lighting fires. fool. Boot of bale. Prov. nachbar. . Sp. bds. the alphabet. a vessel for holding liquids. See Bomb. botta. . relief from sorrow. prayer. ON. Basa. G. G. bAkva. . petition. baier. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. ty Gael. bolt. bommen. a. in w. at everything. Hal. build. Boor. to aid. bonnet. Build. help. and Ban in w. — From the participle present. letter. Book. and fig. * Boose. swinbusa. a dry stalk. boten-shoen.. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. clown. Du. In nautical language. babau. bene. wondering signifies not only straw. But bosg. inhabit. Wall. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . ON. bonaid. as the Brecknockshire Banns. . bos. a scribe G. To Boot. Pm. a. of wonder On the same principle Sp. bonad. — Bailey. to cultivate. Fr. a hollow skin. G. bua. a silly fellow. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. biikui. Kil. bua. boutig. dolt. Schm. chaff. dial. build. — e. dog-kennel. however. tigh. and Gael. Palsgr. Boon. boubair. a lying-place for dogs or swine. gaby. w. to gape. \ais-band. Perhaps. set in order. bd. to set in order. Binau Brychyniog. comes bondi. house. . litter. babb^o. a good turn or re- meaning. Busk. Jr. OW. the first consonant of the alphabet. to strew with straw. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. boa. Du. Mrs Baker explains bun. gaping hoyden — Cot. literally cow-house. Boot. boo. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. The origin of the word is probably the W. but stall. b^er. by arbitours sholde bote the P. also called Brecknock Beacons.n. till. From bo. a lofty blaze. ben. bauer. signifying beech. bota. without ad- . ganian. buandi. prayer. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. 232. boubi^. writing bokos. short boots. bdn. gawney. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Swab. bonad. one who dwells nigh. a bag of skin or leather. AS. quest. Fr. b'ukvdry. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain.—Bootless. a bonfire. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E.Boos. dress. in Phil. Fr. remnants of hay or straw. Gael. . reparation. Ox. boandi. bowwen. a letter Russ.^ —P. b&ber. master of the house. bobo ! interj. The latter is the original AS. whence ban-ffagl. countryman. petition. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. bosih. Booby. a head-dress. Bun. A stall for cattle. booby. and thence Rouchi baia. Thin ben Luke i. Bonnet. Du. Hufwud-bonad. head-dress wai^g. . wall hangings. bote. foolish. AS. — To boot. the cultivator. It is commonly explained as identical with It. feu de behourdis. Gl.

uzboro. OSw. 3. sawroot. yfirbdt. purra. drillen. an engraver's chisel. 266. bite. baara. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. • — To Bore. to be of advantage aftragabotjan.par. the . an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . a hut or tent. bora. a shelter of branches.. byte points to the verb byta. bdra. and thence to eat build. tent. sculpo 05\xiik. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. to bite. BOOTH vantage. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. Esthon. fimbria. The ON. to divide. borracha. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. to profit Goth. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. lappolone. forare. cure Sw. furni. See Bower. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. . scalpo. cellar. It is admitted that Fr. puras. to The Sw. make . boards. bud. to boot. welt. G. recovery bata. edge. wave. aid. a borer . hem or gard of a garment. . as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. ON. dens mordens vel caninus. dust. from borra. to surge. differs only in termination. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. And so in ON. to bite. and E. . a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. borracha. nor E. Fin. to bete the properly to mend the fire. budka. hut. Esthon. reparation. Mag. puru. to expiate boeten den dorst. margin. to mend. A phorically a drunkard. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. to patch. bolino. to swell. . Du. Another derivation from Fin. butin. Kil. from bord. to to . making good again . from deila and skipta. struere ignem. abode. a bothy. borino. ON. bauda. to anything Neither G. chisel. bohren. In the Fin. Magy. But probably the E. It. a shed. a great bur. Fr. purro. Gael. boete. a shop budowati. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). are derived from G. to build buda. as afford a satisfactory explanation. a cupboard. scsdes-bod. betan fyr. It. to pierce. Palsgr. Fl. a border. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. Compare Manx birrag. comminuted by either kind of action. See To We speak in E. a word. a granary . limbus. Gael. and meta- Fr. are parret. terebro. which are probably from the same root. Booty. . See Burgeon. . bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. butin is explained by Flor. Fin. bower. furd. remedy. bord. to foam. OHG. Alexand. to quench one's thirst . beute. Pol. bothag. better. a responding forms . kvit-bara. boeten het vier. sharp. cottage. Lat. to hut. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON.— Return from Parnassus I inR. ora. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. BoracMo. piercer. to stick unto as a bur. Border. The as G. botjan. puras. both. a tusk. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. Gael. in Lap. amendment boeten. a sharp-pointed tooth.. The Fin. to build. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. boeye. AS. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. a wave. bardure. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. purra. 1. Du. batr. rof. Sp. a hut. bottino. repair. Fin. a borer. a. is purin. on. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-.. a borer. to . The cor. a chisel. wine-skin. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. or the gradual working a hole in anything. barn.por. biorag. and parrets. to profit. a bladder. baete. urboro. and hence to fine. bauen. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Fr. p. burin. cup- awl.—Burin. admovere titiones. bata. ON. bdt. a booth or shed. — ON. to repair. N. chewed food for infants. Booth. pi. . amendment. &c. budowai. fire. pointed. . pu purro (saha =: saw . to restore. limbus. terebra sculptoria purastoa. in Ihre. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. to importune. or anything pointed. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. mat-bod. to bore. Bohem. bordi. extremitas Bore. boede. Bete. exchange or divide. Burke in R. bothan. a shop. of an edge that will not bite. puru. . a leather bag or bottle for wine. lappalare. To Bore. swell bara.

to save. cob. that which biirge. to protect. a boor. a herb. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. V. knock and a knob . empty.. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. bttssel. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. boss. a citizen. borh. a surety. secure. D. tive idea seems to bring under cover. a giving rise to It. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. the Sc. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Gr. by which of or belonging to plants. bump. vain. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. busse. clownish. or perhaps also To Borrow. ' — — . blow on a hollow object. Fr. a little blow. bail biirgen. cnap. cnag signifies both a clergy. into borsholder. a bouncing baby . or perhaps it may be See Bury. projection. and borough in the sense of a town. boss or knob of a buckler . borealis. knob. connected. head. bom. primarily signifying coarse sound . ' pledge. boussi. the N. to save Sw. ON. &c. borgese. an eminence. baurgs. Jam. coarse cloth made of the Du.any round sweUing. rustic.ribs and the side. unpolished. bossen. bierge. a blow. to give a hollow bizo. Goth. Borrow. viipyoc. bunch. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . borough or chief constable. the hollow between the Borsholder. borg. pegou. useCanterbury. was origin of the term is the OFr. destitute. to keep. Du. the sun sets.' every man be under bail. basse. burh. gum vocant. — ' wind burya. It. bosseu. empty. . AS. from their grey clothing. The origin seems to be the Goth. borel. the must have arisen burgensis. tuft. to save. to conceal. to pick or cull plants. Lat. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. bussa coarse. ^ma. Bunch. a knob. is used in the sense of bussare. gesylle. Hence borhes ealdor. pitch. poor. Turk. botsen. borg. from AS. plant. pego. bundle. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. or because a blow berga. bourgeois. Jam. to give bail or answer for an. boss sound. cormpted. Borough. or head-borough. in instead of without. plain rude fellow. The primi. . and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. is probably radically Boss. tempest. nonsense. bosh. the ordinary a swelling. and thus could not shake off the old burr. (Bridel). that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. in the body struck. grey). ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report.' or system of bail. borgo.vr\. burel. Hence knot. Sc. Cot. E. northern. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth.' Vegetius in Diez. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. as if from the verb to hold.' if thou give money on loan. cnoc. storm. The other. less. striking. hollow bucklers. Newbury. bussi. rude. 106. to strike . agrees with E. burgess. Fr. byrig. (1867). to become is emitted by a hollow body. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. . borough-holder. when that system was forgotten. borei. knocking. hollow. the North Wind. to contain. Du. AS. to protect. surety. And that unsittynge is to here degre. a. one who sticks to you like a bore. butsen. . Bailey. whether from the fact preserve G. bos. See found in Bav.mass. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. empty.' the chief of the ' borh. bosse. boss. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. bergen. Lang. Bosh.bucklers. Boreal.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. undyed wool of brown sheep. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. to knock or strike. beorgan. a citizen. which now signifies a knob. Hal. a boss. Botany. bos. ^o^^flj. — — — A — . huschen. Swiss Rom. a tower. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. loan. botch. i. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Fr. bump is used in lump or piece. formerly used in the sense of knocking. whence the burg. Russ. while Gael. botse. bourg. a bunch or hump. as we speak of a thumping potato. of bail throughout the country. Altieri. a pushing or striking out. f graauw. /3oraMK6f. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. a city . butse. boschen. poor. So Du. brown cloth. without. knur. AS. In like manner It. to strike so as to Bureau. botch. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Borowholder. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. beorgan. boss of the side. I. to take in. Bos a surety. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. a wen. It. G.

putra. a bubble. contusion . Dan. nets. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. — Fl. empty or hollow. an imperfect and bunbutt end. From the dim. bethia. Bouds. botel. any plain round viol glass bozzo. what pushes outwards. a waterfall. 212. to we have OHG. G. blain. &c. botse. It. See Butt. boiteal. and E. ba. bulderen. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. • Bott. to make better. dial. to strike . to smack. Butu. fire-bote. Ancren Riwle. is also a bubble. Again. buazen. ledge It. fundus. burgi vel pontis refectionem. podge. however. to knock.^Dec. bots. bide. a plague-boil Kil. as a push or windgaU. round lump. butsen. Botcli. a lump of somebatschen. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Hal. dim. Boa two. a slop.) . to froth as beer . a bunch. buts. abyss. dabble). iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. a vessel for holding liquids.— Swift in R. Mudu. to stir and mix together . bun. See To Bodge. bot. Pl. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. . Diez. Fr. a bottle of hay. Danneil. boss. boil. we two. bosser. potra. thing soft batsch. Bailey. bdsser. AS. bossu. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. — .D. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a root. is boteau. to bcBta. a maggot. for a bud. Kil. a knock. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. abbi. &c. blow.ments of the same root. a pock. botte. A horses. Fl. kessel-biisser. of botta. they two. ^kvBoQ. disturbance. to mend. gipuozan. And so we speak of an eruption. or plague sore . oba. Judwi. See Bound. the other hand. pozzo. . the first rough draught 2. butse. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a wisp. mutter. a pit. bAdtr. a bottle. gen. both. hurly-burly. abbution. Bochu. bunch. to dip in liquid (to Gael. On — Du. Here the radical image seems a bubble. ubhau. boitean. Gael. botel foenn. a pit. tumour. Gael. blister. bluster. ' G. bozza. E. mess. a cesspool pass. bSn. turmoil. to give a sounding blow. ON. mess. in the sense of mend the fire. shoes.' to the fiery Csedm. H^cart. bativa. Fl. BOTCH understood). schuhbosser. — Dief. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. you two. stroke. bund. Leg. stem or base. as Fr. a bott . ON. pimple. e. mend. a tinker schuhbiisser. Lat. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. Both. the science or knowledge of plants. noise. whisper. Jtidu. to from the root bot. to rage. bile. gling piece of work. Fyre to botme. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. . the lowest part. the bud of a flower . bozza. stock.— Hal. a. . A bottom depth. patch. to simmer. bundle. bulder. w. Lith. an abyss or bottoniless pit. AS. ixorapudder. Bouteille. bottigUa. corresponding to . ON. . a cess.— . bodem. to put on a patch. Fr. . pocciar. abbu. . a boil or swelling Halma. was called a push. to podge. a depth. baiothsj Sanscr. It. pozzanghera. to stir and mix together. — — A 2. Bret. boiteag. botte. Decorde. Parmesan poccia. boden . — . botm. to botch or patch. buideal.foundation. signify a in OE. a botcher of shoes. a cask. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. Podge. btitse. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. noise. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. bottom. botte. House-bote. beggtaj Goth. It. a bundle of straw or hay. Hal. bdt. Du. botsen. — Bottom. a cobbler. j3i/9os. AS. — — belly-worm. stock. maggots in barley. To Botch. Bottle. — Jidwi. I. buddl. See Boss. a slop. The Gr. whence the name ol pool to podge. bouteille. and ajSvamg. disturbance to . a bottle. botola. G. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Canut. botus. botn. Lith. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a patch patschen. we have Swiss batscken. from the dashing of water. butwo. batschen. On the other hand. boccia. Stalder. ambo. poltern. boute. biissen. * To Bother. a humpback. buddeln. abbi-diwij Slavon. Du. knock. OSax. To confuse with noise. i. to work without order or know. N. to fall : with a sound batsch. — duj Lett. repara- — — See To Bete. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. stump. especially in Gael.of a ball of thread. to mend (kettles. by met. — — . pother. botch. a bump or swelling. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. to make a make a noise. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. to dash about . ing out. Wedu. Prov. puddle. scuohbuzere.

a boss. To Bounce. Webster. a stock. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. nor horn sound. bolder. bounbounejha. to thundering big one hum. gulf. A Langued. a blister. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. and Prov.— — — - 88 BOUGH . bay.— F. Nor a centinel whistle. the hollow of a bay. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. round. to resound. the larger kind of pebbles. pimple Richards bothog. bend. jungen. to knock at the door. Bound.'— Charter of K. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. bullra. boundina. Bowlder. bodina. signifying in nautical coil of rope. bog. Ni gacha cor bondir. Fr. dial. a button. bunsen. or Bow-pot. like bobbin. Bough. Bought. limit. See Bunch. The branch of a tree. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. boujtce. mere. to set bounds. thumping. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. — No i ausiratz parlar. till The dat et bunsede. to fix limits. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. turn. 136. Q. a round body both. ni motz brugir. the smaller ones. Raynouard. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. from bugan. in the absence of actual e. bondir. . To Bound. an occasion. Coxcomb. The W. Ducange. bouton. ing. boss of a buckler. — — leap.' B. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. to knock. of thread. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. a large pebble. See To Bolt. bugt. bugan. Bout. Bunche. Du. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. mcn-bomi. bun. butina. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. carpet. Fr. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. to thunder. So It. strapping. in contrast to klappersten. bumper. Bodinare. signifies a sliort thick mass. volta. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . Boulderstone. Fr. Dan. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. came home with his face all to-bounced. frequently used in the same sense with bound. — — Bight.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. root (see Bottom). Wtb.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata.D. dial. debodinare. by Bujns or Buns. Probably from the Celtic root bon. from volgere. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Mid. . Bret. contusi. botwm. p. iv. march. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. a bouncing apple. has hot. language a * Boulder. ni frestelar. a turn or time. . and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent.>a bout. And the new stools set out. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. From Sw. bone.— Cot. nave of a wheel bothel. bonzen. The Bight of Benin. whence buj7isen. bonna. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bamsen. bottom. bend. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them.. bonndn. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. tnndo. as a bout of fair or foul weather. he fell so that it sounded. as that of E. baby. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. a large stone rounded by the action of water. I assure you. to turn. 2. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. E. see Boss. a boundary stone (men stone). to bow. Sw. a bound. and F. 3. — strike. boh. Alpine Re- — gions.' round and round in similar circles. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to spring. an de dor bunsen. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. jump. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Bough-pot.— Boundary. the bay of Benin. pothel. its kind. winding. Pr. a bud. bons.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. to set out by metes and bounds. the verb bondir in OFr. geration. — Take care my house be handsome. to hum. Halma. Primarily to strike. as a nosegay. Pm. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to spring. To Boult. from AS. Bonny. knock it sounds again. buUersten. AS. Brem. bunda. boriie. to make a loud noise. a blow.

repartee. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. — probably through this latter signification. and that probably from a Celtic root. a for New York. the big end of a club. bogna. Du.which see. biugan. sport. G. drink deep.. buzzing of bees. Fr. Immediately from Fr. the Bourdon. a humming noise. bourdon. pre. bausen. Cot. language of folly or ridicule. to mutter. gurgling. game. a bow. bugna. Sw. Eown. to hum. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. shoulder-blade. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. And there in mourning spend Sw. to tope W. identical with E. to tope. bending of a joint knie-bug. when we speak of. bwa. beygja. burt. Bow. bov.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. Gael. springbiirn. a brook. Dan. brausen. firm. to drink deep. a mill-post. Borden. also the humming or ON. crutch. purlBav. a pot. the fixed. Sw. lance. Burden. address. The meaning of bound. souf. As the Gael. Gael. to bow. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. drunken. borne. schulter-bug. like quaff. kroes. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. G. bdgi. hous^ Man in the Moon. to swell. Spenser in R. a jibe Shaw bururus. brummen. — — — A pare. head Fr. sotich. Gael. a. a go to. a sing-song. spring. curvature. beogan. taunt. ready. the ting of a bell. a corToward the garden. must be referred to the same root. verb bua. and not in the sense of curvature in general. cudgel. Goth. or of an Gael. the burden of a song. bunaiteach. is. are applied to the bow of a ship. pusta. btiga. grumble Sw. bog. steady. Du. w.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. on the whole. explaining Sw. prepared for. set out. Sp. hence musical accompaniment. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Bound. bage. a cup kroesen. g. to indulge in his cups . Burgeon. . and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . belly out. a well. Dan. It is bov. When used alone it . . a drone or dor-bee. a humming noise Macleod. a drone of a bagpipe. i. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. warbling. Du. buys. analogous to Fr. . ruption of bonne. to banter or laugh at. good. Prov. Sc. biegen. that ON. It is remarkable that we find vary. drone of a bagpipe. bommen. whether by sound or gesticulation. bourdon. brunna. Du. bonus. a. Bourd. flagon. Gael. Bounty. an arch. bordon. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. spelling the word iox bound. the shoulder of the vessel. bonitas. Cot. Gael. to hum as a bee. ing. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bue. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. Fr. to drink deep. burn. pared. burlare. ridicule buirte. saufen. bending. ^<7r«i?. sausen. pot. bog. a — — . on. Swiss bausen. bogr. it is probable that the It. buigen. bourde in the same sense. to take one in. A water. bourd. tinton. bordo. Dan. different modification gives ON. potio. Bret. The foregoing derivation seems. bending. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. from spring. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. burdan.bass of a stringed instrument. to take breath. bogha. in Fr. their time -With "wailful tunes. whence buysen. Bourdon. a jibe. pausen. to — Hal. as was for. G. cheat. bugne. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. ready to pike or spear . bound. joke. It. jest. fun of one . bend Sw. to pre2. Fr. to trick. buga. way ba7n. So Sc. It is the participle past buinn. staff. Lat. bogen. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. to draw a deep breath. has also buirleadh. Chaucer in R. burdan. to draw a deep breath. bordone. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Dan. fresh* water. trick. bend. schenkelbug. to bow or incline the . sense durd. Sw. bow to shoot with. . Bourdon. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. A —Cot. purra. of the ON. Comp. . G. bugan. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. epaule du vaisseau. . bug. a from Du. buizen. patesten. AS. buzz. bontS. buyse. puff out. burd. mockery. bagna. — — . burreti. a prop. bugna. to take deep draughts. to tipple. addressed to. . to bulge. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bovne. deceit. to our bous. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. limit.

bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bulne. bulk compared with Sw. a box. busskai. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. globular. bubble. . . . folliculus . a iDubble. wisp of straw . bugyni. PLD. bouge. botulus. biiske. to bubble up. a box Lat. biisse. belly of a cask. buxus. buello. a separate apartment . A . bowel Box. painter's easel. Lat. OE. inclinare se (Kil. a stud. Sw. Bav. buga. a protuberance. a chamber swefnbur. OFr. a box. a. the crop of a bird. peated in Magy. Fr. kupu. and to a coachbox in particular. give in to. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. stream forth bugyogni. the skull or brainpan . hollow place Fr. buis. From the other form are G. Du. boor. beutel. a ball. bugyola. to bow buck. a thing of liquid. to stoop. the bogna. a bubble. Fr. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bhugna. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . crooked. prominence. buchsbaum. boucle. bug. swoUei) Lat. bocka. Dan. mausbollelein. to bend. bollen. Pol. a drop of pullistaa. lump . water pulli. Bret. bol. ON. boxtree pusska. . ON. is applied to a coach-box. A Bulk. ttuJic. biichse. the barrel of a gun. puffy. ken. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. bwra. pocket. . the head. It is more probably from the G.). bolgna. bugyani. ku^o. with inversion of the round.a. belly. bolne. a bubble bolli. Dan. a sack. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. tumour. similar shape. buckelig gehen. trestle. an inclosure. a swelling or rising up. box in both senses. or in e. knob From the former modification we have bolla. hollow wooden case. Sw. . spherical Dan. Du. AS. boil. buk. boss. to guggle. a bud. a pot. the box-tree. koziel. the box-tree and articles made of it G. Bohem. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. a sleeping-room . . signified by forms like Gael. a the other by the loss of the / into ON.D. . a hen-coop . globular body. w. See Crab. bugna. head of a cabbage. bwr. in walking appears in a . AS. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. ON. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. . passing on stud. a ball .) to incline oneself . * Bowels. bowels. See Boil. kupukka. bolle. and on swollen. sausage. bow. a box. bending. cumena-bur. a polla. as in AS. a croft by a house. a box. . . bent. dial. to bend down. utibur. bulb of an onion bolleyield. a round glass or bolg. Sw. . of a wooden ball to play with and — . a hump on the back rossbollen. round bead. boudin. to buckle G. bouzellou. purse. bur. to stoop biickling. bulla in aqua. different position in ODu. a bowl. boss. hill. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. . . Fr. at the e. convexity. as well as the name of a. bolla. Gr. bolla. In like manner the Pol. Du. fyn. . a parlour. . bubble. a bundle. W. to puff up pullakka. iri'iaQ. bog.). ne. polla. zich onder jemand under to him. bucka. globe or spherical body. a knot. biicken.\s. a bubble. spring as water bugya. . or.flask It. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. Sanscr. pusspan. crown of a hat. . a little box . anything globular. Cable. to bulge. . busse. bola. Hal. a wine-can . bhuj. Bret. kupula. bulka. an outhouse AS. ^o«/«.. beuz. guestchamber . pullo. bulla. The word may probably be identical with Fris. bukke. the head. &c. . in both senses. then by the loss of the /. . bulcken. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bulge. bouellou.cup Du. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. a wardrobe . make obeisance. bosso. E. fata-bur. . The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. boel. hollow. Hence. to raise the back boll OHG. ask. bock. G. to swell. tumour . intrenchment. The / a bow. (in pass . honse-bur. Bowl. heafod bolla. budel. See MHO. bogla. round glass phial. blister. gut. as in E. the box-tree It. hiidel. box. Thus we have Esthon. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. kuppelo. to yield to one. a boil. swell. without the and grits. bowl . belly. to puff up.. bol. a bubble Fin. convex. boxtree. bur. a ball. G. . ^o/a. buigen. bugy. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. budello. bog. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. a black pudding. buckel. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. compared with Fr. bow. a buck. Buckle. acsian. . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. to make crooked . Sp.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. Boll. W. Bower. bossola. much plausibility from the figure of a pul.

mud. by the same inversion of J and k. See Brake. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. MHG. merely in our mode of considering them. bracke. compressing. braca. brack. ON. Fr. Hdcart. Bracket.. Swiss Rom. Fr. spaniel. Kil. break. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. Prov. to give a gebrechen. Fr. is a rope holding G. a grown youth Cimbr. A brace probis. Brack. fault . ing from a mixture of salt. youth. brechen. Lat. parallel with OK. an languages. to give a blow with the fists. Swab. to Swiss batschen. jabber. dog Sw. to is derived brestr. . to crack. BOX To Box. wristband. a bubbling dura del mun. pupus. . brostia.. — . . boy. breuque. G. or bracer Cot. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. rakki. Thus brack. AS. A — — . Pm.. . to give a sounding blow defect. La ville ou y avait Brace. rack. — . a girl. . to fall. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. a bog or pass Fr. whelp as. beagle. a braceOFr. Prov. Pl. corruptse. brassard. flaw. odorinsecus. defect. bitch Du. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . the arm. defect Du. to slap. flap.with a noise. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. and F. then from break. dog in general. bruxula. OFr. . braque. On the same principle from the buksteht. matter. A to halt between two derivations. Gael. bracer. brek. breptati. damaged board a ship. salo sive aqua marinS. lalear-eyed Prov. bracon. brakke Bracelet. Cot. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing.D. defect. brechen ihm. — ." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. buah. con. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. One girl. brec. Sp.D. the first instancebya physical tie. brack. to box the ears. in R. bask. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. &c. mud. to burst. . as noticed under Box. by an overflow of sea water. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. want. unmarried man .' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. OE. 91 the Dan. Swiss bub. braco. baske. which sigof straining. brakke grund.— D. strike. taneous talking. variation of babble. rakka. Brackish. babble. brae. Bracelet. foul. bue. dog that hunts by scent. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. . bouibo. mud. dirty. want. braquet. rakke. To Brabble. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. In like manner the It. to want. Prov. It is B. loud smack. bresta. priated to the original sense. to be wanting. Prov. Kil. brague. brae. confining. brasselet. The different meanings of the brageux. filth . cramp-iron holding things together . It. ratch. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. isolated part of the text. acidus. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . ghebreck. braco. bragos. and then Pl. Boy. a boy pupa. and string of his bow. boussole. It. quarrel Bohem. his eyes are failing him). a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Pr. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. from a root brak. — . Brak-goed. a crack. refuse. salsus. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air.. baukscheht. braic. It. V. pube. posh. land batsken. Ptg. bray. brabbelen. s. Fr. land spoilt Kil. brace on and Du. brae. bracco. Du. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. braecke. G. which has many representatives in the other Europe. fault. s. bracha. clay. bube. suppuration. boiste. Rouchi Then as an adj. To fight with the fists. a comworld Rayn. let. Kil. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. breach. ' — A — — — . want. To brace is to draw together. murmur. race. boy bouba. a sounding blow. Sp. Water rendered boubo. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. — . briche. pus. I sal slyng. a box. to smack the hand batschen. Heligoneed. in R. bracil. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . ON. flaw. Brach. See Broker. or defect. to stutter. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Brack. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. brageuses. need. wnzC/J. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. OFr. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. . thwack. breach. armour for the arm. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. fuse. Du. to stammer. a guard to torf. a pair of braces. moral or physical. — — . bou^ba. bracket. wrack. root). the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. disturb. Sp. Lett.puddle. brago. brae.nated by dirt. brek.

an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . or from braie itself. the feathers ON. Fr. brae. is identical with Gael. crack. compressing. to stand upon terms. Sc. about the hawk's fundament. Cot. Dan. and it is very likely that the root brak. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. . brave. and that from e. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. Lat. . To Brag. Primarily to crack. brabhdadh. in order to prevent its catching the wind. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. &c. to make a noise. that will carry no coals. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. See Bray. a carriage for breaking in horses . strength. Hence E. vain glory. to flaunt. breagh. to brail up a sail. boast. Thus Bret. The meanings included under — Bragget. bravache. .^ Sp. splendid. Haldorsen Gael. bushy . . It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brails. brake is. Sp. bully . .. brave. to sprout malt. braggard also valiant. to crack. — Chaucer.aburst. cry. would be to brace. to strut.^Vocab. showy bravery. Hecart. braga. See Brace. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up .hy which this idea is con\eyed. . fine. Brag was then used brisk. subduing. bra!. blusterer. braicli. torture . breyne. to Rouchi brMer. se pavaner. A — Hal. stately. Bret. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). hectoring. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. breghe. stout. noisy ostentation. valiant The head are sumptuous. To Braid. se donner trop de licence. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. is Cot. gorgeous. Walloon bress. breghen. subigere. Lith. From sprouted corn. brayete. bullying. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. confining.. bravacherie. to cord a bale of tie up. Fris. From brayel. brao. make a noise . flaunt in fine clothes . to boast of his own worth. proud. to rattle. The plant y^r«. . gallant (in apparel) also proud. BRAG Piedm. braies. 92 Cot. breach.explosion. braske. fine. power. bragaireachd. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. Brake. brabhdair. beautiful. Bray. crash ON. brave. binding anything together. Faire le brave. gayly dressed. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. to shout. the opposite of which. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. — From W. The meanings of brake are very numerous. brag. bragio. courageous. in numerous dialects. se parer de beaux habits. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. drawers. Cot. Thus we are brought to the OE. the arm. used in the sense of force. braga. bragging. brave. — . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. expensive. boasting. From Fr. spot. Chaucer. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. brazo. empty pride. Turk bazu are used in both senses. to unbrace or let down the breeches. fine. called by our braggard. an iron for holding Zalli. brag. braka.i5nz^. goods. vaunting. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. a noisy talkboasting. fine. Brail. bravo.—— . smart. Rom. slight modificajoining the two legs. braguer. swagger. as the type of exertion and strength. brachittm. vanter une chose. Brake. 2. or by gaudy dress and show. Bret. to swagger. to boast or brag. be noisy . — Equivalent forms are Gael. handsome. To Brail. braszketi. ^Brave. riches. a roisterer. It. be found. w.breeches. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . flaunting.Shepherd's Cal. an inclosure for cattle . gallant. was formed brayele. ative fellow. braegenj Du. gay. swaggerer. Brain. crash. in the sense of the Lat.%. gay. excellent. brag or jet it braguard. dhbrailler. i. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . braw. braga. Langued. brake in the sense of constraining. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. . —Spenser in R. well-dressed. braske. also tion of this was brayeul. Fr. It is certain that the word for arm is. Dan. bragd. AS. braver. Wallachian bratsou. brav. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. brave. — A — . Cot. braka. idle talk. h-avare and Fr. finery. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . bravado j Fr. also insolenter se gerere . also derived Fr. bragging of his own valour. affront. de Vaud.

nemus. in usus braca. to bend or direct a cannon. word. It may be sus- . signifying to sweep. frangere linum. break flax PLD. as well as in the case of the e. where from Esthon. murrokko. subigere. Brake. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. the original meaning of G. In the sense of a thicket. as in the case of horse-breaking. broilium. Fr. braca. quarry from Fin. Gael. or a wood in a marshy place . marsh. brolium. and G. been confounded with the verb break. Lat. — Fl. to brush. brega. to break. brushwood. gebrUche. to fracture.— . de Vaud. in northern climates. a stream. The Fr. In like manner Lat. copse-wood. braka. casser le \va. any thicket of brakes. broor bushy place Hal. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. as in Du. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. braeken. broken fratta. and Lat. el arco. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. to break or fracture. t° moisten. a fen. Dan. braquer un canon. brog or brake. braken. to harrow (Lat. murran. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brcekke. gebroge. game. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. BRAKE to external force. ^raca. brook. a marsh. a spinning-wheel. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. or A A ' . a swampy Mid. gebrUche. for — Due. In ON. Brake. is braukti. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. tris). reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. brambles. to bend a bow. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. Swiss Rom. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. and when once thrown down. —Ovid. flachs brechen. Voc. brook. bruch.D. brog above mentioned. bush. brog. Corrfeze bredgea. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing.' It. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. to head must be bit. breuil. a harrow. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. OFr. brage. to exert force in different ways. Prov. farinam in mortario subigere. brak is a frame in which strip. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses.. cetur. glebas subigere. brego. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. To the same bend a bow. conSo in G. It. e. to distinct. brook. riguus. marsh or swamp. brogille. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. broyer. bush. thicket. —Bracken. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. to break. In the case of the ne. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. referred brake. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Gr. — — . briser. P&. iSpsx". Fr. ing of flax or hemp. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. a brace on board a ship. cover G. it is not surprising that the word has here. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. G. gilum. broillet. thing is brought under control. Dan. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. bregar. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE.bracan. fratto. broil. bushes. bregille. pasture. tnurdma. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. properly braking or subduing them. murtaa. gebroge. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. break of such a kind. to rub. 3. is formed murd. broeck. might come to signify a swamp. a thicket. watered. . to bray in a mortar. as in Sp. to pound. It. or overthrow of trees by the wind. Pl. braecken het vlasch. brake. brage. to knead or mix up in a mortar. We — . Sp.D. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. to The ON. 2. brambles. low wet land bruch. gebiisch. Dan. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. the lever by which the string was drawn up. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. briers. bregar brake. gebroge. have thus Du. brake. to row. a horse's a horse's twitch. breaking in the operation. Fr. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. dial. to stiffen against Taboada). bredza. Biglotton. to subdue.

Fr. braam. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. w. Serv. as places overgrown with brakes or fern.. apiece orbitbrandone. braeme. a heath. from gaggi. brand. brenda. pected that brake. as. from brand. The same form becomes in It. young twig {brom-beisser. bromboli. G. broom. gebroge. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. Bramble. pfriemen. to gripe. a bud. in the sense oi fern. brushwood. heath (Bret. a firebrand. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. . to burn. So Swiss gaggi. ordure . Bran. Brand. the thorn apple or stramonium. snotty . dirt . brugek. berneux. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. a small deri\'ation . That beareth the red hepe. G. Grisons bruch. . as AS. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brenn. G. 1 8. bruk. iii. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Thus in Lat. heath ON. G. constrain. a bridle or bit . is the draff or excrement of the com. Fr. chaff. excrement. brarn. heath. Pl. cack. heath. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. piecemeal brindelles. a shrub from Bret. a burning fragment of wood. ear-wax mud. brejo. may be so called in analogy with Bret. brang. Bret. a shoot or twig. Bav. brog. 2. Dan. Broom. brosst. &c. Brank. sprouts. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. in the same sense. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. breun. brake. brass. a dunghill. broccoli. brouskoad. the branch of a tree. bruch. it glitters — — . branco. brenna. also pfriemkraut. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. broem. Piedm. Brancare. and waste growths. brug). from virga. stink . A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brok. from brug. heath. or with It. . breme j Sw. brin d. Fr. a shrub . The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. from Lat. and E. pfriem in the sense of an awl. titio. bruk. or ling. . and thence a shoot. breanan. It will be found that shrubs. a vine twig Bav. It. Sir Topaz. bro7n. Rouchi bren d'orMe. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. gebriiche. or other plants of a like nature. As ON.D. bren. brandr. broom. prufye. brous. . the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. Bret. young buisson fort epais. Port. . a bud It. restrain. a halter. Diez. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. The naof strain. sedge burkni. See Brush. bruskoad. brom. a briery plot. burning brennen. i. bruk. branche. Gael. brwnt. . that is to say. sawdust. brandiiialil. to brank. thorns and Gen. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . bramble Du. broembel-CBppel. bran. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. AS. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. pfropf. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone.). brem. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . bran. to bridle. brug. brank. Gael. a single plant of heath. A mark made by burning.G. branchia. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. compress. brambles. w. piece of anything. brughera." The bmno a • on . clutch. brin. briars. It. Branch. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brano. brein. Thus we have w. the bull-finch. bracken or fern .D. bit by bit. brenn hesken. nasty. Pl. bushes. hallier. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. a roA. sweet broom. E. . ground full of briers. cabbage sprouts Fl. broust. a shoot. also a marshy low ground or fen . all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. a thick bush.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Fr. virgultum. broussaille. thicket of brambles Cot. bren. brandmurk. bretnel. Russ. what is cast out as worthless. brank. a rod or twig. But we find It. In like hrst. — . a bud. Thornas and bremelas. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. heath. — branca. to -brugen. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Bret. bruch. brin (as It brano). brandello. . Bret. to or iron. from Servian pnit. brancas. &c. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. bronbo. wood composed of twigs. —Ducange.

set on fire. Thus the bound up again. Sw. — ting to confusion. and scold. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. firebrand. brausen. in Marsh. put. make a — . braza. Brangle. to burn. to make display . before the discovery of America in the brandir. shake. Fr. WaUon. G. Manx bransey. from to vociferate. to burn. Ija. to brandle or The It. n. brouir. Hume in brand in ON. crackle. braise. brand. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to confuse. comes from thence. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. crackle. hoisting to the fall. brazeiro. To brase AS. brastlian. brasa. and branchis shaiand D. from used in dyeing cloths. To brand. bra?ier. billet. conbillet. or in stick. glowing embers . a fragment. Fr. Milan. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Guill. to murmur. briiler. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to brangle. brandiller. to roar. to brustle. embraser. all. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du.^Brandle. bransle. The name Brandy.. incendium. brangle or brawl in E. distilled wine.pan of coals. a To Brandish. to dash. — . as again by well as the blade of a sword. Bailey. not. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. Fr. Du. flagrans. Chron. given to the country. bragale\ wood. to distil . Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. a stick. Formerly brandy-wine. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . perplex. morsel. noise. forms brasil. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to brandle. to burn. — . De Barros considers vinum ardens. to French brawl or brangle. plained by Florio. a round dance.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. The tre brangillis. Kil. brasca. E. the colour than hitherto known. stake. splinter. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. bruan. to glisten or flash. bryne. prasseln. bum. brane-wood. to quarrel. V. bresil. bruciare. to blaze. Jam. With top trimbling. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. as Jamieson explains it. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. It. to shake. It. De Goes. to hurl with great force. d'Angl. bransella. brandolare is exbrandish. to shake. bracea. to make sense of a bright red dye. to shog. to rustle. du Roi et laine. branler. Sw. a brusler. became ashes Pied. make an outcry. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. to sound of the Fr. weinbrenner. as Fr. fire-wood. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. brazil. faire fracas. E. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. is bntan. to totter. brasil. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. The corresponding form in Gael. braise. brandiller. — . and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. bragia. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to braze or lute. e. urens. hot Fr. brandigh. to shake The word brisil. bruzi. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. brin. brasca. was in use Fr. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. to Bailey. Fr. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. braser. branler. totter. In the same way the set on fire . branla. brennen. to make shine with shaking. and bruir. N. to and fro in the hand. live coals. brascct. then brandr. Brase. Chron. It. spirit distilled from wine. a roaring fire. ish. G. Bret. Lye. eldibrandr. Fl. Brasil. brus^. Fr. to bicker 2nd. ist. braise or hot coals. AS. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. firewood. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. Gris. so. to solder iron. to crackle . de Don Emanuel in Marsh. a pan of hot coals. brandende wijn. bruire. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Diez.well. brasa. apparently very distinct from each other. gebrannter wein. aqua ardens. 59. Braser. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. the spelling to kindle. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. brush. brustle. bracia. Port. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. So.

a fortification. a lump of flesh. a slabbering-bib. brazen. cob. a lump. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. So also See Brag. P1. brces.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Lorraine bravon. boarding being sbranare. flesh of a leg of pork. bribe de viande. as criailler of crier. It.D. as lattice. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. A land of dance. slibro. to copper. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Swiss bradle. Math. bransle. a contemptuous name for a young child. esbraotier. ^Altieri.— Diez. Bailey. W. &c. Mundart. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. muscular parts of the body. — . any piece. bralle. a rag . Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. a — A from the confused noise.walle — Pr. A. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. a rag. brandillo. bronzare. Cologne broden. brat. KiL Prov. OFr. bronzacchiare. from Sc. See Bray. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. slut. pan- — Rayn. The verb is probably derived from the brase. Brattice. ferruminare. Brawn.brettysing. slakker-bortchen. the calf of the leg. squall. Pm. boutures. Du. le repasser un peu sur la braise. —^Bronze. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. or whether it be from Fr. — Deutsch. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). solder. bronze. bred. breteque. The muscular part of the body.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses.D. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. breyon de kinds of . breyon. to tear piecemeal. a clout. It. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. bratach. strepitus 2. braeye. buttock Sc. to talk at bralle op.propugnaculum. braede. or on the top of a wall. a. braon. bratdn). Brawl. ni autres choses sur Due. . Sc. a cloak. ' A vraale. slibro {neita. a lath. bradlete. Jam. 368. Wall.^ — Sverris Saga. OHG. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. apron. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. braser Fargent. a patch of cloth. Pisana in Mur. cloth. 1224. rag. brat. Betrax of a —^Jam. Dan. braodhlach. Brat. Cot. a Lap. lat'te. borderinge. calf of the leg. bras. Westphal.96 Roquefort. A. I. brailler. braion. a wooden tower.' Hal. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. trul. as a brawling brook. breyon d'chaur. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. a mantle. the buttocks. Many gambes. Fr. tasce. a lump of flesh. berd. coassatio. bran. roar. then a parapet. to carbonado. Brass. bartisan. deblaterare. to braze. fraiche. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a plank or board. bretays). The same correspondence is seen between It. from Fr. 2. noise. bartising. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. Circumeunt cibertesca. Paris. saillies. brett. neita girl). Brave. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England.D. equivalent to the Du. Gael. braiio. frame of laths. bruir. Fr. burning coals. Fr. bmhon for brado7i. brass. to cry. —-Jam. G. to solder. A dispute or squabble. whether contracted from brabble. to shake. is The word — uous name for a woman. baltresca. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. contignatio. bratid calf of the leg. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. a battle-girdle. brdto (ace. branle. luncheon. brettys. brat. It . Kil. 1156. as rashers upon quick burning coals. ON.— Fl. a contempt- banner. braoilich. especially that used in the working of iron . and bronzo. pil. bretesche. frequentative of braire. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. in the first instance of boards. AS. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. to scold . Fris. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. bas morceau de viande brawhng.— Braid. bretesque. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. from branler. ship. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done .— Remade. to Gael. as scrawl from scrabble. at brasa. Sp. Certainly a little girl. discord. OFr. For the application to a^child compare Bret. calf of the leg. bradon. Cot. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Hist. Brangle. bratidone. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. See Brandish. a parapet. Florio. Sup. a loud noise. a rag . Bartizan.

augnabragd. G. to sound very loud and very harshly. bregar. paste or dough. starts crackling up. to have the lineaments of one's ON. ser. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. From the or brack in a wall.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Bailey. turn. breche. braidir. braa. bragd — ON. Cot. brugier. to rumble.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. R. as the voice of the ass. V. twist. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to resemble. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. disturbance. at once. Goth. and fracasously. abraid. kind. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. And with a traid I tumyt me about. Bread. breach. brikan. to bellow. . to rush. instantane. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. is . rangere. bruzir. rogi. . Prov. Fr. brot.ch. Chaucer. fractus j Gr. — . crash. Fr. to smack or the eye. father. a wink. noise . in Jam. I'll live and die a maid. Wal.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Bret. braidar. to bray in a mortar. resound . 7 . to N. V. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. ON. yell. To rub or grind down Sp. vapna-brak. D. to tear Bret. Fin. will. W. to t. to bray like an ass.' To Bray. Ppvxia. to cry out. to rub Fr. to crash. to crash. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to braid. to break. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. upbraid. the miller's dog. appearance Hal. bregar. Lat. riAprjyvvfu. and to signify the fracture itself. iU-favouredly — in Jam.ear rog. on. verb to break. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. AS. . roar. ing. bru. to cry out. braa. 2. as OE.g. brechen. rustle. to scold. Dunbar braessem. braea. gestus. breuan. brage. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. broyer. a rag f . to work up in a mortar. R. to braid. E. crash. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. a . make a disturbance. The ON. — — — explained motus loud noise.fracas. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to break. Prov. Then is simply. yell. Bread. bray.^ Fr. mos. ^p&xia. to roar. bruire. broad. ybrayid. bradar. bragd is also applied nets. to braid acquires the sense of bend. F. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. &c. to the seijauntes. at a braid. to The cup was uncoverid. imitate or resemble one. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. braire. V. Chaucer. father. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. at braga eftir euium. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. brak. as the notion of turning crack. fish. fragor. rattle. cyprinus latus. crackle . to resemble him. i. To Break. Swiss bratschig. &c.. to roar or bellow. &c. the sound — of arms. bregda. Du. a brake for hemp or flax. to snatch. a breach Cot. bratsche. e. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. paxog. to bawl. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. The Lat. a brack. k. G. a crash. or cry out loudly . and frangere.y. ON. to knead. — koa. soft . baiyl. roar. Then. &c. to start. explaining a very obscure application of the E. which has given much trouble to commentators. a mill. weave The ON. regi. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to braid the hair. to break Fr. plait. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. D. bragr. Beryn. with or without a final d. See Brake. The same He might don us both a villany. to roar as the sea. Gr. to resemble. to break. 145. crepo and E. a rent. brame. to cry Port. to pretend. OE. Breach. braid. brice. relation is seen between Lat. Cat. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. the sword was out break. And at a braid he gun it bende. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. brak. or wound. and make a hideous noise. Q. brand. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. D.

from AS. to brew. rubbish. fitzen. braux.britschen. G. Swiss brdtsch. instead of being derived from 'La. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid.98 borst. the dry spines of furze broken off. a horse's twitch. braucn. Compare OE. Originally probably the word signified steam. a smack. trembling. from ligare. Goth. brinisa. brew. brumtnen. Bret. G. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. a crum. bris. Du. a cool wind. bra. Bruise. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. —Briss. breath. brdtschen. brisd. — . Biglotton. breson. braca. a to lay fly-flap. are related to Prov. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. windy withal. subligaculum. — See Broth. to shiver for cold. braies. OFr. /esses. brugga. to buzz. Bret. brist. Hence the Lat. Breast. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. bruzun. of straining. Prov. PI. and other rubbish dibris./ssus. a gadfly. brijselen. AS. E. bretilles. as by the Sc. the soler. to crush to break. Swiss Rom. brimme. with It. brijsen. brok. so AS. a twitch for a horse. fastening . also to chill and shiver with cold. braich. Brize. trusts. Dan. grillare. i5r(Z^. einem de britze geven. to smack. b}-as. Briss and buttons. brasiuiii. chillness or shivering. bris de charbon. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. de bridse geveii. to break. — . Bracha. broza. as the G. brodel. brezza. to be misty and cold. but more probably the E. To Brew. of trees. Gl. binding. Gael. bandage or truss for a rupture. Isidore and Tatian. sheep's droppings bruss. briosa. Du. coaldust. brcekur j It. malt. to fry Then from a Gl.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. de Vaud. and brought beneath between the legs. Piedm. — — strument for smacking. braga. an odour. bridsen. G. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. Dev. briosa. brciz. Hume in Jam. braguier. properly to crackle. of E. peitschen. their stings draw . bris. zare. met de bridse slaan. crush. little bits of wood Berri briser. Piedm. brisoler. to fry . — And blood. to roast. an into shiver. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. and E.D. may be from the wurh fesser. . E. Fr. briig. then to broil. Lat. a cramp-iron for holding things together. griller. bremse. bratscher. The Breech (Prov. simmering. brison. as in the case of twitter. malt. to brew. dial. brasiare. brezzare.'— Gl. Du. siibligar. forms. remains of leaves. brasser. Breeze. Breeches. a crum Du. to burst. from brace. brire. to resound. braies. bark Fr. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. G. applied to shivering. Du. fail. morsel. singing bone. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to simmer. brustia. Gl. bresilles. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Fr. braca. brimsa. See Brick. braie. QNtsterviald) pritschen. Gael. sprouted corn. to murmur. broden. Sw. . bre- I'os qui bresole. murmur—Vocab. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. burst. brosame. braia J OFr. bryi^ga. cloven. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. in Schilter. Prov. brissle. breost. to bray.). Breath. w. So ON. forms analogous to E. braciarc. bruc. braga. break. body brostia. breeze. simmer. brcEth. to whip. breme. chilly. or the blow itself.vare. to hum. It. breinse. xyligogio castigare. We bragezj on. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Lat. to bind. grill. to crackle. the bust. as. as. the breech or buttocks. to rattle (as hail). — Halma. Fr. broil. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. . The Teutonic verbs. Breeze.t. to feize or feaze. murmur. a cold and windy mist or frost . clout for a child. . term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. vapour. rubbish. &c. bracecs . — Brist. G^nev. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brise. noise. point to G. briiz. a girdle. orts. Swiss AS. Russ. brusc. brodem. bruzir. britze. to breech. AS. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. representing the sound of a blow. grillen. switch. bragues. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. Fris. briosat'. broiiwen. a box. Rom. polenta. brossi!. brache. briste. as commonly explained. bruise. brezling. brisciare. brut. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. . scent. corresponding to G. drawers. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . are in like manner ' . Dtyden. Breeze. G.

httle bit. Ihre. to Isrew. bro. to circulate. bulicame.groom. AS. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Bridal. a quoit of stone. arf-ol. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Du. daughheath. brood. betony brulicame. boiling up brocoliere. brigade. from bit. heath. a rogue. malt.gfiugga. brughiera. So in The Prov. sugga. to pave. and that from It. a heath brughera. peculiar. G^n^v. bryd-gutna. bridge. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Brewis. Due. bricge j G. bruk. A — A — . to boil. . bruyere. Fl. brice. So It. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Bridle. bryd-eale. bribe de pain. . bitill. a briole. Ducange. the newly. bricou. barren land priodas. AS. fragment. a crum. any jot or crum. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. It. The origin of the word is the w. son. consort with. . division of an army. pavement. ap. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. to break to pieces bricalio. brigata. malt. two-masted vessel. Walach. Fr. to boil. betonica. braut. funeral. — . but to a paved road. bably contracted from brigantine. Gael. a Bride. to tlie brico. brere.privatus. to meet together. ment of anything broken. lipdZu}. to appropriate. pavement Lith. Priodi. Brigade. or brizo. brittil. bride. .rough with brambles and bushes. then the marriage itself. brau. Bridge. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. buckler J ON. BRIGADE dead. a married man or woman Lat. Cot. bro. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. Fr. berwedd. fit. feast. guma. to press in. appropriate. to press. — — — — — — . from Bret. a fragment. troop. bidsel. bruith. which however is undoubtedly from brace. . ibrukkti. bruk. married. In the patois of briccia. brieden. a bride Brig. bygga. bretonica. breve or brevis. Pol. Neumann. fastningar-ol. w. berwi. a lump of bread.It. gf2o. from Bridegroom. stone-bridge bnikkoti. brilt. masted vessel. a brig or priodor. a rogue . thick appropriated. jetty. to brew. has briguer. The Sw. brygga. Grisons bruch. a man. and ODu. ' — . briiths. beaten way Dan. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. pier. sponsa. Brier. Goth. a cheat. brug. E. E. especially to a letter or command. Diez. to pave brukkti. hlafes brice. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. to beg one's bread. .bergantino. a married man guma. . nurus G. to prepare. pavement brolegge. a boiling. buskins. bread. It — is Kil. ON. a heath. and berweddu. owned also propriate. A bribe is A — — arval. OSw. in the sense of OSw. company. Pro(merch=:maid). the equivalent of to the dial. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w.pritil . E. a wedding priod-fab. conjux. fervere. collect bits of food. briicke. Fr. broken victuals. Sp. bride. brar. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. from the last 99 of which. Applied ous words derived from break. from the Normans. a bit. bridelj OHG. Bribe. Hdcart. Brick. E. it is applied to the letter to OE. Gl. one's ovin. Diefenbach com. brukkas. brA. Bridal. Gael. . as so. is still used in this sense. privus. Rouchi brife. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. OHG. fraoch. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . brutg. AS. brakes of high-grown ferns. of burial. briw. frayer.Fr. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. — . AS. a fragment.. to break. twopares Lat. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. with transposition of the r. bara briw. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Hence OE. a lump of bread. crew. feast of espousals. brigantine. birbone. corresponding or letter. brahi. ter-in-law. It. bruarium. Lang. served (Patois de Bray). a little king's writs. to rub. birbante. the Fr. Brief. Brique. a bride. to boil. the marriage si in brigata. brasser. piece of burnt clay. graf-ol. AS. bo. broken. Trovarfor bride-ale. Mid. a sow. . a lump of bread briber. a crum. In E. jipaaaiii. but probably Bricoteau. whence berw. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. as. Flor. to stamp. a beggar. W. a proprietor. AS. bribour. priod. imprint. broosekens. a bush. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. bruskr and buskr. briwo. See Broth.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. Lat. Dan. groom (mab=:son). priod-ferch. If the foregoing were not so clear. ' . grug. In the G. Thom. remarkable that the Gr. brocaly. brique de pain. broken bread.

there are many armour. In Fin. the bench-notes resounded. clangour. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. and to associate with them. clear. from hall. Wilista. transparent. Brigata. pugna. cange has 'Veles. 312. kilistua. Bav. beorht. Schmeller. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. rover either by sea or land. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. See Brake. loo BRIGAND lor. twinkling. Du. to glamr. Xa/iTTii). kii:'a. to rob. to resound. and hence be explained glampi. the grew high. . and ner me hit iherde. 1654. the gleeman's song. — Probably then to strive. It. squamma . bright bearhtm. strife. brebrigare. to contend with another. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. bragen.dorem clarum reflecto. and led it away. Owl and beorhtian. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other.— . may play the pirate or thief at sea. a glittering.shine. labour. glitter. briegen. clear sound. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. AS. Gr. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. hell. brigare. to bend a bow It. splendour. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . riis ' — Chron. Swab. briga. to strive for. wilella. Bright. It. Brilliant. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. A strepere. —Capgrave. bryhtm. — brigante. tumult. and secondly. to ring. A. From ON.clare ^tinniens. that of Fr. In the same way to strive is. willata. combat. also called briganders. Beorktode bene sweg. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. biartr. representing a sudden noise. to reservavit. glbram. to rove. — Brigantine. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. The E. shriek with laughter. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . outcry. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. The Ir. rixa. \oice. schiteren. splendens . — brigante. brcEhtin. and the E. inde squammatus.' in Due. brdgen. to piracy.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Goth. — — . seems to be to exert force gar el area. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to glitter. with respect either to sound or colour. Due. clang. schateren. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. — A A . to sound.' The passage from the sense of a light. tinkle. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. Lat. Brigand.D. noise. in the first instance. 1351. — Due. moment. to shine. So G. to shift for with care. himself to serve men of merit. tuilahtaa. clear. etincelle. clarus. The primary meaning of Sp. a pirate. secondarily. tinnitum clarum movco. to cry. glamm. — Briganbriga. is easily understood. clear. in the sense of a robber. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. speech. bracht. . dine. lay was sung. sound. Heo — song That AS. They or brigantini. and. and. brigan. glir. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. to shine. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass .' torum. brigandare. at a later period. splcnornd de brigandine. brigant. OHG. malandrini. tion. necessary business. clare lucens. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. a noise. Adelung. dine. a small light pinnace pro. a sound. show the origin of Lat. briga.pracht. then. to cry 'Schmid OE. XafXTTpoQ. Mid. brak.glampa. tinnitus. to make a loud noise. manifest ON. Gall. on his — own account. jurgia. Flor.' The sense of strife or combat express. brawl. braid. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. a brigantine. in later times a robber or highway-man. brigare. It. and diligence. bregar. It. bairhts. Florio.Lat. praht. splendour. glamra. bray. a spark. — Beowulf. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It.

bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. brommen. Sw. burning. grdzil. brinfire. brummen. greDiet. an apron. to crackle. identical with passion. greedily to covet Cot. the sow is brimming. .' d'etre marie . briller (related to each other as OFr. reecho. sparkle. to fret . as in Langued. bremmen. Sc. surface of the ocean. Brim. bramire. Streaked. brandr and Fr. fire. Thus Lat. as of meat in broiling . griller.— BRIM . rugire (cervorum. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to . also to reflect. border. the verbs Flor. to twinkle. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. grullo. A . ardere desiderio. In the same way Sw. brim Magy. a borDu. Langtoft. finds the Fr. the lap or bosom. gresiller. a rod. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. hence the bosom. to storm.) brimi. fringe (Lat. — Rim. to creak. and 1. Fl. To Brim. kajata. breme. from brandr. s. brumft. broiled. Swiss Rom.— Brinded. to glitter . the heat of animals. brant. the eye-brow. Wtb. komista. brillare. brdnnsten. to glitter distance . AS. bremmen. clangor tinniens. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). Kil. Closely connected is OE. brezil. parched. to make a crackling noise. to shine. to shine. brim. rym^. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. Hence with an initial s. bramar. dial. s. ON. griller d'impatience. brissle. Tutschek. a stick. brama. AS. Sc. brennistein. brow of a hill. small gravel. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. cross-barred in colour. pMiller. which seems identical with rim. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp.' Elyot in Way. whether of desire or anger. — . duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. bramer. to quaver with the voice. brimmen. to shake. sprainged. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. a border. 154. The E. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. os qui bresole. It. 754. vigorHal. — — — . to crackle. It. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to shimmer. coloured in stripes. fierce. Rugere. margin.). perent. a streak. (poet. or violent action. edge Pol. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. komottaa. leonum). to glitter. on. FJ. to sound deep or hollow. striped or streaked. chime). and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Tresiller. bray as an ass bramire. Brem. griller). border. bryn. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. to shine. It. breziller. Brimstone. Dief. The identity of ON. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. kommata. voux. Said of swine when in heat. have then in Fr. is used of raging. sonitum edere bremen. Supp. bramar. briller. grisser. kimina. kimmaltaa. Lith. to wish or covet. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. and corresponding to these. brummen : de soge brummet. burning stone. crackle . brisoler. the singing of Sodom — — . G. to sparkle. gresiller. barm-cloth or barmskin. rut. the edge. — g. breziller.its vent in cries and roaring. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. broil . fringe . frequently interchange. brame. originally the lap folding over the breast. that the original meaning of the Sc. brunft. grisler. — — So Fr. the heat of animals. rugire. vattubryn. of the eye. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. as is the case also with Pl. noise made by meat in broiling. border. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. beam. whence bilbil-goda (literally. barmr. the meaning is transL' amour. bremas. to parch. Brindled. to make bilbil). excited. ling noise and a sparkling light. brame. brastlian. as well as bl and gl. The expression is now confined to the sow. spraing. furious. Du. briller. Rayn. breme. kimista. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. barm. lap of a garment . Dan. ter. 1 1 64.preni. glit. brullo. 1. tience. bry7ie.D. to broil. bar. ous. to creak. E. from bringe. Fr. to utter cries. bresoler (Gloss. . to resound. earnestly . kiimottaa. In Fr. to burn. brand-krossottr. ON. shine. ring.ioTiviS acutus. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. glisten. with an initial br instead of gr. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. brmdottr. der. . for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. The meaning of the Fr. ON. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. fimbria) . to roar. Subo. lap. to roar. post. to long for a thing. crackle. : ' — bone). a long. Prov. lip of a vessel.

222. broccata. to stick. flames. Du. fierce. Hence ribrezzare. and. spricka. to thrust. to spur. Russ. broccare. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. It. setting the hair on end.. Bristle. Brocade.D. brissko). NE. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. ruffling. suddenly angry. Then as the effect of shivering. bristly . brog. bruskett. bryne. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Fr. birstle. Brisket. sticking up .rcendij'i. Dan. Hal. brittle. a bit . the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Sp. Boh. lively. brime. a button broche. quick. brusk. brijn (Kil. expression. Brickie. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. Du. from break. briocho. a brooch. — — . In the N. brisk in taste. rebrousser. to shoot. Mid. brioshko. Zeuss.). . Brisk. startling. ' breast. Bret. . bruckle. bryde. Port. briota. . a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. ' . metaphorically. braidsj ON. brusco. to stab Gael. to burn. a belly. brim (poet. to broil. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). a stormy brimsea . a stitch brocher. Alfr. smart taste. coli. bricho (with the diminutives. trembling. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. as. to roar. breidr. to bud. .Lat. a clasp. Commonly explained as from Fr. brocco. Fr. very salt brimi. prick with Sw. broca. sprocco.'— Vita'abbatum S. Antiq. to broach a business. flame. reburrus. borzos (struppig). stitch. man's throat. i. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. brocher. is called a birssy day. Gl. — in Due. Brittle. b. as unripe fruits. as. It. a projecting tooth It. brcit. brandello. to break. p. setting the hair on end compare It. sour. shoot. breaking out into growth.' Nat. rash. has under It. brocciare. brodden. against the grain . a crum. form bris. brindelles de balai. cK) the . brin. a morsel . to break. of E. humorous. a rod or twig. ON. briser. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. a morsel. hot-tempered. thick — A elastic hair. the brisket or . to set it a going. a rebours. e. broche. borstel. like the Broad. See To Brim. bringe traced through the brano. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. saulmeure. to spur. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. broca. Swiss to stand out . harsh vin brusque. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. a brad or tack. Prov. Bret. Pectusculum. a slip or sprig of an herb . crabbed. emotions which produce it. Formerly written brotil. Walach. a fragment. bruched (Fr. borzen. bros. Prov. Da. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer.procio. and Sc. See Brand. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. from AS. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. brezza. a shoot or sprig. . craw of a bird. to put one in a rage . breast. brust. sprout. Lat. rebursiis. Brooch. byrst. brissle. the surf. sprouts. — A . Sc. as a noun. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli.. a deluge. brim. bros. brickie. roar of the sea saltr. brich. to stitch. britar. bringe. strong itself. birssy. Sw. britar. It. fragile. — . G. — bryme. chest. sharp. a bud. brocchus. to crack. to break. It.g. a spit. Breeze been connected with the Sc. brisciare. Sc. brimhliod. of astonishment. Fr. Palsgr. from brande. to goad. a peg sbrocco. brote. to turn up the point of anything. brittle. birse. and forms on. Cot. brezzare. Prov. birsle. angry. to birstle. brddj Goth. an awl. borst. or the full • .). to spit. wine of a sharp. brimme. whence may be explained the Sc. a bud. 'V^. Ptg. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to begin upon it. eager. brocar. The Pl. briota. Salte sand is called brimsand. fiscbryne. spur. Fr. brim. Liquamen vel garum. Gr. rude. Fris. brytan. Russ. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. the surf. are used in the sense of brittle. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. fantas'* tical. Abroacli. Brine. britchet. to shiver for Sold or for fear. bresk. to set up one's birse. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. . Bohem. or — . See Spread. brockle. Compare also E. apt to break. as. to scorch. Fr. /3pE^m. is to erect the hair. ribrezzoso. Brym. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. brusque. brot. a skewer. bronchus. birs. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Berri. and hence. brocco. the twigs of a besom. Fr. grim. a cold and windy mist or frost. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. breaking of the waves brim sior. brichet. bringue. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. broc. aculeus.

broice. Icnotty. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. brooked. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. to crackle. ToBroider. Surrey in R. briefh. q. to parch or broil. Compare also AS. or salted fish on coals. brasiller. spots. a brecJi. to On the other hand the Sp. initial . b?-od. piebald . to crackle. fundamental origin. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. border. brocart.— B. parched. Cot. sting. froco. sparks E. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. with Sc. Ptg. 103 embroidered. Broker. broc. a prick. broiled. broil. broud. scorch. W. Sc. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brindled. a freckle. a brouhaha. to knots or loops. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. v. — Fl. onbryrdan. brucilare. brocco. tufted ornaments. from the white. stump. Hal. — The proper sense is that of Fr. age was termed a pricket. the shoot of corn. . ciare. a b?-ustolare. speckled. thread. storms. broglio. or roast on the braise. — Gower in It. bustling. to burn. breard. rinj'. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. badger . parch. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. brasiller. brod. to crackle. The ON. frecSee Brawl.sound. hart of two years old. streaked. whence broccare. a peg. to scorch. borprick. bawling. Gael. brocach. So from Pol. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. frocadura. brouFr. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. to streaked or speckled in the face. broighlich. and AS. Sc. kled breac. brychau. to instigate. The Bret. freckled. to crackle as a shell in the fire. margin. silkes-borda. spotted. to burn. dar seems derived from borde. brasbrasciuolare. A badger. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. broder. confound. It. a brim. parti-coloured. bordar. brodio. It of br the Fr. bj'oil. It. bmsciare. houx. embroidery. a border. or snag. brasolare. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. a point. broccuto. rustle. to boss. to broil. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. motes. to darn. or It. Bret. to crackle. Grisons brascla. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. Dan. brouda. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. trouble. — . bramowanie. Florio. point to an origin in Bret. a confused streaked face of the animal. prasseln. to prick. Fr. bram. bordo. has grisser. Sp. brastlian. To roast upon hot coals. Thus brod. Gael. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. brusuole. border ornamented with silk. B. brizen. — brissle. . tumult broighleach. hurly-burlies. brych. Cot. noise. precisely analogous to the Sc. brucach. Fr. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). grislement. of pointing out their latent defects. parti-coloured. and w. AS. gresiller. From direct imitation of Brock. brullare. forming to jumble. a freckle. A fried or boiled steaks). birsle. briz. E. Contracted from Fr.. Compare G. brerd. and bord or bred. ornamented with a raised pile. the line of development has been something different. braird. prod. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. brustle. a To Broil. broil. to embroider. bruler. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. Here to ornament with needle-work. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. gold and silver. R.. a badger. an edge. Ihre has guU-bord. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. trouble. to embroider. broc. brusler. blusters. knobby . broukit. creak. a flake of snow sion. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. a quarrel. Fr. grullo. speckled. or glowing coals broged. tori shows that. a flock or Gael. to spur. a border ornamented with gold.tumultuous. a mole. a fallingThe sense has been out. shuffle. broccato was used to signify stuff . here. noisy. — — . atoms . Brocket. brasuole. embroidering. agree in being the extremity of a thing. carbonado. to stud broccoso.

appointed to classify goods according to their quality. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. wraken. the spawn of fishes. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. dirty. hot. Adelung. wreak. Pl. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. which E. refuse. stain. brwd. brokas. sort. In those countries the term braker. G. brokers' goods. brydio. abbronzanchiare. merchandises de rebut G. In the . Teutonic class : Du. Pl. brak. bronze. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. but from the primary sense of the It. . Bronzare. Du. to sort goods . brack-gut. from makel. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. sunburnt. To blame mens ware. bronze. G. OFr.— Lib. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. Grisons brinzla. bring eggs and spawn into active life. spittle . Prov. find fault with. Alb. The use sunburn. filth. bredan. to blame. pan metal. inspection. a chicken. refuse brakovat. brasa. Fr. to hatch G. to pick and choose. to emit sparks. couratier. on. broen. whence the modern courtier. w.— — . Sp. bronce. trumpery. Russ. brae. to hatch. racher. brut. Sc.D. brack. See Wreak. abject. Tooke's Catherine. to roast on the embers. term was correcfo^ir. inspect. ON. to spit . brak. slaae vrag paa. broiid. a cough Hal. tussis. to scorch. to nourish. . ordure. blur. ODu. racaille. bronze. reject. to sit on eggs. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object.D. Per manus et old worthless horse. If to vomit .— Breed. an operation performed over hot coals. — a spark. in the sense of rejection. make out. — Fl. warm. criticise (makeln). has exactly the force of G. brumo. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. to be hot. 396. See Brackish. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. brasa. mud. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. vrage. : ' . — broeden. burning. whnake. to throw blame upon. refuse goods. brid. fermenting. to pick. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. raca. nounce unsound. embers. embers to brund. to sparkle. glowing coals. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brot. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. To correct an exercise is to Lib. Abbronzare. 38. wrack-good. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. screatio Junfus . try . progeny of birds. It may be compared with It. analogous to Bohem. and to reject the damaged and unsound. find fault with. e.D. hrak. brass does to Sp. correctarius. brechen. cherish. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. spittle. hraki. For the same reason the Kiittner. Du. hot. a breach or flaw. refuse Fr. It. raquer. an outcast or rejected sheep. refuse. faulty. bracker. S. dial. to copper. The Langued. keep warm. want. . brack-gut (Sanders). Lat. bridde. brieden. to hatch. mediationem quorundam J. to . G. et A.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. brakyne. to pro- to reject . fault censure. corrector. damaged. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. brands. to garble. as. a makeln. embers. find fault — — — fuse matter. to sort brakovanie. a brood . • . phlegm. in which sense the OHG. Bronze. rejected. This word shows the same relation to It. On • tliis principle the G. bronzo. brunds. brokoti. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. — point out the faults. braken. brod. Dan. wrak. . to be wanting. to criticise. Alb.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. Pro v. cast Lith. vile. Pl. damaged. to — garble. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. goods damaged by sea-water. designation is indkler. try out. vile. to reject. braeck goed. a broker. and fishes . Kil. . Bret. matter of blame weak place. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. insects. buy and sell by commission. bric-a-brac. sbrinzlar. See Broth. refuse wares. i. rejection Pol. Fl. tan. to brew. the young of any animal . briiten. an . brod. cracker. refuse brakowad. to braze. a fault. or brascla. Jam. — . lack. selection. with. Brood. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei.D. and as an adj. . brackefi. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. from break. fish-spawn broden.

broza. branches. Celtic. the colour of things burnt. bruddeln. Du. laissent Domunculum. bank. augen-braune. sap. . chen. fur Broom. to burn. bruscosd quam de arabili. circuindedit cum familia. broc.brons. a spring. edge. Serv. broem bark. bruich. brouches. bryn. border. Pl. ale . heath. brost. broud. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. to sprout. broeye. or broken up . Manx broie. iVlanx broogh." Serv. eye-lid. on. eye-lash . . To digest. sprot. brushbroccoli. Wtb. spirit. broit. G. . to use. to boil bruithe. a little . Bret. wood . Commonly Teutonic. breg. brous. buds. G. The origin is a re. fabric consists. bhratrj Zend. .. brawdj Slavon. bros. Due. pour boiling water over. brucan. brusmalt. Bret. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. brudi. Fr. juice of briars. — ' . mettle. brew . plants composed of twigs. a derived from the boards. to boil. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. dialects is very different. protecting the eye. broccola. brad. a shrub broust. It. brosses. OFr. sordes seu strigmata young branch. braew. to boil. Gr. surface of Broth. Dan. Prov. brink. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. Ppim. Cot.braubiti. from ripa. brouic. . eye-brow. brouskaol. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. broden. breh. noise. meal. bntdien. bratrj Lat. ceales briw. brauwe. to use. Fr. braussa. eat. &c. But the Walach. . Bohem. bank. Gael. . Sanscr. 'Lzt. juice of meat. &c. bor. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Mid. and Slavonic families. . a hill. Sc. briar. to browse. See Bramble. pith. seethe. the bubbling or springing up of water. brouet. w. bruno. simmer from the murmuring AS. to spring . w. It. heath. a caldron. boiled . eminence . brushbrothas) gives the OE. a bud brous-koad. A — . shoots. It is Brother. Du. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . It. Roquef. Prov. waves. on. forms appear related to the Ir. a hill. brocco. low The AS. Tam de terrS. juniper. and also border. bruitheati. a hut or cottage It. broi. brogues. Bav. breg.D. Brow. bud. Sp. broieii. braun. face.D. brozia. bruach. eye-brow. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. brosses. as small-pox. OHG. frater. sprouts . bruth. a sprig. broca. . to Pl. cia. &c. Gris. bordeau. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. pfriemkraut. bank. Brothel. infusion the barley bree. and Sc. to bubble up with noise. — exiit et heath. frucius. OHG. hot. vigour. Sp. to use bruks. brwd. borde. a confused noise of winds. Gael. a river. bruith. awl-plant. G. brun. borda. brodo. brass. in which brinnan. broth the ocean Sw. has briw. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. — . as Fr. to boil. properly boiling water briihen.' Due. sproc. . thairj w. &c. shoot. brotar. to murmur. warmth ch'an. heat explaining the Prov. brennen. Gael. . bushes. broth is sometimes used . infusion. BROOK brook w. strength. broth. thick bush brousta. Kil. bordel. G. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. breg. Bohem. brabruach. Fr. brouter. a source Gael. who is steaming with sweat. Catalan brossa. to border. to bear patiently. briihe. sprout. a little house or cottage of timber. edge. Browse. signifying twigs. shrub with leafless pointed edging. brstiti. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. bruceti. brus. shore. Fr. G. break out brewet. verge. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. briu. margin. broo. a . riviera. cabbage water. Bohem. Russ. brothas.) . useful G. to roar. thicket. Russ. rage. bree. to shoot. surDu. or shoot. broth Brown. brdtaj Gael. Lat. brue . heat. from Goth. pottage. as rhododendrons. Fr. brmi. kail brose. of which the variety of forms. — . brukjan. signifying low wet land (Brem. Here we find throughout the Romance. brau. The AS. cabbage soup . eye-lid. bruithim. braces. brosst. AS. browys. to scald.spross. Gael.brink. grow brossa. . . and It. bros. riviere. Ger. 105 Brook. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. . brost. bank. steam from heated bodies. sodden. sprocco. brio. eye-brow. brlgh. Limousin broudi. brow. strength Ir. shrubs. sense the Sc. shore . a bud. may be connected with Russ. bregh. of plants broust. Pol. dumetum. broth brothaire. perhaps burnt coloilr. a sprout. The softening down of the consonant bud.— Overyssel Almanack. brd. bruich. a bruth. house of ill fame. hovel. brst. bryii. t— Cot. frui. vigour. b7-un. brouser. bruc. . brotar. or bushes and scrubby growths. to browse. enjoy Goth. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. AS. brodem. spuma. brpuster. brewis. (for brodem). eye-brow. brov. hut. grow into a bush. broth. . pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. sprout. rerum decoctarum. bryn. brow of a hill. a shore.

brustia. to crush. tremely. bruscolo. abroncar. briiis (in the pi. In E. bruscolo. to break. It. Pr. fragments. or shoot. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. desbrisar.). Text Soc. It. ON. mg Cat. brosst. The same relation holds good between G. remnants of hay or fodder. as It. Beryn. A. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. burs. brist. a bush of hair. Wicliff. brosse. brMt. and Piedm. wood composed OE. The Bav. briser. a shrub composed of small twigs . a blow. brusca. it schall be al Sw. dust. See next article. to brush. brico or brizo. AS. Prov. to strike the foot against an obstacle. And that best is. On the other hand. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. quasi twigs. Brunt. borste. a mote. — those signifying a sprig. Bav. brugir. of twigs. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. . Allit. to butt. ling or heath for brushes. wool-card. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. fasx . small heath whereof head-brushes are made. brosst. borste. 134. borst. wool-card. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. crum bit . G. a flax comb. a bristle. bruscia.). a bud. bris. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. a bristle. brunt. Pm. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. That in all haste he wouli. a bud or sprout Bret. brossa. brit. crush. Gael. coal See Breeze. rubbish.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. insultus. Lang. brise. NE. bruis (sing. Fr. Lang. splinters. bushy ground. Bruit. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. dust. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. G. insilio. . and . Gael. break. dust. bruise exOFr. brust. Bruise. —Chaucer. bruiser. brustia. twig. It. shivers. bricalio. an enmy. borste. a brush. brossa. brousso. into a multitude of points. rods. but on whom it schall to brisen him. brisd. brous. Pr. — a bush. to make a rumbling. flax-comb brossettes. brizeto. briketo. Pr. britar. brusg. a brush . and actually come in collision. heath. 201. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. dust. brysan. Hall in R. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. a tuft of heath . borste. bush. appearin Goth. a brush Swiss bruske. brus. 174. E. . Alexander. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. and also Brush. bruc. brist j Port. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. or sodenly comyn' dust.— Palsgr. and sighid therewithal. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Sw. burt. a brush . The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. brusco. K. bud. OFr. bruito. brista) or breaking out . sordes. E. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. bris. p.— — i. Fr. — Fr. — OE. to break. bris. bruzir. field. to break to bits . seems named from burst(on. a crum. brikan. broustia. broken. broust. bross. to make brusshes on. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. . a rumbling. Gael. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . rubbish. Pm. rubbish. Broach.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde.). Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. Port. brusc (Diet. Cot. a horse-brush. OE. bruskr. Sw. fescue . brist. The Lat. britar. biirste. Piedm. twig. bross. and It. Castr. * Brunt. orts. Cot. . brosse. a brush . bruyere. brusca. Fr. Prov. bris. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brik. Pr. Brush. broza. a briser. Palsgr. wool-card. bruire. Brunt of a daunger. a brush. borste. B?-usske. broza. Gael. also a head-brush. Bret. ca7-bo>i. Fl. Sp. shock. E. a brush . to break or burst. bruit. . to cleanse. . chips. brist. detergere . brusco. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. quisquilise. a brush. a noise. Piedm. Diez. a little brizal. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. biirste. brossar. escousse. Prov. to stumble. brustid. irruo. effort. and in the second place a besoiB. Fr. brisar. a — — (Agea) said. shoot brouskoad. modification of the same root which gives the E. Fr. brous. tuft of grass or hay. —Fabyan. Prov. brushwood. brottcher. Poems. blow burcar. To brush then would be to dust. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede.

The male goat. bifbel. mokry. of wind. a hole. a push. tuft. to wet Pol. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. pokka7na. bub.biiken j Svi. hump. to soak. — . and uninhabited places in the West Dan. pup. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. molle. The cipally on the Spaniards. A . from which the ing the bleating of a goat. de la Floride. and as a verb. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. plied in the W. tap .to allow a free current of air. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. to filter. watery bud. is 1. bubbola. The term bocan is still ap. . bubauti. bubBuck. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. and exercised their cruelties prin. . and the bunch. Bubble. soft It. to which in their language they call bou. Esthon. also applied Una. faire la lessive.boukaat. to soften. a steep for flax. Sp. moist. Etym. Fr. . to strain. a ashes. lye. See Dupe. bucata. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). Diet. byge. bubseti. Sc. thunder gently . knock. to murmur. a bubble. blast or strike with the forehead. and then to other wild tumour Lith. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. the linen at buck. March 28. the upper for coifee. tender. Bret. The word was very generally Buccanier. It.tare. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. to soak foul linen before washing. Illust. pukkata. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. blister. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. bokni. buborek. buck-ashes. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. bouk. . But the analogy nih-e (Hist. from colar. Fr. to butt or jurr Dan. boh. ac. mieknad. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. because bucare does not in Marsh). bub. to Gael. buck-ashes. Formerly. bublati.derivation has been much discussed. bwch. soft. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. bukke. — . BUBBLE bruschetta. Bohem. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. to bubble. very generally designated by the same puk. set of pirates in the spread. boc. Gael. maban and baban. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. Bret. mote. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. News. bucaIndies. was called in Fr. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog.steep or soak. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. to butt. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. I.' Palsgr. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. From an imita. caned' Hence those who established them. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. w. to bump as a bittern. Pol. buchen. soft. it is beuchen. buquer.buchen. rap. wood. erweichen. the first wheal. 17th century. The natives of Florida. buerj It.D. soft. a fescue. Bohem. w. — — ' A : ' ' . the lower soak in lye. as G.wet Lat. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. and Fr. boil animals. Magy. Fin. to soak. top. drying of produce. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. hump. says Laudon. The name. or mok. It. tender. The place of such a 2.-wtt miekki. to buck. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Pref A.byka. to soften . designation of a knob. Fr. It. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . open lath-work. boucaner. to soften. to a place used for the mouillir. In G. buquer. when soap was tion is commonly taken. to stick. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. a bubble. bucking. was called bucking the linen. hog dressed whole). This bubette. a. at a door. Dan. different form. . Sp. a bubble . boc. soft . moczyd. bduclien. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. mollire. not so plentiful a commodity. Magy. . bucquer. does not hold. bube. lye. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. But see Bristle. 1586. a knock word. a to the male deer. bugd. Pol. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Cot. bugada. . colada. or projecTo Buck. bubiti. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. . who resorted to the islands beichen. to butt. 1857. a. bouc. from weich. bog-aske. as a buck rabbit. in which the flesh dish.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael.lessiver. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce.— .

bolgia. a short thick man. a dumpy gin. * Buckle. a shoot. butz. bucolicus. It termination is lost. above mentioned. botzen. Bucolic. bub. . the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. of bouge. A buckle or fastening for botch.' Hal. Bav. protuberance.. macero. to graft or bud trees. imbuere. loud Cot.) as to soak. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. seen in Hesse botz. built.stumpy man. Lat. boucaran. budge. boccula. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. Prov. bouge. So on. call. like a bean. Buck-bean. weich. OFr. bukke-blad. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. call bo. knob dwfr yn boglynu. — — . bolgetta. Fr. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. Pol. in the beginning of to pierce holes. swelling. bo. — . probably from the notion of bubbling. boqueranmis. Du. bucherame./a. a wallet. bulb. Cot. NE. potz. stir. call. ornamental stud. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bouclier. bougette. a small shallow and open tub. dim. G. . to boss or swell out G. pwtio. excrescence. Sw.t-le!L{ * Bud. bouk is a pail and with the dim. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. bul. of a surface. Sp. don't a baby). a little coffer or turgidus. buachazlle. explaining Fr. a bump. boucle. Fr. buckel. knock. male or botzen. a pustule bout. — — . . Dan. skins pushit'. bouger. bulla. to budge. and of the Lat. weich. . bunch. ble. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. Du. a trough). to word. belonging to the calling of the chen. whom it is still much in use. a budget. boucle. set of a plant in bulk. to thrust. butzen. bog and G. bogla. The knob or projection formN. need. a boss. Bus. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Hardly identical with Fr. sboge. with a central boss. of bac. to stir. . a ring. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. butze. butzen (Du. bullion. as in Fr. . It. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. a servant. Bret. bunch . bloca. also a leather tuft . Russ. Fr. pote. Pied. bucket Fl.n. scion. gjeit-klauv. brobrocchiere. stud. fur. It. .pastoral nations of Slavonic race. pulga. soft.goa.' Boccaccio. Mid. prick in a target. wallet. to bud or bocla. pulga. agreeing with Gael. It. boss of a shield. from bugr. dinted. w. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. trunk of wood covered with leather.. a fold ceilio. Dan. bugnir. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. and the reference to It. boulj. to 'soak. a tuft.. a buclder or shield budge. boucle. jSouKoXiKog. to move. Hence quel. Mid. Bret. weichen. ein. to butt. bode.poot. boglyn. a bud. pwt o Fr. to pen cattle. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. with which it was ornamented. convexity. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. a pail or flowers. Buckler. a boss. to boil. Prov. clasp of a book. bulga. turgere buczendig. ' . butzen. bocla. Fr. K. crack. * Bud. bloquier. This expression boglire. bollire. don't stir from hence. The entire train of thought is bucket. . bouljein. boiling. bougette. The Fr. The word is a ddyn. a budget. words is converted into b.chissima. ON. ' . to poke. bouprobably identical with inok. put. boss.anything short of its kind.— . butzen K. where the G. bedde.r//'. * Bucket. a . boaLat. boucler. thrust. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. a navel.may probably be explained by N. bug. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. II I'a feru desor I'escu. become bochen. bouton. a shield. — . to un bout d'homme. boach. the root of the Slavonic words gran. bouter. bump. bulka.Lat. push forwards.pode.' And this sacrament bus have dial. butt . buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. ' . a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Fr. Gael. a bubble three thyngis. Bav. bdden. a leathern sack. The dressed fur of lambs. goat's hoof. knob .) . motus creber.). lump. the word w ' — . It. W. a buckle or protuberance.stuff. is doubtless fallacious. swelling. is to shrivel up. Wtb. bulais daqui. A water-plant with leaves and gille. . Port. botzen. were To Budge. clump. In Lat. Fr. a cowherd. bod. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. Prov. no wheel bogeilio. bloca. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. to swell. to line with fur. bod. blow. no business to do that. a stump buckle up. To thrusting part of a long body. the radical image seems to be a set plants. OHG. inboachen. cattle. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. child. noise . having a boss. dint . Behoves. Budget. Fr. and weichen. . hump.' Schm. rump of fowls . or male of to boil . from Gr. water message. Swab. case of leather . mani. great pouch. stroke. with let. rabodS. Budge. w. from bo. bucherare. bud butzen. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. a boy. See Bulk. a curl.

bugle. A — Bug. bouffer. to marre often tasting it . baubau. bauwi. the buffe. blurt or puff with one's mouth. duff^ dull. or hath been Cot. buffet. Sc. site The two — — iii. Fr. buffer. a goblin). word other cases. dausinti. rebuff.' perfield. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Fr. God's boast seemed feare children. dausa. Pl. a side-board. botffon. G. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. a hollow sound. boman. buff leather. yar^aa. The cry made to excite terror is then used. — thence it has been transferred in E. made by a person. breath. bw! It. bumann. buffets. a clap. Thus buffet would a tapster. Romola.' La Crusca. stupid. a jester. a buffle or a bugle. buffa. 265. Buffalo. Buff. le reste emplissant d'eau. buffle. to give benti. bugs. Lat. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor.— Buflae. a hobgoblin. to excite terror in Macleod. deadened.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Magy. him but Boyd iugges.D. &c. for this purpose is very widely spread. to strike face to represent the unknown. to beat. buffetto. bau ! children. ' They rether puffed at him. either alone or with various terminations. W. to bellow . Che scaccia 1' Ombre. buffet. wine may The verb in taverns. bolgia. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. a block-headed noddy. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Buff. Fr. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. Fl. Cot. Fr. mumming. tastes. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Esthon. also the skin or heck of a buffe. to blow souffleU. The children were playing in an oppocomer. Buffeter. — — — Buffet. by metaphor. as Diez remarks. air. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. It. btifetarius. — La Crusca. Lat. made to —Bugbear. caupo. to jest or sport. bubiti. sounds. een duffen toon. bufogni. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. Gael. as emblematically making light of an object. as wine that hath taken wind. E. buMagy. bolgetta. Bufetarium. boo. dial. Swiss baui. to give a as of a blow. mingled with water. a cuff or buffet. popo. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. also a G. Sc. puff. and in Fr. Cot. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . buffle-headed. to frighten . leathern bucket. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both .BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. buffare. things in Jam. Mid. human. often covering his E. pulse . It. to a representation of his voice. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. to signify an indefinite object of terror. a dull BUG From 109 — A . bugbear. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. Lith. while in Sp. to puff. Teet-bo. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bobaow. cuff . scarecrow . bubus. bwg. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. bw. buffen. soufflet. dull sound. Fr. Hence the E. buffet. It. . —Boggart. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. from It. or wild ox. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. often blown upon. bufHe. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run.D. bukow Ikow. colour. bouffer. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. — Z. bubach. as from Lith. of colours. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. A puff with — Fl. wauwau. buffalo. bo ! an interj. It. buffare. buivol. confused. buffeteur. w.D. bubaRuss. the place whence the wine was drawn. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. to blow. — Bogle. Buffoon. a puff. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to rePl. a In . Pl./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . From bulga. to puff. bufogni. A blow. a budget. to blow . buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. Lith. senses. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Limousin bobal. From buff! of terror. from souffler. smells .—Buffet. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. thus be translated to tap. a bugbear. — retailing buffeter buffetier. The use of the exclamation children. a skin. tabernarius.

protuberant. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. scarecrow . Swiss ing. See The name terror). — boogg. Chaucer. a. a buffalo. bok. high-sounding words. bwg and E. Bug as a lord. a bug-bear. Sw. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. a bug-bear. b'dgni. swollen. beugler. earwig bau da grascha. . Parolone. bugbear. oxen. bugle. a rabme. also a baco-baco. baco. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. Mid. bold. Lesachthal. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. xiv. big. according to Coles. Manx boa. Schmidt. Swiss booggen. The final guttural of W. a proud overbearing man pujat'. the Devil. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. saucy. Russ. is the dim. to bellow. disgust. to take fright. to take fright.. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. mask ' . language any kind of insect. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. the black a maggot. Illyr. 1551. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. bogil bo (e. fierce. Fl. a goblin. to bellow. to take bug. troll. provincially an insect. a misshapen person. boo. especially to beetles or winged insects. bauginti. The w.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bugar. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. : no BUG . Grisons bau. threatening.. BUGLE Tentennino. bukati. — — ' . threatening. larva (a bug-bear. superbire. bug dung-beetle.— . fette. bogle. and bugle. — — terror. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Lap.Fr. vermin. bau (Pureiglia. Mundart. pujalo. bug. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Fl. tumble-bug. Magy. buggabod). bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. booggen. Lith. insect. bogk. paws the ground . and in Lat. i. E. and is Deutsch. bwgar. bug-bear. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Big. bogil. quos what produces dread or disgust. W. the buggaboo w. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. Hence bugle-horn. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. 3. Lett. Same as buffle. gad. banian boube. Cheval de trombugti. a bugbear for children. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. ghost. hert. boeuf sauvage. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. (Spurrell). rose-bug. a boogg.Lat. as Buffalo. It. given in Chaucer. buffle. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. . blustering. — — . roo. an object of terror. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. of bugabo was given. The name of bug is — .loud noise. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Serv. an insect. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. to roar Aasen. then a horn for drinking. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . bugler. — . and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. pugaf. An ornament of female dress condread. biignt. pugalo. bogk. bug-bear. bukashka.3uhtii&:. . affright. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Bdronie. Magy. Deut. fear. Bogge. terrifying ward. also a bug-bear. buculus. Swelling. of pipes sewn on. * 2. a silk-worm. bug-bear. thus connected with bug. poggl. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. coco. Sp. well as the terrific object. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. high. Bug. monster. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. . A similar applica. I. roarHal. is very common. the word is lin) bbgge. long. il brutto Demonio. used in the same sense. shepe and gootes. Grose. with more or less modification represents bau. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. forSc. buba. boa-peep. bwgwl. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. proud. to frighten scarecrow. iv. any disgusting animal. bobal. insect. as an object of dread. also a bug-bear. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. tion of the beetle tribe. It. to creeping things. Stalder bog. Hal. and in child's Magy. Bugle. great or bug words. w. bbgni. and a boggarty ing. dial. a beetle. bucula. Bible. 2. 493. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. worm. to origin in the expression bugs words.

Here stand behind this bulk. domicilium. bole. knob. Muratori. belly. compare Da. at riufa bulkann. bulwis. Hence e. Mister. pimple. lump. bulg. Lett. . to swell. Pr. to raise a habitation.— . a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. belly. belly Cat. . mass. bulbe. Bourser. Lith. inhabit. stuffed bag. . Lith. on. chest. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. . or cargo of a ship. bulbus. van loock. bubble. biilken. to undo the cargo. bol. G. and put it home. as well as is very variable. a stage or scaffold. it again. of E. . a heap. Lat. acervus. bulked or bumped out. bulkaf. Bulch. Melancholy. cultivate. ON. boss of shield. ' . ' . . In the representation of natural sounds. MHG. bullka. skin of an animal. in vessel. Lat. belly. boa. belly van de kerche. . tumeo. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. blister. to puff up bolginn. to belly out. to gather. balg. bouge. bauen.' Festus. a protuberance. a lump or mass. sedes. Gr.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. jnake bulch. beuck. (3oX|8oc. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. . a leather sack or budget Fr. buhe. bolg. Othello. bulge or bilge. Pm. principal portion. were a habitation. bo. w. bolnyn. tumidus.pulks. bulle. bulk or capacity of anything. skin bag. bolgan. bellows builgean. projection. a. herd^ swarm pulkd.' Palsgr. . bag. bolle. blister. Palco. a globe. buk. Hal. hull of a ship. boulge. — — . knob. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. . hollow. bauch. to bol. the potato G. knobby. pouch builgeadh.). a bubble Gael. Jno. balcone. a dint in a metal . Bulge.' Anat. a round bulky body bwlgan. womb. puff. trunk. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. swell. crowd. and N. bladder. the carcase. a tuberous or bulbous root . blister Manx bolg. See Bulk. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. blow. bulne. cumulus. Bav. byli. — . Dan. lump.d. to bubble up. bwlg. thorax buick. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. dial. husk. The Walach. Boss^. bugue. a leathern sack or portmanteau. vulva. hold or bilge of a ship. bol. belgr. the womb. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. straight will he 2. bolso.' Cot. ball. as it was merly written in English to bylle. swell. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. I. bulk is a partition of boards. G. globule bolg-lhuingey. swollen OE. It. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. He found a country fellow dead drunk. knot in thread. wallet. whence bylja. bulka. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. to spring. gebolgen. turgeo bolnyd. boss of a buckler. balg. To Build. unevenness Sw. trunk of the body. to throw out a convexity. swell. or bear out as a full purse. bunch or projection. m um Placentiae. bubble {palgan tiisge. . to break bulk. a bubble. A — ' — Bulk. With these must probably be classed ON. . a. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. Sp. or feminine termination gives Bav. Ptg. bouk. bubble. See bollekeii next article. — Bulb. . the contents of the hold. in Sc. bulgen. balco. to blow. the body Du. bale. bua. PoXj3a. balgs. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. trunk. bol. See how this tode bolneth. as water beginning to boil bolg. or. Dan. villa. . in bulk. and bulbukd. leather sack. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. a water-bubble). a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. the capacity or burden of a ship. buc. or of what is shaped like a bubble. a prominence. anything prominent. snorting on a bulk. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. be protuberant. boss. bulki. bolgia. OSw. pocket. belly.' Fl. bolgetta. bug. — . mass. the head of an onion. Gr. bolle. of an inflated skin. formed a farm. bukr. a straw corn-vessel. The addition of a dim. body. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). swollen. bubble. to swell. G. . outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. belgja. . The radical sense is shown in Russ. body of a ship . bulk. bed of a river. to build. Bulk. Bolke or hepe.'— Cot. bulge or convex part of a cask. head . skin flayed whole. bulbe. bulcke. From till. Kil. has bulbuk. OSw. Pm. ON. nave or body of the church van 't schip. ne. ^ — . pod ON. Mandeville. bubbling up. — — . 1388. habitaculum. pulkas. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. a bulb Du. the position of liquids in the word In English. belly Sw. the belly. ' . body of an animal. bulgen. boss. Pr. . a bunch. bolgna. For the latter sense ' — My . belly. bilge. to bubble up Pol. — — .

Gael. a tadpole. to seal. a bul-begger. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. ON. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. eth and frighteth. a beam or rafter. coarse. Eullrusli. pollach. penbwl. bubble. pwl. BuUiou. — Fl. bellow. in the sense of base metal. biitzibau. ba.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. Lith. to emboss . billon. but is more probably iden- palchetto. a noisy violent fellow. Fr. — A tition in a ship. a bull. bullocks. stud. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. witches. a cow.Fris. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. stamped money. bulk of a thing. a seal. The wild plum. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. is called a ball. stamp. a seal. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. bolos Fr. 3. BulUiead.. a bull Swiss bullen. the seal affixed to the document. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. spirits. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Scot's Deso. bole or trunk of a tree. a hornet.. bullern. bwlas. hhint. leraures nocturni nigri.D. a hobgoblin. bullus. from the noise. urchens. Bully. as It. it may be observed that a bullet in E. of boule. as a mill-dam or the like. to bubble.D. G. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. sloes. bulle. See Bowl. bolla. It. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. b2iggaboo. and thence terror. boss or stud. I. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. bulderen. Cot. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. embossed work. Gold or silver uncoined.. as in E. Pl. beams or boards. also of the tadpole or young frog. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bullebak. — — Bull. baula. bollos de relieve. from the Lat. 2. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. . tition of deals instead of a wall. Terriculamentum. bulloi. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bollar. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. stud. dial. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bellocier. large of its kind. the matrix or die . i. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Bullet. however. of the ox kind. bolli. This word is used in several senses. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. a stud. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. round glass phial. to boil. bulla. polten. a bowl. signifying roaring. Du. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. stupid . a framework of balks.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. w. on the contrary. G. from Fr. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. large. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . /SouWivu. dim. poll-cheannach. to tical with Sw. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. poltern. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. bal. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Du. of Witchcr. to bellow. It. &c. w. bulke. Bullace. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. Du. bwbach.Gr. Bullfrog. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. assito. Bret. bietebau. as the ornanails. a hobgoblin.' do not go by the dangerous water. bullos. A papal rescript. G.. also a parFl. which may probably be the origin of the name. W. bulk. a blockhead. blister. bugbear. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. billoti in Fr. as geting. A lace tree. any great-headed or studded nail. a wasp. The bullfrog. and vellon in Sp. in N. is of a class with Pl. from the use of the equivalent terms. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. it is boulet de canon. Dan. many to protuberant objects. bouillon. lumpheaded . Pm. boillon. from Lat. bauli. The final element tergeist. whence Mod. a little fish nearly all head. a scare-bug. scarecrow. blunt. lumpish. Du. whence bullire. See Billet. The male W. brass-headed nail . buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. poli-cheannan. balgeting. a bulox polos. 2. bwla.'— ' Palsgr. Fr. bouillon. bulla. boss. And The word bullerbak.lle de fusil. G. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. boulct.D. a tadpole . bolli. bollon. elves. Bullbeggar. N. thick. any embossed work. pimple. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. from baula. Sp.

c. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. a stage. a noisy blustering fellow. 1687).' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Kil. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. John). furious man.d. bottn.' for the purpose of exchange.' Again. noise. botm. or work of defence. Hal. boisterous fellow. G.' Stat.' ' mettre au billon. to drum Lat. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. agrees with e.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. minari verbulderen. Fris.' agger. Fr. to terrify by noise and clamour.. violent. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. From the notion of a humming. — Bump. Sw. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. — Bumto . Philip le Bel in Due. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. resonare. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. bomtnen. un faux brave. Thus ' ble. baluarte. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. propugnaculum. 4 Hen. 'lega. debacchari. hum. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. The Sw. intonare. Du. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. but now is the central part of the town. Bum-bailiff. For bottom. — — plate d'argent. buller-bas. provides. sound. Kil. clamour. Fris. biihne. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. buller-jaan (bully. a floor. a boisterous.. BULLY with which coins were stamped. The Stat. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. — bombam?nen. ierd-beame. ground. The 27 Ed. To bully is to bluster. legaggio di metallo. the soil. 10. argentum and silver. bol-werck. A. buller-bas. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. primarily the ramparts of a town.the ramparts. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. The cry of the bittern. up was termed monnaie de billon. III. boulevard.' reals of standard currency. Bully-rock. 9 E. on the other hand. 14. boene. perturbare saevis dictis. ierd-boeyme.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . To Bum. The decried coin. is bullion — A — buller. block-werck. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of .D. ^Bully-rook. 1305. a blunderhead. bolderen. poltem. 2. a hectoring. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. buene. vallum. by corruption boulevart. Bailey. It. or a humblebee. D. ON. — Boom. Hence — . polterer. To bum. is called bumping or bells. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. 2. ^i^/«. Du. St. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. and porter au billon. c. Hence bom and ban. blunder-buss. IIL st. bombilare. bottom. blaterare. from boden.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made.D. 2. violent overbearing person. IV. To bum. Du. Etym. scaffold. G.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. beat a — Hal. Miege in Hal. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. a. AS. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. then in general a rampart. G. Kiittner. to . provides. to make a noise . Bully. bustle. buller-brook. to make a droning Du. blunder-buss. bastion. &c. bodem. bommele. c. bulderen. honunele. a bumble-. to dun. buller-bak. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. droning. Bum.

hay stubble . blain. Du. bmike. bonnock. A clumsy. to beat. a knob. a heap or cluster. awkward clown. cluster.— Pr. round mass of anything. Li cake. bull.. trunk. bulse.! . ner. bu<rnone. a Sp. from bunsen. should probably be a short tail. bunga. root. . — — de dor bunsen. strike E. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. bignet. Dunchyn or bunchyn. tundo.— Bunnion. bumsen. large. lungeous. forms. a round mass . — stalk . He fult dat et bunsede. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Bunch. dial. Dan. and signifies consequently a mass. to thump. a lump on the foot bunny.). a heap OSw. 1. Thus e. gibber. E. a. bunch— Hal. a pumpion or gourd. to beat. knob or heap. a purse .D. a pocket Sw. to strike so as to give a dull sound. pompon. . Fr. w. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. boi7ieog. a large . Hence E. bunny. H. bunt. Related on the one side to Pl. . Suffolk bonnka. Bunch. Roding. buns. Pl. bumtel. — round fruit. Holland and Flanders. any round knob or bunch. an old stump of a horse. a bump. stem or base. Hal. applied to young persons. strapping. . seems to unite Gael. stubble Manx bun. bottom. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. Bumboat. lump. Forby. Hal. Pm. bunka. clown. poumpi. bune or boon. as in other cases. bonuach. — — Bun. Bung^. bungersome. a bunch Magy. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bmidt. a bowl P1. Dan. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him.' he fell with a bang. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. —Bunny. E. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. . a bud. the Pr. pumpurras. passes Sw. bongie. any round knob or bunch. bunnion. and related with ON. a heap. a bag or sack. . calamus. abrupt manbuns-wise. . pompette. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. bunan. a wallet. Pr. bunga. a dried hemp-stalk. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Mrs Baker. a bunch. Pm. awkward. botn. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. a dry No . Probably for bun-boot. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a button. truss E. a knob. inconsiderately. stock. See Bounce. .' Bun. bannock. Again. a swelling. lenten loaves. protuberance. E. hdk passing and E. Kyx or bunne. Lang. Bump. Pl. bundle. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. one ever saw the word in that shape. bulto. knochen. Bunk. or to the mass by which it is given. pwmp. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. pumpa. — — Bun. See Boss. pwmpl.. Hal. from knock) It. ! — knocking. a swelling from a blow. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). Ir. Pm. to ' . Probably from bump. bunke. bans. bamgetroffen. bunkc. Sc. bunki. — — — — ' — knock. Gael. mto Sp. bottom bun feoir. to swell out E. to . to bang. Hal. bum-boot. explaining E. are dim. bun eich. to bang down. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. bugnone. binge. dial. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. a tail (Macleod). banke. bonge. bung. . bolsa. bugno. a hemp-stalk. bugno. . stock. .pummel. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. a boil (punkos bot. Bums it's hit.S. butt end. . the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Sc. w.' Palsgr. a heap. Bony. a person employed to dun one for a debt. pwmpio. stump. the tail of a hare.D. a. To bam. Radically identical with Dan. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bump. Gael. il me pousse. bunsen.-^Fl. A Du. OSw. See Bunch. a into Dan. a knock. a boil or blain. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. root. Then. clumsy. bulscha. bunken. noise. stubble of beans. . bun with ON. Daal bu7iseti. bon. throw down with a bang. . whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. as we have seen E. also for taking a pilot to a ship. He buncheth me and beateth me. gibbus. &c. callus.^Cot. while bulch was traced through Gris.P.D. poumpido. Fl.D. a rabbit. especially girls. a rabbit. banga. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bottom. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Bunewand. a knob . Bang sen. Moor. foundation w. so the form btmk. bun. Bumsen. bugnet. knuckles. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a boss Lith. a hump. S. to . It. to knock . Bumpkin. nor would it concern the public if he did. a knotty stick) Sw. — Marine Diet. bund. stalk. to bang ON. Manx bonkan. stump. a heap Wall. or grete knobbe. Bun. Fr. loaves or lumps made of fine meal.

The Magy. a boye. — — . So Du. especially in wood. boil or bubble up. 202. shove . that the primitive meaning of shackle . buret. to hum. knock. bummle. bommen. the float of an bundle. to work at carpentry bangan. to gingle. on. to kick. whence in bure. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. racket. was formerly pronounced buro. Lat. would be the earliest float for an anchor. To bunt. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. clumsy performance. OFr. — — To Bungle. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bourion. bounta. an anchor buoy. . the stopper of a cask). Prov. modem bummle. to knock. Sw. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. a botch. bote. stiimpeln. dial. the loose open grow big about or gross. to cobble. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. the bung of a barrel Lim. G. bondir. bondeau. generally known as the material of which bud. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to float. bundel. B. boei. coassatio et Du. of a song. klempern. bury. stilmpern. or tuft. punishments for prisoners. Banff. to push with the head del. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail.' Festus in Diez. Kil. banghagr. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bunta. russet. dial. See Borel. or used as a receptacle for papers. a sort of helmet. Sw. or putting forth of a vine. A Dan. to gingle. clogs. knocking. buove. bundle. burion. bouche.— . stocks or such OSw. To Bunt. fascis. Sp. tinker . OG. the noise of drums. Fr. ghebundte. . contignatio. bunsen. a water bubble made by rain. to Somerset is to sift. bongun. to stop. Bung. from beran. loosed from bonds. borboUar. guggle as water. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to push. to hum. anchor or of a net boyar. . Fr. dicimus rufum. bongani. See Bun. bag to catch the wind. Burganet. bangla. reddish brown. whence bunting. Bunt. bond. bundt. tapp (whence tceppa. bourgeon. The Italian buio. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. to in to stop the hole. a drum . Bung of a tonne or Lith. banga. So in Pol. to hum. and the Sw. G. halm-tapp. a cork. Du. AS. p. to botch. dark. — . hence the name would seem to have been boundica. AS.punt. burboloti. Biu'geon. byrthen. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bondon. buie. in is Fr. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. B. bouchon. ho-tapp. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. is originally a wisp or bunch . and E. Russ. a wisp of hay or straw. Fl. bou^e. do a thing bunglingly. to stop. buret. dark grey bura. E. Muratori. N. bondel-loos. rumble as the bowels. Sp. klimpem. with the head. bondelj bundell. borgonota. bove. bonde. bui. to strum on an instrument. See Bourdon. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Sp. the middle part of it. Sw. Bret. Prov. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. shackles. and bomme. Burble. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . to stnmi on an instrument. bimge. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind.D. to work ineffectually. racket . properly a Burgundian helmet. to pype. A load. bang. to bungle. also a piinple in the face. Burden. OFr. sprig. bon. boya. noise. and van t' vat. to resound. la Borgonota. bindini. biirde. The word is flags are made. gyves. The Fr. to push ghebondte. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. byndel. Cot. and now more Bailey. to bud forth. are from bouscfie. Fr. A bubble. Burden. Hal. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to shove.Fris. ' — work . bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. boj. Burly. The belly or hollow of a sail. Fr. unskilful working. to bolt meal. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. . bangla. . Sp. to knock. It. The stopper for the hole in a boia. a bunch. Bunting. the young cloth used for sifting flour. fetters. bourguignote. See Barbarous. a bungler. knocking. working in wood (especially with an axe). a bunch Burbulas. To burgeon. Rietz. to bear. Bunny. Cat. bungande. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. tap. Pl. — Bureau. Compare G. tinkle. bolting-cloth. colligatio. driving in the bung. and Du. boucher. Johansen. Bundle. on. * Buoy. — btiruii. however. bang. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. To do anything awk- wardly. Palsgr. bonde. a bung. bourjon.

From Fr. brusler being a faulty spelling. bunch. — . burgensis. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. It.). repartee . sbornoi. Swiss Rom. bud or sprout forth. Dief. a wine skin. the word seems Pm. borr. brasa. tumentum. OE. Bav. with Dan. embraser. the er is a dresser of cloth. boiirre. brynsten. which has given much trouble to etymologists. burlare. boure. Supp. swelling borr-shuil. ^ttsa. bears. robber. knob. compared with G. spring-water bumach. burren. a bubble. bruzir. In the manu. must be explained on the same principle from G. bururus.. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. brinna. to grind on a whetstone. brunir. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. angular . brase.). singe or scorch with fire. Pr. big. Todd. to roar. G. The primary origin of the word. jest of.. Burglar. brunnr. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. as the / in purl. to set on fire. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. has also borr.' a jibe. like straw or small . Probably a modifica. — . the J in OFr. G. a bud. So also Sw. to surge. to roar. a well. ^Notk. to roar. ii6 BURGESS Gael. 122. brinii. Fl. with little iron nippers called burling irons. to polish. from Lat. — — . j. A legal term from the Lat. Bouffer. Lang.. brinnen or Also ein roar. an edge. Probably.— . crackle wood in burning Hal. the flocks. to fiy. to hum. See Burr..' Cot. to ridicule. bremmen. to roar (as lions. a prominent eye borracka. sicut sound. fires up. The Gael. to roar. It. bourglairs. Pren7ien. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. barrel. as of suggests. Limousin bourdo. Lang. and OG. a whetstone. to swell with pride. a spring a robber. become big and proud. Burgh. a jest. The in.sharpen. Burn. . ' rugiens. warbling. ample of polishing metal. a bubble to spring as water. a bladder. burly. to bud . burn. brustolare. tion of the root which gave the OE. N. pur (see Burgeon). is termed burling. Burler. It.bryna.or bubbling up. to swell oneself out as birds borras. to swell. Bestiary. brustle. broil. Burgess. .ireui£r:e. brausen. BURNISH i5«r/. to burn. and the Burnish. watery. to burgen or wax big. to make a So from Fin. Walach. — — . OE. ridicule. — — . to give an edge to. a lie. water. it of the knots.. lerre. boura. to ridicule. bruse. leo Fin. i5«r4 biiirte. a purling hiwe brennen. Nat. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. from the roaring sound of flame. grancelli. to Gael. Burly. Goth.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. ends of thread. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Fr. brunna.j'own. Swiss Rom. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. as Diefenbach bud. is an Thus G. burgen. See under Bore. brim or edge of anything. swell up or strout out. to burn. See Berough. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. thence. &c.— Pr. brook. to have acquired the sense of polishing. lorra. Burgher. like. a jest. a gurgling ^. borni. In the same way ON. 56. Prov. borrelen. Compare also Piedm. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. a blaze. brimmen. toast. to polish helmets. brunnen. burgi latro. purra. brima. Schm. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. and the Burin. Sw. explaining Sp. ends of thread. to tell lies. Fl. surge or dashing of the sea . From the same root E. he rustle. brAler. brandung. Hence Bridel. A — — . burgeois. roguing beggars. pressa puret. like the wind in trees. explaining the E. to bourda. Gael. tahkoa. protuberance. borujon. Antiq. Burlesque. tahko. sidiary element. as in cousteau. brun.Ps. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. . de Vaud. a margin. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. bourd. dial. laer. bourou. Bav. taunt. an &c. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. Burryn. language of folly or ridicule. — Han to bruser op. to sharpen. purrata. OFr. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to polish. a knob. de Vaud. bururus. A burl. is connected with brim. to rub. a fountain. to murmur. condemnentur morti. fire. briis^. bouril. ON. abourioner. borracka. to bouronna. Fr. and Dan. to puff up borr^ . Fr. the roaring surge of the — — — . blow. joking. See Burgeon. to To Bum. It is probable indeed that Fr. flocks. to puff. born. Pm. mockery. OFr. to sharpen on a whetstone. to roar 5. schleiffen. Bret. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. in Schm. sea. E. from bryii. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. occupying much space. Castrais bourril. burle of cloth. to effervesce. purling. buirleadh.). Cot. . Sp. Sw.

borsa.' The same word with burgh. coo. -Grisons bulscha.Lat. to bury . briser. Hal. verbergen. brisdeach. shuffling. buscha. byrgan. its own protection. bourrer. Sw. the — — castle or fortress. brit. Port. straw. foretell great storms at 3. With a slightly different ghen. bourse. . — Clare. Sw. barza. g. as for the protection of a child's head.. brokenharpstringed-like cattle.— . leather. It. byrgels. burra. Cot.' Harris in Todd. G. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. when they spring So in W. bourlet. &c.' edge grew weak. cover. and. borra. hair. chips or anything else Fl. makes the disbursements of the college. A rabbit burmotion. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. from whence we pass through Sp. ultimately resting on the Gael. See Bulge. a rabbit burrow. a purse. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. ptcrren.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. also ' any such trash as chaff. AS. i5(7&a. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. shelter. I. E. brittle. a harness or collar maker) . ' ' — — burren. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. To Bury. brista. purr. to burst. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. whence Kil. idiom if 4. caer is a — — — ' ' : . any rapid whirling biarga. Dan. as in Northumberland. Beowulf. brizeto. Burr. byrstan. AS. brist. also all such stuff as hay. to hide . borsia. from AS. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. an exchange. Mid. bris. G. The root forms brik. but it is more probably a development of It. bolgia. whirr and burr. karborre. — Translated by Kemble. Burial. a place of defence. S w. briso. signifying protrude. and spelling. brest. See Burgeon. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. keep. ON. a barn or cupboard. that birds make their nests with. birr. bersten. peluca to Fr. dial. of a body hurled through the air. bristen. . as it is still pronounced in N. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Hence Fr. Fris. It. burre. Burrow. brist. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. from Fr. to P'air. In OE. borra. Bursar. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. Fr. Fr. 5150. briketo. 225. force. OHG. Du. as from Sp. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. brisd. to break. save. brickie. moss. to stuff. bourse. Burser. bergen. beorgan. bristeach. burgisli. a sepulchre. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. birigean. byrigels. brjota. ' BURR AS. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Burse. and met. borre. the officer who bears the purse. -burse. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. a morsel. borrow. to hide. blurra. mentioned under Burgeon. casting bullets. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . bolsa to It. preserve. shearing of cloth. Swiss burren. swell. bres- — tan. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Jam. Gael. . a port. an annular swelling. to save. Brun on bane. burial place. bur. byrsa. Burr is related to buzz as protect. borre. to mutter Sw. bur. Compare also OE. perruque. to buzz.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. skin. ber•whirr to whizz. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. birgan. appears under the Lang. Shelter. &c. This word seems safety. bourre. shales. of England. be more in accordance with AS. fortify. pipaa. berstan. brokil and brotil. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. a. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. talk fast and indistinctly. whirr. ON. beurs. In a met. explained E. prsnuti. some people in pronouncing the letter r. borsa. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. stuffing. OHG. tomb. bourrelet. Fr. husks. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. and thence flocks 'of wool. cwning-gaer. brico. impetus. root borr. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. Sexy. britar. bris. iii. brittle. break . byrgen. a wallet or scrip. dial. a pad. To Burst. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. a purse. brown. brast. 2. Burse. preserve. Du.

bousche. a bunch.' meaning of bua is simply to bend.— ' ii8 {chreo. busken. AS. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. to turn. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. a tuft of hair. barsc in Heimskringla. a bundle. to prepare. verb. Layamon. to direct one's course towards.Lat. The word frequency with which to busk is used. biichse. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. BUSH hreaw.gur bidst austur um EySascog. buxula. See Box. bundle * Buskin. occultare K. bosta. ' . induere vestes . hunch Du. Ptg. bramble. a corpse). buskr. a been written buasc. or the like. to bend one's steps. Fr. from the ON. ' .' sheath. knot. To Busk. bousIn the other copy ser. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. to swell. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON.boisteau. The bone in a woman's stays. to enclose in a case or box. besom). busse. bussel. Bouchet. Du. The radical idea is seen in Goth. . bairgan. boxta. bunch. ' . Brunne. borseof trees. bussellus. and from the Fr. to bow. bulk. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. at buast. grapes. Malberg. apparently a secondary verb. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. Le roy Richard mort.fiasc. Sc. busk. Bush. bossen. the Moors and of Morocco. borghen. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen.' The word is explained by — — . condere. and he cites wisp bauschen. a gun biichse. They busked and malced them boun. a box. . It. AS. as boun is simply buinn. brake. preserve. basse. a little box Dan. tow. burial mound. —Busk. fiast. boistel. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. OFr. roquies. and thence Mid. thicket of thorns . bos. Bush. The primary sense of hair . a bunch of twigs. gave Lat. bustula. boiste. dead.) to hide in the ground. brodequin tout noir. abdere. Sw. beorgan. a hump. a troop. Gr. mount. to dress. Prov. qualster-boscken. make ready. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. R. truasc. to dress. buxida. bua. boissa. berghen.' a box.' The buskin is said Bret. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. a clot of phlegm sart. G. box wood to bush. the idea of knocking. rad. basse. for at buasc. ' —P. bulge. van wijnbesien. buxta. as synonymous with to inake one boun. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Sibriht that I of told. then a tuft Sp. we have Fr. thicket {buski. It. And her ful sone tuft. borcegui. a bush.-^Bushel. bustellus. brodiquin. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. See Bust. projection. So from Fr. : — . ieorh. whence at bua sik. whente beorg. iriCtf -ifoe. sur une litifere. bo7ich (Fr. . buysschen. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. bousse. to sepulchre. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. In to Brutaine. a box. signifying to entomb. bossida. hjul-bosse. and we actually find bushel. bosc. ch). clusprobably Morocco leather. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. Thence byrigean. a bush. ' . foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. bush. To prepare. lump. diminutives. bouche. 'at bua sik. Fris. defence. tuft. Harold G. and not directly (as Du. cluster.P. a wisp. to keep. il fut couch6 l^jkema). bush. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. bosch (a diminutive ?). bundle. a box for measuring corn. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Brunne. to stop. -idis. . Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. which would later have truast. is thus accounted for. to forest of Eyda. to bury. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. Mid. a tuft guini. a grove bosch van haer. a -tavern bush. OFr. in the For Skirnis . . at bua sig. protect . 410. a rampart. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a tuft. Du. oneself. in OE. Thus Froister . barst. aheap of stones. the land. boucher. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. whence bouchon.Lat. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. Sir Tristram. 2. boisseau. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. bausen. or — Busk. bussare. that the lend had lorn thorn. wisp. a tuft. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. . the past participle of the same verb bua. Du.

but. business. a Mid.> Also written buskle. also a flagon. windbutsch. — — difications of the same word. Fris. Sw. AS. bruskras well as buskr. sunt quas Hispania aves . Lat. a kiss. smack. work. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . mouth. or avutarda. a bust. a blow. Busk. beso. and supposes that the common Arab. Prov. 22. as in ON. hipista. signifying trunk of a the body. an ostrich. otarda. brut. bussa. of the human body (Grandg. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. .' Plin. to occupy. busch. bucha. body. tarda. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. representing a blow. Bulch. Cot. or Cherqui. made stiff. ViM. The Prov. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. crack . The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. bisegung. stump. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. Fr. the long. the body without arms busque. abotarda. Bustard. kiss. Buss. 10. Namur — Champagne Fr. lip. 1555. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. small. worn to make the body straight . buc. a blow. also a busk. . Sp. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. inde discurro et operosus sum. austarda. snout. 1372. abutarda. knock. bnist. bustla. bus and Pol. With respect to bust. butz. especially of a woman's dress. from jnund. besongne. Sp. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. Fr. busc. a stroke of wind. body. and also a sounding blow. biist. bus. bust. Fr. Gael. Hence probably au-tarda.Lat.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. Busitiess :c3iVi . beezig. and then with avis again prefixed. employment bisgan. Cat. box. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. bist. Comp. stump. body of a man. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. betarda. Pol. bacio. busche. Hal. a. a log. ON. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). body . Port. a bulk or trunk without a head.pjik. — hardly be distinct from Fr. statue of the upper part of Fr. Fr. a tree. body without arms and legs. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. A great sluggish fowl. buta. body of a woman's dress It. stem. fe^a. Lindenbr. btcc. Sp. also a It. cata — .). says. BUSS Dozy from Arab. the breast. utarda. a kiss. To hurry or make a great B. a kiss of reverence. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. a fishing vessel. would explain the G. So Wes- terwald munds.bezig. Business. putschen. trunk of Cot. Swiss butschen. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. busta. as in moharra from harbe. Walach. To Bustle. ^A. a sleeveless truss or doublet. The proceedings of Parliament. chest. knock. bulk. kiss. Rouchi. stir. bus. A wisp. and by transposition morchequi. Bav. ON. Busy. ' bistardej It. in Diaz Gris. to bustle. bysgje. baiser. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. lips. a mouth. a large cljest or particular applibox. outard. a bush. a ship of some size. — clattering about. a bunch of flowers . speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. lip. A A busquer (Sigart). brostia as well as bostia. bu. I go strepo) . bukr.— . Box. sera. — — — — It is like the smouldering. biseg. a great billet Cot. body of garment. basiuin. putta. I bustle. a kiss.D. ship Sp. On the other hand. to knock . — . log . bussen. Xerqui. trunk of a tree. its slowness of flight. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. lump. Nained from Proximse iis zia. vessel employed in the herring fishery. I. the point of a lance. arbor ramis trunGloss. an affair. avuDiez. plated body or other quilted thing. buyse. So in Fin. or chest in which the vitals are contained. bisgung. 119 bi{tr. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Edrtst. ottarda. of a doublet. brusc. Du. the trunk. Prov. to Swab. outarde. busch. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. — Thus we should have mocherqui. 2l box. buc. The form brust. kupata. bisg. busto. pussa. 2. Bust. I. 7o\. forest. to make use of. mons. buz.d. mosequin. mogangas from gonj. See Boss. buquer. Prov. geidha. trunk. Lang. Fl. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. occupied bezigen. bysgian. a backstock. borcegui. trunk. besoigAe. a boat or small vessel . forms morseqiiill. to make a splash in the water. love gestures. buc. B. occupation.' ON. busq. mouth. ' BUSY 2. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. mohedairova. bust. a busk. tuft. Bust. morsequi. thick end. busy. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. a projection.

botilla. Lang. by the mode in which he is treated. beccaro.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. add. Ben-house. we find ben. hull of a ship. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. "PLT) . . bout. a budget. a leathern bag. the mouth). bhcciero. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. binnan. those in beccaio. without. belly. Butt. . If that where now we should compiler. without buiten-man. the body of a tree or of a man. is put in a class by himself. — . bochier. properly a butan wite. of the wine and drink. It. bute. is well explained by Tooke. bolr.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Butler. body of a shirt w. skin-bag. tinction between but. besides that . the body of an animal. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. belly. Butcher. the jug and in E. a cask. trunk. then hoUow trunk. except. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. a butcher. my is called the adversative use of but. collection of casks. biitait slaughterer of goats . to-boot. Sp. but one thing. without punishment . a goat. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. sup- meat and drink. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. G. botte. ways.The Sp. bountifully. and bot. the Perhaps besogne — .' there is really a negation to be supplied. butan. ' Besides all that. Where at an earthen jar . (children) boc. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. belly. boteria. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. the present day we should say. the bottles. outside that moreover. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. So in Italian from becco. the store of ten. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. Fr. wooden receptthing to be done. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . a butchery. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. bouteillier. a butcher . Prov. a bottle.' Thus Chaucer says. without law. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. moreover. or what in in charge of the pantry. the precise correlative of but. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. hollow case. bous. gives at least two pounds sterling. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. viz. beyond the Piedm. from boc. boquier._ bitten j biiten door. botija. bolgia. a wooden cask. Sp. ' There is leathern bottle. without care. a goat (and not besides . calf. bouz. from as. an outlaw from bouche. bitten dai. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. ont jhi^ton. Fr. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. slaughter-house. But In Sc. The E. bitlga. A A . without the house kept in bottles. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. bounds of. OFr. which the word corresponds to the Fr. are. AS. rotundity of the body.' ' write. the full expres.jamin. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. earthen which the debtor has adverted. viz. young mais. buta. a barrel. the trunk or body of an animal. a small winebag. original sense of without. mais. the principal apartment. Du. the belly. boucher. bag. But It. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. beta. be out. bole of a tree. calf of the ' say. also a hollow vessel . rumpf.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. ox. Here the but implies the existence of an. and with It. a baiTel . The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. Sp. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. — we acle for liquors. butan ce. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. and the real origin of the and within . and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . similar train of thought is seen in ON. Lang. large barrel.' or ' there is not but one body of a man.streets. Whatever is in addition to Butler. bocin. Buttery. bola. bodifie. beccaria. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten.in which his brethren are included. being wholly unten. equivalent of AS. that which would be translated by Fr. Fr. as Pantler.' — — ' . I20 la Court BUT du Roi. As a conjunction but is in every portion. But when will you pay it ? the belly. the name must have arisen before the within. able. the servant in charge of the original object. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . barriga. in addition. bol. Tooke's dis. boccino. bisgung. Wall.

Fr. Kil. geboogsaem. boter-vogel. From Du. Du. W. buter. a scope. boter-schijte. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. to so close to the Fr. Schmell. the edge forwards. — — — — . bodi'. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to femur. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. short thick thing pimple. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. butter un. hillock . The word body itself seems identical with G. bottich. w.— BUTT leg . are the strips at the edges of the field. to butt. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Perhaps corrupted Lat. any short thick thing. Hal. &c. a button. Gr. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. lams-bout. botta. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . to boult flour. a hill. butt. fle>(ible. having a rotundity . Butter-glass. a boss. Bav. pied. the thigh of a goose. bouter. the trunk. nourrissons. povrvpov. as rejeton. Fr. Buttress.' thick from shaking. — A . leg of lamb. butt. caput scapula bout van f been. oir spike with a k coup . both. a thrust the thigh-bone. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. from rejeter. Du. Fr. &c. The Bavarian potig. buttock of beef is called butr. large head. to thrust. -ez. give way. i. A — — — . clumsy . botten. Fr. to abut on. a stump or club foot. botwm. bout. strike. potacha. to abut a stone roof. from the large knobbed head of botto. a button. of E. a. bouter. to thrust Fr. botta. butt of a person. nursling. on. a heap of merly called pushes. boutis. G. then the thigh or leg of an to push . to blad. to thrust. stump of a tree Fr. buttare. the Butter-fly. Du. suddenly . butte. Buttery. in the R. bottig. a dle . to touch at the end. boutoir. to be con. Mur-buttant. at. so as to make a sounding blow.. butte. Gris. Button. buttern. the rosebud. pwtiaw. a bot. a but in the W. by boE. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. to push earth . nourrisson. Kil. bout. tout seat or breech. To Butt. waste ground. or or shore post. From Grisons biitt. boteria. put.thum and not button. W.rejected thing. grease that sets by merely standing. butter. an etwas anstossen. e. a button. dripping. a bun. any small projection.to push. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. a corner horses' hoofs. Fr. tress. bouton. — A . a mound of turf in a field to sup.arbre. butz. Du. Cot. Fr. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . Bav. gigot. butyrum. It. Gael. a barrel. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. boding. bot. Lang. bot. boil. bud. : . Fr. butteln. a leg of mutton. obedient. a blow.. or person Schmeller .putan. thick. fowl. courtaud. a. submit shaking up salad sauce. botte. Hal. . signify a cask or tub. Schmell. Buttock. butter. clunis. a buttrice. * Buxom. humble. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. poke. a little push . Bout van het schouderIt. bott. bothog. boiUer. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. Btetter-schmalz. a ribbed glass for dient. a mound. Boutje. from bugan. to bow. AS. a boss. end . An erection built up as a Fr. an ox. a buttress Cot. bot blijven staan. but. Butter. the thick end. as in G. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. striking end. Du. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. Kil. — . stump. Boutant. Buttel-triib. what is kept in a blow. and the true derivation boar. bouton. of the present day. aim whence to make a support to a wall. to throw . botto. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. obeto shake backwards and forwards. . To strike with the head bags. bodi. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. to cast. Buttrice. a bolt. From the noise of drinkables in a house. the prick in the middle of a target. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. but this is probably from Fr. So in English pimples were fora clod. is formed the augmentative buttatich.against another which needs support . from stossen. a tub. from bouter. pwt. Grandg. bocsam. a blow. as if from Povg. boter-vliege. a large belly. a cask. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. thrust forwards. trapu. Sp. See Butler. to strike. . a wall butor butt on. to thrust. able that Chaucer. thrust. from notirrir. To come full butt against a butts. Fris. buhsom. Halma. bata. rabodd. to thrust . — . coxa. butt. ment being supposed to resemble butter. bocgsuin. a flying buttress. the store of while bottich. buttals. to heap up earth or ihrust. R. a stroke di animal.

a meke thynge with — alle. bugjan.in N. The sense of buxom. Verstegan in R. a beetle. OE. byr... Pecock Repressor. 519. from by. ON. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. By-law. AS. bij. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Etynj. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. as Fr. train of thought which has become obso. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. from whom it was addressed. to whisper. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. and boxome of speche xviii. bees. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. bar.— Diet. tions by one. Goth. lb. A by. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. . 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. and would have been lost in E. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. buzac. 3. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. to swear with him by . Du. buzarg. frabttg- To Buzz. who makes abigg. abozzago. buteoj Fr. a by-path is a side path . The ON. Mercy hight that mayde. leges urbanse ON. bylag. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. harty prayers and God speedes. bycgan. to jan. also say. 200. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. to purchase for money. G. favourably to a petition. ii. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. lete. bohte. Then applied to speaking low. bygge. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for .— P. bi. It. p. Buzzard. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). 21. . as in Da. favourable. It. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bi. CABAL Goth. village. bylove. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Sw. a buzzard or puttock. —gracious of speech. Byre. P. — 122 BUY P. AS. big. bauhta. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. stall. indistinctly. A A We — — — days' wonder. bozzago. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. 116. farm. byar-rettr. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. gracious. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. to buzz. iii. to pass by. jus municipii. called Cabala or Tradition. byar-log. Lat. & Q. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. Cabal. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. to stand at his side .P. to wit. depends upon a esteem in falconry. bei. Sw. son. Many good mological explanation. cow-house.busardj Prov. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. blessing me with their of side. town having separate jurisdiction. and it is of good will. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Originally the law of a particular town. good-humoured one. . confusedly. buso. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. See Abie. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. a borough. groat in token of his good heart towards him. buzzicare. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. To Buy. Dan. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. A ful benygne buirde. a town. \s\xy. to sell.

signifying properly a rope's end. kakla.ticula. Brushwood — — B. a head (whence cabochard. To Cabbage. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. The name of the engine. or cadable. come the Fr. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. case.. Didot. a covering. cab lis. overwhelm (Diet. 'habl. cabbage. . cabuccio. to chatter. gaggi. cabre. has kabbel. a rope. lactuca capitata. an engine for casting stones. gaban. hovel. vincially used in E. laitue cabusse. Due. Coticesserint Swiss aa. the bowels. overwhelm. band. Lith. Du. Fr. Celtic. . &c. —Diet. cabarino. cadabulum. capanna. The Sp. name of the projectile engine. whence Lang. gaggele. vile. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. (ca/coe. headed or cabbage lettuce. chabla. It. chaable. Fr. to hurl down. Du. the Prov. chaable. . parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Sw. originally an Gael. ceach / exclamation of guages. as Turk. ckaable. precisely in the sense of the lari E. geese. — Kil. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. a rope. capo. Cablisb. to put or pack up in a frail. cadabula. a shed. covering. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. It. and Finnish lanLat. a cloak of felt or Cack.. Lat. in which sense are explained The the OFr. cables. akista. gatsch. Common to Lat. to crush. and Ptg. origin is the OFr. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. and as we find stones Mid. form kactal. Lang. Gaggle. to hurl in Nat. OSp. a tunic. Sp. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. chadabula. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. mdhaigner. cabuyskoole. OFr. gabardme. as an expression of Gr. cabaii. dung. cabas. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. &c. calabre. — . disgust. cable . — Ibid. — . or rush basket. — the ON. Cappa in OSp. OFr. caqueter. caboche. disgusting such an engine was exerted. a jacket Fr. cadabulum. maim. Tugurium. Castr. .the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. It. agge. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. Katr-iT-aKt. Antiq. cabulus. OFr.. as it must have stood in French. Cot. agge machen (in nurses' language). a rope or cable. manticuKil. w. capuccio. aeggi. to keep or Du. cab. disgust cac. heady. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Cot. agga. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. from trabocco. cadabalum. caable. Item habeat vocant. caable. su/Furari.Gr. cabasser. caable (in legal language). kabas. a headed cole or cabbage . Sp. Imitative of the cry of hens. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. filth. for the origin of which see Carabine. a car- We convasare. string. wilful). aakkat'a. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. whence Fr. kakaloH. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Capstan. hut. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. aak! tandi like Fr. dirt and the Fr. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. To steal or pocket.Lat. cabane. Choux cabus. and Or. the Slavonian. cabo. E. caables. stercus. cabre. and the Arab. to strain in such a manner . cdble. ! — . Fr. — Tarbe. Du. main. Cabbage. as Diez supposes). Mid. cacare . It. headed. havyar to caviare. it would seem fundain children's language. Cabin. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . surripere. a rope. brassica — capitata. cacare. Very generally used. Cabinet. accablcr. . scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. kabaSsen. E.' Due. hoard together.). would correspond to cable. : — from violence without blood. Fr. Etym. round or great headed. Due. is probably unconnected. a booth or hut. manganare.. properly windfalls. giiare. cadabola. Kil. Neckam — by the wind. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. bad. from manganum. nasty. The double a in the OFr. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Mid. Ptg. or as an interjection of disMod. . serious injury — In like manner It. head. kabane. a cabbage . sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . signifies down. From It. Fr. Finn.Lat. cabacho. traboccare. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. cabus. deponat a store closet. cabo. It is remarkable that the Esthon. a frail. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . dirty. forms indi. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem.Lat. dirty. Mid. kabat. prostratio ad terram. especially shepherd's frock.

gaggle. Calocli. calculo. ' . It. limestone. Fr. kail. Du. &c. KxiKivh^o^. naXaiidpi. Lat. chetif. without loss. to heat. a waggon . an inkstand . A — fall. Cadaverous. its mother. reed-pen. kolyaska. (in the augm. to throw themselves into the sea. calessa. . From lerie. Fr. Sp. Caddy. Cot. Calc-. Du. cykevie. Lat. kolesnitza. Fr. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Lat.uv. G. prate. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. kakulla. a roller. calendrer. of oxen and similar animals. To Calender. unruly . Sp. kolasa. cadere. captive. gabbia. whence calash. a dence. Cage. gabberen is identical with E. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. pen Mod. hot.warmth . prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). gavia. a loaf of bread. an ugly waggon kolaska. Originally from a Slavonic source. or smooth Hnen cloth. little chief. desire of land. a falling.— Cot. En kaka br'od. kage. Roman reckoning. from the ink-bag which it contains. Lat. a car. cuttle-fish. Cajol. Cadet. a low note. — in a kiln. ratas. hence musical rhythm. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Arab. Fr. incolumis. . to gabble. a lump or large piece. . whence Lat. cadet. kat. a reed. boy. An open travelling chariot. coop. a calash . cha'cmie cadence. loss. caldarius. form) calderone. kolyasochka. dead body. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. It. a fever. joyous . hot . cadence. when they are said to poor. wretched. Sp. See Kiddier. kolo. a caFr. kaka. kdfich. roller. The Lat. rattaat (wheels). calamitas. kalfvan hout. G. kolesb. calx. javioler. Cauldron. capitetum. Calamary. Tea-caddy. kukje.— Calliper. Calandre. calentura. wanton. kalem. the lump and the increase. . to treat like lime. gabbia. kolo. from the Chinese catty. calibre. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Du. for green fields. marrow.— . cake. Pol. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. calidus. a corpse. pi. the younger son of a family said to be from . Du. from calculus. cauldron. pith. Mrs B. a wheel. master. calf of leg. Sw. chaudron. ever and anon. on. Due. Sw. koeck. kalb. — — — Dan. collop. Lat. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. calendarium. coll. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. the pith or soft part of wood. principal and interest. a wheel . a tea-chest. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. kolo. caliche. Caitiff. disease of sailors from tivus). safe. cageoler. Fr. ben- kalf. a cake or loaf. a mischievous dial. Gael. It. pet lamb. cattivo (from Lat. Gascon capdet. the bore of a cannon. a wretch. kaeckelenj Gr. Dan. colibro. a circle. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. to compute. dial. cage. cadenza. Flo. The Calf. * Cade. . a small stone. A hooded carriage. chattering. gabble. Calf of the Leg. Turk. A . calcis. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. cavea. Calp is riadh. or prattle. one unduly indulged by. calpa. —Atkinson. It. ON. B. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Calcialate. jabber. to — Fr. frolicsome kaad mund. Lat. signifies a waggon. calentar. calibre. Cadence. kdtr. lindrus. Cadge*. calesa. the pi. lord. cabdillo. calamus. to cackle . Lat. Sw. kauwe. taking it Sp. Fr. kola. cage. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Lat. is probably delusive. to prate much to little purpose. chaudiere. It. Cake. lime whence calcareous. to cage. a vessel for heating water. misfortune. of which.Gr. gaggia. to . a counter used in casting accounts. to sleek hence a den. Perhaps from w. Fr. of the nature of lime to calcine. To Cajole. frisky. Fr. * Calibre. Cot. Caldron. Serv. caioler. kuchen. Lat. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. the calf of the leg. As Du. just falling. a common cart. Calendar. The young G. It is another form of the E. a wheel . from calendcE. a wheel . Lat. and troublesomely attached to. a calesh. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. KaKKat. Lat. Russ. cadaver. from Gr. especially of something soft. Turk. or colpa na coise. N. It. caldaria. In the same way Fin. 124 prattle . babbhng. a hollow place. Calash. A cuttle-fish. loss. a cylinder. bad . kaad. calidus. kalfi. calba. Calamity. Cot. Dan. capCalenture.

sound. sestus. a round of abuse. Heb. Mid. a feathers. a last. klover. water-tight. Kil. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. ululo Turk.en~ kinds of firearms. Fin. faint. Lat. the heat of Now these Du. Du. * Callet. serpens. Mahn derives it from Lat. Dief. Derived by some from Arab. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . word of mouth . to calk. of the bore of a firearm met. harden by pressure. or caliever. coluber. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. to tread. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. however. to proclaim. chatter. calicot. having a thick skin. calor. brawny. CALICO Calliper-compasses. calma. glotton. to affirm. kallo. depreciatory term for a woman. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. CALM to press or stuff. colubrina. a soldier who the It. Gael. The word was also written cawme in OE.meaning of the word. to call. 125 Prov. B. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. push violently. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. gossiping.' Slange. dragonder. calma. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Among these were the turn. Fr. Ptg. diameter of a ball. which has its memory preserved in Du.position is much less common than the geschut. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. skin hardened by labour. a drab. Sp. To drive tow or oakham. The reference to heat is preserved in. Fr. a. Mil. callum. licht stuk The change from a. the latter of chamber. people's remarks. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. KaXka. bald. to callet. AS. which is as much as to say. to rail or scold . tittle-tattle. The origin is Gr. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. try. NE. calcaich. calc. culverin. Indies. Sup. koluvre. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . coluber also. calvus. calare. trull. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. kael. hallottaa.(jaa= ice). couleuvre.' But it is hard Du. caillette. Kil. prattle. calgua. Antiq. cauque. vulgo Coluvrine. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. done with heat Alt. dragoon.piicede Lat. * Caliver. kalla.— . Due. To Calk. and E. kahcwe. femme frivole et babillarde. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. chatter kallen. — Fl. The primitive colubrina bombarda. calo. kil-u-kal. longior. . caluw. scalmato. or languishing drought is . calk. heat. To century was Squalibre. kol. Sc. or mould. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). the scalp or skull. bombarda Cauma incendium. form. quiet. caliver. Ca. serpentina. overheated. kal. calleting. Diez. whereas in troth it is not. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Sir John Smith in Grose. of a column. to burn. nautique).from Ka'tm. fistula. to hear. cahna. to call. Call. abto suppose that E. oldire from audire. on. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. scold.Lat. to say. the Fr. kal. callus. to be of a good or bad quality. It. Fin. and sometimes a handgun. moist. kind heat of the sun. Hard. calcare. the hard surface of the ground. Lat. ' rine. 'A callet of boundless tongue. quality. Diet. Calm. calibre.. To call. cotton cloth. colubraria canna. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. Bi. Sp. whence couleuv. to cram. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. form in the kalib. Gr. hot. from Calicut in the E. overscalmaccio. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. ' pert. calca. piece of bigger circuite. calibre. drive. According to Jal (Gl. u to an I in such a colubrum. E. Unfledged. — — — — — .' Whitby Gl. . hollaing. alta voce ploro. Callow. calme. khalif. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. sence of wind.' Winter's Tale. quA librd. donderbuchs Sp. ram. — — — — — . Ibid. Turk. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. an adder. i. Fr. and heat. whehce it was first brought. the day. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Kavfia. cauma. voice. So It. but is only a jda-kallo. a good calling.' Chaucer. Lang. Fr. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. coulevrine. tapulta. given. and dragon. heat. to prattle. Caliph. the Fr. them &c. calat of leude demeaning. faint. a successor. by many that the weapon Callous. to abuse . harquebus or handgun. calclover. can be distinct from ODu. Calico. saucy. sclopus. dial. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. qAlab. moso.

mg Canister. Cambric. ckaouma. From campus was formed Lat. Cann. — Cancel. Gr. Mid. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. camelus. Lat. on. w. the type of a hollow pipe. E. crooked. cam^e. Gr. — B. cambr^. whence the Fr. sore. to jut. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign.who their language.— B. whence Fr. Properly calver in the field during a war. a piece. a may have acquired that signification from plain. from candere. a dog. fresh.' Forme of Cury in Way. The Grisons cauina. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. cere : Lat. Arab. camiscieia. arched.—Candidate. It. Cambray. and yspiuv. campo. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Cambrav—Cam. candidus. higher in the middle than Fr. aged. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. canna. open and level ground. candela. Canal Channel. Canine. Camlet. properly good country.Lat. Calyx. callar. frank and sincandidatus. co7nbar. Or the word Lat. Canker. Camp. aspirant. canistrum. unwater chamelot . camisade. Turk. to warp. canalis. hooked. campus. In a different application It. Lat. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. to bend.—Jam. crooked. Cameo. water chamlet . sugar. paign. crook. also an eatmg sore. calutmiia. to avoid enemy in their shirts. E. catmneo. lame. Fr. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. the calix. Caloyer. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Cambrel. KafivTu. Candid. campagna.. the space of false imputation. Lat. Campaign. KafitjUe. ko/utuXoc. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Cancer. See Canker. a goblet bud. monk. An eater of human flesh. chommer. Lat. — Lat. icaSoytipoe. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Mod. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Palsgr. Sp. cup. Lat. E. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. good. — — — A — — escume de saumon. It.— Chandelier. cambrer. chandelle. different sections of the like the Chinese. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Fr. Camel. when its substance appears inter.Gr. Fr. B. Calver of cane. Canibal. camahutus. white.—Cambrel. camber-nosed. Calumny. or Caribs. a large drinking . It. Kakoycpos. from xaXbg. to bow. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. It.' ' Quhen a lattice. bis. kanna. Ptg. is Cambering. to the force of the wind. cambren. champ. camelot. cAouma. would plenier. a. the spersed with white flakes like curd. camp.— Hackluyt in R. a crab. India Islands. slander. Bret. callour. A — the Cannibals. Cot. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Fr. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. nia. Lat. the bed of a stream. a field Greek monk. field . . campaign. crooked. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Fr. arch. Sanson khanda. camaien. calj'x. se cameloter. cambre. Lat. crooked-stick. a. It. It was distinfrom work. cancer. Camisade. lie level. Candy. Pers. It. toile some of whom._ kamm. or hollow of a flower. cup. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. brought from Fr. cancello. camafeo. cainahelus. chaitcre. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. . campo. spot for cattle. salmon. campagna. camiscia. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. a' Sc. chamold man. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. ation. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. canis. a caught. samon. having an aquiline nose.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. had no r in de bric— Cot. the heat. Fr. to bend. Fr.conduit-pipe. clothed in white. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. B. lattice. died in 1526. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. fair. Peter Martyr. to break. to glow. Sp. an eating. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. arched. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. is Candle. Fr. champagne. From fluting or furrow in a column . the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Sp. across — Bellenden in Jam. at the ends. camisa. a basket. campren. campagne. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand.

If the word had been from cantherius. a boat. To Canonise. W. cannevo. was formed Kavtiiv. It. covered. Swab. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. It. Canoe. a corner.n. Of vena cava and of vena porta. to shut. and hence a gobbet. A piece of anything. clqse. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. schlappen. cantle then is a corner of a thing. able to receive. It. It. cane. KCLvva. from a Canter. canton. Schwab. Canvas. being a yard or thereabouts . a door . a scull- — here. a reed. Germanis kdppen. to con- rummer. from cant. capevole.Gr.. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Goldast — in in Schmid. cannone. Cope. he discourseth of dissection. Wtb. hamlet. Capari. to put upon sacred writers. Cantle. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. a Fr. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. and met. a rule or standard of excellence. OFr. hemp. a gelding. measure for cloth.^on. canon. The word seems to be taken from Gael. as a cantle of bread. N. Lat. a torch. like a torch or candle. From Lat. Coal burning with bright flame. the tried list of saints. a side. can. . cantref. a ship canot. canoa. To his judicial And trowl the tile. schlapp. B. . Capacious. from Dan. as. canevas. kand. root cap. haitt. is found languages of very different stocks. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. the quartile. Palsgr. See Chape. . a horn of the moon . or cantell of bread. kwvwxIi. that the G. capax. quito curtain. Du. cannevaccia. pipe. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Fr. speech. Kavt\. Cot. from . Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Capable. and tref. leiwan kanta. to contain. Probably only the augmentative of canto. cover . It. coat. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. or hold. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. cappa. a cane. hirnschlapple. cane. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. canonicus. Fr. chanteau. chape. A slow gallop. corner. from canna. a cloak. a cloak kapali. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. hemp. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Canton. which is not the case.CANNEL vessel. &c. Jonson. to sing. contain. Kil. It. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. margo panis diffracta. A . Picard. Sp. tain. cainnt. Diez. Canopy. a — A — Cannel Coal. kanta. quarter. It. the heel. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. carcase . cannabis. ON. also a measure. kq. kyndel. Gael. cane. Prov.— Cot. Canteen. a drinking glass. side. The — . canonici. chantel. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Again we have Lat. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. cappe. KaTTiram. has kahn. a division of a country. capa. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. a small boat. a hundred. caparazon. Fin. cape. Cannoii. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. &c. But it may be different source. Alamannis. region. cane. quarter . a straight rod. border. astrology. say. coarse hemp. From Gr. kantr. Sp. gnat. a pipe. capace. Hence Lat. a cantle of bread. cope. Esthon. To canvas — . canto. a wine-cellar or vault. Fr. it would have been found in the continental languages. Cant. a reed. kandt-broodts. signifying cover. canapa. the heel. Mod. canapaccia. a ruler. a cover Turk. cantina. cantred. capello Italis. coarse hempen cloth Fr. regular. . cover kapi. Cape. a hunch of bread. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. Sp.Gr. shut. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. properly a large Prov. part. a cap. The meserseum and the mesentericum. border Dan. kynnel. cantone. edge. lump. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. cappe. the part easiest broken off. name. hood. trine. rumme. kapamak. a tube. language. call. canteau. Mod. Canon. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. cheese. and the sex- &c. See Capt-. cannu. territorial hundred. Gugel. kaput. canvas.

. and his body bristled We to castrate. algabr. aggricciare. grillcr. or represented by the syllable e. cover of a saddle. Capers.) d'etre The It. to crackle. See Chief. sault. to shiver. capitulare. a . Hence capitalis the sum lent. Lat. capriole. p. erica. curl. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Capillary. bruco. The true derivation lies in a different direction. capriola. capitalis. a capriol. hair. also the capriole.'— Trev. brug. cappriccio. ticchio. prickly husk of chestnut. I have shivered with love. a caterpillar. and OHG. the singing'bone). gives rise to Sc. then find the symptoms of shivering. Hair-like. It. chattering of the teeth. a goat. brisciare. gricciare. Capital. heath. rihrczzoso. humorous. caj)o. CAPRICE twittering. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Arab. caprice It. the hair to stand on end. Lat. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. frisson- ner . s'hdrisser. birsle. a kid. horripilation. greziller. frisser {frissement d'un trait. belonging to From caput. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire.' Cot. to desire earnestly. grisser. or. cut. So from Sw. knis-hujwud . — — A a hair. to fry. grisser. Fl. Fr. to broil. Genevese bresoler. where Burton adds in a note. to broil. airoKOTrrw. eruca compared with It. h^risser. Lang. then to shiver or shudder. herissonnement. a hedge-hog. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. of a tremtdoiis sound. as Fr. chief. a separate division of a matter. is either wholly lost. arricciarsi.). frizzle. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. the hair to stand on end. gives rise to brezza. brisciare. curly. Lat. and with an initial gr instead of br. Acad. ^piKos. bristling. a yearning through sudden fear. a buck. ziki. to from capitulum. with joy' Vikram. It. a little head. 75. a chevret. It is probable that Gr. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. Fr. as Fr. Caprice. <I>pi'?oe. kid. to shudder. to crackle. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Hal. Caper.standing on end. as in Lat. brisciare.— Fl. as the means of earning profit.) grezille marid. ericius. the head. as Fr. of a coach. gricciare. shivering. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. castrated. It. explained by Diez from capra. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. It. upon terms Sp. Griller d'im' patience. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. caprice. then to be in a state of vibration. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. To treat Capitulate. w. or Lat. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. capro. to twitter as birds.impressions on the ear. A . caper j caprio. and 7tucc. greziller. capriol or caper in dancing. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . It. end. they longed extremely to see it. Mod. for which he cites the Comask nucia. or other things. arricciarsi. toy. bristling. shrub. capillus. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. horror. frort^Lat. ribrezzo. capar. crackling sound Cape. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. cut off. Sp. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. according to the Hindoos. to parch. the head. Unexpected pleasure. the principal part of the debt. capparis. grug. shivering. compared with Bret. G^' Many words — ' ndv. principal. fansuddenly angry. Torriano. a ch illness. brissle. And similarly to yearn. The same imitation of Capon. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. knis. of a fowl. abridge amKoTroq.— 128 CAPE a rustling. or goat's leap (done by a horse).' — (Supp. Lat. brisoler. It. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. brezilia. cApre. Fr. rissoler. a head. hedge-hog. hi. curling. roughening of the skin. a young kid met. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. — to yearne. to ruffle the surface of water. alcaparra. a caper in dancing. A headland. Fr. Cot. II bresole (Gl. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to . It. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. It. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. riccio. frissoner. wriggle.Gr. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. the initial mute of forms like Gr. castrated cock. to shiver for cold. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action.

hold. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. conceive. In the S. fancy. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a hood (dim. Du. an engine for throwing stones. Carabin. one odd. recipere. Capstern. Sp. sels. desire. Lat. of capsa. Neumann. a windlass. Fr. Caseneuve in Diet. carabin. Fr. a reception. calabrin. Capriole. carretta. It. captivate. whence capture. latterly. a sudden fear apprehended. It. karista. See Caper. Captain. char. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. also to carry on a car . a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. charret. capra. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. Castr. capitis.). — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a. to take. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. a creaking waggon. as the dragoons (Du. Carbine. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. was originally a missile . cams. Cot. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. a taking back. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a she-goat. -cept. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. capsula. verbs gives rise to the element . trestle. however. Capsule.of these compound verbs. a cart. It is a standing crab. chevre. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. conception.. Cart. conceit. decepte. Fin. precept. or the (capo-riccio). It. Fr. karra. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. receptus. to take baclc. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. i The meaning Car. shivering fit (Altieri). — — Capstan. to take to. captive. and tropically. Passing on into E.). exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. concebir. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Thus the musket. Carabine. from head. &c. Lat. Lat. as in accipio. to accept. caricare. case. karren. a capuchin. Cot. Fr. charger. perceive. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. chirrion. the -cevofthe Fr. concept. Fr. -ceive. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . acceptus. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. cabreia. — —Diet. at least. a kind of torture. recevoir. and has accordingly been lost in E. to this is It. Fl. a fantastical humour. contain. as in OFr. except. was a kind of horse soldier. caThe hrestante. calabrino. bock. charrier. Lat. a. was converted into -ceb. and of captus to an e. &c. capp%tccio. a hooded friar. intercept. It. to creak. G. a coffer.or -cib-. a head man. dim. a cloke) capuccino. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Derivatives are Fr.s. chirriar. cabestrantej Fr. Nordfoss. captus. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. commander. accept. fantastic. It. recepte. Etym. crepo. 129 — receive. It. Capt-. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. to carry . deception. Sp. a sudden will. Kiittner. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. It. krul. Fr. to receive receptio. karrende waegen. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. box. oisr. caprice. -cept. In cases. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Du. carro. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. recipio. capio. concipere. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. where it forms a very large class of compounds. strideo. concevoir. of the Sp. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. recibir. Capuchin. OSp. capuccio. to load . di cappa. also a kind of rack. also tresFl. cabestan. seize. capitano. kerren. cabrestante (whence e.. Fr. to creak.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). Carry. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. &c. crab s. cabra. deceit. a sawing-block or trestles. tnoschetta. The It. and has thus descended unaltered to English. de- price. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. to please. Crab. . caput. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent.

ON. Sp. the carcase of a fowl. carquois. . Lat. is the chine. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. carquasse. carmiiiarc. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. for a gun. — seems to be something holding together. garafa. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. and catapulta. It. to ripple flax. «capa'|8i. caraffe. or framework. carbo. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. carabe. Fr. to card wool.. skeleton toise. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. It. the shell of a torcarcasso. Arab. a collar or chain for the neck. winding. Mod. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Carbonaceous. Sp. The radical meaning . AS. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. KtpaTwv. kirat. also (as Gr. a snail. carta. turning. It. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann.Gr. Gr. shell. caravela. a winding staircase. case. p. quse vocant karabd. a wool card. . a machine for casting large darts. a kind of ship. Ptg. winding carach. wool card. Comp. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . the carob bean. Fr. Lith. seed of carob. ' Vasa vitrea. alia sunt majora. It. Fr. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. of carbo). and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. military engines made for hurling stones. Fr. .Gr. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. cerran. to curry horses karsztuwas. carbunculus (dim. carcaij. Gael. carabba. Sp. Cot. tcapKaai. contract. carcame. OHG. cabreia. carch. Carboy. to hiss (as gee^e). coming to four grains.— — — . a small weight. Pers. to creak. bend. carduus. carquan. the . eit. Gr. a quiver . . Cat. Gael. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. espi7igarda. to turn. Parmesan cassiron. I. cabrita. a twist. a thistle. vitriol. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Carrob. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Lat. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. a quiver. copperas. carcasa. is the word used in modern Lat. turn of a horse. Caraool. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a coffer. also a small weight. a ripple for flax. the core of fruit . the name might naturally Mod. carcanet. restraint . of the same Caravan. a crane. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. &c. karra. cdrlag. properly a siege machine. chevre by the name of the goat. caracal. cardo. ancient springald. confining. skeleton. Caravel. quilato. an engine for hurling stones.applied to a battering-ram (G. Card. karszti. avSpaS. bock and Fr. a card or comb . Gael. &c. Venet. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. From the battering-ram. mural attack. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians.charcoal . card. fire . carbh. An implement for dressing wool. Cot. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. eitar. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin.. a case or chest . a battering-ram). a goat. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. The Trjg xeXwwac. Exot. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Derived in the first edition from Mod.. to comb. matter. curry-comb. a ship. krciti. Sp. Gael. a firelock. wine- bottle.. to card wool. black dye. Carcax. karri. constraining . in the same way that the Sp. It. designated in the case of G. &c. Carat. a dead carcase. kerwan. the dead body of any creature. burning coal. a skeleton. a prison. a thistle. a quiver. the husk or cod of beans. car. silique. a he-goat. See Carpenter. W.z. a gem resembling a live coal. poison eiz. boch. casso.' From the same source are SicU. the trunk or chest of the body . skeleton. cabra. decanter. . cassa. to draw in. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . an ulcer. carere. Bohem. carate. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. a lock of wool . kard boyd. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. Carbuncle. Carcase. caraffa. carcanada. to comb wool . Sp.. cramp. a quiver . the case of the flesh.

carcare. regar. &c. from Lat. Champ.— CARD karr-kambar. charnage. crawl. in N. Sept. bottom. 2. carena. — — — : Cardinal. kummer. kribina. to eat flesh. and thin. cardo.Lat. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. to load. hoed. to fry or broil. Fr. — — . road. tremble. surrata. cearian. Trin. one of those ac- 9 * . videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. carnis. from carus. also a career on horseback. piger. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. car. Fr. Cartel. karantez. as peas. carriire. the time during which to Rom. weyes. carcus. Fin. Fr. and G. — — — Caress. Dan. carena. Mur. 8. to clean the bottom of the ship. . OFr. A medical term from line —Boerio. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Properly. Cot. Peas steeped and fried. . Ptg. karrig. It. Gael. . as carminare. . a deed. care on. clown or churl. ceorl.' Slceat. G. msstus. charger. W. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. parched or carled. to whirr (schnurren). quarreG. to lie on its side. the hull of a ship. murahtaa. act of moaning. moeThe Lat. cargar. p. record. Lat. It. Bret. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. crowl. sorrow. ress. zanken . beans. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. as quadrivium from Carnaval. from the keel to the water . carnalis. stridere. Carl. to distress growl. Caricature. Venet. w. cargo. to scratch. . & Q. Cot. Fin. 273. — — Diez. to shake.. quadrifurcum from quameet. a turn. cearig. to scrape . gakaran. to comb wool. Bois crolant d'un ladre. Carminative. caritia. winding. cura intenta. carch. Fr. what is felt as grievous. is to say. Cark. sgritudo animi. Roquef. from caricare. Fl. wool cards. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career.— Charter. carian. Fr. the keel of a vessel. giierlir. and compare Bret. . solicitous. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. to growl. A place where four roads Mid. mutter. meet at a head. morosus. caresse. It. male person.Lat. ON. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Care. kara. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. Chart. W. the flesh of animals . place for exercise on horseback. to card wool. fundamental. A mod-carag. a highway. graller. intrasset caro. carener. caMid. Carled peas. A quirito ut infans. the load of a ship. combing them out like the knots in wool. carFrom carrus. Lat. quaver a lazar's clack. Properly a car-road. Translated in MS. caricare. tuorfurcm (Burguy). caru. charneux. to love.. stingy. at murmuring. crosier. Fr. sensual. Carnal. whence carricare. AS. kurista. Fr. karout. that Fl. to take Goth. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Bret. Groler. charnel. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. dear. — To Careen. rixosus. is This however Shrove tide. a card. . It. From. astutus. For the root of carminare. be anxious. Carnage. ON. ignarus. to care unkarja. love. Cargo. and murhet. soUicitus OSax. essere in carena. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Fr. No ' place there had. voce strepo stridente. Farewell flesh. tenax. to load. karista. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. the old theory of humours. AS. or grumbling —Due. karry. chartre. Card. Sp. carina. charag. careless take care of. carminare. fleshy . The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. carriera. to rumble. cardinis. cura may be ror. de Parthenay. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. strideo. grolU. to load. from carrus. Carenare. charie. a hinge. to parch. 1S66. . or street. an overloaded representation of anything. kumra. Probably the origin of the word is the . The object of carminatives is to expel wind. four. OHG. to comb flax or hemp. carnavale. compared with Fin. x'»P'"^s)) paper. like connection may be seen between Fin. in St Jerome. in Carp. Sp. It. carezza. appertaining to the flesh. scharren. charg. care. carnal. caricatura. an endearment. kroU-erbser. charta (Gr. kargr. camovale. — Carfax. cdrle. carnasciale. Cot. morosus sum. murren. principal. grief. G. Charnel. asper. W. see Garble. carrefourg. sorrow. murista. the keel. immediately before the long fast of Lent. and sum. karg. niggardly . karl. Carlings. croller. affection. It. to fry. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. AS. It. E. a man. Cath. Coll. that on wliich the matter hinges.

a plank. On the other hand bumper to one's health. e. . charpentier. 760.'— Stat. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Ant.]e bois Carnelevale.D. Here's to you still my captains friend. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. vel coopertorio carebit. a drinking cup. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. as Fr. So gone they forthe.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. carpo. a wheelwright. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. gonna. in Nat. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. 216. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. biheld without. cxciv. carpenter only in the latter sense. in Due. to find fault with. course.— Neum. pluck. Carpitam habeat in lecto. zimmer. Cot. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. carpia. tattle. to dance. chirp. carpita. gar aus / all out is correct. carpere. Gael. To pledge them thou refuse. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. Nomin. Properly a round dance. fabulor. to talk. In Dominica d'autant. Biheld within. a dance.Lat. Dief. tymmer. to pull asunder. — . In a MS. Alluz (G. The tippling sots. From Lat. peta. The custom. in Carp. to reel. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. cited by Marsh. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. krapati. Mid. Other names of the sea. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. The ' ' a chariot. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Palsgr. chariot carbad.gonnella.Lat. chatter. I drink all out.Lat. or a carouse fully drunk up. as E. used for stuffing mattresses. Shrove Tuesday. as carnaval from carnelevamen. carpetrix. and Carnem laxare (It. . 2.' says Motley (United Neth.— Patriarchi. Pm. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. carpenticre. pluck at. I quaught. culcitra. ship. and F. charpie. Carnelevale. Carole. sense. 94). Beggars Bush. The word seems of Celtic origin. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. 2. maker of waggons It. to dance. carpentum. — — ' ' — — — I — — . to chatter coroli. Analogous R. ON. a song accompanying a dance then. carpat (Stokes). CarTo quaff carouse do use. litter. Gower in Way. All out B. querole. Carpet. as the Lat. to gather. carpetam (a quilt?). is erroneous. balade from It. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. Discov. garrulo. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. lint. Mediol. ! Carouse.: .— Drant in R. Fr. Olr. carbh. carduz. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. 1 1 30. or loose as a couch without further preparation. W. garrire. cardos. . a car carpentarius. On this. to pluck.' Reg. i. of Guiana.' Ordo Eccles. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. linteamen. Pref. to rustle. skraf. Lat. carnelascid). Ein we find the signification transferred from . was formed Mid. a wheelwright. A. chatter skra/a. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. differing To Carp.Why give's some wine then. all aus). and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. quoted by Carpentier. qui sacco. Sp. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. cariielevamen or carnis levamen.— R. The karole of the stones behelde. ballare. on that. Carpyn or talkyn. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Chanson de carole. carpende fast Carol. whence the form carnasciale. Templariorum — ' — Due. zimmerspan. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. bier. i. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Bohem. Mid. yede tham about.' Raleigh. a carder. worker in timber Fr. Bret. Lat. Pr. koroll. krapanj. ' ' — . linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Teut. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Fr. Lat. Carnevale. carpenta. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Sup. act of drinking a full Eq. Carpenter.

an augmentative from Lat. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Walach. augmentatives of carro. shell or carcase of a house. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. It. the charge of — — Fr. Fr. Fl. It. — — . a coffer or small case for jewels. from the sound it makes when Alban. the money chest. Fr. something that actually occurs. from It. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. krat. Carriage. and that apparently from capio. Fr. house. It. mord-grube.' Fl. CartOTicli. cassa. cassus. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. quasser. carroccio. charogne. cartone. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. charrette. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. also the carriage. Case. tion from Sp. casco signifies a skull. Rouchi carpHe. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. to dash. to slay. helmet. slaughter-house. cartoccio. a paper case. Fr. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. of carta. Cask. to — — also casse. It. fall It. Cot. casus. Fr. not reaching to the height of the ditch. casser. It. to convey in a cart. to fall. Fr. like all the names of tendon. Fr. long man's gown with a close body. carogna. casualis. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. — Cartridge. carretta. of carro. Probably. from Lat. Gael. vault hole in a fortified wall. cashiered. turn out of service. cartilage. caroach. a loopscale the wall. mord-keller. Cot. The Sp. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Fr. a long coat. capsa (Diez). Carrot. Sp.' Bailey. Du. carriaggio. — Cartoose. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. from casa. caro. caisse. cia. Cartoon.' Cot. Du. Flor. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. and the OE. cascata. caroche. kirpti. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. dim. Fr. cascare. kasseren. kerven. a car. to hold. a merchant's cash or counter. hull of a ship. ' Casa-matta. See Card. to break. Hence a challenge openly hung up. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. gristle. cut with scissors. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. bag and baggage of a camp. It. carreaggio. cassere. hung up in some place and to be removed. paper. It. packing ' cloth.to annul. carota. as we . Fl. card. casaque. coffer. to cut or carve . Fr. discharge. a car. blotted out. AS. to fire on the enemy. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. To Carry. cassette. To Cashier. The carrying of anything. break to pieces. bitten. void cassare. casuelj Fr. Sp. hollow. cascade. quash. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. abrogate. crown of a hat. Case. charrier. crush. made void. a chance or accident. case-maiej Sp. See Case. from It.. mata. to crack. Lat. for the security of the defenders. a chest. corresponding to the G. Fr. Lat. Casuist. Casual. annul. caxa. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. fortuitous. Cassock. — — nul the proceeding. cascar. carroc- carrozza . a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. to bear or carry. a hut. Cart. a canonry or slaughterhouse. and matar. kerpu. Hence casket. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. To quash an indictment. ceorfan. Case-mate. Lat. carretto. ignominiously exposed. casacca. coffin of paper for groceries. OE. caisse. To duash. Cartel. pasteboard. Rouchi caroche.— Fl. luggage. one who reasons on cases put.' — Hdcart. Cash. As defence from shells became more important. case. to notch. Ready money. to an- — Kil. Casket. empty. where Fr. See Gristle. casa-maita. cancelled. kerben. Rouchi carone. casso. — FI. Preparatory drawing of a It. Lat. Lith. discharge It. augm. a fall. subject for a picture. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Rouchi carter. a of water. It. casag. Casque. carrosse. cartella. an act of falling. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. afterwards any written challenge. casitiste. G. It. cancel. Cascade. Fr. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. des rideaux A'carp^ie. gristle. caisse. cartouche. cassa. Carrion. To Carve. to shear. casa. AS. properly to convey in a car.

from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. probably from an imita. chasser. casulla. first made ordinary Fr. Catalogue. So also from It. kotas. a little house or hut. catar. a cat . heat . chaleur. cat-o'-nine. handle of an axe. .. a Cataract. cat. a fortified place. arpi^m. cacciarc. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. ecrevisse. lance.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. to end. Fr. Lang.out cacciare . katze. _G. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. force j Rouchi equerviche. stilts. chasser. coming to us through different dialects of French. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Brunne. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. on. a chesnut . KaTappaKTrjQ. like that of It. dim. cassa / cry for the same purpose. kotas. follow after. KaTaarpifm. squash. an enumerlist. to break. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. &c. to scourge. and tomba. of sarabands does Gr. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). sue. however. kic' kicil are used chasser. under chi caleur. the castanets for or implement . speak of dashing a thing down. of castrum (castra). 'Vaaaw. kakka. down. being Fin. to is Essentially the Sp. to dash. to hurl See Awgrim. second chase. Catastrophe. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. KarapaKrr]g. It. to turn overturn. Roukind. kat. Fr. to fall as over a precipice. kissa. puras E. Pol. name. signifying breed. R. mino. a garment for performing the mass in. to crackle. . tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. and from the castus. Yz. to lash. or comba. to look at. Cast. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. torture. the stalk of plants. . ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. cash. burst cascare. ' Catchyn away abigo. It. a cat koshki. Cat. cacciuolo. cast. Mid. Gael. chat. Castanets. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers.to drive out. represented by the syllable quash.Lat. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. kasta. To It. which. — We a cavity. Others explain it from Kara. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Pm. cojz^/a. puss / for calling them. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . was introduced. to hunt. castro. castellum. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. casupola. to close. Fr. Fr.. dashing it out of the window. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. the earlier sense of catch. castana. Hence castaneta.Rouchi Scaches. accastiare. n. Etym. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Sp. Fr. same word with break. Pic. casipola. or Rouchi cat. KaraXoyog. chasuble. a whip on the other into latch. castello. kaJoivad. kottr. fer toTa. Thus we have Caste. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. Fr. to torture. which has been retained in E. ON. fall. Isidore — in Diez. V Lith. Chase. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. ating. in the fire. to cast or beat to tioner . to bring to an crack given by the joints. to drive away. kasi. To Catch. Hal. the ground . to crack. tails. cascar. rack. down. away. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. castanetazo. V. to make clean or chaste. Lat. Gr. dash. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. to clack. a vault. shaft of a 1 push. Fr. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. from water Karappaaaiii. execu. Fr. In the dialect of Picardy. cacciare fuora. klakka. bot-kotis. . image accasciare. Lat. casser. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. OFr. 120. drive away. . In hke manner Rouchi cacher.the / or c respectively. squash. by the loss of with several pitched cords. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . from the first of Castrate. ichasses. race. catch. and KviilSog. Fr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. to Fl. Castle. perhaps from which we have E. B. dashing it to pieces. casule. Cot.— Fl.'— Pr. koshka. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. Gr. crush . or bruise together. 134 CAST Catacomb. while kiss / Pol. a thump. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. Sp. The Diet. punch. is not satisfactory. It. The E.

In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. weevils.yopl(. Du. Kil. a smack. KaTtix'so. gattola. the the same principle he was Fr. chatter. a pill. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. the elements of a science. klatsch. flap klatsche. Du.j. klatscherei. Claucht. a — gatta. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Cot. clap with the hand. E. Kil. a whip or Kuttner. Guernsey chafer. latch of. verberare kUts. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. clatter. i. latch. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. a whip. chase. is said that he got a claucht of it. . dainties. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. — explained. apprehend a person. to teach by oral instruction. from Gr. caucht. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries.s. Metivier. Grandg. a caterpillar Milanese can. In the XV'e.' CATCH Fr.V. Sp. to harangue. Diez. Gael. resono ictu lash. smack. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. a clap. formerly called cliket. Sc. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. head.' ^Jam. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. the distance to which the ball is struck. whip. — . ' ' word catch. Chate peleuse. chasse. E. pedes.V. to take. the OE. gliong. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . to kythe D. a little dog). called dog or Galla catchamza. Tutschek. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. clap. an officer of taxes. Cot. to chatter with the teeth cake. to clap hands. klatsche and Norm. or any kind of relishing food tuals. glcu. a carter's Pat. claquer. ecachoire. happe-chair. Fr. ArbaUte de courte chasse. catc?u. * Caterpillar. as of the latch of a As ! — . to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. — Kiittner. e. a whip Rouchi cachoire. gingle. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. snatched. fragor kletsoore. Fr. E. to snatch (said of dogs). Swiss Lombard G. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). silkworm. instruction in forms. Caterer. 'Horxa. chassoire. ictus resonans. woodlice. an accusing. devouring mite or weevil. chink. kletsen. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. klinke. On Catechism. to chat. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. chatter . * Cates. caker. cache. called in Fr. Cates. Guernsey pilleure.) . — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. a cornIn the s. snatching it with a any one. from shutting with a click. kaetse. Gael. e. de Bray. GaUa catchiza. icarrix'Ki^. OFr. G. a. Du. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. a whip. predicament. catch. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. — B. Fr. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. has both or of charming by sound. bichano (pussy). P. in order). klatschen. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. ' Fr. companaige. resound. door when it is shut. millecaterpillars. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . . — Catcli-poll. catch.. kletse. insect. to snap. ketsoore. s. . compare G. . Ptg. . bicho.from Bard and ayopsw. chenille {canicula. 135 — Aasen. to crack GATES cache. Gr. chachara. to catch strength. cat is not apparent. Wal. with and without an / after the c. chacepol. to A bailiff. and answer. catch-flesh. which all . obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. — with a whip. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. blow. seize. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. cagnon (a dog). On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. quincailler. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. children's name for cat . snatching. c or ^. wild-beast. a. Kartiyopta (/cari. sound. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion .P. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. dainty vic- a form lash. Rouchi clincailleux. 'Bxn. — tinman. worm. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. to the crack.

Lat. cabbage). also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. cale. KaHSpa. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Pr. KaPaWrii. CATHARTIC sense. It. to shoe. Lat. ' Gr. hot. calidus. Cavalcade. a horse . Thus Bav. Palsgr. caballus. That he was ay before in his estate. to purge. Cattle. 4. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. whence cathedralis. cabbage. It. Fin.willow. Boethius. chair. The word — . accattare. Cauldron. ce^l. otherwise written kell. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. causa. choufleur {choii. catkin mitz. It. cautis..Y\\Xea. Kavrfipiov. Jaubert. by land. fur in general. and spareth for no perell. . a receptacle for small things.' Elyot in Way. • — — See Chattel. acater. Delycates. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. . a The peel. Fr. cauHs. dumpf tonen. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Mid. kautsije. from delf^gato.^Hal. and hence a skull-cap. puss. kdtzchen. Pol. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. kassije. apt to burn iron. achepter. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. caudex . Wyatt in R. Cavern. .—— — 136 correct. what . despencier. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. puss. — Cauterise. Sx.p. &c.Lat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. chaussJe. net or caul-work. little cat. — . Jonson in R. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. chauderon. chaudroii. deyntie meates. macska. having the property of cleansing. kaussijde. lamb. a seat. Lat. rete A — Prov. to sound like a blow . capull. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. a horse. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. from caveo (p. but the acates that are sent him. catkins . cat maczoka. . a horse . cheval. Fr. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Gael. Cavity. green husk of a calon. Gr. a road calceata. a kettle for heating water. w. Rete. via strata. cautus). mudet. hot. Port. . kocianki. to shale or peel. Catkin. Manciple's Tale. calotte. Fr. cavus. B. Caudle. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. hazel. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Gr. Lat. katte. a branding from koiio. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. caldo.' B. Fr. a pulpit. calqada. a kind of skull-cap. from KaSaipio. It. koparet. klopfend knallen. the stones of a street. Caution. challe was ther of a temple. Kil. Cause. — — cavallo. Provider. reticella. to beware. to ac- — Fr. Mid. Richly she feeds. shaled or picked Fr. is Prologue. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. calceata. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. G. little cap is . puss. Fr. mutz. a mare. flock. Kavrijp. a pavement. cale. A warm comforting drink. also to pave . For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Diez). to shoe . Fr. Causeway. Fr. Bessie of Bednall. kopano. kin. flue. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. chausser. Lat. a horseman.^ acheter (Lat. acaptar.. Palsgr. It. Cave. kobyla. Fr. Lat. . Fr. is used in the sense of cat-skin. CAVE Caul. On the other hand. a paved road. cavaliere. calceta. accapitare Rouchi acater. kopista. Fr. catkin Magy. Cathedral. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. the. Caballus. 2. Ka^afriKOQ. adcaptare. kocie. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. the caul of the liver. Du. catons. walnut with the husk on challer. Dryden in R rete. primitive is meaning a shale or off. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. fur. OE. any Fl. Russ. Gr. to burn. Du. Cavalry. Lat. chatideau. KiwariKog. chaudiire. kitten kotki. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. . kobuiV. cal^ar. catkin Pol. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. to buy. Caustic. katteken. Cavalier. quire. caple. make clean. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. a stalk. minon. from chaud. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Chaud. chevalier. Cathartic. cabbage-stalk. hollow.

a log. dille. to argue capto tiously. also a seeling of boards. See -cede. Lat. — komo tain). -cess. koppeli. heaven. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. 32. quibble. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. VIII. lambrisser une chambre seeling. Cam. and Gol.). hollow.. or of a bed. To seele a room. selar. . sounding as an empty vessel koppa. thil. as. sky. . tester of a bed. thiling.'— Z. . rafter. Sherwood. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. post. Cease. IV. to plank ON. to plank or floor with planks. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. In the same way G. .' Hall. curved.' Ordinances and Reg. cavezzone. to panel or wainscot MHG. 5. cabega. Soc. dayntily diglit. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. . Fr. In the N. — . a log. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. ciel is so unbroken. deal. Cede. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. cellar. Gawaine & Sir Gol. Plancher. wuoren komo. a boarded floor. succeed. that. jaa. syl. hung. a severe bridle. H. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. thili. excess. lambris. The line of descent from Fr. ceiling. yield. The importation of Fr. . . and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. wainscot thiljar (in pi. syle. — . — — — toyour soverane. cielo. a log. bridle. selure. Ceiling. the deck of a ship at thilja. Cot. sill in window-sill. plank. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. komo.j have come from this source. ceiling. heaven. cease. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. cessum. hivtmel. &c. a canopy. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. Sp. p. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. B. -ceed. to canopy siled. exceed. the testern of a bed. -cease. thilja. E. . of cavezza. to cut. but hang around at the sides. kommata. seele. death. semely on syll. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. to seele or close with boards plancher. in Jam. a hut. to go forth. the inner roof of a room of state. plank. pp. cesso. canopied. hollow. thil. give place. departure from this life. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. Fr. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry.' Rutland papers. Lat.' Cot. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. Fr. a fir-plank. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. sill. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. Lat. wall. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. ciel de lit. recede. with their substantives concession.). Hence concede. 7. and then to gape. -cede. And seik — Cessation. were met. cyling (W. step away. a halter. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. The It. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. CAVESON kopera or kowera. little house. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. —Decease. nailes will begin to cling. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. It. p. a board. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. thelu. cavillor. kapp-zaum. door-sill J Sc. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. a head. applied to a canopy. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. menuiserie. The sense of roofing. . empty. &c. sus-lambris. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. sybire. del into English without ' translation gave cele. a plank. augm. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. . board . . And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. &c. the roof of a coach. in Jam. a planking or boarding tkilian. Boyd in Jam. departure. &c. in Hal. thel. So from Fin.. caveqon. column E. hollow ice . as if from happen. beam. and that from Sp. a beam. Wore. dil. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. A — A false accommodation produced G. 43. Fr. . flooring E. decessus. Sir 137 pit . Hal. Cavil. Lat. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. crooked kopio. a canopy. komista.' — Gawan . of E . cabegon. and zaum. coffer. proceed. .' del. dScis.' Marriage of James IV. cedo. an aquiline nose. is applied to a canopy.

to distinguish. -cess. to concern. point. concetto. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. deceipt. rough from the quarry. of heating. Lat. cella. from Saa-rw. contend. -cern. Lat. -cipio. Fr. Ceremony. -civer {conciver— Roquef. capio. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. — . -i^oivre. see. Lat. to take. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. a valuation of every man's estate. cenio. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Fl. Cell. oil. Coehim. to contend. is the opposite of disora virum. and met. rubble. sift.— Chafing-dish. swift. ' . eyelid. to seele or sew up the eyelids . stones to the production of heat. in comp. to celebrate. Cij(fe5j. 1. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. /ctj/rsw. (and thence also) to hoodwink. to think. . make angry. ciglio. we have a modified form of (of a place). to incense. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. quarters for slaves. Lat. deceit. &c. to warm. cerealis. zens according to their property. Fr. Gr. {cori)cipere. to be regarded as one celebro. keep in It. crevi. as in some places burnt. sure. guish. in accordance with the Fr. a registration of one's self. -cepire. oil.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. distinIt.. celer. For sess from assess. in Marsh. to bury). of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. eschattffer. cigliare. — . camentum. — — Cenotapli. tax. sting. the place where the de. then to rub without reference Cement. siller les yeux. Cot.unmarried. is totally distinct from the foregoing. decide. mortar. -cebre ifoncebre. Celebrity. a storehouse Chafe. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. hollow.). to sepap rate. OFr. assess. riscaldarsi. Assess. and thence censer. to rub for the purpose a hut. -oept. from censeo. heaven. K^'ivut. sile. -cense. Fr.cern. age. a solemnity. -ceptjun. for building. a hundred of what- — . anger two distinct words are probably Lat. -cepere. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. become heated with anger. KsvTpov. to seal a pigeon's eye. censura. his office. Gr. Censor. and so of that other. -cevoir. Assize. chauffer. observe. syll. Century. the talk of men. the officer appointed to take such returns .' Celebritas. dchauffer. It. Census Censor. Prov. -CEIVE a shaft. Lat. to chafe.j 138 thill. census. Lat. Gr. See Celibacy. to glow. thronged the participle cretus. Accelerate. concerner. a shaft horse. ceremonia. or any bird's. calefare. to course of people. renown be embodied with. encens. cillier. criticism. with the eyes. confounded ist from It. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. to attend on object with. or expression of Ennius. — . Lat. Fr. pick out. festive. tax. much frequented. centum. irot\oe.. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. judge. as entering largely into the derivative certo.). Gr. Lat. but was gradually lost in conceit. to burn incendo. also grave opinion. Chafe. Centre. to set on fire. cilibat. what to set in a chafe. a solemnity. conceipt. and thence to conceal. — A . empty. Incensum. Ta^oe. Fr.— Cellar. concernor. — . caber. Sherwood. In Celebrate. Celerity. parted sleep. ciller. and put it through the over eyelydde. value. an eyelash. a tomb. to heat. Lat. -ceit. to sleep). in comp. to prick. a prick. with transposition hence (of a day). Take the nedyll and threde. cceremonia. candeo. . to visit in numbers. census. To chafe is for wine. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. family. a religious observance. and — — — possessions. celeber certus. capturn. -ceive. Fr. &c. Cereal. a numerous con. Lat. a Cemetery. cretum. Fr. a hundred centuria. -ciper. cot. To seel or close the eyes. blind. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. sacred show. Lat. Censer. solemn (of per. See Cede. Centurion. the hollow the Lat. the point round which a circle is drawn. to rate. incense. The term cilium. decebre) .ing a room where there is not fire. appertain. estimate.' Book of St Albans. Sc. — . Lat. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. goad. judge. materials It. S. thence belonging to or connected with corn. being taken from Fr. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. receipt. Cess. to -sum. single or unwedded life. judge Lat. to twinkle darkness. to blindfold.of the r. cencer. It. To Incense. abundance. — . chaufferette. Censure. calefacere. Cot. Fr. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Certain. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. to take. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. to separate. Lat.

Gr. to institute anforensic action. Fl. quisquilise offence. G. to puff and blow. vis. fern-chafer. on. The jaw chafty. kuhata. refuse barley . rustle Challenge. to tattle. cup. false accusation. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. . Adelung. Lat. great chafe. vel susurro. Camera. signal by drum or P. to action arose. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. green sagrin.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. much more Genoese sagrind. kahista. So from dominio. to call. cadieira. charge with. chaps Chamber. rustling corn. calice. to babble. From to go to law. Cheffern. baras of ants. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. tronfio. chambre. E. B. Chayire. Fr. de Brai. hiss. breathe hard. rustling motion challenge.— — . chaise. tattle cheep. Gr. to move the jaws. KoBiSpa. to gnaw. a pulpit Cot. Came. and as this was the beginning of man. to file. chafing. dispute. cathedra. sborfare. contestation. talkative. puff. Prov. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. — — — . care. — — — — — — . CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. kahuja. much blowing. and signifies to consume with anger. to ner It. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. chalanger. Chain.. clamare.sure carriage. chaine. To buy and sell. of. ON. Pat. chatter. Pers. Fr. havOFr. Fr. G. gewolb. Hal. a goba rustling . rally one. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. catena. Chair. care. in a monstrous fume. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender).' Rayn. Kaiiapa. sagrindse. now a chair. taubes korn oder hafer. crooked. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. chicane. a vault or arched roof. In vulgar language. Prov. a prattling woaction. Fin. chaffare. Halma. hordeum vel let. 11. Fr. to chatter or talk lightly. cam. avena vilior. as a carriage is a moveable seat. kauchen. jaw. Fr. ing a hard case to their wings. chaene. lime. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. a chough. bargain. Fr. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to fret inwardtronfo. — — ' — — — A . Probably from According to Diez. kdfelen. khah. calonjar. Pr. (ca'e'ra) to chair. a double operation * Chafer. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. cathedra. a jackdaw. swelling with anger. kahu. Fr. Bouffard. refuse. in a cana. Du. kaff. place See Cheek. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. . shaIt. kiqfta. calx. call in question for an ley). chamar. hght Chalk. calix. — — — . cadena. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. kuhista. kedja. songe. Cot. have a mind to parley. — . keuchen. kiamta. also to prattle. kdfer. kever. far lima-lima. grief. De Ir4. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. grief. calonja. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Lat. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. P. to claim. Due. camera. a rustling noise. from Swiss kafeln. with a:n arched roof. to gnaw. to caw chawer. From Port. In like manto huff. ceaf. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. difficulty . as. leviter crepo Then. kiaftr.. Lat. ing rapidly repeated cries. limare. Lat. a pulpit. a chain. snuff. Lat. puffed or ruffled with ly. chaire. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. keffen. tattle. &c. chagrin. chafeter. . metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. From the To Chaff. fume. any insect of the beetle kind. haggle. idle words. Chalice. ^Altieri. cauvette. snort. sagri. Fr. Lat. Cot. thick and short. from the shark-skin. p. cadera. yap. . that leneth e per I'autra. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. dongio. Fr. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. ple^. breathe KaOa^oiiat. 35. ckapfare. muzzle. ceafer. kuhuja. OFr.nium. or puff with snorting. preise. to sit. calumnia. Du. Bav. often puffing. to bark. Piedm. matter by combat. chayire. Lat. to buzz. chaulx. chawe. to a seat. from of the G. Kuttn. Prov. Chagrin. without chap/are makiinde. kuhina. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. to pant. to calumpnjamen. Wall. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. to Latin calumniare. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. kaff. to dispute. . cadena gives chain. Perhaps Pm. Ayenbite. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. fa sagramen de calompnia. Fr. lime .

sukibti. to wrestle. to slope. to quarrel (comp. to — — champ. It will. hot. Sup. game campio. Lith. s. cancelli. i. hero Sw. to hang. dial. pinch. from cheoir. dricka i kapp. cempa. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. chain. Champaign. to . kabe. champ. Fr. mesleiare. —Chamfrain. kinipen. kampeln. camerlengo. and acted as inofficers of . kriimmen gebogen. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. from Fr. termediaries between them and the judge. dial. . When the to quarrel. Gall. giving rise to the as. cample). chance. . So in e. Get campers a ball To camf . chanfrein. nels. kampen. kimpUma. bundle. Meleare. to wrestle. hamper. Fr. to stick to. compound. Hence (with the nasal) w. accident.140 CHAMBERLAIN . camp. to fasten oneself to another . accidere. Dief. divided game. a feat. as swine. kabintis.Lat. — ^Tusser. from chaud. jocus partitus. champ. chamble. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. M. Fr. kapp. champ. jeu parti. a warrior. G. E. certare. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. who stood ad cancellos. to strive at games . To them naturally fell the office of keep- . fray. To hollow out in chanPtg. kabMe. chance. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. e. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. act of falling. a court of justice. contest. and mesUe. to flute as a column. to debate. kappd). fight. to slope out the .' SherI'altro ' ' . Campar. Fr. chamfrain. — masterly Sp. chanfrar. to tread The sound heavily. to chew. wood. as in It. keiiipe. cadere. Lat. difficulty . To Chamfer. chaude mesUe. chanfreindre. to bevel. kampeln. to talk. Lat. E. kiinp. escazenza. Champ. pedilusor. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. contention kappi. calidameya. dispute Hal. reusement — fight in single combat. received the petitions of the suitors. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. to groove bevel off a right angle. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. kimpustella. Lat. — Ch-amberlain. Fr. to cample. . ON. — KiL . camp. . ciambellano. Fr. a scufSe. to excel. Lat. boys speak of capping verses. Champion. to paw the ground E.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. Partnership. a hook . to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. fight. .' ' Pr.—Charfron E. which seems another form of the root. Commonly derived from campus. . kippo. kiammi. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. at the railings. ing. dial. ciamberlano. To cope or contend with. tsamtsogni. athlete. kimbu. kabinti. champion Du. The E. Fin. luctare. champ. to be eminent. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. — Hal. Carpentier. the chafldn. or less ignorant. a jaw kianisa. champ parti. caer. CHANCEL It. campear. ON. tsammogni. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. excellent. kablys. Magy. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . calida et sans aguet. a hollow chanfreiner. Prov. to smack the lips in eating. zs jeopardy. a bundle. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Pm. kampa. Du. to Hal. campus. broil. rare. Prov. kimppu (Lap. Chancel. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Sp. gekrUmmt. to fasten on. campus partitus .edley. an athlete. bickering. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to hold . dial. Ptg. kibti. Champarty. fighting place. The word is preserved in E. or player at football. dial. schmatzen s. cameratus. head armour. ON. . to happen {ad and cadere.—Tutschek. a game at football. campar. to fasten oneself on to another . The G. to to chew champ. top of a borehole. Sp. Chancellor. surpassing. The happening of things Chance. chajnbellan . Chamfron. combat. cazer. to hollow out. kanip. kempen. chanfrein. is explained by serrarsi. zampettare. to fall). camp. hng. slope of a bevelled angle. kempa. . move the jaws.' melleia. chdance. a field of battle. contend or argue G. to fall. cahir. therewithal. See Camp. to move the jaws kiamt. gewolbt. prize-fighter. Chancery. Chance-n3. a horse-race.

Lith. chapeta. to — cut. Walach. To Change. ON. Du. Chape. a strip of metal plate. a jaw. to peck. to swap. 2. cangiare. — — —Marculfus in Due. to cut up into small pieces. to truck. Commonly derived from capella. surfaces striking together. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. and also to chap or crack. Chap. shift. Fr. See Chant. It is also used in the sense of the E. jaw. hard bodies. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. clapet. kiceft as well as kjakje. chancellerie. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. chop. cheek. to strike. Da. to strike. like the knocking of hard things together. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. or the cracking of one. 140. kappen. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. kjaakaa. —Ordericus Vitalis. . W. extended to other trades. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. a dealer in candles then. Sp. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. kapoti. kiceft. from chandler. as chancery . See Chop. chapilla. Hal.^. I. a small metal plate Port. hack . to break . while the broader vowels a. —Chantry. properly in a hard body. Cheek. to plate. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. a reed. to chap at a door. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. a chap is a crack or fissure. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. debeant conjurare. Compare chark. Chapel. from canna. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Chop. esclapo. waterconduit. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. chancery. cantare. Fr. ^Jam. ceaflas. Channel. Probably from chap. Chandler. kaupa. . exchange schimbatoriu. Chip. Hal. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . kvar kjceften. from clap. to hack. Hence chantry. cambiar. is used in the same sense . Da. — : Lat. camjar. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. jaw. canalis. Prov. chanter. chapa. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. changer. as skin chapped hands. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. schimbu. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. exchange. klepan. A fellow. to put on fresh clothes. not a soul. or the like chapar. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. a money-changer. lips of an animal. to creak. the place where candles ler. the loose flesh of the cheeks. cambium. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Lat. to paw like a horse . Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Bret. to plate. ceaplas. to cut. AS. gab. to deal. to strike with a sharp edge. throat of an animal. E. cobio. to spht a chip. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. to change. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . chap. Chap. And N. chop. chapelete de una bomba. skipta. Aasen. Sc. wood. also a clap. to cut off . Fr. schimbd. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. the clappers of the scupper holes. flat . Hence It. chaps. . any hollow for conveying water. chapeletas de imbornales. Chap. may be compared with ON. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Fr. esclapa. to peck. chiappa. as those on a trunk. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. — . Chaps or chops. . and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. the chaps . CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. to apply one flat thing to another. That wide were sentin their spicery. leather. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Lang. In like manner Walach. chap. to coat. cambiare. . and the modern canal.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. kemma. to sing. the mouth. as to chap hands. Man of Law's Tale. are kept. exchange. prune. a pipe. the gutter that runs along a street. Molbech. Russ. chandelier. as corn-chandChandry. chapear. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Sp. kennel. as It. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. muzzle. a small plate of flat metal.

Sp. w. dear. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. hadka. used in the sense of magic Fl. to turn. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. twist. affection. gadka. Deutsch. es ist mi cheer. to croak as a frog . karout. decken. to chirp. Charcoal was ciarlare.Lat. a garland of roses. Hence carminare. A weed among com AS. Lang. enough. called kedlock. Charade. cearcian. bler. Sp. And damned be he who first cries Hold. chatter. carus. to creak. turn about. the nature of a thing. from capa. cam. charlar. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. AS. a merchant. from carrus. to converse. burning without consuming the substance. Chirk. surris seu Lat. (eucharistie. a mark of a mountebank. Swiss. a cricket karkti (schnarren. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. charitas. Chaplet. from cape or cope. twitter. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. It. AS. Character. cerran. Lat. cher um cher. a hood. Lat. car. chirk. for the same reason rosario. wreath for the head.whirr. keeren. charade. cluck kirklys. capitolo. a dispute . in turns. be- e. as. to sing or chirp as birds. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. chapel. a charm. as a beetle. jabber. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Fr. capital. Boh. Gr. babdistinction. Prov. krachzen). clack. — spell. to love. cha. It. charger. See Charlatan. Macduff. kurkti. charge an enemy is to lay on. In that work the verb is written caire.. Fr. carricare. czurliwoti. The G. Yx. to charcoal. Sp. it is my turn. to dove . a The OFr. w. a mark made on a thing. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. charlatan. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. 2. An enchantment. cabildo. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. prattling quacksalver. . Chapman. properly to place — . The crash. * Charcoal. gaggle . carmo. From Norm. Fr. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Chark. that turned decken . of chapel. creak.charme. . a rhyme. . 370. chapelet. czurksti. cedeleac. kirkti. dim. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. To Char. &c. corona. tegere. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. carmen. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. as Pol. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. seems to be derived charade. gnash. a turn cerran. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. to prattle. schreien. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . chat. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Charge. a riddle. talking. to talk . Inst. return. eapitulo. carregar. ghirlanda seor garland. creak. Sup. Charlatan. ciarlatore. Fr. chapitre. ceap-man. capellare. Lith. a head or division of a book. to chirp. chatter. siarad (pronounced — sharad). and in It. to turn Gael. a riddle. It. from capitulum. chara. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive.' Boccaccio in Diez. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. hiss Lith. occasional turn. chirriar. cluck. . gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. ject). Du. in To ness Charity. capella. go. Fr. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . charer. from Charade. — a car. Ptg. tattler. canne. Cot. OE. condo il volgar francese. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. turn. Chare. . from gadai. eyre. colliers that charred coal. wood to coal. to . which was incantation. See Cheap. Chapter. called in Sp. Charlock. the turtle pitre.). —— . babbling. to load . Lat. char. to chirp as sparrows. It. caricare. — — — turned to coal. grave or make incised marks on an ob. to of the governing body.czirksti. kurkelis. to prattle. a verse. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. pohadka. chirlar. Justin. Lay on. to tattle. Mid. Bret. charcoal burners. beloved. dear(in both senses). czirbti. caritas. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Mundart. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads.

Kil. —Bailey. the noise of birds. — Hal. be wide open. talk much . —Chastise. chit in the latter sense Du. a chatter-box. noise. also a youth. to crack. is to represent the chamier. kata. the young shoots . Lat.ppen. whence a charm of goldfinches.). then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. as turnip-chaits. Diez. chip. prate. crackle. ch&tier. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Fl. la chasse d'une rose. Cot. chaste. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Du. enchasser. To Chasten. from purus. the handle of a razor . The primary import of the syllable a great number together. csaterdzni. a plate of metal. occasionally Forby. tittle-tattle. g. chary. pure. jackdaw . clear. It. cyrm. in Jam. to burst open. flesh. Pol. a crack or a flaw . germinate . clean. Russ. . as in the E. chykkyn (Pr. See Catch. Fl. clean. carmen is presented in AS. So in Gael. Hal. — Palsgrave. magpie. to set a jewel. To chip is then to crack. Cot. Chamel. To chitter or chipper. — = Chats. clatter. karg. clean. to make a noise. i. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. gallan or ogan. Chart. gazzettare. Kil. to talk. See Cistern.— Chatter. %aafi. chisf. chair. a flock of those birds. to chirp. — The . It. warble. Lat castigare. a young man . geug. To talk. blackthorn-chats. a churchyard or charnel-house. a branch and a young female. or suckers on rough borders. See Card. Chaste. chits. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. chit. — Fr. Magy. It. kastaa. discourse. whistle. charmer. the cry of the bat. shout OE. from xoAn. or equivalent forms. czysty. prattle. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. pure. Fr. chit-chat. chikat'. ferire. clack. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Fr. kna. It t. . caro.— Chit. an enchantress. Fr. An imitative word. racket . s. schioppare. incassare. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. to chirp. Pm. It. to care). csatora (Magy. talk. Malay. csacsogni. to separate in morsels. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. as. gazzerare. Chary. to chatter or prattle . castus. converse. — sharp sound of a crack. Chat-wood. — — . scraps of for fuel. To Chase. kippen. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. In like manner Russ. fragments. to enchase it . gazzogliare. splinters. limpid. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. chick. niggardly. Parallel with E. cassa s. Fr. a twig Suffolk chaits. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. from pure. or the cry of a bird or the like. little sticks cudere. the bird is iiown. — Yorkshire chat. as we speak of olive branches. xi'i-'^vui. G. To Chase. nome and . a branch. to clap. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. warble. speak . cs E.). fragments or leavings of food. gaddc. charm. cearig (from cearian. Gr. gazeuiller. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal.a. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. nommer. to wet. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. knatiern. a gap. to cry as a chicken . used to represent a sharp note. or a bird out of the egg. to which it bears the same relation as chape. chip. a word. chaste. parcus. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. careful. sordidus. clap. pure. CHATS fit 143 to name. carnisj bones kept. to crack. carme and Fr. noise. —Jam. Pol. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. Chat. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. to baptize. The egg is chipped. eclats. To chit. OE. knacken. a shrine for a relic. D. shivers. chip. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. also to hatch. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . chatter. to gape. root of the Lat. a yawning. kata-kata. gazzolare. to chirp as a bird to cheep. Chasm. letters p. tenax. chat. karigh.. chick. —Charter. make a noise as birds do. also to germinate or spring forth. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. To work plate as silversmiths do. B. as from nomen It.house. castus. csacsogany. From carinen was formed It. V. snap. ch). gadu-gadu. the calix of a rose. to cut and faggoted. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. as purgare Fr. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. or pop.

the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . Hence to cheat. to cluck like a hen. hawkmann. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. NE. chavylbone or chawlbone. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. s. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore.ing. cera. the tongue. kak. cachinnari. chatel. — To check an account. Cheek. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. in widely separated languages by the Lat. . equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. the principal ' colloquial E. Chear. with Dief. kok. us. It. countenance.. teeth . aspect of a man. welcome heartily. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. . Ek dry and hard. The gutGoth.-^. citello. gagkern.' kezen. cattle. giggling. Hal. force of the word. Fin. to . to swap goods . chaptel. from Lat. OFr. to chop and change. Sp. to coff—Yisi. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. chop. . farm for farm. to deal ON.— Cattle.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr.— . Bohem. are represented piti. chear in the sense of victuals. a dealer in horses. Slav. et juxta catalla sua. Cot. upon a checked cloth. kakkaset. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Soc. Cheat. with the exception of land. equiva. which is used in the to stutter. — We ' . choule. stuttering. See Cheek. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. kaupiti. a piece of moveable property. goods. prattlingchete. kikottaa. Check.. any cheating. ku. a repulse. chiere. kauf. sense of bargaining. and hence the E. Fr. to fetch the breath with difficulty. the face. OFr. truffa. G. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. to laugh. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred.of the throat in coughing. . which is the word in ceap. goods. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. syllables ^ag-. Modern Slang. capitale. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. a cheater. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. caupo. the Lat. the Confessor. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. kaufen. a dealer. Fr. Pm. cara. cattle. to act as a rogue. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. to cough and hence either buying or selling. ceaflas. snout. kik. sale. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. to clear the throat . Cam. Ingulphus. Bav. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. kaupa. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. chatal. the countenance Fr. cheeks. to — . while it Bret. CHATTELS has ciio. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. gig. favour. look. ceahhetan. to buy. kek. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. price. Fl. sum in a loan.—Choke. Du. Sc. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. a tavern-keeper. catalliim. koopen. chuckle. KaviiXog. exAS. Lat. whence captale. visage. chire. frown. dchec. in Fr. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. society. thers. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. to stutter gigken.' to exchange to gasp. ceafl. kakaista. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Then. Pro v. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. keck. gagkezen. cattle. to buy. Pr. agreeing upon. It. a young boy or girl. stuttering. ceap. and. a willing look and unwilling heart. entertainment. lead to OE. jaws. lower. jaw. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop.— Chole. entertain kindly. It — Brompton in Due. kichen. to make inarticulate sounds in . to coup s. bon marche.. laughing. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. changing. See Chess. chapman. mandibula. to negotiate. cita. to nauseate (to retch). CHEEK zitella. Chattels. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. horse-couper. Chew. giving or taking in exchange. .kakot.— Chaps. — — —Chowl. &c. kaupon. a canting knave. to vomit. 144 the It. from AS. Gr. e. cozener. retching. Faire bonne chire. a rogue or person who used the canting language. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. tradesman. sob E.

Thus "we are brought din. kdkel. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. chaps. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. the mouth. mollium congeries. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. . ceaflas. rattle in the throat. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. to kep. like a young chicken. Fin. It would Cheese. the The use of the word kcesir. geagl. Cherish. . caru. kastr. Kil. hasten. See Chess. . gill of fish AS. /Ji2^/(W. the hke. nish source. Chemistry. caseus. rennet. for cheese itself. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Fr. accomplishment cayed. Lat. Du. Chef. kikna of dorum coacervatio. to heap up such things for the purchoke. Prothroat of an animal . cheken. kok. a chicken. cufd. to gasp. cabrio. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. OHG. To Cheep.their struggle for independence. kaecke. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. to choke with laughter. &c. AS. chevron. Fr. jaw . from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Sw. ca' — . quok. schach. cabiron. dear. cerasus. geafl. carnium. cese. kjcebe. gap. cireggia. scacco. frame by which the exertion is made. chops. gabe. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. ceocian. Cher. to boken. kopen. then end. Du. Sw. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. Tutschek.EP CHEVRON 145 on. chesten. kces. jaws Sw. to bring to an end. Pm. kdke. to make a noise different word. cherir. . proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. E. See Alchemy. N. giffle. takes place in the formation of cheese. king). kjakje. whence kasa-leipa.pose of acidifying them kasadr. to gape gab.cirieggia. Hence chesten-nut. caws. to hold dear.' to w. chevir. things Da. to geahl. Chess. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. cough. chAtaigne. prevail with. ost. subacidus. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. kasiiUPr.koppen. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. the final guttural is retained in writing. Fr. chests in OE. old bread. kesten. AS. w. cams. Analo. jaw.). Chevisance. make an end. (Kil. cheek. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. Sp. Chekenyd or querkenyd. ichec. Da. Chevaux de frise. — — . acquisition. as meat and butter. schach. kastanie. Lat. the throat. cheek. CHE. Prov. kikna. AS.. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. chasi. food. Lith. to accomThis they call hdrsk.D. — — . throat. kapen. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. quoka.Xo belch. F*-. by laying up in a covered heap. jaws. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. rupted into chess. czypti. gaghel. kirsche. veluti piscium. Fr. — 10 . when the king is put in the Schmeller E. E. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. The Sw. Fr. made rancid koka. the loose the game of checks. ceaplas. — — . kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Lat. kasa. jaw. to kasa. to swallow. the neck. w. skratt. w. Jam. An imitative word. ation. X'C&s. to choke. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Fris. e.perly head. From them the plish. a cricket. chiffe. xaque. a heap. dersen . cyse. Pl. to belch. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. . Lith. throat. as. Sc. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. Lat. E. to love. Sc. cerise j G. cista. As the board to gasp i. The name of creak as shoes. condition of being taken. It.G. Hence kikna is identical with OE. ceac. suffo. chops. castaneusj Fr. G. treat with affection. incaseatus. equal squares of opposite colours. squeak as a mouse. to year. Achievement. G. gullet. a rafter . clear the throat. See Case. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. ceg. gous forms are G. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. kistej Lat. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. by laying it in come to an agreement with. cegio. ON. To make a shrill noise Chest. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. jouffle. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. to prevent the attack of cavalry. E. rafters in heraldry.. jowl. mouth kek. cheeks. cisty G. the palate Chequer. Sp. In these latter forms we see the transIt. gapen.D. cheek.peep in the same sense. kjceve. achever. subjected to this process with that which the throat . whence czypulas. Cherry.

chef. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. mountain top . chillrar. rafter . Brezza. into a continuous shriU sound. chill. the cry of young . zitterti. rafter. captain. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Lat. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Chimb. Fl. w. beam. kinderen. tiukkua. from the first of which is Lith.). cib. kibr. kindeken. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. For the see word Doit. chiler. to titter is Du. a jaw. creak. chol. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. kieken. Chaw. ' . G. ]). keichen. kop. Probably from Fr. to crackle. It. the rim or edge of a vase. has probably the same origin. See Chimmer. cap. Russ. kidata. tiukkata. Magy. s. the jole. cabar beinne. Fr. to chirp or peep like a chicken. the throat. to gasp for breath (Hal. to chew. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. pipio. alter. kauchen. knarren. or as E. Palsgr. Imitative of a loud clear sound. Gael. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold.D. Prov. branchy. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. or chick. caput. Pr. Bret. Child. the least imaginable jot. chin. in Walach. tintelen van koude. to pettifog. cebr. while didder is to shiver or citteren. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. cild. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. to use the jaws. lead through the synonymous E. To chitter. kitista. to contest.— Cot. the same principle I regard On birds. while the Magy. ultimate origin of the Mite. Du. chiquei. grelot). horn wood. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. kilderkin. a cup. tremble with cold. AS.' my finger tingles with cold. chimb. Fin. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. caferu. chaps.peep. chillness or shivering.— . The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. kouwe. a cup. 'Among these the G. knit the brow cib-led. De finger killet mi for kalte. queror. from the second Lat. Kil. Fin. pipio. tyuk. Du. kime. kuwe. E. from little to little. by driblets. a small cask OFr. kind. klagend tonen. acute. cheek. sonorous. a finch. to go. pipe. head. CHEW . capo. killen. to twitter.. to Du. Pr. quivering sound which passes. as. Fin. a young bird. Pl. a chicken. Chief. Walach. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Tintillo. — Fin. a chicken. horns of the house. the head. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . term is ssaru fu. mouth. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. cidan. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. then cold. And hence. deer's horn. greloter is to shiver for cold. chavel. Now gan some courage unto him to take. signifying properly shivering. Payer chiguet A chiguet. pi. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chillar. kimia. kippa. A To Chew. cabriones. a chicken. ach. kimme. cica cica. czypulas. kaau•wen.D. chieftain. to smart. pip. to raise the rim. and not vice versd. knirschen. G. choule. a head. Sp. . The Pl. Chick. Fr. Pm.^ to resound as a bell. chew or chaw. pole. are formed Du. crepo. chic. antler. Chitter. capete. or the broken noise of birds. Chigue. chicaner. chicoter. to scold. Swiss kiden. a quid of tobacco. chavel. Da. chawbone. kauen. or qf people talking rapidly. kauwe. stake. strideo. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. then as G. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. De chic en chic. tiuk. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Chime. 146 brial. aner.— Gattel. E. Fl. gosling. The loss of the syllable it in Du. a little bit. a hen. to contest about trifles. tiukka. Gattel. jaw. kaw. the Ptg.. also the horizon. CHJME the radical form is unusual. pululo. Fr.. machouere. gills of a fish. kimista^ . twitter. to the brim. jaw. — . as pointing out the origin of the E. To Chide. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. chikat'. capu. a cup cibaw. : — a lump. — — Mother Hubbard. Pm. . Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. rafter . kopf Du. tremble. jaws . of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. cabarach. — It. Halm. hiss as meat on the gridiron. to chime. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. caprioru.^ Hal. when the vibrations become very rapid. the young of animals in general. — Du. E.-ill. W.. chicken. and from the third E. . cabar. Chill. k'imm s. killen.

to sizel. Fr. schina. sound. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. and bodily movement in shimm. tsongeni.. eschin^e (de pore).). crepare. bone . — . up and down. kumista. It. Chimney. twinkling light. dial. Chine. also vibrans. companied. a chink or fissure. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to chirp. to gape. and chim-mer. Cot. to squeak in It. to chink. genawi. Sp. representing connected together. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. AS. — — — — — . way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. pork) . to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . It. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. fissure. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. plodere. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. A . komista. to open chirriar. Sp. schiena. to prattle . pare also Walach. . cisello. to chirp . so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Lith. . ciarlare. G. zirken. kink hoest. schrick. caminsects. Chisel. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. czirszkti. name Then. Du. all these imitative terms being minata. Chymerynge. which differ from each other only as Chirk. See Bright. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. Fr. See Chark. skina. Huloet. as a large bell . yivtiov. Sw. the whooping cough.sharp. a chap. the cheek. Gloss. zirpen. cheek.Lat. applied to tremulous motion. It. Gower in Hal. chin . hiss chirlar. the jaw.czirbti. a hall Mid. Ptg. disCot. Chit. See Chap. Caminatum. clashing of weapons. In the same sense. to tremble. Chat. Lat. The desig. 147 kimina. cleft. in the same crack. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. KinneGr. cinan. sparkle. Sp. kinne. klincken. twitter caminus. backBut she withal no worde may soune. the cheek (jaw) . tremulous motion. a thorn. Sp. It. chick. Chip. backe. bx-eak the back of schena. Chink.Huloet in Hal.er. schetteringe. the jaw. chhint. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. i. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Magy. and the Du. clipping of coin. have been used to designate the spine. the chine. from 10 * ' Chia. Pm. sound on beginning to boil. tsengeni. to murmur. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . simmer. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. ter. to creak. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. — . but or cry as a parrot. to chink with laugh2. a fire-place. a thorn. from Lat. Chintz. vincially used in the sense of a crack. To chirp or twitter. keich husten. chirp. Prov. clangor tinniens kummata. Gascoigne in Todd. Chitterling. E. j^lf. a szemrcU. do. hollow. kieck hoest. then to any narrow crack or AS. sonus the backbone Lat. resonance . chits. . Chimera. Bret.to chirp. To Chitter. sounding deep. cheminde. to creak. hiss Pm. Fr. eschiner. in Hal. Chink-cough. caperd. then of a fabulous monster part goat. gena. schetteren. squittire. tschirpen. — . representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. as birds the mouth. to simmer. as the chink of money. esquena. are In like manner E. spina. to prattle czirpti. esquina. The small entrails of a hog. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. a Kuttn. Chitter. cisaille. killed by Bellerophon. Chin-coug^h. E. to tattle.' Phaer's Virg. Pr. to sound. fyr.schricken. part lion. chink. to sound deep or the Gr. Kil. chatter . It. eschine. stridere.iron.to divide or Du. ykvvQ. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. tinnire. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. a surkik hosta. caminata. Fr. verynge or dyderinge. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. spina. See Chats. Fr. ciseau (for cisel). To Chimmer. — . as the/ is preserved tering. from the geon's lancet. sonants. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. epine. the chin . Hindost. gen. genou (pi. as a bell kommata. and light. . Diez de. to chine. Chyrme or chur. hus. Primarily a shrill sound. komia. The change from the sound ter \s. to chirre. G. a crowing sound in recovering breath. et garrire . quavering of the voice. Du. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. quivering or shakyng for colde. cincel. shiver and the chyver of Pr. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Bav.. and from a similar sound to boil gently. the mouth (jaws) . cinne. or chyFrigutus. To chink with laughter. rustle. kumina. flaw Hal. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. .

— B jag E. civette. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Chap. See try. cape. bile. cive. Choice. the inwards of an animal. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio.. to chap. chibble. chatter. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. to try .ceosan. to ^cleave . kushevati. kalbs gekrose. called cMtters in the N. OHG. to Compare also Pol. gustare. Swiss kust. full to overflowing. to break off in small shive. to taste. Boh. signify to kiss. Schmid. a chive. word is more likely to be from Lat. taste.' At last he dwelt . from chevalier. — Chock-full. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. it is probable that the root kus. taste. chiffe. chap hands. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. and Vf. okusyti. ruffs. Choleric. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. select. skifa. Gr. 2. shoot . The I go to prove them. ON. G. wkusit' prikushat. kiusan. chceur. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. to try. cepa. whence choleric. and in this sense the * small pieces. to try. all seem slate . to palpitate . to chap at a door . ments of the knightly class. ^S. coro. Chuck-full. chippe. haslets. a small slice or slip of anything . ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. by which they are Fr. gdnse gekrose. and N. to hack. to try. choppe. . an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side.D. developments of the same radical image. friller. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. shiver. a goose's giblets. to shiver. or original meaning is preserved in G. chawdron. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. a wine taster. Cavalry. to taste. a fragment. chives. Warwickshire coff. x^poc. gusten. kushati. Fr. Equivalents in the SlaFr. lead us on to Lat. to experience. I. The . wrath. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. a calf's pluck or chaldron . as with a blow. to taste . keuren. to taste. an onion. Fr. a blow. caperd. a ruff. disposition. . Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. kustigen. to tempt. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to prove. kausjan. ent quarter. a twittering.V)^x. heaped measure. to strike hands . — See Cheek. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. a calf's chaldern of E. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. To Chop. of E. . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers.ffrill. g'schochet voll. chimp. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . As kushnuti. Walach. specially with an application to theatrical performances. pluck. approve. To Choke. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. are used in the same sense. anger. ^euw. Prov. in the same language. — — — . G. cut up into — See Chats. Chivalry. Luc. to turn. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to clap up Hal. a scale or fragment P1. seallion or unset leek. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . kbhren. a company of singers or dancers. schiefer. then to shiver. to exchange horses. kaup. %o\ifa. krussyi. arkiusan. also calPs. kruszki. curly . of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. . and It. Gr. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to taste. the small parts of the roots of plants. a knight. from %u\i). —Chorus. ON. CHOP kros. from kraus. fine threads of flowers. kusid. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. propagated. koren. chock full. kor6n. Fr. a rag.gust. . Yr. chattering. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. Serv. •- Russ. . keypa. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. * To Choose. kiesen. try. schoch. pieces . &c. the ridges prove. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Choice is probably direct from Fr. choix.freze. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. chorus. try. The manners and senti. of an angry — — — ' ' — . kiusan. causir. Body and Soul. to ing is doubtless to taste. kieser. Enn Sigridur sem ' .. fresure. to taste. a ruff or frill. chife. The Sc. to wrinkle. to stop geschoppt voll. Lat. prove. to choose. schevel-steen. scheve. whence Lat. a young . crammed Choir. kiezen. G. Swab. Gr.yEuffM. chaup.vonic languages are Pol.' Verie coinme Cot. as green as leeks. 19. . a heap. Jam. then to try. &c. Chives. Goth. rare. — Cholera. xiv. cke. experience valerie. wein didder for cold. coup. full.' who shall not taste death. and in kosten. Chives are also a kind of small onion. i. gekrose.

— penny by We are in a fair way to think you. kobe. quappe. klompe. because she would not endure this husband chopping. to turn over. cob. E. xftovoq. chroniques. i. To Chop logick. chapma?i. Cot. whence apparently the Sup. dial. cresmeau. and we actually find champman for chapman. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. e. gold. xpi'^lia. In the Alchemist. connected with G. a lump or piece chump. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. E. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Du. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. See Chaff. the teeth to chatter . —Shakespeare. Sp. slipper . thumb Fl.. bearand aits. cheviniau. as in Fr. by the Robert Shirley. syllables chat. to clack. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. kubbr. Fr. to chatter. caphatenus. Fr. whence — E. to speak thieves' slang. traffic. prattle . Chub. high clog. thick-set. one who buys and sells horses or cows. of which such strings are made.• — .— Chevin. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. See Change. a trafficker in souls. in Chaucer. If I discover. p. Gr. a small fish with a large head. cavena. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. In Sc. Chopino. Lat. Anachronism. caqueter. capitanus. dealing. Sw. Alchemist. short piece kubbug. dial. kaulhaupt (club-head. whence e. XpvaaXic. Chough. Borgoens happen. plump. an offence against the fitness of times. soul-couper. capitone. Chord. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. forms are Chrism. Chuck.. chevin.' They are forebuyers of quheit.sohola. OE. cambiare. . E. cangiare. The Turk was here As one should say. capita. Chrysalis. equivalent to the E. Kil. applied to an owl in that language. chrisme. 4. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. &c. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. ' ' What's that? Dap. I bring you the Cloughs. ceo. Wall. choucas. fat. G. overset. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. A fish with a thick snout and head. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. chouette. Madam. caker. to overturn. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. cauvette j Fr. we find the following passage Dap. for to defraud. to strike in the hand. cauc. a messenger or envoy. kolbe (club). klopper. Marin. a The What dhy ^. who took in the Turk- clack. civetta. Peace. kowej Sax. What do you think of me. sent before him a Chiaus. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. which was written 27. to knock. kauwe. Come. Ant. kubb. kowe. AS. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. chevane. the string of a musical instrument originally. or miller's kaycke .' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. E. capito. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. a thick piece. gobio capitatus. chevane. From the Turkish Chiaus. xop5>}.(. To coup. peace. Confounded with the bullhead. clat. chub.—Chuokstone.X. — . chack. Du. Fr.\^s. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. . merchant. 49. the intestine of an animal. chrysalis (Plin. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Picard. time ra .' Jam. that will thank chiaus — you richly. That Face.).). chapineria. from kloppen. — Dief. in i6io. a stump. Nominale in Nat. Gr. monedula. the same word with the It. koppe. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. A jackdaw. — Chrisom. to cant. clogs. P. Chronicle. — Quabbe. kaej Lith. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap.— Landnamabok. -chron-. claquer. gull. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. a bullhead. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. To Chouse. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Fr. cow-couper. Jam. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. Gr. whence the Fr. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. chop.povucd. chouquette. — — — . noble Doctor. cheap. ON. chuet. as Du. kaufen. gull. e. chatter . Fr. ley in Giiford. chapin. kaw. chronicles. yiSA. Gr.

lamak. joffu. however. accido. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. kern. in Sc. KaxXij?. in circumcision. chakil. chuffy. &c.for the residue of stone coal. Ir. Sw. a pebble .. ladre from Lazare. i. AS. kerl. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Fris. jaws. a pebble.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. spuma metalli. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. ciuffo. chaps. The origin ation. ceorl. to make a aiKipa. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Diss. as water running over rocks or stones. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. countryman. ceaflas. that the word is an adoption of Fr. -cise. -eris. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. chofe (Grandgagnage). then the on oh StX iv roXt. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . cut off. dial. x^^i?.— Chu%. In Sc. to turn from blossom to fruit. — of the two words.^. to separate the kernel of the milk. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. to strike clatter. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . Probably from It. whence ON. a girding on. . and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). — . as a board. a fellow. sindel. ceaplas. e. as Fr. cinders used disjunctively. or choice part of a thing . to fall. See Cheek. scoria. from Lat. KvptaKolg. flower. a husband. ON. OFr. ChurL husbandman. male person. swollen or puffed up Cot. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. gffe. with It the Lord's house. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. to churn. as in E. -cisuiri). To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). to make a rippling noise. ON. cado. to fall at or on. dust. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Du.D. Cieling. to Newsp.' And cold. Cob. . kernjen. calx. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Lat. ceffo. Chunk. to sparkle. whence church. . pp. G. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. &c. so as to make the happen . Gr. giffle. geaflas. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder.— . Wall. to cut decide. incido. a cutting an old chuff. kaerle. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. cidre. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. as Epkema explains it. kjami.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. karl. kakka. * Cinder. Aasen. Lat. joufflu. -cido. G. the kernel. Da. chofu. ccedo. or. fat-cheeked.rendered by Kil. Church. -cide-. i. to jaw chack or snap. cendre. cheeks Cincture. sicera. cinctura {cingo. Sicerawry face ceffata. to gird. to fall upon decide. an old man. a douse on the tores. Du. ashes. sindr. Du. chops. Gothic nations. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. . a cutting round. AS. See Cheek. Jennings. from Lat. chack-stone. to To Chuckle. Fr. Cider. a miser. to cause the milk to grain. Cleland in Jam. the snout of an animal. . thence a belt. C^z^j^ churHsh. have given rise. residue of burnt coals. cheek. sindra. The spelling of chider has Chump. Wall. tie about). to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. marrow. ON. chack or stane-chacker. chife. — — A — ' ' — . 24. sive piratiam facere sciant. a rustic . klakka. log of wood. cinctus. cinis. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. a lump. we have to chack. See Ceiling. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. kirna. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. domhnach. comp. . has been impugned which it has really no connection. tindra. surly. kiorne. in the face. To chuck in the fall from.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. pith.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Hence -cid-. sintel. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Churn. Chuff. Fr. a resounding object. -cis-.' he adds. sinter. ceffore. to throw out sparks. Sc. to him a sudden blow. a man. set kerti. e. whence deciduous (of trees). cczsum (in of a sudden jerk.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. but by way of explan. to determine incision. Ka-^aiva. casum (in comp. blow on the I io6 in Mur. calculus. Lat. It is certain.V//a'6'?. Lat. As AS. a man. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. Gr. a man. to form grains of butter.

crack. a lemon tree. Clump. Arab. prattle. a Lat. klappen. a clod. lump of wood or with the nasal. biw. a citizen . trunk. around. stimulate. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). may cite w. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. clot ON. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Dan. clapping of klacke. a block. clambar. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. klammer. E. accordingly find the roots dab. slam. to call. to appeal. Fr. Citadel. a rattle Fr. klump. the place of . clapper. a rattle . citujn. chupon. a mass. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . sindri. fall. and E. klubb. clobyn. a lump Du. hringr. Comp. G. Circle. . Lat. circum. a'upiav. Mack. parallel root is slam. to cluck. to chatter. clamare. Lat. a kind of pipe. The notion of a lump. — (Dozy) ing blow. compared with It. uproar. . radical identity of the Fr. cluster. a cistern. forms — — — parent plant. lump. G. clamp. klepati. dob.to suck. W. clack. sound- — hands figures. the door was slammed J slamem. cittd. civilis. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. Recite. cry out . domern. from chupar. a for water. scion. a kind of rattle. circle. to summon or call on. KipKog. Hence Incite. a circle. ciste. sip. to cry out. to gnash the teeth.. and. to knock. It. City. in the frequentative form. a young and tender plant. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. KpiKoe. clack. to clatter. clat. crack. outcry. Excite. a ring. . Fr. ON. clap. To Clack. a judgment cern. is traced by Gr. noise. city. ON. clack-dish. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. chupon. klater-busse. glambar. —Circuit. a block. It. Gr. and clash. a clod Russ. * Ciplier. Lap. twig. lump. CION See Tinder. as caverna from cavus. klak. clasp. It. a city. a cleansing place. a ball. the tongue. Gael. klekotati. Du. a lump Lat. to toll . Sw. lash . vociferation. klabb. to cleanse. klqb. to clap at a theatre. . lump. castus). prattle. clap. cifra. cieo. klappe. Cot. whence cistiti. or split with noise. ern. klap. klacke-busse. Cite. empty Golius. smack. about. as in Sp. klamp. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. and Sp. The Gr. to bawl. Fr. belonging to cities or social life . kringla. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. * Cistern. civitas. lump. cittadella. 'mass. klompe. sifr. to call by name. Dan. lump . sound of blow. From Arab. Scion. circa. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. a whirlwind. gutter. . a place See place hiddern. babble . Clamp. bunch. a whip. ON. Chaste. cito. Lat. Bohem. See -cid-. Hal. circum. clump. dim. To Claim. or clap-dish. cit^. to strike. a boss . naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a ball. Fr. a pop-gun. So a light. mass . In Fr. cisterna.' sione. sajira. claquer crash. a knob. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Lat. sound. to chatter. klimp. claquer. civis. We . for Cion. log. to chatter . a hiding-place. See Circle. a circle. . -cis-. See Crankle. Citron. to go. of citta. &c. sphere gleba. Sp. clangor avium . a Pol. klacken. to make to go. klambr. a. E. to clack. claim. cion. rattle. Alt. rattle .— . tinnitus . are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. excite. klemte. kluV. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. glamm. cittade. globus. bunch . as. The syllables clap. Du. clamp. a city. clamer. Lat. chest. klopati. Du. -cite. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. cisterna. We . —Civil. . circ2tlus. a loud uksa slamketi. to set in motion by means of the voice. crack. around. claquet de moulin. Lat. to be empty. clatCot. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. clamras. . and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. . suck). a circle. claquer. . . chatter . citrus. creak les dents. Sw. noise — — a cistern. klateren. Circum-. wasserkasten (water chest). a shoot. lucerna. to call. clack-box. a reservoir Probably from Lat. to mention. chijfre. ball kloben. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. area. a split. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. ring. klumbr. Lat. ruin. clog. scion or sucker. glam. cry. ter. cista. Gael. Gr. kringr. with an initial s instead of c. or quill to draw waier through Fl. cion. sprig. Clam. Tlie proper sense is a sucker.

klippe. — with hunger. dientes. a place underground where rabbits breed. Clamp. to climb. klappre. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. is used in the sense of secretly. a sound made by a lighter clink. cream Manx doan. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. klappen.er. dap up. viscosity . anything hidden. klappen. sound of the trumpet . klam. where- A — unto they retire themselves. Bohem. from the w. to patronus. dam. to gingle. clandestine. compression. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. a rattle . klopfen. to claw oneself up. bandage. for tame conies. klavre. — Lat. to knock. clasp. tingle. as the clapping of hands. klemmen. a claw. Du. B. Clink. to stick conceal. dial. The equivalent of Lat. . klepanie. substances of a stickydam. a stick. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klynge. bond. from birdlime. dia. glambar. &c. to hold to pinch. yf. ancestor. also to clog up. Clank. with cramp-irons. Clamour. . dren. G. Gael. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. cramp. The root which gives rise to klibb. Swiss kldbem. crowd . sound object . klepati. beat. pressed close or hard together. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klimmeii. — — . Sw. knocking. klamm. Clap. massy. daver. klynge sig op. a noose . tenacious. kleppen. rattle. grasp. clap. brawl. and hence to pinch . resonance klingen. clann. Russ. A i. klampen. closely analogous to that of the fast. ring as metal. . celo produces Fin. dink Du. cramp-iron. chatter. cling. Clapper. clink. offspring. to climb . Du. To clap in E. gliong. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. hold. dem. klebern. G. clammy brace. These words To are closely connected with damp. grimper. tight. children. to climb. clapas. to Sw^. cluster. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. OE. dee. a stone See Claim. E. klem-vogel. klatten. clang. solid.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. tremble . to climb. diver. sound . Mampe. to seize. to starve. — Climb. whence sala. salafa. kleppe. dambar. a sound. privately. klemmen. . cleave. to beat. stick. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. klepel. kloben. klamre. Dan. Lat. but perhaps not directly from it. sound. kleben. dang. Dan. uproar. klemmen. a heap of stones. E. descendants . accent. dial. to stick or glue. run to lumps Clandestine. to clutch or cling oneself up. to hide. klette. a burr. See Clam. Clang. viscous. klam7n. — . . to cling. to climb. E. adopted Lat. These are imitations of a loud. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. or klamp-vogel. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. gum. chief. beating. G. buckle klamp. damor. To Clamber. dam. In like manner Du. contraction. Clan. G. G. Dan. tinkle. rumour. hook. to hold fast with the . seize. as the Lat. of which the locative case. to knock. to Hal. dandestinus. Hence the Fr. originally a heap of large stones. strait. Dan. klang. a trap. . a whip. to clap. kluppel. Swiss kletten. of money Gael. E. to climb.p correspond- ' without order. to glue. Fr. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . coagulated cream.' to take coals to Newcastle. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. G. clangor.' klibba. damras. klubber. is a nasalised form of gripper. dank. tattle. clav\f. dapi^. sticky Hal. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. in a hidSen place. clap. klammern. a claw . Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. dam. holdfast. AS. of the children. conceal. prison. a sound made by a still . chatter. klammer. clapper of conies. The E. club . Du. pinching. gripe. salaan. strain . Du. sound. Lang. nature . The Fr. to clap on. clajnmy. klank. hands or claws to grasp. dienklebber. to pinch. to do anything with a clap. — Cot. narrow. and that from celo. G. to daub pinch. a craCmp. B. c). to hook things together. apprehend . klamme. dapier. a loud tingle. To sticky. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . clamber. tone. clear sound. a heap of stones or other things piled up . to glue. dapier. clibby. klobber-saen. klibber.1. to clamp. to. the in many languages.. a bird of prey. and hence moist. dam immediate modifications — . scendants. kleppe. to dame. who occuG. take hold of. Salainen. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. ney. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. Bav. compress. klettern. to cleave or stick. Halma. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. a hawk. children.

cluster. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. from clinging to the tree which supports it.Gr. ivy. klucz. Clasp. nawith stanis. is preserved in Lang. fibula. a buckle. vin claret. with a reddish tint. klamme. clarinado. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. The collar-bone. Nightingale. to clap . Identical with ON. clausula. a bird with powerful talons. the primary origin clapa. Commonly made. Lat. K\a. a complete sentence. G. Cot. klauwe. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Wyutoun in Jam. Lat. clarin. to end. cinnamon. from the resemblance to a key. teren. the collar-bone. klc^i. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. Clash. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. is used in Sc. So Pol. clairon. kluczka. he of white and red grapes mingled together. sound of the foregoing description. skeria-klasi. straight-mouthed. 269. clopa. klos. to fasten together . bawling. gaspe. klouwe. Du. clairon of a trumpet— It. Lat. klatschen. and through v into a. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Lang. klaequivalent to clack or clap. waU. to knock. kletse. klatsche. Claw. Lat. — tells us. mass. climp. from its use in fastening things together. applied in their harness. &c. Clavicle. Fr. a club or massy stick. Eya-klasi. to snap. klouwe (Kil. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread.). Fr. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. row aii/iaTos. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. It.ck a whip. rubellum. and shrill-sounding trumpet. Du. stop of an organ. insularum nexus .Z. to shut. puUs. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. to do anything with a . Clew. Clause. chiarello. Nawith stavis. clavus. The b readily passes into gleba. clump. cloi. Eau clairette. klaskad. clew or fasten upon a thing. a. as Mod. Du. i. Du. thwack . somewhat clear. From claudo. In the same way is formed the OE.oi. a claw. Thus from Lat. It.\x\xvn. to rattle . clamp. to patter. to fasten. chiizjj-o. sphaera. klatschen. chiaro clear. In E. klaterbusse. kleeven. Fr. in the sense of a claw. —Kil. klase. same class with w. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. hawk. biichse. clair. klampe. claw (what fastens together. and clavis. seizes) . Serv . blab. Analogous Jam. Kil. klaeret. a claFr. a key origmally a crooked nail. Owl and that by which cleave to. compression. kiosk bicza. chiarino. in the sense of a mass or lump. Mask ! plask ! thwick. under three modifications dava. or as G. biichse. contraction. sauna de classes. clausum. noise. Gr. a kind of small. clatter. ansa. . globus. clas. vinum helvolum. Prov. glcis. to draw it up into a bunch. a water made of aquavitse. mass. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . a. Dan. Du. klot. dap. e. clew. a little hook . Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Originally clasis.to cra. to ring in such a manner for the dead. &c. Clatter. chasguear. a lump . klatscha pop-gun. pellet . — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. diver. — Kiittner. kleuen.. as G. a key. Russ. — Clarion. klauw. classis. pet. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Rayn. an on the one hand. chatter. a ball. . the cracking of a whip. a sphere . KXeiSi. Pol. which signifies a ball in E. Claret. a clod. klijven. a heap. a lash. a lump. thence a definite head of an edict or law. vin clairet. locket of a door. crying. a clasp. and old red rose-water. ghespe.It. Sp. as it is written by Chaucer. whence kleuer. syrtium junctura. Klatsch- a pop-gun . The form clew. to animals Sp. claret win e. to cleave. assembly. schnalle. flap.— CLARET clamp. Thus from clamp. an ending. fragor . globus. clavis.w or u on the other. a nail. But clasp or elapse. we pass to the E. ictus resonans. a distribution of things into groups. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. fracas. it is called clamming. a key KKtitid. to clash as arms. E. To clew. from scknallen. buckle. Sw. a bunch. From clairet. Class. rion. nail. klampvoghel. subrubidum. uproar. — Clarinet. Du. also a knell for the dead. hook. forms are the Du.

a fissure or division See Cleave. opposite senses. the two parts of Du. a cleft or fissure. Lat. See Clog. and. explained from the klinken. clean. daggy. radiant. give a shrill sound Jr. lump. Du. klank. klor. to shine. gingle. of iron worn on shoes by country people. ON. to chink. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. gentle. klinken. a fissure. from the clinking of the latch. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. together . . to Brilliant. W. polish . clean. it cleave together. to tear or cleave asunder. pure. holding together. glbram. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. sticky . or from being divided into two parts. klink. to stick or adhere . a flash. klouen. rivet. found in other cases. Dan. split. i. is fast and sure. dags. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. pure. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. to dag ox dog. the To Cleave. Du. E. a key. clear. The proper meaning of the word is shining. Gael. doggy. dag. From dob. Clear. to clinch GB. as Lat. and Celtic glan. rive. klieuen. conserere antklankjan. bend in a stream. The word is . calm. The word may be — . clean. G. Sw. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. a lump. This is probably one of the clean. dams. glandse. seem formed dial. bright. . glatt.). glbr. a cleft. to clink or sound. Sw. to shine . dinquet kleeven. AS. . klceg. dench. kldnkelein. cleave. bogs cous.— Clag. as ON. Clay. either by the coherence To Clepe. clibby. from nitere. as explained under G. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. Cleat. Axletree clouts. klinke. 154 CLAY dutch. provinciaUy termed dout. Da. klutsch. glint. or of a tree. vissticky . kluyte.— Claggy. kleverig. Da. cloven wood. clear. to be composed. Du. a cleft. neat. smooth. pure . danche. the original . Sc. glan. klyft. that was a striking proof. voice. Die zaak is zS. clear. loam. viz. The Dan. pretty. to clench. to sound or make a noise . Cleft. glance . or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. in two ways. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . ON. From clap. to separate into parts. clay . and Dan. to clinch a nail. sleek. to cleave. Sc. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. A — A Clement. to stick to. from diquer. a lump. glan. klinke. pellet. famous. . to glitter. Fr. Thus from G. ON. nitidus. Omklinken. G. kluft. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. a mass. kleben. date is AS. tongs. kluit. klinke. kluftholz. E. Wilbraham. kleg. clean. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. speech . kloben. . doff. kloben. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. deot. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. door-latch. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. glitta. klinka. G. a bunch of When flax). klinken. hook. river. sticky earth. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. To Clench. that was Torriano. Du. mud. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Bav. as the Du. glorious. celebrated .' was nailed to a rock. dial. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. Mar. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. a plate. — : A rivet. the latch of a door. a mass. sticky. klov. kleevig. a — — . 2. klouen. E. clash. (Cot. merciful. to fasten. Clean. Lat. dedgy. Clemency. a in that of sphtting. glent. clink. a noose. klirre. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. clout. G. words applicable sight. dut. Du. Sw. Du.— . a latch. klove The Dan. chaps in the skin. See Clam.Q. a one end. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. klinken. klafwa. kloben. vice. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. klag. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. geklonken. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. a claw or talon. to 2. Da. a noise. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . glindse. glitnir. G. klijveii. kla:g. Clinch. shine. diquetcr. Probably a modification of the word doitt. klieben. neat. . clemens. rift. gaklankjan. Kil. a clincher. klincke. an object is simply cleft. to fasten E. to fasten. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. This word is used in two business is finished off. klirren. kleg. gleit. viz. polished. kloue. as Fr. and E. the fork of the body. Halma. To call. glor-mhor. glan. splendid pohshed. B. cliquet.

Happen. kloof. lively. 3. Klover i munden. the clergy clericus. littus. whence Fr. score7i clif. a clerk . klaffen. The Sc. snatch. declivity. diofian. to prate. diquette. scar.' ii. cliff. nimble. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. d See Clan. to talk as a parrot. chatter. sonare. klinke. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. . and hence climate. kliv. chatter.. to clack. a lazar's clicket or clapper. dob. OE. quick of perception. the knocker of a door. The origin is the Gr. deik. gleg. dough.— Clue. it must be observed.dergie! Wiclif in R. frap- per rudement une personne. dial. See Clamber. corresponding to Fr. Det er en Mover kerl. to bend. a latch. babble.) Brai. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. Hence Lat. a tumbril. klikker. AS. rapidus from rapio. Chaucer. expeditious. rock. to confess . a claw or clutch. clif- stanas. clif. CLINCH De . Lat. to catch. Clew. clever. a latch. clep. kleppen. ginally from dob (extant in W. climate. cliquet. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. klif. klippe. a mill-clack . &c. a precipice. that is a clever feUow. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. exactly Gr. a clew. chatter. from clifian. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. to cleave. Boh. diver. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. rupes . cliof. ravine. on. as from derido. a ball of twine.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. Client. clack. Sw. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. pulsare. the clergy. a ladder. click. speak. . ball of thread oriTo CUnch. Sp. as a click with the tongue. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. and (with the nasal) — clincher. Lat. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. cleopian. clyf. de ripa. to seize. cleft in a rock. from Gael glac. dutch). cart that tilts over. In I Peter v. region not observe it. 3. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. ized . ready of speech. verge). Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . glomus. derigon.). clatter. a cliff. /cXi'fia. dek. claw or talon to dek or deik. Clam. a lot. See AS. See Clench. one admitted to the tonsure. klever. clap. to catch. kleppe. dergi. corresponding to the Sc. to teU tales. abrupta rupes . would have been derida. -Toe (from KXivm. crepare. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. a trigger. dexterous. click it. dicher. slope . cautes. to cry. a figure mentioned. a clicket or clapper. say. dook (identical with E. klaiv. a hump. cave . IS5 Du. Du. a sphere. e. clima. — have the notion of a short quick in E. crack. clerus. highest is attained. Rouchi cliche. to tattle. sink. a latch . Fr. Now the OE. CLERK sound of a blow. . syn. duik. Climate. deudi. a baU of yarn. Sc. or Sc. klika. to tattle. to stir. has also deik. KkrifoQ. a cleft in a rock . seize (Hal. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. and hence deik. an inclination. hamraklif. a hold. klouwe. Da. cleft of a hill. neither as having lordship in the. click. quick in motion. in precisely the same sense as the E. a hook. what so men clappe or crie. klev. derigo. Dunbar in Jam. call. pen.Lat. call. has kl'dver. . Gr. Jam. above the pole. a child's or clack . a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. deik. in the sense of active. to snatch. dial. Somner. temperature. cliquer. Lat. klok klep- crepitare. rock. klinge. one of the clergy. globus. a lump. dichet. deuck. chat. cleugh. catching. Claw. Click. precipice. cleke. Du. Climb. icXi/ja?. precipices. which in Mid. kliket. G. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). cleft. dink. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. crackle. klippe. to rattle. click. klikklakken. name.— Clicket. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. light-fingered. or an object character- Clerical. — — A . clever. —Vocab. Cot. which is used in Scotch and N. Climax. Clever. the dick of a latch or a trigger. Cliff. derecia. is NE. klinket. prattle. had a form. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . rugged ascent. with hamarskard. Norm. to wink. deuch. clypian. Commonly derived from deliver. agile. to sound an alarm to clap. duke. to move. dial. We movement catch. in rhetoric. dever. skard. G. Clergy. stein- kluppen. as Sc. Du. Bav. derjon. Clerk. cligner. But the Dan. as Lat. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. on.

-cliv-. ON. to snap or fillip schnippen. Da. hluk. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. toga muliebris. a lump. klinken. Decline. gang. . ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. g. dial. klungeln. dial. shears. kolbe to E. to bend downwards . w. G. a beU. klak. outcry. klepalo. to snap tongs. especially of something soft or clammy. a lump of butter. to knock. and a similar syllable without the /. -atum.' From Pl.D. clips. Een kliks bolter. dag. I. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. to lean backwards. Clink. nip. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. to clap or clack. Sw. to slope or bend . — clot. knippen. klocke. hluccti. klik. to crowd together klynge sig ved. klunker. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. G. klocke. Esthon. clato make a noise. as G. bow. * Clod. club). So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. kolki-laud. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. whence E. klippa. Swiss klokken. at first probably on a wooden board. compress . Bohem. a hood. sticky. hooded . to cling to a thing. kXiVu. glungelin.. . Pl. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church.. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. to wither. klippur. speaks of a ' clung bat. To Cling. Lat. a lump G.— KSS. pinch. Bohem. G. ten. to clip. . schnippen. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. To cut with shears. to resound. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. Sussex peasant AS. toga. a woman's mantle . to ring. like cling. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. cochl. klippe. clinke. klicke. Clock. — a mantle. E. 'Till famine cling thee. clino.— Clot. Du. Swiss klungele. ring clag. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Lat. ' . G. gUong. to sound sharp. met. iissura. disposed to a thing. hlinian. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klynge. to shrink up. to wither. kldpp. kliks. klipa. . a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. as we now say three or four o'clock. . a ball of thread . Bi klik uti klak. to crowd or squeeze chingy. incline. difficulty. a faction. klocka. klingen. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. . 2. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. straits. klaka. recline. to beat. See Clang. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. a tinman.und zuk-lippen. kleppe.. by bits. klippa. glocke. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. parva ruptura. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. fetter. N orman clincailler. pinch. kluben. Du. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. clivus. . rima. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. The E. clingan. ON. To Clip. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. clinker. Hal. slant. to pinch. related to clock. klinka. klunge. kluppe. -CLINE make pinch. to strike. klupen. klok. Fr. from klepati. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . also to form a compact mass. See Cowl. G.' for a dry stick. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. to . Ir. to cluster. incline. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. dial. 156 -cline. to make a loud noise. Sw. OHG. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. and so' to contract. clangere. knippe. in Schmeller) klunk. hill . knot klynge.. a clock. kukla. ON. hlinen. to clink auf. quincailler.ginglej Fr. cloak. clock is a variation of clack. sloping downwards . to snip. &c. also to wink . clique. G. a clog or fetter for a beast . sloping upwards procUvis. To stick to. a bell. claw. kima. Sw. Walach. Sw. . four of the bell. Serv. to snap kneipen. S w. whence the hour of the day was designated as three.D. E. as thick or curdled liquids. klippen. as to snip in the same sense from snap. pallium. acclivis. Sw. Cloak. cloche. Du. a separate portion. clutch. verklungeln. to beat on the board. or bagging clothes. Ang. a cluster. difficulty . globulus' (Gl. noise. Flem.'— Shaks. to pinch klupe. a bell. chcng. klungelin. dial. Gael. Gr. knippchen. declivis. to form one mass with. Cliofue. kol- The word . klincke. sloping forwards. Fr. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. . to shrink up. clog. brett-glocke. Du. Kil. to clunge. tuft. to AS. a rising ground. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to lean. a snare. and 'E. klo^gen.

the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed.dial. we pass to E. forbidden by 17 Ed. To Clog. slops). a spot. enOE. Klottermelck. kloteispaen. . IV. to shut up. motzen. .). E. a trowelful of mortar. . TZoxapov. kleck or lack. m&se noch stain. lump of something soft . Yule-clog.