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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. persons of different tongues at the present day. and. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. in language of the present day. mind of the of the animal. when we is represent to our children of the cow. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. or Mollein. and mully or mully cow is the . On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. to the syllables which are significant to the child. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. with an initial m or I. in other words. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. the closer we shall approach to the . the baaing of the sheep. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. or. come Moolls. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and where we are seeking. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. the present day. by whom the be understood. Molli. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. is given to a cow or calf. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. but nothing she herself knows the animals. when neither name for the object to be designated. The syllables moo (mu. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). muK) and mae (rfie. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow.NURSERY IMITATIONS. name of the cow. and in imitates the cry are used withitself.

he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.' In ordinary speech mump. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. fiafifi&v (Hesych. . had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. when hungry.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Gradually. . by the natural humming sound. he called to to drink. repulsive to eat.. for things. p. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. Gr. partly from sounds which the child caught. We have. for everything fit to eat. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. for bad. to eat. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. family. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. First. schipp. nineteen years old. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. He would now say good. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. had nim. to For instance. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. On one occasion he said^e nim. to work over with the mouth. and nim came to signify everything edible. Finally an n was placed before it. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. as well as the mind of the utterer. and some were very clear and distinct. A member of my own new sfop. Heinicke. his nurse adopting the word with him. &c. mumm. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. then. I had watched the growth of this word. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. became more perfect. and which we might express thus. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist.). analogous to Magyar mammogni. in children's language. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. nim. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. hm. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. 72).' he says. it changed to the more articulate wn and im.

aves tinnire. and the fizzing (and Series. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. mumpfeln. nobis vix permittitur. on. voracious. stolen.ONOMATOPCEIA. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Nimm'd up. to fill the mouth. j ing .' — Lersch. Primitive Culture. or word-making. at hiamske i sig. buckra man's language the white man. Gothic niman. p. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. i. tidbits nama . ' Motherwell. namnam. snatched (Whitby Gl. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. 1 86). in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . to taste . to be pleamind . to move the lips in continued chewing. Soosoo (W. nam. lita. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). Wolof nahenahe. taken up hastily on the sly. aptantes adfectibus vocem. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. jumla. nvrnma. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. mujnpa. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. ' id est.minis. Vei (W. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. and the crab — p. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. i8o. eating. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt.' says Quintilian. to take. to eat. as well as the Sw. iii. oves lalare. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. nyam nyam.' And Diomedes. A negro proOr. ut tinnitus aeris. delicacies. . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. greedy . South Jutland hiamsk. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. the Scotch poet. Africa) nimnim. jammla. sweet (Koelle). Swedish dialect gamsa. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. savory. 130-1.' says the author of Modern Slang. and some of them . The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. make djamdjam). we can call them so. jamsa (yamsa). to chew laboriously. mumpfen. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. Galla djam djeda. Africa) nimi. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). to eat mampfen. crab nam buckra man. (in chil- dren's language). yamming. and thence to be tasteful. to mump. to smack in eat. to Sw.). ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. food (Tylor. as to . memmexen. palatable. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). clangorqae tubarum. dial. mumble. agreeing with Ein.

the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . und growling. but of a dog. or. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. whether it deserves the name of language. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. might be used. anything connected with it. neighing or whinnying of horses. intended in the instance to represent the cry. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. yelping. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. 'I doubt. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. bellowing of bulls. for the purpose of bringing the animal. We . sparrow and chirping. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. croaking of frogs or ravens. cackling or gaggling of geese. snarling. baaing or maeing of lambs. or thoughts of our hearer. dove and cooing.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' — We speak of a cow. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens.' he says. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. yelping. chattering of pies or monkeys. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. bleating of sheep. do not speak of a bowwow. bumping of bitterns. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. cooing or crooing of doves.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. howling. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. that there is When Man. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. p. ^6^. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. before the in other words. Indeed. lowing of oxen. when circumstances required. not of a moo of Lect. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. a lamb. not of a baa. chirping of sparrows or crickets. between dog and harking. barking. grunting or squealing of hogs. gobbling of a turkey-cock. Yet we ing. twittering of swallows. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. hooting of owls. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle.' And elsevs^here (p. purring or mewing of cats. snarling of dogs. 89) with less hesitation. might be used as the designation of it. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound.

Picard cau. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. kuho. ghak. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. KOKKvi. layitavya . 4th century before Christ is earliest times. crow.' kd). in g. and the sound of that direction. Sauscr. Origines Indo-Europeennes). whose sound (Pictet. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Sometimes the hoarse i . as which is unmistakeably the source Du. a a crier (p. Columbia kahkah. sound). and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. a daw. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. lion. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. In Lat. Kdrava. gackem. In Basque. e.. fi-om apakd- i. Barabra koka. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. kae. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket.). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. is kuM) for the cuckoo. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. or quawk. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. having a general predicative power. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Aoo-Aoo. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. according to Durga). kdka. and means a shouter. kauwe. coccolare. a crow (Pictet). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. a crow. and gaggele or gagkelein. 380. caw kuhii-rava (rava. 'Kdka. Arabic kdk. Georgian quaki. 349. Manchu The kaha. Bav. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence.). birds. and Bavaria respectively. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Malay gdgak. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. a bird that is be driven away. caller. ist ed. 4th ed. in is Gr. He to is therefore derives kdka. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). Hungary. crow.' common sense. it announces (Salaberry). most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring.IMITATIVE NAMES. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket.

xi. tor. Malay kukuk. lulo. krahe. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. a crow . krauklys. Arabic tdtwit. Scotch peeweip. and sometimes both together. Pers. kukhuta. name of its is the bird. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. German luhu. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. yell. Yoruba koklo. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Esthonian kikkas. tbrtora. and e. the name for a crow. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . t. gugu. name. giving turtur (and thence It. as well as of Sanscr. uhu. So we have Polish krukac. coqueri- Languedoc. teewhoop. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. in the North of England.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. kraeyen. kraeye. Swedish kowipa. tortbla. kirren. wood-pigeon. great variety of oKokv^uv. turtle) as the Lat. to crow. hibou. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. kruk. 6. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Dutch kievit.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. a crow.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. ghughu. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Zulu kuku. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. either in the same or in related dialects. German kielitz. Da. Hindi. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. coccovaec. to cry loudly. kuku. k. kraukti. to croak. Lettish kiekuts. The crowing of cot in Fr. to crow. by the verbs gurren or girren. Albacuculi a dove. girre. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. to hoot. lUyrian kukurekati. libufs. while crouk. the name of an animal will gen- . coucouva. to howl or Lat. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. Walachian coucouveike. kurre. The consonants p. Mod. synonymous forms of similar structure). another. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. lilits. tur. p. 219. tbrtola. a crow lish Lith. Heb. French dishuit.. Fr. It. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Sp. Du. kukko. Ibo akoka.. tuquheit. German and Eng- krahen. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. or Gr. are represented. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. and e. gufo. cock. Magy. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Du. korren. to croak.Gr. reduplicate form. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. koeren. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects.

Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Sc. skril with n. shrill. Fin. swirplys with 6. grille. flight its sting considered as a horn.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. droning is . Corean sirsor. schirke. dhran. g. PofijivXwg. schwirren. skryle. cricket is from crick. or a gnat fly. Lith. We may cite Gr. Northern Farmer. German dronen. oE. Sanscr. Lat.' —Tennyson. e. whirr).' Amazons. bamba. pip-pi-ta.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. German hummel. knetta. to hum. ajo. a drone. North of England. sound. The drone peal. (Jieuschrecke) . g.or bumble-bee. sirkka. with or Fr. i. representing a short sharp sound. schrickel. Australian bumberoo. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. The Arabic sarsor. grylhis. kong-kong. grillen. In the N. German drohne. gives rise to chwymores. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. horniss and from the buzzing The. ta-na-nd. a fly (Tylor) . n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Arabic tantanat. thunder. growling. loud rumour. Gaelic dranndan. a sharp sound as of a 6. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. succeeding each other — with noise. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. give a faint sound. The name of the cricket indeed. ' — Pictet .IMITATIVE NAMES. as . little intermission. Lithuanian tranas. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. a beetle druna. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. and probably indicates that g. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. glass cracking (Schmeller). to rustle. — Catafogo. a small as hawk is . and not from E. words imitative of humming . Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. the drone or non-working bee . skirl. to chirp J may be compared with . The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. and he kong-ko-rong. to grumble. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. from schrick. zirken. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. bee. 337. a bee. from the humming. a hornet. buzzing. buzzing. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. to chirp . ' Sanscr. Naturalist on the tocano. hollow noise. the humble. bambhara.' — i. 'The natives call it tanand. Speaking of a cricket he says. booming. which they make in their flight very . g.vf3. resounding of musical instruments. and yelping cry. Danish dron. Danish gnaddre. resound. there are infinite varieties. to be compared with Sanscr. of England it is to the b 2 . erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. din. humming. Albanian tsentsir. The Welsh chwyrnu. common. to sound. to creak Bret. chirk. schrecke. to shrill sound sharp. in allusion to its music. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta.

grumble as distant thunder . are (with a subsidiary k). a cow. or formed Lat. fivKaofiai. lulauti (to hoo-loo). and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Cult. With these analogies. bwla. bull. verb is evidently identical with our shout. or moo. bae. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. and djeda. Da. to sound. bos. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to . agreeing exactly with Lith. p. Piedmontese fi bau. mugire. bullock. to bellow like a bull. Manx booa. btibleti. w. bugler. to the uses goda. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. that the imitative syllable are Lith. be-l-er. Lat. as that of the cow by boo. to make. maukati. and thence Lat. to or bark. Lat. mugler. make to it laugh. ox. has bilbilgoda. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. bauli. Galla boa. — ^Tylor. bo. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. a bullock. His analysis leads cow. Norse bu. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. a drum . bubati. loge. representing the mew of a cat. bovis. miau-l-er. in same way. bullus and e. to bump as a bittern Illyr. to make. say. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. bu. a buffalo. Fr. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. From baa. bugle. is inadmissible. bae. to low . to boohoo. to low or bellow. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. or with on. Thus from miau. shoot . From the same lioao). as the Illyr. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. and from to ring. muJiati. bue. mamoo-heeheek. boo. to ba-L-are. Gael. bucula. a bull. and in Hottentot baa was the . to shout. from the imitative moo instead of boo. k or g. to beat hard. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to make a noise. or bau-l-i.XX called booing. to bow- own bawl. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. (iove. bukati. On the same principle. to shout. Zulu lulula. mae. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to mew. a Geiger. to make a loud deep sound. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. OFr. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to low. Hottentot bou (Dapper). it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. verbal form given to the say. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. The Piedm. buculus. It. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. cattle. to from bau. Lat. to weep. a heifer. whence baula. 167. bubenti. amuse. or a z to the imitative syllable. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. Illyr. make poo. The Galla lilbil. Fr. the Fr. the animal. in a imitation of a ringing sound. forms a. biibnas. representmake bow. w. baula. bolt. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS.

Manx meilee. curmurring. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. lecco. may be identical with Esthon. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. grunny. grumpf. a dog. name. sus-sus. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. G. grumble. cite as by grunt. Kurren und murren. hound. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). grumbhng. does not produce a e. this obstinate race. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. to bleat. from hundama. hundi). lek-eg-ni. as lou of an ox. to themselves. to bleat. meckern. from knurre. and of (maelon). grunlike a pig in eating. menAda (ndda. Moreover. Among dog. a wolf. the snout of a pig. 6. Gael. for the voice of the ox). a sheep. in Wolof bae.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. a (Hesych. or in any ! way ! persuading. although the imitation embodied in Lat. / The same Gr. we have Sanscr. Gr. corresponding to ohg. houch. grogner. and with the subsidiary k or g. Gr. a hog. he would hardly. signifying a snarling. Fr. meketati. Welsh and Breton). From the imitative mae. knurfisk. hadg- Magy. a pig Fin. Illyr. sheep or goat. meil. and Circassian maylley. a sheep (Lowe). . to growl. and snorke. name of a sheep. hunt (gen. a. Gr. grunt. meugler. Illyr. goats. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. a sow. a grunt. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. Magy. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. rumbling. purr). lekavica. kurren. to rumble. with the root ypaipm. hwch. groin. guttural tone.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. And it is true there between hog and grunt. a sheep or ewe. mutter. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. meigeal. mecati. leg-et-ni. — . cry). the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. and thence groin. lambs. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. to bleat . . and hoc'h. a goat firixal^ta. smack and naski. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal.). growl. and grumphie. karra. Da. it and e. oe. the designations of a dog the term cur. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. leknuti. ^. (iriKov of forms like Sw. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. in v. /xijeao/iat. name of the animal itself. undoubtedly imitative. Illyr. hunon. nire. It. a sheep or a goat. naskia. kurre. /xj/caScj. a goat. may with to snarl. a sow. Idgge (Rietz). hund. by which the shingle gives rise to It. It is probable also that e. . to howl. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Hence Breton hoc ha.' Moor's Suffolk words. grumble. as the proper name of a tame sheep. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. a goat. to grunt. grugno. Fr. Africa laa. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. to grunt. sound. mekegni. With gen. ' In driving. a pig. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. The g. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch.

hobby.. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. without a — we root. coquette. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. Sc. If onomatopoeias can .. when he found peculiarity. hiine. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). the cry to stop or back a horse. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. ^6<. 91. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. to whine.' ticular bird. (Craven Gloss. to the left. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. p. . as in Yorkshire highly right.' — ist Series. coquelicot. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. from the cry animal. hoppe. . humma. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. of the character in question. p. houpy in Craven. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. a little am- bling horse. M). There are of course some names. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. So Sanscr. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound.). hobben. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. hobin. But words of this kind are. to go backwards. turn a horse to the is In Finland. g. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. like artificial flowers. Thus we are led to the Fr. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. a mare. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. animal. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. e.).' 2nd Series. cockade. a horse.root. hottihuh. Esthonian hoibo. such as cuckoo.

that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. groan. moan. command of language was attained. fehtati. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. than to the sounds represented. Sw. nitrire. hresh. hresh. wrena. runniken. e. hross. as sigh. to Sanscr. form corresponding hresh. frenschen. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. titter. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Pl. lapwing. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. wiehern. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. cough. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. hennir. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. hikkd. Bohem. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. redpole. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Indian It is not unlikely that the on.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. wrenska. horse. animals or certain kinds of sound. nounced with a guttural). rinchar. Sanscr. but whether there kind between them and other words. Du. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. g. goatsucker. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. ginniken. . but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. hukkup. Lettish sweegt. Irieschen. woodpecker. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. ance or habits of the animal. swift. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. Sp. creeper. giggle. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. diver. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. little speak for themselves. sol. signified It. whitename in in- throat. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. wagtail. to neigh. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. Fr. xxiii ginal object. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so.D.

' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. for blows with a rod. fitsche-falsche. klatsch. are familiar in ' to every one.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. Australian bungbung ween. a more expressive than the e. snort. — Sanders. lumm. for the creaking of a wheel. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. dong Read. thunder (Tylor) . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. snukkup). haw. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. banga. atchian. pit-a-pat. Zulu bongo. banke. debhes-lungotais (deifies. strippstrapp-stroll. clap ! A smack Puff. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. 1865. Da. to beat. Vei gbangba. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. or tliat is accomit. to sneeze. pump. hang. aritischane. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. for that of breaking. . haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. to ham.' ! ! ! ! — dong. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . ting-ting. It is represented in e. a kind of drum. for the sound of a blow. oren : Klapp. White Lies. an attempt would be made to by the voice. mer.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND.' So imac. &c. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. to throw violently down. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. beat. heaven). for the sound of milking.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. to knock. haitshu. or the w. hoo ping ping. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. for in such sound of blows. went the cannon. bang. to drive on. for a small one. beat of a clock child .' it both sides went. scream. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. tisio (tisho). shriek. for the sound of a fall. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. —Brem. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. Mei gbengben. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . the dashing of the sea . &c. wheeze. Wtb.' 'Haw. for the for the sound of . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. a large bell. to hammer . ping came the bullets about their ears. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. Of a like forma- drum . DingBang. atchini. tlirob. knarr. in a nail Let. knack. bangas. root kshu. on the chops is represented also by pratx. plitsch-platsch. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . the God of thunder . ding. heart tick-tack. hoo. snore. bang ' ! trenches.

mobility excavation and hollow ^. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pigolare. pipe.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. piou. cry. cry of young birds . used as a call to . as the simplest implement for proFr. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pigione. The pi. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. chickens (Tylor). as k. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. pipegni. has been un- employed to designate fixity. Magyar pip. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. to designate cavity and hollow. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Mantuan pipiare. pigiolare. calls S. young bird. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. a fowler's bird call is lost. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. pipe. laugh. Fr. peep. had been used laugh ? two. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a fife or musical pipe. De Brosses. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. and whimper. and so forth. which he added to intensify the expression. — . part of the What consciousness has the child. is of expression. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. pi. far pipi. child. piccione. pipio. to cry like imrli^u). a (young) pigeon. of a word will appear supposed to represent. pipilo. the voice of chickens (Cot. to squeak. not- .' instead. Gr. ducing the sound. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. to peep It. to cheep like a bird or a young It. a whelp. peep. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. doubtless. e. In cases such as these. a or cheep. pule.) a chick. Florio. Lat. Lat. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. bleat. —Lyndsay. or a piailler. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. pipelni. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. young child . He Yet asks. piou. It seems to him that the teeth t. as in other subjects of study. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word.sc. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. pipio. pu. pippione. . G. pipare. to cry pi. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. is pfeife. scream. and their relations. a chicken or gosling. piauler.

lachachen. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. borrelen. to fizz like fat in frying. to jar. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . where the variation. of a loud strong sound. &c. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . garren. a sharp short one. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. as representing the sound made when something breaks. kuruk. loud laughter. a short sharp sound. laqfF. along with Du. to grumble. to crackle like in boiling . sound). grumble. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). rumble. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. sound of dry breaking. Pefuxela. to gurgle. Hindoo tomtom. a closed or obscure sound. to hawhaw or laugh loud. when it force than biscuit. crash. knurren. the clucking of a j hen . to creak knirren. {to It. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. karkarana. knuks. Poppopvi^to. chack. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. tontonare. vaake gorgor) . kniks. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka.Gr. gurren. turtur. of something fine and thin. to ring pipio.) Mod. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. or springing back. rumble (Fl. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. murren. to rattle. to bubble. some small vowel or consonantal sound. be cate to go on laughing loud . to gargle . The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. kirkirdnd. like the noise of a glass breaking . either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. the side of g. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. as the click of a latch or a trigger. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. along with tinnio. is very common. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . u. to gorgogHare rattle. Indian chack-chack. kniks. . to clack. to cluck. girren. in German.. or kaka-faka. creak. to growl. and lugh. Hindustani karak is rendered. i. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). crack. rumble. knaks. murmur (by . coo. preserved by Kilian. cricli. cluck. Pacific aka-aka. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to grate the teeth . make wood a clinking noise. a drum W. Zulu raraza. to pant bejii- zela. tonare. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to be compared with Sc. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. bubble. tintino. to cry pi.. It. lachen. a. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . Manchu kaka-kiki. pi . thunder oil . to laugh. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. to grumble). a prolonged sharp sound. to thunder. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to pant violently (Colenso).

which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). clash of arms. 192). rain (Tylor. thump. Maori pata. is based on the same imitation as the e. . halaidlac'h. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. Sanscr. clank. word. the sound of a stringed instrument. hala-hald-faMa (falda. as of Tamil muromurmur. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. Tiie Galla gigiteka. Fr. klirren. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. coughing or clearing the throat. especially one who beats. chinking of coin. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop.and e. croaking of frogs. to beat. quarren. while cacd / used in e. and the imitative nature of tivgle. bad. drops of i. koXiw. to ring or jingle. wail. Galla tuma. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. . correspond to e. are applied to the is excrements of children. for chut-chiit-er. The syllables lil-bil.' Member for Paris. and Gr. simmer. fumtu. or to Du. sound). cry.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. at an accelerated note. chut. corresponding in e. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. Magyar csamm-ogni. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. Turk. shout. bent her head. awater* ' The Mme P. E. box on the ear imitation of the . clink. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. or of bells ringing. the gingling of glasses. noise. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. and Gr. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . kl'mg-kling. is Manchu tang-tang. ding-dong. borrelen. for the sound of privy whispering. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. djeda (to say tub). champ. agrees with g. jingle. Scotch sough or sooch. and e. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. to be compared with g. and bilhila. a smith. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. sound. kiling-kalang. chuchoter. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. KaKog. to knock. muro and e. The whispering of the wind I. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. caca and Finnish adkkd. Newman). csam-csogni. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. jangle. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. to strike. tubh. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. a boy's whistle. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. 368). tumwata. Manchu kaka. for the clinking Lat. compared with Gr. disturbance (F. e. tumult. or the bubbling up of to a spring. clango. bulbiil. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. Calt. a nightingale. a drum . to the purling of a brook. identical with g. as Fr. uproar. call. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. to whisper. Prim. for a tTviror). indicating the origin of Gr. bubble up. the tingling Ming-Hang. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. brings us to Fr. for the ringing of illustrate bells. spring of water in the a bell. a workman. and her heart went thump. of keys or tinkling of bells. 1871. make djamdjam). and the same may be said of Zulu kala. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. to say chut. a nightingale. tup.* the heart. rvir (in tvittio. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. rifiirayov. to giggle.

puff. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. answering to g. creak. whizz. we have buffet or cuff. fizz. clash.. to fall. parapatapan. clack. slash. brumberum. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. bubble. So in Fr. clink. pop. whirr. thump. w. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. clap. The beating of drum is represented in e. bang. disturbance. ' Der puff. rumble. dabble. smash. crash. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. and Grimm. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. to dance. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. rataplan or rantanplan. rap. mutter. snap. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . to is blow. clank. sputter. paddle. crack. plump. But although and also found in Lat. hiss. for (Sanders). a applied as well to the force of the bang. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. report of a gun. Nevertheless. clang. patter. thump. whine. tap. smack. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. and soufflet. blow. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. tingle. craunch. jingle. Fr.' — Nohden. according to the strictest phonetic rules. it is fallj AS. squeak. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. while e. thump. whack. It.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. without the intervention of orthodox roots. flop. splutter. lash. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. Humboldt. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. crunch. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. chink. tinkle. The use of g. squall. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. at a door tarapatan. by rubadub. in e. guggle. gurgle. boom. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. 'pat. splash. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. gargle. swash. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. dash. tumbian (to beat the ground). tomber. din. and the French pouf. thwack. ring. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. clatter. flap. murmur. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. or v^hether jectional. chatter. tymmesll. twang. tum-ultus. and Fr. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. blubber. rattle. souse. squeal. hum. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. douse. the Germans puff.

' . that he has taken the step in rational speech. but if we must not complain on the beach. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. hay. little who has time to want of her nurseling. without a thought of symbolising to them. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. of horror. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. or of any if wood. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. Grimm or Bopp. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. stractions. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. and thus they become signs of despair. are made known by an instinctive cry. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. At the first beginning of life. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . Henceforth rational beings may produce them. the interj. and found in the building of be burnt up. because they are spontaneous. in the case of the animal or of the infant. or stubble is meaner name. xxix on the contrary. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. or any unsatisfied want. the kind of action that is desired of them.' If chaos. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . every little pain. the inteij. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. p. wringing the hands. If. is Thus ah!. ugh . 94. formerly cited. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. by the nature of the cry. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. an imitation of a sigh . by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. and uttering plaintive sounds. grief.'. knows them. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. Crying. in the rushing waters. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression.

so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. interjections. One short interjec- tion may fact. p. If I wish to make a person of an . more to the point. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. and some of them the composition of words. to solve the I shall call first. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. of all the mouth. shrieking. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. ^6g And to the same effect 371. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.' — ist Series.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. 32. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. should be remem- . them to exercise it. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. And again. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory.' p. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. more eloquent than a long speech. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. they are involuntary interjections. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. 344. may become traditional. p. be more powerful. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and the eye. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. coughing. as who them spontaneous utterances. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. the lowing of a cow. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. sneezing. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. he cites from Home Tooke. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. He says. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. Language begins where interjections end. which are frequently so toned down cance. or which is of me as suffering pain.. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. groaning.

cachinno. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. loud laughter. and more or less limited . explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. it them. speaking.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. bered. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. hahottaa. when I arp humming and hawing. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. he says. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Gr. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Lat. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. then speech begins. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Kayxa^u). yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and thus. in Magy. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. some kind of language might have been formed. but the less am at a loss what to say. for example. and others from interjections. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. Tooke in truth. hohottaa. in Fin. hahota. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. Koxafw. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. interjections. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. demolishing here. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. I am not hearer. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. kahkahah.

with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. . for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. like peewit and cuckoo. if taken as a whole. But here nature soon conies to his help. And so in the case of language. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. Though. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. The following account is given by Kruse. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. and go where we now say stand. What strikes him . dumb is the language of signs. of the world.' he says. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. of the nature of this great movement. a deaf-mute himself. makes them stand and walk upon the table. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. and not. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. It as has ing their most striking features.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. the critical question should be. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. a Picture-language. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. words receiving the meanings they now bear.

are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language.GESTURE most. becomes roast meat. many when or but these. for single objects. or the verb to be. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and forms further and further. it means little. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. The same sign stands and the act itself. such objects. the sorecalling them to his memory. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands.' In the Institutions. and fully serves to j . or To pull and flap with the arms. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. thought is already broken. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. particular sense in properly so called. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. letter To hold the two fingers apart. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and it is flesh or meat. nay. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. as it now opens out. walkest. for walk. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and gestures. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. thou. can do better and more easily abstract terms. but if I depress it instead. it seems. like a V. And is. most striking outline of an object. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and we have roast goose. xxxiii him between one thing and another. walked. to name. he. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. for the agent. and to taste. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. walker. such as than the educated man. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. among themselves. push it towards the person addressed for thou. what more. for child. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. called Gesture-language.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. his action. that. and And thus he makes himself a language. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. The of sign for left hand. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. and with his thought. signs are taught for yet. he. the whole secret. that air. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. that signifies great .

or an act. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish.xxxiv asking. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. to indicate the action of a certain person. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. as But when it is meant door. according to the circumstances of the case. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. the ture of white term pink is and red. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. When a verb. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. depend entirely upon the use. whether by additions or otherwise. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. putting it into his pocket. when I say. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. in fact. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. as when Bang ! went the gun. and the as. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. and thus performs the part of an adjective. in other instances sentence. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. or a quality. qualifies the against the wall. might be the knife. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. would be simply beginning of speech. Do not bang the it is a verb. or action. it called an interjection. or something of the kind. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. The same word . You beaten . and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. a number of alternatives are suggested. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. I say. the garden.' dener's knife. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. . He gave door a bang. substantive or adjective. and so is an adverb. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. When I say. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. or a passive scene of existence. as in die it is a noun. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. Who is has beaten you ? would be. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. a colour red.

In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. or nei.^ — Miiller I. wonder. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. verb nor noun has yet been developed. some outward display of the affection. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. . 255. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. Thus tafu signifies a great man. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. wherewith. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. with a stick. in the sense of great. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. in the is indicated by the syllable y. as kuo cung. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. but often self-evident. inquiry. middle. grie^ horror. or with elements expressing relations of time. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech.. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. wherehy. and may be used language. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. a sigh of oppression and . inside. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. the man is great. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. a groan. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . that is. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. coalesces with the personal pronouns. greatness. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. whereto. contempt. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. &c. whereof. wherefore. which is an old y ting (use stick). Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. or some relation between it and another object. a noun. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. pain. that admits itself in of audible representation. as cung. Latin. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. and to be great. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. Jii ta. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. commencement of speech. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind.

to weep. hei. . waiidt. lament from oimi. first person. djamdjam goda (goda. oh. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. Jar lau-lau. gwae. ohi. to wail or cry alas . miau-n-is. ach. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. is w. is Ay di me I Gr. . and to bark . It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. e. or r. to ache. wehthun. jaoh. to make bow-wow. ui. wAwa. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. representing a cry of pain. miau-l-is. wai-l. pain. mostly a ! %. lament. the pangs of childbirth. Gr. a groan or lamentation vir. jao. has more kopfweh. ohg. g. axofiai. o'i. and cacak djeda (to say crack. grief. n. vaj.ez. to yell formed e. weh. oval. guai. It. oh. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to hurt Let. Illyrian vaj. . ace. I oi[iot. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. In this way from the root guai. to . (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. to injure. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. ah. cece. to lament. w. wai. A widespread It. . the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. gwae. weinen. to weep. guaj-ire. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. ahi. och. misfortune. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . guaj- or cry out pitifully. w^wa. 6. misery. guajo. in Gr.-l-are. vce. j. ach. woe. ah. dchzen. probably a deeper groan. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. miau-l-er. &. to bewail oneself. on. headache. och. suffering. lau-l-e. It. to cause pain. ochan. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. woe. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. achen. to cry n.'). to make). aiai^to. to do woe. to cry at. to ache. to sound yapyap. to rriourn. g. e. vce. 6. ach. tirr-djeda. It. ochain. oi. grief] affliction. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. Gr. as. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. mew. ing action I. vei-a. representing Illyr. Bret. on. die wehen. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself.. wehen (Schmeller). The form corresponding to Lat. e. . Gael. Illyr. w. al. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. gwe-l-a. ochan. as. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). Fr. Such are g. xxxvi grief. Let. pain. at the close of the radical syllable. to chirp. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. It. ! ! Goth. grief. Lat. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to gargle. Gr. to wail. to lament. seen in Gr. form. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. och. ai. to groan. Thus from springs otjucifw. pain. howl. are ol-ire. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. Lat. ache. wd. la. ocAJ. however. weh schreien. wai. found in g. oimare.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. 'nay. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. nurseries. Sanders (Germ. well as Goth. and by a variety of expressions besides. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. der da-ige. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. or give me it. we may translate this by there (it is). • The child. Dr Lottner observes. I add) . as it Dieser da (as Lat. Thank you. the nursery da-da. is-te). in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. that. In the expression Da. is we I believe.' then points to his wife. as to express. according to Menage. Diet. da. that gratifies me. or that it is. da. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. Bav. says da-da-da. and so on. Sie. and may be rendered. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money.' this. Please. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. case. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. . Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. The Fr. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. when he wants something. implying the direction of its good will towards them. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether.' all is is — their consent. saying : there the ad- Trans. for instance. a specified were by pointing him out.' person. child.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. when 1859. his trowsers' pocket. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. a word of many applications in g. to here .THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. but the truth is. give me that cheese. thata (ta-ta). When we pointing. as. ToSe (or in Attic E. that is it. But. more emphatically roSj)j that. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. this here. give. ' sees an object. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. Phil. indeed. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. or carry me thither. or wants to name something.

and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. to chatter. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. tattle. in every mode of expressing the idea. meanings.' says Lottner interior. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. of which any one may. sinking. p. to knock. Thus Gr. and shapes it into an . to move step by step. reality. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. or dalliance. to tion to another. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. childish toying. then instinctively interest. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem.^ its ' utters : a cry. beat. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. tasting. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. speech.' • liv ANALOGY. . dadee. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. and one in particular must. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. — Cot. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. standing. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing.' says Muller. to beat. its desire. make dadada). thinking. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. or metaphor. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. sounds. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. strike. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. pay. to walk. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. stutter. which thus exertion. moving. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to say to oneself. takes it — as When the soul. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. the original is that which he places first. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. The da is dodem.

noise. man of nice taste. wilistd. smell. search . Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. splendour. beam. wise. snuff the sniiten. to sparkle. ghsten. to 5 ghtter. kimistd. The 6. knittre. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to glitter. to snilF. to crackle. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . Du. Again. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. bright. judicious. we have and the and beorht. which in ohg. . beorhtian. schiteren. scTiateren. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. to quiver. make a loud noise. a rustling sound Gr. snot. to crackle gnistre. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. sapere (which signifies the nose. fiapfiaipw. Lith. bilbilgoda (to make . the equivalent of g. snudra. iclat (in Old Fr. rattle. think. sound. schmecken. to glitter. brilliancy. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. esclat). then to sparkle. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. a ringing . Finnish. to be wise. a dis- cernment. kiimottaa. extended to the exercise of the understanding. signified a clear sound. savour. properly a clap or explosion. same imitative root with Sw. wamara. tumult. snutrs. while sapere itself. scheteren. &c. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. It is The word bright had a similar In as. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. — 1. a with kimmaltaa. to tinkle. prudent. clang. to sound clear In Galla. gnittre. . to ring as a glass willata. splendour. suspect Bav. sense of brightness. to glisten Dan. and thence e. and schmecker. outcry. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to glitter. magnificence. to shine. also wise. and. to sniff out. Bavarian bracht. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. taste. in popular language. pracht. to shine. So firom Lat. a brilliant light kilid. Fr. in the domain of movement. for example. sprageti. and figuratively. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. may be quoted gUt. to smack or taste. to have Sapiens. to resound. unlella. chime).TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. wilahtaa. as. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. In the same way the Goth. to ring. (parallel bilbila. In the case of sparkle. discreet. from the . to sniff. spraka. on. tinkling. as kilind. 1654. to glitter e. tintelen. knistre. firom the Gael. snotor. bilbil). may be it explained . is used in the origin. to shriek with laughter . smell. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. air. to . ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. Heo Du. to flash.

which The Stoics. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. strike. &c. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. discusses the tone of a picture. in truth. the neighing of horses. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). the cross. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. soft. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. Much of the same has been often quoted. and vepres. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. we hear of screaming colours. break. wool. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. And observing that n kept the voice within. pleasure soft to the ear . or . rough to the ear. as soft by the ear. ipuKuv. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. v. briars. rough both ways. mel. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. sharp.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS.' he says. to slide. smooth. extremely loose. rough. is felt Lana. then in rpd/xoe. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. gluey. pvfi^Civ. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. fitting the letters to the sense. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. The BpavEiv. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. Kpovtiv. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. rend. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. KoWiiSije. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. Acre. oily. the bleating of sheep. Kep^arl'ieiv. shatter. power of the letter-sounds. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. rough. accordance with the way in which by touch. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. in of his works. within. inside. 1. flow and flux. itself letters are felt as sofl. . he framed the words ivSov. tremour. Tpa)(yg. roughness. of dressing loud. kvTOQ. 6\tadaveii'. he says. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. whirl. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. the clank (stridorem) of chains. eo ut res vol. \nrap6e. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. crux. with these the similitude of touch comes into play.

jag. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. shog. ii. k. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. degree of roughness sound. the case of the voice. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. cular effort Again. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. jih.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. 138). p. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. jig. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. Fr. sag-oter. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. p. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. tug. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. as when. corresponding to the ineor. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. joli. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. and in the utterance of a high or or low. stag (in stagger. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. a rough and sudden .ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. A greater felt. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. to reel abruptly from side to side). or checks as they are called by Muller. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. d. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. g. dig. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to signify varieties of movement. t. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. dag. shag. 'and consequently form. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. to jogj sac-cade. stab. rug. jog. for exis ample.

that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. chic. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. Sukkeln. to mutter. is lanese toch. tech-tech. motion. to mark it with a touch of the pen . foot.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to glitter. a piece or bit of anything. as Italian tocco. S-panish miga. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. To tick a thing off. Illyrian migati. a stroke with a French toucher. to pulses being knock. mie. to take a thing on tick. like English tick. then. to stir. an old worthless horse or carriage. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to beat or play on a musical instrument. to utter a slight kick. in cases like the foregoing. to touch. sound Fr. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. e. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. The syllable suk is jerk. a quid of tobacco. toch-toch. Mucken. cica. that we never can be sure. g. Thus we have B. &c. it produces Dutch micken. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. not to utter a syllable. tack. to have it ticked or marked on the score . figuratively. Brescian toch. Then. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. a cracker. tock. rough horse. Fr. zigzag. to On the same principle j we have g. kik. to move rapidly to and fro. a playiug-marble. to incite by light touches. Hence Lat. a crum. chique. or check. The analogy then carried a step further. (mitsati). lead to Spanish tocar. chicoter. a small bodily object. used interjectionally to represent a . Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. The production of sound. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. movement. is so frequent a consequence of movement. Dutch kicken. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . micare. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. so to Italian toccare. is made to signify movement. to say a word . an infant . a good piece of road . for the sound of knocking at a door. zack. and e. schuckeln. The train of . however. and analogous movements. kuk. and It. to tickle. Ene olde suksuk. tecche-tocche. Welsh cicio. as tot. chiquet. to strike It. mik. properly a small lump'of . a . Bolognese tocc. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to winkj micati is Lat. Accordingly the g. sound barely audible. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . mot. then. to ring a bell. also to stir. Fr.. The Mipen or pencil. mica. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. schockeln. a jog. a little bit. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. passing to the signification of motion. It. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada.

citto. motta. small titlark. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). Du.- a jot or little It. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. a light quick blow. is shown in murmur. that iku. tot. a certain conception.n. n. Halliwell. not an atom . a lad citta. the vowel sound. subdued manner. mutter j dust. and toddle like a child titter. we have e. mote.) . to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. tit. i. To jot. and he. I. eo. zitella. taut. gno. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . little j to that of a small bodily object. corresponding to the personal pronouns. there. a whisper. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . neither moit nor an atom. for the beating of a clock. iki. fait. here. a girl. e. to tremble. or the converse. In a similar the relations of place. e. tiny. . Malagasy to. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. a sparrow). mut. to movement of the pen . a small quantity. tot. and out there. So. that. there (further of!) ao. 48) cites from the African Tumale. often entirely arbitrary. further off. ticktack. a small horse. not because the pendulum makes a different left. . or o toi. to make a slight mark. at where the order is inverted. 0. this . zitio. a small bird. . gnu. a morsel. a small kind of lark. . to dot. not to utter a syllable. Then. there '(at a short distance). ri that. to jog. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. to touch lightly with a pen. jot. anything small flax. the same organ touched with the man. fragments It. lix Sp. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. gni. for the three personal pronouns. little. a tot . tot. mot. . small of kind. ika. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. here (close hand). tittle. seesaw. and dot. a e. of movement in totter. a bit. Fr. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. mossche. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. to whisper (Pr. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. syllable mot. anything . mutter. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. This kind. bunch or flock of wool. a. lump of earth. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. this. a little titty. a small lump or pat. motte. tottle. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. (Halliwell) Da. a morsel girl . titmouse (Du. . Pm. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. move slightly to . titilh. titter. The following table from Tylor (Prim. tit. to jot down or note with a fro. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. Cult. 199). as in e. But the same is language has re Javan. chico. . in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. to e. totle. and a small lump of something. or the like its It. tozzo. a bit. clay . to excite by slight touches or movenjents. tot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. you. and mite. the least visible insect. to touch. .MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL.

In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. Carib ne.. that. thou ni. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. Mm. mother. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). biii. Tarahumara ibe. 6. that. j Canarese ivanu. an old woman chacha. ne. he. Dhimas isho. here 5 Yoruba na. tiiio. that. young one. ita. me probable that • Vei also little. and origin. ulri. . this . by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. little. thou. .araM. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. there. man erne. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. ni. no constant rule is observed. Then. .) nna. and a for the female. as the act of pointing was ta. Botocudo ati. is father. Magyar ez. that. child. there. It Carib lala. minution further. Guarani nde. ni.) pronunciation of i or e. there. . that. this fi.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. this . that (intermediate) j wana. . but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. mother. child. olo. usho. here . loo). an old . /e«. for the male. /wo. as Mr Tylor remarks. /mya. Abchasian aSn. uta. . which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. he. Ossetic am. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. nne. akha. father. I . small (Pott. Zulu ajoa. Lat. here j abe. father k . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. It seems to (fen. that. Mutsun ne. . by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. that in the distance. here j ka. that. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. Chilian tva. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE.e^. Fernandian az. probably initial of distinction that the k. .. ofj. ta to ka. you. w. this . qu. there.. Tamul i. that. that. as in Italian Fin. ^. there. km. bi. this <t. there.. ndi. here feraa. ukko. this . femina ama. this ole. thou . Gr. is Here. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. respectively. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. mother. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. (tt). mas cheche. there. here this . to. ojOo. Japan ko. here . Sahaptin (America) kina.

In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. little. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g.' — Merrv Wives. trippelen. to tread. stairs. for the . this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. a little yellow beard. wean. nipple. to leap. a child. is to express simple continuance of action. for instance. nil. repetition It. to peep through. trap. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. A little weeny thing. looking through between obstacles. wenig. pepin. . titta. just beginning to appear. to teet. little To sup up.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. has tittafrem. whence Fr. sound of bells . signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. to peep. the idea is called. &c. nab. dance (Kil. Da. tion. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. And perhaps the E. and in the Pacific dialects. The Sw. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. don-don. i Sw. of smaller things. trappa. for a succession of light blows low-wow. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. the nursery few j Sc. at pippe frem is to spring forth. to make its way through the bursting envelope. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. barking of a dog. A little wee face with little. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. in old e. to begin to appear .) . Top. The sound trapp . Thus we have Wolof sopa. as ding-dong. as j money. a step. the principle of reduplication. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. the simplest mode by the g. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear.' making the voice as small as possible. to feet. Fr. murmur. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. analogous to winy-piny. keeh. the pip or pippin. trippen. or even. fretful. trappen. — Douglas Virgil. Clank represents the sound of something large. 401. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. From cases like the foregoing. din-din. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. or chink. knob. lift 8. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. trSpigner.

but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. racket. instead of being actually repeated. hardness. and the words express a continued sound of rack. kenda. to or rub. to love. ayunayunan. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. (to use a to speak. very bad. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. Thus in E. from Maori muka. a spot. puka- puka. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. Thus in the Pacific loa. rack click. mawhitiwhiti. . loloa. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. lololoa. to talk at to walk. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. keep spots. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element.Ixii REPETITION. to pant. a clattering noise. calling.. or very very great. rapidity and strength. tach-et-er. ratsi-ratsi. mpolu is uttered. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. tache. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. didi. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. the agent in panting . In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . the lungs. is language. And generally. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. to cover e. a cradle. 97). the and clique. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. serves to show and in this way. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. Susa di. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. cliqu-et-is. a grasshopper. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. or a little tee--ny thing. to rock. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to vi^alk about for flax. or el. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. kendagenda. So from clamo. or rdtchi. er. bad . Mandingo ding. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. clash of weapons. properly speaking. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. child . without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. to call frequently from Fr.' expression is — ^Tylor. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. little child (p. smallness. click. very great. random . are echoed by the rudimentary et. to say pooh It is ! to. if very young. ding-ding. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to skip. &c. mawhiti. could readily be conceived. to treat with contempt. clamito. amusement. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. puka. very long (Pott. the comparative degrees of greatness. Malay ayun. repetition or continsignify long. sopasopa. Cult. The same principle of 196. or imitative syllables. in familiar use with ourselves. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). to to call. kamha-gamla. . or in Fr. rack. and Fr. 99). child . i. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. Again.

Ihre remarks under gncella. rubber. to make gug. The contrivance with any particular noise. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. draggle. to crackle. dab. bubble. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. in Fr. to wail woe . and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. by the side of wanken. it. guggle. where all direct connection with sound is lost. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to hand-le. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. wancol. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. rynel. to move to and fro. the knie-en to E. as mAS. dabble. to make a succession of shoves. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. or fi bau. miauler and beler correspond to E. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. wankel. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. bub. to make bau-bau. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . wankeln. a succession of cracks to rattle. as to handle. or in e. In cases like these. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to continue dragging. are to cry mew and pew . way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . or omitted. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. the lungs (the puffers of the body). The Fr. which. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. miauler andpiauler. in some applications. mew and baa . or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. itself. joggle. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. from puka. compared with g.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. is In e. to puff. crack. fickle. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. smack. or Maori puka-puka. to hand. g. to rock or wag. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. a from ayun. or by association. wagas ging. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. such asjlap. wavering. syllable clat . and in as. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. others. Jickfacken. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense.Jicol. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . he who rubs. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. kneel. jogging. waggle. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to bark like a dog. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. to make a succession of grabs . shuffle. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to rock.

that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. to cry ugh at. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. by a hard body breaking.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. which is the origin of the word. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. known in Italian. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. or in aptness to combine with other elements. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. which. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. or in mode of use. will continue to be felt in daily speech. Breton. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. although it is not difficult. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. Polish. to the separation between the broken parts. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. There is. A gull or a dupe same sense. deceit. Dupe comes to us from the French. at was more familiarly known. on a moment's reflection. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. and comparatively few easily deceived. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. moreover. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . the breach. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. it is obviously a mere chance how long. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. or how generally. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day.

We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. language is . is the examples given in the foregoing pages. is.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. however. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. nor any limited of ideas. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. Hitl^erto. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. founded in manifest blunder. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. and the word is used in a secondary sense. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. . life. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear.

In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. unintelligible to other hordes. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. I think it very probable. 330. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. and vescovo. compared with the duration of man. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. of material things. and 'Russian. out. Naturalist on the Amazons. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. If English. therefore. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. change. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. in the course of many years' isolation. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. Welsh. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. circle perpetrates a new slang term. hearing. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . i. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. French. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. episcopus.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. evique. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. guages in South America.

it will leave figures 3 and 4. . is MN. which are idenr Figures 5. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. i. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. or whatever the proportion may be. ao8). Cijlt. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. 7. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. The combination of the symbols I and 2. ancient Greek M . Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . and . we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. the actual it which would to represent. as shown in the subjoined illustration. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 6. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. A key must unlock more doors than this. to be taken (Prim. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. Nor is there one of the letters. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. 8. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. 9.

or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. what comes to the same thing. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. which either by direct resemblance of sound. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence." the use of a change of vowel in as. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. his fellows. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. had its origin in imitation of sound. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and the only safe beneficent Creator. leading him to utterances. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. in the shape either of direct inspiration. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . for instance. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. known to us as yet. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance.' should be discovered.

live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. as elephants. in the course of generations. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and rose towards a higher state of being. by animal without a trace name of Man. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or beavers. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. or else. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . or of their own reflected thoughts . and sooner or later. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . or not. race were speaking men or not. and when we look back as far as history will reach. the conduct of Ixix life. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. until the progeny. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare.COMPLETION OF MAN. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that he started from the lowest grade. for instance. of using imitative conduct . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves.

Catalan. Biglotton seu Diet. Romano - Cas- traise. Dueange. . de la langue Cat. Douglas' Virgil. dial. 1850. Finnish. Carp. Bigl.V. Diet. Due. Elfric's Fl. at the end of Somner's Diet. 1737.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Da. Diefeiibach. Bohemian or Czech. or Dan. Dn. Dief. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Cot. Anglo-Saxon. Supplement to Bret. Supplement to Dueange. 1768. Esthonian.Nieder. Danish. 1857.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Bremisch.-Eng. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Provincial dialect. Wtb. Carpentier. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Bavarian. dialect of the Sette Commune. Gothischen 1851. Diet. Cimbrisch. Dueange. Bav. B. Cimbr. Sup. Diefenbaeh.. Brem. Cotgrave. ^Ifr. Grammar Boh. Dutch. E. AS. Dief. Couzinid. Castr. Fin. Gr. 1654. Diet. Fr. English. Infimse Latini- D. Teutonico-Lat. Baile/sEngl. 1766. Esth.



budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. (/ijtf r. buque 118 brodiquin r. r. cruccio deyrie. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. alUger ahaverie r. Blob plowied r.>. r. willekom Blab r. yjnaifia r. katowai perairrantr. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. cti. plowied budowaer.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. r. ^i?^i2! r.percurrunt kimista^x. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. word allagerr. Askance woud r..nokkutama willekem. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. kilistaa bugiie r. haverie crtOT r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. puHti r. baltresca nokkutomax.5 ERRATA. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. sveritet Asknace r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . woman r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.


is commonly :he remnant of the AS. Jvery man shewid baft. a washing off to abstain. command.t G. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. In Lat. er. away from. K . abaft.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. Hence on-bceftan. . dominion. state of sleep . the er. a. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . OHG. into the Romance ftrseg . sion of 'an abandoned character. on-lic. ibandonner. this word beand Spanish. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. from a is to wake to abide. abs. —Bruce. ab. Abaft. alike. Passing tongues.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. AS. whatever he be. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. 244. downwards. among. to sauff the king or spill. on. o/j of or . ar. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. a/tan. 843. said. have entire dominion over. A. away. to hold . particular 1 . came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. implying a completion of J. "rom a height. be-ceftan. AS. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. ifter. power : Than Wallace thing. Abs-. literally. Lat. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. in a manner other than it should be ablution. plesyt him. Dent posture. rule. us. to subdue. in. To abuse is to use iway. orders. an edict or proclamation. as. bandon in French. of-dune. compounds. in the same sense. Thus ip N3S. to arise. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. ir. erwachen. baftan. and secondarily in that of command. on-bsec .he Goth. to awake. and — Chaucer. Immediately from Fr. vs. from. iway from. Again. Ab-. behind. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. Parson's Tale. ur. but now )bsolete). announcement. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. The word Ban is common orders. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. out of. on. off. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. Thou spelds of mychty iction. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. as. until the event jlace . dominion. his. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. onis aback. Abandon.

Originally. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to light upon. R. adverbial expressions at abandon. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. other. person. to diminish the force of any. depress. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. effect of shame. Bate. castle. as ravish. Castrais.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . In or.fournir. terminedly. to ruin. to hit. Hence Lat.) . baer. to take possession of an estate. abaundunem-ent. To Abate. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. to beat furnish. ne more vermeille. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. betrash. See . grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape.' the surrender of a ' K. abbas. burny. abbatis. iv. to happen. vol. to The . to overthrow. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. And he thereof was all abashed. esba. to bate something of the price abbatersi. of the Fr. abate. son bandon. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. ais. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. 1 1 8. to gape. an abbey. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. c.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. uncontroUedly. abbatia. bawi. Hence the OE. On the other in use as well as hand. to strike sail . and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. shame. bandon. and sets them all agape. with or without a final sh. esbahissant. . abbatere. Milton. his eyen shene. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. More correctly written abbat. overthrow. drink. d. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. et prirent terre. father. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. may be explained. astonish. It. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure.— — . R.esbawi. Wall. merely the terminations ons. faire tomber. esbahissais. Abbey. of fear.— R. abbattre. baba. R. where custom (Grandg. and that from Syrian abba. from ravir. impetuously. I was abawid for merveille.Prov.On princes. down. esbahir. of wonder. from Lat. abbatere dal prezzo. to put to con. at his own the lips. Baba ! Mod. astony. weaken.polir. A. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. ant. to strike Froiss. law term abatement. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. so common in the found in the OFr. 364s. and the verb was written in Eng. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. to make lower. confound. de. beer. Beat. 1520. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. — Neccham. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. and it that that it — . Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. impulse. Abbot. Custom. . Cotgr. burny was formerly burnish . and grooms besmeared with gold. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Fr. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. See Abide. to astonish. — — . by Wall. Hart in Jamieson. lish to abaisse orabaish. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. polish. Abbess. his mouth.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. or society of abbots or monks. to abaw or astonish.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. abandonly. or admiration.down. in the active form. thing abbatere le vela. to excite admiration. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh.

The verb atwaiting. Abele. endurArt thou he that should come. abie.— Roquef. forms with the d effaced are OFr. literally white tree. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. to desire earnestly. verbeijen Sw. F. abetter. deceiving. ^couter avec dtonnement. lingering. Guernsey beth. to be intent upon. white. which is certainly related to It. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. and E. beguiling on the other. exciter. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. bhr. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. beguile. K. to mind. gola badada. were called Brothers. Q. abet. bida. the verb of abeyance. endurance. look for another. to open the mouth. othres abidan' The effacement expect. . Du. and in E. signifies the direction of tend. aspire to. guardare. suffer b. Cat. ' ' . speaking of the Holy places. attendre See Bait. watch. bide of the d endure. 366. to deanimer. bidan. to suffer death in Du. abayer. to tarry. Corant sens lui. abiiance. bder. to In great amaze. warten. 1 • .' is in AS. desirer (Roquef. inciting.. ne wist what way to chuse. while the monks under his control ing. or absorption watching. or do we AS. songer. tempting. baer. bouche b^ante. From abahier. tarrying . syllable ba. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. baier. Gloss. beter. tical with It. on the one hand. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer.Fr. to wait. delay. See Abide. (Vocab. to desire. beijen. intent observation. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to expect. regarder. we sceolon ON. Pol. to abide . bouche bdante. usbeisnei. trick abetar. aspirer. bie.— Chaucer. Fabl. attendre avec en^pressement. expectation. Gloss. us. bialodrze-w. Ducange. — ABELE Epiphanius. expectfamily. m Abeyance. and Prov. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. beijden. ceive. with badia. with open mouth . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. to be intent upon. to wait. beidan. bida. forbearance. b^er. bie compared with Dan. or in Fr. abeter. .to wait. wait To Abide. tenere a bada. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. and alluring to his own destruction. covet. is idenwait. Ni engigner ni abiter. baier. badare. OFr. to expect gabeidan. to look. to stay. to remain or endure. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. E.) abayer. de Champ. tity of E. expectation. which the mind to an object. delay. abeyance. abie. abaier. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. Prov. . ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. wait. also to OFr. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler.was formerly used in the sense of look. to stay. in Fr. take care. —Raynouard. bocca badata. abidan. to It. Thus we have It. badare. Norm. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. suspense. compared with (Bosworth). to yawn. Norm. house. Goth. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to deceive. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. John. delay. Cat. gridare. — signifies to suspend action. bana. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. badare. to hook. inciter. — . . to open bader. abSiance. beidan. pense. qui iaaille. The white poplar. deceit. from Halo. bada. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. badigliare.— ^richer. . Quant voit le serpent. a right in suspense . In We . ne chastised them. Thus G. listen. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . baier compared with It. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Abie. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. abet. Boethius. a bay or opening in the coast. beijen. to gape . de Berri) Prov. badar. listening. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. to wait. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. to attend on . abbadare. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. desire. waiting. — II. Corresponding to keep in suspense. have seen abide. To Abet. to ance. to attend to. open the mouth. take notice. incite . in Dan. says.

properly abuy. from Lat. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. atling hem to her proper offices.ynes. at hand). R. Spenser. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Boucher. to draw fowls. . the Pardoner In the original. while in later examples As I . beidan. — e. Merch. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. to redeem. Wickliff in Richardson. able. abilej Prov. If it badare. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. abeye. forbid for mother's children should abye. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. within the walls of a ship. and Cr. have-like. al- be found so some will dear abide it. convenient. abilh. Dr. to pay the purchasemoney. Lat. It. to pay the penalty. to dress hemp. purpose. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. within the ship. or bie. to have . de la volatile. Innan bords. habilis is closely preserved. Milton. as E. — Able. The —Boucher. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. being disabled in the highest degree. P. consequences of anything . adapted . at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. powerful. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. N. and the simple buy. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. to perish. the side of a ship. in for any special purpose. habile. Fr. Prol.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. at kasta fyri bord. expert. fit. 2. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. F. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. durance in both applications.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. — P. and death for handsel pay. Abie. from AS. on board . though sometimes confounded with it. as habiller du chanvre. R. abycgan. strong. power. bord. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. For on board. suffer the Jul. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. abie. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. fault being simply clothing. habilis (from habeo. was often used in the same sense. ! ! Cotgr. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. a board. use. willing to schewe his wrathe. She shall abie that trespass dere. to . must suffer for it. abidge. abigg. abide. abie to Goth. —Bacon in R. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. Chaucer. ON. the Fr. &c. i. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Tr. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. him with che. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. without special reference to the notion of retribution. Q. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. In this to erase or annul. Mids. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. bidan. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. 2nd Tale. O If tion. sufficient. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. is the verb abie. Cassar. bide.^and to make his power knowne. L. AS. abicgan. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. God — dear. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. to wear away. abolir. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. aboleo. the Sir Tristrem. P. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Fr. when compared with Aboard. God.

explains soboles Lat. giving birth to.ger. OE. nurse Lat. D. d. See To Bray. sec seftre — Chaucer. abrcBgdan.' Ymb hancred utan. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. ufan. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. Then. Prov. pedigree from brevis.1. al is growth. brood. the OSw. abredan. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to main. or young forth. without. abbrechen. to fatten.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. In the same brevis . Abray. alere capillos.) . and also to abridge. See -und-. his contemporaries. whence the Fr. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. which passed into English under Abominate. to feed. Du. and also. to grow up. parent.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. from . ala. coalesco. outward. . gravity. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. nurse. abowen. breaking out in language. seems aras. to start. alan. the idea of breaking about . to nourish. For on broach. common in Chaucer and Abominable. nourish. to beget or give birth to children. Above. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. below. en. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Gael alaich. to turn. Of these synonymous adolescere. which may God avert. to produce. onbutan. Tale. abrdger. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. ol. titan. abbrechen. The primitive idea seems that of beget. abutan. full ofte his words for to Fr. Finnish stock. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. to awake. abbreviare. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to aggravate. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. — ' — — preceding verb. to let sleep. the form a&^^. as AS. ABOMINABLE adolesco. AS. levis to the Romance languages. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. to AS. Melibaeus. motion.aboon. to feed. to rear. Lat. is not from G. To Abound... signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. AS. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. from Fr. to light a fire the Abraid. literally. about cockcrow. draw out. and bidden him abregge. s —Casdmon. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). AS. To abray or abraid. progeny. a portent). leading immediately to Fr. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. life. Virg. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. as the duty of nourdisposition. Abundant. to rear. while the verb alleThe root el. OSw. and in-d-oles. butan. kindling. to progress. gravis. to snatch. . that greatly agredge their sin.— Abbreviate. break out. around on the out. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. Goth. to and of giving birth to a litter of young.ymbutan. abufan. OE. abracan. to bring up. while the sense of beget. for ligeth butan. Thonne Abroach. af-oolden. be-utan. adolere. way Sw. — . becomes leu in Prov. the man dwindles away. vital PI. and to do something to avert abbreviate. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. oil. to cut short. as withotityn and without. awaking. side. heavy. above. af-oleii.' Parson's rence. to grow together.the older form. is a ively. the hair grow. currence.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. on high. greu. agredge. Severe the threatened evil. of any kind . hard. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. boven. Abrdger itself.foda signifies to beget. natural ed direct from the latter language.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. agreujar. Quod abominor. alUger. or cut short. Fr. abominor (from ab and omen. snatch In English we speak of away. alan. to break off. ala is made to signify to rear. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. bufan. the vital spark. be-ufan. but from Lat. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. The radical idea is to feed the flame. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. by the to bring up. Kiittner. Thence to regard greugetat. and alere flammain. So in Lat. the identity of which with ting. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. Sc.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


some one. apanage. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Ful- Apanage. separate. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. to have. AS. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. . stem. the anticks — behind. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Lat. as we call it. gabeigs. from the imitative habits of monkeys. As the browcalled antiques. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. white. d. part. from in and cudere. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. or in a ridiculous dress. cenig. to bring forth. from ante. one having wealth. a few. whence anthem. Fr. to strike. ReApe. To go antiquely. such as savages. were chiefly of the former class. Thus from gabe. apatiar. —Spencer. burnished. to nourish. Antidote. inAgain from the same author cudis. anapoz. which by anvild. swaged. three antike pillers.legacy of given against. as from as. as posticus. Prov. Pezron fiUist. eigs. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. to strike G. separate purpose. d<popi(xnbs.—Aperture. set aside. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Ilvtwotov. Lat. Any. In like manner. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Antick. were andouiller the second. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. vex. transferred to the grotesque characters.th centuries the recognised models of antic. and devils. one at the least. a definite . trouble. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. a puppet or an anti^hona. from avTiipoiuia). or antique single chamber. a termination equivalent to Goth. younger child. villan Gloss. Fr. from eigan. avri^ava. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. left as the . and claret wine. AS. Lat. and ig. strangle. verberas. i. to support. Percutere. Hall's Chron. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Apartment. Gr. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. one. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. incus. anxi. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. apertum. bread. to go in strange disguises. Apartment. Antler. from an. anfilts Pl. panis. surimitation of the ancient models. Apart. aside. Anvil. Antique. a block to hammer on. what Roman civilisation. to imitate gestures. wealth. to sound in answer. af. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. press. from Stephanus. but the expresent day. in Shakespear. G. AS. : . But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. like a jack-pudding. a preventative . a small quantity. Hence the applica. Anxious. andouillers.— . ab. Jorioc. on.made out. post.D. Lat. panar. antefn. a gift.is to be given. to display pario. See Cover. rich. — — — . Otfried. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. fauns. before. from an and — - . whence Prov. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. So Lat. ambeld. before. something ler in R. should be received. from. work. aperio. to strain. plenteously with red. Gr. as the Italians. from ango. Mannequin. anticus.. To ape. all of gold. Aperient. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. choke. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Fr. to open. Aphorism. antifena. Gr. from. anxius. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. E. of. amboltj Du.

proper time came. To cause to pall (see Pall). to deem good. from. apparecchiare. Gr.— . fit- — ness. e. find Then like Fr. And among other of his famous deeds. to learn. appellare. Nouv. D. prohts. apin R. off. laven is used both as E. Pliny. Approach. to — . opportunity. an epistle or letter. to come near. — Appurtenance.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Fr. to learn. N. Hence appoind. piteux poind. apprise. —^Apparent. a price. xv. ciously than nede is. . was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Cotgr. to make a thing Apparel. approcher. decree. to store or put Appal. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. pretium. kind of action. The PI. to commend. apropid. — Approve. — dirondtfiu. despatch on some service. lAfiaam. in Chaucer. Apotliecary. whence the e. cepl. make a composition between parties. near. to mark to define a bound. pertain or belong to. to deter- to strike. ar. known. An old appalled wight. From Lat. Friar's Tale. To Appraise. to Lat. a crime. Fr. H. properly to join like to like. to announce. Fr. Formerly apricock. to call. corresp. to disable oftat. diroBrjKr}. like. Gr. to set a price on. approcdare.—Apprentice. to rate. Cotgr. — Apprise. probare. They were considered To Appoint. Palsgr. Epistle. to take away or lose the vital powers. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. oVooroXof. a thing for one's purpose. to call for judgment. appris. iwKjToKri. array. approver. Fr. I prise ware. one the MLat. to seize. S^. diroTrXriaatii. Apo- good time. Yr. Appareil. AS. horror. value apprdder.parejo. from aTroorlXXu. preparation. and appoinder (to find fitting. Fr. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. From Lat. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Mod. apal. one is in. rise to \t. apprendre.prix. allow. 5w. manner. Apostle. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. trim. praise. Prov. Fr. aparelhar. Lith. like. i. in data. after his mind . appareo. to deaden. case. Cent Nouv. to assign or grant over unto. to accord.his giving evidence against his principal. and in the sense of condition. become dizzy . apprehendere. in good season prendre son d. Appease. quoth the frere. to catch hold of. set a price on. to strike down. in commendation. or the like. . apar. to approach. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. 'LaX. Walach. jabloko. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. whether through age or sudden teiTor. when the . Prov. to send off. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. obolys. — prehendere.t. Cotgr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. OFr. order. Gr. and metaphorically to take the meaning. or E. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. The Fr.propius). —Diez. good. purpose. landmark. a'^opi'Jw. It. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. For their acquaintance was not come of new . that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to be open to view. ap. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Yr. ai. agree. APO sentence opoQ. and also as appraise. APRICOT off. taking. aptly. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. esteem. En peach. to send to. They werin his approvirs privily. A — . from paix. to suit. 11. Fr. 23 . to which it is often referred. And whanne sum men Lat. pragigua or prixcoda. to — — . 'L-zX. To praise. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. consent unto. Hence It. appaiser. of. to lose one's senses. To Appear. poind. avail. Apprehend. Sp. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. apprentis. d-n-o. par. equal. pronounce fitting). pronounce good. agreeing with "LtA.pareil. plight. Ir.parecchio. were formed appropiare ejar. Lat. (cited by Diez from a late author). Apoplexy. habilUr. Apple. that it outfit. in fact. to fit. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. poind. to dress in this fashion. ^wss. prover. : — — speak 'Lz. From Gr. one for his defence. mine. Parson's Tale. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. seiden of the stones. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond.probare. peler. habiliments. apal. a learner. to approve. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. away. apropchar. Fr. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. Fabian in R. word was specially applied to clothing. to finish a controversy. the good. peace. prize. one sent out. to understand. prope (comp. irpaiKOKiaov. appartenir. dress. . appareiller. Gr. diminutive pariculus. w. ON.

Arbour.' —About. arbitrium. pracoqua was not an adapt. as an eye-witness. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. Lat. hariolus arpelen. most conspicuous situation in the garden . nompire herbs being no longer apparent. of of divination arpa-mies. a soothsayer. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . Alban. tion under trial. {mies ^=ia3. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner.] in the N. and taken away before dessert. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. aestimo. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. aha. This path Aqueous. Hall. As is a pretty parlour. sorcerer. arpa. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added.. It may be doubted. or eft. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought.) E. a lot. Albanian. Lat. Now one of the points — — — . J. ughe.o. nected. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. however. conjectura conjec^ra. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin.sors. intensitive of nape. arbiter in re censendS. grande nappe. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. the spelland umpire. Flower and Leaf. Maan initial . words derived from arpa. and with turfis new Goth. arbitror arwaaja. aro. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. opinio. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. la nappe. arwelo. suitable. It is certain that the apricot oracle. rofe and all. OHG. sestimatio arbitraria. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron.shrubs {arbor). Arbitrate. shortdr. aptus.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. proper. Marsh. OE. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. — . upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. is taken in is a soothsayer. P. man. and the one who gives oracles. Naprun. and sortilegus ation. She made. C. to decide by lot. Roquefort. or barm-cloth. aqua. ear. nawl and awl. wata. symbol. and a protection of the clothes. to plough. From OFr. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. P. naperon. herbere. aa. . Thus we have natiger and auger. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. 31. Pr. conjicio. sortium ductor. derived. ap. con. to preserve it from stains.meaning at Shrewsbury. delon. Freshly turnid Arable. Gr. Now we find in Fin. Lat. doubtless is the origin of E. 2. Beryn. auguror. A. . a lot. arwaus. quod he. a lot. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. account for either of these significations. a pleasure-ground. short. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. From OE. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. and thence fit. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. arbiter. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. properly the arwella. — napkin is Naperon. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. found in Fin. The loss or addition of n very common. . scr. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. fastened close. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. . She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Pm. a river. ahva. 331. divining rod. a cloth. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . garden. however. be That it inne groweth. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. water Which that benchid was. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. Aquatic. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. Prol. as ihe diminutive.

it is posculine inflection en of the PI. and must be identified with Dan. G. Gr. et vulgari verbo. The . earg. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. * ArchjAiTaxit. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. sluggish. to be on fire. Lat. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON.' Lex. vescovo. a noble. 3340. Cot. — Architect. curved line. Brem. exercise lordship). an extent of flat surface. un petit rusd. by Russ. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. whence the body of the nobles collectively. — Wtb. Arcadia in R. contemptible. a rule (princiruler. arguo. Arduous. earh. erz in G. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. It. Alisaunder. arsum. gwyro to bend. vocaveris. the court of a magistrate. From apxeiov was formed Lat. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. especially shoulder-joint. Gr. argr. an arrant rogue. ^Argument. first. weapon may be simply an application of annus. to arm.' the Gr. ruling by the nobles. een erg kind. D. an arch-deceiver . ardre. patus). Fr. Ardour. apxtipfve. AS. 2. as in E. sly. arga. gwyrek. arm'ee. ardor. arm. the terminaGael.is the natural weapon of offence. an arrant usurer. bad. ramend). Sp. burning heat. the most arrant trash. government. a chief builder. arcA in e. armee. There can be no doubt that E. in Due. Applied in modern E. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Fr. fabricate). a burning or setting on fire. the best. mischievous. Aristocracy. area. arch-bishop. . . bad of its kind. from areo. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. From the verb armare. det arrigste snavs. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. adjective. Lat. Lat. Du. Fr. to be in comp. apxtlov. man. which has been referred to W. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Arson. arwe. aridus. un malin enfant. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. arm. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. the a brute. earm. to rule. curved. ramo (pi. arson. mischievous. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. apx^iv. erz-bischof. ON. to dry. apxh. arcus. Dan.In E. a bare plot of ground. make clear or prove. Arcliives.. which is derived from it.— Army. Du. a.' Paul Warnefrid. Arm. Lat. signifies chief or principal. ' — Argue. forearm . W. is essentially the same word. to burn . A construct. ardIn G. shoulder. high. armata. And thou as arwe coward. malicious. Lat. G.. Lat. erg. Area. Lat. ancient. a branch. difficult to reach.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. aj-f. Uo^a^. arg. Arch in composition. ardeo. Sax. kpxi- beginning. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. a court yard. wanton. shoulder Boh. fainthearted. Perhaps erz-wticherer. troublesome. and Kpurka. as the arch of a bridge. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. raineno.4 rir/. rame. are formed the participial nouns. a threshing-floor. arrig. sly. receptacle where the public acts were kept. i. while the Fr. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. arma. . arduus. stuff. morally bad. apxri. . wretched OE. Arid. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. ars. bad. archangel. Gr. branch. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. Lat. to demonstrate. from nixa.aioj. TiKToiv. weapon. bravest. lofty. Ardent. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. ein arger knabe. and not with apx. Langobard. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. worker. arrant Arms. an arch boy. . part of a circle anything of a bowed form. taxed with cowardice. and our army. faint-hearted. it signifies roguish. ers-betriiger. argvitugr. Gr. timid. to Arch. ill-tempered. armada. a bow. This particle takes the form of arcz in It.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

bjdlki. baalie. bielke. maleficium. ball. to pack Da. to move. pilula. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . the ballet of the theatres. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. afbalka. lealo.—Ballad. Hence. i. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. Mid. roof. ballare. . ballare. to wave. from bacquet. balle. uveirs bolk. sickness. to roll. Fr. Dan. To Bale out water. a scene acted in dancmg. a. a pill. shouting. as we say. Sw. to speak an un. to dance. a skin. plague. ing. with the perhaps from balg. pallo. ban. Perhaps on. boll. balk. from the more general notion of moving up and down. palla. trouble. a beam. bolawy. balka.of men . Gr. the beam of a ship. on. See Gall. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. as in a barn or cow-house. to plough for a boundary between lands. ballet. balle. bbllr bulla J. bal. Fin. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). balle. bal. vacillare. the object of his expectation. globule. a ball. OFr. dial. (Hesych. to bale out. sorrow. hue et illuc inclinare. G. and the dim. Sw. to grieve .' speak gibberish champurrar. destruction. Russ. balle. In like manner Fr. a ballot). wickedness ness . Sw. ballar). maan pallikka. We have then separate dial. balare. a beam. to ail. Bohem. on. sick.ing. a ball or pack. baalien. F. pain. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. I. balka hopar. a continued noise of waves gently beating . Balloon. Gael. ballone. to stir. on the shore. balken. bealwes. mass. A balk. to on Holmedon's plain. a washing-tub. ON. a pail. and evil in general. blister. Ballot. Goth. the breadth from side to side . wickedtorment ON. . vcdra bdlkr. Fr.Fr. Pol. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. balge. to avoid it. boleii. Ugutio in Due. ache. OHG. separaison. a boil. balka bunge. AS. ball. package of goods. It. . w. Du. to by beams. Fr. Sp. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. a together in the form of a ball. to see-saw. a pestilence. bollr. pallo. Wotton. bol. ballo. Bowl. are applied to a From the same analogy. balloon. To baulke the Sir H. a partition. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. It. a ball. to be ill. weak liquor. Boll. Baulke of land. e. calamity. Da. to be balker. G. ill. bolker. to Not sparing wight. stage or scaffold. Sw. to plank. palcare. ball. to shake or jog. a division of the old laws. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. a clapping or flapping of wings. balk. bal. bola. malefacGower in R. pallukka. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. tum. Bale. Da. Venet. Hence Dan. Q. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. bacgtteter. bala. balk. ballan. may exhibit the original development of the signification. ' is a piece or confused talking. . to rock. ball.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. balla (with the augm. heap up. torment. a But making way for death at large to walke. chapurrar. Sw. a clump . Ballata. Bret. pallikka. probably Lat. N. The primary sense seems as in G. hooting. misery Du. balken. dial. TtaKKa a pail or tub . a balk of foul weather. to dance. a ball balla. cka. to signify washy drink. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. 2. balva-vesei.Lat.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. . to paddle in water . or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. baloier. a ballad. grieve . says Ray. balja. It. Ball. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. a great ball. dial. ne leaving any balke. bdlkr. taich. at giore en balk. balkr. dial. E.). a clod of earth water. a ball. bol. Rouchi ban. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a wooden partition . a globe. to cause another to miss pustule. a dance. pila. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. whether of wood or stone. baler. palloilla. on. . balk. to ache. Du. to partition off . Grief. ballotta. a separate portion. balveins. gen. Sw. a water-skin dim. a dance. OSw. Sw. ballare. bal-daed. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Ball.— Ballet. similar connection is seen in Sp. bolyaf. beaten road. a ball. It. It. a bubble. floor. Sw. other while. . * Balk. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. 3. bold. bolyatchka. — A — — .

By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. bag-lest. the backload. more serious objection is . age. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. Mr Marsh whether the a load. Sp. inutilis sarcina. because. analogous to what is seen in It. It is BAN as well as to ballast it.. sorcerer. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. but loadage. — — oltriga. R. Report Pennsylv. Fr. back of the ship. a false tale or jeer. Lat. bamein. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. ballustres. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. In OSw. baU. lestage. as he says. a rod. bertesca. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. But Fr. called Bait. To deceive. i860. To proclaim. from bara or vara. also with flatteries and . forbid. small railing. a battlement . lastagium signified not only ballast. bambocciolo. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. for a load or goods (Roquef. barandado. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. Balm. more frequently than outward-bound. Balluster. inutile onus. baranda. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. bambolo. Lest. terraces. Baltic. enchanter. Gr. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. for want of other freight. It. 1. a young babe. It. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. explains ballast. Venet. is in Sweden and Norway. lastra. deceive. to walk. galleries. to preserve equilibrium. bam. a useless load. Cotgr. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble.Lat. fonts. Sept.' And Kil. To Ban. dial. The Baltic sea. To Bamboozle. ballast. baltresac. and Mid.). puzzled. urtica. Bamour. it is forced to take in stones or sand. curse. in the first place. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. Fr. seems the original form of the word. This is the backload. barauste. Said to be from balaustia. To Bam. ^a\Ba\iov. mare Balticun. A — — .BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. bamboccio. of balusters. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. Bret. the flower of the pomegranate. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. command. &c. from Lat.000 tons. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. To make fun of a person. the act of walking. lest. bag-las. baUa. by met. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. objects to the foregoing derivation. last. a small balustrade. . ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. 43 — Cot. ranked on the outside of cloisters. It is explained back by Adelung. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. make fun of a person. a nettle. a duty on goods last. balustrade barandilla. denounce. Du. bumbazed. Balsam. or ballast of a ship. like Fr. ^Arbuthnot in R. paid for the right of carriage. Ballast. railing around altars. When a ship discharges. deceiver. a fragrant gum. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. &c. baume. 1854. little round and short pillars. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. If bambocciolare were child of one. astonished. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. an Old dotard or imbambolare. endormir par des contes. lastre. balconies. Bret. .that the going vessels. to enchant. ballustre) is a corruption. The Sp. balsamum. or movement of one who walks. Sc. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. Dan.

and in E.—John Villani in Due. The to . — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. tener da alcuno. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. power. Assises de Jerusalem. bannire exercitum. banda. Sw. —R. Baud. &c. 26. Les saiges avait et les fols d. It seems this signification has arisen. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. parti. a coast. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. 'A son bandon. to take one to task. bande. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. . Leg. bandi. to ban. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Capitul. 2. bannum or bandum. band. A. Spebifid. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. says Muratori. also the band or of marriage. hoc est vexillo. fahne.. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. There is some doubt how Fr. flag. D.Lat. to . 15. to publish) banna. — excommunication bann-lysa. It. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. to side or to bandy (Florio). — R. 813.is further developed. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. banner marked the place of assembly. margin. Goth. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Se il — Romance languages. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. Fr. R- He Translated by Chaucer. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. banda the colour or material. and It. Commun^ment son bandon. from at the Lord's courts. Sp. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. in hostem convocare.^ bandy. whether by way of injunction or for- command.e. bandon somewhat party. From the verb to banda. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Diss. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Thus the word is also used in both senses. ex. faction. at his own discretion. G. he assembled his host. R. See Abandon. to reprove. Ripuar. ba?idare. Cot. curse. biddal. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bando. E. bound. we constantly find the expression. and thence to any proclamation. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. bindan. to excommunicate {lysa. to unite with a band. theodscipe ut abannan. bannire in exercitum. those who side together (bande. bandera ground at his mill. It. change to the feminine gender in banda. Sp. i. It. in Fr. is That with which anything AS. sostener Torriano.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. bandon was used in the same sense. eiiseigne. Goth. populum. . OE. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. To Bandy. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. summoning to serve So in Swiss. v. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. Bandear. side. region. bundun. passing on from proclamation to command. to form parties. then the signification w. a company. In a special sense the term company itself. bande. Fr. Mag. admolendinum. to bring corn to be fahne. he bannede his ferde. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. to ctide. — To partito d'alcuno. Wyntoun. authority. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. 19. banns pany of footmen serve. banda. In Fr. ligue Taboada). band. border. bann. &c. to follow a faction. side. 1. permission. bande. etc. acquired the sense of proclamation. Bandus. the ensign or banner. Band. Car.

stir. Bacon in R. outlam came to signify a robber. — Fr. a blow. bench. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. — — whence E. in the sense of a pirate. clouds. eminence. tumult bangas. and poise Their lighter wings. death-blow .: . murderer. Du. banco. roupt. to knock. 45 — — Bandit. . See Balluster. bank. Diez. Fr. Bandy legs are crooked legs. in R. ruptus. bandi. bane. forbear this outrage. Your stool. a bench. se reunir. to cabal. bang. banja. bank. the back. has bang-bang. Milton in R. Fr. to proclaim. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. . took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. whence the mod. band-hond. ON. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. banc G. bandear. bandire. . dorsum was applied to ject. To Bandy. benk. beat. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. b'ang. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. as of an explosion or a blow. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). When a man fails Lat. a bankrupt merchant. panca. a sand-bank. to slay. large dog kept for a guatd. AS. Sw. Goth. Benchi. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. a table. banka. the same verb the It. Tibalt. &c. banditti acquired the like signification. The child cries bang! fire. to beat. desk. of bandying words. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Bandy. to foment factions. Hudibras. Roquefort. Lingua. a de Vaud. banish. to hammer in a nail. to make a stir banke. from banc. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . — Kil. Bantze. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Bank. Banditti. — Paulus drive in a nail. many a bang. back of a knife. Bankrupt. It. counter. Bane. a wound OHG. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. — . Africa.^ knock. at canis peciiarius. banca his creditors. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. g. banca fallita. hricg. From Mid. See Banish. destruction . A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. de sable. de- party. banqueroute. ON. bow. Fr. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bana. bench. . bance. A Shipman's Tale. that the word is used by Romeo. . to join in league with others against Cotgn. and bakki. bent as a bow. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. rap hatike et som The Susu. band-dog. Diaconus in Due. bander.z. a bench. in the same way that E. bander. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. See Band. seat . banke. s'associer. in the sense of place of business. Ripuar. hammering. 2. a long raised seat. bander tin arc. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. among rotta. Mercutio. distinguishes bekkr. disturbance banga. language of W. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. With many a stiff thwack. The ridge of a hill is AS. a i. bank of river. canis vinculis assuetus. the former Fr. The ing. bana-sdr. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. From a desk . —^Vocab. for shame. But natheless wife at I bank. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. se joindre. death-sickness. bakke. to knock.HG. death-wound. Benvoglio. bank of Dan. shoal. bana. the slope of a hill. banc. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. beating. Lat. N. It. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bannire. It. Bang. AS. bana-sott. to work in wood. bank of a river. &c. Mid. a counter. follow a party. and therefore tied up. Banner. a rising bank. broken. pastoralis. bankruptcy. a bank. a bench. Fl. eminence. The word is in E. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. It is in this sense nounce. Banister. standard. to bend a. to publicly order one out of the realm. Brewer. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. E. Dan. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. put under the ban of the law. ON. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. home — Bandog. Draw. was formed the OFr. and hence. bana. and OFr.

knight Bardd. barreau. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. According to Diez the It. Hence Fr. ON. hence a repast. Leduchat. In a similar manner are formed yearling. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Banquet. Bret. Lat. a. brushwood. a sign. would rupted from Fr. then branches. a ban. ON. banneret. out of a wound. senhal. barre. of wind. barbed or trapped as a great horse. and with an initial s. from the same source. Lat. probably corSymbol. signuin. To Banter. a beam or long pole of wood.hinder. sign. summit. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. a bearded or Cot. Thus Ovid. inferior to a baron.. Fr. and from ensign or banner Prov. Fr. ing term appears in other languages. Fr. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Barb. barrack.the analogous syllable viur.. branches of a tree {gwezen. a which the barrister addresses the court. It may be thing. bandva. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. E. to having that signification. Fr. OFr. to wash.8ap6^o)voe. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. privileged to raise Barbarous. barrou-gwez. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. It. &c. . bandiera. remarked.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. and even of calling it banter. sbarra. barrer. barra. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes.cruel. barde. Duo. speaking of battle. indeed. Fr. iandvo. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language.46 BANNERET . Gr. Barbe. Sw. banniire. senhal. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. ^oTrriKio. nestling. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. banda hendi. barba. the word came to signify rude. Barbar. Fr. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. The spar. jSa'pjSapoc. an animal a year old. a bench or table . bannereti. as they call it. such as the Roman Eagle. i. to beckon . banchetto. banneret was a higher class of knights. in Gr. a tree). a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. 3. —Cot. men. says. wrapped. to bend. jSdirTO). It. senh. barriire. uncivilised. BARBAROUS reiflingr. himself in Pontus. and he would seem to derive Goth. chan. senheira. Lat. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barbarus. rarii. a barrier or stoppage. OHG. by a repetition of the syllable bar. bar. Banneret. A It. ban- Baptise. &c. Gr. — We A . and it was accord. It. either in the Gr. merki. inur. Celtic bar. banne. branch. OHG. then fell among the foot. dim. 2. top. The original import of their own banner in the field. milites bannarii. barbe. or of this bantering. Hence ner. The origin is in all probability Goth. of a sign in general. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. sparre. heri-pau. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. and the work is done. from reifa. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. sparro. token. a bantling. Flesche barbeUe. Besides it must be by Barbary horse.— Swift in R. to dip. rod of any rigid substance. that the noise of voices Bantling. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. E. Gael. banda. Bap. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. Barb. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. of banco.aTa Kul nest. banner. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. manu anto make signs nuere. arineXov. ingly very generally known by a name branches. a war-beacon or war-signal. To mock or jeer one. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. benda. to wrap. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. G. E. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. period vexillarii. which is surely in barbed arrow.

loophole in a wall to shoot out at. barbier. to gurgle. Pr. barguigner. barbelin. bdsiis. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. Thus the on. the beard. Gr. Bardeau. the quilted with. A shrub bearing acid Diet. i. Hatt-bard. Etym. borboglio. Bare. is lb. skola. It. bardes. upper chamber. g. uproar. name Fr. or more properly (says fer.— BARBEL merit of water. coping. Lucan. to bubble or boil. albardilla. Cotgr. barbugliare. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. to stammer. Cot. as well as the modern twaddle. boil. albarda. baragouin. Fr. Barde. Mod. unqualified. tattle. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. and foolishly. powdered all over. tree. barS. haggle. to make an outcry . Mod. a jetty or outnook in a building. a bardelle. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. bare baskojis. uncovered. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. axilla. G.— — Pm. to bubble or spring up. quarrel . Russ. bhasad. as well as thwcEtta. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Sp. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling.' Cot. bds. Barbican. to prattle. in Fr. borbulhar. jargon. open. Arab. Exposed to view. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. fortia —Strabo. to grunt. a shingle or small board. barda. also to bind or tie across. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. saddle-cloth. skialldar-bard. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. and in Flanders to vociferate. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. on. to mumble or mutter words.) to wrangle. Lith. to stammer. a rumbling. skirmish. border. ala. It. — Cot. gibberish. barbulla. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. barbeter. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted .) . horse armour covering the front. Barder. An outwork for the defence of a gate. berries. speak confusedly. to plash or dabble. and the word was used in OE. barz. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. Fl. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. borbollar. and Sc. back. guaszare.— Fl. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. Sp. to boil or bubble up . made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. Port. skirt. . a tumultuous assembly. barbeau. Barbel. — . albarda'ah. Sp. Bargain. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. waschen. muttering. Hall in R. murmur . which was of talking. Festus in Diet. But Sp. Fr. in poetic language Bard for poet. barbar. ready money. Gr. barbeum. lb. in the sense of fight. Diez. The Pers. Cotgr. Lex. mutter. guazzolare. barbel. Bret. to rumble. Barber. — . coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. baares geld. dial. barda. to It. to barbe or trap horses. — — — men. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. borborinha. the flap of a hat. barbaris. scouthouse. bdla-khaneh. bardd. stutter. /3£pjSepi^w. . the edge of a shield hval-barct. Etym. to wash. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. to chafbargain. twattle. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. barboter. formerly used in the sense of tattle. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. OFr. also to wallow like a seething pot. barefooted Sanscr. Hindost. Applied in E. grumble (Lowndes. used 2. Fr. the nakedness of a woman. a pack-saddle. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. borbotar. w. A7 to the and warlike. brim. border of a garden bed. twcEtta. Barberry. barbacane. Bard. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. and flanks. bar. brabble in the making of a bargain. Port. Fr. bdsas. baar. berj G. barbarkama. small pack-saddle. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. such as houses are covered Bardelle. /3opj3opwJu. — — Hence.

corn-shed. bark . See formed Yeast. Vocab. baratta. barley. Swab. beorcan. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Antiq. as in the case of Lat. confusion. kani. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. to shufSe. a baking place or oven. louzou. bere. commonly explained from bere. barnacles. barone. baralhar. barlich. baarn. put to confusion. Rayn. to wrangle. as baces-ern. quarrel Port. — battle. giving rise to It. Barbour in Jam. Barn. Manx bayrn. bard). These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barahunda. contest. barley. bcerme. Gael. is simply the Bret. barn. baimeach. Barge.^Voc^. tumult. entangle. W. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. bcern. The Goth. baaring. dispute. dregs of oil. a heap. meta foeni. Ibid. Alam. Originally man. barlys {bara. It. a place. berem. As Goth. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. So ON. Isidore in Rayn. to skin over barkandi. E. ber (ace. quarrel. varen. spectacles. to cheat.' bardagi. Leg. hlaSa.. limpets .Barum vel feminam. strife. aheap. wine. w. charlock. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. as. Acervus. dispute. AS. bread. mhg. the slimy substance brewing of beer. fray. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. prasepe . Port. to strive. Dan. beornt. AS. baniffa. bosom . berm hoys. in Nat. the G. limpet. baragouin. and ern. Baron. struggle. berm. From Fr. hay-loft. To Bark. 2. barms. a heap . barja. a barn. brenig. Tarn baronem quam feminam. a receptacle for barley or corn. was barlic. Kil. hemlock. husband. to chop. Du. bread-corn. quant a perdu sa barja. 2. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. edge. skuta. contest. astringent. The origin may be throat. barajar. houbartij fsnile. we pass to the vert) barguigner. a lantern. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. a lap. then the bows pectus navis.) lihtes-ern. a cap . ON. dispute . Of these meanings the second is probably the original. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Lith. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. . Camus. barley. barlys. . barki. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Cornub. prominent part of a thing. from an imita- Barley. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. the or prow of a ship. Du. See Barm. barii. . to rout. baron. So also ON. berma. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. * Barnacles. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. Ripuar. barn. baron)^ Fr. bernac. border. at barka. lap. barge. OFr. as. am. also a boat . Romance barsie. Provj bar (ace. — Zeuss. in the Brim. The older form in e. as well as Scandinavian tongues. name being given to spectacles. to all the barca. —Bark. Sp. also to exchange. limpets. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. and llysiaw. squabble. It. tion of the sound. ON. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. adj. baratta. Bailey. v. berm. then honoured man. i.. Leg. Sw. and the word. Bret. barnis. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Sp. a beak. On the other hand. — de Berri. . trouble. (Ihre. Garlick. a. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. OFr. ON. barafustar. bern. herbs. to scold. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. bamagh. Spectacles. barretor. Sp. skutr. dispute . Bark. borkr. barn. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Gl. strife. bern. baarm. and hence probably (by a metaphor. ON. the rack or manger. Bemiques. chaffer. a load. OSw. Prov. but the woman for the man. Port. altercation. plants). a boat. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. baerm. Uzen. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . ThS man was not created for the woman. the fore or after end of a boat . strife. hladi. dispute barattare. and is probably a true bartig. — Barnacle. disorder. one who stirs up strife. barmr. a stack. barafunda. beer. bosom. baralha. dial. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. and 1. bargain. Dan. the A — Ihre. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. baaren.

bara. beorgan. as cavalcade. hut. Sp. baracca. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. breinej Du. or simply bahre. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. a. ^Barrator. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. garment still used in Morocco. over him. Fr. a barrel. See Bar. Baron andfemme. An ing. an obstruction. change of goods seems.. It. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. to carry. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. to * Barragan. mound. barBombicinus. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. a bar.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. as. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. E. w. like bargain. bearg . to shelter. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. dispute. especially those killed in battle. 26. Nominale of the from braeckland. signifying. This word introduced into Fr. OFr. facture. a man. barile. barrack. Fr. gwr. uncultivated. a word is always used in the plural number. sepulchre. D. a. fallow. bark&n. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. Barrack. barri. — A . baronculi. Barren. habeant. AS. It. a hiU. Gael. Barratry. fortification. Sp. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. tomb. and in several instances. bouracan. alongside of barrow. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice.' that Barrier. vel pretiosos burellos. braeck. berewe. Barrister. Russ. litter. Antiq. See Barter. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. Formed from Fr. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. staves. iver. became bidre. gravis et authenticus vir. Sp. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. man. in Nat. the two names. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. a wooden vessel made of Baronet.parchanttuech. vair. berwen. barraca. Bamnculus a baronet. G. bara. a kind of coarse camlet. The feudal tenants next Fr.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. booth. bera. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. perhaps through Prov. — Kil. The Sp. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. by early examples. Joshua vii. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. then traffick4 Barrow. calico. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. barague.. baraignej Picard. cover. cise formation of the word. heap. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. bier.' Op. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. barrique. Barricade. ^Vocab. which would barragdn. It. composed of dry branches ofer. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. S. todtenbahre. in the first instance. bredhan. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. baronuU. Bern. from cavallo. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. barrique. fear. qui have not much light on the pre. a barrow. beorh. implement for carryAS. (Schmeller). vir. It should be observed that. strife. seem to be radically the same with Lat. and not from Fr. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. barrila. barrier. squabble. baronetti.— Gibbon. the braw. brushwood. A. barchent. borov'. Bohem. 1. baroncelli. semen non accipiens landiEL.root signifying confused noise. whenever Barrow-hog. On chet — We — — their resemblance. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. a horse. barre. branches. 2. whence Barrow.have been named from the haggling and gant. from a tree to which a man is hanged. StiU he shows conclusively. OE. It was not until the time of James I. shed. Goth. also termed bannerets. Bargus or moreland. a castrated hog . soldiers' barracks are mentioned. Gael. AS. sterilis. a hut or booth. — — 15th Cent. rolls of Parliament. Bret. boar. ibid. nobles. baragan. were sometimes confounded. G. beorg. Barrel. from beran. barril. bahre. man and wife. a bier. MHG.

Du. ^Is de bast. It. Al is dai. to truck. Lap. a halter. Apparently of Celtic origin. fhe outhouses and yards. It. piiiguis. to bind. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. bdtir. descended of an honorable lineage. then cheating. tierer. exchange. PaaiKhms. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. said Base. over-reaching. F. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . fits de bas. OFr. To stitch. to cheat. — in Rich. cheating. beretun. baste. lattice-work. HaU in HaUiwell.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. found in Turkish . more noble in blood than notable in learning. baraand especially teria. A fabulous serpent. a bass rope. fornication. on a. Sw. MS. of the same sense. G. Lend me your hands. oe. him. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. . by imbezzling their goods Bailey. baste. scale in music. barter. basgod. — Bassoon. dwelling. to bind. Gr. a ftiesh. foist in bargaining. ibid. the — — to kill those that look upon it. It. as the diadem of the basilisk. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. leviter consuere. thick.' Gl. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. See Bath. ' He was begetin o bast. i. crassus. stitch. Sp. the thin skin Dan. It. a court-yard. discourse Nay. See Brattice. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. and tun. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. or running away with the ship. Sp. It is mentioned as . 516. to bargain. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. low. Pl. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. truck. pdrdt. bestcn. back. /«r<fSp.looketh upon his eyes. bast. pressed down. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. imbastire. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. cog. Sp. submovet omne Lucan. It. But according And Dan. baratar. to stitch . low.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. mean . imbastire. lift me above Parnassus. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. commonly A joined with the word binda. would be. baratear. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. basta. inclosure. Fris. The like property hath the iasilisk. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Newman. aiKcig. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). come near. which covers the grain Ger. a basket masg. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. berewic. basso. preparatory stitching. or wic. beortun.). shallow. Kil. to bind hand and foot. ohg. w. a bastard. Barton. mavult dicere Roma suam. flat. Bass. ' Bosworth. but born in baste. mock not. a deceiver. bds. to baste piece of cloth. Bass. basta. ing for profit. fraud. chasa ogli a bastard. from /3aR. fornication. bareter. Fr. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. he. binding. Fr. The original meaning. HoUinshed. hoops of a cask. Bartizan. bran. HaUiweU. embastir. Sicamb. bark. bast-maatte. rope for — . Halliwell. as It. barter. . Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). basso. to Diez. bas. to cheat. unrighteous gain. chasa.D. bast. To Bask. Bassus. low part of the Hickes in Rich. according from Gael. partieren. Bastard. . at basta og binda. Basilisk. Bast. exchange. bestan. Fr. Dan. besst. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. netting. a king. Sylvester's Dubartas. baste.' Papias. also to Cotgr. the manorhousfe itself. bassin. court-yard. Arthur and Merlini. husk bast van koren. Basket. bastear. Du. and Bret. lust. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. to deceive. bass-matting. OFr. beguile. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. the a wide open vessel. to long — a British word by Martial. basg. baraet (from Fr. Isidore. baos. bast-reb. MHG. God it wot. BassuS. to baste. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. baxoj w. from bere. a ipgli So Turk. humilis. There is not one that. but he dreth presently. plaiting of splinters basged. AS. which sets up its hood when angry. barley. corn-farm. — hanging. Barbara de pictis veni patch. It. also the demesne lands of a manor. low note. Dan. n' is n' is bacino. Sw. Swed. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. a tying. To Baste. bast. curtus. peel. besst-u-b£nd&t. MHG.

bastonFr. Sw. Sw. Fr. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. to cudgel. bastir. — — Fl. bladier. niammal. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. Pr. Cot. e. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. For the loss of the / in back. or implement for 4 * A . blakra. to build. aftonbakke. but this is hardly satisfactory. comp. blatta. is explained by Cot. pre. bastia. Supp. Sc. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka.Lat. bastione. 164). blows. has bastine. from Fr. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. and Cot. back. To donjon. Dan. Antiq. bastimento. iinbastire. a blockhouse. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. guerra bastir. 2. boste. R. BAT neither. military term of a bat-horse). Prov. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. All from bastir. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to stroke. vespertilio. Fr. 'iJipistreUo. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. natt-blakka. bastonada. bat. frotter. a barSp. * Bat. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment.baste or knock soundly. a blow cloth for dinner. — Bakke. basa.— Bailey. contriving. the night-jar or goat-sticker. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. erect. Fr. Sw. to teach one before. a packsaddle. p. to quilt or stitch wool into it. basto. translation to a bat. It. I. bastear. also to cudgel.fortress or castle furnished with towers.stitching in general.'CaB. dial. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. . liiake. 11864. E. night-bat. like the owl and the bat. to flap. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. a stick. vespertilio. to thrash . Pm. a sconce. blakka.stick. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. Derived by Diez from iasi. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. contrive. the clapper of a bell. blacta.-^ Chaucer. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. — — — . Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . flyinge best.— . whence ledrblaka. bakie-bird . Sp. bastine. the E. to belabour. compared with blakka. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. To beat or bang soundly. baston. and ditches bastion. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. vledermus. It. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. bastonnir. Sp. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. settiilg up. frame. as weU as besteau. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. stryka. basta. dial. Dan. in the Romance languages. to give him a sound bastingi 3. blakta. bastille. to beat. quelqu'un son roulet.. 2. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. bastida. also the ricado. Florio. to devise or begin. a things prepared for future use. devise. bast.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. blaka. club. a. to build. beating. Bastinado. the winged . batta lucifuga. bak. badger. which to rest the load. which in the E. a pad. packsaddle. That yche blak y dar wel telle. victuals. beysta. provisions. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. stryk. nade. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. to beat. Perhaps baska. blatta. a bastion. to pack a saddle i. 2. ON. To baste one's hide . to whip. cudgelling. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. R. . and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. passage Imbasto. ari instruineht for beating. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. set up. a bird which. staff. ment. to spread bread and butter. to rub gently. raise. Fr. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. bastir. put it together. bdion. to Due. to rub. For the origin of baston see Baste. and Arabs. to drub. Cot. baston. iastir. a pad or packsaddle. business (Altieri). Dieiif. the original has corneille. Sw. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. It. explains Sp. Rayn. set up. bastilde. to lay the Sp. worth (Nat. Mid. to set on foot a war Bastion. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. the bat . a with a stick. in the use of the E. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. disposer.

ON. solbase. batna. made of — A made by one Batcii. bat-en. or break down. baeddu. tagUone. whence the sun burns . bataille. in the sun. to beak. It. In OE. Jurgor. bet. battle was used beath wood. to beat se battre. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . sich bakern. Bailey. to foment with hot applica. abate. cudgel. to heat . remit. batte sig. trahtr to It. to get better. baka.' Palsgr. G. as E. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Fr. Barbour in Jam. to warm oneself. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. From bat in the sense of rod . batterie. certain bend. to beat. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Du. to betake oneself. Hence pro. See Better. Battlement. to warm. From OFr. battere. bada. Eggs. I bathe in water viz. e. Mgy. also. a beating. battions. The bat with which a brot bdhen. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Flem. beat. quhar he suld assaill. It. In some parts of England it is striking. is a simple adoption of Fr. Batyn. to dial. .— To Bask. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. w. To thrive. battre. a stirrer-up of strife. to foment. battre las ailes. strife. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. batir. adapted for defence. a main battle. bat. I baske. battre. on. baz. Hal. a blow with a light instrument. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. is in falling. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to be profited. To Batten. to refresh oneself in language. gebdcke. buask made like a fortress. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. debat. a battalion. Goth. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. a blow. Fr. lessen. to foment. water whether warm or cold. . a from ON. Battalion. Plkkis. fortress or castle. a staff. quell. makebate. . Fr. to beath wood Battledoor. bdt. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Baka sik vid elld. hot. better. to beat. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. dial. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Florio. or make debate.Bathe. Strife. betten. Battle. bdhen. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. a stick. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. to become fat. to cudgel. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to thrive. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to fight. dial. bake. a battle. 2. Sw. on the fire. dial. battaglia. dial. was formed bastilU. badask. to become convalescent. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Sw. by projections or in any licoure. for biia sik. G. to warm oneself at the fire. Battery. Fr. beat down. Chaucer. PLD. Batter. to toast bread. Slav. and as a verb. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. the heat of the It. batacazo. made of bats. bastille. Bat. to beat. to flutter with the wings. and with staffslyng. a washing beetle. tradire. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . to fire or in the sun. howis. abattre. to feed. or a dry stick. Bate. to heat. gabatnan. Bret. then to warm by the application of hot water. fashes basking in the sun squadron. Pr. Batten. oneself at the A into faggots. Ayenst the sunne. in the case of a wall. beat. and about an inch thick. a Baiffi. To Bate. I. to bathe oneself. bdda. a great seems related to baden as Fr. pak. baden. Pr. G. — To . solen baddar. Jeddris and covering. squadron. allay . — Cot. bdda vidjor. bludgeon. — — — ' — . heat. more. busk. Battery. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. badda. as signifying warm baths. an arrangement for giving blows. baquetazo. as wood-en. Pm. flour. E. Fr. badda. a band of armed men arranged basa. A Bath. battere. basa. signifying to give repeated blows. to bathe. gebdck. Fr. and milk beaten up together. also a sun badfish. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. from battre. the root of e. A batch as wood. as E. Pm. term in falconry .Hence in the augmentative form It. Sp. batador. dispute. wet linen in washing. perhaps first used adjectivally. Gael. to for fighting. altercation. to fell. Sp.— . Holz bdhen. from on.

a dog). 8. nastiness.. bablyn or waveryn.' ' Pegma. was simply a field gold. or sheaf of Bridel. ball. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. babiole. a lump. Ball-seirc. OFr. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. lewd . Hal. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. c. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. dung. baffe. In like manner Grisons filthy. a horse marked with a procession. exactly corresponds Fr. From ! an interjection of disgust. tab. the white of his leg or foot. b \% bouala. s. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. excrement. a zan. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. to 53 manure the To baw. an object.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. to me-wl. Cloth of gold. bausan. also the canopy carried part of his body. collar. is Bagdad stuff. whence the E. whimwham. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. Fr. A name of the badger. because made of cloth of white. disgusting. an — — — A — g — — — .guage). a tassel or hanging bunch . Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. to trifle away ment. Swiss Rom. W. from Baldacca. The It. also more Bawdekin. E. Formed from baw. having a white streak down Bagdad. Fr. E. bow (as in our nursery Diez. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Cot. Pr. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Baldrick. fooleries or fond To Bawl. baubare. An analogous noisily. a belt. Fl. to play the babby. Filthy. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. balGael. E. horse. obstrepere. an embattled wall. bobbin or cluster of thread. Prov. pie- . sword-belt. balbob. It. on the face of animals. and Sp. to cry. bad. and authorities in note. to bark. a gavel. baudrdj OHG. bobine. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. a white mark Bawdy. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. to bark . or the animal so marked. 2. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. or toys. Lat. dente. Pr. to void the bowels. fagot. scarf. from Fr. pegma. Gael. cluster. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. babsmall toy to play withal. rotten. or Cot.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. baue. filth. baban. librillo. bal. mew. It. Beaus^ent. Descript. bal. brush faggot. It. baugant. ish baubles. i. in OE. instead oi s. expressive of disgust. Sc. represented by the syllable miau. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. dial. Batylment of a wall. form with an initial seen in Fr. the Swiss baben. R. to the same origin. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). filth. vacillo. bouaila. a plot of Chaucer. zano. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. spot. babbole. — Pm. P. javelle. It is all bawdy. Bawson. to low or bellow as corn. Irel. to make the noise Baudrick. Baw — . Bagdad. sorry. miauler. tille. balderich. dacchino. ON. is used for a sented by bau. BAWSON Swiss. Pm. spotted. child. The word may perhaps be sticks. speckled.. fields. ground. bauU. the face. Cotgr. a tassel. From Bret. s. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . to talk Lacombe. —R. divided between black and white. a lump or cluster babhaid.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. trifle. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. OFr. faisceau. dirt. ballach. Ball. bauch. baudrat. Jam.— P. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. whence pouacre. to vociferate. P. baula. bow-wow. Zalli. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. a horse with white legs. a spot. Cot. Piedm. guigaw. Bavin. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. toys. Fr. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. fe bau. as Fr. propugnaculum. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. — — ' Lydgate. and to-tore also. P. E. ! Bauble. dirty.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. baw. bau. trifles.

— Schmid. Such Antaeus seemed to me. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. baher. Holland's Pliny in R. so called from its bearing bays. . Said to have been invented at Bayonne. It. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. baionette.. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. the cod of peas. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. abbabayer. Fr. &c. badius. siege of Bayonne in 1665. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bayen-stein.. to stand watching one. to keep at a bay. See Bald. OSp. * To Be. S. BE Probably conRuss. badarse. berries. arose two forms of the verb. baja. beothach. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. to mark. Fr. It. as gazing. Q. dividere. to split. berry. Bay-tree. the world Gr. baca. Fr. From Cat. house . Drayton in R. 1. From the former verb is the It. the laurel-bay. trahir./^ bau. to on anything. overture. a cluster of bacon. desiring. &. which however. or at bay. from badar. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. to be Bohem. baca. at his last gasp. put to his last shifts. |8i'os. the step is the same as from It. Gr. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. bay. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. as if to signify a window of curved outline. watching intently. and zndly. Sp. dehiscere . Fr. Mod. to keep one waiting. bilyejiti. to amuse stare a bada. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. to gape. It has been shown under Abie. baga. open the mouth. bate. or to have been first used at the Cot. life. and the To bark as a dog. It. batibari. Sp. Piedm. bioth. Fr. F. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. life. or berries. — A At Bay. a dagger. a beast. It. baya. —Diez. Fr. to open. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root.c. Catalan hadia. ist. Bay. large window in a handsome .' Bailey. Swab. badarc. barn of two bays. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. husk. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. To Bay. a mark. tradire to Fr. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Vielp. —F. bayo. Q. alive. gate. Abide. bilyega. bajo. a berry. 1859. baye. Gael. Swiss beie. bagaid. baie. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. to open as a blossom. window . badia to Sp. &c. A hollow in the 'line of coast. —Bay-windo'W. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. . aux dehniers abois. ing-floor. stood watching him stoop. weary of running. baer. beo. the cod or husk of beans or the like. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. to betray.—Journal Soc. Bay. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. from an imitation of the sound. he turns and faces his pursuers. AS. grapes or nuts. Cot. bai. bahia. Feb. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. buidhe- The ruadh. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. living Ir. waiting . laurel of the ancients. baiare. bde. window-sill. stare. and keeps them in check for a while. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. bahia. a hole. beonj Gael. bdcr. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. BAY marked with bjly. yellow . Lat. bialo. in order to keep the enemy in check. BauSfi)/. white. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. The word bay. Arts. Earth — By Nature made to till. w. Prov. is perhaps not directly from Lat. . bijel. buidhe. baccello. Gael. that from ba. bacca. The — Fr. Bayonet. See At Bay. Sp. Serv. bay. hddhe-dhonn. . by the term rendre les abpis. baier. It. See Bawl. like a pie. or recess in an apartment in modern times. or window ' (in Fortification). expresr sion tenere a bada. a'uno. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. when. Lat. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. living thing . to iiitent nected PoL white.' — — 54 bald. especially beans. 25.— Stalder. A stag is said to stand at bay. corrupted into Bow-window.

on. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. rising ground. beck. Bear. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. bank. Goth. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. bdkna. a tree. or beic. ffci. signifying a point. beacen. vol. Gael. bakke. Beak. To Bear. Gael. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. as. ON. or however. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bedm. OSax. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. A two-year old nephew of mine p. bokan. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. — to bow or nod . bead. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. It. like most nautical terms. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. See To Bid. Goth. fora-bauhan. W. Miss Gurney in Philolog. not applied to the yelping of dogs. . origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Gael. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. into a snjall river. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. a hill. Thus the final en.from AS. to carry. Fr. post.' Suetonius in Diez. bakkje. Catalan becar. ohg. bidello. as well as f& or fav.ad. bar. bek. which is. fromthe danger. E. to produce young. baun. beans. Slavon. salve his hurts. beic.fuis5e. 54. Gr. . support. fero. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Sw.' adheres to the root. It. — Bellenden in Jam. signifying individuality. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. beugler. W. It forms a. to wait. ON. a single bean. —F. bairan. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. however. or breathing. — : Beam. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. tale of prayers or doxologies. atUndre. Farrar. -phxr. a prayer. l^ax. or any action done with a pointed thing. and Lat. to wait-. ffaen. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. «va\ioQ. Beadle. beacnian. G. Beck. bauhan. bob. bearti. Hackluyt in R. N. g.' Hall's Chron. G. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Fr. Beckon.fui. Pardoner's Tale. stock. as. a presage. into France. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. to nod . Trans. a nod OHG. a beak. The origin seems preserved in E.to have a French origin. Lat. fd or faVf beans. baum. bean. A Esthon. Bret. Bret. * Beagle. The immediate shore of the Menage. Chapters on Lang. Netherlands or North Germany. a tree. Du. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. The nutu significare. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Be. He says. according to of Sanscr. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. — bedeau. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. faba. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. the part overflowed by the tide. a curtsey. Moreover the name. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. beic. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. to beckon. to nod the head. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. pierced for hanging on a string. boom. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. AS. . Beach. bagms. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. an attendant. to bellow. faba is Kvavoq. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Beacon. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. vii. bidan. would say. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. bohnej ON. bM. becco. prodigy bauhnjan.fer-re j Gr. bohne. be. Boom. Bean. The wild beast. nokkima. Q wait upon him. AS. a single bean. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. It is BEAR SI court. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. was introduced from England sea. pig.. a sign. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. bydel. badmr. bee. gebed. backe.

bard. the latter are derived It. limpian. as the babble of the child. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. bavec. See Bank. receive.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. or special purpose. 1. E. In like manner condition. Chaucer. W. On the same principle. it is probable that here also the to become. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. E. Dan. and also in that of birth. nod or sign. burdr is used in the sense of a car. Beck. our taste. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. ting. It. Goth. Beauty. perhaps a living thing. comely. taste. to fall in with our bavard. to be fulfilled. R. See Beacon. bekkr. and to acquire. . to shore. behkr. from beau. Slav. nothing to thy name make. to the good hapHalbard. becuman. to happen. while from Shep. bellus. to dabble . brook . Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. and Fr. badi. biivre. bcek. to get. to wade through the water like a beaver. fallinn. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. G. i. dushmak. That thou mayest attain Goth. name applied originally to the bank then proper . duty. Lith. a bank. Fr. gebank. ON. baurthei. the ece thurhwuniath. from the same in the sense of bear2. iida. which. bur. fitanimal. riviera. to sleep on. Beck. convenient. AS.of being very angry. a brook. handsome. suitable. to be incumbent upon him.' ' He became very angry. proper. to attain to the lot of any one. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. decorous. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to hem. To load with ornament. Fr. formerly a happen. Beckon. rying. Fr. gelimplic. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. bach. G. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. barf. as. pens unmixed evU. produce. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. living. when up. from baver. limpan. to fall. Bedizen. opportune. and on. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. Diez. He becom on sceathan. because made of the fur of the beaver. bring forth. byrcti. pleasing. agreeable. — . — A — A — . to come to or upon. happening as it ought. get J ' He got very angry. baba. a lip. See Bat. Do no To It fallith favour. Prick of Conscience. obtain. con. slobber. Bosworth. bestiaj Gael. bobr. place to lie down. boroda. Thus OY. 2.' are equivalent expressions. venient. fit. brook. to the brook itself. Beaver. Lat. The OFr.we call the arrangement becoming. to please. ON.' every way suited to a prince.getiman. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. Russ. covered the face. o. chin. Cal. the beard. edge. proper . OSw. bett. gabaurths. fitly . rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Fr. E. Bo. Thcem. to be a part of his to. bart.S6 fero. i. G. G. or a feeling to be gratified. to G. Fr. bello. godum with ON. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. pretty. to bear children.fit. R. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. bebrus. ON. whence baveux. decent.— Kiittner. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. or river. to those goods which endure for ever. Perhaps from Pol. befall. an notion of being convenient.to clothe to slobber. beauts. Beat. gefallen. bave i.AS. birth. but now a river only. Lat. agreeable. to arrive at. suitable. It. befit. blast. seemly. to happen. becuman. bave. AS. As rivus. Lat. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to appertain. to happen. tidig.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. The moveable part of a helmet. beo. to happen. to carry. bequem. dress with unbecoming richness . to happen. baviire. connected with ripa. The quadruped. limplice. G. now confined To Become. to assume a certain form or Turk. to live. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. talkative. dize or dtzen. if sound of a sharp blow. tidy. ziemen. bearing. I do thee pray. den. Boeth. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. a. barba. timan. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. battere. border. bekommen. ON. See becymth anfeald yvel. babrad. e. riviire. Now the Beast. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. bava. bedr. The fitting or suitable. brada. biber. a bank. g. Lat. bobrowai. beatanj It. judgment. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Prov. to fall mode of being. Secondarily applied to a hat. Sp. byw. e. bib or slobbering cloth. fiber. bel.

a paviour's beetle batail. pital of St Mary. batAfter mete in sale. beach. . Lat. case. boeuf. Fr. Rom. red curdled Arab . Beetle. Originally. PI. Arab.D. and lebermer in G. g. whence familiar. beutel. bibere is a re. comb. beyki. AS. beetle also signified the impiti. It. KXlvoTTiT^e. tree. may be shpped on and off. also the bite or sting of a bees. calleBedlam. madhouse. the biter. curded or beesty. imperative pi. briesch-milch. I A pillow-beer. ris.— JI14. bedawi. blow or thrust. water. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. to and ale. Grimm. bette or blettej Lat. woman that is newly delivered. from leberen. whose face is clotty. For that was law of lend. &c. Lat. sela que environna la terra. cited by Diez. bovis. from risan. G. to knock. to curdle or lopper. bove. kivih. It. . the loppered sea. The beer al for te shenche bate.'— GL ^Ifr. a wasp. a cover. doubtless. garden-herb.^ drink. Gr. Bed-ridden. It. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Gael. fall. by the analogy of bedaivb. to colour with lime-wash. Confined to bed. bitel. The first milk after a dizen. clog for a dog b'oteln. which also 2. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. the meat of spinach. Cot. . mars betada. Fr. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. biiren. a stinging bieUe. Bernese. I put the flax upon it to spin. 1. from the hos. de Fierabras in Diez. may be from K. buk. sang vermeilh betatz. bet. wedges.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. beer. P1. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. bedde-redirj ohg. /SXirov. extant in Bohem. and in driving piles. E. 1 to drink. But possibly bedizen 2.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox.BEDLAM a distaff with flax.ON._t from the root pi. ir'm. byst. G. to coagulate. 'La Gl. beost. Beet. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Horn. a bed-tick. in Schmeller. bedskiissen-bUren. 1. fagus. Let. D. to turn. In a passage of an Old Fr. a pillow-case. beach-each. cushion-cover . as. a bee. a agulatum in the original Latin. E. to change . on. from jtst-. Slav. a cup or implement for AS. biest-milch. beest. cogionare. bos. 57 — Palsgr. biene. 1156. Ant. stakes. Bee. from blood. door. the ox. by-flugaj G. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. The honey-producing insect. taglio. paralyticus. cozen. buka. thick. bably named from the destructive quali| T. bossen. a malsense of drink. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. . translation beOj. from Lat. bbtel. to become Beech. as in It. to fall. prisons Venet. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. poculum. qui de lecto surgere non potest . pude-vaar. briest. Bethlehem. . Cot. cugino.— B. a drink potus.cz//aj. duplicated form of the root. i. * Beestings. also bienst. drink. to poordma.' So Gr. Bav. bytl.D. to beat bossel. to twist poorma.. cousin. an inhabitant of the desert.ing of the word is curdled.' the last word corresponds to cofly . turn (a garment). bukva. Pett. crespir. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. ^. vaar. Bedouia. of beatmg. Fr. G.possible. betel. Pl. thick. knock. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. to parget or rough-cast . ' MordiThe Lat. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. pettiriso. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. a clapper. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. kiissen-biere. erroneously modified in form. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. an Beetle. Esthon. waarin. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. a mallet. to drink. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. in Nat.). . drink. Dan. to flatten In OE. used for boull. beta. Fr. a wandering Prov. bitela. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Beef. a wasp. desert. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. to rough- cast. as the milk of a that purpose in London. a pad or cushion). prigione. cow has calved. a horse-fly . boytle. GaeL bior. bletumj Gr.(paddi. a Properly a cover that biiren. ProBeer. turn. speach. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. Fr. an ox. AS. I dysyn a dystaffe. Fin. badigeonner. trees in a forest . The meanpainting. a pillow case. Fr. buche. AS. piwo.

OHG. P. a wallet. woe-begone. Mod. appears improbable at first. seizing. one after that other. Gr. word. He did alight. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. a beggar . and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. on further examination. a beggar-boy. vir mendi. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. chap. Du. whence the E. Ancren Riwle. but in the same language from poc. to be able. onginnan. to begin. P. giving in Gr. a chisel.quently used in OE. yivtrri. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. a stone-cutter's chisel. krapszas. and Lat. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open.pose. capere. Into the are D. 1430. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. 'Dz. Schm. to know. beginning. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. yivofiai. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. V. To Begin.' for ye shall lament and weep. 168. beis- plement driven by blows. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. in D. duginnan. beriolare. From w. or Of a pure poor man. a bag. steinbosil. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. 142. begger. Du. &c. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. aginnan. genus. be^nnan. to bear young. covered with gold D.' about undern he got down. Bruce. to go a begging. to cleve. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. baigeir. it is both to acquire and to beget. above quoted to get beaten ON. Deutsch. Nov. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. Barbour. a — wedge.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Political Songs. Skinner's derivation from bag. incipere.bag full of the G. & go a begging. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. P. to be born. is formed pocair. kind. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. P. of Gr. 2. gen. Beghardus. AS. ' ' . but probably erroneously. as alighting is a momentary operation. to arise. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. It. a bag or poke. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. Fr. also called Bigots. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. — Stillingfleet. beissel. 1867. P. su with gold. Goth. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. It will . such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . ysgrepanu. y/yvo/iat. air a . Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. tale. referred gan this Erie alight. &c. ysgrepan. two betels —a grete oke. gigno. ken. the fundamental notion of attaining to. beitel. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. P. origin. ' . To Beg. In Luc vi. bag {baigean.D. Lith. yivwajcw. anfangen. a beggar. not began to alight. P.3. 'ex quo. 40. at geta talad.' A. 'Aboutin undern monly. sel. gan. can. is com. yiyvo/uat. When Q. from whete G. although it ' the future. ykvog. Of brede full ycrammed. oppressed with woe. a scrip. literally. can. iv. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. to reduce him to beggary. Lollards. — yivsaiQ. viii. begging. P. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . Florio. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Mundart. 58 BEG BEGONE G. So from Gael. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. a little bag). fangen and Lat. The tother seand the dint cum. to begaan. signifying to conceive. a bag . beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. Du. to get children . ip AS. in Lat. ' Begone. Vocab. ornamented phoc. ytyvwfT'Kw. P. hags. Cold-begone. bertola. V. lapidicinus. on the tramp. touched with emotion — . To produce children is to acquire. on the bag.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. taking up. P. to beg. V.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes.— . 25. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. to take. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. pose-pilte. beutel. chisel. to be acquire. a wedge for cleaving wood. Si'Xa/coc. image is cleft out of the trunk. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. beitel. a scrip euXaiciJoi. cans. in E.n. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. ken. Creed. affected.

to be named. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to hit the mark. to cast or throw. portarsi. is on the top of or opposite to. To be expedient. hafwa bort.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. hcef tig bort. AS. promise or a command. And so from hania. to carry. take yourself off. behete. to look.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. commonly expressed. hafwa. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. The It. the two verbs seem radically the same. to look upon it as true . to tend.for throwing it. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. injunccommand. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to name. to call. R. and the E. by the compound observare. behaviour. is also found in the sense of looking. Plautus. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. gehat.' Richardson. habere. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. betragen. gehouden. to be suitable or becoming . nittaa. AS. to regard. to bring forwards. to halten. or necessary. heeten. hofwa. take heed of. on. Sw. To look steadily upon. laborare. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. hatan. and (as Fr. to be obliged to do a thing. zijn. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. tail. gehalten seyn. promise. zu etwas gehalten haitan. adjust. The Lat. At the back of The re.— . what he wishes another to do . —Hest. bound. to have. as in the case of E. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. behoof. ge' hatan. to keen or hold. to be obliged to one. heave. Aan iemand bid one welcome. To Behave. Paladino. advantage. us-hafjan. G. have the sense of calling or naming. — Behest. Command. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. what is so required. OE. to fit. to the equivalent of Du. hevja. to keep. exhort. hcefwa in seed. to carry. gecall. to gehouden. tion.the figure of throwing at a mark. gehaben. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to be well pleased out. or purpose. to R. servare. hafjan. AS. beholden to him. G. habban. Sw. to vow. G. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. and their senses intermingle. behind. right. guardare. vow. to follow. to meet. to feed. to turn one out . hevja. invoke. To place are most naturally ex. Goth. furtherance. hovast. or the hence advantage. Kiittn. is supported by many analogies. Sw. AS. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. the equivalent of E. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. a follower. G. vow. hafwa. heeten willekem. to behave. obliged. name of the head is used to express what hbva. according as the * To Behove. at the tail of. to promise. to bers of the body. hantyri. to vow. ufhaban. to command. promise . to raise. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to keep. keeping. to carry corn into the barn . G. hafwa ram. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. han- — js Kil. heita. seeing to. to call. But. N. behces. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. It. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. garder. behatan. use. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. fixed upon any object). taking notice or care of (Gloss. AS. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. observe. To Behold. ward. to lift. to be be named. ifl fact. 17. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. behat. to heave. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to be fit.). an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. se porter) to fare well or ill. to hold. The seyn. to hold. G. keeping. premi curi alicujus rei. beperson addressed. to lead. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. holding is originally derived from that of looking. behefe. behold. to take away. the name adapt. solicitum esse. hces. Robert in Warton. K. Thus in Finnish the heave. to lift. when the verb will hoof. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. hove. healdan.to vow. to carry. the distance of anything. to command. from tragen.

The principles which all mankind allcrw for . bealcan. allow. to praise. are other modifications of the same imitative root.. are innate . bolken. to believe. glauben. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. precious. beffroi. to hit hafi. To Believe. mark ON. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. bettifredo. cela est audessus de votre portde. bercvrit. In Mid. beleggen. Northamptonshire. honoured. orloven.Lat. promiser. turris. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. to estimate them at a To believe. loven. measure. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to promise or engage. battefredum.D. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. bounds. To Belay. peal. . bylja. beffroit.D. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. galaubjan. and bergan. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. Fair sir and Fair lady. met. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. lyfan. praise. fringe. loben. satisfaction. ley/a. to permit. OHG. Q. OFr. bialla. bealcettanj OE. moderation. loven. aim. is (Sternberg). ungalaub kas. a watch tower. Sw. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. to be required for a certain purpose. and Du. overspread. Du. bertefredum. filu-galaubs. Doubtless an imitation of the sound.Lat. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . permitting or giving leave. Pl. to give leave. See Gain. bellow. were civil terms of address. a tower. permission. lov. P1. bervrit. reputation. Then. to lay the cable round the bits. — . In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. fitness. to sound loudly . leave . on. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam.. to believe.. Hence to simple approbation. AS. Det er ofwer er hofwa. if a promise. a vessel made for dishonour. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman.D. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. ON. From AS. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . laubjan. or high estimation. and. —F. beset. In the middle voice hofwas. and E. to make it fast. is used in the sense of approving. then. true. leaf geleafa. to express approval. behove. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. belief . laven. b'ola. Fr. to roar. a little shed. and E. bellan. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. lofa. laven. esteeming good and valid. erlauben. to give leave Dan. to praise.alyfan. resonare. to boke.D. The word be- Belfry. G. consent. giving leave or permission. a tower for defence . tain a certain end. to sanction an arrangement. border. . bulken. verloben. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. To Belch. to lay be- around. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. range. praising. under the forms belfredum. we have Goth. if a narration. to belay. belja. appearing in Mid. to believe. gelyfan. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. an implement for making a loud noise. frid. beau sire and bel dame. then. certain rate. AS. berfroi. promising. to cry out bell. locus securitatis Schilter. to bellow. hesfa. bell. to protect. Fr. stand. on. to give leave. to der swaren lave. ON. to resound. to put a high price or value on. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. garnish. for purposes of low estimation . to fix a price upon one's wares. to bolk. in nautical language. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. — mankind. galaubs. esteemed . ornament. reach. to promise. or house. Another application of the same word is in Pl. boare. Du. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to praise. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. from mhG. legsel. is an easy progress. distance to which a piece will carry. It. pro3. or a sconce. Pl. Goth. to a loud noise. Bell. to befit. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. a. — Diicange. to extol the worth of anything. 6o BELAY BELL loven. portion. with the consent of the heirs. properly belonging to the church tower. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. . Du. Du.

Was das belanget. or simply djawt. benehusk. benefacere. bilbil-goda. See I . Lat. to come to the crown belangen. se bander. welt of a shoe gwald. skin. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. belch. ON. fyle To dirty. vulgarly the belly. bander un arc. G. ball. . fens et hie liraus. cod or husk of pulse. See Bind. binssen. OUG.pinuz. balteus . wallet Benefit. Gum benjamin. to bless. OFr. because bcelg. bellows. to ring. . welt of a shoe. a bellows. is The word balg. Belt. benjoim. a round or bubble-shaped root. Lat. bless. to do good to one . To Belong'. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. pervenire. bendan. a spring. To Benum. bolch. the skin of those animals that factor. To Bend. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and .polch. bimpsen. bilbila. Kil. Lat. attinere. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. — Ducange.Fr. pouch. Fr. from another modification of the word for bubble.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. has assumed a plural form. bolg. Fr. to bend a bow . langen. Bent. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. ray. Eenison. from which is also bulbus. gwaldas. from benedictio. hence with ashes. bimaissen. to say. rise against external force . . leather sack. a speaking well of one. Benign. to use words of good omen. from Arab. benedicere. attingere. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. kind. pino3. belliJ Lat. Bret. Lat. one who does good. is a kindred form. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. See Bank. to reach. needs no ex. Bench. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. In E. hem. are stripped off whole blase-balg. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. pod. a water-bubble builge. benaigon. taken absolutely. ^To Beray. rushes. Bav. to concern. Du. To Bequeath. Gael. dirt. To belong is thus to reach up to. pertinere. Benefactor. bienfait. balg. to stretch it on a frame. to arrive at. Ptg.' — Hie fimus. a accusative. a blessing. to hold to one. From OFr. a good deed. belly. to exert force. binsen. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. benjoin. pertinere. ' I beraye. Javanese perfume. as concerning that. . by itself. bcelg. or sometimes louban. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. est matris in lucem editus. incense of Java. Lat. to. poX^ri. bolg. Lat. belly. Benediction. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. G.. to make bilbil. a benefit. Quoth. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. wallet. I marre a thyng. well. — ray. to become one's property . as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. The ing-skin. was in Mid. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. blast-bcelg. to touch. Benedico. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. the womb.videtur. a leather bag. vulva. to hallow. becwathan. to attain belangen. bene/actum. disposed to oblige. Sw. Benzoin. . J'emboue. generous. G. skin. border. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. balg. — See Numb. I soyle it or araye it. bendaj as. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. gelangen. to concern. volva. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life.' Palsgr. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). or fyle with myre. See Nether. as. on. benignus (opposed to malignus). loubdn djawt. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. a border. Beneath. from cwcsthan. an inflated Lat. to touch one. means seeds of plants. to belong. I say). a bellows . bags or bellows. ' . bandoir. ON. beneison. benir. . benedictio {bene^ and dico. belgr.' The term had been previously planation. attinere. w.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines." — — . Gael.— Belly. to attain to. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. blister balgan-snamha. the word. . G. bellows. or a It is times the to signify services. Fr. I araye. bell. a blow. Benefice. belt. a kindness. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. bag. benejicium. bellows. Dozy. — root consisting of concentric skins. Benignant.

a horse collar. Du. basya. barth may be for barf. Bestead. roju. * Berth. advantage. OE. p. stede. boeten. bur-we. solicit.• 62 Antiq. fall with sound. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. person to lie in. or to bestead one. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. to entreat. To seek something from a person. The origin is AS. eld up- On is to be placed A — . to fall with roisto. besnij Pl. AS. burrow.X. bdt. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards.bhaksh. — Chaucer. Besom. to give a place to. put. betan. Hfence backing. See Reave. to mend. AS. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. might have been . to to deprive of. berwham. reparation. boutefeu. advantage. Goth. one who shelter. barfham. — bota. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. stealth from steal. * To Bete. an incendiary. to the place boarded off in a.iooA. Ihre. to To Bereave. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. Du. Fr. compared with bargham. Du.D. and on which the wager is laid. sets fire to. to thrust. houseless. a place . encouraging. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to.t. earg. broom twigs. rubbish. So too Yorkshire arf. bacca. betan. dirt. G. to word is shelter. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. botesward. R. vol. ship for a make amend. from It. to put on the saddle. place. to make better. ropahtaa.ot-i. as. Zeitschr. think more probable. a berry. put forth. same word with the provincial barth. arwe. buttafuoco.—^fake. Tusser. berwe. . baete. barthless. besmas. as. from AS. BETE dirty'. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. to seek. to supply a want. as. So Lat. p. — . G. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. — Biglotton. as bouter selle. but it is specially applied mister. I from lew. dung . bestow.— Hal. AS. besje^ Sanscr. basjaj Du. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. On the other hand. boeten. bat. Beet. ^akka. bal oppbota. of ffeed a fire. To Bestow. and Du. besIn sen. To bete his Jam. . Esthon. to kindle the fire. Fr. Grose. supply. as conversely a besom is called broom. Beit. as. Tha het he micel fyr betan. reparation. When men of mekeness him baet. fyrbotare. het vuur The serise of Boeten. lewth. besein. earh. E. as in growth. ^•n. boeten. seems twigs or rods. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it.— VixHsm. dust rojahtaa. lay out. E. or the space kept clear betan. jnore. To Beseech. to stand one in good stead. to be-place. BEREAVE Wall. scopse spartis. beorgan. The proper meaning of the bale. Sw.irova. berry. supporting on the one side Lat. bouter. To Bet. improve. from grow. Beere. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Berry. dirt . Du. — amendment. Rob. sheltered from the wind. because used for making besoms. what does it boot. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. making better. dial. to amend. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. Kil. reafian. ariierf to 113. baete. Best. stow. make better . vi. to cast.fish the other hand. roe. R. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. bdt. Sw. From abet. rods. to defend. hva mannan. See Better. Fin. To Gl. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. as Du. noise. bereafian. or. boteith Goth. a fire. profit. fearful. buttare. the origin of which is to be found in ON. to exercise on a definite object. bet. repair. in the sense ctf beria. mud. small eatable fruit. 3. to thrust. roju. what does it better a man. to make it. besen. preferably. protect . brem-bessen. to on the other Goth. an incendiary. to light the fire . but in practice. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. to fire a funeral pile of . sweepings. It is the restore fyr betan. To help. bota. and also to entreat. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . amendment. beseech. The dry. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. is to perform a serviceable office to him. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. So roto rattle down. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. peto. better. position. the guardian . it seems hard to separate as. the side bhakshya. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. Devon. to strip.

— See To Bete. bet. gesiemen. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. whence beveraggio Fr. E. is used for the — R. Hence last G. Fris. suitable. In like manner from twain is fothied between. are there Regt R. G. Bevy. to deliver up in breach of trust. larks. are commonly to one's lot. bet. to deliver tip. zimet. gezimet eines dinges. to make forwards. Sahissais. taemen. — of the authorities. betwuxt. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. the being pushed to the frbnt. The as. or with again. betaemen. evidence of life. Det sig sjelft. obeish. what does It is forward him. beva. an instrument opening like a a thing. lot). I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. verbs in ir with a double ss. r'ojer dig. vrohjan. bevde. advance. to accuse. betst. AS. two. betriigen. baet. dir. From It. x. riigen. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. betray. betweoh. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. beuvrage. ziemen. roebucks. BETEfiM translated. batizo. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Tinia eigi at lata eit. e. bevere. He tdmet I do not allow myself that.— . Ober D. for measuring angles. i. wreia. trahison. trakir. R. to Teem. Thus from dbahir. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. find in one's heart. e. Lat. fallinn. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. From the former of these are AS. to discover. On the same principle ON. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. tima. i. &c. as envahir. moveable and compass branches. Now the stirring of an object. it bewrays itself. become. bedriegen. kein leben mehrin no signs . bat. roja. Ik tame mi dat nig. from Lat. proficere. E. ON. to happen. Sw. 88. To boot in coursing (i. his eyen sheen. Best. better. gatiman. E. Friar's Prol. from Fr.' Dialogue on Witches. taemen. which may be compared as to form with amid. polish. of quails. Between. better. a bevy. To vouchsafe. Cot. Mich self a good glass of wine. amiddes. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. abash j from polir. Golding's Ovid in R. amidst. Slant. fitting. a different form of twa. G. has — In a like sense tanie>i. better. afford. It. betweohs. in the middle of twain. betera. Chaucer. To Bewray. Pl. a traitor. to stir. as trahissons. not to have the heart to give up a thing. trahissais. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. tweoh. to fall. from. zemen. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. best. Goth. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. be fitting or suitable. traditor. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. by a final sh. betweox. find it good: Goth. To Beteem. wrogia. tima. *Ah. G. obdissais. some attention. In the water anon was seen His nose. of pheasants. to cheat. Pl. thy speech bewrayeth thee. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. betest. beverage. tradere.D. and thence twegen. Dit tungomal rendered in E. his mouth. deign. I approve of beveau. bibere. It. -to appoint. AS. G. Percy Soc. . awry. to happen. to Hence It. Dii. said he. betwuh. Fr. /alia. — that schickiich. as from obdir. twain. Better. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. progress. in the same way Lat. Fr. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. batista. bouter davantaige. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. Buveau. OE. in the middle of two. is treason. e. dispose (whence schicksal. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. to deceive. to drink . as one would have it fall. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. tradire.D. Car son umbre si le trahit. a brood. to fall Some call it a bevel. Fr. trahir. as tlock. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. a drinking . Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. more. make manifest. The inflections of Fr. deem suitable. regen. order. Bav. by two. fate. Du. Goth. pair of compasses. A — drink. — Betwixt. Fr. R. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. In like manner folissais. R. ON. from invadere. suitable. sloped off. against. Fl. springs from ON. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. spritigs from schicken. ruogia. treachery. To Betray. traitre.

to creep or crawl sideling. winding or crawling in and out. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Mantuan. to make tongue Du. dial. b&zahr. wraggeln. 172. biberer. to tipple. In Arab. 78). or in and out. sbiescio. babbefore the eyes. dial. aslope sbisciare. to slaver . bring under ' Thy accuse. two- footed. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Fr. to stir. oblique. metaphor).as in Biped. Hal. (according to the Fr. to well up with Cot. in him. Fr. a bezle.s bellum for duellum. asure-bice (Early E. to purl. poison. inferiority. Fris. its clothes. Lat. to glide or slip as upon. To skirmish. —Dozy. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. like guzzle. Fr. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. used in precisely stone . bes-azur. Prov. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. Bezoar. An inferior blue. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. kwijl-bab. sbiscio. notice. to stir. biaiser. ber-laita (for bes-laita). to the stirring of their conscience. makes ble. bibaculus. Sard.or from obliquus. Piedm.two. tailU en biseau. Schiitze. babbi. bickelen. beregen. expelling or preserving against. to Jam. . stock still. bestemps. biax.to drink much. sik beregen. a sloping edge. to cut in two. a Galilean. The It. he is Wtb. bibo. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. has a singular stone-picker. kwijlen. sbieco. kwijllap. bezling or skueing. the word became bddizahr. snout. per\'erted belief. sloped. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. wrangle. biais. It is especially applied in Sc. To Bicker. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. in two ways for duis. Fr. Probably. bark of which paper was first made. baverole. To bicker in NE. of the sliced off. ice . or kwijl-slab. crooked. as an eel or a snake. petit-lait. Bibelsworth in Nat. sbriscio. baviere. Lat. sbiasciai. to shake. discover. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Biseau. misFr. OE. See Wriggle. Fr.a. by throwing of stones. a stone-hewer .' bibble. bickel-sieenken. roggle. Dan. Piedm. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. To Bib. besanca. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. Ant. pible. Bice. to stir up . a slabbering-bib. /3i/3Xof a book originally. Hal- — do something aslant. reveal. biascio. to be a paring. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . wrogen. slanting . bescompte. the basil Sc. Jamieson. to stir. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Bezel. and zahr. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem.{ioin dua. convicts thee of being drink. lips. bisel. bickel. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. in Fr. to a fight with stones. rogt un bogt sik nig. It. is explained to clatter. It. Pl.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. evident. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. shows the P1. To drink hard. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. . to tipple. To Bezzle. sbrisciare. to move. edge of a plate of looking-glass. it were the mouth. Du. rogge. The train of thought is then. bible. I Wallon. aslope. which good bibbeler. — Bi-. sbrisso. bending. Pers. In comp. biascia. or by any rapid motion. Fr. though such a change of form would be very unusual. bisdare. it becomes (Jz-. Yes. Sp. bickeler. Misc. —Bickering'. E. Bible.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). sbiagio. sbrissare. Diet. . bis. Bias. Bisect. biberen. bihais. . Ci^. Bib. . bavon. To Bibble. whey count . to dispute. to slaver or drivel. one who drinks in excess. to give signs of life. twice. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. him. Sardin. slippery. Cat. biberon. sbias. Uprogen. to it evident to sense.D. Gr. liwell. whence Du. from pdd-. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Cat. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. presence. specially in a bottle. pddzahr. bias-wise. beslei. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. bebble.D. bickai. a fragment bieco.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. — crooked. love first begins to life signs of him. Oh when shall I bizzle. to sip. An excellent Basil. sbiesso. a bibber. sliding. the papyrus. foul weather.

bugne (answering to ON. rising up. byggia. to bulge. or. inhabit Du." buque with E. offerre. gebeden j G. explaining the Sc. BID of stone. AS. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. To Bid ' Big . an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bend of a shore or of a rope. pray. the belly of a ship. to bend. to cultivate. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. The 'La. bedun. Two verbs are here confounded. be bug. to arrange. Hence Sc. 2.Leta). bidjan. belly. W. beadle. to forbid .' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bidill. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering.uddered len heart. bath. to inhabit. beodan. to curve. in the sense of ask for. bolga. to have one called before him. bat . In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. qucero. Bickelen. called the tertiary order. to start out. besides the professedmonks and nuns. bugt. to swell. quiring something to be done. verbieten. . The . The loss of the / gives Dan. buga. Compare also Sp. Big. Bigamy. The ON. bulge. ' Bug as a Lord. to presimpler pare. as. G.t. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. G. related to big or bug. The original Swollen. bauen to cultivate. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. AS. biddan. and Gael. P. bygga. to ask. to bicker. to belly. to build.. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bilge or bulge. bi-. a suitor. ON. twice. and consequently ordering or reGoth. or third order of penitence. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. — prepare. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to offer one the wish of a good day. bua. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. beidast. praebere. bog. ON. proud. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to solicit. as tears from the eyes. to bend. bag. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS.peto. Palsgrave in Halliwell. as G. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. balg. a flexure. bit- bidja. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to inflate E. ON. swaggering. are also used in the sense of asking for. Analogous expressions are G. who. bead. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. A bjudan in anabjudan. G. The ON. bulge. swoln. R. belly. Einem einen guten tag bieten. BIGOT beidan. bieden. to offer. to look for. to forbid . A pose to one to come to dinner. from belgia. to E. . to move quickly. OSw. form.' Pope in R. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. anleta. bigan. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. to pray one to dinner. byggan. praestare. iiQ. by seek and beseech. bieten. which is stiU. a chip. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. athird class. of More ' in Richardson. biegen. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. cultivate. to pro- command. to abide or wait on. Big-swol- . boa. has leta. bolgna). becoming in Lat. bidel. gebodenj G. an entire skin. Kil. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. spelling seems to used in the N. inhabit. or bad. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. forwards. AS. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to bid one good day. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. to look for. bulk. Jam. bow. the meaning of bid. bidan. a swelling. to offer it to public notice. from seek. bugan. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. to marry. Bight or Bought. Bigot. ON. einen vor Gericht bieten. ewes. to build G. bced. to ask. It must be observed that the word bidja. bend. England for swollen. swelling. Du. bulky. 1. from bidan. — — — Halliwell. bolginn. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. bidan. OSw. From Gr.' Addison. With respect to logical pedigree. Wallace in Jam. and yajiBui. abidan. To bid the banns. build. consisting both of men and women. ten. and the Sw. to build. To Big. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. pressing on one's notice. to dwell. faurbjudan. bouwen. bug. repair. porrigere. — To Bid. bis and in comp. bo. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for.

bigio. and hence the variations bigutta. S. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. 15 18. G. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.D. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. From bigio. perch^ i Terziari di S.' says one of of bigio. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. alii de paupere viti.. A.a. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. bigotta. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. In the same way Fr.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. which must not be confounded with begardo. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. Bizocco.D. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. aliqui Begardi. A.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. 560. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. Bighiotti). continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. bighellone. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.' Chart. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. dark-coloured cloth.' translated by Muratori. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. beghino. grey. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. absque votorum religionis emissione. probably from biso. a dunce. Bizoccki. coarse woollen cloth. Beguttce. D. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. They wore a similar dress. with reference to A. author quoted in N. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. corruption would easily creep in. vocati Fraticelli. In a similar manner from bigello. a blockhead. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. and Q. homespun cloth. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Augustini dotarint. as well as bizocco. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. sed maxim^ in muliebri. grey. begutta. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Francisci communiter appellabant. vol.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. ix. both men and women. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. 1499. and also unlearned common men. Bighini.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. was formed bigello. Hence the OE. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.D.' says an Venet.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . 1243. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. alii Apostolici. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. beghart. &c. face VIII. Flor. xx. natural grey or sheep's russet. ac labores manuum detestantes. biso.— Ducange. rustical.— BIGOT bigardo. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. A. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. borel. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. the other form Per te Tribune. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. the nobles to Rienzi.' Matthew Paris. clownish. bighiotto. signifying bagmen or beggars. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. to adopt a similar course of life. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. honesti plebeii amictus. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. says. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. all apparently derived from Ital.

irons or set in a kind of stocks. seems to be rather the unda. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Du. NFris. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. In English the meaning has received a further development. billet. an ingot of gold or silver. an axe. bill of exchange. a devotee. e. in the same sense. b'olja. plog-bill. The origin of the term is probably from bole. — — ' . buoy [i. blamand. AS. the beak of a bird. belgan. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. inscriptum.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. boia. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a man who rests on a stick in walking. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. top. obsolete. AS. Kil. bille. bisoch. Bilbo. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. genus vincu- Bilboes. weapon .' mariners. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Billette. boja. bui. — bigardia.— — — . the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. bill. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel.. Bille. names bill-berries. I. deceit. of E. Gascoigne in R. whortle-berries. Bojce. to job. to strike. and in Lat. Dan. bigot. and dziobas. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. Bilge. Aurelles. Lat. bullet. beghart. Tartuffe. Thus we find in It. a beak. Bigin. a shackle. . tepati. Sw. biilge. from Mid. dziob. person of religion leading a loose life. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. of boja. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. fetters. a of the sea. a hypocrite. a short note. 3. bolghe. e. Lat. to peck. AS. An instrument for hewing. bil. Prov. 5 * . 2. bigot. and a billard. beil. as a bill of indictment. dziobad. dissimulation . Fr. bull-berries. Sw. a negro. Billow. buie. 'tumidi fluctus. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . bulla. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. bulghe. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. See Bull. 2. Kil.' in Richardson. to be angry (i.' bilio. A slang term for a sword. an axe. horn of an animal. ferrese quam ligneae. Fr. to swell with rage). like change takes place in the other sense of — — . This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. ^Billiard. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. a seal. Fr. To defraud one of expected sinking. Bill. Sw. To Bilk. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Billet. billet is the diminutive of this. Du. Dan. p. in the sense of a writing. loi. however. abelthe fetter itself. A lorum tam in — Diez. Du. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Bill. Gael. from the dark colour. OFr. . the o changing to an i to express diminution. bigardo. BILBERRY nated. bla-berry. used in legal proceedings. Bilberry. clog to a fetter. bulgja. topor. false pretender to reUgious feeling. bile. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bigotto. — Cot. an axe. Deutsch. at sea Billet. Langued. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. The Du. Johansen. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. bwyell. bizocco. billard also signified at billyards. to strike. axe. blaa. Roquef. a bigot or hypocrite. a name given to a. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. gan. So in Gr. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. w. to pick a millstone. crowberry. the swelling G. bila. an adze . Ludwig. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. boeye. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. now A Bilboa blade. In the same way are related Pol. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. symbolum. an axe . Piedmontese bigot. . a hatchet. a seal. might be taken to express a hypocrite. the bill of a bird. that of swell. on. the trunk of a tree. buail. blue . billard or billart. is properly a sealed instrument. belghen. billot. as craneberry. The proper meaning bylgia. Mundart. fluctus maris. bill in parliament. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. gleischner (Frisch). G. a floating log to mark the place of some. Bohem. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. a sword. Sp. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. See Bulk. from OSw. an ingot. procella Kil. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen.

to bind at .' and the like. bunch. evesgue. a corn. beorth. poultry.. Bird. Lap. binda nat. ge- from AS. piiiti. bitacora. bundun. a female stag. G. Lat. It. i. e. Bailey. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. earnes brid. . a brood or hatch of young. evigue. a weight of 48 pounds. . A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Lat. to bind together. admota non Bit. expressed by Sw. AS. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. sc. 'tumens sequor. pundas. life. to be derived from Ibfiaq. Fr. viz. from pondus. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. AS. a bitch. copus. a bunch. bund. a habit- Binnacle. to knot nets for fish. Bisson. videt. to swell. to bear. brid. Fr. Bittacle or Binnacle. properly a young pigeon. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. a truss. to form a knotted structure. AS. or ben-wood. Lat. bij sienigh. beisseii. overlooker. Du. evegue. piccione. pullus. to fasten it together. The bitol. a heap. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Fr. burt. nodus. . — Surrey in R. Bin. Birch. H. bundle. betsel. a bear. — properly near-sighted. from Gr. AS. v. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. than vice versi. Sw. pittjo. beitsl. It. — Kil. bita. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. ON. E. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. a gallinaceous bird. bikkia. BITTACLE /Siof. vescovo. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. bunga. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. a little dog. from \t3\./«idere. a knob. AS. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. — See Bittacle. Habitacle. truss. a bitch applied also to other animals. beitan. Bisom. to hang. AS. Bizened. Sp. Lat. a female dog hindinn. berkas (z=:Fr. See Breed. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. to cook). bigne. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. band. Lith. pinnii. . . Thus I suppose the Gr. V. hith. are commonplaces. bord. is rendered in ON. forth. beran. See Belly. pin-ti. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. by binda. a bitch. pinnu. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. to net. the young of an animal. To — — —D. Bitch. a hind or female stag. See To Bear. the young of birds . terial. In like manner from knot. Sanscr. Lith. IV. biccej ON. poule. Dan. bindan. from Lat. fowl. bitill. twice cooked. G. Fr. bij sien. to twine. G. biscuit. Goth. bundt. to plait. an eagle's young G. or baked. pippione. bircej Sw. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. a pig petz. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. bhurja. is in Scotland applied to ivy. hiindiiin. bundle. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. biclie. bund. Bine. a house. a weight. Bind. Fr. . Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Sw. to bulge. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. G. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. bindan. binge. Then added division in a granary. I would derive the verb to knit. Bisen. habitacle. We — A Birth. The proper meaning is a heap. and of Fr. while bind-wood. an overseer. lusciosus et myops. bjork. doubtless a stone. &c. ON. bunt. Goth. in Swabia. bin-wood. j). Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. qui nisi propius Blind. to bring Biscuit. which is expressed in E. Gr. isfiw. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. episcopus. Bing. i. brut. The term ON. also a stone weight. EpisETTiTOOTToe. or petze. a heap. to wreathe. a bump or knob. bundt. When compared with Fr.68 BIN Bio-.. by the verb knit or net. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Bindweed. to build.. bunki. biscotto. propius videre bij sicndc. wine. — — . and especially to a small poor horse. To Bite. where the compass stands. beize. or bin.

't kompas huis. Blabber-lip. light-coloured. gabble. Ai-mstrong. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. 't huisje. Sp. maculS. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it .€i. Bivouac. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. Bav. blakki. 332. indistinctly.' by Haldorsen. beiwache. shining. fallow fawn-coloured. .D. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. quick. to talk much. Mund. G. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. v. to To blabber blabber with the lips. babbe. Mantuan babbi.. — Hollyband. Percy Soc. ^chops. as of wings . mona mid Dan. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. pale yellow. —Neumann. In Legrand's Fr.' It would thus acle. A a rail. ON. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. leohte . a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. x. Pl. quoted by Ihre. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). blepLith. faded. ' Biovac. In like manner E. to babble. blob. bittour. Deutsch. Why presumest And laam's asse. on the one side. iroxafealo. blob. Gael. corrupted in Fr. blabhdach. Sp. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. ON. blabbern. Alex. Fieldfare. blake. bihovac. mouth. buft". as of water gently beating the shore. stutterer. whiteness (candor sine It. round which the cable is made fast. blakk. mouth. Mag. biacca. bitr. as is seen in sputter and splutter. bleich. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. 'fuscus. town guard to keep order at night bivouac.). bitones. to chops. bleg. blobach. his blacan light. white lead. Bohem. Cot. Fr. — Collins in Hal. a tati. biti.' G. Bleak. thoughtlessly . to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. term. gulblakk. as in that of pale and white on the other. a fluttering noise. apparently from its biting the tongue. a childe dothe gasouille. Du. ON. things —Palsgr. confusedly. yellow . bitts of Bitts. So Fr. Gael. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Hal. bittore. to watch. ON. out the tongue. a beam in a house or ship. blank. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. blanc. plappem. to babble. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Je N. garrulous. bites. faded. obscurus. ^aj'/^r. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. synonymous with baber-lip. blebberis. viz. G. to the sharpness of a weapon. a shelter for the steersman. blob. Again. Fr. the palebleff. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. brunblakk. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. to let out whai should have been concealed. The Gz. I blaber. Lydgate. Se bleek. babbling. bitor. blab. bleikr. Hist. white. from wachen. In a similar manner Gael. an edge is sharpest sword. plabartaich. whitish. on.. as of a body falling into water. baitrs. night guard. bitter. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. blabaran.' by Gudmund. pale. unintelligible talk plabair. . a flapping. Applied in Hin ON. Nagt huis. yellowish. blesmer. butorj OE. whitish. small guard-house. blabbre. is apprehension of danger. first. Sw. bird of the heron tribe. a* mast . pale. . The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. baboyer. Wit hung her mourn. — cheeked maid. a large lip. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. It. white. Hald. dark. from whence we have adopted the. To or he can speake. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. 156. blunt we say it will not bite. chatter babbler . NE. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. AS. pale. shine. Bittern. or water beating gently on the beach . even humour seemed and beuin. /ealo-/or. discoloured . "uivac. pale brown . Fr. Fr. To Blab the anchor. ' plabraich.plab is used to . Sp. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Black. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. blac-hleor ides. beitr. a continued soft sound. Cotgr. AS. Sp. blubber-lipped. fallow . to bivouac. The bitas.— Blabber-lip. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. dusky. a large coarse lip . to loll it out. to speak Dan. is placed. to wax pale or bleaked. black. beuni. pale yellow . pins of the capstern. a stammerer.. in contempt. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. an additional watch. a babbler. Goth. cut.

blena. blatter. blanchet. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. livido . or blafich. blister. flap of a Du. blaere. to glow. branches . dial. to omit. blaeren. Fr. plat. sheet of paper. the leaf of a tree. Fr. dripping-pans. . 86. to bubble. blather. which we . a blanket a bed. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. moere. on. pallido. bladdra. blahen. the origin of . gabble. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. candidus. It. borrelen. blatter.. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. contracted from bladeren.—Blatter. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Sw. Sir. skola and thwatta. and others engaged in dirty work. . I am degraded from a cook. leaf. a leaf. Sc. Wott. a pustule . to bleak in the sun. and G. as Lat. blad. to blow. a blank ticket. mud. linkboys. irXariQ. 1854. Blanket. G. bladeren. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Blade. a white or unwritten ticket. and he shall be sure to have O. mus-blackt. plate. cited in N. Reliqu. or as E. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. Blame. plat. foolish talk. speak impiously. e. vagabonds. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. defame. or a mass of bubbles. blank. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Eadmer. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. leafy. from candere. smore. in R. blanchet. blanchir. waschen. as. Perhaps from blegen. to dabble in water. with all other loose idle masterless men. to purl. a boil. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing.— ^o thehotsun. polished. The present forms then should be classed with blether. pimple. Du. and thence to babble. whitish. —^Webster. also jabber. rogues and wanderers. white. is identical with Flanders borlen. leaf of a. . Lat. also white woollen cloth . Sw. The radical bubble. blasphemare. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. Now. biasimare. blegne. Du. vagrants. to disappoint. to make or become white blanc. to shine. slush. to vocifer- — Cot. to To bellow. boys. chatter. D. a buible. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. bladder. — rura. Gr. a bubble. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. — — — to jabber. Du. to —Blaspheme. to blanch. and wandering men and women. coat. most complete example of leafy structure. blad. See Blubber. leaves.—Blatant. smother. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. — . pluddre. Bacon in R. whitish. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. blatt. pladdern. blanqne. 7. Dan. p. blather. blister. reproach. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. his meat burnt. bladder. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. bladra. blactra. a. on. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. Dan. To Blare. as. G. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Blain.. — Sw. board. Fr. Play in Nares. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. pXaatpiiiiHv. &c. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Jan. mire. Du. name originally given Blackguard. Bav. blanc. Blank "verse. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. shining. blinken. broad. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. Cot. commonly called the Black-guard. —We Bladder. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. imbrunire. Fr. and Q. blister. pass over. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. as blader. blister. But perhaps a more Gr. PI. blegen. chatter. G. bladre. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blame. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blether. piatto. Torriano. Blank. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. mud. also tanned by the sun. Blancli. roar.— Kil. tattle. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. probably ate. 5/^a/^ of colour. to shine. revile. as scullions. madder. white. variable than the signification of words designating colour. and E. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. Dan. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. a bladder or pustule. to Hence Ital. bladder. tree. blein. Hist. a bubble. to glitter. and the agitation of liquids. the ON. Du. biastner. black. To blank. bladder . or of an oar G.

Fr. might And sain. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. or to the sound which it produces. blcest. blus. laudes (Kil. it is manifest. First from the E. 2. the noisy. a whisperer. i. Fr. a lamp blasere. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. like the in English. a loud noise. oron-blasare. Sw. OE. thraso. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. bldsse. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. blossi. and which. blass. Golden Book in R. and to make him word blaze. much plausibility. the matter incendiary . to blow. Du. Gael. pale. magniloquus. Prov. to trumpet forth. a MS. Troilus and Cressida. to set on fire. how. kept up. blaeteren. friend Cornelius. to bellow. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. Du. splendour. blaodh. a flame . Gudmund. an conium.' painted or figured . To Blaze. A strong flame. ventosus. proclaim the virtues of. of an animal. blasoen. to blaze Sp. — — ' : bless. blazen. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. by stripping off a portion of the bark. in that of praise. blateroon. quus. Blanches illuminies. gloriosus. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. is from AS. visui patet. bles. light-coli. See Blare. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blysa. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. Du. embraser. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. The other derivation. to de. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. If armour. blaterare. Cot. blcEsan. oured. and. She roade at peace through his heraldry. among other .sound a trumpet. shield or surcoat. blase. as a verb. blorach. blezo. — ^Jam. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. is the imme. also praeblczse. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. ther it was erst not knowe. blase. blaodhrach. baladron. . Blaze. or blazening. ing of arms. But now. blasa. to blow. ON. blasonner. proflare tues. blaser vid. also only pains and excellent endurance. biter. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. redness . brasa. baladrar. Dan. boasting. Dan. blis. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. The origin of this exSp. to blow . A gust of wind. somewhat different train of thought. — ' — stroy. commendation blason funebre.whence the Fr. blast. stultd loqui. fire. blason. a coat of arms. With inversion of the liquid. Du. G. G. As Kilian. a voice Jr. used. AS. 'op een trompet blaazen. to publish the praises. ill-speaMng their proper colours . To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. braise. To blow AS. blaesen. abroad. magnilo. to publish. blose. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blys. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. on whose behalf the herald appeared. abroad. indeed. bliEsan. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. an empty and two theories are proposed. Sw. clamorous. . e. a blast. To blast.' to fastum . to proclaim. a shield. besides blesse. a torch . I.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. Kil. . Blatant. senses. A blaze is so intimately Then. to cut off prematurely. a flame. Du. ON. a torch. live coal . blesse. each of boaster. to spread news. beast. declaratio. blcesett. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blaze. g. AS. bawling. might spring from the same origin by a . noisy blor. blatero. blason. has also blencke. Fr. also blazon or the blazSpenser. a funeral oration . to extol. The AS. a flame. Lye. — Elazen. Cot.).— . in the same way as we 2. brasa. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blcEsan. bleis. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blesse. Du. blcese.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a shining spot. whence Blazonry. Sc. coloured prints. Blast. loud . — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. a shout.

to blear one's eye. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. to become livid. So in Sw. darkness of vices. to disgrace one's name. blink. spSt. confound him. plama. a blotch plerr. Palsgr. ^Blencher. bleakness. dead-coloured Cotgr. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Sw. a spot. p. which are blurred with the have shewed you. from on. Bailey. a stain. bleikr. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. I chaunge colour. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Schmel. . a blot or smear blanking one. the livid colour of a bruise. blesmir. As AS. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. blcecan. pimple . pale . one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. and thence to a bruise. 242. pier vor den augen eyes. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. tacher. To salir. livor. a been distinct. tutnan is a cloud. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. The term blear. N. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. . novice. bloken. bldmi. B. BLENCH obfusco. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. And now are these but mansbond (i. Bleed. Mac. Gr. to spot. the formal equivalent of English wink. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge.' the devil makes a vain back. Bleak. a fault. wheal. to soil. as of dust or mist . . to blare been weeping. tumanid. A stain in a man's reputation. livid. Manuel de Pecch&. or blemysshen — blaken. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . See Blood. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. blur before their eyes. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. a spot. to humbug. (faith or creaunce) Be war. a boil. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. wanness. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. blot. — — R. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. to bleat as sheep. To totally different from the foregoing. to wink at it. to cast a mist before the eyes. Blemisli. AS. avoid looking it in the face.filerren. flack. And By a similar metaphor Pol. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. exposed. A Blab. ' — — ' : — — . like one that has long P1. blench came to be used for a trick. ^Xiixaoftai. ' He blarrede or roar. Bleb. a disgrace. paleness. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. splamii!. not only pale but livid or dark of hue.' God in his wordes. to concealing something that had originally discomfit.P. or blemish. Blear. Gower in R. sugillatio. in the expression reputation. spla7nU sie. blesmissure. ' — — eye. to wink the eye. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. Bejaune. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Richardson. light-coloured. . Blear-eyed j having sore i.D. 115. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. G. guenchir. blema. start vor den augen. to spot . Sir J. a red watery eye. blarren.'he cried till the tears ran down. inflamed eyes. drop of water. c. to cry or weep. See Black. See Black. a spot. to make him feel blank. to stain one's honour or reputation. boggle at something. ' .v. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. blot. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. goda nainn. a blemish in one's 2. — blink the question is to shrink from it. Fr. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. 419. or to low as oxen. color plumbeus bldma. Pol. whitish. to start away from. on. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. a spot. from the than schal I go. Ancren Riwle. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. pale Du. blemissemeiit. blister.' to deceive one. to bleach. souiller. Blancher. is Blench. From the OFr. . geplerr. wan. blakna. To Bleat. while the agent ac- From . More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. sinen langen tranen. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. what blenched him therwith. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was.

to be blind. graceful. lightning. mix from blekken. . Dan. dazzle . I hold thee a grote thee. as a vatn i vin. Pol. . to make happy. pearance of the blighted . with or without the nasal. Bliss. . joy. joy. De Sonne ' verblekken. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. . the Slavonic languages. to dazzle . AS. blazeny. The inblissful. to merry. blinzler. To Blend. vious one in the order of formation. blag. seems the simple netel. blindr. to flash. to lighten. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. lightning. sweet. . blahos. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blend. blitz. to fall into water with a sudden noise. blide. blicksem. to bluiter. A . to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. blissian. blago. bluiter. . blinzdugig. doors. Blazena Bea. to dash wine with water. Kiittner. the G. false windows. Swab. Sw. a look. Blind. blogi. a wink With the bletsian. Needle. (=bene dicere). to shine. . plotzen. csecubrandish. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. flash of light . money. to shut the eyes. pale. blican. . blet. blund. to rejoice. OHG. The sound of k before an s. bliss look . to rejoice. to shine. be glad flash. to dabble in water. as a blind entry.wink . to pro. blessed. cascultare. to bluiter up with water. To blunder water. III. sertion of the nasal. a glance. gladness. Du. a flash. Deprived of sight. ^Jam. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. as taschen. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Serv.eyed. G. To Bless. happy . glad. F. although in the in the next article. to bless . blessed. liquid filth to bluther. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. glitter. ' Pl. Du. Du. —Brera. also to wink. — . to mix. and joys of Paradise bliden.' To — blunge clay. blendian. to shine. mixing in general. well blagaya. happily. blink. well blahy blick and blink. a. 375. window-blind. a dead nettle. good. to glitter . to het dat Koorn is verblekket. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to — make it thick and muddy. to dilute too much . . to blithsian. glimpse. happy . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. wink of sleep . wink. as in the case of blaze. to act like a — . lightning sweet blago. joy . Russ. . joyful. to glance. to glitter ful . blithe. Du. blicken.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blotzen. OHG. blac. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blatida. a nounce happy. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. Swiss (obsolete). blanssen. blick. ON. or nettle which does form. a glance Swiss blenden. a gleam. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Sc. happy . Thence apblinds.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. to stir or puddle. G. giving (Fr. shine. blidu. thou knave. to bless. blinzeln. G. glance.D. bleg. a blick-ooghen. pockets. blind. j). the sign of the cross while blessing one. to churn. From the action of the hand making Sw. to make a rumbling noise. weaklaveny. blink-eyed. glitter. riches . make these hands 3. . blanda one or prevent one from seeing. tire.blinken. to plunge. glitter. Blink.not sting thiiren. blent. Tany. blind- ON. — Goth. readily passes into a /. gives blinzen. Paradises blidnissu. G.. lighten.Q. AS. Wtb. a. blithe blis. blinde fenster. goods. but by no means therefore a pre. blende. blicken. a blessing. — A A — . as in Du. sung. livid.blinze. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. AS. blindselen. an entry which leads to nothing . Blight. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. Owl and Nightingale. plonsen.blinkard .blunda. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to glitter. moment. blincken. in potters' language. AS. blitzen. The term then self or others. riches blajennii blicksem. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry.nasal. Nares. — when he — Bailey. Sc. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids.corn. burn up. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Du. fortunately. Biglotton. to consecrate . bludder. to twinkle. the verb to bless is some. to shut the eyes G. tless —Gamm. blaziti. blich-fiur. lovely Bohem. trix. . a wink. is I shall Gurt.

swell. ^vaaa. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. pods. The roots /. or the mark which it makes. to dash liquid. to blow. to steep. Of sheep.. husks. . is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. taken altogether. separate portion. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. bubble and blubber. Goth. viscid. pimple. a block or log en bloc. pusula. a ram. soft. and F. gentle OHG. having an unsound swollen look. as if soaked in water. joyful. as in E. strawclod. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Blond. ^Jam. a drop of water. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. bausen. blijde. blote. biota. or bleb. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. blotfisk. — . from blcsr. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. pustula. or blinde-kiih. I believe. cooking. blubber. G. must be referred to AS. To Bloat. blesme. and bouclette. frequentative. a bubble. —Bailey. to blow. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. ON. also to set See Bless. to soak. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. in gusts.— Bailey. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. B. senting the dashing of water. Sw. blobbes or droppes of water. a blain.plisg. G. blister blasan. and pisg. formed spot. a blister . and inarticulately. speaking rapidly any . See Blot. to block up the way. in Nares. signifying in the first instance to soak. — — — — — From blabber. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. Dan. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. to swell. to desire the male. to blow. pausten. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. like clot. Block. Langued. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. any lump or mass of things. an unformed mass. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. to bubble. . bloc. bluyster.— Hal. blautr. while Lat. in the sense of a soft tint. must be classed with forms like Gr. Hence. Mod. Jonson. ON. Bav. blouca and Fr. Blob. blidr. Cotgr. light yellow. . To a smoking or drying by the fire. soft. expressed by cognate roots. W. to close it with a solid mass. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. a dirty blister. Fr. to cure by smoke. it is must be observed. and easily changes its place. is also used in the sense of swelling . blithe. like manner the coloured. Bleb. a . kostua. blobber. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. or is inserted or omitted. mass. puff. blad. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. sloppy dirt. blot. inde humiditate tumidus. blister. Ibid. bloc. blod. fiustula. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. is formed squad. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Lat. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. bluster. a small lump of anything thick. kostia. Svt. blot. a little blisg. mild.pusta. blab. In Fin. To Blissom. merciful ON. a bubble. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. whence blast. in the lump or mass of wood. to breathe hard. soft. Boyd in Jam.—Bloated. bloated. the unhewn bole of a tree. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. lagga i blot. orbicular. Fr. A solid blouquette blisters. A under this name was imported into England. a blister. B. Sc. . blinzel-maus. buclde. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a blot or spot. repre- pusula. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. to blissom. — Blob. Blister. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. as blinzeln. buckle. stone. boucler. — Sw. Gael. in bulk. blindman's-buff. to to puff and be noisy. as a blab of ink. or the like. Egillson. bleiths. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. round. Sw. weak. mild. It may be formed Blithe. Kil. blide. Blob. Dan. The blow E. blcesma. plub. For this. N. blindsehn. And so from squatter. Du. blaustem. soak in water cured fish. a lumpish head plubach. Du.—Bloater. busten. soaked. a See Blot. The stem or trunk of a tree. fish blind person. a bubble. blot. Thus we have blab and babble. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Hence E. Gael. blond. blaud. shells.

— — . blosen. bliihen. a. a Usaae. blotter. OFr. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blaeuw. bit by bit. fall to overflowing. blistaf. plottra. to scribble. E. bliithe. blotte. pale. livid marks. Sw. ON. to From . to strike with such these objects exhibit. splashing full. lump of anything soft to blad. a gush of milk . bldmi. blauwel. proto shine with bright colours . platz-regen. to sparkle. Blossom. blase. Dan. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. livid . (of cattle) to dung.' the rain is driving and blue . See Blow. E. skam. light. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. blomstr. a nature. to blush . bloi. Blad. a flower. shine . blue. blust. E. to strike . fair in en blat vand. lustre. coloured (Diaz. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. pladdern. sbiadare. gfyssa. a black eye Du. spot pletter i solen. Dan. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blaeuwen. to shine . ON. Schwenck. a blaze.^ Kil.D.properly to scatter liquid . to be red with blot. bloi. Du. bliise. blat. to dash down. colour of the cheeks. Bloom. parallel form with ON. Sc. Harmar in R. . pale biavo. plattata. bluish. bloedsd. blois. to grow pale). Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. probably connected with Pol. blou. in v. Hatch. . to be red. glossi. to dash down Du. a water ploutsche. yellowish It's G. of a blow with something lios. mud. to exists in biadetto. Du. bloi. . Plots. blad. plet. blus. Jios. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to slap. Fr. a beater. Sw. a flower. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. en blau ach.platter. bloutre. clod. bletister. AS. AS. bloto. to patter. lidmr. Wendish blodo.blauschlagen. plants which prepares the seed. PI. platschern. white blatte. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Stalder.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. bloeme. — Cot. blodelsa and blawelsa. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. bloed. Fris. blaeuwe ooghe. blosma. a torch blusse. Lat. dial. a Halm a. blut. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blosa. 2. platt-voll. blue. blady. yellow. bloetnsel. bfys. a flower. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. a drop of water or colour. couleur livide. splendour . Russ. gloss. to slap. a The form platschefz. dirty spot on the cheek. brilliancy. blue. a blot or spot. from the bright colour which 7'vci. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a spot or blot. Wflz<^«. ^lys. — Blotch-paper. bleustern. blond en blaauw slaan. to squat or lie close. to dabble in water . blondheid. redness. E. blond. dial. Fris. pale tint. Erploten. blond is used in blatt. G. to glow. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. to blot the land was in a leme. the bright colour of the cheeks . E. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. ])erly Du. as the skin or hair. wan. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. S-wiss pladern. — Stalder . biado (of which the evidence plattern. plot of land is a spot or small rage. . to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blostma. E. The G. Du. to dirty. Schilter. spots in the sun. great leaf of cabbage. a blow. on. bleistern. pladern. . The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bldts. platsch-voll. a pelting shower). Dan. glose. Sw. . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Schmid. blysa. glasi. or the sound of it . flower. Sc. to glisten . to squander. a lump. soft or flat. to spot or blot. kuh-plader. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. glus. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. a Schmid. It. ^Bleed. to splash. blue. blotting-paper. blatte. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Blot. a cow-dung. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. . kobladde. to flame. —Barbour. D. Ir. blue . gammon. blosem. Blow. Prov. G. blose. leme. to blaze. See Blow. from G. to strike with something soft or flat. j^ blottir. ' — . to dabble in water. bloemen. Florio). It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a deli. Blood. blowen. glister . fall down . . Ein platsch milch. straw. platz-voll. cow-dung. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. gleam. blooth. Pl. Du. plotterwis.— . lump flower. the bright to blot paper morsels. to blaze . blawels. — gush. ON. whence plader. Blotcli.

Her sweet bloderit face. G. fiubbem. Kil. plubartaich. pale. v. blau. blezir. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. flower OHG. gUd. blust. a blow. blubonciti. to blow. fied vowel. 1292. to blurt out. In agitation of water. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. bloes. to fade. blebber. . to make blue. a bruise. like manner Lat. to breathe bouteiUis. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. bliihen. corre. to flap like loose clothes. a gurgling . E.D. Bret. /idXavoc. to guggle. Deutsch.' — Palsgr. plubraich. and the forms mentioned under Swab. florere. Sik upplustem. to show flower. bluther. glow. green. to make bubbles in drinking. Du.. glansj Ir. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. And. to with Bohem. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. Jla-re. bruised Prov.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. blue. in rapid or indistinct utterance. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to bubble up. blut. It is howbliuwen. little apparent resemblance. .' Hamburgh Archives. gliihen. Wtb. to blow. pale . Pludern. wan. ' BLUE or guggling. coup. is confined to the — . —SchmelIt. gliihen. Raynouard. to inflate. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. blduen. bliithe. to hard. bloi. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. . 1. Tumbled.— . 2. Gr. the red fluid of the body . blodyn. Mund. bruk. blao. The primary sense is to shine. foam. ^Jam. a herb Gr. Gael. a continued noise of agitated water. blazi. may cite for example G. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. to'disorder. pludern. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. a blast. blahen. to exhibit bright colours. G. blass. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water.xo'»'. bluh. to beat. fem. Prov. or gr. dirty. blubbern. Danneil.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. — Bluther. bledniai. OHG.Jlasa.D. blodelsa. into flower. — — Mundart.to blossom. to bruise Roquef. blue . glowing coal . and thence. withered. bloeyen. plusig. pale OFr. boasting. marking some application from that bladder. blava. boil. blazir. AS. bloeden. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. It. — To Blubber. B. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). bloom. flower w. grey. br. Langued. a fat. bldt. to shine with bright From colours. to gabble. 51. a Blossom. P1. bludder. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. sponds with Sw. meurtrissure Roquefort. These are — Bludder. The radical sense is shown in Gael. and closely allied with Du. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. Du. blubbern. OFr. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. a paddling in wate r. plustrig. grug. blau. . bliihen. bloemen. closely difference in of blabber. vi^ound. toused. OHG. to Plodern. Chaucer. blaw j biavo. G. grow pale. Blue. The interchange of an initial gl. to beat with a mallet. heath. . tache. Pl. pale. a. plubair. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. The aUied forms. Deutsch.D. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. To Blow. sound like water. to fade. blois. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . chatter. bluod. jabber. gloeden. wan. blow. gloeyen. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. glas. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. glede. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. |8A)'. in E. We . To Blow. d in Sc. red-faced bloted wench. glas. to spot. to glow. where the word may be compared bliggman. . ler. puff.D. disordered in head-dress. is very frequent. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. plodern. — . blosen. blawan. to blow. -ii. Lat. Chaucer. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. piusen. cheeks bedabbled with tears.nify bubble. y\r)yi»v. — . blodern. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. a flower. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. especially with respect to the hair. E. bliuwan. disordered. to breathe G. to fade. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. Blowze. G. to gush. sense. Pl. MHG. Bav. to puff up. Notwithstanding the We . fqded. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. 92. Blowzy. glaodh and blaodh. A. to glow. bl. blady. — To blubber. to flourish. w.

puddle. corn. from the brilliant green of the young E. Hence we pass to Prov. Bohem. blaf.in mud or water. Dief. Pl. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. an ill-done job. bulmanner. je perturbe. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Bodge. to plump into the water. bluish. a shore abruptly rising. Bladum. flav-us. Blavoyer. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. a blunderbuss. pale) is provincially used in the. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. corn. from the Lat. pale straw-coloured. To blunder is then. E. from an imitation of the sound. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. flodderen (Weiland). — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Flor.' trouble. segetes virentes. 't — —Hal. to work To blunder out a fronto. plo-wy. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. blond. pludder. yellow. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. glundr. to agitation of liquids. and biavo (Diez). The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. I blonder. trahir. Lat. Biada. as well as sbiadafe. mistake. has donder-bus. It is remarkable however that the E. Hal. glundra. to blunge clay.. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. is. Hence a Slcelton in R. Supp. used for the work of an unskilful performer. bullern. G. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. a fore. fawn-coloured. Ditton in R. tradire to Fr. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. to fade). speech. Roquefort. sense of yeUow. blave is moreover. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. to confound. OFr. We Blunder. . blunder. as well as biado. Du. Roquefort. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON.— . a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . sloppy drink. Sw. bawling. buller-bak. abrupt. bleu et blanc. to become pale. blutter. blahir. — Pr. to become pale or wan. liebefactor. Analogous forms are Du. — . and bustle .make a noise. planus. It then signifies something done at once. Halma. biada. pale. sbiavare. Pol. biavo. a boisterous violent man. and sbiadare. a plain coin herausplatzeu. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. something. a flounder. blunder. blanssen. bUich. in water dobbelen. to lose colour. Romance bluiter. originally growing up turf and water. Du. blue. to fall suddenly on the ground. — — — . blue. applied to green as well as blue. contrasted with the dle. devenir vert blavoie. polter-hans. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. Dryden in R. like the Celtic glas. earth and water mixed together. falb. blac. The word is here synonymous with amplus. find accordingly It. A bluff manner. herbe. mix It. From G. Bluff. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. - reddish yellow. G. non rotunda. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. jaune. to become pale or livid. G. like Du. Kiittner. to mix it up with water. And blunders on and staggers every pace. and Du. in plur. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blandum. ploffen. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. Kil. which is rendered by Florio. Altieri. discoloured {plowiee. verdoyer.D. and then generally idle talk. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil.• BLUFF biado. fallow. to puddle. The Du. polterer. Pm. or an abrupt manner. in the same way as from It'. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. Blunderer or blunt worker. without image or superscription. blunt. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. See Blunt. G. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. tutte le semente ancora in erba. yellowish red. biava. his business with much noise. to blunder water. disturb. rustic. to dabble in the mud. superficie plani. confusion. blunderhead. all representing the — . Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. herauspoltem or sloping shore. blavus. Blaffart. verdure. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. Blunt. dial. bloi. blue. poltern. Then with the nasal. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. The Du. plomp. to dabble Biglotton E. blake (identical with AS. and metaphorically. Dan. buller-bas. pale yellow. See Blurt. Kil. . to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. having a bluff forehead.//aay. Palsgr.

Plontp. a bluntie. pressions. plump. to bring it suddenly out. clownish. or blab out a thing Kiittner . to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. plumbeus. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. blait. Swab. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — .to fall into the water. is The word dull. Sc. nis. plains The large bech. It will be seen that the G. and an unintelligent. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. rude. More in Richardson. obtusus. a simpleton. Dan. F. The blait body. Now the Swiss bluntsch. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. good plump person. rudely. bleak. — Kil. that it not easy to discover the connection. plump. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . clumsy. dull. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. bluntschen. united in Gael. but of something soft thrown on the ground. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. blutten. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blunder. duU. unceremonious manner. bare. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. It. with or without the nasal. plump. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. blatte. without Maolaich. figuratively.— — — . Blaitie-bum. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. G. awkwardly. that the sense of bare. a thick and will person. V. fooUsh. blotta sanningen. and in the same sense. sheepish. naked. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. blunt. Sir T. Kiittner. Bare and blunt. a blot. platz-regen. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. or heraus plumpen. Q. heavy. rough. Du. — blunt. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. —D. A modification of the same root. bloss. It is from this notion of suddenness. pointless. plutz T)\i. Probably radically hlekit. The syllables blot. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Chaucer. biotto. bare or blunt. naked. awkward. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. ineffectual reason. to make foliage. Sw. seems to be derived. bus. it will be observed. blockish. viz. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. naked. without horns. thick. V. plump J to plump out with it. plotz. unfledged Sw. from the loud report a fire-arm. blunt. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. in Richardson. inactive Swiss bluntschi. homo stolidus. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. azure. dial. blue. wan. Pol. the absence of sharpness. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. stupid fellow. unpolished. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blat. plump. Won by degrees. as in E. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. naked. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. forestis. to plump down. and hath swiche languor in his soul. exactly corresponding to the G. as cow-dung.plompen. down. pale. Plump mit etwas umgehen. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. to make a noise of such a Stalder. massive. . through which a man is so blont. biosso. to plump into the water. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. to blurt. a portion To inquire for slaves. Plump. Then cometh indevotion. Molof something wet. Blunt. obtusus. without preparation. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. blott. —D. plotsen. to blunt a thing out. heavy. without the nasal. G. edgeless. Sc. Stalder. insensible. dull. Woddis. like a thing thrown down with a noise. nature. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. Ford in R. . is thrown. plonsen. — — pidus. V. it will be well to point out a sense.—D. to handle a thing bluntly.pludse. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. blait. Kiittner. blout. fling down . mit etwas heraus-platzen. used in both senses. silly. bald. and. inaKil. Halma. and the like. maol. of a knife which not cut. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Bluntet. platzen. as Sw. Dan. blunt. blunt. void. absence of preparation. hebes. unwrought. blunsch. poor Sc. bare. heavy. ang. identical with E. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. A light blue colour. viz. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. raw.

Fl. to breke. — From mouth. edge. pludern. like the parapets (viggyrdil.plodem. bausen. Bav. bord. blubber. . bustuous. skin. Du. to disfigure with E. lindwurm. violent G. a torch blusse. As the as. the Brem. a board or plank. it implies that it is empty sound. and when applied to vaunting language. boa. to puff. Fr. dial. blasen and See Burr. 29. a mist before the eyes plerren. to talk quick and indistinctly . blaffen and baffen. Bot zeggen. bobine. Du. or bog also thread. pluddre. bur. — ' Dief. bora. or backwards and forwards. BLUR Boar. ON. V. to blush. To tinct. blarra. Lat. a mistiness. . blaste?i. bot. a club foot .the syllable bot. boistous. To move quickly up and down. Gael. outward edge. margin. Halma. the sound of a blow poffen. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. Pull the bobbin. blotch and botch. lacerta. a tassel. boccheggiare. blose. blaere. sudden. . to say bluntly. gabble. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. cluster. ader. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. It. a burst of tears. Du. to roar. to jabber. cocodrUlus. a tassel. to chatter. blunt. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. — — — * Boast. primarily signify loud noise. bateau. Du. a short thick body. a dangling object. to puff. planks or boards. c. to spurt out. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. pausten. . Wallace. bord. To blow in puffs. aper. beacon fire. to puff. swagger. margin. Du. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. borrar. a smear. bdta. pfludern. to bark. imitated by has also In like . G. common. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. puffen. a border. to render indisbhir. an edge. blosken. Wright's ed. and the latch . blusse i ansigtet. rude. blaustem. Supp. to snuff. It. A large snake. P. Du. table. short pieces of any filthy mud. The elision of the d is very to chatter. rude. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. then applied to indistinct vision . border. 1. ground. bludder. AS. to blurt out. Gael. puddle. a blot. is formed Du. batello. baiag. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. a flurt with one's fingers. pustern. . For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. an ear of corn. a Jam. bleuster. blast. Dan. to brag grande loqui. to dangle. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. w. Blush. and E. 'Ba. OE. hot. Fr. berd. to blore. whence bordvidr. Boost is used for the boast.y. coarse. baban. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. a bladder . dull. See Blossom. will fly up. plump. ever-swin. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. and swimmeth very well. Kil. Sc. burra. Schmeller. boot. bobbin. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. boord. to bounce. both used in the sense of boasting. and boisterous. to be out of temper. 9396. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. See Boisterous. a grows to a great bigness. to dirty. bliise. It. table. 274. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Boa. Related to blutter. a baU of thread the mud. an end or stump. The to radical meaning D. margin. bar. planks raised up outside the roofs. Wtb. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. eber. E. BOB 79 — To Blur. to crying. be a crack or loud sound. this root are formed Sc. eafor. Hal. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. to sound like water boiling. i. To brag and to crack. to make a noise with the mouth. blot. to rumble.plerr. bakke bleustern. — To Bob. Fl. whence bob. To Blurt. to blaze. to smear. dial. strong. Sverris Saga. to blow. to blubber. to glow . but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. blodern. bhis. Bluster. chicchere. brett. Swiss blodern. as splurt to splutter. pof. bluter. e. blirt of greeting. Hal.v. crack made by bursting open. To splirt. a blotch. acre. blur. cheeks glow. bit. AS. bludder. Sc. beer. &c. bladdra. 156. bord. Explained by Jam. properly noisy. or blurt with one's mouth. on. a. large. Slur. as in Du. violent. my dear. flat. of the word seems . to threaten. Du.— . Comp. blurra.—Bobbin. to make mouths. blader. voce intonare. Pl. to endeavour to terrify. E.D. Boa. to make a noise in boiling. De Boat. splurt and spirt. a blow . to guggle. board. bdtr. to give a crack. to blur. gabble Sw. stellio. stupid. — — . bluther. AS. literally edge-wood. and Du. edge. to dabble. botte. bot-voet. — a blaze. G.' — Red Riding-hood. bdd. fringe. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Board.pusten. mire. G. a small lump. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. geplerr. blot.

Bog. Ptg. woman's stays. cask bottich. round. bodnu. gebod. corpset. gago.a (i\ia. shake. bole. daubed or dabbled with blood. or stem of a tree. a prickle. bod. bogadh. to scruple. strike with the horns. corset from corps. the stem of a tree . where bogs form Gael. thrust with something pointed. move. . bottich are derivatives. to fail. to dabble or paddle. Gael. Now unskilful action is conmire. to bob. boll. Bohem. wavering. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. anything protuberant. potacha. bayonet. to be uncertain what to do. stutter gogmire. a quagsoft. gog. whence paUchen. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. . bod. bog. an awl. to prick. so large a feature in the country. corset. Russ. bodi. The Sp. to waver. See Baber-lipped. potacha. . biodag. Wall. to stir. Shakespear has badged with blood. French bouter. a body. BOGGLE trunk and G. . Gl.gmh:t. bodhag. — 2. potahha. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. to blurt a thing out. Banff. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . unsteady. waving. bottig. . bob. — as well as the body of an animal. * To Boggle. bogan. is a lump. the body of a shift gaguejar.! . barriga. gog in gog-mire. to smack. to start start and back as from a bugbear. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. . message boda. badyti. bolr. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. then from the yielding. a sting . We . bodetz. butt. an announcement. the boss of a buckler. baboyer. the thick part of anything. moist mire. fickle . the belly. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. 43. stumpy. goggle. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bodian. . agitate. So BOB To Bob. body and G. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Bodkin.' Bogglie. belly. To mock. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. . quagmire). See To Botch. AS. a cask. toss. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. gagoula. It introduced from Ireland. Supp. a dagger.rabodi. corpses pot. Thy i. anything soft. body of a shirt bol. or bag. the trunk of the animal body. bog.hollow. bo tich. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. to butt. to make. bodi. to push with the horns. And waves. stuttering. formerly bodies. from fitting close to the body. to deliver a message. calf of the leg. nave of a wheel. In like manner E. gagei. to thrust. 3. bothog. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bodilo. Gael. Bret. potig. unsteady nature of a soft substance. shaking . or a pair of bodies. by the syllable patsch. meaning the round part of his body. Reliq Antiq. a command. Gael. To Bodge. Lith. to make a mow at. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. expression hogglin an bogglin. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bodies. bodig. the body. as a horn. to bodge. a prick. To Bode. The signification of the root bot. boftich. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. Cot. busti. arise E. nodding. To make bad work. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun.. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. a spur. quakmg. Ir. is identical with Fr. pall. W. — H. Schmel. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. mud. Bodice. bogach. whence Fr. swelling. bog (equivalent to E. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. point. a bog or morass. and E. moving backwards and forwards. bodak. AS. bagges. bodat. to roll. as in stammering or staggering. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. Body. bogle. a round body both. bayonet . patsche. e. unsteady.\\i\c\iset. To portend good or bad. Commonly explained as if from Sc. speak of the barrel of a horse. stitch. rounded. bogadaich. . a messenger . bot. See Bid. Crist. to fail. biodeachan. gogach. to be unsteady tich. bodene. and the word is well explained by Bailey. a puddle. palleg. precept. Lap. VI. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. — Grandg. to commit a blunder. a ghost . Miracle-plays.' A — Sherwood's Diet. barrique. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. ^Jam. dies. '£. of which the E. to stammer. needle. a cask. as signifying anything spherical or round. to stick. exhibit another modification of the root. gag. ON. Ptg. a . as I bootless labour swim against the tide.

bhster. a swelling in ice. dint in a metal vessel. i. shake. To Boil. Gael. furfures. used. to stammer. Du. In the same way Sc. E. bagaji. bolle. the body of a man or of ter. pillow.— — . bout. bola. chaff of corn siliqua. Magy. intrepid. swelling. quick. * Bolster. coarse. poppy (Bailey). he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. bolt upright. buller. * Boisterous. bochken (titubare. bolla. belc'hj. repagulum. or the like. Daring. Bret. V. biiilen. 374. the lir. to swell. by which it is moved to and fro. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. stramenta. bolt. bolstar. from Du. OHG. haughty. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. tar. wag. bulla. boly. as. hakogni. Lat. Du. round the first instance to the materials with . to stumble. up of bubbles. ^Boistous. bul. bollen (Kil. . to waver or hesitate. ballr. gluma. Boil. Test. chatter. Properly noisy. to give a hoUow sound.palleg. bulr. caput scapulse.. hero. Fr. then violent. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. a quaking mire. sels of flax. trunk of a tree . bog. Kit. capitellum. globular bod)'. puilen. in speaking. boll. bul. bSlstr. ON. The term applies in — — impressed . a head . bula. courageous. scruple. boggle. to boil. warlike. stutSw. Pr.— D. gerade signifies straight to the mark. the husk of nuts. Lat. b^gayer. bola. tomentum. strong. glass phial. ohg. bout is explained by Kil. bol. Me doth awate. from the branches. Bole. a bubble. as E. a cushion. Boll. beule. insolent baude. Mund. bald. as those of nuts. capiing into a cavity. boutpijl. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . w. . G. as baltha. is probably a modification of boll. flax-boU. Boystous. balder. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Chaucer. brave. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. noise. See Bulk. Du. excellent. whence bulla. bold. hollow. free. stameln vel bochken. he will speak out. Stalder. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bol. Bustuous. The round stem of a tree. G. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. a fastening for a door. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. blow. bolr. The bob. to the belly as the or dislike. the gurgling sound of water rush. a boil or swelling Du. a bakazikni. boil . In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. in the sense of handsome . treated under Bowl. but that Bolt. Cot. bouil. to be prominent. which are not used for a similar purpose. stud. bold. ON. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). — 6 . bolster. Fr. bolzen. bolster. to tattle. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling.). bullire.' Mrs Baker. bulla. bolzBold. 45. rough. see Boast. baud. roydeur. — — which the cushion is stuffed. A. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. obex. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. to stagger. a bump. perpendicular. a bubble. strong. OG. swelling. . polc'h. Westerwald bollern. — ' — tagliare. Wall. ^Vocab. as. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. merry. E. tulum. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. Pm. to hesitate from doubt. Du. pimple ON. bolleken. To Bolter. tartajear. and manace for to de. proud. cheerful. Goth. 1430 in Deutsch. folliculus grani.rounded part of the body. tartalear. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bolc'h. prince. properly represent belly. cows the people from speaking. huge. Love. courageous. bold. Da. a bubble. This iv. impetuosity. to puff. and then applied to other husks. It. animal as distinguished from the limbs. bok. puile. to stammer. (of Mons) b^guer. bol. tartle. may be identified with It. bag or bog are derived Piedm. notes. pusten. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . buile. Lap. boss. Sw. also a blister. styffe or rude . — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. to be at a loss a shirt. Fr. the. Kil. balldr. bal. fiausten. confident.Du. boystousnesse.w. G. Swab. bald. . Sc. Chaucer seems Dan. bald. strong. ON.D. pustule. pall. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. G. the body . 304). bealder. Sp. ON. bog.

Ging_ es to bolt buletellum.through a cloth of loose texture. Pl.i5a//^«. Fr. as of a trumpet. die treppe pressed. with E. Schiitze. poltern. abolter. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. buletel. a crashing or racketing noise.as the essential element signifying the talum. In the next place.thump or blow. we der Brocket). to form lumps. the sense of right on end. a millpoltzet augen. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. burclct. a rattling carriage. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. a rattle. clump. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. OFr. projections. Lat. swelling. pattern. hammer. Lang. cruddle. we have Du. zare. Du. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. hole. And as the agitation of cream in . blotttre. Supp. to become lumpy. hulter de bulter. je bulte. small heap. G. Du. and to crash. barutela. Wtb.fe/2?. .by forms like G. taratantarum. then to knock. Brem. So also we pass from Lat. bolting to that of form. to clack.clack. a round glass ending — bultig. Pl. ex•wagen. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. to shake. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . tuft. . barutela. P1. to coagulate. ' — — ! ! : — . MHG. holier poller. bultig. jolting. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. one after the other. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. : ' — — . buretter{CQ\. On this account Mid. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. budeln daz mele . bulk or quantity . croler. grasbulten.). have Lat. a bolter or implement for bolting.noise {brattle of thunner.u. buletare. vessel with narrow opening. a club-foot. bulio. baruta. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. and the Thus from So. a clod cloth. to significance of the term was overlooked. . to bolt meal barutel. projecting eyes pul. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. . I boulte meale in a boulter. . 2. as above explained. It. uneven. taratarrum. Prov. tantara. rugged. agitari (Kil. to bolt flour burato. bolt. by the representation of a racketing sound. hulch. to E. as Fr. OFr. or a racer from the course. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. to start out. to spring forth E. bluter. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. mole-hill. Here the radical image is the violent O. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. on the one hand.D. curdle. tar. crotlar.. bolzen. to bolter. Dauphiny a sudden movement. bolt-foot. to start with palpitate. barutare. bulla. beluter. buUire. taraabout.nature of the operation. bultred. Dan. sestuare. hump. loud and fast. a . to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr.D.agitation of the meal in the bolter. a clod. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. The ment and the operation. fied bot. the wheels groaned.On the same principle. pull. to bolt meal barutel. a small portion. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. a sod (Schiitze). also to curdle. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. ' Holler poller / bulter. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. Champagne burtcau. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Bav. bolzaugen. crash. as a rabbit from its baritel. a clump of turf. boss. rugged. bortelen. bullern. Bulte-pook or bulstar. to make a knocking. buideln. tling or crashing noise. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. kloteren. we see that the one consists of a words. bulstrig. staff which sounds tar. Sanders. racket gepolter. . bolt head is a retort.protuberance. knob. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. or ill. Sw.D. bulk. lumpy. a clap of thunnences. The ulti.Lat.) E. a bunch. poll. in S'W plotter. to agitate. / is transposed in Fr. we pass to Du. bolzauget) Sp. to come rattling downstairs. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. . representing a rat. tumultuari. gebolder. crod.. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Pr.— . uneven. to talk pulzen.). to knock. zen. Hence Palsgr. protuberance. OFr. ler. cro. . a bolter Prov. Pm.D. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. beliitea. pultare. or the like. — — — . hammer. from G. Mid. Hence. btilt. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. brattle. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. poltern.

bombasin. butteln. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. a boulter of meal. buidelen. a churn for butter. term is appropriated in G. from teu. thick from shaking. and that from Fr.^Altieri. thick-legged. to cast to and fro. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. beuteln. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Near 6 * . gunpowder. tiffany. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. a drum bombammen. bureau. — bombast came guage. Fl. coarse. bommen. Bonfire. stuff. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. a thundering noise bomre. Antiq. . baun. bambagino. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. bombast. — Bombard. tree. bonog. the shank the shoulder-bone. as in . a stock. It. Mid. It. ^o/j. builen. bombe. G. bombice. buttel trueb (of liquids). It. agreement. a stem or base. bongam. whence bomme. is supported by the analogy of G. Fr. Butterglas. bopin. bomba. or trunk word in W. brust-bein. . borel. bwmbwry mar. Bibelesworth in Nat. Dan. — AS. Bone. 83 Gr. the contracted form of Du. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bond. i. butteln. to bolt meal.) . sijde. q. Schm.Su?. a string. beuteln. banitola (Fl.bast. From builen. bambacium. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bein. a —Bombasine. e. . It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. burato. bulter from It. raw silk. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. . breast-bone. bindan. barate. Castrais barato. Du. bauniwolle. derivation. a bone in general. a beacon. the leg. stump. Kil. As cotton was used for padding clothes. again. thick. an implement of binding. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. . . In E. bwmbwr.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bone of the . G. cotton. E. to shake (as to shake the head. basin. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. bombicina. to thump W. bombase. to resound. to bind G. OE. Bomb. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. must be explained Fr. as Banbury. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. Du. baum-bast. iuttern. been. beil'n. sericum arboreum. buidelen. It. When ture. G. bolting-cloth. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. rimbombare. however. from boom. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. has repeatedly varied. a hollow sound. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. bombarda. bureau. produced the Pl. to which the leg. bonfras. crook-shanked bondew. ODu. &c. silk-worm. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. tie. bras. sye. and Du. cotton stuff. we speak of a gun to resound. bambagioj whence It. gossipium. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. Moreover. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bombdra. bombasine. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. ties. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. bommer. boulenger. booming over the water. and called in Mid. the murmuring of the sea. band. bande. to shake down fruit from a tree. HoUybandin R. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. a ligature. The material called by this name. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Fr. — having a stem or stalk. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. d. It. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. Banstead. to beat a drum. lana lignea. to ring bells. It. a baker. bonds. silk. band. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. biire. Gascoi^e in R. bon. and also the leg. . In legal language. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. also thick-shanked. tie. 155. and in fact we find the and Du. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. achsel bein. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. the silk-worm. and Bond. band pi. to shake. Need you any ink and bonibase. assuming the of leg : special signification W. sije. PoUitriduare. to boult meal.). Dan. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . and Mod. to thunder. bunden.D.Lat. the Fr. Du.

Fr. foolish. G. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. but stall. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. dress. Bun. bose. . Perhaps. dial. till. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. b'ukvdry. 232. prayer. is Du. See Bomb. lofty. the mouth. a stall. one who dwells nigh. But bosg. biikui. . from beida (E. Boor. E. Swab. build. the possessor of the farm. although in the OG. . and from AS. bowwen. letter. fool. remedy of evil. pero. Prov. gaby. The latter is the original AS. bonad. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. — e. a. Binau Brychyniog. bos. bosih. chaff. Du. to dress. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. by arbitours sholde bote the P. the cultivator. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Fr. the scriptures bokareis. to litter bosu. From bo. in w. from gape. Schm. See Butt. boutig. pig-sty. . wondering signifies not only straw. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. of wonder On the same principle Sp. bonnet. to aid. N. E. hu?idbusa. a vessel for holding liquids. Sp. a head-dress. succour Bailey. a letter Russ. w. tigh. bene. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. a bag of skin or leather. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Goth.^ —P. Bonnet. b^er. . in Phil. baier. \ais-band. dog-kennel. to cultivate. botta. bobo ! interj. . It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. bota. house. Hal. Du.n. simpleton. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Boot of bale. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. bd. head-dress wai^g. babb^o. a bonfire. and fig. bua. dolt. Build. booby. a simpleton. literally cow-house. writing bokos. badaud. A stall for cattle. bua. the alphabet. Trans. Boot.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. boubi^. Gl. It is commonly explained as identical with It. tall.Boos. ty Gael. the name of the letter b. The character of folly is i860. inhabit. ON. set in order. a dry stalk. short boots. blockhead. — To boot. Mrs Baker. bid). quest. to prepare. ganian. A peasant. b&ber. nachbar. till.. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. bonad. boutig. Wall. botte. which one gaping and staring about. * Boose. beam. boandi. bauer. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. however. been. 13. without ad- .—Bootless. as the Brecknockshire Banns. ON. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. buch-stab. OW. litter. Basa. A favour. Kil. boa. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. a tree. and Gael. high. whence ban-ffagl. inhabit. Du. beiSne. to ask. clown. netis stall. as a lying-place for cattle. to cultivate. The i. to strew with straw. prayer. or Vanns. — . a. dial. — Bailey. . relief from sorrow. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. stabulum. babin. — From the participle present. betere thing werse. Jr. OSlav. Kil. It. gaping hoyden — Cot. bds. also called Brecknock Beacons. and thence Rouchi baia. G. Mrs Baker explains bun. gehyred. pole. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. AS. countryman. G. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. bauen. ass. bommen. p. Gael. bobo. by itself for head-dress. Booby. AS. — — . reparation. botte. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. comes bondi. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. a lofty blaze. boer. Book. Thus from the syllable ba. to gape. The origin of the word is probably the W. bote. boubair. bAkva. the first consonant of the alphabet. build. wall hangings. bas. . dress. bonaid. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. a letter . generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Thin ben Luke i. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. ON. bdn. at everything. Ox. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. and Ban in w. petition. bosig. where a cross (or a gun. master of the house. Hufwud-bonad. Pr. Busk. gawney. desire. are formed Fr. signifying beech. Fr. Boom. feu de behourdis. from Du. a scribe G. to yawn. To Boot. ON. ben. tapestry. Pm. boten-shoen. buandi. to gape. In nautical language. the stubble of beans. . a good turn or re- meaning. remnants of hay or straw. busu. Bonnefyre. petition. bolt. from badare. to set in order. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. boia. a hollow skin. Bootless. swinbusa. See Bown. help. Hal. bossen. a silly fellow. babau. boom. . a lying-place for dogs or swine. Boon. Fr. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . boo. Palsgr.

cup- awl.— Return from Parnassus I inR. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. To Bore. and thence to eat build. Mag.par. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. bothag. to stick unto as a bur. boete. fire. exchange or divide. or the gradual working a hole in anything. . borracha. and parrets. limbus. sharp. furni. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. hut. to importune. bothan. as afford a satisfactory explanation. . Fr. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. butin. to bite. repair. a leather bag or bottle for wine. cure Sw. pointed. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. See Bower. amendment boeten. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . cellar. OHG. Another derivation from Fin. cottage. Compare Manx birrag. botjan. purra. to divide. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. boards. Alexand. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. a cupboard. a shelter of branches. an engraver's chisel. to build buda. Esthon. BoracMo. Bete. Palsgr. chisel. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. It. to foam. . See To We speak in E. wave. The Fin. rof. bohren. batr. puras. to bore. a word. burin. butin is explained by Flor. and E. amendment. differs only in termination. to bete the properly to mend the fire. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. bottino. budowai. Bohem. a hut. extremitas Bore. bdt. a borer . But probably the E. 266. recovery bata. terebra sculptoria purastoa. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it.por. And so in ON. on. OSw. bord. admovere titiones. piercer. byte points to the verb byta. remedy. . the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. BOOTH vantage. bud. borracha. bauen. chewed food for infants. Gael. a bothy. AS. ON. drillen. to quench one's thirst . limbus. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. puru. It. Booty. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'.. welt. to mend. bdra. Pol. margin. to pierce. a shop budowati. bordi. dust. boeten het vier. mat-bod. puru. swell bara. Esthon. &c. which are probably from the same root. a responding forms . a great bur. dens mordens vel caninus. yfirbdt. to hut. barn. baete. in Lap. uzboro. edge. to build. a borer. a shop. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. to restore. a border. bauda. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. struere ignem. a borer. Fin. pi. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. to swell. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. In the Fin. terebro. make . Sp. Gael. G. borino. a shed. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). sculpo 05\xiik. Lat. Gael. bower. are parret. nor E. Magy. a bladder. Fl. fimbria. to surge. A phorically a drunkard. from bord. betan fyr. a booth or shed. reparation. to to . . and hence to fine. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. Fin. Booth. . ON. bite. are derived from G. The ON. kvit-bara. See Burgeon. to bite. purro. to boot. in Ihre. • — To Bore. a wave. to repair. boede. better. sawroot. puras. comminuted by either kind of action. to The Sw. Border. The cor. Kil. or anything pointed. — ON. Du. . a chisel. biorag. a. beute. the . tent. Burke in R. scsdes-bod. to profit. a sharp-pointed tooth. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil.. a hut or tent. to anything Neither G. abode. It is admitted that Fr. 1. Du. to . lappolone. and meta- Fr. Fin. bardure. bolino. purra. is purin. The as G. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. boeye. forare.—Burin. scalpo. N. to patch. hem or gard of a garment. a granary . wine-skin. . ora. pu purro (saha =: saw . baara. making good again . urboro. ON. of an edge that will not bite. Fr. 3.. from deila and skipta. aid. . a tusk. p. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. bata. lappalare. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. furd. budka. from borra. to expiate boeten den dorst. bora. to profit Goth. both.

huschen. bosseu. whence the burg. Jam. beorgan. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. And that unsittynge is to here degre. to take in. . burel. ' pledge. a little blow. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. whether from the fact preserve G. nonsense. E. empty. to contain. Hal. poor. a tower. Lat. D. one who sticks to you like a bore. AS. tempest. In like manner It. plant. empty. to strike so as to Bureau. boss. the North Wind. a wen. hollow.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. to strike . . knur. while Gael. from their grey clothing. rustic. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. to keep. in instead of without. bom. as if from the verb to hold. northern. Du. a bunch or hump. . was origin of the term is the OFr. It. that which biirge. coarse cloth made of the Du.' or system of bail.' if thou give money on loan. Du. AS. bussi. knob. the ordinary a swelling. bosh. botch. the Sc. or perhaps also To Borrow. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. borealis.ribs and the side. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. unpolished. ^ma. bourg. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. a citizen. Bunch. boussi. a herb. useCanterbury. burh. ^o^^flj. Altieri. clownish. basse. storm. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. The primi. bourgeois. to protect. or perhaps it may be See Bury. is used in the sense of bussare. cormpted. the N. a giving rise to It. without. surety. pegou. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. bergen. borel. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. 106. bump. tive idea seems to bring under cover. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. bussa coarse. beorgan. — — — A — . secure. ON. hollow bucklers. undyed wool of brown sheep. borgo.vr\. botch.bucklers. Borrow. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. bos. cob. to save. to knock or strike. butse. in the body struck. f graauw. The origin seems to be the Goth. boss or knob of a buckler . baurgs. borei. pego. (Bridel). in contradistinction to the more polished knock. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. rude. I. Bosh. borough or chief constable. loan. plain rude fellow. a bouncing baby . Russ. (1867). Sc. bosse. Swiss Rom. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . i. burgess. borgese. bos. boschen. into borsholder. Goth. a surety. by which of or belonging to plants. the sun sets. bttssel. borh. poor. Jam. bierge. an eminence. G. Hence borhes ealdor. — ' wind burya. to save Sw. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. to pick or cull plants. Hence knot. is probably radically Boss. knock and a knob . a boor. Borowholder. bossen. Bos a surety. botse. which now signifies a knob. bail biirgen. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Botany. bunch. the hollow between the Borsholder. AS. Borough. to give bail or answer for an. pitch. to protect.' every man be under bail. borg. agrees with E. grey). So Du. destitute. to conceal. as we speak of a thumping potato. bump is used in lump or piece. primarily signifying coarse sound .. empty. or because a blow berga.' the chief of the ' borh. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. tuft. a pushing or striking out. blow on a hollow object. cnag signifies both a clergy. gum vocant. Newbury. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. ' — — . Words signifying a lump or protuberE. borough-holder. and borough in the sense of a town. butsen. cnap. knocking. to give a hollow bizo. The other. &c. It. Fr. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Fr. brown cloth. . Bailey.any round sweUing. botsen. projection. /3oraMK6f. and thus could not shake off the old burr. bundle. vain. connected. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. gesylle. or head-borough. less. byrig. a. a city . a boss. boss. when that system was forgotten. viipyoc. cnoc. borg. both senses of a blow and a protuberance.' Vegetius in Diez. head. V. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. a citizen. the must have arisen burgensis. Lang. See found in Bav. boss of the side. Fr. boss sound. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. a blow. striking. Turk. Boreal. formerly used in the sense of knocking. from AS.mass. of bail throughout the country. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. to save. Gr. Cot. a knob. busse. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent.

a cess. botola. bluster. signify a in OE. mess. Podge. blister. and E. bodem. botel. botel foenn. however. a maggot. disturbance to . bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. Gael. bAdtr. It. Fl. bundle. Dan. Bret. a botcher of shoes. in the sense of mend the fire. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. to work without order or know. bativa. poltern. ON. Pl. the other hand. bSn. botte. buddeln. to rage. Bochu. stem or base. abbi. knock. batschen. noise. ing out. Du. — Dief. Here the radical image seems a bubble. Boa two. turmoil. Diez. I. tumour. bot. to dip in liquid (to Gael. burgi vel pontis refectionem. Bailey. you two. ambo. gen. empty or hollow. especially in Gael. &c. To Botch. House-bote. G. abbi-diwij Slavon. buazen. hurly-burly. a slop. Hal. bun. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bozza. botm. is boteau. to botch or patch. the lowest part. botsen. mess. fundus.' to the fiery Csedm. — duj Lett. to stir and mix together. Both. abbution. to knock. a root.foundation. botch. a. Lith. Gael. the science or knowledge of plants. a patch patschen. thing soft batsch. the first rough draught 2. E. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. round lump. Fr. . ^kvBoQ. ba.^Dec. butwo. Lith. blain. . — Fl. buideal. biissen. ' G. contusion . The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. a pock. from the dashing of water. 212. a cask. A — oba-dwaj Lat. bosser.) . With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. . Bouteille. On — Du. bund. an imperfect and bunbutt end. From the dim. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. kessel-biisser. bouteille. . stump. to give a sounding blow. stock. a boil or swelling Halma. And so we speak of an eruption. podge. to from the root bot. bdsser. Wedu. boden . noise. a plague-boil Kil. and ajSvamg. Decorde. they two. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. AS. buddl. • Bott. bottom. an abyss or bottoniless pit. is also a bubble. Fyre to botme. botte. It. See To Bodge. The Gr. stock. bossu. to put on a patch. a bump or swelling. dabble). puddle. ON. a knock. to dash about . a bottle. what pushes outwards. dial. — Jidwi. a bubble. bethia. a wisp. pocciar. beggtaj Goth. to smack. a bundle of straw or hay. for a bud. Fr. Prov. abyss. boitean. corresponding to . H^cart. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. baiothsj Sanscr. abbu. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. Canut. Parmesan poccia. the bud of a flower . a bunch. stroke. — — . Botcli. Bouds. a pit. to mend. we have Swiss batscken. potra. butsen. ubhau. as a push or windgaU. fire-bote. boiteag. Danneil. boute. botse. . shoes. gling piece of work. botte. by met. bulder. as Fr. . to podge. G. A horses. w. Ancren Riwle. pozzo. bulderen. ledge It. to we have OHG. botn. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. a bott . Lat. scuohbuzere. bide. See Butt. ixorapudder. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. to make better. Jtidu. a lump of somebatschen. a slop.of a ball of thread. Leg. buts. Judwi. a pit. a cobbler. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. to fall : with a sound batsch. * To Bother. butse. Butu. BOTCH understood). mend. patch. any round ball or bowl to play withal. — . to strike . a bottle.— . blow. whence the name ol pool to podge. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a depth. pimple. AS. OSax. putra. Mudu. pozzanghera. Stalder. Du. — Bottom. — — A 2. or plague sore . A bottom depth. boss. j3i/9os. repara- — — See To Bete. See Bound. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. bunch. bile. AS. any plain round viol glass bozzo.D. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. It.ments of the same root.— Hal. a waterfall. of botta. a tinker schuhbiisser. dim. Fl. boccia. maggots in barley.— Swift in R. bdt. . whisper. Hal. botus. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. a humpback. bots. See Boss. oba. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a cesspool pass. To confuse with noise. i. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. both. Again. schuhbosser. to mend (kettles. pother. was called a push. — . Kil. btitse. — — belly-worm. Bottle. boil. to make a make a noise. a bottle of hay. bottigUa. gipuozan. boiteal. disturbance. On the other hand. bozza. we two. to simmer. to stir and mix together . ON. nets. &c. e. mutter. to bcBta. N. to froth as beer . a vessel for holding liquids.

a button. bonna. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Primarily to strike. Fr. bottom. of thread. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Webster. signifying in nautical coil of rope. boujtce. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. thumping. the larger kind of pebbles. Probably from the Celtic root bon. by Bujns or Buns.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. to hum. butina.'— Charter of K. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. baby. To Boult. root (see Bottom). The Bight of Benin. Bough. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. — No i ausiratz parlar." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. gulf. the verb bondir in OFr. bumper. as a bout of fair or foul weather. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . See To Bolt. till The dat et bunsede.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. bullra. from bugan. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to bow. A Langued. buUersten. as that of E. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. mere. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. to knock. E. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way.' B. bugt. bend. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. see Boss. The W. Alpine Re- — gions. The branch of a tree. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. nor horn sound. frequently used in the same sense with bound. jungen. in the absence of actual e. language a * Boulder. Q. a blister. the bay of Benin. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. bend.— Cot. bamsen. boriie. whence buj7isen. To Bound. — — Bight. — — leap. ni motz brugir. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . as a nosegay. from volgere. p. Bonny. a stock. carpet. from AS. strapping. . From Sw. Pr. And the new stools set out. to fix limits. bons. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. winding. its kind. a large stone rounded by the action of water. bun. a boundary stone (men stone). bounbounejha. and Prov. to knock at the door. bonzen. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. march. Nor a centinel whistle. Bound. Boulderstone. bolder. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. turn. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. bunda. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. mcn-bomi.— — — - 88 BOUGH . 2. boh. a turn or time. pimple Richards bothog. to set bounds. bone. ing. to set out by metes and bounds. iv. bugan. — Take care my house be handsome. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. came home with his face all to-bounced.— F. Bunche.. Bret. a blow. knock it sounds again. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. See Bunch. in contrast to klappersten. bunsen. Dan. round. Bowlder. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. an occasion. like bobbin. a large pebble. AS. Fr. Ni gacha cor bondir. to make a loud noise. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. pothel. the hollow of a bay. Brem. Sw. geration. signifies a sliort thick mass. to spring. dial. Bout. and F. bodina. nave of a wheel bothel. I assure you. bouton. debodinare. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. botwm. to thundering big one hum. dial. . or Bow-pot. limit. ni frestelar. a round body both. bonndn. Halma. volta. has hot. Coxcomb. contusi. a boss. a bouncing apple. Du.D. bondir. — strike. a bound.— Boundary. Mid. Pm. to turn. an de dor bunsen. Bought. Fr. to resound.>a bout. jump. the smaller ones. he fell so that it sounded. to thunder. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. to spring. boss of a buckler. Wtb. bay. Ducange. To Bounce. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. 136. .' round and round in similar circles. Bodinare. boundina. tnndo. Bough-pot. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. a bud. bog. Raynouard. 3. So It.

game. staff. like quaff. As the Gael. a jibe Shaw bururus. bue. when we speak of. on the whole. firm. Bret. bend. ^<7r«i?. fresh* water. the burden of a song. drunken. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bend Sw. G. buigen. a corToward the garden. ready. purlBav. to pre2. a mill-post. ridicule buirte. Dan. G. bontS. on. bourd. Cot. bog.. analogous to Fr. . which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. . bordone. bovne. bow to shoot with. buzz. bug. an arch. are applied to the bow of a ship. burn. a well. pre. crutch. tinton. bugne. a. and that probably from a Celtic root. Gael. head Fr. to hum as a bee. the big end of a club. the shoulder of the vessel. bog. to indulge in his cups . deceit. bending of a joint knie-bug. a. to tipple. Du. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bending. the Bourdon. steady. is. pausen. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. When used alone it . epaule du vaisseau. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. a humming noise. bogr. Burden. also the humming or ON. Sw. burt. Sw. must be referred to the same root. bwa. Dan. . to drink deep. a for New York. btiga. . buizen. buzzing of bees. a cup kroesen. . shoulder-blade. bogna. jest. their time -With "wailful tunes. brunna. bending. So Sc. a bow. bonus. that ON. Fr. addressed to. buga. good. ruption of bonne. set out. saufen. Eown. pusta. Sc. burdan. to tope W. Dan. fun of one . more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Bound. Prov. Bourd. burd. springbiirn. a jibe. AS. It is remarkable that we find vary. — probably through this latter signification. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. sport. Borden. ready to pike or spear . a from Du. sotich. Lat. bdgi. a drone of a bagpipe. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. bugna. burreti. Du. hous^ Man in the Moon. w. trick. Du. a humming noise Macleod. bugna. burlare. a prop. potio. The foregoing derivation seems. a sing-song. repartee. identical with E. pared. brausen. Gael. spelling the word iox bound. the fixed. schenkelbug. of the ON. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. explaining Sw. ing.which see. taunt. to mutter. Gael. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. bourdon. to — Hal. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. purra. limit. A water.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. to draw a deep breath. sense durd. Sp. to drink deep. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . or of an Gael. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. patesten. Goth. bourde in the same sense. to hum. Comp. to draw a deep breath. warbling. different modification gives ON. It is bov. bommen. belly out. — — — A pare. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. brummen. schulter-bug. way ba7n. a — — . G. joke. mockery. Immediately from Fr. Dan. cheat. Cot. a brook. whether by sound or gesticulation. in Fr. Fr. g. bunaiteach. buys. bage.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. bordon. to bulge. kroes. It. i. as was for. lance. bagna. drink deep. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bov. . Gael. beygja. drone of a bagpipe. a pot. to take one in. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. Du. sausen. pot. whence buysen. Bourdon. The meaning of bound. to our bous. from spring. bound. bonitas. bugan. verb bua. And there in mourning spend Sw. Sw. to bow or incline the . to trick. the ting of a bell. bordo. . Bounty. souf. to banter or laugh at. beogan. a go to. biugan. hence musical accompaniment. grumble Sw.bass of a stringed instrument. has also buirleadh. address. It is the participle past buinn. gurgling. bausen. cudgel. to swell. it is probable that the It. spring. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. burdan. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. bogen. to take deep draughts. prepared for. G. flagon. Bourdon. language of folly or ridicule. A —Cot. Spenser in R. borne. a drone or dor-bee. Burgeon. to take breath. Bow. buyse. — — . curvature. bourdon. biegen. Gael. Swiss bausen. to bow. puff out. bogha. Chaucer in R. Fr. to tope. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention.

hill. a wardrobe . . a drop of pullistaa. Fr. ask. . Bower. pullo. Dan. bogla. . bubble. mausbollelein. Du. A . biisse.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. with inversion of the round. belly. a hump on the back rossbollen. . a iDubble. crooked. a hen-coop .D. Buckle. an inclosure. zich onder jemand under to him. fata-bur. hollow place Fr. a protuberance. bhuj. a bud. a parlour. boucle. beuz. bulla in aqua. bulge. buello. or. bwr. bog. Du. the head. Sw. fyn. ^o«/«. bulcken.). biiske. different position in ODu. inclinare se (Kil. Hal. a box. boel.\s. to raise the back boll OHG. PLD. or in e. OFr. bolne. spring as water bugya. gut.a. painter's easel. a bubble. without the and grits. bugyola. W. water pulli. buigen. head of a cabbage. intrenchment. a box Lat. a thing of liquid. give in to. a wine-can . mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. a sleeping-room . to yield to one. bucka. the box-tree It. cumena-bur. kupula. and on swollen. E. bwra. . purse. bugyni. Thus we have Esthon. iri'iaQ. at the e. bowels. . bulla. . biichse. bugna. beutel. peated in Magy. pusspan. round bead. Bohem. . bow. A Bulk. a pot. See Crab. to guggle.. Sw. It is more probably from the G. lump . Bowl. koziel. Fr. Gr. to stoop biickling. round glass phial. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. convex. belly of a cask. a stud. ON. From the other form are G. . to bulge. guestchamber . . as well as the name of a. hollow wooden case. bossola. a bubble Fin. bog. a ball. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. tumour. prominence. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. AS. polla. a round glass or bolg. . biicken. similar shape. wisp of straw . knob From the former modification we have bolla. the crop of a bird. boil. Sp. to buckle G. AS.flask It. . the box-tree and articles made of it G. . Cable. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. crown of a hat. boor. to swell. a separate apartment . bolgna. bow. a box. bug. the barrel of a gun. bent. bhugna. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. buxus. compared with Fr. a. buchsbaum. a boil. . the box-tree. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock.). to make crooked . Du. bugy. bukke. puffy. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. make obeisance. botulus. bocka. * Bowels. spherical Dan. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Bret. a sack. boss. bugyani. &c. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. then by the loss of the /. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bolla. box in both senses. trestle. honse-bur. blister. boss. bowel Box. a bundle. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. as in AS. of a wooden ball to play with and — . . — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. a little box . globular body. bouzellou. buga. the bogna. a bubble bolli. Sanscr. bosso. pocket. ne. kuppelo. anything globular. a knot. the skull or brainpan . w. W. Sw. Bav. bulb of an onion bolleyield. bur. a box. bubble. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. Pol. as in E. globular. bulne. acsian. buk. a bubble. bol. in walking appears in a . to bubble up. . bur. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. is applied to a coach-box. buckelig gehen. bock. to stoop. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bola. ON. bolle. . convexity. sausage. utibur. to bend down. The word may probably be identical with Fris. Bret. to bend. G. a swelling or rising up.cup Du. an outhouse AS.) to incline oneself . busse. a buck. bulk compared with Sw.. budello. folliculus . a ball . The / a bow. heafod bolla. hiidel. belly. ku^o. a bowl. swell. dial. kupukka. a ball. stream forth bugyogni. OE. Lat. Dan. . G. to puff up. ken. in both senses. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. box. ttuJic. swoUei) Lat. ON. and to a coachbox in particular. . Fr. bouge. a black pudding. kupu. bouellou. . hollow. bowl . boudin. signified by forms like Gael. bending. a croft by a house. a polla. a box. boxtree pusska. . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. buckel. tumour . passing on stud. the head. (in pass . bolla. globe or spherical body. Hence. . boxtree. . a chamber swefnbur. ^o/a. to puff up pullakka. Boll. See Boil. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bol. See MHO. to bow buck. busskai. . bulka. bollen. budel. buis. In like manner the Pol. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav.

youth. by the same inversion of J and k. Pl. Pm." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. Rouchi Then as an adj. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. to stammer. It is B. . One girl. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. brakke Bracelet. ON. Ptg. BOX To Box. an languages. Du. buah. bracco. brae. isolated part of the text. to burst. con. I sal slyng. to be wanting. fault . . brae. brasselet. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. On the same principle from the buksteht. rakke. brace on and Du. bracil. Prov. wnzC/J. It. rack. disturb. . confining. brechen. Brack. strike. in R. which has many representatives in the other Europe..D. a crack. bitch Du. or defect. break. armour for the arm. a box. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. — . as noticed under Box. Kil. breach. ON. race. brec. defect. a girl. braecke. to crack. babble. a guard to torf. Sp. baske. Fr. To brace is to draw together. Hdcart. Fr. to smack the hand batschen. quarrel Bohem. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. pube. bracket. land spoilt Kil. the arm. braco. Thus brack. to Swiss batschen. ghebreck. brack. flap. breptati. unmarried man . to box the ears. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. AS. mud. See Broker. to is derived brestr. parallel with OK. s. . See Brake..nated by dirt. s. Boy. Water rendered boubo. posh. spaniel. OFr. beagle. brague. bou^ba. clay. the first instancebya physical tie. is a rope holding G. priated to the original sense. Swiss Rom. flaw. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. bue. . BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. by an overflow of sea water. taneous talking. brae. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. brostia. Brack. brechen ihm. and string of his bow. G. brabbelen. — — . merely in our mode of considering them. To fight with the fists. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. and F. brago. bask. Sp.— D. variation of babble. odorinsecus. root). MHG. bouibo. breach. A — — . need.D. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. briche. fault. whelp as.. flaw.with a noise. a bubbling dura del mun. loud smack. brassard. foul. a grown youth Cimbr. bracer. braquet. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Heligoneed. salo sive aqua marinS. rakka. want. mud. a pair of braces. breuque. Swiss bub. corruptse. suppuration. G. — . from a root brak. A brace probis. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . want.. his eyes are failing him). a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. boiste. dog that hunts by scent. to give a sounding blow defect. dog Sw. brek. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. to want. lalear-eyed Prov. bube. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. thwack. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. pus. mud. brae. braque. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. Pr. want. . brageuses. to stutter. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. ratch. bracke. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. ' — A — — — . and then Pl. which sigof straining. a braceOFr. pupus. to slap. in R. Bracket. Brach. Brackish. fuse. bracon. to give a gebrechen. In like manner the It. Bracelet. . boy. land batsken. ing from a mixture of salt. A to halt between two derivations. bray. baukscheht. wrack. &c. acidus. wristband. rakki. bragos. bracha. dog in general. filth . defect Du. Lat. boussole. brek. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . salsus. Brak-goed. — . a comworld Rayn. cramp-iron holding things together . It. defect. Du. V. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame.puddle. jabber. to give a blow with the fists. Lett. Prov. It. bruxula. Swab. Kil. . . braic. Prov. a sounding blow. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. The different meanings of the brageux. then from break. to fall. compressing. boy bouba. matter. Prov. damaged board a ship. Fr. Fr. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. braco. — . Kil. Sp. moral or physical. brack. OFr. bresta. Cot. or bracer Cot. a boy pupa. dirty. let.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. brakke grund. murmur. — . braca. OE. To Brabble. refuse. a bog or pass Fr. Gael. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. 91 the Dan. La ville ou y avait Brace.

. brayete. braka. fine.—— . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. blusterer. also derived Fr. or by gaudy dress and show. brave. to boast or brag.. braguer. braies. Sc. brails. be found.breeches. braka. swagger. stout. finery. Bret. braicli. Chaucer. compressing. Wallachian bratsou. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . bragio. vanter une chose. brachittm. idle talk. gay. i. an iron for holding Zalli. BRAG Piedm. braske. braga. a carriage for breaking in horses . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. brag. also insolenter se gerere . binding anything together. to stand upon terms. Sp. It. proud. to swagger. breghen. was formed brayele.explosion. To Brail. the feathers ON. brabhdadh. bravache. riches. The meanings included under — Bragget. courageous. braske. bravo. breach. would be to brace. . also tion of this was brayeul. make a noise . well-dressed. — Chaucer. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. flaunt in fine clothes . in order to prevent its catching the wind. brake is. stately. Fris. to boast of his own worth. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. Langued. . de Vaud. Bret. brag. gay.^ Sp. Lith. From brayel. bragaireachd. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . cry. Thus we are brought to the OE. braw. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. breghe. beautiful.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Dan. noisy ostentation. Hecart. used in the sense of force. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. Cot. boasting.i5nz^. brave. Brain. — A — . Rom.aburst. 2. strength. brav. crash ON. swaggerer. brazo. Thus Bret. braegenj Du. bravacherie. flaunting. . to cord a bale of tie up. ative fellow. a roisterer. se donner trop de licence. To Brag. fine. se pavaner. To Braid. The meanings of brake are very numerous. Lat. to rattle. breyne. handsome. Bray.Shepherd's Cal. excellent. brave. gayly dressed. is identical with Gael. Cot. is Cot. expensive. vain glory. gallant (in apparel) also proud. Primarily to crack. an inclosure for cattle . bragging of his own valour. valiant The head are sumptuous. . — From W. empty pride. subduing. subigere. fine. showy bravery. brae. ^Brave. to brail up a sail. crash. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . The plant y^r«. Walloon bress. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. that will carry no coals. slight modificajoining the two legs. se parer de beaux habits. dhbrailler. the opposite of which. called by our braggard. to shout.%. to strut. braga. w. smart. bullying. splendid. Brake. goods. —Spenser in R. — . brave. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. gorgeous. bragging. 92 Cot. &c. drawers. . BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. brake in the sense of constraining. affront. Haldorsen Gael. vaunting. Hence E. brao.^Vocab. as the type of exertion and strength. to unbrace or let down the breeches. breagh. AS. From Fr. brabhdair. From sprouted corn. A — Hal. or from braie itself. to flaunt. Fr. . See Bray. the arm. fine. bushy . boast. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. bragd. about the hawk's fundament. a noisy talkboasting. in numerous dialects. bully . confining. Fr. to sprout malt. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. braga. brave. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. bravado j Fr. brag or jet it braguard. h-avare and Fr. and that from e. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). and it is very likely that the root brak. crack. to crack. braggard also valiant. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . braver. Faire le brave. Brail. braszketi. gallant. Dan. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. Brag was then used brisk. spot. hectoring. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. to make a noise. Turk bazu are used in both senses.. power. Cot. Brake. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. . to Rouchi brMer. See Brace. bra!. — Equivalent forms are Gael. in the sense of the Lat. torture . be noisy . It is certain that the word for arm is.

word. To the same bend a bow. We — . a fen. for — Due. brage. gebroge. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. G. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. or A A ' . 3. It may be sus- . The Fr. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. bregille. gebrUche. In the sense of a thicket. In the case of the ne. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. copse-wood. Fr. conSo in G. farinam in mortario subigere. brog. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brage. broillet. t° moisten. where from Esthon. el arco. bregar. a harrow. in usus braca. to break. broken fratta. —Ovid. as well as in the case of the e. braken. cover G. brook. In ON. is formed murd. bregar brake. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. dial. gebroge. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . — — . game.D. cetur. briser. to subdue. bush. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. as in the case of horse-breaking. Corrfeze bredgea. frangere linum. and when once thrown down. broilium. fratto. de Vaud. gilum.D. to row. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. low wet land bruch. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. It. In like manner Lat. referred brake. a swampy Mid. broyer. to fracture. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. nemus. brega.bracan. Brake. Pl. braecken het vlasch. to bend or direct a cannon. Dan. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. to bend a bow. to stiffen against Taboada). for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. braka. Gr. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. —Bracken. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). pasture. is braukti. brcekke. brook. brambles. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. breuil. 2. signifying to sweep. e. to break. bredza. as in Sp. might come to signify a swamp. to The ON. riguus. brog or brake. the original meaning of G. glebas subigere. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. broeck. Gael. — Fl. quarry from Fin. a brace on board a ship. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Lat. broil. it is not surprising that the word has here. braca. iSpsx". . a marsh. ^raca. brego. the lever by which the string was drawn up. It. Fr. brolium. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. thicket.' It. brushwood. to exert force in different ways. breaking in the operation. break of such a kind. Voc. to rub. to harrow (Lat. Dan. a thicket. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. briers. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. Fr. murtaa. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. a spinning-wheel. OFr. brambles. to brush. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. bushes. any thicket of brakes. break flax PLD. brake. or overthrow of trees by the wind. brak is a frame in which strip. murrokko. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. P&. gebiisch. thing is brought under control. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. bush. casser le \va. brook. subigere. Biglotton. to bray in a mortar. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. Sp. as in Du. marsh. to head must be bit. Brake. brake. a stream. brog above mentioned. marsh or swamp. watered. to distinct. Dan. gebroge. broor bushy place Hal. tris). Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. properly braking or subduing them.— . by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. and Lat. a horse's a horse's twitch. ing of flax or hemp. and G. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. or a wood in a marshy place . Prov. BRAKE to external force. have thus Du. braquer un canon. Swiss Rom. to pound. bruch. flachs brechen. been confounded with the verb break. in northern climates. murran. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. tnurdma. gebrUche.. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. braeken. to break or fracture. brogille. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening.

a shrub from Bret.. in the same sense. the branch of a tree. prufye. breanan. . in the sense oi fern. Bav. ear-wax mud. Russ. from virga. to bridle. broussaille. a bridle or bit . Serv. — . brarn. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. a shrub . brughera. and thence a shoot. . Bran. —Ducange. bren. Thornas and bremelas. titio.D. braam. a halter. pected that brake. snotty . Bret. i. to -brugen. from brug. broembel-CBppel. sweet broom. Rouchi bren d'orMe. hallier. brok. or ling. heath. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. clutch. Bret. But we find It. bruskoad. from gaggi. bretnel. pfriemen. may be so called in analogy with Bret. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. breme j Sw. Bret. Fr. brugek. broust. the thorn apple or stramonium. . &c. brandr. gebroge. constrain. . bushes. That beareth the red hepe. AS. from brand. branco. Brand. brous. bran. brano. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. breun. brenna. a shoot. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. brouskoad. stink . It will be found that shrubs. See Brush. a thick bush. brein. restrain. brake. Bret. a heath. burning brennen. brenn. — branca.). As ON. Fr. that is to say. broem. brom. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . Fr. a dunghill. from Servian pnit. brandiiialil. broom. a rod or twig. nasty. brass. E. Thus we have w. bro7n. a bud. a vine twig Bav. a firebrand. G. thicket of brambles Cot. brin. brambles. . Brancare. brushwood. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw." The bmno a • on . brandmurk. to burn. Bramble. w. from Lat. the bull-finch. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. briars. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Branch. brejo. a briery plot. So Swiss gaggi. to or iron. bruk. brug. branchia. branche. Brank. ordure . cabbage sprouts Fl. Grisons bruch. bran. Gael. The naof strain. chaff. piece of anything. w. . . heath ON. a bud. Pl. brug). manner when waved about like a flaming torch. and waste growths. G. bramble Du. pfropf. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. bren.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. bit by bit. young twig {brom-beisser. brang. heath. 1 8. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brin d. brenda. brenn hesken. brank. iii. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. dirt . brin (as It brano). sedge burkni. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. as AS. is the draff or excrement of the com. or other plants of a like nature. it glitters — — . gebriiche. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. brog. Gael. bruk. G. a roA. berneux. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. bruch. what is cast out as worthless. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. a bud It. excrement. . A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. heath. bruk. brosst. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. The same form becomes in It. brem. Fr. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. thorns and Gen. Piedm. heath (Bret. sprouts. also pfriemkraut. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. as. a shoot or twig. a small deri\'ation . brand. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. pfriem in the sense of an awl. ground full of briers. heath. &c. bronbo. Port. broccoli. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. virgultum. apiece orbitbrandone.G. bromboli. Diez. It. Dan. Sir Topaz. a burning fragment of wood. a single plant of heath. compress. 2. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du.D. Pl. to gripe. brank. and E. braeme. cack. Broom. In like hrst. sawdust. G. brwnt. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. Thus in Lat. young buisson fort epais. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. It. bracken or fern . Then by comparison with claws or arms. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. . also a marshy low ground or fen . or with It. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. to brank. brandello. broom. piecemeal brindelles. brancas. A mark made by burning. wood composed of twigs. bruch.

to blaze. fire-wood. the spelling to kindle. Sw. To brand. E. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. forms brasil. brandende wijn. to totter. Jam. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. embraser. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. conbillet. brennen. to crackle . and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Braser. G. De Goes. weinbrenner. all. a brusler. so. and scold. braise. a pan of hot coals. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. make an outcry. In the same way the set on fire . shake. splinter. bruire. It. — . from used in dyeing cloths. brasa. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. given to the country. braser. brandiller. It. to and fro in the hand. — . Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. to solder iron. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. bracea. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. 59. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. brasca.well. to murmur. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. crackle. braise or hot coals. in Marsh. spirit distilled from wine. gebrannter wein. braise. branler. N. d'Angl. as Fr. bracia. then brandr. brasil. the colour than hitherto known. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. apparently very distinct from each other. brausen. morsel. Ija. brin. firebrand. brush. brane-wood. to dash. Lye. Brangle. stake. to make shine with shaking. and bruir. Chron. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. AS.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. to French brawl or brangle. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. prasseln. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. before the discovery of America in the brandir. Fr. to bicker 2nd. glowing embers . brazeiro. brandigh. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. distilled wine. to make display . branla. du Roi et laine. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. incendium. e. G. brustle. to distil . Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. to shake. Fr. crackle. to burn. Manx bransey. bruciare. to confuse. brastlian. a roaring fire. hoisting to the fall. bransle. to roar. a round dance. brouir. ist. comes from thence. faire fracas. flagrans. brazil. It. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. Du. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. Formerly brandy-wine. to shog. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Thus the bound up again. to brustle. to Bailey.. make a — . which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. aqua ardens. a fragment. brandolare is exbrandish. Fr. ish. n. bra?ier. bryne. a To Brandish. Fr. to brandle or The It. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. Fr. to quarrel. Fl. Brasil. Port. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . was in use Fr. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. bruzi. brand. Milan. Diez. a stick. bragale\ wood. The corresponding form in Gael. to burn. to braze or lute. to sound of the Fr. E. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. to burn. perplex. billet. live coals. De Barros considers vinum ardens.^Brandle. hot Fr. to brandle. is bntan. noise. and branchis shaiand D. The name Brandy. or in stick. to shake The word brisil. brasa. The tre brangillis. Bret. bum. bruan. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. To brase AS. brandiller. — . to hurl with great force. not. plained by Florio. to shake. became ashes Pied. Gris. as again by well as the blade of a sword. Sw. to brangle. as Jamieson explains it. Kil. Bailey. bresil. eldibrandr. put. brascct. brus^. briiler. to rustle. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. — ting to confusion. So. brangle or brawl in E. Hume in brand in ON.pan of coals. V. Chron. Guill. urens. firewood. bragia. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. braza. WaUon. set on fire. branler. totter. to make sense of a bright red dye. brasca. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Brase. from to vociferate. to glisten or flash. bransella. With top trimbling.

Many gambes. boarding being sbranare. brat. braodhlach. flesh of a leg of pork. I. calf of the leg. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. ni autres choses sur Due. KiL Prov.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. as criailler of crier.D. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Fr. frame of laths. saillies. braoilich. breyon. calf of the leg. 368. to carbonado. bronzare. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. Brave. to copper.— Remade. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. slibro {neita. breyon de kinds of . as scrawl from scrabble. ON. berd. equivalent to the Du. noise. as lattice. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. a lump. braser Fargent. trul. brass. apron. —^Bronze. or whether it be from Fr. breteque. squall. pil. to scold . Jam. A dispute or squabble. Brat. Betrax of a —^Jam. esbraotier.' BRASS BRAY et AS. a rag . A.D. especially that used in the working of iron . Cot. a plank or board. ship. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. brat. brett.96 Roquefort. braiio. OFr. Brangle. le repasser un peu sur la braise. to Gael. brazen. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. bretesche. The verb is probably derived from the brase. breyon d'chaur. as rashers upon quick burning coals. bmhon for brado7i. brdto (ace. Gael. a rag. bratach. 1224. It.— Braid. to tear piecemeal. Certainly a little girl. bretesque. from branler. Cot. cloth. a clout. Florio. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Mundart. Fr. branle. . tasce.brettysing. to solder. brces. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. bradon. bratdn). child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bran. Sc. to braze. OHG. cob. the buttocks. — Deutsch. bradlete. Pm. Pisana in Mur. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.D. a slabbering-bib. brettys. muscular parts of the body. neita girl). or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . Kil. a rag . to shake. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. OFr. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. bartisan. —-Jam. or on the top of a wall. bas morceau de viande brawhng. lat'te. Brawl. Lorraine bravon. then a parapet. bartising. a — A from the confused noise. A land of dance. W. ^Altieri. bransle. slakker-bortchen. roar. contignatio. A. discord. ' A vraale. It. a contempt- banner. as a brawling brook. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. a patch of cloth. For the application to a^child compare Bret. slut. Sup. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. — . bronzacchiare. deblaterare. It . buttock Sc. G. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. See Brandish. a loud noise. Circumeunt cibertesca. coassatio. a contemptuous name for a young child. Bailey. Cologne broden. burning coals. bralle. bred. is The word — uous name for a woman. Fris. bretays). Math.— Diez. a parapet. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. slibro. from Fr. The muscular part of the body. much and high and make a disturbance bawl.— Fl. brailler. a mantle. a lump of flesh. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. luncheon. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. the calf of the leg. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant.^ — Sverris Saga. a cloak. 1156. at brasa. Brawn. pan- — Rayn. Paris. braede. braeye. bronze. 2. a lath. in the first instance of boards. and bronzo.' Hal. borderinge. a wooden tower. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. baltresca. Fr. a. AS. &c. Dan.propugnaculum. Westphal. strepitus 2. Hist. Wall. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. So also See Brag. rag. bruir. Swiss bradle. Brass. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. Bartizan. boutures. ferruminare. a battle-girdle. a Lap. a fortification.walle — Pr. bras. frequentative of braire. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. a lump of flesh. braion. See Bray. The same correspondence is seen between It. bratidone. bratid calf of the leg. P1. to cry. bribe de viande. whether contracted from brabble. from Sc. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. brat. solder. to talk at bralle op. fraiche. Sp. braon. brandillo. any piece. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Brattice. Du.

bray. The same He might don us both a villany. .. rustle. to bray in a mortar. augnabragd. to t. brand. to sound very loud and very harshly. the sound — of arms. to pretend. D. braea. Lat. a brake for hemp or flax. rangere. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. soft . to resemble. brame. V. to crash. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. and to signify the fracture itself. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. bragd — ON. Chaucer. 2. regi. roar. Cot. to braid the hair. brak. twist. R. baiyl. . to crash. a crash. &c. to the seijauntes. &c. — . Chaucer. rogi. a rag f . braidir. braidar.^ Fr. ing. to start. a . And with a traid I tumyt me about. i. the sword was out break. with or without a final d.y. Prov. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to break Fr. mos. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. plait. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. turn. Swiss bratschig. to cry out. to break. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. bregar. Bread. ON.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. bratsche. kind. to tear Bret. To rub or grind down Sp. at braga eftir euium. to The cup was uncoverid. a brack. crash. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. . upbraid. to have the lineaments of one's ON. Fr. bregda. to knead. a breach Cot. abraid. the clash of ai-ms Dan. W. crepo and E. bruzir. Breach.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. R. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. and fracasously. brice. to rush.fracas. to work up in a mortar. to bawl. Beryn. gestus. D. at a braid. to cry Port. bragd is also applied nets. Ppvxia. in Jam. to roar. breach. explaining a very obscure application of the E.g. yell. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. to break. 7 . Wal. Fr. Fin. to roar or bellow. fragor. rattle. to braid acquires the sense of bend.ch. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. To Break. to resemble. ybrayid. as OE. D. riAprjyvvfu. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. And at a braid he gun it bende. which has given much trouble to commentators. or wound. k. crackle . quilibet celerior j at bragdi. OE. Bret. brot. cyprinus latus. to smack or the eye. Bailey. braa. will. crash. &c. I'll live and die a maid. instantane. noise . braire. and make a hideous noise. Du. to N. paxog. fractus j Gr. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. paste or dough. to resemble him. brikan. the miller's dog. on. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Goth. to roar as the sea. V. father. and frangere. From the or brack in a wall. yell. Then. to snatch. The ON. brugier.ear rog. Gr. Prov. to braid. G. make a disturbance. Dunbar braessem. G. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. broad. appearance Hal. braid. The Lat. at once. to rub Fr. as the notion of turning crack. breche. brak. ser. E. bregar. Bread. 145. F. imitate or resemble one. is . to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to rumble. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. verb to break. to cry out. to bray like an ass. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action.' To Bray. brage. broyer. fish. to break. vapna-brak. — koa. e. father. a mill. Q. iU-favouredly — in Jam. bruire. ^p&xia. brechen. AS. bru. bragr. to scold. relation is seen between Lat. V. braa. See Brake. to braid. disturbance. a wink. resound . to bellow. as the voice of the ass. &c. ON. breuan. or cry out loudly . Then is simply. — — — explained motus loud noise. weave The ON. bradar. Cat. a rent. starts crackling up. roar.

morsel. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. Breath. Breeze. to buzz. binding. then to broil. b}-as. Piedm. malt. a gadfly. Gl. bra. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid.britschen. fastening . to simmer. breme. brodem. Breast. dial. Dtyden. G. briiz. To Brew. . briosa. an into shiver. break. griller. brasiare. brusc. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It./ssus. brcEth.). broiiwen. simmer. Breeze. bracecs . PI. to burst. polenta. and E. a cool wind. from brace. Fr. chilly. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brosame. G^nev. briosat'. remains of leaves. representing the sound of a blow. switch. So ON. brezza. body brostia. Swiss AS. xyligogio castigare. brasser. Compare OE. as. brijselen. briste. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. with It. Bret.t. braies. E. brijsen. trusts. breath. braciarc. Isidore and Tatian. G. brist.'— Gl. brimme. briosa. brezling. grillen. breost. brinisa. bryi^ga. einem de britze geven. braguier. . braga. Gl. Gael. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. AS. zare. cloven. trembling. Fris. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. G. rubbish. G. braucn. AS. to roast. bridsen. &c. brisciare. drawers. Hence the Lat. to bray. Piedm. singing bone. braga. to crackle. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. E. It. Russ. chillness or shivering. brire. braie. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. G. a crum. to feize or feaze. siibligar. to hum. bremse. Brize. The Teutonic verbs. Du. de bridse geveii. burst. a smack. .98 borst. to rattle (as hail). little bits of wood Berri briser. are related to Prov. met de bridse slaan. bris de charbon. brossi!. their stings draw . brugga. vapour. to murmur. may be from the wurh fesser. Swiss Rom. brissle. — Halma. Prov. Rom. point to G. Dan. . brumtnen. clout for a child. brison. breeze.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. orts. bruise. to resound. See Brick. w. to shiver for cold. the soler. i5r(Z^. fitzen. simmering.D. brasiuiii. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. bris. rubbish. brisoler. brok. to fry . braux. Lat. one on the breech so that (klatschet). bris. britze. instead of being derived from 'La. brustia. forms analogous to E. . — — strument for smacking. OFr. bruzir. corresponding to G. grill. broden. brut. brcekur j It. malt. Dev. brise. Originally probably the word signified steam. brezzare. Swiss brdtsch. — . as by the Sc. a horse's twitch. Biglotton. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. . to whip. bresilles. bruc. a to lay fly-flap. brdtschen. the dry spines of furze broken off. as the G. to break. forms. to be misty and cold. are in like manner ' . breinse. Sw. a box. windy withal. scent. peitschen. Fr. of trees. subligaculum. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. properly to crackle. bark Fr. brciz. the bust. to crush to break. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. briig. braca. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. braca. Gael. a cold and windy mist or frost . of straining. Bracha. breson. — See Broth. Du. applied to shivering. Goth. bragues.vare. as commonly explained. Bruise. grillare. bre- I'os qui bresole. fail. Du. braich. to brew. also to chill and shiver with cold. — And blood. or the blow itself. murmur. Briss and buttons. Hume in Jam. brisd. braies. to fry Then from a Gl. so AS. bandage or truss for a rupture. Prov. Breeches. bratscher. sprouted corn. We bragezj on. Breeze. crush. to smack. brache. to brew. a girdle. to breech. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. a crum Du. murmur—Vocab. brew. The Breech (Prov. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. an odour. QNtsterviald) pritschen. but more probably the E. a cramp-iron for holding things together. a twitch for a horse. and other rubbish dibris. broza. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. of E. de Vaud. Du. from AS. — . Bret. /esses. brimsa. from ligare. noise. broil. brodel. —Briss. sheep's droppings bruss. to bind. coaldust. Lat. braia J OFr. bruzun. bretilles. in Schilter. Fr. and brought beneath between the legs. as. the breech or buttocks. as in the case of twitter. — Brist.

In the patois of briccia. as so. funeral. brahi. to pave brukkti. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. brilt. broosekens. a lump of bread. Hdcart. consort with. pavement. Gael. briw. brasser. malt. appropriate. AS. a boiling. to Isrew. ter-in-law. briicke. Grisons bruch. bride.Fr. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Fr. a married man or woman Lat. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. It. a quoit of stone. whence berw. Fr. Bridal. birbante. collect bits of food. to appropriate. to press. It. birbone. ON. a bride Brig. Walach. remarkable that the Gr. brigata.privatus. but to a paved road. sponsa. Dan. Pol. broken bread. If the foregoing were not so clear. married. Cot. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. E. bricou. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. Diez. a heath brughera. Fl. betony brulicame. fraoch. Brique. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. a wedding priod-fab. buckler J ON. brutg. with transposition of the r. a heath. Rouchi brife. Applied ous words derived from break. to break to pieces bricalio. a married man guma. gf2o. priod. from Bret. Brief.gfiugga. is still used in this sense. A bribe is A — — arval. bread. a rogue . bretonica. served (Patois de Bray). . bidsel. Lang. a beggar. a little king's writs. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. bro. fit. Hence OE. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. Brick. bulicame. the marriage si in brigata. . bara briw. Brewis. AS. to meet together. bo. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bruyere. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. especially to a letter or command. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. son. to tlie brico. ' . brA. brique de pain. It — is Kil. and that from It. ' — . Sp. betonica. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. ibrukkti. peculiar. bruk. a bride. a proprietor. imprint. bruith. to stamp. to press in. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Neumann. the equivalent of to the dial. bridelj OHG. or brizo. sugga. bygga. graf-ol. — . buskins. as. Du. Goth. thick appropriated. fragment. priod-ferch. the newly. Trovarfor bride-ale. conjux. bruskr and buskr. bably contracted from brigantine.. bitill. bricge j G. frayer. a rogue.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. w. to boil. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. a bit. AS. which however is undoubtedly from brace. . company. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Flor. See Broth. Diefenbach com.bergantino. to prepare. bribour. heath. fervere. to pave. brigade. a bush. a lump of bread briber. briwo. division of an army. a Bride. grug. boiling up brocoliere. to boil. malt. it is applied to the letter to OE. So in The Prov. brice. a briole. E. bruk. bridge. . jetty. two-masted vessel. crew. has briguer. barren land priodas. OSw. — . pavement Lith. to brew. ap. OHG. pavement brolegge. G^n^v. breve or brevis. any jot or crum. brar. briiths.It. berwi. from Bridegroom. E. bride. brug. E. brood. twopares Lat. brukkas. from bit. then the marriage itself. W. jipaaaiii. bro is applied not only to a bridge. arf-ol. Gl.pritil .rough with brambles and bushes. Gael. . hlafes brice. Bridle. brigantine. The Sw. — — — — — — . a fragment. to beg one's bread. AS. a man. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Priodi. brieden. bribe de pain. a crum. broken. owned also propriate. the Fr. masted vessel. and ODu. brittil. and berweddu. to circulate. AS. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. Ihre. in the sense of OSw. Ducange. A — A — . . privus. Bribe. from the Normans. Fr. Bridge. troop. fastningar-ol. BRIGADE dead. one's ovin. to break. Lat. a lump of bread. Pro(merch=:maid). Bridal. but probably Bricoteau. brygga. The origin of the word is the w. to boil. . brocaly. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Thom. In E. broken victuals. of burial. brere. brughiera. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. bryd-gutna. a sow. Due. to rub. feast of espousals. corresponding or letter. ment of anything broken. nurus G. a cheat. bro. brakes of high-grown ferns. beaten way Dan. bryd-eale. Mid. a brig or priodor. piece of burnt clay. Brigade. groom (mab=:son). httle bit. In the G. daughheath. a fragment. pier.groom. . lipdZu}. AS. bruarium. berwedd. Brier. guma. brau. from the last 99 of which. braut. feast. . a crum. So It.

brigandare. rover either by sea or land. to bend a bow It. brawl. with respect either to sound or colour.dorem clarum reflecto. cange has 'Veles. clarus. See Brake. pugna. lay was sung. brigan. . schateren.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. OHG. and. to glamr. there are many armour. glbram. The primary meaning of Sp. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^.pracht. from hall. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. speech. splcnornd de brigandine. loo BRIGAND lor. clear. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. the grew high. Heo — song That AS. to shine. — Due. biartr. clear. a noise.— . — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. Mid. combat. brigant. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. They or brigantini. — Briganbriga. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. willata. bright bearhtm. brigare. also called briganders. praht. riis ' — Chron. In the same way to strive is. brak. hell. 312. XafXTTpoQ. and led it away. strife. — Probably then to strive. and to associate with them. to resound. tinnitum clarum movco. sound. Xa/iTTii).prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. to cry 'Schmid OE. to sound. etincelle. may play the pirate or thief at sea. clang. Brilliant. splendens . kilistua. glamm. labour. splendour. and. Lat. brdgen. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Bav. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something.' The passage from the sense of a light. — brigante. Gr. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . — brigante. Florio.glampa. Schmeller. tinkle. bairhts. — A A . Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. noise.D. bryhtm. to rove. representing a sudden noise. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. to shift for with care. It. clangour. A strepere. to strive for. . and diligence. \oice. tinnitus.' torum. rixa. Flor. briegen. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. dine. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. squamma . a small light pinnace pro.shine. to reservavit. Brigata. himself to serve men of merit. outcry. brcEhtin. glir. splendour. inde squammatus. and ner me hit iherde. glamra. clare lucens. a spark. Brigand. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. that of Fr. briga. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. bracht. brigare. jurgia. seems to be to exert force gar el area. shriek with laughter. 1351. It. in the sense of a robber. AS. braid. to piracy. a brigantine. — — . in later times a robber or highway-man. is easily understood. to glitter. manifest ON. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. Adelung.' The sense of strife or combat express. The Ir. Du. Wilista. to cry. —Capgrave. to shine. to make a loud noise.Lat. clear. to ring. It. wilella. In Fin.' in Due. tuilahtaa. — Beowulf. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. the gleeman's song. kii:'a. secondarily. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. a glittering. at a later period. tion. From ON. Owl and beorhtian. to rob. tumult. Due. A. moment. clear sound. and the E. brebrigare. Beorktode bene sweg. schiteren. and secondly. briga. twinkling. The E. It. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. and hence be explained glampi. Gall. to contend with another. bragen. the bench-notes resounded. necessary business. 1654. in the first instance. then. a pirate. transparent. Swab. on his — own account. glitter. So G. — Brigantine.clare ^tinniens. Goth. Bright. bregar. bray. malandrini. beorht. dine. show the origin of Lat. a sound.

the lap or bosom. dial. an apron. ring. to fret . small gravel. 1. Tresiller. ter. . to glitter . It. a streak. rugire. to roar. os qui bresole.preni. sprainged. bramar. and corresponding to these. grdzil. to roar. . Wtb. Du. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. barm-cloth or barmskin. brezil. G. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. breziller. Thus Lat. rym^. brunft. Lith. brimmen. grisler. on. that the original meaning of the Sc.— Brinded. Fr. fringe . bray as an ass bramire. brdnnsten. kommata. (poet. Fl. brisoler. to resound. to wish or covet. to twinkle. earnestly . a stick. crackle. brant. To Brim. brama. to parch. briller. brullo. have then in Fr. griller d'impatience. lip of a vessel. to sound deep or hollow. noise made by meat in broiling.— BRIM . clangor tinniens. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. kimmaltaa. FJ. greDiet. Brindled. griller). properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. Sc. kiimottaa. brame. Swiss Rom. . reecho. whether of desire or anger. frequently interchange. with an initial br instead of gr. perent.ioTiviS acutus. E. brissle. whence bilbil-goda (literally. to sparkle. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). as is the case also with Pl. to broil. to shine. ling noise and a sparkling light. bremmen. The expression is now confined to the sow. — . brow of a hill. ous. excited. bry7ie. spraing. to make bilbil). to utter cries. kajata. bar.its vent in cries and roaring. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. fimbria) . to quaver with the voice. hence the bosom. der. cross-barred in colour. border. sparkle. A . brummen : de soge brummet. border. Brim. In the same way Sw. tience. broil . Closely connected is OE. gresiller. 1 1 64. a borDu. breziller. sonitum edere bremen. briller. barmr. ardere desiderio. which seems identical with rim. Sc. to shine. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. grisser. leonum). to shine. 154. bramer. kimista. griller. to . breme. to glitter distance .D. fringe (Lat. Subo. a rod. broiled. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. brim Magy. Brimstone. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. Hence with an initial s. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. bresoler (Gloss. — — So Fr. Rugere. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Brem. kimina. to glitter. finds the Fr. to storm. the sow is brimming. rut. vattubryn. to long for a thing. Streaked. beam. identical with passion. brim. to creak. Said of swine when in heat. s. komista. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. grullo. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. bramire. to crackle. rugire (cervorum. post. brumft. chime). It. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. greedily to covet Cot. burning stone. s. brummen. as well as bl and gl. brame. barm. In Fr. the meaning is transL' amour. bremmen. 754. burning. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. ON. also to reflect. to burn. brommen. vigorHal. glisten.' Elyot in Way. It. Dief. from bringe. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. edge Pol. briller (related to each other as OFr. Sw. the eye-brow. crackle . surface of the ocean. furious. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. — g. the heat of animals. ON.' d'etre marie . shine. fierce. pMiller. — — — . bryn. bramar. brastlian. parched. — Rim. to creak. brand-krossottr. : ' — bone). duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. Supp. glit. of the eye. Tutschek. Prov. voux. lap. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. or violent action. The meaning of the Fr. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. a border. Dan. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to make a crackling noise. brandr and Fr. brinfire. brennistein. Rayn. to shake. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. Langtoft. bremas.) brimi. from brandr. and 1. to shimmer. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. fire. gresiller. a long. margin. as in Langued. border. breme. the heat of animals. the edge. Kil. to crackle. The identity of ON. originally the lap folding over the breast. AS. coloured in stripes. is used of raging. the verbs Flor. brmdottr. striped or streaked. ON. lap of a garment . the singing of Sodom — — . brillare. AS. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. as of meat in broiling .). The E. komottaa.

birstle. very salt brimi. Brym. stitch. britar. a bud. Port. — — . . Gr. brote. ruffling. bresk. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. the brisket or . to broil. ' breast.' Nat. bringe traced through the brano. setting the hair on end. Formerly written brotil. saulmeure. brezza.g. Prov. bruched (Fr. to shoot. birse. to bud. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. It. Fr. to stitch. chest. Brickie. Bret. Prov. Brocade. brime. a clasp. Swiss to stand out . Russ. borst. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. roar of the sea saltr. Pectusculum. See Brand. brcit. sprocco. and forms on. to burn. smart taste. coli. Alfr. brog. to put one in a rage . flame. NE. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. brocco. a shoot or sprig. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. to broach a business. to break. Zeuss.. against the grain . i. to roar. as a noun. b. bros. Russ. Commonly explained as from Fr. startling. Prov. are used in the sense of brittle. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum.). bruskett. to thrust. fiscbryne. a cold and windy mist or frost. byrst. as. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. is called a birssy day. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). a morsel. bringue. bryne. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. brioshko. quick. prick with Sw. brocciare. has under It. britchet. Da. e. a peg sbrocco. to spur. britar. /3pE^m. a brooch. to set it a going. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. birsle. Sw. spricka. See To Brim. Antiq. Brooch. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. Du. brocchus. and Sc. Fr. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. brusque. breidr. briota. breast. metaphorically. The Pl. brocher. as. man's throat. a button broche. Mid. a rod or twig. bryde. broccare. the surf. like the Broad. . to turn up the point of anything. to birstle. Breeze been connected with the Sc. brin. to spur. ON. fragile. braidsj ON. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brandello. rebrousser. It. eager. brisciare. is to erect the hair. borstel. the twigs of a besom. to crack. breaking out into growth. a spit. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. . brickie. from brande.Lat. briocho. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver.procio. form bris. apt to break. of astonishment.). G. borzos (struppig).. sprouts. — bryme. Bret. Lat. suddenly angry. rebursiis. as. as unripe fruits. and hence. a bit . from AS. brddj Goth. harsh vin brusque. Walach. broccata. craw of a bird. a stitch brocher. aculeus. — . brittle. thick — A elastic hair. birs. sharp. broc. Hence ribrezzare. to begin upon it. a belly. to stab Gael. Dan. Abroacli. In the N. Berri. briser. rash. borzen. fierce. to goad. fantas'* tical. brich. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. to stick. grim. or the full • . angry. an awl. Palsgr. brichet. brindelles de balai.'— Vita'abbatum S. Bristle. to shiver for Sold or for fear. sour. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. a deluge. emotions which produce it. broca. from break. — A . It. Sp. brimme. a crum. Compare also E. brim. . Cot. Brisk. a projecting tooth It. Sc. cK) the . Bohem. bronchus. breaking of the waves brim sior. ' . of E. hot-tempered. a morsel . brusco. brusk.D. bringe. Ptg. the surf. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Then as the effect of shivering. brytan. brissle. Gl. brittle. a bud. Sc. flames. bruckle. brijn (Kil. or — . Fris. briota. brimhliod. brim (poet. whence may be explained the Sc. a skewer. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Brisket. brockle. and. brezzare. to set up one's birse. wine of a sharp. bricho (with the diminutives. to spit. ribrezzoso. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Fr. Du. setting the hair on end compare It. a stormy brimsea . sticking up . Fr. brim. to break. brocco. bristly . birssy. a slip or sprig of an herb . Hal. rude. p. to scorch. Liquamen vel garum. Brine. See Spread. Boh. spur. reburrus. to break. . brisk in taste. brocar. Fr. broca. humorous. a brad or tack. expression. bros. Fr. 'V^. It. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. sprout. strong itself. Salte sand is called brimsand. a fragment. brodden. shoot. a rebours. lively. brust. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. brissko). trembling.rcendij'i. 222. . crabbed. Brittle. — in Due. broche. brot.

b?-od. Sp. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. to embroider. shuffle. Here to ornament with needle-work. thread. brocach. a To Broil. broc. Sc. — Gower in It. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. creak. broglio. to crackle as a shell in the fire. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. gresiller. — . knobby . to prick. whence broccare. to burn. to crackle. to boss. bordar. Grisons brascla. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. birsle. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . to instigate. briz. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. piebald . or It. a brim. brizen. bawling. speckled. broil. The Bret. Dan. initial . to embroider. a freckle. spotted. of pointing out their latent defects. broc. brasuole.. brasbrasciuolare. parti-coloured. the line of development has been something different. broighlich. to crackle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. Ihre has guU-bord. a brecJi. brasolare. Surrey in R. brasiller. grullo. broiled. and bord or bred. brastlian. brusuole. borprick. a border ornamented with gold. houx. brocart. bramowanie. a mole. briefh. stump. bustling. — — . brullare. dar seems derived from borde. parched. broccato was used to signify stuff . A fried or boiled steaks). silkes-borda. prod. and w. grislement. brusler. or salted fish on coals. broud. to streaked or speckled in the face. tumult broighleach. to knots or loops. breard. badger . a b?-ustolare. Gael. — Fl. ToBroider. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. or snag. an edge. to stud broccoso. A badger. . It of br the Fr. blusters. streaked. a confused streaked face of the animal. a point. Fr. onbryrdan. motes. bordo. Brocket. confound. precisely analogous to the Sc. Fr. Contracted from Fr. a freckle. Sc. brodio. Florio. brychau. border. — The proper sense is that of Fr. rustle. bmsciare. a prick. Hal. brerd. kled breac. to crackle. Bret. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. a flake of snow sion. or glowing coals broged. hurly-burlies. a peg. broder. trouble. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. prasseln. sparks E. brouda. frocadura.. Gael. It. to darn. ciare. broil. v. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. to burn. scorch. braird. forming to jumble. tori shows that. 103 embroidered. bruler. a quarrel. ornamented with a raised pile. gold and silver. and AS. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to parch or broil. from the white. border ornamented with silk. spots. a brouhaha. freckled. Compare G. brasiller. brych. with Sc. speckled. R. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). hart of two years old. or roast on the braise. . tufted ornaments. Cot. brooked. brustle. a flock or Gael. noise. W. frecSee Brawl. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. atoms . embroidery. brocco. here. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. bram. brucilare. broccuto.tumultuous. brouFr. sting. Compare also AS. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. bj'oil. The ON. parti-coloured. brucach. noisy. trouble. froco. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. to crackle. AS. Cot. a fallingThe sense has been out. To roast upon hot coals. storms. Thus brod. the shoot of corn. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. parch. margin. carbonado. It.sound. fundamental origin. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. has grisser. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. to spur. age was termed a pricket. B. Icnotty. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. Fr. point to an origin in Bret. brindled. broice. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. broukit. agree in being the extremity of a thing. embroidering. rinj'. to scorch. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. a badger. — brissle. q. a border. brod. E. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. From direct imitation of Brock. So from Pol.— B. to On the other hand the Sp. Broker. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to broil. Ptg.

embers to brund. glowing coals. broen. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. stain. to hatch G. the spawn of fishes. in the sense of rejection. find fault with. to braze. sbrinzlar. an . Jam. brunds. to hatch. — point out the faults. an operation performed over hot coals.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. mediationem quorundam J. tussis. embers. rejection Pol. Sc. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. G.D. In the . — a spark. cracker. brasa. refuse brakovat. from break. to roast on the embers. To blame mens ware. fish-spawn broden. bring eggs and spawn into active life. to pro- to reject . et A. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. Kil. bronce. inspect. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. refuse wares. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. hot. to be hot. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. ODu. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. — broeden. couratier. : ' . keep warm. selection. Grisons brinzla. criticise (makeln). goods damaged by sea-water. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. brack. Du. phlegm. brands. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. analogous to Bohem. trumpery. hrak. vile. tan. to sparkle. See Broth. a breach or flaw. and fishes . find fault — — — fuse matter. brieden. a makeln. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. brechen. S. brut. Fr. racher. brid. Teutonic class : Du. to .— Lib. brass does to Sp. Brood.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. This word shows the same relation to It. a chicken. try . an outcast or rejected sheep. Lat. to throw blame upon. i. a fault. If to vomit . on. Bronze. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. bronze. brak. merchandises de rebut G. pan metal. to emit sparks. brod. G. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. faulty. whnake. brydio. Fl. . [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. vrage. . Prov. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. The Langued. a cough Hal. To correct an exercise is to Lib. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. braken. to pick and choose. It may be compared with It. . to scorch. inspection. broiid. brumo. the young of any animal . make out. Pl. bronze. brackefi. brokers' goods. nounce unsound. braeck goed. warm. to sit on eggs. hraki. matter of blame weak place. as. to hatch. blur. to copper. which E. Per manus et old worthless horse. cast Lith. to criticise. sunburnt. wraken. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. brack-gut.— — . to be wanting. want. brasa. mud. with. correctarius. dirty. damaged. — . damaged. refuse. It. e. a broker. bronze. hot. fault censure. refuse. OFr. vile. filth. a brood . reject. Pro v. corrector. to spit . . brokas. to — garble.D. Alb. to reject. brokoti. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. . to sort brakovanie. designation is indkler. racaille. bridde. w. bracker. progeny of birds. to brew. — Fl. Sp. brwd. Adelung. burning. wrak. embers. and to reject the damaged and unsound. term was correcfo^ir. screatio Junfus . Bret. brak. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. abject. try out.D. ON. Pl. slaae vrag paa.— Breed. sort. from makel. in which sense the OHG. Du. refuse Fr. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. On • tliis principle the G. The use sunburn. insects. Dan. Bronzare. to garble. has exactly the force of G. to sort goods . brae. to blame. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. refuse goods. lack. bronzo. bric-a-brac. • . to pick. In those countries the term braker. buy and sell by commission. briiten. bredan. ordure. See Wreak. dial. refuse brakowad. rejected. . 38. Russ. brakyne. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London.D. G. Alb. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. spittle. or brascla. to nourish. fermenting. 396. wrack-good. find fault with. brot. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. whence the modern courtier. Pl. See Brackish. raca. brack-gut (Sanders). but from the primary sense of the It. Abbronzare. Tooke's Catherine. raquer. and as an adj. cherish. wreak. For the same reason the Kiittner. abbronzanchiare. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. spittle . brod.

a hill. on. braun. thick bush brousta. bryn. dialects is very different. brass. broza. bryn. broth the ocean Sw. brink. brous. boiled . Fr. mettle. brov. Tam de terrS. eye-lash . Mid. The AS. the colour of things burnt. G. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. OHG. — exiit et heath. juniper. . eye-brow. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. broud. brocco. shoots. Bohem. useful G. heat explaining the Prov. hut. breh. sodden. break out brewet. margin. forms appear related to the Ir. brost. Brow. briu. and also border. brothas. AS. a source Gael. vigour. brue . as small-pox. border. Brothel. briihe. bros. shore. brouser. broth. A — . broth. breg. from Goth. bratrj Lat. bruich. broth brothaire. . Gris. sprout. w. heath. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. bor. Fr. — . Bret. ceales briw. bank. edge. to scald. branches.' Due. a hut or cottage It. on. eye-lid. bank. &c. properly boiling water briihen. signifying twigs. to burn. broi. broth Brown. eminence . strength Ir. Russ. G. AS. bhratrj Zend. But the Walach. brmi. to browse. broem bark. Sp. simmer from the murmuring AS. Manx broie. sprout. breg. rage. a . house of ill fame. eye-brow. perhaps burnt coloilr. pith. as rhododendrons. to boil bruithe. broeye. riviera. bros. shrubs. frui. waves. a bud brous-koad.spross. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . See Bramble. surDu. brouskaol. was originally used in the innocent sense of . The softening down of the consonant bud. brodo. brauwe. to use bruks. brow of a hill. broieii.brons. It. borda. juice of briars. bank. brucan. bruc. brotar. verge. . Gael. a derived from the boards. pour boiling water over. buds. eye-brow. to use. brun. steam from heated bodies. brabruach. frater. brodem. Limousin broudi. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. shore . or broken up . a hill. chen. OFr. heath. bruth. brukjan. Sanscr. to spring . and Sc. sproc. a little . a little house or cottage of timber. &c. who is steaming with sweat. brlgh. sordes seu strigmata young branch. plants composed of twigs. signifying low wet land (Brem. broc. and It. bregh. Ger. . broit. bruith. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. bruceti. brotar. 'Lzt. spirit. to browse. a shore. infusion the barley bree. bruithim. thicket. Gael. brstiti. (for brodem). eat. of which the variety of forms. pfriemkraut. Bohem. a bruth. low The AS. warmth ch'an. broo. fur Broom. Ppim. borde. . a river. 105 Brook. may be connected with Russ. a caldron. brushbrothas) gives the OE. protecting the eye. &c. juice of meat. . the bubbling or springing up of water. and Slavonic families. brogues. to boil. brawdj Slavon. bordeau. fabric consists. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E.D. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel.braubiti. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. Roquef. It. spuma. kail brose. brusmalt. Sc. Russ." Serv. Pl. . hovel. Bav. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. a confused noise of winds. Serv. b7-un. to shoot. brosst. Sp.. to boil. It. meal. G. bruscosd quam de arabili. Browse. bruich. bntdien. surface of Broth. The origin is a re. Gr. — ' . OHG. bruddeln. Bohem. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. augen-braune. to murmur.— Overyssel Almanack. brosses. Fr. Kil. brew . sprocco. Gael. thairj w. brow. frucius.D. Prov. to use. .) . brouter. brost. G. sap. in which brinnan. brau. bryii. to bear patiently. brwd. strength. broden. eye-lid. t— Cot. cia. to boil. G. to bubble up with noise. Prov. breg. brus. . braew. bud. rerum decoctarum. . . brouches. infusion. awl-plant. Dan. Wtb. . shrub with leafless pointed edging. edge. bruno. or bushes and scrubby growths. cabbage water. a sprig. Commonly Teutonic. heat. . Bret. Pol. brudi. noise. broccola. brozia. — . brosses. Catalan brossa. brpuster. brewis. Due. brst. bruitheati. sprot. grow brossa. iVlanx broogh. . Du. a sprout. riviere. . sprouts . dumetum. bree. braces. browys. as Fr. to Pl. eye-brow. a shrub broust. sense the Sc. Fr. vigour. brad. hot. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. cabbage soup . Cot. from ripa. bushes. enjoy Goth. to sprout. of plants broust. shoot. brouet. bank. broth is sometimes used . face. ale . briar. broca. grow into a bush. Gael. brio. &c. brennen. Celtic. bordel. brdtaj Gael. brushbroccoli. circuindedit cum familia. Lat. bruach. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. or shoot. seethe. laissent Domunculum. brd. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. To digest. Here we find throughout the Romance. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. . brouic. has briw. a bud. pottage. braussa. Fr. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. wood . BROOK brook w. to border. w. It is Brother. Du. a spring.brink. to roar.

Pr. shock. brusc (Diet. brossa. shivers. B?-usske. Pr. Bav. Pr. Sw. See next article. E. a crum. Pr. brust. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. and in the second place a besoiB. a brush. rubbish. AS. dust. bushy ground. break. a bush of hair. orts. broustia. bud. crum bit . are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. ling or heath for brushes. a brush . bruscolo. It. brous. dust. Prov. a — — (Agea) said. burt. Beryn. borste. brossar. wool-card. Broach. twig. a brush . shoot brouskoad. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. brunt. 174. ON. mg Cat. and sighid therewithal. Gael. Cot. brusco. Gael. burs. brist. fasx . brosst. bruscolo. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. bris. OE. bris.— Palsgr. fescue . bruc. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. also a head-brush. . she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. brushwood. desbrisar. a brush. brosse. bross. a bud. Piedm. bris. as It. Piedm. brik.). bruit. bross. — OE. to brush. splinters. Pm. crush. a bristle. * Brunt. brusco.). brustia. a mote. Fr. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. p. To brush then would be to dust.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. a tuft of heath . and Piedm. and actually come in collision. Prov. —Chaucer. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Port. Brush. Bruise. rubbish. The Lat. . briser. borste. detergere . brico or brizo. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. to butt. bruis (sing. Bret. a little brizal. borste. to stumble. brosst. Pm. to crush. a rumbling. . quasi twigs. brousso. bricalio. . to strike the foot against an obstacle. a bud or sprout Bret. broza. it schall be al Sw. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. broust. to make a rumbling. bruiser. Prov. a brush . 201. rods. brit. brysan. and . a horse-brush. a brush . Alexander. dust. heath. briketo. brous. Brunt. to break. brustia. Lang. to break or burst. remnants of hay or fodder. — those signifying a sprig. — Fr. brugir. a shrub composed of small twigs . and It. borste. Fr. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. a flax comb. modification of the same root which gives the E. Sp. Diez. a blow. bruskr. NE. to break to bits . borst. insultus. bruyere. to break. brus. brizeto. Sw. Castr. brikan. . brustid. chips. biirste. . fragments. brista) or breaking out . — a bush. In E. Lang. abroncar. insilio. bruire. brosse. a bristle. wool-card. brusca. an enmy. On the other hand. a brush Swiss bruske. Allit. brossa. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. G. appearin Goth. Fl. bruscia. Text Soc. That in all haste he wouli. blow burcar. E. brisar. broken. And that best is. —Fabyan. quisquilise. dust. of twigs. The Bav. or sodenly comyn' dust. rubbish. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Poems. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Fr. britar. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. irruo. brist j Port. Cot. Bruit. E. Fr. into a multitude of points. seems named from burst(on. ca7-bo>i. or shoot. biirste. brusca. bris. brMt. It. a brush. Hall in R. a noise. briiis (in the pi. Fr. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. The same relation holds good between G. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. It. but on whom it schall to brisen him. A. brisd.). The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . borste. tuft of grass or hay. brist. tremely. Palsgr. Gael. britar. bush. 134. Prov. broza. G. wool-card. and also Brush. flax-comb brossettes. bruito. K. brist. to cleanse.— — i. . wood composed OE. Gael. field. sordes. Wicliff. brise. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. bruzir. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. escousse. bruise exOFr. brusg. effort. Brunt of a daunger. twig. brottcher. coal See Breeze. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. to make brusshes on. OFr. a briser.

. bog-aske. when soap was tion is commonly taken. a bubble. Sp. also applied Una. moczyd.D. from colar. different form. plied in the W. the lower soak in lye. designation of a knob. who resorted to the islands beichen. byge. bubbola. to soak. and as a verb. to which in their language they call bou. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. a push. hump. blast or strike with the forehead. The male goat. Etym. Pol. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Pref A. bub. — . bublati.buchen. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. to stick. The word was very generally Buccanier. soft. to Gael. or mok. bwch. buquer. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . bouc. bduclien. caned' Hence those who established them. Fr. In G. a fescue. wood. or projecTo Buck. Cot. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. See Dupe.biiken j Svi. — . set of pirates in the spread. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. mollire. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. was called in Fr. of wind. to filter.tare. a bubble. a hole. bub. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. bucaIndies. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. bukke. top. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. bucata. to wet Pol. pukkata. boil animals. to bubble. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. The natives of Florida. pup. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. thunder gently . Bret. Magy. and Fr. . March 28. . buck-ashes. and exercised their cruelties prin. Fin. a to the male deer. blister. tuft. as G. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. soft. hog dressed whole). buquer. very generally designated by the same puk. maban and baban. ac. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. Fr. to soften. and as in and b so often infor cocoa.' Palsgr. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. erweichen. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. to strain. because bucare does not in Marsh). to soak. from weich. does not hold. w. A . tender. . open lath-work. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bucking. bugada. boucaner.lessiver. boc. 17th century. mote. to butt. — — ' A : ' ' . knock. to butt. w. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. mokry. Pol. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. Bret. rap. boh. 1857. News. a knock word.wet Lat. moist. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. 1586. buborek. says Laudon. to murmur. to a place used for the mouillir. . pokka7na.steep or soak. to soak foul linen before washing. mieknad. faire la lessive. lye. to butt or jurr Dan. a. a bubble .byka. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners.-wtt miekki. colada. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. buchen. bifbel. a steep for flax. to soften. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. drying of produce. Fr. Sc.boukaat. It. bugd. tender. . The term bocan is still ap. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. It. buck-ashes. Bubble. soft. bube. Bohem. . But see Bristle. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. Formerly. de la Floride. Diet. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. boc. and then to other wild tumour Lith. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. is 1. watery bud. Sp. .— . the linen at buck. The place of such a 2. Gael. bucquer. bubBuck. a. to bump as a bittern. bokni. at a door. Dan. the upper for coifee. soft It. and the bunch. tap . The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. in which the flesh dish. to buck.to allow a free current of air. buerj It. as a buck rabbit. bouk. bubiti. lye. to soften . and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. The cipally on the Spaniards. The name. soft . This bubette. Illust. the first wheal. it is beuchen. bubauti.derivation has been much discussed. Bohem. was called bucking the linen. From an imita. bubseti. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). BUBBLE bruschetta. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Esthon. not so plentiful a commodity. hump. molle. a ashes. Magy. It. I.

a buckle or protuberance. boucle. a bubble three thyngis. to swell. bouter. ein. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. the root of the Slavonic words gran. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. Port.). to thrust. bloca.anything short of its kind. above mentioned. swelling. Bret. weich. a pustule bout. a dumpy gin. . a bud. goat's hoof. to 'soak. Prov. fur. knock. Bav. The word is a ddyn. bedde. bucolicus. bod. weich. bug. Behoves. set of a plant in bulk. boss. bunch . a wallet. a stump buckle up. the word w ' — . skins pushit'. Budge. . Gael. prick in a target. dinted. ' . turgere buczendig. It. is doubtless fallacious. Fr.' Boccaccio. Wtb. Dan. soft. bouprobably identical with inok. . pwtio. Bret. bougette. mani. Sp.poot. * Bucket. bud butzen. . In Lat. boulj. Prov. Fr. with which it was ornamented. bucket Fl.r//'. Hence quel. seen in Hesse botz. words is converted into b. great pouch. hump. wallet. to boil. Dan. It. Fr. bouger.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. male or botzen. bucherare. ' . gjeit-klauv. like a bean. Budget. become bochen. no wheel bogeilio. as in Fr. Pol. bouclier. bdden. stroke. in the beginning of to pierce holes. a short thick man. scion. stud. butzen (Du. Russ. It. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. See Bulk. having a boss. So on. stir. bul. boucle. boucaran. call. — — . swelling. child. to line with fur. bouljein. is to shrivel up. bode. Fr. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. agreeing with Gael. potz. Pied. butzen K. a buclder or shield budge. bod. butze. boiling. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. no business to do that. brobrocchiere. were To Budge. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. boucler. The Fr. Bav. bullion. trunk of wood covered with leather. knob dwfr yn boglynu.' And this sacrament bus have dial. Swab. from Gr. crack. bulga. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. a navel. need. boccula. bulais daqui. It termination is lost. G. to boss or swell out G. butz. to stir. botzen. buachazlle. OHG. budge. Fr. bub. a boy.pode. explaining Fr. a shield. a tuft. where the G. knob . botzen. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Buckler. . nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. to graft or bud trees.' Schm. motus creber. ornamental stud. belonging to the calling of the chen. water message. bloca. W. a small shallow and open tub. ble. to butt. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. * Buckle. * Bud. ON. cattle. a boss. noise . the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. call.. Mid. OFr. to poke. rump of fowls . . pote. don't stir from hence. lump. rabodS. The entire train of thought is bucket. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. a curl. bucherame. — — . Fr. and the reference to It. built. pwt o Fr. Buck-bean. bukke-blad. convexity. Prov. Bucolic. bouton. a trough). — . don't a baby). bog and G.— . to pen cattle. .may probably be explained by N.stuff. II I'a feru desor I'escu. case of leather . bo. Du. butzen. the radical image seems to be a set plants.n. Sw. probably from the notion of bubbling. whom it is still much in use. Cot. bolgetta. a cowherd. A water-plant with leaves and gille.' Hal. jSouKoXiKog. protuberance. macero. dim. bulla. boglyn. Fr. w. bollire. and of the Lat. a budget. butt . clasp of a book. dint . to bud or bocla. It. bogla. to un bout d'homme. Hardly identical with Fr. clump. ' . excrescence./a.goa. a boss. from bo. with a central boss. pulga. a leathern sack. put.. bocla. a pail or flowers. weichen.stumpy man.t-le!L{ * Bud. . bugnir. To thrusting part of a long body.) . push forwards. a bump. loud Cot. boss of a shield. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bulb. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. boqueranmis. imbuere. Mid. call bo. blow. NE. or male of to boil . — . bouge. a servant. sboge. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim.) as to soak. a fold ceilio. from bugr. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. and weichen. of bouge. a . of a surface. to move. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. pulga. Bus. The dressed fur of lambs. to budge. a ring. a shoot. inboachen. with let. of bac. boaLat. bloquier. The knob or projection formN.Lat. also a leather tuft . a little coffer or turgidus. bougette. bump. boucle.chissima. bolgia. thrust. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. A buckle or fastening for botch. . bulka. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. Lat.. K. buckel. Du. bouk is a pail and with the dim. butzen. . w. This expression boglire. a budget. to word. bunch. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. boach. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu.

bau ! children. It. Pl. leathern bucket. or hath been Cot. to give a as of a blow. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. a puff. mingled with water. Hence the E. also a G.' La Crusca. to signify an indefinite object of terror. ' They rether puffed at him. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bouffer. blurt or puff with one's mouth. buffalo. mumming. a buffle or a bugle. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. confused. Swiss baui. thus be translated to tap. dull sound. to jest or sport. Buff. cuff . to a representation of his voice. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run.' perfield. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. a skin. buffare. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. bauwi. a bugbear. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . a budget. smells . Cot. puff. Fr. Lat. Mid. sounds. to beat. dausinti. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. to puff. buffets. dial. bubus. Teet-bo. word other cases. bobaow. —Boggart. a side-board. bw. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. to rePl. le reste emplissant d'eau. It. Fl. buffetto. buffen. bufogni. E. and in Fr. Buffeter. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. the place whence the wine was drawn. buffle-headed. to bellow . to puff. human. to excite terror in Macleod. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. either alone or with various terminations. buffet. or wild ox. From buff! of terror. Romola. Buffalo. as from Lith. Lat. From bulga. buff leather. scarecrow . een duffen toon. deadened. to blow souffleU. w. as wine that hath taken wind. buffa. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. to give benti. also the skin or heck of a buffe.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. bw! It. from It. a goblin). him but Boyd iugges.D. buffet. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. often blown upon. bolgia. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. A blow. a dull BUG From 109 — A . bubach. a clap. The children were playing in an oppocomer. a In . baubau. a jester. senses. — thence it has been transferred in E. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. Buffoon. as Diez remarks. bukow Ikow. colour. a block-headed noddy. made to —Bugbear. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. as emblematically making light of an object. boman. buivol. stupid. pulse . such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Thus buffet would a tapster. for this purpose is very widely spread. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor.D. Bufetarium. A — Bug. buffare. soufflet. bugs. dausa. bo ! an interj. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. A puff with — Fl.D. site The two — — iii. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. tabernarius. The use of the exclamation children. bufHe. Buff. yar^aa. rebuff. — Bogle. while in Sp. buffeteur. God's boast seemed feare children. &c. Sc. bolgetta. The cry made to excite terror is then used. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Fr. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Fr. from souffler. tastes. wauwau. to marre often tasting it .— Buflae. buffet. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. Limousin bobal. a cuff or buffet. Magy. bubiti. Fr. breath. Gael. btifetarius. to blow . It. to strike face to represent the unknown. W. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bwg. It. . buffer. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. caupo. things in Jam. bouffer. duff^ dull. the buffe. wine may The verb in taverns. — Z. bufogni. — La Crusca. bumann. Sc. of colours. buffle. Lith. a hollow sound.—Buffet. bubaRuss. Lith. Fr./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Cot. bugbear. popo. by metaphor. — — — Buffet. often covering his E. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. botffon. bugle. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. to blow. 265.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Pl. a hobgoblin. G. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. boo. to frighten . made by a person. air. buMagy. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. Esthon.

Serv. the word is lin) bbgge. pugalo. Fl. bucula. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. of bugabo was given.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bwgwl. swollen. a rabme. — — . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. the Devil. to creeping things. Grisons bau. insect. * 2. great or bug words. to take fright. bugler. to bellow. bbgni. BUGLE Tentennino. — — ' . In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. . Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. and a boggarty ing. buggabod). terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. with more or less modification represents bau. Sp. affright. bug dung-beetle. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. to bellow. il brutto Demonio. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. long. Russ. Chaucer. disgust. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. the black a maggot. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bwgar. An ornament of female dress condread. insect. Bogge. an object of terror. See The name terror). pugaf. according to Coles. A similar applica. . : no BUG . a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. a bugbear for children. and in Lat. the buggaboo w. b'dgni. Manx boa. iv. I. also a baco-baco. pujalo. a proud overbearing man pujat'. . bogk. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. 2. Bugle. is the dim. thus connected with bug. booggen. as an object of dread. fierce. 3. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. 493. coco. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Swiss booggen. and is Deutsch. also a bug-bear. gad. proud. Stalder bog. bug-bear. bogil bo (e. and in child's Magy. a buffalo.Lat. boeuf sauvage. bau (Pureiglia. tumble-bug. to take bug. high. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Lith. 1551. . big. also a bug-bear. mask ' . saucy. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. beugler. Deut. Sw. Hence bugle-horn. well as the terrific object. a bug-bear. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. bukashka. protuberant. Mid. Schmidt. any disgusting animal. especially to beetles or winged insects. terrifying ward. superbire. earwig bau da grascha. Lett. It. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. high-sounding words. biignt. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. a goblin. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. bobal. Lesachthal. poggl. as Buffalo. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Illyr. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. a boogg. Bug. i. The w. bok. baco. an insect. Bug as a lord. given in Chaucer. — . then a horn for drinking. banian boube.— . — — terror. Fl. Grose. xiv. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. rose-bug. fette. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. to frighten scarecrow. Same as buffle. Lap. shepe and gootes. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. Parolone. language any kind of insect.Fr. bug-bear. bukati. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. buculus. bug-bear. w. Bdronie. bugbear. dial. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. (Spurrell). paws the ground . hert. tion of the beetle tribe. and bugle. Cheval de trombugti.3uhtii&:. a. boa-peep. monster. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. bogk.loud noise. buba. Hal. worm. — boogg. boo. bogil. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. threatening. Swelling. blustering. oxen. E. to origin in the expression bugs words. W. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. of pipes sewn on. is very common. troll. The name of bug is — . to take fright. provincially an insect. It. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. to roar Aasen. a bug-bear. forSc. bogle. a silk-worm. scarecrow . Bible. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bwg and E. The final guttural of W. bauginti. quos what produces dread or disgust. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. threatening. larva (a bug-bear.. used in the same sense. roarHal. Magy. bug. buffle. Mundart. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . vermin. Big. bugar. roo. ghost. Magy. bold. fear. a misshapen person.. bugle. a beetle. Swiss ing. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile.

MHG. in Sc. bauch. bua. swollen. as well as is very variable. buhe. in bulk. trunk. bullka. as water beginning to boil bolg. of an inflated skin. dial. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. mass. trunk. puff. projection. bo. swell. knobby. Pm. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. m um Placentiae. bol. bulle. Mister. or. husk. swell. Bulge.' Palsgr. body of an animal. bulbus. See bollekeii next article. Kil. bunch or projection. be protuberant. body. Gr. bale. bouge. Bolke or hepe. bukr. to break bulk. bulked or bumped out. lump. a water-bubble). bugue. has bulbuk. head . ON. of E. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb).'— Cot. . vulva. globule bolg-lhuingey. He found a country fellow dead drunk. belly. bulbe. ' . belly van de kerche. turgeo bolnyd. a straw corn-vessel. blow. the contents of the hold. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. . boss. a globe. blister. skin bag. belgja. Hence e. the position of liquids in the word In English. See Bulk. . the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. swell. bug. to spring. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bulcke. ' . at riufa bulkann. belly Cat. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bulk or capacity of anything. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. body of a ship . bolle. Dan. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. To Build. bulge or convex part of a cask.d. a stage or scaffold. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. Sp. knob. . bouk. bag. See how this tode bolneth. unevenness Sw. belly. From till.' Cot. bubble. bulk is a partition of boards. OSw. bulwis. to belly out. bellows builgean. skin of an animal. . thorax buick. (3oX|8oc. domicilium. bubbling up. pouch builgeadh. Lith. a leathern sack or portmanteau. the capacity or burden of a ship. to bubble up. G. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. bolnyn. bulbe. bladder. jnake bulch. Lett. boulge. bulk. bubble. bolle. to raise a habitation. bubble {palgan tiisge. or cargo of a ship. pulkas. to bol. The addition of a dim. . . leather sack. bulka. sedes. crowd. bulge or bilge. . snorting on a bulk. 1388. ' . chest. the head of an onion. I. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. Gr. gebolgen. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. belly. A — ' — Bulk. the womb. cultivate. ne. bolgetta. bubble. belgr. a lump or mass. to build. It. in vessel. — — . a round bulky body bwlgan. bulgen. Boss^. buk. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. to puff up bolginn. anything prominent. inhabit. were a habitation.' Festus. ball. wallet. boss of a buckler. and put it home. a. trunk of the body. Jno. and N. In the representation of natural sounds. PoXj3a. a tuberous or bulbous root . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. Mandeville. habitaculum. the body Du. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. w. Pm. to undo the cargo. belly. bulkaf. . Ptg.pulks. hold or bilge of a ship. bulne. to throw out a convexity. — Bulb. belly. Pr. or bear out as a full purse. Lith. balg. . on. knob. bwlg. bulgen. Bulch. blister. boss of shield. Othello. blister Manx bolg. a bulb Du. — . or of what is shaped like a bubble. principal portion. and bulbukd. the carcase. . Lat. Bourser. a bunch. Melancholy. compare Da. — — .' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. to blow. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. or feminine termination gives Bav. bed of a river. bole. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. balcone. — . bolgan. mass. knot in thread. bolgia. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bolso.' Fl.). . bolg. a bubble Gael. OSw. byli. it again. Muratori. boss. the potato G. straight will he 2. ON. whence bylja. . pocket. womb. Lat. herd^ swarm pulkd. as it was merly written in English to bylle. pod ON. boa. swollen OE. ^ — . Here stand behind this bulk. G. van loock.— . a. a leather sack or budget Fr. villa. bulki. lump. a bubble. Pr. The Walach. to gather. tumeo. Palco. a heap. skin flayed whole. acervus. bol. hollow. the belly. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. Dan. a dint in a metal . biilken. Bav. bulg. to swell. to bubble up Pol. G. tumidus. For the latter sense ' — My . bolgna. Hal. bauen. . formed a farm. pimple. beuck. stuffed bag. buc. to swell. The radical sense is shown in Russ. Bulk. balco. balg. . bol. . — — . a protuberance. With these must probably be classed ON. belly Sw. . bilge. cumulus. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. balgs.' Anat. a prominence. hull of a ship.

Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace.Gr. large of its kind. And The word bullerbak. poll-cheannach. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bulla. bolli. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. Pm. bole or trunk of a tree. BuUiou. The male W. bugbear. leraures nocturni nigri. Fr. &c. w. lumpish. a framework of balks. a wasp.. but is more probably iden- palchetto. as It. G. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Sp. signifying roaring. bullocks. a stud.. Pl. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. which may probably be the origin of the name. a little fish nearly all head. bulk. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. lumpheaded . from baula. any great-headed or studded nail. to seal. a blockhead. is called a ball. a bull Swiss bullen. Bret. bauli. N. G. bullern. the matrix or die . i. bollar. bellocier. however. on the contrary. also of the tadpole or young frog. a bowl. child by the represents the hobgoblin. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. many to protuberant objects. a bulox polos. balgeting. Du. bwlas. bulke. whence bullire. bulle. penbwl. is of a class with Pl. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. poli-cheannan. spirits. eth and frighteth. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. and vellon in Sp. stupid . See Billet. to bellow. it may be observed that a bullet in E. to bubble. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. sloes. a bull.D. Gold or silver uncoined. I. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Eullrusli. a tadpole. the seal affixed to the document. hhint. ON. to emboss . Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. thick. A lace tree. boillon. Du. boss. a scare-bug. bulk of a thing. from Lat. to boil.D. in the sense of base metal. bwla. coarse. any embossed work. a tadpole . where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. bouillon. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Gael. stud. ba. a hobgoblin. from the use of the equivalent terms. Dan. of Witchcr. as geting. pollach. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. as in E.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. to tical with Sw. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. a hobgoblin. blunt. bulderen.lle de fusil. W. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. stamp. bietebau. Bullace..' do not go by the dangerous water. Bullfrog. large. Lith. BulUiead. in N. a noisy violent fellow. This word is used in several senses. dial. bwbach. and thence terror. from the noise. poltern. A papal rescript. tition of deals instead of a wall. It. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . embossed work. billon. bolos Fr. stamped money. . it is boulet de canon. scarecrow. a hornet. Bullet. blister. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. from Fr. boulct. Bully. stud. baula. Fr. See Bowl. G. whence Mod. /SouWivu.'— ' Palsgr. Cot. Scot's Deso. bollos de relieve. beams or boards. The wild plum. bulla. of the ox kind. brass-headed nail . 2. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. b2iggaboo. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a beam or rafter. The final element tergeist. pimple. G. 2. bullos. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. bullebak. w. bolla. bal. bulloi. boss or stud. dim. Bullbeggar.. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. urchens. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. also a parFl. a bul-begger. — Fl. — — Bull. polten.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow.Fris. billoti in Fr. of boule. It. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. Du. a seal. biitzibau.D. witches. bollon. bullus. a seal. assito. bubble. The bullfrog. 3. as the ornanails. Du. — A tition in a ship. bellow. Terriculamentum. from the Lat. pwl. a cow. round glass phial. bolli. as a mill-dam or the like. elves. bouillon.

or work of defence. A.' Stat. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. bastion. Bully-rock. G.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. bulderen. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Bum-bailiff. bolderen. 2. The Sw. Miege in Hal. BULLY with which coins were stamped. to make a noise . bottom. up was termed monnaie de billon. then in general a rampart. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value.. violent overbearing person. Etym. Du.. To bum. 10. and porter au billon. ^Bully-rook. or a humblebee. From the notion of a humming.' for the purpose of exchange. to drum Lat. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. 'lega. IV. blaterare. bomtnen. to make a droning Du. from boden. 1687). vallum. Bully. to behave tyrannically or imperiously.' ' mettre au billon. c. buller-bak. 2. AS. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. provides. Hal. ON. Du. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. is called bumping or bells. to . Hence bom and ban. intonare. block-werck.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. c. To Bum. polterer. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. droning. un faux brave. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. Bum. D. Sw. is bullion — A — buller. Fris. buene. to dun. by corruption boulevart. ierd-beame. 14. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. a stage. a hectoring. The cry of the bittern. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . to terrify by noise and clamour. — Bump. Kil. argentum and silver. 1305. blunder-buss. John).D. a bumble-. bustle. 2.' agger. boulevard. Hence — . blunder-buss. To bum. Kil. a noisy blustering fellow. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. buller-brook. — Bumto .' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. primarily the ramparts of a town. boisterous fellow. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. biihne. buller-bas. St. boene. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. poltem. honunele. noise. bol-werck. For bottom. a boisterous. propugnaculum. 9 E. hum.D. The Stat. Bailey. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. minari verbulderen. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. To bully is to bluster. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. Fr. It. buller-bas.' Again. — bombam?nen. legaggio di metallo. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. botm. violent. a blunderhead. debacchari. agrees with e. bombilare.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. a floor. Kiittner.the ramparts.d. but now is the central part of the town. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. &c.' reals of standard currency. III. bottn. ^i^/«. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. 4 Hen. on the other hand. furious man. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. ground. baluarte. Fris. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Thus ' ble. the soil. ierd-boeyme. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. scaffold. a. Du. provides. c. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . resonare. sound. perturbare saevis dictis. The 27 Ed. G. clamour. bodem. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. buller-jaan (bully. IIL st. G. — Boom. Philip le Bel in Due. beat a — Hal. The decried coin. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. bommele. — — plate d'argent.

should probably be a short tail. a person employed to dun one for a debt. stock.D.. . large. a boss Lith. a heap Wall. to ' .— Bunnion. . stump. Dan. cluster. E. pumpa. Bung^. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Bumboat. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. bunnion. to beat. a swelling. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed.^Cot.' Bun. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Dan. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. He fult dat et bunsede. . bunkc. Bunk. &c. pompette. A clumsy. stubble Manx bun. to . Fl. poumpido. a pumpion or gourd. stock. hdk passing and E. awkward clown. bottom bun feoir. bolsa. a large . round mass of anything. Bang sen. bungersome. bun with ON. bundle. knob or heap.! . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. awkward. a knob. bottom.D. Gael. bonnock. a knotty stick) Sw. a bunch Magy. E. or grete knobbe.-^Fl. Li cake.— Pr. bunch— Hal. one ever saw the word in that shape. bonge. throw down with a bang. bund. a purse . bulse. Thus e. il me pousse.D. gibber. . . Bunch. bunken. a. Bump. forms. stalk. bunga. a round mass . botn. — stalk .pummel. bunt. w. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. knuckles. a tail (Macleod). Pm. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. To bam. bamgetroffen. Pl. blain. truss E. applied to young persons. . to knock . a bowl P1. Fr. a heap OSw. S. pwmpl. — — de dor bunsen. a dried hemp-stalk. Related on the one side to Pl. a heap. stump. bmidt. a rabbit. lenten loaves. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. ! — knocking. Fr. ner. knochen. Mrs Baker. bannock. bunke. bulscha.P. bugnet. stem or base. Suffolk bonnka. 1. butt end. inconsiderately. H. or to the mass by which it is given. a bag or sack. Ir. bunsen. Bumpkin. a hemp-stalk. bull. a boil or blain. binge. to . bun. bune or boon. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. — round fruit. bonuach. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. — — Bun. passes Sw. to thump. poumpi. from bunsen. Probably for bun-boot. bun eich. a bud. — Marine Diet. clumsy. boi7ieog. bumsen. bottom. to bang ON. Moor. . bon. foundation w. E. Bums it's hit. Hal. Gael. an old stump of a horse. a lump on the foot bunny. as we have seen E. buns. as in other cases. calamus. a knob. bump. Radically identical with Dan. Du. . bignet.). a. A Du. a boil (punkos bot. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. trunk. any round knob or bunch. Bunewand. Sc.D. bugno. bu<rnone. OSw.' he fell with a bang. bum-boot. a dry No . Pl. — — — — ' — knock. Then. bongie. callus. Holland and Flanders.. . bulto. w. nor would it concern the public if he did. to beat. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. . a bump. Hal. gibbus. a button. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. a hump. to bang. Hence E. Hal. . bugno. a wallet. and signifies consequently a mass. bunan. He buncheth me and beateth me. It. abrupt manbuns-wise. Daal bu7iseti. are dim.S. a pocket Sw. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bunka. bung. Sc. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. dial. . a swelling from a blow. to bang down. bunga. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. any round knob or bunch. signifying one who does things in a thumping. especially girls. Bumsen. hay stubble . while bulch was traced through Gris. Pm. Lang. . pumpurras. tundo. protuberance. so the form btmk. a heap. — — Bun. Kyx or bunne. Dunchyn or bunchyn. and related with ON. a bunch. pompon. a into Dan. bugnone. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Bony. a rabbit. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. banke. from knock) It. Pm. See Boss. a heap or cluster. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. lump. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Probably from bump. bmike. strapping. bans. noise. explaining E. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Again. mto Sp. . —Bunny. stubble of beans. Hal. See Bunch. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. the Pr. Roding. bunny. root. pwmp. Forby. dial. strike E. Bun. Pr. clown. Manx bonkan. bunki. pwmpio. the tail of a hare.' Palsgr. a knob . to swell out E. bumtel. lungeous. See Bounce. seems to unite Gael. to strike so as to give a dull sound. root. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . a knock. banga. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Bunch. a Sp.

bondel-loos. Bunt. bindini. OG. Burden. to knock. Bung of a tonne or Lith. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. * Buoy. — . bag to catch the wind. bond. dark. bolting-cloth. Sp. bunsen. Fr. Du. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. buie. — btiruii. byndel. Fr.— . Johansen. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. So in Pol. E. Fl. burion. knock. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. borgonota. bommen. To do anything awk- wardly. to shove. to botch. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. Sp. AS. anchor or of a net boyar. working in wood (especially with an axe). See Barbarous. N. ho-tapp. Lat. would be the earliest float for an anchor. bui. to push. dial. a bung. in is Fr. reddish brown. sprig. A bubble. noise. or putting forth of a vine. bondir. ' — work . to work ineffectually. Compare G. knocking. bou^e. banga. bourguignote. and bomme. The Fr. borboUar. Burden. to work at carpentry bangan. biirde. gyves. Biu'geon. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. boucher. bongun. fascis. Rietz. bonde. to bud forth. from beran. to gingle.Fris. Fr. a bungler. bourgeon. bondeau. stocks or such OSw. to bungle. bundle. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bang. Pl. stiimpeln. tap. To bunt. Cat. Kil. generally known as the material of which bud. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. the loose open grow big about or gross. Sp. on. boya.punt. The Italian buio. to float. AS. dial. It. contignatio. tinkle. So Du. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Cot. an anchor buoy. Bundle. to stnmi on an instrument. bummle. bury. Bunting. especially in wood. knocking. burboloti. bondon. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. To Bunt. a wisp of hay or straw. 202. — — . B. Fr. driving in the bung. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. klimpem. Banff. Russ. bote. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. the young cloth used for sifting flour. The word is flags are made. dicimus rufum. buret. Bung. bundt. boj. Sp. or tuft. to resound. a cork. — Bureau. however. whence bunting. is originally a wisp or bunch . byrthen. Prov. to strum on an instrument. a drum . OFr. to hum. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bangla. to bear. coassatio et Du. on. modem bummle. bondelj bundell. to knock. also a piinple in the face. . bove. G. the float of an bundle. and E. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to hum. the middle part of it. tapp (whence tceppa. buret. stilmpern. bonde. and van t' vat. The belly or hollow of a sail. bourion. bunta. A Dan. russet. was formerly pronounced buro. clumsy performance. properly a Burgundian helmet. dark grey bura. Burble. the noise of drums. Palsgr. a bunch. to cobble. boil or bubble up. See Bourdon. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. bounta. a bunch Burbulas. To burgeon. bang. racket. punishments for prisoners. bongani. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. . to stop. fetters. to in to stop the hole. . B. Hal.' Festus in Diez. See Bun. The stopper for the hole in a boia. colligatio. boei. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. and the Sw. are from bouscfie. . clogs. rumble as the bowels. Sw. loosed from bonds. a sort of helmet. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. of a song. bouche. A load. buove. shackles. racket . to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . or used as a receptacle for papers. unskilful working. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Muratori. — — To Bungle. to gingle. whence in bure. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. Burly. a botch. to pype. halm-tapp. to Somerset is to sift. G. to kick. bungande. tinker . the stopper of a cask). OFr. shove . bon. p. . to bolt meal. to push with the head del. guggle as water. a boye. banghagr. Burganet. bangla. and Du. to stop. Sw. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker.D. Sw. to push ghebondte. See Borel. to hum. the bung of a barrel Lim. la Borgonota. ghebundte. and now more Bailey. klempern. a water bubble made by rain. bundel. with the head. Bret. that the primitive meaning of shackle . bourjon. bouchon. The Magy. bimge. do a thing bunglingly. Prov. Bunny.

spring-water bumach. the J in OFr. BURNISH i5«r/.' a jibe. the roaring surge of the — — — . As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. warbling. to sharpen. brinii. boiirre. ^Notk. bourou. brunnr. the flocks. brun. The in. language of folly or ridicule. Lang.ireui£r:e. brusler being a faulty spelling. a fountain. robber. Burly. Hence Bridel. A — — . to tell lies. to ridicule. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. Burn. ends of thread. bourd. brustle. a gurgling ^. It is probable indeed that Fr. fire. and Dan. Fr. borrelen. borr. explaining Sp. a purling hiwe brennen. in Schm. a whetstone. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. purling. . burren. born. — Han to bruser op. — — . From Fr. to polish. brunir. a well. Fr. Fr. See Berough. water. fires up. ridicule. burly. explaining the E. condemnentur morti. to give an edge to. a spring a robber. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. a bladder. bururus. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. surge or dashing of the sea . Swiss Rom. ends of thread. Lang. burlare.j'own. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. brynsten.). — . briis^. borujon.— . &c. to bouronna. Swiss Rom. thence. Bav. The Gael.). Burgess. to To Bum. a jest. A legal term from the Lat. See Burgeon. to roar. embraser. tion of the root which gave the OE. Schm. — — . with little iron nippers called burling irons. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. — . a margin. Probably a modifica. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. G.or bubbling up. burgensis. sidiary element. brima. dial. purra. ON. sea. as the / in purl. blow. compared with G. brausen. Antiq. roguing beggars. to roar. Fl. knob..— Pr. to polish. to ridicule. repartee . bururus. It. ample of polishing metal. A burl. must be explained on the same principle from G. to murmur. bud or sprout forth. G. like straw or small . boure. tumentum. an edge. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. From the same root E.). E. singe or scorch with fire. swell up or strout out.Ps. to roar. to roar. Burler. OFr. Pr. ' rugiens. and OG. like the wind in trees. Burgh. a bud. to rub. joking. flocks. Fl. watery. and the Burin. big. brinna. brinnen or Also ein roar. pressa puret. Bret. de Vaud. the word seems Pm. 56. burgi latro. a wine skin. de Vaud. . protuberance. Supp. to grind on a whetstone. a blaze. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. It. he rustle. Goth. tahko. it of the knots. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. and the Burnish. toast. brunnen. from bryii. lerre. Prov. . Burryn. Sw.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Limousin bourdo. grancelli. brunna. bears. burle of cloth. Castrais bourril. Bouffer. boura. purrata. tahkoa. schleiffen. bremmen. a jest.bryna. to set on fire. to sharpen on a whetstone. buirleadh. swelling borr-shuil.. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to surge. to swell with pride. which has given much trouble to etymologists. with Dan.. See Burr. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. brandung. ii6 BURGESS Gael. a bubble to spring as water. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. borni. from the roaring sound of flame. The primary origin of the word. jest of. N.' Cot. to hum. to bud . to burgen or wax big. j. brAler. Probably. brimmen. barrel. bruzir. leo Fin. Dief. to make a So from Fin. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. the er is a dresser of cloth. is termed burling. i5«r4 biiirte. to swell oneself out as birds borras. pur (see Burgeon). to roar (as lions. has also borr. taunt. OE. burgen. as in cousteau. to fiy. broil. a knob. from Lat. Burglar. a bubble. Todd. sicut sound. to bourda. occupying much space. Burgher. abourioner. to polish helmets. So also Sw. . laer. like. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Nat. brase. Pren7ien. angular . 122. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to swell. brustolare. become big and proud. lorra. an &c. It. Walach. ^ttsa. — — . Sp. to effervesce. Bestiary. brasa. Gael. OE. crackle wood in burning Hal. a lie. is connected with brim.. sbornoi. burgeois. In the manu. to roar 5. to burn. brook. bouril. bunch. to have acquired the sense of polishing. as of suggests. to puff up borr^ .sharpen. Bav. to burn. Compare also Piedm. burn. OFr. In the same way ON. Sw. bourglairs. Pm. bruse. borracka. mockery. is an Thus G. Cot. to Gael. to puff.. as Diefenbach bud. brim or edge of anything. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. a prominent eye borracka. Burlesque. See under Bore.

Gael. whirr. I. Burser. borre. any rapid whirling biarga. buscha. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. bourlet. birigean.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. to stuff. prsnuti. In a met. bourrer. -burse. beorgan. to break. bolgia. talk fast and indistinctly. tomb. brittle. — Translated by Kemble. whirr and burr. OHG. a harness or collar maker) . preserve. a purse. . hair. to buzz. Burrow.' edge grew weak. of England. Burr. an annular swelling. and met.' The same word with burgh. as from Sp. impetus. brest. Jam. and spelling. Burse. beurs. Swiss burren. To Burst. borre. to hide. karborre. briso. a place of defence. -Grisons bulscha. byrgen. S w. a purse. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. bergen. leather. bourre. bris. that birds make their nests with. OHG. briketo. bur. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. force. brokil and brotil. g. bristen. byrsa. save. brjota. Sw. husks. a rabbit burrow. Brun on bane. byrstan. brown. ON. a wallet or scrip. break . upon the bone but it And burred moons night. mentioned under Burgeon. byrgan. i5(7&a. Hence Fr. to save. 225. shearing of cloth. Compare also OE. brisd. a morsel.— . — Clare. Shelter. &c. caer is a — — — ' ' : . birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. ' BURR AS. Fr. Cot. brista. explained E. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bourse. some people in pronouncing the letter r. casting bullets. bres- — tan. be more in accordance with AS. To Bury. bolsa to It. shelter. Burse. of a body hurled through the air. to bury . keep. barza. borrow. ON. Fris.Lat. briser. foretell great storms at 3. . bourrelet. ptcrren. its own protection. &c. appears under the Lang. berstan. from Fr. but it is more probably a development of It. coo. Du. brizeto. borsa. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. swell. a barn or cupboard. purr. brit. peluca to Fr. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. Mid. verbergen. The root forms brik. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. ber•whirr to whizz.. birgan. signifying protrude. Burr is related to buzz as protect. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. to burst. as in Northumberland. Fr. It. iii. dial. to mutter Sw. See Burgeon. from whence we pass through Sp. brast. G. brist. any kind of quilting or stuffing. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. In OE.' Harris in Todd. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. pipaa. brist. also all such stuff as hay. bur. Dan. fortify. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Du. a port. 2. burre. borra. chips or anything else Fl. and. straw. AS. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. moss. brisdeach. skin. Fr. when they spring So in W. Sexy. root borr. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. birr. Beowulf. shuffling. blurra. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. borra. Port. brickie. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. See Bulge. Sw. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. idiom if 4. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. 5150. bris. brico. the — — castle or fortress. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. a pad. burgisli. to P'air. makes the disbursements of the college. . a sepulchre chreoburgium — . and thence flocks 'of wool. borsia. as for the protection of a child's head. a sepulchre. whence Kil. brittle. a. ' ' — — burren. byrgels. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. bristeach. bersten. ultimately resting on the Gael. burial place. It. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . as it is still pronounced in N. borsa. AS. stuffing. With a slightly different ghen. A rabbit burmotion. britar. to hide . tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Hal. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. G. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. an exchange. bourse. shales. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. dial. burra. perruque. preserve. This word seems safety. byrigels. Bursar. from AS. cwning-gaer. Burial. E.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. the officer who bears the purse. also ' any such trash as chaff. cover. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc.

a tuft. The radical idea is seen in Goth. a bunch of twigs. occultare K. a clot of phlegm sart. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. grapes. brake. abdere. buskr. a wisp. is thus accounted for. the land. borghen. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . 2. . to swell. bosch (a diminutive ?). biichse. to enclose in a case or box. beorgan. Bouchet. ' . and from the Fr. diminutives. bustula. boiste. ch). Mid. . and not directly (as Du. Layamon. Bush. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. ieorh. to dress. bo7ich (Fr. bousIn the other copy ser. bua. the past participle of the same verb bua. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. Sw. a bush. They busked and malced them boun. AS. to direct one's course towards. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock.' a box. bosta. hjul-bosse. basse. ' . bundle * Buskin. to sepulchre. to turn. boucher. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. buxida. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bussare. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. See Box. signifying to entomb. knot. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. a been written buasc. bundle. to forest of Eyda. Du. Du. borcegui. thicket of thorns . -idis. . a corpse). The word frequency with which to busk is used. tuft. bos. 'at bua sik. and thence Mid. Prov. buxula. induere vestes . a -tavern bush. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. whence at bua sik. or the like. Sibriht that I of told. ' . It is certain that buast must once have Fr. And her ful sone tuft. —Busk. Malberg. Brunne. il fut couch6 l^jkema). a tuft guini. or — Busk. qualster-boscken. a troop. rad. mount. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. So from Fr. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. as synonymous with to inake one boun.' The buskin is said Bret. brodequin tout noir. gave Lat. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. the Moors and of Morocco. To prepare. basse. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. a bundle. to bend one's steps.fiasc. bunch. bousse. Le roy Richard mort. make ready. busk. G. tow. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. OFr. barst. verb. To Busk. roquies. iriCtf -ifoe. the idea of knocking. a hump. at bua sig. a tuft. Fr. in the For Skirnis . burial mound. then a tuft Sp. Ptg. and he cites wisp bauschen. as boun is simply buinn. Thus Froister . cluster. defence. wisp. OFr. busken.boisteau.Lat.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. BUSH hreaw. Thence byrigean. dead. Fris.— ' ii8 {chreo. bulge. bramble. protect . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. ' . Du.-^Bushel. bouche. boxta. bustellus. to prepare. . to dress. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. from the ON. busse. . a rampart. buysschen. thicket {buski. truasc. a bunch. hunch Du. bairgan. and we actually find bushel. brodiquin. Bush. bossen. AS. a box. in OE. bulk. preserve. Harold G. . bush. condere. bosc. box wood to bush.' sheath. buxta. Sc.' The word is explained by — — . bush. Gr. The primary sense of hair . : — .P. aheap of stones. a tuft of hair. lump. R. oneself. van wijnbesien. besom). clusprobably Morocco leather. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. a bush. boistel. bausen. bussellus. 410. Brunne. It. a little box Dan. In to Brutaine. at buast. whente beorg. whence bouchon. See Bust. ' —P. to bury. a gun biichse. bussel. borseof trees. projection. boissa. to bow. for at buasc.Lat. to keep. which would later have truast. fiast. sur une litifere. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. barsc in Heimskringla. boisseau. Sir Tristram. bousche. bossida. berghen. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a box. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out.gur bidst austur um EySascog. a box for measuring corn.) to hide in the ground. to stop. a grove bosch van haer. that the lend had lorn thorn. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. It. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. The bone in a woman's stays. we have Fr. apparently a secondary verb.

mohedairova. borcegui. busc. bust. Bust. Lat. Hal. The Prov. stem. but. employment bisgan. a Mid. the trunk. Sp. B. baiser. 2. Bulch. and by transposition morchequi. small. stump. love gestures. representing a blow. basiuin. or Cherqui. occupation. Walach. buc. lips. also a busk. bus and Pol. Sp. Sp. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. The proceedings of Parliament. bu. Comp. AS. the body without arms busque. Busitiess :c3iVi . of a doublet. mons. Bustard. I. 1555. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. of the human body (Grandg. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. hipista. occupied bezigen. ON. Bust. cata — .' Plin. So Wes- terwald munds. busche. ship Sp. a kiss of reverence. a kiss. forest. bukr. I bustle. mogangas from gonj. knock. ' BUSY 2. bacio. bysgje. Sw. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. A A busquer (Sigart). tarda. brostia as well as bostia. brut. — . buta. plated body or other quilted thing. Buss. Prov. body of garment. mouth. otarda. putschen. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. thick end. and supposes that the common Arab. Bav. or avutarda. fe^a. from jnund.D. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. bisegung. a backstock. ON. an affair. log . the breast. brusc. Namur — Champagne Fr. Fr. the long. 1372. — Thus we should have mocherqui. chest. Lindenbr. 2l box. 119 bi{tr. Gael. bnist. To hurry or make a great B. a blow. body. biseg. to make a splash in the water. beso. Fl.bezig. bucha. a bunch of flowers . a kiss. a bust. lip. to make use of. bruskras well as buskr. Swiss butschen. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. butz. snout. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. ^A. avuDiez. crack . also a flagon. Lang. I go strepo) .). Prov. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Fr. buyse.pjik. The form brust. Port.d. body . to bustle. With respect to bust. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. biist. stump. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added.— . Edrtst. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. Busy. to occupy. busq. A wisp. in Diaz Gris. — hardly be distinct from Fr. bisgung. to Swab. its slowness of flight. a log. putta. bulk. busta. a large cljest or particular applibox. body without arms and legs. geidha. knock. Xerqui.Lat. a kiss. ' bistardej It. and then with avis again prefixed. a blow. body of a woman's dress It. sera. btcc. Business. a boat or small vessel . a bulk or trunk without a head. as in ON. worn to make the body straight . See Boss. ottarda. Cot. business. box. ViM. austarda. Hence probably au-tarda. trunk of a tree. lump. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. bysgian. a fishing vessel. as in moharra from harbe. signifying trunk of a the body. stir. beezig. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. a stroke of wind. work. an ostrich. also a It. abutarda. vessel employed in the herring fishery. On the other hand. bus. tuft. a mouth. buc. mosequin. Fr. besongne. Rouchi. Fris. sunt quas Hispania aves . body of a man.' ON. Fr. 22. mouth. A great sluggish fowl. kiss. a bush. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. — — difications of the same word. bust. a tree. especially of a woman's dress. forms morseqiiill. trunk of Cot.> Also written buskle. buquer. bist. Prov. abotarda. . to knock . speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. — — — — It is like the smouldering. outarde. a. a projection. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). trunk. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Nained from Proximse iis zia. busch. kiss. or chest in which the vitals are contained. buc. lip. Cat. So in Fin. bussa. . — clattering about. betarda. utarda. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. busy. busto. BUSS Dozy from Arab. 7o\. inde discurro et operosus sum. statue of the upper part of Fr. a busk. a sleeveless truss or doublet. bus. trunk. arbor ramis trunGloss. body. says. windbutsch. buz. the point of a lance. besoigAe. a great billet Cot. would explain the G. bustla. I. pussa. Pol. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Busk. busch. bisg. Du. a ship of some size. kupata.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. 10. To Bustle. and also a sounding blow. morsequi. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. made stiff. Box. smack. outard. bussen.

bute. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. the precise correlative of but. and with It. an outlaw from bouche. beta. which the word corresponds to the Fr. a barrel. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. (children) boc. without. the jug and in E. But when will you pay it ? the belly. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. a cask. a goat (and not besides . . we find ben. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex.' ' write. boquier. without punishment . Ben-house. without care. bitlga. in addition. Lang. the bottles. Butt. sup- meat and drink. of the wine and drink. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. boucher. that which would be translated by Fr. or what in in charge of the pantry. trunk. Wall. bodifie. a goat. hollow case. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. a bottle. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. ont jhi^ton. bountifully. ' Besides all that. calf of the ' say.streets. the store of ten. Sp. rumpf. ox. the principal apartment.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. — we acle for liquors. ways. those in beccaio. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment.jamin. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . bous.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. Prov. large barrel. slaughter-house. collection of casks. moreover. binnan. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. bitten dai. But In Sc. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. G. outside that moreover. equivalent of AS. bolgia. and bot. a leathern bag. I20 la Court BUT du Roi.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. the belly. are. bola. the Perhaps besogne — . bole of a tree. a small winebag. bisgung. except. Whatever is in addition to Butler. but one thing. is well explained by Tooke. barriga. ' There is leathern bottle.in which his brethren are included. the servant in charge of the original object. viz. boccino. AS. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. wooden receptthing to be done.' there is really a negation to be supplied. beyond the Piedm. able. Butler. . the name must have arisen before the within. skin-bag. is put in a class by himself. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. from as.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. without law. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . properly a butan wite. the full expres. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bolr. the body of a tree or of a man. botte. belly. being wholly unten. butan. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. add. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. a budget. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . body of a shirt w. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. bocin. Buttery. Tooke's dis. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. original sense of without. beccaro. tinction between but. But It. Sp. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. botija. besides that . be out. It. the mouth)._ bitten j biiten door. So in Italian from becco. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. Butcher. — . The E. Du. buta. Fr. my is called the adversative use of but. bag. the trunk or body of an animal. butan ce. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. without buiten-man. bhcciero. a butchery. botilla. Here the but implies the existence of an. young mais. then hoUow trunk. without the house kept in bottles.' — — ' . bouz. a butcher . Where at an earthen jar . a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. belly. by the mode in which he is treated. bochier. also a hollow vessel . As a conjunction but is in every portion. a baiTel . Sp. If that where now we should compiler. to-boot. rotundity of the body. the present day we should say. viz. beccaria.The Sp. a wooden cask. hull of a ship. OFr. similar train of thought is seen in ON. calf. a butcher. bouteillier. biitait slaughterer of goats . "PLT) . bounds of.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. from boc. as Pantler. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril.' Thus Chaucer says. earthen which the debtor has adverted. mais. Lang. Fr. bol. and the real origin of the and within . boteria. the body of an animal. gives at least two pounds sterling. bout. A A . Fr. belly.

W. pwt. as in G. to boult flour. butte. a wall butor butt on. Kil. a. — . nourrisson. to bow. oir spike with a k coup . Buttel-triib. buttock of beef is called butr. a dle . fowl. buhsom. having a rotundity . Grandg. boter-schijte. an ox. buttals. by boE. -ez. a thrust the thigh-bone. a bun. stump of a tree Fr. To Butt. put. stump. Schmell.rejected thing. a little push . clumsy . a heap of merly called pushes. Boutant. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. or person Schmeller . able that Chaucer. : . obeto shake backwards and forwards. dripping. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Kil. W. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. buttare. and the true derivation boar. — . Buttress. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. from stossen. Cot.— BUTT leg . Butter-glass. From Du. bocsam. butter un. the edge forwards. bouter. G. botto. Fr. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. as if from Povg. a but in the W. So in English pimples were fora clod.to push. an etwas anstossen. humble. grease that sets by merely standing. Btetter-schmalz. in the R. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. on. botte. Button. striking end. botta. short thick thing pimple. a cask. boteria. boil. rabodd. the trunk. boutoir. bouton. thrust forwards. Bav. a. leg of lamb. It. bot. is formed the augmentative buttatich. butt. large head. buttern. To come full butt against a butts. butteln. a boss. both. the thigh of a goose. Perhaps corrupted Lat. a corner horses' hoofs. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. clunis. bothog. but this is probably from Fr.putan. Buttrice. boter-vliege. bot blijven staan. pied. . coxa. a bot. to thrust Fr. to abut a stone roof. Hal. a buttress Cot. to heap up earth or ihrust. Sp. . butter. bodi'. butt.against another which needs support . a blow. a large belly. — A . who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur.' thick from shaking. at. or or shore post. bott. Buttock. &c. . BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. boutis. the prick in the middle of a target. so as to make a sounding blow. butz.. butt of a person. thick. obedient. strike. To strike with the head bags. to femur. Fr. Fr. — A . The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. caput scapula bout van f been. Bout van het schouderIt. from the large knobbed head of botto. nursling. Du. Fr. from notirrir. a button. botwm. a buttrice. bouter. a blow. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. lams-bout. pwtiaw. Du. a flying buttress. Hal. a button. a button. from rejeter. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Gris. An erection built up as a Fr. submit shaking up salad sauce. a bolt. a mound. to be con. any small projection. potacha. suddenly .thum and not button. from bugan. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. a boss. a hill. to thrust. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Gr. bout. give way. butt. are the strips at the edges of the field. to throw . to strike. the store of while bottich. courtaud. of the present day. geboogsaem. boding. poke. a barrel. as rejeton. tout seat or breech. to so close to the Fr. the Butter-fly. fle>(ible. w. butte.. butter. from bouter. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . a tub. to touch at the end. boiUer. a ribbed glass for dient. nourrissons. — — — — . to thrust . i. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Fr. bottich. to abut on. hillock . Schmell. buter. e. Du. what is kept in a blow. of E. Boutje. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. to blad. A — — — . botten. bud. gigot. povrvpov. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. botta. bata. to push earth . See Butler. end . Kil. Mur-buttant. a stroke di animal. trapu. The word body itself seems identical with G. to thrust. Du. to cast. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Bav. bouton. Halma. to thrust. any short thick thing. * Buxom. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. Fr. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a leg of mutton. signify a cask or tub. bout. Butter. AS. boter-vogel. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Fr. R. Du. bodi. The Bavarian potig. but. Lang. bottig. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . thrust. bot. a mound of turf in a field to sup. a scope. the rosebud. bocgsuin. ment being supposed to resemble butter. &c. a stump or club foot. Buttery. the thick end. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. tress. waste ground. Gael. butyrum.arbre. Fris. From Grisons biitt. to butt.

village. big. —gracious of speech.in N. It. G. to whisper. p. buso. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. To Buy. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. lb. bygge. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Du. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. also say.— Diet. to swear with him by . The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. bees. Mercy hight that mayde. to jan. AS. train of thought which has become obso. Byre. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. and would have been lost in E. 116. byar-rettr. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. bozzago. byar-log. a by-path is a side path . A ful benygne buirde. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Dan. a beetle. abozzago. bylag. buteoj Fr. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. 519. as Fr. The sense of buxom. confusedly. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. indistinctly. buzac. Originally the law of a particular town. Many good mological explanation. bi. farm. A A We — — — days' wonder. a borough. CABAL Goth. Sw. good-humoured one. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bugjan. Pecock Repressor. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). buzzicare. from whom it was addressed. as in Da..busardj Prov. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer.. Goth.P. bar. buzarg. bi. iii. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. frabttg- To Buzz. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. It. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. Sw. ii.— P. town having separate jurisdiction. and it is of good will. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. a town. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. . to pass by. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. . P. a buzzard or puttock. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. favourably to a petition. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. — 122 BUY P. to wit. bij. bauhta. and boxome of speche xviii. AS. leges urbanse ON. blessing me with their of side. A by. byr. son. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . The ON. Buzzard. bei. called Cabala or Tradition. Verstegan in R. ON. Etynj. Then applied to speaking low. favourable. See Abie. 200. to purchase for money. who makes abigg. a meke thynge with — alle. 21. & Q. harty prayers and God speedes. OE. from by. \s\xy. By-law. cow-house. Cabal. tions by one. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. stall. to sell. to buzz. jus municipii. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. bylove. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bohte. as heedless as a cock-chafer. bycgan. Lat. 3. to stand at his side . to abie ' rhyme with rigg. . depends upon a esteem in falconry. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. lete. gracious.

signifying properly a rope's end. OFr. Cot. Sp. dung. manganare. aeggi. caqueter. hovel. &c. nasty. cab lis. string. chaable. a covering. cabre. the bowels. giiare. headed. cab. Capstan. To steal or pocket. a rope. to put or pack up in a frail. caable. Sp. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. To Cabbage. originally an Gael. Lat. cadabalum. a cabbage . surripere.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum.Lat. Choux cabus. especially shepherd's frock. cdble. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. Cabbage. a frail. Mid.ticula. the Prov. It. overwhelm. : — from violence without blood. cables. Item habeat vocant. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. . E. Mid. the Slavonian. wilful). kabas. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Gaggle. whence Lang. to hurl down. gatsch. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. kakla. filth. serious injury — In like manner It. cabo. to strain in such a manner . hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. a tunic. OFr. Du. cabarino. gaban.Lat. Ptg. to crush. Fr. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. hut. kakaloH. Finn. mdhaigner. cabus. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. agga. stercus. and Or. ckaable. Due.. or rush basket. as it must have stood in French. cabasser. hoard together. cabre. disgust cac. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Katr-iT-aKt. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys.Gr. cadabulum. Lang. chaable. lactuca capitata. geese. Castr. disgust. ceach / exclamation of guages. dirt and the Fr. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. a rope. properly windfalls. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. cabas. to hurl in Nat. head. aak! tandi like Fr. calabre. agge. akista. it would seem fundain children's language. caable (in legal language). cacare . w. . OFr. would correspond to cable. gaggele. Tugurium. kabat. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. overwhelm (Diet. cable . Common to Lat. Very generally used. a booth or hut. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . It. bad. Sw. cabo. aakkat'a. capo. E. cabane. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. gaggi. is probably unconnected. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . Cappa in OSp. from manganum. cabuccio. cadabola. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. covering. agge machen (in nurses' language). and the Arab. Didot.' Due. accablcr. caable. Cot. a headed cole or cabbage . cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. and Ptg. or cadable. cacare. — Kil. as Turk. —Diet. kabaSsen. an engine for casting stones. and Finnish lanLat. Antiq. chabla. It. — . Du. maim. dirty. cabuyskoole. It. Du. disgusting such an engine was exerted.. . — Tarbe. and as we find stones Mid. Mid. kabane. — the ON. has kabbel. cadabulum. . . a shed. — Ibid. deponat a store closet. chadabula. Fr. The Sp. ! — . Due. . Etym. signifies down. form kactal. Fr. Celtic. havyar to caviare. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Neckam — by the wind. The double a in the OFr. traboccare. band.). as Diez supposes). as an expression of Gr. cabacho. manticuKil. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Cablisb. su/Furari. Cabinet. for the origin of which see Carabine. Coticesserint Swiss aa.Lat. headed or cabbage lettuce. a rope. &c. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. The name of the engine. cadabula. forms indi. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . precisely in the sense of the lari E. prostratio ad terram. caboche. origin is the OFr. cabulus. caables. Cabin. a head (whence cabochard. Lith. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. a rope or cable. to keep or Du. vincially used in E. a jacket Fr. Fr. from trabocco.. come the Fr. laitue cabusse. Fr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. case. 'habl. OSp. capuccio. capanna. heady. From It. whence Fr. brassica — capitata. main. or as an interjection of disMod. Kil. cabaii. round or great headed. to chatter. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. — . gabardme. (ca/coe. cabbage.. a cloak of felt or Cack. vile. dirty. Imitative of the cry of hens. a car- We convasare. Brushwood — — B. name of the projectile engine.

the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. To Calender. Fr.uv. javioler. coop. Arab. the pi. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. reed-pen. kage. Fr. calibre. Cage. the younger son of a family said to be from . kalb. a low note. Cot. gabble. (in the augm. kdtr. As Du. ON. kolesnitza. kakulla. calendrer. lord. wanton. lime whence calcareous. caliche. gaggia. so gabble corresponds with Fr. to treat like lime. Lat. kolo. boy. for green fields. Du. from calendcE. calamus. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). ratas. G. misfortune. Sp. Cajol. Du. . a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. a lump or large piece. Russ. cauldron. — in a kiln. without loss. Cot. a calesh. Turk. See Kiddier. calidus. koeck. desire of land. from the ink-bag which it contains. pith. ben- kalf. Originally from a Slavonic source. Cadet. cavea. kolyaska. signifies a waggon. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. a calash . chaudron. calidus. cageoler. a wretch. ' . the lump and the increase. prate. In the same way Fin. Gascon capdet. Lat. a wheel .warmth . . 124 prattle . a fever. the bore of a cannon. kuchen. whence calash. gavia. safe. kaka. a tea-chest. ever and anon. limestone. a reed. incolumis. Dan. Caitiff. cattivo (from Lat. Dan. from calculus. a caFr. kolyasochka. gabbia. Lat. loss. Sp. kaad. calentar. a mischievous dial. Cake. frisky. cadere. to compute. pi. kukje. cadet. Calash. one unduly indulged by. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Flo. — — — Dan. . Cauldron. or colpa na coise. when they are said to poor. taking it Sp. calpa. dead body. Lat. cykevie. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. on. kolesb. Fr. kdfich. An open travelling chariot. a roller. Calc-. calcis. The Calf. of the nature of lime to calcine. Sw. cuttle-fish. calendarium. From lerie. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Serv. a cake or loaf. A hooded carriage. to gabble. disease of sailors from tivus). to prate much to little purpose. kaeckelenj Gr. master. Calamity. To Cajole. Fr. little chief. G. calamitas. calentura. cage. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. the calf of the leg. B. kola. Gael. lindrus. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. hence musical rhythm. . gabbia. chattering. to cackle . to sleek hence a den. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. and troublesomely attached to. Calcialate. a wheel. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a common cart. Lat. frolicsome kaad mund. to — Fr. Du. pen Mod.— . coll. caldaria. KaKKat. It. gaggle. babbhng. of oxen and similar animals. . Sw. Fr. &c. cabdillo. Cadaverous. * Calibre. calculo. a cylinder. whence Lat. roller. Lat. pet lamb. a dence. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. cage. from the Chinese catty. captive. hot . kolasa. bad . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. jabber. kalem. Caddy. to . eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. chetif. calessa. chaudiere. Lat. A . is probably delusive. to throw themselves into the sea. a counter used in casting accounts. cadaver. Calf of the Leg. or prattle. collop. kail. Pol. marrow. A — fall. colibro. a corpse. It. kolo. Cot. of which. * Cade. A cuttle-fish. from Gr. Turk. caioler. naXaiidpi. or smooth Hnen cloth. Lat. It. gabberen is identical with E. kalfvan hout. rattaat (wheels).Gr. Fr. Perhaps from w. unruly . a waggon . Sp. hot. Calendar. —Atkinson. calx.— Calliper. calibre. wretched. It. KxiKivh^o^. cake. It is another form of the E. Fr. a falling. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. capCalenture. a small stone. cadenza. calba. a loaf of bread. form) calderone. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. a wheel . Lat. Fr. Mrs B. Cadence. Lat. calesa. especially of something soft. kauwe. a car. cadence. Sw.— Cot. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Calocli. The young G. kat. principal and interest. kolo. dial. a circle. The Lat. Du. Calandre. an ugly waggon kolaska. its mother. a wheel . cha'cmie cadence. Calamary. the pith or soft part of wood. a vessel for heating water. It. Due. Roman reckoning. a hollow place. Caldron. It. caldarius. to cage. N. joyous . to heat. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Cadge*. loss. Tea-caddy. calf of leg. just falling. Lat. kalfi. Calp is riadh. an inkstand . En kaka br'od. capitetum.

a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. colubrina. Mil. cotton cloth. calare. the latter of chamber. tapulta. Lat. Calm. chatter kallen. culverin. a. — — — — — . the scalp or skull. tittle-tattle. on. a soldier who the It. brawny. trull. Gael. oldire from audire. scalmato. Turk. people's remarks. and dragon. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. form. hollaing. calibre. or caliever. quiet. kal. calibre. to say. licht stuk The change from a. Mahn derives it from Lat. To century was Squalibre. drive.' Winter's Tale. to proclaim. to call. serpentina. caliver.' Chaucer. Due. * Callet. donderbuchs Sp.— . According to Jal (Gl. calicot. calo. calcaich. and sometimes a handgun. Antiq.en~ kinds of firearms. a drab. whereas in troth it is not. Call. callus. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. try. sclopus. them &c. Probably from the sound of one hallooing.. ululo Turk. KaXka. depreciatory term for a woman. glotton. calvus. kil-u-kal. vulgo Coluvrine. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. colubraria canna. cauque. to be of a good or bad quality. Sp. saucy. coulevrine.position is much less common than the geschut. Calico. calca. To Calk. from Calicut in the E. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. koluvre. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. calk. Ibid. the Fr. bombarda Cauma incendium. calor. sence of wind. 125 Prov. to callet. harden by pressure. calgua. Fr. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. to calk. caillette. of a column. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . sestus. The word was also written cawme in OE. faint. The reference to heat is preserved in. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Du. Fin. faint. kal. to prattle. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. to rail or scold . coluber. Unfledged. Sir John Smith in Grose. E. cauma. Ptg. calme. bald. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. * Caliver. i. calleting. Kil. cahna. Mid. a feathers. klover. can be distinct from ODu. prattle. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Dief. hallottaa. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. whence couleuv. word of mouth . dial.' But it is hard Du. sound. khalif. to hear. heat. kol. fistula. Indies. which is as much as to say. and heat. Derived by some from Arab. Kavfia. 'A callet of boundless tongue. to affirm. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. calc. or mould. dragonder. a good calling. moist. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. abto suppose that E. to tread. Caliph.meaning of the word. calcare. skin hardened by labour. CALM to press or stuff. To call. the Fr. Fr. the day. CALICO Calliper-compasses. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . calclover. chatter. calma. done with heat Alt. to cram. diameter of a ball. heat. Bi.piicede Lat. however. Diet. a last. an adder. to burn. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. ' rine. a round of abuse. Ca. Fr. AS. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Lat. Lang. but is only a jda-kallo. u to an I in such a colubrum. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. and E. hot. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). gossiping. push violently. nautique). So It. kael. Gr. coluber also. a successor. It. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. calma.(jaa= ice). the hard surface of the ground. femme frivole et babillarde. Sup. Fr. given. Sp. . the heat of Now these Du. having a thick skin. to abuse . overscalmaccio. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. ' pert. Heb. NE.from Ka'tm. longior.' Whitby Gl. . piece of bigger circuite.' Slange. water-tight. kahcwe. kind heat of the sun. Kil. — — — — — . serpens. scold. moso. form in the kalib. whehce it was first brought. — Fl. kalla. Diez. callum. overheated. kallo. To drive tow or oakham.Lat. Fin. Sc. couleuvre. harquebus or handgun. Hard. voice. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Callow. Among these were the turn. The origin is Gr. to call. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. by many that the weapon Callous. or languishing drought is . quA librd. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. B. alta voce ploro. which has its memory preserved in Du. of the bore of a firearm met. quality. ram. calat of leude demeaning. qAlab. dragoon. caluw.

camafeo. It. callar. Lat.— Hackluyt in R. Gr. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. camisade.—Jam. sore. Canal Channel. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. open and level ground. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Lat. campagna. campagna. nia. se cameloter. a. arch. cAouma. and yspiuv. campagne. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. It.Gr. the heat. Sp. cambr^. spot for cattle. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. It was distinfrom work. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. catmneo. is Candle. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. cere : Lat. ckaouma. a. the salmondis faillis thair loup. It. Sp. icaSoytipoe.— Chandelier. Canibal. lattice. Pers. Ptg. mg Canister. the bed of a stream. Fr. — Lat. Bret. It. aspirant. camber-nosed. camisa. a goblet bud. cup. kanna. champ. a crab. From fluting or furrow in a column . arched. The Grisons cauina. crooked. Fr. Cambray. a field Greek monk. Cambric. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. a basket. India Islands. chaitcre. Fr. from xaXbg. across — Bellenden in Jam. from candere. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. E. lame. See Canker. camiscieia. a dog. Peter Martyr. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. the space of false imputation. good. is Cambering. lie level. different sections of the like the Chinese. champagne. to break. to bend.—Candidate. B. Fr. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. whence the noun signifying an applicant. . unwater chamelot . Fr. Cancer. to bow. cambre.—Cambrel. Properly calver in the field during a war. Arab. Camlet. Lat. Calver of cane. the calix. aged.— B. died in 1526. chamold man. on. cainahelus. Kakoycpos. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. monk. Camp. a' Sc. cancer. cambrer. having an aquiline nose. campaign. Camel. a piece. or Caribs.' Forme of Cury in Way. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. samon. candidus. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. crooked.who their language. Cameo. salmon. to bend. — Cancel. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. would plenier. a may have acquired that signification from plain. at the ends.. field . Sanson khanda. the type of a hollow pipe._ kamm. an eating. to warp. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. ko/utuXoc. Campaign. fair. camaien. campo. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Cot. canna. calutmiia. toile some of whom. Candid. sugar. Lat. a large drinking . B. It. crooked-stick. Fr. Lat.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. when its substance appears inter. chommer. camelus. cam^e. frank and sincandidatus. Gr. ation. crooked. paign. In a different application It. A — the Cannibals. had no r in de bric— Cot. to the force of the wind. Palsgr. callour. properly good country. campren. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. whence the Fr. crook. campus. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. fresh. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders.' ' Quhen a lattice. Camisade. Canine. canistrum. water chamlet . hooked. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Cambrav—Cam. Or the word Lat. Lat. camahutus. campo. E. cambren. clothed in white. canalis. arched. An eater of human flesh.Lat. to avoid enemy in their shirts. chandelle. Turk. w. camp. co7nbar. .conduit-pipe. Candy. bis. KafivTu. — B. cup. also an eatmg sore. E. brought from Fr. From campus was formed Lat. slander. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. whence Fr. camiscia. candela. KafitjUe. Cambrel. to glow. the spersed with white flakes like curd. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Mid. Canker. a caught. Calumny. Caloyer. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Lat. Mod. calj'x. cancello. Fr. canis. It. white. camelot. Fr. higher in the middle than Fr. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Sp. Cann. or hollow of a flower. Calyx. to jut.

cane. a — A — Cannel Coal. a hunch of bread. To canvas — . canoa. a cloak. coat. carcase . Cot. It. Germanis kdppen. the quartile. also a measure. kantr. cannevaccia. contain. a scull- — here. a rule or standard of excellence. a side. Cope. cover kapi. astrology. shut. cane. able to receive. that the G. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. cover . a Fr. A slow gallop. hirnschlapple. To Canonise. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. quito curtain. cheese. covered. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Picard. which is not the case. hemp. kq. a pipe. Canton. side. A . It. as a cantle of bread. Mod. pipe. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. B. or hold. and tref. a gelding. and the sex- &c. Cant. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Hence Lat. haitt. call. Jonson. It. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. like a torch or candle. a cover Turk. a wine-cellar or vault. a cap. to shut. hood. W. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Sp. cappe. border. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. or cantell of bread.Gr. a reed. Sp. has kahn. It. cantina. The — . Canteen. a corner. it would have been found in the continental languages. name. cantred. speech. a ship canot. Diez.^on. It. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Mod. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. canteau. and met. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. clqse. cappa. canton. a straight rod. KCLvva. Cape. Fr. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. border Dan. hamlet. a door . is found languages of very different stocks. part. tain. canapaccia. canevas. quarter .Gr. Capable. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. a reed. the tried list of saints. Lat.n. kapamak. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a cantle of bread. cainnt. from a Canter. chape. Alamannis. The meserseum and the mesentericum. lump. cannu. the heel. cannevo. cane. To his judicial And trowl the tile. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. a torch. caparazon. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. canon. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. canapa. leiwan kanta. chantel. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. regular. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. measure for cloth. Canvas. cope. a small boat. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. Canopy. a ruler. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Wtb. the part easiest broken off. cane. KaTTiram. cappe.CANNEL vessel. from cant. gnat. Fin. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. a tube. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. language. capa. Kil. rumme. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Du. to put upon sacred writers. a hundred. a cloak kapali. he discourseth of dissection. cantone. kwvwxIi. margo panis diffracta. Kavt\. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. edge. a cane. hemp. kand. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. Capacious. Fr. Cantle. Palsgr. properly a large Prov. schlapp. region. Canoe. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a boat. &c. Schwab. OFr. Canon. canto. Fr.. kandt-broodts. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Prov. was formed Kavtiiv. It. canvas. to con- rummer. See Capt-. Goldast — in in Schmid. root cap. say. as. Swab. cape. . kynnel. A piece of anything. If the word had been from cantherius. capace. chanteau. Esthon. cantref. to contain. N. quarter. Gugel. capax. Gael. From Lat. . coarse hemp. cannabis. to sing. from . Probably only the augmentative of canto. From Gr. a division of a country. It. &c. being a yard or thereabouts . Sp. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Again we have Lat. Cannoii. capello Italis. Capari. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Coal burning with bright flame. a drinking glass. a horn of the moon . canonici. trine. kyndel. the heel. schlappen.— Cot. cannone. kaput. can. from canna. from Dan. . and hence a gobbet. ON. territorial hundred. capevole. signifying cover. corner. canonicus. kanta. See Chape. But it may be different source. .

or. grillcr. also the capriole. It is probable that Gr. as Fr. Lang. Torriano. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. prickly husk of chestnut. capitulare. It. compared with Bret. crackling sound Cape. or goat's leap (done by a horse). algabr. It. brisciare. a separate division of a matter. gricciare. to ruffle the surface of water. to twitter as birds. Hence capitalis the sum lent. a young kid met. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. a little head. brezilia. ribrezzo. Lat. Arab. curling. principal. w. capriola.' Cot. Griller d'im' patience. cut. frissoner. castrated cock. the head. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. to broil. shrub. brissle. Acad. abridge amKoTroq. cover of a saddle. The true derivation lies in a different direction. a . capar. chief. herissonnement. The same imitation of Capon. Lat. frisson- ner . a caterpillar. Fr. to from capitulum. capitalis. ericius. capriol or caper in dancing. Fr. aggricciare. — — A a hair. the initial mute of forms like Gr. And similarly to yearn.' — (Supp. chattering of the teeth. of a fowl. to crackle. capro. humorous. kid. a capriol. It. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. It. caprice. to shudder. to broil. It. a chevret. ziki. arricciarsi. or Lat.— Fl. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Caper. to crackle. rissoler. Lat. to shiver for cold. then to be in a state of vibration. a buck. explained by Diez from capra. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner .). as Fr. a yearning through sudden fear. caj)o. sault. bruco. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. Fr. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. It. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. Capillary. end. according to the Hindoos. CAPRICE twittering. Capital. . To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. then to shiver or shudder. to parch. horripilation. hi. as Fr. as in Lat. Lat. fansuddenly angry. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. bristling. Hair-like. airoKOTrrw. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. for which he cites the Comask nucia. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. a caper in dancing. alcaparra. eruca compared with It. G^' Many words — ' ndv. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . grug. Fr. knis. frizzle. a head. brisciare. Unexpected pleasure. to . birsle. arricciarsi.'— Trev. Sp. shivering. they longed extremely to see it. and his body bristled We to castrate. gives rise to brezza.) d'etre The It. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. a kid. a hedge-hog. ^piKos. of a tremtdoiis sound. curl. where Burton adds in a note. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. curly. A headland. capparis. A . So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire.standing on end. shivering. toy. Capers. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. greziller. riccio. So from Sw. the head. <I>pi'?oe. capriole. is either wholly lost.impressions on the ear. erica. and 7tucc.— 128 CAPE a rustling. the hair to stand on end. to fry. Mod. gives rise to Sc. brug. of a coach. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. capillus. a ch illness. and OHG. heath. then find the symptoms of shivering. — to yearne. wriggle. p. brisciare. or represented by the syllable e. bristling. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . frort^Lat. hedge-hog. II bresole (Gl. ticchio. caper j caprio. rihrczzoso. as the means of earning profit. roughening of the skin. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. knis-hujwud . the singing'bone).Gr. and with an initial gr instead of br. cApre. cappriccio. It. Hal. Genevese bresoler. horror. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. or other things. greziller.) grezille marid. to shiver. castrated. upon terms Sp. grisser. gricciare. h^risser. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. belonging to From caput. Cot. the hair to stand on end. Fl. frisser {frissement d'un trait. a goat. Caprice. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. s'hdrisser. the principal part of the debt. grisser. It. I have shivered with love. caprice It. to desire earnestly. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. hair. To treat Capitulate. See Chief. brisoler. cut off. with joy' Vikram. 75.

to load . Thus the musket. Derivatives are Fr. charret. a hood (dim. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. a hooded friar. carretta. Carbine.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). to accept. tnoschetta. caThe hrestante. contain. conceit. caricare. charger. to please. to take. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. dim. and has accordingly been lost in E. Fr. captivate. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. krul. a. to take baclc. caprice. where it forms a very large class of compounds. case. hold. capra. to take to. concept. Carabine. captus.. an engine for throwing stones. desire. strideo. a capuchin. a fantastical humour. de- price. was originally a missile . caput. of the Sp. bock. crab s. oisr. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. a sawing-block or trestles. karren. a reception. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. chirrion. In cases. cabestrantej Fr. captive. calabrino. fantastic. sels. to receive receptio. It. and has thus descended unaltered to English. Cart. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Lat. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. capsula. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a taking back. Caseneuve in Diet. a cloke) capuccino. Fin. a. In the S. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. one odd. Capsule. recipere. Carabin. to creak. a sudden will. chirriar. -cept. a head man. a kind of torture. conception. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. and tropically. G. as in accipio. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. concipere. capio. cabestan.). box. Neumann. as the dragoons (Du. It. except. Fr. commander. Etym. concevoir. capitano. verbs gives rise to the element . Fr. It. &c. trestle. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. capp%tccio. recepte.of these compound verbs. i The meaning Car. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. 129 — receive. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. also tresFl. or the (capo-riccio). conceive. carro. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. to creak. Fr. at least. karista. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . the -cevofthe Fr. calabrin. Sp. Cot. carabin. Sp. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Capuchin. a coffer. also a kind of rack. OSp. karra. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. See Caper. recevoir. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. — — Capstan. Capriole. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. charrier. a sudden fear apprehended. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. di cappa. It. — —Diet. from head. a windlass. cabra. was converted into -ceb. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. &c. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Castr. latterly. It. Kiittner. fancy. precept. kerren. a creaking waggon. -cept. Fl. Lat. It. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. crepo. Du. of capsa. Cot. accept. Lat. Capt-. The It. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. cabrestante (whence e. chevre. perceive. Lat. a cart. shivering fit (Altieri). Fr. -ceive. intercept. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. capitis. Passing on into E. deception. as in OFr. was a kind of horse soldier. . acceptus. to this is It. seize. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal.s. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. capuccio. decepte. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. to carry . recibir. Du. Fr. also to carry on a car . It is a standing crab. whence capture.or -cib-. however. concebir. a she-goat. cabreia. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. Capstern. It. Fr. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. recipio. receptus. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre.).. char. &c. Carry. and of captus to an e. karrende waegen. Nordfoss. deceit. Captain. cams. Crab.

to card wool. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. designated in the case of G. See Carpenter. curry-comb. It. Gr. Carcase. chevre by the name of the goat. carch. case. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. car. alia sunt majora. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. carcasa. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. is the word used in modern Lat. Caravel. Gael. The Trjg xeXwwac. to comb. Cot. a crane. a quiver. The radical meaning . winding carach. carabe. a kind of ship. . a dead carcase. skeleton toise. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). cardo. p. a small weight. Fr. quilato.Gr. Sp. the case of the flesh. garafa. contract. for a gun. carabba. Lith. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. to ripple flax. . carta. the carob bean. card. Venet. karri. a case or chest . or framework. to comb wool . restraint . Ptg. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Sp. to creak. a quiver . a thistle. cramp. It. vitriol. military engines made for hurling stones. cabreia. the carcase of a fowl. Carboy. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. a collar or chain for the neck.applied to a battering-ram (G. «capa'|8i. a quiver . karra. kirat. silique. a quiver. a firelock. Gael.Gr. I. Carat. quse vocant karabd.. ' Vasa vitrea. espi7igarda. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. carcame. &c. a ship. Fr. coming to four grains. Carrob. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Fr. Sp. . wine- bottle. the shell of a torcarcasso. Lat. turning. It. Caraool. &c. carduus. carmiiiarc. a prison. a wool card. bock and Fr. a coffer. ancient springald. carbh. avSpaS. caraffa. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. to card wool. . mural attack. ON. skeleton. the dead body of any creature. an engine for hurling stones. black dye. a battering-ram). a goat. krciti. confining. caravela. Parmesan cassiron. a thistle. carate. cdrlag. eitar. Derived in the first edition from Mod. in the same way that the Sp. kerwan. OHG.. KtpaTwv. casso. Pers. It. the . cabra. a he-goat. It. &c. matter. to turn. . turn of a horse. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. An implement for dressing wool. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck .— — — . constraining . a gem resembling a live coal. carere. shell. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata.. carquois. boch. copperas. a winding staircase. carbo. kard boyd. properly a siege machine. AS. carbunculus (dim. Gr. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. skeleton. tcapKaai. cabrita. Mod. and catapulta.. the husk or cod of beans. cerran. a machine for casting large darts. Carbonaceous. carcanet. W. fire . also (as Gr. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. the name might naturally Mod. carcaij. Cot. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. caraffe. winding. Carbuncle. to draw in. cassa. carcanada. poison eiz. Sp. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. decanter. to curry horses karsztuwas. karszti. caracal. carquasse. Lat. a card or comb . an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. Exot. a ripple for flax. a snail. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. burning coal. Card. wool card. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. of the same Caravan. a twist. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Cat. From the battering-ram. Fr. the core of fruit . the trunk or chest of the body . Arab. Comp. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. to hiss (as gee^e). also a small weight. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles.' From the same source are SicU. an ulcer. Carcax. a skeleton. Bohem. of carbo).charcoal . Gael. Gael. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol.. Sp. carquan. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. seed of carob.z. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . bend. word is only an adoption of the Turk. eit. a lock of wool . — seems to be something holding together. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. is the chine.

care. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. appertaining to the flesh. carcare. be anxious. sgritudo animi.' Slceat. in Carp. Sp. one of those ac- 9 * . morosus sum. stingy. to load. charger. cearig. intrasset caro. A quirito ut infans. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. to lie on its side. in N. cargar. . asper. to growl. OHG. It. quarreG. carriera. quaver a lazar's clack. Probably the origin of the word is the . x'»P'"^s)) paper. as carminare. murren. at murmuring. cura may be ror. or grumbling —Due. record. meet at a head. and G. to fry or broil. is to say. W. Ptg. clown or churl. karantez. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Fr. Fin. from the keel to the water . to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. stridere. a man. wool cards. — Carfax. carnis. crosier. charag. care on. Venet. msstus. to card wool. G. 8. . carina. that on wliich the matter hinges. the keel. . male person. immediately before the long fast of Lent. kummer. Carenare.— Charter. act of moaning. Carnal. careless take care of. in St Jerome. a deed. 273. Care. to clean the bottom of the ship. combing them out like the knots in wool. Charnel. Cot. kurista. camovale. also a career on horseback. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. caricatura.. charnel. to care unkarja. charg.. It. de Parthenay. It. or street. carnalis. soUicitus OSax. graller. Cot. — — — : Cardinal. cardo. carrefourg. AS. strideo. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. — — — Caress. Cath. cearian. Fr. fundamental. charnage. E. to whirr (schnurren). moeThe Lat. grief. an overloaded representation of anything. road. carch. bottom. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. Caricature. car. sorrow. . Cot. caresse. murahtaa. from caricare. ress. regar. and compare Bret. to load. Coll. what is felt as grievous. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Trin. murista. to distress growl. . CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. W. Carl. karout. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. For the root of carminare. karista. Fr. like connection may be seen between Fin. ceorl. Card. A place where four roads Mid. see Garble. tenax. Bret. Mur. 1S66. carnasciale. . to parch. to shake. 2. Properly a car-road. Properly. cdrle. beans. to fry. AS. principal. Lat. whence carricare. From. weyes. Carled peas.Lat. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Lat. carena. carcus. Groler. Fr. Cartel. p. mutter. kargr. to scratch. croller. Sp. Gael. karrig. carener. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. Carminative. carian. Fr. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. carFrom carrus. cardinis. zanken . . that Fl. Bret. to love. a card. ON. dear. to scrape . parched or carled. Fr. essere in carena. It. to comb flax or hemp. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. charie. voce strepo stridente. It. gakaran. Cark. Farewell flesh. affection. & Q. hoed. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. the load of a ship. — — . from carrus. solicitous. Carnage. a hinge. No ' place there had.Lat. Fin. astutus. Peas steeped and fried. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. the old theory of humours. Cargo. compared with Fin. caritia. rixosus. to eat flesh. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. the hull of a ship. . carminare. w. the flesh of animals . niggardly . kara. crowl. Carlings. Fl. and sum. carena. — — Diez. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. to take Goth. love. kribina. G. karl. from carus. kumra. kroU-erbser. AS. carezza. the time during which to Rom. — To Careen. carnavale. a turn. A mod-carag. It. the keel of a vessel. to load. grolU. fleshy . morosus. ON. &c. caru. karry. Translated in MS. charneux. cargo. caricare. It. chartre. quadrifurcum from quameet. an endearment. Dan.— CARD karr-kambar. karg. carriire. scharren. and murhet. to rumble. the several meanings of the words above Rom. four. surrata. sorrow. carnal. tremble. Chart. OFr. sensual. crawl. cura intenta. place for exercise on horseback. as peas. ignarus. A medical term from line —Boerio. to comb wool. caMid. piger. Fr. Bois crolant d'un ladre. winding. and thin. Fr. charta (Gr. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Sept. a highway. Roquef. is This however Shrove tide. W. from Lat. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Champ. giierlir.

pluck. W. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Ein we find the signification transferred from . On the other hand bumper to one's health. Palsgr. Carnelevale. carduz. Lat. The custom.D. The tippling sots.Lat. So gone they forthe. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. pluck at. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. carpetam (a quilt?). zimmer. Here's to you still my captains friend. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit.— Neum. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Carpet. a wheelwright. 94). at midnight which derivation from kroes. carpenter only in the latter sense. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Pref. a dance. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. and Carnem laxare (It. to chatter coroli.' says Motley (United Neth. Discov. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out.Lat. I drink all out. vel coopertorio carebit. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. linteamen. Beggars Bush. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Bohem.' Raleigh. to pull asunder. carpere. as Fr. a carder. ' ' — .'— Stat. cited by Marsh. Other names of the sea. Biheld within. Analogous R. Carpenter. The ' ' a chariot. to gather. tymmer. zimmerspan. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. I quaught. charpie. biheld without. Properly a round dance. used for stuffing mattresses. 760. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. In a MS.— Drant in R. chatter. or a carouse fully drunk up. chatter skra/a. krapanj. Lat. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Mid. krapati. lint. chariot carbad. a song accompanying a dance then. Gower in Way. A. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. . to rustle. in Due. From Lat. cxciv. — — ' ' — — — I — — .' Ordo Eccles. Sup. charpentier. chirp. sense. quoted by Carpentier. Alluz (G. Bret. peta. worker in timber Fr. Gael. to reel. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. ON. Sp. carpat (Stokes). 216. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Fr. culcitra. carnelascid). as carnaval from carnelevamen. of Guiana. in Carp. Teut. Chanson de carole. garrire. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. CarTo quaff carouse do use. garrulo. whence the form carnasciale. Mediol. .— R. a wheelwright. to dance. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. to pluck. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. to find fault with. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. e. or loose as a couch without further preparation. gar aus / all out is correct. Templariorum — ' — Due. yede tham about. tattle. Pm. To pledge them thou refuse. and F. 2. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. skraf. carpetrix. Cot. maker of waggons It. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.gonnella. act of drinking a full Eq. . as the Lat. Mid. bier. ballare. course. querole. Ant. 2. to dance. The karole of the stones behelde. In Dominica d'autant. to talk.' Reg. in Nat. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. carpenta.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. carpo. carpia. carpenticre. a plank. On this. balade from It. Olr. All out B. a drinking cup.]e bois Carnelevale. i. Carpitam habeat in lecto.Why give's some wine then. all aus). The word seems of Celtic origin. Dief. was formed Mid. i. cardos. gonna. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Pr. a car carpentarius.— Patriarchi. on that. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. carpita. fabulor. Fr. carbh. carpentum. koroll. Carnevale. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. qui sacco.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim.: . properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. ! Carouse. is erroneous. carpende fast Carol. 1 1 30. differing To Carp. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. litter. Lat. ship. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. Shrove Tuesday. Carole. — . Nomin.Lat. as E. Carpyn or talkyn.

an act of falling. mata. card. shell or carcase of a house. The carrying of anything. Carrion. See Card. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. quasser. Case-mate. gristle. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. of carta. capsa (Diez). ignominiously exposed. Lith. casso. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Case.' — Hdcart. Lat. Du. — Cartoose. Cash. casus. also the carriage. cia. charogne. to dash. discharge It. See Gristle. a car. Fr. — Cartridge. kerven. Fl. made void. cut with scissors. blotted out. caroche. To Carry. Hence casket. Gael. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. mord-keller.' Fl. to crack. empty. cascar. Du. Ready money.— Fl.' Cot. fall It. Rouchi carone. caxa. Cascade. properly to convey in a car. casa-maita. and that apparently from capio. quash. a canonry or slaughterhouse. turn out of service. CartOTicli. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. packing ' cloth. mord-grube. Fr. Cot. cascade. from Lat. Fr. Carrot. caro. Walach. from It. not reaching to the height of the ditch. from It. Probably. casag. des rideaux A'carp^ie. kirpti. hung up in some place and to be removed. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . where Fr. a hut. carretto. a merchant's cash or counter. and matar. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. discharge. Cask. afterwards any written challenge. Cart. vault hole in a fortified wall. Cassock. paper. AS. for the security of the defenders. carretta.' Bailey. corresponding to the G. kasseren. cartilage. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. pasteboard. To quash an indictment. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. an augmentative from Lat. a loopscale the wall. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. annul. Flor. It. to break. cartone. OE. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. carriaggio. Rouchi carpHe. Casket. It. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. Rouchi caroche. like all the names of tendon. carrosse. casacca. crush. case-maiej Sp. kerben. cartoccio. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. coffer. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Fr. a long coat. the charge of — — Fr. — — nul the proceeding. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. caroach. tion from Sp. cancelled. The Sp. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. subject for a picture. Fr. cascare. to fire on the enemy. Cartel. cassette. As defence from shells became more important. one who reasons on cases put. Casque. Fr. Cot. cartella. from casa. See Case. a fall. cashiered. luggage. It. gristle.to annul. to hold. cascata. Fr. carreaggio. to — — also casse. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. bag and baggage of a camp. cancel. Casuist. cassa. carogna. To duash. Lat. caisse. house. Fr. Case. a chance or accident. fortuitous. from the sound it makes when Alban. a car. slaughter-house. something that actually occurs. to fall. cassa. and the OE. Fr. Fl. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Sp. Carriage. charrier. augmentatives of carro. case. Cartoon. Lat.. Casual. carroc- carrozza . Fr. ceorfan. to convey in a cart. casuelj Fr. charrette. caisse. the money chest. of carro. Fr. carota. break to pieces. to cut or carve . It. hull of a ship. void cassare. — — . cartouche. It. dim. augm. casser. Lat. as we . casa. G. a coffer or small case for jewels. long man's gown with a close body. to shear. a paper case. a of water. krat. casualis. kerpu. coffin of paper for groceries. cassere. casco signifies a skull. It. to bear or carry. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. — FI. Rouchi carter. a chest. To Cashier. helmet. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. casaque. ' Casa-matta. It. To Carve. Hence a challenge openly hung up. to an- — Kil. to notch. carroccio. Preparatory drawing of a It. Fr. hollow. bitten. It. caisse. cassus. It. Sp. crown of a hat. casitiste. to slay. AS. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. abrogate.

squash. a chesnut . from the first of Castrate. Fr. ating. Etym. by the loss of with several pitched cords. B. . casule. Others explain it from Kara. to clack. n. Cot. an enumerlist. kissa. to fall as over a precipice. in the fire. V. Chase. name. chaleur.Rouchi Scaches. a little house or hut. cat. execu. lance. chat. In the dialect of Picardy. and from the castus. . mino. race. koshka. to close. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. Lang. puss / for calling them. like that of It. Fr. away. 120. Isidore — in Diez. _G. Fr. drive away. Catalogue. to hurl See Awgrim. klakka.Lat.out cacciare . Gael. a garment for performing the mass in. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. It. katze. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. from water Karappaaaiii. ON. cassa / cry for the same purpose. V Lith. kic' kicil are used chasser. Fr. . to torture. burst cascare. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Hal. to lash. to cast or beat to tioner . to crack. handle of an axe. 134 CAST Catacomb. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. to end. castello. under chi caleur. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). The E. squash. Mid. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. casupola. casulla. casipola. fall. to turn overturn. to Fl. speak of dashing a thing down. kottr.to drive out. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times.'— Pr. kasi. chasser. or Rouchi cat. down. ecrevisse. which has been retained in E. chasuble. a thump. Pm. puras E. fer toTa. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. and tomba. to crackle. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. . passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. first made ordinary Fr. punch. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. chasser. to scourge. the ground . to break. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . coming to us through different dialects of French. Catastrophe. to drive away. rack. down. casser. Lat. a whip on the other into latch. was introduced. heat . KaraXoyog. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. sue. Gr. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. stilts. KarapaKrr]g. to make clean or chaste.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. second chase. a Cataract. kotas. castellum. &c. a cat . represented by the syllable quash. Roukind. Sp. being Fin. Pol. cacciuolo. Thus we have Caste. castro. to bring to an crack given by the joints. the castanets for or implement . catar. torture. Gr. cat-o'-nine. It. Lat. a cat koshki. 'Vaaaw. It. Fr. To It. cacciare fuora. castanetazo. Fr. kaJoivad. Cast. Sp.. perhaps from which we have E. dashing it to pieces. OFr. kakka. crush . Yz. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . or comba. dim. while kiss / Pol. The Diet. To Catch. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. signifying breed. Castanets. Fr. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. force j Rouchi equerviche. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. kasta. which. cascar. cash.the / or c respectively. to look at. kat. arpi^m. probably from an imita. to drive Cat o' nine tails. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. of sarabands does Gr. the stalk of plants. a vault. dashing it out of the window. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. the earlier sense of catch. R. dash. Castle. however.. follow after. — We a cavity. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. So also from It. a fortified place. KaTaarpifm. KaTappaKTrjQ. bot-kotis. of castrum (castra). image accasciare. Pic. and KviilSog. catch. same word with break. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Fr. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. to dash. Hence castaneta. cacciarc. cojz^/a. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. to hunt. Fr. or bruise together. to is Essentially the Sp. shaft of a 1 push. ichasses. ' Catchyn away abigo. castana. on. is not satisfactory. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. accastiare. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Cat. cast. tails. . kotas.— Fl. Brunne.

icarrix'Ki^. kletsen. to kythe D. Claucht. klinke. Fr. c or ^. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. devouring mite or weevil.V. Kil. the elements of a science. Caterer. Du. cache. latch. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. 'Bxn.) .' CATCH Fr. companaige. or any kind of relishing food tuals. an accusing. . and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. . chatter . Guernsey chafer. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. weevils. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Cates. Ptg. In the XV'e. door when it is shut. Cot. to snatch (said of dogs). wild-beast. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. to chat. dainty vic- a form lash. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. whip. cross-bow that carries but a From poll.' ^Jam. klatscherei. millecaterpillars. from Gr. a. P. called in Fr. formerly called cliket. * Caterpillar. Du. i. snatching. bicho. . with and without an / after the c. s. . Diez. a whip. to snap. a. Tutschek. to harangue. — . cat is not apparent. Gr. smack. catch-flesh. klatsch. a clap. OFr. Sc. . as of the latch of a As ! — .V. predicament. worm. chase. to clap hands. ictus resonans. Rouchi clincailleux. Kartiyopta (/cari. claquer. Gael. de Bray. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. ketsoore. a little dog). verberare kUts. a — gatta. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. 'Horxa. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. e. E. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. apprehend a person. to A bailiff. a whip or Kuttner. to the crack. insect. Guernsey pilleure. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. to teach by oral instruction. G. chatter. Fr. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. latch of.from Bard and ayopsw.. Metivier. chacepol. to chatter with the teeth cake. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. GaUa catchiza. sound. a smack. bichano (pussy). On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. the the same principle he was Fr. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. a carter's Pat. Fr. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. chachara. fragor kletsoore. a caterpillar Milanese can. gattola. chasse. flap klatsche. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. head. — tinman. chassoire. and answer. — explained. Cot. compare G. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. cagnon (a dog). a cornIn the s.P. catch. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. is said that he got a claucht of it. has both or of charming by sound. to crack GATES cache. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. pedes. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. the OE. catc?u. kaetse. E. klatschen. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. ArbaUte de courte chasse. from shutting with a click. — with a whip. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. Sp. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. chink. a whip Rouchi cachoire. to take. caker. an officer of taxes.s. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . clap. E. instruction in forms. Gael. seize. gliong. in order). klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . woodlice. a pill. On Catechism. clap with the hand. KaTtix'so. catch. chenille {canicula. which all . children's name for cat . a whip. resono ictu lash. Swiss Lombard G. — Kiittner. Chate peleuse. gingle. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. dainties. glcu. Wal. clatter. happe-chair. * Cates. caucht. — B. called dog or Galla catchamza. to catch strength. 135 — Aasen. resound.yopl(. snatching it with a any one. Kil. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. the distance to which the ball is struck. Grandg. Du.j. klatsche and Norm. ' ' word catch. blow. quincailler. — Catcli-poll. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. e. kletse. snatched. ecachoire. silkworm. ' Fr.

Delycates. having the property of cleansing. . 4. Wyatt in R. reticella. hazel. from chaud. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Fr. catkins . the stones of a street. Caballus. kautsije. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. G. Bessie of Bednall. cale. kobyla. Gr. puss. kopista. catons. Mid. rete A — Prov. to buy. chaussJe. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. achepter. lamb. Kavrijp.^ acheter (Lat. chausser. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. a stalk. puss. Fr. Du. Fr. Lat. little cap is . Cave. dumpf tonen.' B. catkin Magy. a pavement. a horse . mutz. • — — See Chattel. what . Palsgr. caudex . Fin. . — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. a horseman. make clean. Thus Bav. caldo. the caul of the liver. cautis. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. and at the rich man's cost By sea. It.^Hal. Port. but the acates that are sent him. chevalier. cale. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Pol. from caveo (p.Lat. chaudroii. to sound like a blow . Jaubert. Sx. a kind of skull-cap. Cavity. OE. A warm comforting drink. Manciple's Tale. It. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body.Lat. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. kocianki. from KaSaipio. Du. by land. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. deyntie meates. chatideau. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Cause. It. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Richly she feeds. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. a horse. chaudiire. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. kdtzchen. hot. a branding from koiio. mudet. chair. On the other hand. Cavalier. from delf^gato. also to pave . flue. kitten kotki. Cathartic. Rete. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. kin. kaussijde. . Cattle. cat maczoka. Fr. any Fl. Provider. Gr. 2. Caustic.willow. Catkin. otherwise written kell. Jonson in R. to shale or peel. CAVE Caul. klopfend knallen. Russ. cheval. That he was ay before in his estate. Mid. calceta. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. whence cathedralis. Fr. catkin mitz. cavus. flock. fur in general. w. cabbage). adcaptare. Cavalry. caballus. ' Gr. Chaud. to shoe . . applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Fr. causa. Lat. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. is Prologue. kassije. cauHs. via strata. fur. . caul is also a small net to confine the hair. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. acater. quire.p. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. kocie. — Cauterise. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Pr. ce^l. acaptar. to purge. . a receptacle for small things. a seat. katte. cabbage. apt to burn iron. cautus). Fr. macska. — . Fr. Cavalcade. calceata. Diez). Gael. and spareth for no perell. Kavrfipiov. Fr. hot. to burn. kopano. calotte. the. CATHARTIC sense. choufleur {choii. cavaliere. Lat. Gr.' Elyot in Way. cal^ar. minon. a pulpit. Lat. B. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. calqada. a horse . Dryden in R rete. walnut with the husk on challer. accapitare Rouchi acater. KaPaWrii. katteken.. It. . a road calceata. a paved road. capull. shaled or picked Fr. green husk of a calon. cabbage-stalk. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. hollow. Fr.Y\\Xea. a The peel. Caution. Kil. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Boethius. little cat. to beware. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . KiwariKog. a mare. a kettle for heating water. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. to shoe.. to ac- — Fr. Causeway. &c. KaHSpa.—— — 136 correct. Cauldron. caple. Palsgr. Caudle. koparet. kobuiV. accattare. catkin Pol. challe was ther of a temple. calidus. Cathedral. net or caul-work. and hence a skull-cap. Lat. Lat. Ka^afriKOQ. It. Cavern. — — cavallo. puss. despencier. chauderon. The word — . shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone.

sky. seele. to canopy siled. cedo. Gawaine & Sir Gol. ciel is so unbroken. hivtmel. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. caveqon. . the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. with their substantives concession. hung. in Hal. a log. coffer. . 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall.' Cot.' Hall.' Marriage of James IV. a plank. a boarded floor. plank. death. Boyd in Jam. curved. IV. thil. &c. cabegon. tester of a bed. Hence concede. and Gol. The importation of Fr. lambrisser une chambre seeling. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. or of a bed. cyling (W. . Lat. yield. p. 5. dayntily diglit. pp. the deck of a ship at thilja. — — — toyour soverane. a canopy. And seik — Cessation. post. departure from this life. -cess. . proceed. door-sill J Sc. 7. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. Cam. kapp-zaum. crooked kopio. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. 43. dille. as if from happen. The sense of roofing. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. cabega. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. ceiling. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. Ceiling. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. empty. deal. heaven. column E. hollow. an aquiline nose. rafter. selure. a planking or boarding tkilian. flooring E. were met. cavezzone. -cease. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. and that from Sp. a severe bridle. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. It. -cede. Fr. wall. In the N. to panel or wainscot MHG. is applied to a canopy. menuiserie. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. wuoren komo. as. Cavil. Soc. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. H. B. thil. hollow ice . Fr. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. komo. bridle.' Rutland papers. board . cesso.). give place. koppeli. to argue capto tiously. a board. p. to plank or floor with planks. to plank ON. of cavezza. selar. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. .j have come from this source. hollow. kommata. komista. a halter. Wore. Sherwood. 32. step away. cellar. lambris. The It. and zaum. also a seeling of boards. ceiling. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. &c.. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. dScis. the testern of a bed. To seele a room. — . The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. nailes will begin to cling. ciel de lit. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Plancher. sybire. thelu. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. recede. Sir 137 pit . departure. quibble. a beam. augm. succeed.). to go forth. . cavillor. cessum. little house. —Decease. A — A false accommodation produced G. Lat. a log. syl. del into English without ' translation gave cele. a fir-plank. to seele or close with boards plancher. applied to a canopy. See -cede. cielo. semely on syll. Cede. -ceed. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. jaa. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts.. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . sill in window-sill.' — Gawan . the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. wainscot thiljar (in pi. . In the same way G. Lat. So from Fin. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught.' Ordinances and Reg. and then to gape. — . thel. exceed. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. . sus-lambris. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day.'— Z. thilja. heaven. thiling. cease. in Jam.' del. . Cease. a hut. the roof of a coach. sill. dil. Hal. plank. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. Lat. excess. Sp. canopied. . Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. Cot. a canopy. — komo tain). . VIII. a log. the inner roof of a room of state. Fr. &c. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. but hang around at the sides. E. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. a head. to cut. Fr. CAVESON kopera or kowera. thili. syle. &c. decessus. of E . . in Jam. . The line of descent from Fr. beam. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. that. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over.

and thence censer. guish. swift. . chauffer. a registration of one's self. — — Cenotapli. a shaft horse.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. being taken from Fr. hollow. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. keep in It. a tomb. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. goad. /ctj/rsw. to seal a pigeon's eye. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. and met. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. with the eyes. Fr. and put it through the over eyelydde. -cepere. what to set in a chafe. family. to attend on object with. Prov. Lat. in comp. decide. the point round which a circle is drawn. from Saa-rw. to sleep). 1. and thence to conceal. candeo. as in some places burnt. solemn (of per. from censeo. Census Censor. Ceremony. S. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. to think. Cij(fe5j. -cevoir. to rate. judge. is the opposite of disora virum. irot\oe. It. quarters for slaves. point. renown be embodied with. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. a hundred centuria. make angry. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. a religious observance. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. censura. Cell. &c. age. Incensum. a prick. sift. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. pick out. sting. Fr. ciller. cigliare. KsvTpov. stones to the production of heat. materials It. of heating. concetto. then to rub without reference Cement. to sepap rate. rubble. tax.unmarried. but was gradually lost in conceit. To chafe is for wine. to warm. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Lat. distinIt. — . cot. riscaldarsi. Celerity. -ciper. to visit in numbers. to distinguish. To seel or close the eyes. Lat. in Marsh. -ceptjun. See Celibacy. to set on fire. eyelid.' Book of St Albans. criticism. encens.ing a room where there is not fire. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse.— Cellar. -i^oivre. much frequented. appertain. capturn.' Celebritas. concernor. sile. an eyelash. cella. K^'ivut. Century. Cot. -cense. syll. in accordance with the Fr. to celebrate. heaven. cenio. the officer appointed to take such returns . Fr. -cipio. parted sleep. calefacere. become heated with anger. is totally distinct from the foregoing. to concern. observe. Gr. Lat. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. a solemnity. single or unwedded life. Fr. chaufferette. Lat. to chafe. {cori)cipere.j 138 thill. receipt. -cebre ifoncebre. cceremonia.). -civer {conciver— Roquef. capio. to twinkle darkness. Lat. ceremonia. thence belonging to or connected with corn.cern. or any bird's. to prick. census. — . with transposition hence (of a day). Gr. In Celebrate. centum. incense. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. oil. Certain. to contend. sure. caber. Censure. &c. — . — . -cess. Assess. camentum. cilibat. Gr. Centurion. and — — — possessions. Assize. . -cepire. a Cemetery. Centre. cerealis. dchauffer. as entering largely into the derivative certo. judge. Gr. -oept. a storehouse Chafe. a hundred of what- — . rough from the quarry. Lat. cencer. To Incense. to burn incendo. census. judge Lat. to take. Lat. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. Sc. For sess from assess. abundance. to bury). empty. Cereal. crevi. — . Fr. to be regarded as one celebro. cretum. It. to glow. Cot. to course of people. see. in comp. a numerous con. Coehim.. Censer. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Censor. Lat. also grave opinion. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. a valuation of every man's estate. festive. Accelerate. Fr. zens according to their property. — A . a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. Lat. Celebrity. to take. Lat. Cess. Ta^oe. decebre) . the place where the de. oil. contend. ciglio. ' . we have a modified form of (of a place). tax. Fl. concerner. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. or expression of Ennius. celeber certus. Lat. estimate. to heat. confounded ist from It.— Chafing-dish. to -sum. to blindfold. Sherwood. his office. OFr. the hollow the Lat. sacred show. eschattffer. to seele or sew up the eyelids . for building. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. assess. -CEIVE a shaft. — . blind. deceit. value. thronged the participle cretus. The term cilium. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. siller les yeux. and so of that other. conceipt. celer.). See Cede..of the r. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. -cern. Take the nedyll and threde. -ceive. a solemnity. cillier. to incense. Chafe. the talk of men. to rub for the purpose a hut. -ceit. deceipt. Fr. mortar. Lat. to separate. calefare. (and thence also) to hoodwink. Fr.

snuff. kaff. sagrindse. kdfelen. kahu. to chatter or talk lightly.. P. chaene. From to go to law. chafeter. calix. muzzle. sagri. to ner It. far lima-lima. thick and short. cadena. puffed or ruffled with ly. Came. So from dominio. kdfer. Pr. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Pers. of. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. avena vilior. with a:n arched roof. a double operation * Chafer. cup. taubes korn oder hafer. chaps Chamber. a prattling woaction. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. often puffing. G. a goba rustling . to puff and blow. on. jaw. matter by combat. ON. a pulpit Cot. — . that leneth e per I'autra. chicane. tattle cheep. Fr. yap. a vault or arched roof. . — — ' — — — A . keffen. kahista. ceaf. fa sagramen de calompnia.nium. Chain. preise. a chough. chaffare. signal by drum or P. to Latin calumniare. vis. Chair. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. calumnia. kever. grief. OFr. songe. place See Cheek. keuchen. cathedra. Lat. green sagrin. a pulpit. calice. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Cot. p. kaff. a chain. call in question for an ley). Fr. &c. Probably from According to Diez. — — — . to gnaw. kiaftr. clamare. chayire. a rustling noise. Fin. Lat. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. grief. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. kiqfta. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. cauvette. Lat. ckapfare. cadieira. de Brai. The jaw chafty. calx. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. care. baras of ants. rally one. To buy and sell. lime .— — . — — — — — — . kiamta. hght Chalk. Lat. Lat. gewolb. B. vel susurro. Gr. chalanger. now a chair. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. charge with. fume. Perhaps Pm. havOFr. Fr. to tattle. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Prov. Camera. to institute anforensic action. Cot. Bav. Gr. hordeum vel let. Prov. Prov. as. chaulx. chambre. Hal. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Chayire. tattle. lime. much more Genoese sagrind. ing rapidly repeated cries. crooked. any insect of the beetle kind. chagrin. contestation. false accusation. camera. quisquilise offence. and signifies to consume with anger. hiss. refuse barley . kedja. in a monstrous fume. shaIt. to dispute. Due. kuhina. also to prattle. chaine. Kaiiapa. sborfare. Fr. to gnaw. haggle. Ayenbite. catena.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. to pant. have a mind to parley. to call. kahuja. a jackdaw. much blowing. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. Fr. difficulty . dispute. ple^. rustling motion challenge. — — — . and as this was the beginning of man. puff.. tronfio. Fr. kuhata. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. dongio. Du. to bark. Wall. in a cana. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. rustling corn. care. kuhuja. . Bouffard. KoBiSpa. ing a hard case to their wings. ^Altieri. chamar. breathe KaOa^oiiat. to file. Pat. to action arose. ceafer. Fr. from the shark-skin. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. chaire. G. snort. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Halma. E. leviter crepo Then. Chagrin. great chafe. to a seat. In vulgar language. from of the G. fern-chafer. to babble. Lat. Adelung. talkative. Cheffern. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Lat. From Port. kauchen. limare. Chalice. cadena gives chain. from Swiss kafeln. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . . cam. Du. cadera. refuse. bargain. . chafing. to caw chawer. as a carriage is a moveable seat. kuhista. calonja. chaise. rustle Challenge. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. to buzz. to move the jaws. . (ca'e'ra) to chair. idle words. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff.' Rayn. Fl. khah. In like manto huff. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. chawe. Fr. Piedm. or puff with snorting. to calumpnjamen. to fret inwardtronfo. breathe hard. 35. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. From the To Chaff. Fr. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. cathedra. swelling with anger. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Fr. without chap/are makiinde.sure carriage. Kuttn. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. calonjar. chatter. to sit. 11. to claim. De Ir4.

it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. accidere. ciamberlano. kiinp. keiiipe. Lith. to slope out the . dial. champ parti. to . to debate. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Fin. Fr. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. reusement — fight in single combat. escazenza. ciambellano. to fall. . to fasten oneself to another . to to chew champ. s. therewithal. received the petitions of the suitors. campus partitus . dial. The word is preserved in E. a bundle. Campar. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Hence (with the nasal) w. zs jeopardy. who stood ad cancellos. compound. to tread The sound heavily. Magy. pedilusor. dial. camp. Sp. ON. ON. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. to — — champ. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. hng. — KiL . kimppu (Lap. luctare. — ^Tusser. The E. kriimmen gebogen. chamble. E. broil. Fr. . kiammi. To hollow out in chanPtg. hot. Prov. kabe. hamper. hero Sw.' SherI'altro ' ' . Champion. kempa. chajnbellan . gewolbt. is explained by serrarsi. Chancel. jocus partitus. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. Chamfron. and mesUe. Fr. to flute as a column. tsamtsogni. a feat. Lat. . Dief. zampettare. caer. a hook . cempa. cancelli. to be eminent. — masterly Sp. to bevel. champion Du. bundle. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. excellent. move the jaws. to excel. Carpentier. fight. fight.—Charfron E. jeu parti. kabMe. giving rise to the as. kimbu. prize-fighter. to hold . to slope. cahir. Lat. champ. CHANCEL It. dispute Hal. chance. from cheoir. Gall. a hollow chanfreiner.edley. Fr. a warrior. to fasten oneself on to another .' ' Pr. kampeln. Get campers a ball To camf . kapp. dricka i kapp. G. . Chancellor. to fall). campear. chanfreindre. game campio. It will. sukibti. calidameya. the chafldn. athlete. campus. When the to quarrel. boys speak of capping verses. bickering. a field of battle. accident. The G. to hollow out. campar. kempen. top of a borehole. kinipen. champ. kimpUma. certare. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. or player at football. to groove bevel off a right angle. To Chamfer. pinch. dial. as swine. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to smack the lips in eating. Pm. to happen {ad and cadere. So in e. rare. surpassing. termediaries between them and the judge. contend or argue G. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. wood. schmatzen s. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. contention kappi. To cope or contend with. chanfrar. . Sp. to paw the ground E. which seems another form of the root. cameratus. chain. contest. combat. difficulty . cadere. to move the jaws kiamt. to fasten on. champ. E. to wrestle. champ. — Ch-amberlain. ON. See Camp. chdance. to chew. Fr. Lat.Lat. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. Meleare. and acted as inofficers of . i. kabinti. cample). . chaude mesUe. kibti. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. kampa. Chancery. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). fighting place. Du.' melleia.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. from Fr. tsammogni. to strive at games . chanfrein. —Chamfrain. gekrUmmt. slope of a bevelled angle. nels. ing. act of falling. head armour. mesleiare. or less ignorant. Commonly derived from campus. to cample. Chance-n3. to wrestle. Ptg. at the railings. calida et sans aguet. kimpustella. to talk. kanip. Lat. M. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. camp. camp.140 CHAMBERLAIN . e. — Hal. cazer. kablys. . kippo. . kampen. The happening of things Chance. divided game. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . camerlengo. kappd). a horse-race. Partnership. dial. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. a scufSe. to stick to. as in It. Champarty. chanfrein. Champaign. Sup. a game at football. fray. kampeln. to quarrel (comp.—Tutschek. Prov. chamfrain. from chaud. a jaw kianisa. chance. to Hal. a court of justice. kabintis. Champ. Fr. an athlete. to hang.

chap. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. shift. A fellow. . a chap is a crack or fissure. Hal. kennel. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . chap.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Chandler. skipta. chapeletas de imbornales. cangiare. exchange schimbatoriu. Fr. flat . kvar kjceften. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. exchange. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. And N. to apply one flat thing to another. Chip. or the cracking of one. Chop. the chaps . hard bodies. debeant conjurare. klepan. lips of an animal. cambiar. chancellerie. . jaw. cobio. . to — cut. to coat. to strike with a sharp edge. esclapa. the place where candles ler. canalis. W. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. exchange. to peck. chapear. AS. chapelete de una bomba. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. chapilla. Prov. Russ. ceaflas. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. to deal. Chaps or chops. Channel. to spht a chip.^. See Chop. kiceft. to strike. to hack. Sp. a reed. In like manner Walach. surfaces striking together. . kapoti. chiappa. Fr. from chandler. from canna. Sc. Da. Bret. to break . a small plate of flat metal. It is also used in the sense of the E. to peck. — : Lat. also a clap. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. the loose flesh of the cheeks. any hollow for conveying water. Aasen. Fr. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. gab. That wide were sentin their spicery. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. leather. may be compared with ON. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Molbech. from clap. chapa. chapeta. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. properly in a hard body. Lang. Hence chantry. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. kiceft as well as kjakje. a jaw. Sp. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. while the broader vowels a. chancery. to chap at a door. I. as It. kappen. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. muzzle. Chapel. changer. kaupa. as corn-chandChandry. jaw. to plate. E. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. chaps. to cut off . Commonly derived from capella. the clappers of the scupper holes. ON. as skin chapped hands. 2. wood. Hence It. to swap. or the like chapar. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. to put on fresh clothes. schimbd. ceaplas. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. and the modern canal. See Chant. throat of an animal. waterconduit. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. to paw like a horse . cambium. hack . supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Du. to change. as to chap hands. like the knocking of hard things together. — . as those on a trunk. cantare. kemma. cheek. schimbu. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. a pipe. prune. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. chanter. Lat. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. extended to other trades. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. to strike. Man of Law's Tale. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. Hal. chop. —Ordericus Vitalis. to truck. . a dealer in candles then. esclapo. a money-changer. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. chandelier. the mouth. to cut. to plate. not a soul. Compare chark. and also to chap or crack. Chap. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to creak. is used in the same sense . Da. —Chantry. as chancery . Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. chop. cambiare. a strip of metal plate. Chap. the gutter that runs along a street. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to sing. Cheek. Chape. Lith. ^Jam. — — —Marculfus in Due. camjar. to cut up into small pieces. Walach. Fr. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. a small metal plate Port. clapet. 140. are kept. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Chap. To Change. Probably from chap. kjaakaa.

Bret. Gr. as. a mark of a mountebank. to charcoal. czurksti. to sing or chirp as birds. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. gnash. Charcoal was ciarlare. a riddle. to chirp as sparrows. seems to be derived charade. Charlock. eapitulo. chatter. It. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. prattling quacksalver. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. czurliwoti. charge an enemy is to lay on. which was incantation. gadka. gaggle . decken. Deutsch. capitolo. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Character. pohadka. w. creak. from cape or cope. And damned be he who first cries Hold. charade. AS. creak. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. eyre. to . the turtle pitre. car. Yx. capellare. dear. caritas. Justin. —— . for the same reason rosario. w. Lat. Hence carminare. a turn cerran. schreien. * Charcoal. AS. colliers that charred coal. It. Fr. a hood. Charade. chapitre. char.). Sp. cam.' Boccaccio in Diez. Macduff. . Chapman. See Cheap. to chirp. dear(in both senses). See Charlatan. to dove . babdistinction. properly to place — . Sp. turn about. charitas. affection. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. to creak. called in Sp. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a head or division of a book. chirriar. Cot. babbling. Mundart. OE. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Lat. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. carmo. Chare. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . the nature of a thing. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Chaplet. karout. — a car. canne. From Norm. from Charade. a dispute . Mid. Lith. chapel. cher um cher. To Char. tegere. Fr. called kedlock. It. cluck kirklys. &c. twist. a rhyme. The crash. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. a merchant. to load . 370. beloved. cearcian. a garland of roses. chapelet. charer. corona. Boh. kurkelis. carricare. to croak as a frog . clack. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. czirbti. carregar. hiss Lith. Inst. to prattle. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Lang. in To ness Charity.whirr. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. that turned decken . ghirlanda seor garland. cedeleac. charlar. A weed among com AS. a mark made on a thing. chat. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. kirkti. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. to chirp. (eucharistie. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. to converse. burning without consuming the substance. siarad (pronounced — sharad). . Fr. chara. charlatan. to tattle. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. capital. condo il volgar francese.czirksti. to of the governing body. to turn. twitter. from carrus. jabber. from capitulum. to turn Gael. — — — turned to coal. caricare. . Prov. it is my turn. cha. used in the sense of magic Fl. hadka. Lat. cerran. Sup. Fr. chirlar. Ptg. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. .. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . from gadai. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. In that work the verb is written caire. a riddle. keeren. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Charge. — spell. bler. chirk. Charlatan. The G. ject). chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. capella. cluck. wood to coal.Lat. Chark. a The OFr. chatter. tattler. talking. a cricket karkti (schnarren. of chapel. be- e. and in It. An enchantment. cabildo. Du. carus. charger. surris seu Lat. in turns. a charm. from capa. enough. Fr. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. to prattle. grave or make incised marks on an ob. go. krachzen). es ist mi cheer. Sp. return. ciarlatore. Lay on. Chapter. to love. to talk . ceap-man. dim. as a beetle. Swiss. Chirk. 2. occasional turn. .charme. turn. charcoal burners. carmen. a verse. kurkti. wreath for the head. It. as Pol.

eclats. limpid. ch). magpie. crackle. — Palsgrave. fragments. knacken. or the cry of a bird or the like. letters p. a churchyard or charnel-house. Diez. chits. gaddc. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. as in the E.). as from nomen It. niggardly. clack. a word. to chirp. Chary.. chat. CHATS fit 143 to name. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. a chatter-box. It t. Chart. Fr. chykkyn (Pr. clean. Malay. karg. geug. snap. to chirp as a bird to cheep. to talk. to wet. Hal. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. whistle. cassa s. to burst open. chip. to care). B. from purus. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. a young man . carmen is presented in AS. chair. D. Fl. — Fr. . It. chatter. chikat'. nommer. make a noise as birds do. a shrine for a relic. castus. a yawning. incassare. from xoAn. Russ. to enchase it . also to hatch. to chatter or prattle . and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . a crack or a flaw . gazzogliare. the young shoots . kastaa. chit-chat. gazzettare. — = Chats. From carinen was formed It. warble. chisf. prattle. to cut and faggoted. —Charter. csatora (Magy. as we speak of olive branches. i. See Card. to cry as a chicken . Chaste. warble. —Jam. converse. clap. a flock of those birds. clean. Kil. in Jam. chaste. be wide open. gallan or ogan. parcus. noise. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. to separate in morsels. Gr. Kil. kippen. G. clear. To chip is then to crack. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. Pm. or a bird out of the egg. gadu-gadu. little sticks cudere. See Catch. chick. charmer. It. It. knatiern. So in Gael. Fr. To Chase. — We ornamental work the to signify E. from pure.— Chit. Du. occasionally Forby. chip. gazeuiller. cs E. shout OE. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. It. czysty. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. kna.ppen. to crack. cyrm. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. chit in the latter sense Du. To chit. Fr. Pol. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. careful.). clatter. enchasser. cearig (from cearian. fragments or leavings of food. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. %aafi. root of the Lat. blackthorn-chats. tenax. ferire. a plate of metal. kata-kata. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. jackdaw . g. — sharp sound of a crack. to which it bears the same relation as chape. as purgare Fr. — Yorkshire chat. prate. sordidus. to set a jewel. To chitter or chipper. an enchantress. chaste. a twig Suffolk chaits. a gap. gazzolare. csacsogany. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. to clap. noise. Lat castigare. karigh.house. OE. or suckers on rough borders. Chamel. —Bailey.a. tittle-tattle. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. speak . used to represent a sharp note. —Chastise. . In like manner Russ. Chasm. the calix of a rose. chit. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. nome and . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. An imitative word. See Cistern. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. To talk. Pol. whence a charm of goldfinches. castus. to gape. Lat. The egg is chipped.— Chatter. pure. pure. scraps of for fuel. Magy. V. a branch and a young female. as turnip-chaits. flesh. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. pure. carme and Fr. To Chase. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. s. Parallel with E. kata. chick. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. as. gazzerare. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. is to represent the chamier. also a youth. the bird is iiown. to baptize. the cry of the bat. caro. talk much . a branch. charm. discourse. Chat-wood. to chirp. or pop. la chasse d'une rose. schioppare. racket . germinate . to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. carnisj bones kept. to crack. — The . Cot. splinters. ch&tier. the noise of birds. To Chasten. — — . — Hal. to make a noise. xi'i-'^vui. Cot. talk. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. or equivalent forms. csaterdzni. To work plate as silversmiths do. Chat. also to germinate or spring forth. csacsogni. chary. chip. clean. Fr. Fl. the handle of a razor . shivers.

CHATTELS has ciio. to make inarticulate sounds in . is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. gig. keck. chavylbone or chawlbone. Cot. to chop and change. to buy. Check. syllables ^ag-. 'li^'opa jord i jord. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. sale. a repulse. It. ceaflas. stuttering. s. Cheat. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. et juxta catalla sua.— Chole. a dealer in horses. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred.' kezen. cozener. to cough and hence either buying or selling. kakaista. tradesman. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. countenance. . canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. jaws. sense of bargaining. chear in the sense of victuals. lower. The gutGoth. KaviiXog.. chuckle. goods. OFr. chaptel. farm for farm. a cheater. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Lat. kik. Hence to cheat. cachinnari. chatel. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. prattlingchete. lead to OE.— . Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. society. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. chire. Sp. the Lat.— Cattle. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. with the exception of land. Chew. from AS. mandibula. It. Pm.. G. a tavern-keeper. favour. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. entertainment. gagkezen. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. whence captale. It — Brompton in Due. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. retching. dchec. goods. koopen. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. frown. the Confessor. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. to laugh. aspect of a man. jaw. ceap. truffa. Du. CHEEK zitella. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl.' to exchange to gasp. thers. bon marche. to nauseate (to retch). Sc. cita. Bav. Pr. e. cheeks. in Fr. a dealer. kakkaset. to . chop. the principal ' colloquial E. entertain kindly. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. . Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. OFr. and. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. and hence the E. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Cheek. teeth . &c. the face. welcome heartily. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Ingulphus. — — —Chowl. Modern Slang. to clear the throat . visage. Fl. snout. NE. changing. with Dief.. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Cam. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. kaufen. to act as a rogue. giving or taking in exchange.kakot. ceahhetan. the countenance Fr. which is the word in ceap. Hal.—Choke. chapman. cattle. chiere. the tongue. while it Bret. a young boy or girl. kikottaa. . to negotiate. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. 144 the It. sob E. stuttering. kek. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur.-^. Fr. cattle. cara. Pro v. price. kok. to coup s. a piece of moveable property. — To check an account. Fin. kak. kaupon. Gr. Faire bonne chire. from Lat. in widely separated languages by the Lat.— Chaps. to — . . laughing. ceafl. are represented piti. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to deal ON. exAS. Then. equiva. Soc. ku. to coff—Yisi. horse-couper. force of the word. kauf. choule. agreeing upon. look. a canting knave. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. caupo. upon a checked cloth. to stutter gigken. us. See Cheek.of the throat in coughing. to vomit. any cheating.ing. to swap goods . Slav. kaupiti. kichen. catalliim. See Chess. Fr. cera. a willing look and unwilling heart. chatal. citello. capitale. to buy. hawkmann. cattle. giggling. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Chattels. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Chear. Bohem. to cluck like a hen. sum in a loan. . which is used in the to stutter. gagkern. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Ek dry and hard. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . kaupa. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. — We ' .

Chekenyd or querkenyd. ation. cabrio. jaws Sw. gill of fish AS. Sp. the palate Chequer. G.D. N. to belch. jowl. geagl. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. E. Analo. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. schach. rattle in the throat. Sp. the neck. kok. Lat. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. To Cheep. things Da. cams. AS. to geahl. chops. mollium congeries. OHG. — — . jaw. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne.cirieggia. Chevisance. chests in OE. the hke.. — — . food. F*-. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. to kep. . dersen . caws. giffle. e. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. veteris casei sapore Ancatus.EP CHEVRON 145 on. cherir. carnium. cufd. See Case. See Alchemy. Lat. To make a shrill noise Chest. Fr. a heap. castaneusj Fr. /Ji2^/(W.peep in the same sense. chAtaigne. to make a noise different word. king). ichec. E. cheken. kjcebe. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. cese. ON. like a young chicken. Lat. (Kil.pose of acidifying them kasadr. by laying up in a covered heap. — — . prevail with. jouffle. . cough. E. See Chess. Cherish. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Lith. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. ceaflas. Chess. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. ceaplas. It. w. kikna.perly head. chesten.koppen. Chemistry. cerise j G. incaseatus. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. gap. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. kastanie. to love. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. nish source. chevir. rafters in heraldry. equal squares of opposite colours. throat. kopen. An imitative word. a chicken. suffo. Sw. frame by which the exertion is made. chiffe. Prov. Sw. kjakje. for cheese itself. schach. Chevaux de frise. In these latter forms we see the transIt. gous forms are G. Hence chesten-nut. X'C&s. veluti piscium. old bread. quok. &c. Prothroat of an animal . . when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Kil. — 10 . mouth kek. w. to choke with laughter.Xo belch. scacco. w. The name of creak as shoes. by laying it in come to an agreement with. kjceve. As the board to gasp i. made rancid koka. the throat. kirsche. squeak as a mouse. Fr. Cher. to boken. the final guttural is retained in writing. to gape gab. then end. gaghel. cheeks. From them the plish. Fin. a rafter . xaque. Thus "we are brought din. dear. whence kasa-leipa. jaw. cheek. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. kistej Lat. jaw . kastr. to heap up such things for the purchoke. kdke. AS. to gasp. Jam. to hold dear. to year. takes place in the formation of cheese. chaps. kdkel. to kasa. to swallow. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . kasa. Lat. Tutschek. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Lith. to bring to an end. Cherry. ca' — . Hence kikna is identical with OE. practice seems to have been communiChevron. a cricket. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de.G. jaws. ceocian. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. G. caseus.their struggle for independence. CHE. geafl. to prevent the attack of cavalry. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. cista. subjected to this process with that which the throat . ceac. accomplishment cayed. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh.D. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Achievement. ceg. Da. hasten. caru. czypti. Du. chasi. Chef. cegio. chevron. Du. treat with affection. as. kesten. skratt. . ost. make an end. Fr.). Fr. cyse. Fris. quoka. Pm. AS. gabe. Sc. cireggia. throat. the The use of the word kcesir. The Sw. cerasus. whence czypulas. It would Cheese. chops. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut.' to w. to choke. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. the mouth. as meat and butter. cheek. achever. cisty G. kikna of dorum coacervatio. rupted into chess. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. kaecke. gapen. acquisition. condition of being taken. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. cheek. . Pl. E. Fr. kces.. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. rennet. kasiiUPr. cabiron. kapen. clear the throat. Sc. subacidus. gullet. the loose the game of checks.

chavel. kop. To Chide. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. w. or chick. Pr. To chitter. Tintillo. are formed Du.^ to resound as a bell.D. to chirp or peep like a chicken. or qf people talking rapidly. grelot). zitterti. crepo. Probably from Fr. to chime. Child.D. to Du. twitter. cabar. kaw. Pl. killen. pole. the rim or edge of a vase. Du. knarren. kilderkin. to chew. head. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. kaau•wen. Gael. chimb. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. rafter . De chic en chic. as pointing out the origin of the E. the jole. from the first of which is Lith. a young bird. the least imaginable jot. a quid of tobacco. a hen. chavel. knit the brow cib-led. then as G. chill. to twitter. tiukkua. chicaner. creak. a chicken. Chill. And hence. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. See Chimmer. cap. greloter is to shiver for cold. Fin. Walach. or as E. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. a finch. . into a continuous shriU sound. a little bit. in Walach. stake. — — Mother Hubbard. alter. kind. also the horizon. mouth. Now gan some courage unto him to take. horns of the house. cabarach.— Gattel. chillrar.— Cot. Halm. cidan. Fr. antler. chillness or shivering. a cup. Lat. jaw.). keichen. Chaw. pip. lead through the synonymous E. to use the jaws. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. tiuk. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. captain. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du.. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. — Fin. to raise the rim. sonorous. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. De finger killet mi for kalte. gosling. branchy. Fin. caput.' my finger tingles with cold. CHJME the radical form is unusual. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. pipio. Fr. pululo. hiss as meat on the gridiron. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. tiukkata. — It. Fr. czypulas. 146 brial. ultimate origin of the Mite. a head. Magy. signifying properly shivering. chillar. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. klagend tonen. to gasp for breath (Hal. chew or chaw. as. kuwe.peep. Fl. chol.. caferu. capete. or the broken noise of birds. rafter. CHEW . pipio. The Pl. strideo. the young of animals in general. the throat. chiquei. kauchen. kimista^ . to the brim. Chime. capu. Pm. knirschen. . quivering sound which passes. to titter is Du. has probably the same origin. tremble with cold. chiler. chin. Pr. cild. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. kopf Du. the same principle I regard On birds. k'imm s. kauwe. E. Pm. Imitative of a loud clear sound. kitista. a chicken. beam. kindeken. kouwe. AS. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. Da. by driblets. term is ssaru fu. G. and not vice versd. kimme. E. cib. horn wood. then cold. chikat'. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. s. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Prov. chicoter. chaps.^ Hal. cabriones. Bret. aner. kidata. tremble. and from the third E. tyuk. — . W. chieftain. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. kippa. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. For the see word Doit. to pettifog. gills of a fish. Payer chiguet A chiguet. The loss of the syllable it in Du. Brezza. tintelen van koude. Chick. chicken. Du. cheek. — Du. Chimb. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. mountain top . ]). Chitter. chef. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. to go. A To Chew. a cup cibaw. a cup. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr.-ill. the head. to contest about trifles. ' . rafter . G. Chigue. kinderen. jaws . to contest. from the second Lat. kimia. to smart.. to crackle. caprioru. chic. 'Among these the G. Chief. while the Magy. pipe. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. acute. kieken. Kil. : — a lump.— . a jaw. Fl. cebr. a small cask OFr. choule. kime. machouere. capo. kauen. ach. pi. Russ. . queror. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. E. when the vibrations become very rapid. Sp. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. kibr. to scold. a chicken. from little to little.. cabar beinne. Fin. jaw. cica cica. Palsgr. chawbone. Gattel. tiukka. the Ptg. killen. Swiss kiden. deer's horn. the cry of young . It. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver.

Chyrme or chur. Fr. twitter caminus. from 10 * ' Chia. to tattle. Primarily a shrill sound. . to gape. Fr. squittire. It. Bret. the chin .sharp. to creak.. spina. and light. dial. E. the jaw. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Chine. Fr. hiss chirlar. Pm. Huloet. a hall Mid. Sp. Du. tschirpen. In the same sense. Cot. Bav. also vibrans. twinkling light. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. See Chark.Lat. to prattle czirpti. — . and chim-mer. fissure. companied. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. to open chirriar. Hindost. chirp. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. It. gena. The change from the sound ter \s. .' Phaer's Virg. backBut she withal no worde may soune. do. caminsects. in the same crack. . cisello. Chat. komia. j^lf. chick. kumista. — .to divide or Du. pork) . cheminde. as a bell kommata. to murmur. esquina. a thorn. sonants. Du. Diez de. Sp. Gloss. the chine. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. Chimera.Huloet in Hal. name Then. Caminatum. chhint. up and down. the cheek (jaw) . so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. clangor tinniens kummata. then of a fabulous monster part goat. are In like manner E.).schricken. cisaille. Sp. to chirp. Fr. schrick. chin . cinan. representing connected together. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. Chitterling.iron. Fr. verynge or dyderinge. the whooping cough. to prattle . i. — — — — — . Chytof J^ to sk is singular. then to any narrow crack or AS. keich husten. and the Du. crepare. hiss Pm. cinne. Ptg. kieck hoest. chink. Sp. See Chap. eschine. Lat. resonance . have been used to designate the spine. spina. kinne. bx-eak the back of schena. to sound. Gascoigne in Todd. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. Prov. to squeak in It. a thorn. See Bright. ciseau (for cisel). G. killed by Bellerophon. clipping of coin.. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. caperd. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. sparkle. kink hoest. eschiner. A . to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. a crowing sound in recovering breath. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to sound deep or the Gr. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. and from a similar sound to boil gently. or chyFrigutus. genou (pi. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. Chisel. as the chink of money. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. applied to tremulous motion. klincken. Chitter. to simmer. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. tremulous motion. rustle.czirbti. G. quavering of the voice. ykvvQ. schetteringe.to chirp. To chirp or twitter. from Lat. and bodily movement in shimm. zirken. quivering or shakyng for colde. a Kuttn. but or cry as a parrot. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. to chirre. to chine. Lith. to chink. ciarlare. a surkik hosta. sonus the backbone Lat. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . cleft. chatter . schetteren. Chink-cough. The small entrails of a hog. flaw Hal. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. as birds the mouth. skina. E. in Hal. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. to tremble. zirpen. the jaw. part lion. chits. See Chats. sound on beginning to boil. esquena. To Chitter. sounding deep. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Gower in Hal. Chink. to chirp . as the/ is preserved tering. a szemrcU. It. genawi. Chintz. clashing of weapons. a fire-place. eschin^e (de pore). et garrire . — . Chit. to creak. all these imitative terms being minata. vincially used in the sense of a crack. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. AS. schina. hollow. yivtiov. tsengeni. gen. cheek. simmer. a chap. to chink with laugh2. komista. It. czirszkti. Pr. tinnire. schiena. Sw. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. To Chimmer. Kil. tsongeni. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio .er. cincel. 147 kimina. It. the cheek. disCot. To chink with laughter. . . Chymerynge. epine. shiver and the chyver of Pr. pare also Walach. sound. Chin-coug^h. to sizel. a chink or fissure. ter. Magy. hus. from the geon's lancet. KinneGr. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. — . also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. caminata. stridere. backe. bone . the mouth (jaws) . Chimney. The desig. kumina. plodere. fyr. Chip. as a large bell .

to palpitate . Warwickshire coff.vonic languages are Pol. pieces . lead us on to Lat. to taste. Chap. also calPs. choppe. keypa. taste. — See Cheek. Cavalry. kalbs gekrose. kustigen. bile. arkiusan. i. G. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Yr. Goth. —Chorus. to clap up Hal. a company of singers or dancers. kiusan. to shiver. okusyti. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. kusid. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. to taste.freze. select. a ruff or frill. as with a blow. . kor6n. cut up into — See Chats. kausjan. to taste . caperd. Gr. to try. * To Choose. try. by which they are Fr. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . ^euw. to chap at a door . to ^cleave . an onion. called cMtters in the N. schevel-steen. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. g'schochet voll. a knight. Choice is probably direct from Fr. to ing is doubtless to taste. kiusan. to stop geschoppt voll. disposition. to taste. wein didder for cold. coup. choix. to experience. koren. — Chock-full.yEuffM. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. full to overflowing. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. %o\ifa. ON. and N. a small slice or slip of anything . to try. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. from kraus. haslets. a goose's giblets. Schmid. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. to try. a calf's pluck or chaldron . wkusit' prikushat. chives. taste. to try . a blow. all seem slate . Boh. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. chorus. chawdron. chippe. x^poc. gekrose. Jam. in the same language. developments of the same radical image. curly . and It. chatter. rare. or original meaning is preserved in G. krussyi. To Choke. to taste. kbhren. schoch. Fr.D. the small parts of the roots of plants. Fr. chaup. chibble.' Verie coinme Cot. to chap. shiver. experience valerie. Luc. anger. . . to break off in small shive. to exchange horses. chap hands. to taste. Chivalry. Gr. cke. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. Chives. wrath. it is probable that the root kus. seallion or unset leek. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . from chevalier. whence choleric. &c. To Chop. •- Russ. approve. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. shoot .. gusten. fresure. of E. a scale or fragment P1. a rag. keuren. to choose. the ridges prove. chattering. kushevati. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. kieser. xiv. a ruff. Swab. the inwards of an animal. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. kaup. coro. Walach. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting.— B jag E. Body and Soul. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. scheve.. as green as leeks. The I go to prove them. Choice. 19. to hack. Swiss kust. try. gustare. are used in the same sense. Chuck-full. 2. a young . Gr. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. a fragment. chceur. skifa. to wrinkle. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. The . kushati. chife. then to try. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Fr. OHG. Lat. &c. cive. cape. by the vibrations of sound or motion. a heap. from %u\i). whence Lat. ruffs.V)^x. — Cholera. kruszki. and in this sense the * small pieces. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. heaped measure. crammed Choir.ceosan. and in kosten. . a calf's chaldern of E. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. gdnse gekrose. ^S. cepa.' who shall not taste death. signify to kiss. a wine taster. friller. kiezen. G.ffrill. to tempt. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. a chive. Serv. and Vf. ments of the knightly class. propagated. . full. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. ent quarter. chock full. Enn Sigridur sem ' . then to shiver. ON. chimp. word is more likely to be from Lat. causir. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Choleric. Equivalents in the SlaFr. schiefer. — — — . prove. The manners and senti. civette. . . CHOP kros. G. See try. to prove. As kushnuti. Prov.gust. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. I. a twittering. The Sc. kiesen. to turn.' At last he dwelt . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. to strike hands . Chives are also a kind of small onion. pluck. chiffe. to Compare also Pol. fine threads of flowers.

a stump. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. koppe. a messenger or envoy. one who buys and sells horses or cows.xl—Shirbe ridiculous.— Chevin. cauvette j Fr. Gr. as Du.' Jam. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. ' ' What's that? Dap. to cant. or miller's kaycke . overset. claquer. . whence apparently the Sup. cavena. by the Robert Shirley. chouquette. caphatenus. syllables chat. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. kaufen.). caker.. cangiare. E. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. Chord. Marin. 49. quappe. civetta. To Chouse. Borgoens happen. E. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. See Chaff. Picard. in Chaucer. to clack. connected with G. we find the following passage Dap. A fish with a thick snout and head. &c. Chrysalis. xop5>}.(. applied to an owl in that language. thick-set. gobio capitatus. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. XpvaaXic. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. to strike in the hand. peace. chuet. Lat. equivalent to the E. ceo. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak.). Wall.\^s. kowej Sax. who took in the Turk- clack. —Shakespeare. clogs. chrysalis (Plin. — — — . To Chop logick. the string of a musical instrument originally. cresmeau. E. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. kobe. Madam. the intestine of an animal. Chronicle. To coup. kowe. soul-couper. — Dief. -chron-. e. monedula. The Turk was here As one should say. clat. chrisme. gold. kaulhaupt (club-head. — Quabbe. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. chevane. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. kubbr. cheviniau. Alchemist. kubb. chapineria. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . capita. Kil. P. a small fish with a large head. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. because she would not endure this husband chopping. Nominale in Nat. of which such strings are made.X. yiSA. AS. In the Alchemist. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. Fr. time ra . Peace. and we actually find champman for chapman. Chough. klopper. Sw. kauwe. that will thank chiaus — you richly. kaw. the teeth to chatter . I bring you the Cloughs. whence e. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. ON. whence — E. to speak thieves' slang. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. caqueter. What do you think of me. kaej Lith. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Fr. xpi'^lia. in i6io. thumb Fl. — Chrisom. Chopino.' They are forebuyers of quheit. from kloppen. chouette. Jam.. Fr. xftovoq. cow-couper. Cot. chronicles. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. dealing. Du. chapin. cheap.— Landnamabok. whence the Fr.sohola. E. noble Doctor. merchant. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. cauc. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. dial. Chuck. gull. forms are Chrism. From the Turkish Chiaus. to knock. ley in Giiford.—Chuokstone. to overturn. chevane. a bullhead. chapma?i. Ant. Confounded with the bullhead. chroniques. sent before him a Chiaus. short piece kubbug. high clog. gull. Chub. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. Come. That Face. e. for to defraud. the same word with the It. If I discover. a The What dhy ^. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. See Change. i. — . bearand aits. chop. traffic. Gr. . capito. as in Fr. chack.• — . Anachronism. Fr. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Gr. Gr. Du. an offence against the fitness of times. A jackdaw. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. chatter . cob. capitone. slipper . which was written 27. G. to chatter. In Sc. 4. cambiare.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. OE. Fr. fat. capitanus. prattle . choucas. a lump or piece chump. to turn over. Sp. chub.povucd. p. klompe. dial. a trafficker in souls. kolbe (club). a thick piece. chevin. plump.

surly. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. a pebble . . Diss. kaerle. . a husband. ON. ccedo. to him a sudden blow. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. kiorne. To chuck in the fall from. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). sintel. gffe. Ir. ceffo. to fall at or on. as a board. tindra. swollen or puffed up Cot. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. to make a rippling noise. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. . a cutting an old chuff. to cause the milk to grain. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. to gird. flower. in circumcision. a miser. chaps. as in E. i. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. Probably from It. i. to sparkle. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. -cide-. joufflu. as Fr. chack or stane-chacker. See Cheek. &c. Du. Cleland in Jam. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. pith. chofe (Grandgagnage). -cido. a lump. Sw. we have to chack. cinders used disjunctively. to determine incision. ON. a man. to cut decide. sicera. or choice part of a thing .. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . to form grains of butter. klakka.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. ON. kern. The origin ation. fat-cheeked. in the face. sindr.for the residue of stone coal. cinctura {cingo. residue of burnt coals. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. x^^i?. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. a man. to separate the kernel of the milk.D. blow on the I io6 in Mur. The spelling of chider has Chump. ceaplas. karl. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. e. kirna. — — A — ' ' — .with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. a girding on. AS.— Chu%. a rustic . Sicerawry face ceffata. cidre. an old man. from Lat. thence a belt.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. calculus. a fellow. domhnach. ceorl. ceffore. lamak. the snout of an animal. kjami. sinter. ashes. chofu. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. cheek. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). Church. dust. whence church. ladre from Lazare. set kerti. cado. spuma metalli. to turn from blossom to fruit. from Lat. Chunk. chops. Du. cinis. chife. comp. 24. whence ON. Gothic nations. chuffy. cut off. as water running over rocks or stones. male person. Lat. to throw out sparks. accido. Wall. See Ceiling. a resounding object. AS. Fr. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. chakil. to jaw chack or snap. casum (in comp. Hence -cid-. * Cinder. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. a cutting round.^. tie about). e. in Sc. but by way of explan. Sc. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Fris. chack-stone. ceaflas. Churn. Cider. Jennings. ChurL husbandman. sive piratiam facere sciant. Cieling. ciuffo.rendered by Kil. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. incido. &c. kakka. has been impugned which it has really no connection. cheeks Cincture. The derivation from Kvpiasov. kerl. -cis-. sindra.' And cold. G. have given rise. to fall upon decide. marrow. — of the two words. to Newsp. -eris. Chuff. -cise. G. — . pp. joffu.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Fr. sindel. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. It is certain. . calx.— . In Sc. . then the on oh StX iv roXt. Ka-^aiva. geaflas. to churn. -cisuiri). to fall. with It the Lord's house. Lat. See Cheek. . a pebble. KvptaKolg. countryman. to make a aiKipa. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. C^z^j^ churHsh. dial. a man. to To Chuckle. Lat.' he adds. or. whence deciduous (of trees). giffle. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. to strike clatter. As AS. a douse on the tores. Gr. cendre. jaws. however. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Du. Wall. the kernel. Aasen. KaxXij?. Da.V//a'6'?. cinctus. so as to make the happen . as Epkema explains it. OFr. kernjen. scoria. log of wood. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Cob. Lat. Gr.

as. crack. suck). to set in motion by means of the voice. to call by name. See Circle. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. -cis-. city. cisterna. the door was slammed J slamem. a lump Lat. —Circuit. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). claquet de moulin. as caverna from cavus. . klemte. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. to gnash the teeth. Du. clump. dob. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a whip. -cite. klopati. Lat. a split. Circle. civis. the place of . sound. a city. cittd. Recite. a. clack. klump. or split with noise. a young and tender plant. klappen. Dan. ON. sound of blow. —Civil. a for water. smack. So a light. cittade. from chupar. a knob. KipKog. Gr. kringr. Lat. klammer. a circle. ON. clack. to toll . a Lat. Arab. prattle. It. Sw. cluster. klompe. clack-box. Fr. a circle. uproar. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. for Cion. to be empty. lucerna. tinnitus . lash . glamm. Lap. and clash. glam. lump . . See Crankle. scion. cittadella. area. citujn. kringla. radical identity of the Fr. a pop-gun. claquer. lump. E. clog. lump of wood or with the nasal. . sifr. City.— . crack. In Fr.' sione. Mack. a ball. hringr. to appeal. klateren. wasserkasten (water chest). to bawl. a clod. log. babble . clobyn. stimulate. rattle. cito. globus. Lat. * Ciplier. cifra. a circle. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. lump. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. chest. Hal. It. a hiding-place. Excite. klabb. We . as in Sp. to chatter. to call. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. lump. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. to cleanse. klekotati. to clap at a theatre. mass . cit^. To Clack. outcry. CION See Tinder. KpiKoe. and. a kind of pipe. a rattle Fr. — (Dozy) ing blow. Gael. sphere gleba. Cite. . Comp. may cite w. to mention. circum. to go. . the tongue. empty Golius. a cistern. The syllables clap. . Alt. to clack. sip. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. clapping of klacke. Hence Incite. clasp. whence cistiti. G. clamer. Citadel. Fr. chatter . kluV. compared with It. Gael. . ON. clamare. a city. around. klak. The Gr. a cleansing place. to strike. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. and Sp. claim. klappe. glambar. biw. cista. Sw. clat. . ciste. Sp. See -cid-. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. klacken. to clatter. ter. clot ON. in the frequentative form. . clatCot. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. klap. prattle. clamras. civitas. clack-dish. ruin. sajira. to chatter . Citron. Clam. ern. a lemon tree. a loud uksa slamketi. a reservoir Probably from Lat. a kind of rattle. * Cistern. The notion of a lump. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. clamp. a boss . E. a place See place hiddern. klater-busse. a'upiav. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. . excite. a Pol. circ2tlus. Fr. Du. a block. Circum-. fall. To Claim. of citta. domern. claquer crash. circle. a mass. twig. chupon. Lat. and E. sound- — hands figures. klimp. parallel root is slam. Bohem. Clump. It. or quill to draw waier through Fl. a rattle . clamp. klacke-busse. lump. klepati. clap. chupon. circa. trunk. rattle . ring. cion. klamp. Dan. civilis. Scion. Lat. or clap-dish. cion. G. cry out . claquer. clapper. chijfre. Lat. a judgment cern. to summon or call on. W. Fr. dim. scion or sucker. a shoot. noise. crack. 'mass.. We . a block. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . creak les dents. klambr. Clamp. From Arab. around. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Cot. . Lat. about. citrus. to call. bunch. accordingly find the roots dab. Gr. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . bunch . the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. sprig. a clod Russ. to knock. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. noise — — a cistern. cieo. klumbr. a whirlwind. with an initial s instead of c. circum. cry. is traced by Gr. vociferation. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. cisterna. clambar. Chaste. ball kloben. clap. klqb. to chatter. forms — — — parent plant. castus). a lump Du. clangor avium . a ring. to make to go. a citizen . klubb. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. belonging to cities or social life . gutter. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. to cry out. a ball. to cluck. &c.to suck. Du. sindri. slam.

dientes. klimmeii. in a hidSen place. to glue. compression. of money Gael. Salainen. . whence sala. cream Manx doan. To sticky. the in many languages. contraction. klamme. scendants. to glue. to clamp. B. Du. substances of a stickydam. holdfast. Du. dam immediate modifications — . to seize. viscosity . and hence to pinch . a craCmp. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. to climb. E. to beat. gripe. These words To are closely connected with damp. . dang. to clutch or cling oneself up. to starve. tinkle. dienklebber. chatter. to pinch. a burr. Mampe. who occuG. of the children. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. closely analogous to that of the fast. strait. clav\f. to climb. accent. to hide. klynge. massy. The E. G. clangor. c). — Lat. to do anything with a clap. klemmen. strain . E. to knock. kleppe. Sw. Dan. dee. where- A — unto they retire themselves. to claw oneself up. clajnmy. klamre. sound. children. klem-vogel. These are imitations of a loud. — . a heap of stones or other things piled up . to. clap. G. klepati. to climb . An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Fr. B. klemmen. klappen. resonance klingen. dambar. . tone. a whip. clandestine. klettern. solid. pinching. Dan. tenacious. Halma. Clamp. G. damor. a bird of prey. clink.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. kloben. diver. celo produces Fin. cling. to hold to pinch. brawl. klubber. originally a heap of large stones. a rattle . dandestinus. clapper of conies. clibby. apprehend . to cling. klobber-saen. hold. clann. klemmen. club . &c. viscous. bandage. a claw . run to lumps Clandestine. klette. rattle. or klamp-vogel. grimper. The root which gives rise to klibb. kleppe. klippe. sticky Hal. Lang. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. . seize. to hold fast with the . clap. narrow. dapier. dam. tremble . tattle. klepel. . . dapier. a sound made by a lighter clink. tingle. Lat. is a nasalised form of gripper. klepanie. OE. G. Clap. as the Lat. to cleave or stick. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. rumour. dia. klatten. Clamour. a trap. sound . clamber. klappen. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. klang. yf. To clap in E. to gingle. offspring. a noose . from birdlime. adopted Lat. knocking. for tame conies. privately. to climb. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . with cramp-irons. clammy brace. dial. klebern. klammer. take hold of. cramp. klam. Clapper.p correspond- ' without order. pressed close or hard together. — with hunger. dam. to stick or glue. klank. gliong. a claw. klam7n. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. sound. kleppen. of which the locative case.1. clear sound. a loud tingle. prison. dap up. Clan. dapi^. to hook things together. a place underground where rabbits breed. dam. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. — — . sound of the trumpet . ney. to clap on. sound object . cleave.. clapas. a sound. Clink. hook. See Clam. — Cot. klibber. The equivalent of Lat. Swiss kletten. Russ. conceal. to Sw^. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. chief. klamm. ring as metal. clasp. descendants . a sound made by a still . In like manner Du. dank. but perhaps not directly from it. A i. cramp-iron. tight.' to take coals to Newcastle. buckle klamp. a heap of stones. dem. anything hidden. salafa. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . klopfen. Hence the Fr. to knock.' klibba. from the w. to dame. to climb. and hence moist. AS. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. hands or claws to grasp. chatter. clang. — Climb. cluster. gum. Du. a stone See Claim. klappre. daver. dren. to clap. crowd . Bav. beat. grasp. G. nature . children. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. damras. stick. Swiss kldbem. dial. a hawk. compress. to stick conceal. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. kleben. kluppel. dink Du. also to clog up. is used in the sense of secretly. G. klynge sig op. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. Dan. bond. The Fr. E. beating. Bohem. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. uproar. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klampen. Gael. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to Hal. to patronus. To Clamber. and that from celo. coagulated cream. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. glambar. to daub pinch. as the clapping of hands. klavre. G. klammern. Clank. Dan.er. E. to climb. salaan. ancestor. a stick. Clang. Du.

In E. sauna de classes. ivy. klouwe (Kil. seizes) . to end. from the resemblance to a key. a bunch. from its use in fastening things together. klatsche. in the sense of a mass or lump. an ending. vin clairet. Fr. But clasp or elapse. a. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. &c. clarin. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. klaequivalent to clack or clap. schnalle. from clinging to the tree which supports it. to animals Sp. a buckle. a key origmally a crooked nail. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Claret. a clod. Originally clasis. —Kil. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. thwack . also a knell for the dead. thence a definite head of an edict or law. a little hook . Lat. with a reddish tint. E. contraction. to shut. a complete sentence. — tells us. a heap. clew or fasten upon a thing. Serv . a lump . clew. i. and shrill-sounding trumpet. to knock. Commonly made. mass. From claudo. globus. KXeiSi. The collar-bone.\x\xvn. klaterbusse. clamp. Analogous Jam. mass. somewhat clear. vinum helvolum. It. klijven. chiarello. syrtium junctura. klouwe. Clavicle. fracas. It. klampe. ictus resonans. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . ghespe. crying. — Kiittner. Identical with ON. to draw it up into a bunch. Sw. Thus from clamp. klaeret. to rattle .ck a whip. and through v into a. kiosk bicza. pet. to patter. gaspe. applied in their harness. kleeven. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. chiaro clear. Klatsch- a pop-gun . and old red rose-water. klc^i.. classis. a nail. waU. insularum nexus . clavis. to fasten. or as G. which signifies a ball in E. as Mod. blab. kletse. we pass to the E. Lat. clump. Clasp. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. globus. klucz. klatschen. uproar. a water made of aquavitse. Wyutoun in Jam. sound of the foregoing description.Gr. the primary origin clapa. hook. forms are the Du. clopa.oi. he of white and red grapes mingled together. klos. From clairet. a kind of small. diver. assembly. ansa. a lump. a claFr. Fr. hawk. rubellum. Du.). and clavis. Gr. under three modifications dava. glcis. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. to clap . e. Eau clairette. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. . dap. cinnamon. whence kleuer. straight-mouthed. a. as it is written by Chaucer. Du. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. 269.w or u on the other. Du. Clatter. pellet . klatschen. subrubidum. the collar-bone. In the same way is formed the OE. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. claw (what fastens together. . teren. clair. klase. is used in Sc. Clew. an on the one hand. sphaera. biichse. Du. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a lash. Sp. kluczka. Lang.— CLARET clamp. stop of an organ. clausum. The form clew. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. same class with w. to fasten together . To clew. Thus from Lat. Owl and that by which cleave to. cloi. to snap. chiarino. a key KKtitid. biichse. Eya-klasi. clausula. flap. Cot. Du. a key. chiizjj-o. cluster. a ball. it is called clamming. clairon. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw.to cra. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Pol. klauw. vin claret. klot. clarinado. Clause. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Rayn. in the sense of a claw. a clasp. Clash. to do anything with a . nawith stanis. Class. Nightingale. The b readily passes into gleba. fragor . — Clarinet. chasguear. rion. a distribution of things into groups. Prov. compression. clas. K\a. row aii/iaTos. a club or massy stick. Du. from scknallen. &c. klaskad. as G. to ring in such a manner for the dead. G. clavus. locket of a door. fibula. Lat. klatscha pop-gun. claret win e. So Pol. clairon of a trumpet— It. a sphere . Dan. klamme. Russ. clatter.It. Kil. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. buckle. puUs.Z. to clash as arms. klampvoghel. kleuen. nail. Fr. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Claw. a claw. the cracking of a whip. chatter. — Clarion. a bird with powerful talons. to cleave. Lat. klauwe. Nawith stavis. noise. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. skeria-klasi. is preserved in Lang. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. bawling. climp.

sleek. Sc. Sc. vice. or of a tree. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . Du. seem formed dial. celebrated . Omklinken.— Clag. as the Du. klor. glbr. Gael. G. E. clean. i. clean. glent. together . dut. klirre. sticky earth. klinke. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. glan. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. kleg. the two parts of Du. dag. . Clean. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. is fast and sure. rive. to fasten E. from nitere. gingle. kleg. give a shrill sound Jr. Da. The word may be — . kla:g. glan. a key. calm. and. a latch. either by the coherence To Clepe. to stick to.— . or from being divided into two parts. a mass. Kil. The Dan. sticky. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. neat. The proper meaning of the word is shining. glance . bright. to shine . to chink. clash. The word is . glitta. a in that of sphtting. found in other cases. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. a flash. and Dan. deot. to clinch a nail. (Cot. Probably a modification of the word doitt. ON. klov. Da. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. dial. split. AS. provinciaUy termed dout. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. dinquet kleeven. a cleft or fissure. dams. klinke. . clean. ON. polish . kleben. Sw. opposite senses. a claw or talon. clemens. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. viz. diquetcr. klieuen. . as Fr. to 2. to be composed. kloben. the fork of the body. glandse. kleverig. klinken. as Lat. pure . to clinch GB. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. clink. kldnkelein. klinka. clear. klinken. to sound or make a noise . glor-mhor. a noise. dedgy. the original . Lat. klceg. Thus from G. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. to fasten. Mar. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. splendid pohshed. Sw. To call. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. This word is used in two business is finished off. doff. E. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. and E. an object is simply cleft. Halma. cliquet. voice. to cleave. to fasten. This is probably one of the clean. tongs. klinke. — : A rivet. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. clout. From clap. klove The Dan. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. from the clinking of the latch. gleit. in two ways. gaklankjan. B. holding together. klouen. Da. . a clincher. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . kloben. kluft. dags. river. nitidus. Sw. a cleft. bend in a stream.). to glitter. sticky . cloven wood. vissticky . chaps in the skin. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. that was a striking proof. To Clench. 154 CLAY dutch. to stick or adhere . Wilbraham. that was Torriano. kloue. Du. a bunch of When flax). Lat. as explained under G. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . clibby. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. Cleft. a fissure. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Bav. Cleat. klink. famous. glan. to tear or cleave asunder. See Clam. Fr. date is AS. bogs cous. klutsch. merciful. glatt. mud. glbram. glitnir. klafwa. glindse. words applicable sight. kleevig. lump. G. pure. the latch of a door. and Celtic glan. clear. Dan. G. kluyte. loam. Du. Du. neat. Clay. from diquer. radiant. conserere antklankjan. a fissure or division See Cleave. gentle. klyft. it cleave together. a — — . klincke. a one end. G. klinken. kluftholz. speech . to clench.Q. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. klouen. klank.— Claggy. viz. Axletree clouts. klirren. daggy. to Brilliant. ON. geklonken. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. cleave. to shine.' was nailed to a rock. to clink or sound. clay . A — A Clement. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. hook. Clemency. danche. Clear. klieben. rift. smooth. a lump. 2. explained from the klinken. kluit. pretty. a noose. dench. a plate. E. Du. . door-latch. Du. clear. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. glint. kloben. glorious. a lump. rivet. G. klag. doggy. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. Clinch. pure. klijveii. Die zaak is zS. polished. See Clog. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. the To Cleave. clean. shine. to separate into parts. a mass. as ON. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. to dag ox dog. a cleft. W. . From dob. pellet.

Cot. a clicket or clapper. The Sc. to tattle. clerus. Klover i munden. Now the OE. babble. klouwe. dob. hamraklif. an inclination. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Gr. derigon. dever. pen. from Gael glac. diquette. a latch . . a ladder. chatter. click. Dunbar in Jam. dial. dek. claw or talon to dek or deik. Click. CLINCH De . . clep. Du. Sp. . Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Claw. score7i clif. cliff. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). deudi. to wink. Jam. Lat. Da. and (with the nasal) — clincher.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. to seize. cleft of a hill. klaffen. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. a hold. light-fingered. Fr. kleppen. a tumbril. a child's or clack . rock. deuck. call. syn.) Brai. G. derigo. icXi/ja?. scar. a ball of twine. the dick of a latch or a trigger. Det er en Mover kerl. deik. Rouchi cliche. quick in motion. ized . dergi. klinge. klaiv. and hence deik. say. rapidus from rapio. . chatter. a hook. diver. clypian. Clerk. clif- stanas. derjon. to cry. a claw or clutch. See AS. derecia. and hence climate.dergie! Wiclif in R. to bend. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. to catch. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. with hamarskard. clack. as from derido. e. 3. click. Clam. as a click with the tongue. a cleft in a rock . cliquet. Boh. deuch. precipice. cautes. the knocker of a door. which in Mid. See Clench. rock. clever. narrow hollow between precipitous banks .' ii. clif. cleke. pulsare. Clever. See Clamber. Climax. crepare. Sc. call. the clergy clericus. one admitted to the tonsure. dutch). to talk as a parrot. In I Peter v. cleopian. clyf. exactly Gr. ravine. Hence Lat.. precipices. globus. seize (Hal. to cleave. clima. Lat. klever. klinket. klikklakken. crack. a precipice. to stir. clap. deik. in precisely the same sense as the E. Climb. verge). a baU of yarn. dough. to teU tales. what so men clappe or crie. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. quick of perception. ginally from dob (extant in W. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . cliof. a cliff. snatch. is NE. CLERK sound of a blow. would have been derida. Du. sink. chat. We movement catch. to tattle. highest is attained. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. name. chatter. a sphere. that is a clever feUow. on. 3. G. dexterous. Somner. Cliff. dink. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. klok klep- crepitare. Commonly derived from deliver. speak. frap- per rudement une personne. dicher. in rhetoric. sonare. corresponding to the Sc. Bav. slope . a latch. diofian. above the pole. to prate. dial. kliket. as Sc.). kleppe. rupes . nimble. to clack. Du. one of the clergy. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. region not observe it. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. a figure mentioned. a clerk .— Clue. littus. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. &c. Chaucer. cliquer. it must be observed. cave . — have the notion of a short quick in E. dial. /cXi'fia. Lat. clever. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. whence Fr. — — A . a lump. The origin is the Gr. klif. Sw. a hump. crackle. d See Clan. But the Dan. Client. gleg. -Toe (from KXivm. de ripa.— Clicket. a lazar's clicket or clapper. glomus. to rattle.Lat. Clew. ready of speech. klev. catching. to snatch. to catch. the clergy. lively. dichet. klikker. which is used in Scotch and N. cart that tilts over. duke. Happen. agile. a lot. to sound an alarm to clap. or Sc. rugged ascent. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. temperature. prattle. Clergy. has kl'dver. or an object character- Clerical. dook (identical with E. cligner. stein- kluppen. klippe. has also deik. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. neither as having lordship in the. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. expeditious. kliv. in the sense of active. abrupta rupes . in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. click. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. on. cleft. klinke. —Vocab. a clew. AS. from clifian. duik. klippe. a trigger. to confess . Norm. to move. KkrifoQ. IS5 Du. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. a mill-clack . cleft in a rock. click it. OE. skard. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. cleugh. a latch. had a form. kloof. clatter. climate. corresponding to Fr. klika. as Lat. declivity. Climate.

shears. hooded . to ring. ring clag. Gr. rima. and a similar syllable without the /. kXiVu. Serv. klinken. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. as G. klok. klippen. also to wink . kukla. klunker. to snap kneipen. kleppe. to bend downwards . klipa. clock is a variation of clack. to crowd together klynge sig ved. clato make a noise. a lump. as we now say three or four o'clock. four of the bell. a hood. hluccti.'— Shaks. difficulty. clinke. ' . a snare. iissura. acclivis. disposed to a thing. to beat. to shrink up.' for a dry stick. 156 -cline. To cut with shears. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to pinch. met. to make a loud noise. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . To Clip. Du. to snap or fillip schnippen. Du. a woman's mantle . pinch. speaks of a ' clung bat. -atum. * Clod. dial. knippe. clivus.ginglej Fr. dial.' From Pl. to form one mass with. klocke. Gael. G. clinker. Clink. to . to snip. kol- The word . In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. ON. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. . See Clang. klippe. sloping forwards. club). toga muliebris. a ball of thread . Bohem. klik. dial. a rising ground. Du. knippchen. tuft. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. by bits. to clip. gUong. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. 2. ON. difficulty . Clock. Da. G. pallium. incline. or bagging clothes. dag. kluppe. a faction. . klippa. to clap or clack. chcng. to lean. klynge.D. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. kolki-laud. a clog or fetter for a beast . klunge. Swiss klokken. &c. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to crowd or squeeze chingy. Sussex peasant AS. Sw. Fr. cochl. a cluster. ON. clique. at first probably on a wooden board. incline. to beat on the board. G. The E. Bohem. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. klo^gen. to AS. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. from klepati. brett-glocke. schnippen. outcry. Sw. in Schmeller) klunk. klak. a bell. N orman clincailler. 'Till famine cling thee. parva ruptura. knippen. toga. Sw. Ir. Cloak. Lat. — a mantle. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. to wither. g. especially of something soft or clammy. hlinen. Decline. -CLINE make pinch. To Cling. . Hal. also to form a compact mass. Flem. to pinch klupe. . . cloche. See Cowl. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. to knock. klepalo. Swiss klungele. globulus' (Gl. hill . noise. to cluster. Esthon. . and 'E. E. klocke. a tinman. Bi klik uti klak. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. . Lat. . from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. klippa. klicke. to clink auf.. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch.. declivis. klippur. straits. klingen. sticky. w. as to snip in the same sense from snap. cloak. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. slant. Kil. Sw. to sound sharp. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. kliks. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. knot klynge. kolbe to E. Cliofue. Walach. a beU. sloping upwards procUvis. and so' to contract. as thick or curdled liquids. E. a separate portion. klincke.und zuk-lippen. fetter. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. verklungeln. clangere. gang. I. klungeln. clingan. Sw. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. Du. klaka. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow.. pinch. to slope or bend .— Clot. klinka. OHG. clog. hlinian. ten. glocke. .D. to strike. whence E. to cling to a thing. — clot. to shrink up. recline. bow. related to clock. clino. a bell. to wither. Pl. like cling. kima. S w. klungelin.. a lump G. The notion of a loose moveable substance. glungelin. hluk. a lump of butter. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. compress . claw.— KSS. a clock. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. to clunge. kldpp. G. clips. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. G. klocka. sloping downwards . dial. to resound. kluben. To stick to. Ang. clutch. nip. G. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. -cliv-. klupen. to snap tongs. quincailler. Fr. to lean backwards. Een kliks bolter.

splash. a spot. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. kladde. clammy loam. to rattle. congeler. of something clammy or heavy. klos-bane.rge lump. zocco. paddle. we pass to E. schlattern. dunch). dial. a clod Swab. dag. the radical sylla. claudo. a Christmas log. clotted milk klotte. claggy. lopperig. Fr. .D. A — — A Thus from Bav. loose. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. Du. is a blot on one's character. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). mud. Mat. Russ. . to close against one. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. lag. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. to cling locks. a block. finish . TZoxapov.— Clothe. doitre. kloteispaen. The game called ninepins. in accordance with Pl. to flounder in the wet. in accordance with It. Cloister. bemired. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. a clog. a dirty wench claggy. slab. slop. klateren. to play at bowls. to shut. lob. klot. from claudo. to bedaub. Fr. klac. watery. to wabble. clogs for the feet klakk. whence klack. I clodde.. an imputation. klotzschuh. mud klcEg. lump of something soft . sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. kloster. to spill liquids. spatter. . lump of mud on the clothes . da- . schlettern. wide bagging clothes. pattens G. G. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. to bubble. a skittle-ground klos- sen. lopin. clot. Close. from Du. bespotted with mire E. truncus. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. . of a body of any kind. beklakken. or loppern. . slabberen. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Yule-clog. or E. wabbling from Du. Bav. in comp. fat. clorre. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm.D. a monastery. thick sour milk. He was a man without a dag. shaky. Pr. zoccoli. and Gael. clog or overshoe. a log. to claggock. Idppern. -clusum. to lobberig. slob.dial. slops). lobbig. meat from Du. spot of dirt. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. klottern. . MHG. schlottern.. schlotter.). to a. is connected with pludder.'^ Palsgr. dab. to slop or spill liquids. slobber. ! .1a. je amoncele. then liquid or loose substance. in forms like Du. clatk. mire. klod. loblolly. daggerey. . we pass to Schlatter. to dabble. Pm. klos. I doda clod. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. E. daustrum. G. be&c. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. Du. Pl. -cludo. clogs. Klak also. . . a lump from Du. kloden. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. to sup up liquid food. slobberen. lump of butter. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. slops slodderen. . E. tuditare. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. a log. klakken. a field inclosed clos. dangle. clotted locks Dan. lunch. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. loose trowsers. paddle or dabble in the wet. dirt. motte. . m&se noch stain. AS. loose mud. hanging loose and full. clos. figer. compared with clump. slobbe. from Fr. rattle. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. to flap as loose clothes. klotz. neither spot nor hang loose. forbidden by 17 Ed. Dan. paludosus. a blot. clausum. fors. kloten. plod. 3. lobberen. The origin of clod and clot is to . to bodies. kleck or lack. Lat. with Fr. klakk. a clod. to shut. Closhe. Hence inclose. aspersion. kl'dnken. It. Swiss schlott. blot. a trowelful of mortar. like G. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to dash like heavy rain. laggyn. motzen. • lump. be found rattle. gelatinous. g. bloutre. a blot.' end. to rattle or shake to and fro. . claque. kloteren. Pr. lobberen. a portion of something soft and adhesive. . a bal!. shut up. Gr. klunkern. klokotat. chiudere. clausum. and Du. I clodde. log. terminate. boil. Lat. clos. foreclose. A . . dirt. . tramp in wet or mire. tJokok. To Clog. Klottermelck. laggery. close. loppered (of milk). without. IV. -close. closed. and thus seem endowed . klag. bowl . Fr. analogous plan to clod or club. schlott. -clus-. inclose. chiuso. unctuous.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. His heart was franlc without a flaw. Fr. or Sc. Sc. enOE. to paddle in the wet. lumps of butter. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. kleck. pludre. miry laggerit. curdled. In the same way Dan. loppe. thick spoon . separate part. a babbler. to shut in. Clog. or drablyn with separate existence. cloth. shut up. to shut up. to dabble. to rattle. and E. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. geschlotter (as E.

Clown. make warm. sheltered up warm. a fissure. mire. Du. Du. knob. Du. Rouchi dapoter.bar. clydion. cobio. klcBdi. klubbe. lie clyd. mud (Pat. (kruyd =. duthaich.). boucher. kUid. a ball. formed lump or thick mass. lump. a clove of garlick. Then applied to a lump of mate. dial. Du. ball of thread Russ. botsen. klieven. rustic. block. The priClout. Gael. clot. G. to splash. to stop. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. a bunch. ON. lump of earth aria. naegel. bunch. to cloy. log. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. Mabousfrom Lat. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clot . Sw. caillebottes. and clay. Sp. and clout d eudaich. 2. — . To Cloy. probably from daboter. when something has got into the touch-hole.). coarse. Clumpered in balls of clouds. In the same way E. warm place . clothes). from Du. a patch. clammy earth. a ball. mass. and of a rustic unpolished person. to a lump. — — — . clods. klotzig.clod. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. To Cluck. to strike . of nagel. G. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. from W. blockish. clog. shel- kloen. . a clod. dial.ft. From dog. clumhar. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. esdaboter (Roquef. kldverj P1. from kloven. are often connected. a ball of twine .). clothe. a garthas. klump. and closely do conspire. motte. clue. a blabber. G. a breach. a curdled sky. ser. clou de girofle. a cover or coverture . Sw. Kiittner. E. puddle. clavo di especias. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. Club. as Fr. a sky Cot.Fris. E. a clod or clot. to cherish. dillad bumkin. Gael. loggish. w. a bunch. klubba. botch. . Cloud. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). klubben und klicken aufgeloset. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clobyn. kluppe. a ball. AS. Move. a .). klebek. a lump. warm clothes {dillad. Dan. piece Cot. tuft. stock. lunch). warm. More in R. and tapp. strike. klu77ip. choke or stop up. w. del mattond. clyd. nourish . to beFr. diboter. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. . dash (Cot. to cover Bret. . dob. nelke (dim. a boss. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. the air. are also used in the sense of a stopper.D. A kind of spice resembling Du. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. kloven. Ir. klunds. dote. wisp. chiodo di girofano. clump of a clout on the head. zolla. cludadh. matte. group of people Sw.D. a nail) Fr. Das volk hat sich in splitten. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. of sloppy materials. klubb. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. clotted milk or cream. Met. klever. Pl. klumpfot. and -the word Clove. kloete. klubb. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. cloud Delfortrie. also homo obtusus. a sticky. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. It. a bobbin. N. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. hebes (Kil. a log. G. clothes ment. spice) G. knob. Du.D. warm. klotsen. Du. nagelein. to tramp in the kluyve. ON. dial. I. sticky. . klove. but confounded with cailler. So Fr. a bunch. to lump mend clumsily. een klaven kruflook. the terms expresssplit. de Champ. a lump. clump. lump. kluV. klaven. Clump. A division of a root of garlick. of thumping clumsy action. to strike. a clubfoot klabb. davus. clot. AS. milk run to lumps. to cleave. dut. clunch. cob. mary sense is a blow. eine to slop. a clown.' Sanders. Imitative of the note of a society. daggy. a knot of people. a bousche. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. klobbersaen. kl'dnne. Properly that which covers and Du. a thick mass. aglio. lumps of curd. . klonte. klotz. in the same sense. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. indispalte knoblauch. a log. cobble. CLUCK rustic. dabaire. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. dabosser. little nails. tered . clod is used in both senses . E. from OFr. klumba. The significations of a clod or lump. cluth mhor. unpolished. a nail. sheltered . a. clod. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. lump. Cld. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. to cleave or the splashing of water. clunch. klqb. a clot or keeps one warm. dys. cluster. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . eene ODu.158 . with lout. Fr. cludaim. dirt. dump. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . zolla dell' . of a lump of earth and that figure. CLOUD an awkward clod . Clover. The radical sense seems to be an unE. to curdle.

Beklummen van kelde. a ball. Lat. Clutch. G. klikonosy. a bunch. —More. to tramp. idle.forklomme (Outzen). riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. clointer. to tramp. a pinching time. clopiner.D. Du. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. clausum. pladdern. — sen. close. klontet. Cluster. from klupen. klobber in klobbersaen. MHG. In the same way Du. klunt. a clove Sw. clumsy. . cleche. Boh. to curdle. klont.P. glocire. unfashioned. G. a nasalised form of club.. See -elude. But clunchy. bunch. a clot klissen. klister. limp. klunsen. Isaiah. Du. klump. coccolare. to pinch. are the nasalised forms of klotte. clutch. and klonteren. . to syllable click. ill-made . as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. — ' — — tonista. Coach. a noise. a ball . verklomen. koetblockish. might be reached from clump. to collect in lumps.E. -CLUDE hen Du. Hesse. exclude. rial. splash. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. glousser. to to snatch. Analogous forms with a tongs. clutch. whence koetse. lay hold of.D. G. a clod or The noclot. a lump. a couch. beklummen. dystere. Hindust. OE. tight — — . Cheshire.D.'— animal. algidus. to rinse. a clod clunter. E. dial. klcise. Ang. klompen. to shut. as clumper. Sw. seize. to paddle or dabble. ' Thou clontsest for cold. awkward. verkommelen. to benumb with cold. ment. Fr. n. eviratus. — . When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. * Clump. Champ. -clus-.pare P1. dumpse. esclaboter. klummerhdndt. koetsie. Compare Swiss klupe. Hence cleik. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. dial. a clod or lump. -olus-. lump of soft mate. dek. — Hence include. an instrument for nasal form e. ether comelia P. claws. wagen. dek. E. to tramp or tread heavily. a litter.e. obstructum. xXvariip. claw. Pm. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. OHG. G. cleuk. smart motion. unwieldy Hal. crooked inwards . ON. Gr. Sw. a lump or compact mass. carriage in which you klodset. conclusion. klimpern. hands stiff with cold. kluntfrom KKvKdi. from ON. . klomen. pinched. klikaty. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Riwle. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. er. eviratus. cleik. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. as from seken. klumpern. benumbed with cold. doquear. -clusum. and klotteren. dumps. Cath. -cludo. dial. clump. to lie. ball as snow. to stick together . klisse. The sense of awkward. ' Clumper. Lat. as Fr. unhandy. a block. It. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. —To Clumsyd. a lump. clook. MHG. claudo. through the senses of lumpish. klomje. klocken. fingers (familiar). in comp. a clod or lump. wooden sole. awkward.' Wycliff. &c. klummklummshandt. dial. unhandy. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. plad or plod. Du. a claw. to squeeze. properly to do anything Fr. enervatus. inclusive. havi. a coach. of garlick. with a quick. to klotz. calling her chickens. * Clumsy. See reclusion. lavesen.' Comfort ye dumsid. Graff in Klamjan. ' . klonte. Sp. Clutter. hondis. viscous material. cluntClyster. log. in v. Pl. Du. hand to cleuk. klos. beklommen. . klemmen. thick and clumsy. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . ' Uorte (for clogs. having the Pl. klampa. From the notion of sticking together. kichlemmit. clip or pinch. or aclommyde. — Cot. Sc. Pl. differing only in the absence of the duik. 159 E. Fris. paste. wooden shoes. A group.' Benecke. coucher became in unhandy. Fr. -elude. of Du. klonte. The Fr. klods. Fr. koetsDa. kohle. kol. from laver. to gingle. ball of snow on horse's foot . dussomed (Wilbrabam). conclude. and koetse.— — . gelidus. and make ye strong feeble knees.mene tied. acomelydfor could Pr. klette. Muster. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Teulazy. -close. may recline. Variation of clatter.Ancr. also a cluster. eene beklum. to grip. 130. cliboter. hooknosed. cluster. or from Sw.' Vegecius in Way. heavily. Hence snatching. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. dumpers. to curdle. to curdle. Coal. clotted cream. duke. Clump. the word is more probably connected with OE. Du. COAL dumpish. klemma. klamp. koetsen. klumpig.D. strum on an instrument. Ray. to wash. Lincolns. Com. to wash. finish. klamen.D. with E. clabosser.

— Cobble. are round stones or round coals of small size. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. s. e. top cobio. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. Pm. pustule. cotta. a darling. a bunch. bredouiller. ailina or colina. .the water boils. Coalition. to speak or act confusedly. inflammation. side . woman is said to be very ordinary. cule cocosse.inflated with air or liquid. Sanscr. and imperfect or unskilful action. The Fris. Coarse. haggle. niais. that is. a spider (/r)^=grub. cofasse. Fin. blaze. or upper . dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . . glow jvalaya. coste.' Nares. viz. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. unfledged bird. tuft. of E. dim. Coalesce. koljarn. E. to peck as a hen cobyn.. The contrast between the bee • Cob. to glow . are often connected. ON. to knock. a tuft. Outzen. to bungle . and jval. and fig. meaning that she is plain and coarse. atter-kop. a woodlouse. also a coast. tempered clay for building. — — — E. w. a coat or frock. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. small pox (pocks) . To cobble. Pm. or cobble. It. says Varro. glow.). Trevoux. grown together.. Flem. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. probably from the Fr. of poison. a thumper. and thence a lump cobnut. kylla. . Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. a bubble.. plaisant. a nest. koppen-gespin. to Lett. . cobcoals. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . Fr. a pock mark. caleo. niais. large coals. cluster. in Essex Jow*2c^. as shown in dob and cob. — — . throw a blow. from bearing a bag. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. and the spider as collectors. coalesce. Colina' the place where a fire is made. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. things. habble. the one of thump. cochinilla. rivation are found in Sw. one Pr.a spider. — Cleveland Gl. acomelyd or aclommyd. pryf-coppyn. A plausible origin. gull. to hobble . cob is a dumpy horse. give the full meaning of the word. from some fancied resemblance. an egg. to wheedle or gull vermin). burning. cob. a similar According to Ihre. cobble. dial. then to work unskilfully . and E. Formerly written course. may be A found in Sw. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. to form an union with another coalitus. COCHINEAL Cobber. hakkelen. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. cacd). dial. to stutter. OE. Cobbles in the N. s. cock or nescock.' — Thus from (Hal. an old idiot. * To Cobble. quele. large stones . nursery lang. a knock. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. a cobweb. When the . in Du. It. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. and hobble. Du.). to bungle Sc. to kindle or cause to burn . to cobble shoes. — Cobbler. a bungler. dial. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. of E. cokes or fool of him. a spider. as in arr. ignem. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. ordinary as in the expression of course. to worship. itself is Nescock . or E. klabbsmed. is one of thump. spinne-ivebbe. cotte. broddelen. however. to be hot. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. k'dlla. Sp. The OE. A spider's web. . probably left his home. Lat. imbecille. of cochina. dial.