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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


muK) and mae (rfie. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). the baaing of the sheep. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. in language of the present day. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. mind of the of the animal. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. persons of different tongues at the present day. in other words. by whom the be understood. to the syllables which are significant to the child. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. when neither name for the object to be designated. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. the present day. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. come Moolls. is given to a cow or calf. but nothing she herself knows the animals. with an initial m or I. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. or. or Mollein. and. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. name of the cow. The syllables moo (mu. the closer we shall approach to the .NURSERY IMITATIONS. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. and mully or mully cow is the . without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and where we are seeking. when we is represent to our children of the cow. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. Molli.

I had watched the growth of this word. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. then. On one occasion he said^e nim. . . in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. and nim came to signify everything edible. 72). He would now say good. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. as well as the mind of the utterer. had nim. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. by the natural humming sound. to For instance. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Gr. nineteen years old. &c. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. partly from sounds which the child caught. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. for bad. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. for things. We have. family. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. p.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. to work over with the mouth. nim. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. and which we might express thus. A member of my own new sfop. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. became more perfect. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat.' In ordinary speech mump.' he says. Heinicke. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. Finally an n was placed before it. his nurse adopting the word with him. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. he called to to drink. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. and some were very clear and distinct. analogous to Magyar mammogni. to eat. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. hm. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. for everything fit to eat. First.). Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. repulsive to eat. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. schipp. mumm. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed.. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. in children's language. when hungry. fiafifi&v (Hesych. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. Gradually.

mumpfeln. and the fizzing (and Series. to taste .' White man eat [or steal] the crab. snatched (Whitby Gl. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to Sw. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). to eat mampfen. savory. and the crab — p. ' Motherwell. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. ' id est. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. Primitive Culture. namnam. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. food (Tylor. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. A negro proOr. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . nyam nyam. and some of them . South Jutland hiamsk. to chew laboriously. nobis vix permittitur. to take. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. as to . delicacies. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). Galla djam djeda. to mump. greedy . sweet (Koelle). Soosoo (W. or word-making. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus.' And Diomedes. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. i. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). p. nam. Gothic niman.' says the author of Modern Slang. Wolof nahenahe. jammla. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to move the lips in continued chewing. palatable. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. dial. Vei (W. mujnpa.).minis. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. aves tinnire. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem.' — Lersch. and thence to be tasteful. nvrnma. aptantes adfectibus vocem. i8o. agreeing with Ein. jumla.ONOMATOPCEIA. memmexen. yamming. mumble. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. iii. Nimm'd up. make djamdjam). ut tinnitus aeris. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. on. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. lita. at hiamske i sig. buckra man's language the white man. Swedish dialect gamsa. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. to fill the mouth. we can call them so. Africa) nimi. as well as the Sw. the Scotch poet. jamsa (yamsa). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . crab nam buckra man. Africa) nimnim. to be pleamind . And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. clangorqae tubarum. tidbits nama .' says Quintilian. mumpfen. to smack in eat. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. eating. 130-1. j ing . djamdjamgoda (to say djam. (in chil- dren's language). oves lalare. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. to eat. . Sprach-philosophie der Alten. 1 86). voracious. stolen. taken up hastily on the sly.

bumping of bitterns. cackling or gaggling of geese. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. und growling. snarling. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. might be used as the designation of it. not of a moo of Lect. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. croaking of frogs or ravens. yelping. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. p. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. purring or mewing of cats. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. grunting or squealing of hogs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. that there is When Man. barking.' — We speak of a cow. gobbling of a turkey-cock. bellowing of bulls. bleating of sheep. baaing or maeing of lambs. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. neighing or whinnying of horses. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . sparrow and chirping. dove and cooing. twittering of swallows. lowing of oxen. when circumstances required. do not speak of a bowwow. but of a dog. for the purpose of bringing the animal. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. chattering of pies or monkeys. anything connected with it. or thoughts of our hearer. might be used. intended in the instance to represent the cry. 89) with less hesitation. chirping of sparrows or crickets. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. or. whether it deserves the name of language. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. 'I doubt. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. hooting of owls. ^6^.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. snarling of dogs. yelping. not of a baa. a lamb. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. between dog and harking. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. before the in other words. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. howling. Yet we ing.' he says.' And elsevs^here (p. cooing or crooing of doves. We . Indeed.

birds. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. Sauscr. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Barabra koka. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Picard cau. kae. and means a shouter. and gaggele or gagkelein. KOKKvi. 4th ed. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. coccolare. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. lion. In Lat. having a general predicative power. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. ghak. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. whose sound (Pictet. crow. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. according to Durga). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Arabic kdk.' kd).' common sense. and Bavaria respectively. Bav.). caw kuhii-rava (rava. kdka. Columbia kahkah. Hungary. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. a bird that is be driven away. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. fi-om apakd- i. a crow. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. Manchu The kaha. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. Kdrava. a crow (Pictet). is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. in is Gr. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Georgian quaki. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Malay gdgak. and the sound of that direction. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. e. crow. In Basque. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. We imitate the sound with a modulated. kauwe. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. 'Kdka. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. a daw. 349. gackem. it announces (Salaberry). 380.IMITATIVE NAMES. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Sometimes the hoarse i . is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence.. sound). is kuM) for the cuckoo. kuho. caller. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. He to is therefore derives kdka. Aoo-Aoo. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. ist ed. layitavya . a a crier (p.). Origines Indo-Europeennes). in g. or quawk. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects.

kuku. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. krahe. Malay kukuk. k. a crow . a crow lish Lith. cock. kukhuta. to howl or Lat. giving turtur (and thence It. Albacuculi a dove. korren. synonymous forms of similar structure). or Gr. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. coucouva. Du. t. while crouk. wood-pigeon.. tortbla. Walachian coucouveike. gufo. kraeye. Sp. name. kraeyen. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. coqueri- Languedoc. are represented. koeren. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Yoruba koklo. xi. reduplicate form. to crow.. girre. Esthonian kikkas. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Swedish kowipa. yell. Ibo akoka. the name of an animal will gen- . kirren. either in the same or in related dialects. tuquheit. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. kurre. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. and sometimes both together. ghughu. tbrtola. Mod. the name for a crow. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. So we have Polish krukac. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. name of its is the bird. to hoot. Scotch peeweip. Du. Fr. Lettish kiekuts. It. 6. another. and e. tur. gugu. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. hibou. French dishuit. lulo. German luhu. kukko. Pers. to crow. tbrtora. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. kraukti. Arabic tdtwit.Gr. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. krauklys. in the North of England. great variety of oKokv^uv. kruk. a crow. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. 219. uhu. to cry loudly. teewhoop. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. by the verbs gurren or girren. p. The crowing of cot in Fr. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Magy. German and Eng- krahen. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Hindi. and e. The consonants p. Heb. Zulu kuku. lUyrian kukurekati. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. to croak. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . turtle) as the Lat. lilits. libufs. as well as of Sanscr. German kielitz. coccovaec.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Da. Dutch kievit. to croak. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. tor.

schrickel. and not from E. oE. (Jieuschrecke) . loud rumour. We may cite Gr. skirl. and he kong-ko-rong. bee. i. Lat. The Welsh chwyrnu. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. 'The natives call it tanand. and probably indicates that g. ' — Pictet . resounding of musical instruments. g. schrecke. ta-na-nd. German dronen. gives rise to chwymores. from schrick. Danish gnaddre. The Arabic sarsor. of England it is to the b 2 . which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd.' Amazons. Sc. Arabic tantanat. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. Albanian tsentsir. North of England. schwirren. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. g. whirr). schirke. to chirp J may be compared with . Lith. g. to creak Bret. German drohne. zirken. and yelping cry. buzzing. with or Fr. 337. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. skril with n.IMITATIVE NAMES. glass cracking (Schmeller). a bee. a drone. din.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. ' Sanscr. grillen. there are infinite varieties. bambhara. or a gnat fly. Speaking of a cricket he says. to rustle. hollow noise. kong-kong. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. the humble. pip-pi-ta. a fly (Tylor) . In the N. to chirp . erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia.' —Tennyson. which they make in their flight very . knetta. Australian bumberoo.vf3. to hum. Fin. words imitative of humming .' — i. representing a short sharp sound. sirkka. little intermission. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. humming. booming. thunder. The drone peal. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . grylhis. flight its sting considered as a horn. cricket is from crick. a beetle druna. swirplys with 6. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. in allusion to its music. to shrill sound sharp. to be compared with Sanscr. grille. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. common. succeeding each other — with noise. from the humming. dhran. Northern Farmer. shrill. as .y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. ajo. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. the drone or non-working bee . bamba. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. — Catafogo. Danish dron. to grumble. horniss and from the buzzing The. The name of the cricket indeed. PofijivXwg. a sharp sound as of a 6. Corean sirsor. Lithuanian tranas. a hornet. buzzing. give a faint sound. to sound. skryle. e. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. chirk.or bumble-bee. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). sound. a small as hawk is . Sanscr. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Gaelic dranndan. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. Naturalist on the tocano. German hummel. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. growling. resound. droning is .

But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. btibleti. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. verbal form given to the say. representmake bow. to bow- own bawl. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. to or bark. or formed Lat. or moo. to the uses goda. and thence Lat. loge. bullus and e. His analysis leads cow. mugire. in same way. bue. whence baula. to make. are (with a subsidiary k). Piedmontese fi bau. a bullock.XX called booing. that the imitative syllable are Lith. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. It. to sound. bauli. The Piedm. to bellow like a bull. buculus. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. cattle. to bump as a bittern Illyr. Illyr. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. and in Hottentot baa was the . OFr. bu. amuse. to boohoo. bae. mugler. the Fr. boo. to shout. From baa. The Galla lilbil. Lat. lulauti (to hoo-loo). make poo. bubenti. k or g. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. w. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to shout. bucula. and djeda. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to . the animal. verb is evidently identical with our shout. a heifer. to low or bellow. or a z to the imitative syllable. Gael. bullock. to mew. Galla boa. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. (iove. Hottentot bou (Dapper). — ^Tylor. a bull. forms a. p. bubati. bugle. Lat. has bilbilgoda. to make a noise. maukati. representing the mew of a cat. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. say. in a imitation of a ringing sound. fivKaofiai. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bolt. baula. Zulu lulula. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. to low. w. as the Illyr. grumble as distant thunder . Norse bu. a Geiger. to ba-L-are. mamoo-heeheek. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. a cow. Thus from miau. and from to ring. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. Cult. to weep. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to from bau. a drum . Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). Da. Lat. bull. to beat hard. Manx booa. muJiati. to make a loud deep sound. 167. bo. shoot . to low . miau-l-er. agreeing exactly with Lith. bae. to make. or bau-l-i. Fr. as that of the cow by boo. biibnas. be-l-er. a buffalo. make to it laugh. bovis. is inadmissible. Fr. bugler. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. mae. From the same lioao). or with on. On the same principle. With these analogies. bukati. bwla. ox. bos.

and Circassian maylley. And it is true there between hog and grunt. cry).have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. kurren. lekavica. Manx meilee. hunon. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. Illyr. meil. Hence Breton hoc ha. and of (maelon). In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. menAda (ndda. mekegni. groin. hund. to bleat . grunlike a pig in eating. the designations of a dog the term cur. G. a sheep or ewe. goats. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. for the voice of the ox). ^. to growl. grumble. grumbhng. houch. name. meckern. does not produce a e. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. meugler. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Among dog. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). hwch. meigeal. to grunt. From the imitative mae. signifying a snarling. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a dog. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a pig Fin. — . karra. from knurre. by which the shingle gives rise to It. knurfisk. in v. and thence groin. Moreover. as lou of an ox. and grumphie. /xijeao/iat. . It. . the snout of a pig. a sheep or a goat. growl. Fr. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. oe. a sow. lecco. to themselves. this obstinate race. sheep or goat. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. may be identical with Esthon. Gr. Da. It is probable also that e. grunt. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. may with to snarl. Illyr. hadg- Magy. grumpf. nire.). cite as by grunt. purr). /xj/caScj. a. a sow. mutter. he would hardly. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. guttural tone. kurre. grumble. grogner. a goat firixal^ta. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. and with the subsidiary k or g. name of a sheep. / The same Gr. to rumble. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. to grunt. a goat. with the root ypaipm. lambs. from hundama. a sheep. Illyr. grunny. although the imitation embodied in Lat. to howl. leg-et-ni. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. a grunt. 6. smack and naski. Gael. a sheep (Lowe). leknuti. to bleat. ' In driving. a goat. hound. it and e. a hog. Idgge (Rietz). Fr. corresponding to ohg. Welsh and Breton). curmurring. hunt (gen. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Gr. to bleat. in Wolof bae. naskia. or in any ! way ! persuading. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. a pig. we have Sanscr. With gen. a wolf. and snorke. lek-eg-ni. and hoc'h. name of the animal itself. mecati.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. a (Hesych. . ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. Africa laa. meketati. rumbling. hundi). Gr. undoubtedly imitative. sound. Magy. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W.' Moor's Suffolk words. The g. Kurren und murren. sus-sus. grugno.

a horse. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. coquelicot. houpy in Craven. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. Esthonian hoibo. from the cry animal. But words of this kind are. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. Sc. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share.' ticular bird.). So Sanscr. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. (Craven Gloss. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. coquette. There are of course some names. hiine. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. hottihuh. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. Thus we are led to the Fr. ^6<. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. If onomatopoeias can . but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. such as cuckoo. a little am- bling horse. p. humma. turn a horse to the is In Finland. M). p.. of the character in question. e. to go backwards. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. to whine. animal. .root. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. xxii MULLER ANSWERED.' — ist Series. as in Yorkshire highly right. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. to the left. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. hobby. cockade.). and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. a mare. without a — we root. the cry to stop or back a horse. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language.. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. when he found peculiarity.' 2nd Series. hobin. hobben. g. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. like artificial flowers. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. hoppe. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. . huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. 91.

With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. groan. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. command of language was attained. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. horse. xxiii ginal object. runniken. moan. diver. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. redpole. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. hross. Du. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. hennir. rinchar. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. turtur and its derivatives had been lost.D. ginniken. wrena. Pl. creeper. fehtati. sol. to neigh. wagtail. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. Sp. g. nitrire. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. wrenska. than to the sounds represented. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Bohem. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. as sigh. hresh. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. hikkd. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. animals or certain kinds of sound. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. form corresponding hresh. signified It. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. but whether there kind between them and other words. nounced with a guttural). wiehern. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. giggle. lapwing. Fr. e. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . titter. Sanscr.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. swift. cough. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. little speak for themselves. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. frenschen. . to Sanscr. hukkup. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. woodpecker. whitename in in- throat. goatsucker. hresh. Irieschen. Sw. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. ance or habits of the animal. Lettish sweegt. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying.

a more expressive than the e. plitsch-platsch. 1865. bang ' ! trenches. for the for the sound of . a large bell. lumm. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. on the chops is represented also by pratx.' it both sides went. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. scream. for a small one. banke. knack. went the cannon. for in such sound of blows. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. to beat. .xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. Australian bungbung ween. Of a like forma- drum . oren : Klapp. clap ! A smack Puff.' 'Haw. hoo. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . &c. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. pit-a-pat. heart tick-tack. DingBang. White Lies. for the sound of a blow. the God of thunder . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. Vei gbangba. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. to knock. debhes-lungotais (deifies. root kshu.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser.' So imac. fitsche-falsche. Wtb. ping came the bullets about their ears. an attempt would be made to by the voice. —Brem. beat of a clock child . for the sound of a fall. thunder (Tylor) . for the report of a musket (Colenso) . To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. hang. strippstrapp-stroll. Zulu bongo. — Sanders. klatsch. bang. to sneeze. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. to hammer .' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. snore. bangas. to drive on. snukkup). banga. atchini. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. tisio (tisho). familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. aritischane. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. wheeze. knarr.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . dong Read.' ! ! ! ! — dong. heaven). beat. ting-ting. are familiar in ' to every one. Da. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. for the creaking of a wheel. &c. the dashing of the sea . haw. or tliat is accomit. shriek. ding. snort. hoo ping ping. for blows with a rod. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. pump. atchian. haitshu. to ham. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. a kind of drum. or the w. Mei gbengben. in a nail Let. to throw violently down. tlirob. for that of breaking. for the sound of milking. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. It is represented in e. mer.

and their relations. ducing the sound. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. to cry like imrli^u). doubtless. cry. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. Gr. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. young child . being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. and so forth. pu. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. calls S.sc. Lat. scream. Fr. pipegni. used as a call to . pigione. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. a whelp. is of expression. pipare. pipio. . pipelni. bleat. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. child. as the simplest implement for proFr. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pipe. piou. to designate cavity and hollow. not- . to squeak. Mantuan pipiare. pi. —Lyndsay. peep. e.) a chick.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. as in other subjects of study. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. Florio. pipilo. In cases such as these. pipio. cry of young birds . the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pigolare. pule. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. of a word will appear supposed to represent. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. peep. piou. a (young) pigeon. the voice of chickens (Cot. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. which he added to intensify the expression. has been un- employed to designate fixity. or a piailler. far pipi. a chicken or gosling. piccione. as k. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. He Yet asks. young bird. a fife or musical pipe. Lat. a fowler's bird call is lost. is pfeife. pipe. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. part of the What consciousness has the child. pippione. — . xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. pigiolare. Magyar pip. and whimper. It seems to him that the teeth t. mobility excavation and hollow ^. to cry pi.' instead. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. to peep It. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. or the uneducated different consonants are man. G. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. The pi. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. laugh. De Brosses. chickens (Tylor). to cheep like a bird or a young It. piauler. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. a or cheep. had been used laugh ? two.

Zulu raraza. to fizz like fat in frying. crack. to laugh. to jar. to pant violently (Colenso). a drum W. some small vowel or consonantal sound. or springing back.) Mod. tontonare. along with Du. to creak knirren. as representing the sound made when something breaks. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. when it force than biscuit. sound of dry breaking. u. the side of g. cluck. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. rumble. kuruk. to hawhaw or laugh loud. is very common. the clucking of a j hen . pi . to gorgogHare rattle. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. murmur (by . or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . .' We te he ! quoth Tyb. a. to rattle. Indian chack-chack. crash. Pefuxela. to crackle like in boiling . thunder oil . turtur. to gargle . in German. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . knurren. to clack. bubble. creak.. chack. to grumble. of a loud strong sound. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. garren. kirkirdnd. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . karkarana. or kaka-faka. tonare. to ring pipio. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). kniks. to cluck. cricli. rumble. laqfF. a closed or obscure sound. rumble (Fl. vaake gorgor) . where the variation. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to cry pi. loud laughter. lachachen.. tintino. Poppopvi^to. sound). gurren. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. kniks. Pacific aka-aka. along with tinnio. It.Gr. borrelen. as the click of a latch or a trigger. a sharp short one. Hindoo tomtom. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. of something fine and thin. to gurgle. be cate to go on laughing loud . to grumble). i. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to thunder. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. &c. to grate the teeth . preserved by Kilian. Manchu kaka-kiki. Hindustani karak is rendered. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. . a prolonged sharp sound. {to It. and lugh. to bubble. to growl. lachen. grumble. knaks. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). ioriogliare (to make borbor). The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. a short sharp sound. to be compared with Sc. make wood a clinking noise. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. girren. knuks. like the noise of a glass breaking . xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. coo. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. murren. to pant bejii- zela.

rvir (in tvittio. Galla tuma. The syllables lil-bil. as Fr. Prim. and her heart went thump. Scotch sough or sooch. spring of water in the a bell. e. agrees with g. is based on the same imitation as the e. or to Du. Newman). The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. caca and Finnish adkkd. Fr. while cacd / used in e. jingle. to ring or jingle. 1871. Tiie Galla gigiteka. clink. and Gr. ding-dong. to whisper. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. . and the imitative nature of tivgle. shout. are applied to the is excrements of children. Manchu kaka. quarren. clank.and e. correspond to e. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. cry. kl'mg-kling. the sound of a stringed instrument. rifiirayov. sound). indicating the origin of Gr. jangle. muro and e. rain (Tylor. or the bubbling up of to a spring. a smith. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. and e. corresponding in e. a nightingale. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. at an accelerated note. bad. Calt. Turk. for the sound of privy whispering.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. as of Tamil muromurmur. tubh. especially one who beats. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. chuchoter. a workman. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. borrelen. coughing or clearing the throat. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). the tingling Ming-Hang. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation.' Member for Paris. to giggle. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. identical with g. call. clash of arms. bent her head. 192). to strike. disturbance (F. tumult. simmer. for the clinking Lat. or of bells ringing. croaking of frogs. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. sound. make djamdjam). noise. Maori pata. bulbiil. the gingling of glasses. koXiw. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . for a tTviror). to say chut. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang.* the heart. halaidlac'h. tumwata. chut. to knock. and bilhila. klirren. to beat. compared with Gr. bubble up. drops of i. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. champ. to be compared with g. a nightingale. uproar. csam-csogni. Sanscr. a drum . clango. KaKog. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. is Manchu tang-tang. chinking of coin. tup. wail. E. a boy's whistle. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. kiling-kalang. of keys or tinkling of bells. to the purling of a brook. Magyar csamm-ogni. 368). The whispering of the wind I. awater* ' The Mme P. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. word. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. thump. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. for chut-chiit-er. box on the ear imitation of the . Hindustani bhadbhad trees. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. and Gr. . for the ringing of illustrate bells. fumtu. djeda (to say tub). hala-hald-faMa (falda. brings us to Fr.

thump. guggle. murmur. to dance. The beating of drum is represented in e. squeak. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. at a door tarapatan. din. for (Sanders). thwack. crunch. by rubadub. smack. crack. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. chatter. flap. according to the strictest phonetic rules. patter. slash. to is blow. whizz. Fr. brumberum. disturbance. tinkle. it is fallj AS. But although and also found in Lat. blubber. blow. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . the Germans puff. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. hiss. It. splutter. So in Fr. puff. rattle. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. plump. swash. clink. or v^hether jectional. clack. Humboldt. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. clang. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. splash. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. twang. bang. rataplan or rantanplan.. souse. 'pat. to fall. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. rap. and Fr. flop. bubble. tap. chink. snap. rumble. whirr. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. squall. we have buffet or cuff.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. craunch. and soufflet. and Grimm. tum-ultus. tingle. tymmesll. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. The use of g. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement.' — Nohden. squeal. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. tumbian (to beat the ground). hum. dash. clatter. thump. thump. clap. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. gurgle. paddle. jingle. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. lash. sputter. gargle. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. ' Der puff. report of a gun. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. crash. parapatapan. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. clank. dabble. douse. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. whack. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. in e. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. smash. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. w. answering to g. fizz. pop. while e. whine. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. ring. without the intervention of orthodox roots. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. Nevertheless. creak. a applied as well to the force of the bang. clash. mutter. and the French pouf. boom. tomber.

Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . knows them. of horror. the kind of action that is desired of them. At the first beginning of life. or of any if wood. is Thus ah!. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. Grimm or Bopp. stractions. and uttering plaintive sounds. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. ugh . or stubble is meaner name. the interj. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. wringing the hands. in the case of the animal or of the infant. If. grief. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. or any unsatisfied want. hay. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. every little pain. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. xxix on the contrary. in the rushing waters. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. by the nature of the cry. because they are spontaneous. little who has time to want of her nurseling. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. without a thought of symbolising to them. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. an imitation of a sigh . the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. are made known by an instinctive cry. Crying. and thus they become signs of despair. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. 94. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection.' If chaos. p. that he has taken the step in rational speech. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build .'. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. formerly cited. Henceforth rational beings may produce them.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. but if we must not complain on the beach.' . the inteij. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. and found in the building of be burnt up. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires.

the lowing of a cow. p. 344. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. sneezing. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. of all the mouth. to solve the I shall call first. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. more eloquent than a long speech. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory.. p. more to the point. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. If I wish to make a person of an . which are frequently so toned down cance. coughing.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. Language begins where interjections end. may become traditional. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. or which is of me as suffering pain. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. One short interjec- tion may fact. he cites from Home Tooke. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. as who them spontaneous utterances. be more powerful. He says. and the eye. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech.' — ist Series. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. 32. interjections. shrieking. them to exercise it. groaning. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. they are involuntary interjections. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. ^6g And to the same effect 371. And again. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings.' p. and some of them the composition of words. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. should be remem- .

It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. hahottaa. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. Tooke in truth. but the less am at a loss what to say. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. interjections. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. loud laughter. and more or less limited . hohottaa. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. when I arp humming and hawing. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. demolishing here. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. speaking. and thus. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. I am not hearer. then speech begins. he says. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. hahota. Koxafw. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. in Magy. for example. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Lat. kahkahah.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. Gr. cachinno. in Fin. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. Kayxa^u). it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. bered. it them. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . and others from interjections. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. some kind of language might have been formed. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is.

than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. words receiving the meanings they now bear. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. It as has ing their most striking features. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. The following account is given by Kruse. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. What strikes him . The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. like peewit and cuckoo. makes them stand and walk upon the table. a Picture-language. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. the critical question should be.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. of the nature of this great movement. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. But here nature soon conies to his help. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and go where we now say stand. dumb is the language of signs. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. Though. of the world. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. And so in the case of language.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. .' he says. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. and not. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. if taken as a whole. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. a deaf-mute himself. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing.

what more. and gestures. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. walker. becomes roast meat. he. or To pull and flap with the arms. for single objects. but if I depress it instead. and to taste. such as than the educated man. xxxiii him between one thing and another. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. many when or but these. The of sign for left hand. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. for walk. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. the sorecalling them to his memory. such objects. signs are taught for yet. thought is already broken. and And thus he makes himself a language. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. letter To hold the two fingers apart. called Gesture-language. and we have roast goose. and it is flesh or meat. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. it means little. his action. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. for the agent. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and fully serves to j . thou. and with his thought. most striking outline of an object. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. like a V. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . The same sign stands and the act itself. among themselves. To seize the is the principal movement of an action.' In the Institutions. that air.GESTURE most. can do better and more easily abstract terms. walkest. nay. for child. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. to name. as it now opens out. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. walked. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. it seems. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. the lan- guage cultivates itself. he. that. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and forms further and further. particular sense in properly so called. or the verb to be.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. that signifies great . And is. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. the whole secret. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say.

substantive or adjective. and thus performs the part of an adjective. and the as. when I say. and so is an adverb. in other instances sentence. the garden. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. or action. depend entirely upon the use. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or a passive scene of existence. according to the circumstances of the case. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. a colour red. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. the ture of white term pink is and red. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. I say. The same word . this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. You beaten . as when Bang ! went the gun. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language.xxxiv asking. He gave door a bang. or an act. . a number of alternatives are suggested. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. putting it into his pocket. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. to indicate the action of a certain person. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. it called an interjection. Who is has beaten you ? would be. as in die it is a noun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When I say. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. When a verb. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. might be the knife. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. would be simply beginning of speech. qualifies the against the wall. whether by additions or otherwise. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action.' dener's knife. or a quality. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. Do not bang the it is a verb. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. as But when it is meant door. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. in fact. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. or something of the kind. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent.

whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. that is. . &c. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. in the is indicated by the syllable y. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. whereto. coalesces with the personal pronouns.. Latin. verb nor noun has yet been developed. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. greatness. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. wonder. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. but often self-evident. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. a groan. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. some outward display of the affection. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. which is an old y ting (use stick). Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. wherehy. and to be great. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. wherewith. commencement of speech. inquiry. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. with a stick. or with elements expressing relations of time. Jii ta. as cung. in the sense of great. whereof. grie^ horror. pain. a noun. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. wherefore. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech.^ — Miiller I. or nei. that admits itself in of audible representation. a sigh of oppression and . and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . or some relation between it and another object. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. and may be used language. inside. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. Thus tafu signifies a great man. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. middle. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. the man is great. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. 255. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. contempt. as kuo cung.

however. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. the pangs of childbirth. to . to bewail oneself. are ol-ire. och. 6. to wail or cry alas . axofiai. w^wa. to lament.'). as. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. ah. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. to cry at. e. howl. mostly a ! %. la. a groan or lamentation vir. grief. oimare. ! ! Goth. to sound yapyap. ing action I. . achen. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. wai-l. wAwa. ochan. ace. aiai^to. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. waiidt. ache. gwe-l-a. lau-l-e. grief. g. misery. to rriourn. representing a cry of pain. pain. oh. ai. gwae. grief] affliction. headache. ahi. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to weep. representing Illyr. guajo. jao. vce. wai. Jar lau-lau. &. as. vei-a. miau-l-is. I oi[iot. ach. hei. die wehen. gwae. to lament. to cry n. to chirp. Thus from springs otjucifw. ochain. miau-n-is. guaj-ire. to gargle. pain.ez. . jaoh. tirr-djeda. ach. pain. found in g. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. form. on. Gr. . Gael. cece. misfortune. It. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. och. and cacak djeda (to say crack.-l-are. Lat. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. mew. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. suffering. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. A widespread It. wd. It. vce. first person. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. It. to ache. 6. wehen (Schmeller). to hurt Let. and to bark . woe. In this way from the root guai. Illyr. xxxvi grief. ui. ocAJ. in Gr. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to wail. e. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. wehthun. to injure. ohi. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. e. guai. ah. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. lament from oimi. j. to groan. . miau-l-er. oval. probably a deeper groan. to make bow-wow. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. Illyrian vaj. has more kopfweh. The form corresponding to Lat. to yell formed e. lament. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . o'i. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. och. at the close of the radical syllable. n. dchzen. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. on. or r.. It. Lat. ach. w. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. w. woe. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. al. ochan. to make). Gr. Bret. seen in Gr. to weep. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. guaj- or cry out pitifully. . the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. is w. ohg. Fr. wai. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. oi. oh. to do woe. djamdjam goda (goda. weh schreien. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. Let. Such are g. to ache. weh. Gr. to cause pain. weinen. vaj. g. is Ay di me I Gr. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. when he wants something. 'nay. indeed. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. is-te). Thank you. child.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. for instance. more emphatically roSj)j that. or give me it. that. I add) .* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. der da-ige. or that it is. Sanders (Germ. When we pointing. The Fr. is we I believe. • The child. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. this here. ToSe (or in Attic E. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. Please. give. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. da. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. saying : there the ad- Trans.' then points to his wife. ' sees an object. says da-da-da. as it Dieser da (as Lat. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. and so on. as to express. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. as. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. implying the direction of its good will towards them. nurseries. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Phil. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. Sie. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Diet. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. In the expression Da. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. we may translate this by there (it is). according to Menage. a word of many applications in g. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. thata (ta-ta). show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. when 1859. a specified were by pointing him out. . or carry me thither. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. the nursery da-da. to here . because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.' all is is — their consent. or wants to name something. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Dr Lottner observes. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. give me that cheese. that gratifies me. that is it. and may be rendered. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. da. his trowsers' pocket. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. and by a variety of expressions besides. Bav. but the truth is. properly (give) be compared with by which a g.' person. But. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. case. well as Goth.' this.

to chatter.' says Muller. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. and one in particular must. to knock. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. Thus Gr. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. or dalliance. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. or metaphor. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. childish toying.^ its ' utters : a cry. . sounds. beat. of which any one may. standing. in every mode of expressing the idea. pay. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. sinking. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. p. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. reality. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. make dadada). would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. strike. and shapes it into an . which thus exertion.' says Lottner interior. the original is that which he places first. then instinctively interest. moving. speech. The da is dodem. tasting. its desire. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. — Cot.' • liv ANALOGY. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. stutter. to say to oneself. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to tion to another. tattle. thinking. meanings. takes it — as When the soul. to move step by step. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. to walk. to beat. dadee. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen.

probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. in popular language. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. a brilliant light kilid. beorhtian. discreet. we have and the and beorht. 1654. as. to glisten Dan. So firom Lat. to glitter. to . to ring. to glitter. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. sound. and. In the case of sparkle. wilahtaa. prudent. bilbilgoda (to make . to sound clear In Galla. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. tintelen. spraka. gnittre. and schmecker. to be wise. sapere (which signifies the nose. Du. ghsten. and figuratively. to sniff. to resound. esclat). then which is a modification of the to twinkle. man of nice taste. while sapere itself. to smack or taste. to tinkle. think. air. snot. to shine. taste. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. pracht. to glitter e. suspect Bav. wilistd. Fr. may be quoted gUt. Again. &c. to ring as a glass willata. Lith. savour. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. make a loud noise. to glitter. to snilF. In the same way the Goth. then to sparkle. — 1. may be it explained . a ringing . snutrs. signified a clear sound. unlella. sprageti. firom the Gael. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. beam. to 5 ghtter. schmecken. the equivalent of g. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to flash. on. in the domain of movement. a rustling sound Gr. a dis- cernment. search . clang. fiapfiaipw. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. bilbil). tumult. bright. to shine. sense of brightness. rattle. scTiateren. kimistd. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. splendour. noise. . is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. The 6. Heo Du. chime). . for example. same imitative root with Sw. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . Bavarian bracht. knistre. smell. It is The word bright had a similar In as. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. from the . iclat (in Old Fr. snuff the sniiten. which in ohg. outcry. to crackle. knittre. Finnish. tinkling. properly a clap or explosion. wise. and thence e. schiteren. to crackle gnistre. also wise.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to shriek with laughter . to sparkle. to have Sapiens. scheteren. wamara. to sniff out. is used in the origin. a with kimmaltaa. snudra. judicious. snotor. (parallel bilbila. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to quiver. brilliancy. kiimottaa. splendour. magnificence. smell. as kilind.

sharp. oily. break. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. the cross. to slide. Kpovtiv. smooth. in of his works. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). v. inside. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. \nrap6e. the clank (stridorem) of chains. discusses the tone of a picture. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. rend. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. the bleating of sheep. &c. Tpa)(yg. the neighing of horses. mel. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. flow and flux. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. gluey. he framed the words ivSov. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus.' he says. KoWiiSije. . 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. wool. in truth. and vepres. tremour. kvTOQ. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. we hear of screaming colours. whirl. is felt Lana. extremely loose. The BpavEiv. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. pleasure soft to the ear . itself letters are felt as sofl. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. strike. rough. or . Much of the same has been often quoted. briars. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. within. shatter. crux. 6\tadaveii'. accordance with the way in which by touch. then in rpd/xoe. power of the letter-sounds. of dressing loud. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. 1. eo ut res vol. pvfi^Civ. ipuKuv. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. soft. roughness. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. rough to the ear. Kep^arl'ieiv. which The Stoics. rough both ways. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. as soft by the ear. he says. rough. Acre. fitting the letters to the sense. And observing that n kept the voice within.

when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. to reel abruptly from side to side). smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. stab. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. as when. jig. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. corresponding to the ineor. cular effort Again. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. jag. t.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. degree of roughness sound. shog. 'and consequently form. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. rug.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. and in the utterance of a high or or low. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . d. p. k. to signify varieties of movement. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. jog. a rough and sudden . in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. sag-oter. A greater felt. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. to jogj sac-cade. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. stag (in stagger. jih. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. g. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. Fr. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. the case of the voice. joli. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. or checks as they are called by Muller. dag. 138). together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. dig. for exis ample. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. shag. ii. tug. p. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura.

marked by the change of vowel from i to a. chic. however. sound barely audible. e. to ring a bell. Dutch kicken. not to utter a syllable. to mark it with a touch of the pen . To tick a thing off. a small bodily object. a playiug-marble. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. Sukkeln. rough horse. chiquet. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick.. to utter a slight kick. and e. Fr. chique. chicoter. to move rapidly to and fro. to stir. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. Thus we have B. The Mipen or pencil. is so frequent a consequence of movement. foot. Welsh cicio. for the sound of knocking at a door. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to tickle. used interjectionally to represent a . to strike It. in cases like the foregoing. tecche-tocche. that we never can be sure. a stroke with a French toucher. It. properly a small lump'of . and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. Mucken. to take a thing on tick. is lanese toch. lead to Spanish tocar. micare. Then. mie. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. and It. also to stir. Illyrian migati. zack. it produces Dutch micken. a .'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . kuk. a good piece of road . then. The production of sound.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. so to Italian toccare. as Italian tocco. tack. a cracker. cica. Accordingly the g. to winkj micati is Lat. Fr. a crum. motion. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. mik. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. (mitsati). used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. toch-toch. kik. tock. movement. sound Fr. The syllable suk is jerk. The train of . Brescian toch. as tot. is made to signify movement. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Ene olde suksuk. figuratively. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. Bolognese tocc. a jog. Hence Lat. an infant . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. passing to the signification of motion. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. mot. to On the same principle j we have g. g. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. The analogy then carried a step further. to glitter. to touch. or check. mica. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. schuckeln. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. to pulses being knock. S-panish miga. to beat or play on a musical instrument. tech-tech. to have it ticked or marked on the score . zigzag. like English tick. a little bit. then. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . to mutter. schockeln. a piece or bit of anything. a quid of tobacco. &c. to incite by light touches. and analogous movements. an old worthless horse or carriage. to say a word .

we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. to dot. So. a tot . bunch or flock of wool. not an atom . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. titilh. ika. a small kind of lark. a small lump or pat. and toddle like a child titter. lix Sp. i. not because the pendulum makes a different left. tiny. little. gno. eo. a morsel girl . . often entirely arbitrary. taut. The following table from Tylor (Prim. mossche. fait. a bit. fragments It. I. to make a slight mark. there (further of!) ao. zitella. small of kind. a small quantity. to movement of the pen . a lad citta. at where the order is inverted. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . to jog. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. tit. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. to e. or the converse. tot. tottle. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. But the same is language has re Javan. . The vowel changes from to tick-tack. motte. syllable mot. ticktack. to tremble. . tot. here. there. as in e. further off. subdued manner. anything . where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. gni. n. and he. this . you. lump of earth. or the like its It.) . either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. a e. chico. a morsel. a bit. a light quick blow. to jot down or note with a fro. . mutter j dust. Then. citto. to touch. Pm. a certain conception. there '(at a short distance). 0. we have e. to whisper (Pr. mutter. This kind. titmouse (Du. tit. e. seesaw. anything small flax. little j to that of a small bodily object. and dot. tot. To jot. a whisper. . iki. the same organ touched with the man. Malagasy to. (Halliwell) Da. titter. e. mote. of movement in totter. corresponding to the personal pronouns. gnu. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). light — to note a thing hastily on paper . tot. this. ri that. or o toi. a sparrow). motta. jot. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. clay . for the three personal pronouns. to touch lightly with a pen. 48) cites from the African Tumale. totle. a little titty. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. and a small lump of something. mut. a girl. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. . The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat.- a jot or little It. that. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. Halliwell. Du. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. neither moit nor an atom. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. small titlark. tittle.n. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. is shown in murmur. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. In a similar the relations of place. move slightly to . a small horse. . not to utter a syllable. the vowel sound. for the beating of a clock. that iku. a. and out there. Cult. a small bird. mot. tozzo.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. and mite. Fr. zitio. here (close hand). . the least visible insect. 199). or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto.

this ole. thou ni. Botocudo ati. to. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. qu. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. that. ulri.. there. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. /mya. bi. that. Mutsun ne. is Here. . . as the act of pointing was ta. ^. he. respectively. here 5 Yoruba na. here feraa. that. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. /e«. Guarani nde. nne. mother. /wo.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. and a for the female. Dhimas isho. It seems to (fen. little. . biii.. there. ukko. that. child. this fi. no constant rule is observed. ni. that (intermediate) j wana. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. thou . mother. an old woman chacha. Tarahumara ibe. ofj. ne. Zulu ajoa.) pronunciation of i or e.. I . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. this . there. Fernandian az. there. that. is father. this <t. child. Tamul i. and origin. Abchasian aSn. you. here . ojOo. uta. It Carib lala. mas cheche. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. . In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. w. thou. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. minution further. loo). for the male. as in Italian Fin.) nna. . that. here j abe. there. (tt). . man erne. this .. Then. femina ama. an old . . that. olo. he. that in the distance. young one. Chilian tva. father k . this . j Canarese ivanu.araM. usho. Carib ne.e^. Sahaptin (America) kina. ta to ka. ni. ndi. small (Pott. 6. there. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. probably initial of distinction that the k. as Mr Tylor remarks. mother. Mm. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. father. me probable that • Vei also little. ita. this . here j ka. Japan ko. here this . owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). km. Ossetic am. Lat. that. akha. that. here . Magyar ez. there. Gr. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. tiiio.

Da. to tread. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. nil. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. wenig. . the idea is called. lift 8. trappen. of smaller things. A little weeny thing. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. or even. fretful. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. dance (Kil. don-don. as j money. in old e. From cases like the foregoing. trippelen. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. repetition It. a step. sound of bells . has tittafrem. titta. nab. to make its way through the bursting envelope. to begin to appear . pepin.' — Merrv Wives. Fr. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. nipple. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. The sound trapp . the pip or pippin. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. the nursery few j Sc. wean. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. 401. trSpigner. — Douglas Virgil. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. the principle of reduplication. trap.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. A little wee face with little. analogous to winy-piny. a child. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to teet. to peep through. to feet. the simplest mode by the g. at pippe frem is to spring forth. as ding-dong. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. &c. and in the Pacific dialects. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. to peep. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. Top. trappa. just beginning to appear. i Sw. knob. whence Fr. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. trippen. for a succession of light blows low-wow. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. Clank represents the sound of something large. keeh. stairs. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. or chink. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. for instance. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. din-din. little To sup up. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. barking of a dog. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. The Sw. And perhaps the E. little. Thus we have Wolof sopa. to leap. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee.) . is to express simple continuance of action. a little yellow beard.' making the voice as small as possible. murmur. tion. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. looking through between obstacles. for the .

to vi^alk about for flax. rapidity and strength. ratsi-ratsi. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. Cult. tache. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. to pant. to say pooh It is ! to. properly speaking. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. kenda. cliqu-et-is. or in Fr. or very very great. could readily be conceived. are echoed by the rudimentary et. Mandingo ding. didi. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . clash of weapons. er. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. very bad. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. Susa di. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. Malay ayun. the lungs. mpolu is uttered. a cradle. the agent in panting . random . such as the syllable expressed in a more called. to skip. child . to call frequently from Fr. So from clamo. &c. ding-ding. And generally. or imitative syllables. kendagenda. ayunayunan. from Maori muka. to love. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to or rub. or el.' expression is — ^Tylor. to talk at to walk. is language. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. repetition or continsignify long. rack. kamha-gamla. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. bad . The same principle of 196. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). loloa. clamito. if very young. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. a clattering noise. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. racket. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. . amusement. little child (p. Again. mawhitiwhiti. (to use a to speak. in familiar use with ourselves. 97). a spot. or a little tee--ny thing. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. and Fr. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. to cover e. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. to to call. calling. hardness. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. puka. lololoa.. sopasopa. a grasshopper. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. serves to show and in this way. to rock. very great. tach-et-er. i. and the words express a continued sound of rack. rack click. Thus in E. keep spots. or rdtchi. Thus in the Pacific loa. puka- puka. child . instead of being actually repeated. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. 99). to treat with contempt. the and clique. smallness. click.Ixii REPETITION. . expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. mawhiti. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. very long (Pott. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. the comparative degrees of greatness. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon.

to make bau-bau. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. or by association. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. dabble. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. or omitted. to puff. to hand. without the intervention of the frequentative element. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. he who rubs. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to move to and fro. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. waggle. or Maori puka-puka. to make gug. the knie-en to E. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. such asjlap. Jickfacken. wavering. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . itself. as to handle. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. bub. to make a succession of shoves. a from ayun. or fi bau. jogging. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. others. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. a succession of cracks to rattle. In cases like these. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. rubber. as mAS. to bark like a dog. dab. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. in Fr. to rock or wag. The Fr. fickle. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. or in e. which. in some applications. smack. kneel.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. compared with g. to crackle. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. to hand-le. miauler and beler correspond to E.Jicol. and in as. draggle. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. miauler andpiauler. to wail woe . shuffle. mew and baa . and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. the lungs (the puffers of the body). bubble. wagas ging. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . where all direct connection with sound is lost. joggle. wancol. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. it. crack. to rock. syllable clat . The contrivance with any particular noise. wankeln. from puka. rynel. to continue dragging. to make a succession of grabs . the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. are to cry mew and pew . g. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . guggle. wankel. is In e. by the side of wanken. Ihre remarks under gncella.

by a hard body breaking. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. Breton. although it is not difficult. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. to cry ugh at. Dupe comes to us from the French. which. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. moreover. the breach. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). A gull or a dupe same sense. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. and comparatively few easily deceived. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. deceit. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. which is the origin of the word. at was more familiarly known. to the separation between the broken parts. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. or in aptness to combine with other elements. There is. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . and it is only the where the verb is written houge. or how generally. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in mode of use. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. Polish. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. on a moment's reflection. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. known in Italian. will continue to be felt in daily speech.

language is . Hitl^erto. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. founded in manifest blunder. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. is. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. life. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. however. . and the word is used in a secondary sense. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. nor any limited of ideas.

When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. circle perpetrates a new slang term. 330. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. of material things. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. Naturalist on the Amazons. hearing. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. episcopus. Welsh. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. unintelligible to other hordes. evique. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. i.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. guages in South America. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . out. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. compared with the duration of man. therefore. I think it very probable. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). in the course of many years' isolation. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. French. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. and vescovo. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. If English. change.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. and 'Russian.

it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. it will leave figures 3 and 4. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. as shown in the subjoined illustration. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. . Cijlt. i. Nor is there one of the letters. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. and . tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. is MN. or whatever the proportion may be.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. the actual it which would to represent. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. The combination of the symbols I and 2. A key must unlock more doors than this. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. ao8). as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. which are idenr Figures 5. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. to be taken (Prim. 8. 7. 6. ancient Greek M . 9.

The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. his fellows. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. in the shape either of direct inspiration. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. known to us as yet.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. leading him to utterances. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. had its origin in imitation of sound. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. for instance. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished." the use of a change of vowel in as. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. what comes to the same thing. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. or. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. and the only safe beneficent Creator.' should be discovered. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. which either by direct resemblance of sound. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought.

race were speaking men or not.COMPLETION OF MAN. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and when we look back as far as history will reach. that he started from the lowest grade. or of their own reflected thoughts . and rose towards a higher state of being. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . for instance. or beavers. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. by animal without a trace name of Man. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. or else. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . and sooner or later. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . the conduct of Ixix life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. of using imitative conduct . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. as elephants. in the course of generations. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. until the progeny. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . or not.

Danish. Dueange. dial. Anglo-Saxon. Bavarian. Diet. Elfric's Fl. Catalan. .TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Gothischen 1851. Dutch. Baile/sEngl. dialect of the Sette Commune. 1850. Cimbrisch. Diefenbaeh. Supplement to Dueange.-Eng. Douglas' Virgil. Couzinid. de la langue Cat. Finnish. Diefeiibach. Romano - Cas- traise. Fr. Cotgrave. Bremisch. Bigl. Dief. Da. Castr. Sup. 1766. E. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache.. Cot. Carpentier. 1737. Bohemian or Czech. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany.V. Gr. B. Dueange. 1654. Teutonico-Lat. Fin. 1768. Infimse Latini- D. Due. 1857. Grammar Boh. Dief. English. AS. Wtb. at the end of Somner's Diet. Dn. Bav. Provincial dialect. Supplement to Bret. Brem. or Dan. Diet. Esth. Cimbr. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Carp. Diet. Esthonian. ^Ifr.Saehsiches Worterbueh.Nieder. Biglotton seu Diet.



Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.percurrunt kimista^x. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. r. yjnaifia r. cti. Blob plowied r. kilistaa bugiie r.5 ERRATA. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. willekom Blab r. r. baltresca nokkutomax. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. sveritet Asknace r. plowied budowaer. puHti r. word allagerr. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. Askance woud r. cruccio deyrie. alUger ahaverie r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. ^i?^i2! r. katowai perairrantr." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r.nokkutama willekem. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. (/ijtf r. woman r. r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . haverie crtOT r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . buque 118 brodiquin r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^.>. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.


iway from. in a manner other than it should be ablution. vs. Again. as. a washing off to abstain. and secondarily in that of command. to sauff the king or spill. "rom a height. Ab-. compounds. —Bruce. dominion.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Passing tongues. AS. on-lic. sion of 'an abandoned character. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. plesyt him. OHG. Hence on-bceftan. Immediately from Fr. 843. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. Jvery man shewid baft. state of sleep . And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. ifter. to arise. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. said. out of. o/j of or . He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. bandon in French. Abs-. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . literally. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. but now )bsolete). Parson's Tale. have entire dominion over. er. In Lat. away. an edict or proclamation. ur. . command. orders. erwachen. from. to subdue. be-ceftan. from a is to wake to abide. us. Dent posture. announcement. in the same sense. as. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. behind. To abuse is to use iway. abaft. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. whatever he be. A. ibandonner. a/tan. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. in. ar. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation.t G. off. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. particular 1 . downwards. to awake. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. implying a completion of J. on. 244. Thus ip N3S. AS. power : Than Wallace thing. to hold . ir. The word Ban is common orders. baftan. dominion. this word beand Spanish. among. Abaft. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. the er.he Goth. until the event jlace . on-bsec . alike. K . An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. and — Chaucer. abs. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. on. Abandon.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. onis aback. rule. his. Thou spelds of mychty iction. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. of-dune. into the Romance ftrseg . Lat. a. ab. away from.

abbatere dal prezzo. de. drink. law term abatement. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. to hit. 1 1 8. confound. abandonly. to The . terminedly. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. More correctly written abbat. esbahissais. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. effect of shame. to strike Froiss. and the verb was written in Eng. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. vol. c. See . grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. castle. . In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. thing abbatere le vela. impetuously.Prov. uncontroUedly. In or. and that from Syrian abba. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. — Neccham. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Hence the OE. with or without a final sh. to bate something of the price abbatersi. so common in the found in the OFr. of fear. to happen. Castrais. Beat.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. in the active form. and it that that it — . The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. to excite admiration. from Lat. abbas. his eyen shene. See Abide. shame. Wall. Hart in Jamieson. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. A. abate. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. bandon. ant. astony. of wonder. at his own the lips. to light upon. faire tomber. merely the terminations ons. of the Fr. Abbey. On the other in use as well as hand. R. R. to gape. abbattre. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . polish. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. to overthrow. impulse. And he thereof was all abashed. and grooms besmeared with gold. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise.' the surrender of a ' K. 1520. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. Custom. I was abawid for merveille.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. et prirent terre. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. burny. to astonish. from ravir. It. Hence Lat. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. esbahissant. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. to put to con. burny was formerly burnish .) . Milton. 364s. person. R. may be explained. Fr. abaundunem-ent.On princes. baer. ne more vermeille. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. adverbial expressions at abandon. to make lower. son bandon. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. ais. Abbot.— R. to strike sail . Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Baba ! Mod. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba.polir. to abaw or astonish. Cotgr. astonish. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led.fournir. Bate. abbatis.— — . Abbess. to diminish the force of any. or admiration. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. overthrow. to beat furnish. by Wall. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. betrash. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. as ravish. Originally.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. and sets them all agape. beer. to ruin. an abbey. esba. father. or society of abbots or monks. depress. baba. . To Abate.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat.esbawi. abbatia. bawi. where custom (Grandg. weaken.down. lish to abaisse orabaish. his mouth. — — . iv. to take possession of an estate. down. other. abbatere. d. esbahir. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille.

to expect gabeidan. Ni engigner ni abiter. to wait. to mind. verbeijen Sw. abSiance. bouche b^ante. bide of the d endure. — ABELE Epiphanius. wait To Abide. listen. to open the mouth. ^couter avec dtonnement. desirer (Roquef. to wait. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. badare. Abele. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. incite . to stay. us. to be intent upon. To Abet. to tarry. to deanimer. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. ne chastised them. bouche bdante. bida. bialodrze-w. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. Pol. to stay. —Raynouard. attendre See Bait. abaier. is idenwait. lingering. expectation. . guardare. de Champ. take notice. to It. intent observation. m Abeyance. to abide . — . (Vocab. compared with (Bosworth). syllable ba. baer. to look. beijen. we sceolon ON. to desire. delay. abet. abbadare. Goth. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring.— ^richer. Cat. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. on the one hand. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. the verb of abeyance. beidan. abidan. have seen abide. bder. expectation. 366.) abayer.to wait. expectfamily. to ance. to hook. covet. abeter. endurArt thou he that should come. listening. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. in Fr. abie. Abie. b^er. Gloss. or absorption watching. and Prov. a right in suspense . inciter. Corant sens lui. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. aspire to. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. The white poplar. to desire earnestly. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. which the mind to an object. beijen. forbearance. trick abetar. to open bader. or do we AS. Du. a bay or opening in the coast. Norm. to deceive. de Berri) Prov. abayer. beijden.— Chaucer. signifies the direction of tend. . ne wist what way to chuse. Prov.. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. watch. bidan. From abahier. Corresponding to keep in suspense. also to OFr. look for another. to attend on . K. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. to be intent upon. to suffer death in Du. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. qui iaaille. tenere a bada. Thus G. gola badada. deceit. with badia. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. with open mouth . which is certainly related to It. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. and in E. attendre avec en^pressement. beidan. to wait. delay. bada. Thus we have It. suspense. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool.Fr. baier. badare. delay. endurance. tempting. usbeisnei. to attend to. abie. Quant voit le serpent. speaking of the Holy places. abeyance. songer. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. ' ' . desire. while the monks under his control ing. badare. . or in Fr. Cat. badar. See Abide. deceiving. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . baier. abet. gridare. beter. warten. to remain or endure. abetter. suffer b. othres abidan' The effacement expect. were called Brothers. bana. literally white tree. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). Q. forms with the d effaced are OFr. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. abiiance. Guernsey beth. waiting. to gape .' is in AS. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. in Dan. beguile. regarder. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. pense. exciter.— Roquef. from Halo. and E. white. take care. says. house. tical with It. to yawn. E. baier compared with It. bie compared with Dan. tity of E. Boethius. Gloss. to In great amaze. . OFr.was formerly used in the sense of look. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. bida. badigliare. to expect. In We . aspirer. Norm. and alluring to his own destruction. Fabl. F. Ducange. wait. ceive. John. beguiling on the other. tarrying . 1 • . The verb atwaiting. — signifies to suspend action. bocca badata. bie. . — II. bhr. inciting. open the mouth.

It. from AS. to draw fowls. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. Q. from Lat. Fr. use. convenient. as habiller du chanvre. 2. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. abilh. If it badare. O If tion. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. habile. ! ! Cotgr. durance in both applications. — P. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. bide. Cassar. Spenser. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. P. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight.ynes. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. or bie. &c. to wear away. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. The —Boucher. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. sufficient. Chaucer. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. She shall abie that trespass dere. .— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Boucher. Prol. bord. expert. abide. though sometimes confounded with it. aboleo. R. to pay the penalty. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. abeye. Dr. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. habilis (from habeo. In this to erase or annul. F. the Sir Tristrem. L. and the simple buy. fault being simply clothing. without special reference to the notion of retribution. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Lat. abidge. on board . and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. must suffer for it. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. in for any special purpose. the side of a ship. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. al- be found so some will dear abide it. abilej Prov. was often used in the same sense. 2nd Tale. Abie. when compared with Aboard. powerful. to perish. P. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. Tr. within the walls of a ship. — Able. abycgan. at kasta fyri bord. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. as E. R. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. AS. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. i. habilis is closely preserved. ON. to have . —Bacon in R. abigg. forbid for mother's children should abye. a board. being disabled in the highest degree. Wickliff in Richardson. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. abie. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. able. — e. suffer the Jul. abolir. de la volatile. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. N. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. abie to Goth. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. For on board. is the verb abie. fit. abicgan. and Cr.^and to make his power knowne. Fr. within the ship. to . atling hem to her proper offices. adapted . the Fr. the Pardoner In the original. consequences of anything . as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . properly abuy. Innan bords. willing to schewe his wrathe. God — dear. purpose. to pay the purchasemoney. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. and death for handsel pay. Merch. bidan. to redeem. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. him with che. power. to dress hemp. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. have-like. God. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. beidan. Mids. at hand). strong. while in later examples As I . Milton. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale.

currence. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. and bidden him abregge. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. abowen. to grow up. parent. Gael alaich. To abray or abraid. abominor (from ab and omen. abredan. without. Above. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. the vital spark. To Abound. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. . common in Chaucer and Abominable. gravis. OSw. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. Virg. to progress. Melibaeus. full ofte his words for to Fr. en. For on broach.foda signifies to beget. pedigree from brevis. . Quod abominor. from Fr. to rear. to beget or give birth to children. to bring up. — ' — — preceding verb. the hair grow. s —Casdmon. agredge. break out. The radical idea is to feed the flame. to rear. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. Abray. See To Bray. kindling. ala. Sc. nourish. life. as AS.1. and alere flammain. heavy. to light a fire the Abraid. that greatly agredge their sin. be-ufan. outward. bufan. to nourish. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). snatch In English we speak of away.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to feed. by the to bring up. to snatch. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. which may God avert. to break off. — . abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to aggravate. gravity.ymbutan. which passed into English under Abominate. Prov. In the same brevis . No doubt if we had not so complete a About. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. a portent). awaking. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. sec seftre — Chaucer.ger. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. from . draw out. Abrdger itself. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. alUger. Severe the threatened evil. below. to awake. nurse.the older form. Abundant. AS. AS. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. and also to abridge. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar.— Abbreviate.aboon. but from Lat. boven. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. the man dwindles away. side. hard. around on the out. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. alan.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. is a ively. abrcBgdan. about cockcrow. nurse Lat. alere capillos. D. is not from G. and in-d-oles. for ligeth butan. abracan. abutan. to cut short..precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. Thonne Abroach. abbrechen. Goth. levis to the Romance languages. way Sw. motion. butan. agreujar. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former.) . ABOMINABLE adolesco. of any kind . brood. on high. to start. ala is made to signify to rear. So in Lat. to AS. Kiittner. Then. Lat. Finnish stock. while the sense of beget. progeny. seems aras. the OSw. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. his contemporaries. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. to main. disastrous portent in some passing oc. See -und-. or cut short. or young forth. Of these synonymous adolescere. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. above. Fr. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. the idea of breaking about . d. and to do something to avert abbreviate. abbrechen. abrdger. breaking out in language. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. vital PI. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. be-utan. becomes leu in Prov. to let sleep. and also. to feed. OE. the identity of which with ting.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. as the duty of nourdisposition. to grow together. af-oleii. while the verb alleThe root el. greu. The primitive idea seems that of beget. ol. onbutan. Tale. titan. alan. af-oolden. to produce. ufan. al is growth. AS. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. Du. the form a&^^.' Ymb hancred utan. as withotityn and without. adolere. Thence to regard greugetat. to turn. to fatten. giving birth to. natural ed direct from the latter language. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. literally. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. abufan. abbreviare. oil.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. OE. coalesco.' Parson's rence. whence the Fr.. leading immediately to Fr. explains soboles Lat.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


ReApe. what Roman civilisation. or antique single chamber. from an. stem. Anxious. from eigan.—Aperture. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Thus from gabe. Antidote. to sound in answer. incus. Aperient. avri^ava. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. bread. from an and — - . d. anxi. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. Apartment. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Antler. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. three antike pillers. finally applied to a whether grotesca. fauns. panar. af. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. To go antiquely. Antick. Lat. Aphorism. separate. amboltj Du. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. AS. to support. from. — — — . But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. one having wealth. to nourish. to strike. AS. Gr. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. a puppet or an anti^hona. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. which by anvild. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Antique. a small quantity. —Spencer. from ango. . ambeld. anapoz. Hall's Chron. from in and cudere. rich. anfilts Pl. should be received.— . a gift. of. anticus.D. G. one. Lat.made out. to bring forth. eigs. all of gold. to open. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. panis. left as the . aperio. Fr. Anvil. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. swaged. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. transferred to the grotesque characters. a definite . but the expresent day.. as the Italians. AS. from ante. Lat. choke. Fr. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. in Shakespear. aside. Fr. Prov. a preventative .is to be given. anxius. andouillers. to display pario. See Cover. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. to strain. or in a ridiculous dress. Otfried. and ig. from the imitative habits of monkeys. the anticks — behind. Apart. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. to have. part. were andouiller the second. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. to imitate gestures. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. Lat. and claret wine. cenig. wealth. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Apartment. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. : . To ape. verberas. E. i. a few. Gr. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. like a jack-pudding. separate purpose. trouble. post. from Stephanus. such as savages. from avTiipoiuia). one at the least. whence Prov. As the browcalled antiques. as posticus. Ful- Apanage. strangle. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. ab. before. Hence the applica. antefn. and devils. Ilvtwotov. a termination equivalent to Goth. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques.legacy of given against. apanage. were chiefly of the former class. a block to hammer on. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Mannequin. d<popi(xnbs. Jorioc. from. villan Gloss. work. apatiar. In like manner. Any. before. inAgain from the same author cudis. gabeigs. burnished. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. vex. Gr. some one. something ler in R. on. So Lat. to strike G. plenteously with red. Percutere. as we call it. younger child. whence anthem. as from as. press. white. apertum. antifena. Pezron fiUist. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. to go in strange disguises. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. surimitation of the ancient models. set aside.

after his mind . It. from aTroorlXXu. to — — . . in data. to approve. to rate. from paix. an epistle or letter. irpaiKOKiaov. Apoplexy. to which it is often referred.parejo. one for his defence. or the like. 23 . approcdare. —Diez. ciously than nede is. properly to join like to like. agree. — Apprise. diminutive pariculus. to call. a price. To praise. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade.probare. N. e. H. to accord. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Yr. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to mark to define a bound. to commend. prize. pertain or belong to. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. w. 5w. to learn. corresp. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. pronounce fitting). find Then like Fr. rise to \t. to approach. poind.propius). An old appalled wight. a learner. appellare. to suit. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. apprehendere. apparecchiare. to — . Prov. a'^opi'Jw. diroBrjKr}. appareiller. case. consent unto. Hence appoind. APRICOT off. The PI. : — — speak 'Lz. to announce. — Approve. agreeing with "LtA. obolys. whence the e. I prise ware. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. prope (comp. apprise. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Appease. poind. apropid. in commendation. away. to call for judgment. plight. to Lat. when the . and metaphorically to take the meaning. like. to send off. a crime. Gr.parecchio. word was specially applied to clothing. approcher. one is in. Fabian in R. To cause to pall (see Pall). Palsgr.prix. Apostle. in Chaucer. Hence It. in good season prendre son d. allow. Cotgr. A — . And among other of his famous deeds. quoth the frere. 'L-zX. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr.his giving evidence against his principal. taking. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. Formerly apricock. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. i. To Appraise. ai. to come near. apprentis. value apprdder. to dress in this fashion. become dizzy . Ir. kind of action. Yr. apal. . Fr. approver. to understand. The Fr. like. prohts. (cited by Diez from a late author). Friar's Tale. AS. Mod. D. despatch on some service. in fact. make a composition between parties. APO sentence opoQ. Sp. They were considered To Appoint. jabloko. Lith. d-n-o. Cent Nouv. apar. one sent out. whether through age or sudden teiTor. to disable oftat. Parson's Tale. from. that it outfit. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. avail. Fr. to store or put Appal. — dirondtfiu. to learn. Apple. array. pretium. laven is used both as E. En peach. Apotliecary. Nouv. 'LaX. near. apropchar. They werin his approvirs privily. set a price on. to strike down. mine. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Gr. opportunity. to set a price on. appareo. From Lat. ^wss. Apo- good time. —^Apparent. decree. seiden of the stones. appaiser. to be open to view. Apprehend. Cotgr. were formed appropiare ejar. to lose one's senses. and appoinder (to find fitting. probare. ON. Gr. fit- — ness. 11.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. — Appurtenance. to finish a controversy. peace.—Apprentice. And whanne sum men Lat. lAfiaam. Gr. proper time came. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Epistle. Walach. appris. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. appartenir.— . Fr. to catch hold of. xv. to fit. piteux poind. and also as appraise. habiliments. trim. Fr. esteem. equal.t. pronounce good. To Appear. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. a thing for one's purpose. peler. habilUr. off. good. From Gr. to deter- to strike. the good. oVooroXof. landmark. For their acquaintance was not come of new . praise. prover. pragigua or prixcoda. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. ar. order. to make a thing Apparel. From Lat. Fr. ap. dress. S^. Cotgr. OFr. Pliny. known. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. diroTrXriaatii. Approach. to deem good. apal. manner. Prov. preparation. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Lat. or E. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. horror. iwKjToKri. to seize. . to send to. Fr. one the MLat.pareil. to take away or lose the vital powers. Appareil. apin R. cepl. — prehendere. purpose. aptly. apprendre. and in the sense of condition. Fr. of. par. aparelhar. to assign or grant over unto. Fr. to deaden.

aa. arbiter. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. to preserve it from stains. Gr. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Pr. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. ahva. Prol. or eft. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. Roquefort. wata. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. aha. intensitive of nape. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. the spelland umpire. and thence fit. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. opinio. however. delon.sors. 31. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. aestimo. Marsh. sortium ductor. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. ear. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. P. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . account for either of these significations. Alban. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . naperon. sorcerer. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. From OFr. Albanian. Thus we have natiger and auger. man. {mies ^=ia3. . nawl and awl. however. Freshly turnid Arable. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. .shrubs {arbor). by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. Flower and Leaf. a lot. fastened close. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a lot.meaning at Shrewsbury. as an eye-witness. P. As is a pretty parlour.. It is certain that the apricot oracle. suitable. . to plough. Arbitrate. A. aro. hariolus arpelen. be That it inne groweth. divining rod. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. Now one of the points — — — . Now we find in Fin. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. arwaus. conjectura conjec^ra. short. arbitror arwaaja. OHG. la nappe. J. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. — . aptus. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. tion under trial. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. .gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. Pm. doubtless is the origin of E. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. derived. This path Aqueous. to decide by lot. a cloth. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. arbitrium. Arbour. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. water Which that benchid was. 2. Naprun.] in the N. a lot. Lat. symbol. and the one who gives oracles. — napkin is Naperon. conjicio. and a protection of the clothes. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. scr. and with turfis new Goth. words derived from arpa. of of divination arpa-mies. ap. arbiter in re censendS. garden. She made. Beryn. auguror. Lat. sestimatio arbitraria. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. con. Hall. arpa. The loss or addition of n very common. Maan initial . to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. grande nappe. From OE. ughe. rofe and all. pracoqua was not an adapt. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. most conspicuous situation in the garden . C. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. or barm-cloth. as ihe diminutive. found in Fin.) E. OE. quod he.' —About. proper. 331. a pleasure-ground. Aquatic. arwelo. and sortilegus ation. Lat. a soothsayer. It may be doubted.o. a river. shortdr. and taken away before dessert. nected. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. aqua. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. is taken in is a soothsayer. properly the arwella. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. herbere.

Arch in composition.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town.. G. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. et vulgari verbo. ardre.' the Gr. lofty. ramend). arson. Lat. * ArchjAiTaxit. wretched OE. Gr. Lat. Lat.' Paul Warnefrid. especially shoulder-joint. argr. as in E. apxh. Arcliives. a bare plot of ground. ill-tempered. archangel. faint-hearted. Lat. government. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. — Wtb. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. to be in comp. The . which is derived from it. to arm. ardeo.' Lex. Fr. armata. sluggish. ers-betriiger. . a noble. arm. ein arger knabe. morally bad. contemptible. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. arrant Arms. Du. G. aridus. Gr. in Due. the most arrant trash. apx^iv. whence the body of the nobles collectively. arcA in e. apxtipfve. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. first. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. adjective. i. ramo (pi. raineno. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. apxri. erg. arrig. vescovo. fabricate). patus). gwyrek. kpxi- beginning.In E. sly. receptacle where the public acts were kept. an arch boy. Gr. Gr. TiKToiv. while the Fr. Applied in modern E. Sp. een erg kind. bad. Lat. Arduous. arg. ' — Argue. shoulder. Arm.aioj. Fr. difficult to reach. gwyro to bend. arguo. from nixa. Aristocracy. Dan.. rame. ardor. Perhaps erz-wticherer. the a brute. troublesome. earh. armada. the court of a magistrate. to burn . Area. Uo^a^. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. a threshing-floor. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. bad. as the arch of a bridge. man. wanton. to be on fire. There can be no doubt that E. is essentially the same word. Cot. a court yard. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. Fr. area. — Architect. vocaveris. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). ancient. W. arm'ee. bravest. Du. worker. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. to demonstrate. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. and must be identified with Dan. to Arch. Ardour. Lat. arduus. Lat. Sax. to rule. the terminaGael. arma. Alisaunder. curved. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. arga. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. And thou as arwe coward. armee. timid. . arsum. and our army. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. a branch. earm. forearm . bad of its kind. burning heat. an extent of flat surface. From apxeiov was formed Lat. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . arm. ruling by the nobles. high. which has been referred to W. Lat. ON. fainthearted. erz in G. a chief builder.4 rir/. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. it signifies roguish. taxed with cowardice. arch-bishop. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. From the verb armare. It. mischievous. a bow. to dry. D. ^Argument. .is the natural weapon of offence. un malin enfant. A construct. erz-bischof. malicious. ars. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. . make clear or prove. det arrigste snavs. the best. an arrant rogue. stuff. a. aj-f. argvitugr. are formed the participial nouns. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. earg. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. from areo. a burning or setting on fire. branch. exercise lordship). particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. sly. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. Arson. shoulder Boh. weapon may be simply an application of annus. Brem. 3340. by Russ. 2.— Army. ardIn G. a rule (princiruler. curved line. weapon. . Ardent. arwe. and not with apx. AS. Langobard. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. arcus. Arid. un petit rusd. Arcadia in R. apxtlov. mischievous. signifies chief or principal. and Kpurka. an arrant usurer. an arch-deceiver .


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a ball balla. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. a dance. to avoid it. balk. to pack Da. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). package of goods. ballare. the beam of a ship. to wave. vacillare. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. . a together in the form of a ball. Q. OSw. We have then separate dial. Bale. to by beams. a pill. . to grieve . to shake or jog. torment. It. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. ball. Russ. to roll. Wotton. on. balle. ON. balja. baler. to speak an un. to plough for a boundary between lands. balle. hue et illuc inclinare. at giore en balk. . sick. In like manner Fr. on. ' is a piece or confused talking. Hence Dan. weak liquor. OHG. a ball. i. a separate portion. misery Du. with the perhaps from balg. a But making way for death at large to walke. similar connection is seen in Sp. w. are applied to a From the same analogy. balken.Fr. lealo. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. ill. bolker. tum. bdlkr. Perhaps on. It. Da. a bubble. balken. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. bbllr bulla J. balk. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen.). Ball. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . to signify washy drink. balka. 2. bolyaf. balka hopar. Bohem. ballare. destruction. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. vcdra bdlkr. may exhibit the original development of the signification. the ballet of the theatres. F. beaten road. floor. . pilula. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. It. A balk. a clump . afbalka. to paddle in water . E. grieve . mass. a continued noise of waves gently beating . bola. balva-vesei. balge. palla. See Gall. ballotta. a ballad. ballare. G. to ail. balkr. balk. a beam. — A — — . AS. To Bale out water. taich. baloier. the object of his expectation. ban. a globe. pallukka. pallikka. bacgtteter. Sp. bjdlki. ball. a division of the old laws. Da. Pol.Lat. a clapping or flapping of wings. bal-daed. wickedtorment ON. the breadth from side to side . from bacquet. to be ill. says Ray. Balloon. Rouchi ban. * Balk. a pail. roof. Fr. bold.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. cka. heap up. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. a ball. G. to bale out. bala. whether of wood or stone. to dance. balla (with the augm. a. to see-saw. 3. to ache. balveins. bal. Sw. chapurrar. Grief. to stir. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. sickness. separaison. balloon. a ballot). to be balker. other while. pila. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. Ballot. to move. Fr. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. ballar). Fin. . e. (Hesych. bal. baalien. to partition off . It.— Ballet. a clod of earth water. a pestilence. To baulke the Sir H. probably Lat. Sw. Sw. N. palcare. Du. bielke. a balk of foul weather. malefacGower in R. ing. to rock. bol. bolawy. dial. maleficium. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. ache. to plank. Ballata. ballone. Goth. OFr. pain. baalie. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. a ball. ne leaving any balke. Sw. Ball. bealwes. Hence. dial. a ball. a ball or pack. ballo. . It. Sw. to cause another to miss pustule. balka bunge. gen. a boil. balle. shouting. bollr. to on Holmedon's plain. Venet.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . and the dim. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. dial. ball. Bret. balk. pallo. calamity. palloilla. boll. a partition. a washing-tub. Fr. maan pallikka. Ugutio in Due. as in a barn or cow-house. to Not sparing wight.of men . which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Du. wickedness ness . Gael. dial. boleii. as we say. TtaKKa a pail or tub . Dan. trouble. a dance. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. on the shore. Gr.ing. to dance. a great ball. Sw. bolyatchka. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Mid. blister. a skin. hooting. uveirs bolk. The primary sense seems as in G. balare. Boll.' speak gibberish champurrar. a wooden partition . Sw. sorrow. on. bol.—Ballad. I. ballan. Sw. a beam. balle. globule. and evil in general. ball. plague. stage or scaffold. . bal. a water-skin dim. Baulke of land. Bowl. a scene acted in dancmg. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. pallo. ballet.

paid for the right of carriage. as he says. bambocciolo. To proclaim. To Bam. &c. Sp. from Lat. make fun of a person. 43 — Cot. Balsam.Lat. balsamum. a duty on goods last. Report Pennsylv. When a ship discharges. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. the flower of the pomegranate.). lastra. enchanter. In OSw. Lest. lestage. the backload. bag-lest. mare Balticun. a nettle. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. to walk. called Bait. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. But because baglast is not found in the written documents.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. It is explained back by Adelung. Balm. Sept. a false tale or jeer. curse. baUa. bag-las. Fr. To make fun of a person. the act of walking. for want of other freight. 1854. age. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. but loadage. by met. to preserve equilibrium. ballustre) is a corruption. balconies. Sc. urtica. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. barandado. denounce.. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Cotgr. explains ballast. To Bamboozle. a young babe. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. or movement of one who walks. like Fr. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. baU. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. bamein. Lat. It. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. back of the ship. to enchant. also with flatteries and . A — — . . more frequently than outward-bound. ^Arbuthnot in R. or ballast of a ship. balustrade barandilla. It. command. ballast. and Mid. lastre. fonts. R. 1. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. barauste. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. because. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. bambolo.that the going vessels. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. is in Sweden and Norway. from bara or vara. forbid. Mr Marsh whether the a load. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. ranked on the outside of cloisters. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. a small balustrade. Dan. Ballast. sorcerer. baltresac. a useless load. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. inutile onus. Du. — — oltriga. a rod. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. a battlement . Venet. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. an Old dotard or imbambolare. terraces. endormir par des contes. &c. . lastagium signified not only ballast. little round and short pillars. baume. galleries. To Ban.' And Kil. Balluster. deceiver. This is the backload. railing around altars.000 tons. bumbazed. puzzled. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. a fragrant gum. Gr. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. more serious objection is . i860. dial. deceive. in the first place. of balusters. bamboccio. But Fr. objects to the foregoing derivation. Bret. small railing. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. lest. analogous to what is seen in It. ballustres. seems the original form of the word. Bret. for a load or goods (Roquef. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. bam. last. ^a\Ba\iov. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. Said to be from balaustia. To deceive. The Sp. inutilis sarcina. Bamour. baranda. astonished. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. bertesca. Baltic. Fr. The Baltic sea. If bambocciolare were child of one.

Baud. Leg. 813. 15. bandon somewhat party. Sp. band. summoning to serve So in Swiss. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. to unite with a band.e. permission.^ bandy. fahne.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando.—John Villani in Due. Fr. power. ex. It. &c.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. to bring corn to be fahne. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. In Fr. to publish) banna. to take one to task. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Goth. Mag. flag. &c. to ban. faction. banda. . In a special sense the term company itself. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. sostener Torriano. populum. banner marked the place of assembly. banns pany of footmen serve. bandon was used in the same sense. to reprove. border. bannum or bandum. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. to follow a faction. Fr. Commun^ment son bandon. and thence to any proclamation. he bannede his ferde. To Bandy. bindan. bundun. side. to . Ripuar. a company. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. passing on from proclamation to command. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. whether by way of injunction or for- command. in Fr. to excommunicate {lysa. — excommunication bann-lysa. bandera ground at his mill. 2.is further developed. 19. says Muratori. bannire exercitum. curse. 'A son bandon. theodscipe ut abannan. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. to ctide. E. we constantly find the expression. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. band. 1. bando. banda the colour or material. ba?idare. those who side together (bande. side. hoc est vexillo. region. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Capitul. he assembled his host. to form parties. change to the feminine gender in banda. ligue Taboada). bound. — R. acquired the sense of proclamation. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. is That with which anything AS. It. Bandear. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. in hostem convocare. Spebifid. a coast. Wyntoun. admolendinum. eiiseigne. G. From the verb to banda. bande. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. and It. Band. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. D. v. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Goth. parti. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. bannire in exercitum. —R. Diss. . Sp. — To partito d'alcuno. the ensign or banner. Les saiges avait et les fols d. OE. bandi. See Abandon. Assises de Jerusalem. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bann. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. and in E.Lat. authority. The to . ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). biddal. margin. It. It seems this signification has arisen. banda. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. to side or to bandy (Florio). R. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Cot. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Se il — Romance languages. i. A. bande. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. tener da alcuno. also the band or of marriage. at his own discretion. There is some doubt how Fr. Car. R- He Translated by Chaucer. from at the Lord's courts. bande. 26. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. then the signification w. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. etc. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius.. Sw. Bandus.

Goth. bank of Dan. Fr. bakke. a bench. benk. a bench. Bane. a table. ON. . Africa. — — whence E. and therefore tied up. and bakki. It. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. a wound OHG. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. The ing. bench. &c. a bank. a bankrupt merchant. Hudibras. the back. AS. See Banish. See Balluster. Bank. death-wound. bana. pastoralis. banke. to hammer in a nail. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. ruptus. bench. to foment factions. stir. It. bana. in R. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . a sand-bank. bank of a river. — Paulus drive in a nail. banja. the same verb the It. panca. put under the ban of the law. Bandy. banc G. Bacon in R. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. to beat. Dan. in the sense of a pirate. outlam came to signify a robber. — . Mid. 45 — — Bandit. among rotta. death-sickness. from banc. —^Vocab. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. Fr. banditti acquired the like signification. as of an explosion or a blow. bander tin arc. When a man fails Lat. banc. se reunir. Bantze. home — Bandog. banish. seat . It. a blow. to cabal. clouds. bannire. bandire. . de sable. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. Lingua. Bankrupt. to knock. and poise Their lighter wings. beat. many a bang. To Bandy. eminence. Bandy legs are crooked legs. band-dog. back of a knife. bank of river. in the sense of place of business. was formed the OFr. Hard crabtree and old iron rang.z. From a desk . s'associer. ON. Draw. Fl. banca his creditors. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. murderer. a bench. a long raised seat. — Kil. Benvoglio. bane. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. distinguishes bekkr. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. disturbance banga. Bang.: . death-blow . To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. to slay. Diaconus in Due. to knock. Milton in R. Diez. Mercutio. AS. . has bang-bang. bana. broken. g. With many a stiff thwack. standard. Banner. Roquefort. Tibalt. bow. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. &c. bent as a bow. destruction .HG.^ knock. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. banka. desk. at canis peciiarius. It is in this sense nounce. Sw. a counter. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. The ridge of a hill is AS. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Fr. Your stool. Du. Banister. From Mid. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. a de Vaud. bana-sdr. N. 2. de- party. But natheless wife at I bank. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. roupt. and hence. shoal. bank. banca fallita. banco. a rising bank. ON. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. hammering. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. language of W. follow a party. to make a stir banke. bandi. bance. Benchi. — Fr. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. to bend a. to proclaim. tumult bangas. E. the slope of a hill. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. b'ang. a i. . See Band. of bandying words. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). beating. eminence. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. bana-sott. . come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. A Shipman's Tale. se joindre. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. hricg. bander. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. forbear this outrage. counter. whence the mod. Banditti. The child cries bang! fire. dorsum was applied to ject. the former Fr. bandear. bankruptcy. band-hond. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. to publicly order one out of the realm. banqueroute. rap hatike et som The Susu. Brewer. and OFr. for shame. bander. bank. Ripuar. bang. Lat. in the same way that E. that the word is used by Romeo. large dog kept for a guatd. to work in wood. The word is in E. canis vinculis assuetus. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish.

a barrier or stoppage. as they call it. a tree). branches of a tree {gwezen. Thus Ovid. is to virtue of the number of their retinue.8ap6^o)voe. E. from the same source. 3. ON. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. the word came to signify rude. G. inferior to a baron. nestling. either in the Gr. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. sparre. To Banter. ^oTrriKio. such as the Roman Eagle. It. barbarus. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. himself in Pontus. dim. or of this bantering. OHG. —Cot. bannereti. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. from reifa. Bap. Hence ner. Lat. Leduchat. According to Diez the It. Fr. hence a repast. i. a war-beacon or war-signal. sign. remarked. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. which is surely in barbed arrow. OHG. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. Gr. banne. The spar. bandiera. senheira. speaking of battle. barbe. Duo. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. barbed or trapped as a great horse. says. Fr.cruel. chan. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. that the noise of voices Bantling.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. Fr. Sw. a sign. summit. token. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. banneret. Banquet. inur. barra. to having that signification.46 BANNERET . heri-pau. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. banchetto. indeed. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. of wind. The origin is in all probability Goth. barba. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. a ban. a. would rupted from Fr. banneret was a higher class of knights. barde. Hence Fr. A It. and he would seem to derive Goth. It. E. To mock or jeer one. bandva. It may be thing.aTa Kul nest. of banco. ing term appears in other languages. then branches. Celtic bar. bar. senhal. a bantling. in Gr. jSdirTO). Fr. &c. barrou-gwez. a bench or table . Gr. probably corSymbol. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. The original import of their own banner in the field. arineXov. and with an initial s. BARBAROUS reiflingr. men. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. to bend. a bearded or Cot. banner. barrack. top. by a repetition of the syllable bar. In a similar manner are formed yearling. banniire. barriire. sparro. uncivilised.. &c. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. an animal a year old. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. Banneret. banda. Bret. ban- Baptise. period vexillarii. to wash. milites bannarii. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. wrapped. and even of calling it banter. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Barb. senh. barre. a which the barrister addresses the court. rod of any rigid substance. and it was accord. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language.— Swift in R. senhal.hinder. Barb. Fr.the analogous syllable viur. of a sign in general. to beckon . The barb of an arrow is the sign . out of a wound. iandvo. ingly very generally known by a name branches. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. Fr. jSa'pjSapoc. Barbe. Gael. barreau. privileged to raise Barbarous. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. . OFr. — We A . ON.. a beam or long pole of wood. signuin. sbarra. to dip. 2. to wrap. It. benda. brushwood. knight Bardd. Flesche barbeUe. and from ensign or banner Prov. E. manu anto make signs nuere. barrer. then fell among the foot. branch. Lat. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Lat. banda hendi. Barbar. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. merki. and the work is done. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. rarii. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet.

. barbulla. Cotgr. But Sp. Bargain. Sp. Etym. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. used 2. the quilted with. — — Hence. border.— — Pm. . to bubble or boil. Barber. G. Etym. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. the edge of a shield hval-barct. i. Festus in Diet. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. barbeter. OFr. border of a garden bed. bdsas. skialldar-bard. such as houses are covered Bardelle. speak confusedly. — . guazzolare. barbar. boil. Mod. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. also to bind or tie across. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. to wash. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. Gr. barguigner. baar. Hall in R.— BARBEL merit of water. Fr. waschen. barda. fortia —Strabo. Gr. Barde. baragouin. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. to plash or dabble. murmur . Diez. powdered all over. Bard. Fr. horse armour covering the front.' Cot. barboter. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Fr. to chafbargain. a pack-saddle. barda. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. borborinha. to gurgle. albarda. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Mod. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. to bubble or spring up. barbugliare. a jetty or outnook in a building. to make an outcry . The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. borboglio. Exposed to view. baares geld. Barbel. formerly used in the sense of tattle. which was of talking. ready money. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. back.) . A7 to the and warlike.— Fl. g. bds. quarrel . and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. a rumbling. borbulhar. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. The Pers. Barberry. Lith. also to wallow like a seething pot. in poetic language Bard for poet. brabble in the making of a bargain. skola. barbel. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. It. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Fr. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. jargon. borbotar. berries. Bardeau. or more properly (says fer. barbacane. Arab. Hindost. bardes. upper chamber. to boil or bubble up . skirt. Applied in E. and the word was used in OE. albarda'ah. a bardelle. Thus the on. /3£pjSepi^w. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. to prattle. bdla-khaneh. and flanks. bhasad. bare baskojis. Russ. bardd. Hatt-bard. to rumble. name Fr. Sp. berj G. — . uproar. as well as the modern twaddle. twcEtta. — — — men. twattle. Lucan. scouthouse. /3opj3opwJu. A shrub bearing acid Diet. barefooted Sanscr. barS. grumble (Lowndes.) to wrangle. bar. skirmish. to mumble or mutter words. and in Flanders to vociferate. Barbican. barbier. w. the nakedness of a woman. to stammer. small pack-saddle. tattle. tree. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. to stammer. dial. bdsiis. a tumultuous assembly. in the sense of fight. lb. barbelin. Cot. uncovered. barbarkama. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Barder. coping. Pr. brim. Lex. a shingle or small board. barbaris. Bare. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . muttering. An outwork for the defence of a gate. haggle. barbeau. barz. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. on. and Sc. stutter. gibberish. and foolishly. Bret. borbollar. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. the flap of a hat. to grunt. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. the beard. in Fr. mutter. albardilla. Port. open. is lb. Sp. a long saddle for an ass or mule. axilla. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Port. as well as thwcEtta. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. It. — Cot. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. saddle-cloth. barbeum. Cotgr. to barbe or trap horses. unqualified. to It. guaszare. Fl. ala.

Leg. barlich. dispute . dregs of oil. a barn. charlock. barretor. berm hoys. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. It. a boat. borkr. to cheat. hlaSa. we pass to the vert) barguigner. baralhar. So also ON. AS. also to exchange. louzou. Du. the or prow of a ship. berem. beer. barahunda. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Manx bayrn. baimeach. bard). Ibid. tion of the sound. E. dispute barattare. bere. hladi. contest. berm. bern. barki. Du. one who stirs up strife. aheap. the G. barms. barlys {bara. to scold. also a boat . brenig. Isidore in Rayn. to shufSe. barley. ON. baaring. limpets. w. Ripuar. a load. edge. name being given to spectacles. limpet. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. to skin over barkandi. bread. — Barnacle. On the other hand. quant a perdu sa barja. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Vocab.' bardagi. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Rayn. berma. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. and the word. a lap. spectacles. but the woman for the man. Bailey.^Voc^. barafunda. 2. barley. barone. and is probably a true bartig. bosom . Originally man. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. barajar. Uzen. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. barii. OFr. to wrangle. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. trouble. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. OFr. houbartij fsnile. Bark. dispute . — de Berri. beornt. Baron. giving rise to It. is simply the Bret. Cornub. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. a cap . . * Barnacles. From Fr. wine. a receptacle for barley or corn. bread-corn. put to confusion. a. 2. contest. baratta. ON. herbs. limpets . and hence probably (by a metaphor. mhg. as.. — battle. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. bcern. quarrel Port.) lihtes-ern. strife. then the bows pectus navis. hay-loft. am. bamagh. dispute. baaren. lap. quarrel. baron)^ Fr. the A — Ihre. the rack or manger. Sp. bcerme. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. kani. beorcan. OSw. barn. baron. barafustar. a place. It. Port. and 1. then honoured man. the slimy substance brewing of beer. dispute. the fore or after end of a boat . or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Swab. in the Brim. Lith. — Zeuss. Prov. Gael. Barge. plants). The Goth. Sw. Leg. bosom. skuta. barn. barley. varen. to rout. barn. Bemiques. Bret. tumult. i. baniffa. . dial. strife. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. confusion. Barn. As Goth. a baking place or oven. was barlic. and ern. baarn. altercation. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. a stack. commonly explained from bere. —Bark. baratta. . squabble. bargain. to strive. barnacles. prominent part of a thing. v. Dan. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Gl. berm. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. So ON. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. entangle. baarm. Camus. barja. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. at barka. bark . astringent. strife. Barbour in Jam. border. a heap . But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Antiq. Romance barsie. baragouin. To Bark. fray. Alam. Spectacles. Acervus. (Ihre. a heap. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. as in the case of Lat. barnis. The older form in e. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. barmr. as well as Scandinavian tongues. Garlick. in Nat. ber (ace. barge. barlys. See Barm. disorder. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship.. corn-shed. . chaffer. to all the barca. Sp. as baces-ern. Dan. adj. W. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. AS. The origin may be throat. Port. Sp. Kil. and may therefore be an Eastern word. skutr. a lantern. bern. prasepe . ON. husband. struggle. hemlock. bernac. from an imita- Barley. ON. See formed Yeast. Provj bar (ace. baerm. ThS man was not created for the woman. meta foeni. baralha. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles.Barum vel feminam. as. to chop. and llysiaw. a beak.

hut. signifying. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff.. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. fear. See Bar. whence Barrow.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. It. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. — — 15th Cent. from a tree to which a man is hanged. It should be observed that. On chet — We — — their resemblance. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. from beran. barBombicinus. a. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. berwen. OFr. habeant. uncultivated. facture. Goth. Bohem. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. vair. sepulchre. StiU he shows conclusively. Barrister. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Formed from Fr. Barren. baraignej Picard. barri. ^Vocab. man and wife. a barrel. a hiU. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Sp. strife. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. in the first instance. cover. barague. 2. calico. — Kil. booth. w. bredhan. or simply bahre. a hut or booth. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. over him. Sp. mound. an obstruction. bark&n. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. garment still used in Morocco. An ing. barile. braeck. bahre. See Barter. as. — A . the braw. staves. (Schmeller). baronetti. iver. fortification. It. barril. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. baronculi. barrier. boar. It was not until the time of James I. beorh. bera. composed of dry branches ofer. whenever Barrow-hog. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. which would barragdn. became bidre. in Nat. ibid. bier. heap. bouracan. seem to be radically the same with Lat. Baron andfemme. perhaps through Prov. baracca. implement for carryAS. The feudal tenants next Fr.root signifying confused noise. bara. and in several instances. Gael. Gael. Barricade. a bar. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. to carry. change of goods seems. borov'. 1. a kind of coarse camlet. dispute. nobles. were sometimes confounded. a bier.have been named from the haggling and gant. vir. and not from Fr. It. Barratry. AS. barrique. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. sterilis. cise formation of the word.— Gibbon. G. qui have not much light on the pre. ^Barrator. The Sp. Bern. litter. AS. S. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. squabble. also termed bannerets. breinej Du. to shelter. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. Fr. G. as cavalcade. barraca. beorg. like bargain. shed. Bargus or moreland. bearg . todtenbahre. MHG. Joshua vii. especially those killed in battle. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. baronuU. baragan. Sp. a castrated hog . barre.' Op.' that Barrier. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Bamnculus a baronet. baroncelli. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. by early examples. branches. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. vel pretiosos burellos. fallow. barrique. barrila. tomb. gwr. Bret. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. Barrack. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. then traffick4 Barrow. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Barrel. a barrow. Antiq. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. a. a horse. the two names. berewe.. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. from cavallo. This word introduced into Fr. beorgan. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. rolls of Parliament. gravis et authenticus vir. to * Barragan. a word is always used in the plural number. A. barrack. 26. alongside of barrow. a man. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. semen non accipiens landiEL. Fr. Nominale of the from braeckland. bara.parchanttuech. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Russ. brushwood. man. D. barchent. E. OE.

mean . Basilisk. Sp. basgod. barter. a tying. but born in baste.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. fornication. Fr. oe. basta. and tun. a ftiesh. bast-reb. to cheat. over-reaching. AS. mock not. unrighteous gain. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. ^Is de bast. Swed. flat. HaUiweU. It is mentioned as . him. foist in bargaining. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Kil. ' Bosworth.' Papias. bast. Bass. Sicamb. OFr. fraud. fornication. Al is dai. at basta og binda. bds. to bind. G. lift me above Parnassus. low note. Sp. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. It. baraand especially teria. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . See Brattice. Fr. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). baxoj w. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. w. to stitch . . baste. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). found in Turkish . Sp. n' is n' is bacino. truck. bas. a bastard. a basket masg. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. submovet omne Lucan. It. the a wide open vessel. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. which sets up its hood when angry. exchange. i. Basket. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. said Base. he. according from Gael. MS. But according And Dan. from /3aR. PaaiKhms. bark. Lap. bestan. a halter. from bere. — hanging. baste. besst. pressed down. or running away with the ship. beguile. aiKcig. — in Rich. Gr. to baste. baos. basta. basg. baratar. to bind hand and foot. . to deceive. HoUinshed. low part of the Hickes in Rich. barter. a king. Barbara de pictis veni patch. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. to bargain. The original meaning. bast. ohg. ing for profit. To Baste. bestcn. besst-u-b£nd&t. fits de bas. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. descended of an honorable lineage. of the same sense. It. MHG. embastir. also the demesne lands of a manor. To Bask. . netting. It. fhe outhouses and yards. preparatory stitching. rope for — . ibid. Newman. Bassus. discourse Nay. as It. hoops of a cask. The like property hath the iasilisk. as the diadem of the basilisk. would be. stitch. It. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. barley. a deceiver. lattice-work. lust. A fabulous serpent. Sylvester's Dubartas. — Bassoon. ' He was begetin o bast. Barton. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. bran. berewic. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Fr. exchange. partieren. then cheating. scale in music. bareter. to long — a British word by Martial. plaiting of splinters basged. cog. curtus. To stitch. Halliwell. 516. to truck. shallow. baraet (from Fr. OFr.D. beortun. beretun. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. a court-yard. to cheat. baratear. bastear. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. /«r<fSp. It. commonly A joined with the word binda. Apparently of Celtic origin. Lend me your hands. Sw. a bass rope. court-yard. Arthur and Merlini. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. imbastire. Dan. basso. and Bret. piiiguis. to bind. or wic. on a. Du. Sw. leviter consuere. to baste piece of cloth. low. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Bartizan.' Gl. pdrdt. chasa ogli a bastard. basso. more noble in blood than notable in learning. dwelling. MHG. God it wot. BassuS. bassin. inclosure. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. back. also to Cotgr. bass-matting. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. the thin skin Dan. binding. but he dreth presently. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. come near. crassus.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Bast. There is not one that. See Bath. which covers the grain Ger. to Diez. bdtir. low. thick. Bass. cheating. Du.). a ipgli So Turk. peel. imbastire.looketh upon his eyes. chasa. baste. Pl. HaU in HaUiwell. humilis. corn-farm. F. husk bast van koren. Bastard. mavult dicere Roma suam. Dan. Fris. Isidore. bast. the manorhousfe itself. tierer. bast-maatte.

worth (Nat. beating. blakta. translation to a bat. also to cudgel. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. badger. the bat . which to rest the load. bastir. bastonada. bakie-bird . to cudgel. Derived by Diez from iasi. victuals. It. the night-jar or goat-sticker. blatta. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. bladier. liiake. like the owl and the bat. dial. 164). stitching of a quilt or mattrass. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. to spread bread and butter. and Arabs. bastia. staff. Fr. Sp. to beat. nade. in the use of the E. Pr. It. e. bastida. the E. niammal. Florio. Supp. whence ledrblaka. To baste one's hide . and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. which in the E. put it together. a with a stick. Fr. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. E. Dieiif. comp. boste. blakra. but this is hardly satisfactory. beysta. Mid. It. 2. from Fr. 11864. blakka. bdion. p. to build. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to beat. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to pack a saddle i. devise. to build. aftonbakke. basto. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. has bastine. * Bat. Sw. Perhaps baska. Sw. a blow cloth for dinner. stryka.-^ Chaucer. a things prepared for future use. bastear. 2.baste or knock soundly. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. To beat or bang soundly. club. and ditches bastion. a stick. also the ricado. vespertilio. frame.. the original has corneille. a pad. bastonFr. 2. or implement for 4 * A . to devise or begin. baston. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. Dan. packsaddle. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . guerra bastir. Fr. pre. to rub gently. Cot.Lat. to Due. quelqu'un son roulet. Bastinado. That yche blak y dar wel telle. bast. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. vespertilio. as weU as besteau. bat. Dan. to drub. set up. Cot. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. the winged . settiilg up. All from bastir. business (Altieri). and Cot. . to whip. frotter. bastille. bak. military term of a bat-horse). to set on foot a war Bastion. bastilde. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. Sc. basa.— . ment. set up. R.stick. a sconce. to belabour. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. to stroke. ari instruineht for beating. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. is explained by Cot. cudgelling. bastonnir. ON.fortress or castle furnished with towers. a blockhouse. Fr. raise.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. flyinge best. Sw. vledermus. batta lucifuga. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. a bastion. to lay the Sp. For the origin of baston see Baste. night-bat. To donjon. contriving. 'iJipistreUo. For the loss of the / in back. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. to thrash . stryk. bastir. to give him a sound bastingi 3. iastir. explains Sp. the clapper of a bell.'CaB. contrive. Sp. passage Imbasto. . Sw. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a barSp. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. erect. blatta. bastimento. dial.stitching in general. — Bakke. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. baston. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. BAT neither.— Bailey. I. in the Romance languages. Pm. a. Antiq. a packsaddle. back. — — Fl. provisions. disposer. blaka. compared with blakka. to teach one before. natt-blakka. — — — . R. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. blows. Rayn. basta. iinbastire. to flap. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . bastine. a bird which. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. to rub. Prov. blacta. bastione. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. a pad or packsaddle. to quilt or stitch wool into it.

It. batte sig. dial. To thrive. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Fr. Florio. Slav. or break down. G. from battre. as wood-en. to beat se battre. E. as signifying warm baths. Batyn. tagUone. gabatnan. a great seems related to baden as Fr. To Batten. Hal. to bathe oneself. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. beat. batterie. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp.Hence in the augmentative form It. battre. better. Ayenst the sunne. abate. to for fighting. beat down. in the case of a wall. Bate. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to become fat. Fr. to fell. bat. In OE. bet. Chaucer. Jurgor. bake. gebdcke. to warm. bdt. Hence pro. more. to flutter with the wings. Battle. Barbour in Jam. a band of armed men arranged basa. A Bath. Gael. PLD. bastille. to warm oneself. battre las ailes. to refresh oneself in language. to betake oneself. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. wet linen in washing. trahtr to It.' Palsgr.— To Bask. See Better. To Bate. The bat with which a brot bdhen. whence the sun burns . Jeddris and covering. also. to foment. to fight. made of — A made by one Batcii. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to dial.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. term in falconry . bdhen. gebdck. to get better. makebate. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Battery. the root of e. and about an inch thick. a stick. the heat of the It. in the sun. or a dry stick. to become convalescent. Sp. . batir. solbase. is in falling. from on. Fr. baeddu. for biia sik. was formed bastilU. Sw. I. Mgy. hot. quhar he suld assaill. betten. w. remit. to foment.Bathe. dial. dispute. From OFr. a staff. Battery. 2. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. Eggs. to heat. to bathe. Bat. Fr. to thrive. Batter. an arrangement for giving blows. battaglia. batador. as E. on. G. bat-en. a battle. Battalion. bada. — Cot. adapted for defence. Du. It. Pr. a main battle. Fr. buask made like a fortress. badask. by projections or in any licoure. A batch as wood. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. to feed. and milk beaten up together. batna. to be profited. and with staffslyng. — — — ' — . a washing beetle. battere. Batten. a blow with a light instrument. ON. signifying to give repeated blows. to beat. as E. batacazo. a beating. fortress or castle. baka. Pr. baden. a battalion. baquetazo. also a sun badfish. baz. badda. allay . bdda vidjor. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. a blow. Bret. to toast bread. tradire. heat. oneself at the A into faggots. to beath wood Battledoor. or make debate. on the fire. a Baiffi. . beat. From bat in the sense of rod . squadron. I bathe in water viz. Flem. Pm. strife. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. is a simple adoption of Fr. pak. fashes basking in the sun squadron. a from ON. water whether warm or cold. — To . In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. Sp. dial. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. howis.— . to beak. Bailey. Holz bdhen. battere. flour. bdda. I baske. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. G. Pm. Sw. Battlement. dial. debat. . and as a verb. a stirrer-up of strife. busk. altercation. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Plkkis. to beat. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . battre. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. sich bakern. to beat. then to warm by the application of hot water. In some parts of England it is striking. Goth. lessen. solen baddar. quell. e. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. bludgeon. Strife. certain bend. Baka sik vid elld. abattre. battle was used beath wood. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. bataille. made of bats. perhaps first used adjectivally. to fire or in the sun. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Fr. to cudgel. to warm oneself at the fire. basa. battions. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . cudgel. badda. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to foment with hot applica. to heat .

and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. guigaw. to void the bowels. to play the babby. bad. 2. bausan. scarf. having a white streak down Bagdad. OFr. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. a zan. P. OFr. collar. a white mark Bawdy. baudrdj OHG. the face. s. Fr. 8. In like manner Grisons filthy. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. pie- . pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). spot. balbob. Jam. an embattled wall. Cloth of gold. to make the noise Baudrick. balGael. dung. obstrepere. to talk Lacombe. pegma. Descript. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. a spot. From ! an interjection of disgust. tille. baugant. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. librillo. was simply a field gold. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. nastiness. to me-wl. Piedm. P. bow (as in our nursery Diez. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . bobine. vacillo. bal. a horse marked with a procession. Pr. disgusting. miauler.. Swiss Rom. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. trifle. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. ball. babiole. Fr. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. E. Batylment of a wall. form with an initial seen in Fr. balderich. the Swiss baben. Beaus^ent. baudrat. filth. BAWSON Swiss. A name of the badger. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. a plot of Chaucer. and to-tore also. zano. expressive of disgust. to bark. cluster.— P. child. to low or bellow as corn. The word may perhaps be sticks. baban. is used for a sented by bau. ! Bauble. divided between black and white. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. to vociferate. An analogous noisily. brush faggot. dial. Cotgr. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. because made of cloth of white. babsmall toy to play withal. to bark . to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Ball-seirc. horse. Formed from baw. spotted. E. is Bagdad stuff. fooleries or fond To Bawl. bau. Irel. dacchino. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. whence pouacre. to trifle away ment. javelle. Sc. from Baldacca. baue. toys. fe bau. i. baffe. From Bret. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. Baldrick. instead oi s. to the same origin. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. excrement. It. represented by the syllable miau. P. and Sp.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Bagdad. a tassel. bauch. baw. tab. faisceau. c. dirty. ground. filth. or sheaf of Bridel. speckled. bauU. also more Bawdekin. b \% bouala. propugnaculum. on the face of animals. babbole.. as Fr.guage). or Cot. ballach.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. — Pm. Gael. a gavel. a horse with white legs. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. an object. Zalli.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. — — ' Lydgate. E. Ball. Pr. trifles. whence the E. bobbin or cluster of thread. The It. E. Baw — . ON. ish baubles. baula. s. bablyn or waveryn. or toys. Cot. a belt. lewd .' ' Pegma. Filthy. It. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. R. also the canopy carried part of his body. rotten. a dog). Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Pm. Cot. from Fr. Bavin. exactly corresponds Fr. a tassel or hanging bunch . W. to 53 manure the To baw. bal. sword-belt. sorry. fields. dirt. mew. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. and authorities in note. Fl. bouaila. fagot. Hal. to cry. —R. dente. bow-wow. the white of his leg or foot. It. Bawson. Prov.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. whimwham. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. baubare. a lump. Fr. It is all bawdy. or the animal so marked. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. a lump or cluster babhaid. Lat. an — — — A — g — — — . in OE.

to mark. Bay. —Diez. Such Antaeus seemed to me. —F. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. white. baier. From Cat. or window ' (in Fortification). &c. bilyejiti. It. Vielp. especially beans. bajo. Lat.. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. . tradire to Fr. . life. laurel of the ancients. Fr. to on anything. or recess in an apartment in modern times. baca. baja. aux dehniers abois. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. or to have been first used at the Cot. It. The word bay. the laurel-bay. Fr. Piedm. window . S. to split. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. It. w. house . badarse. and the To bark as a dog. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Sp. baher. See At Bay. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. to open. dividere. a cluster of bacon. Drayton in R. baie. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. to be Bohem.— Stalder. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. — A At Bay. from an imitation of the sound. grapes or nuts. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. BauSfi)/. he turns and faces his pursuers. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. bay. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Cot. It. bde. and zndly. bate. is perhaps not directly from Lat. 1. overture. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. ing-floor. the cod or husk of beans or the like. to open as a blossom. by the term rendre les abpis. Prov. weary of running.' — — 54 bald. Sp.c. siege of Bayonne in 1665. so called from its bearing bays. &. A hollow in the 'line of coast. barn of two bays. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. Swiss beie. Gael. stare. bijel. beo. large window in a handsome . Fr. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. badius. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. |8i'os. buidhe- The ruadh. trahir. bdcr. bioth. baye. living Ir. beonj Gael. batibari. Bay-tree. &c. 25. A stag is said to stand at bay. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Catalan hadia. abbabayer. to stand watching one. to iiitent nected PoL white. Fr. baiare. To Bay. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. bilyega. waiting .. put to his last shifts. ist. It has been shown under Abie. a berry. bayo. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. living thing . See Bawl. bagaid. The — Fr. badia to Sp. open the mouth. bacca. Q. Arts. —Bay-windo'W. beothach. arose two forms of the verb. and keeps them in check for a while. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. corrupted into Bow-window. bahia. watching intently. Gael. bahia. the step is the same as from It. the world Gr. Mod. gate. Earth — By Nature made to till. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. AS. . Bay. in order to keep the enemy in check. as if to signify a window of curved outline. baccello. at his last gasp. Q. BAY marked with bjly. a dagger. baer. Gr. expresr sion tenere a bada. when. to amuse stare a bada. OSp. hddhe-dhonn. Abide.' Bailey. Serv. Sp. It. to gape. stood watching him stoop. a mark. a'uno. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. to betray. bay./^ bau. or berries. dehiscere . * To Be.—Journal Soc. buidhe. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. baya. a beast. yellow . baionette. from badar. See Bald. badarc. Fr. BE Probably conRuss. like a pie. bialo. Holland's Pliny in R. 1859. Lat. berries. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. or at bay. the cod of peas. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. F. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. that from ba. desiring. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. to keep at a bay. bayen-stein. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. berry. baga. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. baca. Bayonet. life. window-sill. alive. to keep one waiting. husk. a hole. Swab. — Schmid. which however. From the former verb is the It. Fr. bai. as gazing. Feb. .

Beadle. pierced for hanging on a string. Lat. into a snjall river. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. -phxr. according to of Sanscr. to beckon. Moreover the name. bob. — to bow or nod .' adheres to the root. Q wait upon him.fuis5e. — : Beam. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan.. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. prodigy bauhnjan. Beak. stock. baum. E. Gael. g. signifying a point. bokan. bead. See To Bid. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. fora-bauhan. as. Pardoner's Tale. Chapters on Lang. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. a tree. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. It. To Bear. G. fromthe danger. beic. l^ax. badmr. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. fd or faVf beans. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. bydel. signifying individuality. bidan. Bear. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. bM. —F. A Esthon. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. as well as f& or fav. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. OSax. Thus the final en. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. ffaen. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. beans. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. W. bek.' Hall's Chron. ON. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Sw. A two-year old nephew of mine p. the part overflowed by the tide. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. which is. be. a sign. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. tale of prayers or doxologies. bakkje. The wild beast. AS.from AS. bairan.ad. N. * Beagle. 54. Gael. on. The nutu significare. Be. bee.fer-re j Gr. G. It. salve his hurts. to nod . not applied to the yelping of dogs. vii. becco. Slavon. or however. bar. Bret. fero. Fr. — Bellenden in Jam. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. faba is Kvavoq. bagms. ohg. Beck.fui.to have a French origin. bauhan. a single bean. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. to carry. would say. ON. Boom. and Lat. beic. faba. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. Goth. Farrar. to nod the head. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. a beak. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Beach. a prayer. «va\ioQ. backe. vol. boom. beacen.' Suetonius in Diez. — bedeau. beck. post. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. baun. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Du. Gael. beugler. was introduced from England sea. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Gr. or beic. as. Fr. bohne. into France. It forms a. Beckon. bdkna. bidello. He says. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. beacnian. . Netherlands or North Germany. ffci. to wait-. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. or any action done with a pointed thing. Trans. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. . to produce young. Catalan becar. rising ground. The immediate shore of the Menage. Bret. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. a nod OHG. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Beacon. a hill. or breathing. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. an attendant. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. bohnej ON. a presage. atUndre. Goth. The origin seems preserved in E. a tree. a single bean. to bellow. W. bean. gebed. AS. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. It is BEAR SI court. bank. bearti. however. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Miss Gurney in Philolog. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. to wait. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. nokkima. a curtsey. Hackluyt in R. Bean. bakke. . like most nautical terms. bedm. support. pig.

duty. limpan. He becom on sceathan. Beaver. to assume a certain form or Turk. Beck. get J ' He got very angry. Perhaps from Pol. bekkr. R. OSw. Cal.' every way suited to a prince. Lat. proper. but now a river only. nothing to thy name make. R. ziemen. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. riviera. Beat. ON. g. bedr. biivre. bellus. Fr. E. whence baveux. as. babrad. bib or slobbering cloth. It. brook . decorous. handsome. the latter are derived It. to those goods which endure for ever. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. burdr is used in the sense of a car. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. bava. Beauty. proper . bave i.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. gabaurths. to the brook itself.' are equivalent expressions. As rivus. 1. Fr. brada. a bank. happening as it ought. talkative. Diez. Do no To It fallith favour. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. to dabble . Goth. to wade through the water like a beaver. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. barba. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. formerly a happen. to arrive at. bach. AS. and on.— Kiittner. i. taste. beatanj It. Fr. Lith. because made of the fur of the beaver. or special purpose. as the babble of the child. a brook. dushmak. See Beacon. bello. G. befit. rying. connected with ripa. to attain to the lot of any one. to sleep on. bequem. pleasing. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. e. brook. den. . to the good hapHalbard. Fr. bart. The OFr. convenient. chin. a lip. birth. name applied originally to the bank then proper . In like manner condition. barf. It. to be a part of his to. limplice. — . and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bearing.getiman.to clothe to slobber.of being very angry. baba. Prov. Thcem. gebank. to be incumbent upon him. fitanimal. dress with unbecoming richness . baviire. to fall. ON. slobber. beauts. byrcti. bestiaj Gael. to come to or upon. ON. bel. o. beo. godum with ON. tidy. bett. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to happen. nod or sign. the ece thurhwuniath. Bosworth. fitly . The quadruped. W. Prick of Conscience. — A — A — . place to lie down. riviire. iida. produce. the beard. biber.we call the arrangement becoming. covered the face. bobrowai. Beck. to get. fiber. Lat. The moveable part of a helmet. now confined To Become. bobr. bard. bavec. to appertain. AS. ON. to happen. and Fr. G. Sp. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. from baver. perhaps a living thing. e. badi. or a feeling to be gratified. it is probable that here also the to become. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. gefallen. Chaucer. becuman. bebrus. G. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. dize or dtzen. See Bat. timan. G. baurthei. Bo. See Bank. while from Shep. Slav. E. border. Thus OY. tidig. judgment. agreeable. to be fulfilled. fit. Lat. Lat. to shore. opportune. Dan. fallinn. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. from the same in the sense of bear2. befall. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. pretty. to happen. Beckon. an notion of being convenient. which. suitable. Russ.AS. 2. That thou mayest attain Goth. seemly. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. to G. pens unmixed evU. bcek. living. Bedizen. a. to happen. Boeth. to carry. and to acquire. edge. behkr. Fr. becuman. decent. or river. suitable. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. to happen. E. See becymth anfeald yvel.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. to hem. when up. G. to live. if sound of a sharp blow. blast. I do thee pray. comely. Secondarily applied to a hat. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. In a second sense to become is to be ing children.' ' He became very angry. to please. gelimplic. i. to fall mode of being. agreeable. ting. our taste.S6 fero. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. to bear children. boroda.fit. bave. obtain. bring forth. a bank. con. from beau. To load with ornament. to fall in with our bavard. receive. byw. limpian. battere. bur. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. venient. bekommen. and also in that of birth. Now the Beast. On the same principle. The fitting or suitable.

possible.cz//aj. Beef. * Beestings. bletumj Gr.' So Gr. ir'm.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. stakes.). a pillow case. beetle also signified the impiti. door. as. wedges. briesch-milch. 1156. the loppered sea. bove. to parget or rough-cast . Ant. also the bite or sting of a bees. pude-vaar. trees in a forest . bibere is a re. ^. bably named from the destructive quali| T. cugino. beest. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Gael. case. qui de lecto surgere non potest . briest. fall. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. Lat. The meanpainting. betel. beost. bos. taglio. a stinging bieUe. bette or blettej Lat. to fall. Beetle. to become Beech. pettiriso. thick. It. bbtel. turn. whence familiar. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. crespir. madhouse. Fr.^ drink. biest-milch. Fr. . buche. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. AS. erroneously modified in form. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. to twist poorma. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater._t from the root pi. i. Bav. calleBedlam. For that was law of lend. knock. translation beOj. bitela. sela que environna la terra. In a passage of an Old Fr. Cot. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. biene. cozen. bytl. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. of beatmg. a horse-fly . Horn. a wasp. 57 — Palsgr. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. an ox. &c.D. fagus. may be from K. a cup or implement for AS. the ox. byst. But possibly bedizen 2. doubtless. to and ale.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Bernese. a wasp. beutel. . Confined to bed. a wandering Prov. G. sang vermeilh betatz. from blood. beyki. a malsense of drink. as the milk of a that purpose in London.'— GL ^Ifr. drink. to beat bossel. by the analogy of bedaivb.D. Bee. desert. a clapper. woman that is newly delivered. It. vaar. curded or beesty. may be shpped on and off. the meat of spinach. PI. speach. . turn (a garment). AS. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. which also 2.(paddi. used for boull. a bee. prisons Venet. /SXirov. to change . E. ' MordiThe Lat. I A pillow-beer. comb. and lebermer in G. The honey-producing insect. and in driving piles. water. an inhabitant of the desert. a drink potus. mars betada. Rom. to colour with lime-wash. a mallet. bovis. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. Fr. a pad or cushion). 1. whose face is clotty. Fin. to knock. from leberen. Originally. beer. bossen. . close together as teeth in a venomous creature. a bed-tick. The first milk after a dizen. Grimm. beach. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. from the hos. to poordma. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. a pillow-case. Bethlehem. bedskiissen-bUren. Pett. Bedouia. Fr.' the last word corresponds to cofly . Bed-ridden. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. badigeonner. in Schmeller. cited by Diez. 1. . bitel. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. bedde-redirj ohg. in Nat. to coagulate. cushion-cover . buk. also bienst. . kivih. cousin. bet. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. boeuf. as in It. from jtst-. bedawi. to curdle or lopper. biiren. poculum. boytle. from risan. drink. to turn. E. blow or thrust. G. pital of St Mary. ProBeer. Slav. to flatten In OE. duplicated form of the root. Fr. garden-herb. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. to drink. G. the biter. I put the flax upon it to spin. Pl. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. batAfter mete in sale. Lat.— JI14.substance as to render navigation imtiriso.. to rough- cast. ris. extant in Bohem. Dan. Let. on. beta. cogionare. by-flugaj G. imperative pi. buka. prigione. thick. a Properly a cover that biiren. KXlvoTTiT^e. Esthon. tree. Beet. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. GaeL bior. The beer al for te shenche bate. P1. AS. D. It. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. kiissen-biere. clog for a dog b'oteln. bukva.ON. red curdled Arab . cow has calved. beach-each. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. de Fierabras in Diez. paralyticus. waarin. 1 to drink.ing of the word is curdled.— B. Cot. an Beetle. Arab. a agulatum in the original Latin. Fr. piwo. I dysyn a dystaffe. from Lat. a paviour's beetle batail. 'La Gl. g. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Gr. a cover.

Of brede full ycrammed. — yivsaiQ.' about undern he got down. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. ytyvwfT'Kw. to reduce him to beggary. to begin. Mod. woe-begone. Nov. V. ken. ysgrepanu. as alighting is a momentary operation. to be able. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. When Q. Skinner's derivation from bag. &c. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. P. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. 40. a beggar. 'Dz. gen. taking up. to beg.D. hags.— . 1430. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . — Stillingfleet. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. genus. Into the are D. or Of a pure poor man. onginnan. Beghardus. gan. on the tramp. capere. AS. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. So from Gael. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. P. begger. bertola.bag full of the G. su with gold.3. literally. from whete G. beginning. oppressed with woe. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. &c. anfangen. P. P. OHG. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. ornamented phoc. to take. P. to begaan. giving in Gr. cans. V. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.' for ye shall lament and weep. Du. 142. beitel. 'ex quo. It. in E. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. air a . Si'Xa/coc. but probably erroneously.' A. one after that other. P. can. a — wedge. a bag. yiyvo/uat. gigno. kind. In Luc vi. to be acquire. of Gr. P. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. Creed. in Lat. at geta talad. baigeir. beriolare. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. beis- plement driven by blows. Fr. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. 168. Florio. P. touched with emotion — . which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. to go a begging. sel. on further examination. whence the E. ken. is formed pocair. Schm. ykvog. To produce children is to acquire. Bruce. Cold-begone. a scrip euXaiciJoi. but in the same language from poc. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . beissel. To Begin. it is both to acquire and to beget. 'Aboutin undern monly. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. krapszas. a little bag). 2. can. viii. a beggar . a scrip. a wedge for cleaving wood. in D. Goth. Du. a bag . Ancren Riwle. ' . a chisel. Lollards. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. The tother seand the dint cum.n. yivwajcw. not began to alight. a stone-cutter's chisel. to get children . and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. Deutsch. image is cleft out of the trunk. Lith. fangen and Lat. From w. a bag or poke. also called Bigots. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. to be born. Vocab. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. appears improbable at first. Du. 25. P. is com. origin. It will . seizing. & go a begging. To Beg. covered with gold D. above quoted to get beaten ON. on the bag. Gr. beutel. to know. Mundart. begging. to arise. Political Songs. and Lat. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. y/yvo/iat. although it ' the future. referred gan this Erie alight. signifying to conceive.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. duginnan. 1867. He did alight. iv. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. 58 BEG BEGONE G. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. yivtrri. the fundamental notion of attaining to. V. vir mendi. ysgrepan. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. lapidicinus. ' Begone. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. pose-pilte. P. two betels —a grete oke. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. affected. ip AS. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. a wallet.quently used in OE. beitel. incipere. chisel. be^nnan. tale. Barbour. steinbosil. aginnan. ' ' .' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. yivofiai.pose. bag {baigean.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. to bear young. a beggar-boy. word. to cleve. chap.

is also found in the sense of looking. G. habere. zu etwas gehalten haitan. Robert in Warton. use. the name adapt. hcefwa in seed. To Behave. to carry corn into the barn . AS. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. hafwa ram. laborare. to be obliged to do a thing. to the equivalent of Du. or the hence advantage. to keep. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. AS. to hold. hafjan. as in the case of E. To be expedient. gecall. to bers of the body. Thus in Finnish the heave. is supported by many analogies. AS. to fit. heeten. heeten willekem. the equivalent of E. hatan. Plautus. The seyn. premi curi alicujus rei. to hit the mark. behces. and the E. To place are most naturally ex. gehaben. beperson addressed. to carry. furtherance. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. or purpose. hevja. hafwa bort. to feed. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. AS. to look upon it as true .' Richardson. behat. to vow. At the back of The re. a follower. take yourself off. exhort. right. fixed upon any object). invoke. at the tail of. 17. To look steadily upon. zijn. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. obliged. seeing to. Paladino.to vow. to keen or hold. And so from hania. take heed of. what he wishes another to do . adjust. OE. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. and their senses intermingle. to be fit. to tend. to behave. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. on. have the sense of calling or naming.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. heita. injunccommand. commonly expressed. behold. to be named. ward. to lift. to lead. to raise. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after.). G. habban. to be suitable or becoming . while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to be obliged to one. hafwa. G. to keep. gehouden. to cast or throw. to be be named. gehat. to take away. to turn one out . The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. It. hove. to halten. promise. to carry. us-hafjan. promise or a command. behefe. AS. G. behete. K. to promise. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to hold. to lift. N. is on the top of or opposite to. nittaa. to call. behind. guardare. To Behold. beholden to him. behaviour. se porter) to fare well or ill. betragen. vow. when the verb will hoof. tail. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to regard. from tragen. The It. G. according as the * To Behove. to have. to carry. observe. the distance of anything.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid.the figure of throwing at a mark. taking notice or care of (Gloss. hevja. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. the two verbs seem radically the same. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. —Hest. portarsi. hces. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. hofwa. keeping. what is so required. R. bound. to command. ufhaban. hafwa. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to call. healdan. tion. name of the head is used to express what hbva. advantage. hovast. to name. ge' hatan. vow. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. — Behest. Goth. to meet. behatan. to R. Sw. Command. Sw. to be well pleased out. keeping. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. Sw. or necessary. The Lat. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. But. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. ifl fact. garder. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to command. to follow. solicitum esse. Kiittn. and (as Fr. gehalten seyn. to look. han- — js Kil. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to gehouden. by the compound observare. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to heave. to vow. to bring forwards. G. promise .— .for throwing it. hcef tig bort. behoof. hantyri. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. servare. heave.

Du. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. Du.D. laubjan. resonare. to protect. to sanction an arrangement. or a sconce. esteeming good and valid. or house. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. is (Sternberg).D. range. and. —F. to estimate them at a To believe. Du. and Du.. bounds. to der swaren lave. to praise. G. to a loud noise. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. properly belonging to the church tower. honoured. beffroit. ungalaub kas. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. portion. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. From AS. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it.Lat. permitting or giving leave. Another application of the same word is in Pl. verloben. glauben. to put a high price or value on. to belay. to give leave Dan. allow. ON. lov. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. beleggen. garnish. behove. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. to boke. to promise. is used in the sense of approving. Sw. to sound loudly . to promise or engage. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. . if a promise. It. See Gain. an implement for making a loud noise. aim. in nautical language. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to believe. to fix a price upon one's wares. Northamptonshire. to lay the cable round the bits. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. esteemed . bialla. b'ola.. were civil terms of address. To Believe. bolken. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. border. and bergan. bertefredum. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. laven. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. Det er ofwer er hofwa. Hence to simple approbation. moderation. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. reputation. are other modifications of the same imitative root. locus securitatis Schilter. to give leave. true. a tower for defence . promiser. met. bylja. AS. Then. erlauben. then. to extol the worth of anything. mark ON. Goth. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. fringe. OFr. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. beset. bervrit.alyfan. to resound. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. leave . overspread. to be required for a certain purpose. To Belay. galaubjan. to make it fast. if a narration. belja. berfroi. Bell. To Belch. satisfaction. battefredum.Lat. bulken. to believe. or high estimation. P1. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . permission. ley/a. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. legsel. to roar. cela est audessus de votre portde. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. with the consent of the heirs. promising. loven. — . lofa. tain a certain end. giving leave or permission. to lay be- around. is an easy progress. then. Fr. to to make A Templorum campana boant.D. bercvrit. to permit. praising. bell. ON. certain rate. In the middle voice hofwas. peal. fitness. from mhG. Fair sir and Fair lady. beffroi. galaubs. Q. consent. are innate . bealcan. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to cry out bell. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. measure. to praise. belief . gelyfan. on. AS. to befit.. to believe. hesfa. Pl. for purposes of low estimation . boare. bellow. stand. turris. to bolk. to bellow. a watch tower. leaf geleafa. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. . — mankind. loven. The word be- Belfry. a tower. distance to which a piece will carry. reach. and E. . loben. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. a. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. lyfan. 6o BELAY BELL loven. a vessel made for dishonour. beau sire and bel dame. under the forms belfredum. In Mid. pro3. to hit hafi. Fr. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. frid. — Diicange. to praise. laven. bealcettanj OE. OHG. praise. bellan. orloven. a little shed. on. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. appearing in Mid. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . filu-galaubs.D. Du. ornament. to give leave. bettifredo. to express approval. we have Goth. precious. Pl. and E.

to. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. bilbila. to say. — root consisting of concentric skins. attinere. or a It is times the to signify services. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. Eenison. to stretch it on a frame. Gael. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. To Bequeath. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. a speaking well of one. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. bolg. taken absolutely. or sometimes louban. bellows. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. . bimpsen. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. Kil. to hold to one. to exert force. belt. a bellows . To Bend. bell. vulva. ON. benedicere. means seeds of plants. gelangen. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. a round or bubble-shaped root. to arrive at. ray. disposed to oblige. bendan. to bless. belch. binssen. bolch. Bench. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. G.pinuz. . — See Numb. attingere. generous. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. poX^ri. Fr. Gael. rise against external force . a kindness. to touch. a blow. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. to attain to. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). bellows. to make bilbil. Ptg. benehusk. se bander. skin. an inflated Lat. Beneath.' The term had been previously planation. Belt. Quoth. OUG. a water-bubble builge. ball. ' I beraye. Du. pertinere. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. benir.. bellows. Benignant. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. See Nether. Javanese perfume. hence with ashes. Fr. Bret. ON. pervenire. is The word balg. incense of Java. from benedictio. welt of a shoe. hem. loubdn djawt. belly. Gum benjamin. wallet. fens et hie liraus. Benefice. to do good to one . G. Lat. binsen. volva. — ray. Benediction. pouch. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. becwathan. needs no ex. benignus (opposed to malignus). It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. the word. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. See I . gwaldas. to concern. a accusative. bag. a good deed. from which is also bulbus. Lat. has assumed a plural form.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. to become one's property . I araye. Benedico. a border. . w. belliJ Lat. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. bolg. bander un arc. From OFr. skin. The ing-skin. from Arab. vulgarly the belly. a bellows. border. by itself. or simply djawt.— Belly. G. blister balgan-snamha. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. on. a spring.Fr.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. In E. See Bank. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . pod. bless. benejicium. to hallow. Benign. bags or bellows. benedictio {bene^ and dico. Fr. fyle To dirty.polch. well. Was das belanget. to concern. to use words of good omen. Dozy. balg. a benefit. a leather bag. from another modification of the word for bubble. or fyle with myre. benjoim. To belong is thus to reach up to. to come to the crown belangen. To Benum. ." — — . a blessing. bandoir. are stripped off whole blase-balg. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. See Bind. kind. Lat. to reach. . was in Mid. the womb. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Lat. to belong. langen. balteus . Lat. est matris in lucem editus. . balg. Benzoin. to bend a bow . — Ducange. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Lat. attinere. benaigon. bimaissen. beneison.videtur. wallet Benefit. to touch one. pertinere. I marre a thyng. to ring. OFr. rushes. bilbil-goda. J'emboue. the skin of those animals that factor. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. to attain belangen. bendaj as. pino3. G. To Belong'. Sw.' — Hie fimus. as. is a kindred form. . from cwcsthan. leather sack. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS.' Palsgr. bcelg. benjoin. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. welt of a shoe gwald. bienfait. bene/actum. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. because bcelg. I say). Bent. ^To Beray. Bav. cod or husk of pulse. dirt. Benefactor. benefacere. belly. as concerning that. ' . one who does good. belgr. I soyle it or araye it. blast-bcelg.

basya. to amend. To bete his Jam. put. jnore. same word with the provincial barth. * Berth.• 62 Antiq. amendment. ^•n. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. baete. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. besje^ Sanscr. berwe. beseech. to stand one in good stead. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. to give a place to. So Lat. person to lie in. Zeitschr. OE. So too Yorkshire arf. Besom. berry. ariierf to 113. lewth. — bota. BETE dirty'. Beit. Du. reparation. dirt . position. fearful. improve. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. to on the other Goth. the origin of which is to be found in ON. in the sense ctf beria. but in practice. besnij Pl. botesward. supporting on the one side Lat. Fin. to put on the saddle. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. to make it. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. small eatable fruit. Bestead. bur-we. supply. to be-place. to strip. barthless. encouraging. barfham. as. To Beseech.— Hal. the side bhakshya. and on which the wager is laid. houseless. to exercise on a definite object. Du. it seems hard to separate as.iooA. To help. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. betan. The dry. ship for a make amend. vi. AS. earg. Esthon. To Bet. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. earh. repair. to to deprive of. sheltered from the wind. seems twigs or rods. baete. as in growth. reparation. dirt. bat. besen. to cast. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. See Better. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. as bouter selle. boutefeu.bhaksh. Beere. On the other hand. fyrbotare. E. to thrust. or. Fr. R.X. boeten. as. boteith Goth. scopse spartis. bdt. bal oppbota.irova. to light the fire . sets fire to. and Du. advantage. E. making better. to entreat. ropahtaa. To Gl. sweepings. boeten. bereafian. BEREAVE Wall. better. as. betan. stealth from steal. solicit. to seek. to make better. — Chaucer. from grow. Goth. Best. Rob. might have been . peto. Tha het he micel fyr betan. Du. mud. rubbish. bestow. advantage. Berry. See Reave. dial. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. a fire.ot-i. arwe.fish the other hand. buttare. beorgan. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . besein. of ffeed a fire. hva mannan. to thrust.D. R. preferably. roju. basjaj Du. bacca. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. Sw. G. or to bestead one. barth may be for barf. * To Bete. or the space kept clear betan. Grose. buttafuoco. to defend. an incendiary. 3. dust rojahtaa. AS. to mend. boeten. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. p. vol. Tusser. from AS. stow. besmas. Fr. Devon. The proper meaning of the bale. bota. what does it boot. So roto rattle down. When men of mekeness him baet. as conversely a besom is called broom. roju. to kindle the fire. eld up- On is to be placed A — . that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. The origin is AS. — amendment. From abet. a horse collar. as. dung . may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. broom twigs. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. To Bestow. Beet. . stede. from It. put forth. besIn sen. the guardian . AS. G. roe. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. one who shelter. ^akka. berwham. Ihre. Du. what does it better a man. Sw. to fire a funeral pile of . lay out. noise. as Du. It is the restore fyr betan. bdt. bet. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. and also to entreat. to fall with roisto. — . to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. make better . in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. Kil. I from lew. but it is specially applied mister. to supply a want. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. burrow. To seek something from a person.—^fake. profit. brem-bessen. is to perform a serviceable office to him. to To Bereave. think more probable. to word is shelter.t. — Biglotton. compared with bargham. a place . Hfence backing. . p. to the place boarded off in a. reafian. het vuur The serise of Boeten. place. an incendiary. bouter.— VixHsm. fall with sound. because used for making besoms. protect . rods. a berry.

to happen. to Teem. evidence of life. in the middle of two. advance. trahissais. . which are from a tradire and totally different' root. It. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. suitable. Between. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. &c. obdissais. G. beva. x. Fr. ON. to discover. /alia. to fall Some call it a bevel. to Hence It. bet. Now the stirring of an object. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. trahir. twain. bibere. In the water anon was seen His nose. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. tweoh. betst. Hence last G. progress. To vouchsafe. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. The as. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. as one would have it fall. it bewrays itself. for measuring angles. To Beteem. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. an instrument opening like a a thing.D. — that schickiich. trahison. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. A — drink. I approve of beveau. bat. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. To boot in coursing (i. Dii. AS. From the former of these are AS. Fl. Fr. more. fate. traitre. proficere. betaemen. become. Chaucer. amiddes. abash j from polir. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. what does It is forward him. gezimet eines dinges. On the same principle ON. — Betwixt. his mouth. in the same way Lat. the being pushed to the frbnt. bevere. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. wreia. Ober D. is used for the — R. Sahissais. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Det sig sjelft. better. betest. moveable and compass branches. are commonly to one's lot. Bav. a brood. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. deem suitable. is treason. Dit tungomal rendered in E. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. in the middle of twain. taemen. fitting. from invadere. Sw. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. has — In a like sense tanie>i. dispose (whence schicksal. from Fr. betriigen. betwuxt. as tlock. To Betray. order. a traitor. R. larks. his eyen sheen. pair of compasses. as from obdir. treachery. to deceive. gatiman. to stir. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. by two. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. spritigs from schicken. e. afford. Fr. amidst. to deliver tip. beverage. to accuse. dir. lot). In like manner folissais. be fitting or suitable. to fall.D. whence beveraggio Fr. e. said he.' Dialogue on Witches. Du. polish. Bevy. ON. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. verbs in ir with a double ss. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. Pl. Thus from dbahir. better. Car son umbre si le trahit. From It. Mich self a good glass of wine. beuvrage. tradire. bet. R. which may be compared as to form with amid. suitable. tima. i. to happen. roebucks. Goth. as trahissons. bedriegen. kein leben mehrin no signs . r'ojer dig. E. regen. betweoh. OE. a bevy. 88. G. R. wrogia. betray. find in one's heart. traditor. ruogia. roja. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. batizo. The inflections of Fr. of quails. Percy Soc. to deliver up in breach of trust. zimet. Cot. against. or with again. G. vrohjan. make manifest. Pl. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. from Lat. To Bewray. find it good: Goth. Ik tame mi dat nig. betweohs. and thence twegen. G. a drinking . to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. to make forwards. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. AS. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. obeish. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. Better. -to appoint. It. springs from ON. deign. tima. to cheat. BETEfiM translated. betera. Lat. gesiemen. taemen. tradere. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Friar's Prol. — of the authorities. some attention. Fris. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. are there Regt R. betwuh. as envahir. Best. a different form of twa.— . better. E. by a final sh. to drink . Buveau. sloped off. *Ah. from. bouter davantaige. of pheasants. bevde. riigen. Fr. Slant. fallinn. Golding's Ovid in R. trakir. baet. Goth. i. e. two. zemen. thy speech bewrayeth thee. E. awry. best. batista. betweox. — See To Bete. ziemen.

I Wallon. aslope. it were the mouth. though such a change of form would be very unusual. To Bezzle. a bezle. biaiser. bickel-sieenken. inferiority. Bibelsworth in Nat. sbrisso. See Wriggle. — crooked. edge of a plate of looking-glass. . sloped. beslei. two- footed. b&zahr. Bible. An inferior blue. Lat. to a fight with stones. Prov. in two ways for duis. the word became bddizahr. To Bibble. bending. biais. to make tongue Du. Gr. Probably. Cat. beregen. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. from pdd-. . by throwing of stones. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Ci^. ice . to Jam. The train of thought is then. sliding. bihais. biascio. .D. discover. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell).' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. sbrisciare. as an eel or a snake. Oh when shall I bizzle. Bias. twice. . and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. sbiesso.{ioin dua. bias-wise. sbiagio. —Dozy. slippery. one who drinks in excess. The It. . E. It. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. Piedm. foul weather. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. aslope sbisciare. Bezel. to tipple. tailU en biseau. (according to the Fr. Uprogen. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light.to drink much. To bicker in NE. Diet. Misc. Cat. Sp. Pl. Jamieson. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — .s bellum for duellum. rogt un bogt sik nig. Bisect. to shake. to creep or crawl sideling. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. Piedm. to glide or slip as upon. 172. wrogen. to slaver . Ant. sbias. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. An excellent Basil. specially in a bottle. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. a slabbering-bib. in Fr. to tipple. to it evident to sense. bickai. biax. sbrissare. —Bickering'. to the stirring of their conscience. and zahr. bibo. Schiitze. to well up with Cot. Mantuan. of the sliced off. bring under ' Thy accuse. presence. bibaculus. used in precisely stone . to stir. babbi. bebble. bible. Hal. to give signs of life. a bibber. love first begins to life signs of him. bescompte. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. to move. Fr. bezling or skueing. whey count . kwijllap. To skirmish. 78). Du. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. crooked. sbriscio. stock still. baverole. a sloping edge. besanca. whence Du. which good bibbeler. OE. Hal- — do something aslant. lips. /3i/3Xof a book originally. or kwijl-slab.as in Biped. misFr. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. shows the P1. Fr. It. winding or crawling in and out.or from obliquus.a. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. dial. sik beregen. to stir. he is Wtb. Fr. sbieco. Yes. to cut in two. per\'erted belief. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. to dispute. kwijlen. reveal. oblique. bavon. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Bezoar. dial. its clothes. sbiescio. bes-azur. Bib. the basil Sc. to sip. ber-laita (for bes-laita). convicts thee of being drink. To Bicker. metaphor). bickeler. makes ble. bark of which paper was first made.' bibble. babbefore the eyes. to be a paring. Dan. Bice. is explained to clatter. it becomes (Jz-. or in and out. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. pddzahr. the papyrus. roggle. In Arab. sbiasciai. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). to stir up . snout.D. notice. Lat. liwell. to slaver or drivel. expelling or preserving against. or by any rapid motion. asure-bice (Early E. has a singular stone-picker. bisel. biberen. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. rogge. a stone-hewer . It is especially applied in Sc. baviere. evident. slanting . Fr. like guzzle. Fr. him. sbiscio. To drink hard. to purl. — Bi-. Sardin. bickelen. ground slanting from the general surface drinking.two. poison. bis. pible. biascia. wraggeln. Hzzle f Deldkar in R.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. biberon. bestemps. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. bisdare. Biseau. kwijl-bab. Fr. to stir. Fris. petit-lait. a fragment bieco. Pers. Sard. in him. To Bib.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. wrangle. a Galilean. biberer. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. In comp. bickel.

' Pope in R. belly. cultivate. Bigot. which is stiU. 1. in the sense of ask for. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. and Gael. AS. faurbjudan.Leta). from belgia. A bjudan in anabjudan. Palsgrave in Halliwell. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bat . to forbid . the belly of a ship. boa. to pray one to dinner. be bug. Big-swol- . to bicker. bugne (answering to ON. — To Bid. With respect to logical pedigree. bidan. to abide or wait on. Jam. The loss of the / gives Dan. Bight or Bought. called the tertiary order. to offer one the wish of a good day. Hence Sc. to offer it to public notice. The 'La. Du. spelling seems to used in the N. to curve. . bath. bauen to cultivate. bigan. from seek. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bow. bead. bugan. who. Compare also Sp. bo. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. to forbid . an entire skin. a flexure. bulky. bog. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. ten. bulk. besides the professedmonks and nuns.t. buga. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick.uddered len heart. AS. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. to have one called before him. BID of stone. beadle. The ON. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bedun. The original Swollen. einen vor Gericht bieten. a suitor. twice. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. ON. ON. to build. to dwell. The . are also used in the sense of asking for. swelling. praebere. biegen. iiQ. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bolga. praestare. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. and yajiBui. W. a chip. The ON. and the Sw. to ask.. bygga. G. from bidan. to arrange. abidan. or. byggia. to bulge. verbieten. Wallace in Jam. bieden. to look for." buque with E. form. bis and in comp. to solicit. gebeden j G. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. byggan. forwards. quiring something to be done. or third order of penitence. to ask. porrigere. Bickelen. the meaning of bid. Analogous expressions are G. Kil. swaggering. a swelling. to presimpler pare. bolgna).' Addison. G. inhabit Du. Big. to pro- command. bieten. to start out. swoln. as G. bi-. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bced. to cultivate. ' Bug as a Lord. beidast. bidel. ON. as tears from the eyes. has leta. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. 2. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to inflate E. bidjan. becoming in Lat. as. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. bug. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. related to big or bug. To Big. to bend. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. balg. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. pray. beodan. anleta. bulge. P. to bend. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. of More ' in Richardson. . OSw. to offer. gebodenj G. to look for. BIGOT beidan. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. consisting both of men and women. bend. to belly. A pose to one to come to dinner. biddan.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. OSw. build. — — — Halliwell. athird class. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. inhabit. to bid one good day. to build G. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. AS. England for swollen. — prepare. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bugt. belly. rising up.peto. To Bid ' Big . bua. offerre. qucero. bilge or bulge. to marry. To bid the banns. to inhabit. ewes. bouwen. bend of a shore or of a rope. ON. bag. G. bidill. pressing on one's notice. bulge. by seek and beseech. to move quickly. proud. to build. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. or bad. explaining the Sc. to swell. to E. It must be observed that the word bidja. Two verbs are here confounded. bidan. Bigamy. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bit- bidja. From Gr. bolginn. R. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. repair.

speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.D. begutta. A. natural grey or sheep's russet. honesti plebeii amictus. ix. alii de paupere viti. Bizoccki. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. and hence the variations bigutta. Flor.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. 1243. Francisci communiter appellabant. From bigio. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans.— Ducange. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. clownish. 560. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. as well as bizocco.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. perch^ i Terziari di S.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. &c. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. homespun cloth. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. grey. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. a blockhead.D. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. S.— BIGOT bigardo. rustical. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. D. biso. Bizocco. to adopt a similar course of life. 15 18. xx. and Q. the other form Per te Tribune.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. bigotta. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. A. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. borel. absque votorum religionis emissione. In a similar manner from bigello. probably from biso. dark-coloured cloth. and also unlearned common men. with reference to A. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. bighellone. aliqui Begardi. signifying bagmen or beggars. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. beghart. In the same way Fr. ac labores manuum detestantes. the nobles to Rienzi. Augustini dotarint.' translated by Muratori. vol. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. which must not be confounded with begardo. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. a dunce.' Chart. author quoted in N. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.a. alii Apostolici. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. grey.' says an Venet. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. face VIII.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. They wore a similar dress. beghino. sed maxim^ in muliebri. Beguttce. G. bigio.D. vocati Fraticelli.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. bighiotto. A. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. says.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. both men and women. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.. Bighini. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. corruption would easily creep in. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. Hence the OE. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. coarse woollen cloth. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. was formed bigello. Bighiotti).' says one of of bigio. 1499. all apparently derived from Ital.' Matthew Paris. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.

Fr. fetters. Gael. deceit. used in legal proceedings. bullet. from OSw. Dan. buie. bizocco. boja. billard also signified at billyards. So in Gr.' in Richardson. bigot. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. bigot. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. biilge. blamand. the beak of a bird. b'olja. bile. Sp. Lat. billet. A lorum tam in — Diez. p. Bigin. bwyell. a floating log to mark the place of some.' mariners. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. a hypocrite. Bill. AS.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. gan. Bilge.— — — . and in Lat. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen.. now A Bilboa blade. gleischner (Frisch). from the dark colour. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. a negro. — bigardia. the bill of a bird. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Langued. Bilberry. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Roquef. however. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. bill of exchange. names bill-berries. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Fr. a beak. Johansen. BILBERRY nated. bulla. Bojce. dziobad. crowberry. to be angry (i. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. . Gascoigne in R. blue . AS. OFr. e. 2. Billow. Fr. a sword. axe. dissimulation . symbolum. bil. procella Kil. weapon . bigardo. an adze . a hatchet. Aurelles. Prov. bila. is properly a sealed instrument. boia. bulgja. genus vincu- Bilboes. a seal. a of the sea. A slang term for a sword. loi. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. to pick a millstone. a bigot or hypocrite. Lat. of boja. Kil. top. The Du. Piedmontese bigot. bla-berry. Sw. In the same way are related Pol. 3. on. 'tumidi fluctus. the swelling G. plog-bill. Du. ferrese quam ligneae. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. an axe. and a billard. Du. NFris. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. of E. topor. and dziobas. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. 2. to strike. Bilbo. Dan. See Bull. a devotee. to job. Bille. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Du. bisoch. beil. belgan. To defraud one of expected sinking. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. to peck. horn of an animal. bille. — Cot. belghen. blaa. Deutsch. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. obsolete. abelthe fetter itself. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. an ingot of gold or silver.' bilio. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bui. Mundart. Thus we find in It. . the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. that of swell. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. might be taken to express a hypocrite. as craneberry. G. Billet. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. billet is the diminutive of this. Billette. bigotto. in the same sense. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a man who rests on a stick in walking. buail. Sw. beghart. fluctus maris. an ingot. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. Kil. to swell with rage). a short note. irons or set in a kind of stocks. . an axe. a name given to a. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . clog to a fetter. at sea Billet. an axe . This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. bulghe. Bohem. a seal. bull-berries. Tartuffe. Ludwig. ^Billiard. See Bulk. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. whortle-berries. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. a shackle. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. bill in parliament. w. bill. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. The proper meaning bylgia. dziob. billard or billart. tepati. from Mid. bolghe. the o changing to an i to express diminution. the trunk of a tree. — — ' . buoy [i. Sw. billot. to strike. boeye. In English the meaning has received a further development. e. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. inscriptum. an axe. as a bill of indictment. I. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. AS. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). a false pretender to honesty or holiness. person of religion leading a loose life. Bill. To Bilk. 5 * . and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. in the sense of a writing. false pretender to reUgious feeling. seems to be rather the unda. An instrument for hewing.

This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. pundas. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. pinnu. Sanscr. by binda. ON. to twine. It. band. Goth. v. brut. to bear. EpisETTiTOOTToe. bij sienigh. — properly near-sighted. to build. to hang. a bitch. terial. Bailey. Lith.. Goth. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. IV. properly a young pigeon. a corn. bindan. &c. a hind or female stag. a habit- Binnacle. pin-ti. bitacora. Dan. bikkia. — See Bittacle. 'tumens sequor. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Bisom.' and the like. doubtless a stone. pippione. bhurja. binge. to bind together. i. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. episcopus. beisseii. The bitol. pullus. G. bunga. bundt. a gallinaceous bird. AS. beize. pinnii. Bitch. ON. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. to form a knotted structure. G. a bear. bundle. Sw. e. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Lat. bindan. sc. bundt. bunch. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bij sien. evesgue. overlooker. Du. nodus. Sw. hith. bord. G. Bizened. Habitacle. Birch. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. a little dog. copus. Bind. Bisen. evigue. piccione. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. . Lat. twice cooked. beorth. lusciosus et myops. Lat. AS. Sp. Fr. See To Bear. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. beran. a female stag. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. life. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. to wreathe. berkas (z=:Fr. a pig petz. Fr. biclie. qui nisi propius Blind. to plait.. AS. fowl. Gr. i. pittjo. earnes brid. We — A Birth. See Belly. piiiti. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. and especially to a small poor horse. I would derive the verb to knit. beitsl. bigne. to cook). — Kil. where the compass stands. by the verb knit or net. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. . AS. evegue. wine. . To — — —D. The proper meaning is a heap. Bisson. bjork. from pondus. which is expressed in E. videt. Bin. habitacle. AS. biscuit. Fr. the young of birds . Something of the same confusion is seen in G. AS. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. expressed by Sw. also a stone weight. truss. Lat. . beitan. a bunch. biscotto. — Surrey in R. See Breed. bitill. H. admota non Bit. propius videre bij sicndc. — — .. It. to bind at . a bump or knob. ge- from AS./«idere. to knot nets for fish. Bird. or ben-wood. . Fr. or baked. is in Scotland applied to ivy. bund. bita. V. forth. binda nat. BITTACLE /Siof. bin-wood. a brood or hatch of young. are commonplaces. while bind-wood. Then added division in a granary. poultry. a female dog hindinn. bund. poule. the young of an animal. to fasten it together.68 BIN Bio-. a knob. vescovo. a truss. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. to bring Biscuit. Bittacle or Binnacle. Bine. or petze. a bitch. to net. bunki. or bin. hiindiiin. a weight. and of Fr. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. Lith. E. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Bindweed. viz. from Gr. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to bulge. a bitch applied also to other animals. . bundle. To Bite. a heap. from Lat. is rendered in ON. an eagle's young G. The term ON. biccej ON. Fr. bunt. an overseer. a weight of 48 pounds. to be derived from Ibfiaq. G. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a heap. a house. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. bundun. bircej Sw. brid. to swell. j). than vice versi. Bing. betsel. When compared with Fr. in Swabia. from \t3\. burt. In like manner from knot. isfiw. Lap. Thus I suppose the Gr.

is apprehension of danger. as is seen in sputter and splutter. Fr. biacca. an edge is sharpest sword. stutterer. night guard. light-coloured. ON. Bleak. Black. as of water gently beating the shore. indistinctly. ' Biovac. Lydgate. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. whiteness (candor sine It. pale yellow .' It would thus acle. in contempt. Ai-mstrong.. . blob. Again. biti. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Why presumest And laam's asse. fallow fawn-coloured. buft". 332. thoughtlessly . — Hollyband. Alex.). blesmer. bites. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Hald. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Je N. 156. white. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. pale. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Bivouac. a fluttering noise. to speak Dan. blanc. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. maculS. brunblakk. the palebleff.D. —Neumann. quoted by Ihre. blebberis.— Blabber-lip. unintelligible talk plabair. blank. apparently from its biting the tongue. G. Fr. bitor. Cot. Bittern. to wax pale or bleaked. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. plabartaich. baboyer. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. bitts of Bitts.€i. Hal. Se bleek. Mag. beitr. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . plappem. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. babbling. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. blepLith. A a rail. 't huisje. Du. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). Fr. ON. an additional watch. beiwache. as of wings . to To blabber blabber with the lips. shining. first. to talk much. fallow . blob. shine. yellowish. ON. a large coarse lip . to watch. bleg. To Blab the anchor. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. In like manner E. "uivac. bleich.' G. . Gael. garrulous. term. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. faded. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. blunt we say it will not bite. blake. even humour seemed and beuin. blakki. round which the cable is made fast. Nagt huis. bittour. dusky. mouth. The Gz. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. yellow .. blabbre. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. to loll it out. confusedly. faded. white lead. to babble. blobach. I blaber. bitter. from whence we have adopted the. mona mid Dan. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. to let out whai should have been concealed. Applied in Hin ON. whitish. blabhdach. Hist. to babble.plab is used to . blakk. 't kompas huis. blabbern. butorj OE. mouth. leohte . whitish. synonymous with baber-lip. corrupted in Fr. Mantuan babbi. Sp. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. gulblakk. Blabber-lip. blab. or water beating gently on the beach . Sp. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. Percy Soc. white. a babbler. as of a body falling into water. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. 'fuscus. iroxafealo. to bivouac. — Collins in Hal. bihovac. baitrs. bleikr.' by Gudmund. Goth. cut. NE. pale yellow. To or he can speake. Pl. Gael. blob. a beam in a house or ship. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. blac-hleor ides. a tati. from wachen. bittore. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. quick. gabble. AS. a continued soft sound. on the one side. Sp. is placed. x. Fr. things —Palsgr. a* mast . pins of the capstern. small guard-house. The bitas. It. pale brown . bitr. pale.' by Haldorsen. AS. Fieldfare. blubber-lipped. a childe dothe gasouille. Deutsch. pale. Sp. dark. Cotgr. v. obscurus. a shelter for the steersman. bird of the heron tribe. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. /ealo-/or. to chops. Bav. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. to the sharpness of a weapon. out the tongue. black. ' plabraich. as in that of pale and white on the other. bitones. babbe. a flapping. on. In Legrand's Fr. chatter babbler . — cheeked maid. beuni. Bohem. discoloured . viz.. Mund. a large lip. ON. a stammerer. Wit hung her mourn. In a similar manner Gael. G. . ^chops. ^aj'/^r. blabaran. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. Sw. So Fr. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. his blacan light. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified.

blanchet. and wandering men and women. foolish talk. to vocifer- — Cot. Torriano. to make or become white blanc. Eadmer. to shine. to dabble in water. and G. mus-blackt. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. vagrants. The radical bubble. blanc. blaere. Sw. irXariQ. whitish. dripping-pans. probably ate. to bubble. blad. on. defame. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. But perhaps a more Gr. and the agitation of liquids. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. To blank. blame. blanchir. Blade. — Sw. coat. a blanket a bed. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. Blanket. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. branches . who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. Jan. a blank ticket.— Kil. also white woollen cloth . Dan. white. and E. variable than the signification of words designating colour. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. piatto. linkboys. blanchet. . blena. the leaf of a tree. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. bladder. a boil. Cot. in R. and thence to babble. smore. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. black. to omit. Bacon in R. a white or unwritten ticket. Blank "verse. . It. most complete example of leafy structure. blahen. cited in N. candidus. flap of a Du. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Blancli. to purl. —^Webster. blanqne. pladdern. bladder. to Hence Ital. the ON. whitish. leaf of a. blister. D. p. — — — to jabber. and others engaged in dirty work. broad.. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. white. — . leafy. mire. Dan. G. Blain. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. or as E. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Bav. also tanned by the sun. leaf. board. Du. a.. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blasphemare.— ^o thehotsun. See Blubber. commonly called the Black-guard. as blader. imbrunire. a bubble.—Blatter. blister. Gr.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. to blanch. also jabber. mud. blister. slush. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. sheet of paper. as. bladeren. to glitter. Besides the examples of this connection given above. a leaf. revile. tree. madder. to glow. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. a bladder or pustule. or of an oar G. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Fr. —We Bladder. 7. To Blare. plate. Sir. to —Blaspheme. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. chatter. or blafich. pluddre. boys. Fr. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Fr. bladre. gabble. Wott. Du. as Lat. on. blatter. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. and he shall be sure to have O. bladra. PI. Hist. plat. G. G. biasimare. name originally given Blackguard. chatter. leaves. pallido. 86. pimple. skola and thwatta. contracted from bladeren. or a mass of bubbles. reproach. Reliqu. blether. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. as scullions. to bleak in the sun. a bubble. dial. I am degraded from a cook. 1854. which we . his meat burnt. from candere. pass over. as. &c. mud. borrelen. smother. The present forms then should be classed with blether. bladder . livido . Blame. blegne. vagabonds. Lat. waschen. to shine. — rura. speak impiously. blister. the origin of . a pustule . roar. Blank. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. Perhaps from blegen. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G.—Blatant. to To bellow. to disappoint. blegen. Play in Nares. polished. blein. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. e. and Q. biastner. Sc. Du. Now. moere. Sw. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. tattle. rogues and wanderers. blad. Du. . to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. blaeren. bladdra. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. blinken. shining. plat. Fr. blank. blather. 5/^a/^ of colour. blatter. with all other loose idle masterless men. blather. to blow. pXaatpiiiiHv. blatt. bladder. Dan. Du. is identical with Flanders borlen. a buible. blactra.

clamorous.sound a trumpet. blesse. Blanches illuminies. blaesen. If armour. coloured prints. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. kept up. proflare tues. blasa. To Blaze. blason. I. also praeblczse. as a verb. brasa. . To blow AS. blose. blass. among other . a shout. a lamp blasere. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Sc. is from AS. Du. an conium. i. blorach. braise. to blow . — — ' : bless. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. blcese. blcesett. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. bldsse. ther it was erst not knowe. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. to proclaim.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. G. Du. light-coli. bles. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love.' painted or figured . and to make him word blaze.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. The origin of this exSp. laudes (Kil. to blaze Sp. like the in English. Sw. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Lye. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. to de. — Elazen. Gudmund. noisy blor. blaodh. quus. besides blesse. in that of praise. proclaim the virtues of. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. used. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. gloriosus.whence the Fr. also only pains and excellent endurance. commendation blason funebre. much plausibility. a shining spot. blaterare. to publish. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. bawling. beast. loud . With inversion of the liquid. a voice Jr. a torch. blesse. a blast. and which. each of boaster. blossi. blateroon. biter. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Dan. might spring from the same origin by a . by stripping off a portion of the bark. As Kilian.). Fr. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. blaodhrach. Troilus and Cressida. in the same way as we 2. to blow. ventosus. blis. blezo. g. Du. a coat of arms. magnilo. blazen. blasonner. to publish the praises. Blaze. to blow. to cut off prematurely. the matter incendiary . G. thraso. blaze. a flame. blys. or blazening. abroad. an empty and two theories are proposed. OE. has also blencke. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Sw. a shield. AS. a funeral oration . friend Cornelius. senses. abroad. Dan. blcest. blysa. Gael. — ' — stroy. also blazon or the blazSpenser. AS. boasting. to trumpet forth. is the imme. 'op een trompet blaazen. pale. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. baladrar. — ^Jam. a MS. Cot. stultd loqui. splendour. a loud noise. See Blare. .' to fastum . to spread news. ON. of an animal. oron-blasare. blase. 2. or to the sound which it produces. A strong flame. a flame . and. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. shield or surcoat. a whisperer. fire. baladron. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. Cot. blast. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Du. Kil. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. She roade at peace through his heraldry.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. First from the E. is used in the sense of manifestatio.— . magniloquus. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. ill-speaMng their proper colours . The AS. e. oured. But now. Fr. redness . indeed. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Du. whence Blazonry. A gust of wind. blaeteren. to set on fire. bliEsan. blcEsan. The other derivation. To blast. blaser vid. Du. Prov. blase. . how. blus. blason. ing of arms. ON. Golden Book in R. to bellow. A blaze is so intimately Then. might And sain. somewhat different train of thought. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Blatant. live coal . bleis. blatero. blcEsan. Fr. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. declaratio. to extol. visui patet. it is manifest. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. embraser. a flame. brasa. Blast. the noisy. blasoen. a torch .

to blare been weeping. exposed. And By a similar metaphor Pol. plama. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. a red watery eye. a blemish in one's 2. p. Fr. to spot.' God in his wordes. wan. or blemish. blesmir. inflamed eyes. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. ^Blencher. From the OFr. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. a stain. a spot. to make him feel blank. like one that has long P1. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. to start away from. pier vor den augen eyes. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. blarren. to bleat as sheep. . to spot . livid. See Blood. a spot. to stain one's honour or reputation. AS. Bejaune. tacher. To totally different from the foregoing. a disgrace. to bleach. a blotch plerr. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. I chaunge colour. livor. the livid colour of a bruise. bloken. . a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. flack. spSt. And now are these but mansbond (i. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. to wink at it. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. ' — — ' : — — . G. and thence to a bruise. Blancher. bleikr. paleness.P. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. a spot. Bleb. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. sinen langen tranen. . is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. what blenched him therwith. Gower in R. — blink the question is to shrink from it. The term blear. confound him. or to low as oxen. pale . blur before their eyes. pimple . boggle at something. 115. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson.' the devil makes a vain back. or blemysshen — blaken. Blemisli. blesmissure. goda nainn. N. to cast a mist before the eyes. a blot or smear blanking one. blemissemeiit. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. to disgrace one's name. in the expression reputation. splamii!. from on.'he cried till the tears ran down. to wink the eye. blink. blot. to become livid.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. avoid looking it in the face. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. Bleak. which are blurred with the have shewed you. bldmi. tumanid. blister. Pol. To Bleat. to blear one's eye. pale Du. tutnan is a cloud. blakna. bleakness. . and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. while the agent ac- From . from the than schal I go. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. ' — — eye. Richardson. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. B.v. the formal equivalent of English wink. Bleed. dead-coloured Cotgr. light-coloured.' to deceive one. Blear-eyed j having sore i. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. a boil. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. ' He blarrede or roar. A Blab. blcecan. Sir J.filerren. drop of water. So in Sw. blot. BLENCH obfusco. to cry or weep. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. to soil. See Black. a fault. souiller.D. 242. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Blear. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. start vor den augen. guenchir. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. on. a spot. is Blench. c. Bailey. novice. wanness. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. Sw. ' . ^Xiixaoftai. . darkness of vices. Palsgr. blench came to be used for a trick. spla7nU sie. color plumbeus bldma. Manuel de Pecch&. to humbug. wheal. As AS. To salir. Schmel. sugillatio. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. geplerr. (faith or creaunce) Be war. blema. — — R. Mac. Ancren Riwle. Gr. whitish. as of dust or mist . See Black. A stain in a man's reputation. a been distinct. 419. to whiten by exposure to sun and air .

^Jam. cascultare. Swiss (obsolete). with or without the nasal. to make happy. blithe blis. good. blidu.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. glitter. to — make it thick and muddy. as in Du. to bless. happy . — when he — Bailey. lovely Bohem. blitz. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Du. blazeny. Sc. blent. G. Nares. riches . joy .eyed. the sign of the cross while blessing one. dazzle . to glitter ful . to twinkle.blinkard . blican. to be blind. —Brera. a look. money. to lighten.' To — blunge clay. to shut the eyes. to make a rumbling noise. blago. blinzler. OHG. blinzdugig. blende. (=bene dicere). For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Du. blinde fenster. glance. liquid filth to bluther. a nounce happy. vious one in the order of formation. blitzen. blincken. j).blunda. blink-eyed. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. pockets. blide. blithe. and joys of Paradise bliden. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. to glance. F. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. also to wink. lightning sweet blago. window-blind.corn.D. to dash wine with water. blahos. doors. but by no means therefore a pre. trix. blatida. Owl and Nightingale. Wtb. a blessing. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. to shine. OHG. to shut the eyes G. Dan. ON. to bluiter. Blink. false windows. bliss look . blend. plotzen. thou knave. AS. blicksem. The sound of k before an s. blink. plonsen. Thence apblinds. to rejoice. From the action of the hand making Sw. a dead nettle. lighten. joy. The term then self or others. lightning. glitter. blissian. a flash. a gleam. . although in the in the next article. flash of light . to bless .blinken. or nettle which does form. AS. . the verb to bless is some. Du. Du. — Goth. . Tany. well blahy blick and blink.wink . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . sertion of the nasal. be glad flash. lightning. . — . glimpse. to churn. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. Blazena Bea. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. joyful. happy . blind- ON. Needle. 375. to shine. wink. a glance Swiss blenden.blinze. . is I shall Gurt. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to act like a — . blick. Sc. blicken. To Bless. To blunder water. Blight. blag. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted.Q.not sting thiiren.nasal. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. tless —Gamm. burn up. Blind.. Pol. seems the simple netel. csecubrandish. to merry. mixing in general. a wink With the bletsian. blanssen. . to consecrate . make these hands 3. the Slavonic languages. to glitter . gives blinzen. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. as a blind entry. G. glad. graceful. a. gladness. to dazzle . bluiter. giving (Fr. . the G. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. blinzeln. blahoslaviti to twinkle. moment. an entry which leads to nothing . I hold thee a grote thee. to rejoice. Russ. AS. To Blend. blindr. . joy. Biglotton. fortunately. . . A . readily passes into a /. shine. tire. III. Deprived of sight. — A A — . blotzen. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. blund. a wink. De Sonne ' verblekken. to flash. a glance. bleg. AS. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. to bluiter up with water. Serv. Bliss. wink of sleep . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to blithsian. Sw. happily. as in the case of blaze. to stir or puddle. Swab. to shine. to plunge. blendian. a. pearance of the blighted . to mix. to pro. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blogi.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blac. sweet. happy . . Du. blind. as a vatn i vin. sung. as taschen. glitter. well blagaya. goods. Paradises blidnissu. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. tative source of the word is wholly lost. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. pale. . livid. bludder. Kiittner. The inblissful. a blick-ooghen. to glitter. mix from blekken. to fall into water with a sudden noise. weaklaveny. to dabble in water. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blaziti. blessed. blich-fiur. ' Pl. G. blindselen. G. blicken. to dilute too much . blessed. riches blajennii blicksem. in potters' language. blet.

pusula. Block. mass. blautr. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blindman's-buff. blobbes or droppes of water. blithe. Ibid. — Blob. blister. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. The stem or trunk of a tree. a . blubber. and pisg. kostua. must be referred to AS. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. Goth. blaustem. Mod. pausten. separate portion. Langued. to desire the male. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. an unformed mass. while Lat. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. .pusta. lagga i blot.—Bloater. mild. taken altogether. a blain. light yellow. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. G. having an unsound swollen look. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. as a blab of ink. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blesme. sloppy dirt. blad. to soak. a lumpish head plubach. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. It may be formed Blithe. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. — — — — — From blabber. Dan. to cure by smoke. a bubble. blot. to blissom. . like manner the coloured. to close it with a solid mass. must be classed with forms like Gr. whence blast. plub. See Blot. stone. ^Jam. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. blindsehn. Sw. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. ON. blab.. senting the dashing of water. merciful ON. a bubble. a blot or spot. Fr. to blow. bloc. joyful. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. in gusts. bloated. Lat. B. to block up the way. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. buckle. like clot.— Hal. in Nares. cooking. biota. blcesma. — Sw. Du. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. G. and inarticulately. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. inde humiditate tumidus. to to puff and be noisy. in the lump or mass of wood. from blcsr. boucler. swell. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. a little blisg. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. ^vaaa. soak in water cured fish. pods. Boyd in Jam. busten.plisg. Bav. To Blissom. a blister. To a smoking or drying by the fire. strawclod. . puff. pimple. Gael. I believe. a ram. soft. blidr. kostia. soaked. For this. to swell. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. also to set See Bless.—Bloated. bluster. Gael. Blister. blot. a drop of water. blote. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. as blinzeln. in the sense of a soft tint. is formed squad. expressed by cognate roots. blinzel-maus. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. husks. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. in bulk. Of sheep. blotfisk. a small lump of anything thick. . Bleb. The blow E. frequentative. a See Blot. In Fin. is also used in the sense of swelling . or blinde-kiih. to blow. a blister . Fr. and easily changes its place. to steep. a block or log en bloc. soft. blijde. pustula. Blob. bubble and blubber. Egillson. or the like. signifying in the first instance to soak. shells. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. to dash liquid.— Bailey. blouca and Fr. Sc. Svt. gentle OHG. to blow. buclde. repre- pusula. mild. or bleb. blod. A solid blouquette blisters. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. to bubble. Du. the unhewn bole of a tree. a dirty blister. blister blasan. soft. any lump or mass of things. —Bailey. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. W. fish blind person. blobber. B. Hence. — . fiustula. and bouclette. blaud. And so from squatter. orbicular. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. The roots /. bluyster. and F. To Bloat. viscid. Dan. bloc. as if soaked in water. blot. as in E. Blond. Cotgr. Sw. a bubble. round. formed spot. blide. speaking rapidly any . Thus we have blab and babble. blond. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. Hence E. A under this name was imported into England. weak. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. bausen. N. or is inserted or omitted. it is must be observed. to breathe hard. Kil. or the mark which it makes. ON. Jonson. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. bleiths. Blob.

Dan. a flower. Schilter. E. blosen. glus.D. fair in en blat vand. a cow-dung. to patter. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. j^ blottir. to scribble. skam. Erploten. bloemen. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . ' — . dirty spot on the cheek. Blow. a nature. blond is used in blatt. blou. a. to glisten . E. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. platz-regen. Dan. fall down . E. pale tint. the bright to blot paper morsels. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. It should be of filth blak-blatte. Plots. blondheid. blus. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blosa. Sc. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. S-wiss pladern. fall to overflowing. Blot. plot of land is a spot or small rage. Florio). to glow. (of cattle) to dung. light. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. clod. pale biavo. probably connected with Pol. a Usaae. bloed. gammon. brilliancy. . gfyssa. bldts. E. See Blow. great leaf of cabbage. straw. biado (of which the evidence plattern. gleam. blue. See Blow. to squander. blaeuw. a drop of water or colour. to sparkle. lustre. blosma. Wflz<^«. Schwenck. to strike with something soft or flat. plattata. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a lump. blaeuwen. Fris. flower. . to blaze . Sw. Blossom. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. platz-voll. D. Sw. platsch-voll. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. dial. PI. a Schmid. bliise. bleustern. blomstr. blat. platt-voll. to spot or blot. blotter. blois. Prov. Ein platsch milch. blond en blaauw slaan. proto shine with bright colours . cow-dung. coloured (Diaz. blue. blowen. white blatte. bloi. colour of the cheeks. blostma. redness. glossi. to grow pale). let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to dirty. blut. plants which prepares the seed. —Barbour. as the skin or hair. a Halm a. Hatch. glasi. lump of anything soft to blad. a beater. blond. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. soft or flat. Pl. platschern. bluish. a deli. splendour . a gush of milk . bleistern. to splash. bletister. The G. to dash down. pladern. — Cot. — Blotch-paper. — — . blue . glose. — Stalder .— . to blaze. in v. to shine .platter. plet. whence plader. blue. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. bloi. bloedsd. . blad. pladdern. a flower. to flame. blauwel. bldmi. a black eye Du. Du. bloetnsel. kuh-plader. OFr. Stalder. blodelsa and blawelsa. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. kobladde. Fris. Lat. blysa. to squat or lie close. Wendish blodo. . ^Bleed. sbiadare. . blotting-paper. to dabble in water . ON. bloi. blawels. blistaf. ON. livid . pale. blady. to slap. shine . dial. splashing full. en blau ach. blaeuwe ooghe. a blot or spot. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. G. . and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Harmar in R. ON. Blad. to be red with blot. to exists in biadetto. lidmr. Ir. or the sound of it . bloutre. E. livid marks. bit by bit. bloto. blosem. blase. to strike with such these objects exhibit. of a blow with something lios. from the bright colour which 7'vci. a blow.properly to scatter liquid . plotterwis. Schmid. AS. a spot or blot. a pelting shower). to blot the land was in a leme. a blaze. ^lys. leme. Jios. to slap. AS. to From . a The form platschefz. Dan. plottra. Sc. bliihen.^ Kil. Du. Blood. bliithe. Du. E. It. blatte. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. yellowish It's G. spots in the sun. to strike . Fr. G. a water ploutsche. Bloom. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. a torch blusse. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. to dash down Du. . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blose. wan. on. Russ. 2. mud. glister . bloeme. blue. Blotcli. . bfys. — gush. from G. blust. the bright colour of the cheeks . Sw. lump flower. blotte. gloss. blooth. parallel form with ON. a flower. ])erly Du.blauschlagen. to be red. spot pletter i solen. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to blush . couleur livide. to dabble in water. yellow. Du. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body.' the rain is driving and blue .

structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. blawan. blazir. glas. piusen. and thence. foam. Mund. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. plubair. cheeks bedabbled with tears. 1292. fiubbem. — To blubber. blue . by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blow. |8A)'. — — Mundart. Kil.to blossom. bliithe. —SchmelIt. pale OFr. florere. coup. Her sweet bloderit face. bloes. br. to make bubbles in drinking. like manner Lat. little apparent resemblance. Gael. wan. pludern. blady. wan. to glow. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. bloemen.' — Palsgr. corre. tache. flower w. OFr. a herb Gr. glansj Ir. or gr. in E. a blow. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. a flower. to show flower. G. Prov. bluther. y\r)yi»v. jabber. d in Sc. Sik upplustem. to'disorder. and the forms mentioned under Swab. plubraich. to exhibit bright colours. may cite for example G. Blowzy. the red fluid of the body .. pale. blubbern. v. to flourish. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. . Jla-re. to inflate. Gr. . fied vowel. A. to blow. P1. G. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. Bret. 51. glow. Raynouard. These are — Bludder. grug. AS. a continued noise of agitated water. pale. a fat. bruk. -ii. blebber. Du.' Hamburgh Archives. MHG. a Blossom. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. Pl.nify bubble. And. Notwithstanding the We . Pludern. G. to beat with a mallet. disordered in head-dress. E. w. Tumbled. a bruise. dirty. pale . blubbern. bloom. OHG. to bruise Roquef. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. It. marking some application from that bladder. /idXavoc.D. plubartaich. plustrig. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blau. plusig. E. to breathe bouteiUis.D. Lat. Blowze. glede. ' BLUE or guggling. bldt. grow pale. to shine with bright From colours. Bav. bluh. OHG. The primary sense is to shine. especially with respect to the hair. heath. to bubble up.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. blduen. gloeyen. — . Langued. blodelsa. — Bluther. to breathe G. to make blue. Pl. a blast. B. blubonciti. to puff up. toused. to beat. 2. gliihen. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. ler. Chaucer. vi^ound. meurtrissure Roquefort. fem. blosen. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. to blurt out. blodyn. to fade. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. bruised Prov. We . to blow. glaodh and blaodh. To Blow. into flower. blut. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). grey. to hard. a paddling in wate r. blust. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. blass. a gurgling . To Blow. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. plodern. closely difference in of blabber. and closely allied with Du. glowing coal . bliuwan. to gush. puff. a. gloeden. blao. blezir. gUd. blois. boil. Blue. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. withered. to spot. . red-faced bloted wench.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. blaw j biavo. sponds with Sw. green. bloeden.Jlasa. boasting. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to blow. in rapid or indistinct utterance. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. bledniai. The interchange of an initial gl. blava.xo'»'. blazi.D. to gabble. . bloi. bluod. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to fade. to fade. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. chatter. where the word may be compared bliggman. to guggle. to glow. to Plodern. sound like water. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. ^Jam. In agitation of water. to flap like loose clothes. bl. flower OHG. bliihen. is very frequent. bliihen. — To Blubber. blau. Deutsch. . Du. Chaucer. to with Bohem.— . sense. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. bludder. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. 92. bloeyen. fqded. glas. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. The aUied forms. blue.D. 1. Wtb. . Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. gliihen. It is howbliuwen. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blahen. Danneil. — . blodern. G. disordered. Deutsch. is confined to the — .

Bodge. trahir. pale. Supp. bulmanner. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. blanssen. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. glundra. to lose colour. confusion. puddle. dial. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. verdoyer. originally growing up turf and water. The word is here synonymous with amplus.— . has donder-bus. pale yellow. blue. blac. G. or an abrupt manner. blunder.• BLUFF biado. . And blunders on and staggers every pace. a plain coin herausplatzeu. having a bluff forehead. blandum.//aay. Biada. blahir. discoloured {plowiee. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. glundr. I blonder.' trouble. From G. yellowish red.in mud or water. plo-wy. blaf. Hence a Slcelton in R. Ditton in R. like Du. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. buller-bas. buller-bak. non rotunda. like the Celtic glas. earth and water mixed together. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Roquefort. blond. blue. and metaphorically. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blunder. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. Kil. poltern. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Dryden in R. Pm. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. from the brilliant green of the young E. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. and then generally idle talk. Hence we pass to Prov. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. blue. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to dabble Biglotton E. Halma. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. disturb.make a noise. to fade). for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. yellow. flav-us. It then signifies something done at once. liebefactor. and sbiadare. to agitation of liquids. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. blunt. Dief. Romance bluiter. to mix it up with water. Kil. Blavoyer. blavus. in the same way as from It'. to dabble in the mud. polterer. as well as sbiadafe. bullern. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . pludder. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. je perturbe. corn. falb. — — — . and Du. in water dobbelen. from an imitation of the sound. pale) is provincially used in the. a shore abruptly rising. polter-hans. Blunt. blunderhead. blake (identical with AS. G. Bohem. Sw. See Blunt. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . bluish. herbe. mistake. Altieri. . rustic. superficie plani. It is remarkable however that the E. is. Kiittner. to plump into the water. fawn-coloured. devenir vert blavoie. bawling. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. a boisterous violent man. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Pl. E. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. The Du. OFr. - reddish yellow. tutte le semente ancora in erba. and biavo (Diez). Palsgr. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. We Blunder. Flor. to fall suddenly on the ground. To blunder is then. biavo. bloi. Lat. Then with the nasal. planus. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. used for the work of an unskilful performer. verdure. Bladum. fallow. — . ploffen. G. Blaffart. mix It. sense of yeUow.D. biava. as well as biado. Dan. find accordingly It. contrasted with the dle. blutter. to become pale or livid. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. segetes virentes. a blunderbuss. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. G. sbiavare. pale straw-coloured. to blunge clay. Du. See Blurt. to blunder water. something. his business with much noise. from the Lat. to become pale or wan. Blunderer or blunt worker.. A bluff manner. to confound. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Hal. a flounder. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. flodderen (Weiland). Bluff. speech. an ill-done job. blave is moreover. corn. a fore. Pol. sloppy drink. all representing the — . to work To blunder out a fronto. Roquefort. plomp. to puddle. The Du. applied to green as well as blue. bleu et blanc. bUich. to become pale. jaune. in plur. which is rendered by Florio. abrupt. Du. — Pr. without image or superscription. tradire to Fr. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. 't — —Hal. and bustle . Analogous forms are Du. biada.

viz. Plump. naked. fooUsh. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. that it not easy to discover the connection. inactive Swiss bluntschi. to handle a thing bluntly. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. V. fling down . Kiittner. Ford in R. blunt. a blot. bald. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. and the like. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. maol. without Maolaich. to bring it suddenly out. The blait body. that the sense of bare. Won by degrees. hebes. blait. Woddis. bare. inaKil. blue.pludse. Pol. clownish. Swab. Kiittner. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. insensible. in Richardson. and. poor Sc. unfledged Sw. raw. Sc. Bluntet. . Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. pale. blunt. plump. clumsy. The syllables blot. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. More in Richardson. It will be seen that the G. dull. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blunsch. as Sw. ineffectual reason. but of something soft thrown on the ground. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. blout. plotz. good plump person. used in both senses. G.— — — . Then cometh indevotion. blotta sanningen. viz. obtusus. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blait. a portion To inquire for slaves. Halma. Plontp. through which a man is so blont. blat. stupid fellow. blutten. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. rough. Plump mit etwas umgehen. down. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Dan. edgeless. forestis. . — — pidus. dull. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. identical with E. sheepish. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. It. — blunt. bloss. heavy. Q. Blaitie-bum. Molof something wet. Chaucer. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. to make a noise of such a Stalder. from the loud report a fire-arm. V. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. is thrown. duU. unwrought. dial. of a knife which not cut. plump. azure. nis. united in Gael. Blunt. bluntschen. silly. figuratively. to make foliage. plump. platz-regen. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . bare or blunt. Du. and an unintelligent. biotto. it will be well to point out a sense.—D. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. or blab out a thing Kiittner . unpolished. seems to be derived. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. naked. plonsen. is The word dull. with or without the nasal. as in E. blunt. —D. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. ang. a simpleton. plump. exactly corresponding to the G. homo stolidus. awkwardly.to fall into the water. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. blott. heavy. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Probably radically hlekit. It is from this notion of suddenness. a thick and will person. Stalder. to plump into the water. Sw. blatte. V. bleak. obtusus. without preparation. and hath swiche languor in his soul. void. plumbeus. naked. Now the Swiss bluntsch. heavy. bus. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. naked. platzen. Dan. thick. blunder. rudely. blockish. F. Sc. biosso. rude. wan. without horns. blunt. to plump down. —D. to blunt a thing out. A modification of the same root. Bare and blunt. absence of preparation. bare. massive. unceremonious manner. plutz T)\i. nature. A light blue colour. plump J to plump out with it. plains The large bech. it will be observed. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. pressions. awkward. plotsen. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Sir T. a bluntie.plompen. the absence of sharpness. G. pointless. — Kil. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. without the nasal. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. and in the same sense. or heraus plumpen. as cow-dung. to blurt.

E. to dabble. Wallace. mire. a bladder . Bot zeggen. my dear. Pl. skin. . and the latch . bobine. Du. literally edge-wood. To blow in puffs.y. 1. blirt of greeting. AS. To splirt. to brag grande loqui. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. cocodrUlus. or blurt with one's mouth. bord. lacerta. outward edge. to render indisbhir. Boa. a tassel. botte. strong. baiag. a. De Boat. puddle. As the as. and when applied to vaunting language. voce intonare. boccheggiare. a Jam.' — Red Riding-hood. Hal. a border. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. P. plump. beer. dull. bluther. BLUR Boar.—Bobbin. dial. a dangling object. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. boa. to dirty. pluddre. bora. 29. rude. boistous. Explained by Jam. be a crack or loud sound. blotch and botch. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. a board or plank. AS. Gael. 156. coarse. a torch blusse. berd. properly noisy. this root are formed Sc. Fr. Du. a smear. to dangle. bludder. Dan. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. whence bob. short pieces of any filthy mud. . primarily signify loud noise. like the parapets (viggyrdil. it implies that it is empty sound. Blush. a blot. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. and E. G. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. to guggle. geplerr. cluster. to smear. Gael. gabble. G. Schmeller. to make a noise with the mouth. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. See Blossom. blusse i ansigtet. bdta. E. blaffen and baffen. Hal. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. It. margin. to sound like water boiling. to blush. Boost is used for the boast. imitated by has also In like . to snuff. blaustem.v. Du. Bluster. bord. Boa. Halma. bot. . i. e.— . to talk quick and indistinctly . of the word seems . bliise. Du. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. to puff. Pull the bobbin. to blur. to crying. to bark. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. edge. blasen and See Burr. splurt and spirt. bakke bleustern. to bounce. baban. border. stellio. 274. burra. pfludern. blodern. a flurt with one's fingers. to blaze.pusten. or bog also thread. bladdra. Fr. blot. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. It. Board. blot. pof. Sc. or backwards and forwards. planks raised up outside the roofs. To brag and to crack. a burst of tears. batello. to blurt out. then applied to indistinct vision . blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to jabber. bhis. chicchere. to chatter. violent G. bausen. and boisterous. blose. to endeavour to terrify. and Du. to puff. to blow. to glow . Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. a grows to a great bigness. boord. bluter. table. bur. ON. Kil. pustern. — ' Dief. BOB 79 — To Blur. to make mouths. margin. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. ader. table. The to radical meaning D. Lat. to threaten. planks or boards. aper. bot-voet. eafor. crack made by bursting open. bdd. to blubber. an end or stump. The elision of the d is very to chatter. Fl. is formed Du. pausten.D. to spurt out. to breke. bludder. — From mouth. a blotch.plerr. bleuster. both used in the sense of boasting. stupid. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. G. a mistiness. pludern. and swimmeth very well. on. blarra. Supp. fringe. hot. to puff. to make a noise in boiling. — — — * Boast. Related to blutter. a blow . sudden.the syllable bot. to rumble. lindwurm. bustuous. an edge. . boot. to be out of temper. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. edge. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. blur. ever-swin. — — . large. &c. the sound of a blow poffen. Wtb. Du. borrar. bar. to blore. a baU of thread the mud. blunt. — a blaze. blubber. to give a crack. To Blurt. AS. bdtr. cheeks glow. will fly up. bit. Swiss blodern. To move quickly up and down. gabble Sw. Comp. margin. to roar. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. — To Bob. eber. bobbin. Wright's ed. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Slur. a club foot . as in Du. ground. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. OE. flat. 'Ba. . blaste?i. acre. a tassel. 9396. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. dial. Sc. puffen. Du. to disfigure with E. blosken. See Boisterous. to say bluntly. blurra. whence bordvidr. Bav. a short thick body. blader. blast. Fl. bateau. a small lump. To tinct. It. blaere. beacon fire. brett. A large snake. w. Sverris Saga. common. bord.plodem. board. violent. rude. Du. a mist before the eyes plerren. the Brem. V. swagger. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. as splurt to splutter. c. an ear of corn.

calf of the leg. bod. — 2. and E. bodian. bodilo. exhibit another modification of the root. to make a mow at. meaning the round part of his body. Now unskilful action is conmire. . arise E. to bodge. bodetz. formerly bodies. bodig. Bodice. Supp. bodnu. the stem of a tree . bolr. waving. With With this we charged again We bodged again. to stammer. bogle. French bouter. unsteady nature of a soft substance. a command. corpses pot.! . badyti. butt. needle. to butt. as a horn. * To Boggle. boll. potacha. The signification of the root bot. so large a feature in the country. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. bodi. to dabble or paddle. Schmel. bo tich. See Bid. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. as signifying anything spherical or round. See To Botch.rabodi. of which the E. quagmire). Crist. Bret. a ghost . message boda. . biodeachan. stutter gogmire. Miracle-plays. as in stammering or staggering. body of a shirt bol. bagges. to scruple. agitate. Gael. is a lump. Thy i.a (i\ia. the belly. ^Jam. a prickle. to stick. Reliq Antiq. to roll. a sting . bogan. or a pair of bodies. unsteady. bottich are derivatives. Bohem. the thick part of anything. stuttering. to smack. See Baber-lipped. boftich. from fitting close to the body. toss. BOGGLE trunk and G. expression hogglin an bogglin. point. where bogs form Gael. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. quakmg. to commit a blunder. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. patsche. to blurt a thing out. corset from corps. gag. barrique. goggle. a messenger . pall. bodhag. to fail. And waves. dies. the boss of a buckler. bot. precept. Russ. bodi. Gael. stitch. mud. is identical with Fr. gogach. potig. a cask. the body of a shift gaguejar. — Grandg. to push with the horns. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. palleg. to bob. a quagsoft. then from the yielding. speak of the barrel of a horse. move. 43. AS. Shakespear has badged with blood. potahha.\\i\c\iset. to be uncertain what to do. bodat. bottig. bog (equivalent to E. W. or stem of a tree. to start start and back as from a bugbear. The Sp. e. gog in gog-mire.' Bogglie. Lith. an announcement. to stir. the body. So BOB To Bob. bod. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. bole. Gl. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. round. Ptg. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. Gael. To mock. bodene.gmh:t. a body. a bog or morass. biodag. fickle . VI. to deliver a message. to blabber with the lips faire la babou.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. . Cot. Lap. . a prick. Wall. In like manner E. baboyer. Ptg. 3. gebod.' A — Sherwood's Diet. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. wavering. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. a round body both. bodak. bogach. body and G. corpset. nave of a wheel. to be unsteady tich. potacha. gago. and the word is well explained by Bailey. to waver. daubed or dabbled with blood. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. ON. Bog. It introduced from Ireland. to make. bogadh. whence Fr. shake. moving backwards and forwards. cask bottich. a . corset. stumpy. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. bogadaich. moist mire. an awl. bodies. whence paUchen. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. a dagger. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. bayonet . . to fail. We . gagoula. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. To Bode. . or bag. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Commonly explained as if from Sc. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. a cask. bog. thrust with something pointed. '£. to prick. anything soft. AS. Ir. swelling.. To make bad work. . — as well as the body of an animal. . busti. Banff. barriga. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. strike with the horns. bothog. a spur. to thrust. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . To portend good or bad. Body. . gog. shaking . unsteady.hollow. anything protuberant. Bodkin. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. nodding. woman's stays. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bayonet. bob. by the syllable patsch. the trunk of the animal body. belly. rounded. gagei. — H. bog. a puddle. To Bodge.

ON. as. coarse. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. a head . is probably a modification of boll. boly. bochken (titubare. capitellum. It. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. polc'h. to be at a loss a shirt. Wall. a bubble. boil . he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. a bubble. bul. from the branches. G. wag. bolstar. the body of a man or of ter. capiing into a cavity. Sp. The bob. bog. Sw. — — which the cushion is stuffed. bulla. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Du. to stammer. bolleken. bola. hakogni. To Bolter. buller. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bol. flax-boU. in speaking. 304). Properly noisy. up of bubbles. quick. the lir. Boll. boll. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. V. as E. Me doth awate. OHG. furfures. strong. as those of nuts. bolla. ON. bolster. glass phial. haughty. . confident. A. also a blister. 1430 in Deutsch. — ' — tagliare. In the same way Sc. proud. or the like. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. baud. folliculus grani. as baltha. gerade signifies straight to the mark. Lat. Bustuous. scruple. animal as distinguished from the limbs. tartajear. b^gayer. a quaking mire. puile. . cows the people from speaking. Chaucer. to tattle. stramenta. a fastening for a door. shake. caput scapulse. swelling. bagaji. Swab. Goth. ^Boistous. dint in a metal vessel. perpendicular. by which it is moved to and fro. balder. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection.. treated under Bowl. Gael. bout. huge. bolc'h. bok. to boil. globular bod)'. Stalder. Fr. tomentum. bula. biiilen.).D. Westerwald bollern. to the belly as the or dislike. Du. boss.— — . G. sels of flax. repagulum. bolster. to puff. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Kit. bolt. hero. a boil or swelling Du. noise. belc'hj. Bret. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. round the first instance to the materials with . chatter. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. G. to stagger. bog.' Mrs Baker.— D. a swelling in ice. pillow. merry. strong. ^Vocab. bol. Fr. Du. tar. a bakazikni. * Boisterous. gluma. see Boast. styffe or rude . — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. OG. Daring. a bubble. to stammer. to waver or hesitate. Boil. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . stud. E. and then applied to other husks. fiausten. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. pall. Da. properly represent belly. boggle. Sc. Cot. bold. pusten. tartalear. obex. whence bulla.rounded part of the body. to be prominent. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. in the sense of handsome . the husk of nuts. the. bul. chaff of corn siliqua. Du. bolr. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. stutSw. bolzBold. See Bulk. — 6 . bol. This iv. E. Lat. Love. Test. pimple ON. bald. bold. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. then violent. tartle. courageous. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. and manace for to de. as. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . the body . bulr. roydeur. to swell. Chaucer seems Dan. bulla. i. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. hollow. * Bolster. beule. buile. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. to give a hoUow sound. bollen (Kil. poppy (Bailey). intrepid. excellent. tulum. courageous. ON. prince. w. impetuosity. puilen. 45. bolzen. bouil. cheerful. Boystous. ON. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bag or bog are derived Piedm. boutpijl. bolt upright. bout is explained by Kil. trunk of a tree . bal. . balldr. bSlstr. to stumble. Fr. Magy.w. swelling. which are not used for a similar purpose. Mund. bola. . and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. stameln vel bochken. insolent baude. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing.Du. bealder. a cushion. bolle.palleg. used. Pm. rough. Pr. to hesitate from doubt. bald. bald. brave. pustule. but that Bolt. a bump. free. bold. he will speak out. G. Kil. ohg. boystousnesse. blow. strong. warlike. ballr. the gurgling sound of water rush. Lap. bhster. from Du. notes. Bole. bullire. 374. may be identified with It. To Boil. The term applies in — — impressed . (of Mons) b^guer. The round stem of a tree.

to knock. then to knock. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. bultred. hole. taratarrum. a sod (Schiitze). protuberance. It. . or ill. 2. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. to bolt meal barutel. I boulte meale in a boulter.) E. from G. Pm. curdle. bolt-foot. or a racer from the course. OFr.protuberance. Hence. to significance of the term was overlooked. Brem. a small portion.by forms like G. a bolter or implement for bolting. die treppe pressed. Sanders. bultig. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du.). swelling. cro.D. uneven. Sw. mole-hill. lumpy. bulla.— . hammer. burclct.D. to bolt meal barutel. a clump of turf. to come rattling downstairs. to coagulate. with E. Wtb. tantara. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. poltern. fied bot. a crashing or racketing noise. or the like. as above explained. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. ' — — ! ! : — .nature of the operation. in S'W plotter. Dan. Supp. bulk. a millpoltzet augen.fe/2?. a clod cloth. bolt.agitation of the meal in the bolter. ler.clack. a round glass ending — bultig. to start out. taratantarum. croler. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. sestuare. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Lang. tar. blotttre. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. cruddle. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. to bolt flour burato. Hence Palsgr. : ' — — .On the same principle.noise {brattle of thunner. a rattling carriage. bolzen. Lat. And as the agitation of cream in . the wheels groaned. bolt head is a retort. bullern. a club-foot. OFr. to form lumps. holier poller. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. btilt. as a rabbit from its baritel. .as the essential element signifying the talum. racket gepolter. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. Pr.thump or blow. . loud and fast. beliitea. bluter. pultare. ex•wagen. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. . knob. agitari (Kil. jolting. bulk or quantity . properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. gebolder.i5a//^«. zen. a bolter Prov. to bolter. pull. to make a knocking. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting.).u. . je bulte. zare. barutela. buideln. In the next place. rugged. a . we see that the one consists of a words. kloteren. to talk pulzen. a bunch. hulch. Pl. . — — — . a clap of thunnences. On this account Mid. bulstrig. Du. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. Prov. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. representing a rat. hammer. baruta. pattern. crod. G. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. staff which sounds tar. also to curdle. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. hulter de bulter. rugged. . brattle.through a cloth of loose texture. Mid. a rattle.. / is transposed in Fr. buletel. tuft. bolzauget) Sp. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. bulio. beluter. Fr. Here the radical image is the violent O. clump.D. P1. tling or crashing noise. we have Du. vessel with narrow opening. to agitate. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . on the one hand. hump. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Champagne burtcau. barutela. boss. crotlar. budeln daz mele . buUire. tumultuari. uneven. by the representation of a racketing sound.D. as of a trumpet. Bulte-pook or bulstar. we pass to Du. to start with palpitate. Dauphiny a sudden movement. taraabout. and to crash. projections. The ulti. poltern. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. ' Holler poller / bulter. Schiitze. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. crash. barutare. OFr. bolting to that of form.Lat. poll. we der Brocket). one after the other. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. grasbulten. to spring forth E. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. the sense of right on end. So also we pass from Lat. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. to E. buletare. have Lat. . bolzaugen. Pl. abolter. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. a clod. MHG. bortelen. to shake. and the Thus from So. small heap. Du. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. as Fr. as snow balling on a horse's foot. buretter{CQ\. to become lumpy. to clack. projecting eyes pul. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket.. Bav. The ment and the operation.

thick-legged. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. to resound. booming over the water. stump. assuming the of leg : special signification W. Du. sijde. silk-worm. and Du. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. It. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. baun. bwmbwry mar. Dan. The material called by this name. or trunk word in W. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. It. achsel bein. Kil.bast. . derivation. bonds. Bone. Antiq. basin.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bauniwolle. bolting-cloth. a bone in general. breast-bone. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. and in fact we find the and Du. been. brust-bein. — Bombard. band pi. band. gossipium. q. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. the shank the shoulder-bone. OE. bonog. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. to bolt meal. Gascoi^e in R. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. a baker. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations.D. also thick-shanked. sije. again. bommen. bureau. lana lignea. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bombe. stuff. to cast to and fro. buidelen. to shake down fruit from a tree. cotton stuff. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. Banstead. It. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bande. bindan. bongam. must be explained Fr. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. from boom. . band. tree. . bambagino. &c. Fr. i. builen. bulter from It. bombase. . Moreover. In legal language. however. In E. Bibelesworth in Nat. burato. and that from Fr. cotton. the leg. G. to bind G. bopin. coarse. a word of which we have traces in several English names. whence bomme. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. E. an implement of binding. When ture. bambagioj whence It. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. gunpowder. to which the leg. Fl.Lat. a beacon. buidelen. is supported by the analogy of G. It. bombast. bombasin. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. bein. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bombdra. bombarda. bond. butteln. Dan. . beuteln. beil'n. — AS. Du. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. ^o/j. butteln. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. Mid. a —Bombasine. banitola (Fl. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. has repeatedly varied. and Bond. we speak of a gun to resound. Fr. agreement. boulenger. crook-shanked bondew. the Fr. a stock. to ring bells. silk. the murmuring of the sea. a churn for butter. bombice. Near 6 * . a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . bonfras. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Need you any ink and bonibase. bras. a string. . thick. . baum-bast. From builen. ties. as Banbury. to beat a drum. thick from shaking. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. bambacium. bomba. to thump W. bone of the . — having a stem or stalk. — bombast came guage. It. borel. the contracted form of Du. bureau. a stem or base. buttel trueb (of liquids). a thundering noise bomre. sye. bwmbwr. bommer. iuttern. bunden. e. and called in Mid. and Mod. to shake (as to shake the head. It. term is appropriated in G. Bomb. a hollow sound. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. the silk-worm. d. G. Castrais barato. PoUitriduare. a drum bombammen.Su?. As cotton was used for padding clothes. ODu.) . to boult meal. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. tie. Schm. biire. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. bon. to thunder.). HoUybandin R. sericum arboreum. produced the Pl. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. beuteln. bombasine. tiffany. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. Bonfire. raw silk. a boulter of meal. and also the leg. Du. as in . bombicina. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. 83 Gr. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. barate. G.^Altieri. rimbombare. 155. from teu. to shake. a ligature. Butterglas. tie.

are formed Fr. ass. boer. dog-kennel. to yawn. It. a letter . . bdn. whence ban-ffagl. Kil. Fr. busu. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Pm. a hollow skin. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. Sp. dolt. beam. a silly fellow. Du. succour Bailey. lofty. See Butt. — e. comes bondi. of wonder On the same principle Sp. although in the OG. The character of folly is i860. . dress. house. It is commonly explained as identical with It. Boot of bale.—Bootless. To Boot. Fr. to cultivate. at everything. till. Boor. to litter bosu. p. stabulum. bonad. Fr. Hal. The latter is the original AS. litter. bobo ! interj. The origin of the word is probably the W. . Pr. set in order. Basa. boom. botte. — Bailey. See Bown. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . master of the house. booby. the cultivator. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. boubair. bosig. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. to ask. 232. build. a lying-place for dogs or swine. a bag of skin or leather. one who dwells nigh. botta. in w. which one gaping and staring about. a stall. OW. bonaid. ON. remnants of hay or straw. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. OSlav. bAkva. Thus from the syllable ba. bowwen. Busk. bauer. hu?idbusa. w. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. petition. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Swab. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. pero. bd. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. dial. G. 13. to gape. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Hal. signifying beech. a tree. boten-shoen. Prov. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. desire. where a cross (or a gun. badaud. * Boose. the possessor of the farm. and thence Rouchi baia. swinbusa. a letter Russ. clown. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. babau. bene. netis stall. Book. inhabit. . The i. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. Binau Brychyniog. E. reparation. a good turn or re- meaning. betere thing werse. baier. Goth. as a lying-place for cattle. boubi^. been. boutig. Ox. — From the participle present. ty Gael. pig-sty. — — . but stall. short boots. bolt. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. AS. bid). Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. till. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. boutig. and from AS. b'ukvdry. high. a bonfire. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. the first consonant of the alphabet. tall. N. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Gael. Boot. But bosg. Hufwud-bonad. nachbar. G. Mrs Baker. Fr. as the Brecknockshire Banns. a dry stalk. by arbitours sholde bote the P. babin. babb^o. b^er. Trans. Du. ON. bose. wall hangings. \ais-band. Bun. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. bauen. relief from sorrow. petition. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. boia. Thin ben Luke i. in Phil. and fig. the name of the letter b. Kil. . . boo. gawney. prayer. remedy of evil. simpleton. feu de behourdis. . Schm. Bootless. to cultivate. head-dress wai^g.^ —P. ganian. Mrs Baker explains bun. — . buch-stab. a vessel for holding liquids. and Gael. Bonnefyre. a head-dress. from gape. In nautical language.Boos. to gape. chaff. Bonnet. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. Jr. to dress. writing bokos. . From bo. foolish. Palsgr. the scriptures bokareis. a. help. a scribe G. beiSne. from Du. ON. Gl. to strew with straw. countryman. the alphabet. build. by itself for head-dress. bosih. Wall. to aid. tigh. to set in order. bobo.n. b&ber. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. pole. literally cow-house. from beida (E. . the stubble of beans.. botte. a simpleton. bonnet. or Vanns. G. a. — To boot. A stall for cattle. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. A peasant. the mouth. without ad- . wondering signifies not only straw. Perhaps. Build. bua. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. is Du. ON. gaby. to prepare. also called Brecknock Beacons. bos. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bas. however. gehyred. bota. blockhead. quest. boa. dress. gaping hoyden — Cot. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. AS. bote. tapestry. inhabit. A favour. prayer. bonad. biikui. bua. Boon. dial. boandi. letter. Booby. See Bomb.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. bossen. and Ban in w. a lofty blaze. ben. bommen. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. fool. buandi. Du. bds. . E. from badare. Boom.

pu purro (saha =: saw . Du. butin is explained by Flor. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. Booth. a sharp-pointed tooth. pointed. an engraver's chisel. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. bora. Burke in R. cure Sw. . sculpo 05\xiik. reparation. It. a chisel. and parrets.—Burin. Compare Manx birrag. puru. a tusk. . to . Fin.par. G. bower. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. and thence to eat build. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. struere ignem. The ON. It is admitted that Fr. Alexand. See Bower. p. a great bur. as afford a satisfactory explanation. borracha. wine-skin. Fin. a bothy.. to to . to bete the properly to mend the fire. bord. borracha. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. from deila and skipta. repair. Booty. extremitas Bore. It. wave. In the Fin. ON. a hut. a shop budowati. both. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. . edge. 266. bata. pi. bauen. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. to mend. a shop. or anything pointed. which are probably from the same root. Border. bauda. sharp. remedy. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. to quench one's thirst . bite. 3. sawroot. a cupboard. to build buda. &c. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. a bladder. scsdes-bod. purra. is purin. bothan. hut. furd. or the gradual working a hole in anything. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. Bete. a word. a borer. bordi. OSw. BOOTH vantage. in Ihre. to build. batr. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. exchange or divide. boete. to boot. Fl. cellar. fire. to bore. to profit.por. admovere titiones. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. welt. bud. And so in ON. butin. The cor. on. are derived from G. the . a wave. See Burgeon. to The Sw. making good again . a shed. comminuted by either kind of action. Magy. Sp. to patch. are parret. uzboro. • — To Bore. to swell. The as G. puras. differs only in termination. Fr. boede. baara. burin. abode. a hut or tent. cup- awl. bothag. a. borino. Gael. Another derivation from Fin. budowai. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. Bohem. to hut. limbus. to bite. terebro. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting.— Return from Parnassus I inR. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Gael. Palsgr. Esthon. piercer. . recovery bata. Fin. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. Du. chisel. bohren. Gael. a borer . fimbria. Fr. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). to profit Goth. to bite. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. OHG. to expiate boeten den dorst. to surge. byte points to the verb byta. to foam. yfirbdt. Lat. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. boeye. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. betan fyr. purro. rof. to repair. bdt. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. margin. A phorically a drunkard. hem or gard of a garment. Esthon. puras. amendment boeten. N. bolino. bottino. aid. to divide. limbus. amendment. lappalare. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. . boards. a border. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Mag. urboro. ON. To Bore. to importune. cottage. furni. . dens mordens vel caninus. . and hence to fine. make . ora. from borra. bdra.. a shelter of branches. budka. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. to pierce. tent. a booth or shed. See To We speak in E. scalpo. purra. Pol. a leather bag or bottle for wine. mat-bod. bardure. The Fin. — ON. to restore. kvit-bara. puru. to anything Neither G. 1. botjan. barn. a granary . a borer. lappolone. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. . better. biorag. of an edge that will not bite. dust. chewed food for infants. and E. But probably the E. in Lap. from bord. and meta- Fr. terebra sculptoria purastoa. forare. a responding forms . AS. BoracMo. ON. beute. Kil. nor E. drillen.. swell bara. baete. boeten het vier. to stick unto as a bur. .

to pick or cull plants. botsen. The primi. when that system was forgotten. bossen. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. a boss. bos. (1867). ' — — . that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. Borowholder. whence the burg. And that unsittynge is to here degre. Botany. Hence borhes ealdor. bosh. pego. striking. Goth. to save. Hence knot. borealis.' every man be under bail. See found in Bav. bosseu. ^ma. empty. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. to keep. borg. — ' wind burya. butsen. bourgeois. busse. boss of the side. D. Du. Altieri. ^o^^flj. boss. burel. Borrow. coarse cloth made of the Du. ' pledge. whether from the fact preserve G. Sc. i. cnoc. loan. a little blow. bosse. a citizen. was origin of the term is the OFr. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. beorgan. Bailey. pegou. which now signifies a knob.bucklers. poor. a pushing or striking out. Lat. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. to strike so as to Bureau. plant. to conceal. clownish. G. into borsholder.' Vegetius in Diez. borei. ij |8oraviKi) The — A .' if thou give money on loan. agrees with E. cnap. cormpted. butse. . without. Bunch. a knob. Boreal. byrig. basse. and borough in the sense of a town. (Bridel). to protect. to contain. AS. empty. &c. blow on a hollow object. the Sc.any round sweUing. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. knur. 106. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. hollow bucklers. bierge. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. /3oraMK6f. a. Bos a surety. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. from AS. The other. undyed wool of brown sheep. to strike . grey). . secure. The origin seems to be the Goth. formerly used in the sense of knocking. — — — A — . as if from the verb to hold. Jam. boss or knob of a buckler . primarily signifying coarse sound . Du. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. bourg.. Fr. burgess. Turk.vr\. unpolished. useCanterbury. huschen. in instead of without.' the chief of the ' borh. the hollow between the Borsholder. a herb. knock and a knob . bom. one who sticks to you like a bore. Newbury. pitch. So Du. Cot. a blow. beorgan. AS. is probably radically Boss. or because a blow berga. burh. bttssel. bump is used in lump or piece. Borough. the ordinary a swelling. In like manner It. a wen. the sun sets. . Words signifying a lump or protuberE.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. projection. Fr. tempest. borg. Lang. to protect. vain. Hal. It. borough or chief constable. of bail throughout the country. bussa coarse. a city . borh.mass. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. f graauw. knob. to become is emitted by a hollow body. bundle. boss. is used in the sense of bussare. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. Bosh. bunch. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. bail biirgen. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. a citizen. by which of or belonging to plants. the N. I. baurgs. boussi. boschen. borel. that which biirge. to knock or strike. the must have arisen burgensis. as we speak of a thumping potato. botch. surety. to save. Fr. to give bail or answer for an. to give a hollow bizo. a bouncing baby . destitute. or perhaps it may be See Bury. hollow. bump. a tower. to take in. from their grey clothing. Russ. It. Swiss Rom. a surety. ON. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. or head-borough. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. a bunch or hump. head. borgese. connected. cob. E. storm. knocking. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. in the body struck. nonsense. the North Wind. bos. viipyoc. to save Sw. botse. a giving rise to It. brown cloth. gum vocant. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. botch. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. or perhaps also To Borrow. AS. gesylle. borough-holder. V.ribs and the side. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. poor. cnag signifies both a clergy. borgo. bergen. empty. bussi. boss sound. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. tuft. while Gael. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Jam. Gr. an eminence. and thus could not shake off the old burr. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. rude. .' or system of bail. northern. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. tive idea seems to bring under cover. plain rude fellow. rustic. a boor. less.

Du. a bottle. mess. boute. gipuozan. disturbance. Pl. a wisp. maggots in barley. podge. to botch or patch. .^Dec. fundus. butsen. bossu. and E. H^cart. Bret. &c.foundation. a root. bunch. abbi-diwij Slavon. ba. gling piece of work. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. abbu. an imperfect and bunbutt end. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. buts. bulderen. a humpback. a pit. botola. a maggot. Diez. stock. ubhau. gen. tumour. abbution. bottigUa. whisper. repara- — — See To Bete. Again. by met. you two. stock. a slop. stump. or plague sore . disturbance to . i. Bailey. to we have OHG. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. e.D. the science or knowledge of plants. both. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. empty or hollow. a. shoes. w. buideal. to froth as beer . On — Du. to put on a patch. to strike . AS. botse. a tinker schuhbiisser. G. * To Bother.of a ball of thread. was called a push. — duj Lett. and ajSvamg. a plague-boil Kil. buazen. contusion . a cess. j3i/9os. thing soft batsch. pozzanghera. is boteau. bulder. pozzo. buddl. a bundle of straw or hay. for a bud. Stalder. a botcher of shoes. blain. ing out. botch. botte. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. — . is also a bubble.— . Lat. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. It. hurly-burly. a bottle of hay. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. N. mutter. G. Ancren Riwle. See Boss. the bud of a flower . Fr. . to smack. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a bump or swelling.ments of the same root. From the dim. patch. To Botch. to mend. BOTCH understood). a boil or swelling Halma. bethia. Podge. buddeln. bile. abbi. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. The Gr. signify a in OE. Bochu. a bubble. batschen. bativa. a cesspool pass. . bozza. Hal. to give a sounding blow. to work without order or know. scuohbuzere. — — . poltern. ON. A bottom depth. — Bottom. ledge It. especially in Gael. . It. ON. what pushes outwards. boss. bluster. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. Lith. — . Fr. It. Prov. AS. to knock. ^kvBoQ. bun. — — A 2. bozza. a lump of somebatschen. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Boa two. to bcBta. however. abyss. Hal. as a push or windgaU. potra. noise. ixorapudder. botus. Parmesan poccia. Lith. See Butt. knock. a knock. Gael. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. A horses. botel foenn. pother. nets. See To Bodge. bdsser. 212. ambo. botn. to make better. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bots. Bouteille. to mend (kettles.— Hal. a waterfall. the first rough draught 2. Botcli. bundle. bottom. Bouds. . Canut. E. bund. noise. bSn. bouteille. Jtidu. .) . putra. to stir and mix together. Fl. pimple. kessel-biisser. stroke. Butu. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. — Dief. bosser. they two. Dan. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. House-bote. to dash about . a slop. we have Swiss batscken. See Bound. botm. Both. Wedu. botel. fire-bote. Here the radical image seems a bubble. A — oba-dwaj Lat. Leg. biissen. botte. botsen. blister. a cobbler. OSax. Kil. as Fr. the lowest part. dim. Du. ' G. the other hand. schuhbosser. to dip in liquid (to Gael. Mudu. a pock. oba. any plain round viol glass bozzo. to from the root bot. bot. burgi vel pontis refectionem. boden . mend. bodem. corresponding to . On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. to stir and mix together . bAdtr. from the dashing of water. • Bott. stem or base. to make a make a noise. boiteag. — Jidwi. to fall : with a sound batsch. blow. Fyre to botme. beggtaj Goth. And so we speak of an eruption. I. boiteal. a bottle. AS. Judwi. an abyss or bottoniless pit. — Fl. Fl. bdt. a cask. boil. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. — — belly-worm. &c. a bunch. boccia. to simmer. Gael. bide. boitean. turmoil. to podge. a patch patschen. a vessel for holding liquids. we two. botte. any round ball or bowl to play withal. . butwo. in the sense of mend the fire. a pit. butse. Danneil. Bottle. pocciar. whence the name ol pool to podge. a depth. To confuse with noise. dabble). btitse. Decorde. puddle. round lump. of botta. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a bott . theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. to rage. ON. baiothsj Sanscr.— Swift in R.' to the fiery Csedm. dial. On the other hand. mess.

It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. boriie. A Langued. in contrast to klappersten.. Bunche. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. . to spring. ni motz brugir. its kind. boh. bullra. root (see Bottom). Bough. bodina. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. to fix limits. to bow. Ducange. of thread. bonndn. to thundering big one hum. and Prov. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. the larger kind of pebbles. Dan. to knock at the door. contusi. to hum. Sw. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. march.D. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. signifying in nautical coil of rope. and F. Raynouard. a stock. butina.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. pothel. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . or Bow-pot. bumper. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Fr. Halma. Coxcomb. to spring. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Bout.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. Bought. from bugan. Bonny. nave of a wheel bothel. bend. bonna. pimple Richards bothog. a turn or time. by Bujns or Buns.— — — - 88 BOUGH . round. to set out by metes and bounds. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. carpet. as a nosegay. See To Bolt. a bouncing apple. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. the hollow of a bay.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. botwm. .'— Charter of K. — strike. bunsen. jump. To Bound. to resound. To Bounce. Alpine Re- — gions. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. bouton. to thunder. bondir. — — Bight. he fell so that it sounded. 136. — No i ausiratz parlar. from AS. see Boss. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Du. debodinare. bun.>a bout. Webster. a blister. a blow. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. turn. dial. Bret. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. a button. the smaller ones. To Boult. as a bout of fair or foul weather. 3. till The dat et bunsede. From Sw. . to set bounds. bend. Bowlder. Pm. Fr. bugan. tnndo. Probably from the Celtic root bon. ni frestelar. to knock. limit. a large pebble. baby. buUersten. p. ing. in the absence of actual e. mcn-bomi. bog. a boundary stone (men stone). boujtce. strapping. a large stone rounded by the action of water. bamsen. So It. Ni gacha cor bondir. from volgere.— F. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. like bobbin. as that of E. Bough-pot. dial. Q. The W. knock it sounds again. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. AS. And the new stools set out. bugt. to make a loud noise. has hot. Bodinare. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper.' round and round in similar circles. bunda. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . I assure you. Nor a centinel whistle. a boss. whence buj7isen. winding. came home with his face all to-bounced. Fr. nor horn sound. Wtb. iv. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. Pr. Primarily to strike. volta. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. boundina. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. See Bunch. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. gulf. thumping. Boulderstone.' B. E. signifies a sliort thick mass. bone. mere. bounbounejha. boss of a buckler.— Cot. to turn. language a * Boulder. bolder. an occasion. — Take care my house be handsome. a bound. a round body both. an de dor bunsen. geration. bay. bonzen. the bay of Benin. the verb bondir in OFr. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. Brem. Bound. a bud. Mid. bons.— Boundary. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. jungen. — — leap. The branch of a tree. bottom. 2. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. The Bight of Benin.

A water. spring. spelling the word iox bound. saufen. biegen. is.bass of a stringed instrument. a humming noise Macleod. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. to take deep draughts. burdan. brummen. Fr. repartee. that ON. ridicule buirte. bagna. Dan. bourdon. Bret. a jibe. Chaucer in R. a pot. firm. bending. It is the participle past buinn. a corToward the garden. bov. Dan. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. hous^ Man in the Moon. the Bourdon. lance. a cup kroesen. when we speak of. good. bug. fresh* water. bogna. burd. Du. buigen. buizen. Sw. The foregoing derivation seems. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Bourdon. ing. buys. potio. Goth. Fr. different modification gives ON. Du. Cot. Gael. schulter-bug. pre. Sp. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. to — Hal. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. to draw a deep breath. bommen. tinton. bugna. It is bov. bage. the shoulder of the vessel. burn. taunt. the fixed. bogha.. crutch. must be referred to the same root. a bow. of the ON. a drone of a bagpipe. a. head Fr. a from Du. bog. kroes. prepared for. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bourdon. bending of a joint knie-bug. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. addressed to. purra. a humming noise. burreti. brunna. g. deceit. bonus. Sw. whence buysen. Gael. sport. burdan. to our bous. a brook. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . burt. Prov. biugan. their time -With "wailful tunes. Burden. staff. a sing-song. Burgeon. to pre2. . analogous to Fr. schenkelbug. Bourd. ruption of bonne. bausen. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. epaule du vaisseau. steady. to tope W. It. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. from spring. . It is remarkable that we find vary. set out. language of folly or ridicule. hence musical accompaniment. And there in mourning spend Sw. on. Du. Sw. Dan. Borden. to hum as a bee. Du. a for New York. on the whole. . curvature. buyse. flagon. sotich. bend Sw. cheat. a prop. bugan.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. AS. a. buzzing of bees. way ba7n. pared. sausen. bogr. to swell. Sc. cudgel. bound. beogan. bordo. like quaff. w. game. shoulder-blade. belly out. G. Lat. drunken. jest. bugne. Swiss bausen. joke. bordon. — — — A pare. to take one in. explaining Sw. Immediately from Fr. As the Gael. bow to shoot with. to drink deep. bonitas. a mill-post. i. to trick. — probably through this latter signification. identical with E. it is probable that the It. Spenser in R. to bow or incline the . fun of one . bontS. G. also the humming or ON. bogen. a go to. springbiirn. to hum. brausen. G. Cot. Bound. sense durd. bugna. Dan. buzz. the big end of a club. burlare. A —Cot. purlBav. the ting of a bell. ready to pike or spear . ^<7r«i?. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. to tipple. bending. drone of a bagpipe. Eown. The meaning of bound. in Fr. a — — . Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. bovne. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. are applied to the bow of a ship. a drone or dor-bee. as was for. bog. G. pausen. Comp. When used alone it . bend. Gael. puff out. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. . patesten. Bow. . to indulge in his cups . buga. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. bdgi. an arch. a jibe Shaw bururus. Bounty. mockery. souf. to mutter. Gael. address. ready. a well. to take breath. grumble Sw. bourd. pot. the burden of a song. bunaiteach. drink deep. borne. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. . to drink deep. bue. beygja. . Bourdon. or of an Gael. limit. to banter or laugh at. bordone. to draw a deep breath. btiga. verb bua. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Gael. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be.which see. has also buirleadh. whether by sound or gesticulation. to bow. pusta. Fr. and that probably from a Celtic root. trick. to tope. bwa. So Sc. bourde in the same sense. gurgling. warbling. — — . to bulge. and not in the sense of curvature in general.

the bogna. bugyni. to stoop. Du. crown of a hat. bolne. bugna. tumour. in both senses. bwr. bolle. heafod bolla.D. bur. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. hollow place Fr. utibur. blister. a ball. a sleeping-room . bulge. bulk compared with Sw. compared with Fr. as well as the name of a. puffy. pusspan. a bubble Fin. a bud. similar shape. hollow. bosso. See Boil. bhuj. mausbollelein. bulka. Bav. a polla. . . or. the box-tree It. dial. an outhouse AS. In like manner the Pol. Bret. an inclosure. See MHO. bukke. without the and grits. then by the loss of the /. bwra. ne. buis. box. . bossola. ON. Fr. It is more probably from the G. a knot. boudin. a. as in AS. bow. bouge. A Bulk. bog. bolla. budel. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. convexity. hiidel. tumour . a hen-coop . a bubble. bent. Dan. ask.a. folliculus . head of a cabbage. Du. . box in both senses. bola. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. acsian. Bowl. buckelig gehen. Du. a bubble. ^o/a. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. biichse. a little box . round bead. . the head. Bohem. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. Dan. . . a iDubble. OE. . . the box-tree. bol. to bend. boil. globular. a thing of liquid. to puff up. signified by forms like Gael. bur. AS. fata-bur. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. to raise the back boll OHG. a croft by a house. to puff up pullakka. bubble. to bulge. (in pass . representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . kuppelo. a pot. bulla. E. belly of a cask. spring as water bugya. a bubble bolli. spherical Dan. a hump on the back rossbollen. bowl . a protuberance. w. to yield to one. boxtree pusska. biisse. of a wooden ball to play with and — . to buckle G. to swell. * Bowels. . G. lump . Cable. fyn. bulne. kupukka. prominence. a wardrobe . a box. and on swollen. bowel Box. bulcken. to bow buck. Fr. ttuJic. with inversion of the round. gut. stream forth bugyogni. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. knob From the former modification we have bolla. inclinare se (Kil. the barrel of a gun. boel. PLD. a separate apartment . in walking appears in a . to bubble up. honse-bur. bow. &c. water pulli. boor. . .\s. to bend down. . intrenchment. botulus. a sack. biicken. boucle. hill. the crop of a bird. buxus. From the other form are G.. ^o«/«. bouzellou. . bock. kupu. globe or spherical body.). make obeisance. and to a coachbox in particular. kupula. bol. . bolgna. The / a bow.) to incline oneself . busskai. bogla. a box. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Fr. bocka. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. bugyani. a stud. budello. passing on stud. swoUei) Lat. hollow wooden case. Hal. . a wine-can . . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. G. boss. cumena-bur. to stoop biickling. Bower. purse. guestchamber . a boil. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. The word may probably be identical with Fris. Hence. iri'iaQ. a swelling or rising up. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. See Crab. Sw. Pol. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. globular body. Sp. a black pudding.ige\y illustrated under Bulk.. pocket. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. buello. W. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. ON. bolla. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. Thus we have Esthon. the skull or brainpan . . the box-tree and articles made of it G. convex. bouellou. at the e. koziel. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. buk. sausage. wisp of straw . . buchsbaum. different position in ODu. A . round glass phial. biiske. Boll. a bowl. AS. ku^o. buckel. crooked.). ken. buigen. is applied to a coach-box. buga. .cup Du. boxtree. Sw. a drop of pullistaa. as in E. belly. painter's easel. Lat. . bollen. Bret. bug. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. beuz. zich onder jemand under to him.flask It. bog. peated in Magy. a parlour. boss. bulla in aqua. ON. bucka. bugy. the head. Sw. . anything globular. swell. or in e. a box Lat. OFr. trestle. beutel. a box. a buck. bulb of an onion bolleyield. . give in to. . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. Buckle. bowels. a ball. to make crooked . busse. bhugna. bubble. belly. W. Sanscr. polla. bending. bugyola. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. a bundle. a chamber swefnbur. a round glass or bolg. pullo. a box. Gr. a ball . to guggle.

Fr. brek. parallel with OK. breach. . boiste. bracket. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. A — — . brague. wnzC/J. In like manner the It. compressing. V. A to halt between two derivations. bracil. land batsken. Pm. Kil. — . mud. bruxula. break. armour for the arm. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . braco. to smack the hand batschen. by the same inversion of J and k. dog that hunts by scent. a girl. Pr. s. con. Brak-goed. which sigof straining. brakke grund. a pair of braces. bracer.. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. damaged board a ship. to Swiss batschen. brae. brassard. bray. Prov. cramp-iron holding things together . moral or physical. want. — . Bracket. the first instancebya physical tie. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. Swiss bub. a grown youth Cimbr. to slap. bragos. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. bresta. . and string of his bow. strike. bube. or defect. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. rakka. defect.puddle. A brace probis. — . confining. BOX To Box. pube. bracke. salo sive aqua marinS. brechen ihm. flaw. whelp as. — — . fault. Fr. want. G. G. OFr. breptati. breach. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. pupus. his eyes are failing him).' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Heligoneed. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. a comworld Rayn. Rouchi Then as an adj. a braceOFr. &c. wristband. Du. or bracer Cot. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. See Brake. priated to the original sense. acidus. defect Du. . braco. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. brae. ratch. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. brack. race. defect. to stutter. braic. dog Sw. Brack. fuse. babble. bask. root). the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. rakke. a sounding blow. Fr. I sal slyng. to fall. land spoilt Kil. and F.with a noise. a boy pupa. a crack. taneous talking. an languages. Cot. brec. Water rendered boubo. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. murmur. See Broker. boy bouba. . a guard to torf. bracha. spaniel. . fault . Sp. salsus. then from break. AS. mud. brabbelen. Lat. Ptg. baske. Sp. in R. as noticed under Box. Prov. bracco. pus. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. matter. ON. buah. On the same principle from the buksteht. Brackish. bitch Du. Swiss Rom. Hdcart. OE. briche. boy. rack. quarrel Bohem. ' — A — — — . 91 the Dan. brakke Bracelet. braecke. dog in general. is a rope holding G. from a root brak. the arm. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. jabber. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. let. Prov. posh. a bubbling dura del mun. brechen. ing from a mixture of salt." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall.D. suppuration. — . s. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . unmarried man . to give a blow with the fists. flap. a bog or pass Fr. to give a sounding blow defect. Bracelet. Thus brack. The different meanings of the brageux. Pl. and then Pl. to is derived brestr. want. To fight with the fists. youth. loud smack. OFr. To brace is to draw together. flaw. . Fr. filth .D. Kil. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. to burst. brago. Brach. to stammer. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. clay. dirty.. . a box. Lett. braca. wrack. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. braque. which has many representatives in the other Europe. It. foul. to want. brack. by an overflow of sea water. brostia. breuque. thwack. variation of babble. MHG. . to give a gebrechen. bou^ba. in R. braquet. It. mud. to box the ears. bouibo. — . isolated part of the text. Swab. ON. bue. corruptse. Gael. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. It. To Brabble. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. Prov. brae. It is B. La ville ou y avait Brace. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. baukscheht. disturb. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. odorinsecus. Sp. to be wanting. to crack. brek.— D. . merely in our mode of considering them. Brack. brasselet. One girl. beagle. ghebreck.. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. refuse. Boy.. brace on and Du. bracon. brageuses.nated by dirt. boussole. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. brae. Kil. need. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . rakki. lalear-eyed Prov. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Du.

called by our braggard. to strut. Bray. Brag was then used brisk. — Chaucer. confining. From Fr. spot. brabhdadh. boast. to rattle. Primarily to crack. used in the sense of force. Lat. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . showy bravery. bra!. vaunting. Hence E. The plant y^r«.i5nz^. about the hawk's fundament. See Brace. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . braga. braver. subduing. brayete. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . See Bray. . make a noise . goods. — Equivalent forms are Gael. boasting. an inclosure for cattle . to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. Brake. Brake. braicli. braka. breagh. breghe. as the type of exertion and strength. hectoring. bravacherie. brazo. in the sense of the Lat. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. strength. Sc. breach. From sprouted corn. to boast or brag. bravache. 2. bragging of his own valour. breghen. Walloon bress. It. Haldorsen Gael. or from braie itself. brake is. —Spenser in R. dhbrailler. and it is very likely that the root brak. . well-dressed. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . cry. vain glory. a noisy talkboasting. w. bully . Fr. to shout. Rom. Dan. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. bushy .hy which this idea is con\eyed. affront. . brag. brave.%.—— .breeches. braguer.explosion. From brayel. brabhdair. to stand upon terms. in order to prevent its catching the wind. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. gay. bragio. . Dan. braegenj Du. . is Cot. blusterer. was formed brayele. braga. the feathers ON. also derived Fr. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. gorgeous. brag. crack. to boast of his own worth. gallant. To Brag. To Brail. braies. to sprout malt. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. Chaucer. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Wallachian bratsou. Lith. braw. brails. crash ON. breyne. to crack. power. to brail up a sail. noisy ostentation. braszketi. brag or jet it braguard. and that from e. riches. torture . braske. brav. &c. swaggerer. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. fine. idle talk. be found.^Vocab. bragd. de Vaud. gayly dressed. Bret. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. compressing. excellent. ^Brave. is identical with Gael. finery. Bret. braga. The meanings included under — Bragget. bragging. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. Brail. beautiful. braggard also valiant. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). swagger. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. vanter une chose. an iron for holding Zalli. — A — . brao. AS. . also insolenter se gerere . bullying. brave. brave. subigere. to make a noise. se parer de beaux habits. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. in numerous dialects.^ Sp. the opposite of which. Hecart. flaunt in fine clothes . bravo. a roisterer. to cord a bale of tie up. to swagger. It is certain that the word for arm is. To Braid. brake in the sense of constraining. the arm. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. stately. to Rouchi brMer. proud. bravado j Fr. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. Cot. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. braske.Shepherd's Cal. brave. drawers. would be to brace. Cot. fine. brave. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. . that will carry no coals. Thus we are brought to the OE. gallant (in apparel) also proud. . i. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. or by gaudy dress and show. smart. to unbrace or let down the breeches. braka. Fr. BRAG Piedm. courageous. to flaunt. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. handsome. crash. stout.. Sp. fine. fine. — From W. h-avare and Fr. Cot.. gay. valiant The head are sumptuous. splendid.aburst. se donner trop de licence. also tion of this was brayeul. Fris. — . bragaireachd. expensive. 92 Cot. be noisy . binding anything together. The meanings of brake are very numerous. Langued. A — Hal. brae. empty pride. Thus Bret. se pavaner. brachittm. a carriage for breaking in horses . ative fellow. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Brain. slight modificajoining the two legs. flaunting. Faire le brave.

t° moisten. Corrfeze bredgea. —Bracken. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. quarry from Fin. brook. brcekke. break flax PLD. the lever by which the string was drawn up. Fr. Fr. riguus. In like manner Lat. thing is brought under control. broilium. — — . —Ovid. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. farinam in mortario subigere. broillet. a fen. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. the original meaning of G. Brake. 3. bush. cetur. Dan. is braukti. brega. bregille. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to harrow (Lat. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to break. to pound. braecken het vlasch. broeck. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. to The ON. Fr. gebiisch. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. word. de Vaud. brage. or A A ' . to head must be bit. have thus Du. Prov. Biglotton. — Fl.bracan. brambles. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. brushwood. e. thicket. OFr. to stiffen against Taboada). where from Esthon. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. properly braking or subduing them. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. as in the case of horse-breaking. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. to break. ing of flax or hemp. frangere linum. In ON. It. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. referred brake. braka. to bend a bow. any thicket of brakes. to row. tris). or a wood in a marshy place . ^raca. watered. marsh. briser. gebroge. brog. gilum. brake. broyer. Lat. and G. In the case of the ne. to bend or direct a cannon. a brace on board a ship. brog or brake. briers. to brush. brake. low wet land bruch. flachs brechen. fratto. braca. brogille. to break or fracture. brook. to bray in a mortar. braken. to exert force in different ways. Voc. bregar. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground.D. copse-wood. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. marsh or swamp. dial. been confounded with the verb break. gebrUche. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. to subdue. Gr. a thicket. a marsh. and when once thrown down. in usus braca.— . breuil. Sp. a harrow. breaking in the operation. gebroge. a horse's a horse's twitch. nemus. broil. We — . casser le \va. to rub. for — Due.' It. as well as in the case of the e. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. and Lat. Swiss Rom. glebas subigere. pasture. It. Dan. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. it is not surprising that the word has here. brolium. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. To the same bend a bow. bruch. tnurdma. to knead or mix up in a mortar. broor bushy place Hal. braquer un canon. The Fr. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. brook. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. BRAKE to external force. a stream. bush. In the sense of a thicket. Dan. bushes. gebroge. It may be sus- . bredza. subigere. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). iSpsx". brego. conSo in G. el arco. cover G. to distinct. Pl. braeken. gebrUche. to fracture. as in Du. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . murtaa. broken fratta. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. murrokko. game. brambles. P&. murran. a spinning-wheel. bregar brake. brage. Gael. might come to signify a swamp. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes.D. Brake. is formed murd. G. a swampy Mid. 2. signifying to sweep. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. in northern climates. brak is a frame in which strip. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places.. as in Sp. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. or overthrow of trees by the wind. brog above mentioned. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. . break of such a kind.

burning brennen. gebroge. cack. piecemeal brindelles. brein. iii. apiece orbitbrandone. piece of anything. chaff. bretnel. Gael. Branch. a single plant of heath. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake.D. from brug. bran. sedge burkni. Sir Topaz. Brancare. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. ordure . E. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. branco. Bret. breme j Sw. berneux. briars. w. brang. bran. bruk. brem. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. and waste growths. ground full of briers. sprouts. brambles. brin. broom. But we find It. brand. Fr. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. brugek. brano. a firebrand. Thus we have w. brog. G. as. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. Fr. Bramble. In like hrst. broust. the branch of a tree. That beareth the red hepe. from gaggi. &c. heath ON. heath (Bret. bro7n. . Then by comparison with claws or arms. brejo. G. also a marshy low ground or fen . to burn. compress. young twig {brom-beisser. . in the same sense. bruk.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. broom. thorns and Gen. It will be found that shrubs. a burning fragment of wood. Bran. prufye. brenn. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brarn. brandello. that is to say. sweet broom. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. brin d. bren. Broom. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. to gripe. pfriemen. in the sense oi fern. heath. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. the bull-finch. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. heath. The same form becomes in It. to brank. and thence a shoot. bren. to -brugen. broccoli. a thick bush. bromboli. cabbage sprouts Fl. —Ducange. . A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brank. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. As ON.D. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. See Brush. . . brenda. . brous. It. So Swiss gaggi. G. brandmurk. or with It. w. brancas. — . Brand. Thornas and bremelas. brok. a halter. Port. a shoot. a rod or twig. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . ear-wax mud. branche. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. a bud It. Piedm. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. bushes. a roA. clutch. heath. snotty . may be so called in analogy with Bret. brandr." The bmno a • on . Gael. Serv. . Dan. bronbo. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. brenna. — branca. broembel-CBppel. Pl. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. sawdust. AS. brosst. Russ. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. as AS. broem. from brand. is the draff or excrement of the com. breanan. bruk. also pfriemkraut. brandiiialil. wood composed of twigs. constrain. what is cast out as worthless. bruch. brughera. Thus in Lat. Rouchi bren d'orMe. Bret. i. hallier. from Lat. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brake. A mark made by burning. brenn hesken. bramble Du. brouskoad. to bridle. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. bit by bit. the thorn apple or stramonium. a bud. branchia. brwnt. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. a shoot or twig. or ling. . pfriem in the sense of an awl. . a dunghill. gebriiche. excrement. a shrub from Bret. Fr. heath. it glitters — — . restrain. a shrub . pected that brake. broussaille. Bret. brushwood. brass. Bret. The naof strain. a bud. or other plants of a like nature.. brank. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. young buisson fort epais. Grisons bruch. a vine twig Bav. brug). thicket of brambles Cot. brom. G. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. a heath. 2. It. a small deri\'ation . a bridle or bit . pfropf. Diez. bracken or fern . a briery plot. dirt . bruskoad. and E. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. &c. stink . braam.G. brin (as It brano). Bav.). to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. bruch. from Servian pnit. titio. virgultum. braeme. breun. brug. Fr. from virga. Pl. Brank. 1 8. to or iron. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. nasty.

make a — . fire-wood. brastlian. live coals. eldibrandr. brandiller. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. a pan of hot coals. brin. weinbrenner. to hurl with great force. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. to brustle. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Milan. totter. brennen. branler. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Brangle. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. from to vociferate. as Jamieson explains it.^Brandle. to burn. faire fracas. brustle. bransle. urens. Bailey. bracea. To brase AS. The tre brangillis. hoisting to the fall. stake. to burn. plained by Florio. brasa. to bicker 2nd. brandende wijn. braser. before the discovery of America in the brandir. to crackle . E. bragia. braza. to make sense of a bright red dye. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. to murmur. — . brasca. ist. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. brand. Guill. glowing embers . gebrannter wein. Bret. The corresponding form in Gael. Manx bransey. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. brush. to burn. braise. Thus the bound up again. Fr. e. Fr. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brasa. the spelling to kindle. to glisten or flash. bra?ier. Ija. distilled wine. brasca. as Fr. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. Diez. to braze or lute. — . The name Brandy. Braser. to and fro in the hand. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. brangle or brawl in E. to French brawl or brangle. branla. to brandle. bruciare. or in stick. It. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. crackle. a roaring fire. billet. N. firebrand.pan of coals. a fragment. all. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. braise or hot coals. to confuse. brandigh. brandiller. and scold. Chron. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. With top trimbling. bracia. brausen.well. comes from thence. bruan. a brusler. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to distil . was Commonly explained from the notion found there. braise. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. is bntan. — . given to the country. crackle. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. to rustle. to shake The word brisil. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. d'Angl. then brandr. Gris. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. brouir. Lye. To brand. n. to shake. bresil. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. firewood. V. brus^. aqua ardens. bruire. G. Kil. du Roi et laine. WaUon. to solder iron. bragale\ wood.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. AS. Sw. brascct. conbillet. Port. briiler. bransella. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. apparently very distinct from each other. It. to shake. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Jam. So. Formerly brandy-wine. morsel. branler. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Brasil. to Bailey. and bruir. — ting to confusion. to brangle. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Fr. De Goes. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. It. ish. to make shine with shaking. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. from used in dyeing cloths. a To Brandish. incendium. to blaze. embraser. brandolare is exbrandish. in Marsh. E. and branchis shaiand D. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. to brandle or The It. forms brasil.. to sound of the Fr. Hume in brand in ON. became ashes Pied. spirit distilled from wine. Du. not. to totter. Sw. bryne. put. to shog. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. as again by well as the blade of a sword. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. brasil. to dash. bum. brazil. Fl. to roar. G. to make display . set on fire. 59. brazeiro. shake. noise. a round dance. the colour than hitherto known. splinter. prasseln. a stick. make an outcry. perplex. Fr. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. flagrans. Fr. bruzi. brane-wood. to quarrel. In the same way the set on fire . so. was in use Fr. hot Fr. Brase. Chron. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks.

a. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. borderinge. brass. brat. bratidone. to tear piecemeal. bartisan. Cot. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Pm. braoilich. muscular parts of the body. bratach. bransle. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. brettys. bartising. Cot. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. saillies. apron. bralle. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. as rashers upon quick burning coals.D. to scold . brett. a fortification. Sc. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal.96 Roquefort. bradon. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . as a brawling brook. Fr. boarding being sbranare. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. a slabbering-bib. strepitus 2. Brangle. bratdn). a mantle. cloth. tasce. a clout. a plank or board. slibro {neita. Circumeunt cibertesca. discord. in the first instance of boards. especially that used in the working of iron . See Brandish. Many gambes. Sp. frequentative of braire. A land of dance. ON. frame of laths. luncheon. a rag . The verb is probably derived from the brase. noise. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Bailey. braon. It. bradlete. Swiss bradle. Sup.— Remade. burning coals. calf of the leg. brandillo. bratid calf of the leg. Betrax of a —^Jam. A. lat'te. Brat. 1156. braion. Paris. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. Du. from branler. bruir. bronzacchiare.brettysing. branle. Brattice. Brave. to solder. from Fr. to carbonado. OHG. as criailler of crier. brailler. trul. Wall. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a parapet. fraiche. So also See Brag. contignatio. ferruminare. breteque. bmhon for brado7i. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. any piece. boutures. the buttocks. or whether it be from Fr. bras. from Sc. pan- — Rayn.D. bretesque. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. the calf of the leg. brces. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. G. to talk at bralle op. pil. breyon d'chaur. cob. a rag. — . rag. or on the top of a wall. Jam. breyon. brazen. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. coassatio. calf of the leg. whether contracted from brabble. —^Bronze. brdto (ace. Brass.' Hal. A dispute or squabble. to braze. esbraotier. ni autres choses sur Due. Dan. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. Fr.walle — Pr. Gael. Brawn. as lattice. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. roar. I. as scrawl from scrabble. . a contempt- banner. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. AS. OFr.D. a battle-girdle. KiL Prov.^ — Sverris Saga. braodhlach. bran. OFr. and bronzo.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Pisana in Mur.propugnaculum. a rag . a lump. — Deutsch. then a parapet. Mundart. slakker-bortchen. Westphal. solder. to Gael. a patch of cloth. braiio. deblaterare. ship. a wooden tower. squall. Certainly a little girl. brat. a lump of flesh. breyon de kinds of . testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack.— Braid. 368. The same correspondence is seen between It. Math. bas morceau de viande brawhng. is The word — uous name for a woman. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. flesh of a leg of pork. le repasser un peu sur la braise. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Cologne broden. Florio. It . much and high and make a disturbance bawl. baltresca. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. at brasa. to shake. Kil. 1224. 2. Brawl. a contemptuous name for a young child. berd. Lorraine bravon. buttock Sc. to cry. bribe de viande. Hist. A. bretays). See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. braede. Bartizan.— Fl. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bronze. The muscular part of the body. a lump of flesh. bred. braser Fargent. P1. a loud noise. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill.— Diez. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. —-Jam. slut. &c. slibro. W. It. braeye. a lath. brat. a cloak. bronzare. ' A vraale. bretesche. to copper. Fris. a Lap. equivalent to the Du. neita girl). ^Altieri. See Bray.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. Fr. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a — A from the confused noise.

Fin. Bailey. crepo and E. brand. I'll live and die a maid. Prov. to rub Fr. To rub or grind down Sp. at braga eftir euium. Wal. the sound — of arms. to cry out. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. &c. paxog. brame. at once. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to braid acquires the sense of bend.ear rog. breach. Chaucer. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to braid. broyer. . bruzir. — — — explained motus loud noise. cyprinus latus. with or without a final d. to the seijauntes. to braid the hair. breche. fish. &c. brikan. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. soft . i. to The cup was uncoverid. crackle . or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. AS.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. fractus j Gr. Lat. braea.ch. at a braid. &c. upbraid. kind. brot. verb to break. imitate or resemble one. to start. or cry out loudly . Goth. bregar. is . to break Fr. to scold.y. to cry out. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. to tear Bret. To Break. Then. starts crackling up. abraid. The same He might don us both a villany. to cry Port. to break. disturbance. Beryn. OE. to resemble. Prov. — . BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. ON. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. Chaucer. And at a braid he gun it bende. bray. yell. to rush. 7 . ^p&xia. fragor. to bellow. in Jam. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action.^ Fr. bragd is also applied nets. Dunbar braessem. the clash of ai-ms Dan. braidir. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. — koa. Bread. to bray in a mortar. Ppvxia. a breach Cot. Cat. Fr. braidar. riAprjyvvfu. a rent. explaining a very obscure application of the E. rangere. G. regi. a . crash. bragd — ON. R. See Brake. Du. braa. Q. which has given much trouble to commentators. The ON. to snatch. resound . gestus. and frangere. noise . as the voice of the ass. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. ing.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. ybrayid. the miller's dog. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. yell. F. rattle. to roar. to crash. vapna-brak. to bawl. V. roar. mos. D. appearance Hal.fracas. make a disturbance. to braid. 145. paste or dough. iU-favouredly — in Jam. W. the sword was out break. braa. braire. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. brugier. will. to sound very loud and very harshly.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. D. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. 2. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to roar as the sea. to have the lineaments of one's ON. rogi. brechen. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. a rag f . Then is simply. . to smack or the eye. The Lat. baiyl. to crash. brage. Cot. relation is seen between Lat. Swiss bratschig. to knead. bragr. bregar. Bret.' To Bray. augnabragd. a wink. and fracasously. roar. ser. a crash. E. . V. or wound. to t. turn. twist. father. brice. crash. and to signify the fracture itself. and make a hideous noise. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to break. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. a brack.g. on. bru. father. as OE. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. R. as the notion of turning crack. bradar. to bray like an ass. G. to N. to work up in a mortar. bregda. a mill. to resemble. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. V. Gr. Bread. to roar or bellow. breuan. rustle.. ON. plait. bratsche. to pretend. &c. From the or brack in a wall. weave The ON. broad. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. Fr. to resemble him. brak. to break. e. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to rumble. D. brak. a brake for hemp or flax. bruire. instantane. k. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. Breach. braid.

Goth. to fry Then from a Gl. Rom. brodem. Biglotton. Du. with It. Swiss brdtsch. brisciare. bratscher. scent. cloven. Breath. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. siibligar. grillare. brise.D. bremse. burst. are in like manner ' . to burst. crush. fitzen. chilly. AS. or the blow itself. de bridse geveii. are related to Prov. . windy withal. Breeze. braia J OFr. brimme. the breech or buttocks. brcekur j It. to buzz. point to G. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Du.vare. sheep's droppings bruss. from AS. braie. broil. E. Isidore and Tatian. brire. coaldust. of trees. forms analogous to E. Fr. braucn. — Halma. an odour. break. broiiwen. . remains of leaves. briiz. See Brick. a horse's twitch. brimsa. brissle. bruc. from ligare. a girdle. brciz. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. properly to crackle. and brought beneath between the legs. to murmur. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Fr. trembling. to crush to break. broza. a cramp-iron for holding things together. an into shiver. braux. to crackle. sprouted corn. brugga. brusc. to smack. breost. —Briss. brumtnen. Piedm. vapour. braich. the soler. Breeze. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Dtyden. simmering. It. i5r(Z^. clout for a child. einem de britze geven. corresponding to G. a cool wind. Gl. body brostia. G^nev. bryi^ga. a smack. subligaculum. AS. Dan. murmur. . the dry spines of furze broken off. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Hume in Jam. Fris. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. — And blood. PI. breeze. morsel. /esses. bragues.). braciarc. binding. OFr. — See Broth. brasser. . Dev. of straining. and E. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Russ. briosat'. brist. bruzun. brustia. their stings draw . bresilles. to fry . breinse. a crum. brijselen. xyligogio castigare. brijsen. bre- I'os qui bresole. the bust. as. but more probably the E. Lat. Swiss AS. G.t. We bragezj on. to feize or feaze. bridsen. brew.98 borst. simmer. zare. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Sw. fastening . briste. b}-as. dial. a cold and windy mist or frost . G. to whip. of E. brezzare. rubbish. bark Fr. in Schilter. rubbish. to brew. grill. . met de bridse slaan. Gael. Brize. &c. de Vaud. fail. brinisa. a crum Du. bris. The Teutonic verbs. brezza. bracecs . Bret. to bray. — . so AS. little bits of wood Berri briser. switch. braga. instead of being derived from 'La. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brossi!. Originally probably the word signified steam. malt. bruise. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Gael. bruzir. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. bris. noise. brezling. brasiuiii. malt. to bind. to breech. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. bris de charbon. Prov. braca. brodel. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. — — strument for smacking. representing the sound of a blow. as by the Sc.'— Gl. Hence the Lat. To Brew. Du. to shiver for cold. murmur—Vocab. bretilles. Du. Piedm. braguier. Bret. polenta./ssus. Bracha. to hum. braies. griller. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. grillen. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. to resound. brosame. brut. as. as commonly explained. brache. w. breson. from brace. brasiare. bandage or truss for a rupture. braies. G. Fr. brisd. The Breech (Prov. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. a box. then to broil. breme. singing bone. briig. chillness or shivering. a gadfly. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. breath. as the G. britze. — . Lat. Swiss Rom. to roast. Bruise. E. to break. Breeches. Compare OE. Gl. orts. braca. also to chill and shiver with cold. as in the case of twitter. bra. a twitch for a horse. trusts. to rattle (as hail). briosa. brisoler. Briss and buttons. broden. G. to be misty and cold. So ON. brok. a to lay fly-flap. briosa. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Breeze.britschen. to brew. QNtsterviald) pritschen. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. forms. brison. brdtschen. peitschen. . to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. — Brist. drawers. applied to shivering. may be from the wurh fesser. and other rubbish dibris. Prov. G. braga. brcEth. to simmer. Breast.

troop. a fragment. ibrukkti. with transposition of the r. So in The Prov. malt. bridelj OHG. ON. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. a bride. Priodi. Hence OE. any jot or crum. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. brocaly. from bit. bro. lipdZu}. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Trovarfor bride-ale. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a lump of bread. brilt. brug. briicke. funeral. . Due. owned also propriate. The Sw. whence berw. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. In the patois of briccia. Neumann. a married man or woman Lat. then the marriage itself. It. a rogue . as so. to brew. and berweddu. Goth. married. fraoch. boiling up brocoliere. Bridal. to prepare. to pave brukkti. . httle bit. bulicame. In the G. Pol. a fragment. bretonica. brA. privus. frayer. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. brakes of high-grown ferns. sugga. conjux. consort with. a briole. Dan. broken. brice. to boil. bro is applied not only to a bridge.gfiugga. E.Fr. buskins. to beg one's bread. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha.privatus. Thom. to stamp. bo. Pro(merch=:maid). beaten way Dan. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. AS. bro. a crum. to break. bribe de pain. ap. a bush. graf-ol. brittil. Du. one's ovin.It. a brig or priodor. briiths. brigantine. It.groom. pier. bruyere. Lat. See Broth. sponsa. . arf-ol. . daughheath. G^n^v. Fl. Diez. twopares Lat. from Bridegroom. bitill. piece of burnt clay. E. E. OSw. jetty. the marriage si in brigata. heath. brygga. jipaaaiii. feast of espousals. brutg. to circulate. AS. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. AS. peculiar. feast. W. to meet together. Rouchi brife. a boiling. w. brique de pain. So It. groom (mab=:son). E. from Bret. to tlie brico. has briguer. a sow. a heath. a lump of bread briber. A — A — . bricou. a crum. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. a cheat. brar. to Isrew. bride. bread. — . brigade. to appropriate. to boil. bruskr and buskr. breve or brevis. appropriate. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Gl. a married man guma. Applied ous words derived from break. Bribe. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. the Fr. OHG. corresponding or letter. briwo. a Bride. brasser. Ihre. imprint. Mid. AS. broken bread. from the Normans. grug. bruk. ter-in-law. If the foregoing were not so clear. brau. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a little king's writs. bridge. Cot. collect bits of food. bygga. bruk. birbante. brahi.pritil . Brique. a lump of bread. Ducange. broken victuals. a wedding priod-fab. it is applied to the letter to OE. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . pavement Lith. Diefenbach com. a bride Brig. fastningar-ol. crew. a man. barren land priodas. bably contracted from brigantine. the equivalent of to the dial. thick appropriated. Hdcart. brigata. especially to a letter or command. berwi. . the newly. but to a paved road. priod. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. ' . bruarium. bryd-eale. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. or brizo. hlafes brice. Fr. bribour. a proprietor. remarkable that the Gr. Bridle. Brief. betony brulicame.. . It — is Kil. masted vessel. birbone. ment of anything broken. and ODu. In E. Brigade. bidsel. Gael. broosekens. — — — — — — . Fr. division of an army. Bridal. fit. braut. pavement. a quoit of stone. priod-ferch. Bridge. . brughiera. in the sense of OSw. served (Patois de Bray). guma. to boil. bride. betonica. buckler J ON. A bribe is A — — arval. brukkas. a rogue. Flor. fragment. from the last 99 of which. . stone-bridge bnikkoti. of burial. Grisons bruch. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. to press. Lang. Brier. Brick. but probably Bricoteau. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a heath brughera. Sp. is still used in this sense. bricge j G. pavement brolegge. brood. bryd-gutna. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. to pave.bergantino. a beggar. berwedd. BRIGADE dead. malt. son. two-masted vessel. to press in. — . ' — . a bit. brere. as. bara briw. AS. gf2o. Fr. Brewis. company. to break to pieces bricalio. nurus G. to rub.rough with brambles and bushes. Walach. . The origin of the word is the w. fervere. Gael. and that from It. brieden. briw. bruith. AS.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede.

a brigantine. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. rover either by sea or land. noise. brak. Swab. and hence be explained glampi. glbram. Xa/iTTii). The E. Brilliant. schateren. Bav. — Beowulf. jurgia. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. XafXTTpoQ. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. from hall. strife. Brigata. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. kilistua. malandrini. clear. See Brake. a pirate. Brigand. the gleeman's song. is easily understood. speech. the bench-notes resounded. riis ' — Chron.' torum. hell. — Probably then to strive. Beorktode bene sweg. It.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice.Lat. Flor. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . . bray. clang. moment. to make a loud noise. to bend a bow It. transparent. sound. . bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. and diligence. to glitter. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. biartr. tinnitus. — Briganbriga. brigan. squamma .' The sense of strife or combat express. to contend with another. bregar. It. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to rove. — — . at a later period. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. clare lucens. Heo — song That AS. brigant.clare ^tinniens. and. brcEhtin. The Ir. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. in the sense of a robber. — Due. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . dine. to glamr. 312. briga. show the origin of Lat. and the E. and. a small light pinnace pro. Lat. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It.' in Due.glampa. kii:'a. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. It. loo BRIGAND lor. braid. lay was sung. In the same way to strive is. beorht. The primary meaning of Sp. Gall. there are many armour. From ON.pracht.dorem clarum reflecto. 1654. seems to be to exert force gar el area. to cry 'Schmid OE. necessary business. to shift for with care. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. to ring. glamra. Due. praht. 1351. cange has 'Veles. secondarily. OHG. and to associate with them. that of Fr. on his — own account. then. Goth. brigandare. tinnitum clarum movco. It. Owl and beorhtian. brebrigare. brigare. splcnornd de brigandine. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. etincelle. tion. Du. rixa. clangour. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . clear sound. Adelung. outcry. glamm. splendour. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. Florio. clear. a sound. So G. to strive for. schiteren. to shine. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. dine. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. — brigante. —Capgrave. with respect either to sound or colour. \oice. a noise. willata. pugna. brigare. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. — A A . a spark. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. to resound. twinkling. Gr. glir. bairhts. bragen. tuilahtaa. — Brigantine.— . splendens . himself to serve men of merit. — brigante.' The passage from the sense of a light. bright bearhtm. clear. representing a sudden noise. the grew high. tinkle. brawl. to cry. A. clarus. In Fin. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. also called briganders. inde squammatus. tumult. A strepere. to sound. briga. They or brigantini. to rob. and ner me hit iherde. wilella. briegen. and led it away. bracht. AS. splendour.D. bryhtm. combat. Bright. may play the pirate or thief at sea. labour.shine. manifest ON. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. and secondly. a glittering. shriek with laughter. brdgen. to piracy. to reservavit. in the first instance. Wilista.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Mid. in later times a robber or highway-man. glitter. Schmeller. to shine.

fringe (Lat. ous. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. griller d'impatience. small gravel. grisler. border. bremmen.ioTiviS acutus. briller. kimista. brant. Subo. bry7ie. brimmen. shine. brow of a hill.its vent in cries and roaring. komottaa. brdnnsten. brmdottr. crackle. bryn. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. bramer. brunft. — — — . brullo. Supp. briller (related to each other as OFr. tience. to glitter . der. as of meat in broiling . breziller. to creak. a long. to long for a thing. brinfire. Brim. whether of desire or anger. Prov. broiled. chime). kiimottaa. noise made by meat in broiling. rugire (cervorum. brastlian. kommata. 754. is used of raging. Wtb. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. os qui bresole. striped or streaked. the verbs Flor. AS. Brimstone. It. Swiss Rom. clangor tinniens. to shine. which seems identical with rim. cross-barred in colour. broil . glisten. s. — . to parch. the sow is brimming. . — g. to creak. a streak. Rugere. It. Tutschek. lap. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. Fl. — — So Fr. Langtoft. Dief. rym^. ON. barmr. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. pMiller. ter. brandr and Fr. to shine. kimmaltaa. bresoler (Gloss. brim. a stick. brame. the lap or bosom. burning. brame. In Fr. a rod. : ' — bone). griller). margin. Said of swine when in heat. gresiller. . brennistein. to crackle. 1 1 64. s. sonitum edere bremen. to wish or covet. crackle . It. originally the lap folding over the breast.). Hence with an initial s. to burn. brommen. on. bar. and 1. The meaning of the Fr. rut. brumft. to . breme. to sound deep or hollow. to shimmer. bremmen. ardere desiderio. to make a crackling noise. to roar. — Rim. reecho. of the eye. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. the heat of animals. post. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. brummen : de soge brummet.preni. brisoler. to resound. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. fire. rugire. Thus Lat. To Brim. border. that the original meaning of the Sc. beam.) brimi. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. bray as an ass bramire. to glitter. with an initial br instead of gr. E. bramar. Kil. also to reflect. the singing of Sodom — — . Here it cannot be doubted fremo. a border. AS. In the same way Sw. brama. identical with passion. gresiller. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. have then in Fr. brummen. breziller. glit. FJ. the eye-brow. grisser. earnestly . The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. kimina. . a borDu. greDiet. voux. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. Brindled. sprainged.— BRIM . ON. as is the case also with Pl. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. furious. an apron. to crackle. fimbria) . as well as bl and gl. Sw. G. greedily to covet Cot. and corresponding to these. Closely connected is OE. barm. bramar. bremas. Brem. grdzil. Du. 154. brezil. the heat of animals. Sc. brand-krossottr. to twinkle. brillare.— Brinded. fierce. from bringe. ring. to utter cries. The identity of ON. Rayn. border. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. burning stone. Dan. surface of the ocean. Tresiller. the meaning is transL' amour. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to shake. 1. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. frequently interchange. barm-cloth or barmskin. to storm.' d'etre marie . properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. to quaver with the voice. komista. Lith. to roar. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. dial. whence bilbil-goda (literally. breme.' Elyot in Way. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. to glitter distance . grullo. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. excited. Fr. The E. to shine. hence the bosom. perent. sparkle. brim Magy. fringe . parched. ling noise and a sparkling light. vigorHal. (poet. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. leonum). lap of a garment . Sc. bramire. from brandr. as in Langued. The expression is now confined to the sow. lip of a vessel. the edge. vattubryn. or violent action. A . edge Pol. ON. finds the Fr. griller. to make bilbil). to broil. Streaked. to sparkle. to fret . coloured in stripes. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde.D. spraing. kajata. briller. brissle.

Cot. bronchus. briota. bringe traced through the brano. See Spread. . birstle. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. 'V^. angry. — A . brisk in taste. birsle. a crum. as. as. Hence ribrezzare. as a noun. Fr. the surf. Ptg. brust. brytan. as. NE. braidsj ON. Du. brijn (Kil. or the full • . britar. and hence. spricka. bristly . the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. — in Due. brocchus. setting the hair on end. Bristle. Boh. . It. Mid. is to erect the hair. saulmeure. grim. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. . briser. broca. brissko). very salt brimi. a rebours. Fr. Brocade. brissle. birs. a peg sbrocco. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. to goad. brddj Goth. a clasp. to spit. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brote. bros. quick. sharp. Sp. Da. bringe.'— Vita'abbatum S. against the grain . briota. brot. brusque. brickie.. Fris. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. a belly. a rod or twig. Hal. britchet. to set up one's birse. a fragment. Pectusculum. to set it a going. Fr. breast. Palsgr. a brooch. Prov. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. rash. broche.. Prov. brandello. trembling. bruskett. roar of the sea saltr. to begin upon it. from break. The Pl.g.' Nat. lively. Brine. prick with Sw. a stormy brimsea . Sc. bruched (Fr. Swiss to stand out . man's throat.D. e. rebursiis. shoot. the surf. brusco. brocco. a spit. brocher. fragile. aculeus. fiscbryne. to crack. thick — A elastic hair. /3pE^m. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. to birstle. Russ. startling. a morsel. brittle. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. to turn up the point of anything. has under It. Brisk. brioshko. Sw. to break. brog. i. a skewer. ' . bryne. to stitch. to spur. or — . Dan. Alfr. — bryme. sprouts. b.rcendij'i. craw of a bird. of E. It. britar. stitch. brisciare. breaking out into growth. form bris. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Gr. the brisket or . brodden. to thrust. brcit. It. rude. a projecting tooth It. brezzare. whence may be explained the Sc. It. to broil. emotions which produce it. birse. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Bret. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. are used in the sense of brittle. suddenly angry. Antiq. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to stick. borst. broca. broc. to spur. an awl. bricho (with the diminutives. wine of a sharp. smart taste. breaking of the waves brim sior. — — . and forms on. Prov. harsh vin brusque.Lat. briocho. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. to bud. bryde. brocar. flame. ribrezzoso. ' breast. Fr. a morsel . Fr. Berri. ON. setting the hair on end compare It. Salte sand is called brimsand. . byrst. chest. Port. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. borzen. a bud. to roar. Sc. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. brich. brusk. a stitch brocher. apt to break. like the Broad. flames. See Brand. brocciare. brittle. and. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Bret. Walach. the twigs of a besom. Lat. to break. brime. is called a birssy day. hot-tempered. sprout. metaphorically. bros. eager. to broach a business. Fr. brocco. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. and Sc. spur. reburrus.). fierce. Compare also E. brin. fantas'* tical. a bud. . crabbed. sour. sticking up . brimhliod. a cold and windy mist or frost. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. as unripe fruits. birssy. from AS. to burn. broccare. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. brezza. broccata. bruckle. Abroacli. In the N. a bit . Bohem. Zeuss. Russ. Formerly written brotil. brimme. to shoot. G. coli. brim. to scorch. See To Brim. p. ruffling. Commonly explained as from Fr. . brim (poet. a deluge. from brande. brindelles de balai. Brittle. to break. Gl. expression. Then as the effect of shivering. brim. Brickie. borzos (struppig). brichet. to shiver for Sold or for fear. to stab Gael. a brad or tack. bringue. Liquamen vel garum. rebrousser. a shoot or sprig.). strong itself. Du. to put one in a rage . cK) the . Brisket. bresk. a button broche. 222. borstel. Breeze been connected with the Sc. sprocco. Brooch. brockle. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. of astonishment. Brym. — .procio. a slip or sprig of an herb . humorous. breidr.

dar seems derived from borde. to burn. R. bordar. ciare. brasbrasciuolare. broc. ornamented with a raised pile. knobby . Contracted from Fr.sound. to boss. brucach. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. to spur. Thus brod. AS. noisy. E. brouFr. gresiller. a brim. A fried or boiled steaks). a point. q. broiled. spots. prod. border ornamented with silk. to stud broccoso. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Sc. margin. braird. bruler. a border ornamented with gold. a fallingThe sense has been out. parched. — brissle. prasseln. brocart. broukit. bawling. broice. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brastlian. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. parti-coloured. rustle. or snag. broighlich. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. bmsciare. brindled. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. a freckle. a flake of snow sion. bordo. embroidering. brouda. to crackle. or It. trouble. bj'oil. grullo. Broker. fundamental origin. a flock or Gael. an edge. a brouhaha. rinj'. silkes-borda. point to an origin in Bret. or glowing coals broged.— B. Fr. creak. piebald . brusuole. Icnotty. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Here to ornament with needle-work. frecSee Brawl. hart of two years old. brucilare. brizen. — The proper sense is that of Fr. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. A badger. storms. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. the shoot of corn. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. breard. tumult broighleach. The ON. The Bret. speckled. sparks E. stump. broil. Hal. Compare also AS. Surrey in R. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. froco. to broil. shuffle. or salted fish on coals. kled breac. broglio. — . Florio. forming to jumble. a border. Gael. initial . a prick. Cot. to embroider. a confused streaked face of the animal. broc. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. bram.. briefh. with Sc. b?-od. border. tori shows that. ToBroider. brasiller. to streaked or speckled in the face. briz. brych. to On the other hand the Sp. It. a quarrel. a badger. trouble. It. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. frocadura. a mole. brychau. a brecJi. grislement. parti-coloured. and w. — — . to crackle. motes. Cot. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. houx. brustle. or roast on the braise. brasiller. Grisons brascla. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. tufted ornaments. to instigate. . carbonado. borprick. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . has grisser.. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. here. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. Dan. noise. sting. gold and silver. whence broccare. streaked. bramowanie. atoms . of pointing out their latent defects. scorch. B. and AS. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. speckled. brerd. to crackle. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. brullare. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. Fr. 103 embroidered. broder. — Fl. Fr. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to parch or broil. broccato was used to signify stuff . brasolare. a peg. to crackle as a shell in the fire. brusler. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. brasuole. brodio. From direct imitation of Brock. — Gower in It. Gael. a freckle. It of br the Fr.tumultuous. to knots or loops. spotted. Compare G. Brocket. broccuto. freckled. precisely analogous to the Sc. Sp. Sc. bustling. v. a To Broil. W. to prick. Ptg. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). . to scorch. parch. embroidery. broud. brocco. age was termed a pricket. and bord or bred. confound. onbryrdan. So from Pol. birsle. To roast upon hot coals. hurly-burlies. the line of development has been something different. to darn. to crackle. Bret. blusters. agree in being the extremity of a thing. brocach. brooked. to burn. badger . Ihre has guU-bord. thread. from the white. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. brod. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. a b?-ustolare. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. to embroider. broil.

brumo. mediationem quorundam J. Brood. the spawn of fishes. reject. and fishes . couratier. hot. brod. burning. vile. to pick and choose. : ' . Du. to spit .D. spittle . G. Du. inspect. phlegm. rejected. G. wreak. wrack-good. OFr. Fl. wrak. braken. to . racaille. bronzo. filth. from break. lack. e. whence the modern courtier. to pick. brokers' goods. abject. to sort brakovanie. embers. 396.D. vrage. brod. a brood . racher. embers to brund. brunds. to sort goods . Bret. an . Bronze. nounce unsound. correctarius. corrector.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. to sparkle. . with which much of our early commerce was carried on. make out. goods damaged by sea-water. ON. On • tliis principle the G. an operation performed over hot coals. to be hot. to reject. brydio. bridde. term was correcfo^ir. broiid. to brew. See Broth. to — garble. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. buy and sell by commission. keep warm. Alb. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. sbrinzlar. refuse. See Brackish. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. Alb. stain. — a spark. whnake. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. a broker. fermenting. brokas. — . a chicken. brut. as. Russ. brack. has exactly the force of G. to nourish. sunburnt. refuse goods. — broeden. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. tan. bredan. G. in which sense the OHG. to pro- to reject . warm. braeck goed. In the . brae. tussis. Pl. with. If to vomit . brieden. Teutonic class : Du. brack-gut. brid. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. 38. cracker. rejection Pol. fish-spawn broden. to copper. ODu. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. — Fl. damaged. hot. It. to sit on eggs. brackefi. . selection. pan metal. find fault with. S. Prov. . Grisons brinzla. inspection.D. cherish. brasa. brands. to scorch. but from the primary sense of the It. brakyne. slaae vrag paa. dial. bronce. bronze. fault censure. bring eggs and spawn into active life. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. For the same reason the Kiittner. and to reject the damaged and unsound. . from makel. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. . brak. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. To correct an exercise is to Lib. It may be compared with It.— — . Tooke's Catherine. mud. bronze. to criticise. hrak. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. wraken.— Lib. Pl. ordure. Per manus et old worthless horse. In those countries the term braker. or brascla. cast Lith. brwd. sort.D. Sc. to hatch G. to blame. brack-gut (Sanders). screatio Junfus . to braze. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. blur. glowing coals. to throw blame upon. Pro v. refuse brakovat. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Kil. broen. Adelung. See Wreak. designation is indkler. brokoti. insects. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. in the sense of rejection. try . brasa. trumpery.— Breed. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. — point out the faults. bric-a-brac. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. an outcast or rejected sheep. . faulty. The use sunburn. criticise (makeln). matter of blame weak place. refuse wares. a breach or flaw. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. Fr. • . Lat. briiten. Sp. to roast on the embers. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. analogous to Bohem. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. a makeln. abbronzanchiare. which E. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. damaged. vile. Bronzare. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. embers. progeny of birds. raca. Abbronzare. the young of any animal . brass does to Sp. brak. Jam. to hatch. This word shows the same relation to It. bracker. a cough Hal. find fault with. refuse. brot. refuse brakowad. to be wanting. want. and as an adj. a fault. hraki. spittle. dirty. Dan. w. find fault — — — fuse matter. to garble. The Langued. to emit sparks. brechen. refuse Fr. merchandises de rebut G. et A. try out. To blame mens ware. Pl. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. i. on. to hatch. raquer. bronze. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters.

augen-braune. a caldron. . Bohem. Sp. broccola. Fr. rerum decoctarum. The softening down of the consonant bud. Bret. . perhaps burnt coloilr. a shrub broust. . Serv. OHG. grow into a bush. eye-lid. briar. shore. brosst. brukjan. brosses.brink. &c. bruithim. bruith. Celtic. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. . Fr. hot. signifying low wet land (Brem. a sprig. brouter. frater. bregh. vigour. bryii. frui. . surDu. Pol. ale . brozia.spross. Gael. Browse. Dan. eye-brow. The origin is a re. laissent Domunculum. sprout. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. Gris. Bohem. bruitheati. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. broth Brown. Du. bruth. briihe. It. bruceti. brabruach. forms appear related to the Ir. bros. eat. vigour. Brothel. . &c. broud. — . Sanscr. pfriemkraut. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. The AS. Tam de terrS. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. mettle. to browse. Pl. Russ. meal. and also border. — exiit et heath. Prov. a hill. Here we find throughout the Romance. brushbrothas) gives the OE. a spring. G. to shoot. 'Lzt. brlgh. Sp. eye-lash . eye-lid. buds. pour boiling water over. brau. border. w. was originally used in the innocent sense of . bruach. shoot. simmer from the murmuring AS. borde. bank. margin. . brothas. G. house of ill fame. . brotar. cabbage water. in which brinnan. pith. brouser. brpuster. a derived from the boards. juice of briars. Bav. a river. G. to bubble up with noise. brov. briu. To digest. fur Broom. and Slavonic families. brun.— Overyssel Almanack. OFr. browys. sprouts . broem bark.' Due. a hill. and It. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. hut. boiled . presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . fabric consists. wood ." Serv. brmi. heat explaining the Prov. juice of meat. as Fr. brost. brad. a shore. to use. Prov. It. thick bush brousta. . sprout. shore . enjoy Goth. Fr. broth brothaire. 105 Brook. G. to murmur. low The AS. pottage. braew. bratrj Lat. brewis. Bohem. eminence .brons. Gr. eye-brow. riviere. verge. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. brstiti. broden. Bret. . branches. grow brossa. a . infusion the barley bree. . bruno. brudi. broit. a hut or cottage It. dialects is very different. infusion. hovel. to boil. to sprout. Ger.. cia. to boil. Gael. spuma. brauwe. has briw. Fr. broth. broieii. circuindedit cum familia. face. bushes. bree. Fr.) . to spring . to boil. borda. edge. braces. Brow. properly boiling water briihen. bruich. Catalan brossa. brow. on. &c. bryn. a bud brous-koad. — . brous. dumetum. brwd. breg. brue . riviera. shoots. to Pl. bruich. brdtaj Gael. edge. waves. sprot. Roquef. Ppim. a source Gael. juniper. brouskaol. to use bruks. G. brocco. braun. sordes seu strigmata young branch. to border. w. But the Walach. surface of Broth. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Lat. shrub with leafless pointed edging. thicket. cabbage soup . Limousin broudi. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. to scald. bud. chen. t— Cot. . bordeau. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. a bruth. of plants broust. Mid. seethe. broo. breg. . heath. a confused noise of winds.braubiti. broeye. brink. strength Ir. breg. thairj w. A — .D. brennen. heath.D. brogues. bordel. sprocco. useful G. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. It is Brother. from ripa. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. to bear patiently. plants composed of twigs. brosses. brus. broth. ceales briw. sense the Sc. warmth ch'an. from Goth. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. noise. awl-plant. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. the colour of things burnt. a sprout. brotar. bntdien. brouic. — ' . sap. brucan. to use. protecting the eye. Due. brst. Gael. braussa. Sc. spirit. Wtb. frucius. and Sc. See Bramble. who is steaming with sweat. eye-brow. bank. bank. the bubbling or springing up of water. signifying twigs. as rhododendrons. to boil bruithe. AS. . Manx broie. brodo. AS. shrubs. Commonly Teutonic. brodem. b7-un. BROOK brook w. broth the ocean Sw. sodden. may be connected with Russ. to roar. iVlanx broogh. a little . brost. break out brewet. Kil. brass. kail brose. It. brd. brew . or broken up . Russ. Gael. &c. breh. to browse. broc. . a little house or cottage of timber. broca. or shoot. broza. bruc. brawdj Slavon. bruscosd quam de arabili. bor. heat. brouches. to burn. Cot. brio. a bud. brow of a hill. bank. bhratrj Zend. (for brodem). bros. on. bryn. sproc. OHG. brusmalt. Du. brouet. of which the variety of forms. broi. broth is sometimes used . as small-pox. strength. eye-brow. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. brushbroccoli. or bushes and scrubby growths. bruddeln. steam from heated bodies. . rage.

and sighid therewithal. 201. . Prov. to butt. bruzir. a brush Swiss bruske. to cleanse. brisd. That in all haste he wouli. wool-card. a brush . bud. . brushwood. Beryn. a brush . . bruyere. britar.). brusc (Diet. rubbish. Wicliff. a bud. brosse. burs. tuft of grass or hay. dust. abroncar. brMt. a tuft of heath . OE. to break. and Piedm. a briser. to break. B?-usske. of twigs. a horse-brush. . Brunt of a daunger. twig. tremely. E. or sodenly comyn' dust. quasi twigs. Allit. to make a rumbling. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. insilio. dust. a bud or sprout Bret. sordes. briser. — a bush. Castr. break. On the other hand. brusca. and in the second place a besoiB. brustid. Bret. bricalio. brusca. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. effort. ca7-bo>i. rubbish. a bristle. brikan. brist. 134. and also Brush. briketo. to break to bits . Fl. brisar. brista) or breaking out . bruscolo. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. to break or burst. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Gael.— — i. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Prov. irruo. as It. brottcher. detergere . Fr. borste. borste. Sw. mg Cat. and It. broza. brico or brizo. a brush . —Chaucer. blow burcar. broustia. desbrisar. rubbish. brugir. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. bris.). brus. to crush. — OE. Cot. — Fr. Text Soc. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. .— Palsgr. crum bit . a brush. bruise exOFr. Pr. bruskr. —Fabyan. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. a flax comb. — those signifying a sprig. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. See next article. . a brush. Brunt. Pr. splinters. a brush. Piedm. Gael. G. Pr. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. brous. Bav. brysan. Lang. quisquilise. a bush of hair. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. bris. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. ON. brist. to brush. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. escousse. dust. fragments. Diez. Pr. brosst. flax-comb brossettes. Sw. brunt. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. shivers. fasx . it schall be al Sw. insultus. brist j Port. Lang. Cot. and actually come in collision. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. borste. A. Fr. bruit. broken. brizeto. Hall in R. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruscia. brousso. 174. Gael. broza.). and . * Brunt. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. To brush then would be to dust. Port. AS. biirste. or shoot. brusco. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. bruire. It. bruiser. Broach. wool-card. The Lat. brist. coal See Breeze. Poems. The Bav. p. fescue . NE. The same relation holds good between G. also a head-brush.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. a shrub composed of small twigs . a little brizal. field. into a multitude of points. brossar. brik. Piedm. to stumble. modification of the same root which gives the E. broust. a blow.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. shock. brossa. brusco. Fr. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . to make brusshes on. brustia. borst. Sp. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. bross. a bristle. bris. Bruise. G. E. briiis (in the pi. brosse. heath. twig. burt. Pm. biirste. brust. orts. bruscolo. In E. Pm. bruc. brit. appearin Goth. K. bush. rods. brous. a noise. Palsgr. ling or heath for brushes. dust. bushy ground. wool-card. And that best is. a brush . a mote. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Alexander. Bruit. borste. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Prov. britar. a crum. an enmy. Fr. . Brush. wood composed OE. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. borste. E. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. bruito. crush. brosst. Fr. bruis (sing. remnants of hay or fodder. OFr. brise. seems named from burst(on. to strike the foot against an obstacle. It. bris. shoot brouskoad. Gael. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. brusg. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Prov. a — — (Agea) said. a rumbling. It. brustia. bross. brossa. chips.

bublati. soft . lye. as G. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. Sc. to a place used for the mouillir. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. . to soften. mote. March 28. a bubble . hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. w. Fr. buck-ashes. bubauti. tap . Fin. Esthon. bucata. not so plentiful a commodity. bubiti. This bubette. Sp. bokni. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. to soften. bubbola. and Fr. molle. The place of such a 2. mieknad.derivation has been much discussed. bube. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. says Laudon. I. buquer. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. a. bucaIndies. — .' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. w. moczyd. to strain. a bubble. bucquer. But see Bristle. mokry. or mok.— . Etym. 1857. it is beuchen. to bubble.lessiver. maban and baban. bukke. Pol. The male goat. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors.buchen. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. also applied Una. boc. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. who resorted to the islands beichen. and then to other wild tumour Lith. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. Illust.tare. to murmur. Fr. — . plied in the W. a to the male deer. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. and the bunch. to wet Pol. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. 1586. hump. does not hold. moist. drying of produce. to Gael. a hole. a knock word. hog dressed whole). to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . blister.boukaat. soft It. de la Floride. 17th century. to soak. a steep for flax. bugd.wet Lat. From an imita. was called bucking the linen. pup. . bubBuck. knock. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. bouc. buchen. of wind. — — ' A : ' ' .to allow a free current of air. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. Sp.D. very generally designated by the same puk. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. Pol. tuft. different form. blast or strike with the forehead. Cot. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. . boh. caned' Hence those who established them. bouk. and exercised their cruelties prin. buerj It. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). BUBBLE bruschetta. bubseti. A . Gael. ac.biiken j Svi. Bubble. pukkata. Bret. Magy. It. because bucare does not in Marsh). Bret. erweichen. Dan. the upper for coifee. top. watery bud. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. and as a verb. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. bugada. The cipally on the Spaniards. The name. buquer. a push. to soften . lye. pokka7na. the first wheal. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. News. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. as a buck rabbit. . Formerly. from colar.' Palsgr. bog-aske. to soak. Bohem. to buck.byka. wood. the linen at buck. to butt. buck-ashes. See Dupe. the lower soak in lye. to soak foul linen before washing. to which in their language they call bou. The word was very generally Buccanier. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. Fr. mollire. at a door. . either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. thunder gently . bub. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. boc. It. open lath-work. . Pref A. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. when soap was tion is commonly taken. a bubble.-wtt miekki. set of pirates in the spread. bduclien. Diet. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. is 1. to bump as a bittern. bwch. Magy. faire la lessive. bifbel. to filter. The natives of Florida. or projecTo Buck. The term bocan is still ap. soft. was called in Fr. a. bub. designation of a knob. byge. buborek. tender. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. bucking. boucaner. boil animals. In G. It. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. a ashes. colada.steep or soak. tender. Bohem. to stick. soft. hump. from weich. . . called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. to butt or jurr Dan. to butt. in which the flesh dish. soft. a fescue. rap. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti.

pwt o Fr. Budget. NE. a little coffer or turgidus. Wtb. to un bout d'homme. where the G. knob dwfr yn boglynu. great pouch. Russ.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. So on. Buck-bean. bougette. turgere buczendig. thrust. having a boss. as in Fr. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. the word w ' — . knock. weichen. clump. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. A buckle or fastening for botch. swelling. * Bud. motus creber.) as to soak. Fr. blow. a boy.n. butt . call. agreeing with Gael. bouter. push forwards. Prov. prick in a target. G. excrescence. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. a buclder or shield budge. W. in the beginning of to pierce holes. boss. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bode. buachazlle. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. The dressed fur of lambs. a shield. goat's hoof. bullion. . bloca. It. a small shallow and open tub. a stump buckle up. w. botzen. a bubble three thyngis. The word is a ddyn. It. scion. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Hence quel. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. jSouKoXiKog. bunch. bukke-blad. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. bo. bucolicus. like a bean. buckel. a leathern sack.may probably be explained by N. is to shrivel up. sboge. bouk is a pail and with the dim. need. a boss. bucherame. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. or male of to boil . bugnir. boqueranmis. become bochen. Bav. ornamental stud. and the reference to It. soft.stumpy man. a navel. It. don't a baby). dint . ON. boucle. Port. a buckle or protuberance. cattle. bdden. to move. OFr. bocla. loud Cot. words is converted into b. a boss. In Lat. Fr. In the dialect of the Setti Cem.— . call. bod. a servant. with let. pwtio. bouge. the root of the Slavonic words gran. a bud. to bud or bocla. Du. Bav.. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. botzen. to graft or bud trees. budge.pode. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. and of the Lat. no business to do that. bloca. ' . to stir. A water-plant with leaves and gille. stroke. seen in Hesse botz. to word.goa. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bollire. a budget. Swab. a ring.t-le!L{ * Bud. protuberance. weich.' Schm. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. Fr. Fr. boaLat. bud butzen. butz. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. ble. — . butzen K. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature.Lat. bulla. . OHG. ' . Dan. potz. II I'a feru desor I'escu. — — . bub. hump. were To Budge. mani. bouger. bogla. bulb. It. macero. fur. to poke. bul. bouljein. trunk of wood covered with leather. crack. bedde. wallet. boucler. Pied. with a central boss. a short thick man. bougette. set of a plant in bulk. a tuft. from bugr. a cowherd. stir. of a surface. call bo. clasp of a book. bump. bug. . Dan. Cot. Bret. no wheel bogeilio. K. built. Bus. swelling. the radical image seems to be a set plants. bucket Fl.anything short of its kind. a . bouprobably identical with inok. Gael. a bump. The Fr. lump. Du. . to budge. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. Fr. Prov. stud. boucle. to pen cattle. of bac. . boccula. bouton. male or botzen. rabodS. to boss or swell out G. weich. probably from the notion of bubbling. bog and G. Mid. and weichen. * Buckle. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. Buckler. from Gr. a curl. bunch . Budge. butzen. bolgia. Bucolic.r//'. boulj. . gjeit-klauv. to thrust.) . put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. . a fold ceilio. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. w. To thrusting part of a long body. — — .). ein. dinted. to swell. put. Hardly identical with Fr. bulga. a shoot. convexity. of bouge. butzen (Du. above mentioned. pote. whom it is still much in use. . . boucaran. bod. bloquier. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. This expression boglire. skins pushit'. Bret. Pol. Behoves. See Bulk. water message. The entire train of thought is bucket. pulga. a wallet. a budget. to line with fur. a pail or flowers. Fr./a. imbuere. is doubtless fallacious.chissima. belonging to the calling of the chen. It termination is lost. ' .' And this sacrament bus have dial. to 'soak. explaining Fr.. butze. to butt. a pustule bout. case of leather . knob . butzen. bulka. — . pulga. * Bucket. a dumpy gin.' Hal. boiling. with which it was ornamented. boucle. noise . bolgetta. rump of fowls . boach.stuff. bulais daqui. The knob or projection formN.. a trough). boss of a shield. child.poot. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. dim. brobrocchiere. bucherare. boglyn. Fr. bouclier. don't stir from hence. inboachen. Mid. . Prov. Lat. from bo. Sw. to boil.' Boccaccio. Sp. also a leather tuft .

Che scaccia 1' Ombre. to jest or sport. either alone or with various terminations. popo. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Cot. —Boggart.—Buffet. buffare. Buff. E. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. a hollow sound. yar^aa. Bufetarium. and in Fr. Lat. to marre often tasting it . rebuff. bw. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. to puff. buffle-headed. A puff with — Fl. to bellow . as from Lith. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. of colours. Buffalo. duff^ dull. bufogni. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. air. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. The cry made to excite terror is then used. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. w. buffen.D. scarecrow . bobaow. Pl. Sc. dausinti. W. a dull BUG From 109 — A . buffet. by metaphor. The use of the exclamation children. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. Buffeter. — — — Buffet. cuff . Mid. to blow. tastes. It.D. bugs. Swiss baui. bubach. From buff! of terror. the place whence the wine was drawn. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bugbear. site The two — — iii. buffets. a buffle or a bugle. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to blow . then peeping out again to see how she bore it. a clap. Buff. made by a person. een duffen toon. dausa. Hence the E. — Bogle. bo ! an interj.' perfield. buffet. often blown upon. Romola. — Z. buffare. to blow souffleU. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Limousin bobal. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. or wild ox. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. a In . a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. bwg. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. or hath been Cot.' La Crusca. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . deadened. Cot. word other cases.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. human. boo. a skin. Lith. God's boast seemed feare children. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. soufflet. bubiti. a puff. to beat. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. a budget. &c. while in Sp. to give benti. a side-board. to signify an indefinite object of terror. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. bouffer. Pl. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Fr. A blow. confused. — thence it has been transferred in E. buff leather. bugle. Teet-bo. a goblin). and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. to frighten . also the skin or heck of a buffe. sounds. from It.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. tabernarius. le reste emplissant d'eau. mingled with water. 265.D. Fr. a jester. btifetarius. botffon. blurt or puff with one's mouth. bumann. colour. — retailing buffeter buffetier. dial. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. It. buffalo. made to —Bugbear. a cuff or buffet. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Thus buffet would a tapster. G. leathern bucket. buffet. boman. — La Crusca. buMagy. baubau. buffeteur. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. bolgia. bukow Ikow. bouffer. Esthon. Lat. Gael. thus be translated to tap. It. buffa./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . caupo. Lith. Fr. bubaRuss. things in Jam. Sc. puff. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. senses. buffer. breath. buivol. bufHe. to give a as of a blow. The children were playing in an oppocomer. the buffe. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. bolgetta. him but Boyd iugges. from souffler. bau ! children. Buffoon. bufogni. to excite terror in Macleod. Magy. ' They rether puffed at him. Fr. stupid. A — Bug.— Buflae. wine may The verb in taverns. bubus. dull sound. . as Diez remarks. also a G. bw! It. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. to rePl. often covering his E. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. for this purpose is very widely spread. a hobgoblin. buffetto. pulse . Fl. a block-headed noddy. smells . Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. It. mumming. to puff. Fr. as emblematically making light of an object. wauwau. From bulga. buffle. to strike face to represent the unknown. as wine that hath taken wind. to a representation of his voice. bauwi. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. a bugbear.

buffle. . bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. i. well as the terrific object. with more or less modification represents bau. shepe and gootes. beugler. bogle. — — ' . Lap. Lith. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. * 2. b'dgni. A similar applica. 3. then a horn for drinking. bug. tion of the beetle tribe. earwig bau da grascha. any disgusting animal. w. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Fl. terrifying ward. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Big. paws the ground . W. threatening. bucula. also a bug-bear. — . a buffalo. baco. monster. 2. 493. Grose. Bdronie. a. gad. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. provincially an insect. Swiss booggen. Magy. Manx boa. bug dung-beetle. threatening. Bogge. Bug.3uhtii&:. to bellow. troll. a bug-bear. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. poggl. — — .loud noise. to take bug. worm. bogil. great or bug words. pugaf. coco. fear. insect. blustering. fette.. Bugle. Hal. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. boa-peep. rose-bug. The w. Cheval de trombugti. Same as buffle. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. bugle. bukashka. pugalo. See The name terror). Lett. quos what produces dread or disgust. The final guttural of W. Illyr. bauginti. Russ. It. ghost. a bug-bear. Grisons bau. . mask ' . and in Lat. Stalder bog. protuberant. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. booggen. I. the word is lin) bbgge. saucy. is very common. scarecrow . bwg and E. used in the same sense. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. a rabme. a boogg. E. dial. Bug as a lord. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. to take fright. a goblin. of pipes sewn on. high-sounding words. 1551. to take fright. pujalo. Sp. long.Fr. oxen. boo. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. It. as an object of dread. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. roo. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. and bugle. and a boggarty ing. to creeping things. superbire. bwgwl. bug-bear. the black a maggot. Schmidt. proud. of bugabo was given. bogil bo (e. bold.— ..' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bogk. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. bwgar. Swelling. Mid. and in child's Magy. Deut. the buggaboo w. Parolone. bbgni. Fl. to roar Aasen. forSc. an object of terror. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. fierce. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. buculus. An ornament of female dress condread. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. bogk. a beetle. larva (a bug-bear. Hence bugle-horn. also a baco-baco. Swiss ing. also a bug-bear. BUGLE Tentennino. affright. as Buffalo. bau (Pureiglia. given in Chaucer. a silk-worm. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. The name of bug is — . — — terror. to frighten scarecrow. — boogg. xiv. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. according to Coles. roarHal. thus connected with bug. big. an insect. buggabod). to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . bugar. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bug-bear. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. bok. a misshapen person. especially to beetles or winged insects. il brutto Demonio. Mundart. vermin. to bellow. hert. . The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. bobal. bugbear. is the dim. Serv.Lat. bug-bear. Chaucer. . banian boube. high. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. insect. bugler. Bible. disgust. iv. Lesachthal. Sw. bukati. the Devil. language any kind of insect. (Spurrell). The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. to origin in the expression bugs words. : no BUG . boeuf sauvage. and is Deutsch. swollen. buba. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. biignt. tumble-bug. Magy. a bugbear for children.

In the representation of natural sounds. the womb. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. . belly Sw. 1388. body of an animal. or of what is shaped like a bubble. ' . . Gr. beuck. bulka. bulbus. tumidus. . The addition of a dim. . knob. belgr. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. Boss^. m um Placentiae. jnake bulch. Dan. ' . bulge or convex part of a cask.' Festus. bulne. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bulge or bilge. or feminine termination gives Bav. hollow. a leathern sack or portmanteau. knot in thread. Hal. . Bav. a protuberance. bo. compare Da. swollen OE. . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. Pr. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. the capacity or burden of a ship. Bulge. Bolke or hepe. pulkas. head .). bol. balg. bolnyn. blister Manx bolg. bolle. bilge. anything prominent. trunk. as water beginning to boil bolg. boss of a buckler. bwlg. of E. bolle. buc. swell. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. to break bulk. . unevenness Sw. skin bag. or cargo of a ship. OSw. bubbling up. ^ — .'— Cot. ball. byli. belly. balco. . in bulk. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. to blow. bol. and N. swollen. Sp. bolso. habitaculum. a. cumulus. For the latter sense ' — My . nave or body of the church van 't schip. G. Lett. to spring. ON. a bulb Du. has bulbuk. Othello. . Pm. bulwis. . bulk or capacity of anything. bouk. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. See bollekeii next article. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. be protuberant. as well as is very variable. bed of a river. of an inflated skin. mass. and put it home. to throw out a convexity. formed a farm. knobby. bulbe. to swell. in vessel. Hence e. it again. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bugue. stuffed bag. Bulch. whence bylja. The radical sense is shown in Russ. Pr. a straw corn-vessel. wallet. hull of a ship. to bol. acervus. swell. bukr. — . Here stand behind this bulk. belly. buk. See how this tode bolneth. — — . . domicilium. trunk of the body. a round bulky body bwlgan. ne. cultivate. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). a dint in a metal . bulgen. bua. tumeo. OSw. belly. . body of a ship .d. (3oX|8oc. bubble {palgan tiisge. a water-bubble). a globe. knob. Palco. or bear out as a full purse. Ptg. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. ON. bladder. bunch or projection. blow. a bubble Gael. Melancholy. It. a bunch. the body Du.' Cot. bulgen. — . bolgetta. the position of liquids in the word In English. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. to swell. the head of an onion. balg. bulkaf. a tuberous or bulbous root . G. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. lump. and bulbukd. crowd. bulki. projection. pod ON. a leather sack or budget Fr. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. — — . bubble. Mandeville. . With these must probably be classed ON. boss of shield. bulcke. bulk is a partition of boards. a heap. bulked or bumped out. skin flayed whole. Bulk. Gr. blister. the potato G. as it was merly written in English to bylle. a bubble. boa. Muratori. boulge. . . chest. pouch builgeadh. body. swell. . blister. belgja.pulks. bole. boss.— . buhe. belly van de kerche. to puff up bolginn. pimple. ' . belly. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. trunk. to gather. globule bolg-lhuingey. to undo the cargo. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. belly. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. See Bulk. boss. balgs. a prominence. bubble. The Walach. I. van loock. bulg. were a habitation. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bolg. the contents of the hold. the carcase. G. Kil. Lith. lump. bouge. herd^ swarm pulkd. biilken. bulbe.' Palsgr. skin of an animal. bullka. To Build. — Bulb. balcone. sedes. bauch. Jno. pocket. bulk. bubble. bolgan. Dan. mass. . bol. PoXj3a. in Sc. principal portion. to bubble up. to build. He found a country fellow dead drunk. bug. Lith. husk. to belly out. Mister. villa. Pm. a lump or mass.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli.' Fl. a stage or scaffold. dial. hold or bilge of a ship. Lat. on. bale. to bubble up Pol. straight will he 2. belly Cat. womb.' Anat. leather sack. to raise a habitation. thorax buick. bulle. inhabit. bolgia. Lat. bellows builgean. the belly. MHG. A — ' — Bulk. or. gebolgen. puff. w. snorting on a bulk. vulva. bauen. bolgna. Bourser. at riufa bulkann. — — . turgeo bolnyd. a. bag. From till.

Pm. bullos. Fr. bwbach. Bullet. bullebak. bulloi. and thence terror. boss. poli-cheannan. billon. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. boss or stud. /SouWivu. as geting. round glass phial. Bullace. Du. a hornet. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. pimple. also of the tadpole or young frog. Lith. Pl. bubble. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. large of its kind. I. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. i. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. in the sense of base metal. from the noise. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. a hobgoblin. a stud. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. The male W. blister. brass-headed nail . but is more probably iden- palchetto. of the ox kind. The final element tergeist. W. many to protuberant objects. to bellow. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. lumpish. Bret. A papal rescript. b2iggaboo. pwl. spirits. bullus. polten.D. bulle. stupid . a scare-bug.Gr. eth and frighteth. bolli. a blockhead. to seal. poll-cheannach. sloes. however.D. bietebau. 3. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. — Fl. is of a class with Pl. Dan. stamped money.lle de fusil. assito. Bully. whence Mod. Scot's Deso. ON. a cow. and vellon in Sp.. is called a ball. from Fr. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. thick. biitzibau. to tical with Sw. urchens. The wild plum. w. a tadpole . — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. elves. — A tition in a ship. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. from baula. large. bauli. Bullbeggar. to boil. blunt. Gold or silver uncoined. whence bullire. BuUiou.. as a mill-dam or the like. This word is used in several senses.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. the matrix or die . any embossed work. bollon. tition of deals instead of a wall. scarecrow. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . baula. a bull Swiss bullen. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. coarse. a seal. from the Lat. Du. boulct. signifying roaring. bwlas. to emboss . bal. a seal. bullocks. a tadpole. bole or trunk of a tree. balgeting. billoti in Fr. See Bowl. bulk of a thing.' do not go by the dangerous water. Du. any great-headed or studded nail. which may probably be the origin of the name. BulUiead. bulla. from the use of the equivalent terms. bugbear. Gael. bouillon. of boule. G.D. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. Eullrusli. It. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. it may be observed that a bullet in E. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. Sp. embossed work. 2. bellow. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. G. dim. a noisy violent fellow. Cot. from Lat. It. stamp. dial. bellocier. Terriculamentum. it is boulet de canon.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a framework of balks.Fris. as in E. stud. bouillon. penbwl. poltern. also a parFl. bolla. a hobgoblin. . beams or boards. &c. w. of Witchcr. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. bulla. leraures nocturni nigri. a beam or rafter. bwla. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. as It. bolli. in N. Du..'— ' Palsgr. G. stud. bullern. bollos de relieve. bulke. ba. bulk. bolos Fr.. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. to bubble. lumpheaded . bollar. bulderen. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. See Billet. witches. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. Fr. G. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. N. a bulox polos. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. child by the represents the hobgoblin. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. on the contrary. And The word bullerbak. a bull. a bul-begger. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. pollach. a bowl. Bullfrog. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. a wasp. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. hhint. boillon. A lace tree. 2. a little fish nearly all head. — — Bull. the seal affixed to the document. as the ornanails. The bullfrog.

2. intonare. G. Hal. For bottom. — Bump. furious man. on the other hand. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate.' reals of standard currency.. Du. a. 'lega. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. to make a noise . blaterare. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. It. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. buller-bas. bastion. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. a stage. Hence — . to . a floor. Bully. bommele. c. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. then in general a rampart. To bully is to bluster. a hectoring. To bum. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. bol-werck. buller-bak. ierd-boeyme. from boden. The Sw. bodem. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. un faux brave.the ramparts. Kil. 4 Hen. botm. St. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. but now is the central part of the town. 2. a blunderhead. poltem. provides. Fris. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. to terrify by noise and clamour. ON. BULLY with which coins were stamped. to dun. a bumble-. clamour. Kil. beat a — Hal. From the notion of a humming. Du. The 27 Ed. c. ierd-beame. sound. Philip le Bel in Due.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. The cry of the bittern.D. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. droning.D. provides. ground. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Etym. argentum and silver. To Bum. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Miege in Hal. hum. D. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. 9 E. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. bustle. honunele. 1305. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. 1687).' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. IIL st. buene. is called bumping or bells. buller-bas. Bully-rock. agrees with e. legaggio di metallo. Bum. polterer. buller-brook. blunder-buss. to drum Lat. the soil. perturbare saevis dictis. bulderen. or a humblebee. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . A. noise. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. To bum. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. IV. by corruption boulevart. violent overbearing person. bolderen.' for the purpose of exchange.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Fr. or work of defence. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. biihne. violent. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. to make a droning Du.. a boisterous.' ' mettre au billon. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. Kiittner. 10. blunder-buss. Hence bom and ban. Thus ' ble. c.d. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. bottom. bombilare. Fris. resonare. John). Bailey. 14. Sw. — Bumto . ^Bully-rook. The decried coin.' agger. &c.' Again. G. block-werck. — bombam?nen.' Stat.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. scaffold. III. baluarte. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. boulevard.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. boisterous fellow. ^i^/«. boene. up was termed monnaie de billon. Du. primarily the ramparts of a town. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. bottn. G. propugnaculum. a noisy blustering fellow. AS. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . vallum. The Stat. — — plate d'argent. — Boom. and porter au billon. buller-jaan (bully. 2. minari verbulderen. bomtnen. debacchari. is bullion — A — buller. Bum-bailiff.

cluster. a rabbit. and signifies consequently a mass. Roding. a tail (Macleod).^Cot. applied to young persons. bongie. bunke. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a boil or blain. banke. a hump. To bam. Pl.D. Moor. Holland and Flanders. and related with ON. poumpi. Bump. Bang sen. Hal. bunch— Hal. bannock. E. a knob. throw down with a bang. lungeous. bonnock. pompon. a heap or cluster.— Bunnion. root. one ever saw the word in that shape. bunsen. He buncheth me and beateth me. — — Bun. bulse. .S. inconsiderately. a large . . to bang. Related on the one side to Pl. to . a into Dan. any round knob or bunch. Bumsen. bun. Again. E. Gael. . oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. ner. a lump on the foot bunny.! . pwmp. bugnet.. pumpa. See Boss. Gael. a rabbit. hdk passing and E. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Bun. . Dan. . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. bun with ON. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. Dan. Pm. a knock. a pocket Sw. &c. a knotty stick) Sw. E. bunt. gibber. bu<rnone. knuckles. bum-boot. abrupt manbuns-wise. stalk. bugno. . bunny. also for taking a pilot to a ship. callus. bans. —Bunny. a boss Lith. should probably be a short tail. a. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bumsen. are dim. awkward. pompette. an old stump of a horse. stock. Hal. tundo. trunk. lump. Manx bonkan. bignet. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Hal. to beat. a heap. a swelling.). a bunch Magy. 1. w. Hence E. a pumpion or gourd.' Bun. — — de dor bunsen. bunkc. . a bunch. — stalk . truss E. round mass of anything. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. bun eich. Sc. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. stubble of beans. stump. a wallet. as in other cases. Ir. bottom. to beat. a button. . passes Sw. stock. — Marine Diet.' Palsgr. . dial. . bunnion. . . Daal bu7iseti. a knob . pwmpio. Bung^. a Sp. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. a heap. a hemp-stalk. Bunch. bulto. a dry No . bunken. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. explaining E. bunan. Fl. foundation w. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Fr. to knock .— Pr. bund. large.D.' he fell with a bang. dial. bmidt. bolsa. OSw. Hal. stem or base. Bumboat. Lang.D. bungersome. a round mass . bumtel. Bunewand.D. so the form btmk. calamus. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. hay stubble .-^Fl. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Forby. Probably from bump. Radically identical with Dan. a bag or sack. pwmpl. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. bundle. Bumpkin. bung. A clumsy. poumpido. — round fruit. ! — knocking. Pr. knob or heap. bump. a knob. stubble Manx bun.pummel. Bums it's hit. buns. from bunsen. bull. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. Kyx or bunne. while bulch was traced through Gris. H. Suffolk bonnka. the tail of a hare. Pl. . seems to unite Gael. w. signifying one who does things in a thumping. bunki. a purse . bmike. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. S. protuberance. boi7ieog. Bunk. bunga. bonge. stump. He fult dat et bunsede. bugno. or to the mass by which it is given. bugnone. bune or boon. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Pm. Mrs Baker. clumsy. Li cake. bulscha. especially girls. nor would it concern the public if he did. Du. a boil (punkos bot. bunga. awkward clown. See Bounce. bottom. lenten loaves.. a bowl P1. bottom bun feoir. a heap Wall. Probably for bun-boot. to bang down. a dried hemp-stalk. to swell out E. banga. bunka. noise. to . whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Then. Sc. root. strike E. to bang ON. any round knob or bunch. il me pousse. botn. Fr. a bump. mto Sp. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. or grete knobbe. to thump. . a. Thus e. bonuach. a bud. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Bony. forms. Bunch. — — Bun. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. binge. pumpurras. BUNCH bum-bailiff. gibbus.P. strapping. knochen. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. clown. as we have seen E. from knock) It. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). A Du. bon. the Pr. — — — — ' — knock. It. bamgetroffen. butt end. a heap OSw. blain. Pm. a swelling from a blow. See Bunch. to ' .

Russ. Fr. to botch. bunsen. klempern. byndel. buove. whence in bure. russet. dial. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Palsgr. bouche. Sp. in is Fr. Fr. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. stilmpern. ho-tapp. to Somerset is to sift. Sp. racket . the noise of drums. la Borgonota. to kick. bungande. anchor or of a net boyar. bourguignote. bang. Prov. sprig. The Italian buio. Banff.— . an anchor buoy. to work at carpentry bangan. . AS. burion. Compare G. to stnmi on an instrument. Prov.' Festus in Diez. bangla. and E. Biu'geon. from beran. or used as a receptacle for papers. to bear. N. a drum . See Bun. the loose open grow big about or gross. clogs. boj. — btiruii. to bud forth. boya. tinker . G. A Dan. the bung of a barrel Lim. with the head. knocking. Fr. stocks or such OSw. B. and bomme. A load. to in to stop the hole. the young cloth used for sifting flour. byrthen. to stop. bongani. * Buoy. a cork. bove. tap. was formerly pronounced buro. coassatio et Du. fascis. The Magy. klimpem. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. See Barbarous. Rietz. that the primitive meaning of shackle . to resound. to strum on an instrument. bimge. ghebundte. gyves. to bungle. guggle as water. bui. bunta. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Sp. especially in wood. Cat. or putting forth of a vine. OG. . Bung. tinkle. and the Sw. bonde. bongun.D. To burgeon. bond. bommen. — Bureau. Cot. Bunting. to gingle. . bondel-loos. to cobble. of a song. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. To bunt. a sort of helmet. bindini. and Du. boil or bubble up. bundle. is originally a wisp or bunch . bury. The word is flags are made. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Sw. Burly. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Burden. — — To Bungle. — — . as it still is in Modena and Bologna. however. driving in the bung. biirde. See Bourdon. borgonota. would be the earliest float for an anchor. To Bunt. dial. So in Pol. OFr. to shove. Sw. bourjon. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. to hum. to push with the head del. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. G. bundel. Burble. Bret. Sp. to hum. Burden. Bung of a tonne or Lith. bondir. Bunny. a botch. to knock. on. the float of an bundle. Bundle. colligatio. a boye. a bunch. ' — work . a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. a wisp of hay or straw. bummle. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. 202. fetters. bang. clumsy performance. dicimus rufum. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. reddish brown. knocking. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. working in wood (especially with an axe). to gingle. B. To do anything awk- wardly. The stopper for the hole in a boia. Fr. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . . brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. to push.Fris. properly a Burgundian helmet. banghagr. Kil. Burganet. See Borel. E. tapp (whence tceppa. the middle part of it. The Fr. Lat. Du. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. contignatio. to knock. buret. burboloti. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. bondelj bundell. stiimpeln. shackles. halm-tapp. noise. to work ineffectually. loosed from bonds. dark. . the stopper of a cask). boei. AS. bag to catch the wind. generally known as the material of which bud. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. also a piinple in the face. and van t' vat. OFr. Sw. to hum. bourgeon. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. knock. shove . bondon. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. on. boucher. a bunch Burbulas. bundt. Johansen. do a thing bunglingly. bote. bon. punishments for prisoners. buie. and now more Bailey. Fl. So Du. p. banga. or tuft. to pype. borboUar. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. A bubble. bangla. It. dark grey bura. something bound together (Mrs Baker). or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. to bolt meal. bou^e.punt. are from bouscfie. Muratori. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. — . — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. a bungler. unskilful working. bounta. to push ghebondte. to stop. a water bubble made by rain. rumble as the bowels. modem bummle. whence bunting. bourion. a bung. The belly or hollow of a sail. bonde. Bunt. to float. racket. bouchon. Pl. Hal. buret. bolting-cloth. bondeau.

Walach. OE. — — . to ridicule. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. a whetstone. bouril. born. to surge. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. borrelen. to effervesce. Compare also Piedm. mockery. toast. Burler. . the flocks. ends of thread. brase. pur (see Burgeon). a bubble. broil. become big and proud.— Pr. to grind on a whetstone. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. bruzir. a jest. Prov. Schm. compared with G. — Han to bruser op. to bouronna. to polish. brimmen. 56. dial. — . to have acquired the sense of polishing. to roar. Probably. brunir. as in cousteau. and the Burnish. is termed burling. bourd. N.). to burn. In the same way ON. Fl. de Vaud.. bremmen. to ridicule. Burgess. It. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Pren7ien. boura. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. briis^. The in. sidiary element. OFr. Swiss Rom. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. as the / in purl. like. fires up. from Lat. bourglairs. . E. brandung. Hence Bridel. and OG. ample of polishing metal. tahkoa. water. to roar (as lions. brynsten. 122. Probably a modifica. bourou. brook. purra. Swiss Rom. sicut sound. with little iron nippers called burling irons. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. ^ttsa. big. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. brunnen. de Vaud. — — .). angular . embraser. borni. to bourda.). to fiy. brinnen or Also ein roar. ridicule. Lang. to hum. So also Sw.. a margin. a gurgling ^. . to roar. joking. a blaze. From Fr.. Castrais bourril. swell up or strout out. burlare. protuberance. the roaring surge of the — — — . must be explained on the same principle from G. to roar. Sp. — — . purling. condemnentur morti. G. as Diefenbach bud. brasa. surge or dashing of the sea . ' rugiens.. Sw. a spring a robber. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. Fl. brunna. Goth. a lie. — . it of the knots. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. bud or sprout forth. to sharpen. Bret. See under Bore. purrata. to roar. Fr. Fr. to give an edge to. See Burr. taunt. Pr. a bubble to spring as water. brustle. From the same root E. tahko. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. to puff. j. Gael. A legal term from the Lat. ON. from the roaring sound of flame. burn. lorra. crackle wood in burning Hal. explaining the E. A burl. a bladder. knob. watery. borr. barrel. like the wind in trees. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. bururus. Nat. to make a So from Fin.bryna. boure. to swell with pride. abourioner.— . laer. tion of the root which gave the OE. boiirre. In the manu. It.. the er is a dresser of cloth. to roar 5.or bubbling up. like straw or small . b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Supp. to burgen or wax big. Bav. from bryii. to rub. sea. Todd. Bouffer. and the Burin. Fr. brima. burgi latro. burle of cloth. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. in Schm. a knob. to bud . Bestiary. occupying much space. a bud. and Dan. . As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. is connected with brim.Ps. he rustle.j'own. Antiq. swelling borr-shuil. See Berough. i5«r4 biiirte. ii6 BURGESS Gael. The primary origin of the word. thence. a jest. Limousin bourdo.sharpen. fire. burgen. burgensis. brun. Sw. burly. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Burglar.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. a well. Burryn. Dief. explaining Sp. to polish. brausen. Burn. ends of thread. has also borr. schleiffen. to tell lies. to murmur. It is probable indeed that Fr. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. The Gael. brim or edge of anything.ireui£r:e. a wine skin. bruse. flocks. sbornoi.' a jibe. brinna. bears. borracka. to polish helmets. language of folly or ridicule. to set on fire. G. &c. an edge. Bav. the word seems Pm. spring-water bumach. brinii. robber. bunch. brAler. a fountain. Lang. to puff up borr^ . leo Fin. bururus. Burlesque. to Gael. to burn. It. OE. roguing beggars. blow. burren. to sharpen on a whetstone. Pm. A — — .' Cot. singe or scorch with fire. to swell. as of suggests. Cot. burgeois. OFr. warbling. repartee . pressa puret. Burgh. grancelli. lerre. ^Notk. jest of. Burly. borujon. brusler being a faulty spelling. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. with Dan. an &c. tumentum. the J in OFr. a prominent eye borracka. Burgher. brustolare. to To Bum. buirleadh. See Burgeon. brunnr. is an Thus G. which has given much trouble to etymologists. BURNISH i5«r/. a purling hiwe brennen.

a port. as it is still pronounced in N. of a body hurled through the air. Sw. also all such stuff as hay. Hence Fr. a morsel. mentioned under Burgeon. bourlet. tomb. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. bourrer. blurra. -Grisons bulscha. but it is more probably a development of It. the — — castle or fortress. Fr. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. g. Swiss burren. brisdeach. byrigels. Compare also OE. Sw. to hide. dial. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. S w. borsa. Gael. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. . Shelter. hair. talk fast and indistinctly. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. bristen. karborre. 225. To Burst. dial. ON. the officer who bears the purse. &c. to hide . Hal. borra. bourre. root borr. brown. brist. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. verbergen. bolsa to It. shearing of cloth. prsnuti. burre. buscha. This word seems safety. brisd. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. brista. OHG. brist. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. borsia. explained E. Du. brittle. OHG. fortify. to mutter Sw. 2. a purse. a rabbit burrow. a place of defence. beurs. to bury . Bursar. cwning-gaer. birr. Cot. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . AS. byrsa. berstan. foretell great storms at 3. bolgia. husks. brokil and brotil. Burrow. brittle. See Burgeon. and met. birgan. ' ' — — burren. to break. bres- — tan. Burial. whirr. Mid. chips or anything else Fl. a harness or collar maker) .' edge grew weak. whirr and burr. bourse. brast. A rabbit burmotion. as for the protection of a child's head. G. borra. and spelling. Fr. The root forms brik. a barn or cupboard. shelter. With a slightly different ghen. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. whence Kil. break . burgisli. G. brest. shuffling. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. to burst. leather. In a met. straw. to buzz. from whence we pass through Sp. Fr. purr. bourrelet. borre. E. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. bris. Du. shales. britar. byrstan. Dan. swell. stuffing. preserve. peluca to Fr. of England. a pad.. brickie. a purse. any rapid whirling biarga. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. from Fr. save. barza. preserve. a. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. See Bulge. caer is a — — — ' ' : . fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. makes the disbursements of the college. from AS. brico. keep. Beowulf. It. to save. I. briso. and. To Bury. to P'air. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. briser. borsa. Burse. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. cover. a wallet or scrip. ON. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. i5(7&a. Port. any kind of quilting or stuffing. — Translated by Kemble. Burser. brit. perruque.' The same word with burgh. . Burse. bersten. iii. byrgen.' Harris in Todd. brizeto. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. when they spring So in W. ptcrren. bergen. moss. 5150. borre. as in Northumberland. ultimately resting on the Gael. -burse.Lat. that birds make their nests with. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . bur. briketo. bristeach. coo. also ' any such trash as chaff. ' BURR AS.— . to to buzz like a beetle chatter. burra. skin. and thence flocks 'of wool. In OE. &c. AS. Fris. force. brokenharpstringed-like cattle.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. appears under the Lang. an annular swelling. pipaa. idiom if 4. ber•whirr to whizz. brjota. impetus. bris. signifying protrude. bourse. It. an exchange. byrgan.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. casting bullets. Sexy. Burr is related to buzz as protect. to stuff. Jam. Brun on bane. be more in accordance with AS. a sepulchre. byrgels. Burr. burial place. borrow. as from Sp. — Clare. birigean. . its own protection. beorgan. bur. some people in pronouncing the letter r. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree.

or — Busk. boucher.— ' ii8 {chreo. To prepare. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. boisseau. is thus accounted for. barsc in Heimskringla. the Moors and of Morocco. borghen. a tuft.-^Bushel. a bunch. bairgan. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. It. thicket of thorns . 2. Sir Tristram. lump. a -tavern bush. bos. a tuft guini. Harold G. berghen. defence. buskr. bousche. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. bosc. brake. They busked and malced them boun. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. in OE. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch.Lat. Du. occultare K. So from Fr. buxta. In to Brutaine. whence bouchon. as synonymous with to inake one boun. oneself. clusprobably Morocco leather. a bundle. il fut couch6 l^jkema). It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. To Busk. The bone in a woman's stays. bundle. OFr. which would later have truast. a bush. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. a box. Gr. hjul-bosse. Thence byrigean. a tuft of hair. wisp. a corpse). The radical idea is seen in Goth. The word frequency with which to busk is used. Du. . tow. G. ' . bossida. Bush.' The word is explained by — — . brodequin tout noir. bramble. boxta. Brunne. bosta. a troop. gave Lat. grapes. rad. OFr. condere. or the like. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. basse. AS. the past participle of the same verb bua. to enclose in a case or box. bustula. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a wisp. Layamon. bush.fiasc. busse. BUSH hreaw.' sheath. to stop. boistel. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. Bush. and from the Fr. Le roy Richard mort. a box. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bussare. dead. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. . Bouchet. bunch. ch). -idis. See Box. to direct one's course towards. sur une litifere. boissa. barst. bo7ich (Fr. . borseof trees. to turn. we have Fr. cluster. R. Fris. bush. verb. a box for measuring corn. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a gun biichse. Mid.gur bidst austur um EySascog. a grove bosch van haer. 410. projection. brodiquin. hunch Du. a tuft. and he cites wisp bauschen. make ready. diminutives. buxula. The primary sense of hair . bulk. bundle * Buskin. busken. burial mound. Sibriht that I of told. signifying to entomb. bussellus. biichse. . See Bust. mount. whence at bua sik. van wijnbesien. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. Fr. to dress. ' . —Busk. bossen. whente beorg. from the ON. induere vestes . a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. besom). protect . in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a clot of phlegm sart. at bua sig. bulge. beorgan. Thus Froister . to dress.) to hide in the ground.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. It. Brunne. ' . Sc. a hump. bosch (a diminutive ?). pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. the idea of knocking. basse. ' —P.' The buskin is said Bret. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. for at buasc. apparently a secondary verb.P. aheap of stones. truasc.boisteau. And her ful sone tuft. buxida. a bunch of twigs. to bury. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. a rampart. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. abdere. bouche. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. to forest of Eyda. thicket {buski. that the lend had lorn thorn. the land. borcegui. and thence Mid.Lat. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. a been written buasc. to prepare. to bow. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. . knot. and we actually find bushel. qualster-boscken. a little box Dan. to sepulchre. 'at bua sik. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bua. AS. Prov. then a tuft Sp. : — . to betake ' Haralldur kona box. box wood to bush. bustellus. a bush. Du. bousse. buysschen. bousIn the other copy ser. bausen. preserve. to keep. roquies. . ieorh. Malberg. bussel. at buast. tuft. to bend one's steps. busk. as boun is simply buinn. in the For Skirnis . iriCtf -ifoe. to swell.' a box. Ptg. Sw. and not directly (as Du. ' . fiast. boiste.

Namur — Champagne Fr. a ship of some size. occupation. love gestures. a busk. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. chest. work. a bush. bu. avuDiez. as in moharra from harbe. signifying trunk of a the body. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. body. bus and Pol. Port. Fr. I. bus. body without arms and legs. 10. employment bisgan. stump. buyse. from jnund. occupied bezigen. utarda. ViM. sunt quas Hispania aves . to occupy. the trunk. to Swab. bist. . snout. Edrtst. forest.' Plin. to make a splash in the water. body of a woman's dress It. besongne. abutarda. a sleeveless truss or doublet. and also a sounding blow. I go strepo) . stump. busq. beezig. Pol. Du. a blow. a Mid. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. body . the breast. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. austarda. Lat. ottarda. AS. a great billet Cot. Bav. box. Comp. — .bezig. ON. beso. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. buc. also a flagon. bucha. says. trunk. bustla. morsequi. Bulch. bulk. Hal. geidha. busche. and by transposition morchequi. Rouchi. trunk. buc. the point of a lance. mosequin. Prov. trunk of a tree. brusc. brut. Cot. or chest in which the vitals are contained. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Busk. putta. a kiss. Sp. baiser. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. bacio. besoigAe. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. to make use of. worn to make the body straight . kupata. — — — — It is like the smouldering. busc. Bustard. The proceedings of Parliament.' ON. Fl. fe^a. stir. plated body or other quilted thing. a blow. a kiss of reverence. bisg. in Diaz Gris. betarda. Prov. the body without arms busque. ship Sp. BUSS Dozy from Arab.> Also written buskle. 119 bi{tr. Fr. buta. — hardly be distinct from Fr. brostia as well as bostia. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). 2. a kiss. bisgung. to knock . pussa. otarda. body. representing a blow. knock. buc. Xerqui. On the other hand.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. hipista. bussen. a fishing vessel. stem. an affair. — Thus we should have mocherqui. Sp. Cat.Lat. a bust. The form brust. log . a log. buquer. body of garment. — — difications of the same word. bust. to bustle. Buss. See Boss. its slowness of flight. biseg. or Cherqui. The Prov. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. abotarda. bysgian. — clattering about. busta. 22. business.— . The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Fr. Walach. the long. a backstock. forms morseqiiill. I. or avutarda. Hence probably au-tarda. With respect to bust. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. a tree. also a It. bussa. To Bustle. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Box. Prov. btcc. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Fr. Lindenbr. busch. Nained from Proximse iis zia. tuft. made stiff. bust. 7o\. busy. thick end. biist. knock. ON. ' BUSY 2. Lang. lips. mouth. lip. A A busquer (Sigart). mons. bysgje. a projection. Busy. would explain the G. a. ^A. mohedairova. Business. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. I bustle. a boat or small vessel . then trunk of respect to busk we have on.pjik. arbor ramis trunGloss. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. inde discurro et operosus sum. A wisp. bruskras well as buskr. cata — . bnist. bus. So Wes- terwald munds. of the human body (Grandg. bisegung. a bulk or trunk without a head. B. a mouth. a stroke of wind. So in Fin. also a busk. borcegui. lip. Sp. 2l box. a large cljest or particular applibox. Bust. lump. outard. busto. putschen. mogangas from gonj. Swiss butschen. as in ON. Sw. tarda. and supposes that the common Arab.D. . especially of a woman's dress. a bunch of flowers . kiss. 1372. but. mouth. butz. crack . buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. a kiss. body of a man. windbutsch. ' bistardej It. an ostrich. To hurry or make a great B. smack. of a doublet. small. bukr. sera. Bust. outarde. Fris.d. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. and then with avis again prefixed. busch.). A great sluggish fowl. Busitiess :c3iVi . kiss. buz. trunk of Cot. statue of the upper part of Fr. 1555. Gael. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. basiuin.

binnan. ont jhi^ton. from boc. of the wine and drink. properly a butan wite. add. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. belly. the body of an animal. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. Butcher. ' There is leathern bottle. also a hollow vessel . hull of a ship. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. bhcciero. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. If that where now we should compiler. tinction between but. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. But when will you pay it ? the belly. bute. without care. those in beccaio. bounds of. and the real origin of the and within . sup- meat and drink. viz. bola. a baiTel . As a conjunction but is in every portion. the mouth). (children) boc. the present day we should say. Lang. we find ben. barriga. — we acle for liquors. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. Tooke's dis. ._ bitten j biiten door. the name must have arisen before the within. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. Du. a cask. biitait slaughterer of goats . or what in in charge of the pantry. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. A A . large barrel. the trunk or body of an animal. a bottle. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . my is called the adversative use of but. Fr. without buiten-man. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. bisgung. without. So in Italian from becco. slaughter-house. calf. ' Besides all that. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. is put in a class by himself.streets. — . Sp. besides that .' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. ox. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. belly. the body of a tree or of a man. Whatever is in addition to Butler. equivalent of AS. wooden receptthing to be done. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. body of a shirt w. a wooden cask. outside that moreover. a butchery.in which his brethren are included. the Perhaps besogne — . . ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree.' there is really a negation to be supplied. a goat (and not besides . butan ce. boteria. a butcher. gives at least two pounds sterling. bodifie. Ben-house. bouz. beccaro. boquier. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. botilla.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. bolr. by the mode in which he is treated. without law.' ' write. Butt. buta. the full expres. bag. but one thing.The Sp.' — — ' . that which would be translated by Fr. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. being wholly unten. and bot. able. the bottles. a budget.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. in addition. collection of casks. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. bole of a tree. a goat. are. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . moreover. Sp. bocin. bolgia. except. botija. is well explained by Tooke. Sp. as Pantler.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. then hoUow trunk. bitlga. AS. viz.jamin. a leathern bag. and with It. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . bouteillier. Here the but implies the existence of an. an outlaw from bouche. be out. boucher. from as. But It. the store of ten. It. calf of the ' say. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. to-boot. Prov. trunk. the principal apartment. the servant in charge of the original object. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. similar train of thought is seen in ON. butan. beta. Butler. the jug and in E. Buttery. earthen which the debtor has adverted. "PLT) . The E. hollow case. But In Sc. the belly. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. skin-bag. Fr. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bol. the precise correlative of but. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. botte. Lang. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. ways. without the house kept in bottles. a barrel. which the word corresponds to the Fr. a small winebag. beccaria. belly. bous. Where at an earthen jar . similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. bout. bitten dai. G. without punishment . inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. OFr. original sense of without. boccino. bountifully. Wall. young mais. mais. rotundity of the body. rumpf. bochier. beyond the Piedm.' Thus Chaucer says. a butcher . ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. Fr.

W. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. on. Buttress. so as to make a sounding blow. to strike. the edge forwards. Fr. Fris. or or shore post. waste ground. rabodd. Kil. a corner horses' hoofs. a stump or club foot. i. as in G. boding. a. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. to bow. the prick in the middle of a target. thick. of E. butt of a person. to cast. So in English pimples were fora clod. of the present day. a scope. bouter. botten. a blow. buttals. having a rotundity . fowl. aim whence to make a support to a wall. buter. From Du. submit shaking up salad sauce. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. bocsam. but this is probably from Fr. tout seat or breech. : . a hill. from the large knobbed head of botto. boutis. a button. Halma. from bugan. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Du. butter. any small projection. dripping. W. to so close to the Fr. large head.arbre. Buttery. a little push . Sp. Hal. — A . Btetter-schmalz. to abut a stone roof. to thrust . AS. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. strike. clunis. a ribbed glass for dient. bodi'. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. a wall butor butt on. a stroke di animal. An erection built up as a Fr. is formed the augmentative buttatich.— BUTT leg . to heap up earth or ihrust. fle>(ible. &c. Hal. bottig. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. botta. to femur. pied. a boss. able that Chaucer. Kil. bot. . to push earth . bata. boter-vliege. a leg of mutton. a button. humble. Bav. bouton. Kil. buttern. Fr. bot. Du. leg of lamb. from bouter. then the thigh or leg of an to push . an ox. a but in the W.rejected thing. a flying buttress. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Cot. buttock of beef is called butr. Boutje. by boE. the thick end. bouter. Gael. bout. oir spike with a k coup . a button. e. put. Butter-glass. Bout van het schouderIt. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. stump. to blad. From Grisons biitt. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . nourrisson. botwm. bocgsuin. geboogsaem. To Butt. a barrel. Perhaps corrupted Lat. pwtiaw. a bolt. a buttrice. bud. butt. The Bavarian potig. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. at. Gris. a heap of merly called pushes.' thick from shaking. ment being supposed to resemble butter. It. R. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. clumsy . an etwas anstossen. butter un. give way. botto. to be con. the rosebud. Mur-buttant. grease that sets by merely standing. or person Schmeller . Boutant. thrust forwards. Schmell. To strike with the head bags. to boult flour. end . bodi. a tub. butt. buhsom. poke. bott. . to thrust. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. to throw . bout. butte. Du. Du. butte. See Butler. a thrust the thigh-bone. the thigh of a goose.. the store of while bottich. caput scapula bout van f been. Schmell. a buttress Cot. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. short thick thing pimple. Fr. boteria. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. — — — — . Lang. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. butter. Buttock. nourrissons. . Button. Grandg. -ez. the Butter-fly. and the true derivation boar. Buttel-triib. courtaud. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Du. bot blijven staan. w. striking end. coxa. Bav. obeto shake backwards and forwards. both.to push. Fr. what is kept in a blow. bouton. To come full butt against a butts. butteln. boutoir.putan. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to thrust Fr.against another which needs support . — . stump of a tree Fr. a. bothog. hillock . in the R. a dle . butt. — A . a cask. a bun. signify a cask or tub. buttare. boter-schijte. from stossen. Buttrice. to butt. From the noise of drinkables in a house. trapu. boter-vogel. The word body itself seems identical with G. boiUer. to touch at the end. pwt. Fr. butyrum. &c. tress. a mound. boil. a boss. nursling. suddenly . are the strips at the edges of the field. thrust. gigot. Gr. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . any short thick thing. a bot. Butter. * Buxom. A — — — . botta. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. the trunk. a large belly. but. from notirrir. to thrust. botte. — . from rejeter.thum and not button.. to abut on. potacha. bottich. as if from Povg. Fr. obedient. Fr. G. to thrust. butz. as rejeton. povrvpov. lams-bout. a blow.

— P. byr. favourable. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. bugjan. Verstegan in R. called Cabala or Tradition. bohte. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. Then applied to speaking low. to sell.. & Q. lb. A by. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. It. favourably to a petition. AS. Pecock Repressor. depends upon a esteem in falconry. bar. G. to buzz. The sense of buxom. a buzzard or puttock. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. 116. Etynj.P. See Abie. The ON. \s\xy. A ful benygne buirde. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. from by. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. Dan. to jan. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. byar-rettr. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bozzago. bees. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. byar-log. bycgan. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. . P. Byre. and would have been lost in E. ON. as in Da. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. a by-path is a side path . It. 21. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. abozzago. gracious. bei. p. Sw. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. To Buy. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. as heedless as a cock-chafer. a meke thynge with — alle. good-humoured one. Buzzard. to swear with him by . AS. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Originally the law of a particular town. A A We — — — days' wonder. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view.busardj Prov. from whom it was addressed. iii. lete. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. as Fr. Du. CABAL Goth. Many good mological explanation. and boxome of speche xviii. jus municipii. buso. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Cabal. 200. . Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Mercy hight that mayde. cow-house.in N. bauhta. who makes abigg. to whisper. Goth. By-law. and it is of good will. to purchase for money. —gracious of speech. bi. 519. train of thought which has become obso. also say. leges urbanse ON. tions by one. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. bylag. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. indistinctly. confusedly. a borough. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. bylove. Too used a Foxes Martyrs.— Diet. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Sw. bij. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. — 122 BUY P. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. son. Lat. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. ii. a town. to pass by. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . bygge. blessing me with their of side. frabttg- To Buzz. buzzicare. farm. buzarg. 3. a beetle. bi. big. to wit. OE. harty prayers and God speedes. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. . buteoj Fr. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious.. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. town having separate jurisdiction. to stand at his side . but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. stall. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). village. buzac. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience.

. Cot. chaable. a shed. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. dirty. cab. Gaggle. ! — . as Diez supposes). to hurl down. aeggi. hut. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. a covering. caables. —Diet. hoard together. whence Fr. cabasser. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Common to Lat. the Prov. cabacho. To Cabbage. name of the projectile engine. overwhelm (Diet. cabas. cabuyskoole. the bowels. Lat. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. a headed cole or cabbage .' Due. band. capanna. surripere. laitue cabusse. Cabbage.. form kactal. Due. . The name of the engine. cables. a car- We convasare. originally an Gael. covering. kabas. Capstan. to crush. caable. — . disgust. The double a in the OFr.. cabo. cadabula. .Gr. whence Lang. deponat a store closet. cabo. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. . caable. Ptg.ticula. cabre.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Fr. Very generally used. caboche. The Sp. cadabulum. is probably unconnected. Sp. a rope. disgust cac. string. cadabulum. or rush basket. Cabin. come the Fr. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. dirt and the Fr. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. agga. Imitative of the cry of hens. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Brushwood — — B. mdhaigner. havyar to caviare. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Item habeat vocant. 'habl. aak! tandi like Fr. — Tarbe. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . gabardme. . agge machen (in nurses' language). &c. Fr. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. a frail. it would seem fundain children's language. It. Celtic. a head (whence cabochard. brassica — capitata. kabane. Sw. Cappa in OSp. — Ibid. cabuccio. Due. . Cot. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Fr. : — from violence without blood. chadabula. giiare. cabre. forms indi. geese. case. Antiq. It. cdble. — Kil. Didot. agge. capo. and as we find stones Mid. to chatter. E. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. cacare. Du. or as an interjection of disMod. gaggi. to keep or Du. dung. ceach / exclamation of guages. . headed or cabbage lettuce. and Ptg. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. vile. aakkat'a. OFr. precisely in the sense of the lari E. kabat. serious injury — In like manner It. capuccio. has kabbel. caqueter. stercus. a rope. from manganum. gatsch. Fr. cabbage. as it must have stood in French. origin is the OFr. cabaii. especially shepherd's frock. caable (in legal language). a jacket Fr. dirty. and Or. Etym. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a rope. from trabocco. — the ON. Lang. Katr-iT-aKt. Du. manganare. — . to hurl in Nat. a cloak of felt or Cack. Sp. Choux cabus. maim. overwhelm. main. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. heady. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. cadabola. Neckam — by the wind. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . ckaable. the Slavonian. Cablisb.Lat. From It. Tugurium. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. (ca/coe. Mid. E. a tunic. traboccare. cab lis. to put or pack up in a frail. headed. hovel. cabulus. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . gaggele. as Turk. Cabinet. and Finnish lanLat. wilful). cadabalum. Mid. vincially used in E. a rope or cable. kabaSsen. signifying properly a rope's end. cabane. &c. chabla. Du. Finn. akista. signifies down. kakaloH. as an expression of Gr. OFr.). cabarino.. head. OFr.Lat. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. w. and the Arab. Mid. manticuKil. nasty. It. or cadable. a booth or hut. OSp. an engine for casting stones. cabus. to strain in such a manner . filth. kakla. bad. cable . gaban. To steal or pocket. round or great headed. Fr. lactuca capitata. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Castr. chaable. Lith. It. prostratio ad terram. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. accablcr. cacare . would correspond to cable. It is remarkable that the Esthon. properly windfalls. Kil.Lat. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. a cabbage . calabre. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. su/Furari. for the origin of which see Carabine.

Lat. Calendar. to cackle .— Cot. Lat. limestone. a falling. Du. a wheel . wretched. Du. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Gael. Calcialate. calessa. . kaeckelenj Gr. kage. hot. a common cart. calendarium. a loaf of bread. to cage. Arab. lime whence calcareous. its mother. lindrus. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. calx. ON. See Kiddier. . gavia. Lat. babbhng. bad . cadence. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. marrow. principal and interest. hot . Lat. Turk. calidus. Serv. or colpa na coise. To Calender. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. calentura. calcis. Calf of the Leg. the calf of the leg. dead body. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. As Du. calf of leg. Sw. coop. an inkstand . a dence. Lat. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another.— . —Atkinson. ratas. desire of land. &c. chattering. caldaria. calamus. of oxen and similar animals. and troublesomely attached to. Cot. Fr. the bore of a cannon. a vessel for heating water. kdtr. Originally from a Slavonic source. cage. kolesnitza. ben- kalf. a corpse. Fr. A cuttle-fish. a cake or loaf. Caddy. boy. The young G. cattivo (from Lat. calesa. 124 prattle . incolumis. a wheel . calibre. Cajol. is probably delusive. chaudiere. Gascon capdet.Gr. KxiKivh^o^. a hollow place. capCalenture. a car. lord. Du. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. an ugly waggon kolaska. cabdillo. Fr. From lerie. It. a mischievous dial. Perhaps from w. gabbia. ' . G. a lump or large piece. kalfi. without loss. on. caioler. A — fall. cuttle-fish. calba.uv. To Cajole. unruly . the lump and the increase. Sp. kail. Cage. safe. An open travelling chariot. kalem. cage. Roman reckoning. Cake. Tea-caddy. a cylinder. koeck. a reed. whence calash. a tea-chest. It. cadere. one unduly indulged by. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. gaggia. Fr. Lat. Calamary. A . when they are said to poor. a wretch. whence Lat. disease of sailors from tivus). cake. cageoler. of the nature of lime to calcine. from calendcE. kaka. just falling. a fever. Lat. G. from the ink-bag which it contains. pen Mod. little chief.warmth . N. Calamity. KaKKat. the younger son of a family said to be from . reed-pen. Due. Cot. chetif. a calesh. kalfvan hout. colibro. roller. kdfich. kukje. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Calandre. Calp is riadh. Sp. kolesb. to sleek hence a den. or prattle. loss. to prate much to little purpose. to compute. wanton. cadenza. (in the augm. gaggle. a wheel . Fr. Mrs B. kolo. kat. It is another form of the E. caliche. especially of something soft. Cadge*. joyous . kolo. * Calibre. A hooded carriage. cavea. capitetum. gabble. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Cot. gabbia. so gabble corresponds with Fr. — in a kiln. kolyaska. Calocli. The Lat. . B. calculo.— Calliper. hence musical rhythm. or smooth Hnen cloth. of which. Russ. kauwe. kalb. to — Fr. Cauldron. — — — Dan. kolasa. the pith or soft part of wood. rattaat (wheels). a small stone. calentar. cykevie. collop. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Fr. a low note. Lat. for green fields. . loss. jabber. kolo. Caitiff. signifies a waggon. Fr. the pi. Dan. a caFr. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. pith. from calculus. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Sw. Lat. a circle. to heat. dial. taking it Sp. Calc-. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. kakulla. javioler. a counter used in casting accounts. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. gabberen is identical with E. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. master. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). a waggon . coll. form) calderone. prate. Fr. Cadence. It. cadet. Lat. calendrer. pet lamb. frolicsome kaad mund. * Cade. from Gr. Turk. cadaver. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. cauldron. The Calf. calamitas. calibre. calpa. to gabble. Dan. to . a wheel. kolyasochka. a roller. Flo. Sp. to throw themselves into the sea. caldarius. Du. Caldron. misfortune. . Lat. It. pi. kuchen. a calash . captive. Pol. Calash. Cadaverous. Cadet. naXaiidpi. Sw. frisky. En kaka br'od. from the Chinese catty. kaad. to treat like lime. calidus. kola. It. ever and anon. In the same way Fin. It. cha'cmie cadence. chaudron.

' Winter's Tale. scold. of the bore of a firearm met. dragoon. sence of wind. — — — — — . kael. and dragon.(jaa= ice). longior. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. form. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. people's remarks. to call. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Unfledged. bombarda Cauma incendium. khalif. water-tight. to burn. To Calk. and sometimes a handgun. to call. licht stuk The change from a. It. coluber also. dragonder.from Ka'tm. kind heat of the sun. femme frivole et babillarde. heat. the Fr. CALICO Calliper-compasses. the latter of chamber. quiet. CALM to press or stuff. Kil. Fr. kal. B. callum. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. Calm. serpentina. serpens. from Calicut in the E. moso. Sp. whehce it was first brought.piicede Lat. Hard. drive. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . calca. brawny. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. harquebus or handgun. callus.position is much less common than the geschut. calme. Turk. to calk. caluw.' Chaucer. Gael. caillette. cauque.meaning of the word. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. The word was also written cawme in OE. to say. Sup. word of mouth . a feathers. kallo. an adder. abto suppose that E. Bi. kalla. to hear. Fin. fistula. colubrina. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. sclopus. Caliph. voice. According to Jal (Gl. calcare. a round of abuse. chatter kallen. * Caliver. to tread. calclover. cotton cloth. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Fr. skin hardened by labour. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. E. to rail or scold . a good calling. calibre. a soldier who the It. which has its memory preserved in Du. Mil. qAlab. to affirm. moist. nautique). The reference to heat is preserved in. to prattle. Gr. however. calleting. calvus. alta voce ploro. a. KaXka. calgua. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. oldire from audire. of a column. faint. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). calcaich. Sc. sound. piece of bigger circuite. colubraria canna. The origin is Gr. glotton. ululo Turk. NE. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. To call. calo. Sir John Smith in Grose. hot.' Whitby Gl. Ibid.en~ kinds of firearms. Fr. calare. dial. Fr. calor.Lat. tittle-tattle. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. but is only a jda-kallo. can be distinct from ODu. vulgo Coluvrine. So It. . and E. heat. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. which is as much as to say. Call. Heb. diameter of a ball. To century was Squalibre. couleuvre. whereas in troth it is not. form in the kalib.— . Calico. Fin. 'A callet of boundless tongue. calma. i. To drive tow or oakham. a last. kal. kahcwe. hallottaa. trull. overheated. calma.' But it is hard Du. culverin. chatter. calc. faint. calat of leude demeaning. Kil. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. gossiping. prattle. depreciatory term for a woman. them &c. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Mid. Du. to callet. Due. koluvre. ' pert. 125 Prov. cahna. Among these were the turn. given. overscalmaccio. Derived by some from Arab. donderbuchs Sp. . Diez. or languishing drought is . sestus. Lang. whence couleuv. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. to be of a good or bad quality. or mould. done with heat Alt. scalmato. by many that the weapon Callous.' Slange. saucy. Callow. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. the heat of Now these Du. Indies. ram. cauma.. kil-u-kal. caliver. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. a successor. the Fr. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. hollaing. — — — — — . Mahn derives it from Lat. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Antiq. or caliever. the scalp or skull. the hard surface of the ground. coluber. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. to cram. kol. AS. u to an I in such a colubrum. to abuse . coulevrine. Sp. a drab. quA librd. bald. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. try. having a thick skin. Kavfia. quality. calibre. Lat. the day. Ca. on. Ptg. push violently. Lat. klover. to proclaim. — Fl. tapulta. Diet. calicot. * Callet. calk. and heat. ' rine. harden by pressure. Dief.

An eater of human flesh. calj'x. campo. KafivTu. Fr. Palsgr. Sp. ko/utuXoc. Fr. cere : Lat. Cancer. Cot. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. good. — Cancel. ation. to glow. campo. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. clothed in white. brought from Fr. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. also an eatmg sore. Turk. aspirant. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. sore. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. E. cainahelus. from xaXbg. crooked. camp. cancello. whence the noun signifying an applicant. is Cambering. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. a crab. salmon. canis. a piece. crooked. spot for cattle. Candy. icaSoytipoe. paign. a may have acquired that signification from plain. Bret. Lat. a goblet bud. champagne. calutmiia. lame. KafitjUe. Campaign. Fr. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Fr. ckaouma.' Forme of Cury in Way. whence the Fr. Pers. arch. It. cambrer. Gr.who their language. Camp. to the force of the wind. chamold man. .—Candidate. camelus. camisade. camaien. Lat. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. campus.' ' Quhen a lattice. callar. died in 1526. campren. sugar. callour. champ. Caloyer. Ptg. campagna. water chamlet . co7nbar. camber-nosed. higher in the middle than Fr. Fr. camiscia. or Caribs. from candere. cambr^. to warp. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Fr. E. Cambrav—Cam. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. sugar in pieces or lumps khand.—Cambrel. fair. Cambrel. bis.. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. camisa. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Calver of cane. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat.Lat. to avoid enemy in their shirts. chandelle. a' Sc. Fr.—Jam. Cann. an eating. the bed of a stream. a caught. monk. Lat. Cambric. Kakoycpos.— Hackluyt in R. cambre. . a field Greek monk. Sp. would plenier. slander. campaign. crooked-stick. camelot. on. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. a._ kamm. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. properly good country. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. canna. the type of a hollow pipe. It was distinfrom work. Calumny. The Grisons cauina. lie level. It. campagna. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. w. Gr. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. chaitcre. to bow. having an aquiline nose. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. a large drinking . to jut. catmneo. crook. cup. the calix. Lat. a. — Lat. crooked. Canibal. A — the Cannibals. different sections of the like the Chinese. cup. arched. fresh.conduit-pipe. a basket. the heat. se cameloter. Properly calver in the field during a war. B. cam^e. Sanson khanda. It. Canker. B. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. See Canker. cAouma. Canine. Arab. unwater chamelot . candela. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Lat. field . the spersed with white flakes like curd. to bend. is Candle. campagne. From fluting or furrow in a column . a dog. at the ends. white. Sp. had no r in de bric— Cot. chommer. aged. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. canalis. — B. kanna. camahutus. whence Fr. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. In a different application It. Camel. Calyx. arched. camafeo. canistrum. open and level ground. hooked. candidus. Canal Channel. frank and sincandidatus. Peter Martyr. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Fr.— Chandelier. Lat. — — — A — — escume de saumon. across — Bellenden in Jam. Camisade. It. It. Mod. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. nia. From campus was formed Lat. E. and yspiuv. cambren. toile some of whom. Candid. cancer. or hollow of a flower. Cambray. to break. mg Canister. India Islands. Or the word Lat. It. when its substance appears inter. Lat. the space of false imputation.Gr. Camlet. Cameo. lattice. camiscieia. Mid.— B. to bend. samon.

canonicus. kaput. a cloak kapali. the quartile. cappa. Du. a division of a country. a horn of the moon . was formed Kavtiiv. canonici. edge. It. If the word had been from cantherius. it would have been found in the continental languages. Lat. kapamak. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Sp. capevole. capello Italis. N. To his judicial And trowl the tile. Wtb. to shut. &c. or hold. Of vena cava and of vena porta. a door . kyndel. Cant. caparazon. Cope. Mod. that the G. But it may be different source. coarse hemp. the heel. cover kapi. corner. . Gael. a tube. a small boat. carcase . and tref. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. a pipe. a scull- — here. Fin. region. measure for cloth. or cantell of bread. It. a ruler. to sing. the heel. haitt. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. See Capt-. canapa. cantina. Canvas. being a yard or thereabouts . Fr. quarter. territorial hundred. cantref. the part easiest broken off.Gr. a straight rod. Cantle. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. a torch. Canon. root cap. hood. coat. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a drinking glass. To Canonise. and the sex- &c. name. Hence Lat. cannone. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. from . Goldast — in in Schmid. cane. a cover Turk. The word seems to be taken from Gael. To canvas — . cannu. clqse. astrology. Capable. a rule or standard of excellence. Canoe. Prov. kynnel. a — A — Cannel Coal. cane. KCLvva. KaTTiram. Probably only the augmentative of canto. has kahn. from Dan. Cot. from a Canter. also a measure. cannevo. &c. tain. hamlet. Again we have Lat. capace. Palsgr. a corner. Swab. canton. gnat. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. hirnschlapple. Capari. It. cainnt. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. kantr. cane. margo panis diffracta. covered. from cant. Esthon. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Canopy. quito curtain. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. It. Canteen. schlappen. Cannoii. Sp. border Dan. a cap. and hence a gobbet. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. capax. Capacious. kand. Sp. a hunch of bread. cover .CANNEL vessel. Canton. a gelding. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. a reed. hemp. Alamannis. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. canto. as. language. a reed.^on.. Fr. trine. Mod. able to receive. See Chape. speech. shut. cheese. lump. Gugel. schlapp. say. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. a side. W. B. a wine-cellar or vault. rumme. Coal burning with bright flame. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. canapaccia. a ship canot.Gr. canon. ON. to con- rummer. cannevaccia. side. part. Jonson. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. Cape. kanta. a hundred. quarter . which is not the case. cane. Kil. cannabis. hemp. canvas. can. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. cope. signifying cover. chape. It.— Cot. Fr. call. as a cantle of bread. A piece of anything. to contain. he discourseth of dissection. kq. canteau. a cane. is found languages of very different stocks. Kavt\. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. a cloak. border. It. a boat. a Fr. Diez. chanteau. and met. a cantle of bread. From Lat. the tried list of saints. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. coarse hempen cloth Fr.n. capa. OFr. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. A . pipe. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. regular. A slow gallop. cappe. Germanis kdppen. The — . The meserseum and the mesentericum. It. cappe. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. canevas. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. like a torch or candle. . Schwab. to put upon sacred writers. properly a large Prov. from canna. . From Gr. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. cantle then is a corner of a thing. kandt-broodts. leiwan kanta. contain. cantone. . chantel. cape. Picard. kwvwxIi. cantred. canoa.

algabr. airoKOTrrw. a head. then find the symptoms of shivering. caprice. to shudder. Sp. Cot. A . herissonnement.) grezille marid. brissle. to parch. bristling.) d'etre The It. ribrezzo. It. curly. Hal. brisoler. a . to from capitulum. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. 75. to shiver for cold. heath. gricciare. or other things.— 128 CAPE a rustling. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. and 7tucc. the initial mute of forms like Gr. cappriccio. hair.Gr. Capital. h^risser. Fr. a buck. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. brisciare.). to ruffle the surface of water. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. to fry. Fr. or goat's leap (done by a horse). Lat. I have shivered with love. greziller. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. or Lat.'— Trev. ticchio. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. the hair to stand on end. It. s'hdrisser. the principal part of the debt. curl. castrated. capro. G^' Many words — ' ndv. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. eruca compared with It. shrub. as Fr. roughening of the skin. shivering. gives rise to Sc. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. cover of a saddle. Lat.' — (Supp. The true derivation lies in a different direction. Lat. Torriano. with joy' Vikram. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. castrated cock. bruco. prickly husk of chestnut. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. horripilation. humorous. And similarly to yearn. is either wholly lost. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. Caper. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. Acad. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. It. of a fowl. wriggle. brisciare. they longed extremely to see it. riccio. crackling sound Cape. cut. according to the Hindoos. principal. To treat Capitulate. capillus. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. to desire earnestly. a caterpillar. brisciare. gricciare. brezilia. aggricciare. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. frissoner. as in Lat. <I>pi'?oe. kid. caj)o. to broil.impressions on the ear. It. capriol or caper in dancing. of a tremtdoiis sound. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. sault. capriole. erica. a caper in dancing. — to yearne. caprice It. upon terms Sp. Hair-like. See Chief. to crackle. or. where Burton adds in a note. a ch illness. a chevret. capitulare. knis-hujwud . frort^Lat.standing on end. It. So from Sw. Griller d'im' patience. Unexpected pleasure. rihrczzoso. to broil. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Genevese bresoler. bristling. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. as Fr. abridge amKoTroq. frizzle. then to shiver or shudder. rissoler. hedge-hog. capar. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . Mod. arricciarsi. w. the head. It is probable that Gr. and OHG. brug. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . grug. Lat. curling. horror. . and with an initial gr instead of br. chattering of the teeth. to . belonging to From caput. compared with Bret. of a coach. ericius. ziki. greziller.— Fl. a little head.' Cot. a kid. Arab. frisson- ner . knis. capriola. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. a yearning through sudden fear. capparis. gives rise to brezza. chief. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. grillcr. as Fr. to twitter as birds. birsle. p. arricciarsi. Hence capitalis the sum lent. to shiver. also the capriole. grisser. Capillary. Caprice. capitalis. II bresole (Gl. as the means of earning profit. A headland. Fl. frisser {frissement d'un trait. cApre. grisser. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. alcaparra. Lang. The same imitation of Capon. or represented by the syllable e. fansuddenly angry. then to be in a state of vibration. Fr. shivering. ^piKos. a goat. toy. for which he cites the Comask nucia. the head. the hair to stand on end. hi. It. — — A a hair. Capers. caper j caprio. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . the singing'bone). CAPRICE twittering. to crackle. cut off. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. Fr. a separate division of a matter. a hedge-hog. It. a young kid met. It. and his body bristled We to castrate. a capriol. explained by Diez from capra. end.

karrende waegen. It. karren. receptus. perceive. Fr. capio. capp%tccio. the -cevofthe Fr. hold. It. a she-goat. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Cot. Du. -cept. and has thus descended unaltered to English. decepte. or the (capo-riccio). It. to take to. cabestan. The It. It is a standing crab. Fr. sels. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. a cart. Lat. — — Capstan. Fr. Fr. a hood (dim. charrier. trestle. capitis. captivate. &c. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. a hooded friar. recevoir. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Capriole. recepte. chirriar. cabra. -cept. case. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. di cappa. box. a cloke) capuccino. Derivatives are Fr. seize. Sp. captus. a sawing-block or trestles.s.of these compound verbs. krul. Fl. fantastic. capitano. as in OFr. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. carabin. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Lat. crepo. a head man. carro. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Carry. a kind of torture. and tropically. Neumann. concebir. to this is It. latterly. char. caprice. deceit. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. cabreia. a reception. strideo. It. of capsa. and has accordingly been lost in E. crab s. also tresFl. conceive. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Fr. In the S. Cot. to carry . Capt-. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. Sp. Caseneuve in Diet. Du. recipio. contain. . commander. deception. to please. concept. was a kind of horse soldier. conceit. capsula. i The meaning Car. to creak. also a kind of rack. Fr. Carbine. where it forms a very large class of compounds. capra. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. except. It. &c. carretta. concipere.or -cib-. Capstern. to take. a windlass. karista.). recipere. chevre. as the dragoons (Du. Castr. 129 — receive. one odd. a fantastical humour. kerren. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. a taking back. to creak. Lat. dim. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. It. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. -ceive. caThe hrestante. concevoir. &c. precept. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Lat. cams. Capsule.. whence capture. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. tnoschetta. a sudden fear apprehended. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. also to carry on a car . a. from head. Crab. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. to load . acceptus. Captain. fancy. cabestrantej Fr. OSp. Nordfoss. intercept. G. a coffer. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. bock. was converted into -ceb. Passing on into E. shivering fit (Altieri). It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. karra. accept. of the Sp. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. a creaking waggon. In cases. Fin. recibir. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. caput.. Thus the musket. calabrin. Carabin. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. desire. See Caper. and of captus to an e. chirrion.). Capuchin. Cart. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. was originally a missile . caricare. capuccio. It. to take baclc. Fr. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. calabrino.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). an engine for throwing stones. to receive receptio. de- price. captive. Carabine. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. charger. as in accipio. however. a. cabrestante (whence e. Etym. charret. to accept. — —Diet. conception. verbs gives rise to the element . Kiittner. oisr. at least. a capuchin. a sudden will. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights.

the husk or cod of beans. ON. the carob bean. to comb. shell. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. carcaij. Bohem. garafa. The radical meaning . an ulcer. Arab. The Trjg xeXwwac. «capa'|8i. Carboy. a thistle. carbh. the name might naturally Mod. I. caraffe. boch. to card wool. to card wool. a twist. karra. the dead body of any creature. to creak. skeleton toise.applied to a battering-ram (G. card. Pers. and catapulta. a skeleton.Gr. Parmesan cassiron. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra.— — — . cramp. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. It. Cat. Venet. curry-comb. It. Derived in the first edition from Mod. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. to curry horses karsztuwas. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. the carcase of a fowl. a kind of ship. carquasse. Fr. a ripple for flax. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. seed of carob. Carbuncle. It. a he-goat. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. mural attack. kard boyd. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. in the same way that the Sp.Gr. car. W. Carcax. cassa. contract. carmiiiarc. carcasa. carabe. Carrob. Sp. kirat. Lat. . a dead carcase. of carbo). Cot. carquan. Sp. the . to draw in. Sp. Fr. Gr. the case of the flesh.. krciti.z. restraint . p. the trunk or chest of the body . Gael.. a battering-ram). black dye. wine- bottle. carbo. is the word used in modern Lat. &c. Comp. properly a siege machine. kerwan. carcanet. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. Card. caraffa. decanter. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. Carat. a machine for casting large darts. tcapKaai. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. From the battering-ram. cabreia. to hiss (as gee^e). teasel for dressing woollen cloth. eit. casso. a wool card. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. &c. poison eiz. Lith. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a small weight. cabrita. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . cerran. carduus. . for a gun. quse vocant karabd. espi7igarda. a coffer. winding. caracal. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. caravela. carcame. avSpaS. a goat. It. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. a quiver. chevre by the name of the goat. Caravel. also a small weight. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . also (as Gr. a firelock. a lock of wool . matter. alia sunt majora. OHG. a quiver . to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. eitar. a case or chest . the shell of a torcarcasso. carate. Gael. Gr. wool card. is the chine. cdrlag. Sp. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. designated in the case of G. quilato. cabra. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. skeleton. a gem resembling a live coal. An implement for dressing wool. silique. military engines made for hurling stones. a snail. carbunculus (dim. carere. . ' Vasa vitrea. a quiver. karri. a collar or chain for the neck. It. cardo. and so could not have given its name to the carboy.' From the same source are SicU. word is only an adoption of the Turk. vitriol. coming to four grains. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . ancient springald. Fr. KtpaTwv. burning coal. or framework. carquois. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Gael. carta. Cot. Sp. Carbonaceous.. to ripple flax. turning. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. winding carach.charcoal . the core of fruit . be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. See Carpenter. Fr. a thistle. . bend. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. case. to comb wool . confining. — seems to be something holding together. a winding staircase. fire . bock and Fr. a quiver . to turn. . of the same Caravan.. a card or comb . constraining .. copperas. Caraool. karszti. carabba. an engine for hurling stones. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Mod. turn of a horse. a crane. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. AS. skeleton. carch. a prison. &c. a ship. Exot. carcanada. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Lat. Carcase. Gael. Ptg. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb.

one of those ac- 9 * . is to say. kara. karrig. It. tuorfurcm (Burguy). surrata. bottom. Fr. from carus. an endearment. It. AS. to clean the bottom of the ship. kurista. ON. Ptg. camovale. &c. ceorl. msstus. the load of a ship. piger. . in N. croller. as carminare. to growl. voce strepo stridente. cearian. sorrow.. sgritudo animi. sensual. the hull of a ship. that Fl. — — . It. caresse. meet at a head. kargr. immediately before the long fast of Lent. be anxious. carminare. 2. to take Goth. Probably the origin of the word is the . as peas. care on. caricare. carFrom carrus. carriire. intrasset caro. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Carnage. to whirr (schnurren). male person. Fr. carnis. It. . winding. Lat. Roquef. p. Fl. Cot. Bret. from carrus. and G. charneux. Carl. niggardly . A mod-carag. in St Jerome. giierlir. — — — Caress. graller. karantez. to load. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. an overloaded representation of anything. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. to fry. carriera. Lat. Carlings.— CARD karr-kambar. cearig. W. w. . karry. the time during which to Rom. car. a highway. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. cdrle. tremble. love. Fr. scharren. moeThe Lat. It. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. ignarus. carian. carcus. careless take care of. grolU. to eat flesh. in Carp. tenax. strideo. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. place for exercise on horseback. a card. charag. — Carfax. to scrape . .Lat. like connection may be seen between Fin. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. astutus. murren. Peas steeped and fried. Translated in MS. Cartel. 8. carnasciale. Sp. Groler. G. W. grief. or grumbling —Due. combing them out like the knots in wool. Properly. Fin. OHG. kribina. x'»P'"^s)) paper. soUicitus OSax. G. AS. stridere. It. carrefourg. charie. Mur. carina. to load. to scratch. A medical term from line —Boerio. a deed. ress. 1S66. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. . Fr. to rumble. karl. karg. carcare. wool cards. & Q. Cot. parched or carled. kroU-erbser. chartre. a hinge. Gael. Card.. to load. Fr. caru. charg. the old theory of humours. . dear. hoed. Fr. Sp. road. crawl. and compare Bret. to lie on its side. cardo. sorrow. — — — : Cardinal. crowl. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Trin. carener. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. to shake. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. fleshy . six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. record. from the keel to the water . A place where four roads Mid. karout. charnage. to parch. A quirito ut infans. also a career on horseback. ON. fundamental. . to distress growl. the keel. — To Careen. as quadrivium from Carnaval. morosus sum. gakaran. solicitous. Venet. Coll. the keel of a vessel. and thin. caritia. stingy. crosier. a turn. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. to love. caricatura. quadrifurcum from quameet. Carenare. Champ. appertaining to the flesh. to comb flax or hemp. the flesh of animals . quaver a lazar's clack. from caricare. that on wliich the matter hinges. For the root of carminare. clown or churl. to care unkarja. weyes. Carled peas. Cargo. Care. Cark. Dan. Carminative. affection. Charnel. Chart. charta (Gr. cardinis. . Cot. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. cura may be ror. kummer. act of moaning. carch. regar. the several meanings of the words above Rom. cargo. karista. or street. to fry or broil. Bois crolant d'un ladre. Fr. carnavale. Properly a car-road. to card wool. principal. quarreG. beans. kumra. No ' place there had. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. mutter. carezza. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. charger. carena. OFr. whence carricare. essere in carena.Lat. carena. Fin. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. carnalis. — — Diez. murahtaa. zanken . Carnal. morosus. asper. see Garble. It. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. caMid. murista. compared with Fin. From. Caricature. Sept. from Lat. 273.' Slceat. rixosus. cargar. cura intenta. to comb wool. carnal. four.— Charter. de Parthenay. Bret. AS. E. care. Cath. and murhet. charnel. at murmuring. is This however Shrove tide. Fr. what is felt as grievous. W. and sum. Farewell flesh. a man.

Mediol. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. koroll. Here's to you still my captains friend. linteamen. Shrove Tuesday. Mid. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. sense. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. krapati. 94). carpere. Carpyn or talkyn. From Lat. Cot. qui sacco. in Nat. carpentum. Sup. skraf. Chanson de carole. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade.' says Motley (United Neth. The word seems of Celtic origin. worker in timber Fr. as E. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. 2. a car carpentarius. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Lat. quoted by Carpentier. chatter skra/a. All out B.D. i. charpentier. e. Carnelevale. Fr. . This Bretons renged about the felde to E. to pluck. used for stuffing mattresses. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. course. as carnaval from carnelevamen. tymmer. a dance. 216. a wheelwright. a song accompanying a dance then. 2. charpie. a carder. In a MS. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.'— Stat. carpia. zimmer. . or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. On this. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Carnevale. was formed Mid. carpetrix. biheld without. a plank. culcitra. I quaught. all aus).' Raleigh. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. maker of waggons It. Beggars Bush. 760. ' ' — .— R. or loose as a couch without further preparation. tattle. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Alluz (G. zimmerspan. carpenta. Pm. carpo. cited by Marsh. A. Analogous R. garrulo. at midnight which derivation from kroes.gonnella. Other names of the sea. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. lint. Lat. and F. chariot carbad. Olr. carpende fast Carol.Lat. vel coopertorio carebit. Gael. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. chirp. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. The ' ' a chariot. or a carouse fully drunk up. to reel. a drinking cup. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. and Carnem laxare (It. gonna. Pr. krapanj.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. W. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. ship. Properly a round dance. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. peta. fabulor. ! Carouse. Bohem. cxciv. Biheld within. pluck at. The karole of the stones behelde. cardos.: . whence the form carnasciale. Bret. carpat (Stokes).]e bois Carnelevale. act of drinking a full Eq.' Ordo Eccles. carduz. To pledge them thou refuse. differing To Carp. carpetam (a quilt?). Carpet.Lat. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. on that. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Templariorum — ' — Due. CarTo quaff carouse do use. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Carole. Lat. Pref. . carpenticre. — . Mid. Gower in Way. Dief. — — ' ' — — — I — — . to chatter coroli. Sp. 1 1 30.Why give's some wine then.— Patriarchi. bier. carnelascid). The custom. i. Carpenter. carpenter only in the latter sense. Nomin. in Due. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. to gather. ON. In Dominica d'autant. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. to dance. to pull asunder. carpita. chatter. Discov. I drink all out. querole. So gone they forthe. a wheelwright. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. to talk. as Fr. litter.— Neum. to rustle. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. carbh. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. to dance.Lat. On the other hand bumper to one's health. to find fault with. The tippling sots. balade from It. of Guiana. is erroneous. Palsgr. ballare. Carpitam habeat in lecto.— Drant in R. Ant. gar aus / all out is correct.' Reg. pluck. as the Lat. garrire. yede tham about. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. in Carp. Fr. Teut.

and that apparently from capio.' Bailey. charogne. a paper case. The Sp. a coffer or small case for jewels. casso. G. caro. Du. Cot. See Case. a hut. Fr. Sp. Fr. See Card. a fall. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Fr. casacca. Carrot. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. Rouchi carpHe. from casa. tion from Sp. Case. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. to cut or carve . bag and baggage of a camp. fall It. It. Flor. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Casual. Cassock.' Cot. — Cartridge. Ready money. ignominiously exposed. coffer. kerven. To Cashier. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. and matar. Cartel. carroccio. It. to break. properly to convey in a car. Fl. a long coat. cancelled. — — . kertselig I cranch with the teeth. shell or carcase of a house. to crack. ceorfan. See Gristle. Fr. krat. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. hull of a ship. corresponding to the G.— Fl. casaque. like all the names of tendon. cascade. To Carve. cia. casitiste. cassere. slaughter-house.. carota. mord-grube. kirpti. ' Casa-matta. augmentatives of carro. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Lat. from the sound it makes when Alban.to annul. Fr. Fr. Rouchi carone. caroach. Fr. cut with scissors. coffin of paper for groceries. to convey in a cart. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. to fire on the enemy. Fl. break to pieces. made void. where Fr. from It. a car. casuelj Fr. cassa. kerpu. Carrion. house. of carro. AS. a loopscale the wall. Cot. mord-keller. To quash an indictment. Casque. caxa. paper. casa-maita. afterwards any written challenge. a chest. vault hole in a fortified wall. casa. carreaggio. — — nul the proceeding. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. mata. cassette. luggage. to slay. The carrying of anything. to hold. Cash. cassus. It. case. to notch. It. cascare. crush. Casuist. abrogate. casco signifies a skull. from It. to dash. a chance or accident. Rouchi caroche. an augmentative from Lat. quash. helmet. Case. cancel. charrier. — FI.' — Hdcart. empty. Walach. and the OE. As defence from shells became more important. to an- — Kil. kerben. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. cascata. an act of falling. also the carriage. as we . gristle. the money chest. Carriage. annul. hollow. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. casser. charrette. for the security of the defenders. cascar. gristle. of carta. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. hung up in some place and to be removed. Lat. Fr. OE. to fall. to — — also casse. from Lat. blotted out. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. not reaching to the height of the ditch. the charge of — — Fr. quasser. a merchant's cash or counter. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. kasseren. Lat. capsa (Diez). caroche. — Cartoose. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. carriaggio. packing ' cloth. Du. carogna. pasteboard. cartouche. Sp. long man's gown with a close body. It. casualis. carretto. It. discharge. AS. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Fr. Cask. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. Case-mate.' Fl. Hence casket. To duash. cartone. casus. one who reasons on cases put. Rouchi carter. Fr. Cartoon. a canonry or slaughterhouse. a of water. It. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. carroc- carrozza . a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . to shear. CartOTicli. subject for a picture. cartella. Lat. Casket. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. a car. Gael. Fr. caisse. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. carretta. casag. augm. It. Cascade. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. turn out of service. It. Hence a challenge openly hung up. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Cart. card. Lith. Fr. Probably. fortuitous. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. bitten. To Carry. carrosse. case-maiej Sp. Preparatory drawing of a It. void cassare. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. to bear or carry. something that actually occurs. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. caisse. crown of a hat. cashiered. dim. caisse. cartilage. cartoccio. cassa. discharge It.

Catalogue. and from the castus. Castle. of sarabands does Gr. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. chasser. Cat. Gr. force j Rouchi equerviche. to fall as over a precipice. a fortified place. a whip on the other into latch. Pic. catar. heat . Yz. to hurl See Awgrim. cat. in the fire. n. . It. and KviilSog. sue. &c. puras E. second chase. the ground . was introduced. Pm. to end.'— Pr. Others explain it from Kara. Fr. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. _G. to dash. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. coming to us through different dialects of French. an enumerlist. chasuble. kasi. same word with break. Mid. Lat. to Fl. to torture. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. to crack. OFr. casulla. squash. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Hal. ichasses. 'Vaaaw. Cot. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. catch. Lang. to cast or beat to tioner . a chesnut . the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. Fr. ON. Fr. away. dashing it out of the window. down. Brunne. drive away.. kasta. To It. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. down. Lat. castana. Fr. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. accastiare. . Etym. or Rouchi cat. castello. chaleur. to crackle. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . from water Karappaaaiii. cacciare fuora. a cat koshki. while kiss / Pol. however. squash. ating. cassa / cry for the same purpose. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. kaJoivad. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. V. rack. So also from It. It. . burst cascare. kotas. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. to scourge. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. lance. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. In the dialect of Picardy.— Fl. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. . handle of an axe. KarapaKrr]g. torture. under chi caleur. to drive away. or bruise together. perhaps from which we have E. shaft of a 1 push. casule. on. KaTappaKTrjQ. ' Catchyn away abigo. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Sp. casser. which. cacciarc. chasser. — We a cavity. koshka. mino. castellum. cascar. signifying breed. cat-o'-nine. or comba.the / or c respectively. Pol. Gael. a vault. chat. a Cataract. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. to look at. klakka. B. castanetazo. crush . and tomba. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. the stalk of plants. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to turn overturn. cacciuolo. Roukind. puss / for calling them. kic' kicil are used chasser.out cacciare . name.Rouchi Scaches. dim. Cast. Fr. 134 CAST Catacomb. kottr. like that of It. Sp. image accasciare. Fr. represented by the syllable quash. casupola. kakka. to close. arpi^m. cojz^/a. from the first of Castrate. KaTaarpifm. The Diet. Catastrophe. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. to break.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. KaraXoyog. to make clean or chaste. cast. of castrum (castra). the castanets for or implement . first made ordinary Fr. dash. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. kissa. a little house or hut. race. The E. kotas. stilts. It. dashing it to pieces.to drive out. the earlier sense of catch. Fr. punch. to clack. fer toTa. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . castro. Castanets.. to lash. a thump. which has been retained in E. Fr. Chase. a cat . follow after. Isidore — in Diez. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. a garment for performing the mass in. 120. bot-kotis. speak of dashing a thing down.Lat. To Catch. to is Essentially the Sp. to drive Cat o' nine tails. casipola. to hunt. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). by the loss of with several pitched cords. execu. is not satisfactory. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. R. . probably from an imita. Thus we have Caste. fall. Fr. tails. ecrevisse. to bring to an crack given by the joints. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. V Lith. kat. cash. Gr. katze. Hence castaneta. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. being Fin.

to chatter with the teeth cake. whip. dainty vic- a form lash. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. formerly called cliket. the distance to which the ball is struck. a cornIn the s. the elements of a science. . E. to the crack. Diez. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. Du. . clap. apprehend a person.) . OFr. Metivier. catch. caucht. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. Gael. pedes. kletsen. clatter. to take. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. cat is not apparent. — Catcli-poll. chink. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Chate peleuse. ketsoore. to kythe D. . is said that he got a claucht of it. a smack. instruction in forms. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. bichano (pussy). E. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . a little dog). door when it is shut. which all . fragor kletsoore. KaTtix'so. from Gr. ' ' word catch. * Caterpillar. 'Bxn. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D.. compare G. Ptg.V. Rouchi clincailleux. klinke. to crack GATES cache. ictus resonans. chatter. e. — . gliong. from shutting with a click. — tinman. c or ^. E. Gael. GaUa catchiza. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. chatter . the the same principle he was Fr. sound. de Bray. ecachoire. dainties. ' Fr. has both or of charming by sound. flap klatsche. Guernsey chafer.yopl(. Caterer. insect. . e. a whip. latch of. an officer of taxes. chasse. weevils. clap with the hand. Du. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . devouring mite or weevil. icarrix'Ki^. a pill. * Cates. a — gatta. — explained. wild-beast. glcu. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. chenille {canicula. a caterpillar Milanese can. — with a whip. silkworm. predicament.j. Claucht. a carter's Pat. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. a whip. and answer. . Sc.V. resound. Cot. in order). to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. or any kind of relishing food tuals. gattola. gingle.' CATCH Fr. verberare kUts. klatscherei. a clap. happe-chair.P. kletse. — Kiittner. Tutschek. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. seize. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. to clap hands. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. chase. Fr. snatched. kaetse. to snatch (said of dogs). companaige. Kil. to catch strength. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. latch. Gr. Swiss Lombard G. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. a whip Rouchi cachoire. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. P. catc?u. 135 — Aasen. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. Guernsey pilleure. blow. i. quincailler. Cates.from Bard and ayopsw. as of the latch of a As ! — . In the XV'e. chacepol. to A bailiff. snatching it with a any one. Fr. smack. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. 'Horxa. — B. head. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. cagnon (a dog). Du. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. chassoire. woodlice. Fr. On Catechism. to snap. a. snatching. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. worm. an accusing. Grandg. resono ictu lash. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. klatsch. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Sp. claquer. a. to teach by oral instruction. Cot. s. caker. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. klatsche and Norm.' ^Jam. called in Fr. the OE. Wal.s. Kartiyopta (/cari. ArbaUte de courte chasse. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. catch. with and without an / after the c. Kil. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. chachara. catch-flesh. millecaterpillars. G. klatschen. children's name for cat . called dog or Galla catchamza. to harangue. to chat. a whip or Kuttner. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). bicho. cache.

to sound like a blow . Port. caldo. Jaubert. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Cavern. by land. — — cavallo. cabbage. but the acates that are sent him. despencier. catkin Pol. kopista. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. via strata. a horse. Fr. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. A warm comforting drink. • — — See Chattel. KaPaWrii. Cavalier. It. cavaliere. caple. — Cauterise. a seat. CAVE Caul. the caul of the liver. koparet. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Jonson in R. Kil. fur. Causeway. to shoe . puss. KaHSpa. cabbage-stalk. fur in general. a paved road. kautsije. shaled or picked Fr. Du. also to pave . Du. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Diez). and spareth for no perell. acater. deyntie meates. chevalier. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo.p. Manciple's Tale. flue. kin. cale. a pulpit. choufleur {choii. adcaptare. calidus. klopfend knallen. Fr. Cattle. cavus. to purge. chauderon. caudex . — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Lat. a kettle for heating water. little cat. is Prologue. calqada. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. It. . . Fr. It. Cavity. mutz. quire. Gr. a The peel. . puss. a stalk. a horseman. hot. Wyatt in R. lamb. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Caustic. hollow. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Cause. .Lat. Provider. calceata. Lat. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Fin. Boethius. hot. ce^l. macska. Thus Bav. Mid. flock. a receptacle for small things.^ acheter (Lat. . whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. kopano. cautis. to buy. Mid. Rete. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Kavrijp. a kind of skull-cap. from caveo (p. little cap is . Lat. catkin mitz. catkins . achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Cavalcade. having the property of cleansing. kobuiV. the stones of a street. B. — . Pr. walnut with the husk on challer. and hence a skull-cap. puss. minon.Lat. what . Cathedral. achepter. kocianki.' Elyot in Way. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. 2. Lat. ' Gr. acaptar. Cathartic. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Cavalry.willow. mudet. kaussijde. Palsgr.—— — 136 correct. cat maczoka. katteken. It. kitten kotki. to beware. cheval. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. Delycates. from KaSaipio. Lat. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned.' B. Fr. capull. kobyla. 4. Gael. Dryden in R rete. kassije. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. accattare. to ac- — Fr. cauHs. from chaud. calotte. katte. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. apt to burn iron. On the other hand. whence cathedralis. Pol. Cauldron. chaussJe. Caution. chatideau. chausser. Gr. cale. is used in the sense of cat-skin. w. Lat. Sx. Gr. green husk of a calon. cal^ar. catkin Magy. Fr. Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. kocie. catons. cabbage). Chaud. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Caballus. . from delf^gato. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Bessie of Bednall. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. OE. otherwise written kell. causa. That he was ay before in his estate. Fr. accapitare Rouchi acater. It. . Fr. to shoe. a road calceata. reticella. challe was ther of a temple. Russ. KiwariKog. primitive is meaning a shale or off. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. G. calceta. Cave. cautus).. kdtzchen. a horse . net or caul-work. Ka^afriKOQ. Richly she feeds. Catkin. chair. &c. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. hazel. dumpf tonen. a mare. to shale or peel.. CATHARTIC sense. Kavrfipiov.Y\\Xea. chaudroii. Caudle.^Hal. the. Fr. to burn. a horse . All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. chaudiire. any Fl. The word — . Palsgr. make clean. Fr. rete A — Prov. a branding from koiio. a pavement. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. caballus.

to seele or close with boards plancher. Cavil. a hut. a halter. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. thiling. to cut. a boarded floor. . Cot. Fr. selure. Plancher. the testern of a bed. Lat. 7.' Hall. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. yield. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. Wore. See -cede. . decessus. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. plank. lambrisser une chambre seeling. the inner roof of a room of state. p. augm. thel. little house.). In the N. and then to gape. &c. ceiling. succeed. is applied to a canopy. sybire. plank. Soc. flooring E. of E . H. &c. of cavezza. a fir-plank. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. empty. ciel de lit. semely on syll. dil. Hence concede. pp. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. B. Cede. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. heaven. The It. a planking or boarding tkilian. Sherwood. . ciel is so unbroken.'— Z. board . to go forth. ceiling. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. quibble. menuiserie. The sense of roofing. cavillor. thelu. cease. bridle. a canopy. deal. as if from happen. death.' Ordinances and Reg. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. -cede.. sky. cabegon. komo. . . a plank. Fr. cabega. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. a beam. Gawaine & Sir Gol. to panel or wainscot MHG. canopied. wall. with their substantives concession. . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Boyd in Jam.' Rutland papers. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. the deck of a ship at thilja. . dille. hollow ice . to plank or floor with planks. exceed. . cyling (W. rafter. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. Ceiling. Sir 137 pit . coffer. dayntily diglit. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . heaven. CAVESON kopera or kowera. Fr. &c. Lat. komista. a board. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. proceed. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. departure from this life. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. were met.. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. IV. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing.' Cot. Lat.' — Gawan . VIII. kommata. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. Fr. beam. give place. To seele a room. in Jam. It. the roof of a coach. syle. hollow. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. a log. So from Fin. but hang around at the sides. Lat. step away. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. an aquiline nose. thili. that. a severe bridle. cavezzone.j have come from this source. also a seeling of boards. applied to a canopy. in Hal. A — A false accommodation produced G. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. cessum. thil. nailes will begin to cling. cedo. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. tester of a bed. dScis. jaa. . which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. wainscot thiljar (in pi. departure. —Decease. 5. a log.' del. &c. sill. curved. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. The line of descent from Fr. wuoren komo. column E. to plank ON. caveqon. — . E. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. to argue capto tiously. -ceed. kapp-zaum. as. or of a bed. hollow. del into English without ' translation gave cele. cielo. — — — toyour soverane. and Gol. hung. Hal. 32. and that from Sp. The importation of Fr. to canopy siled. . unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. a log. p. In the same way G. .' Marriage of James IV. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. — . post. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. Cam. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. sill in window-sill. And seik — Cessation. . selar. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. — komo tain). thilja. and zaum. excess. -cess. a head. seele. koppeli. hivtmel. cesso. in Jam. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. syl. Cease. Sp. door-sill J Sc. -cease. crooked kopio. lambris. . cellar. thil. a canopy. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. recede. 43. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile.). sus-lambris.

K^'ivut. keep in It. a hundred of what- — . Take the nedyll and threde. -oept. It. as entering largely into the derivative certo. -i^oivre. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a registration of one's self. ceremonia. Cereal. quarters for slaves. to be regarded as one celebro. to rate. to take. a tomb. Lat. siller les yeux. Lat. -cebre ifoncebre. what to set in a chafe. celeber certus. Lat. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. a valuation of every man's estate. Censor. to bury). to think. {cori)cipere. To seel or close the eyes. Lat. empty.ing a room where there is not fire. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. the talk of men. for building. eyelid. a storehouse Chafe. to sleep). to sepap rate. Census Censor. to take. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. mortar. census.unmarried. Lat. sile. Incensum. riscaldarsi. cella. It. to visit in numbers. also grave opinion. judge Lat. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. receipt. judge. crevi. -cense. to chafe. Gr. confounded ist from It. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Centurion. ciglio. calefacere. -ceptjun.j 138 thill.of the r. -ciper. a religious observance. being taken from Fr. &c. Gr. to burn incendo. . assess. with the eyes. cilibat. Fr. ciller. renown be embodied with. value. sift. to warm. Censer. to twinkle darkness. conceipt. thence belonging to or connected with corn. tax. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to distinguish. then to rub without reference Cement. or expression of Ennius. heaven. Fr. materials It. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. the place where the de. deceipt. thronged the participle cretus. cenio. age. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. For sess from assess. -ceive. Cot. centum. from Saa-rw. goad. Ta^oe.— Cellar. &c. irot\oe. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. and met. parted sleep. To chafe is for wine. decide. cencer. point. and thence to conceal. Fr. in comp.. 1. -cepire. concernor. celer. Cij(fe5j. -cess. -cern.' Book of St Albans. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. sure. — . to attend on object with. cceremonia. of heating. stones to the production of heat. dchauffer. to contend. observe. Accelerate. see. make angry. and thence censer. contend. — . — . incense. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices.cern. Celerity. a Cemetery. distinIt. a numerous con. Certain. Lat. — — Cenotapli. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde.. Centre.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. family. and so of that other. tax. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. hollow. zens according to their property. Century. concetto. calefare. to course of people.' Celebritas. (and thence also) to hoodwink. in comp. camentum. is totally distinct from the foregoing. The term cilium. — A . a shaft horse. Fr. and — — — possessions. appertain. the point round which a circle is drawn. Gr. is the opposite of disora virum. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. . to seele or sew up the eyelids . oil. -ceit. Fr. in Marsh. -cevoir. or any bird's. rubble. a prick. — . See Celibacy. to glow. sacred show. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. oil. his office. a hundred centuria. to heat. estimate. caber. Lat. as in some places burnt.). candeo. Lat. -cipio. concerner. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Lat. criticism. See Cede. Lat. chaufferette. become heated with anger. rough from the quarry. to rub for the purpose a hut. Cell. a solemnity. S. Lat. To Incense. to concern. in accordance with the Fr. eschattffer. abundance. /ctj/rsw. capturn. an eyelash. but was gradually lost in conceit. from censeo. and put it through the over eyelydde. ' . deceit. Fr. Assize. cigliare. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. In Celebrate. -civer {conciver— Roquef. cot. — . to seal a pigeon's eye. Censure. Lat. cerealis. Lat. cretum. festive. to -sum. to blindfold. pick out. blind. capio. KsvTpov. Chafe. -cepere. Coehim. cillier. Fr. judge. to incense. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. single or unwedded life. Gr. to prick.— Chafing-dish. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. census. the officer appointed to take such returns . the hollow the Lat. Fr. to celebrate. Assess. we have a modified form of (of a place). -CEIVE a shaft.). to set on fire. with transposition hence (of a day). Sherwood. guish. Ceremony. solemn (of per. syll. Cot. — . to separate. sting. censura. Cess. much frequented. decebre) . Celebrity. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. a solemnity. Sc. chauffer. encens. Prov. OFr. Fl. swift.

There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. to sit. lime . to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. chaffare. a double operation * Chafer. or puff with snorting. Kuttn. jaw. khah. much blowing. puff. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. calumnia. contestation. a pulpit Cot. a pulpit. refuse. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. — . kahu. De Ir4. clamare. cam. often puffing. Ayenbite.. bargain. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Hal. Perhaps Pm. grief. kdfer. Fl. To buy and sell. Prov. in a cana. de Brai. a goba rustling . tronfio. grief. on. muzzle. Fr. idle words. — — ' — — — A . Due. So from dominio. cathedra. &c. In like manto huff. in a monstrous fume. E. gewolb. G. also to prattle. refuse barley . chicane. havOFr. — — — . . Bav. chayire. ckapfare. Bouffard. tattle cheep. to dispute. — — — . chamar. ^Altieri. sagrindse. care. kiamta. Gr. In vulgar language. hordeum vel let. chaise. kiqfta. cadieira. Halma. G.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. breathe hard. talkative. green sagrin. swelling with anger. chafing. to file. P. fume. calix. kahista. signal by drum or P. far lima-lima. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. Du. chawe. call in question for an ley). Adelung. From Port. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Fr. tattle. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. to buzz. Fr. to tattle. KoBiSpa. chaire. Piedm. to action arose. sborfare. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. kdfelen. chaps Chamber. From to go to law. Fr. The jaw chafty. Lat. kever. chagrin. chaine. Du. with a:n arched roof. From the To Chaff. B.' Rayn. . The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. from Swiss kafeln. — — — — — — . songe. Lat. ceaf. to babble. chambre. ing rapidly repeated cries. a jackdaw. kuhista. a rustling noise. from of the G. . have a mind to parley. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. hiss. chalanger. calonjar. cadena. to bark. Fr. lime. and signifies to consume with anger. kaff. kuhuja. Camera. dongio. rustle Challenge. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. snort. vel susurro. that leneth e per I'autra. thick and short. Fin. to puff and blow. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . false accusation. cup. ON. Probably from According to Diez. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. ceafer. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Cot. kuhina. Fr. OFr. to chatter or talk lightly. to call. Lat. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. to gnaw. snuff. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. from the shark-skin. difficulty . as. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. baras of ants. much more Genoese sagrind. matter by combat. Lat. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. Chayire. Lat. rally one. cadena gives chain. Fr. to ner It.nium. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. haggle. keffen. Chalice. fa sagramen de calompnia.. Prov. . Lat. Chair. to pant. catena. Wall. to gnaw. of. Fr. chaene. cauvette. a chough. ing a hard case to their wings. crooked. yap. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. rustling motion challenge. Came. Chain. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. cathedra. to fret inwardtronfo. kiaftr. Fr. chaulx. Fr. to a seat. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Kaiiapa. 11. p. taubes korn oder hafer. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. camera. sagri. a vault or arched roof. charge with. leviter crepo Then. hght Chalk. kuhata. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. preise. to calumpnjamen. chatter. and as this was the beginning of man. avena vilior. kedja. Prov. Chagrin. to Latin calumniare. kaff. care. fern-chafer. dispute. shaIt. Cot. vis. kahuja. any insect of the beetle kind. to caw chawer.— — . kauchen. a prattling woaction. keuchen. place See Cheek. chafeter. Lat. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. great chafe.sure carriage. calice. Pers. Gr. limare. to claim. calx. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. a chain. rustling corn. to move the jaws. Pr. without chap/are makiinde. to institute anforensic action. 35. quisquilise offence. puffed or ruffled with ly. as a carriage is a moveable seat. cadera. Pat. ple^. . calonja. Cheffern. now a chair.

to be eminent. chaude mesUe. top of a borehole. Lat. kiammi. mesleiare. camp. a field of battle. to slope. broil. Meleare. hot. — ^Tusser. bickering. Lith. Chance-n3. chanfrein. Fr. kimbu.Lat. Sp. to strive at games . To them naturally fell the office of keep- . divided game. slope of a bevelled angle. kimpUma. dispute Hal. —Chamfrain. Chamfron. gekrUmmt. Champion. accidere. Campar. chajnbellan . ciamberlano. champ. camp. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. . to stick to. . zampettare. kinipen. cadere. a jaw kianisa. to fall. hng. dial. The G. chance. Pm. camp. keiiipe. Champ. kriimmen gebogen. Carpentier. to happen {ad and cadere. fight. zs jeopardy. campar. cameratus. Lat. Champaign. To Chamfer. nels. chanfreindre. dial. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. therewithal. It will. received the petitions of the suitors. kampeln. to flute as a column. to talk. a scufSe. Commonly derived from campus. chamfrain. ing. accident. to bevel. CHANCEL It. ciambellano. to fasten oneself on to another . who stood ad cancellos. Lat. athlete. kabintis. pedilusor. kanip. to chew. G. and mesUe. move the jaws. game campio. kapp. champ. . cazer. to fasten on. Lat. kablys. dricka i kapp. The happening of things Chance. calida et sans aguet. E. camerlengo. Champarty. cample). contention kappi. . it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. ON. to hollow out. Chancellor. kippo. fighting place. Ptg. schmatzen s. The E. luctare. champ. to cample. Fin. to — — champ. M. chanfrein. fray. — KiL . to smack the lips in eating. excellent. to fall). kibti. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. tsammogni.—Tutschek. the chafldn. sukibti. kimpustella. gewolbt. Sp. kabMe. surpassing. champ parti. Get campers a ball To camf . i. kabe. a feat. caer. jocus partitus. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam).edley. and acted as inofficers of . Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. to wrestle. or player at football.140 CHAMBERLAIN . certare. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. a warrior. which seems another form of the root. Prov.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat.—Charfron E. champ. giving rise to the as. wood. to to chew champ. Prov. reusement — fight in single combat. to Hal.' ' Pr. Dief. . to move the jaws kiamt. bundle. To cope or contend with. as in It. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. chain. Du. jeu parti. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. — Ch-amberlain. Hence (with the nasal) w. a hollow chanfreiner. s. to . Gall. dial. hamper. campus. Chancel. See Camp. chance. champion Du. chamble.' SherI'altro ' ' . cahir. head armour. kappd). to slope out the . to excel. kiinp. kempa. to paw the ground E. escazenza. — Hal. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . a game at football. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. kampa. E. compound. campus partitus . to hold . . difficulty . kampeln. cancelli. to groove bevel off a right angle. Fr. kampen. at the railings. To hollow out in chanPtg. from cheoir. a horse-race. to wrestle. e. a court of justice. is explained by serrarsi. Chancery. contend or argue G. to quarrel (comp. as swine. an athlete. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Partnership. chdance. Fr. ON. dial. boys speak of capping verses. from chaud. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. ON. termediaries between them and the judge. So in e. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. . to debate. to tread The sound heavily. from Fr. a hook . cempa. prize-fighter. Fr. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. kempen. When the to quarrel. act of falling. or less ignorant. chanfrar. Magy. kimppu (Lap. tsamtsogni. The word is preserved in E. dial. kabinti. to hang. pinch. to fasten oneself to another . calidameya. rare. fight. Fr. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. combat. Sup. contest. hero Sw. campear.' melleia. . Fr. — masterly Sp. a bundle. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — .

the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to deal. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. throat of an animal. cheek. from clap. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. leather. to cut up into small pieces. kvar kjceften. to sing. chap. Chap. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. a dealer in candles then. chanter. gab. to swap. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. . is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. to peck. 140. to creak. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. cobio. Cheek. cambiar. E. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. — : Lat. to — cut. Sp. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Compare chark. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. the chaps . See Chant. esclapa. to cut off . and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Fr. a money-changer. from canna. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. to truck. chaps. chiappa. skipta. from chandler. to peck. chapear. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. also a clap. a pipe. schimbu. to chap at a door. Fr. prune. That wide were sentin their spicery. and the modern canal. as to chap hands. Commonly derived from capella. —Chantry. ^Jam. to apply one flat thing to another. jaw. ceaflas. A fellow. kennel. AS. cangiare. waterconduit. lips of an animal. as skin chapped hands. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. a jaw. Walach. Chap. kapoti. And N. are kept. kappen. the mouth. Fr. and also to chap or crack. Russ. to spht a chip. as corn-chandChandry. chancery. to put on fresh clothes. I.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. to cut. kjaakaa. Chop. Da. to change. Lat. a chap is a crack or fissure. — — —Marculfus in Due. W. debeant conjurare. Bret. hard bodies. not a soul. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. canalis. cambium. as chancery . Sp. a reed. Hal. . Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. to coat. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Chandler. Du. In like manner Walach. as those on a trunk. to break . camjar. a small plate of flat metal. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Chap. chapeta. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. . Prov. Hal. jaw. extended to other trades. ON. Chip. or the like chapar. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. chop. Aasen. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Lang. a small metal plate Port. 2. to paw like a horse . Chapel. To Change. hack . to strike. Chape. clapet. exchange. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. the clappers of the scupper holes. to strike with a sharp edge. like the knocking of hard things together. muzzle. to strike. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . chap. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. kiceft as well as kjakje. surfaces striking together. shift. Da. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. to plate. exchange. a strip of metal plate. the gutter that runs along a street. Probably from chap. Molbech. changer. the place where candles ler. Lith. — . kiceft. esclapo. klepan. cambiare. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. kaupa. Hence It. exchange schimbatoriu. chapa. chapelete de una bomba. Man of Law's Tale. See Chop. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Hence chantry. as It. schimbd. to plate. any hollow for conveying water. chancellerie. ceaplas. chandelier. or the cracking of one. is used in the same sense . kemma. . chapeletas de imbornales. cantare. may be compared with ON.^. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. wood. Fr. chapilla. chop. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. . Chaps or chops. flat . properly in a hard body. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to hack. It is also used in the sense of the E. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. while the broader vowels a. Sc. —Ordericus Vitalis. Channel. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft.

a turn cerran. Bret. to sing or chirp as birds.. czurliwoti. from carrus. charlatan. Lat. . clack. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Fr. be- e. cluck kirklys. 370. cabildo. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. burning without consuming the substance. talking. cam.Lat. bler. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. Yx.). A weed among com AS. ject). occasional turn. corona. gadka. the nature of a thing. decken. In that work the verb is written caire. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Charlatan. for the same reason rosario. Fr. Fr. Boh. char. cluck. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. a dispute . Prov. chirriar. w. a mark made on a thing. and in It. seems to be derived charade. hadka. to prattle. kurkelis. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. to dove . charlar. babbling. See Cheap. a mark of a mountebank. a rhyme. Cot. from Charade. krachzen). chirk. capital. charge an enemy is to lay on. from gadai. carricare. Sup. as Pol. From Norm. prattling quacksalver. from capa. Charade. AS. kurkti. An enchantment. caritas. charitas. Ptg. Gr. Du. &c. to tattle. Macduff. czurksti. Lang. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. a verse. a riddle. Chark. Lat. it is my turn. Hence carminare. — — — turned to coal. canne. chapel. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. charcoal burners. chirlar. carmo. to love. . wood to coal. condo il volgar francese. go. called in Sp. Mid.czirksti. jabber.' Boccaccio in Diez. eyre. . OE. wreath for the head. kirkti. of chapel. as. —— . a cricket karkti (schnarren. It. creak. from cape or cope. dear. babdistinction. Mundart. tattler. — spell. chapelet. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to prattle. Chirk. a merchant. Swiss. w. Chapter. to chirp. Chapman. And damned be he who first cries Hold. to load . charade. capella. Lith. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. Lat. cher um cher. It. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. a The OFr. charger. caricare. hiss Lith. twist. to croak as a frog . cearcian. as a beetle. capitolo. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. chara. grave or make incised marks on an ob. eapitulo. ciarlatore. The G. cedeleac. creak. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. capellare. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. used in the sense of magic Fl. pohadka. The crash. chatter. that turned decken . that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. to talk . dim. a hood. beloved. colliers that charred coal. Inst. karout. chapitre. dear(in both senses). turn. to creak. Chaplet. es ist mi cheer. keeren. Fr. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. car. Chare. (eucharistie. turn about. carus. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. AS. 2. to chirp. carmen. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. . a head or division of a book. cerran. which was incantation. enough. Sp. ghirlanda seor garland. tegere. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. chat. To Char. to turn. to charcoal. twitter. to of the governing body. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. . czirbti. Character. a charm. cha. to converse. It. the turtle pitre. Justin. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. called kedlock. * Charcoal. to chirp as sparrows. gaggle . Lay on. return. Charge. gnash. schreien. surris seu Lat. in turns. to . Sp. from capitulum. See Charlatan. Charcoal was ciarlare. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. siarad (pronounced — sharad). a garland of roses. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello.charme. It. affection. ceap-man. to turn Gael. Deutsch. carregar.whirr. a riddle. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. Fr. Charlock. properly to place — . Sp. in To ness Charity. chatter. charer. — a car.

To chip is then to crack. carme and Fr. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. Lat. . is to represent the chamier. . —Bailey. Fr. to baptize. karg. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Cot.). sordidus. or the cry of a bird or the like. knacken. to make a noise. chatter. Chasm. cassa s. Pol. cyrm. the cry of the bat.— Chatter. the calix of a rose. gaddc. kata. occasionally Forby. Chat-wood. to which it bears the same relation as chape. or pop. to cry as a chicken . Diez. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. g. G. racket . csacsogni. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. To Chasten.— Chit. ch&tier. talk. discourse. or suckers on rough borders. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. to separate in morsels. csacsogany. a shrine for a relic. geug. a branch. It. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Chary. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. to crack. gazeuiller. a crack or a flaw . limpid. kna. to enchase it . castus. OE. to care).. chip. nome and . Fr. noise. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. a flock of those birds. cs E. scraps of for fuel. to wet. Fr. a churchyard or charnel-house. To Chase. a branch and a young female. Hal. whistle. To Chase. csaterdzni. little sticks cudere. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. a yawning. caro. csatora (Magy. warble. to chirp. carnisj bones kept. chaste. a young man . clap. —Charter. eclats. chip. or equivalent forms. The egg is chipped. Kil. ch). clear. splinters. in Jam. be wide open. carmen is presented in AS. — — . as in the E. To talk. Chat. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. niggardly. to set a jewel. chit-chat. Chaste. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. prattle. %aafi. chat. — Fr. i. as from nomen It. chit. pure. as we speak of olive branches. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. gadu-gadu. gazzolare. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained.house. Fr. Lat castigare. clean. chit in the latter sense Du. from xoAn.ppen. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. also to germinate or spring forth. prate. It t. s. the young shoots . enchasser. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. CHATS fit 143 to name. karigh. Fl. Kil. — We ornamental work the to signify E. chaste. also a youth. careful. Gr. a plate of metal. to cut and faggoted. Russ. —Chastise. ferire. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. In like manner Russ. the noise of birds.a. kastaa. from purus. make a noise as birds do. to crack. parcus. to chirp. chikat'. nommer. chick. germinate . a gap.). or a bird out of the egg. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. chits. xi'i-'^vui. See Card. It. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. the handle of a razor . shout OE. Cot. See Catch. — Hal. — The . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). flesh. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. to gape. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Chamel. whence a charm of goldfinches. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. as purgare Fr. — = Chats. cearig (from cearian. clean. to chatter or prattle . czysty. It. a chatter-box. jackdaw . Parallel with E. a twig Suffolk chaits. castus. to talk. See Cistern. chykkyn (Pr. It. to clap. speak . clean. clatter. charm. — Palsgrave. also to hatch. clack. Fl. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. To chit. to chirp as a bird to cheep. —Jam. a word. B. from pure. shivers. the bird is iiown. used to represent a sharp note. gazzerare. tittle-tattle. kata-kata. Pm. incassare. la chasse d'une rose. From carinen was formed It. kippen. — sharp sound of a crack. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. converse. An imitative word. Magy. to burst open. schioppare. root of the Lat. magpie. To work plate as silversmiths do. charmer. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. chick. warble. noise. talk much . crackle. fragments. an enchantress. blackthorn-chats. snap. chip. — Yorkshire chat. pure. fragments or leavings of food. gallan or ogan. chisf. pure. Chart. chair. as turnip-chaits. gazzettare. tenax. V. knatiern. chary. So in Gael. Malay. letters p. gazzogliare. Du. D. as. Pol. To chitter or chipper.

Cot. ceahhetan. It — Brompton in Due. to make inarticulate sounds in . a repulse. exAS. to fetch the breath with difficulty. gagkern. entertainment. agreeing upon. et juxta catalla sua. choule. syllables ^ag-. It. Cheat. — To check an account. to negotiate. the Lat. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. the principal ' colloquial E. to — . cachinnari. Cheek. cattle. Modern Slang. The gutGoth. . entertain kindly. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. jaw. Chattels. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. a piece of moveable property. tradesman. — We ' . G. It. to stutter gigken. the tongue. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. 144 the It. Fr. force of the word. ceap. cheeks. to coup s. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Du. to chop and change. . us. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. goods. to clear the throat . Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind.of the throat in coughing. OFr. kikottaa. the Confessor.ing. Bohem. laughing.— . stuttering. to cough and hence either buying or selling. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. goods. sale. Ek dry and hard. to cluck like a hen. ceaflas. chatal. chuckle. kakkaset. Sp.—Choke.-^. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. KaviiXog. kok. horse-couper. cera. OFr. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Soc. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. to deal ON. chear in the sense of victuals. giggling. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. Bav. aspect of a man. to buy. with Dief. cattle. and hence the E. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. which is the word in ceap.— Chole. stuttering. a willing look and unwilling heart. teeth . Hal. while it Bret. &c. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. a dealer. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. a tavern-keeper. Hence to cheat. Cam. Fl.' kezen. lower. gig. to act as a rogue. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. visage. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. society. countenance. in widely separated languages by the Lat. cattle. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. . a dealer in horses. . giving or taking in exchange. . upon a checked cloth. lead to OE. to buy. look. chavylbone or chawlbone. a canting knave. kaufen. sum in a loan. chatel. Lat.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. Check. the countenance Fr. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. gagkezen. kakaista. catalliim. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl.— Chaps. keck. a cheater. any cheating. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. to laugh. Fr. equiva. with the exception of land. See Cheek. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. capitale. — — —Chowl. and. kek.kakot. which is used in the to stutter. to . kak. Sc. kaupa. whence captale. from Lat. Fin. See Chess.. a young boy or girl. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. e. Pr. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . snout. dchec. Pm. chop. are represented piti. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. cita. retching. in Fr. Ingulphus. mandibula. cozener.. farm for farm. Then. Faire bonne chire. welcome heartily. chapman. caupo. to nauseate (to retch). from AS. favour. kichen. frown. jaws. CHEEK zitella. Chew. s. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. CHATTELS has ciio. ku.. to vomit. kaupiti. citello. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. chire. sense of bargaining. chaptel. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. to coff—Yisi. sob E. koopen. Chear. changing. NE. kaupon.— Cattle. kauf.' to exchange to gasp. price. 'li^'opa jord i jord. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. prattlingchete. to swap goods . cara. thers. ceafl. chiere. hawkmann. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Pro v. Gr. Slav. truffa. the face. bon marche. kik.

made rancid koka. ost. Jam. cufd.EP CHEVRON 145 on. nish source. chests in OE. Sp. cheken. cams. the neck. kasiiUPr. schach. incaseatus. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. cyse. cerasus. Thus "we are brought din. The Sw. From them the plish. hasten. Sc. ceg. to accomThis they call hdrsk. E. equal squares of opposite colours. Fr. rennet. jouffle. E. N.. Fr. a cricket. to heap up such things for the purchoke. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. jaw.cirieggia. ca' — . — 10 . gap. An imitative word. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Chess. e. Sc. to kasa. w. kikna. See Alchemy. czypti. cheek. for cheese itself. Cherry. The Lapps prepare much of their compass.D. To Cheep. kopen. dersen . It. — — . squeak as a mouse. the The use of the word kcesir. Lat. Pm. gaghel. whence kasa-leipa. to gasp. Lat.koppen. to swallow. The name of creak as shoes. gullet. &c. caseus. Sw. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. the throat. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. chops. kastanie. practice seems to have been communiChevron. mollium congeries. — — . ceac. — — . food. kaecke. Fr. to choke with laughter. Fr. prevail with. to belch. chevron. acquisition. See Chess. to love. caws. Lith. It would Cheese. ation. Hence kikna is identical with OE. cerise j G. cabrio. kikna of dorum coacervatio. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Chevaux de frise. cheek. Chef. kapen. kces. Cherish. to hold dear. . to prevent the attack of cavalry. cabiron. the loose the game of checks. condition of being taken. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. chasi. skratt. to geahl. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. carnium. F*-. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. . In these latter forms we see the transIt. chops. to kep. dear. to gape gab. chaps. G. caru. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. cisty G.their struggle for independence. gabe. as meat and butter. w. cireggia.peep in the same sense. Lat. kdkel. jaw . Chekenyd or querkenyd. gous forms are G. chevir. to boken. like a young chicken. rattle in the throat. cegio. Analo. E. old bread. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Lat. Kil.D. rafters in heraldry. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. the palate Chequer. by laying it in come to an agreement with. Da. castaneusj Fr. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. throat. whence czypulas.perly head. jaws Sw. chiffe. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. To make a shrill noise Chest. kastr. then end. giffle. As the board to gasp i. rupted into chess. by laying up in a covered heap. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. geagl. . to choke. accomplishment cayed. Fr. .Xo belch. ichec. cista. Cher. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. jaws. kjceve. jowl. chesten. frame by which the exertion is made. subacidus. achever. cheek. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Lith. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Tutschek. takes place in the formation of cheese. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. See Case. make an end. Sp. a heap. things Da.' to w. kistej Lat. X'C&s. kirsche. geafl. ceaflas. suffo. quok. to make a noise different word. Du. kjakje. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. jaw. the mouth. . CHE. scacco. Fris. kok. cough. mouth kek. Prov. to year. gapen. (Kil. Chevisance. as. to bring to an end. AS. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. gill of fish AS. ceocian. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut.). the hke. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. kjcebe.pose of acidifying them kasadr.G. schach. kesten. quoka. treat with affection. xaque. G. Sw. Fin. kasa. king). AS. Prothroat of an animal . kdke. AS. cherir. ceaplas. E. clear the throat. /Ji2^/(W. Du. Hence chesten-nut. a rafter . chAtaigne. Pl. w. veluti piscium. throat. cese. ON. Chemistry. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. OHG. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. a chicken. Achievement. the final guttural is retained in writing.. cheeks.

strideo. a cup cibaw. Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. chicaner. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. Fl. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . term is ssaru fu. Chick. tyuk. tintelen van koude. a young bird. kaau•wen. aner. acute. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib.— Cot. kind. tiukka. Du. kimista^ . Magy. to smart. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. horn wood. machouere. greloter is to shiver for cold. tremble. a small cask OFr. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Fr. queror. chavel. cheek. cabarach. 'Among these the G. Child. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. kilderkin. Kil. in Walach. Russ. cild. Pm. and from the third E. AS. choule. the throat. To Chide. E. Bret. E. CHJME the radical form is unusual. . Fin. branchy. horns of the house. to Du. pipio. See Chimmer. Chaw. deer's horn.— Gattel. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Prov. mountain top . — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. pululo. tiukkua. cebr. Chitter. knirschen.^ Hal. De finger killet mi for kalte. to contest about trifles.. beam. ]). jaws . cidan. from little to little. a head. killen. cib. signifying properly shivering. a jaw. to titter is Du. CHEW . . Fl. lead through the synonymous E. chawbone. the cry of young . a finch. to contest. or chick. W. kieken. A To Chew. chic. Da. mouth. pi.-ill. s. Chimb.peep. Pl.. Now gan some courage unto him to take. capete. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. the young of animals in general. the least imaginable jot. Sp. ach. kauchen. hiss as meat on the gridiron.D. also the horizon. ultimate origin of the Mite. Walach. kindeken. caput. when the vibrations become very rapid. a little bit. chaps. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Pr. Fin. klagend tonen. stake. from the first of which is Lith. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. It. rafter . chavel. a chicken. Halm. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. kibr. kidata. to chime. Chime. rafter. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Lat. gills of a fish. Swiss kiden. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. kop. chin. k'imm s. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Pr. tremble with cold. chew or chaw. chieftain. Gael. capo. captain. The loss of the syllable it in Du. pipe. a cup. Fr. chill. chicoter. chillar. cica cica. kime. Brezza. — It. chicken. Chill. has probably the same origin. gosling. Chief. pip. : — a lump. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. into a continuous shriU sound. twitter. killen. kopf Du. ' . knarren. rafter . G. to use the jaws. the rim or edge of a vase. cabar. G.). and not vice versd. antler. to the brim. knit the brow cib-led. kimia. kauwe. the jole. a chicken. — — Mother Hubbard.D. then as G. E. the same principle I regard On birds. To chitter. the Ptg. chef. or the broken noise of birds. jaw. chiler. kuwe. to twitter.^ to resound as a bell. crepo. chol. Chigue. chikat'. — Du. cabriones. kippa. a chicken. And hence. Payer chiguet A chiguet. head. — .' my finger tingles with cold. from the second Lat. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. cabar beinne. sonorous. or qf people talking rapidly. kaw. as. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. to gasp for breath (Hal. to pettifog. are formed Du. by driblets. tiukkata. while didder is to shiver or citteren. as pointing out the origin of the E. The Pl. creak. or as E. chimb. kouwe. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. a hen. zitterti. chillrar.. to go. alter. caprioru. pole. kinderen. to chew. caferu. Probably from Fr.— . Fr. then cold. w. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. kitista. a quid of tobacco. kimme. For the see word Doit. to crackle. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. Gattel. the head. to raise the rim. czypulas. a cup. Pm. chillness or shivering. Fin. kauen. cap. grelot). keichen. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. . capu. 146 brial. jaw. Palsgr. chiquei. pipio. quivering sound which passes. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. — Fin. tiuk. while the Magy. to chirp or peep like a chicken.. Tintillo. De chic en chic. to scold.

to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. cisaille. To chink with laughter. schrick. See Chap. Fr. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses.to chirp. to chirp . See Chats. See Bright. See Chark. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. crepare. which differ from each other only as Chirk. have been used to designate the spine. The small entrails of a hog. Huloet. It. a crowing sound in recovering breath. the mouth (jaws) . It. In the same sense. tinnire.Huloet in Hal. caperd. spina. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. It. the chine. kieck hoest. as a bell kommata. from the geon's lancet. klincken. to creak. Sp. cincel. representing connected together. the jaw. schina. as birds the mouth. to murmur. fissure. kumista. yivtiov. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Chink. tremulous motion. cleft. sound on beginning to boil. Chat. part lion. Bav. twitter caminus. 147 kimina. E. as the/ is preserved tering. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. — . vincially used in the sense of a crack. kinne. to prattle czirpti. tsongeni. Gower in Hal. zirken. disCot. Chitterling. AS. Chyrme or chur. verynge or dyderinge. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Ptg. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . to simmer. To chirp or twitter. caminata.er. are In like manner E. pork) .iron. ter. . esquina.to divide or Du. Pr. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. schetteren. ykvvQ. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. E. pare also Walach. but or cry as a parrot. kink hoest. in Hal. Gloss. clipping of coin. — . tsengeni. from Lat. Pm. quivering or shakyng for colde. Fr. to chirp. Chisel. do. chirp. et garrire . Kil. skina. rustle. spina. Prov. Magy. killed by Bellerophon. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. the cheek (jaw) . a chap. Du. and light. Chimney. the jaw. bone . Du. and the Du. eschine. cisello. chhint. chatter . To Chimmer. . — . Sw. dial. tschirpen. epine. quavering of the voice. and bodily movement in shimm. Chintz. j^lf. in the same crack. hiss chirlar. Chimera. Cot. to tattle.. cinan. G. Hindost. Fr. caminsects. to creak. to chink. a Kuttn. chin . from 10 * ' Chia. and from a similar sound to boil gently. It. then to any narrow crack or AS.sharp. A . ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. ciseau (for cisel). komista. bx-eak the back of schena. a thorn. a thorn. resonance .schricken. Chine. a hall Mid. sound. or chyFrigutus. eschin^e (de pore). a surkik hosta. a fire-place. to chink with laugh2. to prattle . twinkling light. Lat. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to sizel. to sound. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas.). — .' Phaer's Virg. keich husten. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. chink. The change from the sound ter \s. schetteringe. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. sparkle. It. Chink-cough. genawi. cinne. up and down. — — — — — . Fr. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. simmer. as a large bell . esquena. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. sonus the backbone Lat. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. gen. a chink or fissure. zirpen. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. hiss Pm. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. Sp. and chim-mer. i. eschiner. Chitter.. the chin . cheek. kumina. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. genou (pi. . . chick. ciarlare. to gape. Chip. the whooping cough. To Chitter. clashing of weapons. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Sp. companied. Lith. The desig. name Then. applied to tremulous motion. the cheek. Primarily a shrill sound. KinneGr. all these imitative terms being minata. sounding deep. then of a fabulous monster part goat. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. . Sp. gena. fyr. plodere. czirszkti. to squeak in It. hollow. to open chirriar.czirbti.Lat. shiver and the chyver of Pr. hus. chits. Diez de. Fr. also vibrans. schiena. to chirre. to tremble. sonants. stridere. backe. G. komia. Caminatum. cheminde. squittire. Chymerynge. to chine. Gascoigne in Todd. flaw Hal. clangor tinniens kummata. Chit. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Chin-coug^h. a szemrcU. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. to sound deep or the Gr. Bret. as the chink of money.

cut up into — See Chats. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to exchange horses. and N. Fr. chattering. kusid. a calf's chaldern of E. full. to hack. kaup. kushevati. heaped measure. skifa. Gr. ruffs. — Cholera. a chive. Boh. as green as leeks. The manners and senti. experience valerie. . to tempt. to palpitate . the inwards of an animal. to Compare also Pol. —Chorus. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. chives. kausjan. to try . in the same language. from kraus. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. shiver. kiusan. schoch.gust. curly . taste. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. bile. chatter. Enn Sigridur sem ' . or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. to prove. Chap. &c. Serv. Luc. an onion. chimp. ON. kbhren. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. to taste. to stop geschoppt voll. kustigen. a goose's giblets. try. I. prove.vonic languages are Pol. and Vf. all seem slate . or original meaning is preserved in G. ent quarter. See try. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. a knight. Chives are also a kind of small onion. wein didder for cold. coup. arkiusan. The .freze.— B jag E. chawdron. to wrinkle. Walach. . Chivalry. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. . and in kosten. lead us on to Lat. fresure. koren. Choice is probably direct from Fr. shoot . a twittering. to experience. whence choleric. to taste. from %u\i). a calf's pluck or chaldron . chorus. and in this sense the * small pieces. Chives. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. xiv. chaup. to shiver. also calPs. kor6n. G. cke. G. whence Lat. chibble. cape. CHOP kros. rare. gdnse gekrose. Equivalents in the SlaFr.D. by which they are Fr. Jam. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. causir. chippe. g'schochet voll. . kushati. to ing is doubtless to taste. as with a blow. try. Chuck-full. Choice. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. scheve. to try. 2. gusten. To Chop. crammed Choir. from chevalier. kruszki. developments of the same radical image. signify to kiss. Goth. okusyti. a blow. The Sc. the small parts of the roots of plants. a rag. i. to try. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. are used in the same sense. of E. kiusan. civette.' who shall not taste death. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. to taste. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. a small slice or slip of anything . wkusit' prikushat. Warwickshire coff. fine threads of flowers. Fr. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. OHG. to break off in small shive. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. — See Cheek. to clap up Hal.' Verie coinme Cot. As kushnuti. a ruff or frill. to taste . to chap. full to overflowing. Lat. Fr. To Choke. a young . keuren. . Yr.yEuffM. cepa.' At last he dwelt . chife. to strike hands . Swiss kust. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp .. taste. Gr. The I go to prove them. specially with an application to theatrical performances. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. Cavalry. to choose.. — — — . to try. choix. Swab. propagated. x^poc. ON. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. caperd. a wine taster. choppe. select. to taste. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. keypa. chceur. friller. kiezen. chiffe. a heap. •- Russ.ffrill. schiefer. then to shiver. pieces . 19. . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. ^euw. anger. pluck. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. — Chock-full. to taste. * To Choose. coro. gekrose. &c. Choleric. gustare. G. %o\ifa. Body and Soul. a fragment. kalbs gekrose. of an angry — — — ' ' — . kieser. . krussyi. schevel-steen. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. chap hands. wrath. ^S. cive. to ^cleave . ments of the knightly class. then to try. disposition. the ridges prove.ceosan. to chap at a door . it is probable that the root kus. and It.V)^x. Gr. seallion or unset leek. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. to turn. a scale or fragment P1. approve. word is more likely to be from Lat. chock full. kiesen. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. haslets. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Prov. called cMtters in the N. a ruff. a company of singers or dancers. Schmid.

Chronicle. cheviniau. Fr. Sw. forms are Chrism.). dealing. . shop where clogs and pattens are sold. The Turk was here As one should say. chapineria. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. overset. as in Fr. cob. klompe. kolbe (club). doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. —Shakespeare. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. to overturn. 4. the same word with the It. as Du. prattle . capito. of which such strings are made. cangiare. To coup. a small fish with a large head. choucas. cresmeau. chevane.—Chuokstone. -chron-. A fish with a thick snout and head. Du. chrysalis (Plin. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. 49. Picard. I bring you the Cloughs. To Chop logick. xop5>}. whence apparently the Sup. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. chub. gobio capitatus. monedula. — Quabbe. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. cheap. chroniques. sent before him a Chiaus. chapin. by the Robert Shirley. cow-couper. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. the teeth to chatter .— Landnamabok. cauvette j Fr. fat. Alchemist. e. In the Alchemist. because she would not endure this husband chopping. — Chrisom. AS. p. capitanus. Chub. Gr. Du. thick-set. G. Fr. Jam. bearand aits. Lat. P. Confounded with the bullhead.X. XpvaaXic. chevane. klopper. Borgoens happen. Chuck. thumb Fl. cambiare. ceo. Sp. one who buys and sells horses or cows. an offence against the fitness of times. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. — — — . applied to an owl in that language. a thick piece. which was written 27. xftovoq. to strike in the hand. Ant. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. OE. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. whence e. chatter . in Chaucer. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. plump. Chough. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. kaej Lith. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. caphatenus. Fr. Marin. a messenger or envoy. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. kubbr. syllables chat. peace. &c. Peace. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. A jackdaw. civetta.(. kaw.). Fr. Chord. chuet. or miller's kaycke . capita. chouette. slipper . yiSA.\^s. cavena. xpi'^lia. kubb. E.' They are forebuyers of quheit. the intestine of an animal. dial. E. soul-couper. . clat. whence the Fr.• — . Anachronism. gold. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. to clack. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. to knock. e. That Face. caqueter. See Change. koppe. i. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. to speak thieves' slang. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. to chatter. Fr. equivalent to the E.sohola. Nominale in Nat. Kil. chapma?i. connected with G. Gr. the string of a musical instrument originally. kowej Sax.. whence — E. a The What dhy ^. If I discover. in i6io. Gr. clogs. chrisme. dial. chronicles. high clog. From the Turkish Chiaus. to turn over. Come. noble Doctor.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. In Sc. for to defraud. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Cot. gull. a trafficker in souls. ' ' What's that? Dap. kaulhaupt (club-head. ley in Giiford. we find the following passage Dap. — . What do you think of me. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. kobe. kowe. to cant. chevin. chack.povucd. who took in the Turk- clack. — Dief. E. Gr. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. capitone. chop. gull. kauwe. cauc.— Chevin. chouquette. time ra . To Chouse. a bullhead. and we actually find champman for chapman. short piece kubbug.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. See Chaff. a lump or piece chump. Madam. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. quappe. traffic. Wall. caker. a stump. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking.. ON. from kloppen. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. E. claquer.' Jam. Chopino. that will thank chiaus — you richly. kaufen. merchant. Chrysalis.

analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Hence -cid-. residue of burnt coals. spuma metalli. chofe (Grandgagnage). The origin ation. incido.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. countryman. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. to sparkle. as in E. chife. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Lat. a man. ashes. sindra. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. Probably from It. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Ka-^aiva. sindel. sive piratiam facere sciant. Sc. Lat. cut off. OFr. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. jaws. See Cheek. whence ON. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . Gothic nations. Da. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. -cide-. casum (in comp. to To Chuckle. — of the two words. i. ON. to turn from blossom to fruit. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. ceaflas. C^z^j^ churHsh.. chofu. log of wood.— Chu%. geaflas. however. a resounding object. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. kjami. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. -cis-. Wall. as Fr. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. a miser. fat-cheeked. a cutting round. Cider. the kernel. a cutting an old chuff. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). dust. in the face. to jaw chack or snap. to fall at or on. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. cheeks Cincture. AS. -cise. scoria. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. to throw out sparks. to Newsp. cheek. Diss. has been impugned which it has really no connection. * Cinder. Churn. Ir. G.' And cold. See Ceiling. tindra. as water running over rocks or stones. kirna. karl. whence church.D. Du. sinter. Gr. chaps. to strike clatter. kakka.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. lamak. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed.^. calx. The derivation from Kvpiasov. a husband. AS. set kerti. a fellow. to make a aiKipa. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. chuffy. . — . ccedo. male person.for the residue of stone coal. Chunk. tie about). . we have to chack. ladre from Lazare. Lat.rendered by Kil. . to make a rippling noise. the snout of an animal.' he adds. Fris. kerl. Gr. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. It is certain. e. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. The spelling of chider has Chump. giffle. whence deciduous (of trees). to cut decide. to him a sudden blow. i. as a board. blow on the I io6 in Mur. In Sc. cinders used disjunctively. to cause the milk to grain. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. Cleland in Jam. a man. pp. thence a belt. ChurL husbandman. ciuffo. . G. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. cado. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). -cisuiri). marrow. Chuff. to fall upon decide. but by way of explan. to form grains of butter. cinctus. -eris. To chuck in the fall from. kiorne. as Epkema explains it. ON. Sw. e. KaxXij?. in circumcision. See Cheek. kern. a douse on the tores. surly. kernjen. with It the Lord's house. sintel. sindr. &c. comp. chakil. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . to separate the kernel of the milk. from Lat. chack-stone. Church. a man.V//a'6'?. joufflu. ceorl. dial. cinis. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. Cieling. to churn. or. swollen or puffed up Cot. Wall. a girding on. hot iron is beaten on the anvil.— . joffu. have given rise. Fr. ceffo. a rustic . chack or stane-chacker. sicera. — — A — ' ' — . flower. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Cob. As AS. from Lat. in Sc. kaerle. klakka. a lump. cidre. then the on oh StX iv roXt. so as to make the happen . accido. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. a pebble. &c. ceffore. -cido. chops. cendre. domhnach. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. gffe. Du. an old man. pith.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. that the word is an adoption of Fr. 24. x^^i?. . corresponding term should have made its way among to G. cinctura {cingo. a pebble . Lat. Jennings. Fr. Du. to determine incision. to gird. or choice part of a thing . calculus. ceaplas. KvptaKolg. .' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Aasen. ON. to fall. Sicerawry face ceffata.

lump . klacken. and clash. prattle. ON. lucerna. a kind of rattle. to set in motion by means of the voice. claquet de moulin. slam. to strike. rattle . a'upiav. clapper. Cite. sifr. sound- — hands figures. a Lat. Excite. clamras. smack. See Crankle. To Claim. domern. Lat. klater-busse. and Sp. klepati. -cite. a hiding-place. trunk. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. a for water. and. claquer. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. clot ON. kringr. a whip. . globus. to go. around. . glam. and E. cittd. sajira. cieo. City. a reservoir Probably from Lat. about. to summon or call on. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Comp. It. noise. to chatter . klacke-busse. klak. cry. cisterna. a circle. Bohem. Lat. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). Hence Incite. cion. klappe. To Clack. Gr.' sione. uproar. klammer. to knock. circ2tlus. . . as in Sp. dob. See Circle. Du. or split with noise. fall. G. the door was slammed J slamem. a kind of pipe. Lat. claim. around. cion. * Ciplier. The syllables clap. klimp. Lat. a rattle Fr. a lemon tree. Sw. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. klemte. a pop-gun. to mention. &c. hringr. -cis-. a mass. —Circuit. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. in the frequentative form. Fr. a knob. a split. sound. Dan. bunch. The Gr. Scion. vociferation. Citadel. a boss . KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. as caverna from cavus. Clam. area. kluV. klubb. cluster. Clump. twig. clasp. circum. with an initial s instead of c. Circle. sphere gleba. log. Du. Gr. Citron. Fr. clack. a loud uksa slamketi. a whirlwind. to call. Dan. Lap. Du. KipKog. Lat. From Arab. scion or sucker. citrus.— . . to call. W. . cittadella. See -cid-. castus). Clamp. or clap-dish. circum. clamer. ball kloben. Chaste. klabb. cisterna. klambr. clapping of klacke. is traced by Gr. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. lump. ern. ON. glambar. a block. ring. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. klqb. cit^. scion. cittade. clap. Fr. to cluck. It. a cleansing place. lump of wood or with the nasal. —Civil. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a Pol. chupon. a ball. * Cistern. suck).to suck. ciste. clack-box. citujn. 'mass. klumbr. a ball. crack. to chatter. a place See place hiddern. or quill to draw waier through Fl. radical identity of the Fr. glamm. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. to bawl. clatCot. circle. may cite w. crack. Mack. a circle. city. prattle. chest. to chatter. forms — — — parent plant. clap. tinnitus . Gael. Lat. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . creak les dents. a block. It. Sw. Sp. wasserkasten (water chest). ter. G. sindri. ON. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . to appeal. civis. klump. cifra. crack. We . klompe. a ring. kringla. cry out . a judgment cern. Lat. claquer crash. Hal. lump. as. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. klamp. a shoot. chijfre. the tongue. clambar. The notion of a lump. for Cion. clog. So a light. Arab. . mass . klopati. a clod. babble . clangor avium . the place of . In Fr. clat. a city. CION See Tinder. a rattle . Tlie proper sense is a sucker. . . . clack. empty Golius. to cleanse. a. klateren. Cot. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. to call by name. E. whence cistiti. lash . clump. a citizen . from chupar. claquer. klekotati. to be empty. Alt. sound of blow. excite. Gael. to clatter. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. belonging to cities or social life . a lump Du. to make to go. klappen. We . to toll . to clap at a theatre. Recite. biw. bunch . ruin. civitas.. . civilis. stimulate. noise — — a cistern. of citta. clobyn. KpiKoe. chatter . cito. a city. rattle. lump. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. gutter. clack-dish. accordingly find the roots dab. a lump Lat. outcry. chupon. Fr. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. circa. a circle. Circum-. clamp. sprig. dim. to gnash the teeth. clamp. sip. a cistern. klap. a clod Russ. clamare. lump. compared with It. to cry out. parallel root is slam. cista. — (Dozy) ing blow. to clack. E. a young and tender plant.

Gael. klubber. klippe. dientes. &c. Lat. a sound. of which the locative case. Russ. Clan. Clank. to beat. yf. to climb . run to lumps Clandestine. to glue. klang. The Fr. clap. dandestinus. adopted Lat. children. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. cleave. accent. to climb. brawl. Bav. anything hidden. tattle. — Climb. ney. dee. The E. klynge. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . to knock. from birdlime. rattle. klavre. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. dem. a noose . tenacious. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. beat. The equivalent of Lat. These words To are closely connected with damp. Clamour. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. — with hunger. klem-vogel. prison. to hold fast with the . clammy brace. to glue. dapi^. cramp-iron. — Cot. to cling. celo produces Fin. strain . a bird of prey. kluppel. klebern. dapier. to claw oneself up. To clap in E. to climb. rumour. klemmen. . dink Du. with cramp-irons. klopfen. sound object . a stone See Claim. hook. To Clamber. narrow. for tame conies. to hide. AS. knocking. to patronus. tinkle. contraction. to do anything with a clap. . B. originally a heap of large stones. chief. dial. E. kloben. uproar. cling. sound. To sticky. klampen.1. substances of a stickydam. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. Clapper. cluster. klepel. of money Gael. Sw. dambar. to climb. Swiss kletten. a trap. a sound made by a lighter clink. klamme. a whip. — . c). descendants . klamm. G. hold. — — . clear sound. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. In like manner Du. a stick. tremble . Clang. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . in a hidSen place. clann. Hence the Fr. G. to. Swiss kldbem. clajnmy. dam. clapas. daver. Halma. salaan. solid. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. Clamp. to Hal. dren. kleben. nature . bandage. klammer. kleppen. offspring. clang. Dan. clibby. clink. damras. klynge sig op. a claw . pinching. holdfast. to starve. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. See Clam. sound. clandestine. ancestor. massy. to stick conceal. to cleave or stick. klibber. whence sala. klam7n. viscous. scendants. pressed close or hard together. of the children. G. sound . buckle klamp. stick. E. a heap of stones or other things piled up . klappre. klemmen. tingle. is a nasalised form of gripper. closely analogous to that of the fast. dia. from the w. to gingle. glambar. to climb. to pinch. clapper of conies. clasp. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. to climb. a sound made by a still . resonance klingen. klette. The root which gives rise to klibb. damor. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. to Sw^. clamber. to daub pinch. diver.p correspond- ' without order. Lang. OE. klimmeii. G. klappen. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. E. cramp. klamre. coagulated cream. to dame. to hold to pinch. to stick or glue. klepati. klepanie. where- A — unto they retire themselves. is used in the sense of secretly. children. B. as the clapping of hands. . G. a heap of stones. chatter. kleppe. dam immediate modifications — . klemmen. klam. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. . Mampe. klank. to clutch or cling oneself up. Bohem. Salainen. Dan. klammern. Clink. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. dang. bond. seize. privately. compression. sticky Hal. Clap. club . descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. but perhaps not directly from it. klobber-saen. Du. These are imitations of a loud. or klamp-vogel. viscosity . and that from celo. also to clog up. dienklebber. crowd . gliong. to seize. clangor. and hence to pinch . clav\f. chatter. klettern. Du. . dank. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. dapier. gripe. dap up. to clap on. to clamp. strait. ring as metal. to clap. Fr. klatten. a burr. Du. a place underground where rabbits breed. a claw. to hook things together. . and hence moist. clap. tight. a hawk. dam.' klibba. klappen. grasp. kleppe. a loud tingle.' to take coals to Newcastle. to knock. E. who occuG. tone.. Dan. a craCmp. grimper. hands or claws to grasp.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. conceal. beating. dial. compress. cream Manx doan.er. G. sound of the trumpet . A i. gum. dam. — Lat. Du. a rattle . take hold of. apprehend . Dan. the in many languages. as the Lat. G. salafa.

to do anything with a . skeria-klasi. Rayn. klauw. a. klaskad. Clew. to knock. sphaera.oi. Clavicle. klatsche. Nawith stavis. Dan. buckle. Fr. Du. to ring in such a manner for the dead. clew or fasten upon a thing. gaspe. a complete sentence. a key KKtitid. clatter.\x\xvn. vin clairet. chasguear. i. kleuen. in the sense of a mass or lump. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. clarinado. klatscha pop-gun. To clew. klos. So Pol. vin claret. it is called clamming. a claFr. clew. locket of a door. klucz. From clairet. also a knell for the dead. kiosk bicza. applied in their harness. thwack . klampvoghel. klatschen. Clash. E. rion. Sw. to shut. Serv . ivy. under three modifications dava. dap. . climp.— CLARET clamp. Lat. and through v into a. fracas. Analogous Jam. globus. clarin. klaterbusse. Klatsch- a pop-gun . Du. The form clew. as it is written by Chaucer. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Lat. seizes) . but not the full red of ordinary red wine. subrubidum. cinnamon. a sphere . teren. Du. clausula. Russ.to cra. Cot. clairon of a trumpet— It. Du. . klamme. Lat. same class with w. vinum helvolum. insularum nexus . Identical with ON. waU. mass. a distribution of things into groups. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. But clasp or elapse. The b readily passes into gleba. to draw it up into a bunch. to clash as arms. a nail. Wyutoun in Jam. —Kil.It. The collar-bone. clump. Du. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. noise. Clause. Eya-klasi. assembly. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. In E. glcis. klc^i. clair. flap. classis. G. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. somewhat clear. globus. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. a. a water made of aquavitse. to snap. contraction. claw (what fastens together. a little hook . a ball. From claudo. Claw. he of white and red grapes mingled together. to end. a kind of small. and shrill-sounding trumpet. Prov. cluster. a key origmally a crooked nail.ck a whip. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. clavis. kleeven. Claret. nawith stanis. Sp. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. klaeret. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. hook. In the same way is formed the OE. pellet . a heap. which signifies a ball in E. a club or massy stick.. Commonly made. to clap . Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. biichse. ictus resonans. ghespe. the cracking of a whip. klase. pet. Fr. Gr. fragor . &c. Kil. Thus from clamp. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. It. sauna de classes. schnalle. to cleave. cloi. It. clamp. 269.Gr. a claw. from the resemblance to a key. the primary origin clapa. clairon. kletse. KXeiSi. an on the one hand. thence a definite head of an edict or law. K\a. Owl and that by which cleave to. from clinging to the tree which supports it. as G.). and clavis. straight-mouthed. a bunch. sound of the foregoing description. we pass to the E. blab. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. klouwe (Kil. in the sense of a claw. is used in Sc. klijven. a clod. with a reddish tint. Lat.w or u on the other. hawk. ansa. Class. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. from scknallen. — Kiittner. crying. a bird with powerful talons. as Mod. an ending. Clatter. a lump. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. klouwe. forms are the Du. &c. row aii/iaTos. uproar. klauwe. Du. — tells us.Z. a lump . stop of an organ. a clasp. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . klatschen. and old red rose-water. clavus. syrtium junctura. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. klampe. Thus from Lat. to rattle . a key. fibula. mass. claret win e. chiarino. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Mask ! plask ! thwick. to fasten together . chiarello. or as G. to fasten. chiizjj-o. Pol. bawling. Originally clasis. from its use in fastening things together. a buckle. clas. Nightingale. compression. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. nail. diver. Eau clairette. a lash. is preserved in Lang. rubellum. to patter. clopa. chiaro clear. biichse. the collar-bone. chatter. klot. puUs. Fr. clausum. kluczka. e. — Clarinet. — Clarion. to animals Sp. Lang. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. whence kleuer. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Clasp.

to stick or adhere . klag. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. kluit. klank. clout. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. B. Clinch. Clemency. together . glindse. clean. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. is fast and sure. klinke. cleave. to clinch a nail. smooth. glent. neat. the fork of the body. klafwa. klceg. glance . The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. split. a flash. voice. calm. Sc. in two ways. seem formed dial. a cleft or fissure. ON. clean. explained from the klinken. clibby. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. Probably a modification of the word doitt. to fasten E. the original . shine. See Clam. kloben. an object is simply cleft. it cleave together. splendid pohshed. glan. kleg. merciful. a fissure or division See Cleave. kldnkelein. to clench. sticky earth. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. glbram. bright. glitnir. klov. Clean. Axletree clouts. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. G. a cleft. pure. viz. 2. rivet. glandse. G. Clay. tongs. rive. a mass. danche. klutsch. Fr. klirren. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . from nitere. Du. dial. gentle. of iron worn on shoes by country people. pretty. Die zaak is zS. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. Du. rift. a noose. Du. provinciaUy termed dout. G. found in other cases. sticky . daggy. kloue. to 2. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. Omklinken. a lump. clear. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. dags. klieben. a fissure. either by the coherence To Clepe. klouen. W. klinken. to glitter. or from being divided into two parts. klouen. Sw. clean. dag. deot. from diquer. klor. to sound or make a noise . Da. E. a mass. a noise. klove The Dan. glor-mhor. nitidus. clemens. Cleat. glan. This is probably one of the clean. to separate into parts. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. Bav. lump. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. klyft. give a shrill sound Jr. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . to chink. E. conserere antklankjan. Cleft. dams.— Claggy. AS. vice. gleit. Gael. Clear. doff. klinken. This word is used in two business is finished off. speech . probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a clincher. polished. E. kleben.' was nailed to a rock. loam. sleek. To call. mud. cloven wood. date is AS. and Dan. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. Lat. klinken. polish . (Cot. to Brilliant. to tear or cleave asunder. Sw. and. glbr. klink. dench. to shine. . klincke. clay . Mar. glint. ON. diquetcr. gingle. See Clog. or of a tree. Lat. pellet. kleg. pure . vissticky . to shine .— . a key. the two parts of Du. Sc. kluftholz. klinke. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. and E. klieuen. Thus from G. dinquet kleeven. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. kloben. that was a striking proof. i. to clinch GB. The word is . Wilbraham. To Clench.Q. . from the clinking of the latch. bend in a stream. to cleave. door-latch. as the Du. a latch. chaps in the skin. klijveii. a in that of sphtting. a one end. clash. Sw. neat. that was Torriano. a claw or talon. G. klirre. Du. a plate. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. From dob. dedgy. glan. the To Cleave. Dan. The Dan. kluft. geklonken. G. as explained under G. clean. a lump. kloben. a cleft. From clap. bogs cous. glorious. a bunch of When flax). a — — . klinke. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. Da. A — A Clement. kleverig. glatt. as ON. — : A rivet. clink. Da.— Clag. Du. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. dut. Kil. famous. words applicable sight. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. radiant. to fasten. hook. clear. holding together. to dag ox dog. to be composed. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. to fasten. Halma. Du. The proper meaning of the word is shining. river. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. cliquet. celebrated . . sticky. as Lat. ON. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. The word may be — . . and Celtic glan. pure. to clink or sound. opposite senses. to stick to. kla:g. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . as Fr. kluyte.). doggy. kleevig. the latch of a door. glitta. . klinka. clear. viz. . gaklankjan. 154 CLAY dutch.

deuch. which is used in Scotch and N. CLINCH De . deik. G. IS5 Du. name. duik. is NE. to tattle. a hold. cleft. hamraklif. nimble. cave . —Vocab. . dook (identical with E. CLERK sound of a blow. klippe. a mill-clack . Fr. to cry. seize (Hal. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. dicher. Sp. prattle. one of the clergy. klikker. — have the notion of a short quick in E. dial. to move. chatter. klaffen. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik.' ii. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. klinket. dexterous. cliquet. dichet. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. klif. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. call. gleg. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. 3. to prate. a clicket or clapper. in precisely the same sense as the E. as Sc.) Brai. a lump. catching. has kl'dver. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. kloof. above the pole. Climb. AS. from Gael glac. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. derjon. a latch.Lat. cliof. quick in motion. dek. chat. Du. cleke.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. a trigger. a claw or clutch. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. quick of perception. that is a clever feUow. region not observe it. cleft in a rock. The Sc. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. clypian. from clifian. rock. to sound an alarm to clap. syn. dergi. as a click with the tongue. has also deik. /cXi'fia. to rattle. cleugh. dial. sink. crack. rupes . But the Dan. a cliff. klever. a hook. Norm. a child's or clack . clyf. littus. In I Peter v. a latch. to clack. a clew. a precipice. Lat. click. Rouchi cliche. The origin is the Gr. cleopian. 3. globus. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . to tattle. Hence Lat. climate. corresponding to the Sc. clap. to talk as a parrot. cleft of a hill. klev. a latch . slope . click it. See Clench. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a lot. klikklakken. light-fingered. — — A . as Lat. Clever. Cliff. to wink. exactly Gr. skard. . clif. frap- per rudement une personne. in the sense of active. a ball of twine. Client. diver. a sphere. lively. OE. scar.. the dick of a latch or a trigger. Lat.). to stir. a ladder. and hence deik. declivity.— Clicket. Gr. as from derido. Lat. an inclination. rapidus from rapio. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. in rhetoric. what so men clappe or crie. Du. corresponding to Fr. Clew. rugged ascent. cliff. derigo. agile. a baU of yarn. babble. klok klep- crepitare. See Clamber. deudi. Det er en Mover kerl. to snatch. a hump. crackle. Click. say. to catch. de ripa. with hamarskard. clif- stanas. ravine. icXi/ja?. Du. abrupta rupes . precipice. on. Clergy. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. cliquer. Sw. e. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. Boh. derecia. to teU tales. to bend. klinke. Clam. . would have been derida. on. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. to cleave. diquette. deik. crepare. clep. whence Fr. temperature. call. a tumbril. verge). or an object character- Clerical. a clerk . klaiv. &c. dutch). klouwe. clever. chatter. a lazar's clicket or clapper. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . -Toe (from KXivm. to confess . klika. had a form. duke. Now the OE. the knocker of a door. to seize. klinge. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. to catch. precipices. diofian. dink. cautes. Da. cart that tilts over. the clergy. it must be observed. Bav. derigon. neither as having lordship in the. d See Clan. kleppe. stein- kluppen. a cleft in a rock . Happen. Climate. G. clever. dough. and hence climate. . clatter. click. clack. a figure mentioned.— Clue. Clerk. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). Cot. deuck. chatter. speak. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. Climax. pulsare. glomus. dob.dergie! Wiclif in R. dial. kliket. Jam. Claw. Commonly derived from deliver. ginally from dob (extant in W. Somner. ized . See AS. one admitted to the tonsure. kleppen. Chaucer. or Sc. clima. and (with the nasal) — clincher. highest is attained. Sc. clerus. pen. klippe. KkrifoQ. kliv. Dunbar in Jam. dever. which in Mid. expeditious. claw or talon to dek or deik. snatch. the clergy clericus. Klover i munden. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. score7i clif. cligner. click. We movement catch. ready of speech. sonare. rock.

incline. clivus. to beat on the board. a lump G. related to clock.ginglej Fr. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. G. parva ruptura. Du. four of the bell. . clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. verklungeln. ' . from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. I. gang. — clot. pinch. schnippen. w. Da. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. claw. to ring. to cling to a thing. cochl. The E. to wither. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Sw. glungelin. gUong. like cling. N orman clincailler. to wither. klak. a snare. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. dag. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. klupen. OHG. iissura. declivis. klinka. E. klocke. and a similar syllable without the /. ring clag. — a mantle.. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. klicke. a hood. Lat. kliks. ten. E. as G. . klungeln. klunker. to resound. klynge. a clog or fetter for a beast . to shrink up. in Schmeller) klunk. a tinman. -CLINE make pinch. Bohem. a clock. pallium. Gael. klinken. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to clink auf. outcry. to strike. g. fetter. . a fused matter which clogs a furnace. clutch. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. to snap or fillip schnippen. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. Cloak. Kil. Esthon. Walach. to sound sharp. Hal. glocke. to pinch klupe. Sw. . where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. at first probably on a wooden board. difficulty. to make a loud noise. to clunge. * Clod. Fr. chcng. tuft. hlinen. clinker. knot klynge. toga muliebris. The notion of a loose moveable substance. speaks of a ' clung bat. rima. Decline. Fr. ON. pinch. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Ir. klincke. to shrink up.D. whence E. clique. a lump. a ball of thread .D. clingan. Du. clock is a variation of clack. to snap kneipen. kXiVu. dial. . . disposed to a thing. hluk. clino. sloping forwards. sloping downwards . hill . . to slope or bend . cloche. Flem. Swiss klungele. to pinch. a separate portion. straits. Clock. to snip. . Bi klik uti klak.. to knock. to bend downwards . is often expressed by forms representing the sounds .' for a dry stick. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. G. ON. toga. from klepati. dial. to beat. a woman's mantle . klingen. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. dial. Du. klik. klocka. To cut with shears. to crowd or squeeze chingy. G. klaka. to AS. klippe. or bagging clothes. hluccti. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. shears. a cluster. and so' to contract. clato make a noise. Clink. Lat. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen.. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. slant. to clip. noise. to cluster. hlinian. club). S w. G. brett-glocke. kol- The word . Sw. kima. Cliofue. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. cloak.'— Shaks. klocke.. clinke. hooded .und zuk-lippen. &c. acclivis. as we now say three or four o'clock. to lean. a rising ground. met. sloping upwards procUvis. clangere. recline. as to snip in the same sense from snap. knippchen. difficulty . have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. -atum. clips. To stick to. sticky. See Cowl. globulus' (Gl. a bell. klippa. a lump of butter. kukla. . Sussex peasant AS. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. bow. klok. klippen. Ang. 156 -cline. klipa. Du. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klippa. To Clip. klippur.— KSS. kleppe. kluben. See Clang. kluppe. nip. klo^gen. kolki-laud. by bits.' From Pl. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. incline. Sw. ON. as thick or curdled liquids. Swiss klokken. to clap or clack. clog. Sw. dial. quincailler. 'Till famine cling thee. klepalo. to snap tongs. Gr. Serv. also to form a compact mass. especially of something soft or clammy.— Clot. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. klunge. -cliv-. to crowd together klynge sig ved. to form one mass with. Pl. G. to lean backwards. a faction. and 'E. To Cling. kolbe to E. Een kliks bolter. G. kldpp. klungelin. Bohem. a beU. knippe. to . compress . a bell. 2. knippen. also to wink . lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.

tuditare. dag. mud. to lobberig. geschlotter (as E. to a. to wabble. IV. bemired. loose.. of a body of any kind. zocco. -close. klod. clammy loam. or drablyn with separate existence. kloden. loppe. dirt. to close against one. . schlattern. shut up. G. A . is connected with pludder. fat. a clod. an imputation. dunch). slob. is a blot on one's character. slops slodderen. to dabble. rattle. mud klcEg. lump of mud on the clothes . A — — A Thus from Bav. E. Lat. . clos. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. I clodde. terminate. Du. TZoxapov. schlottern. dirt. lunch. kloten. to rattle. clausum. schlotter. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. curdled. meat from Du. I clodde. slab. loose trowsers. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. mire. Idppern. a log. Klak also. thick spoon . In the same way Dan. spatter. Clog. AS. clos. and E.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. Pl. Dan. schlettern. or loppern. da- . in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. a block. cloth. klakk. shaky. kladde. a blot. or E. clot. klag. He was a man without a dag. . Yule-clog. The game called ninepins. It. Swiss schlott. claque. to paddle in the wet. without. claudo. to play at bowls. . -clus-. forbidden by 17 Ed. truncus. klateren. . a babbler. E. a clod Swab. -cludo. wabbling from Du. a monastery.rge lump. shut up. and Du. we pass to E. dangle. klakken. pattens G. To Clog.' end. slobber. bloutre. bespotted with mire E. Fr. Closhe. kloteispaen. klos-bane. inclose. to rattle or shake to and fro. pludre. to flap as loose clothes. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. The origin of clod and clot is to . unctuous. daustrum. hanging loose and full. clogs for the feet klakk. Lat. dial. a skittle-ground klos- sen. klos. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. Pr. congeler. clorre. closed. motte. analogous plan to clod or club. paddle or dabble in the wet. loose mud. a bal!. to slop or spill liquids. neither spot nor hang loose. slops). to shut up. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). laggery. doitre. Gr.— Clothe. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. bowl . Bav. watery.'^ Palsgr. loppered (of milk). dab. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. . to dash like heavy rain. lopperig. clatk. or Sc. with Fr. Du. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. Fr. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. Close.D. to bedaub. a trowelful of mortar. slobbe. claggy. I doda clod. from Du. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. laggyn. aspersion. klotz.dial. in forms like Du. clausum. to rattle. enOE. motzen. Pm. . chiuso. klot. then liquid or loose substance. MHG. lobbig. and thus seem endowed . a portion of something soft and adhesive. tJokok. to cling locks. foreclose. chiudere. lobberen. a blot.1a.D. . compared with clump. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. close. to spill liquids. lumps of butter. lag. and Gael. be&c. Russ. tramp in wet or mire. slop. g. figer. to sup up liquid food. wide bagging clothes. a lump from Du. m&se noch stain.. • lump. schlott. lump of butter. to shut. to flounder in the wet. clogs. . zoccoli. 3. spot of dirt. whence klack. boil. plod. loblolly. in accordance with It. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. separate part. to claggock. the radical sylla. clotted locks Dan. Pr. kloster. . a dirty wench claggy. of something clammy or heavy. like G. lump of something soft . Fr. kleck or lack. slabberen. splash. ! . slobberen. log. clotted milk klotte. we pass to Schlatter. je amoncele. lopin. Sc. from Fr. G. Mat. kloteren. in accordance with Pl. paludosus. Klottermelck. from claudo. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to bubble. finish . a field inclosed clos. a Christmas log. lob. be found rattle. Fr. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. to shut. miry laggerit. a spot.). I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. thick sour milk. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. . . fors. . Cloister. -clusum. beklakken. daggerey. Hence inclose. . To hinder by the adhesion Sc. to shut in. His heart was franlc without a flaw. clog or overshoe. a clog. paddle. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. klac. . a log. to dabble. in comp. kleck. klokotat. kl'dnken. klotzschuh. klunkern. to bodies. gelatinous. blot. lobberen. klottern.

klotzig. to cloy. Das volk hat sich in splitten. dial. warm. choke or stop up. stock. Du. kluppe. dirt. a knot of people. sheltered up warm. clotted milk or cream. Sw. to strike. wisp. E. caillebottes. a ball. CLOUD an awkward clod . a ball of twine . a nail. Met. nourish . — . hebes (Kil. to cover Bret. cludadh. Du. So Fr. a lump. dabaire. a thick mass. a patch. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . clue. tered . to strike .' Sanders. dote. dob.D. dabosser. to beFr. cluster. chiodo di girofano. klebek. warm. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. .D. del mattond. clod is used in both senses . cluth mhor.). block. To Cluck. cobble. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Clumpered in balls of clouds. a bousche. and clay. . klove. clydion. The radical sense seems to be an unE. lump of earth aria. It. The significations of a clod or lump.D. formed lump or thick mass. klumpfot. dys. Cloud. to curdle. clot . The priClout. clod. kUid. a blabber. esdaboter (Roquef. G. dial. knob. G. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. a curdled sky. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. piece Cot. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. dut. from Du. and tapp. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. a ball. a sky Cot. — — — . signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. Gael. ser. spice) G. clothes). a bunch. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. mary sense is a blow. but confounded with cailler. clothe. nagelein.). dillad bumkin. E. klump. CLUCK rustic. loggish. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. a ball. klubbe. warm clothes {dillad. clammy earth. with lout. also homo obtusus. from W. . zolla. kloven. E. of nagel. AS. a log. knob.clod. klieven. a sticky. mire. Gael. and clout d eudaich. clot. a bobbin. a clown. lumps of curd. Clover. Properly that which covers and Du. and -the word Clove. Kiittner. group of people Sw. Fr. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. rustic. the terms expresssplit. Dan. . whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. kldverj P1. klubb. dial. Sw. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. . mass. make warm. clyd. a garthas. a clod. More in R. Cld. kluV. clumhar. naegel. boucher. a nail) Fr. unpolished. klunds.). . clou de girofle. cob. a bunch. G. N. diboter. clods. warm place .158 . A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . are also used in the sense of a stopper. a lump. Clump. klotz. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). een klaven kruflook. indispalte knoblauch. Mabousfrom Lat. clavo di especias. Sp. dash (Cot. eine to slop. Du. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. the air. in the same sense. probably from daboter. a clove of garlick. to stop. from OFr. blockish. To Cloy. strike. duthaich. a bunch. a breach. Du. klaven. aglio. a clot or keeps one warm. klubba. daggy. lump. eene ODu. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. AS. bunch. a boss. 2. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. Imitative of the note of a society. From dog. cobio. and closely do conspire. ON. clunch. G. mud (Pat. to lump mend clumsily. clothes ment. klotsen. klever. matte. dump. cludaim. nelke (dim. as Fr. In the same way E. motte. Clown. Ir. davus. Coventry Mysteries in Hal.ft.Fris. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. coarse. clot. Then applied to a lump of mate. of a lump of earth and that figure. a cover or coverture . Du. log. w. klonte. a fissure. Du. when something has got into the touch-hole. A kind of spice resembling Du. to splash. I. a. a clod or clot. to cleave. Club.). klobbersaen. clump. ball of thread Russ. klu77ip. A division of a root of garlick. lie clyd. to a lump. lump. to cherish. lunch). sticky. botsen. puddle. zolla dell' . w. Move. clunch. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. kloete. of thumping clumsy action. milk run to lumps. clog. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. little nails. to tramp in the kluyve. of sloppy materials. from kloven. clump of a clout on the head. clobyn. to cleave or the splashing of water. a clubfoot klabb. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. klcBdi. klubb. lump. tuft. cloud Delfortrie. a . (kruyd =. Pl. de Champ. kl'dnne. klqb. a log.bar. botch. Rouchi dapoter. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. ON. sheltered . are often connected. and of a rustic unpolished person. klumba. shel- kloen.

klonte. lump of soft mate. through the senses of lumpish. Sc. clointer. crooked inwards . klisse. &c.— — . as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. -clusum. wooden shoes. a litter. Lat. Hence cleik. whence koetse. close. MHG. xXvariip.' Benecke. klemma. clotted cream. doquear. E. unhandy. klunsen. inclusive. klunt. and klotteren. clip or pinch. COAL dumpish. a lump. enervatus. The Fr. kluntfrom KKvKdi. might be reached from clump. a noise. claw. Compare Swiss klupe. dial. In the same way Du. . Coach. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. dumpse. a bunch. OHG. cleche. G. kol. are the nasalised forms of klotte. klobber in klobbersaen. dystere. to tramp or tread heavily. clumsy. of Du. glocire. — Hence include. Hesse. to curdle. Du. klette. -CLUDE hen Du. ' . clopiner. Ray. klcise. Teulazy. to rinse. clabosser. unhandy. klampa. with E. Sp. Riwle. acomelydfor could Pr.P. Fris. Clutter. finish. a ball . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed.' Wycliff. klamp. a coach. a nasalised form of club. as clumper. ON.E. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. paste. Analogous forms with a tongs. n. a lump. tight — — . the word is more probably connected with OE. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. clook. hooknosed. to squeeze. cleuk. hondis. properly to do anything Fr. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface .'— animal. klummklummshandt. a clod or lump. Variation of clatter. Graff in Klamjan. also a cluster. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. klonte. klister. See -elude.D. lavesen. Muster. * Clump. klocken. pinched. idle. as from seken. lay hold of. OE. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. hand to cleuk. to benumb with cold. Cheshire. unwieldy Hal. may recline. The sense of awkward. to grip. klikonosy. Gr. eviratus. carriage in which you klodset. klontet. from klupen. beklommen. klemmen. E. See reclusion. smart motion.' Vegecius in Way.' Comfort ye dumsid. Du. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. -elude. of garlick. klumpig. hands stiff with cold. klumpern.D. Fr. Cluster. Clump.D. wagen. — ' — — tonista. A group. obstructum. klimpern. Boh. G. having the Pl. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. dussomed (Wilbrabam). — sen. dial.D. klikaty.Ancr. Beklummen van kelde. conclude. koetsDa. a clod or The noclot. ment. * Clumsy. splash. in comp. or aclommyde. awkward. beklummen. dek. a clod clunter. viscous material. from laver. esclaboter. —More. Du. Ang.D. koetblockish. glousser. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. calling her chickens. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. koetsen. —To Clumsyd. from ON. fingers (familiar). ball of snow on horse's foot .forklomme (Outzen). clump. a clove Sw. Lincolns. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. kohle. klomje. bunch. -clus-. But clunchy. dial. ball as snow. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. eene beklum. algidus.mene tied. to pinch. a block.. . verkommelen. to tramp. to gingle. an instrument for nasal form e. klummerhdndt. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. a ball. a lump or compact mass. . a clod or lump. kichlemmit. dumps. log. in v. koetsie. klompen. gelidus. plad or plod. to curdle. cluster. differing only in the absence of the duik. as Fr. klump. klamen. dek. eviratus. Du. Fr. Pl. Sw. It. . to collect in lumps. to curdle. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. G. Sw. Du. Champ. benumbed with cold. thick and clumsy. Coal. a couch. heavily. cliboter. ' Clumper. -olus-. ill-made . klos. to tramp. er. Hindust. and make ye strong feeble knees. conclusion. ether comelia P. a clot klissen. a claw. to klotz. to paddle or dabble. and klonteren. awkward. dial. limp. Pm. and koetse. Cath. dumpers. — Cot. -close. or from Sw.pare P1. duke. coccolare. to wash. claws. with a quick. strum on an instrument. clausum. klomen. havi. 130. clutch. exclude. rial. klods. ' Thou clontsest for cold. unfashioned. Hence snatching. klont. seize. to syllable click. to to snatch. Fr. -cludo. ' Uorte (for clogs. 159 E. From the notion of sticking together. to wash. claudo. to lie. Pl. MHG. clutch. Clutch. — . to shut. verklomen. to stick together . Com. cluntClyster. coucher became in unhandy. Lat. pladdern. wooden sole.e. Isaiah. G. cleik. a pinching time.

to bungle . meaning that she is plain and coarse. to strike. to . a tuft. . and the spider as collectors. and thence a lump cobnut. pryf-coppyn. Fr. of E. Coarse. broddelen. staggering or halting. to kindle or cause to burn . bijamie. ailina or colina. haggle. to Lett. When the . a nest. gull. T' waerkopet. a cobweb. an old idiot. kolna. .(pi. spinne-ivebbe. See Cot. however. from bearing a bag. cob. costa. . to beCoax. of E. a darling. ON. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . tuft. pustule. to cob. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. to burn. niais.' Nares. pockbecility and liability to imposition. glowing embers. quilet. is one of thump. k'dlla. * To Cobble. Colina' the place where a fire is made. to stammer. The Fris. one Pr. and fig. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. numb.. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. and imperfect or unskilful action. v. rivation are found in Sw.—Atkinson. Fr. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. acomelyd or aclommyd. a knock. tempered clay for building. or upper . from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. klabbare. also a coast. Formerly written course. verkommelen.). . It. inflammation. dial. Coast. cochinilla. in Essex Jow*2c^. kop. . may be A found in Sw. — — . quele. to be hot. to stutter. Cocasse. side . e. to wheedle or gull vermin). in Du. ignem. bredouiller. koppe. unfledged bird. a crea. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. to hobble . frock. cob is a dumpy horse. properly to daub. Trevoux. small pox (pocks) . pustule. caleo. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. sweets and the other of poisons. blaze. E. to bungle Sc. Pm. from some fancied resemblance. cule cocosse. to cobble shoes. to speak or act confusedly. A plausible origin. cock or nescock. to worship. — Cobbler. CooMneal. The primary sense is doubtless koelA.the water boils. then to work unskilfully . . dial. Fin. Sp. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. a large round nut cobstones. glow.).. Outzen. a firesteel Lat. Cobbles in the N. OE. cob. Flem. says Varro. things. imbecille. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. — Pr. Sanscr. flame. woman is said to be very ordinary. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. cokes was a simpleton. Lat. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. a spider (/r)^=grub.' And colo. a bunch. s. Lat. itself is Nescock . a great falsehood. plaisant. that is. cluster. a similar According to Ihre. cobble. give the full meaning of the word. glow jvalaya. and jval. cacd). In the E. w. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. habble. a pock mark. large stones . any kind of coat.). Pm. cofasse.inflated with air or liquid. of poison. COCHINEAL Cobber. burning. probably left his home. to stutter. are round stones or round coals of small size. a woodlouse. viz. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. coalesce. to knock. ordinary as in the expression of course. Coalition. probably from the Fr. or cobble. a thumper. — Cleveland Gl. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . dim. a coat or frock. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. The contrast between the bee • Cob. to form an union with another coalitus. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. a rib. cotta. klabba. A spider's web. To cobble. to grow together. pock.— Cobble. Fr. The OE. verklomen. to be inflamed . of cochina. as in arr. Du. a kitchen. top cobio. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. to glow . koljarn. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. the one of thump. long standing. walk clumsily. koppen-gespin. kuppa. grown together