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Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

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  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • 2 ABASH
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BALL
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • My
  • BUSY 119
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CAVE
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CLAM 151
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • COAL 159
  • COCK
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIRE
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LOLLARD 395
  • LULL
  • LYRE 403
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MITE 425
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • PAD
  • PALTER 459
  • PARAPET 461
  • PATE
  • PEEL 467
  • PESTER 471
  • PITTANCE 479
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • POTATOE 49
  • PROP
  • QUID
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RARE
  • RAVE
  • REEF 529
  • RET
  • RIME
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCUD
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SHOE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLAG
  • SLUR 603
  • SMITH 607
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUASH 635
  • 644 STATUE
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • Dm



original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. to the syllables which are significant to the child. by whom the be understood. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. mind of the of the animal. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. Molli. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. in other words. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). muK) and mae (rfie. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The syllables moo (mu. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. come Moolls. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and mully or mully cow is the . the baaing of the sheep. the present day. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. persons of different tongues at the present day. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. in language of the present day.NURSERY IMITATIONS. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. name of the cow. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. or Mollein. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. when neither name for the object to be designated. and. is given to a cow or calf. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. with an initial m or I. and where we are seeking. the closer we shall approach to the . or.

&c. for bad. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason.). repulsive to eat. nineteen years old. and which we might express thus. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. Finally an n was placed before it.' he says. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. . And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. family. for things. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. Heinicke. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. I had watched the growth of this word. analogous to Magyar mammogni. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. to eat. hm. by the natural humming sound. and nim came to signify everything edible. Gradually. as well as the mind of the utterer. had nim. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. . an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. p. mumm. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. became more perfect. when hungry. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. his nurse adopting the word with him. nim. On one occasion he said^e nim. We have. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. and some were very clear and distinct. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. to work over with the mouth.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. to For instance. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. 72). in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words.. schipp. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. fiafifi&v (Hesych. then. for everything fit to eat. he called to to drink. A member of my own new sfop. in children's language. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. partly from sounds which the child caught. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. He would now say good.' In ordinary speech mump. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. Gr. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. First. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself.

Galla djam djeda. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. A negro proOr. at hiamske i sig. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. taken up hastily on the sly. South Jutland hiamsk. Nimm'd up. ut tinnitus aeris. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Sprach-philosophie der Alten. oves lalare. and some of them . food (Tylor. we can call them so. to chew laboriously. make djamdjam).minis. to Sw.' — Lersch. mujnpa. to smack in eat. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Soosoo (W. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. nam. jamsa (yamsa). buckra man's language the white man. Gothic niman. Africa) nimi. to eat mampfen.' says Quintilian. nobis vix permittitur. and thence to be tasteful. ' id est. 130-1. nyam nyam. greedy . to be pleamind . and the fizzing (and Series. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . 1 86). p. eating. aves tinnire. namnam. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. sweet (Koelle). Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.). The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. clangorqae tubarum. palatable. . snatched (Whitby Gl. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. jumla.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. as to . iii.ONOMATOPCEIA. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. mumpfen. to fill the mouth. to mump. Wolof nahenahe. Primitive Culture. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. (in chil- dren's language). chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. and the crab — p. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one.' says the author of Modern Slang. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. i. ' Motherwell. to take.' And Diomedes. as well as the Sw. Swedish dialect gamsa. yamming. crab nam buckra man. agreeing with Ein. tidbits nama . to eat. delicacies. to taste . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). mumble. jammla. or word-making. dial. voracious. mumpfeln. nvrnma. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Vei (W. j ing . To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. stolen. on. i8o. Africa) nimnim. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. aptantes adfectibus vocem. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. memmexen. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to move the lips in continued chewing. savory. the Scotch poet. lita. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.

have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. twittering of swallows. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. barking. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. intended in the instance to represent the cry. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle.' — We speak of a cow.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals.' he says. bleating of sheep. 'I doubt. purring or mewing of cats. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. that there is When Man. cackling or gaggling of geese. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. croaking of frogs or ravens. snarling. bumping of bitterns. bellowing of bulls. a lamb. might be used. sparrow and chirping. when circumstances required. or thoughts of our hearer. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. yelping. anything connected with it. not of a moo of Lect. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. yelping. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. do not speak of a bowwow. grunting or squealing of hogs. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. neighing or whinnying of horses. might be used as the designation of it. but of a dog. 89) with less hesitation. howling. snarling of dogs. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. Indeed. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. chirping of sparrows or crickets. chattering of pies or monkeys. dove and cooing. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. cooing or crooing of doves. und growling. not of a baa. p. gobbling of a turkey-cock. or. for the purpose of bringing the animal. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. We . baaing or maeing of lambs. lowing of oxen. before the in other words. ^6^. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. Yet we ing. whether it deserves the name of language. between dog and harking.' And elsevs^here (p. hooting of owls.

a crow (Pictet). e. kuho. In Lat. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. 380. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. a crow. We imitate the sound with a modulated. in is Gr. kae. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. or quawk. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock.). a a crier (p. caw kuhii-rava (rava. coccolare. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. KOKKvi. Kdrava. Origines Indo-Europeennes). obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven.). kauwe. kdka. Aoo-Aoo. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. and Bavaria respectively. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Hungary. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. according to Durga). Bav. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Sometimes the hoarse i . Arabic kdk. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. caller.' kd). having a general predicative power. Malay gdgak. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. lion. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). whose sound (Pictet. crow. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket.' common sense. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. ghak. and means a shouter. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen.IMITATIVE NAMES. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Georgian quaki. Picard cau. a daw. 'Kdka. 4th ed. fi-om apakd- i. birds. a bird that is be driven away. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. 349.. in g. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. In Basque. ist ed. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. gackem. it announces (Salaberry). crow. layitavya . and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Columbia kahkah. and gaggele or gagkelein. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Barabra koka. Sauscr. Manchu The kaha. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. sound). and the sound of that direction. He to is therefore derives kdka. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name.

The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. kukko. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. "Welsh hwan from hwa. and e. Magy. the name of an animal will gen- . ghughu. tur. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. Heb.. coucouva. kuku. German kielitz. The consonants p. Esthonian kikkas. Hindi. the name for a crow. gugu. a crow lish Lith. tbrtora. Pers. Mod. or Gr. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. German luhu. Da. Du. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. to hoot.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. 6. kurre. t. Walachian coucouveike. turtle) as the Lat. kirren. and sometimes both together. in the North of England. name.Gr. Swedish kowipa. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. as well as of Sanscr. French dishuit. teewhoop. krauklys. a crow. while crouk. kruk. uhu. to howl or Lat. great variety of oKokv^uv. synonymous forms of similar structure). cock. tuquheit. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. coqueri- Languedoc. wood-pigeon. k. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. are represented. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. Sp. Arabic tdtwit. Malay kukuk. tor. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . p. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. kraeye. to croak. The crowing of cot in Fr. hibou. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. giving turtur (and thence It. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Lettish kiekuts. Fr. lUyrian kukurekati. Yoruba koklo. So we have Polish krukac. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. It. Dutch kievit. and e. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. krahe. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. to cry loudly. yell. either in the same or in related dialects. another. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Du. korren. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. German and Eng- krahen. 219. kukhuta. koeren. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. to crow. Albacuculi a dove.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. gufo. to crow. Zulu kuku. name of its is the bird. coccovaec. a crow . kraeyen. libufs. lilits. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. lulo. tortbla. by the verbs gurren or girren. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. girre. kraukti. Scotch peeweip. xi.. Ibo akoka. reduplicate form. to croak. tbrtola.

a beetle druna. and not from E. bamba. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. to be compared with Sanscr. Danish gnaddre. sirkka. Australian bumberoo. e. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. g.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. German drohne. German dronen. and probably indicates that g. and yelping cry. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Naturalist on the tocano. ajo. flight its sting considered as a horn. The drone peal. a drone. Northern Farmer. Sc. schrecke. Albanian tsentsir. grillen. Gaelic dranndan. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). gives rise to chwymores. little intermission. buzzing. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. growling. sound. skril with n.vf3. din. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. (Jieuschrecke) . grille. 337. North of England. a hornet. In the N. oE. kong-kong. zirken. skryle. words imitative of humming . Speaking of a cricket he says. to chirp J may be compared with . as . humming. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. droning is . to rustle. to shrill sound sharp. The Welsh chwyrnu. from the humming. to creak Bret. thunder. hollow noise. loud rumour. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. representing a short sharp sound. German hummel. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. — Catafogo. a sharp sound as of a 6. a small as hawk is . with or Fr. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. g. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . dhran. horniss and from the buzzing The. Corean sirsor. We may cite Gr.' — i. or a gnat fly. cricket is from crick. Fin. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. The Arabic sarsor. to hum. Arabic tantanat. give a faint sound. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. Lat. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. resounding of musical instruments. from schrick. to chirp . booming. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. there are infinite varieties. g. bambhara. ' — Pictet . ' Sanscr. skirl. in allusion to its music. Lithuanian tranas. shrill. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. 'The natives call it tanand. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. of England it is to the b 2 . which they make in their flight very . i. pip-pi-ta. Lith. a fly (Tylor) .' —Tennyson. schirke. to sound. grylhis. chirk. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Sanscr. succeeding each other — with noise. schwirren. bee. common. the humble. glass cracking (Schmeller). and he kong-ko-rong. to grumble. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. knetta. whirr).IMITATIVE NAMES. Danish dron.' Amazons. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. schrickel.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. ta-na-nd. the drone or non-working bee . a bee. buzzing. swirplys with 6. resound.or bumble-bee. PofijivXwg. The name of the cricket indeed.

make to it laugh. to weep. lulauti (to hoo-loo). It. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. maukati. a cow. to make a loud deep sound. fivKaofiai. bovis. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. 167. say. Zulu lulula. a heifer. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to bellow like a bull. a buffalo. as the Illyr. a Geiger. and djeda. With these analogies. a bullock. to boohoo. has bilbilgoda. from the imitative moo instead of boo. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to . to bow- own bawl. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. Lat. to shout. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. loge. and in Hottentot baa was the . Lat. bullock. forms a. to make. or a z to the imitative syllable. is inadmissible. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. bubenti. Da. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to ba-L-are. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to or bark. mugler. to from bau. and from to ring. bos. to mew. in a imitation of a ringing sound. mugire. shoot . Piedmontese fi bau. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. Gael. p. w. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. make poo. — ^Tylor. His analysis leads cow. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. bucula. bo. cattle. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. mamoo-heeheek. bolt. to sound. to low . bauli. amuse. The Galla lilbil. Manx booa. representing the mew of a cat. From the same lioao). biibnas. the animal. that the imitative syllable are Lith. in same way. bae. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. Cult. bugler. miau-l-er. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to low. a bull. to make a noise. to bump as a bittern Illyr. be-l-er. Hottentot bou (Dapper). a drum . or moo. muJiati. to shout.XX called booing. (iove. bubati. Fr. the Fr. representmake bow. to beat hard. Illyr. Lat. bugle. agreeing exactly with Lith. grumble as distant thunder . buculus. to the uses goda. Norse bu. or formed Lat. ox. w. to low or bellow. btibleti. Galla boa. From baa. or with on. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. bukati. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. verbal form given to the say. bull. to make. The Piedm. baula. bae. On the same principle. as that of the cow by boo. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. bwla. bue. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. are (with a subsidiary k). bu. boo. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and thence Lat. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. mae. or bau-l-i. bullus and e. OFr. Thus from miau. k or g. whence baula. Fr.

as the proper name of a tame sheep.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. meckern. a pig Fin. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). name of a sheep. houch. does not produce a e. hunon. a goat. to bleat . /xj/caScj. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a goat firixal^ta. hund. guttural tone. It is probable also that e. leknuti. cry). grumbhng. . growl. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. ^. with the root ypaipm. hwch. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. may be identical with Esthon. mecati. karra. lambs. meugler. ' In driving. a sheep or a goat. sound. The g. may with to snarl. hound. Gael. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. grumble. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. a sheep (Lowe). for the voice of the ox). showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. and with the subsidiary k or g. to grunt. grogner. and thence groin. knurfisk. a sow. meigeal. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. this obstinate race. Kurren und murren. Gr. signifying a snarling. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. to grunt. goats. he would hardly.). a (Hesych. Africa laa. kurre. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. Illyr. It. a pig. from knurre. a. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. grunlike a pig in eating. grugno. Da. hundi). mekegni. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. . smack and naski. to growl. to bleat. as lou of an ox. although the imitation embodied in Lat. grunt. / The same Gr. from hundama. rumbling. grunny. Gr. Hence Breton hoc ha. sheep or goat. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. grumble. lekavica. name. 6. curmurring. name of the animal itself. a dog. it and e. cite as by grunt. Welsh and Breton). meil. leg-et-ni. or in any ! way ! persuading. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. and Circassian maylley. Magy. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. nire. naskia. grumpf. Gr. (iriKov of forms like Sw. and snorke. menAda (ndda. to rumble. lecco.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. and of (maelon). Illyr. Among dog. From the imitative mae. hadg- Magy. oe. and hoc'h. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a sheep or ewe. to howl. undoubtedly imitative. /xijeao/iat. Moreover. . by which the shingle gives rise to It. Manx meilee. — . Fr. to themselves. we have Sanscr. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a wolf. a sow. Fr. meketati. sus-sus. corresponding to ohg. With gen. the snout of a pig. a hog. a grunt. lek-eg-ni. mutter. the designations of a dog the term cur. G. Illyr. in v. in Wolof bae. hunt (gen. Idgge (Rietz). to bleat.' Moor's Suffolk words. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. and grumphie. groin. a goat. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. a sheep. kurren. purr).

is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. hobben. of the character in question. turn a horse to the is In Finland. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. But words of this kind are. M). coquelicot. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). to whine.root. If onomatopoeias can .' — ist Series.' 2nd Series. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. . hobin. the cry to stop or back a horse. such as cuckoo. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. a horse. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. g. hiine. houpy in Craven. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. to go backwards. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. ^6<. without a — we root. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). to the left. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall.). hoppe. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse..' ticular bird. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. a mare. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. Sc. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. Thus we are led to the Fr. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee.). a little am- bling horse. p. hottihuh. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. e. cockade. There are of course some names. hobby. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. animal. 91. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. So Sanscr. (Craven Gloss. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. coquette. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. p.. from the cry animal. Esthonian hoibo. like artificial flowers. as in Yorkshire highly right. . humma. when he found peculiarity.

Indian It is not unlikely that the on. wrena. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. ance or habits of the animal. nitrire. animals or certain kinds of sound. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. moan. ginniken. redpole. hross. swift. whitename in in- throat. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. titter. form corresponding hresh. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. to neigh. Bohem. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. Du. as sigh. giggle. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. sol. wrenska. but whether there kind between them and other words. woodpecker. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. runniken. hikkd. wagtail. hresh. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. signified It. than to the sounds represented. e. rinchar. Sanscr.D. command of language was attained. hresh. Sp. . horse. goatsucker. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. frenschen. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. fehtati. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. to Sanscr. hennir. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. lapwing. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. groan. Irieschen. xxiii ginal object. g. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. Fr. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. creeper. nounced with a guttural).IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. wiehern. Sw. diver. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Pl. cough. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Lettish sweegt. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. little speak for themselves. hukkup.

for the creaking of a wheel. plitsch-platsch. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . aritischane.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. It is represented in e. debhes-lungotais (deifies. ting-ting. White Lies. snore. haw.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. wheeze. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. for the sound of milking.' it both sides went. ding. 1865. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. hoo. for in such sound of blows. bang. to ham. banga. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. are familiar in ' to every one. in a nail Let. ping came the bullets about their ears. for the sound of a blow. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. tisio (tisho). bang ' ! trenches. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. hoo ping ping. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. &c. haitshu. knarr. to sneeze. an attempt would be made to by the voice. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. Wtb. to knock. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. &c. pump. clap ! A smack Puff. a kind of drum. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . root kshu. for blows with a rod. Da. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for that of breaking. knack. snukkup).xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. beat of a clock child . the God of thunder . Vei gbangba.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. atchian. Of a like forma- drum . pit-a-pat. hang. tlirob. to hammer . shriek. mer. fitsche-falsche. beat. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. for the sound of a fall. klatsch. for the for the sound of . to throw violently down. strippstrapp-stroll. heart tick-tack. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.' ! ! ! ! — dong. thunder (Tylor) . heaven). atchini. . Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. scream. a large bell. DingBang. to beat. snort. —Brem. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. to drive on. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. for a small one. Zulu bongo. lumm. went the cannon. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . dong Read.' So imac. banke. — Sanders. on the chops is represented also by pratx.' 'Haw. a more expressive than the e. oren : Klapp. bangas. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. or the w. the dashing of the sea . or tliat is accomit. Mei gbengben. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. Australian bungbung ween.

piccione. a chicken or gosling. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. e. a whelp. G. De Brosses. as the simplest implement for proFr. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pule. Lat. pipelni. child. pipegni. bleat. as in other subjects of study. doubtless. had been used laugh ? two. piou. In cases such as these. pipio. young bird.' instead. — . laugh. pipio. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pippione. and their relations. chickens (Tylor). pigione. the voice of chickens (Cot. a fowler's bird call is lost. pigiolare. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pipilo. pi. scream. peep. calls S. has been un- employed to designate fixity. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. young child . which he added to intensify the expression. cry. not- .) a chick. to cry like imrli^u). pipe.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. Fr. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. He Yet asks.sc. The pi. and whimper. pigolare. pu. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. cry of young birds . to peep It. is of expression. to designate cavity and hollow. to cheep like a bird or a young It. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pipe. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. and so forth. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. piauler. to cry pi. ducing the sound. Magyar pip. as k. or a piailler. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. mobility excavation and hollow ^. peep. pipare. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. a fife or musical pipe. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. piou. is pfeife. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. part of the What consciousness has the child. It seems to him that the teeth t. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. —Lyndsay. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. of a word will appear supposed to represent. . used as a call to . a (young) pigeon. Mantuan pipiare. a or cheep. Florio. Gr. Lat. to squeak. far pipi.

make wood a clinking noise. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to bubble. where the variation. along with Du. a closed or obscure sound. lachen. kuruk. laqfF. chack. to gurgle. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. to jar. to pant bejii- zela. like the noise of a glass breaking . to gargle . {to It. . murmur (by . turtur. or kaka-faka. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . Pefuxela. in German. murren. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. Zulu raraza. a short sharp sound. Indian chack-chack.. &c. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. when it force than biscuit. rumble. as the click of a latch or a trigger. rumble (Fl. to grumble. a drum W. to fizz like fat in frying. It. as representing the sound made when something breaks. kniks. a prolonged sharp sound. preserved by Kilian. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. to thunder. . loud laughter. to cry pi. to grumble). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to hawhaw or laugh loud. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Poppopvi^to. to grate the teeth . bubble. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to creak knirren. sound of dry breaking. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. tonare. to pant violently (Colenso). Hindoo tomtom. garren. thunder oil . sound). to crackle like in boiling . to gorgogHare rattle. kirkirdnd. is very common. pi . u. girren. to laugh. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). to ring pipio. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . Pacific aka-aka. gurren. grumble. of a loud strong sound. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. borrelen. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. crash. tintino. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . the clucking of a j hen . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . ioriogliare (to make borbor). it is If laugh were written as pronounced. along with tinnio.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Manchu kaka-kiki. kniks. and lugh. rumble. knuks. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Hindustani karak is rendered. be cate to go on laughing loud . lachachen. to be compared with Sc. creak.Gr. knurren. i. to growl. to clack. or springing back. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. tontonare. to rattle. crack. karkarana. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. vaake gorgor) . cluck. cricli. of something fine and thin. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to cluck. yapyapii^to (to make gargar).) Mod. coo. the side of g. knaks.. a. some small vowel or consonantal sound. a sharp short one.

to giggle. as of Tamil muromurmur. noise. to be compared with g. make djamdjam). clank. corresponding in e. or to Du. a boy's whistle. or the bubbling up of to a spring. Turk. E. clango. disturbance (F. Calt. . tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. jangle. rain (Tylor. croaking of frogs. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. awater* ' The Mme P. Magyar csamm-ogni. the sound of a stringed instrument. rifiirayov. jingle.* the heart. correspond to e. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. csam-csogni. bad. to whisper. or of bells ringing. clash of arms. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. Scotch sough or sooch. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . word. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. bulbiil. a nightingale. chut. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. for the sound of privy whispering. Manchu kaka. ding-dong. the gingling of glasses. tubh. The syllables lil-bil. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . as Fr. sound). e. to beat. djeda (to say tub). 1871. identical with g. shout. quarren. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. uproar. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. tumwata. a nightingale. wail. agrees with g. while cacd / used in e. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. thump. for the ringing of illustrate bells. 192). fumtu. rvir (in tvittio. klirren. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. champ. Galla tuma. the tingling Ming-Hang. tup. compared with Gr. kl'mg-kling. at an accelerated note. coughing or clearing the throat. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. call. caca and Finnish adkkd. is based on the same imitation as the e. The whispering of the wind I. sound. especially one who beats. to knock. bubble up. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. tumult. brings us to Fr. for the clinking Lat. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. box on the ear imitation of the . koXiw. and the imitative nature of tivgle. and e. simmer. to ring or jingle. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and bilhila. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. muro and e. cry. clink. is Manchu tang-tang. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Sanscr. indicating the origin of Gr. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. chuchoter. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Tiie Galla gigiteka.' Member for Paris. to strike. chinking of coin. a smith. to say chut. to the purling of a brook. KaKog. halaidlac'h. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. 368). for chut-chiit-er. Newman). of keys or tinkling of bells. and Gr. and Gr. spring of water in the a bell. bent her head. are applied to the is excrements of children. Maori pata. borrelen. for a tTviror). drops of i. Prim. kiling-kalang. hala-hald-faMa (falda. a workman. a drum . same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom.and e. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. and her heart went thump. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. . has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. Fr.

parapatapan. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. tum-ultus. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. slash. and Grimm. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. thwack. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. to is blow. clash. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. splutter. clap. hiss. chatter. and the French pouf. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. to fall. w. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. in e. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. paddle. mutter. a applied as well to the force of the bang. and Fr. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. crunch. tingle. rap. boom. chink. the Germans puff. sputter. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. gurgle. smack. The use of g. disturbance. rataplan or rantanplan. to dance. clink. patter. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. according to the strictest phonetic rules. splash. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . crash. The beating of drum is represented in e. rattle. dabble. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. snap. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. creak. jingle. tap. tymmesll. clang. dash. whizz. whirr. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. tomber. or v^hether jectional. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. without the intervention of orthodox roots. thump. rumble. craunch. It. crack. blow. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. it is fallj AS. at a door tarapatan. report of a gun. squeak. smash. bang. murmur. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. plump. Nevertheless. pop. whack. But although and also found in Lat. squall. bubble. while e. we have buffet or cuff. whine. squeal. ring.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. puff. ' Der puff. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. Humboldt. fizz. souse. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. twang. hum. brumberum. clank. gargle. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. lash. blubber. tinkle. clack. thump. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. flap. for (Sanders). So in Fr. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. thump. tumbian (to beat the ground). guggle. din.' — Nohden. answering to g. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. 'pat. and soufflet.. douse. clatter. by rubadub. flop. Fr. swash. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary.

Grimm or Bopp. and thus they become signs of despair. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. Crying. the kind of action that is desired of them. but if we must not complain on the beach. hay. wringing the hands. an imitation of a sigh . every little pain. formerly cited. ugh . because they are spontaneous. of horror. 94. If. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection.'. are made known by an instinctive cry. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . grief. the interj. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. stractions. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. is Thus ah!. little who has time to want of her nurseling. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. and uttering plaintive sounds. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. knows them. or any unsatisfied want. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and found in the building of be burnt up.' . p. At the first beginning of life. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. in the rushing waters. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. in the case of the animal or of the infant. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. the inteij. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series.' If chaos. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. xxix on the contrary. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . by the nature of the cry. without a thought of symbolising to them. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. or of any if wood. or stubble is meaner name.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. that he has taken the step in rational speech. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry.

more eloquent than a long speech. ^6g And to the same effect 371.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. be more powerful. groaning.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. 32.. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations.' — ist Series. shrieking. He says. coughing. to solve the I shall call first.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. he cites from Home Tooke. and some of them the composition of words. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. more to the point. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. And again. may become traditional. p. the lowing of a cow. which are frequently so toned down cance. Language begins where interjections end. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. they are involuntary interjections. should be remem- .' p. and the eye. interjections. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. as who them spontaneous utterances. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. 344. of all the mouth. or which is of me as suffering pain. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. sneezing. p. them to exercise it. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. If I wish to make a person of an . One short interjec- tion may fact. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings.

The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. and thus. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. Lat. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. then speech begins. Gr. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. hahottaa. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. demolishing here. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . interjections. and more or less limited . he says. and others from interjections. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. some kind of language might have been formed. but the less am at a loss what to say. speaking. hahota. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. hohottaa. in Fin.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. I am not hearer. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. loud laughter. Tooke in truth. it them. Koxafw. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. cachinno. kahkahah. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. in Magy. when I arp humming and hawing. for example. bered. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Kayxa^u). To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language.

xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. of the world. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. What strikes him . a Picture-language. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. The following account is given by Kruse. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. if taken as a whole. . which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. dumb is the language of signs. It as has ing their most striking features.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. and not. makes them stand and walk upon the table.' he says. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. And so in the case of language. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. Though. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. of the nature of this great movement. But here nature soon conies to his help. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. like peewit and cuckoo. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and go where we now say stand. a deaf-mute himself. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. the critical question should be. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. words receiving the meanings they now bear. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man.

A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. thou. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. that. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. such objects. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. to name. and And thus he makes himself a language. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. called Gesture-language. as it now opens out. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. like a V. such as than the educated man. walker. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. and it is flesh or meat. for child. he. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and forms further and further. for single objects. for walk. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. he. the whole secret. The same sign stands and the act itself. that air. but if I depress it instead. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. And is. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. The of sign for left hand. and with his thought. particular sense in properly so called. nay. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. his action. can do better and more easily abstract terms. among themselves. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and fully serves to j . walked. most striking outline of an object. xxxiii him between one thing and another. ' from the circumstances of the into a question.' In the Institutions. or the verb to be.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. and we have roast goose. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . and gestures. letter To hold the two fingers apart. thought is already broken. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and to taste. becomes roast meat. signs are taught for yet. it means little. what more. or To pull and flap with the arms. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. many when or but these. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar.GESTURE most. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. it seems. the sorecalling them to his memory. walkest. for the agent. that signifies great . point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he.

or action. or a passive scene of existence. You beaten . bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. putting it into his pocket. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. Do not bang the it is a verb. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or something of the kind. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. in fact. the garden. might be the knife. a colour red. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. or an act. the ture of white term pink is and red. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. . as But when it is meant door. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. The same word . He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. He gave door a bang. when I say. depend entirely upon the use. and so is an adverb. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. and the as. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. as in die it is a noun. or a quality. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. to indicate the action of a certain person. according to the circumstances of the case. Who is has beaten you ? would be. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound.' dener's knife. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. When I say. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. as when Bang ! went the gun. whether by additions or otherwise. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. in other instances sentence. and thus performs the part of an adjective. would be simply beginning of speech. I say. a number of alternatives are suggested. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. qualifies the against the wall. When a verb.xxxiv asking. substantive or adjective. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. it called an interjection. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature.

as cung. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. that admits itself in of audible representation. coalesces with the personal pronouns. wherefore. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. and may be used language. inside. . as kuo cung. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . whereof. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. and to be great. 255. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. but often self-evident. verb nor noun has yet been developed. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. a sigh of oppression and . will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. wherehy. wonder. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. a groan. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. some outward display of the affection.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. &c. the man is great. that is. wherewith. commencement of speech. pain. greatness. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech.^ — Miiller I. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. middle. or with elements expressing relations of time.. with a stick. inquiry. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. Latin. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. which is an old y ting (use stick). whereto. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. contempt. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. a noun. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. or nei. in the is indicated by the syllable y. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. grie^ horror. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. Jii ta. in the sense of great. Thus tafu signifies a great man. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. or some relation between it and another object.

Lat. A widespread It. dchzen. e. Jar lau-lau.. to wail or cry alas . pain. gwae. suffering. vce. as. ach. weh. ing action I. on. Gael. representing a cry of pain. to weep. xxxvi grief. to do woe. to chirp. Fr. first person. . j.ez. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. grief. to yell formed e. pain. waiidt.'). . guaj-ire. pain. It. g. Gr. n. ui. is w. ah. e. axofiai. has more kopfweh. to ache. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to groan. achen. wAwa. vei-a. to make bow-wow. to cry n. to weep. ache. woe. grief] affliction. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. cece. lau-l-e. weinen. to gargle. to injure. however. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. vaj. w. la. oi. wai-l. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. or r. miau-n-is. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. is Ay di me I Gr. to wail. woe. wai.-l-are. . . toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. seen in Gr. misfortune. It. gwae. 6. al. mostly a ! %. jao. to sound yapyap. ohi. Thus from springs otjucifw. die wehen. hei. wehthun. to rriourn. Illyrian vaj. gwe-l-a. wehen (Schmeller). Lat. on. to ache. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. oh. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. wai. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. and to bark . howl. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. miau-l-is. 6. vce. guajo. w^wa. at the close of the radical syllable. grief. as. wd. . in Gr. g. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. to cause pain. The form corresponding to Lat. a groan or lamentation vir. to . is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. oimare. to hurt Let. to lament. ocAJ. och. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. ah. weh schreien. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. Gr. w. guai. ach. ai. form. and cacak djeda (to say crack. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . e. ochan. misery. the pangs of childbirth. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. Let. aiai^to. guaj- or cry out pitifully. I oi[iot. to cry at. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. Such are g. oval. tirr-djeda. representing Illyr. headache. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to bewail oneself. ochan. och. ochain. lament. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. miau-l-er. found in g. oh. Bret. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. &. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. och. ach. mew. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. ahi. ohg. to lament. lament from oimi. ace. ! ! Goth. probably a deeper groan. It. Gr. djamdjam goda (goda. In this way from the root guai. It. are ol-ire. jaoh. to make). plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. o'i. Illyr.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

says da-da-da. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. that gratifies me. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. the nursery da-da. a word of many applications in g. well as Goth. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. thata (ta-ta). as it Dieser da (as Lat. or carry me thither. Thank you. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. that. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. or give me it. Diet.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. is we I believe. this here. to here . and by a variety of expressions besides. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. Sie. his trowsers' pocket. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. child. when 1859. give me that cheese. is-te). for instance. . as. Phil. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. da. Dr Lottner observes. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it.' this. 'nay. The Fr.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. Bav. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. But. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it).' then points to his wife. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. or that it is. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. ' sees an object. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. and so on. a specified were by pointing him out. da. but the truth is. as to express. that is it. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. when he wants something. I add) . nurseries. der da-ige. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. ToSe (or in Attic E. • The child. In the expression Da. When we pointing. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. Sanders (Germ. properly (give) be compared with by which a g.' all is is — their consent. we may translate this by there (it is). case. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. implying the direction of its good will towards them.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. or wants to name something. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. and may be rendered. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. Please. indeed. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.' person. saying : there the ad- Trans. according to Menage.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. more emphatically roSj)j that. give. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference.

and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. Thus Gr. strike. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. to move step by step. or metaphor. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. standing. its desire. stutter. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. the original is that which he places first. meanings. p. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. in every mode of expressing the idea. — Cot. The da is dodem. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound.^ its ' utters : a cry. sinking. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. beat. takes it — as When the soul. which thus exertion. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. tasting. of which any one may. . have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. to tion to another. then instinctively interest. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to beat. and shapes it into an . to chatter.' • liv ANALOGY. to knock. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add.' says Lottner interior. dadee. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sounds. reality.' says Muller. make dadada). thinking. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to say to oneself. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. moving. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. or dalliance. to walk. and one in particular must. speech. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. childish toying. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. pay. tattle.

wise. while sapere itself. snotor. to sniff. rattle. to quiver. Du. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. prudent. Lith. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. clang. ghsten. pracht. magnificence. then to sparkle. kiimottaa. in popular language. (parallel bilbila. to tinkle. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to ring as a glass willata. to resound. gnittre. and. — 1. a ringing . to glisten Dan. snot. a rustling sound Gr. Heo Du. and figuratively. to shine. beam. smell. Finnish. extended to the exercise of the understanding. sound. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. schmecken. a with kimmaltaa. . is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. to sound clear In Galla. to ring. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. snutrs. taste. The 6. sense of brightness. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to glitter. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. splendour.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. &c. outcry. wamara. Bavarian bracht. smell. discreet. man of nice taste. to 5 ghtter. to glitter e. Fr. firom the Gael. to crackle. to shine. wilahtaa. to glitter. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. same imitative root with Sw. spraka. from the . and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to flash. tinkling. esclat). fiapfiaipw. and thence e. snudra. may be quoted gUt. In the case of sparkle. may be it explained . chime). in the domain of movement. to shriek with laughter . pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. air. iclat (in Old Fr. sprageti. and schmecker. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. Again. scheteren. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. brilliancy. wilistd. to have Sapiens. savour. to . to snilF. suspect Bav. also wise. signified a clear sound. bright. bilbil). to smack or taste. a dis- cernment. bilbilgoda (to make . Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. for example. the equivalent of g. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. knistre. to crackle gnistre. a brilliant light kilid. to sniff out. kimistd. scTiateren. think. schiteren. is used in the origin. splendour. sapere (which signifies the nose. to glitter. search . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. In the same way the Goth. which in ohg. noise. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. beorhtian. tumult. snuff the sniiten. 1654. knittre. as. unlella. we have and the and beorht. So firom Lat. . make a loud noise. to sparkle. judicious. It is The word bright had a similar In as. tintelen. on. properly a clap or explosion. as kilind. to be wise.

so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. Much of the same has been often quoted. which The Stoics. accordance with the way in which by touch. he says. \nrap6e. ipuKuv. he framed the words ivSov. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. KoWiiSije. the neighing of horses. rough. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. &c. sharp. extremely loose. the clank (stridorem) of chains. is felt Lana. as soft by the ear. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. v. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. pvfi^Civ. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. Acre. roughness. 6\tadaveii'. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. in of his works. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. inside.' he says. rend. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. And observing that n kept the voice within. tremour. and vepres. strike. discusses the tone of a picture. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. flow and flux. briars. or . affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. smooth. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. rough. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. within. then in rpd/xoe. itself letters are felt as sofl.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. pleasure soft to the ear . Kep^arl'ieiv. mel. power of the letter-sounds. the cross. soft. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. Tpa)(yg. 1. whirl. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. crux. rough both ways. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. kvTOQ. in truth. oily. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. to slide. we hear of screaming colours. break. shatter. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. the bleating of sheep. eo ut res vol. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). The BpavEiv. Kpovtiv. rough to the ear. of dressing loud. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. . which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. fitting the letters to the sense. wool. gluey.

the case of the voice. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. rug. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. ii. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. shog. d. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. shag. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. jog. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. p. to reel abruptly from side to side). degree of roughness sound. dag. and in the utterance of a high or or low. or checks as they are called by Muller. corresponding to the ineor. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. A greater felt. t. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. tug. g. to signify varieties of movement. jih. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. stag (in stagger. k. to jogj sac-cade. joli. as when. cular effort Again. sag-oter. jag. 138). jig. 'and consequently form. a rough and sudden . the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. stab. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. for exis ample. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. dig. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. p. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. Fr. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface.

Ene olde suksuk. a playiug-marble. in cases like the foregoing. chiquet. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken.. motion. schockeln. like English tick. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. mie. Bolognese tocc. to mutter. a quid of tobacco. schuckeln. chic. rough horse. The Mipen or pencil. not to utter a syllable. to beat or play on a musical instrument.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Sukkeln. a small bodily object. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. g. Then. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. To tick a thing off. The syllable suk is jerk. a cracker. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. The analogy then carried a step further. to pulses being knock. S-panish miga. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. kuk. an old worthless horse or carriage. a little bit. e. to say a word . is so frequent a consequence of movement. properly a small lump'of . and It. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . however. sound barely audible. figuratively. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. toch-toch. chique. used interjectionally to represent a . to On the same principle j we have g. as tot. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. to tickle. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. so to Italian toccare. or check. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. also to stir. to utter a slight kick. Hence Lat. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . to touch. and e. It. tech-tech. is made to signify movement. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. cica. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to glitter. mot. foot. to winkj micati is Lat. The train of . being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. mik. and analogous movements. Brescian toch. to strike It. tack. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. mica. to stir. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to move rapidly to and fro. to mark it with a touch of the pen . Fr. that we never can be sure. Illyrian migati. then. &c. tock. a crum. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. Fr. a piece or bit of anything.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. a stroke with a French toucher. The production of sound. sound Fr. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. passing to the signification of motion. for the sound of knocking at a door. as Italian tocco. then. to have it ticked or marked on the score . it produces Dutch micken. a jog. zack. movement. Accordingly the g. micare. to ring a bell. Welsh cicio. (mitsati). Mucken. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. chicoter. a good piece of road . to take a thing on tick. kik. zigzag. Thus we have B. Dutch kicken. an infant . lead to Spanish tocar. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. a . to incite by light touches. is lanese toch. tecche-tocche. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation.

ika. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. . where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. not because the pendulum makes a different left. often entirely arbitrary. a sparrow). ticktack. gni. syllable mot. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. motte. to tremble. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . . a certain conception. to make a slight mark. and out there. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. and mite. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. zitella. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. little. bunch or flock of wool. But the same is language has re Javan. . a. e. or the like its It. to touch lightly with a pen. tit. a whisper. I. e. tot. . u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. and dot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. this . n. there (further of!) ao. titter. here. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. clay . and he. a small horse. mut. Malagasy to. lump of earth. a lad citta. a small kind of lark. fait. So. The following table from Tylor (Prim.- a jot or little It. titmouse (Du. move slightly to . are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. tot. ri that. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. that.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . to excite by slight touches or movenjents. we have e. or the converse. subdued manner. a light quick blow. . In a similar the relations of place.) . not an atom . To jot. is shown in murmur. Then. to e. 48) cites from the African Tumale. citto.n. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). you. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. tot. tot. a bit. little j to that of a small bodily object. to movement of the pen . a little titty. at where the order is inverted. to jot down or note with a fro. to touch. 0. jot. and toddle like a child titter. . tozzo. a e. gno. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. further off. and a small lump of something. lix Sp. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. to whisper (Pr. anything small flax. mot. fragments It. to jog. Fr. a small lump or pat. seesaw. not to utter a syllable. for the three personal pronouns. of movement in totter. to dot. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. gnu. tit. taut. (Halliwell) Da. tittle. here (close hand). but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. or o toi. a girl. . eo. motta. Halliwell. zitio. mutter j dust. as in e. anything . tottle. corresponding to the personal pronouns. small titlark. Cult. Du. totle. 199). titilh. a small quantity. This kind. a tot . iki. a bit. this. the least visible insect. small of kind. a morsel. there '(at a short distance). mote. for the beating of a clock. Pm. the vowel sound. . neither moit nor an atom. chico. tiny. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. i. there. mossche. mutter. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. a small bird. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a morsel girl . the same organ touched with the man. that iku.

/mya. little. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Ossetic am. probably initial of distinction that the k. father. Magyar ez. Japan ko. there. Lat. that. thou. .) nna. that in the distance. this fi. 6. here . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. . I . as in Italian Fin. Then. as Mr Tylor remarks. here . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. that. here j abe. mas cheche. ndi. thou ni. ta to ka. . man erne. there. ^. there. as the act of pointing was ta. that (intermediate) j wana. ulri. . w. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Guarani nde.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Carib ne. Gr. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. Tarahumara ibe. ofj. Botocudo ati. here 5 Yoruba na. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. he. and a for the female. Mutsun ne. here j ka. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. mother. me probable that • Vei also little. /e«. ne. child. It seems to (fen. that. minution further. there. ojOo. father k . ni. that. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. olo. thou . no constant rule is observed.. that. femina ama. . ukko. loo). mother. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. Mm.. /wo. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. bi. Zulu ajoa. young one. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. uta.) pronunciation of i or e. is Here. an old . Chilian tva. biii. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. and origin. that. .. Dhimas isho.e^. an old woman chacha. Sahaptin (America) kina. he. mother. is father. this . for the male. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ita. km. akha. this . you. It Carib lala. this . respectively. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. nne. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. there. that. that. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. there. this <t. this ole. qu. usho. child. small (Pott. tiiio. Fernandian az. that. (tt). there. .. here this . j Canarese ivanu.araM. this . . here feraa. Abchasian aSn. Tamul i. ni. to.

tion. to feet. has tittafrem. wenig. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening.' — Merrv Wives. analogous to winy-piny. the pip or pippin. of smaller things. fretful. Clank represents the sound of something large. titta. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. A little weeny thing. for instance. knob. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. And perhaps the E. is to express simple continuance of action. to tread. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. keeh. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. to make its way through the bursting envelope. or chink. trippen. to begin to appear . In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. From cases like the foregoing. . a little yellow beard. to peep. murmur. i Sw. a child. for a succession of light blows low-wow. the nursery few j Sc. to peep through. to leap. as ding-dong. &c. The Sw. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. just beginning to appear. trappen. to teet. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. pepin. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. the idea is called. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. the principle of reduplication. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse.) . wean. whence Fr. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. a step. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. nil. Fr. as j money. stairs. 401. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. trSpigner. don-don. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. little To sup up. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. nab. sound of bells . little. repetition It. at pippe frem is to spring forth. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. in old e. Da. for the . trap. trappa. Top.' making the voice as small as possible. — Douglas Virgil. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. barking of a dog. Thus we have Wolof sopa. and in the Pacific dialects. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. the simplest mode by the g. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. lift 8. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. A little wee face with little. The sound trapp . din-din. nipple. dance (Kil. trippelen. or even. looking through between obstacles.

while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to say pooh It is ! to.. to cover e. a clattering noise. to skip. tache. The same principle of 196. didi. the comparative degrees of greatness. child . So from clamo. ratsi-ratsi. click. Cult. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. sopasopa. clamito. random . calling. Thus in E. to treat with contempt. mpolu is uttered. rapidity and strength. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. And generally. lololoa. Susa di. keep spots. properly speaking. serves to show and in this way. ding-ding. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . or rdtchi. or el. amusement. very bad. smallness. instead of being actually repeated. . cliqu-et-is. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. a cradle. are echoed by the rudimentary et. Thus in the Pacific loa. Mandingo ding. a grasshopper.Ixii REPETITION. in familiar use with ourselves. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. is language. tach-et-er. a spot. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. racket. bad . and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. to talk at to walk. to to call. to or rub. puka- puka. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. Malay ayun. loloa. little child (p. to pant. puka. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). if very young. ayunayunan. the lungs. very great. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. mawhiti. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. from Maori muka. Again. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. the and clique. or a little tee--ny thing. repetition or continsignify long. i. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. child . to rock. hardness. 97). er. and the words express a continued sound of rack. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. and Fr. (to use a to speak. to vi^alk about for flax. the agent in panting . . or imitative syllables. &c. kenda. 99). very long (Pott. or very very great. or in Fr.' expression is — ^Tylor. clash of weapons. rack click. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. could readily be conceived. mawhitiwhiti. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. rack. kendagenda. kamha-gamla. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. to love. to call frequently from Fr.

the lungs (the puffers of the body). as to handle. or by association. wavering. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. in Fr. kneel. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. shuffle. wankeln. to bark like a dog. or omitted. syllable clat . to crackle. such asjlap. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. Jickfacken. a succession of cracks to rattle. or Maori puka-puka. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. compared with g. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. bub. waggle. or in e. to rock. is In e. rubber. in some applications.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Piedmontese bau-l-S. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to hand. the knie-en to E. wankel. to make gug. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. to make a succession of shoves. it. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. to puff. or fi bau. joggle. Ihre remarks under gncella. he who rubs. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to hand-le. to make a succession of grabs . be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. and in as. miauler and beler correspond to E. others. rynel. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to continue dragging. draggle. are to cry mew and pew . In like manner crack imitates the sound made .Jicol. to move to and fro. The contrivance with any particular noise. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. by the side of wanken. to rock or wag. from puka. wancol. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. fickle. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. which. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. a from ayun. itself. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. to make bau-bau. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. g. In cases like these. bubble. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. dab. dabble. guggle. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. wagas ging. The Fr. crack. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. smack. to wail woe . miauler andpiauler. jogging. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . mew and baa . where all direct connection with sound is lost. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. as mAS.

Breton. the breach. A gull or a dupe same sense. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. and comparatively few easily deceived. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. to cry ugh at. although it is not difficult. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. which. to the separation between the broken parts. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. no sort of difference either in outward appearance.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. or in mode of use. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. or in aptness to combine with other elements. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. on a moment's reflection. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. by a hard body breaking. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. moreover. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. There is. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. deceit. will continue to be felt in daily speech. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. which is the origin of the word. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. Dupe comes to us from the French. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. known in Italian. at was more familiarly known. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. Polish. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . it is obviously a mere chance how long. or how generally. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity.

We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. language is . Hitl^erto. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. founded in manifest blunder. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. however. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. is. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. life. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the word is used in a secondary sense. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. . is the examples given in the foregoing pages. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. nor any limited of ideas. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary.

and vescovo. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. and 'Russian. in the course of many years' isolation. French. therefore. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used .' — But even tendency to in civilised life. circle perpetrates a new slang term. i. hearing. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. change. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. Welsh. evique. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. 330. I think it very probable. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. out. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). guages in South America. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. unintelligible to other hordes. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. If English. of material things. compared with the duration of man. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. Naturalist on the Amazons. episcopus.

7. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. it will leave figures 3 and 4. the actual it which would to represent. 6. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as shown in the subjoined illustration. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. 8. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. ancient Greek M . A key must unlock more doors than this. which are idenr Figures 5. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. or whatever the proportion may be. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. Cijlt. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. and . Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . . i. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. is MN. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ao8). 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. Nor is there one of the letters. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. The combination of the symbols I and 2. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 9. to be taken (Prim.

which either by direct resemblance of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or. known to us as yet. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. his fellows. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and the only safe beneficent Creator. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. had its origin in imitation of sound. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. what comes to the same thing. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . leading him to utterances. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language." the use of a change of vowel in as.' should be discovered. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. in the shape either of direct inspiration. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. for instance. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised.

or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. by animal without a trace name of Man. until the progeny. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and when we look back as far as history will reach. the conduct of Ixix life. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. of using imitative conduct . or of their own reflected thoughts . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. for instance. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare.COMPLETION OF MAN. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or else. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or beavers. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and sooner or later. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . race were speaking men or not. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. as elephants. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. that he started from the lowest grade. or not. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and rose towards a higher state of being. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. in the course of generations. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals.

Diefenbaeh. 1768. Infimse Latini- D. Carp.V. Grammar Boh. Supplement to Bret. Dief. Bohemian or Czech. Diet. at the end of Somner's Diet.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Cotgrave. AS. Danish. Biglotton seu Diet. 1857. Dueange. Anglo-Saxon. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Sup. B. Fin. Bigl. Cimbr. Da. 1654. Bavarian. Due. Romano - Cas- traise. Diet. Gothischen 1851. Supplement to Dueange. E. Wtb. de la langue Cat. Brem.. Couzinid. Glossarium Mediae et tatis.Saehsiches Worterbueh. ^Ifr. dialect of the Sette Commune. Catalan. Fr. Dutch. Esthonian. Dn. Castr. Elfric's Fl. Baile/sEngl. 1737. Bav. Esth. Provincial dialect. Teutonico-Lat. or Dan.Nieder. Diet. Finnish. Diefeiibach. Dief. Cimbrisch. 1766. Dueange. 1850. Gr. Cot. Carpentier.-Eng. . Bremisch. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. dial. Douglas' Virgil. English.



? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. haverie crtOT r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. kilistaa bugiie r. puHti r. katowai perairrantr. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . yjnaifia r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.. Blob plowied r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. r. cruccio deyrie. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. ^i?^i2! r. (/ijtf r. willekom Blab r. r. cti. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. baltresca nokkutomax. woman r. plowied budowaer.>. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. sveritet Asknace r. word allagerr. r.5 ERRATA.nokkutama willekem. buque 118 brodiquin r. Askance woud r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. alUger ahaverie r.percurrunt kimista^x. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.


us. rule. this word beand Spanish. erwachen.t G. Abaft. implying a completion of J. off. to hold . ur. on-bsec . He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. his. away from. as. but now )bsolete). And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. said. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. as. vs.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. literally. be-ceftan. baftan. and — Chaucer. ir. Jvery man shewid baft. out of. The word Ban is common orders. announcement. into the Romance ftrseg . to arise. OHG. away. dominion. to sauff the king or spill. Dent posture. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. to subdue. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. of-dune. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. whatever he be. abaft. abs. Parson's Tale. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. and secondarily in that of command. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. er. the er. iway from. power : Than Wallace thing. Immediately from Fr. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. behind. . a. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. on. AS. from. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. To abuse is to use iway.he Goth. to awake. among. orders. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. 244. 843. in the same sense. Hence on-bceftan. in a manner other than it should be ablution. Abs-. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . sion of 'an abandoned character. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. Passing tongues. on-lic. A. o/j of or . particular 1 . AS.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. state of sleep . dominion. compounds. until the event jlace . ifter. have entire dominion over. from a is to wake to abide. K . A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. ab. "rom a height. plesyt him. Thou spelds of mychty iction. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. Again. Thus ip N3S. in. downwards. In Lat. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. on. onis aback. bandon in French. a/tan. command. ibandonner. Lat. ar. Abandon. Ab-. —Bruce. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. a washing off to abstain. an edict or proclamation. alike.

grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. as ravish. from Lat. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. beer. and that from Syrian abba. burny. et prirent terre. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. See Abide. merely the terminations ons. effect of shame. — Neccham. Bate. esbahir. and the verb was written in Eng. to diminish the force of any. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. impulse. drink. baba. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. by Wall. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. Hence the OE. c. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. betrash. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to overthrow. bandon.— — . d. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to ruin. Abbot. esbahissais. abandonly. to hit. Abbess. abbatis. to take possession of an estate. to excite admiration. to strike sail . Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. weaken. See . — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Originally. abbatere dal prezzo. in the active form.On princes. 1 1 8. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. ais. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. to gape. down. Beat. to bate something of the price abbatersi. esba. overthrow.down. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. may be explained.fournir. Abbey. person. Castrais. abbattre. abbatia. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. of fear. And he thereof was all abashed. or admiration. Milton. confound.) .More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. to The . . R. to happen.— R. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. Hart in Jamieson. polish. to put to con. ant. with or without a final sh. of the Fr. — — . his eyen shene. from ravir. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. and it that that it — . Baba ! Mod. other. ne more vermeille.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. lish to abaisse orabaish. shame. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. R.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash.' the surrender of a ' K. depress. baer. to beat furnish. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . abate. where custom (Grandg. and sets them all agape. law term abatement. 1520. More correctly written abbat.Prov. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. iv. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. Cotgr. impetuously. Fr. A.esbawi. astony. It. To Abate. faire tomber. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. castle. Hence Lat. or society of abbots or monks. de. . to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. burny was formerly burnish . R. On the other in use as well as hand. to astonish. Many English verbs of a similar deriv.polir. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. at his own the lips. uncontroUedly. his mouth. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. an abbey. thing abbatere le vela. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. 364s. to make lower. to abaw or astonish. son bandon. Wall. abaundunem-ent. vol. to light upon. bawi. In or. of wonder. father. abbatere. esbahissant. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. astonish. so common in the found in the OFr. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. abbas. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. terminedly. I was abawid for merveille. Custom. adverbial expressions at abandon. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. to strike Froiss. and grooms besmeared with gold.

forbearance. abet. and Prov. guardare. wait To Abide. inciting. Gloss. The verb atwaiting. F. Norm. bouche bdante. to open bader. OFr. pense. is idenwait. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to be intent upon. 1 • . abet. waiting. tical with It. or absorption watching. listen. look for another. a bay or opening in the coast. watch. Abele. tity of E. delay. listening. E. with open mouth . bida. verbeijen Sw.. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Cat. compared with (Bosworth). bide of the d endure. bida. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. or in Fr. qui iaaille. . us. bidan. to stay. . delay. to wait. (Vocab. to deanimer.was formerly used in the sense of look. have seen abide. abiiance. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. beter.to wait. de Champ. — ABELE Epiphanius. beidan. abie. forms with the d effaced are OFr. badar. lingering. badigliare. beijen. beidan. to be intent upon. usbeisnei. Ni engigner ni abiter. take notice. baier compared with It.— Roquef. to desire. Thus we have It. warten. white. and alluring to his own destruction. which the mind to an object. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to desire earnestly. ceive. Gloss. abayer. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. bouche b^ante. bhr. to remain or endure. abeyance. and E. or do we AS. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. incite . ^couter avec dtonnement. with badia. inciter. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. See Abide. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. desire. 366. Thus G. syllable ba. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. Fabl. in Fr. to abide . Abie. ne chastised them. Corant sens lui. Prov. Ducange. abie. beguile. to wait. bialodrze-w. endurance. to open the mouth. suffer b. . is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. to hook. songer. b^er. tarrying . beijen. From abahier. suspense. bie compared with Dan. delay. to tarry. expectation.Fr. wait. abidan. take care. . in Dan. bie. aspirer. Cat. bocca badata. m Abeyance. K. and in E. regarder. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. which is certainly related to It. — II. Goth. speaking of the Holy places. tempting. were called Brothers. a right in suspense . to wait. ' ' . Boethius. deceiving.— Chaucer. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. attendre See Bait. to ance. Quant voit le serpent. Norm.' is in AS. trick abetar. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. Pol. badare. we sceolon ON. from Halo. aspire to. to attend on . Q. bada. ne wist what way to chuse. gridare. to stay. to gape . to It. abetter. also to OFr. abeter. abSiance. Du. to expect. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . open the mouth. baier. to In great amaze. to expect gabeidan. while the monks under his control ing. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. endurArt thou he that should come. intent observation. attendre avec en^pressement. to mind. abaier. the verb of abeyance. badare. baier. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. signifies the direction of tend. gola badada. on the one hand. to yawn. bder. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to suffer death in Du. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. abbadare. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. Corresponding to keep in suspense. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. desirer (Roquef. to deceive. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. deceit. beijden. covet. John. The white poplar. literally white tree. badare. bana. baer. says. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. de Berri) Prov. exciter. Guernsey beth. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. expectation. house. to look.— ^richer. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. In We . expectfamily. — . ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. — signifies to suspend action. to attend to.) abayer. . —Raynouard. othres abidan' The effacement expect. beguiling on the other. tenere a bada. To Abet.

atling hem to her proper offices. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. to dress hemp. to . ON. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. to have . abide. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. L. purpose. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Merch. abicgan. the Fr. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. Chaucer. abie. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . the Pardoner In the original.ynes. — Able. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. from AS. The —Boucher. Boucher. In this to erase or annul. Q. — e. abilh. Prol. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Fr. properly abuy. the Sir Tristrem. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. from Lat. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. was often used in the same sense. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. bidan. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. being disabled in the highest degree.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. or bie. as habiller du chanvre. consequences of anything . must suffer for it. abigg. Wickliff in Richardson. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. a board. as E. strong. have-like. i. Fr. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. If it badare. at kasta fyri bord. R. Cassar. Mids. R. AS. P. power. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. in for any special purpose. N. to perish. without special reference to the notion of retribution. habilis is closely preserved. use. and death for handsel pay. when compared with Aboard. Lat. fit. to redeem. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. abilej Prov. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Dr. while in later examples As I . willing to schewe his wrathe. beidan. suffer the Jul. to pay the purchasemoney. the side of a ship. She shall abie that trespass dere. God — dear. —Bacon in R. P. ! ! Cotgr. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. . 2nd Tale. 2. powerful. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. within the walls of a ship. bord. habilis (from habeo. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. him with che. durance in both applications. Innan bords. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. It. and Cr. &c. at hand). adapted . to draw fowls. and the simple buy. forbid for mother's children should abye. expert. though sometimes confounded with it. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Tr.^and to make his power knowne. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. habile. bide. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. F. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. within the ship. Milton. abycgan. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. able. abidge. abie to Goth. abolir. aboleo. God. Spenser. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. O If tion. Abie. to wear away. — P. abeye. on board . to pay the penalty. is the verb abie. de la volatile. For on board. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. convenient. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. sufficient. fault being simply clothing.

So in Lat. In the same brevis . For on broach. abufan. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. alan. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. Thonne Abroach.1. — ' — — preceding verb. to fatten.. below. D. af-oolden. nurse. be-ufan. literally. by the to bring up. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. agredge. abrcBgdan.the older form. alUger. abracan. abrdger.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. whence the Fr. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. — . Quod abominor. parent. to feed. Fr. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. To Abound. to rear. . AS. onbutan. hard. to break off. as AS. Then. abominor (from ab and omen. alan. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. greu. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to nourish. Finnish stock. OE. around on the out. Du. to grow together. a portent). ala is made to signify to rear. AS. or young forth. Goth. AS. explains soboles Lat. to rear. and also. Severe the threatened evil. to aggravate. Of these synonymous adolescere. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons.— Abbreviate. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). on high. oil. common in Chaucer and Abominable. and bidden him abregge.ymbutan. gravity. while the sense of beget. OSw. side. abbreviare. disastrous portent in some passing oc. life. titan. above. sec seftre — Chaucer. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. ABOMINABLE adolesco. Abrdger itself. and to do something to avert abbreviate. d. abowen. The radical idea is to feed the flame.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. giving birth to. draw out. Thence to regard greugetat. currence. leading immediately to Fr. is not from G. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. ufan. becomes leu in Prov. Lat.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con.' Ymb hancred utan. Sc. as withotityn and without. to light a fire the Abraid. the form a&^^. the OSw. full ofte his words for to Fr. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. brood. breaking out in language.) . without. the vital spark. snatch In English we speak of away. to cut short. while the verb alleThe root el. to bring up. See -und-. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. kindling. to snatch.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. to feed. See To Bray. the idea of breaking about . gravis. af-oleii.' Parson's rence.aboon. and also to abridge. is a ively. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. motion. awaking. abredan. Prov. s —Casdmon. to progress. agreujar. butan. alere capillos. the identity of which with ting. Abray. be-utan. OE. coalesco. abbrechen. to awake. boven. to turn. to AS. To abray or abraid. nurse Lat. Abundant. to beget or give birth to children. his contemporaries. bufan. levis to the Romance languages. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. for ligeth butan. to let sleep. al is growth. Kiittner. seems aras. Above. from . the man dwindles away. or cut short. as the duty of nourdisposition. outward. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to start. heavy. Virg. abbrechen. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. ala. natural ed direct from the latter language. the hair grow. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. nourish. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. vital PI.. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. . adolere. en. progeny. but from Lat. pedigree from brevis. ol. about cockcrow. and alere flammain. from Fr. Melibaeus. abutan. to produce.ger. break out.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to main. and in-d-oles. way Sw. of any kind . to grow up. which passed into English under Abominate. that greatly agredge their sin. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. Tale. Gael alaich.foda signifies to beget. which may God avert. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


apatiar. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Lat. part. something ler in R. In like manner. swaged. bread. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Anvil. one. post. af. So Lat. left as the . villan Gloss. from. gabeigs. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Any. Aperient. cenig. Lat. AS. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. anfilts Pl. anxi. as posticus. from in and cudere. three antike pillers. one at the least. but the expresent day. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. the anticks — behind. ambeld. Antick. work. Gr. as from as. finally applied to a whether grotesca. from Stephanus.th centuries the recognised models of antic. to strike. whence Prov. before. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. antifena. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen.—Aperture. Fr. to support. separate purpose. . surimitation of the ancient models. aperio. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Lat. to strain. to sound in answer. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. trouble. as the Italians. rich. separate. Antique. to nourish. Antidote. Lat. Ful- Apanage. ab. d. Ilvtwotov.is to be given. all of gold. like a jack-pudding. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. aside. vex. a gift. Hall's Chron. panis. a puppet or an anti^hona. stem. Fr. anticus. Apartment. Aphorism. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. set aside. as we call it. To go antiquely. from avTiipoiuia). shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. inAgain from the same author cudis. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. Mannequin. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. d<popi(xnbs.made out. panar. E. were andouiller the second. to go in strange disguises. choke. to open. —Spencer. To ape. Antler. AS. Gr. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. transferred to the grotesque characters.. some one. AS. what Roman civilisation. Fr. eigs. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Prov. from an. Gr. antefn. andouillers. or antique single chamber. — — — . press. plenteously with red. or in a ridiculous dress. to imitate gestures. Anxious. anapoz. strangle. apanage. to have. from eigan. incus. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. before. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Apartment. and ig. verberas. apertum.legacy of given against. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. in Shakespear. Apart. should be received. i. amboltj Du. one having wealth. and claret wine. Hence the applica. on. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. from an and — - .— . As the browcalled antiques. from ango. a few. a termination equivalent to Goth. which by anvild. G. younger child. white. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Thus from gabe. a definite . which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. a preventative . to bring forth. were chiefly of the former class. : . But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. anxius. wealth. fauns. of. and devils. Jorioc. See Cover. Otfried. ReApe. a small quantity. Percutere. Pezron fiUist. to strike G. such as savages. burnished.D. to display pario. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. a block to hammer on. from. from ante. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. avri^ava. whence anthem.

to mark to define a bound. apal. in data. to dress in this fashion. in good season prendre son d.probare. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. En peach. 23 . Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. agreeing with "LtA. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. near. or E. and metaphorically to take the meaning. from. to call for judgment. Cotgr. habiliments. N. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. manner. APRICOT off. like. The Fr. The PI. Gr. For their acquaintance was not come of new . approver. to make a thing Apparel.his giving evidence against his principal. 11. were formed appropiare ejar. properly to join like to like. find Then like Fr. probare.propius). preparation. away. make a composition between parties. horror.t. fit- — ness. to understand. to call. apparecchiare. diroTrXriaatii. (cited by Diez from a late author). apprendre. consent unto. ap. to finish a controversy. prope (comp. a'^opi'Jw. pronounce good. to come near. Fr. to rate. apprentis. They werin his approvirs privily. one is in. Cotgr. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. pretium. that it outfit. array. prohts. apropid. : — — speak 'Lz. to take away or lose the vital powers. . to learn. Apoplexy. Friar's Tale. appellare. Apostle. They were considered To Appoint. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. Parson's Tale. one sent out. From Lat. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. and in the sense of condition. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. quoth the frere. to disable oftat. xv. Fabian in R. ai. AS. piteux poind. equal. Palsgr. Fr. peler. plight. Gr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. Gr. To Appear. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. appris. avail. one the MLat. H. to lose one's senses. to — — . to deter- to strike. seiden of the stones. good. D. decree. from aTroorlXXu. to set a price on. known. ^wss. poind. ciously than nede is. to Lat. From Gr. 'L-zX. Fr. to accord. a learner. diroBrjKr}. become dizzy . appaiser. — Approve. one for his defence. set a price on. To praise. Pliny. purpose. — Appurtenance. Prov. rise to \t. Prov. to approach. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. peace. approcher. — prehendere. par. Ir. It. Hence appoind. aparelhar. S^. to catch hold of. taking. of. trim. Apprehend. a price. Fr. apal. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. 5w. appareiller. I prise ware. word was specially applied to clothing.pareil. ar. lAfiaam. to which it is often referred. in fact. in Chaucer. w. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. diminutive pariculus. OFr. laven is used both as E. prize.— . allow. To cause to pall (see Pall). to send to.parecchio. Fr. pertain or belong to. to announce. a crime. to approve. and also as appraise. irpaiKOKiaov. in commendation. jabloko. appareo. corresp. obolys. appartenir. to assign or grant over unto. apin R. Sp.parejo. e. — dirondtfiu. case. to store or put Appal. after his mind . Approach. A — . praise. apropchar. to deaden. poind. APO sentence opoQ. a thing for one's purpose. whether through age or sudden teiTor. to strike down. Fr. oVooroXof. pragigua or prixcoda. when the . pronounce fitting). From Lat. Yr. Apo- good time. Formerly apricock. ON. Cent Nouv. iwKjToKri. to commend. apprehendere. —Diez. habilUr. Lith. from paix.—Apprentice. and appoinder (to find fitting. . esteem. Gr. proper time came. Mod. approcdare. to — . Fr. to be open to view. Lat. —^Apparent. An old appalled wight. or the like. opportunity. — Apprise. to suit. to fit. Apotliecary. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. the good. an epistle or letter. order. Yr. aptly. And whanne sum men Lat. despatch on some service.prix. d-n-o. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. kind of action. to send off. . to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. Fr. apar. Apple.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. And among other of his famous deeds. to deem good. apprise. Walach. like. value apprdder. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. landmark. Nouv. off. Epistle. Cotgr. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Appareil. i. To Appraise. mine. Appease. agree. 'LaX. to seize. prover. cepl. whence the e. dress. Hence It. to learn.

' —About. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner.. Now we find in Fin. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. 2. words derived from arpa. auguror. Flower and Leaf. aestimo. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. the spelland umpire. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Pm. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. Aquatic. Arbitrate. la nappe. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. ear. Roquefort. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. arwaus. — napkin is Naperon. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. however. of of divination arpa-mies. to decide by lot. She made. conjectura conjec^ra. arwelo. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. doubtless is the origin of E. and with turfis new Goth. to preserve it from stains. to plough. . answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Gr. pracoqua was not an adapt. sestimatio arbitraria. hariolus arpelen. shortdr. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. and a protection of the clothes. tion under trial. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs.) E. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. arbiter in re censendS. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. . A. It is certain that the apricot oracle. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. conjicio. aa. a soothsayer. is taken in is a soothsayer. Hall. From OE. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . opinio. naperon. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. Prol. 331. aro. nected. Arbour. symbol. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. properly the arwella. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body.shrubs {arbor). — . or eft. ahva. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. Pr. a lot. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. . quod he. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. a cloth. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. Beryn. a river. wata. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. Maan initial . Now one of the points — — — . man. most conspicuous situation in the garden . nompire herbs being no longer apparent. and thence fit. From OFr. 31. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. aha. water Which that benchid was. ughe. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. herbere. grande nappe. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. be That it inne groweth. as an eye-witness. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . P.o. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes.sors. Albanian. suitable. a pleasure-ground. scr. proper. Freshly turnid Arable. and sortilegus ation.meaning at Shrewsbury. Lat. {mies ^=ia3. however. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. intensitive of nape. and the one who gives oracles. aqua. and taken away before dessert. arbiter. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. sortium ductor. C. arbitrium. Alban. a lot. con. J. . ap. divining rod. nawl and awl.] in the N. rofe and all. garden. found in Fin. derived. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. arbitror arwaaja. Naprun. P. a lot. The loss or addition of n very common. or barm-cloth. account for either of these significations. fastened close. Lat. arpa. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. This path Aqueous. Lat. It may be doubted. OE. sorcerer. as ihe diminutive. OHG. As is a pretty parlour. short. Marsh. delon. aptus. Thus we have natiger and auger.

Arson. to rule. Du.. to be in comp. an arch-deceiver . arrig. een erg kind. argr. curved line. Lat. to be on fire.In E. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. mischievous. a. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Lat. vocaveris. arga. worker. Applied in modern E. G. Lat. ^Argument. wanton. TiKToiv. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. erz in G. apxtlov. sly. ardeo. from areo. the most arrant trash. from nixa. bad of its kind.4 rir/. Area. wretched OE. to arm. . and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Arm. 2. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. bravest. timid. the a brute. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. It. arm. apxh. Gr. whence the body of the nobles collectively. ramend). make clear or prove. shoulder Boh. curved. apxtipfve. earm. ruling by the nobles. weapon may be simply an application of annus. arcus.is the natural weapon of offence. a noble. aj-f. a burning or setting on fire. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. faint-hearted. And thou as arwe coward. arguo. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. kpxi- beginning. taxed with cowardice. i. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. contemptible. ers-betriiger. rame. arduus. Fr. — Architect. — Wtb. Fr. sly. fainthearted. bad. Gr. . . signifies chief or principal. Arcadia in R. weapon. an extent of flat surface. . arsum. which is derived from it.aioj. arm. From apxeiov was formed Lat. Du. earh. ancient. the best. 3340. det arrigste snavs. an arrant usurer. the terminaGael. difficult to reach. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. W. ardre. high. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. archangel. arg. Uo^a^. first. mischievous. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. which has been referred to W. branch. to demonstrate. Alisaunder. arma. raineno. and must be identified with Dan. gwyrek. stuff. Lat. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. ardor. area. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. morally bad. ramo (pi. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. a rule (princiruler. argvitugr. ars.— Army. a court yard.' Lex. Cot. G. burning heat. adjective. erg. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. * ArchjAiTaxit. earg. an arrant rogue. AS. as the arch of a bridge. while the Fr. Sax. Arcliives. From the verb armare. Fr. The . an arch boy. fabricate). part of a circle anything of a bowed form. apxri. a bare plot of ground. Ardour. troublesome. it signifies roguish. ardIn G. is essentially the same word.' the Gr. erz-bischof. There can be no doubt that E. ' — Argue. shoulder. arch-bishop. ON. and our army. Arch in composition. to dry. and Kpurka. to Arch.' Paul Warnefrid. and not with apx. armada. bad. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. un petit rusd. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. in Due.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. a bow. exercise lordship). and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. by Russ. sluggish. patus). armee. ill-tempered. arcA in e. Lat. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Lat. Gr. aridus. Lat. government. . ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. forearm . As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. un malin enfant. Gr. et vulgari verbo. Arid. Lat. vescovo. armata. arson. ein arger knabe. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. arwe. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. gwyro to bend. especially shoulder-joint. arm'ee. D. Langobard. lofty. receptacle where the public acts were kept. Dan. to burn . are formed the participial nouns. apx^iv. man. a branch. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Brem. Aristocracy. Sp. a threshing-floor. a chief builder. the court of a magistrate.. arrant Arms. Perhaps erz-wticherer. A construct. Ardent. as in E. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . malicious. Arduous.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

pallo. sorrow. a division of the old laws. ballan. boleii. Sw. Goth. on. balle. pilula. balla (with the augm. e. wickedness ness . ballare. See Gall. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. Wotton. to Not sparing wight. baalien. to be ill. floor. calamity. ing. 2. bol. package of goods. It. the ballet of the theatres. ball. Sw. stage or scaffold. Venet. a separate portion. blister. Gael.Lat. Ball. balka. . Grief. Fr. balge. . ballare. gen. to bale out. to plank. E. a bubble. hue et illuc inclinare. To Bale out water. balja. Bret. maleficium. hooting. malefacGower in R. Du. palcare. 3. lealo. palla. to avoid it. heap up. balkr. dial. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. balare. It. a skin. globule. balveins. and evil in general. to by beams. baler. Fr. a beam. F. a balk of foul weather. to dance. to see-saw. Da. a dance. on the shore.). — A — — . balka hopar. a clapping or flapping of wings. Russ. sickness. a ballot). a ball or pack. bolker. may exhibit the original development of the signification. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. OSw. Baulke of land. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. Sw. probably Lat. roof. to move. . the breadth from side to side . . The primary sense seems as in G. bacgtteter. Pol. says Ray. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. mass. Hence. ' is a piece or confused talking. bbllr bulla J. Sw. ballet. AS. on. ill. bolawy. from bacquet. OHG. a partition. bal. bola. a ball.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. uveirs bolk. misery Du. a globe. to cause another to miss pustule. separaison. Fr. vacillare. balle. balle. to on Holmedon's plain. Sw. a pail. Sw. a wooden partition . trouble. a together in the form of a ball. at giore en balk. It. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . balk.Fr. bala. Balloon. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. (Hesych. Ball. ball. taich. Gr. TtaKKa a pail or tub . bold.—Ballad. ballone. to rock. G. It. wickedtorment ON. Boll. baloier. Bowl. ballar).of men . balle. ON. on. a ball. to grieve . Du. to roll. Bohem. Sw. as in a barn or cow-house. dial. the object of his expectation. bdlkr.' speak gibberish champurrar. are applied to a From the same analogy. plague. * Balk. maan pallikka. Fin. to paddle in water . bal-daed. to ail. Sp. to wave. ball. ache. ban. palloilla. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. dial. pallikka. to shake or jog. bol. bjdlki. balk. a boil. a ballad. grieve . Ugutio in Due. Perhaps on. the beam of a ship. baalie. cka. pallo. Da. ballare. tum. a clump . or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages.— Ballet. Hence Dan. We have then separate dial. . Sw. balk. other while. torment. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a dance. beaten road. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. balloon. balken. ball. a pill. to plough for a boundary between lands. to signify washy drink. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. G. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). bolyatchka. Ballata. a ball balla. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. to be balker. a water-skin dim. pain. a But making way for death at large to walke. w. and the dim. bollr. to pack Da. to dance. similar connection is seen in Sp. balka bunge. a beam. as we say. a washing-tub. to partition off . to ache. To baulke the Sir H. OFr. . whether of wood or stone. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. bal. I. In like manner Fr. bolyaf. to stir. afbalka. sick. N. a continued noise of waves gently beating . Mid. to speak an un. bielke. . shouting. Dan. a scene acted in dancmg. bal. from the more general notion of moving up and down. i. Q. pallukka. balk. chapurrar. ne leaving any balke. a. ballotta. It. A balk. a pestilence. balken. Bale. a great ball.ing.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . a ball. a clod of earth water. balva-vesei. destruction. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. ballo. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. Ballot. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. bealwes. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. vcdra bdlkr. Rouchi ban. boll. with the perhaps from balg. weak liquor. dial. a ball. pila.

of balusters. last. bambocciolo. from Lat. back of the ship. Balluster. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. balsamum. railing around altars. denounce.000 tons. lastagium signified not only ballast. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr.. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. baume. to preserve equilibrium. 43 — Cot. . It. a fragrant gum. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. the flower of the pomegranate. galleries. terraces. also with flatteries and . ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. To make fun of a person. a duty on goods last. for a load or goods (Roquef. objects to the foregoing derivation. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. To Bamboozle. Mr Marsh whether the a load. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. baltresac. 1854. It is explained back by Adelung. seems the original form of the word. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. But Fr. more serious objection is . company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. In OSw. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. sorcerer.' And Kil. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. 1. called Bait. enchanter. ^a\Ba\iov. Fr. deceive. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. lestage. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. The Baltic sea. bumbazed. a young babe. Lat. . To deceive. Du. a small balustrade. Balsam. explains ballast. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Fr. a false tale or jeer. Bret. astonished. barauste. series But how appropriate the designation would really be.Lat. If bambocciolare were child of one. small railing. Report Pennsylv. forbid. Sc. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. puzzled. R. Said to be from balaustia. for want of other freight. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. dial. Sp. inutilis sarcina. endormir par des contes. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. Sept. curse. Balm. Baltic. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. because. Gr. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. from bara or vara. bag-las. ranked on the outside of cloisters. To Ban. bam. bag-lest. &c. inutile onus. but loadage. To Bam.that the going vessels. bambolo. a battlement . But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Bamour. Lest. age. is in Sweden and Norway. ^Arbuthnot in R. the act of walking. to enchant. make fun of a person. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. To proclaim. bertesca. urtica. baranda. command. the backload. analogous to what is seen in It. balconies. mare Balticun. and Mid. little round and short pillars. When a ship discharges. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. by met. ballast. a nettle. to walk. lastra. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. or ballast of a ship. The Sp. Dan. bamein. Cotgr.). balustrade barandilla. in the first place. like Fr. i860. fonts. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. Bret. deceiver. — — oltriga. ballustre) is a corruption. a useless load. &c. This is the backload. bamboccio. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Ballast. It. a rod. or movement of one who walks. ballustres. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. baU. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. lastre. barandado. Venet. as he says. lest. an Old dotard or imbambolare. more frequently than outward-bound.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. paid for the right of carriage. baUa. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. A — — .

to take one to task. to ctide. a coast. Wyntoun.^ bandy. flag. Cot. he assembled his host. In a special sense the term company itself. sostener Torriano. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. authority.Lat. to excommunicate {lysa. also the band or of marriage. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. — excommunication bann-lysa. bannire in exercitum. It. Goth. i. OE. whether by way of injunction or for- command. ba?idare. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Les saiges avait et les fols d. It. bound.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. tener da alcuno.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. in hostem convocare. Se il — Romance languages. to reprove. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. we constantly find the expression. See Abandon. bannire exercitum. and thence to any proclamation. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. he bannede his ferde. and It. to ban. G. populum. to publish) banna. banner marked the place of assembly. etc. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. . — R. in Fr. Sw. Band. &c. power. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. at his own discretion. Fr. bande. 813. eiiseigne. parti. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Sp.e. change to the feminine gender in banda. bandera ground at his mill. and in E. D. Goth. passing on from proclamation to command. bande. theodscipe ut abannan. banda the colour or material. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. —R. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. band. bundun. to form parties. margin. Assises de Jerusalem. — To partito d'alcuno. 19. bannum or bandum. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Ripuar. curse. to unite with a band. &c. R. Baud. side. bandi. bandon was used in the same sense. is That with which anything AS. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. to . acquired the sense of proclamation. 26. region. faction. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando.—John Villani in Due. There is some doubt how Fr. Diss. v. It. summoning to serve So in Swiss. to follow a faction. side. bando. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. bindan. border. 1. Fr. Car. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Bandus. says Muratori. ligue Taboada). bann. In Fr. From the verb to banda. admolendinum. It seems this signification has arisen. banda. band. ex. to side or to bandy (Florio). a company. then the signification w.is further developed. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. biddal. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Commun^ment son bandon. from at the Lord's courts. permission. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Sp. fahne. those who side together (bande. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. E. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. bandon somewhat party. To Bandy. banns pany of footmen serve. to bring corn to be fahne. bande. hoc est vexillo. Spebifid. Leg. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. 'A son bandon. Bandear. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner).. the ensign or banner. 15. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. 2. . A. The to . For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Capitul. R- He Translated by Chaucer. Mag. banda.

and hence. banish. banca his creditors. a bench. that the word is used by Romeo. has bang-bang. Brewer. When a man fails Lat. Draw. and bakki. Tibalt. Milton in R. . Sw. AS. From Mid. bent as a bow. The ing. back of a knife. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. banc G. bandear. forbear this outrage. to make a stir banke. bander tin arc. was formed the OFr. bank of a river. whence the mod. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. ON. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. From a desk . bane. the back. bakke. E. panca. . A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. the former Fr. de- party. bannire. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. —^Vocab. disturbance banga. of bandying words. clouds. To Bandy. rap hatike et som The Susu. beating. pastoralis. distinguishes bekkr. bandire. Banner. It. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. to slay. It is in this sense nounce. — Fr. to bend a. — . se joindre. Bane. But natheless wife at I bank. Roquefort. &c. roupt. death-wound. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. banqueroute. b'ang. Lingua. Fr. to foment factions. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. bank of Dan. canis vinculis assuetus. bow. Bandy. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat.z. A Shipman's Tale. a wound OHG. . a bench. hricg. hammering. bance. a de Vaud. and therefore tied up. a bench. Benvoglio. shoal. ON. — Paulus drive in a nail. bank of river.: . bander. to join in league with others against Cotgn. N. banke. bana. Benchi. a blow. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. The child cries bang! fire. dorsum was applied to ject. a rising bank. bank. and OFr. Hudibras. murderer. Diez. band-hond. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . — — whence E. banka. bandi. Banditti. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. Fl. at canis peciiarius. to knock. and poise Their lighter wings. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. AS. Bang. outlam came to signify a robber. g. home — Bandog. counter. de sable. 45 — — Bandit. the slope of a hill. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. a bank. bana. Bandy legs are crooked legs. to cabal. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. The ridge of a hill is AS. banditti acquired the like signification. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. ruptus. death-sickness. destruction . among rotta. Bantze. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. in the same way that E. bana-sott. Fr. Mid. Du. to beat. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. 2. bench. banca fallita. language of W. a i. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. as of an explosion or a blow. desk. See Banish. a counter. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). s'associer. a table. banja. stir. . See Balluster. It. Africa. The word is in E. broken. Banister. bank. Bacon in R. to hammer in a nail. bander. a sand-bank. follow a party. banc. standard. to publicly order one out of the realm. banco. eminence. — Kil. bang. Ripuar. Goth. Bank. to proclaim. Your stool. for shame. a long raised seat. bench.^ knock. With many a stiff thwack. eminence. to knock. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Diaconus in Due. seat . Mercutio. death-blow . . se reunir. bankruptcy. &c. It. Bankrupt. bana-sdr. tumult bangas.HG. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Lat. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. band-dog. Fr. in the sense of a pirate. from banc. in the sense of place of business. See Band. put under the ban of the law. ON. benk. bana. many a bang. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. in R. beat. a bankrupt merchant. to work in wood. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Dan. the same verb the It. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. large dog kept for a guatd.

it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. brushwood. Fr. To mock or jeer one. senhal.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. a tree). inferior to a baron. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. banda hendi. himself in Pontus. barre. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. ON. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. and even of calling it banter. period vexillarii. or of this bantering. barrou-gwez. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. Hence ner. wrapped. iandvo. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. and from ensign or banner Prov. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. Barb. Banquet.hinder. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. The origin is in all probability Goth. a bench or table . a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. a beam or long pole of wood. banchetto. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. The spar. E. OHG. Gr. an animal a year old. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. Fr. i.— Swift in R. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. senh. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. Lat. then branches. OFr. arineXov. that the noise of voices Bantling. The original import of their own banner in the field. as they call it. Bap. a war-beacon or war-signal. Barbe. and the work is done. It. manu anto make signs nuere. would rupted from Fr. OHG. out of a wound. Barb. sign. inur. knight Bardd.aTa Kul nest. remarked. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. banne. a. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. men. signuin. The barb of an arrow is the sign . bannereti. in Gr. rod of any rigid substance. milites bannarii. such as the Roman Eagle. sparre. It. summit. privileged to raise Barbarous. In a similar manner are formed yearling. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Fr. and it was accord. Fr. a ban. banda. jSa'pjSapoc. probably corSymbol. E. senheira. ^oTrriKio. sparro. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. to wrap. and with an initial s. barbe. dim. of banco. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u.. Thus Ovid.. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Fr. to bend. Bret. jSdirTO). 3. banniire. of wind. &c. bandva. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Flesche barbeUe. the word came to signify rude. rarii. Celtic bar. a bearded or Cot. Lat.8ap6^o)voe. a barrier or stoppage. benda. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. banner. ing term appears in other languages. bar. . from reifa. to dip. nestling. Hence Fr. branches of a tree {gwezen. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. of a sign in general. banneret was a higher class of knights. Barbar. Banneret. and he would seem to derive Goth. says. G. barbarus. speaking of battle. a which the barrister addresses the court. barriire. senhal. E. by a repetition of the syllable bar. branch. Lat. banneret. barrack. bandiera. barde. According to Diez the It. Fr. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. 2.cruel. ban- Baptise. ingly very generally known by a name branches. to beckon . — We A . barreau. BARBAROUS reiflingr. from the same source. —Cot. either in the Gr. It. Leduchat. heri-pau. When wit hath any mixture of raillery.46 BANNERET . Gael. merki. barrer. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. token. It may be thing. top. barba. sbarra. indeed. uncivilised. a bantling.the analogous syllable viur. Gr. barbed or trapped as a great horse. to wash. &c. hence a repast. which is surely in barbed arrow. A It. To Banter. a sign. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. to having that signification. barra. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. then fell among the foot. Sw. chan. Duo. ON.

the beard. to make an outcry . Fr. waschen. upper chamber. to bubble or boil. border. barbaris. barbeau. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. to boil or bubble up . to rumble. skialldar-bard. formerly used in the sense of tattle. A shrub bearing acid Diet. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . An outwork for the defence of a gate. g. mutter. to stammer. barbulla. barda. and flanks. and the word was used in OE. and in Flanders to vociferate. barbelin. jargon. bardd. to chafbargain. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. to wash. Bard. bare baskojis. albarda'ah. powdered all over. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. in poetic language Bard for poet. /3opj3opwJu. skirmish. Fr. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. barefooted Sanscr. as well as thwcEtta. speak confusedly. Diez. Lith. guazzolare. to It. border of a garden bed. Sp. on. — — — men. to grunt. twcEtta. and Sc. bdsiis. a long saddle for an ass or mule. . barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Fl. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Cotgr. or more properly (says fer.— — Pm. bhasad. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Bargain. in the sense of fight. horse armour covering the front. also to wallow like a seething pot.— BARBEL merit of water. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. borbotar. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. the nakedness of a woman. Exposed to view. to plash or dabble. barbugliare. The Pers. fortia —Strabo. saddle-cloth. G. barS. to bubble or spring up. coping. barbel. small pack-saddle. Barber. gibberish. back. barguigner. albarda. OFr. boil. the flap of a hat. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. w. such as houses are covered Bardelle. a jetty or outnook in a building. Barberry. /3£pjSepi^w. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection.' Cot. scouthouse. Port. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Lex. open. Mod.— Fl. Gr. Sp. lb. Cot. which was of talking. axilla. dial. uproar. is lb. unqualified. brabble in the making of a bargain. bardes. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. ready money. baragouin. borbulhar.) to wrangle. haggle. Cotgr. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. bds. skirt. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. uncovered. as well as the modern twaddle. tree.) . their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. bdsas. Hindost. Hall in R. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Hatt-bard. to stammer. ala. to barbe or trap horses. twattle. barboter. bdla-khaneh. brim. i. Bardeau. Port. — Cot. barbeum. Etym. to prattle. Bret. Barder. used 2. It. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Sp. quarrel . one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. — — Hence. a bardelle. Russ. a tumultuous assembly. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. stutter. borbollar. barz. Arab. borborinha. barda. barbarkama. Bare. baares geld. Barbel. a shingle or small board. Gr. in Fr. a rumbling. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. murmur . coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. barbacane. to mumble or mutter words. barbier. Fr. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. a pack-saddle. Fr. also to bind or tie across. Etym. It. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Thus the on. the quilted with. name Fr. Applied in E. skola. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. the edge of a shield hval-barct. muttering. albardilla. grumble (Lowndes. But Sp. — . barbar. berj G. baar. . And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. berries. A7 to the and warlike. Lucan. Barbican. and foolishly. tattle. Pr. — . to gurgle. bar. Mod. borboglio. guaszare. Barde. barbeter. Festus in Diet.

meta foeni. prasepe . Isidore in Rayn. barmr. baratta. strife. houbartij fsnile. * Barnacles. berem. confusion. E. From Fr. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. . —Bark. a load. then honoured man. bernac. hay-loft. name being given to spectacles. Gael. . dregs of oil. — Zeuss. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. chaffer.^Voc^. giving rise to It. i. AS. ber (ace. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. So ON. the fore or after end of a boat . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. a receptacle for barley or corn. barafustar. baralha. baaren. OFr. baragouin. tion of the sound.Barum vel feminam. as baces-ern. in the Brim. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Barbour in Jam. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. — battle. baron. dispute . strife. contest. Ibid. entangle. ON. as well as Scandinavian tongues. to skin over barkandi. altercation. lap. mhg. 2. OFr. baralhar. to shufSe. and the word. hlaSa. W. Barge. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. wine. Bemiques. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. a heap. but the woman for the man. put to confusion. borkr. also to exchange. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. bosom . bere. Alam. varen. dispute. . a. Originally man. Camus. It. See formed Yeast. quant a perdu sa barja. barge. to rout. bosom. berm. Tarn baronem quam feminam. and 1. barretor. Bailey. Kil. barajar. charlock. a cap . Manx bayrn. barms. and ern. to chop. husband. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. as in the case of Lat. a barn. Rayn. Garlick. barizeins indicates a noun baris. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. the A — Ihre. ON. ON. Gl. 2. to all the barca. to scold. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Bret. one who stirs up strife. Ripuar. limpets . the or prow of a ship. To Bark. It. barley. baniffa. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. to cheat. barki. bard). Sw. commonly explained from bere. Antiq. So also ON. berm hoys. On the other hand. then the bows pectus navis. bread. berm. in Nat. dial. — de Berri. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. baratta. adj. hladi. The origin may be throat. AS. Uzen.) lihtes-ern. Swab. at barka. strife. astringent. Dan. Du. is simply the Bret. herbs.. bark . Dan. prominent part of a thing. bargain. Acervus. limpet. Vocab. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. and hence probably (by a metaphor. am. barn. ON. from an imita- Barley. a baking place or oven. baron)^ Fr. Port. baarm. trouble. barafunda. louzou. barlys {bara. Leg. Leg. a boat.. kani. dispute. contest. to strive. The older form in e. bern. Du. bamagh. Sp. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. hemlock. Romance barsie. Barn. skuta. was barlic. beornt. barn. barley. w. As Goth. . disorder. barn. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. barii. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. border. Port. a beak. barlys. berma. skutr. as. the rack or manger. plants). edge. also a boat . Baron. barja. and is probably a true bartig. and llysiaw. limpets. bcern. barlich. beer. beorcan. barnacles. a lantern. brenig. dispute barattare. fray. Bark.' bardagi. barone. baerm. See Barm. Spectacles. Cornub. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barnis. bcerme. Lith. dispute . bern. Sp. quarrel Port. The Goth. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Provj bar (ace. barley. aheap. Sp. and may therefore be an Eastern word. quarrel. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. baimeach. struggle. baaring. a heap . ThS man was not created for the woman. the G. squabble. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. (Ihre. as. a stack. barahunda. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. bread-corn. corn-shed. — Barnacle. Prov. a lap. OSw. tumult. a place. to wrangle. v. the slimy substance brewing of beer. spectacles. baarn.

beorgan. barchent.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. change of goods seems. 2. barril. beorg. This word introduced into Fr. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. uncultivated. beorh. hut. dispute. barraca. A. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. a. todtenbahre. as. bredhan. E. a word is always used in the plural number. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. OFr. vel pretiosos burellos. also termed bannerets. G.have been named from the haggling and gant. Bern. Baron andfemme. Barrister. the braw. bark&n. a bar. berewe. Bohem. fortification. fallow. An ing. especially those killed in battle.' Op. strife. bouracan. Joshua vii. The Sp. the two names. breinej Du. 1. Sp. — — 15th Cent. barri. which would barragdn. See Bar. barrique. gwr. bara. were sometimes confounded. then traffick4 Barrow. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Bret. to carry. baronuU. by early examples. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. or simply bahre. barile. baronetti. a hiU. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. man and wife. whenever Barrow-hog. vir. vair. Bargus or moreland. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. implement for carryAS. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. nobles. booth. cover. MHG. Gael. Formed from Fr. from cavallo. barrier. — Kil. a hut or booth. boar. squabble. an obstruction. to shelter. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. It was not until the time of James I. a. cise formation of the word. w. braeck. branches. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. barrila. garment still used in Morocco.. baracca. and in several instances. and not from Fr. bier. calico. litter. Barricade. ibid. a castrated hog . in Nat. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. in the first instance. It. barBombicinus. On chet — We — — their resemblance. sterilis. baronculi. borov'. Russ. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu.root signifying confused noise. alongside of barrow. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. Antiq. bera. facture. mound. See Barter.' that Barrier. AS. a man. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. Sp. signifying. It. Sp. seem to be radically the same with Lat. bara. barrique. — A . barre. bearg . shed. from beran. S. baroncelli. iver. became bidre. barague. heap. 26.. a barrow. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. man. a kind of coarse camlet. Nominale of the from braeckland. brushwood. from a tree to which a man is hanged. (Schmeller). Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. The feudal tenants next Fr.parchanttuech. gravis et authenticus vir. It. Barrack. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. baragan. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. bahre. D. composed of dry branches ofer. Fr. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. It should be observed that. a bier. berwen. baraignej Picard.— Gibbon. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. sepulchre. over him. staves.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. semen non accipiens landiEL. AS. perhaps through Prov. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Bamnculus a baronet. tomb. Gael. OE. qui have not much light on the pre. ^Vocab. like bargain. rolls of Parliament. fear. StiU he shows conclusively. Barrel. habeant. Barratry. G. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. barrack. Fr. to * Barragan. Goth. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. ^Barrator. as cavalcade. a barrel. a horse. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. Barren. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. whence Barrow.

would be. chasa. a king. preparatory stitching. i. To Bask. to bind. baos. Newman. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. thick. baxoj w. binding. chasa ogli a bastard. — in Rich. besst. F. to stitch . Lap. Halliwell. HoUinshed. bass-matting. more noble in blood than notable in learning. fhe outhouses and yards. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. HaU in HaUiwell. hoops of a cask. bast-maatte. him. basso. Gr. also to Cotgr. peel. The original meaning. pdrdt. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . tierer. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. rope for — . berewic. n' is n' is bacino. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Arthur and Merlini. It. Lend me your hands. shallow. descended of an honorable lineage. from bere. pressed down. basta. Sp. to bargain. MHG. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. It. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. lattice-work. basso. oe. Bastard. submovet omne Lucan. . /«r<fSp. on a. to cheat. the a wide open vessel. Fr.' Gl. Sw. bas. but he dreth presently. bestan. or wic. scale in music. Basilisk. ' He was begetin o bast. a deceiver. low. of the same sense. exchange.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. inclosure. bark. basgod. truck. ing for profit. cog. barter. — Bassoon. a halter. mock not. come near. Bartizan. a ipgli So Turk. G. mavult dicere Roma suam. fornication. a court-yard. low note. flat. to bind. ibid. court-yard. the thin skin Dan. Fr. the — — to kill those that look upon it. he. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. God it wot. to baste piece of cloth. to Diez. partieren. to long — a British word by Martial. bds. also the demesne lands of a manor. bast. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Fris. It. Swed. Dan. The like property hath the iasilisk. baste. Kil. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. w. Sicamb. exchange. Isidore. Sw. Dan. commonly A joined with the word binda. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. a bass rope. aiKcig.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. curtus. lift me above Parnassus. to baste. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. Basket. a bastard. fits de bas. Bassus. or running away with the ship. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . Bass. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. MS. Sp. To stitch. But according And Dan. BassuS. MHG. low. cheating. Apparently of Celtic origin. A fabulous serpent. a basket masg. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. bareter. — hanging. the manorhousfe itself. It. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. netting. See Bath. bran. beortun. and Bret. as It. baratar. See Brattice. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. imbastire. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street.). low part of the Hickes in Rich. baste. to bind hand and foot. . husk bast van koren. Barton. 516.' Papias. lust. beguile. There is not one that. Pl. fraud. bassin. over-reaching. imbastire. bast. Du. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. discourse Nay. Sylvester's Dubartas. basta. a ftiesh. to deceive. Al is dai. Sp.looketh upon his eyes. to truck.D. plaiting of splinters basged. back. beretun. bdtir. fornication. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. baraand especially teria. ' Bosworth. bastear. bast. baste. a tying. To Baste. HaUiweU. AS. OFr. It is mentioned as . ohg. PaaiKhms. crassus. baraet (from Fr. embastir. OFr. Fr. Bass. humilis. from /3aR. Du. as the diadem of the basilisk. mean . Bast. ^Is de bast. said Base. bestcn. piiiguis. foist in bargaining. Barbara de pictis veni patch. found in Turkish . which covers the grain Ger. baratear. leviter consuere. corn-farm. at basta og binda. barter. It. besst-u-b£nd&t. and tun. . then cheating. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. according from Gael. bast-reb. barley. It. stitch. dwelling. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). basg. to cheat. which sets up its hood when angry. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. but born in baste. unrighteous gain.

This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. blakra. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. niammal. like the owl and the bat. the original has corneille. blatta. to thrash . It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. a with a stick. Perhaps baska. in the use of the E. bastida. bastonnir. To baste one's hide . a sconce. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. set up. raise. All from bastir. stryk.. Sc. to whip. bdion. 2. Fr. iastir. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. R. ari instruineht for beating. to belabour. to devise or begin. That yche blak y dar wel telle. cudgelling. bastonFr. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. bak. bat. whence ledrblaka. is explained by Cot. translation to a bat. night-bat. to spread bread and butter. dial. erect. a packsaddle. disposer. vespertilio. to drub. Fr. club. 164). to pack a saddle i. provisions. the bat . e. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a bastion. vespertilio. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. It. which to rest the load.fortress or castle furnished with towers. pre. in the Romance languages. and Arabs. to Due. It. Sw. back. a blow cloth for dinner. bastine. To donjon. basto. — Bakke. bastille. Pr. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. military term of a bat-horse). has bastine. bastione. a pad or packsaddle.— Bailey.— . to build. blaka. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. staff. the E. contrive. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. stryka. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. explains Sp. to teach one before. vledermus. boste. For the origin of baston see Baste. to lay the Sp. to rub gently. * Bat. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. bladier. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. basta. bast. Florio. bastonada. 2. I. compared with blakka. Cot. also the ricado. baston. the clapper of a bell. which in the E. Dan. E. or implement for 4 * A . flyinge best. settiilg up. batta lucifuga. quelqu'un son roulet. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. bastia. bastimento. to cudgel. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . comp. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. the winged . and ditches bastion. bastear. guerra bastir. For the loss of the / in back. Derived by Diez from iasi. Dan. to flap. bakie-bird . Sp.stick. set up. and Cot. a stick.baste or knock soundly. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to quilt or stitch wool into it. a pad. Fr. blows. business (Altieri). — — — . victuals. put it together. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. as weU as besteau. . It seems to me that the sense of stitching. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. contriving. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . blakka. It. to beat. blatta. Supp.stitching in general. Sw. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. beysta. dial. packsaddle. worth (Nat. Pm.'CaB. a barSp. beating. 2. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire.-^ Chaucer. frotter. a things prepared for future use. blacta. to set on foot a war Bastion. bastilde. aftonbakke. Mid. to give him a sound bastingi 3. blakta. to build. Antiq. to stroke. Sw. to beat. 'iJipistreUo. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. natt-blakka.Lat. badger. a blockhouse. Cot. — — Fl. but this is hardly satisfactory. liiake. Fr. bastir. Sw. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. p. a bird which. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. Prov. to rub. Sp. passage Imbasto. Rayn.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. ON. basa. bastir. To beat or bang soundly. from Fr. ment. baston. nade. Dieiif. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. R. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. Bastinado. . a. frame. devise. the night-jar or goat-sticker. iinbastire. 11864. also to cudgel. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. BAT neither.

Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. in the case of a wall. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. battre las ailes. fortress or castle. a beating. is in falling. Fr. G. beat down. Battlement. oneself at the A into faggots. . or break down. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Pm. trahtr to It. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. To Bate. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a battalion. heat. To thrive. as E. — Cot. To Batten. beat. From bat in the sense of rod . batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . baquetazo. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. E. to fell. Slav. . squadron. bdt. Strife. PLD. baz. Batten. to warm. A batch as wood. to feed. Jurgor. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Bate. baka. to bathe oneself. Bret. from on. busk. Baka sik vid elld. a from ON. — To . to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Gael. dispute. to fire or in the sun. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. battre. Pm. basa. ON. signifying to give repeated blows. to be profited. bdhen. G. 2. beat.— . baden. Battle. strife. abate. Battery. more. of bread is so much baked zX one time. bada. Jeddris and covering. to beak. I baske. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. Batter. to beath wood Battledoor. G. to beat. badda. to heat . battaglia. Flem. was formed bastilU. whence the sun burns . to heat. and as a verb. altercation. Sp. to warm oneself. solbase. to refresh oneself in language. certain bend. Hence pro. badask. a stick. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Sp. abattre. made of bats. to flutter with the wings. battle was used beath wood. Pr. The bat with which a brot bdhen. quhar he suld assaill. remit. batte sig. bludgeon. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp.Hence in the augmentative form It. Battery. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. batna. Bailey. From OFr. battre. a blow. bat. to get better. on. to beat. In OE. to betake oneself. to thrive. Du. tagUone. Ayenst the sunne. e. the root of e. howis. Florio. quell. Bat. dial. as signifying warm baths. adapted for defence. term in falconry . battere. debat. bat-en. as E. wet linen in washing. a stirrer-up of strife.— To Bask. Goth. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. to bathe. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. batterie. a main battle. from battre. to foment. Eggs. and milk beaten up together. is a simple adoption of Fr. by projections or in any licoure. bet. to become convalescent. Chaucer. battions. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Battalion. bake. bdda. dial. . a battle.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. to dial. also a sun badfish. battere. Plkkis. Sw. Batyn. pak. badda. Pr. and with staffslyng. for biia sik. batador. to beat. hot. It. also. tradire. — — — ' — . made of — A made by one Batcii. to fight. fashes basking in the sun squadron. cudgel. on the fire. dial. bdda vidjor. to toast bread. as wood-en. to for fighting. an arrangement for giving blows. water whether warm or cold.Bathe. better. and about an inch thick. batacazo. Fr. lessen. See Better. buask made like a fortress. w. Hal. In some parts of England it is striking. bastille. makebate. or a dry stick. solen baddar. gebdck. dial. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Holz bdhen. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. bataille.' Palsgr. Mgy. a staff. to foment. a blow with a light instrument. A Bath. to cudgel. to foment with hot applica. betten. I. to warm oneself at the fire. a Baiffi. Fr. Fr. to beat se battre. flour. Barbour in Jam. a band of armed men arranged basa. Fr. baeddu. batir. It. gabatnan. the heat of the It. a washing beetle. perhaps first used adjectivally. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. gebdcke. allay . in the sun. Fr. Sw. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to become fat. I bathe in water viz. then to warm by the application of hot water. sich bakern. or make debate.

or the animal so marked. filth. vacillo. Descript.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. also the canopy carried part of his body. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. to low or bellow as corn. an object. mew. Pr. —R. scarf. babiole. E. ! Bauble. sword-belt. bow (as in our nursery Diez. baue. a tassel. baban. dente. baubare. from Fr. to vociferate. In like manner Grisons filthy. Sc. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. or toys. E. to void the bowels. a tassel or hanging bunch . Piedm. baffe. speckled. OFr. to trifle away ment. From ! an interjection of disgust. expressive of disgust.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. and authorities in note. Lat. as Fr. bobbin or cluster of thread. It. ballach. to bark. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. divided between black and white. a spot. having a white streak down Bagdad. a dog). Bagdad. P. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. dial. represented by the syllable miau. tille. E. zano. fagot. Batylment of a wall. bauch. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. It is all bawdy. because made of cloth of white. bal. baudrdj OHG. ground. Cot. to cry. form with an initial seen in Fr. from Baldacca. Fr. babsmall toy to play withal. lewd . to make the noise Baudrick. P. Ball. A name of the badger. a belt. a lump. miauler. or sheaf of Bridel. filth. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Pr. a white mark Bawdy.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. sorry. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. It. the Swiss baben. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox.— P. Gael. bau. excrement. Hal. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . balderich. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. dung. babbole. Swiss Rom. faisceau. R. a plot of Chaucer. is Bagdad stuff. trifle. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). The It. Filthy. An analogous noisily. an — — — A — g — — — . Fr. horse. Cloth of gold. and Sp. a horse with white legs. a horse marked with a procession. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. librillo. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. cluster. whence the E. in OE. baula. ON. Fl. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. tab. bal. BAWSON Swiss. the white of his leg or foot.. ball. obstrepere. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. bausan. baudrat. dirt. s. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. bobine. ish baubles. bad. W. was simply a field gold. Ball-seirc. Cot. bablyn or waveryn.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. nastiness. javelle. balbob. pegma. is used for a sented by bau. Zalli.' ' Pegma. fooleries or fond To Bawl. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. a lump or cluster babhaid. to play the babby. Baw — . Baldrick. also more Bawdekin. and to-tore also. OFr. It. Bavin. dirty. pie- . Irel. balGael. collar. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. to talk Lacombe. spot. fe bau.guage). Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. a gavel. b \% bouala. to 53 manure the To baw. bouaila. baugant. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Jam. — — ' Lydgate. spotted. propugnaculum. From Bret. rotten. whimwham. brush faggot. Prov. bow-wow. Beaus^ent. E. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. child. guigaw. or Cot. an embattled wall. exactly corresponds Fr. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Pm. baw. — Pm. c. on the face of animals. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. disgusting. Formed from baw. toys. instead oi s. Bawson. the face. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. bauU. Fr. s. trifles. to me-wl. Cotgr. P. whence pouacre. dacchino.. 2. to the same origin. fields. a zan. 8. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. to bark . i. The word may perhaps be sticks.

BauSfi)/. stare. Abide. siege of Bayonne in 1665.. arose two forms of the verb. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. See At Bay. corrupted into Bow-window. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. It. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. Q. It. aux dehniers abois. so called from its bearing bays. bay. Fr. AS. Lat. It has been shown under Abie. and keeps them in check for a while. It. Bay. waiting . one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. 25. tradire to Fr. A stag is said to stand at bay. bagaid. the step is the same as from It./^ bau. living Ir. &c. baya. Fr. See Bawl. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. . Sp. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. From Cat. a cluster of bacon. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. open the mouth. baja. he turns and faces his pursuers. baca. from an imitation of the sound. Swiss beie. —Bay-windo'W. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Swab. weary of running. or to have been first used at the Cot. &c. life. dehiscere . bilyega. 1859. alive.' Bailey. berry. It. Bay. Cot. bay. OSp. window-sill. life. large window in a handsome . living thing . — Schmid. beo. ist. —F. 1. bioth. trahir. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. batibari. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. as if to signify a window of curved outline. a beast. baga. bayen-stein. as gazing. |8i'os. like a pie. bayo. bai. badarse. in order to keep the enemy in check. house . baier. and the To bark as a dog. overture. a berry. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. —Diez. which however. put to his last shifts. A hollow in the 'line of coast. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. to stand watching one. badarc. to keep one waiting. beothach. yellow . From the former verb is the It. Prov. baer. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. to on anything. Feb. or berries. berries. bilyejiti. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. F. w. Such Antaeus seemed to me. the cod or husk of beans or the like. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. that from ba.' — — 54 bald. to be Bohem. . the cod of peas. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. by the term rendre les abpis. and zndly. dividere. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Drayton in R. the world Gr. barn of two bays.. bajo. at his last gasp. BE Probably conRuss. to open as a blossom. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. The — Fr. to betray. or window ' (in Fortification). especially beans. Serv. or recess in an apartment in modern times. baionette. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Sp. hddhe-dhonn. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. — A At Bay. desiring. a'uno. a hole. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Gr. is perhaps not directly from Lat. buidhe. to mark. Mod. laurel of the ancients. . beonj Gael. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. a dagger. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. to amuse stare a bada. Fr. bdcr. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. Catalan hadia. baie. bacca. Fr. baye. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. grapes or nuts. gate. badius. See Bald. Bay-tree. baccello. white. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. bahia. when. bahia. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. Arts. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Bayonet. * To Be. expresr sion tenere a bada. Earth — By Nature made to till. badia to Sp. ing-floor. bijel. bate. bde. to split. from badar. Vielp. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. to open. abbabayer.—Journal Soc. Fr. &. stood watching him stoop. Holland's Pliny in R. Piedm. To Bay. Sp. a mark. Lat. baiare. It. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. Q. Gael. Fr.c. to keep at a bay. Gael. . or at bay. husk. BAY marked with bjly. bialo. buidhe- The ruadh. window . to gape. watching intently. to iiitent nected PoL white. baher. the laurel-bay. baca.— Stalder. The word bay. S.

ON. ON. not applied to the yelping of dogs. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. support. The nutu significare. It is BEAR SI court. to beckon. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. to carry. . as. Bret. — Bellenden in Jam. or however. bakkje. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. to produce young. atUndre. bdkna. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Goth. bairan. Trans. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. to wait-. fayen^ nou or faeiinou.fer-re j Gr. as. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. bidello.ad. fero. according to of Sanscr. bagms. Bret. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. —F. Thus the final en. faba is Kvavoq. He says. beic. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. was introduced from England sea. Lat. a hill. bank. boom. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. bohne. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. and Lat. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. W. Gael. Beck. vol. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. baum. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. to bellow. Bean. * Beagle. or breathing. to nod the head. vii. It. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. l^ax. — : Beam. Beak. prodigy bauhnjan. a prayer. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. «va\ioQ. however. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. like most nautical terms. a nod OHG. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. It. to wait. Fr. nokkima. faba. signifying individuality. bokan. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. AS. or beic. Boom. N. fd or faVf beans. The immediate shore of the Menage. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. bearti. Hackluyt in R.from AS. Beach. beans. gebed. an attendant. a single bean. a tree. Moreover the name. bean. into France. bedm. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. which is. It forms a. bM. to nod . stock. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. beugler. the part overflowed by the tide. Beckon. salve his hurts. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. beacen. Slavon. signifying a point. pig. The origin seems preserved in E. or any action done with a pointed thing. Fr. Gael. ffaen. beacnian. A two-year old nephew of mine p. The wild beast. bob. . Netherlands or North Germany.' Suetonius in Diez. Be. would say. bohnej ON.' Hall's Chron. badmr. Du. AS. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Sw. Goth. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. post. a beak. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. To Bear. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Farrar. Q wait upon him. bee.fui. g. fora-bauhan. — bedeau. Beadle. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. W. Bear. bek. bydel. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. as well as f& or fav. bidan. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. becco. bead. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. a tree. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. rising ground. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. backe.. 54. bauhan. See To Bid. baun. beck. a curtsey. Gael. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. ohg. A Esthon. Gr. pierced for hanging on a string. G. — to bow or nod . bar.fuis5e. .to have a French origin. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. G. Catalan becar. ffci. into a snjall river. bakke. -phxr. beic. on. a single bean. Chapters on Lang. fromthe danger. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. a presage. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Pardoner's Tale. OSax. E. a sign.' adheres to the root. Beacon. be. tale of prayers or doxologies.

to please. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. and to acquire. G. Bosworth. riviera. produce. Lith. Boeth. Fr. bart.' every way suited to a prince. Fr. bestiaj Gael. to shore. It. Fr. and on. obtain. See becymth anfeald yvel. happening as it ought. brada. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. i. e. to be incumbent upon him. Slav. Prick of Conscience. while from Shep. bett. Cal. beo. Sp. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. See Beacon. bach. seemly. E. godum with ON. Chaucer. ON. To load with ornament. bave i. G. to live. 2. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to happen. pretty. chin. to fall in with our bavard. byw. a brook. but now a river only. becuman. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. biivre. The OFr.we call the arrangement becoming. fit. — A — A — . bobrowai. blast. Bedizen. iida. judgment. and also in that of birth. brook. Do no To It fallith favour. Thcem. from the same in the sense of bear2.to clothe to slobber. g. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. bekkr.getiman. E. to attain to the lot of any one. dress with unbecoming richness . den. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. when up. Beaver. timan. riviire. to be fulfilled. i. limpan. to happen. to appertain. agreeable. handsome. pleasing. limpian. bur. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. opportune.— Kiittner. Prov. dize or dtzen. bobr. The quadruped. to be a part of his to. whence baveux. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. talkative. to happen. I do thee pray. limplice. to sleep on. Beauty. baviire. slobber. to bear children. e. to fall mode of being. 1. G.fit. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. fitly . taste. tidy. Beck. bave. R. Lat. Fr. bavec. fitanimal. . brook . baurthei.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. perhaps a living thing. suitable. to assume a certain form or Turk. See Bank.S6 fero. Lat. biber. proper. See Bat. That thou mayest attain Goth. beatanj It. to come to or upon. ON. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. an notion of being convenient. our taste. con. Lat. a. ting. the latter are derived It. behkr. fallinn. bava. Diez. bellus. As rivus. The fitting or suitable. which. get J ' He got very angry. from beau. to fall. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. decorous. to the brook itself. It. or river. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. bello. AS. G. barba. bel. G. tidig. The moveable part of a helmet. connected with ripa. to those goods which endure for ever. Fr. to happen. Secondarily applied to a hat. to G. becuman. barf. babrad. to carry. bearing. Dan. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. Goth. to happen. byrcti. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. ON. befall. nothing to thy name make. the beard. place to lie down. to hem. and Fr. bedr. boroda. to the good hapHalbard. bcek. ziemen. to get. Lat. Perhaps from Pol. battere. dushmak. proper . a lip. rying. gabaurths. a bank. receive. Beckon.' ' He became very angry. bequem. bard. E. bekommen. bib or slobbering cloth. duty.AS. gefallen. Bo. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. gelimplic. a bank. — . imitative of the case happen as we would have them. because made of the fur of the beaver. He becom on sceathan. pens unmixed evU. covered the face. ON. as the babble of the child. nod or sign. baba. Russ. convenient. W. as. border.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. befit. it is probable that here also the to become. to dabble . comely.of being very angry. the ece thurhwuniath. Now the Beast. bring forth. Thus OY. or a feeling to be gratified. birth. beauts. R. badi. Beat. from baver. Beck. formerly a happen. suitable. AS. OSw. or special purpose. decent. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. venient. if sound of a sharp blow. bebrus. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. fiber. On the same principle. agreeable. o. living. now confined To Become. edge. to wade through the water like a beaver. to arrive at. gebank. name applied originally to the bank then proper .' are equivalent expressions. In like manner condition.

I put the flax upon it to spin.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. duplicated form of the root. sang vermeilh betatz. a wandering Prov. fall. Confined to bed. also the bite or sting of a bees. prigione. may be shpped on and off. bably named from the destructive quali| T. bette or blettej Lat. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. comb. beutel. beta. Fr. paralyticus. In a passage of an Old Fr. beest. which also 2. Fin. a mallet. a wasp. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. also bienst. to change . the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. bovis. to and ale. G. Pett. may be from K. Esthon. beach-each.ing of the word is curdled. batAfter mete in sale. ProBeer. . Beetle. calleBedlam. woman that is newly delivered. stakes. briest.possible.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. wedges. G. as the milk of a that purpose in London. 1. drink. . Bee. red curdled Arab . bedskiissen-bUren.(paddi. bbtel. 1. pude-vaar.cz//aj. to fall. The first milk after a dizen. 57 — Palsgr. thick. bedawi. from the hos. to twist poorma. bet. i. biest-milch. poculum. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. mars betada. Bav. imperative pi.. kivih. Cot. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. thick. Beet. beost. vaar. kiissen-biere. madhouse. pettiriso. case. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. Pl. cow has calved. on. garden-herb. ^. a cover. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. For that was law of lend. and in driving piles.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Grimm. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. a cup or implement for AS. Slav. whence familiar. G. piwo. to rough- cast. the ox. It. qui de lecto surgere non potest . whose face is clotty. Beef. The honey-producing insect. pital of St Mary. from jtst-. curded or beesty. tree. But possibly bedizen 2. bukva. bibere is a re. clog for a dog b'oteln. &c. betel. Horn. as. fagus. trees in a forest . in Schmeller. I dysyn a dystaffe. cushion-cover . a pillow case. briesch-milch. . g. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. beetle also signified the impiti. waarin. Gael. to knock._t from the root pi. Fr. to flatten In OE. sela que environna la terra. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. The meanpainting. boytle.D. AS. The same metaphor is seen in Fr.— B. knock. the meat of spinach. by the analogy of bedaivb. a clapper. speach. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. erroneously modified in form. blow or thrust. buche. water. badigeonner. bossen. to parget or rough-cast . bitela. door. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. from Lat. AS. doubtless. a bed-tick. beach.— JI14. beyki. the loppered sea. in Nat. It. Bed-ridden.^ drink. to coagulate. by-flugaj G. extant in Bohem. Arab. P1. . used for boull. bedde-redirj ohg. cugino.ON. a stinging bieUe. as in It. ' MordiThe Lat. * Beestings. It. of beatmg. E. from risan. de Fierabras in Diez.' So Gr. bos. and lebermer in G. Gr. Let. to colour with lime-wash. to turn. to become Beech. beer. boeuf. GaeL bior. bytl. a Properly a cover that biiren. /SXirov. taglio. a agulatum in the original Latin. an inhabitant of the desert. a paviour's beetle batail. buka. a wasp. cozen. cousin. Lat.D. cited by Diez. a pad or cushion). a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. . desert. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. PI. Cot. 1 to drink. the biter. 1156. Bethlehem. bitel.' the last word corresponds to cofly . turn (a garment). AS. Ant. to drink. The beer al for te shenche bate. buk. to beat bossel. crespir. E. a horse-fly . ir'm. a drink potus. D. turn. . 'La Gl. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. cogionare. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor.'— GL ^Ifr. biene. I A pillow-beer. to curdle or lopper. Bedouia. an ox. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Rom. Fr. a malsense of drink. from leberen. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. from blood. to poordma. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. drink. Fr. Dan. byst. bove. an Beetle. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. ris. KXlvoTTiT^e. Fr. Originally. prisons Venet. a bee.). Lat. Bernese. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. translation beOj. bletumj Gr. a pillow-case. biiren. Fr.

at a time when all his alms were given in kind. on the bag. 25. Mod. It will . lapidicinus. gan. aginnan. a little bag). OHG. on the tramp. krapszas. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. 1430. 'Dz. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. referred gan this Erie alight. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. anfangen. to be born. appears improbable at first. at geta talad. yivtrri. To Beg. incipere. From w. chisel. V. a stone-cutter's chisel. to be acquire. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. gen. beissel. to arise. a wallet. to reduce him to beggary. whence the E. Political Songs. When Q. 142. The tother seand the dint cum. &c. y/yvo/iat. image is cleft out of the trunk. fangen and Lat. literally. affected. Into the are D. Du. but probably erroneously. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. Fr. it is both to acquire and to beget. as alighting is a momentary operation. 'Aboutin undern monly. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. P. air a . a chisel. beitel. Lollards. ytyvwfT'Kw. P. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. bertola.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. to get children . Si'Xa/coc. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. duginnan. to take. ' ' . Beghardus. chap. taking up. steinbosil. beutel. yivwajcw. is formed pocair.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. V. be^nnan.n. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. in E. genus. Du. Creed. to be able. can. from whete G. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. & go a begging. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. ' Begone. Skinner's derivation from bag. Nov.' about undern he got down. is com. also called Bigots. and Lat. iv. a bag . 168.quently used in OE. beginning. beitel. — yivsaiQ. It. above quoted to get beaten ON. giving in Gr. He did alight. P. Vocab. one after that other. to begin. woe-begone. Florio. kind. sel. can.— . P. To produce children is to acquire.D. ip AS. Goth. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. oppressed with woe. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Lith. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. Mundart. Ancren Riwle. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. &c. ysgrepanu. signifying to conceive. viii. origin. yiyvo/uat. of Gr.' for ye shall lament and weep. seizing. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . ysgrepan. ken. yivofiai. in Lat. So from Gael. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. a — wedge. to cleve. Du. bag {baigean. In Luc vi. To Begin. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . ' . not began to alight. P.3.bag full of the G. a scrip euXaiciJoi. a beggar-boy. to begaan. although it ' the future.pose.' A. P. 1867. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. P. gigno. to go a begging. on further examination. AS. capere. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. or Of a pure poor man. to beg. beis- plement driven by blows. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. ornamented phoc. Deutsch. ken. a wedge for cleaving wood. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. to know. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. — Stillingfleet. two betels —a grete oke. hags. covered with gold D. Gr. V. a beggar . beriolare. 40. baigeir.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. ykvog. begger. P. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. 58 BEG BEGONE G. 'ex quo. a scrip. Barbour. Of brede full ycrammed. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. to bear young. pose-pilte. a beggar. vir mendi. a bag. P. touched with emotion — . but in the same language from poc. in D. P. begging. onginnan. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Schm. cans. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. the fundamental notion of attaining to. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. a bag or poke. su with gold. Cold-begone. 2. word. tale. Bruce.

to command. advantage. AS. to command. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to heave. to tend. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. behaviour. the name adapt. what is so required. hofwa. ufhaban. to lift. 17. hcef tig bort. solicitum esse. To look steadily upon.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. and their senses intermingle. to bers of the body. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to carry. to have. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. furtherance. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. AS. portarsi. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. is on the top of or opposite to. heita. exhort. is also found in the sense of looking. to keen or hold. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to .the figure of throwing at a mark. behat. ifl fact. The seyn. beperson addressed. gecall. R. gehaben. nittaa. according as the * To Behove. han- — js Kil.' Richardson. to be well pleased out. the distance of anything. heeten willekem. take heed of. K. Sw. hafwa bort. hcefwa in seed. keeping. to be be named. to lift. hafjan. on. garder. AS. G. OE. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. or the hence advantage. betragen. Sw. guardare.— . healdan. by the compound observare. to hit the mark. vow. to name. heave. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . behold. But. to raise. Thus in Finnish the heave. to turn one out . The supposition then that the notion of preserving.for throwing it. hovast. AS. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. a follower. behind. keeping. holding is originally derived from that of looking. take yourself off. fixed upon any object). to be obliged to one. to vow. to carry. ward. to feed. Plautus. gehouden. AS. and the E. To place are most naturally ex. right. — Behest. It. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. G. adjust. or purpose. to meet. to behave. to carry corn into the barn . to follow. hafwa ram.). laborare. promise or a command. G. vow. to keep. seeing to. have the sense of calling or naming. to take away. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to the equivalent of Du. —Hest. N. hove. hatan. Goth. what he wishes another to do . to hold. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to call. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. heeten. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. Sw. G. injunccommand. to keep. To be expedient. tion. to bring forwards. zu etwas gehalten haitan. premi curi alicujus rei. at the tail of. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. hafwa. gehalten seyn. Paladino. hevja. or necessary. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. the equivalent of E. taking notice or care of (Gloss. promise . invoke. to be suitable or becoming . to hold. gehat. from tragen. hevja. to regard. hantyri. The It. tail. to fit. us-hafjan. servare. zijn. to promise. beholden to him. to look. habere. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to carry. to be obliged to do a thing. G. to R. se porter) to fare well or ill. to gehouden. Aan iemand bid one welcome. And so from hania. The Lat. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. habban. behefe. commonly expressed. to cast or throw. G. and (as Fr. to be named. to lead. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. ge' hatan. is supported by many analogies. To Behold. to vow. Kiittn.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. when the verb will hoof. the two verbs seem radically the same. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. observe. hafwa. to call. behete. to halten. promise.to vow. hces. Command. behatan. behoof. as in the case of E. Robert in Warton. use. to look upon it as true . At the back of The re. behces. To Behave. obliged. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. bound. to be fit.

loven. belja. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to boke. certain rate. praising. precious. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to to make A Templorum campana boant. properly belonging to the church tower. bervrit. to lay be- around. Bell. to der swaren lave. bettifredo. The word be- Belfry. to put a high price or value on. — Diicange. are other modifications of the same imitative root. OHG. lyfan.. garnish. bealcettanj OE. bellow. if a narration. then. erlauben. is an easy progress. for purposes of low estimation . ornament. To Belch. a little shed. to protect. mark ON. to befit. bialla. true. to estimate them at a To believe. to believe. to hit hafi. esteeming good and valid. to believe. legsel. ON. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . Hence to simple approbation. bulken. verloben. range. esteemed . bertefredum. Fr. From AS. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. To Believe. to express approval. or a sconce. to promise. Northamptonshire. bercvrit. Then.alyfan. permission. reputation. Sw. Du. battefredum. distance to which a piece will carry. In Mid. to lay the cable round the bits. beffroi. to fix a price upon one's wares. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. Q. border. honoured. giving leave or permission. Du. — mankind. ungalaub kas. beset. pro3. promiser. to extol the worth of anything. in nautical language. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. In the middle voice hofwas. leaf geleafa. turris. P1. To Belay. and E. we have Goth. Goth. cela est audessus de votre portde. galaubs. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. aim. to sound loudly . ley/a. beffroit. an implement for making a loud noise. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. portion. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to sanction an arrangement. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. to belay. galaubjan. bounds. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. . to praise. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. loben. from mhG.. Pl. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . glauben. laubjan.D. It. to promise or engage. b'ola. to roar. bellan. belief . to give leave. lofa. See Gain. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . or house. are innate . and E. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. lov. to cry out bell. satisfaction. and Du. a. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. peal. — . appearing in Mid. Another application of the same word is in Pl. under the forms belfredum. hesfa. Det er ofwer er hofwa. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. on. to be required for a certain purpose. stand. Pl. tain a certain end. bell. a watch tower. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to give leave Dan. is used in the sense of approving. AS. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to make it fast. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. resonare.. fringe. on. Fr. To praise is essentially Xo prise. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. or high estimation. to resound. frid. behove. met. overspread. Du. . fitness. to permit. a tower.D. beleggen. . were civil terms of address. Fair sir and Fair lady. OFr. 6o BELAY BELL loven. laven. leave . berfroi. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. permitting or giving leave. gelyfan.Lat. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. boare. consent. to a loud noise. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. a vessel made for dishonour. laven. then.D. —F. moderation. locus securitatis Schilter. to believe. praise. to bellow. G. AS. and bergan. Du. if a promise. to praise. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to give leave. allow. with the consent of the heirs. reach. promising. bolken. and. to praise. to bolk. filu-galaubs. beau sire and bel dame. measure. loven. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. orloven. is (Sternberg). bealcan. a tower for defence . ON. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it.Lat. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. bylja.D.

pod. balteus . benehusk. to belong. se bander. bander un arc. benefacere. ON. bellows. as concerning that. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. gwaldas. Benedico. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. G. because bcelg. fens et hie liraus. Fr. vulva. or a It is times the to signify services. I araye. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. . bellows. by itself. a good deed. binssen. a benefit. volva.pinuz. from another modification of the word for bubble. loubdn djawt. to exert force. or sometimes louban. pertinere. hem. to touch. pertinere. Benign. . belliJ Lat. ray. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. Benzoin.' The term had been previously planation. to attain belangen. bendaj as. ball. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. Lat. becwathan. to ring. a leather bag. the skin of those animals that factor. skin. balg. to hold to one. from benedictio. vulgarly the belly. dirt. disposed to oblige. blister balgan-snamha. attinere. to bless. balg. on. To Belong'. Belt. skin. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case.videtur. a round or bubble-shaped root. Du. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. benedicere. belgr. I marre a thyng. to stretch it on a frame. as. bolch. to hallow. taken absolutely. See Nether. bandoir. Fr. bless. benignus (opposed to malignus). binsen. See Bind. to arrive at. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life.polch. Eenison. wallet. Lat. is a kindred form. bimpsen. a blow. Bent. pervenire. . Benefactor. . belch.— Belly. Bav. bene/actum. — root consisting of concentric skins. incense of Java. I say). benjoim. See Bank. to concern. Beneath. beneison. cod or husk of pulse. From OFr. is The word balg. bell. benaigon. to. Lat. Was das belanget. G. I soyle it or araye it. belt. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. blast-bcelg. . Lat. a bellows. are stripped off whole blase-balg. ' I beraye. to attain to. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. Lat. G.Fr. generous. Kil. Lat. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. — See Numb. attinere. Benignant. well. To Bequeath. wallet Benefit. welt of a shoe. a border. Bret. OUG. benjoin. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. The ing-skin. To belong is thus to reach up to. Bench. langen. means seeds of plants. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . to do good to one . In E. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. To Bend. bendan.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to come to the crown belangen. Gum benjamin. one who does good. a water-bubble builge. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. to concern. welt of a shoe gwald. bcelg. an inflated Lat. to bend a bow . J'emboue. ' . to make bilbil. Benefice. Fr. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. leather sack. To Benum. to touch one. w. kind. bag. bolg. a blessing. Javanese perfume. ON. bilbila. ^To Beray. a speaking well of one. belly. was in Mid. pino3. pouch. bolg. est matris in lucem editus. a kindness. bellows. a accusative. — Ducange. OFr. bimaissen. to reach. Ptg.' — Hie fimus. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). hence with ashes. bienfait. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. bags or bellows. poX^ri. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. or fyle with myre. to use words of good omen. has assumed a plural form. to say. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. benejicium.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. rushes. the womb. a bellows . as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. Gael. See I . Dozy. benedictio {bene^ and dico. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Quoth. Gael. from which is also bulbus. border. belly. fyle To dirty. attingere. the word. a spring. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. to become one's property . G. . from Arab. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bilbil-goda.' Palsgr. — ray. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. or simply djawt. from cwcsthan. Sw. .. rise against external force . gelangen. benir. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly." — — . Benediction. needs no ex.

as conversely a besom is called broom. making better. or. boeten. reafian. berry. to fire a funeral pile of . . fearful. as. baete. barth may be for barf. R. Fin. eld up- On is to be placed A — . On the other hand. barthless. bacca. Ihre. buttare. peto. Devon. From abet. ^•n. scopse spartis. Du. burrow. put. an incendiary. Beet. supporting on the one side Lat. arwe. person to lie in. dial. compared with bargham.iooA. or the space kept clear betan. might have been . to strip. To Beseech. stealth from steal. bestow. ship for a make amend.—^fake. bouter.• 62 Antiq. BEREAVE Wall. R. AS. — amendment. what does it better a man. besIn sen. to give a place to. See Reave.irova. earh. one who shelter. betan. — Chaucer. buttafuoco. See Better. a place . The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. brem-bessen. fyrbotare. Du. in the sense ctf beria. as. stede. it seems hard to separate as. to To Bereave. dirt. BETE dirty'. besje^ Sanscr. as Du. berwham. ropahtaa. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. vol. rubbish. Tusser. to cast. noise. Berry. Tha het he micel fyr betan. small eatable fruit. besmas. to amend. earg. to make better. Du. — Biglotton. AS. advantage. position. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. lewth. Kil. G. bal oppbota.bhaksh. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. hva mannan. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. as bouter selle. the side bhakshya. to fall with roisto. basjaj Du. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. Sw. from It.ot-i. besnij Pl. boeten. botesward. as in growth. to on the other Goth. solicit. seems twigs or rods. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Grose. Goth. boeten. amendment. * To Bete. bota. because used for making besoms. OE. To Bestow. E. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. basya. sweepings. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw.— VixHsm. To Gl. to stand one in good stead. but it is specially applied mister. bdt. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. what does it boot. boutefeu. jnore. Beere. To Bet. protect . besein. To seek something from a person. To help. It is the restore fyr betan. the origin of which is to be found in ON. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. So roto rattle down. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. to the place boarded off in a. barfham. a fire. preferably. dust rojahtaa. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. to mend. G. The dry. Esthon. bur-we. to put on the saddle. is to perform a serviceable office to him. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. The origin is AS. berwe. So Lat. reparation. to light the fire . or to bestead one. ariierf to 113. Fr. beseech. When men of mekeness him baet. roju. improve. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. vi. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. roe.D. baete. dirt . profit. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. same word with the provincial barth. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. Sw. houseless. and on which the wager is laid. to thrust. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Besom. Beit. place. So too Yorkshire arf. bereafian. Hfence backing. beorgan. to defend. the guardian . besen. as. Du. broom twigs. advantage. p. to to deprive of. betan. * Berth. boteith Goth. an incendiary. a berry. ^akka. to supply a want. to exercise on a definite object. Zeitschr. E. het vuur The serise of Boeten. encouraging. sheltered from the wind. sets fire to. but in practice. 3. Best. make better .— Hal. of ffeed a fire. and also to entreat. rods. think more probable. to entreat. put forth. from AS. dung . Fr. Bestead.fish the other hand. I from lew. to make it. as. roju. to be-place. a horse collar. — . and Du. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . To bete his Jam. p. to kindle the fire. to seek. reparation. fall with sound. lay out. — bota.X. supply.t. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. stow. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. mud. AS. bet. to thrust. better. . bdt. bat. Rob. repair. The proper meaning of the bale. from grow. to word is shelter.

to deceive. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. gatiman. OE. betweoh. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. wrogia. Thus from dbahir. zemen. fitting. Between. Ik tame mi dat nig. Pl. to happen. Fl. Sahissais. Golding's Ovid in R. tradere.— . Best. R. gezimet eines dinges. tweoh. bet. more. betweohs. From It. r'ojer dig. obeish. better. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. a brood. to make forwards. suitable. to stir. To Beteem. Fris. to Hence It. Chaucer. trahir. In like manner folissais. Fr. traditor. to cheat. e. G. suitable. awry. betriigen. become. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. Sw. G. to fall Some call it a bevel. betera. x. trakir. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. make manifest. what does It is forward him. Pl. Slant. It. pair of compasses. from. as from obdir. R. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. bibere. BETEfiM translated. whence beveraggio Fr. which may be compared as to form with amid. The inflections of Fr. . tradire. by two. bevere. treachery. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Goth. to discover. riigen. R. obdissais. e. batizo. betest. from Fr. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene.D. kein leben mehrin no signs . verbs in ir with a double ss. of pheasants. are commonly to one's lot. E. as envahir. Bevy. afford. or with again. amidst. as tlock. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. A — drink. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. twain. e. to drink . dispose (whence schicksal. to deliver tip. advance. G. /alia. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. i. is used for the — R. Hence last G. from Lat. not to have the heart to give up a thing. — of the authorities. &c. deign. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. moveable and compass branches. two. — See To Bete. best. bat. order. betweox. To Bewray. from invadere. To vouchsafe. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. Percy Soc. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. find in one's heart. beva. traitre. thy speech bewrayeth thee. bevde. be fitting or suitable. to Teem. Now the stirring of an object. in the middle of two. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. a bevy. batista. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. -to appoint. vrohjan. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. and thence twegen. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. The as. betst. a drinking . in the middle of twain. ON. betray. evidence of life. to accuse. Fr. AS. Tinia eigi at lata eit. spritigs from schicken. dir. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. It. his mouth. *Ah. to happen. Cot. wreia. to fall. i. by a final sh. To Betray. To boot in coursing (i. deem suitable. G. Mich self a good glass of wine. polish. Det sig sjelft. roja. sloped off. as one would have it fall.' Dialogue on Witches. zimet. betwuxt. larks. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. better. said he. abash j from polir. it bewrays itself. trahison. against. regen. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Fr. — Betwixt. — that schickiich. Dit tungomal rendered in E. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. to deliver up in breach of trust. Fr. baet. roebucks. Buveau. ON. are there Regt R. I approve of beveau. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. beverage. better. bedriegen. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. as trahissons. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. has — In a like sense tanie>i. an instrument opening like a a thing. Du. gesiemen. tima. taemen. proficere. a different form of twa. 88. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. for measuring angles. a traitor. taemen. E. Dii. Better. In the water anon was seen His nose. of quails. trahissais. betaemen. Ober D. is treason. betwuh. ruogia. some attention. tima. Friar's Prol. ziemen. amiddes. Car son umbre si le trahit. Lat. fate. lot). springs from ON. progress. Bav. beuvrage. his eyen sheen. fallinn. From the former of these are AS. On the same principle ON. Goth. in the same way Lat. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious.D. AS. E. bet. bouter davantaige. find it good: Goth. the being pushed to the frbnt.

le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. bickeler. Probably. sbieco. stock still. whey count . To Bib. a bezle. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Bezoar. bibaculus. snout. Bible. sbiesso. To bicker in NE. Yes. to move. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. presence. its clothes. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. like guzzle. bisdare. a bibber. bending. to sip. baverole. or kwijl-slab. sloped. bis. sik beregen. lips. ber-laita (for bes-laita). convicts thee of being drink. edge of a plate of looking-glass. Du. babbefore the eyes. Fris. bickel-sieenken. Bisect. See Wriggle. metaphor). It. the papyrus. is explained to clatter. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. by throwing of stones. wraggeln. babbi. bibo. to be a paring. bihais. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). bezling or skueing. to stir. as an eel or a snake. —Dozy.a. bestemps. in two ways for duis. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. It is especially applied in Sc. ice . discover. Schiitze. — Bi-. to stir. b&zahr. from pdd-. bias-wise. to stir. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to Jam. baviere. beregen. biax. rogt un bogt sik nig. An excellent Basil. —Bickering'. to tipple.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. Fr. E. Lat. to it evident to sense. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. Mantuan. which good bibbeler. Prov. Hal. Ci^. In Arab. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant.' bibble. bickelen. slippery. inferiority. sbriscio. to slaver or drivel. Fr. — crooked. crooked. To drink hard. a stone-hewer . OE. tailU en biseau. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Diet. bescompte. to cut in two. sbiscio. liwell. Fr. dial. love first begins to life signs of him. foul weather. biais. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Sp. Uprogen. to stir up . It. per\'erted belief. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). (according to the Fr. misFr. Cat. besanca. Ant. Fr. bavon. in him. Bias. . biberon. bark of which paper was first made. pible. Bice. used in precisely stone . in Fr. evident. bes-azur. Misc. to well up with Cot. sbrissare. Piedm. Jamieson. twice. kwijl-bab. it were the mouth. kwijlen. makes ble. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. biaiser. asure-bice (Early E.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. to glide or slip as upon. one who drinks in excess. dial. to make tongue Du. Pl. beslei. sliding. To skirmish. biascio. a fragment bieco. wrangle. Lat. Oh when shall I bizzle. or by any rapid motion. has a singular stone-picker. winding or crawling in and out. 78). . To Bezzle. sbiasciai. Bibelsworth in Nat.to drink much. shows the P1. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. To Bibble. sbiagio.D. biascia. the basil Sc. kwijllap. aslope. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. bisel. The train of thought is then. The It. aslope sbisciare. Bezel. he is Wtb. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. sbrisciare. to purl. Biseau. An inferior blue. oblique. wrogen. to dispute. . biberen. expelling or preserving against. him.two. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan.or from obliquus. To Bicker. to tipple. pddzahr. Gr. Pers.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. and zahr. two- footed. bible. rogge. bebble. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. or in and out. Hal- — do something aslant. sbrisso. to shake. the word became bddizahr.{ioin dua. it becomes (Jz-. a slabbering-bib. slanting . s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. poison. though such a change of form would be very unusual. specially in a bottle. to the stirring of their conscience. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. notice. Fr. reveal. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Fr. of the sliced off. bickai. to creep or crawl sideling. to give signs of life. 172. sbias. In comp. Cat. roggle.D.s bellum for duellum. bickel. I Wallon. Dan. petit-lait. Bib. /3i/3Xof a book originally. sbiescio. Piedm. .as in Biped. Sard. to slaver . a sloping edge. whence Du. bring under ' Thy accuse. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. a Galilean. biberer. . to a fight with stones. Sardin.

' Bug as a Lord. bat . With respect to logical pedigree. proud. The 'La. byggan. swelling. cultivate. Hence Sc. Kil. bugt. BIGOT beidan. AS. may plausibly be derived from Goth. Bigot. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. as tears from the eyes. a swelling. bedun. or. quiring something to be done. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. 2. It must be observed that the word bidja. or bad. to presimpler pare. as G. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bieten. The ON. bi-. balg. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. and Gael. spelling seems to used in the N. bua. porrigere. to ask. belly. bulge. qucero. byggia. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage.Leta). — prepare. to solicit. form. pressing on one's notice. Big-swol- . a flexure. to curve. To Big. and the Sw. praestare. iiQ. bidan. has leta. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to E. AS. beidast.t. to bend. to inflate E. bis and in comp. — — — Halliwell. bo. biddan. OSw. to forbid . Palsgrave in Halliwell. gebeden j G. ON. ON. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. A pose to one to come to dinner. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. boa. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. England for swollen. to marry. bulk. ON. bidel. bit- bidja. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. offerre. einen vor Gericht bieten. forwards. to swell. which is stiU. a chip. The loss of the / gives Dan. and consequently ordering or reGoth. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. From Gr. to belly.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. be bug. from belgia. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. bidill. bead. swaggering. who. . to dwell. explaining the Sc. Analogous expressions are G. The original Swollen. bug. to cultivate. related to big or bug. or third order of penitence. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to ask. To Bid ' Big . bauen to cultivate. to forbid . verbieten. consisting both of men and women. bend. to build. from seek. swoln. to look for. from bidan. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to build G. to pro- command. Jam. inhabit. repair. to have one called before him. bidjan. to arrange. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. are also used in the sense of asking for. to bid one good day. the meaning of bid. a suitor. G. biegen. to pray one to dinner. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bog. — To Bid. beodan. ewes.uddered len heart. beadle.' Pope in R. to offer one the wish of a good day. belly. ON. The ON. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bidan. anleta. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede.peto. G. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. as. Two verbs are here confounded.. to inhabit. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bulky.' Addison. an entire skin. Bight or Bought. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bath. bugne (answering to ON. bced. AS. A bjudan in anabjudan. bow. to bulge. in the sense of ask for. To bid the banns. Wallace in Jam. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. The . Compare also Sp. inhabit Du. ten. . OSw. buga." buque with E. of More ' in Richardson. Einem einen guten tag bieten. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. R. to look for. bend of a shore or of a rope. gebodenj G. called the tertiary order. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. pray. faurbjudan. athird class. to offer. to offer it to public notice. bolgna). bulge. bag. Big. Bigamy. and yajiBui. to bicker. BID of stone. bouwen. Du. bolginn. abidan. 1. bugan. build. praebere. P. to start out. bilge or bulge. twice. to build. bygga. bigan. bieden. by seek and beseech. to move quickly. Bickelen. besides the professedmonks and nuns. the belly of a ship. becoming in Lat. rising up. W. to abide or wait on. bolga. to bend. G.

66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. homespun cloth. ix. &c. probably from biso. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. bigio. was formed bigello. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.D. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . aliqui Begardi.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. which must not be confounded with begardo. Bighini. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. 15 18.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. and Q. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. bighiotto.a.' Matthew Paris. grey. begutta. G. borel.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. ac labores manuum detestantes. From bigio.. bighellone. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. rustical. alii de paupere viti. and hence the variations bigutta. face VIII. biso. absque votorum religionis emissione. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. all apparently derived from Ital. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. alii Apostolici. A. as well as bizocco. vol. In the same way Fr. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. to adopt a similar course of life.— Ducange. with reference to A. author quoted in N. Francisci communiter appellabant. clownish. a dunce. xx. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. S. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. They wore a similar dress. beghart. Flor. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. D. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. and also unlearned common men. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. corruption would easily creep in. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. In a similar manner from bigello. coarse woollen cloth. A. beghino. Augustini dotarint. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. grey. both men and women. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.— BIGOT bigardo. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. honesti plebeii amictus. 1499. natural grey or sheep's russet. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. Bizocco. sed maxim^ in muliebri. the nobles to Rienzi. dark-coloured cloth.' says an Venet. the other form Per te Tribune.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. Beguttce. 1243. A. perch^ i Terziari di S. a blockhead. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. says.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. Bizoccki. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.' says one of of bigio. vocati Fraticelli. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. signifying bagmen or beggars.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Bighiotti). bigotta. 560.D.D. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.' Chart. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. Hence the OE.' translated by Muratori.

Lat. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. bill. a short note. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. a negro. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. weapon . — Cot. beghart. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. that of swell. seems to be rather the unda. Sw. on. billet. fetters. to peck. In the same way are related Pol. Bille. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. bla-berry. tepati. genus vincu- Bilboes. NFris. bila. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Fr. — — ' . I. axe. an ingot of gold or silver. a name given to a. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. Langued. . Roquef. Dan. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. An instrument for hewing. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Gael. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. an axe. billet is the diminutive of this. — bigardia. e. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Bill. Thus we find in It. A lorum tam in — Diez. Mundart. See Bulk. belgan. 2. Deutsch. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. to pick a millstone. boia. loi. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. an axe. a seal. bigardo. whortle-berries. the trunk of a tree. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . to be angry (i. the swelling G. as a bill of indictment. as craneberry. to strike. Kil. . See Bull. an axe. b'olja. from OSw. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. an ingot. To Bilk. gan. Fr. bulla.— — — . bille. obsolete. and in Lat. Dan. p. Aurelles. bisoch. the bill of a bird. dziob. Bilge. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. a beak. Bill. of E. from Mid. bigot. blamand. Ludwig. to swell with rage). Prov. person of religion leading a loose life. a of the sea. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Du. G. a sword. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. symbolum. used in legal proceedings. billard or billart. in the sense of a writing. 5 * . . Billet. irons or set in a kind of stocks. In English the meaning has received a further development. buail. however. The Du. boja. blue .' mariners.' bilio.' in Richardson. is properly a sealed instrument. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. bullet. topor. might be taken to express a hypocrite.. billard also signified at billyards. buie. bil. A slang term for a sword. bigot. w. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. dziobad. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . the beak of a bird. belghen. Gascoigne in R. Bigin. to job. AS. blaa. a hatchet. OFr. an axe . Billow. gleischner (Frisch). Piedmontese bigot. biilge. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. in the same sense. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. the o changing to an i to express diminution. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. 'tumidi fluctus. horn of an animal. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Bojce. AS. a shackle. procella Kil. dissimulation . and a billard. To defraud one of expected sinking. Sp. crowberry. ^Billiard. bill of exchange. Johansen. bolghe. So in Gr. bui. and dziobas. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Du. bulgja. plog-bill. bizocco. Lat. ferrese quam ligneae. Bilberry. Sw. bulghe. of boja. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. buoy [i. Kil. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). inscriptum. top. at sea Billet. boeye. a floating log to mark the place of some. beil. Billette. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Bohem. a devotee. BILBERRY nated. Du. bill in parliament. to strike. Sw. bwyell. fluctus maris. AS. names bill-berries. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. bigotto. Bilbo. billot. bile. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. bull-berries. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. abelthe fetter itself. now A Bilboa blade. e. The origin of the term is probably from bole. a hypocrite. an adze . a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. 2. 3. a bigot or hypocrite. Fr. Tartuffe. The proper meaning bylgia. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. a seal. deceit. from the dark colour. clog to a fetter.

bitill. or bin. Bisson. pundas. AS. evigue. episcopus. Lith.68 BIN Bio-. to bind at . a bitch applied also to other animals. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. G. bord. a knob. a bear. habitacle. AS. and of Fr. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Lap. overlooker. beitsl.. bin-wood. BITTACLE /Siof. biscotto. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Sp. a pig petz. Fr. a weight of 48 pounds. bunt. Then added division in a granary. Bird. Fr. i. or petze. Bisom. twice cooked. admota non Bit. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. bikkia. pin-ti. to knot nets for fish. and especially to a small poor horse. qui nisi propius Blind. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. evesgue. bundt. . lusciosus et myops. Bindweed. bircej Sw. terial. G. an eagle's young G. — Surrey in R. Lat. Thus I suppose the Gr. biccej ON. When compared with Fr. betsel. pittjo. bita. binge. bjork. a house. wine. to form a knotted structure. Du. bundt. vescovo. i. bindan. . bund. a corn. a bitch. is in Scotland applied to ivy. v. Dan. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. by the verb knit or net. Bind. . the young of an animal. beize. which is expressed in E. beitan. bitacora. from \t3\. Sw. Fr. earnes brid. To Bite./«idere. bij sienigh. — — . bunch. poultry. — See Bittacle. j). a gallinaceous bird. poule. bigne. Gr. or ben-wood. Lat. Goth. to swell. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. a habit- Binnacle. hiindiiin. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. beorth. Fr. a female dog hindinn. 'tumens sequor. a truss. to build. to wreathe. a bump or knob. brut. AS. a brood or hatch of young. binda nat. properly a young pigeon.' and the like. . beisseii. in Swabia. a hind or female stag. to plait. In like manner from knot. bunki. EpisETTiTOOTToe. berkas (z=:Fr. Bin. the young of birds . while bind-wood. I would derive the verb to knit. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. a bunch. expressed by Sw. bhurja. to bear. is rendered in ON. a little dog. See Breed. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. to hang. to bulge. Sanscr. piiiti. a bitch. Fr. V. pippione. sc. Lat. E. pinnu. See Belly. fowl. AS. truss. The proper meaning is a heap. e. evegue. by binda. to bind together. AS. G. bund. an overseer. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. See To Bear. . Goth. ge- from AS. bindan. where the compass stands. — properly near-sighted. also a stone weight. viz. To — — —D. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. band. isfiw. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. to fasten it together. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. to twine. to cook). It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. a female stag. bunga. Bing. H. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. to net. nodus. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Bine. videt. a weight. bundun.. The term ON. from pondus. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Lith. beran. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. to bring Biscuit. life. ON. Bittacle or Binnacle. brid. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. pinnii. . biscuit. bundle.. forth. It. Lat. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Sw. We — A Birth. copus. burt. a heap. propius videre bij sicndc. pullus. G. doubtless a stone. AS. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Bailey. from Lat. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Habitacle. — Kil. The bitol. to be derived from Ibfiaq. Bizened. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. or baked. It. are commonplaces. bundle. biclie. IV. Bitch. hith. than vice versi. bij sien. ON. Bisen. from Gr. a heap. Birch. &c. piccione.

It is in fact radically identical with Fr. bitones. In a similar manner Gael. to let out whai should have been concealed. ' plabraich. Fieldfare. to babble. brunblakk. term. Bivouac. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. to loll it out. to watch. Fr. bittour. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. indistinctly. on the one side. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. round which the cable is made fast. white. It. blanc. a large lip. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. dusky. AS. bird of the heron tribe. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. faded. to talk much. bites. faded. leohte . yellow . baboyer. Gael. a large coarse lip . whitish. Se bleek. shine. G. fallow . In Legrand's Fr. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. Cot. as of a body falling into water. mona mid Dan. buft". pale. as of wings . v. The bitas. —Neumann. Percy Soc. To Blab the anchor. Bav. blank. beiwache. to babble. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Wit hung her mourn. a tati.. Bohem. baitrs.. a shelter for the steersman. Fr. A a rail. Hal. /ealo-/or. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. a flapping. pale yellow. Bleak. from whence we have adopted the. plabartaich. even humour seemed and beuin. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). blobach. a continued soft sound. discoloured . maculS. shining. blubber-lipped. Du. cut. quoted by Ihre. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. white lead. mouth. or water beating gently on the beach . AS.plab is used to . . 'fuscus. — Hollyband. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . thoughtlessly .' by Gudmund. blakk. Lydgate. bitr. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. x. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. dark. 't huisje. yellowish. ON. as in that of pale and white on the other. blakki. bittore. biacca. an edge is sharpest sword.€i. quick. gabble. blabbern. iroxafealo. — Collins in Hal. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. to To blabber blabber with the lips. out the tongue. black. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. is apprehension of danger. stutterer. Mag. Gael. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. blebberis. blob. a stammerer. his blacan light. whitish. to wax pale or bleaked. unintelligible talk plabair. a babbler. Alex. bleich. Blabber-lip.). as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. — cheeked maid. ^chops. things —Palsgr. Why presumest And laam's asse. bleikr.' It would thus acle. blabbre. Bittern.' G.' by Haldorsen. to the sharpness of a weapon. babbe.. G. obscurus.D. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. garrulous. 332. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. as is seen in sputter and splutter. blob. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. to speak Dan. apparently from its biting the tongue. blabhdach. butorj OE. bitter. Je N. a fluttering noise. a beam in a house or ship. blunt we say it will not bite. "uivac. light-coloured. chatter babbler . All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. a* mast . gulblakk. to bivouac. ON. Hald. Ai-mstrong. whiteness (candor sine It. Sp. blesmer. pale brown . night guard. ON. blac-hleor ides.— Blabber-lip. viz. bleg. Black. Again. is placed. blake. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Hist. a childe dothe gasouille. Deutsch. biti. Fr. bihovac. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Applied in Hin ON. synonymous with baber-lip. on. I blaber. pale. beuni. an additional watch. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. ^aj'/^r. corrupted in Fr. blabaran. pale. mouth. ' Biovac. plappem. . babbling. bitor. from wachen. in contempt. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. blob. Sp. Sw. first. Goth. Pl. To or he can speake. as of water gently beating the shore. Mund. Mantuan babbi. blab. So Fr. confusedly. the palebleff. 't kompas huis. fallow fawn-coloured. blepLith. In like manner E. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. Sp. 156. Cotgr. NE. The Gz. small guard-house. pale yellow . ON. bitts of Bitts. Nagt huis. beitr. pins of the capstern. to chops. Fr. Sp. white.

cited in N. The present forms then should be classed with blether. The radical bubble. to dabble in water. sheet of paper. 86. blather. blanchet. Dan. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. . madder. mud. livido . — . gabble. Sc. and others engaged in dirty work. smother. defame. blad. Sw. which we . with divers other lewd and loose fellows. blinken. pallido. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Hist. Dan. mire. a buible. to Hence Ital. tree. bladder. blanchet. Blame. pass over. as. tattle. e. leaf of a. a boil. polished. Gr. shining. board. whitish. leafy. linkboys. or a mass of bubbles. G. on. Blancli. blegen. plate. from candere. dial. the origin of . blister. slush. G. Bav. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. Jan. to shine. the leaf of a tree. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. and thence to babble. blether. blame. mud. smore. and Q. I am degraded from a cook. bladder. a bubble. revile. candidus. pXaatpiiiiHv. as. leaves. to vocifer- — Cot. PI. borrelen.— Kil. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. 1854. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Du. D. to omit. and G. to —Blaspheme. . to shine. blatt. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Fr. Fr. Torriano. Fr. blatter. moere. and the agitation of liquids. bladder. to To bellow. coat. 5/^a/^ of colour. biasimare. To Blare. mus-blackt. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blad. on. blatter. is identical with Flanders borlen. 7. as blader. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. blanqne. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. as Lat. blather. blank. also jabber. Du. imbrunire. p. Play in Nares. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. leaf. also white woollen cloth . with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. Blank "verse. Sir. Eadmer. To blank. blister. Wott. plat.—Blatter. blanchir. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. with all other loose idle masterless men. as scullions.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. reproach. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. boys. a blank ticket. Besides the examples of this connection given above. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. See Blubber. skola and thwatta. blanc. piatto. Du. . vagrants. or as E. plat. probably ate. pladdern. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez.— ^o thehotsun. Perhaps from blegen. blactra. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. whitish. to bleak in the sun. Du. bladder . From being made of white wooUen for cloth. —^Webster. variable than the signification of words designating colour. name originally given Blackguard. in R. Blade. Lat. blaeren. blein. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. bladre. a. Blain. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. the ON. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. Blanket. a bladder or pustule. blaere. to make or become white blanc. Reliqu. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. and wandering men and women. blasphemare. pimple. biastner. flap of a Du. It. speak impiously. irXariQ. a blanket a bed. roar. Bacon in R. to bubble. to disappoint. Dan. a bubble. broad. bladeren. blister. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. or blafich. rogues and wanderers. and he shall be sure to have O. vagabonds. chatter. foolish talk. commonly called the Black-guard.. to glitter. — rura. — Sw. Now. blister. Blank. But perhaps a more Gr. Fr. and E. blahen. bladra. Cot. waschen. or of an oar G. Sw. to blanch.. a pustule . branches . blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. &c.—Blatant. to glow. white. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. —We Bladder. G. to purl. a white or unwritten ticket. chatter. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. black. his meat burnt. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. white. dripping-pans. most complete example of leafy structure. contracted from bladeren. a leaf. blegne. blena. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. bladdra. — — — to jabber. Du. pluddre. to blow. also tanned by the sun.

clamorous. blose. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. each of boaster. Fr. is used in the sense of manifestatio. — — ' : bless. Dan. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Fr. bleis. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. a shout. e. whence Blazonry. . Golden Book in R. a MS. used. beast. blasonner.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. live coal . The AS. blys. how. has also blencke. abroad. ing of arms. blus. blcese. brasa. it is manifest.whence the Fr. Gael. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. 2. blasoen. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. ventosus. to blow. 'op een trompet blaazen. Du. biter. As Kilian. blateroon. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. abroad. to spread news. proflare tues.). to bellow. to extol. braise. blaodh. blast. G. Du. bawling. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. The origin of this exSp. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Fr. blesse. shield or surcoat. blossi. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blason. blatero. ON. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. Lye. AS. coloured prints. Kil. First from the E. blysa. To blast. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. If armour. blis.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. blason. blorach. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. blase. a loud noise. also blazon or the blazSpenser. like the in English. — Elazen. Prov. blass. OE. magnilo. much plausibility. by stripping off a portion of the bark. also praeblczse. A gust of wind. She roade at peace through his heraldry. thraso. Cot. ill-speaMng their proper colours . redness . a voice Jr. a flame. To Blaze. and to make him word blaze. among other . brasa. in that of praise. to blow. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. splendour. is from AS. declaratio. a torch . blazen. a shining spot. to de. besides blesse. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. of an animal. blcEsan. a shield. Blanches illuminies. Du. as a verb. blase. somewhat different train of thought. The other derivation. light-coli. blcEsan. embraser. an empty and two theories are proposed. senses. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans.' painted or figured .sound a trumpet. A strong flame. oured. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. See Blare. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. I. commendation blason funebre. bles. to trumpet forth. stultd loqui. gloriosus. proclaim the virtues of. ON.' to fastum . visui patet. blaodhrach. Du. to blow . loud . Cot. Du. To blow AS. indeed.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. boasting. — ' — stroy. blesse. Dan. . Sc. blaze. pale. a flame . ther it was erst not knowe. or blazening. to cut off prematurely. in the same way as we 2. blaser vid. kept up. blaeteren. Gudmund. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. a whisperer. the noisy. Blaze. to set on fire.— . is the imme. blaterare. noisy blor. an conium. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. or to the sound which it produces. With inversion of the liquid. a blast. baladrar. a torch. fire. But now. blaesen. blezo. Blast. to publish the praises. a flame. Blatant. and which. to proclaim. A blaze is so intimately Then. magniloquus. G. the matter incendiary . quus. a lamp blasere. blcesett. blasa. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. baladron. also only pains and excellent endurance. bldsse. blcest. laudes (Kil. might spring from the same origin by a . friend Cornelius. — ^Jam. a coat of arms. Sw. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. Sw. might And sain. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. a funeral oration . Du. i. to publish. g. oron-blasare. Troilus and Cressida. to blaze Sp. AS. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . and. bliEsan. .

slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. blench came to be used for a trick. Ancren Riwle. plama. So in Sw.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. (faith or creaunce) Be war.v. color plumbeus bldma. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. wanness. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. confound him. boggle at something. 115. N. tumanid. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. And now are these but mansbond (i. A Blab. avoid looking it in the face. from the than schal I go. a spot.' to deceive one. blur before their eyes. blema. Sw. ^Xiixaoftai. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. Gr. Blear. to spot . . pimple . An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. And By a similar metaphor Pol. to bleach. like one that has long P1. light-coloured. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. wan. blarren. blesmissure. Palsgr. Richardson. tutnan is a cloud. paleness. to become livid. AS. See Blood. p. The term blear. pale . . although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a blot or smear blanking one. whitish. Blear-eyed j having sore i.'he cried till the tears ran down. pier vor den augen eyes. to cast a mist before the eyes. from on. to cry or weep. as of dust or mist . Fr. 242. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. a spot. guenchir. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. From the OFr. Mac. a stain. Bleed. blakna. a spot. a red watery eye. livor. wheal. Bleb. flack. which are blurred with the have shewed you. to start away from. — blink the question is to shrink from it. to humbug. the livid colour of a bruise. Bejaune. pale Du. Bleak. to stain one's honour or reputation. spSt. novice. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale.D. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. to wink at it. to soil. ' . splamii!. Blemisli. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. a fault. To Bleat. To totally different from the foregoing.filerren. Sir J. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. or blemish. sinen langen tranen. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. or to low as oxen. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. to make him feel blank. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. livid. G.' the devil makes a vain back. in the expression reputation. Pol. a spot. blcecan. To salir. dead-coloured Cotgr. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . Schmel. exposed. . See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. what blenched him therwith. a disgrace. while the agent ac- From . Bailey. and thence to a bruise. spla7nU sie. the formal equivalent of English wink. on. to blear one's eye. c. bleakness. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. to disgrace one's name. blot. inflamed eyes. a blotch plerr. bldmi. See Black. a been distinct. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. blemissemeiit. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. ^Blencher. B. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. I chaunge colour. ' He blarrede or roar. — — R. Gower in R. a boil. blesmir. souiller. As AS. to blare been weeping. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. a blemish in one's 2. is Blench. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. ' — — eye. ' — — ' : — — . tacher. Blancher. See Black. to bleat as sheep. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. drop of water. to wink the eye. blister. bleikr. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. blink. . blot.P. bloken. BLENCH obfusco. darkness of vices. . from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. gif thou blenche from ony of tho.' God in his wordes. goda nainn. start vor den augen. Manuel de Pecch&. to spot. or blemysshen — blaken. 419. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. A stain in a man's reputation. geplerr. sugillatio.

Sw. Du. to rejoice. to make a rumbling noise. lighten. blogi. AS. pearance of the blighted . bleg. to shine. to glance. goods. to merry. a wink. csecubrandish. blazeny. to glitter ful . happy . to make happy. as in the case of blaze. ' Pl. Kiittner. joyful. as taschen. blitzen. liquid filth to bluther. Sc. Blazena Bea. Deprived of sight. to flash. a glance. bliss look . sertion of the nasal. Wtb. riches blajennii blicksem. to churn. window-blind. to — make it thick and muddy. . blinzler. happy .' or Dat Koorn verblekket. Swab. lightning. blent.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. — Goth. weaklaveny. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. a.blinkard . Sc. to shut the eyes. to bless. Du. F. blitz. seems the simple netel. Serv. To blunder water. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. joy. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. To Bless. G. III. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. OHG.. OHG. mixing in general. (=bene dicere). AS. a gleam. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. but by no means therefore a pre. The term then self or others. Owl and Nightingale. blind. to shut the eyes G. glitter. to consecrate . blithe blis. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . gladness. . mix from blekken. AS. with or without the nasal. fortunately. wink of sleep . blago. . a dead nettle. blag. Blind. tless —Gamm. blendian. an entry which leads to nothing . also to wink. blich-fiur. . dazzle . blindr.blunda. readily passes into a /. to glitter. blican. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. . livid. blithe. to shine. glitter. false windows. blicksem. Tany. j). as in Du. Blink. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Thence apblinds. G. —Brera.wink . Du. Paradises blidnissu. to bless . . blaziti. glad. blidu. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. lovely Bohem. graceful. bludder.eyed. to blithsian. Bliss. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blink-eyed. pockets. G. shine. blund. money. to bluiter. wink. in potters' language. to act like a — . . to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Dan. burn up. From the action of the hand making Sw. to stir or puddle. to dazzle . . joy . plotzen. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. flash of light . glance. a wink With the bletsian. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. as a blind entry. blink. blide. moment. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. — . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. a. to dabble in water. glimpse. AS. good. lightning. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blanssen. blend.blinken. Blight. Russ. tative source of the word is wholly lost. ^Jam. well blahy blick and blink. trix.Q. Needle. the Slavonic languages. to dash wine with water. joy. cascultare. well blagaya. blind- ON. doors. Du. blinzeln. to lighten. blincken. sweet. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blac. . To Blend.D. The inblissful. blindselen. blessed. or nettle which does form. a glance Swiss blenden. although in the in the next article.not sting thiiren. to bluiter up with water. blinde fenster. blissian. happy . a flash. and joys of Paradise bliden. the G.nasal. — A A — . ON. make these hands 3. tire. to glitter . glitter. to twinkle. to dilute too much .' To — blunge clay. vious one in the order of formation. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. to mix. to shine. blahoslaviti to twinkle. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blinzdugig. giving (Fr. to rejoice. a blick-ooghen. be glad flash. G. plonsen. as a vatn i vin. a nounce happy. 375. blet. pale. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. thou knave. to pro. blotzen.corn. is I shall Gurt. blatida. The sound of k before an s. Pol. blessed. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. blicken. to fall into water with a sudden noise. Swiss (obsolete). A . to plunge. to be blind. De Sonne ' verblekken. happily. blick. bluiter. blahos. blicken. . blende. Biglotton. a look. the verb to bless is some. gives blinzen. I hold thee a grote thee. riches . Nares. Du. a blessing. — when he — Bailey.blinze. . lightning sweet blago. . sung.

— Hal. joyful. in Nares. repre- pusula. blod. The blow E. blide. kostua. Boyd in Jam. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. — Sw. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. blot. Hence. blot. shells. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blithe. buclde. viscid. Of sheep. blcesma. Dan. blobbes or droppes of water. having an unsound swollen look. blidr. bubble and blubber. Hence E. G. in gusts. and inarticulately. Egillson. fiustula. Sw. Blob. blad. Blob. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. senting the dashing of water. mild. speaking rapidly any . blouca and Fr. as a blab of ink. from blcsr. Jonson. to steep. blond. cooking. Gael. blab. like clot. Block. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. while Lat. to blissom. . a blister . plub. ^vaaa. a bubble. separate portion. as if soaked in water. Blister. round. fish blind person. ON.—Bloated. a . to soak. Goth. to blow. blister. expressed by cognate roots. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. blot. or blinde-kiih. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blote. and pisg. Bleb. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. bloated. in bulk. W. pimple.plisg. soft. merciful ON. See Blot. N. — Blob. taken altogether. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. blaud. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. as in E. and bouclette.. like manner the coloured. blubber. or the mark which it makes. stone. To Bloat. G. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Bav. to desire the male. a blister. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. signifying in the first instance to soak. To a smoking or drying by the fire. sloppy dirt. to block up the way. a blain. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. blindsehn. weak. mild. ON. lagga i blot. bleiths. to bubble. a drop of water. to blow. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. orbicular. B. In Fin. The roots /. pustula. Fr. light yellow. blister blasan. to dash liquid. Sw. bloc. to to puff and be noisy. swell. Sc. or bleb. biota. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. bluster. Lat. the unhewn bole of a tree. Kil. to blow. in the lump or mass of wood. Mod. Du. and easily changes its place. strawclod. . — . —Bailey. to close it with a solid mass. frequentative. bluyster. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. a dirty blister. For this. To Blissom. a lumpish head plubach. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. to cure by smoke. blindman's-buff. soaked. inde humiditate tumidus. Gael. boucler. It may be formed Blithe. it is must be observed. Fr. The stem or trunk of a tree. a small lump of anything thick. puff. husks. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Thus we have blab and babble. Cotgr. a little blisg. Langued. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. also to set See Bless. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. a blot or spot. in the sense of a soft tint. A solid blouquette blisters. Du. kostia. any lump or mass of things. formed spot. is also used in the sense of swelling . or the like. a See Blot.— Bailey. to breathe hard. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. — — — — — From blabber. B. Dan. and F. And so from squatter. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. blotfisk. soak in water cured fish. an unformed mass. pods. is formed squad. Blond. soft. to swell.—Bloater. ^Jam. a bubble. buckle. Svt. blautr. whence blast.pusta. must be classed with forms like Gr. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. . gentle OHG. mass. . pusula. bausen. blaustem. a bubble. busten. blinzel-maus. I believe. blijde. a block or log en bloc. or is inserted or omitted. must be referred to AS. as blinzeln. a ram. blesme. A under this name was imported into England. Ibid. soft. blobber. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. pausten. bloc.

blust. the bright colour of the cheeks . G. biado (of which the evidence plattern. j^ blottir. blotte. flower. blistaf.' the rain is driving and blue . (of cattle) to dung. a gush of milk . a torch blusse. Du. Schwenck. Schilter. proto shine with bright colours . bloeme. a water ploutsche. skam. See Blow. to From . Blot. bliithe. shine . to strike . to glisten . plottra. blosem. a Usaae. yellow. to slap. Dan. Lat. to shine . to blot the land was in a leme. Schmid. a deli. glus. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Florio). a spot or blot. livid marks. gammon. bit by bit. livid . pladern. wan. Sw. a lump. Hatch. ])erly Du. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. lump of anything soft to blad. to exists in biadetto. blois. to strike with something soft or flat. blooth. to blaze. a flower. a The form platschefz. platz-voll. blaeuwen. Plots. Stalder. glose. a nature. great leaf of cabbage. a pelting shower). . bloi. from G. ON. blue. a Schmid. brilliancy. plants which prepares the seed. to squander. blat. blauwel. Ir. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. dial. bloemen. to dash down Du. lustre. ON. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. D. Blossom. . to blush . to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blaeuw. white blatte. to scribble. AS. dial. blue . kobladde. glossi. spot pletter i solen. It. Du. blondheid. G. Ein platsch milch. glasi. Sc. blotter. Blow. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blue. Fr. couleur livide. to strike with such these objects exhibit. Wendish blodo. The G. . Erploten. Wflz<^«. platz-regen. Sw. bldmi. . Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. whence plader. Fris. blue. Du. fair in en blat vand. Prov.blauschlagen. plet. a beater. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to glow. — Blotch-paper. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Dan. blad. blawels. dirty spot on the cheek. platt-voll. Jios. Sw. to slap. ON. probably connected with Pol. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. splendour . blou. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. ^lys. Pl. glister . mud. blus. bloedsd. bldts. S-wiss pladern. a black eye Du. E. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. . Fris. a. pale. bleistern. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. in v. blowen. E. blatte. a Halm a. . blomstr. bloutre. to grow pale). E. to flame. of a blow with something lios. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to spot or blot. gloss. — gush. blosma. en blau ach. straw. —Barbour. . cow-dung. gleam. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. spots in the sun. to squat or lie close. to be red with blot. E. blase. blue. ^Bleed. coloured (Diaz. bloi. a flower. soft or flat. leme. OFr. to splash. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . blady. blose. bletister. splashing full. a drop of water or colour. 2. a cow-dung. blond is used in blatt. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. a blow. from the bright colour which 7'vci. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blotting-paper. blut.D. blaeuwe ooghe. pale biavo. to blaze .^ Kil. lump flower. pale tint. blond en blaauw slaan. a flower. blosen. Blotcli. Bloom. to dabble in water . — Stalder . platschern. yellowish It's G. fall to overflowing. gfyssa. See Blow.— . to dirty. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. colour of the cheeks. Du. bluish. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. blodelsa and blawelsa. AS. Blood. to sparkle. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. E. E. platsch-voll. plattata. kuh-plader. blysa. or the sound of it . a blaze. the bright to blot paper morsels. redness. — — . — Cot. blostma. bloed. bleustern. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. fall down . plotterwis. bliihen. on. as the skin or hair. clod. . Dan. bliise. Harmar in R.properly to scatter liquid . Blad. to dabble in water. to patter. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). pladdern. a blot or spot.platter. sbiadare. light. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. parallel form with ON. bloetnsel. bfys. Russ. blond. ' — . bloi. bloto. to dash down. blosa. to be red. PI. Sc. lidmr.

plustrig.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to shine with bright From colours.Jlasa. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. Langued. ' BLUE or guggling. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. . bldt. a flower. to fade. a Blossom. Blowzy. blow. pale. plusig. foam. fied vowel. wan. boasting. glas. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. G. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to bubble up. a blow. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. to blow. Chaucer. ler. blava. chatter. meurtrissure Roquefort. — Bluther. a fat. little apparent resemblance. corre.nify bubble. bluh. B. Chaucer. Blue. sound like water. a herb Gr. pale . blodyn. blau. blao. blust. to fade. gloeden. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. to exhibit bright colours. blodelsa. to bruise Roquef. blaw j biavo. blosen. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON.xo'»'. blau. The primary sense is to shine. 1. boil. and thence. to gush. d in Sc. to blow. — — Mundart. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. Blowze. — . Sik upplustem. blodern. Pludern. In agitation of water. to flourish. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. to guggle. Pl. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. glas.D. to beat. blubonciti.. to fade. plubraich. puff. to beat with a mallet. Prov. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . bluther. coup. or gr. is confined to the — . to make bubbles in drinking. to glow. Her sweet bloderit face. Gr. bludder. — To blubber. We . . fiubbem. to hard. To Blow. blue . Notwithstanding the We . to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Bret. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. grey. E. flower OHG. blubbern. pale. flower w. grow pale. to flap like loose clothes. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. to make blue. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. — To Blubber. 51. —SchmelIt. bl. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. a continued noise of agitated water. to breathe bouteiUis. The aUied forms. OHG. to spot. to gabble. . These are — Bludder. G. Deutsch. bruised Prov. blois. florere. heath. Deutsch. glede. dirty. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. fqded. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. Pl.D. especially with respect to the hair. Lat. blawan. bruk. a gurgling . tache. It is howbliuwen. The interchange of an initial gl. where the word may be compared bliggman. -ii.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. bliuwan. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. wan. MHG. blut. bloemen. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. cheeks bedabbled with tears. blazir. A.to blossom. gloeyen. to blurt out. G. 2. glowing coal . blduen. plodern. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. G. Wtb. blue. red-faced bloted wench. blubbern. vi^ound. glansj Ir. sense. OFr. a. like manner Lat. pludern. OHG. pale OFr. Raynouard. bluod. E. to glow.D. bliithe. Tumbled. 1292. bledniai. in E. to'disorder. to inflate. Du. The radical sense is shown in Gael. gliihen. 92.— . Du. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. — . into flower. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. bloi. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). blass. ^Jam. blahen. and the forms mentioned under Swab. Gael. To Blow. gUd. Jla-re. br. is very frequent. to with Bohem. blady. green. |8A)'. It. v. a bruise. w. the red fluid of the body . And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. fem. bloom. Danneil. . toused. to blow. . broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. And. grug. blezir. bloes. glow. glaodh and blaodh. bliihen. y\r)yi»v. /idXavoc. Kil. withered. and closely allied with Du. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. blebber. may cite for example G. bloeyen. disordered in head-dress. to puff up. blazi. sponds with Sw. disordered. to Plodern. a paddling in wate r. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. plubair. plubartaich. bliihen. gliihen. marking some application from that bladder. Mund.' Hamburgh Archives.D. closely difference in of blabber. AS. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. a blast.' — Palsgr. to show flower. to breathe G. jabber. bloeden. Bav. piusen. P1. .

In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. Kil. Then with the nasal. Biada. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. — . ploffen. pale yellow. poltern. a boisterous violent man. buller-bas. and bustle . Kiittner. Roquefort. to become pale or wan. and metaphorically. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. biada. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. all representing the — . Blunderer or blunt worker. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. to lose colour. flav-us. G. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. in the same way as from It'. as well as biado. Altieri. pale) is provincially used in the. or an abrupt manner. G. is. E. disturb. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. falb. liebefactor. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to agitation of liquids. biavo. blavus. Bluff. Kil. tutte le semente ancora in erba. biava. blue.in mud or water. find accordingly It. plo-wy. a flounder. From G. yellow. non rotunda. plomp. a plain coin herausplatzeu. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. Bladum. contrasted with the dle. bulmanner. and sbiadare. corn. blac. superficie plani. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary.— . discoloured {plowiee. flodderen (Weiland). The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. blave is moreover. .//aay. Pm. Sw. Analogous forms are Du. herbe. blunt. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blunderhead. to work To blunder out a fronto. abrupt. Hence we pass to Prov. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. glundra. like the Celtic glas. bUich. blond. A bluff manner. bloi. G. blahir. to mix it up with water. Romance bluiter. pale. Blunt. corn. from the brilliant green of the young E. to fade). earth and water mixed together. from the Lat. Supp. from an imitation of the sound. speech. The Du. — Pr. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. applied to green as well as blue. Halma. Palsgr. Blavoyer. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Pol. planus. sloppy drink. Dief. confusion. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. to confound.. sbiavare. Flor.' trouble. It is remarkable however that the E. 't — —Hal. Dryden in R. to blunder water. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. sense of yeUow. Bodge. Lat. something. to dabble Biglotton E. Blaffart. — — — . blanssen. a fore. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan.D. Bohem. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. to puddle. blutter. tradire to Fr. like Du. To blunder is then. used for the work of an unskilful performer. yellowish red. je perturbe. We Blunder. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . to plump into the water. Roquefort. which is rendered by Florio. polterer. puddle. pale straw-coloured. and Du. blue. devenir vert blavoie. without image or superscription. The Du. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. a blunderbuss. blake (identical with AS. blunder. a shore abruptly rising. Ditton in R. blandum. to become pale or livid.make a noise. an ill-done job. verdoyer. buller-bak. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. It then signifies something done at once. has donder-bus. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. See Blunt. . bleu et blanc. to fall suddenly on the ground. Du. Hence a Slcelton in R. Hal. mix It. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. verdure. And blunders on and staggers every pace. blaf. mistake. bullern. in water dobbelen. having a bluff forehead. originally growing up turf and water. dial. and then generally idle talk. trahir. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. bawling. bluish. herauspoltem or sloping shore. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Pl. pludder. - reddish yellow. blunder. in plur. jaune. blue. I blonder. polter-hans. to dabble in the mud. to blunge clay. as well as sbiadafe. The word is here synonymous with amplus. segetes virentes. to become pale. See Blurt. his business with much noise. Du. fallow. and biavo (Diez). rustic.• BLUFF biado. glundr. fawn-coloured. Dan. OFr. G.

ineffectual reason. Sc. plump J to plump out with it. biotto. is thrown. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. heavy. that it not easy to discover the connection. a portion To inquire for slaves. thick. bloss. exactly corresponding to the G. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. blockish. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blunder. Blunt. obtusus. pointless. united in Gael. clownish. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Now the Swiss bluntsch. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. bare or blunt. blunt. duU. unfledged Sw.plompen. ang. Won by degrees. in Richardson. plump. blutten. A light blue colour. awkwardly. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . blunt. blait. Halma. naked. unwrought. plump. a blot. like a thing thrown down with a noise. and in the same sense. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. dull. It will be seen that the G. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. dull. rough. blott. seems to be derived. as Sw. without Maolaich. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. biosso. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blat. to make a noise of such a Stalder. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. blunt.pludse. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche.—D. It. blatte. F. that the sense of bare. raw. maol. awkward. without horns. blait. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. or heraus plumpen. Sc. unpolished. The syllables blot. fooUsh. blunsch. plotz. blue. naked. as cow-dung. Ford in R. A modification of the same root. Swab. Blaitie-bum. — blunt. Molof something wet. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. fling down . Bare and blunt. G. poor Sc. Bluntet. unceremonious manner. it will be well to point out a sense. obtusus. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. plonsen. blunt. through which a man is so blont. blotta sanningen. Du. — — pidus. forestis.— — — . . More in Richardson. nis. plump. to make foliage. down. a thick and will person. and hath swiche languor in his soul. with or without the nasal. bus. and. nature. identical with E. used in both senses. dial. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. pale. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Chaucer. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. pressions. as in E. Pol. inactive Swiss bluntschi. plutz T)\i. the absence of sharpness. bare. azure. bald. V. The blait body. It is from this notion of suddenness. blout. a bluntie. bleak. void. from the loud report a fire-arm. inaKil. insensible. hebes. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. edgeless. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. stupid fellow. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. — Kil. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. platz-regen. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. but of something soft thrown on the ground. viz. of a knife which not cut. without the nasal. Sir T. V. plumbeus. Q. Sw. Plump mit etwas umgehen. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. G. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Plump. Stalder. without preparation. plains The large bech. plump. wan. —D. plotsen. rude. Plontp. bare. and the like. or blab out a thing Kiittner . platzen. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. homo stolidus. Dan. Woddis. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. to blunt a thing out. good plump person. to bring it suddenly out. figuratively. clumsy. bluntschen. rudely. and an unintelligent. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. absence of preparation. —D. naked. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. it will be observed. massive. . Probably radically hlekit. heavy. V. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. is The word dull. Then cometh indevotion. Kiittner. Dan. Kiittner. silly. to plump down. a simpleton. viz.to fall into the water. heavy. to blurt. naked. to handle a thing bluntly. to plump into the water. sheepish. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp.

of the word seems . bausen. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Kil. is formed Du. to jabber. ever-swin.y. bord. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. a baU of thread the mud. be a crack or loud sound. to puff. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. a grows to a great bigness. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. to snuff. bliise. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. beacon fire. bludder. a. Du. to blur. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. berd. Dan. a mistiness. to make mouths. To blow in puffs. blur. — — — * Boast. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bdd. to dirty. and Du. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. a blow . short pieces of any filthy mud. Wright's ed. lindwurm. blasen and See Burr. blaffen and baffen. blaustem. table. bludder. blot. will fly up. Schmeller. Pull the bobbin. planks or boards. Fr. Gael. To tinct. rude. Du. to spurt out. . to blurt out. bhis.—Bobbin. Slur. AS. c. OE. blaste?i. rude. this root are formed Sc. an ear of corn. Du. to blore. and boisterous. to be out of temper. pof. to brag grande loqui. blunt. to disfigure with E. to blush. Supp. botte. Sverris Saga. gabble. Blush. Boa. 1. to chatter. margin. to give a crack.the syllable bot. edge. bit. — — . sudden.plodem. bot. literally edge-wood. Related to blutter. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. E. the Brem. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. a Jam. board. a small lump. gabble Sw. eber. acre. bdtr. bora. blotch and botch. a dangling object. to blow. G. and when applied to vaunting language.D. P. . boot. a board or plank. to puff. dial. to bark. whence bordvidr. ader. bakke bleustern. Wallace. Gael. to rumble. to talk quick and indistinctly . Bot zeggen. — ' Dief. an edge. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. cocodrUlus. Wtb. — To Bob. on. baiag. as in Du. violent. planks raised up outside the roofs. It. a torch blusse. crack made by bursting open. lacerta. a bladder . cheeks glow. Lat. 156. dial. pluddre. batello. boa. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. See Boisterous. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. aper. blurra.pusten. cluster. BLUR Boar. stellio. boistous. To move quickly up and down. a blot. then applied to indistinct vision . properly noisy. G. G. to roar. a tassel. 274. BOB 79 — To Blur. blose. and swimmeth very well. Sc. bleuster. to sound like water boiling. violent G. Du.v. AS. borrar. a tassel. Fl. . to threaten. table. imitated by has also In like . boord. ON. a club foot . bustuous. to smear. hot. to make a noise with the mouth. blaere. flat. V. bot-voet. to endeavour to terrify. pausten. as splurt to splutter. blader. the red colour of the cheeks Dan.plerr. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. 9396. skin. margin. blosken. or backwards and forwards. Bav. It. pludern. bdta. blarra. Explained by Jam. Halma. 'Ba. a border. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. it implies that it is empty sound. AS. bluter. burra. primarily signify loud noise. to say bluntly. a burst of tears. mire. bateau. Fl. . blast. Hal. bluther. puddle. geplerr. &c. a blotch. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. dull. common. outward edge. coarse. De Boat. margin. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. or bog also thread. chicchere. brett. to blaze. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. boccheggiare. beer. Comp. A large snake. bobine. Du. e. bar. stupid. fringe. to dabble. ground. bord. both used in the sense of boasting. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. to dangle.— . strong. swagger. to breke. Boa. voce intonare. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. edge. The to radical meaning D. blot. my dear. pfludern. to bounce. Boost is used for the boast. a mist before the eyes plerren. It. bladdra. splurt and spirt. to make a noise in boiling. See Blossom. puffen. Pl. E. Swiss blodern. As the as. to crying. To splirt.' — Red Riding-hood. . to blubber. the sound of a blow poffen. an end or stump. Du. border. blusse i ansigtet. pustern. bobbin. whence bob. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. blirt of greeting. bur. blubber. or blurt with one's mouth. baban. — a blaze. Board. bord. to guggle. and the latch . Sc. Du. To Blurt. a smear. To brag and to crack. w. to render indisbhir. Hal. blodern. eafor. and E. plump. — From mouth. to glow . along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Fr. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to puff. large. a flurt with one's fingers. i. The elision of the d is very to chatter. a short thick body. 29. Bluster.

bodhag. Gael. stuttering. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. — 2. Lith. shaking . gag. of which the E. waving. The signification of the root bot. to commit a blunder. . the belly. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. to roll. bayonet . '£. — H. a command. point. a prick. to make. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. .! . wavering.hollow. See Bid. cask bottich. a ghost . by the syllable patsch. potacha. move. exhibit another modification of the root. patsche. the body. gog in gog-mire. is identical with Fr. meaning the round part of his body. bothog. where bogs form Gael.\\i\c\iset.' Bogglie. bot. to waver.gmh:t. goggle. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. Bodkin. Miracle-plays. e. a round body both. bolr. Lap. Ptg. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Ptg. pall. bottich are derivatives. bodilo. French bouter. anything soft. — as well as the body of an animal. woman's stays. stumpy. bodat. or a pair of bodies. is a lump. unsteady nature of a soft substance. agitate. gagoula. Crist. bayonet. So BOB To Bob. speak of the barrel of a horse. bodene. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. gagei. to thrust. to dabble or paddle. BOGGLE trunk and G. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. from fitting close to the body. anything protuberant. needle. — Grandg. corset from corps. butt. to be uncertain what to do. VI. whence paUchen. bogach. or bag. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. as signifying anything spherical or round. Russ. then from the yielding. potacha. Shakespear has badged with blood. quagmire). ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. stutter gogmire. Supp. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. shake. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . message boda. bodi. AS. to fail. Bog. corpset. to start start and back as from a bugbear. We . . a puddle. Reliq Antiq. See Baber-lipped. . the trunk of the animal body. whence Fr. bagges. to blurt a thing out. busti. gago. Bodice. gogach. . to butt. Gael. boftich. a quagsoft. bo tich. . unsteady. bob. bodies. To mock. to prick. See To Botch. to push with the horns. barrique. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. bog. ON. so large a feature in the country. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. as in stammering or staggering. 43. baboyer. boll. belly. To make bad work. badyti. potig. calf of the leg. to fail. bogadaich. the stem of a tree . to smack. to make a mow at. palleg. the boss of a buckler. barriga. moist mire. or stem of a tree. a cask. Bret. W. With With this we charged again We bodged again. Gael. In like manner E. gog. to scruple. biodeachan. strike with the horns. * To Boggle. bodig. And waves. bodak. to deliver a message. mud. biodag. body of a shirt bol.. a cask. bodnu. an awl. Ir. Gl. bog (equivalent to E.rabodi. corpses pot. to stammer. Thy i.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bogan. arise E. and the word is well explained by Bailey. a prickle. dies. a bog or morass. to stir. . potahha. corset. an announcement. The Sp. It introduced from Ireland. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. Schmel. a . formerly bodies. as a horn. gebod. thrust with something pointed.a (i\ia. bodian. bodi. AS. a dagger. . a sting . bole. a messenger . bodetz. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. nave of a wheel. bogle. Now unskilful action is conmire. Banff. quakmg. daubed or dabbled with blood. Body. Wall. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. a body. and E. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. To Bode. the body of a shift gaguejar. expression hogglin an bogglin. 3. bod. To Bodge. to stick. . Cot. body and G.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. stitch. to be unsteady tich. swelling. unsteady. Commonly explained as if from Sc. to bodge. rounded. bottig. round. bogadh. To portend good or bad. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. ^Jam. to bob. toss. bod. precept. bog. moving backwards and forwards. the thick part of anything. fickle . as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. nodding. a spur. Bohem.

wag. swelling. tar. bul. sels of flax. Me doth awate. bolster. swelling. a bubble. Sw. a head . bolster. a fastening for a door. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. puilen. courageous.D. the gurgling sound of water rush. G. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. boss. 304). bolla. as. round the first instance to the materials with . to give a hoUow sound. tulum. bulla. a bubble. bSlstr. confident. Fr. — 6 . glass phial. polc'h. stutSw. OHG. Mund. insolent baude. Bole. trunk of a tree . Boil. Fr. a quaking mire. furfures. to swell. w. bolzen. perpendicular. used. excellent. bola. It. boly. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. tartle. Du. ohg. scruple. blow. to boil. a cushion. the body . bol. merry. balder.Du. bul. see Boast. bog. bolc'h. brave. Swab. bula. Stalder. up of bubbles. baud. bullire. .). hero. stud. . to be at a loss a shirt. ON. as those of nuts. coarse. Lat. Pr. huge. boutpijl.. and then applied to other husks. bag or bog are derived Piedm. Boll. ON. 45. stramenta. rough. E. boil . ballr. Kil. capiing into a cavity. gerade signifies straight to the mark. notes. bout. Du. he will speak out. Du. to stammer. Westerwald bollern. Sp. Chaucer. as E. flax-boU. bold. bolt upright. chaff of corn siliqua. to stammer. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata.w. . chatter. courageous. buller. Fr. bald. intrepid. to the belly as the or dislike. bold. haughty. strong. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. the lir. Chaucer seems Dan. — — which the cushion is stuffed. the. obex. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. Sc. bol. boggle. Pm. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. V. Lat. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Wall. cows the people from speaking. This iv. styffe or rude . OG. pimple ON. the husk of nuts. bola.— — . poppy (Bailey). as baltha. hollow. A. to stumble. by which it is moved to and fro. bout is explained by Kil. quick. bollen (Kil. a bubble. bald. bulr. Daring. Test. pillow. Da. bold. Kit. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. buile. proud.rounded part of the body. tartajear. or the like. bochken (titubare. Cot. hakogni. repagulum. a bump.— D. beule. Lap. (of Mons) b^guer. whence bulla. gluma. bagaji. may be identified with It. To Bolter. to puff. and manace for to de. ^Boistous. strong. treated under Bowl. bolleken. bouil. ON. noise. in speaking. as. Goth. biiilen. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. boll. bealder. roydeur. a boil or swelling Du. bog. In the same way Sc. pall. capitellum. The term applies in — — impressed . thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Properly noisy. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . 374. a bakazikni. Bustuous. ON. Love. bok. * Boisterous. to waver or hesitate. bolle. the body of a man or of ter. a swelling in ice. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. prince. caput scapulse. globular bod)'. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. boystousnesse. puile. stameln vel bochken. bald. which are not used for a similar purpose. belc'hj. shake. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). G. i. but that Bolt. The bob. to be prominent. in the sense of handsome . warlike. tartalear.palleg.' Mrs Baker. Boystous. To Boil. cheerful. Gael. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. bolt. tomentum. Bret. See Bulk. impetuosity. balldr. to hesitate from doubt. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bol. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bolstar. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. The round stem of a tree. G. also a blister. folliculus grani. pustule. pusten. 1430 in Deutsch. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. from the branches. from Du. ^Vocab. free. fiausten. — ' — tagliare. Du. bhster. properly represent belly. G. E. bolzBold. * Bolster. Magy. strong. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bal. to stagger. to tattle. bolr. then violent. dint in a metal vessel. is probably a modification of boll. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . bulla. . — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. b^gayer.

Pl. holier poller. Supp. . tantara. Sanders. sestuare. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. a club-foot. On this account Mid. one after the other. Dan. Pr. bolzauget) Sp. uneven. to bolter. bolzaugen. a round glass ending — bultig. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. btilt. crod. grasbulten. a rattling carriage. brattle. Champagne burtcau. also to curdle. crotlar. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. on the one hand.nature of the operation. to start out. clattering other of a series of projections or emi.. racket gepolter. . the wheels groaned. bolting to that of form. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. baruta. Lat. OFr. as above explained. to coagulate. curdle. poltern. or ill. hammer. Here the radical image is the violent O. we have Du. G. a millpoltzet augen.protuberance. — — — . to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. bolt-foot. Sw. ex•wagen. knob. Lang. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. a bunch. bulio. I boulte meale in a boulter.D. burclct. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. swelling. Dauphiny a sudden movement. to significance of the term was overlooked. cro. . a bolter or implement for bolting. to clack. Prov. crash. pattern. die treppe pressed.) E. to become lumpy. beluter. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood.noise {brattle of thunner.clack. Pm. cruddle. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Du. projections. with E. Hence Palsgr. by the representation of a racketing sound.). Pl. ' — — ! ! : — . je bulte.On the same principle. a clap of thunnences. hulch. hump. in S'W plotter. hammer.through a cloth of loose texture. to bolt meal barutel. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. small heap. zen. rugged. and the Thus from So. OFr. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. barutela. buideln. . have Lat. clump. OFr. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. buletare. a clod cloth. a . The ulti. a rattle. . beliitea. hole. a clump of turf. pultare. lumpy.D. pull. It. rugged. 2. the sense of right on end. staff which sounds tar. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. poll. Du. mole-hill. a crashing or racketing noise. we der Brocket). bullern. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. bultig. In the next place.). to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. agitari (Kil. Wtb. bulla. a clod. bolzen. Fr. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. we see that the one consists of a words. So also we pass from Lat. : ' — — .agitation of the meal in the bolter. . to come rattling downstairs.D. Hence. buletel. taratarrum. buretter{CQ\. a small portion. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. uneven. barutare. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. protuberance. tumultuari. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Bulte-pook or bulstar. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. bulk. Mid. jolting. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. . to form lumps. bulk or quantity . From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. and to crash.. budeln daz mele . poltern. projecting eyes pul. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. abolter. fied bot. buUire. Brem. vessel with narrow opening. to E. Schiitze. to bolt meal barutel. ' Holler poller / bulter. a bolter Prov. Bav. to start with palpitate. taratantarum. tling or crashing noise. The ment and the operation.thump or blow. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. ler. a sod (Schiitze). or the like. bolt head is a retort. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. bolt. croler.u. to bolt flour burato. gebolder. MHG. bultred. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. hulter de bulter.by forms like G. blotttre.D. as a rabbit from its baritel. to spring forth E. to shake. boss. P1. then to knock. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . representing a rat. as of a trumpet. as Fr. taraabout. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. / is transposed in Fr. to knock. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. bulstrig. to agitate. bluter. from G. tuft.— . . or a racer from the course. tar. And as the agitation of cream in . bortelen.as the essential element signifying the talum. to make a knocking.Lat.fe/2?. zare. to talk pulzen. kloteren. barutela.i5a//^«. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. we pass to Du. loud and fast.

bolting-cloth. a baker. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bonds. bonog. bombase. &c. Butterglas. buidelen. tree. 83 Gr. 155. a drum bombammen. and also the leg. brust-bein. tie. bambacium. bombarda. G.) . bras. bommen. and Mod. which has given rise to so many false etymologies.Su?. thick. bwmbwr. to bolt meal. stuff. biire. Near 6 * . bambagioj whence It. beil'n. bombasine. — bombast came guage. to thunder. Fr. bureau. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. sericum arboreum. to shake (as to shake the head. Du. bein. In legal language. cotton stuff. to shake down fruit from a tree. an implement of binding. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. beuteln. Gascoi^e in R. the Fr. Du. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. bomba. to beat a drum. again. G. produced the Pl. Need you any ink and bonibase. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. to boult meal. butteln. ^o/j. bon. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. It. gunpowder. the shank the shoulder-bone. bombe. been. bombdra. coarse. From builen. Banstead. has repeatedly varied. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. i. and Du. barate. a boulter of meal. Bomb. and that from Fr. builen. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. breast-bone. It. Fr. . to bind G. however. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. boulenger. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. e. Antiq. as Banbury. — Bombard. a churn for butter. bommer. rimbombare. Greek iSa/iliaiciov.D. bopin. agreement. Bonfire. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. to resound. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. baun. G. to which the leg. tiffany. butteln. basin. we speak of a gun to resound. from teu. When ture. sijde. the silk-worm. — AS. to ring bells. from boom. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. . and in fact we find the and Du. buttel trueb (of liquids). to thump W. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. bombice.Lat. buidelen. Mid. Du. ODu. bulter from It. to cast to and fro. band. bongam. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. thick from shaking. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Castrais barato. HoUybandin R. a word of which we have traces in several English names. . Moreover. . a —Bombasine. banitola (Fl. lana lignea. bambagino. bureau. a stem or base.^Altieri. bonfras. . Bibelesworth in Nat. crook-shanked bondew. derivation. a string. q. The material called by this name. baum-bast. band. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. achsel bein. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bunden. Schm. bond. bwmbwry mar. and called in Mid. Dan. bombicina. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. the contracted form of Du. Kil. whence bomme. d. Dan.bast. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. silk. As cotton was used for padding clothes. It. gossipium. booming over the water. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. borel. It. to shake. and Bond. silk-worm. is supported by the analogy of G. a beacon. assuming the of leg : special signification W. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. a ligature. a stock. beuteln. bande. Bone. or trunk word in W. bone of the . the leg. as in . sije. a hollow sound. . E. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. a bone in general. the murmuring of the sea. OE. — having a stem or stalk. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. In E.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. also thick-shanked. bombast. a thundering noise bomre. bauniwolle. sye. Fl. thick-legged. raw silk. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . burato. bindan. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bombasin. iuttern.). . a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. cotton. band pi. PoUitriduare. tie. ties. must be explained Fr. It. stump. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. It. term is appropriated in G.

of wonder On the same principle Sp. bua. . See Bomb. boer. Swab. letter. bdn. AS. boutig. from badare. ass. stabulum. boubair. tall. baier. OSlav. high. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. and Ban in w. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. a good turn or re- meaning. p. the scriptures bokareis. bobo ! interj. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. bose. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. bote. Du. bd. The latter is the original AS. writing bokos. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. ON. been. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. bonnet. Bootless. bua. a bonfire. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Schm. comes bondi. netis stall. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. litter. petition. Boon. blockhead. . buch-stab. wall hangings. whence ban-ffagl. Thin ben Luke i. bds. Busk. bonad. to gape. chaff. Gael. AS. which one gaping and staring about. from beida (E. Bun. in w. inhabit. bommen. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E.—Bootless. relief from sorrow. ON. build. prayer. Fr. also called Brecknock Beacons. boia. from Du. Boom. biikui. dress. a tree. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. — To boot. Fr. 232. busu. is Du. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bos. Du. Hufwud-bonad. boutig. bobo. a hollow skin. botta. and Gael. OW. beiSne. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. a. to dress. A stall for cattle. the mouth. as a lying-place for cattle. Kil. Mrs Baker. at everything. b'ukvdry. bota. but stall. lofty. a simpleton. badaud. build. b^er. Boor. till. tigh. countryman. however. dial. literally cow-house. a scribe G. bauer. Prov. remedy of evil. bonad. Hal. . . reparation. signifying beech. are formed Fr. . without ad- . gaby. But bosg. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. short boots. Wall. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. a vessel for holding liquids. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Boot of bale. G. set in order. wondering signifies not only straw. Bonnet. to litter bosu. dog-kennel. dial. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on.Boos. . babau. fool. gaping hoyden — Cot.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. bene. to prepare. Du. ty Gael. inhabit. bauen. . prayer. quest. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. the possessor of the farm. — Bailey. bAkva. buandi. babb^o. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. by itself for head-dress. boten-shoen. from gape. — From the participle present. Thus from the syllable ba. a letter . botte. often cut for burning and lighting fires. a dry stalk. E. ON. Perhaps. N. betere thing werse. foolish. the name of the letter b. where a cross (or a gun. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Goth. Palsgr. Binau Brychyniog. gawney. — — . one who dwells nigh. pero. dress. b&ber. dolt. master of the house. ON. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. and thence Rouchi baia. or Vanns. a head-dress. in Phil. a bag of skin or leather. a lofty blaze. boubi^. The i. Mrs Baker explains bun. It. In nautical language. ben. till. — e. See Butt. to aid. succour Bailey. remnants of hay or straw. pole. to ask. Gl. . hu?idbusa. Booby. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. a lying-place for dogs or swine. bosig. 13. to strew with straw. help. the first consonant of the alphabet. A peasant. The character of folly is i860. * Boose. Bonnefyre. beam. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . babin. bolt. to yawn. to cultivate. botte. \ais-band. From bo. A favour. the cultivator. Boot. a letter Russ. . and from AS.^ —P. petition. Hal. To Boot. G. booby. gehyred. E. bonaid. See Bown. Build. by arbitours sholde bote the P. although in the OG. swinbusa. boom. w.n. Basa. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. Sp. bid). simpleton. bosih. ganian. Ox. bowwen. a. boandi. house. boo. the stubble of beans. a silly fellow. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. head-dress wai^g. Pm. tapestry. desire. bas. Fr. . Book. a stall. Fr. feu de behourdis. Jr. as the Brecknockshire Banns. clown. and fig. boa. pig-sty. nachbar. to set in order. — . Pr. to gape.. Kil. bossen. G. The origin of the word is probably the W. to cultivate. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. It is commonly explained as identical with It. the alphabet. Trans.

of an edge that will not bite. which are probably from the same root. a borer. limbus. Fin. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). bothag. to restore. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. and thence to eat build. wave. purra. OSw. a leather bag or bottle for wine. boards. exchange or divide. a hut. to build buda. cellar. biorag. botjan. a border. a granary . a booth or shed. sawroot. in Ihre. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. scalpo. budowai. Fr. cure Sw. borracha. Bohem. BOOTH vantage. to repair. terebro. a borer . yfirbdt. A phorically a drunkard. and hence to fine. kvit-bara. Kil. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. a great bur. to importune. . to bete the properly to mend the fire. puru. Du. to hut. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. to patch. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. ora. To Bore. p. furd. to surge. repair. the . . Fin. piercer. from borra. are derived from G. abode. to bore. puras. Border. It is admitted that Fr. recovery bata. lappalare. comminuted by either kind of action. BoracMo. boeye. bord. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. and E. or the gradual working a hole in anything. borino. in Lap. Fl. bordi. bower. to anything Neither G. AS. chisel. Du. a hut or tent. butin. to build. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. baete. making good again . an ing or biting leads to the application of board. bardure. are parret.—Burin.. Alexand. cottage. N. limbus. to stick unto as a bur. See Burgeon. 3. budka. swell bara. both. to profit Goth. Sp. Magy. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. remedy. Fr. Burke in R. a responding forms . a sharp-pointed tooth. bolino. bora. to mend. Compare Manx birrag. uzboro. baara. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. . &c. See Bower. bauda. mat-bod. margin. beute. extremitas Bore. sculpo 05\xiik. — ON. bud. batr.por. terebra sculptoria purastoa. pointed. . a shop. urboro. Another derivation from Fin. tent. . to boot. reparation. Palsgr. to expiate boeten den dorst. Lat. to swell. The as G. betan fyr. scsdes-bod. hem or gard of a garment. to divide. .par. ON. OHG. pi. admovere titiones. to bite. to The Sw. and meta- Fr. a word. lappolone. a bladder. drillen. make . But probably the E. better. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to quench one's thirst . bottino. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. . bite. pu purro (saha =: saw . to pierce. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. and parrets. sharp. nor E. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. ON. puras. a bothy. to profit. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. dust. The Fin.— Return from Parnassus I inR. Gael. welt. It. a shelter of branches. struere ignem. an engraver's chisel. .. bohren. to foam. Fin. purro. a shop budowati. Mag. borracha. furni. puru. bdt. a wave. a cupboard. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. amendment. G. on. differs only in termination. aid. fimbria. to to . byte points to the verb byta. as afford a satisfactory explanation. hut. • — To Bore. In the Fin. Bete. a. fire. It. 1. dens mordens vel caninus. boede. burin. boete. Esthon. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. . purra. rof. bata. See To We speak in E. a shed. Esthon. Booty. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. cup- awl. Booth. 266. bauen. or anything pointed. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. a chisel. Pol. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. from deila and skipta. Gael. chewed food for infants. The cor. And so in ON. wine-skin. ON. to bite. a borer. butin is explained by Flor. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. Gael. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. a tusk. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . bothan. schare of a man of a prise in warre time.. is purin. The ON. edge. amendment boeten. barn. bdra. to . boeten het vier. from bord. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. forare.

when that system was forgotten. Fr. burgess. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. to save. empty. It. a knob.' every man be under bail. . cob. The primi. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. projection. bossen. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. one who sticks to you like a bore. storm. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. I. burel. to knock or strike. clownish. blow on a hollow object. Altieri. Bos a surety. primarily signifying coarse sound . Jam. boss of the side. bunch. and thus could not shake off the old burr. bom. poor. the hollow between the Borsholder. The origin seems to be the Goth. Fr. bail biirgen. by which of or belonging to plants. a bunch or hump. to protect. Russ. Jam. grey). botch. Du. Newbury. botsen. the ordinary a swelling. to give a hollow bizo. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. boschen. the N. or because a blow berga. G. a blow. the Sc. the North Wind. knocking. surety. And that unsittynge is to here degre. to contain. brown cloth. to strike so as to Bureau. without. whether from the fact preserve G. to pick or cull plants. Goth. gesylle. the sun sets. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. See found in Bav. Lang. a surety. knock and a knob . E. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. less. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. viipyoc. of bail throughout the country. to give bail or answer for an. rude. bosse. a giving rise to It. loan. a. beorgan. to become is emitted by a hollow body.bucklers. to save. bourg. borel. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. bourgeois. pego. bierge. Cot. ^ma. a citizen. a little blow. bosh. byrig. as we speak of a thumping potato. ' pledge. to conceal. Borowholder. Sc. Borough.' if thou give money on loan. or perhaps it may be See Bury. a wen. butse. bussa coarse. borei. . A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. and borough in the sense of a town. . pitch. /3oraMK6f. to take in. borealis. striking. Fr. the must have arisen burgensis. northern. AS. to save Sw. a boss. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. borough or chief constable. ON. is used in the sense of bussare. boss. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. — — — A — .. from their grey clothing. Bosh. boss or knob of a buckler . which now signifies a knob. or perhaps also To Borrow. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. cnoc. &c. Bunch. basse. ^o^^flj. AS. empty. while Gael. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. empty. an eminence.' the chief of the ' borh. poor. cnap. agrees with E. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. It. Hal. coarse cloth made of the Du. that which biirge. Gr. to protect. to keep. head. beorgan. Borrow. cnag signifies both a clergy.mass. D. Du. bos. boussi. a city . hollow. a boor. bump is used in lump or piece. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. borg. borh. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. connected. boss. bosseu. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. was origin of the term is the OFr. tempest. plant. busse. knur. useCanterbury. 106. destitute.ribs and the side. pegou. bussi. undyed wool of brown sheep. V. Hence borhes ealdor. a bouncing baby . borg. as if from the verb to hold. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow.' or system of bail. borough-holder. or head-borough. botch. nonsense. to strike . borgese. secure. (Bridel). knob. in instead of without. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Boreal. borgo. f graauw. rustic. hollow bucklers. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. huschen. bundle.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. botse. tive idea seems to bring under cover. bttssel. bos. from AS. a herb. boss sound.vr\.any round sweUing.' Vegetius in Diez. cormpted. Swiss Rom. Turk. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. ' — — . vain. a pushing or striking out. whence the burg. Botany. bergen. a citizen. bump. tuft. butsen. In like manner It. AS. burh. So Du. (1867). unpolished. — ' wind burya. plain rude fellow. formerly used in the sense of knocking. baurgs. i. The other. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. into borsholder. in the body struck. is probably radically Boss. Lat. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . Hence knot. Bailey. a tower. gum vocant. .

botn. a depth. biissen. to bcBta. E. botch. bundle. Leg. a waterfall. — duj Lett.D.ments of the same root. bots. To confuse with noise. Bret. To Botch. empty or hollow. maggots in barley. . Du. a bottle. . boccia. Bailey.— Swift in R. to we have OHG. — Dief. buts. or plague sore . whence the name ol pool to podge. bSn. you two. we have Swiss batscken. gen. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a bubble. noise. a slop. Butu. Danneil. a knock. Bochu. disturbance to . I. botte. potra. stroke. — — belly-worm. a bottle of hay. a pit. pozzo. schuhbosser. patch. Boa two. Jtidu. bozza. a vessel for holding liquids. repara- — — See To Bete. botse. ambo.^Dec. a botcher of shoes. bun. Lith. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. &c. what pushes outwards. a pit. boss. a. Bouteille. botm. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bottigUa. botus. boitean. butwo. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Kil. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Here the radical image seems a bubble. It. Decorde. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. abbi-diwij Slavon. botel foenn. botsen. blain. baiothsj Sanscr. however. ixorapudder. pother. bund. — — A 2. . See Butt. to botch or patch. Podge. Fl. fire-bote. mess. round lump. On — Du. * To Bother. bile. to stir and mix together. Lith. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Bottle. Gael. to put on a patch. and ajSvamg. Dan. — . a bott . to knock. to make better. botte. Fr. Stalder. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. dabble). puddle. Both.— . to dip in liquid (to Gael. blow. ON. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. buddl. Ancren Riwle. stock. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. bAdtr. e. . a cess. to strike . i. BOTCH understood). bossu. — . Mudu. ledge It. they two. a cask. beggtaj Goth. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. gling piece of work. as a push or windgaU. — Jidwi. a boil or swelling Halma. is boteau. podge. blister. contusion .) . pozzanghera. poltern. H^cart. Diez. — Fl. signify a in OE. both. G. a patch patschen. . G. we two. the other hand. 212. OSax. Again. bativa. especially in Gael. On the other hand. any plain round viol glass bozzo. And so we speak of an eruption. Judwi. Du. Hal. The Gr. . of botta. From the dim. butse. and E. buazen. butsen. bulderen. a bump or swelling. stock. a bundle of straw or hay. a slop. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. by met. AS. pimple. a wisp. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. corresponding to . Wedu. See To Bodge. the first rough draught 2. boiteag. bodem. stump. bunch. bulder. nets. to simmer. to froth as beer . It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. j3i/9os. a maggot. Canut. Bouds. bosser. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. to fall : with a sound batsch. House-bote. Fr. to mend. A horses.' to the fiery Csedm. gipuozan. botel. ^kvBoQ. from the dashing of water. bot. turmoil. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . AS. botola. pocciar. to rage. Fyre to botme. ON. Hal. a cesspool pass. the science or knowledge of plants. burgi vel pontis refectionem. a root. the lowest part. mess. thing soft batsch. as Fr. knock. abbution. shoes. ing out. stem or base. boute. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. to stir and mix together . w. botte. — — . a pock. to work without order or know. btitse. A bottom depth. ' G. the bud of a flower . Fl. boiteal. an imperfect and bunbutt end. . — Bottom. to dash about . a humpback. disturbance. AS. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. noise. to mend (kettles. • Bott. kessel-biisser. is also a bubble. N. to from the root bot. for a bud. batschen. bouteille. It. It. a tinker schuhbiisser. bdt.— Hal. fundus. bide. in the sense of mend the fire. ON. dim. a bottle.foundation. buddeln. ubhau. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. whisper. mend. ba. bluster. to give a sounding blow. abbu. Lat. was called a push. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. bdsser. abyss. See Boss. abbi. a cobbler. to podge. boden . bethia. a plague-boil Kil. bozza. Prov. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters.of a ball of thread. mutter. to make a make a noise. a lump of somebatschen. to smack. tumour. A — oba-dwaj Lat. buideal. hurly-burly. dial. oba. Botcli. Parmesan poccia. boil. See Bound. bottom. scuohbuzere. putra. Gael. &c. a bunch. Pl.

Bought. Sw. p. a turn or time. an occasion. signifies a sliort thick mass. Dan. iv. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. — strike. bons. whence buj7isen. the verb bondir in OFr. the smaller ones. 3. to knock. a large pebble. jump. bonna. Fr. See Bunch. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. Nor a centinel whistle.— Cot. Bout. dial. came home with his face all to-bounced. bumper. root (see Bottom). debodinare. bondir." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. Bret. thumping. to thundering big one hum. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. See To Bolt. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. turn. Du. Boulderstone. So It. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. a bouncing apple. dial. as a bout of fair or foul weather. baby. Ducange. bend. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . and Prov. Ni gacha cor bondir. winding. Bound. a blister. an de dor bunsen. bone.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant.>a bout. bog. bamsen. Halma. The Bight of Benin. like bobbin. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bouton. Brem. Raynouard.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. . mcn-bomi. Pr. as a nosegay. Bowlder. bullra. — Take care my house be handsome. Alpine Re- — gions. from AS. see Boss. 136. Bunche. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. bonzen. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. . pothel. to spring. the larger kind of pebbles. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. in contrast to klappersten. bugt. and F. contusi. from volgere. strapping. ni motz brugir. Fr. A Langued. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur.' B. bay. to bow. Webster. a bound.. boriie. frequently used in the same sense with bound.— Boundary. Fr. The W. the bay of Benin. to set bounds. volta. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. to spring. buUersten. the hollow of a bay. bunsen.D. I assure you.— — — - 88 BOUGH . being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. Q. Primarily to strike. geration. — — Bight. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. or Bow-pot. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. to make a loud noise. Bough-pot. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. The branch of a tree. Mid. to turn. To Bounce.'— Charter of K. a large stone rounded by the action of water. he fell so that it sounded. knock it sounds again. in the absence of actual e. march. as that of E. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. bonndn. gulf. Pm. a bud. boh. tnndo. Coxcomb. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bun. ni frestelar. bolder. language a * Boulder. boundina. To Boult. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. to knock at the door. limit. bend. butina. ing. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. to set out by metes and bounds. AS. a stock. Wtb. To Bound. Bough. botwm. a button. bunda. by Bujns or Buns. Probably from the Celtic root bon.— F. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Bonny. from bugan. E. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E.' round and round in similar circles. boss of a buckler. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. to hum. a boundary stone (men stone). of thread. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. mere. round. bugan. to resound. bounbounejha. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. carpet. Bodinare. From Sw. . 2. its kind. a round body both. signifying in nautical coil of rope. jungen. to fix limits. nor horn sound. pimple Richards bothog. bottom. boujtce. a boss. a blow. And the new stools set out. to thunder. has hot. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. till The dat et bunsede. — — leap. bodina. And in the spreading of a bough-pot.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. — No i ausiratz parlar. nave of a wheel bothel.

when we speak of. bog. cheat. to tope. a from Du. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. brunna. fun of one . curvature. puff out. trick. prepared for. a jibe. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Cot. sotich. pre. Dan. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Swiss bausen. brausen. souf. as was for. g. to hum. to trick. staff. bordon. to take one in. to drink deep. a. Bourdon. schulter-bug. G. the big end of a club. flagon. Spenser in R. taunt. a. And there in mourning spend Sw. Gael. bovne. an arch. burdan. biegen. ing. bug. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. to take breath. bage. a cup kroesen. Dan. from spring. to — Hal. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bugna. bend. and that probably from a Celtic root. bue. bending. beygja. bommen. — — . bourd. to bow or incline the . bending of a joint knie-bug. joke. G. As the Gael. It is the participle past buinn. lance. It. to take deep draughts. burn. . buga. patesten. a drone or dor-bee. limit. bogha. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. of the ON. Bret. Goth. sense durd. springbiirn. Sw. . repartee. must be referred to the same root. bogr. Prov. purra. ready. . G. buizen. spring. analogous to Fr. a well. tinton. the Bourdon. Du. . to draw a deep breath. a sing-song. whence buysen. Bourdon. bausen. bunaiteach. burd. warbling. Sp. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. The foregoing derivation seems. bagna. beogan. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Eown. like quaff. to mutter. Gael. bow to shoot with. ready to pike or spear . buzzing of bees. — — — A pare. a drone of a bagpipe. sausen. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. kroes. potio. sport. the shoulder of the vessel. burreti. a pot. to tope W. Burgeon. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. to tipple. Immediately from Fr. bonus. ridicule buirte. spelling the word iox bound.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. Lat. a mill-post. bwa. bourdon. gurgling. bend Sw. burdan. explaining Sw. bugan. whether by sound or gesticulation. bourdon. a humming noise. bourde in the same sense. drunken. a go to. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. Sw.. Bounty. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. good. It is bov. AS. a corToward the garden. address. So Sc. w. on. Dan. pot. bog. bordone. bugna. Dan. a humming noise Macleod. bdgi. bordo. btiga. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. It is remarkable that we find vary. Fr. bov. pusta. the ting of a bell. The meaning of bound.bass of a stringed instrument. belly out. language of folly or ridicule. When used alone it . purlBav. bogna. burlare. to indulge in his cups . a — — . and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . schenkelbug. epaule du vaisseau. G. pared. . a for New York. different modification gives ON. also the humming or ON. drink deep. that ON. crutch. bogen. bonitas. to drink deep. borne. hous^ Man in the Moon. Comp. saufen. buzz. addressed to. to draw a deep breath. a jibe Shaw bururus. it is probable that the It. A water. pausen. Sc. — probably through this latter signification. buyse. firm. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. has also buirleadh. Burden. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. head Fr. grumble Sw. Du. bound. buys. drone of a bagpipe. Gael. Du. a brook. Du. identical with E. buigen. biugan. A —Cot. are applied to the bow of a ship. verb bua. bugne. a prop. fresh* water. . mockery. cudgel. to swell. the fixed. to our bous. is. on the whole. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. i. to bow. ^<7r«i?. . Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. in Fr. brummen. game. their time -With "wailful tunes. Bourd. to hum as a bee. Gael. Borden. jest. Fr. set out. a bow. Bound. hence musical accompaniment. to pre2. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. to bulge. the burden of a song.which see. to banter or laugh at. Bow. Sw. Fr. burt. way ba7n. Gael. or of an Gael. steady. deceit. ruption of bonne. bontS. Cot. shoulder-blade. Chaucer in R. bending.

budel. ON. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. . . convex. a separate apartment . the head. bugyani. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. a. the box-tree. then by the loss of the /. bolne. . a box. bulne. The word may probably be identical with Fris. Sw. belly. biichse.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. to bend. inclinare se (Kil.\s. a boil. (in pass . representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . to buckle G. water pulli. to stoop biickling. ne. Cable. the crop of a bird. . without the and grits. . bulka. a sleeping-room . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. in both senses. bock. bol. bugyola. heafod bolla. buckel. belly of a cask. . the barrel of a gun. .cup Du. Dan. a hen-coop .. to bow buck.D. mausbollelein. purse.). Fr. boel. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bulcken. E. bubble. bulla in aqua. box in both senses. &c. ask. gut. boxtree pusska. a box Lat. Du. a sack. a bundle. sausage. a buck. . bugna. bola. boucle. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. or in e. Dan. stream forth bugyogni. * Bowels. Sanscr. fyn. an inclosure. acsian. the head. the skull or brainpan . make obeisance. a croft by a house. . . hollow. a hump on the back rossbollen. a swelling or rising up. pocket. a bubble Fin. The / a bow. intrenchment. biiske. G. It is more probably from the G. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. Bav. Hal. bolla. ON. bowl . bugy. Hence. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bugyni. Bohem. to puff up pullakka. boudin. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. and on swollen. of a wooden ball to play with and — . Bower. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. crooked. bouge. bolla. a knot. round bead. knob From the former modification we have bolla. folliculus . bhuj.a. a bud. a wardrobe . Sw. as in E. belly. A . to swell. buga. spherical Dan. AS. ken. passing on stud. kupukka. bouzellou.). iri'iaQ. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. to bubble up. different position in ODu. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. Du. busse. ^o/a. boil. bucka. See MHO. bollen. . PLD. to stoop. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. Fr. convexity. bogla. Gr. is applied to a coach-box. ^o«/«. pusspan. a bowl. to guggle.flask It. at the e. round glass phial. or. hollow wooden case. Thus we have Esthon. to make crooked . similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. a parlour. a ball. polla. Bret. with inversion of the round. buckelig gehen. Lat. w. a box. buello. to yield to one. Sw. bubble. a pot. From the other form are G. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. puffy. peated in Magy. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. to bulge. Fr. a drop of pullistaa. give in to. a iDubble. . bossola. a bubble. busskai. honse-bur. biisse. hill. hollow place Fr. a ball. bulge. beutel. an outhouse AS. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. boss. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects.. zich onder jemand under to him. Sp. . to raise the back boll OHG. a box. AS. bulk compared with Sw. to bend down. bowels. blister. a black pudding. fata-bur. tumour. bouellou. boxtree. a stud. guestchamber . painter's easel. ttuJic. bent. buxus. a chamber swefnbur. bulb of an onion bolleyield. a ball . globular. similar shape. kupu. kuppelo. Bret. buchsbaum. bug. the box-tree and articles made of it G. compared with Fr. box. bol. G. bolgna.) to incline oneself . . trestle. crown of a hat. bow. globular body. bowel Box. bulla. buigen. . globe or spherical body. signified by forms like Gael. a bubble bolli. Pol. In like manner the Pol. biicken. a round glass or bolg. bur. Boll. A Bulk. a wine-can . W. bwra. See Crab. bow. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bur. a protuberance. Du. the box-tree It. a thing of liquid. . boss. a box. . head of a cabbage. utibur. prominence. . . and to a coachbox in particular. dial. a bubble. lump . bocka. . . kupula. bolle. bog. bosso. cumena-bur. Bowl. beuz. W. bending. the bogna. boor. tumour . ON. . koziel. bhugna. buis. . Buckle. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. anything globular. as well as the name of a. bukke. swoUei) Lat. OFr. as in AS. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. . in walking appears in a . swell. budello. botulus. See Boil. ku^o. OE. buk. wisp of straw . spring as water bugya. a polla. hiidel. pullo. a little box . to puff up. bwr. bog.

brabbelen. Heligoneed. boussole. OFr. OE. 91 the Dan. I sal slyng. baske. variation of babble. flap. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. To fight with the fists. A brace probis. strike. In like manner the It. Brach. brechen ihm. Ptg. want. the first instancebya physical tie. boy bouba. Hdcart. Du. murmur. by an overflow of sea water. lalear-eyed Prov. boiste. wristband.. Boy. La ville ou y avait Brace. ing from a mixture of salt. breptati. — . defect Du. bracil. youth. ' — A — — — . let. want. OFr.. brae. to give a sounding blow defect. acidus. foul. . Lat. braco. Pr. salsus. Kil. brakke Bracelet. from a root brak. bitch Du. a braceOFr. Brack. G. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. defect. V. Prov. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. &c. fault . mud. — . Swab. to crack. It. pus. It is B. . brek. moral or physical. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. ON. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. which sigof straining. s. It. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brae. A to halt between two derivations. a bog or pass Fr. braca. to fall. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. to be wanting.D. corruptse. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. to box the ears. to stutter. babble. Gael. bruxula. breuque. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. Rouchi Then as an adj. Kil. brague. quarrel Bohem. cramp-iron holding things together . mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. as noticed under Box. posh. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. to smack the hand batschen. One girl. braecke. Swiss bub. brek. confining. rakke. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. dirty. fault. break. brago. root). bue. braque. Brak-goed. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Bracelet. bask. rakka. an languages. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. baukscheht. need. The different meanings of the brageux. beagle. bracket. — — . is a rope holding G.puddle. his eyes are failing him). to Swiss batschen. brasselet. Brackish. merely in our mode of considering them. fuse. Bracket. to want. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. mud. Kil. . Sp. Swiss Rom. in R. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. thwack. Prov. On the same principle from the buksteht. a sounding blow. or bracer Cot. bracha. priated to the original sense. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. con. loud smack.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. Du. .— D. the arm. To brace is to draw together. briche. Prov. brae. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. brageuses. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . flaw. a boy pupa. and string of his bow. land spoilt Kil. disturb. a pair of braces. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. To Brabble. bracon. by the same inversion of J and k. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. to slap. braquet. dog in general. flaw. want. a girl. rakki. BOX To Box. Fr. or defect. bracke. — . pube. clay. bray. — . Brack. a crack. boy. braco. rack. wnzC/J. brechen. bresta. in R. Fr. then from break. pupus. buah. . a guard to torf.. a bubbling dura del mun. jabber. G. salo sive aqua marinS. brace on and Du. Pm. . bauksch represents the sound of a blow . Prov. . land batsken. Sp. unmarried man . brack. filth . bube. isolated part of the text. Fr. dog Sw. damaged board a ship. brakke grund. and F. refuse.D. . Water rendered boubo. Pl. s. whelp as. ghebreck. a comworld Rayn. race. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. to stammer. mud. Cot. AS. A — — . wrack. See Brake. bracco. See Broker. brack. bou^ba. compressing. Sp. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. — . a grown youth Cimbr. and then Pl. to is derived brestr. parallel with OK. to give a gebrechen. defect. spaniel. to give a blow with the fists.with a noise.. breach. brae. Fr. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. suppuration. brassard. taneous talking. odorinsecus. It. armour for the arm. Lett. matter. bracer. ratch. braic. breach. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . MHG. . brostia." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. a box. dog that hunts by scent.nated by dirt. bouibo. brec. bragos. ON. to burst. Thus brack.

a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. bravo.^Vocab. cry. See Bray. Sp. stately. slight modificajoining the two legs.^ Sp. to stand upon terms. Brain. spot. Brake. brae. hectoring. used in the sense of force. brag or jet it braguard. From sprouted corn. stout. Lat. to strut. . an inclosure for cattle . . brave. breagh. Brake. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. to brail up a sail. braegenj Du. dhbrailler. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. w. to rattle. braske. braggard also valiant. breyne. 92 Cot. bragging. blusterer. also insolenter se gerere . the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . —Spenser in R. to swagger. fine. brag. gallant. noisy ostentation. brav. brave. or from braie itself. braszketi. to make a noise. called by our braggard. . crash. braga. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. Hence E. to cord a bale of tie up. flaunt in fine clothes . bragaireachd. braga. bravado j Fr. i. to boast or brag.. strength. — Chaucer. The meanings of brake are very numerous. It. braicli. The plant y^r«. .explosion.—— . brails. ative fellow. bullying. courageous. From Fr. would be to brace. compressing. ^Brave. Lith. a roisterer. bragio. — . Fr. is identical with Gael.aburst. empty pride. to unbrace or let down the breeches. power. an iron for holding Zalli. binding anything together. brave. braka. brag. The meanings included under — Bragget. vaunting.i5nz^. Langued. brave. braka. breghen. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth.%. was formed brayele. &c. brazo. to shout. brake in the sense of constraining. Brag was then used brisk. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . braga. bushy . to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Bret. the opposite of which. braguer. is Cot. proud. bully . boasting. that will carry no coals. Bret. to flaunt. Wallachian bratsou. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. brabhdair. beautiful. breghe. Dan. goods. showy bravery. se parer de beaux habits. be noisy . In like manner to crack is used for boasting. finery. well-dressed. as the type of exertion and strength. See Brace. Rom. gay. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Haldorsen Gael. confining. To Brag. Dan. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . From brayel. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. in the sense of the Lat. torture . Cot. splendid. fine. 2. the feathers ON. excellent. AS. about the hawk's fundament. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. Brail. Thus we are brought to the OE. a noisy talkboasting. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . valiant The head are sumptuous. drawers. affront. a carriage for breaking in horses . or by gaudy dress and show. Chaucer. BRAG Piedm. make a noise . . se donner trop de licence. Fr. . . subduing. Sc. to crack. Primarily to crack. brayete. bravacherie. Hecart. bravache. crack. subigere. smart. in numerous dialects. de Vaud. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. expensive.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Cot. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. brachittm. A — Hal. braske. handsome. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. vanter une chose. the arm. gallant (in apparel) also proud. bragging of his own valour. brake is. swagger. also derived Fr. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. brao. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. in order to prevent its catching the wind. To Braid. braies. — From W. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. flaunting. — A — . fine. Cot. It is certain that the word for arm is. To Brail. idle talk. gayly dressed. crash ON. also tion of this was brayeul. Thus Bret. to Rouchi brMer. bragd. fine. Fris. vain glory. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. Bray. and it is very likely that the root brak. Faire le brave.breeches. riches.Shepherd's Cal. Turk bazu are used in both senses. gorgeous. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. brave. breach. braw. — Equivalent forms are Gael. . swaggerer. bra!. to sprout malt.. h-avare and Fr. Walloon bress. braver. gay. be found. and that from e. brabhdadh. se pavaner. boast. to boast of his own worth.

to The ON. a swampy Mid. dial. to distinct. pasture. t° moisten. murtaa. Dan. In ON. copse-wood. broilium. brage. In like manner Lat. a fen. game. for — Due. gebroge. Fr. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. tnurdma. a spinning-wheel. breaking in the operation. . to bend a bow. to rub. referred brake. braken. gebrUche. properly braking or subduing them. el arco. brook. We — . — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. a marsh. or a wood in a marshy place . to pound. bregar.D. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer.bracan. have thus Du. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. Lat. braeken. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. marsh. a brace on board a ship. is formed murd. is braukti. or A A ' . brog or brake. a thicket. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . conSo in G. 2. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. It. bregar brake. a harrow. to row. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. watered. a stream. braka. to stiffen against Taboada). break of such a kind. brak is a frame in which strip. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. quarry from Fin. bregille. brega. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. cetur. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. glebas subigere.' It. cover G. and G. In the case of the ne. gilum. broor bushy place Hal. Brake. brambles. bush. brook. fratto. to knead or mix up in a mortar. the original meaning of G. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. thing is brought under control. tris). bruch. In the sense of a thicket. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. broeck. bush. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. bredza. break flax PLD. e. to fracture. in northern climates. might come to signify a swamp. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. a horse's a horse's twitch. — Fl. brook. To the same bend a bow. to bend or direct a cannon. G. frangere linum. and when once thrown down. subigere. Gr. Gael. Brake. where from Esthon. word. low wet land bruch. to break. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. —Bracken. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. flachs brechen. to brush. broillet. gebroge. been confounded with the verb break. marsh or swamp. brog. bushes. Biglotton. to head must be bit. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. riguus. broken fratta. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). —Ovid. gebiisch. in usus braca. Corrfeze bredgea. de Vaud. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to harrow (Lat. ^raca. Swiss Rom. gebrUche. it is not surprising that the word has here. nemus. brambles. The Fr. gebroge. BRAKE to external force. It may be sus- . Fr.. brake. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. thicket. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. OFr. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. brogille. broyer. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. Dan. to break. to bray in a mortar. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. Dan. or overthrow of trees by the wind. signifying to sweep. murran. Sp. brake. brog above mentioned. as in Sp. ing of flax or hemp. to subdue.— . any thicket of brakes. braecken het vlasch. briers. brushwood. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. braca. Prov. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. farinam in mortario subigere. broil. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. Pl. — — . brego. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. It. braquer un canon. to break or fracture. P&. breuil. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. murrokko. iSpsx". Fr. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae.D. and Lat. brolium. brcekke. briser. brage. to exert force in different ways. as well as in the case of the e. Voc. the lever by which the string was drawn up. casser le \va. as in Du. 3. as in the case of horse-breaking. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith.

a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. a bud It. brug. a shoot. G. dirt . pfropf. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . bruk. The naof strain. stink . braam. brughera. . Thus we have w. sweet broom. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. to bridle. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. in the same sense. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. See Brush. brenn hesken. . Fr. The same form becomes in It. — branca. Fr. a bud. snotty . a firebrand. cack. prufye. . w. from virga. to burn. clutch. thicket of brambles Cot. Brancare. broem. a vine twig Bav. bran. Sir Topaz. breanan. bruch. restrain. bretnel. heath. heath. from Lat. from brand. to brank. Bret. Bran. — . So Swiss gaggi. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. bruch. piece of anything. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. Branch. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. broccoli. broom. and E. brugek. may be so called in analogy with Bret. heath ON. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du.G. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. a thick bush. broembel-CBppel. brem. Fr. bran. . or ling. brarn. apiece orbitbrandone. virgultum. Pl. breun. sedge burkni. also pfriemkraut. brandr. sawdust. sprouts. brein. a small deri\'ation . pfriem in the sense of an awl. brass. bruk." The bmno a • on . or other plants of a like nature. a rod or twig. Bret. Gael. brous. brenn. AS. brambles. brog. a bridle or bit . Bav. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. iii. . &c. brouskoad. chaff. it glitters — — . a halter. is the draff or excrement of the com. bro7n. from brug. Rouchi bren d'orMe. Broom. brenna. . bramble Du. briars.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a briery plot. Thus in Lat. and thence a shoot. Diez. . E. pected that brake. heath. Gael. in the sense oi fern. brin. gebriiche. hallier. brug). bronbo. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. that is to say. heath. heath (Bret. breme j Sw. what is cast out as worthless. brenda. cabbage sprouts Fl. w. ear-wax mud. In like hrst. brancas. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. Brand. Bramble. brosst. a burning fragment of wood. i. also a marshy low ground or fen . Russ. brand. A mark made by burning. Bret. G.). bren. brin (as It brano). a shrub from Bret. as AS. . broom. a shoot or twig. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. Dan.D. brandmurk. bruk. Serv. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. to -brugen. thorns and Gen. Port. ordure . young buisson fort epais. gebroge. bren. to or iron. G. from Servian pnit. brwnt. G. brandiiialil. ground full of briers.. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. compress. As ON. and waste growths. brejo. from gaggi. constrain. as. It will be found that shrubs. brushwood. berneux. titio. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brank. brandello. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture .D. brin d. . branco. Grisons bruch. brano. That beareth the red hepe. But we find It. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . 2. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Piedm. branche. pfriemen. Then by comparison with claws or arms. broust. excrement. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. to gripe. brang. a single plant of heath. piecemeal brindelles. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. brok. bit by bit. wood composed of twigs. broussaille. branchia. a dunghill. a roA. 1 8. the thorn apple or stramonium. bruskoad. bromboli. Fr. a heath. brom. nasty. braeme. Thornas and bremelas. Brank. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. bracken or fern . It. It. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brake. Pl. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. burning brennen. —Ducange. a bud. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Bret. &c. or with It. brank. bushes. a shrub . the branch of a tree. young twig {brom-beisser. the bull-finch.

brangle or brawl in E. Milan. to shake. to French brawl or brangle. De Goes. braise. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. fire-wood. forms brasil. brandende wijn. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with.. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. bransle. Kil. Thus the bound up again. to totter. faire fracas. and scold.^Brandle. Jam. aqua ardens. to burn. make a — . urens. bresil. brastlian. braser. Brasil. to burn. to dash. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. incendium. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. put. from to vociferate. became ashes Pied. Lye. so. plained by Florio. brazeiro. as again by well as the blade of a sword. brazil. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. eldibrandr. brasa. totter. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Port. to burn. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. a roaring fire. conbillet. to crackle . To brase AS. Chron. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. morsel. n. crackle. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. du Roi et laine. a fragment. — ting to confusion. bransella. as Jamieson explains it. to and fro in the hand. Brangle. G. bracea. bragia. 59. all. bracia. Ija. distilled wine. Bailey. live coals. branler. to make sense of a bright red dye. braza. Manx bransey. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. branla. noise. brus^. Sw. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. to rustle. braise. The corresponding form in Gael. brin. The tre brangillis. Du. a brusler. V. and branchis shaiand D. brush. to confuse. WaUon. firewood. Braser. bruan. Sw. brane-wood. brustle. brasa. gebrannter wein. Gris. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. was in use Fr. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. to quarrel. to brandle. brandigh. then brandr. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. firebrand. or in stick. With top trimbling. before the discovery of America in the brandir. and bruir. to solder iron. apparently very distinct from each other.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. Fl. Formerly brandy-wine. bra?ier. brouir. to roar. bruciare. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. braise or hot coals. brasil. d'Angl. is bntan. brennen. Guill. So. hot Fr. e. ist. brausen. brandiller. given to the country. — . to make shine with shaking. ish. flagrans. set on fire. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to sound of the Fr. perplex. prasseln. a To Brandish. to bicker 2nd. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. brascct. briiler. AS. to glisten or flash. branler. Hume in brand in ON. N. bragale\ wood. to hurl with great force. Fr. splinter. bum. The name Brandy. It. to make display .pan of coals.well. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. brasca. — . Chron. — . to shog. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. Diez. to brustle. a pan of hot coals. brasca. make an outcry. to shake. Fr. Bret. brandiller. the spelling to kindle. billet. Fr. brandolare is exbrandish. embraser. bryne. Fr. bruzi. from used in dyeing cloths. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. E. a stick. bruire. the colour than hitherto known. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. to Bailey. Brase. De Barros considers vinum ardens. crackle. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. in Marsh. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to blaze. glowing embers . not. It. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. as Fr. to distil . arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . to murmur. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. E. shake. G. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. to shake The word brisil. To brand. to brangle. comes from thence. to braze or lute. Fr. It. a round dance. hoisting to the fall. spirit distilled from wine. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. brand. stake. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. weinbrenner. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. In the same way the set on fire . to brandle or The It.

breyon de kinds of . bmhon for brado7i. equivalent to the Du. frame of laths. —-Jam.' Hal. Paris. from Fr. KiL Prov. braser Fargent. as scrawl from scrabble. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bruir. a. a contemptuous name for a young child. a plank or board. a Lap. to tear piecemeal. berd. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. as lattice. The muscular part of the body. brces. squall. ferruminare. P1. bribe de viande.96 Roquefort. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. The same correspondence is seen between It. breyon d'chaur. a — A from the confused noise.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Fr. Sc. — . to braze. brat. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. bretesche. brass. Brattice. ni autres choses sur Due. saillies. pan- — Rayn.D. Circumeunt cibertesca. bronzare.D. Pm. OFr. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. boutures. muscular parts of the body.propugnaculum. is The word — uous name for a woman. brdto (ace. slakker-bortchen.brettysing. brettys. calf of the leg. to carbonado. . the buttocks. Mundart. discord. OFr. I. 1156. brett. braion. bratidone. brat. a battle-girdle. to Gael. at brasa. G. braede. cob. whether contracted from brabble. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. from branler. Sp. A. —^Bronze. So also See Brag.— Remade. breteque. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . Lorraine bravon. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. bartisan.' BRASS BRAY et AS. bretays). braon. Brass. &c. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. flesh of a leg of pork. Westphal. to scold . — Deutsch. a mantle. A. A land of dance. bratid calf of the leg. brailler. Wall. brat. coassatio. or whether it be from Fr. slibro. Fr. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Gael. as a brawling brook. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Jam. ship. burning coals. to cry. boarding being sbranare. A dispute or squabble. frequentative of braire. to shake. a fortification. bas morceau de viande brawhng. baltresca. bred. a slabbering-bib. Many gambes. to talk at bralle op. Cot. See Brandish. esbraotier. braodhlach. Dan. a loud noise. neita girl). lat'te. brazen. AS. Brat. bradon. a lump of flesh. contignatio. as criailler of crier. Du. bradlete. Certainly a little girl. apron. The verb is probably derived from the brase. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bronzacchiare. Bailey. any piece. See Bray. a lump. a rag . a rag . a contempt- banner. especially that used in the working of iron . Betrax of a —^Jam. Swiss bradle. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. bras. rag. bratdn). bretesque. braeye. bralle. le repasser un peu sur la braise. It . wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. luncheon. OHG. or on the top of a wall. cloth. It. Brave. ON. from Sc. to solder. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple.— Braid. Brawn. Bartizan. fraiche. to copper. and bronzo. 2. Sup. ^Altieri. Kil. solder. It. in the first instance of boards. braoilich. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. calf of the leg. Pisana in Mur. 1224. strepitus 2. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. bronze. Brangle. 368.D.walle — Pr. branle. the calf of the leg. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Hist. brandillo. Florio. For the application to a^child compare Bret. tasce. then a parapet. roar. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. noise. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. a clout. Cologne broden. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. bransle. bartising.^ — Sverris Saga. slut. Fris. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. a cloak. pil. braiio. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a lath. slibro {neita. Brawl. breyon. a rag. deblaterare. trul. bran. borderinge. Math. a lump of flesh. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. Fr. W. a parapet. a patch of cloth. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. Cot. bratach.— Diez. a wooden tower. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery.— Fl. ' A vraale. buttock Sc.

imitate or resemble one. to rush. soft . ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. k. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. riAprjyvvfu. Fin. is . bregda. paxog. Prov. a breach Cot. braidir. . ing. at braga eftir euium. braa. G. rogi. OE. vapna-brak. gestus. in Jam. yell. Chaucer. verb to break. D. bregar. From the or brack in a wall. Fr. Ppvxia. bruzir. bragr. Wal. mos. braid. And with a traid I tumyt me about. . Cat. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. twist. on. father. a wink. and fracasously.' To Bray. fragor. father. Bread. to break. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint.. R. broyer. Q. To Break. the sound — of arms. paste or dough. Then. ybrayid. i. turn. — . brikan. D. braa. &c. brame. 145. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. kind. roar. breach. E. Then is simply. R. to start. Chaucer. yell. brice. Goth. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to crash. a rent. appearance Hal. to break. e. disturbance. ON. to scold. to roar as the sea. breuan. to braid the hair. Cot. to snatch. bragd is also applied nets. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. instantane. at a braid. bratsche. Swiss bratschig. to break Fr. to resemble. to rumble. relation is seen between Lat.ear rog. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. rangere. with or without a final d. to sound very loud and very harshly. to bellow. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to have the lineaments of one's ON. 2. abraid. Bret.y. &c. &c. to knead. a brake for hemp or flax. Beryn. braea. Gr. to tear Bret. which has given much trouble to commentators.ch. rattle. braire. the sword was out break. fish. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. to N. W. as the notion of turning crack. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. brak. to t. to roar. to cry out. The Lat. bregar. ON. V. G. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. explaining a very obscure application of the E. Bread. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to pretend. &c. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. cyprinus latus. 7 . a crash. to work up in a mortar. a brack. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. rustle. Fr. brot. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. broad. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. . D. to break. to cry Port. to resemble. See Brake. to cry out. starts crackling up. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to bray like an ass. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. The ON.g. a mill. the miller's dog. to rub Fr. to resemble him. Lat. bradar. and make a hideous noise. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. or cry out loudly . a rag f . — koa. and frangere. a . baiyl. or wound. AS. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to the seijauntes. breche. as the voice of the ass. ser. fractus j Gr.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. plait. Du. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. F. bragd — ON. at once. crepo and E. Prov. bru. Bailey. crackle . V. I'll live and die a maid. brechen.^ Fr. to bray in a mortar. brugier. crash. The same He might don us both a villany. Dunbar braessem. noise . upbraid. augnabragd. to braid. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. braidar. regi.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. V.fracas. And at a braid he gun it bende. roar. weave The ON. brak. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to braid. brage. as OE. Breach. — — — explained motus loud noise. bruire. to The cup was uncoverid. resound . to crash. will. to roar or bellow. ^p&xia. bray. brand. crash. make a disturbance. and to signify the fracture itself. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. to bawl. to smack or the eye. To rub or grind down Sp.

Biglotton. to break. brezzare. instead of being derived from 'La. a cool wind. body brostia. peitschen. the breech or buttocks. simmer. vapour. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. braux. broiiwen. Breeze. Breeze. bracecs . of E. Gael. Du. Swiss brdtsch. — — strument for smacking. Bruise. brugga. braguier. braga. trembling. brasiare. bark Fr. brison. Breeze. briig. brimsa. brezling. bragues. bruise. Gl. forms analogous to E. murmur—Vocab.vare. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. — . Du. brciz. braca. a cold and windy mist or frost . bruc. i5r(Z^. Lat. bruzun. Fr. to burst. breost. braca. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. /esses. as commonly explained. — Brist. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. brasser. — . The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. Bret. subligaculum. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. brut. applied to shivering. Gl. to bind. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. de bridse geveii. briosa. little bits of wood Berri briser. brijselen. brisd. an into shiver. — See Broth. from AS. braies. PI. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. an odour. Russ. brcekur j It. malt. Briss and buttons. siibligar. noise. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. then to broil. broden. xyligogio castigare.t. E. bra. brok. Hence the Lat. trusts. Originally probably the word signified steam. brisoler. to fry . braia J OFr. . — Halma. to roast. murmur. brinisa. bratscher. b}-as. OFr. to crush to break. w. the soler. brustia. to hum. to resound. a girdle. a box. to brew. . A fierce loud buzzing breeze. Dev. but more probably the E. brache. breson. are related to Prov. Swiss AS. Dtyden. — And blood. . a to lay fly-flap. G. Fr. to fry Then from a Gl. a smack. rubbish. polenta. malt. to breech.). from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. bremse. as. G. . drive the cattle gadding through the wood. broza. brimme. brusc. brezza. Brize. in Schilter. to murmur. Piedm. brise. as in the case of twitter. properly to crackle. braucn. clout for a child. Goth. brodel./ssus. bruzir. Prov. braie. the bust. cloven. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . . sheep's droppings bruss. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. a twitch for a horse. einem de britze geven. a gadfly. Fris. . with It. We bragezj on. and E. Dan. braciarc. are in like manner ' . remains of leaves. brisciare. zare. brijsen. to smack. Breeches. Rom. bre- I'os qui bresole. AS. binding. Du. Swiss Rom. G. chilly. de Vaud. brire. representing the sound of a blow. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Du. may be from the wurh fesser. G. a cramp-iron for holding things together. a crum Du. Gael. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brissle. the dry spines of furze broken off. braga. brcEth. Breath. britze. windy withal.'— Gl. to shiver for cold. chillness or shivering. morsel. brasiuiii. their stings draw . or the blow itself. Isidore and Tatian. briste. singing bone. bris de charbon. to buzz. Piedm. fail. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. G^nev. Lat. —Briss. dial. to bray. a crum. brist. It. G. from brace. orts. breme. switch. bresilles. fastening . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. drawers. brossi!. corresponding to G. met de bridse slaan. AS. to whip. sprouted corn. Breast. brumtnen. one on the breech so that (klatschet). burst. to simmer. and brought beneath between the legs. briosa. Compare OE. as the G. Prov. and other rubbish dibris. from ligare. of trees.D. so AS. The Breech (Prov. coaldust. Sw. a horse's twitch.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. brew. rubbish. briiz. bris. To Brew. to brew. bris. broil. bridsen. scent. bryi^ga. of straining. simmering. E. grill. braich. breinse. See Brick. to rattle (as hail). forms. QNtsterviald) pritschen. griller. &c. breeze. as by the Sc. So ON. grillare. grillen. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to feize or feaze. bretilles. Bret. as. Bracha. The Teutonic verbs. bandage or truss for a rupture. also to chill and shiver with cold. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. to crackle. briosat'. point to G. braies. break. Fr. breath. fitzen.98 borst. brosame. Hume in Jam. brodem. to be misty and cold. brdtschen. crush.britschen.

bruk. a brig or priodor. Hdcart. Priodi. ibrukkti. sugga.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. groom (mab=:son). . Gael. bitill. to break to pieces bricalio. to press. the marriage si in brigata. brau. Ducange. hlafes brice. a man. one's ovin. Flor. to circulate. Trovarfor bride-ale. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. So It. Rouchi brife. malt. but probably Bricoteau. the Fr. Fl. bro. berwedd.privatus. E. a fragment. any jot or crum. E. company. brere. E. troop. appropriate. to beg one's bread. bruskr and buskr. buckler J ON. broosekens. from Bret. Brigade. bygga. to boil. See Broth. or brizo. Neumann. stone-bridge bnikkoti. piece of burnt clay. malt. — . brice. to tlie brico. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a lump of bread. bulicame. from the last 99 of which. betonica. sponsa. from Bridegroom. brasser. . to boil. Fr. to brew. imprint. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. BRIGADE dead. Du. is still used in this sense. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. E. has briguer. but to a paved road. So in The Prov. bryd-gutna. The Sw. a heath. owned also propriate. a little king's writs. gf2o. bruarium. briw. Pol. to pave. a lump of bread briber. twopares Lat. briiths. jipaaaiii. Brick. boiling up brocoliere. brughiera. ' — . AS. — — — — — — . and berweddu. jetty. brocaly. brique de pain. bryd-eale. In the G. . of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Fr. it is applied to the letter to OE. bridge. ment of anything broken. Gl. bretonica. It. pavement. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. fragment. a crum. bo. to meet together. consort with. thick appropriated. a crum. . served (Patois de Bray). funeral. which however is undoubtedly from brace. broken victuals. peculiar. OSw. broken bread. briwo. the equivalent of to the dial. If the foregoing were not so clear. corresponding or letter. from the Normans. Mid. Diefenbach com. to stamp. AS. heath. bruyere. frayer.pritil . being one of the numersummary or any short writing. fastningar-ol. nurus G. httle bit. W. Bridge. to appropriate. ON. Gael. son. Lat. conjux. Fr. brood. grug.Fr. The origin of the word is the w.groom. Brewis. A bribe is A — — arval. fervere. a married man or woman Lat. Bridal. Goth. feast. AS. It — is Kil. . bribe de pain. bricge j G. a quoit of stone. In E. bricou. and that from It.rough with brambles and bushes. collect bits of food. from bit. . birbante.It. brigantine. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. to Isrew. to boil. brittil. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. division of an army. a briole. bruk. a bush. w. especially to a letter or command. a heath brughera. bridelj OHG. fraoch. pier. bruith. brahi. AS. fit. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. Lang. to break. bro. Pro(merch=:maid). of burial. a bride Brig. Hence OE. beaten way Dan. a married man guma. as so. masted vessel. — . crew. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. Cot. to prepare. Grisons bruch. to press in. married. berwi. barren land priodas. a cheat. pavement Lith. Brique. to pave brukkti. G^n^v. a lump of bread. bread. guma. buskins. It. the newly. bride. breve or brevis. a wedding priod-fab. betony brulicame. Brief. Walach. priod. whence berw.bergantino. a fragment. brygga. a proprietor. a beggar. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . daughheath. Thom. a rogue . . ter-in-law. a rogue.gfiugga. brilt. Sp. briicke. with transposition of the r. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Dan. Bridal. brigade. in the sense of OSw. brieden. Due. graf-ol. Bribe. a bit. OHG. priod-ferch. feast of espousals. ap. brukkas. arf-ol. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brA. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. then the marriage itself. a Bride. pavement brolegge. a sow. AS. lipdZu}. Applied ous words derived from break. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. as. to rub. . bidsel. bribour. brigata. remarkable that the Gr. Ihre. a boiling. brug. brakes of high-grown ferns. A — A — . fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. brar. broken. brutg. . bara briw. birbone. two-masted vessel. a bride. ' . privus. and ODu. bably contracted from brigantine. Brier. AS. Bridle. Diez. In the patois of briccia.. braut. bride. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture.

and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. clare lucens. show the origin of Lat. to contend with another. the gleeman's song. From ON.' torum. brigan. is easily understood. Brigand. and secondly. and. kilistua. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . It. on his — own account. glitter. brak. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. wilella. Beorktode bene sweg. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. glamra.' The sense of strife or combat express. XafXTTpoQ.D. kii:'a. shriek with laughter. twinkling. bregar.dorem clarum reflecto. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. glir. a noise. bragen. 1351. .shine. . were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Swab. hell. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. also called briganders. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Florio. briegen. and led it away. necessary business. Bright. to sound. brawl. Due. splendour. — Probably then to strive. rover either by sea or land. glamm. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. with respect either to sound or colour. The primary meaning of Sp. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. OHG. that of Fr. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . tinkle. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. malandrini. clear sound. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. in later times a robber or highway-man. from hall. labour.— . representing a sudden noise. beorht. — Beowulf. secondarily. It. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to strive for. moment. to glitter. A strepere. — Brigantine. rixa. may play the pirate or thief at sea. brigare. — Due. Flor. Adelung. seems to be to exert force gar el area. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. briga. pugna. dine. tumult. to rob. brigandare. loo BRIGAND lor. tuilahtaa. to shift for with care. to rove. a small light pinnace pro. 1654. — — . So G.' The passage from the sense of a light. See Brake. They or brigantini. splendour. jurgia. and hence be explained glampi. 312.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. clang. etincelle. Brigata. clear. briga. willata. outcry. at a later period. Owl and beorhtian. riis ' — Chron. a pirate.' in Due. brdgen. a glittering.glampa. squamma . Gr. himself to serve men of merit. transparent. to shine. sound. clarus. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to make a loud noise. and. In Fin. The Ir. Du.clare ^tinniens. combat. in the first instance. to shine. Schmeller. and ner me hit iherde. there are many armour. to reservavit.pracht. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. to ring.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. clear. splcnornd de brigandine. to cry. noise. brigare. and diligence. Wilista. The E. — brigante. Xa/iTTii). — A A . splendens . inde squammatus. and to associate with them. clear. Brilliant. bracht. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. then. to piracy. dine. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. — Briganbriga. Goth. tinnitus. to bend a bow It. —Capgrave. a brigantine. tinnitum clarum movco. — brigante. brebrigare. Heo — song That AS.Lat. cange has 'Veles. lay was sung. biartr. bairhts. strife. In the same way to strive is. in the sense of a robber. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. Mid. to cry 'Schmid OE. to resound. Gall. braid. the grew high. a spark. clangour. schateren. a sound. brigant. AS. bryhtm. A. Bav. \oice. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. brcEhtin. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. and the E. praht. It. Lat. speech. It. manifest ON. bright bearhtm. schiteren. tion. bray. glbram. to glamr. the bench-notes resounded.

border. Prov. breziller. ring. vattubryn. brim Magy. frequently interchange. brmdottr. kimmaltaa. spraing. brim. the sow is brimming. ON. briller. to glitter distance . strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. to storm. Du. It. A . bremmen. excited. Langtoft. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. The E. to glitter. — — — . have then in Fr. a borDu. to creak. 1 1 64. bresoler (Gloss. breme. burning. Tresiller. kommata. a rod. s. fringe (Lat. komottaa. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. with an initial br instead of gr. grisser. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. cross-barred in colour. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. fimbria) . bramire. voux. tience. barm. brummen. bramar. brisoler. or violent action. In the same way Sw. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. to long for a thing. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Dan. Fl. brame. G. identical with passion. also to reflect. . brullo. kajata. bramar. Sc. dial. Wtb. — . from bringe. bryn. crackle . duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. a long. der. brommen. reecho. to wish or covet. FJ. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. gresiller.its vent in cries and roaring. broil . grullo. : ' — bone). s. hence the bosom. finds the Fr. — — So Fr.) brimi.' d'etre marie . briller (related to each other as OFr. to make a crackling noise. brezil. griller d'impatience. briller. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. Tutschek. margin. border. burning stone. fringe . coloured in stripes. border. to resound. pMiller. and 1. fierce. leonum). sprainged. to roar. earnestly . rugire. 1. brandr and Fr. whether of desire or anger. 154. rym^. brdnnsten. brame. (poet. Fr. to sound deep or hollow. fire. In Fr. rugire (cervorum. originally the lap folding over the breast. Thus Lat. bray as an ass bramire. komista. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. the meaning is transL' amour. to crackle. kiimottaa. ON. kimista. . the edge. beam. lip of a vessel. bry7ie. brennistein. Lith. chime). greedily to covet Cot. surface of the ocean. Closely connected is OE. bremmen.' Elyot in Way. a streak. to glitter . brummen : de soge brummet. grisler. Swiss Rom. barm-cloth or barmskin. to fret . as of meat in broiling . appear at a BRINDLED lol flash.ioTiviS acutus. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. bremas. brunft. Hence with an initial s. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. as well as bl and gl. that the original meaning of the Sc. brama. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). — Rim. Subo. Kil. Said of swine when in heat. . glisten. noise made by meat in broiling. striped or streaked. brastlian. The identity of ON. to roar. breme. greDiet. brissle. to utter cries. lap. shine. parched. an apron. Dief. and corresponding to these. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. sonitum edere bremen. bar. whence bilbil-goda (literally. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. a border. to twinkle. Rugere. os qui bresole. barmr. the heat of animals. to quaver with the voice. brow of a hill.preni. clangor tinniens. to creak. lap of a garment .— BRIM . is used of raging. brumft. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E.D. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. on. brant. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. to shimmer. crackle. furious. which seems identical with rim. to shine. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. brinfire. sparkle. the lap or bosom. kimina. brillare. Streaked. broiled. 754. ter. post. It. rut. ous. as in Langued. edge Pol. Sw. Supp. — g. E. AS. vigorHal. griller. the verbs Flor. to broil. to . Sc. a stick. to sparkle. breziller. to burn. ardere desiderio. as is the case also with Pl. from brandr. gresiller. Brindled. brand-krossottr. grdzil.— Brinded. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. AS. of the eye. griller). to shake. the singing of Sodom — — . Brimstone. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. It. small gravel. ling noise and a sparkling light. Brem. to crackle. to shine. The meaning of the Fr. Brim. to parch. glit. to shine. bramer. the eye-brow. the heat of animals. The expression is now confined to the sow. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. to make bilbil). To Brim.). perent. ON. brimmen. Rayn.

brot. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. borstel.). fierce. Brisk. broca. crabbed. to break. briocho. thick — A elastic hair. borst.procio. prick with Sw. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. to break. angry. Brocade. rude.. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. is to erect the hair. bresk. from AS. grim. rebrousser. a rod or twig. Brym. startling. rebursiis. setting the hair on end compare It. the surf. birstle. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. G. a slip or sprig of an herb . very salt brimi. from brande. britar. brodden. Bristle. Alfr. Commonly explained as from Fr. brocciare. to stitch. to stick. brim. ruffling. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. expression. a brooch. brissko). the twigs of a besom. brimhliod. Compare also E. Hal. brust. brocchus. to roar. Bohem. sprocco. setting the hair on end. brocco. Fr. to goad. birssy. brog. is called a birssy day. to crack. as. bringue. brusk. NE. birse. See Brand. like the Broad. brich. brickie. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. Salte sand is called brimsand.g. sprout. Du. birsle. a morsel . brandello. britchet. Walach. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Cot. Gr. Berri. See To Brim. brittle. Then as the effect of shivering..Lat. bryne. Fr. a button broche. brijn (Kil. a bud. strong itself. a fragment. brockle. bruched (Fr. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. It. Palsgr. a belly. to shoot. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. to birstle. — — . brcit. broche. bringe traced through the brano. sticking up . to set up one's birse. brime. a bit . Brickie. borzos (struppig). flames. brin. fiscbryne. Russ. brocher. Zeuss. broc. . saulmeure.' Nat. as. Sw. or — . and forms on. borzen. briota. ' . to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. a rebours. spur. e. metaphorically. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. brindelles de balai. and Sc. /3pE^m.D. Breeze been connected with the Sc. bronchus. of astonishment. breaking out into growth. an awl. to burn. brissle. cK) the . bros. Pectusculum. or the full • . It. Fris. brusque. Prov. to spur. bringe. craw of a bird. and hence. roar of the sea saltr. man's throat. has under It.'— Vita'abbatum S. — in Due. See Spread. a morsel. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Formerly written brotil. the brisket or . fragile. — . a clasp. Fr. to spit. as unripe fruits. bryde. brittle. i. Fr. . Fr. Da. a projecting tooth It. Mid. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. against the grain . Liquamen vel garum. a brad or tack. to spur. lively. to put one in a rage . a cold and windy mist or frost. 'V^. brocar. to stab Gael. Fr. humorous. Prov. from break. a stormy brimsea . breast. b. to break.rcendij'i. byrst. broccata. Dan. to broil. broccare. emotions which produce it. harsh vin brusque. whence may be explained the Sc. sprouts. wine of a sharp. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. . p. braidsj ON. apt to break. Sc. The Pl. a stitch brocher. aculeus. bristly . to shiver for Sold or for fear. chest. Prov. . broca. brim. to scorch. ' breast. the surf. as a noun. Brisket. brocco. brote. brusco. — A . are used in the sense of brittle. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. to thrust. brytan. bros. a crum. britar. a shoot or sprig. . to begin upon it. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. reburrus. brddj Goth. Sc. birs. Boh. sour. ribrezzoso. brioshko. rash. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. Port. bricho (with the diminutives. breaking of the waves brim sior. 222. Swiss to stand out . coli. Sp. Abroacli. brimme. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). 'In sua to stand up of Corn.). suddenly angry. bruskett. Bret. Russ. spricka. — bryme. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. flame. to set it a going. a peg sbrocco. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Lat. stitch. Gl. sharp. It. Bret. smart taste. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. a bud. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. quick. brezzare. as. Antiq. of E. to turn up the point of anything. breidr. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Du. brichet. In the N. fantas'* tical. shoot. briser. and. to broach a business. eager. brisk in taste. Brittle. Brine. a skewer. brezza. a deluge. brim (poet. It. Hence ribrezzare. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. trembling. to bud. Ptg. form bris. . brisciare. Brooch. a spit. briota. ON. hot-tempered. bruckle.

a flock or Gael. stump. a peg. to embroider. borprick. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. brasolare. brasiller. a border. Fr. froco. initial . or It.— B. bmsciare. a badger. and bord or bred. bramowanie. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. brucach. brouda. trouble. to crackle. brucilare. brasiller. brych.tumultuous. bj'oil. brullare. to crackle. a fallingThe sense has been out. gold and silver. a brouhaha. to darn. a brecJi. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. Here to ornament with needle-work. — The proper sense is that of Fr. age was termed a pricket. Gael. to knots or loops. onbryrdan. broukit. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. briz. brocach. parti-coloured. Cot. shuffle. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. or roast on the braise. to crackle. prod. to embroider. Hal. Sp. brouFr. to crackle as a shell in the fire. brindled. Icnotty. to broil. motes. brastlian. whence broccare. . brusuole. or salted fish on coals. grullo. breard. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. — Gower in It. brusler. frocadura. — — . The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. atoms . frecSee Brawl. bawling. It of br the Fr. brasuole. brasbrasciuolare. Compare also AS. q. and w. to crackle. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. carbonado. gresiller. birsle. brod. broil. From direct imitation of Brock. b?-od. — Fl. broder. a quarrel. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment.sound. broc. knobby . ciare. sparks E. W. to On the other hand the Sp. Contracted from Fr. It. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to spur. to boss. brerd. the shoot of corn. tumult broighleach. silkes-borda. here. broc. bustling. agree in being the extremity of a thing. margin. a flake of snow sion. grislement. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. streaked. A fried or boiled steaks). a To Broil. a point. freckled. Compare G. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. to scorch. R. Brocket. forming to jumble. parched. from the white. blusters. to stud broccoso. To roast upon hot coals. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. to burn. Broker. broighlich. ToBroider. a confused streaked face of the animal. brocco. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. broice.. a prick. noise. brooked. noisy. tori shows that. braird. thread. a border ornamented with gold. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. parti-coloured. brizen. to burn. Gael. brustle.. a freckle. point to an origin in Bret. trouble. a brim. brychau. briefh. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. of pointing out their latent defects. rustle. dar seems derived from borde. sting. spots. ornamented with a raised pile. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. Sc. Fr. broud. spotted. hurly-burlies. or glowing coals broged. to parch or broil. precisely analogous to the Sc. and AS. with Sc. — brissle. broiled. v. the line of development has been something different. So from Pol. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. speckled. broccuto. broccato was used to signify stuff . Ihre has guU-bord. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. border ornamented with silk. 103 embroidered. AS. broil. bordar. fundamental origin. It. speckled. Ptg. Thus brod. . B. Bret. bram. or snag. hart of two years old. Dan. bordo. bruler. prasseln. Surrey in R. creak. Fr. a mole. The Bret. scorch. confound. Florio. to instigate. A badger. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . an edge. broglio. storms. a b?-ustolare. a freckle. rinj'. Cot. to streaked or speckled in the face. tufted ornaments. piebald . to prick. has grisser. Grisons brascla. E. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. Sc. kled breac. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. brodio. — . embroidery. parch. brocart. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. The ON. badger . embroidering. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. border. houx.

fermenting. to brew.D.— Lib. brot. 396. racaille. or brascla. hraki. make out.D. . from break. . to . a breach or flaw. to garble. refuse brakowad. glowing coals. bring eggs and spawn into active life. refuse. Bronze. to sort goods . try . and fishes . ordure. to pick and choose. — broeden. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. bronze. See Broth. bric-a-brac. Russ. try out. spittle. braeck goed. The use sunburn. ODu. 38. briiten. and as an adj. brae. to sort brakovanie. designation is indkler. Alb. find fault with. couratier. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. matter of blame weak place. raquer. brokas. the young of any animal . G. Per manus et old worthless horse. on. G. to be wanting. vile. but from the primary sense of the It. goods damaged by sea-water. brunds. Bret. criticise (makeln). Lat. brakyne. e. tussis. bronzo. Pl. brod. bridde. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. On • tliis principle the G. The Langued. inspect. progeny of birds. . G. fault censure. embers to brund. to copper. to sit on eggs. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. selection. . in which sense the OHG. to roast on the embers. to sparkle. screatio Junfus . brid. lack. brack. Pl. which E. brumo. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. trumpery. Jam. insects. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. fish-spawn broden. • . brak. Pl. — . brands. To correct an exercise is to Lib. Du. refuse. a makeln. To blame mens ware. It may be compared with It. For the same reason the Kiittner. Pro v. refuse goods. brass does to Sp. OFr. phlegm. See Brackish. whnake. brut. merchandises de rebut G. hrak. bredan. whence the modern courtier. want. See Wreak. correctarius. slaae vrag paa. reject. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. In the . term was correcfo^ir. . refuse Fr. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. broen. mediationem quorundam J. Abbronzare. to braze. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. wrack-good. hot. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. Fl. a cough Hal. vrage. refuse wares. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. et A. corrector. to hatch. a chicken. brokoti. brack-gut (Sanders). bracker. to spit . rejected. Sc. to — garble. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. braken. sbrinzlar. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. Sp. brackefi. brydio. brieden. brwd. an . to hatch. warm. Du. Alb. dial. abbronzanchiare. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. refuse brakovat. brechen. damaged. an outcast or rejected sheep. to emit sparks. wraken. rejection Pol.— — . inspection. in the sense of rejection. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. as. keep warm. vile. embers. If to vomit . — Fl. to pro- to reject . Dan. a broker. nounce unsound. Bronzare. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. to reject. find fault — — — fuse matter. buy and sell by commission. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. embers. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. brack-gut. Tooke's Catherine. to blame. dirty.D. cast Lith.D. spittle . hot. brak. Kil. S. a fault. w. faulty. to throw blame upon. Fr. This word shows the same relation to It. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Brood. find fault with. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. brod. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. racher. abject. : ' . has exactly the force of G. to scorch. to hatch G. bronze. wrak. — a spark. to be hot. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. to criticise. Grisons brinzla.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. ON. the spawn of fishes. broiid. bronce. a brood . stain. brokers' goods. cracker. brasa. filth. and to reject the damaged and unsound. burning.— Breed. blur. raca. In those countries the term braker. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. — point out the faults. analogous to Bohem. . with. brasa. bronze. wreak. It. sunburnt. sort. from makel. pan metal. damaged. an operation performed over hot coals. Teutonic class : Du. i. Prov. cherish. mud. to nourish. tan. Adelung. to pick.

brouic. a sprout.brons. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. breg. briar. bros. the colour of things burnt. It. borda. broieii. spirit. brous. The AS. bryii. brusmalt. a sprig. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. and It. . breh. brosses. brennen.' Due. But the Walach. brewis. sproc. border. to browse. breg. OHG. braun. Cot. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. . or broken up . — . brothas. properly boiling water briihen. . dialects is very different. The origin is a re. house of ill fame. bruc. and Sc. strength Ir. brucan. a hill. brauwe. from ripa. on. To digest. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . bruith. to border. brouser. dumetum. bntdien. The softening down of the consonant bud. Fr. a derived from the boards. broc. OHG. augen-braune. to spring . Limousin broudi. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. brost. face. broth is sometimes used . brmi. brushbroccoli. A — . Pl. protecting the eye. enjoy Goth. bryn. waves. G. a little house or cottage of timber. iVlanx broogh. heat explaining the Prov. Tam de terrS. Fr. surface of Broth. Lat. See Bramble. rerum decoctarum. brocco. vigour. brudi. Gael. 105 Brook. brass. eye-brow. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. brogues. shrub with leafless pointed edging. break out brewet. bank. Gael. buds. Kil. eminence . vigour. — ' . sense the Sc. on. sprouts . It. seethe. grow into a bush. as rhododendrons. juice of briars. brad. a caldron. a hut or cottage It. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. .) . strength. bud. Sp. brozia. a river. verge. bordel. eye-lid. BROOK brook w. boiled . breg. Ppim. brotar. shoots. frui. spuma.braubiti. useful G. grow brossa. to browse. a shore. brew . brlgh. eye-brow. brus. broud. borde. eye-lash . bruno. — . Gael. to boil. perhaps burnt coloilr. bank. chen. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. broth Brown. to sprout. broth brothaire. broden. bregh. Catalan brossa. to scald. brouskaol. bree. ale . Roquef. Bohem.D. brov. w. t— Cot. Gr. sap. awl-plant. bruceti. to boil. to shoot. to boil bruithe.spross. in which brinnan. circuindedit cum familia. Serv. juniper. fabric consists. briihe. brwd. to Pl. broth the ocean Sw. steam from heated bodies. It is Brother. broem bark. &c. brosst. a bud. sprout. w. Fr. sprot. broccola. to boil. Commonly Teutonic. margin. Wtb. Manx broie. Brow. brue . bruddeln. sprout. Gris. cia. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Du. sprocco. may be connected with Russ. a . pith. surDu. Bret. ceales briw. brouet. . Here we find throughout the Romance. as small-pox.brink. riviere. low The AS.— Overyssel Almanack. as Fr. Celtic. . wood . . a spring. Russ. brosses. to bubble up with noise. heat. to bear patiently. . brio. and Slavonic families. who is steaming with sweat. to burn. Pol. broth. bros.D. fur Broom. AS. bruich. edge. G. thairj w. Du. the bubbling or springing up of water. brotar. kail brose. noise. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. . brow. Brothel. bhratrj Zend. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. . frucius. shoot. warmth ch'an. signifying low wet land (Brem. riviera. bruscosd quam de arabili. bratrj Lat. Bav. frater. hot. eat. Prov. a shrub broust. bruich. broth. Sp. Browse. pour boiling water over. Fr. Ger. cabbage water. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. b7-un. &c. Russ. bank. thicket. shore . pfriemkraut. brawdj Slavon. bruithim. AS. bank. G. infusion the barley bree. bruach. bruitheati. brodo. &c. G. braussa. 'Lzt. braces. thick bush brousta. heath. cabbage soup . mettle. heath. to use bruks. branches. bryn. pottage. brouter. shrubs. brau. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. brow of a hill. Due." Serv. . forms appear related to the Ir. — exiit et heath. It. or bushes and scrubby growths. braew. . signifying twigs. laissent Domunculum. infusion. to murmur. of which the variety of forms. a hill. . brukjan. brpuster. OFr. Sc. brabruach. and also border. to roar. Bohem. brodem. broit. meal. a little . to use. eye-brow. hut. bruth. plants composed of twigs. juice of meat. brstiti. sodden. eye-brow. a confused noise of winds. Gael. &c. . broi.. brun. a bud brous-koad. brst. of plants broust. brouches. or shoot. brink. edge. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. from Goth. rage. hovel. bordeau. bushes. to use. Mid. Prov. sordes seu strigmata young branch. Fr. simmer from the murmuring AS. Bohem. . (for brodem). broo. broza. bor. briu. . a source Gael. brd. browys. has briw. was originally used in the innocent sense of . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Dan. broeye. eye-lid. Sanscr. Bret. brost. shore. a bruth. G. brdtaj Gael. broca. brushbrothas) gives the OE.

seems named from burst(on. brist. ca7-bo>i. dust. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. broust. Fr. Prov. and Piedm.— — i. fasx . bross. Pm. brous. a mote. a flax comb. desbrisar. brusco. crush. brosse. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. field. heath. rods. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. wool-card. Fl. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brus. 174. bruscolo. brik. and It. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. .). biirste. a blow. See next article. but on whom it schall to brisen him. — those signifying a sprig. brist. a bristle. flax-comb brossettes. and . Wicliff. to crush. bruyere. * Brunt. a brush . borste. burt. also a head-brush. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. bruscolo. In E. Gael. of twigs. brico or brizo. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. appearin Goth. blow burcar. shivers. crum bit . .— Palsgr. bruise exOFr. rubbish. bruscia. to stumble. a brush. brossa. briser. Prov. a bristle. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. E. mg Cat. brusca. bruit. brusc (Diet. brisar. a tuft of heath . Fr. —Chaucer. tuft of grass or hay. into a multitude of points. brousso. brunt. modification of the same root which gives the E. break. bruc. dust. fragments. a brush. Pm. G. a brush. briiis (in the pi. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. detergere . . brosst. Diez. Pr. It. Lang. to butt. The Bav. brosse. Prov. wool-card. brikan. . brusco. Piedm. brisd. The Lat. a little brizal. a brush . escousse. to brush. . . Sw. And that best is. bris. borste. Castr. Fr. a bud or sprout Bret. brottcher. 201. brista) or breaking out . bris. Broach. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. it schall be al Sw. broustia. bud. brustid. brossa. Fr. OE. E. a brush . britar. and sighid therewithal. That in all haste he wouli. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Palsgr. brushwood. a bud. quasi twigs. chips. bruire. and also Brush. a briser. B?-usske. bush. K. to break to bits . . brusg. shoot brouskoad. ON. bris. Sw. a brush . insultus. to cleanse. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. brise. fescue . Bret. E. rubbish. brosst. a noise. Bruise. Cot. a brush Swiss bruske. brizeto. insilio. Bav. brist j Port. Port. coal See Breeze. Fr. an enmy. — Fr. 134. brusca.). bruito. orts. to break. borste. sordes. p. G. twig. brossar. a bush of hair. — OE. On the other hand. bruiser. ling or heath for brushes. —Fabyan. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bricalio. brustia. as It. to break. broza. shock. bushy ground. Hall in R. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. The same relation holds good between G. burs. Pr. and in the second place a besoiB. Text Soc. brysan. broken. to strike the foot against an obstacle. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. biirste. dust. abroncar. Gael. remnants of hay or fodder. to make brusshes on. Brunt of a daunger. bruis (sing. AS. To brush then would be to dust. twig. Bruit.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. OFr. tremely. Brush. rubbish. dust. borste.). wool-card. Cot. irruo. bross. Piedm. NE. brust. Poems. A. Alexander. Allit. brous. Gael. It. bris. brMt. a crum. or sodenly comyn' dust. a rumbling. to break or burst. borst. a horse-brush. and actually come in collision. Prov. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. It. brustia. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. a shrub composed of small twigs . Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. to make a rumbling. Beryn. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. wood composed OE. quisquilise. Sp. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Pr.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . splinters. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. borste. bruzir. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. britar. or shoot. a — — (Agea) said. brist. Gael. brit. broza. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Pr. bruskr. effort. Brunt. — a bush. briketo. brugir. Lang. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among.

it is beuchen. a steep for flax. soft. The term bocan is still ap. designation of a knob. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. when soap was tion is commonly taken. lye. bucata. the first wheal. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. to soften . as G. molle.byka.D. bubBuck. pup. not so plentiful a commodity.biiken j Svi. to soak foul linen before washing.steep or soak. top. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. BUBBLE bruschetta. a. Fin. was called bucking the linen. bog-aske. the lower soak in lye. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. — — ' A : ' ' . It. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. a bubble. Bret. buerj It. From an imita. bubbola. soft It. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. wood. ac. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. who resorted to the islands beichen. de la Floride. . bwch. buck-ashes. moczyd. to Gael. to butt. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. to filter. says Laudon. a knock word. tender. rap. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. bube.boukaat. bubseti. and as a verb. hump. boucaner. watery bud. plied in the W. bub. The cipally on the Spaniards. mieknad. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. Fr. The word was very generally Buccanier. as a buck rabbit. to soften. bouk. or projecTo Buck. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. bubiti. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. at a door. thunder gently . either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. a bubble . a bubble.tare. . and the bunch. Fr. byge. w. Cot. to murmur. Illust. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. Bohem. to stick. set of pirates in the spread. to butt or jurr Dan. — . does not hold. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . boc. Bohem. or mok.to allow a free current of air. buborek. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. bucaIndies. bucquer. tender. boc. and Fr. bduclien. Fr. Etym. mokry. lye.buchen. 17th century. colada. bub. to bump as a bittern. of wind. I. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. bukke. Pol. mote. a to the male deer. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. soft. bubauti. to soften. March 28. different form. a fescue. Bret. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. A . a. moist. buquer. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. 1586. to butt. also applied Una. because bucare does not in Marsh). The place of such a 2. a ashes. . to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. Magy. Sp. and then to other wild tumour Lith. to which in their language they call bou. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. bugada. knock. very generally designated by the same puk. to soak. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. blister. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. and exercised their cruelties prin. maban and baban. bouc. tap .' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. Pol. bucking. . to strain. Gael. faire la lessive. Bubble. . caned' Hence those who established them. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. soft . blast or strike with the forehead. buquer. bublati. Formerly. bifbel. mollire. Esthon. erweichen.lessiver. The name. buck-ashes. In G. the linen at buck. to wet Pol. a hole. Sc. to soak. in which the flesh dish. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. soft. a push. bokni. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. buchen. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. This bubette. Magy. w. was called in Fr. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. pokka7na.derivation has been much discussed. . — . But see Bristle. Sp. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. hog dressed whole). drying of produce. 1857. News. open lath-work. from weich. The male goat. bugd. pukkata. Dan. hump. See Dupe. to buck. It. the upper for coifee. The natives of Florida.— . Pref A. boh. tuft. to a place used for the mouillir. is 1. from colar.' Palsgr. to bubble. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog.wet Lat. . Diet.-wtt miekki. boil animals. It. .

Du. Cot. Bav. butze. It termination is lost.stuff.poot. The Fr. The entire train of thought is bucket. .' And this sacrament bus have dial. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. ornamental stud. — — . stud. bugnir. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. butzen. butz. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. ' .goa. agreeing with Gael. a stump buckle up.. soft. Fr. hump. bougette. boach. set of a plant in bulk. to thrust. knob dwfr yn boglynu. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. to un bout d'homme. * Bud. from bugr. mani. boiling. A water-plant with leaves and gille. bouk is a pail and with the dim. probably from the notion of bubbling. bolgia. water message. to swell. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. scion. with a central boss. bunch. Bret. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. goat's hoof. Prov. butzen. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. G. bloca. don't stir from hence. boucaran. NE. bdden. is to shrivel up. explaining Fr. Mid. case of leather . like a bean. bode. The knob or projection formN. Fr. bullion. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. clump. boulj. The dressed fur of lambs. motus creber.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. Pol. Budge. * Buckle. rump of fowls . from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. a navel. put. bocla. a trough). no business to do that. boss. bloca. a servant. pote. pulga. bouclier. don't a baby). bouprobably identical with inok. bod. . Buck-bean. — — .r//'. a boss. a ring. blow. loud Cot.anything short of its kind. sboge. Sw. bulla. boucle. In Lat. the root of the Slavonic words gran. Prov. boccula. dint . bug. the word w ' — . The word is a ddyn. a buckle or protuberance. K. Bus. . boucle. or male of to boil . — . a budget./a. wallet. botzen. Russ. trunk of wood covered with leather. a bud. also a leather tuft . . macero. great pouch.may probably be explained by N. budge. to boil. bod. turgere buczendig. Fr. a bump. prick in a target. Fr. stroke. with which it was ornamented. ' . It. . of bouge. bouger. bollire. butt . Buckler. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. call. botzen. bouge. to pen cattle. the radical image seems to be a set plants. a . bouljein. a short thick man. a buclder or shield budge. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. bucolicus. buachazlle. seen in Hesse botz. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bub. no wheel bogeilio. OFr. ein. . a wallet. a boy. with let. bulb. OHG. bulais daqui. to butt. to bud or bocla. boucler. a shoot. fur. bouton. Pied. bucherare. push forwards. excrescence. to boss or swell out G. clasp of a book. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. ' . So on. a curl. bukke-blad.' Boccaccio. a fold ceilio. pulga. built. Bav. to budge. bougette. protuberance. weich. a cowherd. To thrusting part of a long body. bulka. bloquier. words is converted into b. II I'a feru desor I'escu. bucket Fl. a tuft. call bo. to 'soak. whom it is still much in use. belonging to the calling of the chen. a leathern sack. a dumpy gin. ON. to word. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. to poke. a little coffer or turgidus. of bac. bulga. a pail or flowers. crack. Fr. to stir. bolgetta.. It. buckel. Dan. a shield. butzen (Du. Hence quel. stir. pwt o Fr. Hardly identical with Fr.' Schm.stumpy man. . .Lat. as in Fr. A buckle or fastening for botch. and weichen. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Fr. in the beginning of to pierce holes. thrust. Bret. bogla. It.). Budget. and the reference to It. . Gael. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. skins pushit'.t-le!L{ * Bud. from bo. having a boss. bog and G. above mentioned.— . boss of a shield. of a surface. Dan. to graft or bud trees. weich. — . This expression boglire. where the G. to line with fur. . It. need. Fr. Lat.pode.. inboachen. dinted. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Port. swelling. Swab. is doubtless fallacious. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. bump. a boss. potz. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. Wtb. lump. to move. bunch . Du. and of the Lat. * Bucket.) as to soak. bud butzen. noise . dim. w. from Gr.) . knock. a small shallow and open tub. bul. Behoves. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog.' Hal. boqueranmis. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. See Bulk. boglyn. jSouKoXiKog. imbuere. brobrocchiere. bedde. Bucolic. boaLat. knob . rabodS. W. a bubble three thyngis. child. bucherame. boucle. swelling. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. call. Prov. a budget. cattle. bo. male or botzen. bouter. gjeit-klauv. pwtio. Sp. become bochen. weichen. w.n. Mid. were To Budge. ble. convexity.chissima. a pustule bout. butzen K.

' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. stupid./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . een duffen toon. as wine that hath taken wind. as Diez remarks. buivol. thus be translated to tap. of colours. Thus buffet would a tapster. 265. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bw. colour. to excite terror in Macleod. to strike face to represent the unknown. Fr. also a G. btifetarius. as from Lith. Hence the E. bubaRuss. dull sound. Buffalo. bugle. Mid. boo. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Buffeter. to a representation of his voice. From bulga. blurt or puff with one's mouth. cuff . Fr. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. bouffer. dausa. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. bufHe. to marre often tasting it . a hollow sound. confused. or wild ox. le reste emplissant d'eau. a jester. — Z. Sc. smells . to bellow . — Bogle. bauwi. — — — Buffet. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. from It. The cry made to excite terror is then used. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. soufflet. ' They rether puffed at him. botffon. Fr. E. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt.D. a In . bolgetta. Esthon. Bufetarium. sounds. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . Romola. word other cases. Lat. Fl. Pl. mumming. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. The children were playing in an oppocomer. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. the place whence the wine was drawn. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Pl. God's boast seemed feare children. tastes. to give a as of a blow. bolgia. often blown upon. by metaphor. It. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. W. to signify an indefinite object of terror. buffet. It. and in Fr. while in Sp. from souffler. a budget. caupo. to puff. also the skin or heck of a buffe. a buffle or a bugle. G. bobaow. deadened. A — Bug. to frighten . bukow Ikow. bubiti. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. buff leather. to blow. buffet. buffets. Lat. bufogni. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bumann.D.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. site The two — — iii. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. dausinti. tabernarius. bw! It. him but Boyd iugges. puff. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. w. to jest or sport. — thence it has been transferred in E. a block-headed noddy. Cot. bwg. duff^ dull. a puff. bugs.— Buflae. wine may The verb in taverns. A puff with — Fl. buffle. buffetto. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. buffalo. Buffoon. buffeteur. a bugbear. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. to beat. to puff.' La Crusca. human. Fr. —Boggart. bufogni. buffen. a hobgoblin. bubus. Limousin bobal.D. mingled with water. dial. a cuff or buffet. made by a person. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. bau ! children. buffle-headed. bouffer. Lith. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. Magy. buMagy. to blow .BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Lith. &c. buffare. bubach. buffa. rebuff. to give benti. yar^aa. a goblin). a skin. boman.' perfield. . wauwau. It. leathern bucket. often covering his E. the buffe. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. air. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. A blow. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Buff. things in Jam. Swiss baui. to blow souffleU. senses. or hath been Cot. Fr. either alone or with various terminations. as emblematically making light of an object.—Buffet. Gael. popo. bugbear. a clap. Cot. buffer. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. bo ! an interj. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. — La Crusca. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. to rePl. baubau. for this purpose is very widely spread. Buff. a side-board. Sc. buffet. scarecrow . pulse . Teet-bo. The use of the exclamation children. breath. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. buffare. It. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. made to —Bugbear. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. From buff! of terror.

baco. quos what produces dread or disgust. according to Coles. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bogk. a rabme. gad. buggabod). bukashka. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Magy. long. hert. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. — — ' . buffle. of bugabo was given. bogil bo (e. Lesachthal. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. — — terror. Manx boa. to take fright. It. . The name of bug is — . to roar Aasen. as Buffalo. buba. Grose. and a boggarty ing. with more or less modification represents bau. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. banian boube. roarHal. ghost. disgust. and is Deutsch. tumble-bug. Grisons bau. to creeping things. It. blustering. bug-bear. Illyr. an object of terror. and in Lat. An ornament of female dress condread. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. E. and in child's Magy. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. then a horn for drinking. 2. thus connected with bug. also a baco-baco. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. high. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. beugler. vermin. threatening. Bible. boo. 3. dial. Big. bogil. Mundart. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. The w. bugle. bugler. Hence bugle-horn. bbgni. pugalo. Bug as a lord. is very common. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. rose-bug. to take fright. Serv. big. bug-bear.. Mid. Fl. a proud overbearing man pujat'. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. also a bug-bear. See The name terror). given in Chaucer. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. pugaf. to origin in the expression bugs words. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. a. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. especially to beetles or winged insects. bugar. the buggaboo w. threatening. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. high-sounding words. bogk. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. bok. The final guttural of W.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. troll. xiv. is the dim.Fr. worm. Swelling. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. insect. saucy. bobal. W. Same as buffle. Magy. roo. Deut. bwgar. any disgusting animal. fette. Russ. booggen. BUGLE Tentennino. bold. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. bukati. the word is lin) bbgge. Schmidt. A similar applica. coco. to frighten scarecrow. Sp. the Devil. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. and bugle.3uhtii&:. b'dgni. monster. — boogg. boa-peep. bug dung-beetle. Stalder bog. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Swiss booggen. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. biignt. bucula. great or bug words. Bug. Chaucer. earwig bau da grascha. to bellow. buculus. w. protuberant. the black a maggot. of pipes sewn on. bugbear. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. bau (Pureiglia. bwg and E. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Swiss ing. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Fl. . insect. * 2. a bug-bear. to bellow. i. : no BUG . an insect. a silk-worm. bug. — — . scarecrow . bogle. as an object of dread. a beetle.Lat. Hal. superbire. used in the same sense. tion of the beetle tribe. poggl. paws the ground . oxen. bwgwl. . 1551. Lap.loud noise. fear. Parolone. Bogge. mask ' .— . I. larva (a bug-bear. Sw. a bugbear for children. Bugle. bauginti. 493. boeuf sauvage. — . Cheval de trombugti. also a bug-bear. well as the terrific object. language any kind of insect. il brutto Demonio. a boogg. Bdronie. Lett. (Spurrell). a buffalo. affright. a misshapen person. swollen. proud. forSc. iv. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. bug-bear. provincially an insect. Lith. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. fierce. to take bug. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. terrifying ward. shepe and gootes. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. .. pujalo. a bug-bear. a goblin. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce.

at riufa bulkann. belly Sw. pimple. to blow. a. pocket. bubble. puff. or feminine termination gives Bav. the contents of the hold. herd^ swarm pulkd. boss of a buckler. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. compare Da. OSw. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. vulva. tumidus. bulwis. to bubble up. bauen. to swell. bulne. bol. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bolle. to break bulk. bulbus. A — ' — Bulk. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bed of a river. a stage or scaffold. ' . trunk. Hal. OSw. Bulk. Lith. bolso. to undo the cargo. — . liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. knob. a bubble Gael. jnake bulch. The radical sense is shown in Russ. to build. bulki. belly. Gr. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. womb. It. bulgen. skin flayed whole. Here stand behind this bulk. cultivate. ' . See Bulk. the capacity or burden of a ship. bua. hold or bilge of a ship. unevenness Sw. bukr. a. bulge or convex part of a cask. ' . trunk. husk. With these must probably be classed ON. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. wallet. the position of liquids in the word In English. tumeo. blow. and put it home. bolgia. bulk. as well as is very variable. body. . or. Gr. a bunch. stuffed bag. swell. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. in bulk. — . — — . The addition of a dim. whence bylja. ne. knot in thread. G. To Build. in Sc. Pr. swollen. a round bulky body bwlgan. w. bulk or capacity of anything. belly Cat. turgeo bolnyd. van loock. ^ — . bolg. Bourser. knobby. balg. The Walach. 1388. Sp. buc. Lat. Pr. domicilium. boss. Muratori. — Bulb. bo. pouch builgeadh. G. bubble. bladder. . Melancholy. to gather.' Anat. . to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. bol. boss of shield. . blister. a water-bubble). — — . See how this tode bolneth. blister. m um Placentiae. bugue. ON. skin of an animal. For the latter sense ' — My . bag. biilken. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. . bouge. mass. bullka. bulk is a partition of boards. belly. bulked or bumped out. bolnyn. crowd. MHG. of an inflated skin. hollow. were a habitation. the womb. G. Bulge. balcone. ball. a leather sack or budget Fr. (3oX|8oc. the body Du.' Fl. Bulch. . body of a ship . a leathern sack or portmanteau. . knob. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. to belly out. villa. . projection. a protuberance. bolgan. snorting on a bulk. . or of what is shaped like a bubble. mass. Mister. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. Boss^. bolle. boss. bulg. bulka. bubble. PoXj3a.' Festus. From till. and N. See bollekeii next article. dial. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. or cargo of a ship. Pm. boulge. lump. trunk of the body. Palco. bale. bol. to puff up bolginn. buhe. . Mandeville. balgs. bunch or projection. bellows builgean. Ptg. pod ON. or bear out as a full purse. Dan. the head of an onion. in vessel. Pm. bulbe. the belly. as water beginning to boil bolg.pulks. . cumulus. a prominence. to spring. buk. lump. a heap. bauch.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. balg. blister Manx bolg. Dan. I. a tuberous or bulbous root . bulle. bwlg. . has bulbuk. bubbling up. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. boa. straight will he 2. balco. bolgna. beuck.d. . bouk. on. bole. to bubble up Pol. bug. chest. and bulbukd. ON. the potato G. bulgen. swell. a bulb Du. to raise a habitation. . inhabit. Othello. anything prominent. Bav. habitaculum. bulcke. be protuberant. nave or body of the church van 't schip. acervus.). a bubble. Lett. bubble {palgan tiisge. Lat. bulbe. globule bolg-lhuingey. swell. formed a farm. a globe. He found a country fellow dead drunk. In the representation of natural sounds. to throw out a convexity. belly. to bol. body of an animal. sedes. as it was merly written in English to bylle. Bolke or hepe. pulkas. . Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. leather sack. head . bulge or bilge. . swollen OE. bilge. principal portion. it again. bulkaf. belgja. belly van de kerche. Hence e. of E. a lump or mass. belgr.'— Cot. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. thorax buick. bolgetta.— . a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. byli. gebolgen. — — . belly. Jno. skin bag.' Cot. to swell. Kil. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. a dint in a metal . a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. Lith. the carcase. hull of a ship. belly. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). . a straw corn-vessel.' Palsgr.

pollach. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . pwl. a beam or rafter. 2. Bully. the seal affixed to the document. to tical with Sw. scarecrow. a bull. Scot's Deso. bullus. a tadpole. a framework of balks. Cot. Gael. as the ornanails. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. a hornet. bulke. bullocks. also a parFl.D. — — Bull. a cow. bullos. spirits. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. BuUiou. in N. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. large. G. from baula. pimple. G. stamp. lumpish. large of its kind. bolos Fr. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. it is boulet de canon. Fr. Bullbeggar. eth and frighteth. BulUiead. Terriculamentum. ba. bellocier. round glass phial. a wasp. and thence terror. any great-headed or studded nail.. A lace tree. I. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bouillon. poltern. is of a class with Pl. of Witchcr. stud. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. bubble. bollos de relieve. bulloi. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. to bubble. whence Mod. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense.Gr. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. 2. Bullace. — A tition in a ship. bulk. The male W. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. blister. Eullrusli. as geting. of boule. from Fr. It. bolli. See Billet. billoti in Fr.. assito. stud. beams or boards. witches. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. and vellon in Sp. Du. Bret. bietebau. poli-cheannan. Du. poll-cheannach. The wild plum. bulla. also of the tadpole or young frog. a tadpole . ON. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. embossed work. boillon. 3. blunt. dial. from the noise. which may probably be the origin of the name. leraures nocturni nigri. to bellow. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bulk of a thing. from the Lat. a blockhead. is called a ball. biitzibau. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bal. A papal rescript.D. billon. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. w. Du. polten. on the contrary. Bullet. bouillon. bullebak. And The word bullerbak. /SouWivu. a little fish nearly all head. baula. Lith. urchens. bulle. Dan. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. as a mill-dam or the like. a scare-bug. w. dim. however.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. bugbear.'— ' Palsgr. sloes. thick. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl.. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bolli. bwbach. — Fl. bwlas. Pl. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. i.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. bwla. the matrix or die . from the use of the equivalent terms. bole or trunk of a tree. from Lat. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. tition of deals instead of a wall. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. &c. a stud. a bul-begger. bellow.Fris. penbwl. a bulox polos. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Gold or silver uncoined. many to protuberant objects. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. See Bowl.. It. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. Bullfrog. signifying roaring. lumpheaded . bauli. a hobgoblin. to seal. in the sense of base metal. The final element tergeist. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. bolla. a seal. stamped money. whence bullire. coarse. boss or stud. as in E. as It. it may be observed that a bullet in E. Sp. bollon. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. elves. to emboss .D. bullern. bulderen. a seal. hhint. brass-headed nail . to boil. a hobgoblin. G. G. The bullfrog. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water.lle de fusil. balgeting.' do not go by the dangerous water. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. b2iggaboo. bollar. bulla. . Fr. This word is used in several senses. a noisy violent fellow. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. of the ox kind. Du. boulct. Pm. boss. any embossed work. W. a bull Swiss bullen. N. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. stupid . child by the represents the hobgoblin. a bowl.

block-werck. noise. to drum Lat. buller-bak. Miege in Hal. Sw. scaffold. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. to make a droning Du. It. is called bumping or bells. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. is bullion — A — buller. furious man. Fris. 2. The Sw. G. blunder-buss. Etym. but now is the central part of the town. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Bully. botm. and porter au billon. beat a — Hal. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. boulevard. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Du.' Again. hum. Bully-rock.' reals of standard currency. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. to make a noise . argentum and silver. ierd-beame. Kiittner. To bully is to bluster. bodem. A. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . The Stat. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. Bum-bailiff. buller-jaan (bully. 14. provides. The decried coin.the ramparts. To Bum. bulderen. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. buene..' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. The cry of the bittern. Kil. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. c. III. 2. ^Bully-rook. bomtnen. violent. buller-brook. un faux brave. To bum. bustle. perturbare saevis dictis. primarily the ramparts of a town. agrees with e. ierd-boeyme. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud.' agger. to terrify by noise and clamour.. St. buller-bas. Bailey. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. Philip le Bel in Due. a noisy blustering fellow. propugnaculum. 4 Hen. or a humblebee. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. c. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. the soil. a. — — plate d'argent. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. then in general a rampart. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. bolderen. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. 9 E. from boden. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. The 27 Ed. a boisterous. Fris. Hence — .' ' mettre au billon. — bombam?nen. a floor. poltem. Kil.' Stat. D. boisterous fellow. intonare. Bum. c. honunele. or work of defence. Du. a stage. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. AS. G. clamour. to dun. Du.d. G. 10. blunder-buss. ground. droning. John). legaggio di metallo. Thus ' ble. sound. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. bottn. — Bumto . IIL st. on the other hand. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. baluarte. a hectoring. violent overbearing person. buller-bas. For bottom. From the notion of a humming. — Boom. bol-werck. 1687). 'lega. provides. by corruption boulevart. up was termed monnaie de billon. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. polterer. — Bump. debacchari. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. vallum. blaterare. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . &c.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. to . bommele. To bum. IV. Hal. boene. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. biihne. resonare.' for the purpose of exchange. ^i^/«.D. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. minari verbulderen. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. a bumble-. Fr. 1305. bastion. 2. bottom.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver.D. bombilare. Hence bom and ban. a blunderhead. BULLY with which coins were stamped. ON.

pwmpl. a. Du. noise. a swelling from a blow. pumpurras. to knock . bunki. Manx bonkan. a bowl P1. Again. Bunch. Pm.-^Fl. bignet. as we have seen E. hdk passing and E. bum-boot. 1. Daal bu7iseti. Bump. bmike. pumpa. cluster. a pumpion or gourd. — — de dor bunsen. . Pm. Mrs Baker. . Lang. Pl. — — Bun. bottom bun feoir. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. BUNCH bum-bailiff.D. a knock. Sc. Gael. lungeous. S. bump. bunt. — round fruit. .^Cot. bulscha. a bunch Magy. bung. foundation w. pwmp. an old stump of a horse. bans. bunke. any round knob or bunch.' he fell with a bang. bolsa. lump. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a purse . from bunsen. dial. calamus. &c. binge. bund. . root. . Suffolk bonnka. Dan. a pocket Sw. abrupt manbuns-wise. bulto. Pl. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Kyx or bunne. w. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Bumboat. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. applied to young persons.D. a rabbit. Bung^. a round mass . Radically identical with Dan.! . a large . A Du. one ever saw the word in that shape. See Bunch. . a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . ner. w. a boil (punkos bot. bu<rnone. OSw.. buns. pwmpio. to thump. a tail (Macleod).P. to bang down. stock. a heap. bugnet. knochen. a wallet. or to the mass by which it is given. a knob. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. bulse. — stalk . forms. Then. Bony. stubble Manx bun. also for taking a pilot to a ship. bon. dial. bonnock. a boss Lith. bun eich. bugno. clumsy.' Palsgr. ! — knocking. botn. a heap or cluster. the Pr. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. mto Sp. E. stump. E. bugno. Li cake.' Bun. lenten loaves. as in other cases. while bulch was traced through Gris. — — — — ' — knock. a heap. and signifies consequently a mass. bune or boon. Bunk. . to bang. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. nor would it concern the public if he did. large. to beat. seems to unite Gael. Pr. truss E. . Pm. . tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. il me pousse. a boil or blain. Dan. Thus e. especially girls. bun with ON. from knock) It. . to beat. Dunchyn or bunchyn. boi7ieog. —Bunny. Bun. a heap Wall. Sc. Related on the one side to Pl. hay stubble . so the form btmk. See Boss. a bump. Hal. . Holland and Flanders. are dim. knuckles. bunga. tundo. Forby. bonge. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. a heap OSw. Hal. poumpi. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship.D. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. banke. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous.. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. bongie. stubble of beans. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. a knotty stick) Sw. bunny. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bottom. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. banga. explaining E. pompon. Bunewand. a knob. passes Sw. a button. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a Sp. Bang sen. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Ir. the tail of a hare. E. a bunch. a dried hemp-stalk. bumsen. inconsiderately. Gael. should probably be a short tail. bugnone. a lump on the foot bunny. trunk. to swell out E. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Probably from bump. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. stalk. bull. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Bumsen. a into Dan. signifying one who does things in a thumping. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bun. to . bunsen. a rabbit. Fr.D. Hal. or grete knobbe. round mass of anything. Bums it's hit. stem or base. bunan.S. any round knob or bunch. . a bag or sack. strapping. Roding. and related with ON. gibber. a hemp-stalk. To bam.— Bunnion. bmidt. See Bounce.). bottom. root. protuberance. bungersome. to ' . Hal. . a knob . Hence E. gibbus. — — Bun. throw down with a bang. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. He buncheth me and beateth me. bunken. a hump. He fult dat et bunsede. Bunch. knob or heap. bumtel. callus. to bang ON. bamgetroffen. bunka. H. Moor. bunga. bunch— Hal. bunnion. awkward.pummel. — Marine Diet. Probably for bun-boot. stock. stump. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Fr. It. poumpido. clown. Bumpkin. a. bannock. pompette. bunkc. a bud.— Pr. strike E. . a swelling. butt end. awkward clown. Fl. A clumsy. blain. bonuach. to . a dry No . bundle.

unskilful working. boya. reddish brown. Burly. properly a Burgundian helmet. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bou^e. to push with the head del. buie. to knock. Cat. fetters. boil or bubble up. to work at carpentry bangan. The Magy. burboloti. to work ineffectually. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. to bungle. the bung of a barrel Lim. bimge. knocking. The belly or hollow of a sail. stocks or such OSw. to stop. buret. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. la Borgonota. shackles. Sw. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. anchor or of a net boyar. Lat. Burble. bourgeon. Bunny. in is Fr. contignatio. to cobble. and Du. and E. See Bourdon. 202.' Festus in Diez. dark grey bura. The Italian buio. on. is originally a wisp or bunch . — — . N. Prov. To burgeon. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. * Buoy. or tuft. would be the earliest float for an anchor. to pype. Kil. to hum. Sp. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. with the head. bommen. dark. or putting forth of a vine. to resound. on. modem bummle. the middle part of it. a botch. p. To bunt. tinkle. tinker . bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. banghagr. Pl. a water bubble made by rain. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. to hum. to bear. Sw. borboUar. G. was formerly pronounced buro. OFr. the noise of drums. are from bouscfie. Sp. To Bunt. clogs. a bunch. something bound together (Mrs Baker). dial. . to kick. stilmpern. working in wood (especially with an axe). then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. burion. AS. bondel-loos. Bunt. stiimpeln. do a thing bunglingly. Russ. AS. bummle. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. — . Biu'geon. dicimus rufum. bourguignote. bui. So in Pol. bouchon. noise. tapp (whence tceppa. to bud forth. Bret. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Burganet. bonde. a bungler. to push. — Bureau. A load. Rietz. B. and the Sw. Bunting. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. also a piinple in the face. .punt. a cork. knocking. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Banff. bang. To do anything awk- wardly. bonde. whence in bure.Fris. OFr. a drum . bindini. a wisp of hay or straw. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bunsen. OG. sprig. the loose open grow big about or gross. byrthen. — btiruii. Sp. Hal. a bung. gyves. Du. bondeau. that the primitive meaning of shackle . . an anchor buoy. bond. to in to stop the hole. bundle. bourjon. bove. Cot. bondir. the float of an bundle. bangla. A bubble. fascis. from beran. So Du. The word is flags are made. Johansen. generally known as the material of which bud. bon. or used as a receptacle for papers. buret. ghebundte. rumble as the bowels. a sort of helmet. Burden. bourion. boei. Fr. to stnmi on an instrument. G. klempern. bangla. bang. loosed from bonds. dial. to Somerset is to sift. coassatio et Du. to strum on an instrument. of a song. Muratori. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. and bomme. to push ghebondte. bundt. racket .— . knock. to knock. Fr. — — To Bungle. Compare G. shove . colligatio. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. Bung. to gingle. biirde. Fr. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. tap. especially in wood. however. Fr. bolting-cloth. See Barbarous. bouche. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. bondelj bundell. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. B. russet. and now more Bailey. borgonota. to float. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. halm-tapp. bury. bungande. It. The stopper for the hole in a boia. bundel. punishments for prisoners. to gingle. to stop. boj. whence bunting. ' — work . See Bun. bongani. bongun. A Dan. klimpem. bag to catch the wind. the stopper of a cask). Prov. bunta. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. . byndel. racket. . Bundle. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. to shove. bote. E.D. bondon. See Borel. to bolt meal. Sw. a boye. buove. and van t' vat. boucher. to hum. driving in the bung. the young cloth used for sifting flour. ho-tapp. bounta. The Fr. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. guggle as water. banga. Fl. a bunch Burbulas. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. clumsy performance. Burden. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. Palsgr. to botch. Sp.

G.. So also Sw. surge or dashing of the sea . roguing beggars. to puff up borr^ . boure. ample of polishing metal.. from the roaring sound of flame. brook. — .).ireui£r:e. embraser. like the wind in trees. spring-water bumach. is termed burling.bryna. to sharpen on a whetstone. bud or sprout forth. Swiss Rom. Limousin bourdo. &c. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. to fiy. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. which has given much trouble to etymologists. tahkoa. explaining the E. a purling hiwe brennen. to ridicule. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. to roar. burgi latro. to burn. to make a So from Fin. a bladder. brasa. Schm. borracka. burle of cloth. pur (see Burgeon). b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to roar. and Dan. a fountain. grancelli. The Gael. Dief. to bourda. boiirre. the flocks. to polish. Gael. Burly. buirleadh.— Pr. brunna. A legal term from the Lat.). As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Nat. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. Burgess. It. explaining Sp. thence. as Diefenbach bud. purrata. with little iron nippers called burling irons. borujon. bruse. — — . Bret. sidiary element. . de Vaud. with Dan. to Gael. bururus.). Probably. abourioner. burgeois. to tell lies. brusler being a faulty spelling. a knob. a whetstone. See Burr. knob. an &c.. blow. ON. broil. water. Fl. N. Sp.or bubbling up. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to grind on a whetstone. brAler. Bav. Hence Bridel. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. a bubble to spring as water. bears. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. From Fr.— . as of suggests. In the manu. schleiffen. warbling. to swell oneself out as birds borras. brynsten. to rub. brunir. to effervesce. boura. to To Bum. in Schm. — . swelling borr-shuil. brun. borr. Burler. flocks. Fr. Swiss Rom. become big and proud. to roar. language of folly or ridicule. brunnr. as in cousteau. Burgher. sbornoi. sea. Cot. ^Notk. burren. Compare also Piedm. OFr. born. j. to bud . dial. brustle.. 56. Goth. Burryn. Todd. pressa puret. toast. Sw. ends of thread. de Vaud. to roar (as lions. as the / in purl. bouril. the J in OFr. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab.' a jibe. Bestiary. 122. to polish helmets. to swell. a blaze. . to puff. bremmen. singe or scorch with fire. big.j'own. bururus. Fr. Pm. burgensis. the word seems Pm. watery. fire. leo Fin. Prov. brimmen. to sharpen. condemnentur morti. Lang. to hum. and the Burnish. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. a jest. repartee . — Han to bruser op.' Cot. it of the knots. It. brinna. a bubble. — — . briis^. to give an edge to. occupying much space. See Berough. a gurgling ^. protuberance. . facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. See under Bore. to burn. a bud. The in. like straw or small . to have acquired the sense of polishing. Bav. Burn. BURNISH i5«r/. ridicule. E. Walach. the roaring surge of the — — — . ' rugiens. taunt. Supp. brima. is an Thus G. brandung. See Burgeon. a lie. purra. a margin. is connected with brim. The primary origin of the word. A burl. i5«r4 biiirte. a spring a robber.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. angular . . Burglar. Pren7ien. Probably a modifica. sicut sound.sharpen. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. purling. and the Burin. bruzir. tion of the root which gave the OE. burgen. crackle wood in burning Hal. compared with G. to roar. brunnen. to set on fire. and OG. burn. to burgen or wax big. brim or edge of anything. Burlesque. jest of. to murmur. to swell with pride. tahko.. Antiq. lorra. From the same root E. Lang. bourou. robber. borrelen. brinii. ends of thread. — — . swell up or strout out. OE. mockery. bourd. bunch. has also borr. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Fr. Bouffer. G. to surge. to roar 5. to polish. a well. brinnen or Also ein roar. fires up. laer. joking. brausen. lerre. It. Pr. Sw. OE. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. ii6 BURGESS Gael. ^ttsa. a jest. burlare.Ps. an edge. a prominent eye borracka. brase. he rustle. A — — . Burgh. to bouronna. the er is a dresser of cloth. must be explained on the same principle from G. OFr. It is probable indeed that Fr. brustolare. burly. to ridicule. barrel. Fl. from bryii. In the same way ON. bourglairs. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Castrais bourril. tumentum. borni. like. a wine skin. from Lat.

AS. to P'air. borrow. brit. purr. burre. bristen. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. save. any rapid whirling biarga. g. briser. leather. ON. bourse. Compare also OE. to burst. a purse. I. burgisli. To Bury. burial place. Burr. brittle. beurs. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. ' ' — — burren. and thence flocks 'of wool.— . brizeto. byrgan. to break. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments.. bris. AS. . shales. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. caer is a — — — ' ' : . husks. the — — castle or fortress. and met. bolgia. In a met. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. bres- — tan. idiom if 4. — Translated by Kemble. the officer who bears the purse. a wallet or scrip. It. brisd. also all such stuff as hay. Dan. a morsel. shearing of cloth. Burr is related to buzz as protect. iii. bourrer. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. borsia. a port. whirr and burr. as in Northumberland. explained E. Gael. Jam. Swiss burren. brisdeach. Du. dial. G. ON. The root forms brik. to buzz. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. as it is still pronounced in N. whirr. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. britar. a rabbit burrow. brjota. and spelling. &c. swell. a harness or collar maker) . root borr. from AS. of a body hurled through the air. a sepulchre. It. from Fr. birr. as for the protection of a child's head. In OE. verbergen. ultimately resting on the Gael. ber•whirr to whizz. preserve. Sexy. &c. bristeach. Port. birgan. OHG. brico. OHG. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. fortify. also ' any such trash as chaff. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. an exchange. keep. as from Sp. straw. Shelter. makes the disbursements of the college. a. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . bourse. borre. Fr. Fr. bourre. bur. brest. Fr. pipaa. prsnuti. 5150. any kind of quilting or stuffing. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. borsa. force. bergen. ptcrren. foretell great storms at 3. 2. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. perruque. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. impetus. dial. -burse. burra. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. to save. its own protection. a place of defence. To Burst. borra. preserve. Cot. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. coo. berstan. when they spring So in W. bourlet. Hence Fr. blurra. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. moss. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. byrstan. birigean. signifying protrude. . With a slightly different ghen. brist. tomb. and. Mid. break . a purse. shuffling. Sw. Burrow. Hal. stuffing. chips or anything else Fl. 225. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. a pad. mentioned under Burgeon. borra. Burse. bur. to hide . ' BURR AS.' The same word with burgh. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. cover. to stuff. an annular swelling. beorgan. brist. whence Kil. byrgels. Burial. but it is more probably a development of It. talk fast and indistinctly. brokenharpstringed-like cattle.' Harris in Todd. that birds make their nests with. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. Brun on bane. brast.' edge grew weak. borsa. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Burser. to bury . — Clare. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. Beowulf. briso. from whence we pass through Sp. brittle.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. barza. bourrelet. bris. of England. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . G. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. be more in accordance with AS. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. hair. karborre. bersten. byrigels. Bursar. S w. Fris. shelter. skin. Burse. . brokil and brotil. -Grisons bulscha. i5(7&a. peluca to Fr. E. buscha. to mutter Sw. See Bulge.Lat. See Burgeon. brown. to hide. bolsa to It. A rabbit burmotion. a barn or cupboard. brickie. Sw. Du. byrgen. byrsa. cwning-gaer. borre. appears under the Lang. briketo. casting bullets. some people in pronouncing the letter r. This word seems safety. brista.

truasc. oneself. as boun is simply buinn. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bush. besom). then a tuft Sp. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. bussel. burial mound. Bush. busk. the Moors and of Morocco. busse. or the like. a little box Dan. lump. and we actually find bushel. to direct one's course towards. bulk. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. busken. a tuft. —Busk. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. and he cites wisp bauschen. a bunch. boucher. bussellus. beorgan. The word frequency with which to busk is used.' The word is explained by — — . : — . to keep. boisseau. a grove bosch van haer. . brake. bousche. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. make ready. clusprobably Morocco leather. gave Lat. to turn. from the ON. Fris. at bua sig. They busked and malced them boun. to bow. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a clot of phlegm sart. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . in OE. a bundle. buysschen. bossida. a hump. . mount. iriCtf -ifoe. a wisp. bramble. bosch (a diminutive ?). See Box. Brunne. ' . which would later have truast. borseof trees. Bush.P. bustula. van wijnbesien. a bunch of twigs. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. bussare. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. that the lend had lorn thorn. boiste. projection. 2. condere. rad. a box. -idis. a tuft of hair. box wood to bush. barst. fiast. bousse. See Bust. borcegui. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. to bend one's steps. bulge. to dress. tuft. Layamon. . bossen. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. OFr. Ptg. Du. a troop. the land. dead. The bone in a woman's stays. Prov. to enclose in a case or box. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. to dress. . Malberg. bustellus. a rampart. 'at bua sik. . Thence byrigean. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Sibriht that I of told. qualster-boscken. signifying to entomb. ch). cluster. boissa.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Bouchet. bosta. bosc.Lat. basse. ' . Sw. wisp. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. Sir Tristram. buxta. berghen. bush. bundle * Buskin. the idea of knocking. R. bairgan. biichse. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. . contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bunch. whence bouchon. buskr. basse. aheap of stones. to forest of Eyda. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. a bush. boistel. the past participle of the same verb bua.' sheath. hjul-bosse. Du. for at buasc.Lat.' a box. borghen. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. hunch Du. sur une litifere. bousIn the other copy ser. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. So from Fr. bos. buxida. tow. barsc in Heimskringla. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump.boisteau. Thus Froister . Sc. a tuft. a box. or — Busk. AS. is thus accounted for. And her ful sone tuft. BUSH hreaw. preserve. It. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. a tuft guini. In to Brutaine. defence. thicket of thorns .— ' ii8 {chreo.) to hide in the ground. bua. we have Fr. to swell. brodequin tout noir. knot. whente beorg. 410. The primary sense of hair . Du. brodiquin. roquies. whence at bua sik. ' . protect . a corpse). by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. to prepare. Brunne. and not directly (as Du.' The buskin is said Bret. Mid. a gun biichse. ' . To prepare. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. Harold G. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. occultare K. grapes. Gr.gur bidst austur um EySascog. bausen. bundle. Le roy Richard mort. apparently a secondary verb. diminutives. bouche. a bush. ' —P. a box for measuring corn. induere vestes . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. boxta. il fut couch6 l^jkema).fiasc. It. to bury. The radical idea is seen in Goth. OFr. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. as synonymous with to inake one boun. to stop. AS. buxula. to sepulchre. G. verb. abdere. To Busk. thicket {buski. and thence Mid. bo7ich (Fr. ieorh. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. a -tavern bush. in the For Skirnis .-^Bushel. a been written buasc. Fr. and from the Fr. at buast.

body . besoigAe. — hardly be distinct from Fr. bnist. a log. to Swab. trunk. bucha. Fr. or Cherqui. Cot. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. 119 bi{tr. So in Fin. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. ottarda. an affair. fe^a. abotarda. Hence probably au-tarda. BUSS Dozy from Arab. bukr. Xerqui. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. mohedairova. vessel employed in the herring fishery. 1372. 10. worn to make the body straight . a stroke of wind. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen.' Plin. sunt quas Hispania aves . small. a bust. I go strepo) . B. also a flagon. an ostrich. a bunch of flowers . Swiss butschen. bysgian. Lindenbr. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. a busk. forms morseqiiill. morsequi. a ship of some size. bulk. body without arms and legs. Bust. avuDiez. the body without arms busque. thick end. or avutarda. . kiss. a mouth. body. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a great billet Cot. from jnund. 7o\. buta. Fris. sera. log . occupied bezigen. ViM. signifying trunk of a the body. btcc. body of garment. Prov. its slowness of flight. but. beso. bisgung. ON. See Boss. bussen. hipista. Business. in Diaz Gris. representing a blow. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. bustla. Bust. The proceedings of Parliament. bust. trunk. cata — . 1555. the point of a lance. windbutsch. butz. buc. besongne. Bustard.bezig. a blow. baiser.D. austarda. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. body. buyse.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. — Thus we should have mocherqui. chest. AS. and supposes that the common Arab. Lang. — clattering about. 22. A great sluggish fowl. I. Port. lip. brostia as well as bostia. basiuin.Lat. made stiff. a bush. tarda. busch. mouth. knock. to occupy. kupata. On the other hand. the trunk. putschen. borcegui. a projection. betarda. a boat or small vessel .). Hal. and then with avis again prefixed. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. Sw. Sp. to bustle. lip. buc. of a doublet. as in ON. stem. biseg. Busy. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. busq. lips. bus. stump. tuft. bruskras well as buskr.pjik. plated body or other quilted thing. says. abutarda. Lat. ON. Gael. smack. outard. work. employment bisgan. and by transposition morchequi. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Nained from Proximse iis zia. a bulk or trunk without a head. stir. bysgje. busy. I. crack . A A busquer (Sigart). mogangas from gonj. ' bistardej It. Comp. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. or chest in which the vitals are contained. busto. — — — — It is like the smouldering. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added.— . a tree. Namur — Champagne Fr. to knock . Pol. a backstock. snout. trunk of a tree. bacio. bus and Pol. forest. ship Sp.> Also written buskle. also a busk. brut. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Fr. otarda. the long. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. stump. So Wes- terwald munds. buquer. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Sp. bu. pussa. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . brusc. occupation. Fr. a kiss of reverence. mosequin. 2. putta. 2l box.' ON.d. busta. buz. . the breast. Fr. Cat. mons. inde discurro et operosus sum. to make use of. ^A. a large cljest or particular applibox. to make a splash in the water. as in moharra from harbe. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. outarde. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. To hurry or make a great B. Edrtst. a. lump. Walach. busch. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Busitiess :c3iVi . The form brust. bussa. Buss. also a It. To Bustle. a blow. Rouchi. With respect to bust. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. buc. knock. kiss. bisegung. I bustle. of the human body (Grandg. mouth. body of a man. statue of the upper part of Fr. Fl. geidha. Prov. a Mid. Box. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. — . would explain the G. Prov. trunk of Cot. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. a kiss. and also a sounding blow. Bulch. a kiss. love gestures. A wisp. Du. body of a woman's dress It. especially of a woman's dress. Sp. bus. busc. bust. box. ' BUSY 2. utarda. arbor ramis trunGloss. Bav. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). a fishing vessel. a kiss. beezig. bist. busche. biist. bisg. Busk. The Prov. — — difications of the same word. business.

slaughter-house. as Pantler. Fr. Where at an earthen jar . Fr. a butchery. the trunk or body of an animal. by the mode in which he is treated. the bottles. a leathern bag. from boc. Buttery. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. earthen which the debtor has adverted.in which his brethren are included. large barrel. bounds of. bout.' there is really a negation to be supplied. Prov. are. my is called the adversative use of but. belly. without care. of the wine and drink. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. biitait slaughterer of goats . the store of ten. boccino. Here the but implies the existence of an. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. able. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. collection of casks. bountifully. ways. the principal apartment. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Wall. . bolr. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bous. But In Sc.The Sp. also a hollow vessel . bitlga. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . "PLT) . a baiTel .' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. binnan. the mouth). besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. belly. and with It. boucher. the body of an animal. is well explained by Tooke. boteria. properly a butan wite. Sp. bol. rotundity of the body. Whatever is in addition to Butler. AS. outside that moreover. Butt. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. or what in in charge of the pantry. but one thing. — we acle for liquors. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. and the real origin of the and within . But when will you pay it ? the belly.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. So in Italian from becco. beccaria. the servant in charge of the original object. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. bouz. an outlaw from bouche. a goat (and not besides . of Stirlingshire in Jamieson.' ' write.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. bochier. the Perhaps besogne — . bodifie. Tooke's dis. (children) boc. a cask. which the word corresponds to the Fr. a budget. body of a shirt w. botte. The E. botilla. the name must have arisen before the within. bhcciero. is put in a class by himself. Lang. Sp. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . be out. ' Besides all that. Butler. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . add. and bot. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. except. from as. belly. bute. without buiten-man. tinction between but. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments.jamin._ bitten j biiten door. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. viz. But It. the jug and in E. without. — . to-boot. beyond the Piedm. that which would be translated by Fr. Ben-house. the body of a tree or of a man. calf. ox. a wooden cask. then hoUow trunk. bocin. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. bisgung. Sp. mais. the belly. It. being wholly unten. Lang. rumpf. wooden receptthing to be done. without punishment . As a conjunction but is in every portion. similar train of thought is seen in ON. besides that . hull of a ship. moreover. a butcher . boquier. sup- meat and drink. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. equivalent of AS. calf of the ' say. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. a goat. the full expres.streets. butan. trunk. botija. in addition. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. we find ben.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. a bottle. ' There is leathern bottle. butan ce. the present day we should say. those in beccaio. young mais. Fr. beccaro. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bitten dai. original sense of without.' — — ' . bouteillier. the precise correlative of but. barriga. bole of a tree. a small winebag. Butcher. hollow case. without law. A A . . bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. Du. a barrel. beta. viz. bola. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. without the house kept in bottles. buta. If that where now we should compiler. bag. a butcher. skin-bag. gives at least two pounds sterling. bolgia.' Thus Chaucer says. OFr. ont jhi^ton. G.

botta. obedient. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a cask. Schmell. geboogsaem. boteria. coxa. a. and the true derivation boar. by boE. buter. obeto shake backwards and forwards. from rejeter. boter-vogel. . a barrel. botta. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. then the thigh or leg of an to push . butteln. Buttress. of E. Fr. bocsam. buttock of beef is called butr. suddenly . — A . Hal. . bottig. ment being supposed to resemble butter. bothog. dripping. Butter-glass. bout. butter. hillock . fowl. as in G. bud. Buttel-triib. courtaud. Du. W. G. give way. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. striking end. boter-vliege. trapu.. Bav. butter. a mound of turf in a field to sup. to femur. the thick end. To Butt. bout. buhsom. to butt.against another which needs support . to boult flour. an etwas anstossen. bata. It. boding. a bolt. to thrust. so as to make a sounding blow. . at. a dle . i. nursling. a large belly. : . to be con. W. to thrust. a scope. fle>(ible. Fr. A — — — . Kil. -ez. on.to push. to abut a stone roof. Du. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . as if from Povg. bocgsuin. bouter. of the present day. to throw . the thigh of a goose. Perhaps corrupted Lat. a button. aim whence to make a support to a wall. an ox. An erection built up as a Fr. the prick in the middle of a target. Buttery. a button. a. botto. a ribbed glass for dient. put. — — — — . w. nourrissons. thick. grease that sets by merely standing. stump of a tree Fr. to heap up earth or ihrust. from stossen. bottich. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. what is kept in a blow. a boss. a button. Fr. stump. from the large knobbed head of botto. the store of while bottich. a wall butor butt on. Button. lams-bout. Boutant. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. bouter. a buttress Cot. Bav. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . waste ground. bot blijven staan. to bow. nourrisson. a hill. clunis. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bouton. Bout van het schouderIt. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine.arbre. botte. but. butt. rabodd. short thick thing pimple. AS. are the strips at the edges of the field. to thrust. from bugan. to blad. * Buxom. any small projection. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly.rejected thing. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Gael. tout seat or breech. the Butter-fly. bot. to strike. but this is probably from Fr. thrust forwards. oir spike with a k coup . farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Fr. Gris. Du. from notirrir. Buttock. Buttrice. bouton. caput scapula bout van f been. a bot. or person Schmeller . Fris. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Cot. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. From Du. strike. butt of a person. butte. Butter. to so close to the Fr. to cast. any short thick thing. leg of lamb. boiUer. Btetter-schmalz. to push earth . as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. bodi'. To strike with the head bags. a heap of merly called pushes. buttern. &c. in the R. a blow. signify a cask or tub. bott. boutoir. to touch at the end. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. or or shore post. — . humble. butt. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. povrvpov. clumsy . a blow. to thrust Fr. large head.. Sp.putan. Du. To come full butt against a butts. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. — . bot. Mur-buttant. Kil. a corner horses' hoofs. boil. thrust. from bouter. a little push . pwt. a stump or club foot. a mound. to thrust . Du. Halma. poke. a buttrice. Gr.— BUTT leg . bodi. gigot. a boss. a stroke di animal. Grandg. buttare. both. Fr. a thrust the thigh-bone. &c. butz. butt. butte. — A . to abut on. So in English pimples were fora clod. able that Chaucer. tress. butyrum. end . having a rotundity . the trunk. boutis. a tub. a bun. Kil. a but in the W. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Boutje. pied. Hal. buttals. e. butter un. The word body itself seems identical with G. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. See Butler. botwm. R. botten. Fr. The Bavarian potig. pwtiaw. a leg of mutton. the rosebud. is formed the augmentative buttatich. potacha. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Lang. Fr. submit shaking up salad sauce. as rejeton. From Grisons biitt. the edge forwards. boter-schijte. a flying buttress.thum and not button.' thick from shaking. Schmell.

a borough. farm. Buzzard. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. bycgan. p. lete. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. bi. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. favourably to a petition. indistinctly. good-humoured one. town having separate jurisdiction. a buzzard or puttock. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. —gracious of speech. to jan. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. to buzz. 116. cow-house. A by. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. gracious. CABAL Goth. It. jus municipii. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. confusedly. By-law. 21.busardj Prov. Lat. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. bozzago. bei. called Cabala or Tradition. and it is of good will. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Originally the law of a particular town.— Diet. The sense of buxom. OE. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. . as heedless as a cock-chafer. bygge. to purchase for money. abozzago. Cabal. byr. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. depends upon a esteem in falconry. G. bylove. Sw. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. A A We — — — days' wonder. harty prayers and God speedes. a meke thynge with — alle. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. . 3. to pass by. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. favourable. A ful benygne buirde. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. buteoj Fr. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. from whom it was addressed. 200. ON. ii. bohte. AS. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. 519. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. to sell. bugjan. to swear with him by . buzzicare. bi. Verstegan in R. The ON. to stand at his side . buso. a town. a beetle. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Then applied to speaking low. train of thought which has become obso. bauhta. iii. as in Da. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. To Buy. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. Pecock Repressor. Byre. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). blessing me with their of side. bees. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. byar-rettr. and would have been lost in E.P. bylag. also say. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. . Du. byar-log. It. as Fr. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. bij. leges urbanse ON.— P. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. a by-path is a side path . village. Dan. See Abie. \s\xy. buzac. bar. Mercy hight that mayde. buzarg. tions by one. Sw. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God.. Many good mological explanation. P.. big. frabttg- To Buzz. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. — 122 BUY P. Goth. Etynj. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. from by. son. to whisper. AS. lb. who makes abigg. to wit. and boxome of speche xviii.in N. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . stall. & Q.

head. stercus. Mid. laitue cabusse. a shed. cabasser. deponat a store closet. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. kabat. Item habeat vocant.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Du. E. Cabbage. cadabalum. covering. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. cabre. a cabbage . agga. Mid. caboche. To steal or pocket. a car- We convasare. it would seem fundain children's language. &c. heady. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. traboccare. from manganum. Brushwood — — B. Etym. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . agge. Katr-iT-aKt. has kabbel. an engine for casting stones. It. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. from trabocco. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. cabarino. originally an Gael. kakaloH. gabardme. aakkat'a. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. OSp. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cabuyskoole. vincially used in E. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. ckaable. filth. — .Lat. origin is the OFr. agge machen (in nurses' language). and as we find stones Mid. properly windfalls. OFr. cabaii. kabaSsen. cadabulum. cabane. Sw. or rush basket. — Tarbe. signifying properly a rope's end. . Fr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. chaable. . the Slavonian. Didot. Lat. main. lactuca capitata. a cloak of felt or Cack. Du. hovel. whence Fr. gaggi. Due. . Cabin. Cot. band. cab lis.). a covering. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. come the Fr. Coticesserint Swiss aa. From It. accablcr. and Or. as Turk. Mid. mdhaigner. would correspond to cable.ticula. Antiq. cadabola. Fr. Du. headed or cabbage lettuce. dirty. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. cabulus. dung. kabane. as an expression of Gr. ! — . and the Arab. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . su/Furari. disgust. The name of the engine. . is probably unconnected. gatsch. round or great headed. or cadable. gaban. Gaggle. (ca/coe. Fr. bad. a head (whence cabochard. Lang. as it must have stood in French. Cot. cabuccio. Ptg. It. disgust cac. cab. a tunic. —Diet. string. Lith. Cappa in OSp.. the bowels. brassica — capitata. Finn. : — from violence without blood. the Prov. overwhelm. cadabulum. especially shepherd's frock. whence Lang. The double a in the OFr. cabus. capo. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. caables. and Finnish lanLat. disgusting such an engine was exerted. to chatter. name of the projectile engine. aeggi. It. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Fr. cabre. serious injury — In like manner It. Fr. &c. cabo. caable. signifies down. a headed cole or cabbage . Capstan.. 'habl. — Ibid.Lat. hut. It. cables. surripere. giiare. havyar to caviare.Gr. chadabula. OFr. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. cabo. cabbage. for the origin of which see Carabine. to keep or Du. a frail. Very generally used. caable (in legal language). — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Sp. Cabinet. Cablisb. — Kil. wilful). w. OFr. gaggele. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni.. The Sp.Lat. capanna. overwhelm (Diet. Common to Lat.' Due. chaable. a rope. Celtic. to hurl down. Tugurium. ceach / exclamation of guages. manganare. cabacho. Imitative of the cry of hens. kakla. vile. a rope. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. cadabula. Due. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. hoard together. to crush. as Diez supposes). capuccio. E. a rope or cable. cacare. nasty. Castr. dirt and the Fr. manticuKil. caable. Kil. in which sense are explained The the OFr. forms indi. akista. kabas. cable . Sp. geese. case. . to hurl in Nat. to strain in such a manner . a jacket Fr. — . form kactal. to put or pack up in a frail. chabla. Choux cabus. aak! tandi like Fr. calabre. headed. or as an interjection of disMod. . and Ptg. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. precisely in the sense of the lari E. cacare . dirty. maim. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. To Cabbage. a booth or hut. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. — the ON. cabas. cdble. caqueter. a rope. prostratio ad terram.. Neckam — by the wind.

analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Calc-.Gr. a wheel . to sleek hence a den. Cauldron. calamitas. calcis. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. &c. caliche. Tea-caddy. from the ink-bag which it contains. It. to compute. without loss.— Calliper. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. See Kiddier. especially of something soft. boy. Caitiff. cake. cadenza. lindrus. Caddy. a wheel . pith. Fr. the calf of the leg.uv. ' . a car. Turk. chattering. a cake or loaf. kolyaska. Calocli. to prate much to little purpose. kaeckelenj Gr. of the nature of lime to calcine. rattaat (wheels). chetif.— Cot. or colpa na coise. a calesh. gavia. lime whence calcareous. a reed. kukje. to treat like lime. so gabble corresponds with Fr. 124 prattle . caioler. kuchen. from Gr. the younger son of a family said to be from . a calash . As Du. kakulla. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. limestone. a mischievous dial. A cuttle-fish. calba. Calp is riadh. capCalenture. disease of sailors from tivus). It is another form of the E.warmth . of oxen and similar animals. Sw. a small stone. ben- kalf. KxiKivh^o^. It. Roman reckoning. calamus. Calamary. Calash. colibro. It. babbhng. Sp. Gael. Lat. Calendar. cattivo (from Lat. calendrer. Cajol. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. cage. Fr. From lerie. . from the Chinese catty. cageoler. a common cart. Du. koeck. when they are said to poor. kola. — in a kiln. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Lat. kalem. the pith or soft part of wood. cadaver. —Atkinson. gaggia. form) calderone. The Calf. Sp. Du. from calendcE. cykevie. Sw. a vessel for heating water. kolo. captive. Lat. calentura. Dan. Arab. a circle. a wretch. Cadaverous. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. B. caldaria. for green fields. * Calibre. coll. frolicsome kaad mund. kolesnitza. Cake. of which. . a counter used in casting accounts. the lump and the increase. kage. Cadence. a caFr. ON. reed-pen. Due. Fr. calidus.— . kolesb. Cadge*. Gascon capdet. calibre. Sw. cage. joyous . (in the augm. Fr. principal and interest. kauwe. * Cade. calesa. a corpse. To Calender. gaggle. collop. chaudiere. Du. incolumis. cadet. desire of land. dead body. hot. . pen Mod. Lat. Perhaps from w. Fr. calendarium. one unduly indulged by. kdtr. Caldron. Calf of the Leg. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Lat. Fr. Cage. a loaf of bread. Originally from a Slavonic source. or smooth Hnen cloth. Cot. kolo. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cadence. roller. and troublesomely attached to. cadere. A hooded carriage. It. — — — Dan. caldarius. Flo. its mother. a roller. or prattle. A . gabberen is identical with E. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. It. hence musical rhythm. a dence. kdfich. KaKKat. to cackle . calidus. Calandre. calibre. calentar. naXaiidpi. Lat. calx. marrow. kaka. kalb. loss. bad . Lat. dial. The young G. cabdillo. The Lat. In the same way Fin. Lat. gabbia. capitetum. an inkstand . a hollow place. coop. prate. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. to heat. . a falling. from calculus. N. kaad. Lat. javioler. a wheel. cauldron. calessa. Cot. Lat. a wheel . Fr. hot . the bore of a cannon. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. on. kolasa. It. is probably delusive. . misfortune. jabber. a waggon . frisky. lord. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. kalfi. cavea. to throw themselves into the sea. calpa. cuttle-fish. chaudron. Dan. the pi. kolyasochka. Cot. gabbia. G. Calcialate. taking it Sp. to — Fr. cha'cmie cadence. kat. a low note. Fr. signifies a waggon. to cage. Pol. a fever. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Serv. a lump or large piece. Turk. Mrs B. a cylinder. unruly . ever and anon. A — fall. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. master. whence calash. Cadet. loss. gabble. to gabble. Sp. whence Lat. a tea-chest. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. An open travelling chariot. To Cajole. Du. Russ. Calamity. kalfvan hout. G. ratas. pet lamb. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). safe. pi. just falling. an ugly waggon kolaska. En kaka br'od. calculo. wanton. kail. to . Lat. wretched. calf of leg. little chief. kolo.

into the seams of vessels to make Lat. ululo Turk. Kil. CALICO Calliper-compasses. which is as much as to say. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Kil.meaning of the word. hallottaa. The origin is Gr. whehce it was first brought. glotton. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. quA librd. kind heat of the sun. kael. to call. or mould. calme. * Callet. to cram. kal. gossiping. Due. vulgo Coluvrine. scold. colubrina. can be distinct from ODu. however. calleting. sence of wind. cahna. kalla. Derived by some from Arab. The word was also written cawme in OE. faint. faint. whence couleuv. Diez. calvus. the scalp or skull. tapulta. abto suppose that E. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. of a column. The reference to heat is preserved in. chatter kallen. hot. Gr. to rail or scold . Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. Fin. serpens. voice.' Winter's Tale. Diet. and E. Sp. alta voce ploro. calgua. piece of bigger circuite. culverin. To century was Squalibre. a soldier who the It. calare. fistula. to call. KaXka. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. caillette. klover.' But it is hard Du. water-tight. Fr. done with heat Alt. Probably from the sound of one hallooing.. to say. ram. Sc. Calm. E. by many that the weapon Callous.' Whitby Gl. longior. calk. calma. drive. from Calicut in the E. whereas in troth it is not. moso. Lat. CALM to press or stuff. heat. kahcwe. coluber. calo. Bi. Call. a successor. Mil. Calico. dragonder. sestus. calat of leude demeaning. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . or languishing drought is . a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. people's remarks. scalmato. licht stuk The change from a. coulevrine. B. khalif. the Fr. The primitive colubrina bombarda. kal. To call. calc. Dief. given. Fr. skin hardened by labour. nautique). donderbuchs Sp.piicede Lat. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. the hard surface of the ground. Mid. oldire from audire. — — — — — . The adder or poisonous serpent converse. kol. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. calca. Turk. trull. kallo. to callet. * Caliver. . colubraria canna. caliver. ' rine.from Ka'tm. calibre.Lat. to calk. to hear. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. To drive tow or oakham. u to an I in such a colubrum. having a thick skin. Fr. to abuse . serpentina. 125 Prov. the day. bombarda Cauma incendium. a last. calclover. a drab. saucy. dragoon. dial. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. brawny. Unfledged. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. a good calling. sclopus. try. Lat. hollaing. callum. caluw. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. calor. Mahn derives it from Lat. Lang. to burn. which has its memory preserved in Du. Callow. to tread. the heat of Now these Du. calcare. to proclaim. prattle. Gael. harden by pressure. the Fr. word of mouth . Antiq. Caliph. Sir John Smith in Grose. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. form in the kalib.' Chaucer. Fin. coluber also.— . the latter of chamber. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. It. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. calibre. couleuvre. Sp. calcaich. form. a round of abuse. So It. To Calk. sound. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. harquebus or handgun. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). overheated. Hard. to prattle. kil-u-kal. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. but is only a jda-kallo. or caliever. koluvre. and sometimes a handgun. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). cotton cloth. to affirm. — — — — — . NE.' Slange. Fr. and dragon. . tittle-tattle. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. overscalmaccio. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. quality. Indies. a. chatter. bald. moist. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. to be of a good or bad quality. them &c. Ibid. of the bore of a firearm met. Among these were the turn. qAlab. Sup. — Fl.position is much less common than the geschut. callus. an adder. calma. diameter of a ball. and heat. quiet. cauque. calicot. Du. cauma. femme frivole et babillarde. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. push violently. depreciatory term for a woman. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Ptg. Heb. Kavfia. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. Ca. i. on. ' pert. a feathers. heat. AS. According to Jal (Gl.(jaa= ice).en~ kinds of firearms.

126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. Candid. Mod. Arab. A — the Cannibals. cambren. Cambrav—Cam.' Forme of Cury in Way. Lat. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. — Cancel. crooked. arch. Camlet. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. would plenier. sugar. Mid. calutmiia. camelot. or Caribs. also an eatmg sore. cancer. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Sp. cambrer. campus. Cambric. crooked. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. lame. KafivTu. champagne. . cAouma. Kakoycpos. the heat. a. a crab._ kamm. whence the Fr. Canker. Cancer. In a different application It. Cot. properly good country. water chamlet . catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. canis. ation. catmneo. having an aquiline nose. a large drinking . camiscieia. unwater chamelot . — Lat. Ptg. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. camiscia. E. . It. the bed of a stream. to bend. the calix. a may have acquired that signification from plain. mg Canister. to glow. camisa. different sections of the like the Chinese. Fr. See Canker. higher in the middle than Fr. hooked. candela. Sanson khanda. From fluting or furrow in a column . to bow. spot for cattle. canistrum. campagna. se cameloter. Lat. It was distinfrom work. Cameo. crooked. cam^e. Lat. camaien. co7nbar. Fr. Gr. It. camafeo. callar. sore. arched. a. campo. campo. slander. toile some of whom. cup. Calumny. Peter Martyr. callour. whence Fr. a dog. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals.. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. at the ends. E. a basket. Camp. to avoid enemy in their shirts. died in 1526.Gr. samon. It. Cambrel. Gr. Turk. Calyx. candidus. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Campaign. Lat. Or the word Lat. Canal Channel. is Cambering. campaign. chandelle. camber-nosed. the salmondis faillis thair loup.Lat. Caloyer. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. fresh. Calver of cane. frank and sincandidatus. had no r in de bric— Cot. Cambray. good. to bend. paign. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. to the force of the wind. Cann. cambr^. field . cancello. ko/utuXoc. cambre. Lat. India Islands. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. fair. aspirant. from candere. KafitjUe. cainahelus. Lat. w. campagne. salmon. campagna. Fr. camahutus.who their language. crooked-stick. It. a goblet bud.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. chaitcre. chamold man. and yspiuv. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon.— Hackluyt in R. the space of false imputation. lie level. Sp. from xaXbg. nia. brought from Fr. Candy. Fr. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. clothed in white. on. — B. a' Sc. camp. Pers. white. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. a caught. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Fr. cup. B. when its substance appears inter. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. monk. canna. an eating. From campus was formed Lat. E. canalis. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. across — Bellenden in Jam. Sp. — — — A — — escume de saumon. cere : Lat. Fr. lattice. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. chommer. icaSoytipoe. bis. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Bret.conduit-pipe. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. It. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field.—Candidate.— Chandelier. B. Canibal. calj'x. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Lat. ckaouma. Camisade.— B. Fr. to jut. kanna.—Cambrel. a piece. arched. campren. a field Greek monk. An eater of human flesh. camisade. The Grisons cauina. camelus. or hollow of a flower. Camel. the type of a hollow pipe.' ' Quhen a lattice. Fr. Properly calver in the field during a war. aged.—Jam. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. open and level ground. is Candle. the spersed with white flakes like curd. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. champ. whence the noun signifying an applicant. It. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Canine. to warp. to break. Palsgr. crook.

Fr. a wine-cellar or vault. astrology.Gr. Wtb. coarse hemp. canoa. he discourseth of dissection. . and the sex- &c. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Cannoii. and tref. from a Canter. able to receive. chantel. shut. Goldast — in in Schmid. trine. But it may be different source. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. say. See Capt-. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. is found languages of very different stocks. cainnt. regular. kq. &c. The — . signifying cover. cannevo. chape. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. a division of a country. a cloak. Sp. the heel.^on. root cap. If the word had been from cantherius. from Dan. a ship canot. canonicus. a horn of the moon . from . To his judicial And trowl the tile. Germanis kdppen. which is not the case. tain. a hundred. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. was formed Kavtiiv. canto. edge. the part easiest broken off. a rule or standard of excellence. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a boat. cane. a cover Turk. a cane. It. capa. The word seems to be taken from Gael.. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. ON. Hence Lat. a cantle of bread. canon. cane. a small boat. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. canteau. part. a reed. Of vena cava and of vena porta. or hold. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a drinking glass. border Dan. a Fr. language. canonici.— Cot. hood. cover kapi. A . cappe. kwvwxIi. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. It. Canoe. A slow gallop. a — A — Cannel Coal. Mod. contain. Kavt\. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. cannu. carcase . Alamannis. To canvas — . . coat. and met. a torch. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. from canna. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Canvas. KCLvva. border. Canon. cannabis. a gelding. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a hunch of bread. hemp.CANNEL vessel. canapa. cope. a reed. From Lat.n. clqse. Lat. haitt. capax. Cantle. Swab. cannone. A piece of anything. Capable. being a yard or thereabouts . properly a large Prov. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Probably only the augmentative of canto. OFr. name. gnat. Cape. It. rumme. quarter . capevole. cheese. Prov. kanta. Canopy. a corner. B. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. as. Du. capace. chanteau. N. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a cloak kapali. region. a side. a cap.Gr. as a cantle of bread. and hence a gobbet. cantone. like a torch or candle. Fr. speech. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. kyndel. cane. Sp. to con- rummer. the tried list of saints. side. Fr. It. W. Kil. cantina. kynnel. margo panis diffracta. Cot. It. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. cappa. canton. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. cantred. It. schlapp. corner. cape. canevas. hamlet. cover . See Chape. a pipe. pipe. kand. cappe. It. kandt-broodts. the heel. Capari. Capacious. to contain. cane. kaput. kantr. schlappen. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. Mod. call. quito curtain. . Cope. cantref. canvas. the quartile. Again we have Lat. Gugel. lump. has kahn. Sp. Schwab. To Canonise. territorial hundred. from cant. Gael. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Jonson. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. . From Gr. a straight rod. Fin. covered. Cant. capello Italis. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. also a measure. a scull- — here. Esthon. hirnschlapple. can. cannevaccia. a door . quarter. kapamak. Canton. to shut. caparazon. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. it would have been found in the continental languages. a tube. leiwan kanta. to put upon sacred writers. &c. hemp. a ruler. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Picard. Palsgr. Canteen. or cantell of bread. Diez. to sing. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. that the G. Coal burning with bright flame. canapaccia. KaTTiram. measure for cloth.

gricciare. a yearning through sudden fear. Caprice. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . Unexpected pleasure. and with an initial gr instead of br. capriol or caper in dancing. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. capar. and OHG. aggricciare. G^' Many words — ' ndv. brug. Lat. It. the initial mute of forms like Gr. Capillary. capriole. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. a young kid met. h^risser. the head. frisser {frissement d'un trait. arricciarsi. of a coach. to fry. castrated.— Fl. as Fr. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . airoKOTrrw. as Fr. ericius. Hair-like. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. belonging to From caput. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. eruca compared with It. the hair to stand on end. Lat. bristling. brisciare. crackling sound Cape. humorous. ribrezzo. a caterpillar. Capital. herissonnement. cApre. curl. Caper. capriola. to shiver. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. to broil. The true derivation lies in a different direction. toy. shivering. explained by Diez from capra. greziller.' Cot. alcaparra. Torriano. riccio. Sp. where Burton adds in a note. they longed extremely to see it. brisciare. cut. or goat's leap (done by a horse). And similarly to yearn. It. then to shiver or shudder. capro. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. to twitter as birds. ziki.) grezille marid. kid. algabr. brisciare. Mod. Fr. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. the principal part of the debt. bruco. grisser. a chevret. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. horripilation. rihrczzoso. a . Lat. a ch illness. or represented by the syllable e. a head. greziller. — — A a hair. frisson- ner . ticchio. a capriol. prickly husk of chestnut. A . a goat. the head. to crackle. caj)o. curly. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. frizzle. to shudder. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. brissle. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. The same imitation of Capon. upon terms Sp. caprice It. erica. or Lat. It. Fr. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. as Fr. compared with Bret. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. of a tremtdoiis sound.Gr. Arab. Hal. a buck. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. cut off. wriggle. curling. grillcr. or. according to the Hindoos. So from Sw. horror. hi. sault. arricciarsi. CAPRICE twittering. as in Lat. cappriccio. p. brezilia. roughening of the skin. a little head. 75. <I>pi'?oe. to shiver for cold. grisser. for which he cites the Comask nucia. — to yearne. to ruffle the surface of water. gives rise to brezza. Lang. II bresole (Gl. brisoler. frissoner. chief. See Chief. to . a caper in dancing. the singing'bone). Capers. hedge-hog. . to desire earnestly. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. hair. shrub. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing.standing on end. It is probable that Gr. to parch. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. rissoler. shivering.— 128 CAPE a rustling. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. caprice. to broil. Genevese bresoler. and his body bristled We to castrate. bristling. then find the symptoms of shivering. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. ^piKos. It. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. Hence capitalis the sum lent. It. to from capitulum. It. a separate division of a matter.). birsle.impressions on the ear. gives rise to Sc. grug. Lat. to crackle. Cot. or other things. gricciare. with joy' Vikram. fansuddenly angry. and 7tucc. capitalis. s'hdrisser.' — (Supp. I have shivered with love. Acad. frort^Lat. a kid. is either wholly lost. then to be in a state of vibration. castrated cock. Fr. cover of a saddle. abridge amKoTroq. principal. also the capriole. Fl. A headland. end. the hair to stand on end. capparis. of a fowl. chattering of the teeth. It. capitulare. Griller d'im' patience. heath. w.'— Trev. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner .) d'etre The It. To treat Capitulate. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. It. a hedge-hog. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. capillus. caper j caprio. as the means of earning profit. knis. Fr. knis-hujwud .

capitano.). karista. hold. as in accipio. Cot. Carabin. Crab. Sp. a cart. Fin. intercept. acceptus. fancy. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. to please.. concipere. cabestan. Lat. shivering fit (Altieri). bock. karren. Cart. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. whence capture. cabrestante (whence e. crab s.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). carro. capra. was converted into -ceb. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. captivate. a coffer. contain. krul. Capriole. Fr. conceive. Carry. was a kind of horse soldier. concebir. the -cevofthe Fr. a creaking waggon. a sawing-block or trestles. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. charger. kerren. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . one odd. carabin. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. of capsa. caput. decepte. It. a taking back. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a hood (dim. commander. from head. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Fr. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a. crepo. to creak. and of captus to an e. capio. It. calabrin. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. Lat. box. &c. also to carry on a car . carretta. and has thus descended unaltered to English. an engine for throwing stones. concept. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. to take to. Capuchin. dim. karra. In the S. strideo. receptus. concevoir. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. a reception. conceit. cabreia. Fl. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. as in OFr. fantastic. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. Fr. 129 — receive. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. a head man. Fr. to this is It.or -cib-. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. recipere. In cases. to load . &c. chevre. cams. precept. i The meaning Car. G. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. at least. Fr. recipio. It. charret. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. however. It is a standing crab. and has accordingly been lost in E. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. deceit. a she-goat. charrier.). de- price. Du. to carry ..of these compound verbs. Capstern. was originally a missile . Thus the musket. caprice. Castr. Fr. Etym. seize. deception. or the (capo-riccio). and tropically. caricare. a cloke) capuccino. a fantastical humour. Fr. Captain. of the Sp. except. -cept. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Nordfoss. Sp. -cept. It. to take baclc. OSp. Carbine. -ceive. calabrino. case. a hooded friar. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. a capuchin. trestle. Lat. It. &c. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. accept. Neumann. a. chirriar. char. capp%tccio. Kiittner. capuccio. chirrion. to creak. recibir. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. karrende waegen. perceive. to accept. captive. to receive receptio. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. conception. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. as the dragoons (Du. The It. recepte. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. a sudden fear apprehended. capitis. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. caThe hrestante. recevoir. capsula. See Caper.s. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. to take. Capt-. It. . latterly. a sudden will. Lat. Carabine. oisr. Capsule. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. It. — —Diet. Cot. tnoschetta. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. desire. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Du. cabra. sels. cabestrantej Fr. also a kind of rack. Passing on into E. also tresFl. di cappa. Derivatives are Fr. captus. a kind of torture. — — Capstan. verbs gives rise to the element . a windlass. Caseneuve in Diet.

W. Exot. Carboy. Lat. case. a quiver . a kind of ship. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Sp. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. wine- bottle.. Carcax. carbunculus (dim.. ON. an engine for hurling stones. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a quiver. . carbh. a crane. a quiver . Lith. Arab. a quiver. Ptg.. burning coal. a card or comb . fire .Gr. Sp. to comb. restraint . a thistle. to turn. carquasse. in the same way that the Sp. cabreia. cardo. a snail. caravela. poison eiz.z. designated in the case of G. . There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Lat. carcanet. Cot. boch. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. KtpaTwv. mural attack. &c. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . also (as Gr. also a small weight. an ulcer. to draw in. eit. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. ' Vasa vitrea.' From the same source are SicU. Cat. An implement for dressing wool. carmiiiarc. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. eitar.. wool card. Fr. to card wool. carta. It. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Parmesan cassiron. confining. «capa'|8i. OHG. a thistle. garafa. silique. a prison.applied to a battering-ram (G. shell. of the same Caravan. the carcase of a fowl. a wool card. and so could not have given its name to the carboy.Gr. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. It. See Carpenter. quilato. Derived in the first edition from Mod. Fr. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. &c. to hiss (as gee^e). Carbuncle. Gael. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. to creak. Caravel.— — — . turning. the case of the flesh. is the chine. military engines made for hurling stones. carch. carcame. Pers. &c. carabe. to comb wool . an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Sp. Gr. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Gael. chevre by the name of the goat. card. skeleton. a small weight. a coffer. Carcase. . copperas. karra. winding carach. carabba. Sp. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. for a gun. to card wool. Bohem. to curry horses karsztuwas. a skeleton. Fr. alia sunt majora. espi7igarda. Card. the name might naturally Mod. From the battering-ram. krciti. to ripple flax. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. p. Sp. a ripple for flax. is the word used in modern Lat. skeleton. casso. Carat. cassa. carcanada. carcaij. cerran. a case or chest . winding. car. Carbonaceous. a lock of wool . contract. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . a firelock. matter.. the trunk or chest of the body . caracal. coming to four grains. caraffa. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). turn of a horse. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. the . ancient springald. a gem resembling a live coal. a battering-ram). whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. The radical meaning . a he-goat. carcasa. cramp. a collar or chain for the neck. Venet. cabrita. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a twist. kirat. skeleton toise. a ship. and catapulta. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Gr. It. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Comp. quse vocant karabd. Mod. Caraool. avSpaS. carere. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. bend. kard boyd. The Trjg xeXwwac. the core of fruit . carbo. a dead carcase. kerwan. cdrlag. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Fr. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. a goat. karszti. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the husk or cod of beans. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first .charcoal . properly a siege machine. caraffe. AS. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. curry-comb. a winding staircase. Cot. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. cabra. carquan. black dye. . constraining . — seems to be something holding together. It. the carob bean. tcapKaai. seed of carob. carate. It. the dead body of any creature. I. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. carduus. of carbo). or framework. Gael. a machine for casting large darts. the shell of a torcarcasso. carquois. Carrob. . Gael. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. word is only an adoption of the Turk. vitriol. bock and Fr. decanter. karri.

kurista. croller. ON. is This however Shrove tide. charg. the hull of a ship. kumra. appertaining to the flesh. Trin. road. the keel. ignarus. cardinis. Fr. is to say. tremble. carriera. cdrle. It. beans. Charnel. Cargo. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. karg. in Carp. to growl. scharren. and thin. to eat flesh. charnage. voce strepo stridente. careless take care of. chartre. dear. Cark. E. affection. to parch. what is felt as grievous. Sept. sensual. kroU-erbser. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. place for exercise on horseback. clown or churl. It. AS. Dan. cearig. the flesh of animals . murahtaa. carena. Sp. . hoed.. Fr. surrata. rixosus. charie. No ' place there had. Fl. from the keel to the water . cearian.. carener. Carnage. Bois crolant d'un ladre. winding. intrasset caro. as carminare. caritia. Properly. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. stingy. sgritudo animi. Fr. ress. Ptg. x'»P'"^s)) paper.' Slceat. to rumble. Carnal. ceorl. karry. Champ. crowl. to distress growl. the load of a ship. zanken . tuorfurcm (Burguy). Fr. Fr. and sum. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. and G. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. to load. . carcare. 2. Fr. 8. Sp. . carcus. quadrifurcum from quameet. niggardly . be anxious. gakaran. like connection may be seen between Fin. . whence carricare. G. & Q. cargar. cura may be ror. It. murren. from carus. Fr. kribina. fundamental. to comb flax or hemp.— CARD karr-kambar. a hinge. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. quaver a lazar's clack. stridere. to lie on its side. to love. that on wliich the matter hinges. meet at a head. karista. &c. regar. It. crawl. to scrape . Probably the origin of the word is the . combing them out like the knots in wool. carnasciale. — — . carrefourg. A mod-carag. cardo. AS. to fry. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. G. caru. bottom. Bret. charta (Gr. carnavale. Gael. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. de Parthenay. act of moaning. or grumbling —Due. to whirr (schnurren).— Charter. kargr. Lat. Cot. love. fleshy . crosier. Carlings. camovale. . charneux. solicitous. msstus. caMid. A place where four roads Mid. — To Careen. — Carfax. morosus sum. Card. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. sorrow. cargo. a highway. giierlir. caricatura. to card wool. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. ON. caresse. Fin. From. in N. at murmuring. Properly a car-road. For the root of carminare. tenax. the several meanings of the words above Rom. asper. an endearment. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. sorrow. 1S66. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. to fry or broil. quarreG. 273. to care unkarja. to load. . Carl. carena. carriire. carminare. Lat. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Chart. — — — Caress.Lat. It. care. astutus. kara. car. A medical term from line —Boerio. male person. the keel of a vessel. Venet. carina. carezza. OHG. mutter. as peas. a man. AS. OFr. also a career on horseback. karantez. from caricare. wool cards. piger. a card. karrig. Roquef. carnal. Care. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. see Garble. moeThe Lat. It. Cartel. an overloaded representation of anything. Groler. Cot. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. cura intenta. and murhet. to clean the bottom of the ship. to scratch. charnel. A quirito ut infans. a deed. grief. — — Diez. Carenare. Carled peas. charger. Caricature. kummer. karl. to shake. weyes. Farewell flesh. one of those ac- 9 * . carnis. from Lat. the old theory of humours. as quadrivium from Carnaval. W. that Fl. grolU. four. strideo. soUicitus OSax. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. principal. the time during which to Rom. morosus. karout. parched or carled. W. Translated in MS. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. to load. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Peas steeped and fried. w. Mur. carFrom carrus. Cath. graller. murista. essere in carena. . Bret. . charag. a turn. Carminative.Lat. It. from carrus. p. caricare. record. Cot. care on. carnalis. Fin. Fr. in St Jerome. and compare Bret. carch. W. Coll. compared with Fin. carian. — — — : Cardinal. to comb wool. immediately before the long fast of Lent. to take Goth. or street.

' says Motley (United Neth. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. ! Carouse. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. to dance. i. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Palsgr. Mid. on that. Ant. carpo. Cot. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. From Lat. . garrire. Gael. pluck. carpita. carpentum. to pull asunder. In Dominica d'autant. Mediol. as carnaval from carnelevamen. cardos. to dance. To pledge them thou refuse. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Pref. to rustle. Alluz (G. 2. Teut. 1 1 30. On this. Nomin. quoted by Carpentier. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool.— Patriarchi. Ein we find the signification transferred from . But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. krapanj. Carpet. and F. Chanson de carole.Lat. Gower in Way. as Fr. 2. The tippling sots.' Ordo Eccles. tymmer. or loose as a couch without further preparation. culcitra. was formed Mid.]e bois Carnelevale. maker of waggons It. Carpitam habeat in lecto. 94). linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. carpenter only in the latter sense. Carole. i. charpie. Carpyn or talkyn. to find fault with. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. carpenticre. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. used for stuffing mattresses. to pluck. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. bier. The custom. differing To Carp. qui sacco. worker in timber Fr. chariot carbad. The ' ' a chariot.Why give's some wine then. is erroneous. Beggars Bush. chatter skra/a. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. balade from It.— Drant in R. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. as E. to gather. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. a dance. Lat. Lat. krapati. a wheelwright. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Biheld within. pluck at. gar aus / all out is correct. 760. charpentier. carnelascid). The karole of the stones behelde. tattle. A. litter. zimmerspan. In a MS. vel coopertorio carebit. peta. course. all aus). Bret. koroll. to chatter coroli. in Due. in Nat. Dief.' Raleigh.— Neum.Lat. Carpenter. cxciv. at midnight which derivation from kroes. So gone they forthe. a plank. chatter. I quaught. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. W. carbh. carpat (Stokes). QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. lint. gonna. Carnelevale. Fr. biheld without. — . e. . And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. querole. in Carp. Olr. zimmer. All out B.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Fr. a wheelwright. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. carpende fast Carol.gonnella. carpenta.: . act of drinking a full Eq. ship. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. garrulo. Templariorum — ' — Due. carpetam (a quilt?). description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. to talk. chirp. fabulor.— R. . each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. whence the form carnasciale. cited by Marsh. ON. Sup.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. and Carnem laxare (It. to reel. as the Lat. Lat. Properly a round dance. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. carpia. Shrove Tuesday. a song accompanying a dance then. Bohem.'— Stat. linteamen. or a carouse fully drunk up. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. carduz. carpetrix. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Carnevale. carpere. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Pm. a carder. Sp. Pr. ' ' — . disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Discov. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite.Lat. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. sense. a car carpentarius. Analogous R. skraf. Here's to you still my captains friend. On the other hand bumper to one's health.' Reg. I drink all out.D. yede tham about. a drinking cup. The word seems of Celtic origin. of Guiana. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. 216. Other names of the sea. ballare. Mid.

' — Hdcart. corresponding to the G. To Cashier. Cart. Du. kerben. It. cascar. a chest. Fr. kerpu. casacca. ceorfan. from Lat. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. caisse. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. The Sp. cassere. discharge It. a chance or accident. a car. Preparatory drawing of a It. carretta. charrier. casualis. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. a loopscale the wall. To Carry. It. a long coat. mord-keller. something that actually occurs. Gael. cascata. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. kerven. cia. empty. caroche. Fr. Fr. abrogate. It. discharge. a hut. casser. cancel. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Rouchi carone. Cot. Case. Fr. As defence from shells became more important. to convey in a cart. to hold. Fl. Lith. cartone. gristle. break to pieces. It. bag and baggage of a camp. gristle. Fl. Fr. cassa. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. OE. CartOTicli. card. hung up in some place and to be removed. carriaggio. Fr. casaque. not reaching to the height of the ditch. It. to slay. Case. carota. an act of falling. caisse. Carrion. cartoccio. a canonry or slaughterhouse. caro. from casa. Probably. See Gristle. Fr. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. augm. kirpti. Ready money. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. carretto. Casuist.' Cot. charogne. to an- — Kil. Flor. cascade. like all the names of tendon. a merchant's cash or counter.— Fl. Casket. void cassare. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. cassette. Lat. ' Casa-matta. mord-grube. Cartoon. casso. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. AS. crown of a hat. casuelj Fr. cartilage. carogna. made void.to annul. annul. to cut or carve . shell or carcase of a house. fortuitous. carrosse. cancelled. Cash. Carriage. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . quash.' Bailey. charrette. Rouchi caroche. to — — also casse. tion from Sp. — Cartridge. — Cartoose. G. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. — — nul the proceeding. a coffer or small case for jewels. from It. case. luggage. blotted out. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. caisse. Cassock. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Du. an augmentative from Lat. casa. paper. capsa (Diez). the charge of — — Fr. It. cassa. of carta. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. casag. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. helmet. Cot. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. as we . long man's gown with a close body. to fire on the enemy. Cartel. — — . It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. kasseren. and that apparently from capio. Lat. properly to convey in a car. turn out of service. Case-mate. Walach. to dash.. caxa. Cascade. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Fr. afterwards any written challenge. — FI. cascare. krat. to fall. It. Casque. for the security of the defenders. Carrot. cartella. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Fr. See Card. augmentatives of carro. bitten. AS. It. from the sound it makes when Alban. To quash an indictment. the money chest. mata. vault hole in a fortified wall. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Casual. cassus. The carrying of anything. Lat. See Case. Fr. and matar. carroc- carrozza . subject for a picture. fall It. Lat. Hence casket. one who reasons on cases put. case-maiej Sp. also the carriage. to notch. pasteboard. coffin of paper for groceries. house. Fr. quasser. Hence a challenge openly hung up. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. casitiste. It. to shear. to crack. To duash.' Fl. coffer. ignominiously exposed. crush. casus. packing ' cloth. hollow. hull of a ship. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. carroccio. casa-maita. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Fr. a fall. carreaggio. caroach. Rouchi carpHe. to bear or carry. cut with scissors. where Fr. from It. to break. Sp. Rouchi carter. a paper case. casco signifies a skull. cartouche. slaughter-house. a car. cashiered. dim. of carro. Cask. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. and the OE. Sp. To Carve. a of water.

the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. probably from an imita. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. Hal. a vault.Rouchi Scaches. — We a cavity. It. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . castellum. Sp. bot-kotis. to hurl See Awgrim. same word with break. Hence castaneta. casupola. _G. catch. accastiare. arpi^m. 134 CAST Catacomb. a thump. Roukind. It. kasi. Castle. a cat koshki. being Fin. chasser. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. cast. dashing it to pieces. like that of It. follow after. kasta. kaJoivad. castana. In the dialect of Picardy. represented by the syllable quash. was introduced. Catalogue. Fr. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Cot. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. n.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. It. OFr. Lat. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Gael. squash. to end. KaraXoyog. Catastrophe. while kiss / Pol. down. cat-o'-nine.— Fl. kotas. in the fire. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification.. the stalk of plants. or bruise together. handle of an axe. kic' kicil are used chasser. V Lith. Fr. from the first of Castrate. KaTappaKTrjQ. or Rouchi cat. . force j Rouchi equerviche. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. So also from It. under chi caleur. Etym. ON. shaft of a 1 push. and from the castus. signifying breed. to bring to an crack given by the joints. cash. and KviilSog. KaTaarpifm. a cat . which has been retained in E. and tomba. an enumerlist. is not satisfactory. puras E. Castanets. cassa / cry for the same purpose. fall. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. cacciarc. kottr. Cat. ichasses. The E. perhaps from which we have E. a chesnut . cacciuolo. which. chasuble. on. chaleur. race. chasser. burst cascare. Lang. to clack. . to torture. dashing it out of the window. Pm. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. cojz^/a. of castrum (castra). to fall as over a precipice. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . the ground . puss / for calling them. Brunne. ecrevisse. to crack. 120. castanetazo. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. katze. dim.the / or c respectively. cat.out cacciare . away. koshka. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. heat . however. Gr. sue. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. casule. to lash. KarapaKrr]g. crush . speak of dashing a thing down. rack. Fr.. second chase. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. cascar. to is Essentially the Sp. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. punch. dash. drive away. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. lance.'— Pr. casser. the earlier sense of catch. Lat. the castanets for or implement . This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. down. mino. stilts. to cast or beat to tioner . . kotas. casulla. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Mid. ating. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Yz. a garment for performing the mass in. Isidore — in Diez. Fr. a fortified place. kakka. chat. Chase. a Cataract. Others explain it from Kara. coming to us through different dialects of French. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. to scourge. torture. name. castello. 'Vaaaw. of sarabands does Gr. fer toTa. to dash. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Fr. Cast. Sp. casipola. first made ordinary Fr. to drive away. . To Catch. Fr. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. catar. . Fr. to close. to look at. B. from water Karappaaaiii. Pic. kissa. a little house or hut. squash.to drive out. The Diet. V. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead.Lat. Thus we have Caste. To It. to make clean or chaste. Fr. to crackle. or comba. Gr. to turn overturn. image accasciare. ' Catchyn away abigo. to hunt. to break. a whip on the other into latch. &c. klakka. Pol. tails. castro. kat. Fr. cacciare fuora. by the loss of with several pitched cords. execu. R. to Fl.

the the same principle he was Fr. apprehend a person. kletse. Chate peleuse. dainty vic- a form lash. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Guernsey chafer. chenille {canicula. Diez. an officer of taxes. snatching it with a any one. to snatch (said of dogs). a caterpillar Milanese can. gingle. a cornIn the s. klatschen. klinke. In the XV'e. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. wild-beast. Cot. Sc. gliong. ictus resonans.' CATCH Fr. caucht. 'Horxa. the elements of a science. smack. a whip Rouchi cachoire. Fr. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Sp. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . is said that he got a claucht of it. klatsch. resono ictu lash. flap klatsche. Caterer. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. c or ^. chasse. clap. Gael. catc?u.) . a — gatta. the OE. and answer. — tinman. Grandg. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. 'Bxn. to chat. E. a carter's Pat.' ^Jam. whip. Rouchi clincailleux. quincailler. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. P. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. clap with the hand. a pill. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. .V. to snap.from Bard and ayopsw. Fr. OFr. a whip. 135 — Aasen. Cot. — Catcli-poll. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . verberare kUts. to kythe D. catch. . Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. sound. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. On Catechism. to catch strength. a whip. insect. dainties. Du.. predicament. bichano (pussy). or any kind of relishing food tuals. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. a little dog).yopl(. chacepol. — . silkworm. i. kaetse. Gr. a whip or Kuttner. kletsen. to chatter with the teeth cake. a. chatter. Gael. e. ' Fr. gattola. ketsoore. Ptg. cat is not apparent. Kartiyopta (/cari. cache. klatsche and Norm. has both or of charming by sound. . Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. the distance to which the ball is struck. woodlice. chase. happe-chair. GaUa catchiza. klatscherei. caker. door when it is shut. with and without an / after the c. — B. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . to A bailiff. called in Fr. called dog or Galla catchamza. E. chachara. — explained. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. as of the latch of a As ! — . KaTtix'so. bicho. weevils. head. Swiss Lombard G. seize. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. clatter. to take. from Gr. compare G. e. * Cates. icarrix'Ki^. chassoire.P. ArbaUte de courte chasse. glcu. to teach by oral instruction. devouring mite or weevil. Kil. Du. which all . ecachoire. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. snatched. — with a whip. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. Wal. a. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. cagnon (a dog). an accusing. Claucht. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. * Caterpillar. pedes. to clap hands. s. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. companaige. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. millecaterpillars. de Bray. a smack. G. latch of. blow. a clap. in order). . Fr. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Du. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. . from shutting with a click. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. worm.s. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. resound. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. catch. to crack GATES cache. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Tutschek. Metivier. catch-flesh. E. Cates. Guernsey pilleure. instruction in forms. fragor kletsoore. latch. to harangue. — Kiittner.j. snatching. children's name for cat . such a sound or the stroke which produces it. to the crack. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. Kil. chink.V. formerly called cliket. claquer. chatter . ' ' word catch.

Lat. a horse . mutz.. calceata.Lat. It. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. — — cavallo. apt to burn iron. capull. to purge. shaled or picked Fr. otherwise written kell. hollow. ce^l. also to pave . little cat. Cave. from chaud. Lat. a seat. Cattle. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. . kautsije. cabbage-stalk. a horseman. Fr. katte. Fr. Gr. Lat. Cathartic. &c. Cavalcade. to shoe . to burn. Cathedral. Caballus. from caveo (p. puss. Catkin. the stones of a street. a kettle for heating water. to sound like a blow . in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Kil. having the property of cleansing. Pol. little cap is . accapitare Rouchi acater. cabbage. flock. quire. Du. cat maczoka. — . calidus. hazel. kdtzchen. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. OE. puss.willow. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. to shoe. Lat. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. caple. Fin. Du. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. .' B. cheval. is Prologue.p. rete A — Prov. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. kopista. achepter. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Lat. Fr. caudex . Caution. challe was ther of a temple. from delf^gato. any Fl. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. cautis. the. Pr. Cauldron. catons. puss. It. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Gr. kocie. Fr. Thus Bav. Chaud. primitive is meaning a shale or off. what . kitten kotki. lamb. cauHs. the caul of the liver.Y\\Xea. caballus. CATHARTIC sense. kassije. calceta. w. fur. . G. chaudiire. walnut with the husk on challer. chevalier. cale. That he was ay before in his estate. Caustic. a pavement. and hence a skull-cap. ' Gr.^Hal. a mare. fur in general. deyntie meates. chauderon. a kind of skull-cap. Fr. calqada. CAVE Caul. via strata. to buy. a The peel. chatideau. Manciple's Tale.^ acheter (Lat. Diez). kobyla. cale. hot. KaPaWrii. from KaSaipio. a branding from koiio. katteken. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. • — — See Chattel. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. reticella. On the other hand. kocianki. . KaHSpa. Cause. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Russ. calotte. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Cavity. but the acates that are sent him. koparet.—— — 136 correct. Gr. a receptacle for small things. accattare. cabbage). Fr. Gael. catkins . Cavalry. Caudle. kin. causa. chaudroii. cautus). Kavrijp. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. cavaliere. klopfend knallen. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. despencier. green husk of a calon. cavus. Fr. net or caul-work. Palsgr. dumpf tonen. It. Provider. a stalk. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Mid. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. chausser. is used in the sense of cat-skin. kopano. kobuiV. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Richly she feeds. catkin Magy. and spareth for no perell. Delycates. hot. Fr. Cavern. chaussJe. kaussijde. Lat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. KiwariKog. Kavrfipiov. . to ac- — Fr. Cavalier. whence cathedralis. Palsgr. catkin Pol. chair. cal^ar. mudet. Port. Bessie of Bednall. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Mid.. Fr. Dryden in R rete. — Cauterise. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . a road calceata.' Elyot in Way. a horse . to shale or peel.Lat. Fr. a pulpit. . 2. flue. a horse. adcaptare. caldo. Rete. A warm comforting drink. Sx. Boethius. Ka^afriKOQ. B. to beware. . acater. macska. It. a paved road. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. 4. by land. minon. Jaubert. Wyatt in R. choufleur {choii. make clean. The word — . shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. It. Causeway. Jonson in R. catkin mitz. acaptar. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour.

In the same way G. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. cabega. Lat.' — Gawan . lambris. the testern of a bed. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. menuiserie. ceiling. board . ciel de lit. coffer. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. a halter. sill in window-sill. Fr. to cut. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. thil. proceed. column E. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. step away. The importation of Fr. sybire. to canopy siled. wall. del into English without ' translation gave cele. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. 32. To seele a room. to plank or floor with planks. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa.'— Z. kapp-zaum. cease. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. ceiling. Sp. See -cede. augm. . Cavil. Fr. Sherwood. pp. -cede. Lat. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. and then to gape. — komo tain). little house. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. Wore. seele. wuoren komo. The sense of roofing. wainscot thiljar (in pi. Hal. . in Jam. were met. &c. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor.' Rutland papers. CAVESON kopera or kowera. cesso. flooring E. and Gol. . So from Fin. an aquiline nose. bridle. a planking or boarding tkilian. post. &c. IV. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. — .). it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. . Fr. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. VIII. in Hal. . plank. caveqon. cavillor. that. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. also a seeling of boards. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. thili. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. a board. In the N.. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. rafter. the deck of a ship at thilja. a log.). A — A false accommodation produced G. selar. curved. a log.' del. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. Sir 137 pit . . to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. —Decease. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. E. departure from this life. deal. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. a hut. . B. nailes will begin to cling. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. &c. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. Lat. give place. -ceed. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. the inner roof of a room of state. — . &c. kommata. H. and zaum. sus-lambris. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. decessus. dille. p. The It. thel. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. thilja. tester of a bed. a fir-plank. . served in halle Under a siller of sillc. jaa. cyling (W. Lat. Ceiling. dil. in Jam. to panel or wainscot MHG. . — — — toyour soverane. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. is applied to a canopy.' Marriage of James IV.. hollow. dayntily diglit. Cot. sky. hung. heaven. thiling. cedo. thil. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. selure. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. quibble. excess. cavezzone. succeed. of E .' Hall. syle. as if from happen. . dScis. koppeli. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. hollow. a plank. a canopy. Boyd in Jam. empty. with their substantives concession. Cease. but hang around at the sides.' Cot. hivtmel. -cease. and that from Sp. komista. Cede. or of a bed. a severe bridle. And seik — Cessation. Gawaine & Sir Gol. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. to seele or close with boards plancher. of cavezza. p. . a log. recede. to go forth. yield. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. to argue capto tiously. cielo. syl. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. 7. ciel is so unbroken. The line of descent from Fr. sill. Soc. to plank ON. -cess. Fr. crooked kopio. 5. a canopy. thelu. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Cam. heaven. as. 43. lambrisser une chambre seeling. cessum. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Plancher. applied to a canopy. canopied. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. a beam. cabegon. plank. komo. . death.' Ordinances and Reg. It. hollow ice . departure. cellar. door-sill J Sc. a head. beam. . a boarded floor. semely on syll. Hence concede.j have come from this source. the roof of a coach. exceed.

of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. rubble. chaufferette. Cot. or expression of Ennius. K^'ivut. -civer {conciver— Roquef. censura. to chafe. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. deceipt. and met. to seal a pigeon's eye. — A . hollow. ceremonia.— Chafing-dish. Fl. to burn incendo. calefare. Fr. family. and — — — possessions. cerealis. judge. -oept. siller les yeux. single or unwedded life.' Celebritas. Ta^oe. cot. eyelid. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. of heating. -ceit. pick out. his office. estimate. and thence to conceal. syll.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. In Celebrate. -cepire. in accordance with the Fr. to separate. in comp. the talk of men. The term cilium. appertain. to rate. the point round which a circle is drawn. It. age. Fr. sift. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. tax. quarters for slaves. decebre) . Lat. to bury). Cot. conceipt. Gr. a valuation of every man's estate. Fr. Lat. /ctj/rsw. cenio. to course of people. Censor. — . a storehouse Chafe. receipt. blind. keep in It. caber. Centurion. Certain. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. camentum. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Fr.). a tomb. Lat. concetto. Sherwood.cern. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Censer. ciglio. point.of the r. solemn (of per. — . -ceive. sacred show. much frequented. -ciper. Cell. Lat. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. stones to the production of heat. as entering largely into the derivative certo.— Cellar. rough from the quarry. zens according to their property. in comp.. empty. a registration of one's self. cilibat. Assess. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Centre. an eyelash. as in some places burnt. 1. to set on fire. to sleep). Century. -CEIVE a shaft. what to set in a chafe. confounded ist from It. — . celer. To seel or close the eyes. ciller. then to rub without reference Cement. cretum. Assize. crevi. heaven. cillier. to contend. (and thence also) to hoodwink. census. celeber certus. also grave opinion. to blindfold. to incense. census. — . cigliare. &c. concerner. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. we have a modified form of (of a place). KsvTpov. Celerity. to celebrate. ' . in Marsh. Fr. — — Cenotapli. a solemnity. For sess from assess. a numerous con. -cipio. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. distinIt. -cern. or any bird's. tax. concernor.. to take.ing a room where there is not fire.unmarried. -cess. to distinguish. thence belonging to or connected with corn. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. the officer appointed to take such returns . provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. from censeo. encens. the place where the de. &c. a Cemetery. sure. renown be embodied with. S. for building. -i^oivre. Lat. Census Censor. Gr. To chafe is for wine. materials It. see. Lat. Ceremony. To Incense. {cori)cipere. to be regarded as one celebro. Fr. -cense. OFr. Prov. capio. to concern. a prick. a hundred centuria. -cepere. to take. goad. Fr. oil. to think. from Saa-rw. cella. observe. Censure. oil. Lat. guish. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. being taken from Fr. . incense. value. Cereal. abundance. cencer.j 138 thill. Celebrity. irot\oe. a religious observance. Fr. and thence censer. See Cede. — . . contend. dchauffer. to -sum. Lat. and so of that other. Gr. swift. Accelerate. with transposition hence (of a day). is totally distinct from the foregoing. eschattffer. decide. -cevoir. to twinkle darkness. judge Lat. parted sleep. with the eyes. capturn. Lat. to attend on object with. Sc. — . Lat. It.). judge. Take the nedyll and threde. assess. festive. See Celibacy. deceit. Lat. to heat. riscaldarsi. to glow. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. is the opposite of disora virum. to sepap rate. cceremonia. sile. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. calefacere. Coehim. criticism. and put it through the over eyelydde. Gr. Cij(fe5j. -cebre ifoncebre. Incensum. mortar. but was gradually lost in conceit. to warm. to seele or sew up the eyelids . sting. chauffer. become heated with anger. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. a solemnity. Lat. Cess. centum. Chafe. Lat. a hundred of what- — . thronged the participle cretus. to visit in numbers. candeo. a shaft horse. make angry. the hollow the Lat. -ceptjun. to prick.' Book of St Albans. to rub for the purpose a hut.

sborfare. a rustling noise. as a carriage is a moveable seat. have a mind to parley. . jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. puffed or ruffled with ly. — — — . . hordeum vel let. Prov. to fret inwardtronfo. chicane. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. kuhina. lime . There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Cot. calix. rally one. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. chaine. dispute. cadena gives chain. kdfelen. kuhata. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). to action arose. p.. Fin. Lat. kiamta. Lat. P. De Ir4. calonja. Fr. chatter. kedja. keffen. snort. calx. Fl. taubes korn oder hafer. Adelung. with a:n arched roof. KoBiSpa. G. tattle. calice. In vulgar language. to chatter or talk lightly. Chayire. as. cadera. Fr. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. much blowing. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. chafeter. B. fume. sagri. calonjar. Chair. Lat. kaff. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . In this application it is the correlative Chaise. place See Cheek. chagrin. Cot. keuchen. ple^. Fr. Pers. snuff. in a cana. on. chaene. Halma. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. clamare. ing rapidly repeated cries. chaise. Prov. 11. fa sagramen de calompnia. thick and short. 35. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. preise. tronfio. to pant.sure carriage. to calumpnjamen. — . havOFr. kuhista. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. often puffing. Kaiiapa. From to go to law. and signifies to consume with anger. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio.. to babble. chamar. much more Genoese sagrind. Lat. to file. matter by combat.' Rayn. from of the G.nium. grief. swelling with anger. to buzz. avena vilior. chafing. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. (ca'e'ra) to chair. refuse. chaps Chamber. So from dominio. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. baras of ants. Came. a jackdaw. chaulx. Cheffern. refuse barley . vel susurro. limare. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Prov. to ner It. or puff with snorting. haggle. Ayenbite.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. a prattling woaction. to a seat. chalanger. Fr. tattle cheep. talkative. cathedra. G. Gr. from the shark-skin. catena. to move the jaws. Lat. also to prattle. to bark. de Brai. kiaftr. chaire. calumnia. far lima-lima. ceafer. Wall. kahista. Fr. Fr. contestation. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Pr. any insect of the beetle kind. and as this was the beginning of man. Due. great chafe. breathe KaOa^oiiat. kever. gewolb. false accusation. ceaf. — — — . lime. to tattle. rustle Challenge. to call. of. to institute anforensic action. Fr. . signal by drum or P. to puff and blow. Bouffard. Fr. kaff. hiss. to gnaw. charge with. kauchen. Bav. a chain. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Hal. E. chambre. to dispute. Lat. a chough. sagrindse. camera. a goba rustling . Probably from According to Diez. grief.— — . chawe. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. ^Altieri. From Port. kahuja. call in question for an ley). cam. cup. to gnaw. kdfer. puff. rustling corn. The jaw chafty. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. &c. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. jaw. cauvette. Chalice. shaIt. ing a hard case to their wings. dongio. . cadena. care. from Swiss kafeln. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. OFr. green sagrin. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. songe. Lat. now a chair. Piedm. a double operation * Chafer. Chagrin. in a monstrous fume. ckapfare. to sit. kuhuja. idle words. breathe hard. Du. bargain. to claim. . without chap/are makiinde. leviter crepo Then. care. muzzle. To buy and sell. fern-chafer. cadieira. Fr. Fr. crooked. a pulpit. chaffare. Perhaps Pm. chayire. khah. Chain. rustling motion challenge. to caw chawer. that leneth e per I'autra. In like manto huff. cathedra. Gr. kiqfta. ON. — — ' — — — A . difficulty . Camera. Kuttn. a pulpit Cot. From the To Chaff. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. vis. to Latin calumniare. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. a vault or arched roof. quisquilise offence. — — — — — — . hght Chalk. yap. Pat. kahu. Du.

attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Chance-n3. keiiipe. zs jeopardy. champ. ing. . champion Du. the chafldn. gewolbt. to stick to. Chancel. to wrestle. To Chamfer. dial. to cample.' SherI'altro ' ' . luctare. champ. contention kappi. Champ. — ^Tusser.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. . act of falling. Get campers a ball To camf . divided game. Champaign. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . kabe. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . M. rare. kabMe. ciamberlano. The G. to debate. to quarrel (comp. ciambellano. campear. an athlete. kimbu. chanfrein. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. received the petitions of the suitors. and mesUe. Partnership. broil. nels. jeu parti. to fasten on. kampeln. or less ignorant. Dief. i. dial. accident. to be eminent. schmatzen s. ON. excellent. Du. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. compound. wood. Magy.—Tutschek. to fall. to wrestle. . . . kimppu (Lap. —Chamfrain. Pm. to paw the ground E. CHANCEL It. The happening of things Chance. kampeln. to fasten oneself to another . chanfrein. dial. champ. to smack the lips in eating. a scufSe. kiammi. hero Sw. to talk. kabinti. Fr. Lith.' melleia. accidere. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. Fr. to happen {ad and cadere. to slope out the . cameratus. cempa. or player at football. bickering. camp. Sp. dispute Hal. a warrior. cancelli. kimpustella. camerlengo. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. game campio. It will. kiinp. chanfreindre. . So in e. to slope. certare. — masterly Sp. Commonly derived from campus. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. Lat. a feat. kampen. kampa. To hollow out in chanPtg. as swine. to Hal. Hence (with the nasal) w. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Fr. cadere. G. to groove bevel off a right angle. Chancellor. is explained by serrarsi. calida et sans aguet. chance. slope of a bevelled angle. Prov. to flute as a column. dial. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. s. Chancery. kempen. Lat. combat. to fall). camp.Lat. a game at football.' ' Pr. chdance. kanip. top of a borehole. hot. — Hal. to to chew champ. to hang. Lat. campar. to hollow out. Chamfron. escazenza. chain. bundle. Campar. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. fighting place. which seems another form of the root. at the railings. from cheoir.edley. Sp. caer. a jaw kianisa. a hook . — Ch-amberlain. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. termediaries between them and the judge. who stood ad cancellos. Prov. boys speak of capping verses. move the jaws. to fasten oneself on to another . to strive at games . to excel. a field of battle. chamfrain. to tread The sound heavily. Champarty. ON. to chew. champ parti. a court of justice. E. kappd). kibti.—Charfron E. cahir. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. kabintis. giving rise to the as. prize-fighter. chamble. ON. tsamtsogni. contest. to — — champ. The word is preserved in E. camp. chanfrar. campus. a bundle. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . kablys. campus partitus . a horse-race. Sup. sukibti. contend or argue G. Fr. Lat. surpassing. champ. tsammogni. Fr. Fr. to . kimpUma. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. zampettare. kriimmen gebogen. reusement — fight in single combat. jocus partitus. to move the jaws kiamt. dricka i kapp. . E. difficulty . and acted as inofficers of . a hollow chanfreiner. gekrUmmt. Ptg. to bevel. fight. to hold . Gall. . mesleiare. dial. Champion.140 CHAMBERLAIN . athlete. from Fr. See Camp. The E. kempa. e. hamper. calidameya. Carpentier. pedilusor. cample). chajnbellan . Meleare. — KiL . kinipen. head armour. cazer. therewithal. When the to quarrel. as in It. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. chaude mesUe. fight. hng. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. pinch. kapp. kippo. To cope or contend with. fray. chance. Fin. from chaud.

jaw. — : Lat. kiceft. kvar kjceften. cangiare. Fr. — — —Marculfus in Due. cambiare. the loose flesh of the cheeks. flat . waterconduit. chap. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. chop. to paw like a horse . prune. to apply one flat thing to another. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. a pipe. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. — . E. or the cracking of one. properly in a hard body. . Walach. to cut off . as chancery . the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. the mouth. Cheek. a jaw. . and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Lat. Russ. a small metal plate Port. Hal. Channel. Lith. while the broader vowels a. Lang. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Commonly derived from capella. a chap is a crack or fissure. chapeta. from canna. debeant conjurare. esclapo. Chaps or chops. camjar. Chip. Chap. AS. chapa. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . to coat. I. a dealer in candles then. to peck. Sp. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. kaupa. to break . to sing. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. hack . chapilla. 2. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. a reed. Chap. Hence chantry. the place where candles ler. to swap. leather. to truck. W. any hollow for conveying water. shift. to strike. not a soul. kiceft as well as kjakje. Chop. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. kappen. —Ordericus Vitalis. as It. to cut up into small pieces. Hal. Fr. Prov. cheek. to creak. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. throat of an animal. skipta. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to deal. exchange. wood. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Du. surfaces striking together. . gab. chancery. And N. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. are kept. That wide were sentin their spicery. extended to other trades. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. chop. canalis. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Chapel. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. esclapa. Bret. chapear. chandelier. See Chant. hard bodies. Hence It. to chap at a door. or the like chapar. See Chop. exchange. chanter. as to chap hands. chiappa. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. to hack. kjaakaa. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. to strike. may be compared with ON. as those on a trunk. to plate. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. lips of an animal. as skin chapped hands. chap. ^Jam. A fellow. Fr. from clap. Da. jaw. cambiar. and the modern canal. from chandler. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. kennel. clapet. In like manner Walach. the clappers of the scupper holes. Aasen. Compare chark. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. to peck. schimbu. Molbech. . Da. to spht a chip. Chandler. Chap. is used in the same sense . Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. 140. kapoti. . and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. as corn-chandChandry. schimbd. the gutter that runs along a street. —Chantry. Chape. the chaps . and also to chap or crack. Sc. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. a strip of metal plate. cobio. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. ceaflas. like the knocking of hard things together. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. klepan. muzzle. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. ceaplas. to — cut. ON. chaps. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. exchange schimbatoriu. a money-changer. To Change. cantare. to cut. to strike with a sharp edge. to plate. kemma. cambium. a small plate of flat metal. Probably from chap.^. to change. Man of Law's Tale. to put on fresh clothes. Sp. chapeletas de imbornales. chapelete de una bomba. Fr. It is also used in the sense of the E. changer. also a clap. chancellerie.

. of chapel. a dispute . as a beetle. chirk. a riddle. Charlock. used in the sense of magic Fl. seems to be derived charade. Charge. a riddle. Bret. carmen. It. in To ness Charity. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. Character. talking. — — — turned to coal. See Cheap. cearcian. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. pohadka. go. cher um cher. Justin. chatter. Chaplet. ceap-man. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. to . keeren. a hood. a rhyme. Deutsch. cha. 2. to converse. Fr. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. cedeleac.' Boccaccio in Diez. AS. to creak. dear(in both senses). An enchantment. czurksti. clack. gnash.Lat. to turn Gael. chapitre. the nature of a thing. Gr. . carmo. a verse. car. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. a mark made on a thing. a garland of roses. . a cricket karkti (schnarren. jabber. which was incantation. chirriar. charge an enemy is to lay on. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. as. to talk . chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. &c. affection. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. chat. to croak as a frog . a turn cerran. Sp. occasional turn. Boh.czirksti. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. a charm. kirkti. Du. capellare. tattler. es ist mi cheer. Mundart. to chirp. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. krachzen). as Pol. In that work the verb is written caire. Chapman. return. from gadai. carus. It. . and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. colliers that charred coal. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. dim. Chirk. OE. 370. And damned be he who first cries Hold. ject). to charcoal. babdistinction. carregar. turn about. Lat. surris seu Lat. karout. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz.. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. the turtle pitre. kurkti. wood to coal. a merchant. charitas. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. . Prov. From Norm. to dove . chara. ghirlanda seor garland. Fr. It. Fr. it is my turn. Lay on. from capa. A weed among com AS. to prattle. Lat. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . from capitulum. called kedlock. Lith. (eucharistie. chatter. Charade. Chapter.). — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. a mark of a mountebank. enough. from Charade. for the same reason rosario. kurkelis. to tattle. charlatan. See Charlatan. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Charlatan. Chark. Sp. schreien. to turn. cerran. gaggle . gadka. ciarlatore. cluck. tegere. hadka. wreath for the head. canne. caricare. babbling. chapel. capitolo. * Charcoal. char. from cape or cope. Yx. grave or make incised marks on an ob. called in Sp. siarad (pronounced — sharad). Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . from carrus. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. charlar. beloved. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. cam.charme. Macduff. to chirp as sparrows. charade. capella. cluck kirklys. to love. to of the governing body. It.whirr. properly to place — . to sing or chirp as birds. charcoal burners. decken. Cot. to load . Sup. eapitulo. a head or division of a book. The crash. burning without consuming the substance. Mid. czurliwoti. that turned decken . Charcoal was ciarlare. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. prattling quacksalver. Fr. a The OFr. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. Fr. charer. capital. czirbti. AS. chirlar. twist. Ptg. w. and in It. condo il volgar francese. to chirp. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. — spell. The G. To Char. —— . in turns. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. turn. caritas. Lat. dear. be- e. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. bler. creak. hiss Lith. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. eyre. corona. — a car. chapelet. Hence carminare. Chare. Lang. carricare. Inst. Sp. creak. to prattle. w. cabildo. Swiss. twitter. charger.

So in Gael. noise. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. — The . pure. G. nommer. speak . kata-kata. gazzettare. To chitter or chipper. See Cistern. la chasse d'une rose. enchasser. pure. It t. to clap. the calix of a rose. occasionally Forby. letters p. sordidus. g. used to represent a sharp note. geug. warble. to chirp. cs E. converse. tenax. Fl. chary. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. Chaste. — Fr. Cot. a crack or a flaw . chair. gazeuiller. carmen is presented in AS. Pol. Fr. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. castus. a flock of those birds. Pol. to enchase it . to burst open. eclats. Parallel with E. czysty. chat. —Chastise. to gape. Chamel. to wet. D. or the cry of a bird or the like. — — . to separate in morsels. jackdaw . — Hal. Kil. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. To talk. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. splinters. —Bailey. noise. To chit. to chirp. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. In like manner Russ. %aafi. gazzogliare. a gap. Lat castigare. Fr. s. karg. kippen. or a bird out of the egg. to care). from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. castus. pure. gazzolare. chick. magpie. to crack. a plate of metal. snap. a yawning. make a noise as birds do. germinate . blackthorn-chats. See Card. cassa s. chatter. chip.. csacsogany. also a youth. chykkyn (Pr. the noise of birds. karigh. also to hatch. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. ch). to talk. It. warble. To Chase. . — We ornamental work the to signify E. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. chaste. knacken. in Jam. to crack. talk much . chaste. prate. as from nomen It. To Chase. chikat'. also to germinate or spring forth. fragments or leavings of food. the bird is iiown. — Yorkshire chat. Chary. discourse. nome and . charm. clack. a churchyard or charnel-house. prattle. chit. Malay. To work plate as silversmiths do. to chirp as a bird to cheep. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. as in the E. To Chasten. from pure. as we speak of olive branches. CHATS fit 143 to name. be wide open. limpid. charmer. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat.ppen. is to represent the chamier. gallan or ogan. From carinen was formed It. Russ. gazzerare. Fl. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. a branch. V.). Fr.— Chit. careful. The egg is chipped. Lat. root of the Lat. flesh. i. a young man . —Jam. chip. fragments. . gaddc. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. Du. a branch and a young female. Magy. carnisj bones kept. chick. csaterdzni. chits. Chat-wood. Hal. clean. It. to set a jewel. Fr. chit in the latter sense Du. Gr. whence a charm of goldfinches. csacsogni. schioppare. talk. as purgare Fr. a shrine for a relic. — Palsgrave.). niggardly. chip. ferire. or equivalent forms. Chasm. to which it bears the same relation as chape. It. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. to chatter or prattle . the cry of the bat. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). little sticks cudere. shout OE. kna. the young shoots . accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. parcus. a chatter-box. an enchantress. gadu-gadu. kata. as turnip-chaits. the handle of a razor . Chart. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2.a. To chip is then to crack. clear. —Charter. Diez. carme and Fr. OE. to cry as a chicken . from purus. See Catch. tittle-tattle. cearig (from cearian. ch&tier. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. — sharp sound of a crack. to baptize. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. or pop. clatter. crackle. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. from xoAn. caro. clean. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . — = Chats. shivers. to make a noise. cyrm. incassare. scraps of for fuel. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. xi'i-'^vui. clean. clap. chisf. whistle. Pm. chit-chat. kastaa. csatora (Magy. knatiern.— Chatter. a twig Suffolk chaits. a word. as. Chat. B. An imitative word. Kil. or suckers on rough borders. racket .house. It. Cot. to cut and faggoted.

upon a checked cloth. syllables ^ag-. caupo. to clear the throat . to chop and change. cera. horse-couper. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. society. in widely separated languages by the Lat. kaupiti. Sp. equiva. force of the word. Bohem. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. cachinnari. lower. welcome heartily. kakkaset. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. a repulse. 144 the It.. to coff—Yisi. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Cheat.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. the face. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. cattle. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. ceaflas. farm for farm. OFr. Fl. favour. chatel. choule. . chavylbone or chawlbone. ku. et juxta catalla sua. aspect of a man. a cheater.of the throat in coughing. to negotiate. kakaista. It — Brompton in Due. sum in a loan. jaw. chire. Ek dry and hard. and hence the E. gig. to coup s. a willing look and unwilling heart. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. stuttering. sense of bargaining. Chear. tradesman. sale. cheeks. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. retching. cara. capitale. Then. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. the countenance Fr. jaws. ceap. See Chess. to cough and hence either buying or selling. cattle. to — . to deal ON.— Chaps. chaptel. price.kakot. to stutter gigken. exAS. ceahhetan. prattlingchete. truffa.. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Fr. kaufen. goods. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. and. — We ' . snout. It. teeth . kik. to fetch the breath with difficulty. kek. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. mandibula. — — —Chowl. with Dief. G.— . . Fr. Chattels. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. The gutGoth. CHEEK zitella. agreeing upon. stuttering. are represented piti. entertainment. bon marche. a tavern-keeper. to laugh. kaupon. chapman. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd.— Chole. to cluck like a hen. Sc. frown. — To check an account. entertain kindly.—Choke. . to nauseate (to retch). Cheek. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. visage. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. cozener. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. chiere. citello. catalliim. us. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. It. Soc. ceafl. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Cot. dchec. from Lat. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. chear in the sense of victuals. Slav. cattle. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Modern Slang. Lat. look.. hawkmann. Ingulphus. to act as a rogue. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. OFr. the tongue. Du. which is the word in ceap. See Cheek. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. keck. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. Chew. to . to make inarticulate sounds in . the Confessor. a canting knave. chatal. e. a young boy or girl. to buy. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Fin. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. kaupa.-^. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. gagkezen. kichen. to buy.' kezen. whence captale. a dealer. the Lat.— Cattle. KaviiXog. s. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. koopen. goods. which is used in the to stutter. Cam. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. kok. thers. chop. Pr. CHATTELS has ciio. Hence to cheat. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Pro v. Pm. while it Bret. giving or taking in exchange. to swap goods . laughing. . chuckle. Faire bonne chire. a dealer in horses. to vomit. Bav. from AS. NE. the principal ' colloquial E. kak. Gr. kauf. in Fr. with the exception of land. countenance. Check. cita. gagkern. giggling. changing. &c.' to exchange to gasp. Hal.ing. . kikottaa. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. a rogue or person who used the canting language. a piece of moveable property. any cheating. lead to OE. sob E.

Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. to prevent the attack of cavalry. accomplishment cayed. cherir. kjcebe. gous forms are G. — — . cheeks. cheken. . quoka. throat. nish source. ation. Tutschek. E. jaw. AS. Lat. kaecke. the final guttural is retained in writing. E. cireggia. Fin. caseus. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. ceac. kikna. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut.). The Sw. kastr. schach. by laying up in a covered heap. ichec. Sc. a heap. to kep. The name of creak as shoes. chiffe. cough. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. cisty G. the loose the game of checks. chevir. chaps. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Da. to gape gab. jaws. G. mollium congeries. dersen . Cherry. acquisition. suffo. kok. equal squares of opposite colours. incaseatus. whence kasa-leipa. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. Pl. frame by which the exertion is made. kikna of dorum coacervatio. Hence kikna is identical with OE. mouth kek. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. to hold dear. a rafter . ceg. the throat. by laying it in come to an agreement with. X'C&s. From them the plish.koppen. Lat. Cherish. scacco. kjakje. to swallow. /Ji2^/(W. jaws Sw. gapen. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. Fris. chasi. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. carnium. kces. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. kjceve. cista. Analo. Chevaux de frise. the neck. to gasp. hasten. jouffle. old bread.pose of acidifying them kasadr. kasa. To Cheep.. Fr. then end. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. N. CHE. Cher. rupted into chess. a cricket. practice seems to have been communiChevron. clear the throat. chests in OE. kdke. Fr. See Alchemy.their struggle for independence. chAtaigne. to kasa. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Sp. Lat. to geahl. to heap up such things for the purchoke. geafl. gaghel. Chekenyd or querkenyd. ceaplas. the palate Chequer. kastanie. . Hence chesten-nut.Xo belch. quok. Chess. prevail with. (Kil. king). xaque. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. condition of being taken. as meat and butter. w. Pm. Kil. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. — 10 . make an end. cabrio. cheek. kistej Lat.' to w. &c. kapen. . gabe. the mouth. treat with affection. jaw. dear. rafters in heraldry. cabiron.G.. skratt. achever. ON. Achievement. cheek. to choke. ceaflas. whence czypulas. for cheese itself. Thus "we are brought din. w. Chef.perly head. E. cufd. subacidus. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. Chevisance. As the board to gasp i. rennet. caru. Lat. cerasus. G. castaneusj Fr. An imitative word. Prov. squeak as a mouse. cese. a chicken. Lith. kdkel.peep in the same sense. caws. cheek. See Chess. kirsche. Chemistry. to accomThis they call hdrsk. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. E. cams. ca' — .D. cegio. gill of fish AS. . to love. chops. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. rattle in the throat. giffle. Sp. kopen. gap. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Sw. It would Cheese. Sc. Lith. w. the The use of the word kcesir. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. Jam. chesten. — — . — — .D. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. In these latter forms we see the transIt. F*-. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Fr. takes place in the formation of cheese. To make a shrill noise Chest. the hke. Fr. as. chops. gullet. Du. chevron. kesten. ost. throat. things Da. OHG. AS. jaw . e. geagl. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. made rancid koka. It. jowl. subjected to this process with that which the throat . to year. See Case.cirieggia. cerise j G. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. AS. to bring to an end. to boken. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. kasiiUPr. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. like a young chicken. Du. veluti piscium. Prothroat of an animal . which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. to belch. food. Sw. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Fr. schach.EP CHEVRON 145 on. . to make a noise different word. to choke with laughter. czypti. ceocian. cyse. the mouth or so marked are called chequered.

a chicken. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. knit the brow cib-led. kind. grelot). kopf Du. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. The Pl. : — a lump. a chicken. a cup. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery.. De chic en chic. as. De finger killet mi for kalte. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. kop. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. chicoter. the jole. cica cica. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. kaw. a small cask OFr. branchy. tremble.. Swiss kiden. a head. a quid of tobacco. the same principle I regard On birds. chiler. cheek. chef. jaws . a little bit. tyuk. chill. the throat. cap. Fr. to titter is Du. then cold. mountain top . Gattel. mouth. deer's horn. cabar. Fr. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Fin. Chill. chicken. kieken. pi. w. Chick. Pr. kouwe.— Cot. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Pm.^ to resound as a bell. crepo.-ill. G. G. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. antler. klagend tonen. Probably from Fr. from the first of which is Lith. gills of a fish.D. cabar beinne. cebr. strideo. a finch. beam. to use the jaws. s. pululo. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Bret. pipe. lead through the synonymous E. zitterti. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. chikat'. E.peep. choule. 'Among these the G. — It. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. quivering sound which passes. pip. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. rafter . to contest about trifles. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Chime. and not vice versd. chavel. a jaw. chicaner. kuwe. the least imaginable jot. capo.. E. the rim or edge of a vase. hiss as meat on the gridiron. to Du. kauchen. Imitative of a loud clear sound. pipio. kippa. chavel. kimme. the young of animals in general. k'imm s. Gael. A To Chew. cabarach. are formed Du. chol. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to chew. And hence. killen. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. Pr.— Gattel. chin. head. while the Magy. — Du. acute. gosling. Chigue.. chillrar. or the broken noise of birds. chieftain. kimia. creak. 146 brial. AS. It. jaw. greloter is to shiver for cold. kaau•wen. kibr. caprioru. chiquei. Pm. kitista. kauwe. caferu. tremble with cold. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. by driblets. kauen. rafter. aner. Russ. as pointing out the origin of the E. — Fin. Halm. cild. chew or chaw. Now gan some courage unto him to take. to scold. . ultimate origin of the Mite. CHJME the radical form is unusual. caput. Kil. Fin. Du. to contest. keichen. rafter .D. — — Mother Hubbard. For the see word Doit. in Walach. See Chimmer. Walach. chawbone.— . queror. a cup cibaw. kindeken. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. pole. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Chaw. cabriones. — . ' . The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. To chitter. Lat. Brezza. tiuk. to gasp for breath (Hal. stake. cidan. kimista^ . or as E. term is ssaru fu. Fin. Fr. chimb. knarren. to chime. Tintillo. czypulas. to the brim. kilderkin. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys.' my finger tingles with cold. to go. Prov. ]). kinderen. knirschen. chillar. Child. pipio. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. the Ptg. Sp. . cib. chaps. Chief. tintelen van koude. and from the third E. horns of the house.^ Hal. signifying properly shivering. then as G. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. to pettifog. tiukkua. capete. Chimb. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Da. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. the head. chic. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. into a continuous shriU sound. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. The loss of the syllable it in Du. horn wood. or chick. from the second Lat. also the horizon. the cry of young . sonorous. has probably the same origin. chillness or shivering. . Du. a chicken. W. to smart. capu. Pl. machouere. a young bird.). to raise the rim. captain. killen. CHEW . ach. Payer chiguet A chiguet. Fl. To Chide. a hen. tiukka. or qf people talking rapidly. E. a cup. Magy. kime. jaw. to crackle. alter. from little to little. twitter. when the vibrations become very rapid. Palsgr. to twitter. kidata. Chitter. tiukkata. Fl.

chhint. pare also Walach. as a large bell . Huloet. tschirpen. Chyrme or chur. or chyFrigutus. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Chintz. epine. j^lf. kieck hoest. It. cleft. a fire-place. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. . It. the whooping cough. disCot. To chink with laughter. as birds the mouth. a hall Mid. Chink. and the Du. Sp. to prattle . To chirp or twitter. to open chirriar. To Chimmer. companied. cisaille. sonants. gen. See Chats. to sound deep or the Gr. are In like manner E. cinne. to squeak in It. tsongeni. It.to chirp. Chimney.er. flaw Hal. et garrire . kink hoest. Chink-cough. plodere. up and down. in- — by the syllable clink or chink.Huloet in Hal. It.czirbti. Chymerynge. Caminatum. in Hal. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. and chim-mer. hiss chirlar. Chat. sound. to sizel. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. . . a szemrcU. cinan. caperd. czirszkti. a thorn. the cheek (jaw) . twinkling light.Lat. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. quavering of the voice. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. squittire. fissure. schetteren. backe.schricken. kinne. See Chap. sounding deep. zirken.iron. Sp. clangor tinniens kummata. stridere. which differ from each other only as Chirk. a Kuttn. G. cheminde. all these imitative terms being minata. Chit. ter. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. . to simmer. Sp. In the same sense. The small entrails of a hog. Ptg. Fr. pork) . Chine. Sp.). Fr. fyr. to chirp . part lion. Kil. hiss Pm. sparkle. a thorn. — — — — — . schiena. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. to tremble. tinnire. but or cry as a parrot. Chin-coug^h. spina. eschiner. — . Chitter. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. It. to chink. hus. Chip. and bodily movement in shimm. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. verynge or dyderinge. bx-eak the back of schena. Hindost. sonus the backbone Lat. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. schina. clipping of coin. schetteringe. esquena. resonance . komista. Chisel. kumista. caminata. and from a similar sound to boil gently. bone . — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . also vibrans. to prattle czirpti. to creak. vincially used in the sense of a crack. the jaw.sharp. E. sound on beginning to boil. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses.. as the/ is preserved tering. killed by Bellerophon. shiver and the chyver of Pr. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. quivering or shakyng for colde. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. chick. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Primarily a shrill sound. Fr. yivtiov. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. . the jaw. Pr. A . — . cincel. from 10 * ' Chia. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . a crowing sound in recovering breath. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Lat. tsengeni. Magy. cheek. chatter . KinneGr. hollow. Cot. Du. komia.' Phaer's Virg. keich husten. in the same crack. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. chirp. Fr. to chink with laugh2. crepare. have been used to designate the spine. cisello. The desig. to chirre. to chine. See Bright. genou (pi. eschine. zirpen. Chitterling. skina. rustle. Gascoigne in Todd. ciarlare. eschin^e (de pore). caminsects. to murmur. name Then. Diez de. representing connected together. 147 kimina. Chimera. Gower in Hal. kumina. Du. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. do. and light. applied to tremulous motion. chits. backBut she withal no worde may soune. from Lat.to divide or Du. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. as the chink of money. AS. — . chin . Gloss. chink. a chink or fissure. twitter caminus. Prov. Bret. schrick. Sw. E. ciseau (for cisel). to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. clashing of weapons. from the geon's lancet. spina. genawi. klincken. Pm.. to creak. esquina. To Chitter. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. The change from the sound ter \s. Lith. simmer. G. Bav. as a bell kommata. ykvvQ. Fr. dial. the chine. gena. tremulous motion. a surkik hosta. a chap. then to any narrow crack or AS. See Chark. — . to sound. to chirp. the chin . to gape. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. the cheek. to tattle. i. the mouth (jaws) .

Swab. to taste. a wine taster. a small slice or slip of anything . stone which splits off in shives or shivers. kiesen. Chap. gustare. Enn Sigridur sem ' . kbhren. Swiss kust. of E. to try. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. Fr. to chap. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . G. Boh. •- Russ. g'schochet voll. to tempt. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. Chives. kustigen. chife. kusid. approve. to ^cleave . full to overflowing. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. the small parts of the roots of plants. x^poc. to taste. from kraus. pluck. The I go to prove them. ent quarter. a scale or fragment P1.yEuffM. xiv. to try. chibble. to shiver.vonic languages are Pol. . taste. and in kosten. arkiusan. rare. to chap at a door . to Compare also Pol.V)^x. keuren. chatter. try. a young . an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side.ceosan. whence choleric. chap hands. it is probable that the root kus. chiffe. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. — Chock-full. 19. whence Lat. Warwickshire coff. a goose's giblets. Body and Soul. — Cholera. caperd. Walach. cut up into — See Chats. kalbs gekrose. lead us on to Lat. gdnse gekrose. Chuck-full. civette. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. chock full. ON. signify to kiss. Goth. developments of the same radical image. gusten. * To Choose. chippe. Fr. scheve. G. kushati. — — — . and N. skifa. . all seem slate . as with a blow. wrath. kiusan. ^euw. to break off in small shive. &c. kor6n. See try. in the same language. Gr. a fragment. and It. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. krussyi. — See Cheek. coup. cke. a knight. kieser. chawdron. word is more likely to be from Lat. to try. —Chorus. cive. Luc. Lat. a twittering. The . chives. keypa. also calPs. schevel-steen. fresure. to stop geschoppt voll. Cavalry. 2. To Choke. Equivalents in the SlaFr. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. haslets. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. a ruff. . select.' who shall not taste death. heaped measure. . Chivalry.' Verie coinme Cot. to ing is doubtless to taste. G. a calf's pluck or chaldron . a company of singers or dancers. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. choppe. specially with an application to theatrical performances. a calf's chaldern of E. a heap. to strike hands . pieces . to palpitate . or original meaning is preserved in G. friller. crammed Choir. chattering. to exchange horses. kiezen. kiusan. to try . Yr. ruffs. disposition. Gr. the inwards of an animal. ments of the knightly class.. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to taste. from %u\i). of an angry — — — ' ' — . to taste. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. to choose. cepa. to taste . . seallion or unset leek.D. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. wkusit' prikushat. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . koren. prove. to taste. try. to wrinkle. anger. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter.. an onion. coro. kushevati. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables.— B jag E. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. as green as leeks. the ridges prove. full. shiver. okusyti. then to try. To Chop. to turn. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. experience valerie. CHOP kros. and Vf. choix. taste. Fr. ^S. Jam. chaup. . and in this sense the * small pieces. schoch.freze. schiefer. a ruff or frill. then to shiver. . called cMtters in the N. Prov. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. gekrose. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. chorus. to prove. kaup. wein didder for cold. i.ffrill. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. fine threads of flowers. The manners and senti. bile. Choice. by which they are Fr. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. shoot . to clap up Hal. I. cape. OHG. Choice is probably direct from Fr. causir.gust. a chive. chceur. &c. The Sc. Schmid. a blow. a rag. Gr. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. curly . are used in the same sense.' At last he dwelt . chimp. propagated. kausjan. Serv. by the vibrations of sound or motion. from chevalier. As kushnuti. to hack. ON. %o\ifa. Choleric. to experience. kruszki.

and we actually find champman for chapman. chatter . Chuck. syllables chat. yiSA. Fr. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. chouquette. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. by the Robert Shirley. cauc. a thick piece. Ant. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. to chatter. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. — . kaw. Alchemist. quappe. i. from kloppen. Anachronism. To Chouse. overset. That Face. monedula. ceo. whence the Fr.). Fr. Cot. choucas. Come. cambiare. Sp. merchant. to speak thieves' slang. OE. Fr. If I discover. Chopino. kaulhaupt (club-head. prattle . to knock. chevane. Borgoens happen. capito. chrisme. 4. a bullhead. Chronicle. a trafficker in souls. caphatenus. — Dief. to overturn. Marin. a lump or piece chump. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. Du. chouette. whence e. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. chuet. caker. Jam. ley in Giiford. gull. xpi'^lia. high clog. soul-couper. clogs. chub. gobio capitatus. dial. Sw. To Chop logick. From the Turkish Chiaus. See Change. gold. Chub. a messenger or envoy. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . kobe. cavena. as in Fr. xop5>}. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. — — — . the same word with the It.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak.—Chuokstone. Gr. The Turk was here As one should say. e.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. we find the following passage Dap. a The What dhy ^. klopper. —Shakespeare. a stump. Chough. Nominale in Nat. Chord. who took in the Turk- clack. E. an offence against the fitness of times. kaufen. noble Doctor. E. -chron-. I bring you the Cloughs. capitone. whence apparently the Sup. whence — E. capitanus. chop. cheap. chapineria. to clack. dial. ON. to turn over. the intestine of an animal. connected with G. — Quabbe. . the teeth to chatter . peace. a small fish with a large head. G. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. fat. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. cresmeau. kubb. for to defraud. Picard. p. of which such strings are made. kowej Sax. chack. e.. chevane. E. civetta. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened.. Du. See Chaff. What do you think of me. In Sc. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Kil. applied to an owl in that language. that will thank chiaus — you richly. AS. to cant. Gr. xftovoq. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. bearand aits. Lat. kolbe (club). CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Gr. Chrysalis. sent before him a Chiaus. caqueter. short piece kubbug. chronicles. &c. time ra . forms are Chrism.(. because she would not endure this husband chopping. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. cow-couper. Wall. thumb Fl. in Chaucer. thick-set. slipper . to strike in the hand. chapin.\^s. 49. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. cheviniau. kowe. one who buys and sells horses or cows. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. Gr. chapma?i. In the Alchemist. traffic. which was written 27. equivalent to the E.X. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Confounded with the bullhead. chrysalis (Plin. A jackdaw. in i6io. .sohola.povucd. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. E. kauwe. kaej Lith. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. To coup. or miller's kaycke . ' ' What's that? Dap. XpvaaXic. the string of a musical instrument originally. claquer. clat. koppe. Madam. Fr.• — .' Jam. gull. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. kubbr. P. capita.— Landnamabok. cangiare. Fr. — Chrisom. Peace. cauvette j Fr. chevin.' They are forebuyers of quheit.). as Du. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. chroniques. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time.— Chevin. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. klompe. plump. A fish with a thick snout and head. dealing. cob.

Cieling. Ir. ceorl. a resounding object. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. chofu. to strike clatter. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. set kerti. to throw out sparks. a cutting an old chuff. whence church. kern. ccedo. cendre. has been impugned which it has really no connection. e.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Gr. &c. sicera. e. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. to churn. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). pp. scoria. chuffy. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. kaerle. Hence -cid-. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. as Epkema explains it. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. ceaflas. blow on the I io6 in Mur. The origin ation. marrow. in the face. the snout of an animal. 24. To chuck in the fall from.rendered by Kil.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. a douse on the tores. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. from Lat. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. cado.' he adds. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. with It the Lord's house. i. gffe. Da. tie about). whence ON. in circumcision. — — A — ' ' — . chops. ON. residue of burnt coals. a man. a girding on. a man. a lump. chack-stone.D. KaxXij?. -cis-. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . Fr. Fris. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Cob. Du. See Cheek. a rustic . to To Chuckle. to make a rippling noise. a cutting round. a pebble. klakka. that the word is an adoption of Fr. to sparkle. to turn from blossom to fruit. joufflu. ladre from Lazare. kerl. ciuffo. ceffo. from Lat. to separate the kernel of the milk. &c. ON. chaps. we have to chack. male person. See Cheek. cinctus. comp. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Wall. cinctura {cingo. or. calx. Gothic nations. countryman. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. Gr.' And cold. a man. ceaplas. Jennings. Cleland in Jam. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. ChurL husbandman. log of wood. to him a sudden blow. Ka-^aiva. then the on oh StX iv roXt. but by way of explan. cheeks Cincture. to Newsp. dust. domhnach. sintel. . C^z^j^ churHsh. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. Lat. flower. geaflas. It is certain. to make a aiKipa.— Chu%.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. ceffore.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Sc. casum (in comp. to jaw chack or snap. See Ceiling. sindra. cut off. cinders used disjunctively. Chunk. to gird. . . ashes. * Cinder. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. whence deciduous (of trees). Diss. jaws. sive piratiam facere sciant. G. — of the two words. . to form grains of butter. Lat. kirna. to fall upon decide. a miser. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. a pebble . The spelling of chider has Chump. KvptaKolg. Cider. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. as Fr. pith.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. chakil. sindr. Sicerawry face ceffata. swollen or puffed up Cot. Churn. Chuff. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum.— .V//a'6'?. -cido. the kernel. In Sc. cinis. in Sc. an old man. or choice part of a thing . dial. to cause the milk to grain. AS. lamak. to fall at or on. ON. chofe (Grandgagnage). calculus. i. -cisuiri). chife. so as to make the happen . -cise. cheek. cidre. kjami. to fall. kernjen. tindra. incido. AS. OFr. surly.. Church. Sw. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. spuma metalli. to cut decide. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. As AS. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. G. Du. however. a fellow.^. have given rise. as water running over rocks or stones. Aasen. Lat.for the residue of stone coal. thence a belt. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Du. Wall. -eris. joffu. -cide-. karl. The derivation from Kvpiasov. x^^i?. Fr. as in E. Probably from It. fat-cheeked. sinter. giffle. sindel. . as a board. — . kakka. accido. kiorne. Lat. chack or stane-chacker. a husband. . to determine incision.

klepati. chupon. G. rattle . glamm. a lump Du. CION See Tinder. Sw. creak les dents. Du. clap. civilis. as caverna from cavus. ring. Comp. klqb. . to chatter. Gr. Hence Incite. and E. to clack. Hal. clack. cion. globus. glam. -cis-. a hiding-place. klump. around. The Gr. The notion of a lump. Dan. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. hringr. clatCot. klammer. stimulate. W. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Arab. cry. KipKog. to cry out. compared with It. Circle. smack. . Du. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. a shoot. cry out . in the frequentative form. to mention. clasp. It. clamer. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. city. cit^. to gnash the teeth. ciste. slam. a kind of pipe. cittade. a young and tender plant. —Circuit. a ball. . City. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. klappen. sphere gleba. to chatter . to bawl. glambar. &c. sound. klompe. or split with noise. Lat. To Clack. tinnitus . rattle.. claim. a whip. to set in motion by means of the voice. radical identity of the Fr. bunch. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. klekotati. cifra. chatter . Fr. dim. clamp. to toll . a ball. Bohem. a. the tongue. circum.' sione. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . the place of . klabb. klacke-busse. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. crack. a Lat. claquet de moulin. a split. as in Sp. vociferation. . E. uproar. Citron. of citta. may cite w. a rattle Fr. to chatter. It. a'upiav. sip. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). claquer. ter. Citadel. Sp. to go. a clod Russ. Mack. to summon or call on. . klak. a block. Lat. to call. Lat.— . civis. gutter. and Sp. clack-dish. Fr. a judgment cern. Lat. to be empty. a boss . area. log. civitas. cisterna. clack. Cot. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. . a knob. klumbr. to clap at a theatre. a city. cion. lump. Cite. circ2tlus. Recite. scion or sucker. klater-busse. babble . sifr. outcry. Chaste. the door was slammed J slamem. G. Lat. crack. — (Dozy) ing blow. clambar. suck). about. a block. as. lash . Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. cittadella. 'mass. whence cistiti. claquer crash. lucerna. scion. parallel root is slam. cito. kluV. cisterna. clack-box. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a citizen . klateren. or quill to draw waier through Fl. circa. citujn. a mass. . and. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. to call by name. clog. clamare. prattle. a circle. Sw. to call. clapper. crack. a circle. belonging to cities or social life . klambr. From Arab. ON. To Claim. sprig. a pop-gun. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. prattle. a lump Lat. Gael. The syllables clap. lump . mass . clobyn. a Pol. noise. from chupar. ON. Lat. citrus. Scion. to cluck. a cleansing place. lump. a place See place hiddern. cista. See Crankle. lump. clat. a circle. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. Clamp. klimp. accordingly find the roots dab. chupon. cluster. Fr. KpiKoe. a reservoir Probably from Lat. Fr. clamras. ern. See -cid-. to strike. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. * Ciplier. to appeal. klemte. Excite. a cistern. forms — — — parent plant. kringla. a for water. sound- — hands figures. a kind of rattle. . kringr. a whirlwind. excite. clump. sound of blow. Du. circle. clap. clangor avium . claquer.to suck. wasserkasten (water chest). a loud uksa slamketi. empty Golius. chijfre. is traced by Gr. ON. Gael. ruin. See Circle. Clam. klubb. Clump. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. cittd. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. a rattle . and clash. -cite. We . to cleanse. cieo. circum. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. with an initial s instead of c. trunk. Dan. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. klamp. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Circum-. ball kloben. or clap-dish. klacken. In Fr. to knock. castus). klap. * Cistern. Gr. a city. twig. around. Lat. . a lemon tree. klappe. It. to clatter. sajira. Alt. So a light. a ring. lump of wood or with the nasal. lump. dob. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. sindri. to make to go. noise — — a cistern. We . —Civil. for Cion. klopati. chest. domern. fall. clapping of klacke. clot ON. biw. a clod. Lap. bunch . . . clamp. E.

OE. dandestinus. Du. dee. the in many languages. pinching. to climb. Mampe. tone. viscosity . klamm. clangor. to climb. bandage. a heap of stones. klettern. kleppe. clap. klemmen. clajnmy. Fr. The E. klobber-saen. dia. seize. cluster. klamre. is a nasalised form of gripper. coagulated cream. klammern. Lang. B. Gael. compress. adopted Lat. of which the locative case. to hold to pinch. klappen. chatter. accent. Clang. — Cot. klang. tinkle. to do anything with a clap. Salainen. dang. and hence to pinch . chatter. G. clandestine. G. clapper of conies.er. klem-vogel. klynge sig op. a bird of prey. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. Clamp. take hold of. ring as metal. closely analogous to that of the fast. klavre. To clap in E. holdfast. yf. klubber. gum. cream Manx doan. E. dial. Du. a stick. . the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. B. dren. — — . See Clam. sound . &c. to climb . buckle klamp. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. apprehend . from the w. run to lumps Clandestine. sound. also to clog up. ney. to cleave or stick. gripe. clasp. The equivalent of Lat. klette. klynge. clap. clapas. a burr. dientes. to climb. to clap. clang. hold. E. children. Du. to knock. rumour. klebern. sound of the trumpet . klibber. a stone See Claim. massy. These are imitations of a loud. Sw. Clink. but perhaps not directly from it. a place underground where rabbits breed.' klibba. — . whence sala. a claw . Swiss kletten. cling. — Climb. klampen. dambar. dapier. with cramp-irons. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . klammer. offspring. dap up. stick. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. dam. a craCmp. kloben. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. cramp.' to take coals to Newcastle. a rattle . daver. — with hunger.. These words To are closely connected with damp. a hawk. dienklebber. nature . prison. privately. to patronus. AS. brawl. conceal. strait. is used in the sense of secretly. glambar. klamme. Clank. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Clap. cramp-iron. hands or claws to grasp. cleave. tenacious. a loud tingle. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klepel.p correspond- ' without order. tattle. The root which gives rise to klibb. G. sticky Hal. To sticky. G. clamber. tremble . uproar. who occuG. Halma. klank. dapier. a sound made by a still . to pinch. G. to knock. dam. descendants . clink. anything hidden. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. Dan. Du. scendants. dem. to clamp. ancestor. to claw oneself up. to cling. to hold fast with the . to glue. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . and hence moist. as the clapping of hands. a heap of stones or other things piled up . salaan. rattle. to climb. kleben. Clamour. . a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. bond. klimmeii. clibby. clav\f. children. pressed close or hard together. Russ. a trap. sound object . klam. to daub pinch. grimper. grasp. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klippe. as the Lat. to clap on. a sound made by a lighter clink. celo produces Fin. A i. to Sw^. chief. damras. to starve. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. dapi^. klopfen. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. clammy brace. klappre. substances of a stickydam. to stick or glue. dam immediate modifications — . for tame conies. to clutch or cling oneself up. to beat. klepanie. kleppen. dam. to stick conceal. crowd . kluppel. compression. Hence the Fr. and that from celo. hook. dial. of the children. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. to. dink Du. salafa. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klam7n. knocking. tight. E. klappen. G. sound. diver. c). E. Bav. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to hook things together. damor. viscous. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. originally a heap of large stones. Lat. Dan. a claw. . . resonance klingen. contraction. in a hidSen place. . The Fr. club . to glue. G. tingle. klatten. Swiss kldbem. strain . narrow. — Lat. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. a noose . In like manner Du. clear sound. a whip. To Clamber. . or klamp-vogel. to Hal. solid. Clapper. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. to gingle. clann. to dame. a sound. kleppe.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. where- A — unto they retire themselves. beating. klemmen. to seize. of money Gael. Dan. Bohem. klepati. dank. from birdlime. to hide. gliong.1. klemmen. Clan. beat. Dan. to climb.

and shrill-sounding trumpet. pet. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. an on the one hand. to rattle . klauwe. a heap. . Clash. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. clamp. claw (what fastens together. Eau clairette. the collar-bone. a clod. ansa. insularum nexus . Identical with ON. kleuen. a buckle. subrubidum. blab. klaskad. to ring in such a manner for the dead. Owl and that by which cleave to. Wyutoun in Jam. a. chiarello. to end. Du. klatschen. Originally clasis. G. The b readily passes into gleba. The form clew. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. cloi. Lat. klijven. waU. Lang. from its use in fastening things together. hook. the cracking of a whip. climp. klatsche. also a knell for the dead. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. locket of a door. — Clarion. ghespe. ivy. assembly. Clavicle. cinnamon. From clairet. a ball. Clasp. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. a key. Clause. vinum helvolum. Russ. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. a. Claret.w or u on the other. it is called clamming. clausula. classis. from scknallen. rion. chasguear. diver. which signifies a ball in E. 269. Klatsch- a pop-gun . clopa. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Du. from clinging to the tree which supports it. straight-mouthed. a lash. and clavis. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. chiarino. claret win e. noise. Eya-klasi. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Dan. to shut. with a reddish tint. a lump . — tells us. a bird with powerful talons. contraction. Sw. mass. Lat. E. we pass to the E. nail. kiosk bicza. — Kiittner. Lat. puUs. uproar. a claFr. clavus. the primary origin clapa. It. gaspe. clairon of a trumpet— It. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. klouwe. forms are the Du. Rayn. mass. is used in Sc.Z. a little hook . clump. klc^i.— CLARET clamp. clas. a claw. chatter. clew or fasten upon a thing. clavis. as Mod. Thus from Lat. It. i. rubellum. — Clarinet. klaeret. chiaro clear. nawith stanis. In the same way is formed the OE. as G. syrtium junctura. Prov. or as G. a key origmally a crooked nail. klampe. to knock. sound of the foregoing description. klatscha pop-gun. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. Thus from clamp. clew. ictus resonans. Analogous Jam. is preserved in Lang. as it is written by Chaucer.Gr. Kil. an ending. kluczka. clarin. Du. klatschen. fragor . a bunch. . buckle. But clasp or elapse. globus. Fr. he of white and red grapes mingled together. schnalle. Du. dap. So Pol. in the sense of a claw.ck a whip. a lump. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Sp. Claw. glcis. Serv . to animals Sp. teren. thwack . to fasten together . Du. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. To clew. —Kil. klaterbusse. a nail. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. The collar-bone. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. compression. and old red rose-water. a water made of aquavitse. in the sense of a mass or lump. from the resemblance to a key. to do anything with a . to fasten. Clew. Mask ! plask ! thwick.to cra. Fr. klot. Gr. a sphere . same class with w. flap. Pol. to snap. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. and through v into a. Commonly made. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. fracas. seizes) . fibula. a complete sentence. somewhat clear. globus. bawling. klucz. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. In E. Du. a key KKtitid. a club or massy stick. &c. to draw it up into a bunch. Nightingale. klampvoghel. klaequivalent to clack or clap. vin clairet. sauna de classes. Lat. sphaera. to cleave. whence kleuer. Class. a clasp. cluster. thence a definite head of an edict or law. clarinado. klouwe (Kil.\x\xvn. stop of an organ. Fr. row aii/iaTos.. applied in their harness. klos. to clash as arms. a kind of small. skeria-klasi. crying. klase. KXeiSi. e. &c. clatter. pellet . biichse. chiizjj-o.). to patter. kleeven. klamme. Nawith stavis. kletse.oi. vin claret. biichse. K\a. clairon. clair. a distribution of things into groups.It. From claudo. clausum. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. to clap . hawk. under three modifications dava. klauw. Clatter. Cot.

clemens. polish . klink. loam. klouen. klieben. glitta. clean. calm. kloue. kloben. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. bend in a stream. sticky . klirren. the To Cleave. G. — : A rivet. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . viz. Da. rive. . and Dan. sleek. Clinch. dags. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. Probably a modification of the word doitt. pellet. cleave. dag. speech . Die zaak is zS. ON. clean. hook. klinken. sticky earth. dams. to clinch GB. danche. kleben. pure . Fr. that was Torriano. a lump. glor-mhor. famous. klutsch. i. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. a one end. a key. Kil. kloben. Sw. celebrated . clink. (Cot. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. as ON. dinquet kleeven. kleg. gingle. kluyte. From clap. a fissure or division See Cleave. of iron worn on shoes by country people. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Sw. Du. to 2. A — A Clement. kleverig. to separate into parts. Du.— Clag. Du. pretty. klag.— Claggy. a cleft or fissure. kluft. to clench. glbr. and E. give a shrill sound Jr. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. to glitter. to chink. glance . klove The Dan. to clink or sound. G.Q. E. a cleft. ON. in two ways. sticky. date is AS. klouen. cliquet. a mass. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. clay .' was nailed to a rock. pure. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. clear. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. together . glent. The Dan. Du. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. found in other cases. mud. klafwa. gleit. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. klinka. Gael. from nitere. . ON. a latch. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Da. seem formed dial. a noose. to cleave. klank. clear. the two parts of Du. a plate. Sc. viz. Clear. . The word may be — . Omklinken. the original . an object is simply cleft. See Clam. Lat. pure. klieuen. or of a tree. dedgy. Du. from diquer. Dan. gentle. as Lat. klinke. klincke. the fork of the body. to tear or cleave asunder. The word is . to shine . to stick to. To call. chaps in the skin. voice. or from being divided into two parts. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. glindse. that was a striking proof. to clinch a nail. to shine. klijveii. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. clibby. G. Clemency. E. deot. as explained under G. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Axletree clouts. bright. rift. glitnir. a bunch of When flax). to stick or adhere . a in that of sphtting. rivet. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . kluit. a mass. and. klov. clout. nitidus. doggy. From dob. to Brilliant. Halma. glan. klinken. bogs cous. provinciaUy termed dout.— . tongs. daggy. glatt. neat. holding together. vissticky . the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. klinke. Wilbraham. a — — . klor. kleg. Clay. dench. to fasten E. . to dag ox dog. Du. E. radiant. geklonken. a flash. a lump. to be composed. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. it cleave together. glbram. To Clench. cloven wood. kloben. Mar. to fasten. gaklankjan. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a noise. This is probably one of the clean. glorious. doff. glandse. G. dut. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. kleevig. lump. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. klceg. a fissure. Da. a cleft. as the Du. The proper meaning of the word is shining. a clincher. Lat. splendid pohshed. vice. opposite senses. to fasten. explained from the klinken. AS. Clean. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. to sound or make a noise . is fast and sure. words applicable sight. Thus from G. conserere antklankjan. . glan. the latch of a door. klirre. clear. clash. Cleat. Cleft. Sc. merciful. klinke. diquetcr. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. W. river. 154 CLAY dutch. This word is used in two business is finished off. polished. shine. See Clog. kldnkelein. Bav. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. door-latch. from the clinking of the latch. 2.). kla:g. B. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. dial. and Celtic glan. as Fr. smooth. Sw. clean. split. a claw or talon. neat. glan. klinken. either by the coherence To Clepe. G. clean. kluftholz. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. . also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. klyft. glint.

de ripa. cliof. to catch. a tumbril. OE. to seize. KkrifoQ. dook (identical with E. e. deudi. Somner. to tattle. hamraklif. from Gael glac. with hamarskard. click. cleft in a rock. babble. a hold. We movement catch. crackle. Det er en Mover kerl. frap- per rudement une personne. Happen. clima. Climate. klikklakken. the clergy clericus. above the pole. Fr. cave . dutch). cautes. Clergy. cliquet. The Sc. call. CLINCH De . to prate. dial. Click represents a thinner sound than clack.— Clue. duik. has also deik. or an object character- Clerical. clif. a lot. Clew. clyf. ized .' ii. &c. . on. verge). one of the clergy.) Brai. an inclination. seize (Hal. highest is attained. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . klippe. cleopian. Dunbar in Jam. in precisely the same sense as the E. derjon. to snatch. klikker. Clam. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. Da. cleugh. to talk as a parrot. rapidus from rapio. — have the notion of a short quick in E. dob. snatch. a precipice. kliket. klev. to teU tales. dever. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. klaffen. Chaucer. to wink. say. klinket. stein- kluppen. has kl'dver. a claw or clutch. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship.dergie! Wiclif in R. or Sc. cleft of a hill. clap. abrupta rupes . a trigger. cliff. clever. a ladder. light-fingered. klif. Lat. to cleave. dek. to catch. to bend. ginally from dob (extant in W. a child's or clack . a lazar's clicket or clapper. pen. rugged ascent. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. derecia. as Sc. a baU of yarn. clep. to stir. In I Peter v. Sw. Du. dial. call. a sphere. deik. and hence climate. . See AS. gleg. derigo. clypian. dicher. a mill-clack . dergi. agile. claw or talon to dek or deik. Lat. one admitted to the tonsure. kleppe.). cliquer. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. would have been derida. globus. had a form. a cleft in a rock . Cliff. klika. in rhetoric. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. klaiv. neither as having lordship in the. sonare. a cliff. Hence Lat. the dick of a latch or a trigger. as a click with the tongue. chat. Sc. a hump. as from derido. score7i clif. a latch. slope . narrow hollow between precipitous banks . klever. Sp. a latch . a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr.— Clicket. declivity. icXi/ja?. expeditious. precipices. . deik. Client. which is used in Scotch and N. diver. Clerk. to rattle. ravine. is NE. diofian. klippe. Boh. syn. nimble. in the sense of active. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Bav. from clifian. /cXi'fia. speak. clatter. klinge. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. quick of perception. G. See Clamber. to cry. klouwe. a hook. 3. kliv. IS5 Du. . whence Fr. chatter. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). crack. Clever. rock.. and hence deik.Lat. clif- stanas. littus. pulsare. cligner. rupes . Commonly derived from deliver. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. corresponding to the Sc. -Toe (from KXivm. klinke. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. cleft. dink. See Clench. Lat. crepare. skard. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. to clack. dexterous. dichet. a lump. quick in motion. Klover i munden. chatter. Du. on. d See Clan. Now the OE. Climax. glomus. scar. Rouchi cliche. sink. Climb. kloof. exactly Gr. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. as Lat. a ball of twine. catching. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. duke. — — A . click it. Claw. lively. kleppen. climate. klok klep- crepitare. name. —Vocab. diquette. deuck. region not observe it. deuch. prattle. it must be observed. ready of speech. which in Mid. Cot. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. clerus. Jam. dough. G. The origin is the Gr. what so men clappe or crie. clever. the clergy. rock. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. chatter. a figure mentioned. clack. and (with the nasal) — clincher. Norm. Click. to move. a clerk . cleke. to tattle. Du. to confess . cart that tilts over. a clew.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. AS. the knocker of a door. corresponding to Fr. derigon. CLERK sound of a blow. Gr. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. a latch. click. temperature. dial. click. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. But the Dan. a clicket or clapper. 3. precipice. that is a clever feUow. to sound an alarm to clap.

Swiss klokken. klepalo. clingan. kliks.. outcry. clique. dag. as thick or curdled liquids. . clips. difficulty . shears. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to crowd together klynge sig ved. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . pinch. * Clod. Kil. Serv. E. See Clang. knot klynge. gUong. speaks of a ' clung bat. To Clip. Bohem. to resound. to lean backwards. brett-glocke. dial. clinker.ginglej Fr. Ang. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. disposed to a thing. gang. related to clock. kima. knippen. to shrink up. in Schmeller) klunk. Ir. klincke. klippa. iissura. clutch. verklungeln. to lean. ON. tuft. Lat. as to snip in the same sense from snap. g. &c. slant. klak. as G. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. sloping forwards. ten. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. to beat on the board. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. a ball of thread . Cliofue. klingen. incline. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. a lump. cochl. Bohem. S w. met. . to shrink up. dial. klipa. like cling. to crowd or squeeze chingy. Lat. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. nip.— Clot. to clap or clack. E. Gr. -atum.. by bits. to ring. klocke. a clock. klik. especially of something soft or clammy. to . Du. whence E. a lump of butter. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. ' . to open and shut with a snap klippchen. pinch. toga. to snap tongs. . To cut with shears. to clunge. cloak. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. also to wink . kukla. to snap or fillip schnippen. G. to snip. — clot. klupen. bow. Cloak. . difficulty. also to form a compact mass. incline.und zuk-lippen. Een kliks bolter. Esthon. Flem. clock is a variation of clack. club). Bi klik uti klak. . straits. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. to strike.' From Pl. Swiss klungele. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. To stick to. kol- The word . klo^gen. sloping downwards . compress . Sw.. fetter.. a bell. G. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. klocka. to snap kneipen. recline. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. I. klippe. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. dial. kXiVu. hooded . -CLINE make pinch. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. from klepati. N orman clincailler.D. Walach. hluccti. — a mantle. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. noise. Clink. pallium. to slope or bend . declivis. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl.— KSS. as we now say three or four o'clock. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. klicke. klungelin. to wither. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. to beat. Hal. kleppe. toga muliebris. . clinke. klippa. Clock. to pinch. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. hluk. To Cling. and 'E. to form one mass with.' for a dry stick. -cliv-. kluppe. klaka. claw. a clog or fetter for a beast . quincailler. to bend downwards . a lump G. G. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Decline. ring clag. a separate portion. to clink auf. rima. Fr. or bagging clothes. to pinch klupe. The E. sticky.'— Shaks. klynge. . have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. klippen. . Sussex peasant AS. clog. klunge. 156 -cline. hlinian. 'Till famine cling thee. Fr. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Du. chcng. and a similar syllable without the /. globulus' (Gl. kldpp. 2. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. Sw. klocke. sloping upwards procUvis. acclivis. clato make a noise. at first probably on a wooden board. clino. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. schnippen. four of the bell. a hood. a rising ground. Sw. a beU. G. parva ruptura. dial. hill . The notion of a loose moveable substance. kolki-laud. Da. clangere. a bell. to AS. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. klippur. glocke. klok. cloche. klunker. to cluster. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. and so' to contract. Sw. to cling to a thing. G. ON. OHG. w. to wither. Pl. . glungelin. kolbe to E. to knock. hlinen. klinken. to make a loud noise. See Cowl. Gael. G. klinka. a cluster. a tinman. kluben. Du. Du. ON. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch.D. clivus. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. to clip. Sw. a woman's mantle . klungeln. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. a snare. knippe. a faction. to sound sharp. knippchen.

to flap as loose clothes. a log. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. to rattle. clog or overshoe. ! . CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. to dash like heavy rain. cloth. dab. claudo. schlott. chiudere. kloster. zocco. Pr.. I clodde. lump of butt