Dictionary of Etymology_1872



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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


or. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. muK) and mae (rfie. when neither name for the object to be designated. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. with an initial m or I. persons of different tongues at the present day. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. The syllables moo (mu. to the syllables which are significant to the child. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. and mully or mully cow is the . The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. in language of the present day. and. or Mollein. Molli. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). mind of the of the animal. the baaing of the sheep. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. by whom the be understood. and where we are seeking. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. name of the cow. is given to a cow or calf. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures.NURSERY IMITATIONS. when we is represent to our children of the cow. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the present day. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. the closer we shall approach to the . but nothing she herself knows the animals. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). which are naturally produced by the opening lips. in other words. come Moolls.

analogous to Magyar mammogni. p. by the natural humming sound. He would now say good. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. I had watched the growth of this word. when hungry. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. for things. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. for everything fit to eat. mumm. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. to eat. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. hm. partly from sounds which the child caught. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. in children's language. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. he called to to drink. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man.). as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. then. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. family. A member of my own new sfop.' In ordinary speech mump. On one occasion he said^e nim. nineteen years old. repulsive to eat. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. and which we might express thus. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made.' he says.. as well as the mind of the utterer. Finally an n was placed before it. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. First. Gr. to For instance. became more perfect. Gradually. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. had nim. for bad. his nurse adopting the word with him. Heinicke. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. fiafifi&v (Hesych. We have. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. to work over with the mouth. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. 72). nim. schipp. . &c. . in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. and nim came to signify everything edible. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. and some were very clear and distinct.

words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. nobis vix permittitur. Africa) nimnim. to be pleamind . to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). nvrnma. memmexen. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. p. make djamdjam). i. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt.' says Quintilian. ut tinnitus aeris. Primitive Culture. Nimm'd up. Vei (W. Gothic niman. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. we can call them so. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. crab nam buckra man. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. 1 86). and the crab — p. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. A negro proOr. Africa) nimi. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). sweet (Koelle). Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.' — Lersch. dial. mujnpa. to eat mampfen. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. mumpfeln. palatable. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. to mump. nam. ' id est. Soosoo (W. Wolof nahenahe.' And Diomedes. voracious. mumpfen. to take. . yamming. to taste . greedy . taken up hastily on the sly. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. savory.' says the author of Modern Slang. food (Tylor. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to fill the mouth. to Sw. namnam.). aptantes adfectibus vocem. delicacies.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Swedish dialect gamsa. and thence to be tasteful. i8o. the Scotch poet. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. iii. and some of them . Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. to smack in eat. clangorqae tubarum. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. ' Motherwell. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . j ing . on. (in chil- dren's language). j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Galla djam djeda. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. jamsa (yamsa). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus.minis. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. agreeing with Ein. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. aves tinnire.ONOMATOPCEIA. at hiamske i sig. mumble. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. buckra man's language the white man. South Jutland hiamsk. to move the lips in continued chewing. to chew laboriously. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). snatched (Whitby Gl. eating. jumla. as to . nyam nyam. 130-1. and the fizzing (and Series. or word-making. lita. to eat. stolen. tidbits nama . as well as the Sw. oves lalare. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). jammla. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature.

anything connected with it. might be used. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. und growling. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. before the in other words. grunting or squealing of hogs. bellowing of bulls. 89) with less hesitation. not of a baa. howling. or. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. whether it deserves the name of language. yelping. snarling. gobbling of a turkey-cock. We . intended in the instance to represent the cry. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. or thoughts of our hearer. 'I doubt.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER.' he says. snarling of dogs. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. do not speak of a bowwow. ^6^. lowing of oxen. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. bumping of bitterns. yelping. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. chattering of pies or monkeys. purring or mewing of cats. twittering of swallows. a lamb. for the purpose of bringing the animal. croaking of frogs or ravens. hen and cluck- duck and quacking.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals.' — We speak of a cow. not of a moo of Lect. sparrow and chirping. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. Indeed. neighing or whinnying of horses. baaing or maeing of lambs. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. but of a dog. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. p. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. Yet we ing. cackling or gaggling of geese. that there is When Man. between dog and harking. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. when circumstances required. might be used as the designation of it. bleating of sheep. listen in vain for between goose and cackling.' And elsevs^here (p. cooing or crooing of doves. chirping of sparrows or crickets. barking. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. hooting of owls. dove and cooing.

Origines Indo-Europeennes). Aoo-Aoo. Sauscr.' common sense. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. We imitate the sound with a modulated. in is Gr. gackem. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. according to Durga). kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. fi-om apakd- i.). KOKKvi. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. ghak. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. Georgian quaki.). having a general predicative power. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. kdka. and the sound of that direction. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Kdrava. He to is therefore derives kdka. caw kuhii-rava (rava. Manchu The kaha. Columbia kahkah. Hungary. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. or quawk.. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. and gaggele or gagkelein. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. as which is unmistakeably the source Du.' kd). caller. ist ed. coccolare. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. crow. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. a daw. Barabra koka. a crow (Pictet). Bav. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. is kuM) for the cuckoo. whose sound (Pictet. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. layitavya . birds. In Basque. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. and Bavaria respectively. sound). 349.IMITATIVE NAMES. a bird that is be driven away. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. 380. kuho. In Lat. crow. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. a crow. kae. kauwe. Picard cau. in g. a a crier (p. Malay gdgak. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Arabic kdk. 'Kdka. and means a shouter. lion. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. 4th ed. Sometimes the hoarse i . derived fi-om a root ru or kru. e. it announces (Salaberry).

p. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. xi. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. and e. The consonants p. kraeye. hibou. korren. t. The crowing of cot in Fr. tor. 219. lUyrian kukurekati. kruk. coccovaec. gufo.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. by the verbs gurren or girren. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. Mod. Esthonian kikkas. giving turtur (and thence It. cock. French dishuit. yell.. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. to crow. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Sp. kraeyen. So we have Polish krukac. to howl or Lat. or Gr. Yoruba koklo. are represented. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. uhu. and sometimes both together. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. krauklys. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. libufs. German luhu. tur. kraukti. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. great variety of oKokv^uv. kirren. a crow. lilits. Magy.. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Fr. to crow. a crow lish Lith. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. to hoot. the name for a crow. turtle) as the Lat. Scotch peeweip. teewhoop. k. It. while crouk. tuquheit. to croak.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. ghughu. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Heb. Swedish kowipa.Gr. koeren. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. German kielitz. Pers. Lettish kiekuts. Zulu kuku. and e. kukhuta. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. a crow . girre.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. 6. as well as of Sanscr. reduplicate form. gugu. coqueri- Languedoc. coucouva. tbrtora. Da. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. to croak. Du. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Walachian coucouveike. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. to cry loudly. another. Albacuculi a dove. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Dutch kievit. either in the same or in related dialects. synonymous forms of similar structure). Malay kukuk. wood-pigeon. Du. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Ibo akoka. tbrtola. in the North of England. German and Eng- krahen. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. name. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. kukko. "Welsh hwan from hwa. kuku. Arabic tdtwit. name of its is the bird. tortbla. Hindi. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. krahe. kurre. lulo. the name of an animal will gen- .

the humble. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. a bee. Lithuanian tranas. and he kong-ko-rong. grillen. thunder. Australian bumberoo. pip-pi-ta. Arabic tantanat. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Danish dron. to chirp J may be compared with . and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. The Welsh chwyrnu. to rustle. dhran. sound. hollow noise. zirken. to grumble. The name of the cricket indeed. g. to creak Bret. schrickel. cricket is from crick.' Amazons. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. booming. to shrill sound sharp. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal.' —Tennyson. shrill. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. din. knetta. Fin. skril with n. the drone or non-working bee . g. chirk. loud rumour. schwirren. in allusion to its music. Gaelic dranndan. there are infinite varieties. of England it is to the b 2 . resound. skirl. as . German drohne. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. a sharp sound as of a 6.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. and yelping cry. German dronen. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. Sc. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . and not from E.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. PofijivXwg. to sound. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. whirr). grille. swirplys with 6. buzzing. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. 'The natives call it tanand. with or Fr. or a gnat fly. gives rise to chwymores. The Arabic sarsor. from schrick. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. a fly (Tylor) . Lith. and probably indicates that g. growling. a hornet. sirkka. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. horniss and from the buzzing The. grylhis. glass cracking (Schmeller). German hummel. 337. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Sanscr. to be compared with Sanscr.IMITATIVE NAMES. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. schrecke. succeeding each other — with noise. words imitative of humming .or bumble-bee. skryle. a small as hawk is . bee. — Catafogo. a beetle druna. from the humming. little intermission. ' — Pictet . which they make in their flight very . ajo. resounding of musical instruments. g. ' Sanscr. Speaking of a cricket he says. In the N. (Jieuschrecke) . The drone peal. Lat. kong-kong. Northern Farmer. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. to hum.vf3. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. bambhara. Naturalist on the tocano.' — i. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. common. flight its sting considered as a horn. Corean sirsor. i. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. representing a short sharp sound. Albanian tsentsir. give a faint sound. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. e. schirke. humming. We may cite Gr. Danish gnaddre. oE. to chirp . North of England. buzzing. bamba. droning is . ta-na-nd. a drone.

Zulu lulula. grumble as distant thunder . baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to the uses goda. in a imitation of a ringing sound. On the same principle. the Fr. Fr. say. mamoo-heeheek. biibnas. to weep. representmake bow. be-l-er. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. shoot . make to it laugh. is inadmissible. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to make. Norse bu. (iove. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. bull. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. loge. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. a Geiger. bue. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. to make. w. w. k or g. forms a. a bullock. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Galla boa. to beat hard. that the imitative syllable are Lith. maukati. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. and djeda. bugle. or bau-l-i. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. From baa. bovis. bwla. to shout. to . to bump as a bittern Illyr. Illyr. a heifer. bullock. or moo. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to make a loud deep sound. a cow. boo. Fr. to bellow like a bull. bucula. in same way. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to shout. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to bow- own bawl. Piedmontese fi bau. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo.XX called booing. cattle. representing the mew of a cat. a bull. bae. Thus from miau. Cult. to sound. bolt. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. verbal form given to the say. Da. whence baula. The Galla lilbil. to make a noise. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. bubati. Lat. bubenti. bos. and thence Lat. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. Gael. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Hottentot bou (Dapper). Lat. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. ox. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. verb is evidently identical with our shout. mugire. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. Lat. are (with a subsidiary k). With these analogies. fivKaofiai. bugler. to mew. amuse. bauli. or with on. It. or formed Lat. to low. and in Hottentot baa was the . as the Illyr. a buffalo. mugler. has bilbilgoda. to or bark. and from to ring. to low . and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. baula. to ba-L-are. The Piedm. 167. bo. bae. muJiati. to low or bellow. or a z to the imitative syllable. buculus. mae. to boohoo. Manx booa. a drum . the animal. p. His analysis leads cow. make poo. bullus and e. bu. — ^Tylor. as that of the cow by boo. bukati. btibleti. lulauti (to hoo-loo). agreeing exactly with Lith. miau-l-er. to from bau. From the same lioao). OFr.

grunlike a pig in eating. lekavica. Manx meilee. a hog. meketati. goats. knurfisk. a goat. /xj/caScj. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. G. lambs. in v. mekegni. Illyr. Gr. oe. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. a grunt. naskia. menAda (ndda. sheep or goat. smack and naski. 6. Kurren und murren. (iriKov of forms like Sw. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. and hoc'h. he would hardly. Gr. hound. kurren. to rumble. from hundama. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. sus-sus. Fr. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. lek-eg-ni. lecco. grunt. name of the animal itself. a pig. as the proper name of a tame sheep. a dog. rumbling. guttural tone. sound. curmurring. by which the shingle gives rise to It. Hence Breton hoc ha. the snout of a pig. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Fr. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. Da. a sheep. to howl.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. grumble. and Circassian maylley. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. we have Sanscr. It. grumble. Gr. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. . The g. purr). Moreover. as lou of an ox. leg-et-ni. Magy. hadg- Magy. this obstinate race. a sheep or a goat. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. signifying a snarling. may with to snarl. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. grumpf. Illyr. hunon. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. to grunt. Welsh and Breton). .). a. ^. Idgge (Rietz). name of a sheep. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. to themselves. meigeal. to growl. to grunt. meil. grunny. a sheep or ewe. leknuti. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. a goat. Illyr. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. and thence groin. houch. grogner. / The same Gr. a goat firixal^ta. a pig Fin. From the imitative mae. to bleat. name. from knurre. Gael. ' In driving. groin. meugler. nire. hund. mutter. undoubtedly imitative. grumbhng. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). hunt (gen. the designations of a dog the term cur. for the voice of the ox). of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. — . a (Hesych. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. it and e. /xijeao/iat.' Moor's Suffolk words. mecati. It is probable also that e. meckern. With gen. Among dog. does not produce a e. in Wolof bae. grugno. kurre. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. hwch. a wolf. growl. and of (maelon). with the root ypaipm. and with the subsidiary k or g. a sow. to bleat . although the imitation embodied in Lat. or in any ! way ! persuading. karra. cite as by grunt. a sow. Africa laa. And it is true there between hog and grunt. may be identical with Esthon. and grumphie. . and snorke. a sheep (Lowe). corresponding to ohg. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. hundi). the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. cry). to bleat.

hobben. coquette. If onomatopoeias can . while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. There are of course some names. a little am- bling horse.' — ist Series. humma. Sc. . huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. such as cuckoo. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language.root. g. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. of the character in question. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. hoppe. the cry to stop or back a horse. . from the cry animal. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. p. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. hottihuh. p. cockade.. coquelicot. (Craven Gloss. a horse. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. like artificial flowers. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. when he found peculiarity. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. houpy in Craven. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. hobby. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. to go backwards. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. So Sanscr. Thus we are led to the Fr. animal.' 2nd Series. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). Esthonian hoibo. e. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. ^6<.). a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. hiine. without a — we root. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe.. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. turn a horse to the is In Finland.' ticular bird. But words of this kind are. hobin. 91. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. a mare. to whine. M).). to the left. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. as in Yorkshire highly right.

signified It. cough. woodpecker. Bohem. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. to neigh. Irieschen. creeper. Fr. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. hikkd. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . hukkup. sol. to Sanscr. horse. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. Sanscr. hresh. nitrire. animals or certain kinds of sound. frenschen. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. ginniken. runniken. hennir. Pl. e. Lettish sweegt.D. hross. giggle. wrenska. wagtail. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. Du.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. hresh. ance or habits of the animal. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. than to the sounds represented. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. . wiehern. Sp. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. nounced with a guttural). by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. redpole. little speak for themselves. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. goatsucker. xxiii ginal object. as sigh. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. groan. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. lapwing. diver. fehtati. rinchar. g. swift. command of language was attained. moan. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. but whether there kind between them and other words. form corresponding hresh. titter. wrena. whitename in in- throat. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Sw.

&c. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. snukkup). haw. wheeze. thunder (Tylor) . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the sound of milking. tisio (tisho). bang ' ! trenches.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. fitsche-falsche. hang. for the sound of a fall. to throw violently down. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. are familiar in ' to every one. DingBang. the dashing of the sea . for the for the sound of . for in such sound of blows. heaven). to sneeze. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. for a small one. oren : Klapp. lumm. went the cannon. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. snort. shriek. tlirob. pit-a-pat. bang. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . a large bell. klatsch. for blows with a rod. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. the God of thunder . To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description.' So imac. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow.' 'Haw. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. to knock. —Brem. snore. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. atchini. pump. . for the sound of a blow. bangas. for the creaking of a wheel. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. atchian. haitshu. clap ! A smack Puff. in a nail Let. aritischane. an attempt would be made to by the voice. scream.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. Mei gbengben.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. to ham. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. Of a like forma- drum . When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. mer. knarr. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo.' it both sides went. White Lies. heart tick-tack. Vei gbangba. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. or the w. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. strippstrapp-stroll. Wtb. dong Read. Zulu bongo. for that of breaking. debhes-lungotais (deifies. &c. beat. to hammer . 1865. to drive on. a kind of drum. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . banke. ping came the bullets about their ears. hoo ping ping. Australian bungbung ween.' ! ! ! ! — dong. on the chops is represented also by pratx. ting-ting. root kshu. ding. It is represented in e. beat of a clock child . banga. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . Da. — Sanders. hoo. plitsch-platsch. or tliat is accomit. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. to beat. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. knack. a more expressive than the e.

) a chick. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. bleat. as the simplest implement for proFr. had been used laugh ? two. G. pipilo. Magyar pip. pipio. chickens (Tylor). to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. which he added to intensify the expression. pi. He Yet asks. a fowler's bird call is lost. pigiolare. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. It seems to him that the teeth t. a whelp. —Lyndsay. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. mobility excavation and hollow ^. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. Lat. pipegni. to cry like imrli^u). to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. the voice of chickens (Cot. as k. pipio. — . doubtless. peep. part of the What consciousness has the child. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in.' instead. De Brosses. . pippione. young child . To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. and so forth. not- . being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. is of expression. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. Gr. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. to cry pi. a (young) pigeon. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. is pfeife. to squeak. child. Mantuan pipiare. Lat. or the uneducated different consonants are man. calls S. to cheep like a bird or a young It. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. Fr.sc. pipe. pipe. young bird. a or cheep. and whimper. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. piccione. far pipi. scream. Florio. pipelni. used as a call to . to designate cavity and hollow. In cases such as these. has been un- employed to designate fixity. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. cry. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pu. piauler. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. piou. of a word will appear supposed to represent. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. and their relations. pigione. laugh. as in other subjects of study. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. pule. ducing the sound. peep. pipare. to peep It. pigolare. The pi. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. or a piailler. e. a fife or musical pipe. piou.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. a chicken or gosling. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. cry of young birds .

be cate to go on laughing loud . . bubble. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. rumble. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. or kaka-faka. of something fine and thin. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. murren. the side of g. to gargle . to creak knirren. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. murmur (by . Pefuxela. creak. along with Du. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. coo. to gurgle. cluck. to gorgogHare rattle. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to grate the teeth . kniks. to grumble. some small vowel or consonantal sound. {to It. of a loud strong sound. a closed or obscure sound. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. thunder oil . xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. u. make wood a clinking noise. Manchu kaka-kiki. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . a sharp short one.. along with tinnio. kirkirdnd. rumble (Fl. to cry pi. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. karkarana. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to pant violently (Colenso). Indian chack-chack. preserved by Kilian. to thunder. a short sharp sound. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . to grumble). to hawhaw or laugh loud. and lugh. to cluck. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. garren. a prolonged sharp sound. &c. lachachen. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. crack. i. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. like the noise of a glass breaking . knurren. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to jar. to be compared with Sc.. when it force than biscuit. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. . the clucking of a j hen . sound). chack. or springing back. cricli. kuruk. is very common. to bubble. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. tontonare. Hindoo tomtom. crash. grumble. Hindustani karak is rendered. It. knaks. to crackle like in boiling . yapyapii^to (to make gargar).Gr. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to laugh. where the variation.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. rumble. gurren. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . a. in German. girren. a drum W. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . borrelen.) Mod. as the click of a latch or a trigger. loud laughter. tonare. Pacific aka-aka. kniks. tintino. knuks. to pant bejii- zela. to ring pipio. vaake gorgor) . to growl. to clack. laqfF. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. sound of dry breaking. to fizz like fat in frying. as representing the sound made when something breaks. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. lachen. to rattle. Zulu raraza. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). Poppopvi^to. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. pi . turtur.

Fr. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Maori pata. ding-dong. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. correspond to e. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. corresponding in e. tup. e.* the heart. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. the gingling of glasses. Prim. and e. and Gr. thump. as of Tamil muromurmur. call. Calt. The whispering of the wind I. chut. Turk. clink. is based on the same imitation as the e.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. and her heart went thump. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. bad. agrees with g. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. a smith. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. The syllables lil-bil. djeda (to say tub). sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . Galla tuma. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. to strike. is Manchu tang-tang. drops of i. jingle. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. the sound of a stringed instrument. to giggle. spring of water in the a bell. to say chut. at an accelerated note. tumwata. Magyar csamm-ogni. to the purling of a brook. Manchu kaka. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. clango. borrelen. fumtu. wail. sound). Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. kl'mg-kling. quarren. chuchoter. for chut-chiit-er. Sanscr. a boy's whistle. a workman. jangle.and e. and Gr. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. are applied to the is excrements of children. 1871. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. klirren. uproar. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. box on the ear imitation of the . rain (Tylor. KaKog. tubh. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. to beat. identical with g. rifiirayov. tumult. a nightingale. muro and e. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. kiling-kalang. to knock. simmer. hala-hald-faMa (falda. for a tTviror). Newman). or the bubbling up of to a spring. bent her head. cry. to whisper. disturbance (F. Hindustani bhadbhad trees.' Member for Paris. halaidlac'h. coughing or clearing the throat. for the sound of privy whispering. shout. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. or of bells ringing. or to Du. bulbiil. clank. csam-csogni. . especially one who beats. word. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . E. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. Tiie Galla gigiteka. to ring or jingle. noise. compared with Gr. indicating the origin of Gr. koXiw. and bilhila. awater* ' The Mme P. champ. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. sound. make djamdjam). and the imitative nature of tivgle. brings us to Fr. while cacd / used in e. bubble up. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. croaking of frogs. a drum . Scotch sough or sooch. to be compared with g. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. for the ringing of illustrate bells. the tingling Ming-Hang. for the clinking Lat. . as Fr. chinking of coin. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. caca and Finnish adkkd. a nightingale. clash of arms. rvir (in tvittio. 368). of keys or tinkling of bells. 192).

paddle. hum. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. the Germans puff. Nevertheless. gargle. rattle. Fr. clap. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. w. tymmesll. while e. dash. patter. to fall. souse. twang. parapatapan. clink. clank. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . boom. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. answering to g. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. gurgle. thump. smash. we have buffet or cuff. tomber. squall. crack. splash. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. clash. tinkle. plump. squeal. bubble. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. splutter. bang. and soufflet. disturbance. crunch. according to the strictest phonetic rules. thwack. tingle. crash.' — Nohden. by rubadub. flap. Humboldt. flop. and Grimm. din. to dance. guggle. smack. fizz. clack. creak. for (Sanders). thump. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. and the French pouf. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. blow. report of a gun. brumberum. tum-ultus. whine. whirr. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. without the intervention of orthodox roots. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. craunch. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. a applied as well to the force of the bang. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. dabble. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. lash. mutter. tap. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. and Fr. or v^hether jectional. swash. at a door tarapatan. murmur. chink. in e. hiss. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. rap. chatter. squeak. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. snap. clang. rataplan or rantanplan. ' Der puff. sputter. whizz. thump. blubber. The use of g. rumble. It. to is blow. pop. 'pat. So in Fr. jingle. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. But although and also found in Lat.. puff.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. The beating of drum is represented in e. tumbian (to beat the ground). it is fallj AS. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. slash. ring. whack. douse. clatter. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments.

knows them. little who has time to want of her nurseling. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. the inteij. xxix on the contrary. is Thus ah!. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. If.'.' . are made known by an instinctive cry. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. the kind of action that is desired of them. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. or any unsatisfied want. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. stractions.' If chaos. wringing the hands. and uttering plaintive sounds. but if we must not complain on the beach. 94. the interj. by the nature of the cry. or stubble is meaner name. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. and found in the building of be burnt up. Crying. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. hay. or of any if wood. Grimm or Bopp. because they are spontaneous. of horror. without a thought of symbolising to them. and thus they become signs of despair. that he has taken the step in rational speech. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. in the case of the animal or of the infant. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. grief. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. formerly cited. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . At the first beginning of life. in the rushing waters. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. p. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. an imitation of a sigh . and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. ugh . In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. every little pain.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression.

the lowing of a cow. should be remem- . assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and the eye. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. he cites from Home Tooke. If I wish to make a person of an . which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. be more powerful. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have.' — ist Series. or which is of me as suffering pain. to solve the I shall call first. And again. they are involuntary interjections. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. 32. and some of them the composition of words. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. He says. groaning. which are frequently so toned down cance.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. coughing. of all the mouth. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. 344. One short interjec- tion may fact. interjections.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . more eloquent than a long speech. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. as who them spontaneous utterances. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. them to exercise it. may become traditional. p. ^6g And to the same effect 371. more to the point. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. shrieking. sneezing.' p. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. Language begins where interjections end. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh.. p. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men.

is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. for example. interjections. in Fin. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. kahkahah. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. demolishing here. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. and thus. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history .PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. hahota. it them. bered. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. hohottaa. in Magy. Gr. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. he says. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. some kind of language might have been formed. but the less am at a loss what to say. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. Tooke in truth. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. when I arp humming and hawing. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. Lat. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and more or less limited . loud laughter. cachinno. speaking. then speech begins. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Kayxa^u). to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. hahottaa. Koxafw. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. and others from interjections. I am not hearer.

makes them stand and walk upon the table. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock.' he says. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. The following account is given by Kruse. It as has ing their most striking features. And so in the case of language. Though. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. But here nature soon conies to his help. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. What strikes him . . of the world. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. of the nature of this great movement. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. and go where we now say stand. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. dumb is the language of signs. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. the critical question should be. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. like peewit and cuckoo. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. words receiving the meanings they now bear. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. a deaf-mute himself. and not. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. a Picture-language. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. if taken as a whole.

' from the circumstances of the into a question. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and to taste. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. for the agent. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. that. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and with his thought. or the verb to be. the lan- guage cultivates itself. signs are taught for yet. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. xxxiii him between one thing and another.' In the Institutions. and it is flesh or meat. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. thou. letter To hold the two fingers apart. walker. such as than the educated man. but if I depress it instead. particular sense in properly so called. and gestures. the whole secret. it means little. the sorecalling them to his memory. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . and forms further and further. most striking outline of an object. The same sign stands and the act itself. his action. for single objects. thought is already broken. it seems. or To pull and flap with the arms. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. And is. becomes roast meat. what more. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. nay. and And thus he makes himself a language. he. like a V. to name.GESTURE most. walked. many when or but these. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. among themselves.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. for walk. and we have roast goose. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. walkest. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. such objects. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. The of sign for left hand. called Gesture-language. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. that signifies great . by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. he. and fully serves to j . and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. as it now opens out. for child. that air. push it towards the person addressed for thou. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas.

The office of all words at the jections at the present day. depend entirely upon the use. a number of alternatives are suggested. . or an act. He gave door a bang. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. substantive or adjective. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. Do not bang the it is a verb. the garden. or a passive scene of existence. qualifies the against the wall.xxxiv asking. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. as in die it is a noun. or something of the kind. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. or a quality. The same word . in fact. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. as But when it is meant door. and thus performs the part of an adjective. would be simply beginning of speech. or action. putting it into his pocket. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. Who is has beaten you ? would be. and so is an adverb. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. as when Bang ! went the gun. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. it called an interjection. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When I say. whether by additions or otherwise. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. You beaten . —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language.' dener's knife. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. a colour red. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. I say. When a verb. to indicate the action of a certain person. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. the ture of white term pink is and red. might be the knife. according to the circumstances of the case. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. in other instances sentence. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. and the as. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. when I say. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose.

middle. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. that admits itself in of audible representation.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. in the sense of great. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. a groan. or with elements expressing relations of time. coalesces with the personal pronouns. commencement of speech. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. Latin. and may be used language. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. wherefore. inside. inquiry. but often self-evident. wherehy. a noun. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech.^ — Miiller I. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. whereto. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. as cung. greatness. contempt. . the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. wonder. or nei. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. verb nor noun has yet been developed. which is an old y ting (use stick). as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. as kuo cung. whereof. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. the man is great. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. Jii ta. that is. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. and to be great. or some relation between it and another object. Thus tafu signifies a great man. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence.. in the is indicated by the syllable y. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. wherewith. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. &c. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. with a stick. pain. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. grie^ horror. 255. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. a sigh of oppression and . moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. some outward display of the affection. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation .

to lament. och. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. jaoh. as. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. . vaj. on. . Thus from springs otjucifw. to weep. ah. ach. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. mew. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. ing action I. and to bark . w. It. oh. to gargle. suffering. in Gr. al. . In this way from the root guai. to cry at. It. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. however. hei. guai. guajo. oh. ach. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. wai-l. oimare. n. Such are g. is w. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. oi. achen. vce. grief] affliction. Gr. och. axofiai. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. wd. j. to wail. wai. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. at the close of the radical syllable. has more kopfweh. grief. grief. gwae. ! ! Goth. are ol-ire. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. The form corresponding to Lat. &. first person. to bewail oneself. pain. to groan. to rriourn. probably a deeper groan. ace. ohg. to . xxxvi grief. to make bow-wow. ochan. headache. form. ahi. I oi[iot. pain. to weep. to lament. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. tirr-djeda. . he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). la. Illyrian vaj. to sound yapyap. on. gwe-l-a. representing Illyr. seen in Gr. ocAJ. guaj- or cry out pitifully. waiidt. representing a cry of pain. g. pain. o'i. to ache. weh schreien. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. Let. to ache. wehen (Schmeller). has to cry laa the Piedmontese. g. ui. wAwa. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. Gr. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. misery. die wehen. to yell formed e. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . as. jao. Lat. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. ach. It. Illyr. miau-l-er. lau-l-e. ache. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. wehthun. It. Gael. vce. miau-l-is. Lat. vei-a. aiai^to. mostly a ! %. ochain. to hurt Let. to cause pain. found in g. lament. howl. e. ai. och. w. djamdjam goda (goda. . Bret. 6. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. dchzen. Jar lau-lau. ochan. wai. gwae. oval. Gr. to make). e.ez. weh. woe. Fr.'). cece. w^wa. to chirp. weinen. 6. guaj-ire. woe. A widespread It. the pangs of childbirth. to injure. ah. ohi. to cry n. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. lament from oimi. or r.-l-are. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me.. and cacak djeda (to say crack. to do woe. to wail or cry alas . is Ay di me I Gr. e. miau-n-is. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. misfortune. a groan or lamentation vir.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. and by a variety of expressions besides. child. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. da. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat.' person. case. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. or wants to name something. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. his trowsers' pocket. says da-da-da. as it Dieser da (as Lat. well as Goth. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. When we pointing. 'nay. is we I believe. ToSe (or in Attic E. that. a specified were by pointing him out. Sie. But. Dr Lottner observes.' then points to his wife. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). and so on. give me that cheese. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. thata (ta-ta). ' sees an object. Thank you. I add) . when he wants something. is-te). Sanders (Germ. as. but the truth is.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Phil. . according to Menage. when 1859. the nursery da-da. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. implying the direction of its good will towards them. In the expression Da. that gratifies me. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. saying : there the ad- Trans. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. and may be rendered. to here . we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. for instance. der da-ige. give. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. or that it is. we may translate this by there (it is). the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. this here. da. indeed.' this. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. Diet. The Fr. more emphatically roSj)j that. Bav. as to express.' all is is — their consent.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. a word of many applications in g. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. • The child. or give me it. nurseries. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. that is it. or carry me thither. Please. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving.

to walk. sounds. to say to oneself. — Cot. which thus exertion. reality. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound.^ its ' utters : a cry. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. p. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. to knock. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. standing. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. moving. meanings. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. make dadada). beat. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified.' • liv ANALOGY. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going.' says Lottner interior. dadee. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. childish toying. the original is that which he places first. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. of which any one may. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. thinking. strike. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. Thus Gr. to move step by step. The da is dodem. and one in particular must. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. or metaphor. . or dalliance. in every mode of expressing the idea. tasting. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. and shapes it into an . then instinctively interest. tattle. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. to beat. pay. to chatter. stutter. speech. its desire. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr.' says Muller. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. to tion to another. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. sinking. takes it — as When the soul.

a with kimmaltaa. spraka. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. snutrs. schmecken. may be quoted gUt. noise. gnittre. snudra. a dis- cernment. then to sparkle. Heo Du. think. Bavarian bracht. in popular language. to smack or taste. to . In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. make a loud noise. to crackle. tinkling. sprageti. to crackle gnistre. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. splendour. search . to tinkle. for example. as. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to ring. brilliancy. to sniff.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. firom the Gael. the equivalent of g. signified a clear sound. sapere (which signifies the nose. iclat (in Old Fr. 1654. magnificence. clang. wilahtaa. properly a clap or explosion. chime). to sound clear In Galla. In the case of sparkle. . snuff the sniiten. is used in the origin. wamara. scheteren. ghsten. bilbilgoda (to make . to resound. rattle. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. Du. scTiateren. bilbil). to sparkle. snot. beorhtian. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. sense of brightness. man of nice taste. in the domain of movement. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. unlella. esclat). wise. suspect Bav. a rustling sound Gr. to have Sapiens. prudent. same imitative root with Sw. The 6. In the same way the Goth. to shine. — 1. kimistd. may be it explained . knistre. smell. to snilF. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to glitter. tintelen. Finnish. to sniff out. Lith. and schmecker. to glisten Dan. knittre. to be wise. to 5 ghtter. taste. sound. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. Again. also wise. to glitter e. outcry. and. . air. It is The word bright had a similar In as. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. beam. schiteren. which in ohg. to quiver. tumult. as kilind. we have and the and beorht. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. wilistd. (parallel bilbila. while sapere itself. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. Fr. smell. to flash. discreet. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. to shine. and figuratively. bright. to glitter. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. a ringing . judicious. to glitter. from the . So firom Lat. extended to the exercise of the understanding. fiapfiaipw. on. snotor. &c. splendour. savour. and thence e. pracht. a brilliant light kilid. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to ring as a glass willata. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to shriek with laughter . kiimottaa.

accordance with the way in which by touch. shatter. which The Stoics. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. fitting the letters to the sense. wool. the clank (stridorem) of chains. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. 6\tadaveii'. . rough.' he says. of dressing loud. then in rpd/xoe. Kpovtiv. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. rough to the ear. he framed the words ivSov. break. gluey. Tpa)(yg. briars. The BpavEiv. the bleating of sheep. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. smooth. in of his works. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. he says. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. eo ut res vol. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. whirl. as soft by the ear. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. we hear of screaming colours. rend. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. extremely loose. tremour. Kep^arl'ieiv. the neighing of horses. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). or . pleasure soft to the ear . Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. crux. is felt Lana. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. within. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. rough both ways. flow and flux. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. v. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. KoWiiSije. sharp. roughness. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. itself letters are felt as sofl. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. 1. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. the cross. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. in truth. to slide. ipuKuv. \nrap6e. &c. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. rough. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. strike. oily. inside. power of the letter-sounds. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. kvTOQ. And observing that n kept the voice within. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. pvfi^Civ. and vepres. discusses the tone of a picture. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. mel. Acre.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. Much of the same has been often quoted. soft.

jog. to reel abruptly from side to side). we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. jig. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. shog. corresponding to the ineor. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. to signify varieties of movement. 'and consequently form.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. for exis ample. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . d. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. and in the utterance of a high or or low. tug. shag. or checks as they are called by Muller. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. p. dig. rug. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. A greater felt. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. to jogj sac-cade. jih. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. joli. stag (in stagger. 138). The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. sag-oter. stab. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. the case of the voice. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. jag. ii.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. t. as when. k. Fr. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. dag. p. degree of roughness sound. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. g. a rough and sudden . cular effort Again. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound.

Then. or check. Sukkeln. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. a playiug-marble. tock. sound barely audible. The Mipen or pencil. is lanese toch. The analogy then carried a step further. an old worthless horse or carriage. a quid of tobacco. to have it ticked or marked on the score . thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . a stroke with a French toucher. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. to On the same principle j we have g. to mutter. The production of sound. not to utter a syllable. a . however. to beat or play on a musical instrument. g. to take a thing on tick. micare. chiquet. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. to ring a bell. passing to the signification of motion. Accordingly the g. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. it produces Dutch micken.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Brescian toch. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. a small bodily object. a crum. (mitsati). representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. Hence Lat. chique. to say a word . a little bit. Fr. motion. rough horse. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. zack. tecche-tocche. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. mot. to incite by light touches. a good piece of road . also to stir. lead to Spanish tocar. and analogous movements. to mark it with a touch of the pen . Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. Bolognese tocc. to winkj micati is Lat. cica. a jog. that we never can be sure. to move rapidly to and fro. tech-tech. mik. tick-tack for the beat of a clock .Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. for the sound of knocking at a door. like English tick. so to Italian toccare. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. foot. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. chicoter. schuckeln. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. &c. to utter a slight kick. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. in cases like the foregoing. zigzag. kuk. used interjectionally to represent a . Ene olde suksuk. movement. To tick a thing off. as Italian tocco. to touch. Mucken. S-panish miga. Thus we have B. is made to signify movement. mica. to tickle. Welsh cicio. then. It. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to stir. sound Fr. a cracker. an infant . and e. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Dutch kicken. The syllable suk is jerk. tack. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. mie. toch-toch. schockeln.. properly a small lump'of . e. and It. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. kik. The train of . with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. a piece or bit of anything. as tot. to strike It. to glitter. Fr. to pulses being knock. figuratively. then. chic. Illyrian migati. is so frequent a consequence of movement.

mot. lix Sp. tot. or o toi. not because the pendulum makes a different left. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. . Then. iki. and dot. 199). The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . there (further of!) ao. Pm. n.) . In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. here. 0. subdued manner. zitio. and a small lump of something.n. as in e. often entirely arbitrary. syllable mot. this . to dot. mote. tottle. a morsel. In a similar the relations of place. and mite. tit. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. the least visible insect. a small horse. mutter j dust. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. This kind. is shown in murmur. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. to whisper (Pr. titter. jot. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. (Halliwell) Da. tiny. clay . a whisper. anything . . i. Fr. you. to touch lightly with a pen. titilh. . motta. little. we have e. citto. a small bird. So. a certain conception. small of kind. 48) cites from the African Tumale. I. corresponding to the personal pronouns. to tremble. that. or the like its It. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. a girl. this. gni. mossche. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. seesaw. . not to utter a syllable. zitella. of movement in totter. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. tot. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . . to e. bunch or flock of wool. further off. the vowel sound. a sparrow). for the beating of a clock. there '(at a short distance). eo. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. Cult. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. small titlark. tozzo. . fragments It. a light quick blow. to make a slight mark. a e. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. and out there. taut. motte. fait. for the three personal pronouns. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. The following table from Tylor (Prim. e. lump of earth. But the same is language has re Javan. tit. and toddle like a child titter. to touch. a. e. ika.- a jot or little It. . a tot . a bit. to jot down or note with a fro. a bit. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. tot. Halliwell. tot. a lad citta. and he. tittle. gnu. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. . titmouse (Du. to movement of the pen . anything small flax. move slightly to . here (close hand). little j to that of a small bodily object. to jog. gno. or the converse. neither moit nor an atom. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. totle. ticktack. at where the order is inverted. a small lump or pat. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. mut. there. that iku. a small kind of lark. Malagasy to. a small quantity. the same organ touched with the man. mutter. chico. ri that. Du. a morsel girl . not an atom . a little titty. To jot.

Then. loo). . this .) nna. minution further. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. here . to. /e«.. mother. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. is father. Guarani nde. ne. here j ka. Sahaptin (America) kina. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. is Here. for the male. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. . an old woman chacha. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. this . there. that in the distance. Lat. ni. mas cheche. here 5 Yoruba na. . femina ama. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. me probable that • Vei also little. as Mr Tylor remarks. he. ^.) pronunciation of i or e. w. Carib ne. an old . ulri. Magyar ez. Mm. Ossetic am. Abchasian aSn. ni. akha. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. and a for the female. there. Gr. there. ita. this fi. ojOo. little. /wo. . ukko. I . ofj. respectively. ta to ka. ndi. Mutsun ne. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote.. that. that. and origin. here j abe. that. biii. this . The vowels a and o sound of the voice. that.araM. there. man erne. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. there. thou. no constant rule is observed. . father. young one. that (intermediate) j wana.e^. Fernandian az. there. tiiio. probably initial of distinction that the k. nne. here .. thou . Japan ko. . bi. here this . (tt). km. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. mother. Botocudo ati. this . that. as in Italian Fin. child. that. . small (Pott. Zulu ajoa. he. father k . . Dhimas isho. qu. this <t.. It seems to (fen. Tarahumara ibe. Chilian tva. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. j Canarese ivanu. mother. child. that. here feraa. It Carib lala. Tamul i. that. 6. this ole. usho. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. /mya. that. as the act of pointing was ta. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. olo. you. uta. there. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). thou ni.

The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. analogous to winy-piny. just beginning to appear. little. to peep. wenig.) . trippelen. trappen. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. nipple. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. Da. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. Fr. as ding-dong. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. titta. nab. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny.' — Merrv Wives. little To sup up. barking of a dog. the simplest mode by the g. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. — Douglas Virgil. the pip or pippin. to tread. the idea is called. of smaller things. . nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to feet. a little yellow beard. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. or even.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. at pippe frem is to spring forth. for instance.' making the voice as small as possible. The Sw. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. don-don. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. whence Fr. And perhaps the E. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. trSpigner. the nursery few j Sc. a step. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. trap. and in the Pacific dialects. to begin to appear . fretful. i Sw. in old e. pepin. dance (Kil. &c. knob.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. looking through between obstacles. The sound trapp . of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. as j money. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. trippen. keeh. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. Clank represents the sound of something large. sound of bells . to make its way through the bursting envelope. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. Thus we have Wolof sopa. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. Top. a child. for a succession of light blows low-wow. stairs. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. to peep through. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. the principle of reduplication. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. din-din. for the . to teet. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. tion. From cases like the foregoing. trappa. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. to leap. is to express simple continuance of action. wean. has tittafrem. lift 8. repetition It. 401. murmur. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. A little wee face with little. nil. A little weeny thing. or chink.

be used as far an echo to hard sounds. the comparative degrees of greatness. (to use a to speak. or in Fr. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. puka- puka. to or rub. little child (p. ding-ding. very long (Pott. . sopasopa. if very young. And generally. So from clamo. and the words express a continued sound of rack. to talk at to walk. calling. could readily be conceived. kenda. loloa. clamito. Again. 99). Mandingo ding. random . . to rock. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. i.Ixii REPETITION. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. racket. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. Thus in E. child . to cover e. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. er. lololoa. ratsi-ratsi. kamha-gamla. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. 97). a cradle. Susa di. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . rapidity and strength. amusement. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. or imitative syllables. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. is language. &c. Thus in the Pacific loa. to to call. tache. the lungs. very great. to pant. to vi^alk about for flax. mawhiti. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. instead of being actually repeated.. click. the agent in panting . a spot. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. hardness. clash of weapons. or el. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. properly speaking. cliqu-et-is. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to treat with contempt. tach-et-er. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. kendagenda. or a little tee--ny thing. the and clique. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. or very very great. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to say pooh It is ! to. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. mawhitiwhiti. to call frequently from Fr. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. smallness. or rdtchi. mpolu is uttered. to skip. child . a grasshopper. a clattering noise. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. rack click. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. are echoed by the rudimentary et. very bad.' expression is — ^Tylor. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. ayunayunan. rack. didi. and Fr. The same principle of 196. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. Cult. repetition or continsignify long. bad . puka. Malay ayun. keep spots. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. to love. from Maori muka. in familiar use with ourselves. serves to show and in this way.

In like manner crack imitates the sound made . the knie-en to E. is In e. crack.Jicol. to continue dragging. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. it. to puff. to move to and fro. or omitted. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. the part that moves on a hinge up and down.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. others. g. to rock or wag. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . wavering. such asjlap. dabble. to wail woe . in used for dealing with an object by the hand. Jickfacken. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to rock. he who rubs. the lungs (the puffers of the body). seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. miauler andpiauler. as mAS. where all direct connection with sound is lost. compared with g. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. are to cry mew and pew . syllable clat . to bark like a dog. bubble. as to handle. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. Piedmontese bau-l-S. and in as. rynel. or by association. to crackle. to make a succession of shoves. smack. to hand. a succession of cracks to rattle. which. or in e. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. In cases like these. or Maori puka-puka. bub. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. or fi bau. wagas ging. to hand-le. guggle. to make gug. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. in some applications. miauler and beler correspond to E. jogging. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. The contrivance with any particular noise. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. Ihre remarks under gncella. dab. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to make a succession of grabs . from puka. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. The Fr. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. wankel. in Fr. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to make bau-bau. mew and baa . or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. wankeln. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. kneel. itself. fickle. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. a from ayun. shuffle. joggle. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. waggle. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. draggle. without the intervention of the frequentative element. wancol. rubber. by the side of wanken.

until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. the breach. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. or in mode of use. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. to cry ugh at. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Polish. which. which is the origin of the word. There is. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. although it is not difficult. it is obviously a mere chance how long. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. deceit. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. at was more familiarly known. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. will continue to be felt in daily speech. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. by a hard body breaking. or how generally. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. moreover. A gull or a dupe same sense. known in Italian. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). or in aptness to combine with other elements. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. and comparatively few easily deceived. Dupe comes to us from the French. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. on a moment's reflection. to the separation between the broken parts. Breton. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of.

nor any limited of ideas. founded in manifest blunder. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. life. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the word is used in a secondary sense. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. . it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and the grounds of lie shortcomings.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. language is . And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. however. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. Hitl^erto. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. is. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle.

French. episcopus. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. I think it very probable. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. and 'Russian. out. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. i. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. Naturalist on the Amazons. change. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. circle perpetrates a new slang term. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. therefore. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. unintelligible to other hordes. Welsh. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. in the course of many years' isolation. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. evique. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. and vescovo. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. compared with the duration of man. 330. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. of material things. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. hearing. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. guages in South America. If English. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used .

We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ancient Greek M . tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. is MN.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. i. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. as shown in the subjoined illustration. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. the actual it which would to represent. and . Cijlt. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. 7. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. to be taken (Prim. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. ao8). which are idenr Figures 5. 8. The combination of the symbols I and 2. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. Nor is there one of the letters. . or whatever the proportion may be. 6. A key must unlock more doors than this. 9. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. it will leave figures 3 and 4.

and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. in the shape either of direct inspiration. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. known to us as yet. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. leading him to utterances. which either by direct resemblance of sound. for instance. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. had its origin in imitation of sound. what comes to the same thing. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. his fellows. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT.' should be discovered. and the only safe beneficent Creator. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. and it has been established in a wide range of examples." the use of a change of vowel in as.

by animal without a trace name of Man. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. for instance. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. until the progeny. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. race were speaking men or not. and when we look back as far as history will reach. and rose towards a higher state of being. or beavers. the conduct of Ixix life. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . as elephants. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. or not. in the course of generations. or else. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. of using imitative conduct . that he started from the lowest grade. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and sooner or later. or of their own reflected thoughts . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech.COMPLETION OF MAN. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows.

Supplement to Dueange. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. dialect of the Sette Commune. Diefenbaeh. Diefeiibach. Couzinid. Catalan. Dueange. Infimse Latini- D. Anglo-Saxon. Carp. Elfric's Fl. Diet. Bigl.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Bavarian. 1654.V. 1857.-Eng. 1850.. 1766. at the end of Somner's Diet. Esthonian. Bremisch. Supplement to Bret. Teutonico-Lat. Sup. Cotgrave. Wtb. Dutch. Fin. Due. Baile/sEngl. Bav. Carpentier. ^Ifr. Esth. E. Dief. Dief. Cimbr. English. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. 1737. Fr. Provincial dialect. B. Cimbrisch. Bohemian or Czech. . Gr. Douglas' Virgil. Dn. AS. Romano - Cas- traise. Da. dial. or Dan. Grammar Boh. Diet. 1768. Dueange. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Biglotton seu Diet. Cot. de la langue Cat. Gothischen 1851. Diet.Saehsiches Worterbueh.Nieder. Danish. Brem. Castr. Finnish.



r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. kilistaa bugiie r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> .. yjnaifia r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . woman r. willekom Blab r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. (/ijtf r. haverie crtOT r. word allagerr. baltresca nokkutomax. katowai perairrantr. cti. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. r. Askance woud r. Blob plowied r. r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^.percurrunt kimista^x." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r.nokkutama willekem. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. sveritet Asknace r. ^i?^i2! r.>. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. cruccio deyrie.5 ERRATA. puHti r. buque 118 brodiquin r. plowied budowaer. alUger ahaverie r.


in. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. on-lic. rule. o/j of or . came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS.t G. implying a completion of J. a. orders. ur. ifter. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. to sauff the king or spill. —Bruce. away. 843. Again. The word Ban is common orders. Lat. command. A. off. to hold . dominion. as. AS. er. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . Abaft.he Goth. To abuse is to use iway. abs. his. on-bsec . I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. an edict or proclamation. state of sleep . abaft. literally. this word beand Spanish. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. ir. whatever he be. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. to arise. downwards. of-dune. behind. Hence on-bceftan. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Abs-. from. Immediately from Fr. "rom a height. erwachen. on. plesyt him. ab. ibandonner. vs. to awake. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. compounds. onis aback. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. ar. . on. into the Romance ftrseg . a/tan. power : Than Wallace thing. in the same sense. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. sion of 'an abandoned character. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. AS. and secondarily in that of command. bandon in French. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. said. iway from. Parson's Tale. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. but now )bsolete). Dent posture. be-ceftan. among. In Lat. OHG. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. away from. particular 1 . from a is to wake to abide. Ab-. alike. until the event jlace . in a manner other than it should be ablution. to subdue. Jvery man shewid baft. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. the er. baftan. announcement. as. Thus ip N3S. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. Abandon. us. out of. Thou spelds of mychty iction. dominion. a washing off to abstain. and — Chaucer. K . 244. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. have entire dominion over. Passing tongues.

from Lat. beer. I was abawid for merveille. to bate something of the price abbatersi. to strike sail . to put to con. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Hence Lat. burny was formerly burnish . which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. baer. Cotgr. terminedly. Custom. Abbey. Baba ! Mod. of wonder. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. by Wall. with or without a final sh. To Abate. polish. to The . The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. Fr. shame. other. abbatia. law term abatement. overthrow. — — . father. adverbial expressions at abandon. drink. lish to abaisse orabaish. impulse. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led.Prov.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. from ravir. to happen. may be explained. in the active form. . In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. astonish. impetuously. Abbess. where custom (Grandg. vol. On the other in use as well as hand.down. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. and grooms besmeared with gold. to overthrow. esbahir. person. esbahissais. to ruin.' the surrender of a ' K. 364s. thing abbatere le vela. Hart in Jamieson. to strike Froiss. burny. R. — Neccham. abbatis. esba. et prirent terre. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. A. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. to abaw or astonish. de. bawi. abate. 1 1 8. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. weaken. to beat furnish.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to astonish. ne more vermeille. abandonly.— — . A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. Abbot. to hit. Castrais. abaundunem-ent. esbahissant. 1520. confound. to diminish the force of any. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. at his own the lips. to light upon. astony. to take possession of an estate. c. uncontroUedly. . And he thereof was all abashed. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. to excite admiration. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. abbattre. as ravish. abbatere. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose.— R. to meet with abbatersi in una terra.) . d. iv. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. See . his mouth. faire tomber. depress. baba. his eyen shene. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. Bate. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. or admiration. of fear. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. abbatere dal prezzo. Hence the OE. effect of shame. abbas.fournir. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. ais. to gape. and that from Syrian abba. It. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. down. betrash. Wall.On princes. See Abide. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. son bandon. of the Fr. to make lower. merely the terminations ons. In or. Milton. an abbey. and the verb was written in Eng. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. bandon. and it that that it — . abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. R.esbawi. ant.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons.polir. or society of abbots or monks. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. More correctly written abbat. Originally. R. Beat. castle. so common in the found in the OFr. and sets them all agape.

abiiance. Cat. bouche bdante. expectfamily. deceiving. deceit. says. K. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. abie. us. endurArt thou he that should come. to wait. tical with It. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. to tarry. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. See Abide. to stay. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. Gloss. exciter. gridare. Abele. — ABELE Epiphanius. —Raynouard. b^er. abayer. bie. to yawn. abet. bialodrze-w. — . suspense. desire. abeter. Quant voit le serpent. The verb atwaiting. suffer b. beijden. Thus G. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. pense. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. have seen abide. forbearance. . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. and in E. and E. beter. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. ne chastised them. beguile. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. a bay or opening in the coast. to look. bie compared with Dan. usbeisnei. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. beidan. with open mouth . abidan. to hook. . bocca badata. and alluring to his own destruction. open the mouth. verbeijen Sw. bidan. Ni engigner ni abiter. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. . also to OFr. to attend on . beidan. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to open bader. to stay. the verb of abeyance. baier.Fr. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. a right in suspense . endurance. abeyance. Corresponding to keep in suspense. bana. bada. house. (Vocab. songer. John. take notice. ^couter avec dtonnement. 366. intent observation. Fabl. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. aspire to. delay. bhr. Thus we have It. to ance. Norm. Ducange. To Abet. beijen. to expect. waiting. de Champ. tenere a bada. othres abidan' The effacement expect. in Fr. to desire earnestly. gola badada. to remain or endure. wait. to mind. syllable ba. lingering. to open the mouth. listening. speaking of the Holy places. bide of the d endure. F. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. forms with the d effaced are OFr. abetter. bouche b^ante. to In great amaze. Cat. bida. to wait. OFr. to It. badare. to be intent upon.to wait. on the one hand. ne wist what way to chuse. Abie. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. inciter. literally white tree. badar. beguiling on the other. Corant sens lui. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. — II. to deceive. with badia. compared with (Bosworth). to gape . incite . Gloss. white. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. ceive. abbadare. — signifies to suspend action. baier compared with It. qui iaaille. and Prov. Goth.— ^richer. inciting. or do we AS. baer. .— Chaucer. while the monks under his control ing.was formerly used in the sense of look. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. listen. badare. guardare. or absorption watching.— Roquef.) abayer. tarrying . we sceolon ON. bder. tempting. attendre avec en^pressement. which the mind to an object. abaier. to be intent upon. from Halo. beijen. m Abeyance. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. Du. badigliare.' is in AS. look for another. to suffer death in Du. E. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. baier. In We . Q. abie. take care. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). . to desire. expectation. 1 • . or in Fr. were called Brothers. The white poplar. delay. wait To Abide. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. bida. Boethius. which is certainly related to It. in Dan. attendre See Bait. watch. tity of E. to attend to. warten. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . signifies the direction of tend. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. delay. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. Guernsey beth. desirer (Roquef. de Berri) Prov. to deanimer. is idenwait. to expect gabeidan. abSiance. regarder. Prov. covet. to wait. From abahier. ' ' . Pol. expectation. abet.. to abide . trick abetar. badare. aspirer. Norm.

de la volatile. bidan. abycgan. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. as habiller du chanvre. have-like. when compared with Aboard.ynes. as E. For on board. God — dear. 2. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. and the simple buy. aboleo. Wickliff in Richardson. Lat. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. abolir. F. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. habilis (from habeo. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . — e. him with che. expert. convenient. ! ! Cotgr. Fr. must suffer for it. at hand). properly abuy. atling hem to her proper offices. was often used in the same sense. beidan. purpose. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. abidge. Dr. and death for handsel pay. — P. to pay the penalty. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. She shall abie that trespass dere. to wear away. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. — Able. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. and Cr. Milton. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. fit.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. 2nd Tale. use. Chaucer. abie to Goth. the side of a ship. willing to schewe his wrathe. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. the Fr. adapted . —Bacon in R.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. from Lat. to pay the purchasemoney. R. power. Q. durance in both applications. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. Innan bords. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. R. to . from AS. . on board . to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. al- be found so some will dear abide it. is the verb abie. abigg. to dress hemp. Abie. to have . a board. while in later examples As I . Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. though sometimes confounded with it. L. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. AS. Cassar. O If tion. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. In this to erase or annul. suffer the Jul. to redeem. strong. sufficient. Fr. or bie. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. bide. abilej Prov. the Pardoner In the original. If it badare. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. P. fault being simply clothing. bord. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Mids. forbid for mother's children should abye. Merch. being disabled in the highest degree. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. ON. abide. Boucher. Prol. to draw fowls. powerful. the Sir Tristrem. abilh. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr.^and to make his power knowne. N. consequences of anything . God. to perish. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. in for any special purpose. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. abicgan. Tr. Spenser. at kasta fyri bord. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. The —Boucher. without special reference to the notion of retribution. P. i. abeye. It. abie. habilis is closely preserved. able. &c. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. within the ship. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. habile. within the walls of a ship.

abrdger. to start. to feed. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. and also. See To Bray. Severe the threatened evil.foda signifies to beget.ger. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. nourish. parent. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. Prov. abredan. In the same brevis . No doubt if we had not so complete a About. is a ively.the older form. The primitive idea seems that of beget. be-ufan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. See -und-. agredge. gravity. abbrechen. al is growth. and in-d-oles. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. and to do something to avert abbreviate.) . notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. draw out.' Parson's rence. break out. awaking. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. coalesco. Melibaeus. motion.— Abbreviate. adolere. to feed. around on the out. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. about cockcrow. nurse Lat. for ligeth butan. agreujar. pedigree from brevis. below. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). Kiittner. abbrechen. which passed into English under Abominate. Lat. alUger. and also to abridge. to produce. butan. brood. To Abound. Of these synonymous adolescere. on high. Fr. common in Chaucer and Abominable. disastrous portent in some passing oc. as the duty of nourdisposition. currence. by the to bring up. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. nurse. af-oleii. side. Goth. leading immediately to Fr. but from Lat.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G.' Ymb hancred utan. Quod abominor. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. boven. oil. to rear. way Sw. a portent). breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. Then. AS. natural ed direct from the latter language..1. Abray. without. to fatten. af-oolden. abbreviare. progeny. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. outward. levis to the Romance languages. that greatly agredge their sin. the OSw. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. bufan. the hair grow. or young forth. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. breaking out in language. and alere flammain. Thence to regard greugetat. and bidden him abregge. whence the Fr. . So in Lat. AS. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. The radical idea is to feed the flame. kindling. Tale. sec seftre — Chaucer. which may God avert. Above. to awake. becomes leu in Prov. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. the form a&^^. Thonne Abroach. abominor (from ab and omen. above. — ' — — preceding verb. For on broach. alere capillos. the man dwindles away. to main. the identity of which with ting. life. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. D. AS. snatch In English we speak of away. Abundant. ala. to cut short. hard. greu. to grow together. from . the vital spark. while the sense of beget. ABOMINABLE adolesco. Sc.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates.aboon. to aggravate. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to AS. the idea of breaking about . to progress. Abrdger itself. full ofte his words for to Fr. abufan. abracan. Du.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. abutan. giving birth to. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. to grow up. onbutan. while the verb alleThe root el. OSw. vital PI. Virg. Gael alaich. titan. from Fr. ufan. to nourish. To abray or abraid. ol. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. his contemporaries. to bring up. literally.. of any kind . In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. abowen. to turn. to rear. to light a fire the Abraid. explains soboles Lat. or cut short.ymbutan. abrcBgdan. — . The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. s —Casdmon. alan. Finnish stock. as withotityn and without. en. gravis. OE. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. is not from G. to beget or give birth to children. be-utan. as AS. heavy.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. . to snatch. d. to break off. to let sleep. OE. seems aras. ala is made to signify to rear. alan.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


apanage. finally applied to a whether grotesca. antifena. Gr. Lat. to imitate gestures. See Cover. left as the . As the browcalled antiques.. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. incus. to have. strangle. . inAgain from the same author cudis. from ango. G. as the Italians. ReApe. a definite . from the imitative habits of monkeys. anticus. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. gabeigs. avri^ava. Aphorism. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. aperio. Apartment. Prov. as posticus. Hall's Chron.— . set aside. and claret wine. to strike G. and ig. to nourish. and devils. panar. transferred to the grotesque characters. d<popi(xnbs. one at the least. rich. apatiar. To go antiquely. a gift. i. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. separate. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. work. Antick. anxi. or in a ridiculous dress. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine.—Aperture. three antike pillers. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. apertum. Aperient. bread. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. aside. andouillers. some one. choke. to strike. were andouiller the second. from an and — - . from. Otfried. panis. In like manner. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Lat. AS. a small quantity. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. to open. in Shakespear. vex. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. surimitation of the ancient models. a puppet or an anti^hona. all of gold. eigs. — — — .legacy of given against. Apartment. : . burnished. whence anthem. AS. from ante. Gr. anapoz. E. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. Any. on. such as savages.made out. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Lat. Fr. the anticks — behind. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Jorioc. of. ambeld. Antique. af. separate purpose. but the expresent day. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. Ful- Apanage. Anxious. before. from avTiipoiuia). something ler in R. antefn. from. fauns. as we call it.th centuries the recognised models of antic. amboltj Du. press. AS. from eigan. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to go in strange disguises. Ilvtwotov. verberas. like a jack-pudding. part. to bring forth. what Roman civilisation. to display pario. a preventative . d. or antique single chamber. whence Prov. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. younger child. to support. as from as. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. cenig. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. to strain. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Lat. To ape.is to be given. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. Percutere. from in and cudere. So Lat. one. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Anvil. before. Apart. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Fr.D. were chiefly of the former class. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Mannequin. a termination equivalent to Goth. a block to hammer on. stem. Antidote. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. one having wealth. Pezron fiUist. ab. from an. a few. to sound in answer. Gr. Thus from gabe. which by anvild. wealth. anxius. trouble. should be received. Antler. swaged. white. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Hence the applica. plenteously with red. —Spencer. anfilts Pl. Fr. villan Gloss. from Stephanus. post.

opportunity. to assign or grant over unto. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. praise. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. like. ar. to commend. in data. ciously than nede is. make a composition between parties. agreeing with "LtA. APRICOT off. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to finish a controversy. one is in. to — . and in the sense of condition. 11. to approach. to make a thing Apparel. probare. to suit. were formed appropiare ejar. —Diez. appareo. away. The Fr. to fit. near. Cotgr. 'LaX. e. one the MLat. poind. cepl. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. prope (comp. prover. And among other of his famous deeds. to take away or lose the vital powers. oVooroXof. value apprdder. . one for his defence. from aTroorlXXu. to mark to define a bound. Gr. manner. esteem. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. that it outfit. and also as appraise. apropchar. Gr. dress. to catch hold of. Fr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. Apprehend. to set a price on. to deter- to strike. consent unto. pronounce good. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. Appareil. Lith. in good season prendre son d. N. apprentis. Cotgr. mine. Apple. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. par. Fr. plight. word was specially applied to clothing. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. the good. one sent out. . to send off. allow. to learn. prize. From Lat. Prov. appareiller. Epistle. to disable oftat. poind. : — — speak 'Lz. A — .—Apprentice. apin R. preparation. Parson's Tale. To praise. equal. Gr. Friar's Tale. — dirondtfiu. to deem good. apal. fit- — ness. apprise. ap. xv. habilUr. 5w. Palsgr. apal. D. Yr. Fr.probare. peace. and metaphorically to take the meaning. iwKjToKri. in commendation. AS. to which it is often referred. Ir.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. d-n-o. a crime. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. 'L-zX. — Appurtenance. case. i. The PI. seiden of the stones. to approve. after his mind .prix. agree. They were considered To Appoint. decree. a price. pertain or belong to. a'^opi'Jw. An old appalled wight. Lat. Apoplexy. to lose one's senses. apprendre. jabloko.parejo. diminutive pariculus. pretium. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. known. From Gr. Apostle. aptly. to be open to view. Fr.t. a learner. to Lat. apropid. corresp. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. from paix. kind of action. APO sentence opoQ. irpaiKOKiaov. Appease. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. and appoinder (to find fitting. to strike down. set a price on. to — — . when the . approver. Cotgr. Walach. It. order. habiliments. They werin his approvirs privily. — Approve. From Lat. properly to join like to like. trim. array. To Appraise. to seize. aparelhar. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. And whanne sum men Lat. lAfiaam. Pliny. diroBrjKr}. Apo- good time. Gr. Mod. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation.pareil. find Then like Fr. in Chaucer. purpose. become dizzy . OFr. Formerly apricock. apparecchiare. w. or E. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. obolys. ^wss. to announce. ai. Cent Nouv. appaiser. taking. Sp. to dress in this fashion. prohts. to call.propius). S^. pragigua or prixcoda. Fabian in R. appartenir. good. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Apotliecary. horror. To cause to pall (see Pall). to send to. or the like.parecchio. proper time came. Fr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour.his giving evidence against his principal. apar. to accord. to store or put Appal. quoth the frere. peler. Fr. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. —^Apparent. to understand. avail. Yr. ON. off. rise to \t. diroTrXriaatii. To Appear. to call for judgment. from. piteux poind. Fr. apprehendere. Nouv. to deaden. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. whether through age or sudden teiTor. (cited by Diez from a late author). to learn. Prov. 23 . Hence It. is a man who has lost his vigour through age.— . to come near. . For their acquaintance was not come of new . Approach. H. pronounce fitting). an epistle or letter. despatch on some service. appellare. like. laven is used both as E. of. to rate. En peach. — Apprise. Fr. approcdare. approcher. Hence appoind. appris. a thing for one's purpose. I prise ware. landmark. in fact. — prehendere. whence the e.

is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. ear. Hall. arbitror arwaaja.shrubs {arbor). Albanian. J. to preserve it from stains. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . herbere. however. arwaus. nawl and awl. la nappe. arbiter in re censendS. arbiter. aro. Beryn.. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn.' —About. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. OE. aestimo. ap. Lat. OHG. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. and thence fit. Thus we have natiger and auger. Arbour. and taken away before dessert. and with turfis new Goth. naperon. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. or barm-cloth. and the one who gives oracles. a river. . — . whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Prol. wata. conjicio. symbol. . Pm. As is a pretty parlour. . a pleasure-ground. pracoqua was not an adapt. . ughe. fastened close. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. aha. as ihe diminutive. aptus. P. proper. to plough. Maan initial . a lot. It may be doubted. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Freshly turnid Arable. hariolus arpelen. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. doubtless is the origin of E. grande nappe. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. a lot. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. 31. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi.sors. She made.] in the N. conjectura conjec^ra. Now we find in Fin. Flower and Leaf. and a protection of the clothes. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. From OFr. rofe and all. 2. Pr. sortium ductor. auguror. — napkin is Naperon. The loss or addition of n very common. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. garden. Aquatic. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin.) E. 331. This path Aqueous. Gr. Lat. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. A. words derived from arpa. as an eye-witness. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. scr.o. or eft. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. From OE. properly the arwella. Naprun. of of divination arpa-mies. Alban. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . to decide by lot. suitable. quod he. Roquefort. Arbitrate. tion under trial. opinio. intensitive of nape. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash.meaning at Shrewsbury. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. arwelo. man. delon. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. arbitrium. P. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. con. the spelland umpire. sestimatio arbitraria. sorcerer. a soothsayer. found in Fin. a lot. a cloth. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. aqua. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Now one of the points — — — . answers queswas introduced from Armenia. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. water Which that benchid was. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. divining rod. nected. derived. Lat. be That it inne groweth. account for either of these significations. {mies ^=ia3. It is certain that the apricot oracle. C. however. and sortilegus ation. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. Marsh. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. shortdr. short. aa. arpa. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. is taken in is a soothsayer. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. ahva.

vescovo. Lat. Arid. troublesome. bravest. G.. Lat. G. un petit rusd. and our army. an arrant rogue. Aristocracy. Arcadia in R. Area. apx^iv. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. It. arm. un malin enfant. an extent of flat surface. * ArchjAiTaxit. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. There can be no doubt that E. which has been referred to W. Ardour. forearm . sluggish. government. Uo^a^. in Due. From apxeiov was formed Lat. the most arrant trash. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. 3340. sly. a threshing-floor. arrig.. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. aj-f. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. argr. erz in G. curved. as in E. Du. arcus. faint-hearted. whence the body of the nobles collectively.is the natural weapon of offence. receptacle where the public acts were kept. arguo. first. Sax. gwyro to bend. arga. argvitugr. mischievous. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. area. fainthearted. to arm. apxtlov. bad. wretched OE. by Russ. to be on fire. Alisaunder. The . high. from areo. ramend). branch. arrant Arms. fabricate). Arson.4 rir/. wanton. ars. arg. lofty. are formed the participial nouns. Fr. a bow. armata. to dry. is essentially the same word. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. which is derived from it. Dan. a branch. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. A construct. . D. Perhaps erz-wticherer. arcA in e. ers-betriiger. ein arger knabe. Sp. Lat. a court yard. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . ardre. arduus. stuff. apxh. Arch in composition. to burn . and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. and Kpurka. arm'ee. a rule (princiruler. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. malicious. from nixa. i. erg. a burning or setting on fire. Gr.' Paul Warnefrid. to demonstrate.In E. a noble. difficult to reach. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Langobard. erz-bischof. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Lat. — Architect. Arcliives. armee. det arrigste snavs. taxed with cowardice.' the Gr. ^Argument. to Arch. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. bad of its kind.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. weapon. arma. W. exercise lordship). TiKToiv. as the arch of a bridge. . man. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. burning heat. weapon may be simply an application of annus. arch-bishop. Fr. patus). archangel. Arduous. And thou as arwe coward. vocaveris. ruling by the nobles. Lat. to rule. sly. AS. Gr. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. . archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). timid. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. it signifies roguish. apxri. ardIn G. rame. Gr. Ardent. ardor.— Army. From the verb armare. . adjective. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. ON. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. bad. the best. arsum. kpxi- beginning. raineno. worker. — Wtb. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. 2. to be in comp. while the Fr. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. an arrant usurer. morally bad. Applied in modern E. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. the terminaGael. Cot. Lat.aioj. a chief builder. the a brute. Brem. contemptible. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. et vulgari verbo. mischievous. an arch-deceiver . and must be identified with Dan. arson. signifies chief or principal. ' — Argue.' Lex. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. earh. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. earm. curved line. Arm. and not with apx. apxtipfve. a. Fr. ill-tempered. aridus. Lat. make clear or prove. the court of a magistrate. arm. shoulder. armada. ancient. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. gwyrek. earg. ramo (pi. a bare plot of ground. ardeo. Du. Lat. . een erg kind. especially shoulder-joint. arwe. Gr. shoulder Boh. an arch boy. part of a circle anything of a bowed form.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

as in a barn or cow-house. balja. a dance. Sw. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. Du. Perhaps on. balveins. w. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to be ill. probably Lat. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. to plank. to on Holmedon's plain. balkr. to partition off . trouble. Hence. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a beam. bealwes. A balk. ache. balka. sorrow.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. chapurrar. a great ball. bielke. balge. bolyaf. to grieve . In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bal-daed. ballotta. ill. Du. N. a boil. weak liquor. ballet. balka bunge. a pail. balka hopar. baalie. pain. Sw. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. other while. calamity. bold. OFr. ' is a piece or confused talking. a partition. a But making way for death at large to walke. 2. a continued noise of waves gently beating . balken. a ballad. from bacquet. pallo. Fr. ball. a ball. to ail. to pack Da. a beam. a water-skin dim. grieve . Sw. baler. maleficium. ban. to shake or jog. ballar). a clapping or flapping of wings. balva-vesei. balk. Q. to move. . It. a ballot). separaison. balare. afbalka.— Ballet. bol. Grief. See Gall. OHG. ne leaving any balke. bolyatchka. bolawy. In like manner Fr. a washing-tub. the ballet of the theatres. a ball. the object of his expectation.Lat.). cka. Sw. . misery Du. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. a clump . sickness. . a wooden partition . ON. vacillare. The primary sense seems as in G. wickedness ness . to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. a pestilence. and evil in general. pallo. similar connection is seen in Sp. taich. roof. a division of the old laws. balla (with the augm. bal. Sw. bal. to paddle in water . Baulke of land. ball. destruction. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. dial. to be balker. on the shore.Fr. Dan. to by beams. a pill. the breadth from side to side . Fr. balk. gen. boleii. on. malefacGower in R. It. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. to roll. to bale out. to plough for a boundary between lands. balle. palloilla. Balloon. Wotton. TtaKKa a pail or tub . lealo. Ballot. a balk of foul weather. dial. may exhibit the original development of the signification. palcare. a ball. with the perhaps from balg. to cause another to miss pustule. on. Bohem. pallikka. . 3. Pol. to speak an un. . balk. bola. Da. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . hooting. — A — — . It. bacgtteter. It. are applied to a From the same analogy. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. Da. tum. ballare. a. Ball. dial. baloier. to see-saw. mass. Mid. the beam of a ship. a ball balla. ballare. to wave. G. boll. a ball or pack. balloon. Ball. hue et illuc inclinare. ing. Sw. bal. To baulke the Sir H. floor. bolker. a ball. Goth. ballone. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. Fin. Venet. beaten road. at giore en balk. bdlkr. . ball. i. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. pilula. to signify washy drink. stage or scaffold.' speak gibberish champurrar. globule. balle. uveirs bolk. balken. AS. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. I. to ache. heap up. Sp. palla. a dance. balk. It. to dance. Sw. a scene acted in dancmg. Rouchi ban. says Ray. Gr. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing.ing. E. To Bale out water. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. Bowl. whether of wood or stone. to avoid it. on. Boll. torment. and the dim. pila. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. plague. Russ. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). shouting. sick. Fr. to rock. baalien. Bale.—Ballad. OSw.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . . G. ball. to stir. Hence Dan. ballare. blister. F. a together in the form of a ball. pallukka. wickedtorment ON. We have then separate dial. to Not sparing wight. Sw. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. * Balk. a globe. balle. a clod of earth water. bala.of men . bbllr bulla J. dial. Gael. balle. as we say. package of goods. a bubble. ballo. ballan. a skin. vcdra bdlkr. Bret. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. Ugutio in Due. maan pallikka. bol. a separate portion. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. to dance. Ballata. bjdlki. e. (Hesych. bollr.

Lest. back of the ship. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. ballustre) is a corruption. R. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. This is the backload. or ballast of a ship. to preserve equilibrium. a false tale or jeer. mare Balticun. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. lest. for want of other freight. When a ship discharges. forbid. bumbazed. 1.that the going vessels. or movement of one who walks. Sp. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. To proclaim. It. deceiver. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. an Old dotard or imbambolare. — — oltriga. terraces. baU. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. a nettle. because. balsamum. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. bag-lest. denounce. Du. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. To Bamboozle. railing around altars. 1854. by met. To make fun of a person. to walk. dial. Cotgr. a rod. it is forced to take in stones or sand. bambocciolo.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. called Bait. Balsam. baUa. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. 43 — Cot. more serious objection is . bamboccio. bambolo. a useless load. Gr.000 tons. baranda. little round and short pillars. ranked on the outside of cloisters. deceive. sorcerer. last. Fr. A — — . baume. To deceive. lastagium signified not only ballast. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. ballast. the backload. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. seems the original form of the word. lestage. puzzled. Sc. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. a fragrant gum. analogous to what is seen in It. bamein.Lat. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. If bambocciolare were child of one. of balusters. paid for the right of carriage. age. bertesca. and Mid. Fr. Baltic. balustrade barandilla. like Fr. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. Ballast. Bret. from Lat. barandado. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. bam. in the first place. more frequently than outward-bound. &c. &c. Balluster. Lat. bag-las. is in Sweden and Norway. the flower of the pomegranate. Mr Marsh whether the a load. endormir par des contes. enchanter. In OSw. balconies. urtica. To Ban. a battlement . objects to the foregoing derivation. Dan. as he says. Report Pennsylv. also with flatteries and . The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. Said to be from balaustia. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. inutile onus. But Fr. ballustres. lastre. a small balustrade.. the act of walking. but loadage. small railing. Balm. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. explains ballast. to enchant. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. The Baltic sea. galleries. inutilis sarcina. ^a\Ba\iov. Sept.' And Kil. astonished. make fun of a person. It. To Bam. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. lastra. ^Arbuthnot in R. i860. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. a young babe. . a duty on goods last. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. baltresac. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. . Bret. fonts. curse. barauste. It is explained back by Adelung. from bara or vara. for a load or goods (Roquef. Venet. The Sp.). command. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. Bamour.

says Muratori. side. fahne. theodscipe ut abannan. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. See Abandon. Capitul. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. Mag. and thence to any proclamation. bandi. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. v. tener da alcuno. to ban. to ctide. Diss. whether by way of injunction or for- command. band. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. those who side together (bande. eiiseigne. D. —R. Goth. Fr. biddal. Goth. flag. 2. Bandear. authority. 19. populum. &c. In a special sense the term company itself.. curse. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. bundun. to publish) banna. . Spebifid. Wyntoun. to follow a faction. In Fr. From the verb to banda. 813. Assises de Jerusalem. Leg. &c. passing on from proclamation to command. bindan. OE. bande. ex. Sp. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. the ensign or banner. Les saiges avait et les fols d. faction. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Cot. bande. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. bando. Band. It seems this signification has arisen. from at the Lord's courts. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. G. banda. side. to unite with a band. also the band or of marriage. It. Bandus. Ripuar. — excommunication bann-lysa. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . In like manner we find bannire adplacita. ligue Taboada). the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. bande. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. band. sostener Torriano. Baud. bandera ground at his mill. Commun^ment son bandon. region. margin. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. bannum or bandum. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. then the signification w. banda. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. banda the colour or material. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. to form parties. and in E. to reprove. R. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. etc. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. . real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. bandon somewhat party.—John Villani in Due. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. E. acquired the sense of proclamation. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. It. he bannede his ferde. power. to side or to bandy (Florio). a coast. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. bannire in exercitum. is That with which anything AS. 'A son bandon. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. i. — R. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. 15. border. Se il — Romance languages. to take one to task.e. Car. It. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. parti. to bring corn to be fahne. banner marked the place of assembly. The to .is further developed. 1. summoning to serve So in Swiss. and It. A. in hostem convocare.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Sw.^ bandy. — To partito d'alcuno. Sp. ba?idare. in Fr. a company. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. to excommunicate {lysa. banns pany of footmen serve. Fr. hoc est vexillo. bannire exercitum. change to the feminine gender in banda. admolendinum. bandon was used in the same sense. 26. we constantly find the expression. bann.Lat. There is some doubt how Fr.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. at his own discretion. bound. To Bandy. to . R- He Translated by Chaucer. he assembled his host. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. permission.

bance. N. bent as a bow. dorsum was applied to ject. counter. death-sickness. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. desk. stir. Bane. se joindre. bank of river. has bang-bang. to join in league with others against Cotgn. death-blow . Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. a bench. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bow. de sable. Your stool. to publicly order one out of the realm. benk. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. beating. follow a party. put under the ban of the law. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. a blow. bandear. It is in this sense nounce. 45 — — Bandit. Dan. back of a knife. a bankrupt merchant. bander. in the sense of a pirate. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. a i. It. bana. bandi. ON. See Balluster. to knock. de- party. whence the mod. Lingua. Goth. the back. The word is in E. — Paulus drive in a nail. Bank. from banc. Fl. It. beat. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. &c. bannire. home — Bandog. disturbance banga. E. From a desk . . Fr. shoal. banca his creditors. Fr. Bantze. a table. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Diaconus in Due. eminence. destruction . a sand-bank dorsum jugi. the same verb the It. Mid. Hudibras. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. bane. a bank. When a man fails Lat. The child cries bang! fire. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. . Tibalt. From Mid. Milton in R. to make a stir banke. bank. to proclaim. . standard. banc. ON. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. and therefore tied up. b'ang. A Shipman's Tale. a rising bank. at canis peciiarius. beat down their weapons Gentlemen.z. ON. banish. bander tin arc. Bandy legs are crooked legs. hammering. the slope of a hill. See Banish. Fr. and bakki. bakke. a long raised seat. Hard crabtree and old iron rang.^ knock. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. rap hatike et som The Susu. Africa. a sand-bank. Banditti. bander. large dog kept for a guatd. s'associer. as of an explosion or a blow. roupt. murderer. Bacon in R. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. To Bandy. death-wound. to knock. to slay. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. and OFr. It. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. banka. bench. banditti acquired the like signification. Banister. — — whence E. to bend a. in the same way that E. Mercutio. to beat. banc G. Ripuar. —^Vocab. — Fr. panca. Brewer. bankruptcy. the former Fr. Du. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. banco. and poise Their lighter wings. language of W. Sw. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bana-sdr. tumult bangas. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. to work in wood. banja. bang. AS. Bandy. a bench. banke. band-hond. in R. Bang. Benvoglio. — . she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. 2.: . so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. hricg. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. clouds. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . Diez. Banner. . Roquefort. But natheless wife at I bank. Bankrupt. The ing. . many a bang. a de Vaud. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. of bandying words. Draw. a bench. pastoralis. that the word is used by Romeo. Lat. to hammer in a nail. bank. Benchi. band-dog. bana. — Kil. canis vinculis assuetus. was formed the OFr. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). eminence. a counter. among rotta. ruptus. bana. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. With many a stiff thwack. broken. for shame. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. banqueroute. bench. a wound OHG. bandire. to foment factions. forbear this outrage. to cabal. se reunir. AS. outlam came to signify a robber. seat .HG. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. See Band. g. and hence. in the sense of place of business. bank of Dan. banca fallita. The ridge of a hill is AS. bana-sott. distinguishes bekkr. &c. bank of a river.

banda. jSa'pjSapoc. Flesche barbeUe. OHG.the analogous syllable viur. barbed or trapped as a great horse. from reifa. branches of a tree {gwezen. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. banne. Banquet. token. signuin. OHG. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. ON. banner. summit. hence a repast. wrapped. banchetto.hinder. To mock or jeer one. to beckon . barrou-gwez. or of this bantering. senhal. barrer. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. It. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar.8ap6^o)voe. senheira. iandvo. brushwood. nestling. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Fr. a war-beacon or war-signal. —Cot. and even of calling it banter. a. E. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. barriire. jSdirTO). as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. rod of any rigid substance. barba. milites bannarii. Celtic bar. to bend. probably corSymbol. Fr. knight Bardd. Leduchat. senh. of a sign in general. indeed. which is surely in barbed arrow. chan. To Banter. ban- Baptise. Fr.aTa Kul nest. to dip. and it was accord. period vexillarii. bandiera. Fr. ON. The origin is in all probability Goth. Duo. a beam or long pole of wood. Gr. rarii. and with an initial s. dim. It may be thing. In a similar manner are formed yearling. &c. of banco. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. banneret was a higher class of knights. Bret. sign. benda. Fr. a bench or table . .. Hence Fr. a ban.. Bap. ing term appears in other languages. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barbarus. bar. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. inur. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. manu anto make signs nuere. uncivilised. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. The spar. would rupted from Fr. from the same source. OFr. Barbar. ingly very generally known by a name branches. and from ensign or banner Prov. merki. Barb. senhal. branch. Lat. says. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. a which the barrister addresses the court. heri-pau. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. speaking of battle. Lat. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. barre. ^oTrriKio. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. the word came to signify rude. top. either in the Gr. that the noise of voices Bantling. Hence ner. bannereti. Gael. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. and he would seem to derive Goth. barreau. a sign. sparro. then branches. privileged to raise Barbarous. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. 3. Gr. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. Fr. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. barde. to having that signification. It. and the work is done. It. to wrap. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. barra. of wind. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. as they call it. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. banniire. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva.cruel. — We A . Thus Ovid. men. to wash. in Gr. A It. barrack. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Barb. Sw. a bearded or Cot. arineXov. sbarra. such as the Roman Eagle. Banneret.46 BANNERET . banda hendi. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. E. 2. bandva. G. The original import of their own banner in the field. i. out of a wound. barbe. a barrier or stoppage. sparre. inferior to a baron. then fell among the foot.— Swift in R. remarked. E. Barbe. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. a bantling. a tree). &c. banneret.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. himself in Pontus. Lat. According to Diez the It. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. an animal a year old. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. by a repetition of the syllable bar.

and in Flanders to vociferate. barguigner. fortia —Strabo. Diez. name Fr. barda. axilla. barbacane. Sp. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. such as houses are covered Bardelle. borbotar. — . barbeter. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. bare baskojis. on. to wash. to bubble or boil. It. saddle-cloth. barbelin. dial. barbugliare. speak confusedly. quarrel . to rumble. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. the edge of a shield hval-barct. which was of talking. Barde. skirt. Cotgr. baar. tattle. twattle. But Sp. barboter. It. barz. the beard. stutter. the nakedness of a woman. — . OFr. a tumultuous assembly. barbar. to stammer.— BARBEL merit of water. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. uncovered. grumble (Lowndes. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. — — — men. barS. Mod. guaszare. Thus the on. g. barbeau. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Bare. i. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Etym. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. Applied in E. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. used 2. Cotgr. uproar. The Pers. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. bdla-khaneh. Fr. Lucan. /3opj3opwJu. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Barbican. coping. bdsas. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. barbaris. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. as well as the modern twaddle. a rumbling. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Bret. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. Bardeau. a jetty or outnook in a building. borbollar. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. jargon. to prattle. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Fl. Barder. to It. albarda. borbulhar. and Sc. Sp. brabble in the making of a bargain. baares geld. Barbel. bdsiis. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. border of a garden bed. also to bind or tie across. brim.— Fl. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. skialldar-bard. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. the flap of a hat. in poetic language Bard for poet. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. barbeum. baragouin. Gr. the quilted with. boil. Fr. open. to boil or bubble up . ready money. albarda'ah. Bard. Cot. to mumble or mutter words. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. to chafbargain. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . and flanks. Pr. Port. a bardelle. /3£pjSepi^w. Fr. a shingle or small board. Sp. bhasad. . to bubble or spring up. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. gibberish. Exposed to view. borborinha. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. upper chamber. bds. Hatt-bard. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. scouthouse. murmur . Bargain. . berries. Arab. also to wallow like a seething pot. a pack-saddle. or more properly (says fer. bardes. formerly used in the sense of tattle. to make an outcry . barefooted Sanscr. ala. skola. Port. Fr. — Cot. haggle. guazzolare. to grunt. barda. small pack-saddle.) . and the word was used in OE. barbulla. and foolishly. powdered all over. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. horse armour covering the front. border. to barbe or trap horses. back. barbel. barbier. skirmish. to gurgle.' Cot. waschen. — — Hence. mutter. as well as thwcEtta. bardd. tree.— — Pm. Lex. Gr. G. borboglio. to plash or dabble. albardilla. unqualified. bar. Russ. twcEtta. is lb. Hindost. Festus in Diet. w. in Fr. A7 to the and warlike. Etym. Barber.) to wrangle. Mod. lb. Lith. in the sense of fight. to stammer. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. berj G. barbarkama. Hall in R. muttering. Barberry.

skutr. at barka. am. baimeach.) lihtes-ern. name being given to spectacles. bernac. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. contest. was barlic. bard). — Barnacle. barnacles. and may therefore be an Eastern word. wine. Kil. baratta. also to exchange. mhg. fray.^Voc^. to rout. a. but the woman for the man. baralha. * Barnacles. Alam. as baces-ern. Vocab. Gl. baarn. strife. disorder. Port. borkr. Tarn baronem quam feminam. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barn. chaffer. barafustar. barlich. bcern. louzou. i. as in the case of Lat. Antiq. limpets. barnis. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald .. baniffa. ber (ace. bern. barn. the rack or manger. Rayn. Dan. herbs. meta foeni. Isidore in Rayn. strife. baaring. the G. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Ripuar. baralhar. to shufSe. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. to wrangle. a receptacle for barley or corn. the or prow of a ship. . barii. Bailey. in the Brim. baron. berm. It. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. tion of the sound. edge. a barn. quant a perdu sa barja. kani. See Barm. Barbour in Jam. squabble. Du. and the word. . also a boat . giving rise to It. tumult. v. we pass to the vert) barguigner. bark . in Nat. a place. entangle. barley. AS. barretor. a stack. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. berma. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. houbartij fsnile. border. and 1.. Gael. struggle. dispute. barja. limpets . and hence probably (by a metaphor. Sw. . Prov. then honoured man. To Bark. bere. from an imita- Barley. bread. baarm. as well as Scandinavian tongues. OFr. a load. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. limpet. a heap. berm hoys. plants). . or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. berm. altercation. barahunda. baratta. hemlock. Port. and is probably a true bartig. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barajar. spectacles. bosom . contest. barms. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. bargain. ON. Camus. hay-loft. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. AS. E. hlaSa. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. barge. The older form in e. a baking place or oven. beer. barmr.Barum vel feminam. ON. as. confusion. trouble. beornt. barlys {bara. the fore or after end of a boat . dispute . baaren. commonly explained from bere. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. ON. to skin over barkandi. It. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. dial. barn. barone. The Goth. to cheat. barki. Lith. So also ON. the slimy substance brewing of beer. dispute. barizeins indicates a noun baris. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. ThS man was not created for the woman. So ON. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. strife. barlys. Barge. a cap . varen. barley. bern. barley. On the other hand. prominent part of a thing. ON. Provj bar (ace. Bark. Leg. Dan. w. brenig. Acervus. dispute . Cornub. a heap . 2. quarrel Port. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. husband. bread-corn. adj. to all the barca. as. skuta. baragouin. bamagh. The origin may be throat. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Ibid. (Ihre. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. one who stirs up strife. See formed Yeast. bosom. astringent. quarrel. Romance barsie. Sp. 2. put to confusion. Bemiques.' bardagi. to strive. a boat. Bret. baron)^ Fr. prasepe . OFr. W. berem. Uzen. a lantern. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. aheap. to chop. Garlick. to scold. Sp. barafunda. Manx bayrn. bcerme. Swab. — de Berri. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. baerm. Du. and llysiaw. OSw. — Zeuss. Sp. hladi. charlock. Originally man. As Goth. Baron. a beak. the A — Ihre. Spectacles. beorcan. is simply the Bret. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. a lap. dispute barattare. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. dregs of oil. From Fr. corn-shed. lap. then the bows pectus navis. — battle. —Bark. Leg. and ern. Barn.

An ing. barraca. barrier. It. by early examples. as. G. It. in Nat. man.root signifying confused noise. baroncelli. staves. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. It was not until the time of James I. the braw. Goth. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. dispute. over him. Formed from Fr. baraignej Picard. bara. implement for carryAS. StiU he shows conclusively.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. garment still used in Morocco. a bar. breinej Du. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a barrow. bera. a hut or booth. Barricade. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. barBombicinus. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. E. to carry. composed of dry branches ofer.' Op. seem to be radically the same with Lat. bara. (Schmeller). Barren. a. from cavallo. AS. brushwood. 2. OFr. bredhan. in the first instance.— Gibbon. ^Barrator. Sp. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. D. Bern. a horse. — Kil. Sp. MHG. barrack. tomb. borov'. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. a man. See Barter. barrique. iver. Baron andfemme. to * Barragan. like bargain. S. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. facture. Bamnculus a baronet. Barrister. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. Bret. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. OE. bearg . alongside of barrow. litter. boar. barrila. sepulchre. See Bar. Antiq. It should be observed that. barrique. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. squabble. heap. baragan. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad.have been named from the haggling and gant. a bier. were sometimes confounded. bouracan. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. man and wife. vir. baronuU. w. A. It. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Gael. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. qui have not much light on the pre. vair. G. On chet — We — — their resemblance. cise formation of the word. shed. a word is always used in the plural number. The feudal tenants next Fr. strife. a hiU. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. mound. Nominale of the from braeckland. calico. and not from Fr. barri. signifying. 1. ^Vocab. and in several instances. Fr. 26. Joshua vii. which would barragdn. Bohem. from beran. fortification. a castrated hog . but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. then traffick4 Barrow. The Sp. berwen. berewe. nobles. This word introduced into Fr.. bahre. beorh. baronculi. — — 15th Cent. as cavalcade. vel pretiosos burellos. uncultivated. gravis et authenticus vir. baracca. whenever Barrow-hog. barague. to shelter. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. rolls of Parliament. a barrel. Gael. barile.. AS. a kind of coarse camlet. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. fallow. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. hut. Bargus or moreland. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. an obstruction. from a tree to which a man is hanged. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. cover. ibid. fear. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. also termed bannerets. or simply bahre.parchanttuech. todtenbahre. especially those killed in battle. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. perhaps through Prov. bark&n. gwr. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. the two names. sterilis.' that Barrier. whence Barrow. became bidre. semen non accipiens landiEL. Fr. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. beorgan. habeant. beorg. bier. Russ. Barrel. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. baronetti. barre. — A . branches. braeck. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. booth. change of goods seems. barchent. a. barril. Barrack. Barratry. Sp.

besst-u-b£nd&t. thick. chasa. imbastire. fhe outhouses and yards.looketh upon his eyes. bas. To stitch. HoUinshed. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. /«r<fSp. as It. It. Sp. Bassus. netting. lust.' Papias. plaiting of splinters basged. of the same sense. peel. MHG. come near. which covers the grain Ger. Bass. baratar. mean . oe. mavult dicere Roma suam. at basta og binda. lift me above Parnassus. Gr. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). and tun. It is mentioned as . baste. on a. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. basta. Bartizan. but he dreth presently. flat. leviter consuere. would be. to truck. also the demesne lands of a manor. to baste piece of cloth. It. bast-reb. dwelling. ^Is de bast. mock not. i. See Bath. bark. exchange. OFr. besst. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. baraand especially teria. Halliwell. a halter. back. to bargain. It. baos. Sicamb. PaaiKhms. berewic. ibid. low part of the Hickes in Rich. bassin. AS. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. chasa ogli a bastard. shallow. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. low note. bastear. submovet omne Lucan. Pl. corn-farm. 516. bestcn. Barton. fits de bas. foist in bargaining.). unrighteous gain. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). he. bareter. MHG. the a wide open vessel. to deceive. — in Rich. Lend me your hands. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . pressed down. G. bast. Dan. MS. truck. bdtir.' Gl. HaUiweU. baste. to cheat. low. Basilisk. basso. baraet (from Fr. exchange. Al is dai. to stitch . . the thin skin Dan. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. fornication. To Baste. piiiguis. beretun. There is not one that. Sylvester's Dubartas.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. then cheating. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E.D. It. preparatory stitching. A fabulous serpent. Bast. — hanging. Kil. cheating. cog. commonly A joined with the word binda. bran. Basket. ' He was begetin o bast. and Bret. crassus. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. — Bassoon. more noble in blood than notable in learning. barter. to Diez. ' Bosworth. God it wot. basta. Apparently of Celtic origin. discourse Nay. . a deceiver. Bastard. or running away with the ship. Lap. tierer. barter. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. But according And Dan. as the diadem of the basilisk. lattice-work. hoops of a cask. embastir. to cheat. to bind hand and foot. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. BassuS. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. Dan. basso. to bind. also to Cotgr. over-reaching. See Brattice. Fris. a court-yard. Newman. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. baxoj w. . fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Du. husk bast van koren. to long — a British word by Martial. bds. basg. imbastire. bast. curtus. inclosure. to baste. Swed. scale in music. rope for — . Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. partieren. the manorhousfe itself. Isidore. barley. Sw. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . F. according from Gael. bestan. Barbara de pictis veni patch. said Base. Bass. It. pdrdt. Du. beguile. a bastard. bast-maatte. from /3aR. found in Turkish . to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. baste. Fr. to bind. Arthur and Merlini. Sw. fraud. HaU in HaUiwell. OFr. or wic. fornication. low. Fr. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. a ftiesh. him. binding. Fr. aiKcig. bass-matting. w. a bass rope. a king. descended of an honorable lineage. basgod. baratear. from bere. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. n' is n' is bacino. a tying. The original meaning. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. beortun. Sp. but born in baste. It. humilis. which sets up its hood when angry.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Sp. a basket masg. stitch. a ipgli So Turk. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. bast. The like property hath the iasilisk. ohg. ing for profit. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. To Bask. court-yard.

ON. to teach one before. bastine. bastonada. bdion. provisions. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. beysta. It. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. to rub. business (Altieri). a bastion. a blockhouse. Florio. Fr. Dan. from Fr. I. blakka. and Arabs. Cot. Sw. batta lucifuga. the E. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to thrash . compared with blakka. blakra. to rub gently. 'iJipistreUo. to quilt or stitch wool into it. To baste one's hide . to set on foot a war Bastion.'CaB. Fr. All from bastir. 2. Sp. the night-jar or goat-sticker.. That yche blak y dar wel telle. the original has corneille. blacta. bat. bastia. basta. basa. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. bastilde. bladier. pre. vespertilio. Derived by Diez from iasi. Dieiif. bastille. Perhaps baska. as weU as besteau. military term of a bat-horse). aftonbakke. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. but this is hardly satisfactory. and Cot.stitching in general. passage Imbasto. and ditches bastion. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. bastonFr. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds.— Bailey. a pad or packsaddle. boste. also to cudgel. ment. translation to a bat. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. To donjon. or implement for 4 * A . to stroke. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. BAT neither. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . 11864.fortress or castle furnished with towers. a blow cloth for dinner. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . bastir. Pm. vespertilio. baston. It. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. to cudgel. comp. Cot. bastimento. For the origin of baston see Baste. to spread bread and butter. Fr. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. Dan. . For the loss of the / in back. to build. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. to build. stryk. bastida. bast. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. a pad. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. Sc.baste or knock soundly. night-bat. natt-blakka.-^ Chaucer. the winged . For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. put it together. back. contrive. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. explains Sp. which in the E. club. Fr. a barSp. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. liiake. baston. Sw. bastione. set up. Antiq. quelqu'un son roulet. to beat. to devise or begin. niammal. p. to pack a saddle i. victuals.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. Supp. is explained by Cot. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. like the owl and the bat. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. a. to belabour. Sw. settiilg up. bastonnir. Rayn. a bird which. Sw. devise. — — Fl. Bastinado. which to rest the load. cudgelling. packsaddle. iastir. frotter. guerra bastir. whence ledrblaka. bak. a sconce. R. to lay the Sp. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. iinbastire. To beat or bang soundly. a things prepared for future use. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. e. 2. E. blows. Mid. blatta. worth (Nat. also the ricado. — Bakke. stryka. bakie-bird . Pr. disposer. contriving. to beat. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing.stick. to give him a sound bastingi 3. frame. a with a stick. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. to Due. in the Romance languages. 2. vledermus. bastear. Prov. bastir. set up. * Bat. beating. dial. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. to whip. a packsaddle. raise. . also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. badger. It. to flap. flyinge best. the clapper of a bell. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. blatta. blaka. Sp. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. dial. blakta. staff. the bat . 164). basto.Lat. R.— . ari instruineht for beating. — — — . erect. in the use of the E. to drub. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. nade. has bastine. a stick.

makebate. bada. Plkkis. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. From OFr. the root of e. Jurgor. badask. bataille. then to warm by the application of hot water. was formed bastilU. battions. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Fr. A batch as wood. fashes basking in the sun squadron. to get better. It. G. certain bend. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. perhaps first used adjectivally. ON. or a dry stick. . Pr. to fell. Holz bdhen. Battle. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. In OE. made of bats. PLD. abate. Fr. a great seems related to baden as Fr. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. in the sun. batador. bat. term in falconry . battere. dial.— To Bask. batna. The bat with which a brot bdhen. baquetazo. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. or break down. or make debate. . whence the sun burns .' Palsgr. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . battre las ailes. . to become convalescent. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. battere. and as a verb. Ayenst the sunne. dial.Bathe. Battalion. Flem. debat. and milk beaten up together. Strife. Sw. trahtr to It. battle was used beath wood. to toast bread. to heat . To thrive. bdda vidjor. as wood-en. for biia sik. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Bate. signifying to give repeated blows. to foment. a band of armed men arranged basa. better. to fight. Fr. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. to foment. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. adapted for defence. Bailey. beat. quhar he suld assaill. busk. hot. from battre. Sp. to become fat. Jeddris and covering. Battery. E. In some parts of England it is striking. beat down. Sp. betten. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Battery. strife. to beath wood Battledoor. to feed. Pr. to foment with hot applica. Florio. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Fr. Goth. gebdck. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. bet. batte sig. to beat se battre. a battalion. batir. Eggs. to beat. squadron. Hence pro. to betake oneself. bdda. to be profited.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. dial. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. badda. an arrangement for giving blows. in the case of a wall. allay . to beak. sich bakern. tagUone. To Batten. a Baiffi. gabatnan. baz. Hal. Gael. Sw. I. battre. bdhen.— . altercation. basa. e. battaglia. Fr. wet linen in washing. Chaucer. and about an inch thick. solbase. oneself at the A into faggots. and with staffslyng. Bret. It. beat. to warm oneself at the fire. Batyn. battre. Slav. From bat in the sense of rod . a blow with a light instrument. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. batacazo. of bread is so much baked zX one time. to warm oneself. batterie. dial. tradire. to thrive. — Cot. to dial. Mgy. Battlement. Batter. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . See Better. pak. a stick. more. gebdcke. G. G. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. on. a beating. Du. to fire or in the sun. baka. a stirrer-up of strife. to flutter with the wings. baden. to beat. from on. Pm. heat. to beat. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. a battle. also a sun badfish. also. buask made like a fortress. on the fire. to bathe oneself. w. Batten. as signifying warm baths. baeddu. — To . to cudgel. I bathe in water viz. a from ON. dispute. by projections or in any licoure. lessen. water whether warm or cold. to refresh oneself in language. solen baddar. a staff. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Fr. bastille. A Bath. Bat. To Bate. bludgeon. as E. a washing beetle. is in falling. as E. abattre. — — — ' — . to for fighting. made of — A made by one Batcii. bat-en. badda.Hence in the augmentative form It. to warm. is a simple adoption of Fr. remit. the heat of the It. bdt. Barbour in Jam. to bathe. quell. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. a blow. fortress or castle. howis. Pm. cudgel. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. I baske. bake. a main battle. to heat. Baka sik vid elld. 2. flour.

a horse with white legs. a tassel. baw. bal. fooleries or fond To Bawl. In like manner Grisons filthy. Swiss Rom. Zalli. an embattled wall. and Sp. speckled. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. toys.guage). propugnaculum. filth. rotten. bal. brush faggot. babbole. whence pouacre. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do .. Fr. form with an initial seen in Fr. exactly corresponds Fr. E. babiole. pie- . ground. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. baula. s. bad. bauU. horse. ON. bausan. to cry. javelle. pegma. a dog). bow (as in our nursery Diez. as Fr. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. The It. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. c. A name of the badger. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Batylment of a wall. an object. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. BAWSON Swiss. because made of cloth of white. an — — — A — g — — — . the Swiss baben. a gavel. spot. represented by the syllable miau. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. and authorities in note. tab. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. instead oi s. also more Bawdekin. zano.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. P. Prov. E. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. the face. bauch. Cloth of gold. —R. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. Baw — . to low or bellow as corn. filth. from Baldacca. whence the E. 8. Pr. From ! an interjection of disgust. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Formed from baw. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. child. Pm. scarf. Gael. baudrat. 2. is used for a sented by bau. vacillo. guigaw. a lump. tille. Bavin. or the animal so marked. was simply a field gold.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. OFr. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Baldrick. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Fr. collar. Filthy. From Bret. Jam. E. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. a tassel or hanging bunch . lewd . and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. to make the noise Baudrick. a spot. OFr. — — ' Lydgate. on the face of animals. balderich. to talk Lacombe. to vociferate. bablyn or waveryn. to 53 manure the To baw. — Pm. P. bouaila. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. divided between black and white. obstrepere. and to-tore also. to trifle away ment. fields. dial. spotted. i. bow-wow. the white of his leg or foot. trifles. having a white streak down Bagdad. Fr. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. balGael. Bawson. mew. to me-wl. baubare. An analogous noisily. It.— P. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. to bark . sorry. Ball-seirc. also the canopy carried part of his body.' ' Pegma. ish baubles. baue. The word may perhaps be sticks. s. E. baban. dirty. bobine. Cotgr. baugant. baffe.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. ball. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. is Bagdad stuff. disgusting. Bagdad. a plot of Chaucer. It. babsmall toy to play withal. Ball. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. balbob. Descript. ballach. to play the babby. or Cot. Lat. librillo. Fl. Beaus^ent. a lump or cluster babhaid. Pr. a belt. ! Bauble. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. nastiness. or toys. bau. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. excrement. trifle. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. a white mark Bawdy. bobbin or cluster of thread. baudrdj OHG.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. a horse marked with a procession. Irel. or sheaf of Bridel. dung. sword-belt. dacchino. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). It. Piedm.. faisceau. expressive of disgust. from Fr. miauler. whimwham. Hal. W. to bark. to the same origin. It is all bawdy. P. Cot. fagot. b \% bouala. R. to void the bowels. cluster.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Cot. dirt. fe bau. a zan. dente. in OE. Sc.

. desiring. a berry. dehiscere . from badar. aux dehniers abois. — A At Bay. Mod. buidhe- The ruadh. It. hddhe-dhonn. Cot. beonj Gael. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. a mark. baie. bde. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. badius.—Journal Soc. Fr. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. baca. batibari. by the term rendre les abpis. Bay. to keep at a bay. bajo.. w. and zndly. |8i'os. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. See Bald. Fr. bahia. AS. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. at his last gasp. arose two forms of the verb. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. baier. Bay. a cluster of bacon. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. a hole.' Bailey. bay. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. to stand watching one. Serv. weary of running. See Bawl. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. husk. put to his last shifts. bilyega. stare. bai. Arts. It. dividere. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. living Ir. or at bay. &c. Sp. or to have been first used at the Cot. Fr. to be Bohem. bilyejiti. beothach. . To Bay. A hollow in the 'line of coast. house . the world Gr. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. A stag is said to stand at bay. expresr sion tenere a bada. open the mouth. when. —F. to on anything. Piedm. Catalan hadia. he turns and faces his pursuers. to betray. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. . Prov.— Stalder. F. as may be seen from the foregoing examples.. laurel of the ancients. white. to amuse stare a bada. yellow . badarc. berry. Fr. abbabayer. From the former verb is the It. bialo. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. It. bate. tradire to Fr. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. Lat. a beast. Fr. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. BAY marked with bjly. window-sill. Earth — By Nature made to till. —Bay-windo'W. ing-floor. large window in a handsome . baher. Swab. so called from its bearing bays. that from ba. barn of two bays. Swiss beie. baionette. See At Bay. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. baiare. Fr. bayo. From Cat. the cod or husk of beans or the like. OSp. &. to gape. Gr. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Bay-tree. or recess in an apartment in modern times. bijel. bayen-stein. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. Vielp. buidhe. and keeps them in check for a while. Sp. as gazing. overture. Lat. bdcr. to split. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Holland's Pliny in R. trahir. Q. bahia. stood watching him stoop. window .c. Drayton in R.' — — 54 bald. gate. 1. BauSfi)/. . like a pie. baer. It has been shown under Abie. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. baca. or window ' (in Fortification). baja. Abide. &c. the cod of peas. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. BE Probably conRuss. as if to signify a window of curved outline. bioth. life. 25. is perhaps not directly from Lat. to mark. to keep one waiting. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. bay. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. and the To bark as a dog. bacca. waiting . The — Fr. Gael. baccello. Such Antaeus seemed to me. grapes or nuts. beo. The word bay. living thing . It. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Bayonet. the laurel-bay. — Schmid. badia to Sp./^ bau. Q. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. in order to keep the enemy in check. a dagger. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. * To Be. baya. 1859. Feb. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. to open as a blossom. from an imitation of the sound. baga. the step is the same as from It. to iiitent nected PoL white. corrupted into Bow-window. to open. berries. Sp. badarse. a'uno. watching intently. It. life. or berries. which however. ist. bagaid. —Diez. S. alive. siege of Bayonne in 1665. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. especially beans. baye. Gael.

bek. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Gr. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. rising ground. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. N.' Suetonius in Diez.' Hall's Chron. A Esthon. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. like most nautical terms. to wait. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Beckon. or however. g. bakke. beacen. bakkje. Farrar. bean. fora-bauhan. Du. or any action done with a pointed thing. Be. a single bean. however. a hill. The immediate shore of the Menage. Netherlands or North Germany. vii. ON. stock. or breathing. bohnej ON. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. AS. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. W. Beach. bM. — : Beam. beugler. 54. the part overflowed by the tide. bagms. A two-year old nephew of mine p. It. E. badmr. beans. on. beacnian. — to bow or nod .to have a French origin. OSax. atUndre. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. bee. Bean. It. «va\ioQ. bauhan. a prayer. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. It forms a. -phxr. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Pardoner's Tale. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. fromthe danger. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Trans. signifying a point. a tree. * Beagle. W. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. fero. pierced for hanging on a string. Q wait upon him. a sign. boom. post. — Bellenden in Jam. ohg. Beak. Beck. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. becco. Thus the final en. as. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Catalan becar. G. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bokan. bydel. Gael. Gael. ON. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. bdkna.. a curtsey. a beak. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. beic. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. according to of Sanscr. Hackluyt in R. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. as. The origin seems preserved in E. . and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Beadle. or beic. Beacon. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. an attendant. faba. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. Gael. which is. to bellow. baun. signifying individuality. vol. Slavon. G. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. nokkima. faba is Kvavoq. Chapters on Lang. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. bairan. . be. .fuis5e. beic. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Goth. would say. baum. prodigy bauhnjan.' adheres to the root. bohne. to produce young. To Bear. ffaen. was introduced from England sea. to beckon. bob. to carry.fer-re j Gr. into France. bedm. and Lat. AS. bar. gebed. bead. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. a tree. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. beck. ffci. Sw. as well as f& or fav. — bedeau.from AS. salve his hurts. a single bean. to wait-. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. into a snjall river. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us.fui. to nod . support. a presage. Bear. —F. tale of prayers or doxologies. Goth. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. It is BEAR SI court. backe. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. bank. bidan. Boom. Bret. bearti. Moreover the name. Bret. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Fr. The wild beast. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. See To Bid. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Lat. a nod OHG. l^ax. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. He says. to nod the head. bidello. pig. fd or faVf beans.ad. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Fr. The nutu significare.

Fr. to hem. and also in that of birth. to the brook itself. den. bellus. to the good hapHalbard. to sleep on. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to get. baviire. This meaning is to be explained from Beard.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. dize or dtzen. and Fr. That thou mayest attain Goth. slobber. Goth. nothing to thy name make. See Bank. bring forth. the latter are derived It. E. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. ziemen. baurthei. timan. Beckon. — A — A — . from beau. byrcti. to happen. limpian.— Kiittner. convenient. bave. bard. proper . i. beauts. 2. biivre. limpan. to live.AS. Lat. happening as it ought. an notion of being convenient. which. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to happen. becuman. fitly . bave i. . pens unmixed evU. barf. beo. now confined To Become. ting. if sound of a sharp blow. to fall. Fr. G. Lat. bel. to G. bobrowai. ON. Lat. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. agreeable. venient. bavec. gefallen. G. con. Dan. Slav. As rivus. Prov. See Beacon. It. burdr is used in the sense of a car. connected with ripa. decent. Beck. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. biber. to attain to the lot of any one. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. baba. pretty. edge. it is probable that here also the to become. G. birth. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to dabble . to shore. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. to be fulfilled. as the babble of the child. from the same in the sense of bear2. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. bcek. suitable. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. See Bat. ON. or special purpose. Now the Beast. e. to fall mode of being. becuman.to clothe to slobber. Prick of Conscience. to happen. the ece thurhwuniath. i. bequem. byw. See becymth anfeald yvel. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. Bosworth. bearing. o. riviire. Sp. Lith. obtain. Beck. boroda. fitanimal. fit. a bank. name applied originally to the bank then proper . — .' ' He became very angry. R. but now a river only. G. to arrive at. bart. to carry. befall. handsome. Cal. brada. The moveable part of a helmet. get J ' He got very angry. bedr. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. badi. Russ. AS. fallinn. ON. The fitting or suitable. bekkr. chin. from baver. because made of the fur of the beaver. He becom on sceathan. bestiaj Gael. our taste. beatanj It. whence baveux. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. to assume a certain form or Turk. proper. Fr. to please. or river. Perhaps from Pol. dress with unbecoming richness . opportune. to be incumbent upon him. limplice. Beauty.fit. the beard. to happen. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best.S6 fero. and to acquire. Do no To It fallith favour. riviera. a bank. Chaucer. covered the face. receive. gelimplic. tidy. to fall in with our bavard. babrad. comely. bekommen. G. to be a part of his to. to come to or upon. to bear children. to appertain. bett. border. It. rying. a lip. bebrus. to happen. produce. to those goods which endure for ever. bobr. or a feeling to be gratified. To load with ornament. nod or sign. Bedizen. I do thee pray. Beaver. brook. Boeth. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. pleasing. gebank. judgment. battere. bello. seemly. Diez. taste.of being very angry. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. befit. as. formerly a happen. to wade through the water like a beaver. bava. ON. suitable. AS. a brook. 1.getiman. bib or slobbering cloth. Fr. Bo. behkr. barba. godum with ON. place to lie down. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Fr. tidig. OSw. a. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. g. Beat. E. R. Thcem. blast. fiber.we call the arrangement becoming. living. W. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat.' every way suited to a prince. talkative. On the same principle.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. and on. iida. agreeable. while from Shep. e. Secondarily applied to a hat. bach. duty.' are equivalent expressions. The quadruped. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. bur. E. Lat. dushmak. decorous. when up. In like manner condition. gabaurths. Thus OY. brook . signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. The OFr. perhaps a living thing.

a mallet. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Lat. sela que environna la terra. ^. desert. as the milk of a that purpose in London. a horse-fly . to rough- cast. a clapper. may be from K. a wandering Prov. cugino. to poordma. as.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. water. to become Beech. . Fr. paralyticus. in Schmeller. GaeL bior. bukva. clog for a dog b'oteln. buk. a pad or cushion).cz//aj._t from the root pi. to coagulate. 'La Gl. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. Fr. from blood. beyki. qui de lecto surgere non potest . AS. bet. trees in a forest .'— GL ^Ifr. Bethlehem. Pl. red curdled Arab . betel.). Beetle. to flatten In OE. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. I put the flax upon it to spin. Lat. to beat bossel. * Beestings. which also 2. a bed-tick. bbtel. turn (a garment). the loppered sea. beach. a paviour's beetle batail. ProBeer. I A pillow-beer. It. Cot. biiren. cozen. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Confined to bed. tree. speach. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. erroneously modified in form. whose face is clotty. Bav. AS. comb. Grimm. pettiriso. also the bite or sting of a bees.D. to turn. beach-each. The meanpainting. The first milk after a dizen. bably named from the destructive quali| T. boeuf. The beer al for te shenche bate. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. by-flugaj G. KXlvoTTiT^e. Beet. D. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. an ox. from leberen. buche.ing of the word is curdled. Arab. mars betada. thick. I dysyn a dystaffe.(paddi. kivih. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. bitela. Ant. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. an inhabitant of the desert. wedges.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. bos. bovis. ris. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Esthon. Let. beutel. to fall. bossen. a bee. stakes. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. . madhouse. woman that is newly delivered. buka. curded or beesty. calleBedlam. But possibly bedizen 2. bitel. beta. a agulatum in the original Latin. to curdle or lopper. Slav. Fr. bytl.— JI14. bette or blettej Lat. a drink potus. bedawi. G. biest-milch. piwo. may be shpped on and off. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji.D. g. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. beost. Fr. Gael. waarin. cited by Diez.ON. drink. beer. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. bove. a cover. bedskiissen-bUren. bibere is a re. Cot. boytle. taglio. from jtst-. . a pillow-case. drink. a Properly a cover that biiren. biene. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. thick. fall. from the hos. garden-herb. knock. 1. Bernese. and lebermer in G. doubtless. i. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. the ox. beetle also signified the impiti. Horn. 1156. to knock. the meat of spinach. blow or thrust. de Fierabras in Diez. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. beest. to colour with lime-wash. pude-vaar. Fr. batAfter mete in sale.— B. In a passage of an Old Fr. a wasp. Gr. to change . to drink. bletumj Gr. ' MordiThe Lat. Dan. Beef. extant in Bohem. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. P1. sang vermeilh betatz. a cup or implement for AS. fagus. in Nat.possible. vaar. Fr. the biter. Bee. used for boull. a stinging bieUe.. Bedouia. The honey-producing insect. of beatmg. an Beetle. prigione. briest. from Lat. to twist poorma. case. also bienst. 1. kiissen-biere. 57 — Palsgr. cogionare. imperative pi. PI. cousin. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. For that was law of lend. turn. . byst. door. Fin.^ drink. &c. Bed-ridden. . Originally. by the analogy of bedaivb.' the last word corresponds to cofly . cushion-cover . a malsense of drink. as in It. pital of St Mary. briesch-milch. It. a pillow case. cow has calved. a wasp. from risan. badigeonner. ir'm. G. poculum. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. . translation beOj. E. to and ale. 1 to drink.' So Gr. E. Pett. on. whence familiar. and in driving piles. bedde-redirj ohg.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. AS. to parget or rough-cast . duplicated form of the root. Rom. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. crespir. prisons Venet. It. /SXirov. G.

Nov. not began to alight. chap. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . yivtrri. ken. but probably erroneously. it is both to acquire and to beget. beis- plement driven by blows. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . as alighting is a momentary operation. oppressed with woe. genus. at geta talad. Deutsch. gen. is formed pocair. in Lat. Schm. to begaan. fangen and Lat. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. P. although it ' the future. Skinner's derivation from bag. 142. Du. appears improbable at first.pose. krapszas. 'Aboutin undern monly. beissel. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. iv.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. word. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Lollards. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. whence the E. ytyvwfT'Kw. Du. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. sel. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. begging. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Political Songs. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. signifying to conceive. to be acquire. 2. on the tramp. a bag. to take. Of brede full ycrammed. Barbour. and Lat. ken. or Of a pure poor man. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. a wedge for cleaving wood. referred gan this Erie alight. ' . 1430. &c. of Gr. two betels —a grete oke.quently used in OE. beriolare. on further examination. ' Begone.n. — yivsaiQ. be^nnan.' for ye shall lament and weep. To produce children is to acquire. 168. beitel.' A. When Q. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. P. in D. a little bag). Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. beginning. P. is com. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. cans. ornamented phoc. a chisel. woe-begone. to be born. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. He did alight. to begin. ip AS. at a time when all his alms were given in kind.bag full of the G. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. V. lapidicinus. yiyvo/uat. AS. The tother seand the dint cum. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . viii. P. seizing. to be able. to go a begging. aginnan. giving in Gr. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. a — wedge. 25. Ancren Riwle. ' ' . P. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. kind. bag {baigean. Lith. covered with gold D. Si'Xa/coc. & go a begging. to cleve. a bag or poke. capere. a scrip. a wallet. V. To Begin. ykvog. yivofiai. steinbosil. It. to bear young. vir mendi. Creed. Gr. It will . touched with emotion — . a beggar-boy. a stone-cutter's chisel. P. P. ysgrepanu. a scrip euXaiciJoi. Fr. In Luc vi. Mundart.3.' about undern he got down. anfangen. a beggar . baigeir. air a . &c. one after that other. can. Goth. P. to know. V. on the bag. Mod. P. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Florio. OHG. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. To Beg. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Into the are D. duginnan. from whete G. can. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. onginnan. 58 BEG BEGONE G. y/yvo/iat. gan. yivwajcw. Vocab. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. affected. P. beitel. image is cleft out of the trunk. to get children .D. hags. beutel. Du. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. 'ex quo. Beghardus. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. the fundamental notion of attaining to. 40. gigno. to beg. also called Bigots. but in the same language from poc. bertola. ysgrepan. origin. begger.— . literally.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. incipere. — Stillingfleet. to arise. tale. So from Gael. taking up. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. pose-pilte. a beggar. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. Bruce. Cold-begone. 1867. a bag . chisel. 'Dz. in E.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. su with gold. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. From w. above quoted to get beaten ON. to reduce him to beggary.

solicitum esse. to be obliged to one. and their senses intermingle. take yourself off. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. heeten willekem. At the back of The re. to call. us-hafjan. to vow. se porter) to fare well or ill. Sw. vow. on. name of the head is used to express what hbva. vow. have the sense of calling or naming.— . to the equivalent of Du. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. garder. to lead. to carry. hantyri. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. nittaa. 17. and (as Fr. gecall. what he wishes another to do . to carry. premi curi alicujus rei. AS. obliged. gehalten seyn. heita. to be suitable or becoming . To Behold. to carry. a follower. to command.). healdan. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. behoof. to behave. the name adapt. promise. to halten. at the tail of. hatan. or the hence advantage. The Lat. G. AS. use. to keen or hold. To look steadily upon. to fit. It. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . beperson addressed. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. take heed of. hces. invoke. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. ward. hafwa bort. keeping. to be well pleased out. when the verb will hoof. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to call. To Behave. K. beholden to him. G. portarsi. to bring forwards. AS. ifl fact. to turn one out . furtherance. To place are most naturally ex. seeing to. keeping.for throwing it. by the compound observare. hafwa. And so from hania. behat. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to tend. N.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. the equivalent of E. servare. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. habban. behatan. Sw. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. to hit the mark. to be named. is also found in the sense of looking. behold. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to hold. Goth. Paladino. hevja. — Behest. betragen. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. behete. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. heave. habere. to look. zijn. is supported by many analogies. to have. observe. to be fit. to bers of the body. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. OE. —Hest. right. Command. The It. according as the * To Behove. or necessary. laborare. promise or a command. to be obliged to do a thing. hafjan. hcef tig bort. gehouden.to vow. and the E. to cast or throw. To be expedient. hovast. to carry corn into the barn . to lift. fixed upon any object). to lift. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. hevja. zu etwas gehalten haitan. AS.the figure of throwing at a mark. injunccommand. tail. G. ge' hatan. Kiittn. Sw. is on the top of or opposite to. G. commonly expressed.' Richardson. Robert in Warton. the distance of anything. Aan iemand bid one welcome. gehat. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. gehaben. heeten. from tragen. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. adjust. advantage. hafwa ram. AS. guardare. or purpose. promise . to R. exhort. to feed. Plautus. the two verbs seem radically the same. G. to name. to take away. to follow. hcefwa in seed. to hold. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to vow. behind. to gehouden. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to meet. The seyn. to promise. hafwa. But. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . behces. Thus in Finnish the heave. hofwa. to regard. behaviour. to keep. to be be named. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. behefe. R.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to raise. to keep. han- — js Kil. as in the case of E. tion. what is so required. ufhaban. bound. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to look upon it as true . G. to heave. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to command. hove.

esteemed . moderation. fitness. true. Det er ofwer er hofwa. to permit.. certain rate.Lat. consent. garnish. glauben. a watch tower.. bellan.alyfan. measure. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. gelyfan. Then. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. battefredum. pro3. a tower for defence . In the middle voice hofwas. bealcettanj OE. reputation. on. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. aim.D. galaubs. belja. laubjan. to der swaren lave. laven. to boke. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. bettifredo. is used in the sense of approving. to resound. to befit. The word be- Belfry. Goth. bulken.D. hesfa. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to be required for a certain purpose. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. bounds. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to lay be- around. ley/a. to praise. To Belch. lov. — mankind. were civil terms of address. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. are other modifications of the same imitative root. See Gain.D. a tower. Bell. range. 6o BELAY BELL loven. border. Q. praise. which has been shown to be derived from laudare.D. or house. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. — Diicange. bealcan. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. loven. to bellow. OFr. to sound loudly . and bergan. leave . Another application of the same word is in Pl. to promise or engage. honoured. with the consent of the heirs. to protect. a. then. legsel. ungalaub kas. loben. to roar. to believe. or high estimation. bellow. bialla. leaf geleafa. on. met. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. is (Sternberg). peal. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. Pl. beffroit. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. ornament. orloven. — . turris. to lay the cable round the bits. for purposes of low estimation . employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. In Mid. AS. verloben. an implement for making a loud noise. To praise is essentially Xo prise. bylja. we have Goth. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. . from mhG. Pl. boare. if a narration. loven. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. beau sire and bel dame. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. satisfaction. Du. To Belay. Fair sir and Fair lady. It. permission. lyfan. to praise. distance to which a piece will carry. behove. OHG. Fr. bertefredum. lofa. filu-galaubs. beleggen. to sanction an arrangement. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. erlauben. Sw. to extol the worth of anything. berfroi. to give leave. P1. allow. mark ON. Fr. to fix a price upon one's wares. beffroi. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. esteeming good and valid. a vessel made for dishonour. From AS. promising. bervrit. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. ON. Du. properly belonging to the church tower. are innate . resonare. if a promise. laven. overspread. fringe. and E. in nautical language. AS. to believe. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. . bell. to a loud noise. to give leave Dan. to praise. praising. cela est audessus de votre portde. precious. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. and Du. Du. under the forms belfredum. to belay. or a sconce. portion. to make it fast. bolken. to cry out bell. beset. to give leave. ON. giving leave or permission. to put a high price or value on.. Hence to simple approbation. promiser. Northamptonshire. Du. b'ola. To Believe. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. a little shed. to promise. G. stand. —F. and. to to make A Templorum campana boant. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . permitting or giving leave. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . tain a certain end. and E.Lat. to estimate them at a To believe. to express approval. then. is an easy progress. appearing in Mid. frid. locus securitatis Schilter. belief . to hit hafi. reach. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . bercvrit. to believe. . to bolk. galaubjan.

belgr. bolg. . pertinere. fyle To dirty. Kil. G. bags or bellows. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. binssen. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. est matris in lucem editus. Du. well. . pervenire. to bless. bell. incense of Java. Benzoin. a water-bubble builge. Belt. a round or bubble-shaped root. volva. bilbil-goda. was in Mid. Benignant. a bellows . a speaking well of one. the word. or simply djawt. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. ' I beraye. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. bimaissen. skin. rushes. bolg. from another modification of the word for bubble. bcelg. rise against external force . beneison. See Bank. bolch. See Bind. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. To Bend. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). — See Numb. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. Lat. because bcelg. is The word balg. ON. kind. to belong. pertinere. G. wallet. hem. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Lat. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Beneath. Bret. generous. leather sack. to attain belangen. Sw. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Ptg. I say).Fr. dirt. a good deed." — — . I soyle it or araye it. bless. — ray. to touch one. Was das belanget. to come to the crown belangen. benedicere. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen.— Belly. to hold to one. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. to concern. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. bag. to attain to. I araye. Lat. benedictio {bene^ and dico. — root consisting of concentric skins. — Ducange. Benediction. belch. Gael.videtur. From OFr. is a kindred form. to exert force. bandoir. benignus (opposed to malignus). See Nether.' Palsgr. OFr. by itself. wallet Benefit. belly. The ing-skin. attinere. balg. Benign. taken absolutely. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. See I . Fr. a blow. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. bienfait. or fyle with myre. to bend a bow . from benedictio. to become one's property . loubdn djawt. to arrive at. on..' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. Benefice. . to do good to one . benehusk. . a spring. hence with ashes. poX^ri. ON. has assumed a plural form. pino3. welt of a shoe. from Arab. bellows. Javanese perfume. Quoth. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. an inflated Lat. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Lat. as concerning that. belt. a kindness. as. to ring. becwathan. To belong is thus to reach up to. skin. pouch. blister balgan-snamha. Gum benjamin. Dozy. se bander. Bench. vulva. from which is also bulbus. To Bequeath. to concern. border. to stretch it on a frame. Benefactor. Eenison. vulgarly the belly. Gael. Lat. disposed to oblige. . BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. belliJ Lat. the womb. to reach. Lat. gelangen. from cwcsthan. a blessing. . a bellows. belly.' — Hie fimus. a leather bag. OUG. to use words of good omen. to touch. a border. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. balteus . to say. bellows. a benefit. needs no ex. To Belong'. a accusative. one who does good. to. blast-bcelg. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. Fr. G. benaigon. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. to make bilbil. binsen.' The term had been previously planation. attinere. means seeds of plants. G. benjoim. In E. welt of a shoe gwald. ray. are stripped off whole blase-balg. bendaj as. To Benum. bellows. or sometimes louban. bene/actum. balg. to hallow. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. I marre a thyng. benejicium. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. benefacere. Benedico. Bent. w. bander un arc. . fens et hie liraus. the skin of those animals that factor. bilbila. cod or husk of pulse. ' . bimpsen. langen. bendan. gwaldas. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. or a It is times the to signify services. ^To Beray. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Bav.pinuz. ball. J'emboue. attingere. benjoin. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. pod.polch. benir. Fr.

as. besen. p. rods. amendment. Bestead. as bouter selle. think more probable.irova. OE. compared with bargham. I from lew. as conversely a besom is called broom. Fr.iooA. bouter. Rob. Kil. to mend. besnij Pl. to cast. * Berth. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. — . but it is specially applied mister. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. So too Yorkshire arf. of ffeed a fire. a place . besmas. Tusser. to the place boarded off in a. lewth. to thrust. boeten. repair. to put on the saddle.bhaksh. scopse spartis. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . might have been . what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. beseech. a fire. berwham. houseless. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke.D. better.• 62 Antiq. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. stealth from steal. boeten. ^•n. Goth. or the space kept clear betan. het vuur The serise of Boeten. and Du. Ihre. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. preferably. To help. Hfence backing.—^fake. bacca. arwe. To Gl. but in practice. p. bdt.X. encouraging. bdt. reparation. broom twigs. brem-bessen. to on the other Goth. G. Fr. See Better. or. — amendment. rubbish. From abet.t. Esthon. reparation. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Tha het he micel fyr betan. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. Zeitschr. making better. put forth. R. Du.— VixHsm. as. to light the fire . from AS. to thrust. to defend. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. in the sense ctf beria. See Reave. Beet. noise. On the other hand. besein. advantage. is to perform a serviceable office to him. Sw. same word with the provincial barth. 3. Besom. sweepings. earh. E. person to lie in. the guardian . To seek something from a person. . To Bet. to exercise on a definite object. because used for making besoms. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. profit. sets fire to. vi. one who shelter. The proper meaning of the bale. a berry. G. ariierf to 113. protect . to be-place. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw.— Hal. baete. — bota. reafian. fearful. sheltered from the wind. make better . ship for a make amend. bet. berry. besIn sen. an incendiary. bereafian. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. as. place. from grow. — Chaucer. position. basya. To bete his Jam. the side bhakshya. BETE dirty'. what does it boot. Beit. Du. eld up- On is to be placed A — . put. To Bestow. bal oppbota. — Biglotton. hva mannan. to make it. improve. seems twigs or rods. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. betan. as in growth. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. Du. roe. bota. burrow. When men of mekeness him baet. to entreat. to supply a want. Grose. stede. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. or to bestead one. barth may be for barf. barthless. fall with sound. an incendiary. as Du. baete. R. To Beseech. the origin of which is to be found in ON. * To Bete. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. betan. dung . to fall with roisto. . supply. to word is shelter. bat. to kindle the fire. advantage. to seek. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. jnore. to fire a funeral pile of . vol. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. to amend. So roto rattle down. to stand one in good stead. small eatable fruit. from It. and also to entreat. buttare. bestow. AS. as. what does it better a man. to make better. Berry. and on which the wager is laid. So Lat. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. It is the restore fyr betan. solicit. boutefeu. AS. Fin. boteith Goth.fish the other hand. Best. botesward. dust rojahtaa. barfham. dirt . besje^ Sanscr. stow. fyrbotare. dirt. to to deprive of. to To Bereave. BEREAVE Wall. beorgan. Beere. berwe. a horse collar. peto. The origin is AS. AS. supporting on the one side Lat.ot-i. buttafuoco. Du. Sw. mud. Devon. to give a place to. lay out. E. ^akka. dial. earg. bur-we. it seems hard to separate as. roju. ropahtaa. boeten. roju. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to strip. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. basjaj Du. The dry.

better. by a final sh. amiddes. progress. zimet. from Fr. deem suitable. find it good: Goth. gives sign of existence which attracts notice.— . beuvrage. Dit tungomal rendered in E. Fris. wrogia. as trahissons. Golding's Ovid in R. afford. it bewrays itself. taemen. Chaucer. a brood. or with again. Lat. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. fitting. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. spritigs from schicken. E. Mich self a good glass of wine. fate. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. from invadere. moveable and compass branches. x. kein leben mehrin no signs . Bav. Car son umbre si le trahit. as from obdir. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. tradere. It. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. by two. bevere. On the same principle ON. ON. against. To Beteem. bedriegen. best. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. bevde. said he. i. from Lat. to stir. Goth. be fitting or suitable. as one would have it fall. to fall. proficere. Fr. Thus from dbahir. Pl. OE. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. in the middle of twain. batizo. to accuse. From It. bet. betweohs.D. Dii. Tinia eigi at lata eit. to happen. a different form of twa. tima. to happen. wreia. betest. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. bet. G. his mouth. tweoh. i. Hence last G. in the middle of two. better. obeish. Cot. of pheasants. Ober D. It. suitable. /alia. trahir. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. dir. The as. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. r'ojer dig. to fall Some call it a bevel. obdissais. deign. 88. betst. Percy Soc. R. larks. To boot in coursing (i. ziemen. amidst. for measuring angles. To Bewray. his eyen sheen. are there Regt R. Buveau. baet. the being pushed to the frbnt. betwuh. batista. Better. gezimet eines dinges.' Dialogue on Witches. bouter davantaige. order. . Du. become. are commonly to one's lot. as tlock. treachery. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. to make forwards. Friar's Prol. some attention. -to appoint. Fr. suitable. ruogia. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. and thence twegen. Pl. Fr. awry. From the former of these are AS. pair of compasses. — that schickiich. BETEfiM translated. fallinn. to Teem. make manifest. E. in the same way Lat. of quails. trakir. two. *Ah. a bevy. The inflections of Fr. A — drink. Ik tame mi dat nig. as envahir. betweox. tima. betriigen. regen. abash j from polir. Best. twain. R. tradire. advance. betray. has — In a like sense tanie>i. to cheat. better. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Now the stirring of an object. polish. To vouchsafe. beverage. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. gatiman. In like manner folissais. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. — of the authorities. traditor. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. I approve of beveau. e. riigen. betaemen. Between. bibere. Det sig sjelft. Fr. taemen. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Bevy. In like manner from twain is fothied between. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. — See To Bete. evidence of life. roja. — Betwixt. lot). from. ON. to discover. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. is used for the — R. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. more. to Hence It. bat. G. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Goth. whence beveraggio Fr. find in one's heart. In the water anon was seen His nose. R. traitre. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. betweoh. vrohjan. Fl. betera. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. e. a drinking . Sw. To Betray. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. trahison. AS. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. trahissais. gesiemen. dispose (whence schicksal. springs from ON. to deliver tip.D. a traitor. beva. zemen. which may be compared as to form with amid. roebucks. to deceive. what does It is forward him. verbs in ir with a double ss. e. to deliver up in breach of trust. betwuxt. to drink . &c. sloped off. G. E. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. Slant. Sahissais. is treason. AS. an instrument opening like a a thing. G.

to Jam. to move. to sip. bias-wise. I Wallon. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Fr. or by any rapid motion. bickeler. a bezle. to shake. Fris. to cut in two. Bib. to well up with Cot. bark of which paper was first made. sbieco. Fr.two. to it evident to sense. sbiscio. bickel-sieenken. or in and out. bisel. sbiasciai. slanting . sloped. discover. . to stir.a. has a singular stone-picker. love first begins to life signs of him. makes ble. which good bibbeler. oblique. to make tongue Du. Bezoar. like guzzle. beslei. from pdd-. Mantuan. bibo. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Fr. or kwijl-slab. the basil Sc. to be a paring.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. petit-lait. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. he is Wtb. bring under ' Thy accuse. The It. bezling or skueing. Uprogen. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). biaiser. Hal- — do something aslant. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bis. It is especially applied in Sc. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. a sloping edge. To Bezzle. a stone-hewer . sbiescio. to creep or crawl sideling. a fragment bieco. To bicker in NE. Ci^. Yes. sbriscio. Fr. to the stirring of their conscience. to tipple. Dan. presence. evident. Misc. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. sbias. bending. Pl. convicts thee of being drink. whey count . the word became bddizahr. kwijllap. Du. its clothes. pddzahr. sbrisciare. winding or crawling in and out. to slaver or drivel. bavon. to stir up . Piedm. An inferior blue. bickelen. shows the P1. wrogen. asure-bice (Early E. to glide or slip as upon. pible. bescompte. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. ber-laita (for bes-laita). slippery. it becomes (Jz-. Bice. two- footed.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. to stir. Bible. to slaver . rogge. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. used in precisely stone . Pers. metaphor). liwell. Probably. Jamieson. To drink hard. twice. Biseau. biberon. biais. To Bib. roggle. a slabbering-bib. as an eel or a snake. biascio. foul weather. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. rogt un bogt sik nig. Bibelsworth in Nat. To skirmish. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. sbiagio. . crooked. sik beregen. Bezel. The train of thought is then. Piedm. wraggeln. Bisect. a bibber. Lat. Sard. Bias. Diet. An excellent Basil. (according to the Fr. —Bickering'. baviere. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. wrangle. besanca. poison. dial. To Bicker. bes-azur. —Dozy. Lat. to dispute. one who drinks in excess. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. aslope. specially in a bottle. by throwing of stones. dial. lips. bebble. In Arab. tailU en biseau. beregen. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. expelling or preserving against. sliding. bickai. . E. Prov. sbrissare. Ant. Sardin.or from obliquus. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). misFr. . whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. it were the mouth.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. snout. stock still. the papyrus. in him. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. of the sliced off. to give signs of life. and zahr. to a fight with stones. biax. biberer. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. ice . to tipple. Cat. 172. babbi. per\'erted belief. See Wriggle. reveal. though such a change of form would be very unusual. a Galilean. Oh when shall I bizzle. — crooked. — Bi-. to purl. Fr. him. It.s bellum for duellum. bibaculus. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. to stir. .D. in two ways for duis. edge of a plate of looking-glass. In comp. biberen. bestemps. To Bibble. sbrisso. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. bible. baverole.to drink much. /3i/3Xof a book originally. notice.as in Biped. babbefore the eyes. Hal. biascia. Fr.D. inferiority. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. is explained to clatter. 78). :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . kwijlen. bickel. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. in Fr. bihais. Gr. whence Du. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. kwijl-bab. Cat. Schiitze. It. bisdare.{ioin dua. Sp.' bibble. aslope sbisciare. OE. b&zahr. sbiesso. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver.

bend. beidast. to offer it to public notice. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. ON. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. to dwell. consisting both of men and women. bog. — prepare. beadle. It must be observed that the word bidja. bolginn. A pose to one to come to dinner. ON. to have one called before him. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. be bug. Wallace in Jam. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to inhabit. to inflate E. balg. AS. to bid one good day. from seek. belly. Bickelen. a swelling. a chip. to pro- command. AS. Hence Sc. The ON. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. swoln. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bygga. bi-. bidel. To bid the banns. OSw. rising up. swaggering. or bad. anleta. beodan. a flexure. bugt." buque with E. bidan. bced.uddered len heart. to E. to marry. to look for. bend of a shore or of a rope. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. bulge. BIGOT beidan.t.. With respect to logical pedigree. R. or. has leta. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. to build. from belgia. bidill. byggia. ' Bug as a Lord. bugne (answering to ON. bulk. praebere. W. of More ' in Richardson. explaining the Sc. by seek and beseech. to swell. bieden. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to arrange. To Bid ' Big . iiQ. The 'La. bilge or bulge. Jam. swelling. ten. gebeden j G. twice. cultivate. bulky. called the tertiary order. bug. 2. may plausibly be derived from Goth. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. and consequently ordering or reGoth. gebodenj G. to offer. or third order of penitence.' Pope in R. bauen to cultivate. pray. to start out. belly. to forbid . — — — Halliwell. byggan. to look for. to bend. an entire skin. bag. from bidan. Bigot. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. are also used in the sense of asking for.Leta). to forbid . G. and Gael. G. The loss of the / gives Dan. porrigere. to abide or wait on. bieten. becoming in Lat. to bicker. abidan. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. to cultivate. and the Sw. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. Analogous expressions are G. to build. proud. 1. bolga. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. bouwen. G. boa. to bend. bit- bidja. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. who. to solicit. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. faurbjudan. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bidjan. bidan. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to move quickly. to ask. Palsgrave in Halliwell. Einem einen guten tag bieten. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. forwards. to pray one to dinner. qucero. From Gr. bulge. athird class.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. verbieten. A bjudan in anabjudan. Bight or Bought. OSw. P. . to presimpler pare. Bigamy. bead. the belly of a ship. the meaning of bid. . To Big. besides the professedmonks and nuns.peto. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. pressing on one's notice. bugan. einen vor Gericht bieten. a suitor. Two verbs are here confounded. as tears from the eyes. Du. Big. inhabit Du. biegen. bis and in comp. inhabit. AS. form. to curve. BID of stone. bo. bow. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. in the sense of ask for. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. which is stiU. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. related to big or bug. buga. bolgna). biddan. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bua. bigan. Big-swol- . to offer one the wish of a good day. ON. Kil.' Addison. to bulge. The original Swollen. quiring something to be done. praestare. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. ewes. ON. and yajiBui. offerre. The ON. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. England for swollen. to build G. bat . bath. repair. to ask. as G. Compare also Sp. bedun. as. — To Bid. to belly. spelling seems to used in the N. build. The .

They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.— Ducange. clownish. a blockhead. dark-coloured cloth. grey. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. beghino. bigio. the other form Per te Tribune.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. xx. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.' says one of of bigio. to adopt a similar course of life. borel. 1243. In a similar manner from bigello. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. which must not be confounded with begardo. vol. and Q.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. &c.D. Flor. beghart. aliqui Begardi. homespun cloth. a dunce. 560. biso. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. as well as bizocco. natural grey or sheep's russet. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. and hence the variations bigutta.a. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. ac labores manuum detestantes. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. bighiotto. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. Beguttce. In the same way Fr. rustical. They wore a similar dress. G. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. Bighiotti). face VIII. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. coarse woollen cloth.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. 15 18.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. ix. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. sed maxim^ in muliebri. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. Hence the OE. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' Matthew Paris.' says an Venet. absque votorum religionis emissione. perch^ i Terziari di S. corruption would easily creep in.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. with reference to A.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. was formed bigello.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. bighellone. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. both men and women. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. says. 1499. Augustini dotarint.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. From bigio. probably from biso. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. D. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. Bighini. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. signifying bagmen or beggars.' translated by Muratori. and also unlearned common men. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. alii de paupere viti. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. alii Apostolici. bigotta.. Bizocco. A. honesti plebeii amictus. A. the nobles to Rienzi. A. author quoted in N.— BIGOT bigardo.D. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.D. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. all apparently derived from Ital. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. grey. Bizoccki. vocati Fraticelli. begutta. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. S.' Chart. Francisci communiter appellabant.

To defraud one of expected sinking.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. The Du. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. bulla. and in Lat. a shackle. Dan. to strike. to peck. Fr. on. bill of exchange. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. the beak of a bird. Bill. Deutsch.— — — . Piedmontese bigot. obsolete. inscriptum. The origin of the term is probably from bole. person of religion leading a loose life. and a billard. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. buoy [i. — Cot. bullet. from Mid. billot. from the dark colour. and dziobas. Du. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Sw. Fr. procella Kil. abelthe fetter itself. to swell with rage). A slang term for a sword. billard also signified at billyards. Lat. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. bigardo. BILBERRY nated. bull-berries. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. the swelling G. bigot. an ingot of gold or silver. billet is the diminutive of this. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Ludwig. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. gan. AS. Dan. bwyell. A lorum tam in — Diez. an adze . boeye. that of swell. Kil. bigotto. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. to pick a millstone. used in legal proceedings. — bigardia. bizocco. to be angry (i. dissimulation . a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. top. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Bilberry. a seal. seems to be rather the unda. Bigin. See Bulk. Bilbo. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. a devotee. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. In English the meaning has received a further development. b'olja. beil. ^Billiard. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. an ingot.. an axe. Billette. . Bilge. . dziob. Mundart. Fr. belghen. bisoch.' mariners. biilge. a floating log to mark the place of some. clog to a fetter. boia. The proper meaning bylgia. a short note. e. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Billet. — — ' . of boja. p. bil. however. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a seal. a negro. the bill of a bird. as craneberry. Roquef. Bojce.' bilio. billard or billart. buie. An instrument for hewing. Billow. to job. w. Thus we find in It. bigot. topor. now A Bilboa blade. 2. blue . AS. is properly a sealed instrument. . 2. to strike. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Bohem. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. So in Gr. e. Du. Aurelles. a bigot or hypocrite. a hatchet. Tartuffe. bulghe. a beak. a sword. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. OFr. a name given to a. beghart. a hypocrite. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Sw. Bill. at sea Billet. Kil. axe. bill. a man who rests on a stick in walking. To Bilk. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bui. irons or set in a kind of stocks. bila. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Gael. Langued. whortle-berries. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. blaa. boja. names bill-berries. an axe. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. NFris. crowberry. buail. bile. billet. bulgja. loi. 3. belgan. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. symbolum. fetters. gleischner (Frisch). dziobad. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. in the sense of a writing. blamand. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. weapon . AS. Prov. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. See Bull. 5 * . the o changing to an i to express diminution. the trunk of a tree. In the same way are related Pol. Du. Sp. bolghe. G. of E. fluctus maris. bille. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. horn of an animal. Bille. deceit. a punishthe offender is laid in Du.' in Richardson. a of the sea. ferrese quam ligneae. an axe. 'tumidi fluctus. from OSw. in the same sense. Sw. Gascoigne in R. tepati. an axe . Johansen. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. as a bill of indictment. bla-berry. genus vincu- Bilboes. Lat. plog-bill. bill in parliament. I. hence the cudgel in the play at trap .

Lith. a bump or knob. and especially to a small poor horse. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. a bitch applied also to other animals. to build. Gr. a knob. from pondus.' and the like. bundle. than vice versi. a bear. ON. betsel. evegue. bund. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Sw. twice cooked. berkas (z=:Fr. Lap. bundle. a bunch. and of Fr. a female stag. a corn. bundun. wine. AS. pippione. beitan. Bine. — See Bittacle. IV. . as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. a weight of 48 pounds. band. brut. G. to bind at . lusciosus et myops. Bittacle or Binnacle. Fr. . an overseer. a heap. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. to net. hiindiiin. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. The bitol. Lith. bij sienigh. bord. AS. Lat. Sw. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. in Swabia. Fr. Goth. bundt. earnes brid. Bitch. Bizened. piiiti. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. nodus. To Bite. See To Bear. are commonplaces. brid. also a stone weight. Fr. BITTACLE /Siof. burt. from \t3\. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. or bin. to bring Biscuit. or baked. to bulge. to plait. a hind or female stag. pittjo. Sp. v. . to fasten it together. episcopus. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a gallinaceous bird. ge- from AS./«idere. to cook). ON. We — A Birth. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. The proper meaning is a heap. expressed by Sw. Bin. admota non Bit. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. overlooker. bin-wood. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. to hang. bhurja. — — . where the compass stands. biscuit. copus. 'tumens sequor. See Belly. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. biccej ON. a heap. Bisom. a weight. while bind-wood. an eagle's young G. bund. bunch. See Breed. bitill. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. biscotto.. G. To — — —D. Birch. . is rendered in ON. Du. Lat. bindan. AS. is in Scotland applied to ivy. bjork. pullus. viz. Bailey. truss. evigue. — Surrey in R. pin-ti.. G. vescovo. isfiw. from Gr. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. bindan. bircej Sw. bundt. Dan. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. beran. biclie. Sanscr. Thus I suppose the Gr. It. binda nat. or petze. to bind together. Goth. H. Fr. Bind. a habit- Binnacle. pundas. beize. habitacle. the young of birds . AS. Habitacle. by binda. It. binge. a bitch. AS. qui nisi propius Blind. to bear. the young of an animal. pinnii. Bisson. beisseii. bitacora. e. Bisen. poule. EpisETTiTOOTToe. bunt. . Lat. beorth. to wreathe. videt. The term ON. pinnu. AS. doubtless a stone. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. bikkia. a brood or hatch of young. In like manner from knot. or ben-wood. i. bij sien. forth. I would derive the verb to knit. — properly near-sighted. sc. which is expressed in E. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. propius videre bij sicndc. by the verb knit or net. bita.. Bing. V. Lat. from Lat. life. a female dog hindinn. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. E. piccione. to knot nets for fish. to form a knotted structure. beitsl. to be derived from Ibfiaq. G. i. Then added division in a granary. &c. a house. evesgue. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. — Kil. Bindweed. terial. poultry. a little dog. properly a young pigeon. a bitch. fowl. Fr. j). a pig petz. bunki. When compared with Fr. to twine. to swell. Bird. . hith. bigne. a truss. bunga.68 BIN Bio-.

blepLith. corrupted in Fr. blob. plappem. G. Fieldfare. unintelligible talk plabair. brunblakk. bleikr. — cheeked maid. from whence we have adopted the. as of wings . plabartaich. to the sharpness of a weapon. yellow . viz. 332. the palebleff. cut. Fr. It. bleich.. obscurus. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. Fr. as of a body falling into water. round which the cable is made fast. 't kompas huis. in contempt. babbe. blanc. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. NE. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. is placed. biacca. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. whiteness (candor sine It. as in that of pale and white on the other. bittore. to speak Dan. beuni.. bittour. leohte .€i. fallow fawn-coloured. shine. blab. thoughtlessly . v. white lead. chatter babbler . ON. pale. Bleak. to watch. gabble. blank. white. whitish. Deutsch. maculS. to babble. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. an additional watch. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. Sp. . are two strong posts standing up on the deck. . quoted by Ihre. apparently from its biting the tongue. dusky. bitor. faded. blob. a large coarse lip . A a rail. blake. baboyer. blakk. x. Pl. Mund. things —Palsgr. mouth. Goth. To or he can speake. garrulous. black. a shelter for the steersman. yellowish. Mag. bitts of Bitts. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. night guard. Bivouac. ^chops.). The bitas. gulblakk. as is seen in sputter and splutter. a stammerer. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. beitr. to loll it out. I blaber.D. first. Hist. Percy Soc. blabhdach. his blacan light. Fr. blakki.' by Haldorsen. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . Fr. Sp. Hald. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. from wachen. fallow . to To blabber blabber with the lips. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. The Gz. bleg. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. In a similar manner Gael. a beam in a house or ship. a tati. term. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. In Legrand's Fr. Ai-mstrong. white. blubber-lipped. to talk much. on. —Neumann. to wax pale or bleaked. Je N. Du. to let out whai should have been concealed. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. pins of the capstern. 156. indistinctly. baitrs. bitter. Hal. a childe dothe gasouille. Wit hung her mourn. blac-hleor ides. confusedly. So Fr. a fluttering noise. To Blab the anchor. on the one side. "uivac. AS. to bivouac. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. /ealo-/or. — Collins in Hal. whitish. Bittern. iroxafealo. blabaran. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. pale. Bohem. quick. bites. ON. In like manner E. blob. Bav. a flapping. an edge is sharpest sword. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Again. — Hollyband. ^aj'/^r.' It would thus acle. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. butorj OE. a* mast . Lydgate.— Blabber-lip. Sp. 't huisje. pale yellow. Alex. blabbre. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter.plab is used to . town guard to keep order at night bivouac.' G. to chops. stutterer. dark. blunt we say it will not bite. Mantuan babbi. pale brown . Se bleek. blesmer. ON. Gael. mona mid Dan. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Sw. G. out the tongue. pale. bitones. Cot. Why presumest And laam's asse. mouth. Sp. ' Biovac.. ON. bihovac.' by Gudmund. blobach. buft". to babble. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). Cotgr. bitr. even humour seemed and beuin. discoloured . as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. biti. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Black. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. shining. a babbler. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. blabbern. synonymous with baber-lip. pale yellow . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. as of water gently beating the shore. faded. light-coloured. beiwache. babbling. AS. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Nagt huis. ' plabraich. small guard-house. Applied in Hin ON. is apprehension of danger. Blabber-lip. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. bird of the heron tribe. or water beating gently on the beach . . Gael. a large lip. a continued soft sound. 'fuscus. blebberis.

madder. bladdra. blather. Hist. But perhaps a more Gr. coat. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. to glow. white. PI.— Kil. moere. Du. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. foolish talk. a leaf. pluddre. — . 7. which we .—Blatter. blame. his meat burnt. blasphemare. on. is identical with Flanders borlen. and he shall be sure to have O. a buible. blatter. Blade. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. reproach. It. — Sw. speak impiously. blad. rogues and wanderers. blister. pladdern. as blader. blegen. and G. blad. to blow. smore. D. or as E. To Blare. a pustule . livido . tree. vagrants. mud. bladeren. G. to To bellow. To blank. plat. in R. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. Sir. pass over. Blank "verse. with all other loose idle masterless men. Perhaps from blegen. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. as. I am degraded from a cook. Torriano. to disappoint. to —Blaspheme. Bav. commonly called the Black-guard. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. smother. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. G. 1854. the origin of . plate. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. leaf. dripping-pans. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. the ON. to blanch. the leaf of a tree. e. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. boys. a blanket a bed. Reliqu. name originally given Blackguard. bladder. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. revile. also tanned by the sun. blatt. defame.. blinken. Jan. whitish. Besides the examples of this connection given above. a bladder or pustule. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. . to bubble. Gr. and thence to babble. Dan. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. —^Webster. a bubble. blatter. blister. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. or blafich. G. and E. leaves. irXariQ. and wandering men and women. gabble. variable than the signification of words designating colour. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. See Blubber. a. to shine. contracted from bladeren. Blancli. &c. polished. . blanchet. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Fr. and the agitation of liquids. candidus. to dabble in water. or a mass of bubbles. Bacon in R. as. imbrunire. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. bladre. waschen. Sw. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. and Q. Du. whitish. to glitter. — rura. blena. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. chatter. Du. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. mud. to shine.— ^o thehotsun. bladder. Fr. Sw. 86. blank. a blank ticket. bladder. leafy. a boil. probably ate. bladra. sheet of paper. piatto. Dan. mire. black. and others engaged in dirty work. bladder . blahen.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. also white woollen cloth . 5/^a/^ of colour. mus-blackt. plat. on. blanqne. biastner. flap of a Du. blather. p. slush. Du. a bubble. chatter. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. to purl. to vocifer- — Cot. or of an oar G. most complete example of leafy structure. a white or unwritten ticket. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. to make or become white blanc. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. Blain. Du. blanchir. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blister. —We Bladder. to bleak in the sun. Now. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Dan. pXaatpiiiiHv. vagabonds. branches . cited in N. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. board. The radical bubble. borrelen. blactra. Fr. blanchet. from candere. Play in Nares. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. biasimare. Blanket. Eadmer. — — — to jabber. as Lat. Sc. white. dial. blein. blister. blaeren. blether. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. linkboys. also jabber. pallido. Fr. blaere. . The present forms then should be classed with blether. blegne. tattle. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Wott. Lat. Blame. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. leaf of a. Blank. skola and thwatta. to omit.. pimple. Cot. broad. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. to Hence Ital. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. shining.—Blatant. as scullions. blanc. roar.

properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans.sound a trumpet. brasa. Cot. The origin of this exSp. bles. whence Blazonry. it is manifest.). Golden Book in R. A blaze is so intimately Then. a voice Jr. also blazon or the blazSpenser. how. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blis. clamorous.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. fire. ing of arms. Du. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. If armour. to publish. senses. blorach. oured. blazen. blase. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. a shout. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. pale. besides blesse. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. Sw.' painted or figured . to blaze Sp. on whose behalf the herald appeared. by stripping off a portion of the bark. brasa. Blatant.— . I.' to fastum . which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. — Elazen. proflare tues. blatero. a whisperer. a coat of arms. blose. is the imme. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. declaratio. blaodh. to set on fire. See Blare. Fr. proclaim the virtues of. to blow. To blow AS. kept up. a flame. — — ' : bless. abroad. blezo. somewhat different train of thought. . e. blcEsan. She roade at peace through his heraldry. The other derivation. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. a lamp blasere. blass. coloured prints. ON. blaodhrach. . a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . live coal . ther it was erst not knowe. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. AS. Fr. light-coli. bleis. Du. also praeblczse. embraser. visui patet. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. to spread news. much plausibility. each of boaster. blysa. Du. Du. like the in English. a flame. Cot. blcEsan. ventosus. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. blcesett. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. Troilus and Cressida. as a verb. G. blaze. might spring from the same origin by a . blaeteren. in that of praise. oron-blasare. an conium. First from the E. The AS. . to publish the praises.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. — ^Jam. blateroon. to proclaim. a MS. Dan. g. To blast. a shield. gloriosus. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. With inversion of the liquid. blaesen. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. or blazening. blasonner. i. bawling. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. to cut off prematurely. blaser vid. blast. used. 'op een trompet blaazen. a flame . — ' — stroy. blason. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. to trumpet forth.whence the Fr. the noisy. blus. G. loud . AS. bldsse. ON. To Blaze. is used in the sense of manifestatio. biter. But now. baladrar. Blast. thraso. a funeral oration . Du. among other . backPerhaps the expression of blazing. magnilo. Lye. blesse. baladron. to blow . Blanches illuminies. a blast. A gust of wind. also only pains and excellent endurance. or to the sound which it produces. laudes (Kil. has also blencke. beast. Du. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. abroad. might And sain. Dan. stultd loqui. a torch. Sw. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. the matter incendiary . blys. and. splendour. noisy blor. bliEsan. and which. commendation blason funebre.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. blossi. OE. Blaze. ill-speaMng their proper colours . blasa. blaterare. boasting. friend Cornelius. to blow. Sc. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. quus. blason. Fr. blcese. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. A strong flame. indeed. a loud noise. a shining spot. blasoen. braise. in the same way as we 2. blase. is from AS. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. blcest. magniloquus. redness . Gael. blesse. 2. to de. a torch . As Kilian. of an animal. Gudmund. shield or surcoat. Kil. Prov. to extol. to bellow. an empty and two theories are proposed. and to make him word blaze.

pale Du. blister. like one that has long P1. to start away from. .'he cried till the tears ran down. to wink at it. . to cast a mist before the eyes. pier vor den augen eyes. B. color plumbeus bldma. boggle at something. Manuel de Pecch&. flack. Gower in R. AS.' God in his wordes. spSt. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. tumanid. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. sugillatio. Pol. dead-coloured Cotgr. blarren. c. blench came to be used for a trick. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Blancher. ' — — ' : — — . livor. inflamed eyes. to blare been weeping. . blot. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. to stain one's honour or reputation. bloken. N. a blemish in one's 2. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. And now are these but mansbond (i. the livid colour of a bruise. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. Bleed. start vor den augen. plama. to soil. from the than schal I go. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. blur before their eyes. souiller. bldmi. spla7nU sie. blesmissure. Bailey. I chaunge colour. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. a spot. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. what blenched him therwith. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to bleat as sheep. to disgrace one's name. tutnan is a cloud. pimple . . the formal equivalent of English wink. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. ' . not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Sw. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . to cry or weep. livid. and thence to a bruise. which are blurred with the have shewed you. confound him. Fr. Bejaune. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie.' the devil makes a vain back. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. to make him feel blank. a blot or smear blanking one. ^Xiixaoftai. bleikr. Gr.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. paleness. blema. bleakness. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. blesmir. So in Sw. ^Blencher. Mac. blcecan. — — R. darkness of vices. Blear-eyed j having sore i. to bleach. to blear one's eye. drop of water. blemissemeiit. sinen langen tranen. pale . (faith or creaunce) Be war. a stain. from on.filerren. to become livid. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. a disgrace. blakna. to wink the eye. To Bleat. wheal. avoid looking it in the face. See Black. splamii!. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. to humbug. light-coloured. a boil. 115. a spot. in the expression reputation. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. To totally different from the foregoing. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a spot. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. to spot . exposed. a blotch plerr. Ancren Riwle. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. novice. As AS. geplerr. BLENCH obfusco. as of dust or mist . to spot. Bleb. — blink the question is to shrink from it. A stain in a man's reputation. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. a spot. To salir. or blemysshen — blaken. See Black. Bleak. ' — — eye. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. A Blab. p. on. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. blot.v. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. Schmel. blink. whitish. tacher. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. 419. The term blear. a fault. ' He blarrede or roar. See Blood. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. wanness. Richardson. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Palsgr. is Blench. 242. Blemisli. or to low as oxen.D. Blear. while the agent ac- From . From the OFr. And By a similar metaphor Pol. a red watery eye. G. or blemish. guenchir.' to deceive one.P. a been distinct. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. goda nainn. . Sir J. wan.

Du. burn up. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. in potters' language. blithe blis. blitz. tire. Nares. Thence apblinds. blaziti. doors. also to wink. to shine. glitter. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. to shut the eyes. blithe. . riches blajennii blicksem. glimpse.not sting thiiren.wink . HalliwelL Of this latter the E. Wtb. to fall into water with a sudden noise. Serv. The inblissful. OHG. AS.eyed. to bluiter. Paradises blidnissu. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. blinzeln. blent. Russ. to bluiter up with water. tless —Gamm. a blick-ooghen. or nettle which does form. (=bene dicere). blich-fiur. Du. fortunately. to bless. readily passes into a /. money. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blende. blincken. blind- ON. make these hands 3. blinzler. Pol.' To — blunge clay. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. pale. a flash. Kiittner. blindselen. gladness. a wink With the bletsian. as in the case of blaze. shine. . a blessing.D. sertion of the nasal. Blink. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blick. Blazena Bea. to blithsian. blide. to lighten. to rejoice. joy. blac. to make a rumbling noise. blinzdugig. bleg. is I shall Gurt. Du. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. to glitter . wink of sleep . to dilute too much . as taschen. to make happy. blicken. to shine. a. sweet. Sc. happy . — when he — Bailey. trix. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . a look. A . blissian. Needle. a glance. To Blend. blet. j). a dead nettle. G. to merry. glitter. to flash. G. to shine. . G. to glitter ful . a. . plonsen.blinze. 375. blicksem. pockets.blinkard . dazzle . Sw. blessed. Swab. To Bless. the Slavonic languages. thou knave. blatida. to dazzle . as in Du. lightning. From the action of the hand making Sw. false windows. although in the in the next article. blazeny. giving (Fr. sung. —Brera. blink. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. vious one in the order of formation. Blind. to rejoice. wink. AS. Swiss (obsolete). blicken. csecubrandish. the verb to bless is some. lightning. tative source of the word is wholly lost. — A A — . be glad flash. blinde fenster. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. Bliss. to mix. to pro. blahoslaviti to twinkle. a nounce happy. to be blind. Du. Dan. blahos. Tany. — Goth.corn. The sound of k before an s. cascultare. blago. blind. livid. III. ' Pl. glitter. to stir or puddle. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted.blinken. an entry which leads to nothing . flash of light . blund. to consecrate . to dash wine with water. blogi.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. graceful. F. as a vatn i vin. to glitter. joyful. Owl and Nightingale. Du. ^Jam. bliss look . lightning sweet blago. but by no means therefore a pre. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. To blunder water. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. window-blind. Blight. liquid filth to bluther. as a blind entry. ON. bluiter. blanssen. goods. and joys of Paradise bliden. OHG. happily. riches . to act like a — . . to glance. to churn. seems the simple netel. lovely Bohem. happy . to shut the eyes G.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. De Sonne ' verblekken. . the sign of the cross while blessing one. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. plotzen. blotzen. lighten. I hold thee a grote thee. blidu. weaklaveny. Deprived of sight.nasal. joy . AS. happy . moment. to plunge. mixing in general. . blessed. blag. mix from blekken. Sc. G. glance. blican. . to bless . to — make it thick and muddy. joy. blink-eyed. a wink. blindr. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. .. to twinkle.blunda. a glance Swiss blenden. good. glad. . — . with or without the nasal. The term then self or others. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. blitzen. . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. Biglotton.Q. AS. blend. pearance of the blighted . gives blinzen. a gleam. . the G. blendian. well blahy blick and blink. to dabble in water. bludder. well blagaya.

blad. a See Blot. Blond. blot. Blob. a little blisg. — Sw. a ram. See Blot. ^vaaa. expressed by cognate roots. repre- pusula. Fr. to blow. as in E. stone. a bubble. and inarticulately. kostia. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. in the lump or mass of wood. Kil. blobbes or droppes of water. bloc. — Blob. blindsehn. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. . the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. pustula. a blister . Blob. Gael. a lumpish head plubach. taken altogether. blister. G. bluyster. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. and pisg. blesme. and F. separate portion. shells. Lat. blithe. as a blab of ink. to bubble. blcesma. soak in water cured fish. like manner the coloured.—Bloater. blister blasan. And so from squatter. — — — — — From blabber. blotfisk. N. Sw. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. in Nares. buclde. Dan. to breathe hard. A under this name was imported into England. in bulk. signifying in the first instance to soak. soft. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. or the mark which it makes. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. formed spot. fish blind person. buckle. A solid blouquette blisters. The stem or trunk of a tree. kostua. The blow E. — . to steep. to blow. an unformed mass. ^Jam. pimple. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. inde humiditate tumidus. weak. . a blain. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. pusula. frequentative. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blouca and Fr. any lump or mass of things. blaud. boucler. a dirty blister. Jonson. a small lump of anything thick. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. blaustem. To Blissom. a blot or spot. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. B. cooking. light yellow. lagga i blot. For this. . —Bailey. Svt. puff. blidr. while Lat. a drop of water. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Bav. soft. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. also to set See Bless. I believe. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. to block up the way. bloated. blinzel-maus. The roots /. mass. Hence E.. a bubble. to soak. blab. soft. senting the dashing of water. husks. to swell. biota. blot. or bleb. Bleb. in gusts. a . Of sheep. in the sense of a soft tint.— Bailey. W. to dash liquid. Sc. or blinde-kiih. from blcsr. B. must be referred to AS. pods. to desire the male.plisg. gentle OHG. as blinzeln. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. to to puff and be noisy. Gael. having an unsound swollen look. Du. mild. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Ibid. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. ON. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a.pusta. Mod. Fr. plub. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. blot. mild. fiustula. G. orbicular. and easily changes its place. strawclod. blobber. pausten. blautr. viscid. bausen. must be classed with forms like Gr. and bouclette. blide. is also used in the sense of swelling .—Bloated. it is must be observed. speaking rapidly any . Sw. a blister. to close it with a solid mass. Hence. or the like. or is inserted or omitted. Dan. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. joyful. to blissom. whence blast. blijde. the unhewn bole of a tree.— Hal. blindman's-buff. Cotgr. merciful ON. round. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. like clot. Block. busten. is formed squad. bloc. To Bloat. Egillson. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. sloppy dirt. a block or log en bloc. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Blister. soaked. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. bleiths. a bubble. swell. to blow. Langued. To a smoking or drying by the fire. bubble and blubber. blod. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Boyd in Jam. . Thus we have blab and babble. to cure by smoke. Goth. In Fin. bluster. Du. ON. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. It may be formed Blithe. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. blond. as if soaked in water. blubber. blote. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney.

bleustern. to scribble. a spot or blot. a cow-dung. yellow. Pl. a black eye Du. bluish. blaeuwen. to be red. a Halm a. in v. to grow pale). Blot. blaeuwe ooghe. Schmid. livid marks. blois. Prov. brilliancy. Blood. platz-voll. gleam. dial. skam. from G. a blaze. blondheid. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Fr. bliithe. AS. — Cot. a water ploutsche. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. pale tint. blauwel. to dash down Du. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. glus. blotting-paper. bloeme. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. bldts. . clod. the bright colour of the cheeks . spots in the sun. a Usaae. couleur livide. a The form platschefz. blotte. — — . The bright-coloured part to portion of land. 2. OFr. to glow. j^ blottir. redness. mud. glister . kuh-plader. to dirty. Wendish blodo. to strike with such these objects exhibit. glose. lustre. ON. to From .platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to strike . Stalder.platter. to blush . Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. . . lump of anything soft to blad. dirty spot on the cheek. It. Sc. blysa. ON. pladern. to exists in biadetto. soft or flat. AS. blosen. to flame. Lat. E. plot of land is a spot or small rage.D. blond. cow-dung. E. blue. to patter. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a gush of milk . blad. tions of sound similar representaare formed G.' the rain is driving and blue . a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). a torch blusse. to splash. on. livid . the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. E. platsch-voll. Schwenck. blosem. plants which prepares the seed. light. bloed. Schilter. parallel form with ON. blond is used in blatt. Ir. E. Blad. a nature. Hatch. (of cattle) to dung. blatte. . — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. plotterwis. a blow. blue. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. straw. kobladde. bleistern. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. pale biavo. to slap. a flower. a deli. blady. Erploten. glossi. E. of a blow with something lios. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. a flower. bliihen. bloi. . great leaf of cabbage. to sparkle. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. a beater. Ein platsch milch. pale. S-wiss pladern. yellowish It's G. to blaze . D. plottra. ON. Sw. Dan. blue. blotter. splendour . Harmar in R. Sc. bletister. blase. blue. to dabble in water . whence plader. as the skin or hair. a blot or spot. E. colour of the cheeks. Blow. ' — . probably connected with Pol. G. blou. bfys. fair in en blat vand. wan. blowen. blooth. blosa. Wflz<^«. to blaze. Du. leme. —Barbour. blust. bliise. the bright to blot paper morsels. Blotcli. glasi. blut. Sw. ])erly Du. a pelting shower). — gush. blose. biado (of which the evidence plattern. to strike with something soft or flat. to blot the land was in a leme. a lump. bit by bit.blauschlagen. Fris. Du. blostma. . platschern. Bloom. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. lump flower. a Schmid. blus.^ Kil. bloemen. or the sound of it . Russ. bloetnsel. coloured (Diaz. to squat or lie close. pladdern. Fris. white blatte. fall down . a flower. blaeuw. flower. blistaf. blue . blond en blaauw slaan. blodelsa and blawelsa. gloss. gfyssa. from the bright colour which 7'vci. G. shine . See Blow. plet. Dan. Blossom. plattata. . ^lys. blawels. bloto. to dabble in water. The G. dial. lidmr. bloedsd. blat. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Dan.— . bldmi. sbiadare. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Florio). to shine . gammon. blosma. a. ^Bleed. to slap. PI. bloi. en blau ach. Jios. — Stalder . . blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. fall to overflowing. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Plots. blomstr. a drop of water or colour. See Blow. proto shine with bright colours . bloi. spot pletter i solen. Du. to squander. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. bloutre. to spot or blot. Sw. splashing full. It should be of filth blak-blatte.properly to scatter liquid . to be red with blot. platt-voll. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. platz-regen. Du. to dash down. — Blotch-paper. to glisten .

. and closely allied with Du. blodelsa. bluther. corre. blebber. to'disorder. It. glas. bluh. . ^Jam. gloeden. 2. foam. . Sik upplustem. Danneil. like manner Lat. w. a paddling in wate r. Deutsch. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to fade. to Plodern. to gush. blady. glow. Kil. 1. Gael. marking some application from that bladder. sound like water.D. grey. y\r)yi»v.D. Wtb. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. . blois. Deutsch. to fade. blduen. The primary sense is to shine. blazi. grow pale. to bubble up. These are — Bludder. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. |8A)'. to blow. into flower. pale . to breathe bouteiUis. Raynouard.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. to puff up. a continued noise of agitated water. G. blass. bloi. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. fied vowel. OFr. blust. blahen. a blast. bliihen. bliuwan. wan. bruised Prov. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. where the word may be compared bliggman. in E. bruk. bledniai. B. to show flower. to glow. blao.' — Palsgr. bludder. blosen. to bruise Roquef. a blow. is confined to the — . bloes. wan. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. — . grug. Her sweet bloderit face. And. a. boasting. blava. red-faced bloted wench. Prov. disordered in head-dress. glansj Ir. Bav. Blowze. AS. Lat. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. a fat. blodern. bloeyen. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). green.D. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. Pl. blau. to flourish. bloemen. blue.' Hamburgh Archives.— . is very frequent. to blow. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. blau. florere. bldt. to spot. pale. blodyn. plubraich. a herb Gr. Notwithstanding the We . d in Sc. to exhibit bright colours. G. bluod. ' BLUE or guggling. blow. plustrig. a gurgling . Pludern. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. The radical sense is shown in Gael. sponds with Sw.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to with Bohem. bliihen. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. blubbern. Blowzy. vi^ound. to gabble. dirty. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. fem. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. — — Mundart. to shine with bright From colours. to beat with a mallet. sense. br. blawan. gliihen. may cite for example G. or gr. coup. withered. 92. meurtrissure Roquefort. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to make blue. to glow. blaw j biavo. We . G. E. glowing coal .nify bubble. the red fluid of the body . — Bluther. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. ler. — . /idXavoc. in rapid or indistinct utterance. and thence. to guggle. pale. . —SchmelIt. especially with respect to the hair. G. to blow. puff. cheeks bedabbled with tears. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. bloeden.xo'»'.Jlasa. heath. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. Langued. to blurt out. to breathe G. toused. gUd. The interchange of an initial gl. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. Mund. plusig. fqded. MHG.to blossom. plubartaich. bloom. A. boil. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. bliithe. blut. to inflate. v. -ii. Bret. Chaucer.. piusen. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. chatter. pale OFr. Gr. glede. blubbern. OHG. bl. blubonciti. Chaucer. Blue. To Blow. flower w. blue . blazir. to make bubbles in drinking. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. plodern. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to hard. glaodh and blaodh. The aUied forms. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. 51. . to beat. In agitation of water. fiubbem. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. little apparent resemblance. OHG. Jla-re. a flower. and the forms mentioned under Swab.D. a Blossom. to fade. plubair. It is howbliuwen. pludern. Pl. a bruise. Tumbled. P1. 1292. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. E. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. gloeyen. blezir. tache. flower OHG. glas. — To Blubber. Du. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. To Blow. jabber. to flap like loose clothes. closely difference in of blabber. disordered. Du. gliihen. — To blubber.

So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. flav-us. And blunders on and staggers every pace. — — — . from the brilliant green of the young E. . blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. find accordingly It. as well as sbiadafe. and Du. Kil. — Pr. Blavoyer. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. a shore abruptly rising. like the Celtic glas. Analogous forms are Du. polter-hans. Romance bluiter. OFr. blue. blunder. Roquefort. Hal. biava. all representing the — . Lat.//aay. Altieri. buller-bas. bluish. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. falb. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. Bluff. abrupt. Du. without image or superscription. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. bleu et blanc. having a bluff forehead. herauspoltem or sloping shore. an ill-done job. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. in the same way as from It'. Biada. fallow. bloi.• BLUFF biado. - reddish yellow. a boisterous violent man. something. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. planus. which is rendered by Florio. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. in plur. corn. to plump into the water. herbe. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. yellowish red. poltern. originally growing up turf and water. or an abrupt manner. verdoyer. to work To blunder out a fronto. to dabble Biglotton E. glundra. tradire to Fr. — . The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. a blunderbuss. bUich. Flor. speech. Dief. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. a flounder. contrasted with the dle. Blunt. and biavo (Diez). dial. Dan. biavo. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. It then signifies something done at once. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. confusion. like Du. to fall suddenly on the ground. Hence a Slcelton in R. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. biada. to blunder water. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary.. rustic. puddle. blue. I blonder. blandum. Bodge.make a noise. Du. mix It. Hence we pass to Prov.' trouble. to blunge clay. sense of yeUow. plomp. tutte le semente ancora in erba. A bluff manner. G. ploffen. Sw. G. earth and water mixed together. verdure. from the Lat. applied to green as well as blue. blond. . non rotunda. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. has donder-bus. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. Then with the nasal. blaf. blunder. glundr. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. his business with much noise. Ditton in R. to become pale. The Du. Pol. pale) is provincially used in the. See Blunt. blave is moreover. Blunderer or blunt worker. and sbiadare. to mix it up with water. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. to agitation of liquids. trahir. to lose colour. fawn-coloured. Dryden in R. bulmanner. blavus. mistake. segetes virentes. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre.— . bawling. Roquefort. Bohem. superficie plani. jaune. in water dobbelen. plo-wy. The Du. Palsgr. Kil. See Blurt. Pm. used for the work of an unskilful performer. blac. and metaphorically. To blunder is then. Bladum. and bustle . It is remarkable however that the E. from an imitation of the sound. to puddle. From G. Supp. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. blahir. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . flodderen (Weiland). and then generally idle talk. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. pale straw-coloured. 't — —Hal. a fore. to dabble in the mud. blake (identical with AS. sbiavare. sloppy drink. buller-bak. discoloured {plowiee.in mud or water. Kiittner. to fade). to become pale or wan. pale. is. G. as well as biado. disturb. corn. pale yellow. blunderhead. blanssen. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. blue. The word is here synonymous with amplus. yellow. We Blunder. liebefactor. Blaffart. pludder. to become pale or livid. bullern. je perturbe. Pl. blutter. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. G.D. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. to confound. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blunt. Halma. devenir vert blavoie. polterer. E. a plain coin herausplatzeu.

It. blockish. to bring it suddenly out. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. without preparation. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Plump. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Sc. massive. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. Sw.—D. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . Then cometh indevotion. heavy. and an unintelligent. awkwardly. good plump person. Swab. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Ford in R. insensible. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. hebes. clumsy. — blunt. Blunt. exactly corresponding to the G. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. rude. unfledged Sw. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . blunder. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. blotta sanningen. pointless. blait. ineffectual reason. plumbeus. to plump into the water. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Kiittner. awkward. Plump mit etwas umgehen. biotto. V. obtusus. seems to be derived. blutten. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. fling down . as in E. homo stolidus. dial. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. . the absence of sharpness. plump. thick. naked. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. a bluntie. used in both senses. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. to plump down. plump. Dan. ang. platz-regen.plompen. G. plutz T)\i. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. blunt. V. It will be seen that the G. Sc. and in the same sense. F. V. united in Gael. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. of a knife which not cut. — — pidus. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. bluntschen. The syllables blot. bare. mit etwas heraus-platzen. as cow-dung. void. — Kil. heavy. plump. and the like. Chaucer. with or without the nasal. without Maolaich. inactive Swiss bluntschi. blunt. unpolished. it will be well to point out a sense. —D. a blot. Probably radically hlekit. azure. Now the Swiss bluntsch. —D. silly. is thrown. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. More in Richardson. Molof something wet. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Pol. blunt. nature. is The word dull. bald. G. plump J to plump out with it. rough. bleak. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. to blunt a thing out. a simpleton. like a thing thrown down with a noise. without horns. Du. blat. raw. blait. A light blue colour. to blurt. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. duU. unwrought. rudely. plains The large bech. plotz. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. . in Richardson. Kiittner. blunt. blott. fooUsh. viz. Bluntet. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. blout. plotsen. to handle a thing bluntly. to make a noise of such a Stalder. clownish. blatte. viz. Plontp. bus. plump. Halma. and. a portion To inquire for slaves. naked. through which a man is so blont. and hath swiche languor in his soul. sheepish. blunsch. figuratively. absence of preparation. plonsen. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. poor Sc. maol. heavy. It is from this notion of suddenness. Bare and blunt. nis. dull. as Sw. wan. down. a thick and will person. dull. Dan. to make foliage. or blab out a thing Kiittner . inaKil. without the nasal. Stalder. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Woddis. identical with E. naked. stupid fellow. unceremonious manner. naked. or heraus plumpen. pressions. Won by degrees. biosso. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. it will be observed. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. bloss. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. but of something soft thrown on the ground. bare or blunt. The blait body. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Sir T. from the loud report a fire-arm. platzen. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root.— — — . obtusus. edgeless. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. bare. pale. Blaitie-bum. that it not easy to discover the connection. forestis.to fall into the water. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. blue.pludse. Q. that the sense of bare. A modification of the same root. it is taken as the type of everything inactive.

bdta. to rumble. to puff. bustuous. batello. pludern. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. crack made by bursting open. blurra. Comp. properly noisy. a smear. chicchere. to give a crack. bludder. E. bord. to blow. De Boat. See Blossom. Du. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. primarily signify loud noise. a dangling object. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. cheeks glow. e. blasen and See Burr. Dan. sudden.' — Red Riding-hood. lindwurm. a small lump. It. To tinct. to blur. eber. imitated by has also In like . Bav. an edge. Slur. a flurt with one's fingers. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. common. like the parapets (viggyrdil. strong. The to radical meaning D. to crying. boot. Sverris Saga. Related to blutter. blosken. AS. splurt and spirt. 29. bausen.y. dial. mire.D. 156. to blore. to be out of temper. A large snake. bluther. to roar. Board. will fly up. flat. a mist before the eyes plerren. stellio. margin. 274. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Boa. and when applied to vaunting language. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. whence bob. bobine. As the as. table. aper. to puff. to make a noise with the mouth. blose. . the Brem. the sound of a blow poffen. bateau. to spurt out. 1. to blaze. G. bladdra. it implies that it is empty sound. to dirty. Fl. to glow . To move quickly up and down. planks or boards. my dear. Fr. literally edge-wood. of the word seems . eafor.—Bobbin. Fr. on. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. a mistiness. then applied to indistinct vision . Du. bdd. Halma. a grows to a great bigness. . bliise. Hal. or bog also thread. E. boord. pluddre. ader. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. blot. bot. Du. to jabber. berd. blaere. boistous. baban. Sc. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. BLUR Boar. blot. blaffen and baffen. lacerta. — ' Dief. bobbin. to dangle. Supp. Wallace. c. to talk quick and indistinctly . blodern. Boa. cluster. G. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. and E. bur. puddle. a blotch. to breke. blast. P. and Du. dial. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. to make mouths. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. borrar. puffen. gabble. a tassel. blarra. — a blaze. bora. OE. baiag. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. skin. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. a border. blaste?i. dull. Schmeller. large. Gael. to threaten. &c. outward edge. to chatter. pausten. to blubber. to dabble. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to snuff. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. voce intonare. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. a blot. short pieces of any filthy mud. bluter. Bot zeggen. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. a tassel. AS. and the latch . to make a noise in boiling. pof. boccheggiare. bhis. bit. — To Bob. w. It. To splirt. gabble Sw. Hal. burra. swagger. Du. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. as splurt to splutter. to disfigure with E. whence bordvidr. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. pustern. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. to bark. bludder.plerr. AS. margin. G. violent. edge. See Boisterous. to render indisbhir. beer. to endeavour to terrify. It. Pl. is formed Du. 'Ba.v. botte. blaustem. both used in the sense of boasting. acre. — — — * Boast. ON. blur. plump. to say bluntly. Blush. Du. Lat. Fl. Wtb. a blow . a burst of tears. Boost is used for the boast. To blow in puffs. margin. a board or plank. i. and swimmeth very well. to blush. blunt. blader. blusse i ansigtet. be a crack or loud sound.pusten. fringe. or backwards and forwards. and boisterous. bdtr. bot-voet. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to guggle. a. . stupid. to blurt out. Swiss blodern. ground. blubber. this root are formed Sc.plodem. V. Du. to brag grande loqui. table. Explained by Jam. To Blurt. to sound like water boiling. Sc. or blurt with one's mouth. . coarse. Du. as in Du. brett. board. a baU of thread the mud. blotch and botch. BOB 79 — To Blur. a club foot . blirt of greeting. planks raised up outside the roofs. beacon fire. bord. border. violent G. rude. Kil. bar. Bluster. Wright's ed. a bladder . rude. bleuster. a short thick body. an ear of corn. ever-swin. bakke bleustern. to bounce. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. to smear. a torch blusse. — — .— . Pull the bobbin. Gael. — From mouth. geplerr. cocodrUlus. bord. pfludern. edge. 9396. a Jam. to puff. an end or stump. To brag and to crack. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. boa. hot.the syllable bot. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. .

stumpy. nave of a wheel. unsteady. or a pair of bodies. toss.gmh:t. Gael. to be uncertain what to do. . to deliver a message. a . gagei.! . . to waver. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . anything protuberant. Ptg. In like manner E. a cask. Bohem. See Baber-lipped. bogadh. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. a ghost . nodding. to be unsteady tich. biodeachan. a quagsoft. — H. gog in gog-mire. expression hogglin an bogglin. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. stutter gogmire. belly. . ' boggle at every unusual appearance. waving. See To Botch. point. gago. To Bodge. quagmire). strike with the horns. bodat. as signifying anything spherical or round. Banff. to roll. is identical with Fr. bo tich. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. to push with the horns. corpses pot. move. To make bad work. potacha. bodetz. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. to dabble or paddle. Bodkin. . mud. as a horn. With With this we charged again We bodged again. the boss of a buckler.a (i\ia.. to fail. a bog or morass. Bodice.\\i\c\iset. moving backwards and forwards. anything soft. a messenger . fickle . stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. dies. potacha. and E. potahha. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. Thy i. bot. to stammer. a dagger. Body. or stem of a tree. Ptg. formerly bodies. Lith. And waves. bogach.rabodi. gagoula. boll. to commit a blunder. . corpset. to prick. ^Jam. whence Fr. So BOB To Bob. shake. shaking . a body. The Sp. AS. quakmg. e. badyti. BOGGLE trunk and G. Russ. To portend good or bad. barriga. bothog. to stir. to start start and back as from a bugbear. . daubed or dabbled with blood. patsche. so large a feature in the country. bod. — Grandg.' Bogglie. a prick. bogle. of which the E. Wall. bodilo. is a lump. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. cask bottich. to butt. to smack. baboyer. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. To Bode. to scruple. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. gebod. pall. agitate. to bodge.hollow. message boda. to stick. the trunk of the animal body. speak of the barrel of a horse. barrique. See Bid. unsteady. rounded. . body of a shirt bol. Gael. Bog. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. goggle. swelling. unsteady nature of a soft substance. To mock. meaning the round part of his body. VI. bolr. gag. It introduced from Ireland. gogach. the body. corset. bog. stitch. stuttering. corset from corps. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. palleg. thrust with something pointed. Gael. Crist. a puddle. Bret. the stem of a tree . bole. Now unskilful action is conmire. a prickle. Commonly explained as if from Sc. from fitting close to the body. bodian.' A — Sherwood's Diet.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. bodnu. a round body both. Reliq Antiq. bodak. moist mire. Cot. wavering. Supp. Lap. a command. bog (equivalent to E. to blurt a thing out. the body of a shift gaguejar. as in stammering or staggering. precept. Shakespear has badged with blood. butt. The signification of the root bot. bottig. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. Miracle-plays. arise E. — 2. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. whence paUchen. bodi. ON. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. to make. by the syllable patsch. busti. an announcement. W. bog. a cask. woman's stays. '£. to make a mow at. Schmel. Gl. We . bodies. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. an awl. . bod. bayonet . the belly. bob. a spur. round. bogadaich. the thick part of anything. bodi. needle. bodene. bodhag. AS. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. to thrust. bottich are derivatives. French bouter. then from the yielding. 43. 3. potig. bogan. to fail. boftich. biodag. body and G. a sting . exhibit another modification of the root. and the word is well explained by Bailey. bayonet. bagges. — as well as the body of an animal. . The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. gog. Ir. where bogs form Gael. to bob. calf of the leg. * To Boggle. or bag. bodig. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen.

Kit. ^Vocab. a bubble. Swab. This iv. folliculus grani. bald. ballr. styffe or rude . Du. sels of flax. to stumble. bulr. bout. boll. tomentum. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . hakogni. bolstar. capitellum. Du. It. to hesitate from doubt. bog. belc'hj. stameln vel bochken. the gurgling sound of water rush. bealder. a cushion.' Mrs Baker. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. bald. baud. to the belly as the or dislike. haughty. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. The bob. dint in a metal vessel. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. . chatter. To Boil. swelling. bog. chaff of corn siliqua. i. V. 45. 304). animal as distinguished from the limbs.— D. excellent. Fr. to waver or hesitate. G. roydeur. flax-boU. Pm. in the sense of handsome . He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. a bakazikni. bolleken. furfures. polc'h. stramenta. to stammer. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bag or bog are derived Piedm. whence bulla. A. Boil. trunk of a tree . pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. notes. stud. repagulum. balldr. bul. puilen. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. cheerful.— — . Daring. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . as baltha. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). . as those of nuts. buller. The term applies in — — impressed . 1430 in Deutsch. In the same way Sc. puile.). boystousnesse. ohg. Properly noisy. the body . Love. also a blister. pustule. bullire. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. perpendicular. the husk of nuts. To Bolter. Me doth awate. bulla. to give a hoUow sound. See Bulk. a bubble. free. E. Boll. capiing into a cavity. noise. The round stem of a tree. cows the people from speaking. bochken (titubare.D. Kil. ^Boistous. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. properly represent belly. treated under Bowl.Du. Sc. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. tulum. Bret. tar. and then applied to other husks. Bustuous. bolle. bolc'h. hollow. G. to boil. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. (of Mons) b^guer. tartajear. bula. to puff. obex. * Boisterous. Boystous. proud. bulla. quick. to tattle. boggle. boly. Westerwald bollern. swelling. ON. hero. Magy. bald. intrepid. Pr.rounded part of the body. to stammer. pillow. boutpijl. pimple ON. caput scapulse. then violent. a boil or swelling Du. strong. Sp. . Stalder. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. boil . he will speak out. Lap. Gael. Cot. biiilen. globular bod)'. 374. Test. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. G. courageous. . a bubble. E. which are not used for a similar purpose. brave. bola. gluma. and manace for to de. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bolr. Du. G. to be prominent. gerade signifies straight to the mark. confident. bolt upright. — ' — tagliare. used. a fastening for a door. warlike. Goth. * Bolster. bolster. but that Bolt. shake. bok.. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. the body of a man or of ter. bollen (Kil. Fr. blow. boss. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. bol. bol. wag. bouil. ON. is probably a modification of boll. bSlstr. bhster.w. a head . OHG. bold. or the like. ON. buile. Lat. Wall. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. Chaucer. rough. Chaucer seems Dan. merry. bol. bolzBold. stutSw. Mund. from the branches. the lir. as. Da. up of bubbles. insolent baude. courageous. — — which the cushion is stuffed. bold. prince. in speaking. Du. beule. Fr. Bole. tartalear. to swell. bout is explained by Kil. b^gayer. bolt. to stagger. as. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. a bump. Sw. huge. may be identified with It. bola. w. bal. pusten. fiausten. the. bul. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. see Boast. a swelling in ice. by which it is moved to and fro. as E. poppy (Bailey). glass phial. tartle. bolla. strong. a quaking mire.palleg. bagaji. strong. scruple. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. from Du. pall. ON. bolzen. impetuosity. Lat. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bold. bolster. balder. OG. to be at a loss a shirt. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. — 6 . coarse. round the first instance to the materials with .

small heap. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. a round glass ending — bultig.thump or blow. a . polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. Bulte-pook or bulstar. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. loud and fast. a club-foot. beliitea. poltern. a rattling carriage. projecting eyes pul. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. pull. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. OFr. hulter de bulter. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. beluter. on the one hand.D. sestuare. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. . taratarrum. tantara. bolt-foot.On the same principle. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering.D.Lat. as a rabbit from its baritel. to bolt meal barutel. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. brattle. cro. bulla.).protuberance. bolt. to make a knocking. Supp. a clod cloth. croler. MHG. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. hulch. clump. / is transposed in Fr. bultig. Sanders. . ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. jolting. from G. Wtb. The ulti. a sod (Schiitze).). burclct.as the essential element signifying the talum. Schiitze. And as the agitation of cream in . Passing from the sense of movement burattare. a millpoltzet augen. bluter. Dan. buUire. to talk pulzen. a bunch. Fr.D. to bolter. bolt head is a retort.fe/2?. . bolzaugen. swelling. a clump of turf. It. kloteren. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. to bolt meal barutel. tumultuari. Hence. bolzen. .i5a//^«. staff which sounds tar. barutare. a clod. tar. or ill. bultred. poltern.. projections. ' Holler poller / bulter. to come rattling downstairs. as Fr. racket gepolter. P1. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Hence Palsgr. one after the other. buideln. agitari (Kil. to bolt flour burato. Brem. je bulte. vessel with narrow opening. tuft. Lang. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. or the like. Pm. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. boss. have Lat. grasbulten. to become lumpy. to shake. to start with palpitate. Du. Pl. crod. barutela.u. In the next place. zare. we have Du. bolzauget) Sp.through a cloth of loose texture. to agitate. ler. a clap of thunnences. Pr. lumpy. to E.nature of the operation. hammer. bullern. buletare.. to spring forth E. So also we pass from Lat.) E.— . and the Thus from So. as above explained. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. a small portion. we see that the one consists of a words. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. die treppe pressed. we pass to Du. gebolder. to coagulate. as of a trumpet. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. a bolter or implement for bolting.clack. baruta. pattern. On this account Mid. or a racer from the course. Du. as snow balling on a horse's foot. taratantarum.noise {brattle of thunner. OFr. G. Dauphiny a sudden movement. taraabout. and to crash. blotttre. to form lumps. uneven. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. in S'W plotter. barutela. : ' — — . hammer. bolting to that of form.D. abolter. OFr. bulstrig. Pl. ' — — ! ! : — . to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. also to curdle. bulk or quantity . knob. zen. Sw. I boulte meale in a boulter. 2. Champagne burtcau. rugged. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. crash. by the representation of a racketing sound. hump. . buletel. Mid. cruddle. fied bot. buretter{CQ\. we der Brocket). to clack. pultare. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. . Here the radical image is the violent O. to significance of the term was overlooked. representing a rat. curdle. the sense of right on end. then to knock. — — — . to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. bulio. to start out. hole. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. uneven. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. ex•wagen. mole-hill.agitation of the meal in the bolter. protuberance. tling or crashing noise. holier poller. bortelen. bulk. a bolter Prov. with E.by forms like G. The ment and the operation. rugged. . Prov. to knock. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. poll. a crashing or racketing noise. budeln daz mele . the wheels groaned. crotlar. Lat. btilt. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Bav. a rattle. .

a —Bombasine. to bind G. bongam. sye. gunpowder. Fl. to boult meal. From builen. silk. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. a stock. butteln. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. term is appropriated in G. brust-bein. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. the Fr. Bonfire. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bombice. again. booming over the water. e. must be explained Fr. crook-shanked bondew. the contracted form of Du. as in . PoUitriduare. — Bombard. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bein.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bonfras. bond. bambacium. to shake. E. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. Dan. thick. Antiq. — bombast came guage. boulenger. Du. Need you any ink and bonibase. The material called by this name. a drum bombammen. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. agreement. HoUybandin R. butteln. G. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. banitola (Fl. as Banbury. a stem or base. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Du. lana lignea. Bomb. the murmuring of the sea. tie. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. is supported by the analogy of G. a thundering noise bomre. . bureau. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. Fr. Banstead. bomba. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bon. and Du. bommen. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. derivation. Kil. ODu. It. ties. As cotton was used for padding clothes. burato. a churn for butter. band pi. Moreover. however. or trunk word in W. sericum arboreum. cotton. raw silk. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. a baker. It. &c. a boulter of meal. d. 83 Gr. In legal language. tiffany. bombast. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. buidelen. to thump W. bombicina. produced the Pl. bopin. biire. a beacon. It. Dan. bureau. It. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. barate. a bone in general. the leg. and Mod. bras. bommer. thick-legged. Du. . bauniwolle. G. bombase. OE. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. sije. In E. Castrais barato. bambagino. . to beat a drum. cotton stuff. stump. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bonog. to ring bells. builen. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. to cast to and fro. a string. to shake down fruit from a tree. gossipium. . bombasine. been. to resound. silk-worm. thick from shaking. a ligature. sijde. bwmbwry mar. 155. G. basin. bombe. Gascoi^e in R. stuff. bombasin. from teu. — AS. Mid. tie.^Altieri. an implement of binding. from boom. buidelen. to thunder. coarse. — having a stem or stalk. Schm. to shake (as to shake the head. Bibelesworth in Nat. Bone.Su?. a hollow sound. It. iuttern. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bone of the . tree. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. bulter from It. bombdra. ^o/j. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. also thick-shanked. beuteln. bambagioj whence It. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. achsel bein. bolting-cloth. bunden. and that from Fr. rimbombare.). and in fact we find the and Du. we speak of a gun to resound. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. and also the leg. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. beuteln. When ture. assuming the of leg : special signification W. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Butterglas. has repeatedly varied.) . i. and Bond. band. bonds. bombarda. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. bande. .D. bindan.bast. to bolt meal. . baun. breast-bone. and called in Mid. the shank the shoulder-bone. bwmbwr. the silk-worm. It. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. q. Near 6 * . to which the leg. whence bomme. Fr.Lat. beil'n. baum-bast. . band. buttel trueb (of liquids). properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. borel.

Mrs Baker explains bun.n. by arbitours sholde bote the P. A peasant. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. Hal. in w. bonaid. boandi. busu. Thus from the syllable ba. OSlav. dial. b'ukvdry. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. boia. help. Gael. however. where a cross (or a gun. reparation.Boos. ganian. to cultivate. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. Prov. babin. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. and Gael. to aid. \ais-band. the possessor of the farm. bdn. A stall for cattle. baier. Pr. ON. Boon. . a lying-place for dogs or swine. wall hangings. AS. but stall. a dry stalk. . botte. ass. dog-kennel. beam. remedy of evil. inhabit. Book. betere thing werse. buch-stab. bommen. See Butt. ON. . by itself for head-dress. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. boubair. Hufwud-bonad. a good turn or re- meaning. Wall. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. from gape. It is commonly explained as identical with It. Bonnefyre. as the Brecknockshire Banns. Trans. foolish. and from AS. from beida (E. bote. the first consonant of the alphabet. beiSne. gaping hoyden — Cot. Boot of bale. writing bokos. to gape. boten-shoen. to cultivate. Boor. build. Bun. p. a hollow skin. petition. from Du. Du. It. bonad. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. short boots. are formed Fr. Fr. Ox. prayer. whence ban-ffagl. the name of the letter b. buandi. bds. E. although in the OG. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. . — e. till. Perhaps. ON. a tree. Bootless. succour Bailey. and Ban in w. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. 232. Build. a scribe G. Binau Brychyniog. N. * Boose. inhabit. bid).. to litter bosu. or Vanns. G. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. babau. badaud. A favour. dress. Bonnet. Basa. . feu de behourdis. bossen. AS. bota. botte. blockhead. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. a letter . Fr. Fr. botta. a lofty blaze. boubi^. The i. netis stall. letter. the alphabet. bosig. wondering signifies not only straw. pero. bos. Du. The origin of the word is probably the W. tigh. remnants of hay or straw. The character of folly is i860. bd. . Goth. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. bobo ! interj. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Du. literally cow-house. a silly fellow. The latter is the original AS. also called Brecknock Beacons. high. Pm. of wonder On the same principle Sp. dress. b^er. Jr. pig-sty. b&ber. Boot. to ask. tapestry. simpleton. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. is Du. bAkva. one who dwells nigh. In nautical language. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . clown. boutig. See Bown. bonnet. bauen. countryman. ty Gael. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. comes bondi. master of the house. the scriptures bokareis. the cultivator. See Bomb. Kil. — Bailey. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. a stall. boutig. the stubble of beans. which one gaping and staring about. Boom. G. signifying beech. as a lying-place for cattle. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. to dress. . petition. E. fool. — From the participle present. a. a head-dress. nachbar. chaff. bosih. to gape. gaby. — To boot. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. to yawn. a vessel for holding liquids. . a bag of skin or leather.—Bootless. boom. biikui. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. — . bene. bas. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. Fr. bua. Thin ben Luke i. stabulum. dolt. quest. often cut for burning and lighting fires. desire.^ —P. w. booby. boa. Busk. till. bonad. a. and thence Rouchi baia. OW. head-dress wai^g. tall. Mrs Baker. 13. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. a letter Russ. litter. gehyred. pole. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. — — . which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. to strew with straw. relief from sorrow. babb^o. bolt. Swab. at everything. to prepare. to set in order. build. bauer. without ad- . boo. a simpleton. boer. gawney. house. Gl. G. Booby. prayer. swinbusa. the mouth. dial. Schm. bose. ben. Palsgr. a bonfire. . To Boot. . and fig. But bosg. From bo. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. set in order. Hal. Sp. bowwen. been. in Phil. ON. hu?idbusa. bua. Kil. from badare. bobo. lofty.

to build. 1. Fin. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. a shed. dust. a borer. amendment. AS. a shelter of branches. a borer . a chisel. aid. cure Sw. hem or gard of a garment. from bord. • — To Bore. Lat. terebro. Gael. lappolone. Compare Manx birrag. But probably the E. purro. margin. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . bauen. a tusk. both. Du. fimbria. amendment boeten. Magy.por. beute. ora. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. BoracMo. p. to repair. as afford a satisfactory explanation. sharp. Fin. make . to be of advantage aftragabotjan. lappalare. bite. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. And so in ON. a cupboard. . See Burgeon. wine-skin. fire. Sp. from borra. botjan. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. Fr. sawroot. are parret. boede. boete. nor E. to pierce. a great bur. bothag. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to patch. to quench one's thirst . Fr. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. butin is explained by Flor. borracha. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. reparation. is purin. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries.. bardure. Pol. and meta- Fr. bordi. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. bord. mat-bod. The cor. Booty. kvit-bara. to bite. a hut. welt. remedy. to mend. — ON. and E. It. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. better. a shop. Esthon. The Fin. chewed food for infants. to stick unto as a bur. in Ihre. OHG. Fin. to importune. comminuted by either kind of action. Kil. furni. limbus. puras. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. It. . yfirbdt. boeye. a hut or tent. a border. boards. N. swell bara. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. to profit Goth. The ON. byte points to the verb byta. It is admitted that Fr. bata.. Du. A phorically a drunkard. ON. making good again . . The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. cottage. are derived from G. bauda. of an edge that will not bite. purra. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a bladder. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. tent. terebra sculptoria purastoa. BOOTH vantage. purra. dens mordens vel caninus. abode.— Return from Parnassus I inR. or anything pointed. chisel. furd. to surge. Palsgr. or the gradual working a hole in anything. bohren. bud. limbus. to divide. boeten het vier. and parrets. G. to swell. . a sharp-pointed tooth. a borer. cup- awl. to . Border. Gael. a bothy. See To We speak in E. In the Fin. a shop budowati. hut. scsdes-bod. bothan. See Bower. ON. bdra. rof. . a booth or shed. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. from deila and skipta. ON. to to . puru. in Lap. The as G.. To Bore. to boot. pu purro (saha =: saw . Booth. admovere titiones. a wave. differs only in termination. on.—Burin. puras. scalpo. to foam. burin. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. a responding forms . baara. and hence to fine. to anything Neither G. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. to restore. budowai. bower. OSw. Gael. . Fl. sculpo 05\xiik. piercer. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. biorag. pointed. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. wave. pi. struere ignem. barn. Another derivation from Fin. exchange or divide. bdt. a. betan fyr. extremitas Bore. to bite. repair. to expiate boeten den dorst. bolino. Bete. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. borino. a word. urboro. forare. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. an engraver's chisel. 3. to bete the properly to mend the fire. which are probably from the same root. Bohem. a leather bag or bottle for wine. a granary . 266. baete. borracha. to The Sw. to build buda. Alexand. to profit. Esthon. . uzboro. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. drillen. batr. &c. and thence to eat build. Burke in R. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. bottino. puru. cellar.par. budka. . to bore. edge. bora. Mag. recovery bata. butin. . to hut. the .

borel. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. V. while Gael. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. cormpted. cnoc. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. blow on a hollow object. a citizen. to protect. botch. Du. ON. Swiss Rom. The primi. botse.' the chief of the ' borh. borgo. The origin seems to be the Goth. bergen. cob. empty. or perhaps also To Borrow. It. a bunch or hump. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. butsen. was origin of the term is the OFr. borgese. botsen. tuft. Cot. Altieri. from their grey clothing. Turk. Gr. is probably radically Boss. knur. borough-holder. Words signifying a lump or protuberE.' or system of bail. AS. . Bailey. clownish. useCanterbury. bos. a knob. Fr. vain. Russ. busse. knocking. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Du. butse. bosseu. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Hal.' Vegetius in Diez. Fr. projection. hollow. .any round sweUing. less. ' — — . Hence borhes ealdor. f graauw. botch. Bunch. bussi. to contain. tempest.' if thou give money on loan. the hollow between the Borsholder. bierge. boss. to strike . to knock or strike. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. borg.ribs and the side. In like manner It. the Sc. without. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. knock and a knob . to give bail or answer for an. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. a little blow. .' every man be under bail. or head-borough. So Du. viipyoc. bussa coarse. rustic. Goth. or perhaps it may be See Bury. is used in the sense of bussare. into borsholder. Botany. primarily signifying coarse sound . cnap. to pick or cull plants. (1867). It. connected. to save. burgess. to save Sw. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. surety. Borough. or because a blow berga. poor. G. ^ma. rude. the N. in instead of without. burel. to take in. to keep. Sc.. Jam. basse.bucklers. undyed wool of brown sheep. bump is used in lump or piece. destitute. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. formerly used in the sense of knocking. empty. bunch. i. striking. a surety. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. pegou. bosh. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. agrees with E. whether from the fact preserve G. loan. a tower. from AS. a. Newbury. ^o^^flj. and borough in the sense of a town. D. to protect. by which of or belonging to plants. a boor. bttssel. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. which now signifies a knob. boussi. boss of the side. unpolished. Jam. to save. a blow. plant. borh. Hence knot. as if from the verb to hold. byrig. that which biirge. borealis. ' pledge. a herb. a bouncing baby . a giving rise to It. poor. the sun sets. cnag signifies both a clergy. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. to give a hollow bizo. and thus could not shake off the old burr. hollow bucklers. a pushing or striking out. E. bos. I. See found in Bav. in the body struck. Boreal. AS. nonsense. bosse. — — — A — . AS. huschen. the North Wind. 106. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. boss or knob of a buckler . &c. gesylle. (Bridel). plain rude fellow. coarse cloth made of the Du. borg. a citizen. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. brown cloth. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. as we speak of a thumping potato. pego.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. bossen. one who sticks to you like a bore. burh. boss. grey). pitch. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. when that system was forgotten.mass. head. to conceal. And that unsittynge is to here degre. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. . baurgs. secure. an eminence. bail biirgen. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. northern. beorgan. borei. a boss. gum vocant. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. /3oraMK6f. the ordinary a swelling. Fr. to strike so as to Bureau. bom. to become is emitted by a hollow body. empty. whence the burg. tive idea seems to bring under cover. — ' wind burya. Borrow. bump. bourgeois. of bail throughout the country. borough or chief constable. knob. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. The other. beorgan. bundle. boschen.vr\. Lat. Bos a surety. the must have arisen burgensis. a city . ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Lang. Borowholder. a wen. bourg. storm. Bosh. boss sound.

of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. or plague sore . A horses. Jtidu. Du. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. turmoil. Gael. i. . fire-bote. a root. Diez. Kil. disturbance. a humpback. a patch patschen. ' G. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. shoes. abbi. a vessel for holding liquids. mess. to give a sounding blow. G. to put on a patch. H^cart. N. boden . knock. a bottle. Fr. the lowest part. stroke. a maggot. to from the root bot. . gling piece of work. See To Bodge. Pl. Stalder. botte.) . to smack. to botch or patch. botm. boiteag. A — oba-dwaj Lat. oba. of botta. bativa. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. stem or base. to work without order or know. round lump. Fr. Lat. blow. See Bound. a bottle. to mend (kettles. signify a in OE. botel. to fall : with a sound batsch. we two. boitean. a plague-boil Kil. the other hand. Here the radical image seems a bubble. pimple. an abyss or bottoniless pit. bottom. ^kvBoQ. a cobbler. Fyre to botme. gipuozan. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. j3i/9os. Danneil. bile. thing soft batsch. I. bots. Bouteille. ledge It. a wisp. — — belly-worm. scuohbuzere. from the dashing of water. bulder. botsen.D. dial. botola. . and E. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Bochu. puddle. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. butwo. any plain round viol glass bozzo. stock. 212. empty or hollow.ments of the same root. On — Du. abyss. mutter. &c. tumour. poltern. Again. On the other hand. bAdtr. See Boss. OSax. House-bote. putra. • Bott. pocciar. botn. mess. e. the bud of a flower . . Both. Judwi. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. a pock. bozza. — duj Lett. especially in Gael. AS. G. w. a depth. in the sense of mend the fire. Prov. Parmesan poccia. — . a lump of somebatschen. . botte. fundus. blain. abbu. Bret. a cask. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. dabble). is boteau. abbution. bottigUa. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. bethia. Botcli. to make better. is also a bubble. pozzanghera. — — A 2. bide. — Dief. btitse. bdt. botte. to dash about . a tinker schuhbiisser. — . to strike . a knock. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. — Jidwi. to dip in liquid (to Gael. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. a bundle of straw or hay. a bump or swelling. to stir and mix together . ba. It. podge. as a push or windgaU. A bottom depth. . — Fl. contusion . — — . was called a push. boss. batschen. we have Swiss batscken. you two. Hal. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. hurly-burly. to stir and mix together. to make a make a noise. noise. dim. Bailey. bluster.— Swift in R. ixorapudder. a pit. noise. burgi vel pontis refectionem. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. The Gr. boccia.foundation. bouteille. for a bud. * To Bother. Decorde. kessel-biisser. to we have OHG. ubhau. the first rough draught 2. bSn. botch. whisper. buideal. the science or knowledge of plants. bossu. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. corresponding to . A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a bott . a cesspool pass. butse. boil. ambo. bdsser. to mend. buddeln. buazen. to bcBta. Wedu. as Fr. ing out. bosser. buts. to rage. bunch. Fl. a pit. botse. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. abbi-diwij Slavon. Lith. patch. AS. disturbance to . by met. Podge. mend. schuhbosser. repara- — — See To Bete. bulderen. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . Leg. a botcher of shoes. to simmer. a waterfall. a slop. buddl. baiothsj Sanscr. Hal.' to the fiery Csedm. beggtaj Goth. butsen. maggots in barley. bot. And so we speak of an eruption. gen. bodem. ON. . biissen.^Dec. &c. blister. bund. Bouds. bozza. From the dim. Dan. potra. Mudu. stock. Lith. a. they two. a slop. whence the name ol pool to podge. boiteal. bundle. pozzo. It.— Hal. and ajSvamg. botus. bun. stump. any round ball or bowl to play withal. — Bottom. Du. nets. ON. Bottle. to podge. an imperfect and bunbutt end. however. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Canut. BOTCH understood). a boil or swelling Halma. To Botch. what pushes outwards. AS. botel foenn. It. to knock. boute. Boa two. a bubble. Fl.— . ON. a bottle of hay. a cess. to froth as beer . Ancren Riwle. Gael. Butu. To confuse with noise. See Butt.of a ball of thread. both. E. a bunch. pother.

ni frestelar. bounbounejha. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. bondir. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. jungen. to resound. Nor a centinel whistle. of thread. Bout. 2. Bound. to set bounds. Raynouard. carpet. To Bounce. To Bound. gulf. dial. Boulderstone.— Boundary. To Boult. a stock. Bought. the verb bondir in OFr.. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. bottom. frequently used in the same sense with bound. in the absence of actual e. boriie. — — Bight. pimple Richards bothog. debodinare.— — — - 88 BOUGH . bone. Bret. to turn. bend. or Bow-pot. Fr. and F. a bud. . 3. round. contusi. a large pebble. by Bujns or Buns. AS. bugan. a bound. came home with his face all to-bounced. to knock. — Take care my house be handsome. knock it sounds again. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. an de dor bunsen. its kind. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . The Bight of Benin. Sw. Q. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Pm. a round body both. Bodinare. Halma. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . root (see Bottom). Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. — strike. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. turn. boundina. bun. iv. a boss. to thundering big one hum. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. bay. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. and Prov. whence buj7isen. like bobbin. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. as a bout of fair or foul weather. he fell so that it sounded. Du. signifies a sliort thick mass. tnndo. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. from AS. the larger kind of pebbles. from volgere.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. a blister. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Bough. 136. from bugan. See To Bolt.' B. pothel. Probably from the Celtic root bon. boh.' round and round in similar circles. Fr. baby. to set out by metes and bounds. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper.D. till The dat et bunsede. the bay of Benin. language a * Boulder. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bamsen. a bouncing apple. . bunda. bend. jump. ni motz brugir. — — leap. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals.>a bout. ing. to fix limits. bunsen. Coxcomb. Ni gacha cor bondir. Bowlder. Alpine Re- — gions. nave of a wheel bothel. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. the smaller ones. to spring. Webster. signifying in nautical coil of rope. winding. bonzen. to bow. Bonny. Ducange.'— Charter of K. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. to spring. botwm. a button. bog. bullra. Wtb. Brem. The branch of a tree. as that of E. The W. to hum. a large stone rounded by the action of water. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. bons. a blow. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. A Langued. bugt. So It. limit. Primarily to strike. a boundary stone (men stone). to thunder. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. the hollow of a bay. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. as a nosegay. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. in contrast to klappersten. Mid. I assure you. butina. Bough-pot. Pr. see Boss. boss of a buckler. See Bunch. bonndn. E. mcn-bomi. boujtce. p. — No i ausiratz parlar. bonna. has hot.— F. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. And the new stools set out. nor horn sound. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. an occasion. strapping. bodina. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. thumping. bumper.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. mere.— Cot. to make a loud noise. From Sw. march. dial. to knock at the door. a turn or time. bolder. Fr. bouton. buUersten. geration.xperience such sounds as the foregoing." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. volta. Dan. Bunche. .

bourde in the same sense. hence musical accompaniment. steady. spring. bdgi. prepared for. bunaiteach. Immediately from Fr. to indulge in his cups . bwa. Bound. bend Sw. address. whether by sound or gesticulation. a well. A water. it is probable that the It. a drone of a bagpipe. like quaff. Spenser in R. bovne. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. ^<7r«i?. a bow. Dan. So Sc. borne. the burden of a song. spelling the word iox bound. an arch. ready to pike or spear . bourdon. bogen.bass of a stringed instrument. bugan. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. — probably through this latter signification. bonitas. the big end of a club. buzz. to drink deep. Bourd. a drone or dor-bee. btiga. brunna. . bourdon d'un moulin k vent. sotich. burdan. burlare. When used alone it . It is the participle past buinn. to mutter. the ting of a bell. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. . pre. bogna. Du. Du. Comp. Gael. Dan. pusta. lance. bordo. beogan. a corToward the garden. bogr. good. — — — A pare. to pre2. brausen. bordon. are applied to the bow of a ship. on the whole. bog. a pot. different modification gives ON. to draw a deep breath. to tope W. Eown. burt. shoulder-blade. G. bausen. bagna. way ba7n. Bret. bourd. ready. Dan. deceit. flagon. Borden. as was for. head Fr. limit. Fr. Gael. bordone. Swiss bausen. firm. AS. schulter-bug. a jibe Shaw bururus. curvature. to bow. Burden. . bage. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Bourdon. It is remarkable that we find vary. Bounty. G. Sw. drunken. buizen. pot. fresh* water. ing. belly out. Goth. . to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. to — Hal. a. repartee. the Bourdon. that ON. sense durd. Bourdon. It. gurgling.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. to drink deep. — — . bend. a cup kroesen. springbiirn. sport. burreti. their time -With "wailful tunes. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. buys. purra. to tipple. buigen. patesten. The meaning of bound. Sc. analogous to Fr. burn. a jibe. grumble Sw. a brook. Du. to hum.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. i. bending. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. pared. Fr. has also buirleadh. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Fr. ridicule buirte. staff. . Burgeon. tinton. Dan. cheat. the shoulder of the vessel. on. a. purlBav. the fixed. in Fr. bugne. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. bog. to trick. And there in mourning spend Sw. a mill-post. a humming noise. warbling. must be referred to the same root. whence buysen. The foregoing derivation seems. bending of a joint knie-bug. game. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. bommen. puff out. biegen. from spring. bugna. Sw. jest. trick. bugna. Du. to our bous. bending. Cot. As the Gael. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. identical with E. bue. buzzing of bees. to tope. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. ruption of bonne. epaule du vaisseau. schenkelbug. Chaucer in R. burd. bov. Lat. joke. bound. buga. bow to shoot with. to banter or laugh at. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. to draw a deep breath. Gael. w. bogha. a from Du. addressed to. drink deep. souf. a sing-song. potio. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . buyse. a for New York. Gael. a prop. mockery. is. . A —Cot. biugan. bonus. saufen. G. Prov. and that probably from a Celtic root. fun of one . verb bua. to take deep draughts. to bow or incline the . brummen. to swell. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. when we speak of. a humming noise Macleod. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Sw. pausen. explaining Sw. drone of a bagpipe. to take breath. to bulge. kroes. Gael. G. set out. bug. language of folly or ridicule. Cot. hous^ Man in the Moon. crutch. Sp. bourdon. beygja. g. to hum as a bee. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. bontS. also the humming or ON. Bow. It is bov. burdan. taunt. sausen. . a go to. of the ON. cudgel.which see. and not in the sense of curvature in general. or of an Gael.. to take one in. a — — .

bugyola. budello. bouge. hollow place Fr. bolgna. a iDubble. . ^o«/«. compared with Fr. Fr. without the and grits. W. a bubble bolli. Dan. spring as water bugya. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. is applied to a coach-box. mausbollelein. bhuj. (in pass .flask It. bowels. a stud. A . Bav. The word may probably be identical with Fris. botulus. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. hollow. to make crooked . . fyn. kupula. E. bur. bowel Box.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. bending. biisse. bog. a buck. bolne. boor. as in AS. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bwra. bulcken. G. bolle. at the e. a drop of pullistaa. to puff up pullakka. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. to bubble up. boxtree pusska. to stoop biickling. gut. bocka. folliculus . pusspan. anything globular. buello. and on swollen. bow. . busse. box. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. or. fata-bur. boil. OFr. Bowl. bulla. to stoop. kuppelo. to bow buck. different position in ODu. A Bulk. to bend down. to bend. crown of a hat. Bret. or in e. to swell. a bud. passing on stud. Gr. a little box . a wine-can . boucle. bulla in aqua. to buckle G. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. to puff up. biiske. . Hence. OE. in both senses. Sw. a separate apartment . a pot. beutel. buigen. bugyni. bog. Hal. convex. ask. trestle. bosso. box in both senses. with inversion of the round. ttuJic. belly of a cask. Sw. . Dan. beuz. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. Du. boel. . as in E. the box-tree It. a bundle. pocket. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. head of a cabbage. . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. boudin. bow. painter's easel. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. . See MHO. From the other form are G. . to yield to one. boss.. boss. belly. guestchamber . heafod bolla. sausage. a ball. Sw. Boll. G. Cable. biichse. Bohem. &c. a boil. . bur. a ball . round bead. bowl . bucka. a protuberance. bossola. ku^o. biicken. a bubble. bolla. globe or spherical body.D. bulka. polla.. a bubble Fin. the barrel of a gun. bugyani. bukke. an inclosure. a box. blister. buckelig gehen. a bowl. to raise the back boll OHG. tumour . cumena-bur. PLD. bubble. in walking appears in a . . give in to. the bogna. a hen-coop . bulb of an onion bolleyield. . similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. the box-tree. bol. . ^o/a. buis. . a. pullo. hiidel. bulge. budel. ON. * Bowels. Sanscr. bouellou. tumour. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. Fr. Fr. to bulge. a sack. koziel. bug. a croft by a house. bollen. boxtree. a swelling or rising up. a chamber swefnbur. acsian. a sleeping-room . AS.cup Du. bogla. a black pudding. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. buga. W. and to a coachbox in particular. Thus we have Esthon. buxus. . See Crab. a round glass or bolg. belly.a. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken.\s. hollow wooden case. Sp. . similar shape. convexity. the crop of a bird. signified by forms like Gael. dial. Du. a box. bugy. bubble. buckel. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. See Boil. Bret. puffy. of a wooden ball to play with and — . It is more probably from the G. bol. lump . bugna. a wardrobe . swoUei) Lat. utibur. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bola. water pulli. wisp of straw . bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. Du. . . the head. the box-tree and articles made of it G. bulk compared with Sw.). bent. kupu. bouzellou. bolla. bwr. prominence. purse. make obeisance. . Lat. stream forth bugyogni. bhugna. intrenchment. In like manner the Pol. the head. buk. to guggle. globular. a hump on the back rossbollen. ON. inclinare se (Kil. bock. swell. Bower. a ball. . as well as the name of a. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. Buckle. honse-bur. a parlour. a box Lat. ne. the skull or brainpan . kupukka. . bulne. a knot. spherical Dan. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . busskai. iri'iaQ. a box. round glass phial. a polla. an outhouse AS. zich onder jemand under to him. ON. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. The / a bow. AS.). a bubble. w. buchsbaum. . ken. peated in Magy. knob From the former modification we have bolla. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. Pol. a thing of liquid. a box. . then by the loss of the /.) to incline oneself . . globular body. crooked. hill. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It.

brabbelen.D. Prov. Du. Sp. brechen ihm. &c. Bracket. — — . ratch. Kil. as die Augen plainly an imitative word.. brago. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. Rouchi Then as an adj. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. It is B. bracket. race. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . mud. to stammer. ON. to give a sounding blow defect. posh. the first instancebya physical tie. the arm.nated by dirt. s. It. — . to burst. wristband. a pair of braces. ing from a mixture of salt. — . unmarried man . pube. brae. brasselet.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. to is derived brestr. and string of his bow. Brack. in R. . OFr. braque.. bracil. Fr. braecke. Swiss Rom. taneous talking. a bubbling dura del mun. To brace is to draw together. bracha. boiste. bragos. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. mud. odorinsecus.— D. bray. boussole. ON. or bracer Cot. brec. let. armour for the arm. want. salo sive aqua marinS. baske. Fr. . or defect. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. then from break. a guard to torf. thwack.. dirty. Fr. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . to slap. damaged board a ship. want. con. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. brae. bube. spaniel. brassard. to stutter. buah. rakki. breach. Heligoneed. wrack. a braceOFr. Prov. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. braco. Kil. quarrel Bohem. babble. BOX To Box. On the same principle from the buksteht. wnzC/J. braic. as noticed under Box. a boy pupa. A to halt between two derivations. To Brabble. brek. to fall. A brace probis. to give a gebrechen. 91 the Dan. jabber. baukscheht. In like manner the It. brostia. . . Cot. . fault . rakke. root). strike. his eyes are failing him).. land spoilt Kil. OE. flaw. Sp. from a root brak. disturb. V. Pr. an languages. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. bue. — . AS. Gael.D. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. defect. corruptse. cramp-iron holding things together . briche. land batsken. to box the ears. parallel with OK. brageuses. . lalear-eyed Prov. in R. bouibo. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. murmur. Du. need. to Swiss batschen. to be wanting. Thus brack. See Brake. bracco. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. a crack. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. beagle. fault. dog in general.puddle. Lett. a bog or pass Fr. brechen. variation of babble. Lat. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. bruxula. pus. Brach. pupus. Bracelet. youth. merely in our mode of considering them. a comworld Rayn. A — — . by the same inversion of J and k. brack. acidus. loud smack. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. want. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. salsus. It. boy bouba. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. See Broker. ' — A — — — . a grown youth Cimbr. brae. Hdcart. rakka. MHG. rack. bresta. Sp. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. priated to the original sense. Swiss bub. whelp as. compressing. to crack. foul.with a noise. Swab." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. breptati. . s. refuse. The different meanings of the brageux. brague. dog Sw. and then Pl. matter. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. breuque. braquet. suppuration. . Fr. Water rendered boubo. a girl. isolated part of the text. Brak-goed. La ville ou y avait Brace. brakke Bracelet. moral or physical. brek. flaw. boy. is a rope holding G. to give a blow with the fists. brae. Pm. Kil. Prov. — . brace on and Du. braca. to want. brakke grund. a box. filth . bitch Du. Prov. braco. defect Du. Ptg. which sigof straining. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. and F. mud. brack. G. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. . ghebreck. OFr. bracer. defect. One girl. dog that hunts by scent. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. bracke. Brackish. to smack the hand batschen. clay. bou^ba. bask. Pl. flap. breach. fuse. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. bracon. break. It. Boy. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . — . Brack. a sounding blow. by an overflow of sea water. G. which has many representatives in the other Europe. I sal slyng. confining. To fight with the fists.

bravado j Fr. braske. is Cot. braguer. dhbrailler. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. BRAG Piedm. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Bret. From Fr. braver. in the sense of the Lat. bravo. . brails. Fr. se donner trop de licence. slight modificajoining the two legs. See Bray. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . boasting. crack.. to strut. Cot. swaggerer. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. flaunt in fine clothes . courageous. brag or jet it braguard. h-avare and Fr. brabhdadh. bully . — From W. Hecart. — Chaucer. A — Hal. de Vaud. subduing. . se pavaner. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . to boast or brag. to stand upon terms. To Brag. and that from e. the arm. See Brace. strength. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. 2. Thus we are brought to the OE. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Brail. To Brail. brav. to unbrace or let down the breeches. Brain. bragging. the opposite of which. Langued. AS. Fr. bushy . Walloon bress. bragd. flaunting. make a noise . power. in order to prevent its catching the wind. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. also insolenter se gerere . swagger. brake in the sense of constraining. breyne. be found. the feathers ON. expensive. . braw. in numerous dialects. From brayel.aburst. compressing. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. stout. crash. splendid. about the hawk's fundament. gay. subigere. . brag. is identical with Gael. brayete. handsome. to swagger. gayly dressed. also derived Fr. fine. The plant y^r«. . blusterer. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . riches. drawers. brave. gallant (in apparel) also proud. to boast of his own worth. confining. to Rouchi brMer. Brag was then used brisk. crash ON. bravache. se parer de beaux habits. bragaireachd. braka. Cot. noisy ostentation. breach. Rom. as the type of exertion and strength. also tion of this was brayeul. braske. braggard also valiant. to crack. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. brave. hectoring. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. bravacherie. bragio. empty pride. Faire le brave. brave. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. excellent. &c. a roisterer.explosion. . boast. bullying. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . or from braie itself. showy bravery.. to brail up a sail. Lat. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. Bray. braga. The meanings included under — Bragget. fine. cry. to sprout malt. ^Brave. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. gorgeous.Shepherd's Cal. From sprouted corn. — A — . a carriage for breaking in horses . well-dressed. Lith. Dan. goods. 92 Cot. brachittm.i5nz^. It. beautiful. idle talk. Hence E. Sc. brae. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. proud. Cot. Bret. — . brag. to flaunt. brabhdair. . bragging of his own valour. ative fellow. breghen. braga. It is certain that the word for arm is. brao. to rattle. used in the sense of force. to shout.—— . braszketi. binding anything together. vaunting. braicli. gay. and it is very likely that the root brak. —Spenser in R. Brake. spot. fine. braies. Haldorsen Gael. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk.hy which this idea is con\eyed. called by our braggard. valiant The head are sumptuous. an iron for holding Zalli. The meanings of brake are very numerous. finery. Wallachian bratsou. or by gaudy dress and show. torture . Fris. that will carry no coals. breagh. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. smart. brazo. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. brave. stately. bra!. be noisy . Primarily to crack. fine. Chaucer. braka. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). w. gallant. braga. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. to cord a bale of tie up.breeches. to make a noise.^Vocab. would be to brace. vain glory. braegenj Du. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. breghe. affront. brave. vanter une chose. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. . a noisy talkboasting. Thus Bret. To Braid.^ Sp.%. Dan. was formed brayele. i. brake is. an inclosure for cattle . Brake. Sp. — Equivalent forms are Gael.

to head must be bit. OFr. quarry from Fin. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. t° moisten. to subdue. —Ovid. as in the case of horse-breaking. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. signifying to sweep. broil. To the same bend a bow. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. a swampy Mid. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. brog. —Bracken. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. nemus. brage. riguus. braecken het vlasch. G. In like manner Lat. casser le \va. gebroge. game. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. gebroge. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. a stream. Sp. cover G. Corrfeze bredgea. Dan. word. the lever by which the string was drawn up. to stiffen against Taboada). or a wood in a marshy place . in usus braca. BRAKE to external force. broillet. where from Esthon. subigere. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. broeck. bregille. brambles. been confounded with the verb break. a spinning-wheel. tnurdma. thing is brought under control. a fen. gebrUche. dial. breuil. iSpsx". brego. marsh. to bend a bow. to pound. or overthrow of trees by the wind. as in Du. braeken. bush. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. to harrow (Lat. conSo in G. gebroge.. bruch. in northern climates. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to The ON. to knead or mix up in a mortar. de Vaud. Fr. murran. Swiss Rom. In ON. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. ing of flax or hemp. ^raca. copse-wood. to break. to break.D. break of such a kind. . braquer un canon. is formed murd. have thus Du.bracan. bush. briers.' It. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. the original meaning of G. a thicket. brook. or A A ' . and when once thrown down. to break or fracture. as well as in the case of the e. brook. It may be sus- . which originally designated a broken mass of wood. tris). a brace on board a ship. fratto. gilum. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. break flax PLD. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. brook. to brush. low wet land bruch. referred brake. brcekke. marsh or swamp. thicket. brage. to bend or direct a cannon. The Fr. Dan. Prov. murrokko.— . broken fratta. to rub. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. watered. bredza. farinam in mortario subigere. — Fl. a marsh. brambles. breaking in the operation. glebas subigere. gebrUche. is braukti. Biglotton. brushwood. bregar brake. broilium. Lat. Pl. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. a horse's a horse's twitch. brog above mentioned. In the case of the ne. It. It. braken. brake. and G. frangere linum. murtaa. to bray in a mortar. cetur. brake. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . bregar. Gr. bushes. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. e. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. flachs brechen. might come to signify a swamp. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. gebiisch. In the sense of a thicket. broyer. a harrow. brogille. to fracture. brog or brake. properly braking or subduing them. el arco. Fr. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. — — . Brake. broor bushy place Hal. brak is a frame in which strip. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. brega. P&. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages.D. braca. to row. as in Sp. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. to distinct. Brake. to exert force in different ways. for — Due. Dan. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. brolium. and Lat. pasture. Fr. Voc. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. any thicket of brakes. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. We — . 2. braka. briser. 3. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. Gael. it is not surprising that the word has here.

pfropf. or ling. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. The naof strain. heath. snotty . is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brandr. branchia. heath. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. ordure . a small deri\'ation . branco. The same form becomes in It. a dunghill. brandello. also a marshy low ground or fen . . i. wood composed of twigs. a bud It. in the same sense. Russ. Brand. bramble Du. it glitters — — . brwnt. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. Bav. and thence a shoot. a thick bush. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Rouchi bren d'orMe. brous. may be so called in analogy with Bret. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. bretnel. See Brush. heath ON. brank. a single plant of heath. as. bruskoad. brass. and E. hallier. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. bruk. Brank. 1 8. compress. heath. brouskoad. a halter. branche. brandmurk. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. gebroge. Port. thicket of brambles Cot. Dan. brem. brejo. or with It. a shrub . brambles. brug). the twigs of a besom from brenneti. brok. breanan. piecemeal brindelles.. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . brarn. bran. It. broom. excrement. from gaggi. from virga. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. Thus we have w. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. . a rod or twig. a briery plot. berneux. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. Diez. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. young twig {brom-beisser. nasty. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Thus in Lat." The bmno a • on . dirt . in the sense oi fern. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brenda. bruch. brake. — . a shrub from Bret. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du.G. from Servian pnit. ground full of briers. brenna. broembel-CBppel. from brand. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. bit by bit. and waste growths. Bran. sweet broom. bren. In like hrst. virgultum. brog. brancas. Pl. Bret. brano. breun. &c. thorns and Gen. Pl. braam. brugek. brenn. brein. titio. a firebrand. bracken or fern . briars. to -brugen. breme j Sw. is the draff or excrement of the com. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. . brang. from brug. w. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. also pfriemkraut. chaff.). The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. young buisson fort epais. stink . Fr. Brancare. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. . brand. restrain. G. Bret. Fr. E. brandiiialil. to or iron. a shoot or twig. a bud. AS. — branca. brughera. pfriem in the sense of an awl. . sawdust. pected that brake. prufye. Piedm. the branch of a tree. a bud. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. a bridle or bit . G. heath. bran. gebriiche. to bridle. piece of anything. brin d. brushwood. as AS. bruk. Sir Topaz. broccoli. iii. bruk. sedge burkni. broem. It. sword is called a ^ra«rf because .D. bushes. Gael. bro7n. But we find It. G. bruch. cack. bren. Bret. . &c. or other plants of a like nature. brom. the thorn apple or stramonium. Branch. braeme. As ON. . a vine twig Bav. bromboli. a shoot. Bret. Then by comparison with claws or arms.D. heath (Bret. It will be found that shrubs. —Ducange. 2. A mark made by burning. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. broust. brosst. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. . all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. the bull-finch. That beareth the red hepe. from Lat. . brenn hesken. Fr. brin (as It brano). Bramble. a roA. a heath. clutch. a burning fragment of wood. Serv. brug. broussaille. w. to burn. brank. what is cast out as worthless. sprouts. to brank. Thornas and bremelas. Broom.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. cabbage sprouts Fl. Fr. Grisons bruch. Gael. broom. to gripe. ear-wax mud. apiece orbitbrandone. constrain. pfriemen. that is to say. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. brin. burning brennen. So Swiss gaggi. G. bronbo.

brausen. firewood. G. or in stick. Fr.. embraser. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Chron. AS. G. to burn. conbillet. Braser. urens. brennen. prasseln. brasa. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. — . The tre brangillis. to braze or lute. Gris. to glisten or flash. It. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. brazil. WaUon. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Sw. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. The name Brandy. faire fracas. and bruir. Lye. from used in dyeing cloths. noise. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. billet. spirit distilled from wine. a brusler. to blaze. branler. Fl. shake. Manx bransey. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. a fragment. the colour than hitherto known. so. a pan of hot coals. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. brandende wijn. make an outcry. bruan. in Marsh. brasa. a round dance. bruire. bra?ier. It. Brasil. e. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. crackle. braise. to shog. brazeiro. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. With top trimbling. bruzi. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. a roaring fire. Bailey. Kil. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. brandolare is exbrandish. then brandr. braise or hot coals. as Fr. It. hot Fr. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. to brustle. was in use Fr. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. Bret. to French brawl or brangle. branla. crackle. from to vociferate. Fr. given to the country. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. 59. bragale\ wood. Guill. fire-wood. weinbrenner. live coals. to shake. totter. morsel. The corresponding form in Gael. comes from thence. ish. E. to quarrel. and branchis shaiand D. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Thus the bound up again. Jam. as again by well as the blade of a sword. Formerly brandy-wine. N. set on fire. E. to Bailey. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Brase. glowing embers . Diez. De Barros considers vinum ardens. gebrannter wein. du Roi et laine. Ija. Port.^Brandle. — .well. braser. forms brasil. Du. to solder iron. bracea. brastlian. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. aqua ardens. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. d'Angl. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. bransella. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. distilled wine. firebrand. put. to rustle. brasca. brangle or brawl in E. bransle. — . branler. all. brustle. to make sense of a bright red dye. brouir. to distil . brandiller. braza. Fr.pan of coals. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Milan. to sound of the Fr. In the same way the set on fire . brandigh. before the discovery of America in the brandir. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. make a — . a To Brandish. to make display . the spelling to kindle. brus^. eldibrandr. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. flagrans. brandiller. brasca.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brane-wood. To brase AS. perplex. to burn. and scold. Brangle. So. to totter. plained by Florio. brush. n. to brandle or The It. a stick. — ting to confusion. brand. Fr. bracia. brascct. to brandle. to brangle. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. incendium. bragia. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. Chron. bum. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. stake. to murmur. to hurl with great force. Fr. to confuse. Hume in brand in ON. briiler. to shake. to dash. apparently very distinct from each other. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to bicker 2nd. bruciare. to shake The word brisil. braise. ist. bryne. is bntan. splinter. Sw. bresil. as Jamieson explains it. not. hoisting to the fall. to make shine with shaking. V. to crackle . became ashes Pied. to burn. brasil. to roar. To brand. De Goes. brin. to and fro in the hand.

For the application to a^child compare Bret. the buttocks. to solder. See Brandish. brett. a clout. a. It. ferruminare. a mantle. Cologne broden. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. ' A vraale. brat. Math. a battle-girdle. borderinge. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Brat. frame of laths. a rag . bas morceau de viande brawhng. Sp. &c. strepitus 2.^ — Sverris Saga.walle — Pr.propugnaculum. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. to braze. slakker-bortchen. Pm. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. braiio. bronzacchiare. cloth. —-Jam. or whether it be from Fr. a lump. ni autres choses sur Due. P1. Florio. bras. Fr. a rag . as rashers upon quick burning coals. 1156. muscular parts of the body. to tear piecemeal. brailler. bartising. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. brat. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. pil. bretesche. Brawl. a patch of cloth. pan- — Rayn. a fortification. rag. A. brat. calf of the leg.D. to cry. slibro {neita. G. much and high and make a disturbance bawl.96 Roquefort. A dispute or squabble. bratdn). the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. braede. brass. The muscular part of the body. Fr. to shake. 2. . breyon de kinds of . braodhlach. frequentative of braire. as a brawling brook. Bartizan. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . Jam. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. a plank or board. Brass. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. Sup. coassatio. to Gael. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. calf of the leg. as scrawl from scrabble. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. Pisana in Mur. discord. braon. Brattice. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. bralle. Paris. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. Dan. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. equivalent to the Du. solder. Many gambes. braoilich. Brangle. esbraotier. bratach. a slabbering-bib. squall. Brawn. Hist. any piece. Certainly a little girl. Kil. KiL Prov. contignatio. A. Cot.D. as criailler of crier. Bailey. breyon d'chaur. a lath. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. berd. a parapet.— Diez. then a parapet. 368. noise. burning coals. Du. Brave. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Fr. The same correspondence is seen between It. baltresca. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. or on the top of a wall. — Deutsch. is The word — uous name for a woman. Lorraine bravon. So also See Brag. bmhon for brado7i.— Remade. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a contempt- banner. bretesque. See Bray. bradlete. braion. 1224. to talk at bralle op. breyon. flesh of a leg of pork. saillies. ship. Sc. from branler. brazen. slut. trul. from Sc. a rag. ^Altieri. Circumeunt cibertesca.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. bronze. Betrax of a —^Jam. ON. the calf of the leg. bartisan. in the first instance of boards. buttock Sc. breteque. AS. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. lat'te.' Hal. boutures. bran. Cot. OHG. a cloak. to carbonado. W. bransle. to scold . I. bruir. — . le repasser un peu sur la braise. and bronzo. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. especially that used in the working of iron . a wooden tower. brces. roar. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. a loud noise. a — A from the confused noise. brandillo. braeye. Gael. a Lap. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. OFr. from Fr. whether contracted from brabble. branle.— Braid. luncheon. bronzare. Fris. bretays). braser Fargent.' BRASS BRAY et AS. a contemptuous name for a young child. brdto (ace. Wall. a lump of flesh. neita girl). bred. a lump of flesh. It. boarding being sbranare.— Fl. It . bribe de viande. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Mundart. Swiss bradle. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. deblaterare. The verb is probably derived from the brase. bradon. apron. fraiche. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. cob. OFr. A land of dance.D. bratid calf of the leg. bratidone. as lattice. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. tasce. A bretise or bretage is linguarum.brettysing. to copper. at brasa. —^Bronze. brettys. slibro. Westphal.

That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. brak. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. ON. as OE. imitate or resemble one. Ppvxia. bragd is also applied nets. father. Bread. Q. Wal.y. augnabragd. a crash. to cry Port. and frangere. abraid. bregda. to rub Fr. brugier. father. riAprjyvvfu. braa. Du. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint.g. bregar. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra.^ Fr. 2. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. D. a rent. braire. From the or brack in a wall. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to scold. bregar. the miller's dog. Fr. Fin. a . . — . as the notion of turning crack. The same He might don us both a villany. V. to cry out. paxog. to snatch. to start. braea. rustle. ^p&xia. to bellow. brame. to The cup was uncoverid. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. the sword was out break. Breach. yell. V. disturbance. relation is seen between Lat. a brack. starts crackling up. with or without a final d. &c. weave The ON. gestus. to bawl. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. mos. Goth. to bray like an ass. to work up in a mortar. 7 . Then is simply. to resemble him. regi. instantane. to t. crepo and E. To Break. brechen. W. a breach Cot. is . and fracasously. bragr. breach. Cot. to N. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. to the seijauntes. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. V. rogi. breche. at braga eftir euium. ser. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. or cry out loudly . &c. to tear Bret. The ON. paste or dough. rattle. Prov.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. on. Bailey. fractus j Gr. braidar. broyer. ing. kind. to resemble. broad. to break Fr. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to braid. braidir. or wound. yell. iU-favouredly — in Jam. fragor.ch. Dunbar braessem. And at a braid he gun it bende. roar. plait. AS. Then. will. Swiss bratschig. to bray in a mortar. turn. k. G. the sound — of arms. G. resound . which has given much trouble to commentators. R. breuan. soft . to braid acquires the sense of bend. a mill. bray. to knead. upbraid. as the voice of the ass. Fr. bru. a brake for hemp or flax. make a disturbance. crash. to break. to rumble.fracas. e. to cry out. since such are the manners of Frenchmen.' To Bray. vapna-brak. to sound very loud and very harshly. . Cat. cyprinus latus. D. to resemble. brage. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. to roar. Chaucer. brot. The Lat. &c. at a braid. to crash. To rub or grind down Sp. ybrayid. roar. to break. . and to signify the fracture itself. twist. Beryn. to roar or bellow. — — — explained motus loud noise. and make a hideous noise. bradar. braid. appearance Hal. a rag f . Lat. R.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. ON. bratsche. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. braa. Chaucer. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. Bret. i. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. rangere. baiyl. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to roar as the sea. at once. to rush.ear rog. bruzir. to smack or the eye. brak.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. I'll live and die a maid. See Brake. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. bruire. brice. &c. brikan. verb to break. brand. Bread. noise . to braid. fish. And with a traid I tumyt me about. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. a wink. to crash. to braid the hair.. crackle . On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to pretend. — koa. bragd — ON. D. Prov. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. crash. F. to break. 145. E. to have the lineaments of one's ON. explaining a very obscure application of the E. in Jam. OE. Gr.

brijsen. remains of leaves. /esses. broil. brossi!. Compare OE. braga. are in like manner ' . windy withal. Du. Briss and buttons. Bret. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. vapour. Breeches.98 borst. a gadfly. brisoler. to crackle. brusc. braies. brciz. bresilles. brist. E. to brew. Piedm. . and other rubbish dibris. AS. bragues. Fr. singing bone. a girdle. to be misty and cold.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Biglotton. as the G. applied to shivering. to buzz. also to chill and shiver with cold. braia J OFr. Fris. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. trembling. Lat. brezling. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. bruc. bre- I'os qui bresole. murmur. briste. Swiss Rom. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. drawers. the bust. Du. breson. to bray. The Breech (Prov. and E. braca.vare. of straining. breeze. as in the case of twitter. brdtschen. may be from the wurh fesser. — . crush. Gl. and brought beneath between the legs. brut. Goth. . Breast. a cold and windy mist or frost . with It. to rattle (as hail). zare. brimme. subligaculum. braich. Isidore and Tatian. xyligogio castigare. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. de bridse geveii. so AS. corresponding to G. braies. grillare. bark Fr. from ligare. G. G. Breeze. forms analogous to E. as commonly explained. to hum. bretilles.t. grillen. burst. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. brustia. —Briss. orts. bruzun. brache. breath. Breeze. to smack. brosame. Breeze. brissle. brugga. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. trusts. — — strument for smacking. Fr. bruzir. brire. G. bracecs . bandage or truss for a rupture. point to G. Swiss brdtsch. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr.'— Gl. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to brew. braie. simmering. Bruise. i5r(Z^. grill. of E. G. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brezzare. a cramp-iron for holding things together. morsel. to burst. Bracha. fail. Fr. a to lay fly-flap. but more probably the E. brcekur j It. britze. or the blow itself. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. breinse. from AS. forms. braucn. brasser. QNtsterviald) pritschen. little bits of wood Berri briser. a smack. It. to resound. brodem. Du. to feize or feaze. to fry . to break. as./ssus. einem de britze geven. bryi^ga. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. — See Broth. To Brew. Gl. Brize. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. the breech or buttocks. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. — . a box. braca. simmer. . broza. Rom. bris. So ON. brumtnen. brasiuiii. PI. Du. to roast. braga. malt. braguier. Gael. to murmur. Dan. noise. chillness or shivering. to whip. from brace. their stings draw . Bret. G^nev. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. briig. representing the sound of a blow. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. cloven. The Teutonic verbs. Hence the Lat. to crush to break. as. to breech. Piedm. a twitch for a horse. to shiver for cold. fitzen. are related to Prov. AS. — Halma.britschen. binding. b}-as. bruise. braciarc. instead of being derived from 'La. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. — And blood. brise. OFr. brijselen. Breath. . braux. de Vaud. sprouted corn. bris de charbon. to fry Then from a Gl. of trees. scent. murmur—Vocab. briosa. met de bridse slaan. . malt. brew. to bind. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. dial. body brostia. bra. fastening . in Schilter. polenta. properly to crackle. to simmer. Dev. Prov. briosa. broiiwen. bratscher. Dtyden. brinisa. brcEth. brimsa. brison. We bragezj on. sheep's droppings bruss. brodel. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. the dry spines of furze broken off. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. G. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brisd. bridsen. as by the Sc. E.D. an into shiver. Gael. Prov. bris. . a crum. breost. switch. siibligar. coaldust. broden. briosat'. brezza. a cool wind. Swiss AS. rubbish. Russ. one on the breech so that (klatschet).). griller. bremse. &c. brok. Sw. a crum Du. clout for a child. w. brisciare. breme. Hume in Jam. See Brick. a horse's twitch. brasiare. then to broil. Lat. break. rubbish. chilly. the soler. an odour. peitschen. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. Originally probably the word signified steam. briiz. — Brist.

jipaaaiii. ment of anything broken. . pavement Lith. to break. to press in. E. has briguer. E. briw. Bridge. from the Normans. . brocaly. pier. brakes of high-grown ferns. Ihre. nurus G. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. to beg one's bread. brood. pavement brolegge. the equivalent of to the dial. Brick. lipdZu}. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. bribe de pain. So It. to boil. AS. grug. served (Patois de Bray). betony brulicame. bulicame. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. a fragment. masted vessel. conjux. fit. piece of burnt clay. bruarium. with transposition of the r. So in The Prov. thick appropriated. Pro(merch=:maid). BRIGADE dead. Fr. a bit. and ODu. bryd-eale. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. a wedding priod-fab. Diefenbach com. brittil. Bridal. Bridal. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. as. brigantine. to appropriate. Du. bara briw. any jot or crum. in the sense of OSw. httle bit. or brizo. a heath brughera. a briole. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Fr. a crum. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. brygga. funeral. one's ovin. to break to pieces bricalio. two-masted vessel. Neumann. to boil. from Bret. G^n^v. bably contracted from brigantine. Mid. bitill. a boiling. from the last 99 of which. brA. It. privus. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. bo. bidsel. Rouchi brife. to prepare. bro. bruk. Brique. Brier. priod-ferch. bro. — . berwi. E. ibrukkti. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. stone-bridge bnikkoti.bergantino. ' — .groom. bruith. a proprietor. a sow. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. Cot. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. See Broth. .pritil . berwedd. Diez. broosekens. broken victuals. AS. — — — — — — . If the foregoing were not so clear. feast. the Fr.. a little king's writs. briwo. Brief. Walach. a rogue. arf-ol. bricge j G. bridge. consort with. w. to Isrew. betonica.It. bruskr and buskr. — . whence berw. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. a married man guma. fervere. The Sw. It. Goth. brilt. fragment. to brew. brau.gfiugga. a fragment. a Bride. jetty. . graf-ol. owned also propriate. to tlie brico. gf2o. Dan. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Fr. Hence OE. priod. broken bread. sponsa. Applied ous words derived from break. to rub. bretonica. is still used in this sense. AS. company. it is applied to the letter to OE. bygga. malt. son. a lump of bread. to circulate. Hdcart. Brigade. Pol. and berweddu. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. division of an army. AS. Ducange. The origin of the word is the w. heath. collect bits of food. to pave. brar. brieden. a cheat. buskins. bridelj OHG. briiths. braut. Fl. a lump of bread briber. to boil. feast of espousals.Fr. to press. Priodi. . would correspond in like manner to the Fr. fraoch. AS. brique de pain. a man. ap. bread. Bribe. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. of burial. In the patois of briccia. to meet together. troop. brug. Brewis. bribour. to stamp. Gael. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. then the marriage itself. Due. Lat. to pave brukkti. from Bridegroom. pavement. beaten way Dan. brere. birbone. especially to a letter or command. It — is Kil. brughiera. brice. brigade. Lang. bride. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. corresponding or letter. Gael. but to a paved road. groom (mab=:son). remarkable that the Gr. E. peculiar. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. married. brasser. buckler J ON.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. a quoit of stone. AS. bryd-gutna. a brig or priodor. bride. ' . A bribe is A — — arval. . . brigata. ON. but probably Bricoteau. as so. A — A — . guma. bruyere. imprint. brutg. In E. the marriage si in brigata. malt. a rogue . bruk. . a crum. daughheath. a bride. fastningar-ol. ter-in-law. briicke. twopares Lat. Grisons bruch. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a married man or woman Lat. Gl. hlafes brice. Sp. birbante. a beggar. Flor. the newly. brukkas. Bridle. a heath. breve or brevis. a lump of bread. bricou. broken. a bush.privatus. and that from It. boiling up brocoliere. barren land priodas. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Thom. crew. Trovarfor bride-ale. W. from bit. OSw. . a bride Brig.rough with brambles and bushes. In the G. frayer. OHG. brahi. sugga. appropriate.

riis ' — Chron. The Ir. to shift for with care. Bav.' The sense of strife or combat express. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. Xa/iTTii). clangour. in the first instance. inde squammatus. splcnornd de brigandine. AS.' in Due. Goth. Mid. to cry 'Schmid OE.glampa. See Brake. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. moment. brebrigare. — Due. a pirate. clarus. and to associate with them. kilistua. at a later period. willata. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . — Brigantine. —Capgrave. bracht. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. to rove. to sound. to reservavit.D. brigandare. may play the pirate or thief at sea. brigare. clare lucens. combat. himself to serve men of merit.Lat. Gr. 1654. from hall. clang. then. to strive for.' The passage from the sense of a light. tion. tinkle. — — . . to contend with another. \oice. rover either by sea or land. splendour. So G. They or brigantini. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. necessary business. tumult. sound. speech. etincelle. seems to be to exert force gar el area. there are many armour. brdgen. It. schateren.shine. strife. the bench-notes resounded.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. to piracy. the grew high. to resound. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. clear. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. a noise. glamm. — Briganbriga. in the sense of a robber. glamra. The primary meaning of Sp. to rob. a brigantine. cange has 'Veles.clare ^tinniens. brak. a spark. malandrini. briga. and ner me hit iherde. It. manifest ON. briegen. and. shriek with laughter.— . Gall. beorht. In the same way to strive is. It.pracht. In Fin. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . Florio. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. splendour. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. bregar. also called briganders. Du. Beorktode bene sweg. Owl and beorhtian. 1351. bright bearhtm. is easily understood. to glamr. brigan. and led it away. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. bragen. 312. dine. to ring. to shine. briga. and the E. to cry. and. secondarily. From ON. A strepere. It. and hence be explained glampi. clear. splendens . — Beowulf. a sound. biartr. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. to glitter.' torum. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. transparent. Bright. — A A . glir. to bend a bow It. . frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. the gleeman's song. Swab. on his — own account. to make a loud noise. schiteren. bray. Adelung. a small light pinnace pro. noise. lay was sung. representing a sudden noise. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. XafXTTpoQ. dine. brigare. glitter. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. with respect either to sound or colour. tinnitus. clear sound. Wilista. bairhts. jurgia. and secondly. kii:'a. Heo — song That AS. brawl. Schmeller. — Probably then to strive. outcry. clear. twinkling. — brigante. in later times a robber or highway-man. Brigata. OHG. Brigand. tinnitum clarum movco. brcEhtin. that of Fr. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. rixa. show the origin of Lat. loo BRIGAND lor. and diligence.dorem clarum reflecto. wilella. braid. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. squamma . The E. — brigante. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. praht.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. labour. glbram. bryhtm. A. Lat. to shine. hell. tuilahtaa. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. Brilliant. brigant. Flor. Due. pugna. a glittering.

bry7ie. to shine. to crackle. voux. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. from brandr. sonitum edere bremen. . border. brim. to sound deep or hollow. 1 1 64. ardere desiderio. — — — . ON. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. bresoler (Gloss. barmr. to glitter . brennistein. brandr and Fr. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. kimmaltaa. lip of a vessel. noise made by meat in broiling. originally the lap folding over the breast. post. bramer.' Elyot in Way. a stick. to creak. sparkle.ioTiviS acutus. brand-krossottr. greedily to covet Cot. ring. the lap or bosom. the edge. also to reflect. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Kil. excited. glit. Tresiller. ling noise and a sparkling light. ter. brunft. Dief. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. the eye-brow. s. Thus Lat. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. bramire. — . lap. griller. to storm. fire. 154. an apron. to twinkle. with an initial br instead of gr. pMiller. clangor tinniens. Wtb. a border. brissle. reecho. The identity of ON. of the eye. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. broil . to shimmer. to sparkle. shine. breme. Fl. margin. Rayn. grisser.' d'etre marie . The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. Langtoft. breme. brame. AS. to creak. barm. to shine. to fret . to shake. earnestly . breziller. bryn. Subo. sprainged. brdnnsten. brim Magy. brumft. to glitter. brummen. kajata. — — So Fr. Fr. brama. the sow is brimming. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. brommen. kimista. vigorHal. rut. Sc. Brindled. to roar. dial. frequently interchange. and corresponding to these. bar. brastlian. to quaver with the voice.) brimi. burning. the singing of Sodom — — . gresiller. the heat of animals. ON. AS. to make a crackling noise. surface of the ocean. Dan. as well as bl and gl. brame. It. fringe . as of meat in broiling . to long for a thing. to utter cries. brezil. spraing. To Brim. Sw. briller. komista. rugire (cervorum. Brimstone. Sc. grullo. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. In the same way Sw. is used of raging. cross-barred in colour. crackle . rugire. It. to parch. border. Lith. A . as in Langued. grisler. coloured in stripes. os qui bresole. a rod. brummen : de soge brummet. the verbs Flor. chime). which seems identical with rim. griller). Brem. brillare. small gravel. brmdottr. finds the Fr.D. crackle. — Rim. In Fr. whether of desire or anger. Said of swine when in heat. The meaning of the Fr. brow of a hill. glisten. The E. border. ous. to make bilbil). parched. der. whence bilbil-goda (literally. griller d'impatience. — g. It. s. to shine. to crackle. to broil. vattubryn. to wish or covet. that the original meaning of the Sc. greDiet. Closely connected is OE. hence the bosom. beam. bray as an ass bramire. burning stone. brant.). komottaa. Brim. brisoler. leonum).— Brinded. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). Supp. . and 1. have then in Fr. kimina. a long. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. G. (poet. to glitter distance . FJ. edge Pol. fierce. brimmen. bramar. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. Tutschek. Streaked. tience. bremmen. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. from bringe. or violent action. broiled. to resound. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. the meaning is transL' amour.— BRIM . breziller.preni. bramar. brullo. gresiller. briller (related to each other as OFr. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. Du. Rugere. the heat of animals. . perent. a borDu. to burn. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. 1. : ' — bone). to . bremmen. brinfire. barm-cloth or barmskin. a streak. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. on. fringe (Lat. ON. bremas. grdzil. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Hence with an initial s. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. E. The expression is now confined to the sow. kommata. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. Swiss Rom. briller. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. identical with passion.its vent in cries and roaring. striped or streaked. 754. rym^. fimbria) . furious. kiimottaa. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. to roar. Prov. lap of a garment . as is the case also with Pl.

a slip or sprig of an herb . britar. Antiq. It. aculeus. and forms on. Prov. brim. quick. brddj Goth. bringe traced through the brano. brioshko. .' Nat.D. lively. brissle. craw of a bird. See Brand.). spur. brytan. Breeze been connected with the Sc. of E. b. saulmeure. Brittle. brocco. Sp. a morsel . sharp. fragile. ruffling. as a noun. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. 222. ON. grim. brindelles de balai. NE. brocar. from AS. birse. bruskett. is called a birssy day. Formerly written brotil. wine of a sharp. to set it a going. man's throat. eager. G. Fr.rcendij'i. Walach. are used in the sense of brittle. Dan. Boh. to break. Bret. The Pl. broca. Gr. Du. fantas'* tical. brich. brocco. harsh vin brusque. bryde. the surf. roar of the sea saltr. bricho (with the diminutives. . Brisket. Liquamen vel garum. bros. Pectusculum. to crack. — . rash. fiscbryne. brin.. breaking out into growth. crabbed. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. as. brichet. . Brisk. brimhliod. Port. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). emotions which produce it. a belly. rebrousser. fierce. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. broccare. Sc. expression. to goad. brodden. trembling. a bud. Commonly explained as from Fr. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. angry. Mid. smart taste. to set up one's birse. to break. cK) the . Zeuss. Bristle. Brine. a brad or tack. as unripe fruits. of astonishment. suddenly angry. Prov. breidr. birsle. brandello. the brisket or . and. prick with Sw. Ptg. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Brooch. brusco. breaking of the waves brim sior. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. against the grain . is to erect the hair. Du. the twigs of a besom. Brym. brisciare. Fr. briota. to put one in a rage . . the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. to birstle. Compare also E. breast. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. . brissko). byrst. brim (poet. and hence. bringe. from brande. broche. Bohem. thick — A elastic hair. Berri. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. to scorch. Hence ribrezzare. Hal. Bret. setting the hair on end compare It. to roar. It. brocher. bristly . britchet. a brooch. brime. bresk. has under It. sour. rude. to thrust. 'In sua to stand up of Corn.Lat. sprouts. to shiver for Sold or for fear. flames. form bris. /3pE^m. Russ. See Spread. brocciare. to turn up the point of anything. borst. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. coli. brcit. broca. bronchus. like the Broad. It. brusk. to bud. ' . a stormy brimsea .g. bros. ribrezzoso. p. a skewer. Russ. shoot. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. a stitch brocher. startling. bryne. strong itself. bruckle. Palsgr. to spur. a cold and windy mist or frost. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. a deluge. ' breast. Brocade. brittle. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. — A . brimme. to begin upon it. flame. to break. . Sc. Abroacli. See To Brim. chest. It. Prov. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. borzos (struppig). a shoot or sprig. or the full • . brot. a bit . a clasp. to shoot. from break. brezzare. to stab Gael. stitch. Alfr.'— Vita'abbatum S. to spit. birstle. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. to burn. e. i. briocho. brittle. or — . a rebours. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. brockle. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. Lat. birssy. brote. 'V^. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. to broil. broc. the surf. a rod or twig. brust. brocchus. Swiss to stand out . a morsel. Sw. broccata. reburrus. In the N. brijn (Kil. whence may be explained the Sc. birs.procio. brim. humorous. brog. borstel. a fragment. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. to stitch. metaphorically. and Sc. Then as the effect of shivering. brezza. Da. bringue. a crum. Cot. borzen. sprout. to stick. to broach a business. Fris. britar. setting the hair on end. Fr. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. a bud. a peg sbrocco. very salt brimi. as. bruched (Fr. a spit. — bryme. Fr. rebursiis. apt to break. as. spricka. Fr. brusque. brickie. — in Due.. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. a projecting tooth It. an awl. Gl. sprocco. Fr. hot-tempered. Salte sand is called brimsand.). brisk in taste. Brickie. braidsj ON. to spur. sticking up . a button broche. briota. briser. — — .

confulittle tuft of silk or wool. bordar. briefh. broil. gresiller. point to an origin in Bret. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. brych. margin. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. to burn. Icnotty. to streaked or speckled in the face. the shoot of corn. noise. of pointing out their latent defects. to crackle. to parch or broil. a freckle. grullo. speckled. To roast upon hot coals. an edge. rustle. fundamental origin. Cot. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Cot. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. broiled. to spur. It of br the Fr. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. Sc. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. streaked. to broil. a flake of snow sion. a brim. Sp. brasiller. to darn. brerd. Sc. bj'oil. brizen. with Sc. The Bret. 103 embroidered. brasbrasciuolare. onbryrdan. or It. — Gower in It.. bram. Surrey in R. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. Grisons brascla. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. v. hart of two years old. a mole. broccato was used to signify stuff . a brecJi. bruler. kled breac. brocach. bawling. Compare also AS. and AS. brucach. froco. So from Pol. a prick. knobby . stump. brastlian. Fr. to embroider. ciare. a b?-ustolare. bramowanie. to boss. Brocket. storms. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . or salted fish on coals. . From direct imitation of Brock. parti-coloured. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. rinj'. parched. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. a freckle. W. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. — . precisely analogous to the Sc. tufted ornaments. whence broccare. silkes-borda. Bret. Fr. grislement. — The proper sense is that of Fr. brasolare. b?-od. Florio. E. a point. — — . Here to ornament with needle-work. The ON.. birsle. broud. Contracted from Fr. prod. to burn. brasiller. R. dar seems derived from borde. border ornamented with silk. sting. to crackle. the line of development has been something different. A fried or boiled steaks). brocart.tumultuous. broice. to scorch. Ptg. to instigate. brucilare. here. freckled. tori shows that. Thus brod. broukit. brod. atoms . trouble. to embroider. A badger. shuffle. B. or roast on the braise. brodio. embroidering. Gael. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. frecSee Brawl. brustle. and w. and bord or bred. badger . creak. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. a quarrel. — Fl. to knots or loops. thread. broglio. to prick. broc. or glowing coals broged. a To Broil. Fr. to stud broccoso. brindled. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. age was termed a pricket. a confused streaked face of the animal. speckled. broc. broder. Ihre has guU-bord. parti-coloured. brouda. AS. ToBroider. tumult broighleach. It. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). frocadura. broccuto. — brissle. piebald . a flock or Gael. brusler. confound. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. bustling. braird. blusters. It. spotted. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. q. brouFr. Broker.sound. a fallingThe sense has been out. initial . to On the other hand the Sp. bordo. spots. ornamented with a raised pile. to crackle. Hal. . broil. borprick. border. broighlich. brullare. agree in being the extremity of a thing. breard. brooked. brocco. noisy. Dan. to crackle as a shell in the fire. sparks E. hurly-burlies. has grisser. a border. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case.— B. a brouhaha. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. to crackle. scorch. trouble. briz. brusuole. motes. gold and silver. bmsciare. Gael. a border ornamented with gold. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Compare G. forming to jumble. carbonado. or snag. brasuole. a peg. prasseln. houx. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. a badger. from the white. brychau. embroidery. parch.

In those countries the term braker. brak. Brood. brae. — a spark. On • tliis principle the G. mediationem quorundam J. to pro- to reject . bronze.— Breed. screatio Junfus . 38. bronce. make out. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. Alb. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Pro v. Du. wraken. and as an adj. with. Grisons brinzla. Abbronzare. faulty. to nourish. criticise (makeln). ODu. to . bredan. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. to — garble. a cough Hal. to pick and choose. Adelung. to garble. The Langued. to roast on the embers. to pick. i. a brood . from break. Pl. Bronze. in which sense the OHG. find fault with. spittle . racher. an operation performed over hot coals. nounce unsound. brands. buy and sell by commission. corrector. hot. to sit on eggs. stain.D. brackefi. correctarius. G. term was correcfo^ir. abject. It may be compared with It.— — . on. but from the primary sense of the It. Alb. bring eggs and spawn into active life. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. cracker. OFr. broiid. Lat. inspect. Fr. tussis. the young of any animal . from makel. The use sunburn. brasa. Russ. a breach or flaw. filth. hraki. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. whence the modern courtier. wrak. 396. brechen. Jam. G. hot. damaged. . with which much of our early commerce was carried on. to be wanting. brieden. ON. Tooke's Catherine. to hatch G. progeny of birds. vile. spittle. the spawn of fishes. brid. a makeln. trumpery. in the sense of rejection. • . blur. refuse. sunburnt. fault censure. designation is indkler. merchandises de rebut G. brod. vrage. Fl. raca. brack. brwd. want. matter of blame weak place. a broker. bracker. To blame mens ware. Pl. mud. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. bronze.D. brass does to Sp. find fault with. raquer. to sort goods . brasa. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. brumo. try . [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. In the . to reject. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. — Fl. to scorch. sort. has exactly the force of G. glowing coals. brack-gut. an . embers. to hatch. to throw blame upon. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. fish-spawn broden. brak. and to reject the damaged and unsound.D. inspection. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. reject. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. For the same reason the Kiittner. couratier. et A. dial. lack. hrak. and fishes . This word shows the same relation to It. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. burning. refuse Fr. refuse wares. G. See Wreak. slaae vrag paa.D. embers. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. e. cast Lith. bridde. Bret. to sort brakovanie. phlegm. refuse. broen. Prov. whnake. damaged. brot. keep warm. a chicken. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. braeck goed. refuse brakovat. to be hot. brack-gut (Sanders). to spit . tan. — . to braze. embers to brund. sbrinzlar. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. refuse goods. analogous to Bohem. vile. Per manus et old worthless horse. brut. See Broth. — broeden. refuse brakowad. pan metal. S. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. or brascla. — point out the faults. bronze. to copper. cherish.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. wreak. fermenting. brokoti. If to vomit . as. w. brokas. brod. brakyne. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. to criticise. brokers' goods. brydio. to blame. to sparkle.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. braken. wrack-good. goods damaged by sea-water. dirty. which E. selection. racaille. ordure. Bronzare. Pl. To correct an exercise is to Lib. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. briiten. a fault. rejection Pol. : ' . an outcast or rejected sheep. Kil. to emit sparks. . . bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet.— Lib. abbronzanchiare. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. rejected. Dan. Du. insects. It. bric-a-brac. bronzo. . to hatch. try out. brunds. Sp. warm. . Sc. to brew. See Brackish. find fault — — — fuse matter. Teutonic class : Du.

Here we find throughout the Romance. (for brodem). a bud brous-koad. as rhododendrons. Ger. brouches. dumetum. heat. bank. eat. brost. kail brose. perhaps burnt coloilr. brukjan. . bntdien. bhratrj Zend. eye-brow. OHG. &c. Limousin broudi. Roquef. bordeau. bruich. bank. b7-un. But the Walach. hut. on. face. surDu. brawdj Slavon. eye-lash . bree. frater. cabbage soup . strength. bruich. . Cot. Ppim.braubiti. . Celtic. signifying twigs. brennen. Gris. a spring. Due. Commonly Teutonic. . boiled . AS. . eye-brow. edge. brus. infusion. brogues. may be connected with Russ. brun. eye-brow. BROOK brook w. or broken up . infusion the barley bree. bruno. pour boiling water over. G. or shoot. the bubbling or springing up of water. shoot. a confused noise of winds. It is Brother. Dan. Sp. as Fr. Russ. riviere. eye-lid. vigour. a hill. brmi. brauwe. — exiit et heath. a little . breg. braun. Bav. spirit. fabric consists. house of ill fame. hot. shore. brodo. Gael. Sp. meal. brink. a bruth. Bohem. Fr. borda. The origin is a re. shrub with leafless pointed edging.) . brodem. brass. shoots. 'Lzt. Fr. G. bros. margin. brst. in which brinnan. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock.' Due. awl-plant. to bubble up with noise. . chen. to murmur. . broem bark. Bohem. braew. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. breg. juniper. borde. brov. G. to roar. Bret. sprot. border. brow of a hill. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. . bud. broth. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel.brons. 105 Brook. bruith. to Pl. to bear patiently. ceales briw. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. brouser. juice of briars. broccola. grow brossa. brosst. useful G. brotar. sprouts . a derived from the boards. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. Gael. pottage. brucan. shrubs. steam from heated bodies. OHG. mettle. to browse. broca. breh. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brabruach. broieii. Prov. Serv. to use." Serv. from ripa. browys. a shrub broust. broi. vigour. cabbage water. strength Ir.brink. — ' . was originally used in the innocent sense of . w. sodden. &c. a little house or cottage of timber. sap. has briw. brue . to shoot. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. bruitheati. brosses. brad. to border. a sprig. verge. Fr. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Du. brudi. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Gael. low The AS. heath. to spring . shore . break out brewet. The softening down of the consonant bud. . bryii. briihe. brouet. spuma. and Slavonic families. brouskaol. AS. &c. broth. brosses. brouic. heath. &c. dialects is very different. Wtb. Du. brewis. brouter. . sordes seu strigmata young branch. on. broden. buds. braussa. seethe. brd. . eye-lid. bruscosd quam de arabili. briu. Gael. pith. who is steaming with sweat. to scald. brdtaj Gael. to boil. Catalan brossa. It.spross. pfriemkraut. bank. Manx broie. Russ. bruth. sprocco. brow. Browse. bordel. a hut or cottage It. a caldron. It. Sanscr. broud. bryn. brio. G. to boil bruithe. Brow. hovel. bruddeln. brost. — . bushes. Pl. broeye. bor. to browse. a river. brous. Mid. plants composed of twigs. bros. broth brothaire. simmer from the murmuring AS. and Sc. Kil. To digest. and also border. a source Gael. brushbroccoli. t— Cot. Bohem. laissent Domunculum. properly boiling water briihen. wood . . bratrj Lat. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. brew . waves. protecting the eye. Tam de terrS. bruc. w. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. broc. branches. thick bush brousta. thicket. riviera. briar. brwd. sprout. warmth ch'an. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . as small-pox. cia. brstiti. . or bushes and scrubby growths. braces. eye-brow. bank. .D. signifying low wet land (Brem.. iVlanx broogh. a sprout. Pol. frui. brozia. brpuster. a hill.D. brusmalt. broza. augen-braune. broit. Fr. Brothel. a shore. rerum decoctarum. bregh. breg. Gr. Fr. ale . pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. and It. rage. grow into a bush. G.— Overyssel Almanack. a bud. forms appear related to the Ir. a . enjoy Goth. Lat. . brlgh. edge. to burn. bryn. brau. sense the Sc. frucius. brocco. thairj w. See Bramble. eminence . brothas. OFr. — . circuindedit cum familia. of which the variety of forms. from Goth. bruach. to use bruks. the colour of things burnt. It. bruceti. heat explaining the Prov. A — . to use. sprout. broth is sometimes used . The AS. broth Brown. broo. juice of meat. noise. surface of Broth. Sc. . The ridge surrounding and To Brook. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Bret. of plants broust. to sprout. fur Broom. brotar. broth the ocean Sw. to boil. to boil. sproc. Prov. bruithim.

bruire. It. E. britar. wood composed OE. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. a brush Swiss bruske. brosst. brushwood. borst. p. Broach. Brunt. heath. an enmy. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. a little brizal.— Palsgr. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. To brush then would be to dust. brosst. fragments. to break. brust. . this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Beryn. brusco. brik. rods. Diez. . Bret. break. Gael. brise. Cot. briketo. brist. irruo. orts. wool-card. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Pr. brossar. a blow. briser. splinters. to break to bits . a — — (Agea) said. Prov. It. Fr. bruis (sing. G. to crush. burs. brusg. Pr. B?-usske. —Chaucer. brusca. bross. bruc. crum bit . dust. a mote. to stumble. a brush. it schall be al Sw. a briser. bruit. and sighid therewithal. into a multitude of points. brikan. Sw. effort. to make brusshes on. a bristle. or sodenly comyn' dust. as It. Wicliff. or shoot. —Fabyan. shoot brouskoad. broust. brizeto. bruscolo. broza. to cleanse. a shrub composed of small twigs . bushy ground. a horse-brush. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. bross. E. brustid. Bruise. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Cot. abroncar. sordes. Poems. Text Soc. * Brunt. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brist j Port. to break or burst. ON. bricalio. and in the second place a besoiB. dust. brisar. briiis (in the pi. Allit. Port. bris. Prov. biirste. bris. a brush. OFr. In E. a brush . bruise exOFr. borste. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brous. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . and It. It. a crum. 201. 174. The Bav. . brysan. a brush. twig. — those signifying a sprig. brous. wool-card. Pm. Brunt of a daunger. Bav. . dust. of twigs. NE. Pr. crush. Fr. . seems named from burst(on. fasx . Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Gael. a bud. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. borste. brunt. broustia. a flax comb. brosse. tremely. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Prov. a tuft of heath .o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. detergere . flax-comb brossettes. brottcher. coal See Breeze. Sp. to strike the foot against an obstacle. The Lat. a bush of hair. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. brist. brossa. brossa. a brush . to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. shock. brisd. borste. Piedm. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. ling or heath for brushes. G. remnants of hay or fodder. brMt. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. dust. to butt. brusc (Diet. Fr. blow burcar. bruito.). And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. insilio. rubbish. desbrisar. burt. Gael. bris. bruiser. biirste. — a bush.). shivers. a brush . Pr. brico or brizo. a bud or sprout Bret. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. And that best is. appearin Goth. See next article. Hall in R. Lang. bruzir. to make a rumbling. . E. — Fr. Fl. On the other hand. modification of the same root which gives the E.— — i. britar. brista) or breaking out . Bruit. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. brosse. A. bruscia. brousso. Fr. escousse. field. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. borste. brustia. also a head-brush. Palsgr. — OE. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. brustia. fescue . bruskr. brusca. broza. twig. to break.). ca7-bo>i. That in all haste he wouli. Piedm. a rumbling. to brush. 134. quisquilise. K. bruscolo. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. borste. Fr. brus. quasi twigs. Sw. wool-card. brugir. and Piedm. brit. AS. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Alexander. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. a noise. Brush. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. mg Cat. brist. The same relation holds good between G. rubbish. bush. Castr. a brush . Prov. OE. and . Lang. and actually come in collision. bud. Gael. bruyere. and also Brush. bris. rubbish. brusco. . du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. a bristle. Pm. chips. broken. tuft of grass or hay. insultus.

to soften. a bubble. boh. mote. as a buck rabbit. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. bouk. pokka7na. to wet Pol. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. Fin. soft It. bugd. very generally designated by the same puk.biiken j Svi. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. March 28. a to the male deer. buquer. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. as G. and Fr.wet Lat. hump.— . was called bucking the linen. . soft. to Gael. to strain. — — ' A : ' ' . designation of a knob. a push. a hole. But see Bristle. Esthon. Pol. Formerly. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti.tare. . and the bunch. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. boucaner. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. it is beuchen. maban and baban. a ashes. and as a verb.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. BUBBLE bruschetta. hog dressed whole). from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. tuft.to allow a free current of air. bube. and then to other wild tumour Lith. Bret. wood. a bubble. The male goat. erweichen. knock. The word was very generally Buccanier. . The name. soft. buck-ashes. plied in the W. of wind. lye. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. molle.lessiver. bubseti. at a door. In G. It. bub.-wtt miekki. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. Magy. because bucare does not in Marsh). Fr. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bucata. open lath-work.boukaat. It. colada. — . and exercised their cruelties prin. to butt. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. The place of such a 2. a. not so plentiful a commodity. top. de la Floride. the lower soak in lye. mieknad. Etym.D. w. bubauti. moist. 1586. byge. to soak.' Palsgr. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. a steep for flax. buborek. From an imita. to bump as a bittern. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). Bohem. bokni. from weich. bubbola. tender. to soften. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. This bubette. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. The term bocan is still ap. News. bubBuck. to filter. tender. 1857. to stick. to which in their language they call bou. to soak. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. set of pirates in the spread. Bubble. bub. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. buck-ashes. — . to soften . w. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. the upper for coifee. The natives of Florida. See Dupe. mokry. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. bukke. pukkata. moczyd. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. Gael. . faire la lessive. blister. pup. Dan. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting.buchen. from colar.byka. thunder gently . Cot. boc. Illust. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. . a knock word. lye. or projecTo Buck. Fr. is 1. boc. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . from which the ing the bleating of a goat. . hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. Pref A. soft. buquer. buerj It. tap . bouc. also applied Una. bduclien. hump. watery bud. blast or strike with the forehead. Sp. Fr. bwch. the first wheal. a bubble . different form. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. rap. I. a fescue. Pol. . to butt or jurr Dan. when soap was tion is commonly taken. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. to a place used for the mouillir. to buck. It. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. to soak foul linen before washing.steep or soak. the linen at buck. bublati. to bubble. Magy. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. buchen. or mok. bifbel. Bohem. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. A . . bog-aske. mollire. caned' Hence those who established them. Diet. in which the flesh dish. to butt. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors.derivation has been much discussed. does not hold. Bret. says Laudon. Sp. was called in Fr. Sc. 17th century. ac. bucaIndies. who resorted to the islands beichen. bugada. boil animals. bubiti. bucking. soft . bucquer. a. The cipally on the Spaniards. drying of produce. to murmur.

pwt o Fr. call. inboachen. a . a wallet. weich. knob dwfr yn boglynu. crack. stir. bloca. a dumpy gin.' Hal. to poke. Prov. cattle. bulga. don't a baby). bougette. butzen. a navel.t-le!L{ * Bud. — — . need. to 'soak. Fr. Sw. having a boss. a little coffer or turgidus. . Cot. Sp. to boss or swell out G. It. prick in a target. bud butzen. bucket Fl. a leathern sack. rump of fowls . ON. bouge. . call. It termination is lost. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. to bud or bocla. no wheel bogeilio. Port. butz. Fr. wallet. set of a plant in bulk. pulga. stroke. Lat. The word is a ddyn. a curl. of bac. to boil. to pen cattle. to move. botzen. bouljein. bod. convexity. Bus. butzen (Du. Swab. Hence quel. II I'a feru desor I'escu. rabodS.n.r//'. Russ. bukke-blad. — . Fr. macero. a bump. blow. Buckler. bulka. . boss. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bolgetta. and weichen. a ring. knock. noise . and of the Lat. ' . as in Fr. a tuft. skins pushit'. pulga. and the reference to It. The entire train of thought is bucket. is doubtless fallacious.chissima. boglyn. goat's hoof. This expression boglire. bucherame. It. .pastoral nations of Slavonic race. were To Budge. to graft or bud trees. a stump buckle up. or male of to boil . Prov. w. bulla.Lat. Fr. It. clasp of a book. boccula. stud. w. Mid.poot. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. To thrusting part of a long body. bogla. no business to do that. to budge. from Gr.' Schm. bedde. soft. a budget. turgere buczendig. It. buckel. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. So on. a fold ceilio. agreeing with Gael. Fr. in the beginning of to pierce holes. bunch . brobrocchiere. put. jSouKoXiKog. the root of the Slavonic words gran. The knob or projection formN. * Bud. bouger.stumpy man. Bret. boucle. from bugr. a pail or flowers. where the G. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bocla. knob . to thrust. hump. with a central boss. a shield. Budget. OFr. bollire. the radical image seems to be a set plants. imbuere. ble. bouter. fur. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. Pol. Wtb. butzen K. G. Fr. bump. Dan.). bulais daqui.' And this sacrament bus have dial. Behoves. weichen. Bret. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. bouclier. bloca. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. become bochen. boach. . bod.. a buckle or protuberance. Budge. water message. call bo. K. excrescence. to word. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Prov. Du. bucolicus. a servant. butzen. * Buckle. bougette. A water-plant with leaves and gille. loud Cot. . don't stir from hence. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. Bucolic. thrust.) as to soak. . is to shrivel up. — — . budge. like a bean. above mentioned. dim. mani.. with which it was ornamented. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. bulb. boiling. pote. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. Mid. bullion.goa. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. ' . gjeit-klauv. to line with fur./a. a bud. lump. motus creber. bog and G. bugnir. Buck-bean. of bouge. male or botzen. ' . bloquier. a boss.pode. of a surface. bub. OHG. ornamental stud. Fr.. Du. potz.' Boccaccio.) . boqueranmis. bug. NE. * Bucket. protuberance. words is converted into b. a shoot. a pustule bout. a boss. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. bouton. child. from bo. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. — . . See Bulk. boulj. great pouch. bouprobably identical with inok. belonging to the calling of the chen. botzen. probably from the notion of bubbling. swelling. dinted. butze. with let. a buclder or shield budge. Gael. sboge. weich. boucle. bdden. swelling. buachazlle. a boy. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. a budget.— . to swell. a trough). whom it is still much in use. explaining Fr. bunch. bouk is a pail and with the dim. Bav. butt . mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. boaLat. clump. boucler. boss of a shield. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. to un bout d'homme. a bubble three thyngis. A buckle or fastening for botch. In Lat. . also a leather tuft . trunk of wood covered with leather. dint .stuff. bo. to stir. boucle. The dressed fur of lambs. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. Pied. seen in Hesse botz. bul. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. The Fr. It is explained by Miiller (MHG.anything short of its kind. W. built. bode. a cowherd. bucherare. a small shallow and open tub. . ein. pwtio. a short thick man. push forwards. Dan. to butt. scion. the word w ' — . Hardly identical with Fr. bolgia.may probably be explained by N. case of leather . Bav. boucaran.

een duffen toon. tabernarius. It. stupid. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. bubiti. air. to a representation of his voice. to puff. either alone or with various terminations. bubus. A blow. deadened. senses. dausa.—Buffet. buivol. bufogni. to rePl. a clap.' La Crusca. scarecrow . mumming. Mid. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. pulse . caupo. W. btifetarius.— Buflae. Lith. also the skin or heck of a buffe. dull sound. — Bogle. bwg. bufHe. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. thus be translated to tap. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. made to —Bugbear. or hath been Cot. by metaphor. Buffeter. The children were playing in an oppocomer. smells . Romola. A — Bug. bukow Ikow. Magy. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. sounds.D. mingled with water. and in Fr. as from Lith. dial. buffets. bo ! an interj. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Teet-bo. — — — Buffet. as Diez remarks. botffon. word other cases. to blow. Cot. from souffler. bubach. buffle-headed.D. bauwi. human. —Boggart. It. buffa. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. &c. a hobgoblin. bugle. Fr. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. a In . Lat.D. boo. a puff. Thus buffet would a tapster. Swiss baui. for this purpose is very widely spread. things in Jam. Fr. Sc. buffalo. G. buMagy. to puff. bumann. him but Boyd iugges. buffer. bugs. breath. to blow souffleU. a cuff or buffet. It. From bulga. made by a person. or wild ox. site The two — — iii. to excite terror in Macleod. leathern bucket. duff^ dull. bw! It. a side-board. A puff with — Fl. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. buffetto. bau ! children. Buffalo. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. baubau. buffet. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. Pl. bw. Gael. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. a bugbear. ' They rether puffed at him. soufflet. to give benti. The cry made to excite terror is then used. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. confused. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. It. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to frighten . and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. Buff. God's boast seemed feare children. Limousin bobal. the place whence the wine was drawn. tastes. . 265. to signify an indefinite object of terror. to bellow . a dull BUG From 109 — A . a block-headed noddy. Hence the E. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. popo. colour. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. to blow . Fr. yar^aa. Fl. often blown upon. E. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bufogni. bolgia. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Fr. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . cuff . bolgetta. Esthon. wauwau. Sc. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. buffare. a goblin). — Z. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. bobaow.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. the buffe. buffeteur. Lat. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. bouffer. also a G. a jester. bouffer. buffet. to give a as of a blow. — La Crusca. buff leather. as wine that hath taken wind. w. buffle. From buff! of terror. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. puff. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. while in Sp. boman. Buff. Cot. rebuff. a skin. a budget. Bufetarium. a hollow sound. to marre often tasting it . buffen. often covering his E. buffare. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. dausinti. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bubaRuss. Pl. buffet. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to strike face to represent the unknown. Che scaccia 1' Ombre.' perfield. to beat. Fr. from It. a buffle or a bugle. as emblematically making light of an object. The use of the exclamation children. of colours. — thence it has been transferred in E. Lith. Buffoon. bugbear. to jest or sport. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. wine may The verb in taverns. blurt or puff with one's mouth. le reste emplissant d'eau.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said.

Lap. a bugbear for children. with more or less modification represents bau. Lett. xiv. paws the ground . according to Coles. Illyr. also a bug-bear. as an object of dread. bugler. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. banian boube. — — . poggl. Big. Deut. Bug as a lord. bug-bear. threatening. A similar applica. bucula. Lith. Bible. the Devil. bugle. bok. the buggaboo w. Bugle. a. Russ. bobal. Swiss ing. Grose. Stalder bog. bogk. bold. bug dung-beetle. Manx boa. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. to take fright. a bug-bear. and in child's Magy. Bogge. is the dim. . buculus. threatening. forSc. It. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. dial. Grisons bau. — — ' . The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. buba. bugar. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. boeuf sauvage. bukati. 1551. rose-bug. and a boggarty ing. The name of bug is — .loud noise. (Spurrell). The final guttural of W. blustering. to take bug. any disgusting animal. Mid. saucy. affright.3uhtii&:. 493. Lesachthal. troll. bbgni. also a bug-bear. big. An ornament of female dress condread. scarecrow . — . terrifying ward. oxen. provincially an insect. i. and bugle. It. biignt. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. fette. Chaucer. an insect. bug-bear. boa-peep. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. Bdronie. proud. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. pugaf. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. insect. gad. buggabod). Mundart. high. long. monster. shepe and gootes.Lat. disgust.. a goblin. Parolone. to roar Aasen. roo. baco. given in Chaucer. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. ghost. Fl. earwig bau da grascha. mask ' .' In my time at horse is one apt to start. il brutto Demonio. coco. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. a rabme. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. as Buffalo. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. b'dgni. buffle. Hal. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. to creeping things. a boogg. . to take fright. also a baco-baco. — — terror. beugler. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Magy. insect. bug. and is Deutsch. hert. thus connected with bug. a proud overbearing man pujat'. a buffalo. pugalo. bukashka. . See The name terror). and signifies also terror as name of an insect. bwgar. * 2. of pipes sewn on. a silk-worm. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. superbire. BUGLE Tentennino. to frighten scarecrow. to bellow. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Same as buffle. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. of bugabo was given. is very common. well as the terrific object. swollen. . a beetle. Fl. then a horn for drinking. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. to origin in the expression bugs words. protuberant. bogle. to bellow. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. larva (a bug-bear. quos what produces dread or disgust. Swelling.. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. tumble-bug. bug-bear. iv. an object of terror. Swiss booggen. booggen. bau (Pureiglia. bwgwl. I. 2. bogk. bwg and E. pujalo. and in Lat. Sp. The w. bugbear. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. vermin. W. bauginti. Schmidt. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. bogil bo (e. : no BUG . tion of the beetle tribe. Magy. especially to beetles or winged insects. bogil. worm. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. the black a maggot. 3. — boogg. Hence bugle-horn. fierce. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. w. great or bug words. E. language any kind of insect. boo. Bug. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. roarHal. Serv.Fr. used in the same sense.— . high-sounding words. a misshapen person. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. the word is lin) bbgge. fear. a bug-bear. Cheval de trombugti. Sw.

Pm. it again. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth.d. I. chest. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. and put it home. the contents of the hold. boss of shield. a dint in a metal . bulkaf. . bouge. Palco. of an inflated skin. ' . Gr. bulle. blister.' Fl. principal portion. beuck. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bole. balg. Lat. See how this tode bolneth. a bulb Du. The Walach. bulbe. inhabit. ON. a round bulky body bwlgan. unevenness Sw. . byli. knot in thread. to break bulk. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. hull of a ship. Dan. bulbe. swell. belgr. Pm. bolnyn. PoXj3a. OSw. swell. swell. the body Du. bale. stuffed bag. OSw. In the representation of natural sounds.' Cot. ball. vulva. For the latter sense ' — My . bo. It. on. . the head of an onion. To Build. . knob. body of an animal. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. cultivate. cumulus. . bwlg.). skin bag. bulge or convex part of a cask. See bollekeii next article. bulbus. w. bolgna. bubble. boss of a buckler.— . ne. trunk of the body. snorting on a bulk. crowd. balgs. a lump or mass. projection. herd^ swarm pulkd. and bulbukd. belly Cat. bolso. bilge. bol. Dan. bulk. blister. the carcase. G. to bubble up Pol. to belly out. or bear out as a full purse. or feminine termination gives Bav. bubble. bol. husk. m um Placentiae. bulk or capacity of anything. balcone. . or. Lith. Bourser. in vessel. womb. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. to bol. Muratori. van loock. to gather. . . to blow. anything prominent. a tuberous or bulbous root . belly. a. . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. MHG. the potato G. bulgen. Ptg. skin flayed whole. pod ON. a straw corn-vessel. Boss^. as water beginning to boil bolg. wallet. as it was merly written in English to bylle. or cargo of a ship. Bav. bulcke.'— Cot. Kil. at riufa bulkann. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bug. Gr. pocket. a bubble. to undo the cargo. balg. lump.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. bellows builgean. hold or bilge of a ship. The addition of a dim. to raise a habitation. bugue. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. compare Da. . the capacity or burden of a ship.' Anat. body. Sp. G. bouk. tumeo. a bubble Gael. a heap. ' . the position of liquids in the word In English. bua. skin of an animal. the womb. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. puff. Lat. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bullka. bukr. to build. . also the bunt or hollow of a sail. a protuberance. bauch. knob. bulked or bumped out. buhe. to bubble up. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. . thorax buick. bladder. 1388. bubbling up. blow. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. — — . to throw out a convexity. belly. Mister. and N. bolgan. straight will he 2. belgja. of E. leather sack. boa. blister Manx bolg. boss. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. swollen. From till. tumidus. bol. Bolke or hepe. acervus. Pr. . — Bulb. . ON. bunch or projection. A — ' — Bulk. knobby. belly. bauen. — — . Here stand behind this bulk. whence bylja. bolle. bulgen. pouch builgeadh. (3oX|8oc. globule bolg-lhuingey. trunk. dial. bag. Pr. lump. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bulwis. bulki. bulka. buk. Othello. turgeo bolnyd. in bulk. Lith. See Bulk. gebolgen. boss. — . liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Hence e. biilken. head . bulk is a partition of boards. a leather sack or budget Fr. ^ — . mass. bed of a river. the belly. a water-bubble). Mandeville. to swell. balco. a. belly Sw. pulkas. or of what is shaped like a bubble. a leathern sack or portmanteau. a globe. . as well as is very variable. were a habitation. He found a country fellow dead drunk. jnake bulch. mass. Bulk. to swell.' Festus. in Sc. Melancholy. bulne. bulg. villa. boulge. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. ' . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. Hal. trunk. belly van de kerche. to puff up bolginn. . to spring. bolle. With these must probably be classed ON.' Palsgr. — . belly. bubble. domicilium. buc. hollow. bolgia. bubble {palgan tiisge. bolgetta.pulks. be protuberant. belly. Jno. — — . bolg. formed a farm. has bulbuk. G. bulge or bilge. pimple. a bunch. Lett. habitaculum. The radical sense is shown in Russ. sedes. a prominence. body of a ship . a stage or scaffold. Bulge. Bulch. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. swollen OE. .

dim. a hornet. many to protuberant objects. from baula. whence Mod. G.D. spirits. bullebak. a tadpole . Bullfrog. stamp. See Bowl. Gold or silver uncoined. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. ON. 2. and thence terror. balgeting. bulloi.. billoti in Fr. of the ox kind.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. hhint. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. round glass phial. It. a seal. . to tical with Sw. b2iggaboo. a blockhead. any embossed work. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. See Billet. from Fr. Fr. bellocier. — A tition in a ship. to seal. leraures nocturni nigri. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. Sp. bugbear. and vellon in Sp. embossed work. any great-headed or studded nail.D. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. from the noise. scarecrow. of Witchcr. — Fl. but is more probably iden- palchetto.. in N. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. it is boulet de canon. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. from the Lat. in the sense of base metal. bollar. thick. Scot's Deso. it may be observed that a bullet in E.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. baula. a bull. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bal. Dan. penbwl. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. poli-cheannan. however. is called a ball. bole or trunk of a tree. a bulox polos. /SouWivu. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. w. bouillon. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. stamped money. a framework of balks. assito. It. a beam or rafter. bollon. bubble. bwbach. 3. bolos Fr. as in E. A papal rescript. of boule. And The word bullerbak. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. bauli. The male W. beams or boards. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. lumpheaded . is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. which may probably be the origin of the name. N. from Lat. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. to emboss . bullern. a bull Swiss bullen. The wild plum. as the ornanails. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . a stud. a tadpole. pwl. G. bulle. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. as a mill-dam or the like. bolli. Pm. BulUiead. the matrix or die . Du. bwlas. bouillon. This word is used in several senses. pimple. blunt.' do not go by the dangerous water. a bowl. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. boulct. — — Bull. boss or stud. A lace tree. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. The final element tergeist. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. also a parFl. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Du. large. Fr. poltern. The bullfrog. w. coarse. a little fish nearly all head. &c. ba. large of its kind. Bullet. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. polten. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. I. to boil. 2. bolli. G. Bully. poll-cheannach. as geting. bietebau. Bullbeggar. bwla. bulla. bollos de relieve.lle de fusil. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. a bul-begger.. elves. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. Pl. also of the tadpole or young frog. Cot. i. from the use of the equivalent terms. Bret. bulk.Fris. dial. G. bolla. Bullace. as It. pollach. witches. the seal affixed to the document. Gael. bulke. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. a scare-bug. bulla. boss. brass-headed nail . Terriculamentum. BuUiou.Gr. bulderen. a cow. signifying roaring.D. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. a noisy violent fellow. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. stud. Lith. billon. sloes. bulk of a thing. a wasp. stud. a hobgoblin. to bellow. a seal.'— ' Palsgr. lumpish. is of a class with Pl. bullocks. bellow. bullus. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. blister. tition of deals instead of a wall. bullos. Eullrusli. biitzibau. whence bullire. boillon. a hobgoblin. on the contrary. urchens. Du. eth and frighteth. Du. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. stupid . to bubble.. W.

hum. up was termed monnaie de billon. 'lega. To bum. The cry of the bittern. Kil.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. or work of defence. bomtnen. Du. debacchari. argentum and silver. 9 E. Bum. bommele. buller-bas. furious man. to dun. Du. a noisy blustering fellow. minari verbulderen. Kiittner. — — plate d'argent. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. perturbare saevis dictis. John). c. For bottom. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. bulderen.' Stat. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. beat a — Hal. polterer. to terrify by noise and clamour. D. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. The Stat. bolderen. — Bumto . Philip le Bel in Due.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Kil. buller-bak. Bum-bailiff. 4 Hen.' agger. violent overbearing person. ierd-boeyme. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . by corruption boulevart. Sw. boulevard. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. clamour. vallum. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. botm. To bum. From the notion of a humming.' reals of standard currency. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. boisterous fellow. blunder-buss. provides. 1687). blunder-buss.D. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. to make a droning Du.the ramparts.. The 27 Ed. 2. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. AS. To bully is to bluster. Etym. a stage. Fris. sound. A. c. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . bol-werck. and porter au billon. IIL st. intonare. buene. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. scaffold. a floor. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Thus ' ble. bastion. — Bump. Hence — . It.' Again. propugnaculum. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. is bullion — A — buller. a bumble-. The Sw. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. 2.. but now is the central part of the town. 10. boene. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. 2. — bombam?nen. provides. block-werck. droning. to drum Lat. to . blaterare. 14. Fris. G. G. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. III. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Hal. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. bustle. a boisterous. c. noise. primarily the ramparts of a town. &c. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. buller-jaan (bully. un faux brave. bottn. buller-bas. a. from boden. poltem. Miege in Hal. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. resonare. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. bombilare.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. on the other hand. the soil. honunele. Fr.d. — Boom. BULLY with which coins were stamped. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. bodem. is called bumping or bells. Hence bom and ban. Bully-rock.D. Bully. To Bum. baluarte. ^i^/«. then in general a rampart. 1305. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. Bailey. a blunderhead. ground. legaggio di metallo.' ' mettre au billon. The decried coin. ^Bully-rook. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. buller-brook. G. ierd-beame. violent. biihne. to make a noise . In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. a hectoring. St. ON. agrees with e. IV. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. or a humblebee. bottom.' for the purpose of exchange. Du.

Bung^. knob or heap. a bump. bottom. A clumsy. awkward clown. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. large. He buncheth me and beateth me. Mrs Baker. binge. blain. E. Gael. bunki. poumpi. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Thus e. . — stalk . Probably for bun-boot. Pl. il me pousse. a wallet. to swell out E. —Bunny. one ever saw the word in that shape. bunkc. noise. bottom bun feoir. bugno. inconsiderately. Bumsen. bune or boon. Kyx or bunne. a bag or sack. also for taking a pilot to a ship. a button. Sc.— Pr. — — — — ' — knock. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. . a bunch. Fr. stock. bund. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. banga.— Bunnion. a rabbit. bull. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Hal. knochen. to . pompon. Holland and Flanders. abrupt manbuns-wise. See Boss. Pl. especially girls. hay stubble . bunga. Related on the one side to Pl. a bowl P1. Manx bonkan. a swelling from a blow. buns. nor would it concern the public if he did. lungeous. ner. protuberance..D. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). 1. . Gael. Bony. E. Then. H. to knock . bonge. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a boss Lith. round mass of anything. a tail (Macleod). foundation w. pumpurras. a Sp. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Ir. w. gibber. butt end. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Dan. Bun. — round fruit.S. and related with ON.D. a dry No . to beat. bunan. a knob. bunny. root. trunk. Pm. . seems to unite Gael. calamus. stock. Bunch. dial.' he fell with a bang. bunka. signifying one who does things in a thumping. . a very wide boat used by fishers in S. a knock. to bang down. Bumboat. bungersome.' Palsgr. a bunch Magy. . bun with ON. Bunch. should probably be a short tail. bonnock. bmike. He fult dat et bunsede. bulse. bum-boot. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. pwmpio. Again. S. bmidt. . bu<rnone. to thump. so the form btmk. hdk passing and E. a knob. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Fl. bumsen. bunnion. a lump on the foot bunny. a boil or blain. Dan. to bang.). bottom. mto Sp. bun. an old stump of a horse. a heap or cluster. &c. from knock) It. w. bump. Bumpkin. . On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Forby. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. root. . are dim. E. any round knob or bunch. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Sc. poumpido. stem or base. It. stump. bulscha. a hemp-stalk. lump.D.' Bun. a heap. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. bunsen. the Pr. Bump. Hal. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . a pocket Sw. . a. bolsa. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a heap OSw.-^Fl.P. bunke. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. from bunsen. a boil (punkos bot. . the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. a dried hemp-stalk. pumpa. Li cake. Bunewand. as we have seen E. to ' . clown. throw down with a bang. bunt. Daal bu7iseti. . cluster. a purse . A Du. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. to bang ON. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bunga. callus. Fr. a person employed to dun one for a debt. — — Bun. to beat. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. explaining E. Probably from bump. bundle. a round mass . a knob . banke. OSw. a into Dan. tundo. while bulch was traced through Gris. a heap. bugnone. Hal. bon.^Cot. Pm. dial. applied to young persons. Radically identical with Dan. a bud. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. gibbus. See Bounce. ! — knocking. Suffolk bonnka. bunch— Hal. or grete knobbe. — — de dor bunsen. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Bums it's hit. stalk. See Bunch. Pm.D.! . stubble of beans. bongie. strapping. a large .. Hal. boi7ieog. or to the mass by which it is given. To bam. a rabbit. knuckles. pwmp. awkward. pompette. to . lenten loaves. the tail of a hare. bugnet. . a. botn. — Marine Diet.pummel. a hump. and signifies consequently a mass. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a swelling. bung. Moor. strike E. Bunk. stump. Pr. stubble Manx bun. any round knob or bunch. pwmpl. — — Bun. bugno. a pumpion or gourd. truss E. bignet. bannock. Hence E. a heap Wall. Lang. Bang sen. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. clumsy. . bunken. a knotty stick) Sw. as in other cases. bans. bulto. bamgetroffen. Roding. bonuach. passes Sw. bun eich. bumtel. Du. forms.

to stop. tapp (whence tceppa. tinker . the bung of a barrel Lim. noise. to push. OFr.punt. Sw. a water bubble made by rain. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. with the head. gyves. bourjon. to in to stop the hole. To bunt. to resound. — . bourguignote. Hal. A Dan. bommen. bolting-cloth. or tuft. shackles. bongun. the float of an bundle. Johansen. on. . OG. bury. the loose open grow big about or gross. Bunt. to hum. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. however. bunsen. bag to catch the wind. burion. reddish brown. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. are from bouscfie. byrthen. bouchon. modem bummle. bundle. or putting forth of a vine. ho-tapp. Sp. on. The Italian buio. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. stocks or such OSw. a sort of helmet. knocking. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. or used as a receptacle for papers. do a thing bunglingly. dial. the middle part of it. Sw. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. to work ineffectually. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. Prov. bondeau. to knock. Fr. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. klimpem. a botch. and van t' vat. unskilful working. bang. driving in the bung. . Fr. to work at carpentry bangan. Compare G. to knock. knock. borboUar. la Borgonota. Fr. AS. is originally a wisp or bunch . racket. banghagr. . ' — work . bond. and now more Bailey. to stop. clogs. Burganet. to hum. ghebundte. Burly. bang. The Magy. buove. whence in bure. . N. bon. a bunch. G. buret. a drum . A bubble. the young cloth used for sifting flour. bonde. bunta.D. also a piinple in the face. the stopper of a cask). To Bunt. Burden. anchor or of a net boyar. Cot. bundel. Lat. tap. to pype. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bondon. Bret. E. to bolt meal. bondel-loos. Sp. B. a cork. * Buoy. and bomme. a boye. Biu'geon. knocking. . to bungle. stilmpern. a wisp of hay or straw. to push with the head del. to gingle. dark. Pl. punishments for prisoners. — Bureau. Sp. The word is flags are made. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. bonde. The belly or hollow of a sail. See Borel. boil or bubble up. byndel. bangla. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. The stopper for the hole in a boia. from beran.' Festus in Diez. the noise of drums. generally known as the material of which bud. an anchor buoy. stiimpeln. to kick. dark grey bura. Burble. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . banga. Sp. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. boya. See Barbarous. bondir. Russ. tinkle. a bungler. B. burboloti. to Somerset is to sift. Bundle. Bunny. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Bung of a tonne or Lith. — — . So in Pol. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. loosed from bonds. bangla. buret. that the primitive meaning of shackle . clumsy performance. working in wood (especially with an axe). Fr. dial. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. bongani. and Du. whence bunting. to push ghebondte. russet. coassatio et Du. to bear. fetters. bourion. something bound together (Mrs Baker). The Fr. a bunch Burbulas. See Bun. rumble as the bowels. to botch. fascis. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. to float. to strum on an instrument. properly a Burgundian helmet. A load. in is Fr. bounta. klempern. was formerly pronounced buro. Banff. buie. halm-tapp. and E. G. So Du. bou^e. See Bourdon. OFr. p. colligatio. a bung. Burden. bungande. contignatio. and the Sw. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO.Fris. AS. boei. Prov. racket . 202. to stnmi on an instrument. guggle as water. bouche. bimge. Fl. bove. bote. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. — — To Bungle. to gingle. of a song. Bunting. sprig. Kil. to cobble. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. to bud forth. boucher. bummle. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Palsgr. biirde. To do anything awk- wardly. shove . especially in wood. bundt. — btiruii. bindini. Rietz. bondelj bundell. to shove. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Cat.— . bui. to hum. To burgeon. Bung. boj. Du. Muratori. borgonota. dicimus rufum. bourgeon. Sw. It.

Burgess. is termed burling.Ps. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. from the roaring sound of flame. 122. jest of. Supp. brun. water. burle of cloth.. Lang. dial. bouril. like. an edge. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. Bav. See Burgeon. a wine skin. to fiy. The Gael.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Fl. bears. E. swell up or strout out. Cot. compared with G. OE. brandung. brase. from bryii. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. ' rugiens. Walach. flocks. a knob. brynsten. borracka. Sp. with little iron nippers called burling irons.bryna. buirleadh. to ridicule. angular . Antiq. is connected with brim. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. to roar. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. to sharpen on a whetstone. Burler. brustle. to puff up borr^ . pressa puret. . As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. big. bunch. bremmen. tahkoa. grancelli. burly. Burly. sicut sound. Hence Bridel. Schm. from Lat. embraser.sharpen. a spring a robber. brunir. laer. must be explained on the same principle from G. bururus. brunnr. watery. schleiffen. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. brunnen. Todd. as of suggests. which has given much trouble to etymologists. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. thence. Fr.. to To Bum. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. an &c. knob. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. brinnen or Also ein roar. It is probable indeed that Fr. to tell lies. A — — . — . to rub. In the manu. to grind on a whetstone. boure. ample of polishing metal. Probably. to Gael. explaining Sp. Compare also Piedm. bururus. leo Fin. Castrais bourril. brustolare. crackle wood in burning Hal. abourioner. roguing beggars. has also borr.' a jibe. In the same way ON. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. brima. to swell oneself out as birds borras. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. fire. tumentum. bourglairs. toast. to polish. a jest. ii6 BURGESS Gael. as the / in purl. i5«r4 biiirte. ^ttsa. become big and proud. ridicule.' Cot. broil. sea. Pren7ien. G. burgensis. lerre. Lang.. purling. bourou. and OG. and the Burin. Gael. OFr. brimmen. Burgh. . warbling. Goth. a blaze. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. borrelen. de Vaud. brasa. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. a prominent eye borracka. borujon. Nat. — — . to roar 5.j'own.). burgi latro. tahko. borr. the word seems Pm. a margin. burgeois. he rustle. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. and Dan. Pm. a well.ireui£r:e. to roar. joking. to roar (as lions. So also Sw. to hum. ends of thread. . singe or scorch with fire. brinii. Burgher. BURNISH i5«r/. borni. Dief. brusler being a faulty spelling. to roar. See under Bore. Burlesque. mockery. — — . burren. See Berough..). brausen. a bladder. Fl. It. pur (see Burgeon). a purling hiwe brennen. the er is a dresser of cloth. with Dan. — .or bubbling up. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. to bourda. j. Sw. repartee . sbornoi. language of folly or ridicule. robber. to burgen or wax big. A burl. it of the knots. Bret. OE. condemnentur morti. as in cousteau. brAler. — — . blow. to burn. 56. bourd. purra. G. — Han to bruser op. to make a So from Fin. A legal term from the Lat. . boura. born. Bestiary. a jest. Bav. to swell. de Vaud. ON. Burglar. &c. to surge.— Pr. burgen. tion of the root which gave the OE. brook. lorra. taunt. brunna. From the same root E. It. N. The primary origin of the word. to murmur. It. bruse. to effervesce. Swiss Rom. and the Burnish. Fr. is an Thus G. Bouffer. to give an edge to. purrata. Prov. protuberance. a bubble. boiirre. sidiary element. the J in OFr. Burn. to polish. a fountain. burlare. surge or dashing of the sea . a gurgling ^. swelling borr-shuil.— . Sw. to polish helmets. to roar. the roaring surge of the — — — . occupying much space. See Burr. to bouronna. a lie. Swiss Rom.. explaining the E. Probably a modifica. in Schm. spring-water bumach. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. to swell with pride. bruzir. OFr. the flocks. bud or sprout forth. a bubble to spring as water. Pr. to bud . barrel. ends of thread. brinna.). to sharpen. brim or edge of anything. to burn. to puff. to ridicule. Limousin bourdo. to have acquired the sense of polishing. briis^. Burryn. to set on fire. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. ^Notk. burn. Fr. like the wind in trees. From Fr. like straw or small . The in. a bud. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. fires up. a whetstone. as Diefenbach bud.

In a met. Fr. dial. Du. bur. brest. britar. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. burial place. a harness or collar maker) . S w.' edge grew weak. bris. to bury . verbergen. borsa. root borr. Burser.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. 2. briketo. With a slightly different ghen. ber•whirr to whizz. . a sepulchre chreoburgium — . leather. byrstan. Dan. In OE. to hide. brjota. fortify. keep. an annular swelling. a sepulchre. AS. birigean.— . Burr is related to buzz as protect. brist. any kind of quilting or stuffing. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. dial. as in Northumberland. Burrow. a port. of a body hurled through the air. cwning-gaer. Swiss burren. G. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. beurs. ON. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. an exchange. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. pipaa. brisd. straw. whence Kil. briso. casting bullets. ptcrren. borre.' Harris in Todd. Burse. a rabbit burrow. idiom if 4. 5150. 225. brittle. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. Mid.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. brown. bolgia. but it is more probably a development of It. a. borre. from whence we pass through Sp. coo. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. Hence Fr.. caer is a — — — ' ' : . be more in accordance with AS. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. from Fr. Du. — Translated by Kemble. also ' any such trash as chaff. also all such stuff as hay. husks. Fris. Bursar. ' ' — — burren. byrigels. See Burgeon. a purse. byrgels. bersten. skin. makes the disbursements of the college. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. OHG. talk fast and indistinctly. byrgan. burra. any rapid whirling biarga. brico. tomb. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. signifying protrude. to save. Gael. swell. Beowulf. to stuff. burgisli. barza. brokil and brotil. birgan. borrow. Sexy. and met.Lat. stuffing. bristeach. a morsel. . brickie. Jam. bourse. the — — castle or fortress. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. save. bergen. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. as for the protection of a child's head. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. Brun on bane. Sw. Fr. bris. when they spring So in W. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. karborre. a purse. hair. force. a pad. brist. &c. E. bristen. that birds make their nests with. A rabbit burmotion. cover.' The same word with burgh. g. perruque. beorgan. shelter. to hide . purr. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. Port. from AS. bur. — Clare. byrgen. -burse. the officer who bears the purse. mentioned under Burgeon. To Burst. preserve. blurra. and. whirr. to break. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. borsia. G. See Bulge. To Bury. a wallet or scrip. shuffling. borra. bolsa to It. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . impetus. Sw. preserve. It. ON. bourrer. moss. borsa. a place of defence. OHG. to mutter Sw. Fr. I. of England. prsnuti. and spelling. ' BURR AS. some people in pronouncing the letter r. iii. brista. to buzz. i5(7&a. brast. as from Sp. buscha. . Burr. and thence flocks 'of wool. Hal. bourrelet. brizeto. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. appears under the Lang. -Grisons bulscha. explained E. The root forms brik. It. bourlet. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. This word seems safety. bres- — tan. &c. brittle. Shelter. as it is still pronounced in N. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. bourse. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. shales. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. brisdeach. ultimately resting on the Gael. briser. whirr and burr. chips or anything else Fl. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. burre. Burse. berstan. byrsa. Burial. to P'air. break . its own protection. foretell great storms at 3. birr. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. bourre. AS. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. shearing of cloth. a barn or cupboard. brit. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. to burst. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Compare also OE. peluca to Fr. borra. Cot. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr.

roquies.' The word is explained by — — . dead. barsc in Heimskringla. defence. buysschen. tuft.Lat. qualster-boscken. lump. to dress. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. preserve. Brunne. or the like. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. basse. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. ' . the past participle of the same verb bua. Bush. The radical idea is seen in Goth. To prepare.gur bidst austur um EySascog. Fris. BUSH hreaw. thicket {buski. See Bust. Sibriht that I of told. whence bouchon. abdere. Sc. Du. bouche. to swell. a tuft of hair. tow. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. Thus Froister . bramble. boucher. boistel. bua. bossen. buskr. : — . a clot of phlegm sart. bairgan. brodequin tout noir. 2. ' . and he cites wisp bauschen. verb. bush. In to Brutaine. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. aheap of stones. whence at bua sik. besom). .— ' ii8 {chreo. buxida. a gun biichse. a grove bosch van haer. Sw. AS.) to hide in the ground. a hump. bossida. boisseau. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . to prepare. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. a bush. Du.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Du. a -tavern bush. a bunch.boisteau. wisp. . and from the Fr. Prov. rad. bussel. bausen. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. a box. borseof trees. busse. to bury. 410. bush. G. ieorh. make ready. OFr. bo7ich (Fr. bulge. is thus accounted for. So from Fr. to direct one's course towards. mount. ' . To Busk. a corpse). buxula. a box. a troop. Bouchet. sur une litifere. we have Fr. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. a rampart. thicket of thorns . by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. bunch. ch). Layamon. box wood to bush. which would later have truast. oneself. a bush. Brunne. protect . for at buasc. at buast. Malberg. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. as boun is simply buinn. AS.' a box. diminutives. beorgan. a bundle. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. whente beorg. bosch (a diminutive ?). from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out.' The buskin is said Bret. to bow. They busked and malced them boun. —Busk. grapes. biichse. boxta. bussare. Le roy Richard mort. burial mound. Sir Tristram. in OE. Bush. boissa. R. . OFr. induere vestes . busk. The word frequency with which to busk is used. bussellus. It. as synonymous with to inake one boun. a tuft guini. The primary sense of hair .-^Bushel. bousIn the other copy ser. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. then a tuft Sp. from the ON. brake. hjul-bosse. bustellus. brodiquin. bousche. fiast. van wijnbesien.Lat. to turn.P. . Mid. The bone in a woman's stays. and not directly (as Du. to keep. borghen. bosta. gave Lat. -idis. Harold G. buxta. a bunch of twigs. the idea of knocking. a box for measuring corn. a been written buasc. And her ful sone tuft. apparently a secondary verb. knot. bousse. projection. clusprobably Morocco leather. It. to sepulchre. the Moors and of Morocco. and thence Mid. borcegui. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. ' . in the For Skirnis . a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. occultare K. condere. a tuft. il fut couch6 l^jkema). bundle * Buskin. truasc.' sheath. to stop. . a wisp. and we actually find bushel. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. boiste. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. cluster. iriCtf -ifoe. bosc. to dress. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. bulk. basse. Thence byrigean. 'at bua sik. to enclose in a case or box. busken. or — Busk. Fr. signifying to entomb. at bua sig. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. bundle. ' —P. barst. . hunch Du. that the lend had lorn thorn. to forest of Eyda. a tuft. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bustula. to bend one's steps. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. Ptg. a little box Dan.fiasc. Gr. bos. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. See Box. the land. berghen.

a blow. to bustle. vessel employed in the herring fishery. kiss. Comp. employment bisgan. buta. Gael. . beezig. Hence probably au-tarda. busc. outard. biseg. Prov. I go strepo) . body. ViM. bacio. . A great sluggish fowl. the point of a lance. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. bust. also a It. love gestures. 7o\. ship Sp. — — — — It is like the smouldering. lump. abotarda. So Wes- terwald munds. bulk. buc. body . — hardly be distinct from Fr. Fl. a bush. a kiss. ON. Sp. brostia as well as bostia. Cot. Port. a bunch of flowers . Prov. Fr. Fr. 2l box. outarde. To hurry or make a great B. Sp. to occupy. a Mid. to knock . windbutsch. beso. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. box. as in ON. Bulch. bist. sera. a busk. austarda. and then with avis again prefixed. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). arbor ramis trunGloss. worn to make the body straight .D. statue of the upper part of Fr. a log. a kiss. the long. borcegui. ON. Buss. a projection. Busk. or avutarda. body without arms and legs. 1372. hipista. a kiss of reverence. bisgung. made stiff. ottarda. mohedairova. brut. as in moharra from harbe. occupied bezigen.). a kiss. chest. of a doublet. buc. Hal. business. body of a woman's dress It. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. See Boss. bu. bus. knock. The Prov. kupata. Lang. bustla. trunk of Cot. sunt quas Hispania aves . The form brust. says. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . putta. trunk. I bustle. also a flagon. buquer. its slowness of flight. A A busquer (Sigart). Bust. avuDiez. AS. buc. Fris. an ostrich. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. bnist. stump. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. I. Business. To Bustle. 22. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Bustard. work. in Diaz Gris. mouth. Du. lips. busto. a bulk or trunk without a head. Namur — Champagne Fr. ' BUSY 2. trunk of a tree. to make use of. thick end. Fr. butz.d. trunk. Busy. Pol. signifying trunk of a the body. bisg. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir.— . A wisp. — Thus we should have mocherqui. Box. On the other hand. mouth. snout. mogangas from gonj. would explain the G. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. The proceedings of Parliament. Walach. and by transposition morchequi. Lat. Fr. geidha.' ON. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. busq. putschen. besoigAe. bysgje. 1555. the breast. inde discurro et operosus sum. fe^a. of the human body (Grandg. biist. a tree. busche. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. or Cherqui. a ship of some size. 2. bukr. 10. stem. stump. Prov. a fishing vessel. to Swab. bruskras well as buskr. ^A. — — difications of the same word. busch. morsequi. Sp. a blow. baiser. A large bird of the gallinaceous order.bezig. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. tuft.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. abutarda. log . but. lip. Edrtst. a great billet Cot. kiss. Bust. busch. buyse. representing a blow. bussa. otarda. 119 bi{tr. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. Nained from Proximse iis zia. plated body or other quilted thing. Cat. utarda. besongne. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. — . corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. brusc. bus. tarda. forest. Sw. betarda. bussen. btcc. bysgian. With respect to bust. the trunk. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid.> Also written buskle. body of garment. smack. Lindenbr. also a busk.Lat. lip. a boat or small vessel . pussa. stir. Swiss butschen. to make a splash in the water. bus and Pol. busta. ' bistardej It. — clattering about. the body without arms busque.pjik. mons. basiuin. a large cljest or particular applibox. BUSS Dozy from Arab. crack . a bust. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. small. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. forms morseqiiill. and also a sounding blow. a backstock. Busitiess :c3iVi . So in Fin. or chest in which the vitals are contained. especially of a woman's dress. a stroke of wind. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. B. I. bucha. bisegung. an affair. Xerqui. bust. and supposes that the common Arab. a mouth.' Plin. Bav. occupation. mosequin. buz. body. Rouchi. cata — . a. body of a man. knock. from jnund. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. busy.

we find ben. . wooden receptthing to be done. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. the store of ten. biitait slaughterer of goats . beccaro. "PLT) . a baiTel . without care. bouteillier. is well explained by Tooke. skin-bag. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . an outlaw from bouche. a wooden cask. boteria. bag. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. a leathern bag. Fr. original sense of without. collection of casks. Sp. also a hollow vessel . a budget.' ' write. Sp. a butcher. except.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. a cask. beccaria. large barrel. bitlga. But when will you pay it ? the belly. the body of an animal. OFr. But In Sc. be out. calf. boquier.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. the name must have arisen before the within. which the word corresponds to the Fr. then hoUow trunk. buta. bute. the bottles. — . able. hull of a ship. belly. butan ce. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. a barrel. the full expres. bouz. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. ' There is leathern bottle. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. from as. without buiten-man. bolgia. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done.' — — ' . a goat. ox. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. from boc. — we acle for liquors. the mouth). a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Fr. by the mode in which he is treated. and with It. Du. belly. are. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . a butchery. the Perhaps besogne — . tinction between but. bodifie. similar train of thought is seen in ON. a small winebag. the principal apartment. is put in a class by himself. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. . earthen which the debtor has adverted. a bottle. Whatever is in addition to Butler. the body of a tree or of a man. and bot. Buttery. young mais. moreover. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. slaughter-house. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. bocin. the belly. bhcciero. G. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. bounds of. rotundity of the body. to-boot. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. viz. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. If that where now we should compiler. the servant in charge of the original object.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. beyond the Piedm. bous. Lang.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. (children) boc. equivalent of AS. botija. ont jhi^ton. bole of a tree. but one thing. mais. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bout. being wholly unten. Butcher. a goat (and not besides .jamin. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. Tooke's dis. besides that . hollow case. bolr. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. as Pantler.streets. rumpf. Lang. botilla. bola. So in Italian from becco. The E. calf of the ' say. the trunk or body of an animal. the present day we should say. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. without the house kept in bottles. bountifully._ bitten j biiten door. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. or what in in charge of the pantry. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. those in beccaio. gives at least two pounds sterling. It.' Thus Chaucer says. Butler. belly. without punishment .in which his brethren are included. bol. Wall. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke.The Sp. outside that moreover. AS. As a conjunction but is in every portion. butan. and the real origin of the and within . body of a shirt w. of the wine and drink. viz. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . barriga. sup- meat and drink. botte. bitten dai. ' Besides all that. Prov. properly a butan wite. without. bochier. A A . Fr. boucher. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. Sp. a butcher . ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. in addition. my is called the adversative use of but. ways. trunk. bisgung. add. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. binnan. But It. Ben-house. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Butt.' there is really a negation to be supplied. the jug and in E. Where at an earthen jar . boccino. that which would be translated by Fr. the precise correlative of but. Here the but implies the existence of an. without law. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. beta.

a heap of merly called pushes. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. nourrissons. Kil. boutis. but this is probably from Fr.. Fr. To Butt. a stroke di animal. to butt. So in English pimples were fora clod. a. submit shaking up salad sauce. ment being supposed to resemble butter. caput scapula bout van f been. a scope. See Butler. Butter. lams-bout. to touch at the end. * Buxom. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. the rosebud. or person Schmeller . as rejeton. a barrel. bouter. — — — — . tout seat or breech. to cast. Gr. Du. of the present day. fowl. boter-vogel. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . W.rejected thing. but. a dle . stump. . so as to make a sounding blow. butte. a little push . Fr. botte. Gael. from bugan. to thrust. — . give way. nursling. butteln. any short thick thing. Butter-glass. of E. to throw . obedient. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . e.. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. bodi'. buttare. to thrust. Fr. buttern. Cot. obeto shake backwards and forwards. i. Fr. as in G. Fris. what is kept in a blow. clunis.arbre. Btetter-schmalz. trapu.putan. any small projection. : . hillock . a stump or club foot. a button. bot blijven staan. large head. buttock of beef is called butr. and the true derivation boar. able that Chaucer.thum and not button. The word body itself seems identical with G. buhsom. both. Button. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. end . as if from Povg. To strike with the head bags. pied. The Bavarian potig. From the noise of drinkables in a house. pwtiaw. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Buttock. boteria. thrust. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. the prick in the middle of a target. humble. thrust forwards. a leg of mutton.' thick from shaking. are the strips at the edges of the field. on. From Du. a wall butor butt on. fle>(ible. &c. at. &c. G. bout.against another which needs support . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. to push earth . a corner horses' hoofs. Du. w. the edge forwards. bodi. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Schmell. tress. butt. Schmell. a boss. Kil. a large belly. Buttress. A — — — . a buttrice. from bouter.to push. having a rotundity . gigot. boding. from stossen. potacha. bot. butter. butyrum. R. to boult flour. stump of a tree Fr. rabodd. bout. Mur-buttant. a but in the W. a thrust the thigh-bone. botta. to heap up earth or ihrust. boter-vliege. a flying buttress. bouton. then the thigh or leg of an to push . coxa. bud. to abut on. a button. the trunk. a ribbed glass for dient. in the R. waste ground. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. a tub. povrvpov. the thigh of a goose. Fr. Buttery. the Butter-fly. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Grandg. butt. oir spike with a k coup . Boutje. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. — A . is formed the augmentative buttatich. short thick thing pimple. Perhaps corrupted Lat. a cask. to bow. boil. put. Halma. bouton. to be con. botto. . a button. Lang. a bolt. thick. the thick end. a boss. suddenly . — . W. an etwas anstossen. Du. poke. -ez. Hal. dripping. Buttel-triib. Fr. To come full butt against a butts. a blow. bottich. a blow. bot. from rejeter. bottig. Bav. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. bata. to thrust Fr. a bot. boutoir. . to thrust. butter un. from the large knobbed head of botto. botten. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. bott. buttals. bothog. From Grisons biitt. botwm. butt of a person. bouter. Bout van het schouderIt. Sp. an ox. Du. — A . courtaud. leg of lamb. boter-schijte. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. An erection built up as a Fr. to blad. clumsy . a buttress Cot. Fr. to so close to the Fr. Du. signify a cask or tub. AS. Hal. It. a bun. a hill. to thrust . striking end. a. the store of while bottich. Kil. from notirrir. Buttrice. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Bav. or or shore post. Gris. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. butt. a mound of turf in a field to sup. a mound. butte. Boutant. bocgsuin. to femur. butter.— BUTT leg . botta. nourrisson. buter. to strike. boiUer. pwt. to abut a stone roof. grease that sets by merely standing. butz. strike. by boE. geboogsaem. bocsam.

Too used a Foxes Martyrs. a beetle. groat in token of his good heart towards him. train of thought which has become obso. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. as Fr. cow-house. confusedly. Etynj. a meke thynge with — alle. Buzzard. iii. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. a borough. good-humoured one. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. indistinctly. To Buy. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. a buzzard or puttock. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Then applied to speaking low. OE. buso. The ON. to jan. to abie ' rhyme with rigg.. AS. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . Dan. and boxome of speche xviii. Verstegan in R. A ful benygne buirde. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bozzago. bycgan. leges urbanse ON. frabttg- To Buzz. Cabal. 21. favourable. See Abie. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. depends upon a esteem in falconry. lb. . Sw. Goth. . 116. Mercy hight that mayde. bi. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. also say. stall.P. who makes abigg. ii. to purchase for money. Originally the law of a particular town. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. to stand at his side . called Cabala or Tradition. The sense of buxom. buzarg. to wit. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. bei.— P. \s\xy. By-law. CABAL Goth. Du. to buzz. bygge. a by-path is a side path . bugjan. —gracious of speech. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. blessing me with their of side. & Q. G. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). abozzago. and it is of good will. It. to swear with him by . buzac. gracious. bar. from by. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. big. a town. A A We — — — days' wonder. bylag. jus municipii. 3. . as in Da. bi. P. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. It.busardj Prov. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. farm. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour.— Diet. Sw. to sell. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Many good mological explanation. bij. bauhta.. buteoj Fr. to whisper. 519. bees. to pass by. tions by one. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. from whom it was addressed. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. harty prayers and God speedes. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. AS. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. bylove. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. byr. buzzicare.in N. Pecock Repressor. Byre. village. byar-log. ON. town having separate jurisdiction. Lat. 200. and would have been lost in E. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. bohte. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. — 122 BUY P. lete. son. A by. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. byar-rettr. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. favourably to a petition. p.

' Due. a cabbage . Kil. and Ptg. agge. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cabuccio. Sw.Lat. cabulus.ticula. a rope. Du. — the ON. case. caable. cabacho. : — from violence without blood. Du. Sp. The double a in the OFr. deponat a store closet.Gr. forms indi. a covering. E. nasty. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. a rope. geese. cabane. Cabin. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. cadabola. From It. . covering. . vincially used in E. cabbage. as it must have stood in French. Cabbage. cadabula. kakla. capo. whence Lang. mdhaigner. Due. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. Capstan. a headed cole or cabbage . aakkat'a.Lat. Coticesserint Swiss aa. OSp. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. traboccare. Neckam — by the wind. caboche. lactuca capitata. Lat. kakaloH.. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . Lith. Fr. It. head. Very generally used. (ca/coe. or as an interjection of disMod. heady. — . cadabulum. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Tugurium. Castr. kabaSsen. havyar to caviare. capuccio. gatsch. Sp. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. It is remarkable that the Esthon. su/Furari. gaggi. kabas. OFr. signifies down. to hurl in Nat. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. Cabinet. Imitative of the cry of hens. string. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. akista. Choux cabus. manticuKil. as Diez supposes). Fr. cabus. an engine for casting stones. disgusting such an engine was exerted. main. cadabalum. a frail. to strain in such a manner . Common to Lat. to chatter. caable (in legal language). Cot. 'habl. capanna. . as an expression of Gr. and the Arab. a booth or hut. cabre. vile. ckaable. Finn.. a car- We convasare. the Slavonian. hoard together. Etym. giiare. as Turk. dung. —Diet. a rope or cable. maim. prostratio ad terram. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. come the Fr. signifying properly a rope's end. disgust. brassica — capitata. ! — . &c. Cablisb. to keep or Du. aeggi. a jacket Fr. cadabulum. gabardme. Cappa in OSp. .. cacare . cab. — Tarbe. properly windfalls. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. and as we find stones Mid. Mid. Due. overwhelm (Diet. cabasser. . — . Didot. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Ptg. gaggele. It. from trabocco. accablcr. wilful). stercus. agga. Fr. a shed. cdble. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Fr. kabane. headed or cabbage lettuce. cab lis. cacare.. laitue cabusse. aak! tandi like Fr. caables. and Or. a head (whence cabochard. cabo. name of the projectile engine. The name of the engine. is probably unconnected. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. kabat. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. agge machen (in nurses' language). or cadable. originally an Gael. Cot. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. . as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. filth. it would seem fundain children's language. w. To Cabbage. especially shepherd's frock. Gaggle. cable . caqueter. from manganum. — Ibid. cabas. &c. manganare. to crush. cabre. E. dirty.Lat. cabuyskoole. Mid. It. headed. form kactal. surripere. Katr-iT-aKt. dirt and the Fr. chadabula. chaable.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. precisely in the sense of the lari E. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. whence Fr. Item habeat vocant. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . caable. round or great headed. gaban. cables. cabaii. bad. the Prov. has kabbel. a cloak of felt or Cack. would correspond to cable. — Kil. It. Du. overwhelm. in which sense are explained The the OFr. The Sp. OFr. Lang.). disgust cac. for the origin of which see Carabine. calabre. chaable. cabo. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. OFr. Brushwood — — B. Fr. a tunic. band. or rush basket. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. origin is the OFr. to put or pack up in a frail. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. hut. hovel. the bowels. chabla. to hurl down. ceach / exclamation of guages. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. a rope. Mid. To steal or pocket. Antiq. dirty. cabarino. and Finnish lanLat. Celtic. serious injury — In like manner It.

cadenza. Cake. a caFr. calf of leg. kdfich. kolyaska. wretched. To Cajole. * Cade. for green fields. to prate much to little purpose. ' . Lat. pith. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. the lump and the increase. Du. Turk. rattaat (wheels). Calf of the Leg. calesa. taking it Sp. frolicsome kaad mund. a falling. and troublesomely attached to. Lat. roller. cadence. —Atkinson. Mrs B. An open travelling chariot. a wheel. to treat like lime. Due. Calocli. Sw. hot. or colpa na coise. pet lamb. Cot. from the Chinese catty. Calendar. calcis. dead body. a calesh. cadere. calibre. kolyasochka. the bore of a cannon. kolo. Cajol. Fr. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. (in the augm. signifies a waggon. Lat. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. of oxen and similar animals. Sp. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. chaudron. the pith or soft part of wood. Cadaverous. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. of which. Calp is riadh. cage. kalb. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Arab. Calamary. misfortune. to sleek hence a den. See Kiddier. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. ON. caliche. kola. to cackle . chattering. to cage. from calendcE. Calcialate. Calandre. Fr. one unduly indulged by. a wheel . analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. gaggle. &c. a reed. just falling. Calash. a circle. Fr. Cage. N. safe. a car. hot . The Calf. It. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). B. a roller. Lat. prate. It. a wheel . is probably delusive. ever and anon. a fever. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cuttle-fish. Sw. cavea. principal and interest. kat. desire of land. Fr. babbhng. A hooded carriage. In the same way Fin. or smooth Hnen cloth. Roman reckoning. pen Mod. loss. ratas. frisky. a lump or large piece. cageoler. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. an ugly waggon kolaska. cattivo (from Lat. kalem. boy. calendrer. calamus. the pi. Lat. kolasa. kolo. Cot. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. pi. disease of sailors from tivus). From lerie. coop. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. on. chetif. kage. lord. Calc-. an inkstand . A . whence Lat. unruly . Lat. ben- kalf. kukje. a wheel . kolesb. It. Calamity. Lat.— Calliper. Sp. G. a tea-chest. cauldron. a small stone. from calculus. cadet. master. — — — Dan. gabberen is identical with E. gaggia. a dence. chaudiere. Fr. its mother. kolesnitza. Lat. calamitas. caldarius. It. a hollow place. It. to . Pol. a counter used in casting accounts. capCalenture. Du. a vessel for heating water. 124 prattle . — in a kiln. a corpse. hence musical rhythm. to throw themselves into the sea. incolumis.warmth . gabbia. calessa. of the nature of lime to calcine. kdtr. naXaiidpi. Fr. It is another form of the E. KxiKivh^o^. javioler. a loaf of bread. Fr. wanton. kauwe.Gr. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. or prattle. Cauldron. Gael. KaKKat. Originally from a Slavonic source. calentar. bad . * Calibre. It. lime whence calcareous. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. Du. calculo. little chief.uv. A — fall. calendarium. kaka. koeck. Dan. kakulla. Russ. Sp. caldaria. . Cadet. joyous . cha'cmie cadence. En kaka br'od. kail. the calf of the leg. capitetum. calentura. Cot. . limestone. colibro. Caitiff. As Du. The young G. without loss. Fr. G. from the ink-bag which it contains. collop.— Cot. Caldron. cadaver. when they are said to poor. cykevie. . The Lat. reed-pen. dial. jabber. A cuttle-fish. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. the younger son of a family said to be from . Sw. gabble. kolo. to compute. gabbia. cage. cabdillo. kuchen. caioler. Gascon capdet. whence calash. lindrus. a waggon . a cake or loaf. captive. Cadge*. Lat. calba. Du. Perhaps from w. a calash . to gabble. kalfvan hout. Dan. so gabble corresponds with Fr. kaeckelenj Gr. gavia. Caddy. . kaad. Turk. cake. . a cylinder. calibre. a wretch. a common cart. especially of something soft. calidus. To Calender. loss. from Gr. to — Fr. Cadence. form) calderone. kalfi. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Lat. marrow. Lat. a mischievous dial. Tea-caddy. calidus. to heat. coll.— . Serv. calx. Flo. a low note. calpa.

Mid. Sp. The primitive colubrina bombarda. hot. but is only a jda-kallo. Heb.position is much less common than the geschut. or languishing drought is . faint. . Fin. moist. kahcwe. tapulta. quiet. Lang. the day. on. saucy. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. caliver. calcare. into the seams of vessels to make Lat.Lat. calat of leude demeaning. Sir John Smith in Grose. Calico. To drive tow or oakham.piicede Lat. a feathers. and sometimes a handgun.meaning of the word. calor. given. u to an I in such a colubrum. brawny. form in the kalib. done with heat Alt. Kil. chatter kallen. harden by pressure. overheated. kol. calare. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. coluber. CALICO Calliper-compasses. scalmato. a good calling. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. a successor. ululo Turk. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. NE. which has its memory preserved in Du. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. qAlab. serpens. an adder. colubrina. Ibid. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. to call. culverin. Among these were the turn. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. glotton. whence couleuv. tittle-tattle. faint. push violently. . Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. prattle. i. a last. hollaing. Bi. to proclaim. the heat of Now these Du. hallottaa. the Fr. nautique). Fr. calibre. or caliever. Indies. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . The word was also written cawme in OE. Diez. Sc. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Due. Sup. callus. calleting. Sp. of the bore of a firearm met. to hear. Dief. Kavfia. whereas in troth it is not. Du. to callet. B. Fr. a. gossiping.' But it is hard Du. Fin. colubraria canna. coulevrine. overscalmaccio. calk. the hard surface of the ground. sound. diameter of a ball. — — — — — . from Calicut in the E. try. sclopus. calma. them &c. The reference to heat is preserved in.— . serpentina. which is as much as to say. heat. kal. the scalp or skull. KaXka. calma. caillette. voice. coluber also. Callow. According to Jal (Gl. khalif. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. calcaich. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. E. So It. Turk. calgua. calvus. cauma.from Ka'tm. scold. whehce it was first brought. to rail or scold . chatter. piece of bigger circuite. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Mil. Ptg. a drab. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. Hard. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). quality. moso. Unfledged. to affirm. kael. to cram. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . kal. * Callet. a round of abuse. the latter of chamber. couleuvre. kalla. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Derived by some from Arab. Fr. alta voce ploro. Lat. AS. Antiq. To call. Diet. sestus. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. of a column. however. vulgo Coluvrine. dragoon. calme. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. — Fl. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. heat. a soldier who the It. calo. and dragon. water-tight. donderbuchs Sp. dial. calca. calc. kil-u-kal. bombarda Cauma incendium. or mould. to say. CALM to press or stuff. the Fr. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Kil. abto suppose that E. Ca. Gael. It. to call. licht stuk The change from a. forms are undoubtedly from Lat.. calicot. cotton cloth. femme frivole et babillarde. form. can be distinct from ODu.' Slange. to abuse . klover. caluw. having a thick skin. fistula. dragonder. oldire from audire. to burn. Gr. to be of a good or bad quality. to tread. The origin is Gr.' Winter's Tale. calclover. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Caliph. Fr. To century was Squalibre. and heat. ' rine. — — — — — . skin hardened by labour. by many that the weapon Callous. Mahn derives it from Lat. 125 Prov. and E. * Caliver. cauque. to prattle. callum. harquebus or handgun. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Call. longior. Lat. drive. To Calk.' Whitby Gl. trull. 'A callet of boundless tongue. ' pert. to calk. koluvre. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. ram. depreciatory term for a woman. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. calibre. Calm. people's remarks.(jaa= ice).en~ kinds of firearms. bald. word of mouth . The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. cahna. sence of wind. kallo.' Chaucer. kind heat of the sun. quA librd.

Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. From campus was formed Lat. Cambrel. cup.. Lat. or hollow of a flower. frank and sincandidatus. or Caribs. a large drinking . a goblet bud. is Cambering. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. a piece.Gr. to jut. would plenier. It was distinfrom work. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. a dog. Sanson khanda. clothed in white. crook. It. crooked. ation. Fr. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Ptg. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. lame. the type of a hollow pipe. campus. campagna. Sp. kanna. canna. se cameloter. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. E. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. co7nbar. champagne. Lat. Fr. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. campagna. Cot. brought from Fr. fresh. Kakoycpos. Canker. to bend. and yspiuv. chaitcre. toile some of whom. Caloyer. It. A — the Cannibals. Cambrav—Cam. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing.— B. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. the space of false imputation. sugar. to warp. hooked. chommer. B. It.—Jam. icaSoytipoe. camisa. cere : Lat. Calyx. whence Fr. sore. a caught. mg Canister. Canal Channel. water chamlet . cambren. Camp. Mid.—Cambrel. unwater chamelot . camelot. to glow. a. — Cancel. a' Sc. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Palsgr. arch. Gr. properly good country. camisade. campaign. See Canker. crooked. candidus. cancer. cancello. B. to break. Cambric. chamold man. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. died in 1526. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. E. Calver of cane. Turk. Candid. from xaXbg.who their language. canistrum.' ' Quhen a lattice. cainahelus. Lat. Fr. Cameo. arched. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Properly calver in the field during a war. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. campo. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. cambrer. Campaign. had no r in de bric— Cot. samon. Pers. also an eatmg sore. camaien. Cann. camiscieia. The Grisons cauina. aged. higher in the middle than Fr. crooked. Fr. camber-nosed. camp. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. . Canine. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Fr. Bret. a basket. Sp. cambr^. champ. India Islands.Lat. the calix.—Candidate. paign. on. Fr. cup. monk. to bow. KafivTu._ kamm. to bend. crooked-stick. Camel. candela. spot for cattle. campren. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Gr. ko/utuXoc. is Candle. Peter Martyr. open and level ground. An eater of human flesh. Sp. when its substance appears inter. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. the heat. Or the word Lat. canis.conduit-pipe. callour. at the ends. salmon. chandelle. Canibal. across — Bellenden in Jam. Cambray. It. Arab. good. a. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. catmneo. Calumny. an eating. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. the bed of a stream. to avoid enemy in their shirts.' Forme of Cury in Way. Lat. calutmiia. — B. lattice. It. a field Greek monk. Cancer. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Camisade. the salmondis faillis thair loup. In a different application It. It. canalis. aspirant. nia. Lat.— Hackluyt in R. field . KafitjUe. camafeo. . catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. arched. fair. calj'x. Fr. camiscia. bis. From fluting or furrow in a column . a crab. campo. a may have acquired that signification from plain. w. Lat. — — — A — — escume de saumon. ckaouma. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. white. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. different sections of the like the Chinese. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Mod. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. camahutus. lie level. having an aquiline nose. from candere. camelus. whence the Fr.— Chandelier. Camlet. E. Candy. to the force of the wind. cAouma. cam^e. — Lat. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. cambre. Fr. slander. Lat. callar. campagne.

leiwan kanta. a rule or standard of excellence.^on. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. quarter. It. capax. a ruler. Palsgr. Gael. from canna. properly a large Prov. hemp. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. cannevaccia. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Sp. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. chape. quito curtain. canapa. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. B. Canon. Cot. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Alamannis. tain. capello Italis. Mod. kapamak. &c. a cap. from . cainnt. a horn of the moon . like a torch or candle. signifying cover. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. pipe. It. Canopy. measure for cloth. it would have been found in the continental languages. . territorial hundred. to con- rummer. cheese. kand. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Gugel. a cane. cannabis. as a cantle of bread. Schwab. a ship canot. KaTTiram. Canton. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. hirnschlapple. a reed. It. margo panis diffracta. canon. canapaccia. See Chape. trine. N. language. can.CANNEL vessel. border. hood. Fr. root cap. hemp. a wine-cellar or vault. Wtb. Probably only the augmentative of canto. able to receive. a hundred. a torch. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Cope. The — . KCLvva. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. It. carcase . say. Prov. the quartile. The meserseum and the mesentericum. is found languages of very different stocks.Gr. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. from cant. and met. &c. cappe. the part easiest broken off. Fin. Esthon. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. a cover Turk. a side. cope. edge. name. a hunch of bread. gnat. quarter . as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. capa. a boat. Du. Capari. astrology. Lat. to sing. Coal burning with bright flame. Diez. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Hence Lat. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. canto. canton. and tref. . cannu. cantone. kynnel. Picard. . cane. shut. kantr. cannone. To canvas — . kyndel. It. and the sex- &c. If the word had been from cantherius. capace. was formed Kavtiiv. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Fr. Cantle. canevas. Canteen. or hold. Canvas. Cant. cover kapi. A . Capable. schlappen. Germanis kdppen. cane. a straight rod. to contain. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. It. caparazon. cappe. Of vena cava and of vena porta. a scull- — here. also a measure. from Dan. a cloak. kaput. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. side. kandt-broodts. the heel. lump. cannevo. See Capt-. A piece of anything. corner. cover . kwvwxIi. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. To his judicial And trowl the tile. Sp. coarse hempen cloth Fr. a pipe. Swab. Jonson. Capacious. a division of a country. Fr. canonicus. or cantell of bread. chantel. call. Again we have Lat. covered. that the G. and hence a gobbet. cantina. ON. regular. a gelding. as. Canoe. contain. A slow gallop. W. he discourseth of dissection. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a small boat. chanteau. the heel. speech. hamlet. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. From Gr. from a Canter. . a corner. border Dan. has kahn. to shut. It. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. a drinking glass. Sp. canoa. a door .n. canteau. Goldast — in in Schmid. the tried list of saints. a reed. But it may be different source. being a yard or thereabouts . Kavt\. To Canonise. a tube. canvas. schlapp. cane. coarse hemp. Mod. Cape. rumme.. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. to put upon sacred writers. canonici. The word seems to be taken from Gael. kq. kanta. a cantle of bread. which is not the case. clqse. a Fr. cape. Cannoii. part. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. region. coat. cantref. cantred.— Cot. cane. OFr. a cloak kapali. a — A — Cannel Coal. haitt.Gr. capevole. cappa. From Lat. Kil.

^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. shivering. algabr.' Cot. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. a head. Lat.' — (Supp. sault. Fr. kid. cut off. to fry. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. capriola. capar. to shiver. to desire earnestly. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. G^' Many words — ' ndv. birsle. fansuddenly angry. rissoler. a chevret. greziller. arricciarsi. castrated. Capers. the singing'bone). toy. shrub. ticchio. horripilation. Fr. capitalis. . upon terms Sp. bristling. cApre. grisser. roughening of the skin. as the means of earning profit. then find the symptoms of shivering. frissoner. principal. humorous. erica. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. or other things. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. capparis. and 7tucc. for which he cites the Comask nucia. A . gricciare. the initial mute of forms like Gr. end. curling. wriggle. It. p. a ch illness. and his body bristled We to castrate. knis. The same imitation of Capon. to .standing on end. to crackle. Acad. according to the Hindoos. to broil. Fr. hi. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. bruco. gives rise to Sc. Cot. a goat. the head. Torriano. a hedge-hog. airoKOTrrw. capriol or caper in dancing. Hair-like. Griller d'im' patience. See Chief. brissle. It is probable that Gr. caprice. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. of a fowl. shivering. brezilia. to ruffle the surface of water. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . gives rise to brezza. and OHG. or goat's leap (done by a horse). I have shivered with love. then to be in a state of vibration. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. w. a capriol. It. aggricciare. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. The true derivation lies in a different direction. bristling.impressions on the ear. a buck. as in Lat. rihrczzoso. a . Sp. It.Gr. is either wholly lost. — to yearne. a separate division of a matter.). cut. So from Sw. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. A headland. to crackle. or represented by the syllable e. Fl. crackling sound Cape. grillcr. Lat. the hair to stand on end. capillus. a caterpillar.'— Trev. the head. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. a young kid met. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . Arab. a little head. riccio. Unexpected pleasure. Lat. brisciare. s'hdrisser. heath. arricciarsi. brug. grisser. greziller. belonging to From caput. Genevese bresoler. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. It. to shiver for cold. It. as Fr. explained by Diez from capra. castrated cock. a caper in dancing. eruca compared with It. alcaparra. cover of a saddle. hedge-hog. — — A a hair. h^risser.— 128 CAPE a rustling. ericius. Lat. Caper.— Fl. grug. with joy' Vikram. It. ziki. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. II bresole (Gl. caj)o. then to shiver or shudder. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. the principal part of the debt. chattering of the teeth.) d'etre The It. ribrezzo. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. <I>pi'?oe. frisson- ner . to from capitulum. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. Capital. brisciare. capriole. or Lat. compared with Bret. a yearning through sudden fear. CAPRICE twittering. to twitter as birds. And similarly to yearn. frort^Lat.) grezille marid. Hal. Mod. of a coach. to parch. to broil. Lang. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. capro. Fr. frisser {frissement d'un trait. and with an initial gr instead of br. or. where Burton adds in a note. herissonnement. of a tremtdoiis sound. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. curl. they longed extremely to see it. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. frizzle. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. as Fr. curly. as Fr. Hence capitalis the sum lent. gricciare. a kid. brisciare. To treat Capitulate. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. It. abridge amKoTroq. capitulare. Capillary. 75. Caprice. caper j caprio. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. to shudder. chief. the hair to stand on end. hair. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . also the capriole. brisoler. horror. cappriccio. caprice It. prickly husk of chestnut. It. ^piKos. knis-hujwud .

a. charret. carretta. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. karista. Captain. to carry . Carry. chevre. where it forms a very large class of compounds. cabestrantej Fr. Nordfoss. a kind of torture. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. di cappa. calabrin. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Du. caThe hrestante. also tresFl. Capsule. karren. Lat. however. to creak. and has thus descended unaltered to English. It. deceit. carabin. a coffer. verbs gives rise to the element . except. cabreia. hold. to load . It. captus.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). Derivatives are Fr. Etym. was converted into -ceb. In the S. a sawing-block or trestles. Lat. recevoir. cabra. G. capsula. of the Sp. a cloke) capuccino. kerren. charger. whence capture. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . trestle. was a kind of horse soldier. a cart. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. chirrion. — —Diet. capitano. recipio. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. Fr. It. Lat. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Cart. caricare. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. case. fantastic. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Fr. also to carry on a car . where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute.s. Caseneuve in Diet. a hooded friar. The It. decepte. sels. at least. to take baclc. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. to creak. recibir. . cams. karra. a she-goat. as in accipio. Carbine. a head man. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. to take to. to accept. Capriole. &c. conceive. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. latterly. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. accept. i The meaning Car. intercept. Cot. karrende waegen. bock. — — Capstan. Fr. Capstern.). Fin. and tropically. oisr.of these compound verbs. caput. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. cabestan. It. acceptus. Castr. the -cevofthe Fr. seize. It. concebir. Thus the musket. to receive receptio. captive. or the (capo-riccio). crab s. a sudden will. dim. a. strideo. cabrestante (whence e. a capuchin. Lat. and has accordingly been lost in E. Capuchin. capuccio. Sp.. &c. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a windlass. caprice. capio. a hood (dim. Neumann. It is a standing crab. carro. krul. Kiittner. deception. from head. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. Fr.. -ceive. Capt-. tnoschetta. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. and of captus to an e. Fr. Fr. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. It. receptus. as in OFr. commander. -cept. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. conception. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. calabrino. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. one odd. capp%tccio. Fl. capitis. to please. conceit. Crab. OSp. See Caper. a fantastical humour. recepte. Carabin. recipere. perceive. a creaking waggon. Sp. Cot. box. Carabine. capra. of capsa. a taking back. captivate. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. char. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. also a kind of rack. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. chirriar. It. Passing on into E. charrier. precept. Fr. a sudden fear apprehended. contain. -cept. an engine for throwing stones. shivering fit (Altieri). and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. fancy. de- price. as the dragoons (Du. concipere. &c. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights.). concept. crepo. a reception. to take. to this is It. desire. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. 129 — receive. In cases. concevoir.or -cib-. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. was originally a missile . Du.

quilato. an engine for hurling stones. Sp. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. designated in the case of G. a machine for casting large darts. carere. a coffer. tcapKaai. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). It. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. See Carpenter. to turn. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a crane. kirat. the carcase of a fowl. to hiss (as gee^e). caraffa. carquois. a quiver. karra. Carbuncle. also (as Gr. the trunk or chest of the body . «capa'|8i. quse vocant karabd.— — — . seed of carob. is the word used in modern Lat. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. cerran. restraint . and catapulta. skeleton. contract. Sp. Ptg. . the case of the flesh. cramp. carabe. a wool card. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. It. Pers. &c. ' Vasa vitrea. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Comp. ON. to card wool. bend.. properly a siege machine. carcame. Carcase. to ripple flax. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. carbh. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a collar or chain for the neck. p. constraining . to draw in. Lat. Carat. poison eiz. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Gael.Gr. kerwan. Venet. Gael. carcaij. to creak. . Exot. Cat. Gr. bock and Fr. casso. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. garafa. carcanet. caravela. a gem resembling a live coal. Sp. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. Sp. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. carcanada. winding carach. copperas. boch. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Carcax. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. in the same way that the Sp. caraffe. a kind of ship. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. carate. to comb wool . a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. . and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Gael. skeleton toise. carabba. the name might naturally Mod. to comb. case. Fr. the husk or cod of beans. cabrita. is the chine. skeleton. Gael. the dead body of any creature. matter. decanter. a card or comb . carquasse. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a he-goat. Arab. Caravel. a lock of wool . I. Cot. a dead carcase. a small weight.. burning coal. silique. Lat. coming to four grains. &c. ancient springald. caracal. Carbonaceous. confining. of the same Caravan. It. card. chevre by the name of the goat. word is only an adoption of the Turk. carmiiiarc. the core of fruit .applied to a battering-ram (G. turn of a horse. turning. wine- bottle. cassa.' From the same source are SicU. to curry horses karsztuwas. Card. The Trjg xeXwwac. for a gun. carta. It. wool card. shell. carquan. a winding staircase. . Gr. or framework. a snail. black dye. Caraool. a twist. also a small weight. eitar. a skeleton. a firelock. Parmesan cassiron. cabra.Gr. fire . a quiver . 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a ripple for flax. winding. vitriol. — seems to be something holding together. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. AS. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . to card wool. a thistle. Carrob. a quiver . Derived in the first edition from Mod. From the battering-ram. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. It. military engines made for hurling stones. Mod. carduus. Fr. espi7igarda. a case or chest . alia sunt majora.z. a ship. Fr. KtpaTwv. karri. the carob bean.charcoal . Carboy. eit. Bohem. Sp. carch. Cot. a battering-ram). carbo. a goat. . Lith. OHG. the . cardo.. carbunculus (dim. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. an ulcer. a quiver. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. Fr. karszti. krciti. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. cdrlag. &c. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. kard boyd. The radical meaning . a bottle with big belly and narrow neck .. W. a prison. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. An implement for dressing wool. the shell of a torcarcasso.. cabreia. curry-comb. carcasa. mural attack. a thistle. car. of carbo). avSpaS. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise.

carezza. the keel. . karantez. what is felt as grievous. as peas. Bret. carFrom carrus. one of those ac- 9 * . Fr. weyes. Bret. kroU-erbser. Coll. Fr. AS. grief. zanken . in St Jerome. charger. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. from carus. essere in carena. Fr. piger. carener. karg. ceorl. caMid. parched or carled. to rumble. cura intenta. beans. Bois crolant d'un ladre. ignarus. OFr. carnal. to growl. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. to shake. Ptg. voce strepo stridente. Fr. Properly. winding. at murmuring. A place where four roads Mid. Card. de Parthenay. the hull of a ship. the old theory of humours. to lie on its side. to card wool. astutus. Dan. — — — Caress. care. A medical term from line —Boerio. as quadrivium from Carnaval. rixosus. — Carfax. Fin. ress. carcare.. kumra. sensual. 273. It. carriire. is to say. crosier. . Venet. Probably the origin of the word is the . male person. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. from caricare. Groler. gakaran. stridere. Fr. caricare. No ' place there had. and compare Bret. to love. kargr. . carch. cardinis. bottom. appertaining to the flesh. hoed. tuorfurcm (Burguy). affection. the time during which to Rom. carriera. For the root of carminare. E. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. tremble. carena. mutter. principal. cargo. Cot. to eat flesh. It. msstus. . to take Goth. &c. stingy. w. the flesh of animals . Roquef. carminare. a turn. carnavale. scharren. Carminative. kara. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. carena. like connection may be seen between Fin. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. road. charag. asper. . Gael. Carl. G. Fr. Cot. moeThe Lat. A quirito ut infans. — To Careen. morosus. compared with Fin. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Carlings. to distress growl. Fr. whence carricare. charnage. wool cards. intrasset caro. carian. careless take care of. crowl. four. charta (Gr. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Mur. Cath. to load. 8. a deed. x'»P'"^s)) paper. ON. sorrow. — — Diez. karout. Champ. Sept. cardo. Cark. karista. caritia. 2. Fin. also a career on horseback. to scratch. and G. the load of a ship. AS. to fry. record. murahtaa. quaver a lazar's clack. sgritudo animi. to whirr (schnurren). from carrus. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. meet at a head. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. G. car. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Carnage. Lat. a man. as carminare. regar. giierlir. AS. graller. . W. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. It. is This however Shrove tide. niggardly . in Carp. a hinge. from Lat. cearian. karrig. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. to comb wool. carcus. Carled peas. and murhet. Trin. — — . It. solicitous. Cartel. Properly a car-road. — — — : Cardinal. carina. Cot. Peas steeped and fried. W. fundamental. to fry or broil. and thin. karl. Fr. cura may be ror. croller. morosus sum. It. to parch. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. cdrle. cargar. Caricature. Carnal. that on wliich the matter hinges. charneux. Care. W.. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef.— Charter. carnasciale. from the keel to the water . & Q. quarreG. . kribina. place for exercise on horseback. . carnis. charnel. 1S66. carnalis. p. or grumbling —Due. murista. to load. chartre. surrata. caricatura. kurista. combing them out like the knots in wool. charg. cearig. Farewell flesh. ON.— CARD karr-kambar. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. a highway. to clean the bottom of the ship. crawl. clown or churl. It.Lat. OHG. a card. strideo. the several meanings of the words above Rom. caru. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. or street. A mod-carag. fleshy . From. love. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. It. tenax. to comb flax or hemp. grolU. camovale.Lat. dear. to care unkarja. Sp. sorrow. Lat. quadrifurcum from quameet. Fl. an overloaded representation of anything. the keel of a vessel. see Garble. act of moaning. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. murren. charie. to load. Sp. Chart. in N. karry. to scrape .' Slceat. soUicitus OSax. caresse. Translated in MS. Cargo. Carenare. Charnel. be anxious. and sum. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. that Fl. carrefourg. kummer. an endearment. care on.

Carole. koroll. Mediol. carpenta. was formed Mid.— Patriarchi.' Reg. Fr. — . Lat.— R. gonna. charpie. krapati. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. carpenticre. Discov. Lat. . In a MS. in Nat. The word seems of Celtic origin. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. e. The ' ' a chariot. Beggars Bush. pluck at. Lat. The karole of the stones behelde. Carnelevale. Fr. fabulor. course. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. as carnaval from carnelevamen. whence the form carnasciale. The custom. I drink all out. qui sacco. Cot. ! Carouse. Palsgr. Templariorum — ' — Due.: . All out B. linteamen. 94).Lat. Teut. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. and Carnem laxare (It.' says Motley (United Neth. gar aus / all out is correct. biheld without.— Drant in R. garrulo. 216. sense. Bohem.' Ordo Eccles. cxciv. Carpyn or talkyn. vel coopertorio carebit. The tippling sots. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. A. balade from It. Carnevale. culcitra. to rustle. carduz. 760. carpia. as Fr. Properly a round dance. Pr. Olr. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. or a carouse fully drunk up. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. tattle. to gather. i. Carpet. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. charpentier. ship. yede tham about. carpende fast Carol. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. tymmer. carpentum. is erroneous. lint. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G.]e bois Carnelevale. or loose as a couch without further preparation. carpenter only in the latter sense. a drinking cup. all aus). Here's to you still my captains friend. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. to pull asunder. Other names of the sea. Analogous R. to pluck. to chatter coroli. ballare. to talk. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Mid. On the other hand bumper to one's health. 1 1 30. chatter. Pref. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat.— Neum. carbh. Gael. carpetrix. To pledge them thou refuse. bier.Why give's some wine then. carpita. ON. cited by Marsh. at midnight which derivation from kroes. a plank. to dance. So gone they forthe. Pm. worker in timber Fr. chirp. W. of Guiana.Lat.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. pluck. On this. Shrove Tuesday.D. Mid. act of drinking a full Eq. Chanson de carole. Dief. skraf. a wheelwright. Gower in Way. differing To Carp. carpetam (a quilt?). carpat (Stokes). a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. and F. to reel. peta. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. in Carp. carpo. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. . as E. used for stuffing mattresses.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. I quaught. Alluz (G. Sup. Biheld within. maker of waggons It. krapanj. Ein we find the signification transferred from . The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. a carder. carpere. Sp. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. cardos. litter. a wheelwright. chariot carbad. in Due. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Carpenter. Bret. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. querole. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Ant. quoted by Carpentier. zimmerspan. as the Lat. a song accompanying a dance then. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat.Lat. Carpitam habeat in lecto. i. In Dominica d'autant. on that. zimmer. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. 2. a dance. . — — ' ' — — — I — — . Nomin. to find fault with. carnelascid). garrire. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. From Lat.gonnella. ' ' — . a car carpentarius. to dance. chatter skra/a. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.'— Stat.' Raleigh. 2.

gristle. Fr. case. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. OE. a chest. to dash. an augmentative from Lat. to notch. a coffer or small case for jewels. It. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Lith. from Lat. — FI. carretta. Gael. hollow. the charge of — — Fr. as we . cancelled. The Sp. discharge It. luggage. It. also the carriage. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Flor.' Cot. Case-mate. Carrot. Rouchi carter. ignominiously exposed. Fr. To Carve. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. mord-grube. cascata. carroc- carrozza . to shear. cartella. casaque. caro. G. to convey in a cart. Fr. — Cartoose. Hence casket. shell or carcase of a house. casa. tion from Sp. fortuitous. kerpu. — — nul the proceeding. a merchant's cash or counter. AS. of carro. bag and baggage of a camp.. to an- — Kil. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Fr. and that apparently from capio. Rouchi carpHe. Cart. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. crush. casag. to slay. a long coat. made void. Fl. The carrying of anything. AS. casser. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. charrette. properly to convey in a car. Fr. charogne. To Carry. Carriage. break to pieces. cassa. of carta. Du. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . blotted out. Cash. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Cask. carrosse. Fr. a loopscale the wall. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Case. a chance or accident. hung up in some place and to be removed. charrier. void cassare. not reaching to the height of the ditch. quasser. Lat. and matar. annul. Cartoon. where Fr. cassette. — — . kerven. augmentatives of carro. carroccio. It. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. a canonry or slaughterhouse. to cut or carve . gristle. cancel. casualis. casuelj Fr. Sp. It. CartOTicli. cassa. casso. from It. helmet. krat. caroche. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. kerben. discharge.' Bailey. cassus. Fr. coffin of paper for groceries.' Fl. ' Casa-matta. something that actually occurs.' — Hdcart. cashiered. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Ready money. To Cashier. card. cartoccio. augm. a hut. from casa. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. carriaggio. to break. Fr. cartone. caisse. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. a of water. To quash an indictment. the money chest. Case. Fr. — Cartridge. to crack. an act of falling. Preparatory drawing of a It. carreaggio. to hold. long man's gown with a close body. paper. Cot. abrogate. from the sound it makes when Alban. des rideaux A'carp^ie. See Card. to fall. See Case. a car. It. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. house. casco signifies a skull. Cascade. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. coffer. Rouchi carone. a fall. caroach. carota. one who reasons on cases put. cascade. Probably. like all the names of tendon. Casque. slaughter-house. Cartel. casitiste. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. It. Carrion. to fire on the enemy. To duash. Du. ceorfan. cut with scissors. Lat. fall It. caisse. pasteboard. Cassock. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. vault hole in a fortified wall. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. packing ' cloth. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. and the OE. quash. to — — also casse. hull of a ship. carogna. empty. Casuist. See Gristle. cascare. Fl. Fr. cartilage. Cot. Fr. As defence from shells became more important. It. caxa. a paper case. cascar. crown of a hat. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. afterwards any written challenge. bitten. caisse. cassere. Rouchi caroche. subject for a picture. for the security of the defenders. It. Fr. Casual. mata. casus. Casket.— Fl. kirpti. a car. mord-keller. Lat. casacca. It. Walach. casa-maita. carretto. cartouche. case-maiej Sp. capsa (Diez). Lat. dim. kasseren. Sp. turn out of service. corresponding to the G. to bear or carry.to annul. cia. from It.

tails. ' Catchyn away abigo. to crack. heat . squash. Fr. Pic. 134 CAST Catacomb. KarapaKrr]g. V. kotas. of castrum (castra). the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. Castle. In the dialect of Picardy. Fr. R. catar. Gr. cacciare fuora. and from the castus. the castanets for or implement . speak of dashing a thing down. to drive Cat o' nine tails. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. castana. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. It. Fr. which. to crackle. Lang. cast. dashing it out of the window. to Fl. B. chaleur. . OFr. . Etym.to drive out. Hence castaneta. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. V Lith. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. a fortified place. by the loss of with several pitched cords. a cat koshki. puras E. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. of sarabands does Gr. klakka. down. _G. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . or comba. KaTappaKTrjQ. So also from It. Fr. to fall as over a precipice. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.Lat. dashing it to pieces. castellum. or bruise together. Cat. 120. kasta.. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. name. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. signifying breed. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. catch. cacciuolo. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. koshka. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. kissa. the earlier sense of catch. to scourge. cacciarc. drive away. stilts. Catastrophe.Rouchi Scaches. to torture. second chase. and KviilSog. Thus we have Caste. the ground . katze. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Brunne. Pm. Cast. race. fall. cassa / cry for the same purpose. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. to turn overturn. Lat.— Fl. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. dim. The Diet. chat. cash. casulla. burst cascare. Roukind. chasser. force j Rouchi equerviche. while kiss / Pol. to cast or beat to tioner . in the fire. &c. cojz^/a. Chase. ecrevisse. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. Hal. on. Sp. image accasciare. torture. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . . Lat. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. to hunt. Cot. perhaps from which we have E. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Fr. a little house or hut. . Gr. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. a whip on the other into latch. to lash. crush . shaft of a 1 push. Gael.'— Pr. same word with break. castro. which has been retained in E. dash.. a cat . to clack.out cacciare . ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. kaJoivad. a chesnut . probably from an imita.the / or c respectively. a garment for performing the mass in. punch. away. Catalogue. coming to us through different dialects of French. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. to end. ating. casule. kotas. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Castanets. Mid. casipola. was introduced. Fr. to look at. and tomba. from water Karappaaaiii. down. — We a cavity. casupola. Pol. is not satisfactory. Fr. Isidore — in Diez. to make clean or chaste. to drive away. The E. the stalk of plants. sue. chasuble. . a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). under chi caleur. to close. ichasses. fer toTa. kasi. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. follow after. to hurl See Awgrim. squash. castello. or Rouchi cat. Fr. an enumerlist. execu. lance. cascar. Fr. kottr. kat. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. To Catch. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. however. handle of an axe. arpi^m. ON. bot-kotis. to is Essentially the Sp. KaTaarpifm. Sp. a thump. KaraXoyog. Yz. puss / for calling them. like that of It. mino. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. castanetazo. from the first of Castrate. Others explain it from Kara. It. being Fin. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. first made ordinary Fr.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. to dash. a Cataract. cat-o'-nine. accastiare. rack. kic' kicil are used chasser. to break. casser. kakka. To It. n. 'Vaaaw. chasser. It. a vault. cat. represented by the syllable quash.

Kariicatching one a box on the ear. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. ' Fr. kaetse. resound. Caterer. chase. sound. the the same principle he was Fr. is said that he got a claucht of it. a whip. bicho. from Gr. Sc. an officer of taxes. head. chachara. Du. dainty vic- a form lash. catc?u. a. Cot. has both or of charming by sound. called dog or Galla catchamza. Guernsey chafer. ketsoore. catch. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. chink. predicament. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . — explained. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s.s. worm. catch. with and without an / after the c. to teach by oral instruction. chasse. Guernsey pilleure. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. gingle. clap with the hand. a pill. P. a smack. a little dog). On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. smack. the elements of a science. ecachoire. * Caterpillar. Kil. dainties. s. caucht. to catch strength. E. in order). E. door when it is shut. cagnon (a dog). a cornIn the s.yopl(. . klatscherei. 'Horxa. Rouchi clincailleux. . 'Bxn. klinke. ictus resonans. to chatter with the teeth cake. de Bray.from Bard and ayopsw. E. catch-flesh. to A bailiff. G. from shutting with a click. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. fragor kletsoore. Du. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. a — gatta. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. icarrix'Ki^. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. chassoire. Kartiyopta (/cari. or any kind of relishing food tuals. . woodlice.. latch of. an accusing. — Kiittner. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. insect. klatsch.V. wild-beast. silkworm. claquer. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . a whip. Kil. companaige. Gael. blow. KaTtix'so. chatter. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry.V. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Diez. children's name for cat . — tinman. glcu. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. gliong. e. — with a whip. a carter's Pat. cat is not apparent. Swiss Lombard G. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. In the XV'e.' CATCH Fr. chacepol. apprehend a person. Cot. as of the latch of a As ! — . Fr. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. ArbaUte de courte chasse. to chat.) . 135 — Aasen. — B. whip. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . weevils. a caterpillar Milanese can. clatter. kletse. quincailler. to snatch (said of dogs). one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. snatching. Fr. a. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. . Chate peleuse. . In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. to kythe D. millecaterpillars. Metivier. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. bichano (pussy). called in Fr. snatched. OFr. the OE. * Cates. — Catcli-poll. to snap. Grandg. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. On Catechism. to harangue. klatsche and Norm. to crack GATES cache. a whip Rouchi cachoire. flap klatsche. Cates. to the crack. Tutschek. latch. Gael. — . Claucht. devouring mite or weevil. c or ^. cache. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. and answer. Fr. Sp.j. Gr. formerly called cliket. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. chatter . resono ictu lash. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. snatching it with a any one. the distance to which the ball is struck. compare G. verberare kUts. Wal. clap. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). e. which all . a clap. instruction in forms. kletsen. to clap hands. klatschen.P. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it.' ^Jam. Ptg. chenille {canicula. ' ' word catch. i. a whip or Kuttner. happe-chair. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. GaUa catchiza. to take. Du. pedes. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. seize. caker. gattola.

arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. to buy. a horse . Rete. kitten kotki. Fin. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. 2. Wyatt in R. Fr. kin. G. Jonson in R. hazel. kautsije. Du. the. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. accapitare Rouchi acater. chausser. is Prologue. Dryden in R rete. rete A — Prov. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. accattare. — — cavallo. Jaubert. a horse . but the acates that are sent him. to purge. a kettle for heating water. primitive is meaning a shale or off. kobyla. . KaPaWrii. reticella. cale. KiwariKog. w. a The peel. puss. calqada. Fr. . Cave.' B. chaudroii. A warm comforting drink.Lat. OE. CATHARTIC sense. caudex . chaussJe. kobuiV. Diez). achepter. Kavrfipiov. cabbage. Caballus. Cavalry. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. to ac- — Fr. a branding from koiio. Caustic. to burn. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. net or caul-work. Cattle..' Elyot in Way. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Mid. Cavern. from chaud. puss. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Cathartic. 4. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Thus Bav. a horse. Lat. Bessie of Bednall. ce^l. Delycates. a pavement. Fr. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. calceta. katteken. kocie. Fr.Y\\Xea. Lat. Gr. choufleur {choii. to sound like a blow . to shoe . cautus).^ acheter (Lat. Cauldron. Sx. Cavalier. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. catkin mitz. Provider. Fr. . On the other hand. Palsgr. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Lat. That he was ay before in his estate. Mid. walnut with the husk on challer. Fr. caballus. . Gr. otherwise written kell.^Hal. little cap is . Fr. It. quire. having the property of cleansing. mutz. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Pol. dumpf tonen.Lat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Manciple's Tale. calotte. chatideau. cautis. B. Port. the stones of a street. Kavrijp. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. from delf^gato. Fr. chair. koparet.. acater. Fr. flue. Caution. Gael. hollow. catons. cale. hot. cal^ar. and hence a skull-cap. cauHs. adcaptare. Russ. mudet. KaHSpa. Cause. cabbage). a seat. flock. Chaud. via strata. challe was ther of a temple. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. It. apt to burn iron. whence cathedralis. to shoe. kopano. cabbage-stalk. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Ka^afriKOQ. ' Gr. Caudle. Cavity. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Lat. and spareth for no perell. a horseman. cavaliere. make clean. fur in general. Cathedral. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. also to pave . from KaSaipio. is used in the sense of cat-skin. katte. to shale or peel. lamb. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Du. Causeway. from caveo (p.—— — 136 correct.p. calceata. kocianki. to beware. kassije. a kind of skull-cap. . Lat. Lat. . the caul of the liver. a pulpit. a road calceata. shaled or picked Fr. Palsgr. deyntie meates. any Fl. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. catkins . catkin Magy. fur.willow. kdtzchen. • — — See Chattel. The word — . hot. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. chevalier. It. — Cauterise. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. acaptar. chaudiire. chauderon. a receptacle for small things. kaussijde. a stalk. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Gr. cavus. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. little cat. puss. caldo. capull. a mare. causa. what . Boethius. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. calidus. Pr. green husk of a calon. Catkin. despencier. Fr. — . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Kil. klopfend knallen. CAVE Caul. Cavalcade. macska. cat maczoka. cheval. &c. Richly she feeds. by land. minon. a paved road. catkin Pol. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. It. . It. caple. kopista.

The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. Lat. board . a log. dScis. Fr.' Cot. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. Ceiling. — komo tain). Cam. thili. menuiserie. or of a bed. column E. Fr. with their substantives concession. kapp-zaum. thel. ceiling. to canopy siled. hollow. a canopy. del into English without ' translation gave cele. sill. H. cavezzone. a board. little house. a log. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. — . komista. &c. sus-lambris. pp.j have come from this source. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. . caveqon. deal. wuoren komo. — . sill in window-sill. . to seele or close with boards plancher. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. plank. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. proceed. a hut. excess. flooring E. cielo. . which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. give place. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. wainscot thiljar (in pi. &c. Sp. cabegon. to go forth. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa.. The importation of Fr. yield. cyling (W. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. In the same way G. a planking or boarding tkilian. and zaum. a beam. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. . to plank ON. IV. a severe bridle. — — — toyour soverane.'— Z. exceed. ciel de lit. also a seeling of boards. syle. cessum. to panel or wainscot MHG. p. cellar. departure. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. hollow ice . —Decease. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . an aquiline nose. -cess. . cedo. Cot. that. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. The line of descent from Fr. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. koppeli. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. decessus. . death. Lat. thiling. 7. Sherwood. of E . Fr. quibble.' Hall. step away. rafter. . hung. wall. &c. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. -ceed. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. Hal. semely on syll. &c. of cavezza. Cede. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. the inner roof of a room of state. The sense of roofing. Fr. heaven. hivtmel.' — Gawan . a plank. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. lambrisser une chambre seeling. . coffer. in Jam. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. Sir 137 pit . crooked kopio. recede. a boarded floor. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. . augm. dil. To seele a room. the roof of a coach. . curved. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. selar. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. the testern of a bed. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. kommata. Boyd in Jam. hollow. a head. In the N. door-sill J Sc. Lat.). nailes will begin to cling.. a log. is applied to a canopy. and then to gape. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. jaa. were met. See -cede. 5. applied to a canopy. canopied. empty. So from Fin. ciel is so unbroken. to plank or floor with planks. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. beam. It. a halter. syl. departure from this life. to cut. cabega. And seik — Cessation. tester of a bed. Lat. bridle. Hence concede. 43. -cease. dille.' del. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. cesso. succeed. E. a canopy. Plancher. thilja. sybire. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. heaven. post. thil. Gawaine & Sir Gol. .' Ordinances and Reg. VIII. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. cease. lambris. to argue capto tiously. A — A false accommodation produced G. p. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Cavil. B. sky. -cede. selure. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. cavillor. ceiling.' Marriage of James IV. CAVESON kopera or kowera.). in Jam. thil. but hang around at the sides. in Hal. . a fir-plank. and Gol.' Rutland papers. The It. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. as. the deck of a ship at thilja. Cease. Wore. and that from Sp. dayntily diglit. Soc. seele. thelu. komo. 32. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. plank. . as if from happen.

to seal a pigeon's eye. a hundred of what- — . volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. deceit. age. to -sum. and — — — possessions. of heating. Lat. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. the point round which a circle is drawn.). Cell.of the r. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. rough from the quarry. capio. S. Lat. -ceptjun. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. value. census. Censer. cigliare. to distinguish. ceremonia. empty. siller les yeux. Gr. census. It. Celebrity. abundance. Fr. what to set in a chafe. eschattffer. Incensum. judge. — . caber. irot\oe. in comp. Coehim.). Cot. rubble. Gr. cillier. See Cede. to sleep).unmarried. ' . a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Lat. thronged the participle cretus. Lat. zens according to their property. to incense. concernor. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. distinIt. Certain. cencer. Lat. Ceremony. For sess from assess.— Cellar. become heated with anger.. encens. — . sure. and thence censer. Fr. Prov. a storehouse Chafe. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. (and thence also) to hoodwink.cern. being taken from Fr. the officer appointed to take such returns . sting. chaufferette. deceipt. to course of people. see. to seele or sew up the eyelids . K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. — . a tomb. KsvTpov. a valuation of every man's estate. as in some places burnt. -ceive. Lat. is the opposite of disora virum. Fr. then to rub without reference Cement. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. with the eyes. Gr. to blindfold. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. sacred show. to prick. to take. also grave opinion. Censure. much frequented. with transposition hence (of a day). observe. chauffer. — . Assize. ciglio.' Book of St Albans.j 138 thill. Cess. Sc. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. point. make angry. Cereal. Centre. to burn incendo. conceipt. -ciper.. cenio. the place where the de. quarters for slaves. cot.ing a room where there is not fire. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. solemn (of per. Cij(fe5j. Censor. a shaft horse. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. camentum. as entering largely into the derivative certo. a hundred centuria. It. censura. pick out. -cense. To Incense. a numerous con. cceremonia. Lat. cretum. To seel or close the eyes. decide. celer. from Saa-rw. Cot. but was gradually lost in conceit. blind. -cebre ifoncebre. estimate. from censeo. judge. stones to the production of heat. Gr. to heat. Chafe. cella. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Century.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. sift. materials It. to glow. Fl. assess. in comp. a solemnity. single or unwedded life. Fr. -cess. to twinkle darkness. 1. tax. OFr. oil. and put it through the over eyelydde. to celebrate. Take the nedyll and threde. concerner. to chafe. to separate. and met. confounded ist from It. a registration of one's self. Celerity. cilibat. Centurion. /ctj/rsw. calefare. and thence to conceal. thence belonging to or connected with corn. — . or any bird's. Lat. capturn. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. syll. we have a modified form of (of a place). Sherwood. a prick. Assess. -cern. goad.' Celebritas. candeo. Fr. family. incense. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. contend. See Celibacy. or expression of Ennius. — — Cenotapli. to rub for the purpose a hut. to think. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. mortar. an eyelash. In Celebrate. Fr. the talk of men. celeber certus. Census Censor. criticism. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. -civer {conciver— Roquef. for building. appertain. -cevoir. ciller. parted sleep. Fr. in Marsh. decebre) . -oept. -i^oivre. K^'ivut. Lat. Lat. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. swift. to concern. to warm. — A . centum. The term cilium. -ceit. — . the hollow the Lat. calefacere. concetto. heaven. a solemnity. hollow. and so of that other. keep in It. {cori)cipere. in accordance with the Fr. judge Lat. &c. . oil. To chafe is for wine. -cepire. dchauffer.— Chafing-dish. his office. to attend on object with. renown be embodied with. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. to set on fire. a Cemetery. is totally distinct from the foregoing. festive. -cepere. Lat. -cipio. &c. riscaldarsi. cerealis. sile. eyelid. crevi. -CEIVE a shaft. to rate. Fr. Lat. . guish. a religious observance. Ta^oe. to take. to be regarded as one celebro. Lat. tax. to visit in numbers. Accelerate. to sepap rate. to contend. to bury). receipt.

chaffare. — — ' — — — A . songe. The jaw chafty. charge with. Adelung. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. haggle. Fin. Cot. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. chalanger. sagrindse. limare. ckapfare. a chain. cathedra. chafing. to bark. snort. difficulty . — — — . Gr. Gr. to tattle. grief. care. . tattle cheep. kdfer. de Brai. cadieira. Pers. to a seat. — . a rustling noise. as a carriage is a moveable seat. to dispute. kiamta. to call. talkative. — — — . to institute anforensic action. cadena gives chain. chamar. gewolb. breathe KaOa^oiiat.. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. fume. without chap/are makiinde. to chatter or talk lightly. Prov.' Rayn. much more Genoese sagrind. rustle Challenge. contestation. hiss. chaise. G. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. camera. place See Cheek. a pulpit Cot. a vault or arched roof. Cot. kuhista. cadera. refuse barley . chafeter. Fr.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. kauchen. Probably from According to Diez. ON. Kuttn. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. KoBiSpa. to puff and blow. Fr. Fr. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Bav. to ner It. ple^.sure carriage. Prov. kaff. Lat. to file. to caw chawer. sagri. Halma. Chalice. chaulx. From to go to law. a chough. of. often puffing. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. kahuja. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. to babble. yap. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. swelling with anger. Du. from of the G. 35. crooked. cup. Lat. Pat. Fr. Fr. have a mind to parley. a double operation * Chafer. on. 11. green sagrin.. calice.nium. baras of ants. to action arose. chaene. Chayire. kiaftr. calx. khah. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. to move the jaws. From the To Chaff. Chair. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. kdfelen. idle words. Du. lime . Came. also to prattle. Lat. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. kever. ing a hard case to their wings. . vel susurro. to gnaw. refuse. From Port. care. in a monstrous fume. B. Cheffern. jaw. G. Lat. bargain. chaps Chamber. quisquilise offence. any insect of the beetle kind. Lat. Ayenbite. havOFr. catena. ceafer. keffen. E. kedja. avena vilior. dongio. p. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. chagrin. kahista. Hal. In vulgar language. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Fr. Prov. kuhata. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. a prattling woaction. keuchen. In like manto huff. tattle. to calumpnjamen. chaine. or puff with snorting. hordeum vel let. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. . kuhina. that leneth e per I'autra. calonjar. calonja. Pr. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. rustling motion challenge. Due. a pulpit. kiqfta. much blowing. fern-chafer. . hght Chalk. leviter crepo Then. dispute. — — — — — — . signal by drum or P. chatter. Fr. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. call in question for an ley). Camera. sborfare. cam. to gnaw. shaIt. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. vis. Chagrin. to Latin calumniare. false accusation. to buzz. great chafe. Wall. preise. chambre. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. kahu. Fr. clamare. cauvette. kuhuja. from Swiss kafeln. far lima-lima. a jackdaw. P. kaff. calix. fa sagramen de calompnia. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Kaiiapa. as. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Piedm.— — . chayire. calumnia. To buy and sell. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). to claim. to sit. ceaf. and as this was the beginning of man. a goba rustling . Perhaps Pm. ^Altieri. muzzle. chicane. puffed or ruffled with ly. thick and short. in a cana. to fret inwardtronfo. Bouffard. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. puff. cadena. Chain. breathe hard. De Ir4. matter by combat. OFr. ing rapidly repeated cries. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. taubes korn oder hafer. cathedra. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. &c. . with a:n arched roof. to pant. So from dominio. Fr. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Fl. chaire. rally one. now a chair. from the shark-skin. chawe. rustling corn. grief. tronfio. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Fr. Lat. Lat. lime. snuff. and signifies to consume with anger.

' SherI'altro ' ' . Sp. to tread The sound heavily. cancelli.Lat. calida et sans aguet. kimpUma. top of a borehole. slope of a bevelled angle. campar. pinch. a game at football. kampeln. broil. to hollow out. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. accident. Partnership. act of falling. Fr. jocus partitus. kampeln. kiinp. Fin. or less ignorant. kabe. chain. combat. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. to — — champ.—Charfron E. to Hal. to debate. kablys. champ. Chancel. — ^Tusser. The word is preserved in E. cahir. received the petitions of the suitors.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. chanfrar. campear. is explained by serrarsi. bundle. as in It. dial. i. Prov. termediaries between them and the judge. contention kappi. Ptg. Get campers a ball To camf . To them naturally fell the office of keep- . and acted as inofficers of . ON. dispute Hal. prize-fighter. to to chew champ. wood. Dief. therewithal. kimpustella. to smack the lips in eating. Sup. schmatzen s. See Camp. zs jeopardy. camp. champion Du. cempa. —Chamfrain. chamble. ON. CHANCEL It. dial. which seems another form of the root. the chafldn. Lith. nels. kampa. kibti. hamper. fray. Champion. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. chance. Lat. ciamberlano. . compound. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . kappd). chanfrein. to cample. kabMe. hero Sw. a horse-race. dial.edley. to paw the ground E. giving rise to the as. Fr. kabintis. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. cazer. Pm. to chew. tsammogni. dial. hot. to . to fasten oneself to another . s. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. — Ch-amberlain. difficulty . And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages.—Tutschek. to hang. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. camp. ciambellano. to move the jaws kiamt. caer. camerlengo. Chance-n3. fight. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. zampettare. campus. — Hal. kippo. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. a hook . The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. who stood ad cancellos. chaude mesUe. . Chancery. — masterly Sp. Magy. Fr. . gewolbt. . cadere. to fall. Campar. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to wrestle. kabinti. a hollow chanfreiner. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. bickering. gekrUmmt. chanfreindre. reusement — fight in single combat. Lat. rare. To hollow out in chanPtg. Gall. a court of justice. kiammi. Champarty. The E. . camp. To Chamfer. to quarrel (comp. cample). accidere. to wrestle. a scufSe. chanfrein. an athlete. pedilusor. to flute as a column. kanip. . Fr. The G. keiiipe.' ' Pr. to fasten on. to excel. dial. ON. Carpentier. to strive at games . game campio. surpassing. a feat. kriimmen gebogen. chajnbellan . or player at football. jeu parti. So in e. Du. tsamtsogni. E.' melleia. Chancellor. champ. Champ. kinipen. champ. to bevel. to slope. Commonly derived from campus. a bundle. Lat. champ.140 CHAMBERLAIN . Prov. E. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). boys speak of capping verses. kempa. excellent. fighting place. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Fr. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. . When the to quarrel. chance. hng. To cope or contend with. as swine. M. to fasten oneself on to another . from cheoir. a warrior. and mesUe. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to talk. to stick to. head armour. G. kimbu. chdance. chamfrain. contest. dricka i kapp. campus partitus . Champaign. certare. Chamfron. Meleare. from Fr. champ parti. sukibti. a jaw kianisa. to be eminent. mesleiare. — KiL . to fall). and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. The happening of things Chance. contend or argue G. kampen. to happen {ad and cadere. Lat. move the jaws. Sp. escazenza. to groove bevel off a right angle. kimppu (Lap. fight. Hence (with the nasal) w. to slope out the . kapp. a field of battle. calidameya. kempen. e. ing. from chaud. at the railings. . It will. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. athlete. luctare. cameratus. Fr. to hold . divided game.

kiceft. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. waterconduit. to coat. while the broader vowels a. Hence It. kjaakaa. chiappa. to cut. Chape. to chap at a door. to swap. hack . and also to chap or crack. 140. Chip. is used in the same sense . Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. to truck. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. skipta. to put on fresh clothes. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. a chap is a crack or fissure. kvar kjceften. as those on a trunk. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. chapear. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. debeant conjurare. the gutter that runs along a street. the clappers of the scupper holes. Sc. throat of an animal. chop. chapa. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. AS. a small plate of flat metal. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. —Ordericus Vitalis. from clap. esclapo. gab. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Commonly derived from capella. Lith. cantare. or the cracking of one. Fr. kaupa. chapeletas de imbornales. or the like chapar. as chancery . Cheek. A fellow. to spht a chip. See Chop. — . properly in a hard body. And N. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. a pipe. to strike. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Da. —Chantry. ceaflas. muzzle. to strike. chapelete de una bomba. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. a jaw. extended to other trades. Russ. . to cut up into small pieces. chancery. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. chapeta. as to chap hands. schimbu. Sp. Fr. That wide were sentin their spicery. To Change. to break . Bret. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. and the modern canal. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. to creak. to deal. chancellerie.^. leather. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to peck. a small metal plate Port.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. kapoti. kennel. as skin chapped hands. to plate. Chap. a strip of metal plate. jaw. chapilla. It is also used in the sense of the E. jaw. exchange schimbatoriu. as corn-chandChandry. Lang. like the knocking of hard things together. to paw like a horse . ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. schimbd. chandelier. to — cut. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. See Chant. Lat. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . ON. cheek. Walach. kiceft as well as kjakje. may be compared with ON. cobio. wood. from canna. chanter. a reed. to apply one flat thing to another. — : Lat. Aasen. kemma. exchange. lips of an animal. camjar. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. cangiare. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. chap. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. to strike with a sharp edge. Probably from chap. W. clapet. Chap. In like manner Walach. E. a money-changer. Chapel. as It. klepan. to change. Sp. are kept. flat . from chandler. Hal. esclapa. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. chaps. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. . These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. . I. also a clap. Hal. canalis. to peck. Man of Law's Tale. to sing. Molbech. shift. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. Chaps or chops. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. Channel. a dealer in candles then. ceaplas. Compare chark. not a soul. Chop. the place where candles ler. . kappen. to cut off . chap. . Fr. Du. Da. prune. cambium. — — —Marculfus in Due. to plate. the mouth. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. ^Jam. hard bodies. surfaces striking together. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. exchange. chop. Hence chantry. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. cambiar. to hack. the chaps . Chandler. 2. Chap. any hollow for conveying water. changer. Fr. cambiare. Prov.

Lat. bler. go. the nature of a thing. Charlock. It. kirkti. Sp. Yx. —— . Charlatan. krachzen). Prov. Fr. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. — — — turned to coal. chirlar. tegere. to chirp as sparrows. a rhyme. to love. to chirp. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella.' Boccaccio in Diez. a riddle. Charge.whirr. chara. It. OE. chirriar. that turned decken . Lay on. schreien. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. from capitulum. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. caricare. prattling quacksalver. from carrus. properly to place — . In that work the verb is written caire. Lang. gnash. to turn. a mark made on a thing. talking. * Charcoal. used in the sense of magic Fl. in turns. to tattle. to load . colliers that charred coal. ciarlatore. Boh. carregar. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. . The G. czurksti. carmen. Sp. wreath for the head. Deutsch.). — spell. canne. a cricket karkti (schnarren. kurkelis. chatter. to creak. AS. seems to be derived charade. to charcoal. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Sup. A weed among com AS. charlatan. Lat. Sp. Justin. Chirk. be- e. from gadai. charlar. of chapel.. Chapman. See Cheap. to . czirbti. to prattle. The crash. Charade. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. .charme. Charcoal was ciarlare. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. a charm. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. capital. capitolo. ceap-man. 2. w. hadka. as Pol. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Lat. turn about. grave or make incised marks on an ob. See Charlatan. from capa. to turn Gael. charcoal burners. ghirlanda seor garland. cerran. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. es ist mi cheer. siarad (pronounced — sharad). dim. charade. Bret. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. cearcian. charger. Character. Cot. twitter. Inst. Macduff. charitas. keeren. Swiss. affection.czirksti. occasional turn. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . wood to coal. to of the governing body. decken. chatter. carricare. car. chapel. clack. burning without consuming the substance. eapitulo. and in It. twist. capellare. cluck kirklys. dear. cluck. gaggle . cher um cher. to chirp. Mid. creak. a head or division of a book. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. chat. Chaplet. to sing or chirp as birds. to croak as a frog .Lat. charge an enemy is to lay on. as. carmo. a riddle. in To ness Charity. from cape or cope. An enchantment. a hood. called in Sp. Mundart. AS. w. enough. 370. creak. Ptg. char. beloved. Gr. babdistinction. turn. a garland of roses. Fr. babbling. eyre. corona. cabildo. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Fr. . a dispute . condo il volgar francese. To Char. . xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. Chark. return. kurkti. chirk. called kedlock. From Norm. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. — a car. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Chapter. Du. chapelet. Fr. It. dear(in both senses). surris seu Lat. cam. to prattle. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. a The OFr. capella. carus. charer. Chare. as a beetle. jabber. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. a merchant. a verse. it is my turn. from Charade. czurliwoti. tattler. to talk . wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. cha. gadka. a turn cerran. (eucharistie. &c. to dove . for the same reason rosario. Hence carminare. Fr. cedeleac. It. pohadka. caritas. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. which was incantation. chapitre. karout. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Lith. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. And damned be he who first cries Hold. ject). to converse. hiss Lith. a mark of a mountebank. the turtle pitre.

nommer. chatter. a branch and a young female. used to represent a sharp note. an enchantress. knatiern. chits. — — .— Chatter. from purus. Pol. csacsogany. See Card. csatora (Magy. discourse. the handle of a razor . also to germinate or spring forth.ppen. kna. clack. czysty. chip. a branch. to which it bears the same relation as chape. incassare. clatter. So in Gael. From carinen was formed It. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. or pop. kata-kata. chit-chat. prate. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. careful. Lat. — Fr. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. shivers. the calix of a rose. germinate .house. i. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. gazzolare. enchasser. cs E. to enchase it . to clap.. To Chase. gaddc. the noise of birds. or suckers on rough borders. be wide open. whistle. — Palsgrave. Fr. to chatter or prattle . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). a flock of those birds. to make a noise. little sticks cudere. to gape. gazzerare. noise. fragments or leavings of food. shout OE. cyrm. B. to crack. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. carnisj bones kept. to crack. Chat. An imitative word. csacsogni. chikat'. chykkyn (Pr. To Chase. gazeuiller. Fr. to cry as a chicken . I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. limpid. a crack or a flaw . clean. — sharp sound of a crack. Chary. karigh. to chirp as a bird to cheep. to baptize. Chart. Fl. In like manner Russ. also to hatch. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. To Chasten. chaste. Chasm. to cut and faggoted.a. chick. snap. jackdaw . a chatter-box. xi'i-'^vui. to care). carmen is presented in AS. scraps of for fuel. It. to wet. clean. It. a yawning. the bird is iiown. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. gadu-gadu. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. to separate in morsels. chit in the latter sense Du. Du. CHATS fit 143 to name. chip. chick. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. noise. — = Chats. from xoAn. as in the E. is to represent the chamier. cearig (from cearian. Kil. Fr. splinters. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. . parcus. To talk. V. The egg is chipped. as from nomen It. kastaa. ferire. whence a charm of goldfinches. —Charter. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. make a noise as birds do. clean. to talk. —Chastise. See Catch. s. csaterdzni. — The . talk. occasionally Forby. from pure. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. a shrine for a relic. prattle. To chip is then to crack. To work plate as silversmiths do. See Cistern. ch). — Hal. chit. as. . kata. flesh. to burst open. chisf. as we speak of olive branches. Lat castigare. as purgare Fr. Fl. a word. castus. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Parallel with E. ch&tier. sordidus. Magy. or equivalent forms. racket . or a bird out of the egg. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. pure. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. the cry of the bat. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. pure. knacken. It t. pure. cassa s. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. Pol. charm. charmer. magpie. Hal. warble. castus. G. eclats. schioppare. converse. gazzogliare. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. talk much . a gap. a twig Suffolk chaits. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. chary. OE. speak . are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. also a youth. caro. chair. It. Cot. Kil. Cot. la chasse d'une rose. Diez. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. chaste. gallan or ogan.). Chaste. to chirp. g. karg. —Jam. a plate of metal. Chat-wood. chip. to set a jewel. fragments. the young shoots . or the cry of a bird or the like. nome and . as turnip-chaits. clap. Chamel. tenax. carme and Fr. Pm. Russ. niggardly. geug. a young man . blackthorn-chats. kippen. clear. chat. root of the Lat. to chirp. It.— Chit. — Yorkshire chat. To chit. letters p. warble. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. D. gazzettare. —Bailey. %aafi. To chitter or chipper. Malay.). Fr. a churchyard or charnel-house. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. in Jam. crackle. tittle-tattle. Gr.

gig. It. caupo.— Cattle. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. . kakkaset. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Chattels. price. equiva. kaupiti. us. ceahhetan. to deal ON. Pm. laughing. to cough and hence either buying or selling. favour. Then. chear in the sense of victuals. . hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. giving or taking in exchange. welcome heartily. dchec. gagkezen. to nauseate (to retch). a rogue or person who used the canting language. chop. — — —Chowl. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur.— . sum in a loan. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. to buy. CHATTELS has ciio. a young boy or girl. to coup s. a dealer. cera.of the throat in coughing. with Dief. . e. from AS. Cot. sob E. cattle. the Confessor. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. NE. which is the word in ceap. cachinnari. kak. capitale. — We ' . sale. any cheating. ceafl. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. while it Bret. Modern Slang. Ek dry and hard. Check.' kezen. citello. from Lat. cheeks. which is used in the to stutter. Hence to cheat. It — Brompton in Due. teeth . force of the word. Slav. chuckle. and hence the E. the face. kaupa. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. the Lat. cita. keck.kakot. cara. goods. a dealer in horses. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. truffa. with the exception of land. to clear the throat . kik. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. Soc. stuttering. chatal. kauf. . OFr. visage. kok. Chear. changing. to chop and change. entertainment. to buy. a repulse. are represented piti. 144 the It. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. hawkmann. Bav. Ingulphus. chaptel. whence captale. Pro v. the tongue. in Fr. exAS. jaw. mandibula. retching. aspect of a man. to vomit. See Cheek. ceap. to act as a rogue. kichen. entertain kindly. It. a willing look and unwilling heart. tradesman. kakaista. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. kikottaa. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. lower. a piece of moveable property. to laugh. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. and. The gutGoth. ceaflas. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Du. Fr. catalliim. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd.. Fl. G. the countenance Fr. to swap goods . to . farm for farm. thers. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. horse-couper. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. a canting knave. to — .—Choke. agreeing upon. Gr. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. kaupon. a cheater. Sp.— Chole. OFr. et juxta catalla sua. — To check an account. in widely separated languages by the Lat. bon marche. giggling. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . frown. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. choule. chatel. koopen.. to coff—Yisi.ing. Cam. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Cheek. s. Lat.— Chaps. to cluck like a hen. stuttering. goods. to negotiate. Faire bonne chire. to fetch the breath with difficulty. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. gagkern. countenance. chapman. CHEEK zitella. Chew. lead to OE. upon a checked cloth.-^. to make inarticulate sounds in . syllables ^ag-. sense of bargaining. chiere. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. a tavern-keeper. ku. look. society. kaufen. snout. chire. 'li^'opa jord i jord.' to exchange to gasp. kek. Pr. Hal. See Chess. cattle. Sc.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. Fin. . prattlingchete. chavylbone or chawlbone. Cheat. KaviiXog.. jaws. to stutter gigken. cozener. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. cattle. Bohem. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Fr. &c. the principal ' colloquial E.

cireggia. jaws Sw. carnium. kjceve. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. Kil. It would Cheese. chevir. E. F*-. Hence chesten-nut. X'C&s. Lith. condition of being taken. cegio. whence czypulas. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. kok. ca' — . cyse.perly head. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. cheek. like a young chicken. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. castaneusj Fr. dear. quoka. frame by which the exertion is made. rennet. gapen. Lat. As the board to gasp i. czypti. See Chess. The Sw.their struggle for independence. a heap. to make a noise different word. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. G. cista. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. to prevent the attack of cavalry. kjakje. jowl. the hke. a rafter . veluti piscium. old bread. to hold dear. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. Jam. subacidus. to kep. gullet. gabe. See Case. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. (Kil. Cher. to accomThis they call hdrsk. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Lat. Pm. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. — — . chiffe. jaw . Prov. to year. cough. ichec. make an end. jaw. E. ceac. Fr. E. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. chests in OE. cufd. Sp. Fin. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Tutschek. the palate Chequer. Thus "we are brought din. as meat and butter. nish source. AS. to love. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. kaecke. cerasus. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. the loose the game of checks.Xo belch. To Cheep. ceaflas. e. Chevisance. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable.cirieggia. The name of creak as shoes. cabrio.peep in the same sense. . gill of fish AS. It. kdkel. mollium congeries. then end. prevail with. cheken. gous forms are G. /Ji2^/(W. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. to choke. . kasa. by laying it in come to an agreement with. ation. whence kasa-leipa. kesten. — 10 . Lat. geafl. Chess. cabiron. w. Fris. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . cheek. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. hasten. the final guttural is retained in writing. . ceg. chAtaigne. caru. suffo. gaghel. equal squares of opposite colours. Chekenyd or querkenyd. w. Chemistry. Cherish. to boken. Sp. G. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. Chef. squeak as a mouse. throat. AS. Analo. Chevaux de frise. chops.. Pl. caseus. cams. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Sc. kirsche. An imitative word. to heap up such things for the purchoke. Sw. jaws. rattle in the throat. chaps. skratt. achever. cherir. Du.D. Da. kastanie. to geahl. &c. giffle. geagl. food.pose of acidifying them kasadr. for cheese itself. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. by laying up in a covered heap. kdke. w. to choke with laughter. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. N. kastr. things Da.EP CHEVRON 145 on. CHE. kistej Lat. jouffle. kopen. accomplishment cayed. xaque. ost. — — . jaw. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. incaseatus. chesten. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. cese. dersen . kjcebe. a cricket. schach. kapen. E. Cherry. treat with affection. — — .' to w. as. kasiiUPr. cheeks. takes place in the formation of cheese. Fr. the throat. . Lith. made rancid koka. king). quok. kikna. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. OHG. Du.). to bring to an end. to gasp. acquisition. to gape gab. to swallow. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. to kasa. rupted into chess. Fr. the neck. gap. scacco. ceaplas. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Prothroat of an animal . clear the throat.D. throat.. caws. kces. chops. to belch. ON. schach. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Sc. the mouth. Fr. Achievement.G. See Alchemy. . chasi. Hence kikna is identical with OE. the The use of the word kcesir. Lat. Sw. mouth kek. From them the plish. ceocian. cheek.koppen. In these latter forms we see the transIt. cisty G. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. rafters in heraldry. AS. a chicken. kikna of dorum coacervatio. To make a shrill noise Chest. cerise j G. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Fr. chevron.

— shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. cib. has probably the same origin. lead through the synonymous E. cebr. captain. See Chimmer. the same principle I regard On birds. Brezza. aner. Probably from Fr. — It. a jaw. chikat'. De chic en chic. beam. sonorous.D. chiler. while didder is to shiver or citteren. chillness or shivering. Pr. a small cask OFr. kimista^ . E. chiquei. deer's horn. or qf people talking rapidly. — . machouere. Fin. Chill. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. Imitative of a loud clear sound. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. pole. Chief. a hen. Pl. to pettifog. a chicken. Pm. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. For the see word Doit. Now gan some courage unto him to take. tyuk. as.^ to resound as a bell. head. a quid of tobacco. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. jaws . a chicken.— Gattel. pipio. chew or chaw. tiukkata. pululo. chic. are formed Du. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. Kil. Magy. And hence. klagend tonen. as pointing out the origin of the E. chillar. cabarach. tremble with cold.peep. Child. capete. Lat. kidata. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. then cold. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. kauen. Chick. to twitter. Prov. Sp. to titter is Du. chillrar. horns of the house. Russ. knarren. Fin. to chirp or peep like a chicken. jaw. kimia. kopf Du. horn wood. pip. kime. Du. a little bit. kitista.' my finger tingles with cold.^ Hal. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to smart. cabar. jaw. into a continuous shriU sound. cica cica. to chew. queror. to gasp for breath (Hal. cap. a cup. keichen. tiuk. s. a chicken. chavel. Walach. — — Mother Hubbard. the rim or edge of a vase.D. gills of a fish. kippa. The loss of the syllable it in Du. strideo. A To Chew. stake. chimb. the head. acute. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. gosling. Fl. a finch. Pm. czypulas. kop. signifying properly shivering. Fin. E. chill. Gael. crepo.). kilderkin. AS. zitterti.. from the first of which is Lith. when the vibrations become very rapid. Payer chiguet A chiguet. tintelen van koude. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. or chick. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. chaps. to contest about trifles. It. Chime. cheek. antler. the least imaginable jot. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. to scold. kimme. kindeken. Bret. the throat. tiukka. kinderen. kauchen. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. to contest. to the brim. chicaner. — Du. the jole. capo.. or the broken noise of birds. a cup. Chitter. E. kibr. pipe. The Pl. Palsgr. branchy. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. to Du. caput. and not vice versd. 146 brial.. cild. cabar beinne. knit the brow cib-led. Pr. G. chin. choule. caprioru. W. w. twitter. pipio. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. a young bird. To Chide. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Du. ' . kaau•wen.-ill. chicken. mouth. chef. Chimb. Fr. to go. rafter . G. chawbone. a cup cibaw. a head. kouwe. to chime. the young of animals in general. by driblets. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Da. kind. to crackle. to use the jaws. cidan. . chieftain. grelot). but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. 'Among these the G. Swiss kiden. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. chicoter. knirschen. . rafter . creak. tiukkua. cabriones. in Walach. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. to raise the rim. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice .. kaw. capu. while the Magy. killen. or as E. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. tremble. kuwe. — Fin. also the horizon. Chigue. Fl. kauwe. term is ssaru fu. To chitter. alter. the Ptg. Tintillo. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. caferu. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. killen. . greloter is to shiver for cold. Fr. Chaw. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Halm. chavel. from little to little. Fr. CHEW .— . It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. and from the third E. pi. rafter. then as G. : — a lump. ]). chol. kieken. ach. ultimate origin of the Mite. quivering sound which passes. k'imm s. CHJME the radical form is unusual. mountain top . Gattel. from the second Lat. De finger killet mi for kalte.— Cot. the cry of young .

— . the cheek. bone . disCot. . Chink-cough. Chisel. Primarily a shrill sound. Pr. a chink or fissure. all these imitative terms being minata. Chyrme or chur. Diez de. komia. Huloet. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. sounding deep. do. Gascoigne in Todd. hollow. Fr. as a bell kommata. chatter . kinne. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. ter. E. part lion. czirszkti. the jaw. in Hal. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. which differ from each other only as Chirk. eschiner. chirp. have been used to designate the spine. genawi. To Chimmer. It. to open chirriar. clangor tinniens kummata. genou (pi. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. to sound. Fr. KinneGr. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. — . See Bright. fissure. a surkik hosta. tschirpen. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. esquena. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. hiss Pm. kumina. backe. To chink with laughter. to chink with laugh2. to simmer. G. cisello. to squeak in It. Bret. plodere. then to any narrow crack or AS. skina. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. spina. Ptg. tsongeni. ciseau (for cisel).' Phaer's Virg. a thorn. spina. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. 147 kimina. stridere. cisaille. cincel.to divide or Du. cheminde. and bodily movement in shimm. to creak. as the/ is preserved tering. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. cinne. from Lat. from the geon's lancet. To Chitter. cleft. as the chink of money. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Fr. a szemrcU. quivering or shakyng for colde. a hall Mid. Chimera. Chitterling. It.czirbti. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. It. G. Sp. Chine. to creak. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . applied to tremulous motion. Caminatum. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Chink.). to chirp. Prov. caminsects. tremulous motion. and light. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . CHITTERLING sonus acutus. the cheek (jaw) . kink hoest. Gloss. A . chick. — — — — — . to chink.er. a chap. and from a similar sound to boil gently. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. klincken. schiena. the jaw. The small entrails of a hog. Chimney. simmer. It. To chirp or twitter. from 10 * ' Chia. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Chit. Du. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne.Huloet in Hal. to chirp . backBut she withal no worde may soune. schrick. a fire-place. . tinnire. sonus the backbone Lat. gen.. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. gena. schetteren. Bav. kieck hoest. as birds the mouth.iron. a Kuttn. eschine. cinan. flaw Hal. dial. i. sonants. ciarlare. crepare. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Lat.. but or cry as a parrot. In the same sense. ykvvQ. caminata. Chat. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. esquina. hus. the whooping cough. the chin . Chitter. Pm. pare also Walach. Magy. verynge or dyderinge. name Then. also vibrans. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. then of a fabulous monster part goat. caperd. tsengeni. killed by Bellerophon. Chin-coug^h. The desig. to tremble. to prattle czirpti. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. schina. chhint. Sp. sound on beginning to boil. sparkle. The change from the sound ter \s. yivtiov. Hindost. See Chats. the chine. See Chap. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. et garrire . Fr. to prattle . twinkling light. zirpen. Sp. schetteringe. Sp. Lith. squittire. komista. Fr.schricken. bx-eak the back of schena.to chirp. Gower in Hal. to sizel. hiss chirlar. zirken. shiver and the chyver of Pr. keich husten. clipping of coin. chin . Kil. Chintz. are In like manner E. — . up and down. to murmur. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. eschin^e (de pore). . chink. fyr. resonance . way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Chip. Du. It. to chirre. to sound deep or the Gr. to chine. and the Du. in the same crack. See Chark. pork) . quavering of the voice. rustle. kumista. . the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. . representing connected together. or chyFrigutus. j^lf. chits. vincially used in the sense of a crack. E. a thorn. companied. the mouth (jaws) .sharp. — . to tattle. to gape. clashing of weapons. and chim-mer. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. epine. cheek. twitter caminus. AS.Lat. as a large bell . Chymerynge. Sw. Cot. sound.

friller. Chap. and in this sense the * small pieces. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. Choice. all seem slate . Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. To Chop.' At last he dwelt . to clap up Hal. cape. and Vf. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. kushevati. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. cive. kalbs gekrose. taste. chatter. chimp. pieces . pluck. OHG. Chuck-full. called cMtters in the N. try. Gr.' who shall not taste death. . kor6n.vonic languages are Pol. shiver. The I go to prove them. of E. Fr. keuren. and It. Yr. 19. gekrose. Equivalents in the SlaFr. rare. shoot . to tempt. causir. taste. Gr. a chive. The Sc. anger. it is probable that the root kus. from %u\i). Swab. word is more likely to be from Lat. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. in the same language. &c. to hack. to palpitate . to break off in small shive. chippe.' Verie coinme Cot. and in kosten. x^poc. — Cholera. kbhren. . Chives are also a kind of small onion. heaped measure. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. a blow. caperd. to exchange horses. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. scheve. to turn. Fr. chceur. to ing is doubtless to taste. to ^cleave . From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. schoch. —Chorus.— B jag E. haslets. developments of the same radical image. &c. a scale or fragment P1. curly . disposition. See try. a wine taster. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. a calf's chaldern of E. Cavalry. an onion. Lat. chaup. to taste. prove. a twittering. to taste. Chivalry. signify to kiss. chawdron. to Compare also Pol. kruszki. As kushnuti. seallion or unset leek. krussyi. whence choleric. by the vibrations of sound or motion. a goose's giblets. civette. to chap at a door . also calPs. schiefer. Swiss kust. to try. choppe. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. kiusan. chattering. arkiusan.V)^x. The . g'schochet voll. xiv. experience valerie. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Enn Sigridur sem ' . Schmid. to wrinkle. CHOP kros. fine threads of flowers. to try. a knight. crammed Choir. from kraus. approve. kiusan. Choleric. then to shiver.gust. Body and Soul. a rag. to strike hands . ments of the knightly class. G. ruffs. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. Goth. Boh. kiezen. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. a ruff or frill. a small slice or slip of anything .ceosan. ^S. to try . ON. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. kusid. gustare. chiffe. to taste .freze. Gr. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. coro. chock full.. kausjan. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. a calf's pluck or chaldron . — Chock-full. the small parts of the roots of plants. to taste. ON. Serv. whence Lat. cke. propagated. Fr. . to taste. chife. I. skifa. as green as leeks. The manners and senti. the inwards of an animal. cepa. full. — — — .. Choice is probably direct from Fr. full to overflowing. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. chives. wkusit' prikushat. . to shiver. gusten. G. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . Chives. a heap.yEuffM. fresure. kieser. kushati. and N. to try. bile. try. . to choose. gdnse gekrose. Jam. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. %o\ifa. chap hands. a company of singers or dancers. a fragment. Walach. wein didder for cold. or original meaning is preserved in G. then to try. as with a blow. chorus. kaup. ent quarter. are used in the same sense. to chap. to stop geschoppt voll. To Choke. choix. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. * To Choose. schevel-steen. kustigen. Luc. . 2. to taste. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. cut up into — See Chats. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. kiesen. Warwickshire coff. lead us on to Lat. by which they are Fr. wrath. i. a ruff. •- Russ. from chevalier. koren. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. chibble.D. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. to experience. ^euw. to prove. of an angry — — — ' ' — . okusyti. the ridges prove. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . G. . coup. select.ffrill. a young . an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. — See Cheek. keypa. Prov.

— Quabbe. in i6io. soul-couper. whence — E. chop. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. Nominale in Nat. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. xop5>}. noble Doctor. cangiare. short piece kubbug. and we actually find champman for chapman.X. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. as Du. in Chaucer. 49. P. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. to speak thieves' slang.' They are forebuyers of quheit. cob. chroniques. a trafficker in souls. civetta. cresmeau.• — . Anachronism. chevane. A jackdaw. monedula. capitone. prattle . chrisme. Come. dial. E. chouette. Alchemist. cavena. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. syllables chat. that will thank chiaus — you richly. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Jam. &c.. a lump or piece chump.— Chevin. for to defraud. as in Fr. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. Du. chack. yiSA.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. ceo. connected with G. or miller's kaycke . to knock. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. E. e. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. sent before him a Chiaus. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. caker. — — — . chub. Du. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. fat. To coup. to strike in the hand. cauvette j Fr. Chopino. Fr. to cant. the intestine of an animal.). From the Turkish Chiaus. .—Chuokstone. If I discover. to clack. 4. a thick piece. cow-couper. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. chouquette. whence the Fr. cheviniau. i. one who buys and sells horses or cows.\^s. kaw. xpi'^lia. to chatter. klompe. gold. a small fish with a large head. chapineria. kowej Sax.povucd. Lat. -chron-. ley in Giiford. kaufen. Borgoens happen. the string of a musical instrument originally. thick-set. xftovoq. In the Alchemist. kobe.(. Chub. whence apparently the Sup. AS. See Change. e. Chord. Chronicle. kaulhaupt (club-head. dealing. The Turk was here As one should say. koppe. Chough. an offence against the fitness of times. E. Peace. E. capito. caqueter. claquer. equivalent to the E. choucas.sohola. kauwe. high clog. time ra . — Dief. a stump. kubbr. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. a messenger or envoy. chuet. bearand aits.' Jam. cambiare. quappe.). applied to an owl in that language. gobio capitatus. merchant. caphatenus. Fr. clat. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Chrysalis. What do you think of me. . kubb. chapin. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. XpvaaXic. Ant. Fr.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. ' ' What's that? Dap. klopper. Gr. forms are Chrism. chapma?i. cheap. of which such strings are made. Sw. by the Robert Shirley. In Sc. kolbe (club). To Chouse. chevane. Kil. OE. slipper . a The What dhy ^. chrysalis (Plin. Fr. the same word with the It. a bullhead. kowe. Sp. Confounded with the bullhead. See Chaff. because she would not endure this husband chopping. chevin. kaej Lith. who took in the Turk- clack. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Gr. gull. Fr. chatter . Chuck. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. ON. Picard. we find the following passage Dap. plump. — . shop where clogs and pattens are sold. traffic. to overturn. clogs.. thumb Fl. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. A fish with a thick snout and head. I bring you the Cloughs. chronicles. — Chrisom. capita. the teeth to chatter . pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. That Face. to turn over. which was written 27. —Shakespeare. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. cauc. gull. p. Cot. To Chop logick. from kloppen. Gr. Marin. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. whence e. overset. peace.— Landnamabok. dial. Madam. capitanus. Gr. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. G. Wall.

a resounding object. karl. Gr. or. G. Church. e. . cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. See Cheek. chife. kiorne. Du. i. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. to strike clatter. sindel. a miser. chops. chuffy. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. sindra.. kirna. a man. fat-cheeked. chack or stane-chacker. a girding on. whence deciduous (of trees). AS. cado. or choice part of a thing . As AS. -cisuiri). Lat. whence church. chofu. in the face. as a board. * Cinder. so as to make the happen . ON. in circumcision. lamak. marrow. kjami. Da. to turn from blossom to fruit. in Sc. ceffore. a cutting an old chuff. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Cider. Gothic nations. See Cheek. dial. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone.' he adds. Cieling. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . domhnach. To chuck in the fall from. &c. cinctus. gffe. to make a aiKipa. to form grains of butter.rendered by Kil. ciuffo. spuma metalli. — of the two words. See Ceiling. to him a sudden blow.— Chu%. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. male person. to churn. sinter. AS. Diss. comp. to fall.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. ccedo. we have to chack. Sicerawry face ceffata. the kernel. . countryman.V//a'6'?. ON. ceffo. that the word is an adoption of Fr. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. a pebble. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . kaerle. The origin ation. calx. joffu.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Sc. -eris. Gr. however. Lat. to jaw chack or snap. Fr. to To Chuckle. chack-stone. -cide-. sicera. to cut decide. 24. cheeks Cincture. geaflas. KvptaKolg. Lat. Chunk. kernjen. C^z^j^ churHsh. Cleland in Jam. ceaplas. to separate the kernel of the milk.D. scoria. In Sc. Wall. cidre. to cause the milk to grain. chofe (Grandgagnage).' And cold. Fr. Ir. ladre from Lazare. to throw out sparks. . then the on oh StX iv roXt. tindra. an old man. pith. cinis. the snout of an animal. cendre. swollen or puffed up Cot. thence a belt. ceaflas. -cise. kakka. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). pp. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. &c. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. kerl. to determine incision. Wall. It is certain. Sw. sintel. calculus. to Newsp. -cido. a fellow. a husband. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. Du. accido. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. KaxXij?. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. chakil. a man. -cis-. klakka. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Hence -cid-. Aasen. a douse on the tores. flower. whence ON. Probably from It.for the residue of stone coal. set kerti. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything.— . ChurL husbandman. Fris. ceorl. Du.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. . and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. incido. . a rustic . cinders used disjunctively. to fall at or on. jaws. a cutting round. to sparkle. as in E. dust. Churn. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. log of wood. — . IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. G. joufflu.^. — — A — ' ' — . chaps. e. as Fr. to gird. kern. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). has been impugned which it has really no connection. The derivation from Kvpiasov. a pebble . cut off. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. with It the Lord's house. Cob. ON. Jennings. x^^i?. surly. to fall upon decide. a lump. ashes. from Lat. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. Chuff. tie about). tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. but by way of explan. i. from Lat. to make a rippling noise. sive piratiam facere sciant. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. have given rise. The spelling of chider has Chump. blow on the I io6 in Mur. as Epkema explains it. Lat. Ka-^aiva.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. residue of burnt coals. casum (in comp. OFr. a man. as water running over rocks or stones. sindr. cinctura {cingo. . cheek. giffle. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier.

. clasp. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. clapper. fall. It. lump. to call. Cot. klappe. to knock. We . The notion of a lump. Du. . as in Sp. lump. Clam. or quill to draw waier through Fl. Bohem. -cis-. in the frequentative form. may cite w. klemte. ON. glambar. Recite. outcry. klepati. sound. sip.' sione. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. clamare. glam. Dan. — (Dozy) ing blow. a reservoir Probably from Lat. circle. around. Clump.to suck. Lat. cit^. klqb. clog. lucerna. Mack. to make to go. a. * Ciplier. klacken. The Gr. Sw. to appeal. G. To Clack. clot ON. Comp. and Sp. cifra. a circle. Clamp. kringr. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. . a loud uksa slamketi. and clash. clamp. domern. clapping of klacke. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. —Circuit. the place of . with an initial s instead of c. a hiding-place. prattle. Gr. claim. a mass. . cry. klambr. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. 'mass. a'upiav. clat. civilis. clack-box. to mention. dob. So a light. CION See Tinder. rattle . a judgment cern. . crack. mass . Sp. Excite. cisterna. wasserkasten (water chest). citujn. E. cista. —Civil. a rattle . to set in motion by means of the voice. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. cisterna. klamp. stimulate. prattle. Lap. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a knob. a lemon tree. trunk. noise — — a cistern. a block. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. ring. clap. a block. Alt. . circ2tlus. suck). vociferation. chijfre. G. cion. cry out . whence cistiti. klappen. crack. a circle. twig. to clatter. bunch. clobyn. a boss . a whirlwind. a Pol. a ball. E. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. or split with noise. a Lat. It. a city. ON. as caverna from cavus. sprig. is traced by Gr. biw. . to bawl. klacke-busse. To Claim. a young and tender plant. cluster. ciste. area. log. a clod Russ. cittade. clamer. klammer. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. and. We . klak. a shoot. klimp. a ball. clap. globus. cittd. accordingly find the roots dab. to clack. clamras. a circle. Du. circum. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a cleansing place. rattle. klopati. Cite. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. a pop-gun. cito. compared with It. ern. Hal. from chupar. lump of wood or with the nasal. claquer crash. lash . babble . chest. cieo. Sw. Gael. Citron. to cleanse. klubb. slam. claquer. a ring. klumbr. a rattle Fr. to chatter. a kind of rattle. to be empty. circa. In Fr. clamp. about. KpiKoe. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). to strike. cittadella. city. kringla. Arab. kluV. a for water. lump. It. klater-busse. sound- — hands figures. klekotati. radical identity of the Fr. . sifr. smack. hringr. ruin. clack-dish. dim. Circum-. W. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . clump. klompe. &c. excite. sphere gleba. a kind of pipe. a split. Lat. to toll . civis. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Hence Incite. for Cion. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. to call by name. to summon or call on. bunch . a citizen . ter. Chaste. Scion. The syllables clap. * Cistern. klap. clambar. glamm. Lat. City. Dan. clatCot. scion or sucker. clangor avium . claquet de moulin. . a place See place hiddern. . clack. Citadel. to go. sajira. sindri. lump. a cistern. Gael. of citta. noise. -cite. citrus. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. crack. civitas. to cluck. Fr. See -cid-. and E. chupon. castus). lump . as. Lat. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. uproar.— . chupon. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. klump. klabb. klateren. Fr. Lat. Circle. ON. a lump Lat. Gr. claquer. or clap-dish. See Crankle. to call. . to chatter . scion. . empty Golius. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. the door was slammed J slamem. gutter. around. tinnitus . Fr. creak les dents. a lump Du. From Arab. to clap at a theatre. Du. cion. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. clack. KipKog. to cry out. Lat. to chatter. a whip. to gnash the teeth. parallel root is slam. ball kloben. See Circle. a city. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. circum. a clod. forms — — — parent plant. Lat. sound of blow. chatter . belonging to cities or social life . the tongue. Fr.

beat. Dan. to climb. to Sw^. pinching. from birdlime. G. cream Manx doan. accent. substances of a stickydam. To clap in E. to knock. Fr. closely analogous to that of the fast. viscosity . B. Clap. Clang. c). Halma. G. rattle. tingle. klibber. klemmen. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. klepati. hold. clann. to pinch. dee. to hold to pinch. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. holdfast. dambar. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. sound. and hence to pinch . to climb. klamre. coagulated cream. as the Lat. also to clog up. dapier. prison. G. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. glambar. klepel. Hence the Fr. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klammern. strait. dia. cluster. and that from celo. dienklebber. from the w. chatter. klamme. sound of the trumpet . of which the locative case. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. to hide. The root which gives rise to klibb. kluppel. klam7n. to patronus. a noose . the in many languages. resonance klingen. G. uproar. to Hal. celo produces Fin. klynge sig op. Clamp. . massy. The equivalent of Lat. dial. ancestor. a sound made by a lighter clink. clav\f. dang. with cramp-irons. G. klippe. klappen. tenacious. Mampe. clang. is used in the sense of secretly. klimmeii. solid. clap. dapier. clandestine. clajnmy. a bird of prey. to gingle. clibby. but perhaps not directly from it.p correspond- ' without order. descendants . whence sala. E. stick. The E. AS. To Clamber. klepanie. klem-vogel. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. bandage. — Lat. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. kloben. yf. a whip. a heap of stones. Clamour. contraction. privately. klobber-saen. Swiss kldbem. dam. sticky Hal. Du. G. to seize. to beat. is a nasalised form of gripper. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. anything hidden.er. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. offspring. clear sound. to glue. — Cot. salafa.. sound object . and hence moist. to clap. klappre. Clan. to climb. klebern. strain . to glue. to climb .' klibba. Bav. sound. klappen. a stone See Claim. to hook things together. Russ. gum. Swiss kletten. to daub pinch. — — . kleppen. Gael. a heap of stones or other things piled up . a claw. clapper of conies. beating. adopted Lat. The Fr. Lat. . tight. to climb. to. clasp. grimper. run to lumps Clandestine. klettern. bond. cramp. to climb. dink Du. dam. Du. who occuG. klamm. a sound made by a still . to clap on. Bohem. gliong. to knock. Clink. dandestinus. Sw. originally a heap of large stones. of money Gael. gripe. tinkle. To sticky. Clapper. diver. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. a burr. clangor. seize. scendants. sound . knocking. hands or claws to grasp. pressed close or hard together. salaan. klubber. Du. for tame conies. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. crowd . rumour. A i. dam. Dan. viscous. clink. to claw oneself up. a place underground where rabbits breed. These are imitations of a loud. children. klampen. clamber. Lang. a stick. . These words To are closely connected with damp. hook. to clamp. E. to stick or glue. Salainen. — Climb. E. a sound. daver. in a hidSen place. klammer. to do anything with a clap.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. dam immediate modifications — . tattle. . cramp-iron. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. clapas. compress. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . damor. Clank. . to dame. clammy brace. dapi^. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. OE. brawl. dientes. klatten. a craCmp.' to take coals to Newcastle. compression. a rattle . conceal. kleben. klemmen. chatter. dial. Dan. klynge. klank. cleave. klette. klavre. In like manner Du. a loud tingle. a claw . where- A — unto they retire themselves. E. to clutch or cling oneself up. See Clam. to cling. club . . klopfen. of the children. a hawk. dap up. nature . B. dren. dank. narrow. klang. G. tremble . or klamp-vogel. kleppe. — . From small tribe subject to a single Gael. chief. as the clapping of hands. — with hunger. take hold of. ring as metal. to cleave or stick. to starve. grasp. klam. ney. apprehend . Dan. to stick conceal.1. to hold fast with the . children. kleppe. dem. damras. a trap. buckle klamp. &c. Du. klemmen. cling. tone. clap. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion.

klatschen. klos. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. a bunch. an on the one hand. — Clarinet.It. to patter. to rattle . locket of a door. vin claret. Eau clairette. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. rion. ansa. Thus from Lat. i.w or u on the other. contraction. insularum nexus . from the resemblance to a key. From claudo. Lat. Class. ghespe. sauna de classes. Rayn. clatter. ictus resonans. a complete sentence. clavus. in the sense of a mass or lump. as it is written by Chaucer. Claw. klc^i. Identical with ON.ck a whip. compression. fracas. mass. vinum helvolum. Mask ! plask ! thwick. fragor . clairon of a trumpet— It.Gr. The b readily passes into gleba. uproar. and shrill-sounding trumpet. a clasp. Fr. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. — Clarion. the collar-bone. chiizjj-o. to ring in such a manner for the dead. same class with w. Lat.\x\xvn.to cra. a lump. ivy. Du. stop of an organ. E. a club or massy stick. a key origmally a crooked nail. a sphere . Nightingale. mass. to fasten. globus. In E. But clasp or elapse. So Pol. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. biichse. Claret. kleeven. K\a. under three modifications dava. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. klampe. to clash as arms. somewhat clear. Pol.). 269. Clavicle. To clew. chiarino. klaeret. from clinging to the tree which supports it. whence kleuer. klamme. pet. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. row aii/iaTos. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Prov. a water made of aquavitse. Dan. globus. klatschen. to cleave.. a claFr. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. a. It. to draw it up into a bunch. The form clew. e. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. a little hook . clamp. Clatter. seizes) . clump. to animals Sp. Klatsch- a pop-gun . puUs. claw (what fastens together. applied in their harness. clarinado. a heap. sound of the foregoing description. gaspe. klouwe (Kil. a distribution of things into groups. a key. Thus from clamp. claret win e. cloi. also a knell for the dead. crying. klampvoghel. as G. a kind of small. to do anything with a . a claw. biichse. Fr. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Analogous Jam. &c. klucz. diver. to knock. or as G.Z. clarin. thwack . Cot. — Kiittner. Du. waU. the primary origin clapa. chiarello. Clash. which signifies a ball in E. Owl and that by which cleave to. —Kil. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . nail. buckle. and clavis. bawling. Sp. In the same way is formed the OE. klatscha pop-gun. . clausum. teren. forms are the Du. Sw. cluster. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. clopa. subrubidum. chiaro clear. rubellum. Wyutoun in Jam. kiosk bicza.— CLARET clamp. from its use in fastening things together. skeria-klasi. with a reddish tint. sphaera. From clairet. klauw. klaterbusse. noise. klase. and old red rose-water. clairon. Fr. it is called clamming. flap. vin clairet. chatter. Du. syrtium junctura. Originally clasis. Clause. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. glcis. thence a definite head of an edict or law. a lump . but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Russ. the cracking of a whip. pellet . Serv . is preserved in Lang. is used in Sc. clew or fasten upon a thing. hawk. — tells us. KXeiSi. clavis. kleuen.oi. to fasten together . Nawith stavis. klaequivalent to clack or clap. klaskad. &c. klouwe. climp. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Lang. we pass to the E. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. . schnalle. a bird with powerful talons. clair. klijven. cinnamon. Eya-klasi. Clasp. kluczka. The collar-bone. as Mod. to end. Du. Du. dap. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. clew. hook. klauwe. from scknallen. clas. chasguear. It. classis. klatsche. Clew. a buckle. assembly. fibula. a clod. straight-mouthed. and through v into a. blab. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Lat. a nail. Lat. a ball. G. Kil. a lash. to clap . Du. clausula. klot. kletse. to shut. nawith stanis. an ending. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Commonly made. to snap. a. Gr. a key KKtitid. in the sense of a claw.

G. to 2. klouen. Die zaak is zS. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. . A — A Clement. clean. glorious. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. is fast and sure. to glitter. G. Sw. kloben. split. B. tongs. kluftholz. klieuen. cloven wood. Clemency. glitnir. bright. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. radiant. the original . famous. bogs cous. glbram. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. clay . glint. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. dedgy. and Dan. cliquet. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. klinke. glan. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. kluit. pure. doggy. dag. . that was a striking proof. in two ways. Sw. voice. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. clemens. glan.— . a in that of sphtting. Thus from G. neat. to shine . a key. clibby. Du. clear. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. Du. rivet. the To Cleave. speech . to cleave. explained from the klinken. klov. provinciaUy termed dout. From clap. klutsch. that was Torriano. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. and. clout. viz. . polished. kldnkelein. klinken. neat. to clinch GB. a mass. — : A rivet. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. polish . glandse. mud. klyft. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. glindse. klafwa. Lat. to stick or adhere . rive. loam. lump. clean. gaklankjan. as Fr. to clench. shine. to dag ox dog. sticky . glance . a claw or talon. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. kluft. a noose. Lat. hook. kleben. . to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. Sc. conserere antklankjan. Omklinken. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. Mar. to tear or cleave asunder. dinquet kleeven. klirren. sticky. a fissure. holding together. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . danche. door-latch. dams. a lump. Da. it cleave together. Wilbraham. daggy. glor-mhor. an object is simply cleft. pure . G. date is AS. Dan. W. clean. This word is used in two business is finished off.— Clag. kleevig. kloben. together . ON. vice. vissticky . kla:g. dags. give a shrill sound Jr. klink. Gael. Fr. pretty. G. clear. a cleft or fissure. Probably a modification of the word doitt. and E. smooth. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. See Clog. nitidus. to fasten. Clear. Da. a one end. splendid pohshed. klincke. Du. glbr. Sw. klinka. to sound or make a noise . klinke. to chink. pure. kloben. kleg. the latch of a door. G. From dob. a cleft. to clinch a nail. kleg. klieben. clean. from the clinking of the latch. Cleat. clink. Halma. a bunch of When flax). sleek. from diquer. E. Du. a mass. Clinch. to stick to. rift. merciful. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. to be composed. Du. geklonken. Clean. klinke. The Dan. i. river. E. E. gentle. gingle. kloue. the fork of the body. glatt. a clincher. either by the coherence To Clepe. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . To Clench. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to fasten E. 2. klouen. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers.Q. Kil. This is probably one of the clean. or from being divided into two parts. 154 CLAY dutch. glent. Cleft. chaps in the skin. klinken. a flash. The word may be — . a fissure or division See Cleave. clash. clear.— Claggy. to separate into parts. Clay. as the Du. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. words applicable sight. kleverig. or of a tree. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. a latch. Du. . a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. bend in a stream. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. to clink or sound. deot. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. to Brilliant. doff. as explained under G. calm. ON. the two parts of Du. found in other cases. The proper meaning of the word is shining.' was nailed to a rock. viz.). klinken. dial. as Lat. cleave. a — — . a cleft. Da. The word is . Sc. seem formed dial. kluyte. ON. glan. dench. klank. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. and Celtic glan. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. a lump. AS. (Cot. a noise. klor. a plate. klove The Dan. to fasten. glitta. celebrated . . opposite senses. as ON. See Clam. from nitere. Bav. klijveii. klag. Axletree clouts. klceg. sticky earth. gleit. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . dut. To call. klirre. diquetcr. to shine. pellet.

The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing.Lat. KkrifoQ. cliof. cligner. score7i clif. kliket. Now the OE. frap- per rudement une personne. cliquer. Cot. Fr. derigon. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. dicher. click it. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. lively. one of the clergy. agile. region not observe it. Clever. Boh. from Gael glac. Sp. We movement catch. neither as having lordship in the. and hence deik.— Clue. klaiv. to teU tales. a cleft in a rock . is NE. clep. crackle. a mill-clack . 3. Klover i munden. abrupta rupes . in the sense of active. clatter. a claw or clutch. Client. a baU of yarn. Du. claw or talon to dek or deik. G. as a click with the tongue. diver. dink. what so men clappe or crie. scar. kleppen. a clicket or clapper. kleppe. CLINCH De . dergi. to sound an alarm to clap. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. say. light-fingered. corresponding to the Sc. ized . Claw. deuch. icXi/ja?. a clew. a tumbril. to confess . above the pole.' ii. clerus. stein- kluppen. OE. Lat. quick in motion. cliquet. exactly Gr. dek. klaffen. to snatch. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. call. The Sc. had a form. dichet. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . a child's or clack . temperature. littus. or an object character- Clerical. rugged ascent. expeditious. clima. Dunbar in Jam. click. Jam. globus. to rattle. duik.dergie! Wiclif in R. a latch. klok klep- crepitare. seize (Hal. duke. a hold. to catch. a cliff. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. dever. as Lat. klikker.. that is a clever feUow. from clifian. klouwe.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. klika. /cXi'fia. in precisely the same sense as the E. Clerk. a lot. Du. e. Sc. precipice. a ladder. klippe. rock. clyf. Climate. See Clench. diofian. to bend. klev. IS5 Du. ready of speech. . catching.). the dick of a latch or a trigger. Commonly derived from deliver. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. . chatter. Du. a hook. cleft in a rock. hamraklif. dial. Det er en Mover kerl. the clergy clericus. a clerk . with hamarskard. rapidus from rapio. pulsare. call. to clack. Rouchi cliche. slope . clever. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. as Sc. ginally from dob (extant in W. Click. and hence climate. dexterous. nimble. chat. cleopian. dough. on. Clam. Happen. skard. a lazar's clicket or clapper. dook (identical with E. klinge. glomus. dial. to move. clif- stanas. &c. cleke. cave . chatter. See AS. kliv. cliff. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. or Sc. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. cautes. See Clamber. whence Fr. diquette. crack. de ripa.— Clicket. the knocker of a door. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. klinket. AS. dob. declivity. clap. to stir. rupes . d See Clan. CLERK sound of a blow. Bav. clif. klippe. to tattle. highest is attained. to prate. -Toe (from KXivm. Gr. has kl'dver. as from derido. which in Mid. klinke. in rhetoric. Clergy. a lump. would have been derida. and (with the nasal) — clincher. to tattle. babble. to wink. sink. a figure mentioned. name. Da. gleg. Climax. Hence Lat. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. snatch. klever. Norm. a trigger. clypian. crepare. klif.) Brai. climate. deik. corresponding to Fr. —Vocab. cleft. derjon. one admitted to the tonsure. cart that tilts over. it must be observed. Somner. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. — have the notion of a short quick in E. precipices. In I Peter v. an inclination. pen. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. a hump. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. G. has also deik. deudi. click. Lat. Clew. dutch). clever. to cleave. quick of perception. verge). sonare. speak. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. The origin is the Gr. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. derecia. rock. derigo. prattle. kloof. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. cleft of a hill. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . a latch . the clergy. to catch. on. deuck. Climb. 3. dial. chatter. to cry. to talk as a parrot. — — A . . deik. a ball of twine. a latch. klikklakken. Lat. syn. But the Dan. Cliff. clack. . a precipice. Sw. click. ravine. which is used in Scotch and N. cleugh. a sphere. to seize. Chaucer.

to snip. Fr. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. . Hal. klynge. clivus. fetter. kldpp. or bagging clothes. rima. . to wither. dag. a clock. . In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. klungeln. to beat. Sw. nip. Clock. a cluster. gUong. klo^gen. and 'E. dial. hluk. toga muliebris. disposed to a thing. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. globulus' (Gl. declivis. Bi klik uti klak. to lean backwards. Du. to pinch klupe. klungelin. to form one mass with. straits. to clip. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Du. Fr. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. sticky. Een kliks bolter. Swiss klokken. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. incline. — clot. — a mantle. klocka. Cliofue. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. G. OHG. klicke. knippchen. pinch. Sw. sloping downwards .'— Shaks. Clink. a lump. compress . See Clang. See Cowl. hooded . bow. to snap kneipen. slant. a bell. Swiss klungele. kleppe. klunge. klaka. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . as to snip in the same sense from snap. E. -cliv-. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. recline. as we now say three or four o'clock. quincailler. The notion of a loose moveable substance. klinka. klinken. kima. to clunge. G. clingan. clutch. a woman's mantle .. Cloak. kXiVu.. w. knot klynge. noise. Sw. brett-glocke. To Clip. ' . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klak. E. tuft.. sloping forwards. pallium. to cluster. cloche. clangere. kluben. dial. . kluppe. Lat. Pl. kolbe to E. to beat on the board. 2. verklungeln. Esthon. To stick to. Da. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. . Flem. ten. klocke. clog. as thick or curdled liquids.D. whence E. hluccti. related to clock. to wither. to shrink up. kliks. knippen. chcng.D. Ir. G. Bohem. Bohem. -atum. iissura. claw. to clap or clack. I. to strike. clique. to AS. . klok. Decline. klipa. 'Till famine cling thee. shears. cloak. to crowd together klynge sig ved. to clink auf. as G. difficulty. . ON. club). klupen. ON. parva ruptura. and a similar syllable without the /. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. clinke. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. speaks of a ' clung bat. clips.— Clot. to snap or fillip schnippen. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. a beU. a tinman. incline. knippe. glocke. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church.' From Pl. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. like cling. Ang. met. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. kukla. a lump G. ON. -CLINE make pinch. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. kolki-laud. outcry. 156 -cline.' for a dry stick. klippe. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. especially of something soft or clammy. cochl. to slope or bend . Sw. a faction. Gr. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. klippa. Du. klincke. glungelin. a snare. schnippen. ring clag. pinch. . clinker. clato make a noise. G. to resound. in Schmeller) klunk. Sussex peasant AS. To cut with shears. &c. four of the bell. klippa. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. a ball of thread . clock is a variation of clack. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. a separate portion. also to wink . and so' to contract. to lean.ginglej Fr. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. * Clod. to cling to a thing. to bend downwards . clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack.— KSS. Kil. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. Du. klippur. klingen. by bits. clino. Gael. to sound sharp. klocke. a rising ground. at first probably on a wooden board. klunker. a bell. G. S w. Sw. dial.und zuk-lippen. . Walach. sloping upwards procUvis. N orman clincailler. gang. to make a loud noise. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to knock. G. to pinch. g. Serv. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. a clog or fetter for a beast . difficulty . a hood. The E. to snap tongs. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klik. klepalo. dial. from klepati. klippen. To Cling. acclivis. toga. kol- The word . hlinian. also to form a compact mass. to ring. Lat. to . hill . to crowd or squeeze chingy. to shrink up.. a lump of butter. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. hlinen.

In the same way Dan. a field inclosed clos. Pr. or Sc. Du. klos. klod. Idppern. slop. dirt. loblolly. Klak also. klunkern. to cling locks. of something clammy or heavy. boil. shut up. to dabble. thick sour milk. miry laggerit. a bal!. shaky. claque. curdled. wabbling from Du. A . shut up. an imputation. schlattern. The origin of clod and clot is to . analogous plan to clod or club.rge lump. Pr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. . tuditare. clotted locks Dan. we pass to E. enOE. a clod Swab. to bodies.D. forbidden by 17 Ed. Fr. to sup up liquid food. 3. separate part. It. dab. to spill liquids. to flap as loose clothes. a trowelful of mortar. . a dirty wench claggy. . motzen. whence klack. schlottern. bespotted with mire E. Klottermelck. daustrum. To Clog. -cludo. to bubble. Fr. clog or overshoe. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. E. to rattle or shake to and fro. slabberen. laggery.— Clothe. clausum.1a. lopin. ! .' end. wide bagging clothes. mire. clorre. figer. blot. loose trowsers. klot. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. lopperig. Clog. is a blot on one's character. we pass to Schlatter. in accordance with It. neither spot nor hang loose. daggerey. . a babbler. to shut in. klac. from claudo. Hence inclose. bowl . lump of something soft . klotzschuh. pattens G. Du. chiuso. . Mat. E. slob. . in accordance with Pl. clot. -close. Close. G. lob. zoccoli. spot of dirt. to shut. to shut up. zocco. a block. -clus-. dunch). clos. g. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. claudo. lump of butter. log. Swiss schlott. clatk. Sc. is connected with pludder. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. IV. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. mud klcEg. closed. Russ. . G. like G. Cloister. clogs for the feet klakk. AS. I clodde. Pm. fors. and E. claggy. Fr. a log. to slop or spill liquids. paddle or dabble in the wet. klateren. from Du. clausum. Lat. . spatter. Bav. loppered (of milk). paddle. to dash like heavy rain. kloten. da- . tramp in wet or mire. a Christmas log. slobbe. klotz. dial. splash. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. inclose. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. a monastery. watery. doitre. a clog. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. or E. I clodde. a blot. kloteren. lunch.dial. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. . lobberen. Closhe. truncus.. or drablyn with separate existence. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. fat. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. unctuous. klakk. in comp. The game called ninepins. without. to lobberig. thick spoon . aspersion. kleck or lack. to claggock. clos. TZoxapov. clammy loam. I doda clod. . His heart was franlc without a flaw. lobberen. in forms like Du. of a body of any kind. Fr. rattle. foreclose. klos-bane. a portion of something soft and adhesive. -clusum. lump of mud on the clothes .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. mud. pludre. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. kloteispaen. klakken. loose mud. congeler. bemired. a log. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. laggyn.D. loppe. to play at bowls. kloster. be&c. . a blot. . MHG. a lump from Du. schlettern.). Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. klokotat. a clod. slops). tJokok. bloutre. lobbig. slops slodderen. slab. and Du. slobber. close. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. • lump. cloth. a skittle-ground klos- sen. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. and thus seem endowed . . dangle. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. clogs. hanging loose and full. klag. geschlotter (as E. motte. kladde. be found rattle. m&se noch stain. Lat. with Fr. je amoncele. from Fr. gelatinous. to a. . to rattle. dag. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. Dan. klottern. beklakken. schlotter. the radical sylla. to bedaub. lag. clotted milk klotte. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. to shut. or loppern. to rattle. then liquid or loose substance. kl'dnken. to close against one. Pl. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. lumps of butter. A — — A Thus from Bav. a spot. finish . to paddle in the wet. Gr. He was a man without a dag. and Gael. to flounder in the wet.'^ Palsgr. Yule-clog. dirt. loose. to dabble. plod.. kloden. terminate. paludosus. to wabble. slobberen. chiudere. meat from Du. kleck. . compared with clump. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). schlott.

lunch). klaven. a nail) Fr. To Cloy. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. . and clay. probably from daboter. I. E. to cover Bret. to cleave. cob.D. It. cludadh. nelke (dim. clog. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. Clump. sticky. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. make warm. daggy.bar. to tramp in the kluyve. ON. block. kUid. a knot of people. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. a boss. but confounded with cailler. a nail. a clubfoot klabb. cluster. mud (Pat. to curdle. CLOUD an awkward clod .158 . a bunch. botch. warm. kloven. dial. dump. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. lump of earth aria. klobbersaen. Dan. a bunch. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. a ball of twine . Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours.). from cates the application of the root dab to Du. loggish. of nagel. of sloppy materials. a blabber.ft. clunch. Du. w. and of a rustic unpolished person. a sky Cot. 2. klqb. ball of thread Russ. in the same sense.D. from kloven. motte. klumba. a lump. knob. dys. kldverj P1. Then applied to a lump of mate. cobble. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. . sheltered . Gael. del mattond. warm place . clobyn. Cld. Fr. a clot or keeps one warm. a fissure. lump. klumpfot. A division of a root of garlick. aglio. G. eine to slop. A kind of spice resembling Du. G. dob. . shel- kloen. The radical sense seems to be an unE. N. warm clothes {dillad. clavo di especias. Properly that which covers and Du. tered . as Fr. clump. to stop. kluppe.). zolla dell' . Du. to beFr. a curdled sky. of ordnance is said to be cloyed.' Sanders. a clod. ser. little nails. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. dial. kloete. . a patch. and -the word Clove. and clout d eudaich. a. So Fr. kl'dnne. to a lump.clod. . Imitative of the note of a society. bunch. a . a ball. to splash. clotted milk or cream. puddle. clump of a clout on the head. clot. Club. to lump mend clumsily. klcBdi. and closely do conspire. clod is used in both senses . Sp.). indispalte knoblauch. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. caillebottes. are also used in the sense of a stopper. klotsen. boucher. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. a garthas. chiodo di girofano. eene ODu. hebes (Kil. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). clothes ment. knob. clunch. lie clyd. Du. duthaich. Clover. choke or stop up. kluV. dut. klubb. klubbe. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. clot. dash (Cot. dabosser. Ir. botsen. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. Rouchi dapoter. Gael. een klaven kruflook. Pl. klotzig. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. to strike. stock. to cherish. dillad bumkin.). (kruyd =. naegel. clods. a clown. Mabousfrom Lat. Das volk hat sich in splitten. clou de girofle. to cleave or the splashing of water. unpolished. CLUCK rustic. clyd.D. Move. tuft. a bunch. mire. esdaboter (Roquef. Du. The priClout. Sw. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. ON. piece Cot. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. milk run to lumps. coarse. a lump. Clumpered in balls of clouds. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . when something has got into the touch-hole. diboter. klu77ip. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a bousche. clue. G. from W. lumps of curd. a bobbin. a clod or clot. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — .Fris. dote. of thumping clumsy action. cobio. dabaire. of a lump of earth and that figure. klubb. with lout. lump. AS. from OFr. cluth mhor. klever. log. From dog. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. and tapp. clod. a sticky. clumhar. E. rustic. — — — . davus. In the same way E. a breach. klebek. zolla. G. clothe. the terms expresssplit. klump. are often connected. a clove of garlick. a cover or coverture . nagelein. klotz. to strike . More in R. mary sense is a blow. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. formed lump or thick mass. also homo obtusus. a ball. dial. mass. blockish. from Du. strike. group of people Sw. E. klieven. — . to cloy. klunds. Du. klonte. klubba. cloud Delfortrie. clydion. Clown. de Champ. The significations of a clod or lump. spice) G. the air. warm. nourish . clothes). wisp. w. Sw. . Du. clot . a log. dirt. klove. a ball. lump. cludaim. a log. matte. sheltered up warm. Met. AS. To Cluck. Kiittner. a thick mass. clammy earth. Cloud.

'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. clip or pinch. with E. awkward. See -elude. Muster. Teulazy. coccolare. wooden sole. -CLUDE hen Du. claws. verkommelen. klonte. Ray. a clod clunter. may recline. .' Comfort ye dumsid. klunt. a coach. a couch. ball of snow on horse's foot . cluster. er. Cluster. gelidus. -elude. to lie. duke. to tramp. pinched. also a cluster. to syllable click. are the nasalised forms of klotte. xXvariip. Sw. ball as snow. ' Uorte (for clogs. Boh. a clot klissen. cleuk. inclusive. klemma. to benumb with cold. klemmen. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. having the Pl. bunch. to curdle. Hence cleik. obstructum. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids.' Benecke. Ang.P. Cheshire. rial. Pl. 130. conclude. finish. Pl. enervatus. dussomed (Wilbrabam). Sw. koetsie. klompen. clotted cream. wagen. to pinch. Com. from ON. Clutter. carriage in which you klodset. clabosser.D. Sc. -olus-.D. a pinching time. dumpers. eene beklum.' Wycliff. klister. of garlick. whence koetse.. ON. a block. Du. Lat. klumpig. -clus-. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. Hesse. through the senses of lumpish. dek. G. ether comelia P. G. — ' — — tonista. A group. Cath. clausum. Champ. But clunchy. ' Clumper. OE. to curdle. COAL dumpish. clook. klcise. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. eviratus. Pm. to wash.D. a ball . claudo. G. conclusion. * Clumsy. kohle. —More. klette. beklummen. klimpern. to klotz. glousser. ill-made . dial. Coal. and koetse. to tramp or tread heavily. exclude. Fris. Analogous forms with a tongs. ' Thou clontsest for cold. -cludo. Fr. crooked inwards . to wash. Clutch. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold.'— animal. with a quick. koetsen. to curdle. coucher became in unhandy. dumpse. cliboter. clutch.— — . Men bethe combered and clommed with cold.D. unfashioned. klocken. benumbed with cold. klummerhdndt. From the notion of sticking together. hondis. unhandy. OHG. See reclusion.E. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. . splash. * Clump. lay hold of. . Clump. a ball. Du. Du. a bunch. heavily. viscous material. klobber in klobbersaen. unhandy. and klonteren. — sen. a nasalised form of club. The Fr. dystere. Du. klumpern. tight — — . Fr. dial. klummklummshandt. It. from laver. wooden shoes. to collect in lumps. Gr. a lump. E. to paddle or dabble. ment. clointer. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. of Du. acomelydfor could Pr.' Vegecius in Way. clopiner. clutch. clumsy. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. to grip. klikaty. or aclommyde. to stick together . to shut. lavesen. dumps. to squeeze. smart motion. Isaiah. esclaboter. klos. to tramp. an instrument for nasal form e. a litter. cleik. E. hand to cleuk. close. Riwle. a clod or lump. a claw. In the same way Du. 159 E. dial. in comp. or from Sw. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klamen. koetblockish. as Fr.e. hooknosed. verklomen. lump of soft mate. Hence snatching. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . thick and clumsy. — Cot. klisse. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. — . havi. klontet. Du. koetsDa. klikonosy. MHG. klump. cleche. as clumper. properly to do anything Fr. n. MHG. Lat. Beklummen van kelde. the word is more probably connected with OE. seize. beklommen. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. -close. G. awkward. —To Clumsyd. klont. Hindust. as from seken. klomen.D. klods. ' . a lump. Fr. a clod or The noclot. to gingle. klampa. — Hence include. Sp. doquear.Ancr. kichlemmit. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. eviratus. klamp. clump. Graff in Klamjan. glocire. to to snatch. Lincolns. and klotteren. in v. might be reached from clump.pare P1. Compare Swiss klupe. &c.mene tied. claw. a noise. idle. strum on an instrument. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. differing only in the absence of the duik. klomje. dek. a lump or compact mass. plad or plod. to rinse. from klupen. kol. klonte.forklomme (Outzen). calling her chickens. paste. and make ye strong feeble knees. cluntClyster. log. pladdern. klunsen. algidus. The sense of awkward. limp. hands stiff with cold. -clusum. Coach. a clod or lump. kluntfrom KKvKdi. unwieldy Hal. . dial. a clove Sw. fingers (familiar). Variation of clatter.

to grow together. bijamie.. and hobble. inflammation. probably left his home. Outzen. Sp. pockbecility and liability to imposition. broddelen. a rib. niais. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. dim. meaning that she is plain and coarse. Du. pustule. ordinary as in the expression of course. ON. from some fancied resemblance. however. to stutter. Fin. dial. Colina' the place where a fire is made. to peck as a hen cobyn. nursery lang. a kitchen. koppe. — — — E. glow. give the full meaning of the word. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw.. Coarse. a bunch. to cobble shoes. cobcoals. of E. cacd). rivation are found in Sw. to beCoax. The dirt. . — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. COCHINEAL Cobber. klabbare. large stones . top cobio. verklomen. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. kylla. a coat or frock. pryf-coppyn. . The form attercop seems to him into doing something. says Varro. the one of thump. habble. bredouiller. atter-kop. verkommelen. to wheedle or gull vermin). only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. then to work unskilfully . kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. a bungler. Fr. that is. T' waerkopet. cokes was a simpleton. ailina or colina. s. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. cokes or fool of him. probably from the Fr. spinne-ivebbe. to burn. caleo. to be hot. numb. Formerly written course. H^cart. Sanscr. cotta. Du. ridi. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. to worship. are round stones or round coals of small size. . klabbsmed. The contrast between the bee • Cob. gull. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. Trevoux. united. a tuft. to bungle Sc. dial. kop-ar. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . properly to daub. a sow. an old idiot. to Lett. . hakkelen. Lat. a firesteel Lat. used in — . staggering or halting. a spider (/r)^=grub.(pi. to stutter. — Cleveland Gl. k'dlla. or upper . pustule. glow jvalaya.. To cobble. a nest. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. The OE. any kind of coat. petrilla. according to the ordinary run of events. haggle. Cobbles in the N. large coals. Coalition.inflated with air or liquid. a great falsehood. cluster. tuft. in Du. a pock mark. niais. throw a blow. a spider. to hobble . kolna.the water boils. an egg. things. to be inflamed . . The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. v. coalesce. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. boil. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . sweets and the other of poisons.). and fig. cob. from bearing a bag. to bungle . — Pr. * To Cobble. The woo