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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


by whom the be understood. Molli. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. in language of the present day. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. with an initial m or I. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. name of the cow. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. the closer we shall approach to the . by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. when neither name for the object to be designated. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. when we is represent to our children of the cow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. the present day.NURSERY IMITATIONS. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. in other words. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. come Moolls. but nothing she herself knows the animals. is given to a cow or calf. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the baaing of the sheep. to the syllables which are significant to the child. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. or Mollein. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. mind of the of the animal. or. and where we are seeking. and mully or mully cow is the . muK) and mae (rfie. and. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. The syllables moo (mu. persons of different tongues at the present day.

became more perfect. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. by the natural humming sound. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. to For instance. as well as the mind of the utterer. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. and nim came to signify everything edible.). First. mumm. family. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed.. &c. nineteen years old. Heinicke. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. his nurse adopting the word with him. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. . there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. p. he called to to drink. had nim.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. Gr. when hungry. and some were very clear and distinct. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. 72). Gradually. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. repulsive to eat. hm. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. Finally an n was placed before it. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. to eat. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. analogous to Magyar mammogni. nim. for bad. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. A member of my own new sfop. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. schipp. . then. fiafifi&v (Hesych. partly from sounds which the child caught. On one occasion he said^e nim. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. I had watched the growth of this word. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. for things. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. We have. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. for everything fit to eat.' In ordinary speech mump. to work over with the mouth. He would now say good. and which we might express thus. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with.' he says. in children's language. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.

while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Galla djam djeda. and some of them . oves lalare. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. food (Tylor. mumpfeln. i. dial. memmexen. . mujnpa. delicacies. and the crab — p.' — Lersch. i8o.ONOMATOPCEIA. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech.' says Quintilian. buckra man's language the white man. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. palatable. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. aptantes adfectibus vocem. Primitive Culture. to mump. sweet (Koelle). Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. eating. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to taste . and thence to be tasteful. Africa) nimnim. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. 1 86). fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. (in chil- dren's language). j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. aves tinnire. Gothic niman.' And Diomedes. jamsa (yamsa). voracious. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. 130-1. to chew laboriously. ut tinnitus aeris. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. jammla. A negro proOr.). j ing . ' Motherwell. snatched (Whitby Gl. to smack in eat. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. we can call them so. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. as well as the Sw. on.' says the author of Modern Slang. nobis vix permittitur. to Sw. nam. agreeing with Ein. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. to eat. Africa) nimi. Wolof nahenahe. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). to be pleamind . iii. jumla. Soosoo (W. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). p. crab nam buckra man. at hiamske i sig. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. nyam nyam. yamming. to take. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. Vei (W. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). greedy . words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . stolen. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). to move the lips in continued chewing. ' id est. mumble. taken up hastily on the sly. or word-making. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. namnam. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. mumpfen. Nimm'd up. nvrnma. clangorqae tubarum. and the fizzing (and Series.minis. Swedish dialect gamsa. lita. as to . to fill the mouth. South Jutland hiamsk. the Scotch poet. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. tidbits nama .' White man eat [or steal] the crab. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. savory. make djamdjam). to eat mampfen. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.

cooing or crooing of doves. not of a baa. might be used. twittering of swallows. when circumstances required. snarling of dogs. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. a lamb.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow.' he says. snarling. Yet we ing. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. dove and cooing. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. howling. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. grunting or squealing of hogs. gobbling of a turkey-cock. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. or thoughts of our hearer. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. lowing of oxen. 89) with less hesitation. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. for the purpose of bringing the animal. p.' — We speak of a cow. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. ^6^. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. chattering of pies or monkeys. do not speak of a bowwow. und growling. neighing or whinnying of horses. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. anything connected with it. We . the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh.' And elsevs^here (p. baaing or maeing of lambs. cackling or gaggling of geese. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. whether it deserves the name of language. or. 'I doubt. yelping. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. that there is When Man. intended in the instance to represent the cry. barking. but of a dog. croaking of frogs or ravens. between dog and harking. before the in other words. hooting of owls. sparrow and chirping. might be used as the designation of it. bumping of bitterns. chirping of sparrows or crickets. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . not of a moo of Lect. bellowing of bulls. yelping. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. bleating of sheep. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. purring or mewing of cats. Indeed.

380. Georgian quaki. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. in g. 4th ed. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. crow. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka.. We imitate the sound with a modulated. and gaggele or gagkelein. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. fi-om apakd- i. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. Hungary. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Manchu The kaha. and Bavaria respectively. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. crow. Columbia kahkah. sound).). ghak. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. according to Durga). a crow. a bird that is be driven away. In Basque. Aoo-Aoo. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. e. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Barabra koka. kuho. Picard cau. He to is therefore derives kdka. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. is kuM) for the cuckoo. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. it announces (Salaberry). kauwe. birds. KOKKvi. kdka. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Sometimes the hoarse i . a daw. whose sound (Pictet. kae. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco.). coccolare. layitavya . in is Gr. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. caw kuhii-rava (rava. 349. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Bav. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. In Lat. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. Kdrava. 'Kdka. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. ist ed. Malay gdgak. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. Arabic kdk. lion. and means a shouter.' kd). a crow (Pictet). a a crier (p. or quawk. having a general predicative power. gackem. and the sound of that direction. Sauscr. caller.IMITATIVE NAMES. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.' common sense. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo.

turtle) as the Lat. Scotch peeweip. Du. German kielitz. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. a crow lish Lith. cock. Heb. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. German luhu. coqueri- Languedoc. kukhuta. the name of an animal will gen- . by the verbs gurren or girren. Magy. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Da. girre. to crow. The consonants p. Walachian coucouveike.Gr. It. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. The crowing of cot in Fr. kukko. Swedish kowipa. or Gr. 219. coccovaec. synonymous forms of similar structure). tortbla. gufo. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Fr.. gugu.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Du. while crouk. xi.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. kraukti. Malay kukuk. hibou. a crow . as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. "Welsh hwan from hwa. lulo. tbrtola.. tor. kraeyen. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. koeren. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . p. Yoruba koklo. Ibo akoka. kirren. French dishuit. tuquheit. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. to hoot. are represented. krauklys. lilits. lUyrian kukurekati. a crow. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Mod. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. and e. either in the same or in related dialects. kurre. tur. So we have Polish krukac. Sp. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. kruk. korren. to cry loudly. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. to crow. in the North of England. kraeye. Zulu kuku. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. the name for a crow. reduplicate form. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. name of its is the bird. t. Lettish kiekuts. another. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. tbrtora. 6. Dutch kievit. to croak. to croak. and e. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. German and Eng- krahen. uhu. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. k. ghughu. Albacuculi a dove. teewhoop. coucouva. name. Hindi. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. and sometimes both together. giving turtur (and thence It. great variety of oKokv^uv. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . krahe. yell. Esthonian kikkas. to howl or Lat. as well as of Sanscr.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. wood-pigeon. libufs. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. kuku. Arabic tdtwit. Pers.

' — Pictet . schirke. Danish dron. to hum. which they make in their flight very . bee. The Arabic sarsor. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . The name of the cricket indeed. The drone peal. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. 337. We may cite Gr. to chirp J may be compared with . ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. common. g. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. booming.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. there are infinite varieties. In the N. a bee. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. to be compared with Sanscr. and probably indicates that g. din.' —Tennyson. Sc. g. a beetle druna. a drone. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. representing a short sharp sound. knetta.or bumble-bee. to rustle. horniss and from the buzzing The. growling. with or Fr. to shrill sound sharp. as . give a faint sound. to chirp . kong-kong. 'The natives call it tanand. resound. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. glass cracking (Schmeller). n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Lith. (Jieuschrecke) . Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. German dronen. Gaelic dranndan. Speaking of a cricket he says. to sound. skryle. ' Sanscr. shrill. buzzing. grylhis. whirr). little intermission. hollow noise. schwirren. succeeding each other — with noise. bambhara. North of England. and yelping cry. in allusion to its music. droning is . Sanscr. sirkka. to creak Bret. and not from E. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. buzzing. e. a sharp sound as of a 6. from schrick. resounding of musical instruments. a hornet. a small as hawk is . thunder. cricket is from crick. skirl. gives rise to chwymores. Albanian tsentsir. schrecke. oE. PofijivXwg. from the humming. ta-na-nd. g. a fly (Tylor) . Arabic tantanat. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Australian bumberoo. Naturalist on the tocano. Lat.' — i. zirken. of England it is to the b 2 . to grumble. sound. Lithuanian tranas. pip-pi-ta. grille. loud rumour. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. the drone or non-working bee . humming. Northern Farmer. schrickel. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta.' Amazons. ajo. bamba. Fin. German hummel. the humble. The Welsh chwyrnu.vf3. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. or a gnat fly. Danish gnaddre.IMITATIVE NAMES. grillen. Corean sirsor. and he kong-ko-rong. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. flight its sting considered as a horn. words imitative of humming . dhran. i. — Catafogo. chirk. swirplys with 6. German drohne. skril with n. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi.

With these analogies. amuse. w. Fr. The Piedm. The Galla lilbil. a Geiger. representmake bow. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. a cow. to bellow like a bull. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to boohoo. to the uses goda. baula. to from bau. mae. muJiati. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. bugle. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. maukati. or bau-l-i. Cult. Norse bu. the animal. or with on. or formed Lat. His analysis leads cow. k or g. btibleti. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. bullus and e. Lat. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. to weep. bue. biibnas. Lat. to shout. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. bos. Da. bovis. or moo. fivKaofiai. On the same principle. to low. bubenti. to make a loud deep sound. is inadmissible. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. From baa. mamoo-heeheek. as the Illyr. bucula. buculus. whence baula. make to it laugh. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. a bullock. make poo. the Fr. to or bark. Hottentot bou (Dapper). bae. and djeda. as that of the cow by boo. w. shoot . a name preserved in our bugle-horn. bwla. bae. Manx booa. a buffalo. to make a noise. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to sound. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. Lat. Fr. Thus from miau. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to shout. ox. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. mugler. Illyr. (iove. miau-l-er. boo. to bow- own bawl. bukati. to beat hard. — ^Tylor. to low . Gael. Zulu lulula. verbal form given to the say. bu. has bilbilgoda. Piedmontese fi bau. OFr. loge. in same way. bolt. bo. be-l-er. cattle. or a z to the imitative syllable. representing the mew of a cat. are (with a subsidiary k). to make. and from to ring. bubati. a drum . mugire. Galla boa. From the same lioao). and in Hottentot baa was the . that the imitative syllable are Lith. to low or bellow. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith.XX called booing. It. forms a. to mew. bugler. say. bullock. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bull. and thence Lat. bauli. in a imitation of a ringing sound. to make. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. from the imitative moo instead of boo. 167. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to ba-L-are. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to . p. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. grumble as distant thunder . to bump as a bittern Illyr. a heifer. agreeing exactly with Lith. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. a bull.

or in any ! way ! persuading. with the root ypaipm. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. (iriKov of forms like Sw.). Magy. and with the subsidiary k or g. Gr. and thence groin. meigeal. and snorke. it and e. hunon. / The same Gr. to bleat . Illyr. to bleat. Moreover. mecati. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. to rumble. sound. ' In driving. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. Gael. The g. meil. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. growl. mutter. /xijeao/iat. grumble.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. to howl. grunny. nire. cite as by grunt. Fr. smack and naski. the designations of a dog the term cur. guttural tone. a goat. a sheep (Lowe). Manx meilee. curmurring. hadg- Magy. From the imitative mae. goats. and grumphie. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. grumbhng. grugno. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Da. menAda (ndda. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. grumpf. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. Hence Breton hoc ha. a pig Fin. a. grunt. Idgge (Rietz). meckern. a grunt. Africa laa. a dog. lambs. purr). — . he would hardly. a pig. groin. /xj/caScj. in Wolof bae. grunlike a pig in eating. may be identical with Esthon. ^. leg-et-ni. and hoc'h. a hog. grogner. and of (maelon). leknuti. . a wolf. to grunt. in v. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a goat. does not produce a e. undoubtedly imitative. rumbling. Among dog. . karra. Welsh and Breton). by which the shingle gives rise to It. hound. mekegni. hunt (gen. Gr. the snout of a pig. from hundama. lekavica. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. And it is true there between hog and grunt. to grunt. kurren. name of a sheep. meketati. hwch. naskia. a sheep. kurre. a sow. we have Sanscr. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. sheep or goat. this obstinate race. lecco. Fr. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. to growl. grumble. may with to snarl. as the proper name of a tame sheep. as lou of an ox. . lek-eg-ni.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and Circassian maylley. Kurren und murren. to themselves. knurfisk. corresponding to ohg. hundi). a goat firixal^ta. 6. Gr. It. a sheep or ewe. from knurre.' Moor's Suffolk words. oe. for the voice of the ox). It is probable also that e. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. name of the animal itself. name. hund. to bleat. a sow. G. cry). although the imitation embodied in Lat. Illyr. Illyr. a sheep or a goat. meugler. a (Hesych. sus-sus. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. With gen. houch. signifying a snarling.

whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. humma. from the cry animal. g. (Craven Gloss.' — ist Series. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. the cry to stop or back a horse. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. as in Yorkshire highly right. hoppe. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. hobben. of the character in question. hobin. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself.root. such as cuckoo. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. coquette. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. p. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. If onomatopoeias can . the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. to whine. e. Thus we are led to the Fr.). a mare. to the left. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. There are of course some names. like artificial flowers. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. p. when he found peculiarity.. 91. hottihuh. houpy in Craven. turn a horse to the is In Finland. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. coquelicot. without a — we root. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. hobby.. So Sanscr. ^6<. But words of this kind are. M). is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. Sc. . animal. cockade. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt.' 2nd Series. a horse. Esthonian hoibo. . hiine. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. to go backwards.' ticular bird.). a little am- bling horse.

rinchar. animals or certain kinds of sound. ginniken. Du. creeper. swift. frenschen. diver. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. whitename in in- throat. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. cough. nitrire. hukkup. as sigh. than to the sounds represented. hennir. form corresponding hresh. hresh. little speak for themselves. groan. goatsucker. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. e. command of language was attained. but whether there kind between them and other words. signified It. xxiii ginal object. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. sol. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. horse. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. . a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. redpole. fehtati. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. to neigh. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. Bohem. to Sanscr. wiehern.D. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. Sanscr. Sw. lapwing. wrenska. runniken. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. ance or habits of the animal. Irieschen. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. Sp. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. g. Fr. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. wagtail. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. Pl. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. nounced with a guttural). wrena. Lettish sweegt. hross. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. titter. hresh. woodpecker. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. hikkd. giggle. moan.

Australian bungbung ween. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . banke. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . pump. ting-ting. snukkup). Of a like forma- drum . wheeze. hoo ping ping. Wtb. to drive on. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. Mei gbengben. oren : Klapp. are familiar in ' to every one. mer. tisio (tisho). snore. to ham. &c. clap ! A smack Puff. strippstrapp-stroll. pit-a-pat. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. snort. ping came the bullets about their ears. banga. the God of thunder .^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. thunder (Tylor) . in a nail Let. 1865. hoo. to knock. . fitsche-falsche.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. tlirob. to hammer . bang ' ! trenches. for the creaking of a wheel. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.' ! ! ! ! — dong. for the sound of a blow. Zulu bongo. for the for the sound of . bang. for blows with a rod. haw. scream.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. knarr. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. dong Read. a large bell. hang.' it both sides went. Vei gbangba. &c.' So imac.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. heaven). for a small one. White Lies. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. debhes-lungotais (deifies. to beat. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp.' 'Haw. for the sound of milking. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. bangas. knack. the dashing of the sea . I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. beat. root kshu. atchian. or tliat is accomit. for the sound of a fall. a kind of drum. an attempt would be made to by the voice. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. —Brem. atchini. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. to sneeze. Da. aritischane. went the cannon. for that of breaking. lumm. a more expressive than the e. DingBang. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. haitshu. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. on the chops is represented also by pratx. plitsch-platsch. shriek. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. to throw violently down. or the w. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . beat of a clock child . for in such sound of blows. — Sanders. ding. heart tick-tack. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. klatsch. It is represented in e. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga.

pipare. Magyar pip. calls S. to peep It. —Lyndsay. Fr. had been used laugh ? two. young bird. to cry pi. piccione. ducing the sound. or a piailler. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. — . as in other subjects of study. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. of a word will appear supposed to represent. to squeak. a or cheep. pipegni. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. De Brosses. is of expression. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. a fowler's bird call is lost. pu. Gr. G. chickens (Tylor). the voice of chickens (Cot. scream. . pipe. Florio. It seems to him that the teeth t. piou. as k. cry of young birds . xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. laugh. used as a call to . and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation.sc. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. pigione. peep. or the uneducated different consonants are man. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. peep. and their relations. pipe. bleat. piou. pule. and whimper. a whelp. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. He Yet asks. child. pigolare. cry.' instead. In cases such as these. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. and so forth. young child . not- . pigiolare. to cry like imrli^u). doubtless. which he added to intensify the expression. pippione. pipilo. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pi. part of the What consciousness has the child. mobility excavation and hollow ^. pipio. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. a chicken or gosling. to designate cavity and hollow. as the simplest implement for proFr. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pipio. e. piauler. Lat. to cheep like a bird or a young It. a fife or musical pipe. has been un- employed to designate fixity. is pfeife. pipelni. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. Mantuan pipiare. The pi. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. a (young) pigeon. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder.) a chick. far pipi. Lat.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE.

to cry pi. a short sharp sound. laqfF. in German. to hawhaw or laugh loud. the clucking of a j hen . knuks. along with Du. a. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Zulu raraza. or springing back. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. bubble. turtur. to gorgogHare rattle. loud laughter.. kirkirdnd. gurren. Pacific aka-aka. Hindustani karak is rendered. u. Poppopvi^to. cricli. as the click of a latch or a trigger. to grumble). a closed or obscure sound. knurren. to rattle. to pant bejii- zela. to gargle . to be compared with Sc. to crackle like in boiling . tintino. sound). a prolonged sharp sound. karkarana. i. crash. or kaka-faka. chack. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. sound of dry breaking. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to jar. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. pi . xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. borrelen. to clack. to grumble. to pant violently (Colenso). . murren. coo. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . to gurgle. Indian chack-chack. kniks. make wood a clinking noise. rumble (Fl. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to creak knirren. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. Pefuxela. to grate the teeth . preserved by Kilian. to growl. where the variation. when it force than biscuit. creak. is very common. to cluck. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to bubble. vaake gorgor) . lachen. to ring pipio. ioriogliare (to make borbor). a sharp short one. to fizz like fat in frying.. &c. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. {to It. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. rumble. It. crack. tontonare. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. . The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. girren. murmur (by . grumble. thunder oil . to laugh.Gr. and lugh. lachachen. tonare. of a loud strong sound. to thunder. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. be cate to go on laughing loud . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. Hindoo tomtom. a drum W. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . along with tinnio. garren. knaks. some small vowel or consonantal sound.) Mod. like the noise of a glass breaking . it is If laugh were written as pronounced. Manchu kaka-kiki. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. rumble. cluck.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . kuruk. as representing the sound made when something breaks. kniks. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. of something fine and thin. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. the side of g.

to ring or jingle. shout. to whisper. to the purling of a brook. a smith. tumult. bad. koXiw. Scotch sough or sooch. and Gr. coughing or clearing the throat. awater* ' The Mme P. for a tTviror). expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. caca and Finnish adkkd. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Calt. the sound of a stringed instrument. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . quarren. and bilhila. clango. Prim. agrees with g. champ. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). the gingling of glasses. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. The syllables lil-bil. or to Du. Fr. .' Member for Paris. identical with g. csam-csogni. borrelen. kiling-kalang. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. spring of water in the a bell. and her heart went thump. a nightingale. brings us to Fr. chut. to say chut. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. Sanscr. simmer. to beat. noise. Newman). a nightingale. hala-hald-faMa (falda. box on the ear imitation of the . at an accelerated note. tumwata. to knock. klirren. Turk. e. corresponding in e. is Manchu tang-tang. rvir (in tvittio. compared with Gr. for chut-chiit-er. thump. chinking of coin. for the sound of privy whispering. call. especially one who beats. jangle. . E. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. Maori pata. wail. muro and e. correspond to e. as of Tamil muromurmur. uproar. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. halaidlac'h. and the imitative nature of tivgle. Galla tuma. bent her head. cry. 1871. for the ringing of illustrate bells. croaking of frogs.* the heart. Manchu kaka. disturbance (F. a drum . Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. fumtu. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. a workman. sound). KaKog. ding-dong. while cacd / used in e. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Magyar csamm-ogni. 368). make djamdjam). 192). to strike. Tiie Galla gigiteka. is based on the same imitation as the e. are applied to the is excrements of children. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. The whispering of the wind I. and e. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. kl'mg-kling. as Fr. or of bells ringing. word. to be compared with g.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. bulbiil. the tingling Ming-Hang. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. clash of arms. sound. jingle. of keys or tinkling of bells. or the bubbling up of to a spring. tubh. tup. indicating the origin of Gr. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. to giggle. clink. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E.and e. bubble up. djeda (to say tub). answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. drops of i. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. chuchoter. for the clinking Lat. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. rifiirayov. clank. rain (Tylor. a boy's whistle. and Gr.

mutter. to is blow. dabble. according to the strictest phonetic rules. by rubadub. clack. thump. thump. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. clank. crash. gargle. ' Der puff. lash. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. clang. clap. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. for (Sanders). murmur. swash. blow. tum-ultus. smack. sputter. rumble. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. bubble. whirr. Humboldt. whack. creak. report of a gun. clink. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. craunch. disturbance. whine. paddle. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. douse. hiss. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. plump. we have buffet or cuff. boom. clash. thump. tingle. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. hum. and Grimm. a applied as well to the force of the bang. tinkle. tap. guggle. So in Fr. pop. snap. squeal. gurgle. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. The use of g. It. to fall. tymmesll. or v^hether jectional. puff. thwack. w. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. splutter. splash. to dance. in e. flop. crunch. tomber. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. clatter. fizz. while e. slash. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . it is fallj AS. chatter.' — Nohden. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. souse. rattle. jingle. Nevertheless. crack. din. The beating of drum is represented in e. brumberum. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. at a door tarapatan. answering to g. twang.. But although and also found in Lat. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. bang. flap. rataplan or rantanplan. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. patter. rap. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. parapatapan. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. and the French pouf. blubber. squall. chink. dash. and soufflet. the Germans puff. whizz. and Fr. squeak. Fr. tumbian (to beat the ground).' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. 'pat. ring. without the intervention of orthodox roots. smash.

by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. knows them. wringing the hands. but if we must not complain on the beach. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. or any unsatisfied want. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother.'. or stubble is meaner name.' . and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . p. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. or of any if wood. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. are made known by an instinctive cry. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires.' If chaos. in the rushing waters. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. by the nature of the cry. xxix on the contrary. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. of horror. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. an imitation of a sigh . At the first beginning of life. without a thought of symbolising to them. Grimm or Bopp. grief. every little pain. because they are spontaneous.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. and thus they become signs of despair. formerly cited. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. that he has taken the step in rational speech. the kind of action that is desired of them. hay. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. ugh . and found in the building of be burnt up. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. Crying. and uttering plaintive sounds. stractions. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. in the case of the animal or of the infant. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. If. little who has time to want of her nurseling. is Thus ah!. 94. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. the interj. the inteij.

' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. groaning. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. shrieking. p. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. ^6g And to the same effect 371. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. 344. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. interjections. If I wish to make a person of an . Language begins where interjections end. p. the lowing of a cow. them to exercise it. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. sneezing. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech.. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. more eloquent than a long speech. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. as who them spontaneous utterances. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. or which is of me as suffering pain. and the eye. and some of them the composition of words. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. be more powerful. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. to solve the I shall call first.' — ist Series. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. which are frequently so toned down cance. coughing. One short interjec- tion may fact.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. he cites from Home Tooke.' p. more to the point. they are involuntary interjections. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. of all the mouth. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. 32. should be remem- .XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. And again. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. He says. may become traditional. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language.

and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. kahkahah. for example. Koxafw. Gr. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. I am not hearer. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. it them. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. hahottaa. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. loud laughter. interjections. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. he says. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. in Magy. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. hohottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. and thus. Lat. some kind of language might have been formed. but the less am at a loss what to say. hahota. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. when I arp humming and hawing. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Kayxa^u). is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Tooke in truth. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. bered. in Fin. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. cachinno. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. demolishing here. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. and others from interjections. and more or less limited . speaking. then speech begins.

and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. But here nature soon conies to his help. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. And so in the case of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. makes them stand and walk upon the table. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. like peewit and cuckoo. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. of the nature of this great movement.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. the critical question should be. dumb is the language of signs. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. words receiving the meanings they now bear. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists.' he says. of the world. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. Though. a deaf-mute himself. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. The following account is given by Kruse. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. if taken as a whole. . which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. It as has ing their most striking features. and go where we now say stand.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. What strikes him . and not. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. a Picture-language.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea.

A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. can do better and more easily abstract terms. thought is already broken. like a V. the whole secret. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. for child. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. and And thus he makes himself a language.' In the Institutions. walked. particular sense in properly so called. the sorecalling them to his memory. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. many when or but these. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and we have roast goose.GESTURE most. and with his thought. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and gestures. it means little. and to taste. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. The same sign stands and the act itself. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. among themselves. but if I depress it instead. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. such as than the educated man. thou. for the agent. as it now opens out. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. nay. and fully serves to j . he. walkest. push it towards the person addressed for thou. such objects. for single objects. and it is flesh or meat. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. the lan- guage cultivates itself. called Gesture-language. becomes roast meat. and forms further and further. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. walker. it seems. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. or To pull and flap with the arms. signs are taught for yet. to name. what more. xxxiii him between one thing and another. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . To seize the is the principal movement of an action. And is. his action. or the verb to be. he. for walk. most striking outline of an object. that air. The of sign for left hand. that. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. that signifies great . whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign.

When a verb. to indicate the action of a certain person. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. substantive or adjective. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. Who is has beaten you ? would be. and the as. and so is an adverb. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. I say. When I say. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. in fact. as when Bang ! went the gun. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. qualifies the against the wall. The same word . it called an interjection. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. or an act. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. and thus performs the part of an adjective. might be the knife. or a passive scene of existence. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. You beaten . When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. according to the circumstances of the case. . or something of the kind. whether by additions or otherwise. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. would be simply beginning of speech. in other instances sentence. when I say. the ture of white term pink is and red. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. Do not bang the it is a verb. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. a colour red. or action. the garden. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. as But when it is meant door. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. putting it into his pocket. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language.xxxiv asking. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. depend entirely upon the use. a number of alternatives are suggested. as in die it is a noun. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or a quality. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. He gave door a bang. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but.' dener's knife.

or some relation between it and another object. whereto. inside. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. Latin. in the is indicated by the syllable y. inquiry. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. wonder. Thus tafu signifies a great man. a sigh of oppression and . . the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. verb nor noun has yet been developed. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. with a stick.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. greatness. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech.^ — Miiller I. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. Jii ta. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. whereof. some outward display of the affection. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. wherewith. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. a groan. pain. in the sense of great. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. a noun. as kuo cung. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. &c. wherefore. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . and to be great. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. as cung. that admits itself in of audible representation. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. wherehy. or nei. contempt. coalesces with the personal pronouns. and may be used language. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. grie^ horror. which is an old y ting (use stick). the man is great.. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. middle. or with elements expressing relations of time. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. commencement of speech. 255. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. but often self-evident. that is. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek.

ez. oh. ah. ah. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. wehthun. ach. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. ach. to gargle. djamdjam goda (goda. grief. dchzen. w^wa. och. A widespread It. vei-a. lament from oimi. to groan. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to cause pain. gwae. oimare. Gr. wd. j. howl. &. . seen in Gr. och. die wehen. hei. Gael. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. achen. w. to cry n. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. miau-l-is. misery. form. ochan. Illyrian vaj. ! ! Goth. oval. as. headache. g. as. to cry at. ach. found in g.. mostly a ! %. och. weh. The form corresponding to Lat. In this way from the root guai. to injure. ing action I. Let. has more kopfweh. to lament. ache. It. to rriourn. to make). or r. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. e. guaj- or cry out pitifully.'). . lau-l-e. weh schreien. ace. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. pain. miau-l-er. e. are ol-ire. to weep. oh. ohg. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. to wail or cry alas . It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. ochain. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. oi. mew. the pangs of childbirth. guajo. It. suffering. at the close of the radical syllable. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. on. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. on. grief] affliction. vce. wai. . representing a cry of pain. to make bow-wow. Such are g. to lament. Bret. and to bark . to do woe. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. vce. a groan or lamentation vir. It. axofiai. misfortune. n. o'i. . to yell formed e. to wail. ahi. woe. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. xxxvi grief. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. Lat. ocAJ. to sound yapyap. to . Gr. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. pain. gwe-l-a. wai. to weep. to ache. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. aiai^to. vaj. I oi[iot. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . grief. is w. la. w. .-l-are. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. ui. e. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. guai. ai. al. weinen. Jar lau-lau. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). g. representing Illyr. waiidt. gwae. to ache. jao. 6. to hurt Let. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. tirr-djeda. 6. wehen (Schmeller). Gr. to bewail oneself. woe. Fr. It. is Ay di me I Gr. Thus from springs otjucifw. lament. miau-n-is. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ohi. first person. jaoh. however. guaj-ire. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. wai-l. in Gr. probably a deeper groan. and cacak djeda (to say crack. to chirp. Illyr. wAwa. pain. cece. ochan. Lat.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' this. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. . and by a variety of expressions besides. indeed. case. more emphatically roSj)j that. when 1859. says da-da-da. When we pointing. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. da. the nursery da-da. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. da. ToSe (or in Attic E. as. Please. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. or that it is. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). Dr Lottner observes.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. but the truth is. The Fr.' person. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. his trowsers' pocket. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. is-te). is we I believe. to here . Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. as to express. nurseries. Thank you.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. or give me it. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. thata (ta-ta). show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. der da-ige. or carry me thither. this here. when he wants something. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. saying : there the ad- Trans. I add) . ' sees an object. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. a word of many applications in g. implying the direction of its good will towards them. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. give.' then points to his wife. we may translate this by there (it is). child indicates or asks for an object of desire. Sanders (Germ. In the expression Da. that gratifies me. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. and may be rendered. Diet. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. according to Menage. child. or wants to name something. give me that cheese. that. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. Bav. as it Dieser da (as Lat. • The child. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. and so on.' all is is — their consent. 'nay. Sie. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. a specified were by pointing him out. But. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. Phil. that is it. for instance. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. well as Goth. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.

standing. to chatter. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy.' • liv ANALOGY. pay. sinking. and shapes it into an . and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. beat. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. to tion to another. to knock. make dadada). Thus Gr. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression.^ its ' utters : a cry.' says Muller. moving. to say to oneself. or metaphor. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. reality. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. the original is that which he places first. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. to beat. which thus exertion. thinking. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. . which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. then instinctively interest. tattle. stutter.' says Lottner interior. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. childish toying. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. takes it — as When the soul. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. to walk. meanings. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. in every mode of expressing the idea. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. of which any one may. to move step by step. tasting. and one in particular must. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. its desire. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. p. or dalliance. strike. sounds. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. dadee. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. speech. — Cot. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The da is dodem.

extended to the exercise of the understanding. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to tinkle. &c. to shriek with laughter . prudent. wilahtaa. a ringing . to snilF. and thence e. (parallel bilbila. spraka. sapere (which signifies the nose. we have and the and beorht. to shine. The 6. to glitter. wise. snotor. in the domain of movement. to sound clear In Galla. bilbilgoda (to make . Lith. to flash. kiimottaa. think. esclat). 1654. Finnish. to . to glitter. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. a rustling sound Gr. snudra. to sparkle. schmecken. beam. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. Fr. gnittre. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. a with kimmaltaa. Again. is used in the origin. judicious. outcry. kimistd. In the same way the Goth. In the case of sparkle. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. iclat (in Old Fr. to smack or taste. splendour. and schmecker. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. beorhtian. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. to 5 ghtter. on. and figuratively. chime). Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to sniff. may be quoted gUt. knistre. for example. to ring. tumult. splendour. to ring as a glass willata. to crackle gnistre. knittre. clang. air. snot. as. sprageti. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. So firom Lat. schiteren. to have Sapiens. . while sapere itself. to shine. which in ohg. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . from the . scheteren. a brilliant light kilid. . may be it explained . suspect Bav. signified a clear sound. It is The word bright had a similar In as. search . in popular language. and. Du. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. rattle. then to sparkle. sound. unlella. pracht. wilistd. same imitative root with Sw. — 1. savour. snuff the sniiten. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. to sniff out. magnificence. Bavarian bracht. sense of brightness. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. bright. snutrs. Heo Du. brilliancy. smell. wamara. noise. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. ghsten. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. bilbil). smell. to glitter. properly a clap or explosion. to be wise. tintelen.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. tinkling. to quiver. make a loud noise. to glisten Dan. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. firom the Gael. also wise. discreet. man of nice taste. scTiateren. taste. fiapfiaipw. to crackle. to glitter e. as kilind. to resound. a dis- cernment. the equivalent of g.

rough both ways. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. extremely loose. he framed the words ivSov. the cross. oily. Kep^arl'ieiv. Acre.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. v. 6\tadaveii'. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. in truth. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. flow and flux. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. 1. tremour. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. within. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. rend. . smooth. Kpovtiv. break. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. shatter. to slide. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. we hear of screaming colours. or . for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. pvfi^Civ. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. soft. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. ipuKuv. itself letters are felt as sofl. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. the neighing of horses. then in rpd/xoe. the clank (stridorem) of chains. The BpavEiv. he says. kvTOQ. as soft by the ear. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. in of his works.' he says. briars. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. roughness. the bleating of sheep. inside. fitting the letters to the sense. mel. Much of the same has been often quoted. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. power of the letter-sounds. wool. And observing that n kept the voice within. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. KoWiiSije. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. of dressing loud. whirl. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). &c. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. pleasure soft to the ear . infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. rough. eo ut res vol. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. which The Stoics. rough to the ear. and vepres. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. strike. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. is felt Lana. crux. sharp. accordance with the way in which by touch. rough. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. Tpa)(yg. gluey. \nrap6e. discusses the tone of a picture.

tug. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. sag-oter. and in the utterance of a high or or low. to reel abruptly from side to side). degree of roughness sound. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. as when. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. to signify varieties of movement. joli. p. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. jag. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. dig. dag. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. for exis ample. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . shog. cular effort Again. 'and consequently form. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. Fr. jih. stab. 138). and the limits of the signification would be so vague. to jogj sac-cade. A greater felt. rug. d. g. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. or checks as they are called by Muller. ii. corresponding to the ineor. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. p. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. jog. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. t. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. like the hand passing over is smooth surface.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. stag (in stagger. k. the case of the voice. shag. jig. a rough and sudden . not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked.' It is on account of the roughness of pain.

to say a word . as tot. and e. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . then. a playiug-marble. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to glitter. a cracker. to winkj micati is Lat. tack. movement. &c. however. a little bit. Brescian toch. is lanese toch. to ring a bell. To tick a thing off. The production of sound. schockeln. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. Dutch kicken. to mark it with a touch of the pen . figuratively. mot. Accordingly the g. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Sukkeln. kuk. Ene olde suksuk. to have it ticked or marked on the score . to take a thing on tick. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. a . being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. zigzag. as Italian tocco. The Mipen or pencil. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. g. to stir. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. is so frequent a consequence of movement. a quid of tobacco. Fr. Mucken. rough horse. to tickle. a stroke with a French toucher. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. It. The analogy then carried a step further. mie.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. to move rapidly to and fro. a crum. chiquet. or check. lead to Spanish tocar. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick.. mik. passing to the signification of motion. an old worthless horse or carriage. it produces Dutch micken. chic. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to touch. to pulses being knock. Welsh cicio. properly a small lump'of . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. zack. not to utter a syllable. in cases like the foregoing. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. kik. motion. that we never can be sure. tech-tech. Bolognese tocc. Fr. Then. S-panish miga. Thus we have B. also to stir. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. chique. foot. to On the same principle j we have g. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. used interjectionally to represent a . for the sound of knocking at a door. The syllable suk is jerk.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to beat or play on a musical instrument. then. is made to signify movement. and analogous movements. The train of . chicoter. Hence Lat. and It. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tecche-tocche. so to Italian toccare. a good piece of road . to mutter. sound barely audible. to incite by light touches. mica. to strike It. a small bodily object. toch-toch. micare. sound Fr. a piece or bit of anything. a jog. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to utter a slight kick. tock. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. schuckeln. e. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. like English tick. an infant . Illyrian migati. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . (mitsati). cica.

(Halliwell) Da. This kind. to dot. e. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. and out there. of movement in totter. e. . tot. lix Sp. not to utter a syllable. syllable mot. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. a lad citta. the vowel sound. Cult. seesaw. that iku. 199). and he. titilh. neither moit nor an atom. chico. you. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. clay . small titlark. anything . this. . gni. or the converse. for the three personal pronouns. to jog. to make a slight mark. taut. titter. a small quantity. we have e. mote. motta. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. to jot down or note with a fro. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. Du. there. a morsel girl . eo. But the same is language has re Javan. . totle. tit. fait. ticktack. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. as in e. move slightly to . the least visible insect. there (further of!) ao. little. to touch. In a similar the relations of place. Pm. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. a e. to e. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. 48) cites from the African Tumale.n. or the like its It. 0. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . bunch or flock of wool. lump of earth. tittle. citto. small of kind. here. to tremble. i. tot. The following table from Tylor (Prim. I. Malagasy to. Then. . mutter j dust.- a jot or little It. tottle. a bit. ri that. mossche. a small kind of lark. to whisper (Pr. often entirely arbitrary. further off. mot. and a small lump of something. a light quick blow. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. motte. mut. a small bird. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. tot. tot. and toddle like a child titter. a sparrow). there '(at a short distance). tiny. and dot. . not an atom .) . to movement of the pen . to touch lightly with a pen. a small horse. mutter. Halliwell. tozzo. this . not because the pendulum makes a different left. here (close hand). a morsel. iki. n. a whisper. a girl. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. at where the order is inverted. titmouse (Du. or o toi. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). tit. that. the same organ touched with the man. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. is shown in murmur. a small lump or pat. for the beating of a clock. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . fragments It. a tot . to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. and mite. corresponding to the personal pronouns. zitio. . a little titty. little j to that of a small bodily object. zitella. Fr. . subdued manner. gnu. ika. gno. To jot. a certain conception. . anything small flax. a bit. jot. a. So. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag.

akha. ita. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. that. as in Italian Fin. ni. is father. olo. this . he. mother. The vowels a and o sound of the voice.) nna. child.. Gr. that. mas cheche. Dhimas isho.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. . Abchasian aSn. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. minution further. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. femina ama. Japan ko.e^. loo).) pronunciation of i or e. . km. Lat. Zulu ajoa. . qu. thou ni. and a for the female. ofj. there. there.. I . here . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. that. here 5 Yoruba na. Mutsun ne. j Canarese ivanu. /e«. there. . probably initial of distinction that the k. as the act of pointing was ta. that. . Tamul i. this <t. usho. to. me probable that • Vei also little. Magyar ez. this . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. tiiio. is Here. this . uta. mother. little. ndi. Botocudo ati. child. there. ukko. here this . Sahaptin (America) kina. that. . bi. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. father. here j ka. man erne. there. that (intermediate) j wana. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. this fi. there. an old .. that. there. Carib ne. Then. that. no constant rule is observed. /wo. thou. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. ni.araM. Fernandian az. mother. w.. Chilian tva. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). . that. this . this ole. It seems to (fen. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. (tt). he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. Tarahumara ibe. biii. ojOo. ^. father k . that in the distance. respectively. as Mr Tylor remarks. Mm. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. small (Pott. and origin. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. here feraa. It Carib lala. /mya. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. young one. that. Ossetic am. thou . Guarani nde. here . . ta to ka. 6. ne. here j abe. for the male. he. an old woman chacha. ulri. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. you. nne.

principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. to peep. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. to begin to appear .) . In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. little To sup up. the idea is called. a step. &c. nil. little. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. din-din. of smaller things. keeh. dance (Kil. — Douglas Virgil. to make its way through the bursting envelope. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. The Sw. Top. repetition It.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. wean. has tittafrem. for the . tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. i Sw. . at pippe frem is to spring forth. Da. to feet. for a succession of light blows low-wow. is to express simple continuance of action.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. to teet. trSpigner. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. and in the Pacific dialects. to tread. trap. wenig. titta. A little weeny thing. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. trappen. the simplest mode by the g. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. the pip or pippin. pepin. nab. the principle of reduplication. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. knob. a little yellow beard. to leap. the nursery few j Sc.' — Merrv Wives. or even. And perhaps the E. in old e. nipple. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. whence Fr.' making the voice as small as possible. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. for instance. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. as j money. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. don-don. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. Fr. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. to peep through. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. trappa. lift 8. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. From cases like the foregoing. Thus we have Wolof sopa. stairs. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. trippelen. looking through between obstacles. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. analogous to winy-piny. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. fretful. trippen. Clank represents the sound of something large. just beginning to appear. 401. or chink. barking of a dog. as ding-dong. The sound trapp . murmur. A little wee face with little. a child. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. tion. sound of bells .

the and clique. mawhitiwhiti. And generally. tache. Cult. &c. random . kamha-gamla. to say pooh It is ! to. to rock. in familiar use with ourselves. Thus in the Pacific loa.. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to to call. to cover e. or rdtchi. tach-et-er. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. bad . but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . child . such as the syllable expressed in a more called. smallness. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. er. racket. kendagenda. little child (p. keep spots. from Maori muka. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. is language. loloa. ding-ding. to treat with contempt. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. the agent in panting . Susa di. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. rack click. the comparative degrees of greatness. a grasshopper. puka. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. or a little tee--ny thing. to talk at to walk. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. or in Fr. or imitative syllables. ayunayunan. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. very bad. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. Malay ayun. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. rapidity and strength. . Mandingo ding. ratsi-ratsi. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. are echoed by the rudimentary et. calling. a cradle. The same principle of 196. a spot. serves to show and in this way. and Fr. the lungs. clash of weapons. or el. puka- puka. rack. if very young. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. cliqu-et-is. very long (Pott. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). be used as far an echo to hard sounds. click. a clattering noise. could readily be conceived. So from clamo. to vi^alk about for flax. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. clamito. 99). Again. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. repetition or continsignify long. to love. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. or very very great. to or rub. hardness. 97). kenda. to skip.Ixii REPETITION. (to use a to speak. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. lololoa. amusement. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. . child . mpolu is uttered. Thus in E. to call frequently from Fr. didi. to pant. i. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. sopasopa. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. instead of being actually repeated. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. properly speaking. very great. and the words express a continued sound of rack.' expression is — ^Tylor. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. mawhiti.

in Fr. to rock. or fi bau. joggle. to move to and fro. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to hand-le. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. Piedmontese bau-l-S. it. the lungs (the puffers of the body). waggle. wankeln. to bark like a dog. and in as. the knie-en to E. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to puff. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. miauler andpiauler. In cases like these. mew and baa . miauler and beler correspond to E. which. wancol. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. The Fr. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. by the side of wanken. smack. from puka. to rock or wag. jogging. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. or by association. to make a succession of grabs . to continue dragging. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to make bau-bau. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. wankel. wagas ging. to make gug. to make a succession of shoves. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. rynel. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . guggle. to wail woe . where all direct connection with sound is lost. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. kneel. itself. to hand. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. are to cry mew and pew . syllable clat . or omitted. or Maori puka-puka. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . g. compared with g. rubber. bubble. Ihre remarks under gncella. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound.Jicol. dabble. The contrivance with any particular noise. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. fickle. such asjlap. others.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. shuffle. in some applications. without the intervention of the frequentative element. a from ayun. a succession of cracks to rattle. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. as mAS. Jickfacken. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. to crackle. crack. is In e. dab. bub. wavering. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. he who rubs. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. or in e. draggle. as to handle.

or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in mode of use. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. A gull or a dupe same sense. will continue to be felt in daily speech. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. by a hard body breaking.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. although it is not difficult. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. the breach. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. Polish. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). deceit. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. which is the origin of the word. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. moreover. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. There is. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. to the separation between the broken parts. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . and comparatively few easily deceived. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. Breton. on a moment's reflection. or in aptness to combine with other elements. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. which. known in Italian. at was more familiarly known. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. or how generally. Dupe comes to us from the French. to cry ugh at. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent.

is the examples given in the foregoing pages. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. life. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. founded in manifest blunder. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. . Hitl^erto. nor any limited of ideas. however. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. is. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. and the word is used in a secondary sense. language is . and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration.

! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. i. in the course of many years' isolation. episcopus. Naturalist on the Amazons. Welsh. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. French. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. change. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. unintelligible to other hordes. out. 330. evique. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. compared with the duration of man. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). If English. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . circle perpetrates a new slang term. of material things. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. guages in South America.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. hearing. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. I think it very probable. and 'Russian. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. and vescovo. therefore.

as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. i. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. 7. to be taken (Prim. or whatever the proportion may be. . ancient Greek M . as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. it will leave figures 3 and 4. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. The combination of the symbols I and 2. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. which are idenr Figures 5. ao8). tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Nor is there one of the letters. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. 9. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. Cijlt. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. is MN. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. the actual it which would to represent. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. and . although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. 8. 6. A key must unlock more doors than this. as shown in the subjoined illustration. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs.

of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. in the shape either of direct inspiration. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. leading him to utterances.' should be discovered. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. and the only safe beneficent Creator. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. for instance. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. had its origin in imitation of sound. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. known to us as yet. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech." the use of a change of vowel in as. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. what comes to the same thing. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. his fellows. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. which either by direct resemblance of sound. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle.

life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . and sooner or later. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. or not. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. the conduct of Ixix life. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. and when we look back as far as history will reach. race were speaking men or not. or beavers. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. by animal without a trace name of Man. for instance. or of their own reflected thoughts . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . or else. of using imitative conduct . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. in the course of generations. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . as elephants.COMPLETION OF MAN. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. until the progeny. that he started from the lowest grade. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and rose towards a higher state of being.

Infimse Latini- D. 1850. Esthonian. Diet. Bohemian or Czech. 1654. Diefenbaeh. Dueange. Bavarian. ^Ifr. Sup. Castr. Douglas' Virgil. Cot. 1768. Diet.Nieder.V. Da. Dutch. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. 1857. Bremisch.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Danish. at the end of Somner's Diet. Carpentier. Finnish. Dief.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. 1737. Bigl. Provincial dialect. English. de la langue Cat. Bav. Diefeiibach. dialect of the Sette Commune. Romano - Cas- traise. Grammar Boh. Gr. Fr. Couzinid. Cimbr. Elfric's Fl. Catalan. . Anglo-Saxon. AS.-Eng. dial. Gothischen 1851. B. E. Biglotton seu Diet. Cimbrisch. or Dan. Fin. Dueange. Dn. Diet. Teutonico-Lat. Supplement to Bret. Carp. Supplement to Dueange. Dief. Baile/sEngl. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Cotgrave. Brem. Due.. Wtb. Esth. 1766.



kilistaa bugiie r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. word allagerr. r.>. alUger ahaverie r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. willekom Blab r. puHti r. Askance woud r. plowied budowaer. sveritet Asknace r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. Blob plowied r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. buque 118 brodiquin r. haverie crtOT r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. yjnaifia r. cruccio deyrie. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .5 ERRATA.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.. ^i?^i2! r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. cti. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.percurrunt kimista^x. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r.nokkutama willekem. (/ijtf r. woman r. katowai perairrantr. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. baltresca nokkutomax.


he Goth. sion of 'an abandoned character. have entire dominion over. an edict or proclamation. in a manner other than it should be ablution. ibandonner. his. In Lat. rule. a. downwards. and secondarily in that of command. to arise. Immediately from Fr. on. AS. 843. but now )bsolete). A. Dent posture. to sauff the king or spill. ar. . abs. the er. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. until the event jlace . orders. Passing tongues. Jvery man shewid baft. out of. power : Than Wallace thing. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. a washing off to abstain. implying a completion of J. abaft. 244. this word beand Spanish. Ab-. literally. —Bruce. announcement. behind. state of sleep . a/tan. OHG. er. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. be-ceftan. AS. Again. us. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. "rom a height. Lat. ifter. as. Abaft. compounds. Thus ip N3S. away. among. as. from a is to wake to abide. on-bsec . erwachen. command. To abuse is to use iway. ab. plesyt him. off. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. in. Thou spelds of mychty iction. baftan. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. on-lic. to hold . on.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Abs-. of-dune. and — Chaucer. onis aback. into the Romance ftrseg .t G. alike. ir. Hence on-bceftan. dominion. in the same sense. bandon in French. whatever he be. vs. The word Ban is common orders. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. said. K . I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. Abandon. ur. to subdue. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. away from. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . from. particular 1 . Parson's Tale. to awake.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. iway from. dominion. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. o/j of or . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do.

to gape. et prirent terre. or admiration. law term abatement. shame. of the Fr. to make lower. ne more vermeille. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Beat.esbawi. esbahir. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. with or without a final sh. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. and the verb was written in Eng. impetuously. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. abandonly. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. to bate something of the price abbatersi. 364s.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to astonish. To Abate. R. baer. castle. from ravir. of wonder. Milton. terminedly. vol.) . or society of abbots or monks. to happen. and that from Syrian abba. abbattre. to overthrow. R. esbahissais. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . overthrow. burny was formerly burnish . abbatis.down. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. Abbey.polir. Abbot. so common in the found in the OFr. as ravish. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. Hence the OE. effect of shame. Bate. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Castrais. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. betrash. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. de. may be explained.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. where custom (Grandg. to excite admiration. weaken. . from Lat. . at his own the lips. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. iv. ais. Fr. to ruin. confound. lish to abaisse orabaish. See . and sets them all agape.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. to strike sail . Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir.fournir. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. In or. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. in the active form. 1 1 8. faire tomber. uncontroUedly. his mouth. Custom. to take possession of an estate. Originally. son bandon. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. abbatere. bandon.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. other. merely the terminations ons. abaundunem-ent. ant. And he thereof was all abashed. to put to con. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. — — . father. to light upon. Cotgr. to diminish the force of any.On princes. burny. and grooms besmeared with gold. A. abbas. Abbess. More correctly written abbat. polish. On the other in use as well as hand. It. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. down.— — . and it that that it — . which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. astonish.Prov. esbahissant. Hence Lat.' the surrender of a ' K.— R. d. R. abbatere dal prezzo. to strike Froiss. to beat furnish. baba. to abaw or astonish. thing abbatere le vela. c. by Wall. an abbey. his eyen shene. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. drink. adverbial expressions at abandon. I was abawid for merveille. bawi. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. beer. See Abide. — Neccham. depress. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. impulse. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to The . 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. Wall. of fear. abate. abbatia. astony. person. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. Hart in Jamieson. esba. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to hit. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. 1520. Baba ! Mod.

bana. gola badada. take care. Cat. Abie. baier compared with It. endurance. to yawn. abeyance. to gape . open the mouth. on the one hand. to open bader. bouche b^ante. wait To Abide. expectation. covet. tempting. to stay. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. F.— Chaucer. or absorption watching. songer. Du. to hook. Norm. abetter. abet. beijen. to open the mouth. See Abide. bder. which is certainly related to It. to It. were called Brothers. — . It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to suffer death in Du. aspire to. ne chastised them. to attend on . to wait. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. inciter. bhr. delay. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. ' ' . ne wist what way to chuse. expectfamily. and alluring to his own destruction. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool.was formerly used in the sense of look. usbeisnei. literally white tree. from Halo. Boethius. Thus we have It. deceit. Gloss. warten. Q. Pol. Thus G. listening. delay. baer. . Norm. to tarry. bocca badata. forms with the d effaced are OFr.Fr. pense. badare. beijden. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. to mind. Gloss. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. to expect. abie. bie. to remain or endure. to desire earnestly. bida. is idenwait. intent observation. exciter. waiting. abSiance. . to desire. badigliare. 366. E. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to expect gabeidan. guardare. compared with (Bosworth).) abayer. tical with It. bida. to wait.to wait. Ni engigner ni abiter. tity of E. In We . bie compared with Dan. lingering. To Abet. watch. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. abiiance. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. the verb of abeyance. abayer. beguiling on the other. Guernsey beth. de Berri) Prov. regarder. listen. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. to deceive. to wait. ceive. bide of the d endure. m Abeyance. Quant voit le serpent. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. beidan. . have seen abide. tarrying . or do we AS. abidan. b^er. which the mind to an object. abbadare. desire. The white poplar. inciting. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. to abide . it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. — signifies to suspend action. Goth. attendre See Bait. othres abidan' The effacement expect.— ^richer. house. beter. to attend to. desirer (Roquef. Cat. . delay. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. Corresponding to keep in suspense. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). (Vocab. baier. deceiving. abeter. suspense. to deanimer. speaking of the Holy places. ^couter avec dtonnement. 1 • .— Roquef. Fabl. also to OFr. John. wait. or in Fr. badare. baier. to be intent upon. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. beidan. attendre avec en^pressement. beguile. abaier. endurArt thou he that should come. abie. look for another. and Prov. to ance. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. take notice. expectation. — II. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . and in E. abet. Prov.. — ABELE Epiphanius. Corant sens lui. aspirer. a bay or opening in the coast. in Fr. de Champ. bialodrze-w. while the monks under his control ing. to be intent upon. forbearance. Ducange. white. badare.' is in AS. OFr. badar. a right in suspense . says. incite . suffer b. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. syllable ba. us. and E. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. —Raynouard. signifies the direction of tend. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. with open mouth . qui iaaille. bada. beijen. in Dan. gridare. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. verbeijen Sw. bidan. Abele. with badia. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. From abahier. K. to In great amaze. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. The verb atwaiting. tenere a bada. bouche bdante. to stay. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. . trick abetar. to look. we sceolon ON.

She shall abie that trespass dere. is the verb abie. able. abilh. must suffer for it. abide. R. while in later examples As I . apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. Dr. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Fr. fit. abilej Prov. bidan. him with che. AS. Abie. abigg. habilis is closely preserved. It. habilis (from habeo. i. durance in both applications. use. to pay the penalty. powerful. abolir. Milton. and death for handsel pay. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. In this to erase or annul. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. ! ! Cotgr. . at kasta fyri bord. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. R. though sometimes confounded with it. convenient. at hand). habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. without special reference to the notion of retribution. — Able. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. atling hem to her proper offices. and the simple buy. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. P. &c. was often used in the same sense. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. the Sir Tristrem. al- be found so some will dear abide it. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. ON. de la volatile. — e. abycgan. Chaucer. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. to redeem. If it badare. F. from Lat. P. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Mids. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. in for any special purpose.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. to wear away. consequences of anything . purpose. 2. the side of a ship. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. L. Fr. Q. forbid for mother's children should abye. or bie.^and to make his power knowne. suffer the Jul. and Cr. God. Cassar. God — dear. —Bacon in R. Wickliff in Richardson. the Pardoner In the original. abie to Goth. as E. the Fr. aboleo. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. abidge. N. on board . enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. being disabled in the highest degree. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. Lat. beidan. to dress hemp. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. abie. to pay the purchasemoney. O If tion. — P. expert. within the walls of a ship. abeye. have-like. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. to draw fowls. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Spenser. willing to schewe his wrathe. bord. strong. habile. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. Innan bords.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. a board.ynes. adapted . to have . to . 2nd Tale. Boucher. as habiller du chanvre. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. within the ship. power. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. from AS. when compared with Aboard. For on board. sufficient. Merch. bide. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Tr. Prol. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . fault being simply clothing. The —Boucher. abicgan. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. to perish. properly abuy. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it.

AS. on high. abufan. AS. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. ala. seems aras. to aggravate. Quod abominor. natural ed direct from the latter language. Goth. to beget or give birth to children. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. AS. parent. ala is made to signify to rear.1. to nourish. For on broach. by the to bring up. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to rear. literally. The radical idea is to feed the flame. to snatch. abowen.. Thonne Abroach. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. nurse Lat. becomes leu in Prov. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). ol. awaking.ger. as withotityn and without. To Abound. Then. leading immediately to Fr. See -und-. en. D. — ' — — preceding verb. to fatten. a portent). the identity of which with ting. for ligeth butan. the vital spark. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. abbrechen. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. levis to the Romance languages. nourish. Abray. Thence to regard greugetat. his contemporaries. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. butan. — . notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. abbrechen. sec seftre — Chaucer. Fr. gravis.foda signifies to beget. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. above. to bring up. to rear. abrdger. whence the Fr. brood. Prov. Kiittner. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. Tale. way Sw. Sc. abutan. that greatly agredge their sin.ymbutan. is not from G. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat.aboon. abredan. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. gravity. ufan. The primitive idea seems that of beget. the man dwindles away. To abray or abraid. s —Casdmon. life. and in-d-oles. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. In the same brevis . .' Ymb hancred utan. common in Chaucer and Abominable. greu. agredge. to light a fire the Abraid. and bidden him abregge. OSw. alUger. to produce. alan. the form a&^^. heavy. d. So in Lat. to and of giving birth to a litter of young.— Abbreviate. motion. to progress. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. Of these synonymous adolescere. and to do something to avert abbreviate. abominor (from ab and omen. af-oolden. to grow together. abracan. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. to main. while the sense of beget. vital PI. to break off.' Parson's rence. and also to abridge.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. titan. progeny. but from Lat. to let sleep. abbreviare. outward. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. Abrdger itself.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. is a ively. boven. side.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. from Fr. abrcBgdan. bufan. draw out. around on the out. explains soboles Lat. to turn. currence. Lat. agreujar. alere capillos.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. or cut short. to awake. to grow up. Severe the threatened evil. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. the idea of breaking about . to feed. breaking out in language. which passed into English under Abominate. pedigree from brevis. nurse. . Du. be-utan. alan. and alere flammain. the hair grow. OE. break out. Finnish stock. to feed. as AS. Virg.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. snatch In English we speak of away. from . of any kind . Above. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. al is growth. without. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. to AS. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. No doubt if we had not so complete a About.the older form. be-ufan. about cockcrow. which may God avert. Abundant. adolere. giving birth to. Melibaeus. af-oleii. hard. and also. ABOMINABLE adolesco. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. OE. Gael alaich. to cut short. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. as the duty of nourdisposition. full ofte his words for to Fr. oil. to start. or young forth. while the verb alleThe root el. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. kindling. the OSw. onbutan. below.. coalesco.) . See To Bray.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


th centuries the recognised models of antic. to display pario. eigs. d. ReApe. AS. and ig. from. what Roman civilisation. swaged. from ango.—Aperture. from in and cudere. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. post. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. finally applied to a whether grotesca. AS. to open. strangle.legacy of given against. a small quantity. Any. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. fauns. verberas. panar. anxi. from ante. Aphorism. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. from eigan. to have. or in a ridiculous dress. Hence the applica. Hall's Chron. like a jack-pudding. panis. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Antler. Aperient. one. inAgain from the same author cudis. Percutere. Lat. Antique. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. Gr. before. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. as the Italians.D. and claret wine. Otfried. d<popi(xnbs. a puppet or an anti^hona. avri^ava. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. to strike. which by anvild. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. apertum. to go in strange disguises. to strain.— . whence anthem. Gr. Lat. press. Anxious. such as savages. from an and — - . See Cover. white. stem. Ful- Apanage. : . Fr. a few. surimitation of the ancient models. Anvil. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Pezron fiUist. amboltj Du. were chiefly of the former class. Ilvtwotov. and devils. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. from Stephanus. . to support. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld.. from an. the anticks — behind. to sound in answer. a definite . aside. In like manner. burnished. —Spencer. apanage. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. but the expresent day. villan Gloss. ab. a gift. af. of. apatiar. whence Prov. G. transferred to the grotesque characters. Fr. ambeld. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. as we call it. Prov. antefn. — — — . Antidote. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. one at the least. Apart. from avTiipoiuia). something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. from the imitative habits of monkeys. To ape. Lat.made out. gabeigs. As the browcalled antiques. a block to hammer on. Mannequin. Apartment. a preventative . Gr. E. trouble. AS. a termination equivalent to Goth. Thus from gabe.is to be given. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. rich. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. to imitate gestures. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. To go antiquely. incus. i. or antique single chamber. set aside. separate purpose. work. in Shakespear. cenig. separate. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. from. should be received. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. to nourish. some one. vex. as posticus. aperio. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. something ler in R. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. on. all of gold. plenteously with red. Jorioc. So Lat. bread. were andouiller the second. anapoz. Fr. Lat. anxius. three antike pillers. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. antifena. wealth. andouillers. Apartment. one having wealth. to bring forth. part. anticus. before. younger child. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. to strike G. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. choke. as from as. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. left as the . anfilts Pl. Antick.

agreeing with "LtA. From Lat. to suit. to accord. cepl. the good. apin R. — dirondtfiu. prize. prohts. Hence appoind. . From Lat. poind. near. prope (comp. Hence It. Fr. apal. ai. seiden of the stones. Cotgr. plight. w. piteux poind. aptly. to mark to define a bound. to deem good. corresp. like. purpose. A — . irpaiKOKiaov. — Approve. To cause to pall (see Pall). but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. to take away or lose the vital powers.t. obolys. to set a price on. value apprdder. from paix. set a price on. order. Fr. They werin his approvirs privily. opportunity. to Lat. Epistle. : — — speak 'Lz. Apple. . Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Apotliecary. apar. despatch on some service. proper time came. appaiser. Fr. landmark. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. apprendre. after his mind . off. Gr. to call. to disable oftat. apropid. and also as appraise. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. To Appraise. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. Appareil. to fit.parejo. d-n-o. from. or E.prix.his giving evidence against his principal. aparelhar. quoth the frere. and metaphorically to take the meaning. oVooroXof. to call for judgment. Cotgr. to send to. pretium. to store or put Appal. to make a thing Apparel. from aTroorlXXu. Fr. appris. Fr. En peach. to be open to view. allow. to understand. Prov. trim. Ir. to — . peler. 11. I prise ware. an epistle or letter. —Diez. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. apropchar. array. Approach. praise. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. a learner. APRICOT off. to deter- to strike. appellare. Prov. avail. approcdare. of. preparation.probare. to — — . Fr. apprehendere. to assign or grant over unto. consent unto. Yr. to deaden.parecchio. a'^opi'Jw. to approve. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. esteem. Yr.—Apprentice. to learn. pragigua or prixcoda. ^wss. apal. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Gr. Lat. to strike down. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. H. The Fr. lAfiaam. The PI. Cotgr. Formerly apricock. peace. par. poind. apparecchiare. . diminutive pariculus. to catch hold of. word was specially applied to clothing. properly to join like to like. Palsgr. dress. to learn. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. N. a thing for one's purpose. apprentis. taking.— . to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. approver. manner. and appoinder (to find fitting. An old appalled wight. a price. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. 'L-zX. It. For their acquaintance was not come of new . whence the e. i. (cited by Diez from a late author). Nouv. to commend. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'.pareil. Walach. jabloko. And whanne sum men Lat. — Apprise. equal. to which it is often referred. to announce. diroTrXriaatii. fit- — ness. to dress in this fashion. Lith. in Chaucer. ap. Fabian in R. to seize. Gr. decree. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Cent Nouv. From Gr. Mod. pertain or belong to. find Then like Fr. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. pronounce good. one the MLat. They were considered To Appoint. case. pronounce fitting). — Appurtenance. diroBrjKr}. ar. make a composition between parties. one is in. to rate. to send off. Fr. Pliny. become dizzy . were formed appropiare ejar. appartenir. 5w. in fact. appareo. rise to \t. S^. kind of action. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. and in the sense of condition. in good season prendre son d. D. to approach. that it outfit. a crime. 23 . in data. Appease. in commendation. Apostle.propius).were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. apprise. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to lose one's senses. Sp. ciously than nede is. prover. Gr. one for his defence. one sent out. e. To praise. OFr. ON. to come near. laven is used both as E. —^Apparent. habilUr. APO sentence opoQ. horror. Apprehend. away. iwKjToKri. to finish a controversy. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. agree. To Appear. or the like. 'LaX. good. appareiller. approcher. xv. mine. Parson's Tale. probare. Friar's Tale. AS. Apoplexy. like. when the . Fr. Apo- good time. known. — prehendere. habiliments. And among other of his famous deeds.

It will be observed in how large a proportion of . The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. arpa. opinio. Hall. It may be doubted. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used.shrubs {arbor). ear. or barm-cloth. aro. Thus we have natiger and auger. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. water Which that benchid was.meaning at Shrewsbury.. From OFr. ughe. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. fastened close. It is certain that the apricot oracle. as an eye-witness. — . a pleasure-ground. Alban. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . The loss or addition of n very common. account for either of these significations. conjicio. sestimatio arbitraria. derived. shortdr. 331. divining rod. man. conjectura conjec^ra. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. Marsh. nawl and awl. Albanian. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. P. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. doubtless is the origin of E. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. and thence fit. Pr. aestimo. J. Maan initial . to plough. Gr. rofe and all. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. garden.) E. Naprun. Freshly turnid Arable. . From OE. to decide by lot. ap. a cloth. found in Fin. and sortilegus ation. 2. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. la nappe. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. herbere. Now we find in Fin. Lat. arbiter in re censendS. arbitror arwaaja. con. and a protection of the clothes. She made. Aquatic. nected. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. . a river. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. Beryn. Pm.' —About. wata.o. is taken in is a soothsayer. of of divination arpa-mies. aha. arwaus. symbol. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. however. C. sorcerer. OE. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. Lat. Roquefort. — napkin is Naperon.sors. and taken away before dessert. P. scr. arbiter. naperon. a lot. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. as ihe diminutive. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. .] in the N. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. grande nappe. a lot. arbitrium.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. auguror. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Arbour. and with turfis new Goth. quod he. sortium ductor. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. short. Flower and Leaf. delon. Now one of the points — — — . As is a pretty parlour. be That it inne groweth. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. to preserve it from stains. aqua. Arbitrate. Lat. pracoqua was not an adapt. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. hariolus arpelen. OHG. This path Aqueous. aptus. proper. the spelland umpire. . arwelo. however. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. most conspicuous situation in the garden . or eft. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a soothsayer. {mies ^=ia3. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. and the one who gives oracles. A. aa. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. Prol. 31. suitable. intensitive of nape. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. words derived from arpa. ahva. properly the arwella. tion under trial. a lot. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn.

arm. Ardent. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). arm. Dan. morally bad. arson. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. The . is essentially the same word. ardre. bad. arg. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. There can be no doubt that E. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. a threshing-floor. Gr. in Due. Sp. shoulder. which is derived from it.— Army. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. * ArchjAiTaxit. From apxeiov was formed Lat. a bow.In E. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. a rule (princiruler. the most arrant trash. to demonstrate. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. et vulgari verbo. worker. Gr. arm'ee. the terminaGael. arwe. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. man. curved line. arduus. un malin enfant. from areo. as the arch of a bridge. AS. are formed the participial nouns.aioj. And thou as arwe coward. signifies chief or principal. bad of its kind. argr. rame. Lat. aridus. . apxri. ruling by the nobles. Aristocracy. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. W.. difficult to reach.4 rir/. ars. ramend). apxh. apxtipfve. mischievous. apxtlov. Cot. arrant Arms. It. from nixa. ein arger knabe. Du. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. ardIn G. a court yard. argvitugr. earh. arrig.is the natural weapon of offence. an arch-deceiver . sluggish. forearm . ancient. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. patus). 3340. Gr. an arch boy. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. a. timid. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. ON. taxed with cowardice. aj-f. whence the body of the nobles collectively. which has been referred to W. Lat. ill-tempered. G. malicious. — Wtb. arcus. Uo^a^. weapon may be simply an application of annus.. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. curved. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. ardor. arguo. Applied in modern E. ers-betriiger. stuff. Arm. to rule. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. the court of a magistrate. mischievous. een erg kind. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. armada. gwyro to bend. arma. sly. Ardour. exercise lordship). and our army. first. arcA in e. a noble. and Kpurka. by Russ. weapon. and must be identified with Dan. Area. ^Argument. vescovo. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. it signifies roguish. especially shoulder-joint. to burn . Arcadia in R. a chief builder. the a brute. Langobard. D. det arrigste snavs. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. Fr. apx^iv. Perhaps erz-wticherer. sly. to dry. receptacle where the public acts were kept.' Lex. kpxi- beginning. fainthearted. bravest. Alisaunder. lofty. an extent of flat surface. TiKToiv. to be in comp. Arduous. wanton. burning heat. an arrant rogue. government. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. fabricate). . Sax. arga. Arch in composition. From the verb armare. i. area. Fr. as in E. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. G. contemptible. ' — Argue. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. high. . wretched OE. while the Fr. . to arm. arch-bishop. erz in G. arsum. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Arcliives. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. erz-bischof.' Paul Warnefrid. Du. ardeo. vocaveris. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. — Architect. branch. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. shoulder Boh. Lat. an arrant usurer. earm. Fr. a burning or setting on fire. un petit rusd. A construct. erg. Arson. Arid. to Arch. armee.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. 2. and not with apx. Brem. ramo (pi. Lat.' the Gr. Lat. faint-hearted. Lat. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. a branch. Lat. adjective. . raineno. the best. a bare plot of ground. gwyrek. Lat. bad. to be on fire. earg. Gr. make clear or prove. troublesome. archangel. armata.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

Ugutio in Due. mass. bala. ' is a piece or confused talking. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. grieve . from bacquet. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. bolawy. heap up. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). OHG. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. — A — — . to roll. balka. balk. I. a skin. bold. bolker. OSw. . Da. palcare. It. dial. . the ballet of the theatres. We have then separate dial. uveirs bolk. bacgtteter. Ball. weak liquor. AS. Venet. calamity. . Pol. to ail. bolyatchka. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. ballare. Ballot. to dance. Fin. baler. . Sw. to stir. . ballotta. torment. * Balk. pallo. balle. and evil in general. dial. a ballad. Bohem. ballan. a clapping or flapping of wings. ing. bal-daed. It. a dance. a separate portion. It. boll. pallo. to avoid it. are applied to a From the same analogy. a ballot). ballare. ballet.—Ballad. plague. chapurrar. Gr. blister. a wooden partition . a clump . whether of wood or stone. Goth. tum. and the dim. stage or scaffold. In like manner Fr. afbalka. to pack Da. Hence Dan. a great ball. to on Holmedon's plain. the object of his expectation. a. Perhaps on. a bubble. N. palla. on. To Bale out water.— Ballet. balloon. wickedness ness . Balloon. lealo. to rock. bal. baalie. to grieve . balveins. bolyaf. sorrow. balk. balkr. It. 2. to be ill. a beam. balken. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich.). Fr. pain. Sw. floor. balken. balva-vesei. Wotton. at giore en balk. to plank. Bale. maleficium. a partition. a But making way for death at large to walke. gen. the beam of a ship. ballare. ball. beaten road. balja. sick. Sw. maan pallikka. See Gall. . a clod of earth water. boleii. Boll. Bret. 3.Lat. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. the breadth from side to side . Rouchi ban. bealwes. Fr. palloilla. Da. may exhibit the original development of the signification. to paddle in water . Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a pestilence. ball. shouting. vacillare. other while. Sw. balle. The primary sense seems as in G. a together in the form of a ball. a scene acted in dancmg. ballo. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing.Fr. a globe. dial. (Hesych. ballar). Sp. hue et illuc inclinare. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bola. dial. roof. ban. a continued noise of waves gently beating . TtaKKa a pail or tub . as we say. Du. Sw. Hence. Du. hooting. cka. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . Baulke of land. a washing-tub.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. vcdra bdlkr. a pail. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. taich. to speak an un. baalien.' speak gibberish champurrar. probably Lat. ON. balka hopar. balla (with the augm. bbllr bulla J. balle. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. globule. a beam. to Not sparing wight.of men . ne leaving any balke. to be balker. malefacGower in R. sickness. to plough for a boundary between lands. to shake or jog. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to dance. pallukka. E. a ball. F. with the perhaps from balg. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. OFr. balk. balle. Sw. ache. a ball. ball. bollr. a ball or pack. destruction. bol. e. a division of the old laws.ing. Ball. to wave. i. pila. Q. to bale out. misery Du. It.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . . pallikka. bal. to see-saw. ballone. bielke. w. a water-skin dim. Dan. a pill. Bowl. on the shore. A balk. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. says Ray. Sw. To baulke the Sir H. a dance. bol. Ballata. wickedtorment ON. balare. as in a barn or cow-house. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. ill. a boil. package of goods. G. Russ. trouble. to cause another to miss pustule. Sw. Fr. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. bjdlki. to partition off . or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. G. to move. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. ball. Grief. on. balge. balk. bdlkr. on. to ache. a ball. a ball. pilula. balka bunge. a balk of foul weather. bal. to signify washy drink. a ball balla. baloier. separaison. to by beams. similar connection is seen in Sp. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Gael. Mid.

the flower of the pomegranate. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. Lat. by met.000 tons. bumbazed. baume. Sp. balustrade barandilla. fonts. forbid. lastre. But Fr. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. curse. To Bamboozle. it is forced to take in stones or sand. enchanter. the act of walking. i860. more serious objection is . R. 1854. Mr Marsh whether the a load.that the going vessels. ^Arbuthnot in R. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. inutile onus. Baltic. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. To proclaim. a duty on goods last. small railing. It is explained back by Adelung. last. bamboccio. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. lastra. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. Cotgr. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. balsamum. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. astonished. objects to the foregoing derivation.. to preserve equilibrium. baUa. explains ballast. Sept. terraces. is in Sweden and Norway. &c. a rod. Lest. Bret. bambocciolo. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. Bret. baltresac. Bamour. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. a nettle. bamein. galleries. 43 — Cot. lestage. Venet. It. urtica.). The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. . blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. To deceive. also with flatteries and . But because baglast is not found in the written documents. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. — — oltriga. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. It. puzzled. Fr. from Lat. inutilis sarcina. Ballast. to walk. To make fun of a person. Balsam. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. make fun of a person. bam. bertesca. barandado. back of the ship. ballustre) is a corruption. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. a young babe. 1. denounce. railing around altars. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. in the first place. To Ban. Du. bambolo. The Sp. of balusters. endormir par des contes. mare Balticun. analogous to what is seen in It. command. a useless load. from bara or vara. In OSw. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. because. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance.' And Kil. The Baltic sea. lest. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. little round and short pillars. . dial. a fragrant gum. as he says. a small balustrade. paid for the right of carriage. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. ranked on the outside of cloisters. deceiver. When a ship discharges. Report Pennsylv. bag-lest. a false tale or jeer. seems the original form of the word. called Bait. baranda. Balm. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. ^a\Ba\iov. Balluster. Dan. a battlement . barauste. Said to be from balaustia. To Bam. but loadage. Gr. baU. the backload. age. sorcerer.Lat. and Mid. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. If bambocciolare were child of one. an Old dotard or imbambolare. deceive. balconies. ballast. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. or ballast of a ship. Fr. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. more frequently than outward-bound. for want of other freight. or movement of one who walks. bag-las. like Fr. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. This is the backload. for a load or goods (Roquef. to enchant. ballustres. lastagium signified not only ballast. A — — .BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Sc. &c.

Sp. is That with which anything AS.. curse. It. Bandear. In a special sense the term company itself. Ripuar.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. to excommunicate {lysa. — excommunication bann-lysa. says Muratori. — R. border. There is some doubt how Fr. Leg. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp.is further developed. Mag. 26. i. bindan. passing on from proclamation to command. region. Les saiges avait et les fols d. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. bando. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. to form parties. 15. flag. side. then the signification w. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Spebifid. he assembled his host. to take one to task. R. bande. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. Capitul. v. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Sp.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp.^ bandy. a company. eiiseigne. Sw. &c. R- He Translated by Chaucer. parti. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. . and in E. Diss. fahne. ex. Se il — Romance languages. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers.Lat. to publish) banna. OE. biddal. and thence to any proclamation. side. band. 'A son bandon. bandi. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Baud. change to the feminine gender in banda. Band. banda. in Fr. G.e. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. in hostem convocare. 1. ligue Taboada). Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. tener da alcuno. bound. whether by way of injunction or for- command. To Bandy. sostener Torriano. bande. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. summoning to serve So in Swiss. bann. Commun^ment son bandon. to follow a faction. he bannede his ferde. margin. admolendinum. band. to . those who side together (bande. bannum or bandum. to side or to bandy (Florio). banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. It. etc. acquired the sense of proclamation. we constantly find the expression. A. banda. theodscipe ut abannan. Goth. Bandus. to ctide. bande. the ensign or banner. . to ban. Assises de Jerusalem. power. populum. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. from at the Lord's courts. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. and It. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. —R. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. It seems this signification has arisen. hoc est vexillo. a coast. 19. E. bannire exercitum. Cot. faction. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. bandon somewhat party. D. bannire in exercitum. See Abandon. &c. to bring corn to be fahne. bandon was used in the same sense. — To partito d'alcuno. bandera ground at his mill. The to . 2. at his own discretion. banner marked the place of assembly. banns pany of footmen serve. authority. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. to unite with a band. Goth. permission. Car. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil.—John Villani in Due. also the band or of marriage. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. bundun. Fr. 813. In Fr. Wyntoun. ba?idare. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. to reprove. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. From the verb to banda. It. banda the colour or material. Fr.

roupt. dorsum was applied to ject. death-sickness. a de Vaud. Brewer. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. N. and bakki. . Lat. Bandy. . to make a stir banke. and OFr. Bane. a bench. a counter. — Fr. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. See Balluster. the slope of a hill. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Diaconus in Due. a bankrupt merchant. and poise Their lighter wings. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. follow a party. bank of river. It. Mercutio. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. banc G. banca his creditors. The word is in E. AS. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. band-hond. eminence. &c. and hence. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. — Kil. bander. benk. Diez. ruptus. of bandying words. ON. a blow. to publicly order one out of the realm. It. a i. bane. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. s'associer. shoal. outlam came to signify a robber. bandire. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. to knock. Bank. Dan. in the same way that E. and therefore tied up. at canis peciiarius. in the sense of a pirate. &c. bank of Dan. bankruptcy. Milton in R. To Bandy. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Hard crabtree and old iron rang. for shame. bench. banco. But natheless wife at I bank. standard. See Banish. the back. 2. Ripuar. Bacon in R. a long raised seat. se joindre. Bang. broken. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. From a desk . Goth. Fr. a bench. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. banja. se reunir. to work in wood. among rotta. bank. bana. seat . Sw. to beat. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. to hammer in a nail. to join in league with others against Cotgn. The ing. forbear this outrage. —^Vocab. whence the mod. Du. put under the ban of the law. . back of a knife. from banc. death-blow . so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. the same verb the It. Banditti. has bang-bang. bana-sott. bana. Fr. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. tumult bangas. banka. to proclaim. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. — — whence E. was formed the OFr. bandi.^ knock. language of W. bana. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. . bow. Tibalt. hammering. ON. destruction . Draw. the former Fr. 45 — — Bandit. Benvoglio. Roquefort. Fl. a rising bank. as of an explosion or a blow. distinguishes bekkr. Mid. When a man fails Lat. bana-sdr. that the word is used by Romeo. bent as a bow. — Paulus drive in a nail. Banister.HG. panca. The child cries bang! fire.z. Lingua. AS. banc. eminence. to cabal. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. banish. disturbance banga. E. counter. hricg. desk. banqueroute. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. to bend a. beating. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. bannire. de- party. bandear. death-wound. ON. murderer. It is in this sense nounce. Benchi. Hudibras. Bandy legs are crooked legs. bank. a wound OHG. Banner. clouds. canis vinculis assuetus. in the sense of place of business. a sand-bank. de sable. bance. bander. a bench. With many a stiff thwack. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. From Mid. g. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Your stool. bench. — . Bantze. b'ang. a table. The ridge of a hill is AS. A Shipman's Tale. Africa.: . banca fallita. bander tin arc. . beat. banditti acquired the like signification. rap hatike et som The Susu. a bank. home — Bandog. pastoralis. in R. See Band. bakke. large dog kept for a guatd. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. banke. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. to knock. It. many a bang. bang. band-dog. bank of a river. Bankrupt. stir. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. to slay. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. to foment factions. Fr.

an animal a year old. The origin is in all probability Goth. banda. which is surely in barbed arrow.hinder. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. and it was accord. Fr. ON. Gr. barrou-gwez. Barbar. banchetto. To mock or jeer one. The barb of an arrow is the sign . 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. by a repetition of the syllable bar. 3. Lat. 2. token. Gr. Banneret. ON. to dip. either in the Gr. knight Bardd.cruel. . senheira. Hence ner. banniire. senh. bannereti. Fr. ^oTrriKio. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. arineXov. hence a repast. banneret was a higher class of knights. and with an initial s. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. Celtic bar. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. According to Diez the It. &c. privileged to raise Barbarous.. G. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. jSdirTO). himself in Pontus. banda hendi. banne. &c. Duo. sparre. inferior to a baron. The original import of their own banner in the field. It. Flesche barbeUe. bar. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. or of this bantering.— Swift in R. brushwood. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. chan. bandiera. would rupted from Fr. dim. barba. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. manu anto make signs nuere. remarked. Fr. sparro. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. sbarra. of banco. a bearded or Cot. Leduchat.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. then branches. Hence Fr. such as the Roman Eagle. To Banter. E. sign. branch. bandva. in Gr.8ap6^o)voe. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. and from ensign or banner Prov. barre. The spar. and he would seem to derive Goth. senhal. barriire. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. to wash. barreau. a ban. a bench or table . wrapped. indeed. Barb. heri-pau. barra. a barrier or stoppage. top. from reifa. men. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. It. a which the barrister addresses the court. barrack. benda. period vexillarii. and the work is done.46 BANNERET . barrer. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. E. nestling. Fr. It. a sign. OFr. Lat. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. milites bannarii. uncivilised. barbed or trapped as a great horse. Fr. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. — We A . It may be thing. BARBAROUS reiflingr. that the noise of voices Bantling. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. barbarus. a. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. as they call it. inur. of a sign in general. signuin. to wrap. In a similar manner are formed yearling. probably corSymbol. speaking of battle. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. to bend. barde. out of a wound. rarii. rod of any rigid substance. Bret.. barbe. Gael. to having that signification. to beckon . i. ban- Baptise. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Sw. ing term appears in other languages. Lat. merki. OHG. then fell among the foot. senhal. and even of calling it banter. a bantling. Barb. Barbe.the analogous syllable viur. banner. iandvo. branches of a tree {gwezen. from the same source. Bap. a tree). OHG. the word came to signify rude. Thus Ovid. jSa'pjSapoc. a beam or long pole of wood. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. of wind. A It. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. says. banneret. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. Banquet. a war-beacon or war-signal. —Cot.aTa Kul nest. summit. Fr. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. E.

albarda'ah. i. Lith. barbel. to barbe or trap horses. the beard. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. A7 to the and warlike. guazzolare. /3opj3opwJu. — — Hence. Sp. barbaris. to make an outcry . bhasad. in poetic language Bard for poet. G. barbeter. Festus in Diet. tattle. a bardelle. open. to bubble or boil. /3£pjSepi^w. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. a shingle or small board. barefooted Sanscr. Arab. baragouin. bardd. Port. skirmish. Lex. to mumble or mutter words. Thus the on. Sp. and the word was used in OE. such as houses are covered Bardelle. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. a jetty or outnook in a building. borboglio. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. twattle. barbulla. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. the quilted with. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. border of a garden bed. barda. Cotgr. Cot. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. name Fr. borbollar. The Pers. uncovered. baar. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. skirt. as well as thwcEtta. Hall in R. An outwork for the defence of a gate. haggle. Barbel. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. barboter. skialldar-bard. ala.— BARBEL merit of water. powdered all over. stutter. baares geld. tree. to boil or bubble up . and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. brabble in the making of a bargain. horse armour covering the front.' Cot. Gr. barbier. OFr. to wash. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. bare baskojis. bardes. unqualified. dial. It. jargon. Cotgr. to rumble. borbulhar. lb. Bare. brim. Fr. to gurgle. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Barberry. guaszare. Mod. to It. barbarkama. barbeau. twcEtta. and in Flanders to vociferate. Fr. Lucan. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. border. to grunt. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Pr. borborinha. — Cot. or more properly (says fer. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. Fr. barda. — — — men. — . a tumultuous assembly. albardilla. w. ready money. which was of talking. Gr. barS. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. in the sense of fight. barbugliare.— Fl. . on. Hatt-bard. Bard. to chafbargain. to stammer. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. borbotar. the flap of a hat. It. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Barder. to stammer.— — Pm. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. waschen. berries. barz. and foolishly. But Sp. bds. and Sc. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. small pack-saddle. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. boil. a rumbling. skola. the edge of a shield hval-barct. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. saddle-cloth. Etym. Sp. upper chamber. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Bret. Fr. also to wallow like a seething pot. used 2. quarrel . Barber. barguigner.) . — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. speak confusedly. — . Hindost. Etym. axilla. bar. to bubble or spring up. in Fr. Diez. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. to plash or dabble. Applied in E.) to wrangle. berj G. fortia —Strabo. bdsas. the nakedness of a woman. Bargain. albarda. back. Port. grumble (Lowndes. scouthouse. mutter. bdla-khaneh. Fl. formerly used in the sense of tattle. gibberish. barbeum. also to bind or tie across. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . murmur . Russ. uproar. g. barbelin. is lb. barbar. as well as the modern twaddle. Bardeau. a pack-saddle. Barde. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. coping. Mod. Barbican. Exposed to view. bdsiis. . to prattle. barbacane. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. and flanks. muttering.

barlys. but the woman for the man. corn-shed. ThS man was not created for the woman. fray. Ripuar. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. was barlic. bread. hladi. E. berm hoys. dispute . border. hemlock. herbs. Garlick. berm. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. barafunda. tion of the sound. The origin may be throat. Acervus. Antiq. barlich. bernac. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. bosom . Bailey. then honoured man. AS. lap. edge. Du. bern. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barley. To Bark. spectacles. barretor. So also ON. Bret. ber (ace. barnacles. Bark. tumult. a load. husband. and is probably a true bartig. to cheat. to chop. Baron. skuta. W. baaren. w. skutr. It. Barn. the A — Ihre. aheap. contest. dial. contest. Gael. baron. bcerme. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. barafustar. then the bows pectus navis. dispute barattare. at barka. Sp. Port. the slimy substance brewing of beer. Port. beornt. Leg. wine. — Zeuss. Barbour in Jam. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. and may therefore be an Eastern word. and hence probably (by a metaphor. baragouin. strife. The older form in e. baratta. a beak. baniffa. and llysiaw. disorder. Gl. AS. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barlys {bara. ON. prominent part of a thing. beorcan. Spectacles. the G. baralhar. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. barley. Alam. barn. bamagh. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. limpets. ON. — Barnacle. (Ihre. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. trouble. brenig. OFr. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. dispute . borkr. to scold. bargain. confusion. 2. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. mhg. quarrel Port. a heap . a. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. — de Berri. Camus. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. baarm. ON. i. Barge. to shufSe. commonly explained from bere. also a boat . chaffer. So ON. a place. Sp. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. a heap. baron)^ Fr. name being given to spectacles. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. bern. limpet. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. one who stirs up strife. barja. barn. Manx bayrn. — battle. entangle. giving rise to It. astringent. barizeins indicates a noun baris.Barum vel feminam. to all the barca. . Bemiques. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. the rack or manger. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. Vocab. . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. is simply the Bret. varen. as. baralha. and ern. . baarn. From Fr. bard). a receptacle for barley or corn. bosom. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . charlock.. It. Ibid. prasepe . barahunda. Isidore in Rayn. louzou. in the Brim. Cornub. from an imita- Barley. put to confusion. as well as Scandinavian tongues. a lantern. to skin over barkandi. altercation. v. Uzen. as baces-ern. bcern. Dan. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. hlaSa. dregs of oil. as. barajar. am. dispute. Prov. ON. barki. See Barm. barn. barnis. bere. bark . baerm. also to exchange. The Goth. On the other hand. barii. Provj bar (ace. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. barge. a stack. beer. OFr. houbartij fsnile. meta foeni. limpets . bread-corn. struggle. berem. a boat. to rout. as in the case of Lat. See formed Yeast. dispute. Tarn baronem quam feminam.. barone.' bardagi. plants). Romance barsie. and 1. quarrel. Kil. hay-loft. quant a perdu sa barja. Swab. strife. strife. Originally man. Rayn. Dan. kani. Sw. a cap . baratta. barms. a lap. and the word.) lihtes-ern. barmr. OSw.^Voc^. barley. the fore or after end of a boat . the or prow of a ship. baimeach. As Goth. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. 2. to wrangle. Leg. a baking place or oven. Lith. adj. * Barnacles. berma. . conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. berm. —Bark. to strive. Du. baaring. Sp. squabble. a barn. in Nat.

berwen. qui have not much light on the pre. gravis et authenticus vir. hut. beorh. squabble. A. An ing. in the first instance. were sometimes confounded. baronculi. bouracan. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. It. litter. from a tree to which a man is hanged. as. baroncelli. Sp. barril. w. — A . sterilis. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. from beran. 26. 1. bark&n. also termed bannerets. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. and in several instances. garment still used in Morocco. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. an obstruction. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Fr. barri. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. barrique. — Kil. ^Barrator. Bargus or moreland. a. beorg.. Goth. a hiU. became bidre.— Gibbon. whence Barrow. bier. shed. the two names. by early examples. This word introduced into Fr. Antiq. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. like bargain. seem to be radically the same with Lat. man. Bret. Sp. vir. a hut or booth. barchent. brushwood. bara. AS. gwr. in Nat. the braw. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. braeck. barraca. barrila. baraignej Picard. Barratry. Sp. implement for carryAS. as cavalcade. barre. The Sp. Barricade. calico. See Barter. Bohem.root signifying confused noise. mound. man and wife. composed of dry branches ofer. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Gael. sepulchre. a horse. semen non accipiens landiEL. rolls of Parliament. a bar. barrique. barague.' that Barrier. barile. G. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. baracca. OFr. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. It should be observed that. Barrister. vel pretiosos burellos. Barren. or simply bahre. a word is always used in the plural number. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. a barrel. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. which would barragdn. bera. (Schmeller). and not from Fr. signifying. branches. cise formation of the word. nobles. perhaps through Prov. from cavallo. 2. AS.parchanttuech. On chet — We — — their resemblance.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. berewe. Formed from Fr. a. barrier. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. Barrack. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. then traffick4 Barrow. — — 15th Cent. bara. dispute. a barrow. vair. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. staves. Nominale of the from braeckland. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. a bier. change of goods seems. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. bredhan. a kind of coarse camlet. a castrated hog . over him. See Bar. G. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. whenever Barrow-hog. Bamnculus a baronet. ibid. Baron andfemme. fear. baronetti.have been named from the haggling and gant. S. iver. facture. It. boar. uncultivated. E. OE. strife. D.' Op. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. alongside of barrow. a man. bahre. Fr. todtenbahre. fallow. beorgan. tomb. The feudal tenants next Fr. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. Russ. breinej Du. Joshua vii. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. barrack. It. especially those killed in battle. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. baronuU. barBombicinus. cover. to * Barragan. bearg . ^Vocab. MHG. to carry. StiU he shows conclusively. Gael. Barrel. baragan. It was not until the time of James I. habeant. fortification. Bern. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. booth. borov'. heap. to shelter.

over-reaching. plaiting of splinters basged. netting. embastir. him. bast. or running away with the ship. PaaiKhms. to deceive. he. said Base. Fris. Sp. Bass. crassus. fits de bas. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. hoops of a cask. There is not one that. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. cheating. The original meaning. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . corn-farm. bass-matting. MHG. lattice-work. as It. also the demesne lands of a manor. bast-maatte. Gr. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Dan. found in Turkish . rope for — . A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. at basta og binda. Isidore.D. to Diez. Sylvester's Dubartas. a deceiver. — Bassoon. the thin skin Dan. ing for profit. piiiguis. bareter. bdtir. chasa. God it wot. 516. It. It is mentioned as . a king. berewic. but born in baste. barter. a bass rope. besst. low. submovet omne Lucan. lift me above Parnassus. also to Cotgr. husk bast van koren. Sw. It. mean .' Papias. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). a halter. Lap. Bast. lust. BassuS. to stitch . of the same sense. which covers the grain Ger. stitch. Bass. binding. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. The like property hath the iasilisk. imbastire. but he dreth presently. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. a ftiesh. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. baxoj w. Basket. Fr. a tying. See Bath. the a wide open vessel. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). basso. the — — to kill those that look upon it. foist in bargaining. fornication. Bassus. See Brattice. ibid. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. besst-u-b£nd&t. HaU in HaUiwell. AS. G. flat. To Baste. to bind hand and foot. beguile. basta. beortun.looketh upon his eyes. to cheat. and tun. It. to baste piece of cloth. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. baratear. It. Newman. Al is dai. Swed. baos. . Dan. — hanging. bds. imbastire. baraet (from Fr. w. a court-yard. thick. exchange. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. leviter consuere. scale in music. bassin. bran. to truck. to baste. low note. tierer. mock not. on a. MHG. peel. preparatory stitching. Apparently of Celtic origin. from bere. Sw. bast. mavult dicere Roma suam. would be. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. low. Fr. Du. Barton. ^Is de bast. Bastard. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. beretun. It. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. — in Rich. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . bas. unrighteous gain. basso. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. HaUiweU. HoUinshed. Pl. Du. Arthur and Merlini. bestan. Basilisk. Halliwell. discourse Nay. Lend me your hands. which sets up its hood when angry. bast-reb. Sicamb. back. bastear. truck. pdrdt. n' is n' is bacino. fhe outhouses and yards. to bargain. Bartizan. basg. court-yard. to bind. To Bask. commonly A joined with the word binda. But according And Dan.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. chasa ogli a bastard. OFr. then cheating. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. a ipgli So Turk. ' Bosworth. To stitch. . MS. descended of an honorable lineage. as the diadem of the basilisk. to bind. shallow. barley. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. a basket masg. fraud. a bastard. barter. basgod. exchange. bestcn. bast. baste. humilis. to cheat. or wic. to long — a British word by Martial. It. fornication.' Gl. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Fr. from /3aR. bark. A fabulous serpent. OFr. the manorhousfe itself. pressed down. aiKcig. baste. baste. Sp. F. and Bret. inclosure. ' He was begetin o bast. cog. baratar. Kil. basta. dwelling. i. /«r<fSp. according from Gael. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Sp. oe. . To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire.). come near. Barbara de pictis veni patch. curtus. partieren. ohg. low part of the Hickes in Rich. baraand especially teria.

translation to a bat. R. iinbastire. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. frame. It. night-bat. E. Sp. to give him a sound bastingi 3. It. bastear. guerra bastir. Fr. to quilt or stitch wool into it. to build. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. the clapper of a bell. Sw. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. Mid. club. Bastinado. put it together. a packsaddle. Antiq. Florio. 2. contrive. Fr.— . the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. vledermus. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. bladier. Cot. Rayn. Sp. passage Imbasto. erect. — Bakke. Sw.— Bailey. dial. provisions. liiake. a pad. blakka. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. to rub gently. Sw.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. the bat . the night-jar or goat-sticker. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. a sconce.'CaB. to cudgel. vespertilio. whence ledrblaka. in the Romance languages. to set on foot a war Bastion. military term of a bat-horse). bastonFr. quelqu'un son roulet.stitching in general. a bastion. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. the original has corneille. blows. BAT neither. It. which to rest the load. basta. Derived by Diez from iasi. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. badger. dial. iastir. aftonbakke. to devise or begin. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Supp. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. For the loss of the / in back. All from bastir. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. bastida. ment. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. . Pr. blacta. . vespertilio. a stick. pre. to drub. 2. That yche blak y dar wel telle. * Bat. to whip. stryka. Dan. beysta. comp. — — — . R. a pad or packsaddle. which in the E. To baste one's hide .Lat. to teach one before.. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. beating.stick. blakra. ON. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . bastine. business (Altieri). — — Fl. bat. to rub. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. Fr. p. bdion. 2. raise. to spread bread and butter. basa. Perhaps baska. Pm. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. a things prepared for future use. Sc.-^ Chaucer.baste or knock soundly. to Due. Sw. Fr. blatta. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. to stroke. bastonnir. the winged . baston. to beat. a blow cloth for dinner. Prov.fortress or castle furnished with towers. explains Sp. to pack a saddle i. set up. to thrash . 'iJipistreUo. boste. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. baston. and Arabs. to belabour. bastir. a blockhouse. victuals. nade. to build. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. also to cudgel. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. and ditches bastion. like the owl and the bat. the E. stryk. bast. is explained by Cot. disposer. settiilg up. frotter. Dieiif. bakie-bird . bastilde. has bastine. but this is hardly satisfactory. bastonada. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. or implement for 4 * A . a barSp. a. as weU as besteau. a bird which. and Cot. To beat or bang soundly. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . blaka. niammal. bastille. basto. staff. natt-blakka. also the ricado. batta lucifuga. 11864. a with a stick. Cot. set up. from Fr. For the origin of baston see Baste. to flap. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . I. to lay the Sp. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. cudgelling. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. blatta. to beat. bak. in the use of the E. compared with blakka. back. To donjon. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. contriving. Dan. devise. worth (Nat. e. flyinge best. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. 164). and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. bastia. bastione. bastimento. blakta. packsaddle. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. bastir. ari instruineht for beating.

Baka sik vid elld. a great seems related to baden as Fr. fortress or castle. tagUone.' Palsgr. to warm. whence the sun burns . batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. debat. baeddu. basa. strife. Fr. Flem. a band of armed men arranged basa. is a simple adoption of Fr. on the fire. baka. Jeddris and covering. baquetazo. Florio. to fell. made of bats. to beat se battre. certain bend. busk. 2. betten. battre. PLD. flour. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. bake. From OFr. To Bate. more. Fr. badda. Barbour in Jam. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. I baske. solbase. was formed bastilU. Fr. a staff. e. From bat in the sense of rod . of bread is so much baked zX one time. batterie. Fr. Pr. adapted for defence. to beat. Goth. to foment with hot applica. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. to beath wood Battledoor. baz. makebate. a stick. bataille. Bret. Sp. battere. Pr. Bailey. made of — A made by one Batcii. and as a verb. a blow with a light instrument. cudgel. battre. gebdck. dispute. on. tradire. to foment. Eggs. gebdcke. from on. then to warm by the application of hot water. beat down. also. a Baiffi. gabatnan. batte sig. a stirrer-up of strife. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. bat. a washing beetle. Bat. oneself at the A into faggots. bastille. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Chaucer. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. or break down. sich bakern. G. pak. Strife. I bathe in water viz. Holz bdhen. batador. To Batten. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. heat. to bathe oneself. Fr. — To . Pm. battions. Sw. Batten. to get better. quell. baden. and milk beaten up together. a blow. water whether warm or cold.— . the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. to cudgel. remit. battere. dial.Hence in the augmentative form It. Battery. batacazo. G. signifying to give repeated blows. It. . To thrive. bdda. the heat of the It. beat. E. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. howis. batna. bludgeon.Bathe. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . dial. trahtr to It. to thrive. Sw. buask made like a fortress. in the case of a wall. See Better. A batch as wood. battre las ailes. bdt. bdhen. abattre. solen baddar. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. lessen. Du. to dial. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. term in falconry . beat. badda. bat-en. to flutter with the wings. to be profited. . to heat. fashes basking in the sun squadron. to beat. Ayenst the sunne. hot. I. bdda vidjor. badask. battle was used beath wood. In OE. batir. is in falling. a main battle. a from ON. Batyn. Bate. to become convalescent. bada. by projections or in any licoure. wet linen in washing. Sp. to become fat. for biia sik. to fight. as E. to fire or in the sun. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . allay . to feed. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. altercation. to beat.— To Bask.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. Batter. w. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. Slav. Battery. ON. Pm. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Jurgor. to warm oneself. to heat . as wood-en. Hal. . The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. The bat with which a brot bdhen. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Battalion. to toast bread. from battre. In some parts of England it is striking. to betake oneself. perhaps first used adjectivally. to beak. Plkkis. Battlement. as E. or make debate. dial. A Bath. to refresh oneself in language. battaglia. to foment. It. an arrangement for giving blows. Gael. or a dry stick. — Cot. bet. in the sun. G. abate. a battle. a beating. as signifying warm baths. a battalion. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. — — — ' — . Mgy. and with staffslyng. squadron. Fr. Battle. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. to warm oneself at the fire. also a sun badfish. to bathe. better. dial. and about an inch thick. the root of e. to for fighting. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. quhar he suld assaill. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Hence pro.

oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Lat. dirt. lewd . pie- . Baw — . Pr. It is all bawdy. balGael.— P. Ball-seirc. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. An analogous noisily. ON. trifles. a lump or cluster babhaid. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. expressive of disgust. trifle. Cloth of gold. bobine. faisceau. It. toys. or sheaf of Bridel. Sc. a belt. From Bret. c.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. a horse with white legs. Fr. to low or bellow as corn. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. bauU. rotten. is used for a sented by bau. to play the babby. ballach. disgusting. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. is Bagdad stuff. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . E. Beaus^ent. s. BAWSON Swiss. pegma. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. whence the E. bow-wow. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. OFr. A name of the badger.guage). a zan. as Fr. javelle. brush faggot. zano. — — ' Lydgate. bouaila. or toys. 2.. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Pm. P. bow (as in our nursery Diez. dente. ball. cluster. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. tille. or the animal so marked. P. baue. From ! an interjection of disgust. child. in OE. balderich. also the canopy carried part of his body. represented by the syllable miau. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. vacillo. obstrepere. baula.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. guigaw. or Cot. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). baugant. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. an embattled wall. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. a tassel. excrement. b \% bouala. whence pouacre. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. sword-belt. balbob. a tassel or hanging bunch . an — — — A — g — — — . mew. filth. whimwham. bad. and to-tore also. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. to bark. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. to void the bowels. Swiss Rom. to trifle away ment. filth. to make the noise Baudrick.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. horse. an object. on the face of animals. from Baldacca. bobbin or cluster of thread. Bavin. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. ish baubles. sorry. a horse marked with a procession. a white mark Bawdy. fooleries or fond To Bawl.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. the Swiss baben. bal. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. Pr. ground. librillo. nastiness. to the same origin. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. divided between black and white. Cot. collar. Prov. It. miauler. because made of cloth of white. bau. having a white streak down Bagdad. Descript. from Fr. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. instead oi s. Formed from baw. a dog). fagot. The word may perhaps be sticks. Batylment of a wall. The It. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. Jam. spot.. s. Filthy. baw. dacchino. Piedm. Fr. Gael. tab. Hal. dung. 8. Irel. baban. babsmall toy to play withal. the face. bablyn or waveryn. a spot. Baldrick. In like manner Grisons filthy. scarf. babiole. was simply a field gold. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. babbole. dirty. i. —R.' ' Pegma. to 53 manure the To baw. It. to bark . the white of his leg or foot. Fr. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. bauch. Cotgr. form with an initial seen in Fr. W. P. baffe. Cot. baubare. to me-wl. a lump. a plot of Chaucer. also more Bawdekin. spotted. E. baudrdj OHG. — Pm. R. Fl. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. exactly corresponds Fr. Bagdad. fields. fe bau. bal. a gavel. dial. Bawson. baudrat. speckled. and Sp. E. to talk Lacombe. Ball. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. bausan. Zalli. to vociferate. E. to cry. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. and authorities in note. ! Bauble. propugnaculum. OFr.

As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. barn of two bays. bayo. arose two forms of the verb. The word bay. bacca. bahia. white. baionette. alive. aux dehniers abois. stood watching him stoop. — A At Bay. Fr. as if to signify a window of curved outline. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. and zndly. stare. bahia. Lat. buidhe. baca. which however. tradire to Fr. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bialo. It. 1859. Sp. to be Bohem. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. baer. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. baiare. OSp. is perhaps not directly from Lat. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. husk. ing-floor. like a pie. Bay. Bay-tree. Sp. life. &. a berry. dividere. badarc. S. Catalan hadia. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. To Bay. ist. from an imitation of the sound. beo. bai. Fr. See Bald. when. baie. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. A stag is said to stand at bay. Bayonet. overture. bayen-stein. berry. and keeps them in check for a while. .' Bailey. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. BE Probably conRuss. Fr. berries. Bay. &c. to keep at a bay. or window ' (in Fortification). * To Be. to betray. . as they do not obstiruct the light or air. trahir. badia to Sp. in order to keep the enemy in check. bdcr. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. batibari. bay. to iiitent nected PoL white. It. the laurel-bay. to open as a blossom.—Journal Soc. Abide. gate.. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. watching intently. hddhe-dhonn. a beast. to split. A hollow in the 'line of coast. BauSfi)/. bilyega. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. especially beans. or recess in an apartment in modern times. From Cat. house . to on anything. or to have been first used at the Cot. the cod of peas. Fr. waiting . representing the sound made in opening the mouth. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. Prov. yellow . baca. Holland's Pliny in R. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. the cod or husk of beans or the like. at his last gasp. From the former verb is the It. w. window . the step is the same as from It. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. BAY marked with bjly. — Schmid. 1. bde. —F. baccello. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. Sp. 25. expresr sion tenere a bada. —Bay-windo'W. to mark. beothach. that from ba. It has been shown under Abie. dehiscere . beonj Gael. Vielp. &c. to amuse stare a bada. Arts.. or berries. Earth — By Nature made to till. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Mod. |8i'os. baher. bijel. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. put to his last shifts. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. a cluster of bacon. It. desiring. weary of running. It. by the term rendre les abpis. bilyejiti. . living Ir. Gr. baye. from badar. buidhe- The ruadh. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. —Diez. bioth. open the mouth. the world Gr. Swab. life. Gael. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. Serv. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. bate. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. See Bawl. bajo. Fr. Q. Swiss beie. Such Antaeus seemed to me. large window in a handsome . to stand watching one. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Cot. grapes or nuts. Q. F. The — Fr. siege of Bayonne in 1665. It. a hole. AS. as may be seen from the foregoing examples.c. a dagger. Fr. baja. badius. baier. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. ./^ bau. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. a mark. to open. to gape.' — — 54 bald. or at bay. Feb. See At Bay. laurel of the ancients. Drayton in R.— Stalder. baya. he turns and faces his pursuers. abbabayer. window-sill. badarse. Gael. bagaid. so called from its bearing bays. as gazing. and the To bark as a dog. living thing . to keep one waiting. baga. corrupted into Bow-window. bay. a'uno. Lat. Piedm.

to wait-. pig.' Hall's Chron. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Bear. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. tale of prayers or doxologies. bead. Beak.' adheres to the root. Boom. -phxr. or any action done with a pointed thing. to nod .fuis5e. beck. however. * Beagle. — : Beam. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. beacen. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. beans. bob. OSax. He says. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. fromthe danger. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. nokkima. bokan. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Goth. Beckon.ad. bdkna. ON. Beach. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. . faba. as. a single bean. Chapters on Lang. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. was introduced from England sea. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. a hill. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. vol. bidello. and Lat. bairan. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Bean. Bret. W. or breathing. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. Beacon. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. to bellow. gebed. Fr. to produce young. beacnian. to nod the head. as well as f& or fav. fora-bauhan. Netherlands or North Germany. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Pardoner's Tale. salve his hurts. to wait. Trans. Moreover the name. a single bean. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. baum. bedm. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. A two-year old nephew of mine p. faba is Kvavoq. baun. Gael. A Esthon. signifying a point. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. — to bow or nod . pierced for hanging on a string. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. W. Gael. ffci.from AS.. stock. AS. to carry. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. — bedeau. ffaen. atUndre. a nod OHG. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. a tree. bakke. support. bauhan.to have a French origin. bagms. bank. bakkje. vii. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. «va\ioQ. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. G. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. beic.fer-re j Gr. It. prodigy bauhnjan. It is BEAR SI court. into a snjall river. bohnej ON. bee. a presage. Q wait upon him. See To Bid. Catalan becar. l^ax. on. or however. post. bM. Thus the final en. to beckon. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Farrar. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Beadle. Fr. ON. G. be. would say. The nutu significare. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. into France. a prayer. Gr. fero. beic. a sign. Be. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. becco. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. . Du. E. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. It forms a. Hackluyt in R. The wild beast. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. beugler. bydel. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. according to of Sanscr. The origin seems preserved in E. Lat. the part overflowed by the tide. an attendant. as. a beak. fd or faVf beans. To Bear. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Goth. AS. rising ground. Slavon. g. Sw. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. N. backe. 54. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young.' Suetonius in Diez. —F. badmr. bidan. It. — Bellenden in Jam. signifying individuality. Bret. boom. Beck. bearti. . a tree. Miss Gurney in Philolog. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Gael. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. bean. which is. ohg.fui. a curtsey. bar. The immediate shore of the Menage. or beic. bohne. bek. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. like most nautical terms.

gabaurths. agreeable. — A — A — . bekommen. Lat. Lith. decorous. brook. proper. bave. Boeth.of being very angry. to hem. to arrive at. to live. bur. Fr. and Fr. Goth. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. bedr. seemly. to those goods which endure for ever. . bib or slobbering cloth. to happen.AS. which. to be fulfilled. o. beauts. limpan. behkr. because made of the fur of the beaver. perhaps a living thing. See Bat. e. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. bavec. our taste. to the brook itself. babrad. Lat. produce. rying. R. to carry. from beau.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. byrcti. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. fiber. limpian. to assume a certain form or Turk. to fall. G. fitanimal. E. Beck. AS. decent. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. a bank. Secondarily applied to a hat. Now the Beast. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. Fr. ON. To load with ornament. The quadruped. to please. See Beacon. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. i. as the babble of the child. and also in that of birth. Sp.— Kiittner. baba. agreeable. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. gebank. formerly a happen. byw. I do thee pray. to come to or upon.' ' He became very angry. proper . Lat. e. Bo. ON. Cal. E. barba. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. bach. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. OSw. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. comely. becuman. den. befit. brook . to appertain. iida. to G. Perhaps from Pol. convenient. whence baveux. edge.to clothe to slobber. baurthei. bring forth. Russ. and on. ziemen. gefallen.' every way suited to a prince. Thcem. Thus OY. Prov. bcek. Beaver. In like manner condition. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. dize or dtzen. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. 2. slobber. Slav. a lip. befall. battere. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. as. It. to be incumbent upon him. bello. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. As rivus. when up. pleasing.getiman. now confined To Become.' are equivalent expressions. to shore. it is probable that here also the to become. opportune. beo. Do no To It fallith favour. bobr. birth. brada. to dabble . from baver. con. bekkr. and to acquire.S6 fero. limplice. or a feeling to be gratified. to be a part of his to. burdr is used in the sense of a car. AS. Bedizen. talkative. Fr. the ece thurhwuniath. obtain. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. living. taste. timan. bett.we call the arrangement becoming. to fall in with our bavard. Lat. a. the latter are derived It. suitable. covered the face. chin. Beat. beatanj It. G. gelimplic. The fitting or suitable. a brook. suitable. fitly . border. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. becuman. handsome. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. — . bard. bebrus. venient. Beck. bearing. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. a bank. The OFr. G. to attain to the lot of any one. bava. The moveable part of a helmet. to wade through the water like a beaver. from the same in the sense of bear2. fallinn. 1. ON. to happen. to happen. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. tidig.fit. if sound of a sharp blow. to get. bart. ON. barf. an notion of being convenient. W. dress with unbecoming richness . bave i. blast. tidy. Fr. biber. connected with ripa. fit. i. or river. to fall mode of being. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. or special purpose. name applied originally to the bank then proper . Beauty. nod or sign. happening as it ought. baviire. get J ' He got very angry. bellus. riviire. riviera. bel. pretty. boroda. to bear children. On the same principle. G. biivre. while from Shep. place to lie down. receive. to sleep on. to happen. to happen. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. That thou mayest attain Goth. badi. Dan. R. godum with ON. judgment. nothing to thy name make. See Bank. It. pens unmixed evU. bestiaj Gael. Bosworth. bequem. Chaucer. Beckon. but now a river only. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. ting. G. duty. He becom on sceathan. See becymth anfeald yvel.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. Prick of Conscience. Fr. to the good hapHalbard. g. Diez. the beard. dushmak. bobrowai. E.

drink. red curdled Arab . Bernese. 1156.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. /SXirov. may be from K. Fin. paralyticus. Esthon. the meat of spinach. kiissen-biere. The meanpainting. a paviour's beetle batail. Cot. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. beyki. The first milk after a dizen. Dan. Bethlehem. a cover. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. to colour with lime-wash. a malsense of drink.' So Gr._t from the root pi. extant in Bohem. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. The honey-producing insect. Fr. curded or beesty.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. whence familiar. speach. G. taglio. batAfter mete in sale. which also 2. Lat. byst. mars betada. prisons Venet. in Nat. a horse-fly . The beer al for te shenche bate. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. betel. GaeL bior.). Cot. beach-each. the ox. Beet. bytl.possible. and lebermer in G. bitela. briesch-milch. cushion-cover . as. Bav. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. beta. 'La Gl. to flatten In OE. case. from blood. knock. a pillow case.' the last word corresponds to cofly . beetle also signified the impiti. boytle. stakes. to drink. a clapper. from jtst-. from Lat. I put the flax upon it to spin. P1. duplicated form of the root. a cup or implement for AS. . tree. a wandering Prov. Bedouia. a wasp. bet. D. whose face is clotty. bette or blettej Lat. Fr. to turn.D. Fr. prigione. to parget or rough-cast . madhouse. to fall. cozen. bovis. beer. . which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. boeuf. 1. bossen. Confined to bed. as the milk of a that purpose in London. * Beestings. biene.^ drink. AS. garden-herb. imperative pi.'— GL ^Ifr. In a passage of an Old Fr. ProBeer. comb.— JI14. on. bove. bitel. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. ris. trees in a forest . Grimm. ir'm. drink. buche. from risan. de Fierabras in Diez. to rough- cast. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. a bed-tick. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. an ox. door. 1 to drink. by the analogy of bedaivb. bedde-redirj ohg. a mallet. cow has calved. Slav. kivih.(paddi. pude-vaar. badigeonner. poculum. . blow or thrust. sang vermeilh betatz. cousin. beach. bukva. fall. For that was law of lend. desert. to knock. turn. doubtless. beest. Originally. bedawi. Arab. E. waarin. It. ' MordiThe Lat. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Gr. Pett. It. a drink potus. the biter. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. pital of St Mary. i. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. from leberen. g. buka.— B. water. bbtel. 57 — Palsgr. G. beutel. a wasp. pettiriso. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. G. Let. also bienst. . woman that is newly delivered.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. But possibly bedizen 2. a pillow-case. bedskiissen-bUren. a bee. used for boull. as in It. beost. buk. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. E.D. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. crespir. erroneously modified in form. Bed-ridden. It. bibere is a re. calleBedlam.cz//aj. PI. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. cugino. to twist poorma. to poordma. AS. of beatmg. Fr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale.ing of the word is curdled. to coagulate. bably named from the destructive quali| T. thick. qui de lecto surgere non potest . ^. Fr. I A pillow-beer. clog for a dog b'oteln. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. piwo. biest-milch. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. KXlvoTTiT^e. also the bite or sting of a bees. turn (a garment). biiren. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. bletumj Gr. Rom. a pad or cushion). a stinging bieUe. an Beetle. to change . wedges.ON. 1. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. cited by Diez. by-flugaj G. bos. Horn. a Properly a cover that biiren. to become Beech. I dysyn a dystaffe. an inhabitant of the desert. Gael. fagus. &c. Fr. in Schmeller. a agulatum in the original Latin. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. cogionare. AS. vaar. Bee. Lat. . as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. translation beOj.. and in driving piles. the loppered sea. briest. Beetle. sela que environna la terra. may be shpped on and off. Ant. from the hos. . thick. to curdle or lopper. Pl. to and ale. to beat bossel. Beef.

to know. lapidicinus. from whete G. fangen and Lat. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. tale. 'Aboutin undern monly. He did alight. beutel. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. a scrip euXaiciJoi. P. yivwajcw. Deutsch. beriolare. at geta talad. anfangen.n. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. beitel. in E. — yivsaiQ. to reduce him to beggary. can. Du. — Stillingfleet. V. Gr. yiyvo/uat. of Gr. to be able. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. y/yvo/iat. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word.— .' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. chisel. V. &c. also called Bigots. to arise. a bag. It will . word. a chisel. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. sel. to take. 58 BEG BEGONE G. begging. incipere. ysgrepanu.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. To Beg. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. to begin. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . Bruce. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. Skinner's derivation from bag. on further examination. AS. beginning. aginnan. Goth. in D. ytyvwfT'Kw. is com. ' Begone. a beggar. giving in Gr. It. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. covered with gold D. Mundart. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. gigno. Into the are D. onginnan. kind. beis- plement driven by blows.' A. beitel. P. ykvog. but probably erroneously. 25. P. 40. a beggar . 142. affected. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. P. ' . iv. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. beissel. literally. Du. bag {baigean. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. taking up. Barbour. Fr. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. To Begin. su with gold. a — wedge. to go a begging. a stone-cutter's chisel. P. Lollards. to beg.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. OHG. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. in Lat. begger. not began to alight. ip AS. ysgrepan. to cleve. can. Ancren Riwle. 1430. or Of a pure poor man. above quoted to get beaten ON. chap. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Nov. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. one after that other. P. image is cleft out of the trunk. So from Gael. Vocab. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. to get children . genus. to be born. woe-begone. and Lat. to begaan. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. gan.' for ye shall lament and weep. 168. viii. &c. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. cans. Creed. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Mod. 'Dz. yivtrri. on the tramp. to bear young. Of brede full ycrammed. baigeir.3. When Q. referred gan this Erie alight.quently used in OE. Political Songs. 'ex quo. P. but in the same language from poc. be^nnan. touched with emotion — . P. appears improbable at first. 2. a wedge for cleaving wood. Cold-begone. signifying to conceive.pose. air a . Lith. P. ' ' . & go a begging. Si'Xa/coc. ken. hags. gen. whence the E. ken. although it ' the future. pose-pilte. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. steinbosil. The tother seand the dint cum.D. bertola. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. a bag or poke. P. To produce children is to acquire. origin. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock.bag full of the G. two betels —a grete oke. as alighting is a momentary operation. it is both to acquire and to beget. 1867. Du. Schm. From w. a little bag). yivofiai. duginnan. to be acquire. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. a scrip. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. is formed pocair. capere. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. V. krapszas. In Luc vi. Florio. a beggar-boy. a wallet. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . ornamented phoc. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. oppressed with woe. seizing.' about undern he got down. vir mendi. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Beghardus. on the bag. a bag .

to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. promise or a command. zu etwas gehalten haitan. hafwa bort. take yourself off. hovast. hafjan. The seyn. gehalten seyn. to be be named. according as the * To Behove. furtherance. to carry. G. keeping. Aan iemand bid one welcome. behces. by the compound observare. to take away. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. name of the head is used to express what hbva. and (as Fr. Sw. or necessary. to keen or hold. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. AS. guardare. seeing to. portarsi. to hold. vow. taking notice or care of (Gloss. behold. behind. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. servare. bound. holding is originally derived from that of looking. heave. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. vow. or purpose. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. At the back of The re. obliged.— . to name. K. to look. behefe. tion. is also found in the sense of looking. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. ge' hatan. G. habban. to bers of the body. is supported by many analogies. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. Command. gecall. laborare. gehouden. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. behaviour. promise. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. G. to R. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. AS. to be obliged to do a thing. ward. Sw. The Lat. the name adapt. to heave. to lift. to regard. To look steadily upon. use. ifl fact. to vow. exhort. heita. to behave. To place are most naturally ex. to raise. healdan. tail. G. to vow. hove. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. AS. at the tail of. the equivalent of E. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to be obliged to one. se porter) to fare well or ill. to feed. ufhaban. nittaa. and the E. To be expedient. to the equivalent of Du. have the sense of calling or naming. 17. Plautus. to be named. to keep. the two verbs seem radically the same. to have. AS. And so from hania. behatan. hafwa ram. promise . betragen. behat. G. and their senses intermingle. when the verb will hoof.). solicitum esse. The It. fixed upon any object). take heed of. behete. OE. AS. Paladino. zijn. to hold. what he wishes another to do . on. heeten. from tragen. — Behest. is on the top of or opposite to. G. hafwa. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. hantyri.the figure of throwing at a mark.for throwing it. as in the case of E. to carry. han- — js Kil. to bring forwards. garder.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . right. Robert in Warton. to carry. behoof. the distance of anything. to carry corn into the barn . gehat. to look upon it as true . to keep. to be well pleased out. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. adjust. hevja. Kiittn. hcef tig bort. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to hit the mark. to be suitable or becoming . to turn one out . while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. us-hafjan. commonly expressed. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. —Hest. to fit. It. invoke. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to promise. habere. To Behold. injunccommand. to halten. to command. advantage. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. premi curi alicujus rei. beholden to him. hevja. to be fit. Sw. what is so required. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. To Behave. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. a follower.' Richardson.to vow. to lift. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. hces. to call. N. heeten willekem. to call. beperson addressed. to cast or throw. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. But. Goth. keeping. R. to follow. observe. or the hence advantage. hofwa. gehaben. hafwa. hatan. to lead. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to tend. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to command. Thus in Finnish the heave. hcefwa in seed. to meet. to gehouden.

ley/a.D. praising. Sw. aim. promiser. Fair sir and Fair lady. erlauben. AS. appearing in Mid. to a loud noise. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. loben. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. bertefredum. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. From AS. to express approval. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. fitness. Hence to simple approbation. P1. permission. moderation. Det er ofwer er hofwa. laven. to hit hafi. battefredum. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. —F. orloven. peal. to estimate them at a To believe. Then. bealcettanj OE. ungalaub kas. and bergan. glauben. we have Goth. promising. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . satisfaction. certain rate. Fr. . turris. a. resonare. measure.. locus securitatis Schilter. to extol the worth of anything. — Diicange. distance to which a piece will carry. esteeming good and valid. To Belay.D. met. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . a little shed. legsel. AS. to praise. and Du. to believe. ornament. true. frid. a watch tower. to lay the cable round the bits. then. to give leave. to lay be- around. To praise is essentially Xo prise. beleggen. are innate . to put a high price or value on. In Mid. and E. to protect. for purposes of low estimation . OFr. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. is an easy progress. Northamptonshire. leave . to permit. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. praise. beffroi. filu-galaubs. Pl. precious. range. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to befit. giving leave or permission. or a sconce. cela est audessus de votre portde. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to make it fast. from mhG. laven. esteemed . bolken.D. to promise or engage. boare. to praise. fringe. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. b'ola. to fix a price upon one's wares. . to boke. Pl. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. a tower. to der swaren lave. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to sound loudly . to to make A Templorum campana boant. honoured. galaubjan. to cry out bell. to roar.alyfan. is (Sternberg).D. beffroit. hesfa. bell. lyfan. to give leave Dan. reputation. belja. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. Du. galaubs. or house. and E. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen.. Du. OHG. lofa.Lat. to be required for a certain purpose. bellan. It. Bell. belief . stand. ON. beset. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. border. verloben. behove. are other modifications of the same imitative root. Goth. were civil terms of address. reach. on. mark ON.Lat. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. Q. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. or high estimation. bounds. if a promise. bialla. portion. a tower for defence . bealcan. — . which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. with the consent of the heirs. To Belch. gelyfan. to bellow. to resound. in nautical language. 6o BELAY BELL loven. leaf geleafa. if a narration. permitting or giving leave. bylja. consent. lov. pro3. overspread. allow. Du. laubjan. to give leave. bulken. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. a vessel made for dishonour. bellow. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. loven. To Believe. to believe. tain a certain end. an implement for making a loud noise. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . to praise. properly belonging to the church tower. to sanction an arrangement. — mankind. bettifredo. garnish. to bolk. to belay. bercvrit. then. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. beau sire and bel dame. Du. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. to promise. See Gain. Fr. In the middle voice hofwas. on. The word be- Belfry. Another application of the same word is in Pl. bervrit. loven. under the forms belfredum. G. is used in the sense of approving. . to believe. and.. berfroi. ON.

the ipsi Caddono concessimus. to exert force. bienfait." — — . Belt. Benediction. Lat. To belong is thus to reach up to. gelangen. are stripped off whole blase-balg.— Belly. wallet Benefit. benedicere. a kindness. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. . To Benum. G. beneison. the womb. Javanese perfume. Gael. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. bolg. bendan. hence with ashes. bene/actum. Was das belanget. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. incense of Java. attinere. a spring. well. a benefit. balg. attinere. ' . — Ducange. ^To Beray. to become one's property . from Arab. Benefice. fyle To dirty. . Bret. the word. generous. to touch. needs no ex. bellows. disposed to oblige. or fyle with myre. — root consisting of concentric skins. to reach. Benign. from which is also bulbus. See Nether. binsen. J'emboue. benignus (opposed to malignus). volva. an inflated Lat. border. pouch. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. Du. means seeds of plants.Fr. to come to the crown belangen. taken absolutely. to bless. To Bequeath. . rise against external force . is a kindred form. skin. I soyle it or araye it. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. or sometimes louban. vulva. bcelg. Eenison. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. Fr.' Palsgr. on. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. Lat. to touch one. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. one who does good. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to belong. belly.polch. to do good to one . to arrive at. to. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Kil. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. because bcelg. I araye. Benefactor. kind. bander un arc. OFr. Lat. . Beneath. Bent. a water-bubble builge. a good deed. pertinere. . becwathan. cod or husk of pulse. leather sack. bimpsen. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. from benedictio. to concern. Lat. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. balg. bell. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. a border. langen. bolg.. from cwcsthan. bandoir. benejicium.videtur.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. rushes. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. a blow. balteus . or a It is times the to signify services. bolch. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. se bander. Benzoin. has assumed a plural form. See I . — ray. to use words of good omen. Quoth. bags or bellows. is The word balg. Dozy. Benedico. a leather bag. In E. OUG. to hold to one. . gwaldas. to hallow. a accusative. a bellows . ray. welt of a shoe. skin. pervenire. bimaissen. was in Mid. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. pod. pertinere. by itself. To Bend. Gael. ' I beraye. to stretch it on a frame. est matris in lucem editus. bellows. benjoim.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. belly. Lat.' The term had been previously planation. . binssen. I say). G. to attain belangen. The ing-skin. Benignant. to ring. Lat. See Bind. fens et hie liraus. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. From OFr. Bench. G. Sw. ON. welt of a shoe gwald. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. bless. hem. belgr. ON. to attain to. Gum benjamin. See Bank. attingere. To Belong'. G. I marre a thyng. benehusk. vulgarly the belly. benir. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. pino3. benefacere. a speaking well of one. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . benedictio {bene^ and dico. a bellows. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. belliJ Lat. bilbil-goda. bilbila. Ptg. as. to say. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. to concern. Bav. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. from another modification of the word for bubble.pinuz. blister balgan-snamha. a blessing. bellows. bendaj as. the skin of those animals that factor. wallet. Fr. to make bilbil. belch. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. w. belt. bag. blast-bcelg. or simply djawt. to bend a bow . Fr. as concerning that. a round or bubble-shaped root.' — Hie fimus. ball. dirt. — See Numb. poX^ri. benjoin. loubdn djawt. benaigon.

place.irova. making better.bhaksh. E. bal oppbota. To Bestow. ship for a make amend.—^fake. boutefeu. and on which the wager is laid. to make better. a fire. So too Yorkshire arf.X. put forth. — Chaucer. seems twigs or rods. earh. rubbish.ot-i. to on the other Goth. as. stow. burrow. mud. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. basya. better. rods. Besom. an incendiary. to make it. See Better. the side bhakshya. So Lat. Kil. Rob. but it is specially applied mister. The dry. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. scopse spartis. barthless. besein. Beet. bestow. protect . To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . bereafian. — amendment. When men of mekeness him baet. from AS. to To Bereave. From abet. besIn sen. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. besje^ Sanscr. what does it better a man. boeten. from grow. botesward. I from lew. G. beorgan. roju. p. — bota. BEREAVE Wall. To Bet. berwham. because used for making besoms. preferably. fyrbotare. To Beseech. Beere. vi. to supply a want. It is the restore fyr betan. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. Fr. as. to exercise on a definite object. to amend.iooA. reparation. vol. or to bestead one.fish the other hand. dung . to mend. put. bdt. advantage. lewth. AS. make better . dust rojahtaa. To Gl. Bestead. to the place boarded off in a. Du. jnore. person to lie in. To bete his Jam. boeten. AS. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. brem-bessen. ariierf to 113.D. to light the fire . what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. bota. roju. Fr. Tha het he micel fyr betan. hva mannan. basjaj Du. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. Fin. might have been . 3. lay out. amendment. barfham.• 62 Antiq. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. dirt. p. earg. Ihre. roe. dial. besnij Pl. . mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. as in growth. Du. baete. Beit. See Reave. bouter. besen. it seems hard to separate as. The proper meaning of the bale. solicit. arwe. Sw. — Biglotton.— VixHsm. the origin of which is to be found in ON. OE. bet. in the sense ctf beria. to be-place. fall with sound. On the other hand. supporting on the one side Lat. baete. to cast. and Du. an incendiary. to kindle the fire. Goth. of ffeed a fire. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. barth may be for barf. sheltered from the wind. berwe. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. Hfence backing. bur-we. boeten. So roto rattle down. to give a place to. ropahtaa. to word is shelter. improve. or the space kept clear betan. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. ^akka. to to deprive of. G. To help. as conversely a besom is called broom. a berry. ^•n. is to perform a serviceable office to him. to fall with roisto. boteith Goth. bat. Sw. reparation. . to stand one in good stead. sets fire to.— Hal. the guardian . a horse collar. berry. to entreat. Du. reafian. to fire a funeral pile of . Grose. to strip. a place . BETE dirty'. broom twigs. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun.t. sweepings. one who shelter. * To Bete. from It. as Du. Devon. position. as bouter selle. bdt. bacca. R. R. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. to seek. — . to thrust. Esthon. buttare. to thrust. besmas. AS. repair. to put on the saddle. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. noise. beseech. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. The origin is AS. and also to entreat. betan. stealth from steal. profit. fearful. Best. as. what does it boot. To seek something from a person. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. compared with bargham. dirt . but in practice. advantage. or. think more probable. small eatable fruit. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. Berry. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Tusser. buttafuoco. * Berth. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. encouraging. Zeitschr. supply. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. stede. same word with the provincial barth. as. E. peto. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. het vuur The serise of Boeten. houseless. betan. Du. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to defend.

He tdmet I do not allow myself that. tradere. i. riigen. Car son umbre si le trahit. to deceive. treachery. R. in the same way Lat. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. r'ojer dig. to happen. a bevy. which may be compared as to form with amid. — of the authorities. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all.' Dialogue on Witches. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. Ik tame mi dat nig. betest. bet. deign. betweoh. in the middle of twain. to discover. betweohs. traditor. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Sahissais. Dii. gezimet eines dinges. from. E. Du. and thence twegen. what does It is forward him. twain. to stir. as tlock. AS. zemen. Best. bevere. tradire. Hence last G. regen. betray. Sw. The as. Buveau. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. a different form of twa. is used for the — R. by two. Det sig sjelft. order. *Ah. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. tweoh. suitable. advance. e. Pl. To Beteem. to deliver up in breach of trust. for measuring angles. or with again. In like manner from twain is fothied between. make manifest. betera. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. find it good: Goth. progress. to happen. are there Regt R. become. his mouth. To Betray.D. betwuxt. ruogia. Bav. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. against. betwuh. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. abash j from polir. springs from ON. To vouchsafe. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. from Lat. Percy Soc. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. G. of quails. better. betst. bibere. beverage. The inflections of Fr. trakir. Golding's Ovid in R. trahissais. larks. wrogia. said he. betweox. to make forwards. dispose (whence schicksal. E. Goth. Thus from dbahir. e. i. the being pushed to the frbnt. bet. A — drink. Ober D. kein leben mehrin no signs . BETEfiM translated. better. R. obdissais. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. taemen. e. his eyen sheen. x. -to appoint. spritigs from schicken. bedriegen. as trahissons. proficere. sloped off. Between. wreia. to accuse. fate. G. to cheat. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. beuvrage. Fr. a brood. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. are commonly to one's lot. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Fr. as envahir. To Bewray. Now the stirring of an object. to fall. from Fr. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. to drink . more. afford. ON. To boot in coursing (i. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. G. It. Fr. ON. it bewrays itself. better. beva. pair of compasses. Bevy. Fr. From the former of these are AS. thy speech bewrayeth thee. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. amidst. gesiemen. Chaucer. evidence of life. a drinking . some attention. as one would have it fall. batizo. R. verbs in ir with a double ss. . a square-like instrument having to beseeni. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. — that schickiich. be fitting or suitable. Slant. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. suitable. traitre. is treason. In like manner folissais. AS. fallinn. roja. On the same principle ON. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. of pheasants. From It. lot). zimet. fitting. baet. trahir. has — In a like sense tanie>i. Lat. betriigen. gatiman. polish. E. In the water anon was seen His nose. Fl. OE. bouter davantaige. — See To Bete. I approve of beveau. obeish. roebucks. It. an instrument opening like a a thing. Fris. batista. ziemen. Friar's Prol. to deliver tip. Dit tungomal rendered in E. — Betwixt. Cot. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. find in one's heart. best. Better. deem suitable. awry. to Teem. vrohjan.— . trahison. from invadere. taemen. &c. bat.D. tima. moveable and compass branches. in the middle of two. dir. two. to fall Some call it a bevel. to Hence It. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. by a final sh. amiddes. Pl. Goth. Mich self a good glass of wine. betaemen. 88. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. /alia. G. as from obdir. a traitor. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. tima. whence beveraggio Fr. bevde.

—Dozy. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. In Arab. snout. Bible. shows the P1. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bias-wise. presence. Fr. to the stirring of their conscience. it becomes (Jz-. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. . Sp. used in precisely stone . aslope sbisciare. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Fr. two- footed. bezling or skueing. Sardin. per\'erted belief. to stir up . Bibelsworth in Nat. Lat. the basil Sc. Bezoar. Diet. Hal. like guzzle. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. bescompte. biax. bibaculus. it were the mouth. Piedm. to glide or slip as upon. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). edge of a plate of looking-glass. bring under ' Thy accuse. Du. is explained to clatter. in him. Jamieson. pddzahr. oblique. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. bebble. Oh when shall I bizzle. . metaphor). bickel. to give signs of life. slippery. Cat. Hal- — do something aslant. to tipple. dial. Ci^. one who drinks in excess. asure-bice (Early E. beslei. An inferior blue. love first begins to life signs of him.D. to stir. liwell. To Bibble. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. babbi. convicts thee of being drink. sloped. Fr. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. ber-laita (for bes-laita).' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Biseau. to stir. Probably. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. a sloping edge. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Mantuan. a slabbering-bib. in two ways for duis. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. a stone-hewer . twice. to slaver . Pl. to stir. beregen. Fr. poison.{ioin dua. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Bias. which good bibbeler. bickeler. Lat. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. roggle. to cut in two. Misc. from pdd-. inferiority. sbrisso. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). bihais. wraggeln. sbias. baverole. kwijllap. pible. sbiagio. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. b&zahr. to it evident to sense. Prov. makes ble. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. or kwijl-slab. biais. to purl. dial. Fris. to slaver or drivel. bickelen.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. sik beregen. the word became bddizahr. — crooked. sliding. Fr. .a. bis. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. To Bicker. . sbrisciare. stock still. bickai. slanting . Pers.' bibble. OE. reveal. bibo. —Bickering'. wrogen. expelling or preserving against. to a fight with stones. To bicker in NE. a fragment bieco. a bezle. Fr. to dispute. rogge. to Jam. him. I Wallon. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. rogt un bogt sik nig. evident.two. /3i/3Xof a book originally. to be a paring. a bibber. baviere. of the sliced off.as in Biped. bark of which paper was first made. To Bib. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. sbiscio. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Bisect. — Bi-. wrangle. bes-azur. sbiesso. Cat. Bezel. kwijlen. See Wriggle. To Bezzle. aslope. (according to the Fr.to drink much. To drink hard. In comp. It is especially applied in Sc. biascia. bisdare. To skirmish. sbiescio. Sard. Dan. 172. its clothes. biascio. to creep or crawl sideling. Ant. Piedm. lips. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. and zahr. Yes. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. to well up with Cot. petit-lait. sbriscio. Bib. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . whey count . Schiitze. Uprogen. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. biberon. he is Wtb. discover. sbrissare. to make tongue Du. babbefore the eyes. biberer. An excellent Basil. to tipple. in Fr. winding or crawling in and out. 78). bickel-sieenken. ice . biberen. specially in a bottle. foul weather. crooked. as an eel or a snake. tailU en biseau. or in and out.or from obliquus. besanca.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. to sip. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. bending. notice. sbiasciai. Gr. misFr.s bellum for duellum. to move. kwijl-bab. The train of thought is then. It. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached.D. bavon. Bice. by throwing of stones. E. a Galilean. The It. It. or by any rapid motion. whence Du. bisel. . has a singular stone-picker. biaiser. the papyrus. sbieco. to shake. bestemps. bible.

bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. the meaning of bid. bidan. bieden.' Addison. to start out. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. beidast. cultivate.uddered len heart. qucero. byggan. OSw. rising up. bulky. boa. to solicit. bulk.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. A pose to one to come to dinner. Big. verbieten. twice. Two verbs are here confounded. to bicker. to arrange. athird class. a swelling. AS. Bight or Bought. praebere. to build. who. explaining the Sc. bulge. offerre. inhabit Du. related to big or bug. to curve. to build. and consequently ordering or reGoth. AS. The 'La. iiQ. bouwen. and Gael. has leta. Big-swol- . ' Bug as a Lord. To bid the banns. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. Bigot. 2. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. to dwell. The ON. bidel. repair. bolgna). bidjan. ON. to bend. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bat . For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. in the sense of ask for. spelling seems to used in the N. G. to bend. to ask. swelling. or. bedun. a suitor. G. . besides the professedmonks and nuns. Einem einen guten tag bieten. OSw. bua. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. 1. from seek. of More ' in Richardson. anleta. to abide or wait on. becoming in Lat. Bigamy. praestare. as. — prepare. a flexure. bauen to cultivate. swaggering. bugne (answering to ON. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. A bjudan in anabjudan. bugt. bend. form. Kil. porrigere. to bulge. bidan. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bead. bis and in comp. to presimpler pare." buque with E. to ask. Palsgrave in Halliwell. abidan. may plausibly be derived from Goth. pray. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. . bygga. bug. faurbjudan. bolga. inhabit. P. BID of stone. bolginn. to pro- command. to cultivate. It must be observed that the word bidja. to look for. bugan. bieten. bo. and the Sw. or third order of penitence. ON. The loss of the / gives Dan. bag. belly. The . bicker in the sense of throwing stones.t. from bidan. belly. — To Bid. gebeden j G. gebodenj G. W. Wallace in Jam. to look for. quiring something to be done. to offer one the wish of a good day. The ON. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. from belgia. buga. bilge or bulge.Leta). as G. Hence Sc. bulge. be bug. ON. G. which is stiU. to have one called before him. beodan. The original Swollen. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to bid one good day. beadle. to E. ten. biddan. BIGOT beidan. bend of a shore or of a rope. an entire skin. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. or bad.' Pope in R. byggia. Bickelen. From Gr. To Big. by seek and beseech. forwards. pressing on one's notice. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. to pray one to dinner. England for swollen. consisting both of men and women. einen vor Gericht bieten. to inflate E. to offer it to public notice. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. bit- bidja. R. ewes. called the tertiary order. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. bi-. balg. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to belly. biegen. a chip. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. swoln. to move quickly. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bced.. Compare also Sp. bow. to offer. Du. are also used in the sense of asking for. bidill. proud. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. — — — Halliwell. bog. Jam. bath. and yajiBui. build. to marry. ON. to forbid . the belly of a ship. to swell. to inhabit. With respect to logical pedigree. To Bid ' Big . Analogous expressions are G. as tears from the eyes. bigan. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to build G. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. AS. to forbid .peto.

and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. which must not be confounded with begardo. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. grey.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. to adopt a similar course of life.' translated by Muratori. says. and hence the variations bigutta. absque votorum religionis emissione. bigotta. was formed bigello. Hence the OE. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. the nobles to Rienzi. vol. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. and Q. bighiotto. honesti plebeii amictus. as well as bizocco. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. From bigio.' Chart.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. bigio. Flor. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. alii Apostolici. sed maxim^ in muliebri. aliqui Begardi. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. clownish. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . and also unlearned common men. Augustini dotarint. with reference to A. the other form Per te Tribune. a blockhead.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. 1499. vocati Fraticelli. borel. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. face VIII. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. bighellone. dark-coloured cloth.D. rustical.' says an Venet.— BIGOT bigardo. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. Bighini. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. perch^ i Terziari di S. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. In the same way Fr. corruption would easily creep in. probably from biso. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur.D. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. alii de paupere viti. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. In a similar manner from bigello. Beguttce. G. all apparently derived from Ital. coarse woollen cloth.' says one of of bigio. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. Francisci communiter appellabant.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. ac labores manuum detestantes. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Bizocco. natural grey or sheep's russet. Bighiotti).' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. &c. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. beghart. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. A. biso. A. beghino. begutta.' Matthew Paris. D. Bizoccki.— Ducange. a dunce. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. both men and women. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. They wore a similar dress. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.a. 15 18. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.D. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. author quoted in N. A. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. signifying bagmen or beggars. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. xx. ix. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. S. grey. homespun cloth. 1243. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves.. 560.

horn of an animal. an axe . — Cot. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Sp. 'tumidi fluctus. inscriptum. deceit. belghen. Sw. 2. fluctus maris. an axe. Sw. Prov. Fr. a floating log to mark the place of some. bizocco. Kil. A lorum tam in — Diez. See Bull. blaa. bigot. topor. AS. a seal. and dziobas. in the same sense. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. 2. — bigardia. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a of the sea.' bilio. b'olja. clog to a fetter. dissimulation . Bohem. genus vincu- Bilboes. a short note. billard or billart. irons or set in a kind of stocks. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . Piedmontese bigot. To defraud one of expected sinking. Fr. Gael. boeye. to be angry (i. as craneberry. an axe. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. used in legal proceedings. seems to be rather the unda. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Roquef. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a hatchet. a shackle. buail. abelthe fetter itself. at sea Billet. in the sense of a writing. dziobad. The proper meaning bylgia. BILBERRY nated. to swell with rage). names bill-berries. p. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Kil. AS. loi. biilge. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. bisoch. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. bigotto. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. Thus we find in It. and in Lat. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. boja. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. bulgja. 3. belgan. tepati. beil. blue . To Bilk. Bilge. procella Kil. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Bille. NFris. that of swell. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. a name given to a. e. bull-berries. Gascoigne in R. fetters. AS. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . e. dziob. Mundart. a beak. G. a devotee. an ingot of gold or silver. Bojce. and a billard. to peck. Johansen. however. bui. Bilberry. Billet. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. bwyell. Billette. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Langued. Aurelles. bla-berry. w.' in Richardson. I. An instrument for hewing. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. bila. a negro. See Bulk. Tartuffe. as a bill of indictment. Fr. top. the trunk of a tree. Bigin. Ludwig. bill in parliament. person of religion leading a loose life. Deutsch. boia. to job.. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. to strike. symbolum. The Du. A slang term for a sword. from OSw. Lat.' mariners. Billow. 5 * . where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. . Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. from Mid. Bill. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. bulghe. Dan. obsolete. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. to pick a millstone. the bill of a bird. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. ferrese quam ligneae. false pretender to reUgious feeling. gan. beghart. to strike. . is properly a sealed instrument.— — — . while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Du. Bill. Dan. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bigardo. buie. billet. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. bille. a bigot or hypocrite. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Bilbo. of boja. billot. whortle-berries. blamand. bulla. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. an axe. plog-bill. Du. the beak of a bird. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. of E. a man who rests on a stick in walking. from the dark colour. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. — — ' . Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bile. In English the meaning has received a further development. bullet. bigot. axe. a hypocrite. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. billard also signified at billyards. So in Gr. an ingot. weapon . In the same way are related Pol.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. a seal. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. the swelling G. bil. now A Bilboa blade. on. Sw. OFr. bill. . a sword. gleischner (Frisch). Du. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bill of exchange. bolghe. buoy [i. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. billet is the diminutive of this. ^Billiard. Lat. an adze . the o changing to an i to express diminution. crowberry.

Bisom. viz. EpisETTiTOOTToe. the young of an animal. while bind-wood. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. To — — —D. than vice versi. Sanscr. to swell. It. bunki. the young of birds . — — . Sw. See Belly. a weight. expressed by Sw. See To Bear. I would derive the verb to knit. copus. It. AS. and especially to a small poor horse. a heap. Fr. a female stag. Lith. a gallinaceous bird. betsel. hith. Lat. binda nat./«idere. sc. Sp. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Bittacle or Binnacle. brid. evesgue. a truss. v. BITTACLE /Siof. beorth. from \t3\. or petze. to bind together. to cook). to bear. bunch. ge- from AS. pinnu. bunt. Habitacle. . fowl. biccej ON. bundt. biscotto. brut. qui nisi propius Blind. Fr. Dan. an overseer. to net. pippione. where the compass stands. wine. — properly near-sighted. to form a knotted structure. . Gr. doubtless a stone. overlooker. bij sien. bitill.' and the like. beitsl. or baked. bij sienigh. a bunch. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Lat. IV. episcopus. to bring Biscuit. from Gr. a bitch applied also to other animals. AS. Goth. AS. Bailey. Bisen. bindan. a pig petz. bin-wood. poultry. berkas (z=:Fr. a bear. to bind at . Fr. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. 'tumens sequor. — Kil. AS. bjork. to hang. a little dog. Bitch. piccione. — See Bittacle. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bundle. bikkia. and of Fr. j). evigue. H. beize. Fr. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. to be derived from Ibfiaq. to bulge. band. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. to wreathe. nodus. burt. biclie. or bin. Bizened.. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. pin-ti. by binda. a brood or hatch of young. is rendered in ON. Bing. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. bundt. Bind. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Bindweed. pittjo. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. i. i. which is expressed in E. a house. . Thus I suppose the Gr. bunga. bund. When compared with Fr. is in Scotland applied to ivy. also a stone weight. bord. are commonplaces. life. evegue. to knot nets for fish. habitacle. poule. Bin. or ben-wood. &c. — Surrey in R. bitacora. To Bite. G. . pundas. bhurja. E. Lith. beitan. videt. from pondus. The proper meaning is a heap. to fasten it together. AS. an eagle's young G. bigne. to plait. propius videre bij sicndc. a bitch. V. admota non Bit. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Fr. lusciosus et myops. Lap. ON. properly a young pigeon. bindan. from Lat. a habit- Binnacle. a bitch. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Goth. terial. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. to build. forth. AS. The term ON. vescovo. earnes brid.68 BIN Bio-. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. isfiw. a heap. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. . Sw. binge. to twine. Lat. In like manner from knot. bircej Sw. ON. hiindiiin. a bump or knob. truss. Bird.. bundun. by the verb knit or net. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. pullus. Bisson. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. beran. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. G. a female dog hindinn. Birch. piiiti. a weight of 48 pounds. The bitol. Du. bita. biscuit. bundle. bund. twice cooked. Bine. e. a corn. See Breed. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. We — A Birth. in Swabia. Lat. . a knob. Then added division in a granary. G. G.. a hind or female stag. pinnii. beisseii.

ON. NE. G. to the sharpness of a weapon. blabaran. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Pl. even humour seemed and beuin. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. unintelligible talk plabair. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. as in that of pale and white on the other. corrupted in Fr. blac-hleor ides. to chops. blunt we say it will not bite. 156. mona mid Dan. butorj OE. cut. baitrs. bitter. Gael. a babbler. Bleak. bitones. an edge is sharpest sword. To Blab the anchor. AS. a flapping. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. 't huisje. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. beuni. bittore. . his blacan light. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. blubber-lipped. ON. white lead. Again. Mund. black.. to watch. Deutsch. Bav. "uivac. Fr. Sp. babbling. plappem. from wachen. pale. quoted by Ihre. blake.' by Gudmund. Fr. ' plabraich. blepLith.' G. blob. yellowish. Sp. a large coarse lip . dusky. bitor. AS. Wit hung her mourn. biti. to bivouac. synonymous with baber-lip. is placed. blob.. gabble. blebberis. bird of the heron tribe. Alex. an additional watch. I blaber. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. obscurus. blakk. on the one side. /ealo-/or. shining. dark. — Collins in Hal. Cot. white. small guard-house. Hald. ' Biovac. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. things —Palsgr. pins of the capstern. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. is apprehension of danger. shine. Cotgr. It. blank. as of a body falling into water. blabbern. bittour.plab is used to . In Legrand's Fr. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Fieldfare. bleikr. a shelter for the steersman.€i. blakki. maculS. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. Sp. discoloured . quick. to loll it out. — cheeked maid. as of water gently beating the shore. pale brown . mouth. Fr. ^chops. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. brunblakk. garrulous. stutterer. Mantuan babbi. plabartaich. term. as of wings . faded.). Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. bihovac. Sp. 't kompas huis. a large lip. a* mast . bleg. beitr. a stammerer. 'fuscus. gulblakk. a childe dothe gasouille. Fr. —Neumann. buft". Why presumest And laam's asse. out the tongue. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Blabber-lip. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). whitish. Black. thoughtlessly . G. whiteness (candor sine It. . The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. whitish. from whence we have adopted the. Percy Soc. white. To or he can speake. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. light-coloured. night guard.. ^aj'/^r. Hal. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. iroxafealo. The Gz. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. blob. blabbre. Sw. confusedly. to wax pale or bleaked. apparently from its biting the tongue. indistinctly. Bittern. biacca. Lydgate. to let out whai should have been concealed.' It would thus acle. Nagt huis. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. 332. bites. chatter babbler . mouth. blabhdach. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. on. a beam in a house or ship. Bivouac. fallow fawn-coloured. In a similar manner Gael. The bitas. Hist. Je N. Applied in Hin ON. to To blabber blabber with the lips.' by Haldorsen.— Blabber-lip. pale. ON. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. a continued soft sound. the palebleff. Se bleek. leohte . to speak Dan. beiwache. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. or water beating gently on the beach . blab. blesmer. baboyer. a tati. faded. Goth. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. So Fr. viz. — Hollyband. ON. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. to talk much. x. blobach. v. pale. Gael. to babble. Du. bleich. bitts of Bitts. Bohem. to babble. . Mag. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. round which the cable is made fast. bitr. blanc. pale yellow. a fluttering noise. first. pale yellow . as is seen in sputter and splutter. babbe. yellow . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. fallow . Ai-mstrong. A a rail.D. in contempt. In like manner E.

to bleak in the sun. moere. blaeren. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blaere. pladdern. as Lat. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. — . bladra. mud. pass over. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. to shine. Dan. pallido. as scullions. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. to disappoint. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. most complete example of leafy structure. bladeren. to omit. —We Bladder.—Blatant. blister. Fr. also jabber. pluddre. to vocifer- — Cot. Blain. Du. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. from candere. a leaf. Wott. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blister. or as E. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. G. pimple. blather. blatter. bladder . on. Blanket. leaves. tattle. I am degraded from a cook. 86. and wandering men and women. boys. Dan.— ^o thehotsun. dripping-pans. mire. to dabble in water. blame. or blafich. imbrunire. dial. — — — to jabber. to glow. Sir. a blank ticket. To Blare. the origin of . See Blubber. — Sw. 7. to bubble. and the agitation of liquids. Du. It.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. is identical with Flanders borlen. bladder. vagabonds. to make or become white blanc. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Gr. tree. plat. chatter. piatto. bladre. name originally given Blackguard. a. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. and thence to babble. Sc. blena. coat. blanqne. Bacon in R. Dan. Lat. probably ate. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. blatt. &c. a boil. leaf of a. waschen. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam.. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. to blanch. Fr. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. 5/^a/^ of colour. blasphemare. linkboys. mus-blackt. biasimare.—Blatter. blegne. Torriano. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. to —Blaspheme. broad. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. — rura. and others engaged in dirty work. plate. speak impiously. on. foolish talk. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Reliqu. blanchet. . the leaf of a tree. Now. contracted from bladeren. as. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. as blader. black. p. branches . pXaatpiiiiHv. Bav. board. Blank. or a mass of bubbles. roar. blether..— Kil. in R. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Perhaps from blegen. the ON. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. blister. But perhaps a more Gr. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. whitish. defame. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. shining. G. white. Blancli. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. white. . also tanned by the sun. The present forms then should be classed with blether. blank. To blank. e. to To bellow. to shine. reproach. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. Du. Blank "verse. 1854. madder. blahen. . Blame. vagrants. Sw. blein. slush. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. as. blad. whitish. commonly called the Black-guard. Fr. The radical bubble. blanchir. a bubble. Play in Nares. cited in N. candidus. smother. and E. Du. G. PI. to glitter. and he shall be sure to have O. blactra. skola and thwatta. which we . his meat burnt. flap of a Du. D. revile. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. to blow. leafy. blather. a pustule . blanc. a white or unwritten ticket. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Cot. smore. Hist. plat. blister. Blade. to purl. blad. leaf. a bubble. bladdra. Fr. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. with all other loose idle masterless men. blatter. irXariQ. biastner. polished. livido . or of an oar G. blanchet. Sw. Eadmer. bladder. —^Webster. chatter. and Q. sheet of paper. a bladder or pustule. a blanket a bed. variable than the signification of words designating colour. bladder. gabble. borrelen. and G. blinken. blegen. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Jan. also white woollen cloth . mud. Du. to Hence Ital. a buible. rogues and wanderers.

and. shield or surcoat. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. an empty and two theories are proposed. senses. an conium. blcEsan. ventosus. oured. blase. baladron. a whisperer.' to fastum . is used in the sense of manifestatio. . ill-speaMng their proper colours . . blis. magnilo. AS. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. Kil. Dan. blezo. baladrar. As Kilian. biter. to extol. each of boaster. Lye. to proclaim. light-coli. to cut off prematurely. Du. She roade at peace through his heraldry. But now. Du. The AS. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. like the in English. to blow. blateroon. blaesen. blcEsan. also praeblczse. Blatant. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Blaze. to publish the praises. might spring from the same origin by a . A gust of wind. Gael. blaze. a MS. declaratio. With inversion of the liquid. blaodhrach. to publish. a shield. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. Sw. Cot. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blatero. Du. thraso. blase. blose. ing of arms. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. to blow. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. a loud noise. The origin of this exSp. redness . a lamp blasere. proflare tues.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blason. used. pale. abroad. in the same way as we 2. AS. Gudmund. Golden Book in R. a torch . fire. also only pains and excellent endurance. A blaze is so intimately Then. Blanches illuminies.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. blasoen. e. To blow AS. blysa. blass. by stripping off a portion of the bark. OE. A strong flame. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blcest. of an animal. how. commendation blason funebre. friend Cornelius. a funeral oration . indeed. See Blare. . bleis. a shining spot. Blast. blossi. visui patet. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. might And sain. Cot. on whose behalf the herald appeared. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. besides blesse. Sc. blason. i. much plausibility. bliEsan. live coal . oron-blasare. boasting. and which. a voice Jr. loud . a blast. Fr. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. clamorous. blast. Fr. blazen. — — ' : bless. Sw. bawling. To Blaze. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Dan. blys. blcese. g. the matter incendiary . the noisy. somewhat different train of thought.' painted or figured . is from AS.sound a trumpet. blus. to spread news. blaeteren. splendour. coloured prints. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. bldsse. has also blencke. to set on fire. quus. I. bles. Du. a shout. to bellow. 2. laudes (Kil. to de. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. If armour.whence the Fr. 'op een trompet blaazen. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. blcesett. a flame. brasa. First from the E. as a verb. a coat of arms. or blazening. The other derivation. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. a flame . Du. gloriosus.). a flame. stultd loqui. ther it was erst not knowe. — ^Jam. blasa. abroad. braise. kept up. blaodh. blasonner. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. beast. blesse. Troilus and Cressida. G. blorach. whence Blazonry. Prov. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. proclaim the virtues of. to trumpet forth. among other . — ' — stroy. Du. or to the sound which it produces. blesse. Fr. a torch. it is manifest. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. and to make him word blaze. also blazon or the blazSpenser. ON.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. magniloquus. to blow . noisy blor. blaterare. embraser. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love.— . is the imme. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. ON. — Elazen. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. brasa. To blast. to blaze Sp. in that of praise. G. blaser vid.

' the devil makes a vain back. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . blench came to be used for a trick. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. geplerr. blema. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. confound him. a spot. light-coloured. to disgrace one's name. blesmir. wheal. . blot. blcecan. Gr. Fr. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Blear-eyed j having sore i. as of dust or mist . To totally different from the foregoing. The term blear.D. Mac. Bailey. avoid looking it in the face. ^Xiixaoftai. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. dead-coloured Cotgr. See Black. ' . that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Schmel. exposed. I chaunge colour. the livid colour of a bruise. blur before their eyes. to become livid. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. drop of water. the formal equivalent of English wink. ^Blencher. a blot or smear blanking one. 242. Blancher. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Pol. pier vor den augen eyes. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. wan. to spot .' God in his wordes. Sw. blink. a fault.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to bleach. to blear one's eye. sugillatio.v. flack. Bleak. from the than schal I go. a disgrace. Gower in R. c. N. whitish. . A stain in a man's reputation. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. souiller. To salir. blister. inflamed eyes. — blink the question is to shrink from it.P. novice. (faith or creaunce) Be war. pale . Bleed. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. Bejaune. tutnan is a cloud. or blemysshen — blaken. guenchir. a blotch plerr. From the OFr.' to deceive one. livor. So in Sw.'he cried till the tears ran down. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. To Bleat. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. or blemish. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. a spot. sinen langen tranen. start vor den augen. As AS. a stain. B. from on. livid. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. to wink the eye. to spot. spSt. or to low as oxen. while the agent ac- From . a spot. a red watery eye. tacher. is Blench. . to start away from. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. boggle at something. paleness. blemissemeiit. to cry or weep. blakna. Blemisli. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. a spot. Palsgr. 115. ' He blarrede or roar. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. to bleat as sheep. in the expression reputation. to cast a mist before the eyes. p. to stain one's honour or reputation. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. And now are these but mansbond (i. . wanness. bleakness. spla7nU sie. AS. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Manuel de Pecch&. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. Sir J. what blenched him therwith. tumanid. a boil. to make him feel blank. bloken. Blear. See Black. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to soil. pimple . plama. pale Du. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. G. Bleb. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. a been distinct. to wink at it. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. ' — — eye. . to humbug. which are blurred with the have shewed you. bldmi. blesmissure. ' — — ' : — — . blac includes the notion of pale and dark. blot. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. and thence to a bruise. A Blab. See Blood. splamii!. on. 419. goda nainn. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. like one that has long P1. color plumbeus bldma. blarren. — — R. darkness of vices.filerren. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. bleikr. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. a blemish in one's 2. BLENCH obfusco. to blare been weeping. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Ancren Riwle. And By a similar metaphor Pol. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. Richardson.

. shine. moment. to dabble in water. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. dazzle . ON. to dash wine with water. tire. glance. also to wink. AS. to blithsian. liquid filth to bluther. blende. lighten. to shut the eyes G. good.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. readily passes into a /. To Bless. G. pockets. blent. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. . pearance of the blighted . . F. as taschen. sung. is I shall Gurt. fortunately. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. a gleam. blicken.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. 375. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. be glad flash. to stir or puddle. j). gladness. Blazena Bea. in potters' language. mix from blekken. Sc. Du. to glitter ful . joy. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency.. blink-eyed. blinde fenster. blitz. blatida. — when he — Bailey. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. an entry which leads to nothing . to dilute too much . . a nounce happy. to shine. a blessing. Tany.corn. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Wtb. vious one in the order of formation. . lightning. bliss look . tative source of the word is wholly lost. . Blind. blican. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. as in the case of blaze. to twinkle. blicken. a wink. bluiter. to rejoice. Needle. Sc. giving (Fr. blissian. blinzeln.D. blind- ON. The inblissful. bludder. lightning sweet blago. blincken. plonsen. De Sonne ' verblekken. blahos.blinken.eyed. blinzler. . G.blinkard . csecubrandish. To Blend. blithe blis. a wink With the bletsian. . Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. the Slavonic languages. plotzen. to fall into water with a sudden noise. blotzen. G. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to mix. Paradises blidnissu. happy . glitter. AS. but by no means therefore a pre. blidu. riches . doors. graceful. riches blajennii blicksem. ' Pl. goods. Du. G. blindr. wink of sleep . cascultare. joy. Sw. blendian. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. seems the simple netel. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to churn. happy . well blagaya. to glitter . blessed. to — make it thick and muddy. a flash. Du. make these hands 3. to shut the eyes. as in Du. Blight. and joys of Paradise bliden. OHG. tless —Gamm. to plunge. as a vatn i vin. Deprived of sight. pale. well blahy blick and blink. . sweet. to consecrate . blet. as a blind entry.Q. blide. to bluiter up with water. glimpse. blazeny. blogi. livid. To blunder water. Serv. From the action of the hand making Sw. a glance. to rejoice. or nettle which does form. The term then self or others. — . —Brera. Nares. Du. lightning. a. money. blicksem. window-blind. Owl and Nightingale. blind. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blessed. to make happy. to flash. joyful. happy . false windows. blithe. blink. glad. to lighten. although in the in the next article. Russ. AS. Blink.nasal. Bliss. blich-fiur. Biglotton. a dead nettle. blago. blund. mixing in general. ^Jam. a glance Swiss blenden. Thence apblinds. blanssen. trix. III. Dan. to glance. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. thou knave. to make a rumbling noise. blinzdugig. . to merry. blahoslaviti to twinkle. to bless. bleg. to shine. glitter. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. burn up. AS. blaziti. happily. the sign of the cross while blessing one. the G. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. Du. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. (=bene dicere). blac.' To — blunge clay.blinze. a look. wink. to pro. I hold thee a grote thee. with or without the nasal.wink . joy . . blitzen. A . to glitter. flash of light . — Goth. sertion of the nasal. a. blindselen. Kiittner. Pol. to dazzle . to shine. Swab. to bless . to act like a — . BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blag.not sting thiiren. weaklaveny. . the verb to bless is some. lovely Bohem. OHG. Swiss (obsolete). a blick-ooghen. glitter. to be blind. The sound of k before an s. blick. gives blinzen. to bluiter. — A A — . blend.blunda.

horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Bleb. sloppy dirt. or the mark which it makes. See Blot. blithe. or the like. signifying in the first instance to soak. round. Egillson.pusta. Gael. any lump or mass of things. blister blasan. buckle. ON. shells. in gusts. to desire the male. to blissom. to cure by smoke. as a blab of ink. fiustula. A under this name was imported into England. like clot. Sw. senting the dashing of water. boucler. blinzel-maus. is also used in the sense of swelling . a block or log en bloc. Gael. blindman's-buff. blot. repre- pusula. fish blind person. mild. soft. and F. . To Blissom. to steep. Sc. light yellow. Mod. mass. To a smoking or drying by the fire. blobber. from blcsr. blot. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. . The stem or trunk of a tree. Blob. mild. the unhewn bole of a tree. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. a blain. to dash liquid. to swell. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Cotgr. a drop of water. blautr. — . blide. To Bloat. blijde. Dan. Du. ^Jam. a bubble. viscid.—Bloated. joyful. or is inserted or omitted. a blister . Svt. as blinzeln. G. And so from squatter. Goth. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. cooking. soft. — Sw. Blond. blcesma. blouca and Fr. puff. whence blast. expressed by cognate roots. a blot or spot. merciful ON. Hence. also to set See Bless. soft. Fr. pustula. blod. a . bloated. while Lat. or blinde-kiih. speaking rapidly any . pimple. Fr. Block. and bouclette. biota. blidr. Of sheep. must be classed with forms like Gr. strawclod. Ibid. N. kostia. The roots /. and inarticulately. as in E. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. to blow. For this. stone. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. blaustem. soak in water cured fish. blab. bluster. Kil. must be referred to AS. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. it is must be observed.— Hal. blesme. a ram. A solid blouquette blisters. pausten. The blow E. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. is formed squad. swell. In Fin. plub. like manner the coloured. a lumpish head plubach. to close it with a solid mass. pods. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. bleiths. frequentative. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. pusula. I believe. formed spot. a detached portion of the agitated liquid.— Bailey. bloc. Dan. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. in the lump or mass of wood. and easily changes its place. weak. B. blotfisk. Langued. an unformed mass. Hence E. orbicular. gentle OHG. a See Blot. to soak. in bulk. blond. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. a blister. to breathe hard. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. and pisg. to bubble. to blow. It may be formed Blithe. Thus we have blab and babble. blaud. to blow. G. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. Bav. to to puff and be noisy. Boyd in Jam. as if soaked in water. Du. a little blisg. lagga i blot. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. to block up the way. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. blobbes or droppes of water. Blob. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. taken altogether. busten. having an unsound swollen look. Lat. bluyster. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water.. blindsehn. blubber. buclde. bloc. ON. a bubble. . blote. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. — — — — — From blabber. a dirty blister. in Nares. a bubble. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. a small lump of anything thick. bausen. . Jonson. in the sense of a soft tint. husks.plisg. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. soaked. inde humiditate tumidus. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. or bleb. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. Sw. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. B. blot. ^vaaa. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Blister. W. separate portion. blad. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything.—Bloater. blister. kostua. —Bailey. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. — Blob. bubble and blubber.

great leaf of cabbage. blad. .properly to scatter liquid . bloetnsel. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). to strike with something soft or flat. gammon. See Blow. to spot or blot. G. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. redness. from the bright colour which 7'vci. blotte. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. a flower. — Stalder . blowen. Wflz<^«. Hatch. — Cot. plot of land is a spot or small rage. plattata. Blad. blosen.' the rain is driving and blue . Lat. en blau ach. blosem. bloedsd. to squander. yellowish It's G. glus. livid . blatte. S-wiss pladern. — Blotch-paper. mud. pale biavo. on. bldts. to blaze . to slap. a nature. pladern. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Fr. blose. to blush . Ein platsch milch. pale. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. parallel form with ON. plotterwis. Pl. to strike . a drop of water or colour. fall down . E. to be red. platschern. proto shine with bright colours . to patter. . OFr. gloss. fair in en blat vand. blond en blaauw slaan. Wendish blodo. bloto. blou. blase. to blot the land was in a leme. gleam. lump flower. Ir. a blow. bleistern. leme. shine . Sc. brilliancy. bloi. a flower. Harmar in R. blotter.— . Blotcli. to dabble in water. glasi. blomstr. to sparkle. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. to flame. blodelsa and blawelsa. to scribble. platz-regen. Du. probably connected with Pol. E. blistaf. whence plader. Florio). or the sound of it . . j^ blottir. blue. Schilter.^ Kil. to be red with blot. Dan. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. a deli. colour of the cheeks. Blot. to splash. kobladde. D. Sc. bliithe. bloeme. . to fall (of liquids) in abundance. skam. bloutre. couleur livide. (of cattle) to dung. white blatte. blaeuwen. splendour . Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blut. Blossom. from G. to glow. sbiadare. bliise. E. blond. the bright to blot paper morsels. blotting-paper. blaeuw. . Blood. ON. lidmr. lump of anything soft to blad. livid marks. Fris. a blaze. blosa. of a blow with something lios. 2. a beater. The G. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to exists in biadetto. a spot or blot. PI. blust. — gush.blauschlagen. bloi. blady. a flower. blue. E. dirty spot on the cheek. — — . plants which prepares the seed. Sw. a cow-dung. ON. Bloom. bliihen. to glisten . blosma. bleustern. kuh-plader. a. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. to slap. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. Jios. to dabble in water . Stalder. to shine . . wan. Plots. blue. clod. coloured (Diaz. Dan. the bright colour of the cheeks . Erploten. a Halm a. to dash down Du. platt-voll. to dash down. glossi. splashing full. cow-dung. flower.platter. E. to strike with such these objects exhibit. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to From . Dan. . spot pletter i solen. pale tint. Schmid. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. gfyssa. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. a torch blusse. platz-voll. G. platsch-voll. bloed. a blot or spot. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed.D. to grow pale). dial. spots in the sun. yellow. bloemen. ^Bleed. a water ploutsche. fall to overflowing. Prov. blawels. blondheid. blat. ])erly Du. . a Usaae. a black eye Du. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. a lump. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. glister . ^lys. soft or flat. plottra. blond is used in blatt. straw. lustre. blue. Du. to dirty. a Schmid. bfys. dial. biado (of which the evidence plattern. plet. ' — . AS. pladdern. Russ. bit by bit. blooth. to squat or lie close. blysa. Du. as the skin or hair. Schwenck. Fris. E. blue . a gush of milk . blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. glose. bldmi. See Blow. It. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Du. a pelting shower). blostma. Sw. —Barbour.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. bletister. a The form platschefz. blois. blaeuwe ooghe. ON. light. in v. blauwel. AS. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Blow. bloi. to blaze. blus. bluish. Sw.

blow. ^Jam. to'disorder. — To Blubber. bl. Blowzy. to blurt out. like manner Lat. Bav.— . gliihen. gloeyen. blazi. little apparent resemblance. into flower. withered. in rapid or indistinct utterance. gloeden. where the word may be compared bliggman. Wtb. and the forms mentioned under Swab. bludder. Du. Bret. disordered in head-dress. blau. flower w. to guggle. blass. plubraich. . OHG. blust. to blow. grow pale. |8A)'. coup.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. to gush. a bruise. bluh. d in Sc. to bubble up. to flourish. Lat. is very frequent. Kil. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. 1. to puff up. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. to make blue. Du. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. bliihen. Gr. bloes. grey. — . The aUied forms. pale. . glansj Ir. bliithe. pale.to blossom. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. to spot. blezir. to breathe bouteiUis. is confined to the — . — — Mundart. glas. cheeks bedabbled with tears. and thence. blau. MHG. Her sweet bloderit face.Jlasa. br. To Blow. sponds with Sw. jabber. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. blosen. plusig. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to flap like loose clothes. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. bloom. Blue. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). to bruise Roquef. Danneil. wan. bruk.D. may cite for example G. blodelsa. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. G. a herb Gr. blois. a Blossom. fied vowel. In agitation of water. P1. . to fade. tache.' Hamburgh Archives. flower OHG. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blue. red-faced bloted wench. — .nify bubble. to glow. florere.' — Palsgr. closely difference in of blabber. chatter. 51. fqded. ler. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. bloi. —SchmelIt. blao. . a fat. Deutsch. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. Chaucer. Prov. Langued. And. to beat with a mallet. to blow. to show flower. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to beat. bledniai. bliihen. blubonciti. bloemen. . Blowze. meurtrissure Roquefort. bloeden. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. /idXavoc. marking some application from that bladder. especially with respect to the hair. to gabble. These are — Bludder. to fade. Jla-re. — Bluther. blut. gliihen. glaodh and blaodh. Pludern. in E. glow. v. blazir. blubbern. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. Pl. glede. blahen. plubartaich. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. to shine with bright From colours. -ii. heath. fem. a paddling in wate r. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. vi^ound. to with Bohem. Gael. sound like water. gUd. sense. bluther. glas. bloeyen. The primary sense is to shine. Tumbled. We . glowing coal . (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. 92. w. boil.D. to hard. — To blubber. ' BLUE or guggling. OHG. plodern. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Sik upplustem. Mund. boasting. E. It. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. Raynouard. bluod. toused. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . and closely allied with Du. a flower. pludern. blava. AS. to blow. a blast. or gr. E. bruised Prov. G.. blawan. To Blow. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. G. to Plodern. Chaucer.D. blue . to make bubbles in drinking. the red fluid of the body . plustrig. pale OFr. A. G. corre. to inflate. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. bldt. blduen. piusen. to glow. 1292. a. Deutsch. bliuwan. y\r)yi»v. foam. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. a continued noise of agitated water.xo'»'. dirty. B. wan. blubbern.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. blaw j biavo. blodyn. OFr. fiubbem. Pl. to fade. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. 2. to exhibit bright colours. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. puff. to breathe G. blebber. . The interchange of an initial gl. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. a blow. grug. a gurgling . It is howbliuwen.D. blodern. Notwithstanding the We . pale . plubair. green. disordered. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. blady.

in plur. a flounder. Pol. Hence we pass to Prov. Halma. Bodge. Pl. blond. — Pr. earth and water mixed together. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. planus. fawn-coloured. something. dial. flodderen (Weiland). blanssen.. biavo. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. to plump into the water. to lose colour. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. contrasted with the dle. Kiittner. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. falb. glundra. and then generally idle talk. pale. Biada. to blunder water. Altieri. G. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. To blunder is then. blave is moreover. sloppy drink. bUich. to agitation of liquids. blandum. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. pale) is provincially used in the. to dabble Biglotton E. Du. yellowish red. tradire to Fr. discoloured {plowiee. like Du. an ill-done job. tutte le semente ancora in erba. I blonder. puddle. without image or superscription. bawling. to fall suddenly on the ground. as well as biado. It then signifies something done at once. verdoyer. Bluff. buller-bak. to become pale. blunt. and metaphorically. to blunge clay. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. It is remarkable however that the E. blue. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid.//aay.— . Romance bluiter. which is rendered by Florio. G. to confound. The word is here synonymous with amplus. Then with the nasal. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . See Blurt. having a bluff forehead. non rotunda. applied to green as well as blue. polterer. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. yellow. We Blunder. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner.make a noise. 't — —Hal. blake (identical with AS. or an abrupt manner. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. glundr. segetes virentes. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Sw. ploffen. biava. his business with much noise. speech. blunderhead. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Kil. — . a plain coin herausplatzeu. in the same way as from It'. Ditton in R.• BLUFF biado. Analogous forms are Du. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. rustic. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. liebefactor. a blunderbuss. fallow. to dabble in the mud. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. a boisterous violent man. bluish. And blunders on and staggers every pace. biada. to fade). Roquefort. Dan. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. all representing the — . Blunderer or blunt worker. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. is. to work To blunder out a fronto. je perturbe. buller-bas. blunder. a fore. confusion. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. mistake. sense of yeUow. to become pale or wan. to mix it up with water. - reddish yellow. Du. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. from the brilliant green of the young E. disturb. Lat. sbiavare. from an imitation of the sound.D. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. OFr. bulmanner. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blaf. blac. blutter. originally growing up turf and water. Supp. corn. Flor. Blunt. superficie plani. from the Lat. . pale straw-coloured. Hence a Slcelton in R. Bohem. G. pludder. in water dobbelen. to become pale or livid. — — — . The Du. plomp. mix It. Pm. devenir vert blavoie. bullern. G. bleu et blanc. Bladum. The Du. Palsgr. used for the work of an unskilful performer. plo-wy. a shore abruptly rising. See Blunt. blue. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. Blavoyer. Dryden in R. Blaffart. . a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . and Du. to puddle. Roquefort. polter-hans. Kil. A bluff manner. bloi. herbe. Hal. flav-us. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. blavus. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. has donder-bus. trahir. poltern. jaune.' trouble. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. blunder. blahir. find accordingly It. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. pale yellow. herauspoltem or sloping shore.in mud or water. blue. and sbiadare. like the Celtic glas. corn. and biavo (Diez). as well as sbiadafe. and bustle . From G. E. Dief. verdure. abrupt.

To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . platzen. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. fooUsh. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. the absence of sharpness. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. duU. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. that the sense of bare. Blunt. without horns. nature. wan. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. stupid fellow. heavy. forestis. to blurt. blat. raw. seems to be derived. it will be observed. mit etwas heraus-platzen. inactive Swiss bluntschi. awkwardly. is thrown.— — — . Kiittner. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. V. bloss. awkward. to blunt a thing out. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. plutz T)\i. More in Richardson. like a thing thrown down with a noise. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Halma. naked. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blotta sanningen. used in both senses. blott. plotz. Then cometh indevotion. absence of preparation. ang. down. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. plump. Stalder. plonsen. blunt. silly. obtusus. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. Swab. Du. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. edgeless. as cow-dung. hebes. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. azure. pressions. viz. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Won by degrees. that it not easy to discover the connection. Q. bare. figuratively. blunsch. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. as in E. Probably radically hlekit. heavy. maol. —D. naked. The syllables blot. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Kiittner. Sw. a pelting have then the exshower of rain.to fall into the water. thick. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Sc. rudely. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. plump J to plump out with it. blunt. bare. bare or blunt. through which a man is so blont. Woddis. Molof something wet. blatte. It will be seen that the G. rude. plains The large bech. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. a bluntie. bald. viz. fling down . Blaitie-bum. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. plumbeus. nis. V. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. and. biosso. Dan. blout. homo stolidus. blue. Dan. to make foliage. pointless. and an unintelligent. Plontp. of a knife which not cut. is The word dull. poor Sc. insensible.pludse. from the loud report a fire-arm. Now the Swiss bluntsch. unwrought. Plump mit etwas umgehen. a portion To inquire for slaves. dull. united in Gael. — — pidus. naked. clumsy. Sir T. to plump into the water. The blait body. inaKil. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. dial. G. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. It is from this notion of suddenness. biotto. unceremonious manner. or heraus plumpen. heavy. pale. Chaucer. a blot. good plump person. obtusus. bus. unpolished. Sc. G. blunt. — blunt. A modification of the same root. to bring it suddenly out. a thick and will person. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. It. or blab out a thing Kiittner . plotsen.—D. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. and in the same sense. exactly corresponding to the G. Pol. a simpleton. massive. F. Bluntet. and hath swiche languor in his soul. void. with or without the nasal. plump. rough. as Sw. without preparation. to make a noise of such a Stalder. plump. it will be well to point out a sense. Bare and blunt. and the like. naked. blait. . — Kil. dull. plump. V. sheepish. bleak.plompen. unfledged Sw. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. bluntschen. in Richardson. —D. Ford in R. A light blue colour. blutten. without the nasal. to plump down. blockish. platz-regen. without Maolaich. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. to handle a thing bluntly. blunder. blunt. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. clownish. Plump. ineffectual reason. blait. identical with E. .

blose. Sc. gabble Sw. Slur. gabble. i. a short thick body. cluster. to puff. eber. To brag and to crack. a bladder . AS. &c. the Brem. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. bord. burra. to be out of temper. to rumble. . to make a noise with the mouth. to breke. E.plerr. a small lump. blusse i ansigtet. Halma. flat. to sound like water boiling. then applied to indistinct vision . bludder. BOB 79 — To Blur. 274. cocodrUlus. to roar. — ' Dief. bobine. See Blossom. bausen. as splurt to splutter. bord. w. to disfigure with E. beer. blot.v. . Pl. edge. splurt and spirt. e. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. dull. BLUR Boar. Du. bot-voet.pusten. a blow . sudden. bot. brett. or backwards and forwards. blubber. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. bobbin. is formed Du. — a blaze. imitated by has also In like . blast. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. cheeks glow. Blush. 29. pluddre. bateau. stupid.the syllable bot. bar. or blurt with one's mouth. to blurt out. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. an end or stump. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. — — . Fr. Du. blurra. Sc. planks raised up outside the roofs. a torch blusse. blaste?i. blotch and botch. blaffen and baffen. a mist before the eyes plerren. To Blurt. bdta. large. Bot zeggen. geplerr. Boost is used for the boast. bludder. bakke bleustern. Supp. literally edge-wood. table.D. bhis. — From mouth. A large snake. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. borrar. or bog also thread. lacerta. Du. to make a noise in boiling. a grows to a great bigness. c. to say bluntly.' — Red Riding-hood. It. swagger. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. The to radical meaning D. bora. AS. to spurt out. to give a crack. margin. . boa. ON. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to snuff. P. aper. boistous. Comp.plodem. Hal. — — — * Boast. strong. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. a tassel. blunt. OE. a smear. dial. bit. be a crack or loud sound. voce intonare. rude. and the latch . to guggle. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. outward edge. beacon fire. to glow . Wtb. as in Du. bladdra. eafor. To tinct. mire. Lat. boord. bur. a dangling object. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. to dirty. Bluster. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. whence bob. blot. violent G. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. Du. E. an ear of corn.—Bobbin. See Boisterous. boot. a club foot . Du. Pull the bobbin. to chatter. properly noisy. . Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. to blubber. coarse. to bounce. Boa. bdd. pludern. pausten. and swimmeth very well. on. bleuster. to blur. To blow in puffs. Fl. . puffen. To splirt. G. and when applied to vaunting language. dial. to talk quick and indistinctly . to brag grande loqui. blosken. a tassel. to puff. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. chicchere. batello. the sound of a blow poffen. Dan. Du. edge. whence bordvidr. ader. a. to puff. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. fringe. to blore. Fr. Kil. Hal. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. blader. botte. a baU of thread the mud. crack made by bursting open. 'Ba. to threaten. and Du. bord. puddle. — To Bob. blodern. 156. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. short pieces of any filthy mud. to make mouths. a border. baban. Sverris Saga. border. to dabble. primarily signify loud noise. It. and boisterous. bluter. planks or boards. margin. Explained by Jam. blur. both used in the sense of boasting. ground. blasen and See Burr. Du. blarra. ever-swin. blaere. bliise. Fl. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. De Boat. common. As the as. stellio. bdtr. The elision of the d is very to chatter. blaustem. a mistiness. Wallace.y. of the word seems . to render indisbhir. and E. hot. blirt of greeting. pfludern. skin. rude. to bark. a burst of tears. Board. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. 9396. to crying. Boa. baiag. to smear. to endeavour to terrify. To move quickly up and down. to blaze. a blot. a Jam. board. 1. Gael. Bav.— . G. my dear. Swiss blodern. acre. it implies that it is empty sound. this root are formed Sc. table. Related to blutter. V. will fly up. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. to blow. pof. violent. plump. G. a flurt with one's fingers. a blotch. It. AS. an edge. boccheggiare. pustern. lindwurm. berd. margin. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Wright's ed. bustuous. to dangle. to blush. bluther. to jabber. Schmeller. a board or plank. Gael.

Lap. is identical with Fr. To portend good or bad. Miracle-plays. an awl. To Bode. gag. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. anything soft. bot. — as well as the body of an animal. as signifying anything spherical or round. a bog or morass. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. by the syllable patsch. wavering. bottig. fickle . to smack. the belly. bodnu. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. to be unsteady tich. To Bodge. potig. VI. to push with the horns. We . In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. thrust with something pointed. Now unskilful action is conmire. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bayonet . With With this we charged again We bodged again. See Bid. to scruple. to deliver a message. And waves.! . Crist. French bouter. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. to stammer. bodilo. Bodice. gogach. bole. bo tich. and the word is well explained by Bailey. BOGGLE trunk and G. to fail. bodetz. Supp. unsteady. arise E. bob. bodian. bodies. the body of a shift gaguejar. So BOB To Bob. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. a cask. bog. moist mire. from fitting close to the body. whence paUchen. to dabble or paddle. quagmire). The signification of the root bot. bog. Bog. Lith. Wall. a prick. biodeachan. message boda. See To Botch. Cot. Gael.a (i\ia. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . stumpy. agitate. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. is a lump. ^Jam. corpses pot. . bod. shake. W. stuttering. to make a mow at. . gebod. shaking . a sting . a command. bodi. quakmg. busti. Ptg. gog. unsteady. or stem of a tree. a round body both. a cask. To make bad work. bothog. * To Boggle. . a puddle. bogadh. expression hogglin an bogglin. bogle. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. the body. to commit a blunder. corset. exhibit another modification of the root. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bottich are derivatives. and E. ON. See Baber-lipped. stutter gogmire. of which the E. barriga. a body. corpset. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. potacha. bayonet. waving. barrique. 43. unsteady nature of a soft substance. needle. body of a shirt bol. Ptg. gog in gog-mire. to fail. AS. swelling. precept.rabodi. to butt. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. round. to stir. potahha. In like manner E. so large a feature in the country.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. the trunk of the animal body. bodak. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. to thrust. to stick. point. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Bodkin. . the stem of a tree . to roll. boll. bodig. bod. Bohem.hollow. a . nodding. Body. Thy i. patsche.\\i\c\iset. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. Gael. whence Fr. to be uncertain what to do. a quagsoft. nave of a wheel. as in stammering or staggering. . as I bootless labour swim against the tide. gagei. e. corset from corps. pall. bog (equivalent to E. Schmel. Reliq Antiq. . In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. a prickle.' A — Sherwood's Diet. . to make. to waver. body and G. butt. Gl. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. to prick. . . calf of the leg. '£. bagges. moving backwards and forwards. where bogs form Gael. formerly bodies. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. Shakespear has badged with blood. the boss of a buckler. to start start and back as from a bugbear. meaning the round part of his body. cask bottich. stitch. then from the yielding. To mock. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. bodene. or a pair of bodies. palleg. bodhag. bogach. Banff. woman's stays. a dagger. dies. boftich. to bodge. 3. daubed or dabbled with blood. gagoula. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. AS. rounded. Bret. strike with the horns. — Grandg. badyti. to blurt a thing out. Russ. Ir. goggle. an announcement. belly. — 2. mud. potacha. baboyer. It introduced from Ireland. or bag. a ghost . — H. biodag. anything protuberant.gmh:t. Gael.' Bogglie. as a horn.. bogadaich. a messenger . Commonly explained as if from Sc. speak of the barrel of a horse. a spur. to bob. bodat. the thick part of anything. gago. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. bolr. toss. bogan. The Sp. bodi. move.

balder. to be prominent. bhster. Sw. fiausten. In the same way Sc. up of bubbles. from Du. a bump. to be at a loss a shirt. To Bolter. Bret. bulla. bal. roydeur. hero. tartajear. Du. * Bolster. dint in a metal vessel. tartalear. — — which the cushion is stuffed. to the belly as the or dislike. . boggle. ^Vocab. rough. the body . bald. bSlstr. which are not used for a similar purpose. bagaji. quick. The round stem of a tree. hakogni. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. bolla. capitellum. to stammer. pustule. Chaucer. bulla. bold. scruple. beule. bog. bola. bolr. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Mund. to waver or hesitate. See Bulk. in speaking. ohg. prince. E. Fr. and then applied to other husks. as those of nuts. Magy. bola. notes. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. merry. bold. used. bolle. ON. bochken (titubare. OHG. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. ballr. may be identified with It. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). Bustuous. Du. Pm. whence bulla. to boil. bul. noise. haughty. the lir. bolster. ON. bag or bog are derived Piedm. glass phial. Sp. — ' — tagliare. chatter. 1430 in Deutsch. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. Sc. blow. the. impetuosity.' Mrs Baker. stutSw. Du.palleg. bul.w. folliculus grani.— — . To Boil. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Pr. to tattle. gluma.D. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Me doth awate. bolzBold. Test. . Bole. courageous. pall. round the first instance to the materials with . or the like. * Boisterous. chaff of corn siliqua. flax-boU. bolster. shake. bolt upright. as. Daring. This iv. Gael. Kit. bol.Du. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. huge. strong. courageous. to hesitate from doubt. strong. Wall. Du. Da. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. G. animal as distinguished from the limbs. bout is explained by Kil. bolt. also a blister. then violent. Swab. bald. a quaking mire. sels of flax. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. biiilen. V. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. pusten. trunk of a tree . to stumble. gerade signifies straight to the mark. Lat. Cot. is probably a modification of boll. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. i. A. buile. a bubble. the gurgling sound of water rush. free. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. boystousnesse. capiing into a cavity. a bubble. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. stud. to give a hoUow sound. bullire. Properly noisy. insolent baude. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . hollow. cheerful. b^gayer. belc'hj. tomentum. by which it is moved to and fro. as E. Lap. bog. tartle. brave. caput scapulse. warlike. Boll. cows the people from speaking. swelling. G. bout. Westerwald bollern. Goth. obex. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. as. Lat. pillow. bol. swelling. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. boutpijl. from the branches. treated under Bowl. 45. ON. confident. he will speak out. the body of a man or of ter. bol.— D. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. boll. ON. and manace for to de. The bob. Boil. styffe or rude . balldr. The term applies in — — impressed . bok. bolc'h. a head . It. excellent. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . in the sense of handsome . to stammer. polc'h. to puff. . baud. puile. Kil. tar. bolleken. puilen. bealder. Love. bouil. boss. Fr. intrepid. bald. a fastening for a door. 374. a boil or swelling Du. Stalder. bold.rounded part of the body. a bakazikni. boly.. w. ^Boistous. as baltha.). to stagger. to swell. bulr. 304). wag. strong. proud. see Boast. stramenta. E. stameln vel bochken. coarse. a bubble. the husk of nuts. properly represent belly. repagulum. bollen (Kil. Chaucer seems Dan. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. boil . but that Bolt. Boystous. . a cushion. perpendicular. bolzen. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. Fr. buller. bula. OG. G. (of Mons) b^guer. — 6 . tulum. G. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bolstar. globular bod)'. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. a swelling in ice. pimple ON. furfures. poppy (Bailey).

as a rabbit from its baritel. uneven. we pass to Du. Here the radical image is the violent O.clack. Pm. swelling.D. to make a knocking. to become lumpy. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.D. bolt-foot. So also we pass from Lat. Dauphiny a sudden movement. knob.Lat. bultig. as of a trumpet. a millpoltzet augen. buUire. a crashing or racketing noise. abolter. barutare. to significance of the term was overlooked.noise {brattle of thunner. . buletel. bolt. representing a rat. bulk. rugged. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. pultare. Sw. crash.fe/2?. lumpy.. zare. bolt head is a retort. on the one hand.thump or blow. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. P1. kloteren. to shake. OFr. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. The ment and the operation. croler. fied bot. agitari (Kil. then to knock. we have Du. . Sanders. crotlar. and the Thus from So. a clap of thunnences. poltern. loud and fast. also to curdle. pull. Hence. btilt. Mid. Pl. Champagne burtcau. G.D. Dan. a small portion. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. bolzaugen. to spring forth E. beliitea. mole-hill. a sod (Schiitze). ' Holler poller / bulter. bolzen. bulk or quantity . — — — . and to crash. to clack. bolting to that of form. poltern. a clod cloth. tumultuari. Wtb. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. as Fr. a club-foot. or the like. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. tuft. grasbulten. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . hammer. Prov. . bulstrig. bullern. Hence Palsgr.). burclct. by the representation of a racketing sound. buideln. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil.On the same principle. tling or crashing noise. to form lumps.). to E. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. . Lat. bulla. die treppe pressed. On this account Mid. barutela. staff which sounds tar. Supp.D.. a round glass ending — bultig. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. curdle. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. Lang. to start out. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. It. boss. to bolter. beluter.agitation of the meal in the bolter. uneven. hole. a bolter or implement for bolting. cruddle. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. to talk pulzen. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. buletare.nature of the operation. taraabout. bortelen. to agitate. ' — — ! ! : — . Bav. ex•wagen. have Lat. bultred. brattle. And as the agitation of cream in . OFr. / is transposed in Fr. poll. hump. Du. buretter{CQ\. gebolder. protuberance. blotttre. cro. we der Brocket). to bolt flour burato. tantara. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. : ' — — . . as above explained. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. barutela. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. sestuare.— . OFr. Passing from the sense of movement burattare.protuberance. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. a rattle. a . baruta. Bulte-pook or bulstar. projecting eyes pul. hulch. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. a bunch. jolting. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. zen. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. Fr. we see that the one consists of a words. taratarrum. bolzauget) Sp. . one after the other. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. crod. to start with palpitate. to coagulate. hammer. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. ler. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. rugged. bluter. racket gepolter. small heap. to knock. Pr. Du. with E. as snow balling on a horse's foot. vessel with narrow opening. the sense of right on end. . Pl. a clump of turf. pattern. Schiitze. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. taratantarum. I boulte meale in a boulter. from G. projections. je bulte. a bolter Prov. bulio. The ulti. to bolt meal barutel. tar.i5a//^«. a rattling carriage.u. in S'W plotter. to bolt meal barutel. Brem.by forms like G. the wheels groaned. or a racer from the course.through a cloth of loose texture. clump.as the essential element signifying the talum. holier poller. hulter de bulter.) E. . to come rattling downstairs. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. 2. MHG. a clod. In the next place. budeln daz mele . or ill. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap.

must be explained Fr. — having a stem or stalk. a drum bombammen. to beat a drum. sye. . Need you any ink and bonibase. &c. banitola (Fl. When ture. builen. as Banbury. bombasine. iuttern. and that from Fr. Banstead. booming over the water. a hollow sound. band.D. As cotton was used for padding clothes. bommen. gossipium. the murmuring of the sea. bombasin. a material quite unfit for bolting meal.Su?. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. band pi. an implement of binding. brust-bein. the silk-worm.^Altieri. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. Moreover. bein. bond. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. a bone in general. bolting-cloth. been. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . bombase. Fr. Fl. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. to shake. band. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. to thump W. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Bibelesworth in Nat. cotton. to boult meal. . sericum arboreum. has repeatedly varied. . Butterglas. In legal language. bombarda. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. again. Bone. a baker. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. the shank the shoulder-bone. stuff. Castrais barato. tie. thick from shaking. . coarse. bande. bongam. Gascoi^e in R. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. to bolt meal. to bind G. is supported by the analogy of G. It. bwmbwr. to cast to and fro. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bonog. term is appropriated in G. we speak of a gun to resound.bast. the Fr. Dan. . and Bond. bon. It. butteln. sije. PoUitriduare. q. It. Bomb. bombice. derivation. bonds.) . an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. to ring bells. bauniwolle. and Mod. thick. baum-bast. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. ^o/j. a —Bombasine. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. to shake (as to shake the head. silk. a ligature. — Bombard. and called in Mid. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. and this is especially the function of the leg bone.Lat. Du. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. Kil. a thundering noise bomre. 155. crook-shanked bondew. bulter from It. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. Du. G. lana lignea. It. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. G. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. assuming the of leg : special signification W. bambagioj whence It. 83 Gr. beuteln. i. butteln. bommer. bureau. bombast. biire. — bombast came guage. bureau. and in fact we find the and Du. bombdra. Bonfire. tie. buidelen. however. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. baun. Fr. bindan. produced the Pl.). the leg. bopin. bambacium. buttel trueb (of liquids). a beacon. bambagino. tree. to resound. ODu. a string. Near 6 * . a stock. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bonfras.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. d. gunpowder. . Antiq. The material called by this name. cotton stuff. rimbombare. E. a churn for butter. beuteln. and Du. e. . agreement. beil'n. boulenger. a word of which we have traces in several English names. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. stump. ties. from teu. a boulter of meal. to shake down fruit from a tree. raw silk. achsel bein. also thick-shanked. In E. or trunk word in W. bras. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. Dan. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. From builen. Du. basin. bombicina. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. thick-legged. silk-worm. to thunder. It. borel. — AS. the contracted form of Du. a stem or base. burato. buidelen. to which the leg. Schm. bwmbwry mar. and also the leg. as in . It. OE. G. whence bomme. sijde. bone of the . Mid. breast-bone. tiffany. HoUybandin R. bunden. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. bombe. barate. from boom. bomba.

bd. bosih. a head-dress. boo. It is commonly explained as identical with It. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Du. Wall. clown. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. hu?idbusa. bommen. The character of folly is i860. been. to set in order. — . a. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Goth.n. Fr. although in the OG.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. desire. Bun. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Bootless. to yawn. 232. buandi. a letter Russ. Book.—Bootless. booby. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. AS. head-dress wai^g. tall. countryman. bobo ! interj. boia. Pm. netis stall. stabulum. boubi^. the possessor of the farm. wondering signifies not only straw. build. — e. a hollow skin. without ad- . Jr. the scriptures bokareis. bossen. dog-kennel. Boom. swinbusa. from beida (E. See Bomb. boutig. a scribe G. a bonfire. set in order. Thin ben Luke i. by arbitours sholde bote the P. botta. ON. succour Bailey. 13. foolish. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. where a cross (or a gun. prayer. To Boot. high. bonad. bauer. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. . Boot of bale. are formed Fr. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. pole. G. from badare. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. dress. reparation. Hal. wall hangings. boa. betere thing werse. as a lying-place for cattle. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. bid). A peasant. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. . as the Brecknockshire Banns. and fig. dial. — Bailey. in Phil. G. one who dwells nigh. Boon. bene. beiSne. . bolt. Perhaps. to ask. In nautical language. the alphabet. Fr.Boos. bds. ON. to litter bosu. Build. . nachbar. a silly fellow. bua. blockhead. dress. litter. The origin of the word is probably the W. botte. a vessel for holding liquids. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. Trans. or Vanns. till. bonnet. The i. bdn. * Boose. quest. bauen. E. Fr. also called Brecknock Beacons.^ —P. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. ON. . The latter is the original AS. a lofty blaze. boer. a stall. a good turn or re- meaning. letter. a dry stalk. pero. till. . the word may signify merely a fire of buns. prayer. Hufwud-bonad. . from Du. gawney. literally cow-house. But bosg. N. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. signifying beech. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. tapestry. bonaid. is Du. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. gaping hoyden — Cot. G. It. bosig. ganian. fool. bowwen. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. ty Gael. ass. b^er. A favour. Hal. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. . Bonnefyre. but stall. to prepare. Busk. the cultivator. Prov. inhabit. a bag of skin or leather. bobo. writing bokos. to cultivate. Basa. Swab. ON. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Mrs Baker. badaud. \ais-band. Du. b&ber. See Bown. babin. bos. comes bondi. bose. Gl. house. Kil. Schm. to cultivate. E. whence ban-ffagl. Binau Brychyniog. from gape. the first consonant of the alphabet. simpleton. and from AS. — To boot. petition. Boot. bAkva.. boubair. bonad. w. Thus from the syllable ba. to gape. Boor. however. Ox. to aid. in w. babb^o. to gape. build. bas. busu. bota. OSlav. to strew with straw. often cut for burning and lighting fires. short boots. feu de behourdis. p. beam. the stubble of beans. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. which one gaping and staring about. boandi. the mouth. — — . gehyred. AS. to dress. help. ben. Bonnet. lofty. baier. a simpleton. and thence Rouchi baia. biikui. buch-stab. by itself for head-dress. Sp. and Gael. gaby. bote. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . of wonder On the same principle Sp. inhabit. babau. See Butt. . tigh. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. b'ukvdry. . remnants of hay or straw. the name of the letter b. dolt. boom. Du. From bo. OW. and Ban in w. dial. Kil. relief from sorrow. bua. a. at everything. A stall for cattle. Booby. botte. pig-sty. a lying-place for dogs or swine. boutig. chaff. Palsgr. Mrs Baker explains bun. — From the participle present. a letter . a tree. Fr. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. remedy of evil. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Pr. boten-shoen. Gael. petition. master of the house.

yfirbdt. the . purra. to to . schare of a man of a prise in warre time. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. Magy. from deila and skipta. Border. amendment boeten. to profit. furni. betan fyr. butin is explained by Flor. to quench one's thirst . Gael. rof. urboro. cure Sw. borino. puru. 266. pointed. a granary . ON. . a borer. uzboro. welt. cottage. abode. to bite. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. dust. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. Esthon. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. Gael. . Fl. Esthon. to anything Neither G. edge. swell bara. p. or anything pointed. sharp. piercer. fimbria. 1. terebro. and thence to eat build. to build buda. in Lap. make . scalpo. boete. repair. chisel. bauen. amendment. boards. The ON. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. or the gradual working a hole in anything. a borer. to divide. Du. a cupboard. barn. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Another derivation from Fin. a bothy. bothan. butin. OHG. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. bora. The Fin. bardure. to . leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. borracha. purro.— Return from Parnassus I inR. comminuted by either kind of action. a chisel. is purin. Burke in R. to swell. to profit Goth. . ON. See To We speak in E. bata. . pu purro (saha =: saw . Fr. on. are parret. budka. to restore. See Bower. G.por. . budowai. terebra sculptoria purastoa. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. The as G. bdt. tent. to foam. BOOTH vantage. Alexand. nor E. which are probably from the same root. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. See Burgeon. Du. recovery bata. borracha. limbus. to The Sw. a. from bord. to mend. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. both. differs only in termination. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. BoracMo. — ON. chewed food for infants. Booth.. botjan. struere ignem.—Burin. fire. to pierce. Fin. puras. a wave. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. beute. a shop. a bladder. Fin. bordi. bite. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. ON. to bete the properly to mend the fire. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. a great bur. exchange or divide. Booty. 3.. bothag. . a leather bag or bottle for wine. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. lappolone. cellar. and meta- Fr. bauda. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. to bite. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. N. and hence to fine. as afford a satisfactory explanation. . byte points to the verb byta. It is admitted that Fr. a sharp-pointed tooth. and E. baete. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. bottino. a hut or tent. boeten het vier. to boot. admovere titiones. hem or gard of a garment. bord. In the Fin. are derived from G. baara. . OSw. limbus. in Ihre. batr. a hut. Fin. Bete. mat-bod.. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Bohem. making good again . puras. boede. lappalare. a shop budowati. better. from borra. aid. wave. to stick unto as a bur. to repair. wine-skin. AS. Fr. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. burin. a tusk. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. dens mordens vel caninus. to surge. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). a responding forms . to importune. of an edge that will not bite. scsdes-bod. a border. margin. It. remedy. &c. The cor. ora. an engraver's chisel. To Bore. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. kvit-bara.par. bohren. bud. biorag. and parrets. cup- awl. Palsgr. furd. to expiate boeten den dorst. to bore. . a booth or shed. puru. Sp. And so in ON. reparation. extremitas Bore. But probably the E. Kil. It. bdra. Mag. hut. to build. boeye. pi. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. bolino. A phorically a drunkard. sculpo 05\xiik. a shelter of branches. Pol. drillen. bower. Lat. Compare Manx birrag. Gael. • — To Bore. a borer . a shed. a word. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. forare. to patch. purra. sawroot. to hut.

bump is used in lump or piece. burgess. botch. borg. bossen. knocking. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. The origin seems to be the Goth. projection. knur. a surety.any round sweUing. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. to give a hollow bizo. a little blow. was origin of the term is the OFr. Borowholder. and borough in the sense of a town. to strike . a boss. borei. the North Wind. bosseu. Fr. boss sound. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Du. a herb. head. /3oraMK6f. bump. a citizen. bos. to give bail or answer for an. Botany. burel. whether from the fact preserve G. or perhaps it may be See Bury.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. E. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. empty. Turk. 106. huschen. Bos a surety. in instead of without. from AS. boss. connected.mass. baurgs.. to strike so as to Bureau. viipyoc. D. boss. — ' wind burya. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. to keep. to take in. one who sticks to you like a bore. surety. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. byrig. or because a blow berga. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. borealis.' every man be under bail. Russ. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Cot. gum vocant. grey). AS. vain. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. agrees with E. Fr. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. borough-holder. ' pledge. bundle.ribs and the side. It. less. plant. is used in the sense of bussare. bosse. So Du. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. cnoc. V. — — — A — . the ordinary a swelling. Borrow. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. cob. nonsense. to knock or strike. in the body struck. bunch. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. when that system was forgotten. bourgeois. a bunch or hump. Bunch.' if thou give money on loan. coarse cloth made of the Du. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. borg. bos. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. botsen. ^o^^flj. butse. the must have arisen burgensis. Sc. pitch. blow on a hollow object. ' — — . Altieri. cnag signifies both a clergy. to save. bttssel. botse. to conceal. boussi. undyed wool of brown sheep. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. to contain. to save. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. knob. Borough. G. tive idea seems to bring under cover. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. to pick or cull plants. borgese. pegou. as if from the verb to hold. by which of or belonging to plants. to protect. without. while Gael. a boor. which now signifies a knob. that which biirge. Hence borhes ealdor. whence the burg. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. Swiss Rom. Lang. . AS. bail biirgen. borgo. hollow bucklers. ON. of bail throughout the country. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. from their grey clothing. plain rude fellow. bom. destitute. an eminence. unpolished. a wen. Bosh. butsen. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. (1867). a tower. Lat. empty. Jam. AS. a citizen. i. tuft. And that unsittynge is to here degre. rustic. a. brown cloth. Bailey. bergen. is probably radically Boss. bosh. a blow. Words signifying a lump or protuberE.' Vegetius in Diez. Fr. Goth. a giving rise to It. borel. tempest. cnap. bussa coarse. bourg. or perhaps also To Borrow. boss or knob of a buckler .bucklers. Gr. cormpted. as we speak of a thumping potato. or head-borough. basse. hollow. poor. a bouncing baby . botch. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. empty. rude. beorgan. gesylle. the hollow between the Borsholder. Newbury. to protect. boschen. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . into borsholder. ^ma. The primi. to save Sw. . By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. formerly used in the sense of knocking. loan. beorgan. clownish. Jam. In like manner It. The other. the N.vr\. &c. bussi. See found in Bav. burh. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. poor. useCanterbury. a pushing or striking out. secure. pego. northern.' or system of bail. It. busse. knock and a knob . and thus could not shake off the old burr. a knob. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. primarily signifying coarse sound . boss of the side. . Du. the sun sets. Boreal. storm.' the chief of the ' borh. borough or chief constable. I. (Bridel). the Sc. f graauw. Hal. Hence knot. . striking. bierge. borh. a city .

pother. an imperfect and bunbutt end. Leg. AS. ubhau. Decorde. patch. to work without order or know. botus. turmoil. bethia. — Jidwi. a waterfall. is also a bubble. Gael. Mudu. whence the name ol pool to podge. Jtidu. — — belly-worm. blow. a bottle. See Boss. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. pozzo. bunch. to put on a patch.— Hal. the first rough draught 2. to bcBta. e. On the other hand. &c. to mend (kettles. To Botch. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. — . putra. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. botel. a. a vessel for holding liquids. to froth as beer . Fyre to botme. noise. dabble). abbution. a bubble. to make a make a noise. bottigUa. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. It. buideal. contusion . knock. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. * To Bother. the other hand. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. bottom. I. Both. Bouds. batschen. empty or hollow. . dim. i. It. repara- — — See To Bete. a wisp. . butse. to knock. Bailey. gen. a botcher of shoes. Diez.foundation. they two. boil. whisper. — Fl. a root. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. Butu. you two. a cask. Lith. biissen. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. ON. to give a sounding blow. was called a push. w. gipuozan. abbi. to podge. scuohbuzere. Judwi. ba. especially in Gael. in the sense of mend the fire. Bret. botte. ON. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Boa two. fundus. On — Du. Hal. A — oba-dwaj Lat. Prov. is boteau. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. — — A 2. a knock. a boil or swelling Halma. schuhbosser. puddle. botn. of botta. fire-bote. bAdtr. gling piece of work. by met. Lat. Fl. to stir and mix together. what pushes outwards. — Bottom. beggtaj Goth. ambo. to smack. abbu. Bochu. a humpback. boss. abyss. the lowest part. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. botm. buts. a maggot. to botch or patch. — duj Lett. Du. to dash about . mess. Parmesan poccia. noise. disturbance. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. N. to mend. corresponding to . boiteal. Fl. pozzanghera.^Dec. stem or base. . G. bSn. boute. pimple. Danneil. See Bound. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. blister. Fr. a bundle of straw or hay. — — . and E. bund. The Gr. House-bote. a slop. E. bossu. baiothsj Sanscr. buazen. — Dief. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. a bottle. hurly-burly. BOTCH understood). the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. to make better. 212. From the dim. ON. to strike . buddeln. bozza. dial. potra. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. or plague sore .' to the fiery Csedm. Fr. a cess. botse. we two. butwo. j3i/9os. ing out. boiteag. as Fr. thing soft batsch. stock. Again. the bud of a flower . bulder. to rage. bluster. a slop. Podge. btitse. Botcli. bouteille. a lump of somebatschen. signify a in OE. bdsser. to fall : with a sound batsch. bozza.— Swift in R. To confuse with noise. burgi vel pontis refectionem. bun. shoes. See To Bodge. kessel-biisser. mess. pocciar. boccia. Gael. to stir and mix together . ledge It. bosser. the science or knowledge of plants. however. Hal. . botsen. Wedu. from the dashing of water. boden . Canut. bodem. botch. boitean. Kil. . a pit. stock. . a bunch. a bottle of hay. botel foenn. buddl. botola. botte. A horses. bundle. &c. a tinker schuhbiisser. a depth. disturbance to . ' G. It. stump. AS. as a push or windgaU.) . nets. abbi-diwij Slavon. Bottle. bile. botte. And so we speak of an eruption. AS. bide. — . Pl. . maggots in barley. podge. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . mend. round lump. butsen. ^kvBoQ. a bott . Lith. Bouteille. bot. a pock. bots. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. a patch patschen. a cobbler. tumour. both. any round ball or bowl to play withal.of a ball of thread. • Bott. poltern. G. for a bud.ments of the same root. A bottom depth.D. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. Here the radical image seems a bubble. blain. any plain round viol glass bozzo. ixorapudder. to dip in liquid (to Gael. stroke. mutter. a pit. to from the root bot. to simmer. bulderen. a plague-boil Kil. and ajSvamg. See Butt. a bump or swelling. OSax. Dan. bativa. a cesspool pass. we have Swiss batscken. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. to we have OHG. Du. Stalder.— . H^cart. bdt. oba. Ancren Riwle.

a blister. — — Bight. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. an de dor bunsen. — — leap. a button. the hollow of a bay. bolder. dial. knock it sounds again. to make a loud noise. bottom. turn. of thread. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . boujtce. to set bounds. to set out by metes and bounds. bumper.. a turn or time.D. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. a large pebble. the larger kind of pebbles. Fr. in the absence of actual e. ni motz brugir. like bobbin. from bugan. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. an occasion. To Boult. See Bunch. bunsen. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. its kind. To Bound. to turn. to spring. Ni gacha cor bondir. thumping. Boulderstone. round. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. a bouncing apple.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. Bout. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. the bay of Benin. And the new stools set out. Ducange. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bend. debodinare. as a nosegay. boriie. as a bout of fair or foul weather.>a bout. Wtb. Q. The W. . a stock. to fix limits. signifying in nautical coil of rope. whence buj7isen. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. bodina. as that of E. . a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. a bound. Dan. bonzen. bunda. to hum. botwm.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. butina. boundina. the smaller ones. Fr. Alpine Re- — gions. Bough-pot. bondir. to bow.— F. language a * Boulder. bonndn. bouncwhen coiled in a circle.' B. the verb bondir in OFr. — Take care my house be handsome. Bunche. geration. signifies a sliort thick mass. to knock. limit. a bud. mere. carpet. pothel. from volgere. — No i ausiratz parlar. strapping. bay. contusi. Pr. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Probably from the Celtic root bon. buUersten.— Cot. Du. he fell so that it sounded. p. to thunder. Halma.— — — - 88 BOUGH . baby. to resound.'— Charter of K. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. in contrast to klappersten. to spring. mcn-bomi. and Prov. Primarily to strike. Bound. Bowlder. see Boss. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. a boss. Coxcomb. The Bight of Benin. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. AS. Mid. gulf.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Webster. a round body both. by Bujns or Buns. pimple Richards bothog. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Raynouard. Nor a centinel whistle. bend. or Bow-pot. bonna. Fr. bullra. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Bonny. boh. I assure you. has hot. bounbounejha. till The dat et bunsede. a boundary stone (men stone). a large stone rounded by the action of water. So It. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. From Sw. winding. to thundering big one hum. ni frestelar. bouton. came home with his face all to-bounced. bugan. jump. Bough.— Boundary. bog. from AS. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. and F. ing. a blow. 136. Pm. volta. boss of a buckler. Sw. The branch of a tree. Bret. frequently used in the same sense with bound. bun. iv. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bugt. Bodinare. march. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. tnndo. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. root (see Bottom). — strike. To Bounce. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. bone. bons. 3. Bought.' round and round in similar circles. See To Bolt. A Langued. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. nor horn sound. . Brem. bamsen. to knock at the door. E. jungen. dial. nave of a wheel bothel. 2. for anything large of Een bunsken appel.

shoulder-blade. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. buizen. bourdon. potio. a. burd. different modification gives ON. kroes. a sing-song. spelling the word iox bound.which see. a drone of a bagpipe. . bogha. cudgel. must be referred to the same root. bausen. the burden of a song. belly out. a humming noise. Immediately from Fr. AS. Lat. bov. bound. Dan. purlBav. whence buysen. borne. Sw. in Fr. joke. a mill-post. a — — . G. their time -With "wailful tunes. bugan. g. to tope W. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. a bow. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. head Fr. bommen. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. good. Sp. gurgling. Du. ready. like quaff. to pre2. bugna. Fr. bwa. The meaning of bound. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. a.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. G. Bourd. bend. to take breath. Gael. bdgi. sotich. or of an Gael. brummen. bugne. bogen. bourd. bending. to bow. game. pre. to take one in. Gael. to our bous. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. language of folly or ridicule. a pot. Dan. So Sc. hence musical accompaniment. also the humming or ON. and not in the sense of curvature in general. pusta. It is bov. to banter or laugh at. a humming noise Macleod. to tipple. a for New York. Sc. tinton. . pausen. Goth. warbling. . . Comp. bordo. Bourdon. repartee. set out. Bret. souf. on. bage. biegen. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bonus. as was for. w. A —Cot. schulter-bug. bog. Eown. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. addressed to. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. staff. that ON. hous^ Man in the Moon. taunt. purra. Fr. Sw. the shoulder of the vessel. grumble Sw. Spenser in R. buzz. Dan. It. beygja. bunaiteach. springbiirn. to swell. verb bua. bug. a corToward the garden. lance. i. identical with E. epaule du vaisseau. to mutter. spring. ruption of bonne. to draw a deep breath. Chaucer in R. bonitas. When used alone it . fun of one . Bow. cheat. sense durd. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. . curvature. Burden. bend Sw. bow to shoot with. burdan. ridicule buirte. — — — A pare. . bog.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. a prop. sport. from spring. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. limit. burreti. deceit. bending of a joint knie-bug. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. prepared for. a brook. patesten.. — — . buzzing of bees. burlare. to drink deep. Dan. bontS. way ba7n. Du. to bulge. Bourdon. ready to pike or spear . has also buirleadh. when we speak of. ing. Du. a go to. whether by sound or gesticulation. btiga. to hum as a bee. Prov.bass of a stringed instrument. fresh* water. firm. bugna. bagna. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . A water. bordon. a jibe Shaw bururus. burdan. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Cot. to drink deep. bending. G. bogna. As the Gael. bue. an arch. pot. G. brunna. buga. to — Hal. puff out. the big end of a club. buyse. are applied to the bow of a ship. It is the participle past buinn. bordone. drone of a bagpipe. the Bourdon. crutch. biugan. Burgeon. Borden. Du. burn. a jibe. explaining Sw. buigen. — probably through this latter signification. to hum. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. drink deep. is. to draw a deep breath. trick. bourde in the same sense. Cot. buys. . jest. And there in mourning spend Sw. a cup kroesen. a from Du. It is remarkable that we find vary. Gael. on the whole. pared. of the ON. brausen. Gael. Sw. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Bounty. steady. drunken. to tope. a drone or dor-bee. to indulge in his cups . ^<7r«i?. to take deep draughts. it is probable that the It. Gael. burt. saufen. analogous to Fr. Bound. to bow or incline the . a well. bourdon. address. beogan. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. The foregoing derivation seems. mockery. bogr. the ting of a bell. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. sausen. Fr. the fixed. to trick. bovne. schenkelbug. flagon. and that probably from a Celtic root. Swiss bausen. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root.

kupukka. convexity. boil. . pullo. different position in ODu. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bhuj. bubble. Hence. a croft by a house. Fr. busse. Bohem. a polla. bol. . to buckle G.flask It. a swelling or rising up. a knot. zich onder jemand under to him. bug. Bower. buis. . to puff up. the box-tree. honse-bur. . Sw. a hen-coop . bolgna. bulla. a stud. bulne. Thus we have Esthon. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. sausage. bolla. ttuJic. . bugyola. or. at the e. the bogna. spherical Dan. . globular. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. G. intrenchment. purse. AS. the box-tree It. . Buckle. Hal. fata-bur. a. From the other form are G. wisp of straw . as in AS. (in pass . bugyani. Sanscr. a box. ^o«/«. lump . The word may probably be identical with Fris. the head. a sack. bock. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. signified by forms like Gael. round glass phial. a parlour. Du. &c. polla. . . ne. buckelig gehen. acsian. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. Sw. Du. as well as the name of a. blister. See MHO. swell. bulcken. dial.). a box. E. anything globular. a box. . kupula. bent. boss. stream forth bugyogni. bouge. buckel. buello. bow. Boll. pusspan. tumour. a ball. ^o/a. bola. globe or spherical body. w. give in to. . mausbollelein. in both senses. boudin. or in e. ask. bollen. bulla in aqua. a bud. peated in Magy.) to incline oneself .\s. . a black pudding. budello. the head. the crop of a bird. A Bulk. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bosso.a. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. prominence. ku^o. bog. It is more probably from the G. to raise the back boll OHG. an outhouse AS. See Boil. bolle. the skull or brainpan . In like manner the Pol. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bugyni. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bulka. crown of a hat. kuppelo. crooked. bouzellou. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. a thing of liquid. box in both senses. spring as water bugya. a bundle. bouellou. Fr. biiske. a sleeping-room . bwra. to swell. bowels. AS. bolla. puffy. Pol. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bhugna. belly. bogla. bugna. Bret. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. Cable. bulk compared with Sw. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. to bow buck. buigen. bulb of an onion bolleyield. compared with Fr. . cumena-bur. biicken. inclinare se (Kil. utibur. a box. . Sp. tumour . a box Lat.D. bucka. OE. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. boucle. without the and grits. the box-tree and articles made of it G. ON. beutel. gut. . bur. a wardrobe . to bend. Bowl. to stoop biickling. bowel Box. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bowl . See Crab. a drop of pullistaa. bocka. G. head of a cabbage. a protuberance. Gr. hollow place Fr. bulge. is applied to a coach-box. kupu. biisse. with inversion of the round. a bubble. globular body. budel. hill. OFr. a chamber swefnbur. buchsbaum. a separate apartment . W. The / a bow. heafod bolla. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a bubble Fin. to bend down. round bead.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. ken.. fyn. biichse. Bret. a buck. a iDubble. boxtree. . a wine-can .. the barrel of a gun. ON. bukke. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bubble. to bulge. to guggle. water pulli. and on swollen. to stoop. similar shape. swoUei) Lat. belly. and to a coachbox in particular. a ball. a bubble bolli. PLD. a ball . to bubble up. make obeisance. painter's easel. bow. to puff up pullakka. . iri'iaQ. bur. convex. a pot. . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. boxtree pusska. bending.cup Du. Bav. as in E. buxus. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bugy. koziel. A . a round glass or bolg. passing on stud. bol. trestle. botulus. bolne. . a bowl. a hump on the back rossbollen. to yield to one. * Bowels. a little box . boss. a boil. Sw. . box. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. Du. . boor. to make crooked . The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. . . boel. belly of a cask. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. then by the loss of the /. busskai. guestchamber . buga. pocket. Dan. hiidel. . bwr. bossola. beuz. a bubble.). hollow. knob From the former modification we have bolla. ON. Fr. an inclosure. hollow wooden case. buk. Dan. folliculus . bog. W. in walking appears in a . Lat.

brague. suppuration. rakka. bracon. braic. disturb. I sal slyng. brae. merely in our mode of considering them. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Fr. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Brack. want. OE. confining. dog Sw.. Sp. Fr. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. . might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. It. MHG. to Swiss batschen. rakke. compressing. Sp. Brach. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. Prov. armour for the arm. bube. brechen. bue. The different meanings of the brageux. a guard to torf. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. OFr. Swab. A to halt between two derivations. Du. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. need. s. a sounding blow. Water rendered boubo. Pm. priated to the original sense. boiste. want. brae. odorinsecus. breptati. loud smack. Swiss Rom. brae. bracer.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. — — . damaged board a ship. It is B. to stammer. to burst. breach. braco. jabber. dog that hunts by scent. cramp-iron holding things together . briche. Fr. bracket. acidus. mud. fault. a comworld Rayn. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. See Brake. Pr. brakke Bracelet. mud. parallel with OK. the arm. BOX To Box. rack. Kil. land batsken.. bou^ba. rakki. Gael. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . bracco. bragos. On the same principle from the buksteht. braco. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. posh. . to give a sounding blow defect. pus. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. bask. Kil.D. Brack. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. foul. a girl. as noticed under Box. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . breuque. Kil. ghebreck. bruxula. to is derived brestr. Prov. a bog or pass Fr. flaw. brack. wrack.— D. mud. bracke. . — . — . ratch. It. moral or physical. unmarried man . to be wanting. . or defect.puddle. — . putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. a box. and then Pl. which sigof straining. in R. salsus. an languages. a braceOFr. thwack. Boy. ON. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. corruptse. race. braque. Bracket. to give a gebrechen. or bracer Cot. . a crack. brechen ihm. OFr. brageuses. Swiss bub. boussole. con. It. the first instancebya physical tie. Pl. matter. ON. braquet. buah. Sp. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. brasselet. G. brostia. pube. AS.. See Broker. flap. breach. G. baske. &c. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. by the same inversion of J and k. To fight with the fists. quarrel Bohem. . babble. In like manner the It. braca. fuse. bracil. bouibo. Lett. to slap. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. Hdcart. salo sive aqua marinS. break. wristband. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. clay. Fr. 91 the Dan. a boy pupa. then from break. land spoilt Kil. strike. bray. — . Brak-goed. Rouchi Then as an adj. to stutter. and string of his bow. bracha.D. is a rope holding G. defect. boy. boy bouba. — . One girl. defect Du. bitch Du. Prov. root). refuse. a pair of braces. murmur. ing from a mixture of salt. . brack. fault . brec. Ptg. defect. and F. lalear-eyed Prov. Bracelet. flaw. brace on and Du. baukscheht. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. let. braecke. V. wnzC/J. brago. in R. to crack. whelp as. pupus. . ' — A — — — . bresta. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Heligoneed. . La ville ou y avait Brace. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. spaniel.nated by dirt. s. to smack the hand batschen. a bubbling dura del mun.. his eyes are failing him). isolated part of the text. brae. To brace is to draw together. to box the ears. a grown youth Cimbr. To Brabble. brakke grund. to give a blow with the fists. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Prov. Thus brack.with a noise. Cot. brek. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. dirty. Brackish. from a root brak. filth . brassard. Lat. youth. to fall. brabbelen. taneous talking. beagle. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. to want. want. by an overflow of sea water. variation of babble. A — — . A brace probis. brek. dog in general. Du.

To Brail. beautiful.aburst. braga. bravache. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. spot. brave. breghe. . braggard also valiant.. Brag was then used brisk. well-dressed. splendid. gallant (in apparel) also proud. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . Langued. braszketi. w. braga. From sprouted corn. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. The plant y^r«. the arm. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. goods. Walloon bress. brachittm. AS. fine. Cot. —Spenser in R. Primarily to crack. Turk bazu are used in both senses. slight modificajoining the two legs. to flaunt. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. brabhdair. breghen.i5nz^. an iron for holding Zalli. in order to prevent its catching the wind. Cot. was formed brayele. binding anything together. &c. Cot. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. a carriage for breaking in horses . It. See Brace. to boast or brag. Faire le brave. brave. To Braid.^ Sp. braske. Rom. se donner trop de licence. to stand upon terms. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. brayete. confining. bra!. Hence E. Brail. noisy ostentation. — Chaucer. brabhdadh. to swagger. braka. Bret. or from braie itself. bragaireachd. courageous. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. 2.%. ative fellow. stout. to sprout malt. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Dan. handsome. fine. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). also insolenter se gerere . expensive. hectoring. valiant The head are sumptuous. to rattle. A — Hal. Hecart. i. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. gay. excellent. brag or jet it braguard. flaunt in fine clothes . be found. to unbrace or let down the breeches. Fris. would be to brace. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. bullying. braicli. to shout. The meanings included under — Bragget. braka.Shepherd's Cal. crack. Fr. empty pride. vanter une chose. . Brake. as the type of exertion and strength. breach. Fr. . brag. to make a noise. vain glory. From Fr. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow.hy which this idea is con\eyed. compressing. used in the sense of force. bravacherie. also tion of this was brayeul. brag. gorgeous. Bray. make a noise . called by our braggard. bushy . power. vaunting. braguer. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. to crack. Lat. Thus Bret. in numerous dialects. . braga. From brayel. Wallachian bratsou. brao. brave. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . also derived Fr. breyne. It is certain that the word for arm is. 92 Cot. crash ON. Chaucer. fine. brav. subigere. bragd. in the sense of the Lat. .—— . swagger. and it is very likely that the root brak. blusterer. Dan. gallant. de Vaud. flaunting. drawers. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. to strut. bravo. and that from e. braske. h-avare and Fr. is identical with Gael. braegenj Du.^Vocab. se parer de beaux habits. smart. bragging of his own valour. BRAG Piedm. gayly dressed. that will carry no coals. Brain. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. boasting. brave. brave. fine. strength. the opposite of which. ^Brave. a roisterer. . the feathers ON. swaggerer. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. See Bray. to cord a bale of tie up. Lith. braies. dhbrailler. brake in the sense of constraining. — A — . To Brag. — . a noisy talkboasting. — From W. Thus we are brought to the OE. to Rouchi brMer. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Bret. breagh. The meanings of brake are very numerous. — Equivalent forms are Gael. be noisy . boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. to brail up a sail. boast. idle talk. or by gaudy dress and show. about the hawk's fundament. subduing. braver. cry.. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. bragging. brazo. an inclosure for cattle . bully . proud. is Cot. to boast of his own worth. gay. affront. Sc. braw. bravado j Fr. se pavaner. Brake. . riches.explosion. Haldorsen Gael. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. crash. stately. brae. . to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. brake is. bragio. torture . showy bravery. finery.breeches. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. Sp. brails.

broil. — — . murran. a spinning-wheel. 2. It may be sus- . watered.D. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. and when once thrown down. farinam in mortario subigere. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. marsh. to break. to break or fracture. gebroge. copse-wood. signifying to sweep. a stream. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. Fr. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. broyer. a harrow. de Vaud. braecken het vlasch. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Dan. a brace on board a ship.bracan. bredza. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. as well as in the case of the e. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. P&. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. to exert force in different ways. brambles. braca. iSpsx". gebroge. Sp. broor bushy place Hal. a swampy Mid. casser le \va. to brush. brolium. referred brake. as in Du. game. Biglotton. 3. and G. Brake. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. break flax PLD. a horse's a horse's twitch. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. It. BRAKE to external force. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. marsh or swamp. have thus Du. bush. briser. gilum. broilium. brog above mentioned. break of such a kind. cetur. OFr. Gael. riguus. In the sense of a thicket.' It. cover G. conSo in G. brak is a frame in which strip. breaking in the operation. brog. a marsh. might come to signify a swamp.. been confounded with the verb break. briers. In the case of the ne. to break. in northern climates. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. glebas subigere. word. and Lat. bush. brushwood. to bend a bow. any thicket of brakes. to pound. to head must be bit. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. Corrfeze bredgea. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. broken fratta. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. To the same bend a bow. braeken. to rub. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. —Ovid. murtaa. to distinct. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. is formed murd. el arco. brambles. Swiss Rom. brego. In like manner Lat. fratto. brook. e. tnurdma. bregar. where from Esthon. to fracture. murrokko. Fr. to subdue. Dan. braken. Pl. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. Voc. We — . thicket. it is not surprising that the word has here. is braukti. Brake. It. —Bracken. low wet land bruch. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. nemus. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. The Fr.— . which originally designated a broken mass of wood. thing is brought under control. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. flachs brechen. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. breuil. Dan. quarry from Fin. G. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. bregille. to bend or direct a cannon. the lever by which the string was drawn up. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. gebrUche. bruch.D. to harrow (Lat. bregar brake. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. bushes. — Fl. subigere. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. broeck. . to row. to bray in a mortar. brcekke. tris). ing of flax or hemp. the original meaning of G. as in the case of horse-breaking. brage. to stiffen against Taboada). brook. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Lat. Fr. a thicket. Gr. to The ON. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. a fen. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. braquer un canon. or A A ' . t° moisten. or a wood in a marshy place . gebiisch. for — Due. brake. brook. in usus braca. as in Sp. brega. braka. properly braking or subduing them. broillet. brog or brake. brake. gebroge. dial. or overthrow of trees by the wind. ^raca. Prov. frangere linum. brage. gebrUche. to knead or mix up in a mortar. brogille. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. pasture. In ON.

— . brous. . broom. brandiiialil. cabbage sprouts Fl. bracken or fern . bruk. . brem. — branca. brandr. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. Brancare. iii. Gael. brug). brosst. brug. brandello. Rouchi bren d'orMe. brwnt. excrement. heath (Bret. as. from virga. constrain. Bav. Bret. . In like hrst. . wood composed of twigs. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. brenn. bro7n. The same form becomes in It. broembel-CBppel. clutch. brandmurk. or other plants of a like nature. w. a halter. Russ. brenn hesken. gebroge. to burn. bran. broem. a dunghill. brugek. it glitters — — . brano. berneux. bit by bit. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brok. heath. to bridle. nasty. piecemeal brindelles. breanan. and waste growths. Thornas and bremelas. the bull-finch. brank. bruk. Fr. to brank. apiece orbitbrandone. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. . bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. brenda. thorns and Gen. brang. snotty . Thus in Lat. braam. sprouts. sweet broom. bronbo. Fr. pfriem in the sense of an awl. brouskoad. bramble Du. a rod or twig. brancas. AS. heath ON. young buisson fort epais. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. a bud. a bud It. dirt . broussaille. braeme. Piedm. Branch. burning brennen. heath. pfropf. brog. compress. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. . brin (as It brano). . virgultum. brushwood. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . bran. and E. heath. also pfriemkraut. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. Thus we have w. brenna. G. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. Bret. a bud. Bran. a shoot or twig. brand.D. Grisons bruch. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. a burning fragment of wood. to -brugen. sedge burkni. bren. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. prufye." The bmno a • on . a bridle or bit . Pl. bruch. bromboli. . from gaggi. brein. Gael. It will be found that shrubs. broccoli. G. brejo. a thick bush. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig.G. ear-wax mud. broom. As ON. brank. a firebrand.). Sir Topaz. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. a small deri\'ation . heath. brambles. Dan. G. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. piece of anything. branco. Bramble. Serv. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. what is cast out as worthless. Pl. The naof strain. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. It. stink . thicket of brambles Cot. Fr. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brughera. A mark made by burning. bruch. It. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . from brug. the thorn apple or stramonium. 1 8. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone.D. bushes. restrain. briars. branchia. Bret. from Servian pnit. from brand. as AS. —Ducange.. in the sense oi fern. in the same sense. a heath. a briery plot. breun. breme j Sw. &c. . 2. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brom. or ling. hallier. brass. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. a shrub . bruskoad. from Lat. a roA. may be so called in analogy with Bret. E. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. to or iron. Bret. is the draff or excrement of the com. Port. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. brin. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. See Brush. brake. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . So Swiss gaggi. or with It. ordure . Brank. a shoot. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. &c. titio. a vine twig Bav. pected that brake. that is to say. G. and thence a shoot. i. a shrub from Bret. Brand. bren. branche. young twig {brom-beisser. brin d. pfriemen. to gripe. Broom. broust. bretnel. brarn. cack. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. chaff. bruk. But we find It. w. Diez. a single plant of heath. gebriiche. Fr. ground full of briers. That beareth the red hepe. sawdust. also a marshy low ground or fen . thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. the branch of a tree. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren.

a roaring fire. to crackle .^Brandle. urens. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. prasseln. to distil . splinter. a round dance. V. bruan. bragia. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. to brandle or The It. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. hot Fr. to solder iron. given to the country. brazil. put. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. make an outcry. gebrannter wein. to rustle. the colour than hitherto known. not. bruciare. embraser. from used in dyeing cloths. The tre brangillis. Chron. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. bruire. Port. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. So. bransella. to hurl with great force. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. all. E. flagrans. Milan. and bruir. to make shine with shaking. a stick. to shake. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. WaUon. faire fracas. ish. 59. branler. brausen. a To Brandish. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to burn. Sw. brasil. became ashes Pied. Manx bransey. It. to French brawl or brangle. bracea. to burn. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. glowing embers . brustle. — ting to confusion. bresil. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. to totter. spirit distilled from wine. Fr. braise or hot coals. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to blaze. brandiller. comes from thence. To brand. before the discovery of America in the brandir. bra?ier. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. forms brasil. braise. so. du Roi et laine. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Fr. to shake The word brisil. brush. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. as Jamieson explains it. It. N. Bret. Fr. fire-wood. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Brangle. Kil. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. as Fr. to make sense of a bright red dye. to roar. a pan of hot coals. brin. and branchis shaiand D. — . to make display . eldibrandr. stake. Sw. shake. brastlian. is bntan. Fl. branler. from to vociferate. firebrand. conbillet. bum. to shog. the spelling to kindle. — . distilled wine. In the same way the set on fire . with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. brouir. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Guill. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Bailey. to brandle. brangle or brawl in E.pan of coals. Fr. Chron. brasa. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Brase. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. E. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Ija. to quarrel. to shake. to brustle. was in use Fr. With top trimbling. to sound of the Fr. totter. hoisting to the fall. brasca. brasa.. noise. Braser. to burn. Du. to Bailey. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . then brandr. The name Brandy. brandolare is exbrandish. brazeiro. bruzi. braser. brandende wijn. AS. briiler. Hume in brand in ON. Jam. n. G. Lye. to brangle. Brasil. G. or in stick. apparently very distinct from each other. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. bracia. e. crackle. make a — . brandiller. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Diez. De Goes. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. brand. Formerly brandy-wine. a fragment. aqua ardens. crackle. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. It. — . plained by Florio. Gris.well. live coals. braza. to murmur. bryne. To brase AS. brasca. to dash. incendium. braise. bragale\ wood. and scold. morsel. set on fire. brascct. Fr. to glisten or flash. to and fro in the hand. brane-wood. firewood. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. billet. brennen. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. as again by well as the blade of a sword. to confuse. ist. a brusler. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. brandigh. in Marsh. d'Angl. to bicker 2nd. weinbrenner. Thus the bound up again. bransle. to braze or lute. branla. The corresponding form in Gael.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brus^. perplex.

D. especially that used in the working of iron . brat. ferruminare. Many gambes. Fr. brettys. AS. neita girl). contignatio. a battle-girdle. P1. bretesche. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. ni autres choses sur Due. I. frequentative of braire. Cologne broden. to Gael.96 Roquefort. calf of the leg. apron. and bronzo. frame of laths. A dispute or squabble. . from branler. Brawn. bratidone. Dan. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. or on the top of a wall. roar. a loud noise. squall. to solder.D.walle — Pr. Fr. a lump of flesh. Westphal. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.propugnaculum. a lump of flesh. then a parapet. Cot. braede. Cot. to braze. Brattice. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. bmhon for brado7i. Du. bransle. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done .— Remade. a. fraiche. to cry. Sp. OHG. Sup. a patch of cloth. Pisana in Mur. brailler. deblaterare. saillies. a contemptuous name for a young child. For the application to a^child compare Bret. It. See Brandish. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. slut. le repasser un peu sur la braise. breyon de kinds of . Betrax of a —^Jam. The same correspondence is seen between It. See Bray.— Fl.— Braid. braodhlach. coassatio. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. ship. strepitus 2. brandillo. Hist. at brasa. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Fr. 1156. as lattice. slakker-bortchen. Bailey. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. lat'te. borderinge. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. brass. a slabbering-bib.^ — Sverris Saga. noise. as a brawling brook. —^Bronze. branle. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. to shake. a wooden tower. braiio. bras. ^Altieri. Math. So also See Brag. 2. —-Jam. a rag . OFr. Lorraine bravon. solder. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. bran. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a plank or board. brazen. A. pil. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. 368. W. is The word — uous name for a woman. a lump.' Hal. Florio. — Deutsch. bruir. braoilich. from Fr. braion. Kil. Certainly a little girl. breteque. a parapet.' BRASS BRAY et AS. ' A vraale.— Diez. as scrawl from scrabble. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. Brass. a rag . — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bradon. bribe de viande. cob. baltresca. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. whether contracted from brabble. bratid calf of the leg. braeye. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Mundart. discord.brettysing. Swiss bradle. Gael. to scold . equivalent to the Du. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Paris. Wall. buttock Sc. Pm. Fris. a lath. bradlete. bronzare. braser Fargent. Jam. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. brat. boutures. breyon d'chaur. bretays). to copper. trul. A. to carbonado. or whether it be from Fr. berd. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. brat. G. Sc. The verb is probably derived from the brase. luncheon. KiL Prov. calf of the leg. It . a rag. rag. OFr.D. Brave. A land of dance. slibro. to tear piecemeal. flesh of a leg of pork. tasce. bratdn). bartisan. cloth. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. slibro {neita. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. brdto (ace. bred. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a fortification. bronzacchiare. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. any piece. a cloak. esbraotier. bratach. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. Brat. brett. pan- — Rayn. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). burning coals. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. as criailler of crier. Bartizan. ON. boarding being sbranare. bretesque. in the first instance of boards. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a contempt- banner. Brangle. bartising. 1224. a Lap. &c. brces. — . from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. The muscular part of the body. muscular parts of the body. Circumeunt cibertesca. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. braon. the calf of the leg. Brawl. to talk at bralle op. bronze. the buttocks. bralle. a clout. It. a — A from the confused noise. a mantle. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. breyon. from Sc.

augnabragd. to break. and frangere. G. Fin. at braga eftir euium. to break. roar. to cry out. Ppvxia.fracas. to braid. rangere. Cat. to start. appearance Hal. 145. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. From the or brack in a wall. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. disturbance. Chaucer. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. The same He might don us both a villany. Then is simply. i. bray. brot. with or without a final d. or cry out loudly . &c. upbraid. weave The ON. as the voice of the ass. to tear Bret. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. &c. Bret. brage. to N. a brake for hemp or flax. braid. V. Cot. noise . AS. V. at a braid. will. and fracasously. relation is seen between Lat. to bray in a mortar. crash. brikan. . father. bregar. is . ybrayid. OE. to break Fr. vapna-brak. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. 2. &c. Breach.y. to The cup was uncoverid. Fr. which has given much trouble to commentators. brak. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. mos. brak. to bellow. to snatch. Bread. I'll live and die a maid. as the notion of turning crack. E. resound . as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. brame. rattle. — — — explained motus loud noise. a rent. soft . to have the lineaments of one's ON. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. a wink. See Brake. a brack. braidir. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to roar. roar. And at a braid he gun it bende. to rumble. broyer. Goth. a breach Cot. R. make a disturbance. at once. Prov. F. twist. &c. rogi. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. breach. to work up in a mortar. gestus. bradar. W. to bray like an ass. breuan. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. explaining a very obscure application of the E. ON. imitate or resemble one. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. Swiss bratschig.ear rog. the miller's dog. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to t. brice. to break. paste or dough. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. turn. or wound. to pretend. cyprinus latus. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. ser. D. brechen. Dunbar braessem. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. rustle.ch. to bawl. to the seijauntes. and make a hideous noise. Q. to rub Fr. Chaucer. to cry out. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. brand. To rub or grind down Sp. to smack or the eye. Bailey. Du. Then. breche. bragd — ON. G. kind.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Gr. k. D. fractus j Gr. bregar. to roar as the sea. plait. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. a mill. verb to break. fragor. crash. bragr. yell. to scold. . braa. bregda. The Lat. yell. baiyl. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to crash. Bread. crackle .' To Bray. to roar or bellow.^ Fr. bratsche. The ON. bragd is also applied nets. ON. in Jam.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. Wal. Beryn. bruire. to rush. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. — . the sound — of arms. to resemble. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. crepo and E. R. . quilibet celerior j at bragdi. e. a crash. iU-favouredly — in Jam. paxog. to cry Port. riAprjyvvfu. V. regi. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. braa. D. — koa. to sound very loud and very harshly.. to knead. ing. broad. a . to braid acquires the sense of bend. to resemble. a rag f . 7 . braidar. brugier. fish. braea. and to signify the fracture itself. ^p&xia. to braid. bruzir. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to crash. abraid. to resemble him. on. Lat. To Break. the sword was out break. starts crackling up. braire. instantane. Prov.g. Fr. father. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to braid the hair. as OE. bru.

chillness or shivering.'— Gl. cloven. PI. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. E. braucn. brijselen. scent. brut. brasiuiii. bruc. instead of being derived from 'La. fitzen. broza. Originally probably the word signified steam. Fr. from ligare. braca. grill. It. brimsa. bris de charbon. break. Du. as the G. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. E. Bret. binding. as commonly explained. breath. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. body brostia. a cool wind. . to crackle. are related to Prov. /esses. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. xyligogio castigare. So ON. brodem. zare. Hume in Jam. siibligar. representing the sound of a blow. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Bret. braia J OFr. the soler. braciarc. Bracha. brinisa. trembling. The Breech (Prov. grillen. Lat. OFr. to crush to break. bresilles. breson. w. brugga. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Goth. coaldust. morsel. simmering. Piedm. broiiwen. and other rubbish dibris. to breech. a crum. forms analogous to E. brache. G.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack.). brcEth. brezza. — ./ssus. briosa. to fry Then from a Gl. G. simmer. to murmur. brew. Swiss Rom. in Schilter. may be from the wurh fesser. are in like manner ' . bra. breinse.t. to brew. brok. rubbish. the dry spines of furze broken off. Swiss brdtsch. applied to shivering. crush. a gadfly. brezzare. polenta. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. orts. bratscher. a to lay fly-flap. to feize or feaze. brise. . windy withal. bris. &c. switch. the bust. braies. bruzun. to simmer. of straining. a cold and windy mist or frost . bandage or truss for a rupture. forms. their stings draw . point to G. brasiare. breeze. to roast. G^nev. broil. —Briss. brezling. bremse. Breeze. drawers. to rattle (as hail). Prov. and E. little bits of wood Berri briser. fail. to bind. briosa. with It. a smack. remains of leaves. bridsen. burst. as in the case of twitter. bryi^ga. . BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brossi!. brimme. clout for a child. b}-as. braga. bragues. brodel. Briss and buttons. braie. braga. met de bridse slaan. briig. grillare. We bragezj on. Fris. Gl. to brew. braich. griller. The Teutonic verbs. G. Sw. to smack. to break. brissle. and brought beneath between the legs. bretilles. Prov. a girdle. — Halma. Dtyden. Breath. Breeches. from brace. breme. Brize. to buzz. braux. vapour. brisoler. Fr. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . as. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. an odour. bracecs . properly to crackle. Breeze. also to chill and shiver with cold. Biglotton. Bruise. broden. brisd. G. Dan. noise. — See Broth. to bray. as. briste. a crum Du. de Vaud. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. to whip. to burst. Gael. to resound. To Brew.vare. murmur—Vocab. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. sprouted corn. trusts. Breeze. — . term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. brcekur j It.britschen. — Brist. Gael. See Brick. Gl. . a horse's twitch. Du. brisciare. to shiver for cold. AS. or the blow itself. to be misty and cold. bris. QNtsterviald) pritschen. singing bone. brire.D. brosame. de bridse geveii. Isidore and Tatian. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. to hum. Piedm. Lat. britze. briiz. brumtnen. but more probably the E. malt. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. bre- I'os qui bresole. einem de britze geven. bruise. brijsen. brist. bark Fr. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. rubbish. peitschen. Breast. bruzir. braca. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brusc. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. subligaculum. Du. to fry . briosat'. Compare OE. — And blood. brison. breost. i5r(Z^. braguier. malt. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. of E. Swiss AS. murmur. Dev. from AS. then to broil. chilly. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. the breech or buttocks. Russ. — — strument for smacking. so AS. Hence the Lat. brdtschen. . G. Fr. AS. brustia. of trees. brciz. . a cramp-iron for holding things together. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. one on the breech so that (klatschet). sheep's droppings bruss. dial. corresponding to G. as by the Sc.98 borst. Rom. Du. braies. a twitch for a horse. a box. an into shiver. brasser. fastening .

being one of the numersummary or any short writing. a bit. Bribe. w. a quoit of stone. Due. brittil. a man. Walach. sugga. breve or brevis. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. bridge. piece of burnt clay.gfiugga. bruk. bitill. bridelj OHG. privus. Hence OE. company. Pro(merch=:maid). and that from It. the Fr. a crum. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. brar. — — — — — — . has briguer. brukkas. a heath brughera. AS. to boil. to stamp. fit. briiths. Fl. to meet together. Priodi. a crum. bidsel. bride. The origin of the word is the w. Ducange.groom. — . thick appropriated. ap. Gl. the equivalent of to the dial. Trovarfor bride-ale. ' — . malt. which however is undoubtedly from brace. briw. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bro. buskins. as so.. OHG. Brief. from bit. bribe de pain. fastningar-ol. a rogue . Bridal. and ODu. — . to rub. a fragment. of burial. to boil. . pavement. jetty. a rogue. a heath. Ihre. bruith. brakes of high-grown ferns. a married man or woman Lat. arf-ol. pavement Lith. . brique de pain. a bride Brig. Cot. It.bergantino. Mid. Dan. G^n^v. masted vessel. peculiar. consort with. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. to circulate. broken. son. Brewis. feast of espousals. BRIGADE dead. a married man guma. brilt. ON. briicke. collect bits of food. beaten way Dan. berwedd. brahi. to brew. priod. E. bruskr and buskr.pritil . corresponding or letter. A — A — . pavement brolegge. conjux. bryd-gutna. the marriage si in brigata. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. fraoch. to boil. Gael. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. betony brulicame. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . fervere. as. ter-in-law. The Sw. a briole. . Pol. brood. a bush. fragment. appropriate. berwi. feast. bribour. AS. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Rouchi brife. in the sense of OSw. two-masted vessel. AS. E. it is applied to the letter to OE. grug. Thom. Hdcart. It — is Kil. brere. So It. bruyere. broken victuals. Diefenbach com. but probably Bricoteau. Applied ous words derived from break. bro is applied not only to a bridge. E. bride.Fr. married. brygga. brice.rough with brambles and bushes. whence berw. . of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. brigata. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. brigade. birbone. a little king's writs. bread. Du. to break to pieces bricalio. brieden. . Gael. boiling up brocoliere. nurus G. In E. then the marriage itself. from Bret. brasser. Fr. braut. Bridle. OSw. a lump of bread briber. graf-ol. birbante. hlafes brice. to appropriate. the newly. brutg. funeral. httle bit. jipaaaiii. owned also propriate. a brig or priodor. Brigade. bruarium. lipdZu}. to tlie brico.It. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. to press in. gf2o. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. frayer. AS. brA. to pave. broken bread. bably contracted from brigantine. to prepare. buckler J ON. to beg one's bread. brug. guma. brau. Goth. bruk. bro. a Bride. sponsa. Neumann. If the foregoing were not so clear. served (Patois de Bray). . A bribe is A — — arval. from the last 99 of which. Lang. bulicame. a lump of bread. especially to a letter or command. from the Normans. broosekens. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . E. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Lat. bo. to break. Sp. Bridal. but to a paved road. Brick. troop. bretonica. bara briw. one's ovin. ' . In the G. brigantine. remarkable that the Gr. Brier. briwo. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. Fr. AS. Flor. W. It. to Isrew. with transposition of the r. heath. Grisons bruch. bricge j G. See Broth. priod-ferch. So in The Prov. AS. to press.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. division of an army. Diez. ment of anything broken. twopares Lat.privatus. . brocaly. ibrukkti. betonica. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a beggar. to pave brukkti. groom (mab=:son). Brique. is still used in this sense. Bridge. bygga. a bride. crew. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. a boiling. brughiera. . barren land priodas. bricou. and berweddu. daughheath. a cheat. a wedding priod-fab. or brizo. a sow. imprint. from Bridegroom. . The original sense thus seems to be to ram. Fr. a fragment. a lump of bread. any jot or crum. bryd-eale. a proprietor. malt. In the patois of briccia. pier.

and the E. malandrini. Brigand. necessary business. tumult. They or brigantini. twinkling. a spark. Florio.' The sense of strife or combat express. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. schiteren. The primary meaning of Sp. praht. there are many armour. Xa/iTTii). Brilliant. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. to shine. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. tinkle. clear. to rob. AS. manifest ON. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to strive for. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. From ON. brdgen. schateren.' The passage from the sense of a light. clarus. lay was sung. Gall. braid. riis ' — Chron. and secondly. glir. tion. kii:'a. . jurgia. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . Due. —Capgrave. tinnitus. pugna. clear. — brigante. a small light pinnace pro. inde squammatus. brcEhtin. bracht. \oice.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. etincelle. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . that of Fr. show the origin of Lat. It. Beorktode bene sweg. from hall. and led it away. bregar. representing a sudden noise. glamm. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. brak. noise. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. biartr. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. — brigante. 1351. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. . — Due. brebrigare. seems to be to exert force gar el area. the gleeman's song. — Probably then to strive. glbram. — Briganbriga. speech. It. to glamr. bright bearhtm. to shift for with care. splendour. Ducange has ' Brigandinou.— . tinnitum clarum movco. Goth.dorem clarum reflecto. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. In the same way to strive is. in the sense of a robber. rover either by sea or land. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . on his — own account. and hence be explained glampi. splendour. Bav. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. the bench-notes resounded. Lat. clangour. himself to serve men of merit. splcnornd de brigandine. — Brigantine. and ner me hit iherde. Owl and beorhtian. labour. 312. and to associate with them. strife. tuilahtaa. brigare. bryhtm. to rove. splendens . to ring. The Ir. bragen. beorht. bairhts.Lat. Adelung. Wilista. to cry 'Schmid OE. then. may play the pirate or thief at sea. Du. glitter. The E. Bright. brigan.glampa. to cry. to shine. briga. to reservavit. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. brawl. It. to bend a bow It.shine. glamra.pracht. bray. with respect either to sound or colour. hell. briga. Mid. OHG. a pirate. Schmeller. dine. squamma . frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. to piracy. — — . wilella. cange has 'Veles. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. See Brake. clear. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. combat. also called briganders. briegen. Brigata. secondarily.' in Due. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. moment. and. transparent. to glitter. a brigantine. Heo — song That AS. In Fin. brigant. shriek with laughter. loo BRIGAND lor. in the first instance. Gr. clear sound. clare lucens. at a later period. Flor. a noise. the grew high. rixa. A strepere. brigandare. to contend with another. — Beowulf. to sound.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. A. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. willata. dine. Swab. and. — A A . a glittering. a sound. It. XafXTTpoQ. to resound.' torum. is easily understood. So G. to make a loud noise.D. outcry. kilistua. and diligence. brigare. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. clang. sound.clare ^tinniens. 1654. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. in later times a robber or highway-man.

— — — . sparkle. to make a crackling noise. the heat of animals. rym^. brand-krossottr. griller). the meaning is transL' amour. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller.). bremmen. barmr. spraing. on. finds the Fr. of the eye. — Rim. G. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. surface of the ocean. barm-cloth or barmskin. to sound deep or hollow. whether of desire or anger. glit. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. bramire. brim. grullo. to glitter . E. burning stone. is used of raging. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. briller. burning. to shine. gresiller. brmdottr. Closely connected is OE. bray as an ass bramire. brdnnsten. Prov. brandr and Fr. bramar. Tutschek. brant. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. beam. to burn. a stick. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. crackle. border. lip of a vessel. s. earnestly . margin. as well as bl and gl. broil . brumft. and corresponding to these. — g. Rugere. brama.— BRIM . to resound. der. to fret . coloured in stripes. griller. tience. to creak. gresiller.) brimi. glisten. Kil. the lap or bosom. ling noise and a sparkling light. Hence with an initial s. . The identity of ON. Sw. sonitum edere bremen. 1 1 64. a long. pMiller. In Fr. to glitter distance . brisoler. the sow is brimming. Said of swine when in heat. ardere desiderio.ioTiviS acutus. grdzil. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. ring. brunft. ON. grisler. shine. striped or streaked. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to sparkle. Tresiller. the edge. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. lap. leonum). post. reecho. brummen. to wish or covet. to crackle. to shimmer. a streak. ous. the heat of animals. excited. komista. to glitter. komottaa. Fl. Brim. voux. kajata. bry7ie. s. lap of a garment . to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. briller. to quaver with the voice. whence bilbil-goda (literally. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. a borDu. to . fire. to shine. dial. kimmaltaa. an apron. griller d'impatience. Thus Lat. as of meat in broiling . Sc. Subo. AS. brow of a hill. (poet. Langtoft. Du. bremas. ON. Brem. to long for a thing. Brimstone. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. as in Langued. — . kommata. fimbria) . To Brim. to make bilbil). to storm. Streaked. The meaning of the Fr.preni. bryn. Dief. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. to creak. brezil. sprainged. breziller. frequently interchange. hence the bosom. border. a rod. kiimottaa. In the same way Sw. kimista. Fr. rugire (cervorum. with an initial br instead of gr. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. bar. 754. to twinkle. the singing of Sodom — — . It. brim Magy.' d'etre marie . brennistein. small gravel. barm. which seems identical with rim. breme. and 1. originally the lap folding over the breast.— Brinded. . also to reflect. : ' — bone).its vent in cries and roaring. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. bresoler (Gloss. brillare. . It. ON. chime). — — So Fr. fierce. breziller. parched. identical with passion. or violent action. the eye-brow. Supp. vattubryn. The expression is now confined to the sow. to utter cries. kimina. It. briller (related to each other as OFr. vigorHal. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. 154. brummen : de soge brummet.D. brame. to shine. have then in Fr. bramar. to broil. brinfire. bramer. to roar. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. fringe . Lith. greedily to covet Cot. os qui bresole. broiled. a border. crackle . is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). rugire. from bringe. bremmen. rut. noise made by meat in broiling. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. border. furious. AS. as is the case also with Pl. perent. clangor tinniens. brimmen. 1. Swiss Rom. brullo. that the original meaning of the Sc. Wtb. Brindled. brommen. to parch. to shake. A . Sc. to roar. cross-barred in colour. grisser. the verbs Flor. Dan. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. brastlian. to crackle. greDiet. brame. ter. from brandr. breme.' Elyot in Way. Rayn. fringe (Lat. brissle. edge Pol. The E. FJ. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn.

— in Due. brisciare. brindelles de balai. very salt brimi. Prov. . 222. rebrousser. In the N. as a noun. a brooch. to turn up the point of anything. suddenly angry.D. brich. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Brooch. Then as the effect of shivering. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. as. to scorch. flames. to break. Sp. G. Prov. to birstle. the surf. bruckle. a peg sbrocco. Brisket. brime. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Bohem. Brocade. bryne. fantas'* tical. Sc. bricho (with the diminutives. Abroacli. It. brocco. angry. to shoot. or the full • . of E. fiscbryne. flame. Antiq. Fr. to stick. to set up one's birse. a brad or tack. Du. as unripe fruits. a bit . strong itself. to thrust. Bret. brocciare. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. — bryme. bringe traced through the brano. b. bronchus. form bris. britar. rash. brissko). brust. Brine. bros. spur. broca. to burn. brittle. — . brusque. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. broccare. brockle. rude. a projecting tooth It. to spur. brcit. a cold and windy mist or frost. expression. to spit. from break. See Brand. Russ. ON. brezzare. Gl. to roar. to put one in a rage . to begin upon it. a rebours.rcendij'i. a fragment. brodden. emotions which produce it. Cot.. Brickie. aculeus. brijn (Kil.. is to erect the hair. to goad. brissle. and hence. Fr. Hence ribrezzare. Brisk. Russ. brisk in taste. brimme. Liquamen vel garum. brusco. breast. thick — A elastic hair. sprocco. birstle. . broccata. It. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Pectusculum. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. britar. See Spread. brin. Du. braidsj ON. — A . as. quick. brandello. breaking out into growth. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Mid. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. bros. It. brimhliod. is called a birssy day.g. Prov. to crack. man's throat. breidr. brim. like the Broad. brioshko. a bud.'— Vita'abbatum S. reburrus. lively. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). apt to break. brezza. Walach. a rod or twig. a crum. Formerly written brotil. Da. fierce. Fr. Hal. briser. briota. broc. sharp. Commonly explained as from Fr. Port. byrst. chest. has under It. Breeze been connected with the Sc. a slip or sprig of an herb . Salte sand is called brimsand. to stab Gael. startling. a button broche. Zeuss. to stitch. craw of a bird. ruffling. /3pE^m. Bristle. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. bruched (Fr. a shoot or sprig.). To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. the surf. borzos (struppig). spricka. The Pl. to set it a going.procio. and forms on. brim (poet. eager.Lat. a skewer. harsh vin brusque. brocco. from brande. britchet. Brym. bristly . brittle. hot-tempered. 'V^. from AS. Bret. a spit. birs. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. a belly. Ptg. NE. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brot. broche. grim. to shiver for Sold or for fear. . birse. whence may be explained the Sc. Lat. trembling. brytan. . an awl. humorous. Fris. Dan. roar of the sea saltr. a clasp. borzen. crabbed. birssy. Sw. bringue. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Gr. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. See To Brim. Swiss to stand out . briocho.). birsle. the brisket or . to break. . sprout. broca. setting the hair on end compare It. the twigs of a besom. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. . fragile.' Nat. ' . rebursiis. as. bringe. p. a bud. brocar. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. prick with Sw. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Boh. sticking up . brote. briota. Brittle. Fr. a morsel. brocchus. Palsgr. brddj Goth. bresk. breaking of the waves brim sior. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. sprouts. Compare also E. a deluge. wine of a sharp. and. of astonishment. Sc. bryde. smart taste. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. It. to break. to spur. shoot. brim. Fr. stitch. metaphorically. to broach a business. to broil. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. to bud. a stormy brimsea . borst. Fr. against the grain . ribrezzoso. and Sc. sour. or — . brog. a stitch brocher. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. setting the hair on end. ' breast. i. cK) the . which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. borstel. brusk. saulmeure. — — . Berri. brocher. brickie. a morsel . are used in the sense of brittle. bruskett. Alfr. coli. e. brichet.

brullare. broiled. Dan. To roast upon hot coals.. age was termed a pricket. to streaked or speckled in the face. brocach. brodio. borprick. Bret. bj'oil. — The proper sense is that of Fr. embroidering. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. Florio. whence broccare. broice. brych. noise. dar seems derived from borde. 103 embroidered. bordar. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. broil. brouFr. broighlich. bram. a fallingThe sense has been out. fundamental origin. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. briefh. frocadura. to crackle as a shell in the fire. tumult broighleach. b?-od. a quarrel. or snag. carbonado. It. motes. broglio. agree in being the extremity of a thing. parti-coloured. broc. ToBroider. Grisons brascla. brindled. storms. Here to ornament with needle-work. border ornamented with silk. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. rinj'. point to an origin in Bret. Gael. sparks E. tufted ornaments. brastlian. to On the other hand the Sp. brasolare. to parch or broil. brerd. brouda. trouble. embroidery. or It. noisy. It. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brooked. to crackle. rustle. from the white. parti-coloured. to broil. to burn. A fried or boiled steaks). Contracted from Fr. parch. a brecJi. brucilare. — . brocart. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. to crackle. to knots or loops. R. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. to boss. scorch. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. an edge. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . a freckle. gresiller. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. a flock or Gael. brizen. bordo. — brissle. . and AS. breard. Gael. houx. a flake of snow sion. to embroider. spotted. — Gower in It. Icnotty. — Fl. parched. Ihre has guU-bord. brusuole. has grisser. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. hart of two years old. broil. A badger. B. a peg. ciare. a b?-ustolare. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly.— B. onbryrdan. Sc. a confused streaked face of the animal. with Sc. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. Fr. to spur. brasiller. prod. broukit. precisely analogous to the Sc. of pointing out their latent defects. kled breac. Surrey in R. Fr. blusters. broccato was used to signify stuff . From direct imitation of Brock. Compare also AS. thread. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to instigate. to embroider. Ptg. silkes-borda. brychau. W. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. piebald . to crackle. tori shows that. speckled. a border. bramowanie. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. and bord or bred. shuffle. briz.tumultuous. to darn.. brusler. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. spots. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. broder. v. initial . prasseln. brocco. The Bret. brasiller. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brucach. here. a badger. trouble. q. brasbrasciuolare.sound. ornamented with a raised pile. Thus brod. Fr. or salted fish on coals. bruler. grislement. to burn. or roast on the braise. E. a brouhaha. brustle. to stud broccoso. Broker. sting. So from Pol. Compare G. forming to jumble. to prick. bmsciare. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. the line of development has been something different. freckled. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. broud. a point. bawling. frecSee Brawl. AS. Sc. border. gold and silver. the shoot of corn. a freckle. broc. streaked. It of br the Fr. or glowing coals broged. to scorch. knobby . Hal. a border ornamented with gold. and w. birsle. speckled. to crackle. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. — — . brasuole. Cot. a To Broil. a mole. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. grullo. Sp. . a brim. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. margin. froco. atoms . a prick. broccuto. badger . Cot. confound. Brocket. The ON. brod. stump. creak. hurly-burlies. braird. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. bustling.

with. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. Jam. to pro- to reject . stain. In the . Bronze. to copper. bronze. a chicken. brands. to emit sparks. If to vomit . rejected. in which sense the OHG. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. to . It may be compared with It. analogous to Bohem. embers. . wrak. an . has exactly the force of G. Pro v. progeny of birds. or brascla. refuse. raca. This word shows the same relation to It. damaged. Lat. bredan. brasa. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. racaille. brydio. — . want. burning. S. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. term was correcfo^ir. bric-a-brac. correctarius. e. abject. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. reject. filth.D. to roast on the embers. spittle.D. • .— — . to throw blame upon. a breach or flaw. to pick and choose. appointed to classify goods according to their quality.D. slaae vrag paa. pan metal. brut. See Broth. brokoti. dial. to be hot. a cough Hal. brunds. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. hraki. Alb. refuse brakowad. a broker. Dan. Pl. cracker. abbronzanchiare.— Breed. hot. brakyne. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. bronzo. cast Lith. to pick. insects. hrak. and to reject the damaged and unsound. selection. embers to brund. to hatch G. vile. broiid. ordure. brot. embers. fish-spawn broden. The use sunburn. hot. — a spark. Pl. brasa. Bronzare. Russ. to braze. wraken. to reject. Fr. warm. Sc. cherish. the young of any animal . find fault with. dirty. G. vile. an operation performed over hot coals. brak. brackefi. refuse goods. tussis. w. Prov. For the same reason the Kiittner. refuse brakovat. brack-gut. sort. vrage. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. matter of blame weak place. find fault with. 396. To correct an exercise is to Lib. wreak. a makeln. ON. refuse. to scorch. to garble. nounce unsound. to spit . On • tliis principle the G. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. lack. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. . and as an adj. brass does to Sp. try out. brak. Pl. . trumpery. faulty. brod. inspection. tan. whence the modern courtier. refuse Fr. The Langued. from makel. et A. 38. make out. bridde. Fl. — Fl. criticise (makeln). designation is indkler. phlegm. briiten. brwd. in the sense of rejection. mediationem quorundam J. brieden. See Wreak. Sp. broen. — point out the faults. It. to sparkle. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. Bret. Per manus et old worthless horse.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. brod. and fishes . bronze. goods damaged by sea-water. a fault. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. brid. mud. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. whnake. to nourish. fault censure. brack. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. inspect.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. : ' . G. spittle . In those countries the term braker. to sit on eggs. G. keep warm. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. couratier. an outcast or rejected sheep. sbrinzlar. racher. to sort brakovanie. find fault — — — fuse matter. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. Brood. raquer. corrector. brae. brechen. Tooke's Catherine. brokers' goods. braeck goed. braken. glowing coals. screatio Junfus . blur. rejection Pol. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. on. Kil. See Brackish. Grisons brinzla. OFr. bronce.D. Abbronzare. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. sunburnt. to be wanting. to blame. Alb. brack-gut (Sanders). damaged. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. try . a brood . bring eggs and spawn into active life. brokas.— Lib. to hatch. to hatch. but from the primary sense of the It. to criticise. To blame mens ware. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. . Adelung. i. Du. fermenting. to — garble. from break. — broeden. wrack-good. . to brew. bronze. merchandises de rebut G. Teutonic class : Du. refuse wares. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. which E. bracker. as. Du. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. to sort goods . buy and sell by commission. brumo. . ODu. the spawn of fishes.

brouter. Commonly Teutonic. cabbage water.) . Ger. bordel. bruitheati. useful G. a sprout. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. meal. to border. Sanscr. thick bush brousta. brost. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. Dan. braew. infusion the barley bree. hovel. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. wood . brew . brue . Ppim. — . broo. Brothel. and It. infusion. ceales briw. broi. Serv. broca. broth is sometimes used . bros. Pol.D. Fr. a spring. a source Gael. G. on. . AS." Serv. eminence . Gael. laissent Domunculum. The softening down of the consonant bud. pour boiling water over.D. broth the ocean Sw. a bud brous-koad. enjoy Goth. thairj w. shrubs. brwd. a hut or cottage It. — . See Bramble. Brow. bregh. — exiit et heath. brouic. Prov. . to bear patiently. border. signifying twigs. shoot. . riviere. spirit. broden. iVlanx broogh. Roquef. boiled . The origin is a re. Lat. from ripa. Gris. broieii. to use. rerum decoctarum. a little house or cottage of timber. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. chen. as Fr. briar.spross. waves. A — . to browse. Mid. bruithim. w. bruith. Bohem. Bav. Browse. a . brouches. brouskaol. Gael. brennen. OFr. on. shore . Sc. bushes. . eye-lid. breg. Here we find throughout the Romance. To digest. bank. juice of briars. sprouts . shoots. brink. a shrub broust. pfriemkraut. sprot. bank. bros. frater. Sp. from Goth. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. a derived from the boards. brushbroccoli. bor. low The AS. bruceti. heath. Celtic. to boil.' Due. strength. brudi. . bruno. fabric consists. brlgh. bordeau. pith. or broken up . awl-plant. brstiti. a sprig. OHG. brost. to shoot. But the Walach. a confused noise of winds. cia. the colour of things burnt. Du. . . eye-brow. Russ. broth Brown. a hill. eye-lid. Wtb. sordes seu strigmata young branch. spuma. brushbrothas) gives the OE. brouet. circuindedit cum familia. brewis. bhratrj Zend. Fr. to use. a little . Fr. w. mettle.— Overyssel Almanack. bruach. pottage. 105 Brook. b7-un. signifying low wet land (Brem. or shoot. a bud. in which brinnan. was originally used in the innocent sense of . briu. a hill. brauwe. surface of Broth. Gr. Bohem. Catalan brossa. to Pl. Limousin broudi. cabbage soup . bruich. BROOK brook w. brus. juniper. vigour. sense the Sc. brotar. to sprout. brow of a hill. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . &c. forms appear related to the Ir. G. shrub with leafless pointed edging. margin. . hut. . thicket. &c. brad. to boil. breg. noise. ale . to boil. eye-brow. Bohem. broc. edge. G. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. augen-braune. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. brocco. Bret. borda. braun. . frui. brouser. broeye. Gael. bryii. to use bruks. Kil. broza. It. vigour. face. browys. eye-brow. Sp. brmi. heat explaining the Prov. brow.braubiti. sprout. strength Ir. perhaps burnt coloilr. &c. heat. Fr. sap. Fr. Prov. bud. brosses. to burn. simmer from the murmuring AS. eye-brow. buds. Due. brukjan. breg. broem bark. breh. seethe. has briw. It. broit. borde. protecting the eye. the bubbling or springing up of water. Pl. frucius.brink. a shore. to browse. brotar. to spring . AS. steam from heated bodies. (for brodem). The AS. eat. of which the variety of forms. It is Brother. 'Lzt. and also border. brodem. bank. G. eye-lash . Manx broie. . to roar. to scald. . hot. house of ill fame. bruscosd quam de arabili. who is steaming with sweat. brd. bruddeln. — ' . warmth ch'an. shore. brio. may be connected with Russ.. brst. branches. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. braces. bank. Russ. bruich. dialects is very different. braussa. bruc. rage. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. edge. to boil bruithe. as rhododendrons. OHG. surDu. broth. brov. brabruach. sodden. a river. fur Broom. brass. briihe. heath. brdtaj Gael. brogues. brous. a caldron. bntdien. broth brothaire. a bruth. brau. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. bratrj Lat. brosses. and Sc. kail brose. t— Cot. sprout. brosst. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. bree. to bubble up with noise. dumetum. G. brothas. It. as small-pox.brons. brawdj Slavon. bryn. to murmur. broud. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. verge. . Du. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. plants composed of twigs. bruth. . broth. brpuster. of plants broust. brun. grow into a bush. . bryn. and Slavonic families. juice of meat. brucan. Tam de terrS. or bushes and scrubby growths. grow brossa. Bret. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. sproc. broccola. brodo. riviera. . break out brewet. brusmalt. sprocco. Gael. properly boiling water briihen. &c. Cot. brozia.

To brush then would be to dust. orts. a brush. also a head-brush. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. to strike the foot against an obstacle. G. bruiser. Broach. —Chaucer. rubbish. twig. Brush. borst. bushy ground. a brush . The same relation holds good between G. brust. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Brunt of a daunger. modification of the same root which gives the E. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. brik. — a bush. Port. brosse. In E. break. Fr. a brush. blow burcar. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. ca7-bo>i. brysan. as It. brugir. burs. Fr. Prov. OFr. Pm. borste. a blow. ON. . bush. a brush . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. and actually come in collision. Piedm. Diez. to make a rumbling. Sw. wood composed OE. brusco. and sighid therewithal. bruito. brosse. . a bristle. a horse-brush. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. wool-card. rubbish. brist j Port. brMt. brustia. twig. bris. detergere . brusg. NE. Prov. insilio. quasi twigs. Bruise. bruskr. wool-card. broza. flax-comb brossettes. an enmy. brico or brizo. Sw. bruc. p.). brusca. a bush of hair. it schall be al Sw. bruire. bruise exOFr. Sp. abroncar. a noise. K. a flax comb. chips. borste. brustia. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. tuft of grass or hay. . brist. Text Soc.). appearin Goth. a brush . to break to bits . Wicliff. bruscolo. bruscolo. to break. Fr. wool-card. broust. to brush. a bristle. The Lat. fasx . brosst. bud. brushwood. Allit. brustid. Prov. rods. broza. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. a brush. Cot. That in all haste he wouli. field. See next article. a tuft of heath . Pm. Pr. into a multitude of points.— Palsgr. briiis (in the pi. brista) or breaking out . are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. dust. shock. brous. borste. and in the second place a besoiB. . Gael. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. AS. bris. Bav. Bruit. tremely. . brossar. brus. irruo. splinters. and Piedm. and also Brush. a briser. bruyere.). Lang. remnants of hay or fodder. fescue . Hall in R. On the other hand. A. Castr. fragments. a shrub composed of small twigs . Lang. a brush . borste. The Bav. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. And that best is. It. quisquilise. mg Cat. crush. dust. heath. briketo. Poems. . — OE. britar. It. brikan. 201. brit. It. Fl. to butt. brisar. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. — those signifying a sprig. to make brusshes on.— — i. Fr. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . Piedm. a brush Swiss bruske. dust. E. and . to stumble. biirste. Pr. E. a crum. shoot brouskoad. Pr. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brisd. brunt. Beryn. . shivers. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. or shoot. brous. brusc (Diet. escousse. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Gael. coal See Breeze. Pr. ling or heath for brushes. dust. a little brizal. B?-usske. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. crum bit . a mote. OE. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. — Fr. Bret. Gael. desbrisar. insultus. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. brosst. to break or burst.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. rubbish. brizeto. a bud. britar. or sodenly comyn' dust. effort. borste. bruscia. —Fabyan. brusco. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. brossa. burt. sordes. and It. bris. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. * Brunt. to crush. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bross. broustia. bris. brusca. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. bruit. Alexander. Prov. G. a bud or sprout Bret. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. brist. to cleanse. to break. Fr. brossa. a — — (Agea) said. but on whom it schall to brisen him.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. brist. biirste. broken. Brunt. E. of twigs. Cot. brottcher. brise. bricalio. Palsgr. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bross. a rumbling. bruis (sing. 174. Gael. brousso. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. 134. seems named from burst(on. briser. bruzir.

byka. Pol. Diet. and the bunch. tender. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . thunder gently . bubauti. mieknad. soft. soft. was called in Fr. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. and as a verb.buchen. molle. buerj It. wood. or projecTo Buck. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. bube.D. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. to butt. moczyd. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. it is beuchen. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. and Fr. bucata. to soften. I. caned' Hence those who established them. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr.biiken j Svi. Magy. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. plied in the W. from weich. Sp. Bohem. to soften . the first wheal. soft It. Esthon. bubbola. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. hump. buck-ashes. The cipally on the Spaniards. and exercised their cruelties prin. bwch. very generally designated by the same puk. The place of such a 2. . boil animals. erweichen. It. 17th century. bucquer. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. to butt. as a buck rabbit. Gael.' Palsgr. w. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. BUBBLE bruschetta. a ashes. blister. lye. to butt or jurr Dan. bog-aske. boh. pup. . Formerly. It. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. . to murmur. buborek. because bucare does not in Marsh). to wet Pol. The male goat. bukke. In G. to soak.tare. designation of a knob. Bret. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. 1586. boc. to soak. soft. The word was very generally Buccanier. hump. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. a bubble . Fr. — — ' A : ' ' . bublati. to bump as a bittern. was called bucking the linen. The name. From an imita. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. a. is 1. tap . when soap was tion is commonly taken. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. The term bocan is still ap. bubBuck. a. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). bub. to strain. blast or strike with the forehead. a steep for flax. mote. — .lessiver. a push. w. a fescue. . — . tender. Fr. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. bubseti. Fr.wet Lat. from colar. a hole. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. and then to other wild tumour Lith. the linen at buck. the upper for coifee. News. pokka7na. ac. bifbel. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. See Dupe. to buck. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Dan. lye. 1857. de la Floride. bucaIndies. as G. byge. a knock word. a bubble. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. set of pirates in the spread.steep or soak. also applied Una. colada. bduclien. buck-ashes. . boc. rap. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. drying of produce. to Gael. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. a to the male deer. . top. does not hold. bugada. at a door. Illust. Fin. tuft. open lath-work.— . little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. not so plentiful a commodity. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. This bubette. different form. who resorted to the islands beichen. Pol. bouc. mollire. A . The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors.derivation has been much discussed. Bubble. Sp. hog dressed whole). maban and baban. .to allow a free current of air. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bucking. to soften. bub. in which the flesh dish. of wind. or mok. soft . Sc. Magy. to a place used for the mouillir. to bubble. It. pukkata. buquer.-wtt miekki. to stick. Etym. buquer. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. watery bud. March 28. to filter. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. mokry. to soak foul linen before washing. But see Bristle. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. knock. Bret. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. bokni. buchen. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. says Laudon. to which in their language they call bou. bouk. a bubble. . The natives of Florida. faire la lessive. bugd. the lower soak in lye. moist. Cot. Bohem.boukaat. Pref A. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bubiti. boucaner.

Sp. set of a plant in bulk. ' . . . Fr. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. fur. W.goa. clump. boucle. Du. butzen (Du. rabodS. Bav.' Boccaccio. of a surface. The word is a ddyn. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. buckel.. bunch . movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bouprobably identical with inok. boulj. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. . a little coffer or turgidus. Gael. ble. boucaran. a curl. botzen.' Schm. boglyn. Cot. ornamental stud. a boy. OHG. Behoves. hump. Bav. mani. a dumpy gin. lump. bloquier. don't a baby). Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. great pouch. a bubble three thyngis. Dan.. w. Port. Dan. stud. bogla. potz. to line with fur. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. Du. clasp of a book. bolgetta. Mid. bulais daqui. So on. the word w ' — . In Lat. push forwards. boucle. brobrocchiere. were To Budge. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. Fr. Sw. is to shrivel up. swelling. bud butzen. to budge. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. bdden. stroke. Budget. pwtio. scion. K. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. a trough). — — . bougette. to word. See Bulk. to poke. The knob or projection formN. Lat. thrust. . Buckler. bouger. to move. bougette.) as to soak. seen in Hesse botz. Prov. don't stir from hence. bulka. protuberance. To thrusting part of a long body. Buck-bean.stumpy man. NE. a leathern sack. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. motus creber. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. . boaLat. Fr.poot. . Pol. like a bean. a small shallow and open tub. from bugr. swelling. knob . wallet. from Gr. bod. Budge. excrescence. a short thick man.n. trunk of wood covered with leather.may probably be explained by N. turgere buczendig. case of leather . Bus. weichen. bulga. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. bolgia. bo. bul. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. built. Wtb.) . to un bout d'homme. A buckle or fastening for botch. as in Fr. a buclder or shield budge. bog and G. pwt o Fr. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. A water-plant with leaves and gille. above mentioned. bucket Fl.chissima. from bo. a servant. bug. agreeing with Gael. bucolicus. Bret. boach. having a boss. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. gjeit-klauv. jSouKoXiKog. bucherame. a budget. macero. pulga. probably from the notion of bubbling. goat's hoof. to bud or bocla. bouter. Bret. butzen K. a bump. bod. a wallet. need. Hardly identical with Fr. botzen. become bochen. II I'a feru desor I'escu. to graft or bud trees. dim. a stump buckle up. of bouge. The entire train of thought is bucket. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. butzen. a buckle or protuberance. butz. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. rump of fowls . bollire. . bouge. knob dwfr yn boglynu. to thrust. butzen. to 'soak. bouljein. noise . bode. . prick in a target. or male of to boil . to boil. Prov. . It termination is lost. Fr. It. a cowherd. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. to pen cattle. skins pushit'. blow. dinted. bub. butze.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. a boss.— . the root of the Slavonic words gran. also a leather tuft . G. boucler. buachazlle. Bucolic. ' . and weichen. loud Cot. inboachen. boss of a shield. no business to do that. belonging to the calling of the chen.Lat. words is converted into b. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature./a. Hence quel.stuff. OFr. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. to stir. dint . to butt. a fold ceilio. * Buckle. and of the Lat. explaining Fr. a . bulla.' And this sacrament bus have dial. It. Prov. a shield. butt . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bedde.. . Fr. — . weich. It. * Bucket. bullion. ON.anything short of its kind. The Fr. bouton. no wheel bogeilio. sboge. ein. pulga. put.' Hal. — — . bloca. bouk is a pail and with the dim. and the reference to It. a navel. a boss. with let. of bac. cattle. call. — . The dressed fur of lambs. water message. to swell. to boss or swell out G. child. bloca. boqueranmis. stir. imbuere. budge. bunch. bucherare. * Bud. boucle. Fr.t-le!L{ * Bud. is doubtless fallacious. Russ. convexity. boiling. a budget. call bo. ' . a bud. bouclier. knock. a pustule bout. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Fr. whom it is still much in use. in the beginning of to pierce holes. w. bocla. bugnir. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. boss. a ring. This expression boglire. Pied. a shoot. where the G.pode. bulb.r//'. male or botzen. bukke-blad. crack. a pail or flowers. It. call. Mid. weich. a tuft. soft. bump.). with a central boss. with which it was ornamented. pote. boccula. Swab.

while in Sp. bufogni. bugbear. buffet. bw. often covering his E. bufogni. by metaphor. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. Fr. the buffe. The children were playing in an oppocomer. or wild ox. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. a hobgoblin. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Buffalo. rebuff. soufflet. bugs. a goblin)./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Buff. yar^aa. to rePl. dial. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. as wine that hath taken wind. bau ! children. a block-headed noddy. bufHe. — Z. site The two — — iii. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. &c. a hollow sound. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. buffeteur. of colours. Buffeter. Lith. bolgetta. — Bogle. bukow Ikow. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. Cot. buffare. bolgia. Hence the E. bauwi. buffet. from souffler. Lat. Lith. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. —Boggart. boman. boo. popo. It. scarecrow . the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. tabernarius. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . smells . a jester. Esthon. to signify an indefinite object of terror. Cot. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. buffen. puff. air. bubus. Buffoon. made by a person. to a representation of his voice.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. — retailing buffeter buffetier. mumming. mingled with water. to beat.' perfield. human. — La Crusca. wauwau. a buffle or a bugle. Mid. either alone or with various terminations. bubaRuss. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . to strike face to represent the unknown.— Buflae. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. bugle. Fr. Limousin bobal. 265. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. buivol. — thence it has been transferred in E. confused. Sc. blurt or puff with one's mouth. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. From bulga. Thus buffet would a tapster. w. often blown upon. dausinti. to give benti. to bellow . E. W. leathern bucket. bo ! an interj. Lillo covering his head with his skirt.—Buffet. as emblematically making light of an object. from It. a dull BUG From 109 — A . him but Boyd iugges. word other cases. buffa. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. a In . and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bouffer. to excite terror in Macleod. buffer. bouffer. From buff! of terror. to marre often tasting it . made to —Bugbear. bobaow.' La Crusca. a puff. Sc. God's boast seemed feare children. .D. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. It. buffetto. stupid. baubau. sounds. buffare. caupo. buff leather.D. Buff. cuff . the place whence the wine was drawn. A puff with — Fl. also a G. things in Jam. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. a cuff or buffet. senses. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. buffalo. a budget. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. and in Fr. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Teet-bo. The use of the exclamation children. or hath been Cot. for this purpose is very widely spread. A blow. It. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. duff^ dull. Romola. Magy. A — Bug. buffets. as from Lith. dull sound. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. to blow. buMagy. — — — Buffet. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. a bugbear. thus be translated to tap. to jest or sport.D. to give a as of a blow. bumann. colour. wine may The verb in taverns. Gael. botffon. btifetarius. breath. dausa. ' They rether puffed at him. a skin. buffet. Swiss baui.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Lat. bw! It. een duffen toon. a clap. Pl. bubach. to blow . It. Fr. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. a side-board. to puff. Fr. pulse . il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Pl. tastes. The cry made to excite terror is then used. buffle-headed. to frighten . signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. le reste emplissant d'eau. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bwg. Bufetarium. G. Fr. Fl. to puff. to blow souffleU. bubiti. as Diez remarks. deadened. buffle.

Russ. Fl. a bugbear for children. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. oxen. to creeping things. It. roo. 2. the buggaboo w. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. bugbear. tumble-bug. of bugabo was given. is the dim. boeuf sauvage. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. to take fright. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. . high-sounding words. a misshapen person. worm. according to Coles. insect. to bellow. scarecrow . booggen. 1551.3uhtii&:. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. bukati. dial. and in child's Magy. as Buffalo. * 2. — — terror. Big. buba. given in Chaucer.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bogk. troll. b'dgni. Same as buffle. W. a. bau (Pureiglia. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. bwgwl. buffle. a goblin. a bug-bear. Sw. Bugle. especially to beetles or winged insects. mask ' .— . terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. a buffalo. I. proud. . — — . the black a maggot. to frighten scarecrow.loud noise. Grisons bau. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. with more or less modification represents bau. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. E. a silk-worm. Manx boa. is very common. BUGLE Tentennino. the Devil.Lat. quos what produces dread or disgust. Serv. and a boggarty ing. also a baco-baco. a proud overbearing man pujat'. and bugle. an object of terror. pugalo. bug. poggl. Fl. provincially an insect. threatening. also a bug-bear. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. ghost. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . well as the terrific object. iv.. Bogge. i. threatening. bug dung-beetle. Mundart. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. superbire. rose-bug. pujalo.Fr. insect. bug-bear. protuberant. language any kind of insect. banian boube. . paws the ground . Swiss ing. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Hal. The w. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Lett. Lesachthal. and is Deutsch. Parolone. boo. Hence bugle-horn. A similar applica. to take bug. baco. tion of the beetle tribe. bauginti. as an object of dread. roarHal. Magy. il brutto Demonio. : no BUG . Lith. The final guttural of W. any disgusting animal. boa-peep. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. bold. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. a bug-bear. bukashka. (Spurrell). is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. affright. terrifying ward. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Swiss booggen. great or bug words. an insect. big. fierce.. a boogg. swollen. Swelling. thus connected with bug. bugle. 493. bogk. xiv. buggabod). bok. An ornament of female dress condread. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. Deut. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. to origin in the expression bugs words. bugar. — — ' . Lap. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. — . monster. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Illyr. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. then a horn for drinking. earwig bau da grascha. fear. Mid. Cheval de trombugti. Bible. biignt. vermin. bug-bear. w. used in the same sense. Bdronie. bucula. 3. bwg and E. Grose. and in Lat. the word is lin) bbgge. hert. larva (a bug-bear. — boogg. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. to bellow. The name of bug is — . saucy. shepe and gootes. long. a beetle. bug-bear. bogil bo (e. Stalder bog. beugler. a rabme. See The name terror). coco. fette. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. pugaf. of pipes sewn on. bogle. high. buculus. . bwgar. Chaucer. gad. blustering. Bug as a lord. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Sp. bbgni. Magy. bugler. Bug. bobal. to take fright. bogil. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. It. disgust. also a bug-bear. Schmidt. to roar Aasen. forSc.

acervus. Jno. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bulked or bumped out. bale. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. . villa. bolnyn. — — . From till. blow. tumidus. bauen. principal portion. bolso. inhabit. MHG. body of an animal. as it was merly written in English to bylle. crowd. Lith. ^ — . boss of shield. bugue. the belly. to swell. . . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. . chest. belly. Hal. bulcke. a leathern sack or portmanteau. habitaculum. . hold or bilge of a ship. — — . — . swollen. bolgna. balg. and put it home. . snorting on a bulk. the potato G. bilge. Muratori. Melancholy. bulk is a partition of boards. a protuberance. . to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. Kil. puff. cultivate. boa. pimple. ' . as water beginning to boil bolg. balcone. swell. ON. belly Sw. G. the body Du. bol. stuffed bag. the capacity or burden of a ship. OSw. trunk. bouge. or. Pm. See how this tode bolneth. Lat. Dan. skin bag.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. on. bolle. blister. bag. and bulbukd. See bollekeii next article. buhe. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. sedes. bubble. compare Da. body of a ship . in Sc. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bol. bol. to blow. to bubble up. bed of a river. van loock. husk. or feminine termination gives Bav. a bubble. a globe. bellows builgean. to throw out a convexity. Pr. bunch or projection. Bourser. belly. the contents of the hold. blister Manx bolg. bulkaf. or bear out as a full purse. wallet. belly Cat. He found a country fellow dead drunk. bulk. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). ' . From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. to belly out. bulk or capacity of anything. pulkas. boss of a buckler. belgja.' Palsgr. The addition of a dim. Boss^. . bouk. Bolke or hepe. anything prominent. gebolgen. mass. unevenness Sw.' Anat. thorax buick. bulka. bwlg. It. knobby. bulne. buc. swell. belly. pod ON. bulle. buk. tumeo. Gr. at riufa bulkann. bladder.— . herd^ swarm pulkd. to swell. . . to puff up bolginn. PoXj3a. skin of an animal. Bav.'— Cot. boss. Lith. head . bulg. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. globule bolg-lhuingey. bug. Gr. . a. bulki. The Walach.). of an inflated skin. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. were a habitation. Sp. of E. swollen OE. m um Placentiae. or of what is shaped like a bubble. the carcase. OSw. belgr. Pr. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. to bol. a lump or mass. bukr. whence bylja. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. domicilium. bubbling up. balgs. boulge. knob. A — ' — Bulk. w. bullka. formed a farm.d. a dint in a metal . — . and N. beuck. bulgen. to break bulk. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. bo. Mandeville. vulva. ball. 1388. in vessel. . bulgen. Othello. balg. . . The radical sense is shown in Russ. bubble {palgan tiisge.pulks. a bubble Gael. womb. bulbe. Lett. a bulb Du. ON. pouch builgeadh. lump. blister. Pm. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. the position of liquids in the word In English. or cargo of a ship. byli. G. be protuberant. cumulus. to raise a habitation. to bubble up Pol. a bunch. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. the womb. has bulbuk. To Build. knob. G. to gather. Palco. bulge or bilge. a round bulky body bwlgan. in bulk. leather sack. a heap. jnake bulch. Lat. lump. belly van de kerche. bulbus. trunk. mass. . projection. bulwis. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. hollow. . — Bulb. Here stand behind this bulk. dial. bolg. Mister. bolle. ' . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. I.' Festus. Bulk. boss. See Bulk. bulge or convex part of a cask. Bulge. body. a prominence. Dan. to build. biilken. balco. bubble. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bolgan.' Cot. straight will he 2. . Ptg. a tuberous or bulbous root . pocket. Bulch. a straw corn-vessel. the head of an onion. hull of a ship. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bubble. skin flayed whole. a water-bubble). bua. trunk of the body. belly. a leather sack or budget Fr. to undo the cargo. bulbe. bole. to spring. knot in thread. a. With these must probably be classed ON. ne. a stage or scaffold. In the representation of natural sounds. nave or body of the church van 't schip. turgeo bolnyd.' Fl. swell. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. (3oX|8oc. Hence e. as well as is very variable. belly. bolgetta. — — . For the latter sense ' — My . bauch. it again. bolgia.

where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. urchens. from baula. to bellow. whence bullire. of boule. Scot's Deso. embossed work. And The word bullerbak. a bull. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. bullocks. lumpish. Gold or silver uncoined. W. Lith. penbwl. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. bolli. bollos de relieve.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. The final element tergeist. to boil. The wild plum. w. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. any embossed work. stud. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. Gael. a tadpole. 2. on the contrary. blunt. boillon.. a wasp. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. elves. spirits. Sp. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bulderen. stamped money. lumpheaded . to tical with Sw. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. thick. however. stupid . bullebak. of Witchcr. it is boulet de canon. boulct. bellow. bolos Fr. — A tition in a ship. large of its kind. Fr. assito. It. a bull Swiss bullen.D. signifying roaring. w. stud. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. a blockhead. Du. leraures nocturni nigri. stamp. bulke. from Lat. in the sense of base metal. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. BuUiou. and vellon in Sp. a scare-bug. as a mill-dam or the like.D. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. a framework of balks. boss or stud. which may probably be the origin of the name. to emboss . poll-cheannach.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. Cot. b2iggaboo. bulk of a thing. Du. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . 2. boss. bwlas. The male W. See Billet. hhint. Bullfrog. a stud. poltern. in N. a seal. Dan. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. a hobgoblin. a hornet. is of a class with Pl. bauli. also a parFl. It. biitzibau. bulla. billoti in Fr. Terriculamentum. bugbear. Eullrusli. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. Fr. from the use of the equivalent terms. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bullus. — — Bull. from the Lat. bulk. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/.D. G. Pm. eth and frighteth. scarecrow. bellocier. Bullbeggar. bole or trunk of a tree. a beam or rafter. blister. also of the tadpole or young frog. from Fr. dim. baula. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. a tadpole . — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. it may be observed that a bullet in E. sloes. as geting. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. Bullace. but is more probably iden- palchetto. beams or boards. bullern. Du. Bret. to bubble. pimple.. witches. bollon.lle de fusil.. bulloi. is called a ball. pwl. whence Mod. and thence terror. . polten. the matrix or die . Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. billon. a noisy violent fellow. from the noise. a bul-begger. G. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. bwbach. i. bulle. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. bouillon. as It. Pl. This word is used in several senses. I. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. many to protuberant objects. tition of deals instead of a wall. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. 3. of the ox kind. coarse. bulla. A papal rescript.' do not go by the dangerous water. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. round glass phial. poli-cheannan. ba.'— ' Palsgr.Fris. — Fl. BulUiead. any great-headed or studded nail. a cow. bietebau. pollach. the seal affixed to the document. Bully.Gr. to seal. bubble. G. balgeting. bolla. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. bollar. a little fish nearly all head. dial.. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. bullos. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. A lace tree. Bullet. a bowl. bwla. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. a bulox polos. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. &c. Du. as the ornanails. a seal. bouillon. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. The bullfrog. as in E. N. bolli. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bal. brass-headed nail . See Bowl. a hobgoblin. ON. large. G. /SouWivu.

defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Bailey. BULLY with which coins were stamped.' Stat.' ' mettre au billon. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. From the notion of a humming. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. — Bumto . In England the fortunes of the word have been different. primarily the ramparts of a town. — — plate d'argent. provides. to .' Again. legaggio di metallo. bastion. Fr. Etym. scaffold. IV. 2. boene. ^i^/«. bustle. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. To Bum. — Boom. but now is the central part of the town.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made.' reals of standard currency. ierd-boeyme. a noisy blustering fellow. G. buller-bak. on the other hand. blunder-buss. 1687). 1305. Thus ' ble. To bum. resonare. poltem. 9 E. Bum. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. Sw. violent overbearing person. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. by corruption boulevart. to make a noise . 14.. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. To bum. a hectoring.D. propugnaculum. bulderen. a blunderhead. Kiittner. Du. ^Bully-rook. hum. Kil. perturbare saevis dictis. c. Hal. ground. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. A. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. sound. blunder-buss. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. buller-jaan (bully. to make a droning Du. bombilare. buller-brook. violent. ON. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. argentum and silver. or work of defence. D. Bum-bailiff. furious man. the soil. 2. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . noise. Du. The cry of the bittern. to dun. The Stat. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. or a humblebee. Miege in Hal. boulevard. AS. It. to terrify by noise and clamour. botm. 4 Hen. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. 10. is bullion — A — buller. The 27 Ed. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook.. buene.the ramparts. Kil. bottom. III. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. bodem. minari verbulderen. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. droning.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. a floor.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . agrees with e. G. then in general a rampart. baluarte. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. polterer. beat a — Hal. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. biihne. Du. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. and porter au billon. is called bumping or bells. — Bump. debacchari.' agger. G. &c. bolderen. St. — bombam?nen. vallum. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Fris. ierd-beame. un faux brave. blaterare. up was termed monnaie de billon. 'lega. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. The Sw. bomtnen. Hence — . a bumble-. a stage. bommele. c.' for the purpose of exchange. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. bottn.D.d. Philip le Bel in Due. Fris. to drum Lat. Bully. bol-werck. a. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. clamour. 2. buller-bas. Hence bom and ban. buller-bas. provides. The decried coin. John). boisterous fellow. To bully is to bluster.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. from boden. honunele.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Bully-rock. block-werck. For bottom. a boisterous. c. intonare. IIL st.

See Boss. blain. a bump. Fr. It. awkward. hdk passing and E. . poumpido. Dan. to . are dim. butt end. a bag or sack. bunt. bum-boot. Then. . Bang sen. bugnet. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a bunch Magy. should probably be a short tail. bu<rnone. Hence E. a knock. to bang ON. Probably from bump. Kyx or bunne. inconsiderately. Thus e. Hal. Sc. a hump. . knob or heap. to . one ever saw the word in that shape. strike E. boi7ieog. to thump. See Bunch. banke. E.. bunny.^Cot. bune or boon. bugnone. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee.' he fell with a bang. w. bonnock. foundation w. as in other cases. a into Dan. .pummel. Lang. a tail (Macleod). a boil (punkos bot. protuberance. a heap OSw. Bunewand. — — de dor bunsen. Forby. — — Bun. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Pl. botn. callus. a knob. calamus. Pm. E. Bunk. a knob . loaves or lumps made of fine meal. bunch— Hal. seems to unite Gael. pumpurras. E. 1. bunnion.. a large . bunke. bunsen. pwmp. signifying one who does things in a thumping. a dry No . whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bumtel. . Bunfeaman (stump-tail). pwmpio. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Gael. any round knob or bunch. Holland and Flanders. to bang down. ! — knocking.D. bolsa. — — — — ' — knock. Pm. —Bunny. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. A clumsy. bmidt. a pumpion or gourd. bumsen. bottom bun feoir. the tail of a hare. Ir. stubble Manx bun. Bunch. passes Sw. or to the mass by which it is given. pompon. Bony. Moor.— Pr. bunki. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. root. a Sp. to beat. bun with ON. bund. a heap. so the form btmk. an old stump of a horse. . Sc. Hal. round mass of anything.! . bugno. S. tundo. lungeous. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. bulscha.). cluster. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. a. Pm. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. to ' .— Bunnion. a dried hemp-stalk. while bulch was traced through Gris. root. bottom. awkward clown. bonuach. Bumpkin. buns. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. a purse . Hal. a lump on the foot bunny. bannock. hay stubble . pompette. poumpi. bun. trunk. stubble of beans. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a person employed to dun one for a debt. lenten loaves. bunkc. — round fruit. Radically identical with Dan. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a knob. any round knob or bunch. To bam. Probably for bun-boot. clumsy. bamgetroffen. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. gibbus.D. He fult dat et bunsede. — Marine Diet. Mrs Baker. A Du. bungersome. Suffolk bonnka. stump. or grete knobbe. stem or base. Manx bonkan. large. bun eich. — stalk . Dunchyn or bunchyn. binge. a rabbit. ner. bull. See Bounce. . Du. Li cake. il me pousse. gibber. bulse. a bud. a hemp-stalk. as we have seen E. bung. clown. Fr. bongie. &c. Bung^. Bumsen. stump. bonge. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Again.D. to bang. also for taking a pilot to a ship. from bunsen. bunga. He buncheth me and beateth me.' Bun. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . a swelling from a blow. a rabbit. bunka. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bottom. Roding. Daal bu7iseti.P. stock. a round mass . a heap. H. Bunch. pwmpl. a pocket Sw. abrupt manbuns-wise.S. a bowl P1. a button. a. and signifies consequently a mass. Gael. and related with ON. . bump. applied to young persons. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. knuckles. bunan. a heap Wall. especially girls. Bun. bans. Dan. bon. nor would it concern the public if he did. a swelling. stalk. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. to knock .-^Fl. forms. stock. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Pl. a wallet. explaining E. to beat. a knotty stick) Sw. to strike so as to give a dull sound. OSw. — — Bun. lump. from knock) It. w. to swell out E. . noise. . dial. Bums it's hit. Pr. bugno. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. banga.' Palsgr. mto Sp. throw down with a bang. bunken. dial. . strapping. Related on the one side to Pl. a boss Lith. a heap or cluster.D. bunga. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. knochen. truss E. pumpa. Bump. . BUNCH bum-bailiff. a boil or blain. Bumboat. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. bignet. Hal. bmike. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. the Pr. . Fl. bundle. . bulto. a bunch.

fetters. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bunta. to gingle. stiimpeln. driving in the bung. or tuft. See Barbarous. Bung of a tonne or Lith. to kick. The word is flags are made. Cot.punt. to stop. also a piinple in the face. do a thing bunglingly. bonde. — — . Sw. the bung of a barrel Lim. to resound. unskilful working. Banff. sprig. bang. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. The belly or hollow of a sail. bundle. burion. bimge. dial. to strum on an instrument. a boye. burboloti. Prov. noise. tapp (whence tceppa. or putting forth of a vine. boei. bondel-loos. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. bourguignote. bangla. So Du. bundt. that the primitive meaning of shackle . coassatio et Du. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. bouchon. A Dan. and the Sw. shackles. Cat. bouche. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. whence bunting. and bomme. buret. on. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. stilmpern. the loose open grow big about or gross. Fl. fascis. to botch. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. Sp. OFr. bang. The stopper for the hole in a boia. would be the earliest float for an anchor. To burgeon. bondon. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. The Fr. Bundle. was formerly pronounced buro. a wisp of hay or straw. The Italian buio. bounta. Burden. klimpem. . Sw. bondelj bundell. A bubble. Russ. ' — work . and now more Bailey. bonde. bote. to bear. See Bourdon. russet. or used as a receptacle for papers. bourion. — . buie. tinker . Bung. something bound together (Mrs Baker). bou^e. to stnmi on an instrument. la Borgonota. banga. Compare G. knocking. to hum. bon. to knock. to float. borgonota. to stop. the middle part of it. G. Bunting. to push with the head del. loosed from bonds. to bolt meal. bourjon. . rumble as the bowels. Sp. Bret. byrthen. bolting-cloth. to hum. bond. ho-tapp. . dark grey bura. Johansen. To bunt. OFr. bove. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. to work ineffectually. a bunch Burbulas. Prov. boil or bubble up. bongani. tap. AS. OG. knocking. an anchor buoy. to bungle. to in to stop the hole. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. boj.Fris. bummle. Burden. in is Fr. B. AS. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. Fr. properly a Burgundian helmet. bungande. to cobble. Biu'geon. bourgeon. buove. bindini. Fr. buret. So in Pol. modem bummle. To Bunt. Du. to Somerset is to sift. a cork. Muratori. bommen. whence in bure. — btiruii. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. Hal. contignatio. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. the noise of drums. colligatio. borboUar. a drum . from beran. bundel. to knock. To do anything awk- wardly. — Bureau. a bunch. . and E. Fr. shove . . a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. Rietz. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Burble. B. to push ghebondte. klempern. Sp. boya. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. the young cloth used for sifting flour. Burganet. dicimus rufum. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. E. and Du. a bung. See Bun. is originally a wisp or bunch . * Buoy. however. are from bouscfie. to push. stocks or such OSw. A load. ghebundte. reddish brown. to gingle. Lat. bui. a water bubble made by rain. dial. 202. Bunny. Bunt. the float of an bundle. racket .' Festus in Diez. dark. with the head. Sp. Kil. bondeau. byndel. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. — — To Bungle. clogs. a sort of helmet. a botch. guggle as water. a bungler. Fr. bongun. banghagr. on. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. gyves. boucher. to pype. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. racket. biirde. to shove. bondir. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. to hum. bag to catch the wind. to work at carpentry bangan. the stopper of a cask). knock. bury. p. tinkle. punishments for prisoners. clumsy performance. bangla. to bud forth. working in wood (especially with an axe). especially in wood. generally known as the material of which bud. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. of a song. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. It.— .D. The Magy. and van t' vat. halm-tapp. Sw. See Borel. Burly. G. N. Pl. bunsen. Palsgr. anchor or of a net boyar.

Burlesque. borni. is termed burling. a jest. &c. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. boure. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to set on fire. The in. burgi latro. fires up. is connected with brim. brusler being a faulty spelling. Burglar. From Fr. Sp. brun. burlare. to puff up borr^ . A legal term from the Lat. In the same way ON. surge or dashing of the sea . bourglairs. tumentum. brase. barrel. from Lat. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. blow. de Vaud. to polish. brima. Goth. to have acquired the sense of polishing. warbling. boiirre. Fl. Burn. a prominent eye borracka. burgeois. — . OFr.. burren. to bud . ON. from the roaring sound of flame. Fr. taunt. sbornoi. sicut sound. as the / in purl. In the manu. The primary origin of the word. to tell lies.— Pr. a bubble to spring as water. thence. Pren7ien.. From the same root E. Probably a modifica. to sharpen on a whetstone. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Gael. G. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Bestiary. explaining the E. See Berough. bunch. brandung. toast. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. purrata. laer. like the wind in trees. bears. G. A — — . born. angular . abourioner. the flocks. a lie. brustle. Burgh. embraser. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. de Vaud. See Burr.ireui£r:e. bouril. Swiss Rom. Bav. bruzir. 56. a jest. to sharpen. joking. Burryn. BURNISH i5«r/. ^Notk. Nat. burgen. OFr. Antiq. Pr. brook. ample of polishing metal. to burgen or wax big. boura. Fr. . dial. to swell oneself out as birds borras. . with little iron nippers called burling irons. a bud. as Diefenbach bud. brausen.sharpen. to roar. crackle wood in burning Hal. an edge. — . grancelli. bremmen. to grind on a whetstone. brustolare. like straw or small .bryna. . knob. It. mockery. to ridicule. Burler. water. So also Sw. brunnr. to roar. borracka. to swell with pride. brunna. 122. to surge. to Gael. to puff. brunnen. he rustle. Prov. tahkoa. the roaring surge of the — — — . tion of the root which gave the OE. to polish helmets. to fiy. a bladder. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to make a So from Fin. which has given much trouble to etymologists. protuberance. is an Thus G. robber. bururus. and the Burnish. Lang. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. Supp. lorra. — — . compared with G. sidiary element. to rub. Schm. singe or scorch with fire. to give an edge to.or bubbling up. become big and proud. i5«r4 biiirte. It is probable indeed that Fr. broil. flocks. Cot. to bourda. spring-water bumach. to burn. Burgess. to ridicule. has also borr. Pm. swelling borr-shuil.). borujon. OE. ' rugiens. E. lerre. N. a wine skin. Fl. Dief. burgensis. Swiss Rom. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. — Han to bruser op. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. it of the knots. bourd. schleiffen. Burly. and OG.. . — — . strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. It. It. borrelen. Compare also Piedm.' a jibe. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. purra.. to roar. an &c. burle of cloth. pur (see Burgeon). the word seems Pm. to To Bum. sea. brinii. the er is a dresser of cloth. pressa puret. ends of thread. Lang. See Burgeon. j. big. in Schm. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. burly. bourou. a gurgling ^. a fountain. brasa. tahko. as in cousteau. Probably. The Gael. jest of. See under Bore. briis^. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. like. to hum. brAler. brinnen or Also ein roar. to roar 5. bud or sprout forth. brim or edge of anything. borr. explaining Sp. purling. Bav. bruse. Walach. Fr. brunir. ii6 BURGESS Gael. the J in OFr. a bubble. brynsten. to effervesce. — — . which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point.Ps. and Dan.j'own. roguing beggars. with Dan. must be explained on the same principle from G.' Cot. a knob. fire. a well. occupying much space. Sw. Burgher. swell up or strout out. OE. a purling hiwe brennen. as of suggests. leo Fin. buirleadh. to swell. ^ttsa. Bouffer.). burn. Limousin bourdo. to roar (as lions. repartee . from bryii. bururus. language of folly or ridicule. Sw. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. brimmen. a margin.). to polish. to burn. a blaze. to bouronna. Castrais bourril. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. ends of thread. to roar. watery. brinna.. condemnentur morti. Todd. a whetstone. to murmur. Hence Bridel. and the Burin.— . A burl. Bret. ridicule. a spring a robber.

to P'air. A rabbit burmotion. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. bris. G. brown. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. dial. ' ' — — burren. In a met. to bury . cover. beurs. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. iii. bristeach. hair. OHG. burre. Fr. mentioned under Burgeon. To Burst. bolsa to It. Sw. briketo. Gael. Bursar. Burr is related to buzz as protect. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . the — — castle or fortress. — Translated by Kemble. birr. and spelling. from AS. a purse. break . chips or anything else Fl. purr. shelter. brittle. be more in accordance with AS. and. i5(7&a. stuffing. Hal.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. Du. byrgels. caer is a — — — ' ' : . to break. Burse. bourrer. some people in pronouncing the letter r. birgan. G. brittle. tomb. ON.. ptcrren. pipaa. impetus. ON. bur. ultimately resting on the Gael. save. swell. &c. Shelter. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Sexy. preserve. also ' any such trash as chaff. Fr. shuffling. briser. -burse. bourlet. borre. I. S w. This word seems safety.Lat. a wallet or scrip. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. whirr. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. brist.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. brico. Burse. also all such stuff as hay. a morsel. AS. 5150. a sepulchre. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. birigean. beorgan. bourse. burra. a barn or cupboard. an annular swelling. g. as for the protection of a child's head. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. byrstan. borrow. from Fr. Fris. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. to stuff. root borr. E. Burrow. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. a port. shearing of cloth. brit. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. blurra. borsa. moss. byrsa. Dan. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. Beowulf. and thence flocks 'of wool. to save. husks. byrigels. that birds make their nests with. brist. brjota. bolgia. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. a rabbit burrow.' The same word with burgh. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Du. straw. an exchange. In OE. cwning-gaer. fortify. brizeto. borra. a purse. Port.' Harris in Todd. borsia. when they spring So in W. a place of defence. . as from Sp. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. any kind of quilting or stuffing. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Jam. OHG. a. skin. &c. burgisli. It. To Bury. Compare also OE. whence Kil. preserve. of England. briso. britar. brast. With a slightly different ghen. bristen. a pad. ' BURR AS. signifying protrude. Cot. whirr and burr. 225. explained E. karborre. a harness or collar maker) . Burser. The root forms brik. talk fast and indistinctly. perruque. . brokenharpstringed-like cattle. byrgan. to buzz. bur. to hide . force. borre. foretell great storms at 3. Burr. to hide. coo. Swiss burren. buscha. . birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. dial. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . keep. casting bullets. AS. Mid. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. brest. leather. barza. See Bulge. brisdeach. berstan. makes the disbursements of the college. -Grisons bulscha. bourse. Burial. and met. Hence Fr. bris. but it is more probably a development of It. bourrelet. borra. of a body hurled through the air. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. brista. bourre. borsa. 2. — Clare. bersten. the officer who bears the purse.' edge grew weak. See Burgeon. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. to burst. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. verbergen. as in Northumberland. It. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. prsnuti. Brun on bane. brokil and brotil. bergen. bres- — tan. peluca to Fr. idiom if 4. brisd. byrgen. Fr. its own protection.— . as it is still pronounced in N. brickie. to mutter Sw. shales. any rapid whirling biarga. ber•whirr to whizz. burial place. Sw. from whence we pass through Sp. appears under the Lang.

and not directly (as Du. ' . aheap of stones. thicket of thorns . to betake ' Haralldur kona box. knot. whente beorg. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. . Ptg. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. busse. from the ON. a grove bosch van haer. a tuft. . ch). basse. bundle. a tuft guini. bairgan. BUSH hreaw. to dress. and he cites wisp bauschen. mount. a tuft. box wood to bush. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. buskr. tuft. And her ful sone tuft. to direct one's course towards. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him.P. boistel. The radical idea is seen in Goth. bunch. gave Lat. It. R. or the like. Le roy Richard mort. Brunne. To Busk. G. Mid. 2. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. a -tavern bush. apparently a secondary verb. The word frequency with which to busk is used. biichse. Du. The bone in a woman's stays. a clot of phlegm sart. bousse.Lat. fiast. bramble. bussel. then a tuft Sp.gur bidst austur um EySascog. il fut couch6 l^jkema). in OE. bush. abdere. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. brodiquin. for at buasc. roquies. truasc. the idea of knocking.' a box. to keep. a tuft of hair. a bush. buxula. a troop. barst. burial mound. dead. projection. 410. a box. as synonymous with to inake one boun.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. in the For Skirnis . . See Bust. a bush. Sc. bousche. defence. whence bouchon. Du. and thence Mid. a box for measuring corn. van wijnbesien. Gr. a bunch. a bundle. So from Fr.) to hide in the ground. See Box. Thus Froister . Sw. as boun is simply buinn. bossida. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. at buast. bousIn the other copy ser. to forest of Eyda. busk. In to Brutaine. Fris. a gun biichse. bouche. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Thence byrigean. boiste. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. bua. ieorh. or — Busk.' The buskin is said Bret. bo7ich (Fr. oneself. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. and we actually find bushel. verb. brake. The primary sense of hair . brodequin tout noir. boisseau. bussellus. bulge.-^Bushel. bosta. is thus accounted for. Brunne. ' . are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. to prepare.fiasc. a rampart. whence at bua sik. to sepulchre. condere. cluster. Layamon. barsc in Heimskringla. wisp. buxida. bundle * Buskin. buysschen. Fr. preserve. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. bossen. boucher. 'at bua sik. AS. sur une litifere. protect . to turn.' sheath. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis.' The word is explained by — — . Sibriht that I of told. that the lend had lorn thorn. -idis. They busked and malced them boun. to dress. diminutives. OFr. Malberg. boissa. bush. Prov. qualster-boscken. bosc. induere vestes . to bend one's steps. Harold G. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. to enclose in a case or box. bustellus. beorgan. to swell. we have Fr. ' —P. : — . . Bush. buxta. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . hjul-bosse. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. ' . Bouchet. the Moors and of Morocco. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. signifying to entomb. to stop.boisteau. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. occultare K. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. Sir Tristram. . grapes. borghen. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. besom). a corpse). boxta.Lat. and from the Fr. bosch (a diminutive ?). ' . rad. —Busk. at bua sig. a wisp. bos. Du. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. bussare. busken. a little box Dan. the past participle of the same verb bua. a bunch of twigs. hunch Du. to bury. iriCtf -ifoe. the land. bustula. to bow. OFr. lump. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. bulk. bausen. berghen. Bush. a box. borcegui. clusprobably Morocco leather.— ' ii8 {chreo. It. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a hump. basse. . borseof trees. To prepare. a been written buasc. which would later have truast. AS. thicket {buski. make ready. tow.

2l box. a bust. Fr. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. biseg. Prov. A great sluggish fowl. bulk. buc. ottarda. Busitiess :c3iVi . busto. buquer. trunk of Cot. occupied bezigen. arbor ramis trunGloss. to Swab. a kiss. Fr. especially of a woman's dress.' Plin. outard. sunt quas Hispania aves . bussa. busy. buc. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. Namur — Champagne Fr. 2. putschen. morsequi. and also a sounding blow. bisegung. buc. a bush. fe^a. a ship of some size. box. its slowness of flight.pjik. Rouchi. a backstock. brusc. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. 1555.d. the point of a lance. bysgje. outarde. knock. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. baiser. body. thick end. bucha. busq. BUSS Dozy from Arab. a. tuft. . or avutarda. bysgian.' ON. — Thus we should have mocherqui. bu. log . To Bustle. — clattering about. Nained from Proximse iis zia. bustla. mosequin. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. buz. Lang. 7o\. I go strepo) .bezig. abutarda. I bustle. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Pol. crack . Fr. Hence probably au-tarda. sera. bukr. Cot. Box. a bunch of flowers . stir. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. stem.). a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Fr. chest. mouth. A wisp. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. — — difications of the same word. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . inde discurro et operosus sum. the breast. bus. ship Sp. love gestures. body of garment. would explain the G. mouth. I. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. Bulch. says. work. knock.Lat. 119 bi{tr. pussa. Gael. body of a woman's dress It. or Cherqui.D. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. business. kiss. Hal. So Wes- terwald munds. to knock . Comp. brostia as well as bostia. busc. but. Swiss butschen. bus and Pol. lips. mohedairova. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. mogangas from gonj. lip. snout. bacio. lump. The Prov. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. Bustard. busch. to make a splash in the water. from jnund. Busk. a kiss of reverence. Port. besoigAe. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a bulk or trunk without a head. an affair. bust. a great billet Cot. trunk of a tree. a Mid. stump. utarda. and then with avis again prefixed. On the other hand. a fishing vessel. to bustle. kupata. bus. occupation. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. body without arms and legs. Busy. worn to make the body straight . a busk. ON. Fl. small. btcc. bruskras well as buskr. bussen. statue of the upper part of Fr. — — — — It is like the smouldering. body of a man. as in ON. bisgung. ' bistardej It. employment bisgan. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. kiss. a blow. or chest in which the vitals are contained. cata — . abotarda. biist. windbutsch. signifying trunk of a the body. . the body without arms busque. Prov. Sw. bnist. to occupy. ^A. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a large cljest or particular applibox. bisg. Lindenbr. — . betarda. busch. beezig. ViM. busta. representing a blow. smack. basiuin. stump. 10. borcegui. Bust. lip. B. Sp. So in Fin. trunk. Buss. to make use of. With respect to bust. Fris. of the human body (Grandg. a kiss. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. buta. Walach. hipista. The form brust. besongne. forms morseqiiill. geidha. The proceedings of Parliament. a projection. a blow. plated body or other quilted thing. Du. I. To hurry or make a great B. austarda. a tree. ' BUSY 2. AS. of a doublet. tarda. ON. Bust. busche. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. a kiss.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. in Diaz Gris. and supposes that the common Arab. otarda. Cat. Lat. Edrtst. buyse. forest. mons. Xerqui. bust. Business. vessel employed in the herring fishery. 1372.— . also a It. Sp. — hardly be distinct from Fr. a mouth. trunk. bist. 22. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Sp. beso. avuDiez. an ostrich. Prov. body. A A busquer (Sigart). butz. putta. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). a sleeveless truss or doublet. brut.> Also written buskle. a stroke of wind. See Boss. and by transposition morchequi. as in moharra from harbe. made stiff. also a flagon. Bav. a boat or small vessel . also a busk. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. a log. the long. body . the trunk.

bitlga. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. butan. — . a wooden cask. butan ce. hollow case. Buttery. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. a butcher . or what in in charge of the pantry. Lang. those in beccaio. bag. beccaria. bitten dai. that which would be translated by Fr. the trunk or body of an animal. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. botte. which the word corresponds to the Fr. and bot. sup- meat and drink. gives at least two pounds sterling. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. a leathern bag. bochier. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. equivalent of AS. also a hollow vessel . belly. skin-bag. being wholly unten. but one thing. original sense of without. viz. bous. bocin. buta. Coutume d'Alost in Diet._ bitten j biiten door. . plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. Here the but implies the existence of an. But It. A A . a goat. boccino. As a conjunction but is in every portion. boucher. then hoUow trunk. a goat (and not besides . Butt. botija. able. botilla. — we acle for liquors. as Pantler. So in Italian from becco. Butler. bouz. young mais. boquier. add. body of a shirt w. a butchery. Tooke's dis. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. the bottles. a small winebag. Sp.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. The E.' or ' there is not but one body of a man.in which his brethren are included. from boc. without punishment . a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. boteria. to-boot. Sp. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. the precise correlative of but. Du. Sp. without buiten-man. viz. the belly. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . hull of a ship. is put in a class by himself.The Sp. beta. ' There is leathern bottle. G. earthen which the debtor has adverted. the full expres. Fr. and the real origin of the and within . bolgia. "PLT) . besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. barriga. except. bouteillier. we find ben. calf.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. without law. from as. moreover. beyond the Piedm. bhcciero. of the wine and drink. collection of casks. . bodifie. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. But In Sc. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. biitait slaughterer of goats .' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. the principal apartment. rotundity of the body. bute. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. in addition. bountifully. bole of a tree. outside that moreover. are. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. the mouth). a bottle. bisgung. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . ways. and with It. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. without. Butcher. Ben-house. the store of ten. Lang. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Prov. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. AS. If that where now we should compiler. Fr.' — — ' . the name must have arisen before the within. (children) boc. the body of a tree or of a man.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. beccaro. a barrel. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. It. But when will you pay it ? the belly. ont jhi^ton. bolr. bola. a budget.' there is really a negation to be supplied. tinction between but. the Perhaps besogne — . belly. ox. bol. large barrel. belly. bout. be out.jamin. an outlaw from bouche. the servant in charge of the original object. calf of the ' say. by the mode in which he is treated. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. binnan.streets. Wall.' ' write. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. mais. the body of an animal. the present day we should say. properly a butan wite. trunk. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. the jug and in E.' Thus Chaucer says. a baiTel . OFr. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. a cask. wooden receptthing to be done. Where at an earthen jar . similar train of thought is seen in ON. rumpf. without care. Fr. bounds of. ' Besides all that. is well explained by Tooke. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. besides that . when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . my is called the adversative use of but. without the house kept in bottles. a butcher. slaughter-house.

W. &c.— BUTT leg . bout. from notirrir. a dle . w. hillock . So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. Boutant. bot blijven staan. &c. povrvpov. caput scapula bout van f been. a ribbed glass for dient. from the large knobbed head of botto. the thigh of a goose. Buttress. stump. AS.. From Grisons biitt. butz. the thick end. boil. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. pwt. See Butler. bud. as if from Povg. to thrust Fr. Fris. Du. to strike. gigot. To Butt. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave .. bodi'. a bot. — A . to blad. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . strike. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. obedient. nourrisson. Buttery. an ox. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. butte. -ez. Gr. a boss. a stroke di animal. nourrissons. boter-vliege. a mound of turf in a field to sup. * Buxom. So in English pimples were fora clod. tress. short thick thing pimple. as rejeton. poke. boutoir. courtaud. Fr. bouter. waste ground. buttern. boter-vogel. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Fr. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. buhsom. — . Gris. give way. Schmell. a blow. nursling. to touch at the end. Perhaps corrupted Lat. bodi. in the R. put. To strike with the head bags. Buttel-triib. Mur-buttant. e. from rejeter. as in G. coxa. to thrust. able that Chaucer. a large belly. to abut on. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. butt. ment being supposed to resemble butter. the trunk. so as to make a sounding blow. fle>(ible. The Bavarian potig. a button. a blow. It.arbre. is formed the augmentative buttatich. butte. Fr. Button. from bugan. pwtiaw. Du. at. Bout van het schouderIt. Hal. to cast. to throw . having a rotundity . To come full butt against a butts. dripping. to abut a stone roof. to push earth . bottig. to heap up earth or ihrust. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. a mound. A — — — . leg of lamb. bot. what is kept in a blow. the rosebud. boter-schijte. . . a little push . Fr. butt of a person. a hill. thick. Buttock. a button. Cot. From Du. bocgsuin. a flying buttress. the Butter-fly.thum and not button. Kil. boteria. the edge forwards. a button. butter. Schmell. stump of a tree Fr. signify a cask or tub. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . botto. the store of while bottich. From the noise of drinkables in a house. rabodd. R. bocsam. both. buttock of beef is called butr. Butter-glass. botten. to thrust. humble. Kil. fowl. bouter. Bav.to push. trapu. bothog. to so close to the Fr.' thick from shaking. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. butteln. Fr. lams-bout. a buttrice. a but in the W. end . thrust forwards. Gael. bottich. Boutje. bata. grease that sets by merely standing. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a wall butor butt on.rejected thing. of E. any short thick thing. potacha. Butter. to boult flour. — — — — . i. buttare. and the true derivation boar. bott. boiUer. buter. to be con. but. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Grandg. Btetter-schmalz. a cask. bouton. boutis. : . botta. a leg of mutton. Hal. boding. Fr. a stump or club foot. botwm. to butt. botte. Halma. a corner horses' hoofs. are the strips at the edges of the field. a barrel. a thrust the thigh-bone. clumsy . striking end. an etwas anstossen. from stossen. suddenly . W. Du. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Du. to bow. — A . Kil. butyrum. pied. geboogsaem. . a. butter. a scope. on. a bun. Sp. butter un. The word body itself seems identical with G. the prick in the middle of a target. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. large head. bout. to femur. a boss. a.putan. bot. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Lang. or person Schmeller . buttals. Buttrice. a tub. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning.against another which needs support . Du. or or shore post. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. any small projection. bouton. by boE. a buttress Cot. Bav. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. An erection built up as a Fr. clunis. from bouter. a bolt. tout seat or breech. to thrust . a heap of merly called pushes. Fr. butt. butt. submit shaking up salad sauce. G. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. thrust. but this is probably from Fr. — . oir spike with a k coup . of the present day. to thrust. obeto shake backwards and forwards. botta.

Verstegan in R. good-humoured one. Then applied to speaking low. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. gracious. a borough.in N. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. a town. bygge. favourable. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). buso. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. to wit. By-law. bozzago. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. son. It. bi. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. farm. bugjan. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. A by. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. See Abie. who makes abigg. AS. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. buteoj Fr. Sw. bylove. village. byr. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. harty prayers and God speedes. P. A ful benygne buirde. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. from by. Pecock Repressor. ON. 3. The ON. Originally the law of a particular town. big. leges urbanse ON. bohte. blessing me with their of side. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. Dan. tions by one. Byre. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . . from whom it was addressed. lete. as in Da. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation.— P. also say. to sell. bees. Mercy hight that mayde. bylag. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. 519. bauhta. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Goth. indistinctly. to jan. —gracious of speech. jus municipii. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. favourably to a petition. to pass by. frabttg- To Buzz. To Buy. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view.. as Fr. bycgan. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. ii. The sense of buxom. Sw. Lat. a meke thynge with — alle. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. . stall. Du. town having separate jurisdiction. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. cow-house. iii. a beetle. A A We — — — days' wonder. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Cabal. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. G. a by-path is a side path . but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. confusedly. byar-log. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. AS. called Cabala or Tradition. as heedless as a cock-chafer. It.— Diet. bei. OE. and it is of good will. byar-rettr. CABAL Goth. p. . 21. buzac. buzarg. and boxome of speche xviii. buzzicare. abozzago. bar. train of thought which has become obso. a buzzard or puttock. bi. to stand at his side . Etynj. and would have been lost in E. groat in token of his good heart towards him. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. 200. to buzz..P.busardj Prov. lb. Many good mological explanation. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. & Q. bij. \s\xy. — 122 BUY P. Buzzard. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. depends upon a esteem in falconry. 116. to whisper. to purchase for money. to swear with him by . but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation.

band. covering. giiare. a rope or cable. Fr. cable . chaable. signifies down. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Antiq. hovel. cabuyskoole.. caable (in legal language). seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. calabre. —Diet. cabo. — the ON. precisely in the sense of the lari E. Gaggle. havyar to caviare. Etym. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. maim. case. It. — Ibid. . deponat a store closet. su/Furari. cables.. Capstan. stercus. or rush basket. OFr. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. as an expression of Gr. Castr. Cot. cabarino. is probably unconnected. a shed. To Cabbage. Sw. cacare. has kabbel. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. capuccio. Choux cabus. Due. forms indi. hut. ckaable. filth. &c. Cablisb. Du. wilful). traboccare. Cappa in OSp. as it must have stood in French. geese. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. It. gabardme. Fr. to put or pack up in a frail. to keep or Du. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. ceach / exclamation of guages. whence Fr. a cabbage . in which sense are explained The the OFr.).Lat. cabre. akista. an engine for casting stones. and Finnish lanLat. kakla. gatsch. as Diez supposes). headed. Celtic. OFr. to hurl in Nat. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . for the origin of which see Carabine. a rope. disgust. caqueter. Item habeat vocant. — Tarbe. kabat. cabus. a rope. . caable. . bad. Very generally used. to chatter. a car- We convasare. the bowels. agga. Brushwood — — B. The Sp. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . signifying properly a rope's end. . laitue cabusse. dirty. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. round or great headed. E. 'habl. to crush. properly windfalls. cabas. Lith. surripere. headed or cabbage lettuce. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. cabane. vincially used in E. Sp. OFr. Du. originally an Gael. w. The double a in the OFr. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. cab lis. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. come the Fr. cabo. OSp.ticula. : — from violence without blood. cadabola. from manganum. From It. Lat. cacare . disgusting such an engine was exerted. aak! tandi like Fr. gaggi. agge machen (in nurses' language). Cabinet. It. a head (whence cabochard. string. a frail. gaban. kabas. prostratio ad terram. cadabulum. Katr-iT-aKt. cabre. cadabulum. or cadable. dirty. vile. It is remarkable that the Esthon. caable. — . agge. caboche. form kactal. Fr. cabasser. would correspond to cable. cab. cabaii. to hurl down.. the Prov.' Due. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. it would seem fundain children's language. gaggele. chaable. — Kil. Finn. . overwhelm (Diet. a headed cole or cabbage . Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. capo. and the Arab. Didot. Sp. disgust cac. origin is the OFr. cabacho. chabla. to strain in such a manner . capanna. name of the projectile engine. and Or. manganare. cabulus. lactuca capitata. serious injury — In like manner It. manticuKil. E. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Cabbage. head. Kil. from trabocco. kakaloH. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . It. (ca/coe.Lat.Lat. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. a rope. dung. The name of the engine. Lang. Ptg. cdble. dirt and the Fr. kabane. hoard together. a booth or hut. cadabalum. cabuccio. a jacket Fr. cabbage. Du. — . as Turk. cadabula. Fr.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. chadabula. or as an interjection of disMod. main. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. To steal or pocket. nasty. a tunic. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. mdhaigner. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Due. caables. and as we find stones Mid. Mid. whence Lang. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Common to Lat. brassica — capitata. a covering. Coticesserint Swiss aa. Cabin. &c. accablcr.. kabaSsen. overwhelm. Mid. ! — . . the Slavonian. Fr.Gr. heady. a cloak of felt or Cack. Imitative of the cry of hens. aakkat'a. Mid. especially shepherd's frock. and Ptg. Cot. aeggi. Tugurium. Neckam — by the wind.

calcis. Lat. See Kiddier. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. In the same way Fin. ratas. —Atkinson. Lat. and troublesomely attached to. loss. or colpa na coise. It. a circle. the younger son of a family said to be from . Cot. calesa. It. It. on. calamitas. pen Mod. Cadence. dead body. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. a waggon . cha'cmie cadence. Du. a wretch. B. Lat. the lump and the increase. Fr. collop. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. caldaria. a corpse. limestone. kat. a wheel . kage. a tea-chest. Originally from a Slavonic source. calentar. A hooded carriage. capCalenture. cadet. lindrus. Turk. KaKKat. to compute. a wheel . kaad. a cylinder. lime whence calcareous. Caitiff. from the ink-bag which it contains. Pol. principal and interest. a mischievous dial. Lat. gavia. to throw themselves into the sea. pith. to cackle . Tea-caddy. Lat. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Du. kdfich. to — Fr. caliche. kolo. Cadet. naXaiidpi. Lat. chaudiere. — in a kiln. Cauldron. taking it Sp. Sw. wretched. Turk. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni.— Cot. of which. caldarius. the bore of a cannon. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). calessa. to heat. calentura. chaudron. from calculus. Fr. kalb. loss. kola. To Calender. . . It. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Lat. the pi. caioler.warmth . cake. koeck. Calamity. to treat like lime. cattivo (from Lat. Sp. joyous . Dan. a falling. of oxen and similar animals. ' . calf of leg. a small stone.— . coll. a wheel . cadence. gaggia. gabbia. kaka. Roman reckoning. from Gr. A cuttle-fish. Calash. kukje. cage. a low note. Calamary. an inkstand . G. Dan. its mother. a fever. Mrs B. Calocli. chetif. javioler. one unduly indulged by. Lat. calendrer. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. a loaf of bread. whence calash. * Calibre. a calash . roller. hot . hot. A . to sleek hence a den. kakulla. to gabble.Gr. when they are said to poor. kalfvan hout. Arab. Calc-. . Serv. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Gascon capdet. gabble. for green fields. calendarium. capitetum. cadaver. especially of something soft. from the Chinese catty.— Calliper. bad . kdtr. a cake or loaf. cavea. Gael. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. unruly . master. disease of sailors from tivus). Caldron. The Lat. Sw. A — fall. frolicsome kaad mund. Sp. cage. En kaka br'od. &c. Lat. Due. It. kaeckelenj Gr. lord. calidus. ben- kalf. Fr. (in the augm. Cage. wanton. Cot. To Cajole. frisky. gabbia. desire of land. from calendcE. just falling. cuttle-fish. little chief. calamus. a lump or large piece. kolasa. Cadaverous. kalfi. marrow. coop. kolo. Calcialate. 124 prattle . calibre. without loss. a counter used in casting accounts. Calf of the Leg. a calesh. Sp. jabber. kauwe. kolesnitza. gabberen is identical with E. a dence. Flo. Cake. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. ever and anon. calx. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Cot. of the nature of lime to calcine. a wheel. pet lamb. Russ. Perhaps from w. an ugly waggon kolaska. Du. a reed. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. whence Lat. From lerie. boy. N. KxiKivh^o^. . or smooth Hnen cloth. An open travelling chariot. Du. — — — Dan. is probably delusive. calibre. chattering. Fr. a caFr. Fr. cadenza. . kolyasochka. calidus. kail. signifies a waggon. reed-pen. cauldron. The Calf. Cajol. cabdillo. It. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Cadge*. captive. Lat. calba. a common cart. calculo. The young G. incolumis. colibro. * Cade. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. a roller. Fr. dial. to . a hollow place. cadere. kolyaska. hence musical rhythm. cageoler. Sw. Lat. or prattle. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. babbhng. Fr. a vessel for heating water. calpa. It is another form of the E. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Fr. the calf of the leg. safe. form) calderone. rattaat (wheels). Caddy. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. a car. pi. misfortune. kalem. cykevie. kolesb. prate. gaggle. Calendar. G. to cage. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. Calandre. kolo. kuchen. ON. the pith or soft part of wood. As Du. to prate much to little purpose.uv. Calp is riadh.

NE. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. a feathers. a. to proclaim. ululo Turk. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. calat of leude demeaning. Sp. Ca. to hear. to calk. According to Jal (Gl. qAlab. kal. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. the day. by many that the weapon Callous. colubrina. kahcwe. voice. koluvre. kallo. and sometimes a handgun. couleuvre.position is much less common than the geschut. calor. or languishing drought is .' Winter's Tale. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). kalla. Kil. callus. 'A callet of boundless tongue. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. overscalmaccio. Hard. klover. water-tight. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. hallottaa. faint. Fr. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. cahna. To century was Squalibre. Heb. Kil. abto suppose that E. It. tittle-tattle. Among these were the turn. Caliph. tapulta. done with heat Alt. calma. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. The word was also written cawme in OE. culverin. a good calling. to tread. moist. form. saucy. The reference to heat is preserved in. can be distinct from ODu. longior. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. donderbuchs Sp. kind heat of the sun. Fin. licht stuk The change from a.' Slange. Gr. Dief. Mil. brawny. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Indies. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. however. or mould. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. calleting. — — — — — . Call.(jaa= ice). trull. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. whence couleuv. which is as much as to say. sound. scalmato. calibre. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. word of mouth . glotton. of a column. Kavfia. them &c. calare. To drive tow or oakham.— .Lat.' But it is hard Du. gossiping. colubraria canna. hollaing. on. calcaich. and heat. overheated. — Fl. u to an I in such a colubrum. caliver. Mahn derives it from Lat. given. dragoon. whereas in troth it is not. which has its memory preserved in Du.meaning of the word. ram. Callow. Ptg. a soldier who the It. Calm. and dragon. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. prattle. — — — — — . calvus. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. The origin is Gr. Due. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . dial. So It. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. to prattle. Lat. Lat. skin hardened by labour. B. calclover. a round of abuse. Lang. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. the Fr. Bi. diameter of a ball. CALM to press or stuff. to be of a good or bad quality.' Whitby Gl. cotton cloth. calgua. kal. ' rine. dragonder. Fr. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . quA librd. a last. faint. of the bore of a firearm met. alta voce ploro. to affirm. calicot. calcare. To Calk.en~ kinds of firearms. a drab. to callet.piicede Lat. nautique). The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. serpens. Sir John Smith in Grose. cauma. callum. coluber also. but is only a jda-kallo. chatter kallen. or caliever. Diet. Fr. sclopus. Antiq. harden by pressure. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. calc. chatter. ' pert. KaXka. to say. drive. from Calicut in the E. scold. harquebus or handgun. the latter of chamber. Mid.from Ka'tm. calme. * Callet. bald. to burn. Du. the hard surface of the ground. coluber. Sup. and E. the heat of Now these Du. heat. Diez. sence of wind. i. Fr. * Caliver. kael. quality. hot. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. whehce it was first brought. to call. calca. Sp. an adder. calibre. moso. Unfledged. the scalp or skull. push violently. form in the kalib. depreciatory term for a woman. khalif. Derived by some from Arab. coulevrine. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal.' Chaucer. Calico. a successor. Gael.. vulgo Coluvrine. try. caillette. Sc. Fin. Ibid. femme frivole et babillarde. . oldire from audire. cauque. to abuse . quiet. heat. to cram. people's remarks. bombarda Cauma incendium. To call. to rail or scold . Turk. piece of bigger circuite. serpentina. . AS. CALICO Calliper-compasses. caluw. kol. the Fr. E. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calk. having a thick skin. kil-u-kal. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. fistula. sestus. calma. calo. to call. 125 Prov.

It. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. champagne. the heat. campaign. Arab. the type of a hollow pipe. the space of false imputation. Calyx. the calix. From campus was formed Lat. camiscieia. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. sore. a field Greek monk. crooked. water chamlet . campagna. aspirant. canna. Cot.' Forme of Cury in Way._ kamm. camp. whence the Fr. Fr. ation. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. lame. Cameo. B. Lat. camelus.who their language. icaSoytipoe. canistrum. Gr. Fr. or hollow of a flower. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Cambray. whence the noun signifying an applicant. spot for cattle. See Canker. It. a. is Candle. white. brought from Fr. canalis. Fr. It. A — the Cannibals. is Cambering. Lat. It. Lat. a basket. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. an eating. to bend. from candere.— B. properly good country. Sp. also an eatmg sore. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Fr. campo. Palsgr. KafitjUe. to jut. Turk. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. toile some of whom. fresh. calj'x. Calumny. Kakoycpos. camahutus. to break. Campaign.conduit-pipe. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. chommer. Lat. An eater of human flesh. campagna. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. cainahelus. a piece. Lat. — B. to bow. E. a. Gr.— Hackluyt in R.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. B. candela. paign. and yspiuv. to warp. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. catmneo. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. died in 1526. callour. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Canal Channel. campren. the bed of a stream. Cambric. a crab. slander. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. arched. Fr. aged. Calver of cane. good. Mod. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Cann. cambren. Properly calver in the field during a war. Cambrel. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. to glow. higher in the middle than Fr.' ' Quhen a lattice. whence Fr. Cancer. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Camlet.Lat. co7nbar. From fluting or furrow in a column . Camel. cup. Lat. across — Bellenden in Jam. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. canis. crooked-stick. Sp. to bend.. field . KafivTu. campo. Pers. E. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals.—Cambrel. In a different application It. Peter Martyr. samon. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. arched. Or the word Lat. Fr. a caught. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. lattice. or Caribs. campagne.— Chandelier.—Jam. had no r in de bric— Cot. — — — A — — escume de saumon. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Camisade. ckaouma. to the force of the wind. It. camelot. Camp. crooked. — Cancel. when its substance appears inter. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Fr. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. ko/utuXoc. champ. Candid. hooked. Bret. Mid. arch. cambrer. lie level. camisade. camisa. a goblet bud. cambr^. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Canker. cup. would plenier. cancer. kanna. chaitcre. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. w. Sanson khanda. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. bis. Sp. a dog. salmon. camaien. It.—Candidate. at the ends. fair. India Islands. crooked. It was distinfrom work. on. . cam^e. chandelle. camafeo. open and level ground. monk. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. candidus. cancello. Fr. cere : Lat. camber-nosed. chamold man. crook. frank and sincandidatus. Canibal. the spersed with white flakes like curd. a' Sc. campus. mg Canister. camiscia. callar. unwater chamelot . E. Cambrav—Cam. from xaXbg. — Lat. Canine. cambre. .Gr. a large drinking . nia. calutmiia. different sections of the like the Chinese. Ptg. cAouma. sugar. to avoid enemy in their shirts. clothed in white. Caloyer. Candy. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. se cameloter. a may have acquired that signification from plain. The Grisons cauina. Lat. having an aquiline nose.

kandt-broodts. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. cantone. Lat. border. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. But it may be different source. the quartile. a reed.^on. clqse. speech. was formed Kavtiiv. a cloak. ON. from canna. carcase . a pipe. Cannoii. To his judicial And trowl the tile. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. also a measure. can. cannone. a scull- — here. canteau. coarse hempen cloth Fr. edge. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. . the tried list of saints. a corner. canto. B. a boat. Sp. cantref. trine. Canopy. shut. Canteen. the heel. Kavt\. canapa. Capari. a straight rod.— Cot. Jonson. It. tain. Schwab. and met. a wine-cellar or vault. cape. haitt. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. It. capax. a drinking glass.. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. a — A — Cannel Coal. as. a division of a country. Canton. canon. capello Italis. Fr. Alamannis. kapamak. Again we have Lat. cappe. KaTTiram. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. cover kapi. Sp. Fr. cannevaccia. Prov. It. KCLvva. cappe. kaput. signifying cover. Cope.Gr. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. as a cantle of bread. from cant. a side. able to receive. Wtb. Cot. cantle then is a corner of a thing. From Gr. name. A piece of anything. hamlet. A slow gallop. Goldast — in in Schmid. Gugel. a ship canot. It. Mod. a tube. cainnt. Diez. schlapp. cheese. Esthon. a cap. Capable. call. Palsgr. region. and the sex- &c. Du. kwvwxIi. caparazon. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. root cap. canton. &c. side. Capacious. and tref. border Dan. Canon. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. leiwan kanta. kanta.Gr. a hunch of bread. lump. a reed. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap.CANNEL vessel. cappa. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. It. to shut. . rumme. kand. cane. W. or cantell of bread. OFr. a cantle of bread. it would have been found in the continental languages. a small boat. cantina. from Dan. chanteau. astrology. . . See Chape. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Cant. kyndel. kq.n. It. quarter . regular. &c. he discourseth of dissection. covered. Gael. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. pipe. a cane. part. chape. and hence a gobbet. cannevo. The meserseum and the mesentericum. The — . applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. a ruler. kynnel. kantr. hood. a hundred. margo panis diffracta. canapaccia. canvas. Swab. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. cope. cane. territorial hundred. Of vena cava and of vena porta. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. capa. a Fr. to put upon sacred writers. the part easiest broken off. hirnschlapple. From Lat. from . canonicus. cane. Germanis kdppen. has kahn. canevas. capace. properly a large Prov. Hence Lat. say. being a yard or thereabouts . If the word had been from cantherius. coarse hemp. to sing. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a cover Turk. a door . much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. quito curtain. measure for cloth. a gelding. a rule or standard of excellence. a horn of the moon . quarter. a cloak kapali. Cantle. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Cape. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Coal burning with bright flame. To canvas — . language. Canoe. the heel. It. from a Canter. canonici. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Sp. that the G. to contain. cover . A . like a torch or candle. hemp. corner. canoa. cane. to con- rummer. is found languages of very different stocks. Mod. a torch. or hold. coat. gnat. schlappen. To Canonise. Fr. hemp. Kil. N. contain. cannabis. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. capevole. Fin. Picard. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Canvas. cantred. chantel. which is not the case. See Capt-. cannu.

as Fr. It. to shiver for cold. the hair to stand on end. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds.) d'etre The It. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. rissoler. the principal part of the debt. h^risser. shivering. It. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. and with an initial gr instead of br. cApre. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . A headland. cut off. capillus. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. grillcr. A . Unexpected pleasure. brisciare. bruco. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. the initial mute of forms like Gr.' — (Supp. frisser {frissement d'un trait. greziller. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. hi. caper j caprio.' Cot. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. as the means of earning profit. shrub. bristling. heath. brisciare. erica. chattering of the teeth. See Chief. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to fry. principal. gives rise to Sc. — to yearne. curly. caj)o. shivering. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. chief. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. . eruca compared with It.Gr. Caprice. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent.— Fl. And similarly to yearn. as Fr. Sp. Torriano. bristling.impressions on the ear. alcaparra. horror. capro. belonging to From caput. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. sault. a ch illness. grisser. It. knis-hujwud . curling. to ruffle the surface of water. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. arricciarsi. then find the symptoms of shivering. capitulare. end. compared with Bret. cut. Fr. The same imitation of Capon. Hence capitalis the sum lent. ziki. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. a capriol. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. ticchio. to desire earnestly. a hedge-hog. Fl. a separate division of a matter. humorous. gives rise to brezza. or Lat. arricciarsi. Lat. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner .'— Trev. to shudder. It is probable that Gr. Caper. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. fansuddenly angry. Hal. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. where Burton adds in a note. Fr. frort^Lat. a kid. I have shivered with love. explained by Diez from capra. horripilation. of a fowl. brezilia. Griller d'im' patience. airoKOTrrw. cappriccio. and OHG. birsle. or represented by the syllable e. Cot. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. curl. of a coach. a caper in dancing. So from Sw. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. or. to broil. herissonnement. toy. a little head. then to shiver or shudder. gricciare. capriol or caper in dancing.— 128 CAPE a rustling. p. capitalis. a chevret. Capillary. the singing'bone). a yearning through sudden fear. G^' Many words — ' ndv. Genevese bresoler. caprice. a young kid met. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. kid. also the capriole. Fr. capparis. wriggle. greziller. s'hdrisser. The true derivation lies in a different direction. Lat. It. Arab. a . — — A a hair.) grezille marid. riccio. brissle. they longed extremely to see it. a caterpillar. Fr. to broil. 75. It. ericius.standing on end. caprice It. a goat. To treat Capitulate. capar. cover of a saddle. crackling sound Cape. w. of a tremtdoiis sound. frissoner. to twitter as birds. CAPRICE twittering. the head. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. capriole. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. Capital. frisson- ner . Mod. Lat. hair. to . then to be in a state of vibration. capriola. and 7tucc. castrated. abridge amKoTroq. as in Lat. Capers. the head. a buck. the hair to stand on end. grug. with joy' Vikram. II bresole (Gl. castrated cock. brisoler. Lang. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. to shiver. <I>pi'?oe. brisciare. Acad. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to crackle. or goat's leap (done by a horse). aggricciare. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. is either wholly lost. Lat. to crackle. and his body bristled We to castrate. knis. a head. grisser. upon terms Sp. or other things. gricciare. prickly husk of chestnut. as Fr. ^piKos. algabr. to from capitulum. frizzle. It. It. brug.). It. Hair-like. roughening of the skin. ribrezzo. for which he cites the Comask nucia. to parch. rihrczzoso. hedge-hog. according to the Hindoos.

was converted into -ceb. It. Du. whence capture. a coffer. a. one odd. In cases. and has thus descended unaltered to English. Fr. to receive receptio. from head. — — Capstan. Crab. a capuchin. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. It. also a kind of rack. -cept. calabrin. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. also to carry on a car . captus. chirriar. . a hooded friar. conceive. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. a reception. See Caper. a. chevre. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. seize. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. capitano. Castr. a kind of torture.. receptus. caThe hrestante. -cept. Fl. Capriole. It. Fr. perceive. capsula.of these compound verbs. captive. or the (capo-riccio). dim. was originally a missile . capp%tccio. a windlass. recevoir. decepte. bock. recipere. a cloke) capuccino. karrende waegen. cabestan. Lat. to take to. capra. cams.). i The meaning Car. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. to please. except. to load . recibir. Etym. a sudden will. contain. to take baclc. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . to carry . capitis. It. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. the -cevofthe Fr. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. a taking back. Carabin. It. carabin. crepo. Passing on into E. Cot. to creak. Capstern. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute.or -cib-. kerren. a sawing-block or trestles. karra. Sp. Sp. Carabine. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a creaking waggon. a hood (dim. to creak. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. and tropically. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. cabrestante (whence e. Du. concevoir.s. -ceive. crab s. de- price. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. di cappa. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. karren. conceit. G. a cart. where it forms a very large class of compounds. &c. chirrion. of capsa. — —Diet. commander. accept. &c. caricare. 129 — receive. at least. verbs gives rise to the element . Fin. recipio. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. The It. Kiittner. a head man. to take. capio. deceit. to this is It. Cot. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. and of captus to an e. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. caprice. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. It.). man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. case. concipere. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. latterly. also tresFl. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. of the Sp. Caseneuve in Diet. Carbine. Lat. concept. Capt-. Carry. as the dragoons (Du. It. Thus the musket. Captain. fantastic. an engine for throwing stones. Capsule. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. oisr. Fr. as in OFr. intercept. captivate. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. charger. &c. box. Fr. hold. caput. charret. deception.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). Capuchin. a sudden fear apprehended. krul. capuccio. char. trestle. fancy. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. concebir. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. a she-goat. charrier. tnoschetta. Cart.. cabra. Lat. calabrino. desire. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. Fr. precept. to accept. sels. cabreia. recepte. carro. karista. Lat. shivering fit (Altieri). however. In the S. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. and has accordingly been lost in E. Fr. cabestrantej Fr. strideo. carretta. as in accipio. Derivatives are Fr. Neumann. a fantastical humour. It is a standing crab. Nordfoss. OSp. conception. was a kind of horse soldier. Fr. acceptus.

carch. cramp. bend. karszti. a machine for casting large darts. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Arab. Gael.. Carcax. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. boch. Gr. — seems to be something holding together. properly a siege machine. for a gun. Derived in the first edition from Mod. ancient springald. a goat. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. ON. Carat. Lith. . decanter. case. a crane. skeleton toise. carcame. Sp. or framework. card. cabrita. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . black dye. cdrlag. and catapulta. seed of carob. word is only an adoption of the Turk.. Card. the carob bean. skeleton. military engines made for hurling stones. matter. Lat. Carrob. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Gael. a kind of ship. turning. carbh. Comp. carta. Sp. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Cot. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Sp. to creak. designated in the case of G. See Carpenter. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . karra. caravela. carduus. a ship. Carbonaceous. OHG. the . to turn. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. avSpaS. a prison. a twist. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Fr. quilato. the carcase of a fowl. Carcase. Pers. a dead carcase. carquois. carcanet. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. . kard boyd. «capa'|8i. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. car. poison eiz. of carbo). bock and Fr. Ptg. Carboy. the core of fruit . cassa. Cot. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. carcaij. cerran. mural attack. to card wool. caracal. alia sunt majora. of the same Caravan. Parmesan cassiron. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Sp. kerwan. It. the case of the flesh. espi7igarda. the shell of a torcarcasso. wine- bottle. It. The Trjg xeXwwac. chevre by the name of the goat. carabba. confining. fire . to hiss (as gee^e). the dead body of any creature. the husk or cod of beans.. curry-comb. a quiver. a skeleton. turn of a horse.Gr. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. Exot. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. carmiiiarc. &c. The radical meaning . wool card. eitar. &c. It. karri. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. the trunk or chest of the body . a wool card. cardo. Gael. a small weight. to card wool. cabra. also (as Gr. KtpaTwv. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. krciti. an ulcer. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. caraffe. a collar or chain for the neck. a snail. Fr. cabreia. winding. a lock of wool . a gem resembling a live coal. coming to four grains. Sp. to curry horses karsztuwas. carate. a quiver . carbo. constraining . shell. carere. a battering-ram). garafa. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. . casso. p. the name might naturally Mod. eit. skeleton. a quiver. contract. An implement for dressing wool. winding carach. AS. is the chine. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. carquasse. Fr.charcoal .— — — . a winding staircase. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a firelock. . Bohem. kirat. quse vocant karabd. It. carbunculus (dim. Gr. a card or comb . Lat. a ripple for flax. is the word used in modern Lat. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. copperas. Gael. a he-goat. carabe. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin.. a thistle. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. From the battering-ram. It. to comb wool . ' Vasa vitrea. a coffer.applied to a battering-ram (G. Venet. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. tcapKaai. an engine for hurling stones. a thistle. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. to ripple flax. caraffa. Mod. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. I. Caravel. vitriol. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Fr. W. to draw in. carquan. Carbuncle.. restraint . also a small weight.' From the same source are SicU. Cat. a quiver . carcanada. to comb. silique. Caraool. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. carcasa. &c. a case or chest . in the same way that the Sp.z.Gr. burning coal. . among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce.

AS. be anxious. caritia. to fry or broil. parched or carled. carcare. kribina. Sp. Cot.' Slceat. carener. the load of a ship. E. . beans. Cot. G. carena. caru. msstus. a card. principal. an overloaded representation of anything. and murhet. charnel. carch. ignarus. morosus sum. Fr. cura intenta. charag. stridere. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. de Parthenay. . Carminative. is This however Shrove tide. & Q. fleshy . It. Bret. to rumble. to card wool. karantez. to love. to distress growl. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. Venet. Cargo. . four. graller. quarreG. record. carrefourg. meet at a head. Lat. also a career on horseback. love. Gael. to whirr (schnurren). sorrow. from carrus. act of moaning. one of those ac- 9 * . crosier. For the root of carminare. karout. regar. caricatura. piger. carina. in St Jerome. winding. a turn. OHG. Cath. murahtaa. carFrom carrus. careless take care of. the keel of a vessel. and compare Bret. compared with Fin. sgritudo animi. Dan. the hull of a ship. Cark. Lat. Trin. to fry. cearian. croller. p. Champ. It. to eat flesh. carnasciale. as peas. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. a highway.. to growl. hoed. It. or grumbling —Due. an endearment. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. crowl. kargr. from caricare. appertaining to the flesh. the flesh of animals . morosus. that Fl. It. karg. charger. carnal. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. to comb flax or hemp. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. voce strepo stridente. surrata. dear. Fr. scharren. murista. OFr. A medical term from line —Boerio. carena. — — . to lie on its side. kummer. is to say. to scratch. caresse. caMid. Fin. — — — Caress. carezza. to clean the bottom of the ship. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. and thin. weyes. Caricature. AS. road. immediately before the long fast of Lent. to load. from the keel to the water . mutter. Fr. to load. cardo. charta (Gr. asper. Fl. kara. Probably the origin of the word is the . — — — : Cardinal. ON. karrig. — To Careen. Groler. . charnage. crawl. 2. Charnel. fundamental. Farewell flesh. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Care.. car. as carminare. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Roquef. A mod-carag. cargar. clown or churl. or street. 8. kumra. Carnage. &c. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. murren. Chart. Translated in MS. and sum. Fr. Carnal. No ' place there had. AS. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. karista. as quadrivium from Carnaval. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. Fr. zanken . Card. grolU. W. x'»P'"^s)) paper. the time during which to Rom. . strideo. a deed. Carl. gakaran. cargo. and G. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. bottom. from Lat. 273. stingy. Fin. like connection may be seen between Fin. Fr. kurista. soUicitus OSax. 1S66. care. cearig. what is felt as grievous. Fr.— Charter. care on. solicitous. chartre. to parch. . — Carfax. . carnalis. Carled peas. giierlir. to shake. in Carp. ress.Lat. to comb wool. — — Diez. charneux. at murmuring. moeThe Lat. rixosus. a hinge. wool cards. the keel. Cartel. sensual. cardinis. It. sorrow. that on wliich the matter hinges. intrasset caro.Lat. charie. tremble. carriera. Ptg. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. It. carcus. Cot. to take Goth. a man. Fr. astutus. From. ceorl. affection. the several meanings of the words above Rom. ON. carian. see Garble. to load.— CARD karr-kambar. Bois crolant d'un ladre. tuorfurcm (Burguy). camovale. kroU-erbser. W. carnis. Carenare. niggardly . carriire. place for exercise on horseback. A place where four roads Mid. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. to care unkarja. male person. tenax. the old theory of humours. karl. Mur. to scrape . Properly. A quirito ut infans. carnavale. W. Sept. grief. cura may be ror. cdrle. . in N. It. charg. w. whence carricare. Coll. Properly a car-road. G. essere in carena. caricare. combing them out like the knots in wool. Carlings. carminare. quadrifurcum from quameet. from carus. quaver a lazar's clack. Sp. Peas steeped and fried. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. karry. Bret.

biheld without.Why give's some wine then. on that. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. e. to pluck. carpenter only in the latter sense. all aus). . charpentier.— Neum. culcitra. Olr. carpat (Stokes). was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. pluck. maker of waggons It. as E. carpo. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. to pull asunder. to dance. ' ' — . a drinking cup. charpie.— R. carpia. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Properly a round dance. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Carole. chatter. as Fr. krapanj. All out B. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Carpitam habeat in lecto. tymmer. Lat. . Pr. litter. gonna. and F. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. act of drinking a full Eq. I drink all out. a song accompanying a dance then.— Drant in R. Mid. Fr. linteamen. To pledge them thou refuse. to dance. a plank. 2. garrire. to reel. gar aus / all out is correct. yede tham about. I quaught. chariot carbad. is erroneous. Carnelevale. Carnevale. lint. cited by Marsh. Nomin. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Beggars Bush. qui sacco.D. Lat. a wheelwright. quoted by Carpentier. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Cot. 2.: . The word seems of Celtic origin. Carpet. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. carpita. to rustle. i. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. in Nat. fabulor. Templariorum — ' — Due. carpende fast Carol. vel coopertorio carebit. tattle. Shrove Tuesday. carduz. i. carpentum. W. Gower in Way. used for stuffing mattresses. krapati. of Guiana. a car carpentarius. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Carpyn or talkyn. In Dominica d'autant.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Biheld within. Ant. koroll. ship. Discov. and Carnem laxare (It. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. to gather. Other names of the sea. as carnaval from carnelevamen. 216. differing To Carp. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. bier. carpenticre. carpetrix. pluck at. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. carpere. — . garrulo. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. course. ballare. querole. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. balade from It. Fr.— Patriarchi. a dance. or a carouse fully drunk up. Carpenter. 94). or loose as a couch without further preparation. Dief. a wheelwright.' says Motley (United Neth. carpetam (a quilt?). Bret. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G.]e bois Carnelevale. sense. Alluz (G. The custom. carbh. carpenta. Teut. to chatter coroli. whence the form carnasciale. to find fault with. Lat. carnelascid). The tippling sots. In a MS. ! Carouse.' Reg. Bohem. a carder. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Mediol. in Carp. worker in timber Fr. peta.Lat. Mid.' Ordo Eccles. The ' ' a chariot. Pref. Ein we find the signification transferred from . skraf. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. . chirp. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. in Due. 1 1 30. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. The karole of the stones behelde. cardos. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Chanson de carole. Here's to you still my captains friend. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric.Lat. 760. ON. Gael. So gone they forthe. zimmer. cxciv. zimmerspan. to talk. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. was formed Mid. Analogous R. as the Lat.' Raleigh. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. From Lat. A. Palsgr.'— Stat. Sup. chatter skra/a.gonnella. Sp. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.Lat. On this. Pm. at midnight which derivation from kroes.

a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. casaque. carretto. Ready money. carriaggio. cia. Cascade. kerpu. kirpti. Lat. casuelj Fr. annul. abrogate. casser. paper. mord-keller. kerven. Fr. cartouche. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. It. properly to convey in a car. discharge It. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Hence a challenge openly hung up. long man's gown with a close body. krat. the money chest. caroach.— Fl. kerben. and the OE. to — — also casse. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Rouchi caroche. casualis. carroc- carrozza . mord-grube. cascata. Preparatory drawing of a It. It. Rouchi carone. To duash. Cask. Flor. See Gristle. to crack. augm. Fr. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. CartOTicli. augmentatives of carro. Cart. hull of a ship. as we . carroccio. a chance or accident. See Card. The Sp. It. cartoccio. from the sound it makes when Alban. Cartel. capsa (Diez). Cartoon. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. casag. To Cashier. Casuist. case. Carrot. and that apparently from capio. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business.' Cot. cassus. to cut or carve . cassa. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. Lat. carogna. Fr. an act of falling. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. a chest. cassa. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. void cassare. Probably. to shear. Sp. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Cot.to annul. Gael. coffin of paper for groceries. It. from It. Fr. Fr. crush. As defence from shells became more important. hollow. casa-maita.' Bailey. To Carry. a loopscale the wall. to bear or carry. cascar. fortuitous. fall It. It. OE. cascade. of carro. packing ' cloth. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. kasseren. caxa. to notch. turn out of service. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. gristle. a of water. Lat. to fall. charrier. Rouchi carter. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. It. coffer. It. charrette. pasteboard. cancelled. Lith. ' Casa-matta. discharge. card. cartilage. and matar. AS. Fr. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Du. to break. cashiered. hung up in some place and to be removed. — Cartridge. G. a long coat. vault hole in a fortified wall. bitten. cancel. The carrying of anything. from casa. Lat. charogne. a car. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. to slay. like all the names of tendon. caisse. Carrion. It. casco signifies a skull. bag and baggage of a camp. a coffer or small case for jewels. Case. Carriage. shell or carcase of a house. cartone.' — Hdcart. gristle. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . one who reasons on cases put. afterwards any written challenge. luggage. slaughter-house. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. to hold. break to pieces. corresponding to the G. a canonry or slaughterhouse. casitiste. Fr. also the carriage. to fire on the enemy. Fr. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. of carta.' Fl. quasser. quash. Casket. a paper case. Cassock. carrosse. caisse. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. des rideaux A'carp^ie. tion from Sp. cartella. crown of a hat. the charge of — — Fr. cut with scissors. cassere. mata. — — nul the proceeding. Rouchi carpHe. casacca. a fall. dim. to dash. casus. something that actually occurs. — FI. Du. case-maiej Sp. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. not reaching to the height of the ditch. for the security of the defenders. — — . cascare.. Fl. Cot. Casual. ignominiously exposed. empty. from Lat. Fr. Case. to an- — Kil. It. — Cartoose. Walach. helmet. Fr. To Carve. from It. Sp. a hut. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. See Case. Fr. made void. Casque. blotted out. casa. Hence casket. carota. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. subject for a picture. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Case-mate. ceorfan. carreaggio. casso. caroche. caro. house. To quash an indictment. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. carretta. cassette. Fr. a car. Cash. an augmentative from Lat. Fl. AS. a merchant's cash or counter. caisse. where Fr. to convey in a cart.

to crack. to scourge. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. V. Roukind. probably from an imita. a cat koshki. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. Cat. chaleur. first made ordinary Fr. to close. to crackle. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. OFr. to break. _G. to lash. catar. Lat.Rouchi Scaches. a garment for performing the mass in. castana. race. cat-o'-nine. katze. Sp. puss / for calling them. . ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Castle. to hurl See Awgrim. B. castro. It. to drive away. perhaps from which we have E. squash. lance. or comba. bot-kotis. which. KaTaarpifm. crush . catch. castello.. . the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. coming to us through different dialects of French. KarapaKrr]g. a whip on the other into latch. or Rouchi cat. Chase. cat. on. Fr. to look at. Fr. drive away. chasuble. Castanets. To It. n. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. cassa / cry for the same purpose. ichasses. kat. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. or bruise together.Lat. a chesnut . kissa. and KviilSog. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. a thump. It. Fr. Yz. image accasciare. Fr. Pic. dashing it to pieces. The E. from water Karappaaaiii. Pol. the castanets for or implement . by the loss of with several pitched cords. was introduced. stilts. of sarabands does Gr. a little house or hut.'— Pr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. To Catch. to dash. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). represented by the syllable quash. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. a Cataract. from the first of Castrate. fall. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . casupola. Isidore — in Diez. follow after. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. arpi^m. a vault. and tomba. speak of dashing a thing down. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. cojz^/a. to bring to an crack given by the joints. heat . says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. to Fl. Etym. the stalk of plants. to turn overturn. mino. puras E.out cacciare . the ground . shaft of a 1 push. . 134 CAST Catacomb. cacciuolo. In the dialect of Picardy. R. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear.the / or c respectively. while kiss / Pol. Catastrophe. being Fin. Fr. cacciarc. to is Essentially the Sp. second chase. Cast. cascar. to torture. accastiare. to end. cacciare fuora. is not satisfactory.— Fl. castanetazo. like that of It. force j Rouchi equerviche. tails. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. in the fire. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.. casule.to drive out. casulla.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. It. 'Vaaaw. signifying breed. Fr. Fr. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. to clack. Lat. to cast or beat to tioner . KaraXoyog. castellum. punch. Gael. kotas. So also from It. casser. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. chat. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. the earlier sense of catch. down. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. execu. which has been retained in E. Mid. kasta. — We a cavity. Brunne. name. chasser. Gr. fer toTa. kaJoivad. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Catalogue. . to hunt. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. &c. and from the castus. to fall as over a precipice. torture. klakka. sue. chasser. ' Catchyn away abigo. koshka. to make clean or chaste. kakka. The Diet. Sp. under chi caleur. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. ecrevisse. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. KaTappaKTrjQ. a cat . Thus we have Caste. kasi. cash. down. casipola. Fr. Cot. V Lith. however. Gr. same word with break. kotas. 120. Pm. to drive Cat o' nine tails. rack. Fr. kottr. an enumerlist. of castrum (castra). burst cascare. kic' kicil are used chasser. squash. dash. away. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Hence castaneta. Hal. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. dim. ON. . handle of an axe. ating. a fortified place. cast. Others explain it from Kara. Lang. dashing it out of the window.

a whip. klatsche and Norm. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. catch-flesh. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. seize. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. klinke. a cornIn the s. kaetse. to chatter with the teeth cake. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. a. On Catechism. a whip Rouchi cachoire. to harangue. Cates. gattola. 'Horxa. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. a whip or Kuttner. a clap. weevils. devouring mite or weevil. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall .s. — tinman. E. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. children's name for cat . Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. ' Fr. resono ictu lash. caker. compare G. from Gr. apprehend a person. i. the distance to which the ball is struck. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. Sc. the elements of a science. Wal. caucht. bichano (pussy).V. worm. to the crack. a pill. cache. ' ' word catch. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates.' ^Jam. Cot. and answer. ecachoire. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. a. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Swiss Lombard G. from shutting with a click. Ptg. * Cates. woodlice. GaUa catchiza. dainty vic- a form lash. Gael. a little dog). chatter . in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Chate peleuse.yopl(. glcu. to snap. to teach by oral instruction. a — gatta. — explained. Du. clatter. Rouchi clincailleux. to crack GATES cache. sound. to snatch (said of dogs). laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. cagnon (a dog). bicho. blow. s. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. — . gliong. called in Fr. an officer of taxes. in order). Gr. Caterer. * Caterpillar. OFr. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. ArbaUte de courte chasse.from Bard and ayopsw. kletse. ketsoore. chachara. wild-beast. Diez. cat is not apparent. is said that he got a claucht of it.) . . . snatching. as of the latch of a As ! — . kletsen. latch of. companaige. instruction in forms. Cot. P. ictus resonans. chatter. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . Grandg. klatscherei. In the XV'e. Guernsey pilleure. to chat. flap klatsche. . predicament. an accusing. insect. klatschen. called dog or Galla catchamza. chacepol. chassoire. chenille {canicula. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. silkworm.. has both or of charming by sound. Du. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. with and without an / after the c. door when it is shut. formerly called cliket. chase. fragor kletsoore.' CATCH Fr. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . Kil. Fr. . to kythe D. clap. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. klatsch. latch. clap with the hand. to clap hands. e. quincailler. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam.j. a carter's Pat. Gael. Fr. Claucht. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. to catch strength. whip. — Catcli-poll. — Kiittner. head. — B. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. a whip. e. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. icarrix'Ki^. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. happe-chair. c or ^. Sp. de Bray. resound. chink. Metivier. snatched. to A bailiff. the OE. E. Kartiyopta (/cari. catc?u. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. catch. 'Bxn. E. millecaterpillars. chasse. G. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). gingle. Du. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. verberare kUts. KaTtix'so. pedes. which all . a smack. 135 — Aasen. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte.V. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. claquer. a caterpillar Milanese can.P. . smack. — with a whip. dainties. the the same principle he was Fr. Kil. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Guernsey chafer. Tutschek. to take. Fr. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. snatching it with a any one. catch.

Cavalry. Lat. Pol. a branding from koiio. rete A — Prov. chaussJe. any Fl.' Elyot in Way. Thus Bav. Gr. Kavrfipiov. a horse . The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. a horse . the caul of the liver. Lat. of delicates the most Her cater seeks.' B. choufleur {choii. Kavrijp. walnut with the husk on challer. caballus. kin. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. It. Lat. kobyla. chausser. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. catons. ce^l. . koparet. is Prologue. Boethius. to purge. Ka^afriKOQ. Jonson in R. net or caul-work. a paved road. a The peel. kopano. and spareth for no perell. Fr. Dryden in R rete. little cat. from KaSaipio. Rete. . minon. to sound like a blow . Jaubert. a stalk. Chaud. achepter. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Fr. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. reticella. Cavern. klopfend knallen. chaudiire. cauHs. chevalier. caple. Palsgr.Lat. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Fr. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. having the property of cleansing. but the acates that are sent him. Caballus. The word — . It. Cathedral.willow. make clean. Cavalier. the stones of a street. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . A warm comforting drink. acaptar. katteken. Russ. shaled or picked Fr. quire. from delf^gato. Wyatt in R. Lat. catkin Magy. green husk of a calon. It. calceta. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Fr. Kil. and hence a skull-cap. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. challe was ther of a temple. macska. to ac- — Fr. kaussijde. It. CAVE Caul. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Richly she feeds. from caveo (p. That he was ay before in his estate. It. catkins . — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. CATHARTIC sense. — — cavallo. accattare. to burn. a horse. cavaliere. cavus. via strata. Provider. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. a mare. .Y\\Xea. a road calceata. caudex . KiwariKog. calotte. Catkin. Gr. whence cathedralis. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. hollow. Manciple's Tale. apt to burn iron. chatideau. chair. Cattle. ' Gr. 4. to shoe . Diez). puss. cheval. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. . flue. to beware. KaPaWrii. Fr. a horseman. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. &c. cabbage. B. Mid. Cave.. kassije. cale. mutz. calidus. cautis. fur. G. kocianki. catkin Pol. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. a seat. chauderon. Fin. cal^ar. a pavement.^ acheter (Lat. to shale or peel. fur in general. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. little cap is . Cathartic. otherwise written kell. kitten kotki. kocie. — Cauterise. Caution. kopista. Fr. to shoe. mudet. to buy. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. lamb. cabbage). Caustic. dumpf tonen. capull. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. chaudroii. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. kobuiV. and at the rich man's cost By sea. acater. is used in the sense of cat-skin. cabbage-stalk. cat maczoka. cale. hazel. Bessie of Bednall. Caudle. On the other hand. • — — See Chattel.Lat. calceata. KaHSpa. . a kettle for heating water. Fr. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. OE. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. . Pr. catkin mitz. katte. despencier. Lat. hot. Port. Cauldron. deyntie meates. Causeway. Du. Fr. Cavalcade. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. a pulpit.p. Palsgr. puss.. adcaptare. by land.^Hal. a receptacle for small things. Lat. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. puss. calqada. Gr. the. cautus). a kind of skull-cap. Fr. w.—— — 136 correct. — . the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. flock. kautsije. Sx. primitive is meaning a shale or off. kdtzchen. Cause. 2. causa. what . Delycates. also to pave . Du. Fr. Cavity. hot. Gael. caldo. . from chaud. accapitare Rouchi acater. Mid.

— . deal.. to go forth. semely on syll. VIII. caveqon. komista. seele. thelu. sybire. plank. in Jam. crooked kopio. -cede. ciel de lit. . Boyd in Jam. selure. — komo tain). Lat. syle. flooring E.' Marriage of James IV. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. the roof of a coach. quibble. —Decease. a hut. tester of a bed. . cabega. &c. 7. a head. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. a halter. a fir-plank. a beam. Wore. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. wall. dille. . and zaum. board . in Jam. is applied to a canopy. thel. lambris. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. death. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. p. curved. sill. thili.' Cot. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. empty. Lat.' Ordinances and Reg. ceiling. . 5. hollow ice . nailes will begin to cling. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. heaven. The line of descent from Fr. -ceed. jaa. yield. So from Fin. Fr. a log. The It. To seele a room. Fr. and that from Sp. H. And seik — Cessation. CAVESON kopera or kowera. p.).' — Gawan . cavillor. thil. to cut. canopied. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. Sherwood. door-sill J Sc.' Rutland papers. In the N. cabegon. bridle. were met. heaven. cedo. The sense of roofing. In the same way G. See -cede. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. of cavezza. to plank or floor with planks. cellar. a canopy. lambrisser une chambre seeling. and then to gape. ciel is so unbroken. 43. Sir 137 pit . a plank. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. as if from happen. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. to panel or wainscot MHG. It. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. The importation of Fr. also a seeling of boards. beam.' del. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. Cam. coffer. . &c. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. . kapp-zaum. to plank ON. a canopy. sill in window-sill. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. wainscot thiljar (in pi. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. thil. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. B. E. thiling. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons.j have come from this source. . Gawaine & Sir Gol. hollow. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . . column E. cesso. and Gol. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. hivtmel. menuiserie. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. . 'A celler to hange in the chamber. del into English without ' translation gave cele. hung. Cavil. . departure from this life. &c. ceiling. a log. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting.'— Z. -cease. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. to seele or close with boards plancher. the testern of a bed. Plancher. Fr. &c. departure. — — — toyour soverane. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. to argue capto tiously. step away. dScis. . pp. Hal. decessus. syl. proceed. cavezzone. dil. cessum. a log. little house. the inner roof of a room of state. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. sky. — .). dayntily diglit. post. applied to a canopy. plank. excess. a severe bridle. with their substantives concession. that. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. . thilja. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. an aquiline nose. wuoren komo.' Hall. A — A false accommodation produced G. Lat. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. a boarded floor. 32. or of a bed. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. augm. koppeli. but hang around at the sides. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. selar.. Ceiling. IV. Cot. . hollow. Cede. cielo. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. in Hal. kommata. Sp. rafter. to canopy siled. succeed. exceed. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. Soc. a board. Lat. sus-lambris. Cease. cease. -cess. give place. of E . cyling (W. Hence concede. a planking or boarding tkilian. Fr. recede. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. as. komo. the deck of a ship at thilja.

-ceit. thronged the participle cretus. from Saa-rw. cilibat. the officer appointed to take such returns . Fr. -cess. quarters for slaves. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. to separate. census. to rate. anger two distinct words are probably Lat.ing a room where there is not fire.' Book of St Albans.unmarried. — A . cencer. Fr. riscaldarsi. materials It. capio. a Cemetery. Take the nedyll and threde. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Centre. Incensum. Lat. a storehouse Chafe. in comp. sile. For sess from assess.). of heating. -cipio. In Celebrate. guish. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. and thence to conceal. to sepap rate. solemn (of per. dchauffer. deceit.. Lat. Gr. -cebre ifoncebre. but was gradually lost in conceit. stones to the production of heat. a shaft horse. -cern. age. a religious observance. Celerity. -CEIVE a shaft. to twinkle darkness. eschattffer. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. camentum. cretum. in accordance with the Fr. a prick. sure. a hundred of what- — . to heat. -ciper. rough from the quarry. Sc. to take. -cepire. much frequented. to set on fire. to take. Census Censor. oil. a numerous con. See Celibacy. parted sleep. Assize. heaven.cern. decebre) . syll. Cot. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. to seele or sew up the eyelids . OFr. to celebrate. tax. caber. Chafe. Lat. to -sum. observe. — . a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. conceipt. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. sift. — . then to rub without reference Cement. . chaufferette. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. -i^oivre. eyelid. &c. Censer.— Cellar. in Marsh. a tomb. To chafe is for wine. encens. — . Accelerate. Prov. Coehim. calefacere. a solemnity. ciller. to think. a solemnity. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. or expression of Ennius. make angry. Lat. -cense. from censeo. to visit in numbers. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Lat. contend. Fr. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Fr. abundance. cillier. To seel or close the eyes. Censure.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. . the place where the de. Century. capturn. Gr. It. pick out. Cereal. Fr. a hundred centuria. sacred show. cot. Lat. /ctj/rsw. To Incense. -cevoir. or any bird's. with transposition hence (of a day). his office. Fl. to prick. incense. an eyelash. concerner. See Cede. as in some places burnt. hollow. centum. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to incense. family. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. to rub for the purpose a hut. Lat. Fr. Certain. to contend. to seal a pigeon's eye. confounded ist from It. ' . Lat. ceremonia. Cot. K^'ivut. concetto. and so of that other. goad. judge. become heated with anger. Lat. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. — . siller les yeux. concernor. Gr. — . Censor. to course of people. is the opposite of disora virum. judge Lat.. mortar. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. sting. oil. being taken from Fr. celeber certus. also grave opinion. to concern. Fr. cigliare. Ceremony. Lat. we have a modified form of (of a place). to attend on object with. Lat. to burn incendo. zens according to their property. S. censura. a registration of one's self. irot\oe. empty. candeo. Centurion. {cori)cipere.— Chafing-dish. KsvTpov.j 138 thill. — . keep in It. -oept. calefare. to sleep). assess. to warm. cceremonia. to be regarded as one celebro. It. -ceptjun. to glow. to blindfold. estimate. to distinguish. thence belonging to or connected with corn. judge. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. a valuation of every man's estate. census. receipt. to bury). festive. see. for building. cella. — — Cenotapli. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE.of the r. rubble. -civer {conciver— Roquef. cerealis. swift. the hollow the Lat. Gr. celer. Lat. chauffer. to chafe. The term cilium. what to set in a chafe. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Cess. distinIt.). decide. tax. ciglio. -cepere. deceipt. 1. Fr. and — — — possessions. and met. blind. with the eyes. criticism. in comp. value. and thence censer.' Celebritas. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. and put it through the over eyelydde. the talk of men. appertain. Lat. single or unwedded life. -ceive. Ta^oe. Assess. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Cij(fe5j. &c. cenio. Sherwood. (and thence also) to hoodwink. point. the point round which a circle is drawn. Celebrity. Cell. renown be embodied with. crevi.

a double operation * Chafer. jaw. chaffare. ckapfare. So from dominio. signal by drum or P. kuhina.nium. ON. Gr. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G.— — . talkative. Chain. to calumpnjamen. cadena gives chain. yap. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. to gnaw. a rustling noise. care. on. snort. Adelung. . — — ' — — — A . — — — — — — .' Rayn. chamar. as a carriage is a moveable seat. puff. now a chair. Prov. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. In vulgar language. a pulpit Cot. chayire. or puff with snorting. to call. to bark. chaise. fa sagramen de calompnia. chaene. bargain. limare. chafing. &c. idle words. leviter crepo Then. sborfare. dongio.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain.. hordeum vel let. as. to a seat. often puffing. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. difficulty . in a monstrous fume. chatter. Fr. Bav. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. grief. and as this was the beginning of man. with a:n arched roof. rally one. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. ing a hard case to their wings. In like manto huff. P. Perhaps Pm. p. ceafer. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Lat. also to prattle. Lat. khah. Bouffard. fume. kaff. kuhista. De Ir4. a vault or arched roof. Fr. dispute. ple^. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Lat. Chair. rustle Challenge. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. Chayire. rustling motion challenge. Probably from According to Diez. kaff. to dispute. green sagrin. calonja. cathedra. E. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Fr. songe. kuhata. Camera. haggle. without chap/are makiinde. crooked. calice. gewolb. kahista. Lat. to ner It. swelling with anger. calonjar. a pulpit.. 35. Du. to Latin calumniare. charge with. To buy and sell. to file. Pers. cup. G. Fin. to sit. baras of ants. Kaiiapa. Lat. far lima-lima. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. kever. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Prov. Kuttn. From the To Chaff. chalanger. KoBiSpa. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. to pant. lime. — . chaine. from Swiss kafeln. chicane. hght Chalk. to puff and blow. to claim. kedja. B. Fr. kahuja. much more Genoese sagrind. ^Altieri. Cot. ing rapidly repeated cries.sure carriage. chaps Chamber. — — — . The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. calumnia. Gr. ceaf. cadera. Prov. lime . preise. camera. refuse. to caw chawer. false accusation. have a mind to parley. cauvette. to gnaw. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. chagrin. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Cot. in a cana. clamare. kiamta. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Lat. refuse barley . From to go to law. sagrindse. shaIt. Pr. . hiss. any insect of the beetle kind. fern-chafer. of. . thick and short. cadena. kdfer. breathe hard. that leneth e per I'autra. a chain. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Fl. kahu. From Port. a chough. matter by combat. to babble. muzzle. tronfio. cadieira. OFr. care. taubes korn oder hafer. de Brai. chambre. vis. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Fr. Wall. from the shark-skin. G. Piedm. Halma. from of the G. sagri. breathe KaOa^oiiat. chafeter. kauchen. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. vel susurro. Fr. Pat. — — — . catena. to move the jaws. chaire. call in question for an ley). Due. snuff. . to fret inwardtronfo. a goba rustling . tattle cheep. much blowing. Fr. to action arose. kdfelen. chaulx. Chagrin. Fr. Fr. . consisting chiefly of husks limestone. kuhuja. havOFr. place See Cheek. Lat. The jaw chafty. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Ayenbite. tattle. Chalice. to institute anforensic action. to buzz. calx. puffed or ruffled with ly. kiaftr. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. grief. kiqfta. a jackdaw. to chatter or talk lightly. Came. Cheffern. and signifies to consume with anger. Hal. avena vilior. cam. rustling corn. great chafe. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. a prattling woaction. Fr. cathedra. calix. chawe. Du. keffen. 11. contestation. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. to tattle. quisquilise offence. keuchen.

to groove bevel off a right angle. received the petitions of the suitors. campar. Fr. to slope. champ. chain.' ' Pr. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. and mesUe. Commonly derived from campus. to chew. Pm. chance. certare. Sup. Campar. . chamble. Sp. champion Du. to talk. The E. . broil. Get campers a ball To camf . ON. a field of battle. nels. a warrior. dricka i kapp. cazer. contention kappi. — KiL . . camp. dispute Hal. which seems another form of the root. Prov. to hollow out. to strive at games . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. kabinti. accident. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . an athlete. to to chew champ. Fr. — Ch-amberlain. chdance. bickering. to wrestle. dial. ciambellano. accidere. athlete. chajnbellan . top of a borehole. chanfreindre. sukibti. Gall. Ptg. luctare. tsammogni. kampeln. difficulty . campear. kampen. Du. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. to — — champ. e. kabMe. ciamberlano. schmatzen s. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. jeu parti. to happen {ad and cadere. a feat. chance. zs jeopardy. dial. kabintis.edley. to fasten oneself to another . kriimmen gebogen. champ. as swine. hero Sw. a hook . camerlengo. s. Dief. dial. a scufSe. escazenza. act of falling. to quarrel (comp. boys speak of capping verses. kiinp. divided game. To Chamfer. hot. gewolbt. The happening of things Chance. combat. campus partitus . kippo. . kappd). to . ON. Fr. Magy. kibti. champ. kimpustella. to bevel.—Charfron E. move the jaws. Fr. zampettare. — masterly Sp. chamfrain. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. E. a jaw kianisa. chaude mesUe. Champarty. to excel. hamper. E. So in e. camp. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. excellent. Prov. to hold . chanfrar. . who stood ad cancellos. to fasten oneself on to another . tsamtsogni. gekrUmmt. chanfrein. i. pinch. Chamfron. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). kampeln. When the to quarrel. cempa. therewithal. . Lat. to debate. CHANCEL It. to wrestle. Chance-n3. kinipen. or player at football. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. keiiipe. Lat. kabe. wood. from cheoir. fight. a court of justice. G. Lat. dial. —Chamfrain. M. to fasten on. to paw the ground E. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. to fall. kimbu. a horse-race. a game at football. mesleiare. or less ignorant. to slope out the . Lat. surpassing. hng. to stick to. kimppu (Lap. termediaries between them and the judge. . Fr. Fin. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. See Camp. the chafldn. as in It. kempen. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. is explained by serrarsi. chanfrein. pedilusor.140 CHAMBERLAIN . to tread The sound heavily. fight. To hollow out in chanPtg. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. to fall). Chancellor. Partnership. To cope or contend with. to hang. giving rise to the as. Champ. — ^Tusser. cameratus. cadere. from chaud. jocus partitus. to Hal. slope of a bevelled angle. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages.' melleia. Sp. fray. Meleare.—Tutschek. to cample. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. calidameya. bundle. contest. from Fr. kapp. Lith. a hollow chanfreiner. The word is preserved in E. rare. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. kampa. at the railings. and acted as inofficers of . campus. kimpUma. The G.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. champ parti. champ. ON. dial. to be eminent. caer. Champaign. to move the jaws kiamt. cample). prize-fighter. kiammi. head armour. compound. Hence (with the nasal) w. Chancel. kempa. cancelli. calida et sans aguet. game campio. Fr. It will. fighting place. to flute as a column. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . to smack the lips in eating. ing. cahir. a bundle. camp. kanip.' SherI'altro ' ' . differs only in the transposition of the letter m. contend or argue G. — Hal. Chancery. .Lat. Champion. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. kablys. reusement — fight in single combat. Carpentier.

cambiare. a strip of metal plate. — . chap. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. a small metal plate Port. waterconduit. skipta. Channel. shift. to swap. from chandler. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. as skin chapped hands. to strike with a sharp edge. hack . a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. chapear. Da. a dealer in candles then.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. to spht a chip. cambium. I. kappen. like the knocking of hard things together. ceaplas. Du. — : Lat. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. . Fr. A fellow. surfaces striking together. Probably from chap. flat . Da. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . to — cut. 140. —Ordericus Vitalis. Hence chantry. changer. Hal. chapa. Commonly derived from capella. to apply one flat thing to another. kiceft as well as kjakje. . Compare chark. a jaw. kiceft. properly in a hard body. kvar kjceften. cantare. Chop. to put on fresh clothes. cobio. to paw like a horse . and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Fr. hard bodies. camjar. chiappa. is used in the same sense . exchange. Lat. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. That wide were sentin their spicery. a money-changer. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. gab.^. to strike. the loose flesh of the cheeks. a chap is a crack or fissure. chandelier. throat of an animal. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. while the broader vowels a. In like manner Walach. Chap. —Chantry. or the cracking of one. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. klepan. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to cut. esclapo. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. to creak. any hollow for conveying water. Chapel. Aasen. from clap. to chap at a door. cambiar. as It. to deal. Sp. ^Jam. to plate. chapeta. Molbech. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . to change. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. ON. Chip. AS. Bret. Cheek. the mouth. a small plate of flat metal. schimbd. chapeletas de imbornales. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. To Change. muzzle. or the like chapar. Hal. to hack. prune. may be compared with ON. Sc. Man of Law's Tale. cheek. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. from canna. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. cangiare. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to cut up into small pieces. See Chop. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to cut off . The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Fr. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. a pipe. are kept. Chap. canalis. kemma. extended to other trades. to coat. as those on a trunk. the gutter that runs along a street. Walach. chancery. esclapa. exchange. to truck. leather. not a soul. Chap. It is also used in the sense of the E. chaps. See Chant. chap. kaupa. Chaps or chops. also a clap. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. to strike. Fr. chop. . kjaakaa. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. kapoti. chancellerie. a reed. debeant conjurare. to peck. as corn-chandChandry. the clappers of the scupper holes. as to chap hands. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. . Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Hence It. schimbu. clapet. Russ. jaw. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. chop. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. and also to chap or crack. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. as chancery . and the modern canal. chapilla. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. lips of an animal. Chandler. to sing. to peck. 2. wood. — — —Marculfus in Due. Lang. to break . W. Lith. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Prov. exchange schimbatoriu. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. And N. the place where candles ler. to plate. . the chaps . chapelete de una bomba. chanter. jaw. ceaflas. Chape. kennel. Sp. E.

used in the sense of magic Fl. for the same reason rosario. —— . schreien. 370. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive.Lat. turn. to creak. See Cheap. a riddle. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Cot. from gadai. cluck. carmen. the nature of a thing. to croak as a frog . The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. clack. capella. And damned be he who first cries Hold. hadka. return. of chapel. a riddle. char. Chaplet. carricare. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. to love. enough. caricare. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Sp. to . A weed among com AS. w. creak. To Char. creak. An enchantment. (eucharistie. cedeleac. affection. Charade. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. to chirp as sparrows. * Charcoal.charme. es ist mi cheer. eyre. Fr. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. it is my turn. Justin. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated.. from cape or cope. twist. cher um cher. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. wood to coal. cam. . Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. called kedlock. pohadka. gaggle . grave or make incised marks on an ob. from Charade. &c. turn about. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. a head or division of a book. — — — turned to coal. the turtle pitre. chara. AS.). twitter. Lang. — spell. The crash. to chirp. OE. be- e. Sup. It. a hood. chatter. and in It. to charcoal. Prov. wreath for the head. as a beetle. karout. Charcoal was ciarlare. Sp. babbling. Du. Macduff. a verse. siarad (pronounced — sharad). Swiss. Boh. Lat. condo il volgar francese. as. Lat. a The OFr. cearcian. go. kurkelis. corona. Charlock.' Boccaccio in Diez. eapitulo. It. a charm. a merchant. bler. to of the governing body. to tattle. It. charitas. Character. Charge. kirkti. kurkti. . to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. to sing or chirp as birds. charlar. Fr. chirlar. czurliwoti. From Norm. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. In that work the verb is written caire. to dove . to chirp. cha. Chapter. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. gnash. in turns. to converse. Inst. dear(in both senses). capital. ciarlatore. ghirlanda seor garland. Hence carminare. chapel. Charlatan. a dispute . to load . charade. to prattle. 2. chatter. a cricket karkti (schnarren. Lay on. czirbti. Sp. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. a mark of a mountebank. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. chirk. from carrus. carus. ject). occasional turn. to turn Gael. properly to place — . colliers that charred coal. decken. that turned decken . Chirk. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. a rhyme. to talk . hiss Lith. capitolo. carmo. AS. Mundart. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. prattling quacksalver. caritas. from capa.whirr. Deutsch. babdistinction. cluck kirklys. canne. chapelet. dim. a turn cerran. surris seu Lat. Lat. The G. charlatan. which was incantation. in To ness Charity. charger. Ptg. czurksti. cabildo. . capellare. called in Sp. carregar. Bret. a garland of roses. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. charer. — a car. w. seems to be derived charade. Gr. chat. cerran. as Pol. beloved. . charcoal burners. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Fr. ceap-man. Chark. jabber. keeren. talking. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. See Charlatan. Mid. to prattle. tegere. charge an enemy is to lay on. Lith. Fr. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Yx. burning without consuming the substance. Chapman. It. Chare. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. to turn. dear. a mark made on a thing.czirksti. chirriar. car. chapitre. from capitulum. tattler. krachzen). But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Fr. gadka. . To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello.

. Du. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. chip. fragments or leavings of food. To Chasten. Pol. Parallel with E. gazzettare.). nommer. The egg is chipped.ppen. a flock of those birds. chisf.— Chatter. little sticks cudere. a yawning. or a bird out of the egg. karigh. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Pol. Hal. knatiern. the noise of birds. To chip is then to crack. as we speak of olive branches. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. snap. limpid. clap. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. fragments. clack. crackle. s. clear. also to hatch. Gr. %aafi. Chamel. csacsogany. the young shoots . used to represent a sharp note. To chit. niggardly. ch&tier. To work plate as silversmiths do. clean. To chitter or chipper. clean. — Palsgrave. to chirp. a young man . as turnip-chaits. pure. chary. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. shout OE. pure. chat. charm. chikat'. a gap. from xoAn. B. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. prattle. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. gazzolare. Chasm. a twig Suffolk chaits. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. to care). Diez. So in Gael. In like manner Russ.— Chit. to gape. a crack or a flaw . careful. also to germinate or spring forth. — = Chats. ch). scraps of for fuel. to crack. czysty. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. Russ. to crack. cs E. incassare. gadu-gadu. whence a charm of goldfinches. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. kippen. —Chastise. shivers. — The . to cry as a chicken . See Card. ferire. warble. Cot. is to represent the chamier. an enchantress. a branch and a young female. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. CHATS fit 143 to name. chip. Fr. — Yorkshire chat. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red.). tittle-tattle. chaste. prate. Pm. chykkyn (Pr. —Jam. parcus. from purus. It t. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. as in the E. in Jam. csacsogni. — — . then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. nome and . The origin seems preserved in the Fin. castus. kata. or equivalent forms. root of the Lat. i. carme and Fr. csaterdzni.. to burst open. the bird is iiown. chit. to make a noise. to talk. magpie. la chasse d'une rose. to separate in morsels. to which it bears the same relation as chape. to clap. It. as purgare Fr. cearig (from cearian. csatora (Magy. kata-kata. letters p. or pop. —Bailey. Kil. a branch. a chatter-box. to chatter or prattle . Chaste. D. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. to chirp as a bird to cheep. be wide open. the calix of a rose. whistle. Cot. Malay. a shrine for a relic. — Hal. flesh. — sharp sound of a crack. chick. chit in the latter sense Du. An imitative word. —Charter. Fr. Fr. discourse. chits. Kil. clatter. to enchase it . OE. Lat. To Chase. talk. racket . chip. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. carnisj bones kept. Fl. speak . chit-chat. blackthorn-chats. — We ornamental work the to signify E. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. Fl. Lat castigare. Chary. clean. chaste. a churchyard or charnel-house. kastaa. gazeuiller. gaddc. carmen is presented in AS. or suckers on rough borders. knacken. xi'i-'^vui.a. tenax. cyrm. to set a jewel. splinters. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. chair. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object.house. From carinen was formed It. Chat. caro. to baptize. noise. as. gallan or ogan. kna. germinate . geug. karg. from pure. . to cut and faggoted. jackdaw . noise. cassa s. Chart. It. gazzerare. converse. Fr. See Cistern. occasionally Forby. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Chat-wood. To Chase. chatter. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. To talk. as from nomen It. eclats. chick. It. See Catch. pure. sordidus. to wet. talk much . a word. to chirp. also a youth. the handle of a razor . — Fr. schioppare. charmer. gazzogliare. enchasser. warble. G. V. make a noise as birds do. or the cry of a bird or the like. Magy. a plate of metal. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). g. It. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. castus. the cry of the bat.

agreeing upon. entertainment. Fin. lead to OE. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Hence to cheat. gig. Cheat. Cot.. horse-couper. a willing look and unwilling heart.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. goods. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. a piece of moveable property. truffa. jaws. to cough and hence either buying or selling.ing. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Then. Bav. choule. cera. Pm. cita. 144 the It. Cam. OFr. the tongue. kak. to coff—Yisi. a canting knave. ceaflas.— Chole. Ek dry and hard. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. a cheater. the face. any cheating. Hal. which is the word in ceap. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. kaupa. caupo. — — —Chowl. Check. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. to buy. favour. cattle. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as.— Cattle. gagkern. giggling. s. look. — We ' . chop. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. et juxta catalla sua. bon marche. to negotiate. — To check an account. price. Chew. to make inarticulate sounds in . a tavern-keeper. The gutGoth. It. ceahhetan. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. kakaista. in Fr. cara. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. which is used in the to stutter. Gr. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. and. stuttering. It. the Lat. whence captale. mandibula. . lower. chatel. Faire bonne chire. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. hawkmann. Bohem. cachinnari. farm for farm. CHATTELS has ciio. catalliim. a repulse. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. the countenance Fr. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. to act as a rogue. citello. to nauseate (to retch). See Cheek. are represented piti. capitale. G. to swap goods . &c. chatal. Fl. kaufen. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . sob E. to . Fr. changing. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. welcome heartily. frown. koopen.kakot.' to exchange to gasp. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. to coup s. kok. goods. Sp. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. visage. a dealer in horses. kaupon. KaviiXog. . kek. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. society. chire. Chattels. chaptel. kaupiti. a rogue or person who used the canting language. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. chuckle. the Confessor. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. ku. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Modern Slang. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. chavylbone or chawlbone. kik. laughing. giving or taking in exchange. cheeks. to — . Slav. teeth . retching. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. with Dief. kauf. prattlingchete. chear in the sense of victuals.—Choke. sale. kichen. to deal ON. tradesman. NE. a dealer. countenance. 'li^'opa jord i jord. to laugh. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere.-^.— Chaps.— . Soc. in widely separated languages by the Lat. to vomit. a young boy or girl. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. keck. to stutter gigken. from Lat. kakkaset. chapman. and hence the E. to cluck like a hen. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Pr. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. to clear the throat . to buy. gagkezen. exAS. stuttering. Ingulphus. cattle. Cheek. e. cattle. kikottaa. thers. Chear. dchec. the principal ' colloquial E. ceap. from AS. Du. It — Brompton in Due.. syllables ^ag-. upon a checked cloth. sum in a loan. . CHEEK zitella. us. cozener. with the exception of land. while it Bret. sense of bargaining. ceafl. snout. to chop and change. . chiere. Fr. force of the word. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. OFr. entertain kindly. equiva. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Lat. jaw.' kezen. . See Chess.. aspect of a man. Pro v. Sc.of the throat in coughing.

squeak as a mouse. treat with affection. kikna of dorum coacervatio. scacco.. geagl. Fris. cheek. cisty G. food. incaseatus. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. Thus "we are brought din. Sc.Xo belch. rupted into chess. Jam. Da. ation. Fr. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. caws. chops. Lat. Chevaux de frise. . the neck. Sp. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. kopen. cufd. giffle. then end. acquisition. mollium congeries. rennet. hasten. caru. subacidus. to gape gab. quok. (Kil. achever. to bring to an end. to year. jaw. gous forms are G. Sp. cese. Prothroat of an animal . G. As the board to gasp i.cirieggia. w. E. . Hence chesten-nut. make an end. To make a shrill noise Chest. — — . seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. cheken. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. to choke with laughter. kces. chAtaigne. prevail with. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Fr. throat. equal squares of opposite colours. cherir. Chekenyd or querkenyd. gabe.pose of acidifying them kasadr. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. schach. Kil. the throat. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. a cricket. ON. quoka. The Sw. condition of being taken. It would Cheese. Cher. to swallow. . ca' — . the mouth. Fr. cheek. as meat and butter. Du. ceaflas.peep in the same sense. gill of fish AS. Tutschek. like a young chicken. ceaplas. jowl. &c. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. kikna. carnium. nish source. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Fin. jaw. Lat. AS. cabiron. . shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. e. jaws Sw. king). From them the plish. skratt. See Case. jaw . The Lapps prepare much of their compass. things Da. to prevent the attack of cavalry. chiffe. the hke. jouffle. — — . subjected to this process with that which the throat . N. Hence kikna is identical with OE. See Alchemy. To Cheep. An imitative word. the final guttural is retained in writing. czypti. chops. practice seems to have been communiChevron. . chests in OE. Pl.). AS. geafl. dear. throat. castaneusj Fr. kdke. cireggia. Pm. — — . Sw. by laying it in come to an agreement with. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. kjcebe. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne.' to w. kastr. w. kesten. gaghel. E. chevron. a heap.D. gullet. the loose the game of checks. Analo. chevir. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . to kep. the The use of the word kcesir. kapen. cheek. ceg. made rancid koka. It. /Ji2^/(W. cabrio. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. Fr. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. cough. cheeks. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. to kasa. AS. to boken. kastanie. X'C&s. kjceve. Lat. kaecke. chasi. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. suffo. frame by which the exertion is made. ceac. Lat. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Chef. to make a noise different word. schach. Achievement.their struggle for independence. kdkel. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner.perly head. jaws. Sc..koppen. Lith. cegio. mouth kek. cyse. whence czypulas. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. Cherry. rattle in the throat. Chess.EP CHEVRON 145 on. to gasp. The name of creak as shoes. rafters in heraldry. clear the throat. cista.D. E. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. cams. kistej Lat. Fr. a chicken. kirsche. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. ichec. by laying up in a covered heap. Du. a rafter . Lith. the palate Chequer. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. See Chess. as. to hold dear. gap. ceocian. cerasus. ost. caseus.G. kasiiUPr. kok. cerise j G. kasa. to geahl. to belch. dersen . veluti piscium. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. kjakje. for cheese itself. E. — 10 . bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. F*-. to love. OHG. accomplishment cayed. chesten. to heap up such things for the purchoke. old bread. Chevisance. whence kasa-leipa. gapen. to choke. xaque. to accomThis they call hdrsk. G. Chemistry. w. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Cherish. takes place in the formation of cheese. Sw. chaps. CHE. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Prov.

kinderen. chawbone. a small cask OFr. to go. CHEW . from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. CHJME the radical form is unusual. pi. cap. — It. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip.^ to resound as a bell. ]). killen. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . kimme. AS. creak. Chigue.-ill. to chew... . chiquei. Brezza. in Walach. pululo. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. kauen.peep. knarren. to smart. Fin. killen. to pettifog. Magy. the young of animals in general. by driblets. kind. aner. jaws . rafter. kaw. chimb. then as G. pipe. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. Gael. Chaw. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. and not vice versd. cebr. Fr. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. G. cild. caferu. a quid of tobacco. jaw. kippa. kouwe. s. a head. Chick. Halm. And hence. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. chicken. a young bird. chew or chaw. the Ptg. Du. a finch. head. horn wood. a chicken. also the horizon. Pm. tiukka. Child. Russ. Chimb. tiukkata. tremble with cold. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. kauwe. greloter is to shiver for cold. tiukkua. Pr. — — Mother Hubbard.D. then cold. caput. to titter is Du. kuwe. De chic en chic. stake. mouth. a hen. Now gan some courage unto him to take. capu. capete. kopf Du. tyuk. pip. chiler. are formed Du. chin. the throat. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Gattel. antler. cidan. grelot). has probably the same origin. Payer chiguet A chiguet. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. kidata. — Du. the least imaginable jot. A To Chew. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. cheek. strideo. pole. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. kibr.. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. choule. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. horns of the house. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Du. while the Magy. to chirp or peep like a chicken. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. pipio. a cup. . Fr. ' . caprioru.D. See Chimmer. branchy. kindeken. machouere. mountain top .). The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. knit the brow cib-led. and from the third E. the jole. To chitter. Swiss kiden. De finger killet mi for kalte. a chicken. into a continuous shriU sound. chaps. E. to Du. when the vibrations become very rapid. or qf people talking rapidly. E. kop. cabar beinne. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. chicaner. czypulas. — . deer's horn. from the second Lat. k'imm s. chillrar. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Palsgr. Fl. : — a lump. Chief. as. Imitative of a loud clear sound. keichen. crepo. chavel. rafter . to contest about trifles. tremble. acute. Pr. kieken. to the brim. .— . E. chillness or shivering. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. cabriones. to chime. kilderkin. captain. Lat. Bret. to raise the rim. the rim or edge of a vase. cabarach. zitterti. 'Among these the G. kimia. To Chide. a cup cibaw. The loss of the syllable it in Du. Tintillo. tiuk. twitter. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. knirschen.. Chitter. the cry of young . Sp. It.— Cot. Fin. cabar. Chime. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. — Fin.— Gattel. a little bit. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. to crackle. Pl. 146 brial. or as E. kimista^ . queror. quivering sound which passes. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. kaau•wen. The Pl. term is ssaru fu. sonorous. cib. the same principle I regard On birds. klagend tonen. jaw. chic. to use the jaws. chicoter. lead through the synonymous E. chikat'. Da. W. cica cica. as pointing out the origin of the E. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. kitista. signifying properly shivering. Walach. the head. from little to little. beam. from the first of which is Lith. chieftain. Chill. or the broken noise of birds. to gasp for breath (Hal. to twitter. G. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. kauchen. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. or chick. hiss as meat on the gridiron.' my finger tingles with cold. pipio. to contest. gosling. ultimate origin of the Mite. chill. Prov. Fr. chol. gills of a fish. chef. Kil. tintelen van koude. a jaw. ach.^ Hal. to scold. kime. a cup. a chicken. chavel. Fin. chillar. rafter . alter. Fl. Probably from Fr. w. Pm. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. For the see word Doit. capo.

Lith. clangor tinniens kummata. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Du. Chisel. Sp. the chin . twinkling light. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Magy. eschine.er. Fr. kumista. — .' Phaer's Virg. fissure. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. To Chimmer. to sizel. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. schiena. Chyrme or chur. plodere. eschin^e (de pore). It. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. schrick. and bodily movement in shimm. crepare. stridere.iron. to tattle. . kinne. as a large bell . the cheek. clashing of weapons. a szemrcU. Chat.Huloet in Hal. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . chink. caminsects. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. tinnire. Chitterling. to open chirriar. — . cheminde. as the/ is preserved tering.sharp. — . i. sound. The small entrails of a hog. to tremble. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. A . ter. bone . from Lat. esquena. ciseau (for cisel). a chink or fissure. It. spina. G. a surkik hosta. ciarlare. See Chats. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. chick. genou (pi.Lat. are In like manner E. the whooping cough. Cot. It. tremulous motion. in Hal. vincially used in the sense of a crack.to divide or Du. gena. to chink. sound on beginning to boil. quavering of the voice. czirszkti. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. to murmur. verynge or dyderinge. a Kuttn. eschiner. cheek. . and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. the chine. yivtiov. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Chink-cough. as a bell kommata. Ptg. Bav. but or cry as a parrot. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. sounding deep. and light. the jaw. E. also vibrans. to prattle . Fr. pare also Walach. from 10 * ' Chia. It. Pr. The change from the sound ter \s. kieck hoest. zirken. and from a similar sound to boil gently. . Chintz. Diez de. schina. See Chap. Chine. hollow. kumina. AS. sonus the backbone Lat. Caminatum. sparkle. komista. the jaw. epine. hiss Pm. Gascoigne in Todd. quivering or shakyng for colde. tsongeni. a thorn. pork) . x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. schetteringe. Chip. name Then. to simmer. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. squittire. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. a chap. to chink with laugh2. skina. up and down. To chink with laughter. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. part lion. disCot. To Chitter. In the same sense. to chirre. to sound. to creak. tschirpen. cisello. Gloss. and chim-mer. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. have been used to designate the spine. keich husten. in the same crack. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio .). hus. kink hoest. to gape. To chirp or twitter. Fr. sonants. spina. Sw. to sound deep or the Gr. cisaille. See Bright. The desig. chits. ykvvQ. — . Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Chimera. a thorn. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. from the geon's lancet. Hindost. resonance . a hall Mid. Chymerynge. genawi. as birds the mouth. and the Du. Chimney. caminata.. Sp. Bret. cleft. Chin-coug^h. rustle. cincel. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. komia. It. flaw Hal. Chink. et garrire . bx-eak the back of schena. Prov.to chirp. klincken. Chitter.schricken. then of a fabulous monster part goat. to squeak in It. to chirp. as the chink of money. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. tsengeni. to chirp . E. all these imitative terms being minata. Pm. Kil. cinan. Huloet. See Chark. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. companied. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Lat. a fire-place. Du. Chit. — — — — — . chatter . Fr. representing connected together. KinneGr. shiver and the chyver of Pr. twitter caminus. .czirbti. to chine. chin . j^lf. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Primarily a shrill sound. fyr. zirpen. a crowing sound in recovering breath. simmer. caperd. applied to tremulous motion. chhint. do. schetteren. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Sp. or chyFrigutus.. backe. . clipping of coin. gen. killed by Bellerophon. to prattle czirpti. G. esquina. dial. Sp. cinne. 147 kimina. the mouth (jaws) . Fr. then to any narrow crack or AS. hiss chirlar. chirp. the cheek (jaw) . CHITTERLING sonus acutus. to creak. Gower in Hal.

Yr. gusten. Chives are also a kind of small onion. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. gekrose. The Sc. chippe. signify to kiss. try. — Cholera. See try. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . a knight. to wrinkle. The manners and senti. try. . In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. G. ent quarter. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. OHG. ON. by which they are Fr. Fr. to strike hands . and in kosten. fresure. Chives. chiffe. to shiver. developments of the same radical image. Equivalents in the SlaFr. pluck. a ruff. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . chatter. full. cive. kiusan. a rag.. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. okusyti. G. Gr. taste. the inwards of an animal. disposition. chaup. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir.V)^x. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. Chuck-full. seallion or unset leek. to taste. to ing is doubtless to taste. lead us on to Lat. Body and Soul. Luc.— B jag E. approve. and Vf. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. crammed Choir. . — See Cheek. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Fr. Prov. a goose's giblets.ffrill. i. The I go to prove them. G. kaup. Gr. chorus. kbhren. As kushnuti. propagated. a scale or fragment P1. kruszki. schiefer. wrath. to Compare also Pol. Goth. ^S. causir. a heap. a blow. cke. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves.ceosan. a fragment. chceur. full to overflowing. xiv. x^poc. haslets. to taste. choppe. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. called cMtters in the N. Warwickshire coff. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. kieser. then to try. kushati. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Jam. a twittering.' Verie coinme Cot. to chap. . •- Russ. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. prove. an onion. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. I. of E. a ruff or frill. whence choleric. and It. Fr. cape. chives. gustare. Chap. keuren. krussyi. chap hands. from kraus. —Chorus. to tempt. to try .. from %u\i). a wine taster. to choose. Gr. kiezen. &c. Choleric. kushevati. then to shiver. * To Choose. caperd.D. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. whence Lat. in the same language. Choice. The . as green as leeks. as with a blow.yEuffM. rare. kusid. gdnse gekrose. Chivalry. Swiss kust. the ridges prove. . Boh. and N. — Chock-full.freze. CHOP kros. coro. friller. a calf's chaldern of E. word is more likely to be from Lat. shiver.' who shall not taste death. to clap up Hal. Choice is probably direct from Fr. civette. . to taste . of an angry — — — ' ' — . scheve. schevel-steen. 2. chibble. skifa. Serv. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. &c. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to turn. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. experience valerie. also calPs. to experience.vonic languages are Pol. to try. to hack. fine threads of flowers. pieces . to taste. kalbs gekrose. ments of the knightly class. a company of singers or dancers. kiesen. 19. cepa. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. chock full. and in this sense the * small pieces. To Chop. select. anger. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. to taste. kausjan. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. a young . ^euw. Cavalry. to exchange horses. arkiusan. coup. taste. Lat. kustigen. — — — . chattering.' At last he dwelt . keypa. ON. heaped measure. are used in the same sense. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. kor6n. the small parts of the roots of plants. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to palpitate . to try. . to try. all seem slate .gust. To Choke. Swab. kiusan. choix. a calf's pluck or chaldron . chife. it is probable that the root kus. Schmid. . or original meaning is preserved in G. to stop geschoppt voll. from chevalier. to taste. cut up into — See Chats. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. wkusit' prikushat. to break off in small shive. g'schochet voll. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. curly . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. schoch. ruffs. %o\ifa. a small slice or slip of anything . Enn Sigridur sem ' . to ^cleave . specially with an application to theatrical performances. a chive. shoot . chawdron. to prove. Walach. bile. to chap at a door . koren. chimp. wein didder for cold.

See Change. one who buys and sells horses or cows. chatter .). a small fish with a large head.' Jam.. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. a bullhead. Ant. chapma?i. e. Cot. Confounded with the bullhead. to cant. kaej Lith. bearand aits. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. chrisme. a thick piece. prattle . See Chaff. Borgoens happen. capitone. Fr. the same word with the It. To Chouse. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. to knock.(. kubbr. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . the intestine of an animal. chapineria. E. kowej Sax. chrysalis (Plin. kaulhaupt (club-head.• — .. as in Fr. we find the following passage Dap. sent before him a Chiaus. .xl—Shirbe ridiculous. of which such strings are made. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. plump. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. koppe. Gr. Wall. Peace. the teeth to chatter . that will thank chiaus — you richly. Marin. chuet. chevin. The Turk was here As one should say. A jackdaw. Gr. — Dief.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Kil. noble Doctor. to turn over. and we actually find champman for chapman. chop. a lump or piece chump. cob. Du. Chough.—Chuokstone.povucd. ' ' What's that? Dap. &c. Come. gull. cambiare. E. kobe. choucas. —Shakespeare. equivalent to the E. in Chaucer. to speak thieves' slang. caphatenus. civetta. cangiare. Alchemist. To Chop logick. kaufen. cauvette j Fr. AS. or miller's kaycke . Sp. klompe. cavena. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. short piece kubbug. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. ON. — — — . ley in Giiford. Gr. a stump. To coup. chapin. That Face. by the Robert Shirley. whence — E. because she would not endure this husband chopping. Chopino. overset. Madam. p. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Chrysalis. I bring you the Cloughs. chack. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. dealing. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. gull. thick-set. applied to an owl in that language. kowe. yiSA. kubb. -chron-. cow-couper. E. which was written 27.\^s. i. What do you think of me. cresmeau. If I discover. xpi'^lia. Fr. G. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. soul-couper. monedula. quappe. thumb Fl. e. chevane. to strike in the hand. cheviniau. whence the Fr. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. E. caker. dial. connected with G. Sw. merchant.X. for to defraud. capitanus. chouette. In the Alchemist. to chatter. peace. an offence against the fitness of times. dial. a messenger or envoy. Fr. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia.sohola. a trafficker in souls. a The What dhy ^. to clack. claquer. — . ceo. fat. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. — Quabbe. in i6io. chevane. as Du. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. Jam. the string of a musical instrument originally. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. P. Picard. kolbe (club). time ra . clat. to overturn. From the Turkish Chiaus. In Sc. cheap. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. OE. who took in the Turk- clack. capito. Fr. gobio capitatus. xop5>}. A fish with a thick snout and head. forms are Chrism. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. chouquette. high clog. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Chronicle.— Landnamabok. Du. Nominale in Nat. chroniques. . Anachronism. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened.). klopper.' They are forebuyers of quheit. whence apparently the Sup. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. Chuck. gold. 49. — Chrisom. Chub. Gr. 4. Lat. xftovoq. cauc. chronicles. from kloppen. caqueter. traffic. syllables chat. capita. slipper . clogs. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. kauwe. whence e. XpvaaXic. Fr. kaw. chub.— Chevin. Chord.

domhnach.V//a'6'?. thence a belt. a resounding object. Da. G.. -cise. jaws. however. male person. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. sintel. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. or.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. -cis-. to To Chuckle. It is certain. from Lat. Fr. Cider. To chuck in the fall from. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Wall.' he adds. OFr. countryman. to form grains of butter. sinter. Lat. In Sc. kiorne. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. has been impugned which it has really no connection. spuma metalli. to sparkle. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. Cleland in Jam. Chuff. to strike clatter. dust. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Aasen. a fellow. -cido. calculus. to him a sudden blow. to make a rippling noise. a man. surly. chife. cut off. we have to chack. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Chunk. residue of burnt coals. kjami. tie about).rendered by Kil. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. gffe. cinis. Sc. . lamak.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. sive piratiam facere sciant.^. scoria. cinders used disjunctively. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. cheeks Cincture. as Epkema explains it. ceorl. cinctura {cingo. The derivation from Kvpiasov. or choice part of a thing . as Fr. chaps. Wall. — . joffu. calx. Gr. AS. the snout of an animal. to turn from blossom to fruit. to churn. a man. whence church. kerl. as in E. to fall at or on. a girding on. * Cinder. Diss. a cutting an old chuff.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. . a rustic . The spelling of chider has Chump. — — A — ' ' — . The origin ation. See Cheek.— . tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. ChurL husbandman. chofe (Grandgagnage). Probably from It. kaerle. geaflas. kern. so as to make the happen . ON. See Ceiling. sindel. ON. as a board. i. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. from Lat. -cisuiri). to fall upon decide. ashes. i. kernjen. cado. joufflu. whence deciduous (of trees). have given rise. with It the Lord's house. giffle. whence ON. accido. Fris. ceffo. cendre. dial. a man. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. swollen or puffed up Cot. in Sc. to cut decide.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. to cause the milk to grain. a pebble. kirna. — of the two words. a miser. &c. Cieling.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Gothic nations. pith. that the word is an adoption of Fr. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Church. log of wood. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. tindra. to jaw chack or snap. flower. chakil. pp. sindra. Du. ceaflas. Lat. chops. Fr. in circumcision. Ka-^aiva. to separate the kernel of the milk.for the residue of stone coal. Du. marrow. Sicerawry face ceffata. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. a husband. the kernel. casum (in comp. . kakka. then the on oh StX iv roXt. in the face. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. blow on the I io6 in Mur. chuffy. to fall. KaxXij?. Lat. ciuffo. Lat. sindr. . Cob. to determine incision. a pebble . ON. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. Sw. C^z^j^ churHsh. ladre from Lazare.D. . to throw out sparks. AS. a lump. karl. chack or stane-chacker. ccedo. x^^i?. &c. Gr. ceffore. as water running over rocks or stones. but by way of explan.' And cold. comp. incido. an old man. to gird. e. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. -cide-. to Newsp. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. a douse on the tores. cheek. klakka. . chack-stone. See Cheek. sicera. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. KvptaKolg. to make a aiKipa. fat-cheeked. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). Du. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. a cutting round. e. Ir. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. cidre. cinctus. Churn. Hence -cid-. -eris. ceaplas. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. chofu. As AS. set kerti. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. G. 24. Jennings.— Chu%.

prattle. Sw. In Fr. to gnash the teeth. klacken. citrus. a block. ring. cittadella. . is traced by Gr. City. about. and E. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. clobyn. G. a hiding-place. to strike. cista. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. klammer. Fr. a lemon tree. sajira. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body.to suck. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. Fr. lucerna. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Clamp. . Clump. tinnitus . naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. claquet de moulin. to toll . to mention. Lat. W. hringr. clapping of klacke. cittade. chupon. lump. It. Comp. to cluck. a mass. a split. Lat. castus). to make to go. . clack. for Cion. klamp. a rattle . a city. . clamp. Alt. clump. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. to bawl. uproar. . klateren. clambar. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. smack. a city. scion. clack. Mack. of citta. creak les dents. sound of blow. parallel root is slam. around. and clash. cito. The notion of a lump. mass . a knob. from chupar. a clod Russ. cisterna. Circum-. a lump Du. bunch. E. It. circum. 'mass. to appeal. outcry. compared with It. rattle . See -cid-. klak. to chatter . chijfre. the place of . Citron. crack. So a light. globus. circa. klekotati. klabb.— . clack-box. cry. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. civilis. Dan. twig. clasp. to chatter. klompe. a circle. lump. to call. kringr. ball kloben. KpiKoe. claquer. Circle. * Ciplier. klappen. dob. sindri. clatCot. Recite. a. Lat. as caverna from cavus. claim. to cleanse. dim. vociferation. — (Dozy) ing blow. lump . a ball. Scion. glam. ciste. a for water. to cry out. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. scion or sucker. —Circuit. chest. ern. clot ON. forms — — — parent plant. circle. The Gr. Lat. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. kringla. or split with noise. rattle. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. . lump of wood or with the nasal. ON. Hence Incite. a cleansing place. a ball. a place See place hiddern. Arab. Lat. a Lat. circ2tlus. chupon. cion. gutter. a whip. or quill to draw waier through Fl. Lap. to go. a kind of pipe. Dan. ruin. biw. clat. Lat. Lat. ON. excite. -cis-. as. clapper. around. a block. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. fall. the tongue. trunk. clap. -cite. . empty Golius. prattle. Citadel. Gael. circum. Chaste. a ring. clangor avium . KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. Clam. Du. cion. To Clack. &c. —Civil. to chatter. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). Gael. cittd. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. Sp. bunch . noise. cieo. to call by name. lash . radical identity of the Fr. sprig. a Pol. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. clap. lump. Gr. a lump Lat. From Arab. chatter . sphere gleba. KipKog. klopati. sifr. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Bohem. a cistern. klap. Du. ter. It. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. ON. a rattle Fr. city. klacke-busse. kluV. a pop-gun. a citizen . Gr. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. domern. We . claquer. glamm. babble . belonging to cities or social life . clamp. the door was slammed J slamem. Sw. a clod. to set in motion by means of the voice. cisterna. to knock. slam. Cot. clamer. cluster. noise — — a cistern. whence cistiti. to clack. civis. in the frequentative form. a judgment cern. Du.. stimulate. lump. a loud uksa slamketi. as in Sp. accordingly find the roots dab. To Claim. cifra. The syllables clap. to be empty. a young and tender plant. a kind of rattle. . clamras. klumbr. civitas. crack. claquer crash. a whirlwind. We . E. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. klater-busse. klimp. glambar. with an initial s instead of c. and Sp. wasserkasten (water chest). crack. Fr. cry out . sound. See Circle. . sip. a shoot. a circle. log. * Cistern. klemte. clack-dish. to summon or call on. . to clatter. Excite. a boss . a reservoir Probably from Lat. klqb. to call. G. suck). klambr. cit^.' sione. may cite w. See Crankle. klump. or clap-dish. to clap at a theatre. CION See Tinder. sound- — hands figures. a circle. and. klubb. klappe. clog. . Cite. Hal. citujn. a'upiav. klepati. area. Fr. clamare.

&c. klappen. — . strait. dank. dink Du. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. Dan. brawl. to clap on. in a hidSen place. coagulated cream. kleppe. cramp. sound object . strain . These are imitations of a loud. dem. a sound made by a still . dee. E. klappen. cramp-iron. clear sound. clapper of conies. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . dren. as the Lat. whence sala. dang. The Fr. to stick or glue. to hold to pinch. to clap. Clapper. to climb . From small tribe subject to a single Gael. cleave. Du. a place underground where rabbits breed. Du. klem-vogel. clammy brace. Mampe. Clan. klynge. ancestor. Halma. children. clapas. originally a heap of large stones. klobber-saen. salafa. and hence to pinch . to climb. to daub pinch. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. apprehend .. children. to climb. — Lat. tingle. a whip. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. kleben. klette. hold. klank. G. holdfast. Clank. In like manner Du. dam immediate modifications — . pinching. klepati.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. Clap. to cleave or stick. to Hal. clann. OE. kleppe. klebern. diver. club . nature . to patronus. clav\f. to knock. dambar. — Cot. bandage. ring as metal. also to clog up. klam. narrow. chatter. compression. a sound. dia. hands or claws to grasp. AS. ney. To sticky. clibby. descendants . klampen. to Sw^. to dame. damor. G. and that from celo. a burr. pressed close or hard together. and hence moist. conceal. klam7n. klamre. klamme. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat.' to take coals to Newcastle. Clamp. klippe. — Climb. yf. grimper. cling. run to lumps Clandestine. To clap in E. klemmen. chatter. sound . gripe. to. buckle klamp. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. dapi^. klepel. Russ. massy. A i. to hide. to clamp. a bird of prey. klynge sig op. tattle. a trap. klepanie. Clang. clamber. rumour. klibber. clap. . klavre. klang. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. sound. Du. clandestine. E. c). to beat. klimmeii. sound. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. The E. klopfen. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. damras. is used in the sense of secretly. anything hidden. glambar. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. G. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. celo produces Fin. uproar. klubber. G. scendants. . viscous. tinkle. to pinch. or klamp-vogel. is a nasalised form of gripper. . to cling. gum. To Clamber. to gingle. klappre. Clamour. a heap of stones or other things piled up . The root which gives rise to klibb. a claw . rattle. solid. G. Dan. . a stick. to climb. kleppen. a hawk. closely analogous to that of the fast. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Dan. with cramp-irons. klemmen. to glue. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. E. crowd . Swiss kldbem. of the children. Bav. as the clapping of hands. prison. G. E. — with hunger. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. dientes. seize. gliong. tremble . knocking. klemmen. The equivalent of Lat. to hold fast with the . but perhaps not directly from it. .1. viscosity . . dap up. a loud tingle. chief. tight. substances of a stickydam. to claw oneself up. compress. See Clam. resonance klingen. to seize. for tame conies. B. tenacious. where- A — unto they retire themselves. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . clap. stick. bond. Lang. dam. to climb. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. dandestinus.er. klettern. Fr. dapier. contraction. G. tone. a claw. hook. clajnmy. clink. kloben. of which the locative case. clangor. dam. Hence the Fr. Du. the in many languages. from birdlime. a heap of stones. dienklebber. klammer. Sw. to starve. klammern. to stick conceal. dial. take hold of. a noose . kluppel. klamm. sticky Hal. accent. from the w. Gael.p correspond- ' without order. cream Manx doan. Dan. salaan. to hook things together. a stone See Claim. offspring. of money Gael. Clink. adopted Lat. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. who occuG. beating. a rattle . to knock. cluster. to glue. clang. a sound made by a lighter clink. Swiss kletten. Bohem. to clutch or cling oneself up. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. dial. These words To are closely connected with damp. dam.' klibba. to climb. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. a craCmp. daver. — — . klatten. beat. dapier. to do anything with a clap. Salainen. grasp. B. privately. Lat. clasp. sound of the trumpet .

he of white and red grapes mingled together. klaskad. to clash as arms. Commonly made. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Serv . fragor . noise.to cra. a key. Eau clairette. clatter.). hook. clopa. a little hook . Claw. chatter. Sw. chiaro clear. kletse. somewhat clear. classis. klaeret. From clairet. The form clew. a key KKtitid. sauna de classes. e. to cleave. puUs. claw (what fastens together. a kind of small. the cracking of a whip. to fasten. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. It. clas. thwack . to clap . whence kleuer. buckle. pellet . dap.Gr. cluster. we pass to the E. Identical with ON. vin clairet. Rayn. cloi. a lump . in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw.oi. In E. locket of a door. schnalle. In the same way is formed the OE.— CLARET clamp. assembly. K\a.. climp. Nawith stavis.w or u on the other. chiizjj-o. hawk. a claFr. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. to knock. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a water made of aquavitse. clair. Clause. under three modifications dava. clavus. a club or massy stick. clamp. to shut. Lat. chiarello. The b readily passes into gleba. klaequivalent to clack or clap. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. globus. Gr. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Du.ck a whip. as it is written by Chaucer. to fasten together . nail. nawith stanis. as Mod. a bird with powerful talons. subrubidum. Lat. from its use in fastening things together. crying. klouwe (Kil. —Kil. ghespe. a distribution of things into groups. Claret. biichse. Du. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. Nightingale. a ball. a complete sentence. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. to draw it up into a bunch. rubellum. clarinado. Originally clasis. mass. to rattle . Owl and that by which cleave to. or as G. Cot. uproar. and old red rose-water. flap. Kil. klampvoghel. diver. a heap. in the sense of a claw. a clasp. clairon. klatscha pop-gun. in the sense of a mass or lump. kleuen. klauw. clarin.\x\xvn. To clew. seizes) . to ring in such a manner for the dead. Clavicle. ictus resonans. an on the one hand. chiarino. klouwe. Clasp. as G. Klatsch- a pop-gun . rion. Du. Pol. Sp. skeria-klasi. E. to do anything with a . with a reddish tint. from clinging to the tree which supports it. clausula. Russ. from the resemblance to a key. fibula. clavis.Z. applied in their harness. ivy. glcis. Analogous Jam. straight-mouthed. insularum nexus . same class with w. the collar-bone. it is called clamming. and shrill-sounding trumpet. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . a key origmally a crooked nail. to patter. row aii/iaTos. Lat. . a sphere . Lat. bawling. — Kiittner. from scknallen. ansa. to snap. The collar-bone. and through v into a. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. — Clarion. klauwe. Fr. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. clairon of a trumpet— It. claret win e. a. klaterbusse. klamme. compression.It. a nail. fracas. Clatter. thence a definite head of an edict or law. the primary origin clapa. But clasp or elapse. which signifies a ball in E. vin claret. Du. a claw. &c. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. to end. Thus from Lat. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. stop of an organ. Du. a lash. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. klatschen. kleeven. klos. klucz. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. a. klc^i. an ending. kluczka. Class. It. klot. globus. biichse. clew. klase. sound of the foregoing description. a bunch. Lang. teren. a buckle. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. blab. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. is preserved in Lang. clew or fasten upon a thing. klatschen. kiosk bicza. . Clash. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. i. klijven. is used in Sc. cinnamon. chasguear. a lump. contraction. syrtium junctura. and clavis. clump. Fr. klatsche. forms are the Du. — tells us. pet. gaspe. Dan. Fr. Du. sphaera. klampe. KXeiSi. — Clarinet. &c. 269. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Wyutoun in Jam. vinum helvolum. also a knell for the dead. Mask ! plask ! thwick. G. mass. So Pol. Prov. Eya-klasi. Clew. waU. a clod. Thus from clamp. to animals Sp. From claudo. clausum.

clear. Sw. The Dan. See Clog. kluftholz. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. glitta. W. opposite senses. voice. a fissure. i. diquetcr. glent. viz. Clean. to glitter. To call. Axletree clouts. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. polish . kla:g. vissticky . nitidus. clean. Thus from G. words applicable sight. Sc. clean. river. to Brilliant. Lat. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. doff. speech . G. klinken. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. a mass. klove The Dan. lump. to fasten. date is AS. pure . gaklankjan. deot. Da. pure. Mar. kleg. glance . pretty. mud. pellet. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. explained from the klinken. From dob. Sw. klinken. and. a plate. cloven wood. kleben. 2. kleg. clash. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. klor. ON. ON. a clincher. — : A rivet. clibby. glan. A — A Clement. as Fr. to 2. hook. E. . to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. Du. kloben. klyft. a flash. Du. to fasten E. This word is used in two business is finished off. an object is simply cleft. E. or from being divided into two parts. that was Torriano. clear. This is probably one of the clean. The word is . bears nearly the same relation to both senses. glint. a cleft or fissure. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. as explained under G. kluft. clean. splendid pohshed. bogs cous. B. klinke. sticky. klceg. gingle. (Cot. Probably a modification of the word doitt. sleek. and Dan. dial. viz.). in two ways. to be composed. glindse. from nitere. bend in a stream. klank. bright. shine. vice. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . a mass. kloben. as the Du. clay . celebrated . klinke. a noose. clout. dags. dench. Halma. cliquet. dag. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. the latch of a door. radiant. a lump.— Clag. to shine. Dan. Cleat. to stick or adhere . — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. Clear. gleit. kluit. clink. Sc. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. Clinch. a claw or talon. a in that of sphtting. Da. is fast and sure. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. klijveii. neat. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. klirren. klag. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. clear. clean. loam. glatt. famous.— . as ON. Du. and Celtic glan. klinken. Gael. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. provinciaUy termed dout. pure. to sound or make a noise . glan. or of a tree. klov. klafwa. doggy. together . tongs. the To Cleave. G. to separate into parts. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. glitnir. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. glan. Clay. that was a striking proof. to cleave. rift. klieuen. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. a — — . kluyte. glorious. chaps in the skin. klouen. to fasten. G. kloben. a one end. merciful. Cleft. give a shrill sound Jr. rivet. seem formed dial. a cleft. Omklinken. . kleverig. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. glandse. it cleave together. klutsch. to tear or cleave asunder. AS. to clink or sound. rive. G. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . a cleft. dedgy. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. to stick to. From clap. E. door-latch. Kil. a lump. 154 CLAY dutch. Clemency. To Clench. kldnkelein. the original . Sw. Fr. kleevig. Wilbraham. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. sticky . The proper meaning of the word is shining. Du. a noise.' was nailed to a rock. . calm. from diquer. to chink. to shine . . kloue. The word may be — . danche. daggy. conserere antklankjan. dut. split. sticky earth. klincke. to clinch a nail. smooth. either by the coherence To Clepe. dinquet kleeven. dams. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. klinka. to dag ox dog. G. klieben. klink. ON. to clinch GB. Da. klouen. . . glbr. Du. klinke. polished. glbram. neat. Lat. klirre. Die zaak is zS. cleave. a key. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching.— Claggy. clemens. holding together. Bav. the fork of the body. Du. as Lat. gentle. glor-mhor. found in other cases. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. the two parts of Du. and E. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a latch. from the clinking of the latch. a fissure or division See Cleave. See Clam. geklonken. of iron worn on shoes by country people. a bunch of When flax). to clench.Q.

. to tattle. ravine. dexterous.' ii. de ripa. — — A . a baU of yarn. dook (identical with E. speak. name. clerus. We movement catch. Hence Lat. . klippe. Jam. as Sc. See AS. to confess . highest is attained. in the sense of active. rugged ascent. derjon. littus. cliquet. icXi/ja?. AS. CLERK sound of a blow. abrupta rupes . Boh. to clack. dob. Client. -Toe (from KXivm. as a click with the tongue. Cot. 3. clyf. the knocker of a door. click. OE. a precipice. catching. /cXi'fia. cleke. a hold. seize (Hal. on. as Lat. from clifian. expeditious. from Gael glac. cleft in a rock. gleg. Sw. would have been derida. climate. Bav. Clever. in rhetoric. and hence climate. rapidus from rapio. dial. to teU tales. clatter. Fr. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. Norm. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Du. Commonly derived from deliver. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. deik. But the Dan. is NE. Now the OE. kleppe. diver. with hamarskard. klinke. Cliff. klikklakken. score7i clif. Lat.. above the pole. klif. clack. 3. lively.). 'not as being lords over God's heritage. chat. Dunbar in Jam. one of the clergy. cliff. klinket. claw or talon to dek or deik. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. CLINCH De . or Sc. a clew. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . had a form. Lat. a claw or clutch. exactly Gr. klouwe. Happen. and hence deik. quick of perception. sonare. clima. diofian. prattle. Climax. klinge. Rouchi cliche.— Clicket. cleft. pulsare. klikker. cleopian. babble. temperature. verge). on. duik. precipice. to stir. clep. Klover i munden. Du. a clerk . Det er en Mover kerl. clap. d See Clan. as from derido. Claw. that is a clever feUow. Click. KkrifoQ. call.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. say. frap- per rudement une personne. a sphere. sink. dichet. which is used in Scotch and N. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. The origin is the Gr. to cry. Climate. in precisely the same sense as the E. dial. kloof. what so men clappe or crie. to sound an alarm to clap. a latch. rock. a latch . IS5 Du. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. klika. deuch. corresponding to the Sc. dutch). Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. click it. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. pen. region not observe it. kliket. Clew. . cligner. derecia. &c. it must be observed. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. light-fingered. click. a ladder. a child's or clack . klaiv. skard. click. a hump. call. clif. clever. G. to catch. deik. to catch. glomus. Sp. to bend. a cliff. precipices. a trigger. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. See Clench. G. cleugh. a lot. crackle. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . —Vocab. to rattle. hamraklif. declivity. cliof.) Brai. to tattle. to move. scar. derigon. a clicket or clapper. Gr. neither as having lordship in the. cautes. e. a hook. slope . It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. ized . rock. a lazar's clicket or clapper. dicher. klippe.— Clue. Somner. dever. crepare. a ball of twine. nimble. chatter. syn. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. a lump. stein- kluppen. corresponding to Fr. Clam. Lat. chatter. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. to seize. duke.Lat. the dick of a latch or a trigger. klok klep- crepitare. has also deik. In I Peter v. chatter. or an object character- Clerical. to cleave. The Sc. klever. cave . an inclination. globus. to talk as a parrot. Chaucer. Da. one admitted to the tonsure. dergi.dergie! Wiclif in R. a mill-clack . The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. Clergy. a figure mentioned. klev. which in Mid. dough. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. derigo. kleppen. diquette. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. has kl'dver. the clergy. kliv. quick in motion. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. to snatch. Du. a cleft in a rock . clypian. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). crack. clif- stanas. cleft of a hill. Climb. deuck. agile. deudi. whence Fr. . dek. a latch. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. ready of speech. Clerk. ginally from dob (extant in W. rupes . cart that tilts over. cliquer. snatch. Sc. — have the notion of a short quick in E. dink. klaffen. clever. and (with the nasal) — clincher. a tumbril. dial. to wink. See Clamber. to prate. the clergy clericus.

. klungelin. -CLINE make pinch. klippa. acclivis. kima. clinke. related to clock. clino. gUong. as G. quincailler. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. to knock. E. a faction. klynge. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. OHG.D. G. in Schmeller) klunk. to wither. tuft. a cluster. like cling. dial. to snip. toga. Sw. especially of something soft or clammy. G. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. a beU. To Cling. kol- The word . . Du.. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. kldpp. toga muliebris. Ang.— KSS. to clap or clack. a clog or fetter for a beast . Sw. a tinman. &c. ' . to shrink up. klippa. to strike. Flem. claw. Fr. G. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. club). to pinch klupe. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. kleppe.' From Pl. Decline. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. klicke. Clock. a separate portion. hill . sticky. kolbe to E. Fr. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. noise. outcry. Swiss klungele. klunge. met. dial. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. also to form a compact mass. pinch. klik. pallium. Lat. globulus' (Gl. Gr. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. iissura.und zuk-lippen. Bohem. as thick or curdled liquids. to lean backwards. to . Ir. To cut with shears. to pinch. klippe. knippchen. nip. klak. clutch. to bend downwards . klocke. w. klocka. Bohem. or bagging clothes. at first probably on a wooden board. sloping forwards. straits. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Du. bow. hlinen.. — clot. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. kXiVu. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to cluster. Du. cloche. cochl. kluben. hluccti. fetter. from klepati. a clock. G. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. clangere. difficulty. to clunge. Sw. N orman clincailler.— Clot. . clinker. ON. Hal. incline. to form one mass with. clock is a variation of clack. as to snip in the same sense from snap. klocke. sloping upwards procUvis. klippur. pinch. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. to snap or fillip schnippen. ring clag. kluppe. See Clang. Esthon. Een kliks bolter. 2.. a hood. The notion of a loose moveable substance. a bell.ginglej Fr. to beat. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. kliks. clato make a noise. -cliv-. rima. also to wink . klinken. slant. . klupen. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. knippe. to shrink up. to cling to a thing. klepalo. whence E. Pl. . G. . Kil. glungelin. klo^gen. to wither. hluk. a bell. and 'E. clique. hooded . Du. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. * Clod. to sound sharp. a lump of butter. to crowd or squeeze chingy. dial. declivis. shears. a woman's mantle . To stick to. a lump.D. ON. to snap kneipen. dag. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. recline. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. incline. Clink. ten. clips. a lump G. Lat. to snap tongs. to clip. chcng. knot klynge. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. klungeln. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. . kukla. Walach. a ball of thread . clog. Cliofue. 156 -cline. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. hlinian. To Clip. to AS. and so' to contract. to lean. I. E. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. — a mantle. glocke. to beat on the board. cloak. gang. -atum. klincke. S w. Serv. Cloak. speaks of a ' clung bat.'— Shaks. g. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. schnippen. to resound. 'Till famine cling thee. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Swiss klokken. by bits. Sw. . Sw. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. klingen. sloping downwards . difficulty . to crowd together klynge sig ved. a snare.' for a dry stick. to make a loud noise. compress . Bi klik uti klak. See Cowl. klok. verklungeln. clivus. brett-glocke. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. as we now say three or four o'clock. Gael. clingan. Da. G. Sussex peasant AS. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . klinka. four of the bell. . to slope or bend . dial. and a similar syllable without the /. kolki-laud. klipa. . parva ruptura. The E. knippen. klippen. ON. to ring. to clink auf. klunker. disposed to a thing. klaka. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. a rising ground.

a block. a monastery. . Lat. thick spoon . zoccoli. curdled. . loblolly. Idppern. gelatinous. meat from Du. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. to play at bowls. lopin. klac. G. forbidden by 17 Ed. to dash like heavy rain.' end. His heart was franlc without a flaw. mud klcEg. . neither spot nor hang loose. slop. je amoncele. klateren. • lump. zocco. kleck or lack. tuditare. a trowelful of mortar. slabberen. and thus seem endowed . ' — Again we have Swiss klotten.1a. fat. enOE. -clusum. a blot. Clog. bowl . pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. figer. loppe. rattle. -clus-. blot. daustrum. truncus. whence klack. . a field inclosed clos. beklakken. cloth. hanging loose and full. motzen. plod. loose. slobberen. to shut up. klotz. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. to dabble. to bubble. 3. geschlotter (as E. Cloister. spatter. I doda clod.dial. a portion of something soft and adhesive. with Fr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. schlott. shaky. the radical sylla. I clodde. I clodde. klotzschuh. a Christmas log. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. finish . dirt. separate part. wabbling from Du. schlattern. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). schlottern. to lobberig. a log. clorre. doitre. tJokok. a skittle-ground klos- sen. klokotat. clotted locks Dan. Closhe. in forms like Du. dunch). then liquid or loose substance. kloden. da- . Fr. a blot. unctuous. . kleck. lump of something soft . clogs. lobbig. and Du. in accordance with It. to paddle in the wet. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. log. to rattle. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. klag. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. kladde. laggery. slab. kloteren.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. clot. to bedaub. MHG. klakk. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. E. foreclose. He was a man without a dag. Pl. clos. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. from claudo. without. to a. m&se noch stain. g. Fr. klunkern. Yule-clog. claudo. of something clammy or heavy. from Fr. to shut in. bespotted with mire E. dag. clausum. Klak also. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. . slops slodderen. lobberen. slops). klottern. shut up. dangle. to shut. clausum. to flounder in the wet. fors. we pass to Schlatter. IV. be found rattle. It. to bodies. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. a lump from Du.rge lump.). . mud. boil. loose mud. Du. paludosus. to rattle or shake to and fro. a bal!. Dan. closed. to cling locks. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. lump of mud on the clothes . . to spill liquids. a log. ! . kloteispaen. a clod. loose trowsers. slobber.'^ Palsgr. clotted milk klotte. slobbe. The game called ninepins. close. klakken.— Clothe. pattens G. . of a body of any kind. is connected with pludder. AS. analogous plan to clod or club. slob. be&c. Fr. pludre. chiuso. daggerey. motte. klos. lunch. lob. a clod Swab.. clogs for the feet klakk.. a spot. loppered (of milk). paddle. an imputation. The origin of clod and clot is to . and Gael. Gr. a dirty wench claggy. watery. kloten. clatk. to wabble. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. A — — A Thus from Bav. thick sour milk. klod. to slop or spill liquids. Klottermelck.D. to flap as loose clothes. . Close. Fr. tramp in wet or mire. to close against one. spot of dirt. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. schlettern. to sup up liquid food. claggy. Pr. dirt. . A . lobberen. lumps of butter. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. we pass to E. to shut. Sc. schlotter. or E. in comp. a clog. or Sc. klot. E. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. chiudere. Hence inclose. paddle or dabble in the wet. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. claque. shut up. compared with clump. Pm. aspersion. dial. kl'dnken. klos-bane. clammy loam. . laggyn. in accordance with Pl. G. miry laggerit. In the same way Dan. lag. to rattle. like G. splash. Bav. Pr. bemired. Du. kloster. . mire. -close. congeler. to dabble. a babbler. dab. lopperig. Lat. Mat.D. TZoxapov. . from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. lump of butter. inclose. and E. terminate. wide bagging clothes. bloutre. Russ. is a blot on one's character. or drablyn with separate existence. To Clog. clog or overshoe. . sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. from Du. clos. to claggock. -cludo. Swiss schlott. or loppern.

the terms expresssplit. a ball.bar. lump of earth aria. dote. knob. Club. cob. also homo obtusus. are also used in the sense of a stopper. I. Cld. knob. ON. A kind of spice resembling Du. a lump. duthaich. tuft. klove. aglio. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. klumba. To Cloy. ball of thread Russ. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. nourish . from OFr. kloven. of thumping clumsy action. as Fr. kloete. klcBdi. CLUCK rustic. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R.clod. Clover. mass. a clod or clot. puddle. a lump. cobio. clothe. a knot of people. spice) G. formed lump or thick mass. loggish. a curdled sky. Mabousfrom Lat. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. cludadh. clunch. esdaboter (Roquef. een klaven kruflook. del mattond. a log.). Met. shel- kloen. clog. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clothes ment. Properly that which covers and Du. The priClout. piece Cot. dump. a bunch. indispalte knoblauch. naegel. Clump. klebek. unpolished. Ir. zolla. probably from daboter. daggy. w. cobble. . it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. Then applied to a lump of mate. Fr.). 2. to beFr. caillebottes. w.158 . to cloy. klubb. when something has got into the touch-hole. and of a rustic unpolished person. dash (Cot. davus. a blabber. clavo di especias. dial. klubb. bunch. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. log. lump. klunds. milk run to lumps. strike. klotzig. a garthas. a clove of garlick. sheltered . to lump mend clumsily. klubba. klotz. cluth mhor. to cleave. warm. choke or stop up.Fris. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. (kruyd =. zolla dell' . block. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. klobbersaen. stock. dial. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. dabosser. N. tered . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. mire. are often connected. So Fr. Du. clyd. . a ball. a breach. — — — . Dan. AS. . a bunch. de Champ. a patch.D. a sky Cot. lump. from W. a bobbin. klever. klonte. kldverj P1. dillad bumkin. lumps of curd. To Cluck. warm place . A division of a root of garlick. mary sense is a blow. clod is used in both senses . to cleave or the splashing of water. From dog. a boss. and closely do conspire. Pl. rustic. clot. nagelein. eene ODu. Clumpered in balls of clouds. klaven. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. and clout d eudaich. make warm. to stop. . wisp. klump. Imitative of the note of a society. to tramp in the kluyve. Du. lump. of nagel. and -the word Clove. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. a ball. of a lump of earth and that figure. klieven. Du. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. clods. boucher. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . but confounded with cailler. clump of a clout on the head. a nail. ser.). blockish. lie clyd. clotted milk or cream. a clod. botsen. of sloppy materials.D. dob. a bunch. Du. to cherish.). from Du. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Du. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. warm clothes {dillad. matte. eine to slop. clobyn. lunch).' Sanders. a nail) Fr. to a lump. Sp. a sticky. to strike . signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. Gael. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clammy earth. a thick mass. klumpfot. klubbe. klu77ip. a ball of twine . clod. . Das volk hat sich in splitten. from kloven. with lout. E. and tapp. warm. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. clou de girofle. — . a clubfoot klabb. cloud Delfortrie. clot. kluppe. in the same sense. cluster. a clot or keeps one warm. a clown. clumhar. CLOUD an awkward clod . sheltered up warm. to splash. The significations of a clod or lump. G. coarse. . AS. dirt. E. klotsen. Clown. clump. a . E. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. diboter. to curdle. botch. In the same way E. Sw. Du. mud (Pat. a cover or coverture . kUid. Sw. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). Kiittner. sticky. clunch.ft. little nails. kluV. dabaire. G. a bousche. a. nelke (dim.D. clydion. group of people Sw. clot . and clay. klqb. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. G. The radical sense seems to be an unE. Cloud. a log. It. motte. Rouchi dapoter. the air. clue. a fissure. dut. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. to strike. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . to cover Bret. cludaim. Gael. More in R. Move. G. chiodo di girofano. hebes (Kil. dial. kl'dnne. dys. ON. clothes).

cliboter. lay hold of. — . cleche. klikaty. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. — ' — — tonista. ON. ball as snow. to tramp. dussomed (Wilbrabam).e. klummklummshandt. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. Gr.' Vegecius in Way. clutch. limp. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. benumbed with cold.pare P1. a lump or compact mass. clump. hondis. Clump. Variation of clatter. klumpern. -clusum. Fr. a clod or lump. heavily. klimpern. * Clumsy. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. carriage in which you klodset. or from Sw. a lump. to wash. -olus-. smart motion. ether comelia P. —To Clumsyd. -close. claws. awkward. Beklummen van kelde.— — . lump of soft mate. ' Thou clontsest for cold. G. a clot klissen. properly to do anything Fr. Analogous forms with a tongs. to syllable click. 159 E. and make ye strong feeble knees. Du. a coach. Du. coucher became in unhandy. Coal. -CLUDE hen Du. close. enervatus. Riwle. Coach. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. exclude. wooden sole. Cluster. dumpers. duke. -cludo. hands stiff with cold. acomelydfor could Pr. Clutch. wooden shoes. Hesse. to klotz. er. thick and clumsy. Sw. See -elude. klister. Du. klump. obstructum. eviratus. from klupen. 130.D. to gingle. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. glocire. a ball. Du. eene beklum. Lat. coccolare. in comp. kichlemmit. The Fr. . Hence snatching. E. Isaiah. to paddle or dabble. with a quick. kohle. OHG. esclaboter. -clus-. lavesen. viscous material.D. the word is more probably connected with OE. cluster. klumpig. to tramp or tread heavily. a clod or lump. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . . Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. to curdle. fingers (familiar). In the same way Du. conclusion. unhandy. Ang. awkward. Compare Swiss klupe. klette. klunsen. Sp. hooknosed. Boh. dial. clook. klos. unhandy. klummerhdndt. See reclusion. paste. conclude. to curdle. a lump. ball of snow on horse's foot . and klonteren. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. havi. algidus. Lincolns. The sense of awkward. clotted cream.D. with E. idle. klisse. to lie. pladdern. dial.P. from laver. clip or pinch. ' . Clutter. Fr. Fr. of Du. ment. G. finish. clausum. to to snatch. klonte. Du. hand to cleuk. a clove Sw. verklomen. clutch. Pl. through the senses of lumpish. Muster. Com. to benumb with cold. a block. dumps. n. a ball . a pinching time. eviratus. G.. ill-made . might be reached from clump. But clunchy. of garlick. A group. an instrument for nasal form e. klamen.' Comfort ye dumsid. &c. klunt. Cath. klemma. crooked inwards . Pm. log. clopiner. klomen. beklummen. plad or plod. to shut. a couch. a nasalised form of club. klikonosy. Hindust. are the nasalised forms of klotte. also a cluster. ' Uorte (for clogs. inclusive. klomje. tight — — . E. strum on an instrument. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. seize. bunch. -elude. a litter. Champ. kluntfrom KKvKdi. G.'— animal. clumsy. — Cot. xXvariip. Pl.forklomme (Outzen). not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. and klotteren. Teulazy. unwieldy Hal. to rinse. klont. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. . to tramp. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. to stick together . as Fr. claudo. calling her chickens. gelidus. Cheshire. . producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. clointer. —More. cluntClyster. klemmen. koetsen. having the Pl. glousser. klampa. to grip. klocken. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids.Ancr. and koetse. claw. unfashioned. to curdle. koetsDa. MHG. * Clump. from ON. to squeeze. klompen. a clod or The noclot. beklommen. koetsie. wagen. klamp. splash. From the notion of sticking together. dial. MHG. dystere. a claw. It.E. a bunch.' Benecke. in v. or aclommyde. verkommelen. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound.D. kol. whence koetse. ' Clumper. as clumper. klcise. as from seken. dek.' Wycliff. COAL dumpish.mene tied. klonte. cleik. klods. dial. Ray. — sen. koetblockish. to wash. to collect in lumps. Sc. Hence cleik. clabosser. doquear. pinched. a noise. cleuk. OE. Graff in Klamjan. to pinch. dumpse. rial. dek. Sw. — Hence include.D. klontet. a clod clunter. differing only in the absence of the duik. Lat. klobber in klobbersaen. Fris. may recline.

sweets and the other of poisons. blaze. to . klabbsmed. Pm. a bungler. a coat or frock. a bubble. to be hot. cluster. cokes or fool of him. pustule. dial. and imperfect or unskilful action. kolna. cob. ridi. dial. A spider's web. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. caleo. and thence a lump cobnut. numb. to peck as a hen cobyn. meaning that she is plain and coarse. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. are round stones or round coals of small size. . koppe. E.. is one of thump. a firesteel Lat. glow jvalaya. — — — E. a bunch. large coals. and fig. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. pock. tempered clay for building. a cobweb. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. Du. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth.). used in — . kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. and hobble. — Cobbler.' Nares. a similar According to Ihre. Coast. COCHINEAL Cobber. The dirt. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. niais. . kop. . cochinilla. . may be A found in Sw. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. w. haggle. to Lett. of E. boil. cofasse. a crea. a knock. OE. to speak or act confusedly. bijamie. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg.(pi.' And colo. says Varro. — Pr. acomelyd or aclommyd. coste. glow. to cob. in Essex Jow*2c^. pockbecility and liability to imposition. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. imbecille. kylla. a darling. rivation are found in Sw. grown together. Outzen. an egg. ordinary as in the expression of course. cock or nescock. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. to beCoax. ON. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. large stones . walk clumsily. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. to wheedle or gull vermin). Sp. Fr. of poison. that is. Fr. Cobbles in the N. plaisant. e. of E. throw a blow. a large round nut cobstones. bredouiller. dial. v. Fin. then to work unskilfully . to cobble shoes. and the spider as collectors. Coat. Cocasse. quele. In the E. as in arr. koljarn. an old idiot. petrilla. cokes was a simpleton. koppen-gespin. Sanscr. however. To cobble. A plausible origin. — — . gull. a rib. a spider. unfledged bird. Lat.).. to kindle jvAla.— Cobble. The Fris. klabbare. long standing. to hobble . to kindle or cause to burn . H^cart. to form an union with another coalitus. staggering or halting. habble. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. costa. according to the ordinary run of events. from some fancied resemblance. * To Cobble. cobble. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. cobcoals. ignem. Fr. hakkelen. Pm. inflammation. atter-kop. Flem. united. a spider (/r)^=grub. cacd). are often connected. pustule. It. things. glowing embers. dim. cob is a dumpy horse. a pock mark. of cochina. broddelen.). one Pr. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. to stutter. quilet. to bungle . e. and jval.a spider. klabba. properly to daub. side . i6o COALESCE on in lumps.. to stutter. probably left his home. to be inflamed . any kind of coat. Lat. to burn. dial. the one of thump. verklomen. a tuft. Formerly written course. 3. to pdt with We may cite Fr. probably from the Fr.' — Thus from (Hal. spinne-ivebbe. to glow . give the full meaning of the word. or cobble. or upper . — Cleveland Gl. a nest. nursery lang.. frock. s. Coalesce. flame. It. Dan. To cokes or coax