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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


the closer we shall approach to the . when neither name for the object to be designated. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. Molli. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. by whom the be understood. is given to a cow or calf. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the baaing of the sheep. the present day. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and mully or mully cow is the . in language of the present day. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. or Mollein. mind of the of the animal. and where we are seeking. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. but nothing she herself knows the animals. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. The syllables moo (mu. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. to the syllables which are significant to the child. with an initial m or I. name of the cow. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. or. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. in other words. persons of different tongues at the present day. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. come Moolls (Mrs Baker).NURSERY IMITATIONS. muK) and mae (rfie. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. when we is represent to our children of the cow. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. come Moolls. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb.

There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. it changed to the more articulate wn and im.' In ordinary speech mump. when hungry. hm. to eat. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. . repulsive to eat. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. for bad. nim.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. mumm. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. A member of my own new sfop. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. schipp. Finally an n was placed before it. We have. He would now say good. then. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. in children's language.. nineteen years old. partly from sounds which the child caught. First. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. for things. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. 72). nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. to For instance. he called to to drink. and which we might express thus. family. became more perfect. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes.' he says. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. . &c. p. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. and nim came to signify everything edible. by the natural humming sound. fiafifi&v (Hesych. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. to work over with the mouth. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. and some were very clear and distinct. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. his nurse adopting the word with him. Heinicke. analogous to Magyar mammogni. as well as the mind of the utterer. Gr. On one occasion he said^e nim. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself.). had nim. for everything fit to eat. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. Gradually. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. I had watched the growth of this word.

Wolof nahenahe. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). or word-making. jamsa (yamsa).' says Quintilian. oves lalare. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. i. on. ' Motherwell. and some of them . delicacies. as well as the Sw. buckra man's language the white man. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. mujnpa. dial. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to smack in eat. Soosoo (W. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. iii. jumla. Gothic niman. . aves tinnire. nyam nyam. Africa) nimi. (in chil- dren's language). aptantes adfectibus vocem. sweet (Koelle). snatched (Whitby Gl. to chew laboriously. make djamdjam). agreeing with Ein. to move the lips in continued chewing. at hiamske i sig. Africa) nimnim. jammla. nobis vix permittitur. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). yamming. Swedish dialect gamsa. 130-1. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . to Sw. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . i8o.' And Diomedes. memmexen. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. as to . to fill the mouth.minis. ut tinnitus aeris. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Galla djam djeda. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. namnam. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. taken up hastily on the sly. we can call them so. and the fizzing (and Series. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. food (Tylor.' — Lersch. mumpfen. nvrnma. palatable. ' id est. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. A negro proOr. crab nam buckra man. savory. mumpfeln. clangorqae tubarum. nam. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. and the crab — p. mumble. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. to eat. p. South Jutland hiamsk. Nimm'd up.' says the author of Modern Slang. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). voracious. to eat mampfen.ONOMATOPCEIA. to taste . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. lita. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. tidbits nama . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. 1 86). To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. greedy . ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Vei (W. j ing . it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. and thence to be tasteful. to be pleamind . Primitive Culture. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos).). while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. the Scotch poet. stolen. to mump. eating. to take. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.

might be used. Yet we ing. hooting of owls. before the in other words. whether it deserves the name of language. yelping. that there is When Man.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. purring or mewing of cats. barking. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. not of a moo of Lect. ^6^. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. und growling. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. might be used as the designation of it. dove and cooing. We . p. 89) with less hesitation. or. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. or thoughts of our hearer. croaking of frogs or ravens. snarling. snarling of dogs. between dog and harking. for the purpose of bringing the animal. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language.' — We speak of a cow. bumping of bitterns. when circumstances required. gobbling of a turkey-cock. not of a baa. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. howling. 'I doubt.' he says. yelping. anything connected with it. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. cooing or crooing of doves. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. but of a dog. lowing of oxen. chattering of pies or monkeys. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. twittering of swallows. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. neighing or whinnying of horses. cackling or gaggling of geese.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. a lamb. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' And elsevs^here (p. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. Indeed. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. do not speak of a bowwow. baaing or maeing of lambs. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. grunting or squealing of hogs. bleating of sheep. intended in the instance to represent the cry. chirping of sparrows or crickets. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . hen and cluck- duck and quacking. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. sparrow and chirping. bellowing of bulls.

and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. having a general predicative power. and the sound of that direction. crow. kae.). obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says..' kd). Sometimes the hoarse i . and means a shouter. fi-om apakd- i. in g. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. lion. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Manchu The kaha. 380. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. He to is therefore derives kdka. a crow. 349. Kdrava. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. sound). birds. kdka. a daw. ghak. Barabra koka. 4th ed. in is Gr. a bird that is be driven away. coccolare. In Basque. In Lat. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i.' common sense. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. e. Bav. kuho. Origines Indo-Europeennes). kauwe. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. according to Durga). an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Hungary. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. a crow (Pictet). ist ed. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. crow. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. KOKKvi. Columbia kahkah. Georgian quaki. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen.). But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Aoo-Aoo. layitavya . roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. a a crier (p. and Bavaria respectively. whose sound (Pictet. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. gackem. 'Kdka. Picard cau. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Sauscr. caller. and gaggele or gagkelein. Arabic kdk.IMITATIVE NAMES. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Malay gdgak. caw kuhii-rava (rava. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. or quawk. it announces (Salaberry). at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect.

while crouk.Gr. It. korren. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. yell. Hindi. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. kraeyen. p. Fr. Albacuculi a dove. krauklys. German kielitz. tbrtola. k. in the North of England.. lilits. The consonants p. uhu. Swedish kowipa.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Du. or Gr. to croak. Ibo akoka. kurre. 6. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Mod. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. krahe. the name of an animal will gen- . lUyrian kukurekati. to howl or Lat. Lettish kiekuts. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. the name for a crow. Dutch kievit. Yoruba koklo. and e. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. to croak. tuquheit. tbrtora. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. are represented. reduplicate form. and sometimes both together. by the verbs gurren or girren. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. kraukti. tur. Esthonian kikkas. either in the same or in related dialects. Arabic tdtwit. The crowing of cot in Fr. Du. koeren. kirren. coucouva. teewhoop. Pers. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. kraeye. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. German and Eng- krahen. Malay kukuk. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Heb. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. a crow. 219. cock. Walachian coucouveike. coqueri- Languedoc. a crow . kruk. French dishuit. a crow lish Lith. ghughu.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. xi. name of its is the bird. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. hibou. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. libufs. Scotch peeweip. kukko. and e. wood-pigeon. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. So we have Polish krukac. synonymous forms of similar structure). "Welsh hwan from hwa. Da. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to crow. to crow. to hoot. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . as well as of Sanscr. German luhu. gufo. great variety of oKokv^uv. gugu. kukhuta. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. girre. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. turtle) as the Lat. kuku. lulo. coccovaec. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. to cry loudly. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o..' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. another. Zulu kuku. giving turtur (and thence It. name. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Magy. tortbla. tor. t. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. Sp.

' Amazons. words imitative of humming . and he kong-ko-rong. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. to chirp . from schrick. common. or a gnat fly. the humble. which they make in their flight very . Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. (Jieuschrecke) . Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. of England it is to the b 2 . schrickel. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. bee. Lat. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. droning is . succeeding each other — with noise. flight its sting considered as a horn. Danish dron. bambhara. give a faint sound. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. skryle.vf3. i. glass cracking (Schmeller). frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. The Welsh chwyrnu. din. knetta. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. The Arabic sarsor. chirk. Albanian tsentsir. Corean sirsor. 'The natives call it tanand. Speaking of a cricket he says. there are infinite varieties. from the humming. shrill. a drone.IMITATIVE NAMES. German dronen. Arabic tantanat. a sharp sound as of a 6. buzzing. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. schrecke. to chirp J may be compared with . kong-kong. schirke. whirr). ajo. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. German hummel. as . to grumble. gives rise to chwymores. ' — Pictet . little intermission. a small as hawk is . Fin. to sound. and probably indicates that g. loud rumour. g. horniss and from the buzzing The.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. schwirren. 337. in allusion to its music. We may cite Gr. ta-na-nd. booming. to be compared with Sanscr. PofijivXwg. resound. a hornet. humming. with or Fr. cricket is from crick. g. grylhis. a bee. and not from E. the drone or non-working bee . We may compare the Parmesan tananai. grillen. Lithuanian tranas. Danish gnaddre. ' Sanscr. sound. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. oE. growling. skril with n. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. German drohne. Gaelic dranndan. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. and yelping cry. sirkka. e. g. Northern Farmer. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). buzzing. bamba.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. — Catafogo. hollow noise. Australian bumberoo. to creak Bret. to rustle. The drone peal.' — i. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . a beetle druna. Lith. swirplys with 6. to shrill sound sharp. North of England. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd.' —Tennyson. pip-pi-ta. resounding of musical instruments. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner.or bumble-bee. zirken. In the N. representing a short sharp sound. Naturalist on the tocano. Sanscr. Sc. thunder. The name of the cricket indeed. dhran. a fly (Tylor) . grille. to hum. skirl. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing.

bugler. grumble as distant thunder . w. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. ox. make poo. to mew. maukati. The Galla lilbil. in a imitation of a ringing sound. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. be-l-er. to bellow like a bull. to or bark. (iove. as that of the cow by boo. to sound. to make. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to low . Da. From the same lioao). Zulu lulula. to make a noise. With these analogies. bullock. Lat. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bugle. miau-l-er. agreeing exactly with Lith. or with on. to make a loud deep sound. bukati. forms a. or moo. to make. Hottentot bou (Dapper). From baa. Lat. the animal. make to it laugh. or formed Lat. bauli. bubenti. fivKaofiai. to low. a heifer. is inadmissible. mugire. amuse. baula. to from bau. to the uses goda. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). lulauti (to hoo-loo). to ba-L-are. to low or bellow. to boohoo. bubati. Manx booa. to . bull. k or g. representing the mew of a cat. bolt. Lat. and thence Lat. or bau-l-i. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to shout. whence baula. btibleti. On the same principle. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. from the imitative moo instead of boo. Thus from miau. in same way. shoot . to shout. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Galla boa. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. bu. boo. are (with a subsidiary k). — ^Tylor. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bullus and e. has bilbilgoda. and djeda. Norse bu. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. Fr. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bae. Illyr. mamoo-heeheek. and in Hottentot baa was the . p. Piedmontese fi bau. muJiati. bovis. Cult. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to beat hard. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. His analysis leads cow. bos. as the Illyr. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. a buffalo. bue. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to bow- own bawl. cattle. bucula. buculus. verbal form given to the say. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. bae. It. to weep. Gael. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. The Piedm. bwla. w. a cow. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Fr. a drum . say. a bull. mugler. verb is evidently identical with our shout. a bullock. mae. OFr. loge. representmake bow. that the imitative syllable are Lith.XX called booing. or a z to the imitative syllable. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. 167. the Fr. and from to ring. bo. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. biibnas. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. a Geiger.

. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Illyr. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. leg-et-ni. corresponding to ohg. meketati. leknuti. hadg- Magy. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. guttural tone. may with to snarl. sus-sus. the designations of a dog the term cur. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. as the proper name of a tame sheep. a wolf. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. hund. Gr. nire. grumble. /xj/caScj. name of the animal itself. to grunt. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. grumpf. The g. may be identical with Esthon. grumbhng. karra. name of a sheep. lek-eg-ni. Da. and with the subsidiary k or g. a sheep or ewe. to grunt. to howl. grumble. (iriKov of forms like Sw. From the imitative mae. 6.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. cite as by grunt. It. or in any ! way ! persuading. Manx meilee. name. oe. mutter. Kurren und murren. to bleat. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. knurfisk. and thence groin. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. and of (maelon). as lou of an ox. ' In driving. a (Hesych. does not produce a e. hunt (gen. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. a goat. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. and grumphie. meckern. a grunt. and Circassian maylley. lekavica. it and e. Fr. for the voice of the ox). a goat. to bleat . meigeal. from knurre. by which the shingle gives rise to It. signifying a snarling.' Moor's Suffolk words. to growl. G. to rumble. a sow. grunt. a goat firixal^ta. ^. Gr. a dog. undoubtedly imitative. a sow. goats. a sheep or a goat. although the imitation embodied in Lat. houch. kurren. It is probable also that e. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. cry). . /xijeao/iat. Gr. a pig. Idgge (Rietz). showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. a pig Fin. hunon. a. Welsh and Breton). growl. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. and hoc'h. grogner. Among dog.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. Illyr. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. hound. groin. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. grunlike a pig in eating. — . a sheep (Lowe). to bleat. Fr. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Hence Breton hoc ha. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. the snout of a pig. a sheep. / The same Gr. lambs. . meugler. With gen. we have Sanscr. grugno. meil. hwch. sheep or goat. sound. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. he would hardly. and snorke. Magy. a hog. smack and naski. this obstinate race. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. in Wolof bae. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). Illyr. curmurring. Gael. purr). to themselves. Africa laa. naskia. menAda (ndda. mecati. from hundama. Moreover. hundi). rumbling. grunny. kurre. mekegni. with the root ypaipm.). In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. in v. lecco.

which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. coquelicot. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock.' — ist Series. Sc. cockade. e. p. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. when he found peculiarity. There are of course some names. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. Thus we are led to the Fr. hoppe. like artificial flowers. Esthonian hoibo. 91.' ticular bird. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. turn a horse to the is In Finland.root. such as cuckoo. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. hiine. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen).. coquette. (Craven Gloss. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. p. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall.' 2nd Series. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. But words of this kind are. houpy in Craven. without a — we root. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). animal.. as in Yorkshire highly right. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. hobby.). while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. hobin. . to the left. humma. hobben. of the character in question. a little am- bling horse. to go backwards. g. So Sanscr. hottihuh. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. If onomatopoeias can . In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. to whine. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. a horse. from the cry animal. . as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. a mare. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. M). and it is behind that wall that language really begins.). and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. ^6<. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. the cry to stop or back a horse.

little speak for themselves. hukkup. e. but whether there kind between them and other words. giggle. g. ance or habits of the animal.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. horse. xxiii ginal object. to Sanscr. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. hresh. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. hresh. groan. Pl. . a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. moan. diver. redpole. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Lettish sweegt. swift. wrena. Sanscr. hross. hennir. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. Fr. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. wiehern. form corresponding hresh. ginniken. goatsucker. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. titter. sol. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. Sp. fehtati. nitrire. signified It. whitename in in- throat. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. rinchar. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . woodpecker. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Sw. hikkd. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. cough. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. animals or certain kinds of sound. wrenska. lapwing. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. frenschen. nounced with a guttural). and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. wagtail. Du. Bohem. to neigh. Irieschen. creeper. than to the sounds represented. command of language was attained. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. runniken. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse.D. as sigh.

heaven). The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. for a small one.' ! ! ! ! — dong. ping came the bullets about their ears. or tliat is accomit. 1865. haw. atchini.' So imac. on the chops is represented also by pratx. to sneeze. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. pump. bangas. banga. shriek. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the creaking of a wheel. knarr.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. banke. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description.' it both sides went. snore. snort. a kind of drum. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. knack. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. — Sanders. an attempt would be made to by the voice. the God of thunder . Zulu bongo. plitsch-platsch. for the sound of a blow. tlirob. lumm. &c. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. or the w. —Brem. scream. went the cannon. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. thunder (Tylor) . pit-a-pat. beat of a clock child . by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. Da. to drive on. a large bell. Australian bungbung ween. wheeze. Mei gbengben. DingBang. atchian. oren : Klapp.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. haitshu. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. strippstrapp-stroll. are familiar in ' to every one. for in such sound of blows. Of a like forma- drum . dong Read. the dashing of the sea . White Lies. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . in a nail Let. mer. for the sound of milking. to hammer . bang. ting-ting. Vei gbangba. for the sound of a fall. aritischane. fitsche-falsche. heart tick-tack. clap ! A smack Puff. hoo ping ping. bang ' ! trenches. hang. for the for the sound of .' 'Haw. ding. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for that of breaking. snukkup). to beat. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor .xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. root kshu. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. It is represented in e. a more expressive than the e. tisio (tisho). Wtb. . to ham. &c. beat. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. klatsch. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. to throw violently down. debhes-lungotais (deifies. for blows with a rod. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . hoo. to knock.

child. e. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pipare. piauler. chickens (Tylor).FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. mobility excavation and hollow ^. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. which he added to intensify the expression. pigione. piou. had been used laugh ? two. young bird. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. piou. pipegni. pipe. Mantuan pipiare. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. to peep It. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. pipio. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. to squeak. pipelni. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. peep. a whelp. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. cry. Florio. Fr. a chicken or gosling. The pi. a fife or musical pipe. used as a call to . scream. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. part of the What consciousness has the child. piccione. G. to designate cavity and hollow. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. to cry pi. young child . as in other subjects of study. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. Magyar pip. calls S. to cheep like a bird or a young It. is of expression. He Yet asks. not- . doubtless. Lat.' instead. the voice of chickens (Cot. and so forth. pu. a (young) pigeon. and whimper. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pipilo. is pfeife.sc. cry of young birds . bleat. Gr. or a piailler. pipe. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. has been un- employed to designate fixity. peep. or the uneducated different consonants are man. It seems to him that the teeth t. — . laugh. . of a word will appear supposed to represent. as k.) a chick. Lat. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pigolare. De Brosses. pigiolare. pippione. a fowler's bird call is lost. ducing the sound. a or cheep. —Lyndsay. pi. far pipi. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. pipio. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. In cases such as these. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. pule. to cry like imrli^u). the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. as the simplest implement for proFr. and their relations.

{to It. make wood a clinking noise. to rattle. chack. sound of dry breaking. to hawhaw or laugh loud. a short sharp sound. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. of a loud strong sound. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. thunder oil . Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to pant bejii- zela. sound). crack. karkarana. knurren. to jar. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. Hindoo tomtom. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. grumble. &c. cricli. be cate to go on laughing loud . gurren. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. when it force than biscuit. kniks. coo. a sharp short one. murren. to grumble. kuruk. to crackle like in boiling .Gr. rumble. . tintino. crash. knuks. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . a drum W. murmur (by . Pefuxela. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. the clucking of a j hen . tontonare. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. along with tinnio. cluck. Indian chack-chack. to laugh. laqfF. and lugh. where the variation. to cry pi. lachen. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to be compared with Sc. to pant violently (Colenso). kniks. as the click of a latch or a trigger. as representing the sound made when something breaks. preserved by Kilian. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. bubble. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. or kaka-faka. u. creak. turtur. knaks. Pacific aka-aka. borrelen. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). Zulu raraza. to fizz like fat in frying. in German. along with Du. is very common. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. loud laughter. a closed or obscure sound.. rumble (Fl. to creak knirren. ioriogliare (to make borbor). Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. a. . garren. of something fine and thin. a prolonged sharp sound. to thunder. some small vowel or consonantal sound. kirkirdnd. Poppopvi^to. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. like the noise of a glass breaking . by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. or springing back. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. to gargle . tonare. lachachen. to bubble. girren. to gurgle. i. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to ring pipio. rumble. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. vaake gorgor) . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- .) Mod. It. Hindustani karak is rendered. to cluck. Manchu kaka-kiki. to grumble). to growl. pi . yapyapii^to (to make gargar). the side of g. to grate the teeth . to gorgogHare rattle. to clack..

uproar. tup. bad. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. croaking of frogs. chut. clango. of keys or tinkling of bells. clash of arms. bent her head. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. fumtu. shout.* the heart. jangle. Maori pata. a drum . sound. for the ringing of illustrate bells. 192). noise. Scotch sough or sooch. rain (Tylor. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. csam-csogni. disturbance (F. tumwata. or of bells ringing. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum.and e. . drops of i. thump. The syllables lil-bil. Fr. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. for the clinking Lat. for chut-chiit-er. especially one who beats. bulbiil. to strike. Manchu kaka. the tingling Ming-Hang. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. call. and the imitative nature of tivgle. or to Du. champ. caca and Finnish adkkd. simmer. . or the bubbling up of to a spring. to ring or jingle. hala-hald-faMa (falda. Prim. KaKog. borrelen. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. muro and e. tumult. word. clink. rifiirayov. a nightingale. and e. the sound of a stringed instrument. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. 368). for the Manchu hak for the sound of . Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. to whisper. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . for the sound of privy whispering. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. compared with Gr. Tiie Galla gigiteka. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. kiling-kalang. a workman. wail. ding-dong. a nightingale. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to be compared with g. rvir (in tvittio. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. box on the ear imitation of the . for a tTviror). are applied to the is excrements of children. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). agrees with g.' Member for Paris. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. identical with g. The whispering of the wind I. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Galla tuma. bubble up. spring of water in the a bell. tubh. is based on the same imitation as the e. to say chut. e. at an accelerated note. is Manchu tang-tang. to beat. cry. Newman). and her heart went thump. a smith. to giggle. as of Tamil muromurmur. klirren. Magyar csamm-ogni. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. chuchoter. indicating the origin of Gr. brings us to Fr. make djamdjam). awater* ' The Mme P. E. correspond to e. kl'mg-kling. to knock. djeda (to say tub). clank. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. koXiw. quarren. as Fr. the gingling of glasses. 1871. and bilhila. a boy's whistle. to the purling of a brook. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. coughing or clearing the throat. chinking of coin. corresponding in e. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. sound).SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and Gr. jingle. halaidlac'h. Calt. and Gr. Turk. while cacd / used in e. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Sanscr.

slash. squeal. craunch. puff. rumble. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. whack. w. It. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. or v^hether jectional. dabble. crunch. to is blow. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. tum-ultus. to fall. whine. So in Fr. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. whirr. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. thump. fizz. hiss. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. brumberum. a applied as well to the force of the bang. clatter. boom. wind as to a stroke with a solid body.' — Nohden. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. disturbance. tap. thwack. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. swash. squall. souse. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. parapatapan. tumbian (to beat the ground). clash. flap. ring. blubber. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . gurgle. report of a gun. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. clink. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. Nevertheless. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. in e. clang. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. rataplan or rantanplan. douse. gargle. for (Sanders). smash. bubble. tinkle.. ' Der puff. sputter. without the intervention of orthodox roots. answering to g. tymmesll. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. to dance. mutter. creak. din. bang. and the French pouf. The use of g. smack. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. 'pat. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. the Germans puff. clap. we have buffet or cuff. Humboldt. flop. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. thump. splutter. lash. twang. tomber. squeak. snap. it is fallj AS. rattle. blow. rap. thump. plump. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. murmur. But although and also found in Lat. splash. pop. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. whizz. guggle. and soufflet. clack. according to the strictest phonetic rules. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. crack. hum. chatter. at a door tarapatan. jingle. and Grimm. by rubadub. while e. clank. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. dash. chink. tingle. crash. and Fr. The beating of drum is represented in e.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. patter. Fr. paddle.

ugh . we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. in the rushing waters. of horror. formerly cited. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. Crying. and thus they become signs of despair. stractions. or of any if wood.' If chaos. an imitation of a sigh . Grimm or Bopp. 94. xxix on the contrary. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. hay. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. grief. is Thus ah!. If. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. wringing the hands. the interj. every little pain. or stubble is meaner name. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. the kind of action that is desired of them. knows them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. in the case of the animal or of the infant. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. that he has taken the step in rational speech. the inteij. p. or any unsatisfied want. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. by the nature of the cry. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. and uttering plaintive sounds. are made known by an instinctive cry. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. without a thought of symbolising to them. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. and found in the building of be burnt up. At the first beginning of life. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows.' . because they are spontaneous. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. little who has time to want of her nurseling. but if we must not complain on the beach.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed.'. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it.

' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. sneezing. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. p. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. to solve the I shall call first. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. He says. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. If I wish to make a person of an . assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent.. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. the lowing of a cow. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. interjections. 344. as who them spontaneous utterances. more eloquent than a long speech. Language begins where interjections end.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. may become traditional. shrieking. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.' p. One short interjec- tion may fact. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. or which is of me as suffering pain. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. which are frequently so toned down cance. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. of all the mouth. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. ^6g And to the same effect 371. should be remem- . or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. he cites from Home Tooke. them to exercise it.' — ist Series. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. be more powerful. and the eye. And again. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. more to the point. they are involuntary interjections. and some of them the composition of words. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. groaning. 32. coughing.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles.

and more or less limited . because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. he says. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. hahottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. Koxafw. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. loud laughter. when I arp humming and hawing. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. bered. Lat. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. but the less am at a loss what to say. I am not hearer. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. hahota. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. Kayxa^u). over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. kahkahah. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. then speech begins. it them. in Fin. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. in Magy. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. cachinno. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. for example. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. speaking. demolishing here. Gr. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. and thus. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. Tooke in truth. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . and others from interjections. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. some kind of language might have been formed. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. hohottaa. interjections. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form.

whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. dumb is the language of signs. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. What strikes him . But here nature soon conies to his help. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. And so in the case of language.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. The following account is given by Kruse. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. like peewit and cuckoo. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. a deaf-mute himself. and go where we now say stand.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. a Picture-language. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. It as has ing their most striking features. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language.' he says. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. if taken as a whole. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. . makes them stand and walk upon the table. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. Though. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. the critical question should be. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. of the nature of this great movement. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. words receiving the meanings they now bear. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. of the world. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. and not. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. ideas by a rude outline-gesture.

GESTURE most. and we have roast goose. or the verb to be.' In the Institutions. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and fully serves to j . such objects. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . xxxiii him between one thing and another. the whole secret. that signifies great . thou. the sorecalling them to his memory. that. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. called Gesture-language. and with his thought. thought is already broken. push it towards the person addressed for thou. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. walked. The same sign stands and the act itself. or To pull and flap with the arms. the lan- guage cultivates itself. walker. letter To hold the two fingers apart. that air. for walk. many when or but these. among themselves. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. most striking outline of an object. The of sign for left hand. and gestures. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. nay. he. ' from the circumstances of the into a question.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. it seems. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. to name. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. such as than the educated man. for the agent. and it is flesh or meat. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and forms further and further. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. his action. it means little. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. as it now opens out. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. signs are taught for yet. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. becomes roast meat. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. walkest. And is. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. like a V. what more. for child. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and And thus he makes himself a language. particular sense in properly so called. he. can do better and more easily abstract terms. for single objects. and to taste. but if I depress it instead.

to indicate the action of a certain person. When a verb. a number of alternatives are suggested. I say. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. or a passive scene of existence. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. or a quality. according to the circumstances of the case. substantive or adjective. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. whether by additions or otherwise. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. Do not bang the it is a verb. as when Bang ! went the gun. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. . as in die it is a noun. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. the garden. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. or action. in fact. depend entirely upon the use. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. putting it into his pocket. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. might be the knife. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. as But when it is meant door. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. and thus performs the part of an adjective. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When I say. Who is has beaten you ? would be. in other instances sentence. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent.xxxiv asking.' dener's knife. would be simply beginning of speech. it called an interjection. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. The same word . VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. or an act. and so is an adverb. a colour red. the ture of white term pink is and red. You beaten . when I say. and the as. qualifies the against the wall. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. or something of the kind. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. He gave door a bang. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife.

NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. a noun. contempt. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. . and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. a sigh of oppression and . leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. verb nor noun has yet been developed. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. in the sense of great. greatness. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. middle. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. wonder. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. that admits itself in of audible representation. wherehy. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question.. which is an old y ting (use stick). ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. Latin. with a stick. inside. or some relation between it and another object. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. inquiry. coalesces with the personal pronouns. and may be used language. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. in the is indicated by the syllable y. a groan. or nei. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. 255. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. Jii ta. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. whereof. as kuo cung. or with elements expressing relations of time. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. that is. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. pain. whereto. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. but often self-evident. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. commencement of speech. &c. wherefore. Thus tafu signifies a great man. some outward display of the affection. as cung. and to be great. wherewith. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. grie^ horror. the man is great.^ — Miiller I.

misfortune. headache. found in g. wehen (Schmeller). ai. 6. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. och. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. to cause pain. It. axofiai. ochan. to . w^wa. to lament. miau-l-er. la. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to injure. oimare. vce. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. ing action I. . the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. ach. to rriourn. the pangs of childbirth. woe. misery. The form corresponding to Lat. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. mostly a ! %. ! ! Goth. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. lament from oimi. wd. and to bark . A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. 6. to gargle. grief. w. suffering. In this way from the root guai. och. wai. tirr-djeda. to ache. It. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. as. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. seen in Gr. however. to lament.'). . on. ochain. I oi[iot. Illyr. wehthun. Illyrian vaj. g. to bewail oneself.. grief. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). oval. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. pain. ah. ah. pain. wai. to cry n. . pain. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. lau-l-e. to wail or cry alas . to make). Let. die wehen. jao. are ol-ire. to yell formed e. cece. to make bow-wow. Bret. vce. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . to cry at. Jar lau-lau. It. at the close of the radical syllable. ahi. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. a groan or lamentation vir. aiai^to. in Gr. oi. &. guajo. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to hurt Let. . waiidt. ache. achen. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. Gr. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to chirp. g.-l-are. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. probably a deeper groan.ez. ocAJ. ace. Gr. ohg. ochan. mew. Gr. representing a cry of pain. n. lament. Fr. A widespread It. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. howl. on. first person. e. oh. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. e. Lat. or r. Gael. to wail. to do woe. is Ay di me I Gr. to sound yapyap. j. grief] affliction. guai. hei. weinen. woe. miau-l-is. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to weep. ui. to groan. vaj. to weep. w. dchzen. gwae. guaj-ire. Thus from springs otjucifw. Lat. miau-n-is. jaoh. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. och. djamdjam goda (goda. and cacak djeda (to say crack. It. has more kopfweh. to ache. ach. as. weh schreien. vei-a. e. xxxvi grief. . gwae. oh. ohi. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. Such are g. guaj- or cry out pitifully. form. representing Illyr. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. is w. al. ach. wai-l. gwe-l-a. o'i. weh. wAwa.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' this. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. implying the direction of its good will towards them. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. we may translate this by there (it is).' all is is — their consent. give me that cheese. and so on. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. da. and may be rendered. or carry me thither. da. Please. well as Goth. this here. more emphatically roSj)j that. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. as. • The child. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. or give me it. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. the nursery da-da. Sanders (Germ. indeed. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. child.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. der da-ige. ToSe (or in Attic E.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. case. but the truth is. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. to here . I add) . that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.' person. when he wants something. for instance. Dr Lottner observes. or that it is. or wants to name something. is we I believe. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. is-te). A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Diet. thata (ta-ta). Bav. But. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. nurseries.' then points to his wife. his trowsers' pocket. In the expression Da. give. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. that is it. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. saying : there the ad- Trans. that gratifies me. a word of many applications in g. When we pointing. says da-da-da. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Phil. and by a variety of expressions besides. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. when 1859. 'nay. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. The Fr. a specified were by pointing him out. as it Dieser da (as Lat. that. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). . that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. Thank you. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. as to express. according to Menage. Sie. ' sees an object.

The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. tattle. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. and shapes it into an . used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. its desire. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. takes it — as When the soul. . thinking. to move step by step. strike. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. to chatter. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing.' says Lottner interior. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. The da is dodem. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. p. — Cot. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. stutter. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. to walk. pay. or metaphor.' • liv ANALOGY. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. dadee. then instinctively interest. meanings. standing. the original is that which he places first. Thus Gr. which thus exertion. to tion to another. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. in every mode of expressing the idea. childish toying. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. tasting. beat. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. and one in particular must. moving. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da.^ its ' utters : a cry. to knock. to say to oneself. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. make dadada). speech. sounds. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. of which any one may. to beat. sinking.' says Muller. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. reality. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. or dalliance.

tinkling. to flash. clang. scTiateren. wilahtaa. In the case of sparkle. Lith. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. the equivalent of g. and figuratively. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. chime). rattle. In the same way the Goth. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. knistre. in the domain of movement. schiteren. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. as. unlella. magnificence. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. iclat (in Old Fr. and. suspect Bav. to be wise. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. noise. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. to glitter. bright. snuff the sniiten. snudra. search . and thence e. fiapfiaipw. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . gnittre. to glitter. man of nice taste. then to sparkle. to sniff. may be it explained . So firom Lat. splendour. and schmecker. — 1. Finnish. esclat). &c. beorhtian. is used in the origin. to snilF. (parallel bilbila. properly a clap or explosion. to glitter. sense of brightness. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. taste. pracht. a dis- cernment. to shriek with laughter . judicious. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. prudent. may be quoted gUt. also wise. to smack or taste. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. It is The word bright had a similar In as. in popular language. to crackle. extended to the exercise of the understanding. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to sparkle. to sniff out. smell. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. brilliancy. while sapere itself. smell. air. a ringing . tumult. to . kiimottaa. snot. to ring. to have Sapiens. to 5 ghtter. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. discreet. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. which in ohg. to glisten Dan. think. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to sound clear In Galla. wise. from the .TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. a rustling sound Gr. . splendour. we have and the and beorht. sapere (which signifies the nose. beam. wilistd. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. snutrs. to glitter e. Bavarian bracht. to tinkle. to crackle gnistre. firom the Gael. to ring as a glass willata. a with kimmaltaa. to shine. as kilind. sound. to shine. 1654. Heo Du. for example. Fr. to resound. Du. bilbil). make a loud noise. snotor. savour. ghsten. sprageti. tintelen. scheteren. on. The 6. Again. signified a clear sound. . wamara. knittre. bilbilgoda (to make . is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. schmecken. kimistd. to quiver. a brilliant light kilid. spraka. outcry. same imitative root with Sw.

the neighing of horses. kvTOQ. eo ut res vol. extremely loose. Kpovtiv. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. is felt Lana. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. The BpavEiv. mel. Tpa)(yg. break. ipuKuv. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. strike. rough. 1. of dressing loud. the bleating of sheep. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. the cross.' he says. oily. itself letters are felt as sofl. tremour. shatter. Kep^arl'ieiv. in truth. he says. Much of the same has been often quoted. soft. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. rough. smooth. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. or . the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. sharp. in of his works. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. to slide. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. . not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). fitting the letters to the sense. \nrap6e. he framed the words ivSov. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. whirl. rough to the ear. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. v. accordance with the way in which by touch. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. inside. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. then in rpd/xoe. KoWiiSije. roughness. And observing that n kept the voice within. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. The speculations ous or discordant colouring.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. and vepres. gluey. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. wool. rend. power of the letter-sounds. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. pleasure soft to the ear . pvfi^Civ. which The Stoics. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. &c. 6\tadaveii'. we hear of screaming colours. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. briars. rough both ways. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. crux. discusses the tone of a picture. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. within. flow and flux. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. as soft by the ear. Acre. the clank (stridorem) of chains.

dag. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. 138). we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. k. corresponding to the ineor. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. cular effort Again. t. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . A greater felt. as when.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. 'and consequently form. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. to jogj sac-cade. dig. for exis ample. to signify varieties of movement. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. rug. joli. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. p. and in the utterance of a high or or low. to reel abruptly from side to side). or checks as they are called by Muller. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. Fr. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. stab. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. ii. jog. jig. g. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. shag. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. the case of the voice. jih. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. d. stag (in stagger. shog. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. tug. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. p. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. sag-oter. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. jag. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. degree of roughness sound. a rough and sudden .

tick-tack for the beat of a clock . kuk. mot. Fr. sound barely audible. or check. schuckeln. cica. to stir. a crum. S-panish miga. to have it ticked or marked on the score . lead to Spanish tocar. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. as tot. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. Thus we have B. mie. an infant . chicoter. The syllable suk is jerk. not to utter a syllable. and e. chiquet. The production of sound. a quid of tobacco. tock. to strike It. mica. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. to tickle. properly a small lump'of . a cracker. Brescian toch. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. a good piece of road . then. a . which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to winkj micati is Lat. is made to signify movement. Mucken. it produces Dutch micken. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. It. Hence Lat. to pulses being knock. in cases like the foregoing. to mutter. schockeln. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. chic. Fr. so to Italian toccare.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. to incite by light touches. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. zigzag. is lanese toch. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. chique. also to stir. &c. foot. Bolognese tocc. to On the same principle j we have g. then. Ene olde suksuk. is so frequent a consequence of movement. The train of . and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space.. to ring a bell. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. to glitter. like English tick. Sukkeln. movement. kik. and It. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. Then. Dutch kicken. a stroke with a French toucher. to say a word . sound Fr. Accordingly the g. The Mipen or pencil. to beat or play on a musical instrument. (mitsati). a playiug-marble. The analogy then carried a step further. tech-tech. to move rapidly to and fro. used interjectionally to represent a . tecche-tocche. micare. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. zack. e. g. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. an old worthless horse or carriage. Illyrian migati. rough horse. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. motion. and analogous movements. however. a small bodily object. tack. to mark it with a touch of the pen . a jog. for the sound of knocking at a door. a piece or bit of anything. passing to the signification of motion. that we never can be sure. Welsh cicio. a little bit. To tick a thing off. toch-toch. to take a thing on tick. figuratively. to utter a slight kick. to touch. as Italian tocco. mik. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds.

a light quick blow. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. jot. a bit. fait. small of kind. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. a morsel. eo. . In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. Cult. titmouse (Du. lump of earth. there '(at a short distance). 199). gnu. to whisper (Pr. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). mossche. not an atom . Pm. further off. tittle. subdued manner. to e. to touch lightly with a pen. a little titty. this. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. the vowel sound. and dot.) . here. iki. to tremble. tot. to jot down or note with a fro. anything small flax. mot. citto. mut. that. not because the pendulum makes a different left. bunch or flock of wool. tottle. to make a slight mark.n. zitella. titter. fragments It. there (further of!) ao. titilh. seesaw. . 48) cites from the African Tumale. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. n. To jot. little j to that of a small bodily object. here (close hand). . where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. gni. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . for the beating of a clock. lix Sp. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. chico. mote. tit. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . 0. taut. to jog. a small bird. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. tiny. or the like its It. e. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. The following table from Tylor (Prim. or the converse. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. little. a bit. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. tozzo. ri that. mutter j dust. a morsel girl . is shown in murmur. This kind. . to dot. tot. corresponding to the personal pronouns. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. zitio. tot. anything . motta. a e. and a small lump of something. i. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. . e. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. a lad citta. a small kind of lark. Du.- a jot or little It. a tot . motte. the same organ touched with the man. Halliwell. So. the least visible insect. ticktack. I. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. neither moit nor an atom.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. a. there. or o toi. Then. . move slightly to . a sparrow). Malagasy to. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. often entirely arbitrary. . a certain conception. to touch. a small lump or pat. you. and mite. (Halliwell) Da. a girl. as in e. a small horse. and toddle like a child titter. we have e. . this . totle. tot. at where the order is inverted. clay . of movement in totter. small titlark. a small quantity. and out there. that iku. a whisper. Fr. not to utter a syllable. But the same is language has re Javan. In a similar the relations of place. ika. syllable mot. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. gno. mutter. and he. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. to movement of the pen . for the three personal pronouns. tit. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag.

thou . minution further. . for the male. (tt). ita. It seems to (fen. that. that. loo). as in Italian Fin. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. that. . from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. no constant rule is observed. that. that. child. ni. there. Then.e^. here feraa. ndi. an old . as the act of pointing was ta. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. Zulu ajoa. here this . I . mother. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. . that. Ossetic am.) nna. me probable that • Vei also little. It Carib lala. Fernandian az. . Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE.araM. here 5 Yoruba na.. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. here . The vowels a and o sound of the voice. Japan ko.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. ojOo. he. . Tarahumara ibe. thou. this . this <t. usho. and a for the female. that. child. qu. biii. ta to ka. you. /wo. Mutsun ne. Magyar ez. ukko. this fi. there. mother. here j abe. here . uta. Carib ne. man erne. probably initial of distinction that the k. that. j Canarese ivanu. little. /e«. thou ni. 6. small (Pott.. mother. olo. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. Tamul i. as Mr Tylor remarks. /mya. there. ulri. father k . km. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. ^. Mm. respectively. Gr. to. tiiio. here j ka. is Here. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. this . Dhimas isho. and origin. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. w.. ne. Chilian tva. that in the distance. there. Guarani nde. Lat. femina ama. Abchasian aSn. that. ofj. bi. this ole. Sahaptin (America) kina..) pronunciation of i or e. there. mas cheche. there. . that (intermediate) j wana. . is father. there. this . young one. an old woman chacha. father. ni. . nne. this . Botocudo ati. he. akha.

repetition It. From cases like the foregoing.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. to teet. Fr. And perhaps the E. the simplest mode by the g. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. trappa. to begin to appear . the germ from whence the plant is to spring.) . tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. nil. to peep through. 401. to make its way through the bursting envelope. has tittafrem. for the . is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. little To sup up. a little yellow beard. is to express simple continuance of action. — Douglas Virgil. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. as ding-dong.' making the voice as small as possible. &c. A little wee face with little. and in the Pacific dialects. keeh. Thus we have Wolof sopa. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. pepin. dance (Kil. murmur. to feet. don-don. to leap. fretful.' — Merrv Wives. A little weeny thing. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. din-din. Da. lift 8. sound of bells . while the special nature of the action intended syllable. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. a child. analogous to winy-piny. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. wean. or even. knob. trappen. trap. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. the principle of reduplication. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. whence Fr. trippen. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. nab. the pip or pippin. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. to tread. for instance. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. barking of a dog. at pippe frem is to spring forth. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. as j money. Clank represents the sound of something large. wenig. to peep. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. tion. trippelen. just beginning to appear. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. titta. The Sw. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. looking through between obstacles. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. . the idea is called. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. in old e. i Sw. the nursery few j Sc. The sound trapp . trSpigner. stairs. of smaller things. for a succession of light blows low-wow. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. Top. a step. nipple. or chink. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. little.

amusement. &c. Cult. click. . bad . to express repetition or continuance in a general way. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. 97). a clattering noise. calling. The same principle of 196. (to use a to speak. smallness. child . rapidity and strength. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. properly speaking. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. a grasshopper. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. is language. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. kendagenda. to treat with contempt. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. or imitative syllables. rack. racket. mpolu is uttered. the agent in panting . from Maori muka. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. tache. very great. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. kamha-gamla.Ixii REPETITION. And generally. serves to show and in this way. i. to skip. So from clamo. mawhiti. are echoed by the rudimentary et. if very young. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. rack click. puka- puka. to cover e. repetition or continsignify long. er. 99). clamito. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. a cradle. the and clique. random . kenda. or el. a spot. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to talk at to walk. to rock. very long (Pott. could readily be conceived. to love. to to call. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. Mandingo ding. Again. . keep spots. and the words express a continued sound of rack. in familiar use with ourselves. didi. mawhitiwhiti. hardness. puka. or rdtchi. to say pooh It is ! to.. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. tach-et-er. to call frequently from Fr. loloa. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). Susa di. to vi^alk about for flax. sopasopa. cliqu-et-is. lololoa. or very very great. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. child . ayunayunan. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. or a little tee--ny thing. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. and Fr. to or rub. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. ratsi-ratsi. clash of weapons. instead of being actually repeated. the lungs. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. very bad. Thus in E. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . ding-ding. the comparative degrees of greatness. to pant. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. Thus in the Pacific loa. Malay ayun. or in Fr. little child (p.' expression is — ^Tylor. such as the syllable expressed in a more called.

The contrivance with any particular noise. mew and baa . it. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. Ihre remarks under gncella. wagas ging. others. a succession of cracks to rattle. or omitted. to bark like a dog. to crackle. to hand. miauler and beler correspond to E. to make gug. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. kneel. where all direct connection with sound is lost. as to handle. to move to and fro. and in as. in Fr. to rock or wag. fickle. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . bubble. to rock. wancol. or Maori puka-puka. miauler andpiauler. as mAS. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. wankel. wavering. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. to puff. jogging. to make bau-bau.Jicol. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. compared with g. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. which. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. rynel. or in e. is In e. Jickfacken. Piedmontese bau-l-S. smack. The Fr. dab. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. crack. he who rubs. rubber. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. to make a succession of shoves. from puka. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. or by association. in some applications. the knie-en to E. without the intervention of the frequentative element. In cases like these.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. g. draggle. such asjlap. waggle. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. to wail woe . are to cry mew and pew . Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. bub. the lungs (the puffers of the body). guggle. syllable clat . although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. a from ayun. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. wankeln. to make a succession of grabs . itself. to hand-le. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. dabble. or fi bau. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to continue dragging. joggle. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. shuffle. by the side of wanken. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . In like manner crack imitates the sound made .

although it is not difficult. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. A gull or a dupe same sense. and comparatively few easily deceived. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. at was more familiarly known. to cry ugh at. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. which. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. on a moment's reflection. or how generally. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. deceit. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. will continue to be felt in daily speech. Polish. or in aptness to combine with other elements.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. it is obviously a mere chance how long. moreover. or in mode of use. Dupe comes to us from the French. Breton. There is. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). to the separation between the broken parts. by a hard body breaking. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. the breach. which is the origin of the word. known in Italian. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol.

and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. founded in manifest blunder. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. nor any limited of ideas. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. language is . Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. . it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. Hitl^erto. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. life. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. however. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. is. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. and the word is used in a secondary sense. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes.

Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. I think it very probable. French. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. and 'Russian. guages in South America. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. If English. Welsh. compared with the duration of man. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. circle perpetrates a new slang term. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . 330. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. change. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. and vescovo. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. hearing. of material things. out. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. evique. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. episcopus. therefore. unintelligible to other hordes. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. Naturalist on the Amazons. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). in the course of many years' isolation. i.

Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. 6. . which are idenr Figures 5. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. The combination of the symbols I and 2. 9. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. i. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. and . 8. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. is MN. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. 7. ao8). of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Cijlt. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. Nor is there one of the letters. the actual it which would to represent. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . to be taken (Prim. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. as shown in the subjoined illustration.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. A key must unlock more doors than this. or whatever the proportion may be. it will leave figures 3 and 4. ancient Greek M .

Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. known to us as yet. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. and the only safe beneficent Creator. which either by direct resemblance of sound. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. what comes to the same thing. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech.' should be discovered. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. leading him to utterances. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. his fellows. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought." the use of a change of vowel in as. for instance. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. in the shape either of direct inspiration. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. or. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. had its origin in imitation of sound. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture.

and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. and when we look back as far as history will reach. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. in the course of generations. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. the conduct of Ixix life. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . for instance. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. until the progeny. or else. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. or of their own reflected thoughts . of using imitative conduct . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . or beavers. and sooner or later. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. as elephants. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. by animal without a trace name of Man. and rose towards a higher state of being. that he started from the lowest grade. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. or not.COMPLETION OF MAN. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. race were speaking men or not.

Anglo-Saxon.. de la langue Cat. Cimbrisch. Provincial dialect. Diefeiibach. Diefenbaeh. Da. Couzinid. AS. Dn. Bavarian. Diet. Cotgrave. Carp. Due. Carpentier. Romano - Cas- traise. Fr. Teutonico-Lat. Bav. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Infimse Latini- D. Gr. Catalan. Fin. or Dan. Bohemian or Czech. Supplement to Bret. dialect of the Sette Commune. Wtb. Diet. 1766. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. 1768. Bigl.Nieder. . Biglotton seu Diet. ^Ifr. 1737. Castr. Cimbr. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Supplement to Dueange. Dief. Baile/sEngl. Finnish. Danish. B. Dueange.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Cot.-Eng. 1857. E. Douglas' Virgil. Dief. Dueange. Esthonian. Elfric's Fl. 1850. Brem. Grammar Boh.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Esth. Bremisch. at the end of Somner's Diet. Sup. Gothischen 1851.V. English. 1654. dial. Diet. Dutch.



(/ijtf r.. cti. katowai perairrantr. woman r. Blob plowied r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. r. sveritet Asknace r. puHti r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. baltresca nokkutomax.nokkutama willekem. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . brodequin 134 141 katowai r. r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. kilistaa bugiie r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.percurrunt kimista^x. haverie crtOT r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. r. Askance woud r. alUger ahaverie r.>. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. yjnaifia r. word allagerr. buque 118 brodiquin r. cruccio deyrie. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. willekom Blab r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. ^i?^i2! r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. plowied budowaer.5 ERRATA. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r.


state of sleep . and secondarily in that of command. AS. an edict or proclamation. dominion. behind. abs. ar. K . . Thus ip N3S. but now )bsolete). in the same sense. from. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. us. 244. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. on-lic. ibandonner. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. on-bsec . Abs-. sion of 'an abandoned character. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. erwachen. Dent posture. vs. abaft. to sauff the king or spill. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. plesyt him. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. this word beand Spanish. ir. power : Than Wallace thing. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. in. Ab-.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. command. away. the er. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. as. ur. Thou spelds of mychty iction. off. —Bruce. To abuse is to use iway. and — Chaucer. AS. from a is to wake to abide. iway from. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. Abandon. said. have entire dominion over. whatever he be. Parson's Tale. away from. out of. Abaft. The word Ban is common orders. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. onis aback. ab. to subdue. 843. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. to hold . A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. rule. his. baftan. until the event jlace . a washing off to abstain. of-dune. orders. a. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i.t G. ifter. alike. A. among. downwards. in a manner other than it should be ablution. bandon in French. Hence on-bceftan. er. as. OHG. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. on. compounds. to awake. on. o/j of or . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . Immediately from Fr.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. implying a completion of J. Passing tongues. Lat. particular 1 . Again. announcement. literally.he Goth. "rom a height. be-ceftan. dominion. In Lat. to arise. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. a/tan. into the Romance ftrseg . his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. Jvery man shewid baft.

I was abawid for merveille. More correctly written abbat. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. astony. as ravish. his mouth. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. to overthrow. — — . to beat furnish. to light upon. terminedly.— R. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come .Prov. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. to diminish the force of any. c. Hence Lat. at his own the lips.) . Originally. to happen. esbahissais. drink. and the verb was written in Eng. To Abate. law term abatement. ais. to gape. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. impetuously. and that from Syrian abba. Baba ! Mod. person. to hit. shame. 1 1 8. of fear.esbawi. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. to The . to abaw or astonish. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. baba. Abbess. overthrow. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. vol. . effect of shame. to ruin. See . faire tomber. burny was formerly burnish . Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure.fournir.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. bandon. uncontroUedly. bawi. impulse. by Wall. 1520. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Hence the OE. Cotgr. iv. beer.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. son bandon. astonish. A. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. Wall.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to strike Froiss.polir. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. lish to abaisse orabaish. depress. de. and sets them all agape. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. . adverbial expressions at abandon. ne more vermeille. abbatis. et prirent terre.down. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Abbot. esbahissant. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. Fr. so common in the found in the OFr. father. castle. from ravir. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. burny. to astonish. 364s. and grooms besmeared with gold. esbahir. and it that that it — . — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. of wonder. to bate something of the price abbatersi. esba. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. Hart in Jamieson. Castrais. baer. It. betrash. See Abide.' the surrender of a ' K. to make lower. thing abbatere le vela. — Neccham. of the Fr. ant. abate. R. weaken. in the active form. may be explained. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. polish. Custom. to excite admiration. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. other.On princes. down. with or without a final sh. abbas. or admiration. from Lat. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Beat. an abbey. where custom (Grandg. abbatere dal prezzo. And he thereof was all abashed. abbatia. On the other in use as well as hand. abaundunem-ent. to strike sail . has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. confound. In or. abbatere. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. R. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. merely the terminations ons. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. to take possession of an estate. his eyen shene. Milton. to put to con. Abbey.— — . d. R. Bate. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. abandonly. abbattre. or society of abbots or monks. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr.

to open bader. badare. in Fr. qui iaaille. take care. is idenwait. suspense. gridare. Abie. othres abidan' The effacement expect. to deanimer. To Abet.was formerly used in the sense of look. badare. baier compared with It. beijen. trick abetar. to be intent upon. Cat. or in Fr. de Champ. forms with the d effaced are OFr. Guernsey beth. F. watch. ' ' . to look. and alluring to his own destruction. desirer (Roquef.— Roquef. In We . house. a bay or opening in the coast. bialodrze-w. verbeijen Sw. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . ceive. —Raynouard. The verb atwaiting. badar. to desire. to expect. delay. The white poplar. Goth. guardare. to stay. badigliare. to suffer death in Du. bida. abaier. John. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to wait. wait To Abide.— ^richer. tempting. to attend on . to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to gape . Corant sens lui. 1 • . E. to ance. to wait. bouche b^ante. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation.— Chaucer. to yawn. beguiling on the other. beijden. or do we AS. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. bie compared with Dan. Gloss. abet. Norm. to stay. with badia. beidan. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby.) abayer. Du. with open mouth . tenere a bada. baer. which the mind to an object. abie. which is certainly related to It. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. badare. Ducange. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. have seen abide. exciter. abayer. Ni engigner ni abiter.to wait. bder. delay. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. Prov. bana. From abahier. Pol. beijen. bide of the d endure. desire. Boethius. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. Quant voit le serpent. to mind. tarrying . bhr. Cat. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. . songer. bocca badata. suffer b. to abide . to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. open the mouth. attendre See Bait. de Berri) Prov. covet. the verb of abeyance. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. beguile. endurArt thou he that should come.Fr. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. and in E. warten. waiting. delay. Abele. from Halo. abet. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. aspirer. . K. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. intent observation. expectfamily. b^er. abetter. — . while the monks under his control ing. to hook. ^couter avec dtonnement. ne wist what way to chuse. in Dan. bie. OFr. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. were called Brothers. abeter. See Abide. to It. inciting. .. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. beter. white. gola badada.' is in AS. — ABELE Epiphanius. to attend to. to expect gabeidan. tical with It. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. take notice. bidan. to open the mouth. speaking of the Holy places. listening. incite . compared with (Bosworth). attendre avec en^pressement. — signifies to suspend action. or absorption watching. Fabl. and E. abie. regarder. usbeisnei. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Norm. abbadare. 366. baier. . literally white tree. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to deceive. pense. (Vocab. on the one hand. lingering. aspire to. abeyance. abSiance. deceiving. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. baier. signifies the direction of tend. — II. expectation. ne chastised them. and Prov. to wait. Thus G. deceit. also to OFr. Q. abidan. to tarry. endurance. inciter. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Gloss. we sceolon ON. listen. to remain or endure. says. bada. to desire earnestly. bida. a right in suspense . . Thus we have It. bouche bdante. look for another. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. to In great amaze. to be intent upon. wait. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. tity of E. us. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. expectation. beidan. m Abeyance. abiiance. syllable ba. forbearance.

Abie. Dr. in for any special purpose. forbid for mother's children should abye. Prol. AS. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. use. or bie. and death for handsel pay. Tr. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. must suffer for it. R. beidan. though sometimes confounded with it. a board. atling hem to her proper offices. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. fault being simply clothing.^and to make his power knowne. She shall abie that trespass dere. Spenser. being disabled in the highest degree. to redeem. fit. on board . from AS. adapted . when compared with Aboard.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. ! ! Cotgr. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. aboleo. as habiller du chanvre. to perish. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. abide. while in later examples As I . 2. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. F. the Fr. abeye. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. al- be found so some will dear abide it. It. to pay the purchasemoney. de la volatile. abicgan. For on board. to dress hemp. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. habilis (from habeo. abilej Prov. &c. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. The —Boucher. to have . bord. within the ship. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. —Bacon in R. Q. properly abuy. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. have-like. to wear away. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . abie. Fr. Wickliff in Richardson. abilh. suffer the Jul. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. habilis is closely preserved. P. expert. the side of a ship. — P. able. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. sufficient. purpose. O If tion. N. Cassar. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. to draw fowls. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. If it badare. consequences of anything . 2nd Tale. to . the Pardoner In the original. Chaucer. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. God — dear. was often used in the same sense. from Lat. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Milton. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. i. abidge. willing to schewe his wrathe. strong. abycgan. the Sir Tristrem. — Able. . abigg. durance in both applications. R. bide.ynes. ON. at hand). and the simple buy. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. within the walls of a ship. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. P. without special reference to the notion of retribution. In this to erase or annul. habile. abolir. him with che. and Cr. convenient. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. as E. — e. powerful. Innan bords. Fr. power. God. abie to Goth. Mids. L. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. is the verb abie. Merch. at kasta fyri bord.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Boucher. Lat. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. to pay the penalty. bidan.

abominor (from ab and omen. abufan. nurse. his contemporaries. Fr. way Sw.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. which may God avert. — ' — — preceding verb. Finnish stock. Melibaeus. about cockcrow. — . See -und-. Above. Thonne Abroach. the form a&^^. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. Du. becomes leu in Prov. to grow together. Kiittner. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to let sleep. ufan. above. AS.' Ymb hancred utan. to cut short. alere capillos. while the sense of beget. Quod abominor.' Parson's rence. breaking out in language. without. agredge. OE. which passed into English under Abominate. Abrdger itself. to feed. giving birth to. and also to abridge. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. awaking. to beget or give birth to children. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. to main. alan. af-oolden. to rear. alan. Abray. and also. to aggravate. to produce. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. s —Casdmon. while the verb alleThe root el. hard.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. See To Bray. The primitive idea seems that of beget. butan. on high. en. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. AS. is not from G. parent.foda signifies to beget. In the same brevis . the vital spark. sec seftre — Chaucer. titan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. natural ed direct from the latter language. seems aras. around on the out. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. motion. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. abracan. draw out. Lat. to grow up. abrcBgdan. alUger. abbrechen. whence the Fr. life. and to do something to avert abbreviate. The radical idea is to feed the flame. currence. nourish.ymbutan. below. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.) . by the to bring up.. for ligeth butan. onbutan. to nourish. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. explains soboles Lat. Goth. vital PI. nurse Lat. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. abrdger. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abutan.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. the idea of breaking about . from Fr. that greatly agredge their sin. the OSw. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. or young forth. af-oleii. leading immediately to Fr. ABOMINABLE adolesco.ger. of any kind . to break off. literally.. to progress. common in Chaucer and Abominable. be-ufan. . No doubt if we had not so complete a About. side. Abundant. to turn. the hair grow.— Abbreviate. boven. is a ively. outward. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. ala. levis to the Romance languages. abredan. To abray or abraid. kindling. oil. Sc. D. the man dwindles away. to bring up. heavy. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. a portent). to feed. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. to rear. OSw. Then. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. progeny. to start. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. but from Lat. Tale. coalesco. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. Severe the threatened evil. bufan. and in-d-oles. to awake.1. gravity. ala is made to signify to rear. agreujar. from . Prov. or cut short.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. Virg. as AS. and bidden him abregge. Of these synonymous adolescere. al is growth. be-utan. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. greu. break out. To Abound. to snatch. brood. d. and alere flammain. AS. ol. to AS. gravis. as the duty of nourdisposition. adolere.aboon. OE. Gael alaich. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. . to light a fire the Abraid. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. the identity of which with ting. For on broach. full ofte his words for to Fr. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. abowen. Thence to regard greugetat. pedigree from brevis. So in Lat. snatch In English we speak of away. to fatten. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat.the older form. disastrous portent in some passing oc. as withotityn and without. abbreviare. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. abbrechen.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. to strain. Gr. andouillers. from Stephanus. In like manner. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. such as savages. on. or antique single chamber. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. before. Apartment.D. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Pezron fiUist. to support. to have. anfilts Pl. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. apatiar. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. bread. one. part. cenig. Anvil. some one. : . to go in strange disguises. Antique.—Aperture. Lat. three antike pillers. to display pario. apertum. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. Fr. amboltj Du. from an. ReApe. villan Gloss. and ig. anxi. Jorioc. a gift. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. were andouiller the second. separate purpose. gabeigs. Apart. Ilvtwotov. the anticks — behind. stem. as the Italians. a puppet or an anti^hona. E. apanage. from an and — - . The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. panis. Lat. like a jack-pudding. whence Prov. Lat. anapoz. from ante. Fr. fauns. d. panar. white. what Roman civilisation. rich. of. transferred to the grotesque characters. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. incus. swaged. Antler. Antick. from ango. from. a preventative . strangle. Gr. and devils. from in and cudere. set aside. Lat. a few. Antidote. . Percutere. G. before. — — — . whence anthem. in Shakespear. from avTiipoiuia).made out. were chiefly of the former class. a termination equivalent to Goth. Prov.is to be given. surimitation of the ancient models. eigs. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Any. Mannequin. To ape. antifena. verberas. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. d<popi(xnbs. Thus from gabe. inAgain from the same author cudis. AS. i. avri^ava. Fr. Ful- Apanage. plenteously with red. left as the . 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. all of gold. To go antiquely. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. antefn. from. wealth. to sound in answer. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. So Lat. AS. trouble. Hence the applica. from the imitative habits of monkeys. See Cover. Aphorism. burnished. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Hall's Chron. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were.. should be received.legacy of given against. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. and claret wine. as from as. a block to hammer on. —Spencer. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. younger child. to strike G. Apartment. or in a ridiculous dress. aperio. choke. aside. but the expresent day. separate. something ler in R. vex.th centuries the recognised models of antic. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Gr. post. ambeld. AS. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. to strike. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. As the browcalled antiques. af. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth.— . shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. to bring forth. Otfried. from eigan. a small quantity. ab. anticus. Anxious. one having wealth. anxius. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. a definite . work. one at the least. which by anvild. to open. as we call it. Aperient. to imitate gestures. to nourish. press. as posticus.

APO sentence opoQ. And whanne sum men Lat. to suit. Prov. 23 . plight. i. Pliny. to Lat. apropid. Hence It. Nouv. to disable oftat. apprendre. set a price on. The Fr. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. And among other of his famous deeds. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to assign or grant over unto. Fr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. esteem. — Approve. Gr. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. fit- — ness. a thing for one's purpose. to come near. avail. Formerly apricock. apparecchiare. Walach. d-n-o. appareo. Palsgr. quoth the frere. the good. Lat. and in the sense of condition. H. like. to call. and also as appraise. S^. Cent Nouv. iwKjToKri. to learn. away. purpose. appareiller. Cotgr. apprentis. ON. to mark to define a bound. They were considered To Appoint. Fr. obolys. OFr. prize. consent unto. appartenir. equal. preparation. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. and metaphorically to take the meaning. to learn. Yr. a learner. Prov. diminutive pariculus. appaiser. and appoinder (to find fitting. to send to. approver. Hence appoind.— . approcher. ar. kind of action. to send off. (cited by Diez from a late author). Gr. to understand. Friar's Tale. En peach. oVooroXof. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. one is in. to be open to view. — Apprise. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. : — — speak 'Lz. an epistle or letter. e. From Lat.his giving evidence against his principal. apal. laven is used both as E. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. known. Lith. whether through age or sudden teiTor.pareil. one sent out. of. order. —^Apparent. AS. piteux poind. diroTrXriaatii. Sp. taking. to approve. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. word was specially applied to clothing. Fr. Parson's Tale. Mod. Apostle. one the MLat. to take away or lose the vital powers. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. seiden of the stones. apprise. For their acquaintance was not come of new . appris. jabloko. decree. ciously than nede is. From Lat. dress. apropchar. pertain or belong to. It. Fr. Apo- good time. — dirondtfiu. approcdare. An old appalled wight. A — . in commendation. apprehendere.prix. appellare. to commend. pronounce fitting). aparelhar.propius). make a composition between parties. good. to store or put Appal.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. prope (comp. array. case. landmark. to set a price on. poind. that it outfit. prohts. to which it is often referred. Fabian in R. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. probare. habilUr. to seize. diroBrjKr}. prover. Apoplexy. to deem good. Approach. whence the e. Fr. Apotliecary. horror. rise to \t. agree. Cotgr. The PI. to announce. praise. find Then like Fr. to deter- to strike. To Appear. cepl. xv. Apple. peler. 5w. to lose one's senses. Gr. I prise ware. to call for judgment. to rate. ^wss. Gr. APRICOT off. to catch hold of. from.t. Fr. pragigua or prixcoda. to approach. 'L-zX. Epistle. Yr. one for his defence. Fr. apal. manner. 'LaX. were formed appropiare ejar. ap. Ir. or E. to — . D. pretium. — Appurtenance. . value apprdder. Cotgr. or the like. They werin his approvirs privily. to — — . — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. despatch on some service. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. To praise. to fit. near. habiliments. mine. in good season prendre son d. 11. after his mind . to dress in this fashion. from paix. to deaden. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. aptly. w. in fact. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. apar. irpaiKOKiaov. To Appraise. off. allow. to strike down. trim. like. apin R. pronounce good. agreeing with "LtA. To cause to pall (see Pall). a'^opi'Jw. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. poind. opportunity. properly to join like to like.probare. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Appareil. ai. N. Appease. to finish a controversy.parecchio. become dizzy . when the . in Chaucer. Fr. from aTroorlXXu. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to accord. proper time came.parejo. — prehendere. . a price. a crime. to make a thing Apparel.—Apprentice. corresp. lAfiaam. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. par. —Diez. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. peace. From Gr. Apprehend. in data. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. .

originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. C. Pm. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Thus we have natiger and auger. Hall. Lat. J. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. or barm-cloth. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. short. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. OE. Alban. la nappe. tion under trial. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. shortdr.meaning at Shrewsbury. Arbitrate. derived. sestimatio arbitraria. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. however. sortium ductor. is taken in is a soothsayer.o. however. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. words derived from arpa. 31. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. delon. sorcerer. as ihe diminutive. arwaus. Lat. man. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. suitable. arbiter. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. and taken away before dessert. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. garden. nected. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. Flower and Leaf. to plough. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. intensitive of nape. or eft. Naprun. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. the spelland umpire. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. proper. a lot. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. divining rod. as an eye-witness. As is a pretty parlour. account for either of these significations. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. arbiter in re censendS. a pleasure-ground. P. Lat. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. aha. OHG. aa. auguror. fastened close. It may be doubted. aqua. found in Fin. ughe. doubtless is the origin of E. quod he. . Roquefort. 2. Arbour. be That it inne groweth.] in the N. — napkin is Naperon. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash.shrubs {arbor). is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. P. ear. aestimo. and with turfis new Goth. to decide by lot. A. From OE. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Gr. of of divination arpa-mies. Beryn. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. conjectura conjec^ra. a soothsayer. Maan initial . hariolus arpelen.) E. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . properly the arwella. naperon. ap. aptus. herbere. a lot. and thence fit. aro. Now we find in Fin. opinio. . and a protection of the clothes.sors. rofe and all. Albanian. Prol. grande nappe. — .. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. ahva. and the one who gives oracles. 331. The loss or addition of n very common. to preserve it from stains. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Marsh. scr. nawl and awl. a river. pracoqua was not an adapt. water Which that benchid was. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. a lot. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. a cloth. This path Aqueous. wata. arwelo. Now one of the points — — — . nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. Pr. conjicio. . From OFr. Aquatic. con. arbitror arwaaja. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. It is certain that the apricot oracle. arpa. Freshly turnid Arable. most conspicuous situation in the garden . . Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. and sortilegus ation. arbitrium. {mies ^=ia3. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. symbol.' —About. She made. It will be observed in how large a proportion of .

worker. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. from nixa. apxri. to arm. It. a bow. Lat. vocaveris. Gr. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Lat. forearm . sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. the a brute. arrant Arms. weapon. gwyro to bend. archangel. Arson. an arch-deceiver . AS. ers-betriiger. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. wretched OE. kpxi- beginning. arch-bishop. the best. ancient. a bare plot of ground. et vulgari verbo. Lat. sluggish.In E.' Lex. it signifies roguish. argvitugr. area. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. ardor. which has been referred to W. apx^iv. weapon may be simply an application of annus. wanton. — Architect. a noble. arcus. a rule (princiruler. Fr. raineno. arguo. the court of a magistrate. argr. arma. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. ON. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. signifies chief or principal. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. to dry. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Lat. Sax. taxed with cowardice. ardIn G. G. curved. un petit rusd. apxh. The . morally bad. Fr. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. . a court yard. arga. sly. Sp. een erg kind. ramend). to be on fire. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. bad. and our army. arrig. adjective. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. an extent of flat surface. Arcadia in R. mischievous. ill-tempered. and must be identified with Dan. arm. .aioj. . aridus. curved line.' the Gr. arm'ee. There can be no doubt that E. branch. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. as in E. Ardent. ramo (pi. Arduous. erz in G.' Paul Warnefrid. ars. to Arch. a burning or setting on fire. Gr. which is derived from it. in Due. exercise lordship). the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. and not with apx. lofty. make clear or prove. det arrigste snavs. Arm. arsum. burning heat.. earm. as the arch of a bridge. Du. while the Fr. From the verb armare.4 rir/. an arch boy. Fr. * ArchjAiTaxit. earg. Brem. Aristocracy. Cot. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. erz-bischof. TiKToiv. Lat. From apxeiov was formed Lat. Dan. Gr. rame.. fabricate). G. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . armata. receptacle where the public acts were kept. stuff. mischievous. Ardour. faint-hearted. malicious. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. i. timid.— Army. shoulder Boh. 3340. an arrant usurer. are formed the participial nouns. D. the most arrant trash. is essentially the same word. the terminaGael. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. ^Argument. patus). to rule. by Russ. arm. arg. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. and Kpurka. a threshing-floor. A construct. Lat. to be in comp. W. a. — Wtb. ein arger knabe. earh. vescovo. Arcliives. un malin enfant. aj-f. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. to burn . 2. Lat. bad. erg. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. an arrant rogue. Lat. arwe. sly. Arch in composition. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. are applied only to an armed body of land forces.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. apxtipfve. . ardeo. Area. bad of its kind. Uo^a^. arcA in e. Du. gwyrek. contemptible. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. troublesome. Applied in modern E. high. ' — Argue. especially shoulder-joint. arduus. fainthearted. bravest. to demonstrate. apxtlov. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. from areo. . And thou as arwe coward. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. arson. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. armada. first. ruling by the nobles. whence the body of the nobles collectively.is the natural weapon of offence. man. a branch. ardre. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. government. Gr. Perhaps erz-wticherer. a chief builder. armee. Langobard. difficult to reach. shoulder. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Arid. Alisaunder. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

balk. to see-saw. to ail. says Ray. a clapping or flapping of wings. the breadth from side to side . on. Mid. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. the ballet of the theatres. and evil in general. bolyaf. a together in the form of a ball. . See Gall. ache. to cause another to miss pustule. dial. bdlkr. It. other while. bold. grieve . package of goods. Balloon. vcdra bdlkr. a ballot). ballo. In like manner Fr. — A — — . bollr. on. to dance.— Ballet. balle. Fr. Sw. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. It. to Not sparing wight. balloon. weak liquor. may exhibit the original development of the signification. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Sp. OHG. whether of wood or stone. Grief. a ball. Perhaps on. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. balka bunge. Goth. palla. bolyatchka. Da. bala. ban.of men . gen. a ball. to speak an un. to partition off . From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. wickedtorment ON. balka. afbalka. G. mass. at giore en balk. a partition. a great ball. to by beams. Bret. a ball. It. dial. OSw. balveins. floor. Sw. We have then separate dial. lealo. bola. balare. a ball. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. . .ing. ballare. a continued noise of waves gently beating . bal. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. balle. ' is a piece or confused talking. on the shore. pila. ball. a water-skin dim. Ballata. a beam. a pestilence. beaten road. w. a pill. tum. destruction. calamity. to plank. the beam of a ship. Fr.Fr. to roll. stage or scaffold. misery Du. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. separaison. blister. bjdlki. Ugutio in Due. Venet. Sw. to plough for a boundary between lands. chapurrar. from bacquet. trouble. balka hopar. a dance. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bolawy.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . pallo. ballar). Sw. Wotton. to rock. ON. to signify washy drink. e. E. hue et illuc inclinare. TtaKKa a pail or tub . to be balker. bbllr bulla J. Ballot. balva-vesei. 3. sickness.). Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. AS. to dance. and the dim. ill. a pail. bolker. a washing-tub. a. Bowl. hooting. torment.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. . which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. uveirs bolk. Fin. bealwes. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. dial. Q. a dance. The primary sense seems as in G. F. pallukka. similar connection is seen in Sp. are applied to a From the same analogy. Sw. vacillare. a division of the old laws. ball. boleii. * Balk. to shake or jog. ballone. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . ballare. It. the object of his expectation. to paddle in water . The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a wooden partition . Gr. a globe. pallo. ball. ballare. Hence Dan. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. bol. . or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. ballet. heap up. ballotta. ballan. a balk of foul weather. with the perhaps from balg. dial. a boil. Da. a But making way for death at large to walke. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Pol. maan pallikka. a ball balla. wickedness ness . Hence. to pack Da. palcare. to grieve . ne leaving any balke. boll. to on Holmedon's plain. plague. sick. on. pilula. balkr. Bale. to be ill. balle.—Ballad. i. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a skin. sorrow. pain. Ball. cka. a beam. 2. shouting. taich. a scene acted in dancmg. A balk. globule. Baulke of land. I. as in a barn or cow-house. Fr. . maleficium.' speak gibberish champurrar. a ball or pack. malefacGower in R. a separate portion. To baulke the Sir H. Sw. a clod of earth water. Sw. Ball. It. palloilla. to avoid it. a clump . pallikka. Russ. baalien. bal. bol. Du.Lat. bacgtteter. G. roof. Bohem. bielke. To Bale out water. to stir. Boll. bal-daed. Du. balge. to ache. . baloier. Dan. balken. balk. a ballad. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. balla (with the augm. balja. a bubble. bal. as we say. Gael. to move. to bale out. (Hesych. to wave. balk. balk. probably Lat. OFr. ball. balken. ing. N. Sw. balle. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. baalie. Rouchi ban. baler.

. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. bertesca.that the going vessels. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. ballustre) is a corruption. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. back of the ship. a young babe. a fragrant gum. an Old dotard or imbambolare.. balustrade barandilla. or ballast of a ship. or movement of one who walks. Mr Marsh whether the a load. for want of other freight. In OSw. lastra. as he says. railing around altars. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. i860. of balusters. astonished. the backload. Bret. Balm. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. This is the backload. baU. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. To Bam. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. Ballast. ballustres. — — oltriga. To Ban. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Report Pennsylv. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. a duty on goods last. explains ballast. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. a battlement . comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. lest. ^a\Ba\iov. But Fr. forbid. If bambocciolare were child of one. baltresac. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. inutilis sarcina. from bara or vara. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. To make fun of a person. endormir par des contes.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. fonts. a false tale or jeer. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. analogous to what is seen in It. deceiver. Lat. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. bumbazed. seems the original form of the word. Sp. command. R. Said to be from balaustia. for a load or goods (Roquef. barauste. and Mid. to enchant. lastre. Cotgr. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. last. puzzled. bam.Lat. bag-lest. little round and short pillars.000 tons. To Bamboozle. like Fr. lastagium signified not only ballast. paid for the right of carriage. enchanter. because. barandado. Sc. deceive. baume. balconies. age. also with flatteries and . &c. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. bambolo. but loadage. denounce. urtica. 43 — Cot. Venet. Fr.' And Kil. is in Sweden and Norway. small railing. a rod. ranked on the outside of cloisters. ballast. Bamour. bambocciolo. dial. bamboccio. called Bait. terraces. Sept. make fun of a person. to preserve equilibrium. Gr. The Baltic sea. 1854. baranda. The Sp. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. lestage. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. bamein. from Lat. Baltic. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. When a ship discharges. . It. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. Fr. 1. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. Dan. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. curse. inutile onus.). the act of walking. galleries. Du. It is explained back by Adelung. the flower of the pomegranate. more serious objection is . &c. It. a small balustrade. to walk. balsamum. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. objects to the foregoing derivation. bag-las. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. Balluster. A — — . sorcerer. Balsam. Bret. mare Balticun. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. by met. To deceive. To proclaim. baUa. a useless load. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. a nettle. ^Arbuthnot in R. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. more frequently than outward-bound. Lest. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. in the first place.

26. &c. Les saiges avait et les fols d. populum. theodscipe ut abannan. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. a company. See Abandon. ligue Taboada). Goth. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. to follow a faction. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Bandear. to . 'A son bandon. In a special sense the term company itself. says Muratori. acquired the sense of proclamation. — To partito d'alcuno. Cot. bandon somewhat party. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Wyntoun. admolendinum. D. Commun^ment son bandon. 15. Diss. The to . and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. change to the feminine gender in banda. From the verb to banda. fahne. Capitul. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). bando. border. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. bannire exercitum. whether by way of injunction or for- command. to form parties. bandi. margin. Fr. also the band or of marriage. Thus the word is also used in both senses. E. bannire in exercitum. the ensign or banner. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. tener da alcuno. permission. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. 19. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Mag. flag. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. to ban. . Se il — Romance languages. and It. bandon was used in the same sense. to side or to bandy (Florio). faction. Leg. from at the Lord's courts. bandera ground at his mill. then the signification w. banda. hoc est vexillo.e. Sw. bound. bann. authority. To Bandy. Sp. is That with which anything AS. banda. curse. There is some doubt how Fr. Sp. R- He Translated by Chaucer. —R. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Assises de Jerusalem. Band. bande. bannum or bandum. It. banns pany of footmen serve. &c. he assembled his host. to take one to task. region. Ripuar. band. OE. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. banda the colour or material. biddal. etc. — excommunication bann-lysa. side. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Bandus. It seems this signification has arisen. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . and in E. to unite with a band. Goth. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. It. Fr. Baud. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. G. he bannede his ferde. . and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. in hostem convocare. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. Car.. we constantly find the expression. to publish) banna. i. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. summoning to serve So in Swiss. 1. to excommunicate {lysa. ex. 813. bindan. 2. power. at his own discretion. v. band. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando.—John Villani in Due. those who side together (bande. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. in Fr. to bring corn to be fahne. a coast. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. passing on from proclamation to command.is further developed. parti.Lat. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. banner marked the place of assembly. It. bundun. bande. side. sostener Torriano. and thence to any proclamation. bande. — R. to reprove. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Spebifid. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. In Fr. eiiseigne. ba?idare. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. to ctide. A.^ bandy. R.

bent as a bow. in the sense of a pirate. Mercutio. — Paulus drive in a nail. many a bang. desk. g. bana-sdr. bander. was formed the OFr. But natheless wife at I bank. bana. Milton in R. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. b'ang. bana. — Fr. pastoralis. With many a stiff thwack. N. a blow. Bantze. Fr. death-blow . s'associer. Sw. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Du. The ing. to hammer in a nail. from banc. AS. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. A Shipman's Tale. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. . The word is in E. Draw. and hence. bandire. rap hatike et som The Susu. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Lat. to slay. 2. a wound OHG. in R. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. banca his creditors. and OFr. follow a party. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). counter. seat . to beat. to cabal. bench. ruptus. to knock. and poise Their lighter wings. Benvoglio. Diaconus in Due. disturbance banga. in the sense of place of business. a de Vaud. Bankrupt. Banditti. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. — Kil. in the same way that E. E. the same verb the It. a bench. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. bana. has bang-bang. Fr. a counter. band-hond. of bandying words. beat. banish.HG. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. From Mid. a bankrupt merchant. Mid. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. bandear. bow. a bench. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. a bank. roupt. Roquefort. The child cries bang! fire. Bandy legs are crooked legs. se joindre. to knock. — . benk. clouds. put under the ban of the law. back of a knife. bank of river. Bandy. and therefore tied up. It. Bang. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bank of Dan. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. bana-sott. forbear this outrage. banc. See Band. to bend a. &c. bang. banka. broken. a table. When a man fails Lat. distinguishes bekkr. bankruptcy. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. ON. It is in this sense nounce. death-wound. Dan. To Bandy. standard. shoal. . that the word is used by Romeo. Benchi. —^Vocab. bander. Lingua. bakke. See Balluster. the former Fr. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. &c.^ knock. and bakki.z. bank. a long raised seat.: . Goth. banqueroute. Bane. Africa. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Bacon in R. eminence. to make a stir banke. It. . Your stool. Hudibras. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. se reunir. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. The ridge of a hill is AS. . the slope of a hill. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. to work in wood. de- party. bank. Tibalt. destruction . a sand-bank. banke. . bank of a river. Bank. large dog kept for a guatd. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. to join in league with others against Cotgn. a rising bank. to proclaim. bander tin arc. Ripuar. From a desk . among rotta. bench. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . banco. hricg. See Banish. beating. a bench. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Diez. bannire. death-sickness. band-dog. stir. bane. Brewer. outlam came to signify a robber. as of an explosion or a blow. home — Bandog. de sable. bandi. AS. to foment factions. Fl. banca fallita. dorsum was applied to ject. for shame. hammering. a i. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. murderer. the back. — — whence E. tumult bangas. Banister. banditti acquired the like signification. language of W. ON. banc G. whence the mod. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bance. eminence. panca. canis vinculis assuetus. 45 — — Bandit. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Banner. ON. Fr. to publicly order one out of the realm. banja. at canis peciiarius. It.

or of this bantering. to wash. says. Gael. OHG. iandvo. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard.— Swift in R. 3. and the work is done. Celtic bar.aTa Kul nest. would rupted from Fr. &c. as they call it. Fr.8ap6^o)voe. an animal a year old. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Fr. a bantling. hence a repast. and from ensign or banner Prov. barrer. banneret. period vexillarii. Banneret. ing term appears in other languages. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. barde. and with an initial s. Bret. from reifa. banneret was a higher class of knights. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Sw. Barb. a barrier or stoppage. a. Thus Ovid. inferior to a baron. E. senhal. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. Lat. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. to bend. barbarus. ban- Baptise. Hence Fr. jSdirTO). be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. men. rarii. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. either in the Gr. a bearded or Cot. When wit hath any mixture of raillery.the analogous syllable viur. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. by a repetition of the syllable bar. summit.46 BANNERET . bandiera. i. A It. sign. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. bannereti. dim. milites bannarii. to wrap. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. The origin is in all probability Goth. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. Fr. According to Diez the It. E. inur. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. indeed. Fr. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. ON. of banco. brushwood. heri-pau. from the same source. barba. Flesche barbeUe. nestling.hinder. chan. Barbe. Gr. ingly very generally known by a name branches. a bench or table . in Gr. Lat. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. 2. To mock or jeer one. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. Bap. signuin. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. the word came to signify rude. of wind. rod of any rigid substance. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. It. banchetto. Leduchat. Barbar. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. to dip. barriire. banniire. of a sign in general. It may be thing. Fr. barbe. It. banner. jSa'pjSapoc. barre. ON.cruel. It.. arineXov. manu anto make signs nuere.. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. then fell among the foot. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. senhal. . The spar. senheira. uncivilised. out of a wound. barrou-gwez. a which the barrister addresses the court. Banquet. knight Bardd. G. —Cot. Hence ner. branches of a tree {gwezen. sparre. himself in Pontus. The original import of their own banner in the field. banne. speaking of battle. barrack. banda hendi. OFr. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. sparro. and he would seem to derive Goth. In a similar manner are formed yearling. such as the Roman Eagle. Lat. a ban. barreau. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barbed or trapped as a great horse. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. and it was accord. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. privileged to raise Barbarous. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. E. OHG. bandva. — We A . hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. token. senh. wrapped. sbarra. Gr. then branches. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. probably corSymbol. Barb. barra. banda. to beckon . a war-beacon or war-signal. a beam or long pole of wood. benda.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. Fr. merki. ^oTrriKio. branch. a sign. a tree). &c. top. remarked. Duo. To Banter. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. that the noise of voices Bantling. which is surely in barbed arrow. and even of calling it banter. to having that signification. bar.

fortia —Strabo. barbelin. Barbican. muttering. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. skialldar-bard. upper chamber. to make an outcry . their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. bdla-khaneh. borboglio. g. quarrel . Cot. to It. which was of talking. barboter. grumble (Lowndes. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. albarda'ah. to prattle. to rumble. the flap of a hat. border of a garden bed. . are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. bardes. Gr. a tumultuous assembly. skirt. speak confusedly. small pack-saddle. Cotgr. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . An outwork for the defence of a gate. barefooted Sanscr. and foolishly. skirmish. /3opj3opwJu. a shingle or small board. Sp. to barbe or trap horses. /3£pjSepi^w. and Sc. scouthouse. a bardelle. axilla. A7 to the and warlike. loophole in a wall to shoot out at.) to wrangle. Bret. to gurgle. saddle-cloth. lb. bardd. A shrub bearing acid Diet. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. barbel. Etym. albardilla. Mod. — . w. Lucan. to bubble or spring up. barbier. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. bare baskojis. Applied in E. back. in the sense of fight. stutter. barbarkama. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich.— — Pm. Barberry. brim. in poetic language Bard for poet. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. boil. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. as well as the modern twaddle. bdsiis. to chafbargain. such as houses are covered Bardelle. uproar. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. barbugliare. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. to stammer. barbar. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. unqualified. Etym. border. to mumble or mutter words. Mod. gibberish. Fr. . borborinha. i. OFr. dial.) . Hatt-bard. murmur . Barber. albarda. berj G. brabble in the making of a bargain. ready money. and flanks. the edge of a shield hval-barct. mutter. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Barbel. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. horse armour covering the front. coping. a pack-saddle. Exposed to view. used 2. — — — men. is lb. Sp. also to wallow like a seething pot. barbaris. — Cot. Cotgr. G. borbotar. in Fr. and in Flanders to vociferate. to wash. Sp. Bare. uncovered. to grunt. open. Arab. — — Hence. borbollar. a jetty or outnook in a building. bhasad. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai.' Cot. barbeter. It. barda. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. the beard. a long saddle for an ass or mule. haggle.— Fl. Diez. barS. Port. twcEtta. bar. or more properly (says fer. jargon. Fr. barbulla. barguigner. Bardeau. and the word was used in OE. Lith. tree. baares geld. borbulhar. Gr. Port. guazzolare. formerly used in the sense of tattle. name Fr. to bubble or boil. guaszare. waschen. Bargain. — . the quilted with. the nakedness of a woman. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. to plash or dabble. Thus the on. It. Hindost. bdsas. on. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. as well as thwcEtta. to boil or bubble up . the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. Festus in Diet. Fl. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. barbeum. barda. barbeau. to stammer. Lex. skola. barbacane. a rumbling. Pr. bds. Hall in R. baragouin. Barde. baar. tattle. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. Fr. berries. The Pers. Bard. But Sp. powdered all over. Barder.— BARBEL merit of water. Fr. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Russ. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. barz. ala. also to bind or tie across. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. twattle.

was barlic. barafustar. (Ihre. the rack or manger. Prov. limpet. The origin may be throat. barajar. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. border. the slimy substance brewing of beer. So also ON. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. baerm. beorcan. baarn. the or prow of a ship. barja. as in the case of Lat. giving rise to It. in Nat. Romance barsie. and the word. mhg. Leg. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Barge. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. prominent part of a thing.) lihtes-ern. to scold. Gl. barn. baratta. berma. a load. a heap. a cap . Camus. 2. also to exchange. So ON. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. i. as. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet.' bardagi. Garlick. baralha. barmr. ON. a. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. v. baniffa.. baaring. The older form in e. Swab. — de Berri. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Provj bar (ace. ON. Du. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. baaren. Kil. then the bows pectus navis. bosom . Ibid. bard). ON. . varen. barretor. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barge. berem. Isidore in Rayn. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. herbs. W. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. OSw. Rayn. corn-shed. to wrangle. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. barley. bark . meta foeni. barnacles. — battle. bread-corn. tumult. and may therefore be an Eastern word.Barum vel feminam. dispute. and is probably a true bartig. baratta. confusion. barn. barn. astringent. brenig. It. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. limpets . Vocab. dispute . dispute . strife. From Fr. baarm. E. entangle. barms. Baron. to cheat. to shufSe. trouble. quarrel. also a boat . a place. baimeach. then honoured man. Dan. — Zeuss. commonly explained from bere. a lantern. Bailey. OFr. OFr. bcern. as well as Scandinavian tongues. bosom. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. to rout. baron. a boat. aheap. disorder. beornt. borkr. strife. as baces-ern. hlaSa. bernac. and hence probably (by a metaphor. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. —Bark. bern. barii. Barbour in Jam. Port. houbartij fsnile. a receptacle for barley or corn. barki. one who stirs up strife. baron)^ Fr. as. the fore or after end of a boat . contest. a barn. lap. Bemiques. to strive. to all the barca. bcerme. hladi. Du. Uzen. strife. dispute barattare. the A — Ihre. bargain. Antiq. Leg. — Barnacle. limpets. Alam. Cornub.. To Bark. Gael. to chop. a baking place or oven. a beak. It. in the Brim. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. skuta. AS. As Goth. ON. altercation. See Barm. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. the G. fray. beer. Port. but the woman for the man. and llysiaw. . barahunda. kani. barizeins indicates a noun baris. and ern. barone. bere. berm. edge. barley. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. barlys. ThS man was not created for the woman. . skutr. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. baragouin. Manx bayrn. a stack. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. plants). struggle. bern. Spectacles. wine. Acervus.^Voc^. berm hoys. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. barafunda. am. to skin over barkandi. chaffer. hay-loft. * Barnacles. Sw. w. Lith. Bark. barley. a heap . bamagh. barlys {bara. baralhar. from an imita- Barley. and 1. Tarn baronem quam feminam. quarrel Port. contest. dregs of oil. Dan. name being given to spectacles. louzou. dial. 2. Barn. hemlock. dispute. barlich. adj. quant a perdu sa barja. at barka. berm. See formed Yeast. a lap. On the other hand. Sp. ber (ace. spectacles. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Sp. . bread. The Goth. barnis. tion of the sound. Ripuar. squabble. Bret. AS. husband. charlock. put to confusion. Sp. prasepe . is simply the Bret. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. Originally man.

barril. uncultivated. rolls of Parliament. w. beorh. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. especially those killed in battle. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. and not from Fr. an obstruction. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. Antiq. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. This word introduced into Fr. litter. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. in the first instance. Formed from Fr. (Schmeller). E. man and wife. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. StiU he shows conclusively. Barren. gravis et authenticus vir. See Bar. Baron andfemme. a barrel. bahre. hut. Barricade. bara. from cavallo. It was not until the time of James I. bearg . Sp. vel pretiosos burellos. baragan. Barrel. then traffick4 Barrow. Joshua vii. G. calico. Goth. ^Barrator. dispute. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. A. cover. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. a man. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. baronculi.— Gibbon. barrila. seem to be radically the same with Lat. barrier. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. Sp. Fr. borov'. The Sp. fallow. man. also termed bannerets. barague. It. whence Barrow. became bidre. barile. It should be observed that. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. On chet — We — — their resemblance.parchanttuech. todtenbahre. habeant. qui have not much light on the pre. ^Vocab. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. barrique.' that Barrier. over him. See Barter. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare.. sterilis. bouracan. from beran. barrique. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. gwr. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a castrated hog . BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. implement for carryAS. or simply bahre. cise formation of the word. An ing. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult.. beorgan. fortification. S. AS. which would barragdn. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. garment still used in Morocco. composed of dry branches ofer. Bargus or moreland. baronuU.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. ibid. 26. baraignej Picard. branches. It. barrack. bier. — Kil. from a tree to which a man is hanged. a. barre. a barrow. Nominale of the from braeckland.' Op. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. alongside of barrow. by early examples. to carry. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. vair. semen non accipiens landiEL. the braw. as cavalcade. Russ. as. Bern. perhaps through Prov. Bret. boar. heap. Barrister. Barrack. nobles. baracca. a bar. Fr. The feudal tenants next Fr. — — 15th Cent. to * Barragan. strife. sepulchre. in Nat. G. 1. a word is always used in the plural number. booth. breinej Du. iver. change of goods seems. barBombicinus. braeck. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. a hut or booth. Barratry. fear. and in several instances. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. — A . barraca. Bohem. baronetti. a hiU.have been named from the haggling and gant. vir. bera. baroncelli. Gael. tomb.root signifying confused noise. shed. a horse. barchent. beorg. Bamnculus a baronet. AS. facture. to shelter. whenever Barrow-hog. berewe. a. D. like bargain. a bier. the two names. squabble. signifying. Sp. OE. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Gael. OFr. berwen. MHG. bark&n. staves.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. 2. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. bara. bredhan. mound. It. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. barri. a kind of coarse camlet. brushwood. were sometimes confounded.

mean . chasa. 516. dwelling. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. to bind hand and foot. pdrdt. pressed down. bassin. a halter. a tying. as It. bast-reb. inclosure. tierer. but born in baste. HaUiweU. MS. embastir. Bass. also to Cotgr. the manorhousfe itself. bass-matting. found in Turkish . ^Is de bast. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. Swed.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. fhe outhouses and yards. OFr. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. Lend me your hands. basso. To stitch. piiiguis. beretun. God it wot. ' He was begetin o bast. to baste piece of cloth. baratar. truck. It. chasa ogli a bastard. Sw. It is mentioned as . Fr. Bass. HoUinshed. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). basgod. Sp. Arthur and Merlini. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. of the same sense. bestan. Sylvester's Dubartas. mock not. barter. baratear. shallow. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Fr. fornication. BassuS. basta. a deceiver. a ftiesh. bark. Fr. berewic. by imbezzling their goods Bailey.looketh upon his eyes. MHG. mavult dicere Roma suam. Fris. binding. to Diez. baste. G. which covers the grain Ger. Basket. according from Gael. to bargain. bds. But according And Dan. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. — Bassoon. Barton. to truck. Sp. AS. to long — a British word by Martial. baraand especially teria. to bind. from bere. a court-yard. bas. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. to baste. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). descended of an honorable lineage. Lap. foist in bargaining. Sp. said Base. corn-farm. to cheat. baste. low note. fornication. — hanging. HaU in HaUiwell. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. baste. See Bath. bran. low part of the Hickes in Rich. bastear.). plaiting of splinters basged. Halliwell. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. a king. bast. come near. . also the demesne lands of a manor. besst.D. Bartizan. lift me above Parnassus. stitch. court-yard. It. low. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. would be. It. bast. to deceive. besst-u-b£nd&t. The original meaning. Basilisk. exchange. Newman. n' is n' is bacino. baos. Pl. cheating. over-reaching. low. to bind. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. to cheat. The like property hath the iasilisk. preparatory stitching. a bastard. F. A fabulous serpent. aiKcig. lattice-work. To Baste. It. PaaiKhms. Dan. Isidore. curtus. husk bast van koren. beguile. basso. /«r<fSp. bdtir. basta. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. imbastire. Bastard. partieren. thick. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. submovet omne Lucan. then cheating. peel. netting. to stitch . Apparently of Celtic origin. ing for profit. he. MHG. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. beortun. cog. — in Rich. or wic.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. It. and tun. fits de bas. fraud. humilis. him. Barbara de pictis veni patch. imbastire. ohg. i. the thin skin Dan. Dan. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. bast. at basta og binda. more noble in blood than notable in learning. from /3aR. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. To Bask. Gr. ' Bosworth. basg. Bassus. flat. w. bast-maatte. OFr. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . rope for — . Al is dai. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. There is not one that. It. but he dreth presently. lust. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. hoops of a cask. leviter consuere. bestcn. on a. or running away with the ship. crassus. unrighteous gain. discourse Nay. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . bareter. back. Kil. See Brattice. the a wide open vessel. ibid. barter. as the diadem of the basilisk. a bass rope. baraet (from Fr. barley. oe. . exchange. Du. the — — to kill those that look upon it. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. a basket masg. baxoj w. commonly A joined with the word binda.' Gl.' Papias. Sicamb. Sw. Du. which sets up its hood when angry. . a ipgli So Turk. scale in music. Bast. and Bret.

Dan. frame. — — Fl. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. to beat. bastear. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. to set on foot a war Bastion.'CaB. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. ari instruineht for beating. to flap. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. R. Sw. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. 2.stitching in general. 'iJipistreUo. — Bakke. guerra bastir. settiilg up. Sw. disposer. or implement for 4 * A . but this is hardly satisfactory. to whip. It. from Fr. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. Sp. bdion. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . packsaddle. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. iinbastire. beating. staff. bast. That yche blak y dar wel telle. translation to a bat. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. contriving. Sw. to drub. bastione. bastonFr.. a barSp. Fr. niammal. a pad or packsaddle. 2. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. R. liiake. For the loss of the / in back. pre. Fr. blatta. passage Imbasto. a blockhouse. a things prepared for future use. contrive. Supp. quelqu'un son roulet. stryka. to thrash . To donjon. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. as weU as besteau. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. boste. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. vespertilio. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. bakie-bird . devise. a bird which. also the ricado. Rayn. to spread bread and butter. dial. . aftonbakke. Pm.-^ Chaucer. to rub gently. a with a stick. natt-blakka. It. bastonnir. and Arabs. the winged . bastimento. to Due. Pr. p. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to pack a saddle i. blaka. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. to stroke. a pad. stryk. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. in the Romance languages. the E. nade. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. to quilt or stitch wool into it. For the origin of baston see Baste. iastir. bastille. 11864. to teach one before. which to rest the load. in the use of the E. Dan. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. whence ledrblaka. E. to lay the Sp. bastine.— Bailey. provisions. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Bastinado. I. vledermus.— . to devise or begin. the original has corneille. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. blakta. batta lucifuga. victuals. back. bak. is explained by Cot.stick. to build. and Cot. frotter. a sconce. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. a blow cloth for dinner. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . It. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. basta. a stick. compared with blakka. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. Antiq. Florio. Fr. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. basa. bastia. blows. — — — . erect.Lat. bastir. 164). Perhaps baska. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. Cot. set up. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. put it together. Sp.baste or knock soundly. set up. To beat or bang soundly. ment. to give him a sound bastingi 3. * Bat. explains Sp. a. bastida. bastilde. Cot. flyinge best. to cudgel. blakka. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. Mid. vespertilio. military term of a bat-horse). the bat . SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. a packsaddle. badger. Derived by Diez from iasi.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. like the owl and the bat. basto. bat. blatta. raise. worth (Nat. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . blacta. which in the E. Prov.fortress or castle furnished with towers. to belabour. Sw. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. . baston. Fr. BAT neither. dial. Sc. All from bastir. cudgelling. has bastine. baston. bastir. beysta. blakra. club. ON. to build. bastonada. business (Altieri). e. also to cudgel. comp. and ditches bastion. Dieiif. 2. to beat. to rub. the clapper of a bell. To baste one's hide . For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. night-bat. bladier. a bastion. the night-jar or goat-sticker.

Batten. a Baiffi. I bathe in water viz. to become convalescent. remit. Fr. to fire or in the sun. In OE. as E. Bate. To thrive. bludgeon. Battery. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. bdda vidjor.Hence in the augmentative form It. Du. quhar he suld assaill. heat. baka. Flem. abate. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. the root of e. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. a main battle. Pm. allay . Sw. Bret. e. to warm. Sp. a stick. in the sun.— . on. Battery. Fr. Fr. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . perhaps first used adjectivally. Hence pro. by projections or in any licoure. Plkkis. to beat se battre. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. flour. bet. A Bath. the heat of the It. also a sun badfish. and as a verb. 2. Holz bdhen. busk. howis. dial. Mgy. an arrangement for giving blows. to heat . beat. Goth. To Bate. as wood-en. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to beat. Ayenst the sunne. PLD. Sp. to foment. battions. term in falconry . batna. batir. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. G. baeddu. battre las ailes. a blow with a light instrument. lessen. to toast bread. abattre. to thrive. — Cot. beat down. then to warm by the application of hot water. is in falling. . to beath wood Battledoor. bdhen. Baka sik vid elld. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. solbase. ON. battre. Jurgor. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. a great seems related to baden as Fr. baz. It. bake. In some parts of England it is striking. Batter. to dial. oneself at the A into faggots. to feed. strife. also. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. beat. Bat. fashes basking in the sun squadron. Sw.' Palsgr. w. Batyn. battaglia. to beak. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . to beat. bat.Bathe. dial. gebdcke. G. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. bada. quell. dial. batacazo. and milk beaten up together. a beating. squadron. Fr. Bailey. Battlement. more. whence the sun burns . fortress or castle. batador. battere. — To . cudgel. trahtr to It. a stirrer-up of strife. to betake oneself. I. and with staffslyng.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. Pm. adapted for defence. Eggs. a battalion. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. tradire. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. gabatnan. to foment. buask made like a fortress. to warm oneself at the fire. on the fire. sich bakern. to bathe. water whether warm or cold. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to foment with hot applica. to bathe oneself. a from ON. battre. as E. baden. pak. Gael. a blow. tagUone. See Better. Fr. debat. for biia sik. to beat. To Batten. badda. dial. or make debate. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. . as signifying warm baths. solen baddar. It. badda. to refresh oneself in language. badask. makebate. Battle. . or a dry stick. to cudgel. to get better. is a simple adoption of Fr. From bat in the sense of rod . to fight. a washing beetle. or break down. better. Strife. a staff. battere. altercation. made of bats. a band of armed men arranged basa. to be profited. bataille. A batch as wood. a battle. signifying to give repeated blows. Battalion. was formed bastilU. — — — ' — . From OFr. bdt. to fell. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. dispute. batte sig. batterie. to warm oneself. Hal. Pr. Chaucer. to become fat. Fr. to heat. and about an inch thick. Slav. to for fighting. of bread is so much baked zX one time. in the case of a wall. Florio. Jeddris and covering. baquetazo. from on. hot. bdda. Pr. G. to flutter with the wings. gebdck. basa. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp.— To Bask. from battre. betten. made of — A made by one Batcii. Barbour in Jam. bat-en. bastille. certain bend. I baske. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. E. wet linen in washing. battle was used beath wood. The bat with which a brot bdhen.

ballach. 2. the white of his leg or foot. baula. an object. ball. 8. bobbin or cluster of thread. E. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. It. whence the E. ground. excrement. An analogous noisily. from Baldacca. W. Ball. propugnaculum. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . a tassel or hanging bunch . and Sp. baubare. Batylment of a wall. a gavel. zano. balGael. whence pouacre.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. baban.. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. a tassel. scarf. in OE.— P. Piedm. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. filth. or Cot. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Pr. E. to the same origin. baue. Beaus^ent. trifles. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. to make the noise Baudrick. From ! an interjection of disgust. —R. It. baugant. bal. A name of the badger. The word may perhaps be sticks. to play the babby. a horse with white legs. also the canopy carried part of his body. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. Zalli. form with an initial seen in Fr. the Swiss baben. brush faggot. bausan. P. R. filth. baudrat. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. c. to trifle away ment. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. Pr. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. a spot. a belt. bobine. baffe. bow-wow. fe bau. Bagdad. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. bouaila. a horse marked with a procession. Ball-seirc. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. to bark. Baw — . or toys. pie- . is used for a sented by bau. ish baubles. ! Bauble. fields. fooleries or fond To Bawl. to bark . Cot. lewd . ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Hal. Baldrick. Fl. divided between black and white. Bawson. Swiss Rom. OFr. was simply a field gold. expressive of disgust. horse. Cotgr. a plot of Chaucer. vacillo. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. baudrdj OHG. whimwham. balbob. javelle. dirty. Fr. From Bret. E. tille. spotted. bau. represented by the syllable miau. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. In like manner Grisons filthy. a zan. a white mark Bawdy. Cot. P. pegma. Lat. It. b \% bouala. mew. having a white streak down Bagdad. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. bal. bad. guigaw. The It. sorry. tab. and authorities in note. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. speckled. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. librillo. balderich. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. spot.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. to void the bowels. dung. Fr. trifle. obstrepere. nastiness. sword-belt. to cry. bauch. or sheaf of Bridel. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). to vociferate.. Gael. s. as Fr. a lump. exactly corresponds Fr. bow (as in our nursery Diez.guage). child. It is all bawdy. miauler.' ' Pegma. fagot. from Fr.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. rotten. to 53 manure the To baw. dacchino. an embattled wall. also more Bawdekin. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Bavin. Cloth of gold. babbole. Pm. instead oi s. babiole. E. i. — Pm. — — ' Lydgate. BAWSON Swiss. dirt. s. dente. cluster. disgusting. and to-tore also. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. bauU. toys. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. or the animal so marked. to me-wl. bablyn or waveryn. babsmall toy to play withal. Jam. Prov. dial. because made of cloth of white. an — — — A — g — — — . to talk Lacombe. Irel. P. on the face of animals. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. a dog). is Bagdad stuff. baw. OFr. Descript. the face. Sc.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. faisceau. collar. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. ON. to low or bellow as corn. Formed from baw. Fr. a lump or cluster babhaid. Filthy.

as gazing. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. beothach. Sp. A hollow in the 'line of coast. dehiscere . Mod.— Stalder. the laurel-bay. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. stare. that from ba. ist. &c. bijel. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. to iiitent nected PoL white. Fr. Fr. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. and keeps them in check for a while. berry.' — — 54 bald. See Bawl. . when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. put to his last shifts. It. which however. Such Antaeus seemed to me.—Journal Soc. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. Vielp. barn of two bays. bagaid. white. Bayonet. life. open the mouth. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. to open. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr./^ bau. * To Be. to on anything. . Lat. Prov. berries. large window in a handsome . Catalan hadia. bayen-stein. by the term rendre les abpis. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. the cod of peas. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Fr. bate. waiting . gate. Sp. It. window .. a hole. bde. Holland's Pliny in R. from an imitation of the sound. baya. corrupted into Bow-window. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste.. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Earth — By Nature made to till. to amuse stare a bada. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. overture. bay. when. From the former verb is the It. or window ' (in Fortification). bacca. — A At Bay. 1859. bajo. To Bay. It has been shown under Abie. baie. It. baye. baja. See At Bay. bilyejiti. w. The word bay. to mark. baca. as if to signify a window of curved outline. It. weary of running. — Schmid. or recess in an apartment in modern times. desiring. or at bay. Fr. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. baionette. Gael. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. house . Drayton in R. bahia. 1. husk. batibari. trahir. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Swiss beie. Bay. window-sill. Piedm. Q. abbabayer. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. &c. See Bald. Gael. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. to gape. AS. baccello. bilyega. It. bayo. badius. the world Gr. hddhe-dhonn. like a pie. and the To bark as a dog. BE Probably conRuss. in order to keep the enemy in check. especially beans. Swab. Q. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. grapes or nuts. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. from badar. baga. a berry. to split. ' Tal parve Anteo a me.' Bailey. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. a dagger. Fr. —F. badarse. Feb. arose two forms of the verb. living Ir. and zndly. to be Bohem. tradire to Fr. badarc. beonj Gael. to keep one waiting. bai. he turns and faces his pursuers. the cod or husk of beans or the like. buidhe- The ruadh. laurel of the ancients. . beo. so called from its bearing bays. F. Lat. baier. siege of Bayonne in 1665. baer. bay. bioth. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. or berries. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. A stag is said to stand at bay. expresr sion tenere a bada. the step is the same as from It. baca. is perhaps not directly from Lat. badia to Sp. BauSfi)/. to stand watching one. &. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. to keep at a bay. buidhe. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. —Bay-windo'W. a'uno. ing-floor. OSp. stood watching him stoop. Serv. alive. Bay. or to have been first used at the Cot. a beast. life. —Diez. to open as a blossom. Sp. Arts. watching intently. a cluster of bacon. bahia. bdcr. Gr. S. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. 25. The — Fr. at his last gasp. Cot. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. .c. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. to betray. baiare. BAY marked with bjly. baher. bialo. Fr. From Cat. living thing . Abide. yellow . a mark. aux dehniers abois. Bay-tree. dividere. |8i'os.

or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. He says. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. a presage. to bellow. to wait. Trans. bean. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. It. a tree. The origin seems preserved in E. It forms a. The nutu significare. fora-bauhan. Gael. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. a curtsey. bohne. Fr. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. bearti. bar. Catalan becar. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. nokkima. bakkje. as. Q wait upon him.' Hall's Chron. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. It is BEAR SI court. Bret. AS. bairan. however. a single bean. OSax. boom. a sign. baum.' Suetonius in Diez. . would say. post. to beckon.fui. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. bank. beck. Gael. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. Du. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. or however. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. bek. not applied to the yelping of dogs. —F. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. — Bellenden in Jam.to have a French origin. Miss Gurney in Philolog. E. beic. be. into France. «va\ioQ. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. beugler. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. AS. beic. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. bob. fromthe danger. Beacon. Beach. a nod OHG. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. stock. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. To Bear. bedm. Bean. vol. fd or faVf beans. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. The wild beast. Gr. . — bedeau. support. See To Bid. — : Beam. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. or any action done with a pointed thing. Boom. to carry. Fr. Netherlands or North Germany. Be. Beadle. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Slavon. to produce young. . pierced for hanging on a string. bokan. gebed.' adheres to the root. Gael. an attendant. the part overflowed by the tide. a beak. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. or beic. and Lat. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. ffaen. bakke. baun. becco. beacnian. on. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. bauhan. Thus the final en. badmr. as. Pardoner's Tale. W. Beckon. * Beagle. which is. bM.from AS. to wait-. Hackluyt in R. as well as f& or fav.fuis5e. to nod the head. A Esthon. into a snjall river. bidello. bohnej ON. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. It. bidan. G. according to of Sanscr. bydel. faba. ffci. Beck. bagms. Bret. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. backe. l^ax. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. faba is Kvavoq. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Chapters on Lang. bee. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. a prayer. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. tale of prayers or doxologies. ON. bdkna. Sw. 54. beans. atUndre. ohg. a single bean. signifying a point. was introduced from England sea. ON. pig. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. Farrar. The immediate shore of the Menage. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. g. — to bow or nod . prodigy bauhnjan. Bear. Lat. a tree. rising ground.ad. salve his hurts. W. fero. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. beacen. to nod . -phxr. a hill. like most nautical terms. bead. Beak. Moreover the name. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. signifying individuality. Goth. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. vii. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking.. N.fer-re j Gr. or breathing. Goth. A two-year old nephew of mine p. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. G.

As rivus. talkative. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Russ. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. In like manner condition. Fr. because made of the fur of the beaver. a brook. beauts. chin. which. from beau. Fr. Prov. covered the face. to happen. duty. bett. name applied originally to the bank then proper . to G. riviire. barf. to fall mode of being. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. to be a part of his to. godum with ON. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. G. . bavec. to hem. bobrowai. 1. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. Diez. obtain. brook . AS. suitable. to get. to please. Lat. Thus OY. get J ' He got very angry. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. Bosworth. to wade through the water like a beaver. Sp. proper. to assume a certain form or Turk. It. bestiaj Gael. to appertain. decent. judgment. iida. See Beacon. G. g. riviera. baviire. from the same in the sense of bear2. to arrive at. Beauty. ziemen. from baver. Do no To It fallith favour. limpan. bebrus.' are equivalent expressions. i. babrad. burdr is used in the sense of a car. tidig. bedr. to fall in with our bavard. Perhaps from Pol. agreeable. limpian. or special purpose. bring forth. R. bave i. barba. as. dushmak. It. living. the latter are derived It. bellus. nod or sign. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. fitly . Cal. That thou mayest attain Goth. to bear children.to clothe to slobber. an notion of being convenient. to happen. bekommen. The OFr. to be incumbent upon him. beo. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Now the Beast.S6 fero. Fr. bib or slobbering cloth. G. and to acquire.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. ting. timan. bearing. seemly. bava. dize or dtzen. E. fit.AS. connected with ripa.' every way suited to a prince. gebank. bcek. edge.— Kiittner. — . to the brook itself. to attain to the lot of any one. when up. gefallen. The quadruped. slobber.' ' He became very angry. i. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. o. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. ON. to happen. Lat. e. AS. Slav. gelimplic. biber. The moveable part of a helmet. Beck. opportune. to live. to be fulfilled. behkr. bave. a bank. pretty. and on. See Bat. byw. e. it is probable that here also the to become. pens unmixed evU.getiman. bach. as the babble of the child. OSw. a lip. and Fr. venient. to happen. bello. badi.fit. ON. to fall. Beckon. Lat. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. taste. W. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. See Bank. or a feeling to be gratified. Boeth. Dan. befall. Bedizen. Fr. handsome. becuman. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. a. to the good hapHalbard. blast. imitative of the case happen as we would have them.we call the arrangement becoming. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bart. He becom on sceathan. Fr. agreeable. and also in that of birth. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. while from Shep. happening as it ought. border. the beard. but now a river only. — A — A — . Chaucer. den. to those goods which endure for ever. Thcem. bobr. befit. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. 2. baurthei. R. On the same principle. bequem. Lat. formerly a happen. a bank. to happen. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. convenient. G. suitable. battere. becuman. to shore. to sleep on. fiber. Prick of Conscience. bekkr. fallinn. rying. G. if sound of a sharp blow. perhaps a living thing. tidy. I do thee pray. Beck. to dabble . Beaver. receive. boroda. pleasing. Bo. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. whence baveux. ON. bard. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. bel. gabaurths. birth. baba. limplice. place to lie down. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. Secondarily applied to a hat. decorous. Lith. to come to or upon. Beat. proper . comely. our taste. ON. brook. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. con. produce. fitanimal. E. or river. dress with unbecoming richness . now confined To Become. E. To load with ornament. biivre. bur. nothing to thy name make. Goth. byrcti. to carry. The fitting or suitable. the ece thurhwuniath. beatanj It.of being very angry. See becymth anfeald yvel. brada.

bossen. buche._t from the root pi. briest. wedges. an inhabitant of the desert. may be shpped on and off. Beet. a malsense of drink. I dysyn a dystaffe. G. from jtst-. qui de lecto surgere non potest . case. to poordma. to twist poorma. and in driving piles. E. In a passage of an Old Fr. E. turn (a garment). extant in Bohem. bedskiissen-bUren. cited by Diez. to become Beech. i. &c. doubtless. cugino. a cover. Bedouia. biest-milch. de Fierabras in Diez. beyki. waarin. taglio. in Nat. to curdle or lopper. prigione. PI. garden-herb. kiissen-biere. It. comb. bletumj Gr. thick. by the analogy of bedaivb. blow or thrust. Gael. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. bbtel. bet. bably named from the destructive quali| T. drink. used for boull. the ox. a agulatum in the original Latin. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. bukva. also bienst. Cot.'— GL ^Ifr. crespir. 1. a pillow-case. to parget or rough-cast . AS.' the last word corresponds to cofly . Fr. paralyticus. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. bitel. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. Fr. to coagulate. knock. to change . P1. vaar. of beatmg. Horn. curded or beesty. as. G. KXlvoTTiT^e. Gr. cow has calved. Fr.ing of the word is curdled. . to beat bossel. GaeL bior. The beer al for te shenche bate. Lat. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Beef. beetle also signified the impiti. Cot. clog for a dog b'oteln. Pl. I A pillow-beer. a wandering Prov. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen.— JI14. imperative pi. Esthon. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. calleBedlam. kivih. to rough- cast. bytl.' So Gr. . poculum. a bee. cousin. a pad or cushion).BEDLAM a distaff with flax.D. from blood. byst.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. an Beetle.D. Fin. It. cushion-cover . 1156. boytle. ris. Rom. a Properly a cover that biiren. Fr. Lat. a mallet. betel. 'La Gl. a horse-fly . But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. speach. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. Originally. batAfter mete in sale. and lebermer in G. Grimm. Let. 1. buka. a pillow case. prisons Venet. Bed-ridden.^ drink. The meanpainting. trees in a forest . The honey-producing insect. from risan. a paviour's beetle batail. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. * Beestings.). cogionare. boeuf. Ant. Confined to bed. Beetle. biene. Dan. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Bee. as the milk of a that purpose in London. piwo. a wasp. It. a wasp. in Schmeller. a drink potus. beost. bedawi. the loppered sea. Bav. beach-each. desert. thick. sela que environna la terra. AS. /SXirov. to flatten In OE. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. erroneously modified in form. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. cozen. may be from K. Pett. bette or blettej Lat. bos. fall. to fall. whence familiar. which also 2. an ox. stakes. Arab.cz//aj. G. translation beOj. to turn. biiren.— B. the biter. a stinging bieUe. briesch-milch. For that was law of lend. The first milk after a dizen. badigeonner. beach.(paddi. also the bite or sting of a bees. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. to and ale. beutel. mars betada. I put the flax upon it to spin. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. bitela. a cup or implement for AS. bovis. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. Slav. to knock. door. to colour with lime-wash. from the hos. bove. duplicated form of the root. Bethlehem. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. beest. from Lat. by-flugaj G. g. ProBeer. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. drink. . 57 — Palsgr. Bernese.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. a bed-tick. madhouse. ' MordiThe Lat. pettiriso. ^. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Fr. ir'm. red curdled Arab . Fr. bedde-redirj ohg. buk.possible.ON. the meat of spinach. AS. . woman that is newly delivered. a clapper. pital of St Mary. from leberen. beer. . a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. 1 to drink. to drink. on. turn. sang vermeilh betatz. tree. beta. bibere is a re. water. D. But possibly bedizen 2. pude-vaar. as in It. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. . This was called mer b^Ue in Fr.. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. whose face is clotty. fagus.

That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. be^nnan. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. begger. gan. also called Bigots. ' Begone. y/yvo/iat. P. word. V. steinbosil. a stone-cutter's chisel. yivwajcw. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. can. ' . P. aginnan. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. — yivsaiQ. is formed pocair. a little bag). beitel.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Gr. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. beis- plement driven by blows. kind. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. hags. at geta talad. origin. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. Beghardus. To produce children is to acquire.' A. cans. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. onginnan. image is cleft out of the trunk. on the bag. ysgrepan. a beggar. Deutsch.quently used in OE. a bag or poke. Si'Xa/coc. or Of a pure poor man. not began to alight. beutel. Mundart. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. yivofiai. referred gan this Erie alight. Nov.' for ye shall lament and weep. a scrip euXaiciJoi. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. To Beg. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. pose-pilte. Skinner's derivation from bag. The tother seand the dint cum. ornamented phoc. Lith. 58 BEG BEGONE G. So from Gael. in D. to get children . Mod. 1430. baigeir. signifying to conceive. ysgrepanu. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Into the are D. gen. seizing. it is both to acquire and to beget. V. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. 'Aboutin undern monly. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Of brede full ycrammed. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. begging.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. It. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. P. covered with gold D. to be able. lapidicinus. touched with emotion — . which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. AS. on the tramp. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. a chisel. It will . beginning. yiyvo/uat. beriolare. to begin. to know. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. beissel. beitel. 168. to be acquire. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. To Begin. fangen and Lat. to begaan. viii. can. Cold-begone. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. to go a begging. one after that other. in E. iv.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. but probably erroneously. P. Lollards. anfangen.bag full of the G. &c. 142.3. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. bertola. to beg.' about undern he got down. vir mendi. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . two betels —a grete oke. to be born. 25. Vocab. 2. woe-begone. ' ' . yivtrri. affected. capere. sel. and Lat. When Q. bag {baigean. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Florio. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. Bruce. 1867. Fr. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. su with gold. ykvog. to take. P. OHG. duginnan. a scrip. ip AS. Creed. of Gr. literally. genus. to cleve. on further examination. &c. gigno. Schm. 'ex quo. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. from whete G.pose. 40. P. as alighting is a momentary operation. ytyvwfT'Kw. incipere. tale. oppressed with woe. 'Dz. a beggar . appears improbable at first. Political Songs. giving in Gr. although it ' the future.— . a wallet. — Stillingfleet. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. In Luc vi. Du. From w. a beggar-boy. a — wedge. Ancren Riwle.D. krapszas. chap. Du. to bear young. He did alight. P. taking up.n. Barbour. & go a begging. chisel. air a . the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . V. a wedge for cleaving wood. above quoted to get beaten ON. whence the E. but in the same language from poc. P. P. to reduce him to beggary. to arise. is com. P. the fundamental notion of attaining to. ken. a bag . bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . Du. Goth. ken. in Lat. a bag.

gecall. han- — js Kil. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. holding is originally derived from that of looking. furtherance. Command. garder. to be obliged to do a thing. to take away. to be named. to hold. tion. hces. to carry. R. To place are most naturally ex. betragen. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. ufhaban. taking notice or care of (Gloss. behces. keeping. N. To be expedient. when the verb will hoof. to lift. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. at the tail of. fixed upon any object). or the hence advantage. is on the top of or opposite to. behaviour. behefe.to vow. to turn one out . 17. K. AS. to follow. behatan. behind. G. to hit the mark. to tend. to name. Sw. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. At the back of The re. gehalten seyn. to have. injunccommand. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. to keep. vow. The It. Sw. G. To look steadily upon. to gehouden. solicitum esse. Aan iemand bid one welcome. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. keeping. behoof. vow. OE. beholden to him. hcefwa in seed. to promise. behat. hove. what is so required. the name adapt. ward. hafwa. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. advantage. To Behold. on. hantyri. And so from hania. or necessary. G. the two verbs seem radically the same. right. behete. Paladino. have the sense of calling or naming. zu etwas gehalten haitan. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. and their senses intermingle. to look upon it as true . The Lat. behold. gehat. Robert in Warton. hafwa bort. the equivalent of E. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. guardare. to heave. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. gehouden. us-hafjan. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. according as the * To Behove. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. hevja. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to R. portarsi. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to be be named. hevja. servare. But. to feed. and the E. premi curi alicujus rei. or purpose. AS. se porter) to fare well or ill. to call. to command.' Richardson.the figure of throwing at a mark. Thus in Finnish the heave. to carry. to raise. promise or a command. heeten. to keep. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. ge' hatan. heita. healdan. seeing to. laborare. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to the equivalent of Du. to behave. observe. G. AS. to lead.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to fit. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. Plautus. The seyn. — Behest. take heed of. as in the case of E. hafwa. what he wishes another to do . habere. to hold. to be suitable or becoming . bound. —Hest. invoke. to bring forwards. to look. AS. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. adjust. promise. G. promise . AS. to call. hafwa ram. to be well pleased out. to cast or throw. Goth. To Behave. zijn. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to bers of the body. Kiittn. to carry corn into the barn . to carry. obliged. to be fit. hovast.). to halten. to regard. a follower. hafjan. to vow. take yourself off. It. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to meet. habban. to command. beperson addressed. and (as Fr. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. hcef tig bort. Sw. tail. the distance of anything. to vow. heave. use. hofwa. nittaa. to keen or hold. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. by the compound observare. from tragen. to lift.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . G. to be obliged to one.for throwing it. ifl fact. name of the head is used to express what hbva.— . is also found in the sense of looking. is supported by many analogies. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . heeten willekem. commonly expressed. gehaben. exhort. hatan.

and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. praising. Bell. Du. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. — . beau sire and bel dame. to hit hafi. Northamptonshire. Pl. a little shed. esteeming good and valid. laubjan. praise. 6o BELAY BELL loven. loven. met. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to fix a price upon one's wares. to believe. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. were civil terms of address. bettifredo. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. are other modifications of the same imitative root. AS. precious. bounds. OFr. legsel. to make it fast. Goth. In the middle voice hofwas. promiser. range. From AS. to sound loudly . bulken. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. lofa. Det er ofwer er hofwa. aim. from mhG.. To Belay. if a promise. we have Goth. or high estimation. to protect. or a sconce. honoured. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. beleggen. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. verloben. to give leave. Then. to a loud noise. on. belief . certain rate. and Du. and bergan. to express approval. Du.. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. and E. to roar. beffroi. giving leave or permission. locus securitatis Schilter. Q. then. bercvrit. garnish. To Belch. lov. mark ON. for purposes of low estimation . to permit. turris. bellan. Fr. promising. loven. are innate . to to make A Templorum campana boant. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. boare. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. a tower for defence . to praise. true. satisfaction. AS. bylja. consent. bellow. Fair sir and Fair lady. Du. to promise or engage.D. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to der swaren lave. Another application of the same word is in Pl. and E. — Diicange. tain a certain end.D. to give leave. Pl. allow. a watch tower. bialla. to put a high price or value on. to sanction an arrangement. to lay the cable round the bits. bealcettanj OE. galaubs. berfroi. overspread. beffroit. if a narration. to believe. measure. Du. pro3. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. The word be- Belfry. permission. to estimate them at a To believe.D. Fr. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . an implement for making a loud noise. is used in the sense of approving. In Mid. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. peal. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . to promise. ornament. under the forms belfredum.D. in nautical language.Lat. to befit. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. frid. to bolk. to praise. To Believe. G. . Hence to simple approbation. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. then. to resound. properly belonging to the church tower. ON. a vessel made for dishonour. See Gain. . erlauben. bolken. glauben. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness.alyfan. bertefredum. b'ola. bealcan. reach. lyfan. gelyfan. To praise is essentially Xo prise. on. to boke. orloven. to cry out bell. portion. fitness. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. P1. moderation. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. to bellow. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. galaubjan. fringe. ungalaub kas. laven. It. hesfa. to believe. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. — mankind. is (Sternberg). a tower.Lat. behove. appearing in Mid. distance to which a piece will carry. belja. loben. . to belay. ley/a. leave . to lay be- around. permitting or giving leave. cela est audessus de votre portde. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. esteemed . to give leave Dan. leaf geleafa. battefredum. bervrit. with the consent of the heirs. bell. stand. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to praise. beset. laven. filu-galaubs. border. is an easy progress. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry.. a. resonare. to extol the worth of anything. reputation. OHG. —F. ON. and. Sw. or house. to be required for a certain purpose.

Du. a water-bubble builge. se bander. rushes. hence with ashes. Javanese perfume. bell. bandoir. I soyle it or araye it. from Arab. From OFr. a speaking well of one. loubdn djawt. to touch one. dirt. means seeds of plants. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. to. cod or husk of pulse. vulgarly the belly. or simply djawt. or fyle with myre. to do good to one . bellows. balg.videtur. See I . belgr.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. Lat. rise against external force . pertinere.' The term had been previously planation. Lat. belt. gelangen. to ring. volva. a good deed. a bellows. to attain belangen. an inflated Lat. bendan. Fr. to bend a bow . Bent. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . kind. ray. the skin of those animals that factor. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. I araye. from cwcsthan. well." — — . benehusk. gwaldas. Quoth. from another modification of the word for bubble. skin. from benedictio. benefacere. attingere. because bcelg. to reach. To Benum. bilbila. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. pino3. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. a border. bander un arc. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. as. or a It is times the to signify services. To Bend. bilbil-goda. wallet Benefit. from which is also bulbus. G. a blow. Benediction. langen. to stretch it on a frame. one who does good. — root consisting of concentric skins. binsen.pinuz. binssen. Belt. to hallow. — See Numb. to become one's property . yards of the vessel to bend cloth. or sometimes louban. benignus (opposed to malignus). blister balgan-snamha. bendaj as. to say. To Bequeath. welt of a shoe. a spring. To Belong'. See Nether. are stripped off whole blase-balg. — ray. a kindness. a accusative. bolg. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. belliJ Lat. G. bellows. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. . skin. to exert force. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. ball. wallet. ON.' — Hie fimus. benir. benjoim.Fr. Dozy.polch. to arrive at. border. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Lat. the word. Bret. balg. to use words of good omen. pervenire. bimpsen. Benefactor. . . Fr. benejicium. ^To Beray. . the ipsi Caddono concessimus. Beneath. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. . bags or bellows. blast-bcelg. The ing-skin. fens et hie liraus. vulva. poX^ri. w. disposed to oblige. bienfait.' Palsgr. — Ducange. on.— Belly. . ' . benaigon. as concerning that. attinere. a bellows . is a kindred form. has assumed a plural form. OUG.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. to hold to one. Gael. the womb. Benedico. Kil. to bless. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. . bolg. is The word balg. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. belch. welt of a shoe gwald. to come to the crown belangen. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Fr. See Bank. a blessing. was in Mid. a benefit. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. est matris in lucem editus. belly. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. needs no ex. benedicere. becwathan. belly. benjoin. G. Lat. Eenison. beneison. Benzoin. Bench. bellows. I say). applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life.. Sw. bimaissen. attinere. J'emboue. incense of Java. hem. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. to concern. Ptg. to attain to. Benefice. pertinere. Bav. Gum benjamin. pod. taken absolutely. In E. to belong. See Bind. by itself. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. ' I beraye. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. bless. Benign. pouch. G. balteus . ON. to touch. to make bilbil. OFr. I marre a thyng. Gael. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. bcelg. to concern. fyle To dirty. bene/actum. bolch. Was das belanget. Lat. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. To belong is thus to reach up to. Lat. a leather bag. generous. leather sack. a round or bubble-shaped root. bag. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. Benignant. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. benedictio {bene^ and dico. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen.

— VixHsm. to word is shelter. to give a place to. * Berth. stede. besein. an incendiary. See Better. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to put on the saddle. bal oppbota. basya. sets fire to. besnij Pl. a fire. a berry. ^•n.D. fyrbotare. BETE dirty'. to strip. reparation. From abet. So too Yorkshire arf. — Chaucer.bhaksh. Fr. vi. and on which the wager is laid. burrow. the guardian . het vuur The serise of Boeten. position. — Biglotton. improve. Best. to amend. to defend. fall with sound. reafian. Esthon. Berry. baete. to to deprive of. to light the fire . beorgan. barfham. or to bestead one. roju.—^fake. supply. dial. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. barth may be for barf. is to perform a serviceable office to him. houseless. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. besmas. as in growth. from It. hva mannan. AS. barthless. To bete his Jam. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . To Beseech. Beet. but it is specially applied mister. E. a horse collar. what does it better a man. basjaj Du. put forth. ^akka. So roto rattle down. to thrust. small eatable fruit. to fall with roisto. — . buttafuoco. fearful. seems twigs or rods. besIn sen. ariierf to 113. betan. think more probable. p. boutefeu. earh. betan. to on the other Goth. . as. might have been . BEREAVE Wall. boteith Goth. I from lew. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. advantage. bet. bestow. bdt. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. compared with bargham. Rob. Tha het he micel fyr betan. bur-we. Fin. to be-place. or. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. same word with the provincial barth. to To Bereave. sweepings. brem-bessen. arwe. — amendment. from grow. To seek something from a person.— Hal. stow. dust rojahtaa. solicit. When men of mekeness him baet. reparation. R. Kil.ot-i. to thrust. besje^ Sanscr. Devon. . G. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. buttare.irova. to make better. mud. and Du. berwe.• 62 Antiq. The proper meaning of the bale. preferably. as. bacca. boeten. scopse spartis. to stand one in good stead. Du. to fire a funeral pile of . Beere. OE. to cast. To Bestow. berry. beseech. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. rods. R. dirt. jnore. roju. of ffeed a fire. from AS. encouraging. to supply a want. AS. advantage. bat. Hfence backing. better. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. To Gl. a place . baete. broom twigs. put. as. bota. profit. or the space kept clear betan. it seems hard to separate as.iooA. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. supporting on the one side Lat. E. lay out. Du. as conversely a besom is called broom. Fr. making better. AS. make better . was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. See Reave. Zeitschr. rubbish. to make it. to exercise on a definite object. Sw. but in practice. dung . The origin is AS. to entreat. lewth. ship for a make amend. * To Bete. Du. in the sense ctf beria. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. boeten. ropahtaa. sheltered from the wind. an incendiary. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. because used for making besoms. So Lat. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw.t.fish the other hand. dirt . that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. and also to entreat. To Bet. bouter. Sw. vol. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. earg. to seek. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. as. to the place boarded off in a. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. On the other hand. the side bhakshya. roe. amendment. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. Ihre. p. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. bereafian. botesward. berwham. 3. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. to kindle the fire. stealth from steal. Besom. Goth. — bota. It is the restore fyr betan. one who shelter. besen. The dry. boeten. Grose. G.X. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Tusser. peto. repair. To help. Bestead. what does it boot. Du. bdt. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. person to lie in. as bouter selle. protect . to mend. noise. place. Beit. as Du. eld up- On is to be placed A — .

Lat. Tinia eigi at lata eit. amiddes. whence beveraggio Fr. dispose (whence schicksal. The as. traditor. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. Bevy. progress. betweohs. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. more. -to appoint. tima. to deliver up in breach of trust. To Bewray. Buveau. of quails. abash j from polir. bat. to Teem. bet. It. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. proficere. to drink . obeish. bevde. kein leben mehrin no signs . in the middle of two. in the middle of twain. polish. as one would have it fall. bedriegen. to Hence It. a drinking . to deliver tip. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. become. trakir. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. R. Chaucer. x. awry. to fall. ruogia. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. better. betera. best. be fitting or suitable. deem suitable. fitting. beverage. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Dii. tima. gezimet eines dinges. to cheat. by a final sh. order. wreia. bouter davantaige. an instrument opening like a a thing.D. lot). roja. for measuring angles. To Beteem. beuvrage. a traitor. sloped off. evidence of life. against. R. betweox. r'ojer dig. as tlock. e. gatiman. — that schickiich. a different form of twa. some attention. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. Det sig sjelft. Goth. riigen. from Fr. is used for the — R. trahison. trahir. tradire. betest. zemen. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. as envahir. as from obdir. E. In like manner folissais. Cot. ziemen. from invadere. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Ober D. betst. are there Regt R. batizo. To vouchsafe. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. larks. i. to make forwards. fallinn. &c. taemen. Fr. ON. Fr. OE. suitable. to accuse. Percy Soc. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. regen. verbs in ir with a double ss. it bewrays itself. better. Du. Slant. to happen. It. afford. Sahissais. two. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. or with again. R. Car son umbre si le trahit. Dit tungomal rendered in E. what does It is forward him. better. treachery. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. make manifest. from Lat. . suitable. Mich self a good glass of wine. I approve of beveau. AS. bibere. moveable and compass branches. twain. Bav. amidst. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. tradere. Fl. a bevy. as trahissons. betray. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all.' Dialogue on Witches. AS. batista. by two. e. springs from ON. ON. G. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Fr. in the same way Lat. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. his eyen sheen. To Betray. advance. taemen. 88. which may be compared as to form with amid. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. gesiemen. his mouth. to deceive. To boot in coursing (i. From the former of these are AS. Thus from dbahir. betwuh. Hence last G. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. baet. fate. — of the authorities. A — drink. betwuxt. The inflections of Fr. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. G. find it good: Goth. Ik tame mi dat nig. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. dir. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. betaemen. obdissais. tweoh. Fris. betriigen. roebucks. Goth. i. find in one's heart. wrogia. is treason. Pl. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. and thence twegen. — See To Bete. /alia. to stir. *Ah. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash.D. said he.— . or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. Golding's Ovid in R. E. From It. E. the being pushed to the frbnt. to discover. G. e. a brood. to happen. betweoh. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. vrohjan. On the same principle ON. Friar's Prol. Best. trahissais. In the water anon was seen His nose. spritigs from schicken. G. traitre. deign. beva. are commonly to one's lot. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. Fr. Between. Better. from. has — In a like sense tanie>i. zimet. Now the stirring of an object. Sw. bet. of pheasants. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. Pl. bevere. pair of compasses. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. BETEfiM translated. — Betwixt. to fall Some call it a bevel.

pible. metaphor). biberon. Lat. sbieco. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. evident. biais.two. E. To bicker in NE. besanca. rogge. to make tongue Du. . . bark of which paper was first made. it were the mouth. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. he is Wtb. Dan. lips. To Bezzle. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. slanting . Prov. to cut in two. twice.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. sbiagio. it becomes (Jz-. Pers. to well up with Cot. to creep or crawl sideling. kwijllap. whence Du. the word became bddizahr. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Fr. bavon. of the sliced off. to it evident to sense. . expelling or preserving against. Fris. (according to the Fr. sbrisciare. Bib. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Fr. to shake. to dispute. bibo. the basil Sc.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. babbi. poison. which good bibbeler. ber-laita (for bes-laita). To Bicker. Diet. liwell. pddzahr. bezling or skueing. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. in two ways for duis. bickel-sieenken. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. Piedm. .' bibble. wraggeln. to stir. Bezel. In comp.D. . Ant. edge of a plate of looking-glass. —Bickering'. Misc. Mantuan. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. 172. sbriscio. To Bibble. oblique. bring under ' Thy accuse. bickelen. Bible. love first begins to life signs of him.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver.to drink much. whey count . Fr. inferiority.D. one who drinks in excess.s bellum for duellum. to be a paring. bickeler. aslope sbisciare. roggle. in Fr. to purl. to move. kwijl-bab. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. It. sbrisso.as in Biped. a slabbering-bib. wrogen. the papyrus. shows the P1. Lat. bihais. used in precisely stone . reveal. bisdare.{ioin dua. —Dozy. baviere. to stir. in him. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Bias. b&zahr. See Wriggle. sliding. Biseau. To Bib. a bibber. notice. Hal- — do something aslant. Bibelsworth in Nat. Bice. The It. to stir.a. Du. a sloping edge. wrangle. bias-wise. sik beregen. biberen. sbiscio. bending. bible. biascio. tailU en biseau. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Fr. Ci^. rogt un bogt sik nig. slippery. An inferior blue. Fr. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). bis. bes-azur. specially in a bottle. bibaculus.or from obliquus. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. winding or crawling in and out. to slaver . Gr. Oh when shall I bizzle. Yes. 78). Sp. from pdd-. sbrissare. biascia. Pl. dial. Schiitze. Uprogen. bickai. convicts thee of being drink. is explained to clatter. I Wallon. — crooked. to give signs of life. Cat. biberer. beregen. sbiescio. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. sbias. snout. discover. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . sbiasciai. a bezle. and zahr. to tipple. two- footed. In Arab. Bisect. baverole. It. has a singular stone-picker. or kwijl-slab. as an eel or a snake. asure-bice (Early E. Cat. foul weather. bisel. crooked. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. biax. makes ble. sloped. to the stirring of their conscience. its clothes. dial. to slaver or drivel. presence. An excellent Basil. him. bebble. biaiser. to Jam. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. a fragment bieco. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. misFr. bestemps. per\'erted belief. to a fight with stones. Piedm. It is especially applied in Sc. or in and out. — Bi-. or by any rapid motion. to tipple. like guzzle. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. stock still. Sardin. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. Sard. petit-lait. Fr. though such a change of form would be very unusual. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). kwijlen. to sip. to stir up . sbiesso. by throwing of stones. a Galilean. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. bickel. /3i/3Xof a book originally. To drink hard. The train of thought is then. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Bezoar. aslope. ice . Jamieson. to glide or slip as upon. a stone-hewer . beslei. bescompte. OE. Hal. Probably. babbefore the eyes. To skirmish.

With respect to logical pedigree. ON. faurbjudan. buga.peto. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. and the Sw. G. may plausibly be derived from Goth. bieden. bath. swelling. to start out. bieten. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. besides the professedmonks and nuns. a flexure. The original Swollen. ewes. bug. A pose to one to come to dinner. to offer it to public notice. consisting both of men and women. ON. To bid the banns. repair. who. Einem einen guten tag bieten. as G. — prepare. The loss of the / gives Dan. Wallace in Jam.' Addison. a swelling. bugan. bit- bidja. The 'La. to bulge. bat . anleta. to abide or wait on. to bend. to marry. bow. swaggering. belly. quiring something to be done. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to pro- command. W. bidan. The . are also used in the sense of asking for. verbieten. — To Bid. an entire skin. proud. AS. to belly. by seek and beseech. To Big. England for swollen. offerre. Jam. abidan. to offer one the wish of a good day. form. twice. Bight or Bought. to pray one to dinner. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. OSw. as. AS. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to forbid . gebeden j G. bedun. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering.t. pressing on one's notice. bugt. bis and in comp. ON. biddan. bend of a shore or of a rope. a chip. from seek. porrigere. BID of stone. — — — Halliwell. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. Analogous expressions are G. bo. which is stiU. iiQ. to forbid . bolginn.uddered len heart. and Gael. called the tertiary order. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. biegen. bi-. to solicit. has leta. to build. balg. inhabit Du. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. to look for." buque with E. beadle. to inflate E. bend. ' Bug as a Lord. to arrange. cultivate. to bid one good day. to build G. bog. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. The ON. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bygga. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to look for. and consequently ordering or reGoth. to offer. to ask. as tears from the eyes. bauen to cultivate. ON. to E. bidel. From Gr. bead. Big. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. R. bulk. gebodenj G. bouwen. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. rising up. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. or third order of penitence. explaining the Sc. inhabit. to move quickly. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to bend. ten. bugne (answering to ON. bulge. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. spelling seems to used in the N. forwards. from belgia. to have one called before him.' Pope in R. G. build.Leta). einen vor Gericht bieten. Bigamy. bilge or bulge. bced. becoming in Lat. bidill. praebere. byggan. to bicker. of More ' in Richardson. OSw. Two verbs are here confounded. 2. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. byggia. or. to presimpler pare. Kil. It must be observed that the word bidja. AS. to cultivate. Du. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. beodan. bolgna). bulge. pray.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. 1. P. Palsgrave in Halliwell.. a suitor. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. Bigot. from bidan. bidan. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. belly. bag. in the sense of ask for. To Bid ' Big . to ask. praestare. the belly of a ship. the meaning of bid. Big-swol- . For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. and yajiBui. to curve. to inhabit. Compare also Sp. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. . boa. to build. Hence Sc. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. A bjudan in anabjudan. swoln. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. Bickelen. . bolga. beidast. BIGOT beidan. related to big or bug. bigan. bua. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. The ON. be bug. G. qucero. bidjan. athird class. to swell. to dwell. bulky. or bad.

' says an Venet. S.' says one of of bigio. aliqui Begardi.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. Bighini. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. beghart. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. as well as bizocco. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Augustini dotarint. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. From bigio. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. absque votorum religionis emissione. begutta. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. ix. borel. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. the other form Per te Tribune. Francisci communiter appellabant.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. In the same way Fr. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . which must not be confounded with begardo.D.' Chart. D. a blockhead. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. all apparently derived from Ital.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. vol. beghino. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. In a similar manner from bigello. 560. Hence the OE. and also unlearned common men. A. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. dark-coloured cloth. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. bighiotto. homespun cloth. natural grey or sheep's russet. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. to adopt a similar course of life. corruption would easily creep in. face VIII. with reference to A. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. Beguttce. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. alii Apostolici. probably from biso. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. rustical. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. Bizoccki. Bighiotti). xx.' translated by Muratori. They wore a similar dress. and hence the variations bigutta.a. the nobles to Rienzi. signifying bagmen or beggars. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. was formed bigello. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. Bizocco. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. 1499. grey. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. 15 18. alii de paupere viti. coarse woollen cloth. both men and women. author quoted in N. grey. A. clownish. bighellone. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. A. says. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. Flor. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. vocati Fraticelli.' Matthew Paris.D. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.— BIGOT bigardo. G. 1243. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. and Q. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. &c. ac labores manuum detestantes.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. sed maxim^ in muliebri..' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. bigio. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. biso. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. perch^ i Terziari di S. bigotta.D. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. honesti plebeii amictus.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. a dunce.— Ducange. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.

a shackle. Johansen. whortle-berries. Bilberry. clog to a fetter. Tartuffe. bila. boeye. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Lat. Billow. to pick a millstone. the o changing to an i to express diminution. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. To defraud one of expected sinking. G. bigot. Roquef. Sw. the bill of a bird. to strike. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . irons or set in a kind of stocks. might be taken to express a hypocrite. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. and dziobas. buail. deceit. an axe. gleischner (Frisch). In English the meaning has received a further development.' in Richardson. bullet. blamand. boja. beghart. Bilbo. procella Kil. from OSw. a beak. used in legal proceedings. biilge. bigotto. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Piedmontese bigot. Aurelles. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. ferrese quam ligneae. Billet. a name given to a. is properly a sealed instrument. to be angry (i. Dan. billet is the diminutive of this. An instrument for hewing. genus vincu- Bilboes. a man who rests on a stick in walking. 2. top. bulgja. — bigardia. plog-bill. Bilge. bill of exchange. To Bilk. the trunk of a tree. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. bui. See Bull. bile. seems to be rather the unda. Bohem. bille.. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. axe. AS. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. In the same way are related Pol. blue . a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Kil. NFris. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. ^Billiard. billard or billart. p. Du. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. from the dark colour. bizocco. of boja.' mariners. now A Bilboa blade. an ingot of gold or silver. 'tumidi fluctus.— — — . w. BILBERRY nated. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. obsolete. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Prov. I. — — ' . dziob. e. blaa. billard also signified at billyards. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. an axe . boia. a of the sea. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. horn of an animal. Bill. Fr. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . Du. bigardo. Thus we find in It. a devotee. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. OFr. the swelling G. bisoch. the beak of a bird. bill. an ingot. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. in the sense of a writing. weapon . to strike. a floating log to mark the place of some. Fr. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. bigot. Du.' bilio. 3. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Billette. beil. e. 5 * . Bille. fluctus maris. names bill-berries. Bojce. bolghe. Sw. dziobad. Kil. a seal. buoy [i.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. belgan. — Cot. a short note. The Du. See Bulk. belghen. Bigin. a hatchet. inscriptum. fetters. bull-berries. topor. a negro. symbolum. . an axe. crowberry. abelthe fetter itself. billet. AS. bwyell. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Sp. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. gan. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. buie. Dan. an axe. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Bill. A slang term for a sword. Deutsch. that of swell. bulghe. and a billard. . So in Gr. Gascoigne in R. of E. a hypocrite. tepati. dissimulation . bil. as craneberry. AS. Langued. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. a bigot or hypocrite. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. . from Mid. to job. a sword. b'olja. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. in the same sense. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Mundart. The origin of the term is probably from bole. to swell with rage). billot. bill in parliament. Lat. Gael. however. 2. A lorum tam in — Diez. a seal. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. loi. Fr. to peck. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. The proper meaning bylgia. Ludwig. and in Lat. bulla. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. bla-berry. at sea Billet. on. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. person of religion leading a loose life. Sw. an adze . as a bill of indictment.

and especially to a small poor horse. H. a knob. pippione. from Gr. the young of birds . qui nisi propius Blind. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. hith. a heap. . Fr. i. bita. — See Bittacle. beize. a brood or hatch of young. pinnu. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. a weight of 48 pounds. copus. also a stone weight. to twine. binge. isfiw. sc. 'tumens sequor.. by the verb knit or net. Lap. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. The proper meaning is a heap. a heap. In like manner from knot. G. overlooker. or ben-wood. V. to build. Bisen. Bin. AS. See Breed. to knot nets for fish. a habit- Binnacle. to net. bund. truss. ge- from AS. bitacora. berkas (z=:Fr. AS. BITTACLE /Siof. expressed by Sw. a little dog. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. to bind together. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. band. bin-wood. It. brid. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. poultry. biccej ON. E. propius videre bij sicndc. Birch. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. or petze. Bailey. habitacle. from Lat. biscuit. wine. viz. bitill. Bisom. while bind-wood. admota non Bit. properly a young pigeon. or baked. Bine. a truss. vescovo. beitan. — properly near-sighted. See To Bear. a gallinaceous bird. Bisson. bindan. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. The term ON. earnes brid. Lat. Lith. Lat. I would derive the verb to knit. burt. Bitch. a corn. G. AS. piiiti. Sp. a female dog hindinn. It. brut. a house. are commonplaces. evesgue. to bear. poule. to be derived from Ibfiaq.68 BIN Bio-. where the compass stands. betsel. in Swabia. hiindiiin. to bind at . Lat. than vice versi. to bulge. Dan. a bitch. which is expressed in E. pittjo. bindan. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. We — A Birth. beorth. Gr. bundt. to plait. See Belly. — Kil. to cook). j). a bunch. the young of an animal. bunki. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. . AS. bij sienigh. To Bite. bhurja. bigne. EpisETTiTOOTToe. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. pin-ti. biclie. bikkia. Sw. nodus. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. to bring Biscuit. Bittacle or Binnacle. to swell. is in Scotland applied to ivy. . AS. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. biscotto.. videt. and of Fr. . pinnii. binda nat. forth.. Fr. to fasten it together. Fr. Bizened. a bear. Goth. Sanscr. G. bund. a weight. bundle. lusciosus et myops. evegue. to hang. Bind. — — . Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. . fowl. bundt. When compared with Fr. by binda. e. Bing. bjork. episcopus. an eagle's young G. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. G. bundun. Sw. bundle. Fr. bord. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. bij sien. from pondus. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bunt. an overseer. The bitol. Thus I suppose the Gr. a bitch applied also to other animals. a hind or female stag. ON. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. a female stag. &c. Then added division in a granary. Bird. bircej Sw. a pig petz. IV. a bump or knob. v. doubtless a stone. — Surrey in R. evigue. or bin. ON. bunch. . A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. piccione. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bunga. to wreathe. to form a knotted structure. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. beitsl.' and the like. beran. To — — —D. twice cooked. pundas. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. is rendered in ON. Fr./«idere. terial. AS. pullus. Habitacle. life. from \t3\. Lat. Bindweed. a bitch. Du. i. Lith. beisseii. Goth. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification.

a childe dothe gasouille. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. — cheeked maid. an additional watch. G. babbe. Bav. bitor. Cotgr. a flapping. to babble. white. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus.' by Haldorsen. to let out whai should have been concealed. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast.D. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. leohte . buft". a large lip. Mantuan babbi. bittore. indistinctly. AS. fallow fawn-coloured. blake. as of water gently beating the shore. a fluttering noise. gulblakk. Nagt huis. shine. blanc. Deutsch. ON. night guard.' G. yellowish. biacca. Sp. Cot. Fr. confusedly. from whence we have adopted the. white. Bohem. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. light-coloured. or water beating gently on the beach . pale. on the one side. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Black. Ai-mstrong. Sp. a babbler. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. bitter. blob. to wax pale or bleaked. brunblakk. synonymous with baber-lip. blebberis. bittour. ON. black. Alex. a shelter for the steersman. to bivouac.. to chops. to babble. gabble. iroxafealo. fallow . mona mid Dan. Bleak. blesmer.plab is used to . ^chops. blubber-lipped. Du. . pale yellow . ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. NE. shining. first. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. bleich. Applied in Hin ON. blac-hleor ides. faded. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. pale brown . Bivouac. blabhdach. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. blobach. yellow . Sw. even humour seemed and beuin. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. the palebleff. plappem. Hist. Why presumest And laam's asse. A a rail. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. blabaran. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. To Blab the anchor. bites. In Legrand's Fr. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. whitish. viz. Fr. bleikr.). cut. Wit hung her mourn. in contempt. x. blank. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. The Gz. ON. things —Palsgr. blob. In a similar manner Gael. dusky. beuni. dark. his blacan light. whitish. Sp. Percy Soc. is apprehension of danger. ^aj'/^r. — Hollyband. bleg. blunt we say it will not bite. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. on. to the sharpness of a weapon. . To or he can speake.. Bittern. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. a* mast . is placed. Gael. v. Pl. plabartaich. to speak Dan. maculS. Hald. beitr. quick. baboyer. Mund. ' Biovac. quoted by Ihre. as of a body falling into water. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. "uivac. a continued soft sound. Se bleek. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). corrupted in Fr. a stammerer. whiteness (candor sine It. mouth. Again. bird of the heron tribe. — Collins in Hal. blab. Mag. Gael. Je N. So Fr. Fr. biti. to talk much.€i. Hal. as is seen in sputter and splutter. Fr. from wachen. AS. 332. stutterer. Blabber-lip. beiwache. baitrs. white lead. pale yellow. 't huisje. Goth. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. a large coarse lip . as in that of pale and white on the other. garrulous. butorj OE. pale. to loll it out. Sp. blob. a beam in a house or ship. chatter babbler . blakk.. In like manner E. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. blepLith. discoloured . All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. pins of the capstern. /ealo-/or. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. mouth. bitts of Bitts. It. —Neumann. bihovac. ' plabraich. faded.' It would thus acle. blabbre. to watch. blakki.— Blabber-lip. obscurus. bitones. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. an edge is sharpest sword. babbling. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. I blaber. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . small guard-house. Fieldfare. thoughtlessly . 156.' by Gudmund. 't kompas huis. unintelligible talk plabair. a tati. The bitas. bitr. 'fuscus. to To blabber blabber with the lips. round which the cable is made fast. pale. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. ON. Lydgate. as of wings . G. . blabbern. term. apparently from its biting the tongue. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. out the tongue.

leaves. The old Dutch form of the word is blader.. Perhaps from blegen. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. defame. is identical with Flanders borlen. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blanchet. —We Bladder. rogues and wanderers. Fr. blanchir. a pustule . Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. leaf of a. The present forms then should be classed with blether. mud. bladdra. bladder . and E. to bubble. in R. black. Dan. coat. and thence to babble. PI. pXaatpiiiiHv. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. revile. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. chatter. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. the ON. Fr. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Du. a leaf. variable than the signification of words designating colour. To blank. Du. his meat burnt. reproach. to shine. blister. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blanqne. Blanket. a boil. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. 1854. and others engaged in dirty work. dial. to To bellow. and G. blank. blinken. to shine. also white woollen cloth . candidus. blather. vagrants. —^Webster. G. blein. G. bladra. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. blegne. also tanned by the sun. blad. and wandering men and women. blatt. name originally given Blackguard. 7. Jan. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. to make or become white blanc. Du. as scullions. Blain. foolish talk. probably ate. blena. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Sir. or of an oar G. Now. skola and thwatta. Sc. sheet of paper. speak impiously. Fr. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. dripping-pans. leaf. also jabber. blahen. as Lat. Dan. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. blaeren. G. mus-blackt. bladder. to dabble in water. and Q. . or as E. Lat. on. white. flap of a Du. e. linkboys. Fr. with all other loose idle masterless men. broad. leafy. Sw. whitish. Play in Nares. . Blame. smore. blactra. which we . a blank ticket. plate. chatter. Du. Blank "verse. blister. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. 86. roar. Bav. pluddre. — . board. a bubble. To Blare. polished. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. biasimare. bladeren. D. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. borrelen. smother. 5/^a/^ of colour. gabble. blad. Bacon in R. a bladder or pustule. to blanch. bladder. Dan. to —Blaspheme. a buible. It. tree. blatter. irXariQ. blame.—Blatant. pladdern. to glitter. a. blister. biastner. Sw. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. tattle. to omit. to glow. moere. Reliqu. to bleak in the sun. whitish. plat. on. branches . Cot. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. — rura. to disappoint. imbrunire. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. blegen. I am degraded from a cook. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. to purl. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. as blader. to Hence Ital.— Kil. or blafich.—Blatter. — — — to jabber. blanchet. blister. p. But perhaps a more Gr. a white or unwritten ticket. mire. blatter. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. mud. white. most complete example of leafy structure. See Blubber. &c. plat.— ^o thehotsun. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. from candere. pallido. Hist. Besides the examples of this connection given above. contracted from bladeren. a blanket a bed. and he shall be sure to have O. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. vagabonds. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. bladre. pass over. blanc. a bubble. piatto. as. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. blather. shining.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. livido . Blancli. The radical bubble. Wott. waschen. bladder. Blank. to vocifer- — Cot. or a mass of bubbles. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. slush. the origin of . BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. . to blow. pimple. — Sw.. Gr. as. Eadmer. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blaere. boys. madder. commonly called the Black-guard. Torriano. the leaf of a tree. cited in N. blether. Du. blasphemare. Blade. and the agitation of liquids.

his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. each of boaster. ther it was erst not knowe. 2. See Blare. With inversion of the liquid. and which.sound a trumpet. — ' — stroy. bleis. The origin of this exSp. magnilo. Troilus and Cressida. boasting. an empty and two theories are proposed. to set on fire. — — ' : bless. Sc. But now. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . the noisy. might And sain. braise. like the in English. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. proflare tues. blorach. besides blesse. bliEsan. blcEsan. to proclaim. a funeral oration . a shout. live coal . that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. The AS. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. in the same way as we 2. Dan. proclaim the virtues of. blass. brasa.— . friend Cornelius. blaodh. loud . clamorous. a flame. A blaze is so intimately Then. 'op een trompet blaazen. Du. Golden Book in R. a torch . ing of arms. to spread news. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. a whisperer. bles. blatero. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. ventosus. and. or to the sound which it produces. Fr. The other derivation. blis. ill-speaMng their proper colours . of an animal. a blast. to publish the praises. Prov. blaodhrach. Fr. a MS. senses. or blazening. abroad. Blaze.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blaze. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. has also blencke. bawling. much plausibility. brasa. ON. g. a coat of arms. whence Blazonry. magniloquus. is from AS. blesse. also only pains and excellent endurance. blason. Du. blaser vid. quus. . to trumpet forth. by stripping off a portion of the bark. A strong flame. blase. blaterare. Blatant. also blazon or the blazSpenser. indeed. oured. Du. in that of praise. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blast. blysa. baladrar. stultd loqui. to blow. G. . redness . parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. To blast. to cut off prematurely. kept up. OE. might spring from the same origin by a . to blow. To blow AS. as a verb. blus. and to make him word blaze. blcesett. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. visui patet. Gudmund. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. bldsse. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. First from the E. thraso. AS. I. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. e. Blanches illuminies. an conium.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. blason. used.' painted or figured . blazen. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. blys. baladron. Du. blesse. somewhat different train of thought. — ^Jam. embraser. a loud noise. i. to extol. laudes (Kil. blcEsan. Cot. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. As Kilian. Du. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. If armour. Sw. Dan. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast.' to fastum . blose. gloriosus. splendour. blossi. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Sw. blase. . the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. Lye. a torch. shield or surcoat. it is manifest. coloured prints. a flame . ON. blateroon. Blast. blezo. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. AS. noisy blor. biter. to de. blcest. is the imme. G. Kil. blasonner. pale. blcese. Du. Cot. light-coli.). beast. Fr. To Blaze. to publish.whence the Fr. abroad. a flame. A gust of wind. — Elazen. a voice Jr. a shining spot. also praeblczse. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. on whose behalf the herald appeared. to blaze Sp. a lamp blasere. a shield. declaratio. commendation blason funebre. blasoen. blasa. blaesen. Gael. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blaeteren.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. fire. to blow . the matter incendiary . how. oron-blasare. among other . is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. is used in the sense of manifestatio. to bellow.

D. to cry or weep. or to low as oxen. to wink the eye. spla7nU sie. 242. To Bleat. — — R. livid. tutnan is a cloud. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. to disgrace one's name. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. G. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. (faith or creaunce) Be war. a red watery eye. And now are these but mansbond (i. to humbug. As AS. Palsgr. which are blurred with the have shewed you. — blink the question is to shrink from it. darkness of vices. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Mac. a blot or smear blanking one. to become livid. Pol. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. The term blear. the formal equivalent of English wink. plama. to blare been weeping. bldmi. blema. See Blood. a blemish in one's 2. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. wheal. a spot. is Blench.filerren. tumanid. inflamed eyes. a disgrace. . Gower in R. Richardson. livor. a been distinct. Blear. blakna. A Blab. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . to concealing something that had originally discomfit.'he cried till the tears ran down. blarren. a spot. to make him feel blank.P. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. See Black. From the OFr. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. on. Ancren Riwle. color plumbeus bldma. a stain. souiller. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. blemissemeiit. ' . ^Xiixaoftai. as of dust or mist . . Manuel de Pecch&. wanness. blink. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. paleness. light-coloured. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Bailey. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. a fault. pimple . to bleach. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Sir J. to cast a mist before the eyes. to blear one's eye. ' He blarrede or roar. whitish. avoid looking it in the face.v. Blemisli. 115. sugillatio. To totally different from the foregoing. flack. from the than schal I go. geplerr. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. blcecan. wan. goda nainn. N. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. . it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. guenchir. splamii!. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. 419. to stain one's honour or reputation. blot. pier vor den augen eyes. Fr. a boil. blesmir. Gr. B. or blemish. blesmissure. ' — — eye. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. . to bleat as sheep. spSt. A stain in a man's reputation. and thence to a bruise.' God in his wordes. blench came to be used for a trick. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. BLENCH obfusco. a spot. to wink at it. Sw. blot. start vor den augen. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. like one that has long P1. Bleed. a blotch plerr. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. Blear-eyed j having sore i. bloken. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Blancher. to soil. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. blister. sinen langen tranen. confound him. c. while the agent ac- From .' the devil makes a vain back. AS.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. See Black. novice. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. bleakness. Bleb. Bejaune. ' — — ' : — — . . what blenched him therwith. I chaunge colour. boggle at something. ^Blencher. from on. or blemysshen — blaken. in the expression reputation. And By a similar metaphor Pol. So in Sw. to start away from. To salir. Bleak. p. pale . pale Du. bleikr. to spot . exposed. tacher. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. dead-coloured Cotgr.' to deceive one. to spot. blur before their eyes. Schmel. the livid colour of a bruise. drop of water. a spot.

lightning. to flash.blinken. seems the simple netel. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. weaklaveny. G. false windows. Paradises blidnissu. Tany. Sw. cascultare.eyed. The term then self or others. bludder. to bless . blendian. to shine. . lovely Bohem. glitter. a look. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blink-eyed. or nettle which does form. trix. blinzler. . blessed. tire. lightning sweet blago. blende. — when he — Bailey. Serv. as in Du. blend. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. gladness. . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Du. glitter. burn up. Sc. happily. blink. although in the in the next article. joy . the verb to bless is some. Swiss (obsolete). well blagaya. Nares. . G. shine. AS. Kiittner. happy . plotzen. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. —Brera. to stir or puddle. in potters' language. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. well blahy blick and blink. blanssen. wink of sleep . blinzeln. and joys of Paradise bliden. to glitter. a wink. — . to make a rumbling noise. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. moment. an entry which leads to nothing . to glitter . . blind. blinde fenster. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. window-blind. Dan. to shut the eyes. blich-fiur. . mixing in general. bleg. readily passes into a /. a blick-ooghen. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. csecubrandish. joyful. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to pro. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. riches . the G. . to het dat Koorn is verblekket.. blindr. glance. to glitter ful . . happy . blinzdugig. a glance. To Bless. blotzen. fortunately. glad. bluiter. a nounce happy. pockets. bliss look . as in the case of blaze. to be blind. blide. to dilute too much .Q. To Blend. vious one in the order of formation. happy . a. liquid filth to bluther. is I shall Gurt. to plunge. to twinkle. to fall into water with a sudden noise. III. Du. tless —Gamm. blicksem. but by no means therefore a pre. blogi. a dead nettle. as taschen. Du. sung. livid.corn. ON. blissian. ^Jam. blago. to shine. joy. To blunder water. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blessed. dazzle . The inblissful. to dash wine with water. blicken. sertion of the nasal. — A A — . to bless. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. G.blinkard . to rejoice. Sc. glimpse. Bliss.nasal. pale. Pol. pearance of the blighted .wink . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blindselen. blican. OHG. Thence apblinds. riches blajennii blicksem. a flash. goods. wink. to dabble in water. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. Du. to bluiter up with water.blinze. OHG. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. The sound of k before an s. to — make it thick and muddy. to rejoice. Wtb. glitter. to bluiter. lightning. . Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. From the action of the hand making Sw. to glance. a gleam. G. the Slavonic languages. blitz. AS. doors. — Goth. . I hold thee a grote thee. a blessing. F. to dazzle . to mix. Needle. blag. blent. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to act like a — .D. sweet. plonsen. to blithsian. A . a. be glad flash. Blight. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blick. a wink With the bletsian. to merry. graceful. AS. as a blind entry. blazeny. blind- ON. to shut the eyes G. to lighten. blund. blincken. Blink. ' Pl. Du. Blind. 375. joy. De Sonne ' verblekken. make these hands 3. blithe blis. Deprived of sight. money. blitzen. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. a glance Swiss blenden. blatida. mix from blekken. . giving (Fr. flash of light .not sting thiiren. blet. as a vatn i vin.' To — blunge clay. good. j). to make happy. blicken. with or without the nasal. blahoslaviti to twinkle. to shine. Blazena Bea. to churn. blahos. Biglotton.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blidu. Russ. gives blinzen. also to wink. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. lighten. . Owl and Nightingale.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blaziti. blac. (=bene dicere).blunda. Swab. blithe. to consecrate . thou knave. AS.

ON. . Dan. Fr. soft. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. The blow E. the unhewn bole of a tree. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. pusula.— Bailey. See Blot. a blister. bloated. joyful. soft. to blow. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. boucler. in the sense of a soft tint. Of sheep. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. blobber. in the lump or mass of wood. a dirty blister. a See Blot. blesme. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. a detached portion of the agitated liquid.. Bleb. a small lump of anything thick. and easily changes its place. merciful ON. soaked.—Bloated. having an unsound swollen look. blinzel-maus. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Gael. or is inserted or omitted. blautr. Boyd in Jam. Blister. or the mark which it makes. to block up the way. ^Jam. soak in water cured fish. and bouclette. speaking rapidly any . and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. a lumpish head plubach. must be referred to AS. blaud. A under this name was imported into England. light yellow. kostia. blotfisk. pods. in Nares. as a blab of ink. signifying in the first instance to soak. Du. To Bloat. The stem or trunk of a tree. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. inde humiditate tumidus. blouca and Fr. to dash liquid. to blissom. For this. Dan. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. blindsehn. I believe. biota. blaustem. kostua. from blcsr. Egillson. must be classed with forms like Gr. to breathe hard. sloppy dirt. it is must be observed. strawclod. like manner the coloured. bloc. in bulk. Jonson. . bubble and blubber. Blob. blab. blister blasan. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Hence E. The roots /. To Blissom. fish blind person.— Hal. . shells. orbicular. a drop of water.—Bloater. swell. Goth. Blond. a little blisg. to cure by smoke. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Langued. blond. as blinzeln. to bubble. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. plub. a blot or spot. blad. a blain. . blcesma. bleiths. Svt. Du. in gusts. repre- pusula. blobbes or droppes of water. blide. is formed squad. blot. blot. and pisg. blijde. to blow. Sw. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. B. cooking. blithe. pustula. whence blast. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blister. — — — — — From blabber. round. mass. blot. Ibid. to swell. lagga i blot. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. bluster. Blob. — Sw. Cotgr. a bubble. blubber. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. — Blob. G. —Bailey. blindman's-buff. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. or blinde-kiih.pusta. frequentative. Lat. a . Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. to blow. Sw. expressed by cognate roots. a bubble. fiustula. blod. blote. formed spot. to desire the male. ON. separate portion. to to puff and be noisy. And so from squatter. B. taken altogether. is also used in the sense of swelling . N. and F.plisg. a ram. stone. while Lat. senting the dashing of water. or bleb. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Fr. In Fin. Gael. a bubble. Hence. blidr. pimple. Thus we have blab and babble. weak. buclde. to soak. any lump or mass of things. soft. puff. ^vaaa. bloc. an unformed mass. bausen. G. pausten. A solid blouquette blisters. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. Sc. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. to steep. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Block. like clot. mild. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. busten. W. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. It may be formed Blithe. Mod. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. Kil. a blister . to close it with a solid mass. as in E. — . also to set See Bless. viscid. buckle. husks. or the like. To a smoking or drying by the fire. and inarticulately. bluyster. as if soaked in water. Bav. mild. gentle OHG. a block or log en bloc. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured.

a flower. Du. — — . of a blow with something lios. splashing full. a beater. spot pletter i solen. plotterwis. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. AS. whence plader. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to blush . The G. blomstr. ^Bleed. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. a drop of water or colour. fair in en blat vand. fall to overflowing. leme. bloetnsel. to exists in biadetto. plants which prepares the seed. bit by bit. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. as the skin or hair. glasi. Fris. Ein platsch milch. bloeme. yellow. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. — Blotch-paper. blysa. skam. a cow-dung. Dan. Sw. proto shine with bright colours . 2. Wendish blodo. a The form platschefz. blowen. ' — . Du. blue .' the rain is driving and blue . to squander. to scribble. Blad. Harmar in R. wan. blaeuwen. a blot or spot. a flower. ON. bliithe. a. blou. E. platz-voll. plattata. platschern. blosem. Du. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). fall down . blus.D. blust. blondheid. Blow. gfyssa. biado (of which the evidence plattern. Lat. to From . Sw. to shine . to patter. bliise. ])erly Du. Sw. to dash down. to blot the land was in a leme. blue. the bright to blot paper morsels. a Schmid. platz-regen. blotter. to be red with blot. See Blow. bloedsd. Wflz<^«. bloi. pale. G. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. j^ blottir. spots in the sun. to flame. . from the bright colour which 7'vci. S-wiss pladern. blostma. a black eye Du. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . Sc. lustre. cow-dung. Hatch. blosma. dirty spot on the cheek. —Barbour. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. on. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. blase. a blow. blois. blad. bloutre. yellowish It's G. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Florio). Prov. . E.blauschlagen. glossi. — Stalder . Erploten. (of cattle) to dung. E. to dash down Du. Blot. pladdern. shine . or the sound of it . . blond. D. . Ir. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. a pelting shower). blady. to sparkle. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. glose. Pl. a Halm a. OFr. to dabble in water. lidmr. blue. blaeuw. — Cot. redness. gammon. lump flower. Sc. to be red. bloed. platsch-voll. Dan. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to dabble in water . blosa. to strike with such these objects exhibit. Blossom. bloi. It. ON. in v. bloto. blotting-paper. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. a torch blusse. blond en blaauw slaan. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. a deli. blotte. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. glister . Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Fr. flower. bleustern. bloemen. to blaze. parallel form with ON. couleur livide. gleam. to spot or blot. Schmid. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. plet. great leaf of cabbage. to glisten . a flower. pale biavo. Russ. E. blatte. PI. gloss. plottra. straw. a Usaae. sbiadare. lump of anything soft to blad. — gush. E. pladern. coloured (Diaz. pale tint. plot of land is a spot or small rage. white blatte. bleistern. Stalder. blawels. E. bfys. a spot or blot. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. a water ploutsche. bliihen. blut. splendour . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. . Fris. blue.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. . ^lys. Blood.platter. blistaf. AS. Plots.— .properly to scatter liquid . G. blue. blaeuwe ooghe. probably connected with Pol. . blauwel. blond is used in blatt. to slap. glus. livid marks. Jios. mud. ON. a nature. from G. platt-voll. to strike .^ Kil. to slap. blooth. bloi. See Blow. to grow pale). a blaze. blodelsa and blawelsa. Schilter. to dirty. light. to strike with something soft or flat. blose. Schwenck. kuh-plader. kobladde. Bloom. en blau ach. dial. . bletister. the bright colour of the cheeks . Blotcli. colour of the cheeks. a lump. bldmi. Du. blat. to glow. bluish. clod. to splash. to blaze . a gush of milk . livid . a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Dan. dial. soft or flat. blosen. bldts. to squat or lie close. brilliancy.

structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. to fade. bldt. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. G. Mund. P1. Bav. disordered. blduen. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. sound like water. E. Du.nify bubble. —SchmelIt. a fat.to blossom. ler. Langued. glaodh and blaodh. blubbern. Pl. red-faced bloted wench. cheeks bedabbled with tears. marking some application from that bladder. OHG. gUd. to show flower. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. pale OFr. a blast. AS. blazir. — To blubber. sense. Danneil.' Hamburgh Archives. bloeden. Gr. gloeden.' — Palsgr. blawan. blau. 51. bledniai. plubartaich. to blurt out. sponds with Sw. It is howbliuwen. to blow. and the forms mentioned under Swab.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. ' BLUE or guggling. a. to breathe bouteiUis. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. like manner Lat. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. It. 92. blahen. blebber. E. OHG. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. little apparent resemblance. glas. piusen. to beat. plubraich. plusig. bliithe. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. gloeyen. blois. to beat with a mallet. to gush. glas. is very frequent. closely difference in of blabber. blosen. br. blau. blue. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. in E. The interchange of an initial gl. to hard.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to flourish. green. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. vi^ound. . a herb Gr. blubonciti. withered. blady. B. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. The primary sense is to shine. and thence. Notwithstanding the We . -ii. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. wan. to fade. to bruise Roquef. To Blow. The radical sense is shown in Gael. Deutsch.D. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. heath. Jla-re. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. or gr. glede. may cite for example G. gliihen. jabber. gliihen. 2. Prov. to fade. Chaucer. plodern. bruk. v. pale . a continued noise of agitated water. chatter. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. 1292. bliihen. especially with respect to the hair. to puff up. G. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. blut. pale. is confined to the — . the red fluid of the body . y\r)yi»v. Bret. The aUied forms. bruised Prov.. disordered in head-dress. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. to guggle.D. flower w. bloom. bluh. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. toused. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. |8A)'. to flap like loose clothes. Raynouard. We . a Blossom. grow pale. A. OFr. bl. to make bubbles in drinking. blaw j biavo. — — Mundart. Lat. a blow. Chaucer. florere. plubair. plustrig. — Bluther. blue . to make blue. Her sweet bloderit face.xo'»'. into flower. a gurgling . to shine with bright From colours. d in Sc. blodyn. Deutsch. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . a paddling in wate r. grey. . blubbern. bloi. dirty. pludern. boasting. to exhibit bright colours. to spot. fied vowel. Sik upplustem. and closely allied with Du. fqded. to bubble up. to glow. to gabble. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. bludder. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). foam. . to glow. to with Bohem. bloeyen. grug. G. blezir. . blow. bliuwan. Gael.Jlasa. Blowzy. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to'disorder. — . in rapid or indistinct utterance. /idXavoc. blass. bloemen. w. coup. Kil. ^Jam.D. Wtb. Du. To Blow. — To Blubber. MHG. . to blow. glowing coal . to breathe G. flower OHG. bliihen. In agitation of water. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. wan. blodern. pale. to inflate. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. boil. bluod. 1. blava. bloes. fem. bluther. blazi. Pl. a bruise. corre. Pludern. puff. glansj Ir. blodelsa. G. .D. — . blust. And. meurtrissure Roquefort. Blue. blao. to Plodern. to blow. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. glow. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. Blowze. These are — Bludder. a flower. fiubbem. where the word may be compared bliggman.— . Tumbled. tache.

and metaphorically. Dryden in R. biada. It then signifies something done at once. — . to mix it up with water. bawling. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. herauspoltem or sloping shore. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. blond.D. Romance bluiter. The Du. a plain coin herausplatzeu. biava. in water dobbelen. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. I blonder. Biada. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Sw. rustic. corn. . Hence a Slcelton in R. in plur. puddle. disturb. like the Celtic glas. Altieri. as well as sbiadafe. blue. a flounder. Flor. blaf. something. fallow. blake (identical with AS. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . A bluff manner. and then generally idle talk. Kiittner. sbiavare. devenir vert blavoie. pale yellow. to work To blunder out a fronto. blue. Roquefort.' trouble. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Blaffart. We Blunder. Palsgr. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Du. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. to become pale. Blunderer or blunt worker. without image or superscription. discoloured {plowiee. his business with much noise. has donder-bus. non rotunda. Roquefort. OFr. ploffen. to blunder water. . bluish. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. blue. blave is moreover. blunder. Bohem. yellowish red. plo-wy. Dan. originally growing up turf and water. confusion. Pol. — — — . find accordingly It. Supp. flav-us. which is rendered by Florio. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. polterer. Bodge. mistake. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. - reddish yellow. bleu et blanc. blunderhead. pale) is provincially used in the. Pm. G. yellow. blunder. dial. Ditton in R. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. a boisterous violent man.• BLUFF biado. all representing the — . bullern. tradire to Fr. fawn-coloured. to become pale or wan. pludder. Kil.in mud or water. Hal. superficie plani.— . — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. G. to blunge clay. pale. bloi.. plomp. jaune. sloppy drink. poltern. glundra. to dabble in the mud. G. falb. From G. blavus. and Du. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Bladum. bulmanner. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. See Blurt. buller-bas. blutter. Du. as well as biado. corn. to become pale or livid. to fall suddenly on the ground. To blunder is then. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. liebefactor. verdoyer. The Du. used for the work of an unskilful performer. herbe. tutte le semente ancora in erba. or an abrupt manner. flodderen (Weiland). trahir. Dief. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. earth and water mixed together. planus. pale straw-coloured. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. is. to agitation of liquids. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Hence we pass to Prov. buller-bak. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. a blunderbuss. Pl. Blunt. blac. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . a fore. segetes virentes. E. to fade). in the same way as from It'. Halma. glundr. bUich. and sbiadare. from the Lat. to plump into the water. Kil. a shore abruptly rising. polter-hans. Bluff. and bustle .make a noise. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. from the brilliant green of the young E. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. verdure. an ill-done job. 't — —Hal.//aay. It is remarkable however that the E. sense of yeUow. Then with the nasal. The word is here synonymous with amplus. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. like Du. having a bluff forehead. applied to green as well as blue. to confound. blunt. Blavoyer. and biavo (Diez). je perturbe. to puddle. to lose colour. from an imitation of the sound. And blunders on and staggers every pace. contrasted with the dle. — Pr. biavo. blahir. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blanssen. speech. abrupt. Lat. See Blunt. blandum. mix It. G. Analogous forms are Du. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. to dabble Biglotton E.

Pol. sheepish. unceremonious manner. forestis. wan. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. that the sense of bare. inactive Swiss bluntschi. thick. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch.pludse. blunt. obtusus. duU. and. Bluntet. fooUsh. ineffectual reason. Chaucer. Sc. blatte. without horns. Kiittner. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. to handle a thing bluntly. blunsch. blunt. heavy. platzen. Ford in R. as in E. blunt. Plontp. or heraus plumpen. as cow-dung. nature. bus. bleak. blockish. blunder. hebes. plump. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. A modification of the same root. Plump mit etwas umgehen. bluntschen. clownish. silly. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. to plump down. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly.to fall into the water. Q. blout. plump. and hath swiche languor in his soul. viz. Blaitie-bum. Bare and blunt. pale. platz-regen. bald. to plump into the water. awkwardly. ang. to bring it suddenly out. viz. plotsen. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. — blunt. plains The large bech. that it not easy to discover the connection. edgeless. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. naked. obtusus. a blot. nis. mit etwas heraus-platzen. a portion To inquire for slaves. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. from the loud report a fire-arm. dull. It is from this notion of suddenness. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . to make foliage. a thick and will person. Sw.—D. pointless. figuratively. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. —D. biotto. Dan. a simpleton. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. More in Richardson. the absence of sharpness. down. plotz. V. stupid fellow. and an unintelligent. awkward. naked. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blat. with or without the nasal. homo stolidus. F. of a knife which not cut. and in the same sense. Woddis. . Then cometh indevotion. Won by degrees. It. plump. as Sw. The blait body. maol. rude. a bluntie. heavy. without Maolaich. but of something soft thrown on the ground. is thrown. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . bloss. G. to make a noise of such a Stalder. to blunt a thing out. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other.plompen. heavy. Molof something wet. blotta sanningen. insensible. naked. unwrought. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Dan. rudely. plump J to plump out with it. it will be well to point out a sense.— — — . blue. absence of preparation. good plump person. — Kil. plonsen. Swab. — — pidus. G. . Blunt. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. without preparation. in Richardson. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. unfledged Sw. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. bare or blunt. blutten. Stalder. identical with E. fling down . blait. exactly corresponding to the G. it will be observed. raw. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Plump. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. dial. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. used in both senses. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. clumsy. massive. bare. plump. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. Sc. to blurt. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. plumbeus. inaKil. like a thing thrown down with a noise. naked. unpolished. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. dull. V. rough. V. bare. blott. —D. blait. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. and the like. is The word dull. The syllables blot. through which a man is so blont. azure. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Halma. A light blue colour. poor Sc. void. Kiittner. blunt. Du. united in Gael. pressions. Sir T. It will be seen that the G. seems to be derived. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. without the nasal. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. plutz T)\i. biosso. Probably radically hlekit. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water.

To tinct. dial. the Brem. a burst of tears. blasen and See Burr. blaffen and baffen. bur. a board or plank. Gael. primarily signify loud noise. or backwards and forwards. Pl. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. AS. properly noisy. blubber. cluster. to puff. — ' Dief. dial. i. a mist before the eyes plerren. to dirty. blusse i ansigtet. BOB 79 — To Blur. Board. . The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. &c. Dan. Related to blutter. — — . bdtr. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. and Du. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Comp. To blow in puffs. bar. then applied to indistinct vision . ader. baban. Halma. Bav. bliise. bord. a tassel. my dear. G. gabble. beer. to make a noise with the mouth. G. boistous. splurt and spirt. bobbin. 'Ba. to be out of temper. a blotch. plump. margin. chicchere. — To Bob. or bog also thread. bit. bora. table. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to say bluntly. a blot. Schmeller. . common. of the word seems . To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. rude. boot. baiag. blotch and botch. to dangle. bustuous. blarra. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. planks or boards. to bark.v. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. eber. bhis. A large snake. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. E.plerr. bausen. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. e. ON. burra. V. imitated by has also In like . to sound like water boiling. boa. bluther. Fl. blurra. to disfigure with E. Boa. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. pof. OE.y. De Boat. be a crack or loud sound. batello. both used in the sense of boasting. bludder. 156. blaere. Boa. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. edge. 274. skin. a bladder . a smear. to blow. Du. Slur. and E. pludern. board. crack made by bursting open. as splurt to splutter. swagger. 29.' — Red Riding-hood. boord. c. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. E. puddle. To brag and to crack. to talk quick and indistinctly . an ear of corn. Swiss blodern. — From mouth. blaste?i. See Boisterous. edge. bot-voet. blot. Lat. violent. a mistiness. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. short pieces of any filthy mud. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. dull. See Blossom. To move quickly up and down. a grows to a great bigness. gabble Sw. coarse. ever-swin. a baU of thread the mud. blunt. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. blodern. stupid. Bluster. to blubber. eafor.—Bobbin. bdd. Blush. Du. Fr.the syllable bot. to blur. blaustem. bateau. 1. P.plodem. botte. lindwurm. whence bordvidr. stellio.— . Pull the bobbin. Fr. w. to blore. pausten. flat. large. — a blaze. sudden. Gael. beacon fire. berd. to puff. Explained by Jam. to crying. to breke. and boisterous. bladdra. Wtb. 9396. to puff. ground. to render indisbhir. pustern. Fl. blast. the sound of a blow poffen. violent G. Sc. table. blose. will fly up. Bot zeggen. to give a crack. hot. a short thick body. brett. Kil. to blush. to snuff. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. . an end or stump. G. a club foot . bakke bleustern. outward edge. it implies that it is empty sound. to make a noise in boiling. blader. Wright's ed. to guggle. to blurt out. to chatter. . and swimmeth very well. Du. Wallace. boccheggiare. to rumble. a small lump. Hal. planks raised up outside the roofs. blosken. It. a. a tassel. bord. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blirt of greeting. Sc. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. or blurt with one's mouth. to dabble. AS. a Jam. margin. fringe. It. to make mouths. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. As the as. margin. Du. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Boost is used for the boast. and when applied to vaunting language. acre. borrar. an edge. bord. to threaten. The to radical meaning D. a border. bluter. The elision of the d is very to chatter. aper. lacerta. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. bdta. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. to smear. To splirt. whence bob. bleuster. a blow . on. cheeks glow. to blaze. rude. literally edge-wood. to glow . BLUR Boar. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to spurt out. to jabber. to roar. is formed Du.pusten. Supp. bobine. bludder. bot. Du. blot. Du. pfludern. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. pluddre.D. geplerr. to endeavour to terrify. to bounce. AS. strong. this root are formed Sc. as in Du. It. border. Du. mire. a dangling object. Sverris Saga. — — — * Boast. cocodrUlus. . a torch blusse. puffen. to brag grande loqui. To Blurt. blur. and the latch . a flurt with one's fingers. voce intonare. Hal.

bog. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bodig. Lith. and the word is well explained by Bailey. It introduced from Ireland. Bog. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. belly.a (i\ia. bayonet. bolr. Wall. boftich. to thrust. meaning the round part of his body. a prick. a dagger. a puddle. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. Ptg. potacha. waving. a round body both. Banff. Bret. Miracle-plays. bodi. bog (equivalent to E. biodag. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. or stem of a tree. gog in gog-mire. . — 2. AS. the trunk of the animal body. and E. to waver. shaking . a command. to deliver a message. bodat. speak of the barrel of a horse. cask bottich. or a pair of bodies. bodian. . quagmire). rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. strike with the horns. move. the stem of a tree . To Bode. to make. — as well as the body of an animal. as in stammering or staggering. the body of a shift gaguejar. the boss of a buckler. bodak. The signification of the root bot. exhibit another modification of the root. needle. woman's stays. Bodice. to scruple. bodi. an announcement. to stick. a sting . as a horn. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. BOGGLE trunk and G. Gl. bodilo. '£. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. Body. bo tich. to dabble or paddle. arise E. bagges. And waves. a spur. gog. See Bid. where bogs form Gael. to fail.! . corset. bodies. a quagsoft.rabodi. In like manner E. potahha. * To Boggle. the thick part of anything. Russ. French bouter. W. Crist. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . Gael. bole. the belly. Schmel. gag. calf of the leg. ^Jam. as signifying anything spherical or round. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. wavering. corpset. to stir. . of broken efforts or brokeii movements. palleg. anything protuberant. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. . The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. bodene. VI. bogadh. expression hogglin an bogglin. bogan. stuttering. moist mire. barrique. gogach. to prick. biodeachan. a messenger . daubed or dabbled with blood. to stammer. whence Fr. to fail. quakmg. . badyti. to commit a blunder. an awl. to roll. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bob. Bohem. We . by the syllable patsch. Cot. a prickle.' A — Sherwood's Diet. point. goggle. busti. patsche. . The Sp. a body. . then from the yielding. pall. So BOB To Bob. corset from corps. body and G. — Grandg. e. ' boggle at every unusual appearance.\\i\c\iset. body of a shirt bol. boll. a cask. barriga. Reliq Antiq. a . stumpy. 43. gago. AS. bodnu. corpses pot. to butt. bog. unsteady. bogadaich. potacha. fickle . bogle. nodding. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated.' Bogglie. 3. bodhag. whence paUchen. a cask. mud. gagei. Commonly explained as if from Sc. Now unskilful action is conmire. bogach. bothog. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. shake. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. .. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. is identical with Fr. potig. bottig. unsteady.gmh:t. to bodge. baboyer. rounded. from fitting close to the body. Ir. To mock. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. a ghost . to start start and back as from a bugbear. To make bad work. ON. See To Botch. precept. bottich are derivatives.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. to blurt a thing out. bod. to push with the horns. Shakespear has badged with blood. to bob. message boda. is a lump. bayonet . formerly bodies. Gael. round. stitch. of which the E. butt. bod. to be unsteady tich. Bodkin. dies. to smack. nave of a wheel. To Bodge. Ptg. to make a mow at. — H. Thy i. moving backwards and forwards. Lap. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. a bog or morass. See Baber-lipped. To portend good or bad. the body. agitate. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. Gael. thrust with something pointed. to be uncertain what to do. gebod. stutter gogmire. so large a feature in the country. . bodetz. swelling. toss. bot. or bag. anything soft. gagoula.hollow. Supp. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear.

round the first instance to the materials with . up of bubbles. OG. he will speak out. 1430 in Deutsch. properly represent belly. then violent. repagulum. stutSw. from the branches. trunk of a tree . 374. the body of a man or of ter. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. . bealder. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. tomentum. Boil. perpendicular. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . as baltha. pustule. swelling. Sc. a quaking mire. bolle. as. prince. roydeur. buile. merry. strong. used. swelling.— D. Lap. Kil. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. but that Bolt. Bret. * Bolster. 45. a cushion. to stammer. Me doth awate. huge. tar. 304). G. ^Boistous. see Boast. as E. tulum. poppy (Bailey). the husk of nuts. stameln vel bochken. bullire. bog. Test. Kit. . whence bulla. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. boss. boll. a bubble. stramenta. to boil. ohg. sels of flax. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. G. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. Mund. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. or the like. bouil. bolster. strong. bula. Pr. bold. to give a hoUow sound. beule. as those of nuts. a boil or swelling Du. treated under Bowl. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech.rounded part of the body. bold. a swelling in ice. bulla. in the sense of handsome . to hesitate from doubt. strong. a bakazikni. free. wag. bollen (Kil. The term applies in — — impressed . quick. Fr. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). Magy. the. the body . pall. blow. Du. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. also a blister. bolt. . b^gayer. E. ^Vocab. Lat. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Du. Pm. Bole. bolster. courageous. bald. Du. notes. bol. tartajear. gluma. a bubble. in speaking. bola. coarse. puilen. bolc'h. To Boil. tartle. bhster. and then applied to other husks. bulla. boggle. rough. Fr. confident. to stagger. To Bolter. — — which the cushion is stuffed. intrepid. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. belc'hj. buller.palleg. . — ' — tagliare. pimple ON. boystousnesse. ON. the lir. bolzBold. dint in a metal vessel. bagaji. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. to puff. The bob. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. shake. G. from Du.D. ON. gerade signifies straight to the mark. balder.— — . ON. Du. tartalear. bag or bog are derived Piedm. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. courageous. impetuosity. polc'h. i. haughty. V. This iv. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. bol. (of Mons) b^guer. boutpijl. The round stem of a tree. hakogni. to waver or hesitate. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. w. bola. Properly noisy. to stammer. puile. bulr. bol. bolleken. furfures. chaff of corn siliqua. boly. obex. bout is explained by Kil. Goth. a bump. pillow. a head . insolent baude. chatter. cows the people from speaking. A. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. to be prominent. warlike. Stalder. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. bolla. pusten. Da. In the same way Sc. which are not used for a similar purpose. bul. stud.. to swell.' Mrs Baker. bald. bochken (titubare. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. bold. Fr. ballr. Boll. Boystous. noise. to be at a loss a shirt. Daring. bolstar. bal. Swab. OHG. Love. bout. Cot.). bok. It. bSlstr. — 6 . Chaucer seems Dan. a fastening for a door. baud. bald.Du. biiilen. Bustuous. to stumble.w. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. ON. flax-boU. may be identified with It. * Boisterous. hollow. bog. cheerful. folliculus grani. E. animal as distinguished from the limbs. styffe or rude . glass phial. by which it is moved to and fro. as. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. Sp. scruple. capitellum. balldr. caput scapulse. proud. capiing into a cavity. boil . excellent. to tattle. is probably a modification of boll. globular bod)'. and manace for to de. fiausten. bolzen. a bubble. bul. bolt upright. brave. Westerwald bollern. bolr. Wall. Sw. Lat. the gurgling sound of water rush. hero. See Bulk. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. to the belly as the or dislike. G. Gael. Chaucer.

Du. Bulte-pook or bulstar. a clod. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. to bolt meal barutel. Supp. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. blotttre. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. as Fr. gebolder. bulstrig. or ill. to coagulate. fied bot. a round glass ending — bultig. zare.). small heap. tar. . Here the radical image is the violent O.protuberance.nature of the operation. pattern. It. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. tuft. . we pass to Du.fe/2?. Pl. poltern.On the same principle. in S'W plotter. hammer. baruta. tling or crashing noise. curdle. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. barutare. . swelling. to knock. kloteren. beliitea. taraabout. crash. to become lumpy. representing a rat. hulter de bulter. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. with E. jolting. ' Holler poller / bulter. hammer. . sestuare.u. ' — — ! ! : — . . And as the agitation of cream in . bolzauget) Sp. bolting to that of form. we der Brocket). series of jolts or abrupt impulses. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. . mole-hill. The ment and the operation. we see that the one consists of a words. as snow balling on a horse's foot. to start with palpitate. Pr. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. Pl.i5a//^«. have Lat. Hence Palsgr.— . Prov. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. ler.as the essential element signifying the talum. beluter. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. to bolt flour burato. boss. Lang.).by forms like G. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering.. OFr. the wheels groaned. as a rabbit from its baritel. a club-foot. and to crash. In the next place. buretter{CQ\. Mid. On this account Mid. hole. staff which sounds tar. a millpoltzet augen. Schiitze. then to knock. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. also to curdle. rugged. holier poller. Dauphiny a sudden movement.clack. Bav. a clap of thunnences.D. zen. a bolter or implement for bolting. to bolter. bluter. — — — . to E. uneven. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. to form lumps. loud and fast. croler. rugged. projecting eyes pul.agitation of the meal in the bolter. Champagne burtcau. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. or a racer from the course. to clack. . poltern. I boulte meale in a boulter. a crashing or racketing noise. bolt-foot. bortelen. on the one hand.through a cloth of loose texture. a small portion. as of a trumpet. buletare. pultare. a clod cloth. by the representation of a racketing sound. bulio. a . buideln. hump. the sense of right on end. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. agitari (Kil. The ulti. tantara. barutela. bulla. G. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. OFr. 2. we have Du. / is transposed in Fr. hump-backed (to be compared A ' .Lat. cruddle. Hence. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. uneven. . the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. vessel with narrow opening. buletel. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.D. cro. taratarrum.. as above explained. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. bultig. to talk pulzen. knob. bolzen. a rattle. to spring forth E. OFr. one after the other. bultred. P1. a sod (Schiitze). ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. budeln daz mele . clump. je bulte. to start out. hulch.thump or blow. a bolter Prov. a rattling carriage. bulk. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Sanders. projections. bulk or quantity . taratantarum. tumultuari. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. to agitate. So also we pass from Lat. Dan. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. from G. lumpy. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr.D. : ' — — . and the Thus from So. to come rattling downstairs. racket gepolter. pull. Wtb. crod. to make a knocking. a bunch. a clump of turf. to bolt meal barutel. grasbulten. Pm. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. MHG.) E. burclct. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Sw. bolzaugen.noise {brattle of thunner. ex•wagen. or the like. bolt head is a retort. die treppe pressed. barutela. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. buUire. poll. crotlar.D. btilt. Fr. Brem. Du. bullern. Lat. brattle. protuberance. to shake. to significance of the term was overlooked. bolt. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. abolter. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting.

the Fr. i. Fr. The material called by this name. a bone in general. a drum bombammen. butteln. Castrais barato. sijde. bande. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. and also the leg. a —Bombasine. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. gunpowder. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bongam. breast-bone. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bone of the . Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. — having a stem or stalk. a string. burato. bwmbwry mar. OE. beuteln. bombice. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. derivation. G. bras. to thunder. to ring bells. or trunk word in W. bambagino. thick-legged. bombasine. Du. silk. however. sye. and Du. as Banbury. silk-worm. rimbombare.bast. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. must be explained Fr. stuff. When ture. Moreover. baun. to shake. q. As cotton was used for padding clothes. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. Mid. the murmuring of the sea. Gascoi^e in R. a hollow sound. as in . basin. to thump W. . is supported by the analogy of G. thick. In legal language.Su?. ^o/j. from boom. raw silk. to cast to and fro. It. Du. the shank the shoulder-bone. gossipium. a baker. — AS. to shake (as to shake the head. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. tree. borel. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. . a ligature. booming over the water. band pi. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. bolting-cloth. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. . lana lignea. a stem or base. a word of which we have traces in several English names. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. bonds. baum-bast. bunden. Bomb. the leg. d. . E. barate. and Mod. . a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . assuming the of leg : special signification W. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. e. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. In E. — Bombard. bambagioj whence It. whence bomme. cotton stuff. achsel bein. bauniwolle. an implement of binding. butteln. G. bonog. to shake down fruit from a tree. a stock.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. It. bwmbwr. band. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . to which the leg. band. G. to beat a drum. Banstead. bombasin. — bombast came guage. . Schm. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. It. Need you any ink and bonibase. a beacon. bopin. to resound. It. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bomba. tie. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bulter from It. buttel trueb (of liquids). From builen. agreement.Lat. bombast. bon. beuteln. buidelen. It. tiffany. tie. Fr. Near 6 * . &c. Butterglas. 155. Bonfire. produced the Pl. banitola (Fl. bond. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Kil. the contracted form of Du. and called in Mid. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. a boulter of meal. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. and Bond. bommer. been. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. cotton. Antiq.^Altieri. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. bombase. . Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. Dan. bindan. biire. crook-shanked bondew. bureau. to boult meal. ODu. ties. from teu. Du. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bein. bambacium. a churn for butter. Bone.D. thick from shaking.). to bolt meal. again. we speak of a gun to resound. and that from Fr. sericum arboreum. to bind G. bombicina. Bibelesworth in Nat. sije. bombdra. coarse. Dan. PoUitriduare. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. HoUybandin R. has repeatedly varied. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. 83 Gr. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. boulenger. term is appropriated in G. stump. brust-bein. a thundering noise bomre. bombarda. bombe. bonfras. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bommen. builen. bureau. the silk-worm. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing.) . iuttern. also thick-shanked. beil'n. It. buidelen. and in fact we find the and Du. Fl. e le furfre (of bren) demor^.

calceus rusticus e crudo corio. Thin ben Luke i. botte. boa. dolt. bonaid. pole. short boots. It is commonly explained as identical with It. dial. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Hal. . of wonder On the same principle Sp. nachbar. tapestry. to ask. Busk. help.n. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. prayer. although in the OG. Fr. Build. wall hangings. . Boot of bale. tall. Palsgr. To Boot. high. feu de behourdis. house. dog-kennel. blockhead.. Mrs Baker explains bun. master of the house.^ —P. a simpleton. OW. Bonnet. Basa. wondering signifies not only straw. — — . bua. Pr. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. to gape.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Fr. Ox. botte. and fig. It. babb^o. the mouth. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. AS. Booby. Kil. G. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. ON. succour Bailey. from Du. Boom. remnants of hay or straw. Thus from the syllable ba. Sp.—Bootless. quest. A favour. AS. babin. often cut for burning and lighting fires. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. a vessel for holding liquids. But bosg. buch-stab. petition. 232. beiSne. betere thing werse. Swab. bota. Hufwud-bonad. netis stall. to litter bosu. stabulum. at everything. clown. letter. beam. the alphabet. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. where a cross (or a gun. a hollow skin. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. Boon. till. chaff. to prepare. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. the possessor of the farm. bolt. bas. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. bowwen. gaby. is Du. Book. the stubble of beans. in w. buandi. Binau Brychyniog. reparation. inhabit. a lying-place for dogs or swine. and from AS. — e. See Butt. ON. or Vanns. bauer. foolish. Mrs Baker. ass. b'ukvdry. to yawn. from badare. lofty. w. Hal. — Bailey. babau. set in order. Bonnefyre. Schm. been. a. biikui. bAkva. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. — From the participle present. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. boutig. boubair. Du. a good turn or re- meaning. Bootless. * Boose. boandi. Goth. Bun. the name of the letter b. boten-shoen. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. the cultivator. — . . booby. and Ban in w. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. a. countryman. gehyred. Kil. ty Gael. N. till. but stall. build. by itself for head-dress. pero. by arbitours sholde bote the P. bote. Pm. desire. busu. gawney. bauen. as a lying-place for cattle. a bonfire. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. prayer.Boos. Trans. Boot. to set in order. one who dwells nigh. G. fool. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. b&ber. bua. whence ban-ffagl. relief from sorrow. without ad- . . are formed Fr. The i. bommen. G. . petition. a letter Russ. The origin of the word is probably the W. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. ben. as the Brecknockshire Banns. hu?idbusa. also called Brecknock Beacons. a silly fellow. comes bondi. bdn. \ais-band. OSlav. . Fr. swinbusa. bid). From bo. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Gl. p. Gael. and Gael. to aid. badaud. Du. head-dress wai^g. to gape. bene. b^er. . 13. ON. to strew with straw. A stall for cattle. which one gaping and staring about. bd. baier. boer. Fr. bonnet. Du. a stall. a letter . boutig. bobo. build. a dry stalk. The latter is the original AS. E. ganian. bose. bosih. . bos. tigh. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. ON. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. . Prov. a lofty blaze. Boor. simpleton. Perhaps. boom. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. signifying beech. gaping hoyden — Cot. pig-sty. however. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. the first consonant of the alphabet. bonad. writing bokos. dial. litter. in Phil. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. boia. bobo ! interj. from beida (E. bosig. literally cow-house. Jr. The character of folly is i860. inhabit. a bag of skin or leather. boo. botta. bds. bossen. See Bomb. . E. to dress. In nautical language. a tree. Wall. the scriptures bokareis. a head-dress. A peasant. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. dress. boubi^. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. dress. See Bown. bonad. to cultivate. from gape. to cultivate. a scribe G. and thence Rouchi baia. remedy of evil. — To boot.

an engraver's chisel. puras. a word. mat-bod. welt. The ON. ON.—Burin. bud. OSw. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. tent. It. extremitas Bore. and E. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. to anything Neither G. a borer . a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. remedy. To Bore. p. boete. bolino. rof. pu purro (saha =: saw . in Ihre. &c. betan fyr. bottino. drillen. baara. 266. Bohem. boeye. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Bete. a responding forms . Kil. Sp. dens mordens vel caninus. See To We speak in E. a shop. a bothy. to quench one's thirst . flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. Du. furd. • — To Bore. to mend. a tusk. to expiate boeten den dorst. to restore. ora. a bladder. of an edge that will not bite. cellar. Fin. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. hem or gard of a garment. fire. . terebra sculptoria purastoa. pi. chewed food for infants. Lat. . urboro.por. Mag. scalpo. Esthon. Esthon. or the gradual working a hole in anything. chisel. borino. Du. ON. to profit Goth. bothan. sculpo 05\xiik. ON. yfirbdt. beute. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. kvit-bara. . bata. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting.— Return from Parnassus I inR. differs only in termination. bauda. aid. a borer. a hut or tent. amendment. to divide. bohren. Border. is purin. burin. to repair. to bite. biorag. dust. admovere titiones. edge. terebro. Fin. are parret. See Bower. a great bur.par. the . . BOOTH vantage. a shed. . Magy. cure Sw. a border. Gael. Fin. making good again . to to . purro. fimbria. on. reparation. Alexand. boede. and meta- Fr. make . to patch. . N. to pierce. bora. scsdes-bod. purra. and parrets. puru. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. borracha. a wave. bord. to foam. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. a booth or shed. recovery bata. in Lap. It. 1. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. Fl. nor E. See Burgeon. or anything pointed. botjan. bardure. A phorically a drunkard. a chisel. better. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. limbus. boeten het vier. to stick unto as a bur. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. It is admitted that Fr. from bord. to build buda. swell bara. bdt. . gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. budowai. both. Gael. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. purra. as afford a satisfactory explanation. a leather bag or bottle for wine. Booth. furni. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken.. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. a cupboard. a sharp-pointed tooth. piercer. limbus. budka. to . bauen. amendment boeten. Palsgr. from deila and skipta. a shelter of branches. bdra. G. a shop budowati. to The Sw. a. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). to bite. pointed. In the Fin. struere ignem. butin is explained by Flor. uzboro. Booty. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. The Fin. to bete the properly to mend the fire. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. wine-skin. puras. 3.. wave. Compare Manx birrag. to bore. lappalare. hut. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. Fr. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. Burke in R. sawroot. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. to profit. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to build. bordi. a borer. batr. and hence to fine. byte points to the verb byta. bower. baete. a granary . AS. cup- awl. — ON. cottage. to importune. And so in ON. boards. are derived from G. comminuted by either kind of action. to swell. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. from borra. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. which are probably from the same root. to hut. bothag. The cor.. . lappolone. repair. exchange or divide. borracha. Another derivation from Fin. puru. abode. a hut. But probably the E. butin. barn. . to boot. margin. bite. The as G. BoracMo. to surge. OHG. Pol. Fr. sharp. and thence to eat build. forare. Gael.

to give bail or answer for an. less. bosh. V.any round sweUing. borel. a little blow. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. coarse cloth made of the Du. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. to strike . while Gael. to keep. bump. bos. . butse. Altieri. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. Lat. beorgan. gesylle. a citizen.' the chief of the ' borh. Du. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. bossen. agrees with E. ' — — . a wen. Fr. Bailey. to take in. poor. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. baurgs. useCanterbury. 106.' if thou give money on loan. cnag signifies both a clergy. (1867). Newbury. bussa coarse. hollow. or head-borough. head. undyed wool of brown sheep. bump is used in lump or piece. a blow. in the body struck. Bos a surety. to save. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. tempest. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. Goth. a pushing or striking out. botch. burgess. bourgeois. Boreal. borough-holder.ribs and the side. of bail throughout the country. destitute.bucklers. grey). to become is emitted by a hollow body. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. connected. poor. striking. from their grey clothing. is probably radically Boss. clownish. botsen. into borsholder. knocking. vain. or perhaps it may be See Bury. See found in Bav. botch. the sun sets. by which of or belonging to plants. viipyoc. Jam. secure. And that unsittynge is to here degre. ON. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. (Bridel). a herb. bierge. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . surety. Russ. beorgan. bail biirgen. one who sticks to you like a bore. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. In like manner It. empty. Fr. D. AS. boschen. northern. Fr. byrig. burh. from AS. cnoc. Bunch. rustic. primarily signifying coarse sound . Words signifying a lump or protuberE. AS. a boor. as we speak of a thumping potato. or because a blow berga. pitch. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. a knob. the Sc. without. cob.' Vegetius in Diez. brown cloth. pegou. bergen. busse. a bouncing baby . a surety. cnap. It. when that system was forgotten. to give a hollow bizo. the N. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. — ' wind burya. a tower. projection. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. butsen. huschen. loan. boussi. borough or chief constable. Botany. gum vocant. E. boss. Jam. basse.mass. a city . both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. i. which now signifies a knob. cormpted. storm. &c. bos. bourg. and thus could not shake off the old burr. to contain. So Du. Lang. borealis. pego. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. The other. ^ma. as if from the verb to hold. boss. Cot. to protect. bundle. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Sc. to save Sw. a boss. borh. I. borgese. knock and a knob . borei. boss sound. an eminence. blow on a hollow object. a. It. or perhaps also To Borrow. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. rude. bosse. and borough in the sense of a town. a giving rise to It. ' pledge. unpolished. .vr\. hollow bucklers. The primi. Turk. knob. to pick or cull plants. to save. that which biirge. plain rude fellow. plant.' every man be under bail. Du. Bosh. Hence knot. to conceal. nonsense. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. the must have arisen burgensis. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. empty. G. Hal. borgo. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. borg. to knock or strike. burel. whence the burg. Swiss Rom. empty. AS. to strike so as to Bureau.' or system of bail. Hence borhes ealdor. knur. was origin of the term is the OFr. . botse. ^o^^flj. the North Wind. bom. f graauw. boss of the side. Borrow. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. /3oraMK6f. whether from the fact preserve G.. boss or knob of a buckler . Gr. bunch. . bussi. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. tuft. the ordinary a swelling. borg. in instead of without. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. the hollow between the Borsholder. to protect. is used in the sense of bussare. bosseu. Borough. tive idea seems to bring under cover. Borowholder. a citizen. The origin seems to be the Goth. bttssel. — — — A — . a bunch or hump. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East.

ba. beggtaj Goth. a maggot. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. stock. butwo. Judwi. — Fl. botola. — — . boccia. a cask. * To Bother. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. knock. E. signify a in OE. a botcher of shoes. Stalder. botte. hurly-burly. bot. abbi-diwij Slavon. AS. a cesspool pass. burgi vel pontis refectionem. A bottom depth. House-bote. whence the name ol pool to podge. a cobbler. is also a bubble. pozzo. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. to smack. Bouds. botm. abbi. — — belly-worm. gipuozan. bdsser. A — oba-dwaj Lat. N. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bundle. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Fr. . thing soft batsch. puddle. stock. the first rough draught 2. the bud of a flower . to simmer. bunch. See Boss. nets. bile. whisper. a vessel for holding liquids.D.— Hal. a wisp. to dip in liquid (to Gael. ON. noise. a slop. — Bottom. especially in Gael. potra. corresponding to . botn. boss. to bcBta. Prov. The Gr. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. pozzanghera. a waterfall. to give a sounding blow. See Bound. pocciar.foundation. putra. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. Gael. kessel-biisser. Wedu. bethia. boitean. botch. ' G. a bundle of straw or hay. bozza. turmoil. baiothsj Sanscr. a slop. mutter. poltern. — . — — A 2. to make better. contusion . — . gen. to dash about . from the dashing of water. patch. btitse. Gael. . G. . schuhbosser. To confuse with noise. oba. Boa two. botte. was called a push. to stir and mix together. Mudu. Fr. 212. a tinker schuhbiisser. Parmesan poccia. fundus. bativa. On the other hand. to put on a patch. a bottle. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. ambo. Diez. to podge. . mend. or plague sore . a. H^cart. to mend (kettles. It. bide. Leg. Jtidu. dial. a patch patschen. a lump of somebatschen. what pushes outwards. BOTCH understood). mess. Fl. a root. to knock. a humpback. Lith.ments of the same root. noise. . a pit. buddeln. botel foenn. I. bottom. bottigUa. pimple. Du. and ajSvamg. a boil or swelling Halma. botte. boden . A horses. a pock. the science or knowledge of plants. bodem. Bouteille. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . blow. as Fr. blister. both. butse. AS. by met. gling piece of work. a bott . boiteal. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl.of a ball of thread. Lith. abbu. pother. Decorde. . for a bud. ^kvBoQ. bAdtr. Pl. bluster. j3i/9os. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. OSax. • Bott. . bun. Fl. Fyre to botme. Bochu.' to the fiery Csedm. bots. we two. See To Bodge. — Jidwi. to rage. to we have OHG. stem or base. bosser. Here the radical image seems a bubble. abbution. Bottle. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. fire-bote. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Botcli. Hal. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. bulderen. dabble). repara- — — See To Bete. as a push or windgaU. maggots in barley. ON. It. disturbance to . biissen. See Butt. stroke. round lump. any round ball or bowl to play withal. in the sense of mend the fire. &c. Danneil. Podge. G. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. the lowest part. — Dief. to stir and mix together . to fall : with a sound batsch. a depth. And so we speak of an eruption. bouteille. &c. to mend. Kil. Again. blain. the other hand. mess. bossu. a bottle of hay. Ancren Riwle. bozza. to botch or patch. to make a make a noise. e. boute. empty or hollow.) . boiteag. botse. botsen. a bottle. buideal. To Botch. to work without order or know. Du. Hal. to from the root bot. Butu.^Dec. boil. AS. stump. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. i. buazen. a pit. buts. — duj Lett. they two. bSn. shoes. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. of botta. From the dim. bulder. is boteau. Bret. scuohbuzere.— Swift in R. w. ledge It. Lat. a cess. podge. bdt. butsen. an imperfect and bunbutt end. It. Both. Bailey. bund. ing out. any plain round viol glass bozzo. we have Swiss batscken. an abyss or bottoniless pit. and E. a knock. a bubble. however. ubhau. a plague-boil Kil. botel. to froth as beer . abyss. tumour.— . to strike . you two. botus. batschen. a bunch. buddl. Canut. On — Du. dim. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. Dan. disturbance. a bump or swelling. ixorapudder. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. ON.

bouton. a bound. Boulderstone. Ni gacha cor bondir. Bodinare. frequently used in the same sense with bound. turn. whence buj7isen. the bay of Benin. as that of E. jungen. AS. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. The W. ni frestelar.— F. an occasion. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. — — leap. Sw. jump. mcn-bomi. See Bunch. bumper. the larger kind of pebbles. A Langued. to make a loud noise. bondir. pimple Richards bothog. debodinare. a round body both. The Bight of Benin.D. Bough-pot. a boss. Q. bamsen. in contrast to klappersten. a stock. bonndn. Raynouard. — Take care my house be handsome. Ducange. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. ni motz brugir. See To Bolt. butina. see Boss. .. signifying in nautical coil of rope. he fell so that it sounded. Nor a centinel whistle.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Bout. its kind. And the new stools set out. Brem. bend. p. a bud. the verb bondir in OFr. 2. dial.— Boundary.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. to thunder. a large stone rounded by the action of water. E. thumping. — — Bight. contusi. dial. Du.'— Charter of K. knock it sounds again. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. to spring. to turn. tnndo. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. to bow. Bought. bone. and F. bun. — No i ausiratz parlar. geration. bonna. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. 136. Bound. to set bounds. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. as a bout of fair or foul weather. or Bow-pot. ing. to set out by metes and bounds. an de dor bunsen. bons. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. a boundary stone (men stone). Probably from the Celtic root bon. gulf. to fix limits. Wtb. to hum. To Bounce. boriie. Coxcomb. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. has hot. root (see Bottom). bunda. Pr. a blow. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Bowlder. the smaller ones. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Bret. To Boult. the hollow of a bay.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. language a * Boulder. boh. Fr. bend." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. pothel. a large pebble. From Sw. 3. The branch of a tree. round. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. came home with his face all to-bounced. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . winding. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. to spring. . baby. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. a bouncing apple. a turn or time. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling.' round and round in similar circles. Pm.— — — - 88 BOUGH . is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. I assure you.>a bout. Bunche. signifies a sliort thick mass. bugt. bugan. volta. by Bujns or Buns. to thundering big one hum. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. from volgere. of thread. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. bounbounejha.— Cot. like bobbin. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. nor horn sound. Halma. So It.' B. Fr. from AS. bodina. as a nosegay. from bugan. carpet. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Mid. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. limit. to resound. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. bottom. bonzen. till The dat et bunsede. and Prov. strapping. bay. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. bunsen. bog. to knock. Alpine Re- — gions. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. boundina. buUersten. — strike. march. nave of a wheel bothel. botwm. Bough. a blister. Primarily to strike. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Fr. To Bound. iv. mere. . The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. boujtce. a button. boss of a buckler. Bonny. Webster. to knock at the door. Dan. in the absence of actual e. bullra. bolder. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound.

springbiirn. belly out. spring. purra. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. different modification gives ON. sotich. biugan. set out. bending. Lat. Bourdon. Sw. buizen. bontS. brausen. language of folly or ridicule. bordon. Sp. — — — A pare. bog. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. drone of a bagpipe. the shoulder of the vessel. buys. a jibe Shaw bururus. to take one in. to take deep draughts. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. A water. Bourd. bug. bordo. bourde in the same sense. bovne. to pre2. on the whole. Spenser in R. ready. to tipple. The meaning of bound. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. a from Du. curvature. G. grumble Sw. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. or of an Gael. Chaucer in R. the big end of a club. G. Gael. bugna. . burlare. tinton. addressed to. burn. bwa. to our bous. pre. bourdon. when we speak of. of the ON. ing. to bulge. bov. Gael. And there in mourning spend Sw. joke. bommen. hence musical accompaniment. ready to pike or spear . to mutter. bdgi. bordone. purlBav.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. to draw a deep breath. burdan. a for New York. beygja. identical with E. burreti. the ting of a bell. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. burd. Eown. bending.bass of a stringed instrument. pared. are applied to the bow of a ship. verb bua. potio. it is probable that the It. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. deceit. . Sw. — — . an arch. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Bourdon. trick. a drone or dor-bee. to trick. Dan. also the humming or ON. bagna. sausen. to draw a deep breath. bourd. brunna. bausen. a mill-post. btiga. a pot. and that probably from a Celtic root. analogous to Fr. buzzing of bees. ^<7r«i?. explaining Sw. prepared for. epaule du vaisseau. saufen. a bow. w. Sw. their time -With "wailful tunes.. Du. to bow. way ba7n. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. Sc. bogen. and not in the sense of curvature in general. patesten. AS. ridicule buirte. schenkelbug.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. the fixed. gurgling. is. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Burgeon. to take breath. burt. brummen. to tope. bend Sw. whence buysen. a well. drunken. Burden. from spring. cheat. schulter-bug. to hum as a bee. bugna. a sing-song. . a drone of a bagpipe. sport. i. buigen. Dan. . head Fr. bending of a joint knie-bug. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. bugne. Dan. to tope W. to drink deep. Dan. Cot. buyse. It is the participle past buinn. bonus. whether by sound or gesticulation. shoulder-blade. biegen. buga. Bow. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. pausen. G. A —Cot. a cup kroesen. hous^ Man in the Moon. game. bonitas. drink deep. taunt. Bounty. cudgel. So Sc. It is remarkable that we find vary. bunaiteach. to hum. bog. Borden. ruption of bonne. repartee. Bret. flagon. to swell. Gael. bourdon. warbling. Goth. Du. good. borne. staff. Bound. a brook. a jibe. crutch. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. has also buirleadh. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. . address. bend. Fr. Fr. kroes. bogha. beogan. g. a humming noise. to — Hal. bogr. burdan. as was for. bage.which see. Du. like quaff. It. When used alone it . which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. the Bourdon. puff out. limit. Swiss bausen. buzz. a go to. steady. . Gael. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. a. to bow or incline the . commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bugan. Cot. fun of one . bogna. fresh* water. on. Comp. The foregoing derivation seems. the burden of a song. Du. . must be referred to the same root. As the Gael. souf. sense durd. It is bov. — probably through this latter signification. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. spelling the word iox bound. a prop. bow to shoot with. pot. bue. a corToward the garden. G. a — — . a humming noise Macleod. that ON. Gael. Immediately from Fr. mockery. Prov. firm. bound. Fr. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. to drink deep. to indulge in his cups . lance. a. pusta. to banter or laugh at. in Fr. jest.

bulla in aqua. pullo. a little box . . Du. . or. . . Du. ^o/a. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. . a iDubble. See MHO. . bhuj. a hump on the back rossbollen. In like manner the Pol. Sw. an inclosure. peated in Magy. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. a bubble. bow. bog. kupula. The / a bow. cumena-bur. bucka. to guggle. From the other form are G. to bow buck. belly. a ball . boucle. a drop of pullistaa. a ball. at the e. puffy. with inversion of the round.. a polla. folliculus . Fr. tumour . heafod bolla. Thus we have Esthon. Sw. bulne. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. is applied to a coach-box. See Crab.. . buchsbaum. bollen. water pulli. bola. a separate apartment . guestchamber . a box. beutel. bol. boxtree. a ball. OFr. bock. an outhouse AS. kupu. a box. ^o«/«. bulb of an onion bolleyield. spring as water bugya. bubble. a black pudding. See Boil. the crop of a bird. buxus. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. . Sanscr. . as in E. beuz. globe or spherical body. a bubble. Bav. G. bulka. a hen-coop . bent or rounded object must be attained bowl.). — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. buckel. Bowl. bwra. painter's easel. G. biichse. biiske. W. .ige\y illustrated under Bulk. belly. bhugna. bog. bugyani. a protuberance. a box. Boll. Pol. bulcken. bugna. bossola. to stoop. as in AS. hollow wooden case. the head.). boxtree pusska. bur. AS. budello. a box. globular body. mausbollelein. the box-tree and articles made of it G. or in e. dial. knob From the former modification we have bolla. bulk compared with Sw. bowel Box. a stud. blister. botulus. (in pass . to make crooked . boor. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. inclinare se (Kil. biicken. Bohem. bulge. The word may probably be identical with Fris. a bundle. bouellou. different position in ODu. boil. a swelling or rising up. bowl . ken. to bubble up. . lump . iri'iaQ. sausage. round glass phial. bending. ku^o. pocket. round bead. bolle. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin.a. globular. spherical Dan. the box-tree It. to stoop biickling. and on swollen. buis.flask It. kupukka. prominence. bosso.) to incline oneself . ne. A Bulk. . bolla. bolla. anything globular. Bret. a thing of liquid. hollow. bouzellou. . a sleeping-room . bur. bugyola. budel. Dan. to buckle G. A . in both senses. box in both senses. E. without the and grits. fata-bur. bugyni. Hence. boss. W. bowels. boel. compared with Fr. a boil. Buckle. . trestle. ON. to puff up pullakka. * Bowels. . signified by forms like Gael. a round glass or bolg. a wine-can . utibur. busse. and to a coachbox in particular. to raise the back boll OHG. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . in walking appears in a . gut. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. honse-bur. . a bubble Fin. Sp. similar shape. buk. bent.D. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. box. . containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. hill. koziel. the head. acsian. Fr. buello. hollow place Fr. . to swell. bugy. . boss. Bower. passing on stud. then by the loss of the /. the barrel of a gun. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. . a chamber swefnbur. bow. give in to. a sack. boudin. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. hiidel. bolgna. kuppelo. bolne. It is more probably from the G. polla. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. buga. Fr. a bowl. Gr. head of a cabbage. fyn. . &c. to bulge. buckelig gehen. convex. to bend. purse. bol. a wardrobe . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. the bogna. the skull or brainpan . crooked. busskai. zich onder jemand under to him. intrenchment. ON. pusspan. a bubble bolli. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bukke. AS. bug. swell. bouge. a parlour. . bocka. ON. Cable. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. .cup Du. the box-tree. belly of a cask. a croft by a house. to puff up. a. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. Du. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. Lat. Sw. make obeisance. Bret. a buck. crown of a hat. buigen. a knot. ask. bulla. to bend down. a box Lat. convexity. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. stream forth bugyogni. as well as the name of a. OE.\s. a pot. of a wooden ball to play with and — . w. to yield to one. bogla. wisp of straw . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. ttuJic. bwr. tumour. Dan. Hal. bubble. . PLD. swoUei) Lat. biisse. a bud.

Heligoneed. to fall. wrack. break. brague. or bracer Cot. and then Pl.— D. brack. I sal slyng. s. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach..with a noise. defect. a sounding blow. Fr.D. On the same principle from the buksteht. In like manner the It. Boy. Prov. Pm. . in R. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. breach. to stutter. taneous talking. brae. bruxula. flaw. a bubbling dura del mun. . s. mud. to smack the hand batschen. variation of babble. La ville ou y avait Brace. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. an languages. to crack. . want. Brak-goed. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. moral or physical. to be wanting. brae. then from break. bracke. to want. priated to the original sense. Cot. pus. breptati. a pair of braces. and F. in R. bracil. brae. fuse. The different meanings of the brageux. . fault. . turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Swiss bub. lalear-eyed Prov. Brach. a grown youth Cimbr. Lett. filth . brassard. brostia. quarrel Bohem. and string of his bow. to give a blow with the fists. brace on and Du. — . clay. — . a braceOFr. armour for the arm. bube. bracha. 91 the Dan. brakke Bracelet. a comworld Rayn. . A brace probis. ' — A — — — . See Brake. rack. brechen. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. land spoilt Kil. To fight with the fists. whelp as. suppuration. a box. root). Rouchi Then as an adj. Sp. bou^ba. the first instancebya physical tie. Lat. G. Hdcart. brek. defect. braquet. Gael. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. braco. acidus. Pr. compressing. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. AS. breach. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Kil. defect Du. bracon. need. merely in our mode of considering them. to give a gebrechen. Bracket. murmur. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. bue. bracer. cramp-iron holding things together . ing from a mixture of salt. Brackish. to burst." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. . &c. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. To brace is to draw together. Water rendered boubo. A to halt between two derivations. — . a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. Bracelet. con. wristband. baske. Fr. It. pupus. Swiss Rom. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. to give a sounding blow defect. braecke. to box the ears. brec. salo sive aqua marinS.nated by dirt. breuque. want. — . a girl. strike. Du. It is B. bitch Du. G. bouibo. rakke. jabber. braca. damaged board a ship. thwack. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. to slap. bragos. baukscheht. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. want. Brack. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. odorinsecus. briche. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. dirty. unmarried man . boy. matter. A — — . isolated part of the text. brageuses. which sigof straining. race. brago.puddle. OE.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. . Kil. dog Sw. Sp. wnzC/J. spaniel. from a root brak. MHG.. corruptse. refuse. by the same inversion of J and k. Prov. land batsken. disturb. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. brakke grund. ghebreck. babble. To Brabble. . brae. confining. brechen ihm. rakki. mud. brabbelen. ON. Ptg. dog in general. by an overflow of sea water. bresta. bray. is a rope holding G. Pl. bracket. flaw. to is derived brestr. foul. dog that hunts by scent. rakka. Prov. a boy pupa. Thus brack. braco. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. brek. which has many representatives in the other Europe. salsus. a bog or pass Fr. It. boiste. — — . little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. his eyes are failing him). a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Swab. BOX To Box. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. youth. fault . parallel with OK. It. Brack. One girl. V. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras.. brack. let. ratch. Fr. brasselet. pube. to stammer. the arm.D. bask. Du. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . bracco. loud smack. ON. Sp. Prov. buah. a crack. braque. See Broker.. a guard to torf. OFr. braic. posh. boy bouba. to Swiss batschen. beagle. — . boussole. Kil. flap. OFr. or defect. as noticed under Box. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . mud. Fr.

^Brave. se pavaner. breyne. braszketi. gorgeous. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . brabhdair. braske. or by gaudy dress and show. braga. . in the sense of the Lat. se parer de beaux habits. courageous. Cot. braga. to crack. See Brace. breghe. crash ON. Fr. fine. proud. gallant. and it is very likely that the root brak. brave. — Chaucer. gayly dressed. stout. breghen. breagh. Brail. and that from e. brav. Dan. vaunting. A — Hal. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . bragd. . a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. beautiful. hectoring. bragging of his own valour. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- .^Vocab. to boast of his own worth. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. showy bravery. braicli. binding anything together. Lith. . torture .Shepherd's Cal. is Cot. i. power. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. brag. vain glory. idle talk. It. to unbrace or let down the breeches. bushy . From brayel. affront. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. de Vaud. bra!. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. slight modificajoining the two legs. brave. Sc. . bully . braegenj Du. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. Haldorsen Gael. brabhdadh. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. riches. brag. The plant y^r«. bragaireachd. a carriage for breaking in horses . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. crash. brave. braga. fine. The meanings of brake are very numerous. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . From Fr. braies. Brake. an iron for holding Zalli. Dan. To Brail. Cot. &c. empty pride. swaggerer. to Rouchi brMer. confining. in numerous dialects. bragio. an inclosure for cattle . brake is. splendid. fine. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. Walloon bress.—— . smart. Bray. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). spot. bullying. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. bravacherie. cry. gay. To Brag. boast. be noisy . bravado j Fr. AS. fine. that will carry no coals. gay. excellent. strength. in order to prevent its catching the wind. ative fellow. — Equivalent forms are Gael. drawers. to flaunt. braka. Bret. Lat. to cord a bale of tie up. breach. brayete. make a noise . to swagger. se donner trop de licence. It is certain that the word for arm is. 2. well-dressed. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. to rattle. brave. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. was formed brayele. Brain. to brail up a sail. the opposite of which. stately. subduing. Rom. h-avare and Fr. — A — . . . But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. Chaucer. vanter une chose. —Spenser in R. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. braver. handsome.. brag or jet it braguard.%. Wallachian bratsou. Fr. — From W.. to boast or brag. to stand upon terms. used in the sense of force. Bret. called by our braggard. — . to strut. The meanings included under — Bragget. . Thus we are brought to the OE. a roisterer. finery. Primarily to crack. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. bravache. to sprout malt. braw. Thus Bret.^ Sp. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. boasting. blusterer. brae.breeches. Hence E. brazo.hy which this idea is con\eyed. noisy ostentation. brao. Brake. flaunt in fine clothes . braka. swagger. w. is identical with Gael. as the type of exertion and strength. 92 Cot. about the hawk's fundament. Langued. the feathers ON. gallant (in apparel) also proud. brave.i5nz^. Hecart. also tion of this was brayeul. subigere. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. valiant The head are sumptuous. to shout. brachittm. See Bray. bragging.explosion. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . From sprouted corn.aburst. the arm. would be to brace. Brag was then used brisk. brails. BRAG Piedm. Fris. compressing. braguer. Cot. goods. braske. also insolenter se gerere . also derived Fr. crack. Sp. dhbrailler. bravo. be found. . Faire le brave. flaunting. Turk bazu are used in both senses. to make a noise. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. brake in the sense of constraining. To Braid. expensive. braggard also valiant. or from braie itself. a noisy talkboasting.

briers. in usus braca. Voc. to head must be bit. Lat. murrokko. In ON. cetur. murtaa. 3. Dan. breaking in the operation. braquer un canon. break of such a kind. In the case of the ne. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. a fen. iSpsx". to harrow (Lat. gilum. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to The ON. riguus. brogille. tris). to subdue. to bend a bow.. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. Fr. to rub. and when once thrown down. braeken. quarry from Fin. referred brake. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold.' It. game. to break or fracture. glebas subigere. broken fratta. break flax PLD. is formed murd. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. Prov. marsh or swamp. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. copse-wood. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. bush. P&. Gael. Corrfeze bredgea. ing of flax or hemp. brushwood. brook. gebroge. a thicket. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. cover G. for — Due. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. braca. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Brake. —Ovid. thicket. brego. and Lat. word. properly braking or subduing them. a marsh. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. as in Sp. or a wood in a marshy place . to bray in a mortar. It. brak is a frame in which strip. gebrUche. el arco. Dan. to row. broillet. bush. to pound. as in Du. broilium. gebroge. G. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. broeck. bruch. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. gebiisch. — — . briser. frangere linum. brook. tnurdma. broyer. to exert force in different ways. Gr. OFr. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. In like manner Lat. or overthrow of trees by the wind. de Vaud. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. a swampy Mid. to brush. brog or brake. to knead or mix up in a mortar. a spinning-wheel. We — .D. It may be sus- . Swiss Rom. braecken het vlasch. brcekke. —Bracken. a brace on board a ship. and G. breuil. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. brook. in northern climates. murran. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. have thus Du. brage. To the same bend a bow. might come to signify a swamp. marsh. been confounded with the verb break. nemus. In the sense of a thicket. dial. bregar. braken. the lever by which the string was drawn up. the original meaning of G. to fracture. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. or A A ' . Fr. — Fl. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to stiffen against Taboada). brog. bregille.bracan. subigere.— . pasture. signifying to sweep. brage. Sp. watered. flachs brechen. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brake. Pl. . as well as in the case of the e. where from Esthon. low wet land bruch. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. conSo in G. brambles. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. gebrUche. broil. braka. which originally designated a broken mass of wood.D. gebroge. is braukti. bushes. brambles. brega. it is not surprising that the word has here. Dan. broor bushy place Hal. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). a stream. 2. to distinct. to break. t° moisten. a harrow. to break. The Fr. ^raca. bregar brake. thing is brought under control. BRAKE to external force. casser le \va. Biglotton. It. as in the case of horse-breaking. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . brog above mentioned. fratto. brolium. brake. to bend or direct a cannon. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. Brake. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. Fr. e. any thicket of brakes. farinam in mortario subigere. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. a horse's a horse's twitch. bredza.

to burn. . broom. Port. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. Then by comparison with claws or arms. Pl. a shoot. prufye. young buisson fort epais.G. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. a vine twig Bav. cack. heath. to or iron. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . as. brenna. heath. piecemeal brindelles. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. — branca. a shrub . from brand. It. brug. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. w. brarn. brughera. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. A mark made by burning." The bmno a • on . brandmurk. ordure . breanan. brwnt. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. bretnel. Brank. cabbage sprouts Fl. bit by bit. piece of anything. brang. briars. breme j Sw. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. bramble Du. a briery plot. G. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. So Swiss gaggi. brancas. a rod or twig. constrain. a bud. G. or ling. a dunghill. The same form becomes in It. thicket of brambles Cot.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. from virga. gebriiche. brenn. bronbo.). young twig {brom-beisser. Bran. brushwood. nasty. brenn hesken. and thence a shoot. broust. branchia. It. In like hrst. Gael. . salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. broem. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. bren. . restrain. a thick bush. 1 8. from Lat. and E. ground full of briers. Bret. a halter. dirt . The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. excrement. a shrub from Bret. a bud. Brancare. also a marshy low ground or fen . As ON. bruk. braeme. Pl. pfropf. —Ducange. to gripe. . Grisons bruch. bruch. Bret. Thus we have w. a shoot or twig. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. ear-wax mud. the branch of a tree. pfriemen. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Broom. Thus in Lat. G. from brug. in the sense oi fern. a heath. bruskoad. brouskoad. i. Bret. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. Fr. that is to say. . brano. or with It. in the same sense. Fr. heath (Bret. AS. bruk. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. sprouts. brand. a single plant of heath. heath. brom. clutch. &c. the thorn apple or stramonium. See Brush. brin.D. a firebrand. brem. bushes. to bridle. Thornas and bremelas. chaff. berneux. 2. G. apiece orbitbrandone. Bav. brous. bro7n. brog.. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. Gael. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. burning brennen. Serv. brin d. Brand. hallier. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. to brank. breun. brug). heath ON. brank. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. Diez. bruch. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. broccoli. . Fr. sweet broom. Bramble. broembel-CBppel. . bracken or fern . a bud It. sedge burkni. may be so called in analogy with Bret. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . Branch. braam. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. what is cast out as worthless. brandiiialil. bran. titio. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brake. w. and waste growths. broom. bruk. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. The naof strain. broussaille. . &c. a burning fragment of wood. a roA. Sir Topaz. brandr. brank. brambles. pected that brake. Fr. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. from Servian pnit. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. or other plants of a like nature. sawdust. is the draff or excrement of the com. pfriem in the sense of an awl. wood composed of twigs. branche. compress. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. brin (as It brano). branco. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. brugek. as AS. Rouchi bren d'orMe. But we find It. brosst. brandello. iii. stink . brein.D. it glitters — — . a small deri\'ation . Bret. snotty . brok. That beareth the red hepe. Piedm. heath. from gaggi. Dan. a bridle or bit . to -brugen. virgultum. Russ. It will be found that shrubs. also pfriemkraut. gebroge. . bren. bran. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. E. brejo. the bull-finch. brass. brenda. thorns and Gen. bromboli. — .

totter. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. or in stick. a stick. brausen. noise. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. To brand. brus^. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Fr. E. as Jamieson explains it. as Fr. a roaring fire. brandiller. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. bruciare. brazil. It. and branchis shaiand D. to French brawl or brangle. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. briiler. brustle. stake. to blaze. braise. firebrand. to rustle. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. branla. to bicker 2nd. braise. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. — .well. to brangle. the colour than hitherto known. Milan. Brase. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. put. Port.^Brandle. Jam. Kil. bransella. make a — . n. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. bransle. eldibrandr. G. brandigh. Fr. bruire. to brandle. crackle. glowing embers . to make shine with shaking. as again by well as the blade of a sword. bryne. not. to burn. prasseln. flagrans. to Bailey. splinter. De Goes. to hurl with great force. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. The corresponding form in Gael. to murmur. gebrannter wein. G. To brase AS. branler. faire fracas. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. brennen. a round dance. to brustle. brane-wood. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. — . d'Angl. to sound of the Fr. branler. comes from thence. Bailey. Ija. brasa. brush. bracia. to shake. Lye. braise or hot coals. to crackle . Chron. brand. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. plained by Florio. then brandr. was in use Fr. brandende wijn. conbillet. perplex. Braser. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . With top trimbling. from used in dyeing cloths. brasil. Sw.. bragia. Brangle. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Diez. N. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. brasa. a pan of hot coals. brandiller. weinbrenner. brastlian. to brandle or The It. brasca. du Roi et laine. — . but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Chron. all. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. set on fire.pan of coals. It. — ting to confusion. to confuse. to dash. 59. incendium. Fl. to quarrel. brin. V. forms brasil. given to the country. distilled wine. Du. crackle. brangle or brawl in E. ist. bra?ier. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. and scold. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Bret. to glisten or flash. Gris. Formerly brandy-wine. Hume in brand in ON. bruan. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. E. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. It. to burn. and bruir. ish. bum. aqua ardens. to distil . in Marsh. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. Brasil. to make display . bruzi. to make sense of a bright red dye. WaUon. brascct. to roar. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. a fragment. to braze or lute. Thus the bound up again. brouir. braser. so. live coals. to shake The word brisil. became ashes Pied. So. Guill. Fr. hot Fr. before the discovery of America in the brandir. fire-wood. brandolare is exbrandish. e. hoisting to the fall. firewood. to burn. shake. a To Brandish. morsel. billet. Fr. The tre brangillis. brazeiro. bracea. The name Brandy. to shake. make an outcry. spirit distilled from wine. the spelling to kindle. from to vociferate. to totter. to and fro in the hand. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. a brusler. to shog. bresil. apparently very distinct from each other. Sw. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Manx bransey. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. urens. is bntan. braza. brasca. AS. Fr. embraser. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. bragale\ wood. de Don Emanuel in Marsh.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to solder iron. In the same way the set on fire .

trulen or pilen (in the feminine form).' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. strepitus 2. So also See Brag. Lorraine bravon. ON. bronzare. as criailler of crier. &c. burning coals. any piece. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. borderinge. A dispute or squabble. Brawn. brettys.D. brat. muscular parts of the body. baltresca. the calf of the leg. to copper. Mundart. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. a battle-girdle. bretays). brett. bransle. to braze. and bronzo. bronze. Certainly a little girl. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. 2. Sc. bratach. G.' BRASS BRAY et AS. A. to tear piecemeal. braeye. bronzacchiare. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. pan- — Rayn. bred. Brangle. bartisan. from branler. See Bray. berd. Cot. noise. Florio. a parapet. bratidone. The verb is probably derived from the brase. For the application to a^child compare Bret. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. discord. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bradon. then a parapet. slibro. saillies. as lattice. A land of dance. bribe de viande. slakker-bortchen. a wooden tower. ni autres choses sur Due. Pisana in Mur. ^Altieri. bras. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. OFr. contignatio. solder. brandillo. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. bartising. roar.propugnaculum.— Braid. a Lap. 1224. a cloak. a rag. P1. bretesche. Betrax of a —^Jam. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. is The word — uous name for a woman. breyon. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant.^ — Sverris Saga. Swiss bradle. Brattice. braser Fargent.D. cloth. Kil. a. Brawl. brat. bradlete. It . frequentative of braire. in the first instance of boards. le repasser un peu sur la braise. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . braion. to cry. W. It. Brave. to carbonado. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. breteque. pil. Gael. — . braon. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. a plank or board. a contempt- banner. from Fr. slut. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. a — A from the confused noise. at brasa. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. braiio. 368. Sp. I. to Gael. bran. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Math. Brass. a clout.— Fl. to shake. KiL Prov. Paris. bmhon for brado7i. neita girl). much and high and make a disturbance bawl. AS. as rashers upon quick burning coals. a lump. as scrawl from scrabble. lat'te. deblaterare. brdto (ace. Cot. 1156. a lump of flesh. calf of the leg. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Fris. coassatio. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. —-Jam.walle — Pr. rag. breyon d'chaur. ship. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. bretesque. branle. . tasce. brailler. Du. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a lath. Bartizan. Wall.96 Roquefort. Circumeunt cibertesca. buttock Sc. It. a mantle. to solder. from Sc.— Diez. slibro {neita. a slabbering-bib. brazen. to talk at bralle op. luncheon. Fr. Many gambes. a patch of cloth. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. esbraotier. frame of laths. braede. — Deutsch. whether contracted from brabble. bratdn). Fr. braoilich. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. trul. or on the top of a wall. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. breyon de kinds of .— Remade. a rag . OHG. brces. brass. —^Bronze. OFr. boarding being sbranare. as a brawling brook. to scold . The same correspondence is seen between It. A. a fortification. a contemptuous name for a young child. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. equivalent to the Du. especially that used in the working of iron . bralle. See Brandish. Brat. calf of the leg. a lump of flesh. Dan. boutures. bratid calf of the leg. a rag . Westphal. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. flesh of a leg of pork. the buttocks. The muscular part of the body. Pm. fraiche. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.' Hal. ferruminare. Bailey. ' A vraale. bruir. brat. Sup. cob. apron. braodhlach. Fr. a loud noise. bas morceau de viande brawhng. squall. Hist. or whether it be from Fr.D. Cologne broden.brettysing. Jam.

at a braid. V. Dunbar braessem. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to start. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. breuan. will. crackle . G. a breach Cot. The Lat. Swiss bratschig. to the seijauntes. From the or brack in a wall. Q. as the notion of turning crack. a crash. or wound. to work up in a mortar. to bellow. Bread. I'll live and die a maid. to knead. yell. D. paxog. bruire. explaining a very obscure application of the E. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. Du. bru. bregar. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. e. abraid. Cot. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. Bret. Prov.. to roar as the sea. a brack. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. the miller's dog. brak. braid. braidar. and make a hideous noise.' To Bray. or cry out loudly . brot. to tear Bret. ^p&xia. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. i. the clash of ai-ms Dan. rattle. The ON. and fracasously.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. vapna-brak. imitate or resemble one. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. a rag f . to have the lineaments of one's ON.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. a wink. to resemble. bray. V. regi.ch. to N. kind. braidir. 145. twist. ON. brand. brame. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. the sound — of arms. braa. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. brak. gestus. with or without a final d. Gr. &c. Fr. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. relation is seen between Lat. the sword was out break. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. crash. &c. To rub or grind down Sp. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. Fin. brage. to crash. to rub Fr. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. braea. Beryn. and to signify the fracture itself. R. D. augnabragd. bragr. fragor. bregar. rangere. The same He might don us both a villany. Cat. Bailey. as the voice of the ass. &c. rustle. mos. crepo and E. roar. to braid. to braid. Goth. to rumble. to The cup was uncoverid.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. noise . bradar. brugier. and frangere. ser. soft . baiyl. to bawl. to snatch. father. braire. — koa. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to cry Port. Then is simply. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. bratsche. AS. to break. — — — explained motus loud noise. to scold. father. And at a braid he gun it bende. Chaucer.^ Fr. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it.fracas. in Jam. to cry out. to sound very loud and very harshly. a . crash. 7 . to roar or bellow. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. bragd is also applied nets. turn. brice. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. Wal. &c. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. on. roar. — . Fr. yell. to break. resound . starts crackling up.ear rog. make a disturbance. Chaucer. at once. F. ing. verb to break. paste or dough. G. to break. a rent. to crash. fish. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. at braga eftir euium. upbraid. to smack or the eye. Breach. And with a traid I tumyt me about. cyprinus latus.y. to cry out. broyer. disturbance. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. See Brake. iU-favouredly — in Jam. OE. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. . ON. plait. brechen. ybrayid. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. to braid the hair. breche. broad. bregda. k. D. Then. is . Prov. rogi. to break Fr. appearance Hal. as OE. to bray like an ass. braa. R. Bread. W. a brake for hemp or flax. to pretend. to roar. to resemble him. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. To Break. bruzir. V. brikan. a mill. 2. .g. riAprjyvvfu. breach. to bray in a mortar. . instantane. to resemble. E. bragd — ON. which has given much trouble to commentators. Ppvxia. weave The ON. to t. to rush. Lat. fractus j Gr.

a smack. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. brezza. morsel. switch. properly to crackle. broil. murmur. simmering. brew. braguier. Sw.britschen. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brdtschen. braie. subligaculum. Fris. bresilles. or the blow itself. brache. Breeze. grillen. Russ. of E. Swiss brdtsch. briosa. to break. to be misty and cold. brumtnen. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brison. Piedm. braies. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. but more probably the E. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. of straining. brise. Briss and buttons. cloven. braca. braucn. braia J OFr. G^nev. We bragezj on. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. to shiver for cold. scent. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. forms analogous to E. Bret. brusc. sprouted corn. as. in Schilter. Du. AS. bryi^ga. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. murmur—Vocab. drawers. b}-as. trembling. to roast. Hence the Lat. brosame. braca. braga. as in the case of twitter. so AS. as. as the G. malt. sheep's droppings bruss. are in like manner ' . Breeze. bracecs . to brew. as by the Sc. to hum. brasiare. — — strument for smacking. Piedm. bris. crush. a to lay fly-flap. polenta. Brize. . braciarc. a gadfly. bre- I'os qui bresole. E. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. a cool wind. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Fr. brisd. to brew. briiz. to crush to break. Breath. de Vaud. To Brew. to smack. remains of leaves. to resound. — . bragues. to whip. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . — Halma. Gl. met de bridse slaan. grillare.t. may be from the wurh fesser. bruzir. breson. bremse. G. The Breech (Prov. from brace. singing bone. with It. brezzare. Du. malt. applied to shivering. brustia. Originally probably the word signified steam. brcEth. brcekur j It./ssus. a crum Du. to murmur. from AS. It. braies. OFr. Lat. Du. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. noise. britze. briig. /esses. windy withal. See Brick. an into shiver. Biglotton. fitzen.). einem de britze geven. briosat'. grill. Dan. bra. and E. —Briss. to bind. little bits of wood Berri briser. brissle. — And blood. coaldust. . griller. — Brist. breost. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. broden. then to broil.98 borst. brisoler. brijsen. simmer. de bridse geveii. point to G. as commonly explained. brisciare. trusts. Dev. brezling. vapour. fastening . Breeches. brinisa. a crum. Bruise. So ON. Prov. Rom.vare. braich. brist. to fry . clout for a child. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. QNtsterviald) pritschen. rubbish. Gl. bruc. Gael. G.'— Gl. break. siibligar. chilly. bris. AS. breinse. brossi!. G. brire. Hume in Jam. a cold and windy mist or frost . Breast. broiiwen. instead of being derived from 'La. a cramp-iron for holding things together. brugga. braga. their stings draw . brimsa.D. forms. — See Broth. brasser. breeze. and other rubbish dibris.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. Compare OE. Isidore and Tatian. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. — . Du. . a girdle. fail. binding. . brijselen. Fr. and brought beneath between the legs. the soler. G. of trees. Lat. corresponding to G. bark Fr. Breeze. E. to burst. Gael. brciz. brok. representing the sound of a blow. &c. Goth. to rattle (as hail). briste. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. zare. bratscher. bris de charbon. brasiuiii. also to chill and shiver with cold. to simmer. the dry spines of furze broken off. bridsen. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. to crackle. Fr. brodem. to buzz. breme. The Teutonic verbs. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. from ligare. body brostia. broza. are related to Prov. an odour. dial. Bret. burst. Swiss Rom. peitschen. braux. G. Swiss AS. brimme. the bust. a twitch for a horse. PI. bretilles. brodel. Dtyden. chillness or shivering. one on the breech so that (klatschet). a box. . briosa. breath. brut. orts. i5r(Z^. the breech or buttocks. bruise. w. bruzun. to bray. to fry Then from a Gl. Bracha. Prov. bandage or truss for a rupture. to breech. xyligogio castigare. . to feize or feaze. rubbish. a horse's twitch.

is still used in this sense. — . appropriate. ' — . birbone. bride. daughheath. . to pave brukkti. Goth. In E. Applied ous words derived from break. guma. peculiar.privatus. a lump of bread. to press in. Ducange. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. briicke. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. . The origin of the word is the w. bruarium. to stamp. a little king's writs. If the foregoing were not so clear. from bit. AS. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Diefenbach com. priod. twopares Lat. buckler J ON. fervere. ter-in-law. breve or brevis. a heath brughera. a fragment. a married man or woman Lat. A bribe is A — — arval. with transposition of the r. brA. a beggar. brilt. See Broth. son. Due. one's ovin. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. fraoch. crew. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. from the last 99 of which. served (Patois de Bray). a fragment. bride. in the sense of OSw. bricge j G. . and ODu. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. Hdcart. E. bro. to meet together. W. brieden. bruk. broosekens. from the Normans. to boil. a Bride. to beg one's bread. a wedding priod-fab. bro is applied not only to a bridge. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. . would correspond in like manner to the Fr. to tlie brico. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. the newly. to appropriate. bruith. briwo. brygga. Pol. malt. pier. Fr. brocaly. AS. a man. The Sw. Gael. a proprietor. fragment. Bridle. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Neumann. sugga. then the marriage itself. Bridal. Cot. a cheat. In the G. Rouchi brife. Brigade. ibrukkti. company. of burial. pavement brolegge. berwi. bryd-gutna.Fr. which however is undoubtedly from brace. a sow. a heath. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. frayer. It. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. brice. pavement. a brig or priodor. . In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. brukkas.groom. Ihre. from Bret. to pave. bulicame. broken victuals. Grisons bruch. or brizo. So It. but probably Bricoteau. a quoit of stone. a crum. Fr. the equivalent of to the dial. jetty. a bride Brig. Brick. Brewis. feast. Lat. fit. priod-ferch. Pro(merch=:maid). fastningar-ol. Fr. boiling up brocoliere. ment of anything broken. corresponding or letter. married. grug. a bush. a boiling. Bridal.rough with brambles and bushes. briiths. as. AS. . bara briw. brau. bitill. Flor. whence berw. briw. bidsel. to boil. nurus G. bribe de pain. bably contracted from brigantine. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. . a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . but to a paved road. OHG. conjux. Priodi. groom (mab=:son). brakes of high-grown ferns. Lang. bruskr and buskr. to brew. bread. Hence OE.pritil . bygga. masted vessel. httle bit.It. brere. hlafes brice. Diez. brutg. Brier. gf2o. ON. heath. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. Du. E. a crum. the marriage si in brigata. collect bits of food. and berweddu. brigantine. has briguer. broken bread. barren land priodas. especially to a letter or command. birbante. brique de pain. any jot or crum. to break to pieces bricalio. Bribe. piece of burnt clay. from Bridegroom. Gael. bryd-eale. brar. Dan. to boil. funeral. berwedd. division of an army. Brief. feast of espousals. braut. BRIGADE dead. troop. Brique. buskins. a rogue. brasser. E. owned also propriate. as so. remarkable that the Gr. brigata. brood. In the patois of briccia. bruyere.. brittil. bruk. to press. a bit. to circulate. Gl. AS. bridelj OHG. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Mid.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. sponsa. bo. a briole. ' . a lump of bread. a bride. to Isrew. brigade. and that from It. bricou. privus. — — — — — — . imprint. bro. pavement Lith. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Fl. a rogue . w. betonica. arf-ol. Walach. Bridge. lipdZu}. a married man guma. OSw. AS. graf-ol. broken. . thick appropriated. . So in The Prov. bridge. Sp. A — A — . brug. ap.gfiugga. it is applied to the letter to OE. to rub. E. malt. betony brulicame. — . two-masted vessel. brughiera. to prepare. consort with. Trovarfor bride-ale. AS. G^n^v. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. It — is Kil. It. jipaaaiii. beaten way Dan. to break. a lump of bread briber. bretonica. bribour. the Fr. brahi.bergantino. Thom.

malandrini.— . transparent. — Briganbriga. and led it away. briga. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. bryhtm. kii:'a. clang. to cry. — — . then. From ON. Gr. the bench-notes resounded. 312. combat. clear. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. may play the pirate or thief at sea. The E. necessary business. rover either by sea or land. jurgia. Flor. clangour. and ner me hit iherde. —Capgrave. clear. representing a sudden noise. and hence be explained glampi. — Brigantine. to bend a bow It. schiteren. at a later period. and to associate with them. brigan. manifest ON. XafXTTpoQ. glbram. Goth. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. sound. splendour. and secondly. kilistua. brigandare. a glittering.clare ^tinniens. squamma . — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. to rob. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. brigare. to ring.' The passage from the sense of a light. cange has 'Veles. schateren. bray. tuilahtaa. and. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . Brigata. to cry 'Schmid OE.glampa. Bright. The primary meaning of Sp. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. to piracy. to resound. . to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. the grew high. brigare. to shine. They or brigantini. that of Fr. with respect either to sound or colour. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. Heo — song That AS. In Fin. clare lucens.shine. in the sense of a robber. dine. 1351. in the first instance. is easily understood. brdgen. a small light pinnace pro. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. to shine. to glitter. inde squammatus. It. show the origin of Lat. secondarily.' The sense of strife or combat express. to rove. and. clarus. brawl. So G.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. — brigante. pugna. — Probably then to strive. a noise. rixa. splcnornd de brigandine. a sound. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. willata. Du. — A A . there are many armour. See Brake. — brigante. brigant.Lat. from hall. to strive for. etincelle. tinkle. Swab. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. seems to be to exert force gar el area. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. tumult. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. Brigand. moment. clear sound. twinkling. wilella. brcEhtin. noise.' in Due. AS. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. outcry.pracht. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. A strepere. riis ' — Chron. It. Schmeller. to contend with another. glamm. Wilista. to glamr. loo BRIGAND lor. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . strife. a spark. glir. Brilliant. a brigantine. labour. splendour. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. . bairhts. Lat. braid. Owl and beorhtian. — Beowulf. tinnitum clarum movco. Gall. brak. bright bearhtm.' torum. a pirate.dorem clarum reflecto. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. in later times a robber or highway-man. to reservavit. and the E. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. clear. Beorktode bene sweg. bragen. splendens . A. \oice. the gleeman's song. briga. to sound. The Ir. In the same way to strive is. Bav. Xa/iTTii). praht.D. 1654. Adelung. brebrigare. bracht.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. It. Mid. on his — own account. Due. speech. glamra. — Due. lay was sung. to shift for with care. shriek with laughter. to make a loud noise. biartr. OHG. beorht. tinnitus. briegen. tion. bregar. also called briganders. Florio. and diligence. himself to serve men of merit. glitter. It. dine. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. hell.

as in ing or earnest desire bramare. grisser. bresoler (Gloss. brisoler. from bringe. which seems identical with rim. bremmen. reecho. gresiller. to twinkle. brumft. Prov. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. Brindled. edge Pol. also to reflect. burning stone. ardere desiderio. Langtoft. brdnnsten. Dan. lip of a vessel. It. To Brim. FJ. spraing. to crackle. brummen : de soge brummet. Brim. hence the bosom.its vent in cries and roaring. to parch. the heat of animals. Supp. of the eye. as in Langued.D. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. Brimstone. noise made by meat in broiling. In Fr. — g. fire. shine. lap of a garment . whence bilbil-goda (literally. E. Sw. the edge. rym^. Dief. brim. glit. bramar. brillare. brame. ling noise and a sparkling light. Wtb. grdzil. to sparkle. barm. Fl. (poet. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to shine. beam. to wish or covet. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil.) brimi. Streaked.preni. the verbs Flor. brow of a hill. on. to glitter. border. to long for a thing. rugire. griller d'impatience. In the same way Sw. fimbria) . is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). to creak. that the original meaning of the Sc. to broil. sprainged. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. surface of the ocean. glisten. griller. ring. brimmen. der. Thus Lat. ON. It. to quaver with the voice. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. os qui bresole. Sc. to fret . the eye-brow. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. Tresiller. bramar. coloured in stripes. : ' — bone). border. fierce. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. The E. Fr. ON. — — So Fr. is used of raging. .— Brinded. excited. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. post. bray as an ass bramire. crackle. sonitum edere bremen. as is the case also with Pl. fringe .— BRIM . The identity of ON. sparkle. . breziller. to . to shine. a streak. to roar. brommen. to make bilbil). G. to make a crackling noise. Tutschek. small gravel. and corresponding to these. from brandr. brinfire. brandr and Fr.' Elyot in Way. breme. brame. parched. have then in Fr. Hence with an initial s. perent. furious. brant. the singing of Sodom — — . grullo. ous. or violent action. a stick. dial. to sound deep or hollow. barm-cloth or barmskin. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. The expression is now confined to the sow. to shake. vigorHal. burning. Lith. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. vattubryn. earnestly . to utter cries. brummen. Rugere. The meaning of the Fr. brama. brastlian. bryn. kimista. rugire (cervorum. and 1. kiimottaa. grisler. brullo. griller). clangor tinniens. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. briller (related to each other as OFr. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. identical with passion. a rod. crackle . Said of swine when in heat. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. a long.' d'etre marie . breziller. with an initial br instead of gr. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. s. voux. Brem. to shimmer. to resound. rut. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. fringe (Lat. komista. ter. Sc. bry7ie. a borDu. to creak. leonum). cross-barred in colour. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. briller. a border. broil . brennistein. tience. striped or streaked. to glitter distance . 1 1 64. Rayn. brim Magy. s. 154. greedily to covet Cot. the lap or bosom. broiled. brissle. breme. bramer. greDiet. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. bremas. Swiss Rom. Subo. barmr. 754. brunft. to burn. brmdottr. brezil. finds the Fr. frequently interchange.ioTiviS acutus. A . kajata. brand-krossottr. originally the lap folding over the breast. margin. briller. the meaning is transL' amour. the heat of animals. — Rim. whether of desire or anger. . to crackle. AS. to roar. 1. Closely connected is OE. kimina. ON. bremmen. — — — . kimmaltaa. bar. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. kommata. chime). seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. to storm. to shine. gresiller. the sow is brimming. an apron. It. — . bramire.). lap. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to glitter . AS. Kil. pMiller. as well as bl and gl. as of meat in broiling . border. Du. komottaa.

G. saulmeure. Then as the effect of shivering. britar. prick with Sw. of astonishment. bros. Da. are used in the sense of brittle. and hence. Gr.. a morsel . Sw. birstle. spricka. Russ. angry. smart taste. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. sticking up . broche. The Pl. ' breast. Brittle. a skewer. Fris. See To Brim. as unripe fruits. Prov. to roar. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. briocho. like the Broad. bruched (Fr. or — . a slip or sprig of an herb . It. a clasp. — — . brezza. a brooch. brim. and Sc. broccata. from brande. brusque. p. brimhliod. fiscbryne. Bret. thick — A elastic hair. — . a belly. Hal. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. apt to break. shoot. from AS. braidsj ON. Brickie. a cold and windy mist or frost.g. Dan. Du.Lat. britar. ' . bryne. rebursiis. brindelles de balai. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Fr. ON. brichet. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brittle. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. wine of a sharp. to set it a going. as a noun. bricho (with the diminutives. brockle. brim (poet. It. reburrus. lively. to bud. . See Brand. Cot. bringe. cK) the . sprout. to birstle. Salte sand is called brimsand. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. from break. brddj Goth. brcit. flames. See Spread. Brooch. a bit . to shoot. trembling. bresk. rash. Zeuss.. brim. Berri. Liquamen vel garum. birse. bringe traced through the brano. quick. i. sour. a spit. brittle. Prov. fantas'* tical. brocar. . a morsel. Prov. fragile. Fr.D. to put one in a rage . Fr.rcendij'i. Antiq. — A . the twigs of a besom. brandello. Sc. to spur. broc. brissko). breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. broca. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. bros. Brym. /3pE^m. brioshko. . chest. NE. brickie. a rebours. broca. an awl. spur. to break. borzos (struppig). and forms on. has under It. brocher. breaking of the waves brim sior.). as. suddenly angry. bruskett. roar of the sea saltr. bronchus. Pectusculum. 'V^. whence may be explained the Sc. birsle. briota. borstel. Sc. expression. rude. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. brust. and. e. It. Palsgr. to turn up the point of anything. brich. brusk. to break. Brine. sprocco. against the grain . a stormy brimsea . brog. sharp. breidr. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. very salt brimi. a brad or tack. brocciare. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. a bud. a shoot or sprig. broccare. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. to spur. . the surf. of E. to stitch. as. Bret. as. to spit. to shiver for Sold or for fear. setting the hair on end compare It. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. 222. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. brocco. rebrousser.' Nat. the surf. brytan. a bud. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. Boh. Fr. brezzare. sprouts. brot. birs. to goad. Russ. Fr. brime. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Compare also E. to begin upon it. to broach a business. emotions which produce it. Mid. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. a stitch brocher. brote. Ptg. startling. Swiss to stand out . brissle. a fragment. — in Due. form bris. is called a birssy day. Abroacli. is to erect the hair. Commonly explained as from Fr. to stick. brisciare. Brisket. to stab Gael. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. stitch. Alfr. brin. fierce.procio. harsh vin brusque. ruffling. Gl. In the N. to scorch. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. crabbed. briota. hot-tempered. to set up one's birse. to crack. to burn. aculeus. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. It. . coli. Sp. b. or the full • . Walach. to broil. man's throat. Brisk. Bohem. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. briser. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). a deluge. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. eager. borst. — bryme. Brocade. bruckle. the brisket or . . metaphorically. breast. grim. to thrust. brisk in taste. Fr. Formerly written brotil.). brusco. Bristle. ribrezzoso. Lat. humorous.'— Vita'abbatum S. flame. bringue. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. brijn (Kil. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. brodden. breaking out into growth. a rod or twig. birssy. Port. brimme. britchet. borzen. a crum. brocchus. strong itself. byrst. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. a button broche. Du. Hence ribrezzare. to break. craw of a bird. bristly . a peg sbrocco. a projecting tooth It. brocco. setting the hair on end. bryde.

bmsciare. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. to spur. with Sc. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. A badger. a freckle. broil. trouble. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. a prick. to knots or loops. and bord or bred. tufted ornaments. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment.. to darn. brouda. a brecJi. point to an origin in Bret. creak. confound. bustling. a confused streaked face of the animal. Hal. borprick. bramowanie. atoms . — Fl. Fr. a flake of snow sion. a quarrel. Thus brod. brucilare. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. rinj'. a freckle. streaked. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. To roast upon hot coals. border. broc. brerd. age was termed a pricket. Sc. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Grisons brascla. Compare also AS. speckled. a mole. ToBroider. broil. broglio. or salted fish on coals. brucach. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary.tumultuous. a To Broil. brouFr. kled breac. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. frocadura. rustle. an edge. blusters. to broil. ciare. bruler. prasseln. initial . v. bordo. broccato was used to signify stuff . to scorch.— B. brodio. badger . The Bret. Fr. q. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. — . The ON. embroidering. — The proper sense is that of Fr. fundamental origin. a flock or Gael. houx. or snag. bram. a border. brasbrasciuolare. Sc. 103 embroidered. broder. brizen. tori shows that. B. a border ornamented with gold. froco. noise. It of br the Fr. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . a fallingThe sense has been out. parched. or glowing coals broged. border ornamented with silk. piebald . forming to jumble. Bret. to embroider. margin. broiled. Surrey in R. to burn. grullo. prod. brasuole. dar seems derived from borde. — — . In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. Contracted from Fr. brocco. Icnotty. R. a brouhaha. . But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. AS. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. — Gower in It. onbryrdan. ornamented with a raised pile. Sp. sting. Florio. precisely analogous to the Sc. the line of development has been something different. to boss. brocart. to streaked or speckled in the face. and AS. brychau. to burn. hart of two years old. broighlich. brasiller. Here to ornament with needle-work. to embroider. . Dan. brustle. brasiller. brullare. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. brusler. to parch or broil. storms. a b?-ustolare. to crackle. a brim. shuffle. briefh. braird. embroidery. of pointing out their latent defects. birsle. here. trouble. sparks E. brod. motes. gold and silver. parch. So from Pol. knobby . freckled. briz. parti-coloured. brindled. It. A fried or boiled steaks). speckled. the shoot of corn. grislement. Compare G. to instigate. It. Ptg. to On the other hand the Sp. has grisser. spotted. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. to stud broccoso. Cot. Cot. stump. From direct imitation of Brock. broc. brastlian. breard. whence broccare. and w. spots. brych. to crackle as a shell in the fire. scorch. or It. broccuto. parti-coloured. from the white. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. Gael. brusuole. gresiller.sound. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl.. to crackle. Brocket. noisy. tumult broighleach. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. a point. brooked. brasolare. bordar. broice. E. a badger. thread. Ihre has guU-bord. brocach. broukit. bawling. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. a peg. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. hurly-burlies. agree in being the extremity of a thing. bj'oil. silkes-borda. to crackle. b?-od. or roast on the braise. to prick. W. carbonado. broud. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. Broker. Gael. to crackle. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. frecSee Brawl. Fr. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. — brissle.

OFr. matter of blame weak place. brae. trumpery. The use sunburn. to sparkle. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. See Broth.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. Sp. damaged. brackefi. wrak. mediationem quorundam J. buy and sell by commission. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. It may be compared with It. to braze. embers. a fault. — broeden. Kil. cracker. For the same reason the Kiittner.D. braeck goed. damaged. bronze. which E. Alb. to brew. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. racher. inspect. dial. : ' . the spawn of fishes. brieden. to garble. In the . to pick and choose. brokas. pan metal. 38. w. phlegm. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Pl. to blame. Abbronzare. cast Lith. • . 396. to pro- to reject . S. to nourish. the young of any animal . make out. Jam. brechen. to throw blame upon. nounce unsound. spittle . find fault — — — fuse matter. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. brokoti. Per manus et old worthless horse. See Brackish. brasa.D. refuse brakovat. It. to pick. to sort brakovanie. . vile. refuse Fr. to be hot. want. try . [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. If to vomit . has exactly the force of G. to criticise. from makel. Tooke's Catherine. In those countries the term braker. lack. and to reject the damaged and unsound. Bronze. Bret. Fr. brack. .D. as. G. . brass does to Sp. to hatch. sunburnt. and as an adj. — point out the faults. in the sense of rejection. Pl. Teutonic class : Du. with. Brood. Dan. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. vile. refuse wares. et A. bring eggs and spawn into active life. bronze. an operation performed over hot coals. to roast on the embers. to emit sparks. burning. G. Prov. an . vrage. brack-gut. i. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. wrack-good. to copper. in which sense the OHG. an outcast or rejected sheep. abbronzanchiare. brak. . brod. to hatch G. — . find fault with. keep warm. racaille. corrector. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. refuse. ordure. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. abject. find fault with. and fishes . Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. selection. rejection Pol. to scorch. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. blur. to — garble. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brod.— Breed. This word shows the same relation to It. bredan. on. filth. embers to brund. Grisons brinzla. goods damaged by sea-water. tan. hot. fish-spawn broden. a brood . Fl. glowing coals. refuse. insects. bracker. e. term was correcfo^ir. brands. try out. wreak. to spit . to be wanting.D. a breach or flaw. a chicken. refuse brakowad. raquer. refuse goods. to hatch. to sort goods . Lat. hrak. a cough Hal. analogous to Bohem. Pl. brunds. merchandises de rebut G. broen. or brascla. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. brut. stain. Adelung. criticise (makeln). rejected. Bronzare. screatio Junfus . brwd. progeny of birds. a makeln.— — . . Du. Du. Alb. but from the primary sense of the It. reject. dirty. inspection. bridde. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. To blame mens ware. briiten. brack-gut (Sanders). — Fl. tussis. See Wreak. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. To correct an exercise is to Lib. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. a broker. raca. from break. brumo. hraki. braken. sbrinzlar. couratier. Sc. fermenting.— Lib. ON. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. sort. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. Pro v. bronze. faulty. to sit on eggs. whence the modern courtier. cherish. correctarius. wraken. Russ. spittle. brasa. to reject. brot. broiid. slaae vrag paa. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. mud. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. brid. brakyne. embers. to . bronce. The Langued. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. brokers' goods. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. ODu. brydio. brak. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. — a spark. bronzo. fault censure. . designation is indkler. hot. bric-a-brac. G. whnake. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. On • tliis principle the G. warm.

Here we find throughout the Romance. &c. brosst. braew. to bubble up with noise. borda. broza. house of ill fame. sodden. . thairj w. Gael. kail brose. shoots. brotar. to boil. a spring. See Bramble. brushbroccoli. &c. brau. breg. bordeau. wood . and Sc. bryn. bryn.) . fur Broom. a source Gael. forms appear related to the Ir. a shore. brouser. Bret. chen. the colour of things burnt.braubiti. brodo. a river. Cot. brous. meal. bruth. brus. brd.. shrub with leafless pointed edging. edge. broem bark. noise. brosses. Dan. boiled . to burn. . &c. Due. . sprocco. brewis. (for brodem). Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. grow brossa. BROOK brook w. thick bush brousta. seethe. hot. bruich. Serv. brouches. . face. Du. G. margin. heat explaining the Prov. iVlanx broogh. a little . eye-lid. a bruth. eye-lid. brost. juice of meat. broth. riviere. from Goth. brawdj Slavon. on. AS. who is steaming with sweat. border. It. bor. bregh. The AS. sprout. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. OHG. brudi. pith. brocco. Fr. — exiit et heath. to use bruks. as Fr. broden. breg. brdtaj Gael. bruithim. useful G. Fr. vigour. . bratrj Lat. Celtic. braussa. brpuster. &c. . eye-lash . bruc. broeye. signifying low wet land (Brem. — . broieii. to Pl. braces. . laissent Domunculum. Manx broie. shoot. pottage. spuma. brabruach. broth is sometimes used . to bear patiently. sordes seu strigmata young branch. to boil. pfriemkraut. brotar. brouskaol. buds. The softening down of the consonant bud. as rhododendrons. Mid. a bud. brodem. bhratrj Zend. brmi. — . sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. brov. to shoot. dialects is very different. sprouts . Gael. G. branches. brouet. Limousin broudi. a sprout. breh. w. brst. a sprig. Sc. eat. shore. broit. G. was originally used in the innocent sense of . bros. heath. dumetum. sproc. — ' . bruith. low The AS. juniper. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. bruddeln. rage. to border. circuindedit cum familia. brouter. briar. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. bud. broi. Brow. to use. a . A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. Tam de terrS. Ppim. brue . enjoy Goth. as small-pox. It is Brother. a hut or cottage It. to scald. bank. borde.brons. bruitheati. Prov. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. a hill. browys. hut. brad. has briw. braun. Roquef. brouic. rerum decoctarum. a hill. riviera. ale . Russ. break out brewet. . (which is barely pronounced in Gael. infusion. bank. Pol. frater. grow into a bush. eye-brow. cabbage water. brennen. brost. Fr. Gris. a confused noise of winds. bruach. to browse. heat. Sp. surDu. brothas. eye-brow. broth the ocean Sw. Pl. brass. to use. the bubbling or springing up of water. edge. eye-brow. broo. bordel. broth Brown. OHG. brink. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. . brucan. broth brothaire. broud. . frui. brlgh. broth. A — . cabbage soup . signifying twigs. bruich. simmer from the murmuring AS. briihe. bruscosd quam de arabili. . bros. sap. brew . bushes. sense the Sc. to browse. perhaps burnt coloilr. Sp. bree. brio. G. breg. ceales briw. shore . waves. broca. 'Lzt. of which the variety of forms. bank. bryii. But the Walach. The origin is a re. Kil. brstiti. eye-brow. Prov.spross. juice of briars.D. Bohem. pour boiling water over. and Slavonic families. broccola. . a bud brous-koad. and also border. Sanscr.brink. to sprout. . brow. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Bohem." Serv. frucius. spirit. Commonly Teutonic. thicket. to boil. brwd. mettle. infusion the barley bree. shrubs. surface of Broth. to murmur. of plants broust. AS. brozia. bank. or shoot. It. Browse. Bret.D. steam from heated bodies. Gael. broc. or broken up . to roar. sprot. strength Ir. . and It. verge. To digest. heath. briu. strength. warmth ch'an. brusmalt. brun. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. Russ. bruceti. Du. bntdien. to boil bruithe. b7-un. fabric consists. It. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Lat. w. on. Fr. brushbrothas) gives the OE. eminence .— Overyssel Almanack. augen-braune. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . Ger. bruno. . brauwe. t— Cot. Gael. OFr. Brothel. from ripa. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses.' Due. a little house or cottage of timber. brukjan. brosses. hovel. G. to spring . Bohem. a derived from the boards. properly boiling water briihen. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. brow of a hill. plants composed of twigs. a shrub broust. brogues. vigour. or bushes and scrubby growths. Fr. awl-plant. Bav. in which brinnan. cia. Wtb. Gr. . sprout. 105 Brook. may be connected with Russ. protecting the eye. Catalan brossa. a caldron.

and actually come in collision. borst. Sw. brista) or breaking out . . bud.— Palsgr. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. . brus. brunt. bruc. to brush. K. bross. E. . bruiser. a bud or sprout Bret. brikan. Castr. a brush . also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. And that best is. brit. and . to make a rumbling. modification of the same root which gives the E. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. brik. a brush . a brush. bricalio. bruit. brizeto. p. into a multitude of points. to butt. wool-card. rods. a bristle. break. bris. borste. to break. Prov. Lang.). It.— — i. Piedm. Pm. Alexander. The same relation holds good between G. a bristle. briser. — those signifying a sprig. biirste. OE. a noise. See next article. and also Brush. remnants of hay or fodder. brustia. —Chaucer. a brush. — OE. insultus. Hall in R. sordes. burs. bris. a blow. shivers. shoot brouskoad. broken. a shrub composed of small twigs . a brush Swiss bruske. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. coal See Breeze. bris. Wicliff. . . brysan. dust. dust. fasx . the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brustid. a brush . Bruise. bruscolo. Brush. bruise exOFr. appearin Goth. brMt. bross. borste. but on whom it schall to brisen him. twig. brous. wool-card. crush. flax-comb brossettes. detergere . brisar. Cot. a — — (Agea) said. effort. as It. Text Soc. an enmy. brusc (Diet. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. mg Cat. On the other hand. burt. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. brist. Pr. brusco. brisd. Pm. broza. seems named from burst(on. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. and in the second place a besoiB. a bud. brosse. shock. G. Prov.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. 134. ON. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Port. bruis (sing. quisquilise. brust. a tuft of heath . . splinters. Sw. AS. G. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bruskr. briiis (in the pi. brousso. Pr. brottcher. to make brusshes on. escousse. bruito. a bush of hair. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. It. borste. bush. 201. wood composed OE.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. a crum. — a bush. tremely. The Bav. Prov. It. fragments. dust. field. dust. and sighid therewithal. brossa. Broach. a brush . desbrisar. wool-card. abroncar. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Gael. heath. borste. ling or heath for brushes. orts. brugir. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. Palsgr. a brush. broza. briketo. brist. crum bit . biirste. blow burcar. NE. bruire. Prov. broustia. ca7-bo>i. Fr. Cot. bruscolo. brusca. brusg. The Lat. brist. brico or brizo. to crush. and Piedm. brosse. E. rubbish. of twigs. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. insilio. a flax comb. bruscia.). rubbish. tuft of grass or hay. to stumble. or shoot. Fr. irruo. * Brunt. brossa. quasi twigs. a mote. brise. Pr. Brunt of a daunger. E. Bret. a briser. Diez. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Fr. it schall be al Sw. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. brusca. to break. Beryn. . also a head-brush. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. a little brizal. Poems. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . brosst. Bruit. brusco. britar. to cleanse. twig. 174. Fl. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Bav. chips. Fr. Allit. Piedm. —Fabyan. to break or burst. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Lang. brossar. broust. Brunt. brist j Port. A. To brush then would be to dust.). and It. brustia. rubbish. borste. bruyere. bushy ground. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. B?-usske. or sodenly comyn' dust. a horse-brush. That in all haste he wouli. a rumbling. — Fr. Gael. In E. britar. to break to bits . bris. Fr. Pr. Gael. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Gael. bruzir. fescue . OFr. brous. brosst. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Sp. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. brushwood.

a knock word. erweichen.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. to a place used for the mouillir. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. very generally designated by the same puk. The name. colada. also applied Una. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. . mollire. bifbel. a hole. The word was very generally Buccanier.tare. the upper for coifee. bwch. hump. ac. to bump as a bittern. . to filter.— . ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. drying of produce. A . to soak. soft. maban and baban. a bubble. pukkata. Etym. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. w. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. to butt. moist. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). . becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. when soap was tion is commonly taken. Magy. bduclien. who resorted to the islands beichen. 1857. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. top. de la Floride.lessiver. or projecTo Buck. is 1. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . Fr.-wtt miekki. from colar. lye. BUBBLE bruschetta. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. a bubble. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. buchen. mieknad. bucata. Pol. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. blast or strike with the forehead. tap . Bret. rap. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. boc. Sp. and exercised their cruelties prin. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. boc. bokni. a fescue. From an imita. plied in the W. bugada. pup. Fr. Gael. and as a verb. Cot. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. set of pirates in the spread. mokry. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. w. buck-ashes. — . blister. to soften . hog dressed whole).buchen. to Gael. or mok. 1586. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. caned' Hence those who established them. and Fr. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bub. boucaner. Bohem. It. . a steep for flax. mote. . a ashes. a push. wood. Formerly. to strain. from weich. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. was called in Fr. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. to soak foul linen before washing. to soften. pokka7na. bucquer. soft .D. The male goat. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. to butt or jurr Dan. In G. .' Palsgr. — — ' A : ' ' . a to the male deer. . The cipally on the Spaniards. tender.to allow a free current of air.biiken j Svi.wet Lat. buerj It. molle. watery bud. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bube. The natives of Florida. buquer. bog-aske. Bubble. it is beuchen. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. different form. tender. faire la lessive. tuft. bubauti.derivation has been much discussed. because bucare does not in Marsh). Sc. a. Illust. bub. bouk. Diet. to murmur. knock. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. bucaIndies. the lower soak in lye. soft It. buborek. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. bublati.byka. Magy. at a door. Fin.steep or soak. and the bunch. lye. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. bucking. . of wind. bukke. The place of such a 2. bubBuck. to butt. soft. I. to bubble. a bubble . hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. soft. the linen at buck. bubbola. was called bucking the linen. buck-ashes. designation of a knob. the first wheal. boh. to soak. Fr. in which the flesh dish. The term bocan is still ap.boukaat. bugd. as G. This bubette. — . See Dupe. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. says Laudon. Bret. Dan. 17th century. to stick. not so plentiful a commodity. Bohem. Sp. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. a. buquer. Pol. It. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. It. bouc. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. News. March 28. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. open lath-work. and then to other wild tumour Lith. to soften. But see Bristle. boil animals. Esthon. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. bubiti. byge. hump. to buck. does not hold. bubseti. thunder gently . as a buck rabbit. to wet Pol. Pref A. to which in their language they call bou. moczyd.

bulb. bloca.t-le!L{ * Bud. Sw. scion. motus creber. the radical image seems to be a set plants. goat's hoof. ' . rabodS. bod. boucler. ' . OFr. Dan. to stir. bouk is a pail and with the dim. bucolicus. The word is a ddyn. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. words is converted into b. II I'a feru desor I'escu. pulga. convexity. botzen. bollire. soft. brobrocchiere. boaLat. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. gjeit-klauv. set of a plant in bulk. were To Budge. . . great pouch. a cowherd. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. boglyn. with a central boss.pode. no wheel bogeilio. macero. Budget. bunch .' And this sacrament bus have dial. a bump. bog and G. to bud or bocla. Pied. whom it is still much in use.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. boucle. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. It. sboge. butz. pulga. with let. to word. It. . bump. boucle. stir. Buckler. buachazlle. to graft or bud trees. as in Fr. bouge. . butzen. probably from the notion of bubbling. * Buckle. bunch. . Hence quel. bulla. of bouge. from bugr. Fr. to move.stumpy man. . a ring. become bochen. Cot. buckel. boss. clasp of a book. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. bo. Pol. Prov. bloquier.) as to soak. Fr. bul.) . a budget. bocla. belonging to the calling of the chen. dinted. This expression boglire.' Schm. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. butt ./a. A water-plant with leaves and gille. rump of fowls . in the beginning of to pierce holes. It termination is lost. imbuere. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. bouton. bouclier. boqueranmis. boulj. lump. Fr. or male of to boil . It. a budget. G.' Hal. to un bout d'homme. of bac. weich. Mid. to boss or swell out G. To thrusting part of a long body. See Bulk. pote. Swab. wallet. Dan. . knob . built. Hardly identical with Fr. and of the Lat. a buclder or shield budge. Du. ' . bucherame.chissima. male or botzen. knob dwfr yn boglynu. a pail or flowers. also a leather tuft . Lat. bouprobably identical with inok. w. from bo. ornamental stud.poot. butzen (Du. A buckle or fastening for botch. The dressed fur of lambs. bogla. NE. The Fr. So on.. where the G. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. mani. bullion. Buck-bean. w. trunk of wood covered with leather. a wallet. Fr. a boss.Lat. OHG. with which it was ornamented. bedde. a dumpy gin. bucket Fl. from Gr. a boss. having a boss. to poke. case of leather . Wtb. In Lat. butzen K. a stump buckle up. Sp. and the reference to It. bulka. the root of the Slavonic words gran. like a bean. a little coffer or turgidus. bougette. bulais daqui. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. The knob or projection formN. a shoot. pwtio. agreeing with Gael. . inboachen. bucherare. a . Bav. to butt. cattle. pwt o Fr. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bub. put. a fold ceilio. a navel. Prov. bulga. bouter. Du. Fr. bolgia. call bo. swelling. to thrust. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. botzen. boccula. don't a baby). a servant. butzen. a bubble three thyngis. bugnir. turgere buczendig. boss of a shield.r//'.— . * Bud. — . ein. to swell. noise . need. boach. a boy. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. It. swelling. call. budge.). Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. dint . ble. knock. Behoves. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. is doubtless fallacious. above mentioned. Fr. crack. water message. dim.. a tuft. W. * Bucket. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. Bret. . Russ. to boil. prick in a target. bouger. a shield. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. jSouKoXiKog. boiling. a small shallow and open tub. butze. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. K. explaining Fr. weich. Prov. no business to do that. call. clump. — — . Port. Bav. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn.may probably be explained by N. weichen. to 'soak. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. boucle. bud butzen. blow. .anything short of its kind. potz. bukke-blad. don't stir from hence. ON. the word w ' — . Fr. a curl. loud Cot. a bud. bloca. bug. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot.' Boccaccio. — . The entire train of thought is bucket. seen in Hesse botz. bolgetta. a trough). protuberance. bougette. a pustule bout.goa. hump. skins pushit'. boucaran. to budge. a leathern sack. bode. Budge. — — . Bret. thrust.n. and weichen.. Bus. is to shrivel up. stroke.stuff. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. fur. bdden. stud. push forwards. child. a buckle or protuberance. to pen cattle. a short thick man. to line with fur. bod. excrescence. Mid. of a surface. Bucolic. Gael. bouljein.

wauwau. deadened. also the skin or heck of a buffe. buffet. buivol. stupid. to blow souffleU. dausa. for this purpose is very widely spread. air. From bulga. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. From buff! of terror. Fl. W. and in Fr. buffalo. Thus buffet would a tapster. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed.— Buflae. buffetto. Hence the E. a jester. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. to marre often tasting it . to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. Esthon. A blow. also a G. buffare. senses. bugbear. the place whence the wine was drawn. popo. Buff. Cot. mingled with water. to rePl. colour. bouffer. The cry made to excite terror is then used. bufogni. buffare. boo. The use of the exclamation children. often covering his E. E. soufflet. buffa. Limousin bobal. The children were playing in an oppocomer. rebuff. the buffe. as emblematically making light of an object. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. &c. —Boggart. — — — Buffet. dial. buffen. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. Buffalo. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. to beat. scarecrow . bw. Mid. le reste emplissant d'eau. btifetarius. a hollow sound. dull sound. Lith. bubiti. Lat. a skin. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Gael. Lat. puff. bau ! children. bufogni. breath. — thence it has been transferred in E. leathern bucket. word other cases. a In . to jest or sport. Magy. to puff. bugle. of colours. buffet. — Bogle. to frighten . buffle. Romola. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . caupo. a side-board. Teet-bo. bolgetta. to blow . a budget. Buffoon. Buffeter. — La Crusca. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. yar^aa.D. bumann. a block-headed noddy. w. bugs. baubau. either alone or with various terminations. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. buMagy. smells . human. Pl. bukow Ikow.—Buffet. blurt or puff with one's mouth. bauwi. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. to bellow . made to —Bugbear. to a representation of his voice. Swiss baui. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. — Z.D. A — Bug. tabernarius. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. a cuff or buffet. bouffer. — retailing buffeter buffetier. as from Lith. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. Fr. to give benti. Fr. bobaow. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. by metaphor.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. It. Fr. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. made by a person. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow.' perfield. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. as Diez remarks. 265. Fr. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. . buffets. Pl. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. dausinti. to puff. to signify an indefinite object of terror. bufHe. Cot. confused. wine may The verb in taverns. or wild ox. or hath been Cot. bwg. Bufetarium. cuff . een duffen toon. as wine that hath taken wind. buffle-headed. while in Sp. buff leather. ' They rether puffed at him. a hobgoblin. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. things in Jam. to strike face to represent the unknown. buffeteur.' La Crusca. bubaRuss. site The two — — iii. buffer. bolgia. a puff. duff^ dull. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. sounds. It. A puff with — Fl. Lith. boman. to blow. buffet. Fr. a goblin). a clap. bubach. a bugbear. It. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. pulse . sense of buffeter seems to Fr. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. to give a as of a blow. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. tastes. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. It. a buffle or a bugle. thus be translated to tap. from It. bubus. botffon. a dull BUG From 109 — A . mumming. him but Boyd iugges. G. to excite terror in Macleod./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . often blown upon. Sc. bo ! an interj. bw! It.D. Buff. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. Sc. from souffler. God's boast seemed feare children.

vermin. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. xiv. Hal.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. used in the same sense. bogil bo (e. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Mundart. Fl. to bellow. hert. language any kind of insect. Magy. big. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Stalder bog. : no BUG . thus connected with bug. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. affright. bok. fette.3uhtii&:. bold. — — terror. oxen. BUGLE Tentennino.Fr. boo. — — ' . 1551. threatening. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. Cheval de trombugti. — boogg. bwg and E. and bugle. bau (Pureiglia. a boogg. and is Deutsch. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bukashka. The final guttural of W. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. bugle. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. w. The w. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. fear. with more or less modification represents bau. See The name terror). quos what produces dread or disgust. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. great or bug words. — . 2. buba. gad. to roar Aasen. Illyr. as an object of dread. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. bug-bear. the Devil. boeuf sauvage. provincially an insect. tion of the beetle tribe. larva (a bug-bear. Lith. I. a goblin. given in Chaucer. protuberant. bugler. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. superbire. bauginti. mask ' . boa-peep. the word is lin) bbgge. an object of terror. to take bug. to frighten scarecrow. a rabme. pujalo. disgust. Sp. to take fright. . a proud overbearing man pujat'. and in Lat. bogk. insect. baco. to creeping things. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. Bugle. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. bug. long. bbgni. pugalo. Same as buffle. terrifying ward. bug dung-beetle. and in child's Magy. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. * 2. bugbear. high-sounding words. Mid.. threatening. a. Grisons bau. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. E. proud. bogk. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. banian boube. bugar. tumble-bug. a beetle. forSc. Deut. ghost. bug-bear. bwgwl. biignt. A similar applica. bobal. insect. to bellow. Parolone. An ornament of female dress condread. Bug. Serv.— . also a baco-baco. roo. bukati. booggen. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce.loud noise. saucy. (Spurrell). Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. . buggabod). bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. The name of bug is — . bug-bear. well as the terrific object. Big. also a bug-bear. beugler. is the dim. paws the ground . . rose-bug. It. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Chaucer. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. buculus. high. a bug-bear. the black a maggot. Fl. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Bug as a lord. Lett. bogle. then a horn for drinking. worm. It. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. monster. Magy. W. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — .Lat. iv. Swiss ing. coco. as Buffalo. Grose. fierce. a silk-worm. earwig bau da grascha. to origin in the expression bugs words. an insect. of bugabo was given. il brutto Demonio. buffle. — — . The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. a buffalo. the buggaboo w. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. to take fright. Bogge. bogil. of pipes sewn on. 3. a misshapen person. Bdronie. also a bug-bear. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. a bugbear for children. Swelling. pugaf. . bucula. roarHal. Sw. Lesachthal. troll. according to Coles. poggl. Schmidt. Bible. blustering. dial. Lap.. a bug-bear. scarecrow . swollen. shepe and gootes. Hence bugle-horn. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. is very common. Manx boa. i. especially to beetles or winged insects. Russ. any disgusting animal. bwgar. Swiss booggen. b'dgni. 493. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. and a boggarty ing.

Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant.' Anat. has bulbuk. Melancholy. swell. bolgia. (3oX|8oc. See how this tode bolneth. beuck. Here stand behind this bulk. trunk. See bollekeii next article. body. formed a farm. body of an animal. to bubble up. bullka. belly. — — . the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). ' . chest. the head of an onion. boa. Jno. . hollow. balgs. villa. turgeo bolnyd. to puff up bolginn.'— Cot. . buhe. belgr. at riufa bulkann. globule bolg-lhuingey. I. Pr. bubbling up. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bouk. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bulbe. trunk. bulk is a partition of boards. van loock. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. . G. To Build. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. on. . the capacity or burden of a ship.d. bukr. wallet. Kil. inhabit. Bourser. bulg. whence bylja. bulge or bilge. A — ' — Bulk.). ON. to swell. . lump. a dint in a metal . belgja. From till. . bladder. . ' . head . bulk. the contents of the hold. to spring. bua. swell. boss of shield. See Bulk. He found a country fellow dead drunk. as water beginning to boil bolg. . The addition of a dim. dial. and put it home. Hence e. the body Du. Mandeville. boss of a buckler. — . OSw. husk. to gather. projection. G. puff. crowd. womb. bulbe. . ^ — . or of what is shaped like a bubble. The radical sense is shown in Russ. . m um Placentiae. to bubble up Pol. Lett. ball. Dan. balg. swell. a bubble. blister. or cargo of a ship. pocket. a stage or scaffold. bale. to undo the cargo.pulks. swollen. the position of liquids in the word In English. knobby. bubble. bulbus. bubble. cumulus.' Cot. trunk of the body. cultivate. a round bulky body bwlgan. bole. the belly. tumidus. G. bolgan. bolle. Bav. boulge. a bubble Gael. buc. Bolke or hepe. snorting on a bulk. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. With these must probably be classed ON. . hull of a ship. to swell. to raise a habitation. bulked or bumped out. in vessel. herd^ swarm pulkd. Gr. to bol. MHG. bubble {palgan tiisge. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. 1388. anything prominent. knob. bolle. blister Manx bolg. to throw out a convexity. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. . knob. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. . bag. — — . a water-bubble). belly. a leather sack or budget Fr. bulgen. bulle. a tuberous or bulbous root . Dan. biilken. For the latter sense ' — My . bol. unevenness Sw. . a leathern sack or portmanteau. bunch or projection. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. ON.' Palsgr. thorax buick. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bwlg. be protuberant. bauch. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. were a habitation. bulne. compare Da. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bubble. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. belly Sw. Gr. as it was merly written in English to bylle. a prominence. bilge. skin of an animal. bulcke. Muratori. bauen. balg. In the representation of natural sounds. a straw corn-vessel. Lith. of an inflated skin. lump. straight will he 2. Lith. OSw. Lat. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. blister. bulkaf. bouge. body of a ship . knot in thread. acervus.' Festus. to break bulk. Sp. swollen OE. belly. a protuberance. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. Ptg. a globe.' Fl.— . bugue. pod ON. of E. belly Cat. Othello. bolso. bellows builgean. and bulbukd. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. to blow. pimple. tumeo. skin flayed whole. Pr. bolnyn. ' . habitaculum. bulgen. Pm. Bulch. Boss^. or feminine termination gives Bav. belly. — . or bear out as a full purse. or. Palco. bulwis. boss. byli. the potato G. domicilium. pouch builgeadh. Bulge. bolgetta. a. blow.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. . stuffed bag. bulge or convex part of a cask. Mister. a. jnake bulch. bug. pulkas. a bunch. a bulb Du. skin bag. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bol. balcone. w. vulva. the womb. a heap. PoXj3a. boss. bo. sedes. ne. bed of a river. buk. mass. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. the carcase. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. a lump or mass. Lat. bolg. — Bulb. mass. . bolgna. balco. gebolgen. The Walach. bulki. It. belly van de kerche. in Sc. and N. — — . principal portion. it again. belly. hold or bilge of a ship. bulk or capacity of anything. bulka. to belly out. Hal. as well as is very variable. in bulk. bol. Pm. to build. leather sack. . Bulk.

poltern. from the Lat. This word is used in several senses. stupid . bulderen. bubble. bolli. w. G.D. Bullet. boss or stud. bal. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. See Billet. The male W. tition of deals instead of a wall. ON. Du. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. to tical with Sw. i. Bullfrog. Sp. sloes. pimple. also of the tadpole or young frog. bullocks. a tadpole. bulke. Scot's Deso. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament.lle de fusil. And The word bullerbak. Gael. round glass phial. bolos Fr. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. the matrix or die . bellocier. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. — A tition in a ship. It. Cot. bollos de relieve. coarse. and thence terror. bietebau. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch.' do not go by the dangerous water. a bull Swiss bullen. Terriculamentum. many to protuberant objects. G. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water... elves. of the ox kind. pwl. a hornet. a scare-bug. eth and frighteth. BuUiou.D. bole or trunk of a tree. bugbear. blister. on the contrary. a bulox polos. any embossed work. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . bollar. blunt. to bellow. it is boulet de canon. stud. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. bullus. bulk of a thing. bulla. polten. bullern. Du. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. a seal.Gr. a hobgoblin. a little fish nearly all head. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug.Fris. ba. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. it may be observed that a bullet in E. bwla. as the ornanails. a tadpole . a hobgoblin. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. child by the represents the hobgoblin. any great-headed or studded nail. witches. a blockhead. bollon. brass-headed nail .. but is more probably iden- palchetto. to emboss . stud. hhint. a bowl. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. A papal rescript. b2iggaboo. W. to seal. bauli. Fr. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. A lace tree. a stud. a bull. a bul-begger. Du. Fr. also a parFl. bolli. Eullrusli. — — Bull. stamped money. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. I. of boule. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Dan. billon. from the noise. 2. penbwl. is called a ball. from Fr. Gold or silver uncoined.'— ' Palsgr. dial. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. It. bulloi. w. a beam or rafter. which may probably be the origin of the name. bouillon. from the use of the equivalent terms. bolla. Bullace. thick. of Witchcr. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. boulct. boillon. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. pollach. a noisy violent fellow. and vellon in Sp. G. lumpheaded .' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. as It.. bulle. a cow. in the sense of base metal. as in E. 2. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. See Bowl. as geting. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. 3. The bullfrog. a seal. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. is of a class with Pl. baula. balgeting. beams or boards. the seal affixed to the document. a framework of balks. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. large. biitzibau. G. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. as a mill-dam or the like. &c. — Fl. billoti in Fr. leraures nocturni nigri. urchens. from baula. poli-cheannan. a wasp. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. scarecrow. stamp. Bret. dim. whence Mod. bellow. poll-cheannach. from Lat. bouillon. whence bullire. Bullbeggar. assito. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. bullebak. Pl. Bully. Pm. boss. bulla. BulUiead. however. lumpish. spirits. Lith. signifying roaring. N. in N. bulk. embossed work. bwlas. bwbach.D. large of its kind. to boil. /SouWivu. The final element tergeist. bullos. to bubble. . where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. The wild plum. Du.

9 E. ground. Philip le Bel in Due. boulevard. provides. noise.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. block-werck. 4 Hen. — Bumto . Bully-rock. ierd-beame. blunder-buss.D. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. buene. Miege in Hal. from boden. argentum and silver. or work of defence.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. primarily the ramparts of a town. ^i^/«. 10. and porter au billon. is bullion — A — buller. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. provides. propugnaculum. violent overbearing person.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. 1687). Etym. — Boom. to dun. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. buller-jaan (bully. un faux brave. blunder-buss. a boisterous. vallum.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. 'lega. 2. c. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. minari verbulderen. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. The Sw. honunele. bottn.. a noisy blustering fellow. 2. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. From the notion of a humming. The Stat. To bum. scaffold. Du. IIL st. to make a noise . Hence — . Bum-bailiff. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. to drum Lat. by corruption boulevart. bottom. clamour. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. a blunderhead. Kil. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. bomtnen. a. buller-bas. IV. is called bumping or bells. a stage. G. furious man. Fr. botm. Du.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver.' reals of standard currency. ON. The decried coin. For bottom.. Hence bom and ban. violent. perturbare saevis dictis.the ramparts. to make a droning Du. to . buller-bas. a bumble-. Fris. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. legaggio di metallo.' Again. baluarte. boisterous fellow. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. bombilare. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . bommele. ^Bully-rook.D. the soil. debacchari. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence.' for the purpose of exchange. Sw. Hal. bol-werck. Du. boene. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Bailey. bastion. bolderen. To Bum. &c. G. sound. bulderen. a hectoring. c. resonare. Thus ' ble. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. blaterare. St. To bum. a floor. c.' Stat. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. up was termed monnaie de billon. 14. Bully. D. 1305. ierd-boeyme.d.' agger. The cry of the bittern. on the other hand. Kiittner. To bully is to bluster. then in general a rampart. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . Bum. poltem. G. Fris. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. buller-brook. biihne. — — plate d'argent. AS. The 27 Ed. III. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. polterer. intonare. Kil. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes.' ' mettre au billon. — Bump. bodem. — bombam?nen. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. hum. to terrify by noise and clamour. beat a — Hal. buller-bak. droning. bustle. agrees with e. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. BULLY with which coins were stamped. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. 2. or a humblebee. A. but now is the central part of the town. John). It.

bunnion. a. nor would it concern the public if he did. . BUNCH bum-bailiff. truss E. bugno. Fr. &c. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. dial. pompon. A clumsy. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. the Pr. Dan. root.. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. stock. applied to young persons.' he fell with a bang. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. stubble Manx bun. pwmpl. Du. especially girls. a heap. banke. Bang sen. awkward. stubble of beans. a heap or cluster. Forby.-^Fl. Moor.^Cot. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. strapping. a dry No . bugno. inconsiderately. bunt. Kyx or bunne. Bunch. bunsen. Bumpkin. bonge. are dim. Sc. clumsy. lungeous. a knock. ner.S. to beat. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bon. or to the mass by which it is given. Fr. He fult dat et bunsede. as in other cases. . bolsa. a knob . pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. a tail (Macleod). stock. A Du.D. Bunewand. any round knob or bunch. — round fruit. Hence E. a swelling. bugnet. stalk.' Bun. a knob. Manx bonkan. bunga. poumpi. to . But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. clown. lump. foundation w. from bunsen. bunan. a knob. Holland and Flanders. E. Pr. seems to unite Gael. bulscha. Pm. bottom. Pm. knochen. . bundle. Related on the one side to Pl. bumtel. and related with ON. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Mrs Baker. a purse . bun with ON. bund. a wallet. bans. a bump. bunkc. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated.pummel. poumpido.D. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). a. pwmp. pompette. large. awkward clown. Bony. Bung^. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. a rabbit. . Bunch. . Hal. gibbus. w. bulse. binge. Gael. bunki. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. bumsen. bung. to thump. bungersome. to bang ON. to knock . Bumboat. — — Bun. — — de dor bunsen. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Suffolk bonnka. bongie. bmike. botn. to bang. a bunch. w. bonnock. Probably from bump. See Bounce. OSw. a pocket Sw. . 114 BUMBOAT Bun. explaining E. stem or base. Pl. bunny. forms. to strike so as to give a dull sound. E. a Sp. Thus e. callus. bunka. an old stump of a horse. Hal. a swelling from a blow. noise. and signifies consequently a mass. Bumsen. bonuach. pumpurras. a boil or blain. Then. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . bunke. — — Bun. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bannock. calamus.— Pr. while bulch was traced through Gris. Gael. . round mass of anything. Hal. trunk. one ever saw the word in that shape. Bunk. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. stump. to ' . . mto Sp. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. any round knob or bunch. . butt end. bunken. Roding. Dunchyn or bunchyn. so the form btmk. bottom.P. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Sc. throw down with a bang. Pm. bugnone. ! — knocking. .! . tundo. dial. a bag or sack. Pl. a button. strike E. 1. — Marine Diet. Li cake. Bump. protuberance. Lang. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. . a pumpion or gourd. blain.— Bunnion. knuckles. Radically identical with Dan. banga.. signifying one who does things in a thumping. S. Dan. buns. bottom bun feoir. a heap OSw. bum-boot. Fl.D. Daal bu7iseti. a lump on the foot bunny. a hump.D. bu<rnone. to bang down. bull. bune or boon. a bud. bun eich. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. the tail of a hare. or grete knobbe. E. lenten loaves. bamgetroffen. —Bunny. a knotty stick) Sw. knob or heap. — stalk . bulto. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a dried hemp-stalk. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. passes Sw. a into Dan. Bun. to swell out E. a bowl P1. Hal. Again. a heap Wall. To bam. He buncheth me and beateth me. .). bun. a bunch Magy. bmidt. from knock) It. bunga. a boss Lith. should probably be a short tail. See Boss. also for taking a pilot to a ship. pumpa. pwmpio. Ir. cluster. H. Bums it's hit. hay stubble . . a heap. abrupt manbuns-wise.' Palsgr. as we have seen E. boi7ieog. a hemp-stalk. Probably for bun-boot. to beat. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bump. It. a boil (punkos bot. gibber. a large . stump. to . root. bunch— Hal. . bignet. a round mass . hdk passing and E. — — — — ' — knock. a rabbit. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. il me pousse. See Bunch.

Sw. racket . klempern. The word is flags are made. bommen. that the primitive meaning of shackle . stocks or such OSw. bui. stilmpern. To do anything awk- wardly. dicimus rufum. clumsy performance. to gingle. boei. is originally a wisp or bunch . bangla. guggle as water. biirde. To burgeon. to hum. unskilful working. on. ho-tapp. . bourion. to push. borboUar. to push with the head del. modem bummle. to botch. A Dan. or putting forth of a vine. bang. Burden. OFr. bunta. bongani. Cot. especially in wood. punishments for prisoners. with the head. p. bonde. buret. to cobble. bag to catch the wind. tinker . loosed from bonds. Sw. bourjon. the stopper of a cask). Prov. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. la Borgonota. buret. or tuft. Lat. buove. clogs. bangla. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Fr. To bunt. Banff. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. OFr. coassatio et Du. Bung of a tonne or Lith. reddish brown. knocking. sprig. also a piinple in the face. The Fr. 202. the float of an bundle.— . boil or bubble up. properly a Burgundian helmet. and the Sw. in is Fr. to knock. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. shackles. The belly or hollow of a sail. the noise of drums. Burble. bouchon. Bung. gyves. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bongun. Burly. Du. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. a bunch. B. to bear. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. OG. Sp. A load. Burden. racket. a sort of helmet. Pl. are from bouscfie. G. bungande. anchor or of a net boyar. colligatio. on. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. tap. Sw. bondon. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. See Borel. borgonota. byndel. — — To Bungle. N. to bud forth. bundel. klimpem. burion. The Italian buio. was formerly pronounced buro. and Du. banga. and now more Bailey. See Bun. knock. to bungle. Bunting. shove . dark grey bura. whence in bure. bonde. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. bondel-loos. to knock. bummle. a wisp of hay or straw. AS. byrthen. to stop. Sp. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to Somerset is to sift. Fr. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Hal. bou^e. rumble as the bowels. — Bureau. Biu'geon. noise. Bunt. and bomme. burboloti. contignatio. bove. to strum on an instrument. tapp (whence tceppa. Burganet. bon. russet. fascis. Fr. the bung of a barrel Lim. a bung. and van t' vat. boucher. a botch. boya. boj. a bungler. to in to stop the hole. To Bunt. however. . most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. * Buoy. — btiruii. bourguignote. whence bunting. So Du. to push ghebondte. B. Cat. dial. stiimpeln. of a song. banghagr. bondir. bang. an anchor buoy. the young cloth used for sifting flour. generally known as the material of which bud. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. a bunch Burbulas. to kick. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. a boye. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. ghebundte. bote. to shove. bundle. Fr. Bundle. Muratori. . — . AS. Bret. to bolt meal. bimge. Fl. So in Pol. halm-tapp. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bindini. — — . the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. to resound. to stop. knocking. Compare G. Sp. driving in the bung. . working in wood (especially with an axe). It. See Bourdon. the loose open grow big about or gross. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bolting-cloth. from beran. and E.D. to work at carpentry bangan. bondeau. to gingle. to pype. the middle part of it. See Barbarous. buie. to hum. dark. bourgeon. Johansen. bouche. Russ. a drum . impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. fetters. something bound together (Mrs Baker). bury. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. to stnmi on an instrument. E.' Festus in Diez. Kil. . Sp. Prov.Fris. bondelj bundell. tinkle. do a thing bunglingly. to float.punt. Bunny. ' — work . The stopper for the hole in a boia. a water bubble made by rain. dial. The Magy. a cork. or used as a receptacle for papers. bond. to work ineffectually. bundt. A bubble. bounta. bunsen. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Rietz. to hum. G. Palsgr.

to tell lies. toast. to make a So from Fin. bruzir. sea. Dief. angular . roguing beggars. a prominent eye borracka.or bubbling up. Pm. swell up or strout out. Swiss Rom. born. leo Fin. Fl. A legal term from the Lat. Probably. tahko. bururus. Limousin bourdo. burgi latro. and the Burin.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. . to burn. See Burgeon. de Vaud. brustle. a purling hiwe brennen.. to puff up borr^ . Fr. broil. mockery. as of suggests. a bladder. The in. compared with G. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. bears. from the roaring sound of flame. borni. dial. burle of cloth. j. the word seems Pm. to burgen or wax big. Bav. a bud. ' rugiens. Burn. thence. tahkoa. lerre. bunch. Swiss Rom. barrel. Antiq. tion of the root which gave the OE. Cot. become big and proud. to fiy. warbling. ends of thread. to swell with pride. So also Sw. like the wind in trees. brunnen. has also borr. 56. to roar. explaining the E. Sp.— . lorra. burgeois. G. to burn. burlare. Probably a modifica. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. pressa puret. borrelen. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. surge or dashing of the sea . Bret. to sharpen. Burlesque. pur (see Burgeon). OE. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. brynsten. to give an edge to. to bourda.. a blaze. robber. the J in OFr. Lang. OFr. explaining Sp. laer. See Berough. to ridicule. brimmen. . to set on fire. Burglar. to sharpen on a whetstone. From Fr. boure. brase. to Gael. ridicule. purrata. E. brinna. flocks.' Cot. to grind on a whetstone. purling. brim or edge of anything. Bav.. de Vaud. taunt. Fl. Prov. Burly. language of folly or ridicule. OFr. Pren7ien. fire. Pr. Bouffer. knob. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. . Castrais bourril. a bubble. jest of. to swell oneself out as birds borras.sharpen. to hum. big. brinnen or Also ein roar. brasa. like straw or small . brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. as in cousteau. repartee . bremmen. The primary origin of the word. and the Burnish. as the / in purl. schleiffen. Sw. brook. a knob. brusler being a faulty spelling. brausen. Burgess. brunir. bururus. Fr. brunnr. &c. N. — — . Goth. and Dan. brAler. burren. is an Thus G. A — — . 122. BURNISH i5«r/. brandung. See Burr. boura. bourd. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar.Ps. to roar. joking.). as Diefenbach bud. grancelli. an edge. — — . condemnentur morti. Sw. a jest. to roar 5. with Dan. It. to polish. purra. a bubble to spring as water. watery. See under Bore. A burl. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. From the same root E. bourglairs. It is probable indeed that Fr. a wine skin. ^Notk. like. brunna.' a jibe. swelling borr-shuil.j'own. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. ends of thread. a lie. Burryn. spring-water bumach. Gael. In the same way ON. a gurgling ^. ON. blow. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. from bryii. singe or scorch with fire. a whetstone. sidiary element. to roar (as lions. the roaring surge of the — — — . Supp.. crackle wood in burning Hal. It. fires up. brinii. a fountain. ^ttsa. In the manu. abourioner. burgen. from Lat. ii6 BURGESS Gael. to effervesce. to swell. to To Bum. borracka. a well. embraser. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Todd. a spring a robber. to bouronna. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. and OG. briis^. to polish. to polish helmets. buirleadh. G.). in Schm. . sbornoi. i5«r4 biiirte.ireui£r:e. with little iron nippers called burling irons. sicut sound. Compare also Piedm. he rustle. Schm. to bud . bruse.. Burgh. Bestiary. Hence Bridel. an &c. to surge. brustolare. Nat. to ridicule. OE. which has given much trouble to etymologists. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. The Gael. to roar. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. bud or sprout forth. must be explained on the same principle from G. to roar. bourou. brima. brun. to rub. it of the knots.). bouril. to murmur.— Pr. boiirre. ample of polishing metal. — Han to bruser op. Burgher. protuberance. — — . occupying much space. borujon. It. — . a jest. is termed burling. tumentum. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Walach. the er is a dresser of cloth. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Lang. to puff. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. — . burgensis. a margin. Burler. burn. borr. burly.bryna. Fr. is connected with brim. water. the flocks.

Fr. when they spring So in W. to break. to P'air. See Burgeon. — Translated by Kemble. brokil and brotil. an annular swelling. Fris. brista. borre. briketo. burra. barza. bris. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. chips or anything else Fl. ber•whirr to whizz. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Burr. bristen. whirr. brast. ptcrren. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. Sexy. bristeach. shales. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Bursar. but it is more probably a development of It. its own protection. to mutter Sw. preserve. beurs. OHG. Burr is related to buzz as protect. bourlet. and thence flocks 'of wool. keep. brickie. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. bourrelet. Dan. coo.' Harris in Todd. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. karborre. brisdeach. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr.— . as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. buscha. borsa.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Burse. Cot. Hal. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. bourse. whence Kil. cwning-gaer. to save. bris. 225. Burse. a pad. This word seems safety. borre. an exchange. caer is a — — — ' ' : . Shelter. brist. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. -Grisons bulscha. as for the protection of a child's head. I. signifying protrude. the officer who bears the purse. tomb. borra. borsa. &c. In OE. briso. brisd. to burst. borra. also ' any such trash as chaff. mentioned under Burgeon. Fr. as from Sp. ON. a harness or collar maker) . Brun on bane. straw. Hence Fr. ON. from Fr. as it is still pronounced in N. brown. to hide . burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. preserve. Fr. perruque. &c. Beowulf. birgan. idiom if 4. brizeto. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. verbergen. bres- — tan. any kind of quilting or stuffing. To Burst. AS. swell. that birds make their nests with. husks. break . sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. to bury . leather. A rabbit burmotion. i5(7&a. brico. See Bulge. skin. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Port. OHG. shelter. -burse. prsnuti. bur. birr. berstan.. byrgels. hair. 5150. the — — castle or fortress. brittle. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. to stuff. . beorgan. pipaa. Du. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. bolgia. and. borsia. to buzz. talk fast and indistinctly. To Bury. borrow. of a body hurled through the air. byrgan. moss. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. root borr. appears under the Lang. explained E. any rapid whirling biarga. G. S w. It. ' BURR AS. bourse. Sw. byrgen. brist. Du. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. fortify. a morsel. be more in accordance with AS. bergen. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Burser. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the .of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. With a slightly different ghen. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. as in Northumberland. iii. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. also all such stuff as hay. g. blurra. a purse. shearing of cloth. a place of defence. The root forms brik. Gael. . bersten. Compare also OE. a. AS. and met. force. birigean. bur. G. britar. 2. It. bourrer.Lat. to hide. makes the disbursements of the college. save. casting bullets. a rabbit burrow. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. impetus. Sw. from whence we pass through Sp. E. brit. . cover. Burial. a port. Swiss burren. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. purr. Burrow. byrigels. burre. and spelling. burial place.' edge grew weak. a wallet or scrip. dial. brest. bolsa to It. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. bourre. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . brokenharpstringed-like cattle. briser. shuffling. a purse. whirr and burr. foretell great storms at 3. peluca to Fr. brittle. brjota.' The same word with burgh. — Clare. some people in pronouncing the letter r. Jam. a barn or cupboard. stuffing. In a met. dial. Mid. a sepulchre. burgisli. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. ultimately resting on the Gael. ' ' — — burren. byrsa. byrstan. from AS. of England.

Harold G. a hump. The radical idea is seen in Goth. bush. boiste. Bush. to forest of Eyda. BUSH hreaw. bousIn the other copy ser. apparently a secondary verb. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. To prepare. and we actually find bushel. a bunch.Lat. a little box Dan. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. Brunne. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. brake. condere. . a gun biichse. buxula.boisteau. or — Busk. bossida. See Bust. occultare K. cluster. is thus accounted for. Thence byrigean. at buast. busk. clusprobably Morocco leather. the past participle of the same verb bua. Fr. to sepulchre. —Busk. a tuft. bustellus. busse. Sw. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. a grove bosch van haer. defence. which would later have truast. OFr. verb. the idea of knocking.' sheath. a troop. ch). ' . protect . to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock.' The buskin is said Bret. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. tuft. . a bunch of twigs. rad. to turn. signifying to entomb. ieorh. and thence Mid. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. Sc. basse. whente beorg. Le roy Richard mort. boissa. fiast. we have Fr. Du. bustula. 410. a corpse). wisp. bo7ich (Fr. borghen. and from the Fr.— ' ii8 {chreo. to enclose in a case or box. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. Malberg. Mid. bosta. To Busk. a bush. Bouchet. buskr. thicket {buski. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin.-^Bushel. whence bouchon. burial mound. Du. from the ON. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis.fiasc. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. for at buasc. to swell. a tuft. basse. See Box. to prepare. a box. Prov. ' . borseof trees. bundle * Buskin. R. And her ful sone tuft. beorgan. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bairgan. Sibriht that I of told. It. . that the lend had lorn thorn. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. boistel. ' .gur bidst austur um EySascog. The word frequency with which to busk is used. box wood to bush. a -tavern bush. to bury. borcegui. bosch (a diminutive ?). bussellus. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. buxta. a rampart. qualster-boscken. buxida. a box. as synonymous with to inake one boun. Brunne. lump. . Bush. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bulk. the land. besom). brodiquin. boxta. aheap of stones. OFr. biichse. dead. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. boisseau. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. 2. bua. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. bosc. -idis. knot. In to Brutaine. in OE. bos. as boun is simply buinn. berghen. The primary sense of hair . Ptg. . thicket of thorns . from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. Thus Froister .P.' a box. boucher. abdere. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. a been written buasc. It. then a tuft Sp.' The word is explained by — — . to dress.Lat. barst. to direct one's course towards.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. AS. a bush. hunch Du. and he cites wisp bauschen. bush. Gr. projection. . tow. bramble. Du. preserve. hjul-bosse. to stop. sur une litifere. gave Lat. mount.) to hide in the ground. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. to bow. a wisp. ' . a clot of phlegm sart. bulge. the Moors and of Morocco. in the For Skirnis . roquies. oneself. van wijnbesien. G. a box for measuring corn. to bend one's steps. brodequin tout noir. or the like. bausen. to dress. bunch. at bua sig. Sir Tristram. bossen. a bundle. Layamon. to keep. barsc in Heimskringla. 'at bua sik. bundle. bussel. bussare. il fut couch6 l^jkema). whence at bua sik. busken. and not directly (as Du. : — . The bone in a woman's stays. bousse. AS. a tuft of hair. diminutives. grapes. a tuft guini. induere vestes . Fris. bouche. So from Fr. truasc. ' —P. bousche. buysschen. make ready. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. They busked and malced them boun. iriCtf -ifoe.

busq. signifying trunk of a the body. Rouchi. an affair. body without arms and legs. bus. lip. Bustard. To Bustle. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. love gestures. as in ON.pjik. abotarda. Comp. bussa. bist. stem. Fr.). Port. a boat or small vessel . The proceedings of Parliament. of the human body (Grandg. 1372. busche. ship Sp. AS. bisg. Bust. occupied bezigen. bu. — — — — It is like the smouldering. betarda. a fishing vessel. vessel employed in the herring fishery. a blow. abutarda. forest. 1555. Walach. Cot. ViM. also a busk.D. mohedairova. biseg. bussen. geidha. Fl. mogangas from gonj. stir. Fr. cata — . pussa. — clattering about. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. to make use of. outard. a kiss. worn to make the body straight . a great billet Cot. ' BUSY 2. — — difications of the same word. body . besoigAe. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. of a doublet. brusc. Fris. especially of a woman's dress. Lat. biist. bysgje. to make a splash in the water. buc. body. sera.d. Busitiess :c3iVi . a bunch of flowers . buc. trunk. putta. the body without arms busque. or avutarda. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. The form brust. Lang. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. B. bisegung. buc. With respect to bust. a bulk or trunk without a head. — Thus we should have mocherqui. made stiff. . speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . plated body or other quilted thing. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. borcegui. bysgian. a ship of some size. to bustle. Bav. a kiss. Sw. buyse. arbor ramis trunGloss. chest. a sleeveless truss or doublet. bucha. Pol. I bustle. So in Fin. a backstock. windbutsch. Namur — Champagne Fr. ' bistardej It. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. crack . a kiss. employment bisgan. bacio. forms morseqiiill. bnist. its slowness of flight. inde discurro et operosus sum. lump. Swiss butschen. buquer. also a It. Edrtst. kiss. a tree. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Buss. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. the long. butz. bruskras well as buskr. statue of the upper part of Fr. beezig. Hal. bukr. to occupy. mons. baiser. a projection. the trunk. lip. fe^a. Business. A great sluggish fowl. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. mouth. busta. to knock . trunk. Prov. 22. bust. Hence probably au-tarda.' ON. busc. to Swab. To hurry or make a great B. kiss. bulk. brut. body of garment. btcc. Busk. a blow. bus. A wisp. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. and then with avis again prefixed. buz. and supposes that the common Arab.> Also written buskle. but. utarda. Bust. I go strepo) . knock. . otarda. also a flagon. the point of a lance. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. snout. an ostrich. 119 bi{tr. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. stump. log . busch. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. 2l box. Du. or Cherqui. outarde. Fr. — hardly be distinct from Fr. smack. kupata. a bush. a kiss of reverence. bust. business. Busy. — . a mouth. small. I. Xerqui. A A busquer (Sigart). hipista. the breast. mouth. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. morsequi. buta. Prov. bustla. from jnund. representing a blow. a. 2. in Diaz Gris.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. a bust. mosequin. stump. ON. avuDiez. as in moharra from harbe. 7o\. basiuin. work. brostia as well as bostia. Sp. I. ottarda. bisgung. and by transposition morchequi. tarda. body of a man. a Mid. or chest in which the vitals are contained. trunk of a tree. austarda. Bulch. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Cat. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. says. would explain the G. occupation. See Boss. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. ON. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. putschen.Lat. bus and Pol. body of a woman's dress It. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. Gael. So Wes- terwald munds. a busk. knock. Nained from Proximse iis zia. and also a sounding blow. a large cljest or particular applibox. Prov. a log. busto. lips. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Sp. besongne. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step.bezig. trunk of Cot. Lindenbr. sunt quas Hispania aves . a stroke of wind. 10. beso.' Plin.— . Box. busch. Sp. BUSS Dozy from Arab. The Prov. busy. ^A. On the other hand. thick end. Fr. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. body. tuft. box.

also a hollow vessel . If that where now we should compiler. a leathern bag.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. bhcciero. Butcher. earthen which the debtor has adverted. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . ' Besides all that. then hoUow trunk. trunk. the servant in charge of the original object. from boc. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. without buiten-man. butan. except. boquier.jamin. large barrel. "PLT) . without law. bout.' Thus Chaucer says. is well explained by Tooke. bole of a tree. Fr. a bottle. a butchery. a small winebag. But It. bitten dai. that which would be translated by Fr. AS. buta._ bitten j biiten door. similar train of thought is seen in ON. Lang.' — — ' . of the wine and drink. G. belly. bounds of. those in beccaio. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. Here the but implies the existence of an. — . properly a butan wite. bola. ' There is leathern bottle.streets. Fr. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. without care. boucher. which the word corresponds to the Fr. are. a goat (and not besides . Prov. Lang. Butt.' there is really a negation to be supplied. the mouth). rotundity of the body. hollow case. bouteillier. bous. the belly. the Perhaps besogne — . . the bottles. wooden receptthing to be done. Fr. bodifie. the present day we should say.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. moreover. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. biitait slaughterer of goats . young mais. to-boot. slaughter-house. being wholly unten. we find ben. Sp. barriga. tinction between but. a cask. the trunk or body of an animal. (children) boc. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. botija. Where at an earthen jar . bouz. and with It. bisgung.' ' write. the jug and in E. beccaro. viz. and the real origin of the and within . a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. But In Sc. my is called the adversative use of but. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. without punishment . beta. ways. a butcher . ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. . by the mode in which he is treated. Sp. beccaria. bute. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. a baiTel . — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. collection of casks. Wall. bocin. mais. But when will you pay it ? the belly. botte. bolr. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. Whatever is in addition to Butler. a goat. As a conjunction but is in every portion.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. gives at least two pounds sterling. OFr. and bot. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. add. viz. original sense of without. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. calf of the ' say. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. a barrel. skin-bag. Ben-house. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. bol. The E. without the house kept in bottles. bountifully. rumpf. the store of ten. but one thing.The Sp. bag. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. — we acle for liquors. boccino. butan ce. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. belly. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. able. ont jhi^ton. botilla. the principal apartment. in addition. bitlga. without. a butcher. Sp. a wooden cask. sup- meat and drink. the name must have arisen before the within. Buttery. or what in in charge of the pantry. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . A A . hull of a ship. binnan. calf.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. ox. body of a shirt w. besides that . the precise correlative of but. bolgia. be out. equivalent of AS. boteria.in which his brethren are included. beyond the Piedm. Du. It.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. belly. a budget. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. bochier. Tooke's dis. outside that moreover. Butler. So in Italian from becco. the body of a tree or of a man. an outlaw from bouche. as Pantler. is put in a class by himself. the full expres. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. the body of an animal. from as.

From Grisons biitt. Perhaps corrupted Lat. of the present day. stump of a tree Fr. botto. from stossen. the thigh of a goose. Du. Fr.against another which needs support . lams-bout. strike. bouter. a stump or club foot. able that Chaucer. &c. buttern. — — — — . So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. thick. a mound of turf in a field to sup. to butt. butt. in the R. pied. To strike with the head bags. the rosebud. Fris. to thrust . Hal. thrust. Bout van het schouderIt. G. R. so as to make a sounding blow. Fr. bud. any small projection. to heap up earth or ihrust. W. a blow. . Kil. a leg of mutton. as in G. bouton. butteln. a boss. a thrust the thigh-bone. from notirrir. Buttrice. dripping. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Button. e. a barrel. Sp. thrust forwards. from the large knobbed head of botto. boiUer. To Butt. a button. to abut on. bott. — . obedient. nourrisson. botta. but this is probably from Fr. and the true derivation boar. clumsy . stump. a heap of merly called pushes. of E. a buttrice. butte. butter. suddenly . povrvpov. to so close to the Fr. bocsam. to push earth . a wall butor butt on. bout. Du. Hal. large head. short thick thing pimple. bout.putan. Fr. butter. bata. to thrust. put. Mur-buttant. botte. a cask. submit shaking up salad sauce.thum and not button. as if from Povg. to touch at the end. Fr. what is kept in a blow. a. Boutant. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. the trunk. oir spike with a k coup . butyrum. gigot. nourrissons. clunis. on. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. a bot. the thick end. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Bav. Buttery. boutis. ment being supposed to resemble butter. bocgsuin. buttals. the store of while bottich. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. buhsom. trapu. Du. a hill. boter-vogel. to bow. a scope. Fr. a little push . the Butter-fly.— BUTT leg . or person Schmeller . W. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Fr. butt. boter-schijte. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Buttel-triib. botwm. by boE. i. to blad. Schmell. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. as rejeton. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . to abut a stone roof. a button. to femur. from bugan. a dle . is formed the augmentative buttatich. from rejeter. a stroke di animal. a tub. tress.. From Du. at.arbre. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. An erection built up as a Fr. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. geboogsaem. bouter. — . Gris. to strike. leg of lamb. fle>(ible. . butz. coxa. Bav.' thick from shaking.rejected thing. Buttress. an ox. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. boteria. a bolt. waste ground. pwt. butt. * Buxom. bot. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. AS. to thrust Fr. to cast. potacha. courtaud. Butter. The Bavarian potig. a boss. tout seat or breech. So in English pimples were fora clod. bothog. the edge forwards. pwtiaw. boter-vliege. caput scapula bout van f been. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. bottig. A — — — . to throw . a mound. a bun. Kil. a blow. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Grandg. Butter-glass. then the thigh or leg of an to push . a. grease that sets by merely standing. Lang. boil. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Du. butt of a person. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge .to push. striking end. from bouter. but. : . buttare. to be con. buttock of beef is called butr. a button. to thrust. end . the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. a flying buttress. any short thick thing.. having a rotundity . butter un. a but in the W. Du. Boutje. botta. humble. to boult flour. or or shore post. To come full butt against a butts. The word body itself seems identical with G. bouton. a large belly. . w. Buttock. butte. the prick in the middle of a target. bottich. a buttress Cot. Cot. a corner horses' hoofs. It. an etwas anstossen. nursling. Gael. — A . Schmell. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. bodi'. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. rabodd. Btetter-schmalz. &c. obeto shake backwards and forwards. Fr. — A . bodi. to thrust. both. See Butler. Halma. are the strips at the edges of the field. a ribbed glass for dient. fowl. boutoir. buter. poke. -ez. aim whence to make a support to a wall. bot. Kil. hillock . boding. botten. signify a cask or tub. Gr. give way. bot blijven staan.

to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. G. Du. indistinctly. town having separate jurisdiction. ON. a meke thynge with — alle.— Diet. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. A ful benygne buirde. from whom it was addressed. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. byr. — 122 BUY P. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. . . Mercy hight that mayde. jus municipii. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. bei. bylag.. a borough. abozzago. Sw. a beetle. bygge. farm. buso. A A We — — — days' wonder. Pecock Repressor. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. a by-path is a side path . son. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. 116. The sense of buxom. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. OE. to purchase for money. frabttg- To Buzz. and boxome of speche xviii. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. blessing me with their of side. to jan. harty prayers and God speedes. P. gracious. Originally the law of a particular town. See Abie. Buzzard. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. to stand at his side . lb. It. Verstegan in R. . lete. confusedly. and it is of good will. train of thought which has become obso. a buzzard or puttock. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. —gracious of speech. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. to wit. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. as in Da. ii. buzac. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By.busardj Prov. bi. Dan. from by. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. to swear with him by . bauhta. byar-log. 21.P. big. & Q. By-law. also say. stall. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). AS. buzarg. and would have been lost in E. groat in token of his good heart towards him. cow-house. Many good mological explanation. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Lat. called Cabala or Tradition. as Fr. Etynj. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. The ON. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. bij. bohte. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. leges urbanse ON. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. AS. 3. a town. \s\xy. bugjan. p. Then applied to speaking low. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. bylove. to pass by. To Buy. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bees. Sw. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . depends upon a esteem in falconry. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. bozzago. bar. 200.. favourably to a petition. Goth. bi. to whisper. good-humoured one. to buzz.— P. to sell. buteoj Fr. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. iii. favourable. who makes abigg. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. It. byar-rettr. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. bycgan. village. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. CABAL Goth. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Cabal. buzzicare.in N. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. 519. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. tions by one. A by. Byre.

an engine for casting stones. Cappa in OSp. Du. whence Lang. OFr. cable . Due. Cabbage. cabuyskoole. and as we find stones Mid. caboche. bad. chaable. and Finnish lanLat. Cablisb. kabas. for the origin of which see Carabine. hut. cabo. E. cables. caqueter.. kabaSsen. Tugurium. From It. Common to Lat. The Sp. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . a shed. overwhelm (Diet.' Due. chaable. chabla. to keep or Du. especially shepherd's frock. . Choux cabus. name of the projectile engine. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Du. cadabola. manticuKil. To steal or pocket. to hurl down. cabas. cabasser. and Or. mdhaigner. the Prov. a frail. cabuccio. covering. Kil. headed or cabbage lettuce. Neckam — by the wind. to strain in such a manner .). scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Antiq. cabre. as Diez supposes). as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. hoard together. the Slavonian. su/Furari. . cadabalum. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. laitue cabusse. cabane. or cadable. : — from violence without blood. disgust. signifying properly a rope's end. a cabbage . OFr. . but it would seem to explain To Cackle. to hurl in Nat. to put or pack up in a frail. cabaii. as it must have stood in French. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . w. capuccio. — . Cabin. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. . cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. and a cabal is a conclave of persons.. Lat. hovel. as Turk. It. gaban. Coticesserint Swiss aa. ckaable. kabat. It. It is remarkable that the Esthon.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. OFr. is probably unconnected. Item habeat vocant. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. forms indi. aak! tandi like Fr. Etym. — Kil. from trabocco. aeggi. Brushwood — — B. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. The double a in the OFr. signifies down. head. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . calabre. the bowels. overwhelm. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cdble. caables. cab lis. would correspond to cable. The name of the engine. headed. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. form kactal. manganare. main. Fr. agga. agge machen (in nurses' language). geese. cabre. cabacho. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. — . to chatter.Lat. as an expression of Gr. kakla. come the Fr. Imitative of the cry of hens. Fr. in which sense are explained The the OFr. caable. band. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. Mid. giiare. deponat a store closet. — Tarbe. cabulus. or rush basket. heady. (ca/coe. a rope. properly windfalls. to crush. capo. a rope or cable. lactuca capitata.ticula. akista. string. ceach / exclamation of guages. has kabbel. filth. gaggi. 'habl. maim. a covering. a car- We convasare. OSp. a rope. dirty. Sp. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Cabinet. or as an interjection of disMod. dirty. from manganum. —Diet. prostratio ad terram. cacare . disgust cac. — Ibid. a jacket Fr. brassica — capitata. It. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Cot.. gatsch. capanna. Fr. &c. cadabulum. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Fr. Didot. a tunic. origin is the OFr. Katr-iT-aKt. havyar to caviare. Ptg. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. a booth or hut. nasty. Fr. Sp. originally an Gael. — the ON. case. Sw.Gr. vincially used in E. Gaggle. Cot. ! — . kabane. Celtic. Lang. gabardme. caable. agge. surripere. Castr. To Cabbage. round or great headed. it would seem fundain children's language. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. dung. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. &c. traboccare. chadabula. cacare. Lith. accablcr. cadabulum. Very generally used. a rope. kakaloH. aakkat'a. a headed cole or cabbage . precisely in the sense of the lari E. cabus.Lat. vile. disgusting such an engine was exerted. dirt and the Fr. whence Fr. a cloak of felt or Cack. cab. serious injury — In like manner It. cadabula. a head (whence cabochard. Mid.. and the Arab. Finn. Du. caable (in legal language). cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. It. . cabbage. stercus. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. cabo. E. Mid. and Ptg. Capstan. gaggele. cabarino. . wilful). Due.Lat.

pen Mod. As Du. loss. babbhng. Turk. Dan. To Calender. a small stone. calidus. The young G. cattivo (from Lat. kaka. whence Lat. G. kolesnitza. gabberen is identical with E. Calash. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Cadet. chetif. kat. KxiKivh^o^. Originally from a Slavonic source. G. ON. Lat. Lat. calculo. cadenza. It. a reed. or colpa na coise. Cake. Lat. cage. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. kdtr. especially of something soft. a wheel . directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Sw. capCalenture. It is another form of the E. kolo. cauldron. Sp. kukje. captive.uv. Cot. caldarius. kola. from the ink-bag which it contains. Lat. The Calf. Perhaps from w. from calculus. a wheel . a car. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. . a wretch. gabbia. calendrer. . It. a tea-chest. a roller. calx. the lump and the increase. to heat. It. cadet. kolesb. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. KaKKat. so gabble corresponds with Fr. when they are said to poor. frisky.— Calliper. kauwe. chattering. incolumis. Fr. cadaver. Cot. Turk. to cackle .warmth . chaudiere. hence musical rhythm. cha'cmie cadence. kail. A — fall. on. calamitas. ever and anon. from Gr. the pi. limestone. boy. a cylinder. reed-pen. B. loss. Caldron. Lat. a waggon . wanton. Sw. roller. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Cage. Du. bad . Lat. the bore of a cannon. Du. lindrus. misfortune. Sp. kolyasochka. a wheel. cavea. — in a kiln. * Cade. cageoler. ' . analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. to prate much to little purpose. principal and interest. without loss. Lat. From lerie. frolicsome kaad mund. of the nature of lime to calcine.— Cot. desire of land. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. wretched. kolasa. caldaria. an ugly waggon kolaska. N. or smooth Hnen cloth. calf of leg. gabbia. marrow. the pith or soft part of wood. cabdillo. caliche. calentura. It. javioler. joyous . dead body. calentar. or prattle. The Lat. lime whence calcareous. its mother. Flo. cage. for green fields. a fever. hot. Russ.— . to gabble. a falling. . Cadge*. (in the augm. taking it Sp. calba. Cauldron. to throw themselves into the sea. Cadaverous. kaeckelenj Gr. Fr. calpa. kalb. Fr. ratas. cuttle-fish. the younger son of a family said to be from . Calocli. a caFr. kdfich. cake. a loaf of bread. a counter used in casting accounts. master. calessa. See Kiddier. rattaat (wheels). Calcialate. form) calderone. kakulla. Calendar. Caitiff. disease of sailors from tivus). Cadence. kuchen. calidus. coop. to cage. naXaiidpi. gaggia. a wheel . . caioler. Fr. A cuttle-fish. Roman reckoning. of oxen and similar animals. A . a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. An open travelling chariot. ben- kalf. calamus. cadere. to . Due. calibre. Serv. koeck. a lump or large piece. * Calibre. a calesh. calcis. dial. to — Fr. the calf of the leg. pith. collop. Calp is riadh. Caddy. a hollow place. a calash . jabber. pi. kalfi. is probably delusive. Fr. — — — Dan. Calamary. Tea-caddy. It. a cake or loaf. Cajol. It. . and troublesomely attached to. calendarium. hot . cykevie. Pol. a dence. signifies a waggon. kolo. kolyaska. prate. to treat like lime. Fr. to sleek hence a den. a circle. a common cart. from calendcE. safe. Du. To Cajole. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Lat. just falling. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. 124 prattle . kolo. gaggle. Gael. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Calamity. Calandre. Cot. Lat. whence calash. En kaka br'od. In the same way Fin. Sp. Lat. Arab. kage.Gr. calesa. Fr. chaudron. a low note. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. unruly . pet lamb. &c. to compute. gabble. colibro. from the Chinese catty. Gascon capdet. cadence. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). little chief. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. gavia. coll. capitetum. Sw. one unduly indulged by. a vessel for heating water. lord. A hooded carriage. a corpse. an inkstand . calibre. Fr. Dan. kalfvan hout. Calc-. Calf of the Leg. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. —Atkinson. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Lat. a mischievous dial. of which. Du. kalem. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. kaad. Mrs B.

given. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. gossiping. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. kal. dial. According to Jal (Gl. Diet. of a column. calibre. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. — — — — — . calat of leude demeaning. to calk.en~ kinds of firearms. kahcwe. chatter. callum. abto suppose that E. to proclaim. So It. to tread. Antiq. Mid. form in the kalib. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Dief. chatter kallen. 125 Prov. Caliph. calvus. calo. Among these were the turn. klover. caluw. Fr. to call. Due. Gael. piece of bigger circuite. Hard. kallo.meaning of the word. caillette. culverin. the Fr. which is as much as to say. cotton cloth. colubrina. overheated. a successor. calor. Derived by some from Arab. Probably from the sound of one hallooing.from Ka'tm. calc. the latter of chamber.' Whitby Gl. trull. whehce it was first brought.Lat. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. glotton. hollaing. ' rine. Sir John Smith in Grose. cauma. Ibid. Bi. coluber. an adder. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. people's remarks. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. heat. or mould. dragonder. harquebus or handgun. to call. licht stuk The change from a. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. having a thick skin. Lat. callus.' Winter's Tale. to prattle. i. kind heat of the sun. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. Fr. To century was Squalibre. to hear. khalif. Fin. Gr. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. push violently. couleuvre. hot. which has its memory preserved in Du. calcaich. E. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Call. Callow. B. CALICO Calliper-compasses. to rail or scold . a drab. u to an I in such a colubrum. and heat. hallottaa. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. harden by pressure. Du. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. calk. NE. oldire from audire. . scold. the Fr. . or languishing drought is . caliver. a feathers. Mahn derives it from Lat. AS. the scalp or skull. and E. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. saucy. Sp. Lang. Fr.' Chaucer. drive. calleting. calgua. tapulta. fistula. calme. of the bore of a firearm met. coluber also. to be of a good or bad quality.piicede Lat. koluvre. nautique). whence couleuv. Sc. a last. calcare. scalmato. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. kal. a. The origin is Gr. — — — — — . Kil. faint. bald. coulevrine. calca. and dragon. to abuse . diameter of a ball. brawny. a soldier who the It. but is only a jda-kallo. Turk. kol. cahna. To Calk. serpens. vulgo Coluvrine. depreciatory term for a woman. CALM to press or stuff. to cram. Ptg. on. from Calicut in the E. calibre. and sometimes a handgun. quiet.— . skin hardened by labour. — Fl. by many that the weapon Callous. dragoon. KaXka. ram. To call. Unfledged. ' pert. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . The word was also written cawme in OE. Kavfia. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Mil. whereas in troth it is not. * Caliver. them &c. tittle-tattle. however. Heb. the day.. kalla. 'A callet of boundless tongue. the heat of Now these Du. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. calma. It. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . kael. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. calare. kil-u-kal. can be distinct from ODu. quA librd. femme frivole et babillarde. word of mouth . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Kil. alta voce ploro. The reference to heat is preserved in. qAlab. form. calclover. sound. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. bombarda Cauma incendium. to affirm. water-tight. moso. Lat. try. done with heat Alt. Ca. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. Indies. sestus. a round of abuse. the hard surface of the ground.position is much less common than the geschut. sclopus. colubraria canna. longior. cauque. a good calling.(jaa= ice). to burn. quality. Fr. calma. Diez. overscalmaccio. The primitive colubrina bombarda.' Slange. moist. donderbuchs Sp. Sup. to callet. calicot. heat. prattle.' But it is hard Du. * Callet. serpentina. Fin. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Sp. sence of wind. voice. ululo Turk. or caliever. Calm. to say. faint. Calico. To drive tow or oakham. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore.

Sanson khanda. a. campus. camisade. campren. chandelle. Kakoycpos. monk. the spersed with white flakes like curd. toile some of whom. Campaign. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. kanna. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. when its substance appears inter. good. Pers. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. — Cancel. . camafeo. having an aquiline nose. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. a goblet bud. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water._ kamm. Lat. whence Fr. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Or the word Lat. chaitcre. fresh.—Cambrel. to bow. KafivTu. Caloyer. It was distinfrom work. to glow. Canal Channel. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. fair. E. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Cambrel. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. would plenier. at the ends.— Hackluyt in R. a caught. crooked. candidus. campaign. sore. a crab. also an eatmg sore. aspirant. to bend. higher in the middle than Fr. canistrum. Cot. A — the Cannibals. Calver of cane. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. is Cambering. campagna. from candere. cancer. camelus. an eating. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Lat. Fr. catmneo. An eater of human flesh. chommer. Ptg. cambr^. Canker. In a different application It. From campus was formed Lat. lame. a may have acquired that signification from plain. . a large drinking . arched. B. and yspiuv. Peter Martyr. campo. white. across — Bellenden in Jam. Candid. Lat. Properly calver in the field during a war. on. to jut. It. se cameloter. the bed of a stream. E. champagne.who their language. nia. salmon.' Forme of Cury in Way. hooked. — — — A — — escume de saumon. cambrer. open and level ground.. camp. had no r in de bric— Cot. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Camp. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. See Canker. crooked. different sections of the like the Chinese. the space of false imputation. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Fr. unwater chamelot .to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. to warp. Candy. Fr. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. chamold man. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. cAouma. Cambrav—Cam. ko/utuXoc. properly good country. sugar. the type of a hollow pipe. calj'x.Lat. Fr. camiscieia. cambren. Fr. or Caribs. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Cambray. a basket. Camel. candela. Fr. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. field . — B. Sp.— B. cere : Lat. died in 1526. The Grisons cauina. arched. Mid. ation. co7nbar. calutmiia. to the force of the wind. crook. From fluting or furrow in a column . lie level. Camisade. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Arab. is Candle. cam^e. whence the Fr. a' Sc. Canibal. campagna. Calumny. cancello. a field Greek monk. cup. Bret.' ' Quhen a lattice. B. Palsgr. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Camlet. callour. brought from Fr. camaien. Sp. samon. Cann. Lat. to break. Lat. champ. Lat. the calix. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli.—Jam. crooked. water chamlet . KafitjUe. Fr. or hollow of a flower. canalis.—Candidate. — Lat. to bend. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. It. It. paign. Calyx. camisa. canis. Sp. frank and sincandidatus. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. camelot. campagne. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. w. crooked-stick. lattice. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. a. mg Canister. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day.conduit-pipe. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. Turk. bis. E. canna. Mod. It. ckaouma. the heat.Gr. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. camber-nosed. callar. campo. cup. Gr. It. icaSoytipoe. Fr. Lat. India Islands. Cancer. Cameo. aged. arch. a dog. It. Gr. clothed in white. spot for cattle. camiscia. from xaXbg. a piece. camahutus. Cambric. Canine. the salmondis faillis thair loup.— Chandelier. cambre. slander. cainahelus.

Mod. a pipe. ON. cantred. cannu. OFr. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. that the G. cantle then is a corner of a thing. as a cantle of bread. cape. kandt-broodts. coat. cantref. carcase . schlappen. Gael. the heel. coarse hemp. a small boat. contain. also a measure. But it may be different source. capello Italis. like a torch or candle. Capacious. pipe. Canopy. hamlet. Jonson. a cover Turk. Canoe. to put upon sacred writers. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. or cantell of bread.n.Gr. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. From Lat. chantel. hemp. from cant. cainnt. kq. Cope. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. lump.— Cot. Coal burning with bright flame. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. schlapp. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Kil. part. shut. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. border Dan. kwvwxIi. . Sp. capa. It. a reed. language. Capable. root cap. Sp. kanta. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. A slow gallop. chape. border. Esthon. kapamak. a ship canot. Wtb. See Capt-. cane. Kavt\. haitt. from . a wine-cellar or vault. the tried list of saints. It. Alamannis. Picard. a hundred. can. Schwab. Again we have Lat. It. a cloak kapali. a reed. &c. gnat. cannevo. Mod. cane. Canton. The word seems to be taken from Gael. . Palsgr. was formed Kavtiiv. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. has kahn. The — . What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. properly a large Prov. hemp. KaTTiram. a — A — Cannel Coal. margo panis diffracta. Diez. he discourseth of dissection. as. quito curtain. territorial hundred. If the word had been from cantherius. covered. cover kapi. signifying cover. Fr. trine. . Germanis kdppen. a door . measure for cloth. See Chape. chanteau. From Gr. a ruler. a corner. It. Gugel. capevole. speech. a cane. Du. it would have been found in the continental languages.^on. cheese. Swab. cannevaccia. cappe. astrology. canonicus. a cantle of bread. canton. canapa. rumme. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. To canvas — . say. is found languages of very different stocks. the heel. and met. canteau. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Canvas. from a Canter. call. Probably only the augmentative of canto. canoa. coarse hempen cloth Fr. canon. kand. A . to con- rummer. Canon. a division of a country. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine.Gr. edge. Goldast — in in Schmid. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Cant. N. . The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. leiwan kanta. name. a boat. Fr. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. To Canonise. a horn of the moon . canvas. kantr. region. cappe. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. caparazon. side. quarter. cannone. A piece of anything. the quartile. a cloak. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Sp. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. a gelding. KCLvva. Canteen. cantina. which is not the case. canapaccia. and the sex- &c. Cape. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. to contain.CANNEL vessel. kyndel. a torch. hirnschlapple. or hold. capace. a Fr. It. Prov. B. able to receive. a rule or standard of excellence. Cannoii. cane. and tref. cantone. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. kynnel. To his judicial And trowl the tile. to shut. Hence Lat. a scull- — here. corner. Of vena cava and of vena porta. hood. Fr. to sing. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves.. W. cope. the part easiest broken off. Lat. clqse. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. cane. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Fin. capax. Cot. regular. canonici. canto. cappa. cannabis. canevas. a hunch of bread. from canna. a drinking glass. Capari. tain. a straight rod. a cap. and hence a gobbet. quarter . An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. cover . kaput. being a yard or thereabouts . It. from Dan. Cantle. a tube. a side. &c. It. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length.

curling. So from Sw.— 128 CAPE a rustling. Capers. gives rise to Sc. cut. A headland. castrated cock. to broil. a separate division of a matter. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. prickly husk of chestnut. frort^Lat. shrub. frisson- ner . a yearning through sudden fear. then to shiver or shudder.). greziller. I have shivered with love. wriggle. greziller. end. Genevese bresoler. and 7tucc. hair.Gr. cappriccio. to parch. of a coach. It. See Chief. grisser. to shiver. airoKOTrrw. also the capriole. Griller d'im' patience. It. then to be in a state of vibration. castrated. shivering. as Fr. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. capitulare. the head. knis-hujwud . ribrezzo. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Lang. brisoler. brissle. to twitter as birds. ticchio. It. and OHG. a young kid met. s'hdrisser. It. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. caper j caprio. G^' Many words — ' ndv. capriola. rissoler. where Burton adds in a note. a chevret. or represented by the syllable e. compared with Bret. It. kid.) grezille marid. cut off. for which he cites the Comask nucia. and his body bristled We to castrate. birsle. the principal part of the debt. capparis. as in Lat. is either wholly lost. a little head. capriol or caper in dancing. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. to from capitulum. the hair to stand on end. — to yearne. or Lat. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end.' — (Supp. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . to chill and chatter with one's teeth. curly. or other things. as the means of earning profit. brisciare. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. cover of a saddle. It. brisciare. capro. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. principal. 75. Cot. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. Capillary. A . according to the Hindoos. a capriol. Sp. gricciare. Fr. then find the symptoms of shivering. Hair-like. horripilation. frisser {frissement d'un trait. capitalis. knis. a buck. Lat. humorous. abridge amKoTroq. It. The same imitation of Capon. brug. h^risser. a caper in dancing. frizzle. roughening of the skin. a head. of a tremtdoiis sound. a goat. — — A a hair. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle.' Cot. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. fansuddenly angry. a ch illness. Arab. bristling. curl. as Fr. crackling sound Cape. gives rise to brezza. the head. eruca compared with It. alcaparra. CAPRICE twittering. the initial mute of forms like Gr. erica. caj)o. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. grisser. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. hedge-hog. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to shiver for cold. algabr. belonging to From caput. a kid. aggricciare. Capital. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. to crackle. And similarly to yearn. as Fr. caprice It. to broil. bristling. <I>pi'?oe. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. cApre. of a fowl. Hence capitalis the sum lent.) d'etre The It. arricciarsi. It. Unexpected pleasure. chief. a . they longed extremely to see it. . to . To treat Capitulate. heath. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. Acad. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. hi. or. and with an initial gr instead of br. II bresole (Gl. Mod. Caper. chattering of the teeth. p. Lat.standing on end. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat.'— Trev. capriole. ziki. to fry. Torriano. arricciarsi. to shudder. explained by Diez from capra. sault. frissoner. horror. or goat's leap (done by a horse). caprice. to ruffle the surface of water. Caprice. a caterpillar. riccio. The true derivation lies in a different direction. bruco. Fr. grillcr. Lat. ^piKos.impressions on the ear. shivering. a hedge-hog. grug. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. gricciare. rihrczzoso. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. the hair to stand on end. Fr. to desire earnestly. herissonnement. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . It is probable that Gr. brisciare. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. upon terms Sp. Hal. the singing'bone). capar. with joy' Vikram.— Fl. Lat. toy. capillus. to crackle. Fr. brezilia. Fl. w. ericius.

as the dragoons (Du. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. Lat. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. a head man. caput. as in OFr. Carry. also a kind of rack. oisr. to receive receptio. whence capture. Capriole. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . where it forms a very large class of compounds. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. tnoschetta. crepo. recepte. It. a sudden fear apprehended. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. Capstern. decepte. kerren. concipere. &c. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. to load . &c. — —Diet. recibir. deceit. charrier. bock. to take. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Lat. It. fancy. carabin. karista. a capuchin. a kind of torture. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. Etym. dim. It. cabrestante (whence e.or -cib-. -cept. also tresFl. Capt-. commander. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. a hooded friar. 129 — receive. an engine for throwing stones. a sudden will. a fantastical humour. latterly. It. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Thus the musket. Fr. accept. of capsa. Cart. In cases. was a kind of horse soldier. to take baclc. cams. captive. trestle. a creaking waggon. receptus.. also to carry on a car . chirrion. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. Captain. as in accipio. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a coffer. Fr. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. capuccio. conceit. box. chevre. deception.). chirriar.of these compound verbs. perceive. charret. — — Capstan. fantastic. It. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus.. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Fr. capsula. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. The It. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Cot.). G. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Carabin. carro. &c. seize. except. or the (capo-riccio). calabrin. Carabine. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. Lat. captus. hold. a sawing-block or trestles. a windlass. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. and has thus descended unaltered to English. sels. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. capitano. intercept. de- price. strideo. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. i The meaning Car. Nordfoss. contain. Lat. concebir. caThe hrestante. Du. caricare. capp%tccio. from head. acceptus. Sp. Fr. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. however. OSp. calabrino. verbs gives rise to the element . Passing on into E. shivering fit (Altieri). The a of capio changes to an z in composition. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. concevoir. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. charger. Carbine. was converted into -ceb. a cloke) capuccino. a reception. See Caper. .— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). char. Fr. to please. carretta. a. concept. It is a standing crab. desire. Derivatives are Fr. Caseneuve in Diet. krul. Fr. -cept. It. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. Kiittner. to accept. precept. case. recipere. di cappa. a cart. one odd. Du. the -cevofthe Fr. capio. a taking back. to this is It. It. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. conception. and tropically. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. a. karrende waegen. Cot. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Neumann. and of captus to an e. and has accordingly been lost in E. a hood (dim. to carry . a she-goat. to take to. cabra. caprice. karren. at least. of the Sp. capitis. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Fr. Castr. Fl. to creak. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. was originally a missile . cabestrantej Fr. to creak. capra. recipio. cabreia. Crab. cabestan. In the S. Fin. Capuchin. -ceive. karra. Sp. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. recevoir. conceive. crab s.s. captivate. Capsule.

a twist. to turn. carabe. burning coal. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. Gael. carcanet. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. to hiss (as gee^e). Mod. carbo. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a snail. a lock of wool . of the same Caravan. p. constraining . I. An implement for dressing wool. cabreia. the name might naturally Mod. a ship. a winding staircase. chevre by the name of the goat. to card wool.' From the same source are SicU. to comb. ancient springald. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. turning. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Fr. quilato. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Carbuncle. carere. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^.applied to a battering-ram (G. carbunculus (dim. matter. winding carach. Carboy. the trunk or chest of the body . Carcax. a firelock. caraffe. and catapulta. Fr. a small weight. It. cabra. a skeleton. to ripple flax. carduus. also (as Gr. . restraint . cdrlag. card. Sp. an engine for hurling stones. cabrita. Arab. Parmesan cassiron. Carbonaceous. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. the case of the flesh. Gael. W. carch. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Card. carcaij. a thistle. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. a he-goat. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Sp. &c. a thistle. the core of fruit . a card or comb . mural attack. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Gael. carquasse. seed of carob. garafa. karri. properly a siege machine. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. carabba. It. vitriol. the carob bean. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. bend. winding. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. caraffa.— — — . eitar. military engines made for hurling stones. kerwan. copperas. a case or chest . also a small weight. the dead body of any creature. casso. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . cerran. carta. KtpaTwv. a machine for casting large darts. a quiver . espi7igarda. tcapKaai. a collar or chain for the neck. carate. ON. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. Cat. confining. Fr. a dead carcase. Sp. a crane. The radical meaning . skeleton toise. Gr.charcoal . The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. word is only an adoption of the Turk. boch. skeleton. contract. &c. carcanada. Sp. in the same way that the Sp. karra. Gr. carcasa.. an ulcer. Sp. Cot.. the . a battering-ram). From the battering-ram. Gael. to comb wool . It. a goat. It. Lat. a prison. carbh. to curry horses karsztuwas. for a gun.Gr. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. a quiver. to draw in. wool card. is the word used in modern Lat.. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Derived in the first edition from Mod. skeleton. carquois. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. &c. avSpaS. Venet. quse vocant karabd. .Gr. alia sunt majora. Caravel. Carcase. Lat. bock and Fr. turn of a horse.z. Bohem. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . cardo. The Trjg xeXwwac. the husk or cod of beans. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. OHG. Cot.. to card wool. cramp. Carat. a quiver . caracal. a ripple for flax. Exot. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. wine- bottle. curry-comb. case. kirat. the shell of a torcarcasso. Pers. coming to four grains. «capa'|8i. fire . black dye. Fr. a coffer. or framework. Caraool. cassa. krciti. Comp. . ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. silique. of carbo). designated in the case of G. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. the carcase of a fowl. decanter. . a wool card. shell. It. See Carpenter. to creak. — seems to be something holding together. carmiiiarc. Carrob. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. carquan. a quiver. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. ' Vasa vitrea. karszti. Lith. a gem resembling a live coal. carcame. poison eiz. is the chine. . Ptg. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. AS. kard boyd. eit. a kind of ship.. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. car. caravela.

. Carnage. a card. carcare. karout. in St Jerome. moeThe Lat. cearig. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. It. karl. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. voce strepo stridente. Carenare. intrasset caro. tenax. to love. AS. as carminare. from the keel to the water . or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. be anxious. to eat flesh. Coll. cura intenta. cdrle. — To Careen. Lat. caMid. grolU. Translated in MS. to load. . the several meanings of the words above Rom. hoed. Carl. the flesh of animals . — — Diez. Caricature. from carrus. soUicitus OSax. a highway. strideo. A quirito ut infans. carnalis. to shake. carrefourg. parched or carled. or grumbling —Due. crowl. . from caricare. Cot. charneux. morosus. fleshy . . a man. karista. Fr. Fr. Card. de Parthenay. principal. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. — — . meet at a head. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. fundamental. careless take care of. For the root of carminare. carena. cargar. to card wool. Ptg. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. murista. Fr. carch. tuorfurcm (Burguy). carian. from carus. Trin. caresse. zanken . ON. carnis. A place where four roads Mid. carena. Fin. to scratch. Bret. to comb flax or hemp. Sp. Carminative. the time during which to Rom. Champ. Lat. G. appertaining to the flesh. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. immediately before the long fast of Lent. — — — Caress. ignarus. love. graller. Fr. that Fl. Fl. A medical term from line —Boerio. surrata. Charnel. niggardly . ON. Carlings. place for exercise on horseback. x'»P'"^s)) paper. asper. It. to lie on its side. It. one of those ac- 9 * . to rumble. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Roquef. kroU-erbser. the hull of a ship. crawl. in N. dear. — Carfax. also a career on horseback. winding. croller. E. camovale. &c. at murmuring. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. care. care on. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. from Lat. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. solicitous. It. rixosus. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carener. stridere. murren. Carnal. Properly.. and sum. carina. 8. Venet. weyes. caricare. Cath. is to say. kummer. 1S66. w. to scrape . W. kumra. murahtaa. No ' place there had. affection. G. kribina. Cot. It. cura may be ror. kargr. caricatura. Probably the origin of the word is the . Care. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. caritia. AS. the load of a ship. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. four. ceorl. to fry or broil. Groler. W. sensual. Fr. Sept. From. chartre. scharren. car. carriire. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. that on wliich the matter hinges. as quadrivium from Carnaval. the keel of a vessel. Peas steeped and fried. ress. charnel. karry. to fry. It. or street. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. carcus. W. kurista. Properly a car-road. what is felt as grievous. wool cards. male person. and murhet. msstus. the old theory of humours. Fr. charta (Gr. charnage. essere in carena. Farewell flesh. clown or churl. gakaran. charger. see Garble. cearian. carnavale. to comb wool. charie.' Slceat. an endearment. caru. piger. 2. an overloaded representation of anything. to growl. OFr. . stingy.— CARD karr-kambar. Fr. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. to whirr (schnurren). inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. 273. to distress growl. Chart. p. Carled peas. A mod-carag. . as peas. . bottom. regar. — — — : Cardinal. Fin. karrig. quarreG. Mur. to load. sgritudo animi. beans. and compare Bret. tremble. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. . Dan. and thin. the keel. charag. Sp. Cot.Lat. Gael. combing them out like the knots in wool. a hinge. quadrifurcum from quameet. giierlir. grief. and G. to care unkarja. Cartel. quaver a lazar's clack.Lat. cargo. record. cardinis. AS. crosier. Cargo. to take Goth. compared with Fin. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. carezza.— Charter. karg. to clean the bottom of the ship. karantez. Cark. carFrom carrus. carriera. charg. OHG. carminare. whence carricare. & Q. mutter. a deed. cardo. road.. to parch. sorrow. carnal. in Carp. carnasciale. like connection may be seen between Fin. to load. Bret. Fr. is This however Shrove tide. It. kara. a turn. sorrow. act of moaning. morosus sum. astutus.

or a carouse fully drunk up. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. gar aus / all out is correct. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin.'— Stat. querole. Fr. Chanson de carole. carpentum. a wheelwright. Pr. In a MS. a dance. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. ! Carouse. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz.gonnella. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. and F. peta. to pull asunder.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. of Guiana. 94). lint. ballare. bier. The tippling sots. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. cited by Marsh. Gael. On this. Mid. as carnaval from carnelevamen. worker in timber Fr. Carpenter. to rustle. Mediol. in Due. Lat. a drinking cup. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. was formed Mid.— Patriarchi. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. charpentier. cardos. vel coopertorio carebit.' Raleigh. to find fault with. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Bohem. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. e.Lat. carpo. 216. Other names of the sea.: .D. Pref. Templariorum — ' — Due. to dance. Olr. Carnevale. carnelascid). Analogous R.' says Motley (United Neth. Teut. yede tham about. carpenter only in the latter sense. pluck. In Dominica d'autant. as E. Cot. Fr. Sup. The word seems of Celtic origin.Lat.Why give's some wine then. carpenticre. a wheelwright. krapanj. . i. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. zimmer. Mid. — — ' ' — — — I — — . or loose as a couch without further preparation. Ein we find the signification transferred from . a plank. balade from It. The ' ' a chariot. fabulor. to dance. a car carpentarius. Discov. — . i. Sp. act of drinking a full Eq. course. is erroneous.— Neum. a song accompanying a dance then. 2. carpere.' Reg. garrulo. Properly a round dance. Nomin. Bret. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. koroll. 760. To pledge them thou refuse. So gone they forthe. as Fr. quoted by Carpentier. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. in Nat. 1 1 30. Lat.— Drant in R. carpetrix. Carnelevale. ship. carpende fast Carol. gonna. Dief. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. ON. to reel. skraf. CarTo quaff carouse do use. maker of waggons It.— R. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Gower in Way. Lat. cxciv. culcitra. W. at midnight which derivation from kroes. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. to talk. chatter skra/a. . carduz. chariot carbad. carpita. Carpet. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Alluz (G. chatter. A. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Here's to you still my captains friend. carpetam (a quilt?). Pm. qui sacco. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. carpenta. Ant.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. krapati. on that. I quaught. used for stuffing mattresses. chirp. 2. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Shrove Tuesday. to pluck. carpia. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Biheld within. litter. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. in Carp. Carole. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. pluck at. and Carnem laxare (It. to gather. garrire.' Ordo Eccles. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words.Lat. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. whence the form carnasciale. ' ' — .]e bois Carnelevale. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. From Lat. differing To Carp. a carder. The custom. carbh. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. tymmer. sense. zimmerspan. linteamen. All out B. carpat (Stokes). about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. . biheld without. Palsgr. The karole of the stones behelde. tattle. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Beggars Bush. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. to chatter coroli. as the Lat. all aus). Carpyn or talkyn. charpie. I drink all out.

It. paper. and that apparently from capio. to dash. cartoccio. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. fortuitous. of carro. augm. Walach. cancelled.— Fl. annul.to annul. kerpu. To duash. Casket. Ready money. — Cartridge. mata. cassa. As defence from shells became more important. Rouchi carone. a long coat. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. to crack. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. to shear. caroach. a car. capsa (Diez). mord-keller. Cask. Case. Fr. — FI. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. It. charrette. case-maiej Sp. turn out of service. Du. Casque. cassus. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Cassock. Hence casket. carreaggio. casa. Preparatory drawing of a It. to an- — Kil. caisse. See Case. a chest. cascade.. See Card. a paper case. casus. a canonry or slaughterhouse. casualis. discharge It. Rouchi caroche. Rouchi carpHe. casag. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. caisse. house. CartOTicli. a chance or accident.' Cot. It. a car. to — — also casse. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. casitiste. to fire on the enemy. To Carve. Cascade. shell or carcase of a house. afterwards any written challenge. augmentatives of carro. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. like all the names of tendon. long man's gown with a close body. casso. the charge of — — Fr. packing ' cloth. helmet. The carrying of anything. cassa.' — Hdcart. carroccio. It. luggage. of carta. Rouchi carter. to cut or carve . a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Hence a challenge openly hung up. to convey in a cart. coffer. cascare. charogne. crush. cia. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. card. carretto. — — . slaughter-house. Cot. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. — Cartoose. kerben. Cash. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Gael. from It. as we . an augmentative from Lat. a fall. to bear or carry. empty. something that actually occurs. casacca. gristle. carroc- carrozza . Fl. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. and matar. gristle. Sp. Fr. Fr. Carrion. Cartoon. kirpti. kerven. Fr. crown of a hat. caroche. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. an act of falling. carrosse. subject for a picture. AS. caisse. Cart. cassette. Fr. made void. ceorfan. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. To quash an indictment. to slay. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. carota. to notch. Carriage. Case-mate. Sp. a of water. quash. Fr. bag and baggage of a camp. a hut. It. See Gristle. Cartel. Case. krat. abrogate. To Cashier. Fr. OE. carogna. a loopscale the wall. ' Casa-matta. to break. Lith. Lat. also the carriage. from Lat. Cot. tion from Sp. cartella. Fr. from casa. G. for the security of the defenders. quasser. Lat. Fl. Du. dim. It. discharge. cancel. des rideaux A'carp^ie. a merchant's cash or counter. the money chest. case. casuelj Fr. Fr. — — nul the proceeding. AS. from the sound it makes when Alban. carretta. cartouche. The Sp. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. kasseren. cartone. Casual. a coffer or small case for jewels. To Carry. from It. bitten. mord-grube. cut with scissors. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cassere. Fr. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. coffin of paper for groceries. caxa. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Flor. Casuist. corresponding to the G. fall It. to hold. pasteboard. caro. casaque. to fall. hung up in some place and to be removed. properly to convey in a car. not reaching to the height of the ditch. carriaggio. cascata. Lat. void cassare. break to pieces. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. and the OE. It. charrier. Carrot. ignominiously exposed. where Fr. hull of a ship. Probably. cartilage.' Fl. casco signifies a skull. Fr. casser. It. hollow. blotted out. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. cashiered.' Bailey. Fr. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. one who reasons on cases put. Lat. cascar. casa-maita. vault hole in a fortified wall. It.

the earlier sense of catch. which has been retained in E. So also from It. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. Sp. on. by the loss of with several pitched cords. to clack. rack. name. to torture. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. kasi. — We a cavity. to dash.Rouchi Scaches. . dashing it to pieces. sue. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Fr. follow after. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. to crackle. catar. was introduced. ating. burst cascare. fall. Gr. to scourge. . The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . puss / for calling them. a thump. castellum. lance. kissa. To Catch. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. to hunt. catch. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio.'— Pr. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. however. castello. heat . image accasciare. a chesnut . Cat. kaJoivad. to fall as over a precipice. represented by the syllable quash. 134 CAST Catacomb. R. Etym. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). casipola. torture. 'Vaaaw. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. chat. an enumerlist. Chase. of castrum (castra). as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. while kiss / Pol. accastiare. speak of dashing a thing down. mino. the stalk of plants. KarapaKrr]g. KaraXoyog.the / or c respectively. Fr. It.. KaTappaKTrjQ. B. kotas. to break. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. . cat. from the first of Castrate. down. bot-kotis. cojz^/a. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. tails. and tomba. ecrevisse. and from the castus.. from water Karappaaaiii. execu. squash. cascar. chasser. The Diet. It. to hurl See Awgrim. puras E. casupola. _G. castanetazo. a fortified place. perhaps from which we have E. under chi caleur. OFr. cacciuolo. to Fl. to close. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Catastrophe. katze. in the fire. a cat . It. Yz. to cast or beat to tioner . Pol. castro. dash. In hke manner Rouchi cacher.out cacciare . Castle.Lat. klakka. casser. a vault. casulla. ichasses. KaTaarpifm. coming to us through different dialects of French. Fr. which. kat. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. to end. arpi^m. Gr. to crack. Fr. Cast. a garment for performing the mass in. same word with break. kic' kicil are used chasser. cast. or Rouchi cat. 120. Castanets. Hence castaneta. signifying breed. fer toTa. Roukind. to look at. second chase. Isidore — in Diez. Catalogue. koshka. to bring to an crack given by the joints. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. castana. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. or bruise together. a little house or hut. to make clean or chaste. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Pm. Fr. to drive away. kakka. To It. to lash. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. the ground . ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. being Fin. Sp. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. shaft of a 1 push. Brunne. V Lith. force j Rouchi equerviche. Lat. down. cassa / cry for the same purpose. kottr. crush . Fr. In the dialect of Picardy. V. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. dashing it out of the window. is not satisfactory. or comba. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. squash. Lat. Hal. the castanets for or implement .— Fl. to is Essentially the Sp. chaleur. kotas. Others explain it from Kara. dim. Fr. Cot. drive away. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. race. Fr. a whip on the other into latch. probably from an imita. chasuble. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. chasser. Thus we have Caste. cacciare fuora. Lang. to drive Cat o' nine tails. of sarabands does Gr. &c.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. away. The E. ON. like that of It. handle of an axe. Gael. cat-o'-nine. n. casule. a cat koshki. a Cataract. kasta. cacciarc. and KviilSog. . cash. punch. first made ordinary Fr. stilts. Mid. . to turn overturn. Fr.to drive out. ' Catchyn away abigo. Pic.

Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. klatschen.from Bard and ayopsw. GaUa catchiza. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. ketsoore. blow. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. chasse. klatsche and Norm. In the XV'e. to harangue. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. a carter's Pat. to take. clap with the hand. Swiss Lombard G. is said that he got a claucht of it. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. chachara. called in Fr. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. millecaterpillars. 'Bxn. chink. Cates. worm. to crack GATES cache. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. the OE. verberare kUts. Rouchi clincailleux. to clap hands. whip. to A bailiff. — B. and answer. gattola. from Gr. predicament. Grandg. an officer of taxes. to chatter with the teeth cake. e. chase. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. de Bray. a pill. Du. a whip. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. ecachoire. Ptg. insect. claquer. to chat. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . OFr. a smack. chatter. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). klinke. resound. a cornIn the s. Sp. gliong. woodlice. apprehend a person. chassoire.' ^Jam. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. in order). Kil. pedes. Metivier. . * Caterpillar. smack. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. 'Horxa. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Guernsey chafer. G. weevils. Chate peleuse. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. latch of.j.. ArbaUte de courte chasse. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. dainty vic- a form lash. — explained. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Diez.yopl(. c or ^. E. chacepol. — Kiittner. wild-beast. silkworm. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. caucht. a whip. quincailler. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. the the same principle he was Fr. to kythe D. the distance to which the ball is struck. caker. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. — Catcli-poll. . clap. called dog or Galla catchamza. children's name for cat . properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart.V. to the crack. latch. Cot. Fr. Kartiyopta (/cari. i. Fr. catc?u. cross-bow that carries but a From poll.' CATCH Fr. s. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it.P. fragor kletsoore. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. — tinman. ' Fr. the elements of a science. bichano (pussy). flap klatsche. Tutschek. 135 — Aasen. sound. a caterpillar Milanese can. Gr. klatsch. — with a whip. a — gatta. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. instruction in forms. Gael. Du.V. E. Kil. clatter. a whip Rouchi cachoire. as of the latch of a As ! — . . a little dog). to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Du. catch-flesh. happe-chair. or any kind of relishing food tuals. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. from shutting with a click. snatching. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. chenille {canicula. ictus resonans. Sc. a whip or Kuttner. Cot. KaTtix'so. door when it is shut. chatter . kletse. a clap. Caterer. a. klatscherei. catch. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. . e. snatching it with a any one. to snatch (said of dogs). Wal. — . which all .s. P. cagnon (a dog). seize. cat is not apparent. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. E. compare G. . with and without an / after the c. * Cates. to catch strength. ' ' word catch. catch. Gael. head. an accusing. glcu. companaige. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. to snap. snatched. gingle. to teach by oral instruction. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the .) . klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . a. formerly called cliket. kletsen. devouring mite or weevil. icarrix'Ki^. dainties. On Catechism. Guernsey pilleure. cache. Fr. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Claucht. kaetse. bicho. has both or of charming by sound. resono ictu lash. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door.

the. kaussijde. puss. to burn. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Cavalcade. catkins . achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. cauHs. acaptar. caldo. is Prologue. little cat. fur in general. rete A — Prov. cavaliere. Bessie of Bednall. to shoe . ce^l. chatideau. That he was ay before in his estate. little cap is . kin. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. from KaSaipio. Richly she feeds. Boethius. CATHARTIC sense. Lat. kautsije. Fr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Cause. catkin Magy. from chaud. cautis. accattare. a mare. adcaptare. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body.' B. macska. also to pave . of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Cathedral. kobyla. apt to burn iron. make clean. hollow.Y\\Xea. Fr. It. Palsgr. Thus Bav. Jonson in R. Lat. Caustic. Cavern. Du. causa. It. calceta. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. a branding from koiio. but the acates that are sent him. . It. It. Provider. calqada. Jaubert. a horse . minon. to shale or peel. cavus. Causeway. chair.. 4. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. chaudroii. Cathartic. Manciple's Tale. a The peel. cheval. mutz. KaHSpa. and at the rich man's cost By sea. to sound like a blow . chaudiire. catkin mitz. Gr. a kettle for heating water. challe was ther of a temple. Pol. cabbage). deyntie meates. KaPaWrii. Fr. . A warm comforting drink. Lat. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. by land. a kind of skull-cap. a paved road. Fr. Cauldron. whence cathedralis. caudex . Delycates. calidus. walnut with the husk on challer.. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. from delf^gato. any Fl. G. cabbage. chausser.willow. calceata. puss. Caudle. despencier. a horse . cat maczoka. B. Lat. Pr. kopista. Catkin. green husk of a calon. Kil. a receptacle for small things. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Diez). cautus). the stones of a street. calotte. caple. chauderon. a pavement. Fr. Gr. chevalier.—— — 136 correct. kassije. koparet. Fr. Gr. Caballus. On the other hand. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Port. and hence a skull-cap. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Ka^afriKOQ. the caul of the liver. kocie. . w. lamb.' Elyot in Way. Rete. a pulpit. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. OE. a stalk.Lat. catkin Pol. The word — . from caveo (p. via strata. • — — See Chattel. — — cavallo. hot. kobuiV. . Cave. to beware. Caution. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. puss. CAVE Caul. chaussJe. Cavity. to purge. fur. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Lat. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. net or caul-work. Gael. cale. cabbage-stalk. — . a seat. catons. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. &c. Chaud. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Lat. mudet. KiwariKog. capull. Fr. katte. reticella. having the property of cleansing.^ acheter (Lat. Fr. and spareth for no perell. Fr.^Hal. kopano. Mid. It. Dryden in R rete. flue. acater. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . katteken. shaled or picked Fr. choufleur {choii. — Cauterise.p. quire. primitive is meaning a shale or off. hot. hazel. 2. Palsgr. kitten kotki. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Du. klopfend knallen. caballus. . Wyatt in R. kdtzchen. to ac- — Fr.Lat. ' Gr. Fin. Kavrfipiov. a road calceata. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. cal^ar. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. achepter. to buy. Sx. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Cavalry. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. to shoe. Cattle. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Fr. Cavalier. Mid. otherwise written kell. . Russ. Kavrijp. . accapitare Rouchi acater. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. dumpf tonen. kocianki. cale. a horse. what . a horseman. flock. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett.

plank. lambris. death. a log. Cam. with their substantives concession. empty. Plancher. is applied to a canopy. of E . a severe bridle. in Hal. kommata. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. give place. The line of descent from Fr. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven.' Hall. a head. tester of a bed. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. hivtmel. departure. succeed. and then to gape. &c. heaven. 'A celler to hange in the chamber.' Cot.). Cot. sill in window-sill. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. departure from this life. the inner roof of a room of state. dScis. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. a canopy. cabegon. cabega. komista. komo.' Rutland papers. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. a canopy. thil. Lat. heaven. 7.' Marriage of James IV. Fr. In the N. hollow ice . syle. ciel is so unbroken. flooring E. Boyd in Jam. sill. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. a board.j have come from this source. Fr. selar. In the same way G. a plank. and zaum. a beam. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. Lat. Cease. ceiling. . — komo tain). del into English without ' translation gave cele.. cessum. column E. — . the testern of a bed. Hence concede. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. .. Fr. ceiling. . semely on syll. canopied. of cavezza. jaa. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. beam. dayntily diglit. to plank or floor with planks. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. lambrisser une chambre seeling. Gawaine & Sir Gol. E. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. a log. decessus. Lat. little house. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. -cess. Sir 137 pit . to canopy siled. And seik — Cessation. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. . Sp. were met. in Jam. &c. proceed. menuiserie. hollow. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. So from Fin. an aquiline nose. p. augm. a boarded floor. exceed. ciel de lit. &c. cellar. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. step away. Soc. sybire. . deal. cesso. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. to go forth. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. Sherwood. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. recede. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. hung. nailes will begin to cling. The sense of roofing. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . p. curved. syl. The importation of Fr. . and Gol. — . The It. . . -ceed. . but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. . Ceiling. rafter. wainscot thiljar (in pi. cyling (W. a fir-plank. B. kapp-zaum. thili. A — A false accommodation produced G.' — Gawan . . To seele a room. in Jam. —Decease. sus-lambris. . cavillor. thelu. excess.'— Z. coffer. — — — toyour soverane. as if from happen. door-sill J Sc. caveqon. Fr. as.' del. post. It. cease. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. Lat. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. dille. pp. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. applied to a canopy. thel. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. dil. CAVESON kopera or kowera. 5. bridle. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. the roof of a coach. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. a planking or boarding tkilian. to seele or close with boards plancher. VIII. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. seele. cielo. thiling. that. a hut. -cede. cedo. See -cede. Wore. &c. thil. Cede. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. or of a bed. selure. Cavil. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. to argue capto tiously. to plank ON. quibble. plank. and that from Sp. wuoren komo. sky. thilja. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. 43. 32. to cut. hollow.' Ordinances and Reg. the deck of a ship at thilja.). wall. Hal. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. to panel or wainscot MHG. -cease. koppeli. a log. . H. crooked kopio. yield. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. also a seeling of boards. but hang around at the sides. a halter. cavezzone. IV. board .

a numerous con. a solemnity. For sess from assess. age. to sepap rate. as entering largely into the derivative certo. a religious observance. judge. capturn. Lat. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing.j 138 thill. census.unmarried. Cereal. concetto. to visit in numbers. {cori)cipere. to incense. in Marsh. a valuation of every man's estate. a storehouse Chafe. cillier.ing a room where there is not fire. To Incense. -cern. The term cilium. riscaldarsi. Lat. point. — . to course of people. dchauffer. deceipt. Lat.. -cess. ' . parted sleep. is totally distinct from the foregoing. being taken from Fr. Fl. Fr. the hollow the Lat. contend. Celebrity. encens. Fr. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. to bury). we have a modified form of (of a place). -ceit. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. the talk of men. and met. Sherwood. a tomb. to burn incendo. oil. S. calefacere. to concern. rough from the quarry.' Celebritas. Assess. but was gradually lost in conceit. Censer. -cepere.— Chafing-dish. Incensum. and thence censer. -i^oivre. Lat. Fr. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Centurion. 1. a solemnity. Gr. See Celibacy. of heating. K^'ivut. Cell. thence belonging to or connected with corn. criticism. and — — — possessions. &c. in comp. Cess.' Book of St Albans. then to rub without reference Cement. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. to separate. in comp. Lat. crevi. pick out. Centre. a prick. Gr. deceit. calefare. Gr. -CEIVE a shaft. become heated with anger. -ceive. In Celebrate. Lat. sure. centum. to seele or sew up the eyelids . KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. his office. thronged the participle cretus. celer. Lat. caber. Lat. It. much frequented. -cebre ifoncebre. sile. Cij(fe5j. Lat. to chafe. sacred show. Take the nedyll and threde.). appertain. candeo. stones to the production of heat. Fr. Gr. hollow. eyelid. cigliare. Lat. -oept. chauffer. conceipt. sting. concernor. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. see. Censure. single or unwedded life. censura. — A . from Saa-rw.cern. Censor. eschattffer. Cot. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. tax. observe. to attend on object with. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Ceremony. OFr. To chafe is for wine. Lat. abundance. judge Lat. to contend. Lat. camentum. assess. -cevoir.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. heaven. To seel or close the eyes. rubble. census. to blindfold. -ciper. Coehim. the place where the de. the officer appointed to take such returns . distinIt. a hundred of what- — . .. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. keep in It. ciller. goad. or any bird's. Cot. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. decebre) . a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. (and thence also) to hoodwink. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. empty. Fr. to set on fire. family. — — Cenotapli. ceremonia. in accordance with the Fr. to heat. Sc. receipt. Lat. to celebrate. and so of that other. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. guish. tax. cot. value. festive. capio. — . -civer {conciver— Roquef. -cipio. for building. to distinguish. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. to rub for the purpose a hut. -cense. ciglio. Ta^oe. quarters for slaves. Census Censor. judge. as in some places burnt. chaufferette. — . blind. cenio. -ceptjun. a shaft horse. the point round which a circle is drawn. and put it through the over eyelydde. — . and make them faste und the becke that she se not. — . Prov. incense. to think. Certain. Century. to warm. cella. a Cemetery. to -sum. sift. solemn (of per. to twinkle darkness. also grave opinion. Fr. celeber certus. &c. to seal a pigeon's eye. cerealis. Accelerate. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. to take.— Cellar. with the eyes. make angry. to take. /ctj/rsw. is the opposite of disora virum. . syll. to glow. estimate. siller les yeux. mortar. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. cceremonia. to prick. what to set in a chafe. materials It. oil. to rate. See Cede. cretum. or expression of Ennius. concerner. cilibat. Assize. — . the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr.). decide. confounded ist from It. a hundred centuria. and thence to conceal. to be regarded as one celebro. with transposition hence (of a day). swift. -cepire. Celerity. KsvTpov. to sleep). a registration of one's self.of the r. Fr. Fr. renown be embodied with. irot\oe. from censeo. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. cencer. It. zens according to their property. an eyelash. Chafe.

chaire. sagrindse. chafing. to gnaw. place See Cheek. far lima-lima. yap. puffed or ruffled with ly. tattle cheep. to move the jaws. Chair. from Swiss kafeln. kdfer. limare. khah. So from dominio. refuse barley . care. breathe hard. dongio. B. Chagrin. kuhuja. Fr. taubes korn oder hafer. Fr.— — .' Rayn. on. a chain. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. G. calumnia. a rustling noise. a pulpit Cot. chawe. talkative. a prattling woaction. Due. care. to action arose. Du. ^Altieri. call in question for an ley). Kuttn. great chafe. cathedra.nium. Pat. Prov. to babble. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. puff. camera. Gr. Prov. ceaf. baras of ants. of. Du. From Port. Ayenbite. kahu. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. signal by drum or P. chaene. to puff and blow. E. — . grief. fern-chafer. In vulgar language. kaff. Bav. tattle. to a seat. G. . cadena. chambre. often puffing. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). — — — . OFr. have a mind to parley.. fa sagramen de calompnia. (ca'e'ra) to chair. vis. rustling corn. KoBiSpa. kauchen. quisquilise offence. ceafer. songe. grief. muzzle. avena vilior. a goba rustling . From the To Chaff. Chain. to caw chawer. Probably from According to Diez. calice. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. chalanger. chicane. a pulpit. chaine. sborfare. or puff with snorting. difficulty . ing a hard case to their wings. ON. to tattle. Lat. refuse. dispute. cathedra. false accusation.sure carriage. ple^. keuchen. ckapfare. breathe KaOa^oiiat. kever. In like manto huff. calix. . Kaiiapa. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Fin. a vault or arched roof. Wall. kuhata. chagrin. Fr. 11. Fr. to pant. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. as a carriage is a moveable seat. rally one. hordeum vel let. to fret inwardtronfo. to bark. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. a jackdaw. from of the G. to sit. . to dispute. To buy and sell. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Hal. Adelung. Pers. — — — — — — . a chough. keffen. Bouffard. gewolb. lime . kahista. to call. catena. kaff. crooked. From to go to law. contestation. clamare. calonja. leviter crepo Then. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. cadieira. Lat. &c. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. calonjar. cadena gives chain.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. kiamta. Lat. cauvette. Gr. bargain. hght Chalk. lime. much blowing. to ner It. 35. ing rapidly repeated cries. p. idle words. snort. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Perhaps Pm. cadera. any insect of the beetle kind. kuhista. Lat. Fr. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to file. De Ir4. Prov. and signifies to consume with anger. to calumpnjamen. kiqfta. de Brai. Fr. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. in a cana. Cot. also to prattle. charge with. and as this was the beginning of man. P. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. cam. to chatter or talk lightly. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Lat. — — — . Fr. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. much more Genoese sagrind. haggle. a double operation * Chafer. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. snuff. kedja. shaIt. Came. Chayire. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Cheffern. swelling with anger. Fr. Cot. Fl. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. to institute anforensic action. sagri. as. in a monstrous fume. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. chaffare. chafeter. kiaftr. jaw. to buzz. — — ' — — — A . rustling motion challenge.. from the shark-skin. kuhina. to Latin calumniare. fume. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. matter by combat. kahuja. Lat. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. that leneth e per I'autra. Piedm. cup. . chaulx. Pr. kdfelen. without chap/are makiinde. Lat. with a:n arched roof. preise. hiss. chaps Chamber. The jaw chafty. to gnaw. chatter. Camera. Fr. thick and short. to claim. Fr. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. chamar. rustle Challenge. chaise. vel susurro. calx. chayire. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. tronfio. . now a chair. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Halma. havOFr. Chalice. green sagrin.

contest. fighting place.Lat. chanfrein. Prov. to cample. calida et sans aguet. Gall. giving rise to the as. to stick to. . to fall. . Dief. to slope out the . chamble. So in e. camerlengo. to wrestle. cadere. prize-fighter. chdance. The happening of things Chance. termediaries between them and the judge. compound. kanip. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. — Ch-amberlain. dispute Hal. Chancery. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. champ parti. move the jaws. ON. To Chamfer. campear. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. jeu parti. and mesUe. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . dial. To cope or contend with. to quarrel (comp. chanfrein. a hook . Commonly derived from campus. . a game at football. Ptg. Fr. calidameya. kappd). champion Du. Champ. to fall). hamper. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . fight. to hollow out. kabe. combat. to — — champ. to fasten oneself to another . act of falling. kinipen. to talk. to groove bevel off a right angle. difficulty . athlete. campus partitus . Champaign. kabintis. s. mesleiare. Pm. to happen {ad and cadere. Hence (with the nasal) w. reusement — fight in single combat. . to tread The sound heavily. Carpentier. therewithal. The word is preserved in E. dial. a feat. E. cameratus. contend or argue G. Magy. to paw the ground E. Lat. Prov. pinch. ON. Champarty. bundle. kampeln. divided game. ON. cample). G. to excel. as swine. ing. Partnership. an athlete.' SherI'altro ' ' .edley. Chancellor. tsamtsogni. pedilusor. zampettare. camp. dial. to slope. accident. nels. Lat.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. hot. cancelli. champ. kempa. to fasten on. chance. Fin. kimpustella. is explained by serrarsi. — ^Tusser. — KiL . accidere. —Chamfrain. who stood ad cancellos. ciamberlano. — masterly Sp. a horse-race. Chance-n3. ciambellano. keiiipe. Lith. jocus partitus. Fr. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Chancel. Sup. to smack the lips in eating. from chaud. M. Fr. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. a hollow chanfreiner. Chamfron. chanfreindre. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Sp. kimppu (Lap. The G. slope of a bevelled angle. e. to debate. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. campar. as in It. When the to quarrel. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. a warrior. Lat. and acted as inofficers of . luctare. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. camp. a bundle. dial. a court of justice. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. kablys. Fr. from cheoir. chanfrar. to wrestle. at the railings. See Camp. dial. campus. Campar. Lat. contention kappi. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. to to chew champ. chance. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . schmatzen s. Du. hng. a field of battle. To hollow out in chanPtg. excellent. . fray. kampeln. kempen.' melleia. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Fr. hero Sw. to Hal. cempa. a scufSe. dricka i kapp. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. surpassing. fight. received the petitions of the suitors. cazer. to hang. boys speak of capping verses. kiinp. bickering.' ' Pr. to strive at games . kimbu. escazenza. camp. kampa. kippo. kapp. Fr. zs jeopardy. E. to flute as a column. Champion. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. gewolbt. from Fr. to move the jaws kiamt.—Tutschek. a jaw kianisa. kimpUma. kabinti. to bevel.—Charfron E. kampen. kabMe. — Hal. certare. champ. game campio. i. cahir. chaude mesUe. sukibti. to fasten oneself on to another . kiammi. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. wood. the chafldn. chain. top of a borehole. to chew. champ. chajnbellan . tsammogni.140 CHAMBERLAIN . . Sp. It will. or player at football. which seems another form of the root. Meleare. to be eminent. caer. or less ignorant. gekrUmmt. kriimmen gebogen. to hold . The E. head armour. Get campers a ball To camf . to . CHANCEL It. . champ. rare. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. . chamfrain. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. kibti. broil.

Fr. ^Jam. to truck. to creak. as to chap hands. kaupa. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. I. See Chant. throat of an animal. a pipe. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. A fellow. cambiar. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. — . Prov. ON. the clappers of the scupper holes. chiappa. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. as It. — : Lat. changer. kennel. the loose flesh of the cheeks. chap. klepan. ceaflas. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . cambiare. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. Fr. while the broader vowels a. chanter. kiceft as well as kjakje. a money-changer. muzzle. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. kapoti. to paw like a horse . Channel. to spht a chip. to plate. the gutter that runs along a street. esclapa. cheek. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. may be compared with ON. Commonly derived from capella. Compare chark. shift. from clap. from chandler. Sp. to — cut. cambium. to apply one flat thing to another. . to swap. as skin chapped hands. exchange schimbatoriu. Chop. a reed. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. flat . Aasen. surfaces striking together. 140. chapeta. W. Chapel. — — —Marculfus in Due. It is also used in the sense of the E. —Ordericus Vitalis. the chaps . Man of Law's Tale. jaw. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. like the knocking of hard things together. jaw. Da. from canna. to cut. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. to cut off . to sing. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Chip. Lang. That wide were sentin their spicery. Bret. chandelier. Chap. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. kvar kjceften. are kept. to plate. as those on a trunk. a strip of metal plate. or the like chapar. . a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. to peck. schimbd. chapa. kjaakaa. leather. schimbu. Lat. Sp. the place where candles ler. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual.^. chap. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Russ. not a soul. clapet. a small plate of flat metal. to deal. is used in the same sense . kiceft. to strike with a sharp edge. hard bodies. Fr. skipta. . chapeletas de imbornales. properly in a hard body. Chap. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Hence chantry. Hence It. to strike. Hal. extended to other trades. Chaps or chops. or the cracking of one. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. as chancery . lips of an animal. Sc. chop. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. chop. to hack. a dealer in candles then. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. the mouth. also a clap. Hal. wood. esclapo. exchange. to change. And N. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. and also to chap or crack. hack . In like manner Walach. Chape. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. kemma. Du. and the modern canal. a small metal plate Port. chapilla. prune. Fr. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Molbech. 2. waterconduit. Lith. Da. to put on fresh clothes. E. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. debeant conjurare. to chap at a door. To Change. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. See Chop. camjar. to break . In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. chaps. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . any hollow for conveying water. a chap is a crack or fissure. Probably from chap. ceaplas. to strike. Chandler. to peck. Cheek. cantare. kappen. cobio. canalis. . exchange. chancery. to cut up into small pieces. —Chantry. AS.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. cangiare. Walach. gab. Chap. chapear. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. as corn-chandChandry. chapelete de una bomba. chancellerie. a jaw. to coat. .

a riddle. as Pol. a riddle. gaggle . char. ciarlatore. Boh. cerran. be- e. cam. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Macduff. creak. capitolo. caritas. In that work the verb is written caire. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . w. a verse. The crash. a mark made on a thing. AS. See Charlatan. clack. kirkti. Du. Fr. chapel. cabildo. to talk . cedeleac. gnash. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. for the same reason rosario. turn. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. that turned decken . Justin. The G. charitas. Gr. creak. to croak as a frog . Prov. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. chirriar. wood to coal. schreien. chirlar. krachzen). to tattle. kurkti. to chirp. It. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. to dove . as a beetle. decken. go. czurliwoti. talking. charade. cluck kirklys. ceap-man. from capa. burning without consuming the substance. dim. 2. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. called in Sp. . turn about. surris seu Lat. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. twist. &c. Swiss. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Inst. A weed among com AS. to chirp. from cape or cope. chapelet. to turn. Lat. * Charcoal. Lith. . And damned be he who first cries Hold. w. to charcoal. Character.. which was incantation. Lat. Chaplet. from gadai. (eucharistie. carregar. jabber. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. Hence carminare. Charge. charcoal burners. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. affection. Sup. cher um cher. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. hadka. to love. to prattle. a The OFr. It. babbling. a merchant. capital. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Lang. —— . But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. a cricket karkti (schnarren. czirbti. — — — turned to coal. ject). chirk. . 370. a garland of roses. as. capellare. the nature of a thing. . Chirk. Fr. Charcoal was ciarlare. babdistinction. keeren. OE. Chapter. See Cheap. es ist mi cheer. charge an enemy is to lay on. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. It. called kedlock. wreath for the head. cluck. to sing or chirp as birds. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. and in It. Fr. Cot. kurkelis. a rhyme. chara. from carrus.czirksti. tattler. siarad (pronounced — sharad). to of the governing body. charlatan. in To ness Charity. eyre. pohadka. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Mid. return. charer. Deutsch. Chapman. Lat. ghirlanda seor garland.). . eapitulo. dear. to prattle. enough. canne. karout. Yx. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. It. to chirp as sparrows. colliers that charred coal. chapitre. chatter. of chapel. a charm. occasional turn. Chare. charlar. Chark. cha. Fr.' Boccaccio in Diez. corona. Charlatan. chatter. to turn Gael. beloved. dear(in both senses).charme. Mundart. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. — a car. a head or division of a book. Charlock. To Char. carmen. it is my turn. hiss Lith. the turtle pitre. An enchantment. tegere. carmo. Fr. chat. cearcian. a mark of a mountebank. to . prattling quacksalver. from capitulum.whirr. twitter. car. gadka. a hood. capella. Sp. to creak. From Norm. Bret. — spell. a dispute . charger. carus. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. used in the sense of magic Fl. to converse. AS. properly to place — . czurksti. bler.Lat. to load . carricare. Ptg. condo il volgar francese. Sp. seems to be derived charade. in turns. caricare. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Charade. Lay on. a turn cerran. from Charade. Sp.

— sharp sound of a crack. charmer. %aafi. from purus. pure. g. flesh. Chasm.house. V. germinate . scraps of for fuel. gazzerare. chip. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. . It. It. czysty. chaste. ch&tier. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. a flock of those birds. chatter. clear. the young shoots . to wet. to which it bears the same relation as chape. kippen. clean. kna. from xoAn. gallan or ogan. as from nomen It. cs E. to enchase it . be wide open. occasionally Forby. Hal. make a noise as birds do. knatiern. —Bailey. Lat castigare. — The . then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. gazeuiller. to chirp. Pol. the bird is iiown. B. snap. shout OE. Chat. Chary. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. prate. to care). nommer. whistle. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. also to hatch. karg. ferire. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. Kil. Fl. prattle. warble. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. as turnip-chaits. to burst open. cyrm.— Chit. Fr. See Catch. An imitative word. chat. To talk. a word. tenax. splinters. schioppare.— Chatter. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . careful. Parallel with E. i. a branch and a young female. noise. xi'i-'^vui. talk much . clean. — Fr. It. The egg is chipped. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). a chatter-box. talk. chip. Pol. Cot. limpid. crackle. is to represent the chamier. discourse. la chasse d'une rose. to crack. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. also to germinate or spring forth. Fl. — — . fragments or leavings of food. as in the E. kata. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. Chart. So in Gael. a churchyard or charnel-house. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing.a. csacsogany. s. gazzogliare. clatter. charm. to clap.). Diez. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. a shrine for a relic. clap. the noise of birds. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. castus. an enchantress. in Jam. to cut and faggoted. to crack. a young man . to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. the calix of a rose. See Cistern. Pm. a gap. chit in the latter sense Du. or the cry of a bird or the like. to talk. eclats.ppen.. chit. Fr. OE. pure. sordidus. To work plate as silversmiths do. carme and Fr. as purgare Fr. Lat. the handle of a razor . a twig Suffolk chaits. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. as. Cot. To chip is then to crack. to cry as a chicken . To chit. Du. gazzolare. From carinen was formed It. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. To Chasten. See Card. To Chase. knacken. a branch. Gr. to baptize. To Chase.). also a youth. the cry of the bat. chits. Chat-wood. kastaa. Fr. carmen is presented in AS. gazzettare. to chirp as a bird to cheep. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Chaste. to chatter or prattle . carnisj bones kept. nome and . parcus. or suckers on rough borders. Malay. gadu-gadu. chaste. blackthorn-chats. or pop. csatora (Magy. Chamel. a crack or a flaw . — = Chats. ch). whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. or a bird out of the egg. fragments. kata-kata. used to represent a sharp note. magpie. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. It t. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. — Palsgrave. It. or equivalent forms. G. — We ornamental work the to signify E. to separate in morsels. chit-chat. little sticks cudere. geug. clack. tittle-tattle. chary. csaterdzni. karigh. —Jam. Kil. D. racket . chykkyn (Pr. csacsogni. clean. — Yorkshire chat. chick. chick. . gaddc. from pure. letters p. to chirp. root of the Lat. pure. —Chastise. caro. converse. jackdaw . niggardly. — Hal. —Charter. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. chip. cassa s. to set a jewel. shivers. castus. to gape. chisf. noise. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. whence a charm of goldfinches. a plate of metal. warble. a yawning. Russ. incassare. cearig (from cearian. Magy. as we speak of olive branches. enchasser. chikat'. Fr. In like manner Russ. chair. To chitter or chipper. CHATS fit 143 to name. speak . to make a noise. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit.

. lead to OE. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. agreeing upon. . to negotiate. cozener. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Fr. a rogue or person who used the canting language. chavylbone or chawlbone. entertainment. look. It. favour. prattlingchete. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. goods. e. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. snout. to stutter gigken. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. to coup s. to fetch the breath with difficulty. to swap goods . buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. kakkaset. price. ceaflas. chuckle. kok.kakot.. to make inarticulate sounds in . Gr. Then. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore.. to clear the throat . thers. ceahhetan. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. a young boy or girl. See Chess. chaptel.— Chaps. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. from Lat. capitale. and hence the E. cera. truffa. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. — — —Chowl. giggling. Sp. Cot. ku. entertain kindly. kaupon. Sc. Cam. chatel.— . to vomit. with Dief. et juxta catalla sua. any cheating. us. visage. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Fin. farm for farm. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. goods. to — . the tongue. and. s. a metaphor taken from the game of chess.of the throat in coughing. Ingulphus. stuttering. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind.— Cattle. OFr. See Cheek. kaufen. tradesman. chop. to . a willing look and unwilling heart. sum in a loan. laughing. the Confessor. are represented piti. CHATTELS has ciio. society. stuttering. to laugh. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. the countenance Fr. sale. exAS. — We ' . upon a checked cloth. countenance. Faire bonne chire. gagkern. Cheek. to cluck like a hen. ceap. citello. frown. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. KaviiXog. retching. Pm. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . It — Brompton in Due. horse-couper. &c. kak. sob E. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. caupo. Hal. 'li^'opa jord i jord. choule. Chattels. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. chiere. sense of bargaining. chire. jaw. kaupa. with the exception of land.. syllables ^ag-. It. mandibula. OFr.—Choke. a canting knave. Cheat. lower. a dealer.ing. cheeks. Lat. equiva. gagkezen.' kezen. to act as a rogue. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. a piece of moveable property. chear in the sense of victuals. the Lat. Fl. chatal. cattle. jaws. chapman. .' to exchange to gasp. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. kakaista. to deal ON. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. kauf. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. cita. changing. to coff—Yisi. to chop and change. the face. gig. — To check an account. G. to nauseate (to retch). Pr. kichen. cara. while it Bret. which is used in the to stutter.-^. a dealer in horses. kikottaa. dchec. the principal ' colloquial E. teeth . Pro v. which is the word in ceap. Bav. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. hawkmann. Bohem. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. a repulse. to buy. kaupiti. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. in widely separated languages by the Lat. keck. kek. Hence to cheat. 144 the It. koopen. aspect of a man. Ek dry and hard. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Check. a cheater. . Chear. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. force of the word. NE.— Chole. welcome heartily. Fr. bon marche. whence captale. kik. ceafl. . catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Soc. The gutGoth. giving or taking in exchange. to buy. Modern Slang. Du. cachinnari. Slav. in Fr. catalliim. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. to cough and hence either buying or selling. cattle. a tavern-keeper. CHEEK zitella. cattle. Chew. from AS.

breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. ation. F*-. a cricket. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Da. gap.Xo belch. E. czypti. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de.perly head. treat with affection. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. gous forms are G. Lat. frame by which the exertion is made. kdkel. Fin. It would Cheese. to kasa. X'C&s. — — . jaws Sw. Fr. kdke. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. to heap up such things for the purchoke. cyse.. the The use of the word kcesir. To make a shrill noise Chest.D.' to w. cerasus. to make a noise different word. Pl. From them the plish. kesten. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Cherish. chevir. mouth kek. to gasp. CHE. AS. chevron. gill of fish AS. (Kil. cufd. kok. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. the loose the game of checks. kjcebe. ceaplas. cisty G. cese. whence kasa-leipa. old bread. skratt. kopen. Chevaux de frise. Thus "we are brought din. caru. rattle in the throat. Jam. Sc. Prov. throat. Sw. ceg. Fr. castaneusj Fr. Cher. to gape gab. — 10 . jaw. to year. w. jouffle. ost. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. chests in OE. accomplishment cayed. condition of being taken. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. kasa. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. veluti piscium. quok. chiffe. whence czypulas. carnium. cabiron. to love. Sp. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. like a young chicken. E. achever. jaws. Sp. cough. chAtaigne. to belch. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. .their struggle for independence. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Prothroat of an animal . a chicken. See Case. kikna of dorum coacervatio. Pm. Lat.peep in the same sense. Lat. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . cheek. to choke with laughter.cirieggia. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. kaecke. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. Achievement. the mouth. &c. Kil. Hence chesten-nut. giffle. Lith. kasiiUPr. dersen . gabe. It. to swallow. incaseatus. to boken. a rafter . the hke. See Alchemy. In these latter forms we see the transIt. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. made rancid koka. king). clear the throat. ceaflas. subacidus. geagl. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. dear. caseus. AS. . jowl. Lat. to geahl. w. the throat. OHG. Cherry. chops. As the board to gasp i. equal squares of opposite colours.D. takes place in the formation of cheese. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. as meat and butter. kjakje. E. for cheese itself. Chekenyd or querkenyd. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. chesten. cheken. . jaw. to kep.. — — . rafters in heraldry. acquisition. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours.G. kapen. An imitative word. to prevent the attack of cavalry. — — . suffo. ON. to hold dear. rupted into chess. to choke. ichec.koppen. cheek.EP CHEVRON 145 on. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. schach. mollium congeries. cheek. ceac. chops. rennet. Sw. by laying up in a covered heap. cerise j G. practice seems to have been communiChevron. geafl. the neck.). as. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. jaw . Lith. Fr. schach. Sc. kikna. cheeks. hasten. E. Chemistry. cams. the final guttural is retained in writing. cabrio. make an end. things Da. kastanie. AS. See Chess. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. chaps. G. ca' — . kistej Lat. kirsche. Fr. cireggia. To Cheep. Fr. Du. ceocian. xaque. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. cherir. kjceve. kastr. cegio. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. prevail with. gullet. e. to bring to an end. the palate Chequer. then end. Chevisance. . throat. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. caws. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. chasi. squeak as a mouse. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Fris. . scacco. gapen. food. The Sw. Du. gaghel. Tutschek. nish source. w. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. a heap. G. N. by laying it in come to an agreement with. The name of creak as shoes. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. Chess. Chef.pose of acidifying them kasadr. /Ji2^/(W. kces. Analo. cista. quoka.

kimme. Chief. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. CHJME the radical form is unusual. as pointing out the origin of the E. beam. kitista. a head. the jole. chicoter. k'imm s. captain. a small cask OFr. : — a lump. strideo. and from the third E. or the broken noise of birds. then cold. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. while the Magy.-ill. E. kippa. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. mountain top . Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. Fr.— Gattel. knirschen. greloter is to shiver for cold. Pm. Fin. grelot). Now gan some courage unto him to take. A To Chew. from little to little. cidan. pip. chin. capo. kindeken. Halm. sonorous.— Cot. jaw. chicken. Probably from Fr. klagend tonen. in Walach. mouth. and not vice versd. a young bird. the least imaginable jot. Imitative of a loud clear sound. Magy. horn wood. And hence. ultimate origin of the Mite. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. chicaner. ach. AS. chill. cabriones. quivering sound which passes. For the see word Doit. Bret. capu. to contest about trifles. to titter is Du. the head. De finger killet mi for kalte. kidata.' my finger tingles with cold. has probably the same origin. Da. — It. the young of animals in general.— . Chaw. kind. chimb. choule. to go. to gasp for breath (Hal. E. kauchen. pipe. G. — . a cup. head. acute. a jaw. It. alter. a chicken. kuwe. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. kime. into a continuous shriU sound. CHEW . the cry of young . — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. or as E. Child. E. kinderen. to contest. cabarach. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . rafter . Chime. Brezza. aner. chillness or shivering. . a cup. chieftain. a chicken.^ to resound as a bell. cabar. jaw.D. Russ. rafter. capete. kop. crepo. ]). chillar. or chick. to chirp or peep like a chicken. tiukka.. w. Pr. The loss of the syllable it in Du. a cup cibaw. to smart. to chime. Swiss kiden. zitterti. killen. Prov. to raise the rim. chillrar. from the first of which is Lith. — Fin. to pettifog. rafter . the rim or edge of a vase. kibr. Chick. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. creak. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. kilderkin. kaw. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. chol. when the vibrations become very rapid. chawbone. Chigue. to twitter. keichen. Chill. jaws . chiler. hiss as meat on the gridiron. W. s. the same principle I regard On birds. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. chaps. caput.^ Hal. to the brim.D. a quid of tobacco. Fl. cap. See Chimmer. a chicken. G. killen. Du. Chitter. Fin. term is ssaru fu. deer's horn. kauwe. a little bit. tyuk. kauen. pipio. De chic en chic. cild. machouere. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. Lat. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. while didder is to shiver or citteren. tremble. Gael. czypulas. signifying properly shivering. chavel. . lead through the synonymous E. cica cica. Chimb. kimia. chef. or qf people talking rapidly. Gattel. queror. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. the throat. Fr. Pr. then as G. branchy. Du. 'Among these the G. gosling. knarren. to crackle. antler. Fr. pipio.peep. Fl. cheek. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. by driblets. Pm. to scold. To Chide. cabar beinne. caferu. twitter. kopf Du. pululo.). pi. kouwe. to Du. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Payer chiguet A chiguet. 146 brial. — Du. knit the brow cib-led. are formed Du. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. kimista^ . The Pl. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. kaau•wen. also the horizon. tiukkata. stake. chew or chaw.. as. To chitter. cebr.. . of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. Pl. tremble with cold. tiukkua. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Sp. Fin. chic. chavel. Tintillo. chiquei. — — Mother Hubbard. gills of a fish. the Ptg. tiuk. caprioru. chikat'. Kil. kieken. Palsgr. cib. to use the jaws. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. ' . Walach. tintelen van koude. a finch. a hen. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver.. from the second Lat. pole. horns of the house. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to chew. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter.

a szemrcU. the chin . In the same sense. pork) . applied to tremulous motion. to creak. kinne. to chink with laugh2. from 10 * ' Chia. bone . ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Hindost. It. schetteren. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. the mouth (jaws) . Chimera. Caminatum. clipping of coin. pare also Walach. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. a thorn. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. E. which differ from each other only as Chirk. the jaw. eschin^e (de pore). have been used to designate the spine. Chyrme or chur. Gloss. killed by Bellerophon. chhint. Fr. and the Du. chin .). the whooping cough. skina. Diez de. ciarlare. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. and from a similar sound to boil gently. — . chink. in Hal. It. plodere. It. Chymerynge. — . gena. part lion. G. A . spina. and light. sound on beginning to boil. name Then. to chine. to chirp . kumina. the cheek (jaw) . Du.to divide or Du. Primarily a shrill sound. as the chink of money. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. to creak. verynge or dyderinge. E.Lat. Chit. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . simmer. sonus the backbone Lat. a thorn. zirken.' Phaer's Virg. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Gower in Hal. . disCot. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. gen. . to tattle. to squeak in It. a Kuttn. vincially used in the sense of a crack. cheminde. Ptg. Prov. tremulous motion. the cheek. cisello. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. to gape. are In like manner E. Sp. to simmer. backe. ykvvQ. . The change from the sound ter \s. in the same crack. Fr. . ter.to chirp. backBut she withal no worde may soune. sound. shiver and the chyver of Pr. a hall Mid. j^lf. the jaw. ciseau (for cisel). to prattle czirpti. to tremble. tsongeni. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Sw. cleft. esquina.schricken. a fire-place. et garrire . to chink. Chitterling. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . from the geon's lancet.iron. chatter . hus. kieck hoest. To Chitter. czirszkti. To chirp or twitter.czirbti. Gascoigne in Todd.Huloet in Hal. genou (pi. Chisel. schrick. hollow. all these imitative terms being minata. sounding deep. tinnire. hiss Pm. See Chap. Pr. quavering of the voice. sparkle. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. CHITTERLING sonus acutus.sharp. sonants. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. eschine. Du. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. caperd. schina. stridere. chirp. to open chirriar. Lat. to chirp. bx-eak the back of schena. Chip. and bodily movement in shimm. cheek. Bret. See Chark. KinneGr. to prattle . Pm. the chine. rustle. 147 kimina. Fr. representing connected together. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Huloet. crepare. Kil. then to any narrow crack or AS. kink hoest. — . Chintz. — — — — — . tschirpen. See Bright. Chine. as a bell kommata. to sizel. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. i. up and down. Bav. from Lat. Chimney. fyr. fissure. eschiner. It. as a large bell . klincken. cisaille. The small entrails of a hog. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. esquena. to sound. Chink-cough. It. quivering or shakyng for colde. as birds the mouth. Magy. To Chimmer. Sp. Lith. twitter caminus. Chin-coug^h. Fr. companied. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. also vibrans. as the/ is preserved tering. Fr. . We make of a French niff an English chitterling. or chyFrigutus. epine. cincel. tsengeni. clashing of weapons. and chim-mer. but or cry as a parrot. cinan. yivtiov. keich husten. zirpen. a chap. Chitter. AS. resonance . twinkling light. The desig. cinne. caminsects. schiena. Chink. to sound deep or the Gr. to murmur. chick. schetteringe. Cot. a crowing sound in recovering breath. G. komista. a surkik hosta. Sp. — .er. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. See Chats. komia. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. to chirre. hiss chirlar. dial. clangor tinniens kummata. Sp.. kumista. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin.. squittire. To chink with laughter. a chink or fissure. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. genawi. flaw Hal. chits. do. caminata. spina. Chat.

by which they are Fr. Body and Soul. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. disposition. developments of the same radical image. kaup.' At last he dwelt . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. kieser. to break off in small shive. signify to kiss. to wrinkle. kushevati. ^euw. The I go to prove them. kustigen. ON. Gr.V)^x. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . chap hands. fine threads of flowers. — See Cheek. Fr. to tempt. to try. Equivalents in the SlaFr. of E. schoch.vonic languages are Pol. to taste. full. &c. G. as green as leeks. taste. Swab. keuren. select. kiusan. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. chimp. OHG. . chawdron. chatter. To Choke. chattering. Serv. kiesen. and Vf. to shiver. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . a goose's giblets. * To Choose. Jam. chaup. chceur. of an angry — — — ' ' — . okusyti. to chap. whence choleric. civette. keypa. heaped measure. a heap. I. koren. shoot . Goth. ments of the knightly class. ^S. from chevalier. Choice. curly . as with a blow. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. try. wein didder for cold. Fr. a blow. fresure.yEuffM. kiusan. are used in the same sense. To Chop. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. scheve. haslets. kusid. wrath. the inwards of an animal. and It. full to overflowing. a young . schevel-steen. 2. — Chock-full. lead us on to Lat. Walach. word is more likely to be from Lat.' who shall not taste death. cive. CHOP kros. ent quarter. coro. 19. gdnse gekrose. ON. a calf's pluck or chaldron . Chivalry. G. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. a fragment. taste. Choice is probably direct from Fr.' Verie coinme Cot. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. try. to Compare also Pol. to ^cleave . . cke. kor6n. &c. a wine taster. a company of singers or dancers. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. . . —Chorus. to taste.D. xiv. or original meaning is preserved in G. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Schmid. rare. chibble. skifa. Swiss kust. Chives. then to try. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. pluck. anger. . to taste. propagated. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. Enn Sigridur sem ' . caperd. Chives are also a kind of small onion. chiffe. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. krussyi. coup. g'schochet voll. to hack. specially with an application to theatrical performances. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. gekrose. . to palpitate . As kushnuti.ceosan. Lat. then to shiver. a rag. to taste . i. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. to try. to choose. Gr. x^poc. a knight. from kraus. to exchange horses. G.— B jag E. to try. choix. and in kosten. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. to stop geschoppt voll. .. approve. chife. gustare. a ruff or frill. The manners and senti. the ridges prove. Chap. wkusit' prikushat. a ruff. to ing is doubtless to taste. kalbs gekrose. Warwickshire coff. and N.gust. to experience. cape. from %u\i). to taste. to taste. choppe. — — — . Prov. called cMtters in the N. Choleric. — Cholera. all seem slate . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. a chive. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. the small parts of the roots of plants. chorus.ffrill. whence Lat. Luc. Yr. Chuck-full. shiver. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. also calPs. crammed Choir. kruszki. bile. experience valerie. pieces . to clap up Hal. to turn. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. seallion or unset leek. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. schiefer. a scale or fragment P1. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. in the same language. •- Russ. arkiusan. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. The Sc. Cavalry. See try. prove. to strike hands . cepa. The . Boh. a twittering. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. %o\ifa.freze. chives. ruffs. kausjan. to prove. kiezen. to try . a calf's chaldern of E.. chippe. a small slice or slip of anything . to chap at a door . cut up into — See Chats. chock full. causir. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. and in this sense the * small pieces. friller. Fr. it is probable that the root kus. kushati. an onion. by the vibrations of sound or motion. kbhren. gusten. Gr.

quappe. chatter . clogs. yiSA. chevane. e. chouquette. XpvaaXic. kobe. Madam. Gr. consecrated oil to be used in baptism .' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. — Chrisom. kubb. To Chouse. chevane. for to defraud. Jam. chapineria. klopper. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. capito. as Du. Kil. cob.' They are forebuyers of quheit. thumb Fl. Confounded with the bullhead. Nominale in Nat. —Shakespeare. the teeth to chatter . chronicles. to speak thieves' slang. kaw.povucd. From the Turkish Chiaus. . 49. chub. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. kubbr. Peace. which was written 27. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. chack. In Sc. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. In the Alchemist. a The What dhy ^. cavena. gull. chrysalis (Plin. Du. as in Fr. clat. To Chop logick. Sw. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. chapin. thick-set. Fr. claquer. chroniques. cauvette j Fr. cow-couper. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along.—Chuokstone. syllables chat. The Turk was here As one should say. kauwe. capitone. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. a stump. gold. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It.(. Chuck. . ceo. cheviniau. the same word with the It. Chronicle. Picard.• — . merchant. A jackdaw. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Chord. I bring you the Cloughs. Fr. a trafficker in souls. OE. E. to chatter. a lump or piece chump. the intestine of an animal. P. chuet. to overturn. time ra . The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. Gr. by the Robert Shirley. monedula. Fr.X. Wall. civetta. ' ' What's that? Dap. gull. and we actually find champman for chapman. whence — E. Cot. Marin. from kloppen. klompe.. — Quabbe. Sp. in i6io. chevin. a bullhead. e. chouette. dealing. who took in the Turk- clack. kaufen. short piece kubbug. ON. noble Doctor. to knock. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. Come. Ant. kowe.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. peace. Anachronism. dial. Alchemist. E. cangiare. -chron-. p. sent before him a Chiaus. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. To coup. xpi'^lia. — — — . prattle . See Change. a thick piece. Du. capita. Chough. Lat. E. cauc. Fr. Chrysalis. Borgoens happen. Fr. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed.. i. traffic. Chub. a messenger or envoy. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. caker. See Chaff. of which such strings are made. chrisme. capitanus. the string of a musical instrument originally. G. forms are Chrism. caqueter. in Chaucer.— Chevin. choucas. overset. high clog. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. one who buys and sells horses or cows. If I discover. dial. koppe. kaej Lith. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Chopino. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. to clack.).— Landnamabok. caphatenus. Gr. cresmeau. connected with G. xftovoq. kolbe (club). — Dief. chop. to cant. bearand aits. xop5>}. kaulhaupt (club-head. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. plump. That Face. whence e. equivalent to the E. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. whence the Fr. A fish with a thick snout and head. applied to an owl in that language. to strike in the hand. cambiare. whence apparently the Sup. kowej Sax.' Jam. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. What do you think of me. we find the following passage Dap. a small fish with a large head. AS. that will thank chiaus — you richly. 4. &c.\^s. slipper . To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Gr. cheap.sohola. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. to turn over. E. ley in Giiford. gobio capitatus. fat. an offence against the fitness of times. chapma?i.). — . soul-couper. or miller's kaycke . because she would not endure this husband chopping. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face.

tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. a fellow. a douse on the tores. ciuffo. Du. Chunk. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . to sparkle. chife. . Lat. in the face. chofe (Grandgagnage). i. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. chakil. cado. kjami. Jennings. ashes. sinter. ceaflas. to turn from blossom to fruit. Wall. sindr. a man.for the residue of stone coal. kiorne. Sw. to jaw chack or snap. an old man. ceffore. cinders used disjunctively. ceaplas. sintel. a man. Da. a lump. KaxXij?. Churn. * Cinder. chack-stone. — . in Sc. log of wood. joffu. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. See Cheek. surly. dust. Fr. marrow. Sc. Lat. — — A — ' ' — . Sicerawry face ceffata. sive piratiam facere sciant. to fall at or on. thence a belt. domhnach.— Chu%.rendered by Kil.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. See Ceiling. It is certain. a girding on. Cider. Fris. The spelling of chider has Chump. a pebble . the snout of an animal. so as to make the happen . to make a rippling noise. as Fr. Hence -cid-. chofu. lamak. pp.' And cold. -cise. &c. kaerle. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Probably from It. sindra. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. e. klakka. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. -eris. . dial. karl. ON. to fall. x^^i?. C^z^j^ churHsh. Cleland in Jam. chaps. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. calculus. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. fat-cheeked. to churn. Gr. a man. Gothic nations. pith. to him a sudden blow. blow on the I io6 in Mur. to determine incision. OFr. a pebble. AS.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. ladre from Lazare. ChurL husbandman. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. whence deciduous (of trees). scoria. -cido. as a board. tindra. to separate the kernel of the milk. to form grains of butter. cinctus. comp. -cide-. whence ON. to make a aiKipa. ccedo. e. accido. cinis. The origin ation. . Ir.V//a'6'?. have given rise. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. To chuck in the fall from. gffe. joufflu. Du.^. G. to Newsp. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. cheeks Cincture. chack or stane-chacker. As AS. Cob. cut off.D. as Epkema explains it.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. AS. then the on oh StX iv roXt. kakka. a resounding object. kerl. cheek. cinctura {cingo. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. -cisuiri). i. &c. countryman. Gr. a cutting an old chuff. Cieling. 24. Lat. In Sc. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. flower. sindel. Fr. we have to chack. to To Chuckle. a cutting round. has been impugned which it has really no connection. with It the Lord's house. ON. sicera. to throw out sparks. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. . chuffy. Lat. incido. to cut decide. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. to cause the milk to grain. Diss. ceorl. a miser. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. set kerti. to gird.. as in E. . to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. . Aasen. or choice part of a thing . swollen or puffed up Cot. cidre. a rustic . tie about). in circumcision. ceffo. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . male person. Chuff. — of the two words. -cis-. to strike clatter. cendre. calx. from Lat. G.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. casum (in comp. a husband. to fall upon decide. Du.— . however. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. as water running over rocks or stones. Church. kern. The derivation from Kvpiasov. chops. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. spuma metalli. but by way of explan. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. ON. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). geaflas. jaws. the kernel. See Cheek. whence church. kernjen. KvptaKolg. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). or. Ka-^aiva. giffle.' he adds. residue of burnt coals. kirna. from Lat. Wall.

Du. kringr. cittadella. Sp. Du. cry out . to bawl. lump. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. . creak les dents. . a shoot. klopati. klateren. Hence Incite. klammer. &c. G. sound of blow. clobyn. cry. vociferation. klemte. a cleansing place. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . kluV. glamm. CION See Tinder. clack-dish. whence cistiti. So a light. From Arab. Clump. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a boss . Comp. a clod Russ. 'mass. smack. to appeal. claquet de moulin. rattle . compared with It. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. klompe. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. lump. or clap-dish. to toll . to chatter. slam. in the frequentative form. empty Golius. cisterna. sound- — hands figures. It. to call. to mention. Dan. In Fr. klap. The Gr. W. domern. the tongue. noise — — a cistern.' sione. ball kloben. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. as caverna from cavus. klappen. chijfre. Alt. klater-busse. cisterna. klumbr. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. a city. a reservoir Probably from Lat. a for water. to chatter . a knob. klubb. clat. lucerna. glambar. Lat. to call by name. and Sp. clangor avium . for Cion. a young and tender plant. trunk. To Claim. . klimp. -cis-. Gr. a'upiav. Lat. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). to clap at a theatre. cion. claquer crash. cifra. a clod. uproar. klacke-busse. Gael. to knock. Lat. Fr. -cite. See Circle. or quill to draw waier through Fl. klambr. civitas. klump. fall. Fr. a rattle Fr. Bohem. Clamp. prattle. a Pol. a whip. clog. klepati. of citta. or split with noise. chupon. Lat. circle. may cite w. Scion. ON. scion or sucker. clambar. ruin. a block. —Civil. a judgment cern. klamp. . chatter . area. clamp. cit^. sifr. See Crankle. ciste. citrus. * Cistern. circum. klabb. rattle. noise. ter. prattle. and clash. . a ball. klacken. around. Chaste. as in Sp. the place of . a Lat. to cry out.— . crack. a kind of rattle. Lat. E. cittade. Sw. a. Circum-. lump. a ball. parallel root is slam. Citadel. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. It. ON. clatCot. a circle. a mass. . . cion. clamer. a rattle . clack. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. The syllables clap. city. as. Mack. City. Hal. . to summon or call on. clamare. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. belonging to cities or social life . claquer. clapper. excite. wasserkasten (water chest). radical identity of the Fr. Citron. clot ON. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. lump. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. We .. crack. Cot. with an initial s instead of c. log. — (Dozy) ing blow. Cite. Recite. clapping of klacke. to chatter. stimulate. to go. twig. to clatter. clamp. claquer. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. Fr. ring. cieo. sajira. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. . lash . clamras. to be empty. to cluck. KipKog. cittd. sound. lump of wood or with the nasal. about. To Clack. clasp. circ2tlus. lump . scion. around. The notion of a lump. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. See -cid-. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. a split. mass . On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. to make to go. bunch.to suck. Sw. a kind of pipe. civilis. suck). sip. glam. gutter. a cistern. a loud uksa slamketi. biw. a city. babble . formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . to strike. a circle. sprig. a whirlwind. Clam. E. Excite. . clap. KpiKoe. a pop-gun. kringla. to set in motion by means of the voice. It. klqb. Lap. clap. dob. Arab. * Ciplier. and. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. hringr. is traced by Gr. Dan. globus. clack. bunch . accordingly find the roots dab. cito. G. klappe. cluster. to clack. chest. klekotati. the door was slammed J slamem. Lat. a lump Du. Gr. castus). a citizen . a place See place hiddern. . to call. We . a ring. crack. cista. a block. dim. Lat. outcry. from chupar. to gnash the teeth. tinnitus . to cleanse. Du. a lemon tree. Gael. chupon. forms — — — parent plant. ern. citujn. klak. Fr. a lump Lat. a circle. circum. —Circuit. civis. a hiding-place. claim. sphere gleba. clack-box. sindri. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. circa. ON. clump. Circle. and E.

The equivalent of Lat. uproar. klemmen. klappen. a place underground where rabbits breed. dank. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. or klamp-vogel. klynge sig op. to gingle. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klubber. klappre. . a trap. klemmen. bond. a claw . to seize. clangor. AS. kleppe. clink. tattle. where- A — unto they retire themselves. apprehend . dang. clapas. chief. to climb. Du. To Clamber. klem-vogel. damor. to do anything with a clap. buckle klamp. to climb. dapier. resonance klingen. is used in the sense of secretly. a hawk. Dan. pressed close or hard together. who occuG. viscosity . diver. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. Du. hook. a sound made by a still . to claw oneself up. A i. accent. for tame conies. klavre. viscous. Clan. to glue. take hold of. klippe. — Climb. cluster. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to knock. Russ. a burr. from the w. privately. to patronus. — Cot. massy. rattle. kleppe. clapper of conies. to pinch. grasp. cleave. anything hidden. closely analogous to that of the fast.1. children. damras. to starve. E. Du. as the clapping of hands. These are imitations of a loud. c). a sound made by a lighter clink. crowd . to hide. sound object . . tenacious. cramp-iron. bandage. children. solid. is a nasalised form of gripper. rumour. and hence to pinch . gum. holdfast. a stick. the in many languages. klimmeii. The E. chatter.' to take coals to Newcastle. compression. from birdlime. Clank. cramp. dapi^. a bird of prey. Swiss kldbem. klamme. ring as metal. beat. klettern. kleben. Lang. Gael. kloben. as the Lat. G. yf. E. dam. of money Gael. of which the locative case. kleppen. brawl. G. to clutch or cling oneself up. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. Halma.. tingle. celo produces Fin. hold. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. klang. tone. dee. sound .152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. prison. a noose . salafa. — with hunger. club . Sw. to hold fast with the . a sound. coagulated cream. scendants. to clap. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. descendants . and that from celo. daver. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. E. a stone See Claim. to dame. nature . G. gripe. strait. klebern. In like manner Du. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . stick. tight. klibber. Clapper. dapier. klemmen. conceal. klamre. klepati. cream Manx doan. Clap. sticky Hal. klette. Clamour. cling. to knock. klobber-saen. originally a heap of large stones. but perhaps not directly from it. of the children. klatten. offspring. to stick conceal. to cleave or stick. Clink. B. dia. clap. Du. chatter. Clang. These words To are closely connected with damp. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . clang. dambar. gliong. kluppel. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. G. — — . klopfen. klepel. clajnmy. clap. to hook things together. a whip. Lat. dientes. Hence the Fr. OE. Dan. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. seize. sound. klappen. Dan. Swiss kletten. and hence moist. Dan. in a hidSen place. klank. dial. &c. clandestine. also to clog up. sound of the trumpet . clammy brace. dam. clamber. beating. To sticky. dink Du. ney. The Fr. Mampe. to. to daub pinch. klynge. clear sound. pinching. a heap of stones. klepanie. sound. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. . dren. strain . the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place.er. dap up. clibby. clasp. E. klam. See Clam. glambar. compress. . run to lumps Clandestine. to climb. contraction. G. ancestor. klampen. to hold to pinch. tremble . tinkle. Clamp. klammern. whence sala. — Lat. a claw. to clap on. substances of a stickydam. to clamp. clann. klamm. hands or claws to grasp. a heap of stones or other things piled up . narrow. G. — . . a craCmp. dem. adopted Lat. To clap in E.' klibba. The root which gives rise to klibb. to Hal. to climb . salaan. Salainen. a loud tingle. to climb. to cling. to climb. to stick or glue. to beat. klammer. .p correspond- ' without order. Fr. clav\f. knocking. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. dial. dienklebber. dandestinus. B. Bohem. a rattle . grimper. dam immediate modifications — . Bav. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. dam. klam7n. with cramp-irons. to glue. to Sw^. G.

as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. a sphere . a.w or u on the other. clausum. klase. whence kleuer. 269. kleeven. pet. noise. a claw. .Gr. a. Sw. — tells us. blab. a lash. klampe. glcis. in the sense of a mass or lump. a buckle. a heap. klatschen. compression. clopa. Identical with ON. Lat. a lump. Rayn. Dan. Du. rubellum. K\a. Du. a club or massy stick. to snap. buckle. from clinging to the tree which supports it. or as G. It. . classis. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. kiosk bicza. insularum nexus . ictus resonans. cinnamon. Mask ! plask ! thwick. klos. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe.oi. clair. Pol. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. we pass to the E. To clew. the primary origin clapa. Thus from Lat. a lump . clausula. chiaro clear. to do anything with a . puUs. klatscha pop-gun. Claret. mass. clump. klatschen. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. also a knell for the dead. cloi. Clew. from the resemblance to a key. nawith stanis. a complete sentence. chiarino. clew or fasten upon a thing. cluster. a clod. Clause. as G. is used in Sc. climp. — Kiittner. with a reddish tint. to knock. to clash as arms. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. Klatsch- a pop-gun . kletse. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. chiarello. hawk. to rattle . sauna de classes. klatsche. he of white and red grapes mingled together. —Kil. hook. klaskad. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du.. chasguear.\x\xvn. syrtium junctura. to fasten. Commonly made. from its use in fastening things together. From clairet. The collar-bone. flap. nail. Analogous Jam. clairon of a trumpet— It. klaequivalent to clack or clap. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Lang.to cra.ck a whip. Fr. uproar. vin clairet. Originally clasis. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. under three modifications dava. to fasten together . a bird with powerful talons. and old red rose-water. Prov. So Pol. KXeiSi. clarinado. as Mod. ansa. contraction. — Clarinet. i. sphaera. — Clarion. Fr. klaeret. klouwe (Kil. and shrill-sounding trumpet. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. mass. and through v into a. biichse. kluczka. thwack . Gr. to draw it up into a bunch. and clavis. klamme. ivy. a kind of small. bawling. clatter. The b readily passes into gleba. Du. applied in their harness. an ending. &c. The form clew. it is called clamming. Claw. chiizjj-o. Clatter. to patter. clas. klijven. locket of a door. globus. skeria-klasi. Russ. Wyutoun in Jam. Fr. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. somewhat clear. schnalle. Eya-klasi.). claw (what fastens together. klot. klc^i. same class with w. klampvoghel. Kil. stop of an organ. klauw. sound of the foregoing description. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Lat. &c. from scknallen. a claFr. a clasp. Nawith stavis. straight-mouthed. to clap . clavis. chatter. clarin. to cleave. a water made of aquavitse.Z. thence a definite head of an edict or law. fragor . in the sense of a claw. But clasp or elapse. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition.It.— CLARET clamp. assembly. Lat. as it is written by Chaucer. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Clash. to animals Sp. forms are the Du. a little hook . Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. In E. teren. vinum helvolum. a key origmally a crooked nail. Du. clavus. a nail. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . clamp. Thus from clamp. kleuen. G. Class. globus. clew. is preserved in Lang. a bunch. the collar-bone. pellet . biichse. a ball. ghespe. a distribution of things into groups. Cot. e. From claudo. fracas. crying. klaterbusse. Owl and that by which cleave to. klouwe. Sp. claret win e. an on the one hand. to end. Lat. Du. seizes) . gaspe. vin claret. row aii/iaTos. to shut. diver. the cracking of a whip. dap. fibula. Nightingale. Clavicle. rion. a key. a key KKtitid. klucz. It. Clasp. Serv . but not the full red of ordinary red wine. clairon. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. which signifies a ball in E. Du. waU. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. In the same way is formed the OE. to ring in such a manner for the dead. Eau clairette. E. klauwe. subrubidum.

and Celtic glan. pellet. in two ways. Bav. tongs. glorious. of iron worn on shoes by country people. . as Lat. to cleave. . geklonken. glatt. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal.). voice. Die zaak is zS. Lat. glan. rive. splendid pohshed. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. kluyte. pure. the fork of the body. gleit. G. glitta. klor. a lump. a one end. a — — . . bogs cous. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. A — A Clement. celebrated . as ON. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. it cleave together. rivet. and Dan. dams. klinka. provinciaUy termed dout. glbram. klirren. to stick to. klinken. famous. Da.— . or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. daggy. Du. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. kleevig. door-latch. klinken. klyft. Sw. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. kleg. to clench. cliquet. Sc. from nitere. Du. klink. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . G. to clink or sound. klinke. kleben. to fasten. to clinch a nail. gingle. the original . glbr. doff. Probably a modification of the word doitt. is fast and sure. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. viz. Fr. sleek. danche. cloven wood. to stick or adhere . glitnir. kluft. klouen. to chink. kldnkelein. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. clibby. speech . to be composed. . clear. The word may be — . glan. The word is . sticky. Thus from G. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. From dob. to shine . to fasten E. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. dedgy. loam. To Clench. pure. 154 CLAY dutch. Sw. kluftholz. klceg. dags. . Omklinken. radiant. See Clog. Cleft. — : A rivet. to clinch GB. rift. klag. Clean. together . Lat. 2. date is AS. clash.— Clag. either by the coherence To Clepe. river. kluit. klov. AS. or of a tree. klinke. a claw or talon. from diquer. split. See Clam. Axletree clouts. neat. a lump. Du. klincke.Q. Clay. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. glent. a cleft or fissure.' was nailed to a rock. clean. . cleave. Clear. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. Sc. neat. that was Torriano. E. kloue. Cleat. and. diquetcr. calm. dial. Kil. klove The Dan. holding together. a cleft. dench. a key. klinke. a mass. ON. to sound or make a noise . an object is simply cleft. G. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. kloben. glance . i. G. and E. found in other cases. W. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . nitidus. merciful. from the clinking of the latch. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. ON. conserere antklankjan. This word is used in two business is finished off. the two parts of Du. This is probably one of the clean. (Cot. clear. a latch. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. glan. opposite senses. kloben. Wilbraham. polish . as explained under G. Du. to dag ox dog. that was a striking proof. smooth. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. sticky earth. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. clink. Da. Da. clean. a in that of sphtting. a bunch of When flax). E. vissticky . kla:g. clay . to tear or cleave asunder. The proper meaning of the word is shining. lump. chaps in the skin. to glitter. Dan. clear. a fissure. klutsch. hook. kloben. pure . pretty. a noose. or from being divided into two parts. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. E. klank. a fissure or division See Cleave. klijveii. as Fr. dut. explained from the klinken. a plate. words applicable sight. the To Cleave. Sw. Du. glint. kleg. Clinch. the latch of a door. a clincher. bend in a stream. Du. polished. klouen. klinken. gaklankjan. give a shrill sound Jr. The Dan. to shine. vice. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. dinquet kleeven. a cleft. sticky . Clemency. G. deot. clemens. B. as the Du. glindse. klafwa. a mass. a noise. seem formed dial. to Brilliant. to 2. kleverig.— Claggy. to fasten. gentle. clean. ON. dag. klieben. klirre. Halma. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. glandse. From clap. doggy. mud. klieuen. glor-mhor. bright. to separate into parts. To call. shine. viz. Mar. clout. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. a flash. clean. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. Gael.

rock. as from derido. a cleft in a rock . pulsare. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. chatter. klouwe. The Sc. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. on. dial. one admitted to the tonsure. cligner. dook (identical with E. &c. speak. sink. to snatch. diofian. kliket. to prate. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . clima. would have been derida. cliquer. klikklakken. a claw or clutch. derjon.). a ladder. declivity. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. clatter. gleg. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. ginally from dob (extant in W. We movement catch. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. 3. to tattle. In I Peter v. has kl'dver. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. claw or talon to dek or deik. dergi. Det er en Mover kerl. clep. cliff. dicher. crack. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. a trigger. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. a cliff. precipice. cleopian. to move. derecia. a latch . call. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. verge). rugged ascent. d See Clan. klever. Da. littus. to confess . a precipice. Clever. cleft. kleppen. globus. AS. duik. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. quick of perception. a clicket or clapper. -Toe (from KXivm. corresponding to the Sc. lively. syn. a latch. deik. slope . frap- per rudement une personne.dergie! Wiclif in R. the knocker of a door. one of the clergy. clerus. a hold. Sp. Commonly derived from deliver. expeditious. skard. clack. abrupta rupes . had a form. prattle. to talk as a parrot.. rupes . dink. above the pole. dough. KkrifoQ. to stir. IS5 Du. klaffen. Lat. clever. Klover i munden. Rouchi cliche. diquette. derigo. Happen. . rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. crepare. Sc. what so men clappe or crie. the dick of a latch or a trigger. to tattle. deuch. Norm. Client. a clerk . a lump. /cXi'fia. say. deudi. click it. Bav. name. highest is attained. dever. with hamarskard. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. Now the OE. Clerk. . klinke. Somner.— Clicket. that is a clever feUow. Lat. Claw. deuck. on. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Du. dexterous. klif. sonare. exactly Gr. clypian. a hump. in the sense of active. nimble. cleft in a rock. has also deik. a ball of twine. and hence climate. Cliff. to catch. crackle. which is used in Scotch and N. hamraklif. klinge. Chaucer. clyf. Click. a hook. ready of speech. Du. dial. G. The origin is the Gr. derigon. the clergy. dutch). e. But the Dan. click. Cot. to cleave. diver. which in Mid.Lat. a baU of yarn. climate. agile. cleugh. ' — — by a movement of such a nature.— Clue. — have the notion of a short quick in E. stein- kluppen. cart that tilts over. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God.) Brai. cautes. dial. and (with the nasal) — clincher. . a latch. cliof.' ii. to wink. Climax. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . is NE. icXi/ja?. cave . from clifian. —Vocab. de ripa.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. snatch. — — A . to clack. as a click with the tongue. corresponding to Fr. klok klep- crepitare. babble. whence Fr. neither as having lordship in the. cleke. score7i clif. Gr. ized . klika. a figure mentioned. in precisely the same sense as the E. Sw. klaiv. as Lat. Climb. click. light-fingered. chat. deik. chatter. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). Dunbar in Jam. as Sc. kloof. to teU tales. Clam. dek. ravine. a mill-clack . Jam. Fr. clif. chatter. rapidus from rapio. glomus. OE. Climate. . quick in motion. Du. clever. and hence deik. from Gael glac. klippe. 3. to cry. a clew. temperature. dichet. or an object character- Clerical. duke. cliquet. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. to sound an alarm to clap. a sphere. kleppe. kliv. call. a tumbril. Lat. Hence Lat. to rattle. Clergy. catching. cleft of a hill. Clew. klikker. to catch. CLINCH De . G. a lot. a child's or clack . See Clamber. seize (Hal. Boh. pen. dob. rock. clap. to bend. in rhetoric. to seize. scar. the clergy clericus. precipices. klippe. See Clench. clif- stanas. region not observe it. an inclination. See AS. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. CLERK sound of a blow. klinket. or Sc. click. it must be observed. klev. a lazar's clicket or clapper.

to cluster. as we now say three or four o'clock. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. . w.. -cliv-.'— Shaks. clino. Da. To Cling. sloping forwards. klipa. a separate portion. cochl. clips. a hood. I. and 'E. knippen. Swiss klungele. as G. kima. Ang. a woman's mantle . * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. at first probably on a wooden board. Cloak. to cling to a thing. like cling. Sw. declivis. to slope or bend . klungeln. iissura. difficulty . Esthon. Ir. klocka. to snip. incline. shears. Een kliks bolter. from klepati. klo^gen. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Serv.D. to pinch klupe. klunker. Lat. pinch. dial. klepalo.. a bell. 156 -cline. The E. difficulty. Lat. Fr. quincailler. klok. to clink auf.D. clog. kolbe to E. nip. Flem. Du. or bagging clothes. slant. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. klungelin. gUong. Sw. a lump of butter. . klynge. ON. G. to shrink up. . g. brett-glocke. to bend downwards . and a similar syllable without the /. to shrink up. schnippen. . hlinian. verklungeln. tuft. Decline. clangere. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. incline. klinken. Du. clutch. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. toga muliebris. ring clag. sticky.und zuk-lippen. &c. fetter. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. dag. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. ON. a clog or fetter for a beast . E. ' . klik. Du. kXiVu. cloche. N orman clincailler. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. a clock. kol- The word . to crowd together klynge sig ved. acclivis. kukla. Walach. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. ON. toga. knot klynge. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. to AS. G. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. pinch. as thick or curdled liquids. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. klippur. Pl. disposed to a thing. compress . recline. — a mantle. G. clique. Gr. to knock. to ring. by bits. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Sw. especially of something soft or clammy. hill . to make a loud noise. to clap or clack. klippen. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to wither. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. kliks. Du. speaks of a ' clung bat. 2. klippe. club). dial. a beU. Swiss klokken. four of the bell. pallium. G. * Clod. . is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. a faction. to wither. outcry. 'Till famine cling thee. clinker. . klupen. Sw. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Cliofue. a bell. to strike. and so' to contract.ginglej Fr. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. glungelin. to beat on the board. dial. a snare. chcng. claw. globulus' (Gl. to beat. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. a lump G. knippchen. glocke. related to clock. Clink. ten. met. dial. a rising ground. Fr. E. klippa. bow. . kolki-laud. . gang. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. S w. knippe. whence E. in Schmeller) klunk. See Clang. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel.— KSS. hluccti.' for a dry stick. klocke. to . also to form a compact mass. klippa. clato make a noise. klinka. kldpp. To Clip. klunge. -CLINE make pinch. The notion of a loose moveable substance. G. Sw. Sussex peasant AS.— Clot. a ball of thread . sloping downwards . from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. klak... klaka. OHG. klincke. straits. a lump. a cluster. to form one mass with. a tinman. noise. Bohem. to sound sharp. -atum. Bohem. kleppe. parva ruptura. to snap or fillip schnippen. to snap kneipen. clingan. hooded . Kil. Bi klik uti klak. to pinch. to lean. sloping upwards procUvis. Gael. kluben. To stick to.' From Pl. to clunge. — clot. to snap tongs. clinke. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. to lean backwards. klicke. to crowd or squeeze chingy. cloak. klocke. See Cowl. klingen. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. rima. kluppe. also to wink . clivus. to resound. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. G. Hal. hluk. hlinen. Clock. clock is a variation of clack. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. to clip. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. . To cut with shears.

. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. a skittle-ground klos- sen. a log. gelatinous. 3. slab. wabbling from Du. • lump. . to play at bowls. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. chiuso. to shut in. I clodde. loose. or drablyn with separate existence. claudo. or loppern. splash. bespotted with mire E. with Fr. to rattle or shake to and fro. zoccoli. Pl. loose trowsers. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. lobberen. klotzschuh. kleck or lack. a blot. in forms like Du. blot. Du. G. without. je amoncele. kleck. In the same way Dan. from Du. Pr. cloth. Pm. I doda clod. be&c. -cludo. MHG. Cloister. clogs for the feet klakk. klottern. kl'dnken. clatk. . kloden. schlott.rge lump. geschlotter (as E. dirt. a monastery. Fr. . Fr. . loblolly. a clog. kladde. miry laggerit. laggyn. . foreclose. clotted milk klotte. or E.1a. curdled. lump of something soft . paddle or dabble in the wet. G. shaky. klateren. to flap as loose clothes. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. m&se noch stain. klunkern. and thus seem endowed . bemired. zocco. and Du. clammy loam. tJokok. Gr. neither spot nor hang loose. He was a man without a dag.'^ Palsgr. -clusum. Mat. clogs. mire. clos. aspersion. tuditare. pludre. lobbig. whence klack. forbidden by 17 Ed. to claggock. It. to slop or spill liquids. meat from Du. and E. finish . to spill liquids. clausum. log. shut up. a clod. to flounder in the wet. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. fat. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. hanging loose and full. klag. tramp in wet or mire. schlotter. . kloteren. and Gael. slops). shut up. Swiss schlott.. Fr. closed. like G. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. to rattle. to bubble. mud klcEg. AS. a portion of something soft and adhesive. I clodde. thick sour milk. . spot of dirt. klotz. we pass to E. enOE. clausum. kloteispaen. dirt. lopin. slobber. plod. spatter. to wabble. clot. klakken. The game called ninepins. slops slodderen. to shut. truncus. klos. a lump from Du. Lat. Klak also. is a blot on one's character. to close against one. Fr. lopperig. motzen. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. . to cling locks. . figer. lobberen.— Clothe. wide bagging clothes. Lat. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. Du.dial. Clog. klod. a blot. close. daustrum. . lob. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. compared with clump. Close. daggerey. loose mud. claggy. from Fr. dunch). slop. kloster. clotted locks Dan. to shut up. klac. slobbe. Hence inclose. from claudo. congeler. to lobberig. g. paddle. A — — A Thus from Bav. clorre. dial. watery. of something clammy or heavy. His heart was franlc without a flaw. motte. . schlattern. a babbler. terminate. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. to bedaub. of a body of any kind. be found rattle. kloten. beklakken. The origin of clod and clot is to .). der like whey or blode whan it is colde. lumps of butter. .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. Idppern. to rattle. to sup up liquid food. in accordance with It. boil. to a. clos. Pr. we pass to Schlatter. unctuous. Russ. klot. dab. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. a dirty wench claggy. analogous plan to clod or club. da- . in accordance with Pl. Klottermelck. a block. schlottern. a field inclosed clos. a bal!. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. pattens G. lag. then liquid or loose substance. the radical sylla. an imputation.' end. lunch. fors. dangle. schlettern. to dabble. a Christmas log. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). inclose. -close. Dan. a clod Swab. klos-bane. klakk. to bodies. is connected with pludder. slobberen. separate part. a spot. claque. chiudere.. rattle. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. loppered (of milk). Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. klokotat. lump of mud on the clothes .D.D. Yule-clog. clog or overshoe. doitre. lump of butter. . laggery. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. E. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. or Sc. slob. bowl . to shut. slabberen. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. dag. to paddle in the wet. thick spoon . mud. Bav. a log. paludosus. bloutre. to dash like heavy rain. in comp. To Clog. Closhe. TZoxapov. -clus-. Sc. IV. E. ! . loppe. A . . to dabble. a trowelful of mortar.

clumhar. puddle. sticky. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. clunch. a sky Cot. lump. nelke (dim. G. klunds. a clod. del mattond. a clown. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. cobble. Clown. mary sense is a blow. blockish. clunch. the air. klotsen. eine to slop. 2.). a patch. klumba. a log. kUid. warm clothes {dillad. a bobbin. milk run to lumps. Cloud. a bunch. a clove of garlick. w. Du. CLOUD an awkward clod . G. a cover or coverture . A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. w. klaven. clavo di especias. warm. AS. cob. klobbersaen. mass. but confounded with cailler. a thick mass. duthaich. . unpolished. hebes (Kil. . nagelein. davus. dial. Sp. klebek. tuft. a lump. Fr. A division of a root of garlick. klonte. of thumping clumsy action. to stop. diboter. a ball. Mabousfrom Lat. to cleave. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. Gael. E. — . to cherish. Sw. clothes ment. shel- kloen. Ir. zolla dell' . kluV. esdaboter (Roquef. cloud Delfortrie. From dog. cludadh.D. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. a bunch. coarse. Pl. ser. a sticky. clot. knob. kl'dnne. In the same way E. a nail. a ball of twine . warm place . clod. Du. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. stock.). wisp. G. clothe. botsen. The significations of a clod or lump. warm. Du. to beFr. Rouchi dapoter. a clubfoot klabb. and of a rustic unpolished person. mire. of nagel. klubb. A kind of spice resembling Du. klump.158 . CLUCK rustic. a bunch. choke or stop up. ON. botch. to lump mend clumsily. dabaire. to splash. N. clog. More in R.Fris. . a knot of people. clot. een klaven kruflook. dial. cobio. and tapp. clydion. kloete. as Fr. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. daggy. Club. of a lump of earth and that figure. dirt. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. matte. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. klove. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. kldverj P1. Cld. a blabber. a bousche. a ball. a lump. knob.clod. To Cluck. Das volk hat sich in splitten. sheltered up warm. to cloy. Clumpered in balls of clouds. klubba. Then applied to a lump of mate. a. dash (Cot. formed lump or thick mass. and clout d eudaich. motte. klieven. log.' Sanders. Du. — — — . E. tered . eene ODu. indispalte knoblauch. Du. It. sheltered . klotz. Met.D. dabosser. Clover. a log. block. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). (kruyd =. clou de girofle. a nail) Fr. Properly that which covers and Du. Sw. nourish . dut. clump of a clout on the head. boucher. clammy earth. lumps of curd. lump. naegel. a breach. klcBdi. strike. lump of earth aria. klumpfot. klqb. lump. aglio. of sloppy materials. Du. lie clyd. clotted milk or cream.D. to tramp in the kluyve. clot . and closely do conspire. a clot or keeps one warm. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. AS. G.ft. a fissure. kloven. clyd. loggish. de Champ. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. little nails. zolla. a garthas. . group of people Sw. piece Cot. from kloven. klubb. dys. from Du. clobyn. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. are also used in the sense of a stopper. cluth mhor. and clay. to curdle. The radical sense seems to be an unE. to cleave or the splashing of water. caillebottes. klu77ip. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. to a lump. . a ball. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. klever. with lout. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . when something has got into the touch-hole. Imitative of the note of a society. a boss. To Cloy. klotzig. from W. dial. dob. from OFr. Clump.). it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. cluster. bunch. a curdled sky. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. E. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. kluppe. clump.). Kiittner. the terms expresssplit. dillad bumkin. to strike. lunch). are often connected. clothes). to cover Bret. .bar. clue. klubbe. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. dote. I. clod is used in both senses . and -the word Clove. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. make warm. spice) G. cludaim. also homo obtusus. a clod or clot. a . ON. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. So Fr. mud (Pat. dump. chiodo di girofano. Dan. ball of thread Russ. Move. clods. The priClout. rustic. Gael. probably from daboter. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. in the same sense. to strike .

-elude. a clot klissen.' Wycliff. unwieldy Hal. COAL dumpish. klamen.D.' Vegecius in Way. Pl. clabosser. as Fr. duke. to rinse. with E. Compare Swiss klupe. koetsen. Du. —To Clumsyd. Du. clointer. carriage in which you klodset.E. clumsy. from klupen. dumpers. smart motion. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. glocire. wooden shoes. Sw. dial. ' Uorte (for clogs. Beklummen van kelde. 130. .forklomme (Outzen). Fr. clutch. Ray. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. Pm. Muster. rial. eene beklum. verkommelen. klontet. a clod clunter. exclude. to collect in lumps. Pl. Fris. * Clump. The Fr. G. Du. klocken. dial. beklummen. -clus-. koetsie. hands stiff with cold. awkward. a pinching time. an instrument for nasal form e. Fr. klods. Du. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. klumpern. klikaty. . The sense of awkward. crooked inwards . Cheshire. ON. Gr.Ancr.e. . to tramp. to wash. and klotteren. verklomen. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. Lat. or from Sw. dumpse. klos. eviratus. viscous material. koetblockish. Boh. strum on an instrument. with a quick. klont. havi. Graff in Klamjan. -clusum. dial. algidus. heavily. Sc. differing only in the absence of the duik. ' Clumper. Cluster. unhandy. or aclommyde. cliboter. the word is more probably connected with OE. OHG. to wash. klamp. thick and clumsy. From the notion of sticking together. to lie. bunch. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. clump. ball of snow on horse's foot . -cludo. Clump. klompen. clutch. unfashioned. Isaiah.D. a clove Sw. from ON. klister. dek. to curdle. a coach. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise.D. clip or pinch. to pinch. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. inclusive. enervatus. klonte. kichlemmit. A group. klonte. of garlick.D. having the Pl. klemmen. ment.. also a cluster. awkward. a couch. Ang. a clod or lump. klikonosy. eviratus. benumbed with cold. clopiner. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . See -elude. dussomed (Wilbrabam). — Cot. cluntClyster. to grip. a lump. But clunchy. Com. a ball. as clumper. OE. klemma. claws. kol. to tramp. esclaboter. a clod or The noclot. pinched. Du. MHG. close. hand to cleuk. to shut. in comp. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. claw. through the senses of lumpish. — sen. doquear. Fr. finish. klummerhdndt. Teulazy. klcise. xXvariip. in v. koetsDa. dial. Coal. gelidus. to klotz. lump of soft mate. clausum.D. to gingle. dumps. klomen. klummklummshandt. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds.' Benecke. a lump. —More. Champ. G. cleche. to curdle. might be reached from clump. whence koetse. from laver. . Hence cleik. Hence snatching. Lat. conclude. In the same way Du. properly to do anything Fr. to curdle. — ' — — tonista. ill-made . klobber in klobbersaen.mene tied. klimpern.P. are the nasalised forms of klotte. log. cleuk. tight — — . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. -CLUDE hen Du. and koetse. dek. 159 E. Sp. G. See reclusion. -olus-. wooden sole. clook. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. ' Thou clontsest for cold. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. to to snatch. G. Lincolns. limp. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. Riwle. coucher became in unhandy. a noise. cleik. MHG. ' . pladdern. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. idle. of Du. calling her chickens. a lump or compact mass. paste. E. and klonteren. Variation of clatter.pare P1. lavesen. may recline. er. hooknosed. ball as snow. a nasalised form of club. klomje. to tramp or tread heavily. ether comelia P. klisse. obstructum. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. Clutter. to paddle or dabble. — Hence include. a clod or lump. Sw. klette. It. a bunch. claudo. conclusion. klunsen.'— animal. splash. fingers (familiar). Clutch. unhandy. cluster. a block. coccolare. klampa. plad or plod. and make ye strong feeble knees. glousser. Hindust. as from seken.— — . beklommen. hondis. wagen. to stick together . klumpig. Cath. clotted cream. dystere. kohle. Coach. lay hold of. to squeeze. to benumb with cold. Hesse. seize. acomelydfor could Pr. to syllable click. klunt. &c.' Comfort ye dumsid. a claw. a ball . kluntfrom KKvKdi. E. n. — . Analogous forms with a tongs. * Clumsy. a litter. klump. -close.

a spider. haggle. habble. cule cocosse. to burn..). pryf-coppyn. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. Coast.' — Thus from (Hal. cotta. unfledged bird. cluster. or upper . s. dial. k'dlla. frock. acomelyd or aclommyd. cob. to cob. e. glow jvalaya. . from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . To cobble. as shown in dob and cob. a tuft. walk clumsily. kolna. an egg. and fig.' Nares. meaning that she is plain and coarse. Flem. a similar According to Ihre. a large round nut cobstones. in Du. Fr. CooMneal. to bungle . klabba. a bungler. quilet. to wheedle or gull vermin). cokes or fool of him. also a coast. burning. . kuppa. Outzen. cock or nescock. to cobble shoes. to strike. to . pockbecility and liability to imposition. The contrast between the bee • Cob. a bubble. of E. 3. that is. properly to daub. . while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. are round stones or round coals of small size. Sanscr. to stutter. tuft. ordinary as in the expression of course. OE. T' waerkopet. s. E. gull. viz. Dan. from some fancied resemblance. large coals. e. side . to bungle Sc. cobble. glow. Coat. plaisant.the water boils. are often connected. to kindle or cause to burn . a woodlouse. dial. Fr. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. probably left his home. coste. cochinilla. dial. hakkelen. to Lett. and E. a firesteel Lat. Du. caleo. broddelen. ON. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. says Varro. blaze. koljarn. give the full meaning of the word. Lat. Sp. a spider (/r)^=grub. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. grown together. See Cot. a bunch. petrilla. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock.— Cobble. dim. klabbsmed. to grow together. pustule. . a knock.. Fr.—Atkinson. inflammation. to beCoax. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. .inflated with air or liquid. ignem. large stones . from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. and thence a lump cobnut. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. . is one of thump. may be A found in Sw. Coarse. gull. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. verklomen. of cochina. things. and imperfect or unskilful action. The dirt. a thumper. a nest. * To Cobble. any kind of coat. A spider's web. small pox (pocks) . top cobio. coalesce. to be inflamed . When the . — — . — Cobbler. to kindle jvAla. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. a pock mark. klabbare. cokes was a simpleton. quele. the one of thump. nursery lang. COCHINEAL Cobber. Coalition. throw a blow. ailina or colina. Cocasse. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. ridi. of E. or cobble. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . It. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. H^cart. to worship. kylla. to glow . numb. imbecille. — — — E. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. one Pr. tempered clay for building.).. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. a rib. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . v. in Essex Jow*2c^. to knock. of poison. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signif