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Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

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  • DOCTRINE OF MAX MULLER. ix
  • XX NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS
  • NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. xxi
  • SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. xxvii
  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • EXPRESSION OF HORROR. xxxvii
  • ENJOYMENT. DISGUST. xlv
  • OFFENCE. CONTEMPT. xlvii
  • OFFENSIVE SMELL. xlix
  • MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. lix
  • EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. Ixi
  • Ixii REPETITION. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS
  • Ixvi CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE
  • COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. Ixvii
  • Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT."
  • COMPLETION OF MAN. Ixix
  • 2 ABASH
  • ABBOT
  • ABELE
  • ADJUST
  • AJFRAY
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • ALLAY
  • ALOFT
  • APHORISM
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 26 AROMATIC
  • ASSAY
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • ATTIRE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BAFFLE
  • BALL
  • BALLAST
  • BARBEL
  • BARGAIN A7
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BICKER
  • BILBERRY
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLARE
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BLUFF
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • BRANDISH
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BREWIS
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIGHT
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • BUILD
  • My
  • BULLION
  • BULLY
  • BURNISH
  • BUSKIN
  • BUSY 119
  • CABAL
  • CABBAGE
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • I30 CARACOL
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CARPET
  • CARRIAGE
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CATCH
  • 136 CATHARTIC
  • CAVE
  • CAVESON
  • 140 CHAMBERLAIN
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHARNEL-HOUSE
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • CHJME
  • CHITTERLING 147
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CINDER
  • CLAM 151
  • CLARET
  • CLERK
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • CLUCK
  • COAL 159
  • COCHINEAL
  • COCK
  • COGNISANCE 163
  • COLLATION
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COMPATIBLE
  • CONSTABLE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • COWL-STAFF
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • CURTSY
  • DAFFODIL
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIPLOMA
  • DIRE
  • DIVAN
  • DOILEY
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • DRIBBLE
  • EDIBLE
  • EMBARRASS
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • ENGROSS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • ESPLANADE
  • ESQUIRE
  • EXPEDITE
  • FANATIC
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FEEBLE
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FIDDLE
  • FLABBY
  • FLACK
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLATTER
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • 276 FRANCHISE
  • FRECKLE
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GALLON
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • GARGLE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GAT-TOOTHED
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLARE
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GNOSTIC
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • GOOSE
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRACE
  • GRAPE
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GUILD
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • HARICOT
  • HASEL
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • IGNEOUS
  • INSULAR
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • LEPIDOPTERA 383
  • LETTUCE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LINIMENT
  • LIVELIHOOD
  • LOLLARD 395
  • 400 LUBRICATE
  • LULL
  • LURID
  • LYRE 403
  • MAGIC
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • MARSUPIAL
  • MASSACRE
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MAZZARD
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MISCREANT
  • MITE 425
  • MUSLIN
  • NASTY
  • NATION
  • NEIVE
  • NIGGARD
  • NIGGLE
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • OSPREY
  • PAD
  • PALETTE
  • PALTER 459
  • PANNIER
  • PARAPET 461
  • 462 PARAPHERNALIA
  • PARROT
  • PATE
  • PATENT
  • PEARL
  • PEART
  • PEEL 467
  • PELLET
  • PERIWINKLE
  • PESTER 471
  • PHASE
  • PINCH
  • PITTANCE 479
  • PLASH
  • PLASTER
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • PONTIFF
  • PORCELLANE 489
  • POSNET
  • POTATOE 49
  • PRATE
  • 494 PREROGATIVE
  • 49S PRODIGAL
  • PROP
  • PROPAGATE
  • PSALM
  • 50O PUERILE
  • PULLET
  • PURFLE
  • QUICK
  • QUID
  • QUINTAIN 5"
  • QUIVER
  • QUOIN
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RAMIFY
  • 520 RAMPALLION
  • RANGER OF A FOREST
  • RARE
  • RASCAL
  • RASPBERRY 523
  • RAVE
  • RAVEL
  • RECRUIT
  • REEF 529
  • RELAY S3I
  • S32 RELEASE
  • RET
  • RIDDLE
  • RIME
  • RIMPLE
  • ROSARY
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • RUSSET
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SATURATE
  • SCANTLING
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCAVENGER
  • SCORN
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCRAGGLE
  • SCUD
  • SCUFF
  • 566 SCULPTURE
  • SCURVY
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SEPULCHRE
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SEXTON
  • SHAMBLES
  • SHATTER
  • SHAVE
  • SHELTER
  • SHELVE
  • SHOE
  • SHRIMP
  • SHRINE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLADE
  • SLAG
  • SLAVER
  • SLUBBER
  • SLUR 603
  • SMATTERING 60S
  • SMIRCH
  • SMITH 607
  • SNICKER
  • SNOOZE
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOLACE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SORREL
  • SPADE
  • SPOKE
  • SPRINGALD
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUAB
  • SQUABBLE
  • SQUASH 635
  • SQUINT
  • STAKE
  • STANCHION
  • STARE
  • STARK
  • STATIONER 643
  • 644 STATUE
  • STEAD
  • STEAK
  • STENCH
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STOUP
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STRAY
  • STRUT
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SUPPLE
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TASTE
  • TEDIOUS
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • TESTER
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • TRAITOR
  • TREPIDATION
  • TROLL
  • TRUSS
  • TRUST
  • TUSSOCK
  • TUSTLE
  • TYRANT
  • VENISON
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 7IO VOLLEY
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WHITTLE
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • WITNESS
  • WITTERING
  • Dm
  • 744 ZANY ZYMOTIC

^

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031471711

Cornell University Library

arW8581

A

dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711
olin.anx

:

A DICTIONARY
OF

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY

BY

HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD,
LATE FELLOW OF CHE. COLL. CAM.

THOROUGHLY REVISED AND ENLARGED

;

WITH AN INTRODUCTION ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGK,

LONDON
TRUBNER &
CO.,
8

&

60,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

1872.
[All Sights
reserved.']

INTRODUCTION.

ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE.
It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of

Europe
a

to recognise their division into four or five
dialects,

main

classes,

each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have

so

much

in

common

of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the

whom

they are spoken, are the progeny, with

more

or less mixture of foreign elements, of a

common
Swedish,

ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a

common
to

language.

The

relation

between Danish and Swedish

is

of

the closest kind, that between

cannot

fail

Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance

is

found in the other

classes.

The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and

common

common
to leave

to both,

and so

much

identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing

them

as

branches of a

common
as

Celtic stock.

And

so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,
is

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish
life.

so great

argue a

much

longer separation of the national

vi

THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries

where

French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,

We

accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and

we

account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the

With

Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to

us,

fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a

as

well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-

common

stock.
tliis

Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be

in

where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sitions
sister, are

equally universal.
signification,

Many
life,

of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the

most

and actions of ordinary

are part

common

property.

Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.

From

this

primeval tribe

it

is

supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their

new

settlements, grtew

up

into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their

own

peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European
speech.

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of
resolves

LIMIT OF ANALYSIS.
men, or
in the

vii

mixture of speech brought about by the

vicissitudes

peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every

way

to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or

The

part

diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the

language.

It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of

we
is

understand the word
as

an enemy, which

felt

the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes
itself

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,
;

we

distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a

noun

in

the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am

tion

with

;

and

in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.
ogist
is

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance

among
is

the founders of Language.

The

speech of

man

in his

mother

tongue

not,

among

children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.

The

expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from
is

whence
inter-

the language of each of us
course of those in

derived.

The

child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-

viii

FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE.
his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which
arises,

was not taught

their

language by their parents.

The

question then

how

did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of

man

spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced

?

Or

is it

possible,
less

among

the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or

abundant

known

language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had

not

command
is

of that great instrument of thought, though, in
?

every natural capacity the same as ourselves

When

the question

brought

to this definite stage, the

same step

will

be
re-

gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the

made

in geology,

when

it

was

phenomena of the

science

powers, such as are

known

to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.

The

investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with

intellectual

powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-

terranean

fires.

A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the
leads
'

origin of language

modern German school of
possibility

philosophers,

whose theory
of mutism.
the

them
is

to

deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state

Man

only

man by

speech,' says

W.

v.

Humboldt,
Professor
'

'

but in order to discover
Miiller,

speech he must already be man.'

And

Max

who

cites

epigram, adopts the opinion

it

expresses.

Philosophers,' he says (Lectures

on

the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that

man

how

the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally

acquired.

DOCTRINE OF MAX MULLER.
It
is

ix

surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the

German

paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that

we

all

are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those

who

are cut off by congenital deafness from

all

opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by

whom
own

they

may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual

signs,

but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage
voice.

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is

wantmg

who

life,

and others

who

never attain

it

at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was
his

in existence at a period

when
is

the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could
beasts,

manage

and maintain
us.

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor

Max

Miiller as a linguist,
to

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes
imitations,

but 'phonetic types produced
in his

nature.

Man
at

neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces

may

be reduced, are

remain

the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as

when

the purpose for which
as in

it

was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate
his

instinct the primitive

Man

was en-

expression to the rational conceptions

of
his

mind.

He

was *

irresistibly

impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called
it

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with
<

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the
it

At

the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an
its

instinct,

an

instinct of the

mind

as in-esistible as

any other
fact.

instinct.

p. 370.

+ The
received

faculty peculiar to

man

in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,

n.

X

NO FOUNDATION
had
its

IN EX;PERIENCE.
ftilfilled

brain a phonetic expression,'

object

in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well
as

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or

desires.

By

other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct

is

retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the
families,
first

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different
It
is

down

to the present day.

practically such an instinct

which

Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.

In

all

the languages of the Indo-European family, he says

'

from the Ganges

to

the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of

standing,

while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.

is

as

widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay

down

the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.
:

The

signification
v.

thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance
boldt,
is

the conception, says
as

W.

Hum-

as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'
It
is

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no
of

distinct experience.

If

it

were true that there
felt

is

in the constitution

man

a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be

by

all

mankind

alike,

and

it

should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.
nection.
I

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is

and

to

an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,

and

speech came in that

way

to primitive
its

Man

is

simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of

acquisition.

A

rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

answer
and do

problem

we

are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

GESTURE NATURAL TO MAN.
himself a system of vocal signs.
'

xi

ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,

'

wonder how man ever began these
around
us,

houses, palaces,

and

some philosopher were to vessels which we see

The

savage

we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'
first

who

first

floated

on the

trunlc

of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be

made

for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we
life.

are required to explain the origin of the

com-

plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human

intfelligence

accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and
is

when

the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed
apprehension,

Now

if

by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,

ing.

Nor

is

there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,
call

'

if

we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven
represent
person.'
it
;

nor voice and wished to
as

attention to something,
?

well

as

we

could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,
iif

we

should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,
as

we

should

by

as

near an approach

we

could

make

to an imitation in our

own

in the case of
lar

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after

The

instinctive

Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.
crying
'

the imitative or symbolical gestures

When

Laura once spoke to

me

of her

own

when

a

little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to

Knowledge,

vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers
tears.'

down

the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would

also

accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural


^"

MAN NATuKALLY

VOCAL.
in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.

which

were

certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive
it

To

to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary

mode
voice,'

to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally
is

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.

Man

then

a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities
as

making

instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.

When
same

it

happened

a prominent feature of the matter
instinct

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.
terrified

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm
his

A person

raw Englishman

as

making known

his

wants

in France.

Moo

!

I cried for

milk

If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set

agoing,

And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom
.

the author wrote.

A jest
therefore

must be addressed

to the

most superficial

capacities

of apprehension, and

may

often

aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

Englishman
dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,

who

being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative
!

was

eating, turned
?

round

to his native

Quack, quack
*
thet

The

servant answered.

Bowwow

intimating as clearly as if he
lovelh,

Me
me

tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet
hateth.

me

and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,

254.

name of the cow. or Mollein. and. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. the present day. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. with an initial m or I. when neither name for the object to be designated. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and where we are seeking. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). in language of the present day. is given to a cow or calf. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. The syllables moo (mu. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the baaing of the sheep. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. and mully or mully cow is the . but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. Molli. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. but nothing she herself knows the animals. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. the closer we shall approach to the . who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language.NURSERY IMITATIONS. or. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. come Moolls. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. when we is represent to our children of the cow. by whom the be understood. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. mind of the of the animal. muK) and mae (rfie. persons of different tongues at the present day. in other words. to the syllables which are significant to the child. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance.

to For instance. partly from sounds which the child caught. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. for things. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. family. to eat. Finally an n was placed before it. We have. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. in children's language. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. First.). and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. when hungry. to work over with the mouth. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made.' he says. and some were very clear and distinct. nim.' In ordinary speech mump. mumm.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. nineteen years old. as well as the mind of the utterer. he called to to drink. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. On one occasion he said^e nim. I had watched the growth of this word. repulsive to eat. . nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. for bad. his nurse adopting the word with him. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. 72). interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. and nim came to signify everything edible. A member of my own new sfop. analogous to Magyar mammogni. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. and which we might express thus. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. hm. became more perfect. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. had nim. He would now say good. p. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. schipp. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. Heinicke. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. Gr. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with.. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. fiafifi&v (Hesych. then. &c. Gradually. for everything fit to eat. . by the natural humming sound. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw.

A negro proOr. at hiamske i sig. snatched (Whitby Gl. as well as the Sw. dial. we can call them so. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. and the crab — p. taken up hastily on the sly. aptantes adfectibus vocem. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. memmexen. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. eating.' says Quintilian. ut tinnitus aeris. to mump. buckra man's language the white man.). nvrnma. jumla. Nimm'd up. nyam nyam. jammla. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. tidbits nama . Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. iii. yamming. to eat. aves tinnire. and some of them . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. lita. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Africa) nimi. South Jutland hiamsk. 1 86). ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. delicacies. ' id est. stolen. agreeing with Ein.' says the author of Modern Slang.minis. jamsa (yamsa). Primitive Culture. namnam. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . Vei (W. oves lalare. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. p. i. as to . The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. to Sw. . Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Swedish dialect gamsa. to take.' And Diomedes.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. greedy . Africa) nimnim. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. voracious. and thence to be tasteful. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Wolof nahenahe. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). djamdjamgoda (to say djam. to chew laboriously. to taste . words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. ' Motherwell. sweet (Koelle). Galla djam djeda. clangorqae tubarum. and the fizzing (and Series. crab nam buckra man. mumpfen. to eat mampfen. Gothic niman. to be pleamind . j ing . the Scotch poet. i8o. nam. (in chil- dren's language). savory. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). nobis vix permittitur. mujnpa. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. to smack in eat. on.' — Lersch. or word-making. 130-1. mumble. to fill the mouth. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing.ONOMATOPCEIA. to move the lips in continued chewing. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. make djamdjam). Soosoo (W. palatable. food (Tylor. mumpfeln.

sparrow and chirping. lowing of oxen. neighing or whinnying of horses. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. snarling of dogs. or. chattering of pies or monkeys. cackling or gaggling of geese. snarling. a lamb. baaing or maeing of lambs. dove and cooing. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. ^6^.' — We speak of a cow. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. before the in other words. whether it deserves the name of language. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. howling. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. Indeed. chirping of sparrows or crickets. or thoughts of our hearer. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. croaking of frogs or ravens. but of a dog. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. 89) with less hesitation. Yet we ing. twittering of swallows. do not speak of a bowwow. yelping. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. gobbling of a turkey-cock. might be used. bumping of bitterns. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. yelping. barking. when circumstances required. not of a moo of Lect.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. p. between dog and harking. not of a baa. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. for the purpose of bringing the animal.' he says. und growling. might be used as the designation of it. intended in the instance to represent the cry. bleating of sheep. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. We . While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. cooing or crooing of doves. hooting of owls. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. that there is When Man.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals.' And elsevs^here (p. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. bellowing of bulls. anything connected with it. 'I doubt. purring or mewing of cats. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . grunting or squealing of hogs. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed.

kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. a a crier (p. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. and means a shouter. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. fi-om apakd- i. Aoo-Aoo. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. in g. Columbia kahkah. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. whose sound (Pictet.). which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i.. it announces (Salaberry). He to is therefore derives kdka. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. a bird that is be driven away. Manchu The kaha. Georgian quaki. Arabic kdk. and Bavaria respectively. kauwe. or quawk. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. crow. a crow (Pictet). kdka. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. and the sound of that direction. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. lion. caller. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. caw kuhii-rava (rava. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. according to Durga). gackem. Bav. In Basque. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. a crow. 380.' common sense. 'Kdka. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. sound). We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. Sauscr. layitavya . and gaggele or gagkelein. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. a daw. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. kae. Sometimes the hoarse i . obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Picard cau. having a general predicative power.' kd). kuho. 349. We imitate the sound with a modulated.IMITATIVE NAMES. Origines Indo-Europeennes). and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. KOKKvi. Hungary. ist ed. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. ghak. coccolare. Malay gdgak. is kuM) for the cuckoo. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. in is Gr. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). birds. In Lat.). 4th ed. Barabra koka. Kdrava. crow. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. e. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock.

Pers. lilits. Magy. and e. lUyrian kukurekati. giving turtur (and thence It. tbrtora. "Welsh hwan from hwa. gufo. Dutch kievit. to crow. coqueri- Languedoc. tortbla. Yoruba koklo. cock. Lettish kiekuts. kirren. hibou. a crow lish Lith. tuquheit. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. to hoot. korren. to howl or Lat. kuku. Swedish kowipa. tur. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . So we have Polish krukac. yell. either in the same or in related dialects. p. Walachian coucouveike. turtle) as the Lat.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Ibo akoka. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Mod. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. krauklys. kukhuta. koeren. to croak. while crouk. Du. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. great variety of oKokv^uv. girre. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. name. to croak. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. to cry loudly. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. French dishuit. Heb. Arabic tdtwit. a crow . The consonants p. by the verbs gurren or girren. uhu. tor.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. ghughu. Scotch peeweip. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. are represented. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. Da. wood-pigeon. Hindi. The crowing of cot in Fr. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. xi. German and Eng- krahen. and sometimes both together. 219. in the North of England. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. the name of an animal will gen- . kurre. k. krahe. coccovaec. gugu.Gr. and e. Malay kukuk. Sp. as well as of Sanscr. synonymous forms of similar structure). German luhu. coucouva. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. teewhoop. kruk. t. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. tbrtola. It.. libufs. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Du. a crow. kraukti. kraeye. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. the name for a crow. to crow. Fr. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kukko. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. another. Esthonian kikkas. reduplicate form. name of its is the bird. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound.. lulo. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. or Gr. kraeyen. Albacuculi a dove. Zulu kuku. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. 6. German kielitz.

and he kong-ko-rong. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. North of England. and not from E. German drohne. bambhara. The name of the cricket indeed. schrecke. (Jieuschrecke) . resound. from schrick. schrickel. in allusion to its music. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. sound. as . a hornet. i. g. The Welsh chwyrnu. to grumble. Australian bumberoo. German dronen. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. Arabic tantanat. Northern Farmer. kong-kong. gives rise to chwymores. bee. a small as hawk is .' —Tennyson. The drone peal. cricket is from crick. the drone or non-working bee . — Catafogo. to chirp . of England it is to the b 2 .IMITATIVE NAMES. German hummel. We may cite Gr. succeeding each other — with noise. resounding of musical instruments. or a gnat fly. little intermission. representing a short sharp sound. to shrill sound sharp. ' — Pictet . which they make in their flight very . g. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. flight its sting considered as a horn. give a faint sound. with or Fr. whirr). grille. growling. a fly (Tylor) . knetta. skryle. Sanscr.' — i. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. dhran. Fin. the humble. 'The natives call it tanand. common. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. a drone. buzzing. PofijivXwg. The Arabic sarsor. Naturalist on the tocano. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. Albanian tsentsir.vf3. hollow noise. oE. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. swirplys with 6.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. sirkka. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. Corean sirsor. shrill. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. ' Sanscr. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. to rustle. pip-pi-ta. g. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. to sound. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu .' Amazons. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Danish dron. Lith. and probably indicates that g. ta-na-nd. humming. bamba. a sharp sound as of a 6. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. horniss and from the buzzing The. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). schwirren. to chirp J may be compared with . Danish gnaddre. Lat. a beetle druna. In the N. words imitative of humming . to be compared with Sanscr. Gaelic dranndan. chirk. grylhis. din. loud rumour. skirl. booming. ajo. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. thunder. Speaking of a cricket he says. to creak Bret. 337. buzzing. and yelping cry. schirke. from the humming. glass cracking (Schmeller).or bumble-bee. there are infinite varieties. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. droning is . skril with n. Sc. to hum. e. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Lithuanian tranas. grillen. zirken. a bee.

to ba-L-are. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. to shout. boo. say. mugire. and from to ring. Gael. are (with a subsidiary k). k or g. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. bubenti. Da. or bau-l-i. With these analogies. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to bump as a bittern Illyr. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. From baa. to sound. mae. cattle. to make a noise. to make. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. It. bu. a buffalo. to . to low . the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. shoot . that the imitative syllable are Lith. bauli. baula. bullus and e. to shout. to low. to weep. 167. amuse. mamoo-heeheek. representmake bow. bae. btibleti. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. Galla boa. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. be-l-er. or a z to the imitative syllable. a drum . muJiati. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. and in Hottentot baa was the . to or bark. a Geiger. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bwla. to low or bellow. OFr. On the same principle. Fr. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. bae. to boohoo. Lat. Hottentot bou (Dapper). NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. is inadmissible. Illyr. bos. Manx booa. as that of the cow by boo. in a imitation of a ringing sound. a cow. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. or with on. as the Illyr. Lat. or moo. p. has bilbilgoda. bullock. (iove. biibnas. The Galla lilbil. Norse bu. w. a heifer. bugle. to bow- own bawl. bubati. a bullock. — ^Tylor. Piedmontese fi bau. mugler. bugler.XX called booing. make to it laugh. to make a loud deep sound. grumble as distant thunder . a bull. the animal. or formed Lat. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to beat hard. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to bellow like a bull. Cult. w. from the imitative moo instead of boo. bukati. and thence Lat. verb is evidently identical with our shout. bo. bue. Thus from miau. to the uses goda. Lat. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. in same way. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Zulu lulula. forms a. maukati. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. and djeda. agreeing exactly with Lith. The Piedm. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. representing the mew of a cat. fivKaofiai. loge. His analysis leads cow. bucula. From the same lioao). in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. whence baula. bolt. miau-l-er. to mew. make poo. to from bau. buculus. bull. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Fr. ox. the Fr. to make. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bovis. verbal form given to the say. a name preserved in our bugle-horn.

leknuti. Manx meilee. a sheep. a hog. signifying a snarling. menAda (ndda. name of the animal itself. may with to snarl. this obstinate race. although the imitation embodied in Lat. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a sheep or a goat. With gen. sheep or goat. Illyr. Gael. Among dog. lekavica. we have Sanscr. lek-eg-ni. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. meil. knurfisk. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. hunt (gen. rumbling. from knurre. and hoc'h. from hundama. Gr. by which the shingle gives rise to It. hund. guttural tone. corresponding to ohg. mekegni. he would hardly. meckern. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. . hound. a pig. a goat firixal^ta. Hence Breton hoc ha. a sheep (Lowe). hadg- Magy. name. grogner. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Gr. And it is true there between hog and grunt. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. kurre. groin. grumbhng. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. Magy. ' In driving. as lou of an ox. hundi). meugler. or in any ! way ! persuading. a goat. grumpf. houch. / The same Gr. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Welsh and Breton). to bleat. a sow. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. leg-et-ni.). name of a sheep. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. to grunt. Da. and of (maelon). /xj/caScj. It is probable also that e. purr). a wolf. sound. It. From the imitative mae. meketati. mecati. may be identical with Esthon. for the voice of the ox). ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. (iriKov of forms like Sw. . a sheep or ewe. Kurren und murren. Africa laa. growl. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. and with the subsidiary k or g. smack and naski. does not produce a e. in v. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. grumble. grugno. and Circassian maylley. hunon. The g. . karra. a goat. sus-sus. to bleat . In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. in Wolof bae. and grumphie. meigeal.' Moor's Suffolk words. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. and snorke. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. to themselves. cite as by grunt. Illyr. a (Hesych. hwch. to growl. Idgge (Rietz). curmurring. cry). Gr. the snout of a pig. nire. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a dog. with the root ypaipm. 6.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. goats. — . it and e. oe. lambs. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. lecco. to howl. to bleat. Moreover. Illyr. naskia.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Fr. to grunt. /xijeao/iat. a sow. Fr. the designations of a dog the term cur. kurren. undoubtedly imitative. a. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. grumble. grunt. grunlike a pig in eating. a pig Fin. grunny. a grunt. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). mutter. G. ^. to rumble. and thence groin.

hobby. If onomatopoeias can . But words of this kind are. e. hobin. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. such as cuckoo. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. animal. from the cry animal. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names.). hoppe. hottihuh. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da.. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks.root. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. ^6<. to the left. There are of course some names. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.' — ist Series. coquette. to whine. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. when he found peculiarity. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. like artificial flowers. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. the cry to stop or back a horse. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp.' ticular bird.. coquelicot. . as in Yorkshire highly right. M). a little am- bling horse. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.). a horse. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. (Craven Gloss. g. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. houpy in Craven. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. without a — we root. humma. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. a mare. hobben. . hiine. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. p. Esthonian hoibo.' 2nd Series. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. So Sanscr. Thus we are led to the Fr. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. cockade. 91. p. to go backwards. Sc. of the character in question. turn a horse to the is In Finland. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.

wagtail. horse. redpole. lapwing. swift. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Du. command of language was attained. moan. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. giggle. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Sp. Irieschen. Fr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. to Sanscr. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. runniken. Sw. titter. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. form corresponding hresh. e. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. cough. hikkd. Pl. sol. . little speak for themselves. Sanscr. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. hukkup. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. Lettish sweegt. g. but whether there kind between them and other words. Bohem. ginniken. to neigh.D. diver. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. wrenska. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. woodpecker. goatsucker. ance or habits of the animal. nounced with a guttural). would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. groan. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. nitrire. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. hennir. rinchar. than to the sounds represented. as sigh. hresh. fehtati. whitename in in- throat. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. hresh. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. hross. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. signified It. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. wiehern. animals or certain kinds of sound. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. frenschen. creeper. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . wrena. xxiii ginal object.

' 'Haw. in a nail Let. went the cannon. strippstrapp-stroll. for blows with a rod. knack. or tliat is accomit.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for the sound of a blow. for the sound of a fall. to knock. Australian bungbung ween. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. snore. bang. ping came the bullets about their ears. hoo ping ping. Mei gbengben. It is represented in e. Wtb. to sneeze. haitshu. to throw violently down. haw. Of a like forma- drum . oren : Klapp. mer. banga. Zulu bongo. wheeze. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. to hammer .xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. dong Read. aritischane. beat. atchini.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for the sound of milking. DingBang. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. klatsch. bangas. heart tick-tack. scream. ting-ting.' ! ! ! ! — dong. a more expressive than the e. —Brem. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . for the for the sound of . Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. the dashing of the sea . thunder (Tylor) . clap ! A smack Puff. the God of thunder . And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. &c. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for a small one. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . snort. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. knarr. hoo. for in such sound of blows. bang ' ! trenches. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. to ham. pit-a-pat. tisio (tisho). to drive on.' it both sides went. plitsch-platsch.' So imac.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. atchian. hang. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. banke. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. fitsche-falsche. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. a large bell. or the w. heaven). Da. ding. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. an attempt would be made to by the voice. for that of breaking. . &c. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. lumm. to beat. — Sanders. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. debhes-lungotais (deifies. pump. shriek. for the creaking of a wheel. Vei gbangba. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. 1865. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. on the chops is represented also by pratx. root kshu. beat of a clock child . a kind of drum. tlirob. are familiar in ' to every one. White Lies. snukkup).

or the uneducated different consonants are man. — . peep. cry. the voice of chickens (Cot. G. is of expression. pipare. In cases such as these. a whelp. and so forth. a or cheep. to cry pi. Magyar pip. used as a call to . as k. pigiolare. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a chicken or gosling. piauler. bleat. Lat. which he added to intensify the expression. Gr. pigione. calls S. pu. to squeak. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. He Yet asks. to designate cavity and hollow. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. pi. piccione. cry of young birds . pipilo.) a chick. not- . being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pipio. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. ducing the sound. pipegni. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. had been used laugh ? two. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. . Florio. a (young) pigeon. child. has been un- employed to designate fixity. pipe. a fife or musical pipe. It seems to him that the teeth t. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. e.' instead.sc. —Lyndsay. a fowler's bird call is lost. as in other subjects of study. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. piou. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. of a word will appear supposed to represent. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. peep. or a piailler. and their relations. mobility excavation and hollow ^. young child . piou. Fr. The pi. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pigolare. young bird. pippione. to cry like imrli^u). as the simplest implement for proFr. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. scream. pule. Lat. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. is pfeife. pipio. pipelni. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. to peep It. laugh. Mantuan pipiare. far pipi. doubtless. and whimper. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. to cheep like a bird or a young It. part of the What consciousness has the child. chickens (Tylor). De Brosses. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pipe.

where the variation. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to cluck. to crackle like in boiling . Indian chack-chack. be cate to go on laughing loud .Gr. Hindustani karak is rendered. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to grumble). The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. preserved by Kilian. turtur. tintino. pi . cricli. . sound of dry breaking. knuks. creak. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. to growl. Hindoo tomtom. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. a short sharp sound. to gorgogHare rattle. crack. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. tonare. a prolonged sharp sound. u. tontonare. a sharp short one. rumble. cluck. kniks. lachachen. to rattle. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . i. to grate the teeth . grumble. is very common. the side of g. Zulu raraza. thunder oil . like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. to pant violently (Colenso). In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. murren. chack. when it force than biscuit.. to bubble. lachen. to ring pipio. laqfF. bubble. knaks. . Pacific aka-aka. like the noise of a glass breaking . or kaka-faka. rumble (Fl. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. the clucking of a j hen . Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. Poppopvi^to. make wood a clinking noise. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley).. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to grumble. ioriogliare (to make borbor).' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to be compared with Sc. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to gargle . &c. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. in German. to cry pi. to thunder. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. to jar. to gurgle. murmur (by . and lugh. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to pant bejii- zela. along with tinnio. It. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. as representing the sound made when something breaks. kuruk. gurren. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. knurren.) Mod. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. a closed or obscure sound. rumble. coo. sound). kniks. a drum W. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. vaake gorgor) . garren. to clack. kirkirdnd. loud laughter. along with Du. to creak knirren. Pefuxela. Manchu kaka-kiki. karkarana. to fizz like fat in frying. of something fine and thin. to hawhaw or laugh loud. borrelen. as the click of a latch or a trigger. girren. of a loud strong sound. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. to laugh. a. crash. some small vowel or consonantal sound. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . {to It. or springing back. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise .

the tingling Ming-Hang. tubh. muro and e. croaking of frogs. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. The syllables lil-bil. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. for the ringing of illustrate bells. of keys or tinkling of bells. and Gr. at an accelerated note. Calt. tumwata. indicating the origin of Gr. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. the gingling of glasses. to be compared with g. while cacd / used in e. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. a nightingale. chinking of coin. Newman). for the Manchu hak for the sound of . are applied to the is excrements of children. djeda (to say tub). thump. Scotch sough or sooch. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. halaidlac'h. and Gr.' Member for Paris. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. Manchu kaka. or the bubbling up of to a spring. wail. hala-hald-faMa (falda. bent her head. caca and Finnish adkkd. rifiirayov. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. tumult. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. identical with g. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. KaKog. a nightingale.and e. the sound of a stringed instrument. clash of arms. agrees with g. e. to say chut. corresponding in e. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. 368). rvir (in tvittio. box on the ear imitation of the . for the sound of privy whispering. Turk. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. as Fr. Tiie Galla gigiteka. call. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. as of Tamil muromurmur. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. and her heart went thump. quarren. .SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. is based on the same imitation as the e. and the imitative nature of tivgle. klirren. jangle. ding-dong. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. for chut-chiit-er. for a tTviror). csam-csogni. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. especially one who beats. tup. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. rain (Tylor. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. Fr. and e. clink. bad. chuchoter. to strike. sound. Magyar csamm-ogni. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. and bilhila. kiling-kalang. compared with Gr. coughing or clearing the throat. Prim. a smith. bulbiil. . shout. or of bells ringing. koXiw. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . to croak Manchu <juar-guar. champ. kl'mg-kling. a workman. drops of i. borrelen. simmer. cry. a drum . chut. is Manchu tang-tang. to ring or jingle. to beat. make djamdjam). may be compared with Australian pitapitata. word.* the heart. spring of water in the a bell. Maori pata. noise. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. Sanscr. uproar. for the clinking Lat. E. to knock. fumtu. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. correspond to e. brings us to Fr. 1871. to the purling of a brook. to giggle. disturbance (F. bubble up. a boy's whistle. to whisper. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. The whispering of the wind I. or to Du. awater* ' The Mme P. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. clango. sound). jingle. clank. 192). which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). Galla tuma.

crash. paddle. Nevertheless. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. flap. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. tingle. lash. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. 'pat. douse. tomber. twang. in e. whack. mutter. brumberum. clap.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. chatter. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. ring. rattle. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. for (Sanders). The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. rataplan or rantanplan. boom. answering to g. whizz. clang. or v^hether jectional. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. to is blow. dabble. hiss. murmur. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. disturbance. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. smash. chink. rumble. bubble. tap. dash. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. to dance. by rubadub. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. So in Fr. parapatapan. flop. crack. splutter. clink. snap. squall. a applied as well to the force of the bang. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. ' Der puff. clank. thwack. it is fallj AS. But although and also found in Lat. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. fizz. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. pop. whine. clash. without the intervention of orthodox roots. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. smack. tinkle. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. tum-ultus. jingle. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. thump. Fr. blow. craunch. crunch. swash. thump. to fall. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. bang. creak. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. din. thump. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. blubber. gurgle. slash. hum. tymmesll. according to the strictest phonetic rules. and soufflet. report of a gun. The beating of drum is represented in e. souse. tumbian (to beat the ground). and Fr. It.' — Nohden. the Germans puff. we have buffet or cuff. rap. at a door tarapatan. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. puff. and the French pouf. clack. plump. patter. The use of g. clatter. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. splash. Humboldt. w. and Grimm. guggle.. sputter. gargle. whirr. squeal. while e. squeak.

or of any if wood. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. are made known by an instinctive cry. because they are spontaneous. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. of horror. p. an imitation of a sigh . It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. is Thus ah!. 94. every little pain.'. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. and thus they become signs of despair. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. and uttering plaintive sounds. Crying. grief. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. xxix on the contrary. in the rushing waters. and found in the building of be burnt up. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. in the case of the animal or of the infant. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. At the first beginning of life. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. or stubble is meaner name. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. If. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed.' If chaos. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. but if we must not complain on the beach. or any unsatisfied want. stractions. hay. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . the inteij. without a thought of symbolising to them. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. the interj. formerly cited. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. that he has taken the step in rational speech. Grimm or Bopp. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. ugh . as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. the kind of action that is desired of them. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering.' . little who has time to want of her nurseling. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . knows them. wringing the hands. by the nature of the cry. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort.

. or which is of me as suffering pain. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. they are involuntary interjections. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. shrieking. p. And again. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. groaning. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. more to the point. He says. coughing. One short interjec- tion may fact. 344. may become traditional. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and the eye. interjections. be more powerful. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. 32. as who them spontaneous utterances.' p. he cites from Home Tooke. which are frequently so toned down cance. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. the lowing of a cow. If I wish to make a person of an . and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. of all the mouth. sneezing. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. ^6g And to the same effect 371. Language begins where interjections end. more eloquent than a long speech. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. and some of them the composition of words. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. them to exercise it. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. to solve the I shall call first. p. should be remem- . or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language.' — ist Series. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed .

nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. it them. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. in Fin. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. Koxafw. hohottaa. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. for example. some kind of language might have been formed. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. kahkahah. interjections. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. Tooke in truth. and thus. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and others from interjections. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. hahota. but the less am at a loss what to say. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. speaking. in Magy. hahottaa. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. bered. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. cachinno. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. then speech begins. and more or less limited . he says. Lat. demolishing here. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. I am not hearer. Gr. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Kayxa^u). when I arp humming and hawing. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. loud laughter. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own.

like peewit and cuckoo. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. The following account is given by Kruse. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. have understand them studying as claim to consideration.' he says. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. words receiving the meanings they now bear.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. and go where we now say stand. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. Though. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. makes them stand and walk upon the table. of the nature of this great movement. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. dumb is the language of signs. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. of the world. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. a Picture-language. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. . But here nature soon conies to his help. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. if taken as a whole. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. And so in the case of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. a deaf-mute himself. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. and not. What strikes him . It as has ing their most striking features.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. the critical question should be. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is.

among themselves. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. The of sign for left hand.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. as it now opens out. becomes roast meat. such as than the educated man. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. but if I depress it instead. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. particular sense in properly so called. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. to name. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. it means little.GESTURE most. and fully serves to j . such objects. it seems. thou. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. that air. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. can do better and more easily abstract terms. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and to taste. he. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. the sorecalling them to his memory. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. and with his thought. nay. walkest. for the agent. and gestures. or To pull and flap with the arms. push it towards the person addressed for thou. that signifies great . thought is already broken. And is. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and forms further and further. that. most striking outline of an object. walker. and we have roast goose. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. walked. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. called Gesture-language. many when or but these. xxxiii him between one thing and another. signs are taught for yet. like a V. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. for single objects. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. what more. the whole secret. his action. for walk. he. The same sign stands and the act itself. and it is flesh or meat. the lan- guage cultivates itself. letter To hold the two fingers apart. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. for child. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar.' In the Institutions. or the verb to be. and And thus he makes himself a language.

He gave door a bang. . and so is an adverb. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. a number of alternatives are suggested. whether by additions or otherwise. when I say. substantive or adjective. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. Who is has beaten you ? would be. The same word . gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. in other instances sentence. as But when it is meant door. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. in fact. or an act. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. a colour red. the ture of white term pink is and red. or something of the kind.xxxiv asking. Do not bang the it is a verb. it called an interjection. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife.' dener's knife. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. and thus performs the part of an adjective. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. putting it into his pocket. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. You beaten . it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. as when Bang ! went the gun. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. or action. or a passive scene of existence. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. would be simply beginning of speech. might be the knife. depend entirely upon the use. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. When a verb. to indicate the action of a certain person. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. and the as. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. When I say. or a quality. I say. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. as in die it is a noun. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. qualifies the against the wall. the garden. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. according to the circumstances of the case.

the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. &c. or some relation between it and another object. that is. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. and to be great. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. middle. pain. or nei. as cung. in the is indicated by the syllable y. Latin. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. a sigh of oppression and . 255. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. inside. coalesces with the personal pronouns. or with elements expressing relations of time.. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. greatness. wherewith. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. Thus tafu signifies a great man. that admits itself in of audible representation. with a stick. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. wherehy. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. wonder. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. commencement of speech. grie^ horror. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. a noun.^ — Miiller I. and may be used language. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. but often self-evident. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. Jii ta. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. as kuo cung. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. . The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. some outward display of the affection. whereof. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. wherefore. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. which is an old y ting (use stick). a groan. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. inquiry. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the man is great. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. whereto. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. contempt. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. in the sense of great.

Gr. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. jao. grief] affliction. Lat. Gael. to lament. representing a cry of pain. vei-a. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. vaj. ah. wehthun. ing action I. Fr.'). Bret. I oi[iot.ez.-l-are. w^wa. xxxvi grief. as. It. j. . generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. misfortune. suffering. to yell formed e. ai. wAwa. e. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. in Gr. w. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. vce. wehen (Schmeller). cece. or r. however. grief. djamdjam goda (goda. ahi. misery. Such are g. ach. In this way from the root guai. hei. and to bark . And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. to weep. headache. the pangs of childbirth. miau-l-er. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. probably a deeper groan. pain. to weep. oh. and cacak djeda (to say crack. . aiai^to. is w. pain. to wail. at the close of the radical syllable. to bewail oneself. ochan. woe. has more kopfweh. och. to hurt Let. mostly a ! %.. seen in Gr. waiidt. 6. Thus from springs otjucifw. guai. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. . first person. on. It. ach. howl. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). to make). . dchzen. to ache. Illyrian vaj. representing Illyr. Let. gwae. to injure. Illyr. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. a groan or lamentation vir. al. to rriourn. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. 6. la. ochan. achen. The form corresponding to Lat. n. ui. It. gwae. ocAJ. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. ochain. och. wai-l. guaj- or cry out pitifully. ace. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to chirp. Gr. Jar lau-lau. are ol-ire. wd. ! ! Goth. to do woe. lament. woe. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . g. is Ay di me I Gr. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. &. miau-l-is. mew. och. lament from oimi. oi. wai. to cause pain. tirr-djeda. as. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. weh schreien. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. ach. g. to cry at. jaoh. axofiai. guaj-ire. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. form. Lat. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. to . found in g. die wehen. oh. to cry n. e. to make bow-wow. ache. A widespread It. to wail or cry alas . ohg. oval. guajo. ohi. to sound yapyap. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. It. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. miau-n-is. to groan. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. oimare. lau-l-e. ah. pain. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. wai. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. grief. o'i. weh. vce. to gargle. to lament. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. gwe-l-a. e. to ache. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. weinen. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. w. Gr. on. .

!

; '

!

EXPRESSION OF HORROR.
(Florio)
;

xxxvii

from

Let.

waiman

I

waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to
signification.

lament,

showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same

Now
it

if
is

we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah
let

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer

know

that the speaker

is

in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.

The

interjection in Italian coalesces also
:

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS

!

alas for

him

(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the
first

is

not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.
!

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the

sufferer

cowers together with

his

arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of

which

will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is

which

associated.

Hence,

in the first place, the interjection

ugh!

(in

German uh! Then
form of
the

hu

!

in

French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.
losing
its

ug

or hug, as the root of verbs

and

adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.
in

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence
at.

The

oe.

ug or houge was used

The

rattling

drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout

What

his

kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.

—Jamieson,
how

Sc. Diet.

In

a

passage of

Hardyng

cited

inghame, having cut off her

own

by Jamieson nose and

it is

related

the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,
'

Counselled

al

her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly
right
sight.

Here,

as

Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the

word

ugly as signifying
its

original

what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
Ugh!
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.

xxxviii

ASTONISHMENT.
observed that

It

may be

we

familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the
syllable
is

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-

what

causes horror.
silence of the nycht

The

uffsomeness

and

In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.

—Douglas,

Virgil.

the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.

From

things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.

is

done

which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai

!

LAT. BABjE

!

VA.YM

\

The

manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the

instinctive

opening of the mouth,

is

familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his

hammer

thus,

The

whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,
tailor's

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.

The

physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes
;

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
wonder,
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or
it,

sound that

may

proceed from

the

mouth

instinctfairest

ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.

Now

the exertion of the voice at the
is

moment

of

opening the

lips

produces the syllable ha, which

found

as

the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of
!

The

repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one

who

stares

with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.
;

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)

eshawi.

Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious
tlieir

pomp which

waits

On

princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses

led

Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu

we

find hahaxa,

to astonish.

The

significant syllable

is

;!

ATTENTION, SILENCE.
strengthened by a final d in several of the

xxxix
('

Romance

dialects

the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in

It.

ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto
to

open door

;

Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
ished.
d, gives
;

Breton badalein, to yawn

;

bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final

Old

Fr. baer, baier, beer,

to

be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open
is

mouth

;

bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,

'

^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.

quenti.'

The

adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.

At

sight of her they

sudden
forced

all

arose

In great amaze, ne wist which

way

to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless

them

to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or

transition

from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,
is

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the

mind

to,

and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with

which

is

radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad

hym

sty

on

lofl:,

And

wejiie aftir

our four shippis

aflir

us doith dryve.

As

the vowel of the root

is

thinned
X""''*^'

down from

a to

j

in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,
It.

we

learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.

HUSH

!

HIST

!

A representation
longed sh or
ss,

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of

whisht

!

G.

ps

!

psch 1 pst I husch

!

tusch

!

Da.

tys !

Sw.

tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,

Piedm.

cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,
.sfo
!

silsd,

I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!

Fernandian

sial listen! tush!

Yoruba

pshaw!
all

(Tylor, Prim. Cult.

I.

178.)

The

interjection

seems in

cases to arise
it

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may
as

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the

first

place

it

may be
it is

understood

an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or
;

more

urgently, not to let even a whisper
to

but more generally perhaps

be understood

as

in-

xl

LISTENING.
Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which

purpose

it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly

still.

Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.

Jam.

Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.

The
least

It. %itto is

used exactly
sentirse

in

the same
zitto,
;

way

;

non fare

zitfo,
;

not to

make

the

sound ;

non

un

not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be

silent.

Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;
Fl.

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.
noise,

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing
!

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !

6.

husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through

the

' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that

is

heard in the bushes, or
ai,

as

an intimation to
Fernandian
sileo,

listen to
!

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry
ai,

hush
sia
!

to

The it. command

Gr.

ai'Ci^,

to give

silence,

showing
hush.

that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of
be

Hence must be
l-o,

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or

silent.

In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to

put

to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,

calm.

To keep

a

calm souch

;

to

keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an
like
I

after the initial

w, f, or

h.

Thus

firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I

we

wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.

The
;

primitive

mute

then

falls

away, leaving the
;

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp

Du.

luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)

synon-

ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.
is

The
lips

notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct

^

sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are
;

mot ;

It.

non fare ne motto ne
;

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

SILENCE, CONCEALMENT.
mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.

xli

mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce

Plowman

in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you

may

sooner

Than

get a

mum
way

of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by
Palsgr.

ellipse

of the negative,

mum !

silence
as,

!

Fr.

Mom !

ne parlez plus
!

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

—Trevoux.
With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei
silent,

dumb,

are essentially identical with our

mum,

;

;

;

185.

The
from
E.

ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that

juufo)

we readily pass
mus
est

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.
(Sp.

the representative
to

no decir mus

ui

chus)
;

we

Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,
'

be

silent,
les

and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens
:

musse, a private hoard.

Cil

que

musce

furmens,

escoramenge

qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'

parallel

Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied
is

to

what

done

in secret,

and mucker,

to lay

up

a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.

The
lias

interj.

hem

/

ahem
call

I

hm

t

hum /

represent the sound

made

in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin

it

frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely

another

mode
Here!

of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est
is

when

the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves
as

attention.

Hem! Davum
tam
glabrae,

tibi

:

scabrae sunt,

hem,

manus

:

quam

smooth, see here

!

as this

hand.

When addressed

to a person

xlii

THE PRONOUN ME.
it

going away
is

has the effect of stopping

him

or calling

him

back.

explained by Weiland an eKclamation to

make

a person stand

still:

Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.
hier,

haWol hark

there.

Mr

touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel
to

an

interj.

of prohibition.— Brem.

Wtb.
wbll

Hence hamm

holln,

keep one

in

check, to restrain.
shall stay

Du

sast

mi
do

hamm

holln,

you

shall attend to

my hamm !

where

I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of
I

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,

hammen,

to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'

A

of

a

garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it

out.

The
and
as

point of greatest interest about the interj.

hem

is

that

it

offers a possible,

seems

to

me

a far

shown

in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call

who

utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of
is

in Latin
occidi
see
!

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used
!

Hem
.

misera

Ah wretched me

!

I

am

lost.

Hem
feci,

!

scio jam quid

vis dicere.

Let

me

I

know what you would

say.

In the line
in

Me, Me, adsum qui

me

convertite tela,

we might
The

read the passage without
!

alteration of the
!

meaning.

Hem Hem
speaker himself,
is

adsum qui

feci.

use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of

m

or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this

mode

of

designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.
first

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,

first

person

is

ma, me, mi, man, na,
the

with

m and

n

as

personal prefixes.

And

word

is

formed on the same

plan in almost

all

families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and
*

S.

America,

ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,
interj.

Mr

Tylor

cites the derivation of G.
!

hemmen,

'

to stop, check, restrain,'

from the

hem
in

!

signifying stop

as

an obvious extravagance.

Tliere
it is

is

close a connection

meaning between the

interjection

and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds
inter-

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from
jections.

THE PRONOUN ME.
whoSe pronoun of the
first

xliii

person

is

written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of
kind

the voice within the person of the speaker,
is

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate

way

with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.

:

in other

words,

it

might serve

as

the basis

Nor

is

the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any

means

a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius

(as

quoted by A. Gellius,
first

1.

x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the

person

{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word
presses.

is

naturally adapted to the

meaning
is

it

ex-

He

probably
it

felt

the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of
It
is

which there

certainly

no

hemming
employed

in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that
as

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis

we

have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and

its

correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,

which

is

the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.

The
be

application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,

would

strictly parallel to

the use of

It.

n

and

vi,

properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.

Humboldt

in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.

Thus

Tonga, mei

signifies hither,

motion
to,

towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like
It.

and
e.

d

and

vi)

for

me

or us and you.
i.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell

tell

me

or us

;

tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is
is

to

have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the
suffix
s,

me and

fu, for

which

remarkable
a

Tonga
which

has totally different words, au and coy.
originally

In Armenian there

means

this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a

Thus

hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.

my

father.

man

speaks

of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of
tion,

in the utterance of the

m

or n

may

explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.

The

earliest

type

of rejection

is

the

closing

of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered

breast,

and the inherent

; ;

xliv

NEGATION. ENJOYMENT.
is

propriety of the symbolism

obvious.

De

Brosses observes that the articulations

n and

s,

both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to

sig-

nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples
tunato.

the words infinity and
.s

It. sfor-

He

overlooks the

fact,

however, that

this It.

is

merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,
letter.

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two
is

channels, he says (ch. xiv.
it

§

29),

by which

the voice

emitted, the nose
it

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of
nasals
is

The

expression of negation
ju?;,

by means of
it is

exemplified
erne,

in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,

m-

Vei

ma

;

Haussa

n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea

by

visible signs.-

— Schou.

Mr
a7/7a,

the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
Fernandian
'nt, all

kin,

Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn
Tylor
cites

signifying not.

ENJOYMENT AND DISGUST.
The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life

is

the appe-

food,

and

it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.

The

savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his

lips

or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.

Thus

Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes
at

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads

says,

'

The

astonishment and delight of these people

our

and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired
great,

was

'

our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration

by

a peculiar

smacking or clacking with

their

They expressed mouth and lips.'
the
lips or
in

— Australia,
The
tongue
the

p.

^2^.

syllable smack,

by which
is

we

represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,
taste.

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,
taste
;

the sense of
taste.

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the
ta-ite;

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the
;

lips

;

maisto, taste
.s

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.

The

initial

is

lost also in Fris.

macke, to

kiss.

The

initial

consonant

is

somewhat

varied without impairing the imitative effect in

Bohemian

mlaskati, to

eating

;

mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,

;

and

in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith

the

mouth

showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,
;

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.

ENJOYMENT. DISGUST.
Again,

xlv
as

we

have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the
is

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.

employed

for the

same purpose.
to apply
it

We spsak
smack
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do
derive

not happen
lip),

to the

The Welsh
this

has gwefusglec (gwefus,

a

smack with the
sound of an

From
is

source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl

The
some
say

or gl

readily

confounded with that of
tlick

tl

or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly
click.

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands
;

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the

mouth.

From

smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I
;

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling
at,

to-

gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial
tl

or dl

became

distasteful to Latin ears,

it

would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella
for

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.
in

It

is

true that an intrusive

vowel
garded

such cases

as the

foregoing

is

commonly (though
arisen

not universally) short,

but the long
as

e in these

words may have

from

their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.

The

attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.
in

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-

lators.

I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but
'

Would

to

-

occasionally interrupted their speeches

by

spitting

and uttering a noise
It
is

like

pooh !
this

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that

!

xlvi

OFFENCE.
fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and

like

it,

in-

tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in
!

his African
spitting

'To-o-h!

Tuh

exclaims the

Muzunga,

with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of
;
;

Africa, a. 346.
initial

The sound of spitting
puhwa,
dain
;

is

represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out

;

Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial

t,

t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting

;

Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook

mamook

took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to

make

tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj
;

Arabic
;

tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting
disdain
iTTVd)
;

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English
is

tuff, to spit

Hke

a cat.

In Greek
sounds.

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the

initial

BLURT

!

PET
his

!

TROTZ

The

feelings of

one dwelling on
a

own

merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath
nostril
is

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,

drawn

in

deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.

Her

fairy nostrils out.
is

—Tennyson.
Tiuff,

The sound
whiff,

qf hard breathing or blowing
is

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,
It.

whence a huff

a

fit

of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or
is

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.
;

The

luffa

explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.

—-Melchiori.

we

call shirping.'

Then,

as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or

cheat

;

heffarsi, to

laugh

at

luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used
rision.'

or disdain

is

uttered with exaggerated feeling

it

pro-

duces an explosive sound with the
as

lips,

represented by the syllable Hurt,
'

which

an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of
is
'

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.

a

Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring

it

out with a sudden explosion
is

ting something out of the
crying.

mouth.

A
is

Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
prt,
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I

is
;

explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie

approbation.

— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the

The

It.

petto, a blurt, petteggiare,

mouth

or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!

the

mouth

in
!

contempt (Sadler), explain the
tut
!

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw

nonsense

!

Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.

Decorde.

;

OFFENCE.
From
of anger
;

CONTEMPT.
we
have
e. pet, a fit
;

xlvii

the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,
is

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence
it

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips

Then

as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a
lip
is

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,

in

De-

vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the
lips.

ill-will

by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese
Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;
poutet,

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a
It.

a kiss

;

poutouno, a darling.

Again,

as in the case
ill-will to

of

hvffa, heffa,

above-mentioned,

we

pass

from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts

(to

be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.

The

E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking
lips,

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives

the

provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a
tut,

projecting

underjaw; on.

tota,

snout

;

Sw.

Da.

tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.

A

more

forcible representation of the explosive
r, as

sound

is

given by the introlips
;

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta
;

d

hesta, to

sound with the
snort,

to a horse in

make him go on
well as
is

Sw. pnista, to
sneeze.

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,
at,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not

sneezed

not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.
the

man

— that
Ayens

is

unbuxome
!

all

his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.

And
Hence
are

seyth Prut

I.

3016.

E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the
sullen,

West of E. (with
pout, to
surly,

form of purt,

to

be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.

Then,

from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment
trick
;

we

have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a

trick.

And

as

from the form pet
I

was derived Swiss
lip,

Romance

potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a

and

figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as

The

imitation of the explosive sound with an initial

in

ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's

lip
lips

or

Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-

xlviii

DEFIANCE.
;

DISGUST.
of such a description in driving

courage a horse
animals
Fr.
:

on. trutta, to

make

a noise

vox

est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.
man
make
the

Hence
from
trutas,
is

trut/

(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to

(Cot.);
;

which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the

lips,

a snout

to be out of

temper;

trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.

From

same source

the

6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.
to

;

trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to

of;

trotzig,

haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;

Valencian

trotar,

to deride, to

make

a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen

humour

;

to take the dorts, to

be in a pet

;

dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure

is

to

send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a

mouth,
(Fl.)
;

is

to

be explained

It.

truccare, to send, to trudge or

pack

away nimbly
away.

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of

be

oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same

way.
Lyere

— was nowher welcome,

for his

Over

al

yhonted, and yhote, trusse.

manye

tales
v.

Piers PI. Vis.

1316.

To

hete truss

is

an exact equivalent of g. trotz

bieten.

In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge

.'

all leysare

was

to

long.— Gascoigne.

FAUGH
There
sight
is

!

FIE

!

a strong analogy

and hearing.
air

When we
as

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the
ive

through the
;

nostrils, as

we

eagerly swallow food that

is

agreeable

to the palate

and

we

spit

out a disagreeable morsel, so

we

reject
air

an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected
lips,

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our
protruded

lips

pu.

when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded
'

lips,

a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,
air.

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the
;

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.
;

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced

puh),

Illyr.

puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

OFFENSIVE SMELL.
CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with

xlix

TheSanscrit
lungs,

may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

blow.
like the foregoing

From forms
at a

we

pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains

pu/

as

an

interj.

representing the sound

made by blowing through
'

the barely opened

lips,

and
alte

thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.
mist.'

Ha puh I
iii

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and
(Forcell.),

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !
-b..

disgust at a

bad smell

is

expressed

manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !
like
effect
if

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah

the

utterance

accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.
is

Accordingly
civet
;

we have

Sanscr. pu,
;

pMka,

stinking

;

puti, putrid, stinking matter,
;

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten
stench.
says

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus
;

Jahfals

ist :

by

this

time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad
bitter.

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,

Han
ill

va fal aat

os,

he was

enraged with us.

The

e.

equivalent

is foul,

properly

smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,
life.

underhand

in the transactions

of

ON. Fulyrdi, foul words

;

falmenni, a scoundrel.

From

the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or
foul.

d^le, to make foul

;

and Jllth, that which makes

The

disagreeable impressions of smell produce a
all

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his
in.

And

probably the

earliest

would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the
live.

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language
it

supplies

its

place by

—Farrar,

He

says,

The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him
say,

Where

live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.

d

1

REPROBATION.
interjection fy
it is
!

HATE.
do

The

expresses in the

first

instance the speaker's sense of a bad
is

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That
j

dirty

;

and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that

;

pleased at being touched

by

strangers.
inteij.

When
Thus
in
-e,.

used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the

often

assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in

faugh

I

ovfoh

/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly

employed

in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.
also

Yx.f, I

commonly

expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent
it.

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to

turn

up

one's nose at

it,

to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,

we

shall

easily believe that
it

pu !
it

as

an expression of reprehension,

is

the

source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,

cries

pu

!

on

me

;

pudeo, I

lie

under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the
fie
!

interj.

fu

!

being thus
:

analogous to
ein

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.
ings
;

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus

The

fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,
nostrils
'

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.

'

stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!

foh!

addressed

especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and

;

NURSERY WORDS.
foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave

to

If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.

PAPA,

MAMMA.
all

^ A small class of words
them
(in the sense

is

found in

languages analogous
papa,

to,

and many of

identical with, the e. forms,

mamma,

mammy,

daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,

as

well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-

A

man
Is

in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which
vi.

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.

It

appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,

am,

at, an.

We

find m,a, me, mi,
all

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense
;

moma, mother, and
fafa,fawa,
father
;

less

frequently nearly

the

same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father
be,
b'l,

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,
;

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,

tite,

unina, ananak, mother.
as

common

to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each

other,

'If

we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently

those

which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and

mother.'

—De

Brosses,

i.

215.

The speech
articulate

of the mother

may

form

to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms
ter;

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,
fia/iovKi^ia,

babelen, to babble, mutter

;

mammer,

to

mut-

Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)
to

Mod.Gr.

mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the
term
for

of them.

Thus

Lat.
as

mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,

the

mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

m
and the same
is

NURSERY WORDS.
the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,

breast

;

mammen,

to give suck.

When

one of the imitative

ma had
ta,

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,
e.

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or

nipple

;

Goth, dadd-

The name of
which

the laly himself also

is

gives their designation to so

many

representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs
it

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.

The

nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the

To

the

first

of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna
lull

nanna, to

a child

;

ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language
la

nanna, bed, sleep.
sleep.

Far

In the

Mpongwe

of

nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).
It.

The

imitation

gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a
el

little girl;

Milanese nan,
Sp.

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.

Caro

mi nan,
is

my

darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
ninny
it is

Mod.Gr.

vivlov, a

young

child, a simpleton,

and in

e.

transferred to a person of childish understanding.

From

the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.

is

extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,

From

the

same source

and

e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.
lyu,

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,

whence

lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE.
Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation

may

name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a
will,

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.

The

testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. But. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. a word of many applications in g.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. da. thata (ta-ta). the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. as it Dieser da (as Lat. da. the nursery da-da. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. says da-da-da. we may translate this by there (it is). Phil. I add) . When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. give.' person. that. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. case. or that it is. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat.' then points to his wife. a specified were by pointing him out. der da-ige. In the expression Da. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. or give me it. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Sie. and may be rendered. for instance. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. . indeed. but the truth is. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Sanders (Germ. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Dr Lottner observes. implying the direction of its good will towards them.' this. is we I believe. as to express.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. when he wants something. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. when 1859. saying : there the ad- Trans. and so on. and by a variety of expressions besides. or carry me thither. • The child. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). The Fr. or wants to name something. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Diet.' all is is — their consent. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. to here . give me that cheese. his trowsers' pocket. Thank you. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. When we pointing. nurseries. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. more emphatically roSj)j that. child. ToSe (or in Attic E. Please. ' sees an object. 'nay. well as Goth. this here. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. as. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. Bav. that gratifies me. according to Menage. that is it. is-te).

. sinking. strike. which thus exertion. to knock. to chatter. tattle. beat. pay. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. stutter. The da is dodem. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. childish toying. sounds. the original is that which he places first. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. speech. to walk. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. reality. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. to say to oneself. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. standing. or metaphor. to move step by step. or dalliance. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. p. in every mode of expressing the idea. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. then we have a pronoun demonstrative.' • liv ANALOGY. Thus Gr.' says Lottner interior. make dadada). dadee. meanings. of which any one may. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. to tion to another.^ its ' utters : a cry. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. and shapes it into an . The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da.' says Muller. then instinctively interest. thinking. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. to beat. and one in particular must. tasting. moving. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. takes it — as When the soul. — Cot. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. its desire.

kimistd. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. (parallel bilbila. rattle. to glitter. on. Du. air. clang. as kilind. firom the Gael. and thence e. which in ohg. to crackle gnistre. may be quoted gUt. to ring. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. In the case of sparkle. schiteren. sprageti. discreet. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. tumult. wilistd. snuff the sniiten. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. taste. magnificence. chime). snutrs. unlella. savour. So firom Lat. tinkling. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. tintelen. splendour. to 5 ghtter. wise. suspect Bav. to be wise. in the domain of movement. a with kimmaltaa. pracht. make a loud noise. scTiateren. wamara. The 6. bright. Heo Du. the equivalent of g. to tinkle. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. beorhtian. &c. search . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. scheteren. from the . smell. a ringing . gnittre. snotor. bilbilgoda (to make . while sapere itself. a brilliant light kilid. brilliancy. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. and. to sparkle. judicious. — 1. sense of brightness. sound. smell. to have Sapiens. to resound. splendour. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. we have and the and beorht. wilahtaa. to snilF. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. . beam. Bavarian bracht. to glitter e. prudent. Fr. to glisten Dan. spraka. properly a clap or explosion. to sniff. to quiver. then to sparkle. fiapfiaipw. to sniff out. also wise. to sound clear In Galla. to flash. for example. signified a clear sound. snot. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to shine. In the same way the Goth.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. iclat (in Old Fr. noise. bilbil). to ring as a glass willata. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to shriek with laughter . in popular language. same imitative root with Sw. esclat). knittre. ghsten. kiimottaa. to glitter. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to glitter. to shine. . Lith. think. Again. a dis- cernment. outcry. to crackle. sapere (which signifies the nose. 1654. to smack or taste. and figuratively. a rustling sound Gr. may be it explained . Finnish. man of nice taste. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. schmecken. to . ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. as. and schmecker. knistre. extended to the exercise of the understanding. is used in the origin. snudra.

Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. the neighing of horses. whirl. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. Acre. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. extremely loose. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. KoWiiSije. power of the letter-sounds. . cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. \nrap6e. Kpovtiv. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. inside. v. which The Stoics. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. within. oily. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). he framed the words ivSov. briars. rend. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. discusses the tone of a picture. rough. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. break. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. the clank (stridorem) of chains. flow and flux. rough. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. he says. as soft by the ear. or . 1. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. then in rpd/xoe. pleasure soft to the ear . the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. roughness. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. rough both ways. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. 6\tadaveii'. pvfi^Civ. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. Tpa)(yg. is felt Lana. we hear of screaming colours. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. gluey. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. eo ut res vol. of dressing loud. in of his works. tremour. the bleating of sheep. mel. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. crux. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. sharp. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. soft. accordance with the way in which by touch. Much of the same has been often quoted. smooth. wool. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. fitting the letters to the sense. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. And observing that n kept the voice within. rough to the ear. ipuKuv. and vepres. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij.' he says. strike. Kep^arl'ieiv. &c. kvTOQ. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. The BpavEiv. shatter. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. the cross. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. in truth. itself letters are felt as sofl. to slide.

A greater felt. p. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. joli. as when. corresponding to the ineor. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. g. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. tug. rug. and in the utterance of a high or or low. t. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. a rough and sudden . but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. jag. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. jih. dag. for exis ample. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. jig. jog. or checks as they are called by Muller. sag-oter. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. shag. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. to reel abruptly from side to side). the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. degree of roughness sound. to jogj sac-cade. the case of the voice. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. ii. p. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. dig. Fr. 'and consequently form. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. cular effort Again. k. shog. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . stag (in stagger. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. stab. d. 138). but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. to signify varieties of movement. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs.

schuckeln. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. chicoter. a little bit. e. The syllable suk is jerk. mica. zack. that we never can be sure. tecche-tocche. to stir. a piece or bit of anything. properly a small lump'of . to mutter. as tot. used interjectionally to represent a . Fr. Hence Lat. not to utter a syllable. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. to winkj micati is Lat. to beat or play on a musical instrument. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. a small bodily object. chique. is so frequent a consequence of movement. to On the same principle j we have g. a . &c. To tick a thing off. to glitter. foot. like English tick.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. cica. kuk. Bolognese tocc. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. rough horse. mie. then. sound barely audible. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. lead to Spanish tocar. to move rapidly to and fro. The train of . or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. in cases like the foregoing. to tickle. for the sound of knocking at a door. The analogy then carried a step further. chic. to ring a bell. passing to the signification of motion. so to Italian toccare. to mark it with a touch of the pen . Ene olde suksuk. S-panish miga. a quid of tobacco. Brescian toch. to utter a slight kick. motion. as Italian tocco. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. Then. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Illyrian migati. Dutch kicken. Sukkeln.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. movement. tock. also to stir.. and e. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. figuratively. and analogous movements. chiquet. to incite by light touches. tack. Welsh cicio. a jog. schockeln. it produces Dutch micken. or check. mot. g. a playiug-marble. and It. Thus we have B. Fr. a crum. kik. tech-tech. toch-toch. mik. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. an old worthless horse or carriage. is lanese toch. a good piece of road . and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. The production of sound. is made to signify movement. to say a word . to pulses being knock. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. zigzag. to have it ticked or marked on the score . a cracker. to strike It. It. then. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. sound Fr. (mitsati). an infant . to take a thing on tick. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. Accordingly the g. The Mipen or pencil. micare. a stroke with a French toucher. to touch. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. however. Mucken.

or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. Pm. tot. . chico. at where the order is inverted. i. a sparrow). a morsel. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. anything small flax. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat.) . tottle. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. . . I. to touch. a small kind of lark. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. ika. and dot. anything . Halliwell. a light quick blow. for the beating of a clock. as in e. e. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. syllable mot. tot. we have e. this. and a small lump of something. eo. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. titmouse (Du. the same organ touched with the man. a small lump or pat. 199). that iku. seesaw. fait. mot. zitio. often entirely arbitrary. ri that. a small horse. not because the pendulum makes a different left. titilh. a e. the least visible insect. . . to jog. mut. not an atom . corresponding to the personal pronouns. a. a tot . mutter j dust. to make a slight mark. totle. fragments It. lix Sp. not to utter a syllable. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. . bunch or flock of wool. Cult. gni. a morsel girl . is shown in murmur. a certain conception. gnu. Du. mote. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. to e. a lad citta. But the same is language has re Javan.n. there. of movement in totter. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. titter. tot.- a jot or little It. the vowel sound. tiny. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). Then. a girl. little. or the like its It. and toddle like a child titter. . a small quantity. a small bird. a bit. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. this . you. here. here (close hand). tit. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. there (further of!) ao. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . The following table from Tylor (Prim. gno. jot. clay . subdued manner. there '(at a short distance). light — to note a thing hastily on paper . a bit. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. and out there. to touch lightly with a pen. Malagasy to. to jot down or note with a fro. motta. a little titty. or o toi. a whisper. and he. motte. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. tittle. ticktack. that. (Halliwell) Da. This kind. n. mutter. . we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. So.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. small titlark. iki. 48) cites from the African Tumale. move slightly to . and mite. further off. to movement of the pen . neither moit nor an atom. tozzo. citto. zitella. or the converse. mossche. taut. to tremble. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. for the three personal pronouns. e. to whisper (Pr. To jot. In a similar the relations of place. little j to that of a small bodily object. tot. 0. tit. to dot. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. small of kind. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. lump of earth. Fr.

as in Italian Fin. Abchasian aSn. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he.) pronunciation of i or e. ita. you. biii. and origin. is Here. that. that. It Carib lala. It seems to (fen. nne. akha. father k . which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. as the act of pointing was ta. qu. here . there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. child. for the male. Gr. ne. . Japan ko. child. mother. that. Magyar ez. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. no constant rule is observed. ukko. Lat. . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. thou. here . this fi. that. w. there. Tamul i. here j ka. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. usho. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. this . there. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. he. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. .) nna. and a for the female. thou . there.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. olo. tiiio. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Zulu ajoa. that. probably initial of distinction that the k. . Carib ne. Sahaptin (America) kina. 6. . minution further. bi. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). there. j Canarese ivanu. mother. that (intermediate) j wana. me probable that • Vei also little. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. ndi. I . an old . /wo. little.. as Mr Tylor remarks. father. . Fernandian az.. ^. ni. here feraa. Botocudo ati. this ole.. this . femina ama. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. Ossetic am. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. ofj. Mm. /e«. ojOo. young one. this <t. Guarani nde. ta to ka. that. km. to. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. man erne. this . respectively. here j abe. that in the distance. Then. here 5 Yoruba na.e^. there. Tarahumara ibe. uta. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. that. (tt). mother. is father. Mutsun ne. loo). he. that. mas cheche. ulri. . that. Chilian tva.araM. there. /mya. this . there. an old woman chacha.. ni. Dhimas isho. here this . small (Pott. thou ni. .

to peep. to leap. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. the pip or pippin. analogous to winy-piny. as j money. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. fretful. — Douglas Virgil.' making the voice as small as possible. The Sw. repetition It. i Sw. for the . while the special nature of the action intended syllable. whence Fr. as ding-dong. . speaking in a pipy tone of voice. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. or chink. Clank represents the sound of something large. nipple. don-don. Da. a little yellow beard. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. just beginning to appear. stairs. is to express simple continuance of action. to peep through. for a succession of light blows low-wow. wean. and in the Pacific dialects. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. trSpigner. to feet. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. the simplest mode by the g. a step. for instance. lift 8. little. trippelen.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. Top. titta. pepin. to begin to appear . the principle of reduplication. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. to teet.' — Merrv Wives. barking of a dog.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. trappa. nil. trappen. keeh. nab. The sound trapp . to make its way through the bursting envelope. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. dance (Kil. to sup up by and with j lips barely open.) . little To sup up. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. 401. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. tion. murmur. A little weeny thing. Fr. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. And perhaps the E. wenig. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. A little wee face with little. &c. has tittafrem. a child. of smaller things. trippen. knob. sound of bells . the nursery few j Sc. Thus we have Wolof sopa. trap. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. From cases like the foregoing. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. the idea is called. looking through between obstacles. at pippe frem is to spring forth. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. or even. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. din-din. in old e. to tread.

uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. rapidity and strength. to vi^alk about for flax. keep spots. or el. kenda. mpolu is uttered. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages.' expression is — ^Tylor. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. . to call frequently from Fr. child . rack click. hardness. 99). to talk at to walk. clamito. Thus in the Pacific loa. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. . but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. (to use a to speak. to skip. to love. smallness. little child (p. racket. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. kendagenda. er. to say pooh It is ! to. 97). didi. &c. Again. So from clamo. bad . such as the syllable expressed in a more called. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. Thus in E. The same principle of 196. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. repetition or continsignify long. and the words express a continued sound of rack. random . to treat with contempt. rack. ayunayunan. i. the lungs. a clattering noise. the comparative degrees of greatness. Susa di. in familiar use with ourselves. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. mawhitiwhiti. Malay ayun.. or very very great. to pant. Mandingo ding. the agent in panting . or in Fr. from Maori muka. or imitative syllables. Cult. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. loloa. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). or a little tee--ny thing. could readily be conceived. puka- puka. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. sopasopa. ratsi-ratsi. puka. mawhiti. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. properly speaking. cliqu-et-is. click. kamha-gamla. to to call. very long (Pott. instead of being actually repeated. tache. amusement. to or rub. tach-et-er. ding-ding. And generally. child . calling. to cover e. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to rock. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. are echoed by the rudimentary et. serves to show and in this way. if very young. is language. very bad. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. lololoa. a grasshopper. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. a cradle. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . a spot. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. very great. or rdtchi. and Fr. to express repetition or continuance in a general way.Ixii REPETITION. the and clique. clash of weapons.

In like manner crack imitates the sound made . from puka. g. to crackle. miauler andpiauler. rubber. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. as mAS. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. joggle. to hand. to move to and fro. fickle. the lungs (the puffers of the body). the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. the knie-en to E. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. a succession of cracks to rattle. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. in some applications. bubble. to wail woe . where all direct connection with sound is lost. it.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. is In e. dab. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to make a succession of shoves. In cases like these.Jicol. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. to make a succession of grabs . to bark like a dog. smack. miauler and beler correspond to E. or by association. as to handle. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. rynel. to make bau-bau. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . The Fr. to rock. draggle. compared with g. crack. to rock or wag. bub. shuffle. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. in Fr. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. are to cry mew and pew . others. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. he who rubs. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. kneel. wancol. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. and in as. to continue dragging. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. Ihre remarks under gncella. wagas ging. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. itself. or Maori puka-puka. wankeln. or fi bau. The contrivance with any particular noise. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to hand-le. a from ayun. waggle. Piedmontese bau-l-S. or in e. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . jogging. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. Jickfacken. guggle. to puff. to make gug. or omitted. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. syllable clat . mew and baa . such asjlap. wankel. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. wavering. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. dabble. which. by the side of wanken. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression.

deceit. the breach. by a hard body breaking. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. moreover. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. it is obviously a mere chance how long. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. at was more familiarly known. which is the origin of the word. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. A gull or a dupe same sense. will continue to be felt in daily speech. Dupe comes to us from the French. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. or in aptness to combine with other elements. Breton. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Polish. although it is not difficult. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. or in mode of use. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. known in Italian. to the separation between the broken parts. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. and comparatively few easily deceived. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. to cry ugh at. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. There is. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. or how generally. on a moment's reflection. which.

or are afford satisfaction arising origin. founded in manifest blunder. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. language is . But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. and the word is used in a secondary sense. . Hitl^erto. is. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. nor any limited of ideas. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. however. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. life. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost.

circle perpetrates a new slang term. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. Welsh. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). I think it very probable. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. therefore. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. and 'Russian. unintelligible to other hordes. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. guages in South America. change. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. Naturalist on the Amazons. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. and vescovo. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. of material things. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. compared with the duration of man. in the course of many years' isolation. 330. evique.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. hearing. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. i. French. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. out. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. If English. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. episcopus. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture.

although it said to be never used independently for that letter. The combination of the symbols I and 2. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 8. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. 6. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. is MN. the actual it which would to represent. . ancient Greek M . ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. or whatever the proportion may be. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. to be taken (Prim. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. it will leave figures 3 and 4. as shown in the subjoined illustration. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. which are idenr Figures 5. 9. ao8). i. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. and . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. 7. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. A key must unlock more doors than this. Cijlt. Nor is there one of the letters.

had its origin in imitation of sound. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. what comes to the same thing. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. leading him to utterances. which either by direct resemblance of sound. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. and the only safe beneficent Creator. We must either suppose that in a civilised state.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. for instance.' should be discovered. in the shape either of direct inspiration. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. or. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech." the use of a change of vowel in as. his fellows. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. known to us as yet.

by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. or else. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. the conduct of Ixix life. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. for instance. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. by animal without a trace name of Man. that he started from the lowest grade. until the progeny. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. as elephants. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . or not. and when we look back as far as history will reach. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. or beavers. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. in the course of generations. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . race were speaking men or not. or of their own reflected thoughts . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare.COMPLETION OF MAN. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and rose towards a higher state of being. and sooner or later. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . of using imitative conduct .

Couzinid. at the end of Somner's Diet. Esthonian. Danish. Diet. Infimse Latini- D. Bigl. Dueange. Catalan. Cimbrisch. Dueange. Dn. 1737.-Eng. Supplement to Dueange. Da. Dief. Biglotton seu Diet. Finnish. Gothischen 1851. dialect of the Sette Commune. 1857. ^Ifr. Cot. E. Elfric's Fl. Diefenbaeh. 1766. Anglo-Saxon. Cimbr. or Dan. Bohemian or Czech.Nieder. Castr. Cotgrave.. Fin. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. dial. Bavarian. Teutonico-Lat. B. AS. Diefeiibach. Supplement to Bret. 1654. Provincial dialect. Carp. Due. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. 1768. Brem.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Esth. Sup. Grammar Boh. Fr. Dutch. Gr.V. Carpentier. Wtb. English. Bremisch. 1850. Diet. Bav. de la langue Cat. Baile/sEngl. Diet. Romano - Cas- traise. Douglas' Virgil.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Dief. .

TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. . Mid.Lat.

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hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. ^i?^i2! r. yjnaifia r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. cti. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. (/ijtf r. r.percurrunt kimista^x. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. haverie crtOT r. Blob plowied r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. kilistaa bugiie r.nokkutama willekem. alUger ahaverie r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. cruccio deyrie. plowied budowaer. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.>. buque 118 brodiquin r. puHti r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . sveritet Asknace r. Askance woud r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. willekom Blab r. baltresca nokkutomax. r. katowai perairrantr..5 ERRATA. word allagerr.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. woman r.

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compounds. vs. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. announcement. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English.he Goth. baftan. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. ifter. an edict or proclamation. Abs-. alike. dominion. on. until the event jlace . "rom a height. o/j of or . onis aback. A. literally. ab.t G. Immediately from Fr. ibandonner. as. to arise. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. on. among. behind. The word Ban is common orders. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . Ab-. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. er. to subdue. away. particular 1 . implying a completion of J. Passing tongues. bandon in French. but now )bsolete). —Bruce. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. . Thou spelds of mychty iction. a washing off to abstain. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. OHG. in the same sense. a. off. this word beand Spanish. Hence on-bceftan. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. said. state of sleep . Abaft. sion of 'an abandoned character. ur. away from. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. downwards. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Again. Dent posture. whatever he be. of-dune. have entire dominion over. abaft. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. into the Romance ftrseg . from. in a manner other than it should be ablution. as. in. to awake. orders. erwachen. To abuse is to use iway. us. 843. iway from. and secondarily in that of command. a/tan. Thus ip N3S. to sauff the king or spill. on-bsec . out of. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. ir. In Lat. Jvery man shewid baft. be-ceftan. power : Than Wallace thing. plesyt him. Lat. AS. ar. his. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. K . and — Chaucer. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. the er. from a is to wake to abide.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. AS. to hold . And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Parson's Tale. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. rule. on-lic. command. abs. Abandon. dominion. 244.

abbas. See . has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. abbatis. shame.Prov. law term abatement. faire tomber. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. as ravish. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. Custom. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. to bate something of the price abbatersi. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Cotgr. to diminish the force of any. esba. Milton. to excite admiration. where custom (Grandg. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. of fear.esbawi. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. down. . bandon. More correctly written abbat.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. may be explained. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. It. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to gape. to light upon. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. See Abide. R. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. to overthrow. Abbot. overthrow. impulse. Baba ! Mod. lish to abaisse orabaish. to strike sail . esbahissais. abbattre. ne more vermeille. and it that that it — . of the Fr. ais. — Neccham. To Abate. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. d. In or. c. by Wall. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. . without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. to put to con. his eyen shene. and that from Syrian abba. to astonish. baba. so common in the found in the OFr. I was abawid for merveille. Abbey.polir. father. uncontroUedly. R. to hit. burny was formerly burnish . And he thereof was all abashed. betrash. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to beat furnish. beer. to ruin. impetuously. iv.) . must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. R. and the verb was written in Eng. Castrais. 364s. and grooms besmeared with gold. A. terminedly. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. to happen. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. in the active form. or admiration. Beat. bawi. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections.— — . Hence the OE. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. effect of shame. other. abate. abbatere dal prezzo. to strike Froiss. Wall.' the surrender of a ' K. abbatere. Bate. Hence Lat. from ravir. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. and sets them all agape. castle. with or without a final sh. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. to abaw or astonish.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. merely the terminations ons. vol. esbahir.— R.On princes. drink. an abbey. et prirent terre. thing abbatere le vela. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. — — . de. 1520. son bandon. adverbial expressions at abandon. Fr. or society of abbots or monks. Hart in Jamieson. depress. ant. to The . at his own the lips. Originally. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. esbahissant. astonish. burny. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. astony. 1 1 8. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. to take possession of an estate. Abbess. weaken. polish. person. abbatia. On the other in use as well as hand.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. baer. confound.down. abaundunem-ent.fournir. of wonder. his mouth. to make lower. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. abandonly. from Lat.

m Abeyance. to suffer death in Du. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. compared with (Bosworth). beijden. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). abeyance. — signifies to suspend action. Goth. Guernsey beth. badare. To Abet. us. ne chastised them. . in Dan. listen. 366. to look. were called Brothers. aspire to. (Vocab. beguiling on the other. covet. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. de Champ. Quant voit le serpent. baier. to attend on . tenere a bada. inciting. also to OFr. forms with the d effaced are OFr. See Abide.. trick abetar. bidan. verbeijen Sw. The verb atwaiting. intent observation. to wait. pense. Cat. while the monks under his control ing. usbeisnei. ceive. to expect. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. look for another. and E. Pol. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. 1 • . to desire earnestly. abie. signifies the direction of tend. have seen abide. gridare. bocca badata. tity of E. bder.— Chaucer. bie compared with Dan. incite . to It. aspirer. Cat. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. abbadare. to open bader. — II. —Raynouard. bide of the d endure. . In We . Boethius. abSiance. which is certainly related to It. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. Abie. to yawn. wait. abie. we sceolon ON. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Ducange. to expect gabeidan. b^er. a right in suspense . a bay or opening in the coast. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. Abele. songer. or absorption watching. bida. badare. Norm. bialodrze-w. Du. to In great amaze. to abide . badar. desirer (Roquef. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. house. beter. syllable ba. Fabl. deceiving. OFr.was formerly used in the sense of look. open the mouth.— Roquef. ne wist what way to chuse. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. attendre See Bait. F. from Halo. . to be intent upon. The white poplar. to desire. bie. gola badada. expectation. white. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. tical with It. wait To Abide. to attend to. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. and in E. attendre avec en^pressement. qui iaaille. speaking of the Holy places. othres abidan' The effacement expect. guardare. on the one hand. beijen. beguile. which the mind to an object. — . John. abeter. beidan. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. or in Fr. abiiance. ^couter avec dtonnement. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to ance. Gloss. baer. bida. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. suffer b. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Ni engigner ni abiter. endurArt thou he that should come. to deanimer. to stay. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. Corant sens lui. beidan. forbearance. listening. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . lingering. delay. abet. in Fr. badare. . baier compared with It. bana. — ABELE Epiphanius. expectfamily. to gape . bada. bouche b^ante. to remain or endure. abet. de Berri) Prov. Norm. desire. expectation. bouche bdante. endurance. tarrying . to hook. watch. badigliare. take notice. literally white tree. and alluring to his own destruction. take care. inciter. to wait. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to stay. is idenwait. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. tempting. warten.) abayer. the verb of abeyance.— ^richer. bhr. abaier.to wait. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. with badia. Prov. says. abayer. to be intent upon. delay. or do we AS. to open the mouth. abetter. with open mouth . From abahier. to tarry.' is in AS. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. to wait. and Prov. regarder. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. waiting. K. . as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. ' ' . abidan. beijen. exciter. to mind. Q.Fr. Gloss. to deceive. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Thus G. suspense. delay. baier. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Thus we have It. deceit. E.

She shall abie that trespass dere. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. R. Abie. to wear away. convenient. suffer the Jul. 2. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. him with che. abycgan. habilis is closely preserved. to perish. properly abuy. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. abilej Prov. have-like. 2nd Tale. P. P. Milton.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Innan bords. able. For on board. Boucher. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. abigg. . Prol. Chaucer. In this to erase or annul. Fr. beidan. If it badare. F. within the walls of a ship. a board. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. abide. abidge.^and to make his power knowne. God. when compared with Aboard. the side of a ship. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. N.ynes. abolir. — Able. bide. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. strong. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. O If tion. durance in both applications. habilis (from habeo. —Bacon in R. on board . though sometimes confounded with it. without special reference to the notion of retribution. willing to schewe his wrathe. Fr. abie to Goth. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. and Cr. to redeem. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. adapted . Tr. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. as E.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. R. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. within the ship. to pay the purchasemoney. fault being simply clothing. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. de la volatile. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. being disabled in the highest degree. The —Boucher. or bie. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. God — dear. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. ON. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. sufficient. must suffer for it. from Lat. aboleo. expert. &c. consequences of anything . was often used in the same sense. while in later examples As I . the Pardoner In the original. to pay the penalty. and the simple buy. Spenser. abicgan. Cassar. use. to have . Mids. ! ! Cotgr. Lat. AS. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. habile. bidan. bord. abie. at hand). i. atling hem to her proper offices. the Sir Tristrem. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. and death for handsel pay. at kasta fyri bord. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Wickliff in Richardson. al- be found so some will dear abide it. fit. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. abilh. Merch. in for any special purpose. to . to dress hemp. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Dr. to draw fowls. from AS. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. powerful. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. abeye. power. purpose. Q. as habiller du chanvre. the Fr. It. is the verb abie. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. forbid for mother's children should abye. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. — e. — P. L. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death.

OSw. to awake. but from Lat. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. Goth. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. awaking. boven. abowen. Of these synonymous adolescere. a portent). AS. to let sleep. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge.) . al is growth. to rear. To Abound. to progress. To abray or abraid. coalesco.. that greatly agredge their sin. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. abracan. Sc. seems aras.' Parson's rence. abbrechen.aboon. AS. Virg. the hair grow. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire.— Abbreviate.foda signifies to beget. Melibaeus. life. . his contemporaries. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. by the to bring up. from Fr. to AS. breaking out in language. bufan. vital PI. ala. without. Quod abominor. the idea of breaking about . See To Bray. alUger. outward. and alere flammain. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. becomes leu in Prov. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. explains soboles Lat. Thonne Abroach.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G.' Ymb hancred utan. af-oolden. nurse. The primitive idea seems that of beget. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. whence the Fr. and also to abridge. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to bring up. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to cut short. abutan. Finnish stock. titan. OE. Abrdger itself. en. Gael alaich. about cockcrow. — ' — — preceding verb. Prov.ymbutan. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. ala is made to signify to rear. See -und-. — . alan. to main. Fr. as AS. is not from G. or young forth. d. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. Severe the threatened evil. which may God avert. way Sw. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. to start. to beget or give birth to children. common in Chaucer and Abominable. draw out. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. motion. heavy. D.ger. snatch In English we speak of away. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. for ligeth butan. to fatten. to feed. to produce. nurse Lat. Kiittner. ABOMINABLE adolesco. below. currence. Then. onbutan. agreujar. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. Above. leading immediately to Fr. pedigree from brevis. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. alan. while the verb alleThe root el. gravis. ufan. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. is a ively. literally. and to do something to avert abbreviate. parent. . to break off. sec seftre — Chaucer. OE. gravity. side. oil. to grow up.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. Tale. the OSw. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. abrdger. to rear. In the same brevis . on high. brood. progeny. Abray. abbrechen. the man dwindles away. of any kind . be-ufan. be-utan. Thence to regard greugetat. around on the out. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. full ofte his words for to Fr. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Abundant. to aggravate.. the vital spark.the older form. For on broach. break out. abominor (from ab and omen. Du. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. to nourish. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. while the sense of beget. above. as withotityn and without. and in-d-oles. So in Lat. kindling. the form a&^^. to turn. adolere. alere capillos.1. which passed into English under Abominate. nourish. giving birth to. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. and bidden him abregge. as the duty of nourdisposition. abrcBgdan. natural ed direct from the latter language. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. to light a fire the Abraid. Lat. from . to feed. or cut short. The radical idea is to feed the flame. hard. s —Casdmon. to snatch. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. agredge. butan. af-oleii. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. abbreviare. ol. to grow together. the identity of which with ting. greu. abredan. levis to the Romance languages. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. AS. abufan. and also.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain.

;

6

ABROAD
thrust, butt,

ACCOUTRE
In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as

way

the G. stossen, to
is

push with the horns, &c.,

He

who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their

m

Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato
;

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to

own

country.

taught.

But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.

Accede.

—Access. —Accessory.

Lat.

Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,
ill

Fr.

abscez,

humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,
or
;

;

the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.
Cic.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as
:

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the


; ;

;

ACCRUE
vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.
;

AD
Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.

7

sacristan
clesice

Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

Ludwig.
sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem

dium

accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.

The

original

meaning

of

would thus be to perform the
;

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance
is

Grimm

akran,

fruit,

;

;

Achromatic.
free
tive,

Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe
!

and Ache.

A

is

your

joy.

same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the
rest,

Kilttn.

cries of grief.
is

The

Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some
impending

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.

—A

of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion

a.

;:

8

ADAGE
Adage.
Lat.

ADJUST
W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.

OHG

adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be

'

'

swouning,

—to

dawne

that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.
;

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.
9.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs
I

or

com

or

addle

my

ninepence every day.

— Hal.

hay

Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,
:

'

;

A

attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly

satisfactory,

were

it

not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo
its

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run
crease.

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

ADJUTANT
Dte
sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

ADVOCATE
Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.
to

9
puts

that

one

was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and
title

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
to
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival

E.

advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,

'

Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.
from
videri,

;

Captain-general Church.

of

the

Holy Roman with
The
'

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.
Sire,'
'

Hence

In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.
;

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be

wouM

So

that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.

ded

That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to

;

We

flatter.

from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,

Adult.

grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.

Whence

He

Weened

looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,
son,

boy,

lo

ADVOWSON
call for help, to

AJFRAY

to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal

person

ket,

Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded
was
c?i}ii^6.

the cause of another,

who whence
a

patromis.

afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after

Advowson.

From

the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in
affeerers

Due.
Affiance.

—Affidavit.

From_/?ifi?j,

was

formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to
;

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.
like

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.
fil,

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And

putte

hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon

hit

walde him

for-

Adze.

AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.

wSisthetios.
oiT0i)mc,

The

science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —

;

AFFRONT

AGHAST

n

eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under

Tho

in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.

With

The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to

Gower

in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.

The

Jam.

Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.

;

AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose
;

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,
to
irritate;

agga, to
to

irritate,

disturb.

gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

horror.
the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.
.

The French exclaimed
All the whole

vi.

Probably the word

may be

explained

.

;

12

AGISTMENT
Fris.

AIM
dial.

In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-

from

guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.

—Baker.

;

;

Fr.

had ghir,

to

lie

;

whence
;

giste,

a

able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.
;

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan
fits

Ague.

A fever

Journal.

Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.
'1

Si

non qu'une

fiivre

aigue vous presse

les cotds.

Raynouard.

The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.

A

On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue

A

Aid.
tare,

Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-

;

tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,

For

in

swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve

Whan

that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a

Agog.

quagmire.

— Hal.

'

He is

all

agog to

go.'

shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,

To
;

'

A

!

;

AIR
his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.

ALERT
tions.

13

— —

Las.!

Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched

me

!

Alas

M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.

—Raynouard,
me
I

You have how Uttle

it

given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

Alchemy.

The

;

A

;

;

;

;

.

;

;

!

A

;

;

14

ALGATES
som a
fair

ALLAY
gull
saei.'

Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
another.
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was

as

used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.

Always
manner

itself is

Algebra.

From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as
;

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly

Two

&

Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.

Quo

be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran
;

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was
this,

— Catafogo.

To
alienus,

alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,
Lat.
foreign.

Alien.

And

make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
That
shall alegge this bitter blast,

ybore.

To Alight.
(from
lei,

Dan.
light),

lette,

Du.

ligt,

signify to

lift,

ligten to

And

slake the winter sorrowe.

make

from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have
;

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.

Tempest.

;

So

to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other

ever.

tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-

and

continuance
series,

throughout

an

extended

or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.

!

;

;

ALLEDGE
would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour
It

ALLOW

15

AUggid much of my In the original,
I.fi

languor.

—R.

R.

voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf

ma

douleur.

So

in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.
i

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief
'

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

France.
Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-

And

times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular
octals-jord,
;

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.
'

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic
laws,

—an ancient inheritance, from
and
an

Eetas, antiquitas,

allda-vinr,

alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-

from

aller, to go.

Alligator.

The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded
;

Two

i.

'

i6

ALLOT
il

ALMS
week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que

English
This
First

:

And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.

think

age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a
'

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to
tie
;

alligare, to tie to, to unite.

'

The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to
'

Almanack.

'

coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.
It.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to
hire.

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont
'

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare

and

allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the
'

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—
i\iriiio(Tvvri,

Alms.

— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals

'

would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

ALOFT
dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a
fices

AMAY
;

17

were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.

To

Alter.
it is

To make something
;

ot'vr

cupboard.

Almonarimn,

almorietum,

than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,

luft,

ON.

lopt,

loft,

OE.

lift,

the

air,

the

another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,

to

on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
sky.
*
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;

Kil.

eral.

Trop fesoient miex

cortoisie

A

Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and
;

A

toute gent

lonj: cc

que

erent..

Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.

Hence
initial

selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of
place,

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,

A

quell.

and dlugo,

long.

Upon

the walls the Pagans old and
still,

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the

The

Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.

hwom

OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,
dull,
spiritless,
;

to abate,
G.

matt,

faint.

It.

matto,

mad,

foolish

wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.
;

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.
R.

R

1737.

In the original

Derived

—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to
;

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,

&c

To Amay.
dispirit
;

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,

Altar.

The

fire-place

on which

sacri-

despond

;

desmayar
2

se,

to faint

;

OPort.

i8

AMBASSADOR

AMERCEMENT
The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was

And
So

his
all

menye

at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and

for

He

amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms

are,

according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a
ant,
;

serv-

OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,
ambaht,
office.

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time

;

the

word was becoming

obsolete.

Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '

;

'

'

'

'

:

;

'

:

'

A

;

:

;

;

AMNESTY
cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.
First,

AN
for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and
also,

19

an

al

hys ost

An

thogte anon

amorwe

strong batayle do. R. G. 319.

Secondly,

and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.

Which

Affeer.

were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I

man

Amnesty.
fivao/iai,
I

Gr.

aiivijirTHa

{a

priv.

&

remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if

(/"and

and if

or simply

an

I

pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest
sei-vant

my

boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou

dalliest,

then

I

am

thy foe.
in

Ben Jonson

R.

In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.
;

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is

extremely

difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against

evil.

From

Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.

To

give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,
sensible
level.

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as

The

upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand
;

;

;

2 *

;

20
these

ANA
propositions
as

ANGER
equally

thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;

certain,

wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.
;

'

'

'

when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of
ality

— Palsgr.
forth.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,
ing.

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.
AS.

;

See Atom. Ancestor.
Lat.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense
;

;

;

'


;

Pied. Diez.

Sicil.

anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na
That
is

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.

Ancle.

Bruce,

i.

235.

bably

Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,

I

have had.

— R.

R.

Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.

;

;

And.

See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.

andela,

hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the


; ;

;

ANGLE
compression, tightness.
pressed,
tus,
strait,

ANTHEM
G.

21

narrow;

eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the
;

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.
;

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium
;

'

aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
in
odi, hate, disgust
; ;
;

;

'

;

the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.
spirit,

life

Anodyne.

Gr.

avt\ioq,

from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,

oSvvrt,

pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,
Gr.
dvdifioKoe
(a

to blow.

Anomalous.
and
i/iaXbg,

priv.

glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.
fire

To Anneal.

To

level,

fair),

irregular, devi-

And
I

lilce

a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-

tinually.

aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

Answer.
in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,

to

From

AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on

fire,

and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to

engage

for, to

assure.

Marsh.
* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.

The

Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.

What

in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.

A

from an and — - . Hall's Chron. from. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. ab. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Ful- Apanage. antefn. To go antiquely.—Aperture. trouble. vex. before. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. transferred to the grotesque characters. panar. Jorioc. to sound in answer. before. Lat. G. from ante. AS. Fr. Lat. stem. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. Antidote. three antike pillers. apertum. inAgain from the same author cudis.D. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. eigs. what Roman civilisation. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. ReApe. strangle. should be received. from the imitative habits of monkeys. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. like a jack-pudding. such as savages. of. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. apatiar. or antique single chamber. As the browcalled antiques. a preventative . Any. from. wealth. bread. were chiefly of the former class. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. incus. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. anapoz. and claret wine. plenteously with red. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. younger child. See Cover. whence Prov. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. to strike.— . to bring forth. from Stephanus. gabeigs. Apartment. to support. white. a block to hammer on. on. af. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. surimitation of the ancient models. one having wealth. from avTiipoiuia). Anxious. work. cenig. d. Gr. d<popi(xnbs. Fr. — — — . to strike G. fauns. : . ambeld. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. anfilts Pl. Mannequin. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. apanage. and devils. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. Aphorism. or in a ridiculous dress. AS. to strain. Pezron fiUist. Aperient. the anticks — behind. Otfried. swaged. from an. panis.th centuries the recognised models of antic. in Shakespear. —Spencer. a gift. anxius. a few. a small quantity. press. Antick. E. Lat.made out. In like manner. . as the Italians. verberas. were andouiller the second. Lat. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. to have. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. from eigan. Prov. a puppet or an anti^hona. The Fr: form antienne stcfn.is to be given. separate purpose. from in and cudere. Gr. So Lat. to display pario. burnished. anticus. a termination equivalent to Goth. Thus from gabe. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. to nourish. Antique. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. avri^ava. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. one at the least. whence anthem. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Percutere. to open. andouillers. antifena. set aside. which by anvild. Apart. AS. post. and ig. some one.. villan Gloss. Ilvtwotov. as from as. rich. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. a definite . anxi. all of gold. left as the . separate. amboltj Du. to go in strange disguises. i. choke. Anvil. part.legacy of given against. something ler in R. as we call it. to imitate gestures. but the expresent day. Antler. Apartment. aside. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. To ape. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Hence the applica. one. Gr. from ango. aperio. Fr. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. as posticus.

prize. to come near. to approve. dress. in Chaucer. after his mind . cepl. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. An old appalled wight. To cause to pall (see Pall). word was specially applied to clothing. case. properly to join like to like. : — — speak 'Lz. apprehendere. the good. I prise ware. appareiller. poind. Cotgr. to — — . to disable oftat. appris. Hence It. OFr. Sp.— . appartenir. To praise. to set a price on. poind. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing.parejo.t. Fr. — Appurtenance. esteem. one sent out. one for his defence. Prov. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. peace. aparelhar. prope (comp. from paix. to deter- to strike. Walach. Parson's Tale. to strike down. Nouv. . The Fr. Gr. and appoinder (to find fitting. Mod. value apprdder. (cited by Diez from a late author). appaiser. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. approver. become dizzy . pertain or belong to. a crime. corresp. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Pliny. allow. a'^opi'Jw. proper time came. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Cotgr. array. appellare. or the like. APO sentence opoQ. laven is used both as E. off. horror. to be open to view. to send off. apparecchiare. and also as appraise. approcdare. ai. apal. of. Friar's Tale. approcher. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. purpose. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. To Appear. known. a learner. habilUr. kind of action. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. agreeing with "LtA. to Lat. — dirondtfiu. Fr. probare. i. Approach. to fit. 5w. piteux poind. habiliments. apprentis. when the . Formerly apricock. to announce. En peach. to which it is often referred. diroBrjKr}. equal. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. plight. 23 . to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. ap. ON. Lith. Hence appoind. Fr. were formed appropiare ejar. to suit. set a price on. rise to \t. in good season prendre son d. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. apropid. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. — Apprise. Apo- good time. ciously than nede is. Gr. to send to. to make a thing Apparel. From Lat. S^. prohts. Apotliecary. from aTroorlXXu. that it outfit. aptly. And among other of his famous deeds. like. one is in. And whanne sum men Lat. away. to call. — Approve. irpaiKOKiaov.parecchio. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. a thing for one's purpose. . apropchar. despatch on some service.—Apprentice. to — . landmark. pretium. prover. H.prix. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. Fr. taking. like. ^wss. in fact. avail. oVooroXof. find Then like Fr. N. It. Gr. Prov. Apple. to store or put Appal. to rate. appareo. Appareil. to finish a controversy. mine. in commendation. . They were considered To Appoint. to assign or grant over unto. to dress in this fashion. to deaden. —Diez. Epistle. make a composition between parties. diroTrXriaatii. to seize. apal. to accord. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Cotgr. Fr. seiden of the stones. Ir. to lose one's senses. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ.propius). manner. to approach. good. Apprehend.probare. A — .his giving evidence against his principal. 'L-zX. AS. to take away or lose the vital powers. preparation. w. To Appraise.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Fr. to call for judgment. and in the sense of condition. apin R. Yr. apar. agree. 11. pragigua or prixcoda. par. iwKjToKri. near.pareil. Apostle. from. Lat. Yr. From Lat. Cent Nouv. Fabian in R. fit- — ness. to commend. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Apoplexy. APRICOT off. — prehendere. peler. a price. pronounce fitting). d-n-o. pronounce good. 'LaX. obolys. decree. From Gr. e. Fr. to deem good. quoth the frere. praise. Palsgr. consent unto. Appease. to learn. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. apprendre. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Gr. apprise. or E. xv. Fr. diminutive pariculus. whether through age or sudden teiTor. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. in data. D. whence the e. —^Apparent. opportunity. ar. For their acquaintance was not come of new . to learn. The PI. They werin his approvirs privily. lAfiaam. to understand. to catch hold of. one the MLat. to mark to define a bound. order. an epistle or letter. jabloko. trim.

Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages.shrubs {arbor). naperon. . Naprun. grande nappe. divining rod. Arbitrate. It may be doubted. tion under trial. arbitror arwaaja. be That it inne groweth. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Pm. P. as an eye-witness. a pleasure-ground. a lot. Lat. OE. C. aestimo. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian.' —About. conjicio. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. From OFr. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. arbiter in re censendS. or barm-cloth. properly the arwella. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Arbour. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. proper. Gr. however. short. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . opinio. la nappe. — . words derived from arpa. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . of of divination arpa-mies.. Lat. a river.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. a soothsayer. aqua. Beryn. Marsh. sestimatio arbitraria. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. J.o. and the one who gives oracles. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. ear. garden. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery.] in the N. . . to plough. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. and sortilegus ation. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter.) E. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. 2. con. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. hariolus arpelen. pracoqua was not an adapt. Albanian. A. Thus we have natiger and auger. or eft. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. It is certain that the apricot oracle. Lat. arpa. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Now we find in Fin. . arwaus. aa. As is a pretty parlour. OHG. aha. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. rofe and all. Hall. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. The loss or addition of n very common. account for either of these significations. ughe. Alban. Freshly turnid Arable. nected. scr. nawl and awl. conjectura conjec^ra. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. water Which that benchid was. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. arwelo. — napkin is Naperon. the spelland umpire. {mies ^=ia3. derived. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. Roquefort. She made. Pr. most conspicuous situation in the garden .meaning at Shrewsbury. a lot. From OE. auguror. 331. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. man. and a protection of the clothes. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. found in Fin. is taken in is a soothsayer. Maan initial . to preserve it from stains. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. and taken away before dessert. aptus. quod he. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. doubtless is the origin of E. suitable.sors. arbitrium. sortium ductor. and thence fit. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. 31. shortdr. sorcerer. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. ap. however. Now one of the points — — — . Aquatic. to decide by lot. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. fastened close. delon. aro. This path Aqueous. symbol. a cloth. Prol. and with turfis new Goth. as ihe diminutive. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. wata. P. arbiter. intensitive of nape. ahva. herbere. Flower and Leaf. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. a lot.

The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Brem. curved. burning heat. to arm. Ardent. fabricate). arrant Arms. aj-f. as the arch of a bridge. a threshing-floor. to Arch. Sax. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. part of a circle anything of a bowed form.4 rir/. Fr. while the Fr. arrig. the terminaGael. an extent of flat surface. morally bad. arcA in e. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. un petit rusd. shoulder Boh. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. a rule (princiruler. the court of a magistrate. . shoulder. et vulgari verbo. weapon. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Applied in modern E. difficult to reach. arguo. D. erz-bischof. ON. Gr. ardeo. ers-betriiger. . ramend). vocaveris. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. government. apxtlov. sly. kpxi- beginning. sluggish. timid. a chief builder. area. forearm . armada. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. contemptible. Gr. an arch-deceiver . earh. the most arrant trash. from areo. mischievous. are formed the participial nouns. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. * ArchjAiTaxit. the best. adjective. Sp. armee. to be on fire. to demonstrate. . and must be identified with Dan. taxed with cowardice. gwyro to bend. arcus. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. arsum. and not with apx. Gr. Alisaunder. det arrigste snavs. Arduous. arm'ee. stuff. erg. weapon may be simply an application of annus. apxtipfve. to be in comp. G. lofty. armata. Uo^a^. arm.. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. earm. a bow. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. ardre. a burning or setting on fire. Perhaps erz-wticherer. een erg kind. Arm. is essentially the same word. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. Lat. Lat. an arrant usurer. Lat. Arch in composition. Arid. Arcadia in R. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . and Kpurka. TiKToiv.' Paul Warnefrid. — Architect. aridus. Arson. arduus.' Lex. A construct. Lat. 3340. arson. Lat. Area. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. sly. arm. Ardour. receptacle where the public acts were kept. ruling by the nobles. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus.is the natural weapon of offence. wanton. apxri. The . G. argvitugr. ars. signifies chief or principal. a noble. ardor. fainthearted.' the Gr. a bare plot of ground. From apxeiov was formed Lat. a court yard. i. a. — Wtb. curved line. ^Argument. argr. Fr. Du. a branch. un malin enfant. arg. archangel. Dan. by Russ. Gr. Lat. 2. to burn . erz in G. gwyrek. exercise lordship). to rule. an arrant rogue. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. and our army. an arch boy. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. troublesome. Lat. . to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. ein arger knabe. arga. from nixa. W. which is derived from it. ramo (pi. the a brute. worker. arch-bishop.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. man. apx^iv. faint-hearted. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. patus). ardIn G.— Army. arwe.In E. make clear or prove. Arcliives. ' — Argue. And thou as arwe coward. Fr. arma. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Aristocracy.aioj. high. AS. apxh. malicious. as in E. Cot. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. Lat. it signifies roguish. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. whence the body of the nobles collectively. to dry. Langobard. Du. mischievous. earg.. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. bad. which has been referred to W. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. raineno. bad of its kind. rame. There can be no doubt that E. in Due. first. vescovo. . From the verb armare. bad. wretched OE. bravest. ancient. especially shoulder-joint. It. branch. ill-tempered.

;


; ;

26

AROMATIC
dispose,
see

ARSENAL
prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.

order,
is

The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from

apufia,

sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and

;

;

;

;

;

.^

From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

Jamieson.
orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.
Ptg.

Arrack.

araca,
;

From

Arab.

a7-ac,

sweat

to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize

seems

;

his person.

To Arrive.
come

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming

;

more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the
^

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and

Saga

ciple

It.

Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.
'

To Array.
or

It.

dispose

beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,

and

in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,
is

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament

OFr.

array er,

arrier,

to

of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the

:

:

ARSON
Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

AS
and
thence the modern Fr.
atelier,

27

—Engelmann

a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod

eligantur

duo

vadant

cum

officiali

Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense

Arson.

See Ardent.

Art.

in the production of

;

:

trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.

omnes
of

alias artillarias sibi

com-

A Statute
qui

Edward

II.

was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the

We

of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the

Book

of

bow and

'

'

'

'

'

Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,
;

xii.

795.

word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,
;

xii.

782.

Quod

sit

i.

e.

whom men

held as without equal of
'

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis

dicta.

—Due.

his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er

ist,'

—such a one

28
.

ASCETIC
R. Brunne.

ASSASSIN
synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.
.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.

En

But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.

etclenk-

=

;

;

alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.

^

Askew.
schief,

ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,

schdf,

wry

Hence
Ash.

the idea of exercising rigorous
I.

self-discipline.
2.

The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.
Dust.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.
;

Ashlar.
Sc. aislair.

Hewn
'
:

stone.
le

OFr.

aiseler,

From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put

Entur

temple— fud un

out of

its

place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz

awry.

Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a
the

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam
then,

in centering. in

Aisselier,

carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or
esselier,

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.
;

A

;

— —

;

'

;

;

;

;

; ;

ASSAY
of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.
;

ASSOIL
to fix

29

these behests, the

name

a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—

de

I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,
'
;

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
weight.
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.

OE.

Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it

in

weighing,

a

trial,
;

standard
i^ayiiiZui,

weight.

And

suffice

not for asseth.

—P.

Plowman,

'Efayioj/, pensitatio

examine,
ampu-

p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus
tetur,

And
left to

Pilat willing to

make

aseeth to the people

in

Due.
tit

quoque,

fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,

quemadmodun

vultis ponderate.

—Zeno,
the

ibid.

gio, a proof, trial,
;

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe
'

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.

satis-

facio.

rise

'

;

—Vulgate.

'

simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.
.

From

Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,
Pol.

syt, syty, to satisfy.

satisfied,

full

;

The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.

;

samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as

thai
I

harde say.
in

Wyntown

Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set
;

;

Jam.

day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse

And

iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,

;

Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a

Y

;

;

;

30

ASSUAGE
pour.

ATTAINDER
Atmosphere.
Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges

Atom.

and

Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,

&c.

To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei

Were

wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.
ripe

Mais moult m' assouagea
translated

1'

oingture

—R.

R.

wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,

Lod.

Is

there
?

division

twixt
;

my

Lord and

Cassio

Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult
breathing.

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love

I I

would do much
Othello.

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.

The

idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one

Or

amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.
;

Fab.

et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.

oneden

Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.
;

put

Pm.
Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,
;

stunned.
Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the

Astute.

Asylum.

to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.
;

commence war
;

to

engage in battle
fire

il

on

:

globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or

;

ATTIRE
convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the
attitude.

AUGER

31

ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,

Attorney.

Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed

by

put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est
cil

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.

Auburn.

Now

applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call
hair,

tress.

The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good
navie.

—Ibid.

The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-

By

tores,
isti,

&c.

Men

&c.'

—Due.

Hoc

viderunt et audierunt
is

At the present day the term

confined

Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.

attour.
Polit.

— R. R.
ajuster,

Songs.

OFr.

to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.

atirer,

attirer,

atirier,

See Oaf
holes,

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer
:
:

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.

—Palsgr.

Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible

prima

facie to say

whether an n has


;

;• ;

32

AUGHT
in the

AVER
the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,
;

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.

Avalanche.

A

fall

of

snow

sliding

down from higher ground
Carp.

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a
thing.

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.

A

!

They

left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.
!

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.

A

Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.
!

venire, to

come.
;

Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.

A

and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied
airbc,

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,

.

power.

Automaton.
udoiim,
I stir

Gr.
;

avrSixarot,

self-

moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,

and

noua

Autumn.
times

myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou
averia,

;

AVERAGE

AVOID
mes
avei-s.
I

33

of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.

il

oocist

We

The general meaning damage by accident or

;

'

;

'

'

'

'

3

;

34

AVOIR-DU-POISE
Here the word may be interpreted

AWARD
^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the
:

modern meaning.

So
:

in the following
I

A

passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do

dissuade

Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.

And

my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted
bid
ieria,

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.

Prov.

avoutrador, OE.

avowterer,

an
;

adulterer.

A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):

;

;

-

superior.
Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-

modo

Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.

cabit,

nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.

;

;

AWE

AWK
I

35

—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.
is

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were
three,

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.
reken,
I

barons the wisest that

And
And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look
let

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons

That

hii

and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.
;

To

stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was
this;

lo

1

That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.
;

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.

Ac

is

That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.

—Holland,
of,

Pliny in R.
a/,

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.
lb.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

no.
Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.
;

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;
ofiig-fleiri,
left

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,
terrify,

a

flat-fish

with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo

w

Awgrim.
As

Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri
;

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,
foolish,

mad.
different G.

And no

thing availith.

The
p. 414.

Political

Poems, Cam. Soc.

ous

;

forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *

;

36
sinister
;

AWL
d.
dial,

BABE
abech,
dbicht,

primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
abich,
; ;

The

Awl.

ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,

ever.

alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,

Awn.

A

Esthon. aggan,
*

chaff.

or

Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may
;

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,

by

Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.
:

;

B
To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe

On

this

matere

I

might

Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.

P.

same meaning with
the syllable ma.

babble

was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;

:

;;

BABOON
prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a

BACKET

37

plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age

mamma

or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty

work

There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had

;

any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape
;

;

inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-

backwards,

verted

;

Russ. opako, naopako, wrong

paki

man. Bachelor.
root.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.
girl,

servant,

make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to
;

;

;

;

;

A

;

A

was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,
bachalUer,
;

young

soldier,

;

;

Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j

It.

bacinetto,

a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open

;

38
;

BACKGAMMON

BADGER

Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.

—H^cart.

Baokgammon.
(also bakke-bord),

a

tray,

From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur

(says

Ducange)

doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.
'

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or
;

by Shakespeare
blood.

in the sense of dabbled.
all

Their hands and faces were

—Macbeth.

badged with

ODu.

The

Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.

(insignc)

feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer

Now
les

(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the

sow.

analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the

Bad.

G. base,
I

Du.

boos,

malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus
a
little

perversus, malignus.

Unconnected,

Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et

A

caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on

Bage

signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,

would

The

For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a
;


;

;

BAFFLE
skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie
;

BAGGAGE
man
is

39

and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is

A

We

;

;

;

We

;

:


:

;

f

undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.
;

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Derived
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,
tie,

Baggage.

— —

40.
'

BAIL

BAIT
half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.
'

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.

Bailiwick.

The

vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,
i.

e.

servuli,

Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive

officer

limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.
son
et
d'elle.

hommage

— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam

'

lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,
;

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.

;

'

BAIZE
to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.
signified
ball.

BALDERDASH

41

made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely
;

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,
beta,

beita,

Sw.

spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;

fledged.

Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,
is

.

.

Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white
its

skin above

beak.

The

real identity of the

word bald

in

'

;

;

;

the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.
;

;

en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to
;

His head was hallid and shone as any

glass.

Chaucer.
Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;

bdl,

bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,
;
;

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,

;

;

;

;

;

palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it

or

ceiling

scaffold.

;

chatter,

talk

;

dov-dask, chatter
;

fit

to

Fl.

deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a
;

plague. Ball. I. a globe. to bale out. Baulke of land.of men . to rock. Bale. heap up. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. sorrow. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. OSw. Ballot. calamity. a ballot). goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. a bubble. ing. the object of his expectation. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. It. AS. baler. Da. probably Lat. Ballata. sickness. separaison. bolawy. balken. a clump . to plank. w. Q. a balk of foul weather. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. Fr. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. dial. whether of wood or stone. bala. vacillare. It. a skin. pallo. bol. In like manner Fr. a ball. Hence Dan. e. . (Hesych. G. Sw.— Ballet. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. N. hue et illuc inclinare. OFr. gen. roof. boll. to move. at giore en balk. a But making way for death at large to walke. Sw. stage or scaffold. Sw. Wotton. boleii. a scene acted in dancmg. balveins. as we say. balken. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . balka. ballar). Boll. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. Da. . that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. to Not sparing wight. on. dial. ballotta. bola. balle. the breadth from side to side . ball. to dance. ballare. hooting. to see-saw. to roll. torment. bealwes. balle. to pack Da. pallikka. beaten road. bielke. Gr. a ball. Hence. pilula. E. package of goods. Russ.Fr. Bohem. baalie. baloier. 2. To baulke the Sir H. a clod of earth water. bacgtteter. bbllr bulla J. to cause another to miss pustule. . Sw. balk. G. to partition off . ball. baalien.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Grief. ballet. to stir. bal. from the more general notion of moving up and down. from bacquet. maleficium. It. wickedness ness . pallo. balge. i. ON. Sw. tum. Ugutio in Due. to by beams. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). OHG. a beam. Ball. TtaKKa a pail or tub . a pail. F. bal-daed. See Gall. to ache. a wooden partition . the beam of a ship. a great ball. malefacGower in R. bol. palcare. Du. bdlkr. globule. a ballad. Sw. a pill. ill. taich. . Goth. weak liquor. Sp. misery Du. a division of the old laws. to shake or jog. palla. to grieve . ache. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a dance. vcdra bdlkr. bal. to speak an un. the ballet of the theatres. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. pila. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. ball. to avoid it. dial. on. cka. a ball. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. balkr. dial. Bowl. — A — — . a. bollr. ballan. are applied to a From the same analogy. Bret. balloon. chapurrar.ing. 3. to ail. balare. pallukka. with the perhaps from balg. Dan. Sw. blister. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. floor. a dance. Perhaps on. and evil in general. ballare. uveirs bolk. ballo. To Bale out water. balva-vesei. other while. Sw. Rouchi ban. Fin. mass. a separate portion. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Mid. A balk. a beam. to paddle in water . Venet. to be ill. palloilla. balk. . bjdlki. a ball. The primary sense seems as in G. Fr. a ball or pack. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. to dance. a ball balla. balk. destruction. and the dim. lealo. ballare. a partition. balle. a pestilence. pain.—Ballad. a washing-tub. to be balker. * Balk. a clapping or flapping of wings. ballone.Lat. sick. balla (with the augm. Gael. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. ne leaving any balke. similar connection is seen in Sp. trouble. a water-skin dim. balka hopar.' speak gibberish champurrar. balk. We have then separate dial. bolker. It. to wave. balle. Balloon. bal. on the shore. wickedtorment ON. a together in the form of a ball. may exhibit the original development of the signification. . a boil. on. Fr. Pol. afbalka. ban. to on Holmedon's plain. shouting. It. balja. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. says Ray. . ball. to plough for a boundary between lands. maan pallikka.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . bold. bolyatchka. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. balka bunge. ' is a piece or confused talking.). a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. to signify washy drink. Du. bolyaf. grieve . as in a barn or cow-house.

ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. Balsam. It. a battlement . If bambocciolare were child of one. A — — . as he says. baume. bam. galleries. enchanter. It is explained back by Adelung. Fr. urtica. a rod. an Old dotard or imbambolare. is in Sweden and Norway. a small balustrade. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Sp. Baltic. inutilis sarcina. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. little round and short pillars. by met. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. barauste. back of the ship. a false tale or jeer. for want of other freight. ballustre) is a corruption. and Mid. puzzled. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. 1. also with flatteries and . By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Fr. denounce. bambolo. a useless load. This is the backload. Du.' And Kil. 1854. to preserve equilibrium. Report Pennsylv. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. more serious objection is . tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. or ballast of a ship. In OSw. from Lat. Lest. Balluster. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. endormir par des contes. but loadage.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. bertesca. . To Bam. the flower of the pomegranate.that the going vessels. it is forced to take in stones or sand. To proclaim. command. Cotgr. because. of balusters. a fragrant gum. Said to be from balaustia. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. ranked on the outside of cloisters. explains ballast. last. Dan. analogous to what is seen in It. To Bamboozle. to walk. barandado. baUa. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. It. like Fr. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. bumbazed. in the first place. bamein. lestage. balsamum. Lat. curse. small railing. Bret. lastra. called Bait. balustrade barandilla. for a load or goods (Roquef.Lat. forbid. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. Gr. When a ship discharges. fonts. balconies. a nettle. ^a\Ba\iov. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. baranda. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. Venet. ^Arbuthnot in R. or movement of one who walks. Ballast. Sc. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. astonished. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. Bamour. dial. baU.). Bret. ballast. the backload. But Fr. To deceive. ballustres. seems the original form of the word. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. mare Balticun. 43 — Cot. lastagium signified not only ballast. bag-las. R.. deceive. Sept. railing around altars. &c. &c. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. — — oltriga. . To Ban. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. a duty on goods last. make fun of a person. The Baltic sea. more frequently than outward-bound. the act of walking. a young babe. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. baltresac. Balm. age. from bara or vara. The Sp. To make fun of a person. lastre. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. sorcerer. terraces. to enchant. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. paid for the right of carriage. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. objects to the foregoing derivation.000 tons. bambocciolo. Mr Marsh whether the a load. lest. i860. deceiver. inutile onus. bamboccio. bag-lest. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast.

bandi. See Abandon. 26. summoning to serve So in Swiss. Sp. bandon was used in the same sense. 19. to reprove. &c. acquired the sense of proclamation. to take one to task. border. G. Diss. bound. 1. to excommunicate {lysa. also the band or of marriage.^ bandy. Assises de Jerusalem. a company. bannire exercitum. banda the colour or material. etc. It seems this signification has arisen. bando. Baud. banner marked the place of assembly. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. 2.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. passing on from proclamation to command. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. curse. Wyntoun. and It. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. permission. power. is That with which anything AS. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Thus the word is also used in both senses. A. — R. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. to publish) banna. flag. There is some doubt how Fr. — excommunication bann-lysa. banda. Sp. OE. authority. R- He Translated by Chaucer. tener da alcuno. bandera ground at his mill. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. From the verb to banda. bande.is further developed. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. It. to ban. The to . Sw. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. we constantly find the expression. v. Les saiges avait et les fols d. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. admolendinum. Mag. faction. to . feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to side or to bandy (Florio).—John Villani in Due. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. to form parties. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. ba?idare. parti. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. 813. to bring corn to be fahne. sostener Torriano. R. — To partito d'alcuno. in hostem convocare. 15. and in E. 'A son bandon. hoc est vexillo. ex. to ctide. a coast. side. in Fr. bannum or bandum. bandon somewhat party. bannire in exercitum. &c. margin. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. Fr. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. —R. Goth. Bandus. . side. the ensign or banner.Lat. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). he bannede his ferde. region. It. Band. theodscipe ut abannan. Leg. bundun. then the signification w. bande..— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Spebifid. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. banda. change to the feminine gender in banda. fahne. It. band. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. i. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . biddal.e. Car. Goth. Fr. bann. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Se il — Romance languages. Commun^ment son bandon. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. at his own discretion. populum. says Muratori. Cot. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. . real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Capitul. those who side together (bande. In Fr. to follow a faction. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. whether by way of injunction or for- command. from at the Lord's courts. bande. banns pany of footmen serve. In a special sense the term company itself. he assembled his host. To Bandy. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. E. D. band. eiiseigne. ligue Taboada). Bandear. and thence to any proclamation. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Ripuar. to unite with a band. bindan.

ON. a i. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. seat . large dog kept for a guatd. Benvoglio. Banditti. a wound OHG. Bane. Lingua. the former Fr. de- party. Du. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. . to publicly order one out of the realm. a blow. Hudibras. bandire. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. follow a party. Bandy. bent as a bow. death-blow . bander tin arc. to knock. ruptus. Lat. To Bandy. It. forbear this outrage. in the sense of place of business. banca his creditors. a bank. banco. ON. disturbance banga. as of an explosion or a blow. counter. many a bang. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. N. a sand-bank. From a desk . — . The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. for shame. Bang. Mercutio. to cabal. Banister. bank of a river. among rotta. Dan.: . bang. Benchi. benk. the back. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. destruction . Bantze. It is in this sense nounce. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. bank. 45 — — Bandit. to join in league with others against Cotgn. banish. at canis peciiarius. banqueroute. Brewer. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. murderer. Bankrupt. a de Vaud. With many a stiff thwack. —^Vocab. banke. to slay. banditti acquired the like signification. b'ang. See Balluster. in the sense of a pirate. AS. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. beat. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Diaconus in Due. Roquefort. . Bandy legs are crooked legs. bane.z. roupt. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Ripuar. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. A Shipman's Tale. de sable. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. clouds. to knock. a counter. g. From Mid. bana-sdr. See Banish. s'associer. banca fallita. Milton in R. stir. When a man fails Lat. AS. But natheless wife at I bank. Fr. a bankrupt merchant. E.^ knock. tumult bangas. dorsum was applied to ject. to beat. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. banc. bandear. death-sickness. The ridge of a hill is AS. a sand-bank dorsum jugi.HG. to hammer in a nail. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. back of a knife. home — Bandog. Fr. Mid. panca. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bance. standard. hammering. bank. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. and therefore tied up. bench. bakke. Banner. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. ON. . to proclaim. 2. distinguishes bekkr. Bank. to bend a. — — whence E. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. the slope of a hill. bannire. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. bana-sott. se reunir. in R. a bench. the same verb the It. — Kil. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). and poise Their lighter wings. bana. broken. language of W. and OFr. bank of river. &c. band-hond. shoal. bankruptcy. death-wound. — Fr. beating. band-dog. bander. bana. bow. It. The word is in E. rap hatike et som The Susu. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. The ing. eminence. bana. Fl. a rising bank. pastoralis. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . and hence. Africa. se joindre. bander. in the same way that E. desk. banka. Draw. Sw. a table. bandi. bench. . from banc. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. to make a stir banke. &c. banc G. to foment factions. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. Tibalt. Fr. to work in wood. was formed the OFr. Bacon in R. Diez. whence the mod. canis vinculis assuetus. . has bang-bang. that the word is used by Romeo. Your stool. The child cries bang! fire. outlam came to signify a robber. eminence. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. banja. See Band. put under the ban of the law. bank of Dan. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. of bandying words. hricg. a bench. — Paulus drive in a nail. a long raised seat. Goth. a bench. and bakki. It.

3. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. bandiera. Fr. a bantling. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. barbarus. Fr. from the same source. branches of a tree {gwezen. nestling. branch. sparre. sbarra. Fr. knight Bardd. Celtic bar. In a similar manner are formed yearling. a sign. —Cot. and with an initial s. OHG. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. would rupted from Fr. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. to wrap. sparro. and the work is done. ON. barra. uncivilised. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. heri-pau. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. rod of any rigid substance. senhal. of wind.cruel. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. summit. a barrier or stoppage. chan. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. — We A . remarked. ban- Baptise. and he would seem to derive Goth. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. iandvo.. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification.aTa Kul nest. signuin. Gr. senheira. Barb. ^oTrriKio. then branches. Lat.8ap6^o)voe. says. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. OFr. a which the barrister addresses the court. and from ensign or banner Prov. to beckon . from reifa. Hence ner. Barbe. .— Swift in R. or of this bantering. himself in Pontus. the bar at which a criminal enseigne.hinder. Fr. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. ON. Gael. period vexillarii. barrack. benda. E. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. Leduchat. ing term appears in other languages. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Gr. merki. barreau. to dip. Fr. dim. banneret. sign. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. to bend. bannereti. banda hendi. bar. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. and it was accord. inur. banniire. According to Diez the It. barbed or trapped as a great horse. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. It. a bearded or Cot. a ban. Sw. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. brushwood. a beam or long pole of wood. and even of calling it banter. hence a repast. which is surely in barbed arrow. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. The origin is in all probability Goth. Fr. such as the Roman Eagle. token. Banneret. a war-beacon or war-signal. barriire. probably corSymbol. To mock or jeer one. barba. of a sign in general. Thus Ovid. BARBAROUS reiflingr. It may be thing. 2. wrapped.the analogous syllable viur. men. Flesche barbeUe. Barbar. a tree). It. indeed. a. to wash. &c. as they call it. jSdirTO). To Banter. The original import of their own banner in the field. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Barb. to having that signification. &c. barbe. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. i. a bench or table . privileged to raise Barbarous. bandva. Hence Fr. Lat. Bap. banner. arineXov. barrer. of banco. speaking of battle. banda. top. banne. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. that the noise of voices Bantling. barre. The barb of an arrow is the sign . It. G. banchetto. Duo. Lat. A It. senhal. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. rarii. banneret was a higher class of knights. senh. OHG. in Gr. E. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. The spar. either in the Gr.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. barde. an animal a year old. E. Bret. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Banquet. barrou-gwez. then fell among the foot. manu anto make signs nuere. jSa'pjSapoc.. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. inferior to a baron.46 BANNERET . The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. the word came to signify rude. out of a wound. milites bannarii.

in the sense of fight. ala. barboter. horse armour covering the front. and Sc. and in Flanders to vociferate. Arab. to grunt. Gr. to bubble or spring up. barguigner. coping. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. murmur . coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. to boil or bubble up . barbacane. Cotgr. — — Hence. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. upper chamber. used 2. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Lex. — . a pack-saddle. also to bind or tie across. to It. Russ. boil. G. skialldar-bard. albarda'ah.) . barda. Cotgr. skola. tree. It. and foolishly. Bard. bdla-khaneh. — — — men. open. Fl. uncovered. bardes. skirmish. mutter. Bargain. bdsas. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich.— BARBEL merit of water. to rumble. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Pr. speak confusedly. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. borbulhar. barbarkama. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. baar. bar. Fr. guazzolare. berj G. which was of talking. Gr. Fr. barbeum. borbollar. bare baskojis. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. scouthouse. to bubble or boil. barz. also to wallow like a seething pot. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Cot. — . barbugliare. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Fr. barbier. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. saddle-cloth. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. border. Port. OFr. Mod. a jetty or outnook in a building. baragouin. in poetic language Bard for poet. lb. to chafbargain. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. berries. to mumble or mutter words. Exposed to view. tattle. Bardeau. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. It. fortia —Strabo. a tumultuous assembly. powdered all over. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Sp.) to wrangle.' Cot. a rumbling. — Cot. the nakedness of a woman. uproar. Fr. albarda. bdsiis. on. border of a garden bed. Etym. grumble (Lowndes. Barder. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Hall in R. borborinha. Bare. Diez. to gurgle. Etym. Barberry. Barber. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. and the word was used in OE. to barbe or trap horses. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. the flap of a hat. Barde. formerly used in the sense of tattle. is lb. barbelin. as well as thwcEtta. the edge of a shield hval-barct. barbaris. barS. . /3opj3opwJu. twcEtta. dial. axilla. Festus in Diet. /3£pjSepi^w. to prattle. barbar. to make an outcry . and flanks. barda. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. back. Mod. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. the quilted with. to plash or dabble. Bret.— — Pm. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. waschen. albardilla. brabble in the making of a bargain. jargon. guaszare. Sp. borbotar. Barbican. twattle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. baares geld. a shingle or small board. Port. brim. name Fr. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. bardd. to stammer. Barbel. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Thus the on. w. stutter. small pack-saddle. bds. barefooted Sanscr. gibberish. Applied in E. quarrel . bhasad. The Pers. the beard. . i. haggle. or more properly (says fer. Lucan. borboglio. ready money. Sp. to stammer. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Hindost. A7 to the and warlike. as well as the modern twaddle. An outwork for the defence of a gate. such as houses are covered Bardelle. to wash. in Fr. barbel. unqualified. Lith. muttering. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. skirt.— Fl. But Sp. a bardelle. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. barbeau. barbeter. g. Hatt-bard. barbulla.

It... barley. we pass to the vert) barguigner. to chop. to wrangle. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. lap. barmr. a place. spectacles. Gael. Bemiques. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. limpets.' bardagi. E. brenig. baratta. to shufSe. contest. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. from an imita- Barley. Provj bar (ace. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Du. OSw. hlaSa. bcerme. Lith. barlich. barii. charlock. one who stirs up strife. and may therefore be an Eastern word. as baces-ern. the or prow of a ship. Baron. Cornub. varen. barn. giving rise to It. a heap. baaring. dispute . These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. v. aheap. bread-corn. Leg. — de Berri. ThS man was not created for the woman. Antiq. From Fr. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. bard). Barbour in Jam. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. ON. to scold. borkr. dispute. baniffa. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Barn. as. bere. Rayn. and is probably a true bartig. a barn. corn-shed. baratta. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. barn. Bark. baarn. baron)^ Fr. Garlick. also a boat . quarrel Port. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Dan. W. a load. to strive. baimeach. berm hoys. prominent part of a thing. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. ber (ace. is simply the Bret.^Voc^. barms. and hence probably (by a metaphor. Swab. and ern. and 1. plants). barn. dregs of oil. Prov. beer. Leg. See formed Yeast. Uzen. to all the barca. Ripuar.Barum vel feminam. . a. baralha. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. put to confusion. Tarn baronem quam feminam. It. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. bread. bosom. adj. bernac. Sp. . limpet. bcern. beorcan. The origin may be throat. at barka. Port. commonly explained from bere. a lap. squabble. Bret. barley. altercation. beornt. barahunda. trouble. was barlic. but the woman for the man. strife. Gl. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. barnacles. herbs. Port. as. bark . the fore or after end of a boat . . Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. ON. fray. — Zeuss. — Barnacle. berem. w. barlys. Acervus. skuta. limpets . and the word. in the Brim. quant a perdu sa barja. 2. the rack or manger. Romance barsie. barajar. barafustar. Sp. barja. kani. to rout. border. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. As Goth. * Barnacles. hay-loft. as in the case of Lat. entangle. berm. bosom . struggle. baaren. barley. dial. strife. contest. in Nat. louzou. So ON. am. chaffer. The older form in e. a lantern. as well as Scandinavian tongues. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. barki. barafunda. mhg. disorder. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. dispute. bern. the slimy substance brewing of beer. tumult. To Bark. Barge. a heap . to skin over barkandi. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. a baking place or oven. prasepe . berma. barretor. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . On the other hand. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Camus. (Ihre. a receptacle for barley or corn. strife. Vocab. berm. barlys {bara. Spectacles. confusion. 2. a beak. baralhar. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. meta foeni. So also ON. OFr. . astringent. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. to cheat. hladi. bamagh. name being given to spectacles. i. Dan. Alam. dispute barattare. —Bark. and llysiaw. Manx bayrn. tion of the sound. hemlock. baarm. barone. edge. also to exchange. barge. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. houbartij fsnile. barnis. quarrel. skutr. Sw. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. wine. OFr. then honoured man. Originally man. baragouin. baerm. ON. barizeins indicates a noun baris.) lihtes-ern. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. bern. a stack. Kil. husband. AS. then the bows pectus navis. dispute . Du. the G. AS. a boat. The Goth. Sp. Bailey. bargain. Ibid. ON. — battle. See Barm. the A — Ihre. Isidore in Rayn. baron. a cap .

mound. Barren. S. See Barter. barrila. rolls of Parliament. bouracan. implement for carryAS. fortification. Bohem. — — 15th Cent. Antiq. beorg. todtenbahre. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Fr. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. over him. boar. It was not until the time of James I. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. A. bearg . wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted.' Op. barchent. brushwood. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. berewe. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. iver. Fr. D. OFr. bahre. branches. AS.parchanttuech. Gael. ^Vocab. facture. Russ. then traffick4 Barrow. the two names. barri. barile. change of goods seems. tomb. (Schmeller). Bern. sterilis. Barrack. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. baronculi. G. a. gwr.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. breinej Du. became bidre. It. sepulchre. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. This word introduced into Fr. a word is always used in the plural number. a barrow. barraca.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. E. or simply bahre. The feudal tenants next Fr. heap. ^Barrator. ibid. a castrated hog . a hut or booth. perhaps through Prov. barre. Barricade. Sp. also termed bannerets. to shelter. bara. man and wife. a kind of coarse camlet. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. It should be observed that. uncultivated. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. baragan. whence Barrow. an obstruction. from a tree to which a man is hanged. vel pretiosos burellos. which would barragdn. squabble. bara. dispute. vair. 26. Sp. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. Formed from Fr. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. An ing. Goth. bredhan. The Sp. man. G. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. Bargus or moreland.root signifying confused noise. whenever Barrow-hog. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. habeant. 1. berwen. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. fear. Nominale of the from braeckland. a bier. baronetti. Joshua vii. cise formation of the word. garment still used in Morocco. barrique. bark&n. a barrel. like bargain. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.' that Barrier. cover. especially those killed in battle. bier. to * Barragan. baracca. in the first instance. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. staves. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. a horse. barague. a bar.— Gibbon. booth. gravis et authenticus vir. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. a hiU. and in several instances. and not from Fr. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. strife. Barrister. litter. It. beorh. the braw. barrique. Bamnculus a baronet. as. were sometimes confounded. Barratry.. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. to carry.have been named from the haggling and gant. shed. — Kil. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. vir. composed of dry branches ofer. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. baroncelli. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. hut. w. baronuU. from beran.. signifying. barrier. OE. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. borov'. barrack. by early examples. fallow. seem to be radically the same with Lat. Bret. 2. beorgan. — A . AS. Sp. qui have not much light on the pre. Barrel. StiU he shows conclusively. See Bar. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. MHG. as cavalcade. semen non accipiens landiEL. barril. barBombicinus. It. Baron andfemme. nobles. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. a man. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. braeck. bera. a. alongside of barrow. Gael. calico. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. in Nat. baraignej Picard. from cavallo.

It. bassin. to bind.' Papias. basgod. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. basso. PaaiKhms. on a. to baste piece of cloth. binding. — hanging. tierer. bast-reb. to truck. baraand especially teria. inclosure. to Diez. To stitch. to cheat. over-reaching. Fris. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. barter. ' He was begetin o bast. the — — to kill those that look upon it. husk bast van koren. Isidore. beortun. back. from bere. scale in music. cheating. barley. Newman. bast. . lattice-work. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. him. partieren. baste. bastear. Sp. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. HoUinshed. i. also the demesne lands of a manor. also to Cotgr. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. a halter. It. MS. bass-matting. found in Turkish . imbastire. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. /«r<fSp. corn-farm. bestcn. or running away with the ship. from /3aR. the thin skin Dan. low. Sp. besst. low part of the Hickes in Rich. . peel. Dan. bareter. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). ^Is de bast. The like property hath the iasilisk. OFr. cog. It. barter. baxoj w. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). Fr. Lap. a bass rope. G. bast. unrighteous gain. Al is dai. fits de bas. baraet (from Fr. Gr. hoops of a cask. berewic. to deceive. lust. pressed down. of the same sense. ohg. bark. to baste. bran. To Bask. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Halliwell. Pl. foist in bargaining.). the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics.' Gl. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. come near. pdrdt. stitch. Dan. It.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. a deceiver. preparatory stitching. Fr. which sets up its hood when angry. to cheat. Bartizan. Sicamb. OFr. The original meaning. netting. A fabulous serpent. fornication. as It. bast. Barton. the manorhousfe itself. ing for profit. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. but born in baste. mock not. Sylvester's Dubartas. bas. HaUiweU. said Base. basta. chasa ogli a bastard. 516. AS. Bass. Basilisk. to long — a British word by Martial. There is not one that. mean . It is mentioned as . It. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . n' is n' is bacino. descended of an honorable lineage. bds. humilis. a ftiesh. low note. fornication. low. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. crassus. leviter consuere. basta. more noble in blood than notable in learning. baste. as the diadem of the basilisk. a tying. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. flat. or wic. thick. would be. beguile. aiKcig. Lend me your hands. MHG. bdtir. dwelling. BassuS. fhe outhouses and yards. rope for — . To Baste. a court-yard. — in Rich. ibid. — Bassoon. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. baste. Fr. to bind. Arthur and Merlini. Sw. commonly A joined with the word binda. baratar. Swed. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. shallow. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. and tun. w.D. to bind hand and foot. embastir. Basket. to stitch . the a wide open vessel.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. but he dreth presently.looketh upon his eyes. It. bast-maatte. HaU in HaUiwell. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. chasa. F. lift me above Parnassus. Barbara de pictis veni patch. Bassus. But according And Dan. basg. exchange. See Brattice. baratear. Bastard. discourse Nay. Sw. truck. Bass. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . Kil. according from Gael. Apparently of Celtic origin. MHG. at basta og binda. he. a king. a bastard. to bargain. Du. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. ' Bosworth. God it wot. Bast. imbastire. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. See Bath. submovet omne Lucan. Du. oe. which covers the grain Ger. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. then cheating. bestan. exchange. court-yard. a basket masg. basso. beretun. besst-u-b£nd&t. piiiguis. plaiting of splinters basged. and Bret. a ipgli So Turk. . baos. fraud. Sp. mavult dicere Roma suam. curtus.

and ditches bastion. the winged . raise. victuals. R. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. the E. It. whence ledrblaka. packsaddle. to stroke. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. Prov. blows. 'iJipistreUo. contrive. bastonnir. basta. explains Sp. blakra. It. military term of a bat-horse). contriving. stryk. the bat . pre. Dan.fortress or castle furnished with towers. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. I. to flap. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. iinbastire. stryka. Supp.— Bailey. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. the night-jar or goat-sticker. bastia. to build. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. bastille. frame. liiake. from Fr. a things prepared for future use. vespertilio. * Bat. the original has corneille. disposer. Sw. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. 164). and Cot. to rub. To beat or bang soundly. as weU as besteau. a stick.'CaB. to beat. a bird which. vespertilio. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. baston. Sw. to Due. . translation to a bat. a. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. Cot. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. which to rest the load. to set on foot a war Bastion. a pad. — Bakke. blaka. basto. To baste one's hide . It. baston. a bastion. Sw. passage Imbasto. comp. to give him a sound bastingi 3. to thrash . Fr. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis.— . Sw. provisions. bakie-bird . back. — — — . Dan. to pack a saddle i. to belabour. Pr. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. bastir. and Arabs. Rayn. to whip.-^ Chaucer. Bastinado. Fr. bastilde. ari instruineht for beating. like the owl and the bat. bak. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. vledermus. bastine. 2. bastir. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire.Lat. club. set up. p. bast. 2. bdion. dial. bat. Sp. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. to teach one before. boste. Cot. — — Fl. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a packsaddle. also the ricado. Derived by Diez from iasi. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . . Sc. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. or implement for 4 * A .. night-bat. to rub gently. beating. to drub. blakta. beysta. bladier. Perhaps baska. also to cudgel. iastir. flyinge best. to devise or begin. Fr. Dieiif. All from bastir. blacta. That yche blak y dar wel telle. BAT neither. erect. bastione. 11864. a blockhouse.stitching in general. ment. bastimento. Antiq. Florio. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. worth (Nat. blakka. niammal. frotter.baste or knock soundly. to beat.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. staff. ON. Mid.stick. blatta. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . batta lucifuga. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. to build. a sconce. e. a with a stick. to spread bread and butter. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. compared with blakka. to cudgel. is explained by Cot. quelqu'un son roulet. bastonada. blatta. 2. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . put it together. natt-blakka. in the use of the E. a pad or packsaddle. R. dial. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. business (Altieri). a barSp. For the origin of baston see Baste. Fr. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. but this is hardly satisfactory. in the Romance languages. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. bastida. to lay the Sp. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. badger. devise. basa. which in the E. For the loss of the / in back. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. cudgelling. Pm. the clapper of a bell. guerra bastir. Sp. nade. aftonbakke. E. has bastine. bastonFr. To donjon. to quilt or stitch wool into it. bastear. settiilg up. a blow cloth for dinner. set up.

In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. Sp. E. tradire. strife. Fr. altercation. to bathe oneself. battere. battre. to for fighting. bada. PLD. to warm oneself at the fire. From OFr. Du. was formed bastilU. w. more. A batch as wood. by projections or in any licoure. tagUone. Strife. e. adapted for defence. — — — ' — . to become fat. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to heat . flour. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Sw. an arrangement for giving blows. to warm. badda. batador. and with staffslyng. certain bend. bat-en. howis. . as signifying warm baths. betten. or a dry stick. to warm oneself. bet. badda. From bat in the sense of rod . to foment. from battre. to foment. Flem. a battle. to toast bread. bdhen. G. to heat. Battery. to be profited. battre. baz. The bat with which a brot bdhen. sich bakern. Sw. dispute. Chaucer. fortress or castle. Fr. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. baeddu. Batyn. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. term in falconry . Gael. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. battaglia. quhar he suld assaill. . to beat. a blow with a light instrument. 2. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. the heat of the It. In some parts of England it is striking. Fr. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp.Bathe. solbase. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Bailey. as E. gabatnan. batna. to beat. a band of armed men arranged basa. oneself at the A into faggots. baquetazo. bdda. perhaps first used adjectivally. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . from on.— . gebdck. Baka sik vid elld. busk. as wood-en. It. hot. and as a verb. to thrive. whence the sun burns . to refresh oneself in language. signifying to give repeated blows. ON. a battalion. as E. to beat. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Fr. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. quell. G. pak. a stirrer-up of strife. to feed. battere. batacazo. to flutter with the wings. Pr. Pm. Fr. Battlement. — To . I. battre las ailes. dial. in the case of a wall. dial. Sp. to fight. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. to foment with hot applica. beat. bat. dial. a staff. To Batten. bludgeon. dial. on the fire. also a sun badfish. heat. batterie.— To Bask. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. It. In OE. is a simple adoption of Fr. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. To thrive. better. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. to fell. water whether warm or cold. the root of e. Holz bdhen. makebate. a beating. to bathe. also. Batter. bastille. to fire or in the sun. to beat se battre. abattre. baden. fashes basking in the sun squadron. . or make debate. G. a main battle. to get better. Barbour in Jam. lessen.Hence in the augmentative form It. battle was used beath wood. to cudgel. See Better. to dial. to become convalescent. Slav. to beak. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Pr. bake. a washing beetle. basa. of bread is so much baked zX one time. badask. cudgel. allay . gebdcke. Jurgor. Florio. is in falling. to betake oneself. and about an inch thick. in the sun. made of — A made by one Batcii.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. buask made like a fortress.' Palsgr. a from ON. Goth. bdt. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. a Baiffi. wet linen in washing. for biia sik. Battle. Battalion. abate. debat. Bate. Eggs. Fr. Bat. beat down. Batten. Pm. solen baddar. To Bate. Hal. I baske. batir. remit. squadron. batte sig. a blow. trahtr to It. Ayenst the sunne. beat. Mgy. Plkkis. — Cot. on. Bret. a stick. battions. to beath wood Battledoor. A Bath. I bathe in water viz. Battery. a great seems related to baden as Fr. or break down. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . and milk beaten up together. Jeddris and covering. made of bats. Hence pro. then to warm by the application of hot water. bataille. baka. bdda vidjor.

from Baldacca. Fr. and authorities in note. a lump. miauler. to trifle away ment. E. Swiss Rom. Batylment of a wall. Pm. to low or bellow as corn. a plot of Chaucer. is Bagdad stuff. Fr. Piedm. fe bau. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. also more Bawdekin. An analogous noisily. to void the bowels. b \% bouala. The It. bau. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. In like manner Grisons filthy.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. the face. Prov. from Fr. E. toys. filth. whimwham. cluster. dacchino. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. fields. and Sp. bobbin or cluster of thread. on the face of animals. Gael. to bark . brush faggot. ON. s. dirt.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. propugnaculum. babsmall toy to play withal. bouaila. balGael. W. R. a horse with white legs. babiole. spot. trifle. a belt. Pr. baula. s. babbole. A name of the badger. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. lewd . the Swiss baben. Baldrick. bal. dente. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. Bavin. bad. to cry. the white of his leg or foot. Cloth of gold. It. fooleries or fond To Bawl. bow (as in our nursery Diez. to the same origin. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. to vociferate.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. The word may perhaps be sticks. ball. dial. — Pm. P. librillo. Ball-seirc. baw. bauU. Cotgr. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. —R. trifles. ! Bauble. Cot. It is all bawdy. 8.' ' Pegma. — — ' Lydgate. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. bobine. Cot. vacillo. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. in OE.— P. an — — — A — g — — — . also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. rotten. exactly corresponds Fr. scarf. excrement. From ! an interjection of disgust. E. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. pie- . guigaw. Beaus^ent. Bagdad. dirty. an embattled wall. a zan. javelle. ish baubles. also the canopy carried part of his body. is used for a sented by bau. baue. or sheaf of Bridel.guage). bal. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. represented by the syllable miau. It. child. to play the babby. to talk Lacombe. Sc. Fr. because made of cloth of white. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Descript. P. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. or toys. Pr. zano. to make the noise Baudrick. OFr. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. to me-wl. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. Fl. It. sorry. baudrdj OHG. mew. 2. Lat. c. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. Irel. Baw — . tab.. pegma. sword-belt. fagot. baffe. bauch. OFr.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. a tassel or hanging bunch . P.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. From Bret. having a white streak down Bagdad. a horse marked with a procession. BAWSON Swiss. whence pouacre. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. expressive of disgust. collar. a dog). Formed from baw. filth. a white mark Bawdy. dung. or Cot. disgusting. Bawson. or the animal so marked. to 53 manure the To baw. balderich. Ball. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. ballach. instead oi s. a tassel. Jam. speckled. spotted. bablyn or waveryn. baugant. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. form with an initial seen in Fr. obstrepere. to bark. baban. ground. nastiness. baubare. as Fr. E. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. a spot. Zalli. Filthy. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout.. and to-tore also. bausan. horse. balbob. divided between black and white. baudrat. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. whence the E. Hal. faisceau. was simply a field gold. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. bow-wow. tille. an object. a gavel. i. a lump or cluster babhaid.

Drayton in R. Feb. See Bawl. a mark.. bay. baya. w. BAY marked with bjly. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Swiss beie. a'uno. living thing . he turns and faces his pursuers. beonj Gael. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. the cod of peas. — A At Bay. by the term rendre les abpis. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. bahia. large window in a handsome . —Diez. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. and keeps them in check for a while. the world Gr. &c. a beast. to keep at a bay. dehiscere . as they do not obstiruct the light or air. A stag is said to stand at bay. dividere. bilyega. a hole. put to his last shifts. waiting . —F./^ bau.' Bailey. bioth. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. baja. See At Bay. Prov. Bay-tree. ing-floor. S. baca. a dagger. Sp. beothach. especially beans. gate. bagaid. bialo. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. baga. It has been shown under Abie. Fr. bayen-stein. overture. Piedm. baier. &c. 1859. BauSfi)/. badarse. so called from its bearing bays. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. from badar. to split. a cluster of bacon. that from ba. Fr. AS. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. bayo. to keep one waiting. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. berry. and the To bark as a dog. From Cat. in order to keep the enemy in check. Serv. corrupted into Bow-window. bate. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. or berries. Swab. grapes or nuts. open the mouth. abbabayer. to amuse stare a bada. watching intently. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. the step is the same as from It. barn of two bays. to be Bohem. to iiitent nected PoL white. window-sill. as gazing. like a pie. ist. living Ir. husk. Vielp. Q. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. baie. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. To Bay. Abide. life. baionette. bacca. to gape. . tradire to Fr. Bay.— Stalder. arose two forms of the verb. bahia. Arts. baccello. or window ' (in Fortification). Catalan hadia. . to betray. It.c. badia to Sp. bilyejiti. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. yellow . The word bay.—Journal Soc. bajo. or to have been first used at the Cot. The — Fr. bai. aux dehniers abois. |8i'os. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. stood watching him stoop. beo. weary of running. bde. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. . Fr. OSp. at his last gasp. . as if to signify a window of curved outline. baher. siege of Bayonne in 1665. 1. 25. laurel of the ancients. stare. Bay. which however. Fr. Cot. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. baca. F. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. window . from an imitation of the sound. buidhe. badarc. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. * To Be. It. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. Bayonet. to open as a blossom. when. bdcr. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. See Bald. house . alive. It. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. Holland's Pliny in R. It. a berry. or at bay.' — — 54 bald. —Bay-windo'W. expresr sion tenere a bada. to stand watching one. white. Earth — By Nature made to till. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. baiare. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bijel. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. is perhaps not directly from Lat. berries. badius. Such Antaeus seemed to me. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. to on anything. or recess in an apartment in modern times. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. bay. and zndly.. batibari. Gael. Fr. Gael. the cod or husk of beans or the like. Lat. buidhe- The ruadh. Q. It. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. hddhe-dhonn. to mark. desiring. trahir. the laurel-bay. Sp. Mod. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. to open. baer. life. From the former verb is the It. Lat. Sp. Gr. Fr. — Schmid. baye. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. BE Probably conRuss. &.

Fr. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. stock. bee. bearti. The wild beast. Fr. Sw. tale of prayers or doxologies. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. faba is Kvavoq. signifying a point. Du. Gael. AS. bedm.from AS. A two-year old nephew of mine p. l^ax. Be. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Slavon. bauhan. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. to produce young. Goth. beck. W. Bret. bar. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. — to bow or nod . bohne. a tree.fuis5e. E. Moreover the name. which is. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. ffaen. Boom. The immediate shore of the Menage.fer-re j Gr. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. bdkna. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Beadle. W. bob. Beacon. as.' Hall's Chron. an attendant. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. A Esthon. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. AS. or beic. vii. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. bead. . according to of Sanscr. atUndre. post. nokkima. bagms. Miss Gurney in Philolog. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. fero. Catalan becar. Beckon. -phxr. becco. would say. beans. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. badmr. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. N. — bedeau. Lat. a nod OHG. bank. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. be. bean. into a snjall river. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Gael. He says. It is BEAR SI court. g. to beckon.to have a French origin. — : Beam. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Goth. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. G. beacen. salve his hurts. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Trans. — Bellenden in Jam. It. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. however. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. bakke. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. a tree. OSax. It. bokan. ohg. or breathing. or any action done with a pointed thing.' adheres to the root. . or however. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. «va\ioQ. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality.ad. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. like most nautical terms. a beak. G. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. a hill. to carry. Netherlands or North Germany. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. pig. a sign. * Beagle.. a presage. vol. pierced for hanging on a string. as. Farrar. bakkje. See To Bid. Q wait upon him. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. bydel. a single bean. Hackluyt in R. bek. to nod . Pardoner's Tale. the part overflowed by the tide. —F. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. rising ground. a prayer. Bean. to bellow. signifying individuality. The nutu significare. into France. backe. ON. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Gael. Thus the final en. boom. Beach. Gr. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. 54. The origin seems preserved in E. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. fromthe danger. prodigy bauhnjan. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. to nod the head. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. bM. faba. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. . baun. a curtsey. was introduced from England sea. It forms a. ON. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. and Lat. baum. Bear. on. fd or faVf beans. Bret. Beak. a single bean. to wait-. beic. to wait. fora-bauhan. gebed. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bairan. beacnian. bidan. beic. bohnej ON. support. Chapters on Lang. not applied to the yelping of dogs. beugler. ffci. To Bear. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i.fui. Beck.' Suetonius in Diez. bidello. as well as f& or fav.

Perhaps from Pol.getiman. to fall.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. badi. bavec. tidig. to be a part of his to. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. to live. bello. bebrus. bel. fitanimal. brada. blast. to the good hapHalbard. a bank. from the same in the sense of bear2. dushmak. border. to bear children. Dan. . The OFr. handsome. byrcti. Russ. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. i.' ' He became very angry. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. gelimplic. Do no To It fallith favour. to attain to the lot of any one. to be incumbent upon him. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. gabaurths. get J ' He got very angry. The fitting or suitable. bestiaj Gael. decorous. E. while from Shep. con. See becymth anfeald yvel.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. slobber. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. iida. fitly . obtain. ziemen. suitable. an notion of being convenient. biber. agreeable. taste. baba. barf. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. Slav. biivre. fiber. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. In like manner condition. ON. To load with ornament. beauts. Fr. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. He becom on sceathan. receive. to hem. and also in that of birth. to happen. judgment. AS. bur. pleasing. to come to or upon. to shore. — A — A — . It. the latter are derived It. i.' every way suited to a prince. agreeable. bearing. dress with unbecoming richness . to get. Bo. if sound of a sharp blow. Boeth. it is probable that here also the to become. brook . duty. G. barba. place to lie down. pens unmixed evU. timan. to be fulfilled. to dabble . which. to wade through the water like a beaver. bekommen. befall. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. That thou mayest attain Goth. bach. Lat. behkr. Beaver. riviire. befit. I do thee pray. Beauty. from beau. to those goods which endure for ever. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. from baver. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. gebank. to happen. to carry. bett. seemly. byw. battere. brook. Lat. babrad. to fall in with our bavard. bring forth. bave i. The moveable part of a helmet. bekkr. Cal. OSw. to arrive at. comely. As rivus. AS. connected with ripa. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. to happen. suitable. and on. bava. the ece thurhwuniath. See Bank. — . whence baveux. nod or sign. Beck. ON. or a feeling to be gratified. living. Sp. edge. Goth. On the same principle. opportune.we call the arrangement becoming. Beckon. proper. 1. pretty. Bedizen. G. to assume a certain form or Turk. chin. Fr. beo.S6 fero. fallinn. to G. a brook. becuman. R. or special purpose. G. formerly a happen. and Fr. proper . baviire. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to please. when up. Prick of Conscience.to clothe to slobber. a. Lith. Thus OY. Lat. fit. bequem. talkative. bcek. riviera. E. Lat.— Kiittner. to happen. bard. Fr. den. R. nothing to thy name make.' are equivalent expressions. gefallen. See Beacon. boroda. e. ting. happening as it ought. E. 2. venient. tidy. ON. dize or dtzen. G. a bank. See Bat. o. name applied originally to the bank then proper . Secondarily applied to a hat. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. godum with ON. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth.of being very angry. to happen. as. e. Fr. but now a river only. birth. beatanj It. bedr. now confined To Become. Bosworth. or river. limplice. Diez. ON. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. to fall mode of being. burdr is used in the sense of a car. baurthei. The quadruped. bobr. Chaucer. perhaps a living thing. because made of the fur of the beaver. bart. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS.fit. decent. bellus. becuman. G. Prov. bave. to the brook itself. It. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Thcem. limpian. rying. bib or slobbering cloth. to appertain.AS. convenient. our taste. the beard. Beck. W. bobrowai. Beat. Now the Beast. and to acquire. g. produce. limpan. a lip. to sleep on. Fr. as the babble of the child. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. covered the face.

1. buche.ing of the word is curdled. drink. bovis.— JI14. bitela. to curdle or lopper. beyki. E. Fr. to and ale. drink. pital of St Mary. KXlvoTTiT^e. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. 1. Ant. . woman that is newly delivered. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. beost. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Fr. fall. to poordma.cz//aj. Pett. 1 to drink. bossen. a clapper. AS. Rom. It. a pillow-case. the meat of spinach. ir'm. I A pillow-beer. The beer al for te shenche bate. a bee. to coagulate. bletumj Gr. beutel. kivih. Bernese. mars betada. qui de lecto surgere non potest . Pl. fagus. garden-herb. The honey-producing insect. biene. turn (a garment). a cover. Fin.possible. biest-milch. . which also 2. by the analogy of bedaivb.substance as to render navigation imtiriso.D. Esthon. bedskiissen-bUren. translation beOj. as the milk of a that purpose in London.. G. also the bite or sting of a bees. tree. madhouse. a horse-fly . to twist poorma. Bethlehem. whose face is clotty.). bove. P1. briesch-milch. trees in a forest .BEDLAM a distaff with flax. wedges. the biter. In a passage of an Old Fr. a drink potus. erroneously modified in form. as. whence familiar. cugino. pettiriso.' the last word corresponds to cofly .— B. a Properly a cover that biiren. Cot. from risan. extant in Bohem. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. imperative pi.ON. ProBeer. Fr.(paddi. as in It. case. buka. AS. may be from K. . It. E. ^. . cited by Diez. turn. from Lat. a paviour's beetle batail. prigione. stakes. It. . Confined to bed. g. red curdled Arab . prisons Venet. briest. Grimm. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Bedouia. G. and lebermer in G. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Fr. a wasp. Let. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. a wasp. Gr. to parget or rough-cast . This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. poculum. AS. piwo. boytle. blow or thrust. the ox. bette or blettej Lat. used for boull. a bed-tick. But possibly bedizen 2. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. Bee. vaar. betel. Lat. /SXirov. sang vermeilh betatz. I put the flax upon it to spin. The first milk after a dizen. Fr. thick. to drink. beach-each. Lat. buk. Originally. and in driving piles. Bav. boeuf. cushion-cover . a stinging bieUe. curded or beesty. a pillow case. D. sela que environna la terra. an Beetle. Dan. Beef. i. an inhabitant of the desert. bibere is a re.^ drink. to knock. 'La Gl. duplicated form of the root. to become Beech. beach. may be shpped on and off. ris. Arab. a pad or cushion). thick. water. from jtst-. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. to flatten In OE.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. waarin. Beet. Gael. also bienst. 57 — Palsgr. GaeL bior. Slav. a cup or implement for AS. kiissen-biere. a agulatum in the original Latin. bbtel. knock. cow has calved. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. speach.D. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. calleBedlam. pude-vaar. &c. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. PI. to rough- cast. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. to fall. G. taglio. For that was law of lend. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. 1156. bos. beetle also signified the impiti. * Beestings. bukva. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a malsense of drink. from the hos. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. cogionare. I dysyn a dystaffe. beta. ' MordiThe Lat. a mallet. cousin. crespir. Beetle. door. clog for a dog b'oteln. bedde-redirj ohg. de Fierabras in Diez. on. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Fr. Bed-ridden._t from the root pi. desert. Cot. paralyticus.' So Gr. beest. doubtless. an ox. bytl. . beer. cozen. to change . The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab.'— GL ^Ifr. bedawi. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. to turn. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Horn. biiren. batAfter mete in sale. in Nat. of beatmg. a wandering Prov. to colour with lime-wash. bet. in Schmeller. bitel. bably named from the destructive quali| T. to beat bossel. from blood. by-flugaj G. byst. badigeonner. from leberen. comb. the loppered sea. The meanpainting.

steinbosil.quently used in OE. 25. ken. In Luc vi. literally. a bag or poke. yiyvo/uat. in D. y/yvo/iat. origin. to get children . in E. 'ex quo. Beghardus. P. He did alight. 40.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. 1430. genus. taking up. baigeir. word. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. a wedge for cleaving wood. The tother seand the dint cum. beis- plement driven by blows. su with gold. but in the same language from poc. is formed pocair. to begin. P. oppressed with woe. To Begin. chap. duginnan.' about undern he got down. beriolare. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. referred gan this Erie alight. one after that other.' A. P. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. beginning. ysgrepanu. Skinner's derivation from bag. to be able.— . Gr. yivwajcw. a chisel. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. To produce children is to acquire. in Lat. to take. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. 142. onginnan. beitel. to beg. gan. It will . 1867. — yivsaiQ. hags. 'Aboutin undern monly. gen. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. P.bag full of the G. not began to alight. or Of a pure poor man. Mod. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. can. yivtrri. affected. a little bag). iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Into the are D. Ancren Riwle.D. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. iv. AS. kind. be^nnan. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. touched with emotion — . a stone-cutter's chisel. a scrip euXaiciJoi. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. seizing. air a . by the help of wedges and beetles an N. a beggar. to cleve. anfangen. to reduce him to beggary. P. a — wedge. V. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. bertola. pose-pilte. of Gr.3.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. ip AS. can. although it ' the future. ' Begone. P. a beggar-boy. — Stillingfleet. above quoted to get beaten ON. is com. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. P. covered with gold D. Si'Xa/coc. woe-begone. 168. gigno. OHG. ' ' . giving in Gr. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . ornamented phoc. capere. ytyvwfT'Kw. lapidicinus. Fr. When Q. to arise. Creed. aginnan. Du. but probably erroneously. a beggar . It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Lollards. to bear young. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. 2. & go a begging. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. on the bag. ykvog. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Deutsch. yivofiai. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . Vocab. beutel. ken. as alighting is a momentary operation. a bag. Lith. Bruce. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. Mundart. at geta talad. Of brede full ycrammed. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. V. two betels —a grete oke. P. to know. viii. Barbour. to begaan. the fundamental notion of attaining to. &c. 'Dz. So from Gael. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. a scrip. it is both to acquire and to beget. a bag . To Beg. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . a wallet. image is cleft out of the trunk. 58 BEG BEGONE G. to go a begging. &c. From w. beitel. Nov. incipere. tale. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. chisel. on the tramp. Florio. Goth. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. P. signifying to conceive. and Lat. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Political Songs. ysgrepan. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. krapszas. appears improbable at first. It. beissel. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. to be born.pose. V. to be acquire. Du. on further examination. ' . cans. Du. sel.n. from whete G. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. Cold-begone.' for ye shall lament and weep. P. begger.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. also called Bigots. fangen and Lat. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. Schm. begging. whence the E. bag {baigean. vir mendi.

promise . to lift. us-hafjan. behat. R.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to cast or throw. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. taking notice or care of (Gloss. behold. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. the distance of anything. hove. to carry. betragen. beholden to him. behind. —Hest. behete. to look upon it as true . use. to look. to call. a follower.to vow. and (as Fr. servare. to tend. K. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. gehouden. injunccommand. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. healdan. to be obliged to one. to keep. hatan. premi curi alicujus rei. to halten. to be named. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to feed. to carry corn into the barn . bound. according as the * To Behove. promise. OE. obliged. what is so required. Plautus. take yourself off. the two verbs seem radically the same. Sw. behoof. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. and their senses intermingle. to keep. habban. AS. solicitum esse. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to carry. G. To look steadily upon. Robert in Warton. Paladino. heeten. to heave. hcef tig bort. But. G. hofwa. right. vow. at the tail of. zijn. to carry. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. hantyri. — Behest. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. The seyn. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. Thus in Finnish the heave. is also found in the sense of looking. to name. behatan. heita. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. hcefwa in seed. ge' hatan. Sw. gecall. G. 17. to command. laborare. It.the figure of throwing at a mark. as in the case of E.for throwing it. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. nittaa. habere. The Lat. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. have the sense of calling or naming. seeing to. garder. to be well pleased out. fixed upon any object). han- — js Kil. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. AS. vow. to lift. exhort. to vow. to turn one out . ifl fact. behces. what he wishes another to do . hafwa. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to follow. behaviour. hces. Kiittn. invoke. to bers of the body. gehat. heave. or purpose. AS. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. keeping. to have. on. to promise. when the verb will hoof. to raise. to meet. tion. to call. Goth.' Richardson. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to keen or hold. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . N. adjust. commonly expressed. gehaben. the name adapt. observe. to hit the mark. Sw. advantage. Command. to R. AS. to be be named. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. To Behold. portarsi. To be expedient. to fit. hafwa bort. hovast. AS. zu etwas gehalten haitan. and the E. behefe. beperson addressed. G. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. The It. to take away. the equivalent of E. to command. to hold. furtherance. by the compound observare. heeten willekem. to vow. to hold. to be suitable or becoming . se porter) to fare well or ill. To place are most naturally ex. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. ward. or the hence advantage. ufhaban. to bring forwards. to be fit. At the back of The re. hevja. keeping. tail. to regard. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. And so from hania. guardare. from tragen. to the equivalent of Du. to gehouden. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. is supported by many analogies.— . to be obliged to do a thing. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. gehalten seyn. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . hafwa ram. hafjan.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. G. hevja. take heed of. hafwa.). promise or a command. is on the top of or opposite to. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. or necessary. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to behave. To Behave. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. G. to lead.

behove. laven. to promise or engage. lyfan. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. is an easy progress. to sound loudly . to sanction an arrangement. overspread. beleggen. a watch tower. or house. if a narration. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . a vessel made for dishonour. laubjan.Lat. garnish. to lay the cable round the bits. laven. battefredum. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. under the forms belfredum. To Belch. In Mid. bell. . permitting or giving leave. giving leave or permission. range. Northamptonshire. Det er ofwer er hofwa. on. Hence to simple approbation.D. beset. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. or high estimation. then. is used in the sense of approving. bealcettanj OE. Du. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. esteeming good and valid. border. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . The word be- Belfry. bealcan. to estimate them at a To believe. — mankind. Pl. peal. praising. Q.D. bolken. we have Goth. then. tain a certain end. leaf geleafa. leave . belief . ornament. b'ola. locus securitatis Schilter. resonare. orloven. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. ON. a little shed. to befit. moderation. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. are innate . to a loud noise. esteemed . on. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to belay. verloben. to roar. promiser. Then. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to boke. to praise. bulken. Fr. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. bialla. AS.D. Fr. consent. lofa. . measure. frid. to lay be- around. to praise. 6o BELAY BELL loven. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. From AS. legsel. gelyfan. Pl. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to make it fast. See Gain. fringe. to believe... a tower for defence . — Diicange. galaubjan. to protect. filu-galaubs. cela est audessus de votre portde. satisfaction. a. bervrit. to give leave. Du. and E. is (Sternberg). Sw. . berfroi. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. to fix a price upon one's wares. beau sire and bel dame. beffroit. to cry out bell. ley/a. bellow. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. ungalaub kas. to der swaren lave. Another application of the same word is in Pl. honoured. lov. to put a high price or value on. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. and bergan. hesfa. properly belonging to the church tower. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . with the consent of the heirs. bertefredum. and Du. to extol the worth of anything. a tower. promising. reputation. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. loben. OHG. in nautical language. portion. erlauben. to praise. to give leave. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. fitness. P1. to believe. galaubs. loven. bellan. G. — . In the middle voice hofwas. stand. reach.Lat. and. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. turris. for purposes of low estimation .D. Du. Bell. to promise. to permit.alyfan. —F. if a promise. It. appearing in Mid. To Believe. mark ON. OFr. ON. to hit hafi. pro3. to give leave Dan. loven. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. to bolk. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. Fair sir and Fair lady. to resound. and E. beffroi. belja. to believe. an implement for making a loud noise. To Belay. Du. met. bylja. Goth. from mhG. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to express approval. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. allow. boare. to bellow. bettifredo. bercvrit. or a sconce.. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. To praise is essentially Xo prise. AS. are other modifications of the same imitative root. permission. praise. true. bounds. were civil terms of address. to be required for a certain purpose. precious. glauben. aim. certain rate. distance to which a piece will carry.

binssen. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Fr. . — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. Quoth. w. J'emboue. to stretch it on a frame. Ptg. benedictio {bene^ and dico. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. skin. from benedictio. to make bilbil. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and .videtur. vulva. bienfait. wallet. OFr. benjoim. benehusk.' — Hie fimus. ray. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. benaigon. a bellows. bendan. is The word balg. pertinere. bimpsen. . To Bequeath. poX^ri. the skin of those animals that factor. G. or fyle with myre.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. benedicere. because bcelg. bolch. from which is also bulbus. a water-bubble builge. binsen. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. to hold to one. — ray. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. bilbila. Du. Was das belanget. G. was in Mid. to concern. to attain to. a benefit. bilbil-goda. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. I say). To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly.pinuz. Benzoin. See Bank. bless. balteus . to. bell. to belong.' Palsgr. G. belch. ^To Beray. — See Numb. by itself. hem. . fens et hie liraus. vulgarly the belly. To Belong'. blast-bcelg. to come to the crown belangen. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. bene/actum. a round or bubble-shaped root. to become one's property . which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. gwaldas. attinere. becwathan. from cwcsthan. est matris in lucem editus. as. In E. Lat.Fr. See I . to say. belt. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. . blister balgan-snamha. incense of Java. belly. a leather bag. Benediction. to concern. fyle To dirty. Fr.' The term had been previously planation. taken absolutely. as concerning that. a border. bolg. bcelg. Benefice. gelangen. disposed to oblige. Gael. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. a speaking well of one. rushes. Lat. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. pouch. has assumed a plural form.. one who does good. a accusative. loubdn djawt. . belly. belgr. skin. Lat. to bend a bow . balg. volva. I marre a thyng. benjoin. The ing-skin.polch. Benignant. I soyle it or araye it. or a It is times the to signify services. attingere. ON. needs no ex. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. to attain belangen. Gael. border. attinere. bander un arc. Gum benjamin. pertinere. wallet Benefit. Beneath. benefacere. beneison. on. means seeds of plants. Sw. a blow. Lat. To belong is thus to reach up to.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. welt of a shoe. to touch. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. bimaissen." — — . hence with ashes. bendaj as. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. langen. pervenire. balg. — Ducange. well. Bent. to bless. a good deed. to use words of good omen. generous. to hallow. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bellows. See Nether. benejicium. Lat. the word. from another modification of the word for bubble. To Benum. Bench.— Belly. to do good to one . to exert force. bellows. dirt. See Bind. bolg. is a kindred form. Benign. to arrive at. ' I beraye. ' . Belt. bags or bellows. from Arab. I araye. a spring. G. Dozy. Javanese perfume. . to ring. welt of a shoe gwald. bandoir. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. benir. leather sack. Eenison. benignus (opposed to malignus). an inflated Lat. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. or sometimes louban. ball. Lat. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Benefactor. a bellows . cod or husk of pulse. to touch one. pino3. — root consisting of concentric skins. rise against external force . a kindness. bellows. ON. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. belliJ Lat. bag. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. a blessing. From OFr. se bander. . Bav. Kil. the womb. Bret. are stripped off whole blase-balg. OUG. kind. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. or simply djawt. Fr. To Bend. pod. to reach. Benedico. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari).

Esthon. barthless. Du. as bouter selle. Besom. barfham. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. barth may be for barf. encouraging. Sw. besmas. buttafuoco. making better. bat.X. sets fire to. a fire. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. and Du. beseech. as. AS. The dry. of ffeed a fire. berwe. to put on the saddle. sweepings. vol. — amendment. make better . to on the other Goth. So Lat. basya. preferably. from AS. from grow. as. roju. to strip. ^•n.—^fake. improve. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to make it. E. same word with the provincial barth. to mend. Grose. place. eld up- On is to be placed A — . was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. * Berth. Best. * To Bete. BETE dirty'. rods. supply. G. think more probable. — Biglotton. AS. It is the restore fyr betan. earh. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. protect . To seek something from a person. to seek.D. stealth from steal. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. reparation. dung . boutefeu. a place . bereafian. I from lew. mud. Tusser. When men of mekeness him baet.iooA. dial. berry. better. besnij Pl. jnore. buttare. to fire a funeral pile of . besIn sen. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. to defend. So too Yorkshire arf. houseless. to thrust. BEREAVE Wall. seems twigs or rods. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. besein. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. To Beseech.ot-i. as conversely a besom is called broom. — Chaucer. fearful. R. but in practice.fish the other hand. roe. to give a place to. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. peto. Beet. Du.— Hal. Fin. to fall with roisto. to the place boarded off in a. bouter. Goth. compared with bargham. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. boeten. The proper meaning of the bale. baete.t. besen. Zeitschr. to stand one in good stead. To bete his Jam. dirt . Ihre. vi. boeten. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position.• 62 Antiq.bhaksh. dust rojahtaa. is to perform a serviceable office to him. dirt. as. reparation. advantage. put. and also to entreat. what does it boot. bota. supporting on the one side Lat. arwe. to light the fire . or. to thrust. as. fall with sound. put forth. p. amendment. small eatable fruit. Fr. in the sense ctf beria. the guardian . may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. Beit. boteith Goth. lewth. ropahtaa. person to lie in. hva mannan. position. to make better. bur-we. . besje^ Sanscr. as Du. one who shelter. bestow. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. earg. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. the side bhakshya. ariierf to 113. bdt. the origin of which is to be found in ON. To help. betan. what does it better a man. Fr. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw.— VixHsm. ship for a make amend. an incendiary. a berry. advantage. bdt. lay out. an incendiary. it seems hard to separate as. solicit. boeten. Rob. brem-bessen. or to bestead one. OE. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. betan. To Gl. to To Bereave. to entreat. To Bet. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. a horse collar. Berry. broom twigs. fyrbotare.irova. R. roju. baete. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. To Bestow. Du. to word is shelter. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. might have been . So roto rattle down. botesward. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. E. profit. from It. basjaj Du. bacca. See Reave. or the space kept clear betan. ^akka. to be-place. bal oppbota. repair. From abet. sheltered from the wind. Beere. to exercise on a definite object. bet. Devon. burrow. as in growth. Kil. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Tha het he micel fyr betan. but it is specially applied mister. . — bota. stede. to supply a want. Sw. reafian. berwham. stow. beorgan. scopse spartis. AS. On the other hand. to amend. G. Bestead. to kindle the fire. p. — . 3. and on which the wager is laid. The origin is AS. See Better. because used for making besoms. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. to cast. Hfence backing. Du. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to to deprive of. noise. rubbish.

ON. Ik tame mi dat nig. tradere. taemen. From the former of these are AS. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. to accuse. A — drink. to deliver tip. deem suitable. suitable. afford. said he. Fr. betweohs. Chaucer. or with again. e. amidst. against. Fr. has — In a like sense tanie>i. In the water anon was seen His nose. from invadere. a brood. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance.D. To Bewray. are there Regt R. bat. awry. a different form of twa. R. E. Sahissais. advance. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. a bevy. obdissais. bouter davantaige. traditor. AS. Bevy. The as. verbs in ir with a double ss. his mouth. bedriegen. R. From It. become. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. betaemen. trahissais. is treason. is used for the — R. some attention. trakir. his eyen sheen. from Fr. twain. dispose (whence schicksal. Percy Soc. a traitor. Bav. by a final sh. abash j from polir. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. G. &c. On the same principle ON. BETEfiM translated. pair of compasses. in the middle of two. to happen. riigen. betera. OE. in the middle of twain. Cot. Fr. Mich self a good glass of wine. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. proficere. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. Friar's Prol. Dii. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. betweox. — that schickiich. Slant. ziemen. bevere. as tlock. Car son umbre si le trahit. larks. Best. in the same way Lat. betwuxt. Buveau. I approve of beveau. not to have the heart to give up a thing. tima. betweoh. from Lat. E. It. lot). find in one's heart. moveable and compass branches. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. batista. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. ON. two. make manifest. To Betray. Du. Pl. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. order. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. *Ah. deign. To boot in coursing (i. treachery. — of the authorities. traitre. Golding's Ovid in R. betst. to cheat. -to appoint. it bewrays itself. Hence last G. wreia. tweoh. To vouchsafe. gezimet eines dinges. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. beverage. be fitting or suitable. Fris. tima. fitting. what does It is forward him. Sw. — Betwixt. sloped off. beva. Between. by two. fallinn. to Hence It. for measuring angles. betest. to fall Some call it a bevel. to deceive. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. E. and thence twegen. In like manner from twain is fothied between. polish. . The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. to discover. trahison. a drinking . BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. AS. to stir. an instrument opening like a a thing. find it good: Goth. progress. amiddes. to deliver up in breach of trust. R. Tinia eigi at lata eit. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. of pheasants.' Dialogue on Witches. beuvrage. roja. obeish. gatiman. zemen. dir. Thus from dbahir. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. /alia. the being pushed to the frbnt. bet. more. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. spritigs from schicken. It. to make forwards. to happen. gesiemen. kein leben mehrin no signs . and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. whence beveraggio Fr. In like manner folissais. to Teem. tradire. wrogia. roebucks. bet. of quails. zimet. bibere. Better. better. trahir. evidence of life. Dit tungomal rendered in E. are commonly to one's lot. springs from ON.D. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. better. e. Lat. suitable. To Beteem. ruogia. i. G. betray. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. bevde. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. G. Det sig sjelft. Goth. betriigen. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. i. vrohjan. baet. from. x. G. Fl. best. batizo. thy speech bewrayeth thee. to fall. 88. Pl. e. as trahissons. Now the stirring of an object. to drink . fate. r'ojer dig. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. betwuh. — See To Bete. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. Goth. Ober D. regen. taemen.— . as one would have it fall. better. The inflections of Fr. as from obdir. as envahir. Fr. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. which may be compared as to form with amid.

{ioin dua. a fragment bieco. its clothes. Gr. Fr. makes ble. Piedm. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. to make tongue Du. per\'erted belief. — crooked. to slaver . babbi. love first begins to life signs of him. discover. crooked. .to drink much. Biseau. rogge. stock still. to purl. evident. /3i/3Xof a book originally. bavon. snout. in two ways for duis. Bezoar. expelling or preserving against. An inferior blue. or in and out. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Pers. pible. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. bisel. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bescompte. biberer. Ant.D. biais. like guzzle. Lat. bickai. it becomes (Jz-.s bellum for duellum. ber-laita (for bes-laita). bes-azur.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. which good bibbeler. in him. Du. dial. to tipple. foul weather. bebble. a bibber. bending. it were the mouth. Uprogen. notice. metaphor). OE. besanca. to cut in two. to stir. poison. beslei. bis. presence. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. has a singular stone-picker. and zahr.or from obliquus. one who drinks in excess. Bibelsworth in Nat. whey count . to Jam. b&zahr. baverole. biberen. roggle. Fr. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). bickeler. biax. rogt un bogt sik nig. Sard.as in Biped. Hal. slanting . Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. baviere. or by any rapid motion. as an eel or a snake. ice . to it evident to sense. biaiser. bickel. It is especially applied in Sc. to a fight with stones. winding or crawling in and out. is explained to clatter. to sip. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. though such a change of form would be very unusual. sbiasciai. To drink hard. to give signs of life. the word became bddizahr. Mantuan. See Wriggle. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Piedm. slippery. bisdare. to move. Probably. bark of which paper was first made. to well up with Cot. specially in a bottle. or kwijl-slab. a sloping edge. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. — Bi-. It. bible. To Bezzle. tailU en biseau. a bezle. biascia. The It. aslope sbisciare. bibaculus. E. asure-bice (Early E. kwijlen. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to glide or slip as upon. Fr. Diet. the papyrus.' bibble. in Fr. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to tipple. beregen. Sardin. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. babbefore the eyes. kwijl-bab.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. edge of a plate of looking-glass. twice. a slabbering-bib. sbias. convicts thee of being drink. Jamieson. whence Du. pddzahr. to stir. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion.D. Prov. sbrissare. liwell. Fr. . aslope. sbrisso. sbiscio. Fris. (according to the Fr. —Dozy.two. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Bible. Bias. kwijllap. I Wallon. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. sbiagio. reveal. oblique. from pdd-. In Arab. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. him. shows the P1. to creep or crawl sideling. Oh when shall I bizzle. Yes.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. sbiesso. petit-lait. 172. bihais. sloped. wrogen. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. a stone-hewer . the basil Sc. In comp. sbiescio. by throwing of stones. Fr. to shake. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. sliding. bickel-sieenken. Pl. Bezel. The train of thought is then. Sp. sbrisciare. he is Wtb. Misc. two- footed. . bezling or skueing. to slaver or drivel. Dan. To skirmish. sbieco. . to stir up . bestemps. To Bicker. Bice. to stir. To Bib. wrangle. bickelen. sik beregen. to dispute. biberon. bibo. Bisect. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). wraggeln. bias-wise. sbriscio. Hal- — do something aslant.a. to be a paring. Cat. a Galilean. to the stirring of their conscience. To Bibble. —Bickering'. Fr. misFr. Schiitze. It. Lat. . Cat. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. 78). Bib. lips. dial. used in precisely stone . bring under ' Thy accuse. To bicker in NE. biascio. An excellent Basil. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. inferiority. Ci^. of the sliced off.

bat . and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bygga. The . iiQ. P. bieten. to bulge. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to pro- command. pressing on one's notice. to solicit. to forbid . The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. The 'La. bidan. Einem einen guten tag bieten. ON. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. G. bieden. Big-swol- . to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. the belly of a ship. bath. an entire skin. to build G. 2. to move quickly. related to big or bug. belly. beodan. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. offerre. explaining the Sc. ' Bug as a Lord. proud. praestare. to pray one to dinner. Du. be bug. bedun. Analogous expressions are G. to swell. or. AS. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bag. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to belly. bi-. to have one called before him. bidjan. a swelling. bua. bugan. bugne (answering to ON. ON. from bidan. to dwell. to build. a chip. in the sense of ask for. bulge. buga. It must be observed that the word bidja. and Gael. has leta. from belgia. AS. beidast. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. swoln. repair. bolgna). cultivate. porrigere. bend of a shore or of a rope. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. to start out. The ON. OSw. bis and in comp. BIGOT beidan. to abide or wait on. bilge or bulge. Bight or Bought. Two verbs are here confounded. Palsgrave in Halliwell. — prepare. to curve. faurbjudan.uddered len heart. praebere. bolginn. Bickelen. form. England for swollen. as tears from the eyes. ten. to look for. to arrange. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. boa. To bid the banns. Bigamy. From Gr. to bid one good day. R. verbieten. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bit- bidja. to look for. To Big. OSw. which is stiU. einen vor Gericht bieten. and the Sw. bouwen. to offer. bced. Jam. G. byggia. to bicker. rising up. bow. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. forwards. the meaning of bid. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. besides the professedmonks and nuns. a suitor. from seek. twice. bigan. beadle. bulge. to forbid . . without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to bend.peto. to inflate E. ON. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bend. swaggering. biddan. or third order of penitence. biegen. bolga. who. to cultivate. balg. ON.' Addison. Big. bulk. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. — — — Halliwell. bo. abidan. — To Bid. to marry. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht.t. Bigot. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. qucero. are also used in the sense of asking for. bead. called the tertiary order. bidill. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. Kil.Leta). bug. inhabit. or bad. to offer one the wish of a good day. to offer it to public notice. gebodenj G. W. athird class. as G. to build. to presimpler pare. BID of stone. may plausibly be derived from Goth. . bugt. bidan.' Pope in R. anleta. G. 1. To Bid ' Big . an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. The ON. as. bog. quiring something to be done. by seek and beseech. inhabit Du. to ask. bidel. of More ' in Richardson. bauen to cultivate. ewes. to bend. and yajiBui. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. build. A bjudan in anabjudan. a flexure.. belly. byggan. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. pray. Compare also Sp. to E. consisting both of men and women. spelling seems to used in the N. becoming in Lat. AS. to inhabit. The loss of the / gives Dan. gebeden j G. Wallace in Jam. to ask. A pose to one to come to dinner. The original Swollen. swelling." buque with E. With respect to logical pedigree. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bulky. Hence Sc.

They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. D. bighiotto. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. biso.— BIGOT bigardo. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. aliqui Begardi.' says one of of bigio. perch^ i Terziari di S. A. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. absque votorum religionis emissione. face VIII. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. From bigio. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. which must not be confounded with begardo. coarse woollen cloth. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis.' Chart. bigotta. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Bighiotti). 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. alii Apostolici. In a similar manner from bigello. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. as well as bizocco. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. begutta. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. Bizocco.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. 1243. the other form Per te Tribune. a blockhead. Beguttce. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.D.' says an Venet.' translated by Muratori. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. bighellone.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. probably from biso. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. homespun cloth. with reference to A.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.— Ducange. natural grey or sheep's russet. borel. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. grey.. G. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. S. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. clownish. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. author quoted in N. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. a dunce. beghino.' They were however by no means confined to Italy.a.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. says. ix. grey.D. A. sed maxim^ in muliebri. &c.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. corruption would easily creep in. to adopt a similar course of life. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. In the same way Fr. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . They wore a similar dress. and Q.' Matthew Paris. vol. all apparently derived from Ital. Francisci communiter appellabant. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. bigio. Hence the OE. both men and women. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. 560.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. xx. and hence the variations bigutta. Bizoccki. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. 15 18.D. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. Bighini. Augustini dotarint. the nobles to Rienzi. A. alii de paupere viti.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. ac labores manuum detestantes. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. rustical. and also unlearned common men. dark-coloured cloth. 1499. was formed bigello. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. signifying bagmen or beggars. vocati Fraticelli. honesti plebeii amictus. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. Flor. beghart.

The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. I. Fr. a beak. Kil. Bilge. a bigot or hypocrite. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. is properly a sealed instrument.' mariners. In the same way are related Pol. used in legal proceedings. beil. an adze . Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Lat. 2. bizocco.— — — . bigardo. In English the meaning has received a further development. Aurelles. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. See Bull. a hatchet. . gan. seems to be rather the unda. So in Gr. Bigin. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . billard also signified at billyards. deceit. person of religion leading a loose life. 2. bulgja. in the sense of a writing. to strike. the o changing to an i to express diminution. Fr. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Johansen. Bilbo. in the same sense. blaa. and a billard. boia. an axe. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Bojce. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. axe. boja. top. an axe . of boja. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. an ingot of gold or silver. e. Gascoigne in R. to swell with rage). from OSw. a short note. To defraud one of expected sinking. a sword. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. The origin of the term is probably from bole. crowberry. bla-berry. the bill of a bird. might be taken to express a hypocrite. to pick a millstone. on. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). irons or set in a kind of stocks. buie. bila. Du. Piedmontese bigot. from Mid. an axe. Tartuffe. — — ' . symbolum. and dziobas. Ludwig. now A Bilboa blade. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. bigotto. To Bilk. as a bill of indictment. to peck. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. Fr. boeye. horn of an animal. abelthe fetter itself. AS. belghen. of E.' bilio. buoy [i. blamand. bill of exchange. — bigardia. the trunk of a tree. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. See Bulk. — Cot. billet is the diminutive of this. 3. bill in parliament.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. Bille. to job. OFr. beghart. false pretender to reUgious feeling. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. bigot. Roquef. 5 * . the beak of a bird. Du. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. a seal. a floating log to mark the place of some. 'tumidi fluctus. Mundart. Lat. bisoch. a shackle. bwyell. bil. and in Lat. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. dziob. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . tepati. topor. Dan. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. Sw. billet. an ingot. Du. The Du. plog-bill. bull-berries. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. An instrument for hewing.' in Richardson. e. bulla. bill. weapon . clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. Bilberry. Billow. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Gael. whortle-berries. clog to a fetter. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. dziobad. The proper meaning bylgia. AS. bolghe. fetters. obsolete. an axe. from the dark colour. AS. NFris. A slang term for a sword. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. . at sea Billet. Sw. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. the swelling G. names bill-berries. biilge. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. to be angry (i. G. belgan. a name given to a. p. Kil. Sp. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. a devotee. ferrese quam ligneae. a of the sea. bui. inscriptum. Bill. loi. a man who rests on a stick in walking. a hypocrite. bullet. w. bigot. BILBERRY nated. Billette. Bohem. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Bill. bille. ^Billiard. Sw. however. bile. buail. dissimulation . Deutsch. genus vincu- Bilboes. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. bulghe. Langued. a negro. to strike. billard or billart. fluctus maris. that of swell. blue . billot. procella Kil. Thus we find in It. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Billet. b'olja. A lorum tam in — Diez. . as craneberry. a seal. gleischner (Frisch). Prov.. Dan. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus.

a hind or female stag. an overseer. an eagle's young G. Dan. Lith. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. where the compass stands. Bisom. AS. bunt. nodus. poule. Then added division in a granary. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. or bin. a female stag. To Bite. while bind-wood. to knot nets for fish. 'tumens sequor. Sw. . is in Scotland applied to ivy. bitill. from Lat. j). The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. In like manner from knot. &c. bindan. bitacora. by the verb knit or net. bhurja. biccej ON. evegue. AS. by binda. bjork. fowl. bikkia. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Fr. to build. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. bundt. a heap. Gr. the young of birds . to net. Bittacle or Binnacle. pin-ti. bunki. bita. AS. to fasten it together. Fr. the young of an animal. beize. Fr. episcopus. bord. G. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Bin. hiindiiin. a pig petz. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. IV. G. . Bindweed. which is expressed in E. to form a knotted structure. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. i. Bird. a corn. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Goth. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Thus I suppose the Gr. Lat. Bitch. See Belly. bunga. pippione. beisseii. beran. — Kil. G. See Breed. a brood or hatch of young. a little dog. a weight of 48 pounds. binge. When compared with Fr. biscuit. twice cooked. isfiw. habitacle. Sanscr. a bunch. bin-wood. properly a young pigeon. betsel. binda nat. Habitacle. in Swabia. bundun. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. Fr. and especially to a small poor horse. lusciosus et myops. a habit- Binnacle. a female dog hindinn. i. to bear. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. a house. bundle. pinnu. — See Bittacle. earnes brid. to twine. or ben-wood. a truss. . to swell. . bunch. from pondus. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bund. Lat. beorth. to hang. a heap. biscotto. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. — — . Bing. BITTACLE /Siof. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. piiiti. bundt. G. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. to bind together. . a gallinaceous bird. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. to bind at . bindan. Sw. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. a bitch. to plait. copus. bund. truss. from \t3\. I would derive the verb to knit. are commonplaces. The bitol. is rendered in ON. piccione. brid. bij sien. bij sienigh. a weight. Birch. pundas. to be derived from Ibfiaq. admota non Bit. a bitch. bundle./«idere. See To Bear.' and the like. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. AS. to bulge. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. pittjo. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. ON. EpisETTiTOOTToe. terial. — properly near-sighted. V. Bind. doubtless a stone. E.68 BIN Bio-. to bring Biscuit. overlooker. Lat. Goth. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. — Surrey in R. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Fr.. vescovo. v. Lap. AS. Lat. band. . AS. hith. evesgue. poultry. and of Fr. expressed by Sw. brut. beitsl. biclie. e. from Gr. pullus. Bisen. bigne. Bisson. The proper meaning is a heap. ge- from AS. videt. also a stone weight. We — A Birth. ON. burt. a knob. evigue. a bear. It. Bine. a bitch applied also to other animals. Bailey. viz. qui nisi propius Blind. Du. pinnii. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Lith... bircej Sw. than vice versi. Bizened. propius videre bij sicndc. berkas (z=:Fr. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. beitan. H. It. a bump or knob. to cook). wine. to wreathe. To — — —D. or baked. The term ON. sc. or petze. Sp. life. forth.

bleich. is apprehension of danger. Nagt huis. a childe dothe gasouille. Percy Soc.plab is used to . A a rail. a* mast . But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Gael. yellowish. G. baitrs. Fr. a large coarse lip . It. — cheeked maid. yellow . Sp. a fluttering noise. to wax pale or bleaked. black. whiteness (candor sine It. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. in contempt. fallow . things —Palsgr.' by Gudmund. corrupted in Fr. small guard-house. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Fr. to loll it out. from wachen. The bitas. beiwache. Wit hung her mourn. bleikr. To Blab the anchor. is placed. AS. Hald. unintelligible talk plabair. —Neumann. Bleak. Mag. buft". blac-hleor ides. blab. Mantuan babbi. To or he can speake. pale yellow. bitr. confusedly. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. gulblakk.D. or water beating gently on the beach . babbe. blob. Sp. indistinctly. plappem. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . I blaber. to talk much. . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. Sp. ^aj'/^r. . blakki. to chops. thoughtlessly . Black. Blabber-lip.' by Haldorsen. ON. cut. synonymous with baber-lip. Pepper is bitter and bites hard.. blanc. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Cotgr. Je N. Why presumest And laam's asse. discoloured .€i. blabaran. iroxafealo. from whence we have adopted the.. blabhdach. Fieldfare. maculS. quoted by Ihre. Sw. bitter. butorj OE. dusky. Lydgate. beuni. bitones. pale. Se bleek. — Collins in Hal. Mund. Goth. pale. — Hollyband. babbling. a stammerer. blabbre. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Fr.' It would thus acle. shine. beitr. Hal. pins of the capstern. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. whitish. bittore. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. bites. to babble. to bivouac. pale yellow . light-coloured. pale. 332. Alex. biacca. mouth. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). bihovac. as in that of pale and white on the other. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. mouth. Gael. x. to the sharpness of a weapon. Sp. chatter babbler . blake. white. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Applied in Hin ON. blob. to To blabber blabber with the lips. to speak Dan. viz. bitor. Bittern. NE.).. as of water gently beating the shore. ^chops. AS. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. baboyer. to let out whai should have been concealed. faded. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. faded. even humour seemed and beuin. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. term. leohte . ' Biovac. 't huisje. apparently from its biting the tongue. Cot. on. blubber-lipped. ' plabraich. an additional watch. a flapping. 't kompas huis. blabbern. In a similar manner Gael. the palebleff. out the tongue. brunblakk. bitts of Bitts. ON. 156. a babbler. So Fr. a large lip. blepLith. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. biti. blob. a tati. In Legrand's Fr. a continued soft sound. Bohem. stutterer. quick. to watch. garrulous. G. Fr. plabartaich. bird of the heron tribe. 'fuscus. a beam in a house or ship. Bivouac. v. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. ON. In like manner E. Deutsch. gabble. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. pale brown . on the one side. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Hist. first. "uivac. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. to babble. Ai-mstrong. whitish. as of a body falling into water. night guard. Pl. white lead. a shelter for the steersman. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Du. The Gz. mona mid Dan. white.— Blabber-lip. bittour. /ealo-/or. blobach. fallow fawn-coloured. blunt we say it will not bite. . ON. as of wings . an edge is sharpest sword. dark. his blacan light. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. bleg. Again. blank. Bav. obscurus. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. round which the cable is made fast. shining. blakk. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. as is seen in sputter and splutter. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. blebberis.' G. blesmer.

dial. sheet of paper. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. piatto. as blader. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. madder. most complete example of leafy structure. whitish. variable than the signification of words designating colour. a boil. irXariQ. Besides the examples of this connection given above.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. dripping-pans. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. blena. as. blad. It. leaves.—Blatter. Blank. 86. blanchir. p. gabble. To Blare. — — — to jabber. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. vagrants. which we . shining. a buible. and wandering men and women. contracted from bladeren. bladder . do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. to vocifer- — Cot. —We Bladder. blegne. blein. linkboys. mud. leafy. Gr. blister.—Blatant. blinken. from candere. blister. to dabble in water. chatter. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. is identical with Flanders borlen. and others engaged in dirty work. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. and the agitation of liquids. blanchet. Dan. Blank "verse. pXaatpiiiiHv. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk.. mus-blackt. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. or a mass of bubbles. roar. blaere. black. Du. I am degraded from a cook. to glow. on. to blow. Torriano. and E. smore. blad. the origin of . blatter.— ^o thehotsun. to omit. to bleak in the sun. imbrunire. . mire. as scullions. pass over. But perhaps a more Gr. . skola and thwatta. to blanch. — rura. chatter. to glitter. blank. rogues and wanderers. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. waschen. Reliqu. Fr. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. Cot. a blanket a bed. also jabber. PI. blasphemare. blactra. Du. boys. blahen. Blade. a bubble. to disappoint. branches . To blank. pluddre. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. speak impiously. name originally given Blackguard. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. a. e. blister. Blanket. blister. Du. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. Blain. Eadmer. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. bladder. to bubble. blatt. blanqne. plat. also white woollen cloth . the leaf of a tree. Dan. &c. and Q. — . From being made of white wooUen for cloth. Wott. Jan. Hist. 1854. blame. bladdra. his meat burnt. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Fr. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. bladeren. or blafich. The radical bubble. board. Perhaps from blegen. blanchet. white. bladre. coat. to To bellow. pallido. Sir. foolish talk. vagabonds. probably ate. in R. bladra.— Kil. — Sw. polished. Blame. flap of a Du. blether. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. 7. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. borrelen. moere. white. plate. with all other loose idle masterless men. the ON. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. —^Webster. whitish. Play in Nares. cited in N. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. a blank ticket. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. a leaf. revile. reproach. also tanned by the sun. smother. to make or become white blanc. broad. Blancli. 5/^a/^ of colour. D. a white or unwritten ticket. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. biastner. Now. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blather. and thence to babble. commonly called the Black-guard. to Hence Ital. G. mud. to shine. Bav. to purl. Fr. Sw. blanc. plat. G. pimple. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. a bubble. to —Blaspheme. defame. The present forms then should be classed with blether. bladder. Fr. slush. tree. tattle. Du. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Du. Sw. bladder. Sc. as Lat. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. pladdern. Dan. leaf. a bladder or pustule. and he shall be sure to have O. on. G. biasimare. leaf of a. candidus. or of an oar G. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. livido . a pustule . See Blubber. to shine. blaeren. blatter. .. and G. or as E. Lat. blegen. as. blather. Bacon in R.

the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. how. to de. the noisy. blose. blis. A strong flame. senses. . bldsse. blase. it is manifest. bleis. coloured prints. Du. an empty and two theories are proposed. used. Kil. i. blass. The AS. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. also praeblczse. Dan. light-coli. brasa. to publish the praises. besides blesse. e. blaeteren. a blast. indeed. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. Gael. Cot. or blazening.). to blow. . proclaim the virtues of. and which. A gust of wind. thraso. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . a lamp blasere. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. magnilo. G. pale. To blast. blatero. Dan. blcEsan. blaser vid. Du. blasonner. to proclaim. redness . an conium. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. clamorous. bliEsan. and. a shining spot. ing of arms. also only pains and excellent endurance. — ^Jam. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. braise. Du. blaodh. a funeral oration . blys. baladron. declaratio. Du. biter. blast. loud . laudes (Kil. a torch. Gudmund. bles. among other . I. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. is used in the sense of manifestatio. magniloquus. has also blencke. of an animal. and to make him word blaze. blesse. ther it was erst not knowe. boasting. If armour. a loud noise. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. ill-speaMng their proper colours . Sc. Blast. OE. to set on fire. blazen. a shout. AS. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind.sound a trumpet. on whose behalf the herald appeared. But now. Fr. quus. to trumpet forth.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. Golden Book in R. The other derivation. Blaze. blaodhrach. Lye. much plausibility. With inversion of the liquid. by stripping off a portion of the bark. a flame. blus. blcese. Du. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. Fr. in that of praise. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. a MS. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Troilus and Cressida.' painted or figured . 'op een trompet blaazen. might spring from the same origin by a . Fr. as a verb. To blow AS. Cot. First from the E. to blow. to publish.— . — ' — stroy.whence the Fr. blesse. friend Cornelius. to blow . blcEsan. each of boaster. blason. beast. fire. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. . G. oured. or to the sound which it produces. a voice Jr. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. abroad. Blatant. might And sain.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. g. commendation blason funebre. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. to bellow. The origin of this exSp. blezo. visui patet. a whisperer. Blanches illuminies. to cut off prematurely. abroad. blcesett. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. is from AS. blasoen. As Kilian. blaesen. ON. brasa. bawling. To Blaze. is the imme.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. splendour. — Elazen. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. AS. a coat of arms. blysa. baladrar. proflare tues. gloriosus. 2. blossi. blcest. blasa. stultd loqui. a torch . to extol. kept up. — — ' : bless.' to fastum . ON. blorach. oron-blasare. whence Blazonry. noisy blor. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. a flame . to blaze Sp. a shield. blase. blason. somewhat different train of thought. also blazon or the blazSpenser. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. blaterare. to spread news. live coal . as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. See Blare. like the in English. Sw. Du. shield or surcoat. Prov. ventosus. the matter incendiary . blaze. a flame. She roade at peace through his heraldry. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. Sw. A blaze is so intimately Then. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. blateroon. embraser. in the same way as we 2.

splamii!. on. to spot. blur before their eyes. start vor den augen. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. bleakness. As AS. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. to humbug. 419. like one that has long P1.' God in his wordes. inflamed eyes. a been distinct. paleness. wan. So in Sw. goda nainn. N. guenchir. a fault. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Bailey. Bleed. to bleat as sheep. or to low as oxen. to bleach. blesmir. G. confound him.filerren. Gr. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. or blemish. Blear-eyed j having sore i.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. flack. boggle at something. ' — — ' : — — . 115. to start away from. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. to wink the eye. what blenched him therwith. to stain one's honour or reputation. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. to blear one's eye. to become livid. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. the livid colour of a bruise. Bleb. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. tacher. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. B. wanness. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. Sw. See Black. souiller. to cry or weep. Ancren Riwle.'he cried till the tears ran down. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. BLENCH obfusco.' the devil makes a vain back. pier vor den augen eyes. bleikr.v. To totally different from the foregoing. Pol. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. ' — — eye. drop of water. is Blench. AS. to disgrace one's name. sugillatio. a stain. . Mac. — — R. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. pale Du. sinen langen tranen. The term blear. Sir J.D. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. a spot. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. Blancher. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. . a disgrace. to wink at it. ^Blencher. Manuel de Pecch&. plama. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. See Black. ' . to cast a mist before the eyes. Blemisli. the formal equivalent of English wink. blench came to be used for a trick. dead-coloured Cotgr. spla7nU sie. tutnan is a cloud. I chaunge colour. blesmissure. blemissemeiit. spSt. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. blister. in the expression reputation. c. Bejaune. bldmi. livor. from on. ' He blarrede or roar. bloken. to blare been weeping. blot. p. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja.' to deceive one. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. avoid looking it in the face. Fr. light-coloured. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. From the OFr. while the agent ac- From . . ^Xiixaoftai. A stain in a man's reputation. To Bleat. as of dust or mist . blakna. which are blurred with the have shewed you. livid. a spot. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. to spot . See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. blink. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. to make him feel blank. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. a spot. exposed. geplerr. . a boil. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. Blear. To salir. a blotch plerr. Palsgr. tumanid. blcecan. (faith or creaunce) Be war. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. pale . 242. A Blab. a blot or smear blanking one. Schmel. And now are these but mansbond (i. or blemysshen — blaken. Bleak. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . to soil. blot. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. Richardson. and thence to a bruise. And By a similar metaphor Pol. darkness of vices. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. — blink the question is to shrink from it. blema. . Gower in R. a red watery eye. See Blood. blarren. from the than schal I go. a blemish in one's 2. color plumbeus bldma. novice. whitish. pimple . a spot.P. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. wheal.

blick. The term then self or others. a glance Swiss blenden. . Du. bludder. tire. OHG. glitter. to dash wine with water. glimpse. to make a rumbling noise. blago.. blessed. make these hands 3. Blazena Bea. G.corn. Kiittner. to consecrate . bluiter. blotzen. to rejoice. to shut the eyes. moment. To Bless.eyed. dazzle . Owl and Nightingale. I hold thee a grote thee. good. . G. pale. blanssen. to churn.blinze. Needle. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. doors. AS. also to wink. joy. plotzen.wink . sweet. bliss look . a nounce happy. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. The inblissful.blunda. From the action of the hand making Sw. Deprived of sight. blitz. blicksem. blaziti. blind. to shine. happy . . blink. the verb to bless is some. happily. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. Sc. lightning. Nares. blende. blac. to shine. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. to pro. be glad flash.Q. to glitter. weaklaveny. wink of sleep . OHG. pockets. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. mix from blekken. giving (Fr. a blessing. as in the case of blaze. blessed. F. with or without the nasal. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. A . to glitter ful .nasal. ' Pl. blich-fiur. plonsen. Du. blendian. as taschen. blide. sung. a glance. Blight. The sound of k before an s. — Goth. lightning sweet blago. Sw. glance. sertion of the nasal. Biglotton. to dabble in water. — when he — Bailey. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. Bliss. to twinkle. . well blagaya. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. burn up. joy . glitter.' To — blunge clay. De Sonne ' verblekken. — . Serv. Sc. to bless. trix. . — A A — . A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted.D. flash of light . a wink. a gleam. tative source of the word is wholly lost. 375. window-blind.not sting thiiren.blinkard . blent. shine. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blidu. to shut the eyes G. seems the simple netel. and joys of Paradise bliden. goods. is I shall Gurt. Du. to stir or puddle. in potters' language. to fall into water with a sudden noise. blahos. or nettle which does form. . the G. blithe. joyful. to lighten. an entry which leads to nothing . blet. to bluiter. blinzdugig. to dazzle . mixing in general. cascultare. to bluiter up with water. lighten. to merry. a look. blatida. Du. blincken. false windows. Paradises blidnissu. livid. To blunder water. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. money. blogi. the Slavonic languages. blahoslaviti to twinkle. wink. to mix. Pol. but by no means therefore a pre. blithe blis. AS. as a blind entry. blinzler. Tany. ON. blind- ON.blinken. AS. Thence apblinds. to shine. G. blinde fenster. to — make it thick and muddy. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blink-eyed. the sign of the cross while blessing one. riches . . as a vatn i vin. G. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . well blahy blick and blink. blazeny. . to make happy.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. a wink With the bletsian. happy . to flash. a flash. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. graceful. gives blinzen. Blink. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. to dilute too much . as in Du. readily passes into a /. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. To Blend. Wtb. . to plunge. to act like a — . blag. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Du. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. . lightning. blend. to glance. Dan. blican. tless —Gamm. . (=bene dicere). III. blinzeln. blindselen. to be blind.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. —Brera. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blissian. riches blajennii blicksem. glad. happy . to het dat Koorn is verblekket. a. gladness. glitter. to rejoice. pearance of the blighted . Swiss (obsolete). a. to bless . bleg. a blick-ooghen. blicken. blindr. csecubrandish. AS. to blithsian. thou knave. although in the in the next article. fortunately. . a dead nettle. joy. blitzen. j). vious one in the order of formation. blund. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. Blind. blicken. lovely Bohem. to glitter . liquid filth to bluther. Russ. Swab. ^Jam.

a blain. in gusts. or bleb. buckle. I believe. inde humiditate tumidus. — Blob. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. kostua. busten. . bleiths. To Bloat. Gael. Bleb. blod. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. boucler. Hence. a bubble. blijde. husks. to desire the male. To Blissom. N. blaud. Fr. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. G. signifying in the first instance to soak. blote. Blond. pausten. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. must be referred to AS. Kil. mild. blotfisk. It may be formed Blithe. —Bailey. Dan. mild. — . bloated. blesme. a block or log en bloc. having an unsound swollen look. mass. G.pusta. blaustem. . swell. blond. sloppy dirt. a .plisg. repre- pusula. blide. To a smoking or drying by the fire. In Fin. ^Jam. blithe.—Bloater. And so from squatter. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. Egillson. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blister. Blob. blobbes or droppes of water. Blob. the unhewn bole of a tree. — — — — — From blabber. or the like. is formed squad. — Sw. soft. to breathe hard. pods. taken altogether. is also used in the sense of swelling . Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. For this. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. a blister. Cotgr. Blister. Du. bloc. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. strawclod. and bouclette. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. it is must be observed. Dan. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. .—Bloated. blidr. a dirty blister. and inarticulately. a lumpish head plubach. to close it with a solid mass. pustula. as a blab of ink. speaking rapidly any . like manner the coloured.— Bailey. pusula. Hence E. to blow. to block up the way. soak in water cured fish. blcesma. to blow. Goth. round. separate portion. blister blasan. The blow E. The stem or trunk of a tree. to to puff and be noisy. a small lump of anything thick. fish blind person. a little blisg. blouca and Fr. bluyster. blot. to soak. See Blot. Boyd in Jam. like clot. soaked. blinzel-maus. to cure by smoke. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. biota. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. viscid. shells. plub. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Of sheep. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. weak. bloc. buclde. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. B. blab. Sc. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. while Lat. joyful. blot. Block. a drop of water. a blot or spot. cooking. as if soaked in water. to swell.— Hal. pimple. blindman's-buff. A solid blouquette blisters. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. and pisg. fiustula. in bulk. Ibid. blubber. must be classed with forms like Gr. ON. A under this name was imported into England. blobber. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. bausen. B. bluster. puff. Fr. expressed by cognate roots. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Bav. Gael. gentle OHG. an unformed mass. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. lagga i blot. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. .. kostia. any lump or mass of things. a bubble. merciful ON. as blinzeln. a bubble. ON. from blcsr. blot. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. Sw. as in E. a blister . Thus we have blab and babble. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. light yellow. a ram. frequentative. Lat. bubble and blubber. orbicular. soft. to steep. in the sense of a soft tint. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. ^vaaa. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Sw. in the lump or mass of wood. in Nares. formed spot. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. to blow. blindsehn. or is inserted or omitted. Mod. and easily changes its place. a See Blot. or the mark which it makes. also to set See Bless. stone. Jonson. blautr. and F. Du. Svt. to blissom. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. W. to bubble. blad. soft. to dash liquid. senting the dashing of water. The roots /. or blinde-kiih. whence blast. Langued.

bloemen. —Barbour. blaeuwe ooghe. Jios. Blood. plants which prepares the seed. Blow. sbiadare. . bletister. a flower. blotter. fall down . soft or flat. to blot the land was in a leme. splashing full. to blaze. platz-regen. E. blue. bloutre. a flower. E. blose. redness. glus. blosma. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. a nature. plottra. Dan. flower. bloi. Russ. E. a Halm a. to be red.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. a beater. to exists in biadetto. a flower. dirty spot on the cheek. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blue . Blotcli. to spot or blot. to slap. lidmr. cow-dung. to shine . blomstr. . Lat. to From . to strike with such these objects exhibit.' the rain is driving and blue . . proto shine with bright colours . Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Sw. to squander. fall to overflowing. a gush of milk . blondheid. bluish. plotterwis. a Schmid. yellow. It should be of filth blak-blatte. in v. Fr. Blossom. blostma. blysa. G. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. great leaf of cabbage. . from the bright colour which 7'vci. j^ blottir. Du. splendour . glossi. spots in the sun. to strike . to strike with something soft or flat. clod. bloeme. See Blow. en blau ach. Schmid. blaeuwen. a. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . Stalder. a cow-dung. to dirty. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. ^lys. livid marks. gloss. kobladde. plattata. pladern. pladdern. blond is used in blatt. — — . Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blue. AS. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. a lump. the bright to blot paper morsels. Hatch. biado (of which the evidence plattern. blust. bliihen. whence plader. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. gleam. ])erly Du. gfyssa. to blush .— . or the sound of it . fair in en blat vand. bloedsd. bldts. S-wiss pladern. blodelsa and blawelsa. 2. Plots. blue. to splash. (of cattle) to dung. bloto. pale. Ein platsch milch. D. Dan. blue. plet. a pelting shower). blotte. to sparkle. bliithe. . yellowish It's G. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Ir. ' — . blond. blus. bit by bit. a Usaae. to patter. a blot or spot. Sw. blond en blaauw slaan. mud. to flame. platsch-voll. on. pale tint. probably connected with Pol. blad. blauwel. parallel form with ON. Pl. wan. blosen. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blistaf.properly to scatter liquid . See Blow. to be red with blot. Du. Florio). . let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. the bright colour of the cheeks . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. shine . bloi. to scribble. E. — gush. brilliancy. kuh-plader. Blot. blooth. bliise. blat. bldmi. blosem. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blosa. Schwenck. a black eye Du. a blaze. as the skin or hair. blatte. glister . E. Erploten. It. platschern. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. light. PI. G. blady. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. to dabble in water . Fris. to blaze . glasi. a torch blusse. bleistern. to dash down Du. Prov. spot pletter i solen. Sw. Sc. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. straw. ^Bleed. platt-voll.^ Kil. blotting-paper. blou. Bloom. — Stalder . Schilter. ON. Harmar in R. ON. Dan. bloed. AS. blawels. blois.D. Du. to glow. — Cot. white blatte. blaeuw. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. to dabble in water. livid . Wflz<^«. The G. blase. ON. to glisten . a drop of water or colour. lump flower.platter. couleur livide. a The form platschefz. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Blad. Fris. of a blow with something lios. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). to dash down. E. to slap. bfys. bloetnsel. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. a water ploutsche. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. a blow. blowen. Sc. Wendish blodo. lustre. to squat or lie close. platz-voll. . dial. a deli. OFr. a spot or blot.blauschlagen. colour of the cheeks. leme. dial. from G. coloured (Diaz. . blut. pale biavo. skam. to grow pale). glose. Du. lump of anything soft to blad. bloi. gammon. — Blotch-paper. bleustern.

bloeden. to fade. It. gUd. E. Bav. to blow. blebber. — To blubber. 51.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. a blast. a fat. ler. glaodh and blaodh. P1. bluod. Pludern. bl. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . glede. OHG. Pl. Jla-re. Deutsch. may cite for example G. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. and thence. To Blow. to Plodern. blubbern. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. like manner Lat. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. 2. red-faced bloted wench. bliithe.nify bubble. . Pl. coup. blubonciti. Notwithstanding the We . where the word may be compared bliggman.. to glow. blezir. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blodelsa. to beat. Kil. Lat. Her sweet bloderit face. To Blow. ^Jam. And. blau. bloemen. tache.to blossom. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. B. bruk. heath. fem. pale . (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. to hard. a herb Gr. /idXavoc. a paddling in wate r. a continued noise of agitated water. bliihen. green. sponds with Sw. to flourish. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON.D. blass. Prov. Langued. chatter. blosen. is very frequent. —SchmelIt. to blow. Bret. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. Wtb. blahen. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. Danneil. fiubbem. a gurgling . Tumbled. plusig. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. dirty. florere. 1292. bludder. glansj Ir. to fade. especially with respect to the hair. to make bubbles in drinking. plustrig. grug. bliihen. to shine with bright From colours. pludern. a blow. to spot. fqded. to puff up. a.D. to blow. E. Gael. blue. bruised Prov. to glow. br. -ii. blava. into flower. The primary sense is to shine. pale. MHG. to flap like loose clothes. G. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. We .' — Palsgr. OHG. . (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair.— . toused. The interchange of an initial gl. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. fied vowel. the red fluid of the body . Gr. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen.xo'»'. ' BLUE or guggling. 92. withered. AS. to bubble up. plodern. to make blue. bloes. boil. 1. gliihen. or gr. The aUied forms. corre. is confined to the — . grey. A. Mund. bluh. blue .' Hamburgh Archives. Du. . blow. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. plubraich. cheeks bedabbled with tears. wan. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. . to breathe bouteiUis. foam. bldt. disordered. bloeyen. Sik upplustem. These are — Bludder. glas. vi^ound. meurtrissure Roquefort. little apparent resemblance. in rapid or indistinct utterance. blodern. to'disorder. sense. and the forms mentioned under Swab. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. — . ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem.D. to blurt out. to beat with a mallet. flower OHG. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. piusen. blust.D. to gabble. G. blaw j biavo. G. gliihen. pale OFr. blao. — — Mundart. Blowze. wan. disordered in head-dress. in E. to guggle. to show flower. gloeyen. closely difference in of blabber. plubair. bloi. a bruise. boasting. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). — To Blubber. y\r)yi»v. . a flower. glas. blois. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. to bruise Roquef. G. — . blau. gloeden. blut. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. bledniai. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blady. blodyn. to exhibit bright colours. Raynouard. and closely allied with Du. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. glowing coal . . It is howbliuwen. bloom. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. to with Bohem. — Bluther. bluther. Blowzy. blazir. jabber. In agitation of water. to gush. Du. Chaucer. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped.Jlasa. blazi. OFr. marking some application from that bladder. Deutsch. to breathe G. pale. plubartaich. w. flower w. |8A)'. glow. Chaucer. blawan. blubbern. blduen. a Blossom. sound like water. to fade. d in Sc. puff. bliuwan. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Blue. grow pale. to inflate. v.

Du. Pl. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. biada. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. to work To blunder out a fronto. and then generally idle talk. to puddle. a shore abruptly rising. tradire to Fr.//aay. in the same way as from It'. Sw. biavo. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. trahir. discoloured {plowiee. Hal. earth and water mixed together. applied to green as well as blue. to blunge clay. - reddish yellow. bloi. pale. Dan. It is remarkable however that the E. jaune. sloppy drink. Bohem. an ill-done job. corn. blanssen. speech. The Du. bluish.make a noise. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. from the brilliant green of the young E. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. — — — . pale yellow. je perturbe. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Lat. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. from the Lat. blue. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. blue. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Hence a Slcelton in R. segetes virentes. Kil. pale) is provincially used in the.. Roquefort. I blonder. Biada. verdoyer. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. and sbiadare. blac. to mix it up with water. to agitation of liquids. Then with the nasal. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. blunt.D. blave is moreover. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. A bluff manner. sense of yeUow. rustic. Palsgr. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. find accordingly It. 't — —Hal.• BLUFF biado. has donder-bus. to become pale or wan. sbiavare. blandum. Kil. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Pm. — . having a bluff forehead. without image or superscription. Hence we pass to Prov. polter-hans. his business with much noise. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. The word is here synonymous with amplus. blond. Pol. Kiittner. to lose colour. as well as sbiadafe. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Bodge. Roquefort. Blunt. Halma. and Du. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. like Du. to blunder water. contrasted with the dle. See Blunt. OFr. flav-us. blunder. Romance bluiter. falb. The Du. blavus. used for the work of an unskilful performer. herauspoltem or sloping shore. and metaphorically. verdure. to dabble Biglotton E. fawn-coloured. all representing the — . G. plomp. bulmanner. From G. or an abrupt manner. Dief. which is rendered by Florio. non rotunda. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. to become pale or livid. Blunderer or blunt worker. something. a flounder.in mud or water. planus. polterer. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. G. flodderen (Weiland).— . Altieri. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. and bustle . a fore. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. G. disturb. blaf. Ditton in R. blunder. to confound. liebefactor. pludder. superficie plani. blunderhead. in water dobbelen. blutter. See Blurt. from an imitation of the sound. And blunders on and staggers every pace. bUich. to plump into the water. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. a plain coin herausplatzeu. to fall suddenly on the ground. and biavo (Diez). biava. like the Celtic glas. dial. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. as well as biado. Bladum. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. blake (identical with AS. mix It. Du. originally growing up turf and water. blue. bawling. . buller-bak. bullern. poltern. Dryden in R. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . . To blunder is then. glundra. bleu et blanc. E. puddle. pale straw-coloured. to become pale. Bluff. in plur. Supp. Blaffart. yellowish red. blahir. to dabble in the mud. It then signifies something done at once. corn. confusion.' trouble. — Pr. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. buller-bas. a blunderbuss. fallow. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. yellow. G. is. mistake. We Blunder. Analogous forms are Du. Flor. herbe. plo-wy. glundr. Blavoyer. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . ploffen. abrupt. devenir vert blavoie. to fade). a boisterous violent man.

heavy. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. G. plumbeus. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. as Sw. absence of preparation. — blunt. blunt. dull. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Halma. to blunt a thing out. sheepish. naked. Pol. The blait body. united in Gael. and. blait. clownish. — — pidus. inaKil. Molof something wet. and an unintelligent. maol. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Q. Now the Swiss bluntsch. azure. Sw. — Kil. plotsen. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. homo stolidus. Won by degrees. naked. plump. as cow-dung. bleak. bare or blunt. and in the same sense. A modification of the same root. blunder. plump. that the sense of bare. raw. exactly corresponding to the G. blout. insensible. viz. to bring it suddenly out. like a thing thrown down with a noise. Plump mit etwas umgehen. —D. awkward. ineffectual reason. unfledged Sw. seems to be derived. plotz. identical with E. poor Sc. is The word dull. without horns. used in both senses. rude. blunsch. Ford in R. pale. blunt. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. edgeless. viz. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. plump J to plump out with it. it will be observed.to fall into the water. a simpleton. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Chaucer. blockish. It will be seen that the G. V. It is from this notion of suddenness. Dan. without Maolaich. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. massive. biotto. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. figuratively. blait. unwrought. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson.— — — . through which a man is so blont. It. Plump. obtusus. clumsy. down. blatte. rudely. the absence of sharpness. Blunt. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. a bluntie. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. from the loud report a fire-arm. —D. without preparation. stupid fellow. Sc. Swab. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. The syllables blot. to blurt. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. Sir T. and hath swiche languor in his soul. heavy. Probably radically hlekit. Sc. blotta sanningen. without the nasal. V. G. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. unceremonious manner. in Richardson. Dan. inactive Swiss bluntschi. Plontp. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. forestis. Stalder. to plump into the water. plump.pludse. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. awkwardly. bus. blunt. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. blue. blutten. rough. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. bare. bare. obtusus. V. dial. fooUsh. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Bare and blunt. Bluntet. a blot. or heraus plumpen. thick. naked. a portion To inquire for slaves. naked. good plump person. bluntschen. to handle a thing bluntly. hebes. Woddis. and the like. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. F. nis. bald. unpolished. . blott. ang. silly. Kiittner. of a knife which not cut. duU.plompen. Blaitie-bum. blat. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. to plump down. fling down . platzen. pointless. blunt. bloss. biosso. it will be well to point out a sense. to make foliage. nature. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. wan. plump. void. platz-regen. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. mit etwas heraus-platzen. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. a thick and will person. Du. is thrown. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. that it not easy to discover the connection. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. with or without the nasal. . but of something soft thrown on the ground. as in E. plains The large bech. More in Richardson. dull. A light blue colour. pressions. plutz T)\i. Then cometh indevotion. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. to make a noise of such a Stalder. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. heavy.—D. Kiittner. plonsen.

bar. eafor. cluster. to bark. Lat. boot. bluter. eber. a tassel. flat. w. . E. e. a smear. Blush. i. 'Ba.D. be a crack or loud sound. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. — — . will fly up. hot. to brag grande loqui. Wtb. Slur. geplerr. to rumble. a baU of thread the mud. a short thick body. To move quickly up and down. properly noisy. to roar. boa. bakke bleustern. — ' Dief. baban. dull. to jabber. boord. whence bob. bhis. to make a noise with the mouth. Pull the bobbin. blast. rude. an edge. It. Pl. a small lump. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. to make a noise in boiling. violent G. cheeks glow. to say bluntly. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. dial. bdd. gabble Sw. pustern. G. See Blossom. The to radical meaning D. — To Bob. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. Fl. beacon fire. stellio. and boisterous. to disfigure with E. To Blurt. a board or plank. botte. fringe. violent. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. both used in the sense of boasting. Du. to snuff. bustuous. pausten.— . this root are formed Sc. bludder. border. bit. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. a Jam. it implies that it is empty sound. — From mouth. The elision of the d is very to chatter. the sound of a blow poffen. Dan. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. blunt. G. . table. blotch and botch. Comp. 29. to puff. burra. blaffen and baffen. blot. bobbin. Du. imitated by has also In like . To tinct. c. cocodrUlus. blader. bord. board. to dangle. Halma.plerr. a flurt with one's fingers. to blurt out. bot. a mist before the eyes plerren. Gael. Supp. to bounce. a torch blusse. table. a blotch. margin. and swimmeth very well. Sverris Saga.the syllable bot. then applied to indistinct vision . an end or stump. blirt of greeting. stupid. puddle. as in Du. an ear of corn. bladdra. bord. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. AS. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Boost is used for the boast. voce intonare. pof. Kil. V. baiag. berd. Gael. bdta. pfludern. plump. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. a border. &c. and the latch . coarse. a. Board. primarily signify loud noise. mire. blodern. A large snake. ever-swin.—Bobbin. ON. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. to endeavour to terrify. to dirty. beer. blusse i ansigtet. to spurt out. ground. G. common. blur. on. To brag and to crack. pludern. To splirt. Du. Boa. E. margin. planks raised up outside the roofs. bleuster. bludder. aper. to glow . brett. literally edge-wood. is formed Du. a dangling object. Swiss blodern. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. large. De Boat. and E. bliise. to blore. AS. blaere. margin. lacerta. or backwards and forwards.' — Red Riding-hood. to render indisbhir. and when applied to vaunting language. It. . to breke. a club foot . ader. Boa. or bog also thread.plodem. puffen. to guggle. To blow in puffs. See Boisterous. rude. Du. sudden. pluddre. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. skin. to give a crack. to dabble. whence bordvidr. As the as. of the word seems . blaustem. a bladder . Fl. bdtr. to be out of temper. bord. edge. boistous. bobine. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. edge. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. splurt and spirt. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. AS. lindwurm. chicchere. a burst of tears. Hal.y. batello. 274. blasen and See Burr. as splurt to splutter. Wright's ed. or blurt with one's mouth. blubber.pusten. to puff. Schmeller. a tassel. planks or boards. the Brem. Wallace. bluther. . Fr. Explained by Jam. blarra. dial. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. to threaten. Bav. to blush. to talk quick and indistinctly . Sc. bur. to blow. boccheggiare. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Sc. 1. — — — * Boast. a blow . to smear. and Du. blaste?i. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. to blubber. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. a grows to a great bigness. a blot. blosken. my dear. . gabble. Bot zeggen. strong. short pieces of any filthy mud. bot-voet. BOB 79 — To Blur. — a blaze. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. blose. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Hal. 9396. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. blot. BLUR Boar. blurra. Du. Fr.v. borrar. a mistiness. to crying. bora. swagger. crack made by bursting open. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. to sound like water boiling. to puff. It. Du. to blaze. to blur. Du. to chatter. 156. P. bausen. outward edge. bateau. Related to blutter. to make mouths. OE. Bluster. acre.

' Bogglie. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. arise E. wavering. bottig. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. bolr. gogach. Russ. rounded. 3. bodi. to deliver a message. And waves. BOGGLE trunk and G. nodding. stuttering. quakmg. bodi. whence paUchen. With With this we charged again We bodged again. Schmel. busti. unsteady. baboyer. . The signification of the root bot. Ir. to dabble or paddle. then from the yielding.. bogle. Miracle-plays. belly. bog. bole. The Sp. by the syllable patsch. a messenger . a cask. to roll. to waver. dies. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. the body. bayonet . Ptg. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. butt. bodian. bog (equivalent to E. to stammer. e. To Bode. Thy i. W.rabodi. Bog. mud. See To Botch. toss. We . bodhag. a cask. — H. So BOB To Bob. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. badyti. bogadaich. Ptg. to scruple. is identical with Fr. the boss of a buckler. quagmire). It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. needle. AS. Banff. Gael. moist mire. Bodkin. stumpy. Gl. a puddle. to push with the horns. daubed or dabbled with blood. In like manner E. agitate. Bret. a quagsoft. to thrust. woman's stays. to commit a blunder. the thick part of anything. — Grandg. potahha. precept. an announcement. bodig. thrust with something pointed. move. bogach. to smack. a command. gog. To make bad work. bodetz. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. bod. nave of a wheel. shaking . the trunk of the animal body. palleg. meaning the round part of his body. waving. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. a spur. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. to bob. a . French bouter. ON. corset from corps. from fitting close to the body. a body. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. To mock. or bag. exhibit another modification of the root.gmh:t. message boda. as in stammering or staggering. potacha. bottich are derivatives. corpses pot. bodies. stitch. — 2. a dagger. speak of the barrel of a horse. to prick. bob. Body. moving backwards and forwards. anything protuberant. the body of a shift gaguejar. a ghost . barriga. — as well as the body of an animal. gog in gog-mire. as signifying anything spherical or round.hollow. body of a shirt bol. To portend good or bad. bodene. gagoula. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. where bogs form Gael. boftich. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. and the word is well explained by Bailey. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Supp. Shakespear has badged with blood. shake. corset. to fail. to blurt a thing out. to blabber with the lips faire la babou.' A — Sherwood's Diet. an awl. boll. whence Fr. calf of the leg. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller.a (i\ia. bodak. Now unskilful action is conmire. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. as a horn. gagei. to stick. fickle . stutter gogmire. to be unsteady tich. to butt. a bog or morass. See Baber-lipped. . 43. . Gael. potig. bo tich. Crist. to bodge. the stem of a tree . . gago. .! . her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . to start start and back as from a bugbear. so large a feature in the country. bot. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. Lap. * To Boggle. barrique. a round body both. Reliq Antiq. goggle. Commonly explained as if from Sc. to make. VI. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. a prick. '£. bayonet. Lith. bodat. anything soft. a prickle. cask bottich. ^Jam. to be uncertain what to do. bodnu. Cot. Bohem. pall. AS. or a pair of bodies. Gael. swelling. . To Bodge. bothog. See Bid. . potacha. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bodilo. . to make a mow at. biodag. to stir. to fail. expression hogglin an bogglin. bogadh. the belly. biodeachan. gebod. . strike with the horns. round. bogan. Wall. unsteady. bod.\\i\c\iset. bagges. unsteady nature of a soft substance. corpset. patsche. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. It introduced from Ireland. body and G. formerly bodies. gag. and E. bog. or stem of a tree. is a lump. point. a sting . of which the E. Bodice.

pimple ON. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. properly represent belly. proud. Properly noisy. bold. chatter. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. may be identified with It. gerade signifies straight to the mark. scruple. ON. E. OHG. Gael. boll. a cushion. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. free. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. bald. ^Boistous.. baud. * Bolster. A. as baltha. a bakazikni. Bret. Me doth awate. bolc'h. used. bulla. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. bag or bog are derived Piedm. to the belly as the or dislike. bola. to hesitate from doubt. Chaucer.' Mrs Baker. boggle. This iv. boil .Du. bol. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. a fastening for a door. Test. stramenta. furfures. bSlstr. 304). b^gayer. to stammer. capitellum. . In the same way Sc. buller. courageous. Fr. To Boil. balder. haughty. . to puff. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bold. a head . Du. the lir. the gurgling sound of water rush. tar. from Du. capiing into a cavity. G. to stumble. pall. strong. to boil. bulla. and then applied to other husks. globular bod)'. caput scapulse. tomentum. Daring. insolent baude. biiilen.— D. tartajear. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. It. bul. to swell. * Boisterous. huge. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. repagulum. a quaking mire. bout is explained by Kil. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. hollow. roydeur. in speaking. bout. bok. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Fr. Lat. tulum. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bolzen. brave. cows the people from speaking. the. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . bullire. Magy. 45. bulr. by which it is moved to and fro. bagaji. Wall.rounded part of the body. Sc. bold. hakogni.palleg. noise. G. dint in a metal vessel. bola. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. the body of a man or of ter. bolster. a swelling in ice. bolle. V. beule. bollen (Kil. bolla. swelling. buile. bochken (titubare. stud. boss. to stagger. as. boutpijl. Mund. a bubble. fiausten. hero. warlike. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. strong. E. (of Mons) b^guer. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Kit. w. poppy (Bailey). thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. stameln vel bochken. puile. swelling. as. he will speak out. Love. strong. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. . prince. bul. Du. rough. but that Bolt. stutSw. excellent. Fr. a bubble. wag. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. is probably a modification of boll. Boll. bealder. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. to waver or hesitate. Lap. quick. . as those of nuts. glass phial. bol. Chaucer seems Dan. and manace for to de. perpendicular. shake. cheerful. or the like. Sw. merry. bolster. flax-boU. in the sense of handsome . bolleken. confident. up of bubbles. Swab. to tattle. coarse. round the first instance to the materials with . bog. bula. ^Vocab. to be at a loss a shirt. a bump. ohg. G. Boystous. bolr. OG. bal. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. See Bulk. Pr. The bob. also a blister. intrepid. from the branches. ON. Lat. boystousnesse. polc'h. see Boast. Stalder. bald. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. bhster. folliculus grani. balldr. a bubble. obex. — — which the cushion is stuffed. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A .— — . bouil. gluma. 374. as E. Goth. boly. puilen. a boil or swelling Du. pusten. ON. notes. blow. tartle. styffe or rude . Westerwald bollern. whence bulla. ballr. ON. treated under Bowl. bald. bolzBold.w. Du. G. — ' — tagliare. sels of flax. the body . to be prominent. bolt upright.D. courageous. Sp. — 6 . Kil. The term applies in — — impressed . impetuosity. then violent. Bustuous. bolstar. Pm.). pillow. belc'hj. chaff of corn siliqua. Du. Cot. to give a hoUow sound. Bole. 1430 in Deutsch. the husk of nuts. i. To Bolter. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). which are not used for a similar purpose. Boil. trunk of a tree . The round stem of a tree. bolt. pustule. Da. bol. to stammer. tartalear. bog.

Brem. and the Thus from So. — — — . Wtb. bolt head is a retort. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. : ' — — . as above explained. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. a bolter Prov. The ment and the operation. 2. from G. .thump or blow. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. / is transposed in Fr. fied bot. croler. or ill. ler. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. On this account Mid. and to crash. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. hammer. a millpoltzet augen. buUire. kloteren. bluter. . bolzen. je bulte. the wheels groaned. we have Du. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. . Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot.D.Lat. projecting eyes pul. staff which sounds tar. representing a rat. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. a clod. crod. beliitea. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. in S'W plotter. beluter. we der Brocket). uneven. OFr. to come rattling downstairs. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. P1. buideln. Bav. OFr. a rattle. hulter de bulter. poltern. Hence.protuberance. small heap. Dan. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. uneven. or a racer from the course. tling or crashing noise. budeln daz mele . holier poller. Supp. on the one hand. also to curdle.noise {brattle of thunner. knob. mole-hill. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. bolt. poll. G. Du. swelling. blotttre. cro. to make a knocking. to bolter. then to knock. barutare. to bolt meal barutel. hammer. OFr. a small portion. bulla. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. bolzauget) Sp. a crashing or racketing noise. .D.by forms like G. bulk or quantity . pultare.D. the sense of right on end. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . bullern. bulk. hulch. In the next place. baruta. bolting to that of form. bultig. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. cruddle.clack.agitation of the meal in the bolter. Hence Palsgr. burclct. tantara. So also we pass from Lat. bolzaugen. Pl. Bulte-pook or bulstar. by the representation of a racketing sound. to knock. Sanders. tar. buletare. Prov. to start with palpitate. ' Holler poller / bulter. bolt-foot. crash. as snow balling on a horse's foot. as a rabbit from its baritel. Sw. curdle. Schiitze. Here the radical image is the violent O. to form lumps. to bolt meal barutel.nature of the operation. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. pattern. . zen. poltern.— . . or the like. gebolder. a sod (Schiitze). ' — — ! ! : — . zare.through a cloth of loose texture. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. rugged.u. a clap of thunnences. to start out. to E. boss. It. racket gepolter. Pm. a bolter or implement for bolting. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to become lumpy.. a . a bunch.as the essential element signifying the talum. barutela. . grasbulten. a clod cloth. MHG. vessel with narrow opening. to bolt flour burato. a rattling carriage. clump. Pr. barutela. one after the other. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. to clack. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. . jolting. Lat. to spring forth E. btilt.. to talk pulzen. Dauphiny a sudden movement. as of a trumpet. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. with E. crotlar. Pl. bultred. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. Du. tuft. buretter{CQ\.) E. I boulte meale in a boulter.i5a//^«. bortelen. Mid. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. buletel. abolter. sestuare.D. The ulti. protuberance. bulstrig. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. bulio. loud and fast. taratarrum. to coagulate. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. tumultuari. we pass to Du. taratantarum. a round glass ending — bultig. a clump of turf. to shake. Champagne burtcau. Fr. we see that the one consists of a words. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. ex•wagen. lumpy. brattle.).fe/2?. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. And as the agitation of cream in . taraabout. to agitate. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface.On the same principle. hole. have Lat. Lang. agitari (Kil. to significance of the term was overlooked.). as Fr. projections. pull. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. hump. die treppe pressed. rugged. a club-foot.

a stock. bon. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. to resound. a churn for butter. The material called by this name. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. It. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. to ring bells. burato. bureau. to cast to and fro. bunden. bombice. bonfras. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. &c. sye. bombarda. e. Fr. crook-shanked bondew. . Dan. been. a string. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. silk. tiffany.bast. Fr. as Banbury. tree. coarse. bulter from It. In legal language. to shake. bombasine. It. As cotton was used for padding clothes. and called in Mid.D. . produced the Pl. bond. basin. achsel bein. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bindan. sijde. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bonog. bombicina. It. G. bolting-cloth. . buidelen. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. bommen. Dan. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. gunpowder. — Bombard.) . bauniwolle. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. whence bomme. band. bombasin. to shake (as to shake the head. the leg. Fl. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. to thump W. From builen. bombase. and also the leg. bambagino. a baker. band pi. the shank the shoulder-bone. stump. Banstead. band. Schm. beuteln. banitola (Fl. bwmbwr. a bone in general. — bombast came guage. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. OE. to bind G. also thick-shanked. E. boulenger. to bolt meal. Du. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. — AS. and Du. barate. Castrais barato. gossipium. baum-bast. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. from teu. the Fr. PoUitriduare. buidelen. Kil. Bonfire. and in fact we find the and Du. i. bein. bongam. Gascoi^e in R. bombe. . a thundering noise bomre. bombdra. biire. silk-worm. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. a stem or base. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. In E. borel. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. Bomb. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. stuff. bone of the . baun. Near 6 * . 155. bombast. to shake down fruit from a tree. assuming the of leg : special signification W. Bone. sije. 83 Gr. the silk-worm. HoUybandin R. ODu. . a word of which we have traces in several English names. Butterglas. from boom. again. buttel trueb (of liquids). G. rimbombare. It. a ligature. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Du. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. to which the leg. an implement of binding. butteln. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. raw silk. a drum bombammen.Su?. Moreover. bambagioj whence It. or trunk word in W. . beil'n. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. beuteln. bras. bande. to boult meal. to beat a drum. brust-bein. iuttern. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. sericum arboreum.^Altieri. a hollow sound. bambacium. and that from Fr. is supported by the analogy of G. however. q. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. as in . cotton stuff. bommer. thick-legged. breast-bone. thick from shaking. and Mod. . d. we speak of a gun to resound.Lat. a boulter of meal. to thunder. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. When ture. tie. bureau. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bopin. a beacon. booming over the water. Need you any ink and bonibase. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. ^o/j. G. bomba. Mid. has repeatedly varied. a —Bombasine. butteln.). tie. lana lignea. agreement. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . bonds. It. derivation. ties. Bibelesworth in Nat. and Bond. bwmbwry mar. Du. the contracted form of Du. — having a stem or stalk. Antiq. term is appropriated in G. cotton. must be explained Fr. builen. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. the murmuring of the sea. thick. It. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad.

pig-sty. the first consonant of the alphabet. gaby. whence ban-ffagl. a letter Russ.n. botta. where a cross (or a gun. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. from Du. desire. babau. feu de behourdis. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. boo. dial. the cultivator. master of the house. E. OSlav. are formed Fr. bonnet. bauer. lofty. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. bene. bossen. bose. AS. by itself for head-dress. letter. a vessel for holding liquids. Du. Du. chaff. boutig. a bag of skin or leather. the mouth. 232. boer. stabulum. bobo ! interj. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Thus from the syllable ba. Fr. bos. till. the scriptures bokareis. — — . betere thing werse. and fig. babb^o. bd. Kil. remnants of hay or straw. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. . inhabit. AS. boandi. Pm. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. in w. To Boot. signifying beech. quest. to cultivate. From bo. Boon. as the Brecknockshire Banns. to prepare. build. boutig. Mrs Baker. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. . a head-dress. reparation. The i. to dress. clown. dress. till. Bun. botte. — . Goth. hu?idbusa. bua. in Phil.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Hufwud-bonad. Pr. See Bomb. Swab. a tree. to aid. boom. Hal. a silly fellow. boia. The latter is the original AS. build. gawney. Boor. bolt. prayer. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. to yawn. head-dress wai^g. bauen. to ask. Boot of bale. ass. a dry stalk. without ad- . 13. bAkva. as a lying-place for cattle. foolish. however. from beida (E. and Gael. is Du. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. * Boose. although in the OG. to gape. beam. See Bown. ON. buch-stab. — Bailey. a stall. A stall for cattle. busu. but stall. the alphabet. literally cow-house. a good turn or re- meaning. pero. help. Wall. a. and thence Rouchi baia. Thin ben Luke i. a hollow skin. Fr. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. baier. bonaid. — e. Fr. bote. a. bommen. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . ON. . A favour. petition.. bas. inhabit. ON. The character of folly is i860. to litter bosu. succour Bailey. beiSne. often cut for burning and lighting fires. tapestry. from gape. bosig. p. pole. comes bondi. a scribe G. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Binau Brychyniog. set in order. Sp. one who dwells nigh. been. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. from badare. bonad. \ais-band. . . gaping hoyden — Cot. writing bokos. Perhaps. Gl. also called Brecknock Beacons. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. swinbusa. the possessor of the farm. Basa. Prov. bonad. b'ukvdry. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. remedy of evil. Boot. high. Bonnefyre. Gael. Bootless. ganian. boten-shoen. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. netis stall. wall hangings. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. at everything. G. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. short boots. bosih. the stubble of beans. Kil. bdn. Boom. prayer. bua. fool. boa. wondering signifies not only straw. bid). generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. bds. buandi. a lying-place for dogs or swine. badaud. E. bota. ON. to set in order. — To boot.^ —P. bobo. . Bonnet. Hal. booby. Fr. Mrs Baker explains bun. Trans. . by arbitours sholde bote the P. nachbar. dolt. Ox. which one gaping and staring about. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. G. Book. tall. w. dial. In nautical language. boubi^. . to gape. a lofty blaze. Du. babin. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. a bonfire. Schm. dog-kennel. blockhead. litter. Booby. dress. a letter . b&ber. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. It is commonly explained as identical with It. simpleton. The origin of the word is probably the W. bowwen. Busk. and Ban in w. the name of the letter b. relief from sorrow. But bosg.Boos. A peasant. . N. Palsgr. biikui. tigh. G. house. Jr. botte. ty Gael.—Bootless. ben. . See Butt. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. OW. petition. of wonder On the same principle Sp. gehyred. and from AS. to cultivate. countryman. b^er. Build. or Vanns. — From the participle present. It. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. boubair. a simpleton. to strew with straw.

a wave. limbus. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. a shed. repair. exchange or divide. a borer . Pol. bothan. cottage. to bore. and meta- Fr. mat-bod. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . to importune. It is admitted that Fr. to boot. Lat. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. abode. bauda. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. . both. of an edge that will not bite. the . gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. forare. bdt. cellar. and hence to fine. Border. hut. bata. pi. p. Another derivation from Fin. The as G. furd. Bohem. G. struere ignem. • — To Bore. to pierce. a booth or shed. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. margin. a hut or tent. N. aid. to expiate boeten den dorst. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. purra. in Ihre.. furni. boeten het vier. &c. bohren. bardure. a bladder. boeye. a bothy. purro. a borer. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. The Fin. bauen. bite. to profit. a hut. rof. borracha. bothag. Fin. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. The ON. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. puras. lappalare. bolino. a sharp-pointed tooth. to mend. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. hem or gard of a garment. scsdes-bod. batr. differs only in termination. as afford a satisfactory explanation. boete. a granary . butin is explained by Flor. yfirbdt. amendment. on. fire. Gael. boards. Palsgr. sculpo 05\xiik. sharp. puru. budowai. comminuted by either kind of action. It. or the gradual working a hole in anything. reparation. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. remedy. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. purra. a responding forms .—Burin. barn. piercer.. Du. urboro. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. to patch. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. Gael.por. make . recovery bata. ora. ON. from deila and skipta. nor E. baara. cure Sw. In the Fin. fimbria. . cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. to hut. cup- awl. bower. bdra. biorag. to bite. chewed food for infants. and parrets. Mag. But probably the E. Magy. chisel. to . welt.. Kil. a. See Bower. wine-skin.par. scalpo. butin. to profit Goth. terebro. tent. borino. pu purro (saha =: saw . which are probably from the same root. 3. bora. uzboro. terebra sculptoria purastoa. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. dust. Fin. from borra. And so in ON. drillen. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). to divide.— Return from Parnassus I inR. dens mordens vel caninus. sawroot. limbus. BOOTH vantage. puras. beute. bord. . burin. . a leather bag or bottle for wine. — ON. . bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. are derived from G. a word. swell bara. Bete. an engraver's chisel. a borer. OSw. Fr. AS. kvit-bara. and thence to eat build. a chisel. to stick unto as a bur. to build. Booty. to bite. botjan. are parret. ON. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. a great bur. betan fyr. to quench one's thirst . making good again . boede. a shop budowati. byte points to the verb byta. to swell. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Sp. and E. to bete the properly to mend the fire. See Burgeon. bottino. It. Booth. lappolone. edge. to surge. in Lap. Burke in R. to anything Neither G. Fin. or anything pointed. Esthon. Gael. to build buda. Esthon. Fr. a shop. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. To Bore. See To We speak in E. Du. Fl. . a border. wave. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. bordi. a cupboard. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. to The Sw. budka. Alexand. to foam. to repair. . ON. BoracMo. 266. . to to . borracha. amendment boeten. from bord. a shelter of branches. baete. is purin. bud. A phorically a drunkard. puru. to restore. OHG. a tusk. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. . admovere titiones. Compare Manx birrag. 1. The cor. extremitas Bore. better. pointed.

bundle. less. boss sound. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. — — — A — . loan. by which of or belonging to plants. Bos a surety. undyed wool of brown sheep. a surety. to knock or strike.ribs and the side. to save. Bosh. &c. borh. V. primarily signifying coarse sound . It. bosse. blow on a hollow object. striking. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. which now signifies a knob. (1867). Cot. baurgs. empty.' if thou give money on loan. as if from the verb to hold. borgo. Jam. rude. rustic. a bouncing baby . boss or knob of a buckler . poor. knock and a knob . connected. bom. bos. a blow. Goth. empty. tive idea seems to bring under cover. vain. bosh. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. bump is used in lump or piece. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Altieri. to pick or cull plants. coarse cloth made of the Du. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. bail biirgen. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. bergen. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. a citizen.bucklers. empty. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. AS. bussa coarse. to give a hollow bizo. without. boss. bourg. is probably radically Boss. to strike so as to Bureau. plain rude fellow. or perhaps it may be See Bury. unpolished. bosseu. a giving rise to It.vr\. a citizen. and borough in the sense of a town. is used in the sense of bussare. Swiss Rom. The origin seems to be the Goth. from AS. a bunch or hump. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. or because a blow berga. huschen. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. cormpted. bossen. in instead of without. hollow bucklers. busse. head. one who sticks to you like a bore. botse. gesylle. . Fr. Hence borhes ealdor. Borrow. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. or perhaps also To Borrow. Du. to take in. borei. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. from their grey clothing. gum vocant. boussi. burh. of bail throughout the country. ^o^^flj. /3oraMK6f. Boreal. the N. So Du. bierge. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. to keep. agrees with E. to conceal. ON. bttssel. E. destitute.mass. an eminence. It. Hence knot. cnag signifies both a clergy. borg. D. a pushing or striking out. in the body struck. nonsense. I. a boor. to save Sw. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. clownish. pegou. pego.any round sweUing. ' — — . the must have arisen burgensis. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. hollow. borealis. Hal. to protect. and thus could not shake off the old burr. a wen. . brown cloth. cnoc. And that unsittynge is to here degre. beorgan.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. to contain. a herb. grey). byrig. borgese. bourgeois. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Bailey. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. G. basse. 106. — ' wind burya. In like manner It. projection. whether from the fact preserve G. bos. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. See found in Bav. while Gael. butse. burel. Fr. butsen. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Fr. northern. (Bridel). knob. cob. Newbury. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. a little blow. boss. when that system was forgotten.' or system of bail. Gr. Bunch. bussi. the ordinary a swelling. storm. to strike . surety. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. borel. The other. the sun sets. useCanterbury. bump. The primi. .' Vegetius in Diez. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. AS. borg. .' the chief of the ' borh. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. pitch. tempest. or head-borough. poor. Du. the Sc. whence the burg. the North Wind. was origin of the term is the OFr. ^ma. Turk. bunch. knocking. boss of the side. f graauw.' every man be under bail. botch. botsen. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w.. AS. a boss. Borough. Russ. cnap. the hollow between the Borsholder. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . Botany. to save. as we speak of a thumping potato. a tower. boschen. a knob. a city . to give bail or answer for an. to protect. Sc. Lang. into borsholder. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Borowholder. viipyoc. beorgan. botch. borough or chief constable. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. plant. Lat. a. i. ' pledge. knur. that which biirge. tuft. Jam. borough-holder. burgess. secure.

— . a patch patschen. bile. A horses. a wisp. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. botsen.' to the fiery Csedm. . boitean. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a cesspool pass. to rage. Dan. a tinker schuhbiisser. buazen. biissen. whence the name ol pool to podge. N. Butu. ON. Prov. bun. turmoil. a slop. noise. It. bots. signify a in OE. a knock. a slop. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. bozza. fire-bote. noise. stroke. they two. buddl. to froth as beer . OSax. patch. bossu. a botcher of shoes. however. as a push or windgaU. as Fr. in the sense of mend the fire. . Canut. G. a root. putra. potra. I. boiteag. to from the root bot. See Butt. bdsser. and ajSvamg. abbution. botel foenn. ledge It. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. a depth. stem or base. beggtaj Goth. thing soft batsch. we have Swiss batscken. Bochu. pozzo. a cess. Here the radical image seems a bubble. to simmer. It. botm. — Dief. blow.^Dec. of botta. &c. bluster.) . bot. a pit. Kil. ambo. any round ball or bowl to play withal. bottigUa. a humpback. Lith. the first rough draught 2. AS. butwo. to make better. a bundle of straw or hay. burgi vel pontis refectionem. butse. Jtidu. bide. a cobbler. especially in Gael. bulderen. * To Bother. . a waterfall. Fr. A bottom depth. Parmesan poccia. a vessel for holding liquids. mess. Again. botte. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. round lump. bunch. bethia. . bottom. podge. abyss. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. To Botch. disturbance to . Lat.— Hal. to botch or patch. dim. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. pozzanghera. the other hand. buddeln. to dash about . botel. a bump or swelling. See To Bodge. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. boil. ixorapudder. boss. . Botcli. to bcBta. mess. Leg. bundle. Podge. schuhbosser. to smack. Fl. stock. — — belly-worm. bund. — — . botte. corresponding to . a bottle. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a pock. Gael.D. Hal.— . to strike . buts. fundus. dial. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. kessel-biisser. mutter. nets. AS. Du. to dip in liquid (to Gael. It. bozza. oba. gipuozan. we two. to put on a patch. hurly-burly.— Swift in R. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. Fyre to botme. boiteal. — . ubhau. to knock. Fr. gling piece of work. a bubble. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. to fall : with a sound batsch. botn. to mend (kettles. to mend. to podge. empty or hollow. baiothsj Sanscr. a bunch. H^cart. E. a boil or swelling Halma. the lowest part. ON. And so we speak of an eruption. by met. blain. . btitse. Bottle. any plain round viol glass bozzo. whisper. a lump of somebatschen. On the other hand. bulder. butsen. ' G. both. i. Pl. boden . Wedu. — Fl. the bud of a flower . Fl. abbi-diwij Slavon. poltern. — — A 2. stock. to we have OHG. bativa. a pit. bdt. a bott .foundation. scuohbuzere. bouteille. a. botus. Stalder. botte. abbu. bodem. &c. 212. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. Bouds. Ancren Riwle. Boa two. for a bud. dabble). or plague sore . Gael. tumour. boccia. what pushes outwards. was called a push. you two. abbi. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. Mudu. blister.of a ball of thread. knock. To confuse with noise. Diez. to stir and mix together . repara- — — See To Bete. to stir and mix together. bosser. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. The Gr. Du. — duj Lett. On — Du. the science or knowledge of plants. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. and E. an abyss or bottoniless pit. from the dashing of water. mend. See Bound. Hal. From the dim. Danneil. to make a make a noise. ^kvBoQ. disturbance. Decorde. a cask. stump. batschen. j3i/9os. e. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. boute. botch. ON. a bottle. buideal. ing out. an imperfect and bunbutt end. botse. BOTCH understood). maggots in barley. is also a bubble. — Jidwi. bAdtr. w. Lith. bSn. a plague-boil Kil. is boteau. . pimple. gen. • Bott. pocciar. — Bottom. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a maggot. See Boss. botola. G. Judwi. Both. ba. House-bote. pother. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. AS. to work without order or know. to give a sounding blow. puddle. shoes. Bouteille. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss.ments of the same root. a bottle of hay. Bret. Bailey. contusion .

round. A Langued. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. a large stone rounded by the action of water. Boulderstone. See Bunch. — Take care my house be handsome. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. bunda. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Probably from the Celtic root bon. jungen. to spring. buUersten. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. .— Boundary.' B.' round and round in similar circles. ni motz brugir. bouton. Bodinare. — — Bight. bun. bounbounejha. mcn-bomi. Bonny. Nor a centinel whistle. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. bonndn. signifying in nautical coil of rope. bone. as a bout of fair or foul weather. a boundary stone (men stone).tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. to make a loud noise. boriie. dial. bay. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. Bough. a bud. the larger kind of pebbles. bamsen. jump. So It. bumper. The W. to knock. boujtce. bog. Bowlder. to bow. the verb bondir in OFr. iv. p. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . and Prov. a boss. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. . and F. Du. from AS. bons. Alpine Re- — gions. pimple Richards bothog. Dan. bunsen. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to thundering big one hum. baby. — — leap. signifies a sliort thick mass. Coxcomb. Bout. a blister. bonzen. till The dat et bunsede. — No i ausiratz parlar. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. thumping. bottom.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Wtb. Bound. See To Bolt. Fr. to turn. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. bullra. a blow. a bound. to thunder. the smaller ones. I assure you. debodinare.— Cot. see Boss. bondir. tnndo. And the new stools set out. volta. Webster. nor horn sound. — strike. To Bound. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. an occasion. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. like bobbin. Bret. 2. boh.— F. 136. carpet. gulf. to fix limits. came home with his face all to-bounced. to set bounds. knock it sounds again. bodina. march. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. turn. a button. from volgere. Ni gacha cor bondir. . 3.— — — - 88 BOUGH .. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. strapping. to set out by metes and bounds.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. whence buj7isen. language a * Boulder.D. Mid. botwm. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . by Bujns or Buns. nave of a wheel bothel. boundina. Brem. From Sw. ni frestelar. E. a turn or time. Bough-pot. the bay of Benin. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Fr. bolder. The branch of a tree. Halma. suorum recognoverunt agrorum." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to hum. bonna. Pr. Sw. bend.'— Charter of K. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. has hot. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. to spring. its kind. butina. as that of E. mere. To Boult. a stock. geration. Fr. in contrast to klappersten. Bought. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. Q. a round body both. AS. in the absence of actual e. To Bounce. pothel. a large pebble. from bugan. contusi. Raynouard. boss of a buckler.>a bout. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. The Bight of Benin. Pm. bugan. root (see Bottom). to resound. an de dor bunsen. dial. to knock at the door. the hollow of a bay. Ducange. winding. Primarily to strike. bugt. he fell so that it sounded. a bouncing apple. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Bunche. limit. or Bow-pot. ing. as a nosegay. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. bend. frequently used in the same sense with bound. of thread.

purlBav. like quaff. gurgling. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. must be referred to the same root. cheat. i. a pot. limit. the ting of a bell. a go to. pausen. staff. a. address. firm. hence musical accompaniment. bugna. spelling the word iox bound. a cup kroesen. set out. sense durd. also the humming or ON. lance. to mutter. a jibe. a drone of a bagpipe. taunt. puff out. It is the participle past buinn. bogna. — — — A pare. bend Sw. to swell. Cot. ruption of bonne. flagon. Prov. bourd. ing. from spring. has also buirleadh. to tope. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. bourdon. Burgeon. good. kroes. Immediately from Fr. Goth. Dan. bontS.bass of a stringed instrument. Bounty. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Cot. Gael. a humming noise. whether by sound or gesticulation. borne. souf. brausen. bunaiteach. belly out. the fixed. is. biegen. . bue. bdgi. to — Hal. Sp. drink deep. bending of a joint knie-bug. Eown. of the ON. Gael. verb bua. as was for. Fr. a from Du. joke. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. when we speak of. steady. Gael. Fr. buigen. bugne. Dan. g. It is remarkable that we find vary. bonitas. bommen. buzz. pared. buys. on the whole. Sw. burreti. . hous^ Man in the Moon. shoulder-blade. bound. Du. Fr. bage. G. a humming noise Macleod. w. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bourde in the same sense. springbiirn. buizen. way ba7n. bogr. bogen. Bourdon. bow to shoot with. Swiss bausen. game. a — — . Gael. Borden. that ON. bog. Du. — — . Burden. analogous to Fr. a drone or dor-bee. to bow. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. burlare. Du. pusta. drunken. drone of a bagpipe. are applied to the bow of a ship. tinton. bausen. G. bov. biugan. to tipple. G. to bow or incline the . — probably through this latter signification. cudgel. mockery. potio. bogha. Comp. and not in the sense of curvature in general. warbling. As the Gael. sport. a jibe Shaw bururus. epaule du vaisseau. repartee. Sc. burd. beogan. fun of one . buga. addressed to. head Fr. ^<7r«i?. sausen. burdan. the burden of a song. purra. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. btiga. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. A —Cot. bovne. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. or of an Gael. an arch. deceit. to take one in. Chaucer in R. beygja. to bulge. bagna. Du. fresh* water. ready. burt. . language of folly or ridicule. burn. Lat. a for New York. sotich. bordon. Bret. brunna. G. patesten. bog. bordo. . to drink deep. Bourdon. The foregoing derivation seems. curvature. Dan. a sing-song. spring. Bound. on. Bow. pot. the big end of a club. a bow. in Fr. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. to our bous. to take deep draughts. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . a. bugna. . bug. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. . a ship bound pilgrim's staff. AS. their time -With "wailful tunes. to hum as a bee. bwa. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. buzzing of bees. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. a corToward the garden. a mill-post. trick. bend. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. to draw a deep breath. the shoulder of the vessel. to drink deep. Sw. Dan. bonus. grumble Sw. bordone. to take breath. brummen. bourdon.. Spenser in R. The meaning of bound. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. identical with E. buyse. and that probably from a Celtic root. So Sc. schulter-bug. bugan. to draw a deep breath. a brook. the Bourdon. crutch. to pre2. Gael. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. . burdan. It is bov. And there in mourning spend Sw. prepared for. to banter or laugh at. bending. When used alone it . whence buysen. to indulge in his cups . A water. to tope W. it is probable that the It. Sw. explaining Sw. ridicule buirte.which see. schenkelbug. bending. a well. different modification gives ON. Bourd. to trick. It.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. saufen. to hum. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. a prop. pre. ready to pike or spear . jest.

bulla in aqua. .). w. . bolgna. pocket. pullo. a ball. a thing of liquid. bug. bog. bubble. bent. The word may probably be identical with Fris. A . bwr.a. OFr. crooked. bugy. a bundle. without the and grits. Sanscr. as in E. Bret. bock. a protuberance. Cable. a bubble bolli. ken. See Crab. a separate apartment . a pot. bouellou. belly of a cask. Thus we have Esthon. kupukka. to stoop. budello. round glass phial. make obeisance. Bret. Du. PLD. hollow place Fr. the box-tree It. Fr. to make crooked . a box. beuz. bulka. boudin. ne. ON. a bowl. a polla. puffy. koziel. botulus. the bogna. is applied to a coach-box. bocka.) to incline oneself . the box-tree. and to a coachbox in particular. pusspan. compared with Fr. boucle. . spherical Dan. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. intrenchment. peated in Magy. hollow wooden case. Boll. . utibur. the head. blister. bowl . bol. . bossola.). Du. stream forth bugyogni. to guggle. AS. the crop of a bird. Lat.. tumour. beutel. bulge. to puff up pullakka. biiske. sausage. painter's easel. box in both senses. . biichse. convexity. Fr. buxus. a bud. See MHO. . a iDubble. to raise the back boll OHG. bur. bogla. bulla. a parlour. a hen-coop . Sw. and on swollen. hill. to bow buck. G. spring as water bugya. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. buga. . in both senses. bulk compared with Sw. a box. a boil. to bubble up. fyn. kupu. swoUei) Lat. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. mausbollelein. bubble. globular. ^o«/«. bhuj. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a round glass or bolg. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. an inclosure. Fr. ku^o. AS.\s. a bubble. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. head of a cabbage. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. Bohem. buis. . W. . to buckle G. as in AS. bugyni. similar shape. Bower. . purse. bugyani. the barrel of a gun. gut. . tumour . Bav. bolne. a wardrobe . biicken. the box-tree and articles made of it G. buckel. . a box. A Bulk. give in to. busse. bulb of an onion bolleyield. wisp of straw . honse-bur. acsian. anything globular. ON. bending. a box. iri'iaQ. water pulli. W. a. bow. Hence. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. . . or in e. crown of a hat. a sleeping-room . globe or spherical body. kuppelo. Hal. to stoop biickling. bulne. belly. bola. boel.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. . box. inclinare se (Kil. folliculus . . ^o/a. to puff up. boor. swell. a buck. of a wooden ball to play with and — . to bend down. . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. ask. boss. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. at the e. bowel Box.cup Du. trestle. with inversion of the round. a box Lat. . a knot. buello. buigen. From the other form are G. bouge. busskai. bukke. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. . lump . bolla. . a croft by a house. kupula. G. a ball . Sp. the head. a ball. Gr. a bubble Fin. to bulge. knob From the former modification we have bolla.. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects.D. &c. then by the loss of the /. In like manner the Pol. cumena-bur. Sw. to bend. ON. boil. bollen. a bubble. as well as the name of a. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. hollow. bulcken. round bead. or. fata-bur. passing on stud. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. ttuJic. bwra. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. OE. bugyola. an outhouse AS. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bur. to yield to one. bol. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bog. Dan. Bowl. It is more probably from the G. a hump on the back rossbollen. bolle. budel. Buckle. a wine-can . polla. buckelig gehen. buk. a black pudding. to swell. a drop of pullistaa. E. buchsbaum. Du. bow. boss. Dan. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. . globular body. bolla. heafod bolla. The / a bow. biisse. a stud. convex. Pol. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. See Boil. boxtree. bhugna. a sack. bosso. boxtree pusska. . a swelling or rising up.flask It. signified by forms like Gael. belly. bucka. hiidel. bowels. . bouzellou. the skull or brainpan . different position in ODu. prominence. (in pass . bugna. zich onder jemand under to him. a chamber swefnbur. Sw. in walking appears in a . * Bowels. guestchamber . a little box . dial.

Sp. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers..puddle. defect.. brague. a braceOFr.D. to stutter. compressing. Boy. brack. Pm. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. brabbelen. parallel with OK. to fall. Rouchi Then as an adj. Swab. dirty. merely in our mode of considering them. bresta.. Kil. thwack. . by an overflow of sea water. damaged board a ship. land batsken. baukscheht. spaniel. boussole. root). rakki. murmur. s. defect Du. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . rakka. brec. To fight with the fists. In like manner the It. bracke. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Heligoneed. and string of his bow. suppuration. ing from a mixture of salt. ratch. acidus. Lat. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. — . pupus. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. unmarried man . let. See Brake. Prov. or bracer Cot. to give a blow with the fists. moral or physical. brostia. to want. brasselet. brek. Fr. brae. breach. boiste. bracon. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Gael. dog Sw. Prov. clay. race. braquet. brechen ihm. loud smack. bracil. braca. a bubbling dura del mun. . to box the ears. salo sive aqua marinS. the arm. &c. Lett. as noticed under Box. a box. salsus. Ptg. briche. It. boy bouba. breuque. wristband. I sal slyng. . bue. Brak-goed. his eyes are failing him). 91 the Dan. braco. Du. ON. Fr. Thus brack. baske. It is B. priated to the original sense. bask. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. Bracelet. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. V. Kil. foul. buah. braic. a sounding blow. in R. a boy pupa. Sp. . to give a sounding blow defect. by the same inversion of J and k. dog that hunts by scent. Sp. Prov. and F. Bracket. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. brek. quarrel Bohem. brago. youth. AS. brae. odorinsecus. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. Prov. Brack. to is derived brestr. A — — . filth . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. flap. a grown youth Cimbr. . want. bragos. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. Fr.. or defect.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. want. strike. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. braque. matter. See Broker. breptati. MHG. isolated part of the text. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. jabber. wrack. a comworld Rayn. Brackish." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. to smack the hand batschen. — — . bouibo. The different meanings of the brageux. to burst. brakke grund. to Swiss batschen. break. To Brabble. brageuses. OFr. Brach. to be wanting. ghebreck. bitch Du. beagle. brace on and Du. Cot. lalear-eyed Prov. G. It.with a noise. G. . Pr. dog in general. rack. variation of babble. s. flaw. BOX To Box. A to halt between two derivations.— D. brae. fault. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. flaw. a girl. To brace is to draw together. the first instancebya physical tie. an languages. to slap. braecke. want. bracco. . bruxula. disturb. La ville ou y avait Brace. fuse. bube. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brack. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. brakke Bracelet. pus. taneous talking. — . corruptse. braco. — . A bracket is properly a scenting dog. Fr. It. breach. Kil. wnzC/J. ' — A — — — . armour for the arm. mud. boy. a bog or pass Fr. is a rope holding G. bracket. . need. OE. bou^ba. and then Pl. rakke. then from break. bray. Swiss Rom. cramp-iron holding things together . brassard. to give a gebrechen. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. babble. OFr. — . confining. Du. bracer. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . mud. A brace probis. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. refuse. Water rendered boubo. On the same principle from the buksteht. a crack. land spoilt Kil. from a root brak. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Swiss bub. mud. pube. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. — . whelp as.nated by dirt. a pair of braces. a guard to torf. brae. posh. defect. Pl. .D. to stammer. which sigof straining. to crack. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. ON. brechen. bracha. fault . Hdcart. Brack. in R. con. One girl.

braga.hy which this idea is con\eyed. used in the sense of force. BRAG Piedm. brabhdair. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. vain glory. gay. Chaucer. Wallachian bratsou. torture . But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. to boast of his own worth. Cot. to make a noise. bragging of his own valour. in the sense of the Lat.aburst. Brag was then used brisk. crash. crack. se donner trop de licence. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . w. Brake. bravacherie. gallant. idle talk. bravado j Fr. &c. fine. brave. Fr. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. boast. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . braga. finery. or from braie itself. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . dhbrailler. Fr. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. also tion of this was brayeul. . Bret. brag. to swagger. the opposite of which. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. vanter une chose. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Hecart. spot. se parer de beaux habits. bragio. brazo. Langued. to Rouchi brMer. Bret. braszketi. Thus we are brought to the OE. AS. splendid. braguer. flaunting. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. blusterer. power. bushy . to flaunt. about the hawk's fundament. bra!. and that from e. The plant y^r«. swaggerer. Rom. To Braid. and it is very likely that the root brak. expensive. . It. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. as the type of exertion and strength. 2. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . braske. boasting. bragaireachd. would be to brace. bragd. slight modificajoining the two legs. brag. stately. braegenj Du. braske. braga. brabhdadh. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk.^Vocab. an iron for holding Zalli. empty pride. 92 Cot.i5nz^. brag or jet it braguard. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. From Fr. valiant The head are sumptuous. de Vaud.. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. brachittm.. bravo. hectoring. Brail. to sprout malt.^ Sp. fine.%. Brake. brave. cry. proud. noisy ostentation. beautiful. Lat. ative fellow. be noisy . to crack. Lith. braicli. an inclosure for cattle . be found. breach. also insolenter se gerere . bullying. ^Brave. — Chaucer. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. . to boast or brag. bragging. From sprouted corn. Cot. —Spenser in R. breghen. braggard also valiant.breeches. Haldorsen Gael. drawers. stout. Bray. braka. Walloon bress. brae. h-avare and Fr. handsome. From brayel. brave. brave. It is certain that the word for arm is. flaunt in fine clothes . The meanings of brake are very numerous. brave. breyne. to unbrace or let down the breeches. Brain. braies. subigere. fine. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. To Brag. braka. in numerous dialects. gay. Primarily to crack. breghe. fine. Faire le brave. . to brail up a sail. . well-dressed. braw. Hence E. — From W. gorgeous. gallant (in apparel) also proud. make a noise .explosion. brayete. . i. binding anything together. riches. a carriage for breaking in horses . . showy bravery. to cord a bale of tie up. Thus Bret. Fris. — A — . vaunting.—— . also derived Fr. or by gaudy dress and show. bravache. — Equivalent forms are Gael. courageous. brav. the feathers ON. braver. crash ON. brails. was formed brayele. called by our braggard. To Brail. Turk bazu are used in both senses. to stand upon terms. A — Hal. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. The meanings included under — Bragget. to rattle. gayly dressed. se pavaner. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. to strut. See Bray. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. excellent. brake in the sense of constraining. is Cot. that will carry no coals. a noisy talkboasting. See Brace. affront. subduing. Sc. — . brao. swagger. brake is. the arm. breagh. compressing. in order to prevent its catching the wind. a roisterer. Cot. goods. confining. bully . Dan. Dan. to shout. strength. smart. Sp. . is identical with Gael.Shepherd's Cal.

brake. Voc.— . bredza. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . — — . broeck. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. Gael. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. to row. copse-wood. bruch. referred brake. a marsh. been confounded with the verb break. pasture. brolium. a stream. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. as in Du. or A A ' . a swampy Mid. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. to brush. ing of flax or hemp. to bray in a mortar. farinam in mortario subigere. to head must be bit. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. tris). brage. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). We — . as well as in the case of the e. ^raca. Prov. to stiffen against Taboada). to break.bracan. el arco. brook. riguus. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. gebroge. to bend a bow. to pound. Lat. to break or fracture. Dan. cetur. broil. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. brcekke. cover G. a harrow. Corrfeze bredgea. break flax PLD. broillet. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. brega. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. In the case of the ne. —Bracken. brego. iSpsx". gebroge. a horse's a horse's twitch. dial. In ON. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. In like manner Lat. Swiss Rom. 3. broken fratta. e. de Vaud. braka. broyer. in usus braca. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to exert force in different ways. any thicket of brakes. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. frangere linum. break of such a kind. braquer un canon. Gr. breaking in the operation. might come to signify a swamp. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. tnurdma. to harrow (Lat. P&. to rub. brak is a frame in which strip. nemus. the lever by which the string was drawn up. a thicket. a spinning-wheel. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. Fr. flachs brechen. and G. braeken. where from Esthon. bregille. as in the case of horse-breaking. marsh or swamp. to The ON. braken. and Lat. broilium. gilum. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brogille. briser. It may be sus- . thing is brought under control. t° moisten. a fen. Brake. to distinct. Pl. or overthrow of trees by the wind. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. murrokko. — Fl. to fracture. bregar brake. bregar. brage. gebrUche. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. Fr. brambles. to knead or mix up in a mortar. G. brog. Fr. braca. properly braking or subduing them. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. to break. brambles. signifying to sweep. thicket. or a wood in a marshy place . broor bushy place Hal. braecken het vlasch. murtaa. It. subigere. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. glebas subigere. bush. Sp. bush. word. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. marsh. is braukti.. bushes. quarry from Fin. To the same bend a bow. 2. It. Brake. brushwood. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. brog or brake. Biglotton. Dan. game. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. The Fr.D. brake. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation.' It. gebrUche. casser le \va. and when once thrown down. gebroge. low wet land bruch. to bend or direct a cannon. fratto. conSo in G. the original meaning of G. brook. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. a brace on board a ship. to subdue. in northern climates. . it is not surprising that the word has here. briers. gebiisch. In the sense of a thicket. brook. watered. as in Sp. have thus Du. Dan. is formed murd. brog above mentioned. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. OFr.D. BRAKE to external force. for — Due. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. breuil. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. murran. —Ovid.

So Swiss gaggi. brugek.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. heath. briars. bren. That beareth the red hepe.G. w. and thence a shoot. and E. from Servian pnit. a bud. young buisson fort epais. also pfriemkraut. burning brennen. See Brush. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brog. ground full of briers. a shoot. the bull-finch. ordure . The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brenda. brandmurk. titio. piece of anything. thorns and Gen. bramble Du. in the sense oi fern. hallier. E. brug). pfropf. wood composed of twigs. a heath. braam. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. a single plant of heath. or with It. bruk. the thorn apple or stramonium. It. heath. bruch. brug. broussaille. . The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. breun. 1 8. brand. As ON. Then by comparison with claws or arms. Dan. to brank. young twig {brom-beisser. to -brugen. brom. as AS. from virga. a shoot or twig. Brank. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . the twigs of a besom from brenneti. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brenn. apiece orbitbrandone. . as. But we find It. brin (as It brano). Rouchi bren d'orMe. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. brank. G. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. braeme. Bret. sprouts. —Ducange. berneux. may be so called in analogy with Bret. . brandello. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. sawdust. stink . broccoli. brandr. bran. or other plants of a like nature. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Bret. . Pl. broem. brosst. a halter. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. . nasty. in the same sense. Russ. gebroge. a vine twig Bav. brass. pfriem in the sense of an awl. Thus in Lat. Piedm. &c. constrain. bruskoad. brushwood. a firebrand. what is cast out as worthless. Bret. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. a bud It. brandiiialil. also a marshy low ground or fen . brouskoad. Thus we have w. bronbo. from gaggi. brein. G. Gael. brughera. prufye. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. . In like hrst. . bretnel." The bmno a • on . heath (Bret. brancas. gebriiche.). is the draff or excrement of the com. bruk. brok.D. from brug. excrement. brin. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. broom. a roA. Pl. brank. — branca. restrain. Gael. bren. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. thicket of brambles Cot. heath ON. Fr. a bridle or bit . brambles. bit by bit. Grisons bruch. brake. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. chaff. brejo. brang. virgultum.D. pected that brake. . Bran. A mark made by burning. It. bracken or fern . brenn hesken. &c. Bav. brwnt. pfriemen. bro7n. bran. brem. broembel-CBppel. and waste growths. it glitters — — . a shrub from Bret. Fr. from Lat. a dunghill. to or iron. brano. Serv. ear-wax mud. the branch of a tree. clutch. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. w. bushes. Brand. Fr. brenna. 2. Thornas and bremelas. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. bruk. a shrub . compress. i. Bramble. Branch. that is to say. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. — . a burning fragment of wood. cack. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. a briery plot. Bret.. Sir Topaz. from brand. brarn. sweet broom. Fr. branchia. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. bruch. It will be found that shrubs. breanan. . The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. AS. heath. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . branco. broom. brin d. to gripe. dirt . iii. a small deri\'ation . Port. snotty . broust. a rod or twig. to bridle. cabbage sprouts Fl. piecemeal brindelles. or ling. breme j Sw. G. Brancare. The same form becomes in It. sedge burkni. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. a bud. Broom. brous. G. The naof strain. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. to burn. branche. a thick bush. heath. bromboli. Diez.

incendium. Fr. bryne. brandiller. to French brawl or brangle. noise. is bntan. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. Fr. bra?ier. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. bracea. The corresponding form in Gael. to brustle. plained by Florio. so. to brandle or The It. to make sense of a bright red dye. braise. brandigh. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. — . hot Fr. to quarrel. Brase. crackle. to burn. to rustle. branler. prasseln. perplex. du Roi et laine. firewood. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. E. crackle. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. to Bailey. urens. AS. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to braze or lute. Gris. bresil. braise. totter. To brase AS. billet.. Bret. bragia. from used in dyeing cloths. Diez. a stick. Chron. N. glowing embers . bruan. branler. was in use Fr. and branchis shaiand D. brasa. bum. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. to blaze. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. So. fire-wood. To brand. conbillet. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . ish. E. a To Brandish. e. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. hoisting to the fall. a brusler. Bailey.pan of coals. as Jamieson explains it. weinbrenner. brastlian. Formerly brandy-wine. and bruir. firebrand. put. Sw. apparently very distinct from each other. from to vociferate. make an outcry. to shake. — . live coals. n. to shake The word brisil. a pan of hot coals. 59. Thus the bound up again. bragale\ wood. brascct. to totter. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. Brangle. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. and scold. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. brasca. In the same way the set on fire . brazil. morsel. to make shine with shaking. comes from thence. De Goes. to solder iron. as again by well as the blade of a sword. to make display . It. faire fracas. to dash. or in stick. It. spirit distilled from wine. Manx bransey. brandolare is exbrandish. brustle. brandende wijn. distilled wine. gebrannter wein. braza. brangle or brawl in E. brasca. Ija. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. embraser. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. in Marsh. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. — ting to confusion. brin. stake. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. brush. Kil. Lye. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. to brangle. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. to murmur. brand. brasa. bracia. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. bruire. G. to and fro in the hand. make a — . brouir. to brandle. then brandr. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. brasil. bransella. to bicker 2nd. ist. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. d'Angl. the colour than hitherto known. flagrans. to shake. to glisten or flash. The tre brangillis. Chron. V. set on fire. brazeiro. brus^. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. brandiller. Fl. braise or hot coals. splinter. to shog. to sound of the Fr. to roar. With top trimbling. Brasil. brane-wood. Milan. brausen. bruciare. Braser. a roaring fire. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. bransle. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. all. — . and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. forms brasil. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. to burn. WaUon. to crackle . braser. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. G. The name Brandy. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. shake. Fr. branla. brennen. Hume in brand in ON. Sw. Fr. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. eldibrandr. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. given to the country. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. Du. Fr. to burn. Guill.well. It. briiler. aqua ardens. bruzi. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to distil . a round dance. Jam. to hurl with great force. a fragment.^Brandle. Port. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. before the discovery of America in the brandir. as Fr. not. to confuse. became ashes Pied. the spelling to kindle.

breteque.walle — Pr.— Diez. boutures. muscular parts of the body. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Circumeunt cibertesca. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. as lattice. braede. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. a mantle. berd. Pm. a — A from the confused noise. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bretesche. cloth. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. Brave. roar. a lump of flesh. See Brandish. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. The muscular part of the body. ^Altieri. braon. brass. Bailey. a rag. a lump of flesh. KiL Prov. to tear piecemeal. a rag . It. a loud noise. lat'te. as criailler of crier. Jam. buttock Sc. Brawn. Florio. bradon. ' A vraale. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Brat. OHG. brdto (ace.— Braid. brat. braiio. to shake. the buttocks. slibro. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. solder. borderinge. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. esbraotier.96 Roquefort. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form).D. &c. cob. Hist. P1. Du. a clout. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. especially that used in the working of iron . a cloak. — Deutsch. trul.propugnaculum. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. whether contracted from brabble. braoilich. or on the top of a wall. So also See Brag. bartisan. pan- — Rayn. ni autres choses sur Due. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. rag. Swiss bradle. OFr. bratdn). brandillo. Fr. pil. coassatio. from Sc. equivalent to the Du. The same correspondence is seen between It. brettys. Fr. bradlete. breyon de kinds of . bribe de viande. Math. bartising. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. bronze. A dispute or squabble. deblaterare. the calf of the leg. as rashers upon quick burning coals. contignatio. A.D. le repasser un peu sur la braise. to cry. bralle. Brangle. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. ship. Paris. a slabbering-bib. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. discord. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. to braze. at brasa. Pisana in Mur. ON. a lump. squall. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. bas morceau de viande brawhng. a wooden tower. A land of dance. from branler. in the first instance of boards. bronzacchiare. bran. calf of the leg. to copper. bred. a lath. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. a fortification. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a patch of cloth. a. to carbonado. Kil. — . . to solder. brat. 1224. bras. strepitus 2. The verb is probably derived from the brase. slut. a parapet. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. as a brawling brook. bransle. Wall. tasce. Gael. bratid calf of the leg.— Remade. braion. 1156. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. brett. bretays). Mundart. I. It. burning coals. braser Fargent. is The word — uous name for a woman. W. a contempt- banner. See Bray. braodhlach. ferruminare. branle. Brattice. slibro {neita. or whether it be from Fr. to scold . brat. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Fr. Cologne broden. bretesque. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Lorraine bravon. Brawl.' BRASS BRAY et AS. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. brazen. —^Bronze. Cot. slakker-bortchen. fraiche. breyon. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. boarding being sbranare. Many gambes. to Gael.brettysing. frequentative of braire. It . 2. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.^ — Sverris Saga. a Lap. brailler.D. bratach. Fris. Brass. baltresca. frame of laths. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. A. any piece. and bronzo. bratidone. a rag . G. from Fr. to talk at bralle op. AS. Dan. saillies. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. calf of the leg. Sup. Westphal. brces. apron. luncheon.' Hal. a contemptuous name for a young child. 368. Sp. bronzare. neita girl). OFr. Cot. Betrax of a —^Jam. a battle-girdle. noise. as scrawl from scrabble. Certainly a little girl. flesh of a leg of pork.— Fl. then a parapet. bruir. bmhon for brado7i. breyon d'chaur. Sc. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . —-Jam. braeye. Bartizan. a plank or board.

Cot. — koa. Chaucer. broyer. bray. Fr. brot. And with a traid I tumyt me about. Chaucer. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. . e. to braid the hair. braea. in Jam. bragd — ON. to tear Bret. the clash of ai-ms Dan. bruire. to scold. . baiyl. at once. soft . — . to rub Fr. to break. brechen. to pretend. Then.fracas. a . a wink. to resemble. gestus.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. bratsche. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. braidir. braa. breche. ^p&xia. Bret. F. — — — explained motus loud noise. roar. 2. fractus j Gr. ser. ing. Q. weave The ON. riAprjyvvfu. W. augnabragd. fragor. The ON. rattle. the miller's dog. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no.ch. upbraid. braid. to crash. Prov. OE. to resemble. G. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. . brage. a crash. regi. brand. I'll live and die a maid. to bray like an ass. to the seijauntes. brice. bruzir. The Lat. To rub or grind down Sp.' To Bray. paste or dough. rangere. to roar or bellow. brame.. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. breuan. and fracasously. Bread. &c. instantane. father. a brack. will. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. the sword was out break.^ Fr. and frangere. brugier. Then is simply. at a braid. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Prov. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. as the voice of the ass. a rag f . Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. and make a hideous noise. Ppvxia. mos. at braga eftir euium. R. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. V. From the or brack in a wall. broad. to snatch. crackle . imitate or resemble one. to resemble him.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. To Break. to braid. Beryn. fish. Wal. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. crash. a brake for hemp or flax.y. turn. or wound. Dunbar braessem. noise . The same He might don us both a villany. a breach Cot. is often connected with swiftness of moBream.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. i. to N. Du. twist. to braid acquires the sense of bend. make a disturbance. to work up in a mortar. to start. 7 . yell. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. starts crackling up. cyprinus latus. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to The cup was uncoverid. V. bragr. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. braidar. father. And at a braid he gun it bende. to braid. or cry out loudly . To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. bregda. paxog. E. the sound — of arms. explaining a very obscure application of the E. appearance Hal. &c. braa. See Brake. with or without a final d. a mill. verb to break. V. &c. to cry Port. to knead. iU-favouredly — in Jam. D. AS. to roar as the sea. ON. to break Fr. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. Bread. rogi. yell. to roar. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. a rent. kind. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to rush. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. G. &c. to crash. Fr. roar. bru. Gr. to bellow. k. D. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. 145. Goth. disturbance. Swiss bratschig. Lat. crash. Fin. rustle. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to bray in a mortar. brikan. to cry out. vapna-brak. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. R. which has given much trouble to commentators. to cry out. to t. D.g. is . to smack or the eye. braire. to break. to sound very loud and very harshly. bregar. resound . ON. brak. Cat. on. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to have the lineaments of one's ON. plait. relation is seen between Lat. breach. and to signify the fracture itself. crepo and E. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. bregar. as OE. brak.ear rog. ybrayid. as the notion of turning crack. bradar. to rumble. abraid. to break. bragd is also applied nets. Breach. Bailey. to bawl.

braguier. breost. singing bone. sheep's droppings bruss. Bret. but more probably the E. Sw. bris. brodel. brire. their stings draw . also to chill and shiver with cold. braga. bandage or truss for a rupture. Piedm. de Vaud. brcekur j It. Swiss brdtsch. bryi^ga. Dtyden. breinse. brcEth. Gl. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. G. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. a gadfly. Du. brew. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. griller. point to G. brumtnen. or the blow itself. Bracha. G. AS. briiz./ssus. as. brasiuiii. to smack.98 borst. QNtsterviald) pritschen. Russ. bra. polenta. xyligogio castigare. brinisa. AS. bruzun. brezza. murmur. bridsen. britze. breme. are related to Prov. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. bris de charbon. bre- I'os qui bresole. To Brew. G^nev. brosame. Hence the Lat. break. are in like manner ' . Bret. simmering. i5r(Z^. — . to brew. the breech or buttocks. a twitch for a horse. braich. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. burst. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. of straining. braca. to resound. . braga. forms analogous to E. brisoler. to be misty and cold. braies. bruc.). brok. a girdle. broden. brodem. Dan. The Teutonic verbs. Fr. Swiss AS. to crush to break. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. einem de britze geven. G. to shiver for cold. to bray. bris. to breech. fitzen. the bust. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Bruise. Du. broil. drawers. Prov. as commonly explained. chilly. crush. as in the case of twitter. brison. brisciare. murmur—Vocab. in Schilter. noise. brusc. simmer. to buzz. coaldust. switch. Originally probably the word signified steam. zare. with It. and E. a smack. Swiss Rom. the soler. Rom. brasser. met de bridse slaan. Breeze. brugga. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. rubbish. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to rattle (as hail). The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. representing the sound of a blow. E. G. as by the Sc. Prov. bremse. brijsen. to burst. braie.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. from ligare. Breeze. to crackle. Hume in Jam. instead of being derived from 'La. — . G. Lat. a crum Du. bark Fr. to brew. braca. Biglotton. clout for a child. breeze. an into shiver. brisd. bruzir. as. The Breech (Prov. braciarc. siibligar. little bits of wood Berri briser. broza. a box. fail. a cool wind. briig. windy withal. — Halma. grill. de bridse geveii. rubbish. peitschen. . as the G. cloven. brimme. Brize.britschen. Du. then to broil. brezzare. Isidore and Tatian. fastening . trembling. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . may be from the wurh fesser. corresponding to G. a horse's twitch. brasiare. Gl. briosat'. vapour. a to lay fly-flap. grillen. brimsa. brut. an odour. to roast. from AS. to whip. morsel. and brought beneath between the legs. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. briste. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Goth. briosa. E. trusts. — See Broth. body brostia. Breeches. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. . the dry spines of furze broken off. properly to crackle. b}-as. subligaculum. braucn. braux. See Brick. bragues. bruise. a cramp-iron for holding things together. brciz. Lat. applied to shivering. Briss and buttons. brijselen. remains of leaves. Piedm. bretilles. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. . to murmur. bratscher. a crum. OFr. orts. braies. /esses. w. Dev. Gael. —Briss. malt. breath. to bind. brissle. dial. bresilles. Du. brist. brustia. We bragezj on. to hum. Fr. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest.t. brise. malt. PI. — And blood. broiiwen. scent. .'— Gl. to feize or feaze. briosa. It. chillness or shivering. So ON. brache. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. Compare OE. forms. to fry Then from a Gl. braia J OFr. Breath. &c. binding. — — strument for smacking. sprouted corn. to fry . A fierce loud buzzing breeze. brdtschen. Breast. breson. of E.vare. Fr. brossi!. and other rubbish dibris. Gael.D. from brace. of trees. so AS. one on the breech so that (klatschet). a cold and windy mist or frost . to simmer. Fris. Breeze. brezling. to break. bracecs . . grillare. — Brist.

troop. crew.pritil . a lump of bread. bara briw. Neumann. Rouchi brife. w. thick appropriated.groom. bride. especially to a letter or command. ment of anything broken. AS. . appropriate. AS. a bride. to beg one's bread. Fl. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. Trovarfor bride-ale. the equivalent of to the dial. brigantine. bro is applied not only to a bridge. is still used in this sense. to meet together. brygga. a boiling. married. briicke. imprint. a little king's writs. a beggar. bro. two-masted vessel.bergantino. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. Ihre. briiths. Cot. or brizo. pavement brolegge. to pave. Bribe. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Hdcart. to boil. to rub. bryd-gutna. AS. G^n^v.rough with brambles and bushes. bread. to appropriate. a married man or woman Lat. berwi. pavement Lith. has briguer. Brigade. bribe de pain. which however is undoubtedly from brace. fit. Gl. malt. OHG. Due. brigata. buckler J ON. The origin of the word is the w. betonica. In the patois of briccia..Fr. jetty. — — — — — — . sugga. brutg. Mid. Sp. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . a briole. a Bride. in the sense of OSw. A bribe is A — — arval. from Bridegroom. a rogue. bricou. broken. a heath brughera. brakes of high-grown ferns. to break. feast. . a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. E. Goth. It. Bridal. Gael. but to a paved road. from the Normans. W. . bruarium. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. one's ovin. Brick. birbone. bidsel. a cheat. . to boil. grug. a bit. from the last 99 of which. buskins. A — A — . If the foregoing were not so clear. fraoch. . guma. broken victuals. brukkas. Ducange. graf-ol. with transposition of the r. See Broth. funeral. a brig or priodor. bygga. bruith. It. to stamp. bricge j G. and berweddu. broken bread. consort with. Brier. bretonica. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. pier. and that from It. AS. . Dan. from Bret. — . bruk. brigade. of burial. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. barren land priodas. from bit. Bridge. a fragment. In E. fragment. httle bit. to pave brukkti. . the Fr. Fr. a crum.It. Hence OE. but probably Bricoteau. Fr. brau. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. E. a quoit of stone. bitill. the marriage si in brigata. to press in. brilt. In the G. Pro(merch=:maid). Grisons bruch. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. division of an army. to break to pieces bricalio. brere. to Isrew. sponsa. brocaly. gf2o. frayer. to tlie brico. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. jipaaaiii. priod. twopares Lat. priod-ferch. company. it is applied to the letter to OE. a fragment. Lang. brar. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. AS. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. breve or brevis. bryd-eale. a married man guma. whence berw. betony brulicame. — . brughiera. birbante. malt. the newly. bably contracted from brigantine. ' — . bride. daughheath. Flor. pavement. So It. Du. brasser. bribour. son. a bush. owned also propriate. heath.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. bruskr and buskr. The Sw. bruk. piece of burnt clay. Diez. . ibrukkti. Brief. a proprietor. a bride Brig. brice. Priodi. AS. BRIGADE dead. Lat. a heath. brahi. Bridal.gfiugga. bulicame. berwedd. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. braut. Bridle. bruyere. bo. Gael. ON. brittil. any jot or crum.privatus. Pol. nurus G. ' . to press. brug. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. ter-in-law. Brewis. a sow. brique de pain. groom (mab=:son). then the marriage itself. conjux. . fastningar-ol. bro. ap. arf-ol. brood. a lump of bread. bridelj OHG. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. peculiar. a man. to prepare. a wedding priod-fab. Fr. stone-bridge bnikkoti. OSw. E. Brique. masted vessel. as so. broosekens. to boil. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. a rogue . and ODu. corresponding or letter. brA. Applied ous words derived from break. fervere. Diefenbach com. as. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bridge. brieden. to circulate. served (Patois de Bray). It — is Kil. Thom. E. a crum. boiling up brocoliere. remarkable that the Gr. So in The Prov. Walach. collect bits of food. privus. briwo. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. a lump of bread briber. to brew. lipdZu}. feast of espousals. briw. hlafes brice. beaten way Dan.

show the origin of Lat. glir.Lat. speech. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. in the first instance. — Due. kilistua. then. to rob. The E. and diligence. labour.' torum. Goth. Brilliant. riis ' — Chron. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. biartr. The Ir. It. at a later period. AS. clear. — A A . to strive for. From ON. A strepere. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries.D. Heo — song That AS. brak. brigan. Due. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. beorht. tuilahtaa. Ducange has ' Brigandinou.glampa. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. brawl. may play the pirate or thief at sea. a glittering. secondarily. rover either by sea or land. Bav. splendens . bregar. braid. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. to shine. is easily understood. 1351. — Probably then to strive. brigare. willata. strife. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. Xa/iTTii). brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. and secondly. brcEhtin. there are many armour. to piracy. in the sense of a robber. Swab. glamra. clangour.shine. OHG. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. clear. a small light pinnace pro.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force.pracht. glamm. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. pugna. combat. Bright. It. jurgia. brebrigare. brigandare. Schmeller. tumult. Brigand. to rove. — brigante. In Fin. — brigante. schateren. shriek with laughter. — Brigantine. clear. tinnitus. clarus. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . dine. and. Beorktode bene sweg. It. to cry 'Schmid OE. bairhts. representing a sudden noise. hell. bray. XafXTTpoQ. So G. with respect either to sound or colour. transparent. clear sound. squamma . to glamr. malandrini. Gr. noise. — — . 312. A. — Briganbriga. on his — own account. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. and ner me hit iherde. to contend with another. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. briegen. —Capgrave. a spark. to ring. outcry. and. the gleeman's song. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. bryhtm. briga. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. dine. to reservavit. a sound. It. and hence be explained glampi.' The sense of strife or combat express. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. tion. and to associate with them. briga. Wilista. splcnornd de brigandine. bracht. See Brake. a brigantine. loo BRIGAND lor. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to shine. schiteren. Owl and beorhtian. Florio. brigant. inde squammatus. praht. wilella. splendour.' The passage from the sense of a light. necessary business. kii:'a. Lat.clare ^tinniens. . to make a loud noise. the grew high. The primary meaning of Sp. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . Adelung.' in Due. a noise. Mid. rixa. to glitter. tinkle. sound. and the E. that of Fr. cange has 'Veles.— . but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. twinkling. \oice. Flor. . to resound. glbram. and led it away. brdgen. Gall. glitter. clang.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. moment. Du. bragen. also called briganders. They or brigantini. clare lucens. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. — Beowulf. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. splendour. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . lay was sung. in later times a robber or highway-man. manifest ON. brigare. seems to be to exert force gar el area. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. to shift for with care. 1654. to bend a bow It. a pirate. from hall. the bench-notes resounded. etincelle. bright bearhtm. tinnitum clarum movco. In the same way to strive is.dorem clarum reflecto. to sound. to cry. Brigata. himself to serve men of merit.

whence bilbil-goda (literally. Subo. leonum). have then in Fr. breziller. kommata. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to . Rugere. small gravel.D. Brimstone. voux. breziller. beam. AS. to creak. to burn. to broil. Sc. crackle. to long for a thing. The identity of ON. bramer. kimina. brummen. to make a crackling noise. a stick. fierce. breme. AS. to sparkle. rut. ling noise and a sparkling light. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. It. the verbs Flor. the lap or bosom. fire. brim Magy. bramar. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. greDiet. tience. to crackle. gresiller. — g. Langtoft. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. Streaked. fringe . to make bilbil). which seems identical with rim. from brandr.its vent in cries and roaring. striped or streaked. brastlian. as is the case also with Pl. FJ. Prov. identical with passion. the meaning is transL' amour. Supp. Fr. — — So Fr.' Elyot in Way. to shine. grisser. Dan. Tutschek. To Brim. 1. — . Dief. griller d'impatience. margin. bramar. clangor tinniens. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. brmdottr. barm. glisten. Tresiller. brommen. 754. Rayn. with an initial br instead of gr. bramire. to roar. grisler. gresiller. ON. briller (related to each other as OFr. to glitter. post. of the eye. a borDu. bray as an ass bramire. Said of swine when in heat. Hence with an initial s. is used of raging. . broil . that the original meaning of the Sc. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brame. griller). Swiss Rom. pMiller. as well as bl and gl. bremmen. also to reflect. greedily to covet Cot. dial.' d'etre marie . Brim.ioTiviS acutus. brisoler. brdnnsten. to shine. grullo. the eye-brow. ter. bresoler (Gloss. glit. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. s. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. — — — . . In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. originally the lap folding over the breast. brandr and Fr. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. rugire. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. hence the bosom. Brem. ardere desiderio. to parch. noise made by meat in broiling. to shimmer. brim. It. to creak. frequently interchange. grdzil. to utter cries. (poet. os qui bresole. on. edge Pol. komista. komottaa. 1 1 64. brand-krossottr. A . appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to glitter distance . to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion.— Brinded. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. a rod. ON. brama. In Fr. breme. vigorHal. ous. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. brinfire. kajata. border. burning stone. surface of the ocean.preni. Thus Lat. to roar. or violent action. brullo. to storm. rugire (cervorum. crackle . In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. as of meat in broiling . uses bresoler (il bresole fir. excited. to sound deep or hollow. lap. to fret . the sow is brimming. shine. brunft. lap of a garment . brillare. a long. to resound. an apron. to wish or covet. Fl. The expression is now confined to the sow. kimista. vattubryn. Sw. Lith. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. Closely connected is OE. 154. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. fimbria) . brame. to twinkle. the heat of animals. lip of a vessel. griller. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). brumft. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. border. Wtb. and corresponding to these. brummen : de soge brummet.— BRIM . bar. a streak. brow of a hill. der. ring. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. coloured in stripes. rym^. kiimottaa. s. brennistein. bremas. furious. Brindled. border. brissle. to quaver with the voice. as in Langued. . Du. G. and 1. whether of desire or anger. the edge. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. reecho. — Rim. barmr. It. sprainged. sparkle. The E. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. Kil. parched. bry7ie. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. E. to shine. cross-barred in colour. the heat of animals. chime). to shake. a border. the singing of Sodom — — . to crackle. : ' — bone). The meaning of the Fr. briller. bremmen. perent. from bringe. to glitter . barm-cloth or barmskin. sonitum edere bremen. Sc. bryn. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr.). burning. briller. brimmen. fringe (Lat. ON. brezil. In the same way Sw. earnestly . spraing. broiled. finds the Fr. kimmaltaa.) brimi. brant.

brot. to birstle. brich. prick with Sw. brcit. — — . to spur. . brusque. the surf. bruched (Fr. . fiscbryne. Brine. wine of a sharp. brim (poet. G. like the Broad. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. i. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. borzos (struppig). brddj Goth. brocco. Sc. brytan. birstle. a crum. borzen. stitch. Gr. ' . a cold and windy mist or frost. bringe traced through the brano. reburrus. strong itself. e. Da. Bristle. brim. sticking up . Then as the effect of shivering. broca. borstel. bryde. Hal. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brocher. bros. bryne. broc. to put one in a rage . Salte sand is called brimsand. brocar. Bret.). setting the hair on end compare It.. brim. Bret. brijn (Kil. borst. brisk in taste. brimhliod. a skewer. Mid. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. birse. angry. Fr. to burn. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a slip or sprig of an herb . an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. to shoot. roar of the sea saltr. fragile. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. a rod or twig. It.Lat. Port. byrst. Prov. Ptg. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. brioshko. is to erect the hair. . crabbed. and Sc. Brisket. . brittle. Prov. Prov. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Palsgr. It. Alfr. Du. brusco. craw of a bird. to turn up the point of anything. brime. 'V^. suddenly angry. a bud. bronchus. to set up one's birse. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. humorous. are used in the sense of brittle. breast. Russ. rebursiis.. spricka. Antiq. brissko). — bryme. Fr. Lat. Sc. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). sprocco. and hence. the surf. bringe. b. quick. Fr. a projecting tooth It. ruffling. to scorch. Brickie. birsle. Gl. against the grain . Sw. brezza. to spur. ON. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. See To Brim. the brisket or . very salt brimi. /3pE^m. . broccare. It. to bud. birssy. to broil. brandello. or — . Swiss to stand out . bresk. a fragment. a brad or tack. to break. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. is called a birssy day. as. fierce. man's throat. It. brisciare. Du. brocco. Walach. See Brand. sour. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. to thrust. a morsel. brockle. bringue. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. britchet. a rebours. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. breaking out into growth. Cot.rcendij'i. to shiver for Sold or for fear. eager. briota. Brisk. brittle. breaking of the waves brim sior. a brooch. sprout. Fr. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. rebrousser. a morsel . spur. emotions which produce it. thick — A elastic hair. bricho (with the diminutives. Fr. rude. briota. Pectusculum.procio. See Spread. broca. setting the hair on end. as a noun. metaphorically. of astonishment. Hence ribrezzare. a bud. Bohem. Boh. shoot. Fris. to goad. to begin upon it. Berri. Brittle. from brande. Formerly written brotil. breidr. a stormy brimsea . Brym. britar. a shoot or sprig. broche. brickie. p. a peg sbrocco. brin. a clasp. In the N. to stitch. hot-tempered. to spit. bruckle. brodden. smart taste. rash. apt to break. cK) the . brichet. and forms on. brocciare. aculeus. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Dan. Sp. Russ. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. harsh vin brusque. a spit. Brocade. briser. of E. NE. whence may be explained the Sc. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. to break. has under It. lively. ' breast. Compare also E. form bris. startling. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. grim. Zeuss. braidsj ON. britar. to set it a going. bruskett. a belly. — A . to broach a business. brote. . Fr. bristly . brusk. sprouts. Brooch. to stick. broccata. from break. to crack. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. brissle. Liquamen vel garum. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. brocchus. and. The Pl. to stab Gael. from AS. 222.D.' Nat. as unripe fruits. brust. flames. to break. brezzare. chest. saulmeure. Commonly explained as from Fr. ribrezzoso. brindelles de balai.'— Vita'abbatum S. coli. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Abroacli. brimme. an awl. — . a button broche. fantas'* tical. or the full • . brog. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. a stitch brocher. as. a bit . sharp. a deluge. the twigs of a besom. to roar. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. as.). — in Due. flame. Breeze been connected with the Sc. briocho. trembling. birs.g. bros. expression.

streaked. brouda. confound. Gael. A badger. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. a confused streaked face of the animal. onbryrdan. brasbrasciuolare. to crackle. Compare also AS. Hal. brychau. Thus brod. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. broil. brastlian. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. a brim. tufted ornaments. birsle. Contracted from Fr. a quarrel. houx. bramowanie. embroidering. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to broil. brizen. speckled. Here to ornament with needle-work. sting. precisely analogous to the Sc. Broker. stump. blusters. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . motes. Fr. It. broc. border ornamented with silk. to On the other hand the Sp. carbonado. Fr. Grisons brascla. brusler. bordar. brocart. parch. To roast upon hot coals. A fried or boiled steaks). spotted. fundamental origin. bruler. gresiller. Florio. The ON. broder. to burn. It of br the Fr. ToBroider. AS. broukit. rustle. or roast on the braise. frecSee Brawl. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Sp.tumultuous. freckled. From direct imitation of Brock. — Gower in It. or salted fish on coals. brodio. storms. a mole. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. noise. to scorch. embroidery. point to an origin in Bret. a flock or Gael. brullare. sparks E. brindled. from the white. margin. broud. parti-coloured. — brissle. broiled. of pointing out their latent defects. a fallingThe sense has been out. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. It. kled breac. thread. hart of two years old. trouble. broice. forming to jumble. 103 embroidered. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. bj'oil. to darn. brouFr. frocadura. prod. v. to stud broccoso. . or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly.— B. speckled. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. the shoot of corn. with Sc. tumult broighleach. grullo. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. brasuole. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. brasiller. ornamented with a raised pile. braird. or It. spots. — . The Bret. Icnotty. b?-od.. Dan. — Fl. a badger. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. a brouhaha. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Cot. briefh. E. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. to parch or broil. border. a border. Fr. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment.sound. Sc. to crackle. bawling. initial . to crackle. has grisser. a freckle. briz. broil. and AS. noisy. froco. to spur. Sc. to embroider. bordo. here. breard. to embroider. piebald . q. to instigate. brusuole. brustle. and bord or bred. tori shows that. Cot. to burn. hurly-burlies. creak. to crackle. a To Broil. agree in being the extremity of a thing. and w. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. a prick. — The proper sense is that of Fr. to crackle as a shell in the fire. bmsciare. Compare G. shuffle. Ptg. a flake of snow sion. whence broccare. a point. W. brucilare. gold and silver. prasseln. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. a b?-ustolare. to streaked or speckled in the face. broglio. brocach. brod. — — . Surrey in R. So from Pol. grislement. . broc. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. a brecJi. to boss.. dar seems derived from borde. broighlich. brocco. atoms . badger . bram. brucach. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). Brocket. age was termed a pricket. parti-coloured. brych. Gael. or snag. parched. an edge. or glowing coals broged. to knots or loops. brasiller. brooked. rinj'. broccuto. silkes-borda. R. knobby . a peg. Ihre has guU-bord. brasolare. broccato was used to signify stuff . ciare. a freckle. borprick. scorch. Bret. brerd. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. B. a border ornamented with gold. bustling. to prick. the line of development has been something different. trouble.

refuse goods. damaged. to be wanting. ON. brot. brunds. to pick and choose. faulty. brasa. brod. See Brackish. w. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. OFr. Pl. raca. keep warm. Abbronzare. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. as. filth.— Breed. — point out the faults. blur. . G. — . brod. a chicken. Bronze. Per manus et old worthless horse. damaged. et A. abbronzanchiare. bredan. brokoti. the spawn of fishes. refuse. nounce unsound. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. For the same reason the Kiittner. correctarius. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. Jam. designation is indkler. refuse Fr. . See Wreak. to blame. sunburnt. hrak. to — garble. to throw blame upon. progeny of birds. The Langued. selection. bracker. brokers' goods. braken. fish-spawn broden. brid. a fault. to sparkle. brakyne. but from the primary sense of the It. an . to be hot. fermenting. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. an outcast or rejected sheep. 396. Sc. find fault — — — fuse matter. rejected. vrage. G. Teutonic class : Du. brackefi. slaae vrag paa. braeck goed. In those countries the term braker.D. and fishes .— — . Pl. broen. to spit . to emit sparks. sort. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. dirty. Du. to sort goods . broiid. mud. It may be compared with It. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. To blame mens ware. to brew. brack-gut. : ' . couratier. bring eggs and spawn into active life. briiten. racaille. raquer. buy and sell by commission. bridde. Sp. find fault with. Bret. to pick. and as an adj. . — broeden. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Alb. embers. fault censure. brack. On • tliis principle the G. Kil. In the . brechen. spittle . term was correcfo^ir. Lat. Tooke's Catherine. bronzo. Pl. ODu. to hatch. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. burning. brak. refuse. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. Dan. brae. sbrinzlar. hot. Prov.D. which E. brands. to reject. to criticise. to roast on the embers. Fr. abject. hraki. and to reject the damaged and unsound. analogous to Bohem. cast Lith. phlegm. brwd. brack-gut (Sanders). refuse brakovat. from break. to hatch G. wrak. to copper. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. on. or brascla. Bronzare. trumpery. whence the modern courtier. cherish. refuse brakowad. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. in which sense the OHG. try out. reject. ordure. bronze. brak. in the sense of rejection. The use sunburn. want. tan. goods damaged by sea-water. brut. has exactly the force of G. merchandises de rebut G. try . This word shows the same relation to It. Fl. G. embers to brund. It. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. whnake. warm. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. wraken. Pro v. screatio Junfus .) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. with. dial. rejection Pol. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. inspect. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. wrack-good. matter of blame weak place. To correct an exercise is to Lib. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. bronze. bric-a-brac. to sort brakovanie. If to vomit . . to hatch. inspection. — a spark. Alb. to scorch. refuse wares. Adelung. make out. to nourish. 38. to pro- to reject . spittle. the young of any animal . to braze. brokas. bronce. — Fl. racher. Grisons brinzla. a breach or flaw. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. tussis. to garble. a brood . criticise (makeln). S. . brass does to Sp. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. brasa. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. glowing coals. pan metal. Du. to sit on eggs. Brood. lack.D. brydio. stain. i. embers. hot. an operation performed over hot coals. cracker. . It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. a broker.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost.— Lib. e. a makeln. find fault with. vile. See Broth. Russ. a cough Hal. bronze. • . from makel. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. corrector. brumo.D. mediationem quorundam J. insects. vile. to . brieden. wreak.

Ger. heat. brotar. to use bruks. (for brodem). and It. brabruach.. brogues. spirit. buds. brauwe. broca. and Sc. eminence . sprocco. a hill. t— Cot. waves. brennen. thairj w. bruitheati. . Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. thicket. Fr. on. . riviere. briar. brosses. frucius. broud. in which brinnan. bruscosd quam de arabili. to border. heath. branches. . brodo. Manx broie. a spring. bruach. shrub with leafless pointed edging. brudi. broth. heat explaining the Prov. brink. brozia. pottage. of plants broust. the colour of things burnt. Ppim. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. A — . braun. The AS. Cot. bruith. brow. surface of Broth. ale . w. brodem.spross. a river. to spring . cabbage soup .D. It is Brother. braew. juice of briars. pith. Celtic. Brow. from Goth. break out brewet. a bud brous-koad. . broth is sometimes used . as Fr. hovel. brow of a hill. brothas. frater. Sanscr. Sp. to murmur. Gael. brass. who is steaming with sweat. brouskaol. Lat.D. Bohem. shrubs. broem bark. AS. brmi. broth the ocean Sw. Du. broit. brd. dumetum. Wtb. Browse. bhratrj Zend. — . G. wood . or shoot. Prov. to use. eat. brotar. plants composed of twigs." Serv. vigour. infusion. brlgh. . broc. a source Gael. brusmalt. Serv. brew . bruth. to Pl. from ripa. brous. brosses. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. pfriemkraut. margin. steam from heated bodies. breg. verge. was originally used in the innocent sense of . The origin is a re. Kil. to boil. to browse. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. shoots. noise. as rhododendrons. eye-brow. useful G. The softening down of the consonant bud. brocco. boiled . bank. shore. AS. iVlanx broogh. brouic. Gael. — exiit et heath. Bav. or broken up . bratrj Lat. Prov. a little . broden. and Slavonic families. brushbroccoli. edge. Bret. . to sprout. Commonly Teutonic. . bntdien. juice of meat. bruich. sprout. kail brose. to shoot. brad. brucan. broth brothaire. Du. But the Walach. broth. house of ill fame. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel.brink. brewis. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. browys. pour boiling water over. braces. eye-lash . bordeau. protecting the eye. sense the Sc. It. brushbrothas) gives the OE. To digest. shoot. spuma. . broth Brown. fur Broom. bruno. OFr. broccola. a hill.) . to boil bruithe. riviera. brouser. bruddeln. a derived from the boards. may be connected with Russ. bryii. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. a hut or cottage It. fabric consists. Pol. Sp. juniper. . augen-braune. brst. brukjan. bros. a shrub broust. sproc. bank. the bubbling or springing up of water. Gr. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. breh. . circuindedit cum familia.brons. Limousin broudi. brus. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. broza. shore . a bud. Due. borda. thick bush brousta. G. to roar. surDu. brun.— Overyssel Almanack. See Bramble. bruceti. brouter. bregh. vigour. &c. eye-brow. sprot. broeye. . — ' . braussa. heath. It. bor. infusion the barley bree. a sprig. breg. bordel. strength Ir. border. brost. borde. broi. dialects is very different. Gael. brov. a little house or cottage of timber. sprouts . on. brosst. hot. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. chen. brau. Fr. — . Russ. to bubble up with noise. and also border. brawdj Slavon. w. Bret. Mid. a bruth. eye-brow. bushes. G. to browse. grow into a bush. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. Fr. brdtaj Gael. brost. hut. cia. a confused noise of winds. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . or bushes and scrubby growths. a sprout. a . Gael. Fr. eye-brow. briihe. 'Lzt. warmth ch'an. bryn. . brwd. bros. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. enjoy Goth. Pl. strength. bruithim. simmer from the murmuring AS. 105 Brook. bruc. G. sodden. brue . eye-lid. face. Roquef. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. frui. bud. &c. of which the variety of forms. Tam de terrS. edge. rerum decoctarum. cabbage water. rage. . sap. brouet. &c. &c. brio. Russ. brstiti. breg. perhaps burnt coloilr. properly boiling water briihen. Sc.' Due. Bohem. Bohem. has briw. ceales briw. to boil. low The AS. forms appear related to the Ir. as small-pox. to scald. bryn. eye-lid. bank. a caldron. . to boil. awl-plant. signifying low wet land (Brem. briu. . . broo. Brothel. Here we find throughout the Romance. Fr. to use. to bear patiently. seethe. bruich. BROOK brook w. signifying twigs. OHG. bree. a shore. Dan. It. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. brpuster. sprout.braubiti. to burn. Catalan brossa. sordes seu strigmata young branch. bank. brouches. b7-un. meal. G. OHG. grow brossa. Gris. broieii. mettle. laissent Domunculum.

bud. bris. bruskr. And that best is. G. blow burcar. On the other hand. Gael. It. and Piedm. Poems. brustia. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. See next article. Pr. of twigs. bruis (sing. brossa. E. briser. modification of the same root which gives the E. a brush . field. broust. escousse. Fr. brit. borste. a mote. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . The Bav.— — i. to strike the foot against an obstacle. . a brush Swiss bruske. Fr. brist. Palsgr. brosse. orts. rods. borste. Alexander. Brunt of a daunger. twig. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. to break. rubbish. brottcher. rubbish. brusco. — OE. . to cleanse. Piedm. . Piedm. dust. — Fr. Castr. bruito. Fr. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. NE. briketo. Brush. bross. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Cot. burs. Prov. Gael. brous. brisar. wool-card. bruit. crum bit . a brush . Pr. a bud or sprout Bret. brosse. — those signifying a sprig. crush.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. K. a noise. Bav. Brunt. . brugir. insilio.— Palsgr. a crum. and also Brush. bris. B?-usske. brousso. a shrub composed of small twigs . The same relation holds good between G. Fl. shivers. brist. —Fabyan. to break. a brush. a briser. effort. splinters. wool-card. borste. Bret. Broach. brosst. OFr. A. a brush . into a multitude of points. bush. Lang. twig. brikan. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Pr. bris. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. Hall in R. tremely. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. a tuft of heath . bruscia. biirste. rubbish. * Brunt. a horse-brush. to make a rumbling. wood composed OE. Cot. a little brizal. also a head-brush. E. and in the second place a besoiB. Bruise. ca7-bo>i. and . Gael. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. a bush of hair. In E. seems named from burst(on. quasi twigs. a flax comb. To brush then would be to dust. dust. Port. remnants of hay or fodder. brise. brusco. bruyere. Sw. Text Soc. Wicliff. p. bruiser. bross. but on whom it schall to brisen him. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. bris. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. fragments. Prov. borst. biirste. brist j Port. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. bricalio. britar. Pr. sordes. Sp. —Chaucer. brisd. or shoot. to break to bits . brus. detergere . brusca. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. dust.). bruzir. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. it schall be al Sw. to butt. as It. a blow. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Pm. flax-comb brossettes. britar. brizeto. broustia. brysan.). bruise exOFr. Pm. 174. brico or brizo. 134. bruscolo. insultus. broza. briiis (in the pi. abroncar. a rumbling. broza. ling or heath for brushes. a brush. Fr. OE. E. The Lat. bruire. chips. brMt. broken. Diez. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. . a brush . ON. a brush. an enmy. dust. Bruit. AS. to crush. to brush. borste. a bristle. Beryn. brosst. mg Cat. coal See Breeze. to stumble. fescue . brusc (Diet. a bristle. heath. shock. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. fasx . brista) or breaking out . bruc. . brusca. brik. to make brusshes on. and It. irruo. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Gael. a bud. Lang. and sighid therewithal. Prov. burt. appearin Goth. brous. brust. — a bush. brunt.). du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. or sodenly comyn' dust. brossa. bushy ground. Fr. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. That in all haste he wouli. shoot brouskoad. 201. Prov. Sw. brusg. to break or burst. desbrisar. tuft of grass or hay. . borste. brist. brushwood. It. Allit. break. It. brustia. wool-card. quisquilise. and actually come in collision. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brossar. a — — (Agea) said. brustid. G. bruscolo.

bokni. moist. boc.boukaat. rap. — . tuft. to soak. to soften . bucaIndies. . is 1. bublati. a ashes. mollire. drying of produce. faire la lessive. Sp. bugd. bukke. the first wheal. w. moczyd. and Fr. buck-ashes. The cipally on the Spaniards. to bump as a bittern. a bubble. . Bret. Magy. This bubette. plied in the W. bubbola. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. buquer. as G. when soap was tion is commonly taken. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. not so plentiful a commodity. blast or strike with the forehead. a hole. the lower soak in lye. Cot. Diet. soft. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. March 28. bugada. Pol. a. The natives of Florida. who resorted to the islands beichen. .to allow a free current of air. tender. w. Bohem. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. a push. boil animals. 1586. to wet Pol. de la Floride. Esthon. was called in Fr. bub. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . The male goat.-wtt miekki. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). Illust. . The term bocan is still ap. . To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. bouk. tender.steep or soak. because bucare does not in Marsh). colada. bifbel. soft. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. to butt or jurr Dan. tap . who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. byge. From an imita. Sp. Formerly. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. to soften. Dan. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. bubseti. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. to soak foul linen before washing. and the bunch. buborek. Fr. open lath-work. and as a verb. . Pol. a. the linen at buck. The name. pukkata. set of pirates in the spread.buchen. boc. to butt. to butt. from weich. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. knock. A . to soak.tare. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. News. pup. of wind. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Gael. a bubble. mieknad. Bohem. It. to bubble. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. was called bucking the linen. bube. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. soft. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. Fr. erweichen. BUBBLE bruschetta. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. buck-ashes. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. from colar. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. The word was very generally Buccanier. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. I. But see Bristle.' Palsgr.D. does not hold. very generally designated by the same puk. to stick. caned' Hence those who established them. buquer. wood. or projecTo Buck. to buck. Bubble. bog-aske. a to the male deer.— . hog dressed whole). to Gael. The place of such a 2.biiken j Svi. . little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. bucquer. bduclien. Etym. to a place used for the mouillir. at a door. bub. buerj It. molle. In G. also applied Una. or mok. soft It. — .wet Lat. the upper for coifee. to which in their language they call bou. pokka7na. blister. watery bud. and then to other wild tumour Lith. — — ' A : ' ' . top. buchen. It. soft . . to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. Magy. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. designation of a knob.lessiver. in which the flesh dish.derivation has been much discussed. mokry. bucata. bubBuck. says Laudon. Fin. bubiti. bucking. maban and baban. Pref A. a bubble . to strain. to murmur.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. hump. Bret. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Sc. and exercised their cruelties prin. ac. boh. bouc. It. boucaner. Fr. bwch. different form. See Dupe. as a buck rabbit. a fescue. bubauti. it is beuchen. to filter. mote. 17th century. a knock word. lye. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. thunder gently . to soften. 1857. lye. a steep for flax.byka. hump.

' . . a pustule bout.may probably be explained by N. — . knob . bod. to boil. convexity. no wheel bogeilio. to thrust. to budge. to graft or bud trees. stir. wallet. a fold ceilio. . bouljein. with a central boss. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. w. The dressed fur of lambs. a little coffer or turgidus. butze. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. clasp of a book. It. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch.poot. bocla. bouge. seen in Hesse botz. A buckle or fastening for botch. a leathern sack. stroke. pote. macero.stuff. the root of the Slavonic words gran. brobrocchiere. inboachen. a shoot. boglyn. boach. to boss or swell out G. is doubtless fallacious. a ring. pwt o Fr. bloca. II I'a feru desor I'escu. of a surface. knob dwfr yn boglynu. OFr. OHG. botzen. bug. bunch . — — . potz. Dan. Bav. bukke-blad. Mid. So on. a curl. bedde. to butt. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. bougette. Bret. swelling. a dumpy gin. Fr. loud Cot.anything short of its kind. . bollire.' Boccaccio. the radical image seems to be a set plants. — . boaLat. blow. a servant. and of the Lat. the word w ' — . . hump. dim. agreeing with Gael. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle.. set of a plant in bulk. jSouKoXiKog. boqueranmis.goa./a. a cowherd. bub. a shield. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. dinted. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. noise . to stir. The Fr. a navel. a bump. a bud. is to shrivel up. rabodS. from bo. thrust. — — . child. a bubble three thyngis. bog and G. bulb. It. crack. a buckle or protuberance. lump. Fr. bullion. dint . to move. bulla. case of leather . * Bud. butzen (Du. . belonging to the calling of the chen. Fr. male or botzen. motus creber. soft. with let. . trunk of wood covered with leather. Fr. weichen. weich. Prov. NE. Sp.) as to soak. goat's hoof. push forwards. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. bolgia.n. to poke. fur. pulga. Hence quel. to word. bulga. Pied. Port. whom it is still much in use. bloca. call. Bav. bucket Fl.' Schm.). Fr. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog.pode.. Pol. call.' Hal. Buckler. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. boucaran. bdden. bloquier. Buck-bean. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. rump of fowls . a boss. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. explaining Fr. a pail or flowers. bougette. bode. a small shallow and open tub.stumpy man. as in Fr. K. put. call bo. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. w. . The entire train of thought is bucket. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. buachazlle. words is converted into b. butt . to bud or bocla. become bochen. ornamental stud. like a bean. a boy. a budget. Swab. W. protuberance. boiling. boucle. scion. no business to do that. butzen. bucherare. prick in a target. bouclier. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. * Buckle. Wtb. boucler. ' . Du. bo. bouprobably identical with inok. boucle. bunch. bouter. Bus. to pen cattle. imbuere.) . swelling. of bac. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. Bucolic. and the reference to It. to un bout d'homme. bogla. don't a baby). Prov. above mentioned.r//'. where the G. a buclder or shield budge. Lat. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. pulga. a . bouk is a pail and with the dim. This expression boglire. boucle. need. ble.Lat.t-le!L{ * Bud. It. mani. from Gr. boccula. butzen. gjeit-klauv. a trough). botzen. with which it was ornamented. bouger. bump. Budget. a tuft. Prov. .' And this sacrament bus have dial. bud butzen. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Fr. and weichen. Russ. butz. or male of to boil . probably from the notion of bubbling. It. ' . It is explained by Miiller (MHG. A water-plant with leaves and gille. To thrusting part of a long body. built.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. bulka. bolgetta. It termination is lost. budge. bucolicus. stud. knock. a boss. skins pushit'. boss of a shield. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. in the beginning of to pierce holes. also a leather tuft . a wallet. Dan. ON. Hardly identical with Fr. bul. excrescence. to swell. boss. were To Budge. cattle. a short thick man. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim.— . . G. to line with fur. The knob or projection formN. clump. Cot. Bret. pwtio. having a boss. don't stir from hence. boulj. bulais daqui. a stump buckle up. See Bulk. butzen K. buckel. Gael.chissima. bucherame. Behoves. Sw. bugnir. The word is a ddyn. * Bucket. water message. of bouge. Budge. to 'soak. bouton.. bod. weich. ein. from bugr. Mid. turgere buczendig. great pouch. . a budget. Du. In Lat. sboge. Fr.

a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. It. Lat. It. ' They rether puffed at him. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. botffon. — — — Buffet. buMagy. dull sound. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. bauwi. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. a jester. Buffeter. boman. a puff. a bugbear. bau ! children. een duffen toon. also the skin or heck of a buffe. from It. to give a as of a blow. thus be translated to tap. buffet. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. made by a person. A blow. Gael. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. bouffer. bugle. bubach. Pl. buffalo. a skin. Hence the E. The use of the exclamation children. Buff.' La Crusca. boo. Lat. from souffler. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. Fr. to puff. the place whence the wine was drawn. buffle-headed. bufHe. as Diez remarks. bufogni. Romola. him but Boyd iugges. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bubaRuss. buivol. to signify an indefinite object of terror.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. duff^ dull. buffetto. as emblematically making light of an object. a block-headed noddy. a budget. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. G. The children were playing in an oppocomer. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. to puff. W. or wild ox. bolgetta. baubau. w. a hollow sound.—Buffet.D. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il .— Buflae. Lith. to blow . a dull BUG From 109 — A . dausa. . buffets. scarecrow . yar^aa. a buffle or a bugle. also a G. wauwau. &c. confused. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. a cuff or buffet. colour. Buffoon. It. leathern bucket. buffle. the buffe. a side-board. mingled with water. and in Fr. Cot. bw! It. while in Sp. often blown upon. to blow souffleU. as wine that hath taken wind. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. mumming.' perfield. — La Crusca. bwg. site The two — — iii. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. things in Jam. — Z. buffer. smells . 265. buffet. From bulga. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. to jest or sport. senses. tabernarius. buffeteur. bugs. rebuff. a hobgoblin. Teet-bo. air. buff leather. E. bugbear. to give benti.D. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. btifetarius. Swiss baui. a In . such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bobaow. Buff. to frighten . caupo. to marre often tasting it . bolgia. by metaphor. wine may The verb in taverns. or hath been Cot. as from Lith. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. pulse . constitutes the game of Bo-peep. bubus. buffare. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. — retailing buffeter buffetier. Pl. bw. — Bogle. Lith. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. to beat. From buff! of terror. — thence it has been transferred in E. Fl. a clap. to bellow . soufflet. bubiti. buffa. Fr. human. to blow. either alone or with various terminations. to strike face to represent the unknown. puff. God's boast seemed feare children. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. to excite terror in Macleod. It. to rePl. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. blurt or puff with one's mouth. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta.D. sounds. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Cot. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. a goblin). tastes. made to —Bugbear. often covering his E. word other cases. buffet. A puff with — Fl. Fr. Magy. of colours. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bumann. Esthon. cuff . stupid. Fr. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Sc. popo. bo ! an interj. deadened. Mid. Buffalo. buffen. bouffer. dausinti. Bufetarium. for this purpose is very widely spread. The cry made to excite terror is then used. —Boggart. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. bukow Ikow. Limousin bobal. to a representation of his voice. le reste emplissant d'eau. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. buffare. Fr. A — Bug. bufogni. breath. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Thus buffet would a tapster. Sc. dial.

Magy. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. fette. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. swollen. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur.3uhtii&:. Lett. vermin. a buffalo. used in the same sense. also a bug-bear. of bugabo was given. buffle. Stalder bog. pugalo. big. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting.Lat. Hal. Lesachthal. high-sounding words. a bugbear for children. blustering. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. superbire. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. great or bug words. long. a. ghost. of pipes sewn on. bogle. b'dgni. fear. xiv. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. : no BUG . proud. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Schmidt. is the dim. Bug. paws the ground . a bug-bear. a proud overbearing man pujat'. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. with more or less modification represents bau. Big. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. a silk-worm. language any kind of insect. bogil. Manx boa. provincially an insect. monster. i. and a boggarty ing. and is Deutsch. as an object of dread. roo. Serv. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. bogk. bukati. as Buffalo. Mid. bbgni. an object of terror. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. quos what produces dread or disgust. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. an insect.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. — — ' . In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Bdronie. bwgar. Chaucer. bugbear. — . hert. bogil bo (e. is very common. threatening. and in Lat. forSc. dial. to creeping things. — — terror. bugler. bugar. also a bug-bear. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Illyr. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Same as buffle. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. pujalo. terrifying ward. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. . the Devil. gad. Lap. boeuf sauvage. threatening. larva (a bug-bear. to take bug.— . Sw. to roar Aasen. protuberant. especially to beetles or winged insects. a boogg. BUGLE Tentennino. Bugle. . bauginti. buba. Fl.Fr. the black a maggot. bobal. tion of the beetle tribe. bug. Lith. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bwg and E. mask ' . tion of the word signifying an object of 2. given in Chaucer. buculus. biignt. Bogge. Deut. buggabod). bold. insect. and in child's Magy. bug dung-beetle. and bugle. The w. the word is lin) bbgge. the buggaboo w. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Swiss booggen. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bogk. . pugaf. 3. then a horn for drinking. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . affright. to bellow. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. Hence bugle-horn. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. to take fright. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. poggl. Cheval de trombugti. roarHal. earwig bau da grascha. Grose. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. a misshapen person. a beetle. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. according to Coles. 493. scarecrow . The name of bug is — . Bug as a lord. a rabme. Swiss ing. bukashka. boo. bugle. troll. boa-peep. 2. An ornament of female dress condread. to take fright. bwgwl. booggen.loud noise. . With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. any disgusting animal. See The name terror). bau (Pureiglia. Grisons bau. baco. bug-bear. tumble-bug. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. * 2. w. — boogg. rose-bug. coco. saucy. to frighten scarecrow. also a baco-baco. iv. bucula. worm. 1551. to origin in the expression bugs words. E. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Swelling.. Mundart. bok. a bug-bear. Magy. insect. a goblin. beugler. oxen. banian boube. shepe and gootes. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. disgust. W. I. Sp. thus connected with bug. well as the terrific object. A similar applica. — — . (Spurrell). Fl. It. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. It. bug-bear. high. Russ.. to bellow. fierce. Parolone. bug-bear. Bible. il brutto Demonio. The final guttural of W.

whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. buk. Gr. bauen. to build. Pm. . jnake bulch. van loock. Boss^. knobby. as it was merly written in English to bylle. pimple. bauch. . Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. I. as water beginning to boil bolg. bug. crowd. Dan.' Festus. or of what is shaped like a bubble. Othello. bed of a river. bukr. Pm. were a habitation. . principal portion. to bol. bol. . it again. Lith. Bulch. — — . belly. bulge or convex part of a cask. bellows builgean.' Fl. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. 1388. Bav. bulwis. A — ' — Bulk. bubble. as well as is very variable. bubbling up. ^ — . cumulus. hull of a ship. a. m um Placentiae. .' Cot. the belly. G. bolle. at riufa bulkann. bol. boss. With these must probably be classed ON. Muratori. PoXj3a. bulkaf. ' . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. skin bag. has bulbuk.d. balco. boss of shield. bouk. . Gr. knot in thread. a. See bollekeii next article. balg. bua. and bulbukd. blister. bolgetta. Pr. balcone. bulk or capacity of anything. ne. be protuberant. knob. projection. See how this tode bolneth. a bunch. or. vulva. herd^ swarm pulkd.' Anat. hollow. chest. It. boss. wallet. belly.— . bulbus. . Melancholy. the head of an onion. blister Manx bolg. in vessel. trunk. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bole. swell. Hal. pouch builgeadh. buhe. the womb. belly. MHG. Pr. to swell. bol. G. tumidus. beuck. — . to bubble up. to raise a habitation. to undo the cargo. to gather. w. bubble. bulge or bilge. bwlg. the body Du. Lat. acervus. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bolgna. compare Da. in Sc. a bubble Gael. mass. globule bolg-lhuingey. or bear out as a full purse. mass. nave or body of the church van 't schip. — — . turgeo bolnyd. In the representation of natural sounds. skin flayed whole. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. to throw out a convexity. balg. body of a ship . bubble {palgan tiisge. . Dan. boa. Kil. bullka. bouge. a bubble. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. to break bulk. belly Cat. in bulk. to belly out. a water-bubble). belgr. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. head . cultivate. bolso. To Build. the potato G. and N. to puff up bolginn. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. to swell. bulle. balgs. blow. lump. bulki. ' . bolg. swollen OE. stuffed bag.' Palsgr. a tuberous or bulbous root . bugue. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bulgen. puff. a stage or scaffold. to blow. swell. byli. a heap. the carcase. ON. boulge. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). husk. Lith. Sp. bulne. swollen. bulgen. bulk. trunk of the body. or cargo of a ship. of E. — Bulb. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. bag. . . bulbe. a protuberance. bolle. bo. ball. a bulb Du. swell. pulkas. biilken. unevenness Sw. a lump or mass. Hence e. buc. bulka. . tumeo. bulked or bumped out. belly Sw. sedes. trunk. pod ON. bulbe. boss of a buckler. . belly van de kerche. villa. blister. bilge.). a leathern sack or portmanteau. whence bylja. belly. snorting on a bulk. anything prominent. Jno. bladder. to bubble up Pol. G. Palco.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. ON. The Walach. From till. of an inflated skin. dial. — — . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. a round bulky body bwlgan. bulg. bolgan. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. thorax buick. Mandeville. and put it home. bale. (3oX|8oc. belly. straight will he 2. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. lump. the position of liquids in the word In English. a dint in a metal . Bolke or hepe. See Bulk. or feminine termination gives Bav. . bunch or projection. . OSw. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. The addition of a dim. domicilium. the capacity or burden of a ship. Lat. Bourser. pocket. formed a farm.pulks. leather sack. bulk is a partition of boards. a globe. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. Here stand behind this bulk. womb. belgja.'— Cot. The radical sense is shown in Russ. Bulk. on. For the latter sense ' — My . — . to spring. OSw. body. a straw corn-vessel. ' . knob. a leather sack or budget Fr. bolnyn. bolgia. Bulge. bubble. body of an animal. Mister. gebolgen. bulcke. hold or bilge of a ship. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. inhabit. He found a country fellow dead drunk. a prominence. the contents of the hold. . . skin of an animal. Lett. . Ptg. habitaculum.

a bull Swiss bullen. is called a ball. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. Bullfrog. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. assito. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . bugbear. bullern. from Lat.. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. a noisy violent fellow. it is boulet de canon. w.D. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Lith. stud. scarecrow. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. poltern. Bret. W. Scot's Deso. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. billon. It. Gael. a bowl. It. bietebau. sloes. stud. Du. a wasp. &c. a beam or rafter. Bullbeggar. bollon. Gold or silver uncoined. Sp. BulUiead. billoti in Fr. as the ornanails. child by the represents the hobgoblin. a stud. boulct. whence bullire. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Cot. See Billet. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace.. hhint. The bullfrog. bauli. /SouWivu. a seal. it may be observed that a bullet in E. bolla. Du. bulla.Fris. G. eth and frighteth.D. boss or stud. a hornet. as in E. dial. bullebak. . a cow.. bulk. from the use of the equivalent terms. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. See Bowl. in the sense of base metal. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bwbach. as geting. A papal rescript. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. G. as a mill-dam or the like. large. A lace tree. Pm. a blockhead. biitzibau. Eullrusli. witches. 2. G. balgeting. as It. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. bullos. beams or boards. blunt. bullus. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. also a parFl. leraures nocturni nigri. Du. large of its kind. blister. coarse. a little fish nearly all head. bolli. the seal affixed to the document. many to protuberant objects. lumpish. 2. which may probably be the origin of the name. in N. Du. to bubble. N. Terriculamentum. bal. a tadpole. any embossed work. bolli. bouillon. bouillon.'— ' Palsgr. bulla. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. brass-headed nail . a bulox polos.. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. from the Lat. The wild plum. Bullet.D. Dan. b2iggaboo. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a hobgoblin. bollos de relieve. 3. of the ox kind. a tadpole . but is more probably iden- palchetto. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bole or trunk of a tree. bolos Fr. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. to tical with Sw. bulloi. w. a bull. Bullace. and thence terror. embossed work. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. thick. pollach. ON. — A tition in a ship. Fr. is of a class with Pl. of boule. Fr. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. signifying roaring. lumpheaded . poli-cheannan. on the contrary. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. ba. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. whence Mod. bollar. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. any great-headed or studded nail. The male W. bellow. i. to seal. bulk of a thing.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. from the noise. of Witchcr. a scare-bug. to bellow. elves. bwla. stamped money.' do not go by the dangerous water. bellocier.lle de fusil. This word is used in several senses. also of the tadpole or young frog.Gr. — — Bull. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. The final element tergeist. tition of deals instead of a wall. stamp. pwl. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. from baula. bulle. dim. and vellon in Sp. bullocks. poll-cheannach. I. pimple. a hobgoblin. bulderen. a seal. BuUiou. polten. boss. round glass phial. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. from Fr. penbwl. stupid . — Fl. Bully. Pl.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. however. baula. to boil. bwlas. spirits. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bulke. urchens. bubble. And The word bullerbak. the matrix or die . G. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. to emboss . boillon. a framework of balks. a bul-begger.

To bully is to bluster. bombilare. intonare. buller-bas. to make a droning Du. or a humblebee. The 27 Ed. AS. legaggio di metallo. boene. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. un faux brave. to drum Lat. IIL st. to terrify by noise and clamour. — Boom. From the notion of a humming. violent overbearing person. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. Thus ' ble. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. perturbare saevis dictis. baluarte. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . ierd-beame. argentum and silver.. or work of defence.the ramparts. scaffold.. ^Bully-rook. bolderen. 2. &c. G. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. a hectoring. beat a — Hal. boisterous fellow. — Bumto . For bottom. The Sw. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. Bum. 10. noise. provides. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. honunele. St.D. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. Hence — . is called bumping or bells. boulevard. droning.' agger. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. bottn.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. on the other hand. minari verbulderen. It. 2. blunder-buss. a bumble-. 1305. c. Kil. c. The Stat. to . polterer. Fris. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. a noisy blustering fellow. The decried coin. bodem. Kil. 'lega. — — plate d'argent. 9 E. primarily the ramparts of a town. John). 2. by corruption boulevart. bommele. clamour. bastion. Du. c. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Bailey. bol-werck.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. — bombam?nen. provides. Fris.' Stat. ground. ^i^/«. buller-jaan (bully. III. vallum. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. buller-bak. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. a. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' Again. and porter au billon. biihne. 14. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. To Bum.' ' mettre au billon. is bullion — A — buller. botm. bomtnen. a stage. buller-bas. bustle.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. but now is the central part of the town. to dun.D. The cry of the bittern. 1687). buller-brook. G. then in general a rampart.' reals of standard currency. Bully. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. — Bump. Etym. ierd-boeyme. A. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . To bum. Bully-rock. D. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Du. IV. sound.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. ON. buene. Philip le Bel in Due. resonare. agrees with e. Sw. up was termed monnaie de billon. 4 Hen. propugnaculum. Kiittner. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. furious man. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. to make a noise . Hal. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Hence bom and ban. a boisterous. poltem. To bum. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. BULLY with which coins were stamped.d. debacchari. G. a blunderhead. bottom.' for the purpose of exchange. a floor. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. blunder-buss. hum. blaterare. block-werck. Bum-bailiff. Du. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Fr. the soil. from boden. violent. Miege in Hal. bulderen.

Again. . pumpurras. bunga. Hence E. bottom. bunka. butt end. . bull.. while bulch was traced through Gris. bune or boon. bunnion. one ever saw the word in that shape. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Bony. a pumpion or gourd. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away.' Bun. a hemp-stalk. bignet. root. a heap. a knotty stick) Sw. to swell out E. seems to unite Gael. are dim. Daal bu7iseti. as we have seen E. to bang down. a swelling. forms. Suffolk bonnka. a knob. — — Bun. to ' . a Sp. a bag or sack. or grete knobbe. S. Forby.S. bolsa. il me pousse. bumtel. OSw. A Du. bundle. stump. — — — — ' — knock. bun with ON. hay stubble . Fl. throw down with a bang. bottom. any round knob or bunch. to .. — Marine Diet. a dry No . bmike. bamgetroffen. — round fruit. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Dan.D. mto Sp. bottom bun feoir. knob or heap. bung. a tail (Macleod). loaves or lumps made of fine meal.). Related on the one side to Pl. w. stump. It. a heap OSw. a swelling from a blow.D. Manx bonkan. bulse. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bunga. and related with ON. Fr. stock. Sc. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive.pummel. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bunan.' he fell with a bang. bonge. Bun. . poumpido. abrupt manbuns-wise. Gael. bannock. any round knob or bunch. from knock) It. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Bunch. bugnet. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bongie. 1. pwmp. to bang ON. gibber. bund. a lump on the foot bunny. Hal. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. H. Hal. a bowl P1. — — de dor bunsen. strike E. truss E. a large . strapping. Sc. a dried hemp-stalk. — — Bun. pompon. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . He buncheth me and beateth me. binge. a hump. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. cluster. lungeous. . a heap. Hal. Kyx or bunne. Bump. and signifies consequently a mass. calamus. E. He fult dat et bunsede. Du. ner. to beat. a rabbit. as in other cases. bu<rnone. . To bam. E. . 114 BUMBOAT Bun.! . See Boss. Probably from bump. or to the mass by which it is given. bumsen. tundo. a boil (punkos bot. bunch— Hal. Pl. bungersome. stubble Manx bun. dial. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Bang sen. inconsiderately. bugno. the tail of a hare. round mass of anything. Bunch. knuckles.-^Fl. passes Sw. a bunch. a heap Wall. poumpi. a button. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. blain. Li cake. a knob. bulscha.P. a round mass . Bumsen. callus.— Pr. Lang. pompette. Mrs Baker. . bugno. Moor. to thump. Pr. Thus e. a pocket Sw. bunke. Ir. also for taking a pilot to a ship. bugnone. bun eich. Gael. Hal. lenten loaves. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Bunk. Radically identical with Dan. boi7ieog. See Bounce. bunt. stock. a. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Pm. — stalk . Then. signifying one who does things in a thumping. . a wallet. applied to young persons. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Dan. pwmpl. Bung^. . dial. so the form btmk. a bump. clumsy. Fr. Pm. to knock . buns. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Holland and Flanders. botn. bump. . trunk. bonnock. —Bunny. . a purse .^Cot. Bumpkin. awkward clown. banga. banke. stubble of beans. a person employed to dun one for a debt. pumpa. w. Bunewand. bum-boot.' Palsgr. a heap or cluster. knochen. A clumsy.— Bunnion. bunki. . large. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Pm. Bumboat. to . from bunsen. a boss Lith. a knob . Probably for bun-boot. . should probably be a short tail. bulto. bonuach.D. the Pr. foundation w. to bang. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. . noise. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. a. gibbus. bunkc. bunsen. bunken. clown. a knock. Pl. nor would it concern the public if he did. a into Dan. a boil or blain. bun. E. especially girls. a bud. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bunny. a bunch Magy. bmidt. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. protuberance. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. stem or base. pwmpio. hdk passing and E. Roding. &c. See Bunch.D. bon. ! — knocking. explaining E. a rabbit. stalk. awkward. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). lump. root. Bums it's hit. an old stump of a horse. bans. to beat.

boj. to float. bondel-loos. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. on. punishments for prisoners. Fr. to strum on an instrument. Sw. Russ. bungande. Rietz. a boye. So Du. Sp. * Buoy. bourgeon. that the primitive meaning of shackle . bundel. bounta. dial. to hum. Kil. Fr.punt. Burden. tapp (whence tceppa. bongun. something bound together (Mrs Baker). of a song. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. a wisp of hay or straw. B. contignatio. and now more Bailey. buret. stiimpeln. fetters. to push ghebondte. dark grey bura. was formerly pronounced buro. Biu'geon. So in Pol. to stop. Pl. bouchon. biirde. The word is flags are made. racket . ghebundte. modem bummle. 202. boil or bubble up. with the head. bonde. russet. bangla. bote. shackles. to work at carpentry bangan. bommen. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Palsgr. Bundle. buove. bouche. to cobble. a cork. bunsen. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. dicimus rufum. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. AS. is originally a wisp or bunch . would be the earliest float for an anchor. halm-tapp. Sp. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bondir. ho-tapp. to knock. racket. Sw. knock. tinker . bindini. to pype.Fris. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to stop. generally known as the material of which bud. Banff. and E. ' — work . klempern. To Bunt. to Somerset is to sift. working in wood (especially with an axe). an anchor buoy. bond. . p. bon. clogs. also a piinple in the face. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Compare G. a sort of helmet. . bangla. to bungle. the loose open grow big about or gross. the float of an bundle. and Du. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . G. The Magy. burion. to gingle. la Borgonota.' Festus in Diez. Burly. . bondeau. from beran. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. — btiruii. Johansen. boya. banghagr. — Bureau. bou^e. OG. the stopper of a cask). then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. stocks or such OSw. to gingle. banga. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. on. boucher. Bung. Prov. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. E. Bunting. the bung of a barrel Lim. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. coassatio et Du. bundle. and bomme. Du. bury.— . to bear. bourion.D. a botch. unskilful working. To do anything awk- wardly. to push. knocking. are from bouscfie. to botch. to knock. burboloti. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. Fr. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. byrthen. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. noise. The Fr. Cat. to work ineffectually. driving in the bung. bag to catch the wind. do a thing bunglingly. or putting forth of a vine. bunta. See Bun. clumsy performance. B. to kick. the middle part of it. To burgeon. a bunch Burbulas. to hum. especially in wood. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bonde. A Dan. klimpem. to in to stop the hole. a water bubble made by rain. colligatio. Fl. The belly or hollow of a sail. Prov. bolting-cloth. dark. Bunny. bondon. Hal. The stopper for the hole in a boia. whence bunting. bourjon. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. guggle as water. bundt. — — . and van t' vat. a bunch. bummle. Sw. Bret. Sp. tap. the young cloth used for sifting flour. Burden. sprig. whence in bure. byndel. — — To Bungle. OFr. See Barbarous. anchor or of a net boyar. a bungler. to push with the head del. to bolt meal. to stnmi on an instrument. bui. AS. however. bove. dial. bourguignote. to hum. tinkle. Burganet. Lat. Burble. shove . the noise of drums. borgonota. Muratori. . in is Fr. OFr. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bongani. G. knocking. buret. bimge. rumble as the bowels. buie. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. a bung. To bunt. A load. and the Sw. Fr. loosed from bonds. a drum . reddish brown. fascis. stilmpern. to bud forth. See Bourdon. Bunt. borboUar. See Borel. boei. or tuft. to shove. — . properly a Burgundian helmet. gyves. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. bondelj bundell. N. The Italian buio. It. to resound. bang. Sp. bang. A bubble. . or used as a receptacle for papers. Cot.

a gurgling ^. to polish. Prov. It is probable indeed that Fr. tahkoa. brook. to ridicule. j. brinii. Burglar. with little iron nippers called burling irons. dial.j'own. leo Fin. borni.Ps. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. tahko. brunna.. . Supp. crackle wood in burning Hal. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. and OG. G. ridicule. The in. the flocks. bourou. borr. burgen. has also borr. de Vaud. 122. — . borracka. in Schm. sbornoi. See Berough. brausen. 56. to swell oneself out as birds borras. burlare. an edge. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. a wine skin. Cot. OFr. a prominent eye borracka. as the / in purl. as of suggests. a lie. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. brinnen or Also ein roar. a purling hiwe brennen. ii6 BURGESS Gael. &c. See Burgeon. — Han to bruser op. brunir. brunnen. bruzir. jest of. bouril. swell up or strout out. to roar 5.— . occupying much space. Fr. to swell. Bret. Burgh. to roar.' Cot. brimmen. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. is termed burling. It. burly. boura. Bav. ends of thread. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. .. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. In the same way ON. a bubble to spring as water. borrelen. boiirre. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. the er is a dresser of cloth. sidiary element. embraser. barrel. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to fiy. and the Burnish. The primary origin of the word. borujon. roguing beggars. Antiq. Fl. OE. explaining the E. Hence Bridel. to puff up borr^ . joking. brun. OFr. See under Bore. to puff. to set on fire. to Gael.sharpen. burgeois. to burn. lerre. a bud. as Diefenbach bud. — — . Fr. toast. bururus.. Bouffer. must be explained on the same principle from G. brandung.. bourd. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. water. Fl. an &c. to effervesce. Dief. burgi latro. brim or edge of anything. burn. ' rugiens. — — . to burn. BURNISH i5«r/. from bryii. a margin. a jest. Limousin bourdo. Compare also Piedm. Swiss Rom. Walach. to sharpen. Burler. purrata. Swiss Rom. i5«r4 biiirte. like straw or small . — . is connected with brim. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Burly. — — . pressa puret. ample of polishing metal. bud or sprout forth. brustle. Burgher. robber. taunt.). to bourda. compared with G. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. brinna. Burn. Burgess. Pren7ien.' a jibe. abourioner. the word seems Pm. Pm. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. a bubble. to roar. language of folly or ridicule.). born. to roar (as lions. From the same root E. knob. Goth. it of the knots. to roar. laer. brima. buirleadh. repartee . So also Sw. brase. Probably. OE. pur (see Burgeon). from Lat. burren. protuberance. angular . brustolare. lorra. a fountain. brunnr. A — — . In the manu. brasa. ON. . a bladder. blow. Gael. surge or dashing of the sea . to tell lies. swelling borr-shuil. boure. fire. singe or scorch with fire. to sharpen on a whetstone. Probably a modifica. brAler. brusler being a faulty spelling. Bav. ends of thread. as in cousteau. a knob. from the roaring sound of flame. big. to murmur.or bubbling up. a jest.bryna.. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. burgensis. briis^. Pr. Burlesque. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. the J in OFr.— Pr. to hum. Schm. ^ttsa. the roaring surge of the — — — . fires up. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. bunch. Sw. From Fr.ireui£r:e. N. . a well. to swell with pride. and the Burin. broil. is an Thus G. to bouronna. de Vaud. ^Notk.). A burl. Lang. a spring a robber. to rub. Nat. A legal term from the Lat. tion of the root which gave the OE. which has given much trouble to etymologists. spring-water bumach. watery. bremmen. a blaze. become big and proud. to bud . condemnentur morti. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. burle of cloth. The Gael. bururus. Burryn.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. bears. thence. It. Sw. to ridicule. purling. and Dan. It. with Dan. like the wind in trees. G. a whetstone. to surge. to polish helmets. to grind on a whetstone. Lang. mockery. Fr. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. schleiffen. to To Bum. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. sea. Bestiary. brynsten. E. he rustle. like. tumentum. bruse. sicut sound. Castrais bourril. to roar. explaining Sp. purra. to give an edge to. flocks. See Burr. grancelli. warbling. to have acquired the sense of polishing. bourglairs. to make a So from Fin. Todd. Sp. to polish. to burgen or wax big.

Brun on bane.— . borsa. a pad. explained E. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. as in Northumberland. shearing of cloth. Shelter. its own protection. brast. berstan. break . talk fast and indistinctly. — Translated by Kemble. byrstan. Du. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. from Fr. a place of defence. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. S w. bourre. a rabbit burrow. brest. &c. It. birgan. skin. cover. Sw. borsia. bur. but it is more probably a development of It. Burr. Cot. byrgan. brist. tomb. impetus. some people in pronouncing the letter r. a sepulchre. from whence we pass through Sp. whirr. blurra. buscha. any kind of quilting or stuffing. borrow. brittle. It.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. brown. bristeach. and. G. bourse. Gael. to stuff. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. borsa. Mid. bris. and spelling. Burr is related to buzz as protect. pipaa. also ' any such trash as chaff. To Burst. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. byrgels. — Clare. shuffling. &c. chips or anything else Fl. shelter. byrsa. signifying protrude.' Harris in Todd. peluca to Fr. brisdeach. moss. This word seems safety. swell. Dan. perruque. brista. burra.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. In OE. shales. Fr. an exchange. OHG. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. and met. In a met. -burse. Swiss burren. A rabbit burmotion. To Bury. as for the protection of a child's head. With a slightly different ghen. ' BURR AS. bourse. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. root borr. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. mentioned under Burgeon. AS. a barn or cupboard. britar. Burial. beorgan. briketo. i5(7&a. brjota. I. preserve. Hence Fr. See Burgeon.. ON. that birds make their nests with. bolgia. the officer who bears the purse. to break. bristen. stuffing. birr. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. . Jam. byrgen. the — — castle or fortress. bur. Burse. Beowulf. casting bullets. a purse. G. borra. brokil and brotil. a purse. of a body hurled through the air. See Bulge. burgisli. 225. whence Kil. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. to bury . burre. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. briser. Sw. brizeto. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. of England. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. g. makes the disbursements of the college. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. be more in accordance with AS. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. verbergen. birigean. save. brisd. as from Sp. force. AS. bergen. fortify. ber•whirr to whizz. as it is still pronounced in N. 5150. a. borre. OHG. Burser. bres- — tan. . leather. appears under the Lang. brist. idiom if 4. burial place. ON. to hide. to burst. bris. Hal. Sexy. briso. keep. to P'air. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. borra. to buzz. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. bourrer. when they spring So in W.' The same word with burgh. bersten. barza. -Grisons bulscha. Fr. Port. Fr. purr. to mutter Sw. from AS. borre. E. cwning-gaer. to hide . a wallet or scrip.Lat. Du. straw. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Bursar. whirr and burr. ptcrren. brittle. dial. a port. coo. a harness or collar maker) . Burrow. 2. bourlet. Fris. beurs. husks. ' ' — — burren. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. byrigels. iii. preserve. brico. also all such stuff as hay. prsnuti. caer is a — — — ' ' : . Burse. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. The root forms brik. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. brickie. any rapid whirling biarga. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. hair.' edge grew weak. bourrelet. and thence flocks 'of wool. dial. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . brit. karborre. a morsel. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. . foretell great storms at 3. to save. bolsa to It. ultimately resting on the Gael. Compare also OE. an annular swelling.

the land. ' . dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. clusprobably Morocco leather.gur bidst austur um EySascog. . and we actually find bushel. G. to bow. See Bust. Sibriht that I of told. a box. OFr. AS. a tuft. qualster-boscken. ieorh. a little box Dan. bosta. ' . in the For Skirnis . a bundle. the past participle of the same verb bua. diminutives. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. occultare K. at bua sig. bousche. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. busse. bustula. make ready. bos. to keep. aheap of stones. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. a box for measuring corn. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. buskr. R. thicket of thorns . or — Busk. bo7ich (Fr. a bush. beorgan.— ' ii8 {chreo. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. In to Brutaine. to bury. preserve. berghen. biichse. Prov. The bone in a woman's stays. lump. . Sw. bulk. tuft. Harold G. truasc. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. It. to dress. bramble. Gr. bausen. Du. And her ful sone tuft. a bush. abdere. and from the Fr. to direct one's course towards. a hump. sur une litifere. as boun is simply buinn. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. The word frequency with which to busk is used. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. a gun biichse. a rampart. apparently a secondary verb. bua. a box. -idis. signifying to entomb.) to hide in the ground. : — . to swell. bossida. boisseau. bussel. to stop. projection. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. ' . a tuft guini. or the like. busken. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. bosch (a diminutive ?). ' . defence. Brunne. . to dress. bush. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. Bouchet. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. mount.Lat. grapes. to turn. The radical idea is seen in Goth. and thence Mid. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bush. borcegui. knot. and he cites wisp bauschen. Mid. oneself. bundle.' a box. Du. Bush. burial mound. protect . dead. —Busk. and not directly (as Du. rad. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. 'at bua sik. a clot of phlegm sart. to bend one's steps. bossen. van wijnbesien. buysschen.Lat. . to sepulchre. a -tavern bush.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. To prepare. ' —P. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. 2.' sheath. the idea of knocking. a wisp. Fris. is thus accounted for. in OE. hunch Du. basse. barst. bouche. Layamon. that the lend had lorn thorn. besom).' The word is explained by — — . the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bussare. verb. Le roy Richard mort. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a bunch. . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. brodiquin. bundle * Buskin. Thence byrigean. gave Lat.boisteau. brodequin tout noir. the Moors and of Morocco. a been written buasc. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. a grove bosch van haer. barsc in Heimskringla. boxta. . Malberg.P. To Busk. from the ON. whence bouchon. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . Thus Froister . box wood to bush. boiste. boistel. Ptg. to enclose in a case or box. Fr. bousIn the other copy ser. bosc. a tuft of hair. Sir Tristram. as synonymous with to inake one boun. buxula. to prepare. It. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. So from Fr. at buast. Du.-^Bushel. 410. a troop. brake. roquies. a tuft. Brunne. boissa. thicket {buski. which would later have truast. fiast. bustellus. condere. a corpse). buxta. Bush. bulge. then a tuft Sp. The primary sense of hair . OFr. bairgan. bunch. ch). bussellus. busk. to forest of Eyda. buxida. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bousse. cluster. Sc. il fut couch6 l^jkema). whente beorg. BUSH hreaw. whence at bua sik. borghen.fiasc. iriCtf -ifoe. borseof trees.' The buskin is said Bret. for at buasc. tow. induere vestes . They busked and malced them boun. boucher. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. wisp. hjul-bosse. See Box. we have Fr. a bunch of twigs. AS. basse.

Buss. Bav. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. small. Hal. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. 2l box. morsequi. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. hipista. Box. Rouchi. Fr. bisg. Cat. brusc. trunk.). a bulk or trunk without a head. log . of a doublet. mogangas from gonj. box. lips. body of garment. bus. a tree. bus and Pol. business. a mouth. bisgung. ViM. signifying trunk of a the body. 22. utarda.bezig. crack . From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. trunk of Cot. kupata. vessel employed in the herring fishery. mons. . worn to make the body straight . ottarda. brostia as well as bostia.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. the trunk. — clattering about. to bustle. So in Fin. bulk. The form brust. austarda. lump. and also a sounding blow. busto. Sp. putschen. sunt quas Hispania aves . the body without arms busque. 119 bi{tr. sera. buta. beso. bysgian. buc.d. an affair. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. bukr. bruskras well as buskr. forms morseqiiill. bust. bist.' Plin. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. but. to Swab. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . work. also a busk. trunk. — . Prov. a. a bust. Port. made stiff. bacio. btcc. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. butz. Lang. buz. abotarda. Edrtst. Fr. Xerqui. also a It. snout. the breast.D. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Pol. ' BUSY 2. to knock . bustla. busch. Fris. outard. buquer. buyse. A A busquer (Sigart). 2. Bulch. Cot. mohedairova. ON. body. . or Cherqui. Nained from Proximse iis zia. baiser. a blow. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. With respect to bust. the long. ' bistardej It. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. thick end. Swiss butschen. windbutsch. 7o\. Du. chest. Lindenbr. The proceedings of Parliament. a bunch of flowers . ^A. B. from jnund. fe^a. Busk. avuDiez. Lat. trunk of a tree. especially of a woman's dress.' ON. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Hence probably au-tarda. beezig. statue of the upper part of Fr. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. Bust. lip. outarde. as in moharra from harbe. mouth. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Business. Sp. kiss. Busitiess :c3iVi . busq. and then with avis again prefixed. bisegung. ON. To hurry or make a great B. — — — — It is like the smouldering. love gestures. tarda. bucha. body of a woman's dress It. a blow. also a flagon. Prov. AS. biseg. a fishing vessel. knock. a log. buc. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. See Boss. geidha. body of a man. Walach. or avutarda. of the human body (Grandg. says. plated body or other quilted thing. Fr. a great billet Cot. occupied bezigen. mosequin. I. Sp. a Mid. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. mouth. A wisp. otarda. On the other hand. bussen. smack. bus.— . cata — . tuft. A great sluggish fowl. I. as in ON. — Thus we should have mocherqui. forest. Namur — Champagne Fr. inde discurro et operosus sum. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. to make use of. in Diaz Gris.Lat. Busy. bysgje. a ship of some size. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. besongne. busy. a kiss. 10. body . The Prov. a kiss of reverence. a bush. ship Sp. abutarda. arbor ramis trunGloss. I bustle. besoigAe. busta. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. stir. its slowness of flight. 1372. a kiss. busch. an ostrich. brut. bust. BUSS Dozy from Arab. Prov. Fl. — — difications of the same word. Bustard. betarda. basiuin.pjik. lip. bu. the point of a lance. to occupy. Fr. busc. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Sw. biist. employment bisgan. body without arms and legs. — hardly be distinct from Fr. body. a busk. buc. stump. borcegui. Gael. stump. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a kiss. knock. would explain the G. representing a blow. and supposes that the common Arab. a large cljest or particular applibox.> Also written buskle. 1555. to make a splash in the water. I go strepo) . prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. bussa. putta. To Bustle. busche. a stroke of wind. pussa. stem. bnist. So Wes- terwald munds. a boat or small vessel . Bust. occupation. and by transposition morchequi. a backstock. a projection. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Comp. kiss.

' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. earthen which the debtor has adverted. bouteillier. a budget. able. . without. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. the bottles. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. tinction between but. collection of casks. ont jhi^ton. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. As a conjunction but is in every portion. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. mais. but one thing. similar train of thought is seen in ON. an outlaw from bouche. my is called the adversative use of but. Wall. add. "PLT) . Du. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. slaughter-house. (children) boc. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. bole of a tree. But when will you pay it ? the belly. viz. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. Prov. a barrel. calf. the name must have arisen before the within. Ben-house. But In Sc. boteria. without the house kept in bottles. bitten dai. bous. Lang. a butchery. Butcher. So in Italian from becco. Where at an earthen jar . the body of an animal. rotundity of the body. beta. a butcher. rumpf. boucher.' ' write. sup- meat and drink. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bag. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. without care. and bot. AS. bocin. ' Besides all that. — ._ bitten j biiten door. be out. young mais. If that where now we should compiler. without punishment . bouz. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship.' Thus Chaucer says. .' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. bute. The E.The Sp.in which his brethren are included. buta. a wooden cask. of the wine and drink. OFr.' — — ' . or what in in charge of the pantry. and with It. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. — we acle for liquors. is put in a class by himself. ways. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. Fr. bol. Lang. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. plain the conjunction as signifying boot.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. Fr. to-boot. barriga. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. bitlga. Buttery.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. belly. the mouth). Sp. botija. from as.jamin. bolgia. boquier. from boc. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. hollow case. beccaria. viz. butan. a goat. body of a shirt w. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. a cask. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . belly. bola. Butt. A A . beccaro. the Perhaps besogne — . Sp. the trunk or body of an animal. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. Sp. bisgung. bodifie. the servant in charge of the original object. large barrel. besides that . a leathern bag. hull of a ship. a baiTel . ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . the principal apartment. calf of the ' say. bochier. original sense of without. skin-bag. the store of ten. as Pantler. a small winebag. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. But It. belly. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . Fr. a bottle. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. bounds of. G. bolr. binnan. without buiten-man. the full expres. being wholly unten. the belly. It. the body of a tree or of a man. those in beccaio. the jug and in E. then hoUow trunk. bountifully. we find ben. ox. and the real origin of the and within . wooden receptthing to be done. outside that moreover. a goat (and not besides . Tooke's dis. botte.' there is really a negation to be supplied. Whatever is in addition to Butler. are. is well explained by Tooke. botilla. bout. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. by the mode in which he is treated. Butler. biitait slaughterer of goats . except. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. that which would be translated by Fr. moreover. boccino. a butcher . Here the but implies the existence of an. trunk. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. ' There is leathern bottle. beyond the Piedm. bhcciero. in addition. the present day we should say.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. butan ce. gives at least two pounds sterling. equivalent of AS.streets. which the word corresponds to the Fr. also a hollow vessel . properly a butan wite. without law. the precise correlative of but. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E.

Fr. but. Halma. W. a hill. caput scapula bout van f been. large head. a tub. -ez. from stossen. to femur. on. w. Hal. thick. a blow. thrust forwards. boter-vogel. tress. Du. Lang. boutis. From the noise of drinkables in a house. a scope. Bav. bodi. Gr. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a heap of merly called pushes. rabodd. to blad. in the R. a cask. give way. Fr.against another which needs support . Gris. waste ground. the prick in the middle of a target. a. a bot. the Butter-fly. to thrust . &c. a bolt. . nourrisson. geboogsaem. to push earth . both. Boutant. AS. poke. or person Schmeller . butter. a wall butor butt on. to throw . so as to make a sounding blow. boteria. Perhaps corrupted Lat. a corner horses' hoofs. a buttrice.to push. The word body itself seems identical with G. or or shore post. clunis. botten. A — — — . boil. Button. a dle . See Butler. Fr. a boss. From Grisons biitt. a stroke di animal. coxa. striking end. short thick thing pimple. a stump or club foot. The Bavarian potig. a button. So in English pimples were fora clod. to strike. * Buxom. Bout van het schouderIt. botwm. buter. to touch at the end. bout. but this is probably from Fr. Fr. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . R. fowl. bouter. Sp. butte. butz. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. pwt. any short thick thing. Buttery. An erection built up as a Fr. to abut a stone roof. bocgsuin. from the large knobbed head of botto. pwtiaw. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . and the true derivation boar. to abut on. suddenly . The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. — . Kil. of the present day. butt. — . povrvpov. gigot. obedient. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. botta. the thigh of a goose. To strike with the head bags. courtaud. aim whence to make a support to a wall. the thick end. bocsam. of E. stump of a tree Fr. nursling. bodi'. buttock of beef is called butr. i. as rejeton. end . an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. buttals. to cast. any small projection. the rosebud. to butt. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. a large belly. Du. to bow. butt of a person. then the thigh or leg of an to push . to thrust Fr. boter-schijte. what is kept in a blow. botte. to boult flour. Fr. the trunk. It. bud. .arbre. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. &c.— BUTT leg . put. buttare.thum and not button. an etwas anstossen. butteln. a mound. is formed the augmentative buttatich. to thrust. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. to thrust. having a rotundity . trapu. strike. to thrust. bouton. a. a barrel. Du.rejected thing. Butter. obeto shake backwards and forwards. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Du. Buttel-triib. bot blijven staan. hillock . bouter. Buttrice. butyrum. a boss. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. are the strips at the edges of the field. Buttress. Schmell. butter. thrust. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. — — — — . bottig. a mound of turf in a field to sup. boiUer. oir spike with a k coup . Buttock. tout seat or breech. botta. fle>(ible. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram.putan. the store of while bottich. as if from Povg. leg of lamb. a blow. to heap up earth or ihrust. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands.. dripping. grease that sets by merely standing. Grandg. a flying buttress. : . from bugan. — A . bout. bottich. to so close to the Fr. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Fris. a little push . buhsom. butt. From Du. Fr. Boutje. a ribbed glass for dient. clumsy . signify a cask or tub. stump. lams-bout. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a bun. from notirrir. To come full butt against a butts. potacha. submit shaking up salad sauce. a button. a thrust the thigh-bone. pied. To Butt. W. Kil. bott. boutoir. at. butter un. butt. bothog. Hal. bot. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. boding. Kil. boter-vliege.. — A .' thick from shaking. Btetter-schmalz. a button. a but in the W. e. ment being supposed to resemble butter. a buttress Cot. . bata. bouton. as in G. botto. Fr. able that Chaucer. G. Mur-buttant. bot. by boE. Cot. nourrissons. Gael. butte. an ox. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . to be con. humble. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Butter-glass. buttern. Du. from bouter. Schmell. the edge forwards. a leg of mutton. from rejeter. Bav.

Verstegan in R. stall. p. 519. —gracious of speech. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. bozzago. to wit. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. to pass by. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. buso. town having separate jurisdiction. from whom it was addressed. a meke thynge with — alle. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. as Fr. Byre. and boxome of speche xviii. bylove. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. lete. to stand at his side . byar-log. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. good-humoured one. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. ii. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. big.— Diet. It. P. son. leges urbanse ON. AS. OE. abozzago. to whisper.busardj Prov. A A We — — — days' wonder. harty prayers and God speedes. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. See Abie. Mercy hight that mayde. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Goth. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Sw. a borough. indistinctly. 116. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. AS. Du. Lat. also say. Dan. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. a town. Pecock Repressor. Buzzard.— P. blessing me with their of side. bei. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. to purchase for money. village. confusedly. and it is of good will. bees. gracious. called Cabala or Tradition. buzarg. Sw. bi. farm. bycgan. bylag. Originally the law of a particular town. to swear with him by . byr. and would have been lost in E. as in Da. The sense of buxom. train of thought which has become obso.in N. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. buzzicare. — 122 BUY P. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. Etynj. bij. lb. jus municipii. to sell. G. ON. & Q.. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bugjan. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. a beetle. bi. to buzz. a by-path is a side path . bauhta. to jan. . A ful benygne buirde. who makes abigg. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. tions by one. from by. CABAL Goth. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. It. Then applied to speaking low. as heedless as a cock-chafer. favourable. bohte. 200. 3.. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. The ON. iii.P. bygge. . favourably to a petition. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. buteoj Fr. 21. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . groat in token of his good heart towards him. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. \s\xy. buzac. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. bar. A by. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. byar-rettr. a buzzard or puttock. Cabal. Many good mological explanation. . frabttg- To Buzz. cow-house. By-law. To Buy. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. depends upon a esteem in falconry.

. a head (whence cabochard. as Diez supposes). cab lis. would correspond to cable. Fr. Cabinet. a booth or hut. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. brassica — capitata. a rope. Lang. caable (in legal language). akista. a rope. caqueter. and Ptg. giiare. forms indi. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. gaggele. havyar to caviare. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. surripere. hoard together. for the origin of which see Carabine. OFr. to hurl in Nat. headed. hovel. kabaSsen. — the ON. su/Furari. It. dirty. cdble. capuccio. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. a jacket Fr. gabardme. cabasser. vincially used in E. Du. cabuyskoole. signifies down.. agge machen (in nurses' language). OFr. kabane. Sw. a shed. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. a tunic. Coticesserint Swiss aa. It. — Kil. Sp. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. Mid. come the Fr. — . heady. filth. chadabula. chabla. accablcr. a covering. hut. whence Fr. a cabbage . cabo. dung. gatsch. Du. and the Arab. OFr. a cloak of felt or Cack. Etym. . . cabaii. cabre. Very generally used. has kabbel. cacare. cabus. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Du. Tugurium.. or rush basket. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. Ptg. aak! tandi like Fr. or cadable. stercus. a rope or cable. prostratio ad terram. dirty.' Due. as Turk. vile. Celtic. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. OSp. form kactal. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. to strain in such a manner . geese. Finn. serious injury — In like manner It. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. E. caboche. To Cabbage. wilful). lactuca capitata. gaggi. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. cabre. — Tarbe. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Cabin. bad. a headed cole or cabbage . manticuKil. Cappa in OSp. especially shepherd's frock. Fr. traboccare. mdhaigner. The double a in the OFr. aakkat'a. It is remarkable that the Esthon. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cadabalum. cabas. E. nasty. signifying properly a rope's end. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Sp. kabat. manganare. cab. Katr-iT-aKt. band. overwhelm.. capanna. Cabbage. caable. cadabola.. — . cabane. dirt and the Fr. laitue cabusse. ceach / exclamation of guages. disgust. a rope. It. kakaloH. properly windfalls. to put or pack up in a frail. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. . and Finnish lanLat. Antiq. Item habeat vocant. an engine for casting stones. headed or cabbage lettuce. to chatter. kakla. Neckam — by the wind. : — from violence without blood. originally an Gael. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Choux cabus. the bowels. aeggi. caable. . Mid. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. it would seem fundain children's language. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . Common to Lat. is probably unconnected. Cot. agge. w. Fr. 'habl. Didot. Brushwood — — B. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. The name of the engine. Lith.ticula. deponat a store closet. Due. string. as an expression of Gr. cabbage. precisely in the sense of the lari E. main. chaable. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. ! — . head. cacare .). To steal or pocket. from trabocco. Lat. as it must have stood in French. to crush. cabacho. a frail. in which sense are explained The the OFr. cabo. It.Lat. cabuccio. to keep or Du. whence Lang. Fr. covering. gaban. cabarino. cables. and as we find stones Mid.Gr. Imitative of the cry of hens. round or great headed. chaable. calabre. ckaable. maim. Kil. the Slavonian. the Prov. to hurl down. Cablisb. Fr. . agga. name of the projectile engine. caables. —Diet. The Sp. and Or. cabulus.Lat. cadabulum. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. From It. case. — Ibid. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Castr. Capstan.Lat. overwhelm (Diet. a car- We convasare. Cot. &c. capo. (ca/coe. kabas. cable . cadabulum. Mid. &c. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. or as an interjection of disMod. Gaggle. Due. cadabula. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. origin is the OFr. from manganum. disgust cac.

Sw. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. — — — Dan. or smooth Hnen cloth. A hooded carriage. cha'cmie cadence. As Du. Gascon capdet. Lat. safe. a mischievous dial. Du. cadaver. Cake. Cot. a wheel . hot. calamus. calf of leg. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. calcis. gavia. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. It. A .uv. In the same way Fin. cadere. &c. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. calendrer. Lat. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. calamitas. Cadaverous.— Cot. principal and interest. Calandre. kolo. kdtr. kakulla. kolesb. Sp. frisky. It. capitetum. coll. calentura. calibre. caliche. cadet. Calcialate. Du. calibre. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. incolumis. kalb. pith. lime whence calcareous. Turk. Due. Fr. Cadet. * Calibre. pet lamb. cage. a calash . calentar. a wheel . CALIBRE a sea inkstand. babbhng. cykevie. * Cade. ON. koeck. from Gr. a common cart. Cot. Cage. Perhaps from w. kolo. to heat. calessa. kola. The Calf. Cajol. gabbia. A — fall. when they are said to poor. To Calender. Sp. Calash. roller. kalfvan hout. Mrs B. chaudron. It is another form of the E. a reed. colibro. B. the lump and the increase. kaka. marrow. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. for green fields. capCalenture. Fr. dial. the bore of a cannon. without loss. loss. Originally from a Slavonic source. of which. its mother. hot . a cake or loaf. desire of land. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Sw. little chief. Fr. Lat. collop. lord. calidus. wanton. Fr. a corpse. Calc-. (in the augm. coop. Caddy. to throw themselves into the sea. a loaf of bread. or prattle. Calp is riadh.— Calliper. It. a fever. wretched. calpa. cadenza. Flo. Cot. Lat. cuttle-fish. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). a lump or large piece. To Cajole. It. kail. whence Lat. . See Kiddier. to sleek hence a den. limestone. kage. Serv. a counter used in casting accounts. to compute. chattering. gabberen is identical with E. KaKKat. kolyasochka. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. to gabble. caldarius. caioler. Sp. a small stone. Lat. form) calderone. a dence. Fr. is probably delusive. Cadge*. Du. the younger son of a family said to be from . Dan. Cadence. a roller. Calendar. lindrus. jabber. En kaka br'od. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. or colpa na coise.— . Calamity. Russ. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Tea-caddy. The young G. naXaiidpi. cageoler. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. master. An open travelling chariot. —Atkinson. from calendcE. a falling. one unduly indulged by. cauldron. . Gael. cavea. javioler. caldaria. — in a kiln. a wretch. loss. a car. to — Fr. hence musical rhythm. from the ink-bag which it contains. to . joyous . ' . the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. kat. A cuttle-fish. N. a tea-chest. . especially of something soft. and troublesomely attached to. Pol. pi. chaudiere. boy. on. . The Lat.warmth . kukje. taking it Sp. bad . It. kolo. Du. 124 prattle . a caFr. Lat. . prate. the pi. a vessel for heating water. Fr. Calamary. Roman reckoning. Lat. Lat. ben- kalf. From lerie. a cylinder. gabbia. calba. unruly . The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. a wheel. a wheel . the calf of the leg. calx. kdfich. rattaat (wheels). kalfi. cadence. Sw. kalem. the pith or soft part of wood. a hollow place. gaggle. Turk. G. calendarium. cake. so gabble corresponds with Fr. disease of sailors from tivus). Caldron. gaggia. Lat. gabble. signifies a waggon. to treat like lime. Caitiff. kolasa. of oxen and similar animals. of the nature of lime to calcine. to cackle . Fr. a waggon . Lat. reed-pen. from calculus. G. a low note. misfortune. ratas. kolyaska. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. pen Mod. kauwe. Cauldron. cabdillo. Fr. Arab. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. an ugly waggon kolaska. Lat. calculo. KxiKivh^o^. calesa. to cage. frolicsome kaad mund. kuchen. whence calash. to prate much to little purpose. cattivo (from Lat. Calf of the Leg. chetif. an inkstand . calidus. Calocli. cage. kolesnitza. a calesh. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. from the Chinese catty. a circle. kaeckelenj Gr. ever and anon. just falling. dead body. kaad. captive.Gr. It. Dan.

form in the kalib. dial. Ca. fistula. the heat of Now these Du. Derived by some from Arab. voice. which has its memory preserved in Du. sound. and sometimes a handgun. the hard surface of the ground. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . calclover. saucy. E. piece of bigger circuite. them &c. a feathers. vulgo Coluvrine. of the bore of a firearm met. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. or caliever. Diet. form. * Callet. Caliph. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. cauma.' Winter's Tale. a. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). water-tight. Fr. Heb. KaXka. . According to Jal (Gl. Among these were the turn. abto suppose that E. koluvre. Sp. Hard. but is only a jda-kallo. glotton. Mid. colubrina. * Caliver. calor. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. 125 Prov. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Du. having a thick skin.position is much less common than the geschut. Call. calvus.(jaa= ice). Antiq. Diez. push violently. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. and heat. to say. Mil. the latter of chamber. Lat. prattle. kael. moso. a last. moist.' Whitby Gl. given. calibre. to rail or scold . Unfledged. Fr. try. Ibid. kal. quiet. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. bald. calma. diameter of a ball. longior. Dief. The origin is Gr. or mould. It. Fr. Calico. ' pert. culverin. brawny. can be distinct from ODu. to calk. Bi. to affirm. kahcwe. kal. a round of abuse.Lat. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Calm.' Slange. Lat. NE. people's remarks. 'A callet of boundless tongue.' But it is hard Du. serpentina. The word was also written cawme in OE. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. kol. calicot. The reference to heat is preserved in. khalif. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. cotton cloth. colubraria canna. qAlab. — — — — — . klover. kil-u-kal. to burn. drive. To drive tow or oakham. calma. heat. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. calca. Fr. . the day. kind heat of the sun. ram. tapulta. a successor. kalla. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. donderbuchs Sp. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. whence couleuv. trull. faint. the Fr. chatter kallen. Callow.piicede Lat. and dragon. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. To century was Squalibre. Gael. Ptg. hollaing.— . and E. gossiping. femme frivole et babillarde. hallottaa. to cram. the Fr.. calme. To Calk.' Chaucer. serpens. oldire from audire. i.from Ka'tm. to call. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. calat of leude demeaning. To call. coluber also. skin hardened by labour. overscalmaccio. calcare. to tread. scalmato. B. Sir John Smith in Grose. to abuse . — Fl. done with heat Alt. which is as much as to say. chatter. sence of wind. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. quA librd. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Indies. Sup. to callet. cahna. Kil. or languishing drought is . an adder. Mahn derives it from Lat. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). calleting. to call. sclopus. on. quality. So It. Fin. to prattle. — — — — — . nautique). however. to be of a good or bad quality. calibre. calare. bombarda Cauma incendium. the scalp or skull. The primitive colubrina bombarda. overheated. callum. Turk. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . of a column. calcaich.en~ kinds of firearms. ' rine. harquebus or handgun. faint. Fin. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. couleuvre. depreciatory term for a woman. ululo Turk. to proclaim. a soldier who the It. from Calicut in the E. calgua. caillette. Lang. coulevrine. by many that the weapon Callous. tittle-tattle. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. whehce it was first brought. word of mouth . Due. heat. CALM to press or stuff. a good calling. caliver. Gr. hot. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. u to an I in such a colubrum. calc. dragoon. Kil. AS. Sc. whereas in troth it is not. coluber. kallo. sestus. harden by pressure.meaning of the word. to hear. Sp. licht stuk The change from a. dragonder. a drab. callus. scold. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Kavfia. caluw. calo. cauque. calk. alta voce ploro.

chommer.. or hollow of a flower. chaitcre. It. crooked. canistrum. candidus. to break._ kamm. had no r in de bric— Cot. — Lat. a field Greek monk. Cambrel. . Bret. See Canker. hooked. cancello. KafivTu.—Candidate. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. an eating. camelus. Calver of cane. clothed in white. arched. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Lat. Lat. w. Peter Martyr. the type of a hollow pipe. to bend. to warp. Mod. cere : Lat. It. Camisade. water chamlet . properly good country. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. camber-nosed. cup. Cambray. bis. From fluting or furrow in a column . camafeo. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. field . It was distinfrom work. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. E. Caloyer. samon. arched. chandelle. or Caribs. The Grisons cauina. having an aquiline nose. monk. cambr^. Arab. spot for cattle.' ' Quhen a lattice.—Jam. would plenier. KafitjUe. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. salmon. Camel. brought from Fr. Cambric. Fr. fair. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Fr. E. B. B. cAouma. from xaXbg. camelot. camisade. is Candle. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. the bed of a stream. Cann. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Sanson khanda. Lat. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. campo. calj'x. a piece. ckaouma. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. Candid. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. An eater of human flesh. ko/utuXoc. a large drinking . Canal Channel. calutmiia. crooked-stick. champagne. nia. icaSoytipoe. unwater chamelot . Canibal. when its substance appears inter. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. It. E. Fr. toile some of whom. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair.— Chandelier. campaign. India Islands. It. whence Fr. Sp. canalis. sugar.—Cambrel. A — the Cannibals. camaien. Fr. Or the word Lat. higher in the middle than Fr. Fr. champ. sore. Candy.Gr. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. the salmondis faillis thair loup. frank and sincandidatus. the space of false imputation. catmneo.— Hackluyt in R. canis. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Fr. slander. across — Bellenden in Jam. Turk. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. camiscieia. cambren. the calix. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Lat. cambrer. to jut. Lat.— B. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. on. white. Gr. Palsgr. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. — Cancel. campren. campagna. lattice.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. cam^e. to bow. candela. the spersed with white flakes like curd. also an eatmg sore. chamold man. the heat. mg Canister. se cameloter. Calumny. camiscia. different sections of the like the Chinese. crooked. callour. kanna. ation. It. cainahelus. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Campaign. at the ends. good. canna. a. Properly calver in the field during a war. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. from candere. lie level. a dog. campagna. whence the Fr. cambre. Fr.who their language. Calyx. Canker. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. a. Canine. It. a basket. to bend. . Gr. crook.Lat. callar. cancer. Lat. Cambrav—Cam.conduit-pipe. — B. a may have acquired that signification from plain. co7nbar. Pers. crooked. Cot.' Forme of Cury in Way. fresh. a' Sc. Cameo. Camlet. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. campus. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Ptg. Cancer. aged. Lat. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Mid. died in 1526. lame. a caught. camahutus. a goblet bud. Sp. a crab. campo. campagne. whence the noun signifying an applicant. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Kakoycpos. Sp. is Cambering. paign. to the force of the wind. arch. Fr. cup. camp. and yspiuv. to glow. camisa. From campus was formed Lat. In a different application It. aspirant. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. open and level ground. Camp.

Canvas. hemp. say. as. edge. Esthon. cane. Gael. cover . Capari. cappa. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. from canna. cane. or cantell of bread. a division of a country. Fr. kand. a side. it would have been found in the continental languages. canapa. cannu. Fin. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a drinking glass. contain. cantred. Picard. haitt. Fr. region. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a cloak. trine. a horn of the moon . From Lat. Swab. Sp. hamlet. capax. hemp. Kil.Gr. See Chape. a ship canot. from . It. able to receive. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. canteau. Coal burning with bright flame. coarse hempen cloth Fr. capello Italis. margo panis diffracta. to con- rummer. ON. canoa. Capacious. border Dan. The word seems to be taken from Gael. the heel.n. quarter. Schwab. A . from cant. hirnschlapple. N. and tref. the part easiest broken off. call. Sp. To canvas — . . cape. &c. a torch. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. language. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. KaTTiram. measure for cloth. . schlappen. Fr. quito curtain. kandt-broodts. W. Cant. Germanis kdppen. a rule or standard of excellence. Lat. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. &c. Prov. a pipe. speech. See Capt-. a door . he discourseth of dissection. pipe. It. . a gelding. a wine-cellar or vault. cannone. part. Canopy. to contain. coarse hemp. But it may be different source. to shut. border. cappe. was formed Kavtiiv. From Gr. To his judicial And trowl the tile. tain. also a measure. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. a cantle of bread. kantr. Again we have Lat. from Dan. leiwan kanta. cannabis. The — . and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. cantref. a ruler. kynnel. canonici. coat. side. caparazon. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. chape. the quartile. cover kapi. Probably only the augmentative of canto. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Diez. Kavt\. a corner. Cape.— Cot. Jonson. A piece of anything. Du. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. is found languages of very different stocks. a — A — Cannel Coal. a Fr. Canoe. A slow gallop. Canon. cappe. regular. Alamannis. has kahn. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Canteen. capa. a cane. quarter . The meserseum and the mesentericum. a scull- — here.Gr. Canton. capace. and met. to sing. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. a reed. to put upon sacred writers. the tried list of saints. a boat. from a Canter. a straight rod. a hunch of bread. being a yard or thereabouts . covered.CANNEL vessel. signifying cover. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. cope. It. corner. capevole. a cap. root cap. canon. a cover Turk. cane. Goldast — in in Schmid. kq. cantina. Hence Lat. Cope. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. canevas. gnat. astrology. chanteau. and hence a gobbet. clqse. cannevaccia. a reed. carcase . rumme. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. shut. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. cane. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise.^on. cheese. canto. canvas. and the sex- &c. kyndel. To Canonise. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Cannoii. name. canton. If the word had been from cantherius. cainnt. It. KCLvva. Capable. . territorial hundred. chantel. cannevo. a small boat. Cantle. a cloak kapali. or hold. It. Wtb. canonicus. like a torch or candle. kanta. lump. a tube. the heel. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. canapaccia. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Mod. It. kwvwxIi. cantone.. It. as a cantle of bread. which is not the case. schlapp. Sp. that the G. hood. OFr. can. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. B. Gugel. a hundred. kapamak. Cot. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. properly a large Prov. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. kaput. Mod. Palsgr. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree.

brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating.'— Trev. end. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. riccio. horror. curl. the initial mute of forms like Gr. caprice. then to shiver or shudder. Sp. a goat. to broil. toy. caprice It. aggricciare. to desire earnestly. a kid. capriol or caper in dancing. . grillcr. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . for which he cites the Comask nucia. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. ericius. And similarly to yearn. a little head. a caper in dancing. to shiver. cover of a saddle. or represented by the syllable e. Lat. the whizzing of an arrow Cot.standing on end. gricciare. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Lat. capillus. It. frisser {frissement d'un trait. fansuddenly angry. to twitter as birds. Fr. a yearning through sudden fear. to shiver for cold. curling. rissoler. to ruffle the surface of water. prickly husk of chestnut. to from capitulum. the hair to stand on end. Hair-like. frissoner.' Cot. A . to crackle. where Burton adds in a note.Gr. and 7tucc. the head. or Lat. Hence capitalis the sum lent. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. bristling. brisciare. Lat. frort^Lat. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. with joy' Vikram. belonging to From caput. Cot. is either wholly lost. abridge amKoTroq. Torriano. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. caper j caprio. the hair to stand on end. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. a head. chattering of the teeth. Capers. then to be in a state of vibration. knis. cut off. hi. or. The true derivation lies in a different direction. capitalis. curly. eruca compared with It. to fry. I have shivered with love. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. grug. to shudder. ticchio. crackling sound Cape. brezilia. wriggle. ziki. castrated cock. — to yearne. erica. It. grisser. Fr. bristling.— 128 CAPE a rustling. a hedge-hog. caj)o. — — A a hair. bruco. airoKOTrrw. algabr. To treat Capitulate. capro. gives rise to brezza. a caterpillar. shivering. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. arricciarsi. cApre. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . Hal. hair. frisson- ner . brisciare. sault. and OHG. chief.— Fl. horripilation. they longed extremely to see it. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. as the means of earning profit. ribrezzo. s'hdrisser. It. gives rise to Sc. as in Lat. capriole. Mod. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. brisciare. knis-hujwud .' — (Supp. of a coach. <I>pi'?oe. heath. cappriccio. ^piKos. w. It. capriola. also the capriole. 75. principal. shivering. humorous. birsle. greziller. to . Acad. to broil. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. So from Sw. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. It. Genevese bresoler. as Fr. frizzle. the singing'bone). a young kid met. G^' Many words — ' ndv. castrated.) d'etre The It. a separate division of a matter. kid. a . Fr. Capillary. to parch. the head. or goat's leap (done by a horse). See Chief. hedge-hog. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. capparis. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. A headland. brug. Unexpected pleasure. explained by Diez from capra. a buck. capar. according to the Hindoos. II bresole (Gl. upon terms Sp.) grezille marid. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. of a fowl. compared with Bret. alcaparra. herissonnement. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. rihrczzoso. brissle. and with an initial gr instead of br. It is probable that Gr. of a tremtdoiis sound. the principal part of the debt. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. Griller d'im' patience. a ch illness. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. roughening of the skin. p. brisoler. Lang. CAPRICE twittering. and his body bristled We to castrate. cut. a capriol. The same imitation of Capon. a chevret. shrub. then find the symptoms of shivering. as Fr. Capital.impressions on the ear. greziller.). — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. or other things. h^risser. gricciare. Arab. as Fr. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. Fl. to crackle. It. It. arricciarsi. Caprice. Fr. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. Lat. Caper. capitulare. grisser. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . It.

conception. Captain. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Capuchin. Caseneuve in Diet. Neumann. Du. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. to creak. charrier. and tropically. to accept. capuccio. Nordfoss. Passing on into E.s. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Lat. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. &c. latterly. Lat. Fr. a kind of torture. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. recipio. also a kind of rack. calabrino. charret. It. calabrin. strideo. a sudden will. Sp. . concevoir. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. whence capture. caput. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. karra. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Capstern. commander. box. carro. a capuchin. Derivatives are Fr. karrende waegen. as in OFr. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones.of these compound verbs. or the (capo-riccio). tnoschetta. caricare. Du. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. G. OSp. to receive receptio. and has accordingly been lost in E. It. of the Sp. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. recibir. Carry. Fl. Capriole. carretta. bock. concebir. verbs gives rise to the element . man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. chirriar. trestle. Fr. di cappa. case. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. the -cevofthe Fr. It is a standing crab. Cot. captus. Fr. cams. and has thus descended unaltered to English.. capio. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. See Caper. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. karren. a she-goat. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. a fantastical humour. at least. to take baclc. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. of capsa. cabestrantej Fr. to creak. captive. Fr. a. sels. cabestan. Fr.). char. recevoir. kerren. &c. from head. — —Diet. recepte. Carbine. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. -ceive. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. as the dragoons (Du. Etym. dim. a sawing-block or trestles. karista. It. an engine for throwing stones. Capsule. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. as in accipio. a windlass. krul. a reception. capra. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . captivate. capsula. a creaking waggon. also to carry on a car . a coffer. Kiittner. contain. cabrestante (whence e. Lat. In cases. was a kind of horse soldier. carabin. Carabin. Lat. fancy. The It.or -cib-. to this is It. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. caThe hrestante. crab s. cabreia. Fr. i The meaning Car. decepte. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine.. deceit. It. -cept. was converted into -ceb. desire. acceptus. where it forms a very large class of compounds. to take. and of captus to an e. cabra. It. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. capp%tccio. hold. to take to. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. however. shivering fit (Altieri). and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. precept. a sudden fear apprehended. Crab. a hood (dim. was originally a missile . name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. chevre. Capt-. capitis. caprice. a head man. fantastic. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. &c. a hooded friar. — — Capstan. Fr. Cart. de- price. -cept. capitano. perceive. a taking back. one odd. a cart. It. accept. 129 — receive. receptus. except. Cot. seize. recipere. to load . a cloke) capuccino. concept. Fin.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). It. to please. intercept. conceit. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. charger. Sp.). — crab or instrument to wind up weights. chirrion. conceive. Carabine. a. deception. Thus the musket. to carry . oisr. crepo. concipere. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Castr. In the S. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. also tresFl.

a collar or chain for the neck. Gael. cerran. a ship. carquasse. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. skeleton. the carcase of a fowl. card. . and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol.. is the chine. burning coal. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Cot. caravela. a quiver. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. karri. decanter. a small weight. Sp. cramp. Fr. Gael. &c. Sp. garafa. Carboy. to card wool. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. the name might naturally Mod. krciti. a coffer. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. to draw in. Mod. confining. tcapKaai. casso. karra. Comp. .. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). to comb. espi7igarda. KtpaTwv. the dead body of any creature. the husk or cod of beans. a gem resembling a live coal. The Trjg xeXwwac. ' Vasa vitrea. to curry horses karsztuwas. restraint . vitriol. the shell of a torcarcasso. a prison. military engines made for hurling stones. the . a crane. Carcax. Ptg. chevre by the name of the goat. winding. Arab. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. It. mural attack. a quiver . to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. winding carach. cabreia. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Carrob. Carcase.Gr. in the same way that the Sp.' From the same source are SicU. a dead carcase. Carat. Sp. Carbuncle. the trunk or chest of the body . be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. carmiiiarc. bend. Bohem. carcame. Lat. carbo. wine- bottle. From the battering-ram. Cat. I. to comb wool . carabba. to card wool. carate. alia sunt majora. curry-comb. Sp. contract. Caravel. carcanada. caraffa..z. cardo. skeleton toise. the core of fruit . Gael. The radical meaning . ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. case. Gael. Sp. kirat. &c. It. carabe. carere. &c. constraining . cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a ripple for flax. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain.— — — . copperas. cabrita. a he-goat. ON. a firelock. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . kard boyd. See Carpenter. carquan. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Lith.charcoal . of carbo).applied to a battering-ram (G. carquois. the carob bean. Fr. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. or framework. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. quilato. wool card. quse vocant karabd. to creak. black dye. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a twist. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . W. is the word used in modern Lat. a quiver. a quiver . carch. a thistle. the case of the flesh. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. carcaij. bock and Fr. carbunculus (dim. p. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. eit. poison eiz. Venet. shell. matter. a card or comb . also (as Gr. Fr. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Pers. Gr. cabra. . fire . an engine for hurling stones. «capa'|8i. kerwan. Lat. Fr. silique. AS. karszti. a goat. for a gun. a winding staircase. . car. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Parmesan cassiron.. also a small weight. OHG. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . Cot. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. It. cassa. Card. Derived in the first edition from Mod. carcanet. Carbonaceous. of the same Caravan. It. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. cdrlag. ancient springald. boch. It. carbh. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. caracal. to ripple flax. Caraool. — seems to be something holding together. a kind of ship.. skeleton.Gr. a skeleton. . eitar. a thistle. a snail. Exot. caraffe. and catapulta. coming to four grains. to turn. an ulcer. seed of carob. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a machine for casting large darts. carcasa. avSpaS. a case or chest . a wool card. carta. properly a siege machine. a lock of wool . Gr. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. An implement for dressing wool. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. turn of a horse. turning. designated in the case of G. to hiss (as gee^e). carduus. a battering-ram).

the several meanings of the words above Rom. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. to fry. Carnage. carezza. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. — — — Caress. carminare. Cath. It. de Parthenay. Carl. Fin. to take Goth. carena. Cot. zanken . in St Jerome. Fr. moeThe Lat. or grumbling —Due. caru. car. For the root of carminare. clown or churl. msstus. Dan. Bret. and thin.Lat. Fr. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. solicitous. charnel. . charie. morosus. soUicitus OSax. carina. and murhet. a card. Cark. meet at a head. Sp. intrasset caro. care. karg. crawl. whence carricare. wool cards. & Q. Bret. cearig. to shake. the flesh of animals . an overloaded representation of anything. Fr. essere in carena. carriera. kroU-erbser. from the keel to the water . to card wool. to distress growl. No ' place there had. A mod-carag. tenax. Cot. carnavale. G. It. rixosus. from Lat. charger. Fr. ignarus. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. kurista. karout. charneux. . carcus. road. Card. A quirito ut infans. Fin. sensual. cargo. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. fundamental. Cargo. and compare Bret. beans. a highway. . the load of a ship. A place where four roads Mid. Sp. weyes. G. OFr. stridere. cargar. caresse. Cartel. mutter. Peas steeped and fried. caricatura. careless take care of. a deed. It. carriire. kribina. to lie on its side. to eat flesh. appertaining to the flesh. carch. Ptg. Carenare. ON. croller. . caMid. carcare. OHG. kummer. Groler. like connection may be seen between Fin. karrig. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. hoed. see Garble. . ON. caricare. to load. carnasciale. p. scharren. From. kumra. and G. w. to scrape . an endearment. Carlings. tuorfurcm (Burguy). — Carfax. caritia. It. charnage. murista.. AS. Lat. giierlir. graller. AS. Translated in MS.' Slceat. asper. murahtaa. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. compared with Fin. is to say. Fr. Mur. surrata. 1S66. Charnel. Caricature. a turn. quaver a lazar's clack. W. tremble. It. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. that Fl. in Carp. sgritudo animi. place for exercise on horseback. . Bois crolant d'un ladre. at murmuring. — — — : Cardinal. grolU. to care unkarja. cdrle. Fl. karl. the old theory of humours. Gael. to load. bottom. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. winding. . from carus. quarreG. act of moaning. cura intenta. charag. the keel. affection. male person. a hinge. cura may be ror. Farewell flesh. parched or carled. also a career on horseback. stingy. to love. the time during which to Rom. It. and sum. Fr. Coll. crosier. as quadrivium from Carnaval. carena.Lat. to comb wool. sorrow. kargr. sorrow.— CARD karr-kambar. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. AS. gakaran. Roquef. Lat. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. carrefourg. charg. karista. x'»P'"^s)) paper. astutus.. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. from caricare. love.— Charter. care on. 273. combing them out like the knots in wool. Carminative. carnal. a man. carnalis. principal. to comb flax or hemp. &c. fleshy . from carrus. as peas. to scratch. ceorl. that on wliich the matter hinges. carnis. to growl. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. quadrifurcum from quameet. 8. to rumble. dear. Fr. strideo. carian. — — Diez. Chart. Cot. Trin. ress. the keel of a vessel. what is felt as grievous. 2. be anxious. to load. carFrom carrus. Care. Carled peas. record. morosus sum. chartre. to clean the bottom of the ship. murren. piger. carener. A medical term from line —Boerio. It. charta (Gr. Venet. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. regar. crowl. or street. Properly. karantez. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. Sept. E. cardo. Champ. to parch. — — . Fr. camovale. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Probably the origin of the word is the . neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. the hull of a ship. one of those ac- 9 * . as carminare. kara. Carnal. in N. voce strepo stridente. cardinis. four. to fry or broil. niggardly . to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. W. . karry. W. — To Careen. cearian. Properly a car-road. to whirr (schnurren). whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. grief. is This however Shrove tide.

as E. maker of waggons It. chariot carbad. 2. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. a wheelwright. Mid. charpentier. gar aus / all out is correct. tymmer. Lat. i. Carole. chatter skra/a. carpenta. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat.— Patriarchi. carpo. bier. 2. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. cited by Marsh. differing To Carp. Carpyn or talkyn. 760. krapati. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. koroll. Templariorum — ' — Due. ship.' Reg. Analogous R. ON. Fr. Olr.Lat. zimmer. The tippling sots. in Due. pluck at. Nomin. culcitra. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. balade from It. carpat (Stokes). a plank.— Neum.]e bois Carnelevale. 1 1 30. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. The word seems of Celtic origin. On this. to chatter coroli. carpenter only in the latter sense. Lat. litter. So gone they forthe. charpie. carpende fast Carol. is erroneous. used for stuffing mattresses. lint. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Teut. zimmerspan. to pluck. Biheld within. krapanj. Ant. to find fault with.'— Stat. Pr.Lat. Carpet. vel coopertorio carebit.— R. chirp. Sup.' says Motley (United Neth. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. to rustle. a song accompanying a dance then. CarTo quaff carouse do use. carpenticre. Lat. carpetrix. On the other hand bumper to one's health. All out B. Alluz (G. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. in Carp. a dance. to dance. . The ' ' a chariot. . A.Lat. carduz. all aus). biheld without. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Pref. Beggars Bush. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. carpia. cxciv. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. carpere. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Gael. carpentum. Carpitam habeat in lecto. W. yede tham about. worker in timber Fr. to reel.gonnella. quoted by Carpentier. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words.: . Carpenter. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Carnevale. ! Carouse. on that. was formed Mid. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. skraf. Palsgr. a wheelwright. and Carnem laxare (It. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. and F. From Lat. In a MS. to dance. Cot. garrulo. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. as Fr. carbh. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Bret. to talk. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G.' Raleigh. Ein we find the signification transferred from . or a carouse fully drunk up. Mediol. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. to pull asunder. — . a drinking cup.Why give's some wine then.D. garrire. to gather. carnelascid). act of drinking a full Eq. as the Lat. of Guiana. Chanson de carole. Sp. Shrove Tuesday. Carnelevale. chatter. whence the form carnasciale. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. 94). pluck. e. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Properly a round dance. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Dief. Here's to you still my captains friend. ballare. I drink all out. peta. tattle. I quaught. course. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. . a carder. Discov. sense. i. The custom. querole. as carnaval from carnelevamen. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. carpetam (a quilt?). linteamen. a car carpentarius. cardos. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Bohem. The karole of the stones behelde.' Ordo Eccles. or loose as a couch without further preparation. in Nat. Fr. carpita. Other names of the sea. In Dominica d'autant. 216.— Drant in R. Gower in Way. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. fabulor. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. qui sacco. To pledge them thou refuse. gonna.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Pm. ' ' — . Mid.

quash. Gael. fortuitous. Lith. Fr. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. G. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. OE. one who reasons on cases put. made void. carroc- carrozza . a long coat. card. pasteboard. also the carriage. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. subject for a picture. afterwards any written challenge. cartella. Lat. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. To Carve. a chest. Rouchi carpHe. crown of a hat. hull of a ship.' Bailey. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. to fire on the enemy. an augmentative from Lat. — FI. cascata. It. vault hole in a fortified wall. It. carogna. casuelj Fr. Fr. a car. Lat. casser. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Fr. slaughter-house. to hold. to convey in a cart. Casque. the money chest. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. To duash. cartouche. caro. a hut. As defence from shells became more important. cascar. krat. Ready money. AS. augmentatives of carro. Cart. The Sp. a car. to bear or carry. Cash. from the sound it makes when Alban. dim. — — . Sp. casualis. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. an act of falling. Lat. to cut or carve . where Fr. to — — also casse. Hence casket. Fr. cia. to slay. caroche. Fr. Carrion. a chance or accident. caisse. Fr. Sp. kerpu. to break. cartone. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. — Cartoose. See Gristle. Fr. not reaching to the height of the ditch. gristle. See Case. and the OE. bag and baggage of a camp. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. kerben. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. carreaggio. cascade. It. mata. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Fr. casaque. from It. Flor. a loopscale the wall. casa-maita. cassus. casus. Cot. cassa. charrier. Fr. kerven. kasseren. carriaggio. Rouchi carone. shell or carcase of a house. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. Cask. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Carriage. mord-grube. case. Du. Probably. capsa (Diez). caisse. Case-mate. of carro. paper. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered.to annul. cassette. fall It. To Cashier. like all the names of tendon. tion from Sp. luggage. It. Casuist. Fl. caxa. properly to convey in a car. augm. ' Casa-matta. annul. to notch. carota. hung up in some place and to be removed. Cot. to dash. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. coffin of paper for groceries. Cascade. charrette. quasser. ceorfan. It. void cassare. caroach. cascare. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. a coffer or small case for jewels. to crack. empty. bitten. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. of carta. kirpti.' — Hdcart. Case. cassa. long man's gown with a close body. It. a fall. break to pieces. casitiste. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Rouchi carter. carretta. Fr. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. turn out of service. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. casacca. Fr. to shear. AS. to fall.' Cot. packing ' cloth. caisse. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. and that apparently from capio. a of water. for the security of the defenders. Rouchi caroche. to an- — Kil. cancel. Preparatory drawing of a It. crush. Walach. des rideaux A'carp^ie. casag. It. Cassock. carrosse. Casket. carroccio. from casa. the charge of — — Fr. corresponding to the G. — Cartridge. Du. mord-keller. cut with scissors. as we . coffer. gristle. casco signifies a skull. CartOTicli. charogne. something that actually occurs. It. helmet. Lat. abrogate. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. It. a paper case. from It. To quash an indictment. casa. cartoccio.. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. cashiered. Carrot. Fr. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. discharge It. blotted out. cassere. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. from Lat. and matar. See Card. Casual. discharge.— Fl. Cartel. hollow. The carrying of anything. case-maiej Sp. house. ignominiously exposed. — — nul the proceeding. cartilage. To Carry. Cartoon. carretto. Case. a merchant's cash or counter.' Fl. casso. Fl. cancelled.

to crack. . represented by the syllable quash. a vault. an enumerlist. force j Rouchi equerviche. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . _G. kottr. kakka. B. name. Fr. dim. It. first made ordinary Fr. on. chasser. It. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. down. Sp. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. catar. or bruise together. Roukind. Fr. klakka. a Cataract. from the first of Castrate. a little house or hut. the castanets for or implement . artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Lat. katze. To Catch. the ground . Cat. however. to close.'— Pr. the stalk of plants. mino. 134 CAST Catacomb. Fr. ecrevisse. castellum. Catastrophe. koshka. to turn overturn. V. cacciare fuora. a chesnut . To It. castro. Lat. It. to drive Cat o' nine tails. KarapaKrr]g. kic' kicil are used chasser. crush . down. ' Catchyn away abigo. a cat . .. to hurl See Awgrim. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. Castanets. execu. cacciuolo. to look at. and KviilSog. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. to cast or beat to tioner . a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. chasuble. signifying breed. to hunt. probably from an imita. fall. in the fire. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. n. kaJoivad. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. R. speak of dashing a thing down. torture. to lash. Catalogue. castanetazo. dashing it to pieces.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. to end.Rouchi Scaches. perhaps from which we have E. &c. a garment for performing the mass in. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Cot. cassa / cry for the same purpose. 'Vaaaw. fer toTa. 120. to is Essentially the Sp. casupola. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. cascar. castana. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Gr. Sp. casule. castello. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. casipola. rack. Fr. to clack. kasta. ating. was introduced. Gr. Yz. to Fl. to break. Pm.— Fl. ON. a fortified place.the / or c respectively. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. accastiare. sue. Fr. and from the castus. puras E. The E. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.. drive away. chasser. chat. Pol. punch. to bring to an crack given by the joints. casser. image accasciare. squash. Fr. of castrum (castra). while kiss / Pol. a thump. to dash. to crackle. Hal. and tomba. cash. under chi caleur. same word with break. Castle. which. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. lance. KaTappaKTrjQ. squash.out cacciare . stilts. kotas. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. a cat koshki. to torture. casulla. to scourge. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . OFr. ichasses. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Thus we have Caste. to fall as over a precipice. Etym. which has been retained in E. Cast. or Rouchi cat. to make clean or chaste. Lang. burst cascare. Others explain it from Kara. race. catch. handle of an axe. kasi. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Pic. KaTaarpifm. dash. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. The Diet. Mid. shaft of a 1 push. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. or comba. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. from water Karappaaaiii. — We a cavity. tails. . Hence castaneta. Isidore — in Diez. . like that of It. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. kissa. Gael.to drive out. is not satisfactory. dashing it out of the window. puss / for calling them. So also from It. . follow after. cat-o'-nine. Fr. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. kotas. the earlier sense of catch. KaraXoyog. being Fin. kat. Chase. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). bot-kotis. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. cojz^/a. cat. of sarabands does Gr. In the dialect of Picardy. heat . Fr. cacciarc. coming to us through different dialects of French. to drive away. V Lith. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. arpi^m. chaleur. cast.Lat. Fr. away. a whip on the other into latch. Brunne. second chase.

' CATCH Fr. snatching it with a any one. icarrix'Ki^. Du. Kil. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. to snap. gattola. fragor kletsoore. — with a whip. the OE. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. klatscherei. to clap hands. E. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. snatching. Kil. . a whip or Kuttner.s. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. chenille {canicula. catch. — Catcli-poll. the the same principle he was Fr. an officer of taxes. an accusing. ' ' word catch. seize. to snatch (said of dogs). millecaterpillars. cat is not apparent. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. ketsoore. chassoire. kletsen. a whip. Sc. with and without an / after the c. chacepol. to kythe D. dainty vic- a form lash. s. ictus resonans. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. a carter's Pat. a smack. Guernsey pilleure. woodlice. flap klatsche. chink. which all . ecachoire. Tutschek. is said that he got a claucht of it. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . * Caterpillar. a pill. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. glcu. wild-beast. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. cache. to catch strength. as of the latch of a As ! — .yopl(. snatched. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. c or ^. resound. Cot. e. a clap. Fr.V. chase. P. gingle. clatter. — tinman. catch-flesh. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. resono ictu lash. sound. E. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. from Gr. claquer. * Cates. to the crack. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. caker.' ^Jam. Fr. called dog or Galla catchamza. silkworm. instruction in forms. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. KaTtix'so. cagnon (a dog). Cot. door when it is shut. dainties. called in Fr. chachara. Du. bichano (pussy). lash of a whip corresponding to the G. verberare kUts. i. to harangue. in order). — explained. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. gliong. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). worm. bicho. to teach by oral instruction. insect. a little dog). happe-chair. 135 — Aasen. On Catechism. Diez. OFr. catch. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. compare G. Guernsey chafer. e. a caterpillar Milanese can. de Bray. chasse. 'Bxn. Chate peleuse. — Kiittner. clap. Gael. Swiss Lombard G. a cornIn the s. Metivier. companaige. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. a whip Rouchi cachoire. ' Fr. devouring mite or weevil. weevils. the elements of a science. Gael. 'Horxa. a — gatta. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. blow. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. whip. to A bailiff. . chatter . kaetse. GaUa catchiza. In the XV'e. klinke. a whip. Sp. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. . to take. pedes. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. latch. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . and suddenly a catch or seizure of any.P. caucht. klatsche and Norm.j. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. from shutting with a click. to chat. — . Rouchi clincailleux. Du. and answer. catc?u. children's name for cat .V. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. formerly called cliket. Caterer. predicament.from Bard and ayopsw. . E. head. Fr. Claucht. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. klatsch. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. klatschen. — B. clap with the hand.. apprehend a person. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. latch of. a. Grandg. smack. Cates. to crack GATES cache. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. kletse. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. to chatter with the teeth cake. G. has both or of charming by sound. . chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. ArbaUte de courte chasse. or any kind of relishing food tuals. a. quincailler. Kartiyopta (/cari.) . Gr. chatter. Ptg. the distance to which the ball is struck. Wal.

Jaubert. causa.—— — 136 correct. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . The word — . mutz. koparet. choufleur {choii. catkins . of delicates the most Her cater seeks. KaPaWrii. Cavalry. what . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science.^Hal. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. G. Pr. . chaudroii. It. from delf^gato. . challe was ther of a temple. Manciple's Tale. the. Diez). to ac- — Fr. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Cavalier. cale. cale. Pol. Rete. chair. whence cathedralis. A warm comforting drink. Chaud. Gael. cautus). Russ. cabbage. Dryden in R rete. Caution. macska. kitten kotki. to shoe . caballus. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. kocianki. puss. Cavity. achepter. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. cauHs. catons. reticella. chauderon. — — cavallo. Fr. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin.p. flock. Sx. acaptar. calqada. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. a The peel. to shale or peel. adcaptare. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. cheval. caple. cabbage). CATHARTIC sense. rete A — Prov. &c. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Lat. make clean. Port. to beware. ce^l. On the other hand. is Prologue. Du. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. net or caul-work. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. apt to burn iron. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. — . Cathedral. Cauldron.' B. deyntie meates. and spareth for no perell. by land. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Kavrijp. also to pave . capull. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. having the property of cleansing. chatideau. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. cabbage-stalk. calceta. the caul of the liver. Cattle. kocie. via strata. chaudiire. any Fl. ' Gr. Kil. 2. Fr. quire. KiwariKog. fur in general. acater. kassije. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Fr. kobyla. chausser. — Cauterise. Lat. . and at the rich man's cost By sea. catkin mitz. Caudle. Cave. to purge. Gr. a mare. B. kin. kaussijde. 4.^ acheter (Lat. CAVE Caul. a pavement. a branding from koiio. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. . from chaud. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Caballus. lamb.Lat. to sound like a blow . Boethius. katteken. otherwise written kell. a paved road. puss. shaled or picked Fr. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Lat. flue. calceata. from caveo (p.. despencier. Delycates. catkin Pol. accattare. KaHSpa. It. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. • — — See Chattel. to shoe. cat maczoka. w. Lat. Catkin. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. hollow. Thus Bav. puss. Du. accapitare Rouchi acater. little cap is . Jonson in R. a kind of skull-cap. Fr.willow. katte. Cavalcade. a seat. Kavrfipiov. Palsgr. kdtzchen. but the acates that are sent him. klopfend knallen. chaussJe. to burn. kopista. calotte. dumpf tonen. Cathartic.Y\\Xea. Richly she feeds. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. a pulpit. calidus. to buy. kopano. from KaSaipio. fur. Fin. walnut with the husk on challer. OE. chevalier. kobuiV. Provider. a kettle for heating water. Mid. caudex . cautis. It. Fr. hazel. minon.' Elyot in Way. Gr.Lat. Bessie of Bednall. Gr. It. a stalk. Lat. Wyatt in R. a horse . Fr. caldo. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. a road calceata. Mid. Causeway. Lat. . green husk of a calon. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Cause. Fr. Fr. . cal^ar. catkin Magy. Fr. and hence a skull-cap. Ka^afriKOQ. kautsije. a horse. Fr. hot. Caustic. That he was ay before in his estate. It. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. primitive is meaning a shale or off.. mudet. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. a receptacle for small things. little cat. cavus. a horse . . Cavern. cavaliere. hot. the stones of a street. a horseman. Palsgr.

. hollow. Soc. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. p. applied to a canopy. E. were met. a boarded floor. door-sill J Sc. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. the inner roof of a room of state. -cease. departure. caveqon. 43. tester of a bed. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Sherwood.' Marriage of James IV. and zaum. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. a log. empty. thili. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. . — — — toyour soverane. hung. curved. &c. is applied to a canopy. komo. sill. 32. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. with their substantives concession. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. as if from happen. kapp-zaum. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. . bridle. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. Wore. syl. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. Lat. thilja. cabegon. beam. See -cede.. selure. . and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. excess. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. menuiserie. a board. as. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons.' Ordinances and Reg. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. The It. augm. VIII. to canopy siled. thel. and then to gape. . plank.' del. Fr. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. It. in Hal. a log. cease. del into English without ' translation gave cele. —Decease. Gawaine & Sir Gol. step away. p. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. departure from this life. to argue capto tiously. crooked kopio. The importation of Fr. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. of cavezza. flooring E. recede. cielo. a fir-plank. In the N. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . dScis. hollow. -cede. a hut. give place. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. the testern of a bed. of E . the roof of a coach. thil. heaven. CAVESON kopera or kowera. 7. ciel is so unbroken. semely on syll. cedo. Cede. a canopy. coffer. sill in window-sill. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. ceiling. &c. &c. The line of descent from Fr. dayntily diglit. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. . Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. selar. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. Plancher. succeed. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson.j have come from this source. The sense of roofing. A — A false accommodation produced G. So from Fin. pp. — . hollow ice . but hang around at the sides. to cut. hivtmel. . Lat. Ceiling. Cam. dille. rafter.). that.' Cot. lambrisser une chambre seeling. . Lat. To seele a room. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Cavil. &c. a planking or boarding tkilian. in Jam. yield. and that from Sp.'— Z. nailes will begin to cling. to go forth. . lambris. -cess. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. Boyd in Jam. plank.' Rutland papers. cavillor. exceed. also a seeling of boards.' Hall. Cease. H. sky. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. sybire. a severe bridle.). seele. Fr. IV. wall. or of a bed. cellar. . column E. And seik — Cessation. proceed. to plank or floor with planks. thiling. the deck of a ship at thilja. dil. cyling (W. and Gol. canopied. little house. a beam. . Lat. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. decessus. cavezzone. Fr. — komo tain). Sp. Cot. Hence concede. Sir 137 pit . quibble. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. -ceed. wainscot thiljar (in pi. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. cesso. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. a log. Hal. . but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. . a canopy. Fr. heaven. 5. — . wuoren komo. in Jam.' — Gawan . jaa. koppeli. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. syle. post. a halter. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. to plank ON. death. ciel de lit. B. sus-lambris. cessum. board .. In the same way G. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. an aquiline nose. deal. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. a plank. ceiling. kommata. to seele or close with boards plancher. cabega. thil. thelu. to panel or wainscot MHG. a head. komista.

Cot. To chafe is for wine. See Cede. (and thence also) to hoodwink. to sleep). empty. siller les yeux. to set on fire. to be regarded as one celebro. -civer {conciver— Roquef. cerealis. as entering largely into the derivative certo. a tomb. — . appertain. a religious observance. to warm. Century. to distinguish. with transposition hence (of a day). called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. judge. to glow. a valuation of every man's estate. distinIt. Lat. oil.of the r. Censor. Fr. capio. sacred show. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. crevi. Fr. is totally distinct from the foregoing. being taken from Fr. of heating. Accelerate. ceremonia. Lat. Sc. 1. to seele or sew up the eyelids . concetto. -oept. the point round which a circle is drawn. Census Censor. to sepap rate. — A . age. to think. Fr. then to rub without reference Cement. -i^oivre. in Marsh. cot. make angry. S. Cereal. -ceit. concernor. see. heaven. Fl. much frequented. but was gradually lost in conceit. cceremonia. calefacere. Ceremony. abundance. what to set in a chafe. in accordance with the Fr. camentum. to visit in numbers. tax. Fr. value. contend. become heated with anger. OFr. Take the nedyll and threde. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to seal a pigeon's eye. — . ' . his office. irot\oe. and — — — possessions. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. To seel or close the eyes. mortar. the officer appointed to take such returns . Cell. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it.ing a room where there is not fire. parted sleep. a shaft horse. confounded ist from It. swift. chauffer. -ciper. sure. single or unwedded life.cern. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. decide. materials It. Lat. Celebrity. deceit. chaufferette. See Celibacy. or expression of Ennius. we have a modified form of (of a place). an eyelash. — . family. -cern.' Book of St Albans. a hundred of what- — . Gr. in comp. a solemnity. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. -cepere. to contend. -cebre ifoncebre. and met. It. criticism. hollow. sift. To Incense. ciller. point. pick out.unmarried. KsvTpov. is the opposite of disora virum. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. from Saa-rw. -cense.— Cellar. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. to attend on object with. the place where the de. Lat. For sess from assess. Cij(fe5j. calefare. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Lat. in comp. Cess. cretum. oil. to incense. — . with the eyes. caber. Gr. sting. and thence censer. Celerity. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. It. a Cemetery. Lat. festive. eschattffer. Centurion. censura. and thence to conceal. also grave opinion. Cot.). to burn incendo. Coehim. cillier. Ta^oe. Lat. Centre. Lat. sile. the hollow the Lat. a registration of one's self. Lat. to take.. cencer. — — Cenotapli. Assize. tax. stones to the production of heat. to blindfold. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr.j 138 thill. solemn (of per. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial.). Certain. Sherwood. &c. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. census. to take. Assess. for building. Lat. and put it through the over eyelydde. cenio. encens. -cipio. to heat. as in some places burnt. observe. K^'ivut. Lat. — . -ceptjun. cigliare. incense. goad. from censeo. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. rubble.. a numerous con. assess. . candeo. centum. judge Lat. a hundred centuria. to bury). -ceive. conceipt. keep in It. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. census. to course of people. &c. Lat. concerner. Lat. guish. eyelid. a storehouse Chafe. -cevoir. zens according to their property. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. /ctj/rsw. to prick. Incensum. dchauffer. cilibat. Fr. decebre) . or any bird's. syll. to twinkle darkness. celeber certus. -CEIVE a shaft. . Censer. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. the talk of men. Censure. cella. thence belonging to or connected with corn. {cori)cipere. renown be embodied with. blind. Gr.' Celebritas. celer. judge. thronged the participle cretus. rough from the quarry. — . a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. deceipt. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Prov. receipt. capturn. Fr. quarters for slaves. to chafe. to -sum. In Celebrate. to ensile the haukes that ben taken.— Chafing-dish. riscaldarsi. to separate. Fr. a prick. a solemnity. Fr. to rub for the purpose a hut. The term cilium. to concern. Gr. -cess. and so of that other. to celebrate. -cepire. to rate. estimate. Chafe. ciglio.

to fret inwardtronfo. a chain. ckapfare. sagrindse. rustle Challenge. kiqfta. Prov. Pr. Fr. chaps Chamber. rally one. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. to gnaw. hiss. breathe KaOa^oiiat.— — . movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. haggle. chafing. or puff with snorting. Lat. far lima-lima. green sagrin.. keffen. place See Cheek. From the To Chaff. — — — . to file. from the shark-skin. much more Genoese sagrind. Piedm. and signifies to consume with anger. calice. Fr. calix. — — — — — — . the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. ing rapidly repeated cries. a chough. of. cathedra. De Ir4. P. Bav. khah. to pant. dongio. to calumpnjamen. 35. to a seat. to buzz. Lat. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. a pulpit. Du. much blowing.nium. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. swelling with anger. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. great chafe. kever. shaIt. chambre. Chayire. keuchen. clamare. to babble. as a carriage is a moveable seat. to Latin calumniare. Bouffard. Chagrin. that leneth e per I'autra. with a:n arched roof. Chain. chicane. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. The jaw chafty. tattle cheep. Came. cadieira. difficulty . a double operation * Chafer. lime. to dispute. breathe hard. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. hordeum vel let. muzzle. Cot. leviter crepo Then. ON. a rustling noise. to move the jaws. cadena gives chain. calx. kuhata. bargain. chaire. sborfare. Fin. songe. kdfer. puffed or ruffled with ly. calonjar. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. cathedra. Probably from According to Diez. now a chair. Fr. grief.. From to go to law. to sit. ceafer. Kaiiapa. refuse. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. chawe. crooked. care. to gnaw. a goba rustling . chamar. cadera. kiamta. chaise. lime . (ca'e'ra) to chair. contestation. hght Chalk. from Swiss kafeln. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. quisquilise offence. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. fern-chafer. chaene. limare. Lat. preise. Gr. false accusation. signal by drum or P. Lat. Prov. chaffare. to caw chawer. in a monstrous fume. chafeter. 11. From Port. OFr. Due. Perhaps Pm. call in question for an ley). Fr. from of the G. in a cana. Fr. Fr. any insect of the beetle kind. and as this was the beginning of man. Camera. fume. ple^. B. baras of ants. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . yap. kdfelen. on. kahuja. snuff. calonja. care. grief. ing a hard case to their wings. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. vis. kedja. Ayenbite. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. kuhina. have a mind to parley. . make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. sagri. So from dominio. Lat. Cot. Pat. Chair. refuse barley . Fr. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. In vulgar language. camera. E. Wall. without chap/are makiinde. Lat. a pulpit Cot. havOFr. rustling corn. to action arose. Hal. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. ^Altieri. In like manto huff. Kuttn. kahista. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. fa sagramen de calompnia. kaff. tattle. Adelung. . kahu. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. talkative. Fl. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). puff. To buy and sell. G. kauchen. to institute anforensic action. Chalice. thick and short. to bark. p. . Pers. Fr. idle words. rustling motion challenge. cam. Halma. to ner It. cauvette. tronfio. Fr. kuhista. Cheffern. Gr. . often puffing. chatter. as. vel susurro. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. KoBiSpa. Lat. — — ' — — — A . Prov. jaw.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. a jackdaw. chaulx. dispute. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Du. to call. chalanger. a vault or arched roof. avena vilior. to puff and blow. kaff. cup. . to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. to chatter or talk lightly. kuhuja. chayire. catena. a prattling woaction.' Rayn. G. chaine. de Brai. gewolb. chagrin. kiaftr. calumnia. — . ceaf.sure carriage. matter by combat. to claim. also to prattle. &c. Fr. taubes korn oder hafer. — — — . to tattle. snort. cadena. charge with.

Lat. Chancel. champ. ciambellano. caer. boys speak of capping verses.edley. Champarty. Champaign. fighting place. chanfreindre. a game at football. to flute as a column. ON. to strive at games . from Fr. Campar. zampettare. to — — champ. — masterly Sp. broil. escazenza. received the petitions of the suitors.Lat. to to chew champ. or less ignorant.—Tutschek. chamfrain. dricka i kapp. to bevel.' melleia. to fasten oneself on to another . keiiipe. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Fr. Fr. pedilusor.—Charfron E. Carpentier. compound. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. E. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. schmatzen s. Prov. to be eminent. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Fr. Get campers a ball To camf . to move the jaws kiamt. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. contend or argue G. campus partitus . djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). kempa. — ^Tusser. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. dial. champ. chamble. pinch. cahir. kampeln. contest. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. dial. to groove bevel off a right angle. bickering. ON. to fall. Pm. Meleare. combat. to tread The sound heavily. a jaw kianisa. termediaries between them and the judge. fight. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. cadere. Fin. excellent. Partnership. The word is preserved in E. is explained by serrarsi. certare. campus. To hollow out in chanPtg. a feat. Fr. Lat. to quarrel (comp. Chamfron. giving rise to the as. kampeln. kimpUma. contention kappi. calidameya. dial. hero Sw. kiinp. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. a bundle. jeu parti. dial. See Camp. Du. dispute Hal. kinipen. — Ch-amberlain. wood. gewolbt. camerlengo. Hence (with the nasal) w. . hot. game campio. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. kablys. difficulty . divided game. hamper. kabinti. slope of a bevelled angle. hng. . Chance-n3. The G. an athlete. champ. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to wrestle. to cample. to excel. kappd). kimppu (Lap. e. kempen. cazer. . at the railings. ing. therewithal. luctare. The E. a hook . dial. bundle. mesleiare. to chew. Commonly derived from campus.140 CHAMBERLAIN . So in e. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Lat. s. G. chajnbellan . prize-fighter. kabMe. cancelli. the chafldn. move the jaws. camp. kabintis. camp. and mesUe. a hollow chanfreiner. and acted as inofficers of .' ' Pr. accidere. accident. Prov.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. who stood ad cancellos. kriimmen gebogen. ciamberlano. or player at football. to fall). chanfrein. zs jeopardy. which seems another form of the root. to fasten oneself to another . E. kimpustella. ON. — KiL . Dief. to slope. to hold . from cheoir. The happening of things Chance. to debate. sukibti. To cope or contend with. To Chamfer. to wrestle. act of falling. Fr. Chancellor. Ptg. a court of justice. to Hal. head armour. a field of battle. champion Du. camp. cample). jocus partitus. kampa. . kibti. M. reusement — fight in single combat. gekrUmmt. Champion. cempa. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. a warrior. Fr. chanfrein. to stick to. to slope out the . campar. Magy. Lith. Lat. rare. chaude mesUe. surpassing. to . top of a borehole. to hang. campear. kanip. —Chamfrain. kampen. When the to quarrel. champ. kabe. — Hal. . Gall. kimbu. as swine. kapp. Chancery. calida et sans aguet. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. chdance. to paw the ground E. as in It. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. from chaud. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . chain. chanfrar. champ parti. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. Champ. kippo. cameratus. athlete. to hollow out. chance. a scufSe. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . . Sp. . nels. CHANCEL It.' SherI'altro ' ' . chance. to smack the lips in eating. Sp. to talk. fight. It will. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to happen {ad and cadere. fray. kiammi. Sup. tsammogni. i. a horse-race. to fasten on. tsamtsogni. .

Hence chantry. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. and the modern canal. ceaplas. to cut. the mouth. surfaces striking together. Hal. wood. skipta. And N. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. are kept. Cheek. a small plate of flat metal. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. cangiare. Fr. or the cracking of one. schimbd. the gutter that runs along a street. Du. — : Lat. a chap is a crack or fissure. to coat. ON. cambium. to peck. lips of an animal. extended to other trades. from canna. chapeta. Chap. esclapa. chandelier. Sc. to change. . debeant conjurare. like the knocking of hard things together. the representation of the sound made by two same manner.^. the clappers of the scupper holes. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. Aasen. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to strike. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. kapoti. To Change. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. the place where candles ler. not a soul. Molbech. Chaps or chops. kvar kjceften. chap. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Walach. canalis. jaw. chapeletas de imbornales. 2. a dealer in candles then. E. Hal. Sp. from chandler. That wide were sentin their spicery. as skin chapped hands. — — —Marculfus in Due. to strike. cheek. kennel. . ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. chiappa. changer. Chap. flat . Lang. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. Chandler. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chape. to sing. chop. exchange. as chancery . Chip. Channel. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to strike with a sharp edge. kappen. In like manner Walach. or the like chapar. Russ. It is also used in the sense of the E. Sp. Commonly derived from capella. leather. to peck. chapa. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. AS. Da. hack . as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. a small metal plate Port. Fr. to paw like a horse . a strip of metal plate. prune. properly in a hard body. from clap. Lith. to put on fresh clothes. as It. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. jaw. Lat. — . exchange schimbatoriu. waterconduit. kjaakaa. chanter. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to break . kiceft as well as kjakje. to truck. W. to creak. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. —Ordericus Vitalis. Fr. shift. muzzle. A fellow. chaps. hard bodies. chap. kemma. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Fr. as those on a trunk. is used in the same sense . esclapo. to chap at a door. may be compared with ON. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. any hollow for conveying water. to deal. to plate. Chap. as to chap hands. See Chop. camjar. See Chant. a money-changer.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. a reed. kaupa. gab. cambiare. kiceft. chancellerie. Hence It. Chop. Probably from chap. . Compare chark. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . a pipe. the chaps . a jaw. Chapel. I. chapilla. as corn-chandChandry. Prov. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Bret. Da. while the broader vowels a. to cut up into small pieces. to apply one flat thing to another. to hack. chop. and also to chap or crack. chapear. to plate. ceaflas. ^Jam. . —Chantry. also a clap. to spht a chip. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. to — cut. clapet. to swap. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. to cut off . throat of an animal. exchange. klepan. . the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. chapelete de una bomba. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. cobio. schimbu. Man of Law's Tale. cantare. chancery. cambiar. 140. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun.

See Cheap. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. dim. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . creak. a merchant. to sing or chirp as birds. . chirk. go. Swiss. it is my turn. Chirk. called kedlock. Macduff. Justin. to converse. turn. carregar. &c. cearcian. Fr. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. jabber. from capa. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. — spell. gaggle .). chara. creak. the turtle pitre. Cot. Chare.whirr. Lat. Lith. Prov. It. corona. to chirp. chapitre. cerran. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Character. Sp.' Boccaccio in Diez. Sp. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. talking. clack. The crash. carmo. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. cam. as. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. Lat. a riddle. w. to load . a riddle. capella. Charlatan. An enchantment. Chark. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. . kurkelis. Charlock. Fr. to creak. dear. ghirlanda seor garland. Mid. char. carus. chapelet. hadka. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. condo il volgar francese. to tattle. a dispute . chirlar. karout. (eucharistie. babbling. From Norm. to love. Yx. Chaplet. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i.czirksti. Mundart. surris seu Lat. gnash. Lang. pohadka. wreath for the head. car. turn about. kirkti. Gr. in turns. chat. Charge. czurksti. charlatan. properly to place — . a mark of a mountebank. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. in To ness Charity. AS. and in It. carmen. Lay on. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. cha. to charcoal. a rhyme. chatter. a charm. Boh. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Fr. from capitulum. 370. capitolo. to of the governing body. a verse. from Charade. as Pol. caricare. . to prattle. es ist mi cheer. ceap-man. a turn cerran. 2. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. to turn Gael. Hence carminare. czirbti. return. to . OE. to dove . to prattle. caritas. to talk . ciarlatore.charme. And damned be he who first cries Hold. babdistinction. colliers that charred coal. The G. kurkti. Fr. burning without consuming the substance.Lat. of chapel. cher um cher. charcoal burners. Charade. A weed among com AS. charger. —— . schreien. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. as a beetle. It. capital. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. gadka. — — — turned to coal. carricare. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Deutsch. which was incantation. decken. keeren. Fr. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Ptg. In that work the verb is written caire. for the same reason rosario. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Chapter. charitas. a cricket karkti (schnarren. siarad (pronounced — sharad). * Charcoal. twitter. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. to turn. charade. chatter. twist. seems to be derived charade. tattler. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. from gadai. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. prattling quacksalver. used in the sense of magic Fl. from carrus. enough. a hood. the nature of a thing. . AS. eyre. chirriar. tegere. cluck. ject). Inst. canne. — a car. a garland of roses. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. eapitulo. charlar. bler. It. Lat. a The OFr. that turned decken . cabildo. Charcoal was ciarlare. called in Sp. dear(in both senses). krachzen). came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. capellare. Sp. occasional turn. . charer. w. cluck kirklys. affection. to chirp as sparrows. be- e. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. To Char. beloved. cedeleac. See Charlatan. Chapman. Bret.. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. czurliwoti. chapel. charge an enemy is to lay on. to chirp. Sup. hiss Lith. Du. a head or division of a book. It. to croak as a frog . a mark made on a thing. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. wood to coal. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. from cape or cope.

To chitter or chipper. prattle. talk. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. It. as from nomen It. to gape. It. Fr.. chisf. a churchyard or charnel-house. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. From carinen was formed It. kata-kata. to set a jewel. chair. gazzogliare. also a youth. To Chase. or a bird out of the egg. chaste. clean. whence a charm of goldfinches. to care).— Chatter. speak . noise. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. an enchantress. Magy. as we speak of olive branches. karigh.— Chit. to enchase it . a twig Suffolk chaits. To talk. Fl. Chat-wood. It t. Chasm. occasionally Forby. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. gazeuiller. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. gazzolare. a gap. fragments or leavings of food. To work plate as silversmiths do. flesh. Chary. kna. Pm. as purgare Fr. magpie. To Chase. chit-chat. cassa s. The egg is chipped. Hal. to chatter or prattle . to wet. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Pol. the bird is iiown. as turnip-chaits. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained.house. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. geug. schioppare. limpid. ch). little sticks cudere. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. tittle-tattle. chary. i. kippen. to chirp. — — . from pure. parcus. converse. See Card. Chaste. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. make a noise as birds do. chaste. Russ.ppen. Chamel. CHATS fit 143 to name. g. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. as. Chat. Malay. So in Gael. — Palsgrave. — Yorkshire chat. It. — Hal. csaterdzni. chits. knacken. — The . caro. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. . scraps of for fuel. or suckers on rough borders. a shrine for a relic. prate. Pol. as in the E. crackle. fragments. whistle.). Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. chykkyn (Pr. a crack or a flaw . ch&tier. the noise of birds. Kil. Chart. Fr. An imitative word. the calix of a rose. Gr. a branch and a young female. noise. — = Chats. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. root of the Lat. — Fr. to baptize. jackdaw . a chatter-box. to burst open. talk much . gazzerare. to make a noise. to separate in morsels. to chirp. To chip is then to crack.a. —Chastise. to clap. clatter. cs E. knatiern. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. shout OE. incassare. chit in the latter sense Du. gaddc. —Charter.). to which it bears the same relation as chape. the cry of the bat. Du. karg. in Jam. chick. a flock of those birds. czysty. discourse. from xoAn. or equivalent forms. to chirp as a bird to cheep. or the cry of a bird or the like. also to germinate or spring forth. used to represent a sharp note. It. s. —Jam. xi'i-'^vui. la chasse d'une rose. See Cistern. to talk. chip. to crack. — We ornamental work the to signify E. —Bailey. careful. warble. clear. castus. kata. B. cearig (from cearian. gallan or ogan. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. also to hatch. csacsogany. a word. a yawning. chick. is to represent the chamier. germinate . See Catch. ferire. Fr. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . clean. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. V. tenax. csacsogni. chatter. clack. To chit. or pop. Diez. the handle of a razor . to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. Lat castigare. gazzettare. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. snap. Cot. sordidus. D. splinters. Kil. racket . chikat'. warble. eclats. charm. nome and . carme and Fr. castus. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. chip. shivers. chip. — sharp sound of a crack. letters p. chit. charmer. a plate of metal. pure. To Chasten. from purus. Parallel with E. a young man . to cry as a chicken . Lat. G. Cot. kastaa. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. a branch. carmen is presented in AS. . to crack. Fr. enchasser. In like manner Russ. %aafi. blackthorn-chats. cyrm. gadu-gadu. clean. nommer. niggardly. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. clap. Fl. pure. the young shoots . a hum or low murmuring ijoise. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). csatora (Magy. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. pure. to cut and faggoted. OE. carnisj bones kept. be wide open. chat.

keck.kakot. whence captale. Sp. OFr. goods. . Fr. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. hawkmann. to cluck like a hen. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. with the exception of land. . ceaflas. while it Bret. the Confessor. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. jaw. . to act as a rogue.. a dealer in horses. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as.. cattle. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. the countenance Fr. syllables ^ag-. Soc. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. kaupiti. sense of bargaining. &c. force of the word. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Sc. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Cam.— . a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Fin. to . . et juxta catalla sua. koopen. to buy. entertainment. the tongue. KaviiXog. a young boy or girl. a willing look and unwilling heart. truffa. teeth . Cheek. to — . tradesman. to stutter gigken. to clear the throat . gagkezen. to vomit. e. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. and. chear in the sense of victuals. Faire bonne chire. Pr. to chop and change. Fr. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. It. mandibula. price. exAS. chatal. kakkaset. lead to OE. cachinnari. agreeing upon. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Fl. Chew. the principal ' colloquial E. ceap. s. OFr. It — Brompton in Due. lower. capitale. chapman. dchec. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. are represented piti. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. to negotiate. ceafl. Slav. a tavern-keeper. ku. citello. and hence the E. — — —Chowl. Then. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du.— Chaps. kikottaa. cattle. to laugh. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. a dealer. Pro v. laughing. stuttering.— Cattle. The gutGoth. to coff—Yisi. chaptel.— Chole. which is the word in ceap.' kezen. the face. Du. chire. a repulse. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . sum in a loan. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. kaufen. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. kichen. catalliim. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Hal. visage.ing. — We ' . CHATTELS has ciio. Chear. chop. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Chattels. chiere. from Lat. sale. CHEEK zitella. NE. society. from AS. with Dief. chatel..-^. stuttering. kakaista. kak. favour. prattlingchete. Gr. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. look. a canting knave. . Ek dry and hard. to buy. Lat. kaupa. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. chavylbone or chawlbone. cara. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. gagkern.—Choke. a piece of moveable property. Modern Slang. gig. us. Ingulphus. It. kaupon. kik. Cheat. to coup s. See Chess. kok. to fetch the breath with difficulty. to nauseate (to retch). See Cheek. caupo. goods. changing. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. kauf. frown. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum.of the throat in coughing. cozener. Pm. retching. cheeks. — To check an account. any cheating. which is used in the to stutter. jaws.' to exchange to gasp. in Fr. to make inarticulate sounds in . G. upon a checked cloth. horse-couper. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. the Lat. 144 the It. Bohem. chuckle. cita. equiva. to deal ON. cattle. giving or taking in exchange. choule. kek. Check. welcome heartily. Cot. to swap goods . to cough and hence either buying or selling. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. farm for farm. cera. aspect of a man. Bav. entertain kindly. sob E. snout. in widely separated languages by the Lat. ceahhetan. Hence to cheat. a cheater. thers. bon marche. giggling. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. countenance.

subsequently corflesh about the jaws . incaseatus. . acquiring a flavour of old cheese. .. the neck.D. — 10 . E. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. the palate Chequer. jouffle. by laying it in come to an agreement with. Fr.their struggle for independence. quoka. jaw. gaghel. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Chemistry. cheek. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. G. /Ji2^/(W. the loose the game of checks. Sp. jaws Sw. kirsche. things Da. The name of creak as shoes. Prothroat of an animal .perly head. kikna. the hke. ceg. cisty G. chAtaigne. . food. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. achever. the mouth. subacidus. practice seems to have been communiChevron.. jaws. prevail with. squeak as a mouse. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. kaecke. a rafter . ceocian. to kep. gap. cabrio. cheken. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall.D. Fin. kjceve. Chevisance. quok. to gasp. whence kasa-leipa. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. gous forms are G. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. to kasa. suffo. Lat. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Lat. Sw. kikna of dorum coacervatio. To make a shrill noise Chest. Chess. condition of being taken. cheek. Chekenyd or querkenyd. kastr. geagl. &c. kjakje. a heap. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. cheek. Fr. castaneusj Fr. — — . cherir. as. The Sw. throat. Chevaux de frise. kok. rattle in the throat. rupted into chess. caseus. a chicken. cerise j G. ceaflas. to choke with laughter. by laying up in a covered heap. chiffe. schach. Cher. Sc. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. gill of fish AS. kdkel. It would Cheese. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. the The use of the word kcesir. — — . See Chess. gapen. the throat. mouth kek. Sc. Chef. See Case. F*-. ichec. Pl. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. for cheese itself. made rancid koka. Fr. to hold dear. Fr. Tutschek. AS.peep in the same sense. clear the throat. Sw. old bread. Lat. ca' — . See Alchemy. kastanie. cyse. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Pm. Kil. dear. equal squares of opposite colours. AS. cough. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. schach. Da. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. cireggia. subjected to this process with that which the throat . accomplishment cayed. Prov. Fr. Cherish. As the board to gasp i. carnium. to bring to an end. — — . Thus "we are brought din. a cricket. chevron. cerasus. king). to gape gab. E.G. chops. E. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Jam. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. To Cheep. jaw . nish source. gabe. like a young chicken. kces. jaw. xaque. ation. kapen. It. cista. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. chevir. dersen . mollium congeries. ceaplas. kdke. cufd. X'C&s. kjcebe. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse.pose of acidifying them kasadr. G. kasiiUPr. w. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Lat. Achievement. frame by which the exertion is made. ceac. kesten. Sp.cirieggia.). . chops. kasa. cheeks. Du. to make a noise different word. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. An imitative word. Hence chesten-nut. to boken. caru. geafl. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. e. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. chesten. cegio. veluti piscium. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. w. jowl. whence czypulas. Lith. Hence kikna is identical with OE. E. scacco.' to w.EP CHEVRON 145 on.Xo belch. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Du. gullet. Lith. (Kil. caws. cese. In these latter forms we see the transIt. kistej Lat. to choke. to geahl. cams. make an end. CHE. to year. OHG. chaps. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. cabiron. to swallow. then end. rennet. hasten. to heap up such things for the purchoke. kopen. as meat and butter. AS. ON. Cherry. Analo. Fris. czypti. giffle. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen.koppen. throat. N. acquisition. the final guttural is retained in writing. ost. . to accomThis they call hdrsk. rafters in heraldry. treat with affection. takes place in the formation of cheese. From them the plish. w. skratt. chests in OE. chasi. to love. to belch.

beam. Pr. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. to Du. Palsgr. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. the jole. the head. grelot). of expanded rim hyd-y-gib.. A To Chew. from the second Lat. are formed Du. G. kinderen. kimista^ . while the Magy. Russ. chiquei. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. caferu.). knit the brow cib-led. chiler. Du. cica cica.. branchy. horn wood. a hen. kindeken. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. captain. cabarach. kimme. from the first of which is Lith. pipe. knarren. jaw. zitterti. to go. caprioru. k'imm s. Fr. to chew. a chicken. kouwe. a finch. kaw. pululo. Fr. to crackle. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. has probably the same origin. deer's horn. It. jaws . The loss of the syllable it in Du. acute. to use the jaws. also the horizon. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. capu. chol. cabriones. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. a cup cibaw. to contest about trifles. Chigue. ultimate origin of the Mite. kieken. E. signifying properly shivering. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. CHEW .. the rim or edge of a vase. Pr. capo. kippa. cabar. cheek. to smart. kop. lead through the synonymous E.— . quivering sound which passes. . The Pl. strideo. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. knirschen. Du. to contest. by driblets. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. cap. kopf Du. Gael.^ Hal. kauwe. to chirp or peep like a chicken. kimia. chavel. a head. chin. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. czypulas.— Cot. Pm. Fl. Brezza. chikat'. Fl. a little bit. pip. to chime. Walach. Swiss kiden. kilderkin. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. pi. Gattel. For the see word Doit. a chicken. Fin.. Pm. Pl. the cry of young . to raise the rim. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. tiukkata. tiukka. pipio. cebr. Chitter. Payer chiguet A chiguet. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. AS.— Gattel. term is ssaru fu. Sp. machouere. chavel. gills of a fish. caput. tiuk. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. Now gan some courage unto him to take. head. gosling. Da. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. G. Chief. . pole. Lat. the young of animals in general. alter. and not vice versd. E. — It. tremble with cold. when the vibrations become very rapid. while didder is to shiver or citteren.^ to resound as a bell. And hence. chill. pipio. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. . ' . tiukkua. a chicken. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. CHJME the radical form is unusual. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. or chick. cabar beinne. ]).' my finger tingles with cold. Halm. See Chimmer. — Fin. Fin. — — Mother Hubbard. 'Among these the G. aner. the throat. Child. chimb. a small cask OFr. Magy. as pointing out the origin of the E. to scold. a quid of tobacco. from little to little. Bret. kitista. kuwe. chawbone. tremble. and from the third E. ach. chicken. or the broken noise of birds. cib. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. kauchen. sonorous. chieftain. choule.-ill. cidan.peep. Chill. to twitter. the same principle I regard On birds. chillrar. keichen. De finger killet mi for kalte. Chimb. W. rafter. mouth. twitter. chef. cild. tyuk. a jaw. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. to gasp for breath (Hal. chicaner. stake. killen. the least imaginable jot. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. into a continuous shriU sound. kaau•wen. then cold. To chitter. rafter . 146 brial. crepo. : — a lump.D. mountain top . hiss as meat on the gridiron. E. De chic en chic. Chick. to pettifog. Fin. Fr. a cup. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Kil. To Chide. w. to titter is Du. kind. a young bird.D. chillness or shivering. s. Chime. kauen. a cup. antler. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Tintillo. in Walach. or as E. kime. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. kidata. chew or chaw. chicoter. then as G. — Du. klagend tonen. chillar. capete. Probably from Fr. Prov. kibr. chaps. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. the Ptg. rafter . chic. to the brim. or qf people talking rapidly. tintelen van koude. as. jaw. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Imitative of a loud clear sound. — . horns of the house. queror. greloter is to shiver for cold. killen. creak. Chaw.

as the/ is preserved tering. dial. in the same crack. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. as birds the mouth. kieck hoest. the jaw. plodere. Pr. are In like manner E. — — — — — . Caminatum. to chink. a Kuttn. verynge or dyderinge. KinneGr. Pm. also vibrans. ykvvQ. The small entrails of a hog. as the chink of money. tinnire. fissure. Chymerynge. eschiner. epine. Fr. It. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Gloss. part lion. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place.to divide or Du. czirszkti. yivtiov. chin . bone . Sp. sound. cinne. Hindost. sounding deep. crepare. Chitter. genawi. cincel. hus. to simmer. Fr. and bodily movement in shimm. gena. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. to creak. flaw Hal. in Hal. Chink. all these imitative terms being minata. but or cry as a parrot. Du. cleft. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. to prattle czirpti. To Chitter. Chink-cough. — . ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. to murmur. tsongeni. squittire. representing connected together. to sound. Lat. a chap. the chine. Diez de.czirbti. and chim-mer. Sp. E. ter. G. See Chats. spina. to tremble. Primarily a shrill sound. tsengeni. to open chirriar. have been used to designate the spine. twitter caminus. to chirre. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. fyr. a chink or fissure. i. resonance . et garrire . esquina. to chink with laugh2.' Phaer's Virg.iron. See Bright. Chisel. schina. Chintz. ciseau (for cisel). Lith.. See Chap. cinan. . It. 147 kimina. schiena. hiss Pm. caperd. chits. Sp. The change from the sound ter \s. in- — by the syllable clink or chink.). Chyrme or chur. the jaw.Huloet in Hal. a surkik hosta. to squeak in It. a hall Mid. killed by Bellerophon. the cheek. It. Kil. cheek. The desig. and light. chink. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. To chirp or twitter. Chitterling. AS. disCot. . the cheek (jaw) . zirpen. clashing of weapons. sparkle. simmer. pare also Walach. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . gen. to chirp .sharp. In the same sense. backBut she withal no worde may soune. sonants. up and down. backe. Cot.schricken. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. and from a similar sound to boil gently. kink hoest. chirp. name Then. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. to sizel. a thorn. A . then of a fabulous monster part goat. to gape. from 10 * ' Chia. hollow. the whooping cough. It. It. Sp. . tremulous motion. to creak. . eschine. twinkling light. the chin . to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. which differ from each other only as Chirk. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Sw. Chat. caminata. j^lf. quavering of the voice. To chink with laughter. G. cisaille. keich husten. Fr. Chit. hiss chirlar. as a bell kommata. a thorn. then to any narrow crack or AS. — . Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Chimera. spina. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. or chyFrigutus. do. a szemrcU. Fr. from Lat. sonus the backbone Lat. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Chin-coug^h. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. schetteringe. kinne. kumista. Gascoigne in Todd. chhint. Fr. Chine. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne.er. stridere. Gower in Hal. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Chimney. To Chimmer.to chirp. skina. esquena. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. komia. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. to tattle. E. — . way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. pork) . schrick. — . and the Du. genou (pi. a fire-place. ciarlare.. to sound deep or the Gr.Lat. chatter . applied to tremulous motion. Ptg. Bav. Bret. Du. to chirp. as a large bell . rustle. eschin^e (de pore). kumina. Prov. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. bx-eak the back of schena. sound on beginning to boil. Huloet. klincken. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. vincially used in the sense of a crack. clipping of coin. companied. quivering or shakyng for colde. komista. Chip. the mouth (jaws) . schetteren. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . cheminde. See Chark. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. clangor tinniens kummata. to prattle . originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. cisello. from the geon's lancet. caminsects. zirken. a crowing sound in recovering breath. to chine. chick. tschirpen. . Magy.

skifa. and It. kieser. and in this sense the * small pieces. a small slice or slip of anything . to Compare also Pol. the small parts of the roots of plants. a goose's giblets. a ruff or frill. taste. a company of singers or dancers. chippe. ^euw. gdnse gekrose. &c. to palpitate . Luc. koren. full. The Sc. The . cape. &c. and N. %o\ifa. ments of the knightly class. of an angry — — — ' ' — . . to taste .freze. kalbs gekrose. —Chorus. i. the ridges prove. or original meaning is preserved in G. chaup. Walach. •- Russ. keypa. chock full. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. g'schochet voll. from kraus. Fr. Enn Sigridur sem ' . heaped measure. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. whence choleric. as with a blow. a ruff. specially with an application to theatrical performances. . wkusit' prikushat. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. to choose. chimp.D. and Vf. . chiffe. a rag. Warwickshire coff. signify to kiss. to turn. haslets. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly.ffrill. kushevati. cut up into — See Chats. all seem slate . shoot . wein didder for cold. schiefer. See try. to break off in small shive. choix. Lat. seallion or unset leek. Boh. coup. . gustare. schoch. scheve. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. — See Cheek. Prov. a fragment. Cavalry. to try. to ing is doubtless to taste. propagated. chibble. taste. krussyi. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. whence Lat. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . a young . As kushnuti. to chap at a door . chattering. of E. fine threads of flowers. — Cholera. bile. prove. to taste. by which they are Fr. to taste. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. developments of the same radical image.. are used in the same sense. to taste. Jam. cke. to taste. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. pieces . to try. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. kiesen. chap hands. Chives. kusid. gekrose. xiv. crammed Choir. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. a knight. * To Choose. chorus. from chevalier. try. to try. .yEuffM. Choleric. to stop geschoppt voll. Gr. and in kosten. G. disposition. Gr. To Choke. Choice. schevel-steen. it is probable that the root kus. a wine taster.gust. full to overflowing. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side.' At last he dwelt . — Chock-full. kiezen. a calf's chaldern of E. kruszki. select. to taste. keuren. choppe. Chuck-full. — — — . kustigen. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. lead us on to Lat.V)^x. experience valerie. word is more likely to be from Lat. chceur. a heap. a twittering. pluck. to ^cleave . try. to strike hands . curly .' Verie coinme Cot. G. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Fr. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp .— B jag E. kausjan. The I go to prove them. 2. wrath. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. CHOP kros. friller. to chap. x^poc.vonic languages are Pol.. Swab. anger. I. Chap. Body and Soul. Gr. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. OHG. Serv. to try . Yr. an onion. a calf's pluck or chaldron . kaup. ruffs. Schmid. to experience. called cMtters in the N. caperd. ON. coro. also calPs. gusten. chatter. kushati. kbhren. okusyti. chawdron. to shiver. to prove. a scale or fragment P1. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. then to shiver. cepa. Goth. To Chop. to exchange horses. ent quarter. causir. The manners and senti. G. to hack. to clap up Hal. the inwards of an animal. chife. Equivalents in the SlaFr. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Chivalry.ceosan. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. ^S. from %u\i). in the same language. Fr. ON. as green as leeks. 19. kiusan. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. arkiusan. a chive. to wrinkle. civette. chives. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. kiusan. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. Swiss kust. shiver. to tempt.' who shall not taste death. fresure. a blow. then to try. . rare. approve. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. cive. Choice is probably direct from Fr. kor6n. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter.

X. cambiare. Madam.— Landnamabok. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. Fr. chack. chapineria.—Chuokstone. to turn over. slipper . one who buys and sells horses or cows. claquer. to speak thieves' slang. ' ' What's that? Dap. Gr. . In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby.— Chevin. cauc. a small fish with a large head.. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. — — — . xpi'^lia. — Chrisom. to overturn. klopper. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. applied to an owl in that language. Sw.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. See Chaff. chapma?i. -chron-. In Sc. time ra . dealing. gobio capitatus. To Chop logick. E. capitanus. See Change. fat. capitone. Du. because she would not endure this husband chopping. chub. — Quabbe.• — .xl—Shirbe ridiculous. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. A fish with a thick snout and head. To Chouse. Wall. Fr. and we actually find champman for chapman. equivalent to the E. choucas. short piece kubbug.\^s. Kil. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. kowe. connected with G. the teeth to chatter . Borgoens happen. Chrysalis. caphatenus. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. chevane. soul-couper. we find the following passage Dap. gull. kubbr. an offence against the fitness of times. Gr. — . sent before him a Chiaus. What do you think of me. e. G. Du.). — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. kowej Sax. Marin. chrysalis (Plin. cow-couper. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. whence — E. plump. kobe. koppe. or miller's kaycke . whence apparently the Sup. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. to clack. Nominale in Nat. cangiare. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. to chatter. which was written 27. traffic. clat. chuet. caker. by the Robert Shirley. Fr. gull. to cant. to knock. from kloppen. E. chapin. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. yiSA. chevin. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. chop. gold. a thick piece. Ant. thumb Fl. bearand aits. a bullhead. in i6io. Cot. . E. a trafficker in souls. &c. cheap. Alchemist.' They are forebuyers of quheit. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. kaufen. Chopino. cavena. capita. high clog. merchant. xftovoq. noble Doctor. In the Alchemist. Gr. If I discover. civetta. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. forms are Chrism. caqueter. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Chord. kubb. chouquette. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Jam. a lump or piece chump. Come. Anachronism. AS. Sp. Fr.(. 4. the intestine of an animal. Picard. Chub. kaulhaupt (club-head. capito. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Peace. whence the Fr. From the Turkish Chiaus. e. whence e. in Chaucer.). The Turk was here As one should say. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. kolbe (club). of which such strings are made. OE. Fr. chrisme. 49. who took in the Turk- clack. I bring you the Cloughs. P.' Jam. kaw. the string of a musical instrument originally. for to defraud. kaej Lith. ceo. Confounded with the bullhead. chevane. —Shakespeare. to strike in the hand. Gr. Lat. syllables chat. cauvette j Fr. p. prattle . kauwe. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. E. ley in Giiford. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. XpvaaXic. the same word with the It. i. chatter . That Face. chouette. overset.povucd. chroniques. ON. cheviniau.sohola. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. clogs. cob. Chuck. dial. — Dief. Chronicle. A jackdaw. klompe. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . xop5>}. peace.. a The What dhy ^. as Du. that will thank chiaus — you richly. monedula. a stump. To coup. chronicles. quappe. dial. cresmeau. a messenger or envoy. Chough. thick-set. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. as in Fr.

surly. as a board. but by way of explan. sinter.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv.. cado. Cider. sindr. a man. C^z^j^ churHsh. Chunk. Cleland in Jam. To chuck in the fall from. Probably from It. from Lat. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). Chuff. cinis. ceaplas. spuma metalli. e. Sw. or. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. set kerti. ashes. pith. to fall upon decide. sindel. Da. * Cinder. a pebble . kerl. kirna. Jennings. cinctura {cingo. a rustic . flower. sicera. Cob. Wall. to form grains of butter. Lat. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. ladre from Lazare. whence deciduous (of trees). to churn. cinctus.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. accido. chack or stane-chacker. to make a rippling noise. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. in circumcision. a girding on. Lat. to gird. -cis-. jaws. Du. ON. that the word is an adoption of Fr. a husband. whence ON.' he adds. swollen or puffed up Cot. tindra. incido. . calculus. to Newsp. to turn from blossom to fruit. a cutting round. however. . we have to chack. sindra. Ka-^aiva. dial. i. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. fat-cheeked. Wall. AS.D. to cause the milk to grain. cendre. -cisuiri). ceffore. to jaw chack or snap. G.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Fr. In Sc. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. OFr. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. The origin ation. kakka. thence a belt. Ir. giffle. sintel. cinders used disjunctively. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . -cide-. the snout of an animal. — . to cut decide. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. karl. Fr. a man. dust. joffu. a fellow. As AS. KvptaKolg. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. a cutting an old chuff. or choice part of a thing . See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. domhnach. gffe. Church. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Cieling. to strike clatter. The spelling of chider has Chump. to determine incision. x^^i?. cidre. kjami. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Churn. scoria. with It the Lord's house. marrow. kiorne. cheeks Cincture. a lump. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . sive piratiam facere sciant. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. to separate the kernel of the milk.rendered by Kil. Gothic nations. as water running over rocks or stones. an old man. a miser. residue of burnt coals.— Chu%. KaxXij?. — of the two words. a resounding object. from Lat. kernjen. -cise. ChurL husbandman. Lat. chife. a man. geaflas.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. ON. chack-stone. &c. chakil.^. to sparkle. to throw out sparks. klakka. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. -cido. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). 24. See Cheek. in Sc. to fall. . cut off. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. chuffy. as in E. . the kernel. .' And cold. countryman. whence church. ceorl. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Fris.for the residue of stone coal. chofe (Grandgagnage). e. — — A — ' ' — . kern. Gr.— . See Ceiling. AS. then the on oh StX iv roXt. male person. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Du. It is certain.V//a'6'?. to him a sudden blow. pp. chaps. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. kaerle. . This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. tie about). rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. ceffo. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. i. as Epkema explains it. in the face. ciuffo. calx. a douse on the tores. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. so as to make the happen . Diss. joufflu. ceaflas. to fall at or on. have given rise. cheek. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. casum (in comp. Du. comp. See Cheek. -eris. ccedo. &c. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. Sicerawry face ceffata. Gr. Aasen. ON. as Fr. log of wood. G. Sc. chofu. chops. to To Chuckle. to make a aiKipa. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. Hence -cid-. lamak. Lat. a pebble.

clot ON. The Gr. Gael. lump. . a. lump. mass . to set in motion by means of the voice. a lump Du. clog. 'mass. We . glamm. a loud uksa slamketi. and Sp. and. in the frequentative form. cito. a hiding-place. crack. klacken. log. a block. Du. rattle. The syllables clap. to call by name. lump. E. . Citron. outcry. Recite. dob. clapper. klqb. Sw. to knock. gutter.to suck. the place of . a ball. clack-dish. to chatter . Bohem. G. a ball. cisterna. to toll . clamp. . forms — — — parent plant. E. babble . to chatter. glambar. clack. to make to go. bunch . klamp. a citizen . the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. citrus. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a city. cion. a judgment cern. From Arab. wasserkasten (water chest). to call. claquet de moulin. Clamp. Circle. to go. . to clack. excite. civis. city. klemte. klumbr. kluV. klompe. globus. a kind of rattle. bunch. ern. See -cid-. klacke-busse. clack-box. Fr. Cite. clangor avium . clasp. klubb. kringla. a Lat. a kind of pipe. klambr. cifra. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. Clump. around. Clam. —Circuit. Excite. The notion of a lump. Comp. Gael. circum. clamer. klammer. klateren. * Ciplier. a pop-gun. clap. suck). to clap at a theatre. a lump Lat. cittade. from chupar. cion. citujn. to cleanse. to call. to bawl. or clap-dish. G. accordingly find the roots dab. CION See Tinder. City. cittd. KipKog. to cluck. a'upiav. prattle. hringr. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. klump. Lat. a reservoir Probably from Lat. smack. sound. sound of blow. to clatter. claim. may cite w. Fr. circle. lucerna. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. Cot. uproar. Lat. To Clack. a knob. area. clamp. noise. a boss . either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. clambar. belonging to cities or social life . and E. . — (Dozy) ing blow. rattle . . scion. to summon or call on. ruin. claquer. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. civilis. domern. Gr. crack. empty Golius. as in Sp. a circle. slam. sip. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. lump . a rattle . clamras. claquer crash. cry. as. of citta. —Civil. Hal. ter. In Fr. with an initial s instead of c. to be empty. for Cion. cista. . to strike. trunk. It. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . cluster. lump of wood or with the nasal. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. Circum-. a for water. a rattle Fr. about. clatCot. fall. to mention. a whirlwind. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. &c. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. We . klabb. chatter . vociferation. Dan. To Claim. sajira. clapping of klacke. klater-busse. It. circ2tlus. Arab. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Du. -cite. sifr. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). crack. . to gnash the teeth. Lat. noise — — a cistern. Sw. circa. chupon. ON.— . Gr. as caverna from cavus. ON. Lat. biw. a clod. klak. to appeal. civitas. the door was slammed J slamem. a clod Russ. Sp. ring. Fr. Alt. chest. castus). klekotati. a cleansing place. W. klimp. a ring. radical identity of the Fr. prattle. clobyn. Citadel. Chaste. cisterna. or quill to draw waier through Fl. cieo. a block. Lat. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. scion or sucker. glam. klepati. * Cistern. See Crankle. clamare. clat. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. Scion. a circle. and clash. sphere gleba. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. clump. . Lat. kringr. Mack. is traced by Gr. . So a light. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. a circle. a mass. . a split. to cry out. twig. chijfre. Hence Incite. It. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. ON. Lat. klappen. -cis-. Du. clap. compared with It. cittadella. around.' sione. the tongue. clack. a city. klap. chupon. claquer. circum. a lemon tree. a cistern. Dan. parallel root is slam. a place See place hiddern. ciste. a whip. lash .. cit^. See Circle. a shoot. ball kloben. or split with noise. stimulate. sindri. a young and tender plant. creak les dents. tinnitus . klappe. to chatter. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. lump. whence cistiti. cry out . sound- — hands figures. sprig. Lap. a Pol. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . klopati. KpiKoe. Fr. dim.

who occuG. klibber. a sound made by a still . clibby. a heap of stones or other things piled up . to do anything with a clap. Dan. kleppe. klubber. to cling. OE. These words To are closely connected with damp. to gingle. and hence moist. to hide. to hook things together. to. clear sound. G. salaan. to glue. accent. clajnmy. strait. The Fr. daver. klepanie. and that from celo. Sw. children. klammer. to starve. viscosity . compression. Hence the Fr. from the w. to climb . originally a heap of large stones. The root which gives rise to klibb. G. hands or claws to grasp. Swiss kletten.er. a sound made by a lighter clink. coagulated cream. dapier. chatter. klebern. dang. clangor. a trap. kleppen. sound . klippe. G. to seize. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. where- A — unto they retire themselves. dam. beating. Clamp. pinching. . but perhaps not directly from it. pressed close or hard together. apprehend . klang. These are imitations of a loud. Clap. E. G. . E. klemmen. solid. Fr. Clapper. AS. to Hal. . from birdlime. gum. dapi^. to clap on. knocking. scendants. cluster. klynge sig op. stick. — . viscous. a hawk. — Climb. closely analogous to that of the fast. kloben. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. resonance klingen. to beat. grimper. ancestor. gliong. klamm. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. gripe. . To clap in E. cramp. for tame conies. cleave. take hold of. dee. Clank. Dan. to hold to pinch. klepel. to pinch. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . descendants . of the children. of which the locative case. is a nasalised form of gripper. Du. whence sala. to daub pinch. Clang. clink. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. a loud tingle. Dan. a bird of prey. Swiss kldbem. Du. to clutch or cling oneself up. brawl. a heap of stones. a rattle .1.. to cleave or stick. klettern. tattle. The E. &c. Clan. klopfen. hold. a place underground where rabbits breed. . contraction. to climb. dandestinus. hook. adopted Lat. Du. Lang. Clink. E. of money Gael. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. clann. chief. klatten. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. dambar. to climb. privately. to hold fast with the . clap. Lat. dia. celo produces Fin. klette. G. clap. klemmen. offspring.p correspond- ' without order. The equivalent of Lat. a stick. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. a sound. dam. compress. also to clog up. a burr. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. ney. dam immediate modifications — . G. clasp. clang. to climb. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . dank. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. klam. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klappre. holdfast. rumour. prison. dam.' klibba. clandestine. dial. klappen. as the Lat. chatter. klank. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. dap up. klemmen. — — . a noose . to climb. Halma. Dan. Bav. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. sound of the trumpet . klem-vogel. B. cling. and hence to pinch . to glue. clamber. B. Russ. cream Manx doan. clapper of conies. is used in the sense of secretly. sound. Mampe. Du. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. to stick or glue. strain . kleben. bond. sticky Hal. to clap. tone. dink Du. Salainen. klobber-saen. crowd . Gael. klampen. In like manner Du. See Clam. to knock. tingle. tremble . From small tribe subject to a single Gael. children. klamre. cramp-iron. dapier. klimmeii. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. salafa. seize. dial. E. to stick conceal. G. yf. clav\f. rattle. narrow. to knock. a craCmp. damras. buckle klamp. — Lat. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. dienklebber. with cramp-irons. glambar. as the clapping of hands. c). Clamour. tinkle. to dame. tight. kluppel. to claw oneself up. ring as metal. klamme. sound. to climb. the in many languages. . klepati. anything hidden. to clamp. nature .' to take coals to Newcastle. grasp. kleppe. klappen. beat. klynge. dem. klammern. to patronus. a stone See Claim. To sticky. klavre.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. a claw . klam7n. To Clamber. damor. bandage. a whip. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. to Sw^. Bohem. conceal. dientes. dren. clapas. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. or klamp-vogel. massy. club . diver. uproar. a claw. in a hidSen place. — Cot. run to lumps Clandestine. tenacious. A i. substances of a stickydam. — with hunger. sound object . clammy brace.

to draw it up into a bunch. klamme. It. nawith stanis. and shrill-sounding trumpet. klot. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. somewhat clear. noise. a claw. Nawith stavis. an on the one hand. to animals Sp. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Du. clatter. Du. schnalle.— CLARET clamp. ivy. chiarino.oi. ansa. gaspe. kiosk bicza. a heap. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. to clash as arms. to snap. clairon of a trumpet— It. Cot. a. a lash. Gr. skeria-klasi. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. klatschen. with a reddish tint. To clew.ck a whip. a key KKtitid. Analogous Jam. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. hawk. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Fr. clausum. under three modifications dava. Lat. he of white and red grapes mingled together. from the resemblance to a key. to rattle . to clap . waU. klouwe (Kil. clew or fasten upon a thing. in the sense of a claw. klaskad. G. a buckle. syrtium junctura. klucz. Du. sphaera. a key origmally a crooked nail. clarinado. Sp. klaterbusse. and clavis. a sphere . Commonly made. a key. rubellum. clarin. chiizjj-o. e. clew. Clatter. to knock. Fr. climp. mass. flap. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. a bunch. glcis. Serv . Thus from clamp. klouwe. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. kleeven. Klatsch- a pop-gun . a lump. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. we pass to the E. claw (what fastens together. klase. vinum helvolum. nail. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. blab. cluster. to do anything with a .. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . clausula. Eau clairette. i. Nightingale. or as G. Du. clas. pellet . kluczka. as Mod. Clew. forms are the Du. But clasp or elapse. locket of a door. fracas. Lat. klijven. Eya-klasi. also a knell for the dead. a club or massy stick. sauna de classes. chiaro clear. to patter. Dan. stop of an organ. to ring in such a manner for the dead. applied in their harness. Lat. cinnamon. seizes) . biichse. — Clarion. Rayn. as G. a claFr. straight-mouthed. and old red rose-water. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. From claudo. klaequivalent to clack or clap. . Du. Identical with ON. Clause. the primary origin clapa. the cracking of a whip. Originally clasis.w or u on the other. Kil. crying. So Pol. an ending. a clod. a clasp. Prov. In E. contraction. chiarello. vin claret. . a complete sentence. klatscha pop-gun. sound of the foregoing description. — tells us. clump. Sw. — Clarinet. klaeret. Du. a little hook . but not the full red of ordinary red wine. klauw. to cleave. to fasten. clavus. Clasp. compression. teren. vin clairet.\x\xvn. In the same way is formed the OE. The b readily passes into gleba. Fr. from scknallen. bawling. a. is used in Sc. puUs. and through v into a. subrubidum. K\a. a distribution of things into groups. uproar. dap. a nail. Russ. &c. kleuen. KXeiSi. Clash. It. it is called clamming. klos. to fasten together . fragor .to cra. from clinging to the tree which supports it.Z. same class with w. The collar-bone. clavis. Lang. to shut. a lump . insularum nexus . Thus from Lat. —Kil. which signifies a ball in E. kletse. assembly. a bird with powerful talons. E. klampe. clamp. pet. row aii/iaTos. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. clairon. the collar-bone. cloi. ictus resonans. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. biichse.Gr. — Kiittner. to end. Class. Wyutoun in Jam. &c. is preserved in Lang. Mask ! plask ! thwick.It. as it is written by Chaucer. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. a ball. Lat. buckle. klatsche. fibula. claret win e. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Claw. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. klc^i. a water made of aquavitse. globus. whence kleuer. The form clew. Clavicle. classis. clair. klauwe. thwack . klatschen. chatter. From clairet. in the sense of a mass or lump. klampvoghel. mass. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. clopa. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack.). 269. Pol. globus. ghespe. rion. a kind of small. hook. from its use in fastening things together. chasguear. Claret. diver. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. Owl and that by which cleave to.

Bav. Sw. clean. to glitter. a lump. Probably a modification of the word doitt. opposite senses. doggy. kloben. a noise. glor-mhor. klieuen. a noose. dial. as Lat. to be composed. vissticky . The double signification of the word clack or rattle. Omklinken. a fissure. a one end. pure . kluit. danche. From dob. klor. to fasten E. kloben. kloue. ON. sticky . Cleft. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . klijveii. Halma. klinka. clean. to clinch GB. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. E. a flash.' was nailed to a rock. kleverig. and Dan. a mass. Thus from G. seem formed dial. found in other cases. See Clog. Da. klink. to separate into parts. to Brilliant. klinke. clean. a cleft. Du. to clench. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. smooth. clemens. klceg. give a shrill sound Jr. Sw. split. a cleft or fissure.). holding together. geklonken. . kleg. as explained under G. clibby. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. is fast and sure. G. to shine. conserere antklankjan. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. clean. A — A Clement. the To Cleave. bend in a stream. of iron worn on shoes by country people. — : A rivet. . celebrated . from the clinking of the latch. . to chink. Clay. a key. a cleft. a clincher. dut. neat. dams. Lat. clear. deot. glan. a plate. Axletree clouts. a claw or talon. a mass. clay . klincke. Da. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. together . polished. viz. W. date is AS. ON. E. Cleat. or of a tree. The word may be — . Sc. neat. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. shine. kleben. klutsch. famous. and E. words applicable sight. a — — . klinken. Du. Clemency. from diquer. Clear. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. kleevig. glent. klag. gentle. sticky. klouen. lump. klank. river. the fork of the body. to stick to. clink. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. cliquet. door-latch. sticky earth. voice. clout. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. (Cot. The Dan. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. dedgy. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. kloben. i. bright. Da. Kil. vice. Wilbraham. clear. a lump. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. klieben. tongs. splendid pohshed. kla:g. klafwa. doff. glitta. klinke. dinquet kleeven. gingle. and Celtic glan. it cleave together. kldnkelein. glbr. a bunch of When flax). as the Du. glatt. to stick or adhere .— . B. Mar. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. either by the coherence To Clepe. 2. AS. Gael. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. . glorious. E. daggy. G. to dag ox dog. pellet. nitidus. Fr. Lat.— Clag. rift. kluft. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. clear. G. pure. gleit. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. loam. rive. speech . sleek. The proper meaning of the word is shining. glint. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. cleave.— Claggy. calm. rivet. the latch of a door. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . gaklankjan. in two ways. Sw. klinke. to sound or make a noise . to cleave. the original . to 2. Du. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. to shine . . 154 CLAY dutch. that was Torriano. glbram. to tear or cleave asunder. klov. This is probably one of the clean. From clap. bogs cous. clash. Sc. an object is simply cleft. . to fasten. dag. To Clench. Clean. Du. provinciaUy termed dout. kleg. merciful. to clink or sound. from nitere. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. glance . the two parts of Du. or from being divided into two parts. viz. The word is . Clinch. and. Du. klinken. that was a striking proof. glitnir. dench. dags. polish . mud. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . as ON. pure. klirre. a in that of sphtting. klinken. klove The Dan.Q. ON. glan. G. a fissure or division See Cleave. klyft. to fasten. hook. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. diquetcr. klirren. explained from the klinken. glandse. G. kluyte. as Fr. glan. Dan. chaps in the skin. a latch. klouen. glindse. cloven wood. This word is used in two business is finished off. to clinch a nail. kluftholz. To call. pretty. Die zaak is zS. radiant. Du. See Clam.

a hook. diquette. to clack. a hold. to confess . littus. precipice. klikker. The Sc. icXi/ja?. The origin is the Gr. ravine. ready of speech. a latch . cleft. deudi. that is a clever feUow. which in Mid. an inclination. cave . cligner. kliket. Chaucer. -Toe (from KXivm. whence Fr. seize (Hal. cleft of a hill. cart that tilts over. abrupta rupes . from clifian. click. neither as having lordship in the. Cliff. We movement catch. Jam. Hence Lat. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. a latch. dial. a lazar's clicket or clapper. to talk as a parrot. Clew. klippe. crepare. click it. a trigger. the clergy. Rouchi cliche. rugged ascent. klaffen. Click. ginally from dob (extant in W. a clicket or clapper. Somner. call.' ii. region not observe it. Norm. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Clergy. to catch. to tattle. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . Du. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. Dunbar in Jam. sonare.. dever. chatter. dough. in the sense of active. clack. a clew. klaiv. chatter. Lat. rupes . a lot. speak. 3. Sw. the clergy clericus. clap. Clerk. dial. name. klinket. . Du. above the pole. cliquer. one of the clergy. a hump. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. klever. the dick of a latch or a trigger. which is used in Scotch and N. klif. Bav. a precipice.— Clue. cleke. or an object character- Clerical. has kl'dver. Clam. CLERK sound of a blow. duik. Sp. and (with the nasal) — clincher. —Vocab. But the Dan. globus. a latch. click. Lat. a ladder. kleppe. a clerk . AS. prattle. from Gael glac. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Cot. clif- stanas. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. cautes. clep. to seize. dook (identical with E. duke. dichet. dink. See Clench. Klover i munden. derjon. Da. to sound an alarm to clap. cliof. Happen. cleft in a rock. — have the notion of a short quick in E. . said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). to tattle. derecia. Commonly derived from deliver. clyf. Climax. quick of perception. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. KkrifoQ. dicher. a cleft in a rock .r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. clatter. syn. Clever. to cry. klinke. and hence deik. de ripa. . as Lat. quick in motion. scar. See AS. clever. deuck. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. cliquet. clypian. dergi. Sc. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. corresponding to the Sc. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. on. dial. climate. See Clamber. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. slope . klouwe. &c. agile. as from derido. one admitted to the tonsure. chat. G. dutch). nimble. a lump. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. has also deik. Lat. Gr. catching. expeditious. in rhetoric. crack. sink. say. temperature. clever. d See Clan. to move. claw or talon to dek or deik. cleugh. G. IS5 Du. klippe. light-fingered. dek. or Sc. a sphere.) Brai. deik. dob. crackle. klinge. call. to catch. Boh. the knocker of a door. derigon. derigo. klikklakken. — — A . stein- kluppen. e. precipices. snatch. kliv. Du. clif. in precisely the same sense as the E. and hence climate. a child's or clack . had a form. as Sc. clima. clerus. Fr. 3. it must be observed. klev. Now the OE.— Clicket. click. pulsare. to prate. would have been derida. klika. on. gleg. a claw or clutch. a mill-clack . to cleave. to wink.dergie! Wiclif in R. to teU tales. cliff. declivity. . In I Peter v. exactly Gr. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. what so men clappe or crie. dexterous. kloof. score7i clif. verge). rapidus from rapio. lively. hamraklif. chatter. klok klep- crepitare. deik. highest is attained. kleppen. cleopian. with hamarskard. babble. a tumbril. to rattle. to bend. to stir. a ball of twine. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. is NE. to snatch.). a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. rock. diver. a cliff.Lat. Det er en Mover kerl. diofian. Client. ized . glomus. as a click with the tongue. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. frap- per rudement une personne. Claw. Climb. pen. a baU of yarn. CLINCH De . Climate. OE. deuch. rock. /cXi'fia. corresponding to Fr. a figure mentioned. skard.

speaks of a ' clung bat. -CLINE make pinch. klupen. I. by bits. compress . klicke. to cling to a thing. w. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. toga. parva ruptura. clato make a noise. difficulty . to lean backwards. tuft. outcry. related to clock. a lump G.. klipa. quincailler. klocka. a hood. kluppe. G. To Clip. Du. S w. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. klungeln. to snap kneipen. club). kima. Gael. met. to lean. knippe. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. ON. klingen. The notion of a loose moveable substance. . Sw. clutch. as G. noise.' From Pl.'— Shaks. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Swiss klungele. incline. to knock. a rising ground. as thick or curdled liquids. 2. at first probably on a wooden board. See Clang. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. slant. chcng. kXiVu. klippa. a beU. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. Pl. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. difficulty.ginglej Fr. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Bi klik uti klak. Bohem. nip.und zuk-lippen. sloping downwards . whence the hour of the day was designated as three. dial. Sw. hlinen. hlinian. a snare.' for a dry stick. klok. cloche. declivis. . pinch. a separate portion.D. klepalo. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. Clock. cochl. to AS. to make a loud noise. to strike. hluk. Ir. also to wink . CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. G.. Flem. klincke. . . is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . a bell. to . clock is a variation of clack. straits. &c. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. to shrink up. -atum. to slope or bend . The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. pallium. Gr. Fr. Lat.— Clot. clino. N orman clincailler. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. kldpp. clinke. Cliofue. clique. clips. a woman's mantle . See Cowl. To stick to. G. klik. globulus' (Gl. ' . Sw. to bend downwards .. whence E. a cluster. . hluccti. Swiss klokken.D. sticky. klippen. knippchen. incline. recline. 156 -cline. klak. Sw. Clink. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. glungelin. klo^gen. hill . from klepati.. * Clod. Hal. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. knot klynge. kolbe to E. as to snip in the same sense from snap. a ball of thread . E. dag. to ring. to snip. claw. ON. iissura. To Cling. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. E. disposed to a thing. Een kliks bolter. . kluben. dial. klippa. Lat. a clock. rima. Bohem. Ang. to crowd or squeeze chingy. to snap or fillip schnippen. Serv. cloak. four of the bell. . to sound sharp. kukla. and a similar syllable without the /. to crowd together klynge sig ved. G. to resound.— KSS. shears. or bagging clothes. to beat on the board. bow. clinker. brett-glocke. kliks. gang. to cluster. Sussex peasant AS. to pinch klupe. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. hooded . being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Du. The E. a faction. G. — a mantle. klippur. Du. . kleppe. clivus. Fr. klaka. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. a bell. knippen. ON. ring clag. to clunge. to shrink up. like cling. pinch. a lump. acclivis. to clap or clack. clangere. to clip. fetter. to form one mass with. klunge. . kolki-laud. verklungeln. toga muliebris. klippe. clingan. Da. especially of something soft or clammy. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. klinka. sloping upwards procUvis. to wither. to wither. klunker. to clink auf. Walach. to snap tongs. Esthon. glocke. kol- The word . a tinman. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. 'Till famine cling thee. Sw. in Schmeller) klunk. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. To cut with shears. a lump of butter. as we now say three or four o'clock. clog. ten. Cloak. and so' to contract. g. klungelin. — clot. G. Decline. to pinch. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. klynge. and 'E. Du. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Kil. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. dial. dial. klinken. to beat. klocke. a clog or fetter for a beast . gUong. schnippen. OHG. klocke. also to form a compact mass. -cliv-. sloping forwards.

of a body of any kind. paddle or dabble in the wet. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. lobberen. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. kleck or lack. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. klac. aspersion. a blot. loose. doitre. and Du. and Gael. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. clot. lump of mud on the clothes . Mat. kloten. to sup up liquid food. a block. schlottern. spot of dirt.' end. -clusum. a babbler. -close. to dabble. A . from Fr. dangle. geschlotter (as E. a clog. shut up. • lump. tuditare. inclose. lunch.D. dial. .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. . or loppern. slops slodderen. 3. Du. mud klcEg. kloster. Pr. Klak also. AS. and thus seem endowed . a clod. Idppern. bowl . thick sour milk. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. tramp in wet or mire. we pass to Schlatter. miry laggerit. a monastery. gelatinous. from claudo. Hence inclose.rge lump. to a. . spatter. slops). we pass to E. klotzschuh. dirt. forbidden by 17 Ed. bespotted with mire E. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. loose mud. clausum. IV. clos.— Clothe. motte. Du. blot. wabbling from Du. enOE. Clog. I clodde. ! . A — — A Thus from Bav. a Christmas log. a clod Swab. clammy loam. dag. is connected with pludder. is a blot on one's character. . lag. It. Sc. The game called ninepins. to claggock. in accordance with Pl. klokotat.D. compared with clump. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. clorre. dirt. a dirty wench claggy. finish . kl'dnken. . or Sc. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. Gr. Fr. to bubble. Lat. dab. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. klunkern. G.. . or E. G. or drablyn with separate existence. -cludo. klakk. to shut. fat. Yule-clog. a portion of something soft and adhesive.1a. shaky. to wabble. klos-bane. to bodies. klos. figer. in forms like Du. splash. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. to shut in.dial. like G. clogs. a lump from Du. lopin. unctuous. bemired. pludre. klakken. loppered (of milk). To hinder by the adhesion Sc. da- . and E. loose trowsers. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. Pl. m&se noch stain. paddle. klod. a bal!. shut up. chiudere. to play at bowls. bloutre. chiuso. to rattle. His heart was franlc without a flaw. lump of butter. to slop or spill liquids. kloteispaen. mud. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. be found rattle. mire. daggerey. lopperig. Dan. to close against one. closed. Closhe. I clodde. E. I doda clod. to lobberig. TZoxapov. a spot. a skittle-ground klos- sen. fors. a log. klot. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). Bav. paludosus. to paddle in the wet. clos. lob. analogous plan to clod or club. congeler. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. terminate. claggy. kleck. Cloister. to bedaub. to flap as loose clothes. Fr. schlettern. laggery. . klotz. claque. kloteren. pattens G. in accordance with It. curdled. slab. dunch). clatk. je amoncele. The origin of clod and clot is to . CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. watery. g. klag. without. lobbig.'^ Palsgr. close. lump of something soft . loppe. to spill liquids. Swiss schlott. motzen. Russ. with Fr. in comp. clog or overshoe. thick spoon . slabberen. be&c. Pm. foreclose. lumps of butter. klottern. . der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to rattle or shake to and fro. from Du. He was a man without a dag. . lobberen. neither spot nor hang loose. to rattle. hanging loose and full. tJokok. . zoccoli. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. plod. Close. the radical sylla. log. kladde. a log. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. loblolly. to dabble. Klottermelck. .. . slop. of something clammy or heavy. clog in the sense of a