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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. in language of the present day. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. in other words. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. by whom the be understood. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. the present day. Molli. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. to the syllables which are significant to the child. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the closer we shall approach to the . The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. or. persons of different tongues at the present day.NURSERY IMITATIONS. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. the baaing of the sheep. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. or Mollein. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and where we are seeking. with an initial m or I. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. mind of the of the animal. and mully or mully cow is the . is given to a cow or calf. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. when we is represent to our children of the cow. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. name of the cow. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. come Moolls. and. but nothing she herself knows the animals. when neither name for the object to be designated. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. The syllables moo (mu. muK) and mae (rfie.

says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. became more perfect. repulsive to eat. he called to to drink. his nurse adopting the word with him. &c.' In ordinary speech mump. fiafifi&v (Hesych. Gradually. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. to eat. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. for things. schipp.). in children's language. nim. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. and which we might express thus. hm. p. He would now say good. On one occasion he said^e nim. to work over with the mouth. for everything fit to eat. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. for bad. by the natural humming sound. and some were very clear and distinct. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes.. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute.' he says. Finally an n was placed before it. had nim. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. analogous to Magyar mammogni. as well as the mind of the utterer. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. 72). I had watched the growth of this word.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. A member of my own new sfop. when hungry. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. then. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. family. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. and nim came to signify everything edible. partly from sounds which the child caught. Gr. mumm. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. nineteen years old. to For instance. . Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. . Heinicke. We have. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. First.

jammla. 130-1. aptantes adfectibus vocem. to eat mampfen. 1 86). memmexen. greedy . thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. aves tinnire. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. and the fizzing (and Series. Wolof nahenahe. (in chil- dren's language). Primitive Culture. agreeing with Ein. crab nam buckra man. iii. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Nimm'd up. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. ' Motherwell.' And Diomedes. nvrnma. . Vei (W. the Scotch poet. at hiamske i sig.ONOMATOPCEIA. to smack in eat. A negro proOr. delicacies. to fill the mouth. nyam nyam. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Gothic niman. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). to eat.' says Quintilian. Africa) nimi. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. make djamdjam). dial. mumble. Africa) nimnim. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. and some of them . to take. on. j ing . to chew laboriously. taken up hastily on the sly. tidbits nama . ut tinnitus aeris. ' id est. oves lalare. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. namnam. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . jumla. i. sweet (Koelle). to Sw.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. lita. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. mumpfen. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. South Jutland hiamsk. Swedish dialect gamsa. mumpfeln. to move the lips in continued chewing. and thence to be tasteful. clangorqae tubarum. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. nam.). Galla djam djeda. stolen.' says the author of Modern Slang. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to taste . snatched (Whitby Gl. we can call them so.minis. p. and the crab — p. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). yamming. savory. or word-making. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to mump. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. mujnpa. jamsa (yamsa). as to . nobis vix permittitur. buckra man's language the white man. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Soosoo (W. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. eating. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. as well as the Sw. i8o. voracious. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. food (Tylor. palatable. to be pleamind .' — Lersch. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words.

' — We speak of a cow.' And elsevs^here (p. between dog and harking. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . intended in the instance to represent the cry.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. baaing or maeing of lambs. sparrow and chirping. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. not of a moo of Lect. Yet we ing. bellowing of bulls. barking. grunting or squealing of hogs. Indeed. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. neighing or whinnying of horses. 89) with less hesitation. p. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. twittering of swallows. whether it deserves the name of language. gobbling of a turkey-cock. before the in other words. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. yelping. when circumstances required. yelping. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. 'I doubt. und growling. that there is When Man. purring or mewing of cats. hooting of owls. for the purpose of bringing the animal. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. or thoughts of our hearer. chirping of sparrows or crickets. might be used. a lamb. but of a dog. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. howling. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. bleating of sheep. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. do not speak of a bowwow.' he says. might be used as the designation of it. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. We .xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. or. cackling or gaggling of geese. dove and cooing. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. croaking of frogs or ravens. ^6^. not of a baa. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. chattering of pies or monkeys. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. snarling. snarling of dogs. lowing of oxen. bumping of bitterns. cooing or crooing of doves. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. anything connected with it.

koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. sound). birds. In Basque. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. whose sound (Pictet. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Origines Indo-Europeennes). fi-om apakd- i. and the sound of that direction. in g. 349. or quawk. Manchu The kaha. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock.). having a general predicative power. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Malay gdgak. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Sauscr. it announces (Salaberry). and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. Barabra koka. gackem. 'Kdka. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. 4th ed. Picard cau. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. a crow. a bird that is be driven away. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. a crow (Pictet). a daw. 380. ist ed. kae. and means a shouter. crow. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. Georgian quaki. He to is therefore derives kdka. KOKKvi. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket.). We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. ghak. and Bavaria respectively. We imitate the sound with a modulated. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Kdrava. e. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. In Lat.' common sense. in is Gr. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Columbia kahkah. kuho. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. kauwe. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket.IMITATIVE NAMES. Hungary. lion. caller. kdka. according to Durga). and gaggele or gagkelein. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. layitavya . Sometimes the hoarse i . coccolare.' kd). a a crier (p. Aoo-Aoo. caw kuhii-rava (rava. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. Arabic kdk. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Bav. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. crow. is kuM) for the cuckoo.

Sp. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . koeren. girre. kirren. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. The crowing of cot in Fr. Fr. reduplicate form. korren. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. cock. tortbla. Yoruba koklo. Zulu kuku. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. gufo. Hindi. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. Heb. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Du. 219. Magy. t. Mod. by the verbs gurren or girren. uhu. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kraeye. p. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. coucouva. German kielitz. Malay kukuk. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. a crow. the name of an animal will gen- . wood-pigeon. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. "Welsh hwan from hwa. the name for a crow.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. German luhu. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Arabic tdtwit. name of its is the bird. yell. coccovaec. kukko. German and Eng- krahen. to crow. a crow . leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. kurre. The consonants p. kraeyen. and sometimes both together. Da. and e. ghughu. Lettish kiekuts. coqueri- Languedoc. k. Dutch kievit. French dishuit.. turtle) as the Lat. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. lulo. or Gr. kruk. to cry loudly. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. to hoot. libufs. So we have Polish krukac. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. tbrtola. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Scotch peeweip. great variety of oKokv^uv. either in the same or in related dialects. are represented. Esthonian kikkas. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. as well as of Sanscr. Pers. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. another. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. kuku.Gr. teewhoop. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. tur. giving turtur (and thence It. Walachian coucouveike. synonymous forms of similar structure). and e.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. to croak. tuquheit. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. a crow lish Lith. hibou. to croak. lilits. kraukti. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. to howl or Lat. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. xi. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. gugu. tor. to crow. krauklys. while crouk. tbrtora. in the North of England. Albacuculi a dove. krahe. It. Ibo akoka. 6.. Du. kukhuta. lUyrian kukurekati. name. Swedish kowipa.

North of England. which they make in their flight very . name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. In the N. Lithuanian tranas. bee. Speaking of a cricket he says. grille. Sanscr. 337. bambhara. schrickel. the drone or non-working bee .vf3.or bumble-bee. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. a beetle druna. kong-kong. the humble. and he kong-ko-rong. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing.' Amazons. a small as hawk is . Danish gnaddre. gives rise to chwymores. grillen. to hum. a drone. or a gnat fly. to grumble. knetta. whirr). skryle. shrill. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. German hummel. humming. e. grylhis. thunder. from schrick. growling. there are infinite varieties. Northern Farmer. a sharp sound as of a 6. Sc. g.' — i. ' — Pictet . n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Albanian tsentsir. g. horniss and from the buzzing The. swirplys with 6. Lith. buzzing.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. resound. skirl. cricket is from crick. words imitative of humming . (Jieuschrecke) . We may cite Gr. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. ' Sanscr. din. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. to shrill sound sharp. PofijivXwg. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. give a faint sound. g. in allusion to its music. schrecke. and probably indicates that g. as . resounding of musical instruments. Danish dron. droning is . Arabic tantanat. Australian bumberoo. The Arabic sarsor. of England it is to the b 2 . Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. The drone peal. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. dhran. booming. The name of the cricket indeed. a fly (Tylor) . ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. The Welsh chwyrnu. loud rumour. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. pip-pi-ta. to be compared with Sanscr. glass cracking (Schmeller). Naturalist on the tocano. Gaelic dranndan. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. hollow noise. and yelping cry. representing a short sharp sound. with or Fr. zirken. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. oE. to chirp . to creak Bret. buzzing. succeeding each other — with noise. sound. ta-na-nd. schwirren. sirkka. to chirp J may be compared with . i. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. German dronen. chirk. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd.' —Tennyson. bamba. flight its sting considered as a horn. 'The natives call it tanand. ajo. schirke. a bee. German drohne. Fin. to sound. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. Lat. a hornet. — Catafogo. to rustle.IMITATIVE NAMES. from the humming. little intermission.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. and not from E. common. skril with n. Corean sirsor.

a bull. to ba-L-are. to low. btibleti. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to weep. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. OFr. From baa. mugire. On the same principle. miau-l-er. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. that the imitative syllable are Lith. bullock. Thus from miau. to shout. Illyr. bull. a heifer. in same way. It. Piedmontese fi bau. to bellow like a bull. and from to ring. ox. to make a noise. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. grumble as distant thunder . it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. bukati. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. a drum . Galla boa. The Piedm. be-l-er. make poo. a buffalo. to beat hard. bue. bovis. or bau-l-i. bubati. k or g. bae. to make a loud deep sound. to bow- own bawl. or with on. and djeda. bauli. fivKaofiai.XX called booing. the animal. to mew. and in Hottentot baa was the . to make. Lat. bullus and e. Hottentot bou (Dapper). bugle. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. bolt. to the uses goda. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Norse bu. Zulu lulula. are (with a subsidiary k). Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. representmake bow. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. agreeing exactly with Lith. as that of the cow by boo. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. to . a bullock. say. verbal form given to the say. verb is evidently identical with our shout. a cow. to low . and thence Lat. to from bau. Cult. forms a. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. (iove. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. biibnas. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. The Galla lilbil. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. With these analogies. Fr. bubenti. His analysis leads cow. or formed Lat. bugler. representing the mew of a cat. to sound. to boohoo. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bae. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Da. to low or bellow. to make. shoot . bos. bucula. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). boo. mugler. or a z to the imitative syllable. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. cattle. whence baula. is inadmissible. mae. 167. w. mamoo-heeheek. lulauti (to hoo-loo). Gael. in a imitation of a ringing sound. the Fr. Manx booa. a Geiger. to bump as a bittern Illyr. or moo. Lat. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. Fr. bwla. Lat. bo. from the imitative moo instead of boo. maukati. amuse. w. loge. muJiati. as the Illyr. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bu. From the same lioao). — ^Tylor. to shout. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. buculus. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. p. to or bark. has bilbilgoda. baula. make to it laugh.

. name. undoubtedly imitative. a sheep (Lowe). kurren. From the imitative mae. rumbling. it and e. a pig. grumbhng. mutter. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. / The same Gr. Gael. grugno. It. and hoc'h. hunt (gen. nire. to growl. — . and with the subsidiary k or g. 6. karra. and of (maelon). Idgge (Rietz). he would hardly. goats. a grunt. in v. a hog. a sheep or ewe. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. to grunt. Among dog. a (Hesych. Gr. hadg- Magy. It is probable also that e. the snout of a pig. to bleat . cry). hunon. to howl. oe. meigeal. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. kurre. /xj/caScj. Africa laa. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. The g. Welsh and Breton). a. /xijeao/iat. a sheep or a goat. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. corresponding to ohg. from hundama. a goat. the designations of a dog the term cur. sheep or goat. in Wolof bae. to rumble. Da. and Circassian maylley. a dog. grumble. and thus explains the origin /3^k»).have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. a pig Fin. Fr. meugler. and thence groin. sus-sus. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Illyr. lekavica. hund. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. as lou of an ox. leknuti. ^. a sow. as the proper name of a tame sheep. hundi). grumble. by which the shingle gives rise to It. grumpf. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. naskia. meil. lek-eg-ni. although the imitation embodied in Lat.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. purr).). grunlike a pig in eating. And it is true there between hog and grunt. . of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. from knurre. curmurring. Hence Breton hoc ha. and grumphie. grogner. hwch. may be identical with Esthon. knurfisk. mekegni. cite as by grunt. groin. (iriKov of forms like Sw. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. ' In driving. Illyr. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. name of the animal itself. to grunt. With gen. Magy. a goat. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. to bleat. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. with the root ypaipm. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. meckern. Illyr. may with to snarl. lecco. grunt. guttural tone. G. a goat firixal^ta. hound. or in any ! way ! persuading.' Moor's Suffolk words. and snorke. sound. menAda (ndda. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Gr. Moreover. leg-et-ni. Gr. meketati. mecati. Manx meilee. houch. for the voice of the ox). lambs. to bleat. a sow. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a wolf. does not produce a e. we have Sanscr. Kurren und murren. Fr. smack and naski. . growl. name of a sheep. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. signifying a snarling. a sheep. grunny. this obstinate race. to themselves.

as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. humma. hoppe. M). when he found peculiarity. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. houpy in Craven. If onomatopoeias can . Thus we are led to the Fr. g.' 2nd Series. Esthonian hoibo. turn a horse to the is In Finland. the cry to stop or back a horse. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. There are of course some names. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. e. to the left. without a — we root. coquette. . Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen).. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. hottihuh. hobby. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. coquelicot. to whine. cockade. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. p. 91.root. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee.). a horse. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. hobin. a mare. of the character in question. animal. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). like artificial flowers. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.' ticular bird. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. as in Yorkshire highly right. Sc. ^6<. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. a little am- bling horse. hiine. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. from the cry animal. But words of this kind are. So Sanscr.). as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. . (Craven Gloss. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound.' — ist Series. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. p. such as cuckoo. hobben.. to go backwards.

Sp. runniken. moan. g. Irieschen. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. nitrire. horse. wagtail. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. hresh. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . diver. redpole. woodpecker. sol. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. cough. e. . as sigh. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Lettish sweegt. hross. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. wiehern. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. groan. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. hresh. hikkd. whitename in in- throat. ance or habits of the animal. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. titter. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. rinchar. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Sanscr. hukkup. Pl. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. wrenska. signified It. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. Fr. nounced with a guttural). When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost.D. Bohem. to neigh. fehtati. Du. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. swift. animals or certain kinds of sound. Sw. form corresponding hresh. ginniken. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. little speak for themselves. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. frenschen. but whether there kind between them and other words. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. command of language was attained. wrena. hennir. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. lapwing. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. than to the sounds represented. creeper. xxiii ginal object. to Sanscr.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. goatsucker. giggle.

an attempt would be made to by the voice. went the cannon. snukkup).' ! ! ! ! — dong.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for in such sound of blows. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. for blows with a rod.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. atchian. or tliat is accomit. lumm. are familiar in ' to every one.' 'Haw. &c. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . thunder (Tylor) . oren : Klapp.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. to knock. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. ding. mer. hoo ping ping. for the sound of a blow. heart tick-tack. klatsch. to drive on. Of a like forma- drum .' it both sides went. DingBang. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. root kshu. scream. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. bang. to sneeze. . the dashing of the sea . banke. bang ' ! trenches. for the for the sound of . a more expressive than the e. strippstrapp-stroll. Da. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. bangas. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. snore. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. beat. on the chops is represented also by pratx. in a nail Let. a large bell. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. to hammer . and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. for a small one. &c. ting-ting. fitsche-falsche.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow.' So imac. knack. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. to throw violently down. snort. the God of thunder . hang. a kind of drum. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . wheeze. haitshu. pit-a-pat. beat of a clock child . debhes-lungotais (deifies. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. haw. dong Read. clap ! A smack Puff. heaven). knarr. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. Australian bungbung ween. tlirob. for the sound of milking. White Lies. Mei gbengben. banga. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. ping came the bullets about their ears. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. Vei gbangba. shriek. 1865. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. Wtb. for the sound of a fall. tisio (tisho). It is represented in e. for the creaking of a wheel. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. or the w. to ham. Zulu bongo. plitsch-platsch. aritischane. —Brem. hoo. pump. for that of breaking. — Sanders. atchini. to beat.

pipegni. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. not- . Magyar pip. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. piou. scream. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. piccione. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pigione. Lat. piou. G. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. and whimper.' instead. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. had been used laugh ? two. to designate cavity and hollow. pu. pipe. He Yet asks. a (young) pigeon. pipio. pipare. as k. to cheep like a bird or a young It. pi. as the simplest implement for proFr.) a chick. laugh. and their relations. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. calls S. is pfeife. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. pipe. a or cheep. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. to peep It. Mantuan pipiare. a chicken or gosling. cry of young birds . — . where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. part of the What consciousness has the child. pule. or the uneducated different consonants are man. a fife or musical pipe. peep. Fr. a whelp. to cry like imrli^u). mobility excavation and hollow ^. piauler. or a piailler. —Lyndsay. . as in other subjects of study. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. child. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. used as a call to . Florio.sc. is of expression. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. peep. De Brosses. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. Gr. and so forth. young bird. a fowler's bird call is lost. to squeak. ducing the sound. pippione. The pi. pipio. young child . chickens (Tylor). doubtless.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. e. It seems to him that the teeth t. of a word will appear supposed to represent. Lat. which he added to intensify the expression. bleat. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. has been un- employed to designate fixity. In cases such as these. pipilo. pipelni. far pipi. cry. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. pigolare. the voice of chickens (Cot. pigiolare. to cry pi. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman.

to grate the teeth . chack. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. to pant violently (Colenso). rumble (Fl. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to grumble. tintino. kirkirdnd. Pacific aka-aka. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to be compared with Sc. Hindoo tomtom.. Hindustani karak is rendered. crash. a closed or obscure sound. to clack. to gurgle. lachachen. pi . by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. or kaka-faka. like the noise of a glass breaking .) Mod. sound of dry breaking. a prolonged sharp sound. garren. some small vowel or consonantal sound. of something fine and thin. when it force than biscuit. to fizz like fat in frying. karkarana. be cate to go on laughing loud . a short sharp sound. {to It. make wood a clinking noise. to growl. to pant bejii- zela. of a loud strong sound. Poppopvi^to. to rattle. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . grumble. a drum W. kniks. Indian chack-chack. where the variation. to laugh. kuruk. and lugh. It. coo. sound). rumble. Manchu kaka-kiki. along with tinnio. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. . to gorgogHare rattle. girren. turtur. the clucking of a j hen . yapyapii^to (to make gargar). murren. bubble. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. borrelen. u. kniks. rumble. laqfF. knurren. tonare. a. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. &c. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. lachen. gurren. crack. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Zulu raraza. Pefuxela. murmur (by . to hawhaw or laugh loud. to bubble.. as the click of a latch or a trigger. is very common.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to cluck. vaake gorgor) . a sharp short one. to cry pi. . to ring pipio. the side of g. to crackle like in boiling . to grumble). susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. thunder oil .Gr. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. preserved by Kilian. to thunder. or springing back. to jar. as representing the sound made when something breaks. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. knaks. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. cricli. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to gargle . what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. creak. to creak knirren. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. knuks. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). along with Du. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. tontonare. loud laughter. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. i. in German. cluck.

Galla tuma. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. shout. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. The whispering of the wind I. compared with Gr. sound. to be compared with g. kiling-kalang.* the heart. awater* ' The Mme P. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). quarren. jingle. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. tumwata. or of bells ringing. tup. Magyar csamm-ogni. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. to strike. Tiie Galla gigiteka. koXiw. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. chinking of coin. 1871. Sanscr. at an accelerated note. a drum .' Member for Paris. Scotch sough or sooch. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. rifiirayov. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. cry. to giggle. champ. clash of arms. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . to the purling of a brook. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. a boy's whistle. tubh. for the clinking Lat. and Gr. fumtu. clango. and her heart went thump.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. csam-csogni. to knock. croaking of frogs. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. agrees with g. brings us to Fr. or the bubbling up of to a spring. a nightingale. chuchoter. to ring or jingle. 192). identical with g. noise. disturbance (F. corresponding in e. e. of keys or tinkling of bells. Newman). 368). may be compared with Australian pitapitata. caca and Finnish adkkd. and bilhila. halaidlac'h. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. KaKog. bulbiil. chut. Maori pata. indicating the origin of Gr. Fr. for the ringing of illustrate bells. box on the ear imitation of the . is Manchu tang-tang. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. spring of water in the a bell. to beat. word. make djamdjam). sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . the gingling of glasses. especially one who beats. a workman. and Gr. Calt. to whisper. sound). the sound of a stringed instrument. clink. tumult. The syllables lil-bil. drops of i. for a tTviror). thump. simmer. clank. a nightingale. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. as of Tamil muromurmur. rain (Tylor. as Fr. is based on the same imitation as the e. bubble up. for chut-chiit-er. and e. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. are applied to the is excrements of children. uproar. coughing or clearing the throat. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. borrelen. for the sound of privy whispering. or to Du. djeda (to say tub). bent her head. ding-dong. muro and e. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. Prim. correspond to e. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to say chut. and the imitative nature of tivgle. rvir (in tvittio. while cacd / used in e. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. hala-hald-faMa (falda.and e. Manchu kaka. the tingling Ming-Hang. a smith. kl'mg-kling. . wail. Turk. klirren. jangle. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. call. bad. E. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. .

as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp.' — Nohden. 'pat. bubble. squeak. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. blow. tap. thump. thump. gargle. tumbian (to beat the ground). or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. we have buffet or cuff. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. report of a gun. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. clank. Humboldt. clink. squall. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. and Fr. clap. So in Fr. clang. whizz. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. according to the strictest phonetic rules. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . for (Sanders). to is blow. parapatapan. tum-ultus. pop. or v^hether jectional. rumble. thwack. souse. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. swash. douse. mutter. rattle. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. snap. ' Der puff. dash. crunch. fizz. Nevertheless. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. smash. It. tymmesll. jingle. answering to g. whirr. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. rap. in e. without the intervention of orthodox roots. The use of g. lash. to fall. chatter. blubber. twang. gurgle. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. hum. clack. and soufflet. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. tinkle. patter. the Germans puff. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. whine. by rubadub. disturbance. guggle. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. The beating of drum is represented in e. clash. splash. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. to dance. thump. flop. whack. while e. bang. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. But although and also found in Lat. tingle. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. crash. din. squeal. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. it is fallj AS. and the French pouf. hiss. rataplan or rantanplan. splutter. crack. brumberum. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. creak. boom. sputter. craunch. slash. puff. and Grimm. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. plump.. a applied as well to the force of the bang. smack. Fr. clatter. chink. tomber. flap. paddle. dabble. murmur. at a door tarapatan. ring. w.

He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. because they are spontaneous. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. or stubble is meaner name. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. the interj. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. Henceforth rational beings may produce them.' . cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering.'. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. xxix on the contrary. At the first beginning of life. knows them. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. is Thus ah!. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. the inteij. every little pain. an imitation of a sigh . intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair.' If chaos. hay. by the nature of the cry. If. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. and uttering plaintive sounds. without a thought of symbolising to them. little who has time to want of her nurseling. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. formerly cited. in the rushing waters. or of any if wood. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. wringing the hands. and thus they become signs of despair. Crying. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. p. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. of horror. 94.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. stractions. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . in the case of the animal or of the infant. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. but if we must not complain on the beach. Grimm or Bopp. the kind of action that is desired of them. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. ugh . as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. or any unsatisfied want. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. that he has taken the step in rational speech. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. grief. are made known by an instinctive cry. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and found in the building of be burnt up.

more to the point. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. interjections. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. they are involuntary interjections. which are frequently so toned down cance. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. more eloquent than a long speech. p. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have.' p. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. as who them spontaneous utterances. Language begins where interjections end. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. He says.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. shrieking. to solve the I shall call first. 32. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. And again. and some of them the composition of words. or which is of me as suffering pain. he cites from Home Tooke. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. should be remem- . which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. may become traditional. ^6g And to the same effect 371. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. the lowing of a cow. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. One short interjec- tion may fact. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. p. be more powerful. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. of all the mouth. groaning. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. and the eye. sneezing. If I wish to make a person of an .XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.' — ist Series.. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. them to exercise it.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. 344. coughing.

is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and more or less limited . hahota. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. he says. Lat. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. Tooke in truth. then speech begins. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. in Magy. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. loud laughter. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. in Fin. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. hohottaa. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. for example. when I arp humming and hawing. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. hahottaa. demolishing here. Koxafw. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. interjections. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. speaking. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. Gr. I am not hearer. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. and others from interjections. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. but the less am at a loss what to say. cachinno. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. and thus. Kayxa^u). kahkahah. bered. it them. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. some kind of language might have been formed.

whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. if taken as a whole. It as has ing their most striking features.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. like peewit and cuckoo. But here nature soon conies to his help. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. What strikes him . tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.' he says. dumb is the language of signs. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. Though. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. words receiving the meanings they now bear. and not. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. of the nature of this great movement. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. a Picture-language. The following account is given by Kruse. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. . and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. the critical question should be. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. a deaf-mute himself. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. And so in the case of language. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. and go where we now say stand. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. makes them stand and walk upon the table. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. of the world. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.

push it towards the person addressed for thou. or the verb to be. and fully serves to j . or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. the lan- guage cultivates itself. for the agent. xxxiii him between one thing and another. for walk. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and forms further and further. most striking outline of an object. that signifies great . Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. letter To hold the two fingers apart. he. and gestures. and to taste. he. but if I depress it instead. thou. And is. becomes roast meat. thought is already broken. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. such objects. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. the whole secret. walker. like a V.GESTURE most. and with his thought. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. or To pull and flap with the arms. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. that air. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. that. The of sign for left hand. it seems. what more. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. walkest. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. as it now opens out. The same sign stands and the act itself. to name. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. for single objects. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. the sorecalling them to his memory. his action. called Gesture-language. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. particular sense in properly so called. it means little. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . ' from the circumstances of the into a question. many when or but these. nay. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and And thus he makes himself a language. and it is flesh or meat. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. for child. walked. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. among themselves. signs are taught for yet.' In the Institutions. and we have roast goose. such as than the educated man. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact.

putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. the ture of white term pink is and red. When a verb. Do not bang the it is a verb. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. Who is has beaten you ? would be. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. substantive or adjective. to indicate the action of a certain person. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. I say. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. or an act. as when Bang ! went the gun. would be simply beginning of speech. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. depend entirely upon the use. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. or something of the kind. the garden. as in die it is a noun. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. and thus performs the part of an adjective. as But when it is meant door. a number of alternatives are suggested. qualifies the against the wall. putting it into his pocket. The same word . in other instances sentence. it called an interjection. in fact. when I say. whether by additions or otherwise.' dener's knife. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. . Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. When I say. a colour red. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. and the as. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. might be the knife. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. or a passive scene of existence. He gave door a bang.xxxiv asking. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. according to the circumstances of the case. or action. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. You beaten . and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. or a quality. and so is an adverb. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran.

ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. in the sense of great.. wherewith. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. Latin. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. as cung. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. coalesces with the personal pronouns. or some relation between it and another object. a sigh of oppression and . or with elements expressing relations of time. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. &c. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. wonder. commencement of speech. wherehy. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. in the is indicated by the syllable y. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. and may be used language. a groan. 255. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. as kuo cung. and to be great. inside. Jii ta. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. whereof. . that admits itself in of audible representation. grie^ horror. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Thus tafu signifies a great man.^ — Miiller I. middle. that is. some outward display of the affection. but often self-evident. contempt. inquiry. pain. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. whereto. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. or nei. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. the man is great. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. with a stick. wherefore. which is an old y ting (use stick). it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. a noun. greatness.

die wehen. guajo. to do woe. as. is w. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. ochan. miau-l-er. representing Illyr. w. och. ach. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . jaoh. Illyr. at the close of the radical syllable. form. seen in Gr. lament. on. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. It. woe. ochan. gwae. ach. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). aiai^to. guaj- or cry out pitifully. first person. Let.'). as.ez. to weep. ocAJ. grief. j. Bret. howl. Gr. a groan or lamentation vir. to cause pain. wd. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. pain. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. found in g. &. 6. g. is Ay di me I Gr. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. miau-n-is. It. to . wai. Gr. to yell formed e. djamdjam goda (goda. to hurt Let. to wail. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. Thus from springs otjucifw. la. The form corresponding to Lat. ahi. guaj-ire. and to bark . the pangs of childbirth. gwae. ! ! Goth. or r. ui. suffering. . Gael. w^wa. to make). g. grief] affliction. wai. guai. miau-l-is. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to ache. och. e. weh. o'i. oi. 6. to cry n. Fr. to lament. to weep. grief. Illyrian vaj. oh. Lat. headache. Lat. A widespread It. cece. Such are g. e. vei-a. och. wAwa. wehen (Schmeller). e. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. misery. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to make bow-wow. however. in Gr. oimare. ohi. has more kopfweh. and cacak djeda (to say crack. ai. gwe-l-a. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. to lament. jao. woe. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. to chirp. probably a deeper groan. vce. tirr-djeda. Gr. Jar lau-lau. dchzen. wehthun. ochain. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. hei. to cry at. axofiai. ah. to injure.-l-are. w. ing action I. lau-l-e. oval. mostly a ! %. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. It. to sound yapyap. are ol-ire. n.. It. weh schreien. pain. achen. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. to gargle. ah. ace. vaj. to wail or cry alas . oh. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to ache. pain. xxxvi grief. . to bewail oneself. weinen. to rriourn. . mew. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. lament from oimi. misfortune. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. . ache. wai-l. . as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. to groan. ohg. al. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. on. I oi[iot. ach. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. In this way from the root guai. representing a cry of pain. vce. waiidt. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. and so on. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. for instance. and by a variety of expressions besides. I add) . is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. a word of many applications in g. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. but the truth is.' all is is — their consent. Please. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. give. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. when he wants something.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. • The child. . der da-ige. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. The Fr. 'nay. and may be rendered. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. we may translate this by there (it is). that is it. his trowsers' pocket.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. In the expression Da. when 1859. When we pointing. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. give me that cheese.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. as it Dieser da (as Lat. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr.' then points to his wife. ToSe (or in Attic E. to here . because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. case. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. Phil. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. da. Dr Lottner observes. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). that gratifies me. as. da. the nursery da-da. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. thata (ta-ta). Diet. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent.' this. ' sees an object. Sanders (Germ. is-te). Bav. according to Menage. saying : there the ad- Trans. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. this here.' person. Thank you. or give me it. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. child. more emphatically roSj)j that. that. indeed. says da-da-da. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. or wants to name something. implying the direction of its good will towards them. well as Goth. or carry me thither. is we I believe. Sie. nurseries. as to express. a specified were by pointing him out. But. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. or that it is. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.

and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. of which any one may. the original is that which he places first. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem.' • liv ANALOGY. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. its desire. tasting. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. tattle. which thus exertion. to beat. sinking. . takes it — as When the soul. and shapes it into an . ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. stutter.' says Lottner interior. or metaphor. p. The da is dodem. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. to knock. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to tion to another. standing. make dadada). beat. strike. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. reality. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. — Cot. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. to move step by step. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. pay. thinking.' says Muller. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. meanings. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. to chatter. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. sounds.^ its ' utters : a cry. to say to oneself. Thus Gr. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. dadee. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. speech. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. in every mode of expressing the idea. to walk. childish toying. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. and one in particular must. then instinctively interest. moving. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. or dalliance. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going.

It is The word bright had a similar In as. make a loud noise. sound. on. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. signified a clear sound. gnittre. a with kimmaltaa. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. In the same way the Goth. clang. scTiateren. to flash. rattle. esclat). Lith. wise. kiimottaa. sprageti. (parallel bilbila. a rustling sound Gr. think. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. scheteren. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. then to sparkle. extended to the exercise of the understanding. beam. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. splendour. savour. for example. while sapere itself. to sniff out. magnificence. iclat (in Old Fr. to be wise. wamara. Finnish. Heo Du. schiteren. to crackle. &c. Fr. a brilliant light kilid. tintelen. also wise. and figuratively. So firom Lat. noise. fiapfiaipw. may be quoted gUt. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. man of nice taste. kimistd. to shine. a ringing . we have and the and beorht. brilliancy. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. a dis- cernment. beorhtian. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . smell. outcry. — 1. to glisten Dan. snuff the sniiten. to glitter. may be it explained . to glitter. bright. snotor. suspect Bav. air. to smack or taste. sense of brightness. as. unlella. taste. to sniff. the equivalent of g. tinkling. snutrs. discreet. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. . bilbilgoda (to make . same imitative root with Sw. ghsten. Again. snudra. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. 1654. search . to snilF. and thence e. firom the Gael. to ring as a glass willata. to ring. knittre. bilbil). to . . The 6. and. to have Sapiens. to glitter e. to shriek with laughter . pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. In the case of sparkle. Bavarian bracht. splendour. and schmecker. from the . chime). then which is a modification of the to twinkle. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. spraka. to shine. tumult. in the domain of movement. smell. to quiver. in popular language. to crackle gnistre. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to sparkle. to glitter. schmecken. judicious. as kilind. prudent. wilistd. snot. Du. is used in the origin. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to 5 ghtter. pracht. wilahtaa. to sound clear In Galla. to tinkle. properly a clap or explosion. which in ohg. sapere (which signifies the nose. to resound. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. knistre. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT.

Tpa)(yg. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. itself letters are felt as sofl. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. wool. 1. of dressing loud. \nrap6e. v. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. eo ut res vol. roughness. oily. . soft. Kep^arl'ieiv. to slide. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. and vepres. the cross. the bleating of sheep. &c. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. power of the letter-sounds. Acre. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. the neighing of horses. pleasure soft to the ear . smooth. rend. the clank (stridorem) of chains. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. shatter. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. KoWiiSije. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. flow and flux. crux. is felt Lana. And observing that n kept the voice within. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. he framed the words ivSov. Much of the same has been often quoted. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. which The Stoics. accordance with the way in which by touch. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. within. break. in of his works. we hear of screaming colours. mel. inside. or . discusses the tone of a picture. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. pvfi^Civ. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. The BpavEiv. 6\tadaveii'. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. sharp. fitting the letters to the sense. rough. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. in truth. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. he says. gluey. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. ipuKuv. rough to the ear. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. extremely loose. briars.' he says. strike. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. tremour. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. as soft by the ear. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). kvTOQ. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. rough. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. Kpovtiv. rough both ways. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. whirl. then in rpd/xoe.

shag. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. joli. degree of roughness sound. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. stag (in stagger. tug. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. as when. to reel abruptly from side to side). and in the utterance of a high or or low.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. p. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. shog. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. dig. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. t. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. jag. or checks as they are called by Muller. the case of the voice. k. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. jih. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. corresponding to the ineor. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. p. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. A greater felt. g. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. 'and consequently form. stab. Fr. jig. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. 138). cular effort Again. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. rug. ii. dag. d. for exis ample. sag-oter. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. jog. a rough and sudden . to jogj sac-cade. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. to signify varieties of movement.

is made to signify movement. kik. Ene olde suksuk. also to stir. The syllable suk is jerk. to glitter. to stir. that we never can be sure. chicoter. to move rapidly to and fro. then. a . Brescian toch. chic. Bolognese tocc. Fr. an old worthless horse or carriage. motion. as tot. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. schockeln. a little bit. Then. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. so to Italian toccare. Hence Lat. lead to Spanish tocar. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. tecche-tocche. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . chique. to incite by light touches. and It. a good piece of road . The Mipen or pencil. Thus we have B. chiquet. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. sound Fr. cica. to On the same principle j we have g. tech-tech. It. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to ring a bell. sound barely audible. as Italian tocco. kuk. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to take a thing on tick. a cracker. properly a small lump'of . being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. rough horse. to winkj micati is Lat. to touch. an infant . a quid of tobacco. to mark it with a touch of the pen . like English tick. for the sound of knocking at a door. (mitsati). and e.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. to mutter. toch-toch. &c. Mucken. Sukkeln. The analogy then carried a step further. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. Accordingly the g. figuratively. zack. a piece or bit of anything. and analogous movements. foot. a jog. is lanese toch. The train of . g. tack. in cases like the foregoing. Welsh cicio. to have it ticked or marked on the score . mica. a playiug-marble. it produces Dutch micken. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. a crum.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to pulses being knock. Fr. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. To tick a thing off. to utter a slight kick. zigzag. mot. The production of sound. used interjectionally to represent a . or check. movement. however. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. S-panish miga. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. a small bodily object. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. is so frequent a consequence of movement. a stroke with a French toucher. tock. Dutch kicken. mie. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. then. micare. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. e. mik. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. passing to the signification of motion.. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . to say a word . or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. Illyrian migati. to strike It. to beat or play on a musical instrument. schuckeln. not to utter a syllable. to tickle. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement.

Fr. further off.n. tozzo. a morsel. . little. tottle.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. neither moit nor an atom. taut. tittle. 0. not because the pendulum makes a different left. eo. for the three personal pronouns. clay . it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. titilh. the least visible insect. . we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. and mite. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. titter. So. bunch or flock of wool. a morsel girl . a lad citta. to whisper (Pr. little j to that of a small bodily object. anything small flax. mutter j dust. to touch lightly with a pen. a girl. of movement in totter. a small bird. not an atom . The following table from Tylor (Prim. to e. e. often entirely arbitrary. subdued manner. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. Malagasy to. anything . to excite by slight touches or movenjents. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). . a e. as in e. move slightly to . a sparrow). The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. ri that. . to jog. mossche. e. and dot. (Halliwell) Da. a bit. tot. 199). sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. To jot. a whisper. gni. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. tot. Cult. or the converse. the same organ touched with the man. and a small lump of something. for the beating of a clock. Halliwell. 48) cites from the African Tumale. Pm. a little titty. a bit. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. that. mutter. totle. to touch. and he. ika. or the like its It.) . here. a small lump or pat. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. a small horse. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. citto. This kind. to make a slight mark. there. small of kind. mote. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. But the same is language has re Javan. . not to utter a syllable. a small kind of lark. to movement of the pen . is shown in murmur. chico. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. mot. In a similar the relations of place. tot. mut. a light quick blow. iki. and toddle like a child titter. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. titmouse (Du. a small quantity. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. or o toi. . to jot down or note with a fro. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. there (further of!) ao. i. zitella. we have e. tit. lump of earth. corresponding to the personal pronouns. that iku. gnu. jot. gno. Du. fait. I. the vowel sound. here (close hand). n. to tremble. zitio. motte. syllable mot. a tot . to dot. ticktack. and out there. there '(at a short distance). to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E.- a jot or little It. fragments It. motta. this. lix Sp. seesaw. tit. this . at where the order is inverted. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . . Then. a certain conception. tot. a. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. tiny. small titlark. you.

Dhimas isho. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. . but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. ulri. Fernandian az. there. young one. this ole. you. w. that. Mutsun ne. ojOo. there. this . thou ni. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. here . . and a for the female. that in the distance. ita. Mm. akha. /wo. km. mother.. that.. father.araM. that. Botocudo ati. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. biii. 6. . here this . owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). . for the male. child. Lat. femina ama. an old . and origin. . Tarahumara ibe. /mya.. ukko. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. It Carib lala. is Here. It seems to (fen. man erne. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. no constant rule is observed. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. that. as the act of pointing was ta. j Canarese ivanu. Japan ko. small (Pott. ni. this . this fi. here . uta. probably initial of distinction that the k. tiiio. here j ka. ne. that. ofj. /e«. here feraa. ndi. Abchasian aSn. thou. Carib ne. I . bi. that (intermediate) j wana. there. there. there. is father. an old woman chacha. . as in Italian Fin. little. child. that. mas cheche. Sahaptin (America) kina. there.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. he. that. he. father k . loo). Ossetic am. (tt). respectively. . here j abe. Zulu ajoa. olo. that. qu. Chilian tva. Then. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. The vowels a and o sound of the voice.) pronunciation of i or e. this . to. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. mother.e^. me probable that • Vei also little. this <t. Guarani nde. ^. Tamul i. . thou . as Mr Tylor remarks. here 5 Yoruba na. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. usho. minution further.) nna. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Magyar ez. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. there. ni. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel.. mother. ta to ka. Gr. nne. this . that.

trappen. little To sup up. as j money. a little yellow beard. to leap. little. A little weeny thing. pepin. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. barking of a dog. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. 401. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. analogous to winy-piny. repetition It. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary.' — Merrv Wives. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. Fr. is to express simple continuance of action.' making the voice as small as possible. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. . the germ from whence the plant is to spring. nab. to tread. nipple.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. looking through between obstacles. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. whence Fr. murmur.) . The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. to teet. to peep. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. just beginning to appear. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. lift 8. don-don. titta. And perhaps the E. for the . Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. wenig. The sound trapp . The Sw. nil. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. trippelen. to make its way through the bursting envelope. to begin to appear . Thus we have Wolof sopa. to feet. has tittafrem. at pippe frem is to spring forth. the principle of reduplication. or chink. the idea is called. in old e. Top. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. dance (Kil. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. as ding-dong. keeh. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. i Sw. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. fretful. tion. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. sound of bells . a step. A little wee face with little. — Douglas Virgil. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. for instance. &c. din-din. trappa. trippen. knob. Da. stairs. the pip or pippin. wean. From cases like the foregoing. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. Clank represents the sound of something large. for a succession of light blows low-wow. the simplest mode by the g. a child. and in the Pacific dialects. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. trap. the nursery few j Sc. trSpigner. to peep through. or even. of smaller things.

' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. clash of weapons. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. very bad. to call frequently from Fr. kamha-gamla. kenda. hardness. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. i. a spot. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. &c. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. mawhitiwhiti. to vi^alk about for flax. sopasopa. The same principle of 196. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. 97). racket. Again. if very young. to to call. to cover e. tache. calling. kendagenda. from Maori muka. the lungs. rack. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. to talk at to walk. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. or el. Malay ayun. So from clamo. Mandingo ding. a cradle. er. a clattering noise. a grasshopper. smallness. little child (p. child . to love. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. instead of being actually repeated. (to use a to speak. Thus in the Pacific loa. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. or in Fr. or imitative syllables. or very very great. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. very long (Pott. and Fr. in familiar use with ourselves. puka- puka. ayunayunan. . the comparative degrees of greatness. tach-et-er. could readily be conceived. loloa. puka. ratsi-ratsi. Thus in E. to treat with contempt. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. serves to show and in this way. to skip. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to rock. to say pooh It is ! to. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. Susa di. rack click. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. amusement. click. child . as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages.. keep spots. Cult. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. or rdtchi. random . cliqu-et-is. are echoed by the rudimentary et.Ixii REPETITION. repetition or continsignify long. very great. bad . mpolu is uttered. or a little tee--ny thing. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. rapidity and strength. and the words express a continued sound of rack. to pant. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. mawhiti. clamito. didi. is language. 99). And generally. ding-ding. the agent in panting . to or rub. properly speaking. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. lololoa. the and clique. . for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r.' expression is — ^Tylor. such as the syllable expressed in a more called.

as to handle. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. rynel. to hand. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. wavering. compared with g. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to bark like a dog. the knie-en to E. mew and baa . wankel. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. draggle. by the side of wanken. to make gug. he who rubs. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or by association. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. syllable clat . as mAS. joggle. wancol. wankeln. or omitted. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. in some applications. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. jogging. are to cry mew and pew . to move to and fro.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to rock. such asjlap. bubble. to make a succession of shoves. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . a from ayun. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. fickle. to make bau-bau. or Maori puka-puka. in Fr. The contrivance with any particular noise. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. The Fr. Ihre remarks under gncella. a succession of cracks to rattle. g. rubber. guggle. it. without the intervention of the frequentative element. others. to hand-le. the lungs (the puffers of the body). bub. miauler andpiauler. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. crack. is In e. dabble. or in e. Jickfacken. smack. from puka. In cases like these. wagas ging. waggle. where all direct connection with sound is lost. kneel. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. and in as. shuffle. to wail woe . When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language.Jicol. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. miauler and beler correspond to E. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to rock or wag. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to continue dragging. to make a succession of grabs . By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to puff. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. or fi bau. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to crackle. which. itself. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. dab. in used for dealing with an object by the hand.

leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. known in Italian. Polish. or in mode of use. at was more familiarly known. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. and comparatively few easily deceived. by a hard body breaking. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. on a moment's reflection. A gull or a dupe same sense. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. the breach. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. which is the origin of the word. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. although it is not difficult. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. to the separation between the broken parts. or in aptness to combine with other elements. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Dupe comes to us from the French. deceit. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. or how generally. it is obviously a mere chance how long. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. to cry ugh at. which. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. There is. will continue to be felt in daily speech. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. Breton. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. moreover. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird.

no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. is. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. and the word is used in a secondary sense. Hitl^erto. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. however. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. nor any limited of ideas. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. life. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. founded in manifest blunder. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. . language is . as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another.

between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. If English. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. change. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. 330. evique. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. episcopus. and vescovo. Naturalist on the Amazons. in the course of many years' isolation. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. I think it very probable. out. circle perpetrates a new slang term. Welsh. guages in South America.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. unintelligible to other hordes. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. of material things. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. and 'Russian. therefore.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. i. compared with the duration of man. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. hearing. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . French.

10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. to be taken (Prim. as shown in the subjoined illustration. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. 9. . Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. The combination of the symbols I and 2. and . as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. ao8). as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. or whatever the proportion may be. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 6. which are idenr Figures 5.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. it will leave figures 3 and 4. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. 7. 8. Nor is there one of the letters. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. Cijlt. i. ancient Greek M . the actual it which would to represent. A key must unlock more doors than this. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. is MN. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig.

and the only safe beneficent Creator. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife." the use of a change of vowel in as. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. his fellows. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. in the shape either of direct inspiration. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. known to us as yet. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. or.' should be discovered. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. what comes to the same thing. had its origin in imitation of sound. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. leading him to utterances. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. for instance. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. which either by direct resemblance of sound.

when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. by animal without a trace name of Man. and when we look back as far as history will reach. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. race were speaking men or not. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race .COMPLETION OF MAN. or beavers. and rose towards a higher state of being. of using imitative conduct . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. that he started from the lowest grade. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. in the course of generations. or of their own reflected thoughts . attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. until the progeny. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . or not. and sooner or later. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . or else. as elephants. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . for instance. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. the conduct of Ixix life. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races.

Dn. Carpentier. Biglotton seu Diet. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Bremisch. Gothischen 1851. Diet. 1766. Bav.Nieder. Cot. Diefenbaeh. Grammar Boh. at the end of Somner's Diet. Esthonian. Supplement to Dueange.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Dief.-Eng. Couzinid. dial. Catalan. Supplement to Bret. Anglo-Saxon. Due.V. AS. Teutonico-Lat. Fin. Carp. Finnish. English. Sup. or Dan.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Bavarian.. dialect of the Sette Commune. Danish. . Esth. Fr. 1850. Cimbr. ^Ifr. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Infimse Latini- D. E. Dueange. Brem. Bohemian or Czech. Elfric's Fl. Romano - Cas- traise. 1737. Diet. B. Dief. Bigl. Wtb. Cotgrave. Castr. Dueange. Diet. de la langue Cat. Douglas' Virgil. Dutch. 1768. Baile/sEngl. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Provincial dialect. Da. Diefeiibach. 1654. Gr. 1857. Cimbrisch.



Askance woud r. baltresca nokkutomax.5 ERRATA. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.nokkutama willekem. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.. plowied budowaer. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. willekom Blab r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. Blob plowied r. haverie crtOT r. yjnaifia r. r. sveritet Asknace r. word allagerr. puHti r. kilistaa bugiie r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. alUger ahaverie r. woman r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. buque 118 brodiquin r. r. cruccio deyrie.>. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. (/ijtf r. cti.percurrunt kimista^x. ^i?^i2! r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. katowai perairrantr.


but now )bsolete). erwachen. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. Dent posture. Immediately from Fr. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. in.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. until the event jlace . on-lic. away from. implying a completion of J. K . behind. ab. to awake.he Goth. er. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. into the Romance ftrseg . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. abs. as. Thus ip N3S. to sauff the king or spill. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. a washing off to abstain. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. on-bsec . in the same sense. ibandonner. on. us. Jvery man shewid baft. alike. and — Chaucer.t G. . out of. Thou spelds of mychty iction. ur. OHG. state of sleep . orders. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. A. Parson's Tale. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. AS. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. Abandon. Passing tongues. said. and secondarily in that of command. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. to subdue. be-ceftan. his. literally. In Lat. of-dune. Hence on-bceftan. Abs-. ifter. bandon in French. have entire dominion over. dominion. a/tan. to arise. —Bruce. off. in a manner other than it should be ablution. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . downwards. as. To abuse is to use iway. announcement.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. rule. dominion. compounds. vs. away. particular 1 . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. whatever he be. among. from a is to wake to abide. "rom a height. from. Again. 843. ar. ir. this word beand Spanish. Lat. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. The word Ban is common orders. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. abaft. baftan. to hold . o/j of or . iway from. an edict or proclamation. sion of 'an abandoned character. Ab-. the er. command. 244. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. onis aback. power : Than Wallace thing. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. a. Abaft. AS. plesyt him. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. on.

Many English verbs of a similar deriv. betrash. merely the terminations ons. uncontroUedly. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. to bate something of the price abbatersi. astony. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. I was abawid for merveille. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Abbot. — — . to strike Froiss. weaken. Baba ! Mod. And he thereof was all abashed. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. of wonder. abbatia. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. polish. or society of abbots or monks. to gape. 1 1 8. esbahissais. where custom (Grandg. burny was formerly burnish . On the other in use as well as hand. in the active form. of fear. bandon. abbatis.On princes. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. bawi. et prirent terre. Beat. Cotgr. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. castle. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. beer. iv. See Abide. esba. to The . 1520.— — . of the Fr. or admiration. ne more vermeille. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. Hart in Jamieson. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw.polir. R. R. abaundunem-ent. abbatere. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. abbattre. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. R. by Wall. To Abate. to overthrow. Abbess. Hence the OE. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. and it that that it — . Fr. thing abbatere le vela. — Neccham. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. In or. to make lower. See . abandonly. to hit. esbahissant. de. and the verb was written in Eng. to put to con. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Abbey. Wall. It. depress. Bate. Milton. to excite admiration. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. an abbey. abbas. to astonish. baba. at his own the lips. to happen. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. A. father.Prov. ais. drink. shame. abbatere dal prezzo.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . lish to abaisse orabaish. to diminish the force of any. impetuously. d.— R. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Custom. Originally.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. overthrow.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to beat furnish. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. from ravir. to abaw or astonish.down. so common in the found in the OFr. adverbial expressions at abandon. ant. with or without a final sh. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. to take possession of an estate. impulse. to light upon. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. as ravish. faire tomber.' the surrender of a ' K. law term abatement. . from Lat. his mouth. vol. 364s. confound. and sets them all agape. burny. abate. and that from Syrian abba. terminedly. down. to strike sail .fournir. his eyen shene. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. may be explained. person. son bandon. baer. esbahir.) . Hence Lat. and grooms besmeared with gold. astonish. More correctly written abbat. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. effect of shame. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. to ruin. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. .' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. c.esbawi. Castrais. other.

Pol. or do we AS. while the monks under his control ing. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. badare. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Gloss. bida. exciter.' is in AS. were called Brothers. listening. or in Fr. . delay. literally white tree. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie.Fr. badigliare. beter. on the one hand. qui iaaille. ceive. bouche b^ante. abidan. ^couter avec dtonnement. bder. take care. Du. endurArt thou he that should come. covet. . forbearance. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. suffer b. bie compared with Dan. beguiling on the other. suspense. to suffer death in Du. Corant sens lui. badare. abet.. a right in suspense . bana. to stay. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. take notice. attendre See Bait. 1 • . Cat. endurance. (Vocab. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Norm. abetter.to wait. wait. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. white. open the mouth. intent observation. forms with the d effaced are OFr. baier. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. songer. In We . to It. have seen abide. guardare. house. The white poplar. to wait. K. to deceive. baer. To Abet. to In great amaze. bidan. gola badada. us. to open the mouth. tenere a bada. to mind. compared with (Bosworth). and alluring to his own destruction. watch. From abahier. beijden. look for another. to ance. F. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to desire. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. we sceolon ON. tarrying . Quant voit le serpent. in Fr. bide of the d endure. to yawn.) abayer.— Roquef. speaking of the Holy places. the verb of abeyance. badar. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. abeter.— ^richer. b^er. in Dan. to wait. a bay or opening in the coast. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . abeyance. m Abeyance. says. inciter. Prov. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. bouche bdante. desirer (Roquef. to be intent upon. . bhr. to look. bie. . E. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. Fabl. to attend on . OFr. bada. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. and E. verbeijen Sw. Ducange. abbadare. Norm. to attend to. with badia. warten. signifies the direction of tend. aspirer. to deanimer. desire. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching.was formerly used in the sense of look. bocca badata. is idenwait. Abie. 366. delay. lingering. Gloss. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Q. which is certainly related to It. listen. abSiance. abaier. attendre avec en^pressement. regarder. de Berri) Prov. to desire earnestly. beidan. to be intent upon. to open bader. Thus G. abet. . waiting. expectation. beijen. ne chastised them. wait To Abide. delay. John. abayer. to expect. to abide . expectation. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. beidan. tempting. ' ' . — . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. pense. incite . ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. beijen. deceiving. —Raynouard. Cat. badare. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. syllable ba. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. usbeisnei.— Chaucer. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. with open mouth . — ABELE Epiphanius. bialodrze-w. Corresponding to keep in suspense. gridare. Guernsey beth. to remain or endure. abie. to stay. or absorption watching. Boethius. See Abide. tity of E. baier. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. also to OFr. and in E. de Champ. beguile. to wait. which the mind to an object. The verb atwaiting. abie. ne wist what way to chuse. — II. deceit. Thus we have It. baier compared with It. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. Ni engigner ni abiter. Abele. to expect gabeidan. from Halo. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. trick abetar. Goth. to hook. bida. — signifies to suspend action. abiiance. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to gape . to tarry. expectfamily. inciting. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. and Prov. aspire to. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. tical with It.

^and to make his power knowne. . Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. habile. 2nd Tale. abolir. as E. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. to redeem. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. bide. — Able. Innan bords. P. God — dear. at kasta fyri bord. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. Fr. being disabled in the highest degree. within the ship. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. Mids. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. to pay the penalty. within the walls of a ship. Chaucer. a board. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . abilh. the Fr. suffer the Jul. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. as habiller du chanvre. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. and death for handsel pay. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. willing to schewe his wrathe. In this to erase or annul. &c. durance in both applications. must suffer for it. to .am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. to draw fowls. though sometimes confounded with it. use. al- be found so some will dear abide it. him with che. expert. sufficient. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. from Lat. ON. R. Dr. abie. bidan. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. N. abicgan. have-like. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. 2. when compared with Aboard. Abie. the Pardoner In the original. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. —Bacon in R. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. the side of a ship. bord. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. and Cr. abycgan. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. in for any special purpose.ynes. to pay the purchasemoney. or bie. For on board. Q. AS. fault being simply clothing. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. was often used in the same sense. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. habilis is closely preserved. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Milton. habilis (from habeo. and the simple buy. beidan. power. abidge. — P. R. aboleo. convenient. to dress hemp. abeye. Fr. adapted . powerful. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. abilej Prov. Prol. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. without special reference to the notion of retribution. is the verb abie. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. O If tion. i. abide. properly abuy. to wear away. Tr. The —Boucher. the Sir Tristrem. Spenser. L. God. Boucher. atling hem to her proper offices. ! ! Cotgr. de la volatile. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. — e. F. while in later examples As I . Wickliff in Richardson. able. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Cassar. P. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Merch. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. forbid for mother's children should abye. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. It. If it badare. consequences of anything . on board . to perish.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. strong. from AS. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. She shall abie that trespass dere. fit. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. to have . abigg. at hand). abie to Goth. purpose. Lat.

Quod abominor. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. To abray or abraid. side. and alere flammain.) . and also to abridge. Above. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge.aboon. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. agreujar. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. leading immediately to Fr. ol.. by the to bring up.. common in Chaucer and Abominable. that greatly agredge their sin.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. abredan. Lat. ufan. giving birth to. while the sense of beget. below. full ofte his words for to Fr. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. to produce. the identity of which with ting. d. ala is made to signify to rear.1. Tale. is not from G. awaking. parent. af-oolden. OE. the OSw. Then. abbrechen. abufan. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. Finnish stock. greu. to grow up.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. the form a&^^. and also. or young forth. AS. agredge. abowen. In the same brevis . or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. from Fr. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. way Sw. alere capillos. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. becomes leu in Prov. the vital spark. Du. to rear. Abundant.ymbutan. — . ala. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. OSw.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. ABOMINABLE adolesco. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. AS. a portent). showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. to let sleep. abrcBgdan. Abrdger itself. oil. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. See -und-. progeny. on high. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. to break off. Goth. nurse. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. bufan. Kiittner. — ' — — preceding verb. as AS. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. his contemporaries. abbreviare. literally. to aggravate. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. heavy.' Parson's rence. abominor (from ab and omen. alan. natural ed direct from the latter language. around on the out. and to do something to avert abbreviate. the hair grow. So in Lat. life. For on broach. as the duty of nourdisposition. abrdger. hard. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. to nourish. .— Abbreviate. al is growth. Thonne Abroach. above. the idea of breaking about . to snatch. kindling. and in-d-oles. pedigree from brevis. nurse Lat. be-utan. levis to the Romance languages. to AS. to awake. for ligeth butan.the older form. abbrechen. coalesco. to feed. while the verb alleThe root el. butan. Melibaeus. Of these synonymous adolescere. s —Casdmon. titan. vital PI. be-ufan.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. To Abound. snatch In English we speak of away. gravis. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. as withotityn and without.ger. currence. to start. outward. explains soboles Lat.foda signifies to beget. to progress. af-oleii. Severe the threatened evil. motion. sec seftre — Chaucer. but from Lat. Abray. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. about cockcrow. Thence to regard greugetat.' Ymb hancred utan. draw out. onbutan. abutan. Fr. to turn. AS. to beget or give birth to children. See To Bray. en. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. brood. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. or cut short. boven. to fatten.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. break out. Gael alaich. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. from . alan. seems aras. abracan. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). Sc. to rear. adolere. to main. The radical idea is to feed the flame. . to grow together. alUger. of any kind . and bidden him abregge. Virg. is a ively. which passed into English under Abominate. which may God avert. without. the man dwindles away. OE. Prov. whence the Fr. to feed. nourish. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. D. breaking out in language. gravity. to bring up. to light a fire the Abraid. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to cut short. The primitive idea seems that of beget.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. a few. the anticks — behind. anticus. three antike pillers. as from as. plenteously with red.th centuries the recognised models of antic. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. and ig. stem. swaged. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Ful- Apanage. rich. Pezron fiUist. a gift. Fr. a termination equivalent to Goth. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. to go in strange disguises. Antick. As the browcalled antiques. Percutere. to support. verberas. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. a definite . eigs. . on. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. separate purpose. of. panar. or in a ridiculous dress. vex. af. d. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. from an and — - . cenig. Lat. Gr. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. to strike. but the expresent day. Hall's Chron. should be received. Antler. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en.made out. Fr. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art.— . to nourish. apertum. villan Gloss. one having wealth. AS. Aphorism. anxius. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. To go antiquely. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. to imitate gestures. and claret wine. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Anvil. and devils. work. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. ab. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. So Lat. from an. Apartment. AS. avri^ava. choke. to strain. set aside. Prov. part. like a jack-pudding. Otfried. incus. to have. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. in Shakespear. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. before. all of gold.is to be given.—Aperture. : . aperio.D. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. as posticus. Lat. E. Gr. inAgain from the same author cudis. bread. left as the . from. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. which by anvild. from in and cudere. strangle. antefn. aside. To ape. In like manner. Antidote. a small quantity. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. from. apanage. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Ilvtwotov. —Spencer. to sound in answer. from ante. burnished. Jorioc. press. from avTiipoiuia). At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. apatiar. antifena. Any. white. AS. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. or antique single chamber. were andouiller the second. something ler in R. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Hence the applica. what Roman civilisation. from ango. anxi. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. fauns. younger child. separate. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. whence Prov. whence anthem. Thus from gabe. surimitation of the ancient models. Aperient. anapoz. as we call it. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Fr. Mannequin. ReApe. panis.. a block to hammer on. d<popi(xnbs. amboltj Du. See Cover. ambeld. to open. some one. transferred to the grotesque characters. Anxious. Lat. one at the least. from eigan. to bring forth. from the imitative habits of monkeys. anfilts Pl. — — — . Apart. from Stephanus. Gr.legacy of given against. Apartment. to display pario. Lat. a puppet or an anti^hona. a preventative . executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Antique. were chiefly of the former class. one. to strike G. trouble. G. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. wealth. i. andouillers. gabeigs. as the Italians. post. before. such as savages.

Nouv. equal. in commendation. appareo. taking. apropid. Sp. Fr. The PI. horror. prope (comp. to catch hold of. apar. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. off. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. the good. aparelhar. 11. From Gr. To cause to pall (see Pall). irpaiKOKiaov. allow. appartenir. mine. — dirondtfiu. avail. to take away or lose the vital powers. apprentis. to finish a controversy. Lith. Gr. fit- — ness. lAfiaam.parejo. and metaphorically to take the meaning. obolys. Parson's Tale. opportunity. And whanne sum men Lat. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. from aTroorlXXu.propius). Apotliecary. Gr. or the like. par. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. : — — speak 'Lz. And among other of his famous deeds. corresp. ON. xv. to commend. to send off. AS. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. a learner. ^wss. APRICOT off. to Lat. in data. good. prize. diroTrXriaatii. to deaden. seiden of the stones. probare. 'L-zX. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Fr.parecchio. esteem. to assign or grant over unto. become dizzy . whence the e. to store or put Appal. D. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. of. appaiser. when the . oVooroXof. cepl. a crime. Prov. H.his giving evidence against his principal. Lat. approcher. w.pareil. to — — . praise. to learn. to make a thing Apparel. kind of action. pronounce fitting). Fr. to call for judgment.—Apprentice. apal. to lose one's senses. To Appear. Yr. — Approve. manner. to dress in this fashion. Ir. Cent Nouv. From Lat. preparation. approver. that it outfit. to suit. Apo- good time. set a price on. agreeing with "LtA. peler. plight. A — . e. Formerly apricock. decree. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to disable oftat. Fabian in R. in fact. . agree. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. i. or E. to rate. N. It. apparecchiare. Palsgr. to deem good. ai. order. 5w. habiliments. make a composition between parties. pragigua or prixcoda. Hence appoind. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to which it is often referred. to send to. (cited by Diez from a late author). To praise. consent unto. To Appraise. from. laven is used both as E. Cotgr. one sent out. dress. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. They werin his approvirs privily. landmark. Epistle. The Fr. Mod. approcdare. They were considered To Appoint. in good season prendre son d. Friar's Tale. poind. jabloko. diminutive pariculus. to approve. like. iwKjToKri. Prov. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. a price. — Appurtenance. to understand. known. S^. ap. pronounce good.prix. Gr. appareiller. to learn. APO sentence opoQ. Apoplexy. near. to mark to define a bound. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. and in the sense of condition. . despatch on some service. to be open to view. and appoinder (to find fitting. and also as appraise. Cotgr. 23 . case. find Then like Fr. Fr. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. An old appalled wight. to call. Yr. appellare. . aptly. Walach. pretium. to — . Fr. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. — Apprise. For their acquaintance was not come of new .were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. a thing for one's purpose. Fr. poind. piteux poind. Gr. one the MLat. away. to strike down. prover. to set a price on.probare. Appease. purpose. to fit. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. From Lat. to announce. Apostle. diroBrjKr}. to come near. appris. 'LaX. apal. OFr. apin R. to deter- to strike.— . to approach. Fr. one is in. properly to join like to like. array.t. a'^opi'Jw. ciously than nede is. in Chaucer. I prise ware. to seize. Cotgr. prohts. one for his defence. apprise. —Diez. an epistle or letter. habilUr. apprehendere. after his mind . whether through age or sudden teiTor. were formed appropiare ejar. quoth the frere. ar. rise to \t. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. trim. peace. En peach. d-n-o. word was specially applied to clothing. apprendre. Approach. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. from paix. Fr. Pliny. proper time came. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Apprehend. apropchar. value apprdder. Apple. Appareil. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. — prehendere. to accord. Hence It. pertain or belong to. like. —^Apparent.

in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. . tion under trial. arbiter. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. aestimo. Thus we have natiger and auger. symbol. pracoqua was not an adapt. P.sors. Aquatic. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. Naprun. ahva.. sortium ductor. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. or barm-cloth.o. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. garden. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. and thence fit. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added.) E. properly the arwella. con. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. and taken away before dessert. most conspicuous situation in the garden . arwelo. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. . and with turfis new Goth. auguror. however. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. and sortilegus ation. sorcerer. of of divination arpa-mies. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. OHG. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. intensitive of nape. suitable. A. Now we find in Fin. to decide by lot. OE. aro.' —About. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . The loss or addition of n very common. as an eye-witness. aha. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. quod he. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Gr. hariolus arpelen. — .gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. It is certain that the apricot oracle. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. a lot. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Lat. is taken in is a soothsayer. la nappe. however. aa. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. derived. Arbitrate. to plough. ap. a soothsayer. and a protection of the clothes. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. and the one who gives oracles. as ihe diminutive. Maan initial .meaning at Shrewsbury. a lot. Beryn. arpa. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. conjectura conjec^ra. Albanian. Pr. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. account for either of these significations. Lat. Alban. Arbour. arwaus. a river. C. a pleasure-ground. found in Fin. Roquefort. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. aqua. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. Now one of the points — — — . to preserve it from stains.shrubs {arbor). upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. nawl and awl. — napkin is Naperon. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. From OFr. conjicio. ear. doubtless is the origin of E. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. 331. herbere. grande nappe. arbiter in re censendS. the spelland umpire. Freshly turnid Arable. sestimatio arbitraria. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. From OE. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. This path Aqueous. be That it inne groweth. P. proper. fastened close. or eft. a lot. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Flower and Leaf. naperon. rofe and all. ughe. opinio. shortdr. aptus. 31. Hall. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. 2. It may be doubted. water Which that benchid was. arbitrium.] in the N. nected. Lat. scr. delon. a cloth. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. She made. wata. {mies ^=ia3. . divining rod. words derived from arpa. As is a pretty parlour. Marsh. Prol. . J. man. short. Pm. arbitror arwaaja.

and must be identified with Dan. Arduous. From the verb armare. aj-f. signifies chief or principal. vescovo. Du. G. a burning or setting on fire. and not with apx. lofty.aioj. earg. arm. patus). an arch-deceiver . exercise lordship). apxtipfve. raineno. armee. ein arger knabe. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. to be on fire. Brem. the best. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. to burn . which is derived from it. ars. Fr. Area. een erg kind. while the Fr. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Uo^a^.. government. contemptible. weapon. Lat. to rule. stuff. erz in G. Perhaps erz-wticherer. un malin enfant. Cot. timid. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Fr. man.' Paul Warnefrid. kpxi- beginning. apxtlov. from areo. arrant Arms. A construct. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. are formed the participial nouns. There can be no doubt that E. . argr. high. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. an extent of flat surface. Lat. arga. and our army. arch-bishop. a chief builder. Gr. curved line. ill-tempered. ruling by the nobles. Aristocracy. a bow. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. et vulgari verbo. sluggish. Arm. Arcliives. it signifies roguish. a rule (princiruler. ers-betriiger. mischievous. area. curved. a bare plot of ground. Lat. earm. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. ardIn G. TiKToiv. Lat.4 rir/. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . Langobard. Sax. is essentially the same word. to Arch. Du. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. Lat. armata. sly. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. arwe. Lat. W. ardeo. arguo. Lat. 2. an arch boy. bravest. fainthearted. receptacle where the public acts were kept. an arrant rogue. arm. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. rame. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. worker. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. erz-bischof. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Gr. arduus. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. ' — Argue. Applied in modern E. weapon may be simply an application of annus. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. . a branch. G.— Army. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). archangel. to arm. the a brute. ON. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. wanton. as in E. adjective. ramend). * ArchjAiTaxit. Arcadia in R. as the arch of a bridge. Arson. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. a noble. ardre. malicious. to be in comp. armada. arson. gwyro to bend.' Lex. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Dan. i. 3340.In E. to demonstrate. and Kpurka. wretched OE. a court yard. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. branch. Arch in composition. Ardour. arcA in e. ^Argument. mischievous. burning heat.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. which has been referred to W. bad. a. Arid. From apxeiov was formed Lat. taxed with cowardice. forearm . Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. arm'ee. by Russ. the most arrant trash. Fr.. Gr. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. a threshing-floor. the terminaGael. arcus. bad. troublesome. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. apxri. shoulder. Sp. D. — Wtb. un petit rusd. . in Due.' the Gr. ramo (pi. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. bad of its kind. And thou as arwe coward. arrig. ardor. an arrant usurer. . difficult to reach. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. shoulder Boh. — Architect. from nixa. to dry. argvitugr. ancient. earh. AS. det arrigste snavs. first. apxh. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. fabricate). faint-hearted. Lat. It. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. the court of a magistrate. gwyrek. apx^iv. arma. The . part of a circle anything of a bowed form. vocaveris. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. aridus. arsum. morally bad. arg. . Gr.is the natural weapon of offence. erg. Ardent. Alisaunder. make clear or prove. especially shoulder-joint. sly.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

ballar). bielke. Sw. a ball. with the perhaps from balg. I. on. Sw. balare. bacgtteter. w.Fr. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Bret. to on Holmedon's plain. cka. Balloon. a ball or pack. package of goods. bolyaf. malefacGower in R. palloilla. a beam. to dance. balka bunge. to Not sparing wight. F. Sw. balka hopar. Ball. Russ. bal-daed. Rouchi ban. a dance. balken. bbllr bulla J. a dance. balka. to by beams. bolyatchka. from bacquet.Lat. dial. Fr. a pestilence. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. OSw. Goth. palla. . or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. taich. Gael. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. calamity. to ail. separaison. . ball. Baulke of land. balken. balge. 3. to roll. palcare. bol. baalien. Du. to be ill. says Ray. ballone. pallo. on. Venet. balk. the object of his expectation. beaten road. Bale. a together in the form of a ball. a clapping or flapping of wings. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. chapurrar. whether of wood or stone. torment. to partition off . Fr. balloon. sickness. a ballot). boleii. e. a boil. as we say. ballare. afbalka. the ballet of the theatres. ballare. bealwes.' speak gibberish champurrar. vcdra bdlkr. hooting. probably Lat. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. bolker. bdlkr. Sw. to signify washy drink. to pack Da. wickedtorment ON. baloier. uveirs bolk. ball. a globe. Ballot. It. to bale out. to move. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. maleficium. trouble. shouting. to wave. balk. Perhaps on. ballotta. and evil in general. lealo. N. bal. to stir. i.). pilula. . bold. as in a barn or cow-house. to shake or jog. to speak an un. OFr. a ball balla. a division of the old laws. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. Da. ill. ballo. tum. bal. a skin. weak liquor. Da. the breadth from side to side . . to plank. baalie. a ball. baler. destruction. balveins. * Balk. AS. a continued noise of waves gently beating . floor. gen. balva-vesei. Bohem. balk. balle. on the shore. To Bale out water. a partition. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. . pallikka. We have then separate dial. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. ban. Fr. mass. a pail. to be balker. Bowl. Boll. Sw. Pol. balla (with the augm. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Hence. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. Wotton. ballan. blister. balja. grieve . balk. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. are applied to a From the same analogy. hue et illuc inclinare. Gr. Ugutio in Due. E. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. A balk. dial. Sw. to ache. In like manner Fr. bal. See Gall. to grieve . balkr. similar connection is seen in Sp. a balk of foul weather. TtaKKa a pail or tub .—Ballad. OHG. Grief. Ball. balle. The primary sense seems as in G. and the dim. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . a wooden partition . ing. 2. a pill. Hence Dan. to avoid it.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . to plough for a boundary between lands. dial. pallo. on. other while. a ball. to rock. to dance. Sp. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). vacillare. a clod of earth water. sorrow. balle. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. ache. plague.ing. roof. wickedness ness . a beam. G. G. a great ball. bola. a bubble. a clump . . a But making way for death at large to walke. ' is a piece or confused talking. boll. pallukka. dial. sick. It. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Ballata. Mid. stage or scaffold. to cause another to miss pustule. heap up. Sw. pila. bolawy. Fin. a ball.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. It.of men . to paddle in water . misery Du. ball. a separate portion. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Dan. Sw. the beam of a ship. bala. ne leaving any balke. globule. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. bol. balle. at giore en balk. Du. It. to see-saw. pain. a washing-tub. a water-skin dim. bjdlki. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. ballare. — A — — . maan pallikka. Q. It.— Ballet. a. ballet. ON. may exhibit the original development of the signification. a scene acted in dancmg. a ballad. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. . bollr. (Hesych. ball. To baulke the Sir H.

Lest.000 tons. To Ban. bambocciolo. galleries. ranked on the outside of cloisters. objects to the foregoing derivation. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North.' And Kil. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. paid for the right of carriage. ^a\Ba\iov. Bret. it is forced to take in stones or sand. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. seems the original form of the word. like Fr.. inutilis sarcina. curse. Mr Marsh whether the a load. lastre. the flower of the pomegranate. To make fun of a person. &c. baume. To Bamboozle. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. bertesca. a nettle. of balusters. lastra. called Bait. bamboccio. but loadage. To proclaim. age. . balsamum. an Old dotard or imbambolare. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Ballast. deceive. for a load or goods (Roquef. If bambocciolare were child of one. a useless load. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. to preserve equilibrium. The Baltic sea. balustrade barandilla. forbid. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. small railing. command. bumbazed. terraces. bag-las. lastagium signified not only ballast. as he says. Du. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. by met. or movement of one who walks. a false tale or jeer. is in Sweden and Norway. enchanter. Cotgr. baltresac. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. Balluster. baU. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. a battlement . — — oltriga. back of the ship. Sept. Fr.that the going vessels. Report Pennsylv. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. lest. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Dan.Lat. &c. But Fr. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. a young babe. for want of other freight. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. This is the backload. Baltic. deceiver. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. more frequently than outward-bound. Bamour. more serious objection is . Gr. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. inutile onus. barandado. also with flatteries and . from Lat. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. to enchant. bam. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. i860. ballast. last. denounce. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. baUa. sorcerer. explains ballast. and Mid. ballustres. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. lestage. the act of walking. or ballast of a ship. 1854. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. To Bam. bag-lest.). in the first place. Bret. . a small balustrade. R. baranda. railing around altars. barauste.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. puzzled. a fragrant gum. the backload. Lat. to walk. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. To deceive. Balm. analogous to what is seen in It. Sp. When a ship discharges. endormir par des contes. because. It is explained back by Adelung. dial. It. balconies. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. from bara or vara. Balsam. 43 — Cot. Venet. The Sp. It. Said to be from balaustia. little round and short pillars. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. mare Balticun. a rod. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. urtica. astonished. ballustre) is a corruption. fonts. In OSw. A — — . ^Arbuthnot in R. a duty on goods last. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. 1. Sc. bambolo. Fr. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. make fun of a person. bamein.

bandon somewhat party. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. ex. he assembled his host. A. It seems this signification has arisen. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Goth. says Muratori.. . region. R- He Translated by Chaucer. It. 19. ba?idare. It. in hostem convocare. 15. theodscipe ut abannan. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. summoning to serve So in Swiss.Lat. i. Goth. Bandus. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bound. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. In Fr. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. Diss. Sp. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. —R. biddal. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. It. faction. power. to publish) banna. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. the ensign or banner. also the band or of marriage. — excommunication bann-lysa. then the signification w. eiiseigne. — R. Capitul. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Baud. bandera ground at his mill. Cot. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Assises de Jerusalem. v. change to the feminine gender in banda. in Fr. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. to ctide. banda. band. flag. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought.is further developed. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. sostener Torriano. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. admolendinum. to . 813. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. bando. bande. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . 1. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. bandon was used in the same sense. to ban. bannire in exercitum. Mag. authority. bande. Wyntoun. 'A son bandon. . bandi. OE.^ bandy. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. to unite with a band. banda. 2. To Bandy. bannire exercitum. Commun^ment son bandon. Bandear. Spebifid. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. from at the Lord's courts. to reprove. Se il — Romance languages. to form parties. whether by way of injunction or for- command. bann. those who side together (bande. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. side.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Thus the word is also used in both senses. and in E. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). banns pany of footmen serve. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Les saiges avait et les fols d. fahne. parti. permission. — To partito d'alcuno. a company. &c. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. bundun. Band. acquired the sense of proclamation. banner marked the place of assembly. D. to take one to task. Ripuar. Fr. curse. to side or to bandy (Florio). — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. and It. Fr. banda the colour or material. bande. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Leg. at his own discretion. a coast. Sp. E. ligue Taboada). and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. etc. hoc est vexillo. tener da alcuno. The to . R. populum. and thence to any proclamation. side. Sw. to bring corn to be fahne. bindan. In a special sense the term company itself. border. See Abandon. G. passing on from proclamation to command. margin. From the verb to banda. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. There is some doubt how Fr. he bannede his ferde. to excommunicate {lysa. 26. band. we constantly find the expression.e. bannum or bandum.—John Villani in Due.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. is That with which anything AS. &c. to follow a faction. Car.

as of an explosion or a blow. to join in league with others against Cotgn.: . Africa. a long raised seat. a bench. pastoralis. bow. the former Fr. outlam came to signify a robber. Bankrupt. in R. to bend a. banka. standard. a bankrupt merchant. Your stool. bandear. bang. 2. the same verb the It. bana-sdr. bana. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bance. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise.z. of bandying words. . bank of river. broken. Benchi. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. disturbance banga. bander. Fr. Fr. to knock. When a man fails Lat. a i. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. But natheless wife at I bank. banc G. to slay. a counter. — Kil. murderer. Goth. desk. . bent as a bow. at canis peciiarius. It. back of a knife. E. bandi. bank of Dan. From Mid. ON. put under the ban of the law. and bakki. . come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. The word is in E. —^Vocab. a rising bank. a bench. was formed the OFr. Milton in R. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. . Bantze. eminence. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. The ing. A Shipman's Tale. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. See Balluster. N. clouds. roupt. The ridge of a hill is AS. bane. to hammer in a nail. AS. beat. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. that the word is used by Romeo. — Fr. Bane. Bandy legs are crooked legs. &c. ruptus. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. the slope of a hill. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . and OFr. banja. a wound OHG. de sable. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. banke. bank. Diaconus in Due. bench. dorsum was applied to ject. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. It. seat . in the sense of a pirate. in the sense of place of business. a table. to knock. To Bandy. See Band. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Roquefort. Hudibras. to cabal. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. bench. has bang-bang. follow a party. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. destruction . bandire.HG. a sand-bank. banditti acquired the like signification. Banner. bankruptcy. band-dog. shoal. in the same way that E. whence the mod. language of W. Benvoglio. large dog kept for a guatd. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Lingua. Dan. With many a stiff thwack. bana. banc. Brewer. bannire. to publicly order one out of the realm. canis vinculis assuetus. se reunir. — . eminence. hricg.^ knock. beating. benk. Mercutio. hammering. a bank. many a bang. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. 45 — — Bandit. banca his creditors. Fr. to proclaim. among rotta. de- party. banqueroute. home — Bandog. tumult bangas. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Draw. It. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. band-hond. g. ON. and poise Their lighter wings. AS. The child cries bang! fire. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. It is in this sense nounce. banca fallita. for shame. bander tin arc. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. b'ang. the back. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. Banister. rap hatike et som The Susu. bank of a river. — — whence E. bakke. bander. banco. Mid. to work in wood. to make a stir banke. panca. bana. banish. a bench. s'associer. and therefore tied up. bank. Bacon in R. Lat. Ripuar. From a desk . from banc. counter. Du. a blow. death-blow . See Banish. distinguishes bekkr. forbear this outrage. — Paulus drive in a nail. death-wound. Banditti. Fl. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. and hence. Sw. &c. Bang. to beat. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. . ON. to foment factions. Diez. bana-sott. Bandy. se joindre. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. stir. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. a de Vaud. Tibalt. Bank. death-sickness.

According to Diez the It. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. such as the Roman Eagle. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. a which the barrister addresses the court. that the noise of voices Bantling. Sw. to beckon . Celtic bar. Fr. banneret was a higher class of knights. inur. senh. Lat. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. a bearded or Cot. probably corSymbol. &c. inferior to a baron. or of this bantering. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Gael. It. to dip.. Bap. privileged to raise Barbarous. barriire. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. barde. bandiera. barbarus. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. It. Gr. barbed or trapped as a great horse. bandva.hinder. senhal. says. The barb of an arrow is the sign . ^oTrriKio. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. G. banda hendi. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. manu anto make signs nuere. A It. knight Bardd. a tree). milites bannarii. E. heri-pau. sparro. then fell among the foot. OHG. of banco. branch. ing term appears in other languages.. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Barbe. i. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. barbe. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. token. —Cot.46 BANNERET . men. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. jSdirTO). 2. to bend. to wash. OFr. The original import of their own banner in the field. the word came to signify rude. ON. and it was accord. summit. Gr. would rupted from Fr. banniire.— Swift in R. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus.the analogous syllable viur. banchetto. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. a barrier or stoppage. Fr. Barb. barrer. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. BARBAROUS reiflingr. and with an initial s. Fr. a war-beacon or war-signal. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. from the same source. To mock or jeer one. In a similar manner are formed yearling. The spar. an animal a year old. rod of any rigid substance. period vexillarii. bar. Banquet. Barbar. by a repetition of the syllable bar. indeed. and he would seem to derive Goth. which is surely in barbed arrow. sbarra. To Banter. E. Barb. from reifa. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. uncivilised. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. barrack. banda. banner. to wrap. iandvo. sparre. brushwood. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. a sign. either in the Gr. E. . senheira.aTa Kul nest. The origin is in all probability Goth.cruel. ban- Baptise. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. a. of wind. Bret.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. chan. then branches.8ap6^o)voe. Duo. Hence ner. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Flesche barbeUe. sign. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. out of a wound. — We A . as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. Banneret. to having that signification. and the work is done. benda. 3. and from ensign or banner Prov. It. a bench or table . a ban. Fr. and even of calling it banter. speaking of battle. arineXov. ON. barrou-gwez. rarii. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. in Gr. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. banneret. a bantling. &c. Fr. Lat. bannereti. branches of a tree {gwezen. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. banne. remarked. as they call it. dim. wrapped. Thus Ovid. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Lat. jSa'pjSapoc. barra. barba. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. It may be thing. Hence Fr. hence a repast. of a sign in general. Fr. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. barreau. himself in Pontus. a beam or long pole of wood. top. merki. Leduchat. signuin. OHG. senhal. barre. nestling.

Port. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. the flap of a hat. barbel. tree. It. quarrel . Arab. coping. to barbe or trap horses. Lucan. borborinha. albarda'ah. i. barbarkama. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. the nakedness of a woman. Bare. barbaris. bardd. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. bds. in poetic language Bard for poet. Hindost. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. skialldar-bard. a long saddle for an ass or mule. to wash. to rumble. unqualified. formerly used in the sense of tattle. barefooted Sanscr. also to bind or tie across. uproar. the quilted with. borbotar. barbeau. An outwork for the defence of a gate. and in Flanders to vociferate. bardes. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. barbugliare. Applied in E. Fr. /3opj3opwJu. Barbel.) . skola. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. It. to chafbargain. Gr. — — Hence. — . barda. albarda. Sp. a bardelle. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. baares geld. Cotgr. to bubble or boil. brabble in the making of a bargain. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. G. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . borbollar. barS. a jetty or outnook in a building. bar. murmur . Pr. barbulla. berries. bhasad. baar. to grunt. albardilla. haggle. scouthouse. Barde. which was of talking. and the word was used in OE. Russ. lb. barguigner. Fr. g. Etym. used 2. to plash or dabble. bdsiis. or more properly (says fer. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. But Sp. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. brim. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. barbar. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. name Fr. Sp. Mod. upper chamber. . Sp. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. uncovered. to bubble or spring up. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. as well as the modern twaddle. A7 to the and warlike. Cot. borbulhar. barboter. and Sc. Bardeau. a shingle or small board.) to wrangle. tattle. a rumbling. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E.' Cot. in Fr. OFr. to mumble or mutter words. to stammer. borboglio. ala. guaszare. baragouin. Fr. Gr. speak confusedly. barbeter. and foolishly. barda. Festus in Diet. Lith. /3£pjSepi^w. horse armour covering the front.— Fl. muttering. a pack-saddle. guazzolare. to make an outcry . is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. and flanks. the edge of a shield hval-barct. twcEtta. A shrub bearing acid Diet. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. saddle-cloth. powdered all over. back. barz. as well as thwcEtta. axilla. — . waschen. Bargain. a tumultuous assembly. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. mutter. gibberish. Cotgr. barbier. Hall in R. Exposed to view. Bard. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. the beard. barbacane. is lb. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Barber. jargon. skirt. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. stutter.— — Pm. also to wallow like a seething pot. Barbican. such as houses are covered Bardelle. berj G. on. bdla-khaneh. Etym. Fr. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. Mod. to boil or bubble up . Diez. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to It. border. . The Pers. skirmish. Barberry. border of a garden bed. Fl. bare baskojis. bdsas. Hatt-bard. barbeum. boil. Lex. Port. Barder. Bret. to stammer. fortia —Strabo. Thus the on. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. to prattle. to gurgle. grumble (Lowndes. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts.— BARBEL merit of water. — — — men. open. — Cot. w. small pack-saddle. dial. in the sense of fight. barbelin. ready money. twattle.

and is probably a true bartig. as in the case of Lat. Dan. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. — battle. lap. borkr. Lith. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Port. barii. barlys. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. as well as Scandinavian tongues. 2. Vocab. Gl. corn-shed. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. OFr. a load. from an imita- Barley. Bailey. i. as. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. strife. tion of the sound. to wrangle. also to exchange. to all the barca. Uzen. edge. Barn. barmr. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. barlys {bara. hlaSa. . On the other hand. then the bows pectus navis. struggle. to rout. bark .. bread-corn. To Bark. As Goth. a heap. (Ihre. as. barafustar. quant a perdu sa barja. to scold. AS. but the woman for the man. w. baerm. beornt. kani. adj. strife. plants). limpet. Bemiques. barge. brenig. — Barnacle. varen. baron. a. bosom.' bardagi. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. a lap. was barlic. bard). berm. Barge. to skin over barkandi. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. baragouin. the or prow of a ship. is simply the Bret. wine. bcerme. contest. spectacles. Sp. ON. to strive. barnacles. and ern. am. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. quarrel. barn. . Sp. berm. skutr. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. Leg. fray. barms. contest. dial. . a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. mhg. one who stirs up strife. prominent part of a thing. The origin may be throat. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barahunda.) lihtes-ern. bosom . hemlock. the fore or after end of a boat . barley. beer. barretor. barn. barajar. Baron.^Voc^. a lantern. The Goth. limpets. houbartij fsnile. trouble. berem.. dispute . Dan. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Bret. OSw. baralha. Camus. — de Berri. the slimy substance brewing of beer. strife. Ripuar. See Barm. bern. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. husband. ber (ace. quarrel Port. So ON. the rack or manger. berma. Gael. Du. barone. entangle. also a boat . louzou. baaren. dregs of oil. prasepe . barnis. barley. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Antiq. Kil. OFr. So also ON. Romance barsie. ON. beorcan. and the word. From Fr. Cornub. the G. and 1. Acervus. It. to chop. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. disorder. ON. baratta. barn. a place. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. dispute. limpets . and llysiaw. a cap . Alam. AS. * Barnacles. baaring. v. barafunda. commonly explained from bere. a stack. See formed Yeast. baniffa. confusion. barley. The older form in e. bern. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. to cheat. Sp. as baces-ern. Leg. bread. Isidore in Rayn. baimeach. Rayn. charlock. — Zeuss. baarm. barlich. . hladi. Spectacles. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. ThS man was not created for the woman. at barka. Port. ON. barizeins indicates a noun baris. herbs. and may therefore be an Eastern word. bcern. —Bark. bernac. barja. a barn. tumult. to shufSe. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. dispute barattare. E. a heap . It. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. border. giving rise to It. meta foeni. chaffer. Prov. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. 2. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. a beak. aheap. bargain. hay-loft. bere. in Nat. baron)^ Fr. squabble. Swab. the A — Ihre. baralhar. a baking place or oven. altercation. in the Brim. Bark. a receptacle for barley or corn.Barum vel feminam. and hence probably (by a metaphor. we pass to the vert) barguigner. berm hoys. bamagh. Ibid. astringent. Originally man. skuta. Provj bar (ace. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. W. baarn. dispute. Du. Sw. barki. Barbour in Jam. Manx bayrn. a boat. then honoured man. name being given to spectacles. put to confusion. Garlick. baratta. dispute .

barraca. baracca. beorgan. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Gael. bredhan. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. vir. rolls of Parliament. cover. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. iver. barague. barBombicinus. S. alongside of barrow. barrila. then traffick4 Barrow. Goth. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Bamnculus a baronet. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. calico. a bar. and not from Fr. bara. qui have not much light on the pre. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Barrack. as cavalcade. Antiq.. a man. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. barile. berewe. in the first instance. It. man. semen non accipiens landiEL. 2. man and wife. bahre. Bargus or moreland. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. by early examples. Barratry. dispute. brushwood. from a tree to which a man is hanged. a barrel. beorh. fortification. ^Vocab. G. facture. An ing. boar. Gael. mound. shed. (Schmeller). Fr. seem to be radically the same with Lat. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. Fr. vair. bearg . It is hard to separate barricade from Fr.' Op. perhaps through Prov. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. berwen. The Sp. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. ibid. litter. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. over him. a hut or booth. beorg. implement for carryAS. a bier. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. Joshua vii.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. baroncelli. branches. barrier. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. bouracan. a. baronuU. Sp. A. Russ. Sp. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. AS. breinej Du. hut. 26. became bidre. a barrow. or simply bahre. It should be observed that. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter.root signifying confused noise. Sp. It.' that Barrier. tomb. signifying. Nominale of the from braeckland. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. E. from beran. ^Barrator. uncultivated. barre. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. barril. Barricade. Barren. w. from cavallo. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. — Kil. — A . a hiU. gwr. the braw. composed of dry branches ofer. squabble. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. MHG.. 1. borov'. fear. See Bar. cise formation of the word. baragan. to shelter. a. barrack.parchanttuech.— Gibbon. an obstruction. bara. Bohem. to carry. a kind of coarse camlet.have been named from the haggling and gant. a horse. Barrister. fallow. nobles. baraignej Picard. StiU he shows conclusively. sterilis. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. This word introduced into Fr. braeck. also termed bannerets. barchent. change of goods seems. baronetti. — — 15th Cent. bier. garment still used in Morocco. baronculi. D. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. booth. habeant. Formed from Fr. a castrated hog . to * Barragan. barrique. Bern. which would barragdn. strife. bera. as. The feudal tenants next Fr. Barrel. the two names. OFr. bark&n. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. especially those killed in battle. and in several instances. a word is always used in the plural number. staves. See Barter. heap. todtenbahre. in Nat. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. AS. barri. It. were sometimes confounded. OE. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. whenever Barrow-hog. sepulchre. vel pretiosos burellos. Baron andfemme. like bargain. whence Barrow. gravis et authenticus vir. G. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. It was not until the time of James I. Bret. barrique.

as the diadem of the basilisk. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. beretun. Bass. Sylvester's Dubartas. Bassus. to cheat. crassus. Al is dai. as It. Kil. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). Fris. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. the thin skin Dan. bark. fraud. It. the a wide open vessel. baos. but he dreth presently. inclosure. bassin. basta. Barton. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. come near. — in Rich. embastir. to long — a British word by Martial. him. HoUinshed. rope for — . See Bath. Sw. corn-farm. foist in bargaining. chasa ogli a bastard. beguile. to Diez. cog. low part of the Hickes in Rich. or running away with the ship. God it wot. Dan. bestan. Arthur and Merlini. binding. a tying. The like property hath the iasilisk.' Gl. and tun. then cheating. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. to stitch . to cheat. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. plaiting of splinters basged. HaUiweU. cheating. found in Turkish . aiKcig. descended of an honorable lineage. Isidore. Lend me your hands. It. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. to bind hand and foot. ibid. Bastard. more noble in blood than notable in learning. fornication.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Swed. berewic. fhe outhouses and yards. basg. bareter. lust. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. low. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. mavult dicere Roma suam. Sp. to bind. MHG. But according And Dan. Halliwell. bran. and Bret. It. — hanging. — Bassoon. Sw. a court-yard. baste. To stitch. pressed down. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. imbastire. fits de bas. curtus. unrighteous gain. Sp. Gr. of the same sense.). Sicamb. ' Bosworth. Barbara de pictis veni patch. A fabulous serpent. . Apparently of Celtic origin. the — — to kill those that look upon it. basgod. baste. OFr. . a deceiver. fornication. imbastire. barley. pdrdt. low. bast. to bind. OFr. peel. stitch. chasa. The original meaning. mean . a basket masg. HaU in HaUiwell. bast-maatte. i. besst-u-b£nd&t. Sp. a bass rope. low note. Lap. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. To Baste. baste. a ipgli So Turk. Dan. n' is n' is bacino. oe. bass-matting.' Papias. piiiguis. leviter consuere. MHG. shallow. ^Is de bast. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. lattice-work. baraand especially teria. the manorhousfe itself. according from Gael. said Base. bdtir. Newman. bast. bestcn. Du. flat. bas. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. ' He was begetin o bast. to bargain.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. lift me above Parnassus. which covers the grain Ger. PaaiKhms. beortun. or wic. barter. To Bask. baraet (from Fr. bds. exchange. partieren. discourse Nay. barter. from /3aR. but born in baste. baratar. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). basso. BassuS. w.looketh upon his eyes. husk bast van koren. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. would be. AS. Pl. hoops of a cask. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . to baste piece of cloth. It. See Brattice. MS. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. ohg. he. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . also the demesne lands of a manor. . tierer. thick. Fr. submovet omne Lucan. a ftiesh. 516.D. at basta og binda. It. preparatory stitching. humilis. truck. /«r<fSp. Du. There is not one that. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. basta. also to Cotgr. commonly A joined with the word binda. court-yard. bast-reb. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Bartizan. netting. over-reaching. It is mentioned as . to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Bass. bastear. F. Fr. to truck. to baste. scale in music. Basket. baratear. on a. Bast. mock not. which sets up its hood when angry. bast. dwelling. G. a king. besst. ing for profit. a bastard. It. exchange. basso. to deceive. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. from bere. baxoj w. a halter. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. back. Basilisk. Fr.

worth (Nat. bastine. I.fortress or castle furnished with towers. a blow cloth for dinner. It. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. Fr. frotter. nade. frame. a things prepared for future use. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . military term of a bat-horse). ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. back. to devise or begin. to build. basto. boste. — — — . erect. beating. Pm. set up.— Bailey. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. vespertilio. contriving. explains Sp.. bastimento. 2. to pack a saddle i. to drub. bastia. * Bat. translation to a bat. e. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. blatta. the original has corneille. a sconce. basa. Dieiif. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. in the use of the E. which in the E. which to rest the load. To beat or bang soundly. Supp. set up. to build. provisions. comp. bdion. batta lucifuga. Perhaps baska. bastilde. disposer. To donjon. vespertilio. Fr. to Due. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. to spread bread and butter. iinbastire. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. p. iastir. a barSp. flyinge best. 2. has bastine. 164). to quilt or stitch wool into it. and ditches bastion. night-bat. packsaddle. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. . bastear. bast. settiilg up. Antiq. business (Altieri). It seems to me that the sense of stitching. ment.stitching in general. blatta. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . All from bastir. a. quelqu'un son roulet. a blockhouse. niammal.Lat. blacta. Prov. a stick. from Fr. pre. compared with blakka. and Cot. R. Pr. but this is hardly satisfactory. basta. Sp. beysta. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. For the loss of the / in back. stryka. For the origin of baston see Baste. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. as weU as besteau. — Bakke. Dan. to beat. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. also the ricado. whence ledrblaka. . dial. bat. 'iJipistreUo. Sp. to give him a sound bastingi 3. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. blows. contrive.— . badger.stick. baston. raise. to flap. bastida. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. 2. ON. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. to stroke. dial. vledermus. passage Imbasto. and Arabs. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. the bat . bak. to set on foot a war Bastion. a pad. a pad or packsaddle. — — Fl. bakie-bird .probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. bladier. ari instruineht for beating. guerra bastir. It. aftonbakke. Dan. It. blakka. to beat. That yche blak y dar wel telle.'CaB. bastonFr. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . bastir. also to cudgel. to rub. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. 11864. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. the E. Sw. a packsaddle. to thrash . is explained by Cot. baston. blakta. blaka. bastione. Sw. bastir. a bird which. Bastinado. Fr. natt-blakka.-^ Chaucer. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone.baste or knock soundly. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. E. club. Derived by Diez from iasi. to lay the Sp. or implement for 4 * A . bastonada. bastille. to belabour. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. a bastion. victuals. liiake. Florio. devise. a with a stick. blakra. to cudgel. bastonnir. Mid. put it together. to rub gently. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to whip. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. Cot. BAT neither. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. R. the winged . cudgelling. Cot. Sc. staff. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. like the owl and the bat. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Fr. Sw. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. to teach one before. Sw. in the Romance languages. stryk. the night-jar or goat-sticker. Rayn. the clapper of a bell. To baste one's hide .

baka. perhaps first used adjectivally. I. a stirrer-up of strife. solbase. was formed bastilU. to beat. busk. Barbour in Jam. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. It. bat. 2. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. basa. To Bate. Batten. or a dry stick. Battalion. abattre. term in falconry . tradire. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. or break down. Battery. Gael. Batyn. Florio. water whether warm or cold. better. G. — To . a battle. dial. a from ON. battaglia. Pr. w. buask made like a fortress. bat-en. bada.' Palsgr. a stick. Strife. a staff. Hence pro. batna. Du. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . battle was used beath wood. Bret. signifying to give repeated blows. to fell. fortress or castle. Fr. to fire or in the sun. battions. to dial. dial. — — — ' — . Fr. to get better. also. to beak. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. by projections or in any licoure. Plkkis. remit. to for fighting. batterie. adapted for defence. squadron. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. PLD. then to warm by the application of hot water. baquetazo. badask. batador.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. bdda vidjor. Bailey. lessen. Holz bdhen. abate. To Batten. or make debate. baz. Fr. as signifying warm baths. Fr. In OE. Bate. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. gebdcke. to bathe. gebdck. flour. also a sun badfish. strife. beat down. a blow. to become convalescent. . to feed. battre las ailes. — Cot. sich bakern. Flem. battre. to fight. bdda. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Goth. It. . as E.Bathe. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. wet linen in washing. I bathe in water viz. to beat. Pm. batir. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to flutter with the wings. howis. to become fat. baeddu. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. tagUone. baden. from battre. bake. Pr. A batch as wood. batte sig. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Sw. dial. and about an inch thick. Pm. whence the sun burns . a battalion. to foment. Eggs.— . a washing beetle. a blow with a light instrument. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. as E. to beat. a great seems related to baden as Fr. betten. is a simple adoption of Fr. makebate. an arrangement for giving blows. From bat in the sense of rod . Battle. Batter. bdhen. altercation. e. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. bludgeon. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to heat . A Bath. to betake oneself. cudgel. badda. and with staffslyng. to cudgel. as wood-en. beat. made of — A made by one Batcii. battre. I baske. to foment with hot applica. the root of e. Fr. G. to beath wood Battledoor. solen baddar. to warm oneself at the fire. is in falling. badda. battere. dial. on. certain bend. From OFr. quhar he suld assaill. In some parts of England it is striking. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. the heat of the It. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. a main battle. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. to warm oneself. to warm. and milk beaten up together. a band of armed men arranged basa. in the case of a wall. to toast bread. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. dispute. Battlement. See Better. Battery. pak. made of bats. oneself at the A into faggots. To thrive. bataille. Sp. from on. bastille. bet. ON. Sw. Jurgor. Chaucer. Slav. Sp. bdt.— To Bask. quell. in the sun. a beating. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Bat. . Hal. a Baiffi. trahtr to It. for biia sik. to thrive. G. gabatnan. beat. Mgy. Jeddris and covering. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Fr. battere. Baka sik vid elld. batacazo.Hence in the augmentative form It. heat. more. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. on the fire. to foment. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. to bathe oneself. debat. and as a verb. E. to refresh oneself in language. Ayenst the sunne. to heat. fashes basking in the sun squadron. hot. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to beat se battre. allay . to be profited.

ish baubles. is Bagdad stuff. From ! an interjection of disgust. is used for a sented by bau.' ' Pegma. dirt. ground. a zan. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. tab. faisceau. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. bobine. E. Fl. whimwham. W. bouaila. a lump or cluster babhaid. The It. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. babbole. ! Bauble. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. balbob. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. librillo. — Pm. bow (as in our nursery Diez. BAWSON Swiss. spot. Pr. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. the white of his leg or foot. E. s. child. vacillo. baudrdj OHG. Cot. OFr. dial. Formed from baw. dirty. It. rotten. a tassel. bal. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Swiss Rom. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. to talk Lacombe. Pm. Ball-seirc.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. to play the babby. javelle. It. bad. the face. a white mark Bawdy. expressive of disgust.guage). oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. c. In like manner Grisons filthy. Beaus^ent. exactly corresponds Fr. bau. whence the E. Bawson. It is all bawdy. fagot. to 53 manure the To baw. Cloth of gold. baw. The word may perhaps be sticks. sword-belt. Fr. miauler. —R. guigaw. baula. Fr. was simply a field gold. cluster. a horse marked with a procession. E. Zalli. to the same origin. fooleries or fond To Bawl. From Bret. in OE. s. Bagdad. or sheaf of Bridel. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. horse.— P. toys. bal. bablyn or waveryn. R. baudrat. to bark . from Fr. an embattled wall. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. balderich. Fr. Ball. Cotgr. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. P. a dog). Irel. Cot. or Cot. because made of cloth of white. Filthy. to cry. P. baban. dente. An analogous noisily. scarf. 2. bauch. baubare.. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. pegma. 8. balGael. Prov. whence pouacre. to low or bellow as corn. instead oi s. bauU. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. as Fr. also the canopy carried part of his body. to make the noise Baudrick. ball. divided between black and white. represented by the syllable miau. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. obstrepere. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. form with an initial seen in Fr. brush faggot. also more Bawdekin. a lump. disgusting. Pr. or toys. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). Hal. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. having a white streak down Bagdad. Descript. the Swiss baben. a horse with white legs. ON. Piedm. or the animal so marked.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Baw — .. dacchino. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. to trifle away ment. — — ' Lydgate. sorry. mew. trifles. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. to bark. Jam. Sc. bausan. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. It. lewd . and to-tore also. and authorities in note. propugnaculum.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. baue. filth. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . E. Batylment of a wall. OFr. collar. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. an object. tille. fe bau. a tassel or hanging bunch . Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. filth. an — — — A — g — — — . excrement. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. to void the bowels. a plot of Chaucer. Lat. zano. babiole. fields. babsmall toy to play withal. trifle. baffe. from Baldacca. i. b \% bouala. speckled. to me-wl. a belt. bow-wow. Baldrick. and Sp. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. nastiness. Bavin. pie- . baugant. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. ballach. A name of the badger. to vociferate. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. on the face of animals. spotted. dung. a spot. Gael. bobbin or cluster of thread. P. a gavel.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote.

garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. bayen-stein. like a pie. to keep one waiting.. stood watching him stoop. Sp. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. See Bald. Fr. husk. Gael. alive. the cod or husk of beans or the like. yellow . Earth — By Nature made to till. bialo. baya. so called from its bearing bays. It. tradire to Fr. or berries. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. The — Fr. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. in order to keep the enemy in check. Fr. 1. Serv. the cod of peas. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. BAY marked with bjly. It. . buidhe. baie. trahir. A stag is said to stand at bay. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. a'uno. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. —F. bajo. — Schmid. * To Be. A hollow in the 'line of coast. a berry. a hole. Mod. Q. Abide. the step is the same as from It. BE Probably conRuss. to open. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. to betray. &c. Vielp. baiare. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. bay. or to have been first used at the Cot. Gr.— Stalder. Fr. dividere. bilyega. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. white. bioth. as gazing. buidhe- The ruadh. Fr. baier. badius. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. . arose two forms of the verb. from an imitation of the sound. berry. . From Cat. house . batibari. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. &c. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. OSp. Bay. life. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. badarc. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. 25. BauSfi)/. Arts. baher. to be Bohem. beothach. a dagger. Q. &. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. corrupted into Bow-window. abbabayer. as if to signify a window of curved outline. to amuse stare a bada.' Bailey. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. to open as a blossom. desiring. Holland's Pliny in R. A — he brought her to stand listening to him.' — — 54 bald. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. waiting . bay. badarse. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. Bayonet. to stand watching one. when. he turns and faces his pursuers. . To Bay. a mark. overture. ist. —Bay-windo'W. Swiss beie./^ bau. From the former verb is the It. beo. grapes or nuts. large window in a handsome . window-sill. Feb. laurel of the ancients. S. Prov. baca. baye. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. baca. bate. beonj Gael. bagaid. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. ing-floor. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. watching intently. a beast. w. Piedm. It. bai. a cluster of bacon. is perhaps not directly from Lat. berries. See Bawl. bijel. living thing . the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. bilyejiti. living Ir. AS. baccello. Bay. weary of running. or window ' (in Fortification). Drayton in R. It. Lat. aux dehniers abois. Sp. Bay-tree.c. F. siege of Bayonne in 1665. bahia. Gael. baja. life. to on anything. bayo. by the term rendre les abpis. |8i'os. Lat. badia to Sp. 1859. bahia. that from ba. and keeps them in check for a while. the laurel-bay.. baga. the world Gr. Catalan hadia. open the mouth. or at bay. Cot. Such Antaeus seemed to me. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. or recess in an apartment in modern times. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Sp. The word bay. expresr sion tenere a bada.—Journal Soc. See At Bay. bdcr. to gape. from badar. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. gate. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. baionette. to split. at his last gasp. put to his last shifts. It. and the To bark as a dog. baer. to iiitent nected PoL white. barn of two bays. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. and zndly. dehiscere . representing the sound made in opening the mouth. which however. bacca. to mark. Fr. Fr. Swab. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. hddhe-dhonn. stare. window . to keep at a bay. — A At Bay. —Diez. bde. It has been shown under Abie. especially beans.

beans. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Bret. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. — : Beam. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum.to have a French origin. beacnian. The nutu significare. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. bank. bakkje. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. bakke. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. or any action done with a pointed thing. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. . ffci. becco. faba. Catalan becar. bohne. Beach. beacen. ON. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. prodigy bauhnjan. Goth. to wait. beic. bidello. nokkima. fero. a beak. G. beugler. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. signifying individuality. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. ohg. gebed. Slavon. rising ground. Sw. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. A two-year old nephew of mine p. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. — to bow or nod . badmr. fd or faVf beans. tale of prayers or doxologies. into France. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. to produce young.ad. an attendant. W. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. atUndre. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Bean. . to carry. bean. was introduced from England sea. Fr. Lat. A Esthon. boom. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bar. pierced for hanging on a string. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. bohnej ON. bauhan. 54. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. a single bean.fer-re j Gr. Pardoner's Tale. a curtsey. Bret. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. ffaen. pig. It forms a. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. a hill. to nod the head. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bokan. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. fora-bauhan. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Thus the final en. which is. salve his hurts.fuis5e. Bear. to bellow.' Hall's Chron. Goth. ON. would say. OSax. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. AS. g. It. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. vii. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. -phxr. Trans. baum. post.' Suetonius in Diez. or beic. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. faba is Kvavoq. bdkna. according to of Sanscr. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Gr. E. a tree. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Q wait upon him. backe. bead. a tree. bM. Beak. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. and Lat. Du. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. — bedeau. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. a single bean. To Bear. baun. «va\ioQ. bearti. Beckon. Boom. The immediate shore of the Menage. beic. Beck. G. signifying a point. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. vol. to nod . or breathing. as well as f& or fav. as. Miss Gurney in Philolog. . beck. the part overflowed by the tide. It. See To Bid. however. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. AS. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. a nod OHG. Gael. Hackluyt in R. to wait-. bagms. Be. Beadle. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Netherlands or North Germany. a sign. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. bidan. Farrar.' adheres to the root. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. be. —F. not applied to the yelping of dogs. bedm. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. a presage. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey.. bairan. — Bellenden in Jam. bydel. into a snjall river. a prayer. on. W. stock. Gael. He says. Gael. * Beagle. or however. to beckon. bee. The origin seems preserved in E. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life.from AS. Moreover the name. like most nautical terms. Chapters on Lang. Fr. l^ax. bob. bek. It is BEAR SI court. as. fromthe danger. support. The wild beast.fui. Beacon. N.

ON. to get. obtain. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. the ece thurhwuniath. bib or slobbering cloth. riviera. tidig. den. As rivus. edge. formerly a happen. to be fulfilled. border. bave i. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. blast. fitly . pleasing. beatanj It. a. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. babrad. to happen. Secondarily applied to a hat. He becom on sceathan. and also in that of birth. opportune. bearing. biivre. W. proper. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to those goods which endure for ever. Beat. 2. fit. get J ' He got very angry. bequem. Beckon. E. covered the face. iida. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Thcem. from baver. baviire. barba. Lat. befit. Lat.to clothe to slobber. Dan. to the brook itself. suitable. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bel. to shore. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. It. The moveable part of a helmet. birth. to wade through the water like a beaver. to fall in with our bavard. bekkr. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bcek. R. . Do no To It fallith favour. G.getiman. — . from beau.' are equivalent expressions. as the babble of the child. comely. Goth. The OFr. i.' every way suited to a prince. taste. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. G. R. OSw. to G. to please. Bosworth. to arrive at. bavec. See Bank. seemly. It. a brook. Cal. 1. Fr. On the same principle. bring forth. barf. G. beo. because made of the fur of the beaver. fallinn. I do thee pray. In like manner condition. to fall mode of being. bett. an notion of being convenient. ziemen. Boeth. battere. as. bava. to be incumbent upon him. bur.S6 fero. to appertain. produce. baurthei. or river.of being very angry. or a feeling to be gratified. pretty. Prick of Conscience. nod or sign. suitable. bobrowai. Fr. pens unmixed evU. godum with ON. bebrus. to happen. nothing to thy name make. That thou mayest attain Goth. boroda. i. badi. Fr. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. handsome. or special purpose. E. our taste. perhaps a living thing. bestiaj Gael. byrcti. to hem. a bank. to assume a certain form or Turk. To load with ornament. limpan. Beauty. Now the Beast. living. to come to or upon. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. to attain to the lot of any one. but now a river only. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. The quadruped. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. riviire. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. becuman. whence baveux. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. agreeable. Prov.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. talkative. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. now confined To Become. Slav. place to lie down. ON. Bo. rying. Beaver. ON. See becymth anfeald yvel. behkr. the beard. Fr. brook. bedr. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. to happen. to happen. duty. to happen. to the good hapHalbard. venient. Beck.AS. bach. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. AS. bard. judgment. to bear children. burdr is used in the sense of a car. name applied originally to the bank then proper . Lith. dushmak. brada. a bank. to be a part of his to. and to acquire. bello. limplice. to fall. In a second sense to become is to be ing children.we call the arrangement becoming. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. beauts.fit. o. ON. decent. becuman. befall. receive. AS. The fitting or suitable.— Kiittner. gabaurths. to carry. Bedizen. decorous. bellus. Chaucer. con. Thus OY. G. Fr. proper . dress with unbecoming richness . limpian. fiber. byw. agreeable. and on. to dabble . a lip. Sp. Lat. Russ. when up. Lat. — A — A — . to sleep on. bekommen. See Bat. the latter are derived It. happening as it ought. Perhaps from Pol. connected with ripa. bave. from the same in the sense of bear2. tidy. while from Shep. timan. e.' ' He became very angry. ting. G. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. bart. See Beacon. fitanimal. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. slobber. gefallen. to live. which. it is probable that here also the to become. if sound of a sharp blow. Beck. biber. and Fr. E. dize or dtzen. Diez. chin. gelimplic. convenient. brook . baba. gebank. g. bobr. e.

of beatmg. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. prigione. bette or blettej Lat. waarin. Confined to bed. Bethlehem. from the hos. to fall. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. G.' the last word corresponds to cofly . woman that is newly delivered. biiren. to twist poorma. Rom. an ox.— JI14.).ON. the loppered sea. calleBedlam. bukva. 1. drink. buche. bably named from the destructive quali| T. an Beetle. cushion-cover . in Nat. also the bite or sting of a bees. Slav. beach. fall. blow or thrust. Arab. a wasp. bossen. Fr.cz//aj. KXlvoTTiT^e. on. pude-vaar. bitela. a agulatum in the original Latin. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. The first milk after a dizen.'— GL ^Ifr. a wasp. a cup or implement for AS. Ant. as in It. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. biene. buk. which also 2. a stinging bieUe. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. used for boull. Bed-ridden. The honey-producing insect. by the analogy of bedaivb.. to parget or rough-cast . pital of St Mary. I put the flax upon it to spin. cozen. I A pillow-beer. clog for a dog b'oteln. D. from blood. Pett. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs.(paddi. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. . doubtless. sang vermeilh betatz. duplicated form of the root. a paviour's beetle batail. briesch-milch. Beef. bletumj Gr. a wandering Prov. beost. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. imperative pi. P1. 1 to drink. as. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen._t from the root pi. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. betel. But possibly bedizen 2. whence familiar. .D. garden-herb. &c. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. . beetle also signified the impiti. beta. fagus. pettiriso. AS. In a passage of an Old Fr. i. thick. a malsense of drink. wedges. to become Beech. AS. taglio. desert. boytle. cow has calved. Fr. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. kivih. sela que environna la terra. a drink potus. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. E. beest. cited by Diez. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. Lat. ^. case. to knock. to and ale. buka. Cot. a horse-fly . Beetle. 1. a clapper. turn (a garment). from risan. paralyticus. tree. Cot. to change . a bed-tick. to turn.' So Gr. Fin. to curdle or lopper. beyki. g. to colour with lime-wash. a pad or cushion). cousin. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. bedskiissen-bUren. G. from jtst-. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. an inhabitant of the desert. a pillow-case. poculum. I dysyn a dystaffe. in Schmeller. water. 'La Gl. Pl. kiissen-biere. drink. briest. Let. knock. 57 — Palsgr. vaar.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. batAfter mete in sale. Fr. to poordma. Gr. qui de lecto surgere non potest . 1156. piwo. de Fierabras in Diez. beach-each. It. badigeonner. Grimm. beer. E. from Lat. . bbtel. ProBeer. the biter. GaeL bior. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. bos. the meat of spinach. to drink. may be from K. biest-milch. also bienst. crespir. extant in Bohem. It. by-flugaj G. beutel. AS. thick. * Beestings. bet. Fr. The meanpainting. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Bee. /SXirov. from leberen. . translation beOj. Bernese. Dan. boeuf. Originally. ris.^ drink. and lebermer in G.possible. a Properly a cover that biiren. cugino. Esthon. The beer al for te shenche bate. stakes. madhouse. comb. Fr. bovis. Lat.ing of the word is curdled. erroneously modified in form. trees in a forest . beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Gael. Bedouia. cogionare. Beet. turn. For that was law of lend. bedde-redirj ohg. door. Bav. to flatten In OE. PI. a pillow case. whose face is clotty.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. as the milk of a that purpose in London. bove. bytl. speach. ' MordiThe Lat. It. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. the ox. bitel. Horn. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. to beat bossel. a cover. curded or beesty. ir'm. to coagulate.— B. a mallet. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. bedawi. bibere is a re. and in driving piles. . G. to rough- cast. may be shpped on and off.D. byst. Fr. a bee. red curdled Arab . mars betada. prisons Venet.

which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. vir mendi. P. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. P. baigeir. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. beis- plement driven by blows. &c. Du. ' . gan.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. be^nnan. 25. ip AS. taking up.' for ye shall lament and weep. iv. on further examination. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. one after that other. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. krapszas. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. to arise.quently used in OE. is formed pocair. covered with gold D. origin. Ancren Riwle. Of brede full ycrammed. although it ' the future. a beggar. gen. affected. image is cleft out of the trunk. of Gr. Barbour. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . to beg. duginnan.D. tale. in D. ytyvwfT'Kw. to be able. beitel. fangen and Lat. ' Begone. a bag or poke. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. yivofiai. the fundamental notion of attaining to. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. 2. viii. is com. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . word. anfangen. P. as alighting is a momentary operation. P. capere. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one.bag full of the G. To Beg. to begaan. Mod. 142. 1430. It. kind. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. — yivsaiQ. yiyvo/uat. Lith. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Political Songs. yivwajcw. to take. & go a begging. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. 168. seizing. P. a wallet. bertola. oppressed with woe. AS. and Lat. a bag. Du. Bruce. 58 BEG BEGONE G. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . From w. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. chap. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. cans.— . not began to alight. in Lat. Florio. 40. a wedge for cleaving wood. yivtrri. &c. So from Gael. above quoted to get beaten ON. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. V. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. also called Bigots. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. bag {baigean. to cleve. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. ken. Nov. It will . to know. can. P. but in the same language from poc. in E. P. steinbosil. In Luc vi. beissel. begger. it is both to acquire and to beget. a bag . V. P. to be acquire. ysgrepan. a stone-cutter's chisel. P. gan provyde To eschew The Flem.' A. hags. Cold-begone. 1867. ykvog. Lollards.n. a chisel. onginnan. y/yvo/iat. on the tramp. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. aginnan. Skinner's derivation from bag. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. but probably erroneously. begging. su with gold. ysgrepanu. ken. 'ex quo. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. two betels —a grete oke. Fr. When Q. whence the E. genus. gigno. to be born. literally. Goth. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. He did alight. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. incipere. P. referred gan this Erie alight. a beggar-boy. Du. a — wedge. Creed.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. giving in Gr. Mundart. beginning. chisel. Gr. signifying to conceive. 'Dz. from whete G. beitel.pose. ' ' . to reduce him to beggary. Deutsch. Beghardus. — Stillingfleet. on the bag. Vocab. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. to go a begging. To produce children is to acquire. touched with emotion — . sel. at geta talad.' about undern he got down. beutel. to bear young. a scrip. 'Aboutin undern monly. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. lapidicinus. to get children . OHG. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. Si'Xa/coc. a beggar . The tother seand the dint cum. pose-pilte. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. air a . a scrip euXaiciJoi. woe-begone. To Begin. beriolare.3. or Of a pure poor man. Schm. ornamented phoc. appears improbable at first. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. Into the are D. a little bag). to begin.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. V. can.

tail. is supported by many analogies. fixed upon any object). and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. hevja. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. and (as Fr. the name adapt. ward. to R. hofwa. to turn one out . to call. to carry. AS. as in the case of E. to cast or throw. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such.for throwing it. to be obliged to one. at the tail of. han- — js Kil. is on the top of or opposite to. premi curi alicujus rei. observe. to command. keeping. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. hafjan. to bers of the body. to look upon it as true . portarsi.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to vow. hantyri. to be fit. to hit the mark. nittaa. behaviour. AS. AS.' Richardson. to look. to have. hovast. to feed. ifl fact. Sw. To be expedient. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. and their senses intermingle. to call. Robert in Warton. to gehouden. us-hafjan. to vow. to promise. Command. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. hafwa. heita. hatan. the distance of anything.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. vow. promise or a command. on. take heed of. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. gecall. G. to bring forwards. — Behest. G. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. seeing to. taking notice or care of (Gloss. behat.to vow. tion. according as the * To Behove. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. gehouden. the two verbs seem radically the same.— . or the hence advantage. G. bound. promise . G. to heave. Kiittn. vow. hafwa bort. from tragen. to hold. advantage. heeten willekem. take yourself off. At the back of The re. behold. 17. to be suitable or becoming . to tend. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to lift. K. Sw. AS. It. or purpose. is also found in the sense of looking. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. AS. to lead. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. heeten. obliged. hevja. what he wishes another to do . to follow. The seyn. behete. hafwa. use. laborare. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. name of the head is used to express what hbva. the equivalent of E. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. behoof. invoke. se porter) to fare well or ill. keeping. to be well pleased out. Plautus. gehaben. to command. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to raise.). OE. gehalten seyn. to carry. beperson addressed. betragen.the figure of throwing at a mark. solicitum esse. to lift. right. promise. by the compound observare. to be obliged to do a thing. behefe. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. But. heave. to keep. beholden to him. hces. furtherance. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to fit. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to be named. have the sense of calling or naming. to name. to take away. commonly expressed. zijn. to meet. servare. to keen or hold. ge' hatan. to behave. a follower. Paladino. R. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to halten. —Hest. to the equivalent of Du. N. behatan. The It. G. behces. to keep. ufhaban. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. adjust. And so from hania. Sw. habban. to carry corn into the barn . Goth. hafwa ram. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. what is so required. To look steadily upon. guardare. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. gehat. Thus in Finnish the heave. to regard. when the verb will hoof. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. and the E. healdan. garder. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to carry. To place are most naturally ex. to hold. To Behold. hcef tig bort. habere. hcefwa in seed. to be be named. exhort. hove. injunccommand. G. holding is originally derived from that of looking. To Behave. The Lat. behind. or necessary. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to .

were civil terms of address. beset. —F. to give leave. verloben. we have Goth. Du. To Belch. glauben. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. It. on. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. certain rate. bulken. berfroi. loven. to believe. in nautical language. beleggen. bell. Fr. to lay the cable round the bits. OFr. to fix a price upon one's wares. to promise. Du. bellan. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. precious. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. praise. from mhG. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. bertefredum. true. pro3. distance to which a piece will carry. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. Bell. appearing in Mid. gelyfan. to express approval.. laven. beau sire and bel dame. reach. and. tain a certain end. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to put a high price or value on. portion. mark ON. to promise or engage. promising. consent. peal. G. Fr. locus securitatis Schilter. — mankind. to give leave. bealcan. aim. In the middle voice hofwas. bounds. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. giving leave or permission. praising. to resound. overspread. to befit. galaubjan. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. properly belonging to the church tower. on. if a promise. . laubjan. is an easy progress. border. range. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. for purposes of low estimation . galaubs. and E. belief . reputation. esteeming good and valid. with the consent of the heirs. to give leave Dan. stand. a watch tower. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. Hence to simple approbation. P1. Northamptonshire. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. ungalaub kas. is (Sternberg). to roar. or house. filu-galaubs. Fair sir and Fair lady. Another application of the same word is in Pl. a tower. bealcettanj OE. — Diicange. then. bercvrit. promiser. to sanction an arrangement. a little shed. fitness.alyfan.. cela est audessus de votre portde. to der swaren lave. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws.D. — . is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . a. ON. Then. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. 6o BELAY BELL loven. erlauben. lofa. Du. to make it fast. battefredum. to protect. legsel. satisfaction. to cry out bell. OHG.D. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . allow. resonare. laven. To Believe. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. permitting or giving leave. to hit hafi. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to belay.D. Sw. b'ola. Pl. To Belay. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. beffroi. to praise. to lay be- around. Det er ofwer er hofwa. orloven. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. bylja. ON. if a narration. to permit. beffroit. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. to be required for a certain purpose. lov. to bolk. permission. bellow. to believe. under the forms belfredum. or a sconce. From AS. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. ornament. a tower for defence . moderation. Pl.Lat. esteemed .D. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. lyfan. bialla. garnish. a vessel made for dishonour. an implement for making a loud noise. belja. to extol the worth of anything. to praise. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. Q. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. behove. to believe. to estimate them at a To believe. to a loud noise. and Du. are innate . or high estimation. . turris. to praise. The word be- Belfry. loven. AS. frid. AS. See Gain. are other modifications of the same imitative root. met. boare. to sound loudly . to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . honoured. Goth.Lat. fringe. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to boke. then. to bellow. In Mid. measure. bervrit. bolken. hesfa. Du. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to to make A Templorum campana boant. bettifredo.. ley/a. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. is used in the sense of approving. loben. leave . leaf geleafa. and E. . and bergan.

fens et hie liraus. Quoth. to reach. Du. To Bend. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. ON. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. OUG. I soyle it or araye it.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. a border. to concern. Javanese perfume. belly.— Belly. is The word balg. from benedictio. I marre a thyng. to hallow. bellows. yards of the vessel to bend cloth.Fr. The ing-skin. from which is also bulbus. Lat. To belong is thus to reach up to. to attain belangen. bag. to stretch it on a frame. Benignant. Belt. Lat.' The term had been previously planation. or simply djawt. To Bequeath. balteus . or fyle with myre. vulva. to. G. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. ON. Fr. Lat. — ray. to touch. See I . bendan. one who does good. belliJ Lat. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. rushes. OFr. bilbil-goda. pertinere. rise against external force . Commentary on Neccham in Nat. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Gael. well. from cwcsthan. Benediction. attingere. — Ducange. Gael. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. a benefit. welt of a shoe. poX^ri. beneison. from another modification of the word for bubble. hem. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. loubdn djawt. binssen. a blessing. means seeds of plants. Eenison. to make bilbil. as. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. Lat. bags or bellows. to touch one. bless. or a It is times the to signify services. bolg. welt of a shoe gwald. the word. benignus (opposed to malignus). bilbila. becwathan. because bcelg. volva. to attain to. w. bimpsen. a good deed. G. est matris in lucem editus. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. . balg. taken absolutely. dirt. as concerning that. the ipsi Caddono concessimus.polch. — root consisting of concentric skins. Bent. attinere. or sometimes louban. is a kindred form. Beneath. benjoim. to come to the crown belangen." — — . To Benum. a speaking well of one. .' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to exert force. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. gelangen. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS.' — Hie fimus. bienfait. I araye. Ptg. an inflated Lat.' Palsgr. Benedico. To Belong'. From OFr. gwaldas. skin.pinuz. Benefactor. disposed to oblige. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS.videtur. hence with ashes. Was das belanget. a water-bubble builge. a round or bubble-shaped root. benaigon. has assumed a plural form. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. needs no ex. Benzoin. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Sw. a accusative. bellows. binsen. Fr. belch. cod or husk of pulse. generous. skin. G. by itself. ray. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. balg. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. benejicium. Dozy. Benefice. See Bank. Lat. benir. bolch. Gum benjamin. benefacere. belly. — See Numb. to use words of good omen. blast-bcelg.. bolg. belgr. se bander. was in Mid. pod. . to say. Bret. pervenire. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). bene/actum. See Nether. the skin of those animals that factor. belt. benjoin. leather sack. to bless. to bend a bow . attinere. pouch. kind. vulgarly the belly. to do good to one . . Bav. a bellows . benedicere. J'emboue. I say). Bench. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. fyle To dirty. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. pertinere. incense of Java. ^To Beray. bcelg. ' I beraye. a kindness. benedictio {bene^ and dico. are stripped off whole blase-balg. In E. Kil. bellows. See Bind. wallet. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. a blow. bander un arc. blister balgan-snamha. on. a leather bag. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. G. a spring. . Benign. ball. bendaj as. to become one's property . to hold to one. langen. border. . to belong. to arrive at. the womb. from Arab. a bellows. bandoir. . to ring. Lat. pino3. benehusk. bimaissen. bell. wallet Benefit. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. to concern. ' . Fr.

rods. fearful. See Reave. Sw. BEREAVE Wall. bacca. compared with bargham. I from lew. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. beseech. solicit. as. Hfence backing. scopse spartis. to word is shelter. bat. profit. from grow. protect . The origin is AS.ot-i. to cast. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. Sw. place. to entreat. bet. as. making better. G. dial. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. boeten. think more probable. vol. seems twigs or rods. Du. barthless. or to bestead one. The dry.irova. dirt. ariierf to 113. to mend. See Better. Goth. to thrust. to make it. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. From abet. in the sense ctf beria. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage.D. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. Besom.X. roju. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. stow. roju. as bouter selle. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to light the fire . because used for making besoms. besIn sen. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. The proper meaning of the bale. It is the restore fyr betan. besein. besen. to give a place to. it seems hard to separate as. what does it boot. to amend. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to strip. a berry. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. an incendiary. an incendiary. AS. Fr. lewth. Fr. mud. to fall with roisto. Best. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. berry. Rob. eld up- On is to be placed A — . boteith Goth. sheltered from the wind. jnore. * Berth. bal oppbota. So roto rattle down. arwe. To Bestow. Berry. To bete his Jam. basjaj Du. lay out. G. and also to entreat.t. To Beseech.bhaksh. besje^ Sanscr. berwe. * To Bete. bur-we. Du. Grose. earg. might have been . p. to defend. to fire a funeral pile of . Beit. small eatable fruit. Beet. Tha het he micel fyr betan.—^fake. . the guardian . bdt. as in growth. better. to seek. to supply a want. stede. boutefeu. preferably. but in practice. to to deprive of. and on which the wager is laid. a horse collar. make better . berwham. Zeitschr. hva mannan. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun.iooA. from It. to To Bereave. p. rubbish. ship for a make amend. buttafuoco. sets fire to. Fin. to stand one in good stead. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. put. AS. beorgan. bereafian. Bestead. reparation. basya. Esthon. repair. — Biglotton. amendment. baete. dung . supply.• 62 Antiq. bota. — Chaucer. to make better. So too Yorkshire arf. Du. noise. to be-place. — bota. broom twigs. and Du. Kil.— Hal. put forth. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to on the other Goth. To Bet. vi. sweepings. one who shelter. as. baete. — . supporting on the one side Lat. brem-bessen. ^•n. OE. stealth from steal. E. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. improve. of ffeed a fire. the origin of which is to be found in ON. reparation. E. as conversely a besom is called broom. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. as Du. 3. Tusser. fyrbotare. So Lat. to exercise on a definite object. . botesward. person to lie in. peto. — amendment. advantage. To Gl. encouraging. besmas. burrow. R. To help. dirt . On the other hand. the side bhakshya. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. or the space kept clear betan. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. a fire. barfham. To seek something from a person. bouter. Du. boeten. bestow. to the place boarded off in a. buttare. reafian. betan. as. position. AS. Devon. fall with sound. houseless. Beere. barth may be for barf. to put on the saddle. to thrust. is to perform a serviceable office to him. dust rojahtaa. earh. When men of mekeness him baet. advantage. what does it better a man. bdt. ^akka. besnij Pl.— VixHsm. a place . Ihre. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. to kindle the fire. BETE dirty'.fish the other hand. R. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. betan. boeten. same word with the provincial barth. but it is specially applied mister. ropahtaa. from AS. or. roe.

R. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. progress. what does It is forward him. in the middle of twain. Better. Ober D. bedriegen. against. Ik tame mi dat nig. betest. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. zimet. a brood. Lat. from. obdissais.D. beverage. e. tweoh. as from obdir. G. zemen. Bevy. baet. Fris. Best. suitable. — that schickiich. to fall.' Dialogue on Witches. in the same way Lat. of pheasants. Slant. Tinia eigi at lata eit. E. taemen. best. find in one's heart. ruogia. to make forwards. is treason. ziemen. dir.— . which may be compared as to form with amid. are commonly to one's lot. polish. awry. Friar's Prol. to happen. From the former of these are AS. make manifest. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. to fall Some call it a bevel. Cot. the being pushed to the frbnt. BETEfiM translated. Bav. i. moveable and compass branches. springs from ON. G. G. Goth. betwuh. tima. obeish. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. . wreia. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. Goth. is used for the — R. to drink . traditor. vrohjan. -to appoint. Car son umbre si le trahit. Dii. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. verbs in ir with a double ss. betwuxt. a bevy. gezimet eines dinges. by two. dispose (whence schicksal. said he. to stir. — See To Bete. roja. whence beveraggio Fr. better. it bewrays itself. Between. as trahissons. tradere. roebucks. — of the authorities. bibere. betweox. amidst. It. lot). a square-like instrument having to beseeni. trakir. ON. /alia. E. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. from Fr. betweoh. afford. Fl. G. bat. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. Fr. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. advance. larks. taemen. betriigen. R. In like manner from twain is fothied between. 88. beva. in the middle of two. a different form of twa. In the water anon was seen His nose. to deliver up in breach of trust. It. Mich self a good glass of wine. deem suitable. The as. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. as envahir. batista. fate. OE. become. as tlock. Chaucer. betweohs. more. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. To vouchsafe. to Hence It. trahir. *Ah. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. i. are there Regt R. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. suitable. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. From It. e. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. bouter davantaige. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. deign. proficere. be fitting or suitable. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Dit tungomal rendered in E. traitre. from invadere. or with again. kein leben mehrin no signs . betst. find it good: Goth. gesiemen. Percy Soc. tima. Pl. I approve of beveau. bet. Golding's Ovid in R. his eyen sheen. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. betaemen. On the same principle ON. To boot in coursing (i. twain. abash j from polir. To Bewray. AS. Now the stirring of an object. — Betwixt. R. sloped off. Sw. r'ojer dig. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. Hence last G. treachery. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. trahissais. &c. two. The inflections of Fr. riigen. to deceive. order. to discover. regen. amiddes. AS. not to have the heart to give up a thing. betera. trahison. e. Fr. Thus from dbahir. an instrument opening like a a thing. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. by a final sh. spritigs from schicken. betray. fallinn. To Beteem. Du. some attention. tradire. Pl. A — drink. of quails. to happen. Buveau. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. fitting. better. E. from Lat. and thence twegen. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Fr. to Teem. bet. gatiman. a drinking . has — In a like sense tanie>i. bevde. bevere. for measuring angles. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. to deliver tip. pair of compasses. batizo. To Betray. to accuse. Sahissais. as one would have it fall. better. beuvrage. Fr. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. wrogia. In like manner folissais. his mouth. x. a traitor. ON. Det sig sjelft. to cheat. evidence of life.D.

is explained to clatter.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. biais. which good bibbeler. roggle. kwijlen.or from obliquus. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. Oh when shall I bizzle. To Bicker. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. it becomes (Jz-. to tipple. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. beregen. him. The train of thought is then. to a fight with stones. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. The It. — Bi-. sbieco. a stone-hewer . A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). to move. bickel. bending. —Bickering'. lips. and zahr. kwijl-bab.to drink much. bezling or skueing. bisdare. Fr. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . babbefore the eyes. sbiagio. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. tailU en biseau.D. he is Wtb. /3i/3Xof a book originally. . inferiority. Yes. bickel-sieenken. the word became bddizahr. Fr. b&zahr. . a slabbering-bib. Biseau. Bezoar. shows the P1. bebble. bible. Bible. See Wriggle. Uprogen. metaphor). Schiitze. Du. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. asure-bice (Early E. Bias. baverole. To drink hard. used in precisely stone . to glide or slip as upon. Diet. sbrisso. aslope sbisciare. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. biascio. —Dozy. Bice.two. biberon. to stir. or by any rapid motion. rogge. aslope. winding or crawling in and out. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. Lat. reveal. Fris. bickai. sloped. Hal. or in and out. to slaver or drivel. . Sp. bisel. To Bib. I Wallon. to make tongue Du. whey count . oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell).a. sbiscio. to creep or crawl sideling. to tipple. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. 78). petit-lait. To Bezzle. Cat. bickelen. rogt un bogt sik nig. to it evident to sense. bias-wise. Hal- — do something aslant. dial. a bibber. evident. baviere. An inferior blue. to shake. biascia. twice. to the stirring of their conscience. Pl. poison. a sloping edge. To bicker in NE. bis. discover. to slaver . whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. bibo.D. Ant.{ioin dua. Bisect. like guzzle. wrangle. foul weather. biberer. to stir. beslei. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Piedm. Pers. Gr. makes ble. a bezle. misFr. Ci^. to cut in two. the papyrus. Bibelsworth in Nat. per\'erted belief. wraggeln. liwell. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. sbrisciare. It. In Arab.' bibble. crooked. to Jam. notice. Sardin. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. to purl. In comp. bescompte. sbiesso. bestemps. wrogen. E. in him. sbriscio. . 172. bickeler. bes-azur. Fr. Bib. presence. to sip. to stir up . convicts thee of being drink. Fr. by throwing of stones. Sard. bibaculus. bihais. biaiser. the basil Sc. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. to stir. To skirmish. to give signs of life. (according to the Fr. An excellent Basil. Fr. It. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. Dan. slippery. dial. slanting . one who drinks in excess.as in Biped. sbias. love first begins to life signs of him. expelling or preserving against. snout. Bezel. OE. Fr. of the sliced off. bark of which paper was first made.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. sliding. sbrissare. sbiasciai. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Lat. besanca. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. stock still. Jamieson. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. bring under ' Thy accuse. in Fr. Piedm. — crooked. sik beregen. from pdd-. kwijllap. oblique. Misc. to be a paring. whence Du. ice . the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. pible. its clothes. as an eel or a snake. Prov. a Galilean. biberen. a fragment bieco. babbi.s bellum for duellum. ber-laita (for bes-laita).— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. To Bibble. two- footed. has a singular stone-picker. Probably. Mantuan. bavon. biax. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to dispute. to well up with Cot. . edge of a plate of looking-glass. Cat. specially in a bottle. pddzahr. sbiescio. It is especially applied in Sc. or kwijl-slab. in two ways for duis. it were the mouth.

ewes. bo. from belgia. bog. BID of stone.Leta). boa. bag. Two verbs are here confounded. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. praestare. related to big or bug. cultivate. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. ON. . . the meaning of bid. to arrange. bidan. The original Swollen. and yajiBui. Big. to abide or wait on. beidast. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. abidan. to build G. a flexure. beodan. to forbid . biddan. called the tertiary order. bieten. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. bow. Bigamy. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bouwen. may plausibly be derived from Goth. ON. The . Compare also Sp. To Bid ' Big . to solicit. to inhabit. to pray one to dinner. to curve. inhabit Du. OSw. bidel. Big-swol- . biegen. to ask.' Pope in R. by seek and beseech. balg. to bid one good day. bolginn. G. to E. bend of a shore or of a rope. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. byggia. bis and in comp. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity.uddered len heart. athird class. repair. and the Sw. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. byggan. bulk. who. verbieten.peto. Analogous expressions are G. beadle. einen vor Gericht bieten. To Big. offerre. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to ask. BIGOT beidan. To bid the banns. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. praebere. It must be observed that the word bidja. Bickelen. as tears from the eyes. a chip. ten. explaining the Sc.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. faurbjudan. A bjudan in anabjudan. Wallace in Jam. bat . pray. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. R. bidill. in the sense of ask for. to pro- command. to bulge. bugt. twice. porrigere. bolgna). which is stiU. quiring something to be done. swoln. to inflate E. as G. to offer. or third order of penitence. bauen to cultivate. bidjan. bit- bidja. bieden. to dwell. — prepare. to forbid . inhabit. to presimpler pare. bua. to look for. England for swollen. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. has leta. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bi-. — To Bid. of More ' in Richardson. to build. to bend. Bigot. Jam. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb." buque with E. to belly. to offer it to public notice. bugan. and Gael. swaggering. and consequently ordering or reGoth. pressing on one's notice. consisting both of men and women. an entire skin. are also used in the sense of asking for. 2. belly. from bidan. qucero. rising up. to build.. bced. W. The ON. Hence Sc. AS. to cultivate. bugne (answering to ON. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. AS. bug. to bend. as. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. ON. — — — Halliwell. G. or. form. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering.t. to move quickly. Kil. bulky. build. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bigan. bygga. The ON. buga. gebodenj G. AS. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. or bad. ' Bug as a Lord. belly. to offer one the wish of a good day. the belly of a ship. swelling. iiQ. from seek. to look for. Palsgrave in Halliwell. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. bulge. Bight or Bought. bulge. bolga. a swelling. ON. forwards. From Gr. bilge or bulge. P.' Addison. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. anleta. a suitor. OSw. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. With respect to logical pedigree. be bug. to marry. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to have one called before him. to swell. becoming in Lat. 1. bath. bead. G. bend. The 'La. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. besides the professedmonks and nuns. gebeden j G. spelling seems to used in the N. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. A pose to one to come to dinner. to bicker. to start out. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. proud. The loss of the / gives Dan. Du. bidan. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bedun.

bigotta. A. the nobles to Rienzi. rustical.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio.— BIGOT bigardo. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. alii Apostolici. In the same way Fr. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. Augustini dotarint. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. 1499. bighellone. From bigio. bigio. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. the other form Per te Tribune. ix.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Francisci communiter appellabant. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. was formed bigello.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Beguttce.D. sed maxim^ in muliebri. homespun cloth. aliqui Begardi. corruption would easily creep in. A. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. a blockhead. author quoted in N. absque votorum religionis emissione. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. 1243.a.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.' Chart. xx. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. A. borel. and Q. 15 18. says. begutta.D. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves.' Matthew Paris. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. dark-coloured cloth. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. natural grey or sheep's russet.' says one of of bigio. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. G. and hence the variations bigutta. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. bighiotto. grey. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' says an Venet. beghart. They wore a similar dress. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. 560. both men and women. perch^ i Terziari di S.' translated by Muratori. vocati Fraticelli. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. Bizoccki. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. Bighiotti). &c. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.. all apparently derived from Ital. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. and also unlearned common men. probably from biso. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. D. Flor. ac labores manuum detestantes. clownish. In a similar manner from bigello. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. Bighini. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. alii de paupere viti.— Ducange.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. vol. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. as well as bizocco. grey. a dunce.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. coarse woollen cloth. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. beghino. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. which must not be confounded with begardo. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. S. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. Bizocco.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. signifying bagmen or beggars. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. with reference to A. biso. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. face VIII. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. Hence the OE. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. to adopt a similar course of life. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. honesti plebeii amictus.D.

Mundart. bulghe. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. blamand. 2. — — ' . AS. Du. tepati. Dan. however. AS. a floating log to mark the place of some. gleischner (Frisch). to pick a millstone. bull-berries. Aurelles. and in Lat. boeye. on. Roquef. G. bigotto. Thus we find in It. Bohem. in the same sense. from OSw. bullet. clog to a fetter. Sp. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. In the same way are related Pol. bill. buoy [i. billard also signified at billyards. gan. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Du. bolghe. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. billet is the diminutive of this. e. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. weapon . might be taken to express a hypocrite. bigardo. Piedmontese bigot. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. top. to strike. buail. a beak. Lat. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. of E.— — — . and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Lat. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). symbolum. the bill of a bird. 3. Billette. as a bill of indictment. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. inscriptum. deceit. bile. An instrument for hewing. an adze . AS. the trunk of a tree. bill in parliament. buie. names bill-berries. seems to be rather the unda. Deutsch. Sw. a short note. and dziobas. bla-berry. bulla. at sea Billet. crowberry. Du. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. an axe . biilge. w. used in legal proceedings.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. In English the meaning has received a further development. false pretender to reUgious feeling. bigot. Fr. Bill. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Fr. a shackle. The Du. Kil. loi. a man who rests on a stick in walking. e. an ingot. BILBERRY nated. a name given to a. To defraud one of expected sinking. an axe. b'olja. abelthe fetter itself. belghen. dissimulation . an axe. Tartuffe. as craneberry. . BILLOW 67 plough-share Du.' in Richardson. Fr. NFris. billard or billart. dziobad. beghart. of boja. person of religion leading a loose life. I. The proper meaning bylgia. an ingot of gold or silver. in the sense of a writing. billot. Billet. the swelling G. See Bulk. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen.. bizocco. a sword. is properly a sealed instrument. Kil. bulgja. Sw. Gascoigne in R. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bila. plog-bill. belgan. Dan. boja. a hypocrite. horn of an animal. genus vincu- Bilboes. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk.' bilio. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. a seal. blue . to strike. Ludwig. blaa. a bigot or hypocrite. a negro. . A lorum tam in — Diez. from Mid. billet. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Bill. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. axe. See Bull. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. fetters. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . ferrese quam ligneae. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. the o changing to an i to express diminution. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Bilberry. fluctus maris.' mariners. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. to be angry (i. Sw. the beak of a bird. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Gael. and a billard. from the dark colour. — Cot. to swell with rage). a devotee. a seal. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bill of exchange. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. Bigin. Johansen. topor. procella Kil. obsolete. Billow. 5 * . A slang term for a sword. 2. dziob. boia. Prov. bille. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. p. Bilbo. — bigardia. to peck. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Langued. whortle-berries. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. to job. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. To Bilk. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. . a hatchet. bwyell. an axe. Bojce. OFr. a of the sea. ^Billiard. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. that of swell. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. bigot. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. now A Bilboa blade. bil. Bilge. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. bui. 'tumidi fluctus. bisoch. beil. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Bille. So in Gr.

the young of an animal. beisseii. G. v. from \t3\. To — — —D. pinnu. bord. and especially to a small poor horse. brut. bin-wood. band. admota non Bit. nodus. from pondus. E. bundt. or ben-wood. Du. Bisom. G. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. bhurja. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. Lat. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. bundle. binge. H. berkas (z=:Fr. i.. Sw. — See Bittacle. to twine. doubtless a stone. &c. from Gr. When compared with Fr. an eagle's young G. pullus. betsel. a corn. It. earnes brid. wine. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. the young of birds . IV. fowl. Bine. properly a young pigeon. Lat. pippione. a hind or female stag. to form a knotted structure. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. ON. Bing. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. a female stag. twice cooked. G. biclie. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. are commonplaces. — Surrey in R. burt. ge- from AS. Bitch. e. bjork. propius videre bij sicndc. a bitch applied also to other animals. piiiti. bunch. which is expressed in E. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. The term ON. AS. to swell. expressed by Sw. pin-ti. Fr. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. Bisson. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. from Lat.. Bailey. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. bircej Sw. to cook). Fr. i. is in Scotland applied to ivy. Habitacle. Fr. to bear. beorth. — properly near-sighted. terial./«idere. episcopus. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. See Breed. AS. Goth. Gr. to fasten it together. Bisen. binda nat. . Bittacle or Binnacle. We — A Birth. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. beran. Sp.68 BIN Bio-. a pig petz. a habit- Binnacle. Bind. bij sien. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. ON. to build. bindan. biccej ON. Fr. Sw. an overseer. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. lusciosus et myops. . a bear. Dan. a little dog. by the verb knit or net. bund. AS. evesgue. bitill. truss. brid. a brood or hatch of young.. Lat. a heap. beitan. pundas. poultry. Lith. beize. qui nisi propius Blind. or petze. Thus I suppose the Gr. poule. . or baked. . a weight of 48 pounds. vescovo. Sanscr. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw.' and the like. It. bundt. a bunch. bunga. sc. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. a house. a bump or knob. . beitsl. V. Bindweed. The bitol. to hang. biscotto. a weight. BITTACLE /Siof. a bitch. evegue. See To Bear. to bring Biscuit. forth. — — . bindan. bigne. pittjo. isfiw. bund. bita. EpisETTiTOOTToe. a bitch. bundle. pinnii. Fr. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. AS. — Kil. where the compass stands. piccione. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. than vice versi. a female dog hindinn. Bin. biscuit. life. or bin. to be derived from Ibfiaq. while bind-wood. also a stone weight. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. The proper meaning is a heap. Birch. and of Fr. to bind together. Lat. bunt. bikkia. hiindiiin. to bind at . evigue. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Bizened. G. Lith. bunki. . Bird. Goth. a truss. bij sienigh. In like manner from knot. to net. videt. bundun. copus. j). a knob. Then added division in a granary. to plait. a gallinaceous bird. to bulge. AS. is rendered in ON. habitacle. AS. to knot nets for fish. hith. viz. by binda. overlooker. a heap. Lap. 'tumens sequor. to wreathe. I would derive the verb to knit. bitacora. See Belly. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. in Swabia. To Bite.

whiteness (candor sine It. 't kompas huis. The Gz. to To blabber blabber with the lips. mouth. gulblakk. Hald. Mantuan babbi. as in that of pale and white on the other. blubber-lipped. bitts of Bitts. a shelter for the steersman. butorj OE. blabhdach. a large lip. chatter babbler . ON. Sp. to wax pale or bleaked. G. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. — Collins in Hal. Blabber-lip. NE. his blacan light. fallow fawn-coloured. mouth. Wit hung her mourn.plab is used to . yellowish. blob. round which the cable is made fast. white lead. In like manner E. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Fr. to watch. a tati. whitish. out the tongue. indistinctly. Lydgate. ^chops. Nagt huis. blunt we say it will not bite. /ealo-/or. babbe. to the sharpness of a weapon. blakki. Fr. apparently from its biting the tongue. iroxafealo. pale yellow . pale brown . as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte.D. babbling. Fieldfare. Hist. a stammerer. garrulous. Bittern. to babble. white. Hal. AS. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. pale yellow. — cheeked maid. 156. on the one side. a childe dothe gasouille. first. an edge is sharpest sword. quoted by Ihre.€i. night guard. ' plabraich. bird of the heron tribe. small guard-house. Mund. Alex. Cot. dusky. Bleak. bites. stutterer. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). bitor. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. biacca. So Fr. Pl. obscurus. Gael.' It would thus acle. maculS. to loll it out. a babbler. I blaber. as is seen in sputter and splutter. shining. bitr. to speak Dan. Bav. blabbern. blobach. To Blab the anchor. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. a continued soft sound. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. ON. corrupted in Fr. whitish. Deutsch. . Sw. leohte . Fr. a fluttering noise. bitter. to chops. blab. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. 't huisje. "uivac. 332. blabaran. Sp. beitr. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. . blakk. blebberis. Sp. as of water gently beating the shore. Percy Soc. Bohem. pale.). G. as of a body falling into water. v. an additional watch. the palebleff. pale. ON. to bivouac. ' Biovac. gabble. the moon with her pale — —Blabber.' by Gudmund.. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. bitones. It. synonymous with baber-lip. blanc. blesmer. baitrs. Je N. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Cotgr. as of wings . or water beating gently on the beach . bleikr. biti. black. from whence we have adopted the. Mag. A a rail. brunblakk. a flapping. confusedly.. Sp. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. shine. Goth. To or he can speake. quick. from wachen. bittore. blabbre. blake. beuni. plabartaich. —Neumann. cut. a beam in a house or ship. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. AS. even humour seemed and beuin. dark. Bivouac. yellow . blob. is apprehension of danger. light-coloured. faded. Again. faded. blac-hleor ides. ^aj'/^r. beiwache.. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. 'fuscus. In a similar manner Gael. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. unintelligible talk plabair. Du. plappem. town guard to keep order at night bivouac.' by Haldorsen. discoloured . on. a* mast . ON. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . — Hollyband. bleich. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. blepLith. Why presumest And laam's asse. x. Ai-mstrong. bittour. bleg. blank. parallel with Fris — — — When bite.— Blabber-lip. Fr. to babble.' G. in contempt. . buft". Black. thoughtlessly . blob. Gael. bihovac. white. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. pins of the capstern. things —Palsgr. fallow . a large coarse lip . is placed. baboyer. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. Se bleek. In Legrand's Fr. mona mid Dan. pale. term. to let out whai should have been concealed. The bitas. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. to talk much. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. Applied in Hin ON. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. viz.

white. a leaf. blactra. slush. and he shall be sure to have O. a buible. Lat. Blade. a white or unwritten ticket. and the agitation of liquids. blanqne. plate. blister. —We Bladder. — rura. broad. a blank ticket. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Blain. to glow. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. mud. Blank "verse. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. See Blubber. blanc. also white woollen cloth . blena. is identical with Flanders borlen. blanchet. gabble. leaf of a. blaere. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. from candere. I am degraded from a cook. Du. or of an oar G. to vocifer- — Cot. Sw. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. variable than the signification of words designating colour. mud. revile. bladdra. pluddre. to shine. Fr. tree. blanchet. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. moere. It is commonly connected with _/?«/.—Blatter. e. boys. — Sw. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. and Q. Wott. Eadmer. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. —^Webster. 1854. Fr. to omit. blegne. madder. blasphemare. G. which we . bladra. biastner. chatter. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. borrelen. to blow. vagabonds. blatter. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. Du. white. blanchir. and thence to babble. Besides the examples of this connection given above. a boil. dial. a. blatt. leafy. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. smother. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. skola and thwatta. blister. also jabber. blegen. blinken. to bubble. in R. . his meat burnt. Blame. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. G. Sir. Perhaps from blegen. the leaf of a tree. and E. the origin of . Bacon in R. bladre. or blafich. Du. . Dan. Bav. with all other loose idle masterless men. as. pladdern. bladder . most complete example of leafy structure. on. The present forms then should be classed with blether. mire. also tanned by the sun. The radical bubble. to —Blaspheme. Play in Nares. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. and others engaged in dirty work. smore. imbrunire. bladeren. Sc. Blanket. Hist. 7. candidus. blahen.—Blatant. board. to blanch. mus-blackt. livido . bladder. cited in N. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. the ON. a bubble. probably ate. whitish. reproach. to Hence Ital. Cot. pimple. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. plat. Sw. a pustule . coat. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Blank. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. rogues and wanderers. &c. to To bellow. tattle. blather.. polished. Now. sheet of paper. contracted from bladeren. blister. to purl. commonly called the Black-guard. Dan. or as E. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. biasimare. flap of a Du. and wandering men and women. shining. to make or become white blanc. branches . — . to bleak in the sun. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. chatter. leaves. Blancli.— Kil. a bladder or pustule. plat. as Lat. blad. pallido. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. to disappoint. a blanket a bed. as scullions. to shine. pXaatpiiiiHv. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. From being made of white wooUen for cloth.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. speak impiously. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. blister. bladder. It. piatto. blame. pass over. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. as blader. bladder. blaeren. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. Dan. blad. blank. To blank. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. G. But perhaps a more Gr. leaf. foolish talk. as. blatter. Reliqu. or a mass of bubbles. and G. 86. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. whitish. vagrants. Fr. . blether. — — — to jabber. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason.— ^o thehotsun. To Blare. PI. roar.. Torriano. dripping-pans. irXariQ. Du. blein. 5/^a/^ of colour. on. blather. Du. waschen. Fr. Jan. a bubble. p. defame. Gr. black. to glitter. name originally given Blackguard. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. to dabble in water. D. linkboys.

whence Blazonry. But now. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. brasa. With inversion of the liquid. As Kilian. blis. thraso. laudes (Kil.whence the Fr. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. oured. a coat of arms. an conium. coloured prints. senses. brasa. e. blcesett. Lye. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. bleis. ventosus. a flame . Sw. or to the sound which it produces. on whose behalf the herald appeared. embraser. Troilus and Cressida. a shining spot. . g. The AS. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. ther it was erst not knowe. in that of praise. baladrar. to blow. ill-speaMng their proper colours . blesse. magnilo. ON. Cot. Dan. abroad. blaodh. shield or surcoat. blcest. might spring from the same origin by a . Du. like the in English. to bellow. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. also only pains and excellent endurance. Du. To blast. to publish the praises. blcEsan. to set on fire. i. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blateroon. 2. A gust of wind. also blazon or the blazSpenser. ON. — ^Jam. to blaze Sp. blasonner. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. besides blesse. Du. a blast. — ' — stroy. Du. commendation blason funebre. by stripping off a portion of the bark. Fr. braise. is used in the sense of manifestatio. See Blare.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. proclaim the virtues of. a flame. boasting. bles. is from AS. Blatant. To blow AS. baladron. a MS. blezo. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. the noisy. blaeteren. blaser vid. magniloquus. First from the E. blcEsan. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. proflare tues. blaterare. blasa. a shield. a shout. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . as a verb. biter. somewhat different train of thought. redness . Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. splendour. abroad. to blow. blysa.sound a trumpet. noisy blor. — Elazen. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. stultd loqui. The origin of this exSp. blason. Kil. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. and which. G. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. AS. blose. an empty and two theories are proposed. a flame. Blast. blase. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. beast. friend Cornelius.). is the imme. light-coli. blaodhrach. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Dan. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. Blanches illuminies. 'op een trompet blaazen. blatero. blazen. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. fire. blast. live coal . pale. blaesen. bawling. OE. bliEsan. blase. and to make him word blaze. how. kept up. indeed. visui patet. loud . a loud noise. A strong flame. blcese. in the same way as we 2. blesse. a lamp blasere. Du. to trumpet forth. to proclaim. Du. Gael. gloriosus.— . might And sain. also praeblczse. Gudmund. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. blaze. Prov. A blaze is so intimately Then. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blass. Cot. a torch . quus. I.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. AS. much plausibility. the matter incendiary . To Blaze. to blow . The other derivation. blus. blorach. clamorous. Sw. to publish. to cut off prematurely. Sc. blossi. bldsse. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. each of boaster. of an animal.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. to extol. it is manifest. a funeral oration . has also blencke. If armour. to spread news. . Golden Book in R. Blaze. a torch. a whisperer. or blazening. a voice Jr. among other . properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. blys. Fr. blason. ing of arms. G.' to fastum . used. and. . oron-blasare. — — ' : bless. Fr.' painted or figured . blasoen. declaratio. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. to de.

c. a blemish in one's 2. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. or blemish. in the expression reputation. Bleed. . Mac.' God in his wordes.' to deceive one. a been distinct. N. to stain one's honour or reputation.D. Sir J. I chaunge colour. blister. to blear one's eye. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. Palsgr. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. the livid colour of a bruise. ^Blencher. a fault. Gr. blesmissure. is Blench. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. ' — — eye. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. See Black. spla7nU sie. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. wanness. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. start vor den augen. sugillatio. ' — — ' : — — . blema. to bleach. confound him. drop of water. to become livid. on. to soil. blarren. livid. spSt. Ancren Riwle.filerren. blemissemeiit. See Blood. pier vor den augen eyes. to wink at it. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. Richardson. bleikr. Bejaune. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. pimple . novice. a spot. . So in Sw. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. wan. bldmi. to spot . whitish. blot. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. Blear. blur before their eyes. to cast a mist before the eyes. G. the formal equivalent of English wink. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. flack. ' He blarrede or roar. goda nainn. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. AS. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. to cry or weep. boggle at something. wheal. — blink the question is to shrink from it.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to blare been weeping. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. Sw. blot. . although he professe nought to say when he should speak. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. bloken. a spot. (faith or creaunce) Be war. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. pale . The term blear. tumanid. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. And now are these but mansbond (i. a blotch plerr. like one that has long P1. blcecan. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. Gower in R. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. geplerr. Schmel. Blancher. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. from the than schal I go. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. which are blurred with the have shewed you. ^Xiixaoftai. to disgrace one's name. From the OFr. darkness of vices. And By a similar metaphor Pol. avoid looking it in the face. Manuel de Pecch&. light-coloured. A stain in a man's reputation. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. tacher. Bleb. blench came to be used for a trick. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. Blemisli. Blear-eyed j having sore i. splamii!. a spot. As AS. to make him feel blank. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. and thence to a bruise.v. or blemysshen — blaken. to spot. To totally different from the foregoing. what blenched him therwith. . it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. a stain. souiller. blink. livor. A Blab. — — R. color plumbeus bldma. paleness. a spot. while the agent ac- From . Fr. a blot or smear blanking one. blakna. blesmir. BLENCH obfusco. . 242. inflamed eyes. to bleat as sheep. as of dust or mist .' the devil makes a vain back. guenchir. To salir. plama. exposed. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge.P. dead-coloured Cotgr. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. See Black. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. ' . a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!.'he cried till the tears ran down. bleakness. to start away from. p. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . tutnan is a cloud. a disgrace. B. To Bleat. a boil. Pol. 115. to wink the eye. Bailey. pale Du. 419. a red watery eye. or to low as oxen. Bleak. to humbug. from on. sinen langen tranen.

livid. moment. although in the in the next article. blatida. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter.blinkard .corn. blidu. to shut the eyes G. lovely Bohem. an entry which leads to nothing . a glance Swiss blenden. blicken. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. a blick-ooghen. blogi. to fall into water with a sudden noise. bliss look . latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. happily. The inblissful. riches blajennii blicksem. a wink. G. as in Du. . glitter. A . to dilute too much . blotzen. to flash. From the action of the hand making Sw. as in the case of blaze. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. tire.Q. sertion of the nasal. glitter. I hold thee a grote thee. Dan. liquid filth to bluther. G. joy. — Goth. Sc. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. graceful. well blagaya. vious one in the order of formation. ' Pl. Nares. .' or Dat Koorn verblekket. Du. blund. to bless. — . blitz. blinde fenster. — when he — Bailey. a nounce happy. Blind. lightning sweet blago. to pro. shine. Blink. OHG. to dazzle . bludder. Deprived of sight. a blessing. blend. III. blende. joy . blinzler. . Kiittner. sung. blindselen. . mix from blekken. to merry. blazeny. the G. to glitter ful . blick. plonsen. as a vatn i vin. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blican. joyful. Owl and Nightingale. weaklaveny. (=bene dicere). a wink With the bletsian. to act like a — . bleg.. also to wink. thou knave. blink. pockets. a glance. ON. window-blind. but by no means therefore a pre. to dash wine with water. wink. Sc. good. a. burn up. to glance. glimpse. tative source of the word is wholly lost. The sound of k before an s. tless —Gamm. to stir or puddle. to shine. to rejoice. G. blissian. to plunge. blet. as taschen. lightning. gladness. Blazena Bea. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blide. The term then self or others. Swab.D. blendian. blink-eyed. to — make it thick and muddy. blahos. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. . to consecrate . a flash. blitzen. —Brera. Russ. the Slavonic languages. to make a rumbling noise. lighten. blessed. Du. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. to bluiter.wink . 375. sweet. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. To blunder water. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. seems the simple netel.nasal. glad. a. to be blind. blicken. . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. OHG. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. Paradises blidnissu. a dead nettle. in potters' language. bluiter. cascultare. blac. De Sonne ' verblekken. Du. to shine. or nettle which does form.not sting thiiren. readily passes into a /. to shut the eyes. with or without the nasal. trix. to glitter. blaziti. Biglotton. Sw. Pol. to twinkle. Serv. To Blend. Swiss (obsolete). Tany. to rejoice. blag. money. blich-fiur. wink of sleep . fortunately. the verb to bless is some. joy. plotzen. to lighten. AS. blinzeln. — A A — . blahoslaviti to twinkle. . to bluiter up with water. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. blind.blunda. to blithsian. AS. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. lightning. blind- ON. goods. happy . dazzle . is I shall Gurt. blago. to mix. make these hands 3. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blithe blis. and joys of Paradise bliden. . be glad flash. G. well blahy blick and blink. to bless . flash of light . a gleam. blicksem. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. mixing in general. as a blind entry. Bliss. to glitter . blent. Blight. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to dabble in water. blincken. . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. glance. false windows. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . happy . doors. blessed. .passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. pearance of the blighted . Thence apblinds. Needle. To Bless. j). to make happy. to shine.blinze. csecubrandish. giving (Fr. the sign of the cross while blessing one. blanssen. riches . . blindr. Du. . Du. happy . a look.eyed. Wtb. blinzdugig. blithe.blinken. AS. gives blinzen. to churn. glitter. ^Jam.' To — blunge clay. F. AS. pale.

Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Thus we have blab and babble. a blot or spot. bluster. in the lump or mass of wood. A under this name was imported into England. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. soft. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. husks. soaked. blister blasan. In Fin. — Blob. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. strawclod. and F. blister. or is inserted or omitted. round. It may be formed Blithe. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Boyd in Jam. ON. . and bouclette. a lumpish head plubach. a drop of water. kostua. Jonson. mass. Of sheep. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. W. Sc. And so from squatter. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Dan. a blister. blcesma. mild. ^Jam. blod. cooking. To a smoking or drying by the fire. Cotgr. or the mark which it makes. I believe. to desire the male. and easily changes its place. whence blast. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. weak. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. The blow E. — — — — — From blabber. sloppy dirt. like clot. kostia. The roots /. blesme. busten. blot. swell. or the like. inde humiditate tumidus. blindman's-buff. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. gentle OHG. to to puff and be noisy. blotfisk. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. Sw. is formed squad. soak in water cured fish. must be referred to AS. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. blijde. an unformed mass. . puff. like manner the coloured. mild. bausen.— Hal. soft. a block or log en bloc. a bubble. G. pausten. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. fiustula. blote. as if soaked in water. a bubble.— Bailey. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. or bleb. biota. blindsehn. blithe. Blob. is also used in the sense of swelling . Blister. must be classed with forms like Gr. orbicular. — Sw. Bleb. Blob. senting the dashing of water. Du. For this. Mod. and pisg. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. bubble and blubber. a dirty blister. To Blissom. to soak. pods. to steep. Blond. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. Bav. blaud. ON. Lat. a little blisg. to bubble. ^vaaa. repre- pusula. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. in Nares. Kil. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Dan. to blow. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blidr. blautr. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blouca and Fr. B. pustula. shells. blide. . as in E. . Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z.pusta. bluyster. pusula. joyful. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. viscid. having an unsound swollen look. Sw. Hence. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. in the sense of a soft tint. blinzel-maus. fish blind person. stone. Fr. blad. soft. taken altogether. to dash liquid. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Svt. to cure by smoke. Egillson. Gael. a See Blot. buclde. to blow. Hence E. To Bloat. bloc. and inarticulately. buckle. — . also to set See Bless. to blow. blab. Du. —Bailey.. to blissom. as blinzeln. a detached portion of the agitated liquid.—Bloater. separate portion. from blcsr. Fr. a . a blain. it is must be observed. to close it with a solid mass. bloated. Langued. expressed by cognate roots. a ram. Gael. See Blot. A solid blouquette blisters. Goth. any lump or mass of things. in bulk. in gusts. while Lat. signifying in the first instance to soak. G. to breathe hard. Block. or blinde-kiih. blot. pimple. light yellow. blaustem. bleiths.plisg. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. a small lump of anything thick. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. to block up the way. B. blot. blond. a blister . blobbes or droppes of water. to swell. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. a bubble. blobber. The stem or trunk of a tree. N. blubber.—Bloated. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. frequentative. lagga i blot. Ibid. the unhewn bole of a tree. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. plub. formed spot. bloc. merciful ON. as a blab of ink. speaking rapidly any . boucler.

blotting-paper.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. couleur livide. lustre. a nature. to grow pale). brilliancy. bliithe. blawels. on. j^ blottir. kuh-plader. probably connected with Pol. blad. as the skin or hair. to splash. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. a blaze. Dan. platschern. —Barbour. — Blotch-paper. Erploten. a spot or blot. a drop of water or colour. plot of land is a spot or small rage. yellowish It's G. lidmr. ^Bleed. lump of anything soft to blad. shine . ])erly Du. a blot or spot. great leaf of cabbage. E. gammon. blut. a deli. soft or flat. a Schmid. gloss. Du. glossi. . blond. bloetnsel. Hatch. to dabble in water. bliihen. Blossom. Ein platsch milch. the bright colour of the cheeks . plet. wan. S-wiss pladern. a gush of milk . to squat or lie close. to squander. blosma. bleistern. blaeuw. to glisten . It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . Lat. a flower. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Schmid. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. . plotterwis. parallel form with ON. to exists in biadetto. blond en blaauw slaan. blady. . Fris. blosem. PI. E. blaeuwe ooghe. ON. lump flower. bliise. to scribble. skam. blus. dial. pale. blust. Sw. fall to overflowing. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. livid . blue. plattata. OFr. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. light. .platter. colour of the cheeks. . Florio). gleam. to blot the land was in a leme. Blotcli. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blase. flower. Blood. a water ploutsche. blowen. Sc. proto shine with bright colours . livid marks. to flame. splashing full. Blot.— . Dan. blose. a beater. redness. a lump. blistaf. . to slap. pladdern. It should be of filth blak-blatte. Wendish blodo. Jios. kobladde. to dabble in water . dirty spot on the cheek. glose. bfys. leme. coloured (Diaz. blostma. blosen. ^lys. blondheid. — Stalder . Blad. — Cot. Blow. Plots. platz-regen. ON. E. bluish. E. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to blaze . to spot or blot. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. — gush. to slap. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Prov. blue. blaeuwen. Russ. blooth. blat. pladern. bloedsd. blodelsa and blawelsa. blomstr. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. a blow. in v. E. Fr. to strike . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. plottra. bletister. pale biavo. a cow-dung. blosa. (of cattle) to dung. blond is used in blatt. cow-dung. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. G. to dash down Du.' the rain is driving and blue . Schwenck. D. a Halm a. a flower. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. a Usaae. The G. glister . biado (of which the evidence plattern. spot pletter i solen. Du. spots in the sun. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. See Blow. blysa. Pl. glus. blotte. Bloom. bloemen. a pelting shower). Du. E. blue. to blush . blue . Harmar in R. fall down . clod. bit by bit. Fris. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. It. to strike with something soft or flat. . to From . blatte. bloed. bloi. fair in en blat vand. bloutre. glasi.^ Kil. platsch-voll. bleustern. to be red. AS. bldmi. blois. of a blow with something lios. bloi. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. bloto. a The form platschefz. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. ' — . platt-voll. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. blou. the bright to blot paper morsels. dial. blauwel. Sw.D. gfyssa. to be red with blot. splendour . whence plader. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. platz-voll. Du. to shine . to patter. bloeme. ON.properly to scatter liquid . AS. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. straw. sbiadare. en blau ach. from G. to sparkle. from the bright colour which 7'vci. a torch blusse. mud. a. plants which prepares the seed. Dan. Schilter. to glow. or the sound of it . G. blotter. bloi. a flower. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. 2. to dash down. . to dirty. yellow. Stalder. a black eye Du. — — . white blatte.blauschlagen. Wflz<^«. blue. Sw. to blaze. See Blow. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. bldts. pale tint. Ir. Sc. to strike with such these objects exhibit.

bloi. Gr. -ii. in rapid or indistinct utterance. bliihen. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. /idXavoc. Tumbled.D. closely difference in of blabber.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Pl.' Hamburgh Archives. Her sweet bloderit face. blubbern. red-faced bloted wench. disordered. Pl. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to flap like loose clothes. In agitation of water. is confined to the — . is very frequent. — To blubber. The interchange of an initial gl. Deutsch. coup. into flower. P1. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. E. puff. . G. blue . quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Bret. blazir. Langued. Danneil. . |8A)'. plubartaich. d in Sc. pludern. blady. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. marking some application from that bladder. to make blue. a Blossom. ler. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . Chaucer. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. boil. G. to breathe bouteiUis. v. flower w. disordered in head-dress. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. blue. bliuwan. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. blois. to inflate. fem. MHG. OHG. Blue. blodyn. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. Pludern. and closely allied with Du. gUd. wan. ^Jam. blao. Deutsch. where the word may be compared bliggman. boasting. blut. blazi. plusig. It.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. blawan. gliihen. blubonciti. Gael. —SchmelIt. 1292. plubraich. to show flower. — . bledniai. bruised Prov. bliihen. A. y\r)yi»v. bloeden. blezir. glansj Ir. to fade. It is howbliuwen. pale. Jla-re. 51. and thence. pale . to bubble up. meurtrissure Roquefort. fied vowel. bluh. G. bloeyen. little apparent resemblance.— . blebber. bloom. to make bubbles in drinking. glowing coal . sense. Blowze. ' BLUE or guggling. bldt. Raynouard. sponds with Sw.to blossom. OHG.D. a blow. blow. to blurt out. bloes. plodern. — Bluther. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. to Plodern. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. The primary sense is to shine. to breathe G. gloeden. To Blow. glas. fqded. The radical sense is shown in Gael. a fat. bludder. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to guggle. to'disorder. OFr. wan. We . I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to fade. sound like water. plustrig. piusen. Bav. to exhibit bright colours. and the forms mentioned under Swab. to blow. grug. may cite for example G. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. florere. plubair. to bruise Roquef. 1. Notwithstanding the We . toused.xo'»'. glede. the red fluid of the body . a blast. The aUied forms. tache. bloemen. blass. 92. corre. — To Blubber. To Blow. vi^ound. Lat. to beat with a mallet. Blowzy. to blow. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. to blow. blaw j biavo. pale OFr. or gr. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. to shine with bright From colours.D. G. a. dirty. B. Wtb. br. a bruise. bl. chatter. cheeks bedabbled with tears. bruk. bluod. to hard. to beat. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. withered. heath. AS. 2. gloeyen. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. And. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. blodelsa. in E. — — Mundart. blduen. Kil. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to gabble. to gush.' — Palsgr. like manner Lat. green. glow. grey. a gurgling . foam. blosen. blava. Du. to puff up. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. grow pale. a continued noise of agitated water. blau. bliithe. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. to flourish. to with Bohem. blau. flower OHG. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. These are — Bludder.Jlasa. bluther. E. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. Prov. . to glow.nify bubble. blubbern. a paddling in wate r. gliihen. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. blodern. Chaucer. a flower. blust.. jabber. w. . . pale. — . glas. Mund. fiubbem. . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. blahen. especially with respect to the hair. to spot. glaodh and blaodh. Du. Sik upplustem. to fade. a herb Gr.D. to glow.

plo-wy. blue. and bustle . blanssen. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Roquefort. — — — . Supp.• BLUFF biado. poltern. Bladum. Sw. puddle. which is rendered by Florio. Dryden in R. a shore abruptly rising. polter-hans. corn. bulmanner. devenir vert blavoie. See Blurt. bluish. bUich. Dief.— . his business with much noise. dial. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. sloppy drink. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. earth and water mixed together. a blunderbuss. liebefactor. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. like Du. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Kil. confusion. blave is moreover. flodderen (Weiland). falb. used for the work of an unskilful performer.in mud or water. as well as sbiadafe. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Blavoyer. to blunge clay. Du. or an abrupt manner. Blunderer or blunt worker. Biada. I blonder. pale straw-coloured. biada. bawling. and sbiadare. a plain coin herausplatzeu. yellow. mistake. and biavo (Diez). from the brilliant green of the young E. verdure. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. to dabble Biglotton E. from an imitation of the sound. as well as biado. to dabble in the mud. Flor. speech. Hence we pass to Prov. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. non rotunda. The Du. The word is here synonymous with amplus. blue. It then signifies something done at once. bloi. Halma. in plur. an ill-done job. fawn-coloured. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . all representing the — . 't — —Hal. blunt. to fade). And blunders on and staggers every pace. Pl. Romance bluiter. ploffen. to confound. a flounder. G. herbe. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Pm. planus. discoloured {plowiee. bleu et blanc. G. to blunder water. applied to green as well as blue. corn. blue. contrasted with the dle. A bluff manner. See Blunt. tradire to Fr. herauspoltem or sloping shore. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. to work To blunder out a fronto. blaf. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. blutter. to become pale or wan. pludder. to fall suddenly on the ground. buller-bas. Kiittner. biavo. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. pale.D. pale yellow. blandum. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. like the Celtic glas. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Palsgr. Then with the nasal. fallow. having a bluff forehead. To blunder is then. Bodge. trahir. superficie plani. Hence a Slcelton in R. . blahir. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. originally growing up turf and water. to agitation of liquids. Blunt. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. blac. . find accordingly It. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. sense of yeUow. — . pale) is provincially used in the. without image or superscription. sbiavare. glundr. jaune. blake (identical with AS. from the Lat. Blaffart. Analogous forms are Du. We Blunder. disturb. glundra. to lose colour. rustic. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. Pol. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. abrupt. has donder-bus. Bohem. polterer. It is remarkable however that the E.. blunder. G. to mix it up with water. buller-bak. Kil. Lat. to become pale. is. in water dobbelen. E. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. flav-us. Bluff. to become pale or livid. blond. je perturbe. segetes virentes. tutte le semente ancora in erba. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. yellowish red. blavus. - reddish yellow. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. OFr. Roquefort. Ditton in R. something.' trouble. and then generally idle talk.make a noise. mix It. to puddle. G. Du. Hal. biava. blunderhead. From G. The Du. in the same way as from It'. verdoyer. a boisterous violent man. and metaphorically. a fore. to plump into the water.//aay. and Du. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. plomp. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. Dan. — Pr. Altieri. bullern. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. blunder.

heavy. Molof something wet. nis. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. homo stolidus. to make foliage. and an unintelligent. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. and hath swiche languor in his soul. exactly corresponding to the G. dull. blunt. plotz. It is from this notion of suddenness. V. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. plump. rudely. to plump down. without the nasal. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. plump. Ford in R. . awkwardly. or heraus plumpen. Swab. stupid fellow. —D. a thick and will person. in Richardson. plump. wan. blockish. The syllables blot. V. nature. down. thick. Woddis. plutz T)\i. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . inactive Swiss bluntschi. forestis. insensible. Sc. Plontp. silly. naked. a bluntie. unpolished. viz. G. without preparation. Stalder. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. a blot. Dan. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Halma. to make a noise of such a Stalder. duU. and the like. bare or blunt. bluntschen. — — pidus. without horns. More in Richardson. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. fooUsh. with or without the nasal. —D. obtusus. dull. heavy. clownish. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Du. good plump person. bare. heavy. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. to blurt. platzen. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. as Sw. blunt.pludse. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. figuratively. It. sheepish. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. bare. Q. Won by degrees. Probably radically hlekit.— — — . from the loud report a fire-arm. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. is thrown. a portion To inquire for slaves.—D. rude. It will be seen that the G. unwrought. fling down . naked. hebes. pointless. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. biotto. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. Sir T. pressions. maol. naked. — Kil. . platz-regen. poor Sc. without Maolaich. as in E. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. clumsy. that the sense of bare. unfledged Sw. — blunt. pale. of a knife which not cut. blait. plump J to plump out with it. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Dan. is The word dull. bald. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. massive. Bare and blunt. it will be well to point out a sense. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. raw. Blunt. inaKil. identical with E. A modification of the same root. plotsen. like a thing thrown down with a noise. V. bloss. ineffectual reason. Bluntet. Kiittner. mit etwas heraus-platzen. plains The large bech. blatte. ang. blunsch. blue. and. awkward. plonsen. blutten. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. unceremonious manner. The blait body. plump. used in both senses. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. naked. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blout. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Kiittner. through which a man is so blont. absence of preparation.plompen. bleak. dial. to handle a thing bluntly. as cow-dung. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. blunt. bus. to plump into the water.to fall into the water. Sw. void. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. blunt. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. F. biosso. G. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. it will be observed. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. united in Gael. blunder. Plump mit etwas umgehen. a simpleton. Blaitie-bum. and in the same sense. plumbeus. blott. Now the Swiss bluntsch. to bring it suddenly out. azure. blait. the absence of sharpness. Sc. A light blue colour. rough. seems to be derived. Chaucer. edgeless. blat. that it not easy to discover the connection. blotta sanningen. Then cometh indevotion. Plump. to blunt a thing out. Pol. obtusus. viz. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly.

burra. Du. to crying. &c. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. stupid. — To Bob. or backwards and forwards. short pieces of any filthy mud. Supp. beacon fire. bausen. AS. planks raised up outside the roofs. geplerr. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. Fl. to dabble. a blotch. pluddre. to make mouths. both used in the sense of boasting. Du. — — — * Boast. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. Halma. pausten. boord. bhis. literally edge-wood. Dan. Bluster. 'Ba. the Brem. a baU of thread the mud. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to jabber. Sc. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. G. — — .' — Red Riding-hood. dial. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. AS. Bav. lindwurm. BLUR Boar. to blush. to chatter.plodem.the syllable bot. a burst of tears. board. a border. blaste?i. to puff. whence bordvidr. bar. Wtb. 156. chicchere. plump. crack made by bursting open. to dangle. Du. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. bateau. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. bot. .—Bobbin. . See Boisterous. a club foot . bdta. bord. It. to brag grande loqui. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. ON. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. edge. to render indisbhir. bustuous. be a crack or loud sound.y. blot. this root are formed Sc. strong. boccheggiare. table. primarily signify loud noise. boistous. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. to disfigure with E. cocodrUlus. to breke. Gael. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to talk quick and indistinctly . puddle. Board. to glow . As the as. violent G. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. pof. lacerta. skin. splurt and spirt. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. margin. Lat. to roar. whence bob. Pl. dull. i. . common. a small lump. gabble Sw. boot. a mistiness. — ' Dief. and E. swagger. Pull the bobbin. violent. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. blasen and See Burr. bit. AS. OE. coarse. E. of the word seems . little knob hanging by a piece of thread. blosken.v. voce intonare. batello. to snuff. a blow . to smear. Sverris Saga.plerr. to spurt out. to blaze. blader. a blot. botte. Swiss blodern. properly noisy. The to radical meaning D. a torch blusse. blarra. Explained by Jam. baiag. to sound like water boiling. a dangling object. dial. Blush. to give a crack. a flurt with one's fingers. pludern. bdtr. hot. Comp. or bog also thread. to blow. a short thick body. to guggle. bluter. and Du. rude. the sound of a blow poffen. border. flat. cluster. To tinct. Gael. P. a. aper. Related to blutter. — From mouth. margin. a smear. outward edge. Slur. rude. to dirty. bora. a bladder . Fl. Schmeller. as in Du. w. V. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. . to blubber. Du. Hal. margin. It. and the latch . It. to blore. bludder. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. bludder. ever-swin. stellio. 274.— . will fly up. Du. eber. Wright's ed. and when applied to vaunting language. c. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. planks or boards. blur. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. is formed Du. G. bliise. . blotch and botch. Fr. Hal. Fr. a board or plank. to say bluntly. imitated by has also In like . blast. acre. bakke bleustern. to bark. Boost is used for the boast. bladdra. blaere. blaustem. pfludern. Bot zeggen. to blur. sudden. borrar. bdd. a tassel. a Jam. bur. G. De Boat. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. To Blurt. ground. boa. to be out of temper. to make a noise with the mouth. on. bot-voet. an end or stump. or blurt with one's mouth. Boa. 29. gabble. to puff. bobine. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. e. blirt of greeting. mire. large. 1. Du. See Blossom. to threaten. Sc. puffen. A large snake. and boisterous. To blow in puffs. To splirt. blodern. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. and swimmeth very well. Boa. bord. pustern. an ear of corn. then applied to indistinct vision . Du. 9396. bord. BOB 79 — To Blur. it implies that it is empty sound. my dear.pusten. Wallace. beer. blunt. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. — a blaze. bleuster. to blurt out. berd. blaffen and baffen. to rumble. baban. table. a mist before the eyes plerren. to endeavour to terrify. E. edge. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. Kil. brett. blurra. bluther. a tassel. a grows to a great bigness. to bounce. ader. To move quickly up and down. blubber. To brag and to crack. cheeks glow. bobbin. to make a noise in boiling.D. blose. fringe. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. as splurt to splutter. to puff. an edge. blot. blusse i ansigtet. eafor.

speak of the barrel of a horse. bodig. a ghost . a cask. to stir. point. Bog. calf of the leg. Thy i. rounded. . bogadh. See To Botch. To Bodge. by the syllable patsch. to commit a blunder. corpset. or bag. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. message boda. unsteady. to push with the horns. bogach. The signification of the root bot. strike with the horns. a dagger. . is identical with Fr. ^Jam. potig. And waves.hollow. bayonet . potacha. meaning the round part of his body. palleg. the body of a shift gaguejar. to deliver a message. a . a command. anything protuberant. bot. Russ.a (i\ia. Miracle-plays. to bodge. — 2. stuttering. daubed or dabbled with blood. Gael. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. Bohem.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. To portend good or bad. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. biodag. wavering. Gl. bolr. gog in gog-mire. to smack. bodi. Cot. to stammer. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. or stem of a tree. badyti. — as well as the body of an animal. . patsche. to make a mow at. baboyer. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. swelling. potahha. a round body both. as in stammering or staggering. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. whence Fr. moist mire. — H. goggle. Ptg. gogach. a prickle. . fickle . Ptg. and E. Bodkin. the trunk of the animal body. a body. barrique. corset from corps. to fail. moving backwards and forwards. of which the E. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. to roll. We . and the word is well explained by Bailey. bog. W. bagges. to fail. gag. or a pair of bodies. With With this we charged again We bodged again. nodding. whence paUchen. bod.. quakmg. quagmire). So BOB To Bob. bog (equivalent to E. Body. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. boll. an awl. to be unsteady tich. needle. See Bid. bodene. to bob. is a lump. unsteady. It introduced from Ireland. stitch. — Grandg.gmh:t. an announcement. bodak. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. dies. to start start and back as from a bugbear. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. gago. . her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . formerly bodies. 3. In like manner E. to thrust. Bodice. barriga. shaking . bogan. Lith. thrust with something pointed. Wall. pall. to dabble or paddle. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. to blurt a thing out. to make.\\i\c\iset. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. where bogs form Gael. body and G. stumpy. Schmel. from fitting close to the body. to waver. French bouter. bo tich. Lap. toss. biodeachan. belly. exhibit another modification of the root. mud. e. stutter gogmire. Commonly explained as if from Sc. round. Bret. butt.' A — Sherwood's Diet. the boss of a buckler. . It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. then from the yielding. move. . idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering.! . bodilo. bodhag. bodies. the thick part of anything. gog. '£. agitate. bodian.' Bogglie. a messenger . To mock. . Banff. bod. Crist. to prick. Ir. Gael. unsteady nature of a soft substance. body of a shirt bol. as a horn. To Bode. 43. anything soft. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. to butt. bodat. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. arise E. as signifying anything spherical or round. . so large a feature in the country. boftich. bottich are derivatives. bottig. bodi. bayonet. busti. bothog. precept. a prick. See Baber-lipped. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. gagoula. bob. to be uncertain what to do. waving. woman's stays. bogadaich. a spur. gebod. to scruple. AS. a quagsoft. potacha. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. cask bottich. bodnu. bogle. shake. Reliq Antiq. ON. Shakespear has badged with blood. AS. a puddle. gagei. bodetz. to stick. the stem of a tree . a bog or morass. nave of a wheel. VI. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. corset. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. a sting . expression hogglin an bogglin. bog. The Sp. Supp. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. the belly. Gael. corpses pot. * To Boggle. a cask. To make bad work. bole. Now unskilful action is conmire. the body. BOGGLE trunk and G.rabodi.

hollow. perpendicular. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Fr. bullire. ohg. brave. courageous. is probably a modification of boll. free. chaff of corn siliqua. a head . b^gayer. Daring. Kit. from Du. to waver or hesitate. bolleken. a bakazikni. The round stem of a tree. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bolla.. to stagger. Stalder. as. to swell. pusten. E. 304). tartalear. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. balder. bula. roydeur. beule.palleg. to stammer. ON. flax-boU. biiilen. bolc'h. as baltha. shake. tartle. a bubble. Magy. cows the people from speaking. treated under Bowl. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. boss. boly. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. bog. tartajear. capitellum. pillow. Du. Lat. Du. bulla. Sw. strong. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. boll. boystousnesse. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bol. To Boil. prince. chatter. bul. from the branches.D. hero. gerade signifies straight to the mark. whence bulla. noise. a boil or swelling Du. a swelling in ice. In the same way Sc. ON. G. a bubble. coarse. Boystous. the. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. 45. cheerful. bolstar. styffe or rude . G. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . globular bod)'.rounded part of the body. It. belc'hj.w.Du. 374. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. strong. bola. Bret. to boil. see Boast. Gael. up of bubbles. and manace for to de. in the sense of handsome . to tattle. (of Mons) b^guer. 1430 in Deutsch. boggle. impetuosity. — 6 . ^Vocab. bolster. to stumble. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bald. bolr. bulr. bulla. stameln vel bochken. but that Bolt. — — which the cushion is stuffed. bald. Lap. bout is explained by Kil. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bhster. Cot. ballr. the body of a man or of ter. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). ^Boistous. This iv. the body . Pr. . caput scapulse. — ' — tagliare. baud. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. bold. to give a hoUow sound. Pm. the gurgling sound of water rush. bol. stutSw. Du. Sp. haughty. capiing into a cavity. The bob. as E. pustule. trunk of a tree . and then applied to other husks. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . excellent. courageous. hakogni. OHG. merry. boil . w. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Bustuous.— — . bald. notes. dint in a metal vessel. bal. sels of flax. or the like. Lat. puile. bog. Test. Mund. huge. a bubble. strong. i. boutpijl. to stammer. bold. he will speak out. wag.). buller. by which it is moved to and fro.' Mrs Baker. poppy (Bailey). Properly noisy. to hesitate from doubt. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. which are not used for a similar purpose. * Bolster. confident. bolzBold. bouil. bol. stramenta. to be prominent. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Westerwald bollern. pimple ON. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. obex. bolle. Kil. G. Boil. swelling. insolent baude. to be at a loss a shirt. . properly represent belly. bok. to puff. bolt upright. Goth. a fastening for a door. quick. * Boisterous. may be identified with It. Bole. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. fiausten. balldr. bolt. polc'h. as those of nuts. Swab. Boll. Fr. as. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. a cushion. buile. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. also a blister. bolzen. puilen.— D. Du. bochken (titubare. Sc. tomentum. repagulum. . glass phial. ON. To Bolter. bul. the lir. blow. Chaucer. proud. to the belly as the or dislike. bollen (Kil. the husk of nuts. Fr. folliculus grani. tulum. E. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. in speaking. G. then violent. Love. bola. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. scruple. bout. bold. The term applies in — — impressed . For bost or boist in the sense of crack. A. bealder. rough. used. Wall. gluma. pall. bagaji. swelling. bSlstr. bolster. intrepid. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. furfures. Me doth awate. OG. a quaking mire. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. tar. ON. V. Da. a bump. round the first instance to the materials with . . See Bulk. stud. warlike. Chaucer seems Dan.

hole.thump or blow. bluter. a round glass ending — bultig. as of a trumpet. . die treppe pressed. Hence. tuft.). ler. buletare. Fr. to coagulate. bulstrig. hammer. Pl. Lat. croler. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. poltern. to E. to bolter. jolting. cruddle. we pass to Du. the wheels groaned. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. uneven. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. to bolt flour burato. tar. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. taratarrum. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. holier poller.D. rugged. OFr. MHG. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . abolter. to clack. .agitation of the meal in the bolter. brattle. we see that the one consists of a words. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Du. to bolt meal barutel. Sw. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. as snow balling on a horse's foot. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. barutela. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. the sense of right on end.through a cloth of loose texture. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. as above explained. blotttre. to start out. bolt. The ulti. bullern. Schiitze. tling or crashing noise. representing a rat. bolzauget) Sp. Sanders. to spring forth E. sestuare. On this account Mid. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. a club-foot. barutela. protuberance. staff which sounds tar. Brem. Pr. to talk pulzen. budeln daz mele . a rattling noise and a jolting motion. OFr. gebolder. hulch. bolting to that of form. . tantara. with E. cro. or a racer from the course. buretter{CQ\. as Fr. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. one after the other. And as the agitation of cream in . poll. Here the radical image is the violent O. bolzen. ' Holler poller / bulter. buUire. projections. crotlar. : ' — — . barutare.by forms like G. je bulte. bulk or quantity . to significance of the term was overlooked. Hence Palsgr. .fe/2?. poltern. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. bultred. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. . / is transposed in Fr. hammer. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. . From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. a rattling carriage. bultig. beluter. Mid. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. to become lumpy.— . a clod. G. taratantarum. Bulte-pook or bulstar. a rattle. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. zare. Prov. fied bot. bolt-foot. have Lat. bulla. It. on the one hand. or the like.D. buletel. mole-hill. agitari (Kil.. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. small heap. projecting eyes pul. the name of bolter mixed flour and water.). crash. racket gepolter. Pl. The ment and the operation. bulio. kloteren.) E. clattering other of a series of projections or emi.nature of the operation. bortelen. ex•wagen. we der Brocket). to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. P1. bulk. to knock. 2. burclct. also to curdle.u.i5a//^«. taraabout. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. to shake. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. Supp. In the next place. curdle. a bunch.On the same principle. Du. as a rabbit from its baritel. buideln. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. a bolter Prov. by the representation of a racketing sound. or ill. a clap of thunnences. crod. OFr. and the Thus from So. Dan.noise {brattle of thunner. baruta. I boulte meale in a boulter. a sod (Schiitze). from G. . a clump of turf.as the essential element signifying the talum. loud and fast. to start with palpitate. swelling. then to knock. to bolt meal barutel. vessel with narrow opening. Wtb. pattern. beliitea. So also we pass from Lat. tumultuari.D. and to crash.D. Dauphiny a sudden movement. Bav. btilt. lumpy. hump. to come rattling downstairs. Lang. bolzaugen. bolt head is a retort. pull. to agitate. Champagne burtcau. a . ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. uneven.Lat. zen. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. a bolter or implement for bolting. a clod cloth. we have Du. a crashing or racketing noise. knob. a small portion. a millpoltzet augen.. — — — .clack. rugged. grasbulten. ' — — ! ! : — . hulter de bulter. . to make a knocking. boss. Pm. pultare. to form lumps.protuberance. clump. in S'W plotter.

an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. . e. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. achsel bein. tie. bindan. ties. stump. boulenger.Lat. bombe. Du. baum-bast. as in . e le furfre (of bren) demor^. tree. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. When ture. the leg. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. to thunder. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. banitola (Fl. barate. bombicina. a word of which we have traces in several English names. to which the leg. — bombast came guage.Su?. a beacon. a stem or base. raw silk. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. OE. ODu. i. lana lignea. term is appropriated in G. baun. bommer. the silk-worm. — AS. a ligature. and that from Fr. also thick-shanked. to shake (as to shake the head. band pi. derivation.^Altieri. Antiq. bombarda. bombasine. tiffany. It. and called in Mid. thick from shaking. to cast to and fro. from boom. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. biire.bast. a churn for butter. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. beuteln. Moreover. silk. G. to beat a drum. Gascoi^e in R. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. crook-shanked bondew. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bwmbwr. brust-bein.) . however. to shake. Bomb. and also the leg. burato. and Mod. a thundering noise bomre. Bone. It. G. Fr. bambacium. a stock. gossipium. As cotton was used for padding clothes. whence bomme. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. bombice. ^o/j. bunden. bombast. bombdra. bopin. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. thick-legged. bauniwolle. bon. bond. to resound. bombase. we speak of a gun to resound. buidelen. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . booming over the water. bombasin. 155. to boult meal. Castrais barato. a baker. basin. d. sericum arboreum. bande. — Bombard. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. the shank the shoulder-bone. Bibelesworth in Nat. assuming the of leg : special signification W. In E. . tie. Fl. coarse. a bone in general. bulter from It. Banstead. thick. Need you any ink and bonibase. bonog. sye. G. bureau. Mid. Dan. must be explained Fr. from teu. the contracted form of Du. It. . butteln. to bolt meal. builen. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. Du. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. beuteln. . and this is especially the function of the leg bone. . cotton stuff. Schm. bonds. breast-bone. sije. band. bureau. It. agreement. as Banbury. bonfras. to thump W. &c.). a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . Kil. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. From builen. bein. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. and Du. band. iuttern. the Fr. to ring bells. HoUybandin R. bolting-cloth. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. In legal language. silk-worm. butteln. buttel trueb (of liquids). bras. bambagioj whence It.D. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. buidelen. and in fact we find the and Du. . stuff. Dan. bongam. or trunk word in W. bambagino. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. q. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. to shake down fruit from a tree. gunpowder. and Bond. the murmuring of the sea. again. an implement of binding. produced the Pl. Butterglas. a drum bombammen. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. E. a hollow sound. 83 Gr. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. a —Bombasine. It. bomba. Fr. Near 6 * . bone of the . sijde. been. It. — having a stem or stalk. rimbombare.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. borel. . a string. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. PoUitriduare. Bonfire. bwmbwry mar. cotton. is supported by the analogy of G. beil'n. bommen. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. a boulter of meal. Du. has repeatedly varied. to bind G. The material called by this name. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr.

to yawn. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. gaping hoyden — Cot. boutig. bose. bene. dolt. tall. stabulum. tapestry. Boot. a simpleton. is Du. literally cow-house. a tree. ON. a letter . bd. the possessor of the farm. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. botte. although in the OG. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Thin ben Luke i.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. From bo. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. . high. b^er. Swab. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. as a lying-place for cattle. signifying beech. dial. It. to strew with straw. to gape. — . the mouth. house. betere thing werse. Hufwud-bonad.. and thence Rouchi baia. — — . to set in order. writing bokos. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Du. Bootless. bua. pole. Fr. — Bailey. and Gael. master of the house. inhabit. 232. been. Boom. hu?idbusa. head-dress wai^g. bonad. buch-stab. a bonfire. bonad. letter. to aid. foolish. fool. bas. Boot of bale. Du. . to ask. But bosg. chaff. in w. bos. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow.Boos. badaud. wondering signifies not only straw. E. and Ban in w. E. Busk. A peasant. bauen. A stall for cattle. N. pig-sty. — e. . comes bondi. The latter is the original AS. Hal. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. Fr. a dry stalk. and from AS. build. set in order. babin. ty Gael. ass. Booby. a head-dress. swinbusa. w. botte. till. Binau Brychyniog. b'ukvdry. beam. Ox. dog-kennel. till. boa. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Pm. pero. A favour.^ —P. AS. babau. boten-shoen. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. dial. the first consonant of the alphabet. bowwen. bonnet. bua. boutig. to dress. boo. a letter Russ. Pr. from badare.n. relief from sorrow. succour Bailey. simpleton. Boon. Palsgr. as the Brecknockshire Banns. booby. buandi. biikui. . one who dwells nigh. lofty. the name of the letter b. nachbar. petition. petition. quest. to gape. 13. build. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. bauer. desire. . ON. or Vanns. . bossen. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . \ais-band. — From the participle present. a hollow skin. See Bomb. from Du. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. gawney. ON. gehyred. boubair. bosih. dress. to cultivate. Du. Jr. Schm. See Butt. botta. boandi. reparation. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. The i. G. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. bote. of wonder On the same principle Sp. The character of folly is i860. Trans. bobo. but stall. clown. Boor. litter. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Fr. Mrs Baker explains bun. babb^o. Book. bota. tigh. Goth. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. — To boot. blockhead. G. remedy of evil. dress. prayer. bonaid. OW. a lying-place for dogs or swine. where a cross (or a gun. feu de behourdis. In nautical language. ON. from beida (E. which one gaping and staring about. to litter bosu. the scriptures bokareis. from gape. Bun. G. a stall. ben. p. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. a. busu. by itself for head-dress. Build. boer. boia. . * Boose. a silly fellow. also called Brecknock Beacons. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. to cultivate. and fig. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. wall hangings. remnants of hay or straw. a bag of skin or leather. bid). bdn. Gl. the alphabet. . To Boot. Bonnet. . often cut for burning and lighting fires. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Prov. countryman. Kil. a scribe G. prayer. OSlav. The origin of the word is probably the W. bAkva. bolt. bosig. bobo ! interj. netis stall. boubi^. at everything. however. a good turn or re- meaning. See Bown. Gael. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. Hal. gaby. Bonnefyre. Mrs Baker. by arbitours sholde bote the P. help. bommen. Fr. without ad- . . the stubble of beans. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on.—Bootless. ganian. beiSne. b&ber. whence ban-ffagl. Perhaps. Wall. bds. a vessel for holding liquids. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. a lofty blaze. It is commonly explained as identical with It. boom. in Phil. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. to prepare. are formed Fr. Basa. baier. inhabit. Kil. Sp. Thus from the syllable ba. the cultivator. short boots. a. AS.

boeten het vier. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). is purin. batr. to expiate boeten den dorst. a borer. budowai. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. And so in ON. wave. bata. making good again . bordi. G. terebra sculptoria purastoa. and hence to fine. boete. boede. . sculpo 05\xiik.. In the Fin. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. a granary . . to restore. .por. Border. Gael. Lat. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Bohem. to to . wine-skin. differs only in termination. or anything pointed. to surge. The cor. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. a bothy. Fin. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. reparation. a tusk. are derived from G. amendment. remedy. bothag. to patch. to bite. Fr. Fin. furd. See Bower. to quench one's thirst . bardure. rof. 1. limbus. or the gradual working a hole in anything. Sp. amendment boeten. cottage. To Bore. bdt. Fr. furni. from borra. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. budka. bohren. ora. a sharp-pointed tooth. uzboro.—Burin. a bladder. on. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. Gael. Fin. to boot. to swell. aid. botjan. . borracha. Another derivation from Fin. . sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Booty. burin. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . barn. hem or gard of a garment. to build buda. from deila and skipta. to foam. betan fyr. urboro. fire. struere ignem. make . pi. bite. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. to . a booth or shed. from bord. hut. The Fin. &c. scsdes-bod. tent. abode. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. and E. bord. A phorically a drunkard. to build. an engraver's chisel. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. drillen. lappolone. scalpo. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. a. ON. puru. bothan. Esthon. It is admitted that Fr. beute.— Return from Parnassus I inR. mat-bod. 266. a cupboard. boards. bolino. piercer. a borer. • — To Bore. a shed. cup- awl. terebro. pointed. butin. bauda. a shelter of branches. to The Sw. bower. to stick unto as a bur. . gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to bore. and meta- Fr. swell bara. purro. Alexand. bdra. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. cellar. margin. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. a chisel. biorag. chewed food for infants. It. ON. bottino. Kil. puras. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. byte points to the verb byta. exchange or divide. both. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. a leather bag or bottle for wine. to anything Neither G. BOOTH vantage. and parrets. edge. a hut or tent. 3. a great bur. dust. But probably the E. to importune.. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Magy. . Mag. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. cure Sw. puru. Pol. limbus. N. are parret. Du. Palsgr. sharp. It. Du. to pierce. bauen. Booth. to profit. puras. bora. dens mordens vel caninus. fimbria. to repair. to bite. pu purro (saha =: saw . the . — ON. in Ihre. baete. nor E. a hut. comminuted by either kind of action. forare. The ON. a border. as afford a satisfactory explanation. Fl. butin is explained by Flor. . to bete the properly to mend the fire. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. lappalare. welt.. boeye. better. to mend. BoracMo. Bete. a shop. borracha. ON. a wave. yfirbdt. AS. a responding forms . borino. Gael. See Burgeon. kvit-bara. admovere titiones. and thence to eat build. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. bud. in Lap. a shop budowati. purra. a borer . a word. extremitas Bore. OSw. to profit Goth. recovery bata. sawroot.par. of an edge that will not bite. purra. baara. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. Burke in R. . Compare Manx birrag. See To We speak in E. which are probably from the same root. The as G. OHG. Esthon. chisel. repair. to divide. to hut. p.

boss or knob of a buckler . — ' wind burya. a pushing or striking out. botch.mass. bail biirgen. Du. basse. plant. or perhaps it may be See Bury. bussa coarse. AS. AS. Jam. bump.bucklers. to save Sw. nonsense. cnap. gum vocant. ^ma. boss of the side. /3oraMK6f. to become is emitted by a hollow body. borgo. formerly used in the sense of knocking. tempest. was origin of the term is the OFr. And that unsittynge is to here degre. borough or chief constable. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. to give bail or answer for an. bourgeois. a blow. butsen. tuft. the sun sets. Borrow. E. borh. boss sound. . bos. connected. ^o^^flj. . from their grey clothing. projection. storm. bttssel. AS. pitch.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. cob. pegou. to conceal. beorgan. tive idea seems to bring under cover. the hollow between the Borsholder. Hal. Altieri. burel. rustic. a giving rise to It. Lang. . to keep. whence the burg. plain rude fellow. Botany. when that system was forgotten. empty. one who sticks to you like a bore. Hence knot. I. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. to contain. to take in. the must have arisen burgensis.any round sweUing. to pick or cull plants. or head-borough. So Du. bussi. into borsholder. beorgan. botch. a city . while Gael. Gr. Russ. a little blow. Hence borhes ealdor. Fr. a. botse. is used in the sense of bussare. Borowholder. vain. a boor.. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. the ordinary a swelling. to save. brown cloth. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. hollow. a tower. bom. D. Boreal. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. Bosh. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. knocking. borei. northern. Fr. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. empty. (1867). Goth. huschen. as if from the verb to hold. a wen. knur. bourg. a bouncing baby . in instead of without. knob. borgese. is probably radically Boss. or perhaps also To Borrow. The primi. to protect. . Newbury. striking. Sc. and borough in the sense of a town. Bos a surety. Jam. destitute. knock and a knob . or because a blow berga. Borough. borough-holder. to strike so as to Bureau.' Vegetius in Diez. boussi. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Du. bossen. borg. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. the Sc. bosse. as we speak of a thumping potato. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. butse. ' — — . bergen. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. burh. cormpted. rude.' the chief of the ' borh. a citizen. ON. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. Cot. Turk. empty. It. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. and thus could not shake off the old burr. the North Wind. bosseu.' every man be under bail. borealis. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. &c. primarily signifying coarse sound . blow on a hollow object. head. boss. borel. useCanterbury. to knock or strike. of bail throughout the country. whether from the fact preserve G. less. viipyoc. It. by which of or belonging to plants. G. Swiss Rom. The origin seems to be the Goth. coarse cloth made of the Du. (Bridel). a knob. Fr. bump is used in lump or piece. pego. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. that which biirge. loan. a bunch or hump. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. boschen. an eminence. bosh. busse. secure. boss. a surety. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. — — — A — . In like manner It. burgess. surety. borg. agrees with E. which now signifies a knob. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. a citizen. The other. botsen. a herb. Bunch. poor. to protect. See found in Bav.vr\.ribs and the side. from AS. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. grey). i. clownish. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. poor. bierge. bunch. in the body struck. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. cnag signifies both a clergy.' if thou give money on loan. undyed wool of brown sheep. V. ' pledge. 106. to strike . both senses of a blow and a protuberance.' or system of bail. cnoc. to save. hollow bucklers. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. gesylle. bos. f graauw. byrig. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. a boss. Bailey. Lat. the N. unpolished. baurgs. bundle. without. to give a hollow bizo.

— — . any plain round viol glass bozzo. to dash about . however. Boa two. we have Swiss batscken. a bump or swelling. bethia. a cobbler. bulderen. . Du. botel foenn. And so we speak of an eruption. Pl. From the dim. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a wisp. Parmesan poccia. corresponding to . beggtaj Goth. a. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. the bud of a flower . a bottle of hay. AS. bozza. btitse. as a push or windgaU. j3i/9os. to mend (kettles. Hal. Stalder. . to we have OHG. buddeln. as Fr. Dan. a tinker schuhbiisser. a lump of somebatschen. to give a sounding blow. The Gr. ledge It. BOTCH understood). boil. pother. to fall : with a sound batsch. bulder. &c. botola. Prov. a humpback. abbi-diwij Slavon. botel. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. I. abbi. both. e. fundus. stroke. .D. A — oba-dwaj Lat. mend. bottom. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a bottle. and ajSvamg. dial. what pushes outwards. botm. Wedu. bunch. especially in Gael. . It. botn. whence the name ol pool to podge. ing out. bativa. to mend. stump. they two.ments of the same root. &c. See Butt. Both. butsen.— . bottigUa. buts. — Bottom. noise. puddle.^Dec. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. dabble). AS. putra. botte. It. a cesspool pass. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. an abyss or bottoniless pit. blow. bAdtr. bund. signify a in OE. noise. — .— Swift in R. from the dashing of water. G. Fl. oba. we two. Bret. gling piece of work. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Judwi. bosser. Gael. nets. abbu. . N. you two. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Mudu. ON. schuhbosser. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. botte. to stir and mix together. the science or knowledge of plants. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. a boil or swelling Halma. stock. to knock. bluster. stock. ixorapudder. 212. a knock. w. * To Bother. burgi vel pontis refectionem. G. of botta. is also a bubble. ubhau. to podge. to simmer. thing soft batsch. House-bote. kessel-biisser. To confuse with noise. potra. a depth. boss. ON. a bottle. scuohbuzere. contusion . • Bott. the lowest part. Diez. a pit. — Fl. to dip in liquid (to Gael. a cess. bun. — duj Lett. boute. a slop. boden . bozza. to from the root bot. the first rough draught 2. A horses. ON. . patch. bossu. bdt. poltern. for a bud. bide.' to the fiery Csedm. a bunch. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. butwo. and E. buddl. to make better. Lat. a cask. A bottom depth. whisper. See Boss. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . — — belly-worm. bSn. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. batschen. Podge. ambo. pimple. a bott . any round ball or bowl to play withal. boitean. On — Du. an imperfect and bunbutt end. Bailey. a maggot. Fl. tumour. boiteal. gen. i. shoes. turmoil. botch. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. bots. the other hand. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Du. fire-bote. stem or base. mess. to make a make a noise. a pit. bundle. is boteau. a vessel for holding liquids. Decorde. Bouteille. buideal. bodem. — . a root. ba. to put on a patch. empty or hollow.— Hal. boccia. Again. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. round lump. hurly-burly. disturbance. to smack. or plague sore . abbution. a botcher of shoes. Kil. in the sense of mend the fire. Fr. botse. was called a push. Lith. — — A 2. to work without order or know. E. by met. bile. botte. to rage. Butu. pozzanghera. to strike . a bubble. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. repara- — — See To Bete. AS. to froth as beer . boiteag. On the other hand. Danneil. biissen. Botcli. blain. to botch or patch. butse.) . blister. a slop. Bochu. ^kvBoQ. H^cart. — Dief. knock. Fyre to botme. Fr. Jtidu. abyss. disturbance to . a waterfall. ' G. to stir and mix together . gipuozan. Leg. Canut. See To Bodge.of a ball of thread. Bouds. OSax. Here the radical image seems a bubble. bdsser. See Bound. podge. To Botch. Bottle. . buazen. Gael. pocciar. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. bot. dim. maggots in barley. botus. Ancren Riwle. Lith. a plague-boil Kil. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. Hal. mutter. botsen.foundation. mess. — Jidwi. a pock. It. a bundle of straw or hay. a patch patschen. pozzo. bouteille. to bcBta. baiothsj Sanscr.

Fr. to make a loud noise. to fix limits. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. from volgere. nave of a wheel bothel. . I assure you. to knock. gulf. boundina. bog. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. — Take care my house be handsome. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. by Bujns or Buns. in the absence of actual e. Ducange. a turn or time. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. to resound.. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Q. E. Wtb. an occasion. 136. till The dat et bunsede. limit. as a nosegay. a large stone rounded by the action of water. 3. butina. Probably from the Celtic root bon. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Nor a centinel whistle. From Sw. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. boh. whence buj7isen. jump. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. bonna. the smaller ones. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Bonny. — No i ausiratz parlar. he fell so that it sounded. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Du. ni motz brugir. bugt. came home with his face all to-bounced. knock it sounds again. to spring. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan.— Boundary. — — Bight. bamsen. to spring. iv. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. bottom. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. see Boss. a round body both. — — leap. nor horn sound. a blow. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Primarily to strike. a bound. And the new stools set out. to turn. botwm. in contrast to klappersten. The branch of a tree. Boulderstone. bullra. So It. Bunche. from bugan. signifying in nautical coil of rope. a bouncing apple.D. root (see Bottom). bumper. Pm. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. bounbounejha. Raynouard. has hot. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. language a * Boulder. Bout. thumping. Halma. To Bound. .' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. a boss. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. Fr. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. like bobbin. bonndn. dial. contusi. AS. carpet. the bay of Benin. pimple Richards bothog. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. a large pebble. Pr. Dan. bugan. bunsen. bons. geration. Bodinare. — strike. round. to set bounds. bouton.>a bout. Sw. frequently used in the same sense with bound. signifies a sliort thick mass. of thread. strapping. bunda. to hum. Mid. Brem. as that of E. boss of a buckler. debodinare. bend.— — — - 88 BOUGH . or Bow-pot. march.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. Bough-pot. to knock at the door. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. the larger kind of pebbles. boujtce. buUersten. to thundering big one hum. and Prov. bay. Webster. Bough. mcn-bomi.' round and round in similar circles. to thunder.' B.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. mere. See Bunch. volta. a button. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . bolder. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper.— F. ni frestelar. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. See To Bolt. a blister. a stock. Bret. To Bounce. tnndo. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bend. The Bight of Benin. p. bone. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. boriie. Coxcomb.'— Charter of K. Fr. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. bondir. baby. winding.— Cot. bodina. Alpine Re- — gions. an de dor bunsen. as a bout of fair or foul weather. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bonzen. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. from AS. bun. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . a boundary stone (men stone). . jungen. The W. a bud. Bound. 2. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to set out by metes and bounds. and F. to bow. the verb bondir in OFr. Bowlder. the hollow of a bay. To Boult. pothel. ing. Ni gacha cor bondir. its kind. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. turn. Bought. A Langued." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. dial.

to swell. limit. spring. mockery. The foregoing derivation seems. Cot. that ON. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. a drone of a bagpipe. to tipple. buzz. to hum. G. a corToward the garden. a jibe. a pot. to bow. bage. bug. potio. bovne. to — Hal. to our bous. bog. springbiirn. Immediately from Fr. and that probably from a Celtic root. Burden. burreti. bend Sw. prepared for. grumble Sw. bound. Gael. lance. deceit. to drink deep. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. bausen. Comp. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Swiss bausen. Dan. Du. also the humming or ON. Fr. epaule du vaisseau. to draw a deep breath. to drink deep. pausen. belly out. different modification gives ON. Sc. in Fr. bugne. It. pre. ruption of bonne. repartee. bontS. . bourdon d'un moulin k vent. to indulge in his cups . Sw. bend. a from Du. Du. burd. drink deep. fun of one . bogna. to take deep draughts. sotich. to hum as a bee. ^<7r«i?. biugan. staff. Borden. buzzing of bees. burdan. buga. trick. — probably through this latter signification. Bourdon. identical with E. G. way ba7n. their time -With "wailful tunes. bending.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. pot. tinton. Fr. bordo. flagon. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bommen. burt. must be referred to the same root. taunt. joke. a sing-song. Bound. the shoulder of the vessel. set out. purlBav. w. the burden of a song. brummen. purra. to trick. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Gael. It is the participle past buinn. schulter-bug. bonitas. bunaiteach. ing. whether by sound or gesticulation. good. So Sc. a bow. . to bulge. game. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. the big end of a club. a — — . a. addressed to. a well. burn. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. explaining Sw. sport. fresh* water. Du. bue. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Chaucer in R. bdgi. a for New York. Burgeon. on. it is probable that the It. firm. ready. like quaff. Du. bugna. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. of the ON. bugna. brausen. has also buirleadh. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. a humming noise. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. spelling the word iox bound. As the Gael. Goth. — — — A pare. When used alone it . bourdon. a humming noise Macleod.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. pared. bagna. cheat. crutch. g. A —Cot. puff out. G. analogous to Fr. the ting of a bell. Gael. Bret. hence musical accompaniment. a drone or dor-bee. the Bourdon. the fixed. Eown. a go to. bwa. bourdon. kroes. to tope. bogha. bonus. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. borne.which see. Bow. steady. A water. to mutter. are applied to the bow of a ship. beygja. Bounty.bass of a stringed instrument. Gael. Bourd. to pre2. bogen. gurgling. bourde in the same sense. Cot. a mill-post. bow to shoot with. bending. as was for. . saufen. G. bov. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . brunna. to banter or laugh at. pusta. It is remarkable that we find vary. to draw a deep breath. bourd. The meaning of bound. a brook. a jibe Shaw bururus. buyse. an arch. and not in the sense of curvature in general. or of an Gael. a cup kroesen.. . bog. AS. verb bua. Sp. . patesten. curvature. bordon. head Fr. address. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Dan. ready to pike or spear . hous^ Man in the Moon. schenkelbug. bordone. burlare. i. And there in mourning spend Sw. bugan. cudgel. Bourdon. buizen. a. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. — — . when we speak of. . a prop. drunken. Dan. shoulder-blade. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Gael. bending of a joint knie-bug. language of folly or ridicule. Lat. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. biegen. sense durd. . btiga. to tope W. to take one in. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. Sw. burdan. sausen. warbling. It is bov. bogr. Sw. from spring. Prov. to bow or incline the . to take breath. souf. ridicule buirte. whence buysen. Spenser in R. jest. is. drone of a bagpipe. buigen. buys. beogan. on the whole. Fr. Dan.

crooked. . Bohem. make obeisance. bol.). a bowl. kuppelo. pullo. * Bowels. OFr.a. fata-bur. knob From the former modification we have bolla. . the bogna. different position in ODu. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. hiidel. budel. guestchamber . bow. as in AS. bossola. boor. Lat. peated in Magy. to stoop biickling. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. buk. heafod bolla. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. Gr. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. Boll. boel. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. See MHO. biichse. bolla. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. in walking appears in a . a box. budello. bulka. bent. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. mausbollelein. and on swollen. give in to. in both senses. a thing of liquid. the box-tree and articles made of it G. a bubble. buckel. The / a bow. kupu. bulk compared with Sw. ask. a knot. botulus. buigen. boxtree. a ball . spherical Dan. bucka. Pol. bog. PLD. w. a sleeping-room . Du. hollow place Fr. a bubble. boil. AS. iri'iaQ. Bret. or. bouge. compared with Fr. Fr. hill. polla. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. Buckle. at the e. an inclosure. biicken. A Bulk. water pulli. the barrel of a gun. the head. bubble. a bundle. Hal. a box Lat. bugyni. ^o«/«. tumour . containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. spring as water bugya. Sanscr. Du. or in e. bowel Box. Sw. purse. ON. a box. to swell. lump . the box-tree. Thus we have Esthon. and to a coachbox in particular. bhugna. convex. a ball. . zich onder jemand under to him. similar shape. bol.\s. to bow buck. the box-tree It. bwr. bola. . a box. to guggle. a wardrobe . . a hen-coop . . bugna. blister. Bower. . bubble. a hump on the back rossbollen. the crop of a bird. the head. a box. bosso. bur. a stud. The word may probably be identical with Fris. A .). buckelig gehen. box in both senses. the skull or brainpan . sausage. Du.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. fyn. Cable. round bead. hollow.D. to puff up. as in E. to bend. ^o/a. bug. as well as the name of a. stream forth bugyogni. boudin. Fr. wisp of straw . globular. Bav. boucle. globe or spherical body. bow. to bubble up. bugyola. an outhouse AS. See Boil. . bulcken. E. a boil.flask It. bolla.. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a croft by a house. . pocket. belly. . . bulb of an onion bolleyield. In like manner the Pol. a bud. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. a pot. &c. convexity. . a wine-can . . Bret. koziel.. bouellou. buga. . globular body. biiske. . to puff up pullakka. a. crown of a hat.cup Du. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. head of a cabbage. kupukka. a polla. tumour. Sw. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. with inversion of the round. W. a parlour. ne. a bubble Fin. a buck. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. boss. ON. boxtree pusska. to bend down. G. bollen. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. puffy. a iDubble. ON. bhuj. Sw. bulla. bwra. to yield to one. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. honse-bur. bolle. a protuberance. buis. prominence. See Crab. . ken. kupula. . gut. busskai. buxus. bugyani. inclinare se (Kil. bur. to stoop. bukke. bowels. bending. From the other form are G. dial. . bulla in aqua. bulne. painter's easel. anything globular. then by the loss of the /. buchsbaum. Sp. OE. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. trestle. utibur. W. . ku^o. bugy. a black pudding. buello. busse. bogla. without the and grits. passing on stud. biisse. hollow wooden case. bolgna. bowl . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. beuz. boss. AS. belly of a cask. box. a chamber swefnbur. bock. round glass phial. to bulge. a ball. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . . It is more probably from the G. is applied to a coach-box. Hence. bulge. . ttuJic. bog. a little box . intrenchment. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. Fr. a round glass or bolg. beutel. (in pass . swell. bouzellou. a swelling or rising up. bocka. belly. a sack. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bolne. swoUei) Lat. a bubble bolli. acsian. cumena-bur.) to incline oneself . to make crooked . Dan. to raise the back boll OHG. signified by forms like Gael. . bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. folliculus . to buckle G. Bowl. pusspan. . a drop of pullistaa. a separate apartment . Dan. . G.

and string of his bow. need. break. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. and then Pl. breach. by the same inversion of J and k. . mud. clay. brae.— D. his eyes are failing him). It is B. G. Sp. to want. V. to is derived brestr. spaniel. dog in general. It. flaw. ratch. bouibo. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. . jabber. brek. Hdcart. fault. bracke. a boy pupa. Swiss bub. in R. dirty. braco. a crack. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. and F. brageuses. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Rouchi Then as an adj. braca. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. the first instancebya physical tie.D. Pm. See Broker. I sal slyng. A brace probis. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. root). breach. G. Kil. confining. To brace is to draw together. bitch Du. a braceOFr. land batsken. bracco. suppuration. . the arm. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. Prov. . AS. Brackish. rakka. fault . brae. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. let. A to halt between two derivations. quarrel Bohem. cramp-iron holding things together . Fr. braque. brasselet. youth. bask. To Brabble. a pair of braces. unmarried man . to be wanting. 91 the Dan. then from break. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . land spoilt Kil. Boy. brack. to slap. &c. which sigof straining. filth . brostia. odorinsecus. wristband. Fr. foul. On the same principle from the buksteht. bue. Lett. moral or physical. baske. to stammer. brae. murmur. defect. brace on and Du. a box. braic. Prov. to smack the hand batschen. acidus. or defect. brae. a grown youth Cimbr. Thus brack. parallel with OK. damaged board a ship. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. disturb. beagle. braco. defect. wrack. rakke. loud smack. braquet. fuse. posh. a comworld Rayn. con. as noticed under Box. brec. flap. in R. ing from a mixture of salt. OFr. bracer. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . armour for the arm. bube. want. A — — . defect Du. is a rope holding G. brack. brechen. Prov. Water rendered boubo. pus. boiste. Brack. One girl. salo sive aqua marinS. baukscheht. bray. . It. — . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. Swiss Rom. taneous talking. breuque. a girl.puddle. Heligoneed. pupus. a bubbling dura del mun. s. a bog or pass Fr. whelp as. To fight with the fists. Brack. refuse. corruptse. Lat. an languages." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. . priated to the original sense.D. from a root brak. to fall.nated by dirt. to box the ears. brassard. braecke. brakke grund. bresta. to burst.. to give a blow with the fists. It. Fr. bracon. which has many representatives in the other Europe. bracha. rack.. brakke Bracelet. briche. Pl. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Brak-goed. strike. brechen ihm. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. — . Bracelet. or bracer Cot. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . — . OE. — . Prov. by an overflow of sea water. Cot. isolated part of the text.with a noise. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. want. Brach. dog that hunts by scent. Du. — — . ghebreck. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. buah. mud. s. brabbelen. want. a sounding blow. pube. boy bouba.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. bruxula. wnzC/J. OFr. Bracket. brague. In like manner the It. — . dog Sw. to stutter.. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. to give a sounding blow defect. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. Fr. mud. a guard to torf. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. merely in our mode of considering them. The different meanings of the brageux. boussole. Sp. lalear-eyed Prov. bracil. Gael. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. BOX To Box. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. Swab. boy. rakki. Du. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. bou^ba. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Sp. to crack. flaw. La ville ou y avait Brace. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. ' — A — — — . to give a gebrechen. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. Pr. bragos. variation of babble. . a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. bracket. . brek. babble.. salsus. thwack. to Swiss batschen. compressing. MHG. See Brake. breptati. brago. ON. Kil. ON. Ptg. matter. Kil. . race.

brave. The meanings included under — Bragget.^ Sp. gay. w. spot. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael.%. that will carry no coals. bravache. brachittm. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. . stout. fine. Fr. crack. Dan. expensive. used in the sense of force. — From W. — Equivalent forms are Gael. — . confining. braka. Bret. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. riches. to rattle. brake in the sense of constraining. splendid. an iron for holding Zalli.i5nz^. the opposite of which. braggard also valiant. to swagger. Cot. binding anything together. a roisterer. also tion of this was brayeul. se pavaner. To Braid. Wallachian bratsou. 2. excellent. breagh. boasting. goods. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. called by our braggard. to shout. — Chaucer. Fris. well-dressed.. bragging of his own valour. To Brag. braguer. swaggerer. strength. BRAG Piedm. braga. To Brail. was formed brayele. hectoring. is Cot. brag or jet it braguard. brayete. bravo. cry. Walloon bress. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . breghe. as the type of exertion and strength. ative fellow. brave. valiant The head are sumptuous. bragging. torture . noisy ostentation. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. to boast of his own worth. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. stately. It. se donner trop de licence. smart. affront. gayly dressed. . idle talk. breach. brake is. flaunting. to Rouchi brMer. to brail up a sail. to make a noise. to flaunt. fine. brao. Brail. braies. bragio. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brabhdair. compressing. brails.Shepherd's Cal. braszketi. se parer de beaux habits. Dan. subduing. See Bray. Sc. empty pride. See Brace. . brae. Primarily to crack. vanter une chose. de Vaud. . would be to brace. subigere. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. showy bravery. Brake. power. bully . Cot. or from braie itself. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. slight modificajoining the two legs. Brag was then used brisk. From Fr. gallant. &c. or by gaudy dress and show. . From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. From sprouted corn. bragaireachd. and it is very likely that the root brak.aburst. vain glory. Lith. dhbrailler. vaunting. . make a noise . blusterer. Chaucer. gallant (in apparel) also proud. swagger. in order to prevent its catching the wind. proud. braske. brave. about the hawk's fundament. In like manner to crack is used for boasting.^Vocab. braka. beautiful. to unbrace or let down the breeches. — A — . brav. Hence E. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. Brain. a noisy talkboasting. ^Brave. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . the feathers ON. braske. i. is identical with Gael. also derived Fr. flaunt in fine clothes . boast. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. a carriage for breaking in horses . h-avare and Fr. The plant y^r«. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. fine. bullying.—— . Bret. crash ON. braver. Rom. Faire le brave. braicli. bragd. bushy . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. to boast or brag. in numerous dialects. brag. Lat. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. —Spenser in R. Sp. brabhdadh. Thus Bret. brazo. courageous.breeches. brave. bra!. gorgeous. brag. AS. to cord a bale of tie up. the arm. 92 Cot. finery. A — Hal. and that from e. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A .explosion. brave. drawers. Turk bazu are used in both senses. to stand upon terms. bravacherie. braga. an inclosure for cattle . Hecart. breyne. Langued. The meanings of brake are very numerous. to strut. braga. be noisy . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. Haldorsen Gael. handsome. Brake. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). It is certain that the word for arm is. gay. braw. . bravado j Fr. . be found. also insolenter se gerere .hy which this idea is con\eyed. breghen. Cot. to crack. From brayel. Bray. fine. crash. Fr. braegenj Du. in the sense of the Lat. Thus we are brought to the OE.. to sprout malt.

Dan. fratto. brego. as well as in the case of the e. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants.bracan. thing is brought under control. brog above mentioned. signifying to sweep. bushes. Pl. brogille. braka. quarry from Fin. briers. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. bush. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. to subdue. any thicket of brakes. braecken het vlasch. gebroge. braken. a brace on board a ship. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. the original meaning of G. iSpsx". or a wood in a marshy place . breaking in the operation. to row. bredza. Fr. break of such a kind. Brake. braca. cetur. to fracture. to stiffen against Taboada). brook. riguus. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. the lever by which the string was drawn up. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. brcekke. to break. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved.' It. BRAKE to external force. a swampy Mid. Corrfeze bredgea. 2. Fr. bregille. G. brake. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. gebiisch. brook. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. The Fr. to exert force in different ways. ing of flax or hemp. brambles. ^raca. gebroge. Dan.D. e. as in Du. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. marsh or swamp.D. is braukti. It may be sus- . properly braking or subduing them. a fen. glebas subigere. in northern climates. Fr. brook. bregar brake. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. bregar. watered. Gr. pasture. to distinct. Swiss Rom.. word. it is not surprising that the word has here. dial. copse-wood. brage. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. P&. In the case of the ne. a thicket. brak is a frame in which strip. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). have thus Du. We — . sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. brog or brake. low wet land bruch. and Lat. It. broillet. tris). a harrow. breuil. thicket. been confounded with the verb break. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . farinam in mortario subigere. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. subigere. to The ON. Prov. gebrUche. and G. broor bushy place Hal. is formed murd. brambles. break flax PLD. briser. broken fratta. — — . brega. frangere linum. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. gebroge. or overthrow of trees by the wind. as in the case of horse-breaking. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. murtaa. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. In like manner Lat. to head must be bit. to bend or direct a cannon. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. referred brake. cover G. to break. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. t° moisten.— . to break or fracture. flachs brechen. . braeken. brage. — Fl. murran. a marsh. brushwood. a stream. Sp. brog. bush. In the sense of a thicket. to rub. broilium. and when once thrown down. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. brolium. where from Esthon. de Vaud. braquer un canon. to bray in a mortar. gilum. It. —Bracken. marsh. a spinning-wheel. Dan. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Lat. Gael. to pound. casser le \va. bruch. broeck. —Ovid. To the same bend a bow. broyer. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. Biglotton. to brush. game. 3. might come to signify a swamp. broil. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. Voc. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. or A A ' . nemus. Brake. conSo in G. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. a horse's a horse's twitch. in usus braca. In ON. tnurdma. el arco. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. for — Due. gebrUche. OFr. as in Sp. brake. murrokko. to bend a bow. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. to harrow (Lat.

or other plants of a like nature. brenna. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. sprouts. a shoot or twig. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. gebriiche. 1 8. to -brugen. brog. brejo. branco. berneux. Rouchi bren d'orMe. . Fr. It. 2. Pl. also a marshy low ground or fen . the thorn apple or stramonium. that is to say. In like hrst. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brouskoad. bren. bruskoad. cack. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. Serv. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. briars.D. bren. It. Brank. brandmurk. brom. bracken or fern . brancas. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. brughera. Then by comparison with claws or arms. iii. in the same sense. brushwood. bruk. Broom. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. . or with It. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. Dan. gebroge. a rod or twig. heath. brug. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. a bud. &c. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. . sawdust. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brandello. i. a bridle or bit . to bridle. from Lat. Russ. brin. Thus in Lat. brenn hesken. a roA. brwnt. G. Branch.G. bramble Du. brugek. Gael. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. As ON. young buisson fort epais. stink . bro7n. — . prufye. braeme. bruk. broussaille. a burning fragment of wood. pfriemen. It will be found that shrubs. bruk. A mark made by burning. to brank. and E.D. heath (Bret. Bret. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. — branca. compress. brous.. Gael. the bull-finch. broccoli. The naof strain. broust. a bud It. brano. the branch of a tree. brin (as It brano). and waste growths. to gripe. a thick bush. brass. young twig {brom-beisser. brin d. . heath. brandr. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Bret. brand. The same form becomes in It. constrain. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. G. G. pfriem in the sense of an awl. breanan. . bran. Brand. Pl. it glitters — — . as. heath. thicket of brambles Cot. w. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a briery plot. brein. as AS. Diez. ground full of briers. a shrub . a small deri\'ation . heath ON. Port. restrain. to burn. branche. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. hallier. brank. Grisons bruch. virgultum. from brand. wood composed of twigs. w. broembel-CBppel. G. . brake. Brancare. a shrub from Bret. breme j Sw. apiece orbitbrandone. cabbage sprouts Fl. . brambles. braam. —Ducange. AS. brandiiialil. That beareth the red hepe. Bret.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a shoot. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. from brug. in the sense oi fern. a bud. ear-wax mud. Bav. from Servian pnit. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. bretnel. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G." The bmno a • on . what is cast out as worthless. bronbo. excrement. ordure . brem. sweet broom. and thence a shoot. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. bit by bit. a heath. sedge burkni. clutch. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. a vine twig Bav. piecemeal brindelles. snotty . bruch. Bran. bushes. Thornas and bremelas. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . also pfriemkraut. . a firebrand. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. heath. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . pected that brake. See Brush. Sir Topaz. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. bromboli. brenn. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. Fr. a single plant of heath. dirt . So Swiss gaggi.). Fr. nasty. branchia. a halter. . brosst. brug). &c. E. breun. thorns and Gen. piece of anything. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. bran. pfropf. Fr. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . burning brennen. Bramble. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brok. broom. Bret. to or iron. chaff. from virga. bruch. from gaggi. or ling. Piedm. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brenda. broom. brank. Thus we have w. brarn. But we find It. titio. brang. a dunghill. is the draff or excrement of the com. broem.

gebrannter wein. prasseln. totter. brazil. given to the country. before the discovery of America in the brandir. It. E. Ija. to confuse. to make shine with shaking. Bret. a stick. brus^. braza. to bicker 2nd.. to brandle. make an outcry. Milan. ist. To brase AS. brandende wijn. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. plained by Florio. perplex.well. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. shake. to brangle. to solder iron. is bntan. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. Hume in brand in ON. to shake. to burn. stake. bragia. d'Angl. to shake. N. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. fire-wood. brasa. Formerly brandy-wine. urens. morsel. all. a round dance. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. to burn. hoisting to the fall. to roar. Sw. as Fr. eldibrandr. brausen.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. embraser. branler. to braze or lute. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Jam. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Chron. forms brasil. To brand. bra?ier. brascct. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. brennen. bum. to shake The word brisil. noise. bransle. spirit distilled from wine. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. In the same way the set on fire . Fr. It. — . brasca. and bruir. Diez. Bailey. brasa. make a — . Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. as again by well as the blade of a sword. the spelling to kindle. a To Brandish. Gris. and branchis shaiand D. branla. crackle. to and fro in the hand. brandiller. brastlian. a pan of hot coals. to blaze. comes from thence. Brasil. bracea. to French brawl or brangle. Fl. Du. apparently very distinct from each other. The tre brangillis. to rustle. to glisten or flash. De Goes. Brase. bruzi. bragale\ wood. Chron. bruciare. Brangle. braise or hot coals. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. braser. to burn. brouir. to make sense of a bright red dye. braise. hot Fr. brush. to dash. conbillet. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. as Jamieson explains it. from used in dyeing cloths. weinbrenner.^Brandle. from to vociferate. to crackle . It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. firewood. brand. to brustle. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . the colour than hitherto known. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Thus the bound up again. 59. set on fire. brandolare is exbrandish. brin. It. not. bryne. brandigh. crackle. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. bracia. ish. Fr. WaUon. braise. — . BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. Guill. Fr. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. splinter. brazeiro.pan of coals. brandiller. brane-wood. a brusler. distilled wine. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to sound of the Fr. so. to murmur. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to make display . and scold. bransella. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. or in stick. Lye. Fr. brasca. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. brasil. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. e. AS. to distil . was in use Fr. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. a fragment. to Bailey. G. n. — . V. became ashes Pied. brangle or brawl in E. Sw. in Marsh. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. to hurl with great force. branler. G. flagrans. to shog. Braser. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. billet. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Kil. then brandr. The name Brandy. Port. bruan. bruire. to brandle or The It. bresil. incendium. aqua ardens. Manx bransey. E. briiler. du Roi et laine. to quarrel. — ting to confusion. glowing embers . to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. a roaring fire. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. So. to totter. live coals. firebrand. put. Fr. faire fracas. With top trimbling. The corresponding form in Gael. brustle. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON.

pil. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. Fr. as lattice. Florio. whether contracted from brabble. tasce. esbraotier. The verb is probably derived from the brase. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). is The word — uous name for a woman. a — A from the confused noise. 368. Brangle. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. strepitus 2. Many gambes.propugnaculum. Lorraine bravon. lat'te.— Remade. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. brettys. Cologne broden. For the application to a^child compare Bret. berd. bartising.— Diez. Pisana in Mur. slibro. a plank or board. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bransle. brandillo. a wooden tower. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. a slabbering-bib. bruir. ON. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. brat. braser Fargent. Fris.walle — Pr. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. the buttocks. deblaterare. The muscular part of the body. Sup. a. to braze. breyon. slibro {neita. brailler. bmhon for brado7i. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Gael. a battle-girdle. Certainly a little girl. to solder. from branler. Betrax of a —^Jam. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. braon. cloth. a rag. bran. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. to shake. 1156. a lump. pan- — Rayn.— Fl. a mantle. OHG. a Lap. a fortification. — Deutsch. ferruminare. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant.— Braid. Swiss bradle. ni autres choses sur Due. Pm. bartisan. frame of laths.^ — Sverris Saga. It. bretesque. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. Cot. brces. fraiche. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Westphal. braiio. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. 2. Bartizan. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. Hist. The same correspondence is seen between It. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. bronze. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. and bronzo. Jam. bras. luncheon. at brasa. a loud noise. Brattice. as criailler of crier. roar. from Fr. a contemptuous name for a young child. braion. calf of the leg. slut. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Bailey. ^Altieri. Cot. neita girl). Wall. especially that used in the working of iron . Sc. A land of dance. as scrawl from scrabble. A dispute or squabble. bratdn). — .D. to carbonado. brazen. bas morceau de viande brawhng. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. baltresca. bratach. Brawl. . A. a contempt- banner. a lath. brat. So also See Brag. A. ship. bralle. the calf of the leg. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. contignatio. coassatio. apron. 1224. or whether it be from Fr. a patch of cloth. braodhlach. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. discord. OFr.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. squall. ' A vraale. Brave. OFr. bretays).brettysing. buttock Sc. Fr. breteque. cob. bretesche. —^Bronze. to tear piecemeal. a clout. braede. as a brawling brook. to scold . brat. bratidone. Circumeunt cibertesca. bronzacchiare. a rag . slakker-bortchen. Brawn. boarding being sbranare. calf of the leg. or on the top of a wall. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. a rag . trul. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Fr. any piece. Brass. le repasser un peu sur la braise. braeye. breyon d'chaur. bradlete. frequentative of braire. rag. solder. KiL Prov. I. braoilich. See Brandish. in the first instance of boards. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. It . wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. burning coals. to talk at bralle op. —-Jam. bratid calf of the leg. brass. saillies. from Sc. See Bray. Paris. muscular parts of the body. Mundart.' BRASS BRAY et AS. bradon. flesh of a leg of pork. Dan. bred. a cloak. branle. &c.96 Roquefort. Brat. to Gael. to copper.D. noise. P1. Sp.' Hal.D. boutures. to cry. G. a lump of flesh. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. a lump of flesh. then a parapet. breyon de kinds of . borderinge. equivalent to the Du. a parapet. W. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. brdto (ace. Math. It. bronzare. bribe de viande. Kil. AS. brett. Du.

&c. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Fr. explaining a very obscure application of the E. bray. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. The ON. relation is seen between Lat. father. to start. W. to smack or the eye. ser. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. &c. soft . brugier. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. — — — explained motus loud noise. And with a traid I tumyt me about.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. &c. yell. to braid the hair. paxog. paste or dough. at a braid. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. will. abraid. roar. verb to break. ON. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. rattle. turn. braid. Chaucer. V. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis.. ^p&xia. G. Bailey. at once. D. to crash. And at a braid he gun it bende. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. Bread. to bellow. fragor. the sword was out break. . braidar. bru. crash. Chaucer. to roar. to snatch. to rub Fr. to braid acquires the sense of bend. kind. OE. or cry out loudly . braa. appearance Hal. the clash of ai-ms Dan. bregar.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. AS. breche. which has given much trouble to commentators. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. Ppvxia. to roar as the sea. to pretend. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to tear Bret. Then is simply. instantane. the miller's dog. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. a . Bread. to bray in a mortar. ON. to resemble him. imitate or resemble one. brot. . and fracasously. broad. augnabragd. . a wink. or wound. to crash. breuan. Then. i. crackle . twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. mos. Fr. Q. baiyl. Swiss bratschig. rangere. bragd — ON. 2. a rent. Cat. gestus. Lat. Prov. as the voice of the ass. ing. e. a mill. roar. brand. a crash. a brake for hemp or flax. to resemble. to sound very loud and very harshly. R. R. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. brice. to cry out. to N. F. is . — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. to The cup was uncoverid. to knead. bratsche. as OE. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to t. to bray like an ass. braea. to braid. to work up in a mortar.g. and frangere. to the seijauntes. V.^ Fr. to rush. regi. with or without a final d. to cry out. The same He might don us both a villany. See Brake. E. to rumble. bregar. Breach. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. as the notion of turning crack. upbraid. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. iU-favouredly — in Jam.' To Bray.y. broyer. From the or brack in a wall. bruire. fractus j Gr. fish. The Lat. a breach Cot. Bret. I'll live and die a maid. father.ear rog. a rag f . D.fracas. brikan. vapna-brak. bruzir. to break Fr. on. make a disturbance. k. brechen. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. G. to break. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. riAprjyvvfu. and to signify the fracture itself. Cot. braidir. Du. to break. Wal. 145. a brack. crash. rustle. the sound — of arms. ybrayid. To rub or grind down Sp. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. breach. Prov. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. and make a hideous noise. Fin. Dunbar braessem. To Break. &c. — . plait. brak. V. Beryn. twist. starts crackling up. bragr. Gr. at braga eftir euium. to have the lineaments of one's ON. brage.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. to break. to bawl. to scold.ch. bregda. to cry Port. disturbance. to braid. yell. braire. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. braa. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. crepo and E. bragd is also applied nets. bradar. resound . rogi. brame. noise . brak. 7 . weave The ON. to roar or bellow. in Jam. cyprinus latus. — koa. Goth. D. to resemble.

to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. forms. braucn. or the blow itself. noise. grillare. rubbish. griller. as commonly explained. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Breath. a box. brijsen. Briss and buttons. representing the sound of a blow. fitzen. &c. corresponding to G. to crackle. sprouted corn. Goth. to feize or feaze. a horse's twitch. to breech. with It. remains of leaves. to simmer. of E. bandage or truss for a rupture. Dev. briosa. braga. bruzir. britze. brusc. brosame. Swiss brdtsch. i5r(Z^. AS. Bret. bra. may be from the wurh fesser. grill. Fr. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. murmur. and brought beneath between the legs. to be misty and cold. to buzz. coaldust. bre- I'os qui bresole. bris de charbon. w. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. brimme. to whip. brustia. zare. To Brew. to shiver for cold. to bind. braia J OFr. siibligar. the bust. . breost. cloven. OFr. brisciare. braies. Sw. E. QNtsterviald) pritschen. bruzun. briiz. brist. vapour. Du. G. trusts. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. G. of straining. Dtyden. breson. brissle. from ligare. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to resound. Dan. bris. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . chilly. brache. and E. simmer. in Schilter. clout for a child. Breeches. Breast.t. — Brist. Du. to hum. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. so AS. Hume in Jam. of trees. brcekur j It. broiiwen. — — strument for smacking. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. brisoler. brut.vare. to roast. brcEth. — Halma. breinse. crush. a to lay fly-flap. a girdle. also to chill and shiver with cold. bracecs . — . malt. malt. briosa. brew. We bragezj on. brugga. bryi^ga. body brostia. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. braciarc./ssus. Du. brinisa.D. .) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. brise. broden. the sound of a blow with the flat hand.'— Gl. Swiss AS. Fris. the breech or buttocks. from brace. braies. Gl. brasser. b}-as. Fr. Isidore and Tatian. brciz. as.98 borst. brok. briig. breme. grillen.britschen. brasiuiii. de bridse geveii. as. a smack. polenta. a twitch for a horse. braie. braca. Rom. Lat. point to G. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. Fr. Breeze. brasiare. drawers. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. E. braga. their stings draw . dial. —Briss. met de bridse slaan. trembling. to fry . the soler. a crum Du. to fry Then from a Gl. Originally probably the word signified steam. a cold and windy mist or frost . braguier. bark Fr. Gael. bresilles. braca. . to brew. forms analogous to E. brdtschen. a crum. to break. xyligogio castigare. braich. an odour. G. The Breech (Prov. a gadfly. switch. bretilles. breeze. to murmur. . braux. subligaculum. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. windy withal. Breeze. brisd. little bits of wood Berri briser. Lat. chillness or shivering. murmur—Vocab. Prov. a cramp-iron for holding things together. Gael. but more probably the E. — See Broth. Bruise. brodem. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. The Teutonic verbs. brodel. an into shiver. to smack. Russ. brezling. Bracha. Brize. binding. Bret. brumtnen. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. bratscher. Du. properly to crackle. — . AS. bris. applied to shivering. G^nev. one on the breech so that (klatschet). burst. Piedm. break. /esses. PI. broil. as by the Sc. morsel. briste. G. See Brick. are related to Prov. to bray. broza. and other rubbish dibris. the dry spines of furze broken off. bragues. Breeze. So ON. de Vaud. to rattle (as hail). then to broil. to crush to break. are in like manner ' . Biglotton. brijselen. einem de britze geven. Prov.). scent. from AS. — And blood. fail. simmering. fastening . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Gl. instead of being derived from 'La. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. rubbish. as in the case of twitter. Piedm. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. brezza. sheep's droppings bruss. brison. . to brew. brire. bruc. brezzare. briosat'. as the G. It. bridsen. Swiss Rom. G. peitschen. brimsa. Hence the Lat. bruise. a cool wind. to burst. orts. bremse. brossi!. . Compare OE. breath. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. singing bone.

birbone. to circulate. bygga. from bit. bably contracted from brigantine. berwi. The origin of the word is the w. Fr. Diez. imprint. nurus G. bricge j G. A bribe is A — — arval. to beg one's bread. jetty. Hdcart. the equivalent of to the dial. masted vessel. son. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a heath brughera. from Bret. In the G. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. a quoit of stone. bruyere. Gael. to press. as. broosekens. priod-ferch. Du. with transposition of the r. a crum. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a rogue. Ducange.groom. a little king's writs. brahi. briicke. brittil. bryd-gutna. OSw. from the last 99 of which. appropriate. a man. .It. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . pavement. AS. bride. betonica. company. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. broken bread. bricou. to stamp. brique de pain. and berweddu. bitill. Priodi. in the sense of OSw. graf-ol. a lump of bread briber. . brere. a bride Brig. Lat. a heath. sponsa. Thom. to pave brukkti. bara briw. Rouchi brife. a married man guma. bruskr and buskr. Lang. pavement Lith. brilt. Hence OE. to rub. Fr. then the marriage itself. a lump of bread. to press in. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. a cheat. bryd-eale. brug. daughheath. broken. a lump of bread. AS. brasser. beaten way Dan. Bridle. one's ovin. Fl. bidsel. a fragment. ment of anything broken. Cot. from the Normans.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. a rogue . consort with. Gl. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. brA. which however is undoubtedly from brace. E. . E. priod. Brewis. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance.privatus. served (Patois de Bray). a wedding priod-fab. Brique. Pro(merch=:maid). division of an army. Due. hlafes brice. A — A — . Diefenbach com. W. Dan. sugga. to tlie brico. w. would correspond in like manner to the Fr.rough with brambles and bushes. breve or brevis. ' — . At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. to break. . fraoch. whence berw. bruk. E. berwedd. to brew. .gfiugga. brigantine. Goth. bride. It. briw. brughiera. AS. heath. jipaaaiii. Brief. brygga. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. a Bride. ap. bread. bro. betony brulicame. Grisons bruch. to boil. brar. Brick. bribe de pain. bruarium. is still used in this sense. peculiar. It. of burial. pier. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. conjux. brice. or brizo. Bridal. ter-in-law. brieden. to Isrew. fit. brood. remarkable that the Gr. braut. it is applied to the letter to OE. brocaly.Fr. troop. E. malt. twopares Lat. a crum. corresponding or letter. brakes of high-grown ferns. gf2o. piece of burnt clay. a beggar. pavement brolegge. birbante. Brigade. owned also propriate. brigata. a sow. and ODu. stone-bridge bnikkoti. crew. Sp. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. feast of espousals. malt. OHG. bridge. . two-masted vessel. lipdZu}. guma.. any jot or crum. a boiling. . a briole. arf-ol. Trovarfor bride-ale. a bush. So It. bro is applied not only to a bridge. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. brau. Gael. boiling up brocoliere. a bride. buckler J ON. thick appropriated. Fr. barren land priodas. briiths.bergantino. fastningar-ol. a fragment. to appropriate. Neumann. to break to pieces bricalio. The Sw. bo. a bit. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Ihre. Flor. the Fr. the marriage si in brigata. a married man or woman Lat.pritil . briwo. If the foregoing were not so clear. Bridal. Walach. buskins. httle bit. So in The Prov. bribour. groom (mab=:son). . from Bridegroom. brutg. ON. to prepare. See Broth. AS. bro. bruith. to meet together. In the patois of briccia. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Applied ous words derived from break. frayer. broken victuals. ' . bruk. — . but to a paved road. bulicame. especially to a letter or command. brukkas. AS. a brig or priodor. It — is Kil. — — — — — — . G^n^v. to boil. as so. but probably Bricoteau. to boil. Bridge. has briguer. a proprietor. married. Brier. In E. the newly. Mid. collect bits of food. and that from It. to pave. Pol. AS. privus. fragment. — . Bribe. BRIGADE dead. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. brigade. ibrukkti. funeral. fervere. bridelj OHG. feast. grug. . bretonica.

and ner me hit iherde. The Ir. dine. to shine. and diligence. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . squamma . and. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound.clare ^tinniens. — Probably then to strive.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. inde squammatus. From ON. twinkling. . tuilahtaa. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. bright bearhtm. Brigata. \oice. brdgen. also called briganders. in the first instance. to rob. and secondly. then. — brigante. kii:'a. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. briga. OHG. It. clear. — A A . secondarily. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. Goth. — — . So G. Schmeller. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. a small light pinnace pro. representing a sudden noise.Lat. — brigante. and led it away.dorem clarum reflecto. to reservavit. biartr. a noise. The E. clear sound.' torum. In the same way to strive is. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. seems to be to exert force gar el area. and to associate with them. glitter. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. brigan. clare lucens. to piracy. brak.' The sense of strife or combat express. 1654. a sound. brigant. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. and. A strepere. glamm. splendour.D. necessary business. there are many armour. Beorktode bene sweg. the bench-notes resounded. may play the pirate or thief at sea. noise. rixa. in later times a robber or highway-man. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass .shine. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. pugna. and the E. Adelung. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. riis ' — Chron. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to make a loud noise. The primary meaning of Sp. to ring. See Brake. It. moment. Bright. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. braid. schateren. Du. Bav. bregar. labour. Gr. It. to resound. tumult. Lat. clarus. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. brcEhtin. Flor. AS. to strive for. outcry. glir. is easily understood. rover either by sea or land. bragen.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Florio. splendour. malandrini. splendens . bray. 1351. the gleeman's song. hell. 312. clear. willata. himself to serve men of merit. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. Brigand. to sound. A. brebrigare.glampa. bryhtm. lay was sung. a pirate. show the origin of Lat. bracht. bairhts. jurgia. schiteren. Heo — song That AS. tinnitus. briga. . brigare. They or brigantini. sound. to bend a bow It. a glittering. Mid. — Brigantine. cange has 'Veles.pracht. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. from hall. to cry 'Schmid OE. glbram. Wilista. In Fin. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. briegen. to glamr. — Beowulf. wilella. to cry. a brigantine. XafXTTpoQ. Due. — Due. Brilliant. in the sense of a robber. tinkle. Owl and beorhtian. manifest ON. to glitter. tinnitum clarum movco. to contend with another. speech. beorht. brawl. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . and hence be explained glampi. Swab. dine. tion. kilistua. shriek with laughter. etincelle. praht. glamra. with respect either to sound or colour.' The passage from the sense of a light. to shift for with care. transparent. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. brigare. clang. clear. splcnornd de brigandine. strife.' in Due.— . brigandare. that of Fr. — Briganbriga. Gall. loo BRIGAND lor. —Capgrave. at a later period. on his — own account. Xa/iTTii). It. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. the grew high. clangour. to rove. a spark. combat. to shine.

breziller. parched. to glitter . edge Pol.). to twinkle. — g. post. or violent action. bresoler (Gloss. as is the case also with Pl. as of meat in broiling . The meaning of the Fr. frequently interchange. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. earnestly . brissle. bremmen. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. ON. The expression is now confined to the sow. brdnnsten. — — So Fr. to make a crackling noise. Thus Lat. fringe (Lat. greDiet. der. shine. brennistein. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. the singing of Sodom — — . must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. brandr and Fr. brame. to resound. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. cross-barred in colour. a borDu. to burn. kimina. burning stone. and 1. komista. Sc. brillare. ling noise and a sparkling light. It. Langtoft. brant. lip of a vessel. the eye-brow. reecho. A . Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. brummen : de soge brummet. a border. The identity of ON. Wtb. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Fl. to fret . a streak. a rod. . bremmen. bremas. bramar.) brimi. vattubryn. spraing. broiled. lap. to quaver with the voice. brame. the sow is brimming. bar. s. to roar. brezil. breme. In the same way Sw. Du. the heat of animals.' Elyot in Way. fimbria) . rut. fierce. bryn. originally the lap folding over the breast. . dial. that the original meaning of the Sc. Streaked. : ' — bone). to utter cries. burning. clangor tinniens. komottaa. barm-cloth or barmskin. Tutschek. identical with passion. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. also to reflect. to wish or covet. Brindled. margin. Hence with an initial s. . glisten. to parch. tience. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. briller. which seems identical with rim. whence bilbil-goda (literally. rym^. the meaning is transL' amour. leonum). brullo. briller. grdzil. brastlian. grisler. AS. to glitter distance . brisoler. In Fr. to crackle. grisser. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. The E. grullo. Tresiller. ter. to shine.D. AS. barm. Dan. on. sparkle. brunft. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. E. greedily to covet Cot. coloured in stripes. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. Rayn. brummen.' d'etre marie . brim. barmr. to creak. Rugere. to crackle. Lith. furious. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). the edge. surface of the ocean. s. to broil. a stick. breziller. pMiller. to shimmer. ring. to glitter. Supp. as well as bl and gl. 154. breme. bramar.— BRIM . bry7ie. brommen. Sc. finds the Fr. ardere desiderio. to sound deep or hollow. Said of swine when in heat. sprainged. Brim. whether of desire or anger. Prov. from brandr. excited. griller). to long for a thing. border. kimista. the verbs Flor. fire. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. brim Magy. perent. noise made by meat in broiling. Swiss Rom. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Closely connected is OE. striped or streaked. to make bilbil). Fr. It. to shine. gresiller.— Brinded. brand-krossottr. Subo. to sparkle. small gravel. kommata. 1 1 64. brumft. of the eye. — — — . briller (related to each other as OFr. Brimstone. brimmen. kiimottaa. gresiller.its vent in cries and roaring. 1. have then in Fr. chime). It. ON. Dief. bramer. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. and corresponding to these. ous. crackle. voux. kajata. brama. sonitum edere bremen. Sw. — Rim. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. brow of a hill. with an initial br instead of gr. to shake. griller d'impatience.ioTiviS acutus. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. glit. to roar. rugire. — . griller. crackle . border. fringe . to creak. brmdottr. bray as an ass bramire. brinfire. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. a long. the lap or bosom. to shine. from bringe. beam. G. kimmaltaa. to storm. broil . border. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. lap of a garment . Kil. is used of raging. To Brim. to . (poet. an apron. ON. as in Langued.preni. os qui bresole. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. hence the bosom. rugire (cervorum. vigorHal. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. bramire. Brem. the heat of animals. FJ. 754.

Berri. a projecting tooth It. coli. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. spur. — in Due. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. sharp. Russ. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Fr. harsh vin brusque. a crum. humorous. a spit. brocco. to burn. rebursiis. brandello. like the Broad. startling.). brocciare. Gr. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. suddenly angry. a brad or tack. of E. borzen. Bohem. bricho (with the diminutives.. smart taste. bryde. to set it a going. 'V^. It. bronchus. as. fragile. See Brand. Fris. i. a bit . — — . Ptg. It. or — . to break. Brym. or the full • . Mid. form bris. to begin upon it. breidr. Cot.Lat. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. and. to bud. Zeuss. bristly . man's throat. bringue. ribrezzoso. a belly.' Nat. aculeus. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a deluge. eager. brich. Prov. a brooch. Fr. Bret. as a noun. sour. apt to break. . a bud. brocco. a rod or twig. broca. to spit. breast. is to erect the hair. birs. the brisket or . brittle. . stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). e. whence may be explained the Sc. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. britar. Walach. It. a bud. brijn (Kil. Hal. broccare. Sc. brockle. an awl. brim. Alfr. — bryme. craw of a bird. brimme. Fr. Boh. to stick. hot-tempered. a slip or sprig of an herb . fantas'* tical. brim (poet. quick. brodden. brusk. Sw. broccata. a morsel. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Du. Then as the effect of shivering. are used in the sense of brittle. Russ. breaking out into growth. braidsj ON. to stitch. . from brande. brytan. Brickie. and forms on. bryne. Antiq. saulmeure. brusco. trembling. chest. to roar. Salte sand is called brimsand. birse.D. from break.'— Vita'abbatum S. It. a clasp. Formerly written brotil. wine of a sharp. to thrust. Fr. birstle. brin. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brog. brezza. briocho. metaphorically. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. NE. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. cK) the . bros. brote. to goad. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. lively. Brooch. borst. has under It. Swiss to stand out . Du. a stitch brocher. brisk in taste. a stormy brimsea . . a fragment. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. . is called a birssy day. Fr. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. bringe traced through the brano. Bret. flame. rebrousser. — A . to spur. brickie. In the N. brot. 'In sua to stand up of Corn.. the surf. to scorch. grim. brichet. Brisk. brocchus. Port. broca. ruffling. thick — A elastic hair. Sc. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. to stab Gael. to put one in a rage . Prov. fierce. brddj Goth. bruched (Fr. See To Brim. /3pE^m. brioshko. a shoot or sprig. the twigs of a besom. Gl. brittle. setting the hair on end compare It. Commonly explained as from Fr. of astonishment. from AS. brissle. to shiver for Sold or for fear.). crabbed. as.g. a cold and windy mist or frost. b. as. ON. briota. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. as unripe fruits. byrst. p. brime. roar of the sea saltr. ' breast. 222. briota. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. bruskett. Brine. Breeze been connected with the Sc. rude. prick with Sw. brindelles de balai. emotions which produce it. strong itself. Fr. Compare also E. . a peg sbrocco. Brisket. Pectusculum. The Pl. birsle. Lat. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. brissko). bringe. Palsgr. the surf. See Spread. shoot. to break. britchet. and Sc. angry. bros. bruckle. brocar. Abroacli. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. to birstle.rcendij'i. borzos (struppig). broc. brezzare. to shoot. Liquamen vel garum. brimhliod. spricka. sprocco. a skewer. to broil. brust. brusque. ' . Prov. Bristle. against the grain . brisciare. to crack. to spur. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. briser. stitch. rash. a rebours. sticking up . sprout. brocher. a morsel . Sp. Dan. breaking of the waves brim sior. to broach a business. very salt brimi. fiscbryne. G. a button broche. and hence. borstel. expression. broche. — . brcit. sprouts. to turn up the point of anything. to break. Hence ribrezzare.procio. britar. Brocade. brim. bresk. flames. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. setting the hair on end. reburrus. Da. to set up one's birse. birssy. Brittle.

a mole. broccuto. Contracted from Fr. a border ornamented with gold. From direct imitation of Brock. gold and silver. Sc. scorch. knobby . bawling. stump. — — .— B. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. grullo. has grisser. bruler. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. brouda. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. fundamental origin. — Fl. a prick. It. B. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. to crackle. brocart. To roast upon hot coals. bmsciare. — Gower in It. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. sparks E. Fr. ciare. froco. Sp. v. parti-coloured. Compare also AS. brustle. spotted. W. a flake of snow sion.. breard. birsle.. Broker. It. age was termed a pricket.tumultuous. margin. to burn. brusuole. to stud broccoso. motes. streaked. bustling. Hal. So from Pol. tumult broighleach. embroidering. badger . a To Broil. The ON. to instigate. broighlich. speckled. bj'oil. brindled. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. broc. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Cot. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. and bord or bred. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. or salted fish on coals. brasbrasciuolare. q. to broil. — . make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. a confused streaked face of the animal. onbryrdan. with Sc. brouFr. R. hart of two years old. and AS. a fallingThe sense has been out. or roast on the braise. or glowing coals broged. confound. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. — The proper sense is that of Fr. tori shows that. to prick. briz. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. . ornamented with a raised pile. parch. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brucilare. the shoot of corn. parti-coloured. brooked. Bret. shuffle. Icnotty. dar seems derived from borde. brerd. Fr. The Bret. to crackle. brocach. — brissle. noise. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brasiller. thread. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. the line of development has been something different. kled breac. brodio. bram. brizen. briefh. point to an origin in Bret. here. broil. hurly-burlies. broiled. to boss. Cot. border. brych. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole.sound. a brouhaha. Fr. broccato was used to signify stuff . Sc. agree in being the extremity of a thing. broc. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. speckled. frecSee Brawl. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. Surrey in R. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). and w. border ornamented with silk. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. AS. rinj'. from the white. a quarrel. a border. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. to burn. trouble. initial . E. It of br the Fr. to crackle as a shell in the fire. Florio. 103 embroidered. blusters. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. bramowanie. to embroider. prod. grislement. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. to crackle. brullare. brocco. Grisons brascla. broil. embroidery. broud. braird. to embroider. Ihre has guU-bord. to parch or broil. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. whence broccare. broder. silkes-borda. trouble. a freckle. to spur. Compare G. a point. atoms . to knots or loops. a brim. bordo. freckled. piebald . a brecJi. sting. gresiller. A badger. brucach. creak. noisy. spots. an edge. Ptg. to darn. to crackle. brasuole. broice. tufted ornaments. A fried or boiled steaks). brasiller. or It. brusler. a peg. brasolare. broukit. Gael. of pointing out their latent defects. brychau. frocadura. b?-od. borprick. a freckle. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. storms. forming to jumble. to streaked or speckled in the face. Thus brod. a flock or Gael. Gael. a badger. brastlian. ToBroider. a b?-ustolare. houx. bordar. precisely analogous to the Sc. or snag. Brocket. . broglio. brod. prasseln. to On the other hand the Sp. parched. Dan. to scorch. rustle. Here to ornament with needle-work. carbonado.

Pl. refuse Fr. For the same reason the Kiittner. in the sense of rejection. spittle. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. to be wanting. mediationem quorundam J. which E. G. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. refuse brakovat. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. to hatch. progeny of birds. See Broth. brumo. brydio. . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. to spit . glowing coals. brot. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. briiten. spittle . make out. refuse. et A. 396. phlegm. merchandises de rebut G. faulty. tussis. Grisons brinzla. This word shows the same relation to It. whnake. to pick and choose. brae. inspect. Per manus et old worthless horse. It may be compared with It. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. hraki. i. w. Pl. • . brak. to garble. keep warm. — point out the faults. insects. hot. brasa. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. as. brass does to Sp. If to vomit . refuse. See Wreak. sort. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. to pick. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. . . to throw blame upon. Bret. to . a chicken. bronce. embers. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. designation is indkler. stain. find fault with. — Fl. ordure. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. vile.D. embers to brund. dirty. brwd. wreak. Tooke's Catherine. brands. vrage. matter of blame weak place. to hatch G. burning. 38. OFr. Abbronzare. to sort goods . brack. racaille. brieden. to brew. raca. e. try . wraken. to — garble. cherish. lack. with. in which sense the OHG. wrak. Du. : ' . Bronze. to roast on the embers. wrack-good. and to reject the damaged and unsound. refuse goods. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. broen. to sit on eggs. term was correcfo^ir. On • tliis principle the G. try out. bredan. find fault — — — fuse matter. G. embers. broiid. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. an operation performed over hot coals.D. correctarius. to blame. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. but from the primary sense of the It. — a spark. Lat. brut. blur. Dan. mud. analogous to Bohem. to hatch. To correct an exercise is to Lib. bric-a-brac. has exactly the force of G. whence the modern courtier. dial. to nourish. — broeden. To blame mens ware. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. sbrinzlar. slaae vrag paa. and as an adj. buy and sell by commission. abject. — . Alb. from makel. to pro- to reject . The use sunburn. an . to be hot.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. See Brackish.— — . abbronzanchiare. In the . hot. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. bronze. to scorch. a brood . Russ. brokas. warm. Jam. filth. raquer. selection. Sc. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. braken. Brood. brokers' goods. brack-gut (Sanders). . brak. on.— Breed. Teutonic class : Du. to copper.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. fault censure. Fl. It. brakyne. sunburnt. brack-gut. tan. to sort brakovanie.D. Bronzare. an outcast or rejected sheep. refuse wares.D. . refuse brakowad. brasa. fermenting. fish-spawn broden. trumpery. vile. criticise (makeln). hrak. inspection. Sp. to braze. ON. Prov. braeck goed. screatio Junfus . It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. corrector. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. In those countries the term braker. Pl. bronzo. racher. Kil. goods damaged by sea-water. damaged. S. brechen. . Adelung. want. to sparkle. to reject. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London.— Lib. to emit sparks. Fr. from break. brunds. cast Lith. find fault with. nounce unsound. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. pan metal. a fault. bronze. rejection Pol. The Langued. bring eggs and spawn into active life. bracker. G. a broker. Pro v. Alb. bronze. Du. brid. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. a cough Hal. bridde. cracker. ODu. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. a breach or flaw. brod. couratier. and fishes . to criticise. or brascla. the spawn of fishes. brokoti. a makeln. rejected. the young of any animal . brackefi. brod. damaged. reject.

Sanscr. breg. Kil. shrub with leafless pointed edging. sense the Sc. Bohem. bryn. b7-un. Brow. Pol. to scald. bruach. cia.braubiti. hovel. to bubble up with noise. surface of Broth. to use. broc. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. bruith. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. bordeau. eye-lid. G. Gael. brauwe. a little . as Fr. broud. cabbage soup . to make sprouts brous-gwezen. brogues. eye-brow. or bushes and scrubby growths. juice of briars. brudi. break out brewet. plants composed of twigs. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs.D. . augen-braune. BROOK brook w. bank. grow brossa. a bud brous-koad. . a hill. brew . 105 Brook. G. rerum decoctarum. bruitheati. a bruth. Bav. the colour of things burnt. It. eye-brow. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. simmer from the murmuring AS. bank. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. broth. of which the variety of forms. buds. brouser. to burn.' Due. to murmur. perhaps burnt coloilr. &c. pour boiling water over. a hut or cottage It. t— Cot. Prov. broit. brink. to browse. bruich. frui. bros. a sprout. — . face. sproc. enjoy Goth. brous. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. broeye. surDu. . Here we find throughout the Romance. ceales briw. rage. Gael. brodem. the bubbling or springing up of water. broca.brink. heath. OHG. sap. brouic. brotar. brosses. braew. Bret. AS. It is Brother. It. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. to bear patiently. G. Dan. useful G. borda. The origin is a re. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E.— Overyssel Almanack.spross. margin. bregh. edge. eye-lid. juniper. or shoot. Wtb. branches. AS. borde. Brothel. brushbrothas) gives the OE. briar. Gael. noise. brau. brow. to border. to boil bruithe. brpuster. brotar. frater. to boil. hot. Fr. of plants broust. on. Limousin broudi. who is steaming with sweat. Sc. border. riviere. Tam de terrS. bank. OFr. a confused noise of winds. braces. waves. broccola. Pl. bryii. bruscosd quam de arabili. bhratrj Zend.D." Serv. Prov. laissent Domunculum. infusion the barley bree. . to use. fabric consists. brstiti.) . Fr. (for brodem). seethe. meal. on. . . bruno. . Due. bree. brosses. brouet. But the Walach. infusion. Catalan brossa. bratrj Lat. riviera. broth is sometimes used . brmi. Manx broie. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. strength Ir. to boil. Sp. &c. brd. brozia. strength. . from ripa. sprouts . chen. shore . brio. signifying twigs. ale . forms appear related to the Ir. braussa. a hill. grow into a bush. It. juice of meat. properly boiling water briihen. kail brose. Du. shore. verge. brouter. brov. may be connected with Russ. pottage. Fr. broth Brown. hut. Celtic. bor. See Bramble. Bret. breg. brawdj Slavon. . To digest. cabbage water. vigour. brukjan. Du. protecting the eye. brusmalt. sordes seu strigmata young branch. bruceti. circuindedit cum familia. bryn. bruth. bntdien. . Russ. broth brothaire. thicket. eat. Roquef. Cot. brewis. dialects is very different. G. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Gris. brost. eminence . mettle. sprot. 'Lzt. iVlanx broogh. broo. brosst. sodden. heat. brushbroccoli. low The AS. brad. bank. brdtaj Gael. Gael. brue . shoot. to spring . to shoot. Gr. bushes. brwd. dumetum. eye-brow. a shore. bruddeln. — . eye-lash . Browse. brodo. Serv. eye-brow. . from Goth.. w. boiled . Russ. frucius. a caldron. heath. steam from heated bodies. broem bark.brons. Ppim. brow of a hill. Commonly Teutonic. brlgh. Sp. wood . brouskaol. brass. briihe. a little house or cottage of timber. . w. was originally used in the innocent sense of . shrubs. and also border. Mid. brothas. Fr. brost. thick bush brousta. and It. — ' . to sprout. Lat. bros. in which brinnan. to boil. as small-pox. Fr. &c. brus. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. has briw. brocco. bruc. bordel. breg. sprout. a spring. pfriemkraut. spirit. brouches. broza. house of ill fame. awl-plant. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . spuma. as rhododendrons. briu. broden. — exiit et heath. Bohem. bud. brun. a river. brennen. vigour. warmth ch'an. thairj w. Bohem. signifying low wet land (Brem. brabruach. . Ger. a shrub broust. pith. sprocco. a sprig. bruithim. broth. breh. a derived from the boards. heat explaining the Prov. brucan. shoots. to browse. &c. fur Broom. a . G. braun. The AS. broth the ocean Sw. broi. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. A — . and Slavonic families. to roar. edge. a bud. or broken up . . OHG. brst. The softening down of the consonant bud. bruich. and Sc. . to use bruks. sprout. broieii. . browys. a source Gael. to Pl.

brit. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. rubbish. rods. Alexander. a flax comb. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. 201.). wool-card. brustia. brustia. and actually come in collision. a crum. sordes. G. Pr. Pm. brusca. brottcher. .— — i. Piedm. It.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. briser. broza. Hall in R. Text Soc. splinters. brista) or breaking out . wool-card. In E. — a bush. brist. bris. abroncar. See next article. bross. bruit. heath. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . bush. brMt. but on whom it schall to brisen him. dust. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs.— Palsgr. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. to cleanse. and Piedm. effort. borste. into a multitude of points. bross. Prov. briketo. dust. Fr. To brush then would be to dust. brossa. AS. to butt. OE. brikan. a rumbling. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. . a brush . Gael. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. Gael. britar. The Bav. brist. also a head-brush. brisd. Poems. brusco. brossa. brico or brizo. a bud. borste. blow burcar. coal See Breeze. of twigs. Fr. tremely. dust. a brush. to break. shoot brouskoad. a shrub composed of small twigs . scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. rubbish. bruc. It. fasx . desbrisar. a bristle. to brush. appearin Goth. Fl. it schall be al Sw. * Brunt. brosst. Sp. brousso. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. rubbish. brossar. twig. irruo. mg Cat. as It. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. bruscolo. and in the second place a besoiB. bruscia. broustia. bruyere. a — — (Agea) said. brist. brusc (Diet. Beryn. brise. Allit. Prov. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Wicliff. and also Brush. bud. — Fr. bricalio. brous. brik. bushy ground. E. to stumble. brisar. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. E. orts. — OE. tuft of grass or hay. brusco. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. burs. OFr. Prov. a briser. brosse. shock. ling or heath for brushes. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. a tuft of heath . a brush. —Chaucer. crush. crum bit . field. And that best is. Lang. to break. bruise exOFr. bruire. brust. Pr. remnants of hay or fodder. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. 174. chips. Cot.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Pm. to break or burst. biirste. . fragments. . burt. Sw. quasi twigs. brist j Port. Brunt. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. — those signifying a sprig. briiis (in the pi. bruscolo. and It. a brush Swiss bruske. brusg. . brizeto. to break to bits . K. to make brusshes on. brustid. shivers. ON. Piedm. a mote. broza. or shoot. That in all haste he wouli. brugir. borst. break. seems named from burst(on. Gael. or sodenly comyn' dust. a bristle. bruskr. brusca. a brush . A. . quisquilise. broust. 134. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. a brush. Prov. to crush. The Lat. britar. Brush. twig. insultus. G. brysan. detergere . E. Cot. bruiser. and sighid therewithal. to make a rumbling. dust. brushwood. Pr. and . brus. brosse. Fr. Diez. Lang. flax-comb brossettes. a brush . Fr. a brush . Pr. On the other hand. ca7-bo>i. brous. a bush of hair. an enmy. Gael. bruis (sing. biirste. Bav. p. bris. borste. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire.). or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. The same relation holds good between G. a bud or sprout Bret. —Fabyan. borste. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede.). fescue . NE. broken. bruzir. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Broach. insilio. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. Castr. a horse-brush. brosst. escousse. Bruise. brunt. borste. Bret. B?-usske. Brunt of a daunger. Palsgr. . bris. It. a little brizal. a noise. a blow. Bruit. wood composed OE. bruito. Sw. Port. bris. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. Fr. modification of the same root which gives the E. wool-card.

Sc. Gael. Fr. tender. in which the flesh dish. to strain. to a place used for the mouillir. — — ' A : ' ' . the lower soak in lye. or projecTo Buck. as a buck rabbit. hump. to butt. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. boil animals. to soak. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. bukke. pukkata. bduclien. boh. who resorted to the islands beichen. set of pirates in the spread. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. bog-aske. lye. mote. to soften. to Gael. Fr. bube. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. The term bocan is still ap. to wet Pol. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. w. bokni. a hole. pokka7na. buck-ashes. mieknad. drying of produce.— . and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to soak foul linen before washing. and then to other wild tumour Lith. very generally designated by the same puk. Pol. bouk. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. at a door. to buck. blast or strike with the forehead. The name. Illust. But see Bristle. 1857. bugd. boc. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. caned' Hence those who established them. of wind. Pref A. bubBuck. In G. — . This bubette. is 1. tuft. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. boc. a. blister. watery bud. to soak. colada. The place of such a 2. also applied Una. boucaner. buquer. It. hog dressed whole). says Laudon. . and uninhabited places in the West Dan. buck-ashes. . designation of a knob. it is beuchen. a ashes. . . mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. A . knock. open lath-work. Bohem. to soften. buborek. bublati. to bubble. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. a fescue. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). Bubble. a steep for flax. — . The word was very generally Buccanier. tender. mollire. bubbola. moist. a push. News. bugada. March 28. de la Floride. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. bub.to allow a free current of air.steep or soak. soft. It. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. . Formerly. and as a verb. Sp. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. was called in Fr. soft. Bret. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. the first wheal. soft. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. rap.tare. bubseti. Sp. Diet. mokry. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. and Fr. moczyd. lye. Magy. maban and baban. The male goat. because bucare does not in Marsh).biiken j Svi. and exercised their cruelties prin. Etym. to soften . Dan. to murmur. the linen at buck. 17th century. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. to bump as a bittern. bubauti. a bubble. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. to which in their language they call bou. erweichen. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. does not hold. ac. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. . a bubble. bifbel. Bohem. molle. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. Bret. soft . who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies.wet Lat. buchen. bucaIndies. to stick.D. and the bunch.derivation has been much discussed. tap .buchen. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. From an imita. Magy. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. w.lessiver. bouc. buquer. bucata. hump. bub.-wtt miekki.' Palsgr. a bubble . the upper for coifee. plied in the W. to butt or jurr Dan. from colar. Fin. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . pup. The cipally on the Spaniards. The natives of Florida. from weich. BUBBLE bruschetta. Esthon. . a knock word. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. Pol. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Fr. to filter. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. a to the male deer.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. See Dupe. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. 1586. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. as G. wood. bucking. when soap was tion is commonly taken. Cot. . top. bubiti. thunder gently .boukaat. I. to butt. It. soft It. buerj It. or mok. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. not so plentiful a commodity. was called bucking the linen. bwch. bucquer. a. different form. faire la lessive.byka. byge.

movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows.goa.poot. swelling.) as to soak. ' . child. wallet. a shield.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. a pustule bout. bump. become bochen.). the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. explaining Fr. seen in Hesse botz. weich. The knob or projection formN. bunch. a fold ceilio. bogla. scion. bouprobably identical with inok. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu.anything short of its kind./a. macero. bocla. sboge. Port. stroke.' Hal. bloca. turgere buczendig. The dressed fur of lambs. * Bud. jSouKoXiKog. bub. need.t-le!L{ * Bud. or male of to boil . prick in a target. potz. no business to do that. boss. a budget. to word. It. knob . bedde. It. Cot. buckel. a . motus creber. — — . bulga. a boy. II I'a feru desor I'escu. to un bout d'homme. brobrocchiere. skins pushit'. bulla. don't a baby). a short thick man. bougette. It termination is lost. Bav. lump. bunch . loud Cot. crack. Prov. dim.chissima. bucherame. a boss. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. imbuere. Bav. to boss or swell out G. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. a small shallow and open tub. butz. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. boucler. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. The word is a ddyn. as in Fr. rabodS. stir. K. convexity. * Bucket. to budge. The entire train of thought is bucket. boulj. Bucolic. bulka. to stir. OFr. bucherare. call.n. w. Mid. a leathern sack. boucaran. . Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. pote. It. bul. Lat. knob dwfr yn boglynu. with let. The Fr. Prov. a wallet. Fr. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. butt . boucle. bollire. pwt o Fr. goat's hoof. Sw. bod. a bud. — . a ring. — . to move. Buck-bean. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. boucle.r//'. Dan. to pen cattle. bloquier. bo.pode. a budget. boaLat. bouge. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. push forwards. call. a curl. case of leather . swelling. bod..— . bouljein. gjeit-klauv. botzen. bog and G.) . bucolicus. clump. Du. Budget.' Boccaccio. . a tuft. Russ. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Fr. botzen. ble. Fr. a bubble three thyngis. budge. a boss. Prov. Pol. ' . were To Budge. weich. knock. whom it is still much in use. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. butze. * Buckle. G. butzen (Du. . hump. Sp. A buckle or fastening for botch. a buckle or protuberance. bdden. Dan. mani. A water-plant with leaves and gille. rump of fowls . bolgia. a navel. cattle. great pouch. of bouge. bucket Fl.stuff. . . agreeing with Gael. This expression boglire. Du. It.. words is converted into b. a buclder or shield budge. pulga.. blow. ein. Fr.stumpy man. bloca. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. and weichen. a pail or flowers. Fr. bougette. a cowherd. no wheel bogeilio. belonging to the calling of the chen. the word w ' — . from Gr. bulb. pulga. bolgetta. probably from the notion of bubbling. from bugr. Fr. a dumpy gin. a servant. butzen. bouk is a pail and with the dim. to butt. So on. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. a bump. to line with fur. boss of a shield. Fr. . trunk of wood covered with leather. . nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. water message. bulais daqui. is to shrivel up. clasp of a book. bouter. In Lat. NE. Wtb. stud. a trough). to poke. bouton. to thrust. Bret. a shoot. boiling. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. with a central boss. the root of the Slavonic words gran. bukke-blad. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. Hence quel. Buckler. ' . weichen.Lat. . w. Pied. boglyn. to 'soak. . bugnir. also a leather tuft . and the reference to It. boqueranmis. — — . protuberance. ON. Budge. soft. and of the Lat. butzen K. ornamental stud. thrust. bouger. fur. from bo. don't stir from hence. pwtio. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. male or botzen. to swell. Mid. Hardly identical with Fr. where the G. bug. to bud or bocla. bode. dint . a stump buckle up. boach. of bac.' Schm. Behoves. with which it was ornamented. Gael. like a bean. inboachen. excrescence. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. buachazlle. To thrusting part of a long body. boucle. of a surface.' And this sacrament bus have dial.may probably be explained by N. put. bullion. See Bulk. call bo. to boil. Bus. in the beginning of to pierce holes. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. OHG. boccula. Swab. the radical image seems to be a set plants. noise . set of a plant in bulk. bouclier. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. Bret. built. to graft or bud trees. butzen. dinted. is doubtless fallacious. bud butzen. a little coffer or turgidus. W. above mentioned. having a boss.

made by a person. to marre often tasting it . — — — Buffet. buffet. a buffle or a bugle. bo ! an interj. It. &c. to excite terror in Macleod. Swiss baui. to strike face to represent the unknown. to jest or sport. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. the place whence the wine was drawn. It. w. — La Crusca. bufHe.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. or hath been Cot. bufogni. as wine that hath taken wind. Limousin bobal. buMagy. tabernarius. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. duff^ dull. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. leathern bucket. Pl. Lat. Thus buffet would a tapster. caupo. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. to rePl. bugbear. bouffer. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. often covering his E. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. while in Sp.D. him but Boyd iugges. bubaRuss. to blow souffleU. bobaow. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. buffa. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Esthon. —Boggart. a dull BUG From 109 — A . thus be translated to tap. or wild ox. smells . Pl. from It. colour. The use of the exclamation children. often blown upon. confused. and in Fr. Sc. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. bolgia. popo. buffle-headed. bauwi. either alone or with various terminations. to signify an indefinite object of terror. as from Lith. a block-headed noddy. a bugbear. a jester. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. bolgetta. 265. a puff. buffets. a clap. breath. dausa. From bulga. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bw! It./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . bugs. buffer. air. Fr. blurt or puff with one's mouth. — Bogle.' perfield. buivol. to give a as of a blow. E. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. soufflet. human. buff leather. . The children were playing in an oppocomer. Gael. buffen. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. ' They rether puffed at him. God's boast seemed feare children.—Buffet. A blow. the buffe. W. A — Bug. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. puff. wine may The verb in taverns. deadened. een duffen toon. from souffler. Fl. Hence the E. also the skin or heck of a buffe. word other cases. tastes. a hobgoblin. yar^aa. bau ! children. scarecrow . cuff . Magy. buffalo. mingled with water. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. Fr. site The two — — iii. buffet. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. a hollow sound. buffetto. Fr. Mid. as emblematically making light of an object.' La Crusca. to frighten . Sc. le reste emplissant d'eau. Buff. bugle. buffeteur. It. bouffer. Buffeter. Bufetarium. Fr. bukow Ikow. by metaphor. senses. dull sound. Romola. Buff. boo. Lith.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. dausinti. pulse . buffet. Teet-bo.— Buflae. to a representation of his voice. as Diez remarks. to blow. of colours. stupid. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. bufogni. a cuff or buffet. to give benti. A puff with — Fl. buffle. boman. Cot. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. a In . boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to puff. Buffoon. buffare. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. a goblin). il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. a side-board. to bellow . botffon. bumann.D. It. bubus. to puff. Lat. Cot. Lith. dial. — retailing buffeter buffetier. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. things in Jam. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. bwg. From buff! of terror. G. sounds. made to —Bugbear. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. The cry made to excite terror is then used. bubiti. mumming. also a G. baubau. buffare. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. — thence it has been transferred in E. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. bubach. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. — Z. for this purpose is very widely spread. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. rebuff. wauwau. Fr. a budget. Buffalo. to beat. btifetarius. bw.D. to blow . a skin.

or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. according to Coles. mask ' . to take bug. as Buffalo. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. provincially an insect. protuberant. roo. * 2. Schmidt. — — . Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. a silk-worm. the word is lin) bbgge. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Lith. larva (a bug-bear. monster. troll. the Devil. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Stalder bog. 3. used in the same sense. given in Chaucer. ghost. bukashka. a rabme. bogil. rose-bug. of bugabo was given. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. .loud noise. 493. E. Illyr. bok. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. a buffalo. forSc. bug-bear.3uhtii&:. is the dim. bold. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . Deut. Swiss booggen. il brutto Demonio. Same as buffle. dial. pugalo. and is Deutsch. buba. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Magy. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Bogge. — — terror. Bdronie. Russ. with more or less modification represents bau. vermin. beugler. — — ' . fette. quos what produces dread or disgust. Bug. The final guttural of W. Cheval de trombugti. a. and in child's Magy. W. great or bug words. bug-bear. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. saucy. also a bug-bear. Fl. swollen. to creeping things. poggl. i. Lap. earwig bau da grascha. BUGLE Tentennino. Lesachthal. It. . It. 2. a boogg. fierce. threatening. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. buffle. boo. gad. Grisons bau. — boogg. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. bobal. roarHal. is very common. an insect. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bogk. Sw. w. biignt. bug-bear. iv. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. a misshapen person. Magy. boa-peep. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. then a horn for drinking. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Bugle. boeuf sauvage. worm. terrifying ward. bug. threatening. to roar Aasen. bwgwl. high-sounding words. (Spurrell). Swiss ing. bug dung-beetle. language any kind of insect. Mundart. to take fright. to bellow. Mid. insect. to origin in the expression bugs words. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. b'dgni. a bug-bear. and a boggarty ing.Fr. The w. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. — . big. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. An ornament of female dress condread. blustering. also a bug-bear. paws the ground . also a baco-baco. thus connected with bug. a bug-bear. scarecrow . bbgni. and in Lat. especially to beetles or winged insects. Serv. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. coco. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. the black a maggot. 1551. insect. an object of terror.. bugler. shepe and gootes. buculus. See The name terror). and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. : no BUG . Lett. Manx boa. and bugle. superbire. a bugbear for children. any disgusting animal. Sp. Swelling. bauginti. baco. to take fright. Parolone. to frighten scarecrow. a proud overbearing man pujat'. affright. Chaucer. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. to bellow. A similar applica. the buggaboo w. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bwg and E. I. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. of pipes sewn on. proud. The name of bug is — . bogk.. tion of the beetle tribe. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. xiv. hert. tumble-bug.Lat. well as the terrific object. Hence bugle-horn. a beetle. bugle. Hal. banian boube. bau (Pureiglia. buggabod). . bogle. bogil bo (e. Fl. Bug as a lord. Big. bukati. bugbear. bugar. pujalo. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. . Grose. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. oxen. pugaf. bwgar. disgust. Bible.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. high. as an object of dread.— . long. bucula. fear. booggen. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. a goblin. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably.

swollen OE. — — . a. husk. bladder. . bolgia. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Melancholy. cultivate. bua. on. Ptg. Hal. to puff up bolginn. a. the potato G. the capacity or burden of a ship. mass. bale. globule bolg-lhuingey. bwlg. herd^ swarm pulkd. snorting on a bulk. ' . BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bubbling up. belly. bulgen. inhabit. . a leather sack or budget Fr. boss of a buckler. thorax buick. bulk is a partition of boards. belly van de kerche.). bulwis. See how this tode bolneth. as water beginning to boil bolg. bouk. Lith. To Build. Kil. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. Lat. body of a ship . Hence e. .' Fl. as it was merly written in English to bylle. bulbus. a bulb Du. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. body. Lett. blow. skin flayed whole. hold or bilge of a ship. bulgen. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. ^ — . or feminine termination gives Bav. bulcke. — — .pulks. of an inflated skin. byli. Bulk. bauen. a heap. crowd. In the representation of natural sounds. belly. and put it home. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. . skin bag. stuffed bag. . From till. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. to bol. Pm. Dan. vulva. or cargo of a ship. The radical sense is shown in Russ. bulg.— . . consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bulbe. I. gebolgen. skin of an animal. trunk. bolgna. to undo the cargo. to blow. belgja. Pr. a tuberous or bulbous root . bulked or bumped out. a lump or mass. Pr. a straw corn-vessel. belly Cat. Bulge. hull of a ship. balcone. ON. straight will he 2. to bubble up Pol. to break bulk. to gather. bolle. unevenness Sw. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bo. A — ' — Bulk. lump. and bulbukd. were a habitation. Bourser. pimple. bag. Dan. boss. swell. the belly. dial. bolle. be protuberant. — . PoXj3a. OSw. belly. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. in bulk. to belly out. bauch. to swell. blister. acervus. See Bulk. . bubble {palgan tiisge. bulle. bole. bol. a bubble Gael. as well as is very variable. ne. the position of liquids in the word In English. the womb. swollen. Lith. whence bylja. to raise a habitation. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. and N. or bear out as a full purse. a dint in a metal . a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. blister. Pm. bug. See bollekeii next article. womb. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. the contents of the hold.' Palsgr. G. balgs. buhe. lump. . bubble. buk. principal portion. Boss^. boss of shield. Gr. it again. — . Bolke or hepe. bellows builgean. The addition of a dim. buc. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. G. a water-bubble). body of an animal. to swell. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bullka. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. a bubble. Othello.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. (3oX|8oc. mass. at riufa bulkann. belly Sw. to build. in vessel. bulk. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. bolgan. . . ' . boa.d. leather sack. van loock. Muratori. compare Da. pouch builgeadh. to throw out a convexity. Bav. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. a stage or scaffold. Mister. bulge or bilge. bubble. a bunch. of E. the carcase. bulk or capacity of anything. pocket. bulne. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. boulge. to bubble up. bol.' Festus. G. . hollow. ball. He found a country fellow dead drunk. swell. puff. cumulus. bulkaf. The Walach. balg. OSw. m um Placentiae.'— Cot. bolnyn. in Sc. a leathern sack or portmanteau. blister Manx bolg. belly. knob. . w. tumeo. bol. bulka. bulki. habitaculum. — — . boss. ON. bolgetta. biilken. sedes. Gr. bolg. a globe. . bouge. knob. pulkas. Lat. For the latter sense ' — My . or of what is shaped like a bubble. bulge or convex part of a cask. Palco. tumidus. ' . bugue. bunch or projection. — Bulb. a round bulky body bwlgan. domicilium. . trunk. turgeo bolnyd. or. bolso. belly. beuck. balg.' Cot. . the head of an onion. balco. Sp. . . formed a farm. bukr. pod ON. projection. MHG. Mandeville. Bulch. With these must probably be classed ON. jnake bulch. chest. has bulbuk. the body Du. knobby.' Anat. Jno. bulbe. bubble. bed of a river. bilge. Here stand behind this bulk. swell. a prominence. wallet. to spring. villa. belgr. anything prominent. It. head . trunk of the body. a protuberance. knot in thread. 1388.

where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. large of its kind. of boule. It.. Eullrusli. w. from the Lat. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. as It. is called a ball. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bulk of a thing. bullus. it may be observed that a bullet in E. Bully. in N. dial. Bullbeggar. /SouWivu. which may probably be the origin of the name. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Gold or silver uncoined. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr.Fris. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. a cow. bietebau. BuUiou. a seal. Terriculamentum. ba. A papal rescript. ON. Pl. bullern. bellocier. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. A lace tree. whence bullire.. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. embossed work.D. a hobgoblin. leraures nocturni nigri. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bolla. to seal. Bret. Du. Fr. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. This word is used in several senses. any embossed work. Du. lumpish. — — Bull. W. a bowl. bolli. a wasp. as the ornanails. Bullfrog. boillon. as a mill-dam or the like. bollar. poltern. &c. G. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. to bellow. Cot. hhint. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . w. signifying roaring. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. pwl. bulderen.D. Du. bollon. 2. pimple. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. 3. many to protuberant objects.' do not go by the dangerous water. boulct. in the sense of base metal. blunt. bullos. brass-headed nail . to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. stamp. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. is of a class with Pl. bulla. stamped money. polten. Lith. bullocks. Scot's Deso. The final element tergeist. scarecrow. dim. boss or stud. a beam or rafter. 2.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. large.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. bulloi. beams or boards. as geting. it is boulet de canon. G. bwla. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. sloes. Bullet. — A tition in a ship.. a scare-bug. coarse. thick. I. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. from baula. — Fl. poll-cheannach. to tical with Sw. a little fish nearly all head. spirits. to bubble. also a parFl. balgeting. tition of deals instead of a wall. a bulox polos. BulUiead. Fr. Sp. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a tadpole. a stud. bole or trunk of a tree. bulke. stud. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. bulk. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. The bullfrog. from the use of the equivalent terms. stupid . of the ox kind.. the matrix or die . a hobgoblin. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. N. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Dan. biitzibau. bwbach. baula. G. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. bubble. billoti in Fr. elves. a bull. Du. a tadpole . .'— ' Palsgr. a bull Swiss bullen.D. on the contrary. lumpheaded . a framework of balks. Gael. bolos Fr. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a hornet. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bolli. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. It. bauli. stud. a noisy violent fellow. i.Gr. G. pollach. as in E. and vellon in Sp. bal. bwlas. b2iggaboo. Bullace. a blockhead. See Bowl. billon. boss. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. eth and frighteth. The male W. to boil. See Billet. bulla. bellow. a bul-begger. urchens. bouillon. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. blister.lle de fusil. whence Mod. penbwl. bouillon. Pm. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. poli-cheannan. from the noise. however. bullebak. bugbear. And The word bullerbak. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. witches. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. of Witchcr. bollos de relieve. from Lat. and thence terror. assito. from Fr. also of the tadpole or young frog. bulle. round glass phial. The wild plum. any great-headed or studded nail. to emboss . a seal. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. the seal affixed to the document.

up was termed monnaie de billon. a. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' Stat. a blunderhead.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. sound. G. primarily the ramparts of a town. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. block-werck. 10. Thus ' ble. Bum-bailiff. violent. biihne. violent overbearing person. 2.' for the purpose of exchange. to dun.. the soil. clamour. bottom. 14. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. — — plate d'argent. From the notion of a humming. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Etym. 1687). que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. a boisterous. G. bastion. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. debacchari.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. c. poltem. honunele. bomtnen. bustle. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. Philip le Bel in Due. In England the fortunes of the word have been different.d. boulevard. boene. — Bump. buller-bas. to . provides. a bumble-. furious man. argentum and silver. — bombam?nen. IIL st. agrees with e. Du. BULLY with which coins were stamped. scaffold. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. Miege in Hal. ON. from boden.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. The 27 Ed. The cry of the bittern. botm. ^i^/«. a noisy blustering fellow.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. St. Kil. minari verbulderen. polterer. 1305. and porter au billon. Fr. Fris. droning. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . blunder-buss. a floor.' Again. ierd-boeyme. Bailey. Sw. bol-werck. To Bum. — Boom. IV. G. The decried coin. 2. or work of defence. D. Du. beat a — Hal. to make a noise . buene. noise. vallum. John). defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. is called bumping or bells. to make a droning Du. blunder-buss. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. 4 Hen. Kiittner. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . 'lega. resonare.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. blaterare. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. a stage. bommele. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. The Stat. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. bottn. Fris. bulderen. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Bully. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. perturbare saevis dictis.. Hal.the ramparts. To bum. 9 E. a hectoring. III. bombilare. boisterous fellow.' reals of standard currency. or a humblebee. A.D. — Bumto . &c. For bottom. baluarte. Hence — . provides.' agger. ^Bully-rook. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. To bully is to bluster. propugnaculum. is bullion — A — buller. The Sw. 2. c. then in general a rampart. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. ground. buller-jaan (bully. buller-bak. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. by corruption boulevart. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. but now is the central part of the town. AS. Bum. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Kil. Hence bom and ban. buller-brook.' ' mettre au billon. Du. bodem. ierd-beame. To bum. hum. un faux brave. bolderen. to terrify by noise and clamour. c. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. Bully-rock. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. to drum Lat. on the other hand. It. intonare. buller-bas. legaggio di metallo.D. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur.

E. Pl.' he fell with a bang. a pumpion or gourd. knochen. bunan. bmike. a rabbit. the tail of a hare. bannock. from bunsen. stem or base. il me pousse. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. A Du. bunke. stubble of beans. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. awkward clown. to ' . botn. stock. nor would it concern the public if he did. 1.P. bulscha. — Marine Diet. bunsen. Mrs Baker. a pocket Sw. applied to young persons. To bam. bonge. Thus e. . callus. Hence E. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. a heap OSw.^Cot. especially girls. a bunch. . oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. See Boss. pwmpl. Dan. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. should probably be a short tail. a hemp-stalk. bun eich. protuberance. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bottom. root. Sc. — — de dor bunsen. Fr. a bag or sack. a. pompon. are dim. Manx bonkan. bottom. Bunch. It. bunkc. a dried hemp-stalk. E. hdk passing and E. a boil or blain. Bums it's hit. bonuach. ! — knocking. stump. Gael. . bund. clumsy. Pm. poumpido. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. cluster. Kyx or bunne. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a tail (Macleod). Li cake. Bung^. See Bunch. — — — — ' — knock.— Pr. one ever saw the word in that shape. bongie. bun. — — Bun. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . . Suffolk bonnka. Fr. seems to unite Gael. bull. mto Sp. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Then. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bundle. OSw. root. Pm. — — Bun. Fl. bamgetroffen. a round mass . to beat. gibber. Bumboat. a bowl P1. bon. bung. . bunga. the Pr. an old stump of a horse. Probably for bun-boot. Bang sen. Moor. butt end. Dan. Du. bunnion. Pr. Ir. a knob. w. . Forby. pumpurras. stock. pwmp. Bump. to knock . bunga. to bang. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. or to the mass by which it is given. banga. inconsiderately. ner. truss E. Probably from bump. so the form btmk. bumtel. any round knob or bunch. and signifies consequently a mass. bum-boot. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Bun. S. Bunk. forms. He fult dat et bunsede. bugnet. a heap Wall. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Sc. bu<rnone. while bulch was traced through Gris.). any round knob or bunch. a Sp.! . Bony. knuckles. bun with ON. also for taking a pilot to a ship. a knob . noise.' Palsgr. a wallet.D. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bugno. bugno.D.-^Fl. a into Dan. trunk. a knock. bump. and related with ON.S. a knotty stick) Sw. strike E.' Bun. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. E. buns. Pm. pompette. a swelling from a blow. Pl. a bud. foundation w. calamus. Roding. Lang.D. bunki. See Bounce. bunt. . stubble Manx bun. a bunch Magy. a button. bungersome. dial. pumpa. . binge. lump. as we have seen E. from knock) It.. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bignet. to . a bump. bunka. bunch— Hal. as in other cases. Gael. passes Sw.pummel. Related on the one side to Pl. a dry No .D. Hal. a purse . Hal. bugnone. to swell out E. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. A clumsy. . H. strapping. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. knob or heap. bulse. explaining E.— Bunnion. a large . . . He buncheth me and beateth me. bune or boon. Holland and Flanders. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. a rabbit. &c. Bumsen. bans. lungeous. gibbus. pwmpio. —Bunny. abrupt manbuns-wise. to bang ON. — stalk . a heap. bmidt. bunken. Bumpkin. bonnock. round mass of anything. — round fruit. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Again.. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Bunch. to beat. Hal. bumsen. . dial. Radically identical with Dan. blain. a knob. awkward. w. tundo. to bang down. a boss Lith. a heap. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. to thump. throw down with a bang. bolsa. stump. Bunewand. poumpi. a heap or cluster. a person employed to dun one for a debt. clown. a lump on the foot bunny. Daal bu7iseti. bottom bun feoir. or grete knobbe. a boil (punkos bot. bulto. a. banke. bunny. . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. a hump. hay stubble . . large. lenten loaves. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. to . stalk. a swelling. BUNCH bum-bailiff. boi7ieog. Hal.

a wisp of hay or straw. stilmpern. with the head. bondel-loos. ' — work . from beran. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. colligatio. tinkle. rumble as the bowels. to in to stop the hole. buret. stiimpeln. loosed from bonds. The Magy. bangla. — btiruii. . on. Cot. halm-tapp. To do anything awk- wardly. bummle. Bret. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. .punt. Hal. russet. bondeau. to push. bag to catch the wind. byrthen. biirde. bourjon. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. byndel. to cobble. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. unskilful working. a bungler. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. — . bonde. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. in is Fr. shackles. Muratori. Bunny. bourgeon. a bunch. The Fr. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. B. Fr. or used as a receptacle for papers.' Festus in Diez. to push ghebondte. dark. shove . to strum on an instrument. to hum. Fr. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bundle. Biu'geon. also a piinple in the face. bouche. to resound. racket. whence bunting. Burden. bove. to stop. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Burden. klimpem.— . Pl. bondon. Sp. fascis. that the primitive meaning of shackle . a water bubble made by rain. OFr. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . to gingle. the stopper of a cask). bondelj bundell. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. or putting forth of a vine. Banff. Burganet. something bound together (Mrs Baker). AS. bongani. a sort of helmet. guggle as water. knock. and now more Bailey. to push with the head del. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. the middle part of it. boya. A load. Palsgr. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. OFr. to float. Cat. to Somerset is to sift. are from bouscfie. So in Pol. bongun. to work at carpentry bangan. klempern. AS. borboUar. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. See Barbarous. The stopper for the hole in a boia. is originally a wisp or bunch . coassatio et Du. bangla. and E. Lat. the bung of a barrel Lim. to stnmi on an instrument. the noise of drums. do a thing bunglingly. reddish brown. bungande. . Burble. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. Bung of a tonne or Lith. was formerly pronounced buro. bunta. ghebundte. however. — Bureau. G. to bear. to gingle. a boye. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. To burgeon. Sw. to hum. bommen. * Buoy. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bunsen. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. The Italian buio. Sw. Sp. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. to knock. bui. the loose open grow big about or gross. banghagr. and bomme. and Du. working in wood (especially with an axe). bang. Compare G. Rietz. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. an anchor buoy. Bundle. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. G. or tuft. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. ho-tapp. bourion. bon. . Sw. bundt. Bung. and the Sw. bounta. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. tinker . See Bun. 202. Du. dicimus rufum. borgonota. to bud forth. contignatio. on. to shove. See Bourdon. knocking. Prov. buie. the float of an bundle. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. driving in the bung. la Borgonota. bondir. tap. — — To Bungle. Russ. It. buret. tapp (whence tceppa. Fl. E. Sp. the young cloth used for sifting flour. a bunch Burbulas. To Bunt. Fr. punishments for prisoners. Bunt. stocks or such OSw. Burly. of a song. Bunting. bimge. to pype. modem bummle. bouchon. bonde. A Dan. to botch. to bolt meal. racket . banga. clumsy performance. bindini. Prov. bang. a bung. bond. a drum . burion.D. dial. gyves. knocking. A bubble. to stop. The belly or hollow of a sail. and van t' vat. Johansen.Fris. boil or bubble up. So Du. bolting-cloth. generally known as the material of which bud. dial. bury. a botch. p. bundel. noise. See Borel. burboloti. to work ineffectually. Sp. to knock. boj. To bunt. The word is flags are made. N. clogs. bote. to hum. — — . . boei. Kil. buove. OG. whence in bure. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. a cork. Fr. to bungle. properly a Burgundian helmet. B. bourguignote. sprig. especially in wood. bou^e. dark grey bura. to kick. anchor or of a net boyar. boucher. fetters.

spring-water bumach. broil. Sw. brusler being a faulty spelling. bunch. grancelli. to sharpen on a whetstone. — . Swiss Rom. to sharpen. Burly. Walach. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to polish. Burryn. i5«r4 biiirte. burle of cloth. The in. the J in OFr. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. a jest. .' a jibe. to swell with pride. See Burgeon. to Gael. Fr. In the same way ON. Dief. burgen. burly. . Todd. Sw. ample of polishing metal. a bladder. &c. Prov. to give an edge to. . bururus. See Burr.. an edge. purra. roguing beggars. Antiq. a lie. to swell. brustle. fire. burlare. and Dan. a bubble.. to roar. OFr. Supp. tumentum. pressa puret. Probably. a well. language of folly or ridicule. abourioner. a blaze. It. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. taunt. From Fr. See under Bore.bryna. ii6 BURGESS Gael. ^Notk. like the wind in trees. is termed burling. Hence Bridel. — . like straw or small . Pm. born. brunna. to puff up borr^ . like. dial. sea. Schm. surge or dashing of the sea . Pren7ien. burgi latro. tahko. borrelen. brun. burgensis.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. to tell lies. tion of the root which gave the OE. sidiary element. From the same root E. Compare also Piedm. burgeois. big. with Dan. bururus. to hum. OE. toast. swelling borr-shuil. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. a spring a robber. to effervesce. ends of thread. — Han to bruser op. blow. pur (see Burgeon). Burn. swell up or strout out. brimmen. a knob. A legal term from the Lat. Fr. brandung. Swiss Rom. watery.). through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. a wine skin. bourglairs. to set on fire. knob. to make a So from Fin. The Gael.— Pr. to burgen or wax big. must be explained on the same principle from G. from the roaring sound of flame. ends of thread. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. brook. a margin. and the Burin. brustolare. Bav. bruse. Bestiary. brima. boure. tahkoa. to murmur. Fr. Burgher. Burlesque. Sp. borr. water. Bret. Burgess. borracka. an &c. 122.or bubbling up. It is probable indeed that Fr. to roar. as of suggests. Burler. bears. brynsten. bourou. brunnr. OFr. So also Sw. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. In the manu. brausen. lerre.Ps. compared with G. Bouffer. the word seems Pm. a fountain. — — . sicut sound. .' Cot. robber. brAler. Pr. BURNISH i5«r/. brasa. to bourda. brinna. to rub. to fiy. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. as Diefenbach bud. a gurgling ^. ON. to roar. brunir. Burgh. It. the er is a dresser of cloth. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. Lang. it of the knots. brim or edge of anything. to have acquired the sense of polishing. ridicule. bouril. bourd. bremmen. joking. in Schm. boura. brunnen. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. angular . condemnentur morti. Probably a modifica. E. purling. de Vaud. bud or sprout forth. to swell oneself out as birds borras. jest of. from bryii. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. It. purrata. and the Burnish. a jest. explaining the E.— . brase. Burglar. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. bruzir. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab.). as in cousteau. flocks. G. borni. with little iron nippers called burling irons. thence. Limousin bourdo. sbornoi. from Lat. fires up. de Vaud. brinnen or Also ein roar. he rustle. buirleadh. as the / in purl. Fl. to ridicule. a whetstone. Castrais bourril. to bud . b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. the roaring surge of the — — — . N. burn. a bud. has also borr. to puff. Lang. schleiffen. borujon. to burn. boiirre. to To Bum.. — — . the flocks. become big and proud. ^ttsa. Cot.sharpen. barrel. A — — . to bouronna.ireui£r:e. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. singe or scorch with fire. See Berough. occupying much space. 56. ' rugiens. crackle wood in burning Hal. Fl.. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. warbling. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. The primary origin of the word.j'own. brinii. which has given much trouble to etymologists. to grind on a whetstone. a purling hiwe brennen. to roar. repartee . to ridicule. Nat. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. explaining Sp. mockery. to roar 5.). protuberance. and OG. to roar (as lions. OE. — — . G. is an Thus G. Bav. to surge. leo Fin. Gael. j. lorra. A burl. embraser. a prominent eye borracka. burren. to polish. a bubble to spring as water. briis^. to burn. Goth. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. laer. is connected with brim. to polish helmets..

a.' edge grew weak. brittle. This word seems safety. In OE. Sw. bres- — tan. Fr. 5150. shearing of cloth. appears under the Lang. mentioned under Burgeon. &c. — Clare. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. See Burgeon. brizeto. G. It. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. root borr. borre. Compare also OE. whirr. — Translated by Kemble. Fr. Fris. beurs. iii. briketo. barza. burial place. brista. leather. buscha. borre. a purse. Burse. to stuff. fortify. byrgen. as from Sp. Sw. preserve. a morsel. -burse. impetus. Du. A rabbit burmotion. Bursar. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. straw. borrow. shuffling. To Burst. 225. a barn or cupboard. to break. to P'air. burra. bris. britar. S w. OHG. brjota. Port. as for the protection of a child's head. coo. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Burial. keep. to burst. husks. Mid. Gael. swell. force. the officer who bears the purse. brest. foretell great storms at 3. a pad. Burser. cover. Swiss burren. purr. byrsa. cwning-gaer. bur. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Jam. birigean. hair. brit. See Bulge. brist. . Burr. to hide. prsnuti. of England.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. also ' any such trash as chaff. byrigels. ' BURR AS. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. to buzz. explained E. bris. as it is still pronounced in N. Burr is related to buzz as protect. I. AS. borra. Brun on bane. Hal. pipaa. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. blurra.— . Du. save. shelter. borsa. G. chips or anything else Fl. to save. E. brokil and brotil. ON. Burse. and spelling. peluca to Fr. brico. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. byrgels. AS. also all such stuff as hay. bourlet. talk fast and indistinctly. perruque. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . karborre. the — — castle or fortress. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. stuffing. a port. preserve. &c. a rabbit burrow. a place of defence. borsia. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. borra. and. . some people in pronouncing the letter r. berstan. from whence we pass through Sp. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. an annular swelling. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . Hence Fr. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. break . ber•whirr to whizz. any kind of quilting or stuffing. makes the disbursements of the college. verbergen. that birds make their nests with. ON. shales. Burrow. 2. when they spring So in W.' Harris in Todd. a harness or collar maker) . whirr and burr. birgan. and thence flocks 'of wool.Lat. It. g. Dan. bur. i5(7&a. ' ' — — burren. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. byrstan. idiom if 4. caer is a — — — ' ' : . borsa. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. ultimately resting on the Gael. In a met. The root forms brik. as in Northumberland. bergen. brisd. to hide . Cot. Beowulf. an exchange. With a slightly different ghen. bourre. dial. bristen. whence Kil. Fr. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. bolsa to It. its own protection. be more in accordance with AS. OHG. and met. bourse. of a body hurled through the air. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. birr. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. . to bury . casting bullets. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. burre. briser. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. a wallet or scrip. byrgan. bersten. bourrelet. bolgia. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. briso. ptcrren. from AS. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier.. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. tomb. brickie. brown. To Bury. bourse. Sexy.' The same word with burgh. from Fr. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. burgisli. but it is more probably a development of It. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. bourrer. brast. signifying protrude.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. brisdeach. moss. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. any rapid whirling biarga. a sepulchre. a purse. beorgan. skin. brittle. dial. brist. bristeach. to mutter Sw. Shelter. -Grisons bulscha.

in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. whente beorg. rad. ' —P. wisp. the land. a bundle. as boun is simply buinn. and we actually find bushel. for at buasc. make ready. bo7ich (Fr. AS. Sc. and thence Mid. Bush. sur une litifere. iriCtf -ifoe. thicket of thorns . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bossen. bosch (a diminutive ?). Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. bustellus. clusprobably Morocco leather. In to Brutaine. bush. Sibriht that I of told. to dress. a bush. Harold G.fiasc. is thus accounted for.-^Bushel. : — . bossida. biichse. Mid. The word frequency with which to busk is used. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bosc. Sir Tristram. It. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. Gr. Bush. bundle * Buskin. tuft. protect . or the like. a tuft. aheap of stones. Prov. . a tuft. bosta. at buast. Bouchet. the past participle of the same verb bua. and he cites wisp bauschen. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. a troop. Le roy Richard mort. busk.' sheath. to bury. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. . gave Lat. basse. signifying to entomb. condere. Du. . knot. Sw. bush. a box. brodequin tout noir. bustula. bousIn the other copy ser. a tuft of hair. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. mount. dead. The bone in a woman's stays. to enclose in a case or box. boistel. ' . 'at bua sik.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. we have Fr. So from Fr. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. truasc. boissa. To Busk. a bush. Layamon. bos. or — Busk. to dress. a tuft guini. abdere.' The word is explained by — — . Malberg. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen.P. besom). Brunne. boisseau. qualster-boscken. borseof trees. a -tavern bush. borcegui. and not directly (as Du. ' . Du. bussellus. boxta. induere vestes . busken. ch). oneself. barst. cluster. It. fiast. -idis. to sepulchre. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. 2. to stop. a rampart. to turn. defence. barsc in Heimskringla. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. burial mound. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. buskr. a wisp. . from the ON. bussel. bua. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a little box Dan. —Busk. ieorh. to direct one's course towards. . bundle. occultare K. roquies. buysschen. tow. il fut couch6 l^jkema). the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . verb. whence at bua sik. a clot of phlegm sart. a box. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. See Bust. . a gun biichse.— ' ii8 {chreo. To prepare. bairgan. Du. bousche. to swell. brodiquin.boisteau. boiste.Lat. bunch. van wijnbesien. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. whence bouchon. buxula. then a tuft Sp. OFr. the Moors and of Morocco. OFr. as synonymous with to inake one boun. bulk. to forest of Eyda. Brunne.Lat. 410. Fr. beorgan.' a box. Fris. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. Thence byrigean.' The buskin is said Bret. basse. The radical idea is seen in Goth. a corpse). that the lend had lorn thorn. the idea of knocking. ' . See Box. bulge. buxta. grapes. and from the Fr. berghen. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. bausen. to prepare. a been written buasc. And her ful sone tuft. in the For Skirnis . preserve. lump. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Thus Froister . from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. thicket {buski. brake. R. ' . borghen. They busked and malced them boun. busse. hjul-bosse. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. to bend one's steps. a grove bosch van haer. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen.) to hide in the ground. bouche. bramble. The primary sense of hair . buxida. a bunch of twigs. bousse. to keep. a hump. apparently a secondary verb.gur bidst austur um EySascog. boucher. Ptg. G. AS. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. a box for measuring corn. bussare. a bunch. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. which would later have truast. hunch Du. in OE. diminutives. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. projection. to bow. at bua sig. BUSH hreaw. box wood to bush.

biist. also a flagon. a. sunt quas Hispania aves . to make use of. Hal. kiss. Sw.pjik. bist. or avutarda. forest. kiss. a blow. busc. body without arms and legs. in Diaz Gris. a kiss. a bulk or trunk without a head. Comp. mogangas from gonj. Fris. vessel employed in the herring fishery. busch. Fr.— . 2l box. 22. the point of a lance. stir. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. bruskras well as buskr.bezig. Prov. body of garment. buz. Hence probably au-tarda. bukr. smack. as in moharra from harbe. 119 bi{tr. ON. Bust. Prov. a bunch of flowers . Fl. mons. Rouchi. a mouth. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. Gael. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. 10. busq. buquer. I go strepo) . Box. snout.). Business. log . tarda. So Wes- terwald munds. ViM. The proceedings of Parliament. mosequin. a tree. body. arbor ramis trunGloss. a fishing vessel. besongne. brusc. Fr. mouth. a stroke of wind. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. bust. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. — hardly be distinct from Fr. putschen. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. outarde. a backstock. — . to make a splash in the water. the trunk. With respect to bust. outard. stump. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. to occupy. Cat. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. chest. signifying trunk of a the body. a large cljest or particular applibox. a busk. busto. trunk of Cot. bisgung. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Prov. Buss. On the other hand. borcegui. Lindenbr. A wisp. 7o\. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. Bulch. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. busche.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. or chest in which the vitals are contained. Busk. an ostrich. bnist. buc. bu. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. Cot. mouth. biseg. bussen. also a It. made stiff. A A busquer (Sigart). AS. morsequi. Walach. geidha. to knock . of a doublet. ON. betarda. Sp. buyse. Port. bulk. a log. busy. brut. butz. knock. body . Swiss butschen. a boat or small vessel . forms morseqiiill. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . tuft. .D. lips. putta. ' bistardej It. box. statue of the upper part of Fr. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. trunk. basiuin. Namur — Champagne Fr. utarda. abutarda. buc. a Mid. busta. austarda. an affair. mohedairova. besoigAe. and also a sounding blow. love gestures. ottarda. plated body or other quilted thing. beso. a kiss. pussa. a bush. bus and Pol. a kiss of reverence. crack . 1555. the long. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. . Fr. also a busk. Sp. fe^a. Lat.' Plin. of the human body (Grandg.' ON. thick end. Xerqui. I. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. occupation. and by transposition morchequi. to bustle. bus. hipista. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. bus. a kiss. Busy. representing a blow. See Boss. a projection. avuDiez. So in Fin. — Thus we should have mocherqui. ^A. would explain the G. otarda. buc. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. occupied bezigen. stump. bussa. Bustard. a great billet Cot. B. and then with avis again prefixed. bust. especially of a woman's dress. baiser. Fr. bustla. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. lip. stem. A great sluggish fowl. bysgian.d. BUSS Dozy from Arab. bacio. or Cherqui. its slowness of flight. Bust. I. bucha. I bustle. lip. a ship of some size. The Prov. body. brostia as well as bostia. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). a blow. work. To hurry or make a great B. ship Sp. the breast. buta. — — difications of the same word. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. inde discurro et operosus sum.Lat. lump. to Swab. To Bustle. Busitiess :c3iVi . as in ON. Edrtst. bisg. trunk of a tree. kupata. trunk. small. Bav. busch.> Also written buskle. sera. business. but. abotarda. Sp. bisegung. 2. Pol. a bust. — — — — It is like the smouldering. btcc. the body without arms busque. Lang. ' BUSY 2. employment bisgan. says. a sleeveless truss or doublet. — clattering about. The form brust. Du. windbutsch. body of a man. Nained from Proximse iis zia. and supposes that the common Arab. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. 1372. from jnund. knock. cata — . beezig. body of a woman's dress It. worn to make the body straight . bysgje.

a small winebag. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. Wall.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out._ bitten j biiten door. a baiTel . The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin.streets. a cask. large barrel. ' There is leathern bottle. the servant in charge of the original object. slaughter-house. ont jhi^ton. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. and bot. biitait slaughterer of goats . of the wine and drink. by the mode in which he is treated. which the word corresponds to the Fr. bountifully.' — — ' . plain the conjunction as signifying boot. gives at least two pounds sterling. wooden receptthing to be done. beyond the Piedm. a butcher. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . AS. without law.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. ox. bolgia.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. body of a shirt w. the bottles. "PLT) . as Pantler. boucher. But In Sc. bodifie. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. binnan. without the house kept in bottles. If that where now we should compiler. Lang. an outlaw from bouche. bochier. Butcher. beta. similar train of thought is seen in ON. Here the but implies the existence of an.' there is really a negation to be supplied.' Thus Chaucer says. barriga. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. the present day we should say. So in Italian from becco. a leathern bag. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. hollow case. Sp.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. properly a butan wite. my is called the adversative use of but. bola. the Perhaps besogne — . equivalent of AS. add. the trunk or body of an animal. botilla. and with It. Tooke's dis. Sp. rumpf. boquier. or what in in charge of the pantry. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. a butchery. earthen which the debtor has adverted. But It. from as. the body of an animal. that which would be translated by Fr. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. viz. bocin. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. . buta. Prov.jamin. (children) boc. OFr. is well explained by Tooke. bouteillier. butan ce. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. sup- meat and drink. a goat. Sp. botija. bous. bouz. bhcciero. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. also a hollow vessel . the mouth).in which his brethren are included. in addition. — . — we acle for liquors. original sense of without. Buttery. we find ben.' ' write. Whatever is in addition to Butler. The E. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. a wooden cask. As a conjunction but is in every portion. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. boccino. Fr. skin-bag. without punishment . ' 1 am that I may have but a but .' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. hull of a ship. ' Besides all that. Where at an earthen jar . . to-boot. botte. calf of the ' say. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bounds of. belly. It. tinction between but. beccaria. A A . without care. besides that . bitten dai. butan. the jug and in E. the name must have arisen before the within. the store of ten. bisgung. bol. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. except. those in beccaio. but one thing. bute. the precise correlative of but. mais. belly. young mais. the body of a tree or of a man. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. rotundity of the body. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. bole of a tree. calf. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. moreover. ways. being wholly unten. be out. a budget. bitlga. But when will you pay it ? the belly. Lang. Fr. a bottle. able. belly. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . G. viz.The Sp. trunk. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. the belly. beccaro. a goat (and not besides . boteria. from boc. without. the full expres. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. a butcher . Fr. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. outside that moreover. Ben-house. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Du. are. is put in a class by himself. Butler. then hoUow trunk. a barrel. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. and the real origin of the and within . similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. bout. Butt. the principal apartment. bag. collection of casks. without buiten-man. bolr.

are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. a stroke di animal. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. humble. Mur-buttant. so as to make a sounding blow. — — — — . to blad. a stump or club foot. From Grisons biitt. Gr. nursling. the thick end. the Butter-fly. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bouton. but. or or shore post. from bouter. the thigh of a goose.thum and not button. Butter. a bolt. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . botta. W. Sp. a bot. Fr. Buttock. at. Fr. &c. striking end. pwtiaw. a heap of merly called pushes. to strike. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Kil. butz. Butter-glass. short thick thing pimple. Fr. Fr. a large belly. what is kept in a blow.arbre. W. botta. Cot. butt of a person. Gael.. thrust forwards. butt. Gris. leg of lamb. to thrust . bottich. To come full butt against a butts. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. a little push . The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. poke. the edge forwards. clunis. to bow. Du. Hal. buhsom. to heap up earth or ihrust. from notirrir. to so close to the Fr. boiUer. bottig. a boss. a buttrice. to butt. bud. nourrissons. botto. dripping. the prick in the middle of a target. as if from Povg. butter. boter-schijte. tout seat or breech. — A . farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. a boss. Buttery. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. boil. boutis. ment being supposed to resemble butter. bouter. a dle . to thrust Fr. pwt. Btetter-schmalz. The word body itself seems identical with G. bodi.to push. as in G. To Butt. bott. Du. trapu. large head. stump. any short thick thing. coxa. bout. botte. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. From Du. butter. a leg of mutton. end . the trunk. signify a cask or tub. buttare. the store of while bottich. bata. buter. lams-bout. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. fowl. tress. butter un. a bun. from rejeter. Du. both. . a mound of turf in a field to sup. in the R. It. butt. bodi'. potacha. from stossen. put. Buttress. bocgsuin. . to be con. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. or person Schmeller . Hal. A — — — . an etwas anstossen.. to abut on. a blow. Fris. : . a. bot. a tub. a button. Kil. Kil. G. from the large knobbed head of botto. Fr.' thick from shaking. butyrum. to thrust. . — . Lang. hillock . thick. buttals. submit shaking up salad sauce. Grandg. a hill.against another which needs support . botten. to cast. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. courtaud. to boult flour. botwm. a mound. bocsam. thrust. then the thigh or leg of an to push . clumsy . a cask. as rejeton. to thrust. -ez. Bout van het schouderIt. caput scapula bout van f been. a flying buttress. strike. Schmell. aim whence to make a support to a wall. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. bot blijven staan. &c. a button. to throw . Bav. The Bavarian potig. a thrust the thigh-bone. Buttel-triib. Boutje. bout. AS. — . of the present day. a button. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Button. Perhaps corrupted Lat. * Buxom. butte. buttern. a scope. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. a buttress Cot. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. boter-vogel. butteln. povrvpov. nourrisson. the rosebud. pied. and the true derivation boar.— BUTT leg . oir spike with a k coup . buttock of beef is called butr. obedient. Du. of E. a wall butor butt on. w. An erection built up as a Fr. boutoir. boteria. Buttrice. Schmell. fle>(ible. a barrel. to thrust. Du. to abut a stone roof. are the strips at the edges of the field. bot. Halma. on. See Butler. boter-vliege. waste ground. Fr. an ox. R. bouter. a blow. to push earth . gigot. is formed the augmentative buttatich. i. Boutant. give way. suddenly . a. To strike with the head bags.rejected thing. So in English pimples were fora clod. by boE. Bav. Fr. rabodd. — A . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. but this is probably from Fr. obeto shake backwards and forwards. stump of a tree Fr. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. to touch at the end. geboogsaem. butte. e. a corner horses' hoofs. a ribbed glass for dient. to femur. bothog. grease that sets by merely standing. bouton. boding. having a rotundity . butt. from bugan. a but in the W.putan. able that Chaucer. any small projection. From the noise of drinkables in a house.

bozzago. See Abie. Verstegan in R. to swear with him by . buso. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. 3. To Buy. . ii. ON. Pecock Repressor. a borough. jus municipii. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Etynj. bygge. AS. son. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. tions by one. 116. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. bugjan. frabttg- To Buzz. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. harty prayers and God speedes. farm. to wit. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. . bohte. byar-rettr. Sw. p. . good-humoured one. from by. to buzz. buzac. A by. favourably to a petition. bi. Dan. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious.. a meke thynge with — alle. buzzicare. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Sw. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. & Q. byr. bylove. as in Da. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. \s\xy. G. and would have been lost in E. village. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. as Fr. confusedly. Many good mological explanation. The sense of buxom. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. 200. CABAL Goth. P. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. favourable. iii. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . — 122 BUY P.in N. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God.— P. and it is of good will. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. buzarg. a buzzard or puttock. Lat. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. bij. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. bees. It. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. A ful benygne buirde. bi. AS. It. a town. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle.— Diet. Originally the law of a particular town. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. 21. as heedless as a cock-chafer. a beetle.P. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. big. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. 519. bar. —gracious of speech. Then applied to speaking low. stall. Goth. Buzzard. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. to pass by. leges urbanse ON. to jan. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. Cabal. byar-log. bylag. a by-path is a side path . The ON. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Mercy hight that mayde. bycgan. to sell. A A We — — — days' wonder. also say. called Cabala or Tradition. who makes abigg. OE. groat in token of his good heart towards him. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. gracious. blessing me with their of side. bei. town having separate jurisdiction. Du. buteoj Fr. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. cow-house. to purchase for money. indistinctly.busardj Prov. By-law. depends upon a esteem in falconry. Byre. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). from whom it was addressed. to stand at his side . train of thought which has become obso. and boxome of speche xviii. abozzago. lb.. bauhta. lete. to whisper.

cabo. a head (whence cabochard. cab. covering. a cabbage . gabardme. kakaloH. and the Arab. Kil. . kabane. cabacho. agga. as it must have stood in French. OFr. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. Lang. for the origin of which see Carabine. To steal or pocket. a shed. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. hoard together. Capstan. filth. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. calabre. chabla. Due. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. aakkat'a. from manganum. deponat a store closet. Cabbage. ceach / exclamation of guages. Fr. It. as an expression of Gr. to chatter.Gr. a jacket Fr. Katr-iT-aKt. and Or. Etym. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus .. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. accablcr. dirt and the Fr. Cot. headed or cabbage lettuce. Antiq. cadabula. (ca/coe. Fr. &c. case. string. dirty. round or great headed. main. vincially used in E. Common to Lat. su/Furari. as Diez supposes). Mid. Du. chaable. Very generally used. Neckam — by the wind. Du. OFr. a booth or hut. chaable.). wilful).ticula. caqueter. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. E. Cot. Finn.Lat. Choux cabus. cabo. heady. &c. . Mid. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. — Ibid. Du. origin is the OFr. Sw. Coticesserint Swiss aa. cabasser. Cappa in OSp. cabre. overwhelm (Diet. and Finnish lanLat. — the ON. Mid. It. chadabula. — . OFr. cacare . . dung. to strain in such a manner . is probably unconnected. Lat. capuccio. giiare. cdble. Fr. aak! tandi like Fr. Imitative of the cry of hens. cabuyskoole. prostratio ad terram. ! — . brassica — capitata. cabuccio. as Turk. cabas. an engine for casting stones. cabane. headed. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Sp. nasty. the Prov. : — from violence without blood. havyar to caviare. overwhelm. a rope. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. kabas. geese. Item habeat vocant. and as we find stones Mid. cadabulum. Gaggle. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Due. E. cabaii. Celtic. a frail. to put or pack up in a frail. . to keep or Du. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cadabola. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . It. cadabulum. The name of the engine. Cabin. gatsch. and Ptg. disgusting such an engine was exerted. . band. lactuca capitata. hovel. in which sense are explained The the OFr. from trabocco. Cabinet. gaggi. the bowels. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Tugurium. cab lis. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. head. kabaSsen. w. name of the projectile engine. the Slavonian. It is remarkable that the Esthon. disgust.Lat. aeggi. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. dirty. especially shepherd's frock. surripere. caable. — . or rush basket.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. caable (in legal language). cabulus. 'habl. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends.' Due. serious injury — In like manner It. maim. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. Fr. a car- We convasare. hut. gaggele. agge machen (in nurses' language). precisely in the sense of the lari E. To Cabbage. kabat.. originally an Gael. a tunic. Ptg. The Sp. caable. cacare. form kactal. come the Fr. signifies down. disgust cac. to hurl in Nat. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. a cloak of felt or Cack. Lith. whence Lang.. — Kil. signifying properly a rope's end. OSp. traboccare. a rope. . capanna. It. forms indi. a rope or cable. to crush. or as an interjection of disMod. cabarino. capo.. From It. Didot. Cablisb. vile. whence Fr. cadabalum. cable . properly windfalls. Sp. The double a in the OFr. cables. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. it would seem fundain children's language. Castr. Fr. kakla. manganare.Lat. has kabbel. would correspond to cable. akista. caables. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. to hurl down. mdhaigner. a headed cole or cabbage . or cadable. laitue cabusse. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cabre. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. gaban. cabbage. manticuKil. a covering. caboche. stercus. bad. a rope. —Diet. ckaable. cabus. Brushwood — — B. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. agge. — Tarbe.

calessa. In the same way Fin. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Cauldron. N. calentar. The Lat. coop. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. taking it Sp. Cot. to heat. Lat. caliche. to gabble. wanton. dead body. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). cake. when they are said to poor. Gascon capdet. kalem. whence calash. a lump or large piece. colibro.warmth . marrow. cadenza. a wretch. hence musical rhythm. Gael. form) calderone. G. a wheel. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. kolyasochka. ' . a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. an ugly waggon kolaska. caldarius. on. Sp. kat. dial. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. a cake or loaf. kdfich. or smooth Hnen cloth. kakulla. wretched. kalb. a small stone. a waggon . cauldron. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. cavea. As Du. calculo. Cadge*. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Fr. Fr. B. Calp is riadh. disease of sailors from tivus). Cadaverous. to sleek hence a den. of oxen and similar animals. Du. Calamity. Cage. Originally from a Slavonic source. ben- kalf. cabdillo. Sw. a car. bad . master. Dan. gabbia. caioler. javioler. Lat. of the nature of lime to calcine. cuttle-fish. cage. Tea-caddy. cykevie. to . Du. kdtr. Turk. The young G. a dence. En kaka br'od. chetif. kolyaska. Fr. one unduly indulged by. safe. calentura. frisky. gabble. Mrs B. . CALIBRE a sea inkstand. kolo. Sw. A cuttle-fish. a wheel . 124 prattle . Lat. signifies a waggon. It. The Calf. —Atkinson. hot. A . chattering. calesa. jabber. gabberen is identical with E. Du. G. pith. Cot. Calf of the Leg. calf of leg. a common cart. calibre. — in a kiln. cageoler. Calcialate. calcis. gaggle.— Calliper. collop. an inkstand . a vessel for heating water. of which. cadence. kolo. babbhng. To Calender. to cage. kolesnitza. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Lat. kalfi. kola. pen Mod. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. (in the augm. chaudron. Lat. A — fall. a caFr. gabbia. loss. It. . Caitiff. kukje. roller. from Gr. without loss. a reed. gavia. Fr. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Caldron. unruly . Fr.Gr. a loaf of bread. Cot. Arab. from the Chinese catty. to prate much to little purpose. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. naXaiidpi.— Cot. and troublesomely attached to. kauwe. to throw themselves into the sea. . calendrer. capitetum. a calesh. kaeckelenj Gr. koeck. Cadence. Calamary. Russ. a low note. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Calandre. ON. Pol. boy. Calc-. to compute. A hooded carriage. Sw. a cylinder. lindrus. captive. is probably delusive. the lump and the increase. Lat. its mother. reed-pen. ever and anon. cadet. principal and interest. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. misfortune. Sp. Cajol. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. kuchen. kaad. * Cade. Lat. KxiKivh^o^. Roman reckoning. It. . Perhaps from w. KaKKat. Cadet. calendarium. Cake. Calendar. See Kiddier. to — Fr. calidus. especially of something soft. caldaria. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. To Cajole. the younger son of a family said to be from . a calash . kaka. It. little chief. a counter used in casting accounts. It. rattaat (wheels). a fever. limestone. coll. calpa. for green fields. or colpa na coise. calba. Turk. frolicsome kaad mund. Calocli. cattivo (from Lat. a roller. loss. the pi. from calculus. Serv. kail. Fr. a falling. Caddy. calx.uv. a hollow place. — — — Dan. pet lamb. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. * Calibre. a wheel . lime whence calcareous. prate. Du. a wheel . ratas. joyous . kolesb. lord. cage. hot . the bore of a cannon. desire of land. calidus. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. &c. whence Lat. to treat like lime. kolasa. to cackle . . calamus. incolumis. An open travelling chariot. calibre. Dan. From lerie. pi. cha'cmie cadence. from calendcE. Lat. a corpse.— . Flo. the pith or soft part of wood. kage. Fr. the calf of the leg. cadaver. Lat. capCalenture. just falling. Calash. from the ink-bag which it contains. It. Fr. or prattle. kalfvan hout. Lat. kolo. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. chaudiere. Lat. calamitas. a tea-chest. Sp. It is another form of the E. a circle. a mischievous dial. Due. cadere. gaggia.

licht stuk The change from a. — Fl. Diet. u to an I in such a colubrum. colubraria canna. done with heat Alt. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. dragonder. push violently. To century was Squalibre. a round of abuse. the scalp or skull. calo. To call. heat. calibre. a soldier who the It. to proclaim. Mid. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. . gossiping. tapulta. Gael. tittle-tattle. the heat of Now these Du. — — — — — . To drive tow or oakham. chatter. Turk. khalif. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Bi. quA librd. depreciatory term for a woman. NE. nautique). The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Caliph. saucy. Fr. Calm. sound. to tread. Sp. Fr. to hear. Antiq. sence of wind. kal.— . Fr.' Whitby Gl. the latter of chamber. Diez. So It. calat of leude demeaning. the day. moist.piicede Lat. Fr. The primitive colubrina bombarda. vulgo Coluvrine. skin hardened by labour. . calma. Hard. whehce it was first brought. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. bombarda Cauma incendium. scold. try. form. which is as much as to say. quality. Gr. kahcwe. can be distinct from ODu. to call. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. to burn. calc.Lat. calca. the Fr. kalla. a drab.meaning of the word. kil-u-kal. and dragon. or languishing drought is . voice. Lang. callus. glotton. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Unfledged. however. Callow.(jaa= ice). calgua. coluber. to calk. qAlab. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. calclover. from Calicut in the E. The word was also written cawme in OE. a feathers. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. seems to donrebusse vel be heat.en~ kinds of firearms. KaXka. The origin is Gr. a successor. to abuse . 125 Prov. The reference to heat is preserved in. kal. couleuvre. an adder. to affirm. to prattle. Kil. Mil. fistula. a last. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. kallo. cahna. calibre. kol. to callet. brawny. ram. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. caluw. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. ' pert. sestus. people's remarks. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. koluvre. abto suppose that E. hallottaa. To Calk. calicot. of the bore of a firearm met. to say. Call. donderbuchs Sp. on. kind heat of the sun. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. form in the kalib. Lat. by many that the weapon Callous. Indies. Kavfia. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . culverin. serpentina. * Callet. calma. prattle. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. calleting. It. AS. harden by pressure. chatter kallen. ululo Turk. hollaing. femme frivole et babillarde. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. longior. cauma. Derived by some from Arab. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . calk. 'A callet of boundless tongue. calcare. CALM to press or stuff. ' rine. E. serpens. Ptg. whereas in troth it is not. * Caliver. to call.from Ka'tm. the hard surface of the ground. a good calling. them &c. calvus. Sc. cotton cloth. given. callum. Kil. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. to be of a good or bad quality. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. According to Jal (Gl. coulevrine. Due. diameter of a ball. heat. calor. the Fr. calcaich. word of mouth . dial. Ibid. Lat. B. overscalmaccio. but is only a jda-kallo. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. caillette. — — — — — . and sometimes a handgun. and E.position is much less common than the geschut. calme. or caliever. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Ca. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. overheated. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). or mould. faint. cauque. Heb. klover. Fin. to rail or scold . of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. i. scalmato.. having a thick skin. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. Sir John Smith in Grose. harquebus or handgun. a. of a column. Fin. Sup. colubrina.' Winter's Tale. Mahn derives it from Lat. dragoon. Among these were the turn. kael. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. caliver. Calico. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). whence couleuv. quiet. calare. piece of bigger circuite. and heat. moso. sclopus.' Chaucer. oldire from audire. alta voce ploro. Sp. Du. drive. trull. bald. water-tight. to cram. which has its memory preserved in Du.' But it is hard Du. faint. hot. Dief. coluber also.' Slange.

chommer. fresh. the bed of a stream. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. open and level ground. water chamlet . and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. and yspiuv. Fr. Pers. It. from xaXbg. It. Fr. Lat. monk. Cambric. Canal Channel. campus. a piece. Fr.who their language. arched. Candid.— Chandelier. camiscia. campren. chandelle. India Islands. the heat. Lat. to jut. Fr. a may have acquired that signification from plain. Ptg. champ. Cann. canistrum. cancer. Palsgr. canis. samon. Cot. campo. cam^e. nia. An eater of human flesh. different sections of the like the Chinese. chamold man. Cambrel. calj'x.Gr. or Caribs. Canine. — B. KafivTu. canna. E. A — the Cannibals. whence Fr. frank and sincandidatus. to glow. died in 1526. good. salmon. the space of false imputation. a goblet bud. Peter Martyr. icaSoytipoe. cambrer. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. fair. also an eatmg sore. a field Greek monk. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. campagna. white. se cameloter. Camlet. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. callour. clothed in white. the spersed with white flakes like curd.' ' Quhen a lattice. It. to warp. From fluting or furrow in a column . an eating. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. cancello. It. Lat. to bend. crooked. Canker. arch. brought from Fr. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Calyx. camiscieia. canalis. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Campaign. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. cAouma. It. a dog. lame. camahutus. toile some of whom. cere : Lat. a large drinking . aged. the type of a hollow pipe. at the ends. Turk. crooked. Bret. chaitcre. having an aquiline nose. Lat. lie level. From campus was formed Lat. Calumny. a' Sc. whence the Fr. Fr. cambren. It was distinfrom work. camelot. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. from candere. . a. Gr. cambre. to avoid enemy in their shirts. sugar. a basket.Lat. cup. Sp.— B. — Lat. aspirant. sore. Sp. . crook. Or the word Lat. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. Gr. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. camafeo. See Canker. camaien.' Forme of Cury in Way. Sanson khanda. to break. Cambray. Calver of cane. The Grisons cauina. E. camp. is Cambering. whence the noun signifying an applicant. co7nbar. the salmondis faillis thair loup. In a different application It. Canibal. Lat. Fr. is Candle. Sp. w.—Candidate.. ckaouma. paign. candidus. campagna. E. had no r in de bric— Cot. campaign. B. Mid. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. camelus. Cancer. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Fr. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Arab. to bow.— Hackluyt in R. It. hooked. a caught.—Jam. Lat.—Cambrel. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. campagne. Fr. Cambrav—Cam. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. unwater chamelot . properly good country. camisa. across — Bellenden in Jam. campo. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. slander.conduit-pipe. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Candy. crooked. camisade. a crab. ation. Caloyer. cambr^. lattice. mg Canister. Mod. Camp. spot for cattle. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. arched. Properly calver in the field during a war._ kamm. camber-nosed. a. cainahelus. to the force of the wind. KafitjUe. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. the calix. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Cameo. Camisade. callar. candela. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. — — — A — — escume de saumon. field . calutmiia. B. Lat. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. would plenier. to bend. cup. bis. Kakoycpos. ko/utuXoc. champagne. crooked-stick. when its substance appears inter. kanna. — Cancel. Camel. on. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. higher in the middle than Fr. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. or hollow of a flower.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. catmneo.

the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. measure for cloth. kynnel.. a small boat. cane. was formed Kavtiiv. a reed.Gr. call. a hundred. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. root cap. a ship canot. cantref. like a torch or candle. cannabis. to con- rummer. To canvas — . Du. a side. from . cappa. regular. a cloak kapali. a reed. cane. a scull- — here. cannevo. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Hence Lat. . coarse hemp. B. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. leiwan kanta. schlapp. Cant. Jonson. a wine-cellar or vault. Canteen. can.Gr. Picard. Coal burning with bright flame. cover kapi. cappe.^on. Canoe. the tried list of saints. The — . a torch. or cantell of bread. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. the part easiest broken off. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a tube. If the word had been from cantherius. corner. chantel. Prov. a hunch of bread. From Gr. hood. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. and the sex- &c. hemp. capace. quarter . pipe. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. signifying cover. kandt-broodts. kyndel. cantina. KaTTiram.— Cot. a boat. speech. language. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. chape. Diez. Canon. that the G. Canton. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. A . kantr. See Chape. canon. hemp. The word seems to be taken from Gael. name. carcase . Probably only the augmentative of canto. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. lump. haitt. Cot. and met. a — A — Cannel Coal. schlappen. cappe. gnat. a door . . it would have been found in the continental languages. able to receive. being a yard or thereabouts . Fr. cantle then is a corner of a thing. to sing. kaput. It. Sp. Alamannis. shut. Cantle. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. canapa. Fr. . canonici. Palsgr. Gugel. cape. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Canvas. and hence a gobbet. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. from Dan. Mod. coarse hempen cloth Fr. capello Italis. capa. It. has kahn. a ruler. cantone. Cope. a cover Turk. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. &c. It. a cane. hamlet. quito curtain. canvas. to contain. Fin. properly a large Prov. which is not the case. canton. as. from a Canter. cainnt. . he discourseth of dissection. Capable. It. cheese. a Fr. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. margo panis diffracta. side. kq. cantred. A piece of anything. N. Cannoii. from canna. border. a gelding. &c. chanteau. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Wtb. Mod. Canopy. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. From Lat. Lat. canteau. territorial hundred. ON. trine. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. clqse. Goldast — in in Schmid. is found languages of very different stocks. A slow gallop. caparazon. region. Again we have Lat.n. See Capt-. Fr. kapamak. Kil. canoa. coat. Schwab. But it may be different source. OFr. a cantle of bread. To his judicial And trowl the tile. kwvwxIi. The meserseum and the mesentericum. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a cap. cane. Sp. border Dan. covered. KCLvva. also a measure. canonicus. to put upon sacred writers. from cant. Capacious. part. a drinking glass. a horn of the moon . or hold. cane. and tref. cover . Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Kavt\. Cape. kand. the quartile. rumme. a cloak. a division of a country. the heel. To Canonise. Gael. capevole. cope.CANNEL vessel. contain. Sp. cannevaccia. W. as a cantle of bread. Of vena cava and of vena porta. It. canapaccia. a pipe. cannone. astrology. the heel. say. a straight rod. kanta. canevas. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Esthon. It. Swab. Capari. edge. cannu. hirnschlapple. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. quarter. tain. a rule or standard of excellence. capax. a corner. Germanis kdppen. canto. It. to shut. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta.

greziller. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. capriole. to shiver. to broil. The true derivation lies in a different direction. horripilation. Fl. bristling. then to shiver or shudder. algabr. castrated cock. is either wholly lost. then find the symptoms of shivering. to crackle. Lat. rissoler. frisson- ner . Capers. to parch. 75. for which he cites the Comask nucia. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. and with an initial gr instead of br. prickly husk of chestnut.impressions on the ear. and OHG. to desire earnestly. shrub. to from capitulum. — — A a hair. brisciare. brisciare. sault. humorous. gives rise to Sc. Hal. rihrczzoso.' Cot. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . where Burton adds in a note. a little head. Genevese bresoler. also the capriole. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. It. Lat. to shiver for cold. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. — to yearne. It. It is probable that Gr. ziki. CAPRICE twittering. chief. Acad. of a coach. a hedge-hog. Capillary. It. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. caprice It. grisser. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. roughening of the skin. Torriano. a kid. or. alcaparra. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . as Fr. cover of a saddle. capparis. h^risser. capriola. a goat. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. It. a . to . the principal part of the debt. Fr. Unexpected pleasure. <I>pi'?oe. frissoner. hi. a head. a separate division of a matter.). as Fr. according to the Hindoos. Hair-like. Griller d'im' patience. shivering. Sp. capillus. to fry. toy. as the means of earning profit. brisciare. crackling sound Cape. Lat.' — (Supp. Mod. they longed extremely to see it. a yearning through sudden fear. And similarly to yearn.standing on end. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. greziller. w. grisser. abridge amKoTroq. caprice. riccio. castrated. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. A headland. s'hdrisser. or Lat. ticchio. grug. arricciarsi. eruca compared with It. a young kid met. or other things. The same imitation of Capon. gricciare. chattering of the teeth. frort^Lat. caper j caprio. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. ^piKos.— Fl. brissle. to shudder. explained by Diez from capra. hedge-hog. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. to broil. Cot. brezilia. belonging to From caput. heath. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. ericius. erica. herissonnement. and 7tucc. gricciare. capitalis. knis-hujwud . to twitter as birds. curl. or goat's leap (done by a horse). I have shivered with love. the hair to stand on end. curly. a caterpillar. Caper. wriggle. A . Capital. Fr. capro. or represented by the syllable e. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. Hence capitalis the sum lent. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. of a tremtdoiis sound. curling. bruco. bristling. So from Sw. airoKOTrrw. a caper in dancing. compared with Bret. It. capriol or caper in dancing. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. It. the head. a ch illness. the head. cut.'— Trev. frizzle. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. It. arricciarsi. principal. ribrezzo.Gr. then to be in a state of vibration. II bresole (Gl. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. upon terms Sp. as in Lat.) d'etre The It. fansuddenly angry. the initial mute of forms like Gr. capitulare. with joy' Vikram. Fr. a capriol. and his body bristled We to castrate. Arab. G^' Many words — ' ndv. the hair to stand on end. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Fr. gives rise to brezza. caj)o. a chevret. end. of a fowl. To treat Capitulate. capar. grillcr. frisser {frissement d'un trait.) grezille marid. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. cappriccio. to crackle. the singing'bone). to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. . Lat.— 128 CAPE a rustling. Caprice. hair. birsle. as Fr. brisoler. a buck. p. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. cut off. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to ruffle the surface of water. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. kid. cApre. See Chief. knis. It. brug. aggricciare. shivering. Lang. horror. to tingle {I'os qui bresole.

conceit. intercept. strideo. Fr. karra. however. to take baclc. It. recevoir. kerren. Fr. to creak. Carbine. dim. seize. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . karren. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. deceit. capra. Captain. Cot. the -cevofthe Fr. See Caper. a sudden fear apprehended. fantastic. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. a she-goat. Carry. capio. -cept. charrier. a cart. Fr. an engine for throwing stones. karrende waegen. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. concipere. chevre. desire. di cappa. was originally a missile . In cases. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. a creaking waggon. caprice. or the (capo-riccio). . caThe hrestante. trestle. cams. and has accordingly been lost in E. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon.. Fl. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. concept. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. Etym. cabestan. &c. Lat. — — Capstan. The It. was converted into -ceb. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Crab. a hood (dim. a fantastical humour. and tropically. It. recipio. crab s. krul. carabin. &c. also a kind of rack. concevoir. recepte. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. carretta. calabrino.or -cib-. Lat. to carry . But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. -ceive. to load . except. Capuchin. carro. deception. Derivatives are Fr. receptus. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. a taking back.. char. Du. It. to accept. OSp. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. concebir. Capsule. hold. crepo. decepte. a reception.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). It. Nordfoss. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. also to carry on a car . Carabine. at least. Neumann. latterly. Lat. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Fr. sels. whence capture. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. cabra. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. a cloke) capuccino. caricare. commander. Capstern. of capsa. of the Sp. captus. cabestrantej Fr. Sp. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. capuccio. de- price. chirrion.s. was a kind of horse soldier. from head.). of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. Lat. calabrin. also tresFl. oisr. Caseneuve in Diet. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. to take. capp%tccio. Castr. a windlass. perceive. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. It. Kiittner. box. -cept. 129 — receive. as in accipio. karista. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. a capuchin. as in OFr. Cot. a sawing-block or trestles. recibir. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. a hooded friar. conceive. acceptus. caput. cabrestante (whence e. chirriar. It is a standing crab. It. as the dragoons (Du. charger. In the S. &c. Cart. Capt-. bock. Passing on into E. fancy. — —Diet. Capriole. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. precept.of these compound verbs. a coffer. accept. conception. captive. G. charret. to this is It. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. to take to. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. recipere. to please. Fr. captivate. verbs gives rise to the element . Fr. contain. Fr. to creak. It. i The meaning Car. Sp. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Fin. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. to receive receptio. a. capitano. cabreia. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. a kind of torture. one odd. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. capitis. tnoschetta. and of captus to an e. Carabin. Thus the musket. Du. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. capsula. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced.). case. and has thus descended unaltered to English. a head man. a. a sudden will. shivering fit (Altieri).

caravela. It. Exot. karri. carabba. matter. boch. wool card. case. carta. Lith. a thistle. poison eiz. quse vocant karabd. a ripple for flax. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. for a gun. the husk or cod of beans. An implement for dressing wool. carcanet. Carbuncle. properly a siege machine. a quiver . curry-comb. a battering-ram). KtpaTwv.applied to a battering-ram (G. confining. cabreia. also (as Gr. to creak. Pers. vitriol. . military engines made for hurling stones. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . to turn. kirat.charcoal . ON. a machine for casting large darts. carch. tcapKaai. copperas. carbh. kard boyd. Gael. caraffa. It. chevre by the name of the goat. It. the shell of a torcarcasso. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). carquois.Gr. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. coming to four grains. designated in the case of G. OHG. Card. to comb wool . Parmesan cassiron. skeleton toise. car. Carcax. a thistle. a small weight.' From the same source are SicU. caracal. turn of a horse. to card wool. winding carach. Gael. carcame. Gr. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . karszti. a ship. Caravel. Mod. It. ancient springald. or framework. contract. Cot. to curry horses karsztuwas. to card wool. Cot. carquan. Carrob. Sp. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. &c. Gael. AS. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. Sp. a gem resembling a live coal. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. . Caraool. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. karra. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. skeleton. also a small weight. card. carere. Venet. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. . cramp. From the battering-ram. a he-goat. to comb. caraffe. wine- bottle. cerran. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a dead carcase. Fr. an ulcer. Lat.— — — . carcanada. a quiver. bock and Fr. the carcase of a fowl. casso. espi7igarda. the trunk or chest of the body . the case of the flesh. a coffer. Carat. Carbonaceous. an engine for hurling stones. of carbo). eitar. Sp. Carboy. a snail. to draw in. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr.Gr. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . a prison. Ptg. mural attack. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a card or comb . ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. carate. Comp. Cat. eit. &c. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a goat. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. Sp. carmiiiarc. cassa. decanter. carduus. seed of carob. Bohem. Fr. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. restraint . Fr. Arab. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. the name might naturally Mod. a case or chest .. The Trjg xeXwwac. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. in the same way that the Sp. Gael. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. burning coal. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. — seems to be something holding together. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. is the word used in modern Lat. turning. Carcase. a twist. p.. I. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. . winding. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles..z. Fr. «capa'|8i. a lock of wool . But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. cabrita. cardo. to ripple flax. shell. carbo. quilato. &c. Gr. a quiver. krciti. a quiver . bend. carcasa. a winding staircase. fire . The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. black dye. to hiss (as gee^e). and catapulta. avSpaS. See Carpenter. garafa. cabra. a wool card. Sp. ' Vasa vitrea. carabe. alia sunt majora. the . constraining . cdrlag.. carbunculus (dim. a collar or chain for the neck. carquasse. carcaij. a crane. It. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a firelock. silique. W. the dead body of any creature.. a kind of ship. a skeleton. is the chine. skeleton. The radical meaning . the core of fruit . Lat. Derived in the first edition from Mod. of the same Caravan. the carob bean. . kerwan.

Cark. cearian. giierlir. tenax. E. Cargo. caru. 1S66. karry. OHG. Fr. camovale. male person. what is felt as grievous. the several meanings of the words above Rom. to scratch. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. ON. — Carfax. It. grolU. Farewell flesh. is to say. Card. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. rixosus. karrig. and compare Bret. bottom. G. karl. Sept. to eat flesh. essere in carena. care. a card. cdrle. Carenare. Venet. ON. 8. & Q. to comb flax or hemp. carrefourg. to whirr (schnurren). murahtaa. carnal. record. caricatura. x'»P'"^s)) paper. Cot. Carminative. cura intenta. like connection may be seen between Fin. and sum. beans. Caricature. murren. to fry. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. . stridere. Dan. . wool cards. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. strideo. to scrape . videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. to care unkarja. morosus. ceorl. crosier. moeThe Lat. to clean the bottom of the ship. Coll. Sp. Chart. affection. stingy. combing them out like the knots in wool. Properly. carezza. — — — Caress. mutter. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. sorrow. fundamental. Carnal. care on. carian. grief.— Charter. . niggardly . . rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. piger. p. A medical term from line —Boerio. croller. From.— CARD karr-kambar. act of moaning. whence carricare. morosus sum. the old theory of humours. — — — : Cardinal. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. from Lat. an endearment. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. to distress growl.Lat. scharren. cargo. . love. — — Diez. from caricare. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. in Carp. charie. sensual. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. a highway. karantez. A place where four roads Mid. W. Trin. It. road. charta (Gr. from the keel to the water . cearig. and murhet. winding. Fr. an overloaded representation of anything. AS. &c. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. crawl. graller. soUicitus OSax. G. karista. caMid. principal. Fr. to lie on its side. Sp. karg. to take Goth. kummer. carnis. charnel. as carminare. dear. charg. charag. carnavale. one of those ac- 9 * . It. No ' place there had. kurista. carena. carcus. Bret. at murmuring. Cartel. It. carFrom carrus.. Properly a car-road. — — . voce strepo stridente. carch. tremble. to growl. Mur. and thin. to comb wool. . car. A mod-carag. hoed. clown or churl. Fr. carcare. It. caricare. carina. de Parthenay. be anxious.Lat. Fr. Cot. meet at a head. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. crowl. to load. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. a man. w. and G. For the root of carminare. kargr. Fl. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. W. see Garble. the keel of a vessel. ignarus. kumra. A quirito ut infans. to load. Roquef. a turn. W. ress. cura may be ror. Care. Champ. Peas steeped and fried. quaver a lazar's clack. the flesh of animals . that on wliich the matter hinges. or grumbling —Due. to load. in N. Carled peas. — To Careen. a deed. Translated in MS. tuorfurcm (Burguy). to shake. to parch. carriire. sorrow. carena. in St Jerome. 273. charneux. Gael. Cot. OFr. kara. careless take care of. carminare. Fr. the keel. Bret. Probably the origin of the word is the . paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. AS. Carnage. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carriera. murista. astutus. caresse. quadrifurcum from quameet. carener.. kroU-erbser. four. Fin. parched or carled. 2. Charnel. Fin. intrasset caro. carnasciale. charger. gakaran. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. It. the time during which to Rom. as peas. also a career on horseback. Groler. to fry or broil. surrata. fleshy . charnage. cardinis. carnalis. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other.' Slceat. the hull of a ship. to card wool. sgritudo animi. It. Carl. the load of a ship. Fr. . regar. that Fl. a hinge. cardo. caritia. Fr. asper. Lat. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Cath. compared with Fin. weyes. Lat. Carlings. from carus. chartre. to rumble. to love. kribina. or street. quarreG. place for exercise on horseback. immediately before the long fast of Lent. msstus. karout. Ptg. cargar. AS. zanken . is This however Shrove tide. . from carrus. appertaining to the flesh. solicitous.

' Ordo Eccles.— Drant in R. used for stuffing mattresses. The word seems of Celtic origin. a wheelwright. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Pm. and Carnem laxare (It. ship. to reel. Carpenter. The custom. Bohem. sense. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. All out B. to pull asunder. fabulor. culcitra. i. 2. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz.D. to rustle. carpetrix. Carnelevale. e. pluck at. balade from It. Properly a round dance. Fr. Sp. to dance. carpia. From Lat. Mid. Analogous R. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. or a carouse fully drunk up. or loose as a couch without further preparation. The karole of the stones behelde. Gower in Way. to chatter coroli. cardos. In Dominica d'autant. was formed Mid. Carole. To pledge them thou refuse.gonnella. of Guiana. Teut. querole.— Neum.' says Motley (United Neth.' Raleigh. carpita. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. I quaught. carpat (Stokes). carpenta. to gather. carpenticre.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Lat. On this. I drink all out. Carnevale. 216. a car carpentarius. Shrove Tuesday. as the Lat. Sup. Carpitam habeat in lecto. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. krapati. cited by Marsh. . zimmer. Lat. in Nat. a wheelwright. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.Lat. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. lint. chariot carbad. act of drinking a full Eq. In a MS. A. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. ballare. Bret. as carnaval from carnelevamen. a carder. carduz. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. 2. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Ant.Why give's some wine then. pluck. maker of waggons It. Cot. Fr.]e bois Carnelevale. carpere. differing To Carp. carpentum. Olr. The tippling sots. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. as E. 760. a drinking cup. Pref. carpenter only in the latter sense. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. On the other hand bumper to one's health. as Fr. 1 1 30. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. Gael. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. chatter. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. is erroneous. to dance. peta. Nomin. all aus). But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. koroll. tattle. to find fault with. vel coopertorio carebit. litter. a dance. Here's to you still my captains friend. Mid. Lat. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat.— R. Discov. Other names of the sea. So gone they forthe. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric.Lat. ! Carouse. quoted by Carpentier. zimmerspan. Palsgr. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. CarTo quaff carouse do use. linteamen. Carpet. course. W. Alluz (G. chirp. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. qui sacco. garrire. Beggars Bush. gonna. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. — . Mediol. . gar aus / all out is correct.— Patriarchi. bier. krapanj. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. carpetam (a quilt?). Carpyn or talkyn. Ein we find the signification transferred from . in Carp. a song accompanying a dance then. — — ' ' — — — I — — . garrulo. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. 94).'— Stat. carpende fast Carol. permitted in anticipation of the long fast.' Reg. The ' ' a chariot. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. carnelascid). on that. i. ON. . ' ' — . to pluck. Templariorum — ' — Due.: . charpentier. Pr. chatter skra/a. worker in timber Fr. whence the form carnasciale. carpo. charpie. and F. a plank. cxciv. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade.Lat. Dief. yede tham about. skraf. Biheld within. tymmer. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. biheld without. Chanson de carole. in Due. to talk. carbh.

cassa. subject for a picture. Fr. mata. carroc- carrozza . of carro. Cart. cut with scissors. Fr. Lat. to slay. ignominiously exposed. carogna. Rouchi caroche. Fr. a car. It. Ready money. Rouchi carpHe. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Fr. cassere. Case. cassus. casitiste. It. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Fr. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. a chance or accident. a canonry or slaughterhouse. bag and baggage of a camp. Case-mate. To quash an indictment. to notch. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. caisse. Gael. carretta. Flor. also the carriage.' — Hdcart. a loopscale the wall.' Cot. It. cartouche. and matar. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. CartOTicli. break to pieces. caxa. cashiered. To Carve. cartilage. Casual. caroche. abrogate. The carrying of anything. long man's gown with a close body.. Cot. a long coat. hollow. fortuitous. capsa (Diez). Sp. Carrot. afterwards any written challenge. case-maiej Sp. from casa. See Card. a fall. kerven. blotted out. caro. to hold. cascare. AS. to fall. Hence casket. — — . augmentatives of carro. discharge It. It. an act of falling. house. something that actually occurs. mord-keller. case. to fire on the enemy. carretto. to break. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. mord-grube. from Lat. casa. turn out of service. Cask. ceorfan. Casuist. — Cartoose. Casket. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . — Cartridge. Du. bitten. Lith. to convey in a cart. — — nul the proceeding. a merchant's cash or counter. caisse. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. fall It. casser. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Preparatory drawing of a It.' Fl. charogne. not reaching to the height of the ditch. to an- — Kil. Cartel. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. packing ' cloth. Lat. a coffer or small case for jewels. kerpu. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. gristle. Fr. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. quasser. ' Casa-matta. As defence from shells became more important. Cot. To duash.' Bailey. hull of a ship. caroach. pasteboard. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. to — — also casse. casus. Case. the money chest. helmet. casa-maita. charrette. OE. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. hung up in some place and to be removed. Lat. to cut or carve . kertselig I cranch with the teeth. luggage. kirpti. Carrion. quash. carroccio. for the security of the defenders. Probably. cartone. Fl. from It. an augmentative from Lat. Fr. Fr. casualis. corresponding to the G. slaughter-house. a hut. to shear. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. coffer. To Cashier. Walach. kerben. casso. empty. Fr. Fr. Rouchi carone. and that apparently from capio. It. It. augm. Sp. Rouchi carter. casag. charrier. to bear or carry. AS. Carriage. like all the names of tendon. Hence a challenge openly hung up. discharge. Fl.— Fl. cascade. and the OE. Fr. The Sp. one who reasons on cases put. casco signifies a skull. a paper case. made void. Cascade. Du. It. the charge of — — Fr. It. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. to crack. tion from Sp. void cassare. Lat. carriaggio. properly to convey in a car. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. to dash. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. carreaggio. cartoccio. cancel. Casque. a of water. vault hole in a fortified wall. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Cassock. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. krat. casaque. card. paper. casuelj Fr. casacca. See Case. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. a car. gristle. where Fr. carrosse. To Carry. See Gristle. Fr. crown of a hat. cascar. G. cassa. — FI.to annul. Cartoon. shell or carcase of a house. annul. Cash. from It. It. coffin of paper for groceries. dim. of carta. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. a chest. as we . cia. crush. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. cascata. from the sound it makes when Alban. cartella. caisse. carota. kasseren. cancelled. cassette.

a garment for performing the mass in. Gr. To Catch. dashing it to pieces. drive away. chaleur. . In the dialect of Picardy. heat . ating. Fr. Chase. the stalk of plants. Roukind. away.. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. KaraXoyog. to hunt. Sp. kasta. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. which has been retained in E. torture. to dash. Lang. bot-kotis. speak of dashing a thing down. casupola. crush . like that of It. on. a little house or hut.Rouchi Scaches. handle of an axe. signifying breed. puss / for calling them. down. to cast or beat to tioner .to drive out. a fortified place. kotas. to lash. Lat. chat. dashing it out of the window. to make clean or chaste. The E. dash. burst cascare. tails. KaTaarpifm. To It. Sp. probably from an imita. cojz^/a. which. or bruise together. execu. kasi. cacciuolo. to close. a Cataract. 'Vaaaw.'— Pr. castello. ON. an enumerlist. a chesnut . a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. to hurl See Awgrim. castana. shaft of a 1 push. 120. to drive away. is not satisfactory. Fr. of sarabands does Gr. fall. Gael. coming to us through different dialects of French. second chase. ichasses. 134 CAST Catacomb. Thus we have Caste. squash. castanetazo. kat. to Fl. KarapaKrr]g. to is Essentially the Sp. katze. Fr. Castle. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. cat. B. Lat. chasser. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. . while kiss / Pol.Lat. chasuble. to crackle. name. to break. castellum. Pic. Pol. kotas. cascar. and from the castus. Etym. _G. squash. from water Karappaaaiii. The Diet. So also from It. was introduced. the earlier sense of catch. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. from the first of Castrate. chasser. Gr. to look at. cacciarc. kottr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. or Rouchi cat. in the fire. klakka. kakka. to turn overturn. catar. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. It. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Hal. ' Catchyn away abigo. Mid. the castanets for or implement . have before seen under Cape and Cabin. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. image accasciare. perhaps from which we have E. Fr. and tomba. accastiare. koshka. a cat . stilts. under chi caleur. punch. cassa / cry for the same purpose. fer toTa. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. to bring to an crack given by the joints. casulla.out cacciare . ecrevisse. n. first made ordinary Fr. same word with break. V. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. down. or comba. however. casipola. OFr. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Fr. catch. puras E. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. . the ground . by the loss of with several pitched cords. cash.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. kissa.— Fl. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. dim. represented by the syllable quash. Fr. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Yz. — We a cavity. Fr. Brunne. Cast. cast. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. &c. race. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). R. rack. casser. Hence castaneta. a cat koshki. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . cacciare fuora. to clack. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. V Lith. Pm. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. being Fin. Cot. follow after. Fr. It. It.the / or c respectively. . to scourge. arpi^m. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. lance. mino. Cat. force j Rouchi equerviche. cat-o'-nine. Fr. Castanets. kaJoivad. Others explain it from Kara. and KviilSog. sue. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. a whip on the other into latch. to end. to fall as over a precipice. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. kic' kicil are used chasser. Isidore — in Diez. to torture. Catastrophe. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. casule. KaTappaKTrjQ.. a thump. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. . a vault. to crack. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. Catalogue. of castrum (castra). castro.

woodlice. a whip. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. quincailler. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. snatching it with a any one. chink. Kartiyopta (/cari. to harangue. as of the latch of a As ! — . cache. to chatter with the teeth cake. Kil. Chate peleuse. called dog or Galla catchamza.s. clap. cagnon (a dog). Tutschek. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. clap with the hand. a whip Rouchi cachoire. resono ictu lash. to snap. — tinman. a clap. door when it is shut. to snatch (said of dogs). — Kiittner. smack. a. worm. weevils. Du. * Caterpillar. compare G. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. pedes. klatsch. Sp. Diez. Kil. . Cates. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. ecachoire. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion .yopl(. i. a carter's Pat. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam.P. from Gr. E. Cot. fragor kletsoore. klatschen. Cot. catch. the OE. ' ' word catch.' CATCH Fr. e. . predicament. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. instruction in forms. gingle. — with a whip. catc?u.from Bard and ayopsw. the the same principle he was Fr. to crack GATES cache. klinke. — . chacepol. happe-chair. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. chatter . Kariicatching one a box on the ear. which all . P. Caterer. children's name for cat . Gael. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. dainty vic- a form lash. to teach by oral instruction. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. a little dog). the larva of the cockteufelskatz. chase.V. from shutting with a click. to A bailiff. formerly called cliket. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. or any kind of relishing food tuals. . Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. companaige. chassoire. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. bichano (pussy). the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. Fr. Du. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. Ptg. snatching. In the XV'e. catch. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . gattola. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . G. called in Fr. head. kletsen. icarrix'Ki^. an officer of taxes. chasse. millecaterpillars. an accusing. catch-flesh. a — gatta. claquer. to kythe D. — explained. to take. 'Bxn.' ^Jam. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing.V. ketsoore. clatter. the distance to which the ball is struck. whip. insect. GaUa catchiza. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. bicho. chatter. klatsche and Norm. Grandg. E.j. Rouchi clincailleux.) . verberare kUts. to chat. Fr. to catch strength. and answer. klatscherei. Sc. e. glcu. kaetse. is said that he got a claucht of it. ictus resonans. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. E. Guernsey chafer. a whip. a whip or Kuttner. chenille {canicula. a smack. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. a caterpillar Milanese can. Wal. de Bray. * Cates. snatched. . s. in order). silkworm. latch of. — Catcli-poll. . Guernsey pilleure. apprehend a person. Gael. to the crack. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. a pill. caucht. Fr. seize. a cornIn the s. gliong. Metivier. resound. has both or of charming by sound. Du. Claucht. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. KaTtix'so. kletse. with and without an / after the c. dainties. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. latch. Swiss Lombard G. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. ArbaUte de courte chasse. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. Gr. 135 — Aasen. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). wild-beast. to clap hands. sound. c or ^. chachara. caker. blow. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. On Catechism. — B. cat is not apparent. a. devouring mite or weevil. 'Horxa. OFr. ' Fr.. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. flap klatsche. the elements of a science.

kocie. Causeway. Du. • — — See Chattel. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. w. whence cathedralis. katte. but the acates that are sent him. otherwise written kell. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Caudle. CATHARTIC sense. kin. Diez). reticella. a pavement. Lat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Fr. and hence a skull-cap. dumpf tonen. little cap is . to sound like a blow . cal^ar. Provider. having the property of cleansing. to shoe .. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. the stones of a street. Cathedral. a The peel. fur. deyntie meates. cauHs. what . Thus Bav.p. by land. from KaSaipio. a kind of skull-cap. capull. . It. caballus. to ac- — Fr. calidus. a mare. KaPaWrii. a road calceata. Kil. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. koparet. — Cauterise. chair.^ acheter (Lat. a seat.^Hal. klopfend knallen. It. Cauldron. chatideau. is Prologue. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Lat. Jonson in R. Cavern. KiwariKog. Gr. Fin. a horse. hazel. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. . Mid. adcaptare. Palsgr. Gael. flue. . accattare. a receptacle for small things. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. 4. catkins . Fr.Y\\Xea. Pol. B. Cavity. . a branding from koiio. Fr. to beware. Sx. Cause. catkin Magy. calceata. a horse . flock. &c. Chaud. chevalier. to shoe. calqada. chaudiire. CAVE Caul. chausser. kocianki. a paved road. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Wyatt in R. kdtzchen. Gr. a horse . cautus). kobuiV. kassije. kobyla. Catkin. the. is used in the sense of cat-skin.—— — 136 correct. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. and spareth for no perell. cale. Fr. minon. net or caul-work. Fr. Mid. catkin Pol. cabbage. Boethius.Lat.willow. cautis. Cathartic. cheval. Cavalry. a pulpit. mutz. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. rete A — Prov. A warm comforting drink. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. kautsije. hot. kopano. Caution. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. chauderon. and at the rich man's cost By sea. to purge.. Lat. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. hot. katteken. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. chaussJe. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Jaubert. any Fl. .' B. Kavrijp. Fr. Du. Cave. choufleur {choii. via strata. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned.Lat. walnut with the husk on challer. Caballus. catkin mitz. Manciple's Tale. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Rete. . For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. calceta. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . It. Fr. lamb. cavus. Pr. acater. achepter. to shale or peel. Fr. Lat. green husk of a calon. The word — . ' Gr. Delycates. KaHSpa. caudex . puss. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. caple. chaudroii. Caustic.' Elyot in Way. kopista. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. G. Gr. On the other hand. cavaliere. a stalk. accapitare Rouchi acater. make clean. Cavalcade. caldo. fur in general. also to pave . mudet. apt to burn iron. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. ce^l. — — cavallo. 2. little cat. kaussijde. from chaud. Dryden in R rete. from caveo (p. Cattle. quire. cale. It. Lat. OE. a horseman. Fr. Lat. to burn. Cavalier. Bessie of Bednall. acaptar. Russ. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. That he was ay before in his estate. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. despencier. a kettle for heating water. kitten kotki. challe was ther of a temple. Ka^afriKOQ. causa. Port. catons. the caul of the liver. shaled or picked Fr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. calotte. . cabbage). macska. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. cabbage-stalk. Kavrfipiov. — . catnever sells — — Cauliflower. from delf^gato. cat maczoka. to buy. It. puss. puss. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Richly she feeds. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Fr. Palsgr. hollow.

—Decease. Fr. menuiserie. coffer. Hence concede. succeed. The sense of roofing. p. of E . give place. -cess. to panel or wainscot MHG. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. sill in window-sill. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. Fr. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. to plank or floor with planks. lambris. cellar. cesso. a canopy. in Jam. and that from Sp. that. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. hollow. And seik — Cessation. to cut. sill. — — — toyour soverane. . a board. The line of descent from Fr.' Rutland papers. jaa. Gawaine & Sir Gol. empty. post. cabegon. to argue capto tiously. . And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. a canopy.' Marriage of James IV. Lat. nailes will begin to cling. selar. but hang around at the sides. See -cede. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. thili. proceed. thel. The importation of Fr. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. to seele or close with boards plancher. H.' Hall.. del into English without ' translation gave cele. Ceiling.' Cot. cielo. beam. to canopy siled. step away. thil. a hut. selure. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. Sherwood. curved. — komo tain). and zaum. syle. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. a planking or boarding tkilian. is applied to a canopy. also a seeling of boards. wall. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. dayntily diglit. departure from this life. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. cease. flooring E.' del. dil. hollow. VIII. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. wuoren komo. komista. syl. a beam. p. . &c. sus-lambris. little house. Cede. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. a log. an aquiline nose. Boyd in Jam. the roof of a coach. cedo. lambrisser une chambre seeling. a plank. bridle. with their substantives concession. hung. cessum. . -cede. It. . 5. a log. Hal. and Gol. canopied. &c. kapp-zaum. wainscot thiljar (in pi. Lat. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. hivtmel. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. a severe bridle. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. komo. cavillor. in Hal. Cot. or of a bed. -ceed. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . departure. koppeli. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. heaven. plank. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. as. thelu. the testern of a bed. -cease. So from Fin. . In the N. . and then to gape. a fir-plank. ciel is so unbroken. . to go forth. dScis. Cam.' Ordinances and Reg. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. crooked kopio. A — A false accommodation produced G.. Fr. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. — . served in halle Under a siller of sillc. heaven. — . ciel de lit. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. applied to a canopy. Plancher. . 32. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. sybire. To seele a room. . The It. 7. column E. IV. as if from happen. of cavezza. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. . door-sill J Sc. &c. caveqon. board . augm. . death. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. Fr. seele. deal. Soc.j have come from this source. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. a boarded floor. Lat. to plank ON. tester of a bed. thil. recede. B. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. in Jam. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. kommata. sky. pp. were met. &c.). thilja.' — Gawan . CAVESON kopera or kowera. 43. E.'— Z. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. excess. a log. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. the inner roof of a room of state. the deck of a ship at thilja. Cavil. thiling. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. yield. dille. ceiling. ceiling.). semely on syll. quibble. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. In the same way G. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. a head. Sp. Cease. cabega. rafter. Lat. cyling (W. Wore. cavezzone. exceed. Sir 137 pit . plank. a halter. hollow ice . decessus. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. .

blind. riscaldarsi. celer. to be regarded as one celebro. Coehim. or expression of Ennius. concetto. to burn incendo. swift. a solemnity. confounded ist from It. -cepere. a Cemetery. to concern. judge. -cern. — . Celebrity. to visit in numbers. 1. to -sum. abundance. in accordance with the Fr. hollow. cceremonia. Censer. Fr. cilibat. the point round which a circle is drawn. or any bird's.. become heated with anger. eschattffer. cencer. rough from the quarry. and thence to conceal. Sc. caber. as in some places burnt. to think. sile. Cell. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. age. Lat. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Chafe. Lat. tax. Lat. -civer {conciver— Roquef. to seal a pigeon's eye. but was gradually lost in conceit. judge Lat. to sepap rate. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Fr. — . ' . deceit. deceipt. -ceive. his office. sure. — . to sleep). cillier. Lat. rubble. capturn. capio. Fr. crevi. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. receipt.. with transposition hence (of a day). camentum. a numerous con. thronged the participle cretus. — . sting. being taken from Fr.— Cellar. mortar. /ctj/rsw. Gr. -cevoir. To seel or close the eyes. censura. Fr. Fr. to celebrate. to separate. cerealis. -ceptjun. Lat. . eyelid. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. decide. and put it through the over eyelydde. a religious observance. for building. For sess from assess. with the eyes. the talk of men. then to rub without reference Cement. to heat. contend. and met. see. heaven. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. empty. much frequented. It. Ceremony. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. Cot. judge. To chafe is for wine. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Century. conceipt.— Chafing-dish. to incense. a registration of one's self. make angry. to bury). ciller. concernor. Lat. Sherwood. the hollow the Lat. appertain. irot\oe. Gr. to prick. -cebre ifoncebre. -CEIVE a shaft. — . -i^oivre. and — — — possessions. cella. Lat. (and thence also) to hoodwink. family. Census Censor. single or unwedded life. .ing a room where there is not fire. Incensum. parted sleep.j 138 thill. — . sift. Cot. Lat. -cipio. decebre) . Accelerate. Lat. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. to course of people. pick out. Lat. Centre. tax. cretum. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. point. from Saa-rw. a storehouse Chafe. guish. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. concerner. Fl. in Marsh. Assess. Censure. what to set in a chafe. to twinkle darkness. Censor. a solemnity. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq.). and so of that other.unmarried. See Cede.' Book of St Albans. -cense. — — Cenotapli. to rub for the purpose a hut. calefare. encens. the place where the de. calefacere. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. centum. In Celebrate. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. zens according to their property. -cess. value. a tomb. Gr. estimate. to distinguish. thence belonging to or connected with corn. S. Certain. Fr. — A . Ta^oe. observe. -cepire.). &c.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. of heating. to attend on object with. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. to contend. siller les yeux. Fr. criticism. &c. a hundred centuria. oil. a prick. Fr. a hundred of what- — . The term cilium. chaufferette. is the opposite of disora virum. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Celerity. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. {cori)cipere. census. to glow. from censeo. to set on fire. Lat.of the r. cenio. Centurion. Cereal. to take. cot. To Incense. K^'ivut. a valuation of every man's estate. syll. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. we have a modified form of (of a place). -ceit. -ciper. -oept. Lat. Gr. an eyelash. as entering largely into the derivative certo. in comp. stones to the production of heat. to rate. chauffer. cigliare. to chafe. the officer appointed to take such returns . oil. and thence censer. dchauffer. assess. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. See Celibacy. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing.' Celebritas. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. renown be embodied with. Cess. solemn (of per. goad. ciglio. festive.cern. census. Lat. also grave opinion. distinIt. Prov. It. materials It. in comp. quarters for slaves. to warm. Take the nedyll and threde. ceremonia. incense. Assize. KsvTpov. a shaft horse. Cij(fe5j. to blindfold. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. sacred show. candeo. to take. celeber certus. keep in It. OFr.

ple^. Du. tattle. leviter crepo Then. hght Chalk. and as this was the beginning of man. catena. kaff. green sagrin. a chain. a prattling woaction. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. kuhata.— — . ceafer. . kdfer. Gr. Fr. chagrin. to a seat. — — — . songe. Halma. yap. signal by drum or P. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. kauchen. Chain. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. that leneth e per I'autra. a goba rustling . Bav. fume. kever. lime. bargain. swelling with anger. to move the jaws. haggle. Kaiiapa. ceaf. jaw. a pulpit. The jaw chafty. to puff and blow. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. kdfelen. place See Cheek. Chagrin. Lat. to dispute. Prov. . chicane. chawe. calonjar. fa sagramen de calompnia. From to go to law. chaps Chamber. Hal. chaffare. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. kuhista. Cheffern. much more Genoese sagrind. or puff with snorting. Prov. ^Altieri. P. lime . Du. KoBiSpa. of. Lat. to ner It. Chayire. Fr. Kuttn. Perhaps Pm. vis. ON. a rustling noise. avena vilior. Probably from According to Diez. De Ir4. Bouffard. in a monstrous fume. care. now a chair. gewolb. sagri. . From the To Chaff. a jackdaw. G. fern-chafer. as. calice. to caw chawer. Pr. — . a chough.nium. chaire. chaine. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. chaulx. from of the G. Fr. kedja. chayire. Lat.sure carriage. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. cadena. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. puff. ing a hard case to their wings. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. puffed or ruffled with ly.' Rayn. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Fr. cathedra. p. keffen. — — — — — — . matter by combat. ing rapidly repeated cries. Piedm. to sit. thick and short. 11. clamare. rustling corn. So from dominio. sagrindse. chalanger. havOFr. khah. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Fl. E. breathe KaOa^oiiat. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. quisquilise offence. camera. kuhuja. crooked. to bark. &c. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. kiamta. talkative. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. tattle cheep. from Swiss kafeln. Fin. Cot. Chalice. In vulgar language. in a cana. care. muzzle. to calumpnjamen. 35. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. cadena gives chain. chamar. from the shark-skin. Due. with a:n arched roof. calonja. sborfare. To buy and sell. cauvette. to Latin calumniare. Fr. call in question for an ley). any insect of the beetle kind. charge with. rustle Challenge. false accusation. and signifies to consume with anger. on. Came. a double operation * Chafer. cam.. Adelung.. kiaftr. . calx. to action arose. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. snuff. dispute. cup. calumnia. chatter. de Brai. Lat. difficulty . to buzz. Prov. chaise. grief. — — ' — — — A . refuse barley . keuchen. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. Lat. chambre. Fr. kahu. rally one. also to prattle. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). From Port. kahuja. hordeum vel let. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. refuse. to pant. chafing. without chap/are makiinde. Ayenbite. far lima-lima. chaene. Pers. dongio. B. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. breathe hard. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. a pulpit Cot. In like manto huff. to claim. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to file. Chair. hiss. rustling motion challenge. to gnaw. calix. chafeter. Cot. shaIt. have a mind to parley. to chatter or talk lightly. cadieira. ckapfare. kahista. Fr. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Gr. — — — . tronfio. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. Fr. great chafe. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. often puffing. preise. snort. grief. cathedra. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. to tattle.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. to institute anforensic action. kiqfta. idle words. Fr. cadera. taubes korn oder hafer. G. to gnaw. Wall. much blowing. Camera. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. kaff. a vault or arched roof. OFr. limare. . Lat. Lat. baras of ants. (ca'e'ra) to chair. vel susurro. to call. contestation. Fr. to fret inwardtronfo. as a carriage is a moveable seat. Pat. to babble. kuhina.

The G. from Fr. chaude mesUe. Fr. The E. chanfrar. cancelli. from cheoir. Lith. Du. Lat. kampeln. . origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . cameratus. tsamtsogni. The word is preserved in E. dial. caer. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. Fr. — KiL . kabMe. to stick to. E. kabinti. or less ignorant. contention kappi. contend or argue G. kempa. calida et sans aguet. pedilusor. a feat. bundle. Fin. champ. G. to happen {ad and cadere. rare. cahir. accident. contest. Lat. to tread The sound heavily. Prov. Chancellor. s. bickering. combat. to move the jaws kiamt. CHANCEL It. or player at football. kabe. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. champ. surpassing. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. compound. kampa. a horse-race. Sp. Dief. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Fr. campar. cadere. dial.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. dial. kimpustella. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to strive at games . slope of a bevelled angle. fighting place. kablys. jeu parti. which seems another form of the root. to groove bevel off a right angle. a game at football. schmatzen s. cempa. to fasten on. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to fall. zs jeopardy. Magy. kampeln.—Tutschek. termediaries between them and the judge. camp. to slope out the . reusement — fight in single combat. — Hal. giving rise to the as. a scufSe. chajnbellan . . Lat. a hook .edley. to wrestle. Partnership. pinch. campus partitus . escazenza. Pm. dricka i kapp. i. — Ch-amberlain. to smack the lips in eating. ON. hng. athlete. to wrestle. Hence (with the nasal) w. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. Champion. to quarrel (comp. e. gekrUmmt. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. prize-fighter. kriimmen gebogen. kimbu. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. from chaud. kimppu (Lap. . sukibti. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. nels. ON. To hollow out in chanPtg. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to fasten oneself on to another . campear. Prov. Champaign. Champ. chdance. the chafldn. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. chance. dial. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. wood. chanfreindre. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. champ parti. When the to quarrel. to talk. keiiipe. ciamberlano. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. kiammi. Chancery. So in e. fray. broil. a court of justice. tsammogni. The happening of things Chance. . accidere. . To cope or contend with. camp. kippo. —Chamfrain. It will. dispute Hal. top of a borehole. Carpentier. to hold . a field of battle. mesleiare. received the petitions of the suitors. chamble. To Chamfer. . kanip. .140 CHAMBERLAIN . to — — champ. chance. game campio. to be eminent. zampettare. as in It.' SherI'altro ' ' . Commonly derived from campus.' melleia. to excel. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . divided game. chain. to hollow out.Lat. to hang.' ' Pr. Champarty. kimpUma. a bundle. hot. boys speak of capping verses. kibti. Get campers a ball To camf . Meleare. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. Chancel. . Gall. kapp. camerlengo. campus. See Camp. move the jaws. champion Du. cample). difficulty . kampen. Fr. gewolbt. is explained by serrarsi. a hollow chanfreiner. fight. fight. to fall). Chamfron. therewithal. hero Sw. camp. who stood ad cancellos. a warrior. Sup. kempen. at the railings. luctare. kinipen. an athlete. — masterly Sp. to slope. kabintis. chanfrein. E. excellent.—Charfron E. to bevel. to flute as a column. to paw the ground E. certare. to to chew champ. a jaw kianisa. and acted as inofficers of . Fr. ON. hamper. Ptg. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Lat. act of falling. M. chanfrein. ing. champ. kiinp. Fr. as swine. ciambellano. champ. and mesUe. to Hal. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). chamfrain. jocus partitus. Chance-n3. kappd). dial. cazer. Campar. calidameya. to chew. head armour. to debate. Sp. to . to cample. — ^Tusser. to fasten oneself to another .

— Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. klepan. as skin chapped hands. A fellow. hard bodies. kennel. Chaps or chops. See Chant. hack . waterconduit. E. Lat. chanter. cambium. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. —Chantry. kemma. Chape. That wide were sentin their spicery. a small plate of flat metal. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Probably from chap. Sc. Hence chantry. lips of an animal. Chap. the loose flesh of the cheeks. clapet. to creak. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Chop. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. or the like chapar. chapilla. like the knocking of hard things together. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. esclapa. cantare. Bret. Compare chark. Sp. AS. And N. chancery. chaps. Fr. W. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. or the cracking of one. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. chapelete de una bomba. and the modern canal. chapeletas de imbornales. schimbd. flat . chapear. . Chap. . chapeta. to paw like a horse . kjaakaa. Hal. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. a reed. It is also used in the sense of the E. schimbu. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. a jaw. chapa. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. a pipe. camjar. I.^. Man of Law's Tale. — — —Marculfus in Due. to coat. —Ordericus Vitalis. ON. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. . to plate. surfaces striking together. a small metal plate Port. Da. also a clap. To Change. Chapel. Prov. chop. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . to swap. as It. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. kaupa. chop. jaw. a strip of metal plate. Hal. jaw. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. 140. Hence It. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. kapoti. exchange schimbatoriu. ceaflas. chandelier. wood. to cut off . The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Chap. Da. as chancery . a chap is a crack or fissure. chap. to peck. to change. Channel. chiappa. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. to put on fresh clothes. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . to strike with a sharp edge. to hack. to spht a chip. the chaps . Walach. changer. a dealer in candles then. to cut up into small pieces. to truck. cambiar. Sp. from clap. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. not a soul. ceaplas. Commonly derived from capella. gab. exchange. shift. while the broader vowels a. Fr. debeant conjurare. as to chap hands. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. . to sing. may be compared with ON. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. the gutter that runs along a street. kappen. chap. to — cut. Fr. Russ. the mouth. is used in the same sense . throat of an animal. Fr. to strike. to strike. cheek. to chap at a door. a money-changer. Lith. the place where candles ler. Chip. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to cut. Cheek. See Chop. leather. to plate. — . prune. as corn-chandChandry. from canna. 2. properly in a hard body. esclapo. kvar kjceften. as those on a trunk. Lang. — : Lat. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. and also to chap or crack. ^Jam. the clappers of the scupper holes. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. . cangiare. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. cobio. from chandler. kiceft.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. cambiare. to deal. muzzle. Du. Chandler. skipta. to peck. kiceft as well as kjakje. In like manner Walach. Aasen. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. are kept. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. chancellerie. exchange. extended to other trades. canalis. any hollow for conveying water. to apply one flat thing to another. to break . Molbech. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow.

chapitre. To Char. a garland of roses. — spell. to prattle. See Cheap. return. in turns. 2. car. a The OFr. It. a dispute . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. beloved. AS. . capella. Sup. a charm. char. Chapter. to turn Gael. to charcoal. properly to place — . creak. Sp. dim. . to tattle. cearcian. surris seu Lat. And damned be he who first cries Hold. charade. which was incantation. Chark. the nature of a thing. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. to turn. decken. cam. czurliwoti. prattling quacksalver. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Chare. caritas. turn about. called in Sp. pohadka. carus. Charge. a mark made on a thing. charlatan. Character. w. czirbti. An enchantment. Mid. to chirp as sparrows. colliers that charred coal. Ptg. wreath for the head. czurksti. a hood. Fr. charer. capellare. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. in To ness Charity. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. ceap-man. a rhyme. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. occasional turn. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. to croak as a frog . the turtle pitre. a cricket karkti (schnarren.whirr. chirriar. as Pol. chapelet. chirlar. a mark of a mountebank. Charlock. Justin. charge an enemy is to lay on. The G. as a beetle. Chirk. . Fr. babbling. kurkti. wood to coal. Du. it is my turn. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. eyre. gaggle . Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. be- e. dear(in both senses). But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. Chapman. of chapel. Lay on. Mundart. a merchant. chatter. chirk. — a car. cha. carmen. condo il volgar francese.). from carrus. to talk . grave or make incised marks on an ob. chapel. corona. OE. In that work the verb is written caire. dear. burning without consuming the substance. eapitulo. — — — turned to coal. a head or division of a book. cedeleac. used in the sense of magic Fl. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. Fr. a riddle.. . gadka. a turn cerran. from cape or cope. Fr. canne. to sing or chirp as birds. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. enough. Fr. siarad (pronounced — sharad). to converse.Lat. See Charlatan. go. capitolo. It. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Charade. twitter. Macduff. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. hiss Lith. Gr. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R.' Boccaccio in Diez. karout. creak. from Charade. and in It. tattler. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Yx. w. babdistinction. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Bret. for the same reason rosario. A weed among com AS. caricare. —— . chat. twist. cher um cher. cerran. Lat. carregar. chatter. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. seems to be derived charade. 370. as. to of the governing body. charger. It. Hence carminare. Swiss. carricare. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. to prattle. ciarlatore. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. (eucharistie. Lang. * Charcoal. cluck kirklys. schreien. affection. krachzen). charlar. Sp. charitas. AS. called kedlock. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. from capitulum. es ist mi cheer. &c. The crash. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. to dove . to chirp. kirkti. Prov. cluck. a riddle. chara. to creak. Charcoal was ciarlare. to love. Cot. hadka. gnash. to load . bler. tegere. Inst. cabildo. Chaplet.charme. Lat. kurkelis. Charlatan. turn. carmo. . charcoal burners. a verse. to . clack. Deutsch. to chirp. capital. From Norm. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Lith. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds.czirksti. Sp. from capa. that turned decken . one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. ghirlanda seor garland. Lat. It. talking. from gadai. keeren. Boh. jabber. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. ject).

To Chasten. Fr. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. ch&tier. Kil. the handle of a razor . and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. See Card. as purgare Fr. chip. chick. It. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. The egg is chipped. pure. nommer. the bird is iiown. chaste. chikat'. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. as in the E. Kil. Malay. In like manner Russ. It. chit in the latter sense Du. caro. knacken. tittle-tattle. Cot. xi'i-'^vui. csaterdzni. prate. warble. Fr. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix.). . occasionally Forby. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. See Catch. to chatter or prattle . Pol. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. little sticks cudere. talk. Pm. clean. — = Chats. cs E.). It t. charmer. chip. to wet. — Fr. clap. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. from pure. clack. — Palsgrave. to clap. be wide open. to care). an enchantress. chary. G. root of the Lat. to baptize. snap. a chatter-box. flesh. Chat-wood. Fl. in Jam. used to represent a sharp note. to cry as a chicken . the noise of birds. to set a jewel. discourse. geug. knatiern.a. csatora (Magy. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Russ.. ferire. Chary. whence a charm of goldfinches. Diez. shout OE. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. to talk. pure. parcus. a churchyard or charnel-house. noise. —Charter. chip. also to germinate or spring forth. pure. — Hal. or equivalent forms. Magy. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. a word. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. —Bailey. la chasse d'une rose. also a youth. warble. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. a plate of metal. chits. To Chase. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. Gr. V. cearig (from cearian. —Jam. incassare. csacsogany. the young shoots . to chirp. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. chit-chat. kata-kata. gazzettare. or suckers on rough borders. a crack or a flaw . An imitative word. germinate . So in Gael. Chat.ppen. czysty. D. castus. Lat. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. Fr. a young man .— Chatter. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. chatter. to which it bears the same relation as chape. kippen. OE. — The . — We ornamental work the to signify E. as from nomen It. clatter. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. s. castus. Chaste. from purus. eclats. to gape. letters p. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. shivers. also to hatch. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. gazzerare. kata. charm. To chip is then to crack. a branch and a young female. is to represent the chamier. crackle. a gap. carme and Fr. chit. to crack. g. from xoAn. carmen is presented in AS. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. kna. to crack. It. fragments. To chit. limpid. a yawning. to make a noise. To talk. Fl. gallan or ogan. gazzolare. enchasser. careful. csacsogni. gaddc. a twig Suffolk chaits. — sharp sound of a crack. Chasm. the calix of a rose. chykkyn (Pr. Parallel with E. schioppare. talk much . niggardly. clean. scraps of for fuel. From carinen was formed It. to enchase it . whistle. prattle. chat. to chirp as a bird to cheep. sordidus. Fr. the cry of the bat. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. clean. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. clear. chisf. speak . To Chase. or a bird out of the egg. magpie. . a flock of those birds. karigh. or pop. — — .house. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. CHATS fit 143 to name. make a noise as birds do. to burst open. as. jackdaw . gadu-gadu. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. as turnip-chaits. Du. B. cyrm. kastaa. Lat castigare. to chirp. Pol. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . cassa s. Chart. fragments or leavings of food. Hal. to separate in morsels. Chamel. tenax. a branch. It. Cot. chaste. or the cry of a bird or the like. nome and . chair. See Cistern. blackthorn-chats. To chitter or chipper.— Chit. To work plate as silversmiths do. — Yorkshire chat. as we speak of olive branches. chick. to cut and faggoted. carnisj bones kept. a shrine for a relic. ch). racket . splinters. noise. gazeuiller. gazzogliare. converse. —Chastise. %aafi. i. karg.

society. entertainment. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. kek. s. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . Sp. a repulse. giggling. Pro v. chear in the sense of victuals. exAS. teeth . Bav. It. to stutter gigken. cheeks. to nauseate (to retch). to buy. Fr. bon marche. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. farm for farm. Chear. horse-couper. which is the word in ceap. cattle. visage. Bohem. CHATTELS has ciio. Faire bonne chire. Slav. chavylbone or chawlbone. retching. the countenance Fr. Ek dry and hard. caupo.. Fin. chaptel. kauf. Hence to cheat. OFr. welcome heartily. prattlingchete. kakkaset. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. It — Brompton in Due. choule. — We ' . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Hal. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. force of the word. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. entertain kindly. with the exception of land. and.— Chole. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. sale. jaws. to fetch the breath with difficulty. to coup s.— . any cheating. us. Modern Slang. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. citello. in widely separated languages by the Lat. sob E. dchec.— Cattle.-^. ceap. . to laugh.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. Check. KaviiXog. — To check an account. cattle. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. a cheater. to vomit. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. chuckle. Ingulphus.—Choke. to cough and hence either buying or selling. are represented piti. ceafl. stuttering. G. whence captale. a dealer in horses. catalliim. kaupa. See Chess. look. countenance. Gr. . cita. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Fr. et juxta catalla sua. from Lat. equiva. to clear the throat . to make inarticulate sounds in . sum in a loan. ceahhetan. snout. the principal ' colloquial E. the Lat. NE. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. hawkmann.. . goods. lower. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. which is used in the to stutter. . a frequent change of the initial k into ch. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Fl. to deal ON. kak.— Chaps. syllables ^ag-. sense of bargaining. cara. to coff—Yisi. kichen. to act as a rogue.' to exchange to gasp. a willing look and unwilling heart. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Then. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. aspect of a man. a canting knave. to negotiate. giving or taking in exchange. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur.. the tongue. capitale. ceaflas. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. ku. kakaista. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. Sc. koopen. a rogue or person who used the canting language. 144 the It. Cot. and hence the E. Cheek. kok. OFr. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. — — —Chowl. Chew. a tavern-keeper. Chattels. keck. Du. See Cheek. from AS. The gutGoth. chapman. cattle. while it Bret.' kezen. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. CHEEK zitella. a dealer. to cluck like a hen. Lat. chatel. a piece of moveable property. to chop and change. changing. e. price. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. to . to swap goods . Pm. tradesman. frown. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. thers. Pr. gagkern. gig. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. kik. in Fr. goods.of the throat in coughing. with Dief. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. kikottaa. cera. Cheat. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. &c. jaw. kaupon. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Cam. kaupiti. the Confessor. to — . chatal. favour. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. upon a checked cloth. to buy. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as.kakot. lead to OE. 'li^'opa jord i jord. It. gagkezen.ing. the face. agreeing upon. chiere. . laughing. a young boy or girl. cozener. stuttering. mandibula. Soc. truffa. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. chop. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. kaufen. cachinnari. chire.

the hke. Lat. kopen.D. frame by which the exertion is made. Fris. — — . to kasa. to boken. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. kdkel. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. Chekenyd or querkenyd. czypti. quok. ON. Sc. Du. rattle in the throat. Thus "we are brought din. dersen . ceocian.perly head. gap. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. It would Cheese. As the board to gasp i. old bread. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. rennet. Prov. chops. gapen. cough. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. by laying it in come to an agreement with. AS. G. caws. Kil. schach. ceaplas. subacidus. Jam. Lith.koppen. scacco. Sw. accomplishment cayed. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Prothroat of an animal . AS. Da. gullet. kaecke. cireggia. quoka.. chaps. a cricket. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. to choke with laughter. a rafter . cheek. kesten.peep in the same sense. throat. to love. nish source. — 10 . kirsche. kistej Lat. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. N. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Chemistry. make an end. caru. a heap. Lat. gous forms are G. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Fr. From them the plish. mouth kek. castaneusj Fr. gaghel. ceg. geafl. chiffe. kjakje. F*-. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Analo. to heap up such things for the purchoke. E. to gape gab. the mouth.cirieggia. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . from the cry of check 1 (Pers.their struggle for independence. Sp. chasi. kdke. practice seems to have been communiChevron. treat with affection. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall.' to w. hasten. E. X'C&s. jaw. Fr. gill of fish AS. Sp. as. e. cerasus. cista. Fin.pose of acidifying them kasadr. An imitative word. Achievement.. Chevaux de frise. chesten. geagl. chevron. clear the throat. incaseatus. to hold dear. Fr. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. Chevisance. chAtaigne. to geahl. Chess. Pl. Fr. to accomThis they call hdrsk.D. . cams. ost. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. cheeks. as meat and butter. kok. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Cherish. See Case. cabrio. Cher. ichec. king). kjceve. suffo. the throat. kces. Cherry. . kasa. ceac. cheken. to belch. then end. to kep. OHG. Du.G. by laying up in a covered heap. whence czypulas. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. things Da. the loose the game of checks. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Hence kikna is identical with OE. the final guttural is retained in writing. throat. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. to bring to an end. jaws. ceaflas. kjcebe. E. cheek. chests in OE. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. — — . To make a shrill noise Chest. to swallow. cheek. to year. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. food. kikna. dear. whence kasa-leipa. Pm. to choke. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. cegio. the palate Chequer. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. cisty G.). a chicken. Fr. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. See Chess. cufd. — — .EP CHEVRON 145 on. Sc. kastr. . jaw . AS. The Sw. Hence chesten-nut. kasiiUPr. kikna of dorum coacervatio. xaque. The name of creak as shoes. caseus. It. Chef. ation. rupted into chess. jaws Sw. Lat. /Ji2^/(W. kastanie. achever. ca' — . condition of being taken. made rancid koka. squeak as a mouse. Sw. jouffle. the neck. E. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. cerise j G. kapen. like a young chicken. carnium. w. jaw. (Kil. Tutschek. for cheese itself. G. veluti piscium. skratt. Lat. To Cheep. See Alchemy. to gasp. &c. mollium congeries. prevail with. cabiron. jowl. equal squares of opposite colours. In these latter forms we see the transIt. w. cese. the The use of the word kcesir. schach. acquisition. takes place in the formation of cheese. cyse. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. gabe. w. cherir. chops. Lith. rafters in heraldry. . CHE. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. chevir. giffle.Xo belch. to make a noise different word.

to use the jaws. cebr. when the vibrations become very rapid. . Fin. to gasp for breath (Hal. Pr. chill. . pipe. kinderen. czypulas. the throat. from little to little. Russ. kimista^ . De finger killet mi for kalte. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. capo. — . Chimb. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. s. Magy. a chicken. kaw. knit the brow cib-led. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. chol. rafter . chiler. — Fin. Now gan some courage unto him to take. To Chide. Du. A To Chew. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. then cold. — It. or qf people talking rapidly. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. Chime. horns of the house. chawbone. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. kauen. Fin. ' . a hen. CHJME the radical form is unusual. pululo. mountain top . kime. cabriones. De chic en chic. chavel. caprioru. cheek. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Kil. or the broken noise of birds. G. a small cask OFr. chaps. Child. rafter. kindeken. to crackle. pi. tremble with cold. twitter. aner. tyuk. rafter . kopf Du. are formed Du. pipio. chicken. For the see word Doit. kippa. choule. chin. to raise the rim. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Gael. the same principle I regard On birds. sonorous. chef.— Cot. — — Mother Hubbard. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. creak. a little bit. a cup. while didder is to shiver or citteren. cabar. cica cica. acute. Fl. to chew. w. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. E.— . the least imaginable jot.. Fin. cild. Payer chiguet A chiguet. tremble. zitterti. kimia. or as E. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. to contest. to smart. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. grelot). ach. chikat'. Bret. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. kuwe. to go.D. has probably the same origin. capu. crepo. chic. Da. a young bird. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. E. See Chimmer. signifying properly shivering. jaw. as pointing out the origin of the E. pipio. chiquei. to Du. head. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. into a continuous shriU sound. . Lat. W. killen. Prov.^ to resound as a bell. kimme. capete. chillar. Pl. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. chicoter. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. k'imm s. as. Walach. 'Among these the G. cabarach. lead through the synonymous E. hiss as meat on the gridiron. to contest about trifles. Fr. tiukkata. tiukka. G. quivering sound which passes. gosling. Chick.peep. caferu. kop. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. strideo. klagend tonen. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. a finch. kauwe. keichen. and from the third E. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. Chitter. by driblets. the young of animals in general. also the horizon. chavel. Swiss kiden.-ill. the jole. from the second Lat. horn wood. Pm. Imitative of a loud clear sound. chicaner. killen. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. And hence. chillness or shivering. cib. Fr. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. beam. alter. gills of a fish. to the brim. a cup. knirschen. Pr. AS. cidan. : — a lump. to pettifog. chillrar.' my finger tingles with cold. the rim or edge of a vase. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Tintillo. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. mouth. E. a cup cibaw. stake.). then as G. a jaw. chimb. cap. the Ptg. tintelen van koude. to scold. Chaw.^ Hal. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. The loss of the syllable it in Du. to twitter. kidata. It. a head. kibr. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. The Pl. knarren. To chitter. Chief. Gattel. in Walach.— Gattel. Brezza. ]).D. CHEW . the cry of young . Du. kind. ultimate origin of the Mite. machouere. jaw. Chigue. the head. caput. Probably from Fr. a quid of tobacco. cabar beinne. to chime. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. antler. Fr. a chicken. kaau•wen. jaws . deer's horn. Sp. Palsgr. and not vice versd. chew or chaw. queror.. pip. greloter is to shiver for cold.. tiukkua. a chicken. pole. branchy. 146 brial. Fl. kouwe. Halm. or chick. chieftain.. Pm. term is ssaru fu. while the Magy. from the first of which is Lith. kilderkin. — Du. to chirp or peep like a chicken. kauchen. kitista. captain. to titter is Du. Chill. kieken. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. tiuk.

It. cincel. pork) . chink. in the same crack. also vibrans. to chink. backe. as birds the mouth. but or cry as a parrot. as a bell kommata. rustle. chits. applied to tremulous motion. — . i. bone . Caminatum. To Chimmer. cleft. pare also Walach. to chink with laugh2. twinkling light. It. simmer. Bav. a fire-place. companied. as a large bell . . To Chitter. to murmur. tschirpen. Fr. clashing of weapons. chatter . to chirp . kumina. a crowing sound in recovering breath. czirszkti. spina. schina. to chirp. Ptg. Chin-coug^h. crepare. a chap. name Then. hus. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Magy. tinnire. up and down. all these imitative terms being minata. representing connected together. tsengeni. Sp. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . are In like manner E. the chin . Kil. Chymerynge. E. which differ from each other only as Chirk. the cheek. — . from the geon's lancet. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. keich husten. a surkik hosta. Sw. Chine. dial. epine. A . eschine.to chirp.iron. ciarlare. clipping of coin. to tremble. Gower in Hal. disCot. kumista. Gascoigne in Todd. . to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Fr. et garrire . The change from the sound ter \s. and from a similar sound to boil gently. to sound. Gloss. cisello. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Pr. kink hoest.er. . Diez de. backBut she withal no worde may soune. chin . skina. See Chark. yivtiov. then of a fabulous monster part goat. to open chirriar. j^lf. Huloet. To chirp or twitter. or chyFrigutus. Fr.' Phaer's Virg. genou (pi. Primarily a shrill sound. Cot. chick. the jaw. Chink. to creak. Chintz.). sound. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. a thorn. zirken. tsongeni. and chim-mer. the mouth (jaws) . hiss chirlar. sonants. quavering of the voice. killed by Bellerophon. sound on beginning to boil. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. It. sparkle. to squeak in It. the jaw. sounding deep. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. See Chats. the chine.czirbti. Chit. and light. resonance . caminata. G. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. komista. genawi. the cheek (jaw) . Chip. Fr. fissure. from Lat. ykvvQ. have been used to designate the spine. vincially used in the sense of a crack. esquina. Du. a szemrcU. gen. Bret. to prattle czirpti. a Kuttn. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. — . to gape. KinneGr. ter. eschin^e (de pore). Lith. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. The small entrails of a hog. to sizel. Chimney. The desig. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin.Huloet in Hal. . and the Du. Du. fyr. hiss Pm. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. klincken. Sp. schetteren. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. to prattle . In the same sense. as the/ is preserved tering. to chine. to creak. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body.sharp. clangor tinniens kummata. schiena. schetteringe. Hindost. Sp. plodere. Chisel. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt.schricken. komia. schrick. hollow. to chirre. Sp. It. See Chap. gena. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. the whooping cough. cheminde. stridere.to divide or Du. esquena. Chat.. caperd. kinne. Pm. to simmer. to tattle. See Bright. AS. sonus the backbone Lat. — — — — — . Lat. cinan. caminsects. Fr. to sound deep or the Gr. from 10 * ' Chia. Chitter. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. chirp. spina. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. then to any narrow crack or AS. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. G. a hall Mid. — . do. quivering or shakyng for colde. part lion. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound.Lat. Prov. zirpen. Chink-cough. cinne. ciseau (for cisel). in Hal. Chimera.. kieck hoest. twitter caminus. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. bx-eak the back of schena. a thorn. tremulous motion. as the chink of money. eschiner. cisaille. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. squittire. cheek. and bodily movement in shimm. Chitterling. flaw Hal. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. verynge or dyderinge. a chink or fissure. To chink with laughter. It. . to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . shiver and the chyver of Pr. 147 kimina. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. E. Chyrme or chur. chhint.

. to chap. . Chap. try. to Compare also Pol. a blow. chimp. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. haslets. Cavalry. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. specially with an application to theatrical performances. kiusan. koren. wkusit' prikushat. cape. chife. 19. to taste. to prove.. Yr. cepa. The . okusyti. schiefer. . Choleric. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio.' At last he dwelt . Goth. G. See try. approve. word is more likely to be from Lat. &c. coup. kushati. a chive. Lat. a young . Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. As kushnuti. a heap. kbhren. to try. a company of singers or dancers. . Choice. a small slice or slip of anything .' who shall not taste death. Chuck-full. kieser. shoot . ^euw. signify to kiss. skifa. ent quarter. a ruff or frill. to try. Schmid. select. and Vf. Chivalry. to exchange horses. from chevalier. Chives. Fr. are used in the same sense. ruffs.' Verie coinme Cot. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir.vonic languages are Pol. xiv. pluck. caperd. all seem slate .— B jag E. x^poc. to try. Gr. ON. CHOP kros. from kraus. a goose's giblets. the small parts of the roots of plants. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. full to overflowing. * To Choose. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . to clap up Hal. of an angry — — — ' ' — . a calf's pluck or chaldron . The manners and senti. to shiver. bile. kalbs gekrose. a scale or fragment P1. I. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. the inwards of an animal. cive. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. from %u\i). chap hands.ffrill. Swiss kust. chatter. and in kosten. chibble. shiver. to chap at a door . experience valerie. ON. by the vibrations of sound or motion.. a wine taster. kruszki. as with a blow. kausjan. Equivalents in the SlaFr. crammed Choir. and in this sense the * small pieces. to stop geschoppt voll. coro. whence Lat. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. to palpitate . and N. cke. scheve. gdnse gekrose. Fr. to taste. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. of E. pieces . The Sc. Walach. a rag.D. friller. to taste .freze.gust. rare. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. ments of the knightly class. by which they are Fr. whence choleric. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Boh. lead us on to Lat. to strike hands . gekrose. a calf's chaldern of E. to taste. then to shiver. kushevati. to experience. chawdron. full. Enn Sigridur sem ' . kiusan. to turn. chives. ^S. cut up into — See Chats. a fragment. keypa. keuren. Jam. prove. %o\ifa. chippe. kaup. curly . &c. arkiusan. the ridges prove. kustigen. to choose. OHG. heaped measure. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. schevel-steen. chorus. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. to try . G. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. chceur. called cMtters in the N. kusid. To Chop. — Cholera. a knight. to break off in small shive. an onion. seallion or unset leek. gusten. also calPs. — — — . propagated. to tempt. to taste. Swab. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Luc. anger. Gr. — Chock-full. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. fine threads of flowers. to ^cleave . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. wrath. or original meaning is preserved in G. try.ceosan. . Choice is probably direct from Fr. and It. in the same language. to hack. g'schochet voll. gustare. —Chorus. Fr. chock full. Prov. kor6n. kiezen. G. civette. to wrinkle. taste. to ing is doubtless to taste. schoch. Serv. taste. wein didder for cold. kiesen. causir.V)^x. Chives are also a kind of small onion. krussyi. a ruff. Body and Soul. chaup. developments of the same radical image. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . •- Russ. it is probable that the root kus. . 2. choix. i. to taste. The I go to prove them. Gr.yEuffM. chattering. — See Cheek. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. disposition. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. a twittering. then to try. To Choke. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. fresure. . as green as leeks. choppe. Warwickshire coff. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. chiffe.

4. From the Turkish Chiaus. kowej Sax. high clog. as Du. chrisme. kowe. XpvaaXic. in i6io. Gr. P. cheviniau. we find the following passage Dap. of which such strings are made. kubbr. and we actually find champman for chapman. . 49. A jackdaw. Chronicle. or miller's kaycke . chapma?i. caqueter. — Dief. Fr. — Quabbe. ' ' What's that? Dap. The Turk was here As one should say.). See Change. choucas. That Face. Confounded with the bullhead. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. To Chop logick.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. E. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. cambiare. kaw. peace. Marin. chevane. kaulhaupt (club-head. To Chouse. Chord. gull. Peace. one who buys and sells horses or cows. Chough. equivalent to the E. to cant. kolbe (club). the same word with the It. To coup. Wall. Sw. p. cauc. Borgoens happen. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. — — — . forms are Chrism. to turn over. . pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. gold. kobe. — . chuet. Lat.— Landnamabok. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap.— Chevin. Madam.' Jam. Chopino. E. short piece kubbug. E. Jam. e. cheap. by the Robert Shirley. cow-couper. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. slipper . ceo. chack. a stump. whence the Fr. chouette. I bring you the Cloughs. a trafficker in souls. a small fish with a large head. merchant.. to clack. connected with G. the string of a musical instrument originally. Kil. capitone. xftovoq. thick-set. Come. to strike in the hand. for to defraud. In the Alchemist.povucd. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. that will thank chiaus — you richly. because she would not endure this husband chopping. Chrysalis. kauwe. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . chouquette. Gr. caker. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. whence e. the intestine of an animal. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. koppe. dealing. gobio capitatus. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Alchemist. to chatter. in Chaucer. OE. soul-couper. kaufen. the teeth to chatter . chub. xop5>}. applied to an owl in that language. as in Fr. chevane. Sp. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Chub. yiSA. Ant. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. a lump or piece chump. clat. kubb. bearand aits. kaej Lith. Picard. to overturn. ON. i. ley in Giiford. What do you think of me. a messenger or envoy. an offence against the fitness of times. caphatenus. chatter . or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. dial. In Sc. — Chrisom. A fish with a thick snout and head. chevin.• — . quappe. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Gr. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. time ra . clogs. If I discover. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. chapin. cauvette j Fr. Du. chapineria. &c. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Chuck.xl—Shirbe ridiculous.(.). Fr. claquer. prattle . a thick piece. chop. klompe. from kloppen. See Chaff. cangiare. Du. monedula. plump. to speak thieves' slang. dial. a bullhead. traffic. whence — E. gull. Fr. sent before him a Chiaus. whence apparently the Sup. chroniques. AS. capito. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. —Shakespeare. capitanus. Fr.sohola. e. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. a The What dhy ^. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. Nominale in Nat. syllables chat. klopper. chrysalis (Plin. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. which was written 27.X. who took in the Turk- clack.\^s. cob. noble Doctor. xpi'^lia. -chron-.—Chuokstone. civetta. E. thumb Fl. cavena. Fr. to knock. cresmeau. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Anachronism. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. overset. chronicles. capita. fat. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Cot. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. G.. Gr.

jaws. The derivation from Kvpiasov. — of the two words. a douse on the tores. &c. Hence -cid-. e. . a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. domhnach. set kerti. kernjen. or. residue of burnt coals. a man.— . sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. Ir. cinis. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. have given rise. ceaflas.rendered by Kil. -cide-. fat-cheeked. The spelling of chider has Chump. a fellow. Fris. . chakil. joufflu.for the residue of stone coal. whence ON. to strike clatter. countryman. sindr. cinders used disjunctively. KvptaKolg. a resounding object.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Wall. tindra. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. casum (in comp. kjami. chops. gffe. joffu. cado. a miser. klakka. a man. chofu. karl. a girding on. kakka. cut off. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. -cise. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. has been impugned which it has really no connection. To chuck in the fall from. calculus. to jaw chack or snap. chife. a lump. ChurL husbandman. as in E. in circumcision. -cisuiri). to him a sudden blow. spuma metalli. ladre from Lazare. i. It is certain. sinter. G. ON. C^z^j^ churHsh. ciuffo. -eris. Aasen. tie about). chack or stane-chacker. to Newsp. e. -cido. blow on the I io6 in Mur. ceffore. kirna. KaxXij?. Da. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. a husband. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. -cis-. to make a aiKipa. dial. to fall upon decide. in Sc. to sparkle. sicera. to fall. Cleland in Jam. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. Sc. kaerle. OFr. as water running over rocks or stones. pith. calx. cidre. In Sc. Jennings. Diss.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. Cob. Sicerawry face ceffata. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. so as to make the happen . G. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . Lat. to determine incision. . comp. cheeks Cincture.^. a pebble . As AS. Wall. marrow. from Lat. whence church. to gird. 24. male person. Fr. The origin ation. then the on oh StX iv roXt. Church. Fr. sintel. a man.— Chu%.' he adds. . ashes. cinctura {cingo. Du. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. the snout of an animal. Gr. scoria.D. Ka-^aiva. sindel. but by way of explan. Sw. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. to fall at or on. with It the Lord's house. however.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Chunk. giffle. — — A — ' ' — . See Ceiling. dust. Du. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. * Cinder. a cutting an old chuff. ceorl. a rustic . sive piratiam facere sciant. ON. surly. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. sindra. geaflas. sindel is although only this canon directly dis.V//a'6'?. Chuff.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. whence deciduous (of trees). . the kernel. swollen or puffed up Cot. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. or choice part of a thing . AS. as Epkema explains it. See Cheek. to churn. Cieling. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . cendre. in the face. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. a cutting round. chuffy. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). cinctus. from Lat. flower. See Cheek. . chack-stone. Lat. lamak. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. to separate the kernel of the milk. Du. as Fr.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. x^^i?. AS. Cider. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. Lat. to make a rippling noise. as a board. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. an old man. a pebble. incido. Gr. to cut decide. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes.. log of wood. ceaplas. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. pp. kerl. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. cheek. we have to chack. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. thence a belt. to turn from blossom to fruit. Churn. ccedo. to throw out sparks. i. Lat. Gothic nations. chofe (Grandgagnage). — . chaps. ON. accido. to To Chuckle. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. ceffo. kern.' And cold. kiorne. to cause the milk to grain. &c. Probably from It. to form grains of butter. that the word is an adoption of Fr.

Sw. klamp. &c. ON. chatter . clack-box. bunch. or quill to draw waier through Fl. a ball. to cry out. a block. or split with noise. . a Lat. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. clat. with an initial s instead of c. citujn. Sp. a lump Du. klappen. circa. circle. Du. glamm. City. Fr. cry. The notion of a lump. as caverna from cavus. Mack. is traced by Gr. clap. clasp. hringr. klambr. Cite. a lump Lat. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr.to suck. fall. to make to go. clobyn. crack. . To Claim. clack. Arab. a cistern. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. as. cista. . circum. cifra. civilis. klompe. a kind of pipe. sound- — hands figures. * Ciplier. a boss . as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Lap. Clam. area. klateren. radical identity of the Fr. to cleanse. a Pol. a young and tender plant. lucerna. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. citrus. cit^. from chupar. klump. to summon or call on. kringla. The syllables clap. prattle. It. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. a. clamp. log. noise — — a cistern. to call. lump. to knock. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Alt. of citta. clack. to go. and Sp. . a whip. a clod. clapper. mass .' sione. klekotati. a city. klopati. clot ON. E. Circle. ruin. to cluck. ON. Lat. Dan. scion or sucker. KipKog. We . clapping of klacke. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. excite. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . cion. the door was slammed J slamem. — (Dozy) ing blow. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. ter. circum. a ring. glam. cittade. around. lump . It. a block. Fr. klepati. Cot. parallel root is slam. to clack. klacke-busse. to mention. a'upiav. empty Golius. a kind of rattle. We . claquer. Du. lump of wood or with the nasal. See Circle. clangor avium . sound. klammer. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. klqb. ring. See -cid-. klubb. claim. cieo. whence cistiti. To Clack. sphere gleba. castus). bunch . crack. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Gr. lump. domern. compared with It. a shoot. ciste. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. a whirlwind. klacken. Dan. to set in motion by means of the voice. the tongue. to call by name. Lat. lash . to bawl. . to clap at a theatre. dob. sifr. cittadella. Du. * Cistern. twig. to clatter. prattle. around. in the frequentative form. a ball. Citron. city. KpiKoe. sprig. a knob. lump. lump.. creak les dents. sound of blow. a clod Russ. uproar. a rattle . klimp. babble . . accordingly find the roots dab. a for water. chijfre. a split. Lat. outcry. ON. as in Sp. claquer crash. biw. a judgment cern. vociferation. So a light. Comp. clambar. cito. . claquet de moulin. for Cion. Gael. a pop-gun. clatCot. claquer. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. a loud uksa slamketi. It. Excite. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). Clump. W. gutter. —Civil. Bohem. cittd. scion. . clack-dish. 'mass. Lat. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. cion. a circle. cry out . noise. cisterna. See Crankle. to strike. clamras. a rattle Fr. klap. Citadel. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. From Arab. klemte. Recite. a circle. suck). a reservoir Probably from Lat. Fr. —Circuit. sajira. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. cisterna. klabb. a citizen . chupon. . -cis-. rattle. may cite w. the place of .— . a cleansing place. a lemon tree. to be empty. kringr. glambar. civitas. to gnash the teeth. klumbr. . clump. Lat. to chatter . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. Hal. civis. klappe. G. cluster. clog. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Fr. Circum-. Clamp. stimulate. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . clamare. a city. slam. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. Hence Incite. Lat. smack. Chaste. tinnitus . ball kloben. klak. klater-busse. trunk. dim. ern. clamp. clap. to toll . globus. clamer. to chatter. Gr. and. kluV. E. crack. rattle . -cite. CION See Tinder. Sw. sip. chupon. a hiding-place. forms — — — parent plant. and E. Gael. and clash. a circle. In Fr. about. a mass. to chatter. chest. circ2tlus. sindri. G. or clap-dish. Lat. a place See place hiddern. to call. . wasserkasten (water chest). to appeal. belonging to cities or social life . The Gr. Scion.

or klamp-vogel. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klampen. ring as metal. substances of a stickydam. kleppe. Bohem.1. conceal. clav\f. clangor. a heap of stones or other things piled up . dia. beating. compression. G. for tame conies. Russ. dapier. grimper. to starve. Clang. to climb. tattle. klobber-saen. klimmeii. run to lumps Clandestine. uproar. children. strain . a sound. The E. klamre. tremble . klemmen. klepanie.p correspond- ' without order. Dan.' klibba. solid. a sound made by a still . offspring.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. G. klappre. dren. tenacious. These are imitations of a loud. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump.' to take coals to Newcastle. of the children. Swiss kletten. dap up. tingle. kleppen.er. and hence moist. clasp. Dan. a rattle . with cramp-irons. dial. to hide. klemmen. Salainen. A i. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. Gael. kluppel. sound . Du. seize. chatter. scendants. cream Manx doan. crowd . B. G. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to clap. pinching. take hold of. clajnmy. gum. stick. to climb. a hawk. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. to Hal. damras. clapper of conies. a bird of prey. massy. a place underground where rabbits breed. — with hunger. to pinch. clear sound. klappen. dang. To Clamber. to daub pinch. klepati. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. where- A — unto they retire themselves. E. to glue. but perhaps not directly from it. kleppe. a claw . bandage. to beat. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. to claw oneself up. to climb . as the Lat. who occuG. knocking. klynge sig op. a loud tingle.. Clapper. Dan. clandestine. dam. to climb. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klang. cling. celo produces Fin. cleave. and that from celo. clamber. dank. a heap of stones. adopted Lat. holdfast. klibber. buckle klamp. diver. clapas. sticky Hal. klatten. Sw. a trap. apprehend . tone. tight. bond. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. is a nasalised form of gripper. — — . to do anything with a clap. Mampe. dee. hook. klam. as the clapping of hands. sound. chief. klavre. gripe. cluster. Swiss kldbem. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. from birdlime. dial. to dame. pressed close or hard together. clang. whence sala. viscous. klebern. Fr. To sticky. ney. The root which gives rise to klibb. sound of the trumpet . dientes. klam7n. also to clog up. — . a whip. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. anything hidden. in a hidSen place. ancestor. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. coagulated cream. a stick. — Climb. prison. . to gingle. rumour. to hold to pinch. daver. Lang. E. to Sw^. resonance klingen. E. glambar. a burr. Du. to patronus. to. — Lat. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. hands or claws to grasp. brawl. a noose . compress. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. clap. Clink. These words To are closely connected with damp. clann. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . The Fr. privately. nature . hold. klippe. dapi^. E. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. klamm. dienklebber. The equivalent of Lat. to clap on. to stick or glue. grasp. to cling. kleben. the in many languages. strait. originally a heap of large stones. klem-vogel. klemmen. descendants . viscosity . c). klette. . klynge. beat. Du. clammy brace. klamme. club . of which the locative case. G. accent. B. G. salafa. to climb. Bav. klammern. Halma. . contraction. to seize. Clank. — Cot. Lat. dambar. a claw. Du. chatter. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. klubber. klammer. a stone See Claim. clibby. to clamp. to stick conceal. dam immediate modifications — . . AS. sound. klappen. and hence to pinch . clap. to glue. to climb. OE. To clap in E. to hook things together. klepel. klopfen. is used in the sense of secretly. G. G. from the w. Clamour. dandestinus. . a sound made by a lighter clink. to clutch or cling oneself up. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. children. kloben. to hold fast with the . sound object . of money Gael. Clamp. to cleave or stick. closely analogous to that of the fast. rattle. Clan. Clap. Dan. cramp. narrow. tinkle. Hence the Fr. See Clam. gliong. to knock. klettern. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . clink. cramp-iron. dam. damor. salaan. . a craCmp. dam. In like manner Du. klank. to knock. dem. dink Du. &c. dapier. yf.

kleuen. G. klouwe. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. globus. — tells us. a complete sentence. 269. Nightingale. biichse.Gr. which signifies a ball in E. Serv . under three modifications dava. Analogous Jam. — Clarion. thence a definite head of an edict or law. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. chiarello. clavus. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. a lash. klatschen. klaeret. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. —Kil. sphaera. klatschen. klc^i. In the same way is formed the OE. globus.. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . vinum helvolum. teren. Fr. kletse. klamme. a claFr. The form clew.Z. clausum. klijven. noise. clausula. glcis.— CLARET clamp. to knock. to do anything with a . Du. climp. is preserved in Lang. chatter. a. subrubidum. clarin. a bird with powerful talons. a bunch. Wyutoun in Jam. row aii/iaTos. hawk. klatscha pop-gun. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. in the sense of a claw. a buckle. cloi. in the sense of a mass or lump. diver. compression. It. a clasp. assembly. klase. rubellum. Clash. clas. Clew. to clap . to fasten together . Lat. syrtium junctura.to cra. a claw. From claudo. sound of the foregoing description. Claw. puUs. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Du. — Clarinet. to patter. chiizjj-o. ansa. and shrill-sounding trumpet. clopa. and old red rose-water. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. a nail. Lat. clarinado. a heap. To clew. Gr. nail. Sw. to ring in such a manner for the dead. The collar-bone. Fr. kiosk bicza. bawling. Clavicle. Du. Eya-klasi. Lang. Owl and that by which cleave to. ictus resonans. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. mass. or as G. &c. In E. to snap. klucz. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Sp. Prov. waU. Russ. classis. nawith stanis. Fr.w or u on the other. cluster. kluczka. Originally clasis. &c. claw (what fastens together. he of white and red grapes mingled together. i. locket of a door. clump. an on the one hand. Eau clairette. clamp. fracas. the primary origin clapa. From clairet. the collar-bone. from scknallen. Claret. and through v into a. insularum nexus .). a key. Clasp. flap. seizes) . fragor . a distribution of things into groups. Thus from clamp. pellet . from its use in fastening things together. e. klouwe (Kil.\x\xvn. chasguear. forms are the Du. to draw it up into a bunch. a kind of small. clatter. to end. Mask ! plask ! thwick. mass. a water made of aquavitse. Clatter. fibula. clairon. Dan. to clash as arms. rion. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. a key origmally a crooked nail. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. pet. whence kleuer. KXeiSi. Du. Cot. buckle. Lat. vin clairet. klos. Clause. klampvoghel. a lump. to rattle . chiarino. So Pol. uproar. clew or fasten upon a thing. straight-mouthed. klaterbusse. to animals Sp. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Kil. — Kiittner. a club or massy stick. schnalle. Du. Du. Commonly made. a key KKtitid. chiaro clear. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Lat. a lump . The b readily passes into gleba. ghespe. as Mod. the cracking of a whip. we pass to the E. Pol. klaequivalent to clack or clap. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Klatsch- a pop-gun . From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. E. sauna de classes. crying. Rayn. a ball. it is called clamming. klauwe. skeria-klasi. Nawith stavis. blab. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together.ck a whip. But clasp or elapse. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. to shut. a clod. . with a reddish tint. an ending. a. ivy. as it is written by Chaucer. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. a little hook . clavis. contraction. biichse. kleeven. stop of an organ. gaspe. thwack . klampe. also a knell for the dead. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. applied in their harness. klot. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. claret win e. Class. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Identical with ON. klauw. from the resemblance to a key. to fasten. Thus from Lat. . dap. somewhat clear. same class with w. to cleave. clew. clair.oi. vin claret. and clavis. as G. clairon of a trumpet— It. It. is used in Sc. a sphere . klaskad.It. cinnamon. klatsche. K\a. hook.

a mass. 2. Fr. kla:g. as ON. Mar. that was a striking proof. conserere antklankjan. dag. glorious. to tear or cleave asunder. glent. mud. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. E. clean. Sc. klinka. kleg. to dag ox dog. cloven wood. gentle. to chink. to 2. a mass. that was Torriano. explained from the klinken. a cleft. Sw. G. clay . klinke. viz. Da. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. dams. sleek. kluyte.' was nailed to a rock. Clemency. . diquetcr. Omklinken. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. and. See Clog. klincke. klieben.— Clag. to stick or adhere . Clean. glor-mhor. Sw. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. to clench. river. neat. kloben. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. found in other cases. . dinquet kleeven. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. The word is . shine. i. Du. . AS. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. to fasten. clibby. Du. Du. to cleave. klceg. is fast and sure. Du. holding together. ON. Clay. kloben. calm. G. bogs cous. E. B. to shine . uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. klinke. to shine.— . . deot. G. from the clinking of the latch. kleverig. tongs. Kil. Clinch. viz. dial. glandse. klov. klutsch. pellet. cliquet. the original . neat. kloue. merciful. bend in a stream. sticky. klag. to be composed. Sw. The word may be — . or of a tree. 154 CLAY dutch. Du. kluftholz. Da. glitta. ON. to clinch a nail. danche. as explained under G. rift. to separate into parts. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. an object is simply cleft. dut. daggy. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. Sc. klirren. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. klinke. clear. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. clash. give a shrill sound Jr. lump. a fissure or division See Cleave. speech . to stick to. W. voice. pure . Da. a plate. Bav. The proper meaning of the word is shining. (Cot. and Celtic glan. From clap. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. from nitere. and Dan. dedgy. Halma. a bunch of When flax). E. cleave. a claw or talon. glatt. klinken. kloben. G. Du. it cleave together. — : A rivet. Cleft. klouen. ON. Probably a modification of the word doitt. Wilbraham. bright. . kleevig. kluit. klouen. glint. clemens. smooth. . a latch. seem formed dial. clean. as the Du. kleg. famous. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . together . geklonken. clear. or from being divided into two parts. G. kluft. sticky . klank.— Claggy. glan. Gael.). as Fr. klirre. provinciaUy termed dout.Q. klieuen. a in that of sphtting. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. glan. dench. sticky earth. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. the To Cleave. kleben. A — A Clement. Lat. Axletree clouts. clean. to fasten E. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. Die zaak is zS. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. Thus from G. a cleft. klove The Dan. a lump. date is AS. and E. pure. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . This word is used in two business is finished off. chaps in the skin. glan. a flash. klinken. klinken. rive. to sound or make a noise . to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . to clinch GB. of iron worn on shoes by country people. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. vissticky . From dob. glindse. glitnir. klafwa. gaklankjan. radiant. polished. to fasten. clink. polish . vice. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. a clincher. a noose. Clear. to clink or sound. door-latch. Dan. glance . clean. klyft. klor. nitidus. a noise. clout. a — — . as Lat. To call. doff. splendid pohshed. This is probably one of the clean. a one end. a cleft or fissure. to glitter. hook. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. To Clench. glbram. gleit. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. kldnkelein. the two parts of Du. the fork of the body. a fissure. the latch of a door. to Brilliant. pretty. dags. See Clam. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. glbr. words applicable sight. a lump. Cleat. celebrated . The Dan. pure. either by the coherence To Clepe. klijveii. a key. doggy. gingle. klink. Lat. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. split. in two ways. clear. opposite senses. rivet. from diquer. loam.

duik. on. above the pole. &c. to clack. seize (Hal. score7i clif. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. to seize. a latch . name. slope . clap. chatter. Client. one admitted to the tonsure. — — A .Lat. a clew.' ii. klever. Gr. gleg. pulsare. klippe. Dunbar in Jam.. a ball of twine. from Gael glac. precipice. dever. klinge. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. a sphere. the dick of a latch or a trigger. click. cleft in a rock. a figure mentioned. rock. Bav. Det er en Mover kerl. Chaucer. syn. stein- kluppen. and hence deik. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). to sound an alarm to clap. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. nimble. Norm. would have been derida. ravine. clima. as Sc. /cXi'fia. cliff. snatch. to move. de ripa. light-fingered. to stir. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. 3. Klover i munden. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. Click. diquette. Lat. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. to talk as a parrot. rugged ascent. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. a tumbril. Claw. crack. to teU tales. dial. —Vocab. kleppe. 3. Sw. OE. AS. CLINCH De . hamraklif. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. a cleft in a rock . crackle. Lat. a precipice. deuck. IS5 Du. corresponding to Fr. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Sp. derigon. G. kloof. which in Mid. Da. a mill-clack . crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. as Lat. cart that tilts over. klouwe. ized . d See Clan. had a form. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. call. — have the notion of a short quick in E. the clergy. click. or Sc. dial. that is a clever feUow. klippe. catching. or an object character- Clerical. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. kleppen. to catch. pen. and (with the nasal) — clincher. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. globus. click. to confess . Cot. in precisely the same sense as the E. The origin is the Gr.). Now the OE. clever. to prate. which is used in Scotch and N. to wink. e. a cliff. dough. climate. the knocker of a door. dergi. klev. Du. and hence climate. to snatch. Rouchi cliche.) Brai. In I Peter v. crepare. sonare. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. klok klep- crepitare. sink. We movement catch. dicher. exactly Gr. click it. cliquer. clack. Hence Lat. chatter. to tattle. lively. a hold. a baU of yarn. dek. ready of speech. Clerk. a ladder. say. corresponding to the Sc. Fr. klikker. diofian. claw or talon to dek or deik. chatter. . dichet. Somner. dink.dergie! Wiclif in R. cleke. -Toe (from KXivm. agile. deuch. a claw or clutch. speak. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . abrupta rupes . klif. Sc. Boh. The Sc. to tattle. Commonly derived from deliver. klika. dexterous. as from derido. prattle. clatter. Jam. to catch. a hump. Du. CLERK sound of a blow. an inclination. cave . See Clench. dial. to bend. diver. it must be observed. cliquet. klaiv. rock. Cliff. Clew. a child's or clack . declivity. temperature. rupes . in the sense of active. from clifian. rapidus from rapio. ginally from dob (extant in W. has also deik. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. on. quick of perception. a lump. a clerk . Clam. clif- stanas. a trigger. deik. G. has kl'dver. the clergy clericus. deik. Clever. icXi/ja?. a lazar's clicket or clapper. clypian. as a click with the tongue. one of the clergy. Du. precipices. clif. clever. Climb. But the Dan. . whence Fr. skard. neither as having lordship in the. dob. klaffen. derjon. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik.— Clue.— Clicket. Happen. frap- per rudement une personne. Climate. to cleave. Climax. kliket. littus. expeditious. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. See AS. clyf. a latch. quick in motion. in rhetoric. what so men clappe or crie. klikklakken. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. cligner. region not observe it. a lot. Lat. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. a clicket or clapper. clep. cleopian. derecia. . dutch). to cry. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) .r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. klinket. is NE. call. KkrifoQ. cliof. derigo. dook (identical with E. kliv. cleft. cautes. chat. scar. duke. verge). babble. highest is attained. Clergy. to rattle. with hamarskard. deudi. a hook. klinke. clerus. See Clamber. glomus. . cleugh. cleft of a hill. a latch.

to pinch. to AS. glungelin. klocke.' From Pl. klippa. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. Cliofue. Cloak. a rising ground. Lat. like cling. ring clag. to beat. to beat on the board. Swiss klokken. bow. hill . G. toga. also to wink . to pinch klupe. S w. sloping upwards procUvis. to shrink up. to snip. . Fr. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. Een kliks bolter.D. chcng. Serv. ON. Decline. klincke. kldpp. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. kol- The word . Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. hlinen. and a similar syllable without the /. knippe. Bohem. to clap or clack. ON. cochl. klunker. knippchen. . incline. to knock. knippen. .und zuk-lippen. sticky. noise. parva ruptura. to clip. kliks. a snare. a separate portion. To cut with shears. difficulty . is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . and so' to contract. glocke. a lump. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. or bagging clothes. Gr. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. tuft. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. incline. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. as thick or curdled liquids. cloche. klippe. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. E. 2. Fr. Ang. N orman clincailler. kukla. especially of something soft or clammy. See Cowl. speaks of a ' clung bat. as to snip in the same sense from snap.. . to strike. to bend downwards . compress . globulus' (Gl. iissura. hlinian. to . Sw. To Cling. klo^gen. clangere. a cluster. klaka. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. kluppe. Clock. E. — a mantle. klipa. to wither. clato make a noise.. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. 156 -cline. a tinman. . to lean backwards. Du. Bi klik uti klak. Du. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. acclivis. difficulty. klak. to lean. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. shears. clog. Sw. to wither. and 'E. Lat. G. Kil. Hal. claw. hluk. dial. klynge. from klepati. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Du. clock is a variation of clack. clingan. See Clang. nip. a clock. kima. . &c. Du. -CLINE make pinch. straits. pallium. * Clod. dial. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. I. klippen. dag. Sw. Da. Gael. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. Pl. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. dial. kolki-laud. sloping forwards.D. toga muliebris. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. whence E. dial. a lump of butter.ginglej Fr. club). . four of the bell. Sw. clivus. The notion of a loose moveable substance. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. Walach. by bits. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. w. klungelin. Sussex peasant AS.'— Shaks. ten. to make a loud noise. a bell. pinch. . klunge.. met. G. to shrink up. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. ' . klinka. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. hooded . g. to crowd or squeeze chingy. kXiVu. klippa. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. -atum. to snap or fillip schnippen. a ball of thread . a bell. — clot. G. a woman's mantle . clique. kleppe. -cliv-. to snap kneipen. fetter. klippur. a hood. Sw. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. kluben. G. disposed to a thing. The E.— KSS. knot klynge. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. at first probably on a wooden board. clinker. to cling to a thing. . G. klocka.. sloping downwards . a beU. outcry. klicke. hluccti. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. in Schmeller) klunk. slant. OHG. 'Till famine cling thee. clips. also to form a compact mass. gang. Ir.' for a dry stick. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. to resound. klepalo. klungeln. to form one mass with. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. to snap tongs.— Clot. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. a faction. as G. to clink auf. clinke. kolbe to E. Bohem. klok. klocke. to cluster. recline. declivis. ON. verklungeln. to clunge. to crowd together klynge sig ved. quincailler. as we now say three or four o'clock. To Clip. rima. cloak. To stick to. to sound sharp. brett-glocke. clutch. to slope or bend . gUong. Esthon. a lump G. schnippen. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. klupen. related to clock. a clog or fetter for a beast . Flem. klinken. to ring. pinch. clino. klingen. klik. Swiss klungele. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. Clink.

a spot. tJokok. or drablyn with separate existence. Fr. chiudere. spatter. to lobberig. geschlotter (as E. I doda clod. like G. klokotat. TZoxapov. zocco. to claggock. beklakken. motzen. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. a log. loppe. paddle or dabble in the wet. mud klcEg. a blot. from Fr. a bal!. . clorre. and thus seem endowed . claggy. spot of dirt. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. His heart was franlc without a flaw. a lump from Du. . to shut. paddle. then liquid or loose substance. Klak also. thick sour milk. shut up. clammy loam. -cludo.. in comp. . lump of something soft . Idppern. G. . Sc. klot. clot. shut up. AS. . to bubble. daggerey. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. to spill liquids. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. klunkern. -close. He was a man without a dag. to slop or spill liquids. a clod. . or loppern. loppered (of milk). lopin. Fr. Hence inclose. tuditare. slobberen. to dash like heavy rain. inclose. analogous plan to clod or club. thick spoon . a field inclosed clos. . Closhe. I clodde. Pm. to rattle. klakken. figer.1a. Fr. klottern. and Du. gelatinous. terminate. loose trowsers. clog or overshoe. klag.D. klod. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. and E. Klottermelck. Du. E. is connected with pludder. bespotted with mire E. close. • lump. slops). wide bagging clothes. dial. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. log. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. watery. E. or Sc. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. mud. to flap as loose clothes. The origin of clod and clot is to . bloutre. Pl. klac. be&c. . Yule-clog. lopperig. blot. da- . kladde. m&se noch stain. in accordance with It. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. to shut up. kleck. . clos. A — — A Thus from Bav.D. Du. Dan. slop. klos-bane. schlottern. dab. bowl . pattens G. lob. of something clammy or heavy. miry laggerit. to shut in. bemired. a dirty wench claggy. g. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. 3. lump of butter. schlotter. truncus. . lobberen. to dabble.'^ Palsgr. The game called ninepins. klateren. loose. Lat. a blot. Mat. clogs for the feet klakk. doitre. -clusum. . Bav. motte. IV. a log. claudo. to rattle or shake to and fro. curdled. kl'dnken. of a body of any kind. boil. . schlettern. to cling locks. clausum. shaky. fors. separate part. enOE. A .rge lump. Close. to flounder in the wet. I clodde. slobbe. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. foreclose. dirt. to wabble.dial. tramp in wet or mire. wabbling from Du. to play at bowls. loblolly. forbidden by 17 Ed. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. a clog or wooden shoe Mod.— Clothe. MHG. we pass to Schlatter. in forms like Du. from Du. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. a trowelful of mortar. ! . In the same way Dan. to dabble. fat. clotted locks Dan. mire. To Clog. congeler. lag. splash. -clus-. It. clatk. hanging loose and full.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. dirt. klotz. slab. . rattle. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Gr. an imputation. Fr. zoccoli. Swiss schlott. to rattle. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. to sup up liquid food. clogs. clotted milk klotte. kloten. claque. laggyn. a clod Swab. lobberen. kloteispaen. to paddle in the wet. and Gael. kleck or lack. a monastery. lumps of butter. schlattern. laggery. cloth. a clog. loose mud. to close against one. to bedaub. dangle. clausum. a Christmas log. Russ. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. meat from Du. the radical sylla. in accordance with Pl. slops slodderen. pludre. lunch. slobber. clos. je amoncele. kloster. a babbler. slob. to shut. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general.). neither spot nor hang loose. to a. klotzschuh. klakk. dunch). from claudo. dag. a block. lobbig. daustrum. finish . to bodies. without.. lump of mud on the clothes . Pr. Pr. compared with clump. Clog. with Fr. Cloister. klos.' end. G. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. or E. Lat. slabberen. . chiuso. . clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. a skittle-ground klos- sen. paludosus. is a blot on one's character. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. we pass to E. plod. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). aspersion. schlott. a portion of something soft and adhesive. kloden. closed. whence klack. unctuous. kloteren. be found rattle.

piece Cot. aglio. to curdle. clog. a log. klqb. CLUCK rustic. klump. AS. davus. clot. cludadh. to stop. dial. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. . dote. puddle. Sp. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. kluppe. lump. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. Du. cobio. G. a clove of garlick. and -the word Clove. knob. kl'dnne. diboter. 2. clyd. of nagel. matte. a breach. a clod. klubbe. a lump. group of people Sw. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. klieven. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. unpolished. zolla. Properly that which covers and Du. kloete. Met. ON. Gael. lunch). nourish . N. wisp. make warm. dabaire.D. klu77ip. klunds. een klaven kruflook. E. dirt. warm place . . klaven. when something has got into the touch-hole. G. the air. Rouchi dapoter.Fris. duthaich. ser. (kruyd =. warm clothes {dillad. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. CLOUD an awkward clod . mud (Pat. Clump. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. sheltered . Fr. Clumpered in balls of clouds. klubb. clavo di especias. rustic. clods. Du. lumps of curd. clue. Du. Kiittner. and tapp. The radical sense seems to be an unE. to tramp in the kluyve. . cloud Delfortrie. eine to slop. Gael. I. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. kUid. — — — . a bousche. a patch. of sloppy materials. Move. from kloven. From dog. clunch. chiodo di girofano. Ir. It. a ball. dob.). . nelke (dim. sheltered up warm. to cleave or the splashing of water. klubb. — . with lout. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. de Champ. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. esdaboter (Roquef. of a lump of earth and that figure. Clown. Then applied to a lump of mate. knob. clunch. to splash. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. . strike. dabosser. So Fr. a blabber. a sky Cot. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. klever. to beFr. indispalte knoblauch. klumba. a bunch. To Cloy. cob. to cleave. spice) G.clod. klotz. lump. a. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. stock. kldverj P1. and clay. motte. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. More in R. klonte. from W. E. mire. formed lump or thick mass. clammy earth. botch. clod.D. a clubfoot klabb. mass. Du. ball of thread Russ. tered . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. mary sense is a blow. Cloud. warm. Das volk hat sich in splitten. a bunch. also homo obtusus. a curdled sky. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . klove. to cherish.ft. a log. a nail. of thumping clumsy action. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. naegel. G. a bunch. from OFr. clotted milk or cream.). sticky. Dan. lump. log. Pl. cludaim. nagelein. a garthas. Sw. dial. clot. a clown. the terms expresssplit. clothes). The significations of a clod or lump. a knot of people. Cld. a sticky. a ball. a lump. and of a rustic unpolished person. a thick mass. little nails. a ball. choke or stop up. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. clump. as Fr. botsen. dys. klumpfot. clothes ment. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. a fissure. to cover Bret. boucher. klotzig. AS. w. coarse. In the same way E. kloven.). but confounded with cailler. eene ODu. to strike. clydion. klebek. and clout d eudaich. A kind of spice resembling Du. Du.D. A division of a root of garlick. Mabousfrom Lat. ON.bar. tuft. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. a cover or coverture . Clover. from Du. Club. cluth mhor. are often connected. block. to a lump. Sw. clod is used in both senses . are also used in the sense of a stopper. kluV. shel- kloen. clump of a clout on the head. a clod or clot. clou de girofle. to lump mend clumsily. to cloy. and closely do conspire. a . zolla dell' . a boss. clothe. cluster. lump of earth aria. dut. dash (Cot. Imitative of the note of a society.). The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. bunch. a bobbin. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . probably from daboter. dillad bumkin. clumhar. loggish. lie clyd. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). E.' Sanders. a clot or keeps one warm. klcBdi. clobyn. in the same sense. klubba. warm. a nail) Fr. daggy. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. a ball of twine . blockish. w.158 . dial. The priClout. clot . to strike . To Cluck. caillebottes. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. Du. dump. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. cobble. . milk run to lumps. klobbersaen. klotsen. G. hebes (Kil. del mattond.

to tramp. — sen. Pl. paste. with E. unhandy. a ball . clotted cream. hooknosed. idle. klos. COAL dumpish. conclude. dussomed (Wilbrabam). eviratus. -olus-. conclusion.— — . klummerhdndt. klump. calling her chickens.P. claws. clopiner. gelidus.D. Du. lay hold of. of Du. verkommelen. hand to cleuk. klomen. plad or plod. clointer. Lat. Muster. the word is more probably connected with OE. Clump.' Comfort ye dumsid. differing only in the absence of the duik. — Hence include. The sense of awkward. klamen. Clutter. to lie. Isaiah. to stick together . kol. from ON. G. dial. eene beklum. seize.mene tied. a bunch. Du. n. limp. wooden sole. klods. klikaty. dystere. Pl. a block. Du. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. a lump. Compare Swiss klupe. pladdern. thick and clumsy. and koetse. G. bunch. beklommen. to shut. wagen..'— animal. klimpern. The Fr. — ' — — tonista. Lincolns. Hindust. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. &c. Coal. a lump. pinched.Ancr. close. eviratus. to wash. claudo. viscous material. Coach. klikonosy. a clod or lump. klister. A group. awkward. 130. klumpern. But clunchy. OE. esclaboter. dumps. E. hands stiff with cold. -cludo. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. obstructum. -clusum. clump. Sc. ' Thou clontsest for cold. to to snatch. a lump or compact mass. or from Sw. -CLUDE hen Du. klamp. klobber in klobbersaen. benumbed with cold. OHG. koetsie. to collect in lumps. Pm. a clod or The noclot. Sp. to tramp or tread heavily.e. of garlick. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed.E. G. with a quick. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. Fris. klonte. to wash. —More. dumpse. klont. a pinching time. to grip. Hesse. Sw. dek. klumpig. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. — . —To Clumsyd. a coach.D. algidus. Fr. Boh.' Vegecius in Way. klummklummshandt. klampa. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. dial. ' Uorte (for clogs. MHG. might be reached from clump. Fr. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. Com. klontet. kichlemmit. ment. Cluster. Lat. From the notion of sticking together. duke. lump of soft mate. havi. a clod clunter. verklomen. are the nasalised forms of klotte. a clod or lump. Du. xXvariip.' Benecke. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . . a noise. — Cot. carriage in which you klodset. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. * Clumsy. clabosser. as clumper.' Wycliff. klompen. 159 E. to gingle. MHG. as from seken. coucher became in unhandy. . klemmen. or aclommyde. inclusive. to klotz. finish. also a cluster. -elude. Teulazy. cleuk. Sw. . klette. ball of snow on horse's foot . coccolare. smart motion. klomje. a nasalised form of club. cluster. wooden shoes. In the same way Du. strum on an instrument. clausum. Graff in Klamjan. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. dial. Champ. hondis. ' . to curdle. to pinch. in comp. Variation of clatter. glousser. -clus-. Du. cluntClyster. acomelydfor