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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. mind of the of the animal. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. Molli. the baaing of the sheep. to the syllables which are significant to the child. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. and. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. with an initial m or I. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. when we is represent to our children of the cow. muK) and mae (rfie. The syllables moo (mu. and mully or mully cow is the . when neither name for the object to be designated. the present day. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. in language of the present day. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. name of the cow. and where we are seeking. by whom the be understood. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children.NURSERY IMITATIONS. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). in other words. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. come Moolls. but nothing she herself knows the animals. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. or. is given to a cow or calf. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. persons of different tongues at the present day. the closer we shall approach to the . or Mollein.

I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. A member of my own new sfop. family. hm. to eat. .' he says. for everything fit to eat. First.). Gradually. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. for things. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. had nim. in children's language. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. for bad. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. and some were very clear and distinct. then.. when hungry. and nim came to signify everything edible. 72). nineteen years old. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. repulsive to eat. Heinicke. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. schipp. as well as the mind of the utterer. I had watched the growth of this word. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. . which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. to For instance. He would now say good. nim. mumm. Finally an n was placed before it. his nurse adopting the word with him. by the natural humming sound. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. fiafifi&v (Hesych. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds.' In ordinary speech mump. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. became more perfect. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. analogous to Magyar mammogni. partly from sounds which the child caught. We have. &c. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. and which we might express thus. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. he called to to drink. to work over with the mouth. On one occasion he said^e nim. p. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Gr.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD.

to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. i8o. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. iii. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). to fill the mouth. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. Soosoo (W.' says Quintilian. on. jumla. buckra man's language the white man. greedy . or word-making. make djamdjam). it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. yamming. delicacies. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. taken up hastily on the sly. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. A negro proOr. clangorqae tubarum.). nobis vix permittitur. ' id est. as to . palatable.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. at hiamske i sig.minis. Africa) nimi. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. nvrnma. the Scotch poet. to move the lips in continued chewing. to chew laboriously. lita. Vei (W. to be pleamind . ut tinnitus aeris. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Wolof nahenahe. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL).' says the author of Modern Slang. ' Motherwell. to smack in eat. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. sweet (Koelle). . chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. we can call them so.' And Diomedes. Nimm'd up. tidbits nama . Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. namnam. to mump. jamsa (yamsa). agreeing with Ein. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. nam. Galla djam djeda. p. and the fizzing (and Series. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. dial. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. aptantes adfectibus vocem. to eat. nyam nyam. mumble. Primitive Culture. and some of them . stolen. food (Tylor. 1 86). to eat mampfen. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. (in chil- dren's language). jammla. and the crab — p. snatched (Whitby Gl. memmexen. voracious. savory. as well as the Sw. to taste . aves tinnire. South Jutland hiamsk. to Sw. Swedish dialect gamsa.ONOMATOPCEIA. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. i. mumpfeln. j ing . The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. crab nam buckra man. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. mujnpa. Africa) nimnim.' — Lersch. to take. 130-1. oves lalare. and thence to be tasteful. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. Gothic niman. mumpfen. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . eating.

Indeed. before the in other words. grunting or squealing of hogs. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. hooting of owls. 'I doubt. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. yelping. when circumstances required. cackling or gaggling of geese. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. dove and cooing. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. sparrow and chirping. chattering of pies or monkeys. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. or. do not speak of a bowwow. cooing or crooing of doves. that there is When Man.' And elsevs^here (p. between dog and harking. twittering of swallows. yelping. We . And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. whether it deserves the name of language. gobbling of a turkey-cock. lowing of oxen. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. 89) with less hesitation. purring or mewing of cats. snarling. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. bleating of sheep. might be used as the designation of it. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. bumping of bitterns. not of a baa. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. intended in the instance to represent the cry.' — We speak of a cow. a lamb. bellowing of bulls. Yet we ing. ^6^. barking. howling. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. but of a dog. or thoughts of our hearer. neighing or whinnying of horses. anything connected with it. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. snarling of dogs. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . baaing or maeing of lambs. und growling. for the purpose of bringing the animal.' he says. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. might be used. p. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. not of a moo of Lect. chirping of sparrows or crickets. croaking of frogs or ravens.

In Basque. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. a crow (Pictet). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Georgian quaki. and Bavaria respectively. gackem. crow. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. kauwe. a crow. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. kae. caller. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. crow. Columbia kahkah. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. Picard cau. a daw. e. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Aoo-Aoo. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. He to is therefore derives kdka. 'Kdka. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Hungary. 380. in is Gr. 4th ed.). ist ed. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. a a crier (p. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces.IMITATIVE NAMES. and means a shouter. Malay gdgak. Kdrava. Bav. caw kuhii-rava (rava. birds. layitavya . Sauscr. it announces (Salaberry). in g. Sometimes the hoarse i . which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. and gaggele or gagkelein.). obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. sound). and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. or quawk. 349. according to Durga). Manchu The kaha. coccolare. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Arabic kdk. KOKKvi. whose sound (Pictet. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. is kuM) for the cuckoo. kuho.' common sense. having a general predicative power. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Origines Indo-Europeennes). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo.' kd). it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and the sound of that direction. In Lat. fi-om apakd- i. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. a bird that is be driven away. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. kdka.. ghak. lion. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. Barabra koka.

gugu. name. as well as of Sanscr. great variety of oKokv^uv. coqueri- Languedoc. The crowing of cot in Fr. kraukti. cock. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kurre. coccovaec. Esthonian kikkas. lulo. gufo. tbrtora.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. coucouva. tor. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. to howl or Lat. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. and e. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Mod. in the North of England. German luhu. a crow . Dutch kievit. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. kraeyen. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Sp. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. the name for a crow. 219. French dishuit. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. k. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. another. to crow.. uhu. and e. synonymous forms of similar structure). German kielitz. to crow. Swedish kowipa. Hindi. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. ghughu. The consonants p. a crow lish Lith. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Da. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Du. hibou. Arabic tdtwit. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. kukhuta. to croak. to croak. korren. 6. Ibo akoka. are represented.Gr. Zulu kuku. So we have Polish krukac. tuquheit. Du. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. tur. Walachian coucouveike. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . t. to cry loudly. giving turtur (and thence It. lilits. use the verb is croak to designate their cry.. Malay kukuk. by the verbs gurren or girren. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. to hoot. name of its is the bird. teewhoop. Albacuculi a dove. xi. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. p. kraeye. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. libufs. kirren. reduplicate form. girre. It. kruk. turtle) as the Lat. krauklys. Fr. Heb. while crouk. kuku. Pers. wood-pigeon. Magy. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. kukko. a crow. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. the name of an animal will gen- . In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . lUyrian kukurekati. Scotch peeweip. and sometimes both together. yell. German and Eng- krahen.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. koeren. either in the same or in related dialects. or Gr. krahe. tortbla. Lettish kiekuts. tbrtola. Yoruba koklo.

erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. Sc. the drone or non-working bee . give a faint sound. in allusion to its music. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . schwirren. horniss and from the buzzing The. zirken. pip-pi-ta. a sharp sound as of a 6. schirke. representing a short sharp sound. The Arabic sarsor. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. Corean sirsor. resounding of musical instruments. schrecke. buzzing. Naturalist on the tocano. grille.IMITATIVE NAMES. chirk. skirl. flight its sting considered as a horn. oE. glass cracking (Schmeller). as . to grumble. sound. to be compared with Sanscr. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. a beetle druna. Danish dron. whirr). German drohne. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. a hornet. German dronen. bambhara. grillen. to rustle. sirkka. droning is . The name of the cricket indeed. 'The natives call it tanand. knetta. which they make in their flight very . ajo. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. ' — Pictet . of which commonly be traced to representations of the E.vf3. humming. g. Lat. g. ' Sanscr. skryle. and yelping cry. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. to chirp .' —Tennyson. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. The Welsh chwyrnu. Albanian tsentsir. resound. Lithuanian tranas. shrill. and he kong-ko-rong.or bumble-bee. buzzing. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. PofijivXwg. 337. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. and not from E. hollow noise.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. gives rise to chwymores. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. i. to hum. In the N. German hummel. The drone peal. Sanscr. common. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. ta-na-nd. g. words imitative of humming .' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. with or Fr. dhran. North of England. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. din. to shrill sound sharp. of England it is to the b 2 . a fly (Tylor) . Fin. We may cite Gr. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. Australian bumberoo. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. — Catafogo. swirplys with 6. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. Northern Farmer. bee. loud rumour.' — i. Arabic tantanat. skril with n. little intermission. cricket is from crick. to sound. a small as hawk is . n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). schrickel. grylhis. from the humming. from schrick. (Jieuschrecke) . These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. booming. growling. or a gnat fly.' Amazons. e. there are infinite varieties. and probably indicates that g. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. a bee. to chirp J may be compared with . kong-kong. thunder. to creak Bret. the humble. Speaking of a cricket he says. Gaelic dranndan. bamba. Danish gnaddre. succeeding each other — with noise. a drone. Lith.

The Piedm. the animal. to make. or bau-l-i. as the Illyr. representmake bow. to bump as a bittern Illyr. to make a loud deep sound. to make. agreeing exactly with Lith. Manx booa. Cult. bucula. to low . and djeda. bu. Fr. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Norse bu. mugler. miau-l-er. Da. make to it laugh. has bilbilgoda. make poo. 167. a buffalo. OFr. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. mae. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. It. With these analogies. w. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to shout. to low or bellow. Lat. to mew. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. bae. bae. bwla. cattle. shoot . Lat. a bullock. or a z to the imitative syllable. bue. lulauti (to hoo-loo). that the imitative syllable are Lith. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to from bau. bubati. Hottentot bou (Dapper). bo. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Galla boa. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to the uses goda. is inadmissible. in a imitation of a ringing sound. bull. fivKaofiai. From the same lioao). or formed Lat. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. as that of the cow by boo. bullock. baula. and thence Lat. are (with a subsidiary k). to bellow like a bull. to shout. Thus from miau. to low. Fr. On the same principle. Illyr. Piedmontese fi bau. bolt. to . loge. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to beat hard. bauli. buculus. verbal form given to the say. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). His analysis leads cow. bugle. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. (iove. and in Hottentot baa was the . from the imitative moo instead of boo. verb is evidently identical with our shout. mugire. p. be-l-er. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. or moo. to weep.XX called booing. boo. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to sound. maukati. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. amuse. From baa. bukati. to ba-L-are. forms a. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. to bow- own bawl. muJiati. or with on. the Fr. whence baula. ox. bubenti. — ^Tylor. to or bark. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. k or g. Zulu lulula. to boohoo. The Galla lilbil. grumble as distant thunder . say. a bull. Lat. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. w. a drum . and from to ring. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. btibleti. a cow. a Geiger. bos. bugler. a heifer. Gael. to make a noise. bullus and e. representing the mew of a cat. biibnas. in same way. bovis. mamoo-heeheek.

we have Sanscr. rumbling. a sow. a pig Fin. in v. signifying a snarling. grunny. grumbhng. /xijeao/iat. a goat. G. Africa laa. a (Hesych. hundi). a goat. a sheep or ewe. From the imitative mae. Illyr. oe. grumpf. and thence groin. he would hardly. hunon. Illyr. hunt (gen. 6. undoubtedly imitative. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. may be identical with Esthon. — . sus-sus. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. mutter. ' In driving. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. as lou of an ox. grunt.' Moor's Suffolk words. to howl. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. leknuti. lecco. hund. to bleat. and snorke. Gr. grumble. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). from knurre. lambs. cry). does not produce a e. to grunt. Magy. . grunlike a pig in eating. to rumble. goats. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. growl. Gr. Welsh and Breton). lek-eg-ni. to bleat. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. this obstinate race. Hence Breton hoc ha. a grunt. Among dog. a sheep.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. mekegni. with the root ypaipm. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a hog. hadg- Magy. by which the shingle gives rise to It. It. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. groin. grogner. Kurren und murren. a dog. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. / The same Gr. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. corresponding to ohg. meckern. Manx meilee. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. sheep or goat. The g. a. a sow. the designations of a dog the term cur. from hundama. may with to snarl. curmurring. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. hound. meil. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. cite as by grunt. a sheep (Lowe). leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. It is probable also that e. and grumphie. Idgge (Rietz). smack and naski. meigeal. a pig. to bleat . knurfisk. grumble. karra. menAda (ndda. sound. purr). to growl. naskia. to themselves. or in any ! way ! persuading. in Wolof bae. for the voice of the ox). kurren. and hoc'h. and with the subsidiary k or g. name of a sheep. /xj/caScj. it and e. meugler. and Circassian maylley. . . name of the animal itself. name.). ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. And it is true there between hog and grunt. the snout of a pig. leg-et-ni. hwch. meketati. and of (maelon). kurre. although the imitation embodied in Lat. Da. grugno. to grunt. a goat firixal^ta. nire.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Gr. Moreover. ^. a sheep or a goat. houch. lekavica. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. Gael. mecati. Illyr. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. a wolf. Fr. Fr. as the proper name of a tame sheep. guttural tone. With gen.

as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe.. ^6<. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. houpy in Craven. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. . hottihuh. to the left. (Craven Gloss. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. of the character in question.root. p. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. e. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. as in Yorkshire highly right.. hobben. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. hobin.). but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. So Sanscr. humma. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. There are of course some names. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. such as cuckoo. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.' ticular bird. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. a mare. Esthonian hoibo.). a horse. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. hobby. p. Thus we are led to the Fr. a little am- bling horse. without a — we root. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. 91. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). from the cry animal. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. when he found peculiarity. like artificial flowers.' — ist Series.' 2nd Series. M). animal. coquelicot. coquette. hoppe. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. Sc. g. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. turn a horse to the is In Finland. to go backwards. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. the cry to stop or back a horse. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. cockade. hiine. . and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). If onomatopoeias can . But words of this kind are. to whine.

xxiii ginal object. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. Sanscr. swift. redpole. command of language was attained. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility.D. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. wrenska. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. rinchar. hresh. ginniken. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Fr. e.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. fehtati. frenschen. wrena. hross. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. lapwing. sol. creeper. nounced with a guttural). hikkd. diver. giggle. form corresponding hresh. . it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. Pl. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. groan. goatsucker. Du. but whether there kind between them and other words. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. whitename in in- throat. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. little speak for themselves. than to the sounds represented. to neigh. as sigh. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. nitrire. cough. Irieschen. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. to Sanscr. Sw. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. signified It. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. animals or certain kinds of sound. Lettish sweegt. Bohem. hennir. hukkup. g. runniken. wiehern. ance or habits of the animal. titter. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. moan. wagtail. horse. woodpecker. hresh. Sp.

acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. are familiar in ' to every one. a more expressive than the e. White Lies. hoo. &c. — Sanders. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. to ham. mer. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . for the for the sound of . Zulu bongo. for the creaking of a wheel.' So imac. lumm. shriek. to throw violently down. strippstrapp-stroll. debhes-lungotais (deifies. pit-a-pat. clap ! A smack Puff. a kind of drum. heart tick-tack. for the sound of a fall. snore. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. haw. Of a like forma- drum . atchini. or the w. scream.' 'Haw.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. bang. to hammer . wheeze. for the sound of milking. 1865. on the chops is represented also by pratx. dong Read. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. for blows with a rod. thunder (Tylor) .' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. beat of a clock child . ding. to beat. snukkup). knarr. banga. an attempt would be made to by the voice. klatsch. haitshu. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. root kshu. the dashing of the sea . &c. . The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. for the sound of a blow. Da. oren : Klapp. Vei gbangba. to knock. the God of thunder . ping came the bullets about their ears. aritischane. bangas. for a small one. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. —Brem. tlirob. It is represented in e. DingBang. atchian.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. plitsch-platsch. beat. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. knack. to drive on. Australian bungbung ween. a large bell. Mei gbengben. or tliat is accomit. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. ting-ting. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. in a nail Let. hoo ping ping. for that of breaking. bang ' ! trenches. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. snort.' ! ! ! ! — dong. tisio (tisho). whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. hang. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. went the cannon. pump.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. for in such sound of blows. banke. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. Wtb. to sneeze. heaven). for the report of a musket (Colenso) . fitsche-falsche.' it both sides went.

cry of young birds . In cases such as these. to cry like imrli^u). had been used laugh ? two. mobility excavation and hollow ^. pigolare. or a piailler. G.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. young child . e. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. pi. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. calls S. pigione. pipe. pipio. is pfeife. bleat. doubtless. as k. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. pipelni. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. piccione. a fife or musical pipe. pippione. child. to cheep like a bird or a young It. Lat. and so forth. peep. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. . as in other subjects of study. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. peep. pipegni. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. scream. laugh. chickens (Tylor). which he added to intensify the expression. He Yet asks. a or cheep. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. has been un- employed to designate fixity. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. or the uneducated different consonants are man.) a chick. as the simplest implement for proFr. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. and their relations. Magyar pip. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. is of expression. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. It seems to him that the teeth t. part of the What consciousness has the child. Fr. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. a chicken or gosling. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. pipilo. pipe. not- . Gr. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. cry. — . to cry pi. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. piou.' instead. The pi. pipare. Lat. to squeak. pigiolare. piauler. a (young) pigeon. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. of a word will appear supposed to represent. the voice of chickens (Cot. a fowler's bird call is lost. De Brosses. to designate cavity and hollow. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Florio. piou. ducing the sound. far pipi. —Lyndsay. pu. pule. to peep It. a whelp.sc. used as a call to . Mantuan pipiare. and whimper. pipio. young bird.

rumble. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to bubble. {to It. as representing the sound made when something breaks. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. make wood a clinking noise. to ring pipio. girren. a. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. creak. or kaka-faka. cluck. kuruk. to growl. murmur (by . to be compared with Sc. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. the clucking of a j hen . knuks. a prolonged sharp sound. to cry pi. to grumble. garren. along with Du. to gurgle. to gargle . either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . is very common. turtur. Hindustani karak is rendered. tintino. to gorgogHare rattle. vaake gorgor) . Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. Poppopvi^to. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). lachachen. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. pi . to thunder. of something fine and thin. . The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. kniks. as the click of a latch or a trigger. rumble. lachen. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. It.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Hindoo tomtom. cricli. thunder oil . a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). &c. Pefuxela. murren. a sharp short one. Indian chack-chack.. tonare. to rattle. a drum W. when it force than biscuit. some small vowel or consonantal sound.) Mod. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. loud laughter. bubble. rumble (Fl. to cluck. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. gurren. u. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . ioriogliare (to make borbor). chack. laqfF. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. knaks. tontonare. to hawhaw or laugh loud. to grumble). i. in German. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to pant violently (Colenso). to jar. or springing back.Gr. preserved by Kilian. sound). by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. to fizz like fat in frying.. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . and lugh. be cate to go on laughing loud . is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. the side of g. crash. like the noise of a glass breaking . knurren. . to pant bejii- zela. grumble. Manchu kaka-kiki. a closed or obscure sound. coo. where the variation. to creak knirren. of a loud strong sound. a short sharp sound. kirkirdnd. sound of dry breaking. kniks. along with tinnio. Pacific aka-aka. Zulu raraza. to laugh. karkarana. crack. to crackle like in boiling . to grate the teeth . to clack. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. borrelen.

SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. clash of arms. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. csam-csogni. chuchoter. caca and Finnish adkkd. especially one who beats. at an accelerated note. borrelen. a workman. or the bubbling up of to a spring. to knock. 192). Prim. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. . same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. or to Du. and e. djeda (to say tub). a smith. jingle. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). sound. rvir (in tvittio. as Fr. as of Tamil muromurmur. ding-dong. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. bubble up. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. hala-hald-faMa (falda. drops of i. box on the ear imitation of the . simmer. noise. bulbiil. to be compared with g. KaKog. compared with Gr. jangle. a nightingale. Manchu kaka. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . chut. tup.* the heart. and Gr. is based on the same imitation as the e. brings us to Fr. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. awater* ' The Mme P. Calt. clank. Fr. while cacd / used in e. to whisper. to the purling of a brook. to beat. a boy's whistle. wail. champ. kiling-kalang. Maori pata. the sound of a stringed instrument. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. of keys or tinkling of bells.' Member for Paris. tumwata. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. correspond to e. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. . the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. Newman). is Manchu tang-tang. for the sound of privy whispering. the tingling Ming-Hang. and bilhila. word. rain (Tylor. and the imitative nature of tivgle. to say chut. cry. make djamdjam). indicating the origin of Gr. corresponding in e. for the clinking Lat. chinking of coin. fumtu. Tiie Galla gigiteka. a nightingale. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. to giggle. halaidlac'h. clango. uproar. E. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. Scotch sough or sooch. Magyar csamm-ogni. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. to strike. bad. koXiw. Turk. e. The syllables lil-bil. and her heart went thump. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. The whispering of the wind I. identical with g. muro and e. and Gr. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. thump. Galla tuma. rifiirayov. tumult. for the ringing of illustrate bells. for a tTviror). the gingling of glasses. coughing or clearing the throat. agrees with g. disturbance (F. shout. or of bells ringing. spring of water in the a bell. a drum . is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . croaking of frogs. to ring or jingle. bent her head. are applied to the is excrements of children. kl'mg-kling. for chut-chiit-er. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. 368). klirren. tubh. Sanscr. quarren. sound). answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. call.and e. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. 1871. clink.

plump. by rubadub. murmur. tumbian (to beat the ground). who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. tingle. chatter. bubble. thump. clash. crash. and soufflet. tinkle. gargle. twang. flop. whine. to dance. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. So in Fr. Nevertheless. ring. thump. while e. jingle. mutter. to fall. creak. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. guggle. lash. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. din. souse. flap. thwack. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. we have buffet or cuff. pop. blubber. paddle. clap. clang. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. in e. answering to g. It. But although and also found in Lat. disturbance. or v^hether jectional. smack. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . slash. patter. clink. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. craunch. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. parapatapan. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. to is blow.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. tomber. clack. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. splutter. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. fizz. squeak. tymmesll. The use of g. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. whack. squeal. crunch. and Grimm. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. tum-ultus. report of a gun. boom. clatter. rap.. dash.' — Nohden. a applied as well to the force of the bang. dabble. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. at a door tarapatan. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. and the French pouf. bang. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. Fr. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. without the intervention of orthodox roots. gurgle. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. according to the strictest phonetic rules. sputter. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. the Germans puff. squall. Humboldt. puff. hum. snap. it is fallj AS. The beating of drum is represented in e. rumble. hiss. brumberum. w. swash. rattle. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. chink. rataplan or rantanplan. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. whizz. blow. tap. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. ' Der puff. whirr. douse. and Fr. smash. thump. 'pat. crack. splash. clank. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. for (Sanders). etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots.

—2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. ugh . the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. the interj. in the rushing waters. If. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. p. wringing the hands.' If chaos. is Thus ah!. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. knows them. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. At the first beginning of life. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. an imitation of a sigh . it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. or any unsatisfied want. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. without a thought of symbolising to them. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build .'. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and found in the building of be burnt up.' . xxix on the contrary. little who has time to want of her nurseling. that he has taken the step in rational speech. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. and thus they become signs of despair. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. the inteij. formerly cited. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. grief. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. the kind of action that is desired of them. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. of horror. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. or stubble is meaner name. Grimm or Bopp. stractions. are made known by an instinctive cry. by the nature of the cry. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. hay. Crying. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . 94. but if we must not complain on the beach. and uttering plaintive sounds. because they are spontaneous. in the case of the animal or of the infant. or of any if wood. every little pain.

He says. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. interjections. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage.' — ist Series. more to the point. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. or which is of me as suffering pain. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. p. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. 344. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. Language begins where interjections end. coughing. more eloquent than a long speech. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. shrieking. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.. ^6g And to the same effect 371. them to exercise it. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. may become traditional. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. as who them spontaneous utterances. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. groaning. be more powerful. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. And again. If I wish to make a person of an . which are frequently so toned down cance. and the eye. of all the mouth. the lowing of a cow. p. One short interjec- tion may fact. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals.' p. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. they are involuntary interjections. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. to solve the I shall call first. 32. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. sneezing. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. should be remem- . and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and some of them the composition of words. he cites from Home Tooke.

the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. when I arp humming and hawing. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. for example. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. then speech begins. Tooke in truth. demolishing here. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. hahottaa. I am not hearer. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. and more or less limited . explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. cachinno. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. Gr. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. some kind of language might have been formed. speaking. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. in Magy. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and thus. and others from interjections. in Fin. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Kayxa^u). which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. interjections. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. hohottaa. loud laughter. he says. it them. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. but the less am at a loss what to say. kahkahah. bered.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. hahota. Koxafw. Lat.

tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. dumb is the language of signs. of the nature of this great movement. makes them stand and walk upon the table. And so in the case of language. The following account is given by Kruse. But here nature soon conies to his help. and go where we now say stand. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. the critical question should be.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. What strikes him . imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. if taken as a whole. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. Though.' he says. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. a Picture-language. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. It as has ing their most striking features. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. a deaf-mute himself. words receiving the meanings they now bear. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. . but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. and not. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. like peewit and cuckoo. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. of the world. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative.

it seems. most striking outline of an object. many when or but these. that air. walker. and gestures. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. that. signs are taught for yet. he. the sorecalling them to his memory. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. such as than the educated man. or the verb to be. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. for walk. becomes roast meat. and fully serves to j . or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. what more. or To pull and flap with the arms. walkest. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. his action. The of sign for left hand. and forms further and further. thought is already broken. letter To hold the two fingers apart.' In the Institutions. and we have roast goose. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. xxxiii him between one thing and another. walked. like a V. to name. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. push it towards the person addressed for thou. as it now opens out. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. can do better and more easily abstract terms. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and with his thought. but if I depress it instead. and And thus he makes himself a language. and to taste. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. particular sense in properly so called. The same sign stands and the act itself. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and it is flesh or meat. for the agent. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. nay.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. he. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. the whole secret. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. that signifies great . among themselves. And is. for single objects. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. called Gesture-language. it means little. such objects. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. for child. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. the lan- guage cultivates itself. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas.GESTURE most. thou. To seize the is the principal movement of an action.

Do not bang the it is a verb. or a quality. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. When I say. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. according to the circumstances of the case. He gave door a bang. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. a colour red. or sometimes interjection or adverb also.' dener's knife.xxxiv asking. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. When a verb. a number of alternatives are suggested. I say. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. as in die it is a noun. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or action. as But when it is meant door. in other instances sentence. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. the ture of white term pink is and red. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. the garden. qualifies the against the wall. whether by additions or otherwise. Who is has beaten you ? would be. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. and thus performs the part of an adjective. when I say. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. The same word . it called an interjection. might be the knife. and so is an adverb. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. and the as. as when Bang ! went the gun. . or something of the kind. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. in fact. You beaten . may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. putting it into his pocket. or a passive scene of existence. depend entirely upon the use. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. substantive or adjective. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. to indicate the action of a certain person. would be simply beginning of speech. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. or an act. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages.

255. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. a sigh of oppression and .^ — Miiller I. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. with a stick. Jii ta. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. inquiry. Latin. whereof. contempt. commencement of speech. which is an old y ting (use stick). word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike.. in the is indicated by the syllable y. a groan. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . or some relation between it and another object.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. as cung. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. Thus tafu signifies a great man. or with elements expressing relations of time. as kuo cung. that is. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. in the sense of great. wherewith. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. middle. and to be great. wonder. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. greatness. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. wherehy. wherefore. and may be used language. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. coalesces with the personal pronouns. whereto. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. grie^ horror. but often self-evident. pain. a noun. or nei. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. some outward display of the affection. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. the man is great. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. that admits itself in of audible representation. . inside. &c.

but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. wai. pain. representing Illyr. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. misfortune. ohg. e. gwae. oval. misery. mostly a ! %. Lat. grief. ach. . oh. to ache. vaj. to lament. miau-l-er. is Ay di me I Gr. ah. a groan or lamentation vir. g. Let. Jar lau-lau. to chirp. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. ah.. guajo. to make). oi. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. found in g. miau-l-is. Illyrian vaj. e. o'i. wai. vce. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. on. oh. on. in Gr. to injure. och. Gr. axofiai. In this way from the root guai. w^wa. ochan. to rriourn. at the close of the radical syllable. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. la. Gr. jao. to weep. to gargle. ache. is w. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. lau-l-e. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. ocAJ. cece.-l-are. 6. headache. are ol-ire. to make bow-wow. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. dchzen. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. . It. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. weh schreien. wAwa. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. vei-a. ochain. ochan. w. hei. . to hurt Let. guaj-ire. jaoh. grief. representing a cry of pain. aiai^to. Such are g. tirr-djeda. lament. j. pain. mew. ohi. g. to cry n. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. The form corresponding to Lat. ach. pain. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. Illyr. howl. djamdjam goda (goda. to wail or cry alas . to sound yapyap. to cause pain. to cry at. as. oimare. gwae. to yell formed e. has more kopfweh. probably a deeper groan. waiidt. form. Lat. to lament. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. al. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. guaj- or cry out pitifully. och. gwe-l-a. It. suffering. and cacak djeda (to say crack. woe. miau-n-is. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. Gael. lament from oimi. woe. I oi[iot. wd. It. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to . however. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. Gr. 6. first person. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. wehthun. &. . w. ai. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. ace.ez. to bewail oneself. the pangs of childbirth.'). It. as. och. grief] affliction. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. ! ! Goth. seen in Gr. to wail. ui. A widespread It. vce. wai-l. weh. wehen (Schmeller). . to groan. n. weinen. and to bark . die wehen. e. xxxvi grief. achen. or r. Thus from springs otjucifw. Fr. Bret. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to ache. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. ach. guai. ahi. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ing action I. to weep. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to do woe.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. for instance. Phil. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. is we I believe. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. In the expression Da.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. Please. Sie. and may be rendered. indeed.' all is is — their consent. that is it.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. we may translate this by there (it is). nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. as to express. Dr Lottner observes. when 1859. ToSe (or in Attic E. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. and by a variety of expressions besides. according to Menage. But. • The child.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. a word of many applications in g. but the truth is. thata (ta-ta). child. that gratifies me. da. says da-da-da. 'nay. nurseries. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. or give me it. . his trowsers' pocket. as. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Diet. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. When we pointing. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. more emphatically roSj)j that. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. the nursery da-da. case. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze.' this. give me that cheese. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. saying : there the ad- Trans. Thank you. when he wants something. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. or that it is. this here. implying the direction of its good will towards them. der da-ige. to here . ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it).* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. give. Sanders (Germ. and so on. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. that. or carry me thither. as it Dieser da (as Lat. Bav. ' sees an object. The Fr.' person. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. a specified were by pointing him out. is-te). well as Goth. I add) . we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. or wants to name something. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired.' then points to his wife. da.

meanings. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. standing. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. reality. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. The da is dodem. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. and shapes it into an . becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. sinking. to say to oneself. takes it — as When the soul. tasting. p. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. or metaphor. its desire. to beat. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. to tion to another. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. of which any one may. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing.' • liv ANALOGY.^ its ' utters : a cry. tattle. the original is that which he places first. beat. — Cot. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. childish toying. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. which thus exertion. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going.' says Lottner interior. strike. then instinctively interest. Thus Gr. speech. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. and one in particular must. make dadada). in every mode of expressing the idea. . for which Johnson gives seventy taken. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. or dalliance. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to walk. stutter. sounds. to move step by step. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. moving. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. pay. to knock. dadee. thinking. to chatter.' says Muller.

to crackle gnistre. make a loud noise. sound. — 1. clang. and thence e. search . then to sparkle. and. sapere (which signifies the nose. smell. esclat). properly a clap or explosion. to sparkle. chime). . tinkling. man of nice taste. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to snilF. a with kimmaltaa. to be wise. same imitative root with Sw. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to . splendour. In the same way the Goth. Bavarian bracht. Du. magnificence. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. savour. the equivalent of g. on. to crackle. to resound. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. tintelen. we have and the and beorht. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. The 6. schiteren. kimistd. Heo Du. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. which in ohg. Again. to sound clear In Galla. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. judicious. schmecken. Fr. It is The word bright had a similar In as. . think. to 5 ghtter. to tinkle. kiimottaa. a dis- cernment. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. wamara. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to glitter. to glitter. may be it explained . and figuratively. In the case of sparkle. fiapfiaipw. snotor. &c. to have Sapiens. bilbil). Lith. sprageti. firom the Gael. pracht. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. knittre. gnittre. to glisten Dan. snutrs. bright. taste. spraka. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. wilahtaa. wise. and schmecker. scTiateren. scheteren. to smack or taste. prudent. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. snuff the sniiten. 1654. while sapere itself. to ring. noise. to sniff. knistre. splendour. snot. also wise. to shine. beorhtian. as kilind. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. beam. is used in the origin. in popular language. sense of brightness. for example. (parallel bilbila. discreet. wilistd. outcry. snudra. bilbilgoda (to make .TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. ghsten. signified a clear sound. rattle. to glitter e. unlella. Finnish. to quiver. in the domain of movement. as. air. brilliancy. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to shine. a rustling sound Gr. a ringing . tumult. may be quoted gUt. to glitter. iclat (in Old Fr. to sniff out. So firom Lat. a brilliant light kilid. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. smell. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. suspect Bav. from the . to ring as a glass willata. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to shriek with laughter . to flash. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other.

oily. whirl. Kpovtiv. 1. inside. kvTOQ. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. . they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. the cross. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. extremely loose. the bleating of sheep. ipuKuv. gluey. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. he framed the words ivSov. pvfi^Civ. is felt Lana. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. rough. which The Stoics. rend. break. within. then in rpd/xoe. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. he says. and vepres. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. as soft by the ear. Tpa)(yg. Kep^arl'ieiv. shatter. \nrap6e. wool. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. rough to the ear.' he says. mel. accordance with the way in which by touch. or . si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. in of his works. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). the neighing of horses. the clank (stridorem) of chains. rough. pleasure soft to the ear . seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. v. KoWiiSije. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. fitting the letters to the sense. sharp. roughness. we hear of screaming colours. crux. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. And observing that n kept the voice within. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. 6\tadaveii'. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. smooth. of dressing loud. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. itself letters are felt as sofl. to slide. Acre. strike.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. in truth. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. eo ut res vol. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. rough both ways. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. Much of the same has been often quoted. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. The BpavEiv. power of the letter-sounds. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. discusses the tone of a picture. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. briars. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. soft. &c. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. tremour. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. flow and flux.

Fr. and in the utterance of a high or or low. corresponding to the ineor. rug. jog. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. g. p. A greater felt. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. or checks as they are called by Muller. for exis ample. to jogj sac-cade. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. a rough and sudden . 138). ii. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. jih. as when. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. jig. shog. stab. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . shag. stag (in stagger. tug. to signify varieties of movement. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. t. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. joli. cular effort Again. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. sag-oter. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. the case of the voice. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. k. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. jag. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. to reel abruptly from side to side). We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. d. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. 'and consequently form. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. p. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. dig. dag. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. degree of roughness sound. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort.

to winkj micati is Lat. Welsh cicio. a jog. to stir. Ene olde suksuk. figuratively. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. zack. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. tecche-tocche. chic. to have it ticked or marked on the score . to move rapidly to and fro. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. e. motion. Dutch kicken. chiquet. tack. to beat or play on a musical instrument. or check. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. to incite by light touches. a cracker. zigzag. Hence Lat. cica. to strike It. a good piece of road . much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. Fr. in cases like the foregoing. used interjectionally to represent a . Then. a playiug-marble. and e. schuckeln. sound barely audible. an infant . &c. to glitter. also to stir. properly a small lump'of . mie. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. passing to the signification of motion. kuk. chicoter. chique. as tot. To tick a thing off. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. toch-toch. so to Italian toccare. mik. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to pulses being knock. not to utter a syllable. a stroke with a French toucher. Brescian toch. schockeln. rough horse. mica. tock.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. as Italian tocco. (mitsati). that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. an old worthless horse or carriage. Bolognese tocc. g. lead to Spanish tocar. kik. it produces Dutch micken. The syllable suk is jerk. foot. to ring a bell. tech-tech. The Mipen or pencil. a piece or bit of anything. to mark it with a touch of the pen . like English tick. and It. The analogy then carried a step further. a quid of tobacco. for the sound of knocking at a door. is made to signify movement. however. Fr. is lanese toch. Mucken. The production of sound. The train of . and analogous movements. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a small bodily object. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. a . Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. to mutter. Accordingly the g. Thus we have B. sound Fr. micare. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to take a thing on tick. S-panish miga. a crum. to say a word . to utter a slight kick. Illyrian migati. then.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Sukkeln. It. is so frequent a consequence of movement. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to On the same principle j we have g.. to touch. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. movement. that we never can be sure. a little bit. then. to tickle. mot.

we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. Pm. and a small lump of something. fait. So. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. of movement in totter. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. . a morsel. seesaw. ri that. to make a slight mark. or o toi. subdued manner. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. zitio. that. the vowel sound. I. . this . often entirely arbitrary. this. to movement of the pen . to jot down or note with a fro. This kind. you. . a little titty. there '(at a short distance). here. 0. not an atom . further off. To jot. zitella. neither moit nor an atom. 199). motta. mot. gnu. Du. and dot. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. small titlark. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. the least visible insect. Halliwell. there. . jot. a sparrow). In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. lump of earth. gno. lix Sp. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. a small lump or pat. and mite. tozzo. e. a tot . clay . ika. a girl. mossche. tottle. tot. mut. 48) cites from the African Tumale. or the like its It. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. little. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. a lad citta. a morsel girl . Cult. we have e.n. tittle. e. a. tot.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. small of kind. mutter. syllable mot. move slightly to . a small quantity. eo. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. iki. is shown in murmur. . In a similar the relations of place. taut. or the converse. to touch. little j to that of a small bodily object. mutter j dust. anything small flax. motte. a certain conception. The following table from Tylor (Prim. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. a e. anything . tit. to e. (Halliwell) Da. gni. citto. a small bird. . a small kind of lark. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . bunch or flock of wool. i. and he. tot. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . for the three personal pronouns. tiny. there (further of!) ao. corresponding to the personal pronouns. n. a bit. Fr. and out there. mote. to tremble. as in e. tit.) . a small horse. titmouse (Du. titter. here (close hand). to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. and toddle like a child titter. at where the order is inverted. chico. . a bit. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. fragments It. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. that iku. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). Then. the same organ touched with the man.- a jot or little It. totle. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. But the same is language has re Javan. Malagasy to. for the beating of a clock. to whisper (Pr. not to utter a syllable. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. to touch lightly with a pen. ticktack. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. not because the pendulum makes a different left. titilh. a whisper. a light quick blow. tot. . to jog. to dot.

ukko. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. that. that. there. child. father k . that.e^. there.. that. here this . . Abchasian aSn. respectively. Mutsun ne. for the male. bi. here 5 Yoruba na. here . this ole. mother. Fernandian az. is Here. this fi. olo. Lat. nne. ta to ka. . here . mother.) pronunciation of i or e. Botocudo ati. this . from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. child. me probable that • Vei also little. thou ni. there. little. that. ndi. ulri. Tarahumara ibe. . man erne. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. I . ^.. km. Guarani nde. there. Ossetic am.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. he.araM. Then. tiiio. /mya. that. here j ka. an old woman chacha. no constant rule is observed. he. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. Tamul i. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. biii. /e«. . (tt). there. thou. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. usho. ojOo. . and a for the female. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. here j abe. young one. Zulu ajoa. that. you. ni. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. to. . as Mr Tylor remarks. It Carib lala. ni. /wo. ita. minution further. . Magyar ez. It seems to (fen. as in Italian Fin. w.. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). there. ne. mas cheche. Japan ko. loo). that. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. thou . this . Chilian tva. and origin. that.) nna. Gr. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. small (Pott. . 6. Carib ne. ofj.. father. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. this . akha. Dhimas isho. an old . there. uta. j Canarese ivanu. mother. is father. qu. this . Mm. that in the distance. femina ama. probably initial of distinction that the k. as the act of pointing was ta. this <t. that (intermediate) j wana. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. Sahaptin (America) kina. here feraa. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size.

In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. for the . the pip or pippin. barking of a dog. A little wee face with little. a little yellow beard. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. the nursery few j Sc. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. for a succession of light blows low-wow. analogous to winy-piny. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. fretful. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. And perhaps the E. in old e. the idea is called. trSpigner. — Douglas Virgil. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. has tittafrem. repetition It. trappen. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. trap. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. . principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. din-din. sound of bells . tion. and in the Pacific dialects. stairs. don-don. &c. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. or chink. lift 8. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. to feet. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. The sound trapp . pepin.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. a step. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to make its way through the bursting envelope. a child. or even. of smaller things. keeh. is to express simple continuance of action. The Sw. 401. knob. to peep. wean. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. to begin to appear . for instance. Da. Clank represents the sound of something large. From cases like the foregoing. little To sup up. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. Fr. as ding-dong. murmur. nipple. i Sw.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. to teet.' — Merrv Wives. whence Fr. dance (Kil. looking through between obstacles. to peep through. A little weeny thing.) . The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. as j money. to tread. at pippe frem is to spring forth. just beginning to appear. the principle of reduplication. wenig. nab. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. trippelen. Top. little.' making the voice as small as possible. trappa. trippen. the simplest mode by the g. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. to leap. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. Thus we have Wolof sopa. titta. nil.

to call frequently from Fr. instead of being actually repeated. very bad. hardness. or rdtchi. to love. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. are echoed by the rudimentary et. Thus in the Pacific loa. the comparative degrees of greatness.Ixii REPETITION. smallness. i. a cradle. from Maori muka. to say pooh It is ! to. And generally. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. . without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. very long (Pott. . FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. random .' expression is — ^Tylor. to vi^alk about for flax. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to skip. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . in familiar use with ourselves. kendagenda. little child (p. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. Susa di. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. Cult. clamito. a clattering noise. kenda. child . and thus by analogy employed in Lat. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. lololoa. to pant. Again. and the words express a continued sound of rack. to or rub. mawhiti. rack. bad .. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. cliqu-et-is. amusement. rack click. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. properly speaking. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. puka- puka. or in Fr. if very young. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. clash of weapons. or very very great. puka. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. to cover e. to to call. or el. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. to treat with contempt. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. or imitative syllables. ratsi-ratsi. a grasshopper. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. er. the lungs. (to use a to speak. &c. or a little tee--ny thing. didi. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. keep spots. repetition or continsignify long. tach-et-er. loloa. child . Mandingo ding. the agent in panting . calling. click. Malay ayun. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). the and clique. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. to rock. ding-ding. racket. tache. could readily be conceived. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. mawhitiwhiti. to talk at to walk. sopasopa. ayunayunan. very great. a spot. 99). 97). and Fr. The same principle of 196. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. rapidity and strength. Thus in E. kamha-gamla. So from clamo. serves to show and in this way. mpolu is uttered. is language.

itself. jogging. wancol. as to handle. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. dab. wankeln. where all direct connection with sound is lost. he who rubs. to wail woe . to make a succession of shoves. from puka. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. the lungs (the puffers of the body). The Fr. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. or by association. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to bark like a dog. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. crack. shuffle. In cases like these. syllable clat . Piedmontese bau-l-S. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to move to and fro. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. bub. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. miauler and beler correspond to E. others. smack. a succession of cracks to rattle. such asjlap. the knie-en to E. to make bau-bau. to rock. or omitted. g. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. and in as. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . by the side of wanken. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to continue dragging. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. Ihre remarks under gncella. Jickfacken. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. mew and baa . to rock or wag. to make gug. rubber. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . joggle. wankel. rynel. The contrivance with any particular noise. to make a succession of grabs . to hand-le. in some applications.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. In like manner crack imitates the sound made .Jicol. guggle. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. as mAS. wagas ging. or fi bau. to puff. is In e. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. without the intervention of the frequentative element. which. or Maori puka-puka. draggle. dabble. in Fr. compared with g. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. waggle. fickle. it. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. wavering. a from ayun. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to crackle. or in e. to hand. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. bubble. kneel. are to cry mew and pew . miauler andpiauler.

Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. A gull or a dupe same sense. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. known in Italian. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). it is obviously a mere chance how long. or how generally. Polish. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. and comparatively few easily deceived. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or in aptness to combine with other elements. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. which is the origin of the word. or in mode of use. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. moreover. There is. by a hard body breaking. Dupe comes to us from the French. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. which. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. on a moment's reflection. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. the breach. to the separation between the broken parts. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. Breton. at was more familiarly known. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. to cry ugh at. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. although it is not difficult. will continue to be felt in daily speech. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. deceit.

and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. founded in manifest blunder. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. however. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. life. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. language is . as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. is the examples given in the foregoing pages.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. is. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. Hitl^erto. nor any limited of ideas. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. . and the word is used in a secondary sense.

where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. i. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. 330. therefore. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. compared with the duration of man. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. and vescovo. If English. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. Naturalist on the Amazons. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. I think it very probable. Welsh.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. in the course of many years' isolation. guages in South America. evique. circle perpetrates a new slang term. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. French. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. and 'Russian. change. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. out. of material things. episcopus. hearing. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. unintelligible to other hordes. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English.

Cijlt. The combination of the symbols I and 2. 9. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. 7. which are idenr Figures 5. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 6. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. or whatever the proportion may be. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. to be taken (Prim. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. it will leave figures 3 and 4.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. i. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. . and . A key must unlock more doors than this. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ao8). the actual it which would to represent. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. is MN. as shown in the subjoined illustration. Nor is there one of the letters. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. 8. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. ancient Greek M .

leading him to utterances. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. If new 'modes of phonetic expression.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. what comes to the same thing. had its origin in imitation of sound.' should be discovered. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. his fellows. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . which either by direct resemblance of sound. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. and the only safe beneficent Creator." the use of a change of vowel in as. or. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. known to us as yet. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. for instance. in the shape either of direct inspiration. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence.

or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . by animal without a trace name of Man. for instance. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. or not. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. in the course of generations. of using imitative conduct . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. that he started from the lowest grade. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . as elephants. the conduct of Ixix life. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . or beavers. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or else. and sooner or later. until the progeny. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. or of their own reflected thoughts .COMPLETION OF MAN. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . race were speaking men or not. and rose towards a higher state of being. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and when we look back as far as history will reach. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians.

Fin. ^Ifr. Diefeiibach.-Eng. Dief. Fr.V. Dueange. Cot. Couzinid. Brem.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Carpentier. . Dutch. Catalan. Sup. Supplement to Bret. 1737. B. Dueange. Danish. 1654. Dn. dialect of the Sette Commune. AS. Bremisch. Bav. Teutonico-Lat. Grammar Boh. Cotgrave. Provincial dialect. Da. Due. Bigl. Diet. Bavarian. 1766. at the end of Somner's Diet. Gr. English. Baile/sEngl. Diefenbaeh. Romano - Cas- traise. E. Biglotton seu Diet. Elfric's Fl.Saehsiches Worterbueh.. Carp. Diet. dial. Esthonian. or Dan. 1850. Finnish. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Cimbrisch. Castr. Anglo-Saxon. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Wtb. Supplement to Dueange. 1768. Diet. Bohemian or Czech. Cimbr. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dief. Gothischen 1851. Esth. Douglas' Virgil. Infimse Latini- D. 1857. de la langue Cat.Nieder.



percurrunt kimista^x. baltresca nokkutomax. r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . Askance woud r. r. willekom Blab r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. alUger ahaverie r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.5 ERRATA. kilistaa bugiie r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. ^i?^i2! r. puHti r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. Blob plowied r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. cti. word allagerr. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. (/ijtf r. katowai perairrantr. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. haverie crtOT r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.>. yjnaifia r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . buque 118 brodiquin r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r.. cruccio deyrie. plowied budowaer. sveritet Asknace r.nokkutama willekem. woman r.


remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. sion of 'an abandoned character. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. Immediately from Fr.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. Thou spelds of mychty iction. have entire dominion over. Abaft. iway from. ab. an edict or proclamation. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. from a is to wake to abide. vs. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. and secondarily in that of command. on-bsec . is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. Passing tongues. abaft. onis aback.t G. the er. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. . To abuse is to use iway. Abs-. this word beand Spanish. behind. in. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. announcement. to awake. until the event jlace . to arise. Lat. in a manner other than it should be ablution. o/j of or . "rom a height. to sauff the king or spill. Jvery man shewid baft. orders. baftan. command. A.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Thus ip N3S. K . plesyt him. AS. but now )bsolete). first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. ur. erwachen. whatever he be. Abandon. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. ifter. AS. literally. in the same sense. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. as. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. as. into the Romance ftrseg . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . and — Chaucer. a. a washing off to abstain. abs. on. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. —Bruce. The word Ban is common orders. In Lat. ir. ibandonner. state of sleep . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. 843. a/tan. his. of-dune.he Goth. away from. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. particular 1 . power : Than Wallace thing. on. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. dominion. Hence on-bceftan. rule. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. OHG. Again. Dent posture. er. dominion. downwards. to subdue. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. to hold . implying a completion of J. alike. on-lic. among. be-ceftan. Ab-. off. compounds. us. from. away. Parson's Tale. 244. ar. bandon in French. out of. said.

fournir. to gape. vol. Abbess. faire tomber. To Abate.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. abbatis.— — . shame. esbahissant. to astonish. abbatere. to strike Froiss. merely the terminations ons. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. astonish.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. may be explained. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. effect of shame. et prirent terre. to take possession of an estate. d. Wall. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. burny. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was.Prov. son bandon. A. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. an abbey. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. ais. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. from Lat. abbas. law term abatement. so common in the found in the OFr. See . his mouth. father. See Abide. . other. astony. impulse. 364s. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. to bate something of the price abbatersi. from ravir. at his own the lips. to strike sail . Abbot. Custom. to overthrow. to hit. esbahir. abbatia. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Hence Lat. R. depress. — — .— R. Milton. In or. Cotgr. drink. abandonly. baer. impetuously. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. of the Fr. On the other in use as well as hand. uncontroUedly. thing abbatere le vela. Bate. More correctly written abbat. and the verb was written in Eng. down. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. where custom (Grandg. to happen. ne more vermeille. by Wall. betrash. to beat furnish. to light upon.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash.polir. to make lower. — Neccham. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. lish to abaisse orabaish. or admiration. of fear. to The . Hence the OE. I was abawid for merveille. terminedly.) . 1 1 8. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. and sets them all agape. bandon. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. abbattre. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. baba. his eyen shene. weaken. adverbial expressions at abandon. to abaw or astonish. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. overthrow. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. beer. to ruin. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. abate. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. to put to con.esbawi. R. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. to diminish the force of any. Hart in Jamieson. and it that that it — . Castrais. ant. to excite admiration. bawi. person. iv.On princes.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. Beat. Baba ! Mod. or society of abbots or monks. . to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. abaundunem-ent. esbahissais. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. 1520. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. Originally. and that from Syrian abba. castle. polish. confound. It. and grooms besmeared with gold. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. de. in the active form. as ravish. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. And he thereof was all abashed. abbatere dal prezzo. esba. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat.' the surrender of a ' K. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . of wonder. Abbey. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. burny was formerly burnish . R.down. c. Fr. with or without a final sh. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg.

— Chaucer. desire. to be intent upon. E. a bay or opening in the coast. to wait. beguiling on the other. badare. were called Brothers. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. beidan. we sceolon ON. . is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Du. aspirer. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. to stay. signifies the direction of tend. bie compared with Dan. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. Quant voit le serpent. Ni engigner ni abiter. bouche bdante. Goth. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. to desire. F. abet. badigliare. badar. abSiance. See Abide. take care. . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. . take notice. forms with the d effaced are OFr. literally white tree. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. ceive. abetter. abie. Pol. badare. wait To Abide. Abele. with open mouth . to yawn. have seen abide. baer. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to wait. is idenwait. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. baier.Fr. . suspense. from Halo. to ance. tempting. qui iaaille. or absorption watching. desirer (Roquef.was formerly used in the sense of look. attendre avec en^pressement. Guernsey beth. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. and Prov. — ABELE Epiphanius. de Berri) Prov. gola badada. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. songer. abayer. Ducange. house. in Dan. Gloss. on the one hand. to attend to. Corresponding to keep in suspense. bie. to gape . tarrying . a right in suspense . which the mind to an object. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. expectation. to open the mouth.— ^richer. The white poplar. Cat. — signifies to suspend action. Thus G. beijen. abie. listen. compared with (Bosworth). verbeijen Sw. abeter. to deanimer. tical with It. inciting. abeyance.' is in AS. (Vocab. aspire to. — . bada. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. and in E. delay. m Abeyance. Cat. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. pense. to expect gabeidan. bida. beijen.. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . waiting. endurArt thou he that should come. to tarry. abet. baier. bocca badata. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. endurance. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. lingering. to be intent upon. covet. and E. to expect. deceiving. attendre See Bait. In We . ne chastised them. warten. othres abidan' The effacement expect.— Roquef. abiiance. bouche b^ante. beguile. b^er. ' ' . delay. baier compared with It. intent observation. bhr. to deceive. us. the verb of abeyance. abaier. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. watch. usbeisnei. listening. forbearance. to look. to suffer death in Du. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. . John. OFr. to mind. and alluring to his own destruction. ne wist what way to chuse. 1 • . regarder. abbadare. Abie. to desire earnestly. with badia. Gloss. beijden. de Champ. K. ^couter avec dtonnement. The verb atwaiting. Corant sens lui. beter. bder. inciter. Thus we have It. to In great amaze. abidan. From abahier.) abayer. expectfamily. speaking of the Holy places. expectation. syllable ba. Prov. or in Fr. to It. wait. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. Norm. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. bialodrze-w. to remain or endure. bidan. To Abet. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. badare. Q. exciter. incite . — II. Fabl. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. bide of the d endure. —Raynouard. to open bader. suffer b.to wait. deceit. Boethius. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. to abide . to hook. in Fr. to stay. while the monks under his control ing. Norm. also to OFr. guardare. tenere a bada. to attend on . gridare. to wait. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. beidan. 366. which is certainly related to It. delay. says. or do we AS. look for another. white. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). tity of E. open the mouth. bida. bana. trick abetar.

powerful.ynes. bord. willing to schewe his wrathe. within the ship. abie to Goth. habile. properly abuy. without special reference to the notion of retribution.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Q. atling hem to her proper offices. or bie. from AS. adapted . and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. al- be found so some will dear abide it. . and the simple buy. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. P. Lat. Abie. abeye. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Tr. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Merch. was often used in the same sense. and death for handsel pay. God — dear. Fr. Fr. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. to . at hand). How dearly I abide that boast so vain. aboleo. de la volatile. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. as E. Boucher. from Lat. while in later examples As I . to dress hemp. to pay the penalty. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . at kasta fyri bord. durance in both applications. use. It. — e. God. — Able. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. O If tion. Spenser. fault being simply clothing. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. being disabled in the highest degree. Cassar. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. If it badare. For on board. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. have-like. ! ! Cotgr. abidge. abide. — P. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. R. abicgan. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. 2nd Tale. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. Innan bords. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. ON. abie. the Sir Tristrem. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. i. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. abigg. must suffer for it. bide. F. The —Boucher. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. abolir. P. as habiller du chanvre. —Bacon in R. forbid for mother's children should abye.^and to make his power knowne. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. to redeem. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. though sometimes confounded with it. habilis (from habeo.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. 2. able. to perish. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. expert. &c. to draw fowls. within the walls of a ship. when compared with Aboard. power. suffer the Jul. Prol. abilh. consequences of anything . fit. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. to have . abilej Prov. sufficient. Wickliff in Richardson. abycgan. Dr. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. AS. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Chaucer. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. to wear away. She shall abie that trespass dere. to pay the purchasemoney. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. L. him with che. R. habilis is closely preserved. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. Mids. the Pardoner In the original. Milton. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. the side of a ship. strong. beidan. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. and Cr. is the verb abie. convenient. bidan. In this to erase or annul. on board . a board. the Fr. N. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. purpose. in for any special purpose.

ol. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. pedigree from brevis. and in-d-oles. to bring up. from Fr. To abray or abraid. kindling. Goth. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. coalesco. common in Chaucer and Abominable. Gael alaich. The primitive idea seems that of beget. — .precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. abbrechen. is a ively. abrdger. onbutan. alere capillos. OSw. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. to feed. boven. OE. while the verb alleThe root el.aboon. the idea of breaking about . Above. titan. Sc. abbreviare. natural ed direct from the latter language. oil. Virg. ABOMINABLE adolesco. to and of giving birth to a litter of young.. below. without. . AS.ger. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.1. ala. to snatch. to light a fire the Abraid. leading immediately to Fr. agredge. or cut short.— Abbreviate. that greatly agredge their sin. literally. to grow up. above. to AS. AS. d. bufan. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. For on broach. Thonne Abroach. to fatten. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. a portent). alan. the form a&^^. Then. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. abredan. to awake. — ' — — preceding verb. the vital spark. to cut short. to start. way Sw. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. abufan. vital PI. alUger. awaking. break out. the man dwindles away. to nourish. af-oleii. OE. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. but from Lat. See To Bray. levis to the Romance languages. on high. explains soboles Lat. nourish. to main. currence. life. to break off. nurse Lat.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. af-oolden.foda signifies to beget. abowen. Kiittner. to rear. draw out. Thence to regard greugetat. as AS. and also to abridge. outward. the hair grow. Melibaeus. en. for ligeth butan. and also. be-ufan. progeny. to feed. is not from G. motion. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. agreujar. abominor (from ab and omen. to beget or give birth to children. or young forth. around on the out. alan. Quod abominor. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.ymbutan. to aggravate. side. disastrous portent in some passing oc. See -und-. the OSw. from . Fr. full ofte his words for to Fr. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. whence the Fr. of any kind .. olet become worthless through gam De manji af.) . The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. Du. ala is made to signify to rear. while the sense of beget. gravis. greu. breaking out in language.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. by the to bring up. and to do something to avert abbreviate. Tale. Abundant. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. sec seftre — Chaucer. butan. Abrdger itself. Severe the threatened evil. Lat. brood.the older form. and alere flammain. adolere.' Ymb hancred utan. gravity. Of these synonymous adolescere. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Abray. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. seems aras. al is growth. which passed into English under Abominate. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor.' Parson's rence. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. to grow together. to rear. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. abrcBgdan. Finnish stock. the identity of which with ting. as the duty of nourdisposition. giving birth to. Prov. abracan. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. and bidden him abregge. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. hard. snatch In English we speak of away. to turn. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. as withotityn and without. parent. heavy. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. to let sleep. about cockcrow. abbrechen. . s —Casdmon. to produce. In the same brevis . becomes leu in Prov. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. D. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. AS. to progress. abutan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. To Abound. nurse. The radical idea is to feed the flame. be-utan. which may God avert. ufan. his contemporaries. So in Lat. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es).



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


to bring forth. were andouiller the second. to strike G. ambeld. whence anthem. finally applied to a whether grotesca. In like manner. to have.—Aperture. To ape. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. Anxious. to go in strange disguises. Lat. post. To go antiquely. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Antler. a small quantity. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. d<popi(xnbs. Any. gabeigs. white. apatiar. antifena. Lat. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. to nourish. So Lat. cenig. press. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. to support. from avTiipoiuia). The Fr: form antienne stcfn. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Percutere. Lat. left as the . and ig. Mannequin. Antick. work. Fr. Fr. part. should be received. Aphorism.— . At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. aperio. Gr. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. villan Gloss. Apartment. to strike. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. like a jack-pudding. to strain. which by anvild.D. Ful- Apanage. one at the least. from ante. andouillers. ab. trouble. from an. burnished. a termination equivalent to Goth. anxius.. swaged. before. or antique single chamber. aside. as from as. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Apartment. plenteously with red. a preventative . choke. . to sound in answer. Gr. Hence the applica. in Shakespear. as the Italians. whence Prov. Fr. from eigan. E. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. : . i. As the browcalled antiques. one. but the expresent day. ReApe. from ango. eigs. younger child. strangle. d. anfilts Pl. See Cover. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. separate purpose. were chiefly of the former class. bread.legacy of given against. before. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. inAgain from the same author cudis. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Thus from gabe. a few.made out. —Spencer. Ilvtwotov. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. something ler in R. Hall's Chron. transferred to the grotesque characters. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. a puppet or an anti^hona. amboltj Du. to imitate gestures. — — — . vex. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. Gr. or in a ridiculous dress. Antidote. rich. set aside. from. wealth. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. from. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. the anticks — behind. a gift. as we call it. to open. such as savages. some one. G. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College.th centuries the recognised models of antic. separate. Prov. a block to hammer on. af. Aperient. Apart. and devils. from in and cudere. three antike pillers. on. AS. avri^ava. apertum. as posticus. surimitation of the ancient models. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. panar. panis. verberas. a definite . and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. incus. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. what Roman civilisation. anxi. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Pezron fiUist. AS. Lat. apanage. Jorioc. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. of. from Stephanus. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. anticus. to display pario. fauns. stem. AS. anapoz. from an and — - . and claret wine. Antique. Anvil. antefn. one having wealth.is to be given. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. all of gold. Otfried.

e. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. properly to join like to like. laven is used both as E. to store or put Appal. apin R. H. prohts. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Cotgr. I prise ware. like. word was specially applied to clothing. apal. fit- — ness. to seize. iwKjToKri. one sent out. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Approach. praise. ciously than nede is. — dirondtfiu. purpose. From Lat. Walach. from aTroorlXXu. par. pronounce fitting). aptly. appareiller. proper time came. — Apprise. were formed appropiare ejar. dress. that it outfit. apprendre. apropid. to rate.pareil. decree. Apostle. Prov. to lose one's senses. near. of. away.parecchio. Fabian in R. APRICOT off. to — . like. ar. apal. to disable oftat. appris. equal. to understand. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. irpaiKOKiaov. quoth the frere. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. poind. and in the sense of condition. preparation. habilUr. one the MLat. whence the e. An old appalled wight. — prehendere. Lith. appartenir. Fr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. Cent Nouv. Epistle. to finish a controversy. apprentis. Apo- good time. agreeing with "LtA. off. Parson's Tale. array. taking. 11. Apoplexy. a'^opi'Jw. Palsgr. jabloko. — Approve. diroBrjKr}. poind. agree. Apotliecary. a thing for one's purpose. apar. ai. cepl. diroTrXriaatii. become dizzy . Appareil. 5w. Ir.t. a crime. pretium. to learn. mine. from paix. S^. to deem good. make a composition between parties. Cotgr. appellare. to approach. obolys.probare. APO sentence opoQ. —Diez. seiden of the stones. and also as appraise. apprehendere. find Then like Fr. to mark to define a bound. ^wss. diminutive pariculus. approver. Fr. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. manner. in data. Yr. good. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to assign or grant over unto. Fr. from. Fr. corresp. pronounce good. kind of action. And whanne sum men Lat. landmark. to set a price on. horror. to take away or lose the vital powers. to strike down. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. i. to call for judgment. To Appear. OFr. rise to \t. Gr. prope (comp. piteux poind. after his mind . to learn.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. approcher. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. despatch on some service. in fact. set a price on. or the like. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. in commendation. to be open to view. oVooroXof. Fr. to commend. From Lat. They werin his approvirs privily. lAfiaam. Friar's Tale. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. 23 .— . probare. and metaphorically to take the meaning. to make a thing Apparel.parejo. in good season prendre son d. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. apparecchiare. pertain or belong to. to announce. And among other of his famous deeds. to deaden. — Appurtenance. Apple. to — — .prix. From Gr. to call. opportunity. 'LaX.propius). peace. Pliny. xv. the good. N. one for his defence. to dress in this fashion. The Fr. To praise. Apprehend. prover. whether through age or sudden teiTor. pragigua or prixcoda. —^Apparent. Formerly apricock. D. to Lat. avail. a learner. Yr. Sp. allow. to suit. habiliments. esteem. A — . . Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Gr. appaiser. trim. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Gr. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Cotgr. order. For their acquaintance was not come of new . to come near. En peach. to which it is often referred. Fr. ap. w. prize. apprise. AS. to accord. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. . known. To cause to pall (see Pall). They were considered To Appoint. . Hence It. or E. Prov. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Mod. Hence appoind. plight. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. approcdare. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to approve. Fr. a price.his giving evidence against his principal. apropchar. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. (cited by Diez from a late author). one is in. It. peler. to deter- to strike. Nouv. to send to. aparelhar. value apprdder. to catch hold of. d-n-o. to send off. Gr. in Chaucer. Appease. consent unto. an epistle or letter. : — — speak 'Lz. appareo. case. The PI. Fr. and appoinder (to find fitting.—Apprentice. 'L-zX. ON. Lat. to fit. when the . To Appraise.

It may be doubted. opinio. Lat. a pleasure-ground. Arbitrate.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. a river. C. suitable. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. nected. Beryn. shortdr. aha. a lot. to decide by lot.) E. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. derived. arbiter in re censendS. conjicio. rofe and all.meaning at Shrewsbury. 31. to plough. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. P. grande nappe. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. As is a pretty parlour. Now one of the points — — — . hariolus arpelen. nawl and awl. Marsh. ahva. sestimatio arbitraria. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. aptus. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. garden. or barm-cloth. arbitror arwaaja. Naprun. la nappe. arbiter. . is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. sorcerer. From OFr. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Flower and Leaf. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . is taken in is a soothsayer. Arbour. Maan initial . however. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. OHG. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. tion under trial. arbitrium. Alban. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat.sors.shrubs {arbor). proper. delon. P. and thence fit. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Pr. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. aro. 331. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. A. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat.' —About. Now we find in Fin.o. . short. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. pracoqua was not an adapt. She made. quod he. Albanian. scr. Thus we have natiger and auger. It is certain that the apricot oracle. properly the arwella. aestimo. Prol. From OE. arwaus. account for either of these significations. Pm. as an eye-witness. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. . a soothsayer. OE. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. Gr. J. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. to preserve it from stains. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. .. doubtless is the origin of E. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. water Which that benchid was. Lat. ap. and taken away before dessert. — napkin is Naperon. as ihe diminutive. naperon. ear. or eft.] in the N. 2. Roquefort. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. be That it inne groweth. and sortilegus ation. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Lat. Freshly turnid Arable. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. man. intensitive of nape. The loss or addition of n very common. a lot. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. conjectura conjec^ra. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Hall. Aquatic. of of divination arpa-mies. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. fastened close. {mies ^=ia3. aa. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. sortium ductor. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. however. auguror. the spelland umpire. wata. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. — . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . symbol. aqua. con. ughe. words derived from arpa. found in Fin. and the one who gives oracles. herbere. divining rod. and a protection of the clothes. and with turfis new Goth. arwelo. arpa. a lot. a cloth. This path Aqueous.

bad. arcus. TiKToiv. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. a branch. arrig. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. Arduous. the a brute. . wretched OE. an arrant usurer. as in E. There can be no doubt that E. from nixa. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. 2. man. morally bad. un petit rusd.' the Gr. Fr. Gr. branch. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. gwyrek. taxed with cowardice. Lat. armee. From the verb armare. whence the body of the nobles collectively. an arrant rogue. wanton. receptacle where the public acts were kept. apxh. especially shoulder-joint. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Gr. Area. the terminaGael.. Ardent. Uo^a^. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt.aioj. Sp. first. vescovo. stuff. the best. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. shoulder Boh. arrant Arms. Du. to Arch. ers-betriiger. Gr. timid. apxtlov.4 rir/. to demonstrate. arma. faint-hearted. arg. apx^iv. Lat. which is derived from it. Perhaps erz-wticherer. Cot. ein arger knabe. D. burning heat. And thou as arwe coward. earg. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. erz-bischof. . bad. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . ^Argument. fainthearted. mischievous. while the Fr. arduus. G. ancient. arga. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. and our army. mischievous. shoulder. gwyro to bend. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. a chief builder. ardeo. to be on fire. which has been referred to W. part of a circle anything of a bowed form.' Paul Warnefrid.— Army. adjective. argvitugr. Lat. earm. 3340. Du. det arrigste snavs. the court of a magistrate. G. Applied in modern E. A construct.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town.In E. curved. * ArchjAiTaxit. Arm. et vulgari verbo. and must be identified with Dan. the most arrant trash. Arcliives. argr. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. fabricate). particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. arcA in e. Fr. malicious. Langobard. to dry. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Lat. forearm . exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. ill-tempered. raineno. vocaveris. a bow. bad of its kind. a burning or setting on fire. area. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. archangel. erg. AS. Arson. armata. een erg kind. lofty. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. kpxi- beginning. troublesome. to burn . worker. W. sly. Arch in composition. . Dan. an arch boy. ON. earh. are formed the participial nouns. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. ramend). Aristocracy. sly. From apxeiov was formed Lat. Ardour.is the natural weapon of offence. weapon. exercise lordship). arch-bishop. and Kpurka. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. — Wtb. armada. a rule (princiruler. from areo. un malin enfant. an extent of flat surface. Alisaunder. ardre. apxri. as the arch of a bridge. i. aj-f. Arid. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. ramo (pi. Lat. rame. Gr. arson. Brem. a bare plot of ground.. sluggish. and not with apx. . a court yard. . to be in comp. Lat. ruling by the nobles. government.' Lex. ardor. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. ars. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. It. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). it signifies roguish. arguo. arsum. a. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. a threshing-floor. weapon may be simply an application of annus. ardIn G. Arcadia in R. Lat. by Russ. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. in Due. Lat. apxtipfve. is essentially the same word. to rule. arwe. contemptible. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. ' — Argue. signifies chief or principal. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. erz in G. arm. Fr. patus). Sax. a noble. an arch-deceiver . high. to arm. make clear or prove. bravest. The . aridus. arm. arm'ee. — Architect. curved line. difficult to reach.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

probably Lat. . . . balken. with the perhaps from balg. destruction.Fr. gen. at giore en balk. a partition. afbalka. wickedness ness . a wooden partition . a pill. a clapping or flapping of wings.Lat. Sw. balk. malefacGower in R. Sp. to plank. pallukka. a together in the form of a ball. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. pila. roof. ache. OFr. sick. to by beams. chapurrar. bal. bielke. Sw. Sw. a bubble. Venet. Ballot. as in a barn or cow-house. bal-daed. Baulke of land. wickedtorment ON. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. mass. boll. a ball. a ball. other while. Du. baalien. Ballata. to rock. balveins. are applied to a From the same analogy. TtaKKa a pail or tub . on the shore. Sw. AS. G. Da. Gael. a clump . bold. globule. balla (with the augm. (Hesych. ball. To Bale out water. to dance. OHG. balken. weak liquor. Q. baler.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Rouchi ban. to pack Da. a dance. bol. a water-skin dim. Fin. bolyaf. ball. a ball or pack. to signify washy drink.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . whether of wood or stone. dial. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. bala. balloon. boleii. to see-saw. Bohem. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a clod of earth water. as we say. 3. to ail. bal. balk. baalie. Mid. balge. blister. baloier. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. palla. pilula. palloilla. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. ne leaving any balke. . a pail. maleficium. ballet. the ballet of the theatres. balk. . Ball. to be balker. balk. bollr. ballone. ballotta. to plough for a boundary between lands. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. a beam. OSw. Wotton. a. to be ill. beaten road. * Balk. a skin. It. to shake or jog. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. balare. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. Pol. Grief. Fr. G.ing. sickness. misery Du. Bret. a ballot). Sw. a ballad. hooting. similar connection is seen in Sp. to avoid it. a pestilence. Du. balva-vesei. It. a ball. Fr. See Gall. Boll. ballan. N. to wave. and the dim. on. to grieve . We have then separate dial. uveirs bolk. trouble. a dance. bolawy. pallo. balkr. a ball balla. a great ball. To baulke the Sir H. to paddle in water . to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. bol. to ache. grieve . plague. bbllr bulla J. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . to bale out. sorrow. bal. dial. heap up. pallo. shouting. . a scene acted in dancmg.—Ballad. the beam of a ship. to on Holmedon's plain. vacillare. ball. pallikka.). ill. a beam. balle. taich. 2. Sw. to stir. a ball. pain. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. balle. to Not sparing wight. . which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. ballare. ball. Ugutio in Due. a globe. E. Da. bealwes. a balk of foul weather. balka hopar.— Ballet. palcare. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Perhaps on. balle. the object of his expectation. w. ON.' speak gibberish champurrar. calamity. balka. balja. torment. Hence. cka. Goth. to speak an un. Dan. bjdlki. ballo. lealo. e. to move. Fr. The primary sense seems as in G. ballare. It. vcdra bdlkr. stage or scaffold. ' is a piece or confused talking. to dance. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. floor. ballar). to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. ing. a boil. Hence Dan. A balk. separaison.of men . says Ray. to roll. balka bunge. to partition off . — A — — . The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a washing-tub. and evil in general. bdlkr. from bacquet. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. maan pallikka. i. I. dial. dial. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. may exhibit the original development of the signification. F. Balloon. Russ. bola. on. Sw. Sw. to cause another to miss pustule. from the more general notion of moving up and down. ballare. bolker. ban. It. a But making way for death at large to walke. the breadth from side to side . bacgtteter. balle. tum. Bowl. Bale. a separate portion. Ball. It. In like manner Fr. hue et illuc inclinare. on. package of goods. bolyatchka. Gr. a division of the old laws.

baU. but loadage. The Baltic sea. is in Sweden and Norway. Dan. a false tale or jeer. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. to walk. R. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. fonts. from bara or vara. A — — . ^Arbuthnot in R. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. a young babe. to preserve equilibrium. baranda. urtica.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. back of the ship. to enchant. . It. ballustre) is a corruption. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. balsamum. more serious objection is . railing around altars. from Lat. ballustres. last. Balm. Venet. Lat. paid for the right of carriage. mare Balticun. &c. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. Bret. &c. for a load or goods (Roquef. a fragrant gum. lastre. The Sp. barandado. inutilis sarcina. more frequently than outward-bound. Fr.. and Mid. lastagium signified not only ballast. endormir par des contes. small railing. It is explained back by Adelung. deceiver. Balsam. When a ship discharges. a rod. of balusters. . baume. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. deceive. because. a useless load. Bret. the backload. explains ballast. a battlement . the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. a duty on goods last. Cotgr. galleries. Balluster. sorcerer. command. also with flatteries and . i860. lest. the flower of the pomegranate. balustrade barandilla. it is forced to take in stones or sand. puzzled. To Ban. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. seems the original form of the word. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. ^a\Ba\iov. baUa.000 tons. Report Pennsylv. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. lastra. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. objects to the foregoing derivation. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. a small balustrade. To deceive. as he says. forbid. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. make fun of a person. bambocciolo. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. Said to be from balaustia. dial. Mr Marsh whether the a load. or movement of one who walks. 1854. In OSw. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. But Fr.). If bambocciolare were child of one. 43 — Cot. bag-las.Lat. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. terraces. little round and short pillars. in the first place.' And Kil. To Bamboozle. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. analogous to what is seen in It. the act of walking. Du. Ballast. a nettle. baltresac. barauste. bamein. ballast. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. age. Sp. To proclaim. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. It. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. lestage. — — oltriga. bumbazed. Gr. like Fr. bamboccio. bambolo. To Bam. called Bait. balconies. Sept. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. Sc. for want of other freight. enchanter. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. bam. 1. or ballast of a ship. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. astonished. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. denounce. To make fun of a person. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25.that the going vessels. Bamour. Baltic. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. curse. ranked on the outside of cloisters. by met. Fr. bertesca. Lest. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. bag-lest. inutile onus. This is the backload. an Old dotard or imbambolare.

OE. to bring corn to be fahne. Thus the word is also used in both senses. In a special sense the term company itself. admolendinum. in hostem convocare. banns pany of footmen serve.e. at his own discretion. region.is further developed. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. fahne. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. we constantly find the expression. then the signification w. border. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. &c. side. — excommunication bann-lysa. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. says Muratori. in Fr. sostener Torriano. Assises de Jerusalem. bannire in exercitum.. theodscipe ut abannan. Goth. Leg. to ctide. E. acquired the sense of proclamation. bande. bannum or bandum. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Spebifid. . It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. —R. bundun. and in E. 19. Baud. ba?idare. bindan. Sp. bande. A. banner marked the place of assembly. Mag. ligue Taboada). — R. Sw. banda the colour or material. band. to take one to task. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . to unite with a band. summoning to serve So in Swiss. D. bando. It seems this signification has arisen. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. from at the Lord's courts. It. In Fr. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. 1. Band. he bannede his ferde. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. 26. to reprove. Car. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. power. . In like manner we find bannire adplacita. — To partito d'alcuno. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. There is some doubt how Fr. Bandear.Lat. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. curse.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. bannire exercitum. to ban. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. those who side together (bande. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. to follow a faction. also the band or of marriage. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. 'A son bandon. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. faction. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. v.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. R- He Translated by Chaucer. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. populum. to form parties. side. Fr. bound.^ bandy. he assembled his host. etc. 813. Fr. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. biddal. Wyntoun. 2. Goth. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. Bandus. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. The to . See Abandon. Se il — Romance languages.—John Villani in Due. flag. to side or to bandy (Florio). ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Capitul. To Bandy. band. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. i. margin. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Sp. the ensign or banner. bandera ground at his mill. permission. whether by way of injunction or for- command. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Ripuar. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. to excommunicate {lysa. Commun^ment son bandon. and thence to any proclamation. It. bande. bann. banda. Les saiges avait et les fols d. a coast. parti. bandon was used in the same sense. eiiseigne. to publish) banna. bandi. 15. &c. bandon somewhat party. R. Diss. to . Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. change to the feminine gender in banda. is That with which anything AS. hoc est vexillo. Cot. From the verb to banda. authority. G. It. a company. tener da alcuno. and It. ex. banda. passing on from proclamation to command.

banc G. The word is in E. banditti acquired the like signification. bench. beating. Banner. Bankrupt. clouds. Milton in R. . From a desk . when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. banc. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. that the word is used by Romeo. back of a knife. . — Kil. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. bana. death-sickness. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. stir. banqueroute. See Band. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. death-wound. de- party. bank. — . It is in this sense nounce. hammering. counter. many a bang. a long raised seat. It. bana. Bandy legs are crooked legs. To Bandy. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. standard. bana. Fl. desk.: . a bankrupt merchant. ON. When a man fails Lat. Benvoglio. outlam came to signify a robber. Fr. a counter. Your stool. a bench. banco. bent as a bow. a i. b'ang. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. A Shipman's Tale. de sable. disturbance banga. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Diez. distinguishes bekkr. Bantze. a bank. banish. murderer. s'associer. Bacon in R. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. in the same way that E. language of W. a de Vaud. ON. Lingua. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . Du. 45 — — Bandit. Fr. . home — Bandog. With many a stiff thwack. — — whence E. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Bane. from banc. Mid. to publicly order one out of the realm. of bandying words. Sw. bane. as of an explosion or a blow. bander tin arc. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. It. Bank. broken. AS. bang. g. to work in wood. bandear. bana-sdr. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. ON. the former Fr.HG. The ing. among rotta. — Fr. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. bana-sott. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. to knock. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. rap hatike et som The Susu. band-dog. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Roquefort. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. eminence. to bend a. at canis peciiarius. to hammer in a nail. ruptus.^ knock. a rising bank. Tibalt. The ridge of a hill is AS. to foment factions. See Banish. The child cries bang! fire. pastoralis. band-hond. a sand-bank. shoal. bow. and poise Their lighter wings. banca fallita. bander. has bang-bang. and OFr. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. bank. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. and bakki. to make a stir banke. to cabal. in the sense of place of business. the slope of a hill. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. follow a party. Draw. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. bank of a river. hricg. and therefore tied up. Africa. Banister. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. bank of river.z. Dan. — Paulus drive in a nail. se joindre. banja. bank of Dan. to proclaim. beat. 2. a blow. —^Vocab. tumult bangas. bance. Lat. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. a bench. Benchi. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. &c. benk. a table. Fr. in the sense of a pirate. seat . bandire. bannire. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. dorsum was applied to ject. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. N. bandi. for shame. a bench. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. . See Balluster. put under the ban of the law. banca his creditors. Goth. But natheless wife at I bank. bander. in R. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. Bandy. eminence. death-blow . to slay. se reunir. banke. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Ripuar. destruction . panca. forbear this outrage. canis vinculis assuetus. From Mid. roupt. whence the mod. &c. the same verb the It. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Bang. the back. Banditti. and hence. Brewer. large dog kept for a guatd. Diaconus in Due. Mercutio. a wound OHG. banka. E. Hudibras. to beat. was formed the OFr. It. bench. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bankruptcy. bakke. . to knock. AS.

Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Fr. Lat. banda hendi. Celtic bar. merki. E. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva.hinder. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. which is surely in barbed arrow. uncivilised. Barb. of wind. a tree). to bend. banner. benda. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. barrack. from the same source. ON. an animal a year old. Leduchat. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Flesche barbeUe. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Bap. then branches. The spar. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. bar. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Fr. manu anto make signs nuere. 2.. dim. and he would seem to derive Goth. chan. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. bandiera. banchetto. banneret. top. Gr. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. knight Bardd. as they call it. period vexillarii. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. remarked. ON. iandvo. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. The original import of their own banner in the field. It. himself in Pontus. Bret. probably corSymbol. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. indeed. BARBAROUS reiflingr.aTa Kul nest. wrapped. a. —Cot. Gael. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. &c. senhal. sbarra. a bantling. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. barde. 3. out of a wound. Lat. that the noise of voices Bantling. It may be thing. E.cruel. to having that signification. by a repetition of the syllable bar. to beckon . barriire. barreau. Barbe. jSdirTO). It. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. and from ensign or banner Prov. Banneret. . banniire. barbed or trapped as a great horse.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. barba. arineXov. then fell among the foot. rod of any rigid substance. and with an initial s. G. says. heri-pau. of banco. and even of calling it banter. banneret was a higher class of knights. summit. in Gr. branch. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. ban- Baptise. hence a repast. sparro. jSa'pjSapoc. According to Diez the It. such as the Roman Eagle. OFr. nestling.. To Banter. barrer. a sign. Lat. token. to wrap. OHG. Gr. a which the barrister addresses the court. inur. banda. would rupted from Fr. To mock or jeer one. senh. sparre. a ban. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. men. rarii. barra. Fr. Banquet. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. and the work is done. The origin is in all probability Goth. privileged to raise Barbarous. Barb. Hence Fr. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. barrou-gwez. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. the word came to signify rude. Fr. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. Sw. to dip. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Duo. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. A It. branches of a tree {gwezen. i. — We A . sign. signuin. Fr. Fr. milites bannarii.8ap6^o)voe. Thus Ovid. It. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. senheira. barbe.the analogous syllable viur. brushwood. inferior to a baron. to wash. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. banne. ingly very generally known by a name branches. In a similar manner are formed yearling. OHG. a bench or table . a bearded or Cot. a beam or long pole of wood. &c. E. either in the Gr. a war-beacon or war-signal. senhal. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barbarus. Barbar. bannereti. of a sign in general. Hence ner. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. or of this bantering.— Swift in R. barre. and it was accord. from reifa. bandva. speaking of battle. a barrier or stoppage. ing term appears in other languages. ^oTrriKio. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves.46 BANNERET .

It. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Mod. guazzolare. Lex. Fr. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. barS. barbeter. borborinha. mutter. g. in Fr. berries. a tumultuous assembly. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. A7 to the and warlike. to stammer. to barbe or trap horses. to bubble or spring up. also to bind or tie across. as well as the modern twaddle. Etym. Fr. barbacane. borboglio. Etym. a jetty or outnook in a building. speak confusedly. brim. barda. Hatt-bard. scouthouse. Sp. in poetic language Bard for poet. Fr. Bret. skialldar-bard. and foolishly. Port. the edge of a shield hval-barct. the quilted with. Bard. It. border. Russ. Sp. . skirmish. open. quarrel . which was of talking. the flap of a hat. berj G.— Fl. Fr. baragouin. Cotgr. ready money. is lb. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. Cot. An outwork for the defence of a gate. tattle. unqualified. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. Applied in E. to make an outcry . Barber. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. barbeum.— BARBEL merit of water. twattle. barbar.' Cot. a long saddle for an ass or mule. a shingle or small board. to chafbargain. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . uncovered. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. and the word was used in OE. Diez. Cotgr. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. albarda'ah. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. Bardeau. G. barbelin. horse armour covering the front. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. twcEtta. and in Flanders to vociferate. muttering. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Lith. Festus in Diet. a rumbling. grumble (Lowndes. waschen. small pack-saddle. in the sense of fight. Hindost. barbier.) . boil. baares geld. baar. /3£pjSepi^w. to stammer. /3opj3opwJu. barbugliare. Mod. barda. — Cot. The Pers. Fl. Barder. bare baskojis. jargon. Gr. bardes. tree. saddle-cloth. OFr. dial. barbarkama. as well as thwcEtta. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. such as houses are covered Bardelle. a pack-saddle. Port. or more properly (says fer. bdsiis. on. A shrub bearing acid Diet. — . to plash or dabble. Thus the on. barbeau. barz. Exposed to view. stutter. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. brabble in the making of a bargain. coping. to rumble. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. barbaris. — — Hence. barefooted Sanscr. guaszare. to mumble or mutter words. Bare. . w. used 2. to bubble or boil. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. barboter. powdered all over. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. albarda. to wash. bhasad. skola. Arab. borbotar. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. bdla-khaneh. i.) to wrangle. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. upper chamber. the nakedness of a woman. border of a garden bed. gibberish. a bardelle. — . Pr. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Barberry. axilla. to grunt. fortia —Strabo. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. uproar. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. to boil or bubble up . the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. formerly used in the sense of tattle. barbulla. Hall in R. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt.— — Pm. Barbican. bar. But Sp. Barbel. bdsas. back. name Fr. haggle. albardilla. also to wallow like a seething pot. Gr. to gurgle. and Sc. murmur . are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. Sp. lb. Barde. bardd. the beard. and flanks. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. ala. barguigner. skirt. to It. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. borbulhar. barbel. Bargain. Lucan. to prattle. borbollar. — — — men. bds.

and hence probably (by a metaphor. hemlock. beer. struggle. to all the barca. berm. W. OFr. Rayn. plants). OFr. barajar. berma.Barum vel feminam. Uzen. strife. limpets . baarm. It. dispute. Leg. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. trouble. Cornub. barn. barn. ON. strife. borkr. It. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . barge. Gael.' bardagi. quant a perdu sa barja. bread. baratta. . to rout. barn. barii. Sp. barmr. baratta. contest. ber (ace. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. The older form in e. Originally man. one who stirs up strife. baragouin. Spectacles. tion of the sound. spectacles. wine. barley. Bret. (Ihre. to wrangle. to chop. Du. hladi. Prov. put to confusion. baaring. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. bern. skuta. — Barnacle. and the word. was barlic. Ibid. a cap . barone. a heap. altercation. barlys. bere. to strive. Bailey. as. the A — Ihre. dispute barattare. bargain. bosom . ON. dial. quarrel. skutr. Baron. AS. as well as Scandinavian tongues. Romance barsie. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. . and 1. The Goth. also a boat . baron)^ Fr. entangle. On the other hand. barnis. a heap . in Nat. — battle. barms. a load. a beak. Barbour in Jam. baralha. bcern. limpet. giving rise to It. Leg. varen. ON. barley. barley. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. contest. barki. tumult. from an imita- Barley. aheap.^Voc^. as. hay-loft. Acervus. louzou. Provj bar (ace. then honoured man. barlys {bara. Garlick. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. as baces-ern. —Bark. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. bark . ThS man was not created for the woman. the fore or after end of a boat . the G. edge. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. Alam. the rack or manger. The origin may be throat.. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. barahunda. barnacles. Barn.. Swab. Manx bayrn. Barge. houbartij fsnile. at barka. confusion. See formed Yeast. astringent. Ripuar. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. commonly explained from bere. meta foeni. baimeach. prasepe .) lihtes-ern. is simply the Bret. So ON. herbs. and ern. Dan. to cheat. prominent part of a thing. a lap. bernac. bcerme. Port. 2. dregs of oil. also to exchange. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. and is probably a true bartig. * Barnacles. dispute . barlich. kani. Port. a barn. bard). dispute . As Goth. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. in the Brim. to skin over barkandi. Camus. a boat. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. the or prow of a ship. From Fr. Bark. a receptacle for barley or corn. w. Isidore in Rayn. beornt. lap. barretor. Bemiques. barafustar. mhg. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Dan. fray. a lantern. Sp. i. a stack. name being given to spectacles. AS. . bosom. bread-corn. baralhar. chaffer. Sp. as in the case of Lat. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Du. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. hlaSa. adj. a place. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. baerm. a baking place or oven. 2. corn-shed. barafunda. squabble. OSw. dispute. baarn. charlock. limpets. disorder. ON. Antiq. — Zeuss. E. and llysiaw. baron. but the woman for the man. am. Lith. to shufSe. Kil. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. husband. brenig. barizeins indicates a noun baris. the slimy substance brewing of beer. to scold. berem. Sw. See Barm. bern. baniffa. . berm hoys. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barja. then the bows pectus navis. v. To Bark. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. quarrel Port. So also ON. strife. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. border. a. we pass to the vert) barguigner. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. Vocab. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. berm. — de Berri. Gl. beorcan. and may therefore be an Eastern word. bamagh. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. baaren.

like bargain. a castrated hog . bark&n. — Kil. Barrister. brushwood. strife. a bier. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. barrier. from cavallo. barre.root signifying confused noise. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. gwr. bredhan. Sp. cover. baragan. It. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. facture. uncultivated. beorg. a hiU. then traffick4 Barrow. man and wife. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. baracca. also termed bannerets.parchanttuech.' Op. sepulchre. It was not until the time of James I. qui have not much light on the pre. 2. barrique. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter.. which would barragdn. ^Vocab. Sp.— Gibbon. barague. E. seem to be radically the same with Lat. It. a man. breinej Du. whenever Barrow-hog. It. alongside of barrow. sterilis. berwen. gravis et authenticus vir. beorh. rolls of Parliament. by early examples. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. habeant. Barrack. Antiq. nobles. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. cise formation of the word. became bidre. fortification. a. squabble. a. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. AS. change of goods seems. 1. a barrel. — A . AS. Bret. baronuU. baroncelli. OE. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. barril. heap. over him. barrack. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. An ing. vel pretiosos burellos. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Goth. bara. barile. The feudal tenants next Fr. Sp. shed. MHG. perhaps through Prov. D. See Bar. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. whence Barrow. Gael. Nominale of the from braeckland. barrila. to * Barragan. The Sp. the braw. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. implement for carryAS. StiU he shows conclusively. braeck. barBombicinus. hut. from a tree to which a man is hanged. litter. todtenbahre. especially those killed in battle. an obstruction. were sometimes confounded. Fr. mound. as. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. boar. berewe. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. bier. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. a barrow. S. Bern. a horse. bara. vair. bera. signifying. baronculi. in the first instance. This word introduced into Fr. Bohem. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. the two names.have been named from the haggling and gant.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. 26. bahre. a hut or booth. iver. branches. bearg .. Bamnculus a baronet. On chet — We — — their resemblance. fallow. garment still used in Morocco. G. and not from Fr. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. baronetti. G. to shelter. calico. (Schmeller). — — 15th Cent. Formed from Fr. booth. tomb. Gael. barri. barrique. Barrel. and in several instances.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. OFr. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. ibid. vir. bouracan.' that Barrier. a word is always used in the plural number. w. in Nat. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. staves. Barricade. dispute. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Barratry. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. from beran. a kind of coarse camlet. borov'. A. barchent. beorgan. Joshua vii. or simply bahre. as cavalcade. See Barter. fear. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. It should be observed that. to carry. Baron andfemme. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. baraignej Picard. Barren. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. composed of dry branches ofer. semen non accipiens landiEL. Russ. Bargus or moreland. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. Fr. ^Barrator. man. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. a bar. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. barraca.

peel. baste. — Bassoon. hoops of a cask. ' He was begetin o bast. scale in music. It. ' Bosworth. bastear. imbastire. tierer. fits de bas. on a. . — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. the manorhousfe itself. come near. low part of the Hickes in Rich. lust. bestcn. Sp. to Diez. Newman. baratear. at basta og binda. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. mavult dicere Roma suam. found in Turkish . beortun. a ipgli So Turk.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. plaiting of splinters basged. HoUinshed. baraand especially teria. bareter. submovet omne Lucan. a halter. F. binding. It.). which covers the grain Ger. inclosure. Bassus. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. a bass rope. Fr. husk bast van koren. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). leviter consuere. to deceive. bas. Arthur and Merlini. Bartizan. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. Basket. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. also to Cotgr. To stitch. discourse Nay. imbastire. rope for — . Bast. fhe outhouses and yards. berewic. Sylvester's Dubartas. Sp. Al is dai. fornication. Du. over-reaching. fraud. cheating. To Bask. It. bestan. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. bast-reb. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. crassus. baste. MHG. bast. bark. Lap. basgod. court-yard. barter. truck. AS. . to baste. A fabulous serpent. bds. a king. chasa ogli a bastard. PaaiKhms. Fr. curtus. Du. The original meaning. Barton. humilis. bdtir. ^Is de bast. would be. It. the a wide open vessel. oe. i. to baste piece of cloth. baxoj w. OFr. It. also the demesne lands of a manor. lift me above Parnassus. HaU in HaUiwell. Dan. The like property hath the iasilisk. ohg. n' is n' is bacino. flat. baste. a bastard. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. the thin skin Dan. Bass. dwelling. but he dreth presently. lattice-work. basta. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). to bind hand and foot. beguile. basg. baos. or running away with the ship.' Gl. foist in bargaining. to bind. . a ftiesh. aiKcig. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. and tun. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. 516. bast-maatte. MS. commonly A joined with the word binda. barley. the — — to kill those that look upon it. low note. back. shallow. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. stitch. or wic. But according And Dan. Basilisk. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. MHG. Sicamb. of the same sense. baraet (from Fr. ing for profit. a basket masg. /«r<fSp.D. Bass. mock not. baratar. besst. Dan. to bind. from /3aR. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Barbara de pictis veni patch. low. w. and Bret. to truck. beretun. then cheating. from bere. See Brattice. HaUiweU. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. descended of an honorable lineage. It is mentioned as . — hanging. to stitch . as the diadem of the basilisk.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. God it wot. basso. bran. chasa. according from Gael. partieren. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Fris. exchange. To Baste. Gr. Halliwell. netting. See Bath. bass-matting. Pl. Lend me your hands. which sets up its hood when angry. low. a tying. to bargain. but born in baste. pdrdt. to cheat. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. corn-farm. bassin. he. a deceiver. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. Fr. to long — a British word by Martial. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. pressed down. Sw. Sw. said Base. a court-yard. fornication. unrighteous gain. Bastard. besst-u-b£nd&t. There is not one that. to cheat. bast. embastir. preparatory stitching. Sp. G.' Papias. piiiguis. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. ibid.looketh upon his eyes. Isidore. — in Rich. barter. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Kil. basta. thick. exchange. Swed. basso. Apparently of Celtic origin. him. OFr. bast. as It. cog. mean . It. BassuS. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass.

also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. passage Imbasto. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. to flap.baste or knock soundly. to devise or begin. to beat. bastir.Lat. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. dial. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. quelqu'un son roulet. as weU as besteau. worth (Nat. bastine. E.stitching in general. Cot. a things prepared for future use. put it together. to set on foot a war Bastion. All from bastir. bakie-bird . Florio. bastonFr. batta lucifuga. Derived by Diez from iasi. packsaddle. ari instruineht for beating. frotter. bastia. like the owl and the bat. military term of a bat-horse). 2. but this is hardly satisfactory. disposer. bast. To beat or bang soundly. Pr. devise. bdion. blatta. Dan. in the use of the E.stick. vledermus. To donjon. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. ON. * Bat. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. Rayn. set up. It. — — — . in the Romance languages. It. the winged . raise. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. contriving. to thrash . to quilt or stitch wool into it. back. It. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. blatta. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. baston. boste. 'iJipistreUo. Sc. club. R. to beat. a bastion.— Bailey. Supp. the clapper of a bell. Sp. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. liiake. is explained by Cot. basto. Sw. to cudgel. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. stryk. blakka. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. the original has corneille. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. business (Altieri). a stick. to drub. For the origin of baston see Baste. e. a with a stick. staff. and ditches bastion. Sw. translation to a bat. blaka. R. vespertilio. a bird which. and Cot. Dieiif. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. cudgelling. to give him a sound bastingi 3. — Bakke. basa. to belabour. bastear. comp. blakra. 2. set up. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . bladier. compared with blakka. Perhaps baska. night-bat. the E. bat. blows. bastimento. a pad. frame. Mid. to pack a saddle i. 164). victuals. bastille. Fr. beysta. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. to rub gently. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Sp.. dial. to build. which in the E. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde.fortress or castle furnished with towers. a blockhouse. baston. bastir. That yche blak y dar wel telle. which to rest the load. badger. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. . It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. to lay the Sp. BAT neither. whence ledrblaka. — — Fl. from Fr. Sw. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. Fr. or implement for 4 * A . settiilg up. To baste one's hide .— . 11864. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. guerra bastir. Cot. a pad or packsaddle. to teach one before. erect. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. contrive. pre. I. stryka. also to cudgel. Dan. to whip. also the ricado. bastonnir. Antiq. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. and Arabs. Prov. iinbastire. Fr. explains Sp. basta. Fr. p.'CaB. has bastine. a sconce. bastilde. a packsaddle. bastione. vespertilio. flyinge best. Pm. blacta. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar.-^ Chaucer. a blow cloth for dinner. niammal. iastir. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak .probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. 2. to Due. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Bastinado. to build. to spread bread and butter. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . the night-jar or goat-sticker. bastida. to stroke. a. aftonbakke. Sw. . beating. nade. natt-blakka. blakta. the bat . ment. For the loss of the / in back. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. bastonada. to rub. a barSp. provisions. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. bak. It seems to me that the sense of stitching.

Battery. on the fire. Chaucer. Barbour in Jam. water whether warm or cold. a battalion. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. cudgel. heat. to foment.' Palsgr. Bailey. and about an inch thick. betten. beat. in the case of a wall. . to refresh oneself in language. Sw. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Bret. solen baddar. to become fat. baz. pak. beat down. to beat se battre. badda. I bathe in water viz. a Baiffi. baeddu. a battle. as E. Eggs. Pm. to warm oneself. and as a verb. quhar he suld assaill. A batch as wood. Battery. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. badask. altercation. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. battaglia. adapted for defence. signifying to give repeated blows. E. better. To Batten. then to warm by the application of hot water. to bathe. w. bdda. To Bate. From bat in the sense of rod . to feed. solbase. ON. a washing beetle. The bat with which a brot bdhen. bdda vidjor. batacazo. to beat. abattre. Fr. as signifying warm baths. battions. on. battere. made of — A made by one Batcii. lessen. fashes basking in the sun squadron. Holz bdhen. Fr. quell. to warm. to heat. I baske. baden. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. — To . Battalion. Batyn. Bat. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Fr. to be profited. batte sig. batir. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Fr. Jeddris and covering. Batten. to fell. tagUone. Batter. in the sun. allay . Sw. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to warm oneself at the fire.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards.Bathe. from on. is in falling. a blow. certain bend. Gael. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. also. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Battle. bataille. a stick. squadron. makebate. buask made like a fortress. basa. Ayenst the sunne. to beath wood Battledoor. a from ON. beat. and with staffslyng. of bread is so much baked zX one time. for biia sik. as wood-en. bat-en. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. or a dry stick. battre. debat. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. remit. dial. From OFr. a band of armed men arranged basa. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Baka sik vid elld.Hence in the augmentative form It. dispute. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. to fight. a staff. hot. Pr. Battlement. flour. In some parts of England it is striking. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. trahtr to It. Pm. to heat . abate. batna. . dial. Du. and milk beaten up together. In OE. — — — ' — . a blow with a light instrument. to bathe oneself. whence the sun burns . howis. to cudgel. bat. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. bada. to betake oneself. PLD. busk.— To Bask. also a sun badfish. an arrangement for giving blows. bdhen. term in falconry . to flutter with the wings. — Cot. the heat of the It. a stirrer-up of strife. It. 2. or break down. Hence pro. dial. Slav. To thrive. bastille. to fire or in the sun. dial. Mgy. Pr. to dial. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. baka. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . made of bats. to for fighting. Sp. Jurgor. the root of e. bet. battre las ailes. A Bath. Hal. to beat. gebdck. G. to toast bread. Fr. Plkkis. a beating. to beak. gabatnan. gebdcke. strife. to foment. bludgeon. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. more. Sp. to foment with hot applica. battre. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . baquetazo. badda.— . Goth. to thrive. G. battle was used beath wood. e. bdt. was formed bastilU. See Better. wet linen in washing. . Strife. a great seems related to baden as Fr. batterie. from battre. as E. sich bakern. a main battle. Flem. bake. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. to become convalescent. oneself at the A into faggots. I. It. perhaps first used adjectivally. to beat. is a simple adoption of Fr. tradire. Fr. Florio. fortress or castle. battere. batador. or make debate. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. by projections or in any licoure. Bate. to get better. G.

spotted. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. sorry. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. trifles. Prov. and to-tore also. Baldrick. and authorities in note. E. Irel. dirt. pie- . zano. and Sp. An analogous noisily. It is all bawdy. fagot. collar. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. or Cot. 2. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. E. balGael. disgusting. Beaus^ent. bad.' ' Pegma. dacchino. W. the white of his leg or foot. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. dung. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. P.— P. Bavin. sword-belt. whence pouacre. vacillo. From Bret. In like manner Grisons filthy. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. pegma. a lump. bau. or toys. Lat. fe bau. Bawson. babiole. fooleries or fond To Bawl. a belt. a white mark Bawdy. a tassel or hanging bunch . to low or bellow as corn. to me-wl. — — ' Lydgate. obstrepere. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. to vociferate.guage). BAWSON Swiss. It.. balbob. guigaw. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Descript. speckled. ON. baudrat. form with an initial seen in Fr. or sheaf of Bridel. faisceau. also the canopy carried part of his body. to void the bowels. bobbin or cluster of thread. an — — — A — g — — — . It. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. from Baldacca. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. a lump or cluster babhaid. nastiness. bouaila. to 53 manure the To baw. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). bow (as in our nursery Diez. a dog). bausan. filth. Ball. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. ish baubles. c. propugnaculum. baue. The word may perhaps be sticks. Batylment of a wall. bobine. Sc. Pr. a horse marked with a procession. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote..— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. bal. javelle. tille. dirty. having a white streak down Bagdad. Jam. is Bagdad stuff. Cot. horse. an object. represented by the syllable miau. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. ballach. in OE. Gael. to play the babby. baula. Bagdad. miauler. instead oi s. Fr. b \% bouala. to talk Lacombe. Hal. because made of cloth of white.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. P. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Cloth of gold. a spot. spot. librillo. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. child. OFr. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. scarf. an embattled wall. on the face of animals. a horse with white legs. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . dente. Formed from baw. Cot. the Swiss baben. Pm. ! Bauble. tab. ball. whimwham. babsmall toy to play withal. as Fr.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. a zan. baban. — Pm. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. R. toys. a tassel. From ! an interjection of disgust. whence the E. Fr. from Fr. bauU. bablyn or waveryn. baw. baffe. P. E. Piedm. lewd .' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. balderich. to make the noise Baudrick. Cotgr. E. mew. OFr. a plot of Chaucer. Fr. A name of the badger. filth. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Filthy. to cry.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. also more Bawdekin. —R. 8. s. Pr. divided between black and white. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. Baw — . was simply a field gold. baubare. cluster. to bark . is used for a sented by bau. or the animal so marked. dial. trifle. a gavel. Ball-seirc. the face. expressive of disgust. Zalli. bal. babbole. s. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. excrement. brush faggot. fields. It. ground. baudrdj OHG. to the same origin. Swiss Rom. to bark. The It. i. Fl. bow-wow. to trifle away ment. rotten. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. exactly corresponds Fr. bauch. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. baugant.

From Cat. living thing . bayo. Cot. AS. . living Ir.. alive. badarse. Serv. —Diez. bdcr. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. BAY marked with bjly. Fr. . Q. life. hddhe-dhonn. Swab. white. grapes or nuts. bayen-stein. bijel. See Bald. &. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. or window ' (in Fortification). See At Bay. A stag is said to stand at bay. to open as a blossom. especially beans. S. aux dehniers abois. the laurel-bay. abbabayer. to iiitent nected PoL white. a berry. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. — A At Bay. bde. Lat. window-sill. 1. It. and keeps them in check for a while. Prov. It. . tradire to Fr. Bayonet. . by the term rendre les abpis. w. to keep at a bay. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. See Bawl. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. Abide. Bay. Bay. gate. from badar. Sp. Sp. A hollow in the 'line of coast. Drayton in R. when. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. —Bay-windo'W. 1859. ist. bate. to on anything. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. bialo. baja. Such Antaeus seemed to me. It. to stand watching one. baya. Fr. weary of running. so called from its bearing bays. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. baier. trahir. It has been shown under Abie. ing-floor. bagaid. the world Gr.c. a mark. Arts.—Journal Soc. baccello. baca. a'uno. F. badarc. bahia. Catalan hadia. Fr. to mark. and zndly. a cluster of bacon. Piedm. bai. baye. badius. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. dehiscere . &c.' Bailey. as gazing. overture. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. &c. the step is the same as from It. baher. stare. watching intently. laurel of the ancients. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. bajo. bilyejiti. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. arose two forms of the verb. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. waiting . baga. the cod of peas. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. that from ba. Gael. a dagger. Holland's Pliny in R. Fr. which however. or to have been first used at the Cot. window . bacca. the cod or husk of beans or the like. to betray. batibari. beonj Gael. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Mod. life.— Stalder. bioth. From the former verb is the It. * To Be. OSp. bay. Lat. berries. Swiss beie. berry. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. siege of Bayonne in 1665. to keep one waiting. Q. to gape. bay. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. Bay-tree. The — Fr. The word bay. like a pie. baie. as if to signify a window of curved outline. Fr. Gr. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. baiare. or recess in an apartment in modern times. expresr sion tenere a bada. —F. is perhaps not directly from Lat. |8i'os. a beast. to be Bohem. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. beo. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. baionette. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. house . Feb. badia to Sp. desiring.. stood watching him stoop. or berries. or at bay. Gael. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. husk. large window in a handsome . to open. open the mouth. put to his last shifts. dividere. beothach. baca. — Schmid. buidhe- The ruadh.' — — 54 bald. barn of two bays. he turns and faces his pursuers. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. yellow . bilyega. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. to split. from an imitation of the sound. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. baer. BauSfi)/. To Bay./^ bau. corrupted into Bow-window. 25. to amuse stare a bada. BE Probably conRuss. Fr. It. Vielp. buidhe. It. a hole. and the To bark as a dog. Earth — By Nature made to till. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. at his last gasp. Sp. in order to keep the enemy in check. bahia.

origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. * Beagle. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. bairan. fora-bauhan. bearti. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. a single bean. to carry. fd or faVf beans. faba. Gael. Goth. bean. Miss Gurney in Philolog. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. stock. G. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. bob. a beak. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin.. bydel. not applied to the yelping of dogs. -phxr. to nod . tale of prayers or doxologies. Beach. Farrar. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life.ad. nokkima. — bedeau. E. ON. a sign. bohne. beacen. to bellow. It. To Bear. a single bean. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. beic. pig. A two-year old nephew of mine p. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. N. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bokan. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. The wild beast. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Bear. «va\ioQ. AS. bidan. Moreover the name. It. becco. or however. an attendant. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. beugler. — to bow or nod . a prayer. vol. salve his hurts. bek. Bret. It forms a.fuis5e. Bret. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. OSax. bdkna. ffci. a hill. The immediate shore of the Menage. beic. W. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. He says. Thus the final en. into a snjall river. Gael. would say. Netherlands or North Germany. to wait-. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Gr. according to of Sanscr. as. The nutu significare. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. rising ground. ON. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. or breathing. was introduced from England sea. bohnej ON. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers.from AS. bagms. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Lat. beans. atUndre. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. gebed. however. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. signifying individuality. Du. bidello. See To Bid. bakkje.fer-re j Gr. bM. . or any action done with a pointed thing. fromthe danger. Chapters on Lang. boom. Catalan becar. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Fr. Hackluyt in R. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. bauhan. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. post. to nod the head. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Beak. bank. and Lat. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. to beckon. Beadle. a nod OHG. beacnian. A Esthon. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. W. Q wait upon him. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. a curtsey. as well as f& or fav.' adheres to the root. Gael. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. . Sw.' Suetonius in Diez. on. — : Beam. beck. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. bedm. a presage. Boom. pierced for hanging on a string. badmr. bee. backe. — Bellenden in Jam. Fr. AS. which is. as. the part overflowed by the tide. Beck. baum. Pardoner's Tale. bakke. Slavon. G. Be.fui. The origin seems preserved in E. support. to produce young. g. —F. prodigy bauhnjan. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. vii. or beic. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit.to have a French origin. bead. ffaen. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr.' Hall's Chron. ohg. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. fero. Trans. like most nautical terms. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. a tree. l^ax. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. faba is Kvavoq. into France. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. 54. Beacon. Bean. baun. It is BEAR SI court. Goth. signifying a point. . to wait. a tree. bar. be. Beckon. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which.

decent. and Fr.— Kiittner. brook . or a feeling to be gratified. as the babble of the child. boroda. Prick of Conscience. from baver. Lith. Secondarily applied to a hat. beatanj It. Russ. an notion of being convenient. to G. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bavec. den. talkative. covered the face. bekkr. godum with ON. a bank. Chaucer. behkr. whence baveux. pens unmixed evU. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. or river. Fr. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. from the same in the sense of bear2. to appertain. proper. badi. connected with ripa. dushmak. — A — A — . a. gefallen. babrad. o. He becom on sceathan.AS. nod or sign. rying. Prov. slobber. agreeable. agreeable. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2.to clothe to slobber. if sound of a sharp blow. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. to come to or upon. bard. It. to assume a certain form or Turk. See Bank. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. brada. 1. biber. beo. to happen. dress with unbecoming richness . The moveable part of a helmet. G. The fitting or suitable. Lat. ON. Lat. becuman. to carry. Beaver.fit. limpan. See Bat. beauts. Lat. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to be incumbent upon him. to arrive at. baba. Beck.' every way suited to a prince. bart. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. Now the Beast. a bank. The quadruped. befit. Goth. border. our taste.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. bave i. E. Diez. Beckon. Boeth. to attain to the lot of any one. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. — . happening as it ought. Fr. gebank. because made of the fur of the beaver. iida. to happen. ON. R. the latter are derived It. bestiaj Gael. tidig. biivre. G. bur. 2. Perhaps from Pol. Bedizen. W. living. bequem. name applied originally to the bank then proper . brook. ziemen. bib or slobbering cloth. ON. to hem. As rivus. bave. AS. Bosworth. bedr. fitanimal. Fr. fitly . place to lie down. to please. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. taste. Slav. That thou mayest attain Goth. burdr is used in the sense of a car. while from Shep. to sleep on. G. obtain. birth. Sp. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Lat. to get. when up. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. riviera. bett. bring forth. I do thee pray. as. limplice. to the good hapHalbard. nothing to thy name make. barba. venient. Fr. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. i. to the brook itself. This meaning is to be explained from Beard.getiman. befall. Thcem. and to acquire. to dabble . From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. proper . but now a river only. it is probable that here also the to become. becuman. and also in that of birth. to happen. fallinn. e. suitable. barf. to happen. suitable. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. duty. ON. bebrus. bello. opportune. to those goods which endure for ever. the ece thurhwuniath. to live. Thus OY. bava. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. tidy. bobr. R. e. chin. limpian. to happen. bel. to shore. To load with ornament. to bear children. receive. and on. battere. Beat. Beauty. dize or dtzen. perhaps a living thing. gabaurths. which.S6 fero. bobrowai. to wade through the water like a beaver.' are equivalent expressions. bekommen. Beck. See Beacon. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. bearing. riviire. to fall in with our bavard. The OFr. convenient. produce. pleasing. baviire. con. E. judgment. decorous.' ' He became very angry. Dan. edge. now confined To Become. Bo. ting. Do no To It fallith favour. It.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. fiber. gelimplic. . formerly a happen. In like manner condition. from beau. to be fulfilled. E. or special purpose. OSw. On the same principle. fit. a brook. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. seemly. Fr. bellus. AS. to fall. i. byrcti. timan. get J ' He got very angry.of being very angry. pretty. handsome. G. g. byw. to fall mode of being. G. blast. See becymth anfeald yvel. bach. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. to be a part of his to. baurthei. a lip. comely. the beard.we call the arrangement becoming. bcek. Cal.

^. drink. wedges. G. Cot. bably named from the destructive quali| T. of beatmg. E. imperative pi. crespir. an inhabitant of the desert. 1 to drink. to knock. It. to colour with lime-wash. to beat bossel. AS. I dysyn a dystaffe..— JI14. to drink. bedde-redirj ohg. It. . BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. turn. AS._t from the root pi. which also 2. bovis. Originally. ' MordiThe Lat. piwo. Grimm. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. paralyticus. extant in Bohem. a horse-fly . Pl.^ drink. g. I A pillow-beer. a wandering Prov. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. in Nat. Lat. Bedouia. bitela. desert. badigeonner. red curdled Arab . betel. to coagulate. thick. doubtless. cow has calved. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. drink. Fr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. by-flugaj G. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. ir'm. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a wasp. bette or blettej Lat. sela que environna la terra. Bethlehem. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne.' So Gr. bbtel. to twist poorma. used for boull. beta. bukva. bossen. kivih. speach. waarin. from jtst-. biest-milch. briest. comb. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. calleBedlam. clog for a dog b'oteln. taglio. madhouse. PI. Rom. beach. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. blow or thrust. fall. . cugino. For that was law of lend. on.D. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. mars betada. &c. a cup or implement for AS. may be shpped on and off. Lat. Ant. trees in a forest . AS. a pad or cushion). 1. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. But possibly bedizen 2. the meat of spinach. a mallet. Pett. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Fr. bos. Fr. /SXirov. pital of St Mary. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. Fr. The beer al for te shenche bate. a agulatum in the original Latin. a bed-tick. cited by Diez. curded or beesty. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. water. bet. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. batAfter mete in sale. door. beer. E. also the bite or sting of a bees. Confined to bed. woman that is newly delivered. Horn. to change . translation beOj. buk. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. and in driving piles. a cover.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. boeuf. erroneously modified in form. tree. bletumj Gr. vaar. de Fierabras in Diez. Bav. bove.— B. to and ale. i. from risan. may be from K. as in It. an ox. cushion-cover . beach-each. a wasp. cousin. whence familiar. Bed-ridden. a Properly a cover that biiren. I put the flax upon it to spin. Bernese. ris. duplicated form of the root. Let. Esthon. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. a pillow-case. Beef. 1156. a bee. to turn. as the milk of a that purpose in London. The first milk after a dizen. bytl. thick. and lebermer in G. to curdle or lopper. Bee. kiissen-biere. prigione. an Beetle. cogionare. pude-vaar. beetle also signified the impiti. poculum.' the last word corresponds to cofly . a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. It. garden-herb. byst. Cot. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Dan. a malsense of drink. qui de lecto surgere non potest . a clapper. beost. a drink potus. Slav. KXlvoTTiT^e. boytle. also bienst. case. The meanpainting. to become Beech. bitel.D. . to flatten In OE. by the analogy of bedaivb. ProBeer.'— GL ^Ifr. buche. stakes. Beetle. The honey-producing insect. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. to fall. In a passage of an Old Fr. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. bibere is a re. . biene. P1. from Lat. * Beestings. G. to poordma. the ox. to rough- cast. Arab. knock. Gael. the loppered sea. turn (a garment). . beyki. to parget or rough-cast . bedskiissen-bUren. cozen. from leberen. .). a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. a pillow case. beutel. sang vermeilh betatz. D. buka. GaeL bior. the biter. Beet. Fr. prisons Venet. a paviour's beetle batail. bedawi. 57 — Palsgr. beest. pettiriso.cz//aj. from blood.possible. G.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. 'La Gl. from the hos. Gr.(paddi. 1. biiren. Fin.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. a stinging bieUe. fagus. briesch-milch. in Schmeller. as. whose face is clotty. Fr.ON.ing of the word is curdled.

Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. 'ex quo. P. — Stillingfleet. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. oppressed with woe. yivtrri. woe-begone. seizing. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. at geta talad. baigeir. ysgrepan. on further examination. a beggar. Deutsch. Goth. Barbour. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . Vocab. beriolare. V. &c. from whete G. to be acquire. &c. ' Begone.' for ye shall lament and weep. Mod. can. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. vir mendi. to take. on the tramp. yiyvo/uat. above quoted to get beaten ON. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. To Beg. affected. kind. air a . To produce children is to acquire. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. to begin. Florio. 'Aboutin undern monly. as alighting is a momentary operation. touched with emotion — . From w. be^nnan. also called Bigots. in D. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Creed. by the help of wedges and beetles an N.' A. sel. Of brede full ycrammed. ornamented phoc. to reduce him to beggary. beutel. genus. 'Dz. a beggar-boy. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. in Lat. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . at a time when all his alms were given in kind. referred gan this Erie alight. Bruce. begging. beitel. chisel. image is cleft out of the trunk. P. although it ' the future. a bag. to go a begging. to be born. su with gold. to get children . a chisel. y/yvo/iat. Lith. Nov. P. to know. tale. P. pose-pilte. P. gen. — yivsaiQ. a bag or poke.3.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. yivofiai. bertola.' about undern he got down. and Lat. When Q. It will . yivwajcw. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. a — wedge. 168.D. P. P. Du. a scrip euXaiciJoi. 1430.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting.bag full of the G. to bear young. The tother seand the dint cum. Du. one after that other.pose. So from Gael. capere. 2. Si'Xa/coc. on the bag. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. a bag . gan. two betels —a grete oke. to cleve. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. chap. & go a begging. the fundamental notion of attaining to. in E. Ancren Riwle. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. 142. iv. a wedge for cleaving wood.— . The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. steinbosil. taking up. OHG. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. giving in Gr. ' . to beg. word. ykvog. or Of a pure poor man. a stone-cutter's chisel. 25. 58 BEG BEGONE G. AS. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. anfangen. it is both to acquire and to beget. to begaan. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. krapszas. can. but in the same language from poc. P. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. fangen and Lat. duginnan. whence the E. Fr. to be able.n. P. Du. In Luc vi. Political Songs. is formed pocair. origin. a wallet. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. to arise. ip AS. appears improbable at first. It. ' ' . viii. beitel. Beghardus. V. a little bag). begger. but probably erroneously. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. literally. 40. is com. Cold-begone. incipere. not began to alight. onginnan. Schm. ytyvwfT'Kw. signifying to conceive. Into the are D. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Mundart. lapidicinus. He did alight. a beggar . It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. ysgrepanu. P. beginning. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. a scrip. hags. To Begin. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. 1867. ken. covered with gold D. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. gigno. beis- plement driven by blows. Gr. ken. aginnan. of Gr. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. beissel. Lollards. cans. bag {baigean. Skinner's derivation from bag.quently used in OE. V. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven.

hevja. to carry. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. the distance of anything. promise. and (as Fr. Paladino. To look steadily upon. portarsi. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to halten. to look. hafwa bort. to call. behat. is supported by many analogies. AS. to command. Robert in Warton. betragen. laborare. hafwa ram. ufhaban. exhort. To Behold. behaviour. vow. Sw. and the E. what he wishes another to do . of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. zijn. to keen or hold. to lift. behete. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. G. to be be named. as in the case of E. to gehouden. to command. to be fit. to be named. The seyn. heita. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. But. to feed. commonly expressed. behefe. hatan. adjust. hcefwa in seed. hafwa. gehaben. Thus in Finnish the heave. ifl fact. to fit. bound. to name. seeing to. AS. fixed upon any object). to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. to hold. to R. N. Plautus. tion. to have. to heave. To be expedient. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . zu etwas gehalten haitan. to take away. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to cast or throw. to keep. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. on. The It. obliged. keeping. beholden to him. heave. to raise. heeten. OE. to follow. gehat. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. behoof. G. vow. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. promise or a command.to vow. healdan. Kiittn. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . injunccommand. beperson addressed. gecall. gehouden. when the verb will hoof. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. G. to carry. holding is originally derived from that of looking. Command. And so from hania. to be obliged to one. according as the * To Behove. gehalten seyn. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. 17. use. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. by the compound observare. furtherance. Aan iemand bid one welcome. hofwa. hove. the equivalent of E. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to bring forwards. to turn one out . ward. G. to vow. —Hest. and their senses intermingle. to vow. hces. taking notice or care of (Gloss. AS. To place are most naturally ex. Goth.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. behatan. invoke. han- — js Kil. to be well pleased out. take yourself off. to be obliged to do a thing. to call. hafwa. behces. right. se porter) to fare well or ill. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. the two verbs seem radically the same. At the back of The re. K. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. Sw. to keep. to regard.for throwing it. observe. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. a follower. behind. AS. habere. or necessary. AS.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. keeping. the name adapt. name of the head is used to express what hbva. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke.' Richardson. is on the top of or opposite to. It. to lift. to be suitable or becoming . command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. The Lat. tail. Sw. heeten willekem.the figure of throwing at a mark. to carry. to promise. solicitum esse. to tend. hcef tig bort. from tragen. G. to look upon it as true . to the equivalent of Du. R. us-hafjan. hevja. promise .— . premi curi alicujus rei. to behave. hafjan. to hold. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. or purpose. — Behest. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. take heed of. ge' hatan. garder. have the sense of calling or naming. guardare. hovast. nittaa. hantyri. what is so required. to lead. G. to carry corn into the barn . To Behave. to meet. behold. or the hence advantage. to hit the mark. is also found in the sense of looking. at the tail of. habban.). to bers of the body. advantage. servare.

beau sire and bel dame. loben. Pl. . to bellow. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt.. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. hesfa. berfroi. overspread. distance to which a piece will carry. lov. then. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. Then. turris. reputation. certain rate. to fix a price upon one's wares. bervrit. From AS. and bergan. to resound. we have Goth. bellow. giving leave or permission. border. if a narration. In Mid. satisfaction. Northamptonshire. from mhG. — mankind. esteeming good and valid. Pl. bolken. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to a loud noise. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . behove. are other modifications of the same imitative root. laven. is (Sternberg). on. belja. Sw. ornament. to befit. to sound loudly .. properly belonging to the church tower. esteemed .D. Du. To Belch. to hit hafi. to roar. to protect. OHG. galaubjan. AS. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. a watch tower. bealcettanj OE. a vessel made for dishonour. is used in the sense of approving. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to believe. to estimate them at a To believe. Fair sir and Fair lady. reach. locus securitatis Schilter. erlauben. fringe. Bell. Du. filu-galaubs. to give leave. To Believe. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. honoured. permission. is an easy progress. beffroit. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. ley/a. to put a high price or value on.D. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to boke. resonare. in nautical language. . to make it fast. verloben. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to lay be- around. garnish. Hence to simple approbation. G. ON. promiser. to give leave. met. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. praise. praising. The word be- Belfry. To praise is essentially Xo prise. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. allow. bealcan. to promise or engage. if a promise. to cry out bell. to praise. promising. — Diicange. to sanction an arrangement. In the middle voice hofwas. battefredum. bertefredum. an implement for making a loud noise. to express approval.. AS. bercvrit. P1. belief . or house. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. tain a certain end. Det er ofwer er hofwa. then. range. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to .Lat. loven. lyfan. to lay the cable round the bits. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to der swaren lave. Du. —F. bell. to extol the worth of anything. bulken.alyfan. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. ungalaub kas. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. for purposes of low estimation . bettifredo. aim. frid. and. See Gain. measure. to praise. bialla. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. glauben. — . to permit. a.D. moderation. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. loven. It. and E. peal. To Belay. gelyfan. lofa. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things.Lat. Fr. a little shed. permitting or giving leave. mark ON. . a tower for defence . OFr. laven. and E. to to make A Templorum campana boant. leaf geleafa. to give leave Dan. Fr. to believe. ON. precious. 6o BELAY BELL loven. Goth. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. cela est audessus de votre portde. beset. beleggen. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. boare. were civil terms of address. with the consent of the heirs. Q. on. true. galaubs. consent. to believe. portion. Du. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . bylja. to be required for a certain purpose. laubjan. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to praise. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. orloven. b'ola. to bolk. fitness. leave . or high estimation. pro3. stand. are innate .D. and Du. bellan. a tower. under the forms belfredum. appearing in Mid. to belay. beffroi. bounds. legsel. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. Another application of the same word is in Pl. or a sconce. to promise.

to stretch it on a frame. ball. ON. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Benedico. to bend a bow . bags or bellows. a round or bubble-shaped root. bless. from another modification of the word for bubble. a bellows. to make bilbil. means seeds of plants. bandoir. w. blister balgan-snamha. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. G. belt. benedictio {bene^ and dico. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. border. Eenison.— Belly. See I . Quoth. ' .' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. benaigon. to become one's property . or simply djawt. from cwcsthan. benir. . an inflated Lat. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. a benefit. benjoin. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. to hallow. Fr. Sw. Kil. Bent. gwaldas. to ring. to belong. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. Belt. leather sack. OFr.' The term had been previously planation. wallet. bendaj as. a good deed. because bcelg. In E. bimaissen. se bander. See Bind. to hold to one. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. to bless. a border. to reach.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. bimpsen. — root consisting of concentric skins. as. from which is also bulbus. I say). to touch. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. fens et hie liraus. needs no ex. bander un arc. hence with ashes. bellows. bienfait. pervenire. taken absolutely. — ray. is The word balg. a blessing. hem. attinere. bene/actum. a speaking well of one. ' I beraye. balg. was in Mid. or fyle with myre. belly. bendan. dirt. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. kind. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Bret. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. — See Numb. by itself. beneison. Lat. . vulgarly the belly. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. to arrive at. pertinere. Was das belanget. rushes. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. one who does good. attingere. to do good to one . bolg. See Nether. The ing-skin. volva. — Ducange.Fr. belgr. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. benehusk. Lat. benignus (opposed to malignus). gelangen. From OFr. balg. bolch. to touch one. to attain to. wallet Benefit. benejicium. has assumed a plural form. to. . Commentary on Neccham in Nat. the word. loubdn djawt. . bcelg. as concerning that. benedicere. balteus . bellows. Fr. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. ray. a water-bubble builge. a spring. skin. a blow. a kindness. ON. Gum benjamin. I marre a thyng. attinere. Bav. To Belong'. benjoim. cod or husk of pulse. belliJ Lat. becwathan. Benzoin. bilbil-goda. pino3. to attain belangen. Benign. binsen. belly. incense of Java. Lat. is a kindred form.videtur. Gael. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. binssen. rise against external force .' — Hie fimus. bag. to concern. or sometimes louban. the womb. to exert force. to come to the crown belangen. I araye. Lat. benefacere. Benefice. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. welt of a shoe gwald. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . est matris in lucem editus. ^To Beray. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. OUG. a accusative. Ptg. . blast-bcelg. Lat.. G. I soyle it or araye it. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. J'emboue. the skin of those animals that factor. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Gael. Bench. Benignant. To Bequeath. skin. or a It is times the to signify services. from benedictio. G." — — . a bellows .pinuz.' Palsgr. Fr. bell. generous. Du. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. Beneath. Lat. bellows. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. disposed to oblige. bilbila. To Benum. langen. To belong is thus to reach up to. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. are stripped off whole blase-balg. to use words of good omen. pouch. . to concern. Javanese perfume. a leather bag. pertinere. Benefactor. vulva. from Arab. Benediction. See Bank. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. poX^ri. . pod. to say. welt of a shoe. Dozy. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. bolg. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. To Bend. on. well.polch. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. fyle To dirty. belch. G.

Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. place. in the sense ctf beria. p. earh. the origin of which is to be found in ON. burrow. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. Du. as in growth. besein. buttare. bdt. as conversely a besom is called broom.t. a place . broom twigs. to to deprive of. So Lat. to on the other Goth. to stand one in good stead. BEREAVE Wall. Sw. bouter. besmas. from AS. supporting on the one side Lat. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. brem-bessen. as. of ffeed a fire. ^•n. It is the restore fyr betan. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. vol. to make better. When men of mekeness him baet. reafian. dial. dung . as. put. buttafuoco. stow. Berry. because used for making besoms. peto. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. a berry. stealth from steal. bur-we.— VixHsm. boeten. From abet. bota.—^fake. boteith Goth. Beit. to give a place to. to mend. Beet. To Bestow. To seek something from a person. sets fire to. dirt. sheltered from the wind. to cast. Du. * To Bete. advantage. to make it. boeten. botesward. is to perform a serviceable office to him. So too Yorkshire arf. to light the fire . the guardian . to entreat. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. from grow. * Berth. jnore. Besom. berwham. . Tha het he micel fyr betan. and Du. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. bet. Esthon. betan. See Better. small eatable fruit. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. scopse spartis. earg. Fr. a horse collar. ship for a make amend. Zeitschr. Sw. eld up- On is to be placed A — . AS. Goth. BETE dirty'. — Biglotton. encouraging. R. Fin. as. het vuur The serise of Boeten. fall with sound.iooA. — amendment. or the space kept clear betan. to thrust. improve. Beere. think more probable. rods. to To Bereave.fish the other hand. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. to thrust. fyrbotare. roe. houseless. to kindle the fire. Best. E. The proper meaning of the bale. roju. bacca. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. bereafian. The dry. ropahtaa. ^akka. E. to strip. to supply a want. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to.ot-i. bdt. solicit.bhaksh. Fr. to word is shelter.irova. profit. noise. G. To Gl. to put on the saddle. reparation. one who shelter. arwe. the side bhakshya. compared with bargham. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. To bete his Jam. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. berry. . beseech. beorgan. to seek. barthless. hva mannan. baete. might have been . AS. Bestead. from It. besen. ariierf to 113. but in practice. I from lew. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. To Bet. to be-place. put forth. lay out. Devon. boeten. — . Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. reparation. to amend. — bota. So roto rattle down. to defend. To help. repair. make better . a beacon-fire fyrbotare. vi. barth may be for barf. position. p. and also to entreat. rubbish. person to lie in. besje^ Sanscr. barfham. boutefeu. On the other hand. To Beseech. R. to the place boarded off in a.D. stede. an incendiary. Tusser. basya. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. bat. to fall with roisto. Du. betan. basjaj Du. as bouter selle. amendment. to fire a funeral pile of . a fire. what does it boot. supply. dust rojahtaa. making better. See Reave. as Du. seems twigs or rods. Ihre. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Kil. dirt . as. to exercise on a definite object.— Hal. G. besnij Pl. Grose. baete. besIn sen. bal oppbota. what does it better a man. sweepings. protect . AS. Rob. Du. or. bestow. OE.• 62 Antiq. lewth. it seems hard to separate as. and on which the wager is laid. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. but it is specially applied mister. or to bestead one. roju. mud. The origin is AS. advantage. — Chaucer.X. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . an incendiary. 3. Hfence backing. berwe. same word with the provincial barth. better. preferably. fearful.

betweoh. E. Dit tungomal rendered in E. tradere. BETEfiM translated. from invadere. r'ojer dig. vrohjan. lot). moveable and compass branches. Friar's Prol.D. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. On the same principle ON. to Hence It. by a final sh. zemen. advance. sloped off. make manifest. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. — that schickiich. polish. as envahir. to fall Some call it a bevel. . to accuse. in the middle of two. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. to make forwards. G. has — In a like sense tanie>i. roebucks. thy speech bewrayeth thee. find it good: Goth. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. R. whence beveraggio Fr. against. In like manner from twain is fothied between. trahissais. The as. Chaucer. — Betwixt. by two. obeish. twain. Goth. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. is used for the — R. his mouth. to happen. be fitting or suitable. batizo. G. -to appoint. from. and thence twegen. a traitor. beuvrage. or with again. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. suitable. regen. To Bewray. to deliver up in breach of trust. progress. Du. spritigs from schicken. to fall. From the former of these are AS. fallinn. Pl. Bav. betest. from Fr.— . tradire. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. Lat. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. 88. to drink . evidence of life. springs from ON. are there Regt R. R. kein leben mehrin no signs . which may be compared as to form with amid.D. gezimet eines dinges. E. To vouchsafe. Golding's Ovid in R. E. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. betwuxt. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. better. betaemen. wreia. Sahissais. fitting. more. To boot in coursing (i. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. afford. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. bet. To Beteem. order. as trahissons. to deceive. obdissais. betray. to deliver tip. deign. Det sig sjelft. better. pair of compasses. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. traditor. roja. betwuh. In the water anon was seen His nose. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. in the middle of twain. e. i. gatiman. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. Best. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Fr. of pheasants. better. become. Goth. to happen. Hence last G. trahison. proficere. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. Buveau. awry. ON. to discover. Ober D. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. to stir. some attention. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. to Teem. G. gesiemen. Better. batista. amiddes. bevere. OE. Slant. e. fate. bat. Fr. G. suitable. of quails. i. zimet. as one would have it fall. dir. as from obdir. Ik tame mi dat nig. said he. From It. Between. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. tweoh. Cot. In like manner folissais. betst. larks. ruogia. as tlock. find in one's heart. betriigen. Fr. Thus from dbahir. ziemen. AS. treachery. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. in the same way Lat. /alia.' Dialogue on Witches. abash j from polir. a bevy. two. I approve of beveau. a drinking . trahir. an instrument opening like a a thing. bibere. AS. The inflections of Fr. baet. taemen. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. A — drink. — of the authorities. x. deem suitable. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Bevy. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. It. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. best. Now the stirring of an object. betweohs. beverage. verbs in ir with a double ss. bevde. tima. from Lat. Dii. a brood. It. tima. for measuring angles. traitre. the being pushed to the frbnt. To Betray. are commonly to one's lot. betera. Fris. Fl. amidst. his eyen sheen. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. e. *Ah. beva. taemen. Mich self a good glass of wine. Fr. to cheat. it bewrays itself. — See To Bete. &c. betweox. Pl. bouter davantaige. is treason. dispose (whence schicksal. bet. what does It is forward him. riigen. a different form of twa. Sw. R. Percy Soc. Car son umbre si le trahit. trakir. bedriegen. ON. wrogia. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious.

To drink hard. or by any rapid motion. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Mantuan. aslope. to cut in two. Probably. specially in a bottle. to tipple. to give signs of life. —Dozy. bickel. sbiasciai. Oh when shall I bizzle. whey count . it becomes (Jz-. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. a fragment bieco. Fr. a bibber. Sardin. expelling or preserving against. Fr. wrangle. An inferior blue. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. him. Ant. bescompte. inferiority. sbrisso. bibaculus. bark of which paper was first made. Bisect. rogge. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . by throwing of stones. poison. bisel. The train of thought is then. It. sbiscio. to creep or crawl sideling. one who drinks in excess. to Jam. babbi. to make tongue Du. to move. or kwijl-slab. sbiesso. biascia. rogt un bogt sik nig. Lat. E. though such a change of form would be very unusual. . ice . bring under ' Thy accuse.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. to glide or slip as upon. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. besanca. Bice. kwijl-bab. — Bi-. the papyrus. biax. to dispute. reveal. Bibelsworth in Nat. to a fight with stones. Fr. beslei. sbriscio.D. the word became bddizahr. sbias. in Fr. It is especially applied in Sc. as an eel or a snake.' bibble. 172. to the stirring of their conscience. evident. Biseau. bickai. to shake. winding or crawling in and out. 78). Diet. sbrissare. notice. To Bib. bes-azur. metaphor). Fris. oblique. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. makes ble. to slaver or drivel. biascio. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. Fr. convicts thee of being drink. he is Wtb. To Bibble. wrogen. biaiser. bending. . tailU en biseau. Dan.a. to be a paring. biberon. bebble.two. It. ber-laita (for bes-laita). like guzzle. aslope sbisciare. Bias. asure-bice (Early E. Bezoar. bis. Lat. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. whence Du. edge of a plate of looking-glass. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Schiitze. and zahr. Prov. a Galilean. Misc.or from obliquus. dial. sbrisciare. To Bezzle. bickeler. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. to stir. —Bickering'. OE. of the sliced off. crooked. Sard. Yes. used in precisely stone . kwijllap. snout. babbefore the eyes. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). In comp. from pdd-. slippery. to stir. Hal. bisdare. it were the mouth. sliding. slanting . Fr. a sloping edge. The It. liwell. I Wallon. bavon. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. biberen. to slaver . to purl. Uprogen.s bellum for duellum. Pl. (according to the Fr. Bible. dial. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. a bezle. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. two- footed. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. petit-lait. to tipple. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. bestemps. . bihais. Du. to sip. to it evident to sense. Jamieson. misFr. kwijlen. In Arab. sbiagio. has a singular stone-picker. the basil Sc. To skirmish. a stone-hewer . love first begins to life signs of him.D. bibo. To bicker in NE. per\'erted belief.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. sbieco. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. stock still. pible. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). its clothes. — crooked. in him. sloped. bias-wise. twice. See Wriggle. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. shows the P1. bible. baverole. sbiescio. a slabbering-bib. . roggle. Sp. An excellent Basil. Bezel. beregen.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. which good bibbeler. bezling or skueing. biais.to drink much. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. baviere. Pers. to stir. wraggeln. to stir up . The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. bickel-sieenken. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Gr. Bib. Cat. presence. Piedm. or in and out. /3i/3Xof a book originally.as in Biped. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. foul weather. in two ways for duis. b&zahr. . Cat. discover. Fr. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. lips. Hal- — do something aslant. to well up with Cot. Ci^.{ioin dua. biberer. Piedm. is explained to clatter. To Bicker. bickelen. pddzahr. sik beregen.

From Gr. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. inhabit Du. 2. iiQ. as G. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. Kil. to ask. swaggering. to inhabit. an entire skin. praebere.' Pope in R.peto. G. swoln. bua. bo. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to bend. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. pressing on one's notice. The loss of the / gives Dan. bi-. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. a chip. beodan. by seek and beseech. bieden. to pro- command. beadle. OSw. bag. are also used in the sense of asking for. biegen. ' Bug as a Lord. bugne (answering to ON. To Big. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to start out. bedun. to offer it to public notice. or bad.t. bigan. to belly. balg." buque with E. to look for. or. the meaning of bid. verbieten. to build. bulky. bilge or bulge. bulge. a suitor. to bid one good day. bygga. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to pray one to dinner. biddan. — — — Halliwell. who. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. to offer one the wish of a good day. bend of a shore or of a rope. to offer. inhabit. A bjudan in anabjudan. Jam. ON. BID of stone. bidan. to bend. bit- bidja. bug. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. be bug. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to inflate E. buga. the belly of a ship. ten. Bigot. The ON. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to cultivate. R. ewes. from bidan. qucero. bced. ON. G. gebodenj G. to look for. It must be observed that the word bidja. einen vor Gericht bieten. 1. to forbid . bidan. bouwen. The 'La. which is stiU. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. belly. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. athird class. to move quickly. pray. A pose to one to come to dinner. AS. to build G. Du. AS. bidill. bolga. bugan. swelling. explaining the Sc. bolgna). In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. — prepare. beidast. to forbid . Bight or Bought. offerre. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. to bulge. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bath. to E. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to build. byggan. England for swollen.uddered len heart. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. Two verbs are here confounded. quiring something to be done. called the tertiary order. Big-swol- . bulge.' Addison. Wallace in Jam. to arrange. faurbjudan. boa. bieten. a swelling. rising up. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bis and in comp. — To Bid. Compare also Sp. build. bead. to abide or wait on. from belgia. bat . to solicit. to presimpler pare. proud. of More ' in Richardson. as tears from the eyes. G. and Gael. bow. bolginn. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. ON. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bulk. repair. bauen to cultivate. byggia. AS. The original Swollen. Bickelen. cultivate. to ask. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bidel. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bend. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. Palsgrave in Halliwell. from seek. to marry.. to bicker. The ON. becoming in Lat. besides the professedmonks and nuns. as. porrigere. and yajiBui. consisting both of men and women. a flexure. P. belly. . Bigamy. Hence Sc. OSw. To bid the banns. bugt. . or third order of penitence. to swell. With respect to logical pedigree. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. abidan. BIGOT beidan. bidjan. bog. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. gebeden j G. ON. forwards. and the Sw. just as the two ideas are expressed in E.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. has leta. twice. in the sense of ask for. to have one called before him. Analogous expressions are G. praestare. to dwell. W. To Bid ' Big .Leta). Big. form. related to big or bug. anleta. spelling seems to used in the N. The . to curve. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages.

560. 1499. borel.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. From bigio. and also unlearned common men. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. A. face VIII. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. dark-coloured cloth. sed maxim^ in muliebri. Hence the OE. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. 1243. Francisci communiter appellabant.a. Flor. and hence the variations bigutta. D. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. beghart. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. rustical.' translated by Muratori. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. alii de paupere viti. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Bighiotti). A. grey. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Bizocco. with reference to A. was formed bigello. &c. A. absque votorum religionis emissione. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. both men and women. clownish. homespun cloth. ac labores manuum detestantes.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. They wore a similar dress. bigotta. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. to adopt a similar course of life. In a similar manner from bigello. a dunce.' Chart. probably from biso.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Beguttce.— BIGOT bigardo. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. alii Apostolici.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. S. bigio.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. natural grey or sheep's russet. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. bighellone. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.' Matthew Paris.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. beghino. the other form Per te Tribune. says. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. as well as bizocco. xx. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.D. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. bighiotto. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. vol. author quoted in N. begutta.' says an Venet. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. Bighini. In the same way Fr. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . coarse woollen cloth. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. Bizoccki. corruption would easily creep in. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. aliqui Begardi. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. perch^ i Terziari di S.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. grey. all apparently derived from Ital. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. honesti plebeii amictus.D. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.— Ducange. biso. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. a blockhead.D. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. which must not be confounded with begardo.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. signifying bagmen or beggars. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. the nobles to Rienzi. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. ix. and Q. 15 18.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. Augustini dotarint. vocati Fraticelli. G. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt.' says one of of bigio. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.

tepati. now A Bilboa blade. to job. e. bullet. of E. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Bohem. beil. in the sense of a writing. Thus we find in It. beghart. 2. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. NFris. Dan. to strike. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. 3. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. to be angry (i. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. a short note. from Mid. billot. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. an axe . The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. In English the meaning has received a further development. bigot. Gael. of boja. gan. Sw. dziob. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. To defraud one of expected sinking. bila. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. A slang term for a sword. bile. The Du. Kil. Ludwig. . a of the sea. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. on. Du. dissimulation . Bilbo. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Billet. top. whortle-berries. an axe. bigardo. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. bolghe. billard or billart. buoy [i. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. To Bilk. abelthe fetter itself. as craneberry. from OSw. obsolete. topor. Bilge.' mariners. bill in parliament. a sword. to peck. a shackle. Fr. Sw. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. a hypocrite. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. An instrument for hewing. AS. AS. as a bill of indictment. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. a negro. w. at sea Billet.' in Richardson. an ingot of gold or silver. buie. Lat. is properly a sealed instrument.— — — . Bille. bill of exchange. Bill. Dan. bulgja. Roquef. So in Gr. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. an axe. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. fluctus maris. 5 * . bwyell. Du. genus vincu- Bilboes. Piedmontese bigot. the beak of a bird. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. bisoch. I. bull-berries. Bill. 'tumidi fluctus. bulghe. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. . Lat. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. weapon . billet is the diminutive of this. billard also signified at billyards. AS. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . p. Bojce. Fr. an ingot. seems to be rather the unda. Mundart. crowberry. a devotee. boeye. bizocco. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Kil. deceit. — bigardia. See Bulk. billet.. OFr. Du. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. used in legal proceedings. a bigot or hypocrite. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. horn of an animal. buail. Sp. In the same way are related Pol. G. blamand. a man who rests on a stick in walking. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. loi. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . bigotto. See Bull. a name given to a. to swell with rage). su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. biilge. procella Kil. gleischner (Frisch). and in Lat. belghen. an axe. boja. a punishthe offender is laid in Du.' bilio. the swelling G. — — ' . a floating log to mark the place of some. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. Langued. Deutsch. boia. b'olja. inscriptum. bill. 2. ferrese quam ligneae. Billette. the trunk of a tree. axe. blue . the bill of a bird. blaa. an adze . Billow. . a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. a seal. symbolum. bui. fetters. the o changing to an i to express diminution. in the same sense. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Gascoigne in R. Tartuffe. BILBERRY nated. — Cot. to pick a millstone. bigot. from the dark colour. belgan. plog-bill. a hatchet. a seal. and a billard. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Prov. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. ^Billiard. a beak. clog to a fetter. bil. Bilberry. Fr. names bill-berries. dziobad. Aurelles. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. A lorum tam in — Diez. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. to strike. Sw. bla-berry. irons or set in a kind of stocks. person of religion leading a loose life. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. bulla. e. Bigin. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. and dziobas. The proper meaning bylgia. bille. however. that of swell. Johansen.

qui nisi propius Blind. Gr. E. by the verb knit or net. to bear. and especially to a small poor horse. Then added division in a granary. a bitch. bin-wood. Bitch. bindan. Thus I suppose the Gr. beitan. bhurja. to bulge. bunt. copus. a truss. forth. G. a little dog. H. bigne. Bittacle or Binnacle. episcopus. in Swabia. a heap. a weight of 48 pounds. bij sien. . Lith. sc. is rendered in ON. truss. — Kil. bundun. AS. AS. . The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. vescovo. earnes brid. a bitch. Dan. To — — —D. Fr. Bind. biscuit. nodus. the young of an animal. videt. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. ON. AS. . a gallinaceous bird. a knob. a house. hith. or ben-wood. piiiti. 'tumens sequor. ge- from AS. viz. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. and of Fr. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Habitacle. to bring Biscuit. to wreathe.. biclie. terial. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. to form a knotted structure. — See Bittacle. G. or baked. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. habitacle. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Bin. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. I would derive the verb to knit. poultry.. a pig petz. Lat. life. wine. pinnii. fowl. binge. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. beorth. The bitol. Sp. while bind-wood. To Bite. It. biscotto. v. AS. a corn. twice cooked. beran. Sw. an eagle's young G. e. binda nat. bitill. i. ON. bircej Sw. a bump or knob. bundle./«idere. to build. . bundt. See Belly. to hang. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Bisom. EpisETTiTOOTToe. to be derived from Ibfiaq. isfiw. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Sw. Lap. a bunch. piccione. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. pittjo. to twine. . or bin. betsel. pundas. &c. evesgue. to bind together. beize. Bailey. Bisen. . G. bij sienigh. burt. Bizened. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. — properly near-sighted. a brood or hatch of young. poule. It. to net. Fr. from Gr. See Breed. a bitch applied also to other animals. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. properly a young pigeon. to knot nets for fish. Bindweed. Lat. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. a female stag. from Lat. Du. The proper meaning is a heap. G. Lat. Lith. bunga. from pondus. We — A Birth. overlooker. doubtless a stone. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. propius videre bij sicndc. expressed by Sw. hiindiiin. bunki. Sanscr. brut. is in Scotland applied to ivy.' and the like. Bisson. bita. bund. the young of birds . Fr. AS. pin-ti. Lat. When compared with Fr. a weight. admota non Bit. pippione. pinnu. which is expressed in E. or petze. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. band. an overseer. also a stone weight. AS. bitacora. are commonplaces. j). Birch. bord. evegue. Goth. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. lusciosus et myops. a bear. Fr. a female dog hindinn. IV. beitsl. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. to cook). Bird. berkas (z=:Fr. In like manner from knot. BITTACLE /Siof. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Goth. evigue. biccej ON. than vice versi. Fr. a habit- Binnacle. — Surrey in R. pullus. Bine. to swell. bindan. bundle. i.. The term ON. bund. See To Bear. where the compass stands. by binda. V. to plait. bunch. from \t3\. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. beisseii. bundt. bjork. — — .68 BIN Bio-. bikkia. to bind at . brid. Bing. a hind or female stag. a heap. to fasten it together.

to chops. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. A a rail. In a similar manner Gael. buft". Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. plappem. discoloured . ON. blakki. ^aj'/^r. Ai-mstrong. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Applied in Hin ON. ON. from whence we have adopted the. to bivouac. In Legrand's Fr. — Collins in Hal. blabhdach. to babble. as of water gently beating the shore. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. white. out the tongue. leohte . blepLith. baitrs. to speak Dan. pale brown . bittour. In like manner E. Mag. blakk. blank. mona mid Dan. bleikr. blebberis. Blabber-lip. on. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. a flapping. fallow fawn-coloured. round which the cable is made fast. Percy Soc. bitones. brunblakk. beiwache.— Blabber-lip. white lead. Wit hung her mourn. first. Du. Deutsch. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Sp. thoughtlessly . town guard to keep order at night bivouac. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . blabaran. Sw. ' plabraich. Alex. bitts of Bitts. —Neumann. beuni. — cheeked maid. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. blob.). apparently from its biting the tongue. indistinctly. pale. Fr. a large lip.' G. a babbler. stutterer. AS. the palebleff. Black. v. Nagt huis. bites.. AS. blubber-lipped. ' Biovac. shine. a continued soft sound. babbe. a tati. bihovac. blabbern. a beam in a house or ship. The bitas. small guard-house. biti. is placed. pale. fallow . It is in fact radically identical with Fr. pale yellow . Mund. to the sharpness of a weapon. NE.' It would thus acle. corrupted in Fr. It. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. to let out whai should have been concealed. To or he can speake. Hist. Why presumest And laam's asse. a large coarse lip . gabble. G. his blacan light. Sp. bleg. 't huisje. Hald. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. a* mast . G. as is seen in sputter and splutter. as in that of pale and white on the other. bird of the heron tribe. faded. Bleak. dark. I blaber. Hal. . 156. So Fr. night guard. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference.plab is used to . a childe dothe gasouille. gulblakk. from wachen. to watch. faded.. maculS. whitish. Gael. mouth. Bohem. baboyer. beitr. blob. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. in contempt. 'fuscus. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. /ealo-/or. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. bittore. to wax pale or bleaked. as of a body falling into water. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. "uivac. biacca. to loll it out. to talk much. Fieldfare. mouth. garrulous.D. Lydgate. Bittern. Fr. dusky. a stammerer. is apprehension of danger. black. butorj OE. pale yellow. — Hollyband. Cot. iroxafealo. Goth. to To blabber blabber with the lips. to babble.. To Blab the anchor. ON. Mantuan babbi. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. synonymous with baber-lip. Pl. as of wings . yellow . Fr. light-coloured. bitter. pale. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Fr. 't kompas huis. blab. on the one side. Bav. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. whiteness (candor sine It. an edge is sharpest sword. obscurus. The Gz. whitish. Cotgr. a fluttering noise. bleich. bitr. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). things —Palsgr. shining. blanc. yellowish. even humour seemed and beuin. white. Gael. 332. bitor. blesmer. blobach.' by Haldorsen. term. . ^chops. Je N. Sp. . blac-hleor ides. blob. confusedly. Bivouac. Again. unintelligible talk plabair. quoted by Ihre. blake. pins of the capstern. cut. x. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. or water beating gently on the beach .' by Gudmund. blunt we say it will not bite. babbling. ON. chatter babbler . then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. viz.€i. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. an additional watch. quick. a shelter for the steersman. Se bleek. blabbre. plabartaich. Sp.

—We Bladder. probably ate. whitish. e. to dabble in water. mud. bladder. dial. Sir. with all other loose idle masterless men.— Kil. blanqne. roar. white. The present forms then should be classed with blether. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. pass over. broad. Dan. plat. biastner. Sw. and wandering men and women. also tanned by the sun. Perhaps from blegen. Fr. blather. blegen. blatter. blaere. blasphemare. or a mass of bubbles. to make or become white blanc. from candere. to vocifer- — Cot. See Blubber. shining. Blame. is identical with Flanders borlen. a white or unwritten ticket. to blow. blad. irXariQ. Dan. Blain. and Q. also jabber. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Fr. as Lat. dripping-pans. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. plat. borrelen. Blanket. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. blather. blad. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. — . to bubble.— ^o thehotsun. Sw. pallido. blether. to shine. I am degraded from a cook. contracted from bladeren. 5/^a/^ of colour. bladre. Du. to To bellow. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. the ON. bladeren. waschen. blatter. linkboys. Jan. p. a blank ticket. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. blanchet. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. a pustule . blister.. Bav. foolish talk. or of an oar G. on. also white woollen cloth . . blank. tattle. blatt. bladder. revile.—Blatter. as. pXaatpiiiiHv. blanchir. blister. Fr. the leaf of a tree. bladra. blaeren. Blank "verse. biasimare. as blader. blactra. madder. chatter. chatter. blanc. pimple. moere. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. a blanket a bed. the origin of . smore. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. boys. Now. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. rogues and wanderers. Lat. — — — to jabber. branches . Blancli. Torriano. Besides the examples of this connection given above.. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. Bacon in R. pladdern. blame. To Blare. blegne. which we . Play in Nares. to purl. blinken. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. a. G. candidus. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. to omit. board. Du. a bubble. mud. 7. most complete example of leafy structure. and others engaged in dirty work. vagrants. in R. blahen. a bubble. But perhaps a more Gr. piatto. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. reproach. imbrunire. name originally given Blackguard. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. as scullions. a leaf.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. polished. variable than the signification of words designating colour. Reliqu. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. black. —^Webster. gabble. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. Blank. skola and thwatta. defame. Dan. Cot. &c. commonly called the Black-guard. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. Gr. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. The radical bubble. leaf. Blade. flap of a Du. or blafich. and he shall be sure to have O. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. or as E. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. blanchet. a boil. to Hence Ital.—Blatant. G. To blank. PI. blister. bladdra. mire. mus-blackt. . sheet of paper. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. to shine. leaf of a. on. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. leaves. Fr. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. Eadmer. smother. as. and the agitation of liquids. D. tree. pluddre. 86. Du. coat. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. 1854. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. bladder . to blanch. slush. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. a bladder or pustule. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. — rura. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. to bleak in the sun. speak impiously. bladder. and E. leafy. and thence to babble. Du. his meat burnt. vagabonds. Du. cited in N. Wott. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. G. blein. to glitter. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blena. whitish. Sc. a buible. . to disappoint. It. blister. to glow. livido . Hist. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. plate. — Sw. and G. to —Blaspheme. white. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason.

is the imme.' painted or figured .' to fastum . a shield. blatero. a flame . a coat of arms. blaze. Du. Dan. light-coli. blorach. blast. blasonner. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Dan. blcest. a whisperer. a voice Jr. has also blencke. and to make him word blaze. to trumpet forth. i. ther it was erst not knowe. blcesett. visui patet. proflare tues. coloured prints. ing of arms. blesse. Sc. . it is obvious shield on which they were painted. bleis. Fr. somewhat different train of thought. abroad. quus. blase. I. blcEsan. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. to spread news. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. AS. a funeral oration . to publish. it is manifest. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. might spring from the same origin by a . brasa. bldsse. blossi. to extol. — ^Jam. blass. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. and. OE. . loud . a lamp blasere. Blast. But now. laudes (Kil.). sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. redness . G. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. to cut off prematurely. braise. blaser vid. blesse. blaodh. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blazen. — ' — stroy. bliEsan. beast. fire. blus. by stripping off a portion of the bark. With inversion of the liquid. in the same way as we 2. ON. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. pale. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. or blazening. AS. noisy blor. bawling. blateroon. to proclaim. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. 2. e. an conium. bles. Sw. kept up. is from AS. on whose behalf the herald appeared. oron-blasare. blysa. Lye. blaesen. She roade at peace through his heraldry. to blow. G. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. To blast. like the in English. blezo. also blazon or the blazSpenser.sound a trumpet. Gael. Kil. Sw. a torch. baladron. blis. Blaze. A strong flame. a shining spot. Du. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. brasa. senses. The AS. thraso. commendation blason funebre. ill-speaMng their proper colours . to blow. See Blare. blaodhrach. boasting. gloriosus. how. to blaze Sp. as a verb. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. oured. to publish the praises. blasoen. a flame. of an animal. Fr. Du. A blaze is so intimately Then. a blast.— . the noisy. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. embraser. to blow . among other . a loud noise. A gust of wind. to set on fire. Fr. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. magnilo. might And sain. a shout. blason. proclaim the virtues of. besides blesse. — — ' : bless. If armour. Troilus and Cressida. First from the E. biter. much plausibility. indeed. to de.whence the Fr. Blatant. whence Blazonry. Du. The other derivation.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. blcEsan. a torch . blasa. Du. each of boaster. baladrar. abroad. Du. blys. — Elazen. blcese. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. used. blaterare. blaeteren. and which. Cot. g. clamorous. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. To blow AS. to bellow. a MS. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. magniloquus. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. blose. ventosus. To Blaze. an empty and two theories are proposed. Blanches illuminies. a flame. Gudmund. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blase. Prov. in that of praise. The origin of this exSp. ON. friend Cornelius. live coal . stultd loqui. also praeblczse. Golden Book in R. Cot. splendour. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. . or to the sound which it produces. also only pains and excellent endurance. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. As Kilian. shield or surcoat. blason. the matter incendiary . declaratio. 'op een trompet blaazen.

To salir. from on. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. Bleed. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. tutnan is a cloud. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. pier vor den augen eyes. a spot. to spot. a spot. darkness of vices. the livid colour of a bruise. Palsgr. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. . Blear-eyed j having sore i. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. boggle at something. and thence to a bruise. ^Blencher. To Bleat.filerren. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Gower in R. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. wheal. From the OFr. Schmel. to bleach. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. on. plama. blesmissure. light-coloured. livid. Blear. to blare been weeping. to become livid. the formal equivalent of English wink. ' . bloken. splamii!. guenchir. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. to bleat as sheep. See Black. blister. or to low as oxen. to spot . exposed. So in Sw. or blemish. . a boil. Bleak. blesmir. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. ' — — eye. dead-coloured Cotgr. Ancren Riwle.' the devil makes a vain back. ' He blarrede or roar. As AS. Gr. (faith or creaunce) Be war. pimple . N. to wink at it. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. — blink the question is to shrink from it. bldmi. 242. or blemysshen — blaken. pale . though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. geplerr. Bleb. color plumbeus bldma. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. souiller. — — R. a blemish in one's 2. a stain. blot. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. blema. Fr. wanness. paleness. 115. See Blood. spSt.'he cried till the tears ran down. See Black. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. ' — — ' : — — . AS. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. a disgrace. . to start away from. to soil. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench.' God in his wordes. to make him feel blank. blot. blur before their eyes. a been distinct. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. to blear one's eye.D. in the expression reputation. a spot. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. The term blear. whitish. Richardson. B. as of dust or mist . Mac. confound him. a spot. what blenched him therwith. Pol.' to deceive one. a blotch plerr. 419. like one that has long P1. Blemisli. sugillatio. which are blurred with the have shewed you. blink. Sir J. To totally different from the foregoing. tumanid. ^Xiixaoftai. bleakness. to wink the eye. to humbug. A Blab. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. while the agent ac- From . tacher. A stain in a man's reputation. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. . G. to cry or weep. Bejaune. drop of water. blarren. a fault. . Sw. blemissemeiit. avoid looking it in the face. blench came to be used for a trick. from the than schal I go. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. And now are these but mansbond (i. sinen langen tranen. And By a similar metaphor Pol. to disgrace one's name. goda nainn. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. BLENCH obfusco. to cast a mist before the eyes. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. I chaunge colour. wan. blakna. start vor den augen. c. flack. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light.P.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. Blancher. a blot or smear blanking one. a red watery eye. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. is Blench.v. blcecan. to stain one's honour or reputation. Manuel de Pecch&. bleikr. spla7nU sie. novice. livor. pale Du. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. inflamed eyes. Bailey. p.

glance. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. fortunately. Du. blag. lightning. Bliss. graceful. blithe. to make a rumbling noise. blick. . AS. Blink. blanda one or prevent one from seeing.corn. j). G. to churn. flash of light . to — make it thick and muddy. Wtb. Sc. well blagaya.blinkard . Dan. or nettle which does form. mixing in general. .passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. Du. F. Deprived of sight. a. blicksem. burn up. A . wink. to rejoice. to fall into water with a sudden noise. blican. bleg. a dead nettle. to dash wine with water. Nares. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. a glance. glitter.blunda. moment. although in the in the next article. The sound of k before an s. blind- ON. glimpse. — A A — . Du. to act like a — . blicken. happy . To Blend.D. blide. Serv. Tany. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. . to stir or puddle. and joys of Paradise bliden. bliss look . to bluiter. blitz. tless —Gamm. as a vatn i vin. joy. blitzen. doors. Blight. weaklaveny. Paradises blidnissu. blanssen. readily passes into a /. to glitter . Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. . a blessing. to shut the eyes G. to make happy. seems the simple netel. wink of sleep . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. the verb to bless is some. AS. Blind. to dazzle . Owl and Nightingale. blahoslaviti to twinkle. riches blajennii blicksem. — when he — Bailey. to blithsian. lightning sweet blago. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blund. Blazena Bea. to merry.blinze. . blink. blendian. From the action of the hand making Sw. to consecrate . bluiter. blatida. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. a nounce happy. AS. trix. as taschen. joyful. the Slavonic languages. a. be glad flash. . pale. ON. blinzdugig. thou knave. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. blahos. giving (Fr. happy . a gleam. blet.nasal. OHG. tire. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. bludder. liquid filth to bluther. good. — Goth. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning.eyed. OHG. well blahy blick and blink. to glance. csecubrandish. a look. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. gladness. tative source of the word is wholly lost. vious one in the order of formation. livid. — . plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Russ. (=bene dicere). to plunge.' To — blunge clay. dazzle . ^Jam. cascultare. blicken. blogi. as in the case of blaze. to glitter ful . G. window-blind. blazeny. blessed. to mix. to rejoice. Kiittner. to bluiter up with water. III. pockets. happily. a wink With the bletsian. blindr. . AS. sweet. a blick-ooghen. an entry which leads to nothing . . Swiss (obsolete). shine. blind. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. G. blinde fenster. glitter. as in Du. joy . also to wink. the sign of the cross while blessing one. gives blinzen. De Sonne ' verblekken. blotzen. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. glad. lovely Bohem. sertion of the nasal. blessed. riches . to dabble in water. blent. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to shut the eyes. 375. . to bless . lighten. to shine.. Du. blinzeln. plotzen. as a blind entry. is I shall Gurt. make these hands 3. ' Pl. to bless. Sw. blich-fiur. to shine. to be blind. —Brera. happy . Du. blende. To Bless. blago. To blunder water. to glitter. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. false windows. joy. a glance Swiss blenden.Q.wink . Needle. . a flash. I hold thee a grote thee. pearance of the blighted . to twinkle. to dilute too much . Pol. blindselen.not sting thiiren. blissian. but by no means therefore a pre. with or without the nasal. blincken. to flash. mix from blekken. Sc. The inblissful. blaziti.blinken. blidu. blac. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. The term then self or others. goods. Swab. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. . to shine. plonsen. G. to lighten. blinzler. a wink. blink-eyed. blithe blis. lightning. the G. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to pro. Biglotton. sung. money. blend. Thence apblinds. glitter. . in potters' language.

The stem or trunk of a tree. a blister . having an unsound swollen look. to dash liquid. joyful. whence blast. — Blob. a See Blot. Kil. Fr. and easily changes its place. ^vaaa.plisg. blot. in gusts. to to puff and be noisy. buckle. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. Bleb. Svt. Sw. Goth. Egillson. or bleb. cooking. fiustula. ON. stone. husks. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. to steep. pusula. soak in water cured fish. blobbes or droppes of water. a bubble. a blister. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. light yellow. — . like manner the coloured. a small lump of anything thick. viscid. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Dan. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. Of sheep. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. And so from squatter. to swell. mild. to block up the way. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. gentle OHG. blaud. soft. blote. G.— Bailey. blcesma.— Hal. as blinzeln. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. kostua. blijde. to blow. from blcsr. to breathe hard. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. a drop of water. mass. the unhewn bole of a tree. blobber. blod. ON. a bubble. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. an unformed mass. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. a lumpish head plubach. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. blister. sloppy dirt. to desire the male. —Bailey. Mod. Blister. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. a ram. For this.. mild. bleiths. senting the dashing of water. in the sense of a soft tint. plub. pimple. or the mark which it makes. Hence E. Fr. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. orbicular.pusta. Sw. to close it with a solid mass. repre- pusula. any lump or mass of things. or is inserted or omitted. B. . have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Blob. signifying in the first instance to soak. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. also to set See Bless. bloc. pods. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. busten. blab. buclde. to bubble. and inarticulately. while Lat. Dan. Gael. ^Jam. G. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. bluyster. blithe. The blow E. Thus we have blab and babble. in bulk. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. strawclod. biota. blindman's-buff. blouca and Fr. Blond. bluster. . bausen. a blot or spot. blindsehn. or blinde-kiih. B. Gael. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. soft. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. to soak. as in E. expressed by cognate roots. a . . blesme. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. boucler. blaustem.—Bloated. W. . — — — — — From blabber. as if soaked in water. a blain. Cotgr. bubble and blubber. blond. blad. is formed squad. merciful ON. The roots /. Bav. pustula. A under this name was imported into England. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. blister blasan. pausten. Du. frequentative. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. a bubble. bloc. a dirty blister. in the lump or mass of wood. I believe. taken altogether. soft. In Fin. like clot. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. — Sw. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. a little blisg. lagga i blot. must be referred to AS. as a blab of ink. blot. puff. must be classed with forms like Gr. blotfisk. blide. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Lat. To a smoking or drying by the fire. shells. Sc. formed spot. Jonson. swell. blinzel-maus. Block. to blow. round. blubber. Hence. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. bloated. To Blissom. blot. separate portion. a block or log en bloc. Ibid. Blob. To Bloat. N. weak. Boyd in Jam. and pisg. Langued. See Blot. it is must be observed. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. soaked. to blissom. fish blind person.—Bloater. and bouclette. or the like. to cure by smoke. kostia. speaking rapidly any . It may be formed Blithe. Du. and F. A solid blouquette blisters. inde humiditate tumidus. blidr. is also used in the sense of swelling . in Nares. to blow. blautr.

to strike . and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. Stalder. glister . bleistern. en blau ach. pale tint. leme. spot pletter i solen. Schwenck. Du. blawels. bldts. clod. blou. ])erly Du. to glisten . biado (of which the evidence plattern. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blotte. to dash down Du. yellow. on. a water ploutsche. a nature. — Blotch-paper. a. — gush. plants which prepares the seed. whence plader. PI. platt-voll. a deli. proto shine with bright colours . dial. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Fris. OFr. bleustern. to be red. redness. platz-regen. Dan. blue. from the bright colour which 7'vci. a Usaae. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . white blatte. gammon. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Fr. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Schmid. Harmar in R. Erploten. — — . Du. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to squat or lie close. blotting-paper. . . ON. Jios. to blot the land was in a leme. AS. a The form platschefz. . blauwel. See Blow. Blot. gloss. blue. kobladde. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. glasi. — Cot. cow-dung. blysa. bldmi. glus. lustre. E. Fris. parallel form with ON. Pl. bliise. to exists in biadetto. fall to overflowing. bloi. lump of anything soft to blad. great leaf of cabbage. bloedsd. lidmr. a torch blusse. probably connected with Pol. E. shine . glossi. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a pelting shower). blois. Du. lump flower. kuh-plader. Du.D.properly to scatter liquid . bit by bit. . blotter. blus. It. in v. platz-voll. G. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. skam. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Sw. blond. blad.platter. blosem. to dabble in water . Prov. blosa. E. to flame. ^Bleed. to From . to grow pale). straw. to dirty. couleur livide.— . Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. to strike with such these objects exhibit. the bright colour of the cheeks . coloured (Diaz. blond en blaauw slaan. E.' the rain is driving and blue . Wendish blodo. a Schmid. plet. glose. plattata. to glow. platschern. bloi. a drop of water or colour. Bloom. bliithe. blatte. platsch-voll. E. mud. a cow-dung. j^ blottir. gfyssa. ON. blose. blosen. Schilter. Sc. blue. to spot or blot. yellowish It's G. blostma. to dash down. The G. bletister. a flower. pladdern. Plots. . of a blow with something lios. to strike with something soft or flat. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Blad. blomstr. See Blow. fall down . to shine . a gush of milk . Ir. bloto. to blaze. colour of the cheeks. E. S-wiss pladern. to squander. a black eye Du. plotterwis. Hatch. Florio). Lat. blowen. blady. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. as the skin or hair. a beater. bfys. fair in en blat vand. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. bloi. spots in the sun. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. D. blistaf. ' — . 2. blodelsa and blawelsa. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. plot of land is a spot or small rage. Sw. blue . blondheid.blauschlagen. blaeuwe ooghe. splashing full. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Blossom. a flower. to slap. blond is used in blatt. — Stalder . bluish. . — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blase. to slap. a Halm a. from G. . flower. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. pladern. light. a spot or blot. a blaze. plottra. bloemen. to patter. to be red with blot. to blaze . bloed. dial. gleam. brilliancy. —Barbour. blaeuw. soft or flat. bliihen. Sc. Sw. dirty spot on the cheek. Dan. blut. to sparkle. Dan. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Blood. (of cattle) to dung. a lump. Blotcli. blosma. ^lys. blue. livid marks. Russ. AS. a blot or spot. G. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. Wflz<^«. livid . a blow. a flower. bloetnsel. splendour . to dabble in water. . or the sound of it . It should be of filth blak-blatte. pale biavo. to splash. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). bloutre. blust. bloeme. ON. Ein platsch milch. to blush . blat. blaeuwen. sbiadare. blooth. Blow. pale. wan. to scribble.^ Kil. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. the bright to blot paper morsels.

as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. a bruise. y\r)yi»v. corre. fem. pludern. green. gloeyen. into flower. Jla-re. OFr. a blow. |8A)'. to blow. blubonciti.D. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. blodern. to breathe bouteiUis. Tumbled. blass. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. G. bludder. grow pale. to glow. to bubble up. Raynouard. a blast. d in Sc. plubartaich. glaodh and blaodh. blois. blodelsa. OHG. bloom. — — Mundart. Pl. boasting. 1. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. 1292. bloes. to'disorder. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. glow. It. to spot. to blow. tache. to blow. or gr. Sik upplustem. MHG. to Plodern. —SchmelIt. in rapid or indistinct utterance. little apparent resemblance. — To Blubber. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). to gush. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. bliihen. a Blossom. blazi. Bav. sound like water. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. blezir. Gr.' — Palsgr. to puff up. blazir. bluther. P1. bliithe. a fat. blawan. We . 2. ler. — . is very frequent. br. to glow.— . G. /idXavoc. blow.D. The primary sense is to shine. like manner Lat. — To blubber. plubair.Jlasa. bluod. florere.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. bledniai. Blue. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. bloi. gloeden. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. plodern. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. G. the red fluid of the body . toused. dirty. blava. marking some application from that bladder. blue.D. . and the forms mentioned under Swab. gliihen. Her sweet bloderit face. a gurgling . fied vowel. And. Prov. to show flower. 51. sponds with Sw. -ii. blubbern. 92. to breathe G. blao. fqded. blubbern. gUd. Gael. Chaucer. blosen. bruised Prov. a herb Gr. to beat with a mallet. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. to beat. bloeyen. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. plustrig. Deutsch. Danneil. pale. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to with Bohem. blduen. vi^ound. especially with respect to the hair. grey. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. red-faced bloted wench. glowing coal . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. AS. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. Chaucer. to exhibit bright colours. to flourish. blau. v. .xo'»'. Notwithstanding the We . puff. . to make bubbles in drinking. bliuwan. to fade. G. E. Mund. The interchange of an initial gl. to bruise Roquef. withered. glede. Pl.to blossom. a continued noise of agitated water. sense. a flower. piusen. Bret. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. — Bluther. The aUied forms. gliihen. closely difference in of blabber. glansj Ir. to inflate. Du. Blowze. flower OHG. meurtrissure Roquefort. coup. blust. to hard. blebber. OHG. blue .D.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. Kil. to guggle. w. Deutsch. a. Langued. cheeks bedabbled with tears. to gabble. where the word may be compared bliggman. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bl. blaw j biavo. . A. To Blow. bloemen. These are — Bludder. to flap like loose clothes. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to fade. It is howbliuwen. plusig. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. pale . the same root which gives the designation of the blood. To Blow. to blurt out. and thence. disordered in head-dress. blady. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. a paddling in wate r. Lat.' Hamburgh Archives. blahen. Blowzy. to shine with bright From colours. — . grug. bliihen. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. . foam. Du. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. pale OFr. glas. . Pludern. to make blue. bruk. blut. pale. is confined to the — . or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. to fade. blau. and closely allied with Du. The radical sense is shown in Gael. Wtb. ' BLUE or guggling. may cite for example G. blodyn. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. ^Jam. bluh. wan. fiubbem. chatter. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. jabber. plubraich. disordered. heath. In agitation of water. in E. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. bloeden. E. boil. bldt.. flower w. glas. B. wan.nify bubble.

to lose colour. blunder. pale straw-coloured. as well as biado. Pl. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. blaf. applied to green as well as blue.— . dial. mix It. yellow. G. G. Sw. corn. plo-wy.' trouble. bloi. Dief. fawn-coloured.D. like the Celtic glas. The word is here synonymous with amplus. glundra. Bodge. Roquefort. confusion. Bluff. . The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. to fall suddenly on the ground. flav-us. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. mistake. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. blandum. a flounder. biava. to mix it up with water. Roquefort. E. pale yellow. sense of yeUow. — Pr. OFr. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. tradire to Fr. an ill-done job. And blunders on and staggers every pace. buller-bak. all representing the — . or an abrupt manner. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. from the Lat. bleu et blanc. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. liebefactor. segetes virentes. — . blunderhead. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. in water dobbelen. Blunderer or blunt worker. polterer. pale) is provincially used in the. to blunge clay. Pm. to puddle. in plur. jaune. contrasted with the dle. without image or superscription. herauspoltem or sloping shore. having a bluff forehead. blunt. blake (identical with AS. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. and Du. blunder. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. biada. a boisterous violent man. discoloured {plowiee. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. which is rendered by Florio. speech. plomp. used for the work of an unskilful performer. and then generally idle talk. Supp. tutte le semente ancora in erba. The Du. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. See Blurt. sloppy drink. fallow. Blaffart. disturb. bullern. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Halma. as well as sbiadafe.//aay. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. his business with much noise. to work To blunder out a fronto. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. blutter.in mud or water. polter-hans. from the brilliant green of the young E. verdure. abrupt. From G. to dabble Biglotton E. sbiavare. in the same way as from It'. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. — — — . one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground.make a noise. a plain coin herausplatzeu. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. has donder-bus. find accordingly It. devenir vert blavoie. Lat. G. pale. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Kil. . Kil. like Du. Then with the nasal. yellowish red. Palsgr. earth and water mixed together. See Blunt. a shore abruptly rising. and metaphorically. blahir. It is remarkable however that the E. flodderen (Weiland). to agitation of liquids. Ditton in R. to blunder water. Hence we pass to Prov. - reddish yellow. bluish. and bustle . poltern. verdoyer. to plump into the water. to fade). Dryden in R. something. to become pale. planus. blave is moreover. To blunder is then. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. A bluff manner. Flor.. trahir. a blunderbuss. Dan. ploffen. bawling. We Blunder. to confound. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Hal. to become pale or livid. and biavo (Diez). Biada. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . bulmanner. blond. superficie plani. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. a fore.• BLUFF biado. blue. blavus. je perturbe. herbe. buller-bas. puddle. Bohem. corn. biavo. Altieri. falb. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. blac. pludder. Du. bUich. Du. Pol. non rotunda. rustic. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. 't — —Hal. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. to dabble in the mud. and sbiadare. It then signifies something done at once. Blavoyer. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. The Du. G. is. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. blue. to become pale or wan. glundr. Kiittner. Romance bluiter. originally growing up turf and water. blanssen. blue. I blonder. Blunt. Analogous forms are Du. Bladum. from an imitation of the sound. Hence a Slcelton in R.

Dan. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. and the like. —D. viz. plump J to plump out with it. unwrought. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . good plump person. Halma.—D. A modification of the same root. unpolished. The syllables blot. hebes. Then cometh indevotion. duU. a blot. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Chaucer. blunt. blatte. bloss. Bluntet. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. through which a man is so blont. that it not easy to discover the connection. dial. Plump. G. wan. to blunt a thing out. naked. It. blat. silly. plonsen. stupid fellow. viz. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. blait. Dan. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. unceremonious manner. Ford in R. and. plump. blunt. It will be seen that the G. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. without Maolaich. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. rude. blutten. platz-regen. of a knife which not cut. without the nasal. without horns. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Kiittner. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blait. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. nis. seems to be derived. down.— — — . Probably radically hlekit. bare. thick. plump. with or without the nasal. to plump into the water. Sir T. insensible. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. plumbeus. edgeless.to fall into the water. rough. that the sense of bare. absence of preparation. plains The large bech. Sc. like a thing thrown down with a noise. V. — Kil. plotsen. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. plump. —D. Kiittner. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. united in Gael. bare or blunt. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. massive. raw. pointless. — — pidus. ang. . but of something soft thrown on the ground. Blaitie-bum. biotto. inactive Swiss bluntschi. pressions. and hath swiche languor in his soul. Pol. in Richardson. mit etwas heraus-platzen. as Sw. to handle a thing bluntly. Plump mit etwas umgehen. heavy. without preparation. Bare and blunt. blunt. it will be observed. G. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. used in both senses. Blunt. blue. obtusus. to make foliage. or heraus plumpen. Molof something wet. the absence of sharpness. maol. Plontp. blockish. is The word dull. to bring it suddenly out. from the loud report a fire-arm. fling down . A light blue colour. a thick and will person. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. sheepish. F.plompen. pale. Du. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. plotz. obtusus. Stalder. Won by degrees. azure. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche.pludse. Woddis. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. clownish. It is from this notion of suddenness. it will be well to point out a sense. bleak. blott. homo stolidus. V. bluntschen. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. heavy. Now the Swiss bluntsch. naked. plutz T)\i. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. blunsch. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . ineffectual reason. a portion To inquire for slaves. nature. to make a noise of such a Stalder. and in the same sense. as cow-dung. Sw. dull. naked. to plump down. poor Sc. bald. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. platzen. blunder. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. figuratively. bus. The blait body. clumsy. awkwardly. bare. and an unintelligent. dull. or blab out a thing Kiittner . biosso. blunt. exactly corresponding to the G. More in Richardson. plump. Swab. naked. identical with E. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. a simpleton. a bluntie. inaKil. . rudely. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Q. void. forestis. blout. Sc. fooUsh. awkward. unfledged Sw. V. blotta sanningen. — blunt. to blurt. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. is thrown. heavy. as in E. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy.

e. a blow . For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. Sverris Saga. boa. burra. AS. Gael. blaste?i. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bleuster. a blot. to make mouths. Related to blutter. botte. common. ever-swin. an end or stump. a mistiness. rude. to dabble. G. rude. to blaze. To Blurt. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. and the latch . mire. a tassel. The elision of the d is very to chatter. puffen. to blow. to blur. pfludern. and swimmeth very well. bot. to smear. 1. pluddre. gabble Sw. both used in the sense of boasting. Hal. BOB 79 — To Blur. blot.v. Bav. Gael. Sc. to chatter. skin. a border. lindwurm. AS. Pull the bobbin. the sound of a blow poffen. splurt and spirt. stellio. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. blaere. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. ader. edge. fringe. — — . bladdra. See Blossom. to say bluntly. pludern. primarily signify loud noise. Wtb. AS. a small lump.— . crack made by bursting open. Comp. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet.y. voce intonare. and E. Lat. bausen. V. then applied to indistinct vision . to glow . i. a flurt with one's fingers. As the as. To move quickly up and down. to threaten. a blotch. geplerr. 29. a short thick body. chicchere. lacerta. . Du. blurra. dull. — — — * Boast.pusten. Boa. the Brem. Board. table. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. cluster. to bark.D. margin. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. large. To brag and to crack. and Du. plump. Fr. to blurt out. edge. flat. is formed Du. Swiss blodern. — From mouth. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. boistous. w. G. It. Schmeller. border. to brag grande loqui. be a crack or loud sound. this root are formed Sc. ON. dial. berd. Fl. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. to spurt out. bobine. bludder. or bog also thread. blader. to snuff. violent G. to disfigure with E. a club foot . It. planks or boards. it implies that it is empty sound. Blush. cocodrUlus. a dangling object. Wallace. an ear of corn. &c. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. to make a noise in boiling. P. to dirty. to roar. gabble. or blurt with one's mouth. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. bustuous. violent. Du. bdd. margin. to endeavour to terrify. bdtr.plodem. E. Hal. eafor.' — Red Riding-hood. 9396. boot. to give a crack. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. an edge. to crying. eber. a grows to a great bigness. . bur. my dear. to dangle. pustern. 274. c. bateau. bliise. to be out of temper. to make a noise with the mouth. a tassel. stupid. to puff. Kil. blubber. Pl. boord. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. blur. Du. to breke. bot-voet. See Boisterous. De Boat. bluther. a torch blusse. OE. — To Bob. 156. to blush. to talk quick and indistinctly . Bot zeggen. pof. bord. Dan. bdta. baban. Du. baiag. Boost is used for the boast. bora. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. as in Du. bit. bhis. beacon fire.—Bobbin.plerr. whence bob. beer. a board or plank. . blunt. bluter. to guggle. margin. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. short pieces of any filthy mud. to sound like water boiling. or backwards and forwards. . a baU of thread the mud. — ' Dief. whence bordvidr. To splirt. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. planks raised up outside the roofs. — a blaze. Du. a smear. blasen and See Burr. bakke bleustern. board. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. BLUR Boar. Fl. bludder. To tinct. acre. dial. to puff. like the parapets (viggyrdil. table. blaustem. Supp. bar. pausten. imitated by has also In like . A large snake. and boisterous. will fly up. a Jam. and when applied to vaunting language. bord. ground. puddle. of the word seems . to blubber. G. to render indisbhir. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Bluster. properly noisy. blarra. as splurt to splutter. to bounce. to jabber. bord. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. E. borrar. blast. batello. Sc. Halma. Wright's ed. swagger. Slur. to blore. blusse i ansigtet. outward edge. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. boccheggiare. blot. Du. blirt of greeting. aper. Explained by Jam. cheeks glow. Du. bobbin. to puff. sudden. It. a mist before the eyes plerren. on. strong. To blow in puffs. hot. Boa. The to radical meaning D. a burst of tears. blotch and botch. brett. blodern. . a. to rumble. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. literally edge-wood. blosken. a bladder . manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the.the syllable bot. coarse. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. Fr. 'Ba. blose. blaffen and baffen.

nodding. body of a shirt bol. . is identical with Fr. AS. Body. bogadh. to dabble or paddle. dies. 3. bole. bod. to stir. Banff. * To Boggle. Ptg. from fitting close to the body. patsche. Russ. point. . to scruple. Gl. Bodkin. or a pair of bodies. speak of the barrel of a horse. To Bode. '£. See Baber-lipped. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. AS. gagoula. bodi. bodig. nave of a wheel. to roll. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. bodene. . quakmg. Ir. round. rounded. . Commonly explained as if from Sc. Shakespear has badged with blood. bayonet . by the syllable patsch. to be unsteady tich. woman's stays. unsteady. mud. biodeachan. to fail. To portend good or bad. potig. corset. a spur. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. bod. Supp. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. as a horn. stitch. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. expression hogglin an bogglin. . to deliver a message. boftich. — 2. French bouter. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. See Bid. bodhag. boll. where bogs form Gael. to bob. anything protuberant. barrique. bodetz. thrust with something pointed.a (i\ia. is a lump. Bohem. exhibit another modification of the root. to prick. to make. waving. And waves. Gael. a quagsoft. to commit a blunder. Lap. a body. bothog. body and G. a dagger. to smack. daubed or dabbled with blood. anything soft. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. potacha. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . toss. an awl. e. bodak. a ghost . corset from corps. . the boss of a buckler. corpset. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. gebod. the thick part of anything. to waver. gogach. To mock. to butt. Bret.\\i\c\iset. move. Gael. then from the yielding. gago. fickle . a . potacha. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. quagmire). It introduced from Ireland. We . bogadaich. a prick. needle. See To Botch. goggle. — Grandg. ^Jam. Reliq Antiq. Thy i. cask bottich.gmh:t. to make a mow at. the belly. shaking . to stammer. precept. bagges. Ptg. busti. the body. — H. belly. bog. to be uncertain what to do. W.. whence paUchen. To Bodge. bodies. as signifying anything spherical or round.' A — Sherwood's Diet. Wall. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. stuttering. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. moving backwards and forwards. swelling. barriga. and the word is well explained by Bailey. badyti.! . as in stammering or staggering.hollow. and E. So BOB To Bob. the stem of a tree . bob. With With this we charged again We bodged again. stutter gogmire. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. gog. biodag. Schmel. To make bad work. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. bodian. gog in gog-mire. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. a cask. formerly bodies. Bog. bog (equivalent to E. a puddle. calf of the leg. to thrust. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bayonet. a prickle. pall. bottig. baboyer. or stem of a tree. bodat. gagei. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. — as well as the body of an animal. In like manner E. so large a feature in the country. corpses pot. bogle. agitate. bodi. of which the E. . moist mire. a round body both. a messenger . to bodge. an announcement. or bag. to fail. stumpy. Bodice. The Sp.rabodi. palleg. bodilo. the body of a shift gaguejar. bogach. bo tich.' Bogglie. Miracle-plays. Cot.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. strike with the horns. Crist. message boda. whence Fr. Gael. a bog or morass. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. bog. . potahha. to blurt a thing out. ON. a cask. bot. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bodnu. butt. wavering. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. Lith. shake. . to start start and back as from a bugbear. BOGGLE trunk and G. bolr. a sting . 43. to stick. unsteady. a command. bogan. Now unskilful action is conmire. VI. the trunk of the animal body. meaning the round part of his body. arise E. bottich are derivatives. The signification of the root bot. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. to push with the horns. gag.

G. a bump. The bob. gerade signifies straight to the mark.— — . . the husk of nuts. bol. Fr. strong. bolc'h. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. stameln vel bochken. bolzen. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. wag. Fr. Westerwald bollern. Sc. Du. . OG. to boil. Magy. boutpijl. to puff. bouil. bolt upright. beule. tar. bout. insolent baude. excellent. tomentum. to stagger. intrepid. Sw. G. The term applies in — — impressed . which are not used for a similar purpose. chatter. is probably a modification of boll. biiilen. G. G. . balder. boystousnesse. dint in a metal vessel. rough. capitellum. Boil. Chaucer. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. stutSw. Daring. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. perpendicular. ON. Cot. Properly noisy. tartle. bochken (titubare. ohg. as. boil . and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bulr. to hesitate from doubt. w. bold. roydeur. pustule. puilen. boly. and then applied to other husks. bolla. bul. bolster. bagaji. prince. as. the lir. to give a hoUow sound. bald. b^gayer. — 6 . E. bullire. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. belc'hj. flax-boU. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. ON. by which it is moved to and fro. impetuosity. OHG. merry. pusten. the. Kit. bolt. bola. A. to swell. * Boisterous. animal as distinguished from the limbs. a quaking mire.rounded part of the body. tulum. used. 304). in speaking. coarse. a swelling in ice. Boll. strong. then violent. a boil or swelling Du. Sp. pillow. polc'h. 1430 in Deutsch.D. warlike. bula. buile. treated under Bowl. bealder. The round stem of a tree. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. bulla. scruple. tartalear. bulla. the body . Goth. Lat. bolzBold. properly represent belly. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . globular bod)'. ON. i. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. folliculus grani. see Boast. stud. See Bulk. caput scapulse. To Bolter. hollow. (of Mons) b^guer. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. 374. It. buller. styffe or rude . . puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. ballr. to tattle.. a head .— D. Bret. chaff of corn siliqua. swelling. also a blister. to stammer. Pm. bold. Lat. boggle. Du. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . glass phial. bSlstr. to be prominent. courageous. bollen (Kil. he will speak out. Bustuous. Kil. bol. — — which the cushion is stuffed. a bubble. courageous. up of bubbles. Stalder. obex. boll. Me doth awate.Du. Lap. In the same way Sc. ON. to waver or hesitate. may be identified with It. in the sense of handsome . Bole. bald. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. notes. Da. furfures. trunk of a tree . but that Bolt. Swab. bold. as those of nuts. or the like. bog. Test. To Boil. as E. cows the people from speaking. boss. poppy (Bailey).' Mrs Baker. Du. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. 45. Chaucer seems Dan. bul. ^Boistous. bolleken. fiausten. puile. brave. hero. Boystous. free. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. repagulum. cheerful. Wall. strong. capiing into a cavity. bolle. from Du. * Bolster. Du. Love. a bubble. proud. the gurgling sound of water rush. Mund. gluma. tartajear. swelling. noise. to stumble. to be at a loss a shirt. bol. — ' — tagliare. a fastening for a door. a bakazikni. ^Vocab. to stammer. sels of flax. quick. V.). haughty. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. This iv. whence bulla. pimple ON. Pr. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. bald. the body of a man or of ter.w. stramenta. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. round the first instance to the materials with . bag or bog are derived Piedm. bog. bola.palleg. a bubble. bal. bout is explained by Kil. huge. Fr. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. baud. shake. bolster. blow. Gael. from the branches. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. to the belly as the or dislike. confident. a cushion. balldr. bok. pall. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. E. and manace for to de. bolr. hakogni. bhster. bolstar. as baltha. For bost or boist in the sense of crack.

. cruddle. a rattle. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. a clap of thunnences. Du. In the next place. lumpy. hulter de bulter. tling or crashing noise. to become lumpy. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. projecting eyes pul. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. barutela. to bolt meal barutel. . representing a rat. bolzaugen. The ulti. bolt. or the like. tumultuari. bolt head is a retort. as of a trumpet. croler. It. fied bot. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Mid. buUire. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. bulk or quantity .Lat. die treppe pressed. as above explained. Pm.u. rugged. Champagne burtcau. to come rattling downstairs. Sw. to start with palpitate. staff which sounds tar. bulla. to coagulate. OFr. projections. Bulte-pook or bulstar. to bolt flour burato. to knock. Supp. to bolt meal barutel.— . / is transposed in Fr. a bolter or implement for bolting. or a racer from the course. bullern. . sestuare. to shake. hammer.D. bulk. OFr. Wtb. Bav. hole. btilt. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig.) E. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. hammer. to bolter. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. taratantarum. a clod. And as the agitation of cream in . beluter. pull. gebolder. to spring forth E. also to curdle. hump-backed (to be compared A ' .On the same principle. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. to clack. Schiitze. from G. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. poltern.protuberance. by the representation of a racketing sound. and the Thus from So. Fr. to make a knocking. a sod (Schiitze). tuft.). to E. ' — — ! ! : — .D.by forms like G. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. buretter{CQ\. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. mole-hill. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. a . Prov. bultig. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. hulch. . as snow balling on a horse's foot. Hence Palsgr. baruta. we have Du. with E. a millpoltzet augen. blotttre. the wheels groaned. holier poller. to start out. G.D. crotlar. a rattling carriage. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. on the one hand. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. curdle. kloteren. protuberance. . bolzen. ex•wagen. bulio. taratarrum. boss.). burclct. OFr. On this account Mid. hump. taraabout. crash. buletel. cro. grasbulten.through a cloth of loose texture. or ill. — — — . pattern. So also we pass from Lat. je bulte. buideln. small heap. in S'W plotter. as Fr. Pr. Lang. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. we der Brocket). I boulte meale in a boulter. uneven. budeln daz mele .as the essential element signifying the talum. then to knock. clump. a small portion. zen.agitation of the meal in the bolter.thump or blow. barutela. ' Holler poller / bulter. Dan. barutare. crod. . poltern. a clod cloth. as a rabbit from its baritel. jolting.noise {brattle of thunner. tantara. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. bluter. loud and fast. Pl. bultred. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. Pl. Dauphiny a sudden movement. a round glass ending — bultig. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. a rattling noise and a jolting motion.i5a//^«. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. Hence. zare. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. to talk pulzen. 2. beliitea. Sanders. . P1. Brem. knob. buletare.. we see that the one consists of a words. to form lumps. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. swelling. Lat. ler. one after the other. we pass to Du. Here the radical image is the violent O. and to crash. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. a bunch. tar. to agitate. agitari (Kil. abolter.D. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. a bolter Prov. a club-foot. a crashing or racketing noise. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau.clack. rugged. racket gepolter. to significance of the term was overlooked. brattle.fe/2?. bolting to that of form. bolzauget) Sp. vessel with narrow opening.nature of the operation. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Du. MHG. : ' — — . .. a clump of turf. bulstrig. poll. bolt-foot. uneven. pultare. bortelen. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. the sense of right on end. have Lat. The ment and the operation.

Antiq. to bind G. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. a stem or base. In E. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. raw silk. i. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. and Bond. — Bombard. Gascoi^e in R. It. silk-worm. gossipium. bauniwolle. Butterglas. butteln. as Banbury. ^o/j. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . It. baum-bast. PoUitriduare. ties. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. Bomb. Dan.Su?. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. a stock. the contracted form of Du. and that from Fr. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. boulenger. buidelen. agreement. In legal language. assuming the of leg : special signification W. 155. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. a hollow sound. Mid.D. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Fr. again. must be explained Fr. It. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. From builen. bombast. bombarda. burato. thick. . bambagino. OE. bambagioj whence It. bombasin. builen. sijde. bambacium. Moreover. beuteln. a beacon. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bwmbwr. band pi. has repeatedly varied. . cotton. to beat a drum. . bindan. bonog. Schm. stump. to thump W. Fl. to resound. bombase. a boulter of meal. the leg. bombdra.bast. the silk-worm. and Du. whence bomme. to bolt meal. bunden. Du. breast-bone. bommen. a churn for butter. iuttern. bulter from It. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bommer. however. bein. G. Near 6 * . produced the Pl. — having a stem or stalk. bombice. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. tree.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. beil'n. are applied to BONFIRE Bom.). a bone in general. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. thick-legged. d. cotton stuff. e. bond. Castrais barato. borel. &c. we speak of a gun to resound. a string. bombe. buidelen. booming over the water. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. Du. G. . an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. banitola (Fl. bolting-cloth. to shake (as to shake the head. It. crook-shanked bondew. E. When ture. stuff. sije. also thick-shanked. rimbombare. bonfras. Bone. as in .Lat. butteln. q. Dan. bonds. from teu. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. a word of which we have traces in several English names. The material called by this name. and in fact we find the and Du. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. a ligature. tie. band. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. Need you any ink and bonibase. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. achsel bein. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. a —Bombasine. tie. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. and Mod. a baker. to shake down fruit from a tree. silk. basin. Bibelesworth in Nat. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. to boult meal. coarse. barate. to which the leg. . bongam. bande. been. an implement of binding. tiffany. bras. bone of the . brust-bein. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. 83 Gr. or trunk word in W. Banstead. bombasine. ODu. beuteln. . — bombast came guage. sye. HoUybandin R. bombicina. lana lignea. derivation. and called in Mid. It. — AS. to shake. a thundering noise bomre. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bomba. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. It. from boom.^Altieri. Kil. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. to thunder. is supported by the analogy of G. the shank the shoulder-bone. the Fr. to ring bells. band. buttel trueb (of liquids). bon. . Fr. to cast to and fro. As cotton was used for padding clothes. a drum bombammen. G. baun. Bonfire. biire. bopin.) . bureau. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Du. gunpowder. sericum arboreum. and also the leg. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. the murmuring of the sea. bwmbwry mar. bureau. term is appropriated in G. thick from shaking.

boten-shoen. a scribe G. build. botte. remedy of evil. bd. bommen. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. boo. Thin ben Luke i. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. 13. b&ber. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. babau. boandi. the mouth. From bo. See Butt. Goth. A peasant. bene. whence ban-ffagl. a good turn or re- meaning. bobo ! interj. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. or Vanns. from Du. \ais-band. wondering signifies not only straw. from gape. Wall. babb^o. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. boutig. Book. head-dress wai^g. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Gl. Fr. build. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. bAkva. dog-kennel. help. bua. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. boubi^. E. The latter is the original AS. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Fr. succour Bailey. — — . Build. bds. bobo. . bauer. badaud. the name of the letter b. a vessel for holding liquids. booby. Hal. Thus from the syllable ba. a lying-place for dogs or swine. G. nachbar. and thence Rouchi baia. to strew with straw. tall. b'ukvdry. to yawn. desire. bote. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. is Du. netis stall. AS. countryman. Boot. beiSne. The i. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. bdn. a letter Russ. bota. Fr. are formed Fr. to gape. blockhead. ganian. . Kil. dress. OSlav. * Boose. Prov. buandi. to ask. as the Brecknockshire Banns. chaff. . Booby. lofty. to gape. a lofty blaze. a silly fellow. buch-stab. ON. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. busu. . relief from sorrow. Du. betere thing werse. boom. the cultivator. although in the OG. gawney. Trans. pig-sty. — . foolish. to dress. Mrs Baker. and Gael. and Ban in w. boutig. — Bailey. ON. gehyred. dolt. ON. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. dress. the alphabet. and from AS. bonad. bua. bos. bonaid.. See Bomb. Mrs Baker explains bun. Perhaps. In nautical language. bossen. a letter . . literally cow-house. The character of folly is i860. To Boot. without ad- . But bosg. and fig. to aid. tigh. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. E. a. It is commonly explained as identical with It. bosig.^ —P. bid). to litter bosu. baier. where a cross (or a gun. house. often cut for burning and lighting fires. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. OW. dial. boa. bose. bas. set in order. . Pr. in w. remnants of hay or straw. a head-dress. the scriptures bokareis. Pm. beam. simpleton. till. in Phil. a simpleton. the stubble of beans. Bonnet. by arbitours sholde bote the P. to set in order. . till. quest. inhabit. which one gaping and staring about. feu de behourdis. gaby. Boon. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. of wonder On the same principle Sp.—Bootless. botte. writing bokos. Hal. a stall. to prepare. The origin of the word is probably the W. A favour. N. p. from beida (E. ben. w. Du. Sp. Bun. Basa. . Swab. Hufwud-bonad. pole. . comes bondi. gaping hoyden — Cot. been. See Bown. swinbusa. bauen. Busk. wall hangings. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. ty Gael. stabulum. Boot of bale. letter. short boots. AS. the possessor of the farm. pero. to cultivate. Bootless. bowwen. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. bonad. inhabit. however. a bonfire. a bag of skin or leather. Fr. but stall. petition. biikui. ass. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. also called Brecknock Beacons. signifying beech. boia.n. Schm. G. bolt. by itself for head-dress.Boos. Binau Brychyniog. Ox. to cultivate. prayer. ON. A stall for cattle. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Palsgr. hu?idbusa. the first consonant of the alphabet. Boor. a. Jr. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. botta. dial. G. litter. a dry stalk.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. a tree. a hollow skin. It. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. as a lying-place for cattle. one who dwells nigh. — From the participle present. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Boom. tapestry. high. from badare. Bonnefyre. master of the house. Gael. petition. Kil. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. . prayer. — e. clown. babin. boer. at everything. 232. Du. b^er. boubair. — To boot. fool. reparation. bosih. bonnet.

and thence to eat build. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. Lat. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. Booty. a word. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. See Bower. a hut. uzboro. a sharp-pointed tooth. exchange or divide. to expiate boeten den dorst. Booth. botjan. abode. bdra. ON. to divide. ora. butin is explained by Flor. a chisel. yfirbdt. cottage. purro. margin. from bord.. bolino.par. swell bara. both. See Burgeon. are derived from G. terebra sculptoria purastoa. bord. Bete. . pu purro (saha =: saw . piercer. terebro. G. . N. amendment. puras. is purin. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. ON. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. to pierce. budka. sharp. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. or anything pointed. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist.. to profit. as afford a satisfactory explanation. It. scsdes-bod. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. or the gradual working a hole in anything. a borer . repair. bothan. welt. bata. biorag. Fin. wine-skin. to build. 1. It is admitted that Fr. baete. Fr. Palsgr. • — To Bore. puras. reparation. a border. sculpo 05\xiik. bottino. a bladder. fimbria. Another derivation from Fin. edge. hut. pointed. bower. bdt. to importune. But probably the E. struere ignem. to swell. to The Sw. . bordi. betan fyr. borracha. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. purra. scalpo. which are probably from the same root. to hut. boete. bite. kvit-bara. bothag. . sawroot. fire. from deila and skipta. a borer. limbus. to foam. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. rof. . dust. bauda. furd. See To We speak in E. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. a wave. a shop. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Alexand. ON. puru. to repair. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. to mend. remedy. purra. cure Sw. Fin. an engraver's chisel. p. forare. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. to quench one's thirst . to bete the properly to mend the fire. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. a cupboard. pi. 266. recovery bata. nor E. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. bud. 3. Pol. Border. to restore. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. bauen. to profit Goth. Du. In the Fin. borracha.por. wave. to anything Neither G. furni. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. are parret. . the . chisel. and parrets. Compare Manx birrag. extremitas Bore. boeye. a shop budowati. Sp. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. better. bardure. beute. limbus. BOOTH vantage. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. mat-bod. amendment boeten. a. Fr. It.—Burin. Burke in R. aid. Du. in Ihre. urboro. dens mordens vel caninus. a tusk. . The Fin. tent. OSw. A phorically a drunkard. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. batr. Gael. lappalare. and E.— Return from Parnassus I inR. . a great bur. budowai. admovere titiones.. hem or gard of a garment. bora. boeten het vier. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. to boot. boede. to bite. — ON. to bore. boards. a bothy. Gael. . to bite. cup- awl. a borer. a booth or shed. lappolone. Magy. barn. making good again . baara. OHG. a responding forms . borino. And so in ON. Fin. Bohem. to build buda. The as G. puru. to surge. butin. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. and meta- Fr. cellar. to to . comminuted by either kind of action. bohren. a leather bag or bottle for wine. byte points to the verb byta. of an edge that will not bite. Esthon. chewed food for infants. differs only in termination. Fl. burin. make . drillen. to stick unto as a bur. in Lap. a shelter of branches. on. AS. a granary . The ON. from borra. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). To Bore. The cor. and hence to fine. BoracMo. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. a hut or tent. a shed. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. to patch. Gael. to . Mag. Kil. &c. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Esthon.

butsen.ribs and the side. bail biirgen. borei. surety. or perhaps also To Borrow. the N. to save. a little blow.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. vain. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. burgess. in the body struck. to save. Boreal. ' — — . bos. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. boussi. poor. northern. head. busse. burh. boss sound. bosh. rustic. whence the burg. knob. beorgan. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. boschen. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. Hal. and borough in the sense of a town. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas.any round sweUing. — ' wind burya. projection. a wen. bergen. bunch. Gr. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. Bailey. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. empty. cob. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. rude. without. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. bos. bom. a giving rise to It. into borsholder. f graauw. ON. The other. bundle. bump. &c. a citizen. bump is used in lump or piece. a bouncing baby . bosse. as if from the verb to hold. to take in. undyed wool of brown sheep. basse. connected. bierge. Botany. borealis. the ordinary a swelling. V. bourg. bussa coarse. from their grey clothing. pitch. Russ. of bail throughout the country. Fr. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Jam.' or system of bail. (Bridel). hollow. borel. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . nonsense. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East.mass. the sun sets. Du.' the chief of the ' borh. bossen. cormpted. a herb. Du. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Hence borhes ealdor. to conceal. was origin of the term is the OFr. ^o^^flj. plain rude fellow. cnap. is used in the sense of bussare. the must have arisen burgensis. storm. pegou. bourgeois. botch. Altieri. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. to strike so as to Bureau. tive idea seems to bring under cover. to protect. G. AS. borh. bosseu. and thus could not shake off the old burr. striking. The origin seems to be the Goth. (1867). clownish. boss of the side. that which biirge.' every man be under bail. botsen. the North Wind. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. when that system was forgotten. a bunch or hump. while Gael. huschen. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. borough or chief constable. empty. empty. cnag signifies both a clergy. a knob. or head-borough. a boor. less. beorgan. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. Borrow. 106. Lang. to pick or cull plants. Sc. to knock or strike. plant.. D. borg. gesylle. Bosh. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Hence knot. a blow. an eminence. pego. Newbury. destitute. a citizen. ^ma. in instead of without. a pushing or striking out. primarily signifying coarse sound . Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. grey). to give bail or answer for an.bucklers. ' pledge. bttssel. Swiss Rom. to save Sw. secure. . AS. which now signifies a knob. the hollow between the Borsholder. The primi. knock and a knob . knur. loan. knocking. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. or perhaps it may be See Bury. a tower. And that unsittynge is to here degre. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. by which of or belonging to plants. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns.' Vegetius in Diez. AS. Borowholder. a surety. borough-holder. one who sticks to you like a bore. Turk. poor. i. Jam. byrig.' if thou give money on loan. to give a hollow bizo. I. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. borg. tuft. Bunch. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. to strike . boss or knob of a buckler . or because a blow berga. brown cloth. . — — — A — . cnoc. useCanterbury. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. It. is probably radically Boss. to keep. from AS. to protect. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. whether from the fact preserve G. to contain. gum vocant. Cot. E. . but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. Fr. bussi. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Borough. viipyoc. unpolished. tempest.vr\. the Sc. boss. . borgo. boss. a. botse. See found in Bav. /3oraMK6f. borgese. as we speak of a thumping potato. agrees with E. a city . butse. Fr. So Du. coarse cloth made of the Du. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. hollow bucklers. burel. blow on a hollow object. a boss. baurgs. Goth. Bos a surety. Lat. In like manner It. botch. It.

patch. knock. boiteag. botch. is boteau. Diez. — Jidwi. And so we speak of an eruption. bulder. e. a depth. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . pimple. blow. ing out. to knock. pother. On — Du. turmoil. It. Here the radical image seems a bubble. podge. Fl. . OSax. botte. a cobbler. to from the root bot. Fr. buddl. the bud of a flower . whisper. signify a in OE. btitse. blain. G. bunch. ubhau. — — . . botola. — Fl. a patch patschen. buddeln. Gael. ON. Dan. Gael. Fl. from the dashing of water. dim. &c. bot. stroke. and E. gipuozan. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Bouteille. a pock. Decorde. A — oba-dwaj Lat. bozza. maggots in barley. butse. ' G. boden . — . Lith. we have Swiss batscken. noise. AS. a bunch. disturbance to . w. to stir and mix together. Mudu. . bodem. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. Lat. you two. ambo.) . — — belly-worm. — Bottom. both. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. mess. as Fr. to bcBta. Ancren Riwle. beggtaj Goth. Kil. ^kvBoQ. * To Bother. an abyss or bottoniless pit. mend. any plain round viol glass bozzo. stock. Both. bots. bosser. bdt. bund. putra. nets. To Botch. N. biissen. however. corresponding to . — . abbu. a botcher of shoes. puddle. batschen. to mend. Hal. empty or hollow. bulderen. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. to stir and mix together . Botcli. stump. — — A 2. mutter. for a bud. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. a boil or swelling Halma. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Fr. On the other hand. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. gen. to make better. a bubble. Pl.^Dec. j3i/9os. bAdtr. — duj Lett. botse. buideal. to froth as beer . bottom. Bottle. abbi-diwij Slavon. and ajSvamg. ixorapudder. to give a sounding blow. to fall : with a sound batsch. a lump of somebatschen. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a slop. BOTCH understood). boccia. to mend (kettles. schuhbosser. kessel-biisser. a root. botn. buazen.' to the fiery Csedm. 212. AS. a slop. H^cart. potra. Butu. pocciar. a bottle of hay. From the dim. Du. To confuse with noise. boil. to make a make a noise. a humpback. poltern. pozzo. to dip in liquid (to Gael. Podge. repara- — — See To Bete. botel foenn. a. a cesspool pass. Wedu. to rage. • Bott. boitean. dabble). Si quis burgbotam sive projection. bossu. Stalder. hurly-burly. a cask. See Bound. A horses. stock. botus. a bottle. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. . ba. boute. See Boss. the science or knowledge of plants. butsen. especially in Gael. bouteille. House-bote. AS. E. Judwi. Bailey. tumour. Danneil. fundus. bide. Bret. to work without order or know. botel. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. ledge It. we two. It. or plague sore . Lith. in the sense of mend the fire. as a push or windgaU. whence the name ol pool to podge. butwo. bun. oba. Boa two. the lowest part. to smack. It. A bottom depth. to botch or patch. Fyre to botme.of a ball of thread. I. was called a push. buts. contusion . of botta. bethia. is also a bubble.— Hal. a cess. bSn. boss. i. a pit. to dash about . botm. fire-bote. Parmesan poccia. Jtidu. . bozza. what pushes outwards. to podge. dial. noise. a plague-boil Kil. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. to strike . a bundle of straw or hay. a tinker schuhbiisser. they two. See Butt. blister. pozzanghera. round lump. — Dief. to we have OHG. a bott . . the other hand. Canut. stem or base. disturbance. an imperfect and bunbutt end. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. ON. bluster. scuohbuzere. abyss. a maggot. bativa. to put on a patch. the first rough draught 2. a vessel for holding liquids. gling piece of work. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Bochu. a bottle. burgi vel pontis refectionem. G. abbution. thing soft batsch. ON. bile.D. Again. Du. bundle. a waterfall. baiothsj Sanscr. mess.foundation.ments of the same root. to simmer. boiteal. Bouds. bdsser. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. Hal. botte. See To Bodge. &c. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. botsen. by met. botte. a knock. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e.— Swift in R. a wisp. a pit. shoes. abbi. Leg. a bump or swelling.— . . The Gr. bottigUa. Prov.

an occasion. ni motz brugir. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. a large pebble. The Bight of Benin. bonndn. Primarily to strike. Fr. To Bound. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. E. he fell so that it sounded. Bound. an de dor bunsen. and Prov. till The dat et bunsede. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. Pr. Du. 2. Brem. bunda. baby. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. a bouncing apple. whence buj7isen. debodinare. a round body both. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. thumping. 136. 3. The W. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. botwm. Pm. gulf. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. see Boss. dial. bolder.— F. To Boult. Bough-pot.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Fr. bonzen. — No i ausiratz parlar. Boulderstone. jungen. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . boh. mcn-bomi.— Boundary. frequently used in the same sense with bound.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. a bud. to thunder. to spring. knock it sounds again.D. round. — — leap. Q. . boss of a buckler. to knock. to turn. buUersten. bouton. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. the hollow of a bay. bone. Halma. boujtce. bounbounejha. Ni gacha cor bondir. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. a boundary stone (men stone). a blow. a turn or time. ing. carpet. bullra. I assure you. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. bons. bugan. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. . — — Bight. and F. ni frestelar. butina. language a * Boulder. by Bujns or Buns. to hum.— — — - 88 BOUGH .' round and round in similar circles. a blister.' B. march. as that of E. bondir. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. And the new stools set out. a button. to bow. Coxcomb. Bout. limit. to set bounds. its kind. See Bunch. in the absence of actual e. Ducange. Wtb. has hot. the larger kind of pebbles. Dan. Bough. to set out by metes and bounds. to thundering big one hum. to make a loud noise. Webster. strapping. from bugan. Raynouard. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. So It. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bugt. Bought. bumper. tnndo. Bunche. to knock at the door. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. To Bounce. A Langued.— Cot. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. winding. boriie. as a bout of fair or foul weather. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word.>a bout. a bound. Probably from the Celtic root bon. See To Bolt. like bobbin. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . bend. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. of thread. From Sw. bay. the verb bondir in OFr. bodina. signifies a sliort thick mass.'— Charter of K. — Take care my house be handsome. to resound. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. signifying in nautical coil of rope. p.. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. a stock. . geration. contusi. bend. from volgere. bunsen. Bodinare. nave of a wheel bothel. the bay of Benin. boundina. volta. in contrast to klappersten. Mid. bamsen. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. bun. came home with his face all to-bounced. from AS. Bonny. a large stone rounded by the action of water. The branch of a tree. the smaller ones. pimple Richards bothog. — strike. as a nosegay. to fix limits. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Bret. dial. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. bog. Nor a centinel whistle. to spring. jump. Sw. iv. turn. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. pothel. nor horn sound. Fr. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. or Bow-pot. root (see Bottom)." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. Bowlder. AS. bottom. Alpine Re- — gions. bonna. mere. a boss.

Sc. drunken. bordo. in Fr. explaining Sw. A —Cot. purra. So Sc. staff. also the humming or ON. ^<7r«i?. to tope. Gael. pusta. a sing-song. are applied to the bow of a ship. Dan. cudgel. prepared for. language of folly or ridicule. Fr. cheat. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. a prop. shoulder-blade. buyse. to indulge in his cups . firm. the fixed. Burden. Du. . brausen. buzzing of bees. a.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. and that probably from a Celtic root. As the Gael. a. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. mockery. A water. trick. buigen. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bwa. deceit. The foregoing derivation seems. Bourd. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. Bourdon. drone of a bagpipe. Du. Spenser in R. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. when we speak of. ing. bending. Sw. G. biugan. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. set out. Eown. a jibe. — probably through this latter signification. to tipple. bound. bugna. the Bourdon. spring. ready to pike or spear . Du. bending of a joint knie-bug. to take one in. a from Du. ridicule buirte. — — . bugna. to our bous. Gael. to hum. brummen. Bourdon. g. Sw. an arch. bourde in the same sense. a for New York. whether by sound or gesticulation. to take breath. flagon. And there in mourning spend Sw. . a well. souf. Immediately from Fr. sotich. kroes. drink deep. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn.. joke. grumble Sw. bogen. bog. bdgi. . head Fr. to trick. . bugne. to drink deep. identical with E. to pre2. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. pot. or of an Gael. on the whole. buga. G. bogna. buzz. bog. limit. warbling. burt. tinton. bordone. sausen. belly out. taunt. a humming noise. beygja. to bow or incline the . Prov. of the ON. way ba7n. Bounty. w. bend. purlBav. addressed to. bogr. to mutter. bontS. biegen. Swiss bausen. the big end of a club. to draw a deep breath. curvature. the ting of a bell. Sw. burdan. fun of one . . i. repartee. spelling the word iox bound. to draw a deep breath. bovne. ready. puff out. When used alone it . verb bua. bend Sw. as was for. — — — A pare. is. bagna. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Chaucer in R. pared. to drink deep. Fr. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. schulter-bug. their time -With "wailful tunes. bommen. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. hence musical accompaniment. bonus. game. Dan. patesten. that ON. jest. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. to take deep draughts. crutch. Cot. to hum as a bee. a drone of a bagpipe. Borden. Gael. a go to. beogan. bogha. steady. brunna. Goth. the shoulder of the vessel. bov. Dan. Dan. Bound. bonitas. Bret. AS. bourd. Gael. It is the participle past buinn. bage. has also buirleadh. . saufen. The meaning of bound. the burden of a song. a mill-post. different modification gives ON. btiga. Lat. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good .bass of a stringed instrument. bordon. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. It is remarkable that we find vary. Gael. lance. bending. bugan. borne. bunaiteach. pre. a pot. hous^ Man in the Moon. pausen. sport. epaule du vaisseau. to swell. from spring. a corToward the garden.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. a jibe Shaw bururus. good. It. bourdon. Comp. Bow. to — Hal. bausen. a brook. must be referred to the same root. burdan. springbiirn. and not in the sense of curvature in general. G. potio. G. bug. whence buysen. a humming noise Macleod. it is probable that the It. burn. ruption of bonne. burd. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. schenkelbug. a — — . analogous to Fr. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. fresh* water. . burreti. to bow. buizen. a cup kroesen. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. to tope W. on. address. burlare. bue. to banter or laugh at. a bow. It is bov. Cot. buys.which see. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. Fr. bow to shoot with. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. sense durd. Sp. Burgeon. bourdon. Du. a drone or dor-bee. like quaff. gurgling. to bulge.

a croft by a house. a iDubble. Bret. a box. ttuJic. G. zich onder jemand under to him. to bubble up. . . beuz. anything globular. a little box . boucle. a drop of pullistaa. . AS. bukke. the bogna. prominence. pullo. bulge. Sw. bowl . bolne. . the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. boxtree pusska. folliculus . bulcken. hollow place Fr. honse-bur. bouge. G. the head. kupula. guestchamber . hiidel. bouzellou. to bow buck. in both senses. bouellou. hollow. a bubble bolli. to bend down. boxtree. a chamber swefnbur. in walking appears in a . A . bubble. busskai. signified by forms like Gael. bock. bosso. Du. OE. See MHO. at the e. . or in e. It is more probably from the G. to bulge. box. to make crooked . In like manner the Pol. a sleeping-room . lump . bubble. make obeisance. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. . buello. a box Lat. OFr. wisp of straw . W. . a stud. bocka. boel. bol. a round glass or bolg. a sack. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. passing on stud. biisse. as in E. crooked. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. ask. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. E. A Bulk. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bent. bogla.). boss. a hump on the back rossbollen. a bubble Fin. water pulli. bulla in aqua. bulk compared with Sw. belly. swoUei) Lat. ^o«/«. trestle. a ball. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. a pot. boss. ku^o. buis. inclinare se (Kil. to buckle G. and on swollen. the head. buckel.a. to stoop. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. bowels. bog. kupukka. the box-tree It. hill. Sp. beutel. bhugna. From the other form are G.cup Du. bwr. bulb of an onion bolleyield. painter's easel. of a wooden ball to play with and — . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Fr. tumour . Dan. bucka. W.. convexity. belly of a cask. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. . bhuj. Lat. . . Bowl. bow. Sw. a black pudding. buckelig gehen. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. swell. bulne. buchsbaum. the box-tree and articles made of it G. kupu. biiske. a bowl. budello. Bret. &c. tumour. Sw. bur. ON. pocket. Buckle. Boll. as well as the name of a. the crop of a bird. kuppelo. compared with Fr. as in AS. the skull or brainpan . bulla. bugyola. a parlour. puffy. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. knob From the former modification we have bolla. a polla. . budel. round glass phial. a bubble. See Boil. Du. pusspan. convex. bulka.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. a swelling or rising up. botulus. buga. utibur. is applied to a coach-box. bol. ken. a bubble.) to incline oneself . to puff up. bola. crown of a hat. buk. heafod bolla. boor. a box. dial. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. gut. bolla. . . a ball . w. round bead. a wardrobe . the box-tree. globular body. polla. belly. head of a cabbage. . PLD. . to bend. biichse. a hen-coop . bossola. and to a coachbox in particular. Thus we have Esthon. Dan. * Bowels. mausbollelein. bow. . globe or spherical body.. a protuberance. . without the and grits. buxus. iri'iaQ. a bundle. stream forth bugyogni. a thing of liquid. Hal. similar shape. Gr. different position in ODu. . the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. globular. a ball. bugna. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. an outhouse AS. bollen. blister. The / a bow. Bohem. Pol. to raise the back boll OHG. . a box. give in to. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. a bud. a buck. spherical Dan. a knot. box in both senses. bugyni. bolle. Du. ON. bog. hollow wooden case. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. cumena-bur. fyn.flask It.). acsian. the barrel of a gun. bending. an inclosure. purse.D. . See Crab. then by the loss of the /. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . buigen. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. fata-bur. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. Hence. a wine-can . to swell. a boil. (in pass . to yield to one. bolgna. to guggle.\s. spring as water bugya. . with inversion of the round. a. Fr. bowel Box. ne. Bower. busse. koziel. AS. intrenchment. The word may probably be identical with Fris. . bolla. to puff up pullakka. bwra. . bugyani. Cable. boudin. bugy. ON. Sanscr. bug. Fr. bur. peated in Magy. boil. ^o/a. or. Bav. to stoop biickling. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. biicken. a separate apartment . . horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. sausage. a box.

from a root brak. then from break. jabber. damaged board a ship. mud. — — . It. OFr. by an overflow of sea water. salsus. In like manner the It. lalear-eyed Prov. need. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . to box the ears. want. Lat. brae. ghebreck. matter. bray. braque. priated to the original sense. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brace on and Du. bitch Du. . Kil. variation of babble. con. spaniel. — . breuque. Heligoneed. armour for the arm. boussole. Prov. wristband. to give a blow with the fists. fuse. flap. pus. odorinsecus. brassard. To fight with the fists. — . See Broker. rack. compressing. . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. bragos. mud. 91 the Dan. bresta. Brack. bracke. brechen ihm. quarrel Bohem. brack. Prov. to fall. parallel with OK. bou^ba. Du. wnzC/J. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. brakke grund. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. loud smack. or defect. boy bouba. posh. Sp. babble. braquet. braecke. land batsken. Bracket. Bracelet. AS. . I sal slyng. which sigof straining. isolated part of the text. bouibo.puddle." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. let. Fr. to slap. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. G. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. defect. A to halt between two derivations. breach. brago. an languages. by the same inversion of J and k. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Swiss Rom. whelp as. V. s. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. to burst. a boy pupa.— D. Du. taneous talking. MHG. brec. the arm. land spoilt Kil. . Boy. suppuration. youth. race. beagle. bracket. La ville ou y avait Brace. ON.with a noise. Brack. rakka. brae. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. disturb. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. Prov. a sounding blow. buah. brae. to give a sounding blow defect. want. brae. fault . brageuses. brabbelen. and string of his bow. defect Du. Ptg. — . to Swiss batschen. bracon. corruptse. Sp. Water rendered boubo. Pm. root). dirty. See Brake. a box. or bracer Cot. Fr. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . baukscheht. bue. OE. acidus.D.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. to give a gebrechen. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Lett. a girl. boiste. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. It is B. strike. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Gael. It. unmarried man . brek. To brace is to draw together. &c. bracha. G. Sp. brechen. bracil. Cot. Brackish. brek. . in R. . bube. foul. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. the first instancebya physical tie. rakki. and F.. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. pupus. One girl. Thus brack. braca... a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Rouchi Then as an adj. thwack. ' — A — — — . to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. bracer. Swiss bub. A — — . brakke Bracelet. to be wanting. and then Pl. brasselet. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. in R. wrack. OFr. To Brabble. refuse. brague.D. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. to want. a crack. rakke. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. confining. Brach. — . briche. bruxula. as noticed under Box. Kil. ratch. to is derived brestr. murmur. braic. a braceOFr. a pair of braces. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . . Pl. clay. to smack the hand batschen. — . filth . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. dog in general. bask. to stutter.nated by dirt. defect. salo sive aqua marinS. flaw. break. Prov. The different meanings of the brageux. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. It. brack. a comworld Rayn. braco. Fr. Hdcart. brostia. his eyes are failing him). dog that hunts by scent. breach. baske. boy. moral or physical. Swab. flaw. On the same principle from the buksteht. merely in our mode of considering them. bracco.. BOX To Box. is a rope holding G. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. Brak-goed. Kil. a grown youth Cimbr. Fr. to stammer. mud. pube. breptati. a bog or pass Fr. Pr. . fault. s. a guard to torf. braco. A brace probis. ing from a mixture of salt. to crack. . cramp-iron holding things together . want. dog Sw. a bubbling dura del mun. ON. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame.

Thus Bret. brave. Langued. and that from e. hectoring. fine. boast. Fr. crash ON. From Fr. From brayel. subduing. brag. and it is very likely that the root brak. brails. beautiful. to make a noise. bravache. to shout. &c. braegenj Du. braszketi. strength. Chaucer.breeches. gay. brabhdair. fine. Brain. to brail up a sail. crash. Hecart. . swaggerer. Dan. is Cot. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . to boast of his own worth. braka. a noisy talkboasting. subigere. to boast or brag.—— . to crack. . power. compressing. brayete. bragd. torture . spot. To Brail. i. 92 Cot. stately. vaunting. expensive. Bret. breagh. fine. brae. Fris. Brake. blusterer. To Braid. to cord a bale of tie up. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. brachittm. A — Hal. in order to prevent its catching the wind. Lat. about the hawk's fundament. vain glory. w. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. — . bullying. in the sense of the Lat. Fr. . the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . Haldorsen Gael. se parer de beaux habits. brabhdadh. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. de Vaud. Faire le brave. flaunting. flaunt in fine clothes . crack. to swagger. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. — From W. bragging of his own valour. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . —Spenser in R. a carriage for breaking in horses . empty pride. From sprouted corn. binding anything together. braga. cry. braw. Dan. AS. braka. bravo. braicli. breyne. Sc. braies. excellent. swagger. To Brag. also tion of this was brayeul. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. is identical with Gael. bushy .explosion.hy which this idea is con\eyed. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Brail. brag or jet it braguard. brave. to strut. drawers. or from braie itself. breghen. gallant. fine. riches. See Brace. handsome. used in the sense of force. make a noise . valiant The head are sumptuous. breghe. bragio. an iron for holding Zalli. an inclosure for cattle . Cot. goods. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . . se donner trop de licence. stout. proud. bravado j Fr.i5nz^. See Bray. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. gallant (in apparel) also proud. braga.^ Sp. brag. bra!. Wallachian bratsou. splendid.^Vocab. Sp. braguer. the feathers ON. also insolenter se gerere . in numerous dialects. smart. . brave. the arm. as the type of exertion and strength. Lith. dhbrailler. The meanings included under — Bragget. Thus we are brought to the OE. braggard also valiant. ^Brave. — Chaucer. Hence E. well-dressed. se pavaner. to rattle. brao. was formed brayele. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. breach. braga. BRAG Piedm. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. noisy ostentation. . Bret. idle talk. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere.Shepherd's Cal. finery.. the opposite of which. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. boasting. slight modificajoining the two legs. courageous. brazo. to stand upon terms. bravacherie. ative fellow. Primarily to crack. Brake. The meanings of brake are very numerous. called by our braggard. to flaunt. showy bravery. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. or by gaudy dress and show.aburst.. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. . Turk bazu are used in both senses. It is certain that the word for arm is. Cot. bragaireachd. would be to brace. to Rouchi brMer. brake is. that will carry no coals. braske. It. h-avare and Fr. be found. affront. bragging. Rom. — Equivalent forms are Gael. to sprout malt.%. brave. Cot. gay. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. be noisy . bully . braver. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. to unbrace or let down the breeches. a roisterer. 2. Brag was then used brisk. The plant y^r«. gorgeous. gayly dressed. — A — . braske. Walloon bress. Bray. also derived Fr. brav. confining. vanter une chose. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. brake in the sense of constraining. brave.

to bend a bow. the lever by which the string was drawn up. In ON. a horse's a horse's twitch. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brook. and Lat. Fr. signifying to sweep. thicket. Voc. gebroge. nemus. gebrUche. gebroge. brog above mentioned. el arco. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. as in Du. tris). to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). 2. properly braking or subduing them. Brake. to brush. low wet land bruch. glebas subigere. 3. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. de Vaud. broilium. murran. a fen. is braukti. riguus. farinam in mortario subigere. brambles. brego. In the sense of a thicket. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. to The ON. Sp. Biglotton. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. or overthrow of trees by the wind. brcekke. e. t° moisten. any thicket of brakes. to row. In like manner Lat. brogille. and when once thrown down. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. break flax PLD. breaking in the operation. bush. gebiisch. to distinct. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. In the case of the ne.D. to head must be bit. bushes. referred brake. subigere. Brake. It may be sus- . a harrow. a marsh. brolium. a spinning-wheel. as in the case of horse-breaking. word. broillet. copse-wood. and G. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. Corrfeze bredgea. to bray in a mortar. brook. a stream. bregille. frangere linum. Fr. broken fratta. to rub. murrokko. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. Gael. braka. brook. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. broeck. conSo in G. in northern climates. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. to break. ing of flax or hemp. is formed murd. marsh or swamp. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. been confounded with the verb break. briers. to stiffen against Taboada). to break. breuil. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. broil. have thus Du. G. dial. break of such a kind. it is not surprising that the word has here. braquer un canon. —Bracken. to exert force in different ways. to fracture. briser. the original meaning of G. broyer. to break or fracture. fratto. — — . OFr. brog.' It. bush. bredza. marsh. which originally designated a broken mass of wood.— . Dan. Prov. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. P&. Gr. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. tnurdma. cetur. Fr. a brace on board a ship.D. might come to signify a swamp. to subdue. casser le \va. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. brake. brambles. or a wood in a marshy place . Swiss Rom. game. . murtaa. brega. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. in usus braca. brak is a frame in which strip. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. gebrUche. To the same bend a bow. bregar. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. cover G. where from Esthon. Pl. BRAKE to external force. The Fr. braecken het vlasch. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. —Ovid. to bend or direct a cannon. to knead or mix up in a mortar.. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. braeken. braken. Lat. Dan.bracan. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. bruch. to harrow (Lat. a thicket. braca. brake. as well as in the case of the e. as in Sp. brage. flachs brechen. bregar brake. Dan. It. gilum. brushwood. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. watered. for — Due. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. or A A ' . pasture. brage. iSpsx". to pound. quarry from Fin. — Fl. a swampy Mid. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. broor bushy place Hal. We — . ^raca. It. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. brog or brake. gebroge. thing is brought under control.

gebroge. Then by comparison with claws or arms. Brand. bruskoad. . all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brog. chaff. As ON.D. broembel-CBppel. brandmurk. brugek. a bridle or bit . a small deri\'ation . Bret. virgultum. branche. bruch. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. titio. brug). a vine twig Bav. Brancare. heath ON. the bull-finch. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. a shoot. Bret. from Servian pnit.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a shrub . cabbage sprouts Fl. from brug. Fr. broom. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a roA. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. berneux. in the sense oi fern. brenda. Bret. broust. pfriem in the sense of an awl. 1 8. bretnel.G. brushwood. clutch. may be so called in analogy with Bret. G. bran. The naof strain." The bmno a • on . Russ. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . bro7n. brous. broccoli. Thus in Lat. &c. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Sir Topaz. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. a single plant of heath. But we find It. a shrub from Bret. bit by bit. also pfriemkraut. in the same sense. Bret. is the draff or excrement of the com. brandr. brang. a firebrand. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. In like hrst. —Ducange. brin d. brosst. heath. excrement. w. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. apiece orbitbrandone. brake. the thorn apple or stramonium. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brarn. Gael. brein. breun. brenna. That beareth the red hepe. Thornas and bremelas. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brank. pfropf. hallier. constrain. what is cast out as worthless. sweet broom. brok. . snotty . brenn hesken. braam. ground full of briers. It. heath (Bret. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . as places overgrown with brakes or fern. brom. brug. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. and waste growths. ordure . E. It. briars. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. a briery plot.D. Diez. from virga. brandello. or with It. heath. bruk. burning brennen. Dan. bracken or fern . Pl. from gaggi. broussaille. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. Rouchi bren d'orMe. gebriiche. i. bruch. . are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. cack. piece of anything. or ling. Bramble. Bav. bushes. a halter. Fr. brin. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. wood composed of twigs. brancas. brenn. brandiiialil. bren. Gael. to gripe. . the twigs of a besom from brenneti. broem.). prufye. ear-wax mud. Bran. G. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Brank. . brouskoad. and E. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . brem. G. thicket of brambles Cot. a bud. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. a burning fragment of wood. Pl. dirt . It will be found that shrubs. brano. brwnt. pected that brake. from brand. &c. brank. bran. from Lat. See Brush. brass. broom. G. to bridle. Broom. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS.. w. 2. compress. bruk. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. branchia. brejo. — branca. Piedm. sedge burkni. thorns and Gen. breme j Sw. . bronbo. So Swiss gaggi. Grisons bruch. Thus we have w. and thence a shoot. . a bud It. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. . Fr. a shoot or twig. as. bren. Branch. a rod or twig. a dunghill. stink . brambles. to -brugen. branco. heath. brughera. to burn. brin (as It brano). or other plants of a like nature. heath. The same form becomes in It. braeme. that is to say. to or iron. as AS. A mark made by burning. it glitters — — . a heath. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. — . brand. young buisson fort epais. a bud. sawdust. a thick bush. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. bruk. iii. also a marshy low ground or fen . Fr. sprouts. breanan. nasty. Serv. bramble Du. the branch of a tree. restrain. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. piecemeal brindelles. Port. AS. . young twig {brom-beisser. to brank. bromboli. pfriemen.

a To Brandish. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Braser. Lye. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. was in use Fr. branler. ish. put. G. brasca. du Roi et laine. Fr. Milan. braise. to hurl with great force. brin. to brandle. from used in dyeing cloths. WaUon. apparently very distinct from each other. bruire. a fragment. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. brandiller. Ija. The corresponding form in Gael. To brase AS. Guill. Thus the bound up again. stake. It. to blaze. bransella. braise. De Goes. e. eldibrandr. bryne. before the discovery of America in the brandir. brastlian. the colour than hitherto known. crackle. all. — ting to confusion. prasseln. brazil. set on fire. billet. briiler. make an outcry. to glisten or flash. to shog. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. Fr. It. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. brandigh. to French brawl or brangle. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. gebrannter wein. make a — . But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. to make shine with shaking. as again by well as the blade of a sword. a brusler. Brase. to brustle. so. to Bailey. to burn. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to shake. and branchis shaiand D. to crackle . brand. to roar. E. to make display . comes from thence. given to the country. to confuse. brennen. Jam. and scold. — . bracea. brandende wijn. to burn. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. The tre brangillis. brasca. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. It. to dash. embraser. braza. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. forms brasil. in Marsh. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. bragia. To brand. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. to burn. to sound of the Fr. brasa. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. splinter. N. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. V. live coals. hoisting to the fall. incendium. Du. totter. to murmur. Bailey. or in stick. With top trimbling. brus^. brandiller. Chron. a pan of hot coals. perplex. a roaring fire. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. d'Angl. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Manx bransey. — . brouir.. brasa. to brangle. morsel. firebrand. conbillet. brangle or brawl in E. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Kil. brush. plained by Florio. ist. Diez. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. to braze or lute. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. a stick. So. AS. is bntan. brasil. bransle. firewood. Formerly brandy-wine. 59. bra?ier. to make sense of a bright red dye. brazeiro.well. to rustle. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brascct. E. flagrans. Hume in brand in ON. Fl. bruciare. bresil. and bruir. as Jamieson explains it. Gris. Fr. Sw. Brangle. brustle. faire fracas. Brasil. bragale\ wood. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Sw. brandolare is exbrandish. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. braser. from to vociferate. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. became ashes Pied. n. hot Fr. distilled wine. a round dance. Fr. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. bum. as Fr. branler. urens.^Brandle. glowing embers . to bicker 2nd. spirit distilled from wine. crackle. brane-wood. not. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. the spelling to kindle. fire-wood. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to totter. to brandle or The It. to shake. then brandr. The name Brandy. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. bruan. bracia. to and fro in the hand. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. aqua ardens.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling.pan of coals. — . braise or hot coals. bruzi. to solder iron. In the same way the set on fire . branla. shake. to quarrel. noise. Fr. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. brausen. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. Chron. to shake The word brisil. to distil . weinbrenner. G. Bret. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Port.

Mundart. as a brawling brook. Betrax of a —^Jam. slibro. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. tasce. muscular parts of the body. the buttocks. bartisan. bratid calf of the leg. brailler. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. is The word — uous name for a woman. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. Pisana in Mur. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. A dispute or squabble. bas morceau de viande brawhng. bralle. neita girl). — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. braodhlach. to braze. Jam. cloth. Hist. bratidone. —-Jam. a lump of flesh. a Lap. Brawl. to carbonado. flesh of a leg of pork. braser Fargent. braoilich. Many gambes. to talk at bralle op. to Gael. solder. le repasser un peu sur la braise. —^Bronze. a contempt- banner. burning coals. See Brandish. The muscular part of the body. Pm. to scold . a parapet. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. Westphal. braiio. luncheon. bmhon for brado7i. Cot. boutures. bartising. bras. ni autres choses sur Due. Cot. lat'te. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. to shake. Lorraine bravon. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. a rag . slakker-bortchen. breyon d'chaur. and bronzo. Cologne broden. . boarding being sbranare. a mantle. Fr. esbraotier. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. from branler. KiL Prov. Kil. 368. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. P1. braede. brazen. contignatio. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri.— Diez. braion. a battle-girdle. a rag . brat.brettysing. buttock Sc. See Bray. G.walle — Pr. For the application to a^child compare Bret. to cry. Math. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town.96 Roquefort. discord. Fris. Brangle. a loud noise. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery.— Remade. a. bradon. bronzacchiare. Fr. roar.D. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. the calf of the leg. calf of the leg. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. as rashers upon quick burning coals. from Sc. saillies. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. braon.— Fl. Brat. trul. braeye. or on the top of a wall. W.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. bransle. — Deutsch. brces. or whether it be from Fr. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. especially that used in the working of iron . pan- — Rayn. The verb is probably derived from the brase. &c. pil. apron. Bailey. OFr. a wooden tower. Sp. a lath. strepitus 2. a fortification. brettys. as lattice. bronzare. bronze. a contemptuous name for a young child. OHG. whether contracted from brabble. to copper. brett. breteque. Dan. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack.' Hal. cob. Circumeunt cibertesca. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower.^ — Sverris Saga. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. slibro {neita. 1224. as scrawl from scrabble. coassatio. It. It . deblaterare. noise. Brawn. A. The same correspondence is seen between It. to tear piecemeal. brdto (ace. ship. brandillo. AS. a rag. I. branle. bratach. Fr. Sup. ^Altieri. bradlete. a lump. brass. Brattice.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Gael.D. a plank or board. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a clout. bribe de viande. then a parapet. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. Wall. It. as criailler of crier. ferruminare. any piece.D. Florio. rag. baltresca. frequentative of braire. Sc. A. 1156.propugnaculum. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. — . berd. at brasa. a slabbering-bib. Du. So also See Brag. breyon. equivalent to the Du. a lump of flesh. in the first instance of boards. bretays). bran. Swiss bradle. bretesche. breyon de kinds of . borderinge. A land of dance. Paris. ON. bruir. Brave. ' A vraale. bretesque. calf of the leg. brat. bratdn).— Braid. a patch of cloth. 2. bred. from Fr. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. to solder. frame of laths. Bartizan. a cloak. brat. fraiche. squall. a — A from the confused noise. OFr. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. slut. Certainly a little girl. Brass.

cyprinus latus. To rub or grind down Sp. Then. to braid. at a braid. ser. brot. Lat. roar. rattle.ear rog. a rag f . Wal. iU-favouredly — in Jam. ON. a . braidar. brechen. and fracasously. brice. R. See Brake. Prov. upbraid. From the or brack in a wall. fragor. mos. crackle . V. ^p&xia. ybrayid. vapna-brak. make a disturbance. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. starts crackling up. father. k. I'll live and die a maid. to crash. bruzir. to break. G. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. 145. to break. to N. broad. brikan.. and make a hideous noise. Breach. braidir. paste or dough. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. And with a traid I tumyt me about. a breach Cot. resound . noise . bregda. ing. explaining a very obscure application of the E.ch. father. E. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. with or without a final d. Cat. The Lat. Beryn. brage. . weave The ON. rustle. instantane. to the seijauntes. i. braa. and to signify the fracture itself. brame. to resemble him. Fin. bregar. rangere. Fr. or wound. roar. D. to roar as the sea.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. G. Ppvxia. to t. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. to roar or bellow. The same He might don us both a villany. to bellow. breche. a brake for hemp or flax. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. to break Fr. a rent. to pretend. to rumble. at once. Bret. to sound very loud and very harshly. on. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. as the voice of the ass. Then is simply. brand. braea. bru. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action.g. abraid. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. Bread. verb to break. rogi. Swiss bratschig. soft . Bailey. &c. to resemble. regi. to snatch. to have the lineaments of one's ON. fish.fracas. D. to bray in a mortar. — koa. Prov. to braid acquires the sense of bend. crash. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to roar. F. to The cup was uncoverid. breach. as the notion of turning crack. To Break. And at a braid he gun it bende. ON. Chaucer. broyer. braa. to braid. or cry out loudly .' To Bray. to bray like an ass. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. a mill. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Gr. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. a crash. bruire. Cot. . since such are the manners of Frenchmen. crash. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. plait. and frangere. braire. Fr. kind. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. at braga eftir euium. bregar. yell. W. . to work up in a mortar. e. — — — explained motus loud noise. crepo and E. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. OE. to cry Port. a brack. Goth. will. to bawl. Q. 7 . &c. V. — . bradar. 2.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. Dunbar braessem. D. braid. fractus j Gr. to start. the sword was out break. to tear Bret. bragr. relation is seen between Lat. the sound — of arms. turn.y. the miller's dog. The ON. AS. brak. is . a wink. bragd is also applied nets. twist. which has given much trouble to commentators. V. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. as OE. to crash. Du. disturbance. to cry out. imitate or resemble one. augnabragd. appearance Hal. gestus.^ Fr. to smack or the eye. paxog. &c. brugier.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. yell. R. in Jam. bray. breuan. to braid the hair. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Chaucer. to rub Fr. to knead. &c. baiyl. riAprjyvvfu. to scold. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to break. bragd — ON. to cry out. to rush. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. bratsche. brak. to resemble. Bread. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no.

. Fr. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. chilly. b}-as. a cool wind. bandage or truss for a rupture. AS. . Prov. forms. breinse. Bret. breath. brcekur j It. briosat'. murmur—Vocab. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. polenta. braga. i5r(Z^. switch. . bryi^ga. Breeze. sheep's droppings bruss. fastening . braie. Bruise. . G^nev. brumtnen. So ON. to burst. a to lay fly-flap. Hence the Lat. or the blow itself. Rom.). G. Compare OE. binding. It. bragues. scent. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. brciz. braia J OFr. Gl. to crush to break. malt. but more probably the E. to break. Du. brist. their stings draw . brezza. a crum. orts. to smack. Gael. in Schilter. brasiuiii. . bruc. QNtsterviald) pritschen. bris. remains of leaves. brusc. as in the case of twitter. to resound. point to G. Sw. — See Broth. body brostia. chillness or shivering. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. siibligar. instead of being derived from 'La. morsel. fitzen. to murmur. . and other rubbish dibris. brissle. to buzz. crush. braich. brisciare. Du. Lat. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. bruzun. a smack. break. trembling. the soler. Gl.D. brosame. an into shiver. properly to crackle. G. Du. one on the breech so that (klatschet).) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. burst. broil. fail. /esses. xyligogio castigare. — . We bragezj on. bruzir. to roast. corresponding to G. brisd. to feize or feaze. to fry . from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. Piedm. Fris. subligaculum. as the G. The Teutonic verbs. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr./ssus. grillare. Breast.t. The Breech (Prov. w. to whip. PI. brijselen. E. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. a twitch for a horse. from brace. of straining. windy withal. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Fr. E. from AS. brodel. Fr. a crum Du. and brought beneath between the legs. bris. Dtyden. Prov. Breath. braca. See Brick. — . To Brew. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. grillen. Originally probably the word signified steam. to hum. Russ. brison. Goth. are in like manner ' . bracecs . as by the Sc. G. a cold and windy mist or frost . The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. briosa. a horse's twitch. to rattle (as hail). briosa. Bret. the breech or buttocks. brise. einem de britze geven. bridsen. may be from the wurh fesser. brcEth. also to chill and shiver with cold. noise. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. britze. clout for a child. brut. brinisa. sprouted corn. Breeze.98 borst. drawers. de bridse geveii. brimme. an odour. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. applied to shivering. are related to Prov. then to broil. to brew. brodem. as. vapour. rubbish. braga. from ligare. to shiver for cold. brezzare. breson. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . — — strument for smacking. bratscher. to simmer. forms analogous to E. a girdle. to be misty and cold. brok. broza. Swiss AS. Gael. brache. and E. to crackle. a gadfly. Bracha. simmer.vare. brugga. — Halma. representing the sound of a blow. brire. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. to fry Then from a Gl. — And blood. little bits of wood Berri briser. of E. brdtschen. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. brasser. briiz. bark Fr. G. briig. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. de Vaud. Dev. rubbish. met de bridse slaan. briste. braguier. Swiss brdtsch. bris de charbon. trusts. Biglotton. Swiss Rom. bremse. brasiare. Piedm. breme. Brize. murmur. as commonly explained. braux. zare. braies. malt. Du. braca. brijsen. bretilles. the bust. braucn. with It. to bind. OFr. brew.britschen. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. grill. brustia. a cramp-iron for holding things together. bra. as. broiiwen. a box. Dan. Lat. cloven. AS. bresilles. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. —Briss. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. dial. simmering. to brew. brossi!. Breeches. broden. Briss and buttons. griller. bruise. bre- I'os qui bresole. of trees. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. Breeze. brisoler. coaldust. &c. braies. G.'— Gl. brezling. breeze. to bray. to breech. braciarc. peitschen. so AS. brimsa. Hume in Jam. Isidore and Tatian. — Brist. singing bone. the dry spines of furze broken off. breost.

a sow. Du. So in The Prov. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. but to a paved road. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Hdcart. Bridal. bridelj OHG. Flor. buckler J ON. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. bulicame.gfiugga. bruk. fragment. bread. AS. bride. feast. Diefenbach com. from Bret. pier. OHG. broken. which however is undoubtedly from brace.privatus. remarkable that the Gr. brood. guma. from Bridegroom. bribour. and ODu. barren land priodas. as. breve or brevis. a married man or woman Lat. A — A — . to meet together. from the Normans. to appropriate. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. the marriage si in brigata. whence berw. Brick. consort with. a heath. Lang. Bribe. bruith. bruskr and buskr. owned also propriate. ment of anything broken. to boil. . nurus G. Priodi. ' — . . Pol. division of an army. bo. OSw. priod-ferch. troop. Thom. privus. bro. bruyere. sugga. broken victuals. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. httle bit. ibrukkti. a bride. appropriate. pavement Lith. a lump of bread. bro. It — is Kil. Lat. graf-ol. . in the sense of OSw. fastningar-ol. brigade. fervere. to circulate. then the marriage itself. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. Ducange. brieden. bably contracted from brigantine. Sp. to press. of burial. beaten way Dan. Trovarfor bride-ale. . Brief. a briole. bretonica. to pave brukkti. a crum. bryd-gutna. son. . AS. E. a married man guma. Grisons bruch. AS. to pave. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . W. If the foregoing were not so clear. bricge j G. grug. — — — — — — . a man. bidsel. ' . brughiera. birbante. G^n^v. E. Rouchi brife. . At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. berwi. bryd-eale. brar. but probably Bricoteau. jipaaaiii. gf2o. stone-bridge bnikkoti. a bit.Fr. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. malt. Fr. brukkas. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Brier. braut. to rub. to stamp. ter-in-law. bricou. masted vessel. the equivalent of to the dial. conjux. Goth. A bribe is A — — arval. buskins. bruarium. Applied ous words derived from break. briicke. It. feast of espousals. from bit. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. a brig or priodor. bitill. married. thick appropriated.pritil . BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. brice. fraoch. a little king's writs. Fl. priod. In E. E. a rogue . bara briw.groom. twopares Lat. a Bride. brahi. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. Gl. corresponding or letter. especially to a letter or command. Bridal. lipdZu}. served (Patois de Bray). peculiar. jetty. bride. malt. imprint. birbone. a fragment. . brasser. brittil. Bridge. Diez. broken bread. Fr. a cheat. Mid. bro is applied not only to a bridge. the newly. It. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. funeral. two-masted vessel. a wedding priod-fab. berwedd. as so. a rogue. a bride Brig. piece of burnt clay. brique de pain. brug. The origin of the word is the w. any jot or crum. to beg one's bread. has briguer. bridge. bygga. brau. Cot. to tlie brico. a lump of bread briber. to break to pieces bricalio. Fr. brygga. to Isrew. pavement brolegge. to prepare. The Sw.. AS. crew. betony brulicame. frayer. a boiling. brutg. Walach. arf-ol. Brigade. daughheath. heath. Brewis. a bush. ON. AS. Bridle. a beggar. pavement. to boil. one's ovin. E.It. Hence OE. briiths. briwo. AS. Dan. boiling up brocoliere. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. with transposition of the r. Brique. it is applied to the letter to OE. sponsa. a crum. a fragment. hlafes brice. So It.rough with brambles and bushes. brocaly. to boil. Pro(merch=:maid). Gael. brigata. See Broth. a proprietor. Gael. — . In the patois of briccia. to brew. Due. fit. is still used in this sense. In the G. the Fr. w. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. and that from It. ap. . or brizo. from the last 99 of which. brigantine. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. and berweddu. . company. — . brakes of high-grown ferns. brilt. a quoit of stone. a lump of bread. brere. BRIGADE dead. to break. Ihre. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bruk. briw. Neumann. brA. bribe de pain. broosekens. a heath brughera.bergantino. collect bits of food. groom (mab=:son). to press in. betonica.

Due. It.' The passage from the sense of a light. a spark. and. manifest ON. etincelle. \oice. himself to serve men of merit. praht. bracht. — Beowulf. From ON.clare ^tinniens. It. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries.Lat. sound. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to glamr. briga. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd.dorem clarum reflecto. The primary meaning of Sp. briga. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. 1351. strife. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. In Fin.shine. clear. Gr. — A A . splendens . bryhtm. Bav. lay was sung. brigare. to strive for. and secondly. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. the bench-notes resounded. . Schmeller. A strepere. to cry 'Schmid OE. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. bragen. tumult. the gleeman's song. tinnitus. that of Fr. bregar. — brigante. Mid. brigan. in the first instance. brawl. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . Bright. schiteren. clare lucens. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. OHG. a glittering. bray. dine. rover either by sea or land. to cry. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. to reservavit. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren.pracht. brigare. —Capgrave. in the sense of a robber. also called briganders. representing a sudden noise. and to associate with them. to rove. Brilliant. a brigantine. to contend with another. to rob. outcry. Lat. to piracy. squamma . bright bearhtm. seems to be to exert force gar el area. speech. tuilahtaa. noise.' The sense of strife or combat express. a sound. and the E. moment. necessary business. glir. braid. So G.' torum. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. splendour. cange has 'Veles. glbram. and. glamm. clang. Adelung. Swab.' in Due. in later times a robber or highway-man. dine. clangour. to sound. They or brigantini. brigandare. The Ir. is easily understood. the grew high. — brigante. clear sound. willata. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. beorht. biartr. to shine. brebrigare. wilella. Flor. splendour. a small light pinnace pro. to shine. twinkling. It. loo BRIGAND lor. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . In the same way to strive is. to make a loud noise. shriek with laughter.D. — Probably then to strive. show the origin of Lat. The E. — Briganbriga. then. secondarily. glitter. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. A.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. XafXTTpoQ. 312. may play the pirate or thief at sea. splcnornd de brigandine. and ner me hit iherde. labour. — Due. tinkle. It. AS. a pirate. Wilista. on his — own account. riis ' — Chron. to ring.— . inde squammatus. and diligence. clear. to resound. brdgen. glamra. brak. to shift for with care. there are many armour. at a later period. pugna. . Du. kii:'a. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. and led it away. kilistua. clarus. Florio. brcEhtin. Xa/iTTii).glampa. Owl and beorhtian. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . jurgia. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. transparent. rixa. Brigand. from hall. malandrini. Heo — song That AS. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. tion. to glitter. — — . tinnitum clarum movco. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. — Brigantine.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Brigata. bairhts. Beorktode bene sweg. with respect either to sound or colour. 1654. hell. briegen. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Gall. clear. combat. See Brake. Goth. to bend a bow It. brigant. a noise. schateren. and hence be explained glampi.

as of meat in broiling . border. rugire (cervorum. gresiller. to crackle. bramar. finds the Fr. fringe (Lat. have then in Fr. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to burn. fire. gresiller. brow of a hill. Brem. Lith. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. In Fr. whether of desire or anger. bray as an ass bramire. brim Magy. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. as in Langued. to quaver with the voice. to creak. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. to long for a thing. the heat of animals. ous. It. grullo. brama. ON. bar. fierce. briller. ring. whence bilbil-goda (literally. vattubryn. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. rugire. bramire. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. burning stone. briller (related to each other as OFr. to twinkle. small gravel. Dan. that the original meaning of the Sc. komista. AS. broil . brunft. parched. barm. to shine. . also to reflect. a rod. E. tience. brillare.preni. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. edge Pol. FJ. glisten. hence the bosom. : ' — bone). Du. crackle. perent. s. glit. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. the heat of animals. 1. chime). komottaa. os qui bresole. of the eye. post. fimbria) . kimina. sparkle. bremas. lap of a garment . brimmen. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. to shake. Brindled. coloured in stripes. s. brmdottr. frequently interchange. to . to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. brame. Brimstone. Swiss Rom. brullo. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. kimista.' d'etre marie . 1 1 64. ter. to glitter. — — So Fr. which seems identical with rim. to creak. brennistein. brummen : de soge brummet. to shimmer. Kil. brim. an apron. sonitum edere bremen. Closely connected is OE. to storm.' Elyot in Way. 154. bresoler (Gloss. griller). reecho.— Brinded. lip of a vessel. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. brumft. bramer. ON. dial. voux. leonum). verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. brissle. a streak. — . grdzil. Streaked. — Rim. cross-barred in colour. to make a crackling noise. identical with passion. from brandr. shine. grisler. or violent action. to roar. griller d'impatience. the singing of Sodom — — . to parch. brinfire. broiled. The E. noise made by meat in broiling. brand-krossottr. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. a border. brisoler. Rayn. Dief. A . bryn. bramar. . kimmaltaa. brdnnsten. to sparkle.— BRIM . to shine. brame. greedily to covet Cot. as well as bl and gl. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. the edge. ling noise and a sparkling light. breme. a long. ardere desiderio. beam.). as in ing or earnest desire bramare. spraing. In the same way Sw. Fr. Prov. The meaning of the Fr. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. with an initial br instead of gr. to broil. a stick. pMiller. vigorHal. Said of swine when in heat. to roar. the meaning is transL' amour. Hence with an initial s. breme. to fret . the eye-brow. excited. barmr. Thus Lat. (poet. brommen. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn.ioTiviS acutus. It. To Brim. striped or streaked. bry7ie. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. kommata. Sc. to glitter . Langtoft. The identity of ON. to wish or covet. originally the lap folding over the breast. der. Tutschek. breziller. margin. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. briller. kajata. brant. a borDu. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. and corresponding to these. brummen.D. surface of the ocean. brezil. furious. fringe . 754. to glitter distance . from bringe. AS. to make bilbil). and 1. the lap or bosom. kiimottaa. brastlian. the verbs Flor. on. is used of raging. The expression is now confined to the sow. Fl. Tresiller. — g. clangor tinniens. Brim. breziller. to shine. brandr and Fr. Sw. griller. — — — . Rugere. bremmen. burning. rut. to crackle. sprainged. It.) brimi. the sow is brimming. bremmen. . grisser. as is the case also with Pl. Wtb. to utter cries. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. rym^. crackle . Supp. ON. earnestly . G.its vent in cries and roaring. to resound. lap. Subo. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. border. border. greDiet. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. barm-cloth or barmskin. to sound deep or hollow. Sc.

brcit. as unripe fruits. a belly. brog. braidsj ON. fragile. chest. — . has under It. . — bryme. like the Broad. In the N. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. to break. See Brand. rash. brisk in taste. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Fr. ' breast. brijn (Kil. i. brocciare. Antiq. a crum.). Brickie. brocco. broche. Russ. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Boh. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. apt to break. It. rebursiis. broca. brandello. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. 222. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. or the full • . ' . aculeus. Palsgr. Du. of astonishment. flame.. ribrezzoso. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. borstel. See To Brim. It. Hal. borzos (struppig). a rebours. britar. to broach a business. to turn up the point of anything. craw of a bird. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. brezza. brocher. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. . brim. strong itself. as. brich. . which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick.D. emotions which produce it. the brisket or . breaking out into growth.' Nat. bros.Lat. brot. bruckle. e. — A . from break. Formerly written brotil. Bristle. brissle. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. spur. to shiver for Sold or for fear. bristly . of E. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brittle. sour.rcendij'i. Commonly explained as from Fr. is called a birssy day. brimme. angry. b. britar. bringue. Alfr. sprouts. brichet. brim. birssy. a stitch brocher. briocho. crabbed. setting the hair on end. brytan. Brym. — — . p. lively. metaphorically. to set it a going. brittle. Fris. Then as the effect of shivering. bringe. the surf. britchet. expression. breaking of the waves brim sior. to birstle. Liquamen vel garum. NE.). Bret. 'V^. — in Due. brimhliod. birsle. Breeze been connected with the Sc. bresk. to spur. as a noun. a button broche. brickie. to scorch. hot-tempered. smart taste. a fragment. a bud. Pectusculum. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. sprocco. are used in the sense of brittle. trembling. fiscbryne. from brande. bruskett. Fr. broca. bruched (Fr. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. a morsel. fierce. a cold and windy mist or frost. briota. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. to bud. bryne. brocchus. setting the hair on end compare It. It. man's throat. sprout. fantas'* tical. as. Prov. to put one in a rage . It. Brooch. a morsel . to stick. whence may be explained the Sc. an awl. very salt brimi. breast. . birstle. byrst. Brisk. to goad. Salte sand is called brimsand. a spit. thick — A elastic hair. birs. bros. brioshko. Swiss to stand out . to shoot. to stab Gael. rebrousser. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. brusco. eager. as. briser. brusk. brim (poet. Russ. . The Pl. and hence. cK) the . to spur. a bud. Sw. to break. Gl. stitch. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. wine of a sharp. Port. the twigs of a besom. against the grain . Abroacli. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. Dan. Da. ruffling. Brocade. a shoot or sprig. broccata. Sc. Fr. humorous. brodden. brddj Goth. or — .g. a slip or sprig of an herb . Berri. Prov. Du. Bret. Bohem. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Sp. Ptg. Fr. brote. and Sc. a brad or tack. saulmeure. a clasp. to spit. prick with Sw. harsh vin brusque. . brockle. suddenly angry. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. a bit . to stitch. a stormy brimsea . to thrust.procio. Fr. Compare also E. Gr. Sc. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. broc. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. to burn. brissko). a brooch. a skewer. sharp. Zeuss. brocar. brocco. a rod or twig. brisciare. to crack. and forms on. form bris. a deluge. reburrus. the surf. Brisket. brin. bronchus. birse. Hence ribrezzare. a peg sbrocco. Cot. broccare. shoot. brindelles de balai. See Spread. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. roar of the sea saltr. brime. brust. Brine. bricho (with the diminutives. borzen.. to begin upon it. Lat. Brittle. Mid. flames. and. brezzare. Walach. from AS. to roar. quick. borst. bryde. startling. to break. a projecting tooth It. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. coli. spricka. sticking up . Fr. breidr. Prov. G. brusque. to broil. briota. ON. to set up one's birse. bringe traced through the brano.'— Vita'abbatum S. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. /3pE^m. is to erect the hair. rude. grim.

initial . and w. gresiller. brasuole. freckled. to crackle. Cot. tumult broighleach. creak.. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. a freckle. hurly-burlies. and bord or bred. — Fl. a fallingThe sense has been out. froco. has grisser. of pointing out their latent defects. It. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. To roast upon hot coals. broc. Fr. or snag. to crackle. a b?-ustolare. Sc. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. bordar. to knots or loops. brindled. Icnotty. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . noisy. to On the other hand the Sp. brouda. a point. to embroider. point to an origin in Bret. Grisons brascla. frocadura. 103 embroidered. prasseln. to boss. parched. bram. grislement. brasolare. speckled. ornamented with a raised pile.. carbonado. v. fundamental origin. brych. From direct imitation of Brock. silkes-borda. briefh. the shoot of corn. spotted. a badger. to burn. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. or It. rinj'. ciare. to instigate. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. a confused streaked face of the animal. to spur. whence broccare. noise.— B. a border ornamented with gold. frecSee Brawl. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. or glowing coals broged. stump. atoms . birsle. piebald . braird. E. dar seems derived from borde. broice. forming to jumble. brastlian. prod. Compare also AS. broglio. brasiller. Gael. or roast on the braise. Here to ornament with needle-work. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. age was termed a pricket. to stud broccoso. a quarrel. Sc. b?-od. to streaked or speckled in the face. to parch or broil. parti-coloured. bj'oil. brerd. brocart. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. brustle. Ptg. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). broccuto. scorch. Sp. broighlich. Ihre has guU-bord. sting. — brissle. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. broccato was used to signify stuff . streaked. and AS. here. The ON. houx. brasiller. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. — — . knobby . a mole. an edge. to broil. tufted ornaments. precisely analogous to the Sc. — The proper sense is that of Fr. brocco. rustle.sound. embroidery. brod. agree in being the extremity of a thing. brusler. grullo. to darn. tori shows that. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to scorch. sparks E. broud. B. brouFr. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. broil. brizen. brodio. broiled. Dan. broil. Hal. to prick. Florio. q. R. brullare. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. . bruler. embroidering. confound. broc. thread. broder. borprick. to burn. brucilare. ToBroider. The Bret. bmsciare. with Sc. spots. a border. Broker. brusuole. bramowanie. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification.tumultuous. margin. a flake of snow sion. parch. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. Gael. the line of development has been something different. a prick. shuffle. bordo. a brouhaha. border. motes. Thus brod. border ornamented with silk. gold and silver. Contracted from Fr. storms. hart of two years old. AS. Fr. onbryrdan. a brim. — Gower in It. a flock or Gael. brooked. a To Broil. Compare G. — . A badger. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. a peg. Cot. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. brasbrasciuolare. . blusters. Surrey in R. trouble. bustling. a freckle. W. brocach. to crackle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to crackle as a shell in the fire. It. or salted fish on coals. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. from the white. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. brychau. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. briz. It of br the Fr. brucach. A fried or boiled steaks). breard. a brecJi. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. to embroider. badger . Brocket. broukit. trouble. to crackle. speckled. So from Pol. parti-coloured. Bret. bawling. kled breac. Fr.

tussis. 38. sbrinzlar. Sc. dirty. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. See Broth. Du. Pl. and as an adj. in the sense of rejection. to braze. an outcast or rejected sheep. as. • . brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. . progeny of birds. Russ. inspection. sunburnt. raca. spittle. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. sort. et A. phlegm. brumo. On • tliis principle the G. S.— Breed. merchandises de rebut G. broiid. a chicken. i.D. . brid. Prov. try . inspect. brechen. a brood . analogous to Bohem. brack-gut. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. to be hot. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. mud. Adelung. Bret. abbronzanchiare. briiten. cherish. designation is indkler. brands. nounce unsound. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. term was correcfo^ir. Dan. brak.D. Pl. brasa. screatio Junfus . brydio. . refuse goods. Jam. brieden. G. couratier. fish-spawn broden. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. cast Lith. brass does to Sp. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. — broeden. . brokers' goods. from break. mediationem quorundam J. For the same reason the Kiittner. to pro- to reject . refuse brakowad.— — . It may be compared with It. Kil. to copper. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. 396. to pick. Teutonic class : Du. to spit . has exactly the force of G. to roast on the embers. the spawn of fishes. — Fl. to garble. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. Grisons brinzla. bridde. brunds. and to reject the damaged and unsound. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. to nourish. an . is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. bredan. but from the primary sense of the It. Pro v. G. Pl. Brood. in which sense the OHG. Abbronzare. brack. trumpery. to . To correct an exercise is to Lib. try out. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. brack-gut (Sanders). dial. goods damaged by sea-water. reject. stain. to hatch. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. find fault with. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. refuse Fr. whnake. Bronze. brakyne. e. w. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. See Wreak. wraken. hrak. brot. vrage. brasa. brokoti. In those countries the term braker. Fl. bring eggs and spawn into active life. Lat. find fault — — — fuse matter. slaae vrag paa. to brew. to be wanting. filth. from makel. to — garble. which E. refuse wares. to sparkle. or brascla. wrack-good. bracker. correctarius. corrector. lack. to pick and choose. an operation performed over hot coals.D. ON. rejection Pol. embers.— Lib. selection. with. matter of blame weak place. brut. criticise (makeln). Alb. hraki. G. faulty. to blame. find fault with. to hatch G. brak. : ' . spittle . a breach or flaw. a fault. wreak. to scorch. a cough Hal. raquer.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. brokas. wrak. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. — . abject. warm. whence the modern courtier. — a spark. embers. to criticise. to reject. braeck goed. braken. keep warm. . Per manus et old worthless horse. to hatch. bronze. a broker. broen. brackefi. The use sunburn. Tooke's Catherine. refuse. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. In the . ODu. to emit sparks. Bronzare. and fishes . fermenting. vile.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. to sort goods . bronze. . hot. vile. racaille. — point out the faults. bronze. glowing coals. burning. embers to brund. Du. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. buy and sell by commission. bronzo. This word shows the same relation to It. rejected. refuse. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. Sp. pan metal. damaged. brod. Alb. brwd. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. The Langued. make out. bronce. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. want. brod. refuse brakovat. blur. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. insects.D. cracker. racher. bric-a-brac. fault censure. If to vomit . ordure. OFr. To blame mens ware. to sort brakovanie. damaged. on. Fr. to sit on eggs. brae. a makeln. the young of any animal . It. to throw blame upon. hot. See Brackish. tan.

to scald. riviera. signifying twigs. spuma. a hill. sprouts . a shrub broust. a sprig. a little house or cottage of timber. broieii. broi. Fr. sprout. Sp. braces. a spring. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. &c. to bear patiently. forms appear related to the Ir. briu. browys. brucan. The AS. a little . bruithim. wood . spirit. to use bruks. Gael. Kil. to sprout. a derived from the boards. brew . Commonly Teutonic. G. Prov." Serv. brudi. Pol. broca. braun. simmer from the murmuring AS. brukjan. low The AS. borde. bruno. a confused noise of winds. kail brose. brass. margin. border. to boil. borda. bordeau. brous. shrub with leafless pointed edging. bree. Bret. Mid. bud. iVlanx broogh. brmi. may be connected with Russ. from Goth. Lat. Here we find throughout the Romance. the bubbling or springing up of water. brushbroccoli. Browse. strength. bryii. sodden. Bohem. bor. frui. brad. bratrj Lat. Cot. a river. Bav. fabric consists. Dan. a hill. brwd. properly boiling water briihen. broth Brown. . seethe. house of ill fame. of which the variety of forms. Ppim. But the Walach. pottage. The origin is a re. Manx broie. 105 Brook. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . — . . to make sprouts brous-gwezen.) . grow brossa. sordes seu strigmata young branch. sprot. Fr. breg.brink. strength Ir. Bohem. bryn.braubiti. bruceti. . Ger. bank. &c. BROOK brook w. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. hovel. . brocco. shrubs. useful G. to murmur. surface of Broth. brothas. breh. fur Broom. or shoot. dumetum. rage. w. . eye-brow. — . G. Bret. Tam de terrS. . to use. broden. G. eye-brow. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Sanscr. OFr. frater. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. edge. brosst. thicket. shoot. bruth. brost. AS. briihe. branches. bruich. brue . breg. to bubble up with noise. See Bramble. brost. brodo. eye-brow. brus. eye-brow. broit. vigour. broth. augen-braune. laissent Domunculum. brouskaol. Russ. to border. &c. verge. to burn. . Pl. the colour of things burnt. bank. from ripa. infusion the barley bree. brd. bros. Gael. eminence . Fr. brennen. a caldron. brawdj Slavon. broc. Brow.— Overyssel Almanack. mettle. To digest. of plants broust. bank. Russ. cabbage water. brauwe. rerum decoctarum. &c. Fr. . thick bush brousta. w. heat. bordel. bruddeln. brushbrothas) gives the OE. on.brons. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. to shoot. brlgh. (for brodem). broem bark. t— Cot. pfriemkraut. pith. brabruach. brpuster. buds. perhaps burnt coloilr. sprocco.D. eye-lid. to boil. circuindedit cum familia.. It. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. enjoy Goth. eat. in which brinnan. bruc. surDu. sprout. steam from heated bodies. . broo. brst. to boil. bryn. Gael. warmth ch'an. broth the ocean Sw. to browse. brow of a hill. Du. to boil bruithe. Bohem. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. juice of meat. brdtaj Gael. . to browse. plants composed of twigs. bruscosd quam de arabili. Gris. brogues. noise. Gael. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. broth brothaire. a source Gael. heath. . broeye. cia. or bushes and scrubby growths. broza. has briw. brau. as Fr. protecting the eye. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. briar. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. vigour. bruith. a shore. . ceales briw. brozia. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. thairj w. juice of briars. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. sproc. and Sc. breg. juniper. boiled . . G. Due. brosses. edge. waves. brstiti. shoots. heat explaining the Prov. bntdien. a bud. signifying low wet land (Brem. chen. Celtic. and It. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. meal. Du. hut. who is steaming with sweat. hot. to use. bhratrj Zend. bros. a hut or cottage It. brouic.D. cabbage soup . OHG. brotar. broth is sometimes used . brouches. or broken up . brotar. Sc. to spring . Gr. a sprout. . .' Due. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. — exiit et heath. bank. brouter. brow. grow into a bush. bushes. bregh. shore . to roar. brio. eye-lid. on. dialects is very different. awl-plant. face. pour boiling water over.spross. It. sense the Sc. break out brewet. heath. as small-pox. a bud brous-koad. Fr. a . The softening down of the consonant bud. brodem. It is Brother. Brothel. broccola. Limousin broudi. OHG. broud. Sp. Catalan brossa. bruitheati. brun. to Pl. brouser. sap. a bruth. Wtb. 'Lzt. bruach. braew. broth. brov. ale . A — . eye-lash . G. It. Prov. infusion. . riviere. brosses. Roquef. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. as rhododendrons. brouet. b7-un. brink. Serv. and also border. shore. brewis. AS. brusmalt. frucius. and Slavonic families. bruich. braussa. — ' .

this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bris. borste. a brush . ca7-bo>i. heath. Sw. bruyere. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. . bruire. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. fasx . bruise exOFr. ling or heath for brushes. a brush. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. a tuft of heath . bruit. to make a rumbling. as It. bris. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. brist. Bav. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. a shrub composed of small twigs . britar. dust. Alexander. a brush . to cleanse. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Port. irruo. rubbish. That in all haste he wouli. Bruit. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. seems named from burst(on. Piedm. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. also a head-brush. and in the second place a besoiB. briketo. brustia. E. a — — (Agea) said. — Fr. biirste. rubbish. brushwood. Text Soc. Lang. detergere . Hall in R. bris. splinters. a mote. orts. ON. and It. brosse. bruito. dust. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. to break or burst. brizeto. rods. tuft of grass or hay. brysan. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. to strike the foot against an obstacle. brus. Allit. OE. wool-card. Wicliff. broza. . brit. and actually come in collision. Pr. Fr. it schall be al Sw. broken. broust. a brush . K. brossa. brosst. brous. brico or brizo. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. In E. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Sp. broza. — a bush. brikan. twig. bush. brisar. 174. bruscia. Fl. modification of the same root which gives the E. On the other hand. abroncar. borste. insultus. to break. Poems. dust. See next article. brustia. to break. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. . brusca. OFr. wood composed OE. —Chaucer. brust. desbrisar. britar. It. bruscolo. quisquilise. crush. a bristle. bruscolo. G. a brush . to make brusshes on. twig. The same relation holds good between G. to crush. borste. chips. It. Pm. to butt. . Broach. bricalio. blow burcar. of twigs. brist. AS. brugir. field. burs. brosse. crum bit . — those signifying a sprig. borste. a bristle. sordes. escousse. bruc. an enmy. to brush. * Brunt. Gael. bris. and . Sw. flax-comb brossettes. The Bav. broustia. 201. Beryn. brous. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Lang.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. and also Brush. brunt. brusco. a blow. brista) or breaking out . p. shivers.). Prov. bushy ground. bross. It. Pm. brusca. bud. a bud or sprout Bret. a brush Swiss bruske. Gael. briser. 134. Prov. and Piedm. Castr. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. fragments. a noise. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. rubbish. . Fr. brosst. Prov. Diez. brusc (Diet. brik. wool-card. to stumble. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Prov. Bret. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. a brush. A. a horse-brush. fescue . tremely. or sodenly comyn' dust.— — i. shock. Cot. a rumbling. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. G. Cot. quasi twigs. or shoot. brist. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. briiis (in the pi. a crum. NE.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. B?-usske. brustid. a brush. dust. brusco. a bud. a flax comb. Fr. And that best is. bruskr. remnants of hay or fodder. brisd. The Lat. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Gael. . Gael.). break. bruis (sing. Piedm. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. brottcher. . wool-card. mg Cat. To brush then would be to dust. brist j Port. brise. burt. insilio. E. a bush of hair. brusg. Pr. biirste. Pr. into a multitude of points. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Brunt. —Fabyan. a briser. brMt. — OE. brossar. Bruise. Fr. and sighid therewithal.— Palsgr. Brush. Pr. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. Palsgr. appearin Goth. shoot brouskoad. borste. E.). coal See Breeze. bross. a little brizal. brousso. borst. to break to bits . Fr. bruzir. Brunt of a daunger. effort. bruiser. brossa.

soft. In G. bubauti. . It. and the bunch. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. boc. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. bouk. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. But see Bristle. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. The name. bubseti. Dan. This bubette. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. when soap was tion is commonly taken. to butt. lye. . — — ' A : ' ' . chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. a fescue. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. blast or strike with the forehead. a bubble.buchen. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. bog-aske. 1586. soft. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. or mok. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Pol. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee.tare. 17th century. bduclien. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. to butt. caned' Hence those who established them. to soften . Magy. to strain. buerj It. as a buck rabbit. The term bocan is still ap. colada. molle.byka. Bret. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. See Dupe. bube. or projecTo Buck. — . a. knock. the linen at buck. Sp. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick .derivation has been much discussed. . a ashes.biiken j Svi. blister. 1857. boucaner. who resorted to the islands beichen. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). to which in their language they call bou. buborek. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. a hole. to murmur. and as a verb. is 1. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. designation of a knob. of wind. boil animals. bubbola. . plied in the W. w. tap . buck-ashes. hog dressed whole). bukke. does not hold.— . to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bifbel. pokka7na. Etym. The male goat. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. The natives of Florida. a to the male deer. tender. buquer.steep or soak. Esthon. a knock word. bugd. It. to soak. very generally designated by the same puk. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. open lath-work. from weich. was called bucking the linen. w. tuft. . The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. at a door. bubiti. as G. tender. The cipally on the Spaniards. Bubble. Fr. to buck. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. buck-ashes. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. BUBBLE bruschetta.D. Fr. Cot. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble.to allow a free current of air. . They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. watery bud. to bump as a bittern. top. buchen. . little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. Magy. bucaIndies. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. Sc. to soak foul linen before washing. mieknad. to soak. it is beuchen.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. bouc. buquer. bwch. bucquer. bucata. to stick. rap. Pref A. bugada. a bubble. Bohem. to bubble. Fin. faire la lessive. moist. a bubble . — . thunder gently . soft. mote. mollire. bubBuck. in which the flesh dish. ac. March 28. because bucare does not in Marsh). and then to other wild tumour Lith. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. the first wheal. maban and baban. Diet. a steep for flax. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs.' Palsgr. bublati. the lower soak in lye. bucking. The word was very generally Buccanier. to Gael. It. to soften.boukaat. wood. soft . News. From an imita. not so plentiful a commodity. erweichen. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. soft It.lessiver. bokni. to butt or jurr Dan. to filter. bub. Formerly. boh. I. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. and exercised their cruelties prin. to soften. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. also applied Una. Illust. a. boc. hump.wet Lat. pup. Pol. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Bret. set of pirates in the spread. to wet Pol. moczyd. byge. lye. different form. mokry. was called in Fr. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. a push. A . Fr. hump. Bohem. Sp. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. bub. from colar. the upper for coifee. The place of such a 2. and Fr. de la Floride. Gael. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. says Laudon. drying of produce.-wtt miekki. to a place used for the mouillir. pukkata. . and as in and b so often infor cocoa.

a wallet. bolgetta. Bret. sboge. bunch. stroke. Cot. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bukke-blad. to butt.n. swelling. Budge. explaining Fr. prick in a target. swelling. OFr. Bav. dint . a shield. Wtb. a little coffer or turgidus. bouclier. to boil. of a surface. * Bud. a bump. Sp. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. a cowherd. So on. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. mani. loud Cot. Hence quel. a stump buckle up. K. ' . stir.. Swab. bug. clump. case of leather . budge. call. set of a plant in bulk. — . with which it was ornamented. bugnir. bucherame. See Bulk.t-le!L{ * Bud. a dumpy gin. pwt o Fr. bloca. — . . in the beginning of to pierce holes. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. Du. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. from bo. a shoot. rump of fowls . weich. It. bulga. need. no business to do that. bougette. bud butzen. bocla. pwtio.— . bucket Fl. This expression boglire. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Du.) . botzen. buachazlle. cattle. boss of a shield. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. excrescence. It termination is lost. to stir. to thrust. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Behoves. boucaran. push forwards. also a leather tuft .' And this sacrament bus have dial. and weichen. with let. inboachen. were To Budge. a ring. a trough).stuff. a pail or flowers. boglyn. a small shallow and open tub. is to shrivel up. knob dwfr yn boglynu. knock. — — . fur. bogla. call. . ' . male or botzen.anything short of its kind.may probably be explained by N. buckel.' Schm. bulb. II I'a feru desor I'escu. bulais daqui. bloca.. butz. blow. a short thick man. words is converted into b. bedde. boucle. brobrocchiere. The word is a ddyn. to move. a boss. bul. bouge. soft. Fr. to pen cattle. butzen K. knob . whom it is still much in use. pulga. lump.chissima. Bucolic. bouljein. macero. to word. ornamental stud. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bouter. to budge.Lat. of bouge. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. scion. weich. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair.r//'. Fr. Fr. hump. bulka. the word w ' — . bougette. trunk of wood covered with leather. child. boccula. to line with fur. Fr. to bud or bocla. ein. The Fr.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. bunch . a leathern sack. boiling. jSouKoXiKog. Hardly identical with Fr. In Lat. thrust. Fr. to un bout d'homme. or male of to boil . Port. a boy. Mid. w. where the G. bdden. Fr. * Bucket. probably from the notion of bubbling. seen in Hesse botz. a bubble three thyngis. . bucolicus. Dan. agreeing with Gael. to graft or bud trees. OHG. a bud. Dan. to boss or swell out G. turgere buczendig. boucle. Prov. a budget. Pol. w. a navel. boss. put. . built. bucherare. motus creber.' Boccaccio. Prov. pote. . from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. Lat. butzen. ' .). . from bugr. and the reference to It. boach. Fr. . bub. butzen. from Gr. crack.. above mentioned. Mid. Russ. boucler. boqueranmis. Buck-bean. to swell. pulga. a buclder or shield budge. a servant. bod. a tuft. a . To thrusting part of a long body. Buckler. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. bouton. to poke.goa. Bus. potz. a fold ceilio. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. the root of the Slavonic words gran. become bochen. bulla. wallet. boulj. The knob or projection formN. belonging to the calling of the chen. imbuere. butt . and of the Lat. The dressed fur of lambs. like a bean. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. ON. a budget.poot. dinted. boaLat. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. . to bucket is probably an equivalent of It.pode. bloquier. of bac. bollire. It. Bav. Prov. W. don't stir from hence. It. weichen. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. no wheel bogeilio. bog and G. water message. noise . ble. a curl. Sw. don't a baby). . bolgia. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. bouger. bo. NE. a buckle or protuberance. bullion. goat's hoof. stud. rabodS. botzen. bod. bode. * Buckle. A water-plant with leaves and gille. with a central boss. call bo. is doubtless fallacious. skins pushit'. great pouch. G. convexity. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. A buckle or fastening for botch. Gael. Budget. Bret. butzen (Du. dim. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a boss. The entire train of thought is bucket.stumpy man./a. Pied. gjeit-klauv. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. protuberance. . bouk is a pail and with the dim.' Hal. butze. as in Fr. boucle. to 'soak. a pustule bout. clasp of a book. It. — — .) as to soak. bump. bouprobably identical with inok. having a boss.

Lat. Esthon. puff. Limousin bobal. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. confused. Buffalo. to blow. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. as from Lith. bubiti. a clap. to give a as of a blow. baubau. a cuff or buffet. buffer. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. a buffle or a bugle. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. a hobgoblin. Sc. bobaow. btifetarius. or wild ox. leathern bucket. The children were playing in an oppocomer. bauwi. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. God's boast seemed feare children. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. made to —Bugbear. often covering his E. bau ! children. as wine that hath taken wind. also a G. a goblin). Fr. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. buffet. buffet. botffon. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. G. to blow . Pl. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. to blow souffleU. bubach. by metaphor. boo. bouffer. either alone or with various terminations. mingled with water. from It. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. — — — Buffet. Lat. Teet-bo. or hath been Cot. scarecrow . Fr. to bellow .' La Crusca. made by a person. Magy. Lith.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. cuff . It. colour. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals.D. bouffer./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . as emblematically making light of an object. It. W. boman. buffets. Romola. bolgia. buffle-headed. the place whence the wine was drawn. word other cases. It. bumann. a block-headed noddy. w. site The two — — iii. Fr. things in Jam. him but Boyd iugges. ' They rether puffed at him. bw. Sc. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. Cot. a jester. air. — retailing buffeter buffetier. caupo. A — Bug. —Boggart. bukow Ikow. bo ! an interj. The use of the exclamation children. bufogni. bufogni. buffare. to excite terror in Macleod. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. a side-board. also the skin or heck of a buffe.— Buflae. mumming. 265. — Bogle. yar^aa. A puff with — Fl. breath. senses.' perfield. A blow. buivol. Buff. From buff! of terror. a bugbear. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. often blown upon. bufHe. bw! It. sounds. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. dausinti. to beat. The cry made to excite terror is then used. &c. E. bolgetta. to puff. bubaRuss. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. bwg. while in Sp. to marre often tasting it . Fr. Bufetarium. buffa. to signify an indefinite object of terror. bugs. buffeteur.—Buffet. bubus. deadened. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. tabernarius. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Cot. dausa. to a representation of his voice. pulse .D. dull sound. wine may The verb in taverns. buMagy. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Mid. Fr. Gael. a In . It. buffalo. bugbear. and in Fr. bugle. Fl. Buffeter. tastes. a puff. dial. human. to jest or sport. soufflet. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. buffle. thus be translated to tap. Thus buffet would a tapster. the buffe. Buffoon. — thence it has been transferred in E. buff leather. smells . boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . — La Crusca. rebuff. from souffler. Swiss baui. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. stupid. From bulga. blurt or puff with one's mouth. for this purpose is very widely spread. een duffen toon. — Z. to give benti. popo. . il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Lith. buffet. wauwau.D. of colours. a dull BUG From 109 — A . to frighten . to rePl. le reste emplissant d'eau. a budget. a skin. as Diez remarks. buffen. Pl. buffetto. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. Buff. to puff. Hence the E. duff^ dull. a hollow sound. to strike face to represent the unknown. buffare. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta.

. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Parolone. — — ' . 1551. is very common. bug-bear. W. See The name terror). modern English is appropriated to the OFr. bukashka. Magy. Magy. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Manx boa. Fl. thus connected with bug. booggen. * 2. oxen. Swiss ing. affright. roarHal.. : no BUG . and in Lat. proud. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. dial. earwig bau da grascha. a boogg. then a horn for drinking.loud noise. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. a buffalo. used in the same sense. fierce. bug. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. larva (a bug-bear. I. banian boube. threatening. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. .. bug-bear. pugalo. . to creeping things. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. bugar. an insect. bugbear. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. Lith. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bucula. It. A similar applica. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. bold. a bug-bear. baco. bukati. Stalder bog. Russ. superbire. bbgni. beugler. to bellow. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. high-sounding words. according to Coles. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. 2. also a bug-bear. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bobal. bogk. fear. Grose. a silk-worm. and bugle.Lat. mask ' . Bdronie. Sp. paws the ground . also a baco-baco. especially to beetles or winged insects. buba. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bogil bo (e. Lesachthal. Swiss booggen. 493. insect. i. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. of pipes sewn on. Mid. quos what produces dread or disgust. biignt. ghost. b'dgni. the black a maggot. buffle. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. any disgusting animal. bugler. Serv. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. w. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Big. to take fright. to take fright. — — terror. Illyr. bogk. of bugabo was given. Hal. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. bwgwl. swollen. blustering. Mundart. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. iv. Grisons bau. 3. Swelling. threatening. rose-bug. xiv. great or bug words. It. Bug. bug dung-beetle. bwgar. with more or less modification represents bau. pugaf. long. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. the buggaboo w. saucy. a beetle. also a bug-bear. poggl. bogil. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. Hence bugle-horn. Bugle. a goblin.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. the word is lin) bbgge. Bogge. The w. to roar Aasen. a proud overbearing man pujat'. coco. buculus. BUGLE Tentennino. boeuf sauvage. Lap. Deut. an object of terror. Lett. — . worm. protuberant. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. il brutto Demonio. Chaucer. . is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. given in Chaucer. bauginti. Fl. tion of the beetle tribe. roo. disgust. E. buggabod). a rabme. tumble-bug. a bugbear for children. bugle. gad. bwg and E.3uhtii&:. boo. pujalo. Sw. forSc. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. The final guttural of W. the Devil. bau (Pureiglia. and is Deutsch. to frighten scarecrow. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Same as buffle. vermin. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. insect. Bible. monster. a misshapen person.— . (Spurrell). — boogg. fette. boa-peep. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. — — . high. to bellow. The name of bug is — . as Buffalo. An ornament of female dress condread. well as the terrific object. Bug as a lord. bok. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . and signifies also terror as name of an insect. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. terrifying ward. as an object of dread. scarecrow . a. is the dim. provincially an insect. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. and a boggarty ing. bogle. troll. Schmidt.Fr. a bug-bear. language any kind of insect. shepe and gootes. and in child's Magy. bug-bear. Cheval de trombugti. to take bug. hert. big. to origin in the expression bugs words.

and put it home. bolgia. a straw corn-vessel. OSw. a protuberance. With these must probably be classed ON. bole. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. pulkas. a bulb Du. MHG. a bubble.pulks. pod ON. globule bolg-lhuingey. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. . I. bulgen. swell. a bubble Gael. balcone. Bulge. a leather sack or budget Fr. OSw. and N. The addition of a dim. a bunch. . belgja. tumeo. lump. acervus. . bulcke. bol. ON. buhe. belly. swollen OE. knot in thread. bolg. In the representation of natural sounds. to puff up bolginn. blister Manx bolg. Othello. the body Du. a globe. bulwis. in Sc. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. Bulk. a round bulky body bwlgan. . Pm. to raise a habitation. skin of an animal. To Build. bwlg. Lith. a. For the latter sense ' — My . — — . bilge. bolgetta. boss of a buckler. trunk. the contents of the hold. . bukr.'— Cot. Bav. the belly. vulva. body. mass. pocket. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. . bulkaf. lump. bo. belly. belly Sw. hollow. hold or bilge of a ship. bubbling up. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. projection.d.). whence bylja. bolgna. (3oX|8oc. Here stand behind this bulk. Bourser. balgs. stuffed bag. Melancholy. to swell. bale. bolgan.' Festus. balco. bauch. at riufa bulkann. trunk of the body.' Anat. chest. bubble. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bouk. From till. Bolke or hepe. boss. Pm. or of what is shaped like a bubble. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. belly van de kerche. bed of a river. A — ' — Bulk. leather sack. body of a ship . or bear out as a full purse. . Gr. ball. snorting on a bulk. inhabit. to bubble up. G. bauen. bulge or bilge. bulgen. Pr. to undo the cargo. Gr. knob. buk. villa. bolnyn. belly Cat. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bulk. It. bol. has bulbuk. bulbus. PoXj3a. Pr. the womb. 1388. in bulk. as it was merly written in English to bylle. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. Kil. skin flayed whole. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. Lat. buc. ne. bubble.— . and bulbukd.' Palsgr. — Bulb. bulk or capacity of anything. . straight will he 2. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. He found a country fellow dead drunk. beuck. Mister. bulge or convex part of a cask. biilken. a. as well as is very variable. boss. bugue. turgeo bolnyd. a leathern sack or portmanteau. bulbe. the head of an onion. to bol.' Fl. swell. jnake bulch. the position of liquids in the word In English. bouge. a dint in a metal . bulki. to build. bladder. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. wallet. ' . Palco. cumulus. anything prominent. head . bol. G. . sedes. blister. bulne. belly. womb. or. on. The radical sense is shown in Russ. or cargo of a ship. gebolgen. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). — . blow. bulk is a partition of boards. — — . ^ — . Hal. bunch or projection. Lith. a prominence. Bulch. . were a habitation. habitaculum. bag. . Mandeville. or feminine termination gives Bav. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bullka. bulka. G. domicilium. the capacity or burden of a ship. of E. a heap. — — . bubble. knobby. Dan. Sp. Dan. balg. Muratori. . See how this tode bolneth. van loock. boa. to swell. bulle. m um Placentiae. bulked or bumped out. to spring. pimple. belly. . tumidus. to bubble up Pol. to belly out. See Bulk. formed a farm. to throw out a convexity. bolle. The Walach. Ptg. . . Boss^. bellows builgean. to break bulk. swollen. belgr. puff. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. belly. be protuberant. ON. a lump or mass. ' . balg.' Cot. crowd. hull of a ship. pouch builgeadh. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. byli. dial. to blow. to gather. bug. See bollekeii next article. body of an animal. trunk. the potato G. as water beginning to boil bolg. . nave or body of the church van 't schip. Lat. principal portion. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. thorax buick. knob.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. of an inflated skin. Lett. swell. w. skin bag. bolso. in vessel. Jno. Hence e. mass. bua. bubble {palgan tiisge. a stage or scaffold. — . cultivate. bulbe. boulge. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. compare Da. a water-bubble). boss of shield. . blister. a tuberous or bulbous root . liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. bolle. it again. herd^ swarm pulkd. the carcase. bulg. unevenness Sw. husk. ' .

Bullfrog. bulderen. bulloi. Dan. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . dim. stud.D. &c. 2. G. stupid . any great-headed or studded nail. I. boulct. Du. See Billet. Cot. BuUiou. Du. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. boss. blunt. A lace tree. 3.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. bollon. many to protuberant objects. a cow. pimple. W. a hobgoblin.. bouillon. spirits. w. stud. any embossed work. a bulox polos. is called a ball. G. leraures nocturni nigri. boillon. coarse. bwbach. as It. Lith. embossed work. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge.Fris.. Bret. bolli. Eullrusli. to bubble. to boil. assito. BulUiead. polten. a blockhead. See Bowl. bulle. The male W. hhint. a scare-bug. bole or trunk of a tree. a seal. stamped money. Du. bal.. and thence terror. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. witches. bullus. large. it may be observed that a bullet in E. Fr. Bully.Gr.'— ' Palsgr. This word is used in several senses. biitzibau. balgeting. in N. — Fl. sloes. bolla. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. It. Bullace. penbwl. stamp. Scot's Deso. as geting. 2. — — Bull. pwl. thick. poll-cheannach. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Pm. from the noise. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. round glass phial. . The final element tergeist.. dial. bouillon. eth and frighteth. a wasp. Pl. ba. in the sense of base metal. blister. whence bullire. elves. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. to tical with Sw. poltern. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. and vellon in Sp.' do not go by the dangerous water. a framework of balks. a seal. bulke. ON. bulla. which may probably be the origin of the name. bwlas. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bellocier. of Witchcr. boss or stud. billon. It. Fr.D. a noisy violent fellow. baula. bullocks.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. child by the represents the hobgoblin. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. to bellow. bolli. a bowl.D. bellow. as the ornanails. bullebak. bubble. tition of deals instead of a wall. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Sp. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. also of the tadpole or young frog. but is more probably iden- palchetto. bauli. large of its kind. b2iggaboo. w. bolos Fr. a tadpole. Gold or silver uncoined. the matrix or die . is of a class with Pl. bullos. scarecrow. pollach. of the ox kind. G. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. bollar. from baula. lumpish. bwla. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. i. bulk. bietebau. billoti in Fr. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. Du. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. — A tition in a ship. from the Lat. however. a hornet. as a mill-dam or the like. bulla. The wild plum. Gael. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. Bullet. the seal affixed to the document. N. signifying roaring. on the contrary. The bullfrog. it is boulet de canon. G. a stud. a little fish nearly all head. bugbear. /SouWivu. urchens. bullern. a beam or rafter. brass-headed nail . Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. A papal rescript. Bullbeggar. from the use of the equivalent terms. a bul-begger. from Fr. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. a hobgoblin. Terriculamentum. of boule. beams or boards.lle de fusil. bollos de relieve. a bull. from Lat. to seal. And The word bullerbak. poli-cheannan. as in E. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bulk of a thing. a tadpole . — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. lumpheaded . ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. a bull Swiss bullen. also a parFl. to emboss . whence Mod. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace.

D. bommele. Bully. vallum.D. IV. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. to . To bum. III. Kil.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. buller-jaan (bully. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. — — plate d'argent. Fris. buller-bas. Du. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. Hal. To bum. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Du. Fris. Bully-rock. blunder-buss. 1687). bastion. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. It. Hence bom and ban. or work of defence. Bailey. ^i^/«. droning. buller-bak. 9 E. Du. but now is the central part of the town. Fr. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. boulevard. to terrify by noise and clamour. beat a — Hal. The cry of the bittern. argentum and silver. 2. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. perturbare saevis dictis. on the other hand. AS. biihne. bol-werck. — Boom. Bum-bailiff. Bum. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud.. bolderen.D. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. bustle. a stage. bomtnen. For bottom. baluarte. sound. G. From the notion of a humming. to make a droning Du. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. 2. is bullion — A — buller.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. a blunderhead. scaffold. 10. provides. c. ierd-beame. clamour. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. minari verbulderen. buller-bas. noise. to drum Lat. c. Sw. agrees with e. buene. violent. Thus ' ble. polterer. — Bumto .' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. bodem. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. a boisterous. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . 2. a hectoring. 1305. the soil. BULLY with which coins were stamped. honunele. 14. Philip le Bel in Due. c. by corruption boulevart.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. G. ^Bully-rook.' Stat. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. G. is called bumping or bells. To Bum. bottom. Hence — . ierd-boeyme. Miege in Hal. up was termed monnaie de billon. then in general a rampart. block-werck.d. 4 Hen. ground. from boden.' Again. boene.' for the purpose of exchange. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. St. To bully is to bluster. bottn. The decried coin. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. Kiittner. ON. — bombam?nen.the ramparts. blaterare. violent overbearing person. boisterous fellow. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. legaggio di metallo. to dun.. provides. The Stat. &c. or a humblebee. Etym. hum. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. bombilare. a floor. to make a noise . buller-brook. un faux brave. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. botm. furious man.' reals of standard currency. propugnaculum. The Sw. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. a. intonare. John).' ' mettre au billon. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. 'lega. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. a bumble-. and porter au billon. IIL st. A. a noisy blustering fellow. The 27 Ed. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. debacchari. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . poltem. resonare.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' agger. blunder-buss. primarily the ramparts of a town. Kil. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. bulderen. — Bump.

Pm.-^Fl. Kyx or bunne. — — Bun. bund. Daal bu7iseti.D. especially girls. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Bun. . a heap or cluster. a bud. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. a. . a dried hemp-stalk. to . a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . the tail of a hare. — stalk . bamgetroffen. . Bumpkin. and signifies consequently a mass. a pocket Sw. pumpurras. See Bunch. —Bunny. callus.). The word is probably to be explained from Gael.! . bump. Dan. as in other cases. stem or base. Bang sen. w. a rabbit. pompette. mto Sp. Sc. Bums it's hit. Ir. H. from knock) It.^Cot. strapping. A Du. bunga. poumpi. bottom. a purse . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. boi7ieog. Hence E. any round knob or bunch. Manx bonkan. Pm. Bumboat.P. Probably for bun-boot. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. forms. to . Pr. to ' . a heap OSw. bugno. . pwmpl. bottom. round mass of anything. E. bunny. a dry No . Thus e. awkward. calamus. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Dan. so the form btmk. Bony. to swell out E. a boss Lith. Bunewand. binge. knob or heap. seems to unite Gael. Lang.— Pr. He fult dat et bunsede. a pumpion or gourd. the Pr. stubble Manx bun. large. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. or to the mass by which it is given. protuberance. Bunch. pumpa. strike E. to bang down.D. Bunk. a swelling. — — — — ' — knock. bun with ON. or grete knobbe. Related on the one side to Pl. root. to beat. Fr. also for taking a pilot to a ship. a boil (punkos bot. to bang. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. a button. from bunsen. a tail (Macleod). bun eich. clumsy. truss E.. passes Sw. bugnet. are dim.S. — — de dor bunsen. Hal. to thump. Hal. bunnion. bumsen. Bump. as we have seen E. a Sp. bignet. Pl. bunsen. lungeous. — Marine Diet. a lump on the foot bunny. a heap. a hemp-stalk. dial. bunka. buns. . Pl. clown. See Bounce. E. Holland and Flanders. a round mass . one ever saw the word in that shape. stump. bundle. . He buncheth me and beateth me. pwmp. bonge. any round knob or bunch. Then. Roding. bumtel. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Gael. a large . a swelling from a blow. bunkc. . knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Mrs Baker. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. bunan. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. applied to young persons. bune or boon. hdk passing and E. . . root. pompon. . a wallet. Forby. a heap Wall.D. Li cake. bonuach. foundation w. to bang ON. abrupt manbuns-wise.' he fell with a bang. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bunt. lenten loaves. bugno. to knock . bu<rnone. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a knob. To bam. cluster. butt end. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a. banga. BUNCH bum-bailiff. and related with ON. ! — knocking. Du. a knob. It. bannock. explaining E. See Boss. knochen. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. stalk. awkward clown. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. Hal. pwmpio. an old stump of a horse. bottom bun feoir. bunke. signifying one who does things in a thumping. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Bung^. bunki. bunken. botn. 1. a knock. bunch— Hal. Probably from bump. noise. a bunch. bon. inconsiderately. . banke. — — Bun. bung. a bunch Magy. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. nor would it concern the public if he did. Again. bulse. a knotty stick) Sw. trunk. should probably be a short tail. a into Dan. a rabbit. bonnock. to beat. bolsa. Suffolk bonnka. poumpido. Bunch. &c. a bowl P1. while bulch was traced through Gris. — round fruit. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. bum-boot. a hump. Radically identical with Dan. a bump. w. ner. lump. gibber. Fr.pummel. Gael. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON.— Bunnion.. E. to strike so as to give a dull sound. bulto. Bumsen. a heap. bongie. gibbus. tundo. Sc. bunga. a knob . bungersome. stock. bugnone. knuckles.' Bun. il me pousse. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. . dial. bull. bmidt. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. stump. A clumsy. S. blain. OSw. Moor. Pm. . stubble of beans. stock.' Palsgr. bun. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Hal. a boil or blain. hay stubble . . bans. throw down with a bang. bmike. a bag or sack. Fl. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bulscha.D.

to resound. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. — btiruii. buie. to float. a water bubble made by rain. burion. rumble as the bowels. bolting-cloth. a cork. bourjon. boya. on. the young cloth used for sifting flour. the loose open grow big about or gross. — — To Bungle. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. and E. dark. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. or putting forth of a vine. stocks or such OSw. to bungle. . bondon. la Borgonota. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. and the Sw. gyves. halm-tapp. the bung of a barrel Lim. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. properly a Burgundian helmet. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. clumsy performance. Du. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. p. to cobble. punishments for prisoners. bote. G. or used as a receptacle for papers. Bunt. biirde. dial. OG. bourguignote. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bongun. The belly or hollow of a sail. — . a wisp of hay or straw. and bomme. in is Fr. to stop. A load. a boye. bon. AS. to bolt meal. of a song. bummle. Prov. The Fr. bundel. A Dan. driving in the bung. dark grey bura.Fris. and now more Bailey. bungande. Sp. byndel. to knock. to botch. bourgeon. . . To do anything awk- wardly. unskilful working. is originally a wisp or bunch . knocking. dicimus rufum. to bud forth. would be the earliest float for an anchor. fetters. to stnmi on an instrument. noise. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. anchor or of a net boyar. . To Bunt. Sw. russet. Kil. knock. Banff. boucher. the middle part of it. Muratori. a bung. The Italian buio. a bunch Burbulas. to gingle. 202. dial. Sw. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. Burganet. . a bunch. from beran. the float of an bundle. sprig. to gingle. a botch. and van t' vat. Bret. an anchor buoy. Rietz. Hal. tinker . bonde. bindini. bond. N. ' — work . to kick. So in Pol. loosed from bonds. bounta. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. Bundle. whence in bure. on. boj. the stopper of a cask). Fr. bui. Burden. with the head. bourion. Cat. ho-tapp. stilmpern. bunta. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. Compare G. boil or bubble up. bang. clogs. buove. bunsen. Russ. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. was formerly pronounced buro. Prov. knocking. Fr.D. banghagr. to bear. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. bundt. shackles. bundle. to hum. To bunt. Sp. bove. to hum. * Buoy. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. to in to stop the hole. colligatio. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. Fr. a sort of helmet. bimge. Bunny. Burble. Bunting. something bound together (Mrs Baker). From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. banga. also a piinple in the face. Lat. The Magy. bondir. — Bureau. coassatio et Du. Sw. to stop. It. to hum. The word is flags are made. a drum . bondel-loos. So Du. burboloti. See Borel. racket . bang. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. bommen. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. B. bonde. bondeau. Johansen. that the primitive meaning of shackle . buret. the noise of drums. to work at carpentry bangan. to knock. Palsgr. OFr. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Fl. To burgeon. bangla. racket. do a thing bunglingly. Bung of a tonne or Lith. See Bourdon. See Barbarous. klempern. E. to work ineffectually. and Du. to push ghebondte. borboUar. generally known as the material of which bud. tinkle. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. stiimpeln. Biu'geon. A bubble. Sp. bongani. Burly. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . The stopper for the hole in a boia. to shove. bangla. Pl. borgonota. bondelj bundell. B. are from bouscfie. bouchon. byrthen. See Bun.— . boei. whence bunting. a bungler. working in wood (especially with an axe). Sp. tapp (whence tceppa. to push with the head del. or tuft. Fr. tap. Burden. fascis. contignatio. modem bummle. to pype. however. — — . G. bouche. to strum on an instrument. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. ghebundte. guggle as water. Bung.punt. bag to catch the wind. to Somerset is to sift. bury. to push. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe.' Festus in Diez. shove . reddish brown. AS. klimpem. OFr. Cot. especially in wood. buret. bou^e.

and OG. brase. broil. blow. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. bouril. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. Prov. pressa puret. embraser. 122. a well. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to polish. burly. Bouffer. language of folly or ridicule. Swiss Rom. Antiq. dial. boure. . to rub. burle of cloth. Probably. The Gael. boiirre. Fl. Burgh. buirleadh. a gurgling ^. bruzir. to ridicule. briis^. a margin. as Diefenbach bud. to roar (as lions. Limousin bourdo. brasa. Pren7ien. a blaze. In the same way ON. purra. from Lat. borujon. borr. a lie. to surge. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. must be explained on the same principle from G. ends of thread. a wine skin. brinii. brima. Burryn.or bubbling up. a spring a robber. angular . tahkoa. crackle wood in burning Hal. See Burr. brunnr. Probably a modifica. become big and proud. burgi latro. big. OE. Castrais bourril. . ridicule. bud or sprout forth. de Vaud. It. has also borr. brimmen. a bladder. sidiary element. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. i5«r4 biiirte. a knob. to swell oneself out as birds borras. to swell with pride. toast. to puff. the roaring surge of the — — — . pur (see Burgeon). water. Lang. bourglairs. bunch. ample of polishing metal. the word seems Pm. ends of thread. mockery. in Schm. brook. to burn. to effervesce. brunir. See Burgeon. Burn. schleiffen. swell up or strout out. a fountain. occupying much space. to burgen or wax big. sea. Burler. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. to grind on a whetstone. Fl. to roar. flocks. brunnen. an &c.— Pr. surge or dashing of the sea . to murmur. the flocks.).. to sharpen on a whetstone. bears.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. — Han to bruser op. brausen. A legal term from the Lat. G. brustolare. as the / in purl.' a jibe.j'own. &c. Fr. brun. to To Bum.. brynsten. lorra. to swell. borrelen. swelling borr-shuil.). knob. like. a jest.bryna. ^Notk. to bud . born. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike.ireui£r:e. sicut sound. from bryii. a purling hiwe brennen. to make a So from Fin. and the Burin. with Dan. to polish. to Gael. 56. taunt. burgensis. to fiy. jest of. to roar. tumentum. sbornoi. the er is a dresser of cloth. the J in OFr. From Fr. BURNISH i5«r/. a prominent eye borracka. grancelli. to puff up borr^ .' Cot. to bourda. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Burglar.. robber. a jest. and Dan. compared with G. to roar. It. Fr. protuberance. purrata. — — . is an Thus G. bururus. . he rustle. Todd.). explaining Sp. Walach. OE. to ridicule. Burlesque. From the same root E. burgeois. borni. and the Burnish. OFr. barrel. Schm. — . brustle. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to bouronna. watery. It is probable indeed that Fr. fire. tion of the root which gave the OE. to polish helmets. condemnentur morti. Bav. boura. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Sw. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. ' rugiens. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. roguing beggars. an edge. brunna. Supp. Goth. a bubble. joking. A burl. burn. warbling. ON. de Vaud. leo Fin. Bret. with little iron nippers called burling irons. brinna. singe or scorch with fire. to sharpen. as in cousteau. See under Bore. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Cot. thence. is termed burling. OFr. bourou. Sw.sharpen. bururus. Compare also Piedm. Sp. borracka. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. bremmen. which has given much trouble to etymologists. burren. brim or edge of anything. — . to roar 5. purling. Hence Bridel. is connected with brim.Ps.— .. Burly. to hum. Bav. from the roaring sound of flame. lerre.. In the manu. The in. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. It. Pr. Swiss Rom. So also Sw. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. See Berough. . bourd. a bubble to spring as water. as of suggests. to set on fire. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. spring-water bumach. brusler being a faulty spelling. — — . brandung. tahko. — — . b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. a bud. G. to tell lies. to roar. Gael. Burgher. Lang. E. N. bruse. like the wind in trees. Dief. ii6 BURGESS Gael. A — — . to burn. like straw or small . fires up. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Pm. The primary origin of the word. it of the knots. brAler. burlare. ^ttsa. brinnen or Also ein roar. abourioner. Nat. Fr. burgen. a whetstone. repartee . Burgess. to give an edge to. Bestiary. j. laer. explaining the E.

' The same word with burgh. brisd. but it is more probably a development of It. It. and met. buscha. caer is a — — — ' ' : . brit. brokil and brotil. OHG. to break. birr. Du. to bury . whirr. Fris. I. Cot. Mid. AS. to hide. This word seems safety. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. any rapid whirling biarga. &c. bersten. bourre. bur. the fortress of a coney or rabbit.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. prsnuti. as from Sp. G. blurra. See Burgeon. of England. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. bristeach. from Fr. Jam. brickie. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. byrigels. a pad. Port. borsia. a barn or cupboard. Burrow. bolsa to It. some people in pronouncing the letter r. its own protection. root borr. burgisli. tomb. byrgels. Burser. Sexy. be more in accordance with AS. Burial. byrgan. G. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. briso. shuffling.' Harris in Todd. briser. beurs. and. ' ' — — burren. 2. break . verbergen. mentioned under Burgeon. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. berstan. brjota. Fr. borrow. any kind of quilting or stuffing. whence Kil. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. borsa. signifying protrude. beorgan. a port. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. purr. a wallet or scrip. bolgia.. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. brittle. &c. E. that birds make their nests with. a place of defence. byrgen. burre. bourlet. birigean.— . the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. husks. chips or anything else Fl. swell. . as in Northumberland. g. to save. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. See Bulge. karborre. Beowulf. Fr. also all such stuff as hay. In OE. shales. preserve. To Bury. barza. hair. . a purse. cwning-gaer. brest. Burr is related to buzz as protect. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Du. bourse. appears under the Lang. peluca to Fr. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Shelter. borre. fortify. makes the disbursements of the college. moss. and spelling. bris. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . a morsel. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. In a met. Hence Fr. brittle. the officer who bears the purse. and thence flocks 'of wool. Brun on bane. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Compare also OE. Burse. iii. a purse. to buzz. britar. . AS. perruque. coo. burial place. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. borra. skin. bres- — tan. whirr and burr. ptcrren. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. ber•whirr to whizz. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. bourrelet. birgan. Burse. Hal. to P'air. brist. brizeto. It.Lat. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. straw. With a slightly different ghen. as it is still pronounced in N. bris. save. 5150. shelter. ultimately resting on the Gael. shearing of cloth. Dan. byrsa. 225. dial. explained E.' edge grew weak. brico. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Gael. Sw. when they spring So in W. to burst. To Burst. bergen. an exchange. the — — castle or fortress. bristen. A rabbit burmotion. Burr. burra. impetus. of a body hurled through the air. from whence we pass through Sp. brista. — Translated by Kemble. dial. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. from AS. a harness or collar maker) . upon the bone but it And burred moons night. cover. S w. Swiss burren. pipaa. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. force. ON. Sw. idiom if 4. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. also ' any such trash as chaff. keep. Bursar. brist. i5(7&a. Fr. bourrer. brisdeach. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. to hide . bur. -Grisons bulscha. a. brast. brown. stuffing. leather. to mutter Sw. foretell great storms at 3. bourse. preserve. ON. OHG. a rabbit burrow. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. an annular swelling. byrstan. briketo. — Clare. -burse. a sepulchre. to stuff. borre. talk fast and indistinctly. borra. borsa. as for the protection of a child's head. The root forms brik. casting bullets. ' BURR AS.

P. a corpse). bausen. iriCtf -ifoe. to bend one's steps. The bone in a woman's stays. Sir Tristram. Fr. G. Gr. rad. bundle * Buskin. to stop. buxta. ' . Du. whence bouchon. beorgan. il fut couch6 l^jkema). Brunne. bousse. as boun is simply buinn. bossen. They busked and malced them boun. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . besom). Sc.gur bidst austur um EySascog. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. and he cites wisp bauschen. make ready. ieorh. a little box Dan. Mid. brodequin tout noir. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. dead. And her ful sone tuft. bousIn the other copy ser. buysschen. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. from the ON. ' .' meaning of bua is simply to bend. boissa. bussel. bulge. a -tavern bush. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis.) to hide in the ground. Bush. bossida. a clot of phlegm sart. Thence byrigean. a tuft. a been written buasc. 'at bua sik. to sepulchre. roquies. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. 2.' The word is explained by — — . Brunne. buxida. a gun biichse. . to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bosch (a diminutive ?).boisteau. as synonymous with to inake one boun. and thence Mid. bousche. —Busk. apparently a secondary verb. Layamon. a bunch of twigs. boistel. : — . a hump. at buast. It. bo7ich (Fr. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. to betake ' Haralldur kona box.-^Bushel. in OE. bush. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. biichse. bairgan. truasc. . to bow. Ptg. protect . the land. Thus Froister . bosta. It. to keep. then a tuft Sp. buskr. diminutives. a tuft of hair.— ' ii8 {chreo. mount. ' —P. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. a bush. borseof trees. In to Brutaine. thicket of thorns . in the For Skirnis . occultare K. verb. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. a troop. lump. gave Lat. . Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. bundle. defence. a box. to enclose in a case or box. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. signifying to entomb. a box for measuring corn. . a wisp.' sheath. bustellus. See Box. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. to prepare. Le roy Richard mort. burial mound. busken. barst. To Busk. van wijnbesien.Lat. whence at bua sik. barsc in Heimskringla. condere. or — Busk. busse. Harold G. to swell. a bundle. a box. boucher. to direct one's course towards. Sibriht that I of told. sur une litifere. to bury. OFr. clusprobably Morocco leather. bussellus. to turn. boxta. knot. thicket {buski. boiste. R.fiasc. and not directly (as Du. See Bust. tow. brake. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. cluster. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. ch). bos. borcegui. fiast. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. Prov. The word frequency with which to busk is used. grapes. we have Fr. to forest of Eyda. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. hunch Du. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. tuft.' a box. to dress. abdere. To prepare. for at buasc. a tuft guini. a bush. boisseau. Du. aheap of stones. or the like. qualster-boscken. The primary sense of hair . a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. and we actually find bushel. whente beorg. buxula. BUSH hreaw. Bush. the Moors and of Morocco. . . box wood to bush. the past participle of the same verb bua. bush. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. AS. wisp. berghen. Du. to dress. busk. a rampart. projection. Malberg.Lat. that the lend had lorn thorn. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. Fris. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. Bouchet. bunch. induere vestes . The radical idea is seen in Goth. bussare. So from Fr. bustula.' The buskin is said Bret. a tuft. bulk. Sw. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. borghen. brodiquin. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. oneself. is thus accounted for. which would later have truast. a bunch. bua. and from the Fr. hjul-bosse. AS. bouche. OFr. ' . basse. preserve. bramble. a grove bosch van haer. ' . 410. at bua sig. bosc. -idis. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. the idea of knocking. basse.

Walach. says. Fr. Prov.Lat. a blow. a fishing vessel. trunk of Cot. an affair. knock. utarda. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. bisegung. kiss. stir. the point of a lance. bust. body without arms and legs. bulk. besoigAe.bezig. and also a sounding blow. Lang. a stroke of wind. bustla. busy. mons. a log. biseg. in Diaz Gris. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. of a doublet. a bulk or trunk without a head. a mouth. worn to make the body straight . body. See Boss. bukr. a.). avuDiez. arbor ramis trunGloss. ship Sp. I go strepo) . mogangas from gonj. With respect to bust. bnist. pussa. putschen. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. busc. chest. forest. fe^a. bisgung. a great billet Cot. a kiss of reverence. occupied bezigen. body of a woman's dress It. putta. busch. 2. 1372.> Also written buskle. biist. Bust. body. buc. and then with avis again prefixed. small. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. an ostrich. bysgian. A wisp. a kiss. I bustle. log . lip. On the other hand. body . — Thus we should have mocherqui. Xerqui. body of a man. kiss. Box. representing a blow. baiser. mohedairova. buyse. would explain the G. to occupy. B. btcc. austarda. or Cherqui. Fr. from jnund. or avutarda. ^A. Rouchi. bu. bust. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. lump. Pol. a bunch of flowers . Cat.' Plin. 7o\. betarda. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. bussen. otarda. mosequin. Bav. Swiss butschen. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. ON. The form brust. — . tuft. Du. bist. So Wes- terwald munds. Business. and supposes that the common Arab. besongne. brostia as well as bostia. to bustle. buc. Fr. borcegui. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). box. signifying trunk of a the body. employment bisgan. to knock . a Mid. Buss. bus. plated body or other quilted thing. . Busk. Prov. bysgje. kupata. a projection. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. a kiss. inde discurro et operosus sum.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. — — — — It is like the smouldering. 119 bi{tr. 1555. bisg. So in Fin. — — difications of the same word. stump. Nained from Proximse iis zia. a bush. trunk. geidha. forms morseqiiill. stem. statue of the upper part of Fr. to make a splash in the water. a kiss. Bust. its slowness of flight. the long. buc. of the human body (Grandg. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . ViM. 22. lips. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. busche. bus. Namur — Champagne Fr.' ON. to make use of. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. outard. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. windbutsch. bacio. Lat. cata — . a blow. outarde. The Prov. ottarda.d. bucha. ' BUSY 2. lip. I. bus and Pol. also a busk. or chest in which the vitals are contained. ' bistardej It. — hardly be distinct from Fr. sera. Fris. and by transposition morchequi. I. a busk. love gestures. stump. buta. then trunk of respect to busk we have on.— . brusc. 2l box. tarda. Hence probably au-tarda. To Bustle. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. — clattering about. also a It. hipista. Bulch. Hal. butz. Cot. a bust. Comp. To hurry or make a great B. snout. also a flagon. BUSS Dozy from Arab. buz. especially of a woman's dress. as in ON. A great sluggish fowl. bussa. Bustard. a sleeveless truss or doublet. buquer. Fl. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. a boat or small vessel . made stiff. 10. Prov. abutarda. busto. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. knock.D. The proceedings of Parliament. busq. . Port. trunk. bruskras well as buskr. to Swab. the trunk. busch. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. morsequi. a tree. mouth. basiuin. brut. Sp. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. beso. vessel employed in the herring fishery. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. business. a backstock. work. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. beezig. a ship of some size. but. body of garment. A A busquer (Sigart). crack . smack.pjik. busta. abotarda. sunt quas Hispania aves . thick end. Busy. occupation. the body without arms busque. Busitiess :c3iVi . the breast. trunk of a tree. a large cljest or particular applibox. ON. Sp. Gael. as in moharra from harbe. Sp. Fr. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. Lindenbr. AS. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Edrtst. Sw. mouth.

from boc. Du. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. Fr. botilla. in addition. wooden receptthing to be done. being wholly unten. bounds of. similar train of thought is seen in ON.in which his brethren are included. without. of the wine and drink. the mouth). ways. the belly. viz. moreover. bhcciero. Ben-house. the body of a tree or of a man. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. the present day we should say. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. biitait slaughterer of goats .' Thus Chaucer says. bitlga. an outlaw from bouche. which the word corresponds to the Fr. bountifully. without care. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Butler. a small winebag. bute. boucher. bocin. we find ben. but one thing. Sp. be out. boteria. bouz. the Perhaps besogne — . large barrel. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Lang.streets.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. Fr. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . rumpf. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. equivalent of AS. ' Besides all that. and with It. or what in in charge of the pantry. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. outside that moreover. body of a shirt w. butan ce. butan. is put in a class by himself.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. — . Coutume d'Alost in Diet. also a hollow vessel . ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . bolgia. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. except. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. boccino. bout. Where at an earthen jar . a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. a wooden cask. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. add. . botte. beta. by the mode in which he is treated. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. a butcher . besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Sp. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. a butcher. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. It. a goat (and not besides . bodifie. beccaria. barriga. the name must have arisen before the within. bole of a tree. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. "PLT) . the servant in charge of the original object. sup- meat and drink. slaughter-house. So in Italian from becco. bochier. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . botija.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. a butchery. the full expres. without law. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. without the house kept in bottles. a barrel._ bitten j biiten door. besides that . properly a butan wite. OFr. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. Sp. and the real origin of the and within . to-boot. my is called the adversative use of but. then hoUow trunk. Lang. calf. AS. are. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. — we acle for liquors. G. But It.' there is really a negation to be supplied. But when will you pay it ? the belly. a cask. and bot. ox. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. buta. a baiTel . a bottle.jamin. bous. the jug and in E.' ' write. hull of a ship. mais. the body of an animal. the principal apartment. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. calf of the ' say. . rotundity of the body. As a conjunction but is in every portion. bisgung. a budget. the bottles. But In Sc. the store of ten. without punishment . belly. The E. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bola. binnan. that which would be translated by Fr. Fr. from as. viz. ' There is leathern bottle. boquier. beyond the Piedm. as Pantler. original sense of without. earthen which the debtor has adverted. the precise correlative of but. bolr. bitten dai. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. Butcher. skin-bag. young mais. belly. If that where now we should compiler. Tooke's dis. bouteillier. ont jhi^ton. able.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. bag. collection of casks. Here the but implies the existence of an. without buiten-man. a goat.The Sp. Butt. tinction between but. Wall. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. is well explained by Tooke.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. Prov. those in beccaio. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Buttery. beccaro. hollow case. belly. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril.' — — ' . bol. gives at least two pounds sterling. A A . a leathern bag. the trunk or body of an animal. trunk. (children) boc.

boutoir. from notirrir. So in English pimples were fora clod. to boult flour. Du. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. from bouter. of E. any small projection. Button. Buttery. Buttress. butteln. povrvpov. clunis. W. bot blijven staan. nourrissons. to strike. buttock of beef is called butr. Du. Perhaps corrupted Lat. butte. or or shore post. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. to blad. strike. nursling. by boE. grease that sets by merely standing.thum and not button. from stossen. in the R. bottig. as in G. Fr. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Fris. bottich. to so close to the Fr.against another which needs support . bout. buhsom. caput scapula bout van f been. bocsam. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . a. a but in the W. boter-vogel. boil. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. . geboogsaem. coxa. Fr. bot. e. &c. what is kept in a blow. a blow. bud. . To Butt. on.' thick from shaking. Buttel-triib. boutis. short thick thing pimple. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave .putan. a cask. thrust forwards. boter-schijte. a bun. Halma. an etwas anstossen. butt. a buttrice. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. — . an ox. . — A . Schmell. a scope. waste ground. suddenly . pwtiaw. -ez. pwt. rabodd. bothog. : . at. Butter-glass. poke. a dle . as if from Povg. to abut on. i. trapu. dripping. to bow. butter. bata. a barrel. tress. to thrust. Kil. Gr. humble. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. leg of lamb. lams-bout. Fr. * Buxom. to abut a stone roof. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. ment being supposed to resemble butter. Fr. a flying buttress. to thrust. — . from rejeter. give way. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Buttrice. a large belly. a tub. having a rotundity . botten. Sp. to push earth . butte. botta. Schmell. Kil. any short thick thing. bodi'. a wall butor butt on. the edge forwards. to heap up earth or ihrust. is formed the augmentative buttatich. Btetter-schmalz. to femur. G. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. bouton. W. buttare. A — — — . From Du. tout seat or breech.to push. botta. a corner horses' hoofs. a little push . botto.arbre. end . buter. a mound. boding. a hill. butyrum. Buttock. as rejeton. courtaud. potacha. or person Schmeller . striking end.rejected thing. Lang. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. a stroke di animal. To strike with the head bags. a button. Boutant. See Butler. the trunk. clumsy . an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. botwm. bouton. From Grisons biitt. pied. bott. Boutje. a blow. are the strips at the edges of the field. and the true derivation boar. fle>(ible. a boss. put. bouter. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. — — — — . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. boter-vliege. R. obedient. bot. Hal. butt. the thick end. The Bavarian potig. to be con. Fr. Hal. the thigh of a goose. the prick in the middle of a target. but. aim whence to make a support to a wall. from the large knobbed head of botto. both.. stump of a tree Fr. obeto shake backwards and forwards. Bav. to thrust . bout. butt. the rosebud. to butt. able that Chaucer. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. bodi. a button. a ribbed glass for dient. nourrisson. thrust. &c. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. w. stump. so as to make a sounding blow. butter un. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . butter. gigot. the store of while bottich. Bav. Gris. Du. a buttress Cot. Grandg. to thrust Fr. from bugan. a boss. Mur-buttant.— BUTT leg . a leg of mutton. An erection built up as a Fr. butt of a person. buttals. boteria.. but this is probably from Fr. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. large head. a button. buttern. to touch at the end. Kil. Du. a bolt. botte. Butter. a heap of merly called pushes. a bot. to throw . of the present day. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Gael. AS. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. the Butter-fly. Cot. Bout van het schouderIt. bouter. butz. Fr. boiUer. fowl. hillock . a thrust the thigh-bone. From the noise of drinkables in a house. bocgsuin. a. Fr. signify a cask or tub. To come full butt against a butts. submit shaking up salad sauce. a stump or club foot. It. to thrust. to cast. oir spike with a k coup . thick. — A . Du. The word body itself seems identical with G.

To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. indistinctly. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. to whisper. bij. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. bi. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. good-humoured one. town having separate jurisdiction. byar-rettr. harty prayers and God speedes. Mercy hight that mayde. Dan. p. to purchase for money. bycgan. and would have been lost in E. a meke thynge with — alle. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Sw. The sense of buxom. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . a by-path is a side path .in N. favourable. byar-log. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. bugjan. Du. A A We — — — days' wonder. stall. — 122 BUY P. favourably to a petition. Many good mological explanation. to sell. a beetle. and boxome of speche xviii. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. bozzago. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. big. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Then applied to speaking low. . The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. The ON. son. Originally the law of a particular town. frabttg- To Buzz. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. It. bylove. Verstegan in R. jus municipii. buzarg.— P. leges urbanse ON. 116. 3. as Fr. a town. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. \s\xy. farm. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. G. A ful benygne buirde. a borough. bees. to buzz. lb. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. Etynj. & Q. to pass by. as heedless as a cock-chafer. CABAL Goth. . The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bi. to jan. 200. Byre. from by. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. It. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). to swear with him by . ii. Sw. buso. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. who makes abigg. Goth.busardj Prov. buteoj Fr. buzac.P. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. bar.. bygge.— Diet. By-law. 519. lete. confusedly. tions by one. —gracious of speech. village. and it is of good will. AS. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. Lat. also say. a buzzard or puttock. P. bohte. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. as in Da. See Abie. bauhta. A by. train of thought which has become obso. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. blessing me with their of side. cow-house. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. byr. from whom it was addressed. . called Cabala or Tradition. Cabal. to stand at his side . abozzago. ON. 21. gracious. OE. depends upon a esteem in falconry. buzzicare. iii. to wit. bei. Buzzard. bylag. Pecock Repressor.. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. To Buy. groat in token of his good heart towards him. AS.

heady. covering. —Diet. Due. cab lis. Common to Lat. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. vile. w. OSp. string. gabardme. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . It. an engine for casting stones. hoard together. cabarino. The name of the engine. calabre. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Fr. cadabulum. overwhelm (Diet. kabas. cabas. kakla. disgust cac. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. signifying properly a rope's end. Imitative of the cry of hens. signifies down. precisely in the sense of the lari E. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. Fr. a rope or cable. from manganum. cable . Didot. nasty. a covering. cabus. — . capo. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. cabane. agge machen (in nurses' language).. as it must have stood in French. Castr. headed or cabbage lettuce. case.Gr. a rope. and Finnish lanLat. akista. kakaloH.ticula. especially shepherd's frock. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. Gaggle. Cot. Kil. caable (in legal language). originally an Gael. band. Choux cabus. OFr. Brushwood — — B. gaggi. cadabulum. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. hovel. capanna. Lat. or as an interjection of disMod. dirt and the Fr. Very generally used. agge. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka.Lat. giiare. kabane. cabacho. — .Lat. Finn. whence Fr. main. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. &c. Ptg. origin is the OFr. for the origin of which see Carabine. cadabula. ! — . caboche. whence Lang. overwhelm. a shed. dung. chabla.. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. but it would seem to explain To Cackle.). . traboccare. come the Fr. in which sense are explained The the OFr. cabre. deponat a store closet. Cabbage. is probably unconnected. The double a in the OFr. properly windfalls. The Sp. lactuca capitata. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. E.Lat. cab. kabaSsen. . capuccio. and Ptg.. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. a rope. it would seem fundain children's language. to hurl down.. a frail.' Due. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. dirty. from trabocco. the Prov. the bowels. as Turk. Etym. ckaable. cabo. Fr. prostratio ad terram. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . . archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cabaii. Cablisb. . To steal or pocket. Cappa in OSp. surripere. To Cabbage. a booth or hut. serious injury — In like manner It. a rope. Katr-iT-aKt. gatsch. gaban. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. chadabula. Due. ceach / exclamation of guages. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Cabin. a tunic. chaable. wilful). hut. would correspond to cable. manganare. — Kil. Coticesserint Swiss aa. has kabbel. Lith. caable. a headed cole or cabbage . aak! tandi like Fr. aakkat'a. Sp. Mid. &c. Tugurium. a head (whence cabochard. mdhaigner. to strain in such a manner . — Tarbe. or rush basket. the Slavonian. It. 'habl. Celtic. cacare . secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. su/Furari. maim. geese. a cloak of felt or Cack. Sp. a car- We convasare. and as we find stones Mid. vincially used in E. form kactal. . aeggi. and Or. (ca/coe. cadabalum. as an expression of Gr. to chatter. . Capstan. filth. cabo. Item habeat vocant. cadabola. Mid. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Sw. cabasser. gaggele. Cot. — the ON. cabuccio. Mid. round or great headed. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Neckam — by the wind. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Du. agga. as Diez supposes).the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. to put or pack up in a frail. Du. head. — Ibid. chaable. to hurl in Nat. headed. It is remarkable that the Esthon. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . forms indi. dirty. kabat. Cabinet. Du. stercus. bad. to keep or Du. It. cabulus. From It. cabre. manticuKil. Fr. or cadable. OFr. and the Arab. disgust. cabbage. It. accablcr. brassica — capitata. cacare. cdble. name of the projectile engine. caqueter. Antiq. laitue cabusse. OFr. caable. Lang. Fr. : — from violence without blood. disgusting such an engine was exerted. E. caables. cables. havyar to caviare. a jacket Fr. a cabbage . to crush. cabuyskoole.

It is another form of the E. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. ratas. cageoler. a lump or large piece. prate. Cadaverous. hence musical rhythm. a waggon . a falling. G. From lerie. a wretch. Lat. pi. or smooth Hnen cloth. Sp. to cage. kolyasochka. loss. — in a kiln. to prate much to little purpose. the pi. Turk. It. calentar. Fr. Fr. caldaria.— . Cadet. principal and interest. See Kiddier. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Du. without loss. Lat. frolicsome kaad mund. ' . kolyaska. gavia. disease of sailors from tivus). calf of leg. In the same way Fin. calamitas. a mischievous dial. Fr. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Lat. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Turk. lindrus. hot. koeck. Calp is riadh. a caFr. calidus. Lat. a cake or loaf. calamus. Perhaps from w. cadence. caliche. ben- kalf. * Cade. the younger son of a family said to be from . Gael. cage. kdtr. kalb. cuttle-fish. frisky. kakulla. taking it Sp. a car. It. whence calash. kalfi. lord. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. Du. Fr. ON. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. kolasa. Lat. Mrs B. kolesnitza. An open travelling chariot. reed-pen.warmth . Calamity. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Cake. cage. Lat. En kaka br'od. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. whence Lat. to gabble. joyous . * Calibre. chetif. calidus. when they are said to poor. a calesh. A . The Lat. cykevie. kail. Pol. its mother. &c. Russ. Sw. roller. to cackle . caioler. naXaiidpi. calcis. pet lamb. calendrer. kat. a wheel . To Cajole. from the Chinese catty. —Atkinson. the pith or soft part of wood. cattivo (from Lat. Cadence. cauldron. . a hollow place. a circle. master. pen Mod. or prattle. kolesb. of which. A — fall.Gr. signifies a waggon. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). to heat. incolumis. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Sw. a fever. gaggle. Tea-caddy. It. cake. a vessel for heating water. 124 prattle . cabdillo. A cuttle-fish. an ugly waggon kolaska. As Du. cadet. jabber. calibre. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. kaad. calentura. bad . the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. wretched. Dan. Fr. the lump and the increase. It. chaudron. To Calender. calibre. . cadenza. Fr. a calash . gabble. caldarius. Dan. or colpa na coise. a wheel . N. kage. calendarium. . Cot. Flo. Lat. calpa. dead body. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. captive. to . kolo. just falling. (in the augm. Roman reckoning. calx. little chief. Cauldron. babbhng. Fr. . Due. to throw themselves into the sea. gaggia. kukje. Caldron. Fr. a roller. gabbia. Calcialate. cavea. Calandre. safe. loss. chattering. Calf of the Leg. directly representing the chattering cries of birds.uv. Sp. a counter used in casting accounts. a wheel. Sp. kalem. coll. hot . Cajol. colibro. desire of land. It. cadere. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. for green fields. unruly . to — Fr. calessa. Du. especially of something soft. from calendcE. cha'cmie cadence. an inkstand . javioler. kaeckelenj Gr. cadaver. It. — — — Dan. Cot. coop. a dence. Sw. from calculus. G. of the nature of lime to calcine. a cylinder. KxiKivh^o^. calba. to sleek hence a den. one unduly indulged by. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Originally from a Slavonic source. a small stone. dial. to compute. kuchen. Du. the bore of a cannon. and troublesomely attached to. The young G. gabbia. form) calderone. Calendar. pith. Gascon capdet. kolo. Caitiff. ever and anon. calesa. kaka. Cot. on. kalfvan hout. from the ink-bag which it contains. A hooded carriage. Arab. Calocli. Calc-. the calf of the leg. a loaf of bread. a common cart.— Cot. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. of oxen and similar animals. . Lat. chaudiere. collop. B. Caddy. The Calf. KaKKat. a low note. Cadge*. lime whence calcareous. limestone. Serv. a wheel . gabberen is identical with E. a tea-chest. rattaat (wheels). misfortune. Calash. kola. Calamary. kolo. capitetum.— Calliper. is probably delusive. kauwe. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Lat. kdfich. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. capCalenture. from Gr. marrow. boy. calculo. a reed. wanton. Lat. to treat like lime. a corpse. Cage. Lat.

try. however. whehce it was first brought. from Calicut in the E. to calk. Ibid. overscalmaccio. Sp. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. Heb. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Bi. Mil. hot. to call. 125 Prov. depreciatory term for a woman. and heat.' Winter's Tale. piece of bigger circuite. to cram. Sp. the hard surface of the ground. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. CALM to press or stuff. harden by pressure. So It. form in the kalib. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. given. bombarda Cauma incendium. kael. Turk. and sometimes a handgun. . harquebus or handgun. calo. to callet. It. cauque. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. saucy.(jaa= ice). Caliph. to prattle. water-tight.from Ka'tm. them &c. Sup. femme frivole et babillarde. on. to call. prattle. Lang. diameter of a ball. fistula. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. kil-u-kal. the heat of Now these Du. Dief. Sir John Smith in Grose. The origin is Gr. calme. Fin. tapulta. to tread. an adder. Kil. heat. scalmato. callus. The primitive colubrina bombarda. — — — — — . Among these were the turn. calleting. sclopus. Mid. * Callet. of a column. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. i. calicot. or caliever. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . caliver. Unfledged. the Fr. Hard. heat. licht stuk The change from a. to hear. Callow. kal. Due.' Slange. word of mouth . caillette. brawny. hallottaa. a soldier who the It. dial. faint. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. serpentina. dragoon. To drive tow or oakham. bald. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. quiet. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). calca. KaXka. trull. chatter kallen. calk. Indies. the latter of chamber. Du. Lat. or mould. and dragon. glotton. coluber also. abto suppose that E. Kil.position is much less common than the geschut. — Fl. caluw. . coluber. calibre. kind heat of the sun. AS. having a thick skin. calc. nautique). a round of abuse. or languishing drought is . seems to donrebusse vel be heat.' Whitby Gl. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. — — — — — . which is as much as to say. people's remarks. calcaich. koluvre. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. The word was also written cawme in OE. Derived by some from Arab.. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. The reference to heat is preserved in. Fr. Ca. calcare. whence couleuv. cahna. calgua. colubrina. calare. moso. klover. Diez. calclover. sence of wind. Kavfia. kol. a good calling. push violently. calibre. kal. E. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. moist. qAlab. Antiq. culverin.Lat. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. To Calk. chatter. CALICO Calliper-compasses. sound. and E. of the bore of a firearm met. a successor. can be distinct from ODu. callum. ululo Turk. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. a feathers. cotton cloth. Fr. NE. vulgo Coluvrine. scold. cauma. done with heat Alt. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. to rail or scold . Fin. calat of leude demeaning. calor.' But it is hard Du. ' rine. u to an I in such a colubrum. oldire from audire. quA librd.— . * Caliver. ' pert. to proclaim. whereas in troth it is not. Calico. calvus. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. which has its memory preserved in Du. Call. Fr. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Ptg. Mahn derives it from Lat. by many that the weapon Callous.' Chaucer. to burn. kalla. calma. tittle-tattle. khalif.meaning of the word. serpens. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. Calm. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . quality. to say. Diet. dragonder. a last. kahcwe. kallo. Lat. couleuvre. gossiping. Fr. Gr. calma. According to Jal (Gl. to abuse . saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. but is only a jda-kallo. coulevrine.en~ kinds of firearms.piicede Lat. the Fr. colubraria canna. the scalp or skull. a drab. sestus. form. hollaing. longior. faint. Gael. a. ram. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. to affirm. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. alta voce ploro. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Sc. To call. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. voice. donderbuchs Sp. the day. to be of a good or bad quality. overheated. skin hardened by labour. drive. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. B. To century was Squalibre.

Gr. whence Fr. from candere. brought from Fr. a. the heat. the calix. cup. crooked. Calyx. a goblet bud. samon._ kamm. lame. Lat. It. sugar. a' Sc. arched. the salmondis faillis thair loup. is Cambering. Canibal. callar. the bed of a stream. Campaign. cambre. Camp. to avoid enemy in their shirts. an eating. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. different sections of the like the Chinese. on. callour. slander. Ptg. nia. canistrum. lattice.' ' Quhen a lattice. the type of a hollow pipe. at the ends. E. See Canker. Fr. open and level ground. water chamlet . spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Cambrav—Cam. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Cambray. Sp. campo. to warp. Canker. icaSoytipoe. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. fresh. or Caribs. candidus. Canine. Turk. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. cambren. Fr. crook. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. camelus.Gr. Caloyer. had no r in de bric— Cot. Kakoycpos. Calumny. a basket.— Hackluyt in R.Lat. camisade. crooked-stick. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. lie level. canalis. a field Greek monk. Fr. a. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. It. to bow. camber-nosed. Cann. Arab. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Lat. to jut. Cambric. camahutus. is Candle. a caught. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. when its substance appears inter. India Islands. w. KafitjUe. the space of false imputation. fair. Cameo. B. cAouma. Properly calver in the field during a war. whence the Fr. campagna. campus. chaitcre. a crab. crooked. Cancer. co7nbar. white. camisa. Lat. properly good country. kanna. .who their language. From campus was formed Lat. ation. Cot. arched. Fr. Lat. good. Lat.—Jam. to break.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. Fr. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. — Cancel. cancello. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. canis. A — the Cannibals. from xaXbg. would plenier. E. Peter Martyr. Mod. champagne. Mid. Sp. Camisade. canna. calj'x. aged. Fr. It. salmon. Cambrel. Pers. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day..' Forme of Cury in Way. camiscieia. clothed in white. Canal Channel. catmneo. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. ko/utuXoc. to bend. Calver of cane. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. — Lat. E. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. cambr^. paign. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. The Grisons cauina. Gr. campagne. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. a piece. B. camaien. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. campagna. crooked. Camlet. camiscia. or hollow of a flower. From fluting or furrow in a column .— B.— Chandelier. Lat. across — Bellenden in Jam. campaign. Camel. It. candela. cancer. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Fr. Palsgr. cup. died in 1526.conduit-pipe. field . cambrer. Candid. Bret. to bend. — B. higher in the middle than Fr. unwater chamelot . Lat. also an eatmg sore. cainahelus. se cameloter. Or the word Lat. a large drinking . lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. having an aquiline nose. calutmiia. Fr. the spersed with white flakes like curd. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. camafeo. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. KafivTu. mg Canister. toile some of whom. An eater of human flesh. It. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Sp. camelot. monk. chamold man. It. hooked. chommer.—Candidate.—Cambrel. spot for cattle. camp. ckaouma. campren. whence the noun signifying an applicant. campo. to glow. frank and sincandidatus. cam^e. bis. It was distinfrom work. and yspiuv. In a different application It. a may have acquired that signification from plain. . a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. cere : Lat. arch. to the force of the wind. champ. chandelle. Sanson khanda. Candy. sore. a dog. aspirant.

Again we have Lat. a horn of the moon . from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Canopy. regular. a tube. Schwab. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. a hundred. Gugel. say. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. canapa. canto. kwvwxIi. a ruler. Hence Lat. . quarter. corner. The meserseum and the mesentericum. kandt-broodts. a drinking glass. It. To canvas — . B. a scull- — here. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a cloak. the part easiest broken off. coat. It. It. cape. Prov. canteau. chape. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. kaput. a cloak kapali. kynnel. quarter . border. which is not the case. N. canonici. Alamannis. Cape. cannone. W. KaTTiram. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. or cantell of bread. kyndel. a straight rod. covered. hemp. a cane. Sp. side. trine. canton. cannevaccia. cannabis. cover kapi. Cantle. formerly called a Canterbury gallop.Gr. that the G. Du. OFr. To Canonise. kantr. contain. cantle then is a corner of a thing. territorial hundred. it would have been found in the continental languages. a wine-cellar or vault. has kahn. part. From Lat. Mod. a small boat. Canvas. a pipe.n. If the word had been from cantherius. Of vena cava and of vena porta. a reed. and hence a gobbet. call. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. to put upon sacred writers. Probably only the augmentative of canto. Esthon. canapaccia. chanteau. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. chantel. A piece of anything. he discourseth of dissection. is found languages of very different stocks. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Canton. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Fr. Capacious. tain. cantred. canon.. KCLvva. Coal burning with bright flame. was formed Kavtiiv. from cant. caparazon. root cap. capace. cane. schlappen. the quartile. Picard. hirnschlapple. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. cheese. hood. Sp. cope. a cap. Palsgr. Diez. Kavt\. Cope. Fr. rumme. Mod. a door . . a boat. It. cane. margo panis diffracta. properly a large Prov. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. See Chape.^on.CANNEL vessel. language. schlapp. capello Italis. a cover Turk. cane.— Cot. from canna. cappe. cannevo. a hunch of bread. like a torch or candle. a reed. cantina. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. &c. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a gelding. Fin. Fr. haitt. A slow gallop. pipe. leiwan kanta. coarse hempen cloth Fr. region. astrology. measure for cloth. canevas. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. clqse. name. able to receive. cane. a corner. being a yard or thereabouts . speech. The — . from a Canter. a torch. . a division of a country. hemp. kand. to con- rummer. Wtb. capa. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. . kapamak. Lat. a — A — Cannel Coal. cantone.Gr. Gael. Canon. ON. It. capevole. Canoe. kanta. It. Sp. a ship canot. &c. cover . coarse hemp. a rule or standard of excellence. the heel. Swab. can. A . canvas. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. From Gr. canonicus. Cot. border Dan. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. cannu. quito curtain. See Capt-. It. and the sex- &c. Capari. the tried list of saints. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. edge. Jonson. signifying cover. shut. lump. also a measure. But it may be different source. as a cantle of bread. a Fr. to shut. as. Germanis kdppen. cappa. a cantle of bread. cainnt. Capable. from Dan. Cannoii. Kil. Canteen. capax. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. carcase . hamlet. to sing. from . cantref. canoa. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Cant. or hold. to contain. cappe. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. kq. and met. Goldast — in in Schmid. the heel. a side. gnat. To his judicial And trowl the tile. and tref.

of a fowl. grisser. upon terms Sp. to parch. gives rise to brezza. caj)o. arricciarsi. It. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. as Fr. Capillary. gricciare. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. The same imitation of Capon. compared with Bret. chief. It. and with an initial gr instead of br. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. the singing'bone). a buck. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. wriggle. CAPRICE twittering. the initial mute of forms like Gr. to desire earnestly. cut. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. Capers. knis. alcaparra. caprice It. frissoner. capriol or caper in dancing. curling. ericius. a separate division of a matter. capitalis.' — (Supp. brug. It. a head. Lat. or represented by the syllable e. frisson- ner . Fl. arricciarsi. The true derivation lies in a different direction. . the hair to stand on end. herissonnement. I have shivered with love. grillcr. fansuddenly angry.) d'etre The It. bruco. hair. to fry. principal. capillus. shivering. where Burton adds in a note. according to the Hindoos. the head. — to yearne. gricciare. Arab. So from Sw. hedge-hog. or. It. Griller d'im' patience. h^risser. a caper in dancing. for which he cites the Comask nucia. Lat. ticchio. to shiver for cold. <I>pi'?oe. toy. castrated. Fr. It.Gr. gives rise to Sc. frort^Lat. is either wholly lost. the principal part of the debt. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. G^' Many words — ' ndv. to from capitulum. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. or other things.— 128 CAPE a rustling. horror. also the capriole.— Fl. castrated cock. to .). as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. ribrezzo. Cot. capro. Torriano. rissoler. w. cut off. end. Fr. capriola. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. a . as the means of earning profit. And similarly to yearn. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. knis-hujwud . a hedge-hog. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . roughening of the skin. Lat. a kid. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . brisciare. a goat. Hal. with joy' Vikram. or goat's leap (done by a horse). s'hdrisser. as Fr. p. curly. a little head. brisciare. a young kid met. to ruffle the surface of water. caper j caprio. to shudder. as in Lat. hi. Capital. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. kid. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. then to shiver or shudder. capitulare. shrub. and OHG. to broil. the head. II bresole (Gl.standing on end. capar. A headland. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. Caprice. ^piKos. brisciare. greziller. Hence capitalis the sum lent.'— Trev. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. they longed extremely to see it. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. rihrczzoso. then to be in a state of vibration. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. Sp. horripilation. 75. shivering. airoKOTrrw. to crackle. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. grisser. crackling sound Cape. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. cApre. prickly husk of chestnut. to twitter as birds. curl. or Lat. as Fr. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. brisoler. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . to chill and chatter with one's teeth. and his body bristled We to castrate. heath. Lang. chattering of the teeth. a yearning through sudden fear.' Cot. brezilia. a ch illness. eruca compared with It. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. Unexpected pleasure.impressions on the ear. Lat. then find the symptoms of shivering. the hair to stand on end. bristling. bristling. frisser {frissement d'un trait. To treat Capitulate. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. capriole. Genevese bresoler. Mod. It is probable that Gr. birsle. capparis. ziki. humorous. to broil. abridge amKoTroq. erica. and 7tucc. See Chief.) grezille marid. riccio. cover of a saddle. a capriol. aggricciare. algabr. brissle. explained by Diez from capra. It. A . Fr. of a tremtdoiis sound. It. frizzle. to shiver. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. Caper. cappriccio. caprice. It. of a coach. Hair-like. sault. grug. belonging to From caput. greziller. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. — — A a hair. a chevret. a caterpillar. to crackle. Fr. Acad.

It is a standing crab. also to carry on a car . shivering fit (Altieri). The a of capio changes to an z in composition. seize. Carabin. deception. i The meaning Car. to this is It. trestle. Etym. as the dragoons (Du. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. cabra. karra. a kind of torture. chirrion. to take to. cabestan. acceptus. It. Fr. a taking back. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. Lat. also tresFl. See Caper. was originally a missile . capitis. kerren. whence capture. and tropically. Captain. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. di cappa. latterly. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. and has accordingly been lost in E. It. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. recipere. karrende waegen. to creak. charrier. and of captus to an e. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. however. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Fr. a head man. as in OFr. a sudden will.).. to accept. charger. Carry. recevoir. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. — — Capstan. Crab. tnoschetta. a. a sawing-block or trestles. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. capra. Carabine. at least. receptus. Nordfoss. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. to take baclc. except. In the S. Fl. captivate. a sudden fear apprehended. or the (capo-riccio). name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. &c. caprice. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. 129 — receive. The It. Fin. the -cevofthe Fr. Caseneuve in Diet.or -cib-. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. and has thus descended unaltered to English. OSp. a fantastical humour. Castr. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. caput. carretta. to please. It. a coffer. concebir. conception. a hood (dim. conceive. Passing on into E. karista. concept. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. capuccio. -cept. Lat. accept. charret. capp%tccio. Lat. It. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. crab s. G.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). de- price. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. a reception. Cart. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. fantastic. Fr. an engine for throwing stones. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. a cloke) capuccino. sels. Fr. contain. Capriole. to load . carro. cabestrantej Fr.of these compound verbs. captus. recibir. a windlass. . where it forms a very large class of compounds. one odd. Cot. concipere. Sp. Sp. case. -ceive. also a kind of rack. recepte. — —Diet. deceit. commander. dim. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. perceive. of the Sp. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Capsule. intercept. Thus the musket. Lat. Carbine. crepo. to carry . oisr. box. Derivatives are Fr. Fr. captive. a creaking waggon. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. was converted into -ceb. Capstern. It. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Du. calabrino. fancy. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. to creak. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. from head. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. caThe hrestante. &c. to receive receptio. desire. It. of capsa. Capuchin. calabrin. a she-goat. krul. cabrestante (whence e. capsula.. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. to take. concevoir.s. Fr. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. -cept. a. Neumann. chevre. verbs gives rise to the element . hold. bock. Du. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. caricare. karren. Fr. a capuchin. cams. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. conceit. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. decepte. a cart. capio. recipio. as in accipio. a hooded friar. In cases. Cot. capitano. cabreia. Kiittner. was a kind of horse soldier. carabin. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. Capt-. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. chirriar. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. It. precept.). strideo. &c. char.

Derived in the first edition from Mod. the carob bean. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Gael. to ripple flax. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. coming to four grains. karra. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. a quiver. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. ancient springald. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. I. carate. a ship.Gr. car. cabrita.' From the same source are SicU. Sp. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. Card. kerwan. carbunculus (dim. the core of fruit . calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. See Carpenter. Pers. An implement for dressing wool. garafa. bend. Gael. designated in the case of G. eit.charcoal . a lock of wool . Carbuncle.. a thistle. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. to comb. Lith. Sp.z. to creak. poison eiz. Cat. chevre by the name of the goat. curry-comb. winding carach. quse vocant karabd. a thistle. Arab. contract. ON. Parmesan cassiron. carduus. carch. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. carta. carquasse. Exot. copperas. Fr. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a firelock. Carbonaceous. Gr. the name might naturally Mod. an ulcer. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. to comb wool . carquois. the case of the flesh. Mod. a kind of ship. carcanet. Fr. Cot. cabreia. cardo. kard boyd. seed of carob. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. quilato. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. restraint .Gr. KtpaTwv. matter. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Carat. an engine for hurling stones. for a gun. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise.— — — . karszti. «capa'|8i. of the same Caravan. Lat. Carcase. carbh. krciti. turning. karri. a battering-ram). &c. the husk or cod of beans. . is the word used in modern Lat. Venet. &c. caracal. Gael. carabe.applied to a battering-ram (G. Gr. a gem resembling a live coal. the carcase of a fowl. skeleton toise. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. It. the . vitriol. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . carmiiiarc. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. to turn. or framework. ' Vasa vitrea. a machine for casting large darts. properly a siege machine. also a small weight. case. the trunk or chest of the body . Caravel. confining. a quiver . carcaij. black dye. carcanada. a dead carcase. wool card. carabba. a winding staircase. Sp. AS. card. Fr. to card wool. and catapulta. eitar. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. cabra. a card or comb . &c. silique. caraffe. a ripple for flax. a goat. of carbo). Gael. to draw in. cassa.. Cot. caravela. military engines made for hurling stones.. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . a crane. cdrlag. carcame. Fr. a he-goat. carbo. cramp. a coffer. Carcax. tcapKaai. in the same way that the Sp. Carboy. Sp. caraffa. constraining . kirat. Carrob. Sp. W. a quiver . It. shell. Caraool. to card wool. the shell of a torcarcasso. decanter. a snail. wine- bottle. also (as Gr. Bohem. It. a small weight. fire . turn of a horse. mural attack. .. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. a wool card. avSpaS. a twist. a case or chest . carcasa. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. bock and Fr. boch. skeleton. winding. carere. . — seems to be something holding together. word is only an adoption of the Turk. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. The radical meaning . . espi7igarda. is the chine. The Trjg xeXwwac. Lat. a quiver. a prison. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. carquan. skeleton. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. It. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Ptg. From the battering-ram. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. the dead body of any creature. a collar or chain for the neck. p. to curry horses karsztuwas. to hiss (as gee^e). a skeleton. . casso. cerran.. alia sunt majora. Comp. OHG. It. burning coal.

Properly a car-road. G. sorrow. car. 1S66. principal. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. from the keel to the water . sorrow. crawl. strideo. — — — Caress. carcare. AS. to take Goth. voce strepo stridente. W. . is to say. murahtaa. clown or churl. charie. is This however Shrove tide. cargo. essere in carena. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Cark. or grumbling —Due. or street. a card. a deed. Cargo. dear. carminare. charg.— CARD karr-kambar. to scrape . the keel of a vessel. stingy. like connection may be seen between Fin. Carnage. Charnel. kumra. to whirr (schnurren). from carus. karista. grolU. place for exercise on horseback. For the root of carminare. a highway. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. to parch. cardo. to load. karg. . w. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. cdrle.Lat. murista. winding. ON. morosus. Trin. Cartel. and thin. cardinis. karantez. road. graller. a hinge. from caricare. caricare. carian. to comb flax or hemp. carnal. gakaran. Cath. scharren. solicitous. carriire. cura may be ror. cearig. caricatura. Fr. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. . carezza. combing them out like the knots in wool. male person. parched or carled. cargar. caMid. Cot. be anxious. Coll. crosier. It. and compare Bret. in Carp. karout. tenax. carena. charnage. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. moeThe Lat. croller. charag. — — Diez. x'»P'"^s)) paper. Caricature. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. and murhet. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Probably the origin of the word is the . kurista. ignarus. caritia. A medical term from line —Boerio. Cot. to distress growl. sgritudo animi. Carl. and sum. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. at murmuring. the flesh of animals . sensual. act of moaning. charger. fundamental. fleshy . that Fl. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Sp. Mur. p. a man. Farewell flesh. Fr. asper. meet at a head. Carlings. rixosus. to rumble. weyes. camovale. kargr. in N. caru. . carnavale. care. and G. Bret. Fr. OHG. 8. It. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Properly. kummer. appertaining to the flesh. Bret. also a career on horseback. E. carnasciale. piger. Champ. four. Dan. quarreG. the several meanings of the words above Rom. W. ress. Fr. to eat flesh. — To Careen. the hull of a ship. 2. to card wool. Gael. quaver a lazar's clack. the time during which to Rom. intrasset caro. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. as peas. surrata. to shake. Fl. . zanken . carnalis. carcus. de Parthenay. Translated in MS. Carenare. carriera. Carnal. msstus. carena. 273. an overloaded representation of anything. Care.. to scratch. karrig. . Fr. to load. AS. ceorl. carina. Lat. carener. kribina. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. Lat. karl. hoed. W. Peas steeped and fried.. soUicitus OSax. Cot. charneux. Fr. . from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. It. see Garble. murren. cearian. what is felt as grievous. It. carch. astutus. Groler. from Lat. Sept. to clean the bottom of the ship. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. to comb wool. morosus sum. carFrom carrus. that on wliich the matter hinges. to fry. &c. in St Jerome. . Fr. to fry or broil. carrefourg. careless take care of. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. Ptg. niggardly . chartre. tremble. A place where four roads Mid. Roquef. Bois crolant d'un ladre. — — — : Cardinal. to lie on its side. From. the keel. the load of a ship. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. A mod-carag. AS. G. charta (Gr. regar. A quirito ut infans. an endearment. crowl. from carrus. to load. bottom. to growl. Fin. & Q. charnel. as quadrivium from Carnaval. carnis.Lat. as carminare. compared with Fin.' Slceat. It. a turn. affection. grief. kara. Card. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. kroU-erbser. Fin. stridere. Venet. wool cards. love. mutter. record. Carled peas. caresse. No ' place there had. giierlir. — — . care on. It. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. the old theory of humours. karry. cura intenta. Carminative. whence carricare. OFr. to love. It. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Fr. beans. Sp. to care unkarja. one of those ac- 9 * . Chart.— Charter. — Carfax. ON. quadrifurcum from quameet.

biheld without. gonna. Carpitam habeat in lecto. A. quoted by Carpentier. a drinking cup. Here's to you still my captains friend. to reel. carpo.D. was formed Mid. to rustle. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. bier. and Carnem laxare (It. krapanj. carpetrix. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Other names of the sea. The word seems of Celtic origin. in Due.— Neum. whence the form carnasciale. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Pr. i. charpentier. tattle. chirp. Sp. a wheelwright. cited by Marsh. Bohem. W. sense.Lat. Ant. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. From Lat. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. cardos. ! Carouse. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. chatter. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century.' says Motley (United Neth. To pledge them thou refuse. The custom. on that.' Raleigh. This Bretons renged about the felde to E.— R. to talk.Lat. worker in timber Fr. carpenticre. carbh. Olr. Bret. All out B. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. carduz. carpetam (a quilt?). differing To Carp. Sup. a dance. carpita. carpere. In a MS. is erroneous. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Discov. . Properly a round dance. So gone they forthe. to pluck. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Pm. garrulo. — . Gael. i. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. to find fault with. Biheld within. Nomin. pluck at.gonnella. In Dominica d'autant. 216. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. as Fr. Palsgr.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. as carnaval from carnelevamen. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. a wheelwright. carnelascid). Mid. Cot. gar aus / all out is correct. peta.Lat. act of drinking a full Eq. Gower in Way. carpentum. and F. Carpenter. carpenta. used for stuffing mattresses. Dief. Mediol. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. zimmer.— Drant in R. ship. Ein we find the signification transferred from . querole. krapati. 2. maker of waggons It. 2. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Lat. Carole. linteamen. yede tham about. to dance. Carpyn or talkyn. Carpet. charpie. koroll. to chatter coroli. I drink all out. carpia. fabulor. pluck.' Ordo Eccles. as E. as the Lat. Shrove Tuesday. Alluz (G. a carder. ' ' — .'— Stat.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. On the other hand bumper to one's health. balade from It. 1 1 30. The karole of the stones behelde.' Reg. Chanson de carole. Mid. Analogous R. to pull asunder. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric.]e bois Carnelevale. culcitra. Beggars Bush. Fr. carpenter only in the latter sense. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. a car carpentarius. . chariot carbad.Why give's some wine then. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool.— Patriarchi. e. Pref. ballare. all aus). carpende fast Carol. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. 94). The tippling sots. — — ' ' — — — I — — . garrire. CarTo quaff carouse do use. to dance. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. .: . or a carouse fully drunk up. chatter skra/a. vel coopertorio carebit. Carnelevale. lint. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. a plank. in Carp. to gather. Fr. Lat. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Teut. Lat. ON. Carnevale. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. qui sacco. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. 760. I quaught. tymmer. Templariorum — ' — Due. a song accompanying a dance then. or loose as a couch without further preparation. The ' ' a chariot. cxciv. carpat (Stokes). litter. course. zimmerspan. of Guiana. in Nat. skraf. On this. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive.

Case. Fr. to slay. Fl. one who reasons on cases put. ignominiously exposed. Rouchi carone. Cartel. mord-keller. cassette. a paper case. quasser. and the OE. It. casco signifies a skull. charrier. It. blotted out. — Cartridge. Lat. from It. a fall. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . cascare. also the carriage. Case-mate. See Case. casser. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping.' Bailey. a of water. kasseren. Fr. It. cashiered. cascar. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. from It. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. to break. Sp. casus. tion from Sp. cancel. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. carreaggio. cartella. from Lat. To Cashier. something that actually occurs. gristle. an act of falling. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. bitten. gristle. carretto. Cask. Lith. coffer. Lat. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Ready money. hull of a ship. card. To quash an indictment. caxa. as we . Originally a — — A — Cartilage. luggage. Cascade. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. des rideaux A'carp^ie. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. made void. a merchant's cash or counter. dim. from the sound it makes when Alban. carroc- carrozza . not reaching to the height of the ditch. to cut or carve . Cot. to convey in a cart. Rouchi carter. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. slaughter-house. casa. Du. Hence casket. Casuist. Carrot. cassere. coffin of paper for groceries.' — Hdcart. Cartoon. Carrion. to bear or carry. vault hole in a fortified wall. Lat. a hut. Fr. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. hung up in some place and to be removed. — — . casaque. fortuitous. helmet. casitiste. To Carry. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. empty. to fire on the enemy. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. cartouche. casa-maita. To Carve. fall It. pasteboard. It. a chance or accident. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. to shear. Cash. cia. casag. Gael. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Probably. casacca. It. CartOTicli. Fr. packing ' cloth. bag and baggage of a camp. It. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. Sp. caro. house. It. paper. See Gristle. charrette. cartilage. annul. from casa. carretta. carota. Cart. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. carrosse. kerven. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. casualis. where Fr. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. Flor. the charge of — — Fr. cartone. to dash. cassa. cancelled. Fr. a long coat. Walach. OE. and matar. cassus. cut with scissors. Preparatory drawing of a It. kirpti. ceorfan. Fr. Rouchi carpHe. subject for a picture. krat. a coffer or small case for jewels. casuelj Fr. discharge It. and that apparently from capio. afterwards any written challenge. mata. G. cascade. caroach. kerpu. Du. As defence from shells became more important. AS. cascata.' Fl. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. to crack. The carrying of anything. cartoccio. an augmentative from Lat. ' Casa-matta. mord-grube. — — nul the proceeding. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. crush. a car. — FI.' Cot. Casual. Fr. abrogate. casso. break to pieces. to — — also casse. like all the names of tendon. discharge. The Sp. See Card. Lat. capsa (Diez). cassa. long man's gown with a close body. quash. Hence a challenge openly hung up. — Cartoose. corresponding to the G. Fl. caroche. to hold. crown of a hat. of carro. turn out of service.. a loopscale the wall. carogna. for the security of the defenders. to notch. the money chest. shell or carcase of a house. a canonry or slaughterhouse.— Fl. Cassock. a chest. to an- — Kil. kerben. Fr. case. Fr. Fr. caisse. case-maiej Sp. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Rouchi caroche. Cot. carriaggio. Carriage. It. charogne. augm. to fall. augmentatives of carro. Fr. caisse. Case.to annul. carroccio. of carta. To duash. Casket. hollow. It. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Fr. Casque. caisse. properly to convey in a car. void cassare. a car. AS.

Fr. Mid. to crack. a fortified place. kasta. coming to us through different dialects of French. cassa / cry for the same purpose. in the fire. cacciarc. to hunt. same word with break. squash. So also from It. which has been retained in E. heat . a garment for performing the mass in.— Fl. or Rouchi cat. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . cash. dim. is not satisfactory. while kiss / Pol. chasser. puss / for calling them. ' Catchyn away abigo. down. . a whip on the other into latch. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). a chesnut . to scourge. follow after. It. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. KaTaarpifm. to drive away. like that of It. Fr. chat. away. a thump. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. To Catch. to end. Roukind. shaft of a 1 push. of sarabands does Gr. casipola. Etym. handle of an axe. punch. Cot. under chi caleur. Others explain it from Kara. kottr. ichasses. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. catch. cat-o'-nine. It. Castle. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. castanetazo. Pol. ON. . cast. V. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. koshka. second chase. KarapaKrr]g. Cast. Fr. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. to crackle. B. to break. first made ordinary Fr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. Fr. down. catar. Lang.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Castanets. was introduced. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. image accasciare. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification.'— Pr. Catalogue. n. Gr. represented by the syllable quash. Pic. and from the castus. cat. The E. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. and KviilSog. to is Essentially the Sp. Fr. fall. Fr. the ground .the / or c respectively. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. which. an enumerlist.Rouchi Scaches. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. stilts. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. KaraXoyog. To It. Sp. V Lith. execu. to lash. castellum. kotas. Yz. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. to fall as over a precipice. Hal. puras E. kakka. kaJoivad. . to drive Cat o' nine tails. cojz^/a. being Fin. to turn overturn. Hence castaneta. castana. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . to dash. of castrum (castra). It. casupola. on. to Fl. race. Fr.out cacciare . . a Cataract. kissa. mino. dashing it out of the window. a vault. kic' kicil are used chasser. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Thus we have Caste. chasser. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. squash. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. accastiare.to drive out. Cat. casser. casule. and tomba. arpi^m. to close. cacciuolo. 'Vaaaw. speak of dashing a thing down. a cat . to bring to an crack given by the joints. cascar. Isidore — in Diez. kotas. R. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. chaleur. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. bot-kotis.. or comba. Lat. castello. The Diet. dashing it to pieces. Chase. to hurl See Awgrim. Pm. burst cascare. &c. lance. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. ecrevisse. casulla. katze. . KaTappaKTrjQ. ating. from water Karappaaaiii. 120. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. _G. to clack. to torture. kasi. cacciare fuora. klakka. however. a cat koshki. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Brunne. Gr. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. the stalk of plants. sue. or bruise together. torture. signifying breed. — We a cavity. drive away. the earlier sense of catch. crush . dash. by the loss of with several pitched cords. OFr. Fr. Lat. probably from an imita. name. tails.Lat. In the dialect of Picardy. the castanets for or implement . from the first of Castrate. to make clean or chaste. to cast or beat to tioner . castro. perhaps from which we have E. to look at. 134 CAST Catacomb.. rack. chasuble. Gael. kat. Catastrophe. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. fer toTa. a little house or hut. force j Rouchi equerviche. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Fr. Sp.

woodlice.' ^Jam. a whip. Cot. snatching it with a any one. with and without an / after the c. catch-flesh. catc?u. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. a pill.from Bard and ayopsw. klatsche and Norm. compare G. to kythe D. to snatch (said of dogs). Kartiyopta (/cari. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. snatched.V. Tutschek. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . sound. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. from shutting with a click. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. . Kil. to A bailiff. ' Fr. — . . * Cates. wild-beast. Cot. Du. Guernsey pilleure. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. or any kind of relishing food tuals. On Catechism. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. c or ^. . As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . head. Guernsey chafer. pedes. Gael.P. Metivier. Chate peleuse. a whip or Kuttner. a little dog). to chatter with the teeth cake. P. ArbaUte de courte chasse. chacepol. claquer. quincailler.V.) . klatschen. a whip. to teach by oral instruction.j. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Swiss Lombard G. an officer of taxes. insect. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. chasse. gattola. the the same principle he was Fr. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. Ptg. 'Horxa. resono ictu lash. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. latch of. an accusing. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart.' CATCH Fr. ictus resonans. Grandg. caker. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. 'Bxn. Du. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . e. a smack. catch. bichano (pussy). bicho. caucht. to harangue. Gael. verberare kUts. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. the elements of a science. cache. companaige. Fr. dainty vic- a form lash. Caterer. ' ' word catch. snatching. to chat. seize. called dog or Galla catchamza. kaetse. In the XV'e. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. Sp. glcu. Wal. devouring mite or weevil. to snap. — Kiittner. e. has both or of charming by sound. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Fr. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. a. Fr. * Caterpillar. which all . catch. from Gr. icarrix'Ki^. — tinman. worm. a whip Rouchi cachoire. . Du. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. apprehend a person. to crack GATES cache. a. predicament. weevils. 135 — Aasen. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. to clap hands. GaUa catchiza. chink. clap with the hand. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. called in Fr. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. the OE. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. chase. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Kil. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Sc.s. as of the latch of a As ! — . a — gatta. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. kletsen. cagnon (a dog). chatter. gliong. the distance to which the ball is struck. E. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. clap. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. to catch strength. Cates. E. formerly called cliket. chassoire. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. whip. gingle. flap klatsche. ecachoire. smack. instruction in forms. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. — explained. happe-chair. chatter . a carter's Pat. clatter. klatscherei. ketsoore. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Rouchi clincailleux. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. KaTtix'so. a clap. millecaterpillars. door when it is shut. children's name for cat . and answer. a caterpillar Milanese can. de Bray. E.yopl(. Diez. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. to the crack. in order). is said that he got a claucht of it. latch. s. kletse. fragor kletsoore. cat is not apparent. klinke. dainties. Gr.. to take. . silkworm. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. resound. OFr. — B. chenille {canicula. a cornIn the s. chachara. blow. Claucht. i. G. — Catcli-poll. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. — with a whip. klatsch.

It. A warm comforting drink. reticella. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. little cat. Caution. OE. CATHARTIC sense. cavus. ce^l. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Caustic. chair. mudet. 2. dumpf tonen. Mid. Gr. flue. a kettle for heating water. any Fl. Richly she feeds.^Hal. Fr. Caudle. cautis. Fr. Boethius. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. chauderon. caudex . . shaled or picked Fr. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Palsgr. kaussijde. klopfend knallen. . cavaliere. — Cauterise. to sound like a blow . . the. It. Sx. walnut with the husk on challer.. Jonson in R. a horse. a horse . the caul of the liver. Fr. from KaSaipio. to shoe . a branding from koiio. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. . calqada. green husk of a calon. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. . a mare. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. to ac- — Fr. Gr. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Cavalier. a paved road. Catkin. kobyla.^ acheter (Lat. a horseman. cautus). choufleur {choii. otherwise written kell. to purge. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. cale. from chaud. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. and hence a skull-cap. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. quire. kobuiV. chaussJe. and spareth for no perell. B. capull. calotte. kopano. koparet. a horse . Fr. by land. rete A — Prov. Caballus. Dryden in R rete. kopista. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Lat. kin. Cavity. cabbage. catkin Magy. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. catkin mitz. net or caul-work. Pol. — — cavallo. It. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. calidus. Fr. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. catkin Pol.. little cap is . challe was ther of a temple. calceata. Lat. kassije. chaudroii. Cave. kautsije. acater. G. achepter. Lat. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Kavrfipiov. adcaptare. acaptar. deyntie meates. to shale or peel. Port. cabbage-stalk. Cause. a The peel.—— — 136 correct. cabbage). puss. caple. to beware. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. 4. Cavern. Cavalry. is Prologue. catons. katte. despencier. Causeway. katteken. Rete. flock. Fr. what . Lat. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. fur in general.Lat. On the other hand. from caveo (p. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web.' B. the stones of a street. hollow. but the acates that are sent him. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Palsgr. minon. Cattle. Kavrijp. fur. . chaudiire. make clean. kitten kotki. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . macska. KiwariKog. to burn. a stalk. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. hazel. mutz. Du. Bessie of Bednall. puss. Provider. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. — . Mid. cal^ar. a pavement. Cavalcade. Chaud. a seat. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. hot. Pr. Du. to buy. via strata. also to pave . Cathedral. a road calceata. having the property of cleansing. caldo. accattare. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. kocianki. That he was ay before in his estate. cheval. Cauldron. puss. It. whence cathedralis. KaHSpa. accapitare Rouchi acater. Cathartic. Fr. Russ. Jaubert. kdtzchen. Wyatt in R. Thus Bav. chausser. chatideau. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. catkins . cale.' Elyot in Way. Lat. Fr. to shoe.Lat. calceta. a kind of skull-cap. Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. causa. hot. chevalier. a pulpit. Fr. Ka^afriKOQ. cat maczoka. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. a receptacle for small things. KaPaWrii. • — — See Chattel. kocie. caballus. The word — . lamb. cauHs. w. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Fin.p. from delf^gato. CAVE Caul. Delycates. Diez). Manciple's Tale. ' Gr. Lat. Gr. .Y\\Xea. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Gael. It. Kil.willow. apt to burn iron. &c. and at the rich man's cost By sea.

departure from this life. 5. deal. 7. ceiling. -cess. p. recede. . which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven.' del. hollow. a log. plank. ciel is so unbroken.' Rutland papers. excess. &c. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. a hut. menuiserie. sill. tester of a bed. Lat. cellar. Wore. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. In the same way G. CAVESON kopera or kowera. Fr. also a seeling of boards. — komo tain). anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa.. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. &c. canopied. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. thel. . yield. Fr. -cease. dille. Cot. Hence concede. a beam.' — Gawan . In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. In the N. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. and Gol. board . door-sill J Sc. a planking or boarding tkilian. &c. 43. nailes will begin to cling. cyling (W. the inner roof of a room of state. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. post. Sherwood. lambris. syle.' Marriage of James IV. — . to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. Cede. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. E.j have come from this source. a canopy. coffer. a halter. VIII. were met. is applied to a canopy. Hal. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. a fir-plank. curved. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. as if from happen. augm.'— Z. decessus. of cavezza. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. And seik — Cessation. the deck of a ship at thilja. sky. exceed. Sir 137 pit . wall.' Ordinances and Reg. H. hivtmel. a boarded floor. in Jam. cessum. Ceiling. dil. 32. a plank. bridle. a log. rafter. . syl. The importation of Fr. The It. . thil. thilja.). cavezzone. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing.). ciel de lit. lambrisser une chambre seeling. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. — — — toyour soverane. to canopy siled. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. to cut. cease.' Cot. A — A false accommodation produced G. cielo. little house. ceiling. to plank ON. sill in window-sill. but hang around at the sides. thili. . caveqon. or of a bed. -cede. dayntily diglit. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. cabegon. departure. . The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. Cease. IV. . wainscot thiljar (in pi. Cam. in Jam. . In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. beam. The sense of roofing. thiling. semely on syll. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. to go forth. —Decease. Lat. hung. Lat. jaa. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. the testern of a bed. a severe bridle. hollow. heaven. column E. to seele or close with boards plancher. selar. Gawaine & Sir Gol. p. and zaum. an aquiline nose. a board. See -cede. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. It.. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. . and that from Sp. plank. to panel or wainscot MHG. cesso.' Hall. selure. . del into English without ' translation gave cele. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. thil. the roof of a coach. proceed. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. crooked kopio. . wuoren komo. Boyd in Jam. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. . Soc. Lat. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. step away. Fr. thelu. The line of descent from Fr. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. . quibble. komista. as. give place. sybire. Cavil. in Hal. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. koppeli. and then to gape. to argue capto tiously. flooring E. komo. So from Fin. applied to a canopy. To seele a room. Sp. -ceed. a log. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. death. a canopy. — . &c. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. sus-lambris. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. dScis. to plank or floor with planks. of E . heaven. cabega. Plancher. cavillor. pp. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . succeed. with their substantives concession. empty. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. seele. Fr. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. B. that. cedo. a head. kapp-zaum. hollow ice . kommata. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson.

cern. cillier. become heated with anger. tax. Fr. -cense. to -sum. judge. to distinguish. to glow. Lat. riscaldarsi.— Chafing-dish. Centre. — A . sacred show. Fr. Certain. oil. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. Prov. of heating. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Cot. KsvTpov. Gr. and met. capturn. thronged the participle cretus. Censer. -ceive. is the opposite of disora virum. see.unmarried. Lat. from censeo. as entering largely into the derivative certo. with the eyes. Cot. deceipt. a hundred centuria. Lat. observe. conceipt. deceit. -cepire. or expression of Ennius. appertain. decide. a solemnity. eschattffer. -cepere. and thence to conceal. Century. from Saa-rw. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. quarters for slaves. sift. -i^oivre. family. Fl. Celerity. calefacere. stones to the production of heat. a Cemetery. to think. the point round which a circle is drawn. chaufferette. Fr. concerner. a prick. siller les yeux. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Gr. capio. Lat. Censor. oil. to sepap rate. caber. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. &c. in comp. Sherwood. -cebre ifoncebre. abundance. in Marsh. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Celebrity. Assess. Assize. to bury). — — Cenotapli. -ciper. confounded ist from It. Incensum. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. blind. cenio. zens according to their property. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. renown be embodied with. rough from the quarry. to prick. to contend. swift. value. Centurion. receipt. -ceptjun. to course of people. also grave opinion. and — — — possessions. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. judge Lat. sting. cot. (and thence also) to hoodwink. estimate. to take. In Celebrate. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Coehim. a hundred of what- — . an eyelash. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. in accordance with the Fr. much frequented.of the r. Fr. Gr. distinIt.. Lat. -cern. — . It. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. the officer appointed to take such returns . Lat. Lat. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. See Cede. point. — . Census Censor. to blindfold. a tomb. centum. It. census. tax. cilibat. Cess. Fr. . -cipio. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. to set on fire. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. -CEIVE a shaft. candeo. Lat. a shaft horse. cceremonia. incense. to twinkle darkness.' Celebritas. — . to celebrate. but was gradually lost in conceit. criticism. irot\oe. Lat. to visit in numbers. /ctj/rsw. eyelid. rubble. Censure. to take. the talk of men. what to set in a chafe. to chafe. Take the nedyll and threde. encens. a storehouse Chafe. cerealis. as in some places burnt. Lat. . ' . to be regarded as one celebro. syll. concetto.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. ciller. Fr.' Book of St Albans. single or unwedded life. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to attend on object with. thence belonging to or connected with corn. Chafe. a valuation of every man's estate. or any bird's. heaven. Sc. age.j 138 thill. and thence censer. a solemnity. -cess. a religious observance. To seel or close the eyes. goad. Fr. contend. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. For sess from assess. census.). and so of that other. to seal a pigeon's eye. decebre) . mortar.ing a room where there is not fire. Accelerate. Cij(fe5j.. Cereal. solemn (of per. camentum. The term cilium. to rub for the purpose a hut. in comp. Cell. festive. to warm. to seele or sew up the eyelids . a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. S. Ceremony. sile.). sure. OFr. calefare. &c. To chafe is for wine. being taken from Fr. {cori)cipere. cella. concernor. to concern. hollow. — . his office. — . we have a modified form of (of a place). the hollow the Lat. parted sleep. judge. -ceit. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. to incense. materials It. Fr. for building. dchauffer. make angry. the place where the de. Lat. -oept. See Celibacy. K^'ivut. cigliare. 1. chauffer. and put it through the over eyelydde. celer. ceremonia. guish. celeber certus. keep in It. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Ta^oe. a registration of one's self. censura. with transposition hence (of a day). to burn incendo. cretum. Gr. to rate. a numerous con. crevi. then to rub without reference Cement. Lat. To Incense.— Cellar. ciglio. assess. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. to heat. to separate. to sleep). cencer. Lat. -cevoir. — . pick out. empty.

a double operation * Chafer. Fr. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. In vulgar language. OFr. much more Genoese sagrind. ceaf. Chalice. camera. far lima-lima. Cheffern. to puff and blow. chicane. charge with. cadena gives chain. kiaftr. snuff. leviter crepo Then. ckapfare. B. From Port. matter by combat. vel susurro. chafing. chaise. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. To buy and sell. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Hal. chalanger. Chagrin. Lat. Bav.nium. without chap/are makiinde. sagrindse. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. calonjar. kuhista. puff. chaene. Lat. chaulx. to action arose. to ner It. kaff. 35. The jaw chafty. dongio. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. p. Lat. P. kuhina. in a cana. from of the G. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). catena. Came. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. rustle Challenge. Lat. Fr. E. difficulty . Perhaps Pm. also to prattle. Fr. Prov. havOFr. Fr. Du. preise. from the shark-skin. to pant. a goba rustling . to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . kever. In like manto huff. refuse. rustling corn. 11. to move the jaws. chamar. calice. now a chair. hordeum vel let. grief. calumnia.' Rayn. talkative. From to go to law. khah. — — ' — — — A . vis. to chatter or talk lightly. Lat. to sit.. quisquilise offence. in a monstrous fume. limare. Fr. ^Altieri. fa sagramen de calompnia. De Ir4. baras of ants. gewolb. great chafe. to calumpnjamen. as a carriage is a moveable seat. any insect of the beetle kind. avena vilior. cup. bargain. lime. a chain. &c. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Bouffard. Du. Prov. taubes korn oder hafer. grief. chaffare. Fr. lime . breathe KaOa^oiiat. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. fume. crooked. signal by drum or P. or puff with snorting. kdfer. to dispute. care. to a seat. kahista. a chough. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. cadena. sagri. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. a vault or arched roof. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Fr. Ayenbite. to tattle. idle words. rally one. — — — — — — . as. de Brai. cauvette. ON. Pat. calx. Pr.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. from Swiss kafeln. hght Chalk. to gnaw. keuchen. . and as this was the beginning of man. a rustling noise. Chayire. muzzle. to caw chawer.sure carriage. chatter. to gnaw. So from dominio. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. fern-chafer. care. kuhuja. that leneth e per I'autra. Kuttn. Prov. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. kiamta. have a mind to parley. dispute. a pulpit. to institute anforensic action. calix. tattle cheep. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. cathedra. breathe hard. Chain. — . false accusation.. kahuja. refuse barley . From the To Chaff. on. to buzz. clamare. — — — . Pers. sborfare. hiss.— — . thick and short. Camera. G. with a:n arched roof. kedja. cam. kauchen. a jackdaw. much blowing. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Piedm. Fin. tronfio. puffed or ruffled with ly. a pulpit Cot. chawe. chambre. chafeter. keffen. a prattling woaction. chaps Chamber. (ca'e'ra) to chair. call in question for an ley). as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Lat. kahu. kaff. . ing rapidly repeated cries. . to call. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. snort. tattle. Fl. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. and signifies to consume with anger. Fr. haggle. Lat. to bark. ceafer. cathedra. kuhata. to babble. to file. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. swelling with anger. rustling motion challenge. often puffing. Due. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. G. chaire. jaw. Cot. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. to claim. . Fr. to fret inwardtronfo. cadera. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. shaIt. kdfelen. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Adelung. calonja. of. yap. Halma. KoBiSpa. green sagrin. — — — . Gr. Kaiiapa. Chair. to Latin calumniare. songe. kiqfta. Fr. Cot. Wall. contestation. chaine. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. chagrin. cadieira. place See Cheek. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. ing a hard case to their wings. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. . chayire. Gr. ple^. Probably from According to Diez.

to fall. from cheoir. as swine. and acted as inofficers of . To hollow out in chanPtg. to flute as a column. termediaries between them and the judge. cample). difficulty . fighting place. jeu parti. . E. surpassing. — Hal. Lith. a game at football.Lat. to fasten on. to wrestle. chance. to move the jaws kiamt. to strive at games . to fasten oneself on to another . contend or argue G. cahir. received the petitions of the suitors. bickering. champion Du. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. kimbu. mesleiare. dial. CHANCEL It. champ. champ. kimpUma. kampeln. to fasten oneself to another . to . a hollow chanfreiner. kimpustella.140 CHAMBERLAIN . an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. dial. accidere. Sp. compound. dispute Hal. a court of justice. to tread The sound heavily. Fr. escazenza.—Tutschek. Chamfron. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . To cope or contend with. calidameya. The happening of things Chance. chanfrein. kriimmen gebogen. kiinp. . to to chew champ. kanip. —Chamfrain. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. a scufSe. Champarty. contest. . a warrior. who stood ad cancellos. champ parti. kippo. Lat. fight. Carpentier. Du. giving rise to the as. . kappd). to slope. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. hot. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. divided game. campar. . kapp. . combat. camp. Prov. Lat. ing. bundle. campear. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). chdance. kampen. fray. excellent. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. move the jaws. tsamtsogni. chain. pedilusor. . sukibti. top of a borehole. It will. kibti. E. Fr. chanfrar. Fr. a jaw kianisa. jocus partitus. Chance-n3. Lat. wood. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. a field of battle. which seems another form of the root. kempen. kabe. Get campers a ball To camf . champ. to be eminent. cadere. hero Sw. to fall). to hang. tsammogni. Gall. kinipen. keiiipe. a hook . schmatzen s. to happen {ad and cadere. to paw the ground E. e. caer. head armour. rare. ON. — KiL . game campio. Fr. M. hamper. a horse-race. at the railings.' ' Pr.edley. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. The E. to excel. to bevel. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. kabinti. Campar. ON. kempa. Chancery. kiammi. cameratus. to hollow out. Commonly derived from campus. See Camp. to slope out the . a bundle. chance. to chew. from Fr. or less ignorant. from chaud. So in e. fight. act of falling. Lat. s. to smack the lips in eating. Partnership. to stick to. reusement — fight in single combat. kampa. luctare. ON. Champion. an athlete. or player at football. to cample. Ptg. kablys.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. zampettare. . to hold . champ. camp. nels. chaude mesUe. Sup. ciamberlano. a feat. Champ. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel.' SherI'altro ' ' . broil. as in It. i. gekrUmmt. chanfreindre. The word is preserved in E.' melleia.—Charfron E. — masterly Sp. Fin. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. to groove bevel off a right angle. kabintis. Pm. Magy. chajnbellan . Chancel. dial. certare. chanfrein. to talk. the chafldn. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. Champaign. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . camerlengo. Fr. The G. campus. kimppu (Lap. Fr. and mesUe. accident. therewithal. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. kampeln. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. campus partitus . camp. to — — champ. ciambellano. hng. To Chamfer. to quarrel (comp. athlete. kabMe. dial. Sp. cazer. to wrestle. dricka i kapp. Dief. chamble. Chancellor. — Ch-amberlain. chamfrain. to Hal. pinch. dial. cempa. When the to quarrel. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. gewolbt. contention kappi. zs jeopardy. boys speak of capping verses. slope of a bevelled angle. Prov. cancelli. Meleare. calida et sans aguet. G. prize-fighter. Hence (with the nasal) w. — ^Tusser. is explained by serrarsi. to debate. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — .

and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. from chandler. Commonly derived from capella. to strike with a sharp edge. to put on fresh clothes. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Sc. Lat.^. gab. W. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. kaupa. Chip. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. muzzle. as corn-chandChandry. It is also used in the sense of the E. schimbd. Da. prune. to chap at a door. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Fr. Chaps or chops. the chaps . as It. a jaw. chop. kvar kjceften. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. cheek. wood. to break . Chapel. — . a pipe. lips of an animal. also a clap. are kept. kiceft. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. chaps. Hence chantry. cambium. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Chap. Chap. In like manner Walach. . Bret. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chape. kappen.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. chanter. Lang. chap. ON. Hence It. Walach. exchange. chancellerie. is used in the same sense . kjaakaa. to peck. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. ^Jam. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. to strike. chancery. and the modern canal. from canna. chop. or the like chapar. a strip of metal plate. chapa. leather. kemma. to spht a chip. — — —Marculfus in Due. Channel. And N. Fr. to change. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. a small metal plate Port. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. chapeta. chapelete de una bomba. Compare chark. Fr. Da. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. a money-changer. skipta. camjar. cobio. to swap. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. Hal. and also to chap or crack. throat of an animal. to cut. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to coat. shift. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Chap. to strike. canalis. Lith. as chancery . to peck. —Chantry. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. ceaplas. E. to — cut. waterconduit. Chop. Du. the place where candles ler. to cut up into small pieces. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to cut off . kapoti. properly in a hard body. cangiare. esclapo. to paw like a horse . chapilla. hard bodies. a chap is a crack or fissure. esclapa. 2. chapeletas de imbornales. debeant conjurare. ceaflas. . In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. as skin chapped hands. Russ. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Molbech. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. Man of Law's Tale. as to chap hands. 140. while the broader vowels a. any hollow for conveying water. Chandler. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. . Fr. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. not a soul. extended to other trades. hack . a small plate of flat metal. schimbu. Aasen. chap. . exchange schimbatoriu. That wide were sentin their spicery. Prov. like the knocking of hard things together. Cheek. a dealer in candles then. a reed. Sp. may be compared with ON. to deal. to hack. cambiar. — : Lat. Sp. chandelier. See Chant. kennel. changer. to sing. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. surfaces striking together. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. the clappers of the scupper holes. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . as those on a trunk. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . A fellow. chapear. See Chop. To Change. jaw. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. to truck. the gutter that runs along a street. Hal. cantare. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. the mouth. I. flat . klepan. to plate. AS. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. chiappa. —Ordericus Vitalis. Probably from chap. to plate. . exchange. from clap. or the cracking of one. to creak. jaw. cambiare. clapet. to apply one flat thing to another. kiceft as well as kjakje.

a riddle. Chaplet. chirriar. grave or make incised marks on an ob. car. To Char. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. a mark made on a thing. a head or division of a book. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. bler. to . and at line 2520 it runs Charm. clack. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. charitas. . Bret. dim. a riddle.charme. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. to croak as a frog . char. caricare. to talk . that turned decken . Yx. Chark. seems to be derived charade. An enchantment. gadka. capitolo. siarad (pronounced — sharad). czurliwoti. Cot. 2. a hood.). . w. Lat. cluck kirklys. twitter. Chapter. Mid. a charm. capellare. Prov. Macduff. It.whirr. babdistinction. Sp. chirlar. Lang. to of the governing body. surris seu Lat. properly to place — . which was incantation. carus. Lay on. czurksti. to love. chatter. carregar. Swiss. Charlock. enough. Justin. chara. to turn Gael. It. be- e. capella. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. It. charade. condo il volgar francese. charger. gnash. babbling. carricare. of chapel. to sing or chirp as birds. the turtle pitre. Sp. Mundart. chapelet. cluck.Lat. from capitulum. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. eyre. —— . 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. a verse. in turns. charlar. occasional turn. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . A weed among com AS. caritas. dear(in both senses). chapitre. beloved.czirksti. carmen. affection. creak. Fr. charge an enemy is to lay on. in To ness Charity. (eucharistie. decken. to prattle. to chirp. — a car. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. Lat. &c. eapitulo. Character. karout. hiss Lith. from gadai. jabber. Sp. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. It. Fr. kirkti. Deutsch. Du. See Charlatan. twist. charlatan. return. for the same reason rosario. keeren. es ist mi cheer. * Charcoal. cedeleac. burning without consuming the substance. and in It. chatter. And damned be he who first cries Hold. dear. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. krachzen). In that work the verb is written caire. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. a turn cerran. cher um cher. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. canne. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Gr. prattling quacksalver. Charade. colliers that charred coal. w. Charcoal was ciarlare. chat. cabildo. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. Chare. The crash. Boh. charcoal burners. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads.' Boccaccio in Diez. to load . . wood to coal. tattler. From Norm. wreath for the head. Chapman. Charge. Hence carminare. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. chirk. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. chapel. to charcoal. it is my turn. — — — turned to coal. AS. schreien. turn. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Chirk. as a beetle. a merchant. — spell. a cricket karkti (schnarren. OE. Fr. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. ject). cha. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. cerran. from capa. Charlatan. The G. to converse. go. cam. kurkti. talking. a rhyme. Lat. the nature of a thing. . from carrus. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. from cape or cope. as Pol. Fr. to tattle. Inst. called kedlock. pohadka. ghirlanda seor garland. ceap-man. from Charade. AS. a garland of roses. . a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. corona. called in Sp. as. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction.. a dispute . to turn. hadka. carmo. a The OFr. to chirp. a mark of a mountebank. capital. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. turn about. Fr. ciarlatore. See Cheap. used in the sense of magic Fl. 370. to chirp as sparrows. to prattle. czirbti. kurkelis. Lith. to dove . to creak. gaggle . cearcian. Sup. charer. creak. tegere. Ptg.

sordidus. Chaste. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. To chit. occasionally Forby. caro. gallan or ogan. Chasm. Fr. also to hatch. — = Chats. . niggardly. whence a charm of goldfinches. See Cistern. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). to clap.house. as purgare Fr.— Chatter. It. castus. gazzolare. gadu-gadu. careful. the handle of a razor .— Chit. — We ornamental work the to signify E. pure. cyrm. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. clatter. OE. g. speak . chip. Fr. converse. as turnip-chaits. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. discourse.a. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. the noise of birds. Pm. be wide open. Kil. —Bailey. chary. to chatter or prattle . cearig (from cearian. chatter. chat. letters p. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. flesh. To Chase. chit-chat. chaste. to chirp. i. gaddc. fragments or leavings of food. incassare. It t. a plate of metal. Chary. To work plate as silversmiths do.ppen. a gap. csacsogany. Russ. knacken. to crack. as we speak of olive branches. An imitative word. parcus. pure. or equivalent forms. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. clap. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. knatiern. as. prattle. make a noise as birds do. B. a churchyard or charnel-house. Chamel. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. chair. ferire. noise. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. from pure. or suckers on rough borders. Fl. an enchantress. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. to wet. the calix of a rose.). prate. used to represent a sharp note. as from nomen It. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. to make a noise. a young man . charmer. chit. Kil. a twig Suffolk chaits. Pol. or pop. To chip is then to crack. D. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . G. a branch. chip. to which it bears the same relation as chape. ch&tier. a word. — Hal. chip. It. Fr. to care). carnisj bones kept. root of the Lat. — Yorkshire chat. talk much .. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. czysty. In like manner Russ. — The . snap. Diez. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. charm. to crack. warble. To chitter or chipper. cs E. Gr. The egg is chipped. nome and . chits. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. a shrine for a relic. racket . V. noise. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. or the cry of a bird or the like. Fl. See Card. — Palsgrave. limpid. chick. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. or a bird out of the egg. from xoAn. also to germinate or spring forth. —Chastise. — Fr. Parallel with E. xi'i-'^vui. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Du. csatora (Magy. kata. is to represent the chamier. a branch and a young female. carmen is presented in AS. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. Chart. little sticks cudere. warble. to chirp.). nommer. to cut and faggoted. tittle-tattle. to chirp as a bird to cheep. the cry of the bat. Fr. %aafi. clack. Malay. It. eclats. blackthorn-chats. a yawning. the young shoots . to enchase it . germinate . as that made by the crack of a hard substance. Hal. To talk. clean. to set a jewel. clear. s. Pol. from purus. chisf. to gape. . tenax. splinters. chick. Chat. talk. Magy. — sharp sound of a crack. to burst open. karigh. kata-kata. also a youth. a chatter-box. a crack or a flaw . whistle. magpie. gazzogliare. castus. chikat'. shivers. cassa s. To Chasten. chykkyn (Pr. gazzettare. pure. in Jam. Chat-wood. la chasse d'une rose. to separate in morsels. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. scraps of for fuel. fragments. chaste. chit in the latter sense Du. to cry as a chicken . enchasser. csaterdzni. geug. See Catch. —Charter. So in Gael. CHATS fit 143 to name. clean. Lat castigare. the bird is iiown. It. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Cot. schioppare. kippen. csacsogni. To Chase. — — . crackle. as in the E. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. carme and Fr. to baptize. —Jam. kna. kastaa. gazzerare. clean. From carinen was formed It. shout OE. karg. jackdaw . a hum or low murmuring ijoise. Lat. Cot. gazeuiller. to talk. ch). a flock of those birds.

OFr. kaupiti. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. in Fr. chire. the face. Sp. Faire bonne chire.— Cattle. the tongue. Cot. to laugh. horse-couper. — To check an account. G. to fetch the breath with difficulty. sob E. the principal ' colloquial E. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin.' kezen. with Dief. gig. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough.' to exchange to gasp. while it Bret. a piece of moveable property. cachinnari. caupo. koopen. teeth . goods. chavylbone or chawlbone. a young boy or girl.— . kaupon. snout. dchec. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. citello. kok. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. the countenance Fr. agreeing upon. entertain kindly. whence captale. Fl. Check. in widely separated languages by the Lat. Cheek. to cough and hence either buying or selling.kakot. Chear. and. ku. chaptel. upon a checked cloth. syllables ^ag-. . chuckle. giving or taking in exchange. changing. Modern Slang. et juxta catalla sua. Fr. chatel. goods. to make inarticulate sounds in . prattlingchete. the Confessor.of the throat in coughing. kauf. ceahhetan. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. a rogue or person who used the canting language. lower. Sc. truffa. — — —Chowl. chop. to deal ON. jaws. to coup s. Fr.. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Gr. OFr. Bohem. thers. look. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. chapman. to stutter gigken. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. . laughing. which is used in the to stutter. which is the word in ceap. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. CHATTELS has ciio. to nauseate (to retch). See Cheek. &c. Cam. a dealer. gagkern. kakaista. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. and hence the E. cattle. a willing look and unwilling heart. exAS. Hence to cheat. chiere. 144 the It. catalliim. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. price. from AS. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. It — Brompton in Due. KaviiXog.— Chaps. gagkezen. Bav. capitale. Slav. stuttering. hawkmann. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general.—Choke. kakkaset. ceap. to . It. Soc. entertainment. visage. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. to clear the throat . are represented piti. kaufen. CHEEK zitella. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. aspect of a man. to chop and change. Then. Ek dry and hard.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr.ing. a repulse. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. ceaflas. chatal. to negotiate. kaupa. to swap goods .. Hal. a canting knave. farm for farm. NE. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. cita. welcome heartily.— Chole. cattle. the Lat. a tavern-keeper. . Fin. a cheater. favour. choule. Chattels. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. tradesman. Pr. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. cozener. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. to — . in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. s. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Chew. sum in a loan. equiva. Pm. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. bon marche. . jaw. kichen. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . cara. retching. See Chess. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. kek. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. The gutGoth. . Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. Pro v.. giggling. stuttering. society. Lat. keck. sale. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband.-^. to buy. lead to OE. any cheating. kikottaa. cattle. Ingulphus. cheeks. mandibula. to coff—Yisi. frown. with the exception of land. 'li^'opa jord i jord. ceafl. from Lat. to cluck like a hen. — We ' . It. to buy. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. kak. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. cera. to act as a rogue. Cheat. force of the word. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. to vomit. kik. sense of bargaining. a dealer in horses. chear in the sense of victuals. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. countenance. e. us. Du.

. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. ceaplas. jaws Sw. See Chess. prevail with. jaws. Sp. to make a noise different word. E. rupted into chess. Cher. kces. to boken. gap. jaw. schach. . to heap up such things for the purchoke. kastanie. Hence chesten-nut. Sw. chests in OE. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. frame by which the exertion is made. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. It. made rancid koka. kok. kopen. cerise j G. cheek. . The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. Chevisance. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Fr.D. Analo. An imitative word.G. cese. xaque. things Da. treat with affection.. Sw. The Sw. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . See Alchemy. (Kil. rattle in the throat. acquisition. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. Fr. a cricket. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. mollium congeries. cheeks. Chemistry. czypti. — — . chops. Du. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. kapen. AS. food. jouffle. Chess. practice seems to have been communiChevron. G. throat.cirieggia. cerasus. chesten. as. Fr.koppen. Lat. E. — — . Sp.). Chef. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. e. giffle. ON. achever. caws. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Hence kikna is identical with OE.peep in the same sense. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. accomplishment cayed. takes place in the formation of cheese. cams. gous forms are G. throat. suffo. caseus. the mouth. Sc. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. the The use of the word kcesir. Du. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. Kil. make an end. ceg. chAtaigne. then end. geagl. chiffe. kjcebe. chevir. castaneusj Fr. dear. to gasp. quok. the palate Chequer. as meat and butter. kdkel. kirsche. chasi. Sc. skratt. jaw . — 10 . to prevent the attack of cavalry. ceac. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. by laying up in a covered heap. condition of being taken. Thus "we are brought din. cista. quoka. gill of fish AS. cabrio. cheken. the final guttural is retained in writing. E. ost. to swallow. carnium. to kep. the hke. kasa. dersen . whence kasa-leipa. jaw. . Lat. From them the plish. Tutschek. cheek. the neck. chaps. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. like a young chicken. to love. F*-. old bread. cegio. the throat. Da. Prov. Lith. gaghel.Xo belch. G. kasiiUPr. ca' — . a chicken. Cherry. kikna. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Pm. rafters in heraldry.D. Pl. a rafter . See Case. cufd. veluti piscium. jowl. OHG. to choke. It would Cheese. AS. to bring to an end. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. for cheese itself. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. Fr. nish source. cough. gapen. ation. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. to accomThis they call hdrsk. clear the throat. geafl. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Cherish. E. Fin. w. to kasa. N. — — . CHE.their struggle for independence. to gape gab. gullet. scacco. whence czypulas. the loose the game of checks. kesten. As the board to gasp i. &c.EP CHEVRON 145 on. In these latter forms we see the transIt. a heap. caru. Jam. king). The name of creak as shoes. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. kistej Lat. hasten. equal squares of opposite colours. AS. cireggia. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. gabe.' to w. schach. incaseatus. ceaflas. to year. kjceve. ceocian. Fr. X'C&s. to geahl. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. to choke with laughter. To Cheep. kastr. w. . kdke. Lat. cabiron. Fris. to hold dear. rennet. Chekenyd or querkenyd. squeak as a mouse. by laying it in come to an agreement with. w. Chevaux de frise. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. cyse. to belch. kjakje. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. cisty G. Lith. /Ji2^/(W. chevron. Achievement. cherir. Lat. Prothroat of an animal . subacidus.. subjected to this process with that which the throat . kikna of dorum coacervatio. cheek. To make a shrill noise Chest.perly head. mouth kek. kaecke. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. chops.pose of acidifying them kasadr. ichec.

to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. kibr. and from the third E. chieftain. quivering sound which passes.). chiler. kinderen. kaau•wen. to gasp for breath (Hal. Fin. cebr.— . kauwe. Chitter. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip.— Gattel. jaw. k'imm s. tyuk. ach. czypulas. to chirp or peep like a chicken. rafter . the throat. kouwe. a finch. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. strideo. klagend tonen. chaps. to pettifog. lead through the synonymous E. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. and not vice versd. acute. sonorous. The Pl. CHJME the radical form is unusual. pipe. the head. chin. . but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Du. chill. capo. Tintillo. caput. capu. W. to the brim. to twitter. a chicken. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Prov. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Kil. branchy. Pm. grelot). It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. It. kopf Du. tintelen van koude. Pl. kop. then cold. a young bird. — Fin. the young of animals in general. Gael. To chitter. The loss of the syllable it in Du. pi. mouth. the rim or edge of a vase. Fr. gills of a fish. Gattel. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. chic. Now gan some courage unto him to take. mountain top . to use the jaws. Walach. knirschen. stake. cheek. kuwe. kind. Brezza. into a continuous shriU sound. or the broken noise of birds. term is ssaru fu. Fr. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du.. s.D. Fl. aner. Russ. . It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. to contest. pipio. from the first of which is Lith. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib.^ to resound as a bell. For the see word Doit. in Walach. gosling. chew or chaw. rafter. E. to contest about trifles. a chicken. kilderkin. CHEW . pole. Chaw. 146 brial. killen. Chief. knit the brow cib-led. cib. : — a lump. Palsgr. cap. knarren. a chicken. to titter is Du. A To Chew. Chill.D. from little to little. also the horizon. the Ptg. De chic en chic. E. queror. tremble. chillar. tiukkua. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. And hence.. to crackle. Du. deer's horn. Fl. when the vibrations become very rapid. cabar beinne. creak. Probably from Fr. kimme. then as G. Payer chiguet A chiguet. Magy. Chigue.^ Hal. chef. pip. as. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. or as E. pululo. caferu. beam. kauchen. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. 'Among these the G. Pr. a little bit. to raise the rim. antler. tiukkata. a hen. jaw. to go. or qf people talking rapidly. tremble with cold. choule. ' . chillrar. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Fr. G. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. chicken. head. kieken. as pointing out the origin of the E. cabarach. tiukka. alter. to smart. Pr. hiss as meat on the gridiron. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. kimia. chillness or shivering. pipio. cica cica. crepo. chiquei. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. ultimate origin of the Mite.. signifying properly shivering. — It. Lat. while didder is to shiver or citteren. kaw. Imitative of a loud clear sound. a head. Chimb. Sp.peep. greloter is to shiver for cold. the least imaginable jot. killen. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. Halm. jaws . chavel. ]). similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. capete. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. tiuk.' my finger tingles with cold. or chick. kippa. Bret. a small cask OFr. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. rafter . — . To Chide. Chick. has probably the same origin. chavel. kidata. cabriones. — Du. the jole. Fin. twitter. the same principle I regard On birds. Da. cabar. caprioru. captain. to chew. a jaw. machouere. zitterti. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. cidan. to scold. w. See Chimmer. chawbone. keichen.. are formed Du. Pm. a cup cibaw. kime. cild. E. chicoter. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. a cup. from the second Lat. to chime. — — Mother Hubbard. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . chikat'. G. horn wood. chol. while the Magy. Child. the cry of young . a quid of tobacco. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. by driblets. horns of the house. chicaner.— Cot. to Du. . kimista^ . Fin.-ill. kindeken. kitista. Swiss kiden. a cup. AS. De finger killet mi for kalte. Chime. kauen. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. chimb.

chin . so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. schetteringe. Chitterling. cisaille. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . a surkik hosta. E. schetteren. To Chimmer. chick. the whooping cough. kink hoest. a hall Mid. rustle. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Chine. the jaw. Chip. Sw. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Sp. sounding deep. kumista. Chyrme or chur. to prattle czirpti. — .schricken. part lion. as a bell kommata. also vibrans. cleft. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. a chap. flaw Hal. Chimney. do. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. Primarily a shrill sound. applied to tremulous motion. E. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. schiena. gen. crepare. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Fr. quivering or shakyng for colde. sonants. the cheek. or chyFrigutus. A . ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. gena.to divide or Du. komista. Lith. ykvvQ. esquena. cincel. — . j^lf. cinne. to sizel. . — . tsongeni. Gloss. Hindost. cheminde. to chirre. tremulous motion. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. epine. Bav. chits. a Kuttn. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. from 10 * ' Chia. See Bright. Sp. to creak. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. sound. The small entrails of a hog. Gascoigne in Todd. Fr. genou (pi. to chine. ciarlare. have been used to designate the spine. in Hal. — . kieck hoest. G. twitter caminus. genawi. schina. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. eschine. to prattle .. 147 kimina. from the geon's lancet. chatter . Pr. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Chit. Fr. ciseau (for cisel). fissure. a szemrcU. The change from the sound ter \s. In the same sense. See Chap. kinne. skina. caminsects. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. disCot. to chirp . . CHITTERLING sonus acutus. To chink with laughter. Diez de. are In like manner E.er. and light. Huloet. eschin^e (de pore). i. a fire-place. ter. and bodily movement in shimm. Fr. then of a fabulous monster part goat. and chim-mer. chink. plodere. Chisel.' Phaer's Virg.sharp. kumina.Lat. then to any narrow crack or AS. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. to squeak in It. — — — — — . Fr. keich husten. tschirpen. tinnire. as birds the mouth. Lat. all these imitative terms being minata.to chirp. to chink with laugh2. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. up and down. stridere. Gower in Hal. quavering of the voice. AS. representing connected together. backBut she withal no worde may soune. from Lat. spina. which differ from each other only as Chirk. simmer.). See Chats. Du. dial. Pm. zirken. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. It. name Then. twinkling light. Chat. It. a thorn. the chine. cisello. to simmer. klincken. . It.czirbti. hiss chirlar. to tremble. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. to chirp. chhint. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Magy. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. caperd. sonus the backbone Lat. as the/ is preserved tering. the mouth (jaws) . It. cinan. a thorn. spina. KinneGr. fyr. bx-eak the back of schena. . a crowing sound in recovering breath. backe. the chin . Chintz. Kil. hus. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. the jaw. Cot. esquina. Chink. to creak. as a large bell . Chin-coug^h. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. . Chitter. The desig. to chink. sparkle. Prov. Caminatum. et garrire . to open chirriar. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. as the chink of money. See Chark. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. eschiner. sound on beginning to boil. to sound deep or the Gr. komia. Sp. Chymerynge. It. a chink or fissure. zirpen. Bret. To Chitter. Chink-cough. clangor tinniens kummata. Du. clipping of coin. squittire. to tattle. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. G. the cheek (jaw) . and from a similar sound to boil gently. chirp. killed by Bellerophon. pork) . verynge or dyderinge.Huloet in Hal. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Sp. hollow. caminata. yivtiov. tsengeni. Chimera.. clashing of weapons. pare also Walach. vincially used in the sense of a crack. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. bone . but or cry as a parrot. schrick. Ptg. cheek. To chirp or twitter. to gape. czirszkti. hiss Pm. to murmur. to sound. resonance . and the Du. companied. in the same crack.iron.

full to overflowing. i. The . to break off in small shive. g'schochet voll.yEuffM. kor6n. to stop geschoppt voll.D. Luc. a young . . in the same language. chife. chibble. a wine taster. gdnse gekrose. schevel-steen. The Sc. Gr. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. kaup. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. of E. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . a twittering. the ridges prove. chimp. from kraus. to try. Schmid. wrath. as green as leeks. .ffrill. and Vf. to try . a calf's pluck or chaldron . wein didder for cold. scheve. a fragment. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. chorus.' who shall not taste death. causir.freze. krussyi. from chevalier. ^S. kushati. disposition. fresure. and in kosten. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Yr. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. pieces . Fr. a heap. civette.— B jag E. to hack. kruszki. keypa. to turn. to chap at a door . stone which splits off in shives or shivers. OHG. ^euw. The I go to prove them. also calPs. a calf's chaldern of E. coup. cut up into — See Chats. To Choke. to prove. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . rare. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. the inwards of an animal. as with a blow. a goose's giblets. koren. to clap up Hal. CHOP kros. haslets. kusid. — — — . cape.gust. to taste. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. ent quarter. and It. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. a chive. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. signify to kiss. chceur. Cavalry. or original meaning is preserved in G. a blow. prove.ceosan. . taste. choppe. Prov. xiv. kiesen. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. chock full. G. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. &c. Enn Sigridur sem ' . coro. a ruff or frill. to palpitate . arkiusan. Body and Soul. then to try. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. ruffs. lead us on to Lat. to try. . to chap. Fr. Chap. chives. Goth. chaup. try. it is probable that the root kus. chawdron. a ruff. kiezen.. to ing is doubtless to taste. a knight. to exchange horses. okusyti. Boh. by the vibrations of sound or motion.V)^x. to Compare also Pol. propagated. cke. and N. then to shiver. kustigen. to taste. Equivalents in the SlaFr. and in this sense the * small pieces. kbhren. cive. . to strike hands .' At last he dwelt . The manners and senti. to choose. schiefer. Chivalry. ments of the knightly class. to wrinkle. %o\ifa. Walach. Jam. Gr. schoch. called cMtters in the N. * To Choose. .' Verie coinme Cot. to taste. Fr. to ^cleave . — Chock-full. Chives. to experience. Warwickshire coff. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. to try. a scale or fragment P1. —Chorus. &c. whence choleric. heaped measure. kieser. chatter. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. cepa. an onion. As kushnuti. kiusan. wkusit' prikushat. approve. caperd. specially with an application to theatrical performances. choix. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to shiver. G. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. Swiss kust. To Chop. •- Russ. shoot . shiver. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. — Cholera. by which they are Fr. chippe. to tempt. x^poc. — See Cheek. taste. kalbs gekrose. experience valerie. Swab. bile. Serv. gustare. Chuck-full. gusten. a small slice or slip of anything . crammed Choir. full. 19. Lat. G. pluck. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. developments of the same radical image. the small parts of the roots of plants. try. . from %u\i). Choleric. seallion or unset leek. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. chap hands. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. a company of singers or dancers. to taste. See try. a rag. I. chattering. curly . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. to taste . are used in the same sense. keuren. to taste. ON. fine threads of flowers. 2. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste.vonic languages are Pol.. friller. word is more likely to be from Lat. Choice is probably direct from Fr. skifa. kushevati. of an angry — — — ' ' — . kiusan. Gr. select. all seem slate . chiffe. kausjan. ON. whence Lat. gekrose. anger. Choice.

Cot. kubbr. to speak thieves' slang. OE. Sp. That Face. G. Alchemist. for to defraud. of which such strings are made. chronicles. e. xftovoq. E. xop5>}.X. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. 49. In the Alchemist. to turn over. dial. clogs. and we actually find champman for chapman. overset. kaufen. Du. time ra . claquer. gold. prattle . If I discover.. Kil. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. 4. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . cangiare. i. caker. To coup. Chub. cheap. from kloppen. cauc. Picard. cavena. chapineria. the teeth to chatter . by the Robert Shirley. kaulhaupt (club-head. chroniques. A jackdaw. soul-couper. Chuck. whence the Fr. See Change. the same word with the It. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. dealing. I bring you the Cloughs. bearand aits. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. chub. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. Lat. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. fat. cauvette j Fr. chouette. Confounded with the bullhead.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. traffic. AS. Madam. capita. to knock. Fr. —Shakespeare. -chron-. To Chop logick. &c. or miller's kaycke . as Du. chevane. sent before him a Chiaus. E. Marin. Gr. connected with G. ceo. an offence against the fitness of times.. chrisme. monedula. quappe. short piece kubbug. chop. Fr. capitanus. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. To Chouse. noble Doctor. Sw.). Anachronism. syllables chat. caqueter. a messenger or envoy. Chord. Fr. What do you think of me. A fish with a thick snout and head. e. in i6io. xpi'^lia. to clack. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. See Chaff. one who buys and sells horses or cows. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. peace. Chough. kaej Lith. From the Turkish Chiaus.— Landnamabok.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. cambiare. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. to overturn. kowe. whence apparently the Sup. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. XpvaaXic. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. who took in the Turk- clack. in Chaucer.\^s.' Jam.' They are forebuyers of quheit. kowej Sax. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. chapin. dial. forms are Chrism. ley in Giiford. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. cheviniau. kaw. a The What dhy ^. to cant. Du. klopper. Gr. whence — E. a small fish with a large head.povucd. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. a lump or piece chump. Jam. Fr. cob. thick-set.— Chevin. klompe. P. Borgoens happen. In Sc. cresmeau. capito. kobe. because she would not endure this husband chopping. chuet. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. slipper . a trafficker in souls. Gr. . CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Ant. caphatenus. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. a stump. equivalent to the E. Wall. — Quabbe. to chatter. the intestine of an animal. we find the following passage Dap. kolbe (club). capitone. gobio capitatus. Chrysalis. chouquette. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. koppe. whence e.—Chuokstone. that will thank chiaus — you richly. choucas. Chopino.(. ON. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. — Dief. chatter . thumb Fl. the string of a musical instrument originally. to strike in the hand. ' ' What's that? Dap. The Turk was here As one should say. Come. p. Chronicle. Gr. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. high clog. .). a bullhead. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. Nominale in Nat. yiSA. Peace. which was written 27.sohola. chapma?i. gull. clat. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. chrysalis (Plin. — Chrisom. chevin. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. applied to an owl in that language. civetta. — . plump. gull. as in Fr. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. cow-couper. kubb. merchant. a thick piece. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened.• — . E. — — — . E. chevane. Fr. kauwe. chack.

analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. whence church. sinter. sindel. incido. to throw out sparks. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church.' And cold. flower. chife. tie about). -cido. To chuck in the fall from. dust. to fall. comp. ciuffo. Gr. cinctus. Chuff. Wall.— Chu%. to determine incision. chofu. a man. Cider. to fall upon decide.^. we have to chack. Du. surly. In Sc. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. ladre from Lazare. Churn. Cieling. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. cendre. countryman. dial.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Church. ON. sindra. a husband. ceffo. a man. to Newsp. to him a sudden blow. but by way of explan. The spelling of chider has Chump. that the word is an adoption of Fr. calculus. sindr. as Epkema explains it. ceorl. &c. to sparkle. * Cinder. to make a rippling noise. from Lat. Lat. ceaplas. karl. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. from Lat. accido. the kernel. chuffy. then the on oh StX iv roXt. chops. . to fall at or on. a rustic . a douse on the tores. Jennings. male person. ccedo. a lump.V//a'6'?. a man. Sw. i. KaxXij?. cado. Diss. e.D. set kerti. has been impugned which it has really no connection. .black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. Lat. klakka. ceaflas. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. See Cheek. in circumcision. to make a aiKipa. Aasen. a resounding object. Du. the snout of an animal. — of the two words. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. cheek. cinctura {cingo. in Sc. Cleland in Jam. G. As AS. as water running over rocks or stones. ashes. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. as Fr. an old man. kiorne. in the face. Chunk. ON. chack-stone. sintel. to turn from blossom to fruit. The origin ation. Gothic nations. AS. whence ON. chack or stane-chacker. giffle. so as to make the happen . thence a belt. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre.for the residue of stone coal. blow on the I io6 in Mur. fat-cheeked. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. . Lat. sive piratiam facere sciant. to To Chuckle. to churn. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. ceffore. chakil. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. &c. kerl. See Cheek. scoria. C^z^j^ churHsh. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. to separate the kernel of the milk. calx. . but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. . as a board. whence deciduous (of trees). marrow. Hence -cid-. Da. pith. cinis. kirna. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. See Ceiling.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. G. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. a miser. Wall. Du. a fellow. ChurL husbandman. kernjen. casum (in comp. or. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Sicerawry face ceffata. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. OFr. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. kakka. -cide-. domhnach. to cut decide. spuma metalli. jaws. geaflas. with It the Lord's house.' he adds. have given rise. cinders used disjunctively. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . The derivation from Kvpiasov. swollen or puffed up Cot. kjami. . to jaw chack or snap. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. chofe (Grandgagnage). Fr. a pebble. tindra. gffe. kaerle. chaps. as in E. Lat. to gird.— . joffu. e. i. lamak.rendered by Kil. or choice part of a thing . because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). -cisuiri). cidre. a cutting round. KvptaKolg. to form grains of butter. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). Ir. Sc. log of wood. a girding on. x^^i?. Gr. cheeks Cincture. pp. however. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. It is certain.. Fr. Cob. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. to cause the milk to grain. residue of burnt coals. AS. Probably from It. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . -cise. -cis-.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. -eris. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. joufflu. cut off. a pebble . — — A — ' ' — . sicera. kern. a cutting an old chuff. — . Ka-^aiva. to strike clatter. ON. 24. Fris.

cion. a whip. Gael. To Clack. clobyn. In Fr. and E. klamp. clamer. sound- — hands figures. cit^. lump. circum. —Civil. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a split. castus). klepati. . cisterna. claquer crash. * Ciplier. Citadel. We . klap. Alt. dim. a circle. circle. whence cistiti. clap. sound. clamare. klacke-busse. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a place See place hiddern. clangor avium . noise — — a cistern. clog. from chupar. cittadella. ball kloben. parallel root is slam. to call. clasp. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . kringr. claquer. around. clack. . — (Dozy) ing blow. ciste. clap. klompe. a ball. crack. a citizen . CION See Tinder. and Sp. about. Clump. a young and tender plant. The notion of a lump. a block. Hence Incite. to chatter. Lat. See -cid-. smack. glambar. . rattle. to set in motion by means of the voice. klopati. —Circuit. to strike. claim. klappen. a clod. chijfre. ON. bunch. klateren. gutter. kluV. a reservoir Probably from Lat. Lat. a lemon tree. to be empty. or clap-dish. ter. Circum-. ruin. cry out . Du. W. circa. . clack. Fr. a knob. clat. to clack.— . a ball. trunk. Sw. Clam. cittade. to knock. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. is traced by Gr. radical identity of the Fr. accordingly find the roots dab. It. a'upiav. sip. civitas. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. cifra. Fr. klekotati. KpiKoe. or split with noise. klacken. or quill to draw waier through Fl. klabb. circ2tlus. to cry out. a. wasserkasten (water chest). G. crack. babble . a kind of rattle. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. to summon or call on. cluster. clot ON. slam. uproar. klater-busse. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . Gael. Comp. crack. clapping of klacke. the tongue. a judgment cern. to go. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. the door was slammed J slamem. -cite. a rattle Fr. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). sindri. lucerna. a cistern. to bawl. Bohem. klumbr. chupon.to suck. bunch . clamras. Lat. E. hringr. a block. rattle . suck). to clap at a theatre. to appeal. klqb.' sione. log. clack-dish. klappe. the place of . claquer. globus. a pop-gun. So a light. lump of wood or with the nasal. belonging to cities or social life . Scion. fall. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. . latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. lump. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. Hal. to mention. a city. . Lap. The syllables clap. noise. sajira. to make to go. citrus. We . Lat. cittd. scion. clump. clamp. G. to chatter . clambar. tinnitus . cry. and clash. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a Lat. ON. to call. * Cistern. a circle. a lump Lat. 'mass. scion or sucker. a ring. klemte. . to chatter.. clapper. to clatter. Recite. with an initial s instead of c. klambr. Lat. Chaste. a mass. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. creak les dents. . Du. klubb. a hiding-place. of citta. as in Sp. E. -cis-. as. a cleansing place. outcry. prattle. biw. excite. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. and. Lat. . klammer. chatter . chupon. cito. Excite. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. around. empty Golius. Cite. forms — — — parent plant. klump. twig. cista. a boss . domern. in the frequentative form. Gr. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. clatCot. Fr. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. lash . Fr. Circle. From Arab. to cleanse. . lump. cieo. Citron. to call by name. sound of blow. Dan. area. . mass . From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. Dan. Clamp. sifr. cisterna. sprig. a for water. a rattle . dob. sphere gleba. Lat. claquet de moulin. lump . Arab. a clod Russ. See Circle. Sw. Mack. klak. chest. a Pol. stimulate. clack-box. Sp. ON. lump. for Cion. vociferation. &c. Cot. KipKog. civilis. a loud uksa slamketi. to cluck. compared with It. ring. ern. a lump Du. as caverna from cavus. a whirlwind. kringla. See Crankle. a shoot. a circle. city. may cite w. The Gr. to gnash the teeth. a city. Du. circum. a kind of pipe. glam. glamm. civis. citujn. to toll . City. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. It. To Claim. Gr. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. prattle. clamp. cion. It. klimp.

apprehend . also to clog up. coagulated cream. dapi^. To Clamber. nature . To sticky. of money Gael. clibby. clink. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. for tame conies. a sound. to cleave or stick. adopted Lat. klobber-saen. klemmen. Clap. klamre. clap. conceal. Clank. klepel. sound . klappen. clang. to beat. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to claw oneself up. clap. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . viscosity . kleppe. Sw. pressed close or hard together. sound. to climb. prison. klemmen.1. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. sound. salaan. kleben. to patronus. cream Manx doan. grasp. ney. stick. but perhaps not directly from it. as the clapping of hands. klimmeii. . to climb. a whip. Swiss kldbem. bandage. of the children. clajnmy. The Fr. The equivalent of Lat. AS. kleppe. klatten. sticky Hal. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. ring as metal. klappre. a loud tingle. dren. rumour. chatter.' to take coals to Newcastle. klamme. damor. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . scendants. Salainen. seize. to hook things together. to daub pinch. a place underground where rabbits breed. — Climb. yf. Du. clapper of conies. to clamp. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. glambar. Dan. grimper. — Lat. Clang. salafa. cramp. clangor. tight. from birdlime. c). clandestine. dapier. &c. to stick conceal. .er. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. bond. klammer. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. solid. cramp-iron. klippe. Clan. where- A — unto they retire themselves. dank. klam7n. a sound made by a lighter clink. G. E. to stick or glue. to glue. klank. a stick. klebern. to clutch or cling oneself up. damras. viscous. — with hunger. Hence the Fr. to dame. dambar.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. beating. celo produces Fin. A i. gliong. a sound made by a still . to climb. to seize. klopfen. Dan. to hide. a stone See Claim. The root which gives rise to klibb. to climb. dem. diver. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. cleave. Clamp. — Cot. and hence moist. or klamp-vogel. a burr. narrow. Dan. tone. tinkle. to Sw^. buckle klamp. klettern. The E. pinching. dial. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. substances of a stickydam. clamber. is used in the sense of secretly. and that from celo. dang. klubber. G. club . dienklebber. from the w. dap up. chatter. closely analogous to that of the fast. tattle. clapas. strain . originally a heap of large stones. brawl. to cling. clann. to Hal. to gingle. klemmen. . beat. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. Mampe. gripe. a trap. clammy brace. dam. children. Russ.' klibba. klavre. Clapper. G.p correspond- ' without order. gum. whence sala. Dan. Gael. Lat. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to. uproar. To clap in E. E. a heap of stones or other things piled up . tingle. kluppel. privately. a noose . Clamour. . kloben. G. of which the locative case. klamm. tremble . clear sound. E. kleppen. who occuG. holdfast. These words To are closely connected with damp. klem-vogel. a heap of stones. klette. dam. to clap. dee. to clap on. to do anything with a clap. crowd . E. klynge. a rattle . to knock. a hawk. clasp. dink Du. and hence to pinch . G. daver. Bohem. in a hidSen place. knocking. dandestinus. See Clam. is a nasalised form of gripper. Du. klibber. Du. klampen. sound of the trumpet . a claw . clav\f. klynge sig op. compress. dia. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. children. klang. klepanie. dam. Halma. as the Lat. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. to climb . klammern. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. run to lumps Clandestine. accent. — . Pourta las p^iros as clapas. contraction. chief. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. dial. dapier. massy. Fr.. cluster. dam immediate modifications — . cling. klam. hook. anything hidden. to pinch. to glue. OE. — — . B. Lang. hands or claws to grasp. . to hold to pinch. These are imitations of a loud. compression. dientes. to hold fast with the . sound object . tenacious. a claw. a bird of prey. to starve. klepati. with cramp-irons. a craCmp. In like manner Du. to knock. resonance klingen. offspring. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. Bav. klappen. G. Du. G. . take hold of. rattle. to climb. descendants . hold. ancestor. Swiss kletten. B. Clink. strait. the in many languages. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf.

an on the one hand.Z. a little hook . From claudo. Sw. e. which signifies a ball in E. crying. claret win e. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . chiarello. Du. Fr. a nail. clavus. diver. thwack . Owl and that by which cleave to. biichse. an ending. clump. Analogous Jam. In E. a lump . sound of the foregoing description. pet. Lat. K\a. clarin. a heap. Clatter. Lat. glcis. cluster. a club or massy stick. cloi. So Pol. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. rion.\x\xvn. fracas. claw (what fastens together. a. a claw. a buckle. to fasten together . assembly. schnalle. Identical with ON.to cra. klaskad. also a knell for the dead. klatschen. bawling. clavis. we pass to the E. klase. It. clas. a ball. fibula. kleuen. applied in their harness. to do anything with a . In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. The b readily passes into gleba. mass. It.oi. gaspe. clairon of a trumpet— It. sphaera. the collar-bone. i. a lash. biichse. Klatsch- a pop-gun . and through v into a. classis. uproar. kleeven. rubellum. vin clairet. klijven. In the same way is formed the OE. Claw. row aii/iaTos. clatter. a bunch. flap. cinnamon. a key KKtitid. a clod. Pol. Rayn. to end. skeria-klasi. Clause. a distribution of things into groups. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. a key. teren. kletse. clarinado. pellet . is used in Sc. ictus resonans.It. a. a clasp. and old red rose-water. Clavicle. clopa. The collar-bone. Du. chatter. to clap . Gr. straight-mouthed. it is called clamming. seizes) . a sphere . klatsche. &c. Clash. klouwe (Kil. a key origmally a crooked nail. in the sense of a mass or lump. klauw. klaeret. vin claret. klot. is preserved in Lang. to animals Sp. chiizjj-o. — tells us. a lump. a claFr. or as G. &c. Dan. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. — Clarion. Cot. clew or fasten upon a thing. — Clarinet. subrubidum. clamp. same class with w. klaequivalent to clack or clap. ansa. to fasten. the primary origin clapa. Nawith stavis. kiosk bicza. . as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. to snap. Fr. Russ. klouwe. Thus from Lat. clausula. mass. a kind of small. Claret. clair. as it is written by Chaucer. Clew. klatscha pop-gun. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. From clairet. ghespe. nawith stanis. to clash as arms. Du. with a reddish tint. vinum helvolum. puUs. clausum. as Mod. Du. compression. under three modifications dava. Class. he of white and red grapes mingled together. waU. Originally clasis. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. and clavis. klaterbusse. contraction. To clew. stop of an organ. E.w or u on the other. klauwe. a water made of aquavitse. blab. clew. climp. Kil.ck a whip. insularum nexus . Serv . Lat. Fr. thence a definite head of an edict or law. clairon. the cracking of a whip. KXeiSi. Mask ! plask ! thwick. from the resemblance to a key. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Sp. buckle. dap. as G. from scknallen. locket of a door. globus. nail. to knock. klampe. chiarino. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. 269.). But clasp or elapse. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. Du. The form clew. hawk. sauna de classes. klampvoghel. klc^i. . G. Prov. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Clasp. Du. to patter. somewhat clear. Commonly made. klos. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Eya-klasi.— CLARET clamp. kluczka. to draw it up into a bunch. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. a bird with powerful talons. — Kiittner. globus. ivy. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. whence kleuer. Lat. a complete sentence. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. and shrill-sounding trumpet. klamme. to rattle . fragor . to shut. from its use in fastening things together. chiaro clear.Gr. to ring in such a manner for the dead. forms are the Du. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. klucz. syrtium junctura. —Kil. hook. klatschen. from clinging to the tree which supports it. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. to cleave. Eau clairette. Nightingale. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. Lang. chasguear. noise. Wyutoun in Jam. in the sense of a claw. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Thus from clamp..

hook. or from being divided into two parts. glbram. clean. a clincher. Die zaak is zS. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. to sound or make a noise . to stick or adhere . kloben. glandse. G. provinciaUy termed dout. as Fr. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. doff. . glan. and Celtic glan. Da. Du. ON. clay . kloben. a key. clear. dench. W. a fissure or division See Cleave. See Clam. From dob. opposite senses. klinke. dedgy. a claw or talon. clear. sleek. (Cot. a — — . to clink or sound. Lat. that was a striking proof. kleverig. glorious. — : A rivet. glint. doggy. dag. kleben. as the Du. dial. a cleft or fissure. as explained under G. a lump. to dag ox dog. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. holding together. The proper meaning of the word is shining. gaklankjan. cliquet. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. give a shrill sound Jr. Clear. klieben. the fork of the body. glan. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. to fasten E. Da. it cleave together. dinquet kleeven. Du. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. clean. as ON. kluftholz. date is AS. to fasten. . klinke. klouen. neat. . to separate into parts. kluft. conserere antklankjan. gleit.— Clag. kluyte. klink. bogs cous. A — A Clement. and Dan. klinken. clear. bright. split. Du. 2. cloven wood. clemens. See Clog. klceg.). CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. kloben. the two parts of Du. glor-mhor. to fasten. klinken. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. kleg. smooth. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. to tear or cleave asunder. clibby. viz. radiant. . gingle. kloue. to 2. Clinch. Da. explained from the klinken. Clemency. a mass. klinken. tongs. viz. a one end. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. klove The Dan. from diquer. a cleft. speech . vissticky . to shine . kluit. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. nitidus. Sw. klank. Cleat. G. sticky . sticky earth. kleg. i. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. Lat. glitnir. glatt. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. clean. mud. Clay. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. AS. ON. dut. pretty. to shine. river. seem formed dial. clash. Du. gentle. as Lat. door-latch. loam. polish . kla:g. glindse. the latch of a door. E. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Sc. calm. merciful. a in that of sphtting. dags. Thus from G. To Clench. neat. From clap. Bav. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. a latch. rift. words applicable sight. rivet. klijveii. chaps in the skin. found in other cases. splendid pohshed. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. klincke. a bunch of When flax). G. klouen. clean. G. voice. rive. pellet. is fast and sure. klirre. to cleave. Cleft. diquetcr. shine. and. pure. a flash. from the clinking of the latch. a lump. klutsch. The word may be — . a noise. klinka. E. from nitere. G. to Brilliant. or of a tree. Omklinken. a plate. polished. a mass. to stick to. klieuen. klyft. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. glan. an object is simply cleft. The Dan.' was nailed to a rock. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. kleevig. B. that was Torriano. glance . Wilbraham. . a noose. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. klov.Q. glitta.— . bend in a stream. klafwa. to clench. klirren. the To Cleave. daggy. celebrated . a cleft. of iron worn on shoes by country people. danche. 154 CLAY dutch. lump. either by the coherence To Clepe. in two ways. E. pure . Probably a modification of the word doitt. Du. Sw. Dan. This word is used in two business is finished off. . Sw. a fissure. together . to clinch GB. to glitter. klag. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. glent. dams. Du. To call. clink. Mar. and E. sticky. Clean. clout. kldnkelein. geklonken. to clinch a nail. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. ON. klor. cleave.— Claggy. deot. famous. Gael. Kil. Sc. Axletree clouts. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. klinke. glbr. to chink. Halma. This is probably one of the clean. to be composed. The word is . the original . vice. Fr. pure.

crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. . chatter. klippe. or Sc. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. and hence climate. Commonly derived from deliver. highest is attained. clep. has kl'dver. the clergy. to catch. chatter. ready of speech. a trigger. clypian. rock. Clever. Du. Fr. a lot. the knocker of a door. -Toe (from KXivm. claw or talon to dek or deik. as from derido. e. dob. Click. sink. to catch. . dutch). slope . duke. a cliff. rapidus from rapio.. to confess . call. cleft. to stir. OE. Rouchi cliche. a sphere. CLERK sound of a blow. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. Client. from clifian. to tattle. Lat. a clew. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. whence Fr. temperature. klinge. a clicket or clapper. kliket. kliv. rock. hamraklif. seize (Hal. to seize. click it. click. Du. — — A . a cleft in a rock . a tumbril. on. derigon. dial. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. derjon. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. cave . glomus. clerus. in the sense of active. lively.— Clue. ized . that is a clever feUow. KkrifoQ. cart that tilts over. cleugh. derigo. one admitted to the tonsure. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan).— Clicket. deudi. prattle. above the pole. Cliff. But the Dan. Climb. klev. kleppen. region not observe it. light-fingered. diofian. as a click with the tongue. clatter. cliquet. Now the OE. in rhetoric. dichet. speak. quick of perception. a hump. kleppe. would have been derida. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. and hence deik. Lat. We movement catch. frap- per rudement une personne. climate. verge). a latch. crackle. —Vocab. quick in motion. say. to sound an alarm to clap. dough. cliquer. on. corresponding to the Sc. klif. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. klikker. a hold. /cXi'fia. cleopian. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. snatch. Clam. a lazar's clicket or clapper. cleft in a rock. dexterous. dergi. &c. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. dicher. Sc. The origin is the Gr. clap. deik. klika. clack. a hook. or an object character- Clerical. Clerk. expeditious. 3. klok klep- crepitare. Norm. crack.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. gleg. IS5 Du. catching. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. to tattle. klippe. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. click. Clew. dial. cliof. pen. kloof. to teU tales. klouwe. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . Det er en Mover kerl. to wink. clever. derecia. The Sc. which is used in Scotch and N.' ii. to cry. . d See Clan. pulsare. a ball of twine. which in Mid. duik. globus. the dick of a latch or a trigger. dink. See Clench. declivity. Climate. Boh. to cleave. . The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. sonare. what so men clappe or crie. as Sc. See Clamber. to rattle. from Gael glac. klaiv. CLINCH De . to prate. a clerk . chatter. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. a mill-clack . Chaucer.dergie! Wiclif in R. diver. score7i clif. Claw. cleke. to talk as a parrot. a claw or clutch. AS. the clergy clericus. a precipice. Gr. a figure mentioned. stein- kluppen. to move. dook (identical with E. Da. a baU of yarn. klikklakken. Klover i munden. and (with the nasal) — clincher. klinket. chat. exactly Gr. Jam. as Lat. clever. a child's or clack . Lat. diquette. abrupta rupes . cleft of a hill. In I Peter v. crepare. to clack. Bav. click. scar. a latch . Climax. dek. littus. rugged ascent. it must be observed. precipice. one of the clergy. with hamarskard. Sp. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . rupes . ' — — by a movement of such a nature. ravine. G. clif. G. agile.Lat. a latch. nimble. clif- stanas.) Brai. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. clima. dever. Dunbar in Jam. corresponding to Fr. Clergy. klaffen. skard. 3. de ripa.). to snatch. a lump. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. cliff. icXi/ja?. had a form. cautes. deuch. call. has also deik. dial. Cot. deik. name. — have the notion of a short quick in E. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Sw. See AS. ginally from dob (extant in W. in precisely the same sense as the E. Happen. neither as having lordship in the. a ladder. clyf. babble. Hence Lat. cligner. Du. deuck. klever. is NE. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. klinke. an inclination. Somner. syn. precipices. to bend.

Sw. at first probably on a wooden board. to crowd together klynge sig ved. speaks of a ' clung bat. E. to beat on the board. klocke. to wither. — clot. Een kliks bolter. clog. sloping forwards. To Clip. G. straits. Esthon. globulus' (Gl. klungeln. Clink. The notion of a loose moveable substance. klippur. klunge.. a snare. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. klippen. Ir. klunker. parva ruptura. dial. S w. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. verklungeln. to sound sharp. club). to snap kneipen. klicke. disposed to a thing. chcng. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. to AS. N orman clincailler. to slope or bend . Bohem. ON. a faction. brett-glocke. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klok. . to pinch klupe. a lump G. dial. hooded . clinker. — a mantle. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. klaka. . a lump of butter. knot klynge. -cliv-. ON. kolbe to E. Du. klepalo. cloche. Fr.— KSS. bow. acclivis. klungelin. I. from klepati. to cluster. and a similar syllable without the /. w.ginglej Fr. a lump. a rising ground. knippe. claw. a clog or fetter for a beast . 156 -cline. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . to lean. nip. met. related to clock. Kil. a cluster. 'Till famine cling thee. Walach. klynge. Pl. incline. pinch.und zuk-lippen. cloak. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. cochl. Swiss klungele. kukla. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. a bell. Gr. to wither. G. G. to pinch. iissura. four of the bell. to clunge. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Fr. klippa. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. dial. G. schnippen. also to wink . to ring. clips. shears. gang. glocke. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to snap or fillip schnippen. to shrink up. G. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Swiss klokken. clangere. to lean backwards. Serv. Hal. ' . knippen. especially of something soft or clammy. to clink auf. to shrink up. Cliofue. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. difficulty.'— Shaks. clino. kXiVu. clique. kleppe. toga. as we now say three or four o'clock. Sw. . also to form a compact mass. a ball of thread . The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. a beU. clivus. OHG. klik. Sw. recline. to bend downwards . in Schmeller) klunk. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. noise. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. klak. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Cloak. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. outcry. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. G. To cut with shears. dial. a tinman. declivis.D. ring clag. klipa. . sloping upwards procUvis. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. kluppe. ON. Gael. See Clang. clutch. to clap or clack. a bell. sticky. to form one mass with. to cling to a thing. kol- The word . to knock. &c. . Lat. knippchen. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to strike. by bits. -atum. Sw. as G. klinka.. . klocka. . slant. Ang. See Cowl. fetter. and 'E. klinken. to clip. to snap tongs. klincke. To stick to. a separate portion. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. g. * Clod. hlinian. clinke. incline. klippa. The E. kolki-laud. whence E. Sw. . It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. to . to resound. as thick or curdled liquids. or bagging clothes. ten. gUong.— Clot. klo^gen. Flem. klocke. klippe. Lat. like cling. quincailler. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches.D. to crowd or squeeze chingy. tuft. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. Sussex peasant AS. Du. pallium. clock is a variation of clack. compress . a clock. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. dag. clingan. as to snip in the same sense from snap. kima. klupen. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades.' for a dry stick. -CLINE make pinch. kluben. glungelin. clato make a noise. hill . . to beat. to snip. kliks. Du. klingen. Decline. sloping downwards . the participial form is the nearer to the original root. to make a loud noise. 2. Da. difficulty . kldpp. rima. E. Du. and so' to contract. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. a hood. Clock. hluk. pinch. toga muliebris..' From Pl. a woman's mantle . hlinen. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. Bi klik uti klak. hluccti. Bohem.. To Cling.

sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. I doda clod. gelatinous. close. -clusum. Yule-clog. chiuso. to close against one. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. Bav. wide bagging clothes. from Du. Lat. kladde. -clus-. kleck or lack. . compared with clump. inclose. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. G. clausum. the radical sylla. clot. lump of mud on the clothes . clotted locks Dan. G. clogs. meat from Du. loose. Du. loose mud. klot. to lobberig. aspersion. Close. a field inclosed clos. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. Pm. blot.1a. congeler. Lat. tuditare. klotzschuh. hanging loose and full. bespotted with mire E. paddle or dabble in the wet. slop. pludre. figer. to slop or spill liquids. we pass to Schlatter. Fr. clog or overshoe. dirt. Pl. tJokok.. to spill liquids. a bal!. a log. thick spoon . Cloister. to play at bowls. be found rattle. and Du. mire. Dan.dial. a log. m&se noch stain. TZoxapov. slops slodderen. plod. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. analogous plan to clod or club. It. je amoncele. . a spot. -cludo. MHG. slobberen. ! . schlattern. g. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. watery. foreclose. klakk. cloth. kloteren. lobbig. Pr. clatk.rge lump. a blot. a lump from Du. . a Christmas log. bowl . Clog. truncus. finish . Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. bloutre. of a body of any kind. schlott. . to shut up. to a. or E. to bedaub. E. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. bemired. kloden. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. dab. or Sc. Swiss schlott. . a block. dag. Russ. dirt. an imputation. . geschlotter (as E. Closhe. fors. Idppern. E. splash. Klak also. kloster. terminate. beklakken. loppered (of milk). 3. kloteispaen. slobber. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. shut up. with Fr. from Fr. . but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. . or drablyn with separate existence. laggery. is connected with pludder. motte. kloten. a skittle-ground klos- sen.D. In the same way Dan. to cling locks. a portion of something soft and adhesive. I clodde. .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd.' end. slobbe. to paddle in the wet. and E. mud. to flap as loose clothes. Gr. clogs for the feet klakk. klokotat. wabbling from Du. klottern. daggerey. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. from claudo. klos. schlotter. to rattle. Klottermelck. slabberen. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. clorre. clos. The game called ninepins. lob. a dirty wench claggy. clausum. pattens G. to bubble. a clog. He was a man without a dag. To Clog. then liquid or loose substance. a trowelful of mortar. claggy. schlottern. . rattle. forbidden by 17 Ed. in accordance with It. IV. klos-bane. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to dash like heavy rain. separate part. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. lopin. to sup up liquid food. . in comp. I clodde. clotted milk klotte. dunch). clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. AS. is a blot on one's character. be&c. tramp in wet or mire. loose trowsers. thick sour milk. . a clod. .. clos. kleck. spot of dirt. enOE. schlettern. His heart was franlc without a flaw. neither spot nor hang loose. we pass to E. boil. to wabble. mud klcEg. to shut in. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. lumps of butter. lobberen. shaky. Sc. lobberen. slob. paddle. like G. fat. klag. and Gael. loblolly. Du. klateren. Hence inclose. clammy loam. zoccoli. .). loppe. shut up. or loppern. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. curdled. miry laggerit. daustrum. klac. Fr. dial. lunch. closed. whence klack. da- . spatter. klod. A — — A Thus from Bav. and thus seem endowed . without. A . zocco. in forms like Du.D. log. slab. of something clammy or heavy. to dabble. . paludosus. • lump. to shut. dangle. lag. a babbler. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). klotz. to dabble. a blot.— Clothe. to bodies. Fr. in accordance with Pl. to rattle or shake to and fro. -close. a clod Swab.'^ Palsgr. to shut. Pr. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. slops). claudo. unctuous. The origin of clod and clot is to . a monastery. klakken. lopperig. motzen. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. laggyn. lump of something soft . lump of butter. claque. doitre. to flounder in the wet. to claggock. Fr. Mat. chiudere. to rattle. kl'dnken. klunkern.

hebes (Kil.). to beFr. (kruyd =. E. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. strike. klubb. kl'dnne. zolla dell' .158 . . wisp. ser. knob. a thick mass. a cover or coverture . w. . lump. de Champ. and clay. a. duthaich. a patch. nourish . To Cluck. kluppe. G. a clove of garlick. klotzig. dial. to strike. A kind of spice resembling Du. the terms expresssplit. to a lump. . clunch. a log. A division of a root of garlick. warm clothes {dillad. clou de girofle. a .clod. cobble. a bunch. clue. from Du. Du. 2. klubba. lump of earth aria. clods.bar. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. kldverj P1. to splash.' Sanders. klaven. Ir. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). to cleave or the splashing of water. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Dan. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . dys. tered . a blabber. dote. as Fr. a clod or clot. clog. To Cloy. from W. eene ODu. group of people Sw. sheltered . nelke (dim. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. a lump. mire. davus. chiodo di girofano. clothes). log. The significations of a clod or lump. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. Du. loggish. kUid. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. to strike . ON. cludaim. klieven. zolla. clump. del mattond. Cloud. mass. G. Clumpered in balls of clouds. also homo obtusus. botch. — . clumhar. a bunch. From dog. to cover Bret. unpolished. a bunch. a nail) Fr. klumpfot. milk run to lumps. kloete. stock. Move. G. a clot or keeps one warm. clobyn. Du. Fr. .D. in the same sense. clyd. boucher. daggy. motte. a fissure. of nagel. . shel- kloen.). clothes ment. diboter. to cleave. klonte. Gael. a garthas. a sky Cot. eine to slop. aglio. clot . a ball of twine . with lout. dabosser.D. CLOUD an awkward clod . — — — . Clover. to cloy. . cluster. but confounded with cailler. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. from OFr. lunch). lump. klunds. dabaire. I. a clubfoot klabb. Sw. little nails. klump. dial. caillebottes. a curdled sky. a lump. w. clot. Met. Du. dump. the air. klever. bunch. sticky. a sticky. are often connected. cobio. Das volk hat sich in splitten. of a lump of earth and that figure. a boss.Fris. Properly that which covers and Du.). kluyfketi loocksj Pl. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. cloud Delfortrie. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a knot of people. and -the word Clove. lump. Sp. cob. AS. klcBdi. Clump. klove. So Fr. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. a clown. clod is used in both senses . klubb. klubbe. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. E. klu77ip. klqb. clunch. ON. warm. Du. a clod. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. dob. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. kloven. puddle. ball of thread Russ. mary sense is a blow. indispalte knoblauch. N. formed lump or thick mass. Kiittner. In the same way E. from kloven. Clown. Sw. are also used in the sense of a stopper. dirt. a log. nagelein. Mabousfrom Lat. Du. dial. cluth mhor. Pl. a bobbin. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. tuft. The radical sense seems to be an unE. rustic. E. a ball. warm. The priClout. G. to stop. klotz.). piece Cot. knob. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. clothe. lumps of curd. to curdle. clump of a clout on the head. choke or stop up. probably from daboter. to lump mend clumsily. CLUCK rustic. make warm.ft. a breach. of sloppy materials. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass.D. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . sheltered up warm. of thumping clumsy action. klotsen. a ball. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. Imitative of the note of a society. and of a rustic unpolished person. AS. botsen. kluV. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. a nail. when something has got into the touch-hole. coarse. klebek. klobbersaen. klumba. naegel. More in R. Club. Cld. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. clavo di especias. and clout d eudaich. dash (Cot. een klaven kruflook. clammy earth. clod. It. Gael. Rouchi dapoter. to tramp in the kluyve. a ball. lie clyd. matte. esdaboter (Roquef. and closely do conspire. Then applied to a lump of mate. spice) G. to cherish. warm place . mud (Pat. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. block. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. blockish. cludadh. dut. clydion. and tapp. clot. clotted milk or cream. a bousche. dillad bumkin.

awkward. Variation of clatter. klompen. Boh. exclude. klump.e. strum on an instrument. Hesse. kol. cluster. to gingle. tight — — . ball as snow. Isaiah. unhandy. lay hold of. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. of Du.. klikaty.— — . Lincolns. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. koetsDa. a couch. properly to do anything Fr. Champ. But clunchy. a noise. a bunch. a ball . The Fr. —More. klimpern. as clumper. bunch. dial. Du. heavily. Clump. algidus. beklommen. gelidus. to tramp. to benumb with cold. Clutter.D. dial. From the notion of sticking together. Compare Swiss klupe. Teulazy. might be reached from clump. In the same way Du. koetblockish. OE. to curdle. MHG. Analogous forms with a tongs.'— animal. dial. koetsie.' Vegecius in Way. to stick together . clointer. . differing only in the absence of the duik.' Wycliff. or aclommyde. clump. — ' — — tonista. duke. klemmen. clopiner. hand to cleuk. kichlemmit. clotted cream. a clod or The noclot. 159 E. Du. awkward. verkommelen. from ON. seize. Du. See -elude. splash. It. ' . Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids.Ancr. and make ye strong feeble knees. claws. cliboter. clutch. Lat. obstructum. clip or pinch. coccolare. klocken. a pinching time. from klupen. a lump or compact mass. to lie. —To Clumsyd. the word is more probably connected with OE. Coal. klummerhdndt. eene beklum. plad or plod. See reclusion. -cludo. OHG. as Fr. with E. klemma. Cath. Sc. rial. klampa. havi. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. viscous material. Graff in Klamjan. to curdle. glocire. unhandy. — . ball of snow on horse's foot . klomje. Du. klomen. . Sp. may recline. to squeeze. koetsen. a lump. cluntClyster. ' Thou clontsest for cold. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. pladdern. clutch. klister. Com. in v. a clod or lump. unwieldy Hal. eviratus. to shut. and koetse. Pl. idle. cleik. a nasalised form of club. Cheshire. calling her chickens. wagen. conclusion. limp. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material.E. Coach. from laver. klumpern. smart motion. coucher became in unhandy. a clod clunter. Riwle. also a cluster. are the nasalised forms of klotte. klette. clook. ment. dek. G. * Clump. to grip. COAL dumpish. to syllable click. ' Uorte (for clogs. pinched. — Hence include. klont.D. to tramp or tread heavily. G. Pm. klisse.P.pare P1. log. -clus-.D. having the Pl. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. klontet. dek.' Benecke. The sense of awkward. clabosser. to tramp. klcise. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. Du. doquear. verklomen. thick and clumsy. Clutch. Fr. eviratus. to wash. wooden sole. Lat. klobber in klobbersaen. ill-made . and klotteren. — Cot. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. hooknosed. Hence snatching.' Comfort ye dumsid. cleuk. or from Sw. dumps. G. . E. enervatus. acomelydfor could Pr. a lump. dial. klods. benumbed with cold.D. dumpse. er. close. carriage in which you klodset. dussomed (Wilbrabam). of garlick. n. A group. whence koetse. dumpers. ether comelia P. Beklummen van kelde. to pinch. -close. a ball. esclaboter. with a quick.forklomme (Outzen). claw. G. klamp. -CLUDE hen Du. klos. Hence cleik. -elude. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. claudo. lavesen. ' Clumper. Pl. to to snatch. klamen. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. finish. as from seken. 130. unfashioned. clausum.mene tied. clumsy. cleche. an instrument for nasal form e. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. Muster. and klonteren. — sen. Gr. klikonosy. to rinse. glousser. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. Fr. Ang. a block. hondis. Sw. -olus-. Cluster. -clusum. klummklummshandt. a litter. a claw. klunt. a clod or lump. klumpig. a clot klissen. inclusive. xXvariip. MHG. lump of soft mate. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . hands stiff with cold. ON. &c. to klotz. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Fr. conclude. to curdle. a coach. klonte. beklummen. in comp.D. kluntfrom KKvKdi. E. to wash. through the senses of lumpish. . a clove Sw. * Clumsy. Hindust. dystere. crooked inwards . klunsen. to collect in lumps. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. Sw. wooden shoes. Fris. klonte. to paddle or dabble. paste. kohle. Ray. fingers (familiar).

E. and the spider as collectors. top cobio. tempered clay for building.(pi. w. dial. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . that is. a tuft. COCHINEAL Cobber. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . a nest. dim. — Cobbler. pockbecility and liability to imposition. then to work unskilfully . who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb.). kolna. of E. The Fris. or upper .. . Fr. from some fancied resemblance. When the . Pm. broddelen. * To Cobble. to bungle . Du. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable.). k'dlla. a sow. Coarse. burning. boil. the one of thump. cob is a dumpy horse. imbecille. one Pr.the water boils. blaze. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. — — . the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. Formerly written course. A plausible origin. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. glowing embers. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. niais. viz. dial. cob. or cobble. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. meaning that she is plain and coarse. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. verkommelen. a rib. habble. to stammer. . universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. and jval. Dan. Coat. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. Fr. and thence a lump cobnut. koppen-gespin. give the full meaning of the word. Coalition. ridi. to grow together. quilet. Lat. gull. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. to cob. inflammation. acomelyd or aclommyd. to Lett. in Du. large coals. Colina' the place where a fire is made. of poison. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. to bungle Sc. klabbare. Lat. s. kop. cluster.inflated with air or liquid. cofasse. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. small pox (pocks) . Du. used in — . unfledged bird. glow. a cobweb. niais. CooMneal. ignem. verklomen. kuppa. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. and fig. Fin. cob. a large round nut cobstones. from bearing a bag. Coalesce. koljarn. — Pr. a great falsehood. frock.a spider. ON.. coalesce. any kind of coat. . grown together. Coast. H^cart. a darling. pustule. may be A found in Sw. Sp. however. dial. sweets and the other of poisons. hakkelen. as shown in dob and cob. to be hot. Trevoux. throw a blow. to peck as a hen cobyn. cotte. an old idiot. is one of thump. pustule. walk clumsily. to speak or act confusedly. and imperfect or unskilful action. to kindle or cause to burn . The OE. kylla. a bunch. It. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. to be inflamed . to worship. Fr. also a coast. to form an union with another coalitus.). or E. plaisant. A spider's web. to burn. cobcoals. OE. cacd). atter-kop. a woodlouse.—Atkinson. koppe. says Varro. bredouiller. cock or nescock. . to . to strike. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. The dirt. staggering or halting. of cochina. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. The contrast between the bee • Cob. . To cobble. rivation are found in Sw. to stutter. in Essex Jow*2c^. spinne-ivebbe. large stones . bijamie. to knock.— Cobble. and hobble. to kindle jvAla. . The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . a spider (/r)^=grub. In the E. are round stones or round coals of small size. cotta. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. are often connected. 3. T' waerkopet. a firesteel Lat. cobble. s. cochinilla. probably from the Fr. a similar According to Ihre. dial. — Cleveland Gl. a knock. ordinary as in the expression of course. kop-ar.. cokes or foo