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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


the baaing of the sheep. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. muK) and mae (rfie. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. or Mollein. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The syllables moo (mu. by whom the be understood. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). come Moolls. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. when neither name for the object to be designated. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing.NURSERY IMITATIONS. and where we are seeking. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. Molli. persons of different tongues at the present day. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. to the syllables which are significant to the child. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. in other words. the present day. the closer we shall approach to the . without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. when we is represent to our children of the cow. mind of the of the animal. with an initial m or I. in language of the present day. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. is given to a cow or calf. name of the cow. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. or. and mully or mully cow is the .

had nim. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. he called to to drink. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. repulsive to eat. partly from sounds which the child caught. He would now say good. &c. for bad. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. when hungry. to work over with the mouth. mumm. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. p. Gradually. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. nim. First. schipp. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes.' In ordinary speech mump. in children's language. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. 72). as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. . Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. Heinicke. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. to For instance..). for things. Gr. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. by the natural humming sound. On one occasion he said^e nim. fiafifi&v (Hesych. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. family. . Finally an n was placed before it. I had watched the growth of this word. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber.' he says. became more perfect. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. We have. A member of my own new sfop. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. his nurse adopting the word with him. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. and nim came to signify everything edible. hm. nineteen years old. and which we might express thus. and some were very clear and distinct. to eat. for everything fit to eat. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. analogous to Magyar mammogni. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. then. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. as well as the mind of the utterer.

to eat mampfen. buckra man's language the white man. to Sw. to smack in eat. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . jumla. j ing . to eat. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. or word-making. namnam. snatched (Whitby Gl. savory. to move the lips in continued chewing. Soosoo (W.minis.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. at hiamske i sig. (in chil- dren's language). aves tinnire. sweet (Koelle). taken up hastily on the sly. and the crab — p. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. to fill the mouth. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). dial. we can call them so. make djamdjam). Nimm'd up. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. memmexen. i8o. and thence to be tasteful. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. oves lalare. Primitive Culture. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors.). The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to taste . nvrnma. i. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. clangorqae tubarum. ' id est. food (Tylor. p. to chew laboriously. mumble. lita. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Africa) nimnim. nobis vix permittitur. Gothic niman. nam. Africa) nimi. ' Motherwell. tidbits nama . agreeing with Ein. stolen. palatable. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. iii. as well as the Sw. and the fizzing (and Series. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). ut tinnitus aeris. on. Vei (W. crab nam buckra man. Galla djam djeda. Swedish dialect gamsa. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). South Jutland hiamsk. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. the Scotch poet. eating. mujnpa. and some of them . Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. delicacies. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. as to . jammla.ONOMATOPCEIA. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) .' says Quintilian. 1 86). in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.' And Diomedes. 130-1. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. A negro proOr. yamming. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. mumpfeln.' — Lersch. greedy . to be pleamind . Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. voracious. nyam nyam. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. mumpfen. to mump.' says the author of Modern Slang. aptantes adfectibus vocem. . of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to take. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Wolof nahenahe. jamsa (yamsa).

croaking of frogs or ravens. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. twittering of swallows. not of a moo of Lect. when circumstances required. for the purpose of bringing the animal. might be used as the designation of it. might be used. lowing of oxen. not of a baa. neighing or whinnying of horses. yelping. dove and cooing. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. anything connected with it.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem.' — We speak of a cow. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. snarling. 89) with less hesitation.' he says. do not speak of a bowwow. p. ^6^. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. howling. Yet we ing. bumping of bitterns. intended in the instance to represent the cry. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. or thoughts of our hearer. but of a dog. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. Indeed. bleating of sheep. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. grunting or squealing of hogs. a lamb. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. sparrow and chirping. bellowing of bulls. yelping. und growling. chattering of pies or monkeys. snarling of dogs. hooting of owls. We . chirping of sparrows or crickets. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. between dog and harking. 'I doubt. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. cooing or crooing of doves. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. before the in other words. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. purring or mewing of cats. that there is When Man. barking. gobbling of a turkey-cock. whether it deserves the name of language. or. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world.' And elsevs^here (p. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. cackling or gaggling of geese. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. baaing or maeing of lambs.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER.

I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. a crow. sound). Origines Indo-Europeennes). kae.' kd). to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco.). having a general predicative power. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. fi-om apakd- i. 380. or quawk. a bird that is be driven away.IMITATIVE NAMES. kdka. KOKKvi. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. 'Kdka. In Basque. in g. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). kuho. coccolare. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. ghak. according to Durga). In Lat. gackem. and means a shouter. Malay gdgak. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Aoo-Aoo. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. caller. 349. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. Arabic kdk.' common sense. whose sound (Pictet. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Sometimes the hoarse i . and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. Georgian quaki. Columbia kahkah. a a crier (p. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. crow. and Bavaria respectively. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. 4th century before Christ is earliest times.. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket.). Sauscr. caw kuhii-rava (rava. kauwe. a daw. Picard cau. and the sound of that direction. crow. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. and gaggele or gagkelein. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. e. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Bav. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Kdrava. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Manchu The kaha. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Hungary. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. He to is therefore derives kdka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. it announces (Salaberry). 4th ed. a crow (Pictet). which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. Barabra koka. ist ed. lion. in is Gr. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. layitavya . birds. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo.

giving turtur (and thence It. Scotch peeweip. while crouk. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. are represented. a crow lish Lith. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. gugu. French dishuit. kukko. the name for a crow. 219. tbrtola. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. 6. a crow . use the verb is croak to designate their cry. The crowing of cot in Fr. Swedish kowipa. Magy. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. korren. German kielitz. and e. tortbla. kraukti. koeren. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . gufo. tor. xi. to croak. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. to croak. teewhoop. kraeye. as well as of Sanscr. to crow. Hindi. in the North of England. and sometimes both together. and e. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Pers.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. to hoot. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. Yoruba koklo. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. German luhu.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Malay kukuk. Du. It. name of its is the bird. Ibo akoka. coccovaec.. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. The consonants p. lulo. libufs. synonymous forms of similar structure).Gr. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. lilits. German and Eng- krahen. or Gr. krauklys. a crow. Esthonian kikkas. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Walachian coucouveike. p. Heb. the name of an animal will gen- . Arabic tdtwit. So we have Polish krukac. ghughu. Fr. Dutch kievit. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kukhuta. k. kirren. to cry loudly. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . to crow. t. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Sp. Mod. tuquheit. tur. girre. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. kruk. by the verbs gurren or girren. great variety of oKokv^uv. uhu. either in the same or in related dialects. to howl or Lat. kuku. hibou. Da. Du. name. Lettish kiekuts. yell. another. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. lUyrian kukurekati. tbrtora. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. krahe. kurre. cock. wood-pigeon. Albacuculi a dove. reduplicate form. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. kraeyen. Zulu kuku.. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. coucouva. turtle) as the Lat. coqueri- Languedoc. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry.

which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. schrecke.vf3. loud rumour. to grumble.IMITATIVE NAMES. The Welsh chwyrnu. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. ajo. grille. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds.' Amazons. bee. there are infinite varieties. chirk. Northern Farmer. with or Fr. a fly (Tylor) .or bumble-bee. booming. skirl. Sc. ' Sanscr. ' — Pictet . a hornet. schwirren. shrill. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . Gaelic dranndan. horniss and from the buzzing The. humming. a bee. pip-pi-ta. to chirp . a sharp sound as of a 6. to shrill sound sharp. Fin. i.' —Tennyson. to sound. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. In the N. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. gives rise to chwymores. droning is . 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. The drone peal. Lith. g. Lat. — Catafogo. oE. cricket is from crick. buzzing. din. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. dhran. which they make in their flight very . Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. growling. schrickel. to be compared with Sanscr. (Jieuschrecke) . Sanscr. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. 337. Corean sirsor. Albanian tsentsir.' — i. give a faint sound. grillen. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). from the humming.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. We may cite Gr. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. and he kong-ko-rong. a beetle druna. Arabic tantanat. to hum. bambhara. a drone. to rustle. as . Lithuanian tranas. Danish dron. or a gnat fly. to creak Bret. schirke. 'The natives call it tanand. The name of the cricket indeed. buzzing. common. of England it is to the b 2 . words imitative of humming . and probably indicates that g. in allusion to its music. skryle. a small as hawk is . German drohne. to chirp J may be compared with . frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. zirken. g. the humble. Australian bumberoo. succeeding each other — with noise. German hummel. hollow noise. little intermission. kong-kong.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. sirkka. flight its sting considered as a horn. whirr). glass cracking (Schmeller). ta-na-nd. knetta. g. bamba. resound. Speaking of a cricket he says. thunder. PofijivXwg. from schrick. and yelping cry. the drone or non-working bee . resounding of musical instruments. e. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. The Arabic sarsor. and not from E. representing a short sharp sound. German dronen. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. skril with n. grylhis. Naturalist on the tocano. swirplys with 6. Danish gnaddre. North of England. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. sound.

and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. (iove. fivKaofiai. His analysis leads cow. verbal form given to the say. grumble as distant thunder . Fr. w. to low or bellow. With these analogies. to shout. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. or formed Lat. the Fr. bugler. are (with a subsidiary k). and from to ring. to weep. Galla boa. muJiati. or with on. mugler. From the same lioao). bwla. btibleti. bue. — ^Tylor. Thus from miau. bukati.XX called booing. Illyr. buculus. to . But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. say. to from bau. a Geiger. The Piedm. verb is evidently identical with our shout. and in Hottentot baa was the . The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. agreeing exactly with Lith. bae. and djeda. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bucula. to bow- own bawl. bos. in same way. to or bark. mugire. to sound. Da. bugle. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Hottentot bou (Dapper). miau-l-er. bull. amuse. maukati. to mew. to the uses goda. bullock. that the imitative syllable are Lith. make poo. mae. bu. bullus and e. bae. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. has bilbilgoda. or moo. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. Manx booa. OFr. a cow. bubati. to low. From baa. Gael. a heifer. bo. to ba-L-are. On the same principle. ox. Piedmontese fi bau. bubenti. Zulu lulula. the animal. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). Lat. to boohoo. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. cattle. to make a loud deep sound. to make a noise. bolt. a drum . Lat. bovis. a bull. is inadmissible. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. in a imitation of a ringing sound. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to make. a bullock. representmake bow. representing the mew of a cat. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. boo. lulauti (to hoo-loo). k or g. or a z to the imitative syllable. make to it laugh. w. a buffalo. and thence Lat. mamoo-heeheek. 167. biibnas. baula. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to bump as a bittern Illyr. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. The Galla lilbil. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. It. as the Illyr. Lat. Fr. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bauli. as that of the cow by boo. to make. be-l-er. or bau-l-i. to low . whence baula. to shout. to bellow like a bull. Cult. forms a. Norse bu. shoot . In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. loge. to beat hard. p.

meil. growl. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. hound. G. name. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. meketati. meigeal. it and e. mutter. does not produce a e. naskia. oe. a sheep (Lowe). kurren. a hog.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. grumpf. corresponding to ohg. to howl. Da. smack and naski. cry). Gael. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. by which the shingle gives rise to It. grunlike a pig in eating. goats. a goat. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. may with to snarl. cite as by grunt. a wolf. (iriKov of forms like Sw. menAda (ndda. lek-eg-ni. grumble. and snorke. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Kurren und murren. grogner. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. Africa laa. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. leg-et-ni. the designations of a dog the term cur. hunt (gen. a sow. a goat. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. although the imitation embodied in Lat. and with the subsidiary k or g. and of (maelon). Fr. as the proper name of a tame sheep. rumbling. and grumphie. hadg- Magy. to growl. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. groin. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. Gr. Fr. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. for the voice of the ox). From the imitative mae. / The same Gr. and hoc'h. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. he would hardly. Welsh and Breton). remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. knurfisk. meckern. in Wolof bae. purr). a sow. meugler. the snout of a pig. a (Hesych. a sheep or ewe. a sheep. grunt. leknuti. Gr. name of the animal itself. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. houch. sound. to grunt. grumbhng. to bleat. a sheep or a goat. and Circassian maylley. name of a sheep. to grunt. this obstinate race. Magy. And it is true there between hog and grunt. curmurring. to bleat. Among dog. in v. kurre. guttural tone. hund. or in any ! way ! persuading. and thence groin. from hundama. It is probable also that e. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). Hence Breton hoc ha. to rumble. grunny. mekegni. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. — . Illyr. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. . In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. /xj/caScj. nire. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. with the root ypaipm. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. lekavica. Idgge (Rietz). The g. from knurre. may be identical with Esthon. hundi). a dog.). a pig. as lou of an ox. 6. . a pig Fin. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. to bleat .' Moor's Suffolk words. a. to themselves. sheep or goat. a grunt. Illyr. mecati. /xijeao/iat. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. It. a goat firixal^ta. lecco. With gen. ' In driving. Manx meilee. karra. hunon. undoubtedly imitative. Gr. hwch. sus-sus. we have Sanscr. grumble. Moreover. . ^. grugno. signifying a snarling. Illyr. lambs.

it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. Thus we are led to the Fr. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. So Sanscr. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. without a — we root. hobin. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. houpy in Craven. turn a horse to the is In Finland. (Craven Gloss.). when he found peculiarity. p. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. There are of course some names. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. But words of this kind are. M). Sc. ^6<. animal. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. the cry to stop or back a horse. hobben. a horse. of the character in question. like artificial flowers. e. hiine. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. Esthonian hoibo. to whine. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed.' 2nd Series. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. p. If onomatopoeias can . hottihuh.). such as cuckoo. to the left. from the cry animal. g. coquette. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. . 91. to go backwards. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). xxii MULLER ANSWERED. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. hoppe. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall.. cockade. hobby. a little am- bling horse. .' — ist Series. a mare. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. humma. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee.. coquelicot.' ticular bird. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names.root. as in Yorkshire highly right.

animals or certain kinds of sound. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. hennir. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. e. runniken. wiehern. Bohem. Sp. rinchar. Pl. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. hikkd. form corresponding hresh. signified It. xxiii ginal object. Irieschen. frenschen. goatsucker. but whether there kind between them and other words. whitename in in- throat. wrena. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. Sanscr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. as sigh. Du. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. than to the sounds represented. redpole. groan. moan. cough. wrenska.D. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. hukkup. ance or habits of the animal. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. Fr. horse. wagtail. Lettish sweegt. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. nitrire. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. fehtati. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. hresh. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. . against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. hresh. hross. diver. little speak for themselves. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. swift. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. titter. ginniken. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. g.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. lapwing. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Sw. woodpecker. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. to Sanscr. nounced with a guttural). a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. command of language was attained. sol. to neigh. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. giggle. creeper. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying.

an attempt would be made to by the voice. for the for the sound of . banga. shriek. to knock. heart tick-tack. fitsche-falsche. are familiar in ' to every one. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. hoo ping ping. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. lumm. root kshu. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. in a nail Let. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. a kind of drum. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. on the chops is represented also by pratx. hang. to drive on. plitsch-platsch. aritischane. the dashing of the sea . pump.' So imac. beat of a clock child . To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . for that of breaking. for blows with a rod. &c. for a small one. a more expressive than the e. bangas. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . to hammer . to beat. Vei gbangba. clap ! A smack Puff. banke. Australian bungbung ween.' it both sides went.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. atchian. Zulu bongo. pit-a-pat. White Lies. Da. for in such sound of blows. thunder (Tylor) . — Sanders. or the w. dong Read. 1865. debhes-lungotais (deifies. knack. beat. tisio (tisho). Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. for the sound of a fall. snort. tlirob. —Brem. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. haitshu. klatsch. ting-ting. Of a like forma- drum .' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser.' 'Haw. for the sound of milking. snukkup). oren : Klapp. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. Wtb. ding. ping came the bullets about their ears. bang. haw. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. wheeze. &c. scream. to throw violently down. hoo. strippstrapp-stroll. Mei gbengben. for the creaking of a wheel. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. knarr. the God of thunder . and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. to sneeze. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. or tliat is accomit. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. mer. atchini. heaven).' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. It is represented in e. DingBang. snore. for the sound of a blow. a large bell. went the cannon. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp.' ! ! ! ! — dong. bang ' ! trenches. . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. to ham.

sc. mobility excavation and hollow ^. In cases such as these. De Brosses. and their relations. peep. to cheep like a bird or a young It. ducing the sound. pu. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. child. It seems to him that the teeth t. Fr. pigolare. pigiolare. has been un- employed to designate fixity. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. Gr. a (young) pigeon. to cry like imrli^u). a fowler's bird call is lost. used as a call to . the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. — . doubtless. part of the What consciousness has the child. and whimper. Lat.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. young bird. as k. to designate cavity and hollow. or a piailler.) a chick. piauler. pipilo. Florio. piccione. bleat. pipe. or the uneducated different consonants are man. —Lyndsay. far pipi. had been used laugh ? two. and so forth. as in other subjects of study. . pipelni. pipare. a or cheep. pippione. pipegni. the voice of chickens (Cot. piou. G. as the simplest implement for proFr. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pule. pigione. e. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. of a word will appear supposed to represent. Mantuan pipiare. Magyar pip. a whelp. scream. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. cry of young birds . pipio. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. calls S. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. He Yet asks. young child . is of expression. a chicken or gosling. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. piou. a fife or musical pipe. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. to cry pi. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. to squeak. cry. peep. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. Lat. which he added to intensify the expression. The pi. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on.' instead. is pfeife. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. chickens (Tylor). to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. not- . to peep It. pi. pipe. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. pipio. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. laugh.

lachen. bubble. It. to fizz like fat in frying. make wood a clinking noise. . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . the side of g. is very common. be cate to go on laughing loud . what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. to gorgogHare rattle. chack. tonare. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. grumble. thunder oil . murren. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to gargle . along with Du. borrelen. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. vaake gorgor) . where the variation. a closed or obscure sound. creak.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. . to grumble. to pant violently (Colenso). to be compared with Sc. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to jar. lachachen. a. to grate the teeth . Pefuxela. a short sharp sound. rumble. in German. of a loud strong sound. karkarana. to grumble). a sharp short one. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. when it force than biscuit. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. knurren. like the noise of a glass breaking . laqfF. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to rattle. some small vowel or consonantal sound. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to laugh. girren. tontonare. of something fine and thin. kniks. to crackle like in boiling . Pacific aka-aka. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . i. to cry pi. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. knaks. gurren. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. to bubble. to creak knirren. murmur (by . crash.. rumble. rumble (Fl. garren. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). cricli. &c. and lugh. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. sound). to gurgle. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). kirkirdnd. a drum W. tintino. to thunder. Hindoo tomtom. sound of dry breaking. Hindustani karak is rendered. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Indian chack-chack. to pant bejii- zela. to cluck. loud laughter. a prolonged sharp sound. u. Poppopvi^to. kniks. or springing back. cluck. coo. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. Zulu raraza. to hawhaw or laugh loud. knuks. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. pi .. preserved by Kilian. as the click of a latch or a trigger. Manchu kaka-kiki. to clack. the clucking of a j hen .Gr. kuruk. turtur. to ring pipio. as representing the sound made when something breaks. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. crack. along with tinnio. {to It. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. or kaka-faka. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti.) Mod. to growl. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du.

coughing or clearing the throat. 1871. tumult. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. spring of water in the a bell. Sanscr. fumtu. make djamdjam). as Fr. box on the ear imitation of the . for the Manchu hak for the sound of . a smith. tup. borrelen. wail. identical with g.* the heart. kiling-kalang. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. bad. shout. of keys or tinkling of bells. E. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Fr. sound). for the clinking Lat. tumwata. . to ring or jingle. a nightingale. KaKog. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. The whispering of the wind I. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. is Manchu tang-tang. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Tiie Galla gigiteka. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . champ. a boy's whistle. for a tTviror). nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. Scotch sough or sooch. Newman). witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. to the purling of a brook. uproar. Manchu kaka. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. and Gr. a nightingale. the sound of a stringed instrument.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. rain (Tylor. as of Tamil muromurmur. tubh. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. clango. koXiw. word. corresponding in e. Maori pata. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. quarren. to beat.and e. klirren. and her heart went thump. hala-hald-faMa (falda. clink. a drum . rifiirayov. to whisper. Magyar csamm-ogni. for the ringing of illustrate bells. especially one who beats. a workman. chuchoter. and the imitative nature of tivgle. at an accelerated note. or the bubbling up of to a spring. csam-csogni. are applied to the is excrements of children. awater* ' The Mme P. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. and bilhila. rvir (in tvittio. to be compared with g. caca and Finnish adkkd. cry. jingle. djeda (to say tub). noise. call. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. indicating the origin of Gr. or to Du. 368). simmer. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. and Gr. Calt. for the sound of privy whispering. halaidlac'h. correspond to e. bubble up. The syllables lil-bil. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. muro and e. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. and e. to giggle. is based on the same imitation as the e.' Member for Paris. clash of arms. . while cacd / used in e. Turk. compared with Gr. ding-dong. agrees with g. brings us to Fr. the gingling of glasses. chinking of coin. jangle. chut. thump. croaking of frogs. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. Galla tuma. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. e. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). 192). disturbance (F. to strike. drops of i. clank. bulbiil. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. for chut-chiit-er. to knock. Prim. or of bells ringing. the tingling Ming-Hang. sound. bent her head. to say chut. kl'mg-kling.

' — Nohden. dash. to is blow. murmur. hiss. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. to dance. slash. disturbance. clap. according to the strictest phonetic rules. whizz. hum. report of a gun. splutter. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. clatter. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. lash. brumberum.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. ' Der puff. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. rumble. clang. for (Sanders). paddle. and soufflet. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. a applied as well to the force of the bang. crash. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. thwack. and Grimm. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. bubble. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. blow. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. tap. swash. plump. So in Fr. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . chatter. fizz. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. w. thump. guggle. Humboldt. crack. It. snap. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. clink. flap. dabble. The use of g. it is fallj AS. splash. Nevertheless. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. craunch. twang.. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. tum-ultus. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. douse. at a door tarapatan. patter. clank. rataplan or rantanplan. din. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. clack. puff. ring. to fall. souse. while e. and the French pouf. by rubadub. tymmesll. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. smack. whirr. chink. Fr. gargle. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. smash. squeal. tumbian (to beat the ground). squall. tingle. But although and also found in Lat. without the intervention of orthodox roots. jingle. and Fr. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. tinkle. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. or v^hether jectional. thump. parapatapan. in e. pop. boom. crunch. bang. flop. rap. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. we have buffet or cuff. mutter. whine. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. blubber. answering to g. 'pat. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. rattle. sputter. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. creak. whack. The beating of drum is represented in e. thump. squeak. tomber. the Germans puff. gurgle. clash. we build our science like an arch of a bridge.

Grimm or Bopp. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. or of any if wood. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. stractions. in the rushing waters. or stubble is meaner name. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. knows them. If. because they are spontaneous. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. the kind of action that is desired of them. ugh . hay. that he has taken the step in rational speech. and uttering plaintive sounds. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. by the nature of the cry. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. little who has time to want of her nurseling. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother.' . but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. p. every little pain. the interj. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. without a thought of symbolising to them. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. in the case of the animal or of the infant. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation .'. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. and found in the building of be burnt up. are made known by an instinctive cry. of horror. but if we must not complain on the beach. formerly cited. At the first beginning of life. is Thus ah!. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. and thus they become signs of despair. an imitation of a sigh . cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. or any unsatisfied want. the inteij. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them.' If chaos. 94. wringing the hands. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. Crying. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. xxix on the contrary. grief. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections.

and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. If I wish to make a person of an . shrieking. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. as who them spontaneous utterances. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections.' p. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. 32. which are frequently so toned down cance. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. He says. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language.. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. should be remem- . to solve the I shall call first. groaning. And again. ^6g And to the same effect 371. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. and the eye.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. p. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. he cites from Home Tooke. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. interjections. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. them to exercise it. or which is of me as suffering pain.' — ist Series. coughing. more eloquent than a long speech. the lowing of a cow. Language begins where interjections end. they are involuntary interjections. sneezing. more to the point. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . 344. One short interjec- tion may fact. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. may become traditional. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. and some of them the composition of words. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. p. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. be more powerful. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. of all the mouth.

in Magy. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. hahottaa. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. hahota. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. loud laughter. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. I am not hearer. when I arp humming and hawing. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. demolishing here. hohottaa. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. in Fin. it them. kahkahah. then speech begins. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Kayxa^u). bered. and others from interjections. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Gr. speaking. for example. Koxafw. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. cachinno. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. he says. Lat. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. but the less am at a loss what to say. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. some kind of language might have been formed. interjections. Tooke in truth.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and more or less limited . by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and thus.

and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. words receiving the meanings they now bear. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. and go where we now say stand. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. if taken as a whole. the critical question should be. But here nature soon conies to his help. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. of the nature of this great movement. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. And so in the case of language. Though. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. makes them stand and walk upon the table. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. a Picture-language.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. It as has ing their most striking features. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. . and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. like peewit and cuckoo. What strikes him . but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. of the world. The following account is given by Kruse. and not. dumb is the language of signs. a deaf-mute himself. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer.' he says.

the sorecalling them to his memory. the lan- guage cultivates itself. walkest. that air. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. nay. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and with his thought. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. can do better and more easily abstract terms. for single objects. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . becomes roast meat. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. particular sense in properly so called. or the verb to be. as it now opens out. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. thou. xxxiii him between one thing and another. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. what more. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. and it is flesh or meat. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. push it towards the person addressed for thou. or To pull and flap with the arms. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and forms further and further. thought is already broken. such objects. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. called Gesture-language. many when or but these. among themselves. it seems. and fully serves to j . walked. that signifies great . such as than the educated man. And is. and we have roast goose.GESTURE most. like a V. walker. The same sign stands and the act itself.' In the Institutions. and gestures. letter To hold the two fingers apart. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. he. signs are taught for yet. for walk. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. for the agent. it means little. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. but if I depress it instead. for child. The of sign for left hand. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and And thus he makes himself a language. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. his action. the whole secret. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. most striking outline of an object. he. to name. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and to taste. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. that.

of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. . When I say. as But when it is meant door. putting it into his pocket. or an act. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. substantive or adjective. in other instances sentence. I say. as when Bang ! went the gun. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. whether by additions or otherwise. and so is an adverb. Who is has beaten you ? would be.' dener's knife. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. a colour red. or something of the kind. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. it called an interjection. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. to indicate the action of a certain person. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. or a quality. Do not bang the it is a verb. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. a number of alternatives are suggested. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. qualifies the against the wall. according to the circumstances of the case. You beaten . when I say. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. would be simply beginning of speech. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or action. in fact. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. and the as. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. the garden. might be the knife. depend entirely upon the use. When a verb.xxxiv asking. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. as in die it is a noun. and thus performs the part of an adjective. The same word . or a passive scene of existence. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. the ture of white term pink is and red. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. He gave door a bang. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun.

The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. or with elements expressing relations of time. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. commencement of speech. and may be used language. verb nor noun has yet been developed. pain. a groan. as cung. some outward display of the affection. in the sense of great. in the is indicated by the syllable y. the man is great. coalesces with the personal pronouns. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. middle. 255. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. or nei. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. contempt. with a stick. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. whereto. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. which is an old y ting (use stick). a noun. wonder. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting.^ — Miiller I.. grie^ horror. inquiry. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. that is. . Thus tafu signifies a great man. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. but often self-evident. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . and to be great. greatness. wherefore. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. a sigh of oppression and . or some relation between it and another object. Jii ta. inside.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. &c. wherewith. as kuo cung. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. Latin. wherehy. whereof. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. that admits itself in of audible representation.

w. to hurt Let. or r. w^wa. wehen (Schmeller). to sound yapyap. to rriourn. pain. gwe-l-a. vaj. dchzen. howl. gwae. grief] affliction. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. mostly a ! %. xxxvi grief. grief. to wail. has more kopfweh. oimare. oi. to cry n. to do woe. gwae. Let. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). to chirp. oh. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. ahi. to cause pain. vce. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. wAwa. aiai^to. to bewail oneself. weh. at the close of the radical syllable. 6. to gargle. A widespread It. a groan or lamentation vir. ochain. guajo. form. as. Fr. Illyrian vaj. to groan. It. ochan. Thus from springs otjucifw. seen in Gr. miau-l-is. ui. the pangs of childbirth. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. miau-l-er. to wail or cry alas . the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. is w. oval. representing a cry of pain. och. ing action I. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. found in g. misfortune. ah. ace. j. Jar lau-lau. Lat. on. g. e. guai. representing Illyr. first person. Gr. cece. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. It. Gr. ! ! Goth. guaj- or cry out pitifully. In this way from the root guai. tirr-djeda. ohi. to weep. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. 6. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. e. lament. wai. headache. . mew. o'i. wai. la. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to cry at. pain. as. lament from oimi. to ache. and to bark . is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to ache. waiidt. I oi[iot. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. to make). jaoh. ache. achen. vei-a. w. to . plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. Bret.. . Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. It. . djamdjam goda (goda. wai-l. ai. on. wehthun. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. vce. n. ocAJ. ach. ach. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . Such are g. die wehen.-l-are. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to yell formed e. to make bow-wow. &. ohg. pain. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. probably a deeper groan. ach. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. Lat. Gael. are ol-ire. to lament. suffering. e. to injure. ah. to weep. weh schreien. axofiai. is Ay di me I Gr. guaj-ire. wd. woe. The form corresponding to Lat. och. Illyr. . and cacak djeda (to say crack. jao. It. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. misery. al. g. however. weinen. och. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. . grief.ez. Gr.'). miau-n-is. to lament. woe. ochan. in Gr. oh. lau-l-e. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. hei.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. case. or carry me thither. and so on. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Dr Lottner observes. nurseries. a word of many applications in g. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. saying : there the ad- Trans. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. but the truth is. 'nay. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. is-te). or wants to name something. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. I add) . implying the direction of its good will towards them. Phil. give. . give me that cheese. child. we may translate this by there (it is). thata (ta-ta). the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. for instance. the nursery da-da. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. his trowsers' pocket. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. Diet. and by a variety of expressions besides. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. to here . when 1859. is we I believe. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. more emphatically roSj)j that. a specified were by pointing him out. da. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. that. as to express. this here. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. But. Please. or that it is. says da-da-da. The Fr. that gratifies me. Thank you. In the expression Da. Sanders (Germ. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze.' then points to his wife. da. Bav. as. When we pointing. as it Dieser da (as Lat. der da-ige.' all is is — their consent.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). that is it. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. ' sees an object.' this.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat.' person. and may be rendered. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. or give me it.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. • The child. Sie. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. well as Goth. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. indeed. ToSe (or in Attic E. according to Menage. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. when he wants something.

The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. — Cot. standing. to knock. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. dadee. tasting. then instinctively interest. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. in every mode of expressing the idea. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. pay. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. beat. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. p. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. Thus Gr. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. stutter. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' says Muller. make dadada).^ its ' utters : a cry. of which any one may. childish toying. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to chatter. or dalliance. the original is that which he places first. and shapes it into an . and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to say to oneself. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. tattle.' • liv ANALOGY. to move step by step. strike. which thus exertion. The da is dodem. its desire. then we have a pronoun demonstrative.' says Lottner interior. moving. to tion to another. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. . takes it — as When the soul. meanings. or metaphor. to beat. sinking. and one in particular must. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. reality. sounds. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. to walk. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. speech. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. thinking. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai.

to glitter. Fr. snot. a rustling sound Gr. wilahtaa. to 5 ghtter. taste. snudra. snotor. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. beorhtian. to crackle. to sniff. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. and thence e. beam. splendour. man of nice taste. spraka. to glitter. bright. In the same way the Goth. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to quiver. tinkling. . while sapere itself. and figuratively. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. we have and the and beorht. a ringing . fiapfiaipw. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to resound. smell. tintelen. Finnish. outcry. 1654. signified a clear sound. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to sound clear In Galla. may be quoted gUt. snutrs. in popular language. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. ghsten. kimistd. prudent. &c. bilbilgoda (to make . Bavarian bracht. a with kimmaltaa. knistre. noise. savour. which in ohg. brilliancy. Lith. pracht. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. same imitative root with Sw. from the . to sniff out. to be wise. wilistd. to ring. (parallel bilbila. to crackle gnistre. to have Sapiens. snuff the sniiten. wise. iclat (in Old Fr. sapere (which signifies the nose. think. a brilliant light kilid. to shine. clang. on. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. extended to the exercise of the understanding. Du. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. discreet. then to sparkle. properly a clap or explosion. tumult. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. gnittre. to . scTiateren. schmecken. schiteren. The 6. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to sparkle. rattle. bilbil). Heo Du. to snilF. splendour. a dis- cernment. chime). as kilind. to tinkle. kiimottaa. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. air. esclat). sprageti. to glitter e. — 1. to glitter. firom the Gael. sense of brightness. and schmecker. to flash. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. the equivalent of g. knittre. suspect Bav. to glisten Dan. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. as. smell. in the domain of movement. unlella. also wise. In the case of sparkle. and. . magnificence. judicious. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. Again. may be it explained . to smack or taste. is used in the origin. make a loud noise. wamara. to shriek with laughter . So firom Lat. sound. search .TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. scheteren. to shine. for example. to ring as a glass willata.

rough both ways. within. pvfi^Civ. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. soft. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. &c. he says. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. The BpavEiv. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. Tpa)(yg. ipuKuv. Acre. tremour. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. in of his works. extremely loose. inside. the cross. . KoWiiSije. the bleating of sheep. And observing that n kept the voice within.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. or . pleasure soft to the ear . rough. \nrap6e. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. then in rpd/xoe. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. Kpovtiv. roughness. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. mel. kvTOQ. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. smooth.' he says. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). we hear of screaming colours. 6\tadaveii'. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. discusses the tone of a picture. fitting the letters to the sense. the clank (stridorem) of chains. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. to slide. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. itself letters are felt as sofl. shatter. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. he framed the words ivSov. briars. power of the letter-sounds. accordance with the way in which by touch. rough. and vepres. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. break. the neighing of horses. of dressing loud. strike. Kep^arl'ieiv. whirl. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. Much of the same has been often quoted. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. in truth. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. oily. gluey. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. rend. rough to the ear. v. crux. sharp. wool. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. eo ut res vol. flow and flux. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. which The Stoics. as soft by the ear. 1. is felt Lana. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them.

dag. dig. d. stag (in stagger. stab. Fr. to reel abruptly from side to side). and the limits of the signification would be so vague. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . joli. jig. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. corresponding to the ineor. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. ii. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. 138). g. shog. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. k. t. degree of roughness sound.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. sag-oter. shag. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. as when. p. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. 'and consequently form. jog. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. tug. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. p. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. to signify varieties of movement. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. to jogj sac-cade. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. and in the utterance of a high or or low. for exis ample. jih. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. cular effort Again. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. or checks as they are called by Muller. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. A greater felt. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. the case of the voice.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. rug. a rough and sudden . the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. jag. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects.

e. or check. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken.. to mark it with a touch of the pen . a piece or bit of anything. figuratively. a . that we never can be sure. then. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. as Italian tocco. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. to move rapidly to and fro. like English tick. S-panish miga. also to stir. The production of sound. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to On the same principle j we have g. to beat or play on a musical instrument. and e. Sukkeln. Hence Lat. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. so to Italian toccare. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. It. tecche-tocche. a small bodily object. Ene olde suksuk. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. chique. tech-tech. to incite by light touches. Then. a playiug-marble. a crum. used interjectionally to represent a . The train of . to have it ticked or marked on the score . The analogy then carried a step further. Brescian toch. mica. toch-toch. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . mik. Accordingly the g. (mitsati). a good piece of road . a cracker. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. a little bit. schuckeln. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Mucken. Illyrian migati. g. properly a small lump'of . representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to stir. The Mipen or pencil. sound barely audible. an infant .'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Welsh cicio. to tickle. zigzag. a jog. is so frequent a consequence of movement. and It. Bolognese tocc. motion. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. sound Fr. a stroke with a French toucher. is lanese toch. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to touch. to ring a bell. for the sound of knocking at a door. to winkj micati is Lat. micare. cica. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . mot. chicoter. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. is made to signify movement. The syllable suk is jerk. to mutter. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. Fr.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. To tick a thing off. it produces Dutch micken. &c. to pulses being knock. to strike It. kik. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. Fr. chiquet. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. passing to the signification of motion. however. to glitter. foot. Dutch kicken. in cases like the foregoing. and analogous movements. as tot. movement. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. kuk. to say a word . an old worthless horse or carriage. then. to take a thing on tick. a quid of tobacco. tack. to utter a slight kick. tock. schockeln. Thus we have B. chic. mie. not to utter a syllable. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. zack. lead to Spanish tocar. rough horse.

of movement in totter. bunch or flock of wool. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. little j to that of a small bodily object. motta. e. e. a morsel girl . u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to touch. To jot. a certain conception. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a small quantity. Fr. a small kind of lark.- a jot or little It. clay . you. The following table from Tylor (Prim. or o toi. a girl. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. tot. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. there (further of!) ao. ri that. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. the least visible insect. or the like its It. Malagasy to. zitella. . to tremble. . fait. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. a bit. or the converse. mutter. to jog. In a similar the relations of place. mote. i. lix Sp.) . a tot . and toddle like a child titter. as in e. this. titter. a lad citta. taut. tit. to dot. we have e. So. a whisper. I. tiny. here. not because the pendulum makes a different left. there. syllable mot. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. here (close hand). small titlark. there '(at a short distance). mot. a small bird. tot. to whisper (Pr. titmouse (Du. Du. Then. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. n. . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. to movement of the pen . a. This kind.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. a small horse. subdued manner. mossche. gnu. to jot down or note with a fro. tot. a light quick blow. a sparrow). jot. to make a slight mark. tot. ika. tittle. eo. But the same is language has re Javan. Pm. corresponding to the personal pronouns. titilh. to touch lightly with a pen. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag.n. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. motte. often entirely arbitrary. move slightly to . for the beating of a clock. 199). 0. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. that. fragments It. gno. totle. mutter j dust. a small lump or pat. to e. this . The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. seesaw. citto. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . a morsel. that iku. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. and he. is shown in murmur. not to utter a syllable. . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. the same organ touched with the man. . a e. mut. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. anything small flax. at where the order is inverted. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . chico. further off. and out there. . . not an atom . in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. and mite. for the three personal pronouns. gni. a little titty. . tottle. tit. lump of earth. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. little. and dot. Cult. neither moit nor an atom. iki. tozzo. Halliwell. and a small lump of something. the vowel sound. anything . a bit. small of kind. (Halliwell) Da. 48) cites from the African Tumale. ticktack. zitio. The vowel changes from to tick-tack.

olo. Mm. Guarani nde. thou . here j ka. akha. child. . Japan ko. he. for the male. . ita. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. usho. this . nne. is father. j Canarese ivanu. that. that. this . father k .araM. Ossetic am. to. mother. that. loo). which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. Then. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. ndi. . ni. there. w. that. . Tarahumara ibe. Sahaptin (America) kina. here 5 Yoruba na. an old woman chacha. here j abe. there..e^. mother. as in Italian Fin. km. there. that. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. thou. this . that. this ole. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE.. child. Lat. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. there. minution further. here feraa. as Mr Tylor remarks. mother. Chilian tva. (tt).) pronunciation of i or e. /mya.. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Gr. qu. little. small (Pott. Fernandian az. this fi. Abchasian aSn. here .. Carib ne. that (intermediate) j wana.) nna. ^. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. as the act of pointing was ta. . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. respectively. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. that. me probable that • Vei also little. there. that. Magyar ez. 6. uta. Mutsun ne. and a for the female. . It Carib lala. tiiio. he. Zulu ajoa. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. /wo. that in the distance. is Here.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. father. Botocudo ati. It seems to (fen. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ulri. Tamul i. this <t. and origin. man erne. here this . biii. /e«. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. there. this . ni. thou ni. young one. I . . ne. bi. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. you. no constant rule is observed. there. ojOo. . ukko. an old . Dhimas isho. here . mas cheche. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. ta to ka. femina ama. ofj. probably initial of distinction that the k. that. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee.

analogous to winy-piny. Fr. titta. The sound trapp . and in the Pacific dialects. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. the principle of reduplication. for instance. trappa. nipple. stairs. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. just beginning to appear. the idea is called. wenig. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse.' — Merrv Wives. din-din. trap. repetition It. to teet. lift 8. keeh. or chink. the simplest mode by the g. The Sw. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. of smaller things. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. Clank represents the sound of something large. — Douglas Virgil. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general.) . where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. looking through between obstacles. to peep through. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to leap. knob. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. From cases like the foregoing. the pip or pippin. . they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. to peep. Thus we have Wolof sopa. A little wee face with little. don-don. to make its way through the bursting envelope. wean. is to express simple continuance of action. nil. or even. barking of a dog. to tread. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. a little yellow beard. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. Da. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. trSpigner. &c. fretful. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. the nursery few j Sc. 401. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. sound of bells . at pippe frem is to spring forth. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. tion. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. pepin. for the . little. dance (Kil. nab. a child. to feet. for a succession of light blows low-wow. And perhaps the E. i Sw. a step. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. in old e. trappen. whence Fr. murmur. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. has tittafrem.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. as j money. Top. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. trippelen. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. little To sup up.' making the voice as small as possible. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to begin to appear . A little weeny thing. trippen. as ding-dong.

So from clamo. serves to show and in this way. properly speaking. or in Fr. and Fr. er. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. to or rub. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. Again. in familiar use with ourselves. child . ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. bad . It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. keep spots. and the words express a continued sound of rack.' expression is — ^Tylor. Cult. Susa di. rack click. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. tach-et-er. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. ratsi-ratsi. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). child . sopasopa. rapidity and strength. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. or imitative syllables. the agent in panting . is language. lololoa. repetition or continsignify long. calling. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. the comparative degrees of greatness. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. &c. to pant. a spot. 99). to skip. clash of weapons. could readily be conceived. very great. to call frequently from Fr. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. if very young. . artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. (to use a to speak. ayunayunan. Thus in the Pacific loa. ding-ding. or a little tee--ny thing. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. to rock. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. cliqu-et-is. click. 97). That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. didi. Mandingo ding. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. kenda. a cradle. a clattering noise. to vi^alk about for flax. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. are echoed by the rudimentary et. to love. Thus in E. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. the and clique. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . to treat with contempt. The same principle of 196. smallness. clamito..Ixii REPETITION. random . kamha-gamla. . acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. instead of being actually repeated. amusement. from Maori muka. Malay ayun. puka- puka. to cover e. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. mpolu is uttered. to talk at to walk. to to call. a grasshopper. mawhitiwhiti. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. tache. hardness. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. very long (Pott. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. kendagenda. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. puka. the lungs. mawhiti. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. little child (p. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. i. And generally. or very very great. racket. or rdtchi. to say pooh It is ! to. very bad. rack. or el. loloa.

compared with g. to hand-le. he who rubs. and in as. from puka. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. wagas ging. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. or in e. to make gug. such asjlap. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . shuffle. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. as mAS. in some applications. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. g.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. wankel. a from ayun. others. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. are to cry mew and pew . or fi bau. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. in Fr. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. waggle. to bark like a dog. wankeln. to rock or wag. mew and baa . where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to puff. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. without the intervention of the frequentative element. Ihre remarks under gncella. to wail woe . In like manner crack imitates the sound made . miauler andpiauler. the lungs (the puffers of the body). a succession of cracks to rattle. Jickfacken. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. jogging. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to make a succession of shoves. to make bau-bau. or Maori puka-puka.Jicol. the knie-en to E. to make a succession of grabs . to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. fickle. it. to crackle. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. bub. smack. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. to hand. The Fr. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. miauler and beler correspond to E. joggle. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. by the side of wanken. or by association. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. kneel. crack. In cases like these. to move to and fro. draggle. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. syllable clat . to continue dragging. The contrivance with any particular noise. where all direct connection with sound is lost. as to handle. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . or omitted. guggle. rynel. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. wancol. dabble. Piedmontese bau-l-S. dab. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. itself. which. wavering. to rock. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. bubble. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. is In e. rubber. in used for dealing with an object by the hand.

no sort of difference either in outward appearance. Polish. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. Breton. deceit. or in aptness to combine with other elements. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. or in mode of use. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. and comparatively few easily deceived. at was more familiarly known. moreover. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. on a moment's reflection. to cry ugh at. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. A gull or a dupe same sense. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. although it is not difficult. to the separation between the broken parts. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. or how generally. it is obviously a mere chance how long. which. Dupe comes to us from the French. by a hard body breaking. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. known in Italian. the breach. which is the origin of the word. There is. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). will continue to be felt in daily speech. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food.

In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. Hitl^erto. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. life. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. . however. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. language is . and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. is. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. and the word is used in a secondary sense. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. founded in manifest blunder. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. nor any limited of ideas. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form.

out. unintelligible to other hordes. in the course of many years' isolation. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. and 'Russian. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. i. If English. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. change. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. hearing. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. of material things. and vescovo. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. compared with the duration of man. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. 330. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. circle perpetrates a new slang term. episcopus. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. Naturalist on the Amazons. I think it very probable. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. evique. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. therefore. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. French. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. Welsh. guages in South America.

as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. it will leave figures 3 and 4. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. . and . The combination of the symbols I and 2. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. the actual it which would to represent. or whatever the proportion may be. ao8). a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. as shown in the subjoined illustration. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. Cijlt. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 7. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. ancient Greek M . occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. to be taken (Prim. which are idenr Figures 5. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 9. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. is MN. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. Nor is there one of the letters. i. A key must unlock more doors than this. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 8. 6.

The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised." the use of a change of vowel in as. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. his fellows. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.' should be discovered.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. what comes to the same thing. had its origin in imitation of sound. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. in the shape either of direct inspiration. for instance. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. and the only safe beneficent Creator. leading him to utterances. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. which either by direct resemblance of sound. known to us as yet. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races.

or else. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. that he started from the lowest grade. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and when we look back as far as history will reach.COMPLETION OF MAN. or of their own reflected thoughts . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. in the course of generations. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. as elephants. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. for instance. and sooner or later. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or not. by animal without a trace name of Man. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and rose towards a higher state of being. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. race were speaking men or not. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. the conduct of Ixix life. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. or beavers. of using imitative conduct . until the progeny. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period .

or Dan. Fr. Supplement to Bret. Baile/sEngl. Dutch. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Dief. Bavarian. Couzinid. 1737. Cotgrave. Teutonico-Lat. ^Ifr.. 1768. Carpentier. dialect of the Sette Commune.V. Wtb. Gr. Esth. Castr. 1850. Provincial dialect. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Sup. Carp. 1654. 1766. Gothischen 1851. Diet. 1857. Diet. Bremisch. Cimbrisch. Dueange. Diet. Supplement to Dueange. Esthonian. Romano - Cas- traise. Finnish. Diefeiibach. Cot.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Danish. Grammar Boh. Douglas' Virgil. Da. Anglo-Saxon. Biglotton seu Diet. B. Dn. de la langue Cat. E. AS. Dief. Bohemian or Czech. English. Brem. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Bav.Nieder. Catalan. Due. at the end of Somner's Diet. Diefenbaeh.-Eng. Bigl. Elfric's Fl. Fin. dial. Dueange. Infimse Latini- D. . Cimbr.



baltresca nokkutomax. plowied budowaer. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. yjnaifia r. cruccio deyrie." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.5 ERRATA. kilistaa bugiie r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.nokkutama willekem. woman r. puHti r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. sveritet Asknace r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. katowai perairrantr. buque 118 brodiquin r. r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . word allagerr. r.>. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. (/ijtf r. willekom Blab r. haverie crtOT r. alUger ahaverie r. Askance woud r.. cti. Blob plowied r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. ^i?^i2! r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r.percurrunt kimista^x. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .


rule. to awake. a. in. Ab-. "rom a height. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. on. but now )bsolete). dominion. whatever he be. particular 1 . Lat. behind. Abaft. . on-lic. iway from. on. power : Than Wallace thing. onis aback. to subdue. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. —Bruce. an edict or proclamation. away. erwachen. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. a washing off to abstain. Dent posture. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. us. out of. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. a/tan. ab. Again.he Goth.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. 244. A. dominion. this word beand Spanish. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. downwards. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. command. to arise. Hence on-bceftan. The word Ban is common orders. ur. in a manner other than it should be ablution. among. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. the er. as. To abuse is to use iway. off. into the Romance ftrseg .t G. implying a completion of J. vs. to sauff the king or spill. abs. said. abaft. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. Abandon. plesyt him. Immediately from Fr. Jvery man shewid baft. ifter. baftan. as. be-ceftan. Thus ip N3S. of-dune. Parson's Tale. from. AS. 843. to hold . have entire dominion over. K . In Lat. his. literally. announcement. state of sleep . sion of 'an abandoned character. o/j of or . bandon in French. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. Thou spelds of mychty iction. and secondarily in that of command. compounds. in the same sense. alike. ir. ar. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. away from. until the event jlace . Abs-. from a is to wake to abide. er. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. orders. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. ibandonner. AS. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. OHG. Passing tongues. and — Chaucer.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. on-bsec .

his eyen shene. from ravir. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti.— R. or society of abbots or monks. faire tomber. See Abide. castle. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. and grooms besmeared with gold. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. burny. abbattre.On princes. Custom. Abbot. betrash. overthrow. impulse. of the Fr. I was abawid for merveille.down. — Neccham. polish. to light upon. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. to diminish the force of any. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Abbess. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. baer. astony. to beat furnish. It. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. baba. Originally. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. ne more vermeille. his mouth. an abbey. Fr. Wall. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. and that from Syrian abba. terminedly. from Lat. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. .' the surrender of a ' K. in the active form. down. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. 1 1 8. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. beer. confound.) . father. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. thing abbatere le vela. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. astonish. to The . depress. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. by Wall. son bandon. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin.fournir.polir. and the verb was written in Eng. ant. de. Beat. to gape. and it that that it — . 1520. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. Hart in Jamieson. to take possession of an estate. weaken. 364s. — — . c. iv. to happen. abbatis. of wonder. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. merely the terminations ons. abaundunem-ent. so common in the found in the OFr. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. Bate. to abaw or astonish. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. R. et prirent terre. More correctly written abbat. to bate something of the price abbatersi. burny was formerly burnish . without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . may be explained. where custom (Grandg. to strike Froiss. And he thereof was all abashed. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. to overthrow. to ruin. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. other. abbatia. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. with or without a final sh. of fear. and sets them all agape. to hit. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. To Abate. Baba ! Mod. See . law term abatement. Cotgr. R. ais. Hence the OE. bandon. Milton. A.Prov. uncontroUedly. d. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. abate. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. Abbey. adverbial expressions at abandon. In or. to put to con. esbahir. impetuously. bawi. vol. drink. Hence Lat. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to make lower. person. to excite admiration. R. abbatere dal prezzo. as ravish. esbahissais. to astonish. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. or admiration.— — . as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. effect of shame. On the other in use as well as hand. esba. abbatere. shame. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. esbahissant.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. at his own the lips. lish to abaisse orabaish.esbawi. Castrais. to strike sail . abbas. . abandonly.

abayer. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. take notice. abetter. badigliare. Quant voit le serpent.— ^richer. abidan. to hook. bocca badata. Fabl. . ' ' . compared with (Bosworth). expectation. beter. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. K. we sceolon ON. to desire. with open mouth . tenere a bada. desire. ceive. bida. to ance. abSiance. Abie. to desire earnestly. abet. bouche b^ante. From abahier. to be intent upon. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. attendre avec en^pressement. says. aspirer. look for another. Abele. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. F. to It. on the one hand. bana. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. with badia. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. the verb of abeyance. abet. expectation. delay. and in E. delay. to deanimer. . (Vocab. to be intent upon. Gloss. Thus G. bida. songer. inciter.— Roquef. to yawn. inciting. endurance. lingering. Cat. The verb atwaiting. bhr. gridare. badare. baier. The white poplar.) abayer. to suffer death in Du. to remain or endure. listening. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. expectfamily. guardare. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. bie compared with Dan. wait. Corant sens lui. to expect. which the mind to an object. tity of E. beguile. .' is in AS. E. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). which is certainly related to It. beijen. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. to expect gabeidan. qui iaaille. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. a right in suspense . badare. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. house. othres abidan' The effacement expect. bidan. beidan. beguiling on the other. abbadare. badar. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to wait. to attend on . ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. — ABELE Epiphanius. tempting. to look. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. to tarry. Boethius. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. in Dan. 366.Fr.was formerly used in the sense of look. ^couter avec dtonnement. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. usbeisnei. and alluring to his own destruction. Guernsey beth. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. also to OFr. baier compared with It. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . a bay or opening in the coast. to wait. de Berri) Prov. desirer (Roquef. ne wist what way to chuse. deceiving. or in Fr. baier. suspense. to gape . To Abet. Cat. watch. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. 1 • . as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. bie. Gloss. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. from Halo. abaier. bada. forms with the d effaced are OFr. and Prov. ne chastised them. pense. abiiance. speaking of the Holy places. to open the mouth. abeyance. badare. to open bader. exciter. waiting. have seen abide. take care. were called Brothers. or absorption watching. to stay. warten. is idenwait. to abide . Pol. white. — II. or do we AS. tarrying . ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. aspire to. In We . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to mind. beijden. covet. de Champ. . beidan. to attend to. — . abie. baer. bide of the d endure. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. forbearance. and E. to stay. . Thus we have It. John. Du. to deceive. —Raynouard. abie. Q. — signifies to suspend action. wait To Abide. endurArt thou he that should come. attendre See Bait. bder. abeter. syllable ba. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. listen. bialodrze-w. incite . open the mouth. signifies the direction of tend.— Chaucer. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. Prov. Ni engigner ni abiter. Norm. while the monks under his control ing. us. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. Goth. tical with It. suffer b. Ducange.. regarder. verbeijen Sw. to In great amaze. intent observation. m Abeyance. beijen. OFr. in Fr. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. literally white tree. deceit. b^er. See Abide. trick abetar. bouche bdante. delay.to wait. gola badada. to wait. Norm.

— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. to . and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. have-like. &c. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. to dress hemp.ynes. adapted . was often used in the same sense. abilej Prov. It. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. must suffer for it. the Sir Tristrem. Wickliff in Richardson. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. P. — P. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. to redeem. Dr. habile. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Fr. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. In this to erase or annul. fit. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. or bie. Abie. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. in for any special purpose. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. The —Boucher. —Bacon in R. fault being simply clothing. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Chaucer. abigg. . — Able. O If tion. 2. as E. Boucher. at kasta fyri bord. within the walls of a ship. the side of a ship. and death for handsel pay.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. from AS. habilis (from habeo. Tr. P. within the ship. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. L. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. — e. Cassar. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. the Fr. Mids. convenient. forbid for mother's children should abye. Prol. purpose. a board. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. Q. abeye. For on board. ON. as habiller du chanvre. Innan bords. AS. abicgan. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. suffer the Jul. able. bord. at hand). habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. power. bide. consequences of anything . on board . and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. when compared with Aboard. She shall abie that trespass dere. abolir. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. abidge. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. expert. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. N. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. habilis is closely preserved. is the verb abie. to wear away. atling hem to her proper offices. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. abie to Goth. to perish. 2nd Tale. to have .^and to make his power knowne. abie. Milton. F. de la volatile. abycgan. him with che. to draw fowls. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. aboleo. bidan. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. abilh. i. to pay the penalty. to pay the purchasemoney. Lat. Spenser. the Pardoner In the original. R. abide. being disabled in the highest degree. beidan. powerful. though sometimes confounded with it. willing to schewe his wrathe. al- be found so some will dear abide it. properly abuy. and Cr. durance in both applications. ! ! Cotgr. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . while in later examples As I . Fr. God. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. strong. use. sufficient. God — dear. and the simple buy. R. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. If it badare. Merch. from Lat. without special reference to the notion of retribution.

to turn. be-utan. gravis. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. Melibaeus. Abundant. to start.) . are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. below. becomes leu in Prov. greu. and alere flammain. abutan. to break off. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. is a ively.aboon. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete.ger. while the verb alleThe root el. OE. Abray. abredan. agreujar. above. Lat. or cut short. currence. the OSw. Abrdger itself. ufan. the identity of which with ting. to cut short. Tale. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. as withotityn and without. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. to light a fire the Abraid. but from Lat. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. butan. abrdger. the vital spark. break out. abracan. AS. Fr. en. full ofte his words for to Fr. D. gravity. on high. pedigree from brevis. nurse Lat. titan. alan.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. giving birth to. ABOMINABLE adolesco. sec seftre — Chaucer. to feed. the man dwindles away. draw out. and also to abridge. while the sense of beget. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. AS. to snatch. Then. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. levis to the Romance languages.1. and bidden him abregge. to rear. abowen. ol. abbrechen. oil. to produce. parent.' Ymb hancred utan. the idea of breaking about . vital PI.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. be-ufan. side. onbutan. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. to bring up. from . showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. motion. nourish. For on broach. as AS. to rear. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. Prov. s —Casdmon. ala. awaking.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. Kiittner. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. Gael alaich. . OE. heavy. the hair grow. to fatten. to progress. adolere. The primitive idea seems that of beget. coalesco. OSw. breaking out in language. his contemporaries. whence the Fr. af-oolden. as the duty of nourdisposition. to aggravate. ala is made to signify to rear.— Abbreviate. of any kind . or young forth. life. disastrous portent in some passing oc. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. d. alere capillos. bufan. — ' — — preceding verb. abominor (from ab and omen. In the same brevis . from Fr. To abray or abraid. around on the out. Goth. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to AS. alan. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. to beget or give birth to children. about cockcrow.. to grow up. to let sleep. leading immediately to Fr. af-oleii. abbreviare. to feed. progeny. way Sw. to grow together. abufan. . nurse. Severe the threatened evil. to nourish. and to do something to avert abbreviate.foda signifies to beget.ymbutan. which passed into English under Abominate. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. abbrechen. brood. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. literally. Quod abominor. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. and also.' Parson's rence. for ligeth butan. to awake. is not from G. So in Lat. outward. Finnish stock. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. Sc.. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. kindling. agredge. natural ed direct from the latter language. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). common in Chaucer and Abominable. hard.the older form. See -und-. Virg. To Abound. a portent). al is growth.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. and in-d-oles. Above. explains soboles Lat. the form a&^^. seems aras. Thonne Abroach. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. alUger. boven. Thence to regard greugetat. which may God avert. without. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. snatch In English we speak of away. AS. that greatly agredge their sin. The radical idea is to feed the flame. Of these synonymous adolescere. — . so that here also we to deprecate the omen. abrcBgdan. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to main. Du. by the to bring up. See To Bray.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


i. Lat.is to be given. apanage. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. one at the least. stem.D. Antick. swaged. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Gr. to nourish. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. anticus. and claret wine. In like manner. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. d<popi(xnbs. aside. whence anthem. Fr. from in and cudere. from ango. ReApe. Jorioc. inAgain from the same author cudis. to strike G. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Hall's Chron. G. from. : . To go antiquely. to sound in answer. panis. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. to open. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. should be received. Lat. from ante. Thus from gabe. before. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. villan Gloss. work. to bring forth. Antler. panar. amboltj Du. Apartment. ambeld. Ful- Apanage. trouble. Prov. a definite . Apart. d. Gr. press. AS. transferred to the grotesque characters. antefn. in Shakespear. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. something ler in R. cenig. To ape. from an. as from as. to support. to strain. gabeigs. from Stephanus. one. a termination equivalent to Goth. from the imitative habits of monkeys. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. rich. some one. what Roman civilisation. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. So Lat. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. Ilvtwotov. As the browcalled antiques. the anticks — behind. to go in strange disguises. one having wealth. — — — .. Antique. on. and devils. post. part. vex. but the expresent day. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. to imitate gestures. Otfried. younger child. bread. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. from eigan. anfilts Pl. Aphorism. left as the . wealth. Anxious. AS. separate. all of gold. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. separate purpose. three antike pillers. Gr. were chiefly of the former class. Anvil. a gift. of. anxius. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. See Cover. as the Italians. a small quantity.made out. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. or antique single chamber. E.—Aperture. white.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Any. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. like a jack-pudding. —Spencer. ab. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. burnished. to display pario. apatiar. andouillers. eigs. to strike. Percutere. anxi. as posticus. Mannequin. antifena. were andouiller the second. AS. Apartment. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Pezron fiUist. incus. anapoz. avri^ava. . a block to hammer on. verberas.legacy of given against. Antidote. Fr. to have. and ig. from. a few. a puppet or an anti^hona. Hence the applica. set aside. as we call it. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned.— . finally applied to a whether grotesca. from an and — - . Fr. a preventative . But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Aperient. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. plenteously with red. such as savages. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. strangle. or in a ridiculous dress. surimitation of the ancient models. from avTiipoiuia). apertum. which by anvild. Lat. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. before. whence Prov. choke. aperio. Lat. fauns. af.

or E.t. from paix. horror. properly to join like to like. to send off. the good. apprehendere. Gr. appaiser. opportunity. Lith. ar. a thing for one's purpose. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. . to understand. appareiller. become dizzy . to finish a controversy. to strike down. approcdare. of. to learn. And whanne sum men Lat. —Diez. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. ap. Approach. seiden of the stones. probare. to deaden. when the . to — — . poind. Formerly apricock. praise. in fact. Palsgr. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Parson's Tale. agreeing with "LtA. were formed appropiare ejar. —^Apparent. one is in. away. They were considered To Appoint. — prehendere. and appoinder (to find fitting. par. oVooroXof. apropchar. to disable oftat. Cotgr. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal.pareil. to learn. Mod. Hence It. Yr. to Lat. pronounce fitting). Cent Nouv. Appease. corresp.— . plight. Fr. Apostle. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. laven is used both as E. off. To Appear. to mark to define a bound. one sent out. peace. The Fr. Cotgr. En peach. 'LaX. approcher. D. known. apprise. apar. to lose one's senses. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. N. to suit. apparecchiare.his giving evidence against his principal. ciously than nede is. dress. And among other of his famous deeds. Pliny. To Appraise. Fr. apprendre. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. piteux poind. ^wss. despatch on some service. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. pronounce good. pretium. Gr. like. diminutive pariculus. find Then like Fr. Apple. diroTrXriaatii. Nouv. manner. and in the sense of condition. appartenir. Epistle. in data. Gr.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. 'L-zX. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Cotgr. to — . . aptly. iwKjToKri. to rate. w. in good season prendre son d. after his mind . to approach. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Fr. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. — Appurtenance. xv. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. appellare. an epistle or letter.parejo.propius). An old appalled wight. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Fabian in R. Apprehend. Fr. d-n-o. one the MLat. quoth the frere. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. aparelhar. From Gr. Prov. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. From Lat. one for his defence. to seize. Walach. to accord. Prov. To praise. case. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to commend. appareo. proper time came. word was specially applied to clothing. ai. to be open to view. The PI. jabloko. — dirondtfiu. apropid. Fr. It. or the like. diroBrjKr}. habiliments. irpaiKOKiaov. Fr. a'^opi'Jw. whether through age or sudden teiTor. AS. landmark.prix. to approve. and metaphorically to take the meaning. I prise ware. Sp. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Friar's Tale. H. . Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. mine. a price. to store or put Appal. rise to \t. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. taking. in Chaucer. from. 5w. (cited by Diez from a late author). order. — Apprise. decree. trim. A — . allow. to take away or lose the vital powers. apin R. to set a price on. from aTroorlXXu. agree. equal. that it outfit. appris. Ir. i. esteem. to deem good. : — — speak 'Lz. poind. prover. make a composition between parties. Appareil. OFr. fit- — ness. kind of action. 23 . avail. good. pragigua or prixcoda.parecchio. lAfiaam. to come near. peler. whence the e. — Approve. Apo- good time. a learner. like. obolys. For their acquaintance was not come of new . habilUr. near. cepl. to call for judgment. to assign or grant over unto. apal. They werin his approvirs privily. consent unto. Hence appoind. 11. Gr. apal. approver. e. prope (comp. APRICOT off. Fr. To cause to pall (see Pall). to call. to send to. value apprdder. to dress in this fashion. Lat. to catch hold of. S^. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. prize.—Apprentice. From Lat. and also as appraise. set a price on. a crime. to make a thing Apparel. Yr. to which it is often referred. prohts. apprentis. Fr. preparation. APO sentence opoQ. to deter- to strike. in commendation. Apoplexy. Apotliecary. array. ON. to fit. to announce.probare. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. pertain or belong to. purpose.

meaning at Shrewsbury. Arbour. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs.) E. . an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. A. suitable. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. and thence fit. nected. P. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Roquefort. arbiter. con. most conspicuous situation in the garden . It is certain that the apricot oracle. wata. as ihe diminutive. garden. Pr. and sortilegus ation. a cloth. divining rod. sortium ductor. however. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. sorcerer.o. Marsh. . by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. ughe. arpa. short. derived. Thus we have natiger and auger. As is a pretty parlour. symbol. Beryn. proper. arbitrium. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. . — . upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. and taken away before dessert. is taken in is a soothsayer. as an eye-witness. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. OE. shortdr. Lat. auguror. Lat. arwelo. arbitror arwaaja. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. sestimatio arbitraria.' —About. pracoqua was not an adapt. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. From OE.] in the N. Alban. It may be doubted.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. Aquatic. arwaus. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. From OFr. 331. hariolus arpelen. aptus.sors. a soothsayer. aa. nawl and awl. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. Now one of the points — — — . to decide by lot. and with turfis new Goth. be That it inne groweth. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. {mies ^=ia3. Now we find in Fin. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. however. rofe and all. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. properly the arwella. This path Aqueous. delon. C. Flower and Leaf. to plough. and a protection of the clothes. water Which that benchid was. Pm. doubtless is the origin of E. Hall. Gr. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. aro. Naprun. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. intensitive of nape. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. the spelland umpire. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. 31. ap. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. a river. or barm-cloth. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. quod he. Freshly turnid Arable. opinio. Albanian. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. She made. — napkin is Naperon. account for either of these significations. grande nappe. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. tion under trial. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve.shrubs {arbor). words derived from arpa. of of divination arpa-mies. ahva. 2. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. and the one who gives oracles. aqua. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. ear. man. naperon. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. . subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. J. found in Fin. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. a lot. to preserve it from stains. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. or eft. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. arbiter in re censendS. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. herbere.. conjectura conjec^ra. a lot. aha. aestimo. a pleasure-ground. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. fastened close. Lat. OHG. Arbitrate. Maan initial . a lot. conjicio. P. scr. The loss or addition of n very common. la nappe. Prol.

argr. weapon. and must be identified with Dan. Fr. Ardent. while the Fr. ancient. malicious. ardIn G. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. ars. the most arrant trash. arcA in e. armata. earg. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. Arcliives. . arg. arguo. branch. to burn . arduus. Lat. apxh.aioj. from areo. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. to demonstrate. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. earm. gwyro to bend. and our army. man. faint-hearted. curved line. erz in G. bad of its kind.. ^Argument. burning heat. an arrant usurer. an arch-deceiver . stuff. A construct. whence the body of the nobles collectively. armee. a rule (princiruler. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. and Kpurka. argvitugr. the best. And thou as arwe coward. especially shoulder-joint. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . i. Dan. earh. Area. et vulgari verbo. which has been referred to W. ramo (pi. difficult to reach. make clear or prove. un malin enfant. . apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. shoulder. first. Gr. timid. high. kpxi- beginning. the a brute. ardre. ers-betriiger. signifies chief or principal. an extent of flat surface. Fr. ramend). to be in comp. Alisaunder. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. det arrigste snavs. ill-tempered. adjective. shoulder Boh. Lat. TiKToiv. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Lat. ' — Argue. it signifies roguish. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Arduous. sluggish. aridus. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. From apxeiov was formed Lat. raineno. sly. There can be no doubt that E. fabricate). Gr. — Wtb. ardor. a branch. Cot. ON. arga. worker. The . fainthearted. mischievous. ruling by the nobles. Lat. gwyrek. sly. Sax. is essentially the same word. Lat. erz-bischof. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. government. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. arrant Arms. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). from nixa. vescovo. and not with apx. weapon may be simply an application of annus. Sp. area. archangel. to Arch. Perhaps erz-wticherer. G. arm'ee. apxri. . G. Du. Arm. taxed with cowardice. to arm. Uo^a^. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. vocaveris.— Army. mischievous. un petit rusd. arcus. wanton. arrig. are formed the participial nouns. — Architect. armada. a bow. ardeo. Lat. Arch in composition. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. apx^iv. as the arch of a bridge. forearm . the court of a magistrate. AS. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. to rule. Lat. an arch boy.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. arwe. a court yard. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. by Russ. contemptible. receptacle where the public acts were kept. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. a burning or setting on fire. Gr. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. a noble. curved. Brem. Ardour. Fr. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. an arrant rogue. a chief builder. Arcadia in R. bad. een erg kind. wretched OE.' Paul Warnefrid. Lat. D.is the natural weapon of offence. apxtlov.. erg. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless.In E. bravest.' the Gr. apxtipfve. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. Aristocracy. arm. which is derived from it. a threshing-floor. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. Langobard. to dry. arson. Arson.' Lex. 3340. the terminaGael. ein arger knabe. arm. a. From the verb armare. arsum. W. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. bad. to be on fire. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. . 2. as in E. arma. It. morally bad. . Arid. * ArchjAiTaxit. Gr.4 rir/. Du. lofty. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. aj-f. rame. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. in Due. arch-bishop. patus). exercise lordship). Applied in modern E. a bare plot of ground. troublesome.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

plague. a great ball. w. balken. gen. Ball. bal. to wave. ban. palla. . are applied to a From the same analogy.of men . lealo. sick. probably Lat. I. Hence Dan. pila. Sw. a ballot). ball. to plough for a boundary between lands. G. ' is a piece or confused talking. other while. to by beams. to cause another to miss pustule. AS. Hence. In like manner Fr. a washing-tub. heap up. Baulke of land. OFr. Goth. beaten road. ballare. — A — — . See Gall. balka. balk. weak liquor. ing. globule. the object of his expectation. trouble. from bacquet. to ail. shouting. a pail. to ache. cka. Du. afbalka. whether of wood or stone. Ball. ballare. We have then separate dial. ON. Dan. Sw. to be balker. stage or scaffold. palcare. Q. Wotton. To Bale out water. to on Holmedon's plain. the breadth from side to side . F. to plank. dial. Gr. on. Fr. N. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. boleii. on. and the dim. dial. E. misery Du. grieve . to dance. ball. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. Sw. It. a ball. a beam. a dance. as we say. Mid. bola. to paddle in water . 2.Fr. ballotta. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Boll. bolyaf. Bale. balveins. Sw. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . bol. Sw. bealwes. bdlkr. Sp. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). wickedness ness . a clapping or flapping of wings. balare. on. ballone. bal-daed. balle. pallo. balja. A balk. hooting. ball. ache. a ball. . ne leaving any balke. a ball balla. a continued noise of waves gently beating . floor. Du. pallukka. Fin. chapurrar. Pol. ballo. blister. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. a ball. Venet. mass. bolyatchka. a ball. a wooden partition . a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. balle.' speak gibberish champurrar. to rock. The primary sense seems as in G. e. to partition off . bbllr bulla J. a pill. It. taich. a beam. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Rouchi ban. uveirs bolk. calamity. balk. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. vcdra bdlkr. balge. bjdlki. ballan. separaison. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. balka hopar. Ballata. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a division of the old laws. to speak an un. Da. package of goods. pain. sickness. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. to Not sparing wight. balle. to bale out.—Ballad. bal. maleficium. vacillare. Fr. a partition. Fr.ing. a. Bowl. balka bunge. bold. (Hesych. Gael. a balk of foul weather. to stir. bolker. and evil in general. as in a barn or cow-house. Ballot. baloier. baalien. baalie. To baulke the Sir H. ballare. to signify washy drink. Bret.). balle. balla (with the augm. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. a bubble. a boil. Balloon. i. OHG. bolawy. a water-skin dim. bacgtteter. a clump . tum. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages.— Ballet. a separate portion. sorrow. balva-vesei. . a clod of earth water. dial. a pestilence. baler. bol. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. to be ill. ill. It. OSw. ballar). which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Perhaps on. ball. to avoid it. destruction. to pack Da. to shake or jog.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . at giore en balk. to roll. Bohem. wickedtorment ON. may exhibit the original development of the signification. a But making way for death at large to walke. a skin. palloilla. . similar connection is seen in Sp.Lat. maan pallikka. Russ. . balkr. ballet. to see-saw. Sw. bielke. Da. with the perhaps from balg. . pallo. boll. the beam of a ship. balken. to grieve . the ballet of the theatres. * Balk. says Ray. balk. to dance. pilula. on the shore. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. dial. a ballad. . From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. Sw. TtaKKa a pail or tub . bal. a ball or pack. balk. from the more general notion of moving up and down. a scene acted in dancmg. a globe. malefacGower in R. to move. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. It. 3. pallikka. Grief. hue et illuc inclinare. G. a dance. bala. torment. bollr. roof. balloon. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Sw. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. Ugutio in Due. a together in the form of a ball. It.

^Arbuthnot in R. balconies. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. . The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. balustrade barandilla. To Bamboozle. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. curse. also with flatteries and . a duty on goods last. a false tale or jeer. the flower of the pomegranate. the backload. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. as he says. lastra. But Fr. mare Balticun. railing around altars. the act of walking. Sc.that the going vessels. Fr. terraces. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. to walk. small railing. paid for the right of carriage. Gr. urtica. baranda. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. 43 — Cot. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. Ballast. bertesca. 1854. an Old dotard or imbambolare. and Mid. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. inutilis sarcina. baume.000 tons. Balsam. bam. of balusters. inutile onus. Said to be from balaustia. from bara or vara. command. enchanter. The Sp. more serious objection is . To Bam. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. to enchant. ranked on the outside of cloisters. ballustres. bambocciolo. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. little round and short pillars. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. from Lat. barauste. Sp. Baltic. back of the ship. for want of other freight. Balm. like Fr. To proclaim. This is the backload. astonished.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. or ballast of a ship. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. age. Bamour. bamboccio. &c. because. To make fun of a person. i860. a fragrant gum. ballustre) is a corruption. puzzled. Dan. it is forced to take in stones or sand. When a ship discharges. Mr Marsh whether the a load. It. bag-las. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. objects to the foregoing derivation. more frequently than outward-bound. ballast. fonts. a young babe. Bret. bamein. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. in the first place. — — oltriga. baU. to preserve equilibrium. a battlement . analogous to what is seen in It. a small balustrade. &c. last.. Lat. Balluster. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. It is explained back by Adelung. If bambocciolare were child of one. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. In OSw. Venet. bambolo. It. Sept. To deceive. but loadage. dial. explains ballast. barandado. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. ^a\Ba\iov. lestage. To Ban. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. bag-lest. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. by met. sorcerer. seems the original form of the word. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. denounce. lest. A — — . deceiver. Lest. lastagium signified not only ballast. baltresac. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon.). bumbazed. Du. a useless load. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. deceive. called Bait. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. make fun of a person. The Baltic sea. galleries. Cotgr. lastre. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. a nettle.' And Kil. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. endormir par des contes. is in Sweden and Norway. forbid. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. R. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. Report Pennsylv. for a load or goods (Roquef. Fr. . balsamum. baUa. or movement of one who walks.Lat. a rod. Bret. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. 1.

Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. It. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bindan. biddal. bandon was used in the same sense. Goth. Goth. bann. . Bandear. to form parties. and thence to any proclamation. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Ripuar. banns pany of footmen serve. 19. is That with which anything AS.—John Villani in Due. banda. ba?idare. 26. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. side. —R. a coast. to unite with a band. passing on from proclamation to command. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Sp. summoning to serve So in Swiss. The to . hoc est vexillo. R. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando.is further developed. bundun. Assises de Jerusalem. &c. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). 2. Baud. change to the feminine gender in banda. In a special sense the term company itself. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. bannum or bandum. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard.e. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority .. acquired the sense of proclamation. Thus the word is also used in both senses. fahne. E. Cot. bando. we constantly find the expression. and It. from at the Lord's courts. also the band or of marriage. To Bandy. a company. Les saiges avait et les fols d. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. i. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. See Abandon. Fr. Car. D. It seems this signification has arisen. In Fr. eiiseigne. It. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. bound. OE. Mag. 1. Capitul. curse. Sw. Band. to bring corn to be fahne. to ctide. 813. banda the colour or material. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. power. and in E. to take one to task. bandi. band. Diss. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. side. 15. Bandus. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. It. authority. Fr. Leg. those who side together (bande. banner marked the place of assembly. at his own discretion. parti. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. the ensign or banner. banda. he bannede his ferde. ex.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. says Muratori. bande. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. region. border. in Fr. — excommunication bann-lysa. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. R- He Translated by Chaucer. — R. to publish) banna. &c. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. bande. to . tener da alcuno. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. Wyntoun. sostener Torriano. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. whether by way of injunction or for- command. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. he assembled his host. admolendinum. faction. ligue Taboada). . Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. band.^ bandy. bandera ground at his mill. theodscipe ut abannan. — To partito d'alcuno. bannire exercitum. bandon somewhat party. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. in hostem convocare. to excommunicate {lysa. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. to follow a faction. bande. flag. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Sp. There is some doubt how Fr. populum. Commun^ment son bandon. 'A son bandon. bannire in exercitum. G. From the verb to banda. margin. to ban.Lat. to reprove. then the signification w. Se il — Romance languages. v. etc. A. permission. to side or to bandy (Florio). Spebifid.

Goth. — . Banditti. to work in wood. a bank. bank. forbear this outrage. in the sense of place of business. a counter. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Fr. a bench. a sand-bank. Bandy legs are crooked legs. banditti acquired the like signification. But natheless wife at I bank. Milton in R. bank of a river. When a man fails Lat. hricg. roupt. — — whence E. the former Fr. ruptus. Mid. Bantze. bannire. a blow. Banister. bana-sdr. the same verb the It. bench. hammering. bance. stir. It. s'associer. ON. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. outlam came to signify a robber. Bang. Lingua. Benvoglio. banco. a bankrupt merchant. To Bandy. counter. for shame.: . language of W. Fr. With many a stiff thwack. and hence. in the same way that E. a bench. put under the ban of the law. bander tin arc. de- party. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. from banc. &c. a i. death-wound. a long raised seat. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. to bend a. Brewer. 2. band-hond. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. The ridge of a hill is AS. standard. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. — Kil. b'ang. desk. . many a bang. to knock.z. banc. bent as a bow. It is in this sense nounce. Ripuar. to knock. pastoralis. in the sense of a pirate. bander. and bakki. Roquefort. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . beating. Du. se joindre. Your stool. tumult bangas. home — Bandog. It. bank of river. A Shipman's Tale. Bank. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. N. band-dog. Hudibras. banke. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bandire. Bankrupt. bench. bane. Dan. Fr. From a desk . at canis peciiarius. beat. bakke. banc G. —^Vocab. AS. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. bana-sott. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. was formed the OFr. Mercutio. in R. disturbance banga. back of a knife. and OFr. has bang-bang. bank of Dan. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. to join in league with others against Cotgn. — Paulus drive in a nail. banca his creditors. E. the slope of a hill. Sw. 45 — — Bandit. See Banish. The child cries bang! fire. to cabal. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars.^ knock. Benchi. bana. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). a rising bank. bank. . of bandying words. . come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Bane. eminence. Draw. AS. Fl. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. whence the mod. a de Vaud. It. . to foment factions. bandi. seat . bana. Bacon in R. clouds. death-sickness. eminence. rap hatike et som The Susu. Bandy. broken. g. destruction . dorsum was applied to ject. large dog kept for a guatd. that the word is used by Romeo. Diez.HG. the back. banka. to publicly order one out of the realm. a bench. benk. bandear. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. — Fr. . participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. a table. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. banca fallita. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. to proclaim. From Mid. de sable. Tibalt. se reunir. panca. follow a party. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. as of an explosion or a blow. Africa. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. shoal. bankruptcy. See Balluster. bow. The word is in E. ON. and poise Their lighter wings. banja. bana. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. banish. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. among rotta. Lat. Diaconus in Due. See Band. banqueroute. bander. bang. death-blow . Banner. to hammer in a nail. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. canis vinculis assuetus. to beat. to slay. murderer. &c. to make a stir banke. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. The ing. and therefore tied up. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. a wound OHG. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. distinguishes bekkr. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. ON.

barreau. a. indeed. The original import of their own banner in the field. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. barrer. barrack. top. barra. senhal. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. BARBAROUS reiflingr. or of this bantering. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Thus Ovid. would rupted from Fr. Fr. from the same source. branches of a tree {gwezen. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Fr. remarked. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. a bench or table . The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. dim. barde. barriire. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. iandvo. a war-beacon or war-signal. Gr. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. ban- Baptise. of a sign in general. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. rod of any rigid substance. ON. Barbe. banneret. speaking of battle. Fr. sign. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. of banco. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. It. barbed or trapped as a great horse. and the work is done. Fr. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. jSa'pjSapoc. E. from reifa. hence a repast. barba.. G. a bantling. Sw. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. Lat. To mock or jeer one. branch. wrapped. ^oTrriKio. arineXov. that the noise of voices Bantling. a barrier or stoppage. rarii. benda. sparre. nestling. a bearded or Cot. senh. sparro. OHG. Lat. It may be thing. uncivilised. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. a tree). by a repetition of the syllable bar. Barbar. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. barre. brushwood. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. chan. jSdirTO). out of a wound. Lat. senheira. probably corSymbol. barbe. Flesche barbeUe. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a sign. Duo. barrou-gwez. ing term appears in other languages. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. privileged to raise Barbarous. banner. banneret was a higher class of knights. banchetto. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. A It. and it was accord.8ap6^o)voe. senhal. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. banne. and he would seem to derive Goth. inferior to a baron. ON. in Gr. milites bannarii. The barb of an arrow is the sign . a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. bar. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. then branches. to having that signification. to beckon . &c. either in the Gr. the word came to signify rude. Fr. as they call it. and even of calling it banter. Hence ner. Banquet. banda hendi. The spar. to bend. Celtic bar. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. and with an initial s.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. —Cot. of wind. Leduchat. Barb. men. sbarra. &c. The origin is in all probability Goth. a ban. himself in Pontus. It.— Swift in R. Bap. E. an animal a year old. Bret. According to Diez the It. signuin. a beam or long pole of wood.the analogous syllable viur. bannereti.46 BANNERET . to dip. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. 2. — We A . Banneret.cruel. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Fr. bandiera. banniire. says. Barb. manu anto make signs nuere. token. a which the barrister addresses the court. OFr. To Banter. period vexillarii. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. i. In a similar manner are formed yearling. then fell among the foot. which is surely in barbed arrow. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. 3. Gr. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. Hence Fr. barbarus.aTa Kul nest.. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi.hinder. to wrap. merki. and from ensign or banner Prov. banda. such as the Roman Eagle. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. Gael. It. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. bandva. OHG. inur. heri-pau. knight Bardd. to wash. summit. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. E. .

albarda. uncovered. barbeau. skirt. to boil or bubble up . /3£pjSepi^w. Fr. also to wallow like a seething pot. It. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. barbier. the beard. barboter. to rumble. skirmish. Bard. such as houses are covered Bardelle. Sp. and the word was used in OE. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. twcEtta. borboglio. Applied in E. to stammer. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Bardeau. to mumble or mutter words. Hatt-bard. powdered all over. as well as thwcEtta. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Lex. to make an outcry . — . bardd. Barder. Sp. uproar. saddle-cloth. bhasad. Bret. and in Flanders to vociferate. A7 to the and warlike. Port. skola. Fr. baar. . and foolishly. twattle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. to bubble or spring up. to It. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. barbaris. a shingle or small board. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. waschen. Arab. border. /3opj3opwJu.) . horse armour covering the front. grumble (Lowndes. a rumbling. open. — Cot. to bubble or boil. a tumultuous assembly. formerly used in the sense of tattle. barda. brabble in the making of a bargain. unqualified. the quilted with. Lucan. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. upper chamber. bar. borbollar. . Lith. barbarkama. Sp. dial. back. barbeter. to wash. baares geld. a long saddle for an ass or mule. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. to barbe or trap horses. to plash or dabble. axilla. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. the edge of a shield hval-barct. and Sc. the nakedness of a woman. used 2. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. a jetty or outnook in a building. boil. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. The Pers. barbelin. Hall in R. in the sense of fight. barbacane. Diez. or more properly (says fer. barbugliare. Gr. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking.— — Pm. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. speak confusedly. tattle. Gr. borborinha. berries. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. borbulhar. OFr. barbar. albardilla. Bargain. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. is lb. g. to gurgle. barS. Barbican. barbulla. G. Etym. muttering. albarda'ah. on. guaszare. guazzolare.— Fl. lb. barguigner. Barberry. Exposed to view. Cotgr. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. coping. But Sp. jargon. mutter. murmur . stutter. Cotgr. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. haggle. ready money. Russ. baragouin. Cot. scouthouse. Mod. barefooted Sanscr. Mod. and flanks.' Cot. Hindost. barda. borbotar. Fl. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. to chafbargain. Port. bdla-khaneh. brim. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. a pack-saddle. border of a garden bed. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. Fr. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Thus the on. bdsas. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. name Fr. It. fortia —Strabo. Fr.) to wrangle.— BARBEL merit of water. also to bind or tie across. Barber. a bardelle. — . ala. Pr. barbeum. to grunt. w. in poetic language Bard for poet. skialldar-bard. as well as the modern twaddle. in Fr. — — — men. to prattle. small pack-saddle. barz. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. quarrel . bds. Etym. i. Festus in Diet. gibberish. which was of talking. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. to stammer. Bare. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. — — Hence. tree. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. bdsiis. the flap of a hat. bardes. Barde. barbel. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. berj G. bare baskojis. Barbel.

— de Berri.^Voc^. trouble. barge. Provj bar (ace. adj.. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barii. barajar. AS. bamagh. quant a perdu sa barja. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. — battle. baron. beornt. to cheat. bark . to strive. a heap. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. corn-shed. tumult. disorder. baarn. dispute . hay-loft. bere. Manx bayrn. i.Barum vel feminam. ON. beorcan. and may therefore be an Eastern word. AS. contest. hladi. a barn. astringent. Du. baaring. herbs. bosom. * Barnacles. prominent part of a thing. the A — Ihre. —Bark. and is probably a true bartig. is simply the Bret. edge. name being given to spectacles. Prov. strife. at barka. dispute. barja. baron)^ Fr. the slimy substance brewing of beer. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. Vocab. bcerme. So ON. barahunda. limpet. limpets . berma. baerm. in the Brim. then the bows pectus navis. mhg. houbartij fsnile. Swab. 2. and llysiaw. Spectacles. Bemiques. a beak. Leg. bargain.' bardagi. spectacles. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Isidore in Rayn. Port. So also ON. squabble. kani. bread-corn. barn. barretor. barlys {bara. Romance barsie. a boat. quarrel Port. ON. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. bern. baralha. ON. See formed Yeast. Dan. Bailey. and ern. Gl. OFr. Uzen. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. From Fr. as well as Scandinavian tongues. strife. Lith. W. berm. . altercation. beer. bcern. OSw. dispute . the which is equivalent of the lys in w. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. a lantern. also to exchange. As Goth. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. w. skuta. bard). Antiq. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. border. also a boat . to scold. the or prow of a ship. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . and hence probably (by a metaphor. — Barnacle. barms. barizeins indicates a noun baris. bern. Barge. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. to skin over barkandi. barafunda. to shufSe. the G. barn. Alam. a cap . to rout. baarm. wine. barlich. Bark. — Zeuss.. barki. Kil. ON. berm hoys. charlock. as baces-ern. giving rise to It. a lap. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. barone. strife. barmr. Rayn. Sp. borkr. . meta foeni. Sp. as in the case of Lat. fray. confusion. husband. Bret. commonly explained from bere. to wrangle. from an imita- Barley. See Barm. Gael. It. struggle. hemlock.) lihtes-ern. v. baragouin. chaffer. . entangle. but the woman for the man. and the word. the fore or after end of a boat . hlaSa. plants). as. barlys. barafustar. Baron. skutr. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. dispute. to chop. berm. Sw. dregs of oil. a load. louzou. varen. Du. Camus. baratta. bosom . limpets. barnacles. barley. baaren. the rack or manger. as. It. Port. berem. The older form in e. barnis. The origin may be throat. Barbour in Jam. On the other hand. . or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. a stack. Tarn baronem quam feminam. dispute barattare. was barlic. lap. Barn. baralhar. OFr. Leg. Acervus. quarrel. ber (ace. E. Dan. To Bark. barley. Garlick. dial. contest. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. (Ihre. one who stirs up strife. put to confusion. barn. Sp. tion of the sound. bread. baniffa. The Goth. to all the barca. then honoured man. baimeach. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. a receptacle for barley or corn. am. Cornub. brenig. and 1. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. prasepe . Ibid. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. 2. bernac. baratta. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. a baking place or oven. a. a place. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. a heap . in Nat. ThS man was not created for the woman. Ripuar. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barley. aheap. Originally man.

A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. fallow. E. mound. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. baraignej Picard. hut. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. a man. barrique. bredhan. vir. barre. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. a. AS. See Barter. brushwood. nobles. a hut or booth. habeant. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. shed. staves. to * Barragan. (Schmeller). perhaps through Prov. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Gael. boar. Joshua vii. barBombicinus. Barricade. by early examples. facture. tomb. calico. barile. todtenbahre. Barratry.. Bret. vair. The Sp. Antiq. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Nominale of the from braeckland. bara. baragan. AS. from beran. a bar. whence Barrow. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. It should be observed that. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. 1. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. which would barragdn. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. gwr. An ing. from a tree to which a man is hanged. It was not until the time of James I. to carry. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. bark&n. fear.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. uncultivated. bouracan. baronetti. Baron andfemme. in the first instance. ibid. the two names. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. a kind of coarse camlet. especially those killed in battle. MHG. booth. — A . sterilis. vel pretiosos burellos. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. borov'. Bohem. bahre. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. ^Vocab. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. G. beorgan. soldiers' barracks are mentioned.root signifying confused noise. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. to shelter. gravis et authenticus vir. OE.— Gibbon. braeck. Formed from Fr. squabble. — — 15th Cent.. whenever Barrow-hog. a. as. The feudal tenants next Fr.parchanttuech. implement for carryAS. bera. Gael. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. barraca. change of goods seems. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. Sp. or simply bahre. barrier. 26. berwen. Sp. also termed bannerets. baroncelli. qui have not much light on the pre. litter. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. from cavallo. barrack. berewe. G. the braw. in Nat. and not from Fr. cover. beorg. as cavalcade. Bamnculus a baronet. became bidre. a bier. w. bearg . baronculi. man and wife. StiU he shows conclusively. signifying. semen non accipiens landiEL. Russ. bier. baronuU. were sometimes confounded. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. On chet — We — — their resemblance.have been named from the haggling and gant. rolls of Parliament. D. Fr.' Op. dispute. composed of dry branches ofer.' that Barrier. and in several instances. Sp. then traffick4 Barrow. iver. It. a word is always used in the plural number. barchent. baracca. beorh. garment still used in Morocco. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. This word introduced into Fr.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Bargus or moreland. a horse. Barrel. Barren. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. an obstruction. — Kil. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. seem to be radically the same with Lat. OFr. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. barague. breinej Du. heap. S. Barrister. fortification. a barrow. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Goth. a castrated hog . barrila. over him. a hiU. bara. 2. See Bar. barril. cise formation of the word. Barrack. man. It. barrique. strife. alongside of barrow. Fr. branches. barri. a barrel. like bargain. It. sepulchre. ^Barrator. Bern. A.

Bast. ohg. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. ibid. thick. to cheat. . HaUiweU. It is mentioned as .' Papias. G. a king. Lap. to baste. It. fraud. basg. at basta og binda. Arthur and Merlini. barter. Gr. cheating. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. he. rope for — . to stitch . BassuS. There is not one that. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. leviter consuere. baraet (from Fr. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. /«r<fSp.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. as It. fhe outhouses and yards. Lend me your hands. submovet omne Lucan. to baste piece of cloth. 516. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. baraand especially teria. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. bast-maatte. dwelling. the — — to kill those that look upon it. w. Sp. It. . bast. To Bask. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. a basket masg. It. Du. aiKcig. hoops of a cask. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. peel. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son).). low. on a. ^Is de bast. Pl. bast. bds. — hanging. bassin. mean . low. . discourse Nay. baste. cog. basta. barley. Bass. Sylvester's Dubartas. n' is n' is bacino. according from Gael. would be. embastir. OFr. basso. ' He was begetin o bast. binding. baratar. PaaiKhms. to deceive. him. partieren. Sp. Barbara de pictis veni patch. — in Rich.' Gl. baratear. preparatory stitching. which sets up its hood when angry. beretun. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. a ftiesh. Sicamb. mock not. Bass. bdtir. which covers the grain Ger. Al is dai. the a wide open vessel. Kil. foist in bargaining. unrighteous gain. descended of an honorable lineage. AS. husk bast van koren. to bargain. as the diadem of the basilisk. exchange. Apparently of Celtic origin. See Bath. oe. Barton. back. Sp. Dan. fornication. Fr. bran. Du. beortun. bast. chasa. HoUinshed. inclosure. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. to long — a British word by Martial. then cheating. Bassus. basta. But according And Dan. the manorhousfe itself. To stitch. bestan. come near. lattice-work. besst-u-b£nd&t. lust. A fabulous serpent. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Newman. and Bret. bareter. to bind. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . pressed down. over-reaching. Basket. Swed. beguile. low part of the Hickes in Rich. ing for profit. Sw. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. found in Turkish . — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. lift me above Parnassus. and tun. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. The like property hath the iasilisk. low note. basgod. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). bestcn. MS. berewic. to cheat. Fr. a halter. basso. a tying. bastear. See Brattice. crassus. It. baxoj w. to Diez. It. bast-reb. fornication. a bastard. tierer. shallow. MHG. mavult dicere Roma suam. a ipgli So Turk. of the same sense. To Baste. baste. chasa ogli a bastard. to truck. ' Bosworth. but born in baste. also the demesne lands of a manor. also to Cotgr. from /3aR. F. i. imbastire. flat. Basilisk. curtus. court-yard. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Halliwell. to bind hand and foot. corn-farm. humilis. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. a bass rope. Fr. more noble in blood than notable in learning. MHG. netting. bark. Bartizan. fits de bas. Fris. truck. Bastard. said Base.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. exchange. Isidore. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. HaU in HaUiwell. barter. pdrdt. scale in music. bas. baos. imbastire. a court-yard. commonly A joined with the word binda. bass-matting. but he dreth presently. besst. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. God it wot. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. stitch. a deceiver. or running away with the ship. to bind. The original meaning.D. piiiguis. from bere. Dan. or wic. It. OFr. Sw. — Bassoon. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. the thin skin Dan. baste. plaiting of splinters basged.looketh upon his eyes.

Florio. comp. to give him a sound bastingi 3.-^ Chaucer. a with a stick. erect. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on.fortress or castle furnished with towers. Derived by Diez from iasi. Fr. a sconce. stryka. 11864. the original has corneille.'CaB. raise. quelqu'un son roulet. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. is explained by Cot. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. Sp. to drub. It. Sp. Sw. Bastinado.baste or knock soundly. to whip. translation to a bat. passage Imbasto. to lay the Sp. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. to Due. To beat or bang soundly. to devise or begin. to rub gently. blakra. a packsaddle. vespertilio.— . to teach one before. bastir. or implement for 4 * A . to belabour. vespertilio. 164). basta. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. the bat . also to cudgel. frame. bak. contrive.stitching in general. To donjon. iinbastire. ari instruineht for beating. beating. 2. baston. R. liiake. Sw. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. put it together. set up. to set on foot a war Bastion. natt-blakka. Cot. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. bladier. dial. boste. bastear. bastimento. ment. to quilt or stitch wool into it. blakta. from Fr. batta lucifuga. a. blatta. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. Dieiif. to flap. explains Sp. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bastida. . R. night-bat. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. contriving. to rub. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. bdion. like the owl and the bat. dial. Prov. pre. nade. To baste one's hide . pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. e. whence ledrblaka. stryk. p. Sw. a things prepared for future use. Pm. worth (Nat. beysta. packsaddle. blows. the clapper of a bell. guerra bastir. Supp. bat. a pad or packsaddle. victuals. — — Fl. blacta. baston. military term of a bat-horse). * Bat. disposer. For the origin of baston see Baste. Fr. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. staff. . which to rest the load. as weU as besteau. set up. It. badger. 2. — Bakke. to beat. to cudgel. iastir. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. bastonFr. That yche blak y dar wel telle. a bastion. 2. stitching of a quilt or mattrass.Lat. E. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . to stroke. the winged . Perhaps baska. the E. For the loss of the / in back.— Bailey. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. a pad. business (Altieri). bast. basto. Pr. bastir. back. It. has bastine. Fr. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. BAT neither. Rayn. vledermus. a blockhouse. but this is hardly satisfactory. blatta. and ditches bastion. Dan. to build. blakka. Cot. to pack a saddle i. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. bastilde. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. bakie-bird .. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . niammal. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. settiilg up. I. basa. bastia. Mid. Antiq. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. bastine. 'iJipistreUo. ON. devise. Sc. Sw. bastione. Fr. a barSp.stick. provisions. All from bastir. a bird which. aftonbakke. cudgelling. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. bastille. to thrash . which in the E. and Cot. in the Romance languages. also the ricado. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. frotter. blaka. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. to build. bastonnir. bastonada. in the use of the E. flyinge best. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. and Arabs. to spread bread and butter. club. to beat. compared with blakka. Dan. the night-jar or goat-sticker. — — — . and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. a blow cloth for dinner. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. a stick.

Jurgor. sich bakern. a beating. allay . gebdck. bataille. a washing beetle. water whether warm or cold. remit. quhar he suld assaill. a battalion. on. batacazo. batir. to warm. baz. fashes basking in the sun squadron. dispute. baeddu. from battre. batna. . bastille. a band of armed men arranged basa. Battery. battere. to dial. Batten. — To . To Batten. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. perhaps first used adjectivally. a main battle. as E. Mgy. to warm oneself at the fire. or make debate. from on. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. cudgel. Bat. busk. to become convalescent. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Fr. bludgeon. a blow. to refresh oneself in language. betten. gabatnan. Batyn. e. w. batador.— . bat-en. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . to beath wood Battledoor. abate. abattre. dial. of bread is so much baked zX one time. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. squadron. as wood-en. to beat. to beat. and milk beaten up together. A Bath. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON.' Palsgr. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Sp. also. term in falconry . Flem. debat. It. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. dial.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. beat down. Fr. a stirrer-up of strife. Goth. Fr. baquetazo. is a simple adoption of Fr. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to bathe oneself. better. made of bats. G. to beat se battre. Eggs. E. to foment with hot applica. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Bailey. To Bate. to toast bread. bdda vidjor. a Baiffi. trahtr to It. signifying to give repeated blows. strife. to thrive. or break down. to betake oneself. oneself at the A into faggots. . certain bend. to beat. and with staffslyng. in the case of a wall. I bathe in water viz. Battlement. in the sun. It. to foment. badask. Holz bdhen. Florio. baden. bat. the heat of the It. badda. by projections or in any licoure. a great seems related to baden as Fr. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. to fire or in the sun. Strife. Hence pro. PLD. — — — ' — . Jeddris and covering. Baka sik vid elld. dial. to for fighting. makebate. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . bdhen. tagUone. The bat with which a brot bdhen. howis. Pr. hot. battle was used beath wood. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. altercation. Slav. made of — A made by one Batcii. was formed bastilU. In some parts of England it is striking. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. I baske. and about an inch thick. to foment. Sw. Fr. bake. flour. Chaucer. ON. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. basa. Gael. and as a verb. to cudgel. also a sun badfish. beat. a staff. to fell. bada. badda. quell. more. to flutter with the wings. From bat in the sense of rod . as signifying warm baths.Hence in the augmentative form It. to heat . Battle. fortress or castle. Hal. an arrangement for giving blows. A batch as wood. Ayenst the sunne. pak. adapted for defence. Battalion. G. G. Bret. dial.— To Bask. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Batter. or a dry stick. beat. battre. Fr. heat. bdda. battere. See Better. buask made like a fortress. — Cot. Pr. a from ON. bet. Fr. Battery. then to warm by the application of hot water. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. to be profited. a blow with a light instrument.Bathe. solen baddar. Pm. to warm oneself. Barbour in Jam. on the fire. In OE. a stick. as E. to feed. batterie. . battre las ailes. to become fat. whence the sun burns . a battle. Pm. to fight. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. battions. I. Sp. lessen. Plkkis. the root of e. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to heat. for biia sik. battre. Bate. baka. gebdcke. tradire. bdt. Sw. to get better. Du. to bathe. is in falling. batte sig. to beak. wet linen in washing. 2. From OFr. To thrive. solbase. battaglia.

R. to 53 manure the To baw. bauU. filth. dente. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. miauler. Lat. b \% bouala. fooleries or fond To Bawl. to trifle away ment. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. bouaila. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. to bark . the white of his leg or foot. to the same origin. spotted. represented by the syllable miau. Fl. c. Cot. baffe. Irel. pie- . cluster. OFr. bauch. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. a gavel. baula. zano. baubare. — Pm. i. a horse marked with a procession. E. horse. babsmall toy to play withal. Fr. to me-wl. bal. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. bow-wow. the Swiss baben. Swiss Rom. baban. vacillo. to vociferate. fagot. also the canopy carried part of his body. the face. rotten. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. Baldrick. OFr. Bawson. dirt. The word may perhaps be sticks. tille. sorry. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. as Fr. or toys. nastiness. a horse with white legs. and authorities in note. form with an initial seen in Fr. from Fr. Beaus^ent.. instead oi s. Cot. Hal. to make the noise Baudrick. disgusting.' ' Pegma. fe bau. Gael. P. a lump or cluster babhaid. s. to bark. bausan. balderich. Zalli. P. child. babbole. trifle. scarf. to play the babby. or the animal so marked. was simply a field gold.. Pr. A name of the badger. bal. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). Piedm. or sheaf of Bridel. dung. is used for a sented by bau. baue. P. baudrdj OHG. in OE. BAWSON Swiss. sword-belt. lewd . whence pouacre. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. or Cot. E. from Baldacca. Prov. whence the E. Filthy. on the face of animals. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Cloth of gold. dirty. E. trifles. dial. brush faggot. faisceau. baudrat. baugant. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Pm. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars.guage). ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. an — — — A — g — — — . Bavin. an embattled wall. —R. speckled. a tassel or hanging bunch . a tassel. bow (as in our nursery Diez. also more Bawdekin. It. Fr. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. Cotgr. obstrepere. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Ball. tab. is Bagdad stuff. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. exactly corresponds Fr. bad. guigaw.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. a lump.— P. Pr. An analogous noisily. ground. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. a spot. toys. whimwham. balGael. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. ON. expressive of disgust. filth. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. baw. mew. and Sp. It. It. 8.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Ball-seirc. having a white streak down Bagdad. divided between black and white. bablyn or waveryn. a dog). From ! an interjection of disgust. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. Descript. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Bagdad. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. a white mark Bawdy.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. collar. and to-tore also. to void the bowels. bobbin or cluster of thread. ballach. javelle. Fr. E. Jam. spot. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Baw — . s. The It. a plot of Chaucer. — — ' Lydgate. 2. babiole.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. From Bret. to cry. to low or bellow as corn. ish baubles. dacchino. a zan. ! Bauble. pegma. librillo. It is all bawdy. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. excrement. fields. a belt. bobine. an object. ball. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. to talk Lacombe. In like manner Grisons filthy. Sc. because made of cloth of white. Batylment of a wall. W. propugnaculum. balbob. bau. Formed from baw.

beothach. window-sill. baye. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. badarse. See Bald. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. Gael. bagaid. It. when. the cod of peas. bdcr. — A At Bay.' — — 54 bald. Fr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. hddhe-dhonn. badarc. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. baga. and the To bark as a dog. a'uno. a mark. alive. living thing . barn of two bays. bijel. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. expresr sion tenere a bada. —F. baher. badius. From the former verb is the It. siege of Bayonne in 1665. grapes or nuts. Feb. buidhe- The ruadh. like a pie. in order to keep the enemy in check.' Bailey. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Bay. . to iiitent nected PoL white. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. to gape. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. a cluster of bacon. arose two forms of the verb. beonj Gael. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. trahir. bilyejiti. bate. life. ist. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Sp. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. Drayton in R. bacca. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. . especially beans. Gr. bioth. bahia. open the mouth. or at bay. from an imitation of the sound. Fr. Catalan hadia. baie. Swiss beie. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. bayo. Mod. BauSfi)/. Cot. the laurel-bay. baca. a dagger. Holland's Pliny in R. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. baier. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. Fr. Earth — By Nature made to till. by the term rendre les abpis. baya. A stag is said to stand at bay. A hollow in the 'line of coast. to keep at a bay. watching intently. baionette. or window ' (in Fortification). From Cat. stare. —Bay-windo'W. Serv. To Bay. The — Fr. Vielp. house . to open as a blossom. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. overture. laurel of the ancients. &c. life. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. baiare. bilyega. Arts. ing-floor. aux dehniers abois. baca. which however. as if to signify a window of curved outline. living Ir. to keep one waiting. to split. waiting . put to his last shifts. corrupted into Bow-window. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. . Sp. bialo. * To Be. badia to Sp. Bay. or recess in an apartment in modern times. Swab. See Bawl.c. bahia. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. a berry. bai. and keeps them in check for a while. at his last gasp. stood watching him stoop. AS. buidhe. to amuse stare a bada. Bay-tree. a beast. &c. Prov. BE Probably conRuss. to mark. to stand watching one. to open. bayen-stein. — Schmid. Lat. Such Antaeus seemed to me. It. 1. —Diez. bay. 1859. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Q. It. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. yellow .. It. so called from its bearing bays. the step is the same as from It. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Fr.—Journal Soc./^ bau. that from ba. the cod or husk of beans or the like. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. Lat. to on anything. as gazing. baja. Piedm. batibari. berry. to betray. OSp. dividere. berries. . Sp. baccello. to be Bohem. is perhaps not directly from Lat. white. Abide. It. Fr. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. BAY marked with bjly. bajo.. a hole. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. It has been shown under Abie. from badar. abbabayer. The word bay. Fr. desiring. gate. 25. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. F. baer. S. See At Bay. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. the world Gr. bay. or to have been first used at the Cot. and zndly. dehiscere . as they do not obstiruct the light or air. tradire to Fr.— Stalder. he turns and faces his pursuers. beo. weary of running. husk. bde. w. or berries. Gael. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. large window in a handsome . window . &. |8i'os. Bayonet. Q. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill.

Miss Gurney in Philolog. .' adheres to the root. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. which is.from AS. a single bean. to produce young. to beckon. a sign. . fromthe danger.. bakkje. The immediate shore of the Menage. bokan. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. fero. to nod .to have a French origin. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. l^ax. bM. Slavon. nokkima. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bek. Thus the final en. ohg. Goth. Beckon. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. bank. would say. as. a tree. bakke. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. like most nautical terms. beans. It. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. It is BEAR SI court. — Bellenden in Jam. bee. a curtsey. a prayer. bdkna. The wild beast. Catalan becar. baun. faba. to wait-. Fr. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. the part overflowed by the tide.' Suetonius in Diez. ffci. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. Moreover the name. «va\ioQ. Hackluyt in R. AS. a single bean.fui. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Beak. beugler. Bret. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. 54. or breathing. beck. a presage. bydel. ffaen. bidan. and Lat. to nod the head. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Gael. Sw. Farrar. — to bow or nod . atUndre. ON. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. g. E. Beacon. bidello. into a snjall river. ON. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. to carry. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. Netherlands or North Germany. Beadle. — : Beam. Gael. was introduced from England sea. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Lat. . G. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which.fuis5e. -phxr. Pardoner's Tale. G. a hill. fd or faVf beans. vii. pierced for hanging on a string. faba is Kvavoq. A two-year old nephew of mine p. bairan. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. OSax. to bellow. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. See To Bid. Bear. Goth. pig. * Beagle. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. It forms a. Q wait upon him. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. gebed. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. or however. Be. The nutu significare. as well as f& or fav. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. becco. Chapters on Lang. not applied to the yelping of dogs. — bedeau. —F. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. signifying a point. a nod OHG. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Bret. post. bagms. on. Fr. into France. rising ground. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Boom.ad. A Esthon. prodigy bauhnjan. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. tale of prayers or doxologies. stock. or any action done with a pointed thing. badmr. a beak. to wait. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. bead. AS. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. baum. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. beacen. W.fer-re j Gr. It. W. Gael. beacnian. beic. Du. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. as. according to of Sanscr. bohne. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. signifying individuality. bohnej ON. boom. bean.' Hall's Chron. however. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. backe. or beic. an attendant. Beck. bearti. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. bedm. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bauhan. a tree. fora-bauhan. support. Bean. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. He says. vol. bar. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. salve his hurts. To Bear. N. be. beic. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Gr. bob. The origin seems preserved in E. Beach. Trans.

riviire. G. con. den. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to those goods which endure for ever. a bank. tidy. Beck. E. g. beo. to the good hapHalbard. edge. brook. Diez. G. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to hem. The moveable part of a helmet.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. Beck. beauts. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. Boeth. fallinn.we call the arrangement becoming. tidig. dize or dtzen. As rivus.' every way suited to a prince. barf. because made of the fur of the beaver. opportune. bave. It. Sp. to fall in with our bavard. Lat. bavec. Fr. bearing. The OFr. . fit. or river. Chaucer. to sleep on. — . ON. or special purpose. To load with ornament. behkr. dress with unbecoming richness . beatanj It. That thou mayest attain Goth. bard. the ece thurhwuniath. bebrus. Lat. Lat.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. It. E. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. R. to happen. See becymth anfeald yvel. bobr. byrcti. from the same in the sense of bear2. Beaver. Bo. dushmak. to arrive at. to bear children. border. G. Beauty. bekkr. Lat.' ' He became very angry. i. pens unmixed evU. bava. I do thee pray. Secondarily applied to a hat. Cal. befit. Thcem. from baver. suitable. See Bat.S6 fero.getiman. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. to carry. suitable. limplice. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Bedizen. and Fr. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. G.— Kiittner. to get. and on. biivre. to happen. get J ' He got very angry. the latter are derived It. iida. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. e. produce. bequem. living. ON.fit. pretty. AS. agreeable. if sound of a sharp blow. brook . Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. a brook. nothing to thy name make. Fr. bring forth. obtain. but now a river only. comely. a bank. Goth. chin. ON. Now the Beast. byw.to clothe to slobber. a. to shore. it is probable that here also the to become. bekommen. to dabble . befall. gebank. W. or a feeling to be gratified. receive. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to the brook itself. Fr. e. ziemen. as. Slav. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. whence baveux. Fr. See Beacon. Russ.of being very angry. timan. to happen. becuman. gefallen. and also in that of birth. baviire. place to lie down. bib or slobbering cloth. bobrowai. bur. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. Bosworth. to attain to the lot of any one. brada. ting. He becom on sceathan. from beau. Do no To It fallith favour. agreeable. becuman. to come to or upon. decent. seemly. G. covered the face. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. which. i. birth. nod or sign. name applied originally to the bank then proper . blast. an notion of being convenient. duty. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. 1. to please. pleasing. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. bart. barba. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Prick of Conscience. — A — A — . limpian. AS. baurthei. Perhaps from Pol. slobber. The fitting or suitable. to fall mode of being. talkative. to be a part of his to. o. Fr. Beat. decorous. as the babble of the child. bett. bel. babrad. a lip. formerly a happen. boroda. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bach. biber. connected with ripa. handsome. gabaurths. proper . On the same principle. battere. The quadruped. judgment. riviera. to wade through the water like a beaver. bello. ON. happening as it ought. and to acquire. bave i. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. Lith. to G. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Beckon. In like manner condition. proper. convenient. limpan. baba. 2. our taste. Prov. bellus. to be incumbent upon him. R. fitanimal. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. to appertain. to live. venient. Dan. bestiaj Gael. bcek. E. taste. to be fulfilled. Thus OY. now confined To Become. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. rying. bedr. to fall. to assume a certain form or Turk. fitly . to happen. when up. the beard.' are equivalent expressions. to happen. while from Shep. OSw. badi.AS. gelimplic. perhaps a living thing. See Bank. fiber. godum with ON.

vaar. case. a agulatum in the original Latin. . whose face is clotty.. cozen. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. bette or blettej Lat. . Pl. beach-each. a cup or implement for AS. beer. Fr. cousin. ' MordiThe Lat. and lebermer in G. Bav. from jtst-.ing of the word is curdled.D.— B. imperative pi. 1. Fin. whence familiar. i. beta. Bethlehem. . the ox. to curdle or lopper. kiissen-biere. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Dan. PI. beost. taglio. Fr. Fr. to beat bossel. the biter. to and ale. an ox. knock. Let. betel.' So Gr. briesch-milch. GaeL bior. The same metaphor is seen in Fr.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. bossen. a bed-tick. beutel. to change . a pillow case. bedawi. the meat of spinach. 1 to drink. E. drink. prisons Venet. an inhabitant of the desert. biene. Pett. ^. poculum. I dysyn a dystaffe. Esthon. Arab. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. as the milk of a that purpose in London. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. Beet. 'La Gl. door. to become Beech. AS. to rough- cast. used for boull. paralyticus. to poordma. a wasp. Bed-ridden. extant in Bohem. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Grimm. an Beetle. beach. beest. also the bite or sting of a bees. from blood. blow or thrust. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Fr. a wasp. a horse-fly . doubtless. a cover. G. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. a wandering Prov. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. D. I A pillow-beer. Cot. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. a Properly a cover that biiren. The meanpainting. cogionare. 57 — Palsgr. .ON. by the analogy of bedaivb. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. Ant. byst. the loppered sea.— JI14. a malsense of drink. G. bitela. from leberen. boytle. . as. drink.'— GL ^Ifr. sang vermeilh betatz. a drink potus. red curdled Arab . Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne.^ drink. as in It. turn (a garment). a pad or cushion). from the hos. madhouse. bably named from the destructive quali| T. waarin. P1. But possibly bedizen 2. cited by Diez. cow has calved. pettiriso. fagus. qui de lecto surgere non potest . crespir. a mallet. trees in a forest . bovis. which also 2._t from the root pi. bbtel. boeuf. cugino. E. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. Lat. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. Bernese. may be shpped on and off. bitel. buka. buche. water. Horn. For that was law of lend. The first milk after a dizen. thick. in Nat. buk. from Lat. . 1. erroneously modified in form. ProBeer. ris. pude-vaar. It. biest-milch. piwo. bukva. to colour with lime-wash. bedde-redirj ohg. biiren. to coagulate. on. Beetle. bytl.' the last word corresponds to cofly . thick. mars betada. /SXirov. It.D.cz//aj. Bee. bletumj Gr. to drink. In a passage of an Old Fr.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. AS. KXlvoTTiT^e. Fr. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. ir'm. Gr. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. &c. duplicated form of the root. Beef. to fall. a bee. Bedouia. woman that is newly delivered. a clapper. comb. from risan. Slav. Fr. G. cushion-cover . and in driving piles. bos. Rom. Gael. garden-herb. tree. beetle also signified the impiti. also bienst. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. de Fierabras in Diez. I put the flax upon it to spin. may be from K. to flatten In OE. stakes. clog for a dog b'oteln. Confined to bed. a stinging bieUe. calleBedlam. kivih. speach. prigione. translation beOj. * Beestings. bet. Lat. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Originally.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. batAfter mete in sale. to knock. wedges. The honey-producing insect. AS. g. The beer al for te shenche bate. turn. by-flugaj G. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. 1156. pital of St Mary. of beatmg. sela que environna la terra. Cot. bibere is a re. to turn. curded or beesty.(paddi. fall.). to twist poorma. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. to parget or rough-cast .possible. beyki. bove. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a paviour's beetle batail. It. badigeonner. bedskiissen-bUren. in Schmeller. briest. desert. a pillow-case.

woe-begone. in D. V. 'Aboutin undern monly. one after that other. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. — yivsaiQ. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. yivtrri. Gr. image is cleft out of the trunk. affected. yivwajcw. at geta talad. or Of a pure poor man. V. Fr. to arise. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. as alighting is a momentary operation. It will . from whete G. onginnan. vir mendi. iv. ken. To Beg. giving in Gr. a chisel. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. ytyvwfT'Kw. on further examination. air a . yivofiai. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. to go a begging. a bag. the fundamental notion of attaining to. whence the E. to bear young. to be acquire. P. Si'Xa/coc.D. beriolare. anfangen. origin. beitel. a wedge for cleaving wood. viii. in Lat. Beghardus. When Q. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. chisel. incipere. P. gen. 142. To produce children is to acquire. He did alight. a wallet. So from Gael. P. ornamented phoc. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. su with gold. From w. but probably erroneously. V. It. and Lat. a beggar-boy. on the bag. steinbosil. Vocab. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. ip AS. word. begging. Bruce. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. a scrip euXaiciJoi. chap. is formed pocair. — Stillingfleet. Lollards. to be able. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. Florio. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. ' ' . Deutsch. to get children . Of brede full ycrammed. Barbour. to take. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. ken. In Luc vi. to cleve. baigeir. &c. Du. pose-pilte. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. 2. Skinner's derivation from bag. OHG. fangen and Lat. of Gr. Ancren Riwle. &c. Creed. hags. also called Bigots. Du. The tother seand the dint cum. referred gan this Erie alight. yiyvo/uat.' for ye shall lament and weep. AS. 58 BEG BEGONE G. aginnan. P. oppressed with woe. be^nnan. y/yvo/iat. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. a stone-cutter's chisel. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Political Songs. beis- plement driven by blows. tale. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Du. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. seizing. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. Goth. ykvog. a bag or poke. Into the are D. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. P. although it ' the future. lapidicinus. bag {baigean. P. 25. but in the same language from poc. genus. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. a beggar . a scrip. ysgrepanu. appears improbable at first. can. to be born. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. 1430.' about undern he got down. signifying to conceive.' A. to begaan. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii.n. 1867. can.quently used in OE.bag full of the G. ' Begone. to beg. gan. beutel. To Begin. a — wedge. 40. kind. literally. is com. P. in E. not began to alight. 168. Lith. sel. Mod. to reduce him to beggary. P.3. Nov. 'Dz. beginning. beitel. to know. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Schm. a bag . capere. Cold-begone. taking up. two betels —a grete oke. above quoted to get beaten ON. covered with gold D. cans. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. krapszas.— . and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. begger. gigno. it is both to acquire and to beget. touched with emotion — . to With hire belies & here bagges get children. P. a beggar. duginnan. to begin. bertola. ysgrepan. a little bag).' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. beissel. ' . on the tramp. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. 'ex quo. P. Mundart.pose. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . & go a begging.

hovast. gecall. and their senses intermingle. gehouden. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. healdan. It. G. at the tail of.). behces. hevja. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . keeping. injunccommand. behold. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. or the hence advantage. Sw. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to gehouden. ward. to be fit. according as the * To Behove. use. ifl fact. to raise. to feed. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. hafwa. laborare. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to carry corn into the barn .the figure of throwing at a mark. or necessary. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to command. to be obliged to one. To place are most naturally ex. invoke. zijn. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to carry. The It. from tragen. behat. seeing to. have the sense of calling or naming. behefe. AS. tion. to have.to vow. G. Sw. to take away. to call. to command. hatan. heave. garder. hove. Command. Plautus. behind. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. keeping. Sw. At the back of The re. promise. hces. to cast or throw. promise or a command. to carry. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. vow. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to keep. The seyn. the distance of anything. to lead. to be obliged to do a thing. K. the equivalent of E. But. to look. to meet. AS. portarsi. hevja. to vow. taking notice or care of (Gloss. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. And so from hania. heita. To be expedient. to keen or hold. gehalten seyn. to the equivalent of Du. is supported by many analogies. zu etwas gehalten haitan. Aan iemand bid one welcome. hofwa. ufhaban.— . obliged. behaviour. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. beperson addressed. hafjan. to be be named. G. hantyri. nittaa. when the verb will hoof. vow. OE. betragen. To Behold. bound. behatan. heeten.' Richardson. G. heeten willekem. to halten. hafwa. To Behave. —Hest. to fit. 17. to promise. — Behest. AS. to be named. gehaben.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. Robert in Warton. to carry. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . hafwa ram. what is so required. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. To look steadily upon. right. to turn one out . habban. to look upon it as true . to lift. G. is also found in the sense of looking. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. solicitum esse. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. is on the top of or opposite to. observe. AS. Goth. R. to hold. adjust. promise . gehat. to regard. name of the head is used to express what hbva. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to keep. fixed upon any object). commonly expressed.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to be well pleased out. the two verbs seem radically the same. servare. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. take heed of. to bring forwards.for throwing it. to call. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. ge' hatan. Thus in Finnish the heave. advantage. as in the case of E. what he wishes another to do . to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. to be suitable or becoming . a follower. furtherance. to R. habere. behoof. beholden to him. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to heave. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. or purpose. to bers of the body. to follow. to hit the mark. Paladino. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to tend. and (as Fr. premi curi alicujus rei. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. N. G. se porter) to fare well or ill. on. to lift. holding is originally derived from that of looking. hcefwa in seed. The Lat. us-hafjan. the name adapt. to hold. hafwa bort. Kiittn. guardare. hcef tig bort. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to name. to vow. behete. and the E. AS. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. tail. take yourself off. by the compound observare. exhort. to behave. han- — js Kil.

a tower. lov. loven. to protect. to fix a price upon one's wares. bealcan. Northamptonshire. reach. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to extol the worth of anything. glauben. under the forms belfredum. The word be- Belfry. reputation. erlauben. honoured. certain rate. Du.D. and E. Pl. bertefredum. bell. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws.Lat. to promise or engage. praising. peal. portion. promiser. measure. beffroit. leaf geleafa. to put a high price or value on. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . To Belay. . ON. to sound loudly . The principles which all mankind allcrw for . bulken. to believe. permission. to make it fast. a. precious. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. G. galaubjan. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. berfroi. to belay. range. or a sconce. cela est audessus de votre portde. See Gain. praise. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. behove. and bergan.D. tain a certain end. beffroi. Doubtless an imitation of the sound.. Bell. Fair sir and Fair lady. legsel. to praise. garnish. bolken. pro3. were civil terms of address. beau sire and bel dame. to believe. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. are innate . loven. Pl. if a narration. esteeming good and valid. laven. bervrit. Du. to cry out bell. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. bellow. on. to estimate them at a To believe. gelyfan.. Goth. to bolk. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. bercvrit. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to express approval. verloben. OHG. stand. bounds. bellan. to give leave Dan. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. appearing in Mid. to praise.D. we have Goth. leave . overspread. to permit. In Mid. an implement for making a loud noise. To Belch. or house. to boke. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . b'ola. then. . galaubs. consent. It. beleggen. Another application of the same word is in Pl. lyfan. lofa.. bealcettanj OE. to sanction an arrangement. P1. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. then. filu-galaubs. laubjan. met. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. locus securitatis Schilter. ornament. belief . and Du. distance to which a piece will carry. AS. to believe. loben. Fr. ON. in nautical language. with the consent of the heirs. and E. bialla. frid. resonare. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. a watch tower. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. is (Sternberg). fitness. Fr. OFr. to befit. ley/a. to a loud noise. to hit hafi. promising. is an easy progress. battefredum. satisfaction. — . a tower for defence . To praise is essentially Xo prise. — mankind. bylja. are other modifications of the same imitative root. Du. . bettifredo. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. a vessel made for dishonour. ungalaub kas. Sw. Then. border. to to make A Templorum campana boant. moderation.D. to roar. boare. Det er ofwer er hofwa. to lay be- around. esteemed . turris. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. properly belonging to the church tower. belja. Hence to simple approbation. to der swaren lave. to give leave. is used in the sense of approving. to praise. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. permitting or giving leave. if a promise. for purposes of low estimation . true.alyfan. orloven. and. to be required for a certain purpose. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to bellow. giving leave or permission. hesfa. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. a little shed. to lay the cable round the bits. aim. AS. From AS. laven. from mhG. to resound. —F. allow. To Believe. In the middle voice hofwas. beset. to promise. Du. fringe. or high estimation. — Diicange. mark ON. Q. on. to give leave.Lat.

yards of the vessel to bend cloth. to become one's property . BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. ^To Beray.' Palsgr. bimaissen. Gum benjamin. belly.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to bend a bow .' The term had been previously planation. or simply djawt. binsen. balg. a leather bag. ON. Fr. To Belong'. skin. a benefit. leather sack.polch. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. ON. to concern. Belt.' — Hie fimus. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. has assumed a plural form. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). From OFr. To Benum.— Belly. a accusative. bendan. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. G. pino3. poX^ri. est matris in lucem editus. a spring. pod. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. the womb. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. Lat. Dozy. Bench. to concern. ball. Gael. langen. belgr. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. pouch. to reach. Benign.pinuz. J'emboue. benedictio {bene^ and dico. ray. fyle To dirty. — Ducange. benejicium. one who does good. G. attinere. cod or husk of pulse. Sw. beneison. attingere. . means seeds of plants. To Bend. to ring. See I . Du. benignus (opposed to malignus). pervenire. bless. a blessing. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Fr. rise against external force . by itself. welt of a shoe gwald. gelangen. Bav. to stretch it on a frame. from which is also bulbus. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. to hallow. Javanese perfume. I say). bellows. becwathan. loubdn djawt. a good deed. bolch. — root consisting of concentric skins. bellows. kind. benjoim. an inflated Lat. Quoth. Benediction. the skin of those animals that factor. bimpsen. a blow. G. to exert force. OUG. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. incense of Java. Lat. . . to attain to. bendaj as. balteus . . — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. as concerning that. Benedico. to. because bcelg. Eenison. — ray. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. fens et hie liraus. bander un arc. bienfait. or sometimes louban. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. taken absolutely. OFr. Beneath.. Lat. . bag. blister balgan-snamha. bilbila. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Bent. a bellows. Benignant. benedicere. to bless. Lat. was in Mid. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. The ing-skin. border. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. generous. to attain belangen. disposed to oblige. To Bequeath. as. In E. ' . applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. benehusk. se bander. hence with ashes. See Nether. Fr. Lat. Bret. I araye. to hold to one. on. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. See Bank. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. . gwaldas. a water-bubble builge. rushes. balg.videtur. G. to make bilbil. bellows. attinere. bandoir. ' I beraye. Gael. bolg. binssen. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. bene/actum. to belong. bcelg. bags or bellows. is a kindred form. welt of a shoe. I marre a thyng. needs no ex.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. belt. is The word balg. benir. volva. hem. skin. to come to the crown belangen. — See Numb. Was das belanget. a bellows . to use words of good omen. or fyle with myre. benefacere. a kindness.Fr. See Bind. Benzoin. to touch." — — . . vulgarly the belly. belch. well. to arrive at. vulva. w. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. Kil. belly. from another modification of the word for bubble. To belong is thus to reach up to. Benefice. to do good to one . wallet Benefit. a round or bubble-shaped root. dirt. benaigon. are stripped off whole blase-balg. I soyle it or araye it. the word. to touch one. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . from Arab. to say. benjoin. bolg. belliJ Lat. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Benefactor. bilbil-goda. bell. Ptg. pertinere. Lat. or a It is times the to signify services. a speaking well of one. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. pertinere. from benedictio. from cwcsthan. blast-bcelg. wallet. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. a border.

improve. It is the restore fyr betan. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. So roto rattle down. Sw. bdt. lay out. dial. the guardian . the side bhakshya. repair. as Du. bestow. preferably. or to bestead one. to strip. to give a place to. Du. place. rubbish. to the place boarded off in a. berwe. boteith Goth. buttafuoco.—^fake. peto. — . The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. seems twigs or rods. To Bet. To Bestow. fearful. roju. The dry. R. compared with bargham. as. * To Bete. to exercise on a definite object. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. G. in the sense ctf beria. The proper meaning of the bale. ship for a make amend. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . position. a fire. better. Beit. as. a horse collar. ropahtaa. advantage. stow. same word with the provincial barth. but it is specially applied mister. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Bestead. broom twigs. small eatable fruit. to kindle the fire. . berwham. baete. Ihre. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. boeten. to be-place. Du. — bota. Best. stealth from steal. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. sheltered from the wind. AS. ^•n. might have been .— Hal. the origin of which is to be found in ON. and Du. a place . and also to entreat. from It. Berry. to cast. boeten. Hfence backing. betan.X. fall with sound. bur-we. Fin. rods. as conversely a besom is called broom. is to perform a serviceable office to him. So too Yorkshire arf. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. Rob. — Chaucer. brem-bessen. When men of mekeness him baet. person to lie in. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. See Better. bota. basjaj Du. and on which the wager is laid. encouraging. bacca. to To Bereave. Goth. as bouter selle. vol. baete. Grose. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. jnore. to stand one in good stead. besein. profit. stede. dust rojahtaa. — Biglotton. I from lew. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. Du. To Beseech. to thrust.D. burrow. think more probable. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. — amendment. To seek something from a person. from grow. beorgan.fish the other hand. what does it boot. dirt. besmas. to make better. . reafian. to supply a want. Beere. dirt . earh. Fr. mud. besIn sen. From abet. AS. houseless.iooA. of ffeed a fire. basya. scopse spartis. hva mannan. as. to word is shelter. Kil. protect . bat.bhaksh. to entreat. arwe. Tha het he micel fyr betan. from AS. to amend. one who shelter. vi. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire.— VixHsm. Besom. to mend. bet. buttare. besnij Pl. as in growth. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. it seems hard to separate as. Esthon. bouter. roju. supporting on the one side Lat. solicit. OE. To bete his Jam. AS. barfham. eld up- On is to be placed A — . to seek. bdt. sets fire to. to thrust. besen. put. to light the fire . The origin is AS. E. barth may be for barf. lewth. reparation.ot-i. botesward. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. barthless. besje^ Sanscr. Du. To help. or. fyrbotare. Fr. an incendiary. as. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. R. Beet. to fire a funeral pile of . Devon. To Gl. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. Sw. making better. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. dung . to make it. an incendiary. or the space kept clear betan. E. Zeitschr. roe. boeten. make better .t. See Reave. because used for making besoms. noise. to defend. p. advantage. supply. ariierf to 113. but in practice. betan. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. bereafian. 3. amendment. to on the other Goth.• 62 Antiq. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. * Berth. p. G. what does it better a man. berry. BETE dirty'. On the other hand. ^akka. boutefeu. bal oppbota. reparation. beseech.irova. So Lat. earg. a berry. sweepings. to fall with roisto. to to deprive of. BEREAVE Wall. to put on the saddle. Tusser. put forth.

betriigen. to accuse. Better. G. beverage. is treason. a different form of twa. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. to happen. betst. Pl. order. are commonly to one's lot. as tlock. batizo. from. Goth. Ober D. E. It. dispose (whence schicksal. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. — of the authorities. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. amidst. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. E. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. To boot in coursing (i. what does It is forward him. springs from ON. to Hence It. Thus from dbahir. obeish. trahison. to discover. Percy Soc. x. proficere. /alia. In the water anon was seen His nose. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. by a final sh. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. gesiemen. Cot. Fris. has — In a like sense tanie>i. Lat. betweox. spritigs from schicken. by two. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. Friar's Prol. Ik tame mi dat nig. Hence last G. kein leben mehrin no signs . The as. betaemen. Goth. Tinia eigi at lata eit. to drink . in the middle of two. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. Fr. i. BETEfiM translated. Slant. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. to deliver tip. against. G. i. ziemen. or with again. riigen. to happen. -to appoint. a brood. to fall Some call it a bevel. To Bewray. On the same principle ON. as one would have it fall. tradire. fallinn. be fitting or suitable. some attention. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. e. beuvrage. regen. deem suitable. of quails. two. sloped off. in the middle of twain. as envahir. verbs in ir with a double ss. larks. Fl. become. afford. betwuxt. bevere. e. vrohjan. Fr. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. ON. as from obdir. . better. to Teem. Sahissais. obdissais. Dit tungomal rendered in E. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. find it good: Goth. G. betweohs. AS. to stir. awry. wrogia.— . for measuring angles. as trahissons. a bevy. Best. bouter davantaige. wreia. gezimet eines dinges. tweoh. fitting. from invadere. better. AS. Sw. find in one's heart. roja. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. abash j from polir. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. progress. Between. evidence of life. beva. from Fr. to fall. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. trahissais. From It. ON. Buveau. a drinking . Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. *Ah. said he. betest. not to have the heart to give up a thing. baet. bedriegen. Du. better. Dii. trakir. Bav. In like manner from twain is fothied between. his mouth. an instrument opening like a a thing. which may be compared as to form with amid. To Betray. pair of compasses. lot). are there Regt R. more. it bewrays itself. thy speech bewrayeth thee. R. dir. It. — that schickiich. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. deign. — See To Bete. fate. traitre. to deliver up in breach of trust. The inflections of Fr. taemen. A — drink. bet. twain. To Beteem. betwuh. amiddes. zemen. trahir. traditor. Now the stirring of an object. — Betwixt. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. G. to make forwards. Car son umbre si le trahit. of pheasants. betera. tradere. batista. R. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. bevde. make manifest. betray. bibere. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. whence beveraggio Fr. is used for the — R. suitable. Fr. Pl. Det sig sjelft. Chaucer.D. To vouchsafe. r'ojer dig. best. e. R. Bevy. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. In like manner folissais. advance. ruogia. polish. tima.D. Fr. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. to deceive. moveable and compass branches. taemen. Golding's Ovid in R. OE. from Lat. the being pushed to the frbnt. gatiman. his eyen sheen. bat. bet. and thence twegen. betweoh. suitable. roebucks. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. 88. E. treachery. I approve of beveau. zimet. Mich self a good glass of wine. a traitor. &c. to cheat.' Dialogue on Witches. tima. in the same way Lat. From the former of these are AS. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde.

beslei. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. —Dozy. to stir. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. /3i/3Xof a book originally. Fr. In comp. (according to the Fr. convicts thee of being drink. liwell.a. sbrisso. To Bibble. used in precisely stone . sliding. babbefore the eyes. bring under ' Thy accuse. I Wallon. It is especially applied in Sc. Pers. baverole. baviere. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Sp. from pdd-. In Arab. Fr. asure-bice (Early E. as an eel or a snake. Hal- — do something aslant. — Bi-. specially in a bottle. bias-wise. winding or crawling in and out. Bib. evident. babbi. poison. to be a paring. bending. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Hal. a bibber. Lat. aslope.D. Bias. Bisect. a sloping edge. Fr. bis. to creep or crawl sideling. bisdare. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — .' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. to make tongue Du. kwijlen. to tipple. and zahr. to glide or slip as upon. its clothes. sloped. b&zahr. To Bicker. presence. bible. he is Wtb. a Galilean. which good bibbeler. slippery. snout. to Jam. foul weather. pible. notice. bibo. Piedm. wrangle. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Probably. bickelen. rogt un bogt sik nig. of the sliced off. bescompte. Jamieson. 172. . per\'erted belief. sbrisciare. bickai. Piedm. Sardin. kwijl-bab. to purl. to it evident to sense. the basil Sc. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Diet. love first begins to life signs of him. bebble. in him. to move. biberen. makes ble. like guzzle. bisel. tailU en biseau. Fris. bickel. Prov. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. petit-lait. is explained to clatter. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. . though such a change of form would be very unusual. pddzahr.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. dial. biascio. beregen. sbriscio. bihais.s bellum for duellum. to stir. in two ways for duis. a bezle. . biascia. Fr. wrogen. 78). whence Du. It. Oh when shall I bizzle. inferiority. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. —Bickering'. misFr. by throwing of stones. has a singular stone-picker. biberon. Mantuan. biais. Gr. oblique. The It. metaphor). rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. to tipple. to well up with Cot. to the stirring of their conscience. biaiser. Bezoar. rogge. The train of thought is then. a stone-hewer . To Bib. one who drinks in excess. to cut in two. the word became bddizahr.{ioin dua. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri).D. sbiasciai. Bibelsworth in Nat. it were the mouth. expelling or preserving against. ber-laita (for bes-laita). sbias. Ant. to a fight with stones. sbiagio. Misc. or in and out.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. to stir up . sbiescio.or from obliquus. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. sbiscio. whey count . To Bezzle. Cat. roggle. Fr. Lat. or by any rapid motion. bestemps. Fr. reveal. biberer. wraggeln. it becomes (Jz-.two. to dispute. besanca. Cat. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Du. See Wriggle. Uprogen. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. slanting . the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. him. bezling or skueing. Bible. To drink hard. bickel-sieenken. kwijllap. to shake. sbieco. lips. stock still. OE. two- footed. — crooked. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. ice . a slabbering-bib. Dan. E. bark of which paper was first made. sbrissare. the papyrus. to stir.as in Biped. It. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. . or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. or kwijl-slab. crooked. discover. Sard. Bice. twice. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. in Fr. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to sip. sbiesso. a fragment bieco.to drink much. to slaver . to give signs of life. Yes. bavon. bes-azur. sik beregen. shows the P1. Ci^. bibaculus. Schiitze. An excellent Basil. dial. Biseau. Bezel. bickeler. Pl. to slaver or drivel.' bibble. . biax. aslope sbisciare. An inferior blue. To bicker in NE. To skirmish.

from belgia. bulk. R. balg. abidan. a swelling. bua. bit- bidja. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. and the Sw. to look for. The . inhabit Du. byggan. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. cultivate. to E. OSw. einen vor Gericht bieten. to swell. From Gr. biddan. to inflate E. bugan. to presimpler pare. to abide or wait on. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. may plausibly be derived from Goth. porrigere. bolgna). beodan. to dwell. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. ON. Wallace in Jam. byggia. a flexure.. — To Bid. bilge or bulge. form. bygga. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. bolga. becoming in Lat. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bidan. swoln.uddered len heart. to build G. bulge. ewes. bug. twice. bend. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. To Big. to inhabit. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to forbid . buga." buque with E. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. Analogous expressions are G. bauen to cultivate. bo. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. build. boa. pressing on one's notice. Hence Sc. besides the professedmonks and nuns. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. England for swollen. bigan. Bigamy. — prepare.' Pope in R. a suitor. bulky. bat . bidel. to bid one good day. beadle. P. G. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bidan. bulge. explaining the Sc.Leta). from seek. Bickelen. The ON. to build. The loss of the / gives Dan. forwards. inhabit. consisting both of men and women. AS. bugt. to ask. G. which is stiU. and yajiBui. beidast. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. The 'La. bedun. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. as. bow. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. bieten. — — — Halliwell. iiQ. faurbjudan. The ON.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. an entire skin. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. pray. . the belly of a ship. to look for. to marry. 2. called the tertiary order. gebeden j G. bugne (answering to ON. praebere. to pro- command. as G. to curve. BIGOT beidan. AS. proud. ten. of More ' in Richardson. or third order of penitence. AS. be bug. who. a chip. Big. OSw.peto. to arrange. 1. quiring something to be done. belly. to solicit. gebodenj G. A bjudan in anabjudan. spelling seems to used in the N. athird class. to belly. to have one called before him. ' Bug as a Lord. in the sense of ask for. To bid the banns. G. praestare. bead. to offer it to public notice. to bulge. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. to cultivate. to offer. It must be observed that the word bidja. as tears from the eyes. anleta.' Addison. qucero. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bis and in comp. W. biegen. The original Swollen. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. the meaning of bid. or. bog. Kil. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bidill. to move quickly. belly. to build. . signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. related to big or bug.t. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. are also used in the sense of asking for. Bigot. from bidan. to ask. Einem einen guten tag bieten. and Gael. bouwen. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. has leta. Compare also Sp. bidjan. to bend. swelling. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. Du. rising up. bi-. bced. bag. or bad. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. offerre. to offer one the wish of a good day. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. A pose to one to come to dinner. bend of a shore or of a rope. With respect to logical pedigree. Two verbs are here confounded. bolginn. Palsgrave in Halliwell. Bight or Bought. BID of stone. ON. swaggering. repair. by seek and beseech. ON. verbieten. ON. bieden. to start out. Jam. to forbid . Big-swol- . to pray one to dinner. To Bid ' Big . bath. to bend. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. to bicker.

G. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. author quoted in N. both men and women.D. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. ix. 1243. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. Bighiotti). continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. rustical. which must not be confounded with begardo. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. In the same way Fr.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. and also unlearned common men. biso. perch^ i Terziari di S. absque votorum religionis emissione. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. aliqui Begardi. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. grey. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. Bizocco.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. bighiotto.' Matthew Paris. Bizoccki. bigio. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. signifying bagmen or beggars. 1499. and Q. a dunce. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. vol. From bigio. grey. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. all apparently derived from Ital. Augustini dotarint. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. the nobles to Rienzi.' translated by Muratori. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. the other form Per te Tribune. They wore a similar dress.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. Beguttce. A. as well as bizocco. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. &c. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant.. corruption would easily creep in.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. bigotta. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. alii de paupere viti. xx. face VIII.— BIGOT bigardo.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores.D. honesti plebeii amictus. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. clownish. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. alii Apostolici. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. says. natural grey or sheep's russet. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. a blockhead. Bighini. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Flor. D.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. ac labores manuum detestantes. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. with reference to A. bighellone. 560.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. In a similar manner from bigello.D. dark-coloured cloth. 15 18. probably from biso.' says one of of bigio. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. borel.' says an Venet. Hence the OE. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. homespun cloth. vocati Fraticelli. Francisci communiter appellabant. and hence the variations bigutta. coarse woollen cloth. was formed bigello. beghart.— Ducange.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. beghino. A. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. A. begutta. sed maxim^ in muliebri.a.' Chart. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. S. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. to adopt a similar course of life. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.

Thus we find in It. irons or set in a kind of stocks. bulla. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. a seal. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. of E. a bigot or hypocrite. beil. 2. The Du. Bilberry.' in Richardson. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. — bigardia. Mundart. fluctus maris. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. e. as craneberry. Langued. a of the sea. NFris. the swelling G. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. dziobad. — — ' . the o changing to an i to express diminution. billard or billart. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . from the dark colour. gan. person of religion leading a loose life. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. 5 * . BILLOW 67 plough-share Du.— — — . that of swell. abelthe fetter itself. Bill. Roquef. a hypocrite. a negro. the bill of a bird. weapon . as a bill of indictment. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. A slang term for a sword. Billette. a devotee. and dziobas.. Prov. AS. p. horn of an animal. to pick a millstone. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. Kil. Sp. an axe. bigot. obsolete. Du. in the sense of a writing. 3. a hatchet. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Piedmontese bigot. to peck. names bill-berries. and in Lat. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. an axe. bigotto. bizocco. on. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Ludwig. Sw. bullet. See Bulk. bisoch. Bilge. the trunk of a tree. boeye. Bill. plog-bill. To Bilk. Bille. A lorum tam in — Diez. top. gleischner (Frisch). Sw. bui. a short note. billet. boja. Billow. loi. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bull-berries. to swell with rage). Du. The origin of the term is probably from bole. In the same way are related Pol. buail. Bigin.' bilio. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Dan. of boja. in the same sense. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. fetters. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. BILBERRY nated. dziob. an ingot. symbolum. might be taken to express a hypocrite. procella Kil.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. Bohem. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. beghart. Deutsch. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. bulghe. Bojce. Johansen. ^Billiard. 'tumidi fluctus. bwyell. a name given to a. bila. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. So in Gr. an ingot of gold or silver. bigardo. See Bull. bile. boia. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. an axe. .' mariners. an axe . Fr. Fr. I. w. deceit. An instrument for hewing. used in legal proceedings. blamand. Sw. Billet. bill. inscriptum. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. from OSw. Dan. Gascoigne in R. from Mid. to job. bolghe. topor. G. seems to be rather the unda. billet is the diminutive of this. an adze . Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bla-berry. Lat. bill of exchange. at sea Billet. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. now A Bilboa blade. bill in parliament. to strike. a sword. belgan. e. AS. whortle-berries. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. — Cot. AS. biilge. Tartuffe. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). bulgja. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. . The proper meaning bylgia. billot. to strike. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Gael. Aurelles. . Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. a beak. In English the meaning has received a further development. OFr. blaa. false pretender to reUgious feeling. the beak of a bird. Fr. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Kil. a floating log to mark the place of some. genus vincu- Bilboes. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. crowberry. buie. Du. axe. ferrese quam ligneae. bille. b'olja. blue . Bilbo. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. clog to a fetter. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a shackle. bigot. is properly a sealed instrument. a seal. tepati. Lat. To defraud one of expected sinking. belghen. and a billard. however. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . to be angry (i. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. buoy [i. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. bil. billard also signified at billyards. dissimulation . 2.

G. bindan. Lat. bunch. Then added division in a granary. pullus. It. evesgue. to bring Biscuit. betsel. a heap. bindan. a hind or female stag. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. bundt. from Gr. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. to bind at . Du. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. while bind-wood. or ben-wood.. burt. Bisen. ge- from AS. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. or petze. I would derive the verb to knit. copus. G. and especially to a small poor horse. ON. See Belly. Bird. bigne. bircej Sw. biscotto. j). brut. in Swabia. We — A Birth. to cook). part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. beitsl. a weight of 48 pounds. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Dan. piiiti. beitan. Lat. hith. pundas. a bear. poultry. bita. from pondus. Birch. evigue. pinnu. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. beize. Sw. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry./«idere. Lat. Sanscr. To Bite. bunt. and of Fr. bundle. The proper meaning is a heap. bund. Bindweed. Fr. . lusciosus et myops. . properly a young pigeon. a knob. bikkia. habitacle. See To Bear. a brood or hatch of young. to form a knotted structure. e. an overseer. or bin. pin-ti. to bulge. to net. biclie. Lat. expressed by Sw. bundun. — properly near-sighted. nodus. twice cooked. — Kil. qui nisi propius Blind. a truss. where the compass stands. Habitacle. videt. an eagle's young G. Fr. a heap. bundle. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. biscuit. bitacora. a female stag. Thus I suppose the Gr. a house. which is expressed in E. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. pittjo. Sp. V. i. — Surrey in R. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space.. from \t3\. Bind. bunga. The term ON. H. to twine. beisseii. overlooker. berkas (z=:Fr. a corn. brid. to build. wine. by the verb knit or net. evegue. than vice versi. doubtless a stone. &c. Bisom. also a stone weight. beorth. bunki. from Lat. the young of an animal. — See Bittacle. isfiw. Bailey. a bitch. AS. IV. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. When compared with Fr. G. episcopus. sc. terial. beran. to hang. AS. In like manner from knot. AS. to plait. binda nat. EpisETTiTOOTToe. AS. hiindiiin. To — — —D. a pig petz. to knot nets for fish. pinnii. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. bord. Bizened. piccione. biccej ON. Fr. a female dog hindinn. Bin. to be derived from Ibfiaq. bij sienigh. Gr. i. is in Scotland applied to ivy. are commonplaces. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Fr. ON. to bear. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Goth. AS. Goth. Bine. a little dog. Lith. fowl. a bitch. bhurja. Bisson.. a bitch applied also to other animals. propius videre bij sicndc. — — . pippione. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. bin-wood. admota non Bit. poule. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. by binda. bitill. . See Breed. a habit- Binnacle. The bitol. earnes brid. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. a gallinaceous bird. band. It. bjork.' and the like. bij sien. Bittacle or Binnacle. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. a bunch. to swell. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. to wreathe. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. to fasten it together. Bitch. forth. E. . the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Fr. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. . to bind together. Sw. Lap. the young of birds . binge. a bump or knob. BITTACLE /Siof. bundt. v. is rendered in ON. . bund. truss. life. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. G. or baked. 'tumens sequor. AS. vescovo.68 BIN Bio-. Lith. a weight. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. viz. Bing.

— Collins in Hal. G. Fr. bitr. bittore. a babbler. G. Percy Soc. things —Palsgr. faded. fallow fawn-coloured. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. out the tongue. an edge is sharpest sword. Mund. Again. term. 't kompas huis. — Hollyband. whitish. pale. NE.€i. Why presumest And laam's asse. In like manner E. a flapping. as is seen in sputter and splutter. as in that of pale and white on the other. chatter babbler . a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Sp. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. to loll it out. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. pale. ON. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. /ealo-/or. a large coarse lip . on. pale brown . blanc. round which the cable is made fast. blebberis. to speak Dan. Lydgate. to watch. Sw. Sp. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. whiteness (candor sine It. blob. Je N. The bitas. corrupted in Fr. Ai-mstrong. Mantuan babbi. cut. yellowish. bittour. Fieldfare. blabbern. indistinctly. —Neumann. synonymous with baber-lip. ^chops. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell.' by Gudmund. Black. blabaran. thoughtlessly . blobach. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . beuni. fallow . bites. bird of the heron tribe. x. Bohem. ON. blac-hleor ides. quick. a stammerer. . Fr. A a rail. ON. a beam in a house or ship. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. pins of the capstern. blesmer.. baboyer.' G. stutterer. biacca. unintelligible talk plabair. Hist. blab. as of a body falling into water. in contempt. blepLith.' by Haldorsen. beitr. to chops. In a similar manner Gael. Cotgr. bleg. yellow . blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. gulblakk. The Gz. Du. babbe. buft".D. blakk. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). Applied in Hin ON. leohte . and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. whitish. Bav. 332. a* mast . blubber-lipped. It. first. beiwache. to bivouac. Bivouac. to talk much. To Blab the anchor. white. AS. plabartaich. Sp. from whence we have adopted the. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. bleikr. blabbre. to the sharpness of a weapon. 't huisje. Fr. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. a fluttering noise. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Bittern. bihovac. bitts of Bitts. a continued soft sound. biti. So Fr. dark. an additional watch. to babble. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. to babble. on the one side. his blacan light. Deutsch. blunt we say it will not bite. Se bleek. Fr. maculS. apparently from its biting the tongue. discoloured . small guard-house. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. a large lip. Alex. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. garrulous. Nagt huis.. ' Biovac. babbling.plab is used to . as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. as of wings . iroxafealo. baitrs. 156. Sp. from wachen.— Blabber-lip. confusedly. dusky. Gael. "uivac. a tati. Blabber-lip. to let out whai should have been concealed. ^aj'/^r. ON. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. bitones. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. the palebleff. black. mouth. bitor. brunblakk. pale yellow . v. a childe dothe gasouille. is placed. quoted by Ihre. . Bleak. blabhdach. To or he can speake. blob. mona mid Dan. bitter. blake. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. bleich. Goth. . pale. Cot. plappem. — cheeked maid. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. shine. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. pale yellow. Hal. blob.). Wit hung her mourn. butorj OE. Pl. blakki. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. light-coloured. Hald. even humour seemed and beuin. a shelter for the steersman. Gael. to wax pale or bleaked. obscurus. AS. shining. In Legrand's Fr. white. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. Mag. ' plabraich. to To blabber blabber with the lips. I blaber. mouth.. viz. or water beating gently on the beach . faded. white lead. night guard. is apprehension of danger. as of water gently beating the shore. blank. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. gabble. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise.' It would thus acle. 'fuscus.

a ticket that does not obtain the prize. blank. The present forms then should be classed with blether. p. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. biasimare. blister. from candere. imbrunire. probably ate. blather. with all other loose idle masterless men. To blank. G. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. blister. —We Bladder. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Du. — rura. revile. shining. moere. blahen. Blank "verse. boys. chatter. to purl. . that within the space of 24 hours they depart.. or a mass of bubbles. a pustule . pluddre. commonly called the Black-guard. a. and G. bladre. bladder. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. and wandering men and women. board. plat. also tanned by the sun. Blancli. piatto. or blafich. pimple. mud. whitish. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. 7.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. white. candidus. Dan. leaf. to disappoint. pladdern. and Q. the origin of . also white woollen cloth . contracted from bladeren. Besides the examples of this connection given above. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. to blanch. to vocifer- — Cot. leaf of a. 1854. blister. Reliqu. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. Sw. To Blare. bladder. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. a buible. as. Torriano. . pallido. in R. vagrants. white. leaves. chatter. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Fr. bladder. and thence to babble. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. slush. or of an oar G. leafy. pXaatpiiiiHv. blatter. blanchet. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. waschen. blanchir. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. — — — to jabber. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. blaeren. Bacon in R. as. dial. Cot. 5/^a/^ of colour.—Blatter. to bleak in the sun. smore. Perhaps from blegen. Blank. to glitter. Hist. blad. to shine. dripping-pans. Blade. vagabonds. But perhaps a more Gr. —^Webster. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. borrelen. blanc. blactra. is identical with Flanders borlen. coat. bladra. also jabber. a bubble. blad. See Blubber. Fr. Sir. livido . and the agitation of liquids. broad. Blanket. to dabble in water. on. a white or unwritten ticket. branches . bladdra. Blame. variable than the signification of words designating colour. blegne. blether. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. a boil. a blanket a bed. Dan. Eadmer. to glow. black. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened.— Kil. as blader. and he shall be sure to have O. Jan. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. to make or become white blanc. blame. a leaf. blister. PI. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. bladeren. — Sw. a blank ticket. flap of a Du. blena. 86. or as E. to blow. polished. on. as scullions. speak impiously. to shine. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. Du. to omit. the leaf of a tree. blaere. sheet of paper. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. to To bellow. — . blather. roar. to Hence Ital. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. skola and thwatta. Du. The radical bubble. mus-blackt. blegen. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. tattle. . Sw. e. tree. Gr. pass over. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water.— ^o thehotsun. and others engaged in dirty work. blatter. name originally given Blackguard. most complete example of leafy structure. plate. Fr. G. mud. Dan. which we . Bav. Lat. D. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam.—Blatant.. and E. smother. mire. blasphemare. Now. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. linkboys. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. madder. biastner. Wott. irXariQ. Blain. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. the ON. Sc. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. bladder . Play in Nares. blatt. his meat burnt. Du. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. as Lat. Fr. a bladder or pustule. blein. to —Blaspheme. blanchet. &c. Du. foolish talk. blanqne. blinken. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. G. I am degraded from a cook. gabble. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. cited in N. It. whitish. reproach. rogues and wanderers. plat. to bubble. a bubble. defame.

as a verb. blase. to spread news. and which. a lamp blasere. a whisperer. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Kil. blaeteren.). commendation blason funebre. Prov. To blow AS. To blast. the noisy. bles. baladrar. blossi.' to fastum . — — ' : bless. blaterare. — Elazen. ventosus. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. to set on fire. or blazening. to cut off prematurely. Sw. oured. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings .sound a trumpet. blason. to blow. pale. G. Du. an conium. Blanches illuminies. of an animal. blysa. Du. magnilo. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. proflare tues. might And sain. Fr. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. a flame. The other derivation. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. As Kilian. Fr. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. Gudmund. . blus. Fr. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. . ing of arms. The origin of this exSp. a shining spot. Sw. to publish. clamorous. much plausibility. noisy blor. braise. gloriosus. She roade at peace through his heraldry. has also blencke.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blaodh. bawling. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. declaratio. among other . beast. blast. in that of praise. a shield. embraser. OE. thraso. biter. blase. a flame. — ' — stroy. stultd loqui. a torch. a torch . If armour. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. a flame . as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. blass. blaodhrach. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. . to blow. Golden Book in R. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. blasonner. magniloquus. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. blesse. kept up. splendour. A gust of wind. like the in English.' painted or figured . to de. to bellow. also blazon or the blazSpenser. Cot. blesse. in the same way as we 2. blazen. to extol. boasting. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. redness . might spring from the same origin by a . visui patet. loud . besides blesse. blasoen. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. shield or surcoat. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blezo. blose. senses. blis. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. Blast. baladron. First from the E. Lye. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. each of boaster. proclaim the virtues of. is the imme. a funeral oration . blason. blatero. Sc. and to make him word blaze. bliEsan. on whose behalf the herald appeared. With inversion of the liquid. used. Gael. e. blcesett. how. blorach. laudes (Kil. I. also only pains and excellent endurance. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. G.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. ther it was erst not knowe. i. blys. bldsse. blateroon. ill-speaMng their proper colours . Dan. Troilus and Cressida. Du. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. an empty and two theories are proposed. 'op een trompet blaazen. blasa. live coal . Cot. brasa. a voice Jr. AS. brasa.whence the Fr. is from AS. to proclaim. 2. oron-blasare. to blaze Sp. coloured prints. blaser vid. abroad. a coat of arms. But now. fire. a blast. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. by stripping off a portion of the bark.— . g. it is manifest. friend Cornelius. AS. The AS. To Blaze. or to the sound which it produces. a loud noise. Du. blaze.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. Du. A strong flame. blcest. blcEsan. a shout. Blatant. abroad. See Blare. the matter incendiary . somewhat different train of thought. light-coli. ON. and. A blaze is so intimately Then. indeed. is used in the sense of manifestatio. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. bleis. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. a MS. also praeblczse. Blaze. to blow . — ^Jam. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. blcese. Du. Dan. quus. ON. blaesen. whence Blazonry. blcEsan. to publish the praises. to trumpet forth.

. to humbug. to become livid. See Blood. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. B. paleness. light-coloured. See Black. And By a similar metaphor Pol. blot.' God in his wordes. from on. wheal. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Pol. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. to cast a mist before the eyes. blakna. a disgrace. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. from the than schal I go. 242. blema. . As AS. blarren. Bejaune.D. Blear. Bleed. tacher. while the agent ac- From . blcecan. blesmir. Bleak. spSt. AS. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. I chaunge colour. the formal equivalent of English wink. or blemysshen — blaken. bleikr. From the OFr. So in Sw. The term blear. to wink at it. BLENCH obfusco. Richardson. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. ' — — eye. a been distinct. A Blab. . pimple . N. to bleach. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. Blear-eyed j having sore i. start vor den augen. pier vor den augen eyes. Mac. to make him feel blank.filerren. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . flack. or to low as oxen. on. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. Manuel de Pecch&. Fr. ' — — ' : — — . Sw. in the expression reputation. wan. a spot. bleakness. Sir J. Ancren Riwle. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. what blenched him therwith. ' He blarrede or roar. confound him. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. to spot. drop of water. to spot . slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. Gower in R. To totally different from the foregoing. as of dust or mist . livid. . blot. . gif thou blenche from ony of tho. blur before their eyes. tumanid. to stain one's honour or reputation. blesmissure. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. — — R.'he cried till the tears ran down. the livid colour of a bruise. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. a spot. a spot. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. splamii!. and thence to a bruise. like one that has long P1.' the devil makes a vain back. 115. which are blurred with the have shewed you. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. To Bleat. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. Palsgr. geplerr. Blancher. c. exposed. to cry or weep. or blemish. a blotch plerr. And now are these but mansbond (i. sinen langen tranen. is Blench. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. plama. — blink the question is to shrink from it. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. dead-coloured Cotgr. Bailey. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. livor. blench came to be used for a trick.' to deceive one. novice. whitish. guenchir. Schmel. ' . G. a spot. p. Bleb. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. souiller. color plumbeus bldma. to soil. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. bldmi. To salir. bloken. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. to bleat as sheep. to wink the eye. blister. blink. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. a stain. to disgrace one's name. to blear one's eye. tutnan is a cloud. a blot or smear blanking one. ^Xiixaoftai. 419.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. avoid looking it in the face. blemissemeiit. ^Blencher. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. a blemish in one's 2. a red watery eye. pale . goda nainn. darkness of vices.v. a boil.P. to start away from. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. wanness. inflamed eyes. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. a fault. Blemisli. A stain in a man's reputation. Gr. spla7nU sie. boggle at something. (faith or creaunce) Be war. See Black. pale Du. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. sugillatio. to blare been weeping.

F. Dan. to shut the eyes. Du. a. joy . to shine. to plunge. blitz. blincken. Wtb. joyful. to glance. Blind. blinzler. to dash wine with water. a gleam. blide. G. also to wink. Du. blicksem. burn up. Russ. blissian. . or nettle which does form. tire. to bless. blazeny. Blazena Bea. 375.blinze. window-blind. a wink. Du. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. blatida. pearance of the blighted . Swab.eyed. Sc. bludder. trix. false windows. the sign of the cross while blessing one. I hold thee a grote thee. AS. to pro.' To — blunge clay. . glad. blich-fiur. to bless . be glad flash. liquid filth to bluther. happy . blogi. Owl and Nightingale. wink.blinken. The sound of k before an s. riches . a blick-ooghen. gladness. blican. to mix. . mixing in general. to bluiter. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. Swiss (obsolete). ON. bleg. Blight. fortunately. Kiittner. blinde fenster. a nounce happy. — . plonsen. blinzdugig. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. . pockets. to shine. blind. AS. To Blend. a glance. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. . j). G. De Sonne ' verblekken. ' Pl. bluiter. well blahy blick and blink. To Bless. to dazzle . Paradises blidnissu. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blidu. OHG. to rejoice. to act like a — . blende. weaklaveny. to flash. glitter. bliss look . in potters' language. Deprived of sight. to shut the eyes G. Thence apblinds. A . to stir or puddle. plotzen. to merry. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. a glance Swiss blenden. flash of light . blet. . an entry which leads to nothing . as in the case of blaze. but by no means therefore a pre. to make happy. . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. sung. to fall into water with a sudden noise. dazzle . pale. blinzeln. —Brera. doors. mix from blekken. blindselen. Blink. blanssen. G. OHG. the Slavonic languages. graceful. (=bene dicere). blithe blis. AS. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. to blithsian.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blag.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. happy . thou knave. to glitter ful . blicken. tative source of the word is wholly lost. csecubrandish. although in the in the next article. From the action of the hand making Sw. to lighten. happily. Du. seems the simple netel. giving (Fr. blithe. blac. Needle. blend. and joys of Paradise bliden. to twinkle. . as taschen. glitter. Pol. blahos. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. a look. blindr. joy. to consecrate .nasal. gives blinzen. blahoslaviti to twinkle.not sting thiiren. lovely Bohem. blink. goods. the G. G. glitter. To blunder water. III. blago. to make a rumbling noise. livid.blinkard . to rejoice. well blagaya. to dilute too much . cascultare. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing.. blessed. make these hands 3. wink of sleep . is I shall Gurt. as a blind entry. as in Du. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . . to dabble in water. AS. Nares. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. tless —Gamm. sweet. money. .D. blendian. blotzen. a flash. blessed. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to glitter. Du. The term then self or others. to bluiter up with water. the verb to bless is some. . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry.corn. joy. happy . shine. blind- ON. — when he — Bailey. glance. — Goth. lighten. to churn. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. good. — A A — .Q. to be blind. Sw. to glitter . with or without the nasal. blicken. blink-eyed. blick. The inblissful. blund. lightning sweet blago. blitzen. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. to — make it thick and muddy. Sc. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. ^Jam. a blessing. to shine. . Serv. riches blajennii blicksem. as a vatn i vin. Bliss. a wink With the bletsian. readily passes into a /. Biglotton. vious one in the order of formation.blunda. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. a. moment. lightning. blent. blaziti. lightning. glimpse. Tany.wink . a dead nettle. sertion of the nasal. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS.

or bleb. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. a drop of water. Sc. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. Fr. N. a dirty blister. blcesma. . bluyster. gentle OHG. W. blithe. The blow E. blab. senting the dashing of water. like manner the coloured. and easily changes its place. Blister. in Nares. separate portion. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. blubber. blaustem. a block or log en bloc. and pisg. merciful ON. shells. Blob. soft. Hence E. pausten. B. a lumpish head plubach. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b.pusta. to bubble. in the lump or mass of wood. bleiths. blindsehn. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. To Blissom. ON. I believe. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. . blote. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. as a blab of ink. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Mod. blond. Lat. Dan. mild. Thus we have blab and babble. a bubble.plisg. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. pimple. blot. whence blast.—Bloated. See Blot. a See Blot. Dan. in gusts. repre- pusula. blotfisk. bloc. light yellow. Sw. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. A under this name was imported into England. boucler. to cure by smoke. G. To a smoking or drying by the fire. husks. to swell. to block up the way. blindman's-buff. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. kostia. Du. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. to dash liquid.. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. blobber. is formed squad. For this. blouca and Fr. is also used in the sense of swelling . Blob. And so from squatter. plub. blinzel-maus. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blot. cooking. Gael. Jonson. having an unsound swollen look. — Sw. puff. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. bloc. sloppy dirt. Boyd in Jam. a bubble. ^Jam. inde humiditate tumidus. to breathe hard. Ibid. It may be formed Blithe. Langued. and inarticulately. busten. lagga i blot. mild. formed spot. Bleb. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. Du. an unformed mass. or is inserted or omitted. blot. bloated. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. ON. it is must be observed. Block. viscid. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. blaud. bausen. . Goth. fish blind person. Fr. to blissom. buckle. also to set See Bless. a blot or spot.— Hal. taken altogether. and F. soft. kostua. round. in bulk. speaking rapidly any . — Blob. blister. blidr. like clot. to to puff and be noisy. while Lat. swell. blod. The roots /. any lump or mass of things. Bav. blijde. Gael. biota. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. or blinde-kiih. blister blasan. fiustula. Kil. buclde. as in E. the unhewn bole of a tree. bubble and blubber. bluster. a small lump of anything thick. to soak. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. strawclod. blesme. soak in water cured fish. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. Of sheep.— Bailey. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z.—Bloater. Cotgr. and bouclette. must be referred to AS. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. pustula. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. as blinzeln. soft. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Hence. to desire the male. . or the mark which it makes. Blond. must be classed with forms like Gr. Sw. to blow. in the sense of a soft tint. — . Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. a . a blister. — — — — — From blabber. —Bailey. soaked. blide. to blow. from blcsr. pods. In Fin. ^vaaa. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. joyful. to close it with a solid mass. frequentative. a blister . to blow. Svt. stone. pusula. blad. To Bloat. a blain. orbicular. G. The stem or trunk of a tree. A solid blouquette blisters. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. signifying in the first instance to soak. weak. to steep. expressed by cognate roots. a bubble. as if soaked in water. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. a ram. mass. blautr. or the like. blobbes or droppes of water. B. Egillson. a little blisg.

tions of sound similar representaare formed G. Wflz<^«. to dirty. yellowish It's G. a spot or blot. blue.properly to scatter liquid . blose. bloto. bldmi. to squander. Pl. dial. kobladde. blat. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits.' the rain is driving and blue . blomstr. brilliancy. en blau ach. blue. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. bletister. glister . platsch-voll. blosem. a cow-dung. blust. blase. pale biavo. the bright to blot paper morsels. colour of the cheeks. E. It. gammon. as the skin or hair. to be red with blot. whence plader. Dan. bloeme. bit by bit. glose. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. AS. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. . plattata. lidmr.D. a beater. —Barbour. blou. bleustern. blotter. Fr. E. bliihen. to patter. blodelsa and blawelsa. blue. Wendish blodo. plot of land is a spot or small rage. pale tint. Florio). Prov. ])erly Du. to slap. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. fall down . a black eye Du. Schmid. bliithe. coloured (Diaz. Blossom. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Plots. parallel form with ON. to grow pale). E. a. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. dirty spot on the cheek. ON. blois. gloss. Blow. plottra. of a blow with something lios. blosma. blue . blauwel. a torch blusse. Sw. to be red. blondheid. blowen. . Schwenck. Du. to exists in biadetto. sbiadare. fair in en blat vand. a blow. a water ploutsche. splendour . blatte. bldts. blistaf. Schilter. glossi. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort).blauschlagen. blaeuw. to flame. spots in the sun. bloetnsel. D. clod. to dash down. bfys. a gush of milk . from G. blaeuwe ooghe. ^lys. Sw. bloed. 2. soft or flat. to strike with something soft or flat. PI. G. platschern. lump flower. Sc. Du. Stalder. glus. a Halm a. livid . The G. Bloom. . Blot. Sw. dial. a pelting shower). to blaze . to scribble. bluish. yellow. gfyssa. plet. platt-voll. Blad. a lump. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. S-wiss pladern. OFr. Fris. bloi. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. flower. to sparkle. Du. bleistern. pladdern. glasi. a drop of water or colour. blue. Ein platsch milch. blosen. Blotcli. leme. ^Bleed. blotte. Harmar in R. lump of anything soft to blad. a deli. skam. on. to dash down Du. or the sound of it . to strike with such these objects exhibit. AS. blut. ON. to dabble in water. spot pletter i solen. wan. to squat or lie close. light. — Cot. Blood. bloi. E. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. to blush . platz-regen. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. mud. Ir. E. bloemen. platz-voll. blond. Du. couleur livide. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. to From . bloedsd. lustre.^ Kil. j^ blottir. livid marks. — Blotch-paper. . a nature. biado (of which the evidence plattern. Hatch. the bright colour of the cheeks . blus. cow-dung. a blaze. a flower. from the bright colour which 7'vci. . blond en blaauw slaan. pale.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. a Usaae. a flower. blaeuwen. kuh-plader. E. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blady. blawels. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. blotting-paper. — gush. a blot or spot. See Blow. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. bliise. great leaf of cabbage.platter. G. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . to splash. redness. Dan. . to slap. splashing full. pladern. blad. Lat. a Schmid. to shine . blond is used in blatt. bloi. to spot or blot. a The form platschefz.— . blostma. plants which prepares the seed. It should be of filth blak-blatte. — Stalder . blosa. Dan. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. blooth. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. shine . plotterwis. white blatte. Jios. — — . to strike . blysa. to glisten . Russ. bloutre. ' — . straw. fall to overflowing. Erploten. a flower. . . probably connected with Pol. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. to dabble in water . proto shine with bright colours . ON. to blot the land was in a leme. Fris. Sc. to blaze. to glow. (of cattle) to dung. in v. gleam. See Blow.

in E. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. bliuwan. toused. chatter. plubraich. and thence. Deutsch. v. — To blubber. pale. to with Bohem.to blossom. a blow. OHG. the red fluid of the body . as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. a herb Gr. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bluther. blaw j biavo. boil. blut. glow. br. The aUied forms. glas. to gabble. plubartaich. plustrig. bl. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. may cite for example G. a. to glow. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. Pl. It. The interchange of an initial gl. gloeyen. cheeks bedabbled with tears. to breathe G. Raynouard. Pludern. bldt. glowing coal . to flap like loose clothes. bludder. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. ler. heath. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. y\r)yi»v. — — Mundart. in rapid or indistinct utterance. a blast. a fat. blao.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Wtb. vi^ound. to glow. Blowzy. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol.D. flower OHG. bloeden. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). bliihen. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. bluh. B.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. 1292. Jla-re. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. grey. marking some application from that bladder. piusen. w. . disordered in head-dress. to bruise Roquef. Du. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to blow.D. Mund. to shine with bright From colours. ^Jam. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Blue. . Du. ' BLUE or guggling. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blue.D. green. foam.' — Palsgr. blodern. blue . jabber. blass. fied vowel. to show flower. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. and closely allied with Du. Kil. is confined to the — . sound like water. |8A)'. glansj Ir.' Hamburgh Archives. It is howbliuwen. to fade. disordered. fem. to bubble up. . Prov. AS. blubonciti. into flower. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. bluod. grow pale. sense. glaodh and blaodh. Lat. bloes. blady. bloemen. withered. to blow.D. to fade. 92. OHG.. bloi. wan. E. Pl. P1. blodyn. Blowze. G. These are — Bludder. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to make bubbles in drinking.— . red-faced bloted wench. Tumbled. Chaucer. Bret. blau. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. The primary sense is to shine. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. G. gliihen. plodern. Sik upplustem. grug. E. 2. /idXavoc. corre. closely difference in of blabber. a Blossom. pale . bruised Prov. is very frequent. a continued noise of agitated water. blawan. blois. — Bluther. glas. a paddling in wate r. a bruise. to breathe bouteiUis. to beat. Gael. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. G. Gr. florere. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. 51. to make blue. blava. Her sweet bloderit face. — . to Plodern. . to exhibit bright colours. pludern. to puff up. a flower.nify bubble. Deutsch. To Blow. tache. to beat with a mallet. glede. Chaucer. blau. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. to hard. bliihen. G. to fade. bruk. . consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. little apparent resemblance. to guggle. d in Sc. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. 1. to gush. to flourish. gloeden. — To Blubber. Notwithstanding the We . And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. plubair. bloom. blubbern. pale OFr. fiubbem. or gr. to blow. blazi. A. blow. bloeyen. flower w. blduen. blezir. blust. where the word may be compared bliggman. puff. —SchmelIt.xo'»'. . Langued. blodelsa. We .Jlasa. — . OFr. wan. and the forms mentioned under Swab. MHG. -ii. blosen. sponds with Sw. blubbern. To Blow. blahen. to'disorder. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. like manner Lat. boasting. dirty. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . meurtrissure Roquefort. bliithe. gUd. blebber. a gurgling . Danneil. pale. blazir. coup. And. Bav. to spot. fqded. gliihen. especially with respect to the hair. bledniai. to blurt out. plusig. In agitation of water. to inflate.

and biavo (Diez). as well as biado. mix It. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Flor. to fall suddenly on the ground. biada. to mix it up with water. to blunge clay. and then generally idle talk. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. to fade). buller-bak. is. Roquefort. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. plomp. blac. Blavoyer. non rotunda. discoloured {plowiee. pale yellow. herauspoltem or sloping shore. bloi. Hal. G. Roquefort. to plump into the water. like Du. to agitation of liquids. Bodge. a boisterous violent man. Altieri. The Du. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. having a bluff forehead. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. in plur. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. . The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. sbiavare. — — — . dial. plo-wy. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Sw. verdure. used for the work of an unskilful performer. his business with much noise. devenir vert blavoie. Supp. a blunderbuss. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. tutte le semente ancora in erba. liebefactor. It is remarkable however that the E. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. planus. in the same way as from It'. Bladum. corn. blond. to become pale or livid.— . Halma. biavo. blandum. mistake. Lat. contrasted with the dle. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. bleu et blanc. bulmanner. originally growing up turf and water. polterer. to become pale or wan. Pm. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. to work To blunder out a fronto. See Blunt. bullern. yellowish red. The Du.D. biava. to blunder water. . Pol. which is rendered by Florio. from the Lat. To blunder is then. jaune. from the brilliant green of the young E. rustic.. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. - reddish yellow. We Blunder. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. and Du. Dryden in R. a fore. glundr. something. Palsgr. Analogous forms are Du. superficie plani. Hence we pass to Prov. 't — —Hal. blavus. Du. Kil. poltern. confusion. trahir. — Pr. pale straw-coloured. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. verdoyer. sense of yeUow. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. blunder. corn. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Kil. Dan. and sbiadare. all representing the — . polter-hans. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Dief. a flounder. bUich. blahir. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. and bustle . buller-bas.make a noise. Blunt. falb. to dabble in the mud. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. blue. puddle. blunderhead. to lose colour. flav-us. Romance bluiter. has donder-bus.//aay. From G. Blaffart.in mud or water. abrupt. A bluff manner. The word is here synonymous with amplus. E. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. tradire to Fr. G. to become pale.• BLUFF biado. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . blue. Pl. an ill-done job. yellow. G. a plain coin herausplatzeu. blaf. Blunderer or blunt worker. flodderen (Weiland). Then with the nasal. blave is moreover. segetes virentes. in water dobbelen. fawn-coloured. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. And blunders on and staggers every pace. speech. OFr. pale. or an abrupt manner. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. pludder. I blonder. See Blurt. blutter. herbe. without image or superscription. disturb. bluish. ploffen. G. Kiittner. blunder. blue. sloppy drink. Biada. — . like the Celtic glas. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. Bluff.' trouble. blunt. find accordingly It. Hence a Slcelton in R. to puddle. It then signifies something done at once. blake (identical with AS. and metaphorically. Ditton in R. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. earth and water mixed together. glundra. fallow. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Bohem. pale) is provincially used in the. a shore abruptly rising. as well as sbiadafe. Du. applied to green as well as blue. bawling. blanssen. je perturbe. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. to confound. from an imitation of the sound. to dabble Biglotton E.

heavy. is thrown. blunsch. Stalder. G. good plump person. unceremonious manner. a simpleton. a thick and will person. pressions. blout. pointless. blunder. nature. blockish. to plump into the water. Sc. V. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . a bluntie. awkward. awkwardly. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. sheepish. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Sc. A modification of the same root. the absence of sharpness. Bare and blunt. massive.pludse. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. F. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . to make foliage. —D. Kiittner. Ford in R. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. Q. It will be seen that the G. maol. Plontp.plompen. duU. in Richardson. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. to bring it suddenly out. edgeless. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Du. The syllables blot. and hath swiche languor in his soul. viz. bloss. Sir T. plumbeus. blott. forestis. viz. Plump mit etwas umgehen. without horns. absence of preparation. naked. bus. naked. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. it will be well to point out a sense. blait. ang. hebes. obtusus. azure. raw. dull. figuratively. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. Swab. a portion To inquire for slaves. unwrought. to handle a thing bluntly. dull. . fling down . is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. plump J to plump out with it. plotz. bare. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Blunt. fooUsh. V. heavy. platz-regen. as in E. united in Gael. clownish. biotto.to fall into the water. exactly corresponding to the G. bleak. —D. to plump down. obtusus. it will be observed. Plump. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. dial. of a knife which not cut. — — pidus. plonsen. Dan. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Sw. bald. nis. plump. plotsen. blue. Probably radically hlekit. rudely. — blunt. from the loud report a fire-arm. Molof something wet. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. poor Sc. as Sw. clumsy. pale. Kiittner. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. More in Richardson. that it not easy to discover the connection. plump. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. Now the Swiss bluntsch. used in both senses. The blait body. naked. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Bluntet. unfledged Sw. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. and in the same sense. or heraus plumpen. Chaucer. Woddis. bare. to blurt. like a thing thrown down with a noise.— — — . Dan. or blab out a thing Kiittner . inactive Swiss bluntschi. blait. and an unintelligent. homo stolidus. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. through which a man is so blont. blatte. Pol. and the like. blunt. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. blunt. ineffectual reason. rough. naked. plains The large bech. a blot. without the nasal. to blunt a thing out. to make a noise of such a Stalder. inaKil. It is from this notion of suddenness. platzen. silly. blunt. unpolished. — Kil. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. It. blotta sanningen. without Maolaich. Blaitie-bum. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. G. plutz T)\i. thick. . bluntschen. stupid fellow. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. insensible. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. bare or blunt. blat. that the sense of bare. A light blue colour. Halma. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. void. plump. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. plump. rude. V. is The word dull. down. blunt. biosso. heavy. as cow-dung. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. wan. identical with E. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. seems to be derived. blutten. without preparation. with or without the nasal. mit etwas heraus-platzen. but of something soft thrown on the ground. and.—D. Won by degrees. Then cometh indevotion.

acre. to rumble. to snuff. to be out of temper. Fr. to guggle. beacon fire. board. gabble Sw. large. a flurt with one's fingers. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. w. skin. a dangling object. bit. 9396. Boost is used for the boast. bliise. blaste?i. a small lump. De Boat. dial. Boa. Swiss blodern. and when applied to vaunting language. botte. . ON. a baU of thread the mud. Fl. blast. be a crack or loud sound. bobine.v. rude. bord. to puff. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. 274.the syllable bot. Schmeller. to puff. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. as splurt to splutter. a border. flat. margin. blirt of greeting. to talk quick and indistinctly . puffen. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. a Jam. boccheggiare. outward edge. to glow . blaustem. Blush. bluther. lacerta. blotch and botch. bustuous. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. to sound like water boiling. common. Du. my dear. sudden. margin. bord. burra. to dirty. to jabber. puddle. bleuster. To move quickly up and down. gabble. primarily signify loud noise.—Bobbin. chicchere. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. a tassel. and Du. . to blubber. planks raised up outside the roofs. is formed Du. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to blush. pustern. literally edge-wood. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. blunt. to spurt out. To Blurt. See Boisterous.— . Boa. borrar. blasen and See Burr. Kil. Pl. BLUR Boar. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. then applied to indistinct vision . pausten. to blore. Sc. lindwurm. Wright's ed. it implies that it is empty sound. to endeavour to terrify. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to make a noise with the mouth. crack made by bursting open. — — — * Boast. 'Ba. and the latch . blubber. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. OE. batello. a mistiness. as in Du. blodern. baiag. mire. or backwards and forwards. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Lat. stupid. to make mouths. to dabble. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. border. bdtr. blose. to puff. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Fr. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. boa. violent G. strong. like the parapets (viggyrdil. P. Slur. boistous. bot. Wallace. to roar.' — Red Riding-hood. bur. It. ground. dial. E. the Brem. Wtb. to threaten. 29. Supp. c. beer. 1. of the word seems . and boisterous. To tinct. A large snake. geplerr. an end or stump. planks or boards. V. on. to blow. blot. &c. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. Du. a board or plank. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. to give a crack. . a. a short thick body. edge. AS. swagger. The to radical meaning D. plump. boord. pfludern. to crying.plerr. a club foot . bateau. to brag grande loqui. Du. blot. bdta. bdd. bakke bleustern. to say bluntly. a burst of tears. a torch blusse. bora. to render indisbhir. blurra. Gael. to blaze. bot-voet. See Blossom. To blow in puffs. Hal. It. a blow . Du. and E. — — . G. E. blur.y. — To Bob. or bog also thread.D. Gael. Bot zeggen. ever-swin. Du. violent. eafor. The elision of the d is very to chatter. bhis. the sound of a blow poffen. to blurt out. eber. bluter.pusten. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. margin. aper. to blur. 156. blaffen and baffen. Du. . bobbin. cluster. cocodrUlus. AS. G. to make a noise in boiling. Bluster. a smear. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. Pull the bobbin. blader. bar. pluddre. e. rude. It. blarra. dull. to bark. G. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. or blurt with one's mouth. bludder. voce intonare. edge. bludder. imitated by has also In like . a grows to a great bigness. a blot. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. whence bordvidr. splurt and spirt. to dangle. bord. To splirt. pof. blusse i ansigtet. bausen. fringe. ader. To brag and to crack. a blotch. berd. an ear of corn. Dan. Hal. both used in the sense of boasting. to breke. a tassel. and swimmeth very well. to disfigure with E. an edge. properly noisy. coarse. blosken. a mist before the eyes plerren. AS. i. to chatter. Fl. BOB 79 — To Blur. cheeks glow. blaere. Du. Board. a bladder . Sverris Saga. will fly up. to bounce. — ' Dief. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. . As the as. Comp. stellio. — From mouth. boot.plodem. Halma. baban. Explained by Jam. brett. bladdra. — a blaze. Bav. pludern. table. whence bob. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Sc. hot. short pieces of any filthy mud. to smear. table. this root are formed Sc. Related to blutter.

a bog or morass.\\i\c\iset. goggle. anything protuberant. to butt. bodnu. bodhag. speak of the barrel of a horse. Bodice. Banff. a quagsoft. Bodkin. bogle. the body of a shift gaguejar. Commonly explained as if from Sc. Thy i. and E. Ptg. a prickle.hollow. is a lump. corpset. With With this we charged again We bodged again. gagoula. to fail. strike with the horns. to commit a blunder. a round body both. See Baber-lipped. agitate. bob.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bogach. Supp.gmh:t. bodak. quakmg. bogadaich. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bog. meaning the round part of his body. to make a mow at. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . bod. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. a ghost . the trunk of the animal body. to bodge. precept. to start start and back as from a bugbear. To make bad work. . bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. . point. to scruple. bagges. an announcement. calf of the leg. stumpy. a body. needle. bodies. Bog. boll.! . Schmel. bodi. swelling. a command. message boda. bogadh. as in stammering or staggering. to deliver a message. To Bodge. unsteady. Ptg. See To Botch. biodag. waving. to stir. . to waver. or a pair of bodies. gagei. 3. bod. Body. bodig. In like manner E. a cask. a spur. butt. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Cot. wavering. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. Miracle-plays.a (i\ia.' Bogglie. by the syllable patsch. move.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. exhibit another modification of the root. gebod. To portend good or bad. mud. formerly bodies. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. bodi. . Bohem. Gl. pall. . Lith. Ir. bot. to thrust. gogach. So BOB To Bob. nave of a wheel. Wall. body and G. dies. to blurt a thing out. And waves. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. from fitting close to the body. badyti. and the word is well explained by Bailey. bogan. the thick part of anything. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. a messenger . BOGGLE trunk and G. a sting . In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. rounded. arise E. body of a shirt bol.. Crist. a cask. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. anything soft. is identical with Fr. daubed or dabbled with blood. palleg. stuttering. bayonet . bog (equivalent to E. the body. Bret. or bag. stutter gogmire. ^Jam. — as well as the body of an animal. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. The Sp. to bob. to stammer. French bouter. ON. to prick. a . shake. bodilo. woman's stays. 43. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. potig. boftich. The signification of the root bot. potahha. . the stem of a tree . AS. as a horn. Now unskilful action is conmire. To mock. gog. expression hogglin an bogglin. AS. to smack. to make. . a puddle. unsteady nature of a soft substance. barriga. Shakespear has badged with blood. the belly. so large a feature in the country. to be uncertain what to do. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. . an awl. to stick. to fail. to be unsteady tich. to push with the horns. bodian. — Grandg. bolr. quagmire). thrust with something pointed. belly. stitch. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Gael. — H. gag. a dagger. bodene. busti. bottig. a prick. bayonet. corset. bodetz. where bogs form Gael. unsteady. of which the E. patsche. e. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. bole. To Bode. Reliq Antiq. or stem of a tree. . We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. It introduced from Ireland. — 2. gago. barrique. * To Boggle. Russ. VI. fickle . then from the yielding. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. corset from corps. the boss of a buckler. bothog. baboyer. gog in gog-mire. potacha. See Bid. whence paUchen. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. whence Fr. to roll. bo tich. Gael. moist mire. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. bodat. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. moving backwards and forwards. corpses pot. shaking . We .rabodi. to dabble or paddle. Lap. '£. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. biodeachan. as signifying anything spherical or round. round. bog. potacha. cask bottich. toss. bottich are derivatives. Gael. W. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. nodding.

to puff. blow. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. bald. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bald. Daring. boll. ON. also a blister. Sw. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). coarse. Boystous. to hesitate from doubt. as baltha. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. pusten. to give a hoUow sound. haughty. Lat. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. glass phial. Magy. stramenta. roydeur. bol. biiilen. shake. he will speak out. obex. noise. Fr. properly represent belly. a bump. cows the people from speaking. boil . — — which the cushion is stuffed. (of Mons) b^guer. as E. See Bulk. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . Chaucer seems Dan. bal. bollen (Kil. bulla. Chaucer. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. hero. may be identified with It. a fastening for a door. bolster.Du. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. warlike. V. to stammer. hollow. bolzBold. A. prince. Pr. bochken (titubare. boly. a bubble. bolle. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. is probably a modification of boll. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. bhster. OHG. bok. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. G. perpendicular. Wall. Mund. ON. gluma. stutSw. Westerwald bollern. brave. puilen. as. the gurgling sound of water rush. * Boisterous. stud. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. repagulum. It. as those of nuts. bout is explained by Kil. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. treated under Bowl. buile. bola. buller. bolstar. caput scapulse. but that Bolt. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . baud. chaff of corn siliqua.— — . Kit. Fr. Swab. bula. swelling. impetuosity.w. Sp. gerade signifies straight to the mark.. This iv. bealder. ballr. bolt. G. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. strong. Da. ^Vocab. bog. — ' — tagliare. Fr. in the sense of handsome . — 6 . . flax-boU. courageous. free. The bob. a bubble. bolster. bul. excellent. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. strong. notes. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. capiing into a cavity. Lap. a quaking mire. bagaji. styffe or rude . bout. b^gayer. Boll. a head . tar. quick. Bustuous. bold. G. Lat. bolc'h. . to swell. Properly noisy. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. polc'h. whence bulla. ^Boistous. the body of a man or of ter. sels of flax. pustule. Test. Sc. bolzen. pillow. Du. Stalder. E. strong. huge. rough. bola. Gael. bolla. boystousnesse. Me doth awate. the husk of nuts. . tomentum. G. Love. confident. poppy (Bailey). dint in a metal vessel. round the first instance to the materials with . the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. and manace for to de. ON. and then applied to other husks. 374. i. up of bubbles. bolleken. see Boast. to the belly as the or dislike. used. OG. Boil. * Bolster. 1430 in Deutsch. tartalear. Du. in speaking.palleg. To Boil. to stammer. To Bolter. bSlstr. bold. insolent baude. which are not used for a similar purpose. to tattle. trunk of a tree . chatter. 304). a cushion. bog. beule. bulla. a bakazikni. globular bod)'. a bubble. The term applies in — — impressed . bulr. to be prominent. w. 45. merry. to stagger. the body . is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. Bret. a boil or swelling Du. bolt upright. Kil. pimple ON. boss. puile. tartajear. Goth. Du. a swelling in ice. bald. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. to stumble. .rounded part of the body. bouil. bold. E. the lir. tulum. belc'hj. courageous. fiausten. as. intrepid. Du. bullire. hakogni. then violent. Cot. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. from Du. balder. scruple. boggle. or the like. capitellum. Pm. stameln vel bochken. to boil.— D. The round stem of a tree. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. wag. furfures. bol. Bole. swelling. proud. ohg. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up.' Mrs Baker. cheerful. animal as distinguished from the limbs. the. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. to waver or hesitate. In the same way Sc. tartle. from the branches. to be at a loss a shirt. bol. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bolr. bul. pall.D. folliculus grani. boutpijl. by which it is moved to and fro. balldr.). ON.

taraabout. abolter. bolting to that of form. as Fr. a crashing or racketing noise. Hence. buUire. holier poller. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. agitari (Kil. tling or crashing noise. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. — — — .On the same principle. clump. . Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. . tuft.) E. to make a knocking. as of a trumpet.D. knob. a bunch.agitation of the meal in the bolter.— . to bolt meal barutel. a rattling carriage. poll. cruddle. uneven.). Lang. bullern. to bolter. to shake. and to crash. Hence Palsgr.fe/2?.D. Sw.). . to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. to bolt meal barutel. croler. bultred. also to curdle. one after the other. Fr. Lat. bortelen. burclct. It. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to clack. Champagne burtcau. bolt. blotttre. a . a bolter or implement for bolting. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. by the representation of a racketing sound. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. ler. tumultuari. buletare. sestuare. barutela. buletel. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. Wtb. to become lumpy. racket gepolter. to start out. pattern. beliitea. kloteren. OFr. je bulte. bluter. Bulte-pook or bulstar. the wheels groaned. barutela. zen. a clap of thunnences. die treppe pressed.i5a//^«. And as the agitation of cream in . hammer. vessel with narrow opening. pultare. small heap. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. zare. : ' — — . in S'W plotter.. or ill. or the like. Sanders. Prov. Bav. ' Holler poller / bulter. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. The ment and the operation. Du. ex•wagen.through a cloth of loose texture. lumpy. to start with palpitate.nature of the operation. barutare. we der Brocket). bulla. projecting eyes pul. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. as a rabbit from its baritel. mole-hill. bolzauget) Sp. to knock. G. cro.protuberance. bolt-foot. Pl.Lat. gebolder. tantara. Brem. . From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. poltern. bulk or quantity . hulch. buretter{CQ\. bulstrig. swelling. a bolter Prov. rugged. boss. representing a rat. as above explained. to E. hammer.thump or blow. then to knock. budeln daz mele . on the one hand. have Lat. . polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. crod. to bolt flour burato. Here the radical image is the violent O. . taratantarum. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. So also we pass from Lat. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. hole. Dan. bolzen. Pl. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. / is transposed in Fr. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. to form lumps. taratarrum. a rattle. bolt head is a retort. staff which sounds tar. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. a clump of turf. fied bot.as the essential element signifying the talum. to agitate.D. crash. hump. a clod cloth. MHG. grasbulten. buideln. uneven. Pr. Schiitze. OFr. 2. bultig. to talk pulzen. hump-backed (to be compared A ' .clack. a millpoltzet augen. a sod (Schiitze). achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. btilt.by forms like G. In the next place. rugged. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. a round glass ending — bultig. bolzaugen. loud and fast. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. The ulti. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Du. baruta. poltern. with E. bulio. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern.D. to coagulate.. tar. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. and the Thus from So. brattle. bulk. ' — — ! ! : — . rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. crotlar. a clod.u. Supp. to significance of the term was overlooked. Pm. hulter de bulter. we have Du. a small portion. On this account Mid. pull. or a racer from the course. jolting. we see that the one consists of a words. I boulte meale in a boulter. projections. to spring forth E. Dauphiny a sudden movement. . to come rattling downstairs. the sense of right on end. P1. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. Mid. beluter. a club-foot. curdle.noise {brattle of thunner. protuberance. . OFr. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. from G. we pass to Du. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.

— bombast came guage. beuteln. Schm. Mid. q. bommer.Su?. bonog. as in . . e le furfre (of bren) demor^. to shake down fruit from a tree. lana lignea. . bureau. G. burato. bombasin. bambagino. baun. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. bombe. and that from Fr. however. raw silk. has repeatedly varied. Butterglas. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. It. PoUitriduare. Kil. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. as Banbury. Bomb. bras. tie. bopin. to ring bells. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. butteln. bombarda. a ligature. a boulter of meal. In E. and Du. brust-bein. a —Bombasine. buttel trueb (of liquids). a stock. bon. When ture. we speak of a gun to resound. 155. is supported by the analogy of G. the shank the shoulder-bone. — AS. bombast. d. a bone in general. bunden. agreement. a churn for butter. barate. to which the leg. bongam. bombdra. beil'n. It. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. borel. Du. As cotton was used for padding clothes. bonfras. In legal language. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. &c.) . bombice. booming over the water. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. bambacium. term is appropriated in G. Near 6 * . the murmuring of the sea. and in fact we find the and Du. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. Castrais barato. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. cotton stuff. bombasine. the Fr. G. tie. to shake (as to shake the head. band. the leg. . . Gascoi^e in R. a thundering noise bomre. Fr. bomba.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. 83 Gr. . an implement of binding.). a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . to bind G. and Bond. It.bast. derivation. bambagioj whence It. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. It. G. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. bauniwolle. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. e. butteln.^Altieri. to thunder. been. the contracted form of Du. a word of which we have traces in several English names. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. a beacon. and Mod. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Bone. Banstead. bombicina. again. bolting-cloth. sye. thick from shaking. It. It. Moreover. sericum arboreum. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. iuttern. the silk-worm. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bond. bommen. bulter from It. to bolt meal. whence bomme. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. ODu. from teu. silk. . i. from boom. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. biire. band pi. basin. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. bone of the . buidelen. tree. baum-bast. a baker. HoUybandin R. bureau. stump. — Bombard. and called in Mid. buidelen. beuteln. Need you any ink and bonibase. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. a stem or base. or trunk word in W. band. assuming the of leg : special signification W. coarse. bindan.D. thick-legged. gunpowder. Du. builen. E.Lat. sijde. silk-worm. bwmbwry mar. bonds. Antiq. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Du. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. to shake. bombase. boulenger. rimbombare. crook-shanked bondew. stuff. tiffany. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. must be explained Fr. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. breast-bone. and also the leg. From builen. Bibelesworth in Nat. bande. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. Bonfire. Fl. . to beat a drum. to thump W. Dan. a drum bombammen. banitola (Fl. achsel bein. The material called by this name. ties. also thick-shanked. a string. Fr. gossipium. — having a stem or stalk. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. to resound. ^o/j. cotton. thick. to boult meal. produced the Pl. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bein. a hollow sound. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. bwmbwr. to cast to and fro. Dan. OE. sije. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter.

Build. Goth. in w. — e. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. dial. It. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. boia. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. In nautical language. to aid. boandi. writing bokos. Book. buandi. bobo. . or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. lofty. as the Brecknockshire Banns. Thin ben Luke i. and thence Rouchi baia. wondering signifies not only straw. are formed Fr. to strew with straw. Du. The origin of the word is probably the W. is Du. Pm. inhabit. to gape. Gael. the cultivator. without ad- . The word seems of Scandinavian origin. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. ON. bid). Prov. help. . But bosg.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. The i. Du. Hal.n. 13. gehyred. Swab. Busk. petition. . the scriptures bokareis. countryman. from badare. master of the house. baier. G. bossen. The latter is the original AS. the possessor of the farm. bua. desire. . a vessel for holding liquids. boutig. botte. a silly fellow. botta. feu de behourdis. Kil. fool. in Phil. Bonnet. AS. from beida (E. 232. Boor. whence ban-ffagl. . but stall. where a cross (or a gun. to litter bosu. Pr. signifying beech. a stall. relief from sorrow. See Bomb. bommen. and Gael. Ox. Boot of bale. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. E. till. boer. b'ukvdry. bua. of wonder On the same principle Sp. bose. Gl. chaff. N. E. till. simpleton. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Fr. to prepare. . although in the OG. ON. Mrs Baker explains bun. bonad. — Bailey. Du. Schm. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. OW. by itself for head-dress. ben. to set in order. hu?idbusa. bonaid. to gape. clown. Mrs Baker. Trans. Kil. to cultivate. Wall. G. tigh. short boots. one who dwells nigh. b^er. and Ban in w. G. A peasant. the stubble of beans. inhabit. A stall for cattle..^ —P. the mouth. by arbitours sholde bote the P. a lying-place for dogs or swine. as a lying-place for cattle. dog-kennel. Boot. babb^o. bowwen. a head-dress. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. remedy of evil. a scribe G. from gape. head-dress wai^g. quest. to dress. See Butt. Binau Brychyniog. betere thing werse. a letter Russ. From bo. bdn. netis stall. the alphabet. ass. bobo ! interj. bota. bauer. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. — — . Fr. prayer. a dry stalk. a lofty blaze. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Boom. to yawn. pero. however. and fig. bAkva. which one gaping and staring about. pig-sty. boten-shoen. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. ON. bas. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. ON. Perhaps. a hollow skin. bote. Thus from the syllable ba. b&ber. a tree. at everything. The character of folly is i860. foolish. \ais-band. dolt. p. tapestry. botte. a simpleton. boa. gaby. — From the participle present. prayer. boo. a. Hal. and from AS. comes bondi. ganian. bolt. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. set in order. build. bauen. Booby. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. to ask. — . to cultivate. w. bosig. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. swinbusa. Fr. reparation. dress. OSlav. remnants of hay or straw. a good turn or re- meaning. a letter . buch-stab. Bun. letter. babau. Jr. build. Bonnefyre. bos. To Boot. a. also called Brecknock Beacons. badaud. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. — To boot. * Boose. Hufwud-bonad. bonad. succour Bailey. bd. . been. a bonfire. It is commonly explained as identical with It. or Vanns. tall. often cut for burning and lighting fires. babin. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. the name of the letter b. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . beiSne. ty Gael. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. boubi^. Bootless. wall hangings. . beam. from Du. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. booby. litter. boutig. bene.Boos. blockhead. stabulum. Fr. a bag of skin or leather. dress. AS. gawney. bds. . boubair. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. . Basa. nachbar. gaping hoyden — Cot. Palsgr. busu.—Bootless. dial. petition. Sp. literally cow-house. biikui. A favour. bosih. high. the first consonant of the alphabet. house. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. pole. Boon. See Bown. boom. bonnet.

It. or the gradual working a hole in anything. cure Sw.—Burin. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. But probably the E. Du. to stick unto as a bur. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. a sharp-pointed tooth. p. in Lap. Bohem. borracha. tent. bite. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. the . not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. from bord. Gael. recovery bata. a borer. AS. and parrets. Compare Manx birrag. Magy. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. margin. chisel. both. to expiate boeten den dorst. terebro. hem or gard of a garment.. hut. sawroot. furd. a cupboard. It is admitted that Fr. Mag. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. Fin. biorag. purra. remedy. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. limbus. pu purro (saha =: saw . to swell. welt. which are probably from the same root. . Bete. a bothy. puras. aid. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. BOOTH vantage. See Burgeon. . byte points to the verb byta. dust. are parret. fire. to anything Neither G.. to mend. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bordi. puru. to importune. a responding forms . a booth or shed. a great bur. admovere titiones. bud. urboro. nor E. Kil. furni. drillen. forare. The cor. cellar. And so in ON. scsdes-bod. . sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. pi. bauda. to bore. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. In the Fin. to repair. a borer . Pol. edge. budowai. bolino. purra. boede. Booth. to divide. uzboro. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. batr. rof. kvit-bara. is purin. See To We speak in E. to profit Goth. struere ignem. ON. . use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. a hut. to to . amendment. butin is explained by Flor. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. bohren. abode. bdra. baete. extremitas Bore. boete.. to . &c. a leather bag or bottle for wine. Booty. better. bauen. mat-bod. from borra. botjan.— Return from Parnassus I inR. ON. OSw. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. bora. swell bara. in Ihre. to profit. a wave. to restore. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. OHG. bottino. terebra sculptoria purastoa. borino. to build. a shelter of branches. budka. burin. boards. To Bore. bower. a chisel. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. . Alexand. 1. and meta- Fr. wine-skin. . This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. a border. betan fyr. Esthon. cottage. ON. to bite. . amendment boeten. bardure. puru. barn. Border. repair. . boeten het vier. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. bothan. to The Sw. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. The ON. are derived from G. — ON. to pierce. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. Fin. fimbria. or anything pointed. sculpo 05\xiik. an engraver's chisel. a borer. The Fin.par. reparation. butin. Gael. baara. a. yfirbdt. lappalare. to bete the properly to mend the fire. BoracMo. dens mordens vel caninus. G. boeye. to foam. of an edge that will not bite. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Fr. Fl. A phorically a drunkard. a word. make . to bite. comminuted by either kind of action. sharp. Fr. from deila and skipta. chewed food for infants. cup- awl. on. Burke in R. borracha. wave. bord. It. piercer. Gael. to hut. a bladder. to quench one's thirst . making good again . to build buda. Esthon. scalpo. Lat. lappolone. Du. limbus. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. • — To Bore. puras.por. exchange or divide. Fin. bothag. a tusk. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). 3. to patch. The as G. Palsgr. N. to boot. a granary . ora. to surge. bata. differs only in termination. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. pointed. bdt. Another derivation from Fin. and E. a shed. . Sp. and thence to eat build. a hut or tent. a shop budowati. a shop. and hence to fine. as afford a satisfactory explanation. 266. purro. See Bower. beute. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument.

In like manner It. while Gael. Lat. rude. Goth. or because a blow berga. a citizen. a bouncing baby . a tower. by which of or belonging to plants. was origin of the term is the OFr. boss or knob of a buckler . Bailey. burel. which now signifies a knob. to knock or strike. destitute. to pick or cull plants. as we speak of a thumping potato. D. butse. projection. baurgs.' the chief of the ' borh. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Lang. Fr. to save. pegou. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. tive idea seems to bring under cover. a blow. busse. and borough in the sense of a town. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Hence knot. without. burh. the North Wind. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. beorgan. bergen. bourg. Fr. Hence borhes ealdor. gesylle.vr\. viipyoc. a boor. gum vocant. (1867). an eminence. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. bussa coarse. the Sc. into borsholder. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. AS. useCanterbury. bourgeois.mass. whether from the fact preserve G. borh. storm. &c. a citizen. borough or chief constable. less. bosseu. cnap. And that unsittynge is to here degre. Gr. butsen. unpolished. to protect. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. borei. the N. blow on a hollow object. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. a.' or system of bail. Swiss Rom. botsen. boussi. Turk. empty. to give bail or answer for an. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. The primi. (Bridel).bucklers. to strike . formerly used in the sense of knocking. AS. to become is emitted by a hollow body. knur. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. bump. primarily signifying coarse sound . the sun sets. bump is used in lump or piece.ribs and the side. empty. secure. Bos a surety. bundle. — — — A — . botch. connected. I. surety.' Vegetius in Diez. beorgan. The other. Borowholder. borg. Jam. to save Sw. nonsense. It. So Du. 106. hollow bucklers. coarse cloth made of the Du. ON. borgese. Du. bussi. cormpted. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. bos. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. cob. G. boss of the side. bttssel. knocking. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. in the body struck. northern. a giving rise to It. bos. poor. bail biirgen. knob. boss. — ' wind burya. the must have arisen burgensis. Boreal. Altieri. ^ma. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. as if from the verb to hold. to take in. basse. Bosh. E. bom. cnag signifies both a clergy.' every man be under bail. . from their grey clothing. bossen. Du. tempest..' if thou give money on loan. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. botch. poor. /3oraMK6f. Borrow. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. borealis. borg. the hollow between the Borsholder. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. Jam. Sc. huschen. clownish. byrig. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. See found in Bav. The origin seems to be the Goth. vain. to strike so as to Bureau. empty. when that system was forgotten. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. or head-borough. Russ. . is used in the sense of bussare. f graauw. plant. a pushing or striking out. a knob. is probably radically Boss.any round sweUing. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. ' — — . hollow. agrees with E. Borough. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. botse. undyed wool of brown sheep. cnoc. Newbury. knock and a knob . . of bail throughout the country. a little blow. It. Hal. to give a hollow bizo. to conceal. bosh. boss. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. tuft. pitch. one who sticks to you like a bore. ^o^^flj. pego. i. a bunch or hump. a surety. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. borel. from AS. in instead of without. whence the burg. a city . . brown cloth. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . boschen. to save. burgess. or perhaps it may be See Bury. striking. borgo. Fr. grey). Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. to contain.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. a wen. a boss. or perhaps also To Borrow. V. bosse. bierge. Cot. borough-holder. to protect. plain rude fellow. Botany. bunch. to keep. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. head. loan. Bunch. rustic. and thus could not shake off the old burr. that which biirge. boss sound. ' pledge. AS. the ordinary a swelling. a herb.

a bottle. a lump of somebatschen. E. for a bud. ^kvBoQ. a maggot. and E. A horses. Bouteille.' to the fiery Csedm. w. N. repara- — — See To Bete. mess.ments of the same root. — duj Lett. — Dief. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. botte. a tinker schuhbiisser. Here the radical image seems a bubble. abbi-diwij Slavon. AS. blister. . fundus. Gael. . buddeln. bundle. Wedu. Lith. bots. Botcli. stock. burgi vel pontis refectionem. The Gr. gipuozan. and ajSvamg. to froth as beer . Decorde. to knock. Bottle. botsen. 212. . putra. . buazen. we two. ledge It. mutter. Ancren Riwle. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a depth. ambo. dial. See Boss. boitean.— Hal. ON. Stalder. AS. pozzo. bdsser. shoes. — Bottom. a wisp. Hal. botel foenn. bottigUa. is boteau. scuohbuzere.— Swift in R. in the sense of mend the fire. Bret. batschen. ing out. On — Du. Mudu. gen. Du. — Jidwi. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Podge. botm. a slop. Lith. Butu. On the other hand. bun. Bochu. by met. . puddle. OSax. See To Bodge. to make better. blow. bot. an abyss or bottoniless pit. ixorapudder. disturbance. stock. a pit. abbu. what pushes outwards. contusion . signify a in OE. dim. to work without order or know. hurly-burly. a bunch. a patch patschen. boiteag. H^cart. pimple. buddl. gling piece of work. bide. disturbance to . any plain round viol glass bozzo. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. to fall : with a sound batsch. was called a push. the science or knowledge of plants. BOTCH understood). to dash about . A bottom depth. — . to mend. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. a bottle of hay. boss. Boa two. to we have OHG. whence the name ol pool to podge. Bouds. to put on a patch. beggtaj Goth. or plague sore . Canut. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. a pit. of botta. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work.— . Hal. bAdtr. a bottle. to stir and mix together . i. tumour. Leg. stem or base. the lowest part. It. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . Fr. a bundle of straw or hay. dabble). Gael. whisper. a bubble. boute. bottom. a cess. to smack. Bailey. you two. botse. AS. Fl. to botch or patch. G.) . of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. stroke. corresponding to . Judwi. Prov. bossu. they two. botola. poltern. ON. we have Swiss batscken. btitse. Fr. any round ball or bowl to play withal. a cask. Again. botte. bunch. to bcBta. Danneil. bluster. a waterfall. the other hand. a pock. pozzanghera. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. bSn. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. — — A 2. to dip in liquid (to Gael. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. bozza. .of a ball of thread. botel. buts. bulder. * To Bother. turmoil. Du. thing soft batsch. — — . mend. a vessel for holding liquids. maggots in barley. bdt. a cobbler. however. to rage. patch. To confuse with noise. Fyre to botme. to simmer. round lump. an imperfect and bunbutt end. a bott . iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. ubhau. boden . boccia. both. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bosser. It. potra. the first rough draught 2. • Bott. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a bump or swelling. butwo. bouteille. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. noise. — . a botcher of shoes. a humpback. to mend (kettles. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. ' G. baiothsj Sanscr. Pl. Dan. stump. to strike . bethia. bund. a cesspool pass. Jtidu. Fl. botte. kessel-biisser. botch. House-bote. I. boiteal. from the dashing of water. podge. blain. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. e. as a push or windgaU. bodem. butse.^Dec. to podge. noise. See Butt. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. pother.D. It.foundation. bativa. empty or hollow. a knock. fire-bote. G. a boil or swelling Halma. &c. a slop. biissen. — — belly-worm. buideal. boil. pocciar. Parmesan poccia. knock. abbi. the bud of a flower . to from the root bot. abyss. j3i/9os. to stir and mix together. Lat. Both. &c. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. a root. . as Fr. Kil. nets. ON. ba. From the dim. botn. See Bound. especially in Gael. bulderen. botus. abbution. And so we speak of an eruption. is also a bubble. schuhbosser. To Botch. to give a sounding blow. a. oba. — Fl. bile. butsen. Diez. a plague-boil Kil. mess. to make a make a noise. bozza.

a turn or time. limit. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. . is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to make a loud noise. like bobbin. bend.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. E. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. Ni gacha cor bondir. boh. a blow. Fr. signifying in nautical coil of rope. debodinare. mere. Boulderstone. its kind. bonna.— F. the bay of Benin. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. root (see Bottom). Primarily to strike. ing. to resound. baby. The W. butina. Raynouard. buUersten. nave of a wheel bothel. bonzen. geration. And the new stools set out. to thunder. to turn. he fell so that it sounded. Wtb. See To Bolt.D. from AS. Coxcomb. to set bounds. in the absence of actual e. a large pebble. a bouncing apple. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Fr. as a nosegay. to set out by metes and bounds. bunda. turn. boriie. Brem. an de dor bunsen. bons. A Langued. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. 2. See Bunch. round.. Fr. Q. pothel. Bough-pot. nor horn sound. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word.' round and round in similar circles. dial. The Bight of Benin. to spring. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. dial. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Bret. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. boundina.— Boundary. Mid. — — leap. . Bought. Bound. To Bounce. to knock at the door. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. the larger kind of pebbles. has hot. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . bay. bugan. bottom. p. till The dat et bunsede. Du. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. see Boss. So It. From Sw. mcn-bomi. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. bone. a blister. a bound. bamsen. bondir. ni frestelar. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. pimple Richards bothog. bog. of thread. To Bound. a bud. Pr. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. botwm. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. language a * Boulder. bouton. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. to hum. strapping. bolder. by Bujns or Buns. Bout. Ducange. To Boult. as a bout of fair or foul weather. ni motz brugir. the verb bondir in OFr. Bough. thumping. boujtce.'— Charter of K. bunsen. 136. in contrast to klappersten. Alpine Re- — gions. 3. the smaller ones. Bodinare. bodina. Bonny. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. from volgere. winding. gulf. bullra. Webster. bounbounejha. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. — — Bight.' B. bend. — No i ausiratz parlar. to knock. Dan. bugt. jump. as that of E. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. to spring. Bunche. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound.— — — - 88 BOUGH . AS. Nor a centinel whistle. jungen. an occasion. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. to fix limits. Bowlder. came home with his face all to-bounced. knock it sounds again. contusi. a button. bumper. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. signifies a sliort thick mass. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. from bugan. march. — Take care my house be handsome. Sw. to thundering big one hum. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . boss of a buckler. I assure you.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. a boundary stone (men stone). a round body both. and F. a stock. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. carpet.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. bonndn. The branch of a tree. bun. tnndo. whence buj7isen. Halma. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. a boss. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. iv. or Bow-pot. a large stone rounded by the action of water." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Probably from the Celtic root bon. volta. to bow. the hollow of a bay.— Cot. and Prov. . — strike. Pm.>a bout.

to banter or laugh at. bend. fun of one . Eown. . analogous to Fr. Dan. Fr. game. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bovne. to trick. a corToward the garden. a prop. to bow or incline the . a — — . to hum as a bee. bordon. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. a jibe Shaw bururus. beogan. Gael. joke. G. a. whence buysen. bourdon. burt. . buizen. buzz. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. i. staff. flagon. bugne. Immediately from Fr. AS. a. Dan. on. Sc. and that probably from a Celtic root. has also buirleadh. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Bourdon. G. to take deep draughts. ridicule buirte. deceit. from spring. A —Cot. cudgel. A water. Bourdon. biugan. of the ON. bog. bausen. bourd. Dan. sport. bogr. bogna. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. spring. bourde in the same sense. a sing-song. burn. biegen. must be referred to the same root. bog. burd. bogen. burlare. bommen. Bourd. purlBav. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Sw. burreti. the ting of a bell. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. curvature. hence musical accompaniment.. buigen. taunt. a cup kroesen. G. bunaiteach. the Bourdon. bwa. Cot. head Fr. . The foregoing derivation seems. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Gael. Gael. identical with E. to — Hal. It is remarkable that we find vary. The meaning of bound. Bound. tinton. Gael. the shoulder of the vessel. bogha. drink deep. and not in the sense of curvature in general. verb bua. that ON. an arch. Du. g. bending of a joint knie-bug. Sw. bordo. to bow. different modification gives ON. . to mutter. Cot. bugan. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. cheat. to tope W. Dan. Swiss bausen. When used alone it . brummen. it is probable that the It. . to hum. kroes. Du. schulter-bug. are applied to the bow of a ship. . the fixed. shoulder-blade. ^<7r«i?. like quaff. brausen. Goth. a well. bound. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. pausen. address. Chaucer in R. potio. purra. pot. good. a from Du. drone of a bagpipe. or of an Gael. — — .bass of a stringed instrument. Spenser in R.which see. crutch. spelling the word iox bound. sense durd. w. to tope. in Fr. ready. to drink deep. bdgi. beygja. Lat. a drone of a bagpipe. sotich. bending. gurgling. bend Sw. limit. firm. when we speak of. hous^ Man in the Moon. trick. the big end of a club. epaule du vaisseau. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. ready to pike or spear . mockery. a bow. to our bous. It. Comp. Du. explaining Sw. It is the participle past buinn. way ba7n. to draw a deep breath. buys. bug. Fr. to tipple. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Bret. jest. repartee. the burden of a song. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. prepared for. steady. to bulge. And there in mourning spend Sw. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. to pre2. It is bov. — — — A pare. fresh* water. warbling. bue. buyse. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Du. a for New York. on the whole. belly out. btiga. So Sc. bow to shoot with. to draw a deep breath. is. bourdon. a humming noise. schenkelbug. bending. buga. a humming noise Macleod. brunna. to indulge in his cups . also the humming or ON. puff out. a drone or dor-bee. lance. ing. springbiirn. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. a brook. Prov. Borden. bugna. borne. bontS. grumble Sw. G. — probably through this latter signification. their time -With "wailful tunes. bordone. set out. a pot. to take breath.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bonus. pusta. a go to. Burgeon. patesten. Sw. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. as was for. Gael. to take one in. to swell. bagna. to drink deep. drunken. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. a mill-post. saufen. bage.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. bugna. As the Gael. buzzing of bees. souf. pre. burdan. pared. sausen. Sp. whether by sound or gesticulation. a jibe. bov. ruption of bonne. bonitas. . Burden. addressed to. Fr. Bow. Bounty. burdan. language of folly or ridicule.

an inclosure. a drop of pullistaa. globe or spherical body. convexity. ttuJic. Fr. . a buck. tumour. Bower. and on swollen. globular body. to raise the back boll OHG. round bead. buxus. bugyani. a iDubble.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. Du. the skull or brainpan . ON. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. bulcken. sausage. as in AS. a bubble bolli. bossola. Sanscr. Sp. Fr. a round glass or bolg. Hal. utibur. dial. OFr. bukke. belly. the box-tree and articles made of it G. buis. a wine-can . lump . bulka. See MHO. W. a bud. Boll.a. boucle. to puff up pullakka. a croft by a house. to swell. . botulus. buckel. without the and grits. a box. From the other form are G. painter's easel. bola. . busse. swoUei) Lat. pusspan. . bubble. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. the barrel of a gun. Bret. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bolne. ON. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . hollow. Cable. box. Fr. kupu. a parlour. . gut. .). W. a stud. with inversion of the round. buello. bwr. . a sack. Thus we have Esthon.).\s. tumour . bolla. a hen-coop . . a ball. in walking appears in a . biichse. bulne. spherical Dan. bolgna. a box. bur. a. spring as water bugya. a protuberance. iri'iaQ. trestle. buk. bulk compared with Sw. then by the loss of the /. bow. a swelling or rising up. bol. boel. to yield to one. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. knob From the former modification we have bolla. Buckle. crooked. purse. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bog. AS. a separate apartment . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. beuz. * Bowels. to bulge.flask It. passing on stud. PLD. bolle. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. kuppelo. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. zich onder jemand under to him. ask. intrenchment. a bubble Fin. Bohem. cumena-bur. bock. boudin. a bubble. . Lat. signified by forms like Gael. stream forth bugyogni. a sleeping-room . bwra. bocka. Bowl. buga. a ball . ku^o. buchsbaum. bow. . a wardrobe . Sw. peated in Magy. the crop of a bird. as in E.. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. guestchamber . buckelig gehen. is applied to a coach-box. Du. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. to stoop. different position in ODu. to buckle G. convex.) to incline oneself . anything globular. bouge. Dan. boss. acsian. . a chamber swefnbur. Bret. ne. to bubble up. bowel Box. prominence. compared with Fr. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. a bubble. bulb of an onion bolleyield. pocket. a polla. bugna. a ball. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bogla. boor. honse-bur. a bundle. folliculus . OE. a bowl. blister. . hollow place Fr. a hump on the back rossbollen. Gr. biisse. bhugna. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. ^o/a. globular. bulge. the box-tree. bugy. or in e. a little box . . G. to guggle. A Bulk. biiske. the bogna. a box Lat. biicken. water pulli. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. as well as the name of a. . pullo. inclinare se (Kil. . boxtree. &c. hollow wooden case. a box. wisp of straw . buigen. hill. boil. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. . bucka. bulla in aqua. . . kupukka. Hence. budello. the head. fyn. bugyola. The word may probably be identical with Fris. round glass phial. beutel. to make crooked . G. boxtree pusska. kupula. to bend. polla. w. bouzellou. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. a black pudding. mausbollelein. and to a coachbox in particular. make obeisance. . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bog. to stoop biickling. give in to. the head. Du. boss. bol. bowl . or. AS. See Crab. bouellou. puffy. belly of a cask. budel. head of a cabbage. koziel. fata-bur. to bend down. hiidel. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. Sw. bowels. at the e. busskai. Dan. an outhouse AS. a thing of liquid. bending. Sw. the box-tree It. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. to bow buck. Pol. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. . to puff up. bent. bulla. in both senses. In like manner the Pol.cup Du. bugyni. a pot. The / a bow.. bolla. . a knot. a boil. belly. bug. box in both senses. similar shape. (in pass . bur. See Boil. swell.D. A . a box. ON. bhuj. ^o«/«. bollen. . E. . bubble. Bav. heafod bolla. . It is more probably from the G. crown of a hat. ken. bosso.

or defect. ghebreck. It is B. brechen ihm. — . defect. . Kil. boy bouba. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. bracon. a bog or pass Fr. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. moral or physical. damaged board a ship. brae. land batsken. See Brake. bragos. The different meanings of the brageux. brassard. in R. from a root brak. breuque. is a rope holding G.with a noise. dog Sw. braecke. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means.. land spoilt Kil. a box. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. bruxula. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. armour for the arm.nated by dirt. A — — . salsus. bracco. rack. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. MHG. . bask. to want. buah. wristband. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. defect. bou^ba. A to halt between two derivations. corruptse. Pl. to crack. Fr. suppuration. To fight with the fists. braque. breach. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. rakki. to stutter. brechen. and string of his bow. See Broker. then from break. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . baukscheht. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. refuse. One girl. by an overflow of sea water. Pm. break. — . the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. posh. bube. disturb. . in R. Pr. con. brack. youth. to fall. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. In like manner the It.— D. Du. Fr. want. Sp. a pair of braces. bracket. bray. brace on and Du. wrack. bouibo. which has many representatives in the other Europe. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Brack. — — . an languages. brae. Brackish. Prov. to Swiss batschen. brague. flaw. brae. Thus brack. flap. brago. variation of babble. brae. G. murmur. mud. pus. s. Prov. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. root). rakke. race. ON. to smack the hand batschen. isolated part of the text. to box the ears. to give a blow with the fists. To Brabble. lalear-eyed Prov. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist .. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . . the first instancebya physical tie. Boy. V. to give a sounding blow defect. Lett. . to be wanting. a guard to torf. which sigof straining. braca. dog that hunts by scent.puddle. thwack. brek. Heligoneed. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. fuse. Cot. let. Kil. acidus. Sp. his eyes are failing him). pube. It. by the same inversion of J and k. rakka. Swiss Rom. s. beagle. Rouchi Then as an adj. defect Du. briche. La ville ou y avait Brace. Bracket. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. to is derived brestr. I sal slyng.D. Brach. Bracelet. compressing. Swab. priated to the original sense. boiste. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Hdcart. to slap. odorinsecus. boy. Fr. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. bracer. mud. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. as noticed under Box. Prov.. OFr. brakke Bracelet. breptati. taneous talking. boussole. a girl. fault . &c. loud smack. bracil. pupus. Sp. ing from a mixture of salt. brec. want. To brace is to draw together. OFr. Fr. baske. — . It. foul. merely in our mode of considering them. braco. wnzC/J. a braceOFr. braco. fault. bracha. jabber. . The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Kil. Swiss bub. filth . matter. need. brack. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. bracke. breach. bitch Du. and F. It.. flaw. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. ON. braic. Water rendered boubo. AS. want. — ." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. quarrel Bohem. dog in general. salo sive aqua marinS. clay. Brak-goed. . or bracer Cot. BOX To Box. mud. ' — A — — — . brageuses. a sounding blow. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. spaniel. Prov. ratch. a comworld Rayn. cramp-iron holding things together . parallel with OK. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack.D. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. Ptg. and then Pl. a crack. whelp as. confining. babble. a boy pupa. 91 the Dan. to stammer. brek. Lat. G. brostia. dirty. Du.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. the arm. . a bubbling dura del mun. — . Brack. On the same principle from the buksteht. Gael. unmarried man . brakke grund. strike. OE. A brace probis. a grown youth Cimbr. . bue. to burst. braquet. bresta. to give a gebrechen. brabbelen. brasselet.

valiant The head are sumptuous. that will carry no coals. the opposite of which. braies. brave. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. affront. stout. hectoring. brabhdadh. bravache. brachittm. the arm. gallant. drawers. excellent. in numerous dialects. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. braw. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. — . in order to prevent its catching the wind. The meanings of brake are very numerous. expensive. See Brace. subigere. Fris. to boast or brag. bra!. Cot. crash. finery. brag or jet it braguard. se parer de beaux habits. vaunting. swagger. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. braka. to flaunt. gallant (in apparel) also proud. bullying. BRAG Piedm. bragging of his own valour.. — Chaucer.aburst. brake is. smart. brav. spot. Primarily to crack. . Dan. about the hawk's fundament. . boasting. cry. From sprouted corn. brao. was formed brayele. also insolenter se gerere .breeches. a roisterer. gorgeous.Shepherd's Cal. braga. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. . would be to brace. Cot. in the sense of the Lat. also derived Fr. braver. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. binding anything together. braske. brag. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. the feathers ON. braka. bragaireachd. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . brails. Faire le brave. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. bushy . Thus Bret.^Vocab. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. . to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. &c. . confining. make a noise . 2. also tion of this was brayeul. fine. Fr. Brake. bragging. bragd. to stand upon terms. handsome. A — Hal. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. stately. empty pride. ative fellow. Lat.i5nz^. Wallachian bratsou. proud. bragio. an iron for holding Zalli. See Bray. brave. — From W. goods. to make a noise. a noisy talkboasting. crash ON. — Equivalent forms are Gael. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. . to shout. and that from e. gay. To Braid. From brayel. It. i. be noisy . vain glory.hy which this idea is con\eyed. flaunting. breach. gay. AS. breghe.. is identical with Gael. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. courageous. to rattle. brave. bully . be found. well-dressed. boast. Langued. . Haldorsen Gael. braga. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). power. braggard also valiant. breagh. Bret. blusterer. flaunt in fine clothes . to sprout malt. subduing. a carriage for breaking in horses . crack. to swagger. to brail up a sail. vanter une chose. beautiful. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. dhbrailler. used in the sense of force. Chaucer. showy bravery. w. Bray. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . fine. idle talk. h-avare and Fr. brave. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. Lith. Hence E. brake in the sense of constraining. Cot. gayly dressed. braicli. To Brail. Turk bazu are used in both senses. or by gaudy dress and show. Sp. to cord a bale of tie up. —Spenser in R. bravacherie. as the type of exertion and strength. se pavaner. brae.—— . bravo. compressing. It is certain that the word for arm is. braske. brag. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . Bret. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. 92 Cot. Brag was then used brisk. braguer.%. . to boast of his own worth. or from braie itself. an inclosure for cattle . Thus we are brought to the OE. brabhdair. de Vaud. Rom. Fr. splendid. Walloon bress. The plant y^r«. to strut. to Rouchi brMer. swaggerer. to crack. The meanings included under — Bragget. se donner trop de licence. riches. breghen. To Brag. braszketi. Hecart. brave. bravado j Fr. Brail. and it is very likely that the root brak. fine. slight modificajoining the two legs. Brain. breyne. — A — . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. noisy ostentation. braegenj Du. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. fine. brazo. brayete. is Cot. Dan. strength.explosion. From Fr. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . ^Brave. braga. Sc. called by our braggard.^ Sp. torture . to unbrace or let down the breeches. Brake.

skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening.D. Swiss Rom. a swampy Mid. brolium. murtaa. braeken. brook. a fen. cetur. brook. conSo in G. a spinning-wheel. Dan. Dan. bregar. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. broken fratta. brog or brake. braquer un canon. el arco. ing of flax or hemp. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. a thicket. Biglotton. casser le \va. properly braking or subduing them. is formed murd. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. word. brogille. braecken het vlasch. Gael. signifying to sweep. OFr. bregar brake. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. for — Due. cover G. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. murran. In ON. broor bushy place Hal. flachs brechen. Dan. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. to pound. is braukti. Pl. Voc. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. thicket. glebas subigere.bracan. de Vaud. subigere. to head must be bit. thing is brought under control. to bend a bow. e. to break. as in the case of horse-breaking. G. to break. We — . Corrfeze bredgea. any thicket of brakes. To the same bend a bow. brake. gebroge. brambles. It may be sus- . bregille. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. frangere linum. BRAKE to external force. a horse's a horse's twitch. Fr. brook. Brake. to bend or direct a cannon. to bray in a mortar. marsh. to subdue. gilum. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. in northern climates. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to The ON. referred brake. Prov. iSpsx". The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. gebrUche. breaking in the operation. break of such a kind. a brace on board a ship. a stream. farinam in mortario subigere. In the case of the ne. to break or fracture. nemus. brambles. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. to fracture. In the sense of a thicket. watered. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. Lat. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . as in Sp. gebroge. to harrow (Lat. Fr. — Fl. to rub. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. dial. bushes. and Lat. as in Du. bredza. braken. briser. to knead or mix up in a mortar. broilium. low wet land bruch. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. break flax PLD. Fr. been confounded with the verb break. or A A ' . braca. have thus Du. the original meaning of G.. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. breuil. brushwood. brage. it is not surprising that the word has here. might come to signify a swamp. broillet. t° moisten. It. a harrow. . to row. broeck. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. to exert force in different ways. The Fr. broyer. —Ovid. pasture. —Bracken. as well as in the case of the e. in usus braca. riguus. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. game. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. gebroge. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. the lever by which the string was drawn up. tris). broil. braka. gebrUche. It. to stiffen against Taboada). — — . gebiisch. brak is a frame in which strip. bush. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. and G. Brake. 3. murrokko. and when once thrown down. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. In like manner Lat. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E.' It. to distinct.D. brage. brega. ^raca. or a wood in a marshy place . brego. brog. copse-wood. 2. tnurdma. to brush. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. brcekke. P&. fratto. quarry from Fin. a marsh. bush. briers. brog above mentioned. Sp. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. marsh or swamp. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. bruch. or overthrow of trees by the wind. brake. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. Gr. where from Esthon.— . grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE.

what is cast out as worthless. breme j Sw.D. a thick bush. bran. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. ground full of briers. a briery plot. also pfriemkraut. burning brennen. snotty . . Thus we have w. constrain. Bret. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. brein. brog. Bret. sedge burkni. brass. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Brank. a burning fragment of wood. heath (Bret. . bretnel. Port. nasty. brugek. . young buisson fort epais. or with It. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . bren. a shoot. and E. a bud It. branchia. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brok. bruch. bruk. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . iii. It. — . is the draff or excrement of the com. So Swiss gaggi. . brin (as It brano). the bull-finch. . dirt . a roA. broussaille. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. . a bud. G. thicket of brambles Cot. &c. stink . gebroge. braeme. w. sawdust. heath. bracken or fern . The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. gebriiche. bushes. Sir Topaz. Fr. brosst. brenn. pected that brake. bruskoad. brank. Fr. . cabbage sprouts Fl. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. a shrub from Bret. G. broembel-CBppel. It will be found that shrubs. Gael. Thus in Lat. Brand. Bramble. brank. from Servian pnit. breanan. chaff. brenn hesken. the thorn apple or stramonium. broccoli. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. Fr. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. The naof strain. . a heath. brenda. also a marshy low ground or fen . Diez. brem. Pl. to gripe. from gaggi. restrain. a shrub . bramble Du. as. titio. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. Bav." The bmno a • on . The same form becomes in It. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. — branca. breun. a halter. —Ducange. young twig {brom-beisser. brejo. Grisons bruch. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. Branch. as AS. a vine twig Bav. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. bruch. In like hrst. brang. a bridle or bit . Brancare. brambles. Bret. pfriemen. brom. sprouts. Thornas and bremelas. G. bit by bit. Broom. a bud. Russ. to burn. to -brugen. Then by comparison with claws or arms. clutch. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. &c. brughera. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. . brake. Rouchi bren d'orMe. Bret. thorns and Gen. brwnt. from virga. wood composed of twigs. apiece orbitbrandone. from Lat. brin. But we find It. Fr. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . brano. E. ear-wax mud. Pl. w. branche. brouskoad. brug). brancas. a shoot or twig. branco. the branch of a tree. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. bren. broom. a firebrand. a dunghill. sweet broom. or ling. a rod or twig. compress. from brand. berneux.G. bruk. Bran.D. to or iron. excrement. brin d. Piedm. bro7n. brandr. Serv. hallier. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a small deri\'ation . briars. in the sense oi fern. ordure . brarn. brug. brushwood. cack. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. brenna. 1 8. broom. heath ON. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. broem. that is to say.. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Dan. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Gael. and waste growths. AS. piece of anything. As ON. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. piecemeal brindelles. bromboli. a single plant of heath. in the same sense. virgultum. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. brandmurk. or other plants of a like nature. brous. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. from brug. bruk. braam. broust. See Brush. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. prufye. brandiiialil. i. heath. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. heath. it glitters — — . heath. and thence a shoot. pfriem in the sense of an awl. pfropf. bronbo. 2. to bridle. bran. brandello. G. to brank.). It. A mark made by burning. brand. That beareth the red hepe.

du Roi et laine. brouir. hot Fr. brandende wijn. Chron. to dash. to make display . Port. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. E. firebrand. weinbrenner. brush. to burn. a round dance. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . N. The corresponding form in Gael. brastlian. Chron. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. make an outcry. To brase AS. all. Brangle. G. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. then brandr. Jam. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Fr. a fragment. braser. to shake. billet. forms brasil. firewood. to murmur. comes from thence. brangle or brawl in E. bum. brausen. To brand. to roar. plained by Florio. and branchis shaiand D. brazil. to totter. bransella. brus^. to glisten or flash. brasa. make a — . splinter. ist.pan of coals. to hurl with great force. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Lye. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to quarrel. not. With top trimbling. and scold. brascct. branler. a brusler. Brasil. brane-wood. spirit distilled from wine. So. 59. crackle. brasa. to rustle. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Guill. to confuse. incendium. crackle. or in stick. Manx bransey. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. live coals. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. as Fr. ish. bragia. bruciare. AS. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. De Goes. brustle. Du. to shake The word brisil.. brasil. Milan. prasseln. In the same way the set on fire . to distil . braza. set on fire. e. as Jamieson explains it. to bicker 2nd. flagrans. bracia. a To Brandish. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Fr. Fr. Formerly brandy-wine. gebrannter wein. Fr.well. bracea. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. so. braise or hot coals. to French brawl or brangle. Kil. to brangle. Thus the bound up again. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. a pan of hot coals. — ting to confusion. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. brennen. urens. bragale\ wood. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. noise. before the discovery of America in the brandir. the colour than hitherto known. became ashes Pied. bruan. to sound of the Fr. from to vociferate. brandolare is exbrandish. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. brandigh. braise. bresil. was in use Fr. conbillet. It. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. bransle. given to the country. as again by well as the blade of a sword. to burn. to blaze. brazeiro. It. to shake. — . to solder iron. morsel. Sw. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. to brandle. is bntan. fire-wood. V. shake. to crackle . brin. perplex. n. to make shine with shaking. embraser. E. G. faire fracas. Diez. eldibrandr. hoisting to the fall. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. branla. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. The name Brandy. brandiller. Fl. the spelling to kindle. — . also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. WaUon. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. stake. braise. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. branler. glowing embers . briiler. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. — . Fr. to and fro in the hand. to Bailey. bryne. bruire. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to brustle. apparently very distinct from each other. to shog. brasca. a roaring fire. aqua ardens. Braser. It. Gris. The tre brangillis. distilled wine. a stick. Bret. Brase. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. brasca. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. in Marsh. Ija. to brandle or The It. Bailey. from used in dyeing cloths. Sw.^Brandle. brand. and bruir. brandiller. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. Hume in brand in ON. d'Angl. to burn. bra?ier. to braze or lute. to make sense of a bright red dye. totter. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. bruzi. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. put.

the buttocks. boutures. — Deutsch. tasce. squall. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . to tear piecemeal. a lath. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). ni autres choses sur Due. Sc.— Fl. baltresca. pan- — Rayn.D. branle. cob. bretays). Brass. Wall. as lattice. to copper. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. a battle-girdle. bmhon for brado7i. solder. . equivalent to the Du. slakker-bortchen. Math. It. OHG. brandillo. Gael. KiL Prov. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. bratid calf of the leg. slibro {neita. ON. bronzare. Pm. contignatio. The verb is probably derived from the brase. bradon. frequentative of braire. a clout. bronzacchiare. fraiche. frame of laths. Fris. luncheon. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. Hist. It. brdto (ace. brailler. Sup.' Hal. a lump of flesh. 1224. as criailler of crier. OFr. Brawn. coassatio. a parapet. Dan. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. bras. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. neita girl). a fortification. whether contracted from brabble. a cloak. 1156. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Brangle. AS. Certainly a little girl. brettys. Cot. breyon de kinds of . slut. &c. to scold . ^Altieri. apron. a mantle. braiio. See Brandish. as a brawling brook. pil. bribe de viande. Brat. braoilich. brass. a Lap. bratdn). bruir.^ — Sverris Saga. brat. The same correspondence is seen between It. bronze. Cologne broden. roar. bartisan. berd. slibro. Pisana in Mur. bas morceau de viande brawhng. braede. Fr. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. burning coals. a patch of cloth. a — A from the confused noise. a wooden tower. A. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Westphal. to shake. calf of the leg.' BRASS BRAY et AS. 2. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. brett. calf of the leg. So also See Brag. then a parapet. bratach. to talk at bralle op. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. cloth. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. at brasa. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. rag. Fr. bralle. Brave. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. and bronzo. as scrawl from scrabble. bartising. G. Du. boarding being sbranare. brat. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. braser Fargent.propugnaculum. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. braion. a lump. bretesche. —-Jam. le repasser un peu sur la braise. — . lat'te. Sp. to solder.— Diez. from Sc. as rashers upon quick burning coals. to Gael. Circumeunt cibertesca.— Braid. especially that used in the working of iron . borderinge. Bailey. Paris. Fr. Brattice. from branler. or on the top of a wall. a lump of flesh. any piece. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Lorraine bravon. Brawl. bradlete. a rag . a contempt- banner. See Bray.96 Roquefort. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. A land of dance. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. a slabbering-bib. For the application to a^child compare Bret. trul. a rag. bran. A. brat. A dispute or squabble. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. to carbonado. ship. Many gambes.D. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. or whether it be from Fr. braon. bratidone. Bartizan. the calf of the leg. to braze.walle — Pr.— Remade. in the first instance of boards. a rag . is The word — uous name for a woman. esbraotier. bred. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. brces.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. ' A vraale. muscular parts of the body.D. Kil. deblaterare. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Jam. strepitus 2. Cot. The muscular part of the body.brettysing. W. brazen. saillies. from Fr. a contemptuous name for a young child. OFr. braeye. a. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. It . to cry. buttock Sc. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. Swiss bradle. ferruminare. braodhlach. Betrax of a —^Jam. P1. a plank or board. noise. a loud noise. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. 368. breyon. breyon d'chaur. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. discord. —^Bronze. bretesque. bransle. Florio. breteque. flesh of a leg of pork. I. Mundart.

upbraid. rustle. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. &c. soft . to resemble. to break. a crash. the clash of ai-ms Dan. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. brot. turn. a brack. brice. braa. ser. G. cyprinus latus. Cot. a brake for hemp or flax. plait. breach. ON. bragd — ON. a breach Cot. Lat. to break. crash. The same He might don us both a villany.^ Fr. G. the sound — of arms. to roar as the sea. D. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. breche. to crash. the sword was out break. brechen. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. &c.fracas. bragd is also applied nets. paxog. to snatch. to cry out. to tear Bret. to bray in a mortar. braa. on. to rumble. a mill. W. brak. . to The cup was uncoverid. disturbance. ing. as the voice of the ass. brugier.ch. starts crackling up. braid. to crash. to sound very loud and very harshly. to roar. as the notion of turning crack. Q. bradar. V. to smack or the eye. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. make a disturbance. bru. paste or dough. AS. vapna-brak. gestus. to bray like an ass. twist. Bret.ear rog. braea. or cry out loudly . or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. — koa. i. breuan. Fr. V. 2. abraid. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. rattle. to bawl. a rag f . kind. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. weave The ON. bregar. brak. brand. regi. brame. Then is simply. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. crepo and E. The Lat. And with a traid I tumyt me about. appearance Hal.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. — . at a braid. to braid the hair. braire. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. From the or brack in a wall. Breach. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to braid. F. and to signify the fracture itself. a rent. a . V. broad. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. bruire.. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. Fr. verb to break. Bread. relation is seen between Lat. or wound. D. is .y. brikan. bregda. to cry out. fragor. Bread. to work up in a mortar. D. father. ON. rangere.' To Bray. The ON. to start. &c. to t. I'll live and die a maid. to N. to the seijauntes. to break. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. resound . crash. to knead. roar. R. 7 . riAprjyvvfu. to break Fr. E. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. OE. to bellow. instantane. broyer. Dunbar braessem. bragr. to rub Fr. and fracasously. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. crackle . Fin. and frangere. rogi. Prov. with or without a final d. See Brake. baiyl. Wal. bregar. . — — — explained motus loud noise. bray. Swiss bratschig. Then. Chaucer. R. yell. . On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. Cat. to cry Port. to braid. k. Du. in Jam. to resemble him. augnabragd. Ppvxia. mos. ybrayid. braidar. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. at braga eftir euium. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. 145. noise . roar. yell. fish. to braid acquires the sense of bend. will. To rub or grind down Sp. &c. Gr. to resemble. Prov. fractus j Gr. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. braidir. to have the lineaments of one's ON.g. iU-favouredly — in Jam. explaining a very obscure application of the E. to rush. Chaucer. ^p&xia. at once. e. which has given much trouble to commentators. imitate or resemble one. the miller's dog. Bailey. and make a hideous noise. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. To Break. brage.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. to scold. to roar or bellow. Goth. And at a braid he gun it bende. bruzir. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. as OE. father.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. bratsche. a wink. to pretend. Beryn.

Gael. Breeze. brok. — And blood.98 borst. to feize or feaze. trembling. AS. Swiss AS. G. dial. — — strument for smacking. bremse. brisciare. to crush to break. . are in like manner ' . . Bret. breeze. met de bridse slaan. bratscher. breson. Swiss brdtsch. from brace. as in the case of twitter. crush. to be misty and cold. breinse. griller. broden. Breeze. OFr.D. of trees. sprouted corn. and brought beneath between the legs. brache. . . Sw. brasiare. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. binding. to murmur. applied to shivering. brisoler. to fry . brimme. de Vaud./ssus. simmer. with It. bre- I'os qui bresole. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech .t.). to crackle. to hum. their stings draw . Dtyden. rubbish. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. a cool wind. a cold and windy mist or frost . the breech or buttocks. murmur. corresponding to G. We bragezj on. point to G. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. breme. brugga. braich. bryi^ga. Du. as commonly explained. . brasiuiii. switch. body brostia. Gl. b}-as. briosat'. to bind. Lat. braux. Breast. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. brut. Prov. Fr. einem de britze geven. chillness or shivering. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brasser. Du. broiiwen. instead of being derived from 'La. sheep's droppings bruss. siibligar. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. brijsen. bris. bruc. a gadfly. from ligare. grill. as the G. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. bruise. brinisa. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. a box. and other rubbish dibris. braucn. E. braga. braies. brustia. broil. of straining. to rattle (as hail). polenta. forms analogous to E. broza. rubbish. brise. britze. braies. to fry Then from a Gl. vapour. the soler. briosa. Isidore and Tatian. E. Compare OE. G^nev. Russ. Du. Briss and buttons. to brew. Piedm. brezzare. Dan. Hence the Lat. brire. i5r(Z^. G. Bret. may be from the wurh fesser. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. or the blow itself. fail. from AS. brciz. brodel. as. but more probably the E. — . in Schilter. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brossi!. braia J OFr. Hume in Jam. and E. brcEth. Goth. bris. bris de charbon. brissle. Bracha. to brew. Originally probably the word signified steam. then to broil. brdtschen. — Brist. to bray. Gael. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Biglotton. bragues. bruzir. — See Broth. to roast. scent. G. Du. QNtsterviald) pritschen. breath. to burst. Fr. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Lat. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. bruzun.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to whip. to break. zare. bracecs . braguier. to shiver for cold. a twitch for a horse. bresilles. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. briste. brusc. an odour. G. a crum Du. AS. de bridse geveii. to resound. braca. Rom. brezling. trusts.vare. to buzz. coaldust. so AS. representing the sound of a blow. subligaculum. Fris. simmering. little bits of wood Berri briser. The Breech (Prov. an into shiver. brison. bra. /esses. to breech. remains of leaves. fastening . chilly. bridsen. noise. singing bone. Fr. murmur—Vocab. Breeches. peitschen. orts. brimsa. briig. malt. properly to crackle. . fitzen. also to chill and shiver with cold. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. So ON.'— Gl. the dry spines of furze broken off. &c. It. a to lay fly-flap. xyligogio castigare. brosame. windy withal. — . bark Fr. a crum. brcekur j It. burst. forms. Piedm. —Briss. braie. break. w. a horse's twitch. morsel. clout for a child. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brisd. grillare. grillen. Breath. as by the Sc. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. The Teutonic verbs. drawers. brijselen. Bruise. brezza. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. briiz. breost. brumtnen. brew. a smack. one on the breech so that (klatschet). a girdle. cloven. G. the bust. — Halma. are related to Prov. as. Gl. Brize. brist. braga. to simmer. of E. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. a cramp-iron for holding things together. Prov. braciarc. To Brew. braca. to smack. Dev. malt. briosa. Breeze. Swiss Rom. See Brick. bandage or truss for a rupture. bretilles. brodem. PI.britschen. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board.

a lump of bread. buskins. buckler J ON. from bit. W. owned also propriate. berwi. Lang. jetty. AS. Walach. a quoit of stone. bruskr and buskr. Thom. bribe de pain. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. funeral. E. and that from It. E. pier. with transposition of the r. ibrukkti. from Bret. to beg one's bread.It. pavement brolegge. guma. birbante. brood. Bribe. Diefenbach com. of burial. it is applied to the letter to OE. ter-in-law. two-masted vessel. the marriage si in brigata. . brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. Brique. in the sense of OSw. and ODu. bricou. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. . to break. the newly. a heath. brahi. fit. barren land priodas. a cheat. groom (mab=:son). a bit. Hence OE. from Bridegroom. to prepare. boiling up brocoliere. but to a paved road. from the Normans. brocaly. bryd-eale. A bribe is A — — arval. Pro(merch=:maid). or brizo. any jot or crum. AS. arf-ol. the equivalent of to the dial. Brier. fragment. troop. whence berw. Brick. Goth. In the patois of briccia. In the G. fervere. daughheath. OHG. a little king's writs. braut. AS. . So in The Prov. to tlie brico. bro. pavement. malt. to break to pieces bricalio. httle bit. betonica. to meet together. sponsa. Ducange. G^n^v. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Due. has briguer. brug. a crum. then the marriage itself. gf2o. It. Ihre. fastningar-ol. imprint. It — is Kil. Applied ous words derived from break. bruyere. ment of anything broken. A — A — . — . Grisons bruch.groom. to boil. especially to a letter or command. broken victuals. but probably Bricoteau. Gael. Priodi. breve or brevis. brukkas. to Isrew.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede..pritil .Fr. In E. bridelj OHG. bruith. Bridal. Bridal. lipdZu}. son. brique de pain. AS. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. . Pol. to press in. is still used in this sense. brigata. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. AS. bidsel. broosekens. It. E. bro. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Flor. . Bridle. to appropriate. conjux. graf-ol. bruk. to boil. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a sow. to pave. bulicame. beaten way Dan. brA.rough with brambles and bushes. Fl. a Bride. — — — — — — . Brigade. brasser. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. nurus G. frayer. twopares Lat. a bush. a lump of bread. pavement Lith. Mid. . jipaaaiii. a fragment. Gael. one's ovin. a boiling.privatus. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. brar. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . brere. division of an army. the Fr. Brief. Brewis. AS. Fr. served (Patois de Bray). sugga. a bride. as. to circulate. brutg. company. briwo. brigantine. feast. a married man guma. If the foregoing were not so clear. a heath brughera. brughiera. ap. bread. Cot. thick appropriated. Trovarfor bride-ale. Dan. ON. bruk. privus. to press. piece of burnt clay. bride. priod-ferch. — . brigade. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Lat. E. to rub. betony brulicame.bergantino. a crum. and berweddu.gfiugga. feast of espousals. bygga. Rouchi brife. brittil. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. consort with. a rogue. ' . Diez. BRIGADE dead. to brew. collect bits of food. fraoch. bruarium. a bride Brig. to boil. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. remarkable that the Gr. ' — . OSw. a proprietor. Neumann. The origin of the word is the w. brakes of high-grown ferns. malt. bryd-gutna. corresponding or letter. brieden. a rogue . brilt. Hdcart. a wedding priod-fab. bitill. Bridge. broken bread. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. bably contracted from brigantine. . bretonica. bridge. brau. So It. a married man or woman Lat. briw. to stamp. a briole. stone-bridge bnikkoti. broken. appropriate. birbone. crew. w. as so. peculiar. bara briw. briicke. bribour. a lump of bread briber. bricge j G. a brig or priodor. Sp. berwedd. The Sw. heath. Fr. grug. a man. married. a fragment. . bo. from the last 99 of which. to pave brukkti. Fr. See Broth. bride. brice. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Du. Gl. brygga. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. priod. . masted vessel. a beggar. hlafes brice. briiths.

— Beowulf. Wilista. In the same way to strive is. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. A. bright bearhtm. and. brigan. praht. brigare. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . bracht. etincelle. necessary business. Heo — song That AS. — A A . brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. The E. Xa/iTTii). Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. the gleeman's song. In Fin. — brigante. with respect either to sound or colour. and hence be explained glampi. to glitter. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Schmeller. Florio. brigandare. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. to cry 'Schmid OE. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . bregar. may play the pirate or thief at sea. a noise. noise.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. tumult. glbram. in the first instance. schiteren. Du. in the sense of a robber. briga. speech. representing a sudden noise. clear. Flor. See Brake. From ON.' The passage from the sense of a light. at a later period. AS. clangour. So G. brdgen. also called briganders. clear. on his — own account. XafXTTpoQ. Gr. willata. The primary meaning of Sp.' The sense of strife or combat express. briga. It. brak.pracht. Bright. inde squammatus. tuilahtaa. splendour. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds.dorem clarum reflecto. Lat. and secondly. sound. beorht. Brilliant. cange has 'Veles. is easily understood. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It.' torum. to sound. kilistua. to resound. Goth. lay was sung. Brigand. 1351. twinkling. Swab. to bend a bow It.D. Gall. The Ir. tinnitum clarum movco. clang. a small light pinnace pro. splendour. and to associate with them. clarus. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. Mid. to strive for. brcEhtin. splcnornd de brigandine. the bench-notes resounded. and led it away. brawl. that of Fr. a glittering. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. clear sound. moment. to rove. tion. glir. —Capgrave. — brigante. to shine. from hall. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. clear. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus.glampa. Owl and beorhtian. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. jurgia. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to contend with another. bairhts. tinnitus. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. strife. to ring. hell. to glamr. — Due. tinkle. and. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. rover either by sea or land. bragen. kii:'a.' in Due. . dine. a pirate. glitter. 1654. \oice. glamm. — Brigantine. to rob. Beorktode bene sweg. OHG.clare ^tinniens. labour. to make a loud noise. and the E. a sound. It. . briegen. to shift for with care. in later times a robber or highway-man. — Briganbriga. splendens . brebrigare. Adelung. biartr. secondarily. Due.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. to shine. bryhtm. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. transparent.— . — — . and ner me hit iherde. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. rixa.Lat. shriek with laughter. bray. Brigata. show the origin of Lat. It. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. manifest ON. outcry. to cry. wilella. there are many armour. They or brigantini. clare lucens. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. riis ' — Chron. brigant. brigare. himself to serve men of merit. 312. to piracy. a brigantine. malandrini. It. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Bav. glamra. braid. pugna. — Probably then to strive. loo BRIGAND lor.shine. the grew high. A strepere. and diligence. seems to be to exert force gar el area. then. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . dine. combat. schateren. squamma . a spark. to reservavit.

post. brimmen. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. bramar. to resound. Rugere. ardere desiderio. small gravel. identical with passion.— Brinded. to shine. os qui bresole. bray as an ass bramire. to glitter . finds the Fr. sparkle. with an initial br instead of gr. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. It. from bringe. briller. brennistein. brastlian. Wtb. kimista. Rayn. to fret . a streak. on. brunft. crackle . rugire (cervorum. spraing. as of meat in broiling . bremmen. rugire. Fr. bramer. ter. kimina.' d'etre marie . In the same way Sw. beam. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. . border. . gresiller. have then in Fr. kommata. Subo. that the original meaning of the Sc. margin. excited. to make a crackling noise. gresiller. Closely connected is OE. to crackle. the meaning is transL' amour. grisser. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. AS. In Fr. chime).). reecho. bresoler (Gloss. brow of a hill. komista. barmr. sonitum edere bremen. perent. brim. to creak. fimbria) . bramar. to long for a thing. The E. frequently interchange. leonum). a stick. brissle. 1 1 64. to sparkle. breziller. border. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. 1. Brindled. to sound deep or hollow. to roar. to parch. as well as bl and gl. the edge. G. brumft. breme. AS. brand-krossottr. to shimmer. Streaked. kajata. s. — Rim. breziller. FJ. brame. Said of swine when in heat. E. to glitter distance . kiimottaa. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. ON. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. Lith. burning stone. brummen : de soge brummet. the verbs Flor. The expression is now confined to the sow. and 1. is used of raging. ous. brullo. barm-cloth or barmskin. It. Fl. kimmaltaa. surface of the ocean. burning. briller. . Langtoft. and corresponding to these. to shine. Brim. — — So Fr. originally the lap folding over the breast. earnestly . hence the bosom. Sw. to utter cries. grullo. glisten. broiled.preni. crackle. bry7ie. bar.ioTiviS acutus. lap. briller (related to each other as OFr. pMiller. the heat of animals. of the eye. lap of a garment . striped or streaked. to broil. broil . to roar. which seems identical with rim. a borDu. Sc. ling noise and a sparkling light. The identity of ON. border. to shake. 754. an apron. vigorHal. noise made by meat in broiling. brame. ON. der. ring. fringe . — — — . verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. The meaning of the Fr.— BRIM . ON. rut. Dief. grisler. A . to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to make bilbil). bremmen.) brimi. griller d'impatience. the singing of Sodom — — . brmdottr. fringe (Lat.' Elyot in Way. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. to creak. whence bilbil-goda (literally. as in Langued. — g. Thus Lat. brim Magy. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. coloured in stripes. 154. — . (poet. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. bremas. Brem.D. brama. to shine. grdzil. Hence with an initial s. to quaver with the voice. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. fire. Supp. to twinkle. Kil. griller. cross-barred in colour. the sow is brimming. rym^.its vent in cries and roaring. or violent action. the lap or bosom. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. Prov. : ' — bone). brdnnsten. brandr and Fr. tience. fierce. parched. Sc. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. s. to crackle. lip of a vessel. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. komottaa. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. bryn. Dan. Tresiller. a rod. bramire. to . brummen. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. from brandr. to glitter. griller). Swiss Rom. breme. whether of desire or anger. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. brezil. To Brim. Brimstone. as is the case also with Pl. shine. edge Pol. the eye-brow. brillare. Tutschek. voux. Du. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. also to reflect. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. clangor tinniens. a border. a long. furious. brommen. barm. brisoler. to wish or covet. brinfire. glit. It. the heat of animals. greDiet. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). vattubryn. dial. sprainged. to storm. to burn. brant. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. greedily to covet Cot. uses bresoler (il bresole fir.

against the grain . brindelles de balai. to roar. broccare. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. the surf. Du. Brym. to spur. man's throat. quick. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. ribrezzoso. /3pE^m. to burn. to set up one's birse. brime. . brich. to goad. Prov. rebursiis. to spur. . bronchus. brim. the surf. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. Bret. the twigs of a besom. trembling. stitch. emotions which produce it. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. brissko). Boh. a stitch brocher. a clasp. brezza. brisk in taste. a bud. birssy. Fr. brisciare. grim. is to erect the hair. to break. a stormy brimsea . strong itself. Salte sand is called brimsand. Zeuss. sprocco. borzos (struppig). To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Brine. a morsel. Sc. bringe. hot-tempered. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. wine of a sharp. brcit. breast. Abroacli. borzen. sour. Brisk. Breeze been connected with the Sc. i. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum.' Nat. brytan. bricho (with the diminutives. brusk. birsle. briser. or — . crabbed. sprouts. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. shoot. Fr. broca. a morsel . to scorch. as unripe fruits. e. and Sc. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. a fragment. It. Compare also E. from break. to begin upon it. Walach. fantas'* tical. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. brioshko. Brickie. to broil. brodden. brog. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. bresk.g. thick — A elastic hair. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. Sw. Brooch. brocar. brot. brandello. briota. angry. to shoot. p. a skewer. Then as the effect of shivering. brockle. It. Berri. setting the hair on end. roar of the sea saltr. Alfr. bringue. a bit . because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. sticking up . spur. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. spricka. Hence ribrezzare. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. . Fris. a crum. rude. bruched (Fr. to shiver for Sold or for fear. an awl. Gl. brocco. 222..procio. Antiq. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. brichet. Brisket. breaking of the waves brim sior. . birstle. Palsgr. whence may be explained the Sc. coli. or the full • . a belly. broccata. to stitch. Brocade. humorous.Lat. Brittle. brittle. Russ. It. is called a birssy day. are used in the sense of brittle. suddenly angry. to turn up the point of anything. Fr. brimme. Sp. reburrus. brickie. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. brijn (Kil. to bud. as a noun. — — . brezzare. Bohem. ' . fierce. craw of a bird. — . In the N. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. Sc. Du. to crack. of E. breaking out into growth. to put one in a rage . a bud. metaphorically. a rebours. and forms on. of astonishment. — in Due. broca.D. from brande. startling. a rod or twig. Fr.rcendij'i. . G. as. bros. and. Da. Port. rebrousser. Bret. lively. briocho. as. britar. to thrust. Ptg. to broach a business. Fr. brddj Goth. a brooch. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot.. to stab Gael. It. and hence. brote. The Pl. from AS. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Dan. chest. birse. borst. broc. expression. brittle. a slip or sprig of an herb . to break. like the Broad. brissle. a deluge. b. fiscbryne. bryne. brin. brusque. has under It. ruffling. to stick. fragile. Pectusculum. very salt brimi. brimhliod. a cold and windy mist or frost. a shoot or sprig. smart taste. See Brand. brust. brusco. 'V^. birs. apt to break. sharp. brim. britar. flame. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). bringe traced through the brano. NE. Gr. to spit. flames. ' breast. Fr. Lat. . braidsj ON. Hal. Russ. bros. See To Brim. brocciare. a button broche. breidr. form bris. setting the hair on end compare It. bruskett. broche. — A . eager. prick with Sw. ON. brocher. a spit.). — bryme. See Spread. brim (poet. borstel. to break. bruckle. Commonly explained as from Fr. Cot. Prov. byrst. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break.'— Vita'abbatum S. Liquamen vel garum. bryde.). saulmeure. harsh vin brusque. as. a projecting tooth It. brocchus. briota. to birstle. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. a peg sbrocco. britchet. cK) the . rash. Prov. aculeus. a brad or tack. the brisket or . brocco. Mid. Swiss to stand out . Formerly written brotil. bristly . to set it a going. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. sprout. Bristle.

brizen. brychau. creak. brouFr. — — . to crackle. to burn. brusler. streaked. a freckle. E. embroidering. broil. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. a flock or Gael. b?-od. bramowanie. bmsciare. brasuole. brocco. prasseln. Thus brod. carbonado. a brecJi. bustling. trouble. parti-coloured. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. ornamented with a raised pile. Surrey in R. brasiller. blusters. Gael. a To Broil. So from Pol. shuffle. — Gower in It. W. Ptg. Sc. brodio. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. Cot. brooked. A fried or boiled steaks). two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. hart of two years old. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. noise. here. Bret. brocart. tumult broighleach. brustle. the shoot of corn. forming to jumble. bram. borprick. spots. v. initial .. dar seems derived from borde. bawling. houx. It. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . from the white. brod. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. Florio. to knots or loops. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. To roast upon hot coals. frecSee Brawl. to crackle. or salted fish on coals. birsle. frocadura. precisely analogous to the Sc. with Sc. broud. B. Compare G. to spur. bruler. . a border ornamented with gold. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brusuole. broice. to crackle. noisy. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. briz. braird. a flake of snow sion. brullare. brucach. scorch. or It. q. broc. Contracted from Fr. a peg. a mole. — . broiled. From direct imitation of Brock. Sp. stump. bordo. thread. brych. to prick. or glowing coals broged. broukit. border ornamented with silk. brasiller. Fr. and bord or bred. agree in being the extremity of a thing. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. broil. the line of development has been something different. atoms . Fr. or roast on the braise. Brocket. prod. to broil. to darn. brastlian. Hal. to scorch. broc. piebald . is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. A badger.sound. Sc. gold and silver. freckled. to crackle as a shell in the fire. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. bordar. and w. briefh. knobby . brindled. rinj'. a point. a fallingThe sense has been out. embroidery. a quarrel. to boss. point to an origin in Bret. a border. to stud broccoso. to burn. — Fl. trouble. to embroider. The ON. breard. brocach. a confused streaked face of the animal. Gael. to parch or broil. border. Broker. bj'oil. a prick. ToBroider. brasbrasciuolare. has grisser. brasolare.tumultuous. — The proper sense is that of Fr. It of br the Fr. The Bret. kled breac. parched. . badger . brucilare. Dan. confound. fundamental origin. R. a badger.. tufted ornaments. broccato was used to signify stuff . sting. 103 embroidered. spotted. Compare also AS. whence broccare. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. or snag. to streaked or speckled in the face. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. AS. onbryrdan. hurly-burlies.— B. broccuto. a brim. brerd. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. sparks E. age was termed a pricket. Cot. grislement. — brissle. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. It. a brouhaha. to On the other hand the Sp. to instigate. tori shows that. and AS. gresiller. a b?-ustolare. Icnotty. Here to ornament with needle-work. broglio. parch. motes. to embroider. to crackle. Grisons brascla. rustle. brouda. speckled. Fr. broighlich. speckled. silkes-borda. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Ihre has guU-bord. margin. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. storms. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. ciare. of pointing out their latent defects. a freckle. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. parti-coloured. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. froco. an edge. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. grullo. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. broder.

vile. On • tliis principle the G. to blame. brack-gut (Sanders). brands. The Langued. hrak. inspection. to pick and choose. bronze. to be wanting. lack. ODu. from makel. tan. the young of any animal . to be hot. Alb. Lat. refuse brakovat. hot. analogous to Bohem. to copper. brokoti. See Wreak. brak. to pro- to reject . on. Bronze. . to emit sparks. brakyne. cherish. Brood. brut.— — . warm. brod. braeck goed. raquer. mediationem quorundam J. It may be compared with It. a broker. embers. For the same reason the Kiittner. . to spit . keep warm. brack. brid. filth. a breach or flaw. cracker.D. Pro v. embers to brund. In those countries the term braker. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. Pl. tussis. to hatch.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. Bret. Adelung. inspect. screatio Junfus . . to sit on eggs. to roast on the embers. brot. but from the primary sense of the It. If to vomit . bronze. correctarius. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. dirty. brak. an . rejected. The use sunburn. buy and sell by commission. refuse wares. Sc. brydio. G. 396. .' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. fish-spawn broden. Per manus et old worthless horse. fault censure. cast Lith. bronzo. stain. to criticise. sbrinzlar. Alb. as. wrak. a chicken. phlegm. find fault with. broiid. brumo.D. — . wreak. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. to reject. refuse. e. merchandises de rebut G. wraken. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. hot. bredan. : ' . brae. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. Pl. damaged. — point out the faults. which E. To blame mens ware. make out. designation is indkler. and fishes . brokas. embers. brod. • . ON.D. to scorch. brackefi. want. refuse goods. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. burning. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. braken. bronze. faulty. sort.— Lib. ordure. Sp. brunds. bracker. S. a cough Hal. criticise (makeln). matter of blame weak place. brasa. couratier. to pick. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. to sort brakovanie. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. whnake. has exactly the force of G. a brood . an outcast or rejected sheep.— Breed. to sparkle. . or brascla. reject. sunburnt. bronce. try . insects. rejection Pol. — broeden. abject. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. Teutonic class : Du. racaille. Fl. refuse brakowad. term was correcfo^ir. OFr. an operation performed over hot coals. find fault — — — fuse matter. nounce unsound. brechen. with. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. To correct an exercise is to Lib. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. slaae vrag paa. It. whence the modern courtier. to sort goods .D. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. to brew. a fault. progeny of birds. briiten. brasa. bridde. spittle . Du. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. Jam. fermenting. Fr. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. selection. pan metal. a makeln. and to reject the damaged and unsound. Dan. from break. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Abbronzare. Grisons brinzla. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. See Broth. bric-a-brac. dial. damaged. 38. Du. This word shows the same relation to It. Russ. See Brackish. the spawn of fishes. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to throw blame upon. to braze. In the . Pl. goods damaged by sea-water. brack-gut. wrack-good. Bronzare. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. brass does to Sp. to hatch. raca. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. to hatch G. to nourish. Prov. find fault with. et A. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. vrage. glowing coals. w. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. — a spark. vile. racher. mud. brieden. spittle. hraki. . refuse. broen. brokers' goods. Tooke's Catherine. in the sense of rejection. blur. to . try out. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. i. G. refuse Fr. Kil. — Fl. and as an adj. bring eggs and spawn into active life. to garble. abbronzanchiare. trumpery. in which sense the OHG. to — garble. corrector. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. brwd. G.

may be connected with Russ. brosses. (for brodem). to boil. breh. edge. AS. forms appear related to the Ir. as small-pox. sap.' Due. to murmur. enjoy Goth. Cot. . &c. cia. a river. Ger. juniper. shrubs. to border. sprout.brink. . brosses. breg. 105 Brook. frui. . Brow. a hill. bruscosd quam de arabili. heath. sense the Sc. . eye-brow. of which the variety of forms. bhratrj Zend. thicket. broo. to use bruks. or shoot. broieii. bntdien. from Goth. Sc. or broken up . a shrub broust. broth.D. brudi. to browse. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. brost. shoot. Limousin broudi. frater. to boil bruithe. surDu. bruach. braew. Du. bank. perhaps burnt coloilr. meal. Bohem. or bushes and scrubby growths. vigour. brd. brouser. . — . pottage. broth brothaire.) .. the colour of things burnt. hot. bruth. Wtb. a bud. browys. brstiti. bordeau. brmi. brue . bros. Gael. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. bruddeln. It. Prov. . brennen. face. brlgh. a sprout. Russ. bruc. a caldron. was originally used in the innocent sense of . a shore. brow of a hill. OHG. eye-brow. heath. w. on. brov.spross. AS. broden. fur Broom. hut. OHG. bruich. brauwe. buds. shore. to bear patiently. branches. a hill. brogues. Bret. G. borda. low The AS. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . to spring . brouet. brotar. brosst. broca. Fr. bank. has briw. frucius. signifying twigs. Gr. brouic. steam from heated bodies. hovel. brau. rerum decoctarum. broeye. brucan. Fr. Here we find throughout the Romance. who is steaming with sweat. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. . brawdj Slavon. seethe. Bohem. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. to use. Sp. Gael. and It. bruceti. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. sproc. signifying low wet land (Brem. juice of briars. thairj w. margin. brad. bushes. Pol. ceales briw. . bros. It. grow into a bush. shrub with leafless pointed edging. to browse. Serv. Mid. eye-brow. Celtic. a little . brukjan. to boil. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. rage. and also border. dialects is very different. bank. The AS." Serv. strength. a . grow brossa. waves. juice of meat. to use. and Sc. simmer from the murmuring AS. properly boiling water briihen. as Fr. vigour. bruith. . A — . But the Walach. infusion. of plants broust. braussa. a confused noise of winds. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. The origin is a re. Bav. braces. brdtaj Gael. broza. a derived from the boards. broth Brown. See Bramble. Manx broie. pour boiling water over. OFr. briihe. Du. Dan. to sprout. a hut or cottage It. . — exiit et heath. bruithim.— Overyssel Almanack. . brozia. brio. to boil. brpuster. to scald. &c. as rhododendrons. brushbrothas) gives the OE. To digest. heat explaining the Prov. fabric consists. sprout. shore . a little house or cottage of timber. brodem. eat. house of ill fame. brwd. protecting the eye. warmth ch'an.braubiti. bank. sordes seu strigmata young branch. Gris. bordel. brst. to shoot. spuma. pfriemkraut. 'Lzt. riviere. laissent Domunculum. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. sprouts . &c.brons. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. awl-plant. dumetum. borde. bor. kail brose. Fr. Gael. Ppim. brouter. Sp. heat. briar. break out brewet. breg. broi. brass. surface of Broth. sodden. eye-brow. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. bree. broth the ocean Sw. brouches. broc. &c. brost. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Browse. strength Ir. — ' . Kil. broccola. eye-lash . Bohem. edge. . Roquef. on. broit. sprot. shoots. bregh. bryii. to bubble up with noise. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. a spring. It. Prov. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. brouskaol. Bret. bruich. brow. broth. brocco. verge. Sanscr. brushbroccoli. broud. breg. Lat. brotar. Gael. eminence . brodo. and Slavonic families. sprocco. boiled . in which brinnan. cabbage soup . brous. thick bush brousta. brink. from ripa. bryn. bratrj Lat. brew . Fr. pith. briu. G. Fr. a source Gael. a bud brous-koad. broth is sometimes used . wood . bryn. brus. Catalan brossa. brewis. Brothel. braun. a bruth. eye-lid. chen. a sprig. to burn. brun. Commonly Teutonic. bruitheati. brothas. . cabbage water. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. plants composed of twigs. BROOK brook w. infusion the barley bree. Due. mettle. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Tam de terrS. Russ. noise. G. the bubbling or springing up of water. The softening down of the consonant bud. t— Cot. . augen-braune. useful G. to Pl. . brusmalt.D. bruno. — . broem bark. G. b7-un. ale . to roar. bud. spirit. riviera. w. . circuindedit cum familia. border. iVlanx broogh. eye-lid. It is Brother. G. brabruach. Pl.

or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bush. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. wood composed OE. brous. — OE. or shoot. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. a briser. crum bit . brist. bricalio. — a bush. a tuft of heath . Piedm. G. bris. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Allit. brossa. briketo. biirste. to strike the foot against an obstacle. bruiser. 174. seems named from burst(on. shivers. and Piedm. OFr. Lang. dust. a horse-brush. a shrub composed of small twigs . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. brunt. and also Brush. dust. blow burcar. bud. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brit. wool-card. shoot brouskoad. OE.— Palsgr. wool-card. brusca. It. as It. Palsgr. remnants of hay or fodder. Bruit. Fl. bross. coal See Breeze. B?-usske. Brush. . brustid. also a head-brush. Gael. bris. K. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brMt. detergere . Prov. quisquilise. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brusco. brist. to make brusshes on. Brunt of a daunger. field. a brush . brico or brizo. To brush then would be to dust. brustia. . abroncar. a brush .! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. briiis (in the pi. rubbish. Beryn. brugir. tremely. — those signifying a sprig. brikan. brusg. brist j Port. dust. —Fabyan. desbrisar. to cleanse. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. a brush . ON. Gael. rods. . bruscolo. bruskr. bruzir. a little brizal. brizeto. insilio. E. Prov. a brush. a bristle. . rubbish. to stumble. borste. bruito. a blow. escousse. mg Cat. to brush. brousso. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. chips. Broach. It. Sp. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. of twigs. Gael. irruo. Prov. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. The same relation holds good between G. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Castr. borste. Brunt. bruit. a noise. And that best is. AS. fescue . Fr. Pr. brise. E. to crush. a crum. twig. E. broza. insultus. NE. a bush of hair. a brush. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. orts. a mote. a brush . * Brunt. brusco. Bret. modification of the same root which gives the E. Fr. . bushy ground. G. break. brustia. bruscolo. brusca. britar. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . . p. Pm. Text Soc. borste. to break or burst. The Lat. and sighid therewithal. brosse. a bristle. quasi twigs. an enmy. Bav. fragments. to make a rumbling. or sodenly comyn' dust. bris. Sw. borste. broust. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. rubbish. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. broza. ling or heath for brushes. a bud. effort. — Fr. brossa. Pr. Cot. flax-comb brossettes. appearin Goth. brus. bruyere. Gael. Sw. brist. bruire. but on whom it schall to brisen him. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. 134. Wicliff. Cot. a brush Swiss bruske. a bud or sprout Bret. to break. to butt. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. brottcher. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. burs. On the other hand.— — i. . bruis (sing. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. a rumbling. In E. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. britar. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. brisd. Fr. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. Bruise. ca7-bo>i. wool-card. brushwood. brosst. biirste. brysan. Port. bruise exOFr. brossar. bross. shock. brista) or breaking out . bruc.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. bris. and . brosst. briser. It. to break to bits . heath. brisar. Diez. borste. brous. bruscia. A. brosse. Lang. —Chaucer. brik. and actually come in collision. 201. Fr. a brush. fasx . a — — (Agea) said. broustia. broken. That in all haste he wouli. brust. dust. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. borst. See next article. sordes. burt. into a multitude of points.). impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. brusc (Diet. Poems. Pm. Hall in R. The Bav.). Fr. Piedm.). crush. tuft of grass or hay. Pr. Pr. it schall be al Sw. to break. twig. a flax comb. and in the second place a besoiB. splinters. and It. Alexander. Prov.

bouk. This bubette. and the bunch. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. Magy. March 28. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . See Dupe. Sp. to filter. Gael. hump. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. bubseti.to allow a free current of air. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. pup. tuft. The male goat. to soak. a bubble. 1857.derivation has been much discussed. a knock word. caned' Hence those who established them. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. mokry. mollire. bucquer. to butt or jurr Dan. molle. A . bublati. bubauti. tender. . Our next illustration represents the Bocan. buquer. a. erweichen. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. de la Floride. Bret. Illust. Bubble. bubBuck. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. designation of a knob. a fescue. soft. to bubble. set of pirates in the spread. 1586. it is beuchen. bucking. bube. buck-ashes. a. bukke. as G. from which the ing the bleating of a goat.boukaat. also applied Una. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to murmur. . .lessiver. Bret. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. to soften . a to the male deer. blister. not so plentiful a commodity. boucaner. Fr. lye. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. thunder gently . The cipally on the Spaniards. Diet. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing.' Palsgr. plied in the W. The term bocan is still ap. moist. bucata. . because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). to soften. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bugada. boc. bucaIndies. Bohem. does not hold. buchen. to soak. blast or strike with the forehead. top. The name. buquer. to Gael. or projecTo Buck. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. mote. 17th century.tare. who resorted to the islands beichen. soft. to stick. — . to which in their language they call bou. It. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. The natives of Florida. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. to butt. The word was very generally Buccanier. in which the flesh dish. buborek. as a buck rabbit. hog dressed whole). Etym. From an imita. different form. Pol. or mok. to wet Pol. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. boc. boil animals. buerj It. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. buck-ashes. Formerly. . from weich. because bucare does not in Marsh). and Fr. soft. mieknad. Pref A. faire la lessive. the upper for coifee. . a steep for flax. The place of such a 2.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. rap. bokni. . Magy. bub. . moczyd. Esthon. I.— . says Laudon. Fr. and exercised their cruelties prin. pukkata. to strain. of wind. Bohem.byka.-wtt miekki. open lath-work. bugd. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid.steep or soak. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. very generally designated by the same puk. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. bifbel. boh. Fin. and then to other wild tumour Lith. was called in Fr. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee.buchen. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. tap . watery bud. soft It. at a door. — — ' A : ' ' . — .biiken j Svi. from colar. wood. was called bucking the linen. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. hump. to a place used for the mouillir. Fr. Dan. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. BUBBLE bruschetta. soft . to buck. pokka7na. knock. News. But see Bristle. drying of produce. the linen at buck. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. w. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. bwch. It. bubiti. the first wheal. It.wet Lat. Cot. a ashes. w. bduclien. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. to soak foul linen before washing. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. to bump as a bittern. maban and baban. is 1. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw.D. byge. ac. and as a verb. bouc. a hole. In G. tender. Sc. the lower soak in lye. bub. Pol. a bubble. bubbola. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. when soap was tion is commonly taken. to soften. a bubble . to butt. bog-aske. Sp. lye. a push. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. colada.

Swab. ein. bouljein. OFr. above mentioned. to 'soak. the root of the Slavonic words gran. boiling. protuberance. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. boss of a shield. and of the Lat. w. butt . G. also a leather tuft . arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog.). pulga. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. whom it is still much in use. . . boqueranmis. bod. a shield. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz.— . boucler. bulka. Fr. is to shrivel up. Prov. bud butzen. as in Fr. to budge. Fr. boss. case of leather . . with let. It. bucket Fl. stroke.' Schm. Sw. bouger. Cot. pwtio. blow. dint . a pustule bout. Hardly identical with Fr. to butt. trunk of wood covered with leather. bunch. push forwards.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. bulb. imbuere. a leathern sack. Gael. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. to bud or bocla. boucle.chissima. pwt o Fr. Fr. Behoves. rabodS. bulais daqui. butzen (Du. ' . bucolicus. The knob or projection formN. words is converted into b.' Boccaccio.) . Bret. * Bucket. Fr. to stir. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. bog and G. Dan. To thrusting part of a long body. Buck-bean. and the reference to It. or male of to boil . boaLat. a cowherd. Prov. to boss or swell out G. put. of bac.. in the beginning of to pierce holes. inboachen. bouge. swelling. boach.' Hal. stud. botzen. rump of fowls . . a boss. It. a bud. bukke-blad. See Bulk.stumpy man. lump. belonging to the calling of the chen. bode.. bougette. scion. dim. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. brobrocchiere. Prov. bullion. ble. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. — — . Wtb. like a bean. bugnir. * Bud. is doubtless fallacious. knob . bougette. botzen. bul. jSouKoXiKog. boulj. and weichen. a shoot.n.r//'. to un bout d'homme. a bump. a little coffer or turgidus. loud Cot. to line with fur. Bav. to swell. call. Bucolic. a boss. K. the radical image seems to be a set plants. wallet. — — . .t-le!L{ * Bud. cattle. a small shallow and open tub. The word is a ddyn. The dressed fur of lambs. boucaran. bo. hump. bulla. weichen. ' . bulga. a navel. clasp of a book. no business to do that. Hence quel. to word. Fr. . a leather strap probably takes its name clump.pode.Lat. bunch . butzen.anything short of its kind. bogla. motus creber. seen in Hesse botz. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. with a central boss. water message. Bret. Fr. thrust.) as to soak. a .goa. A water-plant with leaves and gille. probably from the notion of bubbling. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a wallet./a. a short thick man. agreeing with Gael. with which it was ornamented. bedde. bug. from bo. Pol. bucherame. a dumpy gin. Mid. child. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. In Lat. Mid. a boy. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. soft. male or botzen. weich. from Gr. buachazlle. a pail or flowers. a trough). to boil. bub. Pied. bouk is a pail and with the dim.' And this sacrament bus have dial. Dan. butzen. budge. ON. bouprobably identical with inok. goat's hoof. swelling. OHG. Lat. turgere buczendig. a curl. NE. no wheel bogeilio. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. bollire. bouclier. pote. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. having a boss. of bouge. ' . built. to thrust. knob dwfr yn boglynu. Fr. It. macero. boccula. don't a baby). Budge. fur. . excrescence. bloca. — . a stump buckle up. bdden. from bugr. become bochen. clump. gjeit-klauv. Sp. a tuft. a budget. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. II I'a feru desor I'escu. to graft or bud trees. bloca. bocla. Bus. Buckler. a budget. bump. prick in a target. need. Du. set of a plant in bulk. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. boucle. This expression boglire. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bod.may probably be explained by N. were To Budge. bolgetta. don't stir from hence. So on. to move. knock. to pen cattle. It termination is lost. butze. a ring. w. crack.stuff. a bubble three thyngis. where the G. bouter. . potz. The entire train of thought is bucket. bolgia. a buclder or shield budge. boglyn. to poke. a fold ceilio. noise . butzen K. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. Russ. skins pushit'. It. a buckle or protuberance. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. bloquier. explaining Fr. bouton. mani. call bo. ornamental stud. . Budget. convexity. butz. A buckle or fastening for botch. . W.. The Fr. Bav. weich. the word w ' — . from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. — . dinted. of a surface. Du. pulga. * Buckle. stir. great pouch. Port. boucle. bucherare. call.poot. buckel. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. sboge. a servant.

to a representation of his voice. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . — La Crusca. bolgia. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. the place whence the wine was drawn. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. to jest or sport. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bumann. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. le reste emplissant d'eau.D. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. bufogni. to give a as of a blow. as from Lith. or hath been Cot. boman. soufflet. Bufetarium. bw! It. buffare. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. ' They rether puffed at him. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. either alone or with various terminations.' perfield. a block-headed noddy. Fr. — Bogle. a goblin). From buff! of terror. from It. Sc. boo. confused. E./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. Magy. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. &c. —Boggart. bobaow. things in Jam. cuff . a hollow sound. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. to beat. buffen. pulse . L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. The cry made to excite terror is then used. bugle. by metaphor. to rePl. Romola. as wine that hath taken wind. buffetto. botffon. Cot. A puff with — Fl. Gael. Teet-bo. while in Sp. also the skin or heck of a buffe. the buffe. dull sound. a budget. a skin. word other cases. a bugbear. bubiti. w. tabernarius. air.— Buflae. breath. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. caupo. often blown upon. From bulga. to signify an indefinite object of terror. Hence the E. to puff. It. sounds. leathern bucket. buffle. bufHe. — — — Buffet. bo ! an interj. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. rebuff. bugs. Buffalo. Mid. of colours. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bouffer. yar^aa. Fr. Buff. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. God's boast seemed feare children. tastes. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. — thence it has been transferred in E. buffets. 265. Lat. buff leather. often covering his E. from souffler. A blow. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. to blow.' La Crusca. a side-board. to bellow . then peeping out again to see how she bore it. — Z. bouffer. a clap. bufogni. A — Bug. een duffen toon. mumming. to blow souffleU. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. duff^ dull. buffare. dial. baubau. to strike face to represent the unknown. bau ! children. G. a puff. btifetarius. buffeteur. bubach. Fr. buffet. for this purpose is very widely spread. Swiss baui. Fl. popo. buffalo. wauwau. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Lith. bolgetta. bugbear. Pl. Fr. Lat. Fr. mingled with water. It. to puff. or wild ox. buffet. site The two — — iii.D. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. Sc. scarecrow . to give benti. The use of the exclamation children. human. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. made by a person. blurt or puff with one's mouth. as Diez remarks. buivol. a jester. buffet. smells . Buffeter. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. a cuff or buffet. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. deadened. Limousin bobal. bauwi. and in Fr. bubus. buffa. a dull BUG From 109 — A . bukow Ikow. colour. also a G. buffle-headed.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. . Buffoon. The children were playing in an oppocomer. to excite terror in Macleod. made to —Bugbear. buffer.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. W. buMagy. dausa. puff. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bw. Lith. It. a hobgoblin. Pl. It. bubaRuss. to marre often tasting it . Cot. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. wine may The verb in taverns. senses. Thus buffet would a tapster. bwg. dausinti. a In . to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. as emblematically making light of an object. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. thus be translated to tap. a buffle or a bugle.—Buffet. stupid. Esthon. him but Boyd iugges. Buff. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to blow .D. to frighten .

troll. language any kind of insect. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. thus connected with bug. and is Deutsch. to take bug. baco. . bug-bear. mask ' . bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Serv. bugar. bogil bo (e. roarHal. an insect. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. il brutto Demonio. a. well as the terrific object. bogk. insect. — — ' . the buggaboo w. Hal. threatening. Swelling. gad. Fl. It. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. of pipes sewn on. saucy.Fr. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. Chaucer. i. according to Coles. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. used in the same sense. The final guttural of W. tion of the beetle tribe. Schmidt. roo. bukashka. E. bogil. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. long.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bukati. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. bbgni. hert. (Spurrell). then a horn for drinking. is very common. and a boggarty ing. also a baco-baco. Lith. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. Illyr. the black a maggot. Bug. Swiss ing. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. is the dim. bogle. a misshapen person. Sw. to roar Aasen. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. blustering. 493. to bellow. xiv. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. proud. bau (Pureiglia. Bugle. . Lesachthal. The w. a silk-worm. Sp. terrifying ward. provincially an insect.. buba. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. beugler. A similar applica. bug dung-beetle. Manx boa. vermin. great or bug words. boa-peep. buffle. booggen. to take fright. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. and in child's Magy. bug-bear. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. the Devil. bucula. Same as buffle. Mundart. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. as an object of dread. big. dial. larva (a bug-bear. Bogge. Deut. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. a rabme. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting.3uhtii&:. superbire. bold. : no BUG . shepe and gootes. worm. pujalo. Big. 3. boeuf sauvage. disgust. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. given in Chaucer. The name of bug is — . fear. an object of terror. monster. buculus. paws the ground .. Fl. threatening. bugbear. — boogg. to creeping things. a bugbear for children. tumble-bug. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. a bug-bear. . bugle. fette. a beetle. coco. Cheval de trombugti. high-sounding words. and in Lat. biignt. oxen. 1551. Bible. bugler. W. and bugle. to take fright. bauginti.— . hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. pugalo. also a bug-bear. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. with more or less modification represents bau. especially to beetles or winged insects. affright. I. the word is lin) bbgge. Magy. as Buffalo. a proud overbearing man pujat'. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. 2. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bok. Bug as a lord. buggabod). . Swiss booggen. of bugabo was given. Stalder bog. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. boo. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. a bug-bear. * 2. scarecrow . — — terror.Lat. a boogg. An ornament of female dress condread. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. See The name terror). bogk. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . b'dgni. bug-bear. any disgusting animal. pugaf. insect. bobal. bwgar. rose-bug. high. Mid. Parolone. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. — — . sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. Bdronie. also a bug-bear. bwgwl. bwg and E. poggl. w. earwig bau da grascha. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. BUGLE Tentennino. ghost. to bellow. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. a buffalo. fierce. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. Hence bugle-horn. — . swollen. Lap. Magy. Lett. a goblin. Russ. to origin in the expression bugs words. iv. banian boube. protuberant. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. to frighten scarecrow. bug. Grose. It. quos what produces dread or disgust. forSc.loud noise. Grisons bau.

'— Cot. — Bulb. bubbling up. the womb. . bulk is a partition of boards. Pm. to spring. a lump or mass. buc. of E.d. Dan. (3oX|8oc. biilken. belly. The addition of a dim. A — ' — Bulk. ON. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Bolke or hepe. in Sc. a water-bubble). body of an animal. wallet. to break bulk. Mandeville. and put it home. Muratori. bulge or bilge. a stage or scaffold. in vessel. . we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bulcke. bugue. — . The Walach. inhabit. beuck. For the latter sense ' — My . I. acervus. From till. bolgna. as it was merly written in English to bylle. To Build. Bulk.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. pimple. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. tumeo. balcone. were a habitation. ' . whence bylja. . liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. and N. as well as is very variable.). a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. ' . stuffed bag. . belly Sw. pouch builgeadh. swell. turgeo bolnyd.' Fl. the contents of the hold. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. trunk of the body. bulk or capacity of anything. knobby. a round bulky body bwlgan. belly. . See Bulk. cumulus. a. mass. bulge or convex part of a cask. ' . outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot.' Festus. He found a country fellow dead drunk. vulva. trunk. blow. Gr. has bulbuk. — — . bubble. Pr. Melancholy. or bear out as a full purse. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. Sp. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. See bollekeii next article. a prominence. belly. buhe. G. hollow. to swell. the carcase. a bunch. bouge. blister. In the representation of natural sounds. bolg. bolgan. Kil. boss. . hold or bilge of a ship. the potato G.— . ball. bolnyn. jnake bulch. bolle. to build. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. . Lett. cultivate. blister Manx bolg. bladder. Ptg. balgs. the position of liquids in the word In English. nave or body of the church van 't schip. swell. boss of a buckler. Jno. bug. ne. balg. trunk. bulle. knob. Dan. pod ON. belly. Lat. body. to puff up bolginn. as water beginning to boil bolg. of an inflated skin. bulgen. OSw. m um Placentiae. it again. snorting on a bulk. ^ — . bale. bulbe. bubble. a leathern sack or portmanteau. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. bunch or projection. compare Da. womb. bolgia. balco.' Palsgr. w. a bubble. a heap. belgja. bubble. Hence e. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. bulbus. tumidus. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Palco. bol. and bulbukd. 1388. the body Du. leather sack. straight will he 2. to blow. a bubble Gael. crowd. bolso. globule bolg-lhuingey. puff. The radical sense is shown in Russ. a straw corn-vessel. unevenness Sw. bukr. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. PoXj3a. anything prominent. habitaculum. — — . swell. head . a protuberance. gebolgen. bouk. van loock. Mister. bag. Bav. belly. to undo the cargo. bolle. belly Cat. belgr. a globe. ON. Bulge. bulkaf. belly van de kerche. bole.pulks. projection. Lat. bulki. swollen. or cargo of a ship. husk. to belly out. bilge. bua. a tuberous or bulbous root . be protuberant. dial. bed of a river. . or of what is shaped like a bubble. swollen OE. bulked or bumped out. knob. or feminine termination gives Bav. MHG. to bubble up. domicilium. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. — — . buk. principal portion. Lith. . G. bwlg. . a bulb Du. Bulch. in bulk. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. to gather. bauen. . a leather sack or budget Fr. thorax buick. bulgen. . to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. or. at riufa bulkann. . boulge. formed a farm. pulkas. Boss^. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bulk. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. With these must probably be classed ON. . herd^ swarm pulkd. to raise a habitation. mass. Here stand behind this bulk. bol. Gr. hull of a ship. byli. blister. Othello. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. See how this tode bolneth. . skin flayed whole. the head of an onion. to swell. pocket. bolgetta. skin of an animal. body of a ship . Pr. to throw out a convexity. the capacity or burden of a ship. a. boss of shield.' Anat. lump. to bol. balg. bulg. bullka. bulbe. knot in thread. . a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bo. bubble {palgan tiisge. bulne. G. Lith. It. bellows builgean. — . boss.' Cot. Hal. to bubble up Pol. bol. lump. on. bauch. villa. a dint in a metal . sedes. bulka. bulwis. . Bourser. chest. boa. OSw. the belly. Pm. skin bag.

a beam or rafter. a seal. The wild plum. many to protuberant objects. It. This word is used in several senses. It. bellow. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. boss. Du. a seal. Terriculamentum. any great-headed or studded nail. stud. large of its kind. to bubble.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. bollar. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. assito. is of a class with Pl. bullebak. bulk of a thing. bulla. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. w. penbwl. 2. embossed work. to tical with Sw. boulct. also a parFl. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug.D. poli-cheannan. from the Lat. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. eth and frighteth. from Fr. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. bole or trunk of a tree. bullocks. from baula. from the noise.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. from Lat. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. See Billet. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. bulla. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. blunt. dial. stamp. balgeting. The final element tergeist. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . billoti in Fr. brass-headed nail . Du. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. to boil. spirits. a blockhead. 2. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. Lith. biitzibau. bullus.' do not go by the dangerous water. a little fish nearly all head. a hornet. bolos Fr.'— ' Palsgr. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. a bull Swiss bullen.. — A tition in a ship. whence bullire. is called a ball. bugbear. as in E. bwla. poll-cheannach. bauli. G. a scare-bug. elves. coarse. The male W. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bullern. dim. from the use of the equivalent terms. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. to bellow.Gr. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. whence Mod. Pm. a bul-begger.D. hhint. /SouWivu. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. Fr. beams or boards. but is more probably iden- palchetto. lumpish. Sp. G. . bouillon. baula. b2iggaboo.lle de fusil. it is boulet de canon. bullos. also of the tadpole or young frog. large. w. bellocier. Gold or silver uncoined. blister. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bwbach. BuUiou. witches. boillon. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. a framework of balks. a cow. in N. and thence terror. it may be observed that a bullet in E. Du. &c. a tadpole. a wasp. A lace tree. the seal affixed to the document. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. Dan. as a mill-dam or the like. stupid . as It. A papal rescript. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. bolli. Pl. bulloi. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. bollos de relieve. bwlas. on the contrary. to emboss . of the ox kind. bouillon. See Bowl. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. pimple. billon. leraures nocturni nigri. which may probably be the origin of the name. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. sloes. Bullfrog. a tadpole . I. lumpheaded . polten. of Witchcr. Cot. a hobgoblin. W. a hobgoblin. Bully. ba. Bullace. Bullbeggar. Fr.D.. bulle. poltern. the matrix or die . Eullrusli. bulk. scarecrow. of boule. bulke. Gael. i. tition of deals instead of a wall.Fris. round glass phial. a bulox polos. as geting. — Fl. Bullet. however. a stud. thick. Scot's Deso. a noisy violent fellow. a bull. stamped money. in the sense of base metal.. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. bietebau. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. And The word bullerbak. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. — — Bull. 3. bolli. G. bal.. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. boss or stud. bolla. a bowl. bollon. N. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Du. to seal. any embossed work. pollach. BulUiead. and vellon in Sp. bubble. stud. The bullfrog. urchens. pwl. as the ornanails. G. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Bret. signifying roaring. ON. bulderen.

Bum. The 27 Ed. up was termed monnaie de billon.' Again. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. to make a noise . AS.' Stat. c.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. minari verbulderen. For bottom.' reals of standard currency. a boisterous. bommele. agrees with e. IV. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. blunder-buss. bastion. bombilare. a hectoring.D. Kil. a. BULLY with which coins were stamped.the ramparts. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. boulevard. 2.' for the purpose of exchange. G. To bum. Fris. — bombam?nen. clamour. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Sw. ON. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Etym. beat a — Hal. Thus ' ble. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. biihne. and porter au billon. IIL st. Miege in Hal. 'lega. ground. Fr. violent. boene. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. honunele. blunder-buss. ^i^/«. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. A. to terrify by noise and clamour. Du. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. It. Hence — . John). Bully-rock.d. to dun. bustle. or a humblebee. is called bumping or bells. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. bottn. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. — Bumto . bolderen. to drum Lat. G. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. violent overbearing person. Philip le Bel in Due.' ' mettre au billon. c. ierd-boeyme. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. Hal. 9 E. baluarte. scaffold. a stage. &c. from boden. furious man. buene. G. polterer. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. 14. Fris.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Bully. provides. Du. poltem. a noisy blustering fellow. 4 Hen. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. primarily the ramparts of a town. To bully is to bluster. hum. The Stat.' agger. or work of defence. D. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. buller-brook. the soil.D. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. The cry of the bittern. buller-bas. droning. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Bum-bailiff. a floor. debacchari. un faux brave. To bum. To Bum. c. Bailey. noise. to . The Sw. but now is the central part of the town. — Boom. buller-bas. a bumble-. resonare. blaterare. argentum and silver. ierd-beame. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Du.. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. then in general a rampart. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. The decried coin. Hence bom and ban. buller-bak. 1687). legaggio di metallo. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. bulderen. on the other hand. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. ^Bully-rook. bottom. to make a droning Du.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. bomtnen. Kil. vallum. bol-werck. sound.. III. provides. perturbare saevis dictis. buller-jaan (bully. — — plate d'argent. 2. a blunderhead. 1305. Kiittner. propugnaculum. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . by corruption boulevart.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. — Bump. bodem. From the notion of a humming. St. intonare. is bullion — A — buller. block-werck. botm. boisterous fellow. 10. 2.

ner. explaining E. E. Bang sen. boi7ieog. root. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. See Bounce. blain. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away.' Bun. or grete knobbe. throw down with a bang. See Boss. Kyx or bunne. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. to swell out E. Bumsen. from bunsen. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him.D. lungeous. pumpurras. Pm. bongie. . any round knob or bunch. Hence E. w. bunga. especially girls. clown. Then. Hal. bu<rnone. a boil or blain. a heap or cluster. cluster. A Du.S. Daal bu7iseti. bonge. H. hdk passing and E. He buncheth me and beateth me. bulscha. a heap OSw. . dial. &c.^Cot. trunk. as in other cases. bonuach. Manx bonkan. bugno. To bam. forms. abrupt manbuns-wise. Sc. Pl. Dan. Gael. a knob. a knock. pwmpio. should probably be a short tail. Bunewand. Probably for bun-boot. a pumpion or gourd. pwmpl. and signifies consequently a mass. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. a into Dan. banke. Bumboat. bottom. a knotty stick) Sw.). a boil (punkos bot. bun. a bowl P1. to . to strike so as to give a dull sound. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Radically identical with Dan. a dried hemp-stalk. bignet. poumpi. — round fruit. bunny.' he fell with a bang. . Moor. — Marine Diet. — — de dor bunsen. a boss Lith.D. strike E. to bang ON. Bump. awkward. E. stubble Manx bun. Dan. OSw. stubble of beans. a person employed to dun one for a debt. pwmp. noise. bunka.. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. pompette. a pocket Sw. a Sp. a knob . w. bundle. bunt. il me pousse. Bums it's hit. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bonnock. Pm. Hal. tundo. any round knob or bunch. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. knob or heap. hay stubble . Fr. Li cake. . Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bunken. Du. .P. bungersome. nor would it concern the public if he did. to . the Pr. It. a bump. bunki. Hal. a lump on the foot bunny.pummel.D. . a wallet.D. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. to knock . bannock. a knob. signifying one who does things in a thumping. — — Bun. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. stem or base. 1. calamus. Forby. Suffolk bonnka. a tail (Macleod). a rabbit. Gael. bulto. banga. stock. . butt end. inconsiderately. a bag or sack.' Palsgr. the tail of a hare. a heap. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. stump. a button. protuberance. strapping. A clumsy. bunsen. clumsy. Holland and Flanders. Bunk.-^Fl. Pm. Pl. knochen. . to bang down. so the form btmk. large. . a. and related with ON. root. applied to young persons. E. as we have seen E. a purse . bmike. Dunchyn or bunchyn. lump. a bunch Magy. bans. truss E. bottom. pompon. to thump. bulse. bolsa. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bump. — — Bun. dial. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . awkward clown. Hal. Probably from bump. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. lenten loaves. a swelling. bun eich. — — — — ' — knock. He fult dat et bunsede. gibber. bun with ON. a rabbit. bunch— Hal.! . the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Lang. ! — knocking. Bony. bung. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Related on the one side to Pl. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. Pr. a heap Wall. bull. bugnet. Ir. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Bunch. pumpa. bunke. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. . bune or boon. bumtel. Bumpkin. one ever saw the word in that shape. bunan. mto Sp. binge. . or to the mass by which it is given. stalk. Sc. bugno. bum-boot. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. poumpido. bunkc. S. bon. stock. bugnone. a dry No . to beat. knuckles. bunga. stump. bunnion. BUNCH bum-bailiff. an old stump of a horse. are dim. . also for taking a pilot to a ship. bottom bun feoir. to bang. to beat. . Fr. bund. to ' . a bud. gibbus. Again. buns. a hemp-stalk. botn.. bamgetroffen. callus. a swelling from a blow. a hump. Bun. a round mass . boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. — stalk . a large .— Bunnion.— Pr. passes Sw. foundation w. Bung^. Thus e. Roding. a heap. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bmidt. Fl. a bunch. round mass of anything. seems to unite Gael. See Bunch. from knock) It. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. Mrs Baker. while bulch was traced through Gris. Bunch. . —Bunny. bumsen. a.

coassatio et Du. byrthen. Compare G. ho-tapp. a sort of helmet. G. sprig. to hum. fascis. dark grey bura. a boye. bouche. dial. Du. bonde. bundt. the noise of drums. the stopper of a cask). biirde. loosed from bonds. the young cloth used for sifting flour. halm-tapp. So in Pol. or putting forth of a vine. noise. burboloti. a bung. Burly. to stnmi on an instrument. stiimpeln. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. russet. to bear. Fl. B. Bunting. or tuft. bounta. driving in the bung. See Borel. to stop. was formerly pronounced buro. to gingle. OFr. knock. a water bubble made by rain. whence bunting. bondelj bundell. burion. to kick. bouchon. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bang. Kil. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. — — To Bungle. OG. bundle. to strum on an instrument. reddish brown. and Du.' Festus in Diez. something bound together (Mrs Baker). modem bummle. contignatio. are from bouscfie. E. . Cot. AS. . knocking. B. AS. a drum . racket . From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. a bunch Burbulas. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. bonde. to hum. Johansen. Bunt. bondel-loos. bourguignote. to resound. Burden. and E. bote. boil or bubble up. banghagr. Fr. To bunt. boei. to work ineffectually. The word is flags are made. bang. So Du. — Bureau. to knock. to hum. — . A load. Bret. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. tapp (whence tceppa. boya. Sw. Russ. . boj. to gingle. stilmpern. klempern. See Bourdon. and bomme. a bunch. dark. — — . would be the earliest float for an anchor. working in wood (especially with an axe). buret. Rietz. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. of a song. to push. bui. la Borgonota. bangla. bindini. the loose open grow big about or gross. boucher. to bungle. Fr. and van t' vat. buie. See Barbarous. punishments for prisoners. properly a Burgundian helmet. * Buoy. Sp. to cobble. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. especially in wood. G.Fris.punt. The Fr. to shove. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. bon. bunsen. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. Hal. — btiruii. Sp. bourjon. stocks or such OSw. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. clumsy performance. bove. See Bun. bondon. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. to push with the head del. the bung of a barrel Lim. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Fr. an anchor buoy. Bung. with the head. or used as a receptacle for papers. colligatio. is originally a wisp or bunch . whence in bure. bummle. ghebundte. bond. buret. to knock. A bubble. bag to catch the wind. Sw. to push ghebondte. do a thing bunglingly. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. bimge. a botch. ' — work . a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. to botch. byndel. also a piinple in the face. Pl. the float of an bundle. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. to stop. Fr. to in to stop the hole. and now more Bailey. a wisp of hay or straw. . gyves. tinkle. Prov. to Somerset is to sift. borgonota. to bud forth. Cat. to pype. bongun. guggle as water. tinker . A Dan.— . racket. Bundle. To Bunt. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . a cork. Burble. to bolt meal. The stopper for the hole in a boia. bolting-cloth. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bou^e. a bungler. bungande. bongani. however. It. shackles. bury. to work at carpentry bangan. bourgeon. klimpem. Burganet. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. bundel. bunta. Sp. that the primitive meaning of shackle . bommen. The Magy. bondeau. bourion. dial. The Italian buio. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. and the Sw. banga. bangla. Bunny. tap. dicimus rufum. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. OFr. Bung of a tonne or Lith. 202. generally known as the material of which bud. . Banff. on. from beran. knocking. To burgeon. To do anything awk- wardly. Palsgr. unskilful working. fetters. Lat. Prov.D. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. clogs. on. the middle part of it. Sw. borboUar. buove. Burden. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. anchor or of a net boyar. Biu'geon. rumble as the bowels. p. Muratori. bondir. Sp. N. shove . to float. The belly or hollow of a sail. in is Fr. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind.

and the Burnish. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. to burgen or wax big. Sp.— Pr. — . bourou. to ridicule. In the manu. a fountain. brynsten. Antiq. knob. brunna. a whetstone. In the same way ON. Prov. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. brandung. Pm. laer. bruzir. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. brinna. watery. to swell.sharpen.— . language of folly or ridicule. to sharpen. j. to swell with pride. Pren7ien. Lang. to roar (as lions. taunt. brusler being a faulty spelling. as the / in purl. a lie. a bladder. From the same root E. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. crackle wood in burning Hal. boura. jest of. to polish. flocks. . to bourda. to tell lies. leo Fin. Pr. bururus. angular . Burgess. 122. Schm. ends of thread. sea. to roar. occupying much space. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow.Ps. It. . OFr. fires up. — — . to puff. borracka. the J in OFr. ' rugiens. Burlesque. A burl. brinnen or Also ein roar. big. burgen. Dief. to have acquired the sense of polishing. swell up or strout out. to burn. bouril. OE. See Berough. warbling. Fl. It is probable indeed that Fr. tahko.). and OG. Hence Bridel. has also borr. and Dan. to polish. Bav. burren. Probably a modifica. to roar 5. is an Thus G. Bret. Fr. to burn. de Vaud. toast. Gael. to roar. brima. and the Burin. — — . boiirre. Bestiary. brausen. to polish helmets. E. to fiy. purrata. burly. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. to hum. to puff up borr^ . to To Bum.' Cot. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. bunch. brimmen. a well. brase. a blaze. sicut sound. burgensis. a jest. OE. From Fr. .bryna. So also Sw. pressa puret. a knob. — — . bremmen. de Vaud. Probably. borujon. ample of polishing metal. Burn.). The in. Burler. brunnen. Sw. bururus. like. Supp. with little iron nippers called burling irons. borrelen. lorra. Bouffer. to give an edge to. mockery. Cot. brAler. ends of thread. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. roguing beggars. brunir. water. ridicule. to sharpen on a whetstone. the word seems Pm. spring-water bumach. to make a So from Fin. BURNISH i5«r/. is connected with brim.or bubbling up. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. it of the knots. brim or edge of anything. A legal term from the Lat. The Gael. It. See Burgeon.. Swiss Rom. borni. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. an edge. is termed burling. like straw or small . through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. tahkoa. burgeois. boure. sbornoi. The primary origin of the word.. brunnr. singe or scorch with fire. to set on fire.j'own. abourioner. a wine skin.' a jibe. bourd. to roar. pur (see Burgeon). as Diefenbach bud. Sw. an &c. bourglairs.). as of suggests. bruse. burlare. — . imitation of the sound of bubbling water. Burglar. brook. Nat. sidiary element. Compare also Piedm. fire. a bud. — Han to bruser op. Burly. protuberance. a bubble to spring as water.ireui£r:e.. a purling hiwe brennen. brun. a gurgling ^. Castrais bourril. Bav. like the wind in trees. i5«r4 biiirte. schleiffen. a margin. to effervesce. robber. borr. the er is a dresser of cloth. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Fr. OFr. brustle. surge or dashing of the sea . Burryn. compared with G. bears. burn. Burgher. blow. to Gael. from the roaring sound of flame. to murmur. barrel. which has given much trouble to etymologists. to ridicule. briis^. 56. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. &c. A — — . cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Fl. tion of the root which gave the OE. swelling borr-shuil. Limousin bourdo.. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. Walach. a prominent eye borracka. in Schm. ^ttsa. embraser. G. Swiss Rom. thence. G.. purling. tumentum. as in cousteau. the flocks. must be explained on the same principle from G. explaining the E. a jest. explaining Sp. burle of cloth. brinii. born. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. buirleadh. Lang. to roar. It. burgi latro. purra. broil. from bryii. to grind on a whetstone. a spring a robber. repartee . to bud . N. a bubble. to surge. joking. he rustle. Burgh. condemnentur morti. . with Dan. ON. to rub. brasa. brustolare. dial. the roaring surge of the — — — . bud or sprout forth. from Lat. to bouronna. ^Notk. Todd. Goth. lerre. to swell oneself out as birds borras. grancelli.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Fr. See under Bore. become big and proud. See Burr. ii6 BURGESS Gael.

cover. AS.' Harris in Todd. moss. from whence we pass through Sp. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. the officer who bears the purse. tomb. Sw. a pad. borsa. and met. byrstan. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. E. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. It. leather. brittle. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. also all such stuff as hay. karborre. ' BURR AS. foretell great storms at 3. root borr. Sw. Hal. brist. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. byrgan. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. preserve. break . With a slightly different ghen. buscha. Fr.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. a purse. 225. iii. save. to hide . G. to burst. Burse. explained E.' The same word with burgh. Burse. bourse. borra. any rapid whirling biarga. brjota. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh.— . from AS. a morsel. borre. borsa. a port. ON. Cot. a sepulchre. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. an exchange. ptcrren. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. straw. Burser. berstan. borrow. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. a rabbit burrow. coo. casting bullets. bourrelet. Dan. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a wallet or scrip. birigean. of a body hurled through the air. to buzz. cwning-gaer. Swiss burren. peluca to Fr. Beowulf. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. a barn or cupboard. I. A rabbit burmotion. a place of defence. whence Kil. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. as in Northumberland. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. the — — castle or fortress. appears under the Lang. — Clare. byrsa. ' ' — — burren. whirr and burr. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. ON. OHG. also ' any such trash as chaff. Gael. burgisli. bris. of England. -Grisons bulscha. brokil and brotil. To Bury.Lat. idiom if 4. bourrer. In OE. bersten. briso. S w. To Burst. as from Sp. bur. bur. blurra. an annular swelling. from Fr. bris. to save. Port. borra. G. burial place. when they spring So in W. burre. and thence flocks 'of wool. borsia. See Bulge. brast. brista. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. stuffing. Du. but it is more probably a development of It. Fris.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. byrgels. Burial. and spelling. bolgia. brickie. some people in pronouncing the letter r. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. pipaa.. Jam. perruque. Compare also OE. g. brizeto. bourse. beurs. hair. that birds make their nests with. to break. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. talk fast and indistinctly. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. bristen. brown. preserve. Bursar. &c. bristeach. briketo. a. 5150. . to hide. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . force. be more in accordance with AS. caer is a — — — ' ' : . 2. bolsa to It. and. a harness or collar maker) . birr. It. whirr. as for the protection of a child's head. beorgan. burra. Sexy. i5(7&a. brisdeach. The root forms brik. Fr. makes the disbursements of the college. bres- — tan. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. shelter. Fr. dial. AS. britar. brit. ultimately resting on the Gael. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. . Hence Fr. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. its own protection. OHG. bourre. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Du. Burrow. brico. husks. verbergen. byrgen. shales. barza. -burse. bourlet. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. impetus. . Burr. briser. — Translated by Kemble. brittle. a purse. brest. fortify. Burr is related to buzz as protect. skin. to P'air. chips or anything else Fl. any kind of quilting or stuffing. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. purr. shearing of cloth. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree.' edge grew weak. to mutter Sw. signifying protrude. to stuff. keep. bergen. prsnuti. &c. borre. brist. See Burgeon. Brun on bane. This word seems safety. as it is still pronounced in N. to bury . byrigels. brisd. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. Mid. In a met. birgan. shuffling. mentioned under Burgeon. Shelter. swell. dial. ber•whirr to whizz.

'at bua sik. wisp. Gr. bussare. bo7ich (Fr. the Moors and of Morocco. then a tuft Sp. brodequin tout noir. a grove bosch van haer. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. busk. that the lend had lorn thorn. a rampart. diminutives. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. —Busk. bosch (a diminutive ?).' The word is explained by — — . Sir Tristram.-^Bushel. a bundle. for at buasc. and not directly (as Du. Bush.boisteau. a corpse). signifying to entomb. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Mid. a box for measuring corn. . from the ON. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bairgan. bulge. bustellus. to keep. bausen. Du. besom). . boissa. brake. to sepulchre. induere vestes . Brunne. R. Brunne. bundle. condere. boucher. . box wood to bush. projection. bustula. Thus Froister . sur une litifere. The radical idea is seen in Goth. basse. to prepare. fiast. Le roy Richard mort. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. bush. bossen.' sheath. ' —P. knot. bussel. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. OFr. a tuft of hair. See Box.' a box. a been written buasc. . in the For Skirnis . mount.gur bidst austur um EySascog. Fris. a hump. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump.Lat. truasc. thicket of thorns . To prepare. apparently a secondary verb. buxula. boiste. borseof trees. dead. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. thicket {buski. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. See Bust. a bunch. and we actually find bushel. barsc in Heimskringla. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a bush. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. borghen. the idea of knocking. to swell. grapes. a gun biichse. whente beorg. : — . roquies. a clot of phlegm sart. Malberg. BUSH hreaw.P. lump. to dress. the past participle of the same verb bua. They busked and malced them boun. il fut couch6 l^jkema). burial mound. or the like. -idis. to bend one's steps. ' . defence. ' . tow. cluster. bosc. to dress. bousse. So from Fr. Sc. The word frequency with which to busk is used. busse. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. biichse. iriCtf -ifoe. gave Lat. tuft. bunch. Ptg. the land. to stop. as synonymous with to inake one boun. whence bouchon. . AS. bosta. a bush. buxida. aheap of stones. occultare K. busken. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis.' The buskin is said Bret. hunch Du. a troop. a box. at bua sig. at buast.fiasc. And her ful sone tuft. to forest of Eyda. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. oneself. in OE. protect . a tuft. which would later have truast. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bussellus. ieorh. bua. bulk. make ready. 410. Bouchet. boistel. ch). or — Busk. bush. a little box Dan. The bone in a woman's stays. 2. as boun is simply buinn. It. borcegui. bouche. and from the Fr. buysschen. a box. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. Du. bossida. boisseau. clusprobably Morocco leather. It.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Sibriht that I of told. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. . rad. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. whence at bua sik. we have Fr. berghen. to direct one's course towards. verb. hjul-bosse. Du. AS. Bush. to bury. a -tavern bush. and he cites wisp bauschen. qualster-boscken. abdere.) to hide in the ground. van wijnbesien. a bunch of twigs. bousIn the other copy ser. Prov. In to Brutaine. Sw. Layamon. OFr. to enclose in a case or box. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. ' . Harold G. To Busk. a wisp. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Thence byrigean. buxta. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bos. to bow. basse. The primary sense of hair . brodiquin. to turn. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. boxta.Lat. is thus accounted for. buskr. G. bundle * Buskin. Fr. and thence Mid. barst. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a tuft guini. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. bousche. preserve. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. ' .— ' ii8 {chreo. bramble. beorgan. a tuft.

small. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. work. stir. or avutarda. windbutsch. morsequi. utarda. Sp. Bulch. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Prov. body without arms and legs. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. snout. says. Fr. Box. bist. busc. employment bisgan. Bust. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. The Prov. bussen. pussa. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. bnist. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Fr. a blow. besoigAe. also a It. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. bussa. 119 bi{tr. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. bisgung. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Walach. bucha. body of a man. fe^a. I go strepo) . Busy. a fishing vessel. ON. biseg. tarda. arbor ramis trunGloss. statue of the upper part of Fr. Du. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. B. Comp. a great billet Cot. otarda. buz. — clattering about. Fr. bysgje. Pol. as in ON. The form brust. busche. abutarda. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. buquer. busq. ottarda. ship Sp. busta. buta. Xerqui. the point of a lance. a backstock. and then with avis again prefixed. bukr. box. Lindenbr. stem. brut. bust. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . stump. Lang. an affair. buc. forms morseqiiill. also a busk. I bustle. a boat or small vessel . BUSS Dozy from Arab. especially of a woman's dress. mogangas from gonj. Lat. to make use of. Sw. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. AS. A A busquer (Sigart). outarde. bacio. in Diaz Gris. love gestures. a busk. bulk. bruskras well as buskr. the breast. biist. the trunk. kiss.bezig. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. a bust. putschen. worn to make the body straight . the long. to Swab. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Cot. brostia as well as bostia. Prov. knock. Edrtst. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. With respect to bust. 2l box. The proceedings of Parliament. bus. hipista. tuft. or chest in which the vitals are contained. buyse. A wisp. lips. a projection. lip. bu. Busk. Prov. buc. sunt quas Hispania aves . bisegung. a bush. smack. crack . mouth. bust. a tree. a kiss. bysgian. — Thus we should have mocherqui. made stiff. a blow. from jnund. avuDiez. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. business. and by transposition morchequi. Bust. but. Bustard. body . and supposes that the common Arab. bus. baiser. a kiss. Fr. plated body or other quilted thing. to make a splash in the water. trunk of Cot. Swiss butschen. to knock . abotarda. as in avestruz (^avis struthio).d. Fris. Gael. also a flagon. basiuin. a log. and also a sounding blow. beezig. borcegui. Namur — Champagne Fr. signifying trunk of a the body. So in Fin. a ship of some size. Sp. a mouth. See Boss.Lat. body of a woman's dress It. outard. a sleeveless truss or doublet. mosequin. 2. Bav. — hardly be distinct from Fr.pjik. Hal. occupied bezigen. busch. its slowness of flight. stump. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. trunk.— . would explain the G.' ON. Business. Cat. Busitiess :c3iVi . ON. knock. putta. kupata. trunk of a tree. representing a blow. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. body of garment. a bulk or trunk without a head. mouth. 7o\. the body without arms busque. bisg. a kiss. A great sluggish fowl. Rouchi. I. a. cata — . betarda. trunk. — — — — It is like the smouldering. butz. busto. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. a stroke of wind. bus and Pol. inde discurro et operosus sum. of a doublet. body. or Cherqui. to bustle. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. busch. an ostrich. Port. On the other hand. a Mid. ' bistardej It. . of the human body (Grandg. bustla. to occupy. besongne. busy. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. 10. buc. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. as in moharra from harbe. ^A.D. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. To Bustle. log . 1372. Hence probably au-tarda. Fl.> Also written buskle. beso.' Plin. thick end. 1555. . So Wes- terwald munds. mons. lump.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage.). a large cljest or particular applibox. austarda. occupation. a kiss of reverence. mohedairova. Sp. 22. brusc. I. To hurry or make a great B. Buss. forest. chest. a bunch of flowers . body. geidha. kiss. — . sera. ' BUSY 2. lip. ViM. — — difications of the same word. btcc.

bute. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Wall. plain the conjunction as signifying boot.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. is put in a class by himself. those in beccaio. that which would be translated by Fr. outside that moreover. a leathern bag. without the house kept in bottles. without buiten-man. Sp. calf of the ' say. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. calf. properly a butan wite. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. bitten dai. botilla. original sense of without.' — — ' . barriga. G. skin-bag._ bitten j biiten door. a bottle. biitait slaughterer of goats . wooden receptthing to be done. ont jhi^ton. belly. equivalent of AS. a goat (and not besides . — . and it is essentially the same word with Lat. the precise correlative of but. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. the name must have arisen before the within. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. similar train of thought is seen in ON. bout. viz. the body of an animal. without. without punishment . is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bolgia. a butcher . are. trunk. tinction between but. bole of a tree. the Perhaps besogne — . butan. binnan. beccaro. Lang. bag. moreover. Tooke's dis. from boc. then hoUow trunk. but one thing. Butcher. As a conjunction but is in every portion. Buttery. Butt. the servant in charge of the original object. the bottles. beccaria. boteria. sup- meat and drink. hull of a ship.The Sp. Prov. bouteillier. bous. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. mais. butan ce. bouz. the body of a tree or of a man. the principal apartment. be out. the trunk or body of an animal. without care. beyond the Piedm. from as. add. a butchery. the full expres. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. besides that . Where at an earthen jar . Fr.in which his brethren are included. being wholly unten. ' There is leathern bottle. bountifully.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G.' there is really a negation to be supplied. the present day we should say. or what in in charge of the pantry. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . Sp. except. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. my is called the adversative use of but. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. botija. large barrel. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. Lang. beta. So in Italian from becco. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bolr. which the word corresponds to the Fr. ' Besides all that. belly. If that where now we should compiler. of the wine and drink. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. buta. and the real origin of the and within . and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . a small winebag. rumpf. Sp. a butcher. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. Fr. But It.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. bola. without law. But In Sc. as Pantler. Fr. OFr. is well explained by Tooke. a budget. The E. bol.' Thus Chaucer says. the store of ten. the mouth). Butler. bounds of. collection of casks. "PLT) . — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. earthen which the debtor has adverted. we find ben. able.' ' write. A A . besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. boccino. boucher. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. ways. by the mode in which he is treated. bisgung. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. young mais. a barrel. botte. gives at least two pounds sterling. bodifie. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. But when will you pay it ? the belly. bocin. bitlga. in addition. bhcciero. Du. AS. also a hollow vessel .streets. viz. an outlaw from bouche. — we acle for liquors. the belly. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. and with It. boquier. (children) boc. Ben-house. slaughter-house. rotundity of the body. bochier. a cask. belly. . principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. and bot. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. the jug and in E. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. Here the but implies the existence of an. a goat. Whatever is in addition to Butler. It. . hollow case. a wooden cask. body of a shirt w.jamin. ox. a baiTel . to-boot. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery.

obeto shake backwards and forwards. To Butt. are the strips at the edges of the field. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. butt. the store of while bottich. a wall butor butt on. bocgsuin. the edge forwards. Fr. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. butte. — A . An erection built up as a Fr. — — — — . boteria. to bow. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. in the R. Butter-glass. a little push . from notirrir. a. To strike with the head bags. The word body itself seems identical with G. Hal. grease that sets by merely standing. both. bot blijven staan. botta. G. but this is probably from Fr. to thrust. short thick thing pimple. dripping. Fr. but. to abut a stone roof. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . to heap up earth or ihrust. botwm. to cast. of E. give way. Kil. Sp.to push. Mur-buttant. then the thigh or leg of an to push . nourrisson. botten. leg of lamb. a button. * Buxom. boter-schijte. a leg of mutton. Buttery. and the true derivation boar. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Schmell. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. at. pwtiaw. put. boutis. so as to make a sounding blow. the trunk.rejected thing. Du. a scope. waste ground. nourrissons. to be con. From the noise of drinkables in a house. bodi. caput scapula bout van f been. trapu. a buttrice. Buttel-triib. Btetter-schmalz. from the large knobbed head of botto. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . butter. Gr. To come full butt against a butts. thick. Perhaps corrupted Lat. as if from Povg. See Butler. to thrust. clumsy . what is kept in a blow. bout.. Du. or or shore post. Cot. a. bot. a tub. Gris. bothog. butte. a dle . strike.. a stump or club foot. botto. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. boil. to thrust. bouter. . boutoir. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. lams-bout. Boutant. Butter. w. of the present day. butt of a person. Fris. a large belly. buhsom. gigot. a boss. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Bout van het schouderIt. &c. the rosebud. a mound. a bolt. to thrust Fr. butteln. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands.' thick from shaking. hillock . pwt. Du. to throw . an ox. a button. — . who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. an etwas anstossen. . to so close to the Fr. povrvpov. boding. boiUer. as rejeton. to femur. tress. coxa. It. the thick end. or person Schmeller . From Du.putan. tout seat or breech. to touch at the end. a ribbed glass for dient. The Bavarian potig. obedient. is formed the augmentative buttatich. Buttress. -ez. bocsam. a heap of merly called pushes. to blad. to abut on. Bav. the Butter-fly. a but in the W. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. bouter. stump of a tree Fr. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. bodi'. ment being supposed to resemble butter. from rejeter. bouton. bata. end . buttock of beef is called butr. butyrum. stump. Buttrice. having a rotundity . from bugan. Bav. submit shaking up salad sauce. W. a stroke di animal. a hill. from bouter. clunis. botta. butz. to butt. to boult flour. W. bot. potacha. So in English pimples were fora clod.arbre. Halma. bottich. From Grisons biitt. Fr. botte. bout. butt. any small projection. fle>(ible. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. pied. A — — — . s'arrgter tout ^ coup. a flying buttress. rabodd. thrust forwards.against another which needs support .— BUTT leg . fowl. Du. buttern. : . bouton. Buttock. as in G. Button. humble. geboogsaem. e. a barrel. bott. Fr. — . poke. Fr. boter-vliege. to strike. Kil. Grandg.thum and not button. — A . from stossen. bud. courtaud. a bot. i. large head. thrust. Gael. . Boutje. the thigh of a goose. the prick in the middle of a target. buttare. Du. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. Hal. AS. buttals. Fr. a button. R. suddenly . butt. &c. striking end. nursling. a cask. Lang. oir spike with a k coup . Schmell. to thrust . on. butter un. a boss. a blow. to push earth . buter. Kil. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a bun. signify a cask or tub. aim whence to make a support to a wall. a buttress Cot. by boE. Fr. a blow. boter-vogel. bottig. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a thrust the thigh-bone. able that Chaucer. a corner horses' hoofs. any short thick thing. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. butter.

G. a town. bycgan. a by-path is a side path . Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. Verstegan in R. The ON. good-humoured one. AS. a meke thynge with — alle. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Etynj. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. Cabal. 3. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. buso. byar-log. 519. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bi. to whisper. confusedly. from by. It. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . big. Buzzard. Then applied to speaking low. bylove. Pecock Repressor. Lat. to sell. Mercy hight that mayde. bozzago. cow-house. Du. P.busardj Prov. as Fr. byr. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. byar-rettr. bi. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. bij. AS. The sense of buxom. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. buzzicare.— P. Sw. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. favourably to a petition. from whom it was addressed. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to.. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. . harty prayers and God speedes. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. 200. stall. bugjan. To Buy. OE. ON. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats.in N. A A We — — — days' wonder. a borough. to purchase for money. train of thought which has become obso. jus municipii. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Goth. favourable. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. village. called Cabala or Tradition. buzarg. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. leges urbanse ON. to jan. It. to wit. depends upon a esteem in falconry. to buzz. abozzago. . p. . groat in token of his good heart towards him. & Q. Dan. A ful benygne buirde. as heedless as a cock-chafer.P. bygge. 116. lete. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. blessing me with their of side. buteoj Fr. who makes abigg. Sw. Originally the law of a particular town. buzac. bauhta. Many good mological explanation. and boxome of speche xviii. indistinctly. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. bohte. By-law. farm. as in Da. a beetle. lb. bees. a buzzard or puttock.— Diet. Byre. gracious. and would have been lost in E. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. to pass by. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. 21. bei. and it is of good will. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. iii. CABAL Goth.. bylag. to stand at his side . bar. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. town having separate jurisdiction. son. to swear with him by . See Abie. — 122 BUY P. also say. —gracious of speech. tions by one. A by. \s\xy. frabttg- To Buzz. ii.

gaban. from trabocco. Gaggle. — Kil. kabas. originally an Gael. — the ON. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. or rush basket. kabaSsen. as Turk. Imitative of the cry of hens. chabla. aakkat'a. it would seem fundain children's language. to crush. band. a headed cole or cabbage . cabasser. wilful). a booth or hut. . or as an interjection of disMod. stercus. Due. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. cabas. cabbage. (ca/coe. It. as Diez supposes). brassica — capitata. to strain in such a manner . to put or pack up in a frail. Item habeat vocant. cables. cabarino. cacare. especially shepherd's frock. From It. Etym. a rope or cable. capo. Sw.. It. mdhaigner. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Choux cabus. Celtic. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cabo. hoard together. dirty. chaable.ticula. whence Fr. cable . manganare. &c. cabus. caable. Cabbage. Tugurium. filth. signifying properly a rope's end. a car- We convasare. accablcr. headed. cacare . It is remarkable that the Esthon. Fr. whence Lang. . dirty. come the Fr. laitue cabusse.. akista. caables. Kil. agge. The name of the engine. agge machen (in nurses' language). —Diet. kakla. bad.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Katr-iT-aKt.). a head (whence cabochard. would correspond to cable. E. Common to Lat. Cabinet. Cabin. cabre. name of the projectile engine. Cot. Due. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. calabre. cadabula. a jacket Fr. a frail. and Ptg. Ptg. Fr. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. disgust cac.Lat. Mid. ckaable. gatsch. surripere. and Or. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cdble. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. headed or cabbage lettuce. chadabula. kabat. Fr. E. OFr. aak! tandi like Fr. deponat a store closet. — Tarbe. overwhelm (Diet. OSp. to hurl in Nat. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. caqueter. is probably unconnected. To Cabbage. a rope. cabulus. The Sp. covering. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. . head. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. a shed. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. form kactal. OFr. cadabulum. a cabbage . from manganum. Castr. kakaloH. to chatter. Didot. ceach / exclamation of guages. dirt and the Fr. Cot. in which sense are explained The the OFr. main. cabuyskoole. maim. . prostratio ad terram. Cablisb. &c. capanna. Du. Mid. Sp. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. chaable. Brushwood — — B. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. It. . lactuca capitata. Du. — . Fr. giiare. cabaii. hut. ! — . — . su/Furari. an engine for casting stones. round or great headed. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. serious injury — In like manner It.' Due. Fr. cabre. as an expression of Gr. cab. forms indi. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. cadabalum. Antiq. and the Arab. case. gaggele. Mid. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem.Lat. — Ibid. . To steal or pocket. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. caable. Coticesserint Swiss aa. Lat. 'habl. agga. w. cabane. manticuKil. disgust. to keep or Du. : — from violence without blood. Neckam — by the wind. OFr. precisely in the sense of the lari E. Cappa in OSp. gabardme. Du. for the origin of which see Carabine. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. and as we find stones Mid. caboche. gaggi. the bowels. vincially used in E. to hurl down. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. cabo. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. Lith. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Lang. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . vile. a rope. a covering. cadabulum.Gr. a cloak of felt or Cack.. cab lis. the Slavonian. caable (in legal language). cabuccio. a tunic. a rope. origin is the OFr. traboccare. string. cabacho. and Finnish lanLat. It. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Finn. The double a in the OFr.. Very generally used. properly windfalls. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. or cadable. nasty. capuccio. dung. hovel. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. havyar to caviare. aeggi.Lat. has kabbel. the Prov. overwhelm. signifies down. geese. cadabola. kabane. as it must have stood in French. Sp. Capstan. heady.

Sp. It. bad . The Lat. As Du. A hooded carriage. It. Cadence. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Du. a vessel for heating water. cuttle-fish. Lat. to treat like lime. Lat. to cage. frisky. to heat. a cake or loaf. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. chattering. It is another form of the E. naXaiidpi. Calendar. Lat. Du. . kalfi. kolyaska. Lat. a hollow place. one unduly indulged by. calculo. so gabble corresponds with Fr. cadenza. a falling. cake. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. calentura. A cuttle-fish. a corpse. captive. kdfich. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Serv. prate. disease of sailors from tivus). a reed. Cadet. kalem. calcis. limestone. Sw. dead body. Calandre. reed-pen. kdtr. calentar. Pol. kolo. loss. a wheel . From lerie. calibre. Lat. It. &c. collop. Lat. a common cart. gabbia. calpa. caldarius. Lat. a circle. Sw. cadence. See Kiddier. a low note. kuchen. to . Turk. ratas. of oxen and similar animals. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. calibre. kolo. calessa. coop. Du. Fr. the bore of a cannon. Sw.— Cot. Fr. Sp. Russ. calx. the pith or soft part of wood. Sp. from Gr. a tea-chest. or smooth Hnen cloth. lindrus. to throw themselves into the sea. To Calender. Calash. . The Calf. Fr. (in the augm. a calash . Calcialate. gabbia. hot . KaKKat. a caFr.— Calliper. — in a kiln. The young G. pith. little chief. Lat. wanton. G. Cot. on. kauwe. to compute. Arab. just falling. unruly . javioler. of which. to prate much to little purpose. wretched. cage. To Cajole. incolumis. * Cade. the calf of the leg. loss. a loaf of bread. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. for green fields. jabber. a small stone. lord. ever and anon. KxiKivh^o^. Flo. cauldron.warmth . CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Dan. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. coll. Mrs B. Dan. its mother. of the nature of lime to calcine. Perhaps from w. kolo. Calocli. Caldron. Gascon capdet. calamus. principal and interest. a counter used in casting accounts. cadere. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. 124 prattle . capitetum. safe. caldaria. caioler. a waggon . hence musical rhythm. to cackle . prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). a cylinder. cabdillo. chaudron. Lat. without loss. a car. roller. gabberen is identical with E. a fever. En kaka br'od. Calc-. calidus. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. gaggia. kakulla. calamitas. cadaver. frolicsome kaad mund. koeck.uv. gavia. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. Cadge*. especially of something soft. kola. an inkstand . a lump or large piece. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. to sleek hence a den. the lump and the increase. Calamary. joyous . the pi. a wheel . desire of land. Fr. ben- kalf. caliche. cage. kalb. Due. a mischievous dial. Originally from a Slavonic source. a calesh. Cot. a wheel. cattivo (from Lat. from the Chinese catty. kaeckelenj Gr. —Atkinson. ' . pi. chetif. Cot. Cake. lime whence calcareous. In the same way Fin. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. pen Mod. dial. Fr. calendrer. cadet. An open travelling chariot.— . pet lamb. a wretch. cavea. kaad. from calculus. kage. kail. kolesb. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. an ugly waggon kolaska. chaudiere. calendarium. capCalenture. and troublesomely attached to. cykevie. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. kat. or prattle. cageoler. B. gaggle. A . ON. Roman reckoning. — — — Dan. Tea-caddy. when they are said to poor. Turk. Caddy. babbhng. whence calash. from calendcE. rattaat (wheels). It. gabble. It. a wheel . from the ink-bag which it contains. calesa. Fr. Cage. cha'cmie cadence. Fr. G. . a dence. form) calderone. Gael. Lat. It. or colpa na coise. Cauldron. * Calibre. . directly representing the chattering cries of birds. calf of leg. kolasa. master. N. boy. marrow. a roller. kukje. signifies a waggon. misfortune. the younger son of a family said to be from . . A — fall. kaka. Cajol. calba. Caitiff. Fr. Lat. to gabble. kolyasochka. whence Lat. kalfvan hout. calidus. taking it Sp. Cadaverous. kolesnitza. Du. Calamity. colibro. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Calp is riadh.Gr. Calf of the Leg. hot. to — Fr. is probably delusive.

' But it is hard Du. * Caliver. — — — — — . moist. to affirm. calare.' Chaucer. can be distinct from ODu. which is as much as to say.from Ka'tm. kael. faint.meaning of the word. couleuvre. calca. AS. u to an I in such a colubrum. a drab. whereas in troth it is not. abto suppose that E. Sup. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. So It.' Winter's Tale. calvus. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. licht stuk The change from a. Fr. Kavfia. Gael. . serpens. KaXka. kal. chatter. quiet. caillette. a round of abuse. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Calico. to burn. of the bore of a firearm met. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. calat of leude demeaning. a last. to prattle. CALM to press or stuff. koluvre. whence couleuv. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). The adder or poisonous serpent converse. donderbuchs Sp. to call. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. calgua. on. Derived by some from Arab. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. Calm. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. the Fr. Fin. Callow. klover. or languishing drought is . a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. CALICO Calliper-compasses. alta voce ploro. To drive tow or oakham. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. caluw. and sometimes a handgun. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim.' Slange.— . scold. bombarda Cauma incendium. oldire from audire. Fr. callum. or mould. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. calc. given. Sir John Smith in Grose. skin hardened by labour. fistula. colubraria canna. coulevrine. dragoon. calicot. to say. chatter kallen. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. the hard surface of the ground. coluber. push violently. glotton. calma. calo. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). kallo. Kil. Call. Ca. depreciatory term for a woman. Lat. but is only a jda-kallo.position is much less common than the geschut. form in the kalib. The origin is Gr. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. kalla. them &c. The word was also written cawme in OE. Diez. drive. tittle-tattle. sound. calcare.en~ kinds of firearms. Turk. calor. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. faint. kahcwe. a. E. According to Jal (Gl. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. kol. nautique). caliver. heat. harden by pressure. dial. Bi. The primitive colubrina bombarda. coluber also. Antiq. however. moso. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . Mahn derives it from Lat. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . form. an adder. ram. serpentina. a successor. cotton cloth. It. kal. kil-u-kal. callus.. sestus.Lat. Fr. Kil. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. piece of bigger circuite. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. a feathers. calme. Lang. Sp. to calk. qAlab. a good calling. ' rine. Lat. by many that the weapon Callous. Gr. Fin. colubrina. calclover. and E. and heat. calcaich. people's remarks. Unfledged. calleting. Hard. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. cauque. Ibid. having a thick skin. Dief. . overscalmaccio. try. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. sence of wind. hollaing. vulgo Coluvrine. To call. khalif. Mid. to be of a good or bad quality. The reference to heat is preserved in. tapulta. Due. — — — — — . calma. to abuse .(jaa= ice). calibre. NE. hallottaa. from Calicut in the E. overheated.' Whitby Gl. the Fr. ululo Turk. 125 Prov. to proclaim. quA librd. Du. to hear. B. Indies. the latter of chamber. * Callet. to rail or scold . trull. hot. word of mouth . done with heat Alt. longior. Diet. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. To Calk. kind heat of the sun. prattle. Sp. voice. calibre. of a column. calk. Mil. to tread. water-tight. whehce it was first brought. cauma. — Fl. diameter of a ball. i. a soldier who the It.piicede Lat. Sc. which has its memory preserved in Du. sclopus. harquebus or handgun. saucy. Fr. Ptg. Among these were the turn. or caliever. to cram. culverin. ' pert. to callet. To century was Squalibre. the scalp or skull. to call. gossiping. dragonder. scalmato. heat. 'A callet of boundless tongue. brawny. Caliph. femme frivole et babillarde. the heat of Now these Du. Heb. cahna. quality. and dragon. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. the day. bald.

Peter Martyr. It. camelot. Calver of cane. camahutus.Lat. campo. campagna. Kakoycpos. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. having an aquiline nose. Fr. candidus. campo. campaign. campus. camiscieia.— Hackluyt in R. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Canine. Canal Channel. water chamlet . E. and yspiuv. From fluting or furrow in a column . cainahelus. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. champagne.who their language. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. to bend. a' Sc. cAouma. lame. Sp. callour. From campus was formed Lat. mg Canister. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Lat.—Cambrel. a caught. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. India Islands. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. ko/utuXoc. camaien. a basket. had no r in de bric— Cot. cam^e. unwater chamelot . the space of false imputation. fresh. a. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. campagna. arched. open and level ground. also an eatmg sore. an eating. . and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. spot for cattle. good. It. Camp. chaitcre. Cot. to bow. to glow. frank and sincandidatus. Cann. at the ends. nia. campren. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Cambray. Lat. canistrum. — Cancel. cup. slander. camiscia. E. Calumny.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles.—Jam. It was distinfrom work. the type of a hollow pipe. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. to the force of the wind. field . a. w. whence Fr.' ' Quhen a lattice. a crab. white. on. ckaouma. chommer. Mod. Turk. Fr. KafitjUe. Lat. B. Camel. samon. is Cambering. ation. when its substance appears inter. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. lattice. aspirant. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. to break. the calix. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. brought from Fr. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. camber-nosed. to warp. It. fair. Mid. sore.— B. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Lat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. crooked. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. the heat. the salmondis faillis thair loup. died in 1526. A — the Cannibals. Cameo. Palsgr.. chamold man. — B. paign. Camlet. bis. Lat. cancer. candela. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. crooked. It. Lat. . higher in the middle than Fr. hooked. Lat. Or the word Lat. properly good country. Gr. Cambrel. Caloyer. a large drinking . a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Fr. co7nbar. campagne. catmneo. clothed in white. to jut. calutmiia. aged. cambrer. whence the Fr. toile some of whom. camp. Candid. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Arab. cere : Lat. Sanson khanda. or Caribs. Sp. is Candle. B. Sp. Fr. camelus. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. Pers. crooked-stick. monk. cambre. chandelle. Cambric. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Cambrav—Cam. The Grisons cauina. cup. camisade. Camisade. Fr. Canker.' Forme of Cury in Way. se cameloter. arched. E. cancello. Campaign. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Properly calver in the field during a war. In a different application It. a may have acquired that signification from plain. salmon.—Candidate. It. a piece. crooked. different sections of the like the Chinese. Fr. whence the noun signifying an applicant. camisa. crook. canalis. See Canker. It. a goblet bud. to bend. across — Bellenden in Jam. cambren. lie level. canis. from candere. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Ptg. camafeo. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Candy.— Chandelier. champ. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Fr. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind.Gr. sugar. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Calyx. the bed of a stream. or hollow of a flower. cambr^. callar. icaSoytipoe. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Bret. Cancer. kanna. from xaXbg. — Lat. arch. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. a dog. Fr. calls them Cannibals or Caribees.conduit-pipe._ kamm. calj'x. Gr. a field Greek monk. Canibal. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. KafivTu. would plenier. An eater of human flesh. canna.

It. capax. to sing. Again we have Lat. Jonson. a cloak kapali. KCLvva. Fr. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. hirnschlapple. kanta. has kahn. kynnel. a — A — Cannel Coal. carcase . It. Cape. It. haitt. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. It. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. capello Italis. Capable. Lat. cantref. Cot. kandt-broodts. a scull- — here. that the G. canton. hemp.Gr. coat. kyndel. from cant. chape. Canteen. It. cane. to shut. covered.Gr. The meserseum and the mesentericum. cane. kapamak. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Mod. a drinking glass. Kil. capevole. Canon. capa. measure for cloth. &c. If the word had been from cantherius. part. Cant. to con- rummer. was formed Kavtiiv. border. Palsgr. a hundred. ON. Fr. the heel. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. a ship canot. border Dan. canteau. astrology. From Gr. cannabis. To Canonise. quarter. cappe. It. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Fin. Gael. cantina. Coal burning with bright flame. the tried list of saints. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. See Chape. The word seems to be taken from Gael. kand.n. can. Cannoii. to put upon sacred writers. language.— Cot. cantred. as a cantle of bread. cannone. Schwab. Esthon. speech. cannu. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. hood. a wine-cellar or vault. hemp. a boat. cope. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cover . a ruler. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. and met. Goldast — in in Schmid. from canna. canon. or cantell of bread. Mod. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. tain. from a Canter. to contain. Sp. canevas. Hence Lat. a reed. Probably only the augmentative of canto. shut. KaTTiram. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. . being a yard or thereabouts . cane. A . cantle then is a corner of a thing. . say. clqse. Picard. canonicus. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. a cane. canapaccia. Canopy. it would have been found in the continental languages. From Lat. chanteau. To his judicial And trowl the tile. quito curtain. kwvwxIi. a reed. chantel. gnat. B. which is not the case. and the sex- &c. schlappen. Du. canonici. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. kaput. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Canvas. a rule or standard of excellence. Capari. a cap. Fr. a tube. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. It. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. canoa. &c. Swab. coarse hemp. from Dan. a Fr. Kavt\. name. or hold. from . leiwan kanta. lump. cheese. also a measure. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Diez. a door . kantr. Canton. N. a hunch of bread. region. Kavutiriiav bed curtain..CANNEL vessel. A slow gallop. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a cantle of bread. corner. See Capt-. cane. side. and tref. the part easiest broken off. Gugel. a cover Turk. Prov. a horn of the moon . kq. a cloak. cappa. canvas. Alamannis. cannevaccia. cainnt. call. rumme. trine. OFr. hamlet. . edge. To canvas — . caparazon. Sp. a straight rod. a corner. schlapp. root cap. cantone. properly a large Prov. a gelding. a division of a country. a pipe. cappe. The — . Cantle. Germanis kdppen.^on. territorial hundred. quarter . Canoe. as. canto. . pipe. a side. cover kapi. canapa. the quartile. W. and hence a gobbet. contain. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. coarse hempen cloth Fr. he discourseth of dissection. cape. Sp. A piece of anything. capace. like a torch or candle. cannevo. Wtb. is found languages of very different stocks. Capacious. a small boat. Cope. the heel. regular. But it may be different source. able to receive. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. Of vena cava and of vena porta. signifying cover. margo panis diffracta. a torch.

then find the symptoms of shivering. I have shivered with love. a ch illness. Caper. It. It. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. arricciarsi. Sp. wriggle. ziki. as Fr. Capers. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . a buck. aggricciare. where Burton adds in a note. a goat. A . frissoner. Genevese bresoler. cut. The same imitation of Capon. It is probable that Gr. of a coach. or represented by the syllable e. to shiver for cold. a separate division of a matter. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating.standing on end. cut off. Fr. gives rise to Sc. The true derivation lies in a different direction. ticchio. a young kid met. is either wholly lost. grisser. arricciarsi. explained by Diez from capra.impressions on the ear. kid. frizzle. frisson- ner . brisciare.' — (Supp. Unexpected pleasure. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. birsle. <I>pi'?oe. roughening of the skin. algabr. the principal part of the debt. to shudder. heath. Torriano. to from capitulum. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. p. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. then to shiver or shudder. a hedge-hog. as the means of earning profit. Fr. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. according to the Hindoos. curly. It. the hair to stand on end. curling. with joy' Vikram. brisciare. chief. and 7tucc.'— Trev. the hair to stand on end. caj)o. Fl.— 128 CAPE a rustling. Hair-like. Lat. to fry. Lat. II bresole (Gl. ericius. Cot. to twitter as birds. prickly husk of chestnut. — — A a hair. bristling. Lat. Capital. shrub. also the capriole. of a fowl. airoKOTrrw. capriole. Caprice. And similarly to yearn. . because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end.Gr. knis. grisser. It. capillus. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. to desire earnestly. a caper in dancing. Fr. fansuddenly angry. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. greziller. ribrezzo. It. sault. cappriccio. brezilia. to broil. alcaparra. caprice. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. capitulare. a little head. brisciare. toy. bristling. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. Hence capitalis the sum lent. capro. upon terms Sp. or Lat. caper j caprio. the singing'bone). horror. 75. cApre. for which he cites the Comask nucia. caprice It. It. they longed extremely to see it. as Fr. rissoler. and OHG. a yearning through sudden fear. a chevret. Griller d'im' patience. a caterpillar. a capriol. riccio. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. as Fr. to ruffle the surface of water. shivering. ^piKos. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. bruco. a . It. as in Lat.— Fl. — to yearne. capriol or caper in dancing. w. crackling sound Cape. the head. end. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. castrated.' Cot. frisser {frissement d'un trait. then to be in a state of vibration. Fr. belonging to From caput. eruca compared with It. hair. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. grillcr. hi. a head. gives rise to brezza. and with an initial gr instead of br. principal. Mod. capriola. It. or. compared with Bret. humorous. G^' Many words — ' ndv. capitalis.) grezille marid. or goat's leap (done by a horse). So from Sw.) d'etre The It. greziller. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. to crackle. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. horripilation. abridge amKoTroq. brisoler. CAPRICE twittering. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . frort^Lat. capparis. castrated cock. knis-hujwud . herissonnement. Hal. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. or other things. Lat. of a tremtdoiis sound. capar. brissle. erica. h^risser. grug. brug. shivering. cover of a saddle. Lang. Arab. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. a kid. hedge-hog. the head. gricciare. A headland. to crackle. s'hdrisser. To treat Capitulate. and his body bristled We to castrate. See Chief. the initial mute of forms like Gr.). curl. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. gricciare. rihrczzoso. chattering of the teeth. to shiver. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. to parch. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. Capillary. Acad. to . to broil.

a creaking waggon. cabreia. Lat. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. recevoir. bock. It. of capsa. charger. dim. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Cot. chevre. strideo. trestle. Caseneuve in Diet. conception. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. It. captivate. crab s. and of captus to an e. Du. G. shivering fit (Altieri). capsula. Etym. and has thus descended unaltered to English. caricare. and tropically. a capuchin.).). a cloke) capuccino. i The meaning Car. carro. -cept. Passing on into E. a she-goat. char. of the Sp. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . carretta. Capt-. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. calabrino. fancy. The It. to accept. capitano. Cart. crepo. verbs gives rise to the element . was converted into -ceb. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. box. a reception.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). capra. de- price. See Caper. acceptus. case. krul. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Fr. It is a standing crab. a sawing-block or trestles. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Fr. recipere. to this is It.s. karista. a. Neumann. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. a head man. commander. Cot. Carbine. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. to take to. a taking back. -ceive. contain. . precept. It. cabestrantej Fr. desire. to please. deceit. hold. Fr. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. deception. a hooded friar. recepte. Fr. a fantastical humour. chirrion. Castr. — — Capstan. from head. Capstern. Carabin. capitis. conceit. was originally a missile . in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. concipere. to load . oisr. Sp. Capuchin. 129 — receive. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. concebir. karrende waegen. kerren. decepte. charrier. Fr. a kind of torture. whence capture. or the (capo-riccio). perceive. a cart. Fl. &c. receptus. to creak. cabra. calabrin. concevoir. to carry . fantastic. capuccio. karra. It. carabin. Sp. OSp. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. di cappa. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. intercept. cabrestante (whence e. chirriar.. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. and has accordingly been lost in E. to take baclc. Fr. Crab.. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. to receive receptio. however. capp%tccio. sels. tnoschetta. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. Captain. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. captus. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a.or -cib-. recipio. &c. Nordfoss. caThe hrestante. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. also to carry on a car . Fin. accept. In the S. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. a sudden will. It. — —Diet. caput. &c. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. It. also tresFl. latterly. conceive. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. It. cams. also a kind of rack. as the dragoons (Du. captive. cabestan. Fr. Lat. Derivatives are Fr.of these compound verbs. Lat. a windlass. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Capsule. to take. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. the -cevofthe Fr. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. at least. to creak. Capriole. one odd. Carry. -cept. Lat. Du. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. seize. caprice. a coffer. as in accipio. where it forms a very large class of compounds. a sudden fear apprehended. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. capio. a hood (dim. charret. an engine for throwing stones. Kiittner. karren. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. was a kind of horse soldier. Carabine. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. as in OFr. Thus the musket. recibir. concept. except. In cases.

carquan. «capa'|8i. Card. ' Vasa vitrea. a quiver. eit. ON.Gr. caraffe. &c. garafa. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. espi7igarda. Gr. From the battering-ram. carcanet. the . winding. is the chine. curry-comb. matter. a case or chest . &c. a firelock. quse vocant karabd. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Caravel. chevre by the name of the goat. p. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. constraining . Sp. carcanada. casso. . a small weight. car. Lat. carcame. Sp. See Carpenter. skeleton. a collar or chain for the neck. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a ship. Gr. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. caravela. Cot. Parmesan cassiron. to draw in. a prison. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. avSpaS. carbunculus (dim. to comb wool . the case of the flesh.. fire . . a quiver . teasel for dressing woollen cloth. and catapulta. Carrob. skeleton toise. to card wool. quilato. the trunk or chest of the body . silique. Sp. Gael. also (as Gr. ancient springald. &c. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. Fr. W. cabrita. in the same way that the Sp. Ptg. tcapKaai.z. carere. cardo. turn of a horse. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . an ulcer. of carbo). Bohem. copperas. Mod. a battering-ram). The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. AS. to creak. Gael. karszti. or framework. cassa. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^.— — — . a winding staircase. Lith. a gem resembling a live coal. vitriol. seed of carob. Lat.. karra. a ripple for flax. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. turning. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. a quiver . cabreia. the husk or cod of beans. a snail. contract. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Sp. military engines made for hurling stones. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Exot. Carbuncle. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. is the word used in modern Lat. Venet. to comb. a machine for casting large darts. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. It. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. winding carach. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. carquasse. . half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. carta. to card wool.. the core of fruit . caracal.applied to a battering-ram (G. a thistle. The Trjg xeXwwac. It. Carboy. for a gun. the shell of a torcarcasso. a wool card. Fr. carate. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . carbh. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. cramp. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Carcax. An implement for dressing wool. Carcase. Arab. Comp. Cat. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). the carob bean. a card or comb . Carbonaceous. It. an engine for hurling stones. black dye. to curry horses karsztuwas. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. boch. kirat. of the same Caravan. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. a skeleton. kard boyd. a he-goat.charcoal . confining. . carduus. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. burning coal. a crane. cerran. karri. Carat. wine- bottle. case.. coming to four grains. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. kerwan. It. Gael. the carcase of a fowl. — seems to be something holding together. decanter. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. krciti. carbo. a dead carcase. a quiver. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. designated in the case of G. KtpaTwv. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. I.Gr. carcaij. a twist. carabba. Gael. OHG. carmiiiarc. . wool card. a lock of wool . carch. Cot. a kind of ship. card. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. bock and Fr. the name might naturally Mod. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. The radical meaning . carabe. also a small weight. skeleton. a coffer. carquois. eitar. a goat. alia sunt majora. to hiss (as gee^e). shell. Sp. It. Fr. Fr. to ripple flax. a thistle. poison eiz. Caraool.' From the same source are SicU.. restraint . caraffa. the dead body of any creature. to turn. carcasa. bend. Derived in the first edition from Mod. cdrlag. cabra. mural attack. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. properly a siege machine. Pers.

to lie on its side. ignarus. ON. as quadrivium from Carnaval. . Fr. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Fr. crowl. kroU-erbser. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. charie. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Chart. Coll. E. Fr. Fr. Carnal. care on. in N. and sum. essere in carena. road. caru. kumra. rixosus. from caricare. what is felt as grievous. record. to whirr (schnurren). It. 273. Probably the origin of the word is the .. Sept. Carenare. Carl. to rumble. parched or carled. cearian. the keel. Sp. stingy. charta (Gr. p. Dan. carnal. — — Diez. or grumbling —Due. & Q. solicitous. beans. de Parthenay. to distress growl. see Garble. a man. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. morosus sum. compared with Fin. wool cards. gakaran. a card. Cargo. Lat. cura intenta. Sp. care. Card. carFrom carrus. carriera. Carlings. in St Jerome. Charnel. carch. Fin. murren. sgritudo animi. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. appertaining to the flesh. It. asper. 2. Roquef. strideo. karista. Trin. Carnage. Cartel. kargr. zanken . also a career on horseback. winding. Fr. giierlir. Farewell flesh. at murmuring. clown or churl. croller. A mod-carag. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. — To Careen. Mur. Champ. is This however Shrove tide. W. carrefourg. sorrow. quarreG. fleshy .— Charter. ress. quaver a lazar's clack. chartre. karantez.' Slceat. soUicitus OSax. karout. to scrape . astutus. piger. msstus. regar. is to say. cura may be ror. four. weyes. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. ceorl.. to parch. cargar. the keel of a vessel. Fl. G. — — . Bois crolant d'un ladre. carian. carena.Lat. from Lat. the time during which to Rom. Gael. No ' place there had. Care. kribina. Fr. Properly. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. scharren. from carus. place for exercise on horseback. the flesh of animals . AS. Bret. to clean the bottom of the ship. Cark. to growl. like connection may be seen between Fin. From. charnage. from the keel to the water . the several meanings of the words above Rom. to eat flesh. stridere. ON. male person. camovale. niggardly . charnel. Peas steeped and fried. . Cot. carina. — Carfax. to take Goth. Carminative. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. carnasciale. x'»P'"^s)) paper. bottom. to scratch. Cath. to comb flax or hemp. intrasset caro. that on wliich the matter hinges. kurista. charag. karry. and G. be anxious. cdrle. kara. surrata. from carrus. . immediately before the long fast of Lent. Caricature. affection. sensual. tenax. as peas. to love. carcare. to fry. carminare. to load. Cot. Ptg. carriire. carezza. grolU. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. AS. . six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. tremble. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. moeThe Lat. hoed. — — — : Cardinal. tuorfurcm (Burguy). videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Groler. charger. to fry or broil. crawl. murahtaa. Fr. crosier. kummer. karl. carnis. A medical term from line —Boerio.— CARD karr-kambar. the load of a ship. that Fl. Venet. and murhet. W. . carnavale. love. to care unkarja. Lat. sorrow. quadrifurcum from quameet. in Carp. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. carnalis. fundamental. Translated in MS. Fr. G. meet at a head. the old theory of humours. — — — Caress. to shake. to comb wool. Carled peas. dear. a deed. caricatura. or street. karg. an endearment. cargo. graller. one of those ac- 9 * . w. caricare. karrig. W. Bret. It. carena. morosus. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. a turn. charneux. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. caMid. car. caresse. carener. . voce strepo stridente. charg. It. Properly a car-road. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. It. &c. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. It. AS. OFr. OHG. . Cot. whence carricare. an overloaded representation of anything. grief. A place where four roads Mid. careless take care of. 8. 1S66. combing them out like the knots in wool. and compare Bret. For the root of carminare. the hull of a ship. as carminare. cardo. a highway. A quirito ut infans.Lat. to card wool. act of moaning. . cardinis. caritia. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. carcus. mutter. murista. Fin. principal. a hinge. to load. cearig. and thin. It. to load.

maker of waggons It. skraf. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. tymmer. to dance. to find fault with. cxciv. querole. on that. used for stuffing mattresses. a carder. So gone they forthe. — . . in Nat. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. I quaught. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Carole.Why give's some wine then. and Carnem laxare (It. a car carpentarius. 2. Ant. carpende fast Carol. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. garrire. carpere. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. quoted by Carpentier. Carnelevale. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. carpo. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. carpetam (a quilt?). . bier. and F. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. Pm. cardos. Fr. chirp. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Lat. a drinking cup. Dief. is erroneous. Cot. Alluz (G. carnelascid). 1 1 30. Sup. e. Fr. krapati. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. ballare. Carpitam habeat in lecto. The word seems of Celtic origin. qui sacco. as the Lat. . And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. cited by Marsh. a song accompanying a dance then.]e bois Carnelevale. krapanj.— Patriarchi. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. W.D. In a MS. lint. chatter. i. A.Lat. 2. Pr. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. culcitra.' Raleigh. worker in timber Fr. 94). On the other hand bumper to one's health. all aus). Palsgr. Pref. Shrove Tuesday.: . yede tham about. carpita. biheld without. carpenticre. chatter skra/a. Biheld within. linteamen. Carpenter. act of drinking a full Eq.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. whence the form carnasciale. Beggars Bush. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Mid. litter. Mediol. 760.'— Stat.— Drant in R. Chanson de carole. in Carp. carpentum. as E. Bohem. carpia. Nomin. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. vel coopertorio carebit. or a carouse fully drunk up. Gower in Way. gonna. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. to talk. koroll. sense. a dance. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. to reel. I drink all out. differing To Carp. to rustle. course. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. as carnaval from carnelevamen. carbh. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. balade from It. carpenter only in the latter sense. a wheelwright. The karole of the stones behelde. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. carpetrix. pluck at. carpenta. pluck. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Analogous R. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. ' ' — . carpat (Stokes). tattle.' Reg. chariot carbad. Carpyn or talkyn. Lat. of Guiana. The ' ' a chariot. carduz. Sp. The custom. Ein we find the signification transferred from . This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Templariorum — ' — Due. to pull asunder. charpie. to gather.Lat. charpentier.— Neum.gonnella. All out B. in Due. 216. Teut. garrulo. Other names of the sea. ! Carouse. zimmerspan.— R. CarTo quaff carouse do use. On this. Bret.' Ordo Eccles. fabulor. Mid. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. was formed Mid. The tippling sots. a wheelwright. Discov. Properly a round dance. ship. gar aus / all out is correct. i. zimmer.' says Motley (United Neth. In Dominica d'autant. From Lat. to pluck. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Gael. peta. Carnevale. Carpet. a plank.Lat. Olr. as Fr. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. or loose as a couch without further preparation. to chatter coroli. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Lat. ON. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. to dance. To pledge them thou refuse. Here's to you still my captains friend.

Probably. Preparatory drawing of a It. Lat. caro. from Lat. casso.— Fl. cancel. Cassock. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Rouchi caroche. and the OE. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. also the carriage. Ready money. carogna. cascade. to — — also casse. casaque. to hold. case-maiej Sp. Fr. carretta. OE. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. AS. caisse. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. — Cartridge. ceorfan. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Rouchi carter. bag and baggage of a camp. a car. subject for a picture. cartone. Fr. to cut or carve . Lat. Fr. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. turn out of service. ' Casa-matta. made void. The Sp. casuelj Fr. something that actually occurs. empty. It. kerven. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. It.' Bailey. packing ' cloth. ignominiously exposed. of carro. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. casa-maita. card. It. afterwards any written challenge. casualis. slaughter-house. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment.' — Hdcart. casco signifies a skull. — — . kirpti. dim. a hut. cartoccio. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cascare. casser. Case. Case-mate. to notch. Cartoon. to fire on the enemy. G. Carrot. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Lith. Fr. hollow. bitten. caroach. Lat. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. cascar. Fr. coffin of paper for groceries. caisse. for the security of the defenders. charrier. to dash. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. cassere. Casual. See Card. cartouche. break to pieces. paper. See Gristle. kasseren. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. mord-grube. Cot. cartella. casus. Cot. pasteboard. Fr. long man's gown with a close body. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. — FI. It. tion from Sp. a coffer or small case for jewels. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. Fl. krat. caxa. Fr. annul. carriaggio. crown of a hat. to convey in a cart. and matar. cassa. hull of a ship. cassus. Carrion. capsa (Diez). an augmentative from Lat. as we . Rouchi carpHe. shell or carcase of a house. It. It. augmentatives of carro. The carrying of anything. It. a chance or accident. not reaching to the height of the ditch. carota. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. gristle. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Walach. quash. cancelled. fortuitous. one who reasons on cases put. vault hole in a fortified wall. a chest. fall It. properly to convey in a car. a long coat. des rideaux A'carp^ie. cascata. carreaggio. Case. carretto. discharge It. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. To Carry. carroc- carrozza . house. Du. Fr. Fr. cassa.' Cot. charogne. a of water. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. discharge. caisse. kerpu. to break. It. cassette. luggage. coffer. CartOTicli. crush. Cash.. augm. Fr. To Carve. Cartel. Fl. — Cartoose. casag. Carriage. from the sound it makes when Alban. Casuist. a paper case. Cask. blotted out. gristle. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Flor. from It. Cart. to an- — Kil. corresponding to the G. where Fr. Gael. the money chest. mord-keller. helmet. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. an act of falling. carroccio. hung up in some place and to be removed. to crack. charrette. to bear or carry. abrogate. cut with scissors. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. of carta. Lat. To Cashier. Sp. cashiered. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. As defence from shells became more important. Sp. Du. a merchant's cash or counter. It. to slay. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension .to annul. See Case. quasser. Cascade. — — nul the proceeding. a fall. to shear. casitiste. kerben.' Fl. the charge of — — Fr. case. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Casket. from casa. a loopscale the wall. void cassare. like all the names of tendon. casa. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. AS. to fall. Fr. Fr. Rouchi carone. from It. casacca. and that apparently from capio. mata. a car. cia. caroche. To duash. To quash an indictment. Hence casket. carrosse. Casque. cartilage.

to hurl See Awgrim. away. . kic' kicil are used chasser.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. ' Catchyn away abigo. Thus we have Caste. Cot. KaraXoyog. second chase. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. to cast or beat to tioner . Isidore — in Diez. name. handle of an axe. Fr. cast. V Lith. the earlier sense of catch. and from the castus. . To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. cojz^/a. Cast. cacciarc. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. in the fire. To Catch. kottr. Fr. from the first of Castrate. a whip on the other into latch. Hence castaneta.Lat. Yz. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. . probably from an imita.Rouchi Scaches. image accasciare. which has been retained in E. to end. mino. n. Sp. cacciuolo. Mid. a thump. chasser. a cat koshki.to drive out. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . B. stilts. to scourge. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. punch. Fr. castello. race. Fr. of sarabands does Gr. to drive away. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. to make clean or chaste. bot-kotis. castro. force j Rouchi equerviche. Catastrophe. on. a Cataract. of castrum (castra). Etym. In the dialect of Picardy. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. 'Vaaaw. kasta. It. kotas. like that of It. Fr. . to crackle. klakka. fall. Fr. The Diet. The E. to dash. rack. a cat .out cacciare . the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. So also from It. cash.'— Pr. a chesnut . Pol. It. the castanets for or implement . and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. heat . Castle. Roukind. dashing it out of the window. Brunne. to close. R. was introduced. Fr. ON. lance. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to fall as over a precipice. to hunt. to crack. catar. Gael. cassa / cry for the same purpose.. &c. To It. chasuble. catch. to break. a vault. koshka. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . kasi. burst cascare. Hal. chat. accastiare. however. or comba. arpi^m.— Fl. chasser. Lang. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Fr. Catalogue. castellum. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. to torture. OFr. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. chaleur. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. 134 CAST Catacomb. is not satisfactory. Sp.the / or c respectively. first made ordinary Fr. to turn overturn. kakka. speak of dashing a thing down. to lash. execu. — We a cavity. being Fin. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Pic. to bring to an crack given by the joints. perhaps from which we have E. drive away. Lat. castanetazo. 120. _G.. under chi caleur. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. Cat. coming to us through different dialects of French. kotas. dash. V. and tomba. to clack. KarapaKrr]g. to look at. dim. signifying breed. ichasses. Fr. kat. casser. and KviilSog. same word with break. casule. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. ating. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. a garment for performing the mass in. from water Karappaaaiii. or Rouchi cat. Castanets. while kiss / Pol. Chase. katze. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. fer toTa. squash. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. casulla. casipola. crush . a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. . sue. Pm. dashing it to pieces. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. the stalk of plants. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. to is Essentially the Sp. cascar. KaTaarpifm. KaTappaKTrjQ. castana. which. ecrevisse. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. down. cat. to Fl. an enumerlist. It. torture. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). a fortified place. Others explain it from Kara. cat-o'-nine. casupola. Gr. puras E. down. kissa. follow after. squash. tails. Lat. kaJoivad. shaft of a 1 push. a little house or hut. the ground . represented by the syllable quash. or bruise together. Gr. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. puss / for calling them. by the loss of with several pitched cords. cacciare fuora.

companaige. a little dog). and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. fragor kletsoore. an accusing. E. the the same principle he was Fr.from Bard and ayopsw. 135 — Aasen. Cates. called dog or Galla catchamza. silkworm.j. latch. from Gr. — Kiittner. gingle. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Chate peleuse. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. de Bray. . gattola. kletsen. ketsoore. blow. cache. an officer of taxes. Du. catch. clap with the hand. a whip. klatsche and Norm. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Gael. On Catechism. . to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. predicament. a whip or Kuttner. icarrix'Ki^. and answer. P. to snap. door when it is shut. to crack GATES cache. ecachoire.) . KaTtix'so. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. quincailler. happe-chair. . — . Gr.yopl(. ' ' word catch. glcu. klatscherei. bichano (pussy). laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. snatched. Claucht. dainty vic- a form lash. millecaterpillars. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. chenille {canicula. Guernsey pilleure. Du. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. klinke. Metivier. Sc. insect. clatter. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. Wal. compare G. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. apprehend a person. Tutschek. gliong. weevils. GaUa catchiza. to snatch (said of dogs). has both or of charming by sound. chachara. bicho. to teach by oral instruction. clap. 'Horxa. Grandg. as of the latch of a As ! — .s.V. . a whip Rouchi cachoire. pedes. catc?u. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . Sp. Kil. the distance to which the ball is struck. E. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. * Cates. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. Kartiyopta (/cari.. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. s.V. a. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. catch-flesh. a caterpillar Milanese can. ' Fr. a whip. kletse. chatter .' ^Jam. c or ^. to chat. resound. 'Bxn. OFr. called in Fr. to catch strength. to chatter with the teeth cake. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. chacepol. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. sound. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Guernsey chafer. is said that he got a claucht of it. i. latch of. to A bailiff. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. G. to clap hands. Gael. — Catcli-poll. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Caterer. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. head. snatching it with a any one. Diez. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Cot. formerly called cliket. verberare kUts. chink. resono ictu lash. . Rouchi clincailleux. ArbaUte de courte chasse. a smack. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. chase. snatching. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. claquer. — tinman. ictus resonans. Ptg. klatschen. — with a whip. dainties. Fr. Swiss Lombard G. whip. wild-beast. a clap. woodlice. smack. worm. klatsch. a pill. devouring mite or weevil. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . E. Fr. children's name for cat . to harangue. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. e. kaetse. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. to the crack. to kythe D. Cot. — explained. cagnon (a dog). chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. chatter. Du. in order). flap klatsche.' CATCH Fr. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. a — gatta. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. Fr. to take. caucht. a carter's Pat. seize. chasse. chassoire. the elements of a science. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. the OE. catch. e. a. instruction in forms. — B. which all . Kariicatching one a box on the ear. In the XV'e. with and without an / after the c. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. from shutting with a click.P. caker. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. a cornIn the s. cat is not apparent. Kil. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. * Caterpillar.

to ac- — Fr. mutz. Lat. Cathedral. cabbage. Lat. puss. to buy. OE.. CATHARTIC sense. a horse . reticella. catkins . puss. Jaubert. Cavalier.. kopista. Chaud. Fr. to purge. KaPaWrii. calotte. caballus. cauHs. Sx. Delycates. caudex . &c. a The peel. Fr. Gr. a pavement. Kavrijp. what . chaudiire. catkin mitz. hot. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. — . fur. whence cathedralis. kin. a kettle for heating water. a receptacle for small things. Richly she feeds. catkin Pol. Lat. It. cat maczoka. Manciple's Tale. from caveo (p. and at the rich man's cost By sea. dumpf tonen. a horseman. otherwise written kell. Wyatt in R. On the other hand. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. quire. Cavern. a seat. Fin. . And in a golden caiil the curls are bound.Y\\Xea.willow. kobuiV. accattare.' B. w. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. caple. mudet. also to pave . little cat. but the acates that are sent him. hazel. cale. cal^ar. Russ. Cattle. katte. . minon. kautsije.^Hal. cavus. cabbage-stalk. Rete.Lat. G. Fr. Fr. koparet. . Caustic. — Cauterise. and spareth for no perell. a kind of skull-cap. Catkin. to shoe . catkin Magy. to burn. calceata. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. lamb. kaussijde. caldo. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . kassije. Fr.^ acheter (Lat. make clean. the caul of the liver. . Mid. Port. 4. CAVE Caul. green husk of a calon. a stalk. 2. from delf^gato. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. calqada. Mid. Lat. Boethius. via strata. calidus. chauderon. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. katteken. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Gr. cautis. a mare. Caballus. a road calceata. It. flue. a branding from koiio. acaptar. a paved road. cavaliere. challe was ther of a temple. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Pol. kobyla. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. the. Cauldron. despencier. Du. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Lat. Fr. achepter. and hence a skull-cap. B. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Fr. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. to sound like a blow . deyntie meates. shaled or picked Fr. Cathartic. . cale. from KaSaipio. chausser. kitten kotki. Kavrfipiov. the stones of a street. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. It. net or caul-work. chair. Dryden in R rete. klopfend knallen. cautus).p. Pr. Gr. Thus Bav. is Prologue. from chaud. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. The word — . Lat. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Gael. apt to burn iron. KiwariKog. calceta. Provider. That he was ay before in his estate.Lat. having the property of cleansing. kopano. Causeway. rete A — Prov. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. fur in general. any Fl. Bessie of Bednall. Fr. Jonson in R. chatideau. ce^l. choufleur {choii. a horse. Palsgr. • — — See Chattel. a pulpit. kocie. chaudroii. kdtzchen. Fr. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Palsgr. little cap is . and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. hollow. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. catons. capull. Ka^afriKOQ. Cavalry. Cavity. chevalier.—— — 136 correct. accapitare Rouchi acater. to shale or peel. kocianki. . Cave.' Elyot in Way. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. — — cavallo. to shoe. Kil. It. to beware. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. ' Gr. Cause. It. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. causa. flock. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. hot. cheval. KaHSpa. . in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. macska. Cavalcade. Fr. Caudle. cabbage). a horse . puss. A warm comforting drink. Caution. Du. chaussJe. walnut with the husk on challer. Diez). acater. by land. adcaptare.

a hut. selar. crooked kopio. dScis. bridle. A — A false accommodation produced G. a beam.j have come from this source. is applied to a canopy. post. coffer. a fir-plank. or of a bed. cellar. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. Soc. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. dille. departure. flooring E. —Decease. . departure from this life. &c. -cease. .' Ordinances and Reg. Sp. Lat. . rafter. 43. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. in Jam. — . 'A celler to hange in the chamber. augm. seele. komo. curved. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. that. sky. and that from Sp. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. and then to gape. Cavil. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew.' Cot. beam. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. thiling.'— Z. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . plank. komista. to argue capto tiously. Fr. to plank ON. to panel or wainscot MHG. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. Boyd in Jam. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. exceed. of E . The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. a planking or boarding tkilian. syl. cyling (W. proceed. The It. Fr. a canopy. &c. an aquiline nose. Wore. decessus. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. &c. step away. IV. a log. a boarded floor.. cessum. Cam. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. a log. thel.).' del. a plank. . the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. &c. applied to a canopy. plank. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. as. a head. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. jaa. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. thili. to go forth. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. Ceiling. to cut. succeed.' Rutland papers. dayntily diglit. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. cielo. thilja. a severe bridle. Hence concede. hollow. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. Cot. the testern of a bed. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. a canopy. It. ceiling. yield. caveqon. Fr. CAVESON kopera or kowera.' Marriage of James IV. . Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. . Lat. E. -ceed. thelu. canopied.' — Gawan . to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. hung. tester of a bed. the inner roof of a room of state. Gawaine & Sir Gol. thil. p. VIII. cavillor.). sus-lambris. — — — toyour soverane. also a seeling of boards. cabegon. -cede. . ciel de lit. Sir 137 pit . cesso. a log. and Gol. in Hal. hollow ice . deal. . menuiserie. In the same way G. were met. 5. and zaum. cabega. The sense of roofing. See -cede. del into English without ' translation gave cele. to canopy siled. ciel is so unbroken. hollow. nailes will begin to cling. Fr. — . heaven. cease. empty. The line of descent from Fr. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. wuoren komo. thil. the deck of a ship at thilja. a board. kommata. Sherwood. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. sill. as if from happen. to plank or floor with planks. p. hivtmel. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. board . Lat. wall.. but hang around at the sides. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. quibble. ceiling. with their substantives concession. sybire. 32. cavezzone. Hal. dil. koppeli. give place. syle.' Hall. of cavezza. In the N. to seele or close with boards plancher. little house. selure. B. Lat. . 7. So from Fin. semely on syll. The importation of Fr. a halter. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. . As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. death. H. Cede. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. . . in Jam. To seele a room. . giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. pp. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. door-sill J Sc. And seik — Cessation. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. cedo. wainscot thiljar (in pi. sill in window-sill. excess. column E. lambris. kapp-zaum. lambrisser une chambre seeling. Plancher. the roof of a coach. heaven. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. -cess. recede. Cease. — komo tain). and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold.

stones to the production of heat. KsvTpov.. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. It. For sess from assess. blind. goad. Sherwood. Lat. Take the nedyll and threde. . -cebre ifoncebre. -ceive. Lat. See Cede. Certain. parted sleep. Gr. irot\oe. in accordance with the Fr. observe. ciller. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. Cereal. to bury).. celer. Fr. with transposition hence (of a day). Lat. to heat. Prov. -ceptjun. Assize. oil. age. to be regarded as one celebro. cencer. to concern. to incense. much frequented. Fr.' Celebritas. and so of that other. centum. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Coehim. To chafe is for wine. to sleep). to set on fire. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Centurion. Centre. Fr. Incensum. in comp. to prick.). candeo. — — Cenotapli. value. chauffer. thronged the participle cretus. is totally distinct from the foregoing. ' . sift. Lat. quarters for slaves. distinIt. OFr. solemn (of per. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. It. census. sile. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. a religious observance. Fr. swift. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. see. Cell. ciglio. a hundred of what- — . -cense. to sepap rate. receipt. Celebrity. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Census Censor. -ceit. to contend. -cern. to rate. Cess. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. — . incense. chaufferette. -ciper. cella. from Saa-rw. we have a modified form of (of a place). appertain. his office. to glow. cilibat. Sc. and thence censer. Lat. &c. and put it through the over eyelydde. to seal a pigeon's eye. is the opposite of disora virum. Ceremony. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. census. Century. abundance. also grave opinion. Censer. keep in It. heaven. to -sum. -cepire. S. being taken from Fr. and met. rough from the quarry. make angry. point. confounded ist from It. camentum. cillier. Censure. To seel or close the eyes. mortar. a registration of one's self. to separate. decebre) . oil. to take. dchauffer. capturn. {cori)cipere. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. assess. hollow. to take. to warm. sure. -CEIVE a shaft. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Lat. Assess. criticism.). calefacere. from censeo. K^'ivut. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. the officer appointed to take such returns . judge Lat. to course of people. Ta^oe. To Incense. -cipio. Lat. concerner. cerealis. an eyelash. Fl. to rub for the purpose a hut. tax. Accelerate. renown be embodied with. in Marsh. concernor. a solemnity. single or unwedded life. family. cceremonia. or expression of Ennius. &c. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. celeber certus. cigliare. deceipt.of the r. of heating. with the eyes. riscaldarsi. cretum. to chafe. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to visit in numbers.— Cellar. See Celibacy. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. cot. Lat. Cot. for building. tax. materials It. to distinguish. crevi. Lat. ceremonia. eyelid. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. Gr. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Chafe. Lat. Gr. a prick. deceit. sacred show.j 138 thill. Censor. estimate. (and thence also) to hoodwink. — . K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq.' Book of St Albans. conceipt. — . a valuation of every man's estate. guish. encens. Cot. judge. capio. caber. and thence to conceal. Fr. a numerous con. — . zens according to their property. 1. Lat. or any bird's. to blindfold. syll. then to rub without reference Cement.ing a room where there is not fire. Lat. censura. but was gradually lost in conceit. -cepere. Lat. sting. in comp. a shaft horse.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. to burn incendo. /ctj/rsw. Fr. as in some places burnt. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere.cern. what to set in a chafe. concetto. the point round which a circle is drawn. empty. Fr. -i^oivre. thence belonging to or connected with corn. Gr. calefare. a solemnity. -civer {conciver— Roquef. -cess. Celerity. to celebrate. contend. a Cemetery. cenio. to attend on object with. pick out. Fr. to seele or sew up the eyelids . eschattffer. and — — — possessions. the place where the de. to twinkle darkness. to think. — . . — A . The term cilium. decide. In Celebrate. judge. — . the hollow the Lat. a hundred centuria. the talk of men. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Cij(fe5j. -oept. rubble. festive.unmarried. -cevoir. siller les yeux. a tomb. become heated with anger.— Chafing-dish. a storehouse Chafe.

grief. limare. Cot. contestation. to fret inwardtronfo. lime. to puff and blow. to babble. — — ' — — — A . in a monstrous fume. Came. far lima-lima. Fr. chicane. (ca'e'ra) to chair. chaire. kahista. taubes korn oder hafer. Fr. to pant. from of the G. Fr. call in question for an ley). kuhista. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. calonjar. sborfare. Hal. Lat. Fr. sagrindse. to a seat. Fr. a double operation * Chafer. fa sagramen de calompnia. a jackdaw. great chafe. refuse. In vulgar language. quisquilise offence. chaps Chamber. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. So from dominio. camera. kahuja. B. ceaf. kever. Chalice. haggle. kuhina. much more Genoese sagrind. . without chap/are makiinde. From to go to law. tattle. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. a vault or arched roof. Prov. to buzz. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. signal by drum or P. Pr. shaIt. puff. as. snuff. Du. rustling motion challenge. songe. a goba rustling . Fr. kauchen. kuhuja. G. Fr. Fl. Fr. E. care. kdfer. snort. Chagrin. swelling with anger. chayire. kaff. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. chaine. From Port. a chough. chafing. hght Chalk. Bav. chaise. kiaftr. and signifies to consume with anger. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. yap. The jaw chafty. avena vilior. chambre.. from Swiss kafeln. to Latin calumniare. Lat. a rustling noise. much blowing. ckapfare. cadieira. kaff. to file. Chain. vel susurro. &c. breathe hard. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. on. to dispute. catena. to tattle. place See Cheek. to gnaw. Pat. to move the jaws. calice. From the To Chaff. from the shark-skin. preise. in a cana. a pulpit. khah. as a carriage is a moveable seat. keffen. to gnaw. rustle Challenge. thick and short. dongio. chafeter. cauvette. a prattling woaction. dispute. De Ir4. rustling corn. Wall. kedja. kahu. grief. and as this was the beginning of man. also to prattle. tattle cheep. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. to caw chawer. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. Lat. 35. ON. refuse barley . matter by combat. a chain. G. hordeum vel let. to call. Bouffard. chamar. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. charge with. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. fern-chafer. — — — — — — . care. 11. . Gr. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. cam.' Rayn. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Lat. Prov. with a:n arched roof. cadera. to action arose. p. now a chair. calonja. .nium. to institute anforensic action. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. cathedra. KoBiSpa. Gr. OFr. muzzle. Chayire. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. to claim. vis. difficulty . ple^. Lat. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. bargain. calix. ceafer. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. puffed or ruffled with ly. . Kuttn. talkative. chaulx. Du. Ayenbite. Fin. de Brai. chaffare. tronfio. Cot. — — — . cathedra. In like manto huff. calx. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. idle words. to chatter or talk lightly. ing rapidly repeated cries. Camera. ^Altieri. false accusation. sagri. cup. cadena gives chain. keuchen. calumnia. chalanger. Cheffern. to ner It. jaw. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. to calumpnjamen. Piedm. P. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. Fr.sure carriage. kdfelen. to bark. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Probably from According to Diez. — — — . kiamta. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . chawe. chaene. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). green sagrin. Prov. Fr. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. a pulpit Cot. leviter crepo Then. Halma. breathe KaOa^oiiat. havOFr. Lat. have a mind to parley. that leneth e per I'autra.. . baras of ants. lime . ing a hard case to their wings. Lat. to sit. crooked. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Adelung. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. gewolb. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. cadena. clamare. Kaiiapa. fume. or puff with snorting.— — . To buy and sell. rally one. — . kuhata. Perhaps Pm. chatter. Chair. of. chagrin. Pers. any insect of the beetle kind. often puffing. Due. hiss. kiqfta. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer.

kimbu. champ. Sp. Champ. fray. Lat. The word is preserved in E. to fasten on. Chancellor. kampeln. To cope or contend with. Chamfron. kiammi. to be eminent. Champarty. cancelli. Champion. and mesUe. to hang. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . cample). kriimmen gebogen. M. champ parti. boys speak of capping verses. kimpUma. Chance-n3. E. hamper. Commonly derived from campus. to paw the ground E. camp. Fin. bickering. accidere. combat. — Ch-amberlain. received the petitions of the suitors. dial. To hollow out in chanPtg. contend or argue G. kablys. accident. Pm. at the railings. pinch. to to chew champ. G. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . To Chamfer. to fasten oneself on to another . camp. luctare. contest. or player at football. wood. The E. chamble. to bevel. to Hal. ON.Lat. calidameya. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner.140 CHAMBERLAIN . ciambellano. Carpentier. Champaign. Fr. to fall). to strive at games . chanfrar. pedilusor. from cheoir. Prov. Fr. a feat. prize-fighter. kabintis. Lith. dial. Campar. an athlete. who stood ad cancellos. . Lat. camerlengo. to flute as a column. champion Du. Gall. top of a borehole. kampen. Get campers a ball To camf . to smack the lips in eating. hero Sw. The G. Magy. fighting place. ON. a scufSe. ing. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). champ.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. kapp. cadere. dial. chance. gewolbt. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. cahir. to slope out the . to quarrel (comp. a field of battle. to excel. Fr. —Chamfrain.' melleia. Dief. Du. dispute Hal. caer. . as swine. Lat. is explained by serrarsi. kibti. a game at football. . fight. tsamtsogni. hng. as in It. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. a hook . compound. Lat. move the jaws. cazer. kampeln. to — — champ. which seems another form of the root. chdance. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. to hold . campus. — masterly Sp. kempen. fight. kappd). a bundle. CHANCEL It. kimpustella. cameratus. Prov. Sp. jocus partitus. dial. kanip. therewithal. to debate. game campio. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. It will. kimppu (Lap. Chancel. Sup. i. — ^Tusser. . termediaries between them and the judge. chanfrein. Chancery. chanfrein. to stick to. Ptg. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. camp. kabe. a court of justice. to move the jaws kiamt. ON. from Fr. surpassing. to wrestle. athlete. keiiipe. dial. mesleiare. Fr. campear. kampa. chajnbellan . to tread The sound heavily. kempa. and acted as inofficers of . . chance. sukibti.—Charfron E. calida et sans aguet. champ. schmatzen s. head armour.edley. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. jeu parti. zampettare. escazenza. kabinti. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. — Hal. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. or less ignorant. dricka i kapp.—Tutschek. Fr. The happening of things Chance. . Hence (with the nasal) w. campus partitus . excellent. Partnership. nels. See Camp. When the to quarrel. to cample. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. kippo. to talk. chain. kiinp. Fr. contention kappi. s. slope of a bevelled angle. e. act of falling. giving rise to the as. ciamberlano. to hollow out. champ.' SherI'altro ' ' . bundle. chaude mesUe. a hollow chanfreiner. hot. . E. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. So in e. a jaw kianisa. certare. broil. to chew. chamfrain. reusement — fight in single combat. to happen {ad and cadere. difficulty . gekrUmmt. tsammogni. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. . a horse-race. zs jeopardy. the chafldn. Meleare. kinipen. cempa. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood.' ' Pr. to fall. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. from chaud. divided game. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. to groove bevel off a right angle. kabMe. — KiL . to slope. rare. campar. to . chanfreindre. to wrestle. to fasten oneself to another . a warrior.

and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. chapeletas de imbornales. clapet. W. . E. Chap. Prov. Chap. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. Fr. It is also used in the sense of the E. to cut up into small pieces. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. Man of Law's Tale. cambiar. Aasen. Chandler. to hack. to sing. . as skin chapped hands. cantare. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. to plate. not a soul. ceaflas. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. while the broader vowels a. Fr. flat . to spht a chip. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. Hal. gab. esclapo. or the like chapar. AS. chop. That wide were sentin their spicery. to strike. to chap at a door. kiceft as well as kjakje. exchange. camjar. ceaplas. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Chaps or chops. Channel. a small plate of flat metal. may be compared with ON. chandelier. 140. as corn-chandChandry. properly in a hard body. 2. muzzle. Hal. Hence chantry. or the cracking of one. to cut off . Russ. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . to — cut. waterconduit. Cheek. jaw. chapilla. exchange. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. . Chapel. to truck. See Chop. as those on a trunk. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Lat. to swap. from chandler. to paw like a horse . to change. kaupa. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Du. to put on fresh clothes. the clappers of the scupper holes. Lang. chaps. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. skipta. chancellerie. kiceft. to creak. surfaces striking together. esclapa. as to chap hands. from clap. kvar kjceften. are kept. And N. a jaw. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Da. A fellow. lips of an animal. cangiare. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. to apply one flat thing to another. a pipe. from canna. to strike. prune. cheek. exchange schimbatoriu. Probably from chap. I. ON. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. cambiare. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Molbech. Chip. cobio. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. the chaps . extended to other trades. klepan. — . wood. also a clap. chanter. any hollow for conveying water. Chape. chapeta. Da. . hack . chap. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to cut. Compare chark. a chap is a crack or fissure. chapa. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. to peck. chap. kjaakaa.^. Sc. changer. to coat. Chap. kappen. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. To Change. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. chapear. canalis. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. to peck. the place where candles ler. the gutter that runs along a street. cambium. as It. a strip of metal plate. Sp. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. and also to chap or crack. and the modern canal. chiappa. Chop. the mouth. jaw. Commonly derived from capella. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. a dealer in candles then. hard bodies. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. schimbd. throat of an animal. Fr. chop. is used in the same sense . — : Lat. —Ordericus Vitalis. to break . a small metal plate Port. .— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Fr. Bret. Lith. Walach. kapoti. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. like the knocking of hard things together. —Chantry. to deal. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . to plate. as chancery . shift. ^Jam. schimbu. Hence It. to strike with a sharp edge. a money-changer. kemma. In like manner Walach. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. chapelete de una bomba. Sp. See Chant. kennel. leather. — — —Marculfus in Due. debeant conjurare. a reed. chancery.

charitas. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. hiss Lith. karout. It. to converse. and in It. carus. cluck. chirriar. Lat. surris seu Lat. creak. .' Boccaccio in Diez. 370. kirkti. It. cluck kirklys. es ist mi cheer. To Char. AS. charlatan. to love. czirbti. eapitulo. dear.czirksti. cher um cher. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Gr.Lat. An enchantment. w. decken. chara.). a riddle. condo il volgar francese. Sup. chat. prattling quacksalver. to chirp. char. — spell. ciarlatore. from carrus. to chirp as sparrows. for the same reason rosario. charer. chatter. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Inst. ghirlanda seor garland. Yx. twitter. clack. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. a hood. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Charlock. tegere. Character. as. Macduff. from gadai. talking. Lay on. be- e. to load . Sp. capitolo. Chapter. a garland of roses. From Norm. Bret. seems to be derived charade. Lat. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. cearcian. hadka. cerran. carmen. Justin. chapel.charme. a The OFr. a cricket karkti (schnarren. to chirp. properly to place — . a verse. charge an enemy is to lay on. schreien. chirlar. caricare. cedeleac. See Cheap. In that work the verb is written caire. called in Sp. OE. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. carregar. . Chapman. to turn Gael. Fr. Charlatan. twist. siarad (pronounced — sharad). to talk . it is my turn. Du. Charge. kurkelis. keeren. used in the sense of magic Fl. w. affection. turn about. cam. capital. to prattle. enough. gnash. cha. Charade. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman .. to . Boh. Hence carminare. Mundart. . grave or make incised marks on an ob. Fr. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. krachzen). (eucharistie. Chirk. Deutsch. turn. from capitulum. beloved. pohadka. the nature of a thing. from cape or cope. to charcoal. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. And damned be he who first cries Hold. to of the governing body. . . See Charlatan. charade. * Charcoal. as Pol. wood to coal. — — — turned to coal. carricare. canne. of chapel. colliers that charred coal. Lang. Fr. corona. Cot. from capa. 2. Chaplet. dim. a merchant. charlar. to tattle. Prov. czurksti. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. Ptg. caritas. wreath for the head. ject). gadka. It. —— . tattler. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. chapelet. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Chark. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. to prattle. dear(in both senses). &c. in To ness Charity. ceap-man. A weed among com AS. It. called kedlock. capellare. a riddle. to croak as a frog . a head or division of a book. Sp. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head.whirr. Fr. a mark made on a thing. Lat. bler. charger. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. jabber. babbling. to turn. occasional turn. Fr. Charcoal was ciarlare. Sp. Chare. Lith. Swiss. creak. gaggle . babdistinction. kurkti. in turns. czurliwoti. Mid. car. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. The crash. as a beetle. chirk. chapitre. AS. a charm. to dove . — a car. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. to sing or chirp as birds. burning without consuming the substance. from Charade. The G. a turn cerran. a mark of a mountebank. a dispute . to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. return. to creak. go. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. chatter. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . and at line 2520 it runs Charm. charcoal burners. capella. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. which was incantation. the turtle pitre. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. carmo. that turned decken . eyre. cabildo. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. a rhyme.

. — Fr. —Chastise. clean. Chamel. tenax. pure. kippen. shout OE. — sharp sound of a crack. karg. So in Gael.. Fr. as. gazzettare. prate. Parallel with E. chaste. gazeuiller. See Card. — Palsgrave. Gr. knacken. clatter. chatter. a churchyard or charnel-house. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. cassa s. geug. noise.— Chatter. to set a jewel. Malay. To Chasten. G. — = Chats. a crack or a flaw . gallan or ogan. An imitative word. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. the cry of the bat. the calix of a rose. to chirp. a branch and a young female. D. The egg is chipped. fragments or leavings of food. to wet. Cot. To Chase. castus. gaddc. Diez. It. Fr. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. clap. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. %aafi. from pure. a gap. blackthorn-chats. as turnip-chaits. Pm. chaste. clean. Fr. In like manner Russ.ppen. to talk. tittle-tattle. to make a noise.). Pol. sordidus. warble. whistle. See Cistern. germinate . a flock of those birds. root of the Lat. to chirp. the noise of birds. Kil. It t. To Chase. or the cry of a bird or the like. letters p. It. as from nomen It. parcus. V. ferire. to crack. fragments. Du. Chasm. Magy. Kil. crackle. as we speak of olive branches. or suckers on rough borders. to enchase it . Lat castigare. g. converse. or pop. the young shoots . talk. —Bailey. Chat-wood. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. nome and . la chasse d'une rose. to which it bears the same relation as chape. in Jam. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. castus. nommer. cs E. a word. OE. also to germinate or spring forth. Fl. csatora (Magy. to care). chary. — The . Hal. discourse. an enchantress. cearig (from cearian. chit. chikat'. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. carnisj bones kept. See Catch. clean. Cot. It. Chaste. chit in the latter sense Du. czysty. Fl. eclats. also to hatch. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. charm. chip. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. knatiern. schioppare. to clap. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. prattle. or equivalent forms. Russ. To chitter or chipper. racket . to cry as a chicken . a twig Suffolk chaits. used to represent a sharp note. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . To chit. xi'i-'^vui. . is to represent the chamier. to chatter or prattle . gazzerare. kastaa. Chary. pure. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. as that made by the crack of a hard substance.— Chit. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. chykkyn (Pr. to baptize. also a youth. incassare. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. whence a charm of goldfinches. shivers. to gape. — Yorkshire chat. chair. chits. scraps of for fuel. to burst open. It. gadu-gadu. be wide open. From carinen was formed It. limpid. pure. warble. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. talk much . chit-chat. clear. — — . chick. kna. as purgare Fr. To chip is then to crack. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. —Jam. CHATS fit 143 to name. carmen is presented in AS. a chatter-box. clack. caro. to separate in morsels. little sticks cudere. from purus. to chirp as a bird to cheep. cyrm.a. kata-kata. s. speak . csacsogni. the handle of a razor . noise. a young man . niggardly. to cut and faggoted. chick. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. csacsogany. a plate of metal. gazzolare. from xoAn. — We ornamental work the to signify E. chat. flesh. to crack. kata. ch&tier. a shrine for a relic. To work plate as silversmiths do. — Hal. jackdaw . Chart. B.house. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. karigh. careful. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. the bird is iiown. —Charter. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. Fr. Lat. chip. carme and Fr. magpie. chip. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. ch). occasionally Forby. or a bird out of the egg. a branch. gazzogliare. chisf. snap. Chat. To talk. charmer. i. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. enchasser. splinters. a yawning.). as in the E. Pol. csaterdzni. make a noise as birds do.

equiva. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. chear in the sense of victuals. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. capitale. cattle.— Chole. Pr. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. catalliim. Bav. exAS. It. bon marche. mandibula. chiere. See Chess. Cheek. in widely separated languages by the Lat. stuttering. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it.—Choke. giggling. from AS. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Hence to cheat. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. with the exception of land. kek. aspect of a man. the principal ' colloquial E. in Fr. a cheater.kakot. choule. — — —Chowl. laughing. It. ceafl. dchec..— Cattle.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. cara. e. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. It — Brompton in Due. Chew. chavylbone or chawlbone. whence captale. Ek dry and hard. lead to OE. us. s. cozener. cattle. kaufen. syllables ^ag-. to laugh. force of the word. and hence the E. to fetch the breath with difficulty. chop. Bohem. giving or taking in exchange. The gutGoth. cera. the Lat. Chattels. . and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. to deal ON. citello. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. welcome heartily. snout. . to swap goods . horse-couper. to vomit. to chop and change.' kezen. frown. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. to make inarticulate sounds in . kaupiti. lower. Gr. . sense of bargaining. kik. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. ceaflas. entertain kindly. Sp. CHEEK zitella. to coup s. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. to cluck like a hen. keck. cheeks. Pro v. jaw. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. chuckle. chatel.. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. from Lat. to clear the throat . sum in a loan. cachinnari. — We ' . kikottaa. OFr. Du. kichen. and. cattle. agreeing upon. look.ing. visage. chapman. jaws. Cot. Cam. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Fr.— Chaps. which is used in the to stutter. the countenance Fr. Check. which is the word in ceap. KaviiXog. goods. cita. 144 the It. &c. Soc. countenance. kakkaset. a willing look and unwilling heart. et juxta catalla sua. to — . Faire bonne chire. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. OFr. tradesman. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. farm for farm. teeth . Slav. Fr.. gagkezen. kaupon. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to stutter gigken. a piece of moveable property. chatal. with Dief. the tongue. a tavern-keeper. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. chire. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. to act as a rogue. ku.of the throat in coughing. a dealer in horses. . prattlingchete. caupo. gagkern. ceap. society. kauf. ceahhetan. Chear.' to exchange to gasp. any cheating. Cheat. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Fl. entertainment. a canting knave. sale. CHATTELS has ciio. chaptel. truffa. Ingulphus. NE. kok. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . goods. favour. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. to cough and hence either buying or selling. kakaista. a dealer. to buy. to buy. Sc. thers. Pm. — To check an account. G. to negotiate. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Then. Lat. Fin. the face. sob E. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. changing.-^. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. price. to coff—Yisi. the Confessor. a young boy or girl. retching. while it Bret. gig. upon a checked cloth. See Cheek. are represented piti. koopen. hawkmann. Modern Slang. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere.— . Hal. to nauseate (to retch). a repulse. to . kaupa. kak. . stuttering.

Pm. czypti. G. chaps. Du. geafl. F*-. cerise j G. Chess. See Chess. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. Kil.G. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. cheek. Lith. hasten. to accomThis they call hdrsk. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. /Ji2^/(W. To make a shrill noise Chest. to belch. kdkel. w. schach. kaecke. skratt. Chekenyd or querkenyd. E. (Kil. Prov. As the board to gasp i. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Chef. E. An imitative word. Lat. — — . w. Sc. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. It would Cheese. chesten. Sw. Thus "we are brought din. a cricket. X'C&s. by laying it in come to an agreement with. cisty G. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. chests in OE. the loose the game of checks. caws. ceaflas.pose of acidifying them kasadr. to gape gab. chAtaigne. In these latter forms we see the transIt. a rafter . From them the plish. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. cerasus. OHG. Lith. nish source. ceg. E. achever. ceaplas. Da. Pl. To Cheep. Achievement. caseus. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. a chicken. jowl. — — . identity of the process going on in viands chouks. condition of being taken. quoka. a heap. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . caru. rennet. ost. the neck.Xo belch. G. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. kistej Lat. Fr. the hke. chevron. Hence chesten-nut. cegio. chops. whence kasa-leipa. Cherry. Chemistry. Fr. gill of fish AS.perly head. CHE. See Alchemy. kces. acquisition. jaws Sw. gullet. The name of creak as shoes. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. to geahl. Fr. chiffe. suffo. incaseatus. gabe. xaque. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. to heap up such things for the purchoke.koppen. e. The Sw. rupted into chess. dersen . the The use of the word kcesir. rattle in the throat. ceac. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to year. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. AS. throat.cirieggia. cufd. food. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. kirsche. giffle. old bread. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. throat. Lat. the mouth or so marked are called chequered.. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. kjakje. cabiron. cough. jaws. Sp. the throat. kok. carnium. Cherish. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. subjected to this process with that which the throat . veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Cher. . kdke. to hold dear. AS. Prothroat of an animal . round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. kesten. w. ceocian. See Case. castaneusj Fr. as meat and butter. like a young chicken. cherir. squeak as a mouse. rafters in heraldry. for cheese itself.their struggle for independence. AS. then end. It. as. E. prevail with. Tutschek. N. . ition from a guttural to a labial termin. Du. mouth kek. ON. jaw . cista. Sp.D. subacidus. jaw. kjcebe. accomplishment cayed. kasa. kasiiUPr. to gasp. to prevent the attack of cavalry. cams. to bring to an end. Chevaux de frise. — — . Fris.). the palate Chequer. kikna. Fin. chops. kastr. to boken. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. kjceve. to choke. frame by which the exertion is made. Lat. kikna of dorum coacervatio. make an end. Jam. cheken. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. king). gap. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. . chevir. to make a noise different word. schach. cireggia. &c. treat with affection. made rancid koka. quok. veluti piscium. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. . ichec. to kep.D. Fr. by laying up in a covered heap. to love. scacco. geagl. gaghel. cheek. Analo. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. . jouffle. kapen. Hence kikna is identical with OE. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. things Da. ca' — . cheeks. Chevisance. the mouth. takes place in the formation of cheese. cyse. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. to kasa. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. cese. ation.EP CHEVRON 145 on. acquiring a flavour of old cheese.. gapen. dear. to swallow. cheek. cabrio.peep in the same sense. Sw. kastanie. gous forms are G. Fr.' to w. whence czypulas. Sc. kopen. to choke with laughter. — 10 . equal squares of opposite colours. mollium congeries. jaw. chasi. clear the throat. Lat. the final guttural is retained in writing.

w. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Fl. tremble. tyuk. to smart. to pettifog.. To chitter. pip. Fin. Fin. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. G. the same principle I regard On birds. kuwe.-ill. Russ. kimista^ . klagend tonen. Child. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. — Fin. : — a lump. kindeken. tiukkata. Bret. or qf people talking rapidly. Gael. a cup. The Pl. rafter . De chic en chic. Fin. Magy. signifying properly shivering. The loss of the syllable it in Du. the chirping of a sparrow Magy.^ Hal. grelot). kilderkin. E. caprioru. capu. mountain top . Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . to the brim. to chirp or peep like a chicken. in Walach. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. G. branchy. kieken. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. cabar. chieftain. chef. Du. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. hiss as meat on the gridiron. caferu. tiukka. Prov. captain.D. tiuk. from the second Lat. chin. — — Mother Hubbard. And hence. Chimb. rafter. . rafter . chillrar. choule. tremble with cold. into a continuous shriU sound. keichen. Da. kitista.peep. horns of the house. Pl. from the first of which is Lith. machouere. CHJME the radical form is unusual. ]). CHEW . ach. the young of animals in general. cica cica. queror. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Du. chill. — It. deer's horn. head. chillness or shivering. kouwe. k'imm s.. a hen. Tintillo. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. It. — . A To Chew. Chitter. kaau•wen.. a chicken. mouth. Sp. kimme. kind. chavel. the least imaginable jot. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. chol. to scold. Pr. a little bit. jaws . The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. a quid of tobacco. chiler. also the horizon. chavel. Palsgr. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. and not vice versd. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. cabarach. kimia. the Ptg. kime. pululo.D. Fl. while didder is to shiver or citteren. alter. sonorous. Fr. the throat. lead through the synonymous E. a finch. pipe. cild. or chick. pole. to raise the rim. chew or chaw. quivering sound which passes. De finger killet mi for kalte. a jaw. aner. kauwe. pi. cidan. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. cib. AS. twitter. chiquei. Fr. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. a chicken. to chew. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. to use the jaws. chawbone. 'Among these the G.^ to resound as a bell. Lat. capo. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. To Chide. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. kaw. Brezza. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Payer chiguet A chiguet. Halm. chic. Chick. capete. has probably the same origin. horn wood. s. tintelen van koude. a chicken. kippa.— Gattel. cheek. from little to little. Walach. kauen. kinderen. the head. tiukkua. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. a cup. greloter is to shiver for cold. W. strideo. kauchen. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. are formed Du. beam. as. ' .— Cot. term is ssaru fu. gills of a fish. as pointing out the origin of the E. kop. antler. jaw. or the broken noise of birds. chimb. . Pr. cabar beinne. then cold. a small cask OFr. Now gan some courage unto him to take. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. chicaner. to contest about trifles. knarren. while the Magy. chaps. E. a cup cibaw. to titter is Du. Chaw. gosling. to contest. crepo. kidata. a young bird. to twitter. a head. Pm. jaw. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Chief. Probably from Fr.— . the jole. Gattel. E. — Du. acute. creak.' my finger tingles with cold. Pm. kopf Du. to Du. to go. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. cap. Fr. the cry of young . to crackle. knirschen. knit the brow cib-led. killen. chikat'. and from the third E. kibr. or as E. killen. chillar. to chime. Chime. stake. then as G. chicoter. when the vibrations become very rapid. by driblets.). czypulas.. . Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. Chigue. zitterti. ultimate origin of the Mite. to gasp for breath (Hal. cebr. Kil. Imitative of a loud clear sound. cabriones. the rim or edge of a vase. Chill. chicken. pipio. Swiss kiden. caput. pipio. For the see word Doit. See Chimmer. 146 brial.

chatter . fyr. komia. Prov. do. Chink-cough. to creak. Chimney. Chat. to chink. hus. sonus the backbone Lat. twinkling light. as the chink of money. to simmer. Chimera. to sound. yivtiov. a chap. cinan. A . a surkik hosta. Magy. See Chap. disCot. eschine. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. and the Du. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. genawi. . the whooping cough. Primarily a shrill sound. See Bright. to prattle czirpti. 147 kimina. representing connected together. tsengeni. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. To chirp or twitter. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. clashing of weapons. ykvvQ. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. chits. and chim-mer. Chisel. killed by Bellerophon. cinne. to tremble. and bodily movement in shimm. kumina. It. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. as birds the mouth. To Chitter.czirbti. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware .to divide or Du. cleft. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Chintz. tsongeni. simmer. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. esquina. zirpen. czirszkti. It. Lat. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. The change from the sound ter \s. and light. Lith. stridere. the chin . from Lat. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. — . the jaw. the mouth (jaws) . — . quavering of the voice. flaw Hal. resonance . kumista. spina. sounding deep. to prattle . Diez de. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. hiss Pm. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. . cheminde. kinne. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. j^lf. Chymerynge.Lat. et garrire . also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. clangor tinniens kummata. as the/ is preserved tering. fissure. sound. as a large bell . hollow. pork) . quivering or shakyng for colde. Gascoigne in Todd. bone . in Hal. It. tinnire. G. — — — — — . Bav. a thorn. to gape. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. the cheek. kieck hoest. cisello. E. also vibrans. sparkle.to chirp. squittire. Hindost. See Chats. up and down. crepare. Bret. epine. dial. spina. KinneGr. Fr. the jaw. backe. Sp. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. kink hoest. verynge or dyderinge. to murmur. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. to chirp . representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. to chink with laugh2. klincken. chin . In the same sense. Sp. eschin^e (de pore). chhint. Gloss. caminata. bx-eak the back of schena.' Phaer's Virg. are In like manner E. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. chick. part lion. Chine. Du. Chink. shiver and the chyver of Pr. or chyFrigutus. Chip. hiss chirlar. have been used to designate the spine. Pr. — . ciseau (for cisel). schina. To Chimmer. Chyrme or chur. Fr.Huloet in Hal. which differ from each other only as Chirk. clipping of coin. from the geon's lancet. Cot. esquena. It. sonants.). Fr. tschirpen. to sound deep or the Gr. plodere. name Then. a chink or fissure. the chine. G. AS. The desig. a hall Mid. keich husten. twitter caminus. Sp. rustle. as a bell kommata.. E. a fire-place. The small entrails of a hog. Chitterling. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Huloet. Pm. gena. cincel. . a thorn. komista. chirp. a Kuttn. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. vincially used in the sense of a crack. Chit. Gower in Hal. companied. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. a crowing sound in recovering breath. to tattle.schricken. from 10 * ' Chia. chink. to chirre. cheek. cisaille. . to chirp. all these imitative terms being minata. ter. — . To chink with laughter. . Ptg. Kil. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. ciarlare. Sw. to squeak in It. and from a similar sound to boil gently. but or cry as a parrot. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Du. It. genou (pi. caminsects.iron. sound on beginning to boil.sharp. applied to tremulous motion. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. to chine. Sp. Fr. pare also Walach. gen. to sizel. zirken. skina. See Chark.er. a szemrcU. eschiner. to open chirriar. to creak. Chitter. Chin-coug^h. the cheek (jaw) . i. in the same crack. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. schiena.. schetteringe. then to any narrow crack or AS. tremulous motion. Caminatum. Fr. caperd. schetteren. schrick.

. to ing is doubtless to taste. a calf's chaldern of E. Serv. to taste. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — .. chap hands. a young . ON. chattering. Yr. ^euw. Lat. chives. kiezen.V)^x. kushevati. G. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. taste. whence Lat. the ridges prove. bile. called cMtters in the N. OHG. CHOP kros. kusid.freze. Goth. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. cive. As kushnuti. to taste. chimp. I. kaup. to palpitate . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. . Body and Soul. Chuck-full. from %u\i). to try. are used in the same sense. — See Cheek.ffrill. schevel-steen. See try.' who shall not taste death. ent quarter. To Choke. schoch. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. chock full. a calf's pluck or chaldron .' At last he dwelt . G. disposition. i. Gr. a blow. The manners and senti. . to taste. curly . a small slice or slip of anything . scheve. civette. from kraus. ON. cut up into — See Chats. select. a company of singers or dancers. fresure. and It. •- Russ. all seem slate . — Chock-full. kiusan. ments of the knightly class. crammed Choir. pieces . it is probable that the root kus. Swiss kust. and in kosten. Cavalry. the inwards of an animal. a scale or fragment P1. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. causir. cepa. wkusit' prikushat. a fragment. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. chawdron. . a twittering. chceur. of E. wein didder for cold. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to try . chippe. to taste . wrath. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. a chive.— B jag E. * To Choose. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. of an angry — — — ' ' — . lead us on to Lat. a goose's giblets. seallion or unset leek. an onion. —Chorus. Enn Sigridur sem ' . Fr. fine threads of flowers.D. anger. to shiver. xiv. developments of the same radical image. 19. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. experience valerie. to tempt. then to shiver. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . &c. gekrose. to hack. to chap at a door . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. kiesen. heaped measure. chibble.gust. To Chop. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. Boh. to exchange horses. chiffe. to prove. prove. schiefer. Choice. to turn. shiver. specially with an application to theatrical performances. try. — — — . %o\ifa. to Compare also Pol. to try. Gr. also calPs. to chap. Walach. to ^cleave . ruffs. ^S. a knight. kushati. to taste. chife. Swab. arkiusan. gusten. The I go to prove them. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. kor6n. G. The . a rag. to try. try. chatter. full. to taste. a heap. rare. &c. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. to wrinkle. Fr. shoot . then to try.ceosan. kausjan. kustigen. caperd. Fr. The Sc. whence choleric. choix. as with a blow. and N. as green as leeks. in the same language. word is more likely to be from Lat. to stop geschoppt voll. skifa. Chap. okusyti.' Verie coinme Cot. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one.. Choice is probably direct from Fr. x^poc. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. Chivalry. kalbs gekrose. approve. coup. Choleric. by which they are Fr.yEuffM. full to overflowing. . a ruff or frill. Schmid. — Cholera. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. . Luc. koren. a wine taster. kbhren. and in this sense the * small pieces. kruszki. keuren. or original meaning is preserved in G. to choose. Chives. Chives are also a kind of small onion. kieser. . to experience. taste. Gr. keypa. to strike hands .vonic languages are Pol. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. Equivalents in the SlaFr. the small parts of the roots of plants. krussyi. 2. haslets. a ruff. pluck. cape. kiusan. chorus. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. gustare. Warwickshire coff. Prov. choppe. coro. Jam. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. cke. propagated. gdnse gekrose. chaup. signify to kiss. g'schochet voll. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. from chevalier. to break off in small shive. friller. and Vf. to clap up Hal.

chevane. kaw. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. high clog. Kil. ' ' What's that? Dap. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. cresmeau. the intestine of an animal. To coup. Chub. for to defraud. Wall. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. fat. caqueter. noble Doctor. gold. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. chrisme. Picard. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. the same word with the It.— Landnamabok. to overturn. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. which was written 27. . Jam. an offence against the fitness of times. who took in the Turk- clack. i. kobe. connected with G. kowe. as in the examples mentioned under Chape.). slipper . dealing.\^s. E. Fr. To Chouse. to clack. —Shakespeare. Gr. G. Madam. See Chaff. If I discover.— Chevin. a bullhead. Sp. the string of a musical instrument originally. yiSA. traffic. dial. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. kubb. chevin. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. bearand aits. Chronicle. chack. soul-couper. gull. time ra . or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. that will thank chiaus — you richly. In Sc. — . Ant. a trafficker in souls. Come. Fr. Gr. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. short piece kubbug. plump. Chuck. cauc. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . civetta. dial. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. to chatter. AS. in Chaucer. kauwe. by the Robert Shirley. chapin. cangiare. whence — E. 49. Alchemist. chub. ceo. chronicles. — Dief. chatter . clogs. Sw. peace. Fr. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper.. -chron-. as Du. in i6io. to cant. chop. XpvaaXic. chroniques. from kloppen. Chord. koppe. syllables chat. caker. Du. monedula. chapineria. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. quappe. Gr. Anachronism. forms are Chrism. E. Chopino. prattle . kaufen. or miller's kaycke . Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. cavena. e. gobio capitatus. cow-couper. klopper. &c. thumb Fl. chuet. whence apparently the Sup. to speak thieves' slang. capito. cheviniau. a The What dhy ^. kowej Sax. chouette. merchant. Marin. caphatenus. and we actually find champman for chapman. Chrysalis. Confounded with the bullhead. as in Fr. P.X. Fr. Peace. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. a messenger or envoy. p. a lump or piece chump. I bring you the Cloughs.(. xpi'^lia. Nominale in Nat. ON. thick-set. chapma?i. a small fish with a large head.' Jam. e. The Turk was here As one should say. klompe. — Chrisom. choucas. claquer. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. sent before him a Chiaus. xop5>}. Gr. Borgoens happen.). Du. because she would not endure this husband chopping. capitanus. chevane. 4. whence e. cob. E. to knock. of which such strings are made.sohola. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. overset. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. See Change. In the Alchemist. OE.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. we find the following passage Dap. gull. a stump. whence the Fr. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. kaulhaupt (club-head. kaej Lith. cambiare. E. cheap. the teeth to chatter . That Face. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. From the Turkish Chiaus. — Quabbe. Fr. . To Chop logick. cauvette j Fr. equivalent to the E. to strike in the hand. kubbr. chrysalis (Plin. capitone. to turn over.—Chuokstone. one who buys and sells horses or cows.• — . Cot. Chough. applied to an owl in that language.. xftovoq.povucd. a thick piece. chouquette. capita. — — — .' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple.' They are forebuyers of quheit. ley in Giiford. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. kolbe (club). CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. A fish with a thick snout and head. Lat. What do you think of me. clat. A jackdaw.

sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. to make a aiKipa. whence ON. whence church. flower.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. . cinis.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Sw. ladre from Lazare. incido. a man. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . ON. -cido. calx. Lat. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. cinders used disjunctively. chack or stane-chacker. It is certain. casum (in comp. a miser. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane.— . . -cise. ceffore. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. sindel. Cob. that the word is an adoption of Fr. giffle. . surly. Wall. to determine incision. from Lat. accido. . Du. as in E. from Lat.. dust.for the residue of stone coal. to him a sudden blow. tie about). sintel. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. karl. Du. Chunk. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. comp. chaps. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. klakka. as a board. or. AS. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. to gird. See Cheek. geaflas. chuffy. we have to chack. cendre. chakil. -cide-. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Ka-^aiva. e. cheek. joffu. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). jaws. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. a rustic . cado. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . KvptaKolg.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. the snout of an animal. ceorl. a pebble. Da. to cut decide. See Cheek. -cis-. a girding on. Churn. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Chuff. dial.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. As AS. male person.^. a man. scoria. then the on oh StX iv roXt. KaxXij?.D. to fall upon decide. a lump. to churn. G. 24. G. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. x^^i?. residue of burnt coals.— Chu%.V//a'6'?. fat-cheeked. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. kernjen. domhnach. e. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. a man. kjami. a fellow. Fris. to strike clatter. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. log of wood. blow on the I io6 in Mur. sive piratiam facere sciant. to jaw chack or snap. a cutting an old chuff. to cause the milk to grain. Diss. -eris. Fr. however. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. To chuck in the fall from. as water running over rocks or stones. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. pith. a husband. chack-stone. sindra. to make a rippling noise. The derivation from Kvpiasov. to form grains of butter.' And cold. -cisuiri). * Cinder. Sicerawry face ceffata. but by way of explan. to fall. Wall. cinctura {cingo. set kerti. Cider. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. a pebble . cinctus. gffe. In Sc. ashes.rendered by Kil. in the face. Church. Hence -cid-. ceffo. ceaplas. to To Chuckle. i. an old man. in circumcision. ccedo. Du. kakka. to throw out sparks. to separate the kernel of the milk. sicera. Lat. tindra. Aasen. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Cleland in Jam. ciuffo. countryman. chops. as Epkema explains it. Sc. Fr. chife. marrow.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. kiorne. kerl. Lat. chofe (Grandgagnage). sinter. C^z^j^ churHsh. spuma metalli. i. Gothic nations. in Sc. joufflu. whence deciduous (of trees). &c. a douse on the tores. Ir.' he adds. has been impugned which it has really no connection. . — of the two words. — — A — ' ' — . with It the Lord's house. OFr. &c. . hot iron is beaten on the anvil. chofu. so as to make the happen . The origin ation. cidre. pp. Cieling. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. The spelling of chider has Chump. — . a cutting round. swollen or puffed up Cot. as Fr. to turn from blossom to fruit. or choice part of a thing . the kernel. Probably from It. kern. have given rise. AS. to sparkle. lamak. ON. ceaflas. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. Jennings. to Newsp. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. Gr. kaerle. Gr. Lat. ON. See Ceiling. thence a belt. cut off. sindr. ChurL husbandman. cheeks Cincture. calculus. to fall at or on. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). kirna. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. a resounding object.

to suck. clamp. ON. Clump. klimp. or quill to draw waier through Fl. . clobyn. clot ON. klacken. clump. lump. sphere gleba. a loud uksa slamketi. slam. See Crankle. a lemon tree. The notion of a lump. cluster. Circle. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Gr. of citta. Du. vociferation. klompe. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a clod Russ. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. about. a reservoir Probably from Lat. clamp. Lat. . glam. claquet de moulin. chatter . civis. It. It. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. clamras. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. to chatter. cifra. sifr. Gael. forms — — — parent plant. ball kloben. fall. and E. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. G. Lap. a kind of rattle. castus). a mass. clapping of klacke. civilis. as. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. Fr. klqb. claquer. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. Scion. a circle. a Pol. It. compared with It. clack. klammer. clamer. a rattle . From Arab. to cluck. excite. klamp. lump . crack. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. -cite. lump. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. KipKog. uproar. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. To Claim. a block. a judgment cern. chupon. — (Dozy) ing blow. a split. to chatter. a cleansing place. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. Sw. Citron. a lump Lat. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. a knob. with an initial s instead of c. In Fr. cion. a circle. to clatter. claquer. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. clamare. a citizen . trunk. a ring. rattle. or split with noise. clack. a cistern. a place See place hiddern. Hal. Lat. to strike. to cry out. clack-dish. a pop-gun. . So a light. cisterna. parallel root is slam. sprig. Lat. E. City. chest. klateren. klopati. The syllables clap. Mack. circle. We . Gr. kringla. klekotati. circum. —Civil. klacke-busse. bunch . to call. lump. sound- — hands figures. twig. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. smack. . Alt. scion or sucker. sip. dim. to set in motion by means of the voice. noise. klumbr. empty Golius. a Lat. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. biw. —Circuit. Dan. klabb. cittade. whence cistiti. and clash. a lump Du. * Ciplier. cry. The Gr. around. in the frequentative form. ring. ciste. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. crack. outcry. a shoot. cittadella. area. Cot. cry out . a whirlwind. to call by name. clack-box. CION See Tinder. city. stimulate. hringr. to clack. klappe. civitas. cittd. to be empty. cieo. a circle. klap. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Comp. Recite. KpiKoe. . cito. mass . cista. to appeal. lash .— . crack. cion. . cit^.. a'upiav. the place of . sindri. lump of wood or with the nasal. globus. . around. . W. Sw. log. clog. a boss . * Cistern. Sp. domern. Dan. to mention. a kind of pipe. Cite. . glamm. as caverna from cavus. is traced by Gr. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . a. circa. circ2tlus. prattle. . See Circle. lucerna. to clap at a theatre. radical identity of the Fr. glambar. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. clap. lump. Clam. -cis-. clambar. clasp. Bohem. &c. Fr. to call. Arab. . chupon. clatCot. circum. G. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. sound. Gael. claim. ruin. chijfre. ern. a ball. ON. klater-busse. a ball. Citadel. Excite. wasserkasten (water chest). creak les dents. to knock. as in Sp. Clamp. to cleanse. Fr. Lat. a for water. scion. klubb. 'mass. a hiding-place. a city. suck). Lat. kluV. a block. klambr. citrus. To Clack. a rattle Fr. klappen. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). Circum-. accordingly find the roots dab. a young and tender plant. klepati. a city. to bawl. sajira. noise — — a cistern. clangor avium .' sione. citujn. and Sp. prattle. clat. Du. ter. belonging to cities or social life . the tongue. babble . for Cion. and. We . bunch. kringr. to chatter . gutter. to go. Fr. sound of blow. a whip. to make to go. dob. to summon or call on. clap. ON. rattle . tinnitus . or clap-dish. may cite w. E. clapper. from chupar. a clod. cisterna. Lat. klump. the door was slammed J slamem. Lat. to toll . Du. Hence Incite. claquer crash. to gnash the teeth. klemte. See -cid-. klak. Chaste.

of the children. klemmen. to clamp. a claw . . Clapper. clap. celo produces Fin. rumour. ring as metal. a sound made by a still . clibby. where- A — unto they retire themselves. to clap. beating. from the w. kleppe. The Fr. adopted Lat. Du. descendants . to starve. These are imitations of a loud. bond. in a hidSen place. dam immediate modifications — . a claw. a burr. klam. c). &c. cream Manx doan. The root which gives rise to klibb. daver. take hold of. tattle. clink. klamre. uproar. G. narrow. clandestine. Fr. Clank. G. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. clav\f. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. a bird of prey. dam. children. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. . Dan. klappre. to cling. a sound. chatter. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. clap. a stone See Claim. hook. Du. cramp-iron. as the clapping of hands. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. Sw. dandestinus. gum. with cramp-irons. the in many languages. to climb. who occuG. substances of a stickydam. apprehend . children. to gingle. offspring. ancestor. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. nature . a craCmp. but perhaps not directly from it. In like manner Du. to patronus. clangor. conceal. glambar. bandage. These words To are closely connected with damp. dambar. strait. klappen. seize. B. tremble . clamber.. AS. to cleave or stick. klank. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. tone. klopfen. Swiss kletten. tinkle. sound. Dan. to glue. dank. klepel. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to clap on. Dan. Clap. knocking. E. a heap of stones or other things piled up . B. to do anything with a clap.p correspond- ' without order. Clink. crowd . kleben. accent. clear sound. klatten. massy.' klibba. dem. grasp. club . to hold fast with the . resonance klingen. brawl. solid. to daub pinch. to claw oneself up. — . . a trap. a noose . klette. klamme. to Hal. dial. Mampe. — Lat.' to take coals to Newcastle. kleppe. scendants. to climb. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Bohem. whence sala. viscosity . dienklebber. dren. ney. klobber-saen. G. anything hidden. a heap of stones. . clajnmy. klem-vogel. kleppen. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. to dame. closely analogous to that of the fast. to pinch. sound object . is used in the sense of secretly. to climb. and hence moist. sticky Hal. — with hunger. to stick conceal. to. klampen. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. to climb. klammer. Swiss kldbem. E. as the Lat. stick. A i. dang. G. to knock. cluster. klippe. Salainen. dam. klemmen. tight. pinching. to hold to pinch. run to lumps Clandestine. To clap in E. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. Dan. Clang. dia. klibber. and that from celo. pressed close or hard together. salafa. . gripe. dam. klavre. buckle klamp. klettern. compress. to Sw^. klamm.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. diver. klebern. chatter. Du. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. sound . and hence to pinch . Clamour. Lat. from birdlime. clapas. clammy brace. is a nasalised form of gripper. klubber. rattle. kluppel. of money Gael. salaan. To Clamber. hands or claws to grasp. klynge sig op. privately. — Climb. klam7n. dial. — — . Lang. gliong. Du. Russ. dee. G. chief. a stick. compression. klappen. a loud tingle. klemmen. dapier. to beat. originally a heap of large stones. dientes. to climb . klimmeii. clasp. cleave. Halma. hold. strain . E. a sound made by a lighter clink. a whip. klang. to glue. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. clann. also to clog up. OE. — Cot. sound of the trumpet . clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. to stick or glue. of which the locative case. dapi^. contraction. yf. The equivalent of Lat. grimper. kloben. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. . The E. to clutch or cling oneself up. G. See Clam. to seize. dapier. tingle. a rattle . cramp.er. damor. Bav. clapper of conies. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. damras. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . holdfast. Gael. to hide. to hook things together. Hence the Fr. for tame conies. sound. klynge. coagulated cream. dink Du. tenacious. beat. or klamp-vogel. to knock. Clamp. viscous. clang. Clan. E. to climb. G. prison. a hawk. a place underground where rabbits breed. To sticky. klammern. dap up.1. klepati. cling. klepanie.

the cracking of a whip.w or u on the other. klouwe. It. Analogous Jam. cluster. as Mod. to end. and old red rose-water. klucz. Sw. chiarino. claw (what fastens together. rubellum. flap. klaterbusse. or as G. a clod. compression. Owl and that by which cleave to. Thus from clamp.Z. Thus from Lat. row aii/iaTos. kluczka. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. sphaera. klase. Russ. locket of a door. chatter. chiaro clear. and clavis. Wyutoun in Jam. kleuen. klatscha pop-gun. from its use in fastening things together. &c. contraction. as it is written by Chaucer. ansa. Clavicle. clavus. nail. clarinado. and shrill-sounding trumpet. fibula. Du. an ending. a key. To clew. In the same way is formed the OE. crying. Clew. buckle. applied in their harness. klijven. a complete sentence. bawling. kiosk bicza. under three modifications dava. a. insularum nexus . thence a definite head of an edict or law. Originally clasis. in the sense of a claw. chasguear. Commonly made. to shut.— CLARET clamp. i. cinnamon. to snap.ck a whip. — tells us. whence kleuer. K\a. climp. to do anything with a . a lump . syrtium junctura. Rayn. clas. Du. &c. ictus resonans. klaeret. schnalle.oi. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . clump. to cleave. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. It. thwack . klauw. to fasten together . klatschen. clair. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. — Kiittner. is preserved in Lang. the collar-bone. clopa.to cra. So Pol. klamme. Claret. a kind of small. ghespe. stop of an organ. biichse. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. to clap . clew or fasten upon a thing. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. — Clarion. pellet . is used in Sc. a key origmally a crooked nail. clamp. . teren. vin claret. klatsche. assembly. Fr. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. klaequivalent to clack or clap. 269. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a nail. globus. From claudo. Fr. klauwe. same class with w. Dan. somewhat clear. The b readily passes into gleba. an on the one hand. Pol. globus.It. klc^i. From clairet. mass. kleeven. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. a buckle. Du. Nawith stavis. a bunch. rion. The form clew. it is called clamming. skeria-klasi. clatter. Lat. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. fragor . sauna de classes. Sp. a clasp. Nightingale. gaspe. a. klos. Klatsch- a pop-gun . a key KKtitid. kletse.. a lash. a ball. to animals Sp. clausum.). to patter. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Du. diver. claret win e. to fasten. a heap. clarin. also a knell for the dead. he of white and red grapes mingled together. KXeiSi. the primary origin clapa. uproar. hawk. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. —Kil.Gr. we pass to the E. Mask ! plask ! thwick. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. clairon of a trumpet— It. chiarello. cloi. a little hook . glcis. a water made of aquavitse. noise. Du. to rattle . globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. a sphere . clew. klampe. pet. as G.\x\xvn. forms are the Du. in the sense of a mass or lump. mass. nawith stanis. But clasp or elapse. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Claw. dap. vinum helvolum. to knock. blab. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. with a reddish tint. a lump. G. a bird with powerful talons. klot. Lat. Kil. seizes) . a claFr. which signifies a ball in E. biichse. klouwe (Kil. ivy. hook. from the resemblance to a key. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Lat. Class. clairon. to ring in such a manner for the dead. sound of the foregoing description. straight-mouthed. Clasp. Clatter. to draw it up into a bunch. from scknallen. klampvoghel. clavis. Clause. a club or massy stick. Identical with ON. In E. e. classis. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Clash. Lat. Eau clairette. — Clarinet. puUs. E. chiizjj-o. Serv . The collar-bone. to clash as arms. subrubidum. Du. a claw. . Prov. fracas. vin clairet. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. a distribution of things into groups. Cot. klatschen. Fr. and through v into a. klaskad. clausula. waU. Eya-klasi. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Gr. Lang.

celebrated . from the clinking of the latch. G. a fissure. radiant. Axletree clouts. to cleave. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. . a cleft or fissure. dut. as Lat. ON. The word may be — . This is probably one of the clean. deot. glatt. or from being divided into two parts. and Celtic glan. found in other cases. kluft. To Clench.— Claggy. kloben. Thus from G. 2. E. kloue. kleevig. glbram. dags. neat. A — A Clement. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. that was Torriano. as ON. to stick or adhere . to dag ox dog. klink. opposite senses. G. Cleat. Da.' was nailed to a rock. holding together. pretty. Mar. lump. sticky. to fasten. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. from diquer. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Clean. Du. danche. klyft. klieuen. a plate. The Dan. explained from the klinken. klank. dench. clean. Du. The proper meaning of the word is shining. dag. and. a fissure or division See Cleave.). Lat. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. Du. daggy. glint. kluit. a cleft. sleek. glan. From dob. W. and Dan. dedgy. gentle. klijveii. . klinken. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. speech . or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. together . gingle. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. glan. dinquet kleeven. to separate into parts. klceg. to tear or cleave asunder. viz. from nitere. the latch of a door. From clap. bend in a stream. klinka. Dan. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. Wilbraham. clean. sticky earth. diquetcr. it cleave together. pure. vissticky . klinken. E. Clear. calm.— . piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. glent. as explained under G. AS. either by the coherence To Clepe. doff. Bav. glandse. nitidus. klinke. . a flash. . G. sticky . Halma. Da. clink. See Clam. is fast and sure. cleave. clay . Sw. Lat. a one end. viz. clout. to clinch GB. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. clemens. — : A rivet. the To Cleave. pure. kluftholz. glor-mhor. klirre. Fr. Clinch. kla:g. a noise. ON. date is AS. glorious. the two parts of Du. provinciaUy termed dout. kleg. to chink. klouen. a clincher. klinke. klove The Dan. clear. (Cot. doggy. a lump. bogs cous. rive. glan. to clench. glitnir. kluyte. kldnkelein. vice. ON. glbr. to sound or make a noise .— Clag. pellet. river. to Brilliant. 154 CLAY dutch. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. merciful. to glitter. Du. split. G. neat. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. splendid pohshed. a noose. an object is simply cleft. shine. B. clibby. dial. to shine. klor. Probably a modification of the word doitt.Q. as the Du. a — — . to clinch a nail. to shine . The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. a bunch of When flax). Sc. klirren. kleben. rift. clear. in two ways. . mud. Sw. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Clay. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . The word is . Sc. kleg. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. that was a striking proof. of iron worn on shoes by country people. loam. klincke. to clink or sound. to fasten. cliquet. dams. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a in that of sphtting. Da. Clemency. as Fr. door-latch. glitta. the original . a claw or talon. i. clean. a lump. klutsch. pure . gleit. smooth. tongs. Du. a key. . the fork of the body. to stick to. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. kloben. klouen. klinke. glindse. Sw. or of a tree. Omklinken. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. chaps in the skin. and E. voice. clean. glance . words applicable sight. to be composed. klov. To call. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. See Clog. klinken. rivet. clash. Kil. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. a latch. klag. famous. This word is used in two business is finished off. cloven wood. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. to fasten E. conserere antklankjan. hook. polished. E. Die zaak is zS. give a shrill sound Jr. G. polish . to 2. kloben. kleverig. gaklankjan. klieben. a cleft. geklonken. klafwa. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. bright. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Gael. seem formed dial. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. Cleft. a mass. Du. a mass. clear.

. gleg. a mill-clack . . G. See Clench. cleft of a hill. to catch. a sphere. Lat. Klover i munden. The Sc. to cry. klev. neither as having lordship in the. the clergy clericus. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. name. — have the notion of a short quick in E. Now the OE. de ripa. to snatch. lively. as Sc. nimble. dergi. Hence Lat. clypian. agile. corresponding to Fr. would have been derida. a lazar's clicket or clapper. a latch. snatch. dicher. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. it must be observed.). clyf. call. sonare. dichet. globus. on. G. speak. declivity. clatter. clever. babble. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Boh. glomus. rock. Rouchi cliche. a cleft in a rock . to catch. and (with the nasal) — clincher. as a click with the tongue. clep. score7i clif. clima. cave . Clerk. skard. cleft in a rock. diofian. dever. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. dexterous. klok klep- crepitare. one admitted to the tonsure. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. But the Dan. Fr. a hold. deik. 3.— Clicket. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . pulsare. clap. a clerk . derecia. Claw. dial. cautes. klaffen. which in Mid. Sc. Climate. diquette. dook (identical with E. exactly Gr. Cot. clif. dek. in precisely the same sense as the E. a hump. klouwe. expeditious. kloof. hamraklif. with hamarskard. Det er en Mover kerl. click. a child's or clack . 3. a lot. call. kliv. had a form. and hence deik. deudi. Climax. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . in rhetoric. dial. clif- stanas. klinge. Jam. claw or talon to dek or deik. CLERK sound of a blow. a clew. whence Fr. We movement catch. catching. chatter. click. scar. syn. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. rock. chatter. Somner. klaiv. Dunbar in Jam. Norm.dergie! Wiclif in R. to cleave. or an object character- Clerical. klinke. to move. which is used in Scotch and N. quick of perception. klif. Client. a latch. as from derido. chat. See Clamber. deuch. to tattle. stein- kluppen. above the pole. derjon. CLINCH De . frap- per rudement une personne. from Gael glac. &c. to wink. rapidus from rapio. cart that tilts over. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. the dick of a latch or a trigger. a latch . cleft. The origin is the Gr. one of the clergy. climate. Clever. kleppe. Lat. Happen.' ii.) Brai. a ball of twine. OE. IS5 Du. click it.— Clue. Click. e. dutch). crackle. light-fingered. click. rupes . a figure mentioned. klever. the knocker of a door. Climb. highest is attained. Du. a claw or clutch. kleppen. a tumbril. ready of speech. has also deik. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. seize (Hal. Gr. region not observe it. precipice. KkrifoQ. to confess . cliof. temperature. the clergy. Du. crack. a cliff. clever. sink. cliquer. say. slope . the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. klippe. diver. as Lat. Clew. cliquet. d See Clan. to stir. In I Peter v. derigo. to teU tales. a hook. crepare. duke. a baU of yarn. to tattle.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. chatter. dob. dink. cleugh. Cliff. See AS. to seize. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. to clack. deuck. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. duik. cligner. from clifian. and hence climate. a trigger. klippe. /cXi'fia. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. has kl'dver. Du. to rattle. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. Chaucer. dial. that is a clever feUow. -Toe (from KXivm. ravine. is NE. to prate.Lat. a ladder. what so men clappe or crie. Bav. quick in motion. cleopian. abrupta rupes . ized . littus. derigon. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. on. Sw. Lat. to bend. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. precipices. klinket. corresponding to the Sc. . deik. klika. in the sense of active. verge). to sound an alarm to clap. a precipice. pen. a lump. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. cliff. cleke. ginally from dob (extant in W. a clicket or clapper. . —Vocab. Clergy.. AS. — — A . Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. kliket. Clam. clack. Da. rugged ascent. Sp. an inclination. to talk as a parrot. Commonly derived from deliver. dough. klikker. prattle. icXi/ja?. klikklakken. or Sc. clerus.

Clink. to cling to a thing. kolki-laud. toga. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. sloping forwards. g. to snap kneipen. klippur. .ginglej Fr. a ball of thread . Da. dial. to form one mass with. a tinman. kolbe to E. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. hluk. Decline. to AS. G. a cluster. claw. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. shears. Sussex peasant AS. knippen. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. sticky. and a similar syllable without the /. kluppe. to wither. schnippen. ON. clingan. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. to bend downwards . Gr. See Clang. as we now say three or four o'clock. recline. club). The notion of a loose moveable substance. pallium. chcng. klunge.. Sw.'— Shaks. brett-glocke.. kol- The word . cloche. hill . to crowd or squeeze chingy. -cliv-. — clot. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. kluben. . kldpp. 'Till famine cling thee. G. E. a woman's mantle . Fr. Swiss klungele. klippen. Bi klik uti klak. clivus. to make a loud noise. Pl. G. to shrink up. clock is a variation of clack.— KSS. quincailler. klingen. klupen. to beat on the board.. to clap or clack. ring clag. met. to cluster. to resound. Serv. like cling. G. hluccti. Walach. rima. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. especially of something soft or clammy. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to snip. To Cling. a lump G. w. Sw. klok. as to snip in the same sense from snap. hlinen. ten. ' . in Schmeller) klunk. as G. to crowd together klynge sig ved. straits. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. four of the bell. to clink auf. fetter. klincke. OHG. or bagging clothes. . hlinian. klipa. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. See Cowl. acclivis. clinke. pinch. incline. &c. also to wink .. clino. to beat. klocka. Een kliks bolter. klippa. speaks of a ' clung bat.D. incline. 2. Bohem. sloping downwards . clog. hooded . a lump. a beU. Clock. nip. knippe. N orman clincailler. glocke. a bell. dial. klinka. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Hal. to shrink up. — a mantle. . In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. declivis. noise. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. To Clip. to snap tongs. klepalo. I. 156 -cline. . a fused matter which clogs a furnace. clangere. . klynge. Cliofue. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. dag. and so' to contract. to sound sharp. as thick or curdled liquids. cloak. clips. to pinch. dial. Ang. klocke. klo^gen. ON. klik. to strike. gUong. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. to slope or bend . Du. to snap or fillip schnippen.' From Pl. verklungeln. Du. a bell. S w. kliks. clutch. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Gael. clique. * Clod. difficulty . a snare. to lean. Du. kXiVu. knippchen. slant. to clip. kukla.D. klaka. gang. knot klynge. to ring. Cloak. The E. dial. Lat. compress . Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. parva ruptura. klippa. to clunge.' for a dry stick. to wither. Esthon. Ir. at first probably on a wooden board. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. . klungelin. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. Swiss klokken. Du. to .— Clot. . and 'E. Kil. Sw. glungelin. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. disposed to a thing. klocke. kima. a rising ground. Sw. G. cochl. clato make a noise. outcry.und zuk-lippen. klak. toga muliebris. a faction. klippe. G. klinken. iissura. sloping upwards procUvis. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. a hood. also to form a compact mass. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. -atum. Fr. klungeln. a lump of butter. pinch. bow. kleppe. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. clinker. To cut with shears. Flem. ON. difficulty. Sw. tuft. E. . to knock. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. Lat. whence E. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. from klepati. a clock. klicke. to lean backwards. To stick to. by bits. a clog or fetter for a beast . Bohem. -CLINE make pinch. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klunker. globulus' (Gl. to pinch klupe. a separate portion. related to clock.

clotted locks Dan. splash. to shut. plod. dab. to claggock. a log. and Du. zoccoli. we pass to Schlatter. • lump. mire. MHG. Sc. chiuso. close. neither spot nor hang loose. kl'dnken. without. The origin of clod and clot is to . Closhe. zocco. klod. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. I doda clod. kloden. clos. or drablyn with separate existence. bowl . to lobberig. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). klunkern. curdled. . AS. . kloster. slops). clausum. lump of something soft . clogs for the feet klakk. to slop or spill liquids. Swiss schlott.1a. be&c. watery. Du. Dan. clausum. spatter. dunch). inclose. be found rattle. thick sour milk. beklakken. from Fr. then liquid or loose substance. whence klack. or Sc. lump of mud on the clothes . of something clammy or heavy.' end. pludre. The word is probably formed on an Cloth.). pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. to paddle in the wet. laggyn. to bedaub. blot. an imputation. thick spoon . To Clog. kloteren. slobberen. ! . Bav. a bal!. lag. dangle. Russ. congeler. motzen. paddle or dabble in the wet. a field inclosed clos. hanging loose and full. klakken. daustrum. or loppern. slop. rattle. of a body of any kind. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. shut up. clogs. . we pass to E.'^ Palsgr. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. clot. TZoxapov. loppe. tJokok. and E. a monastery. claudo. Pr.dial. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. a blot. . schlotter. Fr. . lobbig. like G. mud klcEg.. . closed. 3. . lunch. a clod. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. shut up. to spill liquids. . klot. G. boil. lumps of butter. a portion of something soft and adhesive. is connected with pludder. loose mud. and Gael. Lat. I clodde. I clodde. lobberen. miry laggerit. slab. Pl. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. to rattle. da- . Yule-clog. claggy. Cloister. clotted milk klotte. compared with clump. -clusum. a lump from Du. in accordance with It. gelatinous. to dash like heavy rain. with Fr. His heart was franlc without a flaw. Fr. A . mud. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. to flap as loose clothes. -close. to close against one. a trowelful of mortar.D. claque.. a clog. tuditare. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. je amoncele. foreclose. enOE. aspersion. kloten. lobberen. Gr. wide bagging clothes. lopin. klateren. klag. In the same way Dan. A — — A Thus from Bav. clog or overshoe. kleck or lack. . schlattern. is a blot on one's character. to dabble. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. schlott. . a spot. cloth. klotzschuh. geschlotter (as E. wabbling from Du. or E. He was a man without a dag. G. clatk. dirt. in forms like Du. g. in comp. unctuous. fat. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. lump of butter. kleck. daggerey. to play at bowls. klac. klokotat. kladde. slabberen. -cludo. . to flounder in the wet.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. to cling locks. bloutre. to a. Idppern. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. to rattle. klos. -clus-. separate part. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. E. klotz. kloteispaen. bemired. analogous plan to clod or club. loblolly. Du. schlottern. terminate. and thus seem endowed . a babbler. paludosus. pattens G. The game called ninepins.— Clothe. slobber. E. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. a skittle-ground klos- sen. Clog. a dirty wench claggy. a block. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. chiudere. loose. clammy loam. dial. fors. to wabble. finish . Klottermelck. m&se noch stain. to rattle or shake to and fro. loppered (of milk). Pr. a log. Hence inclose.rge lump. lopperig. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. truncus. a clod Swab. to bubble. laggery. klakk. . to bodies. . the radical sylla. IV. to dabble. a Christmas log. to shut up. It. loose trowsers. klottern. bespotted with mire E. meat from Du. klos-bane. slobbe. to shut in. dirt. paddle. spot of dirt. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. slob. tramp in wet or mire. figer. from Du. clos. dag. forbidden by 17 Ed. doitre. Mat. shaky. Lat. Close. .D. from claudo. clorre. Fr. to sup up liquid food. . schlettern. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Fr. log. in accordance with Pl. to shut. Klak also. a blot. slops slodderen. Pm. motte. lob.

and of a rustic unpolished person. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. a thick mass. Fr. warm. CLOUD an awkward clod . nelke (dim. tuft. lunch). to a lump. w.).). Met. klunds.D. lump. and tapp. A division of a root of garlick. Clumpered in balls of clouds.158 . klaven. Rouchi dapoter. To Cluck. clou de girofle. . E. The significations of a clod or lump. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. blockish. klever. to cherish. . tered . Das volk hat sich in splitten. mary sense is a blow. klotzig. caillebottes. zolla. a ball. knob. puddle. — — — . to cleave or the splashing of water. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. Sw. of thumping clumsy action. Club. clumhar. are often connected. klu77ip. klotz. dob. ser. klonte. More in R. to strike. from OFr. in the same sense. but confounded with cailler. clue.bar. make warm. a fissure. G. clump. warm. milk run to lumps. The radical sense seems to be an unE. klebek. of a lump of earth and that figure. Clown. log. to lump mend clumsily. to cloy. eene ODu. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. indispalte knoblauch. a bousche. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. Clump. coarse. Then applied to a lump of mate. diboter. when something has got into the touch-hole. Pl. lumps of curd. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. clod is used in both senses . kluV. a. cobio. dial. clobyn. een klaven kruflook. warm place . nagelein. rustic. a lump. and clout d eudaich. klobbersaen. Du. piece Cot. cludaim. a clubfoot klabb. clothes). to splash. klubba. klubb. AS. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). klubbe. kloete. are also used in the sense of a stopper. sheltered up warm. also homo obtusus. G. Imitative of the note of a society. E. clotted milk or cream. clavo di especias. esdaboter (Roquef. Cld. wisp. group of people Sw. a . davus. duthaich.ft. naegel. klcBdi. clump of a clout on the head. aglio. shel- kloen. dial. . dabosser. a patch. clunch. dash (Cot. kldverj P1. a sticky. klump. In the same way E. I. a nail) Fr. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. Mabousfrom Lat. clydion. AS. 2. little nails. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. klotsen. lump. . a clot or keeps one warm. motte. of sloppy materials. a clod. Sw. a clown. Ir. dote. a cover or coverture . klubb. knob. and closely do conspire. nourish . a ball of twine . stock. botsen. A kind of spice resembling Du. with lout. lump of earth aria. Du. clods. from Du. Gael. clammy earth. Du. cluth mhor. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. zolla dell' . botch. a sky Cot. ON. dump.clod. dabaire. lump. a garthas. the air. to cover Bret. Du. ball of thread Russ. choke or stop up. clot. clog. cob. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. a ball. cluster. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Sp. from kloven. bunch. dys. a log. clyd. dirt. as Fr. kl'dnne. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. to stop. to strike . dut. to beFr. chiodo di girofano. strike. warm clothes {dillad. a blabber. a log. de Champ. lie clyd. kloven. Dan. a clove of garlick. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. ON. a lump. clod. block. loggish. klumpfot. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. Du. To Cloy. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. Move. klqb. Gael. G. a bunch. matte. . clunch. the terms expresssplit.). Kiittner. to cleave. a nail. from W. dillad bumkin. unpolished. sticky. G.' Sanders. — . This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. and clay.D. klove.D. cludadh. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. From dog. a curdled sky. formed lump or thick mass. del mattond. Clover. mud (Pat. boucher. mass. a breach. to tramp in the kluyve. w. a bunch. Properly that which covers and Du. The priClout. to curdle. So Fr. clothe. mire. probably from daboter. dial. a ball. kUid. eine to slop. klieven. E. kluyfketi loocksj Pl.Fris. kluppe. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. N. of nagel. It. daggy. a knot of people. a boss.). sheltered . clothes ment. klumba. (kruyd =. spice) G. and -the word Clove. clot. clot . The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. cobble. a bobbin. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . Cloud. hebes (Kil. cloud Delfortrie. CLUCK rustic. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. . a bunch. Du. a clod or clot.

to squeeze. or from Sw. to gingle.. . a bunch. hand to cleuk.mene tied. hondis. Analogous forms with a tongs. It. -CLUDE hen Du. the word is more probably connected with OE. claw. to wash. Lincolns. a clod or lump. klont. Du. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. clointer. clabosser. as clumper. eviratus. havi. lump of soft mate.D. through the senses of lumpish. kluntfrom KKvKdi. MHG. and make ye strong feeble knees. viscous material. clumsy. OHG. E. Riwle. The Fr. clotted cream. properly to do anything Fr. klumpern. glousser. Boh.' Wycliff. Du. klampa. a pinching time. ' Clumper. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. klump. Ang. -olus-. Compare Swiss klupe. cleche. paste. . klikonosy. * Clump. a block. cluntClyster. Lat. a lump. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. -elude. might be reached from clump. to lie. seize. a noise. Clump. whence koetse. 130. Hence snatching. n. duke. cluster. — sen. finish. acomelydfor could Pr. clump. as from seken.e. klompen. coccolare. to grip. er. algidus. crooked inwards . See -elude. a lump or compact mass. dial. Champ. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. pladdern. G. a clod or The noclot. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. as Fr. kichlemmit. from klupen. Teulazy. klunt. to klotz. klummklummshandt. ment. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. in comp. benumbed with cold. to rinse. COAL dumpish. Lat. and koetse. esclaboter. dial. clip or pinch. wooden sole. or aclommyde. E. Isaiah. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. klamp. klemma.D. kohle. Hesse. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold.— — . awkward. ' . klimpern. to wash. Pl. smart motion. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. and klonteren. idle. Com. gelidus. a claw. Fr. carriage in which you klodset. dial. to curdle. klister. Beklummen van kelde.P. 159 E. -clusum. doquear. awkward. dial. Fris. Sp. Pl. hands stiff with cold. unwieldy Hal. to paddle or dabble.D. dumpse.' Benecke. Clutch. to shut. Fr. — Cot. Sw. G. in v. a lump. a clod or lump. Cheshire.forklomme (Outzen). also a cluster. to stick together . enervatus. -close.Ancr.pare P1. klonte. — Hence include. klamen. dek. bunch. with a quick. limp. claudo. klobber in klobbersaen. klunsen. to pinch. Cluster. a ball . klemmen. In the same way Du. rial. a coach. G. G. of garlick. koetsen. clutch. inclusive. calling her chickens. . close. Du. wooden shoes. heavily. a ball. may recline. klos. —More. unfashioned. klontet. pinched. eviratus. cleik. klisse. a clod clunter. to curdle. dussomed (Wilbrabam). tight — — . &c. OE. thick and clumsy. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. glocire. ball as snow. Hindust. wagen. strum on an instrument. hooknosed. log. Gr. claws. klods. dumps. conclusion. differing only in the absence of the duik. clutch. to collect in lumps. * Clumsy. Du. ether comelia P. Hence cleik. koetblockish. Variation of clatter. to tramp. — ' — — tonista.D. plad or plod. dek. Coach.' Comfort ye dumsid. clausum. — . ' Thou clontsest for cold. -clus-. . ill-made . koetsie. having the Pl. But clunchy. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . and klotteren. a clot klissen. dystere. klomen. ' Uorte (for clogs. exclude. to tramp or tread heavily. clook. klumpig. MHG. conclude. from ON. klocken. Sc.D. Ray. a clove Sw. -cludo. Fr. klonte. unhandy. to benumb with cold. beklummen. klcise. verklomen. a couch. dumpers. obstructum. kol. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. ON. koetsDa.E. Sw. Clutter. beklommen. to syllable click. Du. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. a nasalised form of club. xXvariip. See reclusion. to curdle. of Du. The sense of awkward. splash. Coal. Pm. cleuk. klomje. klummerhdndt. klette. verkommelen. A group. unhandy. clopiner. From the notion of sticking together. lavesen. a litter. cliboter.' Vegecius in Way. eene beklum. with E. lay hold of. coucher became in unhandy. klikaty. an instrument for nasal form e. are the nasalised forms of klotte. —To Clumsyd. Muster. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. ball of snow on horse's foot . from laver. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action.'— animal. Graff in Klamjan. fingers (familiar). Cath. to tramp. to to snatch.

to be inflamed . acomelyd or aclommyd. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment.inflated with air or liquid. walk clumsily. probably left his home. tuft. however. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. . to hobble . pockbecility and liability to imposition. and jval. side . See Cot. to burn.. cacd). Cocasse. united. or cobble. from some fancied resemblance. and imperfect or unskilful action. a rib.' And colo. top cobio. staggering or halting. Coast. * To Cobble. properly to daub. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. viz. . T' waerkopet. sweets and the other of poisons. to wheedle or gull vermin). in Du. kop-ar. ridi.' Nares. Fr.(pi. CooMneal. cob. may be A found in Sw. Coalition. . to glow . Dan. Cobbles in the N. and fig. bijamie.— Cobble. a similar According to Ihre. to cobble shoes. to pdt with We may cite Fr. numb. Trevoux. k'dlla. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . in Essex Jow*2c^.' — Thus from (Hal. . Coalesce. cock or nescock. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. long standing. throw a blow. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. a sow. caleo. OE. . a woodlouse. or upper . A spider's web. habble. e. coste. one Pr. probably from the Fr. — — . to be hot. is one of thump. The contrast between the bee • Cob. a kitchen. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. nursery lang. bredouiller. dial. of poison. a darling. cokes or fool of him. atter-kop. The dirt. cofasse. that is. cluster. koljarn. glowing embers. to bungle Sc. cochinilla. a thumper. v. woman is said to be very ordinary. gull. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. as in arr. to beCoax.the water boils. large coals. a cobweb. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. are often connected. koppen-gespin. Colina' the place where a fire is made. rivation are found in Sw. dial. Lat. Fin. an old idiot. dial. frock. s. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. meaning that she is plain and coarse. klabba. imbecille. a bubble. and hobble. Fr. plaisant. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable.. a spider (/r)^=grub. pustule. To cobble. Formerly written course.a spider. to strike. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. Du. hakkelen. haggle. pock. It. a firesteel Lat. a tuft. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. to stammer. large stones . according to the ordinary run of events. a crea. a pock mark. Du. ignem. klabbsmed. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. kuppa. It. cob. a bungler. Sp. an egg. dial. quele. a coat or frock. to grow together. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. glow. also a coast. any kind of coat. cob is a dumpy horse. Flem. pryf-coppyn. things.. to kindle or cause to burn .). cobcoals. The Fris. H^cart. pustule. cokes was a simpleton. dim. cotta. verkommelen. niais. klabbare. the one of thump. burning. or E. . to knock. 3. niais. In the E. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place.). small pox (pocks) . — Cleveland Gl. cotte. of E. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . kop is preserved in the provin