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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. is given to a cow or calf. muK) and mae (rfie. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. or Mollein. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. or. mind of the of the animal. persons of different tongues at the present day. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. when we is represent to our children of the cow. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. in other words. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully.NURSERY IMITATIONS. name of the cow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. when neither name for the object to be designated. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). by whom the be understood. but nothing she herself knows the animals. the closer we shall approach to the . come Moolls. and where we are seeking. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. the baaing of the sheep. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. the present day. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. and. to the syllables which are significant to the child. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. with an initial m or I. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). Molli. in language of the present day. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. The syllables moo (mu. and mully or mully cow is the . children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters.

hm. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. had nim. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. for everything fit to eat. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. became more perfect. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. nineteen years old. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. A member of my own new sfop.). an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. as well as the mind of the utterer. to eat. partly from sounds which the child caught. . in children's language. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. . We have. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. when hungry. then. schipp. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. his nurse adopting the word with him.. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. Finally an n was placed before it. for bad. &c. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. p. and some were very clear and distinct. Gr. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. to For instance. He would now say good. mumm. First. I had watched the growth of this word. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. analogous to Magyar mammogni. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. fiafifi&v (Hesych.' In ordinary speech mump. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. nim. family. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. repulsive to eat. and which we might express thus. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. by the natural humming sound. for things. 72). On one occasion he said^e nim. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. Gradually. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. he called to to drink. Heinicke. to work over with the mouth. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. and nim came to signify everything edible.' he says.

Gothic niman. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). palatable. 130-1. j ing . mumpfen. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. i8o. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. nam. to eat. voracious. delicacies. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. on. to Sw. Soosoo (W. memmexen. p. lita. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Swedish dialect gamsa. to take. as well as the Sw.' And Diomedes. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. ut tinnitus aeris. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. dial. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. to move the lips in continued chewing. ' id est. iii. eating. Africa) nimnim. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). to chew laboriously. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. South Jutland hiamsk. food (Tylor. to taste .ONOMATOPCEIA. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. we can call them so. (in chil- dren's language). make djamdjam). buckra man's language the white man. Nimm'd up. mumpfeln. tidbits nama . words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. mumble. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. Wolof nahenahe.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Galla djam djeda. as to . A negro proOr. aptantes adfectibus vocem. taken up hastily on the sly. greedy . clangorqae tubarum. mujnpa. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Primitive Culture. and the fizzing (and Series. 1 86). ' Motherwell.' says Quintilian. jamsa (yamsa). and thence to be tasteful. to fill the mouth. agreeing with Ein. and some of them .' says the author of Modern Slang. jammla. oves lalare. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. namnam. aves tinnire. to be pleamind . it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. to mump. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. nobis vix permittitur. or word-making. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. nvrnma.minis. i. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. yamming. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. savory. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL).). to eat mampfen. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. jumla. sweet (Koelle). snatched (Whitby Gl. . at hiamske i sig. Africa) nimi. nyam nyam. crab nam buckra man. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. the Scotch poet. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. and the crab — p. Vei (W. stolen.' — Lersch. to smack in eat. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus.

purring or mewing of cats. before the in other words. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. We .' he says.' — We speak of a cow. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. not of a baa. baaing or maeing of lambs. whether it deserves the name of language. bellowing of bulls. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. might be used as the designation of it. p. chirping of sparrows or crickets. barking. dove and cooing. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. or thoughts of our hearer. und growling. yelping.' And elsevs^here (p. anything connected with it. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. croaking of frogs or ravens. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. grunting or squealing of hogs. lowing of oxen. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. bleating of sheep. neighing or whinnying of horses. intended in the instance to represent the cry. snarling. do not speak of a bowwow. Yet we ing. howling. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. chattering of pies or monkeys. a lamb. cooing or crooing of doves. that there is When Man. not of a moo of Lect. ^6^. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . snarling of dogs. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. hooting of owls. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. sparrow and chirping. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. but of a dog. gobbling of a turkey-cock. when circumstances required. 'I doubt. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. yelping. for the purpose of bringing the animal. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. twittering of swallows. Indeed. cackling or gaggling of geese. between dog and harking. bumping of bitterns.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. 89) with less hesitation. might be used. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. or. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs.

Bav. Manchu The kaha. and means a shouter. caller. In Basque. a crow. 380. In Lat. Malay gdgak. lion. it announces (Salaberry). 4th ed. whose sound (Pictet. in is Gr. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. kauwe. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Columbia kahkah. ist ed. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Kdrava. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo.' common sense. birds. Hungary. We imitate the sound with a modulated. sound). is kuM) for the cuckoo. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Origines Indo-Europeennes). or quawk. Sauscr. having a general predicative power. Georgian quaki. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. gackem. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. caw kuhii-rava (rava. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. fi-om apakd- i. and gaggele or gagkelein.). most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. 349.IMITATIVE NAMES. kuho. Sometimes the hoarse i . he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Picard cau. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. Barabra koka. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. kdka. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. kae. coccolare. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. a a crier (p. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. according to Durga). a crow (Pictet). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. crow.). Arabic kdk. e. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. a bird that is be driven away. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. 'Kdka. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). in g. crow. a daw. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. as which is unmistakeably the source Du.. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. KOKKvi. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. and the sound of that direction. Aoo-Aoo. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. layitavya . We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i.' kd). kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. ghak. He to is therefore derives kdka. and Bavaria respectively.

coqueri- Languedoc. by the verbs gurren or girren. kukko. Malay kukuk. Ibo akoka. to crow. kraeyen.. in the North of England. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. to croak. kuku. Esthonian kikkas. or Gr. tbrtora. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Heb. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. a crow. French dishuit. Sp. korren. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. The consonants p. kukhuta. coucouva. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Hindi. German kielitz. Swedish kowipa. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. gugu. tbrtola. Walachian coucouveike. Du. and sometimes both together. girre. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. p. wood-pigeon. cock. lilits. the name of an animal will gen- . Fr. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. Magy. lulo. to cry loudly. Lettish kiekuts. a crow . In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. It. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. kraukti. German and Eng- krahen. Scotch peeweip. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. and e.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. the name for a crow. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. So we have Polish krukac. turtle) as the Lat. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. and e. German luhu. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. 6. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects.. ghughu. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. coccovaec. yell. as well as of Sanscr. tuquheit. Mod. Albacuculi a dove. Da. The crowing of cot in Fr. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. are represented. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. kruk.Gr. Arabic tdtwit. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. either in the same or in related dialects. to howl or Lat. synonymous forms of similar structure). xi. Zulu kuku. Du. gufo. name. 219. to crow. krauklys.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. another. Pers. Dutch kievit. reduplicate form. kurre. k. libufs. Yoruba koklo. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. krahe. koeren. tortbla. tur. giving turtur (and thence It. tor. teewhoop. kraeye. to croak. to hoot. a crow lish Lith. while crouk. kirren. uhu. great variety of oKokv^uv. t. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. name of its is the bird. hibou. lUyrian kukurekati.

buzzing. g. Naturalist on the tocano. Danish gnaddre.' Amazons. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. PofijivXwg. schrickel. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano.' —Tennyson. grille.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. a small as hawk is . to hum. to creak Bret. Sanscr. German drohne. skirl. the drone or non-working bee . to shrill sound sharp. from the humming. Albanian tsentsir.' — i. to chirp . resounding of musical instruments. We may cite Gr. Corean sirsor. — Catafogo. resound. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. representing a short sharp sound. gives rise to chwymores. The Arabic sarsor. Speaking of a cricket he says. ' — Pictet . horniss and from the buzzing The. and yelping cry. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. oE. succeeding each other — with noise. 337. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Sc. The Welsh chwyrnu.or bumble-bee. humming. schrecke. Australian bumberoo. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. little intermission. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. skryle. North of England. ta-na-nd. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. schwirren. chirk. (Jieuschrecke) . Gaelic dranndan. booming. knetta. thunder.vf3. or a gnat fly. words imitative of humming . g. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. to rustle. shrill. Fin. dhran. grylhis. zirken. The drone peal. ajo.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. to chirp J may be compared with . a fly (Tylor) . Northern Farmer. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri).IMITATIVE NAMES. to be compared with Sanscr. din. give a faint sound. buzzing. the humble. hollow noise. Lithuanian tranas. common. In the N. which they make in their flight very . and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. and he kong-ko-rong. bee. a drone. cricket is from crick. g. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. bamba. in allusion to its music. flight its sting considered as a horn. skril with n. loud rumour. Lith. grillen. whirr). Lat. droning is . a sharp sound as of a 6. schirke. to sound. glass cracking (Schmeller). a beetle druna. growling. ' Sanscr. of England it is to the b 2 . the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . and probably indicates that g. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. sirkka. swirplys with 6. a bee. i. 'The natives call it tanand. bambhara. pip-pi-ta. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. German hummel. Danish dron. a hornet. sound. The name of the cricket indeed. to grumble. there are infinite varieties. as . kong-kong. German dronen. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. from schrick. with or Fr. and not from E. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. e. Arabic tantanat.

are (with a subsidiary k). and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. (iove. to bump as a bittern Illyr. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. bullock. to weep. Zulu lulula. fivKaofiai. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. 167. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. a Geiger. to shout. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to bow- own bawl. to low. bubati. Lat. Manx booa. to make. a heifer. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bukati. the animal. a buffalo. representing the mew of a cat. p. amuse. a bull. bovis. With these analogies. Lat. bu. to . or moo. as that of the cow by boo. From the same lioao). The Piedm. bae. mae. verb is evidently identical with our shout. and from to ring. OFr. Piedmontese fi bau. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to ba-L-are. Gael. On the same principle. to the uses goda. or formed Lat. mugler. btibleti. make to it laugh. bull. and thence Lat. bubenti. whence baula. maukati. a bullock. the Fr. a cow. mamoo-heeheek. in a imitation of a ringing sound. Cult. bwla. bue. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. be-l-er. bugle. bae. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. forms a. agreeing exactly with Lith. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. miau-l-er. in same way. shoot . as the Illyr. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. that the imitative syllable are Lith. representmake bow. mugire. bo. It. cattle. ox. Galla boa. or bau-l-i. is inadmissible. The Galla lilbil. say. and in Hottentot baa was the . plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. make poo. to low or bellow. grumble as distant thunder . bos. w. bolt. muJiati. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. to low . from the imitative moo instead of boo. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. a drum .XX called booing. — ^Tylor. to sound. baula. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Fr. and djeda. His analysis leads cow. Norse bu. to beat hard. to boohoo. bucula. to bellow like a bull. boo. biibnas. Hottentot bou (Dapper). k or g. verbal form given to the say. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bugler. or with on. Thus from miau. bullus and e. to shout. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. buculus. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Da. to make. or a z to the imitative syllable. Fr. bauli. to make a noise. w. Lat. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. to from bau. to make a loud deep sound. to mew. loge. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. to or bark. has bilbilgoda. From baa. Illyr.

houch. Illyr. goats. it and e. with the root ypaipm. and thence groin. leg-et-ni. Welsh and Breton). firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. a wolf. Da. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. It is probable also that e. growl. lek-eg-ni. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. groin. guttural tone. Among dog. name of the animal itself. hound. Magy. Illyr. a goat. and snorke. cry). rumbling. from hundama. a sheep. to howl. undoubtedly imitative. . hunt (gen. to rumble. meckern. in v. kurre. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a pig. G. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. to bleat.). may be identical with Esthon. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. from knurre. Moreover. meugler. corresponding to ohg. and with the subsidiary k or g. grumble. as lou of an ox. nire. Kurren und murren. Fr. knurfisk. as the proper name of a tame sheep. /xijeao/iat. and Circassian maylley. does not produce a e. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. purr). the snout of a pig. From the imitative mae. ^. and hoc'h. to themselves. Gr. hund. grunny. name. naskia. we have Sanscr. grugno. he would hardly. grumble. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. mekegni. And it is true there between hog and grunt. may with to snarl. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a goat. Gr. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. Gr. — . sound. to bleat . is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter.' Moor's Suffolk words. to grunt. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. Africa laa. mecati. meigeal. Fr. sus-sus. a sow. signifying a snarling. meil. grogner. ' In driving. to bleat. and of (maelon). hwch. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. or in any ! way ! persuading. lambs. Gael. Idgge (Rietz). lecco. a goat firixal^ta. a pig Fin. a sheep or a goat. menAda (ndda. 6. a hog. leknuti. this obstinate race. a (Hesych. Hence Breton hoc ha. The g. hundi). oe. hunon. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. meketati. / The same Gr. Manx meilee. karra. a sheep or ewe. grumpf. /xj/caScj. grumbhng. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. a grunt. by which the shingle gives rise to It. cite as by grunt. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. sheep or goat. name of a sheep. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. a dog. grunt. It. to grunt. a sow. a. curmurring. . mutter. in Wolof bae. to growl. a sheep (Lowe). smack and naski. Illyr. grunlike a pig in eating.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. . although the imitation embodied in Lat. the designations of a dog the term cur. kurren. and grumphie. hadg- Magy. for the voice of the ox).NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. With gen. lekavica.

M).root. . hobin. houpy in Craven. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. Sc. of the character in question. a horse. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. to whine. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). as in Yorkshire highly right. hobby. There are of course some names. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. to go backwards.. from the cry animal. to the left. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. when he found peculiarity. coquette.). hobben. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho.' — ist Series. cockade. 91. animal. turn a horse to the is In Finland. Thus we are led to the Fr. (Craven Gloss. p. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. e. . it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share.. hottihuh. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. If onomatopoeias can . a mare. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. Esthonian hoibo. ^6<.). coquelicot. like artificial flowers. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. humma. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. p. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased.' 2nd Series. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. hoppe. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. without a — we root. hiine.' ticular bird. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. So Sanscr. But words of this kind are. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. g. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. the cry to stop or back a horse. such as cuckoo. a little am- bling horse. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.

horse. hresh. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. whitename in in- throat. as sigh. fehtati. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. e.D. Bohem. hikkd. cough. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. ginniken. lapwing. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. groan. hennir. xxiii ginal object. wiehern. Sw. Fr. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. . than to the sounds represented. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. but whether there kind between them and other words. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. command of language was attained. signified It. hresh. to neigh. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. little speak for themselves. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. nitrire. moan. Du. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. creeper. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. diver. wrena. goatsucker. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. nounced with a guttural). Irieschen. Sp. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. ance or habits of the animal.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. runniken. titter. form corresponding hresh. hukkup. rinchar. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. Pl. Sanscr. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. frenschen. hross. wagtail. woodpecker. wrenska. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. g. swift. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. Lettish sweegt. redpole. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. animals or certain kinds of sound. giggle. sol. to Sanscr. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own.

for the creaking of a wheel. DingBang. 1865. went the cannon. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. . to beat. aritischane. a large bell. a more expressive than the e. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. beat. hoo ping ping. &c. for in such sound of blows. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. debhes-lungotais (deifies. bang ' ! trenches. hoo.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for the for the sound of . to sneeze.' So imac. strippstrapp-stroll. pump.' 'Haw. for the report of a musket (Colenso) .xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. banke. fitsche-falsche. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. on the chops is represented also by pratx. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . haitshu. in a nail Let. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. — Sanders. Mei gbengben. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. wheeze. clap ! A smack Puff. Of a like forma- drum . plitsch-platsch. White Lies. Wtb.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. Zulu bongo. dong Read. beat of a clock child . klatsch. or tliat is accomit.' ! ! ! ! — dong. or the w. to drive on. the dashing of the sea . snore. oren : Klapp. banga. heart tick-tack. to hammer . It is represented in e. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . &c. tlirob. atchini. mer. ping came the bullets about their ears. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. bang. lumm. to throw violently down. a kind of drum. tisio (tisho).' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. snort. for the sound of milking. atchian. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. —Brem. heaven). pit-a-pat. to knock. the God of thunder . And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. for a small one. root kshu. Australian bungbung ween. ting-ting. to ham. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the sound of a fall. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. thunder (Tylor) . hang. scream. snukkup). ding. for blows with a rod. knarr. an attempt would be made to by the voice. for that of breaking. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear.' it both sides went. shriek. Vei gbangba. for the sound of a blow. bangas. haw. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. Da. knack. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. are familiar in ' to every one.

which he added to intensify the expression. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. young child . pu. pipelni. part of the What consciousness has the child. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. as the simplest implement for proFr. has been un- employed to designate fixity. as in other subjects of study. pipio. mobility excavation and hollow ^.' instead. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. De Brosses. piccione. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. a fowler's bird call is lost. ducing the sound. young bird. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. Mantuan pipiare. and their relations. a or cheep. —Lyndsay. to squeak. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. scream. to cry pi. a fife or musical pipe. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. or the uneducated different consonants are man. a (young) pigeon. chickens (Tylor). and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. to cry like imrli^u). Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. to cheep like a bird or a young It. child. far pipi. pipegni. laugh. pippione. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena.) a chick. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pipe. G. Gr. Lat. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. — . pipe. as k. pipilo. Florio. pipio. pigiolare. bleat. It seems to him that the teeth t. pi. piou. The pi. peep. In cases such as these. peep. pule. the voice of chickens (Cot.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. pigione. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. cry of young birds . or a piailler. of a word will appear supposed to represent. cry. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. pigolare. Lat. not- . Fr. piauler. calls S. pipare. e. to peep It. and whimper. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. Magyar pip. to designate cavity and hollow.sc. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. . used as a call to . He Yet asks. and so forth. piou. is pfeife. a chicken or gosling. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. a whelp. had been used laugh ? two. doubtless. is of expression.

sound of dry breaking. the side of g. girren. kuruk. of a loud strong sound. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. borrelen. to pant violently (Colenso). Manchu kaka-kiki. kniks. i. to fizz like fat in frying. or kaka-faka. u. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to crackle like in boiling . signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka.) Mod. knurren. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. where the variation. turtur. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. . to growl. make wood a clinking noise. kniks. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. crash. along with tinnio. pi . a drum W. rumble. and lugh. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. knaks. tonare. creak. vaake gorgor) . to grate the teeth . to grumble). garren. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. chack. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). karkarana. a. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. Poppopvi^to. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham.. to gargle . crack. murren.Gr. in German. preserved by Kilian. to rattle. the clucking of a j hen . as representing the sound made when something breaks. kirkirdnd. is very common. sound). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to ring pipio. to creak knirren. like the noise of a glass breaking . to pant bejii- zela. Hindoo tomtom. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. a sharp short one. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to gurgle. tontonare. to bubble. a prolonged sharp sound. gurren..' We te he ! quoth Tyb. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . Zulu raraza. to jar. Pacific aka-aka. when it force than biscuit. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. be cate to go on laughing loud . to thunder. Pefuxela. to hawhaw or laugh loud. loud laughter. to cry pi. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. cricli. to laugh. some small vowel or consonantal sound. Hindustani karak is rendered. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . of something fine and thin. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. cluck. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. knuks. rumble (Fl. coo. to cluck. as the click of a latch or a trigger. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). along with Du. grumble. Indian chack-chack. tintino. a short sharp sound. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. laqfF. thunder oil . or springing back. to grumble. {to It. bubble. murmur (by . a closed or obscure sound. &c. to be compared with Sc. lachen. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to clack. . rumble. to gorgogHare rattle. lachachen. It.

for the clinking Lat. spring of water in the a bell. ding-dong. to strike. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. KaKog. to giggle.' Member for Paris. jingle. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. kiling-kalang. Magyar csamm-ogni. a drum . fumtu. simmer. and bilhila. the tingling Ming-Hang. rifiirayov. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. indicating the origin of Gr. brings us to Fr. a workman. or of bells ringing. bubble up. a smith. Galla tuma. Turk. . halaidlac'h. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. koXiw. bad. as Fr. bulbiil. correspond to e. a nightingale. cry. disturbance (F. caca and Finnish adkkd. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . 368). 1871. to say chut. is based on the same imitation as the e. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. the gingling of glasses. agrees with g.and e. to the purling of a brook. chuchoter. as of Tamil muromurmur. clank. to ring or jingle. sound). noise. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. for chut-chiit-er. and the imitative nature of tivgle. coughing or clearing the throat. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. are applied to the is excrements of children. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough.* the heart. . tumult. for the ringing of illustrate bells. or to Du. and e. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. the sound of a stringed instrument. for a tTviror). to be compared with g. clash of arms. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. quarren. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. Tiie Galla gigiteka. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. chinking of coin. muro and e. sound. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . clango. 192). Newman). Calt. bent her head. for the sound of privy whispering. Scotch sough or sooch. uproar. thump. Prim. call. a nightingale. tubh. clink. awater* ' The Mme P. and her heart went thump. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. rain (Tylor. make djamdjam). same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. box on the ear imitation of the . word. to whisper. corresponding in e. The syllables lil-bil. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). to croak Manchu <juar-guar. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. Sanscr. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. of keys or tinkling of bells. tup. csam-csogni. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. klirren. to knock.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. The whispering of the wind I. a boy's whistle. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. Maori pata. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. or the bubbling up of to a spring. rvir (in tvittio. croaking of frogs. Fr. kl'mg-kling. E. borrelen. especially one who beats. is Manchu tang-tang. chut. drops of i. e. wail. and Gr. compared with Gr. champ. to beat. djeda (to say tub). hala-hald-faMa (falda. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. and Gr. shout. while cacd / used in e. jangle. identical with g. at an accelerated note. Manchu kaka. tumwata.

at a door tarapatan. dabble. bubble. thwack. for (Sanders). swash. pop. chink. smack. fizz. disturbance. sputter. patter. clatter. we have buffet or cuff. hiss. hum. creak. by rubadub. according to the strictest phonetic rules. Nevertheless. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. report of a gun. ring. dash. tumbian (to beat the ground). gurgle. tymmesll. clink. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. to dance. without the intervention of orthodox roots. Humboldt. The use of g. blow. So in Fr. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. it is fallj AS. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. douse. in e. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. squeal. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. or v^hether jectional. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. and soufflet. crash. mutter. a applied as well to the force of the bang. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . blubber. splash. parapatapan. clank. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. and the French pouf. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. thump. tap. rumble. the Germans puff. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. paddle. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. It. squeak. But although and also found in Lat. while e. splutter. puff. lash. tomber. thump. whine. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. and Grimm. rap. guggle. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. clap. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. clash. whizz. crunch. gargle. Fr. to is blow.' — Nohden. slash. din. boom. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. brumberum. twang. w. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. to fall. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. plump. whirr. clang. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them.. The beating of drum is represented in e.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. squall. craunch. ' Der puff. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. flop. rattle. tingle. rataplan or rantanplan. 'pat. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. bang. murmur. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. jingle. tum-ultus. snap. clack. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. crack. tinkle. whack. flap. smash. chatter. souse. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. and Fr. thump. answering to g.

cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. in the rushing waters. little who has time to want of her nurseling. ugh . and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. stractions. and found in the building of be burnt up. formerly cited. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. without a thought of symbolising to them.' . we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. and thus they become signs of despair. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. and uttering plaintive sounds. p. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. xxix on the contrary.'. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. every little pain. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. If. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. by the nature of the cry. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. the inteij. of horror. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman.' If chaos. are made known by an instinctive cry. wringing the hands. in the case of the animal or of the infant. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. or stubble is meaner name. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. that he has taken the step in rational speech. Grimm or Bopp. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. At the first beginning of life. grief. an imitation of a sigh . in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. Crying. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. is Thus ah!. or of any if wood. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. the interj. knows them. or any unsatisfied want. 94. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. the kind of action that is desired of them. because they are spontaneous. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. hay. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. but if we must not complain on the beach. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought.

sneezing. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. p. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. He says. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. Language begins where interjections end. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. may become traditional. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. interjections. groaning.. 32. 344.' — ist Series. One short interjec- tion may fact. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. and some of them the composition of words. as who them spontaneous utterances. and the eye. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. If I wish to make a person of an .' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. them to exercise it. of all the mouth. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. he cites from Home Tooke. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. shrieking. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . ^6g And to the same effect 371. more eloquent than a long speech. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory.' p. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. be more powerful. the lowing of a cow. And again. they are involuntary interjections. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. coughing. or which is of me as suffering pain. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. should be remem- . more to the point. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. to solve the I shall call first. p. which are frequently so toned down cance.

explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. cachinno. and thus. for example. Kayxa^u). and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. he says. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. hohottaa. in Magy.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. I am not hearer. it them. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. interjections. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. and more or less limited . Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. demolishing here. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Koxafw. and others from interjections. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. but the less am at a loss what to say. some kind of language might have been formed. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. in Fin. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. hahottaa. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. hahota. Lat. Tooke in truth. bered. loud laughter. Gr. then speech begins. when I arp humming and hawing. kahkahah. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. speaking. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer.

And so in the case of language. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. Though. like peewit and cuckoo. of the world. and not. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.' he says. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. . and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and go where we now say stand. of the nature of this great movement. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. a Picture-language. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. makes them stand and walk upon the table. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. But here nature soon conies to his help. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. words receiving the meanings they now bear. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. dumb is the language of signs. The following account is given by Kruse.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. if taken as a whole. a deaf-mute himself. the critical question should be. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. It as has ing their most striking features.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. What strikes him . when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation.

for walk. or the verb to be. he. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. as it now opens out. The same sign stands and the act itself. that. walker. and to taste. for the agent.GESTURE most. and gestures. particular sense in properly so called. The of sign for left hand. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. thought is already broken. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and it is flesh or meat. xxxiii him between one thing and another. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. the sorecalling them to his memory. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. that signifies great . To seize the is the principal movement of an action. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. walked. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see.' In the Institutions. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. his action. push it towards the person addressed for thou. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. the lan- guage cultivates itself. for single objects. walkest. becomes roast meat. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. thou. can do better and more easily abstract terms. what more. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. called Gesture-language. it means little. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and fully serves to j . and And thus he makes himself a language. signs are taught for yet. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and we have roast goose. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. the whole secret. letter To hold the two fingers apart. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and forms further and further. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. or To pull and flap with the arms. and with his thought. that air. it seems. for child. like a V. such objects. such as than the educated man. to name. many when or but these. nay. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. but if I depress it instead. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. most striking outline of an object. among themselves. And is. he.

xxxiv asking. . in expressing such relations as those indicated above. and so is an adverb. the ture of white term pink is and red. in fact. whether by additions or otherwise. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. Do not bang the it is a verb. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. The same word . the garden. or a passive scene of existence. or a quality. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. or an act. it called an interjection. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. putting it into his pocket. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. a number of alternatives are suggested. as But when it is meant door. in other instances sentence. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. qualifies the against the wall. to indicate the action of a certain person. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. might be the knife. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. He gave door a bang. substantive or adjective. and the as. or something of the kind. as when Bang ! went the gun. according to the circumstances of the case. You beaten . When a verb. and thus performs the part of an adjective. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. Who is has beaten you ? would be. or action. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. depend entirely upon the use. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. when I say. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. When I say. would be simply beginning of speech. I say.' dener's knife. a colour red. as in die it is a noun. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children.

moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. as cung. and may be used language. greatness. wherewith. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. verb nor noun has yet been developed. in the sense of great. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . pain. some outward display of the affection. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. that is. a sigh of oppression and . Latin. with a stick. coalesces with the personal pronouns. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. Jii ta. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. wonder. middle. in the is indicated by the syllable y. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. whereof. grie^ horror. contempt. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. but often self-evident. signifying an attribute of this person or of that.^ — Miiller I. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. a groan..NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. Thus tafu signifies a great man. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or nei. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. or some relation between it and another object. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. wherefore. whereto. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. a noun. and to be great. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. wherehy. that admits itself in of audible representation. &c. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. inquiry. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. which is an old y ting (use stick). commencement of speech. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. the man is great. inside. or with elements expressing relations of time. . 255. as kuo cung. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself.

headache. oh. pain. n. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ach. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to hurt Let. Jar lau-lau. to injure. a groan or lamentation vir. to make). probably a deeper groan.'). wai-l. dchzen. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. representing a cry of pain. o'i. misfortune. in Gr. Lat. guajo. grief] affliction. lau-l-e. lament from oimi. wAwa. ohi. oimare. e. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. ochan. ach. to sound yapyap. to cry n. as. j. e. ah. g. ing action I. pain.ez. Thus from springs otjucifw. och. and to bark . to lament. vei-a. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. the pangs of childbirth. w. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. xxxvi grief. to gargle. ach. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. The form corresponding to Lat. mew. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. It. ochain. waiidt. guaj- or cry out pitifully. guaj-ire. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to ache. aiai^to. as. pain. grief. is w. guai. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. or r. cece. A widespread It. miau-l-is. Gael. first person.. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr.-l-are. suffering. are ol-ire. ah. Gr. wehen (Schmeller). to weep. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. djamdjam goda (goda. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. weh. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. Such are g. . 6. It. ! ! Goth. al. weinen. ochan. to lament. to yell formed e. It. oi. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. Bret. lament. Lat. mostly a ! %. w^wa. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ohg. weh schreien. to . miau-n-is. on. It. to do woe. . plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. seen in Gr. I oi[iot. gwae. g. vce. and cacak djeda (to say crack. och. is Ay di me I Gr. on. to bewail oneself. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. to wail. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). w. ui. achen. to wail or cry alas . to groan. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. Gr. gwe-l-a. oh. miau-l-er. . wehthun. form. wai. to cause pain. at the close of the radical syllable. 6. ahi. howl. . e. jaoh. has more kopfweh. grief. die wehen. vce. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . to ache. ocAJ. to chirp. wd. wai. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. hei. representing Illyr. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. la. Fr. however. to rriourn. vaj. In this way from the root guai. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. och. Gr. Let. found in g. . tirr-djeda. oval. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. ace. &. to weep. woe. woe. misery. gwae. ache. Illyrian vaj. to make bow-wow. ai. axofiai. to cry at. jao. Illyr.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

as to express. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. give me that cheese. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. Phil. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. ToSe (or in Attic E. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. that is it. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. Sanders (Germ. and by a variety of expressions besides. indeed. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. ' sees an object. When we pointing. his trowsers' pocket. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. a specified were by pointing him out. nurseries. thata (ta-ta). Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory.' all is is — their consent. or carry me thither. and may be rendered. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. In the expression Da. that. saying : there the ad- Trans. is-te). or that it is. I add) . properly (give) be compared with by which a g. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. case.' person. 'nay. give.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. Bav. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. Diet. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. is we I believe. as. implying the direction of its good will towards them. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. this here. Sie. or wants to name something. da.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. Dr Lottner observes.' this. that gratifies me. according to Menage. der da-ige. the nursery da-da.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. but the truth is. • The child. says da-da-da. we may translate this by there (it is). child. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. to here . The Fr. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. as it Dieser da (as Lat. and so on. Thank you.' then points to his wife. or give me it. when 1859. da. when he wants something. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. But. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. . ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. for instance. well as Goth. more emphatically roSj)j that. Please. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. a word of many applications in g.

sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life.^ its ' utters : a cry. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. The da is dodem. dadee. pay. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. make dadada). and shapes it into an . the original is that which he places first. thinking. p. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. strike. to move step by step. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. — Cot. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. standing. sounds.' • liv ANALOGY. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. which thus exertion. tasting. to beat. then instinctively interest. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. beat. speech. to chatter. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. to knock.' says Lottner interior. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. childish toying. to walk. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. and one in particular must. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. tattle. stutter. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. of which any one may.' says Muller. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to tion to another. sinking. takes it — as When the soul. Thus Gr. reality. to say to oneself. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. moving. . or dalliance. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. meanings. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. in every mode of expressing the idea. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. or metaphor. its desire.

The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. beam. schmecken. scTiateren. to sound clear In Galla. as kilind. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. snudra. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to snilF. may be quoted gUt. magnificence. discreet. to glitter e. iclat (in Old Fr. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to glitter. Du. prudent. splendour. wilistd. Finnish. a rustling sound Gr. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. make a loud noise. scheteren. tintelen. brilliancy. In the same way the Goth. and. bilbil). unlella. to crackle gnistre. Lith. which in ohg. ghsten. the equivalent of g. bright. tinkling. sound. to sniff out. sense of brightness. sapere (which signifies the nose. firom the Gael. to resound. chime). suspect Bav. smell. to crackle. to sparkle. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. signified a clear sound.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to shriek with laughter . then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to be wise. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. smell. beorhtian. a dis- cernment. snot. spraka. wamara. pracht. to 5 ghtter. wilahtaa. . to ring as a glass willata. to glitter. properly a clap or explosion. (parallel bilbila. knittre. man of nice taste. Again. 1654. think. to glitter. Heo Du. So firom Lat. gnittre. to tinkle. In the case of sparkle. splendour. to shine. Bavarian bracht. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. savour. to glisten Dan. The 6. judicious. a with kimmaltaa. air. schiteren. esclat). as. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. a ringing . is used in the origin. extended to the exercise of the understanding. Fr. and thence e. to shine. rattle. in popular language. then to sparkle. to have Sapiens. and figuratively. may be it explained . . probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. tumult. in the domain of movement. to sniff. snotor. knistre. on. taste. kiimottaa. also wise. search . clang. to smack or taste. a brilliant light kilid. we have and the and beorht. &c. to ring. to flash. to quiver. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. snutrs. kimistd. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. wise. sprageti. and schmecker. snuff the sniiten. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. outcry. bilbilgoda (to make . from the . while sapere itself. — 1. fiapfiaipw. to . noise. same imitative root with Sw. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . for example.

Acre. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. in truth. rough. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. is felt Lana. itself letters are felt as sofl. accordance with the way in which by touch. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. rough to the ear. he says. which The Stoics. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. Kep^arl'ieiv. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. we hear of screaming colours. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. eo ut res vol. break. within. sharp. smooth. strike. The BpavEiv. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. of dressing loud. oily. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. 1.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. . KoWiiSije. as soft by the ear. extremely loose. rend. the clank (stridorem) of chains. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). he framed the words ivSov. And observing that n kept the voice within. roughness. flow and flux. wool. the neighing of horses.' he says. rough. or . for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. to slide. gluey. whirl. v. mel. 6\tadaveii'. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. \nrap6e. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. and vepres. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. kvTOQ. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. pleasure soft to the ear . briars. crux. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. Much of the same has been often quoted. tremour. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. Kpovtiv. then in rpd/xoe. discusses the tone of a picture. &c. soft. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. shatter. ipuKuv. fitting the letters to the sense. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. rough both ways. the cross. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. pvfi^Civ. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. inside. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. the bleating of sheep. in of his works. Tpa)(yg. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. power of the letter-sounds.

The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. rug. jih. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. shag. 'and consequently form. stag (in stagger. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. 138). to reel abruptly from side to side). or checks as they are called by Muller. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. dig. k. ii. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. to jogj sac-cade. g. the case of the voice. dag. jig. tug. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. d. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. and in the utterance of a high or or low. p. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. stab. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. joli. jog. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. shog. corresponding to the ineor. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. a rough and sudden . cular effort Again. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. to signify varieties of movement. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. t. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. A greater felt. for exis ample.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. Fr. sag-oter. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. p. as when.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. jag. degree of roughness sound. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes.

like English tick. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. in cases like the foregoing. cica. zigzag. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick.. to move rapidly to and fro. or check. a jog. mie. used interjectionally to represent a . and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to glitter. chique. The syllable suk is jerk. to take a thing on tick. to touch. e. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. a cracker. to winkj micati is Lat. to have it ticked or marked on the score . kik. tack. The production of sound. also to stir. is lanese toch. The analogy then carried a step further. to utter a slight kick. Sukkeln. Bolognese tocc. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. Mucken. Illyrian migati. Ene olde suksuk. Thus we have B. so to Italian toccare. a crum. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. chic. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. not to utter a syllable. Welsh cicio. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . and analogous movements. chicoter. Fr. tecche-tocche. Fr. S-panish miga. to pulses being knock. schuckeln. mik. and It. Hence Lat. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . kuk. an infant . to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. foot. Brescian toch. as tot. a small bodily object. it produces Dutch micken.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Dutch kicken. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. sound barely audible. mica. to mutter. is made to signify movement. micare. then. a . an old worthless horse or carriage. to mark it with a touch of the pen . a stroke with a French toucher. toch-toch. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. movement. to say a word . to tickle. passing to the signification of motion. to incite by light touches. (mitsati). to strike It. as Italian tocco. It. a piece or bit of anything. a quid of tobacco. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. The Mipen or pencil. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. a playiug-marble. however. for the sound of knocking at a door. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. that we never can be sure. to ring a bell. to stir. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. lead to Spanish tocar. schockeln. mot. motion. sound Fr. to On the same principle j we have g. then. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. chiquet. Accordingly the g. To tick a thing off. rough horse. g. a good piece of road . figuratively. properly a small lump'of . zack. &c. is so frequent a consequence of movement. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. The train of . and e. to beat or play on a musical instrument. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. tech-tech. Then. a little bit. tock.

. a whisper. to movement of the pen . ticktack. there. a small horse. and dot. 48) cites from the African Tumale. gno. is shown in murmur. at where the order is inverted. clay . zitella. a small bird. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . we have e. motte. to touch. To jot. to dot. taut. titmouse (Du. the same organ touched with the man. Fr. In a similar the relations of place. titilh. ika. tiny. . this. small titlark. or the like its It. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. mutter. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. . there (further of!) ao. I. tot. for the beating of a clock. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. . fragments It. a morsel girl . i. a sparrow). The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. a certain conception. Then. not to utter a syllable. to make a slight mark. . jot. tot. 199). bunch or flock of wool. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. a morsel. the vowel sound. to touch lightly with a pen. zitio. mut. not because the pendulum makes a different left. So. mote. tittle. a girl. mot. a small kind of lark. that. anything small flax. gni. e. Halliwell. further off. ri that. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. Pm. to jot down or note with a fro. mossche. a bit. and he. tit. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . subdued manner. Malagasy to. here (close hand). to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. lump of earth. a small lump or pat. iki. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a e. corresponding to the personal pronouns. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. of movement in totter. to whisper (Pr. and a small lump of something. not an atom . this . there '(at a short distance). or the converse. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. tottle.n. n. a light quick blow. tit. citto. and out there. chico. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. to tremble. a bit. often entirely arbitrary.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. syllable mot.- a jot or little It. lix Sp. to e. motta. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. . or o toi. (Halliwell) Da. and toddle like a child titter. as in e. titter. to jog. you. . seesaw. Du. a lad citta. neither moit nor an atom. But the same is language has re Javan. 0. little. here. tot. tozzo. eo. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. small of kind.) . the least visible insect. The following table from Tylor (Prim. e. gnu. mutter j dust. totle. . and mite. a tot . fait. that iku. Cult. move slightly to . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. This kind. tot. for the three personal pronouns. little j to that of a small bodily object. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. a small quantity. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. a. a little titty. anything .

that. ukko. . that in the distance. /e«. and a for the female. bi. thou . . here this . young one. for the male. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Guarani nde. ni. there. akha. that. . ulri. that. Mutsun ne. there. olo. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. as Mr Tylor remarks. there. femina ama. Fernandian az. that. Dhimas isho. . that. mas cheche. he. is Here. here . is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. this ole. loo). Zulu ajoa. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. 6. uta.. there. that. here 5 Yoruba na. ^. to. minution further.) pronunciation of i or e. probably initial of distinction that the k. /mya. child. no constant rule is observed. Carib ne. (tt).e^. ta to ka. man erne. an old woman chacha. . this . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. Lat. there. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing.) nna. father. ofj.araM. small (Pott. j Canarese ivanu. Tamul i. qu. tiiio. /wo. mother. Japan ko. little. as the act of pointing was ta. Then. and origin. biii.. here j ka. that (intermediate) j wana. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. nne. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. km. It seems to (fen. . father k . here feraa. mother. Magyar ez. ne. child. Chilian tva. this . he. thou. an old . ojOo. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. there. I . is father. ita. that. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. ndi. you. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Botocudo ati. Abchasian aSn. as in Italian Fin. Ossetic am. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. here .. me probable that • Vei also little. this fi. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). respectively. Tarahumara ibe. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. this . this <t. here j abe. . that. It Carib lala. that. ni. usho. Gr. thou ni. mother.. Mm. . this . there. w. Sahaptin (America) kina.

Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. tion. murmur. barking of a dog. for a succession of light blows low-wow.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. 401. trappen. to tread. titta. nab. trippen. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. to peep.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. — Douglas Virgil. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. just beginning to appear. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. in old e. the pip or pippin. knob. for instance. A little wee face with little. wenig. don-don. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. the simplest mode by the g. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. trap. or chink. keeh. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to begin to appear . looking through between obstacles. The Sw. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. nil. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. Thus we have Wolof sopa. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. little To sup up. Da. as j money. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. to make its way through the bursting envelope. lift 8. or even. little. sound of bells . whence Fr.' making the voice as small as possible. Clank represents the sound of something large. Top. the nursery few j Sc. of smaller things. dance (Kil.) . trappa. as ding-dong. is to express simple continuance of action. analogous to winy-piny. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. to feet. a step. fretful. the principle of reduplication. repetition It. for the . &c. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. a little yellow beard. the idea is called. to teet. a child. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. at pippe frem is to spring forth. A little weeny thing. to leap. And perhaps the E. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. From cases like the foregoing. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. nipple. i Sw. wean. stairs. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. and in the Pacific dialects. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. Fr. trippelen. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. to peep through. . din-din. trSpigner. The sound trapp . has tittafrem.' — Merrv Wives. pepin. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet.

is language. didi. properly speaking. to skip. to say pooh It is ! to. to treat with contempt. mawhitiwhiti. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. puka- puka. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. to talk at to walk. mawhiti. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). if very young. kenda. bad . (to use a to speak. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. the and clique. puka. ding-ding. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. to to call. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. tache. rack click. a spot. could readily be conceived. Thus in the Pacific loa. serves to show and in this way. i. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . a grasshopper. are echoed by the rudimentary et. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. or el. to vi^alk about for flax. Cult. very long (Pott.. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. er. clamito. or very very great.Ixii REPETITION. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. a cradle. in familiar use with ourselves. to rock. rack. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. to love. smallness. Susa di. very great. to pant. or rdtchi. 99). loloa. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. Mandingo ding. ratsi-ratsi. keep spots. Malay ayun. The same principle of 196. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. repetition or continsignify long. instead of being actually repeated. &c. 97). or a little tee--ny thing. So from clamo.' expression is — ^Tylor. random . while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to cover e. the agent in panting . lololoa. from Maori muka. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. Thus in E. cliqu-et-is. calling. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. the lungs. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. ayunayunan. . racket. and the words express a continued sound of rack. . the comparative degrees of greatness. very bad. and Fr. child . And generally. a clattering noise. Again. kendagenda. to or rub. mpolu is uttered. or in Fr. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. clash of weapons. little child (p. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. child . or imitative syllables. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. sopasopa. tach-et-er. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. kamha-gamla. amusement. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. rapidity and strength. click. to call frequently from Fr. hardness.

in some applications. to hand. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. a succession of cracks to rattle. bubble. as mAS. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. are to cry mew and pew . waggle. wankeln. in Fr. wavering. to bark like a dog. bub. to rock. without the intervention of the frequentative element. such asjlap.Jicol. the knie-en to E. a from ayun. miauler andpiauler. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to puff. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. dab. or fi bau. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. wancol. joggle. The contrivance with any particular noise. Jickfacken. dabble. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. as to handle. to hand-le. kneel. by the side of wanken. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. wankel. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to move to and fro. shuffle. rynel. Ihre remarks under gncella. it. g. and in as. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. smack. to make gug. rubber. or in e. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. to wail woe . In like manner crack imitates the sound made . the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. others. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. the lungs (the puffers of the body). to make a succession of grabs . Piedmontese bau-l-S. which. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. fickle. or by association. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. is In e. In cases like these. compared with g. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. syllable clat . mew and baa . to make a succession of shoves. miauler and beler correspond to E. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . or omitted. wagas ging. he who rubs. crack. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. guggle. from puka. jogging. to continue dragging. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. itself. The Fr. where all direct connection with sound is lost. draggle. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. to crackle. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . to make bau-bau. to rock or wag. or Maori puka-puka. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented.

or in mode of use. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. although it is not difficult. to the separation between the broken parts. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. Dupe comes to us from the French. the breach. or how generally. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. known in Italian. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . Breton. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. to cry ugh at. on a moment's reflection. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. Polish. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. at was more familiarly known. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. moreover. by a hard body breaking. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. which is the origin of the word. which. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. deceit. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. or in aptness to combine with other elements. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. There is.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. and comparatively few easily deceived. will continue to be felt in daily speech. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. A gull or a dupe same sense. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown.

language is . Hitl^erto. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. . life. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. and the word is used in a secondary sense. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. nor any limited of ideas. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. is. however. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. founded in manifest blunder. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language.

Welsh. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. therefore. If English. guages in South America. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. of material things. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. evique. and 'Russian. I think it very probable. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . Naturalist on the Amazons. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. 330. in the course of many years' isolation. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. circle perpetrates a new slang term. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. episcopus. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. unintelligible to other hordes. and vescovo. hearing. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. French. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. i. out. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. change. compared with the duration of man. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua.

but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. i. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. to be taken (Prim. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. A key must unlock more doors than this. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. Cijlt. 6. it will leave figures 3 and 4. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. ao8). the actual it which would to represent. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. and . it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 8. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. The combination of the symbols I and 2. is MN. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. 7. Nor is there one of the letters. 9. . Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. ancient Greek M . which are idenr Figures 5. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. or whatever the proportion may be. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as shown in the subjoined illustration. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig.

and it has been established in a wide range of examples. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. what comes to the same thing. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. his fellows. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech.' should be discovered. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. in the shape either of direct inspiration. known to us as yet. and the only safe beneficent Creator. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. for instance. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. or. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us." the use of a change of vowel in as. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. leading him to utterances. which either by direct resemblance of sound. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. had its origin in imitation of sound.

as elephants. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. by animal without a trace name of Man. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or of their own reflected thoughts . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. or beavers. for instance. and when we look back as far as history will reach. race were speaking men or not. the conduct of Ixix life. of using imitative conduct . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or not. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. or else. in the course of generations. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and sooner or later. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence.COMPLETION OF MAN. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. that he started from the lowest grade. and rose towards a higher state of being. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . until the progeny. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race .

Diet. Wtb. Cimbr. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. 1737. Cimbrisch.. Baile/sEngl. Fin. B.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Diet. or Dan. Bavarian. Anglo-Saxon. Dutch. 1857. Infimse Latini- D. Da. Dueange. Grammar Boh. Danish. ^Ifr. de la langue Cat. Bremisch. Fr. dial. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Bohemian or Czech. Dief. Dueange. Biglotton seu Diet. Sup. Romano - Cas- traise. Carp. Catalan. Couzinid.Nieder. Dief. Gr. Cotgrave. Teutonico-Lat. at the end of Somner's Diet. Esthonian. Elfric's Fl. English. Due. . 1766. 1768. Bav. Douglas' Virgil. Carpentier. Diet.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Brem. AS. dialect of the Sette Commune. Esth. Diefeiibach. 1850. Bigl. Diefenbaeh. Supplement to Dueange. Supplement to Bret. Castr.V.-Eng. Cot. Dn. E. Finnish. Gothischen 1851. Provincial dialect. 1654.



7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.>. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. r. sveritet Asknace r. katowai perairrantr.nokkutama willekem. woman r. cruccio deyrie. r. Askance woud r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . yjnaifia r. word allagerr. r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.percurrunt kimista^x. Blob plowied r. buque 118 brodiquin r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.5 ERRATA. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. kilistaa bugiie r. baltresca nokkutomax. alUger ahaverie r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. willekom Blab r. puHti r. plowied budowaer. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.. haverie crtOT r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. cti. (/ijtf r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. ^i?^i2! r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.


Abandon. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. vs. ifter. command. ibandonner. literally. AS. K . as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. whatever he be. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. Hence on-bceftan.he Goth. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. an edict or proclamation. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. A. er. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. erwachen. abaft. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. a washing off to abstain. Thou spelds of mychty iction. —Bruce. this word beand Spanish. of-dune. announcement. to arise. rule. away from. the er. on-bsec . ab. from. his. from a is to wake to abide. a. away. Dent posture. power : Than Wallace thing. as. behind. . off. ar. To abuse is to use iway. particular 1 . Again. AS. to subdue. 843. to awake. said. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . in a manner other than it should be ablution. and secondarily in that of command. Thus ip N3S. Ab-. Abs-. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. 244. OHG. In Lat. Jvery man shewid baft. ur. alike. out of. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. among. "rom a height. Immediately from Fr. on. implying a completion of J. Passing tongues. state of sleep . Abaft. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. to sauff the king or spill. and — Chaucer. bandon in French. Parson's Tale. us. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. baftan. abs. o/j of or .' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. onis aback. orders.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. sion of 'an abandoned character. as. The word Ban is common orders. but now )bsolete). be-ceftan. dominion. until the event jlace .t G. iway from. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. Lat. in the same sense. have entire dominion over. ir. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. compounds. on-lic. dominion. into the Romance ftrseg . to hold . downwards. a/tan. on. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. in. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. plesyt him.

adverbial expressions at abandon. ais. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. Bate. an abbey. to take possession of an estate. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. bandon. to beat furnish. It. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. or admiration. — Neccham. bawi.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. Custom. of wonder. baba. vol. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Fr. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to abaw or astonish. astony. On the other in use as well as hand.' the surrender of a ' K. Beat. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. abbatere dal prezzo. I was abawid for merveille.Prov. 364s. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. abate.) . to diminish the force of any. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. and the verb was written in Eng.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. and sets them all agape. burny was formerly burnish . to ruin. to excite admiration. abaundunem-ent.fournir.— R. betrash.On princes. abbattre. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. son bandon. baer. weaken. merely the terminations ons. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. c. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. and that from Syrian abba. Abbot. to make lower. 1 1 8. from ravir. Cotgr. to light upon. Hence Lat. so common in the found in the OFr. to The .— — . R. down. Milton.down. iv. Hence the OE. father. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. to hit. his eyen shene. esbahissant. with or without a final sh. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. ant. More correctly written abbat. esba. castle. faire tomber. to overthrow. may be explained. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. to gape. polish. esbahir. Abbess. to bate something of the price abbatersi. or society of abbots or monks. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. where custom (Grandg. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. . other. de. abbatis. to strike Froiss. abbas. thing abbatere le vela. And he thereof was all abashed. . astonish. R. of the Fr. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. from Lat. to astonish. A. See . to strike sail . Castrais. esbahissais. of fear. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. burny. abandonly. as ravish. lish to abaisse orabaish. terminedly. abbatere. d. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. and grooms besmeared with gold.esbawi. ne more vermeille. 1520. uncontroUedly. Baba ! Mod. his mouth. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. To Abate. to happen. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. depress. drink. confound. law term abatement. shame. impetuously.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. and it that that it — . See Abide. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. impulse.polir. abbatia. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. beer. person. Abbey. effect of shame. et prirent terre. by Wall. Originally. R. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . — — . to put to con.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. In or. at his own the lips. overthrow. Wall. in the active form. Hart in Jamieson.

to desire earnestly. The white poplar. bida. m Abeyance. gridare. ne chastised them. Abele. To Abet. Q. is idenwait. in Fr. from Halo. forms with the d effaced are OFr. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler.Fr. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. baier. de Berri) Prov. wait. b^er. regarder. in Dan. open the mouth. Ni engigner ni abiter. abet. badar. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. look for another. 1 • . baier compared with It. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). See Abide. beidan. endurArt thou he that should come. to deceive. to attend on . . beidan. badigliare. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. compared with (Bosworth). — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. othres abidan' The effacement expect. which is certainly related to It. waiting. to open the mouth. bidan. usbeisnei. Boethius. lingering. to hook. bhr. were called Brothers. baier. or absorption watching.) abayer. . aspire to. to attend to. to wait. abie. Cat. — . the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Quant voit le serpent. on the one hand. The verb atwaiting. tity of E. E. inciter. deceiving. de Champ. listening. trick abetar. Prov. Gloss. expectfamily. K. expectation. and Prov. wait To Abide. or do we AS. attendre See Bait. to tarry. to wait. badare. to wait. bada. to look. to yawn. abeyance. Cat. suffer b. abayer. to ance. expectation.— Roquef. attendre avec en^pressement. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. Abie. . Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. — II. beijen. John. with badia. to mind. baer. Du. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. while the monks under his control ing. says. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. beijden. abiiance. verbeijen Sw. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to expect. Thus G. and alluring to his own destruction. or in Fr. bie. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. — signifies to suspend action. tenere a bada. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. 366. songer. bouche bdante. Norm. deceit. to expect gabeidan. warten. to abide . literally white tree. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. F. bouche b^ante. to gape . to desire. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. bocca badata. Norm. tarrying . Thus we have It. — ABELE Epiphanius. bie compared with Dan.' is in AS. In We . exciter. us. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching.— ^richer. abidan. speaking of the Holy places. From abahier. suspense. delay. Goth.was formerly used in the sense of look. have seen abide. . abaier. bialodrze-w. to open bader. delay. qui iaaille. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. desire. ne wist what way to chuse. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. take care. pense. signifies the direction of tend. white. desirer (Roquef. we sceolon ON. ' ' . (Vocab. tical with It. Corant sens lui. beter. to deanimer. Ducange. beguiling on the other. badare. —Raynouard. to stay. syllable ba. ceive. house. endurance. OFr. abeter. the verb of abeyance. bide of the d endure. ^couter avec dtonnement.. Guernsey beth. to suffer death in Du. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. abSiance. also to OFr. incite . shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable.to wait. a right in suspense . to It. abetter. Fabl. aspirer. forbearance. bana.— Chaucer. . to be intent upon. delay. and in E. abet. and E. watch. abie. beguile. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. with open mouth . gola badada. to In great amaze. Gloss. bida. listen. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. badare. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. a bay or opening in the coast. guardare. inciting. abbadare. bder. to remain or endure. intent observation. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . tempting. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Pol. beijen. take notice. to stay. covet. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to be intent upon. which the mind to an object.

AS. i. the Fr. Boucher. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. to perish. convenient. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. habile. from Lat. Dr. strong. the Pardoner In the original. 2nd Tale. to redeem. must suffer for it. Lat. atling hem to her proper offices. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. aboleo. to have . the Sir Tristrem. suffer the Jul. and Cr. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. to draw fowls. within the walls of a ship. Prol. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. purpose. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. fit. R. &c. —Bacon in R. P.ynes. as habiller du chanvre. abie. adapted . Fr. to pay the purchasemoney. though sometimes confounded with it. use. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. to wear away.^and to make his power knowne. the side of a ship. abigg. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Mids. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. willing to schewe his wrathe. to dress hemp. R. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . beidan. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. God — dear. Q. being disabled in the highest degree.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. God. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. abycgan. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. ! ! Cotgr. — Able. P. at kasta fyri bord. abide. For on board. Innan bords. N. bord. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. bide. abilh. Cassar. forbid for mother's children should abye. She shall abie that trespass dere. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. Tr. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. to . habilis is closely preserved. consequences of anything . when compared with Aboard. O If tion. a board. and death for handsel pay. Fr. in for any special purpose. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. ON. In this to erase or annul. abicgan. L. The —Boucher. Merch. sufficient. bidan. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. expert. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. is the verb abie. powerful. at hand). habilis (from habeo. without special reference to the notion of retribution. to pay the penalty. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. — e. from AS. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Milton. him with che. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. abolir. Chaucer. — P. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Spenser. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Wickliff in Richardson. able. and the simple buy. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Abie. properly abuy. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. . or bie. abie to Goth. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. power. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. de la volatile. was often used in the same sense. abidge. within the ship. fault being simply clothing. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. durance in both applications. It. on board . swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. 2. while in later examples As I . abeye. as E. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. F. have-like. If it badare. abilej Prov.

agredge. from . above. and in-d-oles. whence the Fr. Melibaeus. becomes leu in Prov. greu. alUger. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. a portent). life. to feed. ol. See To Bray. below. and bidden him abregge. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. AS. around on the out.. In the same brevis .) . OE. For on broach. outward. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. gravis. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. Lat. abbrechen. by the to bring up.the older form. breaking out in language. to let sleep. d. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. currence. disastrous portent in some passing oc. giving birth to. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. to main. to progress.' Parson's rence. Abray. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. Abundant. Tale. or cut short. the identity of which with ting.foda signifies to beget. on high. to break off. way Sw. OE. Fr. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. See -und-. to feed. al is growth. abrcBgdan. abracan. oil. adolere. titan. en. to grow together. vital PI. as the duty of nourdisposition. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. the form a&^^. motion. abredan. while the verb alleThe root el. to aggravate. Above. agreujar. leading immediately to Fr. Severe the threatened evil. and also to abridge. is not from G.— Abbreviate. The primitive idea seems that of beget. side. To abray or abraid. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. af-oleii. abominor (from ab and omen. . s —Casdmon. the idea of breaking about . No doubt if we had not so complete a About. ala is made to signify to rear. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. levis to the Romance languages. OSw. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. Virg. to snatch.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. as AS. to light a fire the Abraid. the man dwindles away. bufan. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. af-oolden. onbutan. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. heavy. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. Of these synonymous adolescere.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. to grow up. Du.aboon. to bring up. explains soboles Lat. abbreviare. Finnish stock. and also. alere capillos. butan. Goth. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. as withotityn and without. abrdger. but from Lat. while the sense of beget. . Thonne Abroach. Prov. be-ufan. to nourish. Abrdger itself. common in Chaucer and Abominable. Quod abominor. abutan. brood. AS. to rear. ABOMINABLE adolesco. hard. AS. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. Sc. literally. the hair grow. the vital spark. of any kind . to start. The radical idea is to feed the flame. parent. Gael alaich. progeny. To Abound. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). ala. for ligeth butan.' Ymb hancred utan. gravity. seems aras. to fatten. — ' — — preceding verb. his contemporaries. without. Then. and alere flammain. alan. that greatly agredge their sin. kindling..ger. which may God avert. nurse. abowen. draw out. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. nurse Lat. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. to cut short. to awake. to produce. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. Kiittner. to rear. abbrechen. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to beget or give birth to children. or young forth. snatch In English we speak of away. nourish.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. be-utan. abufan. to turn. — . D. to AS. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. alan. the OSw. about cockcrow. So in Lat. awaking. natural ed direct from the latter language. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. coalesco. boven.1. pedigree from brevis. break out.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. ufan.ymbutan. and to do something to avert abbreviate. Thence to regard greugetat. is a ively. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. full ofte his words for to Fr. which passed into English under Abominate. sec seftre — Chaucer. from Fr.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. G. Aphorism.made out. from the imitative habits of monkeys. apatiar. trouble. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. to strain. rich. anfilts Pl. bread. Antick. transferred to the grotesque characters. — — — . press. were andouiller the second. apanage. Hall's Chron. a preventative . In like manner. like a jack-pudding. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. were chiefly of the former class. to display pario. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. from an and — - . panis. swaged. whence Prov. to strike G. : . in Shakespear. Percutere. a block to hammer on. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. should be received. E. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. stem. from ante. the anticks — behind. to go in strange disguises. left as the . —Spencer. burnished. . to have. a small quantity. AS. Thus from gabe. from ango. ambeld. on. gabeigs. incus. vex. separate. from in and cudere. anticus. Pezron fiUist. aside. all of gold. Fr. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Gr. Ilvtwotov. Apartment.is to be given. from eigan. younger child. Lat. choke. Fr. to imitate gestures. Mannequin. before. d<popi(xnbs. a definite . So Lat.. ab. or antique single chamber. Apartment. strangle. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Otfried. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Antidote. Aperient. a puppet or an anti^hona. wealth. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. to strike. Lat. fauns. Lat. anxius. AS. aperio. to bring forth. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Fr. before. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. from. Prov. Lat. plenteously with red. antifena. one at the least. something ler in R. To ape. amboltj Du. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. work. Jorioc. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Any. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. d. andouillers. finally applied to a whether grotesca. three antike pillers. to nourish. As the browcalled antiques. one.legacy of given against. Hence the applica. avri^ava. verberas. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. To go antiquely. See Cover. such as savages. a termination equivalent to Goth. i. as we call it. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. part. and ig. and claret wine. to open. separate purpose. anxi. a gift.— . cenig. Apart. post. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. Antique. panar. from Stephanus. and devils. but the expresent day. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. anapoz. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. whence anthem. Gr. as posticus. from. villan Gloss. Anvil. ReApe. some one. AS. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. or in a ridiculous dress. inAgain from the same author cudis. surimitation of the ancient models. to support. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals.—Aperture. what Roman civilisation. as from as.D. set aside. af. Ful- Apanage. apertum. Gr. white. as the Italians. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. which by anvild. to sound in answer. a few. antefn. from avTiipoiuia). one having wealth. Antler. of. eigs. from an. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Anxious.

or the like. near. S^.his giving evidence against his principal. to understand.pareil. Formerly apricock. apropchar. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. D. like.probare. Fr. — Apprise. to fit.prix. 'LaX. . to store or put Appal. Fr. Yr. to learn. prohts. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. pretium. And whanne sum men Lat. aptly. Lat. Sp. Fr. ap. Apprehend. were formed appropiare ejar. approcher. Pliny. 23 . apprehendere. 5w. pronounce fitting).—Apprentice. horror. pragigua or prixcoda. iwKjToKri. a crime. N. ciously than nede is. apropid. to send to. ON. An old appalled wight. From Gr. one is in. appareiller. a learner. xv.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. apparecchiare. To Appraise. Cotgr. to deem good. a price. to make a thing Apparel. mine. after his mind . purpose. case. to call. to set a price on. apin R. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. to take away or lose the vital powers. to lose one's senses. H. Fr. par. Cotgr. . off. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. order. to rate. — Approve. like. Approach. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. one for his defence. Appareil. despatch on some service. appris. to mark to define a bound. d-n-o. whether through age or sudden teiTor. from aTroorlXXu. prover. to learn. irpaiKOKiaov. — dirondtfiu. diroTrXriaatii. the good. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. Parson's Tale. one the MLat. Lith. AS. apprendre. APO sentence opoQ. agree. trim. cepl. To cause to pall (see Pall). to Lat. and metaphorically to take the meaning. —Diez. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Fr. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. poind. appareo. proper time came. 'L-zX. apprise. It. a thing for one's purpose. Prov. to — . Palsgr.— . seiden of the stones. Yr. to catch hold of. Cent Nouv. to call for judgment. Fabian in R. OFr. prope (comp. properly to join like to like. apprentis. array. Fr. Prov. appaiser. Gr.t. known. appellare. Mod. to dress in this fashion. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. To praise. Walach. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. to approach. find Then like Fr. Apostle. one sent out. word was specially applied to clothing. habiliments. aparelhar. make a composition between parties. a'^opi'Jw. allow. APRICOT off. To Appear. dress. (cited by Diez from a late author). and also as appraise. Gr. oVooroXof. to accord. approver. laven is used both as E. to seize.parecchio. Fr. A — . to assign or grant over unto. ar. and appoinder (to find fitting. Ir. or E. i. and in the sense of condition. pronounce good. to deaden. opportunity. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. . taking. 11. consent unto. good. that it outfit. appartenir. esteem. diroBrjKr}.propius). to come near. apal. quoth the frere. peler. Hence It. to announce. obolys. to which it is often referred. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. in fact. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to deter- to strike. fit- — ness. in data. to suit. equal. Friar's Tale. e. to finish a controversy. an epistle or letter. praise. diminutive pariculus. peace. landmark. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to send off. to strike down. in commendation. manner. Apotliecary. to be open to view. habilUr. And among other of his famous deeds. kind of action.parejo. to — — . Gr. of. Apple. The Fr. ^wss. : — — speak 'Lz. prize. agreeing with "LtA. piteux poind. Cotgr. —^Apparent. apal. approcdare. ai. From Lat. decree. value apprdder. avail. Nouv. to approve. from. En peach. jabloko. From Lat. become dizzy . set a price on. Gr. rise to \t. to commend. w. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. whence the e. corresp. Hence appoind. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. They werin his approvirs privily. from paix. Appease. The PI. — Appurtenance. Apo- good time. pertain or belong to. plight. Epistle. — prehendere. lAfiaam. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. when the . poind. in Chaucer. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. I prise ware. away. For their acquaintance was not come of new . probare. Apoplexy. preparation. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. They were considered To Appoint. to disable oftat. in good season prendre son d. Fr. apar.

Marsh. OHG. arbitror arwaaja. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. P. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Lat. to plough. or barm-cloth. Prol.' —About. Lat. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. C. however.. garden. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. arwaus. pracoqua was not an adapt. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Now one of the points — — — . Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. herbere. conjectura conjec^ra. aha. Hall. a lot. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. words derived from arpa. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. Albanian. Maan initial . fastened close. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. aestimo. la nappe.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. a pleasure-ground.sors. ap.) E. and sortilegus ation. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. auguror. sestimatio arbitraria. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. J. Beryn. a lot. . quod he. naperon. man. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. Thus we have natiger and auger. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. rofe and all. shortdr. aqua. is taken in is a soothsayer. divining rod. Now we find in Fin. Pr. account for either of these significations. arbitrium. — napkin is Naperon. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. scr. and thence fit.o. and taken away before dessert. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. 331. arwelo. ear. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. Roquefort. and a protection of the clothes. As is a pretty parlour. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. grande nappe. doubtless is the origin of E. conjicio. . where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. or eft. The loss or addition of n very common. to decide by lot. symbol. This path Aqueous. 31. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. as an eye-witness. ughe. proper. short. the spelland umpire. tion under trial. aa. a soothsayer. a cloth.meaning at Shrewsbury. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. Alban. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. — . opinio. and the one who gives oracles. {mies ^=ia3. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. A. con. Arbitrate. sorcerer. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. a lot. aptus. and with turfis new Goth. Freshly turnid Arable. P. Aquatic. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. hariolus arpelen. She made. arbiter. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. however. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. suitable. Lat. Naprun. as ihe diminutive. It is certain that the apricot oracle. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. intensitive of nape. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. nected. ahva. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. OE. delon. arbiter in re censendS. wata.] in the N. 2. of of divination arpa-mies. Arbour.shrubs {arbor). nawl and awl. properly the arwella. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. water Which that benchid was. to preserve it from stains. arpa. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . Gr. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . sortium ductor. Pm. . Flower and Leaf. found in Fin. derived. From OE. . a river. be That it inne groweth. From OFr. It may be doubted. aro.

mischievous. earg. weapon may be simply an application of annus. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. ramend). curved. to arm. Arm. — Architect. arcus. a branch. aridus. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. receptacle where the public acts were kept. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. arm'ee. are formed the participial nouns. an extent of flat surface. kpxi- beginning. to Arch. archangel. Lat. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. as the arch of a bridge. sly. Perhaps erz-wticherer. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. curved line. apxtipfve. mischievous. wanton. arg. apxh. stuff. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. a threshing-floor. G. erz-bischof. and not with apx. — Wtb. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. an arrant usurer. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . Arch in composition. argvitugr. fabricate). to demonstrate. gwyrek. Cot. Lat. It. Arid. man. ardIn G. ruling by the nobles. apxtlov. to be in comp. timid. Langobard. G. fainthearted. worker. Ardour.4 rir/. forearm . first. Fr. The . wretched OE. arcA in e. arga.. Uo^a^. the court of a magistrate. the best.' Paul Warnefrid. apxri. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot).is the natural weapon of offence. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. ein arger knabe. . sluggish. to burn . Fr. AS. Gr. troublesome.' the Gr. ^Argument. Ardent. a noble. D. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. bad. signifies chief or principal. and Kpurka. 3340. which has been referred to W. Gr. make clear or prove. taxed with cowardice. a chief builder. Arson. Arduous. by Russ. faint-hearted. Arcliives. a court yard. Gr. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. arrant Arms. . and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. contemptible. argr. arm. ramo (pi. een erg kind. branch. especially shoulder-joint. Lat. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. ardor. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. shoulder. as in E. from areo.— Army. malicious. TiKToiv. sly. Area. And thou as arwe coward. ars. Aristocracy. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. government. Lat. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. difficult to reach.In E. morally bad. arduus. ill-tempered. exercise lordship). bad of its kind. to dry. Fr. Gr. Dan. is essentially the same word. a rule (princiruler. from nixa. which is derived from it. . the terminaGael. aj-f. a burning or setting on fire. * ArchjAiTaxit. Sax. Arcadia in R. to rule. earh. un petit rusd. . an arch-deceiver . lofty. raineno. rame. arch-bishop. arguo. ' — Argue. arson. Lat. arwe. and must be identified with Dan. it signifies roguish. ardeo. an arrant rogue. Lat. ancient. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. det arrigste snavs. From apxeiov was formed Lat. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. i. Applied in modern E. From the verb armare. a bare plot of ground. patus). apx^iv. Brem. earm. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. an arch boy. burning heat. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. and our army. armee. arsum. Du. arrig. There can be no doubt that E. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. in Due. area. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. ers-betriiger.aioj. the most arrant trash. vocaveris. arm. bad. Lat. un malin enfant. a.. gwyro to bend. to be on fire. Sp. erg. arma.' Lex. et vulgari verbo. bravest. 2. W. vescovo. A construct. a bow.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. armada. adjective. high. ardre. Du. Lat. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. while the Fr. Alisaunder. weapon. erz in G. shoulder Boh. . armata. whence the body of the nobles collectively. the a brute. ON. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

balka. Gr. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. a clapping or flapping of wings. Gael. Fr. a skin. on the shore. may exhibit the original development of the signification.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Boll. bolker. to move. ball. Fr. maan pallikka. pallo. as we say. bollr. with the perhaps from balg. Ballot. a ball. F. The primary sense seems as in G. balken. a together in the form of a ball. ballare. to be ill. bolyatchka. wickedtorment ON. to speak an un. package of goods. heap up. bealwes. to see-saw. a ball. sick. the breadth from side to side . ballare. 3. balveins. baalien. bbllr bulla J. It. at giore en balk. and the dim. AS. vcdra bdlkr. palcare. lealo. chapurrar. from bacquet. maleficium. a bubble. bol. ball. 2. Ball. pallukka. balja. bielke. to by beams. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Bowl. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. I. a clump . Mid. See Gall. ache. says Ray. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. Balloon.). dial. It. Sw. Hence Dan. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. on. balk. a great ball. a ballad. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh.—Ballad. to partition off . pila. a ball. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. dial. Baulke of land. a boil. a ballot). Bohem. To baulke the Sir H. ballo. Sw. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a beam. beaten road. e. * Balk. ' is a piece or confused talking. destruction. Perhaps on. to plough for a boundary between lands. a ball or pack. a clod of earth water. to shake or jog. Q. balkr. balla (with the augm. a division of the old laws. to rock. Bale. on. afbalka. a pestilence. ball. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. a pail. pilula. Sp. pallo. a separate portion. boleii. baloier. a globe. balare. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to be balker. vacillare. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. shouting. other while. bal-daed. a. A balk. a pill. the object of his expectation. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. to plank. and evil in general. baler. . pain. boll. to ache. Sw. Bret. Sw. a continued noise of waves gently beating . OSw.Fr. bola. ballet. Dan. Pol. a scene acted in dancmg. . Sw. N. Fr. sickness. bolyaf. on. a partition. Russ. bold. trouble. uveirs bolk. Du. Goth. Rouchi ban. Ball. ON. cka. bolawy. to pack Da. weak liquor. hue et illuc inclinare.of men . balka hopar. balle. balle. a But making way for death at large to walke. calamity. In like manner Fr. Grief. Ugutio in Due. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. to cause another to miss pustule. grieve . G. to ail. bacgtteter. to dance. gen. pallikka. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a dance. balken. — A — — . . to on Holmedon's plain. floor. balk. . balka bunge. TtaKKa a pail or tub . are applied to a From the same analogy. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . To Bale out water. a ball balla. We have then separate dial.Lat. balge. bala. ne leaving any balke. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. bal. OFr. It. ballar). hooting. balloon.— Ballet. dial. as in a barn or cow-house. whether of wood or stone. G. plague. a wooden partition . It. the beam of a ship. ballare. Wotton. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. to bale out. Da. Sw. ballan. Ballata. Du. bal. (Hesych. to stir. stage or scaffold. ballone. a beam. to wave. a ball. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. blister. OHG. a washing-tub. separaison. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. . mass. Fin. to Not sparing wight. to avoid it. to dance.ing. a balk of foul weather. similar connection is seen in Sp. balva-vesei. wickedness ness . It. bol. Venet. to roll. the ballet of the theatres. . balle. torment. to grieve . Da. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. roof.' speak gibberish champurrar. bdlkr. Hence. bjdlki. balk. malefacGower in R. ballotta. taich. to paddle in water . a dance. w. . a water-skin dim. globule. ban. probably Lat. dial. tum. Sw. E. balle. baalie. palloilla. ball. to signify washy drink. sorrow. misery Du. i. ing. balk. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). ill. Sw. bal. palla.

as he says. Balluster. bamein. for want of other freight. sorcerer. The Baltic sea. To proclaim. bag-lest. the backload. Balm.000 tons. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. a rod. from Lat. to preserve equilibrium. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. explains ballast. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. bumbazed. lastagium signified not only ballast. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life.). Baltic. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. paid for the right of carriage. fonts. a useless load. it is forced to take in stones or sand. a false tale or jeer. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. little round and short pillars. R.. To Bamboozle. ballast. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. objects to the foregoing derivation. dial. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. baU. denounce. by met. To Bam.' And Kil. balconies. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. bambolo. Balsam. lestage. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. — — oltriga. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. and Mid. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. inutilis sarcina. enchanter. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. But because baglast is not found in the written documents.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. command. forbid. Venet. To Ban. endormir par des contes. Lat. i860. to enchant. small railing. make fun of a person. . &c. age. last. ballustre) is a corruption. but loadage. 1854. in the first place. ranked on the outside of cloisters. or movement of one who walks. to walk. balustrade barandilla. a battlement . This is the backload. bambocciolo. Report Pennsylv. bamboccio. the act of walking. like Fr. seems the original form of the word. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. more frequently than outward-bound. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. an Old dotard or imbambolare. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. baUa. from bara or vara. inutile onus. a duty on goods last. If bambocciolare were child of one. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. also with flatteries and . a small balustrade. for a load or goods (Roquef. astonished. barandado. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. galleries. a fragrant gum. deceive. more serious objection is . It. balsamum. Mr Marsh whether the a load. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. Du. a nettle. Bret. bag-las. curse. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. lastra.that the going vessels. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. railing around altars. urtica. 43 — Cot. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. 1. Fr. ^a\Ba\iov. mare Balticun. baume. back of the ship. baltresac. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Bret. is in Sweden and Norway. Sc. puzzled. bam. To deceive. bertesca. It is explained back by Adelung. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army.Lat. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. deceiver. It. Sp. a young babe. of balusters. But Fr. Lest. ^Arbuthnot in R. Bamour. Ballast. The Sp. Said to be from balaustia. Sept. Gr. Dan. When a ship discharges. terraces. A — — . barauste. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. &c. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. analogous to what is seen in It. the flower of the pomegranate. lest. baranda. called Bait. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. lastre. Cotgr. . because. Fr. In OSw. or ballast of a ship. ballustres. To make fun of a person.

— To partito d'alcuno. permission. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. See Abandon. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. we constantly find the expression. Les saiges avait et les fols d. bandera ground at his mill. It. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Cot. he bannede his ferde. 1. 19. bando. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. from at the Lord's courts. to excommunicate {lysa. D. to take one to task. ligue Taboada). Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno.—John Villani in Due. and It. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Thus the word is also used in both senses. then the signification w. acquired the sense of proclamation. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. to side or to bandy (Florio). Spebifid. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Goth. is That with which anything AS. also the band or of marriage. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bande. biddal. It. From the verb to banda. bande. In Fr. a company. change to the feminine gender in banda. banda. 813. R. a coast. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. fahne. hoc est vexillo. Sp. to bring corn to be fahne. banda. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Band. &c. the ensign or banner. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. populum. theodscipe ut abannan. Bandear. 26. In a special sense the term company itself. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Fr. faction. authority. OE. Se il — Romance languages. summoning to serve So in Swiss. sostener Torriano. Assises de Jerusalem. to reprove. bann. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. he assembled his host. Car. eiiseigne. R- He Translated by Chaucer. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. bandon somewhat party. To Bandy. at his own discretion. and in E. —R. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. Capitul. to ctide. Ripuar. 'A son bandon.^ bandy. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. in Fr. to unite with a band. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. says Muratori. 15. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem.is further developed. bannum or bandum. bandi. — excommunication bann-lysa. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Fr. G. flag.e. admolendinum. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. The to . to .. Sw. bande. border. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. to publish) banna. Goth. bannire in exercitum. to ban. Leg. to follow a faction. &c. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. bound. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Bandus. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Baud. curse. — R. ba?idare. in hostem convocare. power. Sp. those who side together (bande. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. band.Lat. Commun^ment son bandon. banda the colour or material. band. 2. It seems this signification has arisen. tener da alcuno. bindan. passing on from proclamation to command. v. and thence to any proclamation. to form parties. banns pany of footmen serve. i. . Mag. . askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Wyntoun. region. bannire exercitum. margin. etc. It. bundun. bandon was used in the same sense. side. E. There is some doubt how Fr. ex. Diss. banner marked the place of assembly. A. side. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. parti.

in the sense of a pirate. a table. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. of bandying words. Dan. . to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. eminence. bana-sott. to hammer in a nail. ruptus. in the sense of place of business. banc G. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. Bandy legs are crooked legs. a sand-bank. To Bandy. 2. and OFr. — . A Shipman's Tale. Du. From a desk . the back. bank. murderer. beating. See Banish. outlam came to signify a robber. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. the same verb the It. It. a de Vaud. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Fr. g. that the word is used by Romeo. and hence. — Paulus drive in a nail. Bankrupt. back of a knife. Lingua. Diaconus in Due. as of an explosion or a blow. From Mid. Banner. b'ang. Bacon in R. Mercutio. a bankrupt merchant. bang. to foment factions. banca his creditors. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Banditti. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. a wound OHG. The word is in E. in R. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars.HG. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. to bend a. banca fallita. Brewer. The ridge of a hill is AS. to knock. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. to cabal. bakke. counter. bank of river. beat. Fr. banja. N. a bench. — — whence E. Diez. eminence. — Fr. banka. band-dog. banish.: . Goth. ON. Bank. Tibalt. banke. Hudibras. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. a blow. Bang. standard. With many a stiff thwack. de sable. AS. bana. dorsum was applied to ject. hricg. bana. hammering. destruction . stir. to make a stir banke. shoal. ON. AS. bana. bandear. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. has bang-bang. The child cries bang! fire. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. bench. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. See Band. disturbance banga. Fr. But natheless wife at I bank. de- party. ON. se reunir. When a man fails Lat. Benchi. . Banister. Bane. benk. at canis peciiarius. bander tin arc. banditti acquired the like signification. Your stool. panca. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis.^ knock. bana-sdr. tumult bangas. . Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. broken. —^Vocab. to slay. was formed the OFr. a bench. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bance. &c. bannire. and poise Their lighter wings. See Balluster. se joindre. banc. pastoralis. and bakki. bench. E. bandire. 45 — — Bandit. language of W. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. a i. bank of Dan. death-sickness. bank. the former Fr. Mid. Bandy. the slope of a hill. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. put under the ban of the law. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . Fl. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. bow. a bench. bent as a bow. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. seat . follow a party. to work in wood. among rotta. Milton in R. large dog kept for a guatd. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. to proclaim. in the same way that E. from banc. Draw. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. bander. a rising bank. a long raised seat. bander. roupt. many a bang. . death-blow . Sw. s'associer. It is in this sense nounce. for shame. Roquefort. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. forbear this outrage. . bank of a river. bane. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. rap hatike et som The Susu. bankruptcy. — Kil. It. Bantze. death-wound. canis vinculis assuetus. to knock. a counter. banco. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. home — Bandog. desk. distinguishes bekkr. Ripuar. &c. banqueroute. The ing. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Lat. a bank. clouds. to beat. and therefore tied up. It. Benvoglio. to publicly order one out of the realm. whence the mod. band-hond.z. Africa. bandi.

to wrap. &c. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. jSa'pjSapoc. which is surely in barbed arrow. token. OFr. senheira. Barbar. bar. uncivilised. ingly very generally known by a name branches. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. or of this bantering. and he would seem to derive Goth. banda hendi. ban- Baptise. To Banter. from reifa. banniire. then fell among the foot. period vexillarii. Fr. barra. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. a bench or table . . The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. dim. of banco. then branches. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. rod of any rigid substance. knight Bardd.hinder. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. —Cot. a sign. ON. Gr. ON.8ap6^o)voe. Leduchat. nestling. Fr.the analogous syllable viur. a. — We A . an intimation made by bending the head or hand. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. It. either in the Gr. barba. and the work is done. that the noise of voices Bantling. would rupted from Fr. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. The spar. senhal. banda. Duo. Bret. to beckon . Besides it must be by Barbary horse. brushwood. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. bandva. Barbe. G. 3. banne. speaking of battle. Gr. a tree). it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. Fr. Fr. and even of calling it banter. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. a bearded or Cot. a which the barrister addresses the court. of wind. iandvo. Lat. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. heri-pau. barbarus. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Barb. hence a repast. a beam or long pole of wood. In a similar manner are formed yearling. a barrier or stoppage. banner. It. in Gr. men. Flesche barbeUe. barriire. Lat. sign. remarked. The original import of their own banner in the field. inur. privileged to raise Barbarous. i. arineXov. bannereti. chan. indeed. by a repetition of the syllable bar. as they call it. manu anto make signs nuere. to having that signification. top. sparro. jSdirTO). OHG. A It. out of a wound. a war-beacon or war-signal. Hence ner.cruel. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. sbarra. The barb of an arrow is the sign . an animal a year old. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. to bar or stop the way as with a bar.. Fr. Barb. ^oTrriKio. It. barrack. &c. and with an initial s.. E. and it was accord. barde. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Lat. branch. the word came to signify rude. signuin. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Gael. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. milites bannarii. Fr. barre. barbed or trapped as a great horse. such as the Roman Eagle. senh. E. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. branches of a tree {gwezen. rarii. wrapped. from the same source. bandiera. and from ensign or banner Prov. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. Hence Fr. To mock or jeer one. banneret.— Swift in R. to wash. barrou-gwez. banchetto. senhal. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Banquet.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. banneret was a higher class of knights. barbe. himself in Pontus. E. says. OHG. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. barrer. inferior to a baron.aTa Kul nest. Thus Ovid. Bap. Celtic bar. Sw. to dip. ing term appears in other languages. barreau. According to Diez the It. It may be thing. a bantling. The origin is in all probability Goth. benda. to bend. a ban. of a sign in general. sparre. merki. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. probably corSymbol. 2. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. summit. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u.46 BANNERET . Banneret.

. Mod. G. bar. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. bdsiis. twattle. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. muttering. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Bard. skola. Fr. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Hatt-bard. bdla-khaneh. borbulhar. formerly used in the sense of tattle. borbollar. barbeum. barguigner. barda. the edge of a shield hval-barct. barbacane. barbier. Hindost. barbugliare.— BARBEL merit of water. to mumble or mutter words. twcEtta. the beard. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. a shingle or small board. which was of talking. Thus the on. Barbel. barbeau. — . Hall in R. and flanks. — Cot. Bargain. to grunt. — . such as houses are covered Bardelle. Bare. barefooted Sanscr. bdsas. to plash or dabble. used 2. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Etym. tree. the nakedness of a woman. to bubble or boil. borboglio. ala. Cotgr. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. a jetty or outnook in a building. quarrel . Cotgr. mutter. bhasad. border of a garden bed. a pack-saddle. bardes. Barde. the quilted with. Mod. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. g. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. i. stutter. is lb. Festus in Diet. Fr. ready money. barbulla. and in Flanders to vociferate. to chafbargain. Sp. upper chamber. a long saddle for an ass or mule. powdered all over. Fl. uproar. It. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. borbotar. unqualified. to boil or bubble up . scouthouse. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Applied in E. as well as thwcEtta. Arab. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. haggle. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. dial. Barder. Lex. a bardelle. Port. w. also to wallow like a seething pot. to barbe or trap horses. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald.' Cot. baares geld. and Sc. open. in the sense of fight. /3opj3opwJu. on. barbelin. bardd. Lucan. Bret. boil. to bubble or spring up. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . skirt. — — — men. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. Pr. Gr. baar. Gr. saddle-cloth.) . jargon. barz. Fr. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. A shrub bearing acid Diet. guazzolare. brabble in the making of a bargain. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. berries. Port. barbar. skialldar-bard. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. barboter. the flap of a hat. A7 to the and warlike. Exposed to view. Fr. barda. It. small pack-saddle. albarda. The Pers. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai.— Fl. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. border. waschen. An outwork for the defence of a gate. skirmish.) to wrangle. to make an outcry . coping. berj G. Cot. as well as the modern twaddle. barbeter. grumble (Lowndes. lb. — — Hence. horse armour covering the front. albardilla. also to bind or tie across. in poetic language Bard for poet. to stammer. Etym. Diez. in Fr. baragouin. /3£pjSepi^w. . to wash. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. and foolishly. Bardeau. bare baskojis. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. barbarkama. to rumble. bds. guaszare. gibberish. to gurgle. Russ. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. to stammer. tattle. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. brim. to prattle. But Sp. murmur . borborinha. albarda'ah. OFr. speak confusedly. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. and the word was used in OE. Sp. fortia —Strabo. barS. Barberry. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Sp. name Fr. barbel. a rumbling. Lith. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. or more properly (says fer. a tumultuous assembly. barbaris. Barber. uncovered. back. axilla. Barbican. to It.— — Pm.

borkr. charlock. a cap . as in the case of Lat. Lith. baaren. — battle. Leg. as baces-ern. Originally man. louzou. we pass to the vert) barguigner. Sp. The older form in e. to wrangle. barley. contest. Sw. in Nat. baerm. bcerme. bargain. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Du. the A — Ihre. a lap. the or prow of a ship. w. Port. ThS man was not created for the woman. * Barnacles. and is probably a true bartig. fray. barlys {bara. beer. Ripuar. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Barn. barnis. Cornub. barretor. the G. varen. also to exchange. hemlock. dispute barattare. ber (ace. to scold. a heap. was barlic. spectacles. berm hoys. See Barm. to strive.^Voc^. husband. squabble. . beornt. the slimy substance brewing of beer. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. brenig. baimeach. barley. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. barnacles. Gael. Bret. baralha. — Zeuss. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. ON. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. to chop. skuta. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Du. The Goth. struggle. Provj bar (ace. baratta. barii. Romance barsie. barahunda. berm. . tion of the sound. Vocab. entangle. a. ON. berem. border. quarrel Port. giving rise to It. Prov. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. then the bows pectus navis. Garlick. at barka. to skin over barkandi. altercation. It. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. Manx bayrn. Camus. prasepe . bosom. v. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. and llysiaw. a baking place or oven. to rout. barley. corn-shed. bosom . as. Dan. So ON. a barn. bamagh. bcern. limpets. meta foeni. to cheat. bere. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. but the woman for the man. barlich. dispute . dregs of oil. AS. houbartij fsnile.Barum vel feminam. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Antiq. Sp. and may therefore be an Eastern word. adj. W. contest. baratta. a stack. OFr. Gl. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. quant a perdu sa barja. baniffa. skutr. ON. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. to all the barca. Isidore in Rayn. barajar. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. Sp. a receptacle for barley or corn. dispute. herbs. lap. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. baron. barge. Bailey.) lihtes-ern. bard). Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. barn. from an imita- Barley. then honoured man. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Dan. It. dispute. From Fr. Swab. Spectacles.. and the word. a heap . kani. Acervus. a place. as well as Scandinavian tongues. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. the rack or manger. confusion. barone. barafustar. barki. — Barnacle. Uzen. Kil. beorcan. —Bark. Barbour in Jam. So also ON. berm. barja. is simply the Bret. Bark. barn. baragouin. AS. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. trouble. strife. berma. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. barlys. baron)^ Fr. Alam. disorder. name being given to spectacles. as. commonly explained from bere. On the other hand. Rayn. dial. bern. strife. in the Brim. limpet. baarm. one who stirs up strife. E. baralhar. aheap. barmr. a load. ON. . 2. astringent. Bemiques. Port. barafunda.' bardagi. As Goth. The origin may be throat. dispute . Baron. quarrel. (Ihre. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. tumult. OFr. Barge. 2. also a boat . bread. prominent part of a thing. wine. bread-corn. a boat. hladi. plants). am.. Ibid. hlaSa. chaffer. bern. and ern. edge. i. and 1. . Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. the fore or after end of a boat . and hence probably (by a metaphor. baaring. barn. a beak. to shufSe. a lantern. hay-loft. barizeins indicates a noun baris. strife. barms. mhg. limpets . bark . bernac. To Bark. put to confusion. OSw. — de Berri. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Leg. See formed Yeast. baarn.

hut. bahre. branches. It was not until the time of James I. alongside of barrow. D. booth. the two names. baroncelli.— Gibbon. barrack. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. This word introduced into Fr. sepulchre. baronculi. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. bredhan. MHG. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. by early examples. fortification. then traffick4 Barrow.. were sometimes confounded. change of goods seems. Barren. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. in the first instance. See Barter. barile. a kind of coarse camlet. beorh. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. todtenbahre. Baron andfemme. 1. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. barague. a bier. tomb. breinej Du. StiU he shows conclusively. bouracan. barraca. cover. bara. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. 26. implement for carryAS. braeck. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. a hiU. to shelter. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. 2. S. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. to * Barragan. On chet — We — — their resemblance. vir. barrique. barrique. It should be observed that. OE. E. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. borov'. a barrel. brushwood. barrila. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. AS. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. a castrated hog . Antiq. sterilis. berwen. nobles. signifying. Barrister. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. It. whenever Barrow-hog. Gael. An ing. habeant. It. Fr. shed. facture. iver. barri. The feudal tenants next Fr. beorg. a hut or booth. Formed from Fr. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. beorgan. Gael. uncultivated. mound. staves.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. ^Barrator. Barrel. ibid. vair. Nominale of the from braeckland. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. a. — Kil.' Op. Goth. became bidre. a man. heap. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. semen non accipiens landiEL. squabble. berewe. a. OFr. Bohem. G. barre.parchanttuech. vel pretiosos burellos. barBombicinus. Barricade. A. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. strife. gwr. as cavalcade. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. from cavallo. bier. seem to be radically the same with Lat. Bargus or moreland. fallow.. Fr. — A . baragan. barrier. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. Sp. Barrack. Sp. AS. Bern. to carry. man and wife. ^Vocab. boar. barril. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. a word is always used in the plural number. bearg . They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. the braw. baraignej Picard. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. baronuU. over him. a barrow. like bargain. (Schmeller). from beran. — — 15th Cent. cise formation of the word. baracca.root signifying confused noise. Joshua vii. barchent. litter. See Bar. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Russ. baronetti. a horse. from a tree to which a man is hanged. garment still used in Morocco. bark&n. dispute. G. calico. Barratry. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. perhaps through Prov. man. as. gravis et authenticus vir. It. fear.' that Barrier. a bar. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. bera. especially those killed in battle. w.have been named from the haggling and gant. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. in Nat. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. or simply bahre. whence Barrow. Bamnculus a baronet. composed of dry branches ofer. Bret. which would barragdn. bara. qui have not much light on the pre. Sp. and in several instances. and not from Fr. an obstruction. The Sp. also termed bannerets.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. rolls of Parliament. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart.

to baste piece of cloth. The like property hath the iasilisk. Sw. fraud. descended of an honorable lineage. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. n' is n' is bacino. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. partieren. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. baraand especially teria. Sw. Basket. It is mentioned as . A fabulous serpent. BassuS. Apparently of Celtic origin. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. to bind hand and foot. stitch. ' He was begetin o bast. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. OFr. hoops of a cask. basso. besst-u-b£nd&t. basgod. humilis. pressed down. w. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. The original meaning. Lap. lift me above Parnassus. baraet (from Fr. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. exchange. to baste. God it wot. from /3aR. a bastard. Gr. Barton. — in Rich. imbastire. See Brattice. OFr. barter. . from bere. bast. ^Is de bast. dwelling. — Bassoon. the a wide open vessel. baratear. G. cheating. fornication. preparatory stitching. fits de bas. Bastard. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. low part of the Hickes in Rich. bass-matting. bran.D. truck. a deceiver. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. corn-farm. basta. bareter. Barbara de pictis veni patch. barter. chasa. which covers the grain Ger. baratar. said Base. It. Newman. HoUinshed.' Gl. bastear. ' Bosworth. basso. husk bast van koren. Fr. and tun. of the same sense. which sets up its hood when angry.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. according from Gael. MS. netting. to long — a British word by Martial. peel. a halter. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. baste. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. It. Du. but born in baste. — hanging. Lend me your hands. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Swed. flat. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Isidore. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . But according And Dan. It. to cheat. and Bret. or wic. a ftiesh. It. PaaiKhms. Sp. a tying. back. inclosure. Bass. low. mock not. oe. ohg. court-yard. Bassus. besst. To Baste.). come near. the manorhousfe itself. Fr. Bast. lust. /«r<fSp. Du. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. aiKcig. bast. berewic.looketh upon his eyes. bestan. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. also to Cotgr. embastir. It. him. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. then cheating. commonly A joined with the word binda. over-reaching. baxoj w. mavult dicere Roma suam. leviter consuere. To Bask. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. exchange. found in Turkish . baste. to bind. curtus. to truck. also the demesne lands of a manor. a bass rope. bds. tierer. unrighteous gain. crassus. See Bath. to Diez. to cheat. or running away with the ship. he. binding. . a ipgli So Turk. MHG. Pl. Fr. a court-yard. mean . fornication. foist in bargaining. to bargain. . bast. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Dan. discourse Nay. To stitch. Bass. imbastire. Fris. It. but he dreth presently. low. low note. i. Halliwell. Kil. to bind. chasa ogli a bastard. plaiting of splinters basged. 516. as It. bdtir. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. to stitch . bestcn. a king. bas. shallow. by imbezzling their goods Bailey.' Papias. more noble in blood than notable in learning. would be. Sylvester's Dubartas. bark. ibid. a basket masg. Sicamb. the thin skin Dan. AS. basta.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Dan. baos. baste. HaUiweU. fhe outhouses and yards. piiiguis. to deceive. HaU in HaUiwell. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). thick. barley. Al is dai. F. rope for — . cog. beortun. bast-reb. Bartizan. Sp. at basta og binda. pdrdt. beretun. bassin. There is not one that. beguile. Basilisk. Sp. as the diadem of the basilisk. the — — to kill those that look upon it. on a. scale in music. MHG. Arthur and Merlini. submovet omne Lucan. bast-maatte. basg. lattice-work. ing for profit. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ .

blaka. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. provisions. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. to cudgel. back. It. 164). set up. nade. contrive. It. or implement for 4 * A . term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft.— Bailey. Bastinado. Sw. to Due. Dieiif. baston. iastir. ari instruineht for beating. bastia. basto. erect. bastir. beysta. to rub. Pr. blakta. the night-jar or goat-sticker. Dan. bdion. 2. put it together. natt-blakka. quelqu'un son roulet. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. also to cudgel. to build. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. BAT neither. worth (Nat. frotter. Sw. to set on foot a war Bastion. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. to quilt or stitch wool into it. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. * Bat. to lay the Sp. the winged . cudgelling. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. like the owl and the bat.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. dial. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. 'iJipistreUo. Cot. That yche blak y dar wel telle. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. a. has bastine.stick.fortress or castle furnished with towers. vespertilio. devise.. Perhaps baska.stitching in general. bak. the bat . to give him a sound bastingi 3. and Arabs. contriving. bastonada. vledermus. to spread bread and butter. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. bastilde. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. basa. to beat. baston. is explained by Cot. bastonFr. which in the E. the original has corneille. a bastion. explains Sp. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. blows. To baste one's hide . the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. a pad or packsaddle. as weU as besteau. bastione. in the Romance languages. R. bakie-bird . to beat. whence ledrblaka. badger. comp. — — — . which to rest the load. — Bakke. Prov. to flap. R. to drub. aftonbakke. bast. Fr.-^ Chaucer. I.'CaB. E. Rayn. boste. raise. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . — — Fl. blakka. To beat or bang soundly. vespertilio. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. All from bastir. Cot. iinbastire. Sw. blatta. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. Fr. To donjon. to build. bastimento. a stick. to pack a saddle i. It. flyinge best. a things prepared for future use. liiake. a bird which. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. stryk. pre. Florio. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. guerra bastir. Supp. and ditches bastion. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. to thrash . Derived by Diez from iasi. to teach one before. a pad. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. the clapper of a bell. bladier. ON. dial. set up. bastine. beating. Fr. settiilg up. bastonnir. to whip. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. military term of a bat-horse). as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. frame. bastir. For the loss of the / in back. staff. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to belabour. victuals.Lat. Sc. passage Imbasto. Sw. a barSp. disposer. 11864. from Fr. Antiq. ment. p.— . blakra. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. Pm. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. bastille. 2. niammal. basta. stryka. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. night-bat. Sp. blatta. translation to a bat. club. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . a with a stick. bat. . For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Dan. to devise or begin. a blow cloth for dinner. packsaddle. 2. business (Altieri). a sconce. and Cot. but this is hardly satisfactory. batta lucifuga. to stroke. a blockhouse. e. Sp. Fr. Mid. compared with blakka. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. For the origin of baston see Baste. . bastear. in the use of the E. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. also the ricado. the E. bastida.baste or knock soundly. to rub gently. a packsaddle. blacta.

abattre. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad.Hence in the augmentative form It. by projections or in any licoure. bat. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. certain bend. Battlement. In some parts of England it is striking. tradire. . 2. altercation. to heat . remit. for biia sik. to toast bread. gebdck. flour. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Strife. baden. bake. Chaucer. Sp. to flutter with the wings. batacazo. I bathe in water viz. betten. from battre. then to warm by the application of hot water.' Palsgr. — To . bdda. dispute. e. See Better. . The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. heat. Pm. baka. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Bate. G. Plkkis. fashes basking in the sun squadron. in the sun. Goth. trahtr to It. To Batten. tagUone. strife. Battalion. batador. Baka sik vid elld. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Hal. Du.— . also. is a simple adoption of Fr. A batch as wood. lessen. It. From OFr. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. made of — A made by one Batcii.— To Bask. Fr. a beating. or make debate. battle was used beath wood. Pr. adapted for defence. batna. Sw. cudgel. batte sig. to get better. ON. a main battle. to beak. to feed. Batyn. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. battere. makebate. Hence pro. a from ON.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to beat se battre. The bat with which a brot bdhen. a stick. PLD. to foment. Fr. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. whence the sun burns . I baske. Fr. and as a verb. To thrive. Gael. the heat of the It. It. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Mgy. badda. a staff. made of bats. or a dry stick. bastille. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Fr. badda. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. w. Bailey. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. busk. I. Ayenst the sunne. batterie. a blow. batir. to beath wood Battledoor. to warm. squadron. oneself at the A into faggots. to thrive. Sp. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. term in falconry . battre las ailes. to cudgel.Bathe. and with staffslyng. and milk beaten up together. a battle. battaglia. Eggs. Florio. badask. the root of e. Sw. was formed bastilU. allay . bdda vidjor. and about an inch thick. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. a washing beetle. to for fighting. Bat. Fr. To Bate. as E. bdhen. as signifying warm baths. G. solbase. bludgeon. Battery. Jurgor. buask made like a fortress. Barbour in Jam. wet linen in washing. dial. in the case of a wall. to beat. quell. as wood-en. a band of armed men arranged basa. baeddu. dial. to become convalescent. baquetazo. From bat in the sense of rod . water whether warm or cold. beat. fortress or castle. a great seems related to baden as Fr. a blow with a light instrument. baz. a battalion. Jeddris and covering. gebdcke. battions. perhaps first used adjectivally. battere. is in falling. Battery. of bread is so much baked zX one time. or break down. In OE. to bathe. Pr. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. as E. Fr. also a sun badfish. Holz bdhen. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Flem. basa. E. to become fat. battre. to bathe oneself. solen baddar. to warm oneself. to fight. to beat. to dial. hot. battre. bdt. on. debat. to beat. G. dial. to betake oneself. A Bath. sich bakern. Slav. beat. to be profited. to fell. from on. — — — ' — . an arrangement for giving blows. to foment with hot applica. Battle. Batter. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Batten. abate. bet. to refresh oneself in language. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a Baiffi. a stirrer-up of strife. on the fire. pak. bataille. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. quhar he suld assaill. dial. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. signifying to give repeated blows. bat-en. Pm. . beat down. to fire or in the sun. to foment. more. to warm oneself at the fire. Bret. — Cot. to heat. better. bada. gabatnan. howis.

baugant. baula. because made of cloth of white. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. is used for a sented by bau. bausan. The word may perhaps be sticks. Formed from baw. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. mew. to bark . sorry. a lump or cluster babhaid. a lump. Sc. the white of his leg or foot. P. the Swiss baben. toys. pie- . W. bal. 2. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. represented by the syllable miau. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. lewd . dirt. Irel. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. guigaw. From ! an interjection of disgust. — Pm. spot. speckled. It. Fr. also more Bawdekin. BAWSON Swiss. spotted. bal. s. Fr. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. whimwham. a dog). buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. vacillo. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Pr. a tassel. babsmall toy to play withal. a belt. i. nastiness. babbole. propugnaculum. Baw — . Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. In like manner Grisons filthy. the face. OFr. horse. javelle. an embattled wall. in OE. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. Fl. brush faggot. b \% bouala. divided between black and white. librillo. to make the noise Baudrick. s. Jam. a horse with white legs. a tassel or hanging bunch . to trifle away ment. bablyn or waveryn. balbob. Gael. collar. bow-wow. dung. scarf. ! Bauble. cluster. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. disgusting. having a white streak down Bagdad. and authorities in note. Filthy. baudrdj OHG. or Cot. — — ' Lydgate. filth. E. trifle. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. a plot of Chaucer. to vociferate. on the face of animals. tille. Lat. baw. to me-wl. c. zano. to low or bellow as corn. from Fr. Ball-seirc. babiole. fooleries or fond To Bawl. baubare. baue. and Sp. dacchino. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. A name of the badger. bau.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. pegma. form with an initial seen in Fr. ON. to the same origin.' ' Pegma. P. sword-belt. or toys. excrement. OFr. bouaila. is Bagdad stuff. exactly corresponds Fr. Bawson. Fr. dial. balderich. whence pouacre. baudrat. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote.— P. Ball. bow (as in our nursery Diez. Pr. ballach. an object. or sheaf of Bridel.guage). Swiss Rom.. Bagdad. R. bauU.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. trifles. obstrepere. fe bau. or the animal so marked. Zalli. E. baffe. Cotgr. It is all bawdy. It. child. dirty. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . faisceau. ground. fagot. to talk Lacombe. from Baldacca. to play the babby. Batylment of a wall. a spot. Hal. Cot. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. E. 8. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. a zan. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. bauch. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. also the canopy carried part of his body. to bark. and to-tore also. Prov. bad. instead oi s. to cry. Beaus^ent. Descript. baban. balGael. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. An analogous noisily. was simply a field gold.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. a white mark Bawdy. rotten. a gavel. tab. expressive of disgust. whence the E. filth. Baldrick. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. to void the bowels. as Fr. fields. Bavin.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. miauler. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. Pm. bobine. E. to 53 manure the To baw. ball. From Bret. ish baubles. —R. bobbin or cluster of thread. dente. P. an — — — A — g — — — . Cot. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word.. It. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Piedm. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. a horse marked with a procession. The It. Cloth of gold.

' — — 54 bald. baier. Fr. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. berry. Such Antaeus seemed to me. baie. the cod of peas. See Bald. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. or window ' (in Fortification). From Cat. Mod. 1859. bay. Bay. and zndly. Abide. to amuse stare a bada. Drayton in R. BAY marked with bjly. or at bay. arose two forms of the verb. Catalan hadia. 25. to gape. to on anything. * To Be. badia to Sp. It. window-sill. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. a mark. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Feb. especially beans. baga. A stag is said to stand at bay. weary of running. the laurel-bay. in order to keep the enemy in check. overture. batibari. expresr sion tenere a bada. baiare. bate. open the mouth. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. abbabayer. From the former verb is the It. siege of Bayonne in 1665. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. bay. from badar. desiring. It. to keep at a bay. dividere. bacca. Fr. Fr. and keeps them in check for a while. Swiss beie. aux dehniers abois. waiting . that from ba. is perhaps not directly from Lat. by the term rendre les abpis. husk. It.. F. . to open as a blossom. and the To bark as a dog. white. to keep one waiting. Piedm. a'uno. or berries. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. It. baja. Fr. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. beo. bai. Cot. tradire to Fr. hddhe-dhonn. to open. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon.—Journal Soc. Sp. watching intently.— Stalder. bagaid. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. ist. laurel of the ancients. Serv. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. berries. when. bajo. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. |8i'os. See At Bay. Sp. 1. baye. as if to signify a window of curved outline. buidhe- The ruadh. to mark. as gazing. which however. Lat. bde. a cluster of bacon. Arts. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. beothach. baya. a hole. baccello. a beast.c. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. window . baca. bilyejiti. —F. life. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. living thing . bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Fr. BE Probably conRuss. badius. trahir. —Bay-windo'W. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. or to have been first used at the Cot. Prov. a berry. bayen-stein. bialo. Bay. buidhe. . bioth. stare. at his last gasp. &c. It. OSp. corrupted into Bow-window. — Schmid. It has been shown under Abie./^ bau. bijel. .' Bailey. large window in a handsome . Swab. See Bawl. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. the step is the same as from It. the world Gr. living Ir. Q. bahia. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. barn of two bays. beonj Gael. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. The — Fr. put to his last shifts. S. badarse. Sp. house . Bayonet. yellow . to betray. grapes or nuts. baher. To Bay. to split. Earth — By Nature made to till. ing-floor. The word bay. — A At Bay. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. Gael. Vielp. gate. stood watching him stoop. bdcr. badarc. bayo. Gael. from an imitation of the sound. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. to iiitent nected PoL white. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i.. like a pie. —Diez. he turns and faces his pursuers. Q. to stand watching one. baca. &c. . Gr. baionette. Lat. bahia. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Bay-tree. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. BauSfi)/. baer. &. so called from its bearing bays. dehiscere . AS. Fr. bilyega. the cod or husk of beans or the like. to be Bohem. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. alive. w. life. Holland's Pliny in R. a dagger. A hollow in the 'line of coast. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. or recess in an apartment in modern times.

Fr. A Esthon. He says. . W. . bidan. N. to wait. fromthe danger. bakkje. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. rising ground. beugler. Gael. The origin seems preserved in E. or any action done with a pointed thing. Du. salve his hurts. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. a single bean. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Slavon. bauhan. beans. becco. into France. ohg. —F. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Lat. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. bairan. as. beacen. «va\ioQ. Pardoner's Tale.fer-re j Gr. however. Gael. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. post. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. — to bow or nod . a nod OHG.from AS. -phxr. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. A two-year old nephew of mine p. beacnian. a sign. It. bead. fora-bauhan. 54. baum. a hill. prodigy bauhnjan. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Bean. Netherlands or North Germany. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. To Bear. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. baun. pierced for hanging on a string. or however. Gr. faba. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. nokkima. Beak. bdkna. Chapters on Lang. atUndre. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. support. bagms. a beak. a single bean. bakke. an attendant. a tree. bohne. Beach. a tree. The wild beast. stock. OSax. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Beck. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Goth. or beic. to wait-. bank. to nod . as.fui. It. bedm.' Suetonius in Diez. and Lat. Bret. * Beagle. ON. Miss Gurney in Philolog. signifying individuality. bek. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. to carry. to produce young. bee. ffci. was introduced from England sea. bidello. W. backe. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. It is BEAR SI court. Fr. Moreover the name. beck. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. Goth. bob. bohnej ON. a curtsey. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. It forms a. bar. the part overflowed by the tide. Catalan becar. bean. a prayer. like most nautical terms. bydel. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. signifying a point. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Sw. We haled our bark over a bar of beach.to have a French origin. faba is Kvavoq. or breathing. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. to bellow. beic. vii. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Farrar. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. fero. AS. would say. The immediate shore of the Menage. Boom. into a snjall river. Gael. AS. l^ax. on. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. Beckon. ffaen. Thus the final en. g. Be. which is. beic. Q wait upon him. fd or faVf beans. The nutu significare. gebed. — Bellenden in Jam.' Hall's Chron. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. as well as f& or fav. a presage.ad. tale of prayers or doxologies. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. badmr. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. according to of Sanscr. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem.' adheres to the root. G. bokan. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. See To Bid. pig. G. be. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. boom. ON. Hackluyt in R.. Trans. vol. Beacon. . — bedeau. to beckon. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. bearti. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Bear. bM. Beadle. Bret. — : Beam. E. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. to nod the head.fuis5e.

duty. 1. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. agreeable. 2. to happen. baurthei. To load with ornament. nothing to thy name make. proper. as the babble of the child. G. suitable. pleasing. to carry. comely. W. limpan. Boeth.— Kiittner. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. battere. riviire. to happen. gabaurths. whence baveux. bedr. G. E. from beau. to wade through the water like a beaver. to fall in with our bavard. bestiaj Gael. Slav. Fr. bach. chin.S6 fero. agreeable. g. bobrowai. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. and to acquire. baba. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. bavec. — . bello. riviera. proper . to live. bard. i. Lat. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. a brook. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. brada.we call the arrangement becoming. brook . to bear children. G.AS. and also in that of birth. Fr. when up. iida. border. decent. Beck. biber. to be a part of his to. get J ' He got very angry. connected with ripa. Prick of Conscience. It. to arrive at. our taste. to shore. convenient. bava. See becymth anfeald yvel. Lat. talkative. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. barf. I do thee pray. . the beard. to the good hapHalbard. pens unmixed evU. Lat. brook. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. to dabble . as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. handsome. gefallen. limpian.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. baviire. name applied originally to the bank then proper . That thou mayest attain Goth. beatanj It. to those goods which endure for ever. bearing. R. edge. badi. and on. Sp. R. bart. timan. receive. the latter are derived It. Fr. e. godum with ON. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. See Bat. i. beo. babrad. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. E. dress with unbecoming richness . as fall itself was sometimes used in E. Beck. Perhaps from Pol. Beckon. byrcti.to clothe to slobber. from baver. bib or slobbering cloth. to happen. The fitting or suitable. bave i. The OFr. or river. Thcem. o. See Bank. G. ziemen. fallinn. Lat. The quadruped. to come to or upon. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. Bedizen. tidy. and Fr. but now a river only. as. bequem. dize or dtzen. perhaps a living thing. because made of the fur of the beaver. now confined To Become. taste. a bank. Beat. Thus OY. bobr. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. seemly. bring forth. Secondarily applied to a hat. rying. e. OSw. boroda. dushmak. Fr. Do no To It fallith favour. ON. to get. limplice. to happen. becuman. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bur.getiman. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. place to lie down. if sound of a sharp blow. barba. to attain to the lot of any one. a lip. AS. Fr. to please.' ' He became very angry. or special purpose. nod or sign.' every way suited to a prince. Chaucer. Prov. fiber. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. slobber. bel. beauts. gelimplic. befall. becuman. pretty. Diez. blast. it is probable that here also the to become. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Beauty. formerly a happen. living. to appertain. to sleep on. from the same in the sense of bear2. opportune. to fall. ON. AS. The moveable part of a helmet. burdr is used in the sense of a car. Beaver. befit. fitanimal. As rivus.of being very angry. — A — A — . decorous. to happen. a.fit. See Beacon. biivre. to hem. E. Russ. Bosworth. behkr. a bank.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. an notion of being convenient. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2.' are equivalent expressions. the ece thurhwuniath. to be fulfilled. venient. Goth. It. fitly . produce. Lith. obtain. In like manner condition. tidig. which. suitable. bekkr. Now the Beast. ON. Bo. Dan. or a feeling to be gratified. bekommen. happening as it ought. to be incumbent upon him. gebank. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. He becom on sceathan. bett. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to fall mode of being. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. den. bave. bcek. bebrus. ON. to assume a certain form or Turk. Cal. On the same principle. covered the face. fit. while from Shep. ting. G. bellus. con. to the brook itself. to G. judgment. byw. birth.

from blood. curded or beesty. an ox. Fin. also bienst. Beetle. comb. boeuf. woman that is newly delivered. Lat. bette or blettej Lat. briesch-milch. imperative pi. P1. to coagulate. Originally. an inhabitant of the desert. may be from K. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. whose face is clotty. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. Bedouia. of beatmg. 57 — Palsgr. to rough- cast. Bernese. to twist poorma. bibere is a re. paralyticus. Arab. a wasp. in Nat. batAfter mete in sale. an Beetle. taglio. . AS. bossen. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. biene. a paviour's beetle batail. a clapper. in Schmeller. trees in a forest . Grimm. Bee. buk. from Lat. vaar. a horse-fly . bytl. Horn. the ox. cugino. I dysyn a dystaffe. Slav. stakes. . close together as teeth in a venomous creature. to turn. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Rom.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. to and ale. garden-herb. thick. prigione. thick. The meanpainting.— JI14. ' MordiThe Lat. to drink. Lat. from leberen. Bethlehem. from the hos. used for boull. cushion-cover . Gr. It. buka. beach-each. clog for a dog b'oteln. cozen. Bav. knock. mars betada. turn. bukva. a bed-tick.). a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. red curdled Arab . by-flugaj G. a Properly a cover that biiren. bbtel. to become Beech. which also 2. Let. and lebermer in G. kiissen-biere. The beer al for te shenche bate. G. G. a pad or cushion). /SXirov. qui de lecto surgere non potest . doubtless. the biter. It. Pett. E. KXlvoTTiT^e. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. ^. bletumj Gr. the loppered sea. Gael. to curdle or lopper. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. . bedawi.^ drink. betel. cow has calved. AS. bably named from the destructive quali| T. ir'm. pettiriso. extant in Bohem.ON. boytle. to fall. to flatten In OE. piwo. Cot. . Bed-ridden. fall. g. blow or thrust. 'La Gl. as in It. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. * Beestings. AS. a bee. bitel. i. to parget or rough-cast . speach. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. The first milk after a dizen. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. calleBedlam. 1. I A pillow-beer.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. a cup or implement for AS. to beat bossel. 1156. 1. to colour with lime-wash. For that was law of lend.ing of the word is curdled. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. to change . a wandering Prov. sela que environna la terra.D. biiren. In a passage of an Old Fr. on. de Fierabras in Diez. 1 to drink. Cot. Confined to bed. to poordma. a malsense of drink. a cover. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Beef. beutel. beest. duplicated form of the root. bet. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. waarin. poculum. turn (a garment). . Fr. a wasp. a pillow-case.D. It. E. door. Fr. beach. beer. case. badigeonner. D. whence familiar. drink. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. a stinging bieUe. beetle also signified the impiti. madhouse. fagus. ProBeer. I put the flax upon it to spin. Pl. G. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. beyki. pude-vaar.. Fr. biest-milch. wedges. Fr. Fr. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond.'— GL ^Ifr.cz//aj.(paddi. erroneously modified in form. Dan.' So Gr. a pillow case. cogionare. as the milk of a that purpose in London. may be shpped on and off. bedde-redirj ohg. bedskiissen-bUren. But possibly bedizen 2. drink. bitela. briest.possible. a drink potus. sang vermeilh betatz.' the last word corresponds to cofly . ris. Fr. prisons Venet. also the bite or sting of a bees. . as. to knock. bovis. from risan. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. water. desert. GaeL bior. Ant. a mallet. Beet. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. from jtst-. crespir. cited by Diez.— B. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. beta. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. pital of St Mary.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. &c. buche. translation beOj. The honey-producing insect. kivih. by the analogy of bedaivb. the meat of spinach. byst. and in driving piles. bos. Esthon._t from the root pi. a agulatum in the original Latin. bove. tree. PI. beost. cousin.

air a . it is both to acquire and to beget. Du. & go a begging. a stone-cutter's chisel. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. To Beg. y/yvo/iat. whence the E. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. signifying to conceive. image is cleft out of the trunk. — Stillingfleet. gan.' A. The tother seand the dint cum. a little bag). to beg. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. beutel. literally. Bruce. genus. &c. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . vir mendi. su with gold. appears improbable at first. although it ' the future. So from Gael. Barbour. chap. kind. a wallet. Du. Deutsch. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. ysgrepan. P. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. tale. 40. ip AS. anfangen. is com. Cold-begone. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Lith. begging.bag full of the G. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. P. touched with emotion — . be^nnan. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. Lollards. beissel. Creed. beriolare. can. Gr. also called Bigots. Si'Xa/coc. to know. ytyvwfT'Kw. is formed pocair. Vocab. yivofiai. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.quently used in OE. Skinner's derivation from bag. yivwajcw. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock.3. 'Dz. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Political Songs. Fr. ' . He did alight. 168. to cleve. P. lapidicinus. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. oppressed with woe. ykvog. two betels —a grete oke. 'ex quo. yiyvo/uat. 'Aboutin undern monly. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. on the bag. as alighting is a momentary operation. 142. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Florio. referred gan this Erie alight. to be born. steinbosil.' about undern he got down. to get children . from whete G. To Begin. a beggar-boy. gen. bertola. P. 2. on the tramp. beginning. krapszas. can. pose-pilte. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. P. 58 BEG BEGONE G. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. P.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . It. It will . a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. incipere. cans. P. Schm. begger. to begin. Du. 1430. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. ornamented phoc. covered with gold D.D.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Ancren Riwle. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy.' for ye shall lament and weep. to be acquire. hags. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. V. to bear young. Of brede full ycrammed. ken. to take. of Gr. but in the same language from poc. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. a scrip. to reduce him to beggary. gigno. in Lat. a chisel. affected. and Lat. origin. AS. beitel. to arise. onginnan. Mod. one after that other. beis- plement driven by blows. in E. 1867. Into the are D. a scrip euXaiciJoi. P. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. a bag or poke. &c. aginnan. Mundart. sel. bag {baigean. When Q. ' ' . iv. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. V. viii. a bag. a — wedge. beitel.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. above quoted to get beaten ON. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. baigeir. From w. a wedge for cleaving wood. or Of a pure poor man. fangen and Lat. seizing. ken. V. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. at geta talad. on further examination. capere. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. giving in Gr. Nov. Goth.n.pose. taking up. a bag . In Luc vi.— . to be able. word. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. — yivsaiQ. ' Begone. a beggar . in D. P. but probably erroneously. 25. to go a begging. duginnan. Beghardus. ysgrepanu. to begaan. yivtrri. woe-begone. a beggar. To produce children is to acquire. not began to alight. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. chisel. OHG. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. P.

hantyri. gehalten seyn. OE. vow. hcefwa in seed. behefe. to lead. to lift. to be obliged to do a thing. furtherance. to call. to fit. to carry. to name. to vow. hevja. G. beholden to him.). R. to look upon it as true . is on the top of or opposite to. zijn. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. It. to carry. and the E. commonly expressed. behete. injunccommand. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. behatan. Kiittn. to hold. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . Sw. to promise. garder. take heed of. to bers of the body. or purpose. to meet. to vow. right. behold. behces. obliged. to bring forwards. have the sense of calling or naming. To be expedient. Plautus. behind. to hit the mark. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . keeping. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. hofwa. to halten. hafwa ram. to be be named. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. gehaben. to lift. to be well pleased out. guardare. Aan iemand bid one welcome. AS. To look steadily upon. G. Command. the two verbs seem radically the same. hatan. —Hest. fixed upon any object). rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. AS. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. the name adapt. Goth. holding is originally derived from that of looking. adjust. G. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. use. promise . The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. nittaa. at the tail of. heita. is also found in the sense of looking. han- — js Kil.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. hevja. betragen.to vow. heeten. tail. us-hafjan. take yourself off. hafjan. beperson addressed. to look. to tend. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. hces. G. ufhaban. to carry corn into the barn . hafwa. and (as Fr. keeping. the equivalent of E. heeten willekem. hcef tig bort. Robert in Warton. solicitum esse. N. behat. as in the case of E. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to cast or throw. to be obliged to one. according as the * To Behove. to be suitable or becoming . promise or a command. to have. to R. And so from hania. portarsi. to hold. to keep. invoke. to be named. taking notice or care of (Gloss. heave. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. vow. to command. ifl fact. Thus in Finnish the heave. The It.for throwing it. to behave. tion. what is so required. To place are most naturally ex. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to regard. and their senses intermingle. AS. to keen or hold. to command. when the verb will hoof. hovast. G. The Lat. The seyn. to feed. a follower. advantage. on. Paladino. from tragen. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to carry. to call. habban. To Behold.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to be fit. to turn one out . to follow. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. gehat. or necessary. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. observe. premi curi alicujus rei. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. To Behave. hafwa bort. to keep. gecall. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. servare. G.' Richardson. to heave. seeing to. Sw. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. K. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. what he wishes another to do . At the back of The re. to the equivalent of Du. habere. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to take away. the distance of anything. behaviour. promise. 17. ward. laborare. exhort. But. bound. to raise. AS. Sw. gehouden. by the compound observare. se porter) to fare well or ill. behoof. ge' hatan. to gehouden. hove. hafwa. healdan. AS. or the hence advantage.the figure of throwing at a mark. is supported by many analogies. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian.— . — Behest.

bealcettanj OE. to a loud noise. to promise or engage. To Belay.. P1. orloven. — . permission. legsel. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. Du. to extol the worth of anything. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. an implement for making a loud noise. to praise.alyfan. to sound loudly . and E. a vessel made for dishonour. to give leave Dan. to praise. resonare. bellow. OFr. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to belay. OHG. belja. laven. Northamptonshire. to praise. a little shed. with the consent of the heirs.. Bell. a. promiser. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. bolken. Du. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. border. boare. a tower for defence . bellan. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. galaubjan. ON. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. to make it fast. to put a high price or value on. Pl. Pl. tain a certain end.Lat. . that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. to be required for a certain purpose. permitting or giving leave. to believe. pro3. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. — Diicange. under the forms belfredum. to boke. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. or a sconce. loven. or high estimation. In Mid. portion. to believe. . peal. Goth. Sw. to bellow. The word be- Belfry. to give leave. are innate . ungalaub kas. and E. on. turris. bulken. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to der swaren lave. if a narration. esteemed . and. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. gelyfan. From AS. galaubs. to estimate them at a To believe. to bolk. . or house. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. and bergan. verloben. praising. is used in the sense of approving.. in nautical language. fringe. hesfa. to protect. ley/a. bialla. to hit hafi. glauben. to to make A Templorum campana boant. b'ola. bervrit. belief . beau sire and bel dame. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to lay be- around. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. from mhG. to lay the cable round the bits. fitness. leave . laven. bell. precious. beffroi. frid. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. were civil terms of address. Fair sir and Fair lady. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to believe. ON. consent. loven.D. filu-galaubs. —F. 6o BELAY BELL loven. a tower. mark ON. Fr. To Believe. bylja. Det er ofwer er hofwa. is (Sternberg). of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. lofa. AS. promising. esteeming good and valid. erlauben. berfroi. Then. giving leave or permission. G. praise. reach. In the middle voice hofwas. to give leave. to resound. garnish. reputation. It. a watch tower. distance to which a piece will carry. for purposes of low estimation . which has been shown to be derived from laudare. to sanction an arrangement. laubjan.D. lyfan. honoured. to roar. range. if a promise. Hence to simple approbation. then. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . allow. are other modifications of the same imitative root. loben. aim. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. battefredum. lov. to fix a price upon one's wares. ornament. to befit.Lat. then. bealcan. satisfaction. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. on. Fr. Du. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. bercvrit. Q. behove. — mankind. moderation.D. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. beleggen. properly belonging to the church tower. to promise. appearing in Mid. leaf geleafa. is an easy progress. AS. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. locus securitatis Schilter. See Gain. To praise is essentially Xo prise. measure. met. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. To Belch. bettifredo. stand. bounds. Another application of the same word is in Pl. true. overspread. to express approval. bertefredum. Du. and Du. certain rate. to permit. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . cela est audessus de votre portde. beffroit. we have Goth.D. to cry out bell. beset. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung.

generous. a blow.polch. belly. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. belly.' Palsgr. beneison. . to reach. benefacere. a bellows . benjoin. ON. well. bell. Lat. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). vulva. See I . I araye. benignus (opposed to malignus). to hallow. Benign. welt of a shoe gwald. . to attain to. Eenison. . wallet. a blessing. bendaj as. or fyle with myre. binsen. OFr. Lat. on. bene/actum. a leather bag. hence with ashes. to bless. . and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. a kindness. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. bimaissen. needs no ex. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. rise against external force . to do good to one . wallet Benefit. has assumed a plural form. the word. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. as. bander un arc. to concern. to say. The ing-skin. I soyle it or araye it. Lat. attingere. a good deed. Gum benjamin. To Bend. pino3. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. — root consisting of concentric skins. Gael. — See Numb. ray. To Belong'. vulgarly the belly. or simply djawt. Lat. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. is a kindred form. to become one's property . Javanese perfume. a speaking well of one. pervenire. to arrive at. I marre a thyng. fyle To dirty. a bellows. gwaldas. the womb. bag. incense of Java. bellows. rushes. to concern. to hold to one.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. belgr. Kil.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. gelangen. to touch. Sw. G. from Arab.pinuz. skin. ^To Beray. to touch one. Lat. attinere.' The term had been previously planation. Benediction. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. Bench. benehusk. loubdn djawt. benir. bilbil-goda. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Benignant. a spring. dirt. a benefit. bolch. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. as concerning that. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. — Ducange. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. In E. because bcelg. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. border. belt. volva. benaigon. pod. bolg. I say). bendan. skin. Beneath." — — . G. an inflated Lat. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. belch. Was das belanget. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. ' I beraye. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. ball. to bend a bow . BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. attinere. is The word balg. bolg. pertinere. taken absolutely. Ptg. To Benum. benedictio {bene^ and dico. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. Quoth. leather sack. . est matris in lucem editus. pertinere. hem. to ring. . to use words of good omen. bellows. a water-bubble builge. poX^ri. Bent. or sometimes louban. bienfait. benjoim. See Nether. by itself. Fr. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. bless. from benedictio.— Belly. Dozy. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. from cwcsthan. means seeds of plants. belliJ Lat. to. bilbila. Lat. benedicere. — ray. bimpsen. Benzoin. to come to the crown belangen. balg. J'emboue. disposed to oblige..Fr. from which is also bulbus.videtur. ON. blast-bcelg. bandoir. w. OUG. langen. Belt. Benefactor. ' . welt of a shoe. balteus . to exert force. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bcelg. Fr. bellows. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. benejicium. pouch. bags or bellows. From OFr. balg. one who does good. blister balgan-snamha. Bret. from another modification of the word for bubble. See Bank. to belong. becwathan. . was in Mid. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Du. to stretch it on a frame. fens et hie liraus. G. or a It is times the to signify services. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. a border. are stripped off whole blase-balg. Benedico.' — Hie fimus. a accusative. Bav. See Bind. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. se bander. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. the skin of those animals that factor. G. kind. Fr. to attain belangen. to make bilbil. To Bequeath. To belong is thus to reach up to. a round or bubble-shaped root. cod or husk of pulse. binssen. Benefice. Gael.

a place . the guardian . bereafian. to stand one in good stead. what does it better a man. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. better. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. ship for a make amend. ariierf to 113. bal oppbota. reparation. dial. * Berth. to the place boarded off in a. to give a place to. repair. to kindle the fire. Beet. bestow. improve. Sw. jnore. from grow. or to bestead one. encouraging. AS. Sw. betan. stow. G. Hfence backing. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. seems twigs or rods. earg. vol. besIn sen. and on which the wager is laid. to fire a funeral pile of . Grose. solicit. . but it is specially applied mister. might have been . R.fish the other hand.t. and also to entreat. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. in the sense ctf beria. AS. So Lat. barth may be for barf. besen. berwe. as in growth. Esthon.iooA. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. burrow. compared with bargham. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Devon. boeten. To seek something from a person. E. of ffeed a fire. baete. ropahtaa. eld up- On is to be placed A — . that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. because used for making besoms. p. to fall with roisto. bdt. To help. bota. advantage. or the space kept clear betan. noise. — bota. sheltered from the wind. bur-we. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. buttafuoco. sets fire to. Besom. Ihre. put forth. to thrust. the side bhakshya. basjaj Du. as. Du. profit. p. To bete his Jam. bouter. to defend. R. The dry. buttare. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. hva mannan. ^•n. berry. a fire. make better . boeten. beorgan. Beere. the origin of which is to be found in ON. making better. sweepings. rods. to put on the saddle. stede. put. preferably. berwham. boeten. Fr. brem-bessen. reparation. it seems hard to separate as. On the other hand. a horse collar.• 62 Antiq. arwe. besje^ Sanscr. bacca. reafian. betan. Best. boteith Goth. as. Bestead. basya. broom twigs. to on the other Goth. roe. to cast. advantage. AS. one who shelter.— VixHsm. The proper meaning of the bale. small eatable fruit. earh. Zeitschr. botesward. protect . So too Yorkshire arf. same word with the provincial barth. I from lew.irova. besmas. dirt . to thrust. to exercise on a definite object. an incendiary. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet.X. position. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. bat.bhaksh. To Bet. roju. a berry. lay out. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. Berry. OE. 3. — Chaucer. fall with sound. an incendiary. fearful. The origin is AS. besnij Pl. beseech. het vuur The serise of Boeten. lewth. from It. think more probable. bet. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. to strip. mud. scopse spartis. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. what does it boot. E. . BETE dirty'. to make it. From abet. as. to seek. as bouter selle. — Biglotton. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . BEREAVE Wall. to entreat. but in practice. to mend. and Du. G. dust rojahtaa. Fin. as Du. ^akka. to word is shelter. — . Kil. bdt. So roto rattle down. See Reave.— Hal. See Better. Fr. to be-place. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it.D.—^fake. besein. To Bestow. amendment. vi. fyrbotare. peto. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. boutefeu. to amend. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. To Gl. as conversely a besom is called broom. to To Bereave. or. to make better. supply. houseless. barfham. place. dirt. Rob. barthless. supporting on the one side Lat. person to lie in. as. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Tusser. Goth. When men of mekeness him baet. — amendment. baete. rubbish. It is the restore fyr betan. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. to to deprive of. To Beseech. Du. Du. Tha het he micel fyr betan. roju. dung . to light the fire . stealth from steal.ot-i. Du. to supply a want. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. Beit. is to perform a serviceable office to him. * To Bete. from AS.

Buveau. for measuring angles. E. Fr. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. a bevy. are commonly to one's lot. against. Between. bibere. zimet. bevere. to Hence It. tima. by a final sh. betest. treachery. moveable and compass branches. his mouth. — that schickiich. On the same principle ON. From It. dispose (whence schicksal. Dit tungomal rendered in E. abash j from polir. riigen. G. to deliver tip. Slant. to fall Some call it a bevel. trahissais. AS. from invadere. whence beveraggio Fr. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. better. Mich self a good glass of wine. baet. it bewrays itself. fitting. verbs in ir with a double ss. and thence twegen. In like manner folissais. From the former of these are AS. twain. Goth. as one would have it fall. a traitor. zemen. evidence of life. ruogia. *Ah. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. as envahir. /alia. roja. to deliver up in breach of trust. Car son umbre si le trahit. Now the stirring of an object. deem suitable. Fl. Pl. to Teem. proficere. i.D. to cheat. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. OE. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. suitable. batizo. . fate. e. Friar's Prol. Fris. r'ojer dig. Chaucer. gesiemen. Sw. Percy Soc. Lat. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. Ik tame mi dat nig. Bevy. trahir. a different form of twa. Du. tima. tradere. e. taemen. beverage. to make forwards. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. two. progress. his eyen sheen. It. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. betriigen. 88. traitre. fallinn. I approve of beveau. Hence last G. in the middle of two. a brood. spritigs from schicken. bet. is used for the — R. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. are there Regt R. Tinia eigi at lata eit. ON.' Dialogue on Witches. has — In a like sense tanie>i. batista. G. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. amiddes. better. which may be compared as to form with amid. To vouchsafe. Pl. wreia. bet. to fall. A — drink. what does It is forward him. an instrument opening like a a thing. traditor. ziemen. pair of compasses. become. suitable. by two. advance. find it good: Goth. Fr. some attention. Cot. To boot in coursing (i. Bav. gatiman. or with again. betweox. ON. betera. of quails. Thus from dbahir. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. in the middle of twain. beva. G. AS. best. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde.— . In the water anon was seen His nose. afford. R. a drinking . The inflections of Fr. vrohjan. Best. amidst. as trahissons. betweohs. — Betwixt. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. Dii. awry. obeish. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. To Betray. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. betwuh. thy speech bewrayeth thee. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. — See To Bete. to drink . thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. G. e. kein leben mehrin no signs . is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. dir. roebucks. find in one's heart. bedriegen. as tlock. bat. sloped off. deign. -to appoint. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. as from obdir. from Lat. wrogia. order. to deceive. to stir. It. BETEfiM translated. springs from ON. Better. polish. from. make manifest. Goth.D. betst. to happen. betweoh. in the same way Lat. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. To Beteem. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. lot). bouter davantaige. Sahissais. E. tradire. from Fr. Golding's Ovid in R. taemen. trahison. &c. The as. to accuse. i. betaemen. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Fr. gezimet eines dinges. bevde. Ober D. to happen. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. to discover. R. — of the authorities. is treason. the being pushed to the frbnt. R. betray. Fr. To Bewray. betwuxt. x. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. larks. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. better. regen. of pheasants. Det sig sjelft. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. trakir. tweoh. more. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. obdissais. be fitting or suitable. said he. E. beuvrage.

it becomes (Jz-. though such a change of form would be very unusual. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. to shake. It is especially applied in Sc. bescompte. kwijl-bab. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). E. he is Wtb. it were the mouth. to move. in him. kwijllap. An inferior blue. Sp. slippery. Fr. Oh when shall I bizzle. to make tongue Du. baverole.D. bickeler. the basil Sc. biberen. Biseau. rogge. b&zahr. . stock still. makes ble. to a fight with stones. Piedm. Diet. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to dispute. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. like guzzle. — Bi-. It. biais. . Misc. metaphor).a. Hal. sbrisciare. To Bezzle. bickel-sieenken. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. wrogen. used in precisely stone . bark of which paper was first made. has a singular stone-picker. sbiescio.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. aslope sbisciare. twice. Fris. expelling or preserving against. lips. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni.or from obliquus. sloped. biax. roggle.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. bickai. sbieco. sbrissare. sbiasciai. . Bisect. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. a Galilean. bible. evident. biascio. beregen. specially in a bottle. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached.D.to drink much. Jamieson. liwell. bisel. Fr. him. See Wriggle. petit-lait. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Hzzle f Deldkar in R. to stir up . babbefore the eyes. biberon. to give signs of life. Fr. winding or crawling in and out. Piedm. In comp. a slabbering-bib. by throwing of stones. bibo. asure-bice (Early E. Bias. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. to well up with Cot. whey count . two- footed. a sloping edge. ber-laita (for bes-laita). bickel. its clothes. bezling or skueing. edge of a plate of looking-glass. babbi. or by any rapid motion. beslei. Bezoar. —Dozy. bes-azur. to be a paring. The train of thought is then. OE. Dan. biberer. Fr. foul weather. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. shows the P1. to stir. Fr. bihais. . the word became bddizahr. Sardin. misFr. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. a fragment bieco. notice. bisdare. a bibber. sbriscio. to purl. Bice. Bezel. biascia. In Arab. sbiagio. 172. or kwijl-slab. /3i/3Xof a book originally. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Bibelsworth in Nat.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. Lat. poison. to stir. Fr. one who drinks in excess. bias-wise. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. to slaver or drivel. To drink hard. to Jam. Pl. Hal- — do something aslant. bring under ' Thy accuse. Probably. (according to the Fr. sik beregen. bending. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. — crooked. to the stirring of their conscience. tailU en biseau. To Bicker. Mantuan. sbrisso. Cat. wrangle. Cat. bebble. kwijlen. Gr.as in Biped. and zahr. Prov. slanting . —Bickering'. To skirmish. love first begins to life signs of him. wraggeln. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. The It. inferiority. pddzahr. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Yes. as an eel or a snake. It. . Pers. bis.two. reveal. sbiesso. An excellent Basil. 78).{ioin dua. oblique. Bib. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. To bicker in NE. rogt un bogt sik nig. to it evident to sense. a bezle. biaiser. baviere. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. whence Du. bestemps. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Schiitze. to slaver . bibaculus. Sard. convicts thee of being drink. discover. Bible. to cut in two. to glide or slip as upon.s bellum for duellum. To Bib. in Fr. bickelen. ice . bavon. in two ways for duis. to stir. Du. to sip. Uprogen. is explained to clatter. presence. crooked. snout. pible. To Bibble. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. sbias. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. sliding. which good bibbeler. per\'erted belief. Lat. Ant. besanca. aslope. to tipple. Ci^. sbiscio. of the sliced off. a stone-hewer . to creep or crawl sideling. the papyrus.' bibble. dial. I Wallon. or in and out. to tipple. dial. from pdd-.

AS. bolga. ON. R. cultivate. The ON. balg. BIGOT beidan. to pray one to dinner. BID of stone. A pose to one to come to dinner. to start out. bilge or bulge. byggia. spelling seems to used in the N. qucero. related to big or bug. to marry. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to have one called before him. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to forbid . In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. Bigamy. an entire skin. inhabit. build. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow.' Addison. to inflate E. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. becoming in Lat. a suitor. athird class." buque with E. to bid one good day. called the tertiary order. With respect to logical pedigree.peto. to inhabit. ' Bug as a Lord. bidan. and consequently ordering or reGoth. 2. bag. pressing on one's notice. swoln. porrigere. bend of a shore or of a rope. G. to presimpler pare. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to solicit. explaining the Sc. and yajiBui. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. beodan.t. to swell. Bigot. Analogous expressions are G. Kil. to bend. as G. and Gael. bis and in comp. to build G. Two verbs are here confounded. to look for. offerre. to bulge. verbieten. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. who. swelling. bead. belly. to pro- command. swaggering. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. bend. to cultivate. anleta. forwards. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. . bug. or bad. Jam. pray. may plausibly be derived from Goth. ON. bulky. biegen. bedun. — To Bid. To Big. besides the professedmonks and nuns. gebodenj G. bygga. in the sense of ask for. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. AS. bo. a swelling. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. or. bigan. bulge. to build. iiQ. to build. einen vor Gericht bieten. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. England for swollen. from seek. bidan. to offer. to E. bi-. bolgna). gebeden j G. repair. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. bulge. faurbjudan. to curve. 1. byggan. OSw. bced. praebere. from bidan. bugne (answering to ON. which is stiU. bauen to cultivate. bow. bath. W. has leta. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. The . twice. or third order of penitence. bieten. to look for.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. Du. To bid the banns. From Gr. bog. a chip. by seek and beseech. Wallace in Jam. quiring something to be done.' Pope in R. bieden. The ON. ewes. beadle. to move quickly.. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to dwell. inhabit Du. and the Sw. ON. bouwen. as tears from the eyes. to offer it to public notice. to bicker. a flexure. Compare also Sp. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to ask. G. to forbid . buga. as. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. be bug. to ask. bolginn. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. — — — Halliwell.uddered len heart.Leta). Big-swol- . to offer one the wish of a good day. bat . consisting both of men and women. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. proud. Bickelen. bulk. — prepare. To Bid ' Big . AS. to bend. to belly. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bua. The 'La. boa. are also used in the sense of asking for. of More ' in Richardson. to arrange. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bidill. . of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. OSw. the meaning of bid. It must be observed that the word bidja. The original Swollen. to abide or wait on. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. abidan. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. P. Hence Sc. G. Bight or Bought. The loss of the / gives Dan. bugt. praestare. bit- bidja. bugan. from belgia. bidjan. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. ON. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. Einem einen guten tag bieten. the belly of a ship. form. rising up. Big. A bjudan in anabjudan. bidel. beidast. biddan. ten. belly.

D. signifying bagmen or beggars. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. absque votorum religionis emissione.— Ducange. and also unlearned common men. Bizocco. grey.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. begutta. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.' says one of of bigio. biso. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. bighellone. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. corruption would easily creep in.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. beghino. bigio. author quoted in N. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. In the same way Fr. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. homespun cloth. A. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. From bigio. A. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. rustical. borel. ix.D. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. natural grey or sheep's russet. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. A. Bighini. the nobles to Rienzi. Beguttce.' translated by Muratori. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Francisci communiter appellabant. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Augustini dotarint. &c. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.' Chart.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. grey. They wore a similar dress. honesti plebeii amictus. and Q. alii de paupere viti. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. and hence the variations bigutta. ac labores manuum detestantes. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.' says an Venet. beghart.. aliqui Begardi. S.D. D. clownish. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. bighiotto. both men and women.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due.— BIGOT bigardo. the other form Per te Tribune. Bighiotti). 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. all apparently derived from Ital. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. 560. probably from biso. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. sed maxim^ in muliebri. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. which must not be confounded with begardo. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. coarse woollen cloth. was formed bigello. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.' Matthew Paris. alii Apostolici. G. a dunce. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. Flor.a. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. bigotta. vol. a blockhead. vocati Fraticelli. Bizoccki. xx. Hence the OE. with reference to A. face VIII. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . dark-coloured cloth. to adopt a similar course of life. says. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. perch^ i Terziari di S. 1243. 1499. as well as bizocco.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. In a similar manner from bigello. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. 15 18. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.' They were however by no means confined to Italy.

bil. gan.' in Richardson. Thus we find in It. a hypocrite. p. the o changing to an i to express diminution. procella Kil. an axe . in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Du. from the dark colour. Sw. a short note. a beak. bui. to strike. Bille. Prov. See Bulk. belghen. at sea Billet. as craneberry. is properly a sealed instrument. G. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije.. bigot. abelthe fetter itself. bolghe. the beak of a bird. a shackle. the trunk of a tree. bill in parliament. Bigin. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Fr. 'tumidi fluctus. .' bilio. Bohem. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Ludwig. OFr. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Lat. bulgja. Bojce. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. AS. deceit. Kil. the bill of a bird. dissimulation . The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Bill. beil. biilge. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . buoy [i. belgan. Gael. To Bilk. To defraud one of expected sinking. seems to be rather the unda. a seal. e.— — — . In the same way are related Pol. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. bigot. person of religion leading a loose life. bulghe. Bilge. an adze . See Bull. bullet. bigotto. w. boia. an axe. and in Lat. bille. 5 * . The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Dan. ferrese quam ligneae. tepati. — bigardia. the swelling G. — Cot. from OSw. Mundart. Deutsch. fluctus maris. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. whortle-berries. an ingot. Sw. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. to peck. obsolete.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. names bill-berries. plog-bill. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. The Du. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. billard or billart. bisoch. axe. of E. Sw. Billette. buail. fetters. I. blaa. In English the meaning has received a further development. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. a of the sea. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. 2. Du. a floating log to mark the place of some. 3. e. A slang term for a sword. topor. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. false pretender to reUgious feeling. to swell with rage). An instrument for hewing. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. beghart. a negro. NFris. inscriptum. loi. symbolum. in the sense of a writing. boja. an axe. b'olja. bwyell. to job. AS. Dan. So in Gr. Kil. weapon . The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. . from Mid. ^Billiard. now A Bilboa blade. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bill. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Gascoigne in R. and dziobas. might be taken to express a hypocrite. as a bill of indictment. an ingot of gold or silver. Roquef. bulla. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Bilbo. bizocco. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Lat. billet. boeye. a seal. horn of an animal. dziob. bull-berries. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. top. 2. Billet. of boja. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. blamand. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. bila. used in legal proceedings. BILBERRY nated. to pick a millstone. buie. Piedmontese bigot. to strike. a sword. Langued. Bill. The proper meaning bylgia. Tartuffe. a devotee. AS. that of swell. Aurelles. A lorum tam in — Diez. . and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry.' mariners. billot. a name given to a. Bilberry. gleischner (Frisch). bill of exchange. Fr. — — ' . in the same sense. a bigot or hypocrite. however. blue . on. dziobad. billet is the diminutive of this. Fr. crowberry. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. clog to a fetter. to be angry (i. Billow. bigardo. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. Du. genus vincu- Bilboes. bile. and a billard. Johansen. Sp. bla-berry. a man who rests on a stick in walking. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. an axe. billard also signified at billyards. a hatchet. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. a stick to tighten the cord of a package.

an overseer. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. bord. bundun. a habit- Binnacle. binge. expressed by Sw. evegue. to be derived from Ibfiaq. to plait. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. ON. . IV. It. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. . band. Bisom. pinnii. See Breed. G. to form a knotted structure. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Bindweed. beitsl. beitan. bitacora. AS. bundle. Lat. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. poultry. admota non Bit. vescovo. videt. sc. properly a young pigeon. a truss. in Swabia. i. j). Then added division in a granary. Bisen. fowl. burt. copus. evigue. piccione. H. v. to bear. Lat. Sp. a brood or hatch of young. a house. a heap. Sw. hiindiiin. pittjo. poule. . bundt. earnes brid. pundas. The bitol. a little dog. a bitch. BITTACLE /Siof. AS. — properly near-sighted. bita.. a female stag. to wreathe. terial. G. a pig petz. the young of birds . Lat. to bind together. piiiti. betsel. Bind. Bird. lusciosus et myops. beran. . a gallinaceous bird. Bisson. bindan. truss. AS. life. Fr. beisseii. AS. viz. bij sienigh. — Kil. from Lat. to twine. biclie. beize. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. forth. a female dog hindinn. doubtless a stone. We — A Birth. berkas (z=:Fr. or petze. an eagle's young G. Du. binda nat. hith. propius videre bij sicndc. to knot nets for fish. to swell. Habitacle. To Bite. Fr. The term ON. biccej ON. — Surrey in R. bikkia. also a stone weight. G. Fr. 'tumens sequor. a bunch. nodus. Goth. bircej Sw. In like manner from knot. bjork. &c. which is expressed in E. pullus. and especially to a small poor horse. from Gr. It. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. a heap. to net. Goth. Sw. — — . than vice versi. Bailey. or bin. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. to hang. a weight. Lat. to bulge. ge- from AS. bundle. from pondus. Gr. E. Lap. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. bij sien. V. isfiw. is in Scotland applied to ivy. bitill. . biscuit. bundt. bunch. evesgue. EpisETTiTOOTToe. pinnu. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bund. When compared with Fr. See To Bear. are commonplaces. To — — —D. by binda. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. bhurja. See Belly. ON. a corn. a knob. bunga. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. overlooker. Sanscr. Bitch. twice cooked. habitacle.. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Bittacle or Binnacle. biscotto. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. a weight of 48 pounds. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. or ben-wood. pippione. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. e. AS. and of Fr.. Bing. is rendered in ON. bin-wood. Lith. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a bitch applied also to other animals. pin-ti. bigne. — See Bittacle. qui nisi propius Blind. bunt. Bizened. to cook). Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. episcopus. to fasten it together. Dan. bund. AS. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Bine. bunki. The proper meaning is a heap. Fr./«idere. from \t3\. a hind or female stag. brut. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become.68 BIN Bio-. Bin. while bind-wood. by the verb knit or net. Birch. a bump or knob. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. the young of an animal. or baked. where the compass stands. Fr.' and the like. wine. brid. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. to bind at . a bitch. G. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. . similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. to bring Biscuit. i. a bear. bindan. I would derive the verb to knit. to build. Thus I suppose the Gr. beorth. Lith. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw.

AS. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. G. blob. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. to talk much. blabbre. blubber-lipped. a childe dothe gasouille. from wachen. blepLith. yellow . to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . Percy Soc. ON. Fieldfare. in contempt. corrupted in Fr. from whence we have adopted the. shine. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. fallow fawn-coloured. or water beating gently on the beach . Hal. bitter. blab. babbe. a stammerer.— Blabber-lip. ' Biovac. Fr. ON. Bittern. ^aj'/^r. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. to babble. baboyer. NE. round which the cable is made fast. mona mid Dan. blesmer. out the tongue.' by Gudmund. pale brown . term. shining. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blabbern.. chatter babbler . blake. cut. Blabber-lip. obscurus. pins of the capstern. faded. Sp. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. beitr. bihovac. butorj OE. So Fr. to let out whai should have been concealed. The bitas. blunt we say it will not bite. faded. Bohem. babbling. blanc. even humour seemed and beuin. To Blab the anchor. as of wings . Sp. Alex. buft". first. leohte . To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. mouth. blac-hleor ides. white. Bleak. ON. the palebleff. Black. Again. Gael. a tati. to the sharpness of a weapon. — Collins in Hal. to speak Dan. Cot. quick. a beam in a house or ship. small guard-house. discoloured . yellowish. on. pale yellow. to watch. confusedly. to loll it out. Why presumest And laam's asse. synonymous with baber-lip. pale. an edge is sharpest sword. bitr. plappem. Sw. baitrs. whiteness (candor sine It. Bav. Applied in Hin ON.D. It. plabartaich. bitts of Bitts. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast.€i. a flapping. whitish. a large lip. Mund. bitor. AS. . a shelter for the steersman. a* mast . Sp. Gael. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Nagt huis. Mantuan babbi. is placed.' It would thus acle. bleg. to bivouac. In like manner E. Cotgr. Goth. a continued soft sound. brunblakk. Lydgate. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. gabble. to chops. In Legrand's Fr. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Je N. 't huisje. fallow . bird of the heron tribe. unintelligible talk plabair. bittour. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Du. things —Palsgr. stutterer. biacca. to babble.' G. night guard. . ' plabraich. dark. /ealo-/or. blabhdach. blebberis. 'fuscus. beuni. as of a body falling into water. biti. ^chops. beiwache. on the one side. Mag. Fr. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. mouth. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. A a rail. x. black. viz. 332. white. thoughtlessly . as in that of pale and white on the other. — Hollyband. light-coloured.). garrulous. Fr. Deutsch. bitones. Sp. bleich. dusky. blob. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. a large coarse lip . The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. is apprehension of danger. a babbler. to wax pale or bleaked. To or he can speake. bites. — cheeked maid. blakk. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. gulblakk. —Neumann. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. 't kompas huis.. Hist. an additional watch. quoted by Ihre. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. blabaran. pale. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Ai-mstrong. Wit hung her mourn. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. pale. bittore. apparently from its biting the tongue. his blacan light. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). Se bleek. I blaber.. as is seen in sputter and splutter. Hald. G. Bivouac. whitish. blobach. v. "uivac. In a similar manner Gael. as of water gently beating the shore. a fluttering noise. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. maculS. blakki. blob.plab is used to . bleikr. pale yellow . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. blank. white lead. . indistinctly. Fr. iroxafealo. The Gz. to To blabber blabber with the lips. ON. 156.' by Haldorsen. Pl.

Eadmer. to dabble in water. It. p. to —Blaspheme. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. . pXaatpiiiiHv. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. blasphemare. Sw. broad. Play in Nares. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. whitish. is identical with Flanders borlen. blactra. a bubble. the ON. and thence to babble. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. blister. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. See Blubber. to Hence Ital. Blade. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. board. imbrunire. tree. his meat burnt. coat. whitish. 86. chatter. a bladder or pustule. and the agitation of liquids. Dan. to vocifer- — Cot. blein. blank. as blader. vagabonds. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Fr. from candere. Hist. smore. Blame. The radical bubble. To blank. foolish talk. dripping-pans. Fr. piatto. speak impiously. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. vagrants. pallido. reproach. Fr. 5/^a/^ of colour. and he shall be sure to have O. blether. cited in N. blatter. blister. to bubble. Wott. D. to glitter. &c.— ^o thehotsun. and wandering men and women. also tanned by the sun. mud. leaf. as. Torriano. white. pladdern. — . — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. Du. PI. —^Webster. also white woollen cloth . candidus. blinken. bladder. biastner. commonly called the Black-guard. boys. sheet of paper. bladdra. Sc. rogues and wanderers. shining. . borrelen. defame. pass over. variable than the signification of words designating colour.—Blatter.. blaeren. or blafich. plate. a buible. a blanket a bed. black. smother. or a mass of bubbles. to bleak in the sun. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Besides the examples of this connection given above. linkboys. blanchet. But perhaps a more Gr. and others engaged in dirty work. The present forms then should be classed with blether. tattle. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. 1854. to shine. and G. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. Now. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blatter. branches . that within the space of 24 hours they depart. as. blena. to omit. moere. blather. blather. blaere. polished. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. blanc. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blahen. most complete example of leafy structure. Du. pluddre. Jan. madder. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. leaf of a. to glow. as scullions. to purl. or of an oar G. livido . on. bladder .TaaVi%^-&\xxi. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Blank. to blanch. Du. Bacon in R. flap of a Du. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Blain. a boil. to disappoint. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. to make or become white blanc. Blanket. as Lat. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. bladder. Blancli. or as E. leaves. which we . Dan. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blame. revile. the origin of . — rura. To Blare. . chatter. mire.. dial. Du. bladre. waschen. 7. blegne. bladder. Blank "verse. contracted from bladeren. also jabber.— Kil. a white or unwritten ticket. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. blanchir. on. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. and E. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. white. I am degraded from a cook. Dan. — — — to jabber. e. blegen. irXariQ. skola and thwatta. probably ate. in R. gabble. bladra. blatt. Bav. a bubble. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. and Q. biasimare. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. G. name originally given Blackguard. a. to shine. Sw. mus-blackt. Perhaps from blegen. G. plat. —We Bladder. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. plat. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. the leaf of a tree. roar. with all other loose idle masterless men. blanchet. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blister. blanqne. blad. bladeren. a blank ticket. Reliqu. a pustule . a leaf. Du. Cot. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Fr. blad. pimple. to To bellow. blister. to blow. — Sw. Gr.—Blatant. mud. Lat. G. slush. leafy. Sir.

Sc. whence Blazonry. is used in the sense of manifestatio. shield or surcoat. Prov. abroad. blus. blezo.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. ON. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. to trumpet forth. — — ' : bless. is the imme. Lye. baladrar. OE. braise. bliEsan. a shining spot. AS. To Blaze. Du. blesse. the matter incendiary . magnilo. to cut off prematurely. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. Dan. a loud noise. blasa. abroad. to blaze Sp. declaratio. e. kept up. ventosus. senses. to set on fire. each of boaster. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. redness . But now. blaeteren. beast. like the in English. blase. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. A strong flame. blason. See Blare. friend Cornelius.). besides blesse.' to fastum . a coat of arms. coloured prints. i. bleis. visui patet. — ^Jam. Troilus and Cressida. in the same way as we 2. blason. Du. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. blcesett. — Elazen. a funeral oration . to blow . Blast. a torch . A gust of wind. a voice Jr. blaze. To blow AS. blass. light-coli. blaodhrach. oured. also only pains and excellent endurance. blatero. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. pale. I. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. — ' — stroy. to blow. Cot. as a verb. The other derivation. bawling. Golden Book in R. blasoen. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. clamorous. g. brasa. is from AS. A blaze is so intimately Then. a MS. blateroon. noisy blor. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. among other . laudes (Kil. bles. . blossi. Du. a lamp blasere. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. quus. blysa. the noisy. stultd loqui. Fr. blcest. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. a flame . blcEsan. and which. G. might spring from the same origin by a . blaesen. a flame. also blazon or the blazSpenser. or to the sound which it produces. blaser vid. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. to proclaim. or blazening. ON.' painted or figured . blys. indeed. blcese. boasting.sound a trumpet. blis. has also blencke. 'op een trompet blaazen. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. to de. Gudmund. to publish the praises. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. Blaze. Gael. With inversion of the liquid. Blatant. blazen. Du. a shout. ther it was erst not knowe. First from the E. blase. AS. splendour. . commendation blason funebre. a blast. proflare tues. a whisperer. a shield. blorach. an conium. The AS. blasonner. how. to bellow. of an animal. proclaim the virtues of. blesse. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. Fr. Dan. it is manifest. loud . — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. blose. blast. Fr. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. The origin of this exSp. thraso. ing of arms. Blanches illuminies. magniloquus. oron-blasare. . Sw. She roade at peace through his heraldry. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. and to make him word blaze. to blow. bldsse. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. and. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. live coal .' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. ill-speaMng their proper colours . to extol. fire. Du. baladron. blaterare. 2. If armour. Du. Kil. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. blaodh. To blast. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blcEsan. somewhat different train of thought. to publish. Cot. embraser. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . a flame. As Kilian. an empty and two theories are proposed. biter. gloriosus. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. to spread news. by stripping off a portion of the bark. much plausibility. G. used. a torch.— . in that of praise. also praeblczse.whence the Fr. on whose behalf the herald appeared. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. brasa. Sw.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. might And sain. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch.

livor. tumanid. blot. AS. a red watery eye. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. avoid looking it in the face. Blemisli. a blot or smear blanking one. to wink the eye. B. blesmir. (faith or creaunce) Be war. to disgrace one's name. a spot. what blenched him therwith. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. blemissemeiit. splamii!. blink. a been distinct. bloken. confound him. dead-coloured Cotgr. . c. on. a fault. . wheal. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. ' — — ' : — — . although he professe nought to say when he should speak. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. The term blear. to cast a mist before the eyes. a spot. whitish.P.D. p. blot. or to low as oxen. and thence to a bruise. to cry or weep. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. wanness. Ancren Riwle. paleness. . to become livid. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. ^Xiixaoftai. as of dust or mist . ' He blarrede or roar.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. darkness of vices. .v. 115. A Blab. To Bleat. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. to blear one's eye. N. Gr. guenchir. As AS. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. blcecan. tutnan is a cloud.' God in his wordes. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. goda nainn. the formal equivalent of English wink. Mac. start vor den augen. Schmel. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . yet he doeth not for all that Cot. pimple . to blare been weeping. — blink the question is to shrink from it. to make him feel blank. ' — — eye. blema. is Blench. To totally different from the foregoing. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. to spot . Blear. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Blear-eyed j having sore i. to humbug. From the OFr. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. or blemysshen — blaken. Fr. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. a stain. livid. a boil. Sir J. — — R. like one that has long P1. BLENCH obfusco. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. ^Blencher. the livid colour of a bruise. to stain one's honour or reputation. inflamed eyes. to bleach. bleakness.' the devil makes a vain back. A stain in a man's reputation. spSt. to wink at it. pale Du. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. from on. Pol. 419. to soil. See Black. which are blurred with the have shewed you. tacher. See Blood. while the agent ac- From . a blotch plerr. Manuel de Pecch&. gif thou blenche from ony of tho.'he cried till the tears ran down. G. And By a similar metaphor Pol. See Black. boggle at something. blench came to be used for a trick. to start away from. geplerr. a blemish in one's 2. To salir. blesmissure. novice. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. bldmi. a spot. exposed. Gower in R. flack. from the than schal I go. in the expression reputation. color plumbeus bldma. light-coloured. drop of water. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. a disgrace. blarren. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Sw. pale . blister. souiller. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. Bejaune. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. I chaunge colour. or blemish. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale.' to deceive one. Palsgr. 242. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Richardson. Bailey. bleikr. Bleak. to bleat as sheep. wan. a spot. sugillatio. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. . ' . plama. blakna. Bleed.filerren. pier vor den augen eyes. And now are these but mansbond (i. Bleb. sinen langen tranen. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Blancher. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. So in Sw. blur before their eyes. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. spla7nU sie. to spot.

Du. From the action of the hand making Sw. The sound of k before an s.nasal. blink. shine. to shine. blotzen. — Goth. Russ. livid. a.blinken. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. . liquid filth to bluther. happy . (=bene dicere). blich-fiur. goods. lightning. blicken. G. Serv. 375. graceful. as a blind entry. to shine. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. and joys of Paradise bliden. a. to glitter. but by no means therefore a pre. AS. Sc. The inblissful. flash of light . To Blend. De Sonne ' verblekken. blessed. Du. blindselen. thou knave. a glance. vious one in the order of formation. blatida. an entry which leads to nothing . mix from blekken. happy . weaklaveny. to dabble in water. joy. doors. . also to wink. blago. blind. to dazzle . a gleam. blinzler. Paradises blidnissu. giving (Fr. glitter. to glitter . joy . the sign of the cross while blessing one. . happily. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. joyful. to stir or puddle. blende. to shut the eyes G. glimpse. A . blessed. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. glitter. — when he — Bailey. blitzen. lightning. Wtb. wink of sleep . csecubrandish. to bluiter up with water. gives blinzen. lighten. as a vatn i vin. plonsen. —Brera. to blithsian. blide. bludder. blicken. tative source of the word is wholly lost. Sw. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. — . to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. happy . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . OHG. a dead nettle. blindr. blac. Pol. plotzen. AS. Swiss (obsolete). the G. . blinzdugig. to make a rumbling noise. to rejoice. fortunately. Bliss. G.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. as in Du. to act like a — . sweet. although in the in the next article. blithe. Biglotton. blincken. . money. . to — make it thick and muddy. readily passes into a /. .blunda. to shine. make these hands 3. Owl and Nightingale. or nettle which does form. j). I hold thee a grote thee. . Nares. as taschen. blaziti. Swab. Blind. well blahy blick and blink. to mix. to twinkle.not sting thiiren. blinde fenster. blazeny.wink . to plunge. The term then self or others.. lightning sweet blago. Kiittner. be glad flash. the Slavonic languages. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. pale. bliss look . to make happy. blicksem. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. to bless . a wink. moment. blag. pearance of the blighted . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. Du. trix. gladness. G. dazzle . blent. to pro. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. lovely Bohem. to consecrate . joy.corn. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. blinzeln. a flash. to glitter ful . a wink With the bletsian. tire. ' Pl. mixing in general. burn up. bluiter. blogi. blahoslaviti to twinkle. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Du. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blind- ON. glad. to merry. Needle. to bluiter. Dan. Thence apblinds. blithe blis. to churn. blahos. . blitz. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. glitter. the verb to bless is some. — A A — . . . riches . window-blind. ^Jam. Du. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. as in the case of blaze. a look. false windows. to bless. with or without the nasal. riches blajennii blicksem. is I shall Gurt. sertion of the nasal.blinkard . F. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. tless —Gamm. to be blind. OHG.' To — blunge clay. sung. well blagaya. blissian. AS. . bleg.Q. Blazena Bea.D. III. to lighten. ON. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. a glance Swiss blenden. wink. a blick-ooghen. To Bless.eyed. blanssen. blendian. blend. Blight.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to dash wine with water. blund. to fall into water with a sudden noise. AS. to shut the eyes. blink-eyed. blet. to rejoice. to glance. Tany. blican. good. a nounce happy. to flash. glance. a blessing. to dilute too much . Deprived of sight. Blink. seems the simple netel. Sc. in potters' language. blidu. blick. cascultare. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. pockets. To blunder water. G. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited.blinze.

a blister . blod. And so from squatter. as in E. soft. G. signifying in the first instance to soak. and pisg. is formed squad. Blond. to desire the male. a blot or spot. Gael. frequentative. For this. Mod. inde humiditate tumidus. ON. blide. blobber. In Fin. in bulk. blithe.— Bailey. blad. mass. Egillson. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it.pusta. To Bloat. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. pusula. a bubble. blond. blotfisk. from blcsr. to soak. it is must be observed. To a smoking or drying by the fire. bluyster. kostua. plub. Cotgr. joyful. pimple. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. in the sense of a soft tint. Kil. husks. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. blouca and Fr. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. — — — — — From blabber. as blinzeln. — Blob. cooking. or bleb. The blow E. to swell. blidr. to steep. Hence E. Goth. Dan.plisg. kostia. blot. a little blisg. mild. while Lat. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. blaustem. a dirty blister. soft. N. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. strawclod. To Blissom. Blob. Lat. bausen. G.— Hal. The stem or trunk of a tree. blinzel-maus. Jonson. fish blind person. Bav. blaud. to blow. merciful ON. . orbicular. pustula. a blister. and F. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. lagga i blot. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. See Blot. a blain. busten. light yellow. or the mark which it makes. and inarticulately. . blab. pods. bluster. Sc. Ibid. must be referred to AS. blubber. a ram. Boyd in Jam. to block up the way. like clot. soak in water cured fish. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. stone. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. pausten. biota. ^vaaa. or the like. a block or log en bloc. buckle. weak. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. blautr. the unhewn bole of a tree. Thus we have blab and babble. Dan. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. a bubble. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. buclde. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. to to puff and be noisy. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blister. in Nares. — Sw. blcesma. blot. blindman's-buff. is also used in the sense of swelling . bubble and blubber. blesme. It may be formed Blithe. blijde. and bouclette. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. gentle OHG. — . The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything.. round. mild. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Blob. an unformed mass. B. boucler. Of sheep. bloated. to dash liquid. to bubble. Hence. The roots /. in gusts. Du. viscid. to breathe hard. blindsehn. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. also to set See Bless. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. I believe. bloc. Gael. formed spot.—Bloated. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Sw. Sw. or blinde-kiih. —Bailey. Blister. Svt. blote. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. soft. a . sloppy dirt. separate portion. A under this name was imported into England. shells. ON. repre- pusula. having an unsound swollen look. .—Bloater. or is inserted or omitted. to cure by smoke. a See Blot. a lumpish head plubach. ^Jam. A solid blouquette blisters. to blow. a drop of water. Block. Du. blister blasan. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Bleb. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. expressed by cognate roots. W. any lump or mass of things. B. speaking rapidly any . as if soaked in water. in the lump or mass of wood. fiustula. like manner the coloured. a bubble. whence blast. Fr. blobbes or droppes of water. a small lump of anything thick. and easily changes its place. as a blab of ink. Fr. puff. must be classed with forms like Gr. to blow. senting the dashing of water. to blissom. . blot. swell. bloc. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. soaked. Langued. taken altogether. bleiths. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. to close it with a solid mass. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend.

dirty spot on the cheek. a torch blusse. yellowish It's G. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. proto shine with bright colours . a gush of milk . blondheid. . plet. a nature. yellow. Blotcli. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blooth. to slap. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blady. to slap. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). — Cot. coloured (Diaz. en blau ach. platsch-voll. blosem. brilliancy. ON. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. to strike . Plots. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blond en blaauw slaan. blue. blue. fall to overflowing. glossi. blowen. a The form platschefz. Blossom.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blatte. to grow pale). ' — . bit by bit. blus. blose. lidmr. sbiadare. pale biavo. bloetnsel. Blad. D. plot of land is a spot or small rage. to patter. (of cattle) to dung. — Blotch-paper. blue. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. lustre. Fr. in v. whence plader. j^ blottir. bluish. Jios. to be red. Blow. bliihen. bletister. bleistern. great leaf of cabbage. lump flower. Schwenck. platz-voll. ON. bloeme. a drop of water or colour. . skam. glose. soft or flat. to blaze. bloed. Florio). E. probably connected with Pol. pladdern. E. blad. to splash. to flame. dial. Blot. blase. plottra. light. a lump. a beater. spots in the sun. a flower. glus. cow-dung.platter. couleur livide. — Stalder . a Usaae. E. livid marks. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to dirty. fall down . blaeuwen. plattata. — gush. bliithe. to strike with something soft or flat. from G. blois. . white blatte. a deli. Fris. colour of the cheeks. See Blow. See Blow. a blow. blosa. to scribble. Dan. bleustern. the bright to blot paper morsels. spot pletter i solen. kobladde. Bloom. Du. platz-regen. Stalder. blaeuw.blauschlagen. . ON. kuh-plader. gleam. blotte. G. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blat. Sw.D. blond. fair in en blat vand. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise .properly to scatter liquid . a flower. Fris. Schmid. blostma. platt-voll. to dabble in water. . a spot or blot. ^lys. of a blow with something lios. to glow. G. bloi. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. redness. Dan. 2. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. lump of anything soft to blad. The G. blawels. to dash down. blotter. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. a black eye Du. shine . on. Wflz<^«. blauwel. to shine . Blood. pale. ])erly Du.' the rain is driving and blue . gloss. Du. gammon. Sw. —Barbour. a. ^Bleed. Sc. Sw. gfyssa. splashing full. to blot the land was in a leme. tions of sound similar representaare formed G.— . AS. a water ploutsche. E. a blot or spot. Sc. to glisten . S-wiss pladern. bldts. — — . blue . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. the bright colour of the cheeks . bloi. to spot or blot. Du. Ein platsch milch. Schilter. E. blosma. Dan. bloemen. Pl. from the bright colour which 7'vci. splendour . to sparkle. to exists in biadetto. mud. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. It. to squat or lie close. to blaze . and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Wendish blodo. . to From . biado (of which the evidence plattern. a Halm a. to strike with such these objects exhibit. blue. as the skin or hair. a cow-dung. plotterwis. dial. flower. blond is used in blatt. Ir. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. a Schmid. to squander. glister . to dash down Du. PI. Harmar in R. parallel form with ON. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blust. leme. glasi. blaeuwe ooghe. bldmi. Du. a pelting shower). straw. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. blomstr. Prov. a flower. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bloedsd. to dabble in water . blut. Lat. to blush . plants which prepares the seed.^ Kil. a blaze. blodelsa and blawelsa. clod. . blistaf. blosen. E. bfys. pladern. OFr. . livid . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. or the sound of it . to be red with blot. blysa. bloi. Erploten. wan. platschern. bloutre. blotting-paper. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Hatch. AS. blou. pale tint. bliise. bloto. Russ.

/idXavoc. Blowze. marking some application from that bladder. gloeden. flower w. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak.to blossom. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. is very frequent. corre. B. plubartaich. fied vowel. blust. piusen. to bruise Roquef. especially with respect to the hair. to flap like loose clothes. chatter. To Blow. the red fluid of the body . — . glow.D. to make bubbles in drinking. The interchange of an initial gl. Prov. blubbern. tache. G. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). to hard. cheeks bedabbled with tears. glede. jabber. Danneil. . dirty. — . wan. coup. Du. to fade. blazi. and closely allied with Du. gloeyen. toused. in E. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. blodelsa. boil. blue.Jlasa. a gurgling . Langued. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. bloes. bloemen. These are — Bludder. We . blduen. to blow. pale. blosen. to beat with a mallet. Deutsch. to bubble up. into flower. to gabble. bloi. The radical sense is shown in Gael. Tumbled. to fade. grey. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. bludder. to shine with bright From colours. Gr. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. to glow. v. br. plusig. Bret. to make blue. MHG. blut. blazir.D. 2. blubonciti. In agitation of water. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. bl. bliuwan. Pludern. to beat. glansj Ir. — To blubber. a blast. Bav. OFr. blezir. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. . green. plubair. . Du. G. red-faced bloted wench. Gael. — To Blubber. grug. plubraich. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. . or gr. to breathe G. meurtrissure Roquefort. to gush. foam. bliihen. to guggle. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern.nify bubble. blebber. to blow. to glow. glas. Lat. It is howbliuwen. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. bruk. to'disorder. 92. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. a blow. a flower. to show flower. E. flower OHG. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. bloeden.— . blahen. And. to blurt out. to fade. and thence. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. blodern. 1. blady. It. bluod. blava. d in Sc. -ii. bldt. Pl. The primary sense is to shine. closely difference in of blabber. blawan. Raynouard. bloom. where the word may be compared bliggman. blass. disordered in head-dress. Blowzy. w. a paddling in wate r. to with Bohem. Pl. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. blubbern. 1292. bliihen. bruised Prov. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. |8A)'. sense. to blow. a Blossom. Blue. heath. florere. withered. glowing coal . And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. gUd. a fat. A. blue . plustrig. Her sweet bloderit face. Kil. like manner Lat. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blau. vi^ound. ' BLUE or guggling. 51. The aUied forms. To Blow. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. to puff up. fqded. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to exhibit bright colours. grow pale. to spot. a. glaodh and blaodh. pludern. fiubbem. disordered. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. P1. in rapid or indistinct utterance. Wtb. G. Chaucer. pale . wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. —SchmelIt. to Plodern. ler. OHG. and the forms mentioned under Swab. sponds with Sw. to flourish. E. pale OFr. AS. wan. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. G. boasting. blow.' Hamburgh Archives. Notwithstanding the We . OHG. plodern. a bruise. thus identify the Celtic glas with G.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to inflate. a continued noise of agitated water.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. pale.' — Palsgr. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. bluther. — — Mundart. gliihen. a herb Gr. bluh. Mund. fem.xo'»'. y\r)yi»v. blois. Deutsch. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. — Bluther. Chaucer. glas. little apparent resemblance. is confined to the — .. blodyn. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair.D. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. bloeyen. blaw j biavo. blau. bledniai. Sik upplustem. may cite for example G. Jla-re. ^Jam. sound like water. to breathe bouteiUis. puff. . gliihen. blao.D. . bliithe. quod bloot et blawe dicimus.

Pm. a boisterous violent man. verdure. verdoyer. pale yellow. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. to mix it up with water. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. all representing the — . In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. and biavo (Diez). yellow. a flounder. See Blurt. and metaphorically. to confound. Hal. polterer. to fall suddenly on the ground. to dabble in the mud. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. Kil. to agitation of liquids. to dabble Biglotton E. as well as sbiadafe. herbe.make a noise. Kiittner. Altieri. ploffen. blue. disturb. Then with the nasal. blue. And blunders on and staggers every pace. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. G. to become pale or livid. Blunt. Blaffart. dial. a blunderbuss. mix It. blahir. and sbiadare. G. Romance bluiter. tutte le semente ancora in erba. like the Celtic glas. Hence a Slcelton in R. OFr. Supp. It is remarkable however that the E. having a bluff forehead. sbiavare. in water dobbelen. confusion.//aay. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to plump into the water. in plur. Du. speech. blutter. A bluff manner. something. Biada. Dryden in R. applied to green as well as blue. which is rendered by Florio. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . blunder. to blunge clay. fallow. abrupt.• BLUFF biado. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. corn. biavo. Dief. his business with much noise. from the brilliant green of the young E. sloppy drink. blave is moreover. The Du. in the same way as from It'. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. a fore. We Blunder. . rustic. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. bloi. to become pale or wan. blake (identical with AS. bawling. Dan. — — — . and Du. and then generally idle talk. biada. flodderen (Weiland). — Pr. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. plo-wy. bullern. - reddish yellow. — . find accordingly It. blaf. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. blunt. earth and water mixed together. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. bUich. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. trahir. and bustle . non rotunda. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blanssen. bleu et blanc. poltern. a shore abruptly rising. blunder. to lose colour. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. fawn-coloured. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. G. an ill-done job. polter-hans. E. blue. blond. buller-bas. Bladum. has donder-bus. to work To blunder out a fronto. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. pale straw-coloured. Pl. To blunder is then.— . Pol. mistake. segetes virentes. Ditton in R. to fade). to blunder water. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country.in mud or water. pludder. superficie plani. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Du. corn. to become pale. biava. Analogous forms are Du. puddle.' trouble. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. or an abrupt manner. je perturbe. is. bluish. blunderhead. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. Palsgr. tradire to Fr. G. Roquefort. .. sense of yeUow. discoloured {plowiee. From G. flav-us. Sw. contrasted with the dle. buller-bak. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. falb. glundr. originally growing up turf and water. jaune. plomp. from an imitation of the sound. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. Bluff. The word is here synonymous with amplus. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Blunderer or blunt worker. Blavoyer. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. pale. Bodge. I blonder. from the Lat. like Du. blac.D. liebefactor. planus. yellowish red. 't — —Hal. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Hence we pass to Prov. Halma. bulmanner. blavus. See Blunt. as well as biado. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. used for the work of an unskilful performer. The Du. Kil. devenir vert blavoie. It then signifies something done at once. without image or superscription. blandum. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. Roquefort. Bohem. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Flor. a plain coin herausplatzeu. Lat. to puddle. pale) is provincially used in the. glundra.

it will be observed. and hath swiche languor in his soul. in Richardson. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. the absence of sharpness. from the loud report a fire-arm. plains The large bech. bare. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly.—D. a simpleton. plonsen.pludse. Plontp. Chaucer. that it not easy to discover the connection.— — — . Then cometh indevotion. V. is The word dull. that the sense of bare. blotta sanningen. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. blunt. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. biotto. to blunt a thing out. pale. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Plump mit etwas umgehen. to plump into the water. obtusus. bleak. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. unceremonious manner. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Now the Swiss bluntsch. bald. plutz T)\i. without the nasal. bare. pressions. unfledged Sw. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. maol. fooUsh. Kiittner. inaKil. . —D. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. to handle a thing bluntly. nature. Stalder. used in both senses. platzen. plotsen. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Sir T. to make foliage. viz. Q. blait. awkwardly. G. as cow-dung. plumbeus. G. Dan. Dan. thick. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Sw. blait. plump. it will be well to point out a sense. figuratively. Halma. blunder. A light blue colour. blockish. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blout. ang. The blait body. exactly corresponding to the G. V. plump. Blaitie-bum. to plump down. to bring it suddenly out. edgeless. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. pointless. without Maolaich. Ford in R. V. More in Richardson. blott. a bluntie. blunt. bloss. but of something soft thrown on the ground. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. plotz. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. clumsy. good plump person. nis. blunt. bus. Kiittner. down. hebes. — blunt. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. rudely. Du. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. naked. Won by degrees. or blab out a thing Kiittner . massive. fling down . The syllables blot. Woddis. without preparation. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. absence of preparation. raw. wan. is thrown. inactive Swiss bluntschi. duU. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. clownish. a blot. heavy. to blurt. unwrought. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. and in the same sense. blunt. a portion To inquire for slaves. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. unpolished. dull. stupid fellow. azure. rude. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. bluntschen. through which a man is so blont. as in E. dull. Molof something wet. Plump. plump. united in Gael. blutten. Swab. naked. obtusus. —D. to make a noise of such a Stalder. poor Sc. plump J to plump out with it. rough. silly. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. ineffectual reason. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. sheepish. naked. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. biosso. blunsch. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. as Sw. dial. of a knife which not cut. — Kil. heavy. Sc. or heraus plumpen. with or without the nasal. awkward. plump. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. platz-regen. F. and an unintelligent. heavy. — — pidus. naked. It. a thick and will person. A modification of the same root. Pol. forestis. blatte. Sc. without horns. identical with E. Bare and blunt. blue. and the like. blat. It is from this notion of suddenness. and. homo stolidus.plompen. insensible. Bluntet. Probably radically hlekit. viz. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. It will be seen that the G. seems to be derived. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche.to fall into the water. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. bare or blunt. Blunt. void. .

With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. Swiss blodern. Bot zeggen. is formed Du. as splurt to splutter. To Blurt. common. to rumble. blot. planks or boards. AS. bdtr. voce intonare. As the as. to dabble. bhis. Fr. to breke. violent. Related to blutter. blusse i ansigtet. imitated by has also In like . boord. eafor. bluter. bot-voet. a blotch. to smear. Explained by Jam. a mistiness.y. bar. to puff. to spurt out. Du. bluther. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. ON. dial. blaste?i. sudden. along the town preparations were made up on the houses.' — Red Riding-hood. BOB 79 — To Blur. plump. to puff. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. It. or blurt with one's mouth. e. See Boisterous. Du. &c. to blubber. to glow . a Jam. Pl. Wtb. this root are formed Sc. To brag and to crack. . blirt of greeting. bord. hot. Supp. Hal. AS. to talk quick and indistinctly . blurra. pfludern. and swimmeth very well. 156. a smear. bustuous. stupid. Hal. acre. See Blossom.plerr. be a crack or loud sound. pausten. an end or stump. cheeks glow. to jabber. batello. a club foot . the sound of a blow poffen. outward edge. borrar. G. bakke bleustern. 274. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. edge. my dear. Fl. a border. The to radical meaning D. to puff. a blow . Pull the bobbin. De Boat. bora. pustern.— . both used in the sense of boasting. primarily signify loud noise. Bav. to bark. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to render indisbhir. 'Ba. to blore. Board. swagger. baiag. and when applied to vaunting language. and boisterous. Dan. blaffen and baffen. blose. margin. boccheggiare. bobbin. a flurt with one's fingers. stellio. to blur. to endeavour to terrify.D. Lat. Slur. pof. . To blow in puffs. on. blosken. E. then applied to indistinct vision . Du. Kil. to sound like water boiling. rude. bur. bobine. Sverris Saga. to dirty. pluddre. a. To tinct. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. E. to be out of temper. baban. to roar. a torch blusse. cocodrUlus. a blot. — — . skin. table. The elision of the d is very to chatter. 29. ader. beacon fire. whence bordvidr. 1. border. a baU of thread the mud. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. blast. Sc. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. aper. bot. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blodern. pludern. AS. OE. to blaze. to say bluntly. to chatter. Du. gabble Sw. G. dial. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to make a noise with the mouth. . representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. blaere. chicchere. Schmeller. the Brem. and E. to dangle. blasen and See Burr. gabble. Du. bateau.plodem. A large snake. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. 9396. Bluster. edge. as in Du. a tassel. or bog also thread. fringe. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. boot. Halma. puffen. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bdd. a bladder . whence bob. c. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. Boost is used for the boast. a board or plank. literally edge-wood. blotch and botch.the syllable bot. — From mouth. berd. — ' Dief. an edge. eber. bit. to bounce. of the word seems . large. to snuff. bord. to make a noise in boiling. w.v. to blow. will fly up. margin. botte. blarra. it implies that it is empty sound. a burst of tears. strong. blader. lacerta. Wright's ed. bladdra. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. board. Du. a tassel. to blurt out. Sc. violent G. bord. planks raised up outside the roofs. puddle.pusten. crack made by bursting open. an ear of corn. and the latch . little knob hanging by a piece of thread. or backwards and forwards. bliise. G. Du. bludder. bausen. a short thick body. to make mouths. blaustem. coarse. . and Du. margin. Gael. dull. Boa. P. ground. rude. blur. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. — — — * Boast. to threaten. Wallace. short pieces of any filthy mud. geplerr. properly noisy. V. brett. Boa. It. burra. Gael. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Fl. lindwurm. a small lump. — To Bob. to crying. splurt and spirt. — a blaze. To move quickly up and down.—Bobbin. Comp. It. to disfigure with E. blunt. blot. to guggle. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. cluster. mire. boa. like the parapets (viggyrdil. boistous. i. Fr. to blush. bdta. flat. beer. To splirt. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. bleuster. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. table. a mist before the eyes plerren. a grows to a great bigness. to give a crack. bludder. blubber. Blush. BLUR Boar. to brag grande loqui. ever-swin. a dangling object. .

Thy i. bodi. to fail. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. 3. bodetz. bod. . corpset. gog. moist mire. precept. formerly bodies. With With this we charged again We bodged again. Lith. Cot. as in stammering or staggering. round. a prick. the trunk of the animal body. bothog. waving. corset. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . point. toss. gag. needle. . Commonly explained as if from Sc. Bodkin. a body. calf of the leg. stutter gogmire. to bodge. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. bog. bodat. a ghost . The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. stumpy. patsche. Gael. dies. e. bodhag. bodilo. gog in gog-mire. the body of a shift gaguejar. anything soft.gmh:t. a command. bodak. To portend good or bad. bodig. Lap. butt. to prick. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. shake. AS. W. quakmg. ^Jam. AS. or stem of a tree. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. potacha. Shakespear has badged with blood.\\i\c\iset. to scruple. to roll. bogle. bogach. goggle. whence Fr. bog. belly.rabodi. To mock. Ir. daubed or dabbled with blood.. woman's stays. bole. . to start start and back as from a bugbear. Ptg. to stammer. a messenger . cask bottich. See To Botch. VI. wavering. Banff. to make.! . bog (equivalent to E. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Bog. thrust with something pointed. or a pair of bodies. exhibit another modification of the root. . a quagsoft. bod. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. as a horn. — Grandg. to dabble or paddle. BOGGLE trunk and G. agitate. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. potacha. then from the yielding. an awl. a dagger. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. Now unskilful action is conmire. meaning the round part of his body. . to make a mow at. gagei. as signifying anything spherical or round. moving backwards and forwards. move. — as well as the body of an animal. To Bode. to bob. ON. bottig. to smack. to thrust. Ptg. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Wall. * To Boggle. Bohem. See Bid. . Bodice. potahha. bagges. shaking . gogach. See Baber-lipped. swelling. to be unsteady tich. French bouter. strike with the horns. gebod. from fitting close to the body. '£. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. bayonet. to stick. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. unsteady. . the belly. gagoula.' A — Sherwood's Diet. body and G. the stem of a tree . baboyer. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. quagmire). speak of the barrel of a horse.hollow. Schmel. bolr. stitch. Reliq Antiq. is identical with Fr.' Bogglie. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. message boda. to be uncertain what to do. bodi. and the word is well explained by Bailey. to push with the horns. bodene. Crist. — H. to fail. pall. barriga. where bogs form Gael. busti. Miracle-plays. body of a shirt bol. bob. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bot. to stir. an announcement. boll. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. To Bodge. to deliver a message. rounded. is a lump. Body. so large a feature in the country. nave of a wheel. bodian. biodeachan. a cask. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. And waves. to commit a blunder. gago. To make bad work. to blurt a thing out. Russ. It introduced from Ireland. The Sp. of which the E. or bag. Gl. a round body both. corpses pot. the thick part of anything. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. Supp. arise E. by the syllable patsch. boftich. — 2. bottich are derivatives. So BOB To Bob. the boss of a buckler. a bog or morass. whence paUchen. 43. The signification of the root bot. to waver. to butt. .a (i\ia. bayonet . a puddle. Gael. bogan. . badyti. biodag. and E. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Bret. bogadh. fickle . potig. bo tich. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. bodies. unsteady. a . stuttering. anything protuberant. the body. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. a prickle. bodnu. We . bogadaich.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. mud. Gael. nodding. a spur. barrique. expression hogglin an bogglin. a cask. In like manner E. palleg. a sting . corset from corps.

Pr. bulla. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. G. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. Goth. This iv. Fr. scruple. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Wall. tar. is probably a modification of boll. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. Fr. G. a boil or swelling Du. stud. Chaucer seems Dan. bag or bog are derived Piedm. V. It. bola. proud. bald. buller. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. w. To Boil. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bold. bulr. ON. Magy. huge. whence bulla. G. treated under Bowl. bal. 304). The round stem of a tree. cows the people from speaking. flax-boU. bol. Properly noisy. from Du. b^gayer. belc'hj. bul. in speaking. capiing into a cavity.rounded part of the body. notes. the lir. a bump. to be at a loss a shirt. Bret. Test. A. Mund. bulla. bagaji. strong. 45. used. a bubble. cheerful. as E. bochken (titubare. bollen (Kil. gerade signifies straight to the mark.Du. bolleken. Du. puile. the. haughty. excellent. balder. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. beule. The bob. Pm. The term applies in — — impressed . G. to swell. . to tattle. Swab. insolent baude. up of bubbles. may be identified with It. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Cot. 1430 in Deutsch. — — which the cushion is stuffed. Me doth awate. bog. Boystous. and manace for to de. quick. Bole. a bubble. bolc'h. bolr. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bolstar. pimple ON. intrepid. Boil. to the belly as the or dislike. Du. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . pustule. bolt. * Bolster. tomentum. or the like. free. ON. bolt upright. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . to boil. Du. Lap. to stammer. balldr. to puff. OG. courageous. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. tartalear. Love. to stammer. bullire. strong. pillow. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bolla. merry. bald. sels of flax. as baltha. also a blister. bold. Da. * Boisterous. stameln vel bochken. Gael. he will speak out. strong. bolzen. brave. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. and then applied to other husks.). bula. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bold. ^Vocab. buile. hakogni. bolster. the body . globular bod)'. Sc. ohg. caput scapulse. as. 374. polc'h. bSlstr. a head . boll. pusten. stramenta. — ' — tagliare. . coarse. E. bald. warlike. to be prominent. trunk of a tree . to stumble. bol. to give a hoUow sound. folliculus grani. a bakazikni. boss.— D. swelling. ON. baud. a quaking mire. round the first instance to the materials with . bout is explained by Kil. repagulum. furfures. pall. hero. bul. ^Boistous. shake. the gurgling sound of water rush. impetuosity. bhster. ballr. gluma. Stalder.w. but that Bolt. Sw. bok. tartle. puilen. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. Kil. noise. In the same way Sc. confident. obex. blow. rough. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. the husk of nuts. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. — 6 . bout. . a cushion. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. fiausten. Fr. To Bolter. bola. boggle. by which it is moved to and fro. then violent. Kit. see Boast. Bustuous. bouil. to hesitate from doubt. a swelling in ice. swelling. hollow.palleg. bealder. Daring. as those of nuts. capitellum. a fastening for a door. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. styffe or rude . boystousnesse. to stagger.D.— — . prince. in the sense of handsome . See Bulk. a bubble. bog. Westerwald bollern. Boll. courageous. boil . thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. to waver or hesitate.' Mrs Baker.. poppy (Bailey). (of Mons) b^guer. Du. from the branches. glass phial. dint in a metal vessel. . the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. the body of a man or of ter. bolzBold. stutSw. which are not used for a similar purpose. bolster. boutpijl. roydeur. chaff of corn siliqua. boly. E. Chaucer. chatter. ON. OHG. Lat. properly represent belly. i. tartajear. biiilen. Lat. bol. bolle. Sp. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. tulum. perpendicular. wag. as.

a small portion.as the essential element signifying the talum. Hence. or ill. crotlar. taratarrum. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. lumpy. bulk or quantity . a rattling noise and a jolting motion. G. boss. the name of bolter mixed flour and water.) E. poltern. bullern. croler. to come rattling downstairs. MHG.agitation of the meal in the bolter. OFr. to start out. tuft. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. ' Holler poller / bulter.by forms like G. a club-foot. beliitea. small heap. hammer. bolzen.). as Fr. Sw. bolzaugen. in S'W plotter. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. to become lumpy. to bolt meal barutel. bultred. : ' — — . die treppe pressed. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. with E. . a clod cloth.u. agitari (Kil. on the one hand. Here the radical image is the violent O. taratantarum. to form lumps. It. crash. a clap of thunnences. The ulti. . blotttre. In the next place. we see that the one consists of a words. bulio. a . curdle. Dan. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. hole.Lat. baruta. . uneven. we have Du. OFr. Fr. a crashing or racketing noise..through a cloth of loose texture. crod. beluter. On this account Mid. to clack. as a rabbit from its baritel. Dauphiny a sudden movement. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . The ment and the operation. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. hulter de bulter. to E. P1. to bolt meal barutel. brattle.noise {brattle of thunner. burclct. bolt. Lat. to talk pulzen. bluter. .thump or blow. by the representation of a racketing sound. also to curdle. loud and fast. bolting to that of form.D. btilt. a sod (Schiitze). ler. one after the other. bulla. zare. the sense of right on end. staff which sounds tar. then to knock. abolter. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner.i5a//^«. or the like. pultare. buideln.protuberance. Hence Palsgr. Prov. Lang. . ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. to bolter. to start with palpitate. mole-hill. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. vessel with narrow opening. 2. bolzauget) Sp. Mid. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.D.nature of the operation. knob. kloteren. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. barutela. je bulte.D. . to spring forth E. racket gepolter. tantara.clack. a bolter or implement for bolting. Supp. protuberance. a clump of turf. to make a knocking. Champagne burtcau. we der Brocket).D. hulch. to coagulate. cruddle. hump. to shake. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. buletare. zen. fied bot. tumultuari. rugged. pattern. rugged. tar. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. ' — — ! ! : — . — — — . a rattling carriage. we pass to Du. jolting. and to crash. holier poller. barutare. a bunch. Pr. OFr. to agitate. pull. a millpoltzet augen.fe/2?. barutela. cro. a clod.. . poltern. bolt head is a retort. grasbulten. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. buretter{CQ\. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. hammer. as snow balling on a horse's foot. clump. a bolter Prov. buUire. Bulte-pook or bulstar. Pm. Pl. / is transposed in Fr. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. from G. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Wtb. representing a rat. Du. a rattle. a round glass ending — bultig. budeln daz mele . 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. And as the agitation of cream in .— . So also we pass from Lat. I boulte meale in a boulter. as of a trumpet. and the Thus from So. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. tling or crashing noise. Du. have Lat. Pl. bolt-foot.). Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. gebolder. to bolt flour burato. uneven. to significance of the term was overlooked. Schiitze. Sanders. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. taraabout. buletel. Bav. poll. bulk. Brem. sestuare. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. projections. as above explained. or a racer from the course. the wheels groaned. to knock. bortelen.On the same principle. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. bultig. ex•wagen. bulstrig. projecting eyes pul. swelling. .

G. the silk-worm. bureau. — Bombard. Near 6 * . It. as Banbury. — AS. crook-shanked bondew. to bind G. to cast to and fro. a baker. coarse. sye. butteln. bambagioj whence It. to boult meal. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Bone. It. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. lana lignea. Du. As cotton was used for padding clothes. band pi. barate.) . . signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. Fr. to which the leg. Antiq. sije. banitola (Fl. bombdra. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. — bombast came guage. bond. rimbombare. bureau. Dan. bopin. . Mid. beil'n. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. and Du. a bone in general. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. .^Altieri. bein. baum-bast. cotton. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. tree. bombicina. whence bomme. and Mod. sericum arboreum. bwmbwr. OE. bombasine. bauniwolle.). bolting-cloth. 155. G. . from teu. &c. to bolt meal. to thunder. Du. bombast. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. tie. biire. e. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. bonog. Bonfire. i. bunden. to beat a drum. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. the contracted form of Du. Banstead. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. ^o/j. G. Bibelesworth in Nat. a string. bras. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. the murmuring of the sea. tiffany. bommer. Gascoi^e in R. bombase. derivation. a ligature. buidelen. bambacium. bombe. Butterglas. from boom. 83 Gr. sijde. borel. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. HoUybandin R. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. to shake down fruit from a tree. thick. burato. and also the leg. is supported by the analogy of G. bon. PoUitriduare. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bombasin. an implement of binding. to shake (as to shake the head. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. It. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame.D. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. ties. In legal language. Castrais barato. must be explained Fr. bombice. Moreover. In E. . . gossipium. bonds. Fl. stuff. a drum bombammen. to ring bells. Fr. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. again. raw silk. assuming the of leg : special signification W. we speak of a gun to resound. beuteln. thick-legged. buidelen. butteln. and that from Fr. tie. term is appropriated in G. also thick-shanked. bombarda. bwmbwry mar.Lat. and Bond. a —Bombasine. cotton stuff. From builen. agreement. Kil. a thundering noise bomre. bindan. d.bast. a hollow sound. bonfras. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. thick from shaking. breast-bone. builen. silk-worm. stump.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. baun. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . band. has repeatedly varied. . q. Bomb. the Fr.Su?. a word of which we have traces in several English names. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. been. to resound. and called in Mid. bande. as in . When ture. bomba. and in fact we find the and Du. brust-bein. or trunk word in W. ODu. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. achsel bein. a stem or base. a boulter of meal. booming over the water. Du. bongam. Dan. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. Schm. boulenger. It. basin. however. bommen. — having a stem or stalk. bone of the . of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. It. E. buttel trueb (of liquids). a beacon. It. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. silk. The material called by this name. produced the Pl. the shank the shoulder-bone. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. iuttern. the leg. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. Need you any ink and bonibase. a stock. band. gunpowder. to thump W. a churn for butter. beuteln. bulter from It. bambagino. to shake.

. by itself for head-dress.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. a lofty blaze. bobo ! interj.—Bootless. gehyred. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. dog-kennel. dial. help. been. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. bote. boia. 13. to prepare. a hollow skin. Prov. p. b&ber. ass. bas. prayer. Busk. to strew with straw. the mouth. a silly fellow. Bootless. Binau Brychyniog. quest. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. countryman. chaff. Du. bonaid. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . in Phil. boa. short boots. the first consonant of the alphabet. boten-shoen. Mrs Baker. — From the participle present. bds. ganian. Boor. remedy of evil. reparation. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. The origin of the word is probably the W. Fr. booby. bosih. comes bondi. netis stall. Sp. bonad. Boot. Du. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. boubi^. a head-dress. . till. simpleton. a vessel for holding liquids. Boom. dolt. The character of folly is i860. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. bauen. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. A favour. busu. inhabit. or Vanns. E. Book. but stall. stabulum. Basa. . — e. babin. Gl. Hal. bowwen. boom. from gape. Wall. Boot of bale. Perhaps. remnants of hay or straw. as the Brecknockshire Banns. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon.^ —P. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. a letter Russ. gaby. See Bomb. OW. where a cross (or a gun. ben. one who dwells nigh. N. a. In nautical language. bauer. gaping hoyden — Cot. betere thing werse. feu de behourdis. boandi. It is commonly explained as identical with It. build. swinbusa. Trans. desire. literally cow-house.Boos. pero. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. and Ban in w. dress. G. Booby. bd. prayer. to gape. Schm. petition. the alphabet. tall. to gape. to set in order. as a lying-place for cattle. tapestry. beam. See Bown. boubair. ty Gael. the scriptures bokareis. boer. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. . Fr. from Du. It. gawney. — . bose. botte. dress. a stall. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. babau. high. of wonder On the same principle Sp. head-dress wai^g. boutig. Hufwud-bonad. Goth. b^er. blockhead. From bo. Bonnet. often cut for burning and lighting fires. succour Bailey. build. . pig-sty. Ox. Thus from the syllable ba. See Butt. relief from sorrow. Bun. Gael. by arbitours sholde bote the P.n. OSlav. Pr. Kil. pole. nachbar. bonnet. writing bokos. signifying beech. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. ON. hu?idbusa. fool. . — — . to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. and from AS. Boon. the cultivator. 232. buandi. at everything. and thence Rouchi baia. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. are formed Fr. . buch-stab. The i. litter. Hal. whence ban-ffagl. however. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. G. petition. Fr. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. lofty. bid). AS. * Boose. AS. botte. To Boot. bossen. Fr. the stubble of beans.. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. to dress. Du. b'ukvdry. from beida (E. Bonnefyre. is Du. Palsgr. bobo. house. a bonfire. Thin ben Luke i. badaud. boo. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. dial. tigh. botta. boutig. letter. clown. \ais-band. wondering signifies not only straw. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. . bonad. without ad- . a letter . bene. foolish. a scribe G. bdn. to litter bosu. . w. Mrs Baker explains bun. and Gael. biikui. bua. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. A stall for cattle. a lying-place for dogs or swine. E. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. — Bailey. bAkva. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. till. A peasant. although in the OG. Jr. But bosg. ON. a bag of skin or leather. a dry stalk. Kil. to ask. Build. bota. to yawn. in w. . ON. to aid. G. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. bolt. The latter is the original AS. to cultivate. bosig. a good turn or re- meaning. a. and fig. wall hangings. master of the house. from badare. also called Brecknock Beacons. set in order. the name of the letter b. — To boot. inhabit. to cultivate. bommen. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. bos. ON. baier. beiSne. babb^o. the possessor of the farm. Pm. Swab. which one gaping and staring about. a tree. a simpleton. bua. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce.

wine-skin. to foam. Fin. to swell. to bite. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. puras. Esthon. Du. drillen. Bohem. to . bordi. baara. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . 1.. But probably the E. a bladder. to repair. Burke in R. The as G. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. dust. to to . make . a great bur. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. are parret. bora. from borra. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. dens mordens vel caninus. scalpo.. to stick unto as a bur. a bothy. bothag. kvit-bara. welt. chewed food for infants. both. Gael. to bite. See To We speak in E. mat-bod. Alexand. pi. bata. Booth. Border. AS. in Ihre. Gael. tent. to The Sw. bardure. abode. In the Fin. Esthon. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. fire. margin. Fin. Magy. . a tusk. a chisel. struere ignem. yfirbdt.— Return from Parnassus I inR. And so in ON. bauen. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. better. as afford a satisfactory explanation. to restore. p. . A phorically a drunkard. to patch. bauda. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. or anything pointed. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). a booth or shed. Gael. a granary . sawroot. . to profit Goth. botjan. purra. The ON. a shop. BoracMo.. furd. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. 266. cottage. — ON. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. wave. See Burgeon. . to mend. bud. bottino. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. The cor. from deila and skipta. ON. Du. borracha. pointed. budka. Sp. lappalare. and E. • — To Bore. purro. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Fl. to surge. forare. in Lap. comminuted by either kind of action. a borer . to pierce. Fr. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. amendment. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. exchange or divide. to boot. Mag. boeten het vier. nor E. hut. to expiate boeten den dorst. to importune. boete. and hence to fine. ON. borino. Bete. which are probably from the same root. to build buda. from bord. uzboro. . OSw. piercer. The Fin. OHG. bdra. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. a wave. Kil.par. cellar. of an edge that will not bite.—Burin. biorag. on. terebro. baete. batr. G. the . a hut or tent. recovery bata. rof. . See Bower. ON. byte points to the verb byta. Palsgr. N. Booty. to divide. to hut. purra. It. differs only in termination. budowai. terebra sculptoria purastoa. lappolone. a responding forms . cure Sw. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. Lat. are derived from G. Pol. to bete the properly to mend the fire. bohren. to profit. and meta- Fr. barn. pu purro (saha =: saw . It is admitted that Fr. betan fyr. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. sharp. a leather bag or bottle for wine. BOOTH vantage. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. edge. a word. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. is purin. an engraver's chisel. 3. butin is explained by Flor. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. chisel. . Fr. hem or gard of a garment. to quench one's thirst . repair. bothan. and parrets. making good again . Another derivation from Fin. a borer. limbus. or the gradual working a hole in anything. a. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. . a shelter of branches. bolino. bord. to build. to anything Neither G. reparation. remedy. a sharp-pointed tooth.por. a hut. admovere titiones. beute. bite. fimbria. . &c. ora. boede. swell bara. borracha. butin. aid. puras. extremitas Bore. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. urboro. a border. boards. burin. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. furni. Fin. Compare Manx birrag. amendment boeten. scsdes-bod. bower. a cupboard. and thence to eat build. boeye. a shed. puru. sculpo 05\xiik. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. puru. To Bore. limbus. a shop budowati. to bore. cup- awl. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. It. bdt. a borer.

86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. a city . Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. to strike so as to Bureau. Sc. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. cnap. Bosh. secure. vain. borei. a giving rise to It. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. projection. bosh. a bouncing baby . hollow bucklers. knock and a knob . a boor. to save. a boss. AS. a wen. tempest. Swiss Rom. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. knocking. ' pledge. Altieri. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. to strike . less.bucklers. the must have arisen burgensis. busse. or head-borough. bosseu. boss of the side. borg. Bos a surety. Hal. byrig. knur. in instead of without. gum vocant. plain rude fellow. Turk. to take in. the N. V. It. cnoc. borealis. useCanterbury. bttssel. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. bundle. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent.. striking. is used in the sense of bussare. Cot. hollow. basse. botse. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. E. boschen. beorgan. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. to knock or strike. empty. surety. (Bridel). bos. a surety.ribs and the side. Du.mass. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w.' the chief of the ' borh. unpolished. from AS. ^ma. to become is emitted by a hollow body. See found in Bav. without. agrees with E. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. bom. borg. borgese. . boss or knob of a buckler . an eminence. clownish. borh. from their grey clothing. a citizen. loan. D. In like manner It. bussa coarse. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. the hollow between the Borsholder. primarily signifying coarse sound . a. a knob. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. bossen. or perhaps also To Borrow. to save. that which biirge. tuft. poor. plant. burh. as we speak of a thumping potato. nonsense. empty. whence the burg. pego. and borough in the sense of a town. into borsholder. Boreal. butse. to protect. bourgeois. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . one who sticks to you like a bore. burgess. a pushing or striking out. And that unsittynge is to here degre. I. boss. Borough. to contain. tive idea seems to bring under cover. rude. a blow. Borowholder. cormpted. grey). huschen. to protect. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. is probably radically Boss. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland.' every man be under bail. a citizen. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. f graauw. Jam. was origin of the term is the OFr. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. boss sound. viipyoc. (1867). &c. the North Wind. Lat. Jam. a bunch or hump. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Lang. . a tower. northern. of bail throughout the country. — ' wind burya. So Du. The other. burel. to keep. Hence knot. bosse. by which of or belonging to plants. It. as if from the verb to hold. Goth. beorgan. bussi. to save Sw. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. borgo. empty. cnag signifies both a clergy. borough-holder. butsen. baurgs. — — — A — . bump. cob. /3oraMK6f. Botany. destitute. Bailey. Bunch. Fr. while Gael. boss. a herb. bump is used in lump or piece. the sun sets. in the body struck. or because a blow berga. Gr. the ordinary a swelling. head. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. bierge. ' — — . ON. to pick or cull plants. to give a hollow bizo. pitch. connected. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. or perhaps it may be See Bury. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. a little blow. whether from the fact preserve G. undyed wool of brown sheep. and thus could not shake off the old burr. bourg. 106. bunch. the Sc. borough or chief constable. pegou.' or system of bail.any round sweUing. bos. Fr. knob. borel. botch. . coarse cloth made of the Du. bail biirgen.' if thou give money on loan. . to give bail or answer for an. gesylle. botsen. formerly used in the sense of knocking. boussi. poor. Newbury. botch. bergen. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. Hence borhes ealdor. G. i. rustic. which now signifies a knob. when that system was forgotten. AS. The origin seems to be the Goth. Borrow. brown cloth. Russ.' Vegetius in Diez. The primi. Du.vr\. AS. Fr. blow on a hollow object. to conceal. storm. ^o^^flj.

to strike . — — A 2.) . ing out. any plain round viol glass bozzo. Stalder. Here the radical image seems a bubble. bativa. And so we speak of an eruption. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a boil or swelling Halma. nets. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. abyss. bluster. To Botch. abbi-diwij Slavon. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. ubhau. boden . bossu. pimple. ledge It. e. Again. butse. AS. w. botte. mend. dim. pozzo. of botta. butsen. you two. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. a slop. Bouds. whisper. boil. Bottle. Bret. a lump of somebatschen. both. buazen. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. to put on a patch. Bochu. bots. — — . N. bundle. a plague-boil Kil. a. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . shoes. ixorapudder. a bottle. ON. Leg. a depth. poltern. the other hand. to mend. beggtaj Goth. botse. as a push or windgaU. — Dief. hurly-burly. j3i/9os. to stir and mix together. botn. bulder. a vessel for holding liquids. It. botsen. a bunch. &c. the bud of a flower . to from the root bot. biissen. a bundle of straw or hay. putra. — . Lat. podge. * To Bother. gen. Jtidu.^Dec. to smack. BOTCH understood). — Bottom. buts.— Swift in R. however.of a ball of thread. is boteau. to make a make a noise. House-bote. butwo. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. • Bott. Both. blow. boccia. was called a push. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. for a bud. ^kvBoQ. Canut. dial. dabble). OSax. boute. AS. disturbance to . iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. to work without order or know. bulderen. Wedu. blain. abbu. bottom. botte. Bailey. bile. . Fyre to botme. potra. — duj Lett. mutter. bun. ba. to we have OHG. Pl. Kil. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. maggots in barley. Lith. btitse. in the sense of mend the fire. noise. i. we two. Podge. as Fr. gipuozan. to simmer. to stir and mix together . See Butt. The Gr. fire-bote. stock. bosser. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. a cask. . fundus. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. to rage. botch. a pit. . The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Butu. Boa two. a wisp. gling piece of work. Hal. It. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. the lowest part. an imperfect and bunbutt end. a knock. baiothsj Sanscr. abbution. is also a bubble. a bottle of hay. a humpback. G. a maggot. to dip in liquid (to Gael. to dash about . botola. a bump or swelling. bethia. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. — Fl. Judwi. See Bound. to fall : with a sound batsch. &c. bide. Gael. boiteal. abbi. empty or hollow. Parmesan poccia. to bcBta. G. a patch patschen. bot. See To Bodge. botus. ' G. Fl. bozza. and E. — Jidwi. they two. Ancren Riwle. I. to give a sounding blow. pocciar. mess. whence the name ol pool to podge. Fr. disturbance. buideal. bdt. especially in Gael.D. a cess. pozzanghera. a pit. botel foenn. bodem. puddle. ON. bdsser. Botcli. E. from the dashing of water. botte. Lith. oba. tumour. a botcher of shoes. boiteag. bund. AS. an abyss or bottoniless pit. a slop. blister. Decorde. we have Swiss batscken. batschen. to knock. Hal. and ajSvamg. From the dim. patch. See Boss. ambo.— . turmoil. to mend (kettles. stump. Gael. a waterfall. — — belly-worm.— Hal. — . stem or base. to make better. round lump. mess. contusion . to froth as beer . a tinker schuhbiisser. boss. Du. corresponding to . a bubble. A horses. a cesspool pass. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. ON. stroke. Prov. Fl. stock. . A bottom depth. a pock. a bott . bAdtr. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. signify a in OE. H^cart. to botch or patch. schuhbosser. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. kessel-biisser. bunch. the science or knowledge of plants. Danneil. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. scuohbuzere.foundation. 212. . Mudu. a bottle. Diez. any round ball or bowl to play withal. bSn. . On the other hand. Dan.' to the fiery Csedm. Du. burgi vel pontis refectionem. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. or plague sore . a root. bottigUa. bouteille. the first rough draught 2. a cobbler. botm. knock. what pushes outwards. buddl. pother. bozza. boitean. repara- — — See To Bete.ments of the same root. To confuse with noise. thing soft batsch. botel. Fr. to podge. by met. Bouteille. On — Du. It. . buddeln. noise.

To Boult. in contrast to klappersten. bumper. Nor a centinel whistle. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. turn. I assure you. Pr. to fix limits. for anything large of Een bunsken appel.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. strapping. the hollow of a bay. debodinare. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. bone. Bough. the smaller ones. to spring. bullra. Bought. a bound. see Boss. Coxcomb.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata.>a bout. like bobbin. to bow. ni frestelar. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. Pm. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. Dan.. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. the larger kind of pebbles. AS. bugan. bog. to resound. A Langued.— F. to set bounds. signifying in nautical coil of rope. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. — — leap. The branch of a tree. root (see Bottom). The Bight of Benin. 3. a bud. bugt. Raynouard. language a * Boulder.'— Charter of K. as that of E. Fr. bay. to turn. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . Bound. of thread.— Cot. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. thumping. Sw. Bonny. to thundering big one hum. p. bamsen. as a nosegay. baby. a large pebble. And the new stools set out. winding.— Boundary. gulf. geration.' B. Probably from the Celtic root bon. Bough-pot. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bun. has hot. a turn or time. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. to set out by metes and bounds. boujtce. from volgere. From Sw. bonzen.' round and round in similar circles. to knock. a boundary stone (men stone). bunsen. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. tnndo. boh. — strike. a jar to set boughs in for ornament.D. and Prov. — No i ausiratz parlar. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. See To Bolt. butina. botwm. a large stone rounded by the action of water. Fr. nave of a wheel bothel. till The dat et bunsede. a stock. boundina. Bunche. ing. Ni gacha cor bondir. jump. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Bout. — — Bight. ni motz brugir. bondir. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Brem. boss of a buckler. 2. or Bow-pot. buUersten. as a bout of fair or foul weather. 136. Bowlder. round. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. from AS. . Ducange. To Bound. to spring. Wtb. by Bujns or Buns. in the absence of actual e. Du. Bret. its kind. he fell so that it sounded. to make a loud noise. and F. bunda.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. bonndn. bend. limit. a button. to knock at the door. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. march. pimple Richards bothog. Bodinare. Alpine Re- — gions. a round body both. carpet. jungen. pothel. To Bounce. bonna. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. bodina. a blow. See Bunch. a boss. Mid. Primarily to strike. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. a bouncing apple. Fr. dial. — Take care my house be handsome. . The W. bons. nor horn sound. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. Halma. bounbounejha. a blister. dial. an de dor bunsen. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. volta. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. contusi. the verb bondir in OFr. Boulderstone. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. bottom. came home with his face all to-bounced. to thunder. iv.— — — - 88 BOUGH . frequently used in the same sense with bound. bend. So It. knock it sounds again. the bay of Benin. mcn-bomi. signifies a sliort thick mass. boriie. an occasion. bolder. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. to hum. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. . E. from bugan. Webster. mere. whence buj7isen. Q. bouton.

buys. So Sc. Immediately from Fr. bending of a joint knie-bug. like quaff. to tipple. staff. Dan. purra. to take one in. a corToward the garden. language of folly or ridicule. hence musical accompaniment. a prop. burlare. has also buirleadh. when we speak of. a from Du. tinton. Dan. bommen. bog. . G. and that probably from a Celtic root. . good. brummen. a jibe Shaw bururus. of the ON. head Fr. AS. drunken. to indulge in his cups . to mutter. kroes. on. crutch. set out. a bow. to trick. bourde in the same sense. a pot. Sp. to tope. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. spring. must be referred to the same root. Du. bonus. springbiirn. belly out. bordone. Sc. from spring. a drone or dor-bee. burn. bunaiteach. their time -With "wailful tunes. The foregoing derivation seems. — — . mockery. gurgling. the Bourdon. Bourdon. is. epaule du vaisseau. The meaning of bound. Gael. burt. — probably through this latter signification. limit. bugne. G. bue. bound. flagon. drink deep. buizen. sausen. analogous to Fr. G. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. burdan. a sing-song. brausen. When used alone it . to swell. a. are applied to the bow of a ship. a humming noise Macleod. explaining Sw. buzzing of bees. joke. bending. to drink deep. a go to. Prov. pusta. pared. a. in Fr. prepared for. schenkelbug. As the Gael. spelling the word iox bound. fresh* water. to bow. bagna. w. to drink deep. and not in the sense of curvature in general. Borden. bugan.bass of a stringed instrument. on the whole.. repartee. Du. Dan. bov. Cot. the ting of a bell. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a for New York. Burden. cudgel. Swiss bausen. bdgi. different modification gives ON. bage. beogan. to hum. Fr. shoulder-blade. bwa. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. . . the fixed. it is probable that the It. whence buysen. buga. patesten. saufen. buzz. grumble Sw. Bourdon. to bulge. . bugna. ^<7r«i?. ready. to pre2. bogha. i. bending. Bounty.which see. a humming noise. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. to take breath. Dan. taunt. sense durd. burreti. bontS. to banter or laugh at. bordon. potio. Chaucer in R. Fr.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. steady. souf. an arch. pausen. Sw. It. Lat. sport. A water. bourdon. buigen. bovne. g. Goth. burd. Gael. warbling. — — — A pare. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. biegen. as was for. beygja. purlBav. . ing. bogen. to bow or incline the . a brook. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. brunna. It is remarkable that we find vary. a jibe. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. that ON. Burgeon. biugan. buyse. ready to pike or spear . pre. curvature. sotich. to tope W. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. fun of one . puff out. a cup kroesen. bow to shoot with. lance. trick. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. ridicule buirte. Sw. bugna. a — — . way ba7n. also the humming or ON.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Eown. bug. bog. Du. to take deep draughts. to hum as a bee. ruption of bonne. Bret. Fr. to draw a deep breath. whether by sound or gesticulation. identical with E. bausen. bogna. And there in mourning spend Sw. a mill-post. the big end of a club. bogr. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. a drone of a bagpipe. bourdon. or of an Gael. cheat. Bow. Bourd. Du. Gael. a well. btiga. to — Hal. jest. deceit. hous^ Man in the Moon. borne. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. to draw a deep breath. to our bous. It is the participle past buinn. Bound. Cot. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. addressed to. burdan. bordo. . Gael. address. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. verb bua. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . bourd. G. the shoulder of the vessel. pot. schulter-bug. bend Sw. bonitas. Gael. Sw. Spenser in R. A —Cot. the burden of a song. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. game. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. drone of a bagpipe. bend. Comp. It is bov. firm.

bola. Du. . a protuberance.flask It.\s. PLD. painter's easel. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. bur. a wine-can . boil. spherical Dan. ne. Fr. knob From the former modification we have bolla. box. purse. or in e. bulb of an onion bolleyield.a. the head. Fr. an outhouse AS. or. dial. hollow place Fr. a bowl. boel. Pol. . a thing of liquid. Sp. * Bowels. bow. a ball . The word may probably be identical with Fris.D. to bulge. ttuJic. pullo. kuppelo. bog. bubble. Sw. to bow buck. boucle. bug. AS. zich onder jemand under to him. bosso. a wardrobe . a round glass or bolg. prominence. W. passing on stud. as in AS. Dan. budel. in both senses. belly. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. spring as water bugya. to raise the back boll OHG. Bowl. polla. Lat. as well as the name of a. bwr. bocka. buigen. the crop of a bird. Sw. a stud. See Crab. inclinare se (Kil. hill. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. lump . ^o«/«. (in pass . crooked. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bulka. acsian. Bret. a buck. stream forth bugyogni. a bubble. Buckle. a chamber swefnbur. Bohem. bolle. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. buchsbaum. bog. AS. bending. fyn. . G. bucka. is applied to a coach-box. . to make crooked . kupukka. Hal. koziel. bowels. a box. It is more probably from the G. fata-bur.. buga. In like manner the Pol. pocket. From the other form are G. biiske. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. bouellou. blister. trestle. bulcken. the barrel of a gun. sausage. kupu. Sanscr. to puff up pullakka. bulk compared with Sw. a knot. beutel. globe or spherical body. buxus. the box-tree. a bubble bolli. boxtree. ON. . . bur. a ball. kupula. bouge. hiidel. . bwra. the box-tree and articles made of it G. to stoop. signified by forms like Gael. tumour . gut. a bundle. a separate apartment . wisp of straw . . a box. globular body. bolgna. . buello. bolne. A . . convexity. bow. belly. to yield to one. bowel Box. bhuj. hollow. Sw. bhugna. ON. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. anything globular. Cable. honse-bur. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . See Boil. bolla. busse. a sack. A Bulk. OE. bulla in aqua. a. globular. Thus we have Esthon. Du. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. intrenchment. biicken. a box Lat. See MHO. pusspan. . budello. belly of a cask. hollow wooden case. boss. &c. bugyola.). an inclosure. swell. to bend. boudin. a pot. The / a bow. bulne. a iDubble. with inversion of the round. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. convex. bent. Gr. guestchamber . w. . . a box. the box-tree It. as in E. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. Bret. different position in ODu. bolla. busskai. bowl . containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. buis. buk. a sleeping-room . a bubble Fin. and on swollen. a little box . compared with Fr. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. water pulli. W. Bav. the bogna. . to buckle G. to bubble up. give in to. . bouzellou. boss. bock. to puff up.). heafod bolla. in walking appears in a . a ball. a drop of pullistaa. cumena-bur. puffy. bugyani. iri'iaQ. without the and grits. make obeisance. bogla. ON. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. and to a coachbox in particular. bossola. a boil.cup Du. a bubble. a parlour. E. Dan. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. peated in Magy. ^o/a.. tumour. bollen. OFr. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock.) to incline oneself . a black pudding. to guggle. swoUei) Lat. a polla. ask. ken. ku^o. bulla. a hen-coop . . bukke. . . . bubble. bulge. a box. Boll. bugna. similar shape. head of a cabbage. botulus. beuz. Fr. . at the e. buckel. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. round bead. the skull or brainpan . bol. mausbollelein. . — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. crown of a hat. utibur. biichse. boor. buckelig gehen. . a bud. to swell. bugyni. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a croft by a house. a swelling or rising up. box in both senses. round glass phial. of a wooden ball to play with and — . boxtree pusska. Du. Bower. . folliculus . biisse. then by the loss of the /. bol. Hence. . a hump on the back rossbollen. the head. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. bugy. to bend down. G. to stoop biickling.

ratch. See Broker. boussole. Pl. brageuses. a sounding blow. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Swiss bub. foul. bauksch represents the sound of a blow .' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. to fall. brek. bitch Du.with a noise. OFr. G. bresta. break. brack. to slap." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. &c. wristband. matter. want. dog in general. fault . bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. . lalear-eyed Prov. mud. the first instancebya physical tie. braquet. to burst. . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. to be wanting. briche. baske. flap. a girl. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . One girl. Bracket. 91 the Dan. to crack. It. dirty. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . variation of babble. bray.. and F. A — — . a grown youth Cimbr. fuse. . Kil. breach. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brakke grund. boy. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON.. bracha. dog that hunts by scent. mud. brague. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. to box the ears. then from break. Gael. to give a blow with the fists. to smack the hand batschen. To fight with the fists. It. in R. Hdcart. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. quarrel Bohem. rakka. boy bouba. . Bracelet. braic. brae. merely in our mode of considering them. Sp. a pair of braces. babble. rakki. moral or physical. . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. flaw. pus. rakke. loud smack. — . breach. ON. — . A bracket is properly a scenting dog. in R. wrack. his eyes are failing him). Cot. Sp. braecke. brasselet. bouibo. buah. bracer. Lett. by an overflow of sea water. to Swiss batschen. s. rack. brechen. — — . brechen ihm. whelp as. Sp. to want. . a bog or pass Fr. to is derived brestr. Brack. brakke Bracelet. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. Brack. Fr. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. Pr. braque.. To Brabble. which sigof straining. bruxula. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. and then Pl. A to halt between two derivations. or defect. to give a gebrechen. wnzC/J. Lat. Brackish. to give a sounding blow defect. ing from a mixture of salt. braca. thwack. G. Prov.D. See Brake. — . OFr. and string of his bow. A brace probis. to stutter. a box.D. On the same principle from the buksteht. bue. ' — A — — — . brassard. to stammer. corruptse. a braceOFr. con.— D. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. bracco. want. by the same inversion of J and k. bragos. . odorinsecus. Prov. pube. braco. root). breptati. jabber. It. brace on and Du. bracil. Heligoneed. brae. a bubbling dura del mun. the arm. OE. Brach. . MHG. brabbelen. bube. murmur. brostia. — .nated by dirt. brec. brae. salsus. La ville ou y avait Brace. boiste. Du. damaged board a ship. need. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. confining. ON. defect. In like manner the It. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. or bracer Cot. Prov. as noticed under Box. acidus. clay. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. brek. s. Brak-goed. Prov. isolated part of the text. Thus brack. Kil. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. cramp-iron holding things together . Swiss Rom. braco. Fr. — . let. compressing. . The different meanings of the brageux. Kil. posh. land batsken. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. defect Du. filth . ghebreck. Ptg. a crack. AS. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. Fr. Du. refuse. Boy. brago. Water rendered boubo. bracon. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. a comworld Rayn. unmarried man . baukscheht. pupus. To brace is to draw together. a boy pupa. bracket. strike. Pm. Rouchi Then as an adj. suppuration. bou^ba. want.. BOX To Box. breuque. beagle. from a root brak. salo sive aqua marinS. flaw. armour for the arm. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. parallel with OK.puddle. bask. brack. brae. priated to the original sense. mud. fault. race. an languages. is a rope holding G. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. youth. V. It is B. disturb. Swab. land spoilt Kil. taneous talking. I sal slyng. Fr. spaniel. bracke. dog Sw. a guard to torf. defect.

showy bravery. gayly dressed. Cot. to swagger. be noisy .. to cord a bale of tie up. brabhdair. &c. is identical with Gael. breagh. Hecart. Thus we are brought to the OE. . swaggerer. well-dressed. gallant. gorgeous. Haldorsen Gael. or by gaudy dress and show. courageous. the arm. From sprouted corn. Lat. flaunt in fine clothes . bravo. A — Hal. boast. subigere. to rattle. vaunting. finery.i5nz^. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. to flaunt. spot. Brag was then used brisk. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . The meanings of brake are very numerous. de Vaud. boasting. slight modificajoining the two legs. would be to brace. bravacherie. braske. gallant (in apparel) also proud. Fr. crash ON. To Brag. empty pride. se donner trop de licence.aburst. strength. goods. proud. braies. — A — . braka. Dan. braga.. It is certain that the word for arm is. to brail up a sail. Cot. Turk bazu are used in both senses. was formed brayele. BRAG Piedm. fine. Rom. breyne.explosion. Faire le brave. bravache. braga. compressing. Bret. a noisy talkboasting. braw. riches. to unbrace or let down the breeches. Brain. Dan. fine. bushy . brag. Wallachian bratsou. Primarily to crack. brao. 92 Cot.^Vocab. beautiful. to stand upon terms. bragaireachd. — Equivalent forms are Gael. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. Fr. To Braid. The plant y^r«. brabhdadh. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. From Fr. bragging of his own valour. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. used in the sense of force. or from braie itself. From brayel. to Rouchi brMer. to boast or brag. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. crack. Brake. an inclosure for cattle . i. . boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. breghen. . gay.breeches. . 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . stout. to make a noise. that will carry no coals. noisy ostentation. hectoring. brave. The meanings included under — Bragget. also insolenter se gerere . See Brace. Fris. brag or jet it braguard. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). brave. — From W. se pavaner. splendid. breach. handsome. It. Walloon bress. brayete. confining. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. braga. about the hawk's fundament. bra!. is Cot. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining.^ Sp. expensive. and it is very likely that the root brak. a roisterer. braszketi. Bret. an iron for holding Zalli. the opposite of which. smart. as the type of exertion and strength. AS.Shepherd's Cal. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. dhbrailler.%. also tion of this was brayeul. bragging. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. binding anything together. Brail. See Bray. affront. brave. — Chaucer. brag. swagger.—— . be found. brachittm. Chaucer. braegenj Du. 2. braver. to strut. valiant The head are sumptuous. braske. w. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. ative fellow. fine. excellent. to crack. blusterer. Sp. vain glory. a carriage for breaking in horses . to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. . Thus Bret. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. stately. vanter une chose. Brake. se parer de beaux habits. Cot.hy which this idea is con\eyed. in order to prevent its catching the wind. the feathers ON. to shout. Hence E. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. — . torture . braka. . brav. to boast of his own worth. Langued. bravado j Fr. cry. also derived Fr. bullying. subduing. gay. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. braguer. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . brae. brake in the sense of constraining. bragio. crash. braicli. Bray. in numerous dialects. brails. braggard also valiant. —Spenser in R. bragd. To Brail. to sprout malt. Sc. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . bully . drawers. idle talk. brake is. Lith. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. h-avare and Fr. . make a noise . fine. brazo. brave. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . and that from e. power. called by our braggard. brave. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. ^Brave. flaunting. breghe. in the sense of the Lat. .

murtaa. bregar. gebroge. the original meaning of G. P&. watered. is formed murd. as in Du. to head must be bit. casser le \va. gebroge. brolium.. as well as in the case of the e. Fr. brambles. nemus. marsh. dial. to bend or direct a cannon. braeken. and Lat. to knead or mix up in a mortar. brambles. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. — — . Gael. to break. a harrow. gilum. cetur. referred brake. brage. brog. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). brook. signifying to sweep. —Ovid. murrokko. to stiffen against Taboada). Gr. to break. braka. Fr. Voc. brega. as in Sp. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. where from Esthon. or a wood in a marshy place . marsh or swamp. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brook. gebiisch. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. in northern climates. gebrUche. gebrUche. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. bush. Sp. bregille. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. In the case of the ne. bushes. We — . bruch. to The ON. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. farinam in mortario subigere. —Bracken. brake.— . cover G. or A A ' . braquer un canon. thing is brought under control. a stream. frangere linum. It. broyer. to break or fracture. tris). brage. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brake. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. Prov. 2. de Vaud. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. Brake. — Fl. to fracture. Corrfeze bredgea. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. to pound. been confounded with the verb break. and G. In the sense of a thicket. a brace on board a ship. brushwood. a fen.bracan. gebroge. or overthrow of trees by the wind. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. and when once thrown down. Fr. a swampy Mid. e. flachs brechen. brook. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. breuil. broil. for — Due. glebas subigere. Lat. Dan. thicket. break flax PLD. to row. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places.D. it is not surprising that the word has here. the lever by which the string was drawn up. any thicket of brakes. The Fr. t° moisten. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. brak is a frame in which strip. brego. Swiss Rom. fratto. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. to rub. to exert force in different ways. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. iSpsx". have thus Du. might come to signify a swamp. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. brcekke. bredza. ing of flax or hemp. bregar brake. briers. G. 3. tnurdma. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . low wet land bruch. a thicket. Dan. bush. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. ^raca. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. properly braking or subduing them. Brake. Biglotton. a spinning-wheel. to bray in a mortar. OFr. In ON. is braukti. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. as in the case of horse-breaking. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. . game. to subdue. broor bushy place Hal.' It. It may be sus- . to harrow (Lat. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. BRAKE to external force. el arco. briser. In like manner Lat. braken. quarry from Fin. murran. brog above mentioned. broilium. a marsh. broeck. to brush. pasture. break of such a kind. a horse's a horse's twitch. riguus. brogille. To the same bend a bow. braecken het vlasch. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. in usus braca. brog or brake. braca. to bend a bow.D. Dan. conSo in G. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. breaking in the operation. copse-wood. broken fratta. to distinct. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. subigere. It. broillet. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Pl. word.

a burning fragment of wood. brenn hesken. a bud. broussaille. Rouchi bren d'orMe. i. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. nasty. to or iron. . Sir Topaz. Dan. thicket of brambles Cot. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. sawdust. . brushwood. piecemeal brindelles. also pfriemkraut. Thus in Lat. brambles. hallier. Brand. brake. brank. brugek. It will be found that shrubs. Pl. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . bruch. chaff. . ordure . branchia. brwnt. G. brank. Bret. Gael. But we find It. the branch of a tree. as AS. Serv. gebroge. clutch. w. — . all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. As ON. what is cast out as worthless. bruk. heath ON. bruk. ear-wax mud. breme j Sw. a vine twig Bav. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. brano. brandr. the bull-finch. Bav. sprouts. Fr. . from Lat. The same form becomes in It. A mark made by burning. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. brandmurk. bren. young buisson fort epais. bruskoad. from brand. a shoot or twig. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. Bret. 2. The naof strain. a briery plot. virgultum. from brug. Bramble. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brandiiialil. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. breun. or other plants of a like nature. stink . sweet broom. and thence a shoot. See Brush. broust. broccoli. or ling. to -brugen. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. So Swiss gaggi. brenda. Fr. Thus we have w. pfriemen. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brouskoad. titio. . branco. heath. may be so called in analogy with Bret. constrain. bracken or fern ." The bmno a • on . bit by bit. a thick bush. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. bruk. brenn. prufye. broom.G. AS. brug. brass. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. branche. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. a roA. Branch. brin d. brem. it glitters — — . as places overgrown with brakes or fern. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. That beareth the red hepe. a dunghill. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. restrain. the thorn apple or stramonium. G. a shoot. Bret. bren. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. bromboli. braam. a firebrand. heath. as. broem. in the same sense. . briars.. Diez. Grisons bruch. a bridle or bit . a single plant of heath. bruch. brandello. brug). all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. &c. a rod or twig.). Russ. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. cack. Port. G. young twig {brom-beisser. broom. brin. to brank. breanan. is the draff or excrement of the com. bro7n. G. a shrub from Bret. — branca. gebriiche. piece of anything. from Servian pnit. pfriem in the sense of an awl. in the sense oi fern. brin (as It brano). heath. w. Piedm. wood composed of twigs. brosst. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brang. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. brein. to burn. iii. a bud. brarn. a halter. Brancare. Brank. the twigs of a besom from brenneti.D. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Bret. brand. pfropf. bran. dirt . &c. excrement. snotty . bran. braeme. . and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. sedge burkni. E. Thornas and bremelas. Pl. thorns and Gen. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. bronbo. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. pected that brake. burning brennen. brous. brog. ground full of briers.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a shrub . In like hrst. and waste growths. Gael. It. Fr. bretnel. It. brughera. also a marshy low ground or fen . broembel-CBppel. to bridle. heath (Bret. to gripe. that is to say. and E. —Ducange. from virga. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. cabbage sprouts Fl. apiece orbitbrandone. from gaggi. a small deri\'ation . bramble Du. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . brancas. a bud It. Broom. brom. brejo. Bran. heath. a heath. .D. berneux. . brok. or with It. compress. bushes. Fr. 1 8. brenna.

brustle. d'Angl. Bailey. apparently very distinct from each other. — . The corresponding form in Gael. splinter. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to glisten or flash. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Braser. to make shine with shaking. crackle. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. — . to brustle. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Fr. branler. to French brawl or brangle. to hurl with great force. Chron. Brangle. brangle or brawl in E. is bntan. to bicker 2nd. prasseln. a To Brandish. to roar. bracea. brasil. morsel. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Jam. brazil. It. braser. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. De Goes. a round dance. to confuse. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Chron. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. brand. brennen. to braze or lute.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. bryne. became ashes Pied. ish. to solder iron.well. gebrannter wein. Kil. Du. to brangle. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. brus^. Diez. to dash. ist. eldibrandr. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. the spelling to kindle. brandende wijn. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . With top trimbling. brasa. branler. a fragment. brane-wood. bruciare. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. bruan. So. bum. stake. conbillet. weinbrenner. to quarrel. from to vociferate. The tre brangillis. 59. The name Brandy. bruzi. incendium. distilled wine. e. braise or hot coals. to rustle. E. spirit distilled from wine. all. brazeiro. Fr. G. from used in dyeing cloths. a roaring fire. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. brausen. noise. plained by Florio. as again by well as the blade of a sword. Thus the bound up again. billet. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. G. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. brascct. hot Fr. make an outcry.. before the discovery of America in the brandir. Hume in brand in ON. aqua ardens. so. the colour than hitherto known. brandiller. briiler. fire-wood. braise. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. to make sense of a bright red dye. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. firewood. to crackle . make a — . bragale\ wood. to burn. Gris. Sw. totter. to distil . to burn. to make display . N. embraser. It. as Jamieson explains it. to brandle. Lye. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. Formerly brandy-wine. to brandle or The It. Bret. De Barros considers vinum ardens. brasca. not. Manx bransey. Sw. forms brasil. flagrans. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. WaUon. E. urens. du Roi et laine. AS. glowing embers . Fr. Brasil. brandigh. faire fracas. to burn. Ija. to blaze. or in stick. branla. firebrand. — ting to confusion. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. bruire. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. and scold. brush. to shake The word brisil. To brase AS. V. bransle. Fl. brasa. live coals. in Marsh. Fr. given to the country. braise. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. to sound of the Fr. n. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. brandolare is exbrandish. bragia. — . bresil. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. bracia. to Bailey. a stick. perplex. brin. to totter. crackle. brouir. to shog. as Fr.pan of coals. Guill. Milan. brandiller. put. to shake. Fr. comes from thence. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. a brusler. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. hoisting to the fall. to shake. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. and branchis shaiand D. In the same way the set on fire . a pan of hot coals. It. shake. was in use Fr. to and fro in the hand. braza. brasca. set on fire.^Brandle. to murmur. brastlian. and bruir. Brase. bra?ier. Port. bransella. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. then brandr. To brand.

It . ship. bransle. brat. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town.— Diez. Fr. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple.— Remade. bronzare. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. slakker-bortchen. See Brandish. Brat. . Du. borderinge. then a parapet. to scold . Pm. a wooden tower. ^Altieri. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. braodhlach. Kil. bratach.96 Roquefort. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. as a brawling brook. A. The verb is probably derived from the brase. to tear piecemeal. slut. &c. frequentative of braire. Cot. bronze. flesh of a leg of pork. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. whether contracted from brabble. a fortification. ferruminare. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Bartizan. Fr. Mundart. KiL Prov. For the application to a^child compare Bret. AS. frame of laths. a rag . a rag. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. berd. Sup. Pisana in Mur. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house.walle — Pr. OFr. ni autres choses sur Due. boutures. bralle. a contempt- banner. bred. bratid calf of the leg. brailler. baltresca. Fr. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Fris. cloth. to braze. W. OFr. as scrawl from scrabble. boarding being sbranare. braoilich. a Lap. Betrax of a —^Jam. bratdn). noise. The muscular part of the body. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. brettys. from branler. Westphal. bras. calf of the leg. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Wall. coassatio. Jam. It. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. to Gael. discord. A dispute or squabble. a battle-girdle. roar. Cologne broden. ' A vraale. slibro {neita. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower.^ — Sverris Saga. to copper. equivalent to the Du. OHG. muscular parts of the body.' Hal. a — A from the confused noise. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. bran. contignatio. 368. is The word — uous name for a woman. Sp. Brangle. a slabbering-bib. brandillo. a lump of flesh. Brawn. from Sc.brettysing. — Deutsch. strepitus 2. calf of the leg. and bronzo. fraiche. or whether it be from Fr. A. brat. Certainly a little girl. solder. G. bretesque. brat. 1224. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). especially that used in the working of iron .' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses.' BRASS BRAY et AS. bartisan. Cot.propugnaculum. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. I. braser Fargent. Brass. braede. deblaterare. the calf of the leg. bretays). braon. to shake. to cry. to solder. a cloak. bribe de viande. as rashers upon quick burning coals. See Bray. Brave. Sc. pil. esbraotier. slibro. brett. brces. It. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. A land of dance. P1. Dan. as criailler of crier. trul. to carbonado. breyon de kinds of . 2. to talk at bralle op. Swiss bradle. The same correspondence is seen between It. Lorraine bravon. the buttocks. —^Bronze. breteque. tasce. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. le repasser un peu sur la braise. or on the top of a wall. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. braeye. braiio. a mantle. a lath. bartising. Math. Florio. bretesche. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. a rag .D. bmhon for brado7i. Brawl. saillies. bradon. at brasa. —-Jam. breyon d'chaur. So also See Brag. from Fr. — . as lattice. burning coals. any piece. a loud noise. luncheon. branle. Brattice.— Fl. bratidone. brdto (ace. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. a parapet. in the first instance of boards. cob. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done .— Braid. ON. Bailey. squall. Gael. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. bruir. brass. bradlete. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. a lump of flesh. apron. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood.D. Many gambes. neita girl). bronzacchiare. brazen. rag. a patch of cloth. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. a clout. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. a. breyon. bas morceau de viande brawhng.D. 1156. braion. a contemptuous name for a young child. lat'te. a lump. buttock Sc. pan- — Rayn. Circumeunt cibertesca. a plank or board. Hist. Paris.

to tear Bret. disturbance. on.fracas. weave The ON. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. fragor. F. ybrayid. . a brack. as the voice of the ass. the miller's dog. braire.^ Fr. &c. And with a traid I tumyt me about. vapna-brak. ON. a . father.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. brak. to snatch. brechen. ON. braea. — koa. crepo and E. to resemble. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. which has given much trouble to commentators. to bellow. noise . a mill. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. is . bragr. make a disturbance. bruire. bragd is also applied nets. to rub Fr. rogi. as OE. ing. brage. Swiss bratschig. G. soft . or wound. plait. a rag f . From the or brack in a wall. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. V. to the seijauntes. V. The Lat. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. Chaucer. to roar. to resemble him. bruzir. and frangere. and fracasously. Fr. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. relation is seen between Lat. to braid. to roar or bellow. Ppvxia. Cot. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to N. rangere. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. bregda. &c. I'll live and die a maid. braid. to t. crash. crash. The same He might don us both a villany. bru. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. a brake for hemp or flax. bray. fractus j Gr. W. to pretend. 7 . BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Breach. cyprinus latus. to bawl. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. roar. Dunbar braessem. ser. e. as the notion of turning crack. brak. kind. breach. Bret. to cry out. And at a braid he gun it bende. bregar. to break Fr. a breach Cot. to scold. Gr. paste or dough. to rumble. to have the lineaments of one's ON. Wal. gestus. See Brake. — — — explained motus loud noise. brot. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. to The cup was uncoverid.ear rog. to resemble.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. to break. to break. Prov. and make a hideous noise. &c. bratsche. at once. brugier. with or without a final d. yell. bradar. 145. to break. rattle. broyer. R. to work up in a mortar. in Jam. Then. breche. to bray in a mortar. AS. augnabragd. abraid. The ON. breuan. mos. paxog. resound . fish. baiyl. roar. explaining a very obscure application of the E. braa. instantane. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to cry out. Cat. bragd — ON. and to signify the fracture itself. Beryn. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out.y. to knead.' To Bray. k. to crash. To Break. riAprjyvvfu. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. braa. to braid. R. broad. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. twist. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. crackle . iU-favouredly — in Jam. OE. Q. Du. brice. D. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. bregar. To rub or grind down Sp. 2. Lat. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. brand. G. yell. turn. E. . Fin. to sound very loud and very harshly. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to start. Bailey. to rush. will. to smack or the eye. to bray like an ass. Fr. to braid the hair. regi. a crash. braidir. V.g. father.. or cry out loudly . Then is simply. Bread. the sound — of arms. D. a wink. D. Bread. . at braga eftir euium. brame. Prov. rustle. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. starts crackling up. upbraid. i. Chaucer. Goth. the sword was out break.ch. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. at a braid. ^p&xia. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to cry Port. braidar. to roar as the sea. a rent. to crash. to braid acquires the sense of bend. — . ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. verb to break. &c. appearance Hal. brikan. imitate or resemble one.

brosame. and other rubbish dibris. Fr. to rattle (as hail). to crush to break. to brew. a horse's twitch. one on the breech so that (klatschet). breinse. of trees. Isidore and Tatian. Bracha. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. — Brist. malt.'— Gl. Gael. braich. murmur—Vocab. windy withal. briosa. broza. Fr. brimsa. breath. bratscher. a cold and windy mist or frost . to roast. brustia. remains of leaves. peitschen. applied to shivering. fastening . crush. representing the sound of a blow. then to broil. braia J OFr. Swiss Rom. also to chill and shiver with cold. brew. of straining. bruc. bridsen. in Schilter. scent. brasiare. to feize or feaze. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . polenta. Lat. Fr. — . one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. as. Breast. bruzun. brache. grill. bremse. murmur. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. binding. brisoler. bark Fr. G. Breath. may be from the wurh fesser./ssus. point to G. the dry spines of furze broken off. bre- I'os qui bresole. braga. Breeches. brut. to shiver for cold. brugga. G. an into shiver. xyligogio castigare. brok. briiz. . to bray. Sw. braux. as. bragues. briosa. are in like manner ' . to murmur. Prov. bandage or truss for a rupture.). breson. brumtnen. w. rubbish. Brize. to buzz. from brace. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. rubbish. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. subligaculum. — . E. coaldust. G^nev. to smack. brison. so AS. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. forms analogous to E. Piedm. forms. &c. . as in the case of twitter. PI. Swiss AS. from ligare. to simmer. simmer. drawers. braguier. braie. briig. E. the breech or buttocks. and brought beneath between the legs. bris de charbon. braucn. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. Originally probably the word signified steam. brossi!. fitzen. morsel. trusts. fail. to be misty and cold. sheep's droppings bruss. bruise. — Halma. their stings draw . as the G. Bruise.98 borst. —Briss. The Breech (Prov. It. a smack. Dan. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. . switch. sprouted corn. chilly. bruzir. AS. briste. to fry Then from a Gl. QNtsterviald) pritschen. Swiss brdtsch. braca. brodem. brissle. a crum. simmering. braciarc. Rom. burst. met de bridse slaan. to whip. brijsen. brijselen. . brdtschen. b}-as.D. The Teutonic verbs. G. Russ. See Brick. siibligar. a cramp-iron for holding things together. to hum. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Gl. Fris. brcEth. to brew. instead of being derived from 'La. broden. noise. — And blood. Du. einem de britze geven. Piedm. a crum Du. zare. briosat'. orts. We bragezj on. . brise. a cool wind. bretilles. Hume in Jam. malt. clout for a child. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Breeze. — See Broth. to resound. to bind. brciz. brezling. brisd. to fry . braga. to crackle. brasiuiii. to burst. vapour. Du. To Brew. braies. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. bresilles. as by the Sc. Lat. cloven. Gael. with It. Briss and buttons. Biglotton. Prov. braies. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Dtyden. bryi^ga. Breeze. i5r(Z^. a girdle. brezzare. /esses. brodel. Bret. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. Breeze. Gl. but more probably the E. G. to breech. Hence the Lat. Bret. grillare. a to lay fly-flap. Compare OE. little bits of wood Berri briser. break. a gadfly. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. brire. — — strument for smacking. de Vaud. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. properly to crackle. brimme. and E. Goth. dial. a twitch for a horse. OFr. brasser. brist. G. are related to Prov. bris. brinisa. brcekur j It. bracecs . bra.t. . brisciare. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. brezza. brusc. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. AS. Dev. broil. the bust. singing bone. as commonly explained. Du. trembling. Du. the soler. de bridse geveii. corresponding to G. body brostia.vare. to break. grillen. breeze. of E. griller. breost.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. broiiwen. an odour. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. or the blow itself.britschen. a box. britze. breme. from AS. So ON. bris. braca. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. chillness or shivering.

Ducange. So in The Prov. to press. crew.rough with brambles and bushes. bryd-gutna. brahi. bricou. priod. peculiar. bride. troop. it is applied to the letter to OE. Walach. brilt. beaten way Dan. Du. So It. Fr. Pro(merch=:maid). brood. a proprietor. brasser. a brig or priodor. Hdcart. bribour. . bara briw. bread. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. frayer. to Isrew. thick appropriated. a heath. boiling up brocoliere. Brewis. bo. owned also propriate.groom. brA. bricge j G. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a man. It. Rouchi brife. a sow. a lump of bread. It. any jot or crum. grug. a bride. sugga.. from bit. betony brulicame. arf-ol. brar. a cheat. brique de pain. ap. Gael. broken. has briguer. broken victuals. Neumann. a heath brughera. . jipaaaiii. AS. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Pol. E. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. pavement Lith. but probably Bricoteau. Gl. pavement.privatus. a Bride. httle bit. The origin of the word is the w. OHG. to beg one's bread. groom (mab=:son). nurus G. E. brigade.pritil . masted vessel. funeral. bryd-eale. AS. Fl. of burial. AS. to boil. imprint. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. In E. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. feast. privus. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. then the marriage itself. braut. brieden. married. stone-bridge bnikkoti. consort with. a crum. Bridal. birbante. bride. pavement brolegge. broosekens. brukkas. company. Sp. ON. briicke. ' . betonica. remarkable that the Gr. Diefenbach com. piece of burnt clay. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. brug. buckler J ON. . G^n^v. a bush. ' — . bribe de pain. brigantine. to prepare. berwedd. priod-ferch. a little king's writs. a rogue. pier. bruskr and buskr. bridelj OHG. a lump of bread briber. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. which however is undoubtedly from brace. birbone. Due. hlafes brice. to break to pieces bricalio. If the foregoing were not so clear. a boiling. Bridal. Bridge. Brief. Lat. A bribe is A — — arval. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. brughiera. a bride Brig. heath. Dan. brere.Fr. guma. feast of espousals. bruarium. a briole. to boil. one's ovin. Flor. brygga. lipdZu}.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. Brique. Cot. bably contracted from brigantine. is still used in this sense. . a married man or woman Lat. briw. — . malt. brigata. Brier. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a bit. especially to a letter or command. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. to pave brukkti. and that from It. to meet together. to boil. It — is Kil. malt. . Applied ous words derived from break. corresponding or letter. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Fr. berwi. brocaly. daughheath.gfiugga. E. fragment. breve or brevis. appropriate. Brick. with transposition of the r. a crum. son. Goth. Thom. the marriage si in brigata. In the patois of briccia. a wedding priod-fab. bitill. E. graf-ol. fraoch. twopares Lat. See Broth. bruith. collect bits of food. or brizo. Hence OE. fit. fervere. bruyere. bridge. and berweddu. jetty. The Sw. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Ihre. whence berw. brakes of high-grown ferns. a fragment. Priodi. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Diez. BRIGADE dead. Brigade. the Fr. as so. bro. Trovarfor bride-ale. but to a paved road. in the sense of OSw. from Bret. to rub. to break. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. bygga. the newly. W. bretonica. Bridle. to brew. to tlie brico. bruk. . gf2o. ter-in-law.bergantino. Gael. Bribe. a fragment. brau. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Lang. brice. as. to pave. AS. the equivalent of to the dial. ibrukkti. briiths. Fr. to circulate. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. bruk. buskins. w. brutg. to press in. broken bread. a married man guma. brittil. AS. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. barren land priodas. briwo. a rogue . — — — — — — . fastningar-ol. a beggar. from the last 99 of which. In the G. bidsel. to appropriate. and ODu. Grisons bruch. . sponsa. served (Patois de Bray). a quoit of stone. division of an army. conjux. OSw. two-masted vessel. Mid. bro. AS. from the Normans. a lump of bread. A — A — . from Bridegroom. . ment of anything broken. to stamp. bulicame. .It. — .

dine. They or brigantini. with respect either to sound or colour. rover either by sea or land. Beorktode bene sweg. \oice. to piracy. outcry. Wilista. brdgen. a sound. in later times a robber or highway-man. clangour.' The passage from the sense of a light.pracht. to shine. brigan. 312. Due. inde squammatus. shriek with laughter. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to cry 'Schmid OE. twinkling. bray. to glamr. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. brigare. The E. See Brake. kii:'a. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. and. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound.shine. glamm. necessary business. to reservavit. to shift for with care. So G. a brigantine.Lat. glbram. OHG. splendour. on his — own account. the bench-notes resounded. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag.' in Due. brigandare.clare ^tinniens. clear. is easily understood. there are many armour. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. clear. seems to be to exert force gar el area. from hall. Brilliant. cange has 'Veles. Heo — song That AS. a spark. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. tinkle. to resound. moment. to ring. Owl and beorhtian. in the sense of a robber. Mid. riis ' — Chron. tinnitus. etincelle. brawl. loo BRIGAND lor. From ON. —Capgrave. to rob. malandrini. also called briganders. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. 1351. . bregar. dine. and diligence. A strepere. and the E. to rove. a small light pinnace pro. and hence be explained glampi. It. 1654. labour. clarus. rixa. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. Adelung. clear. tion. brigare. braid. brak. lay was sung. that of Fr. In the same way to strive is. clare lucens. wilella. secondarily. clear sound. schiteren. XafXTTpoQ. a noise. briegen. clang. to cry. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . then. strife. pugna.D. to strive for. — — . hell.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. splendour. a pirate. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. tinnitum clarum movco. and ner me hit iherde.dorem clarum reflecto. speech. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. may play the pirate or thief at sea. glamra. — A A . It. and led it away. to shine. bryhtm. It. Bright. brebrigare. schateren. representing a sudden noise. biartr. praht. in the first instance. to make a loud noise.— . AS. Bav. splendens . glir. show the origin of Lat. to contend with another. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. Gall. The primary meaning of Sp. — Briganbriga. the gleeman's song. briga. — Brigantine. Schmeller. .prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Florio. Xa/iTTii). the grew high. Du. — brigante. bragen. Brigata. squamma . Brigand. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. splcnornd de brigandine. Swab. kilistua. beorht. a glittering. sound. — brigante. briga. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. A. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale.glampa. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. jurgia. bright bearhtm. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. — Due. glitter. and secondly. — Beowulf. Flor. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . noise. to bend a bow It. transparent. It.' The sense of strife or combat express. brcEhtin. tumult. Goth. In Fin. at a later period. bracht. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. willata. combat. and to associate with them. to glitter. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. brigant. bairhts. Lat. to sound. The Ir. — Probably then to strive. himself to serve men of merit.' torum. Gr. tuilahtaa. manifest ON. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. and.

breziller. Brim. kajata. to . properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. margin. the sow is brimming. Sc. The expression is now confined to the sow. Subo. Hence with an initial s. — — — . griller d'impatience. Fl. brand-krossottr. to glitter. FJ. ON. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. bry7ie. kimmaltaa. sparkle. brinfire. from brandr. furious. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller.' Elyot in Way. broil . the eye-brow. perent. komista. to make bilbil). Rayn. breme. brame. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. rugire. cross-barred in colour. excited. 1. as of meat in broiling . bryn. crackle . brummen. brommen. brmdottr. In the same way Sw. glisten. brunft. lap of a garment . . bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. the heat of animals. . to sparkle. Brindled. the verbs Flor. to long for a thing. brow of a hill. kimista. from bringe. It. griller. originally the lap folding over the breast. ON. parched. bramar. Supp. a streak. to fret . the heat of animals. brama. vattubryn. Kil. burning stone. vigorHal. brummen : de soge brummet. In Fr. beam. to glitter . seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. glit. Closely connected is OE. fringe . (poet. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. s. brdnnsten. with an initial br instead of gr. breziller. to parch. to burn. bremmen. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. broiled. sonitum edere bremen. to roar. E. finds the Fr. or violent action. Streaked. Dan. — g. brullo. to creak. ON. of the eye. ter. — Rim. brissle. Fr. tience. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to utter cries. burning. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. to quaver with the voice. — . brillare. briller (related to each other as OFr. Said of swine when in heat. to resound. a border. Brimstone. small gravel. crackle. Sw. The identity of ON. breme. and corresponding to these. bar. border. that the original meaning of the Sc. a rod. a borDu. kimina. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. 1 1 64. as is the case also with Pl. barm. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. brennistein. the meaning is transL' amour. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. an apron. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. the singing of Sodom — — . to glitter distance . It. barm-cloth or barmskin.) brimi. brezil. to broil. briller. also to reflect. rym^. Prov. is used of raging. grisler. voux. rugire (cervorum. Brem. Tresiller. grullo. a stick. surface of the ocean. noise made by meat in broiling. gresiller. sprainged. . to shine. to shake. border. Langtoft. a long. bremas. kiimottaa. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. to creak. fimbria) . must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. fringe (Lat. frequently interchange. AS.ioTiviS acutus. Du. to wish or covet. 754. whence bilbil-goda (literally.preni. to shimmer. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. to shine. : ' — bone). The meaning of the Fr. spraing. Lith. to storm. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. coloured in stripes. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. reecho. as in Langued. greedily to covet Cot.its vent in cries and roaring. gresiller. grdzil. 154. brandr and Fr. brastlian.— Brinded. bray as an ass bramire. komottaa. der. pMiller. Tutschek. griller). — — So Fr. brimmen. as well as bl and gl. post. ardere desiderio. border. fire. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. ring. kommata. earnestly . Dief. on. brant. lap. have then in Fr. brim. lip of a vessel. to twinkle. bremmen. Wtb. rut. G. bramire. To Brim. brisoler. bramar. ling noise and a sparkling light. the lap or bosom. A . brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to crackle. It. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). Rugere. barmr. to roar. striped or streaked. Swiss Rom. bramer. to crackle. to make a crackling noise. clangor tinniens. Sc. grisser. hence the bosom.). to sound deep or hollow. brumft. and 1. edge Pol. briller. leonum).— BRIM . brame. os qui bresole. fierce. Thus Lat. s. the edge. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. dial. greDiet.' d'etre marie .D. identical with passion. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. The E. shine. to shine. which seems identical with rim. bresoler (Gloss. brim Magy. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. whether of desire or anger. AS. ous. chime). to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion.

G. shoot. a brooch. as. broccata. brandello. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Alfr. Boh. strong itself. to set up one's birse. birsle. — . brocco. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. to thrust. borstel. brittle. to bud. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Brickie. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brickie. rash. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. bristly .g. saulmeure. ON. Dan. startling. Fr. Gl. brust. Brisket. bros.Lat. Palsgr. craw of a bird. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling.rcendij'i.). thick — A elastic hair. Bret. It. and. Brittle. to stitch. trembling. birse. brich. brusk. 'In sua to stand up of Corn.' Nat. are used in the sense of brittle. e. the surf. Swiss to stand out . brim (poet. Breeze been connected with the Sc. . — A . brusco. brog. . brindelles de balai. birstle. Da. See Spread. to break. Liquamen vel garum. Bohem. brodden. Brooch. to goad. britar. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. britchet. See Brand. coli. apt to break. NE. brusque. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. an awl. Brisk. smart taste. to begin upon it. a skewer. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. spur. rebursiis. 'V^. birssy. a projecting tooth It. ' . brisciare. Hal. metaphorically. borzen. brioshko. cK) the . — bryme. Sc. brockle. Pectusculum. has under It. Fris. the brisket or . Fr. to scorch. aculeus. to stab Gael. as a noun. braidsj ON. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. as unripe fruits.D. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. to broach a business. roar of the sea saltr. to burn. brissle. brissko).procio. fragile. britar. Du. and Sc. p. setting the hair on end compare It. In the N. to break. a morsel . brytan. breaking of the waves brim sior. ' breast. i. and forms on. rude. bryde. grim. spricka. Sp. brime. Compare also E. and hence. briocho. from brande. quick. of E. brittle. to spur. /3pE^m. It. broca. angry. Mid. Bristle. Walach. to shoot. byrst. is to erect the hair. brot. brezza. setting the hair on end. ruffling. or the full • . It. brimme. crabbed. Abroacli. a bud. . Berri. Bret. Commonly explained as from Fr. — in Due. . Fr. brocchus. briser.'— Vita'abbatum S. Fr. Russ. expression. brin. brim. ribrezzoso. broca. reburrus. Hence ribrezzare. Port. borzos (struppig). to crack. to shiver for Sold or for fear. brezzare. as. very salt brimi.. brijn (Kil. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. prick with Sw. Du. sour. . brocciare. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. hot-tempered. It. Brym. humorous. to spur. a fragment. a bud. wine of a sharp. a rod or twig. bringe. borst. Gr. a belly. Lat. brimhliod. lively. a rebours. a bit . sharp. harsh vin brusque. fantas'* tical. brocar. brichet. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. a cold and windy mist or frost. emotions which produce it. to broil. to stick. a stormy brimsea . to turn up the point of anything. bryne. a slip or sprig of an herb . sprocco. See To Brim. eager. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. a clasp. bruskett. Fr. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). of astonishment. Formerly written brotil. briota. bros. chest. brddj Goth. or — . the twigs of a besom. Sc. as.). brote. a stitch brocher. Sw. brocco. sticking up . flame. bresk. Salte sand is called brimsand. bringue. 222. broche. brcit. bringe traced through the brano. is called a birssy day. form bris. breaking out into growth. Ptg. like the Broad. a shoot or sprig. Brocade. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. to put one in a rage . man's throat. a brad or tack. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. rebrousser. Brine. breast. . against the grain . Cot. Antiq. sprout. broccare. fierce. Russ. brocher. Then as the effect of shivering. bricho (with the diminutives. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. Prov. flames. breidr. to birstle. sprouts. b. bruckle. from break. a crum. the surf. a button broche. Fr. whence may be explained the Sc. broc. to roar. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. birs. — — . a peg sbrocco. to set it a going. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. to spit. a spit. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. suddenly angry. briota. The Pl. Prov. a deluge. Zeuss. stitch. bruched (Fr. brisk in taste. from AS. to break.. brim. bronchus. fiscbryne. a morsel. Prov.

brasiller. The Bret. brindled. broighlich. brouda. Fr. Contracted from Fr. ToBroider. bordo. point to an origin in Bret. scorch. fundamental origin. grislement. brocach. — Fl. an edge. border ornamented with silk. broglio. brodio. brusler. to crackle. thread. Grisons brascla. border. So from Pol. brasuole. grullo. a fallingThe sense has been out. to crackle as a shell in the fire. broice. brusuole. a confused streaked face of the animal. brocco. gresiller. Cot. Compare also AS. Gael. to boss. a b?-ustolare. brychau. speckled. to instigate. ornamented with a raised pile. noise. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. 103 embroidered. brucach. spotted. Icnotty. Ptg. a brim. rustle. to stud broccoso. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. from the white. to crackle. prasseln.sound. To roast upon hot coals. to darn. to On the other hand the Sp. broil. parti-coloured. broccuto. age was termed a pricket. . brucilare. gold and silver. to burn. a freckle. initial . carbonado. motes. precisely analogous to the Sc. bmsciare. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. — — . two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. B. a prick. streaked. sparks E. b?-od. Florio. broud. broder. embroidering. a flock or Gael. borprick. a border ornamented with gold. frecSee Brawl. blusters. parched. A fried or boiled steaks). trouble. and AS. bram. — . embroidery. bj'oil. a border. broc. Cot. rinj'. has grisser. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. brooked. bawling. Fr. storms. or roast on the braise. bustling. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. brasiller. ciare. speckled. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. atoms . It. — Gower in It. bordar. q. the shoot of corn. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. — brissle. knobby . a mole. a brouhaha. bruler. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. sting. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. parch. to broil. a To Broil. From direct imitation of Brock. birsle. Hal. breard. brizen. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. to spur. v. a flake of snow sion. Compare G. brerd. briefh. margin. brasolare. — The proper sense is that of Fr. kled breac. It of br the Fr.— B. Gael. broc. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. of pointing out their latent defects. Sc. to embroider. a badger. The ON. to knots or loops.tumultuous. Broker. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. brouFr. E. broiled. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. here. brastlian. Brocket. a brecJi. Surrey in R. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. and bord or bred. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. to scorch. onbryrdan. brych. Ihre has guU-bord. or salted fish on coals. a freckle. froco. or It. frocadura. broccato was used to signify stuff . brullare. creak. R. whence broccare. shuffle. tumult broighleach.. Sp. brod. brustle. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. bramowanie. parti-coloured. dar seems derived from borde. or snag. Thus brod. Sc. A badger. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to streaked or speckled in the face. a quarrel. trouble. tori shows that. prod. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. a point. hurly-burlies. to prick. piebald . Fr. tufted ornaments. the line of development has been something different. noisy. Here to ornament with needle-work. agree in being the extremity of a thing. and w. stump. W. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brocart. forming to jumble. to embroider.. to parch or broil. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. or glowing coals broged. badger . silkes-borda. briz. to crackle. AS. to burn. a peg. broukit. with Sc. . brasbrasciuolare. houx. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. Dan. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. hart of two years old. Bret. It. spots. confound. braird. broil. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. to crackle. freckled.

. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. abject. inspect. criticise (makeln). e. bronce. Fr. i. phlegm. inspection. Bret. See Broth. The use sunburn. an outcast or rejected sheep. to sit on eggs. a fault. to copper. refuse goods. . broen. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. which E. to be hot. as. 396. Adelung. fish-spawn broden. mediationem quorundam J. . Fl. — . Commonly referred to the notion of warming. a breach or flaw. brakyne. brumo. burning. brack-gut (Sanders). brack-gut. In those countries the term braker. wrack-good. to nourish. The Langued. hot. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters.D. raca. Kil. an . For the same reason the Kiittner. vrage. but from the primary sense of the It. warm. to . insects. slaae vrag paa. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. brasa. Pl. cast Lith. term was correcfo^ir. screatio Junfus . brunds. refuse. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. embers. bronzo. brands. hot. See Brackish. wreak. to throw blame upon. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. brokas. bridde. keep warm. G. brieden. make out. Alb. lack. sort. Sc. to emit sparks. brackefi. bronze. hrak. braeck goed. racher. to garble. . try . Grisons brinzla. couratier. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. a cough Hal. Alb. bracker. briiten. analogous to Bohem.D. the spawn of fishes. tussis. If to vomit . braken. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. cracker.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. nounce unsound. brak. an operation performed over hot coals. refuse brakowad. — a spark. vile. filth. whence the modern courtier. Russ. to pick and choose. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. reject. to sparkle. broiid. has exactly the force of G. goods damaged by sea-water. to hatch. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. w. to hatch. brokers' goods. ODu. • . Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. find fault with. and to reject the damaged and unsound. mud. dial. To blame mens ware. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. et A. brod. glowing coals. It may be compared with It. : ' . refuse Fr. brasa. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. embers. rejection Pol. on. ordure. brut. brid. corrector. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. refuse. OFr. dirty. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. S. See Wreak. in the sense of rejection. Pro v. spittle. to scorch. Per manus et old worthless horse. Bronze. — Fl. whnake. spittle . brydio. Brood. Pl. to roast on the embers. Dan. refuse brakovat. It. bring eggs and spawn into active life. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. to reject. to braze. abbronzanchiare. to be wanting. with. This word shows the same relation to It. correctarius. brae. On • tliis principle the G. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. damaged. sbrinzlar. and as an adj. wraken. vile. Lat. brechen. cherish. raquer. brack.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. or brascla. Abbronzare. bric-a-brac. — broeden. to sort goods . . brwd. Teutonic class : Du.D. progeny of birds. Tooke's Catherine. . blur. Jam. to blame. brak. to criticise.D. to hatch G. a makeln. in which sense the OHG. Du. embers to brund. merchandises de rebut G. rejected. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. Bronzare. To correct an exercise is to Lib. — point out the faults. selection. ON. to sort brakovanie. G. brass does to Sp. hraki. damaged. matter of blame weak place. buy and sell by commission. brokoti. refuse wares. find fault with. want. a brood . faulty. a chicken. stain. the young of any animal . fermenting. G. to pick. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. Du. trumpery. a broker. fault censure. sunburnt. racaille. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. from break. In the .— Breed. bronze.— Lib. to spit .— — . wrak. find fault — — — fuse matter. Sp. designation is indkler. from makel. brot. 38. tan. and fishes . bronze. to pro- to reject . to — garble. Pl. to brew. pan metal. bredan. Prov. try out. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. brod.

sap. Gael. It. breg. browys. juniper. may be connected with Russ. brwd. &c. bruich. pfriemkraut. bor. broem bark. OHG. sprocco. from ripa. waves. of which the variety of forms. sprout. OFr. brd. Cot. brow of a hill. bruscosd quam de arabili. brushbrothas) gives the OE. to shoot. a shrub broust. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. broi. braew. Fr. to boil. brawdj Slavon. hut. braussa. — ' . brus. signifying twigs. bregh. Manx broie. protecting the eye. shore. and Sc. frucius. eye-lash . from Goth. boiled . The softening down of the consonant bud. juice of meat. pour boiling water over. Due. edge. brow. But the Walach. Celtic. OHG. brucan. grow into a bush. G. infusion the barley bree. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. heath. bruith. properly boiling water briihen. to use. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Serv. bud. breg. braces. bank. plants composed of twigs. — . or shoot. bank. brodo. bordeau. eye-brow. Sp. a bud. a hut or cottage It. sproc. . breg. brun. broeye. forms appear related to the Ir. a confused noise of winds. bruceti. broden. &c. broth. fur Broom. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. Gael. brov. brocco. a sprout. brushbroccoli. bree. of plants broust. . brosses. awl-plant. thick bush brousta. broud. brouet. AS. . sprouts . margin. w. as rhododendrons. a caldron. bruddeln. low The AS. brst. broca. shoots. cabbage water. brukjan. in which brinnan. buds. To digest. circuindedit cum familia. as small-pox. G. Commonly Teutonic. to boil. ceales briw. . brouser. Kil. brouic. broza.D. Bret. who is steaming with sweat. Pl. . broth Brown. a sprig. to murmur. sordes seu strigmata young branch. breh. broth brothaire. Limousin broudi. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Bohem. . brau. briar. bntdien. dumetum. brosses. shoot. fabric consists. bruitheati. infusion.— Overyssel Almanack. shrubs. It. It is Brother. Du. and also border. ale . has briw. Gr. cia. brue . broo. riviere. dialects is very different. bordel. to browse. bank. brewis. perhaps burnt coloilr. brogues. borde. bruithim. eye-lid. brabruach. G. to spring . signifying low wet land (Brem. wood .braubiti. to sprout. The AS. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. Bohem. Sanscr. a derived from the boards. shore . Russ. brouskaol. brdtaj Gael. heat. to bear patiently. thairj w. on. . spuma. AS. Russ. to boil bruithe. break out brewet. rerum decoctarum. Tam de terrS. strength Ir. frater. a bruth. See Bramble. frui. heat explaining the Prov. Gael. — . Prov. to use. to bubble up with noise. . to border. noise. (for brodem). border. iVlanx broogh. eye-brow. Mid. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. hovel. riviera. Roquef. to boil. strength. G. Bohem. eminence . BROOK brook w. thicket. brouches. bros. b7-un. Catalan brossa. mettle. Du. to use bruks. . or broken up . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brpuster. hot. to Pl. bratrj Lat. shrub with leafless pointed edging. enjoy Goth. a hill. broth is sometimes used . eye-brow. bryn. Fr. Browse. eye-brow. or bushes and scrubby growths. edge. sodden. steam from heated bodies. Fr. rage. juice of briars. . broth. and Slavonic families. 'Lzt. brusmalt. Bav. brew . bryii. borda. broth the ocean Sw. house of ill fame. a shore. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. verge. brothas. on. bruich. a spring. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . Ppim. . a source Gael. brost. . Here we find throughout the Romance. to scald. bruth. a bud brous-koad. Prov. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. briihe. branches.' Due. Fr. &c. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brad. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. meal. The meaning of the word brook in the low G.spross. cabbage soup . brotar. Brothel." Serv. and It. Ger. brmi. Brow.D. kail brose. sprot. — exiit et heath. eye-lid. a river. . sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Sc.brons. a hill. t— Cot. vigour. Gris. surface of Broth. brozia.brink. seethe. G. The origin is a re. augen-braune. brouter. briu.. It. . Lat. surDu. sense the Sc. bryn. face. broc. brauwe. Fr. broit. bros. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. heath. to browse. eat. . a little house or cottage of timber. brudi. brost. w. bank. brass. braun. Wtb. brotar. brlgh. brous. Bret. warmth ch'an. useful G. brodem. brio. brosst. grow brossa. broieii. Gael. &c. laissent Domunculum. bruno. brink. bushes. vigour. Sp. 105 Brook. Dan. brennen. a . bhratrj Zend. the bubbling or springing up of water. . chen. the colour of things burnt. simmer from the murmuring AS. to burn. sprout. Pol.) . to roar. a little . A — . spirit. as Fr. bruach. pith. brstiti. broccola. pottage. bruc.

a blow. bruskr. brushwood. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. It. seems named from burst(on. Piedm. brustia. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bud. brusco. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. a brush Swiss bruske. Prov. brisd. quisquilise. brist. . britar. and . . brustia. Cot. The Lat. briketo. a shrub composed of small twigs . biirste. brist. and also Brush. wool-card. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. remnants of hay or fodder. Sw. broza. burs. brusc (Diet. fasx . brusca. Fr. brosse. to break. And that best is. AS. heath. Bruit. Pr. B?-usske.). brunt. to make a rumbling. brossa. Pr. wool-card. bross. brosst. bushy ground. Fr. bruscolo. . to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. 174. Brush. and sighid therewithal. bruscia. a horse-brush. OFr. Palsgr. E. Broach. into a multitude of points. Alexander. Beryn. — OE. brico or brizo. brusco. E. OE. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Diez. biirste. tremely. shoot brouskoad. dust. — Fr. Prov. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brizeto. Brunt. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. a rumbling. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. bricalio. brik. Pm. shock. Bret. bris. bris. brusg. Prov. brossar. bruire. brustid. splinters. britar. as It. In E. Text Soc. To brush then would be to dust. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. dust. to cleanse. rods. field. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. appearin Goth. insilio. Sp. a little brizal. It. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. broza. Gael. bruzir. a brush . Pr. Allit. fescue . modification of the same root which gives the E. wood composed OE. chips. broken. a tuft of heath . but on whom it schall to brisen him. borste. a brush. rubbish. brousso. it schall be al Sw. desbrisar. fragments.). insultus. crum bit . brMt. Bruise. . There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. . of twigs. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. a brush . a bud or sprout Bret. Prov. bruise exOFr. brusca. briser. brist. crush. bruc. bruit. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. 201. Fl. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. to break. tuft of grass or hay. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. flax-comb brossettes. G. Lang. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. a mote. brus. a bud. borste. a noise. brysan. dust. bris. broustia. brist j Port.). That in all haste he wouli. wool-card. E. a brush. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Gael. sordes. Sw. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Wicliff. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. * Brunt. Fr. brust. brosse. bris. or sodenly comyn' dust. to brush. or shoot. — those signifying a sprig. escousse. K. Port. also a head-brush. bross. a — — (Agea) said. bruis (sing. On the other hand. dust. to crush. to make brusshes on. coal See Breeze. brise. ca7-bo>i. quasi twigs. Fr. a bristle. a briser. Hall in R. break. Fr. borste. brous. to break to bits . to strike the foot against an obstacle. a flax comb. to butt. orts. and It. bruscolo.— — i. borst. irruo. brous. borste.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. burt. rubbish. an enmy. effort. brisar. brottcher. 134. G. a brush . detergere . Castr. See next article. shivers. —Chaucer. Brunt of a daunger. bush. blow burcar. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . Pr. —Fabyan. broust. brossa. and actually come in collision. and Piedm. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Gael. — a bush. twig. Piedm. a brush . Bav. . briiis (in the pi. twig. brit. Gael. and in the second place a besoiB. brosst. borste. a bush of hair. a bristle. Lang. Pm. brikan. brugir. abroncar. to stumble. bruyere. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. ling or heath for brushes.— Palsgr. to break or burst. A. ON. brista) or breaking out . It. mg Cat. a brush. bruiser. The Bav.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Poems. Cot. p. bruito. a crum. . rubbish. NE. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. The same relation holds good between G.

smokipg meat were called buccaniers. bduclien. moczyd. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. — — ' A : ' ' . a. byge. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. not so plentiful a commodity. to a place used for the mouillir. Bret. moist. mieknad. bwch. . The place of such a 2. a hole. bokni. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. Bohem.boukaat. boc. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. buquer. Dan. to murmur. bubBuck. drying of produce. is 1.derivation has been much discussed. bubseti. was called bucking the linen. boucaner. March 28. bubauti. . to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. This bubette. Fr. of wind. thunder gently . lye. bucaIndies. and then to other wild tumour Lith. rap. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. de la Floride. The word was very generally Buccanier.byka. Pref A. a bubble. In G. from weich. pokka7na. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. Fr. watery bud. Fin. at a door. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. boh. the lower soak in lye. See Dupe. different form. buerj It. bublati. as G. soft. to buck. who resorted to the islands beichen. tender. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. to butt. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. the first wheal. Sc. bucking. ac. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. a fescue. in which the flesh dish. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. . boc. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee.to allow a free current of air. when soap was tion is commonly taken. bugd. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. bucata. bubbola. hump. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. a bubble. tap . a steep for flax. Sp. to bubble. Bubble. The term bocan is still ap. to wet Pol. bubiti. buquer. soft . soft. Bret. and as a verb. The cipally on the Spaniards. Etym. and the bunch. Gael. buck-ashes. Cot. 1857. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti.-wtt miekki. plied in the W. because bucare does not in Marsh). to soak foul linen before washing. .tare. . becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. open lath-work. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. colada. bifbel. BUBBLE bruschetta. Formerly. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. a knock word. set of pirates in the spread. knock. the linen at buck. bub. and exercised their cruelties prin. erweichen. wood. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. a ashes. soft.buchen. 17th century. bouc. bucquer. bukke.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. bouk. 1586. it is beuchen. — . tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. to soften . to knock the type of anything round and swelling.wet Lat. A . It. blast or strike with the forehead. . to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. to stick. or projecTo Buck. mote. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). to strain. as a buck rabbit. Illust. buchen. Esthon. — . bube. hump. very generally designated by the same puk. lye. Magy. to which in their language they call bou. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. . to soften. says Laudon.' Palsgr. . The male goat. buborek.D. to soak. a to the male deer. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to soak. Pol. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. also applied Una. designation of a knob. to bump as a bittern. w.lessiver. But see Bristle. bog-aske. a. From an imita. does not hold. Diet. pukkata. bub. was called in Fr. to Gael. w. to butt. buck-ashes. to filter. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. The name. mokry. boil animals.— . to soften. I. bugada. caned' Hence those who established them. top. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce.steep or soak. soft It. News. to butt or jurr Dan. faire la lessive. a bubble . the upper for coifee. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. hog dressed whole). blister. Fr. tender. maban and baban. from colar. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. tuft. pup. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. Magy. molle. mollire. and Fr. a push. Sp. It.biiken j Svi. The natives of Florida. or mok. Pol. Bohem. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. It.

Bucolic. dinted.chissima. bdden. were To Budge. crack. a short thick man. having a boss. from bo. bocla. boaLat. boglyn. a buckle or protuberance. Lat. a cowherd. to un bout d'homme. gjeit-klauv. bucherare. weich. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. swelling. ein. ON. in the beginning of to pierce holes.. a trough).) . goat's hoof. words is converted into b. a budget. from bugr. pote. butzen. w. a shoot. . mani. of bac. bouge. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. agreeing with Gael. call bo. convexity. boss. inboachen. bog and G.stumpy man. * Bucket. bouton.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. clasp of a book. with let. to budge.goa. a little coffer or turgidus. the radical image seems to be a set plants. bogla. to butt. swelling. Budget. So on. to swell. a boss. butzen K. a pustule bout. Du.poot. Fr. a boy. a . A water-plant with leaves and gille. See Bulk. Fr. w. The knob or projection formN. child. bunch . Bus. boucaran. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. a bubble three thyngis. Swab. don't a baby). bulais daqui. ' . to bud or bocla. a boss. Dan.t-le!L{ * Bud.' And this sacrament bus have dial. boucle. dim. fur. built. bucherame. . The entire train of thought is bucket. dint . It. cattle. bulb. * Bud. excrescence. It termination is lost. bloquier. a navel. to thrust. a shield. Pol. bul. great pouch. Fr. bugnir. probably from the notion of bubbling.) as to soak. G. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. blow. a ring. imbuere. or male of to boil . budge. bloca. rump of fowls . no wheel bogeilio. boulj. bolgia. boucle. to boil. to move. put. the root of the Slavonic words gran. It. is to shrivel up. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. of bouge. also a leather tuft . potz. to word. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. . OFr. Wtb. .stuff. stud. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. boiling. The dressed fur of lambs. It./a. bougette. bouljein. skins pushit'. Fr. pulga. In the dialect of the Setti Cem.' Boccaccio. Bav. explaining Fr. with a central boss. Fr. — . K. soft. knob . noise . Mid. to boss or swell out G. bulga.. clump. a dumpy gin. sboge. Behoves. Gael. bollire. A buckle or fastening for botch. jSouKoXiKog. Prov. above mentioned. water message. Dan. to line with fur. Fr. ' . — . a small shallow and open tub. botzen. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. boucle. bod. pulga.r//'. Sp. bub. Prov. a bud. boccula. protuberance. a leathern sack. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. butze. In Lat. motus creber. a bump. bouger. stroke. knock. boucler. hump. bolgetta. Budge.may probably be explained by N. This expression boglire. To thrusting part of a long body. boqueranmis. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows.. and weichen. call. Sw. male or botzen. bucket Fl. Bret. seen in Hesse botz. * Buckle. boss of a shield. and of the Lat. set of a plant in bulk. — — . turgere buczendig.). bloca. a pail or flowers.Lat. Bav. butzen. a budget. The Fr. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. don't stir from hence. bump. . Buck-bean. of a surface. W. bulka. macero. Hardly identical with Fr. lump. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. case of leather . scion. with which it was ornamented. bougette.' Hal. OHG.n. wallet. a buclder or shield budge. call. Russ. bo. bouter. ornamental stud. Port. botzen. butt . bunch. a curl. pwtio. buachazlle. to pen cattle. to poke. Bret. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. . mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bod. pwt o Fr. bedde. Prov. bullion. butzen (Du. like a bean. loud Cot. — — . butz. a fold ceilio. bouk is a pail and with the dim. bucolicus. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. II I'a feru desor I'escu. Buckler. is doubtless fallacious. ble. trunk of wood covered with leather. Du. knob dwfr yn boglynu. bouclier. bulla. become bochen. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. boach.anything short of its kind.— . need. bode. bukke-blad. rabodS. . no business to do that. weichen. Fr. . brobrocchiere. bouprobably identical with inok. Mid. to 'soak. bug. . bud butzen. stir. from Gr. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a wallet. push forwards. . where the G. a servant. The word is a ddyn. and the reference to It. NE. whom it is still much in use. Hence quel.' Schm. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. ' . to stir. as in Fr. the word w ' — . Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. thrust. It. a tuft. Cot.pode. Pied. belonging to the calling of the chen. prick in a target. a stump buckle up. to graft or bud trees. weich. buckel.

mumming. Buffalo. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. also a G. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Fr. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. boo. Thus buffet would a tapster. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. bolgia. puff. bugbear. confused. It. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr.D. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. — — — Buffet. wauwau. bobaow. bwg. — Bogle. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. btifetarius. a buffle or a bugle. buffet. the place whence the wine was drawn. Buffeter. to puff. deadened. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. w. — retailing buffeter buffetier. a cuff or buffet. either alone or with various terminations. Esthon. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. The use of the exclamation children. The cry made to excite terror is then used. buffeteur. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Cot. Bufetarium.' perfield. Fr. bukow Ikow. Sc. buMagy. bo ! an interj. a skin. as from Lith. popo. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. Limousin bobal. buffet. Fl. bubiti. to beat. tabernarius. to a representation of his voice. smells . air. of colours. bw! It. to give a as of a blow. — thence it has been transferred in E. made to —Bugbear. a goblin).—Buffet. Buff. a side-board. dausinti. E. bolgetta. bau ! children./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . buffetto. From buff! of terror. buffer. Lith. buffet. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. bubus. dial. bufHe. Fr. baubau. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bumann. to strike face to represent the unknown. buffare. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. colour. a bugbear. to blow. bufogni. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. boman. Mid. often covering his E. buffare. buffen. to frighten . a block-headed noddy. while in Sp. A puff with — Fl.D. human. site The two — — iii. bauwi. to blow souffleU. stupid. ' They rether puffed at him. a budget. W.' La Crusca. or wild ox. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. Magy. buffle. Romola. G. bouffer. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. blurt or puff with one's mouth. buffa. dausa. from souffler. A blow. Gael. Lat. a hollow sound. God's boast seemed feare children.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Teet-bo. as Diez remarks. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. duff^ dull. rebuff. buffle-headed. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. &c.— Buflae. a dull BUG From 109 — A . cuff . leathern bucket. le reste emplissant d'eau. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . — Z. bubaRuss. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. scarecrow . to jest or sport. him but Boyd iugges. caupo. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. yar^aa. Fr. . buff leather. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. for this purpose is very widely spread. buffalo. made by a person. Cot. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. word other cases. and in Fr. a puff. soufflet. een duffen toon. from It. to puff. to rePl. a jester. Swiss baui. to blow . and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. bouffer. Fr. botffon. sounds. pulse . mingled with water. bubach. Sc. buffets. It. as emblematically making light of an object. tastes. or hath been Cot. bw. to give benti. a hobgoblin. The children were playing in an oppocomer. dull sound. as wine that hath taken wind. a clap. Hence the E. bufogni. senses. It. thus be translated to tap. to signify an indefinite object of terror. — La Crusca. Buff.D. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Buffoon. wine may The verb in taverns. —Boggart. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. bugs. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . It. to marre often tasting it .' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. a In . then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Pl. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. the buffe. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Lith. to bellow . often blown upon. A — Bug. 265. Pl. From bulga. bugle. buivol. to excite terror in Macleod. by metaphor. breath. things in Jam. Lat.

dial. also a bug-bear. bogk. threatening. bug-bear. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. — — ' . as Buffalo. biignt. pugalo. is very common. a boogg. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. bok. Hal. a bug-bear. forSc. quos what produces dread or disgust. a misshapen person. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. superbire. insect. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. 1551. Sp. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. well as the terrific object. of bugabo was given. Mid. saucy. — . provincially an insect. bug-bear. Grisons bau. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. of pipes sewn on. Big. It. 3. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. the buggaboo w.. bogil bo (e. Schmidt. Bogge. great or bug words. Magy. Fl. — boogg. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. mask ' . Grose. bug-bear. . Bugle. and a boggarty ing. bogk. scarecrow .— . banian boube. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. . Same as buffle. buba. poggl. Deut. ghost. boo. protuberant. to roar Aasen. fear. Mundart. — — .' In my time at horse is one apt to start.Fr. An ornament of female dress condread. a goblin. to take bug. larva (a bug-bear. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. bwgar. a bug-bear. bucula. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. especially to beetles or winged insects. bwg and E. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. bugler. bug dung-beetle. threatening. Swelling.. Bdronie. the Devil. insect. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Lith. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. bukati. the word is lin) bbgge. Russ. long. — — terror. to creeping things. a beetle. used in the same sense. troll. with more or less modification represents bau. roarHal. tion of the beetle tribe. Bug. Bug as a lord. a rabme. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. and in Lat. Chaucer. and is Deutsch. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. as an object of dread. according to Coles. paws the ground . w. I. to bellow. affright. to take fright. * 2. Lap. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. booggen. roo. high-sounding words. Fl. bug. xiv. boa-peep. bwgwl. earwig bau da grascha. 2. E. Lett. . the black a maggot. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. bukashka. is the dim. Hence bugle-horn. buffle. (Spurrell). bobal. Stalder bog. oxen. Manx boa. worm. Lesachthal. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. also a baco-baco. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. also a bug-bear. iv. b'dgni. baco. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. a bugbear for children. proud. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. bauginti. given in Chaucer. beugler. gad. : no BUG . rose-bug. an object of terror. 493. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. A similar applica. Serv. . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bugle. Swiss ing. fierce. The w. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. It. The name of bug is — . il brutto Demonio.3uhtii&:. pujalo. bugar. Illyr. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. a buffalo. to origin in the expression bugs words. boeuf sauvage. hert. pugaf. bau (Pureiglia. to bellow. modern English is appropriated to the OFr.loud noise. then a horn for drinking. big. fette. Swiss booggen. swollen. any disgusting animal. and in child's Magy. bugbear. to frighten scarecrow. BUGLE Tentennino. buggabod). terrifying ward. tumble-bug. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. shepe and gootes. thus connected with bug. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . buculus. Bible. bold. a. language any kind of insect. coco. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Cheval de trombugti. The final guttural of W. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. bogle. bbgni. W. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. disgust. monster. an insect. vermin. a proud overbearing man pujat'. blustering. high. Parolone. a silk-worm. to take fright. and bugle. Magy. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. i.Lat. See The name terror). bogil. Sw.

leather sack. . boulge. a round bulky body bwlgan. whence bylja. as water beginning to boil bolg. in Sc. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. domicilium. a leathern sack or portmanteau. jnake bulch. To Build. bolgna. crowd. Lith. mass. Hal. bugue. bullka. bag. belly. bulgen. the carcase.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. bubble. pouch builgeadh. . bolnyn. bulkaf. Lat. Othello. globule bolg-lhuingey. bol. bellows builgean. hull of a ship. to swell. sedes. as it was merly written in English to bylle. to swell. The radical sense is shown in Russ. bulle. bulcke. .' Palsgr. on. to build. Ptg. to throw out a convexity. bulgen. — . anything prominent.'— Cot. blow. lump. See Bulk. bulk or capacity of anything. G. husk. bug. See bollekeii next article. a bubble Gael. balcone. belly. buhe. Lat. bulbe. compare Da. straight will he 2. bulked or bumped out. Boss^. the contents of the hold. boss. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. a. a protuberance. bauch. Bourser. — — . bauen. or. balgs. hold or bilge of a ship. biilken. to bol. balg. van loock. head . Jno. in vessel. — Bulb. Pm. acervus. bulge or bilge. bolgetta.). For the latter sense ' — My . swollen OE. bolso. buk. knob. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. to undo the cargo. belly. Gr. in bulk. knot in thread. as well as is very variable. . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. pimple. inhabit. the capacity or burden of a ship.' Cot. bale. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. of an inflated skin. formed a farm. body. a water-bubble). Melancholy. be protuberant. Gr. .pulks. habitaculum. to spring. trunk. bukr. to puff up bolginn. skin bag. chest. to bubble up Pol. Pr. . . ' . or feminine termination gives Bav. . m um Placentiae. bubble.d. bulk is a partition of boards. bulg. ON. From till. body of a ship . bol. thorax buick. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. balg. Bolke or hepe. ' . bolle. a tuberous or bulbous root . or of what is shaped like a bubble. swell. bolgan. a stage or scaffold. projection. bulbus. pulkas. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. With these must probably be classed ON. skin flayed whole. Lith. the womb. swell. to belly out. the belly. bulk. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. 1388. cumulus. belgja. belly. to raise a habitation. bulge or convex part of a cask. a straw corn-vessel. bed of a river. bulka. it again. trunk. a globe. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. vulva. tumidus. Bulk. Pm. Dan. pod ON. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). — . OSw. Here stand behind this bulk. bouk. bulwis. Bulch. PoXj3a. Hence e. bol. pocket. to break bulk. Pr. A — ' — Bulk. a. — — . lump. to gather. Sp. of E. belly. bulne. a bunch. . hollow. stuffed bag. Bulge. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. the potato G.' Festus. nave or body of the church van 't schip. herd^ swarm pulkd. It. Mandeville. bo. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. Kil. a dint in a metal . skin of an animal. dial. The Walach. . unevenness Sw. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. knobby. balco. See how this tode bolneth. bole. swollen. swell. . trunk of the body. .' Anat. bulbe. gebolgen. bladder. a lump or mass. puff. a heap. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. belly Sw. snorting on a bulk. — — . a bubble. villa. G. w. The addition of a dim. the body Du. the head of an onion. cultivate. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bubble. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bubble {palgan tiisge. G. blister. He found a country fellow dead drunk. Palco. belly van de kerche. womb. blister. bwlg. principal portion. . . wallet. at riufa bulkann. and put it home. ON. . . were a habitation. MHG. to blow. mass. and N. byli. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bua. a bulb Du. or cargo of a ship. bilge. bulki. bolg. has bulbuk. boss of shield. a prominence. Dan. Bav. belgr. boa. boss of a buckler. bolle. tumeo. a leather sack or budget Fr. OSw. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Muratori. boss.' Fl. blister Manx bolg. . or bear out as a full purse. ball. In the representation of natural sounds. body of an animal. turgeo bolnyd. ^ — . the position of liquids in the word In English. bouge. (3oX|8oc. Mister. buc.— . and bulbukd. ne. bolgia. bunch or projection. beuck. knob. belly Cat. I. Lett. ' . bubbling up. to bubble up.

scarecrow. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. thick. bouillon. pwl. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. polten. a scare-bug. bolos Fr. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. This word is used in several senses. bugbear. a hornet. A papal rescript. Lith. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bulke. The bullfrog.. to bubble. in the sense of base metal. bal. bouillon. Pm. pimple. Eullrusli. any embossed work. The final element tergeist. it may be observed that a bullet in E. — A tition in a ship. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. of boule. b2iggaboo. from the use of the equivalent terms. from baula. a tadpole .Fris. in N. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. a little fish nearly all head. to boil. a seal. ba. but is more probably iden- palchetto. G. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Gael. poli-cheannan. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bullus. a noisy violent fellow. pollach. The wild plum. poll-cheannach. bulle. Du. bellow. The male W. blunt. bolli. bwbach.. Bully. Bullbeggar. the seal affixed to the document. /SouWivu. a blockhead. Fr. Bullace.D. as It. a beam or rafter. Sp. signifying roaring. w. a bull. a bul-begger.D. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. W. elves. lumpheaded . a framework of balks. however. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. a cow. Gold or silver uncoined. sloes. lumpish. biitzibau. dial. baula. it is boulet de canon. I. bulloi. from the noise. See Billet. is called a ball. boss. Bullfrog. urchens. spirits. large of its kind. witches. stamped money. to seal. bwlas. stamp. bubble. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. a bowl. is of a class with Pl. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. which may probably be the origin of the name. i. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. &c. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. stud. billoti in Fr. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. from Lat. a wasp. also a parFl. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. 3. whence bullire. Cot. tition of deals instead of a wall. the matrix or die . penbwl. beams or boards. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. of Witchcr. Dan. 2. N. to emboss . dim. and thence terror. bullern. bolla. Pl. whence Mod. G. bietebau. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. — — Bull. and vellon in Sp. coarse. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. It.lle de fusil. poltern. bullos. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. from Fr. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. See Bowl. brass-headed nail . Terriculamentum. on the contrary.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. any great-headed or studded nail. boulct.' do not go by the dangerous water. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. . Bret. bulk. bolli. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bulla. as a mill-dam or the like. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . Du. BuUiou. Fr. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. a seal. as in E. a hobgoblin. 2. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. bullocks..' Baret's Alveary in Hal. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. stupid . Du. to bellow. as the ornanails. w. And The word bullerbak. ON. Bullet. bollos de relieve. bulderen. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bollon. bullebak. bulla. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. bauli. G. as geting. bulk of a thing. a bull Swiss bullen. balgeting. leraures nocturni nigri. G. boillon. eth and frighteth. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. A lace tree. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. boss or stud. billon. embossed work. blister.. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl.D. It. bollar. round glass phial. many to protuberant objects. a bulox polos. a stud. of the ox kind.'— ' Palsgr. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. Du. a tadpole. from the Lat. hhint. BulUiead. to tical with Sw. assito. large. bellocier.Gr. bwla. bole or trunk of a tree. also of the tadpole or young frog. — Fl. a hobgoblin. Scot's Deso. stud.

BULLY with which coins were stamped. Etym. ^i^/«. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. The cry of the bittern. bol-werck. or a humblebee. AS. To bully is to bluster. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. Thus ' ble. poltem. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. is bullion — A — buller. buller-bak. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. provides. — Boom. 4 Hen. Kil. IV. on the other hand. Hence — . Bully. to make a noise . D. The 27 Ed. Hence bom and ban. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. — bombam?nen. — Bumto .' Again. hum. intonare. Philip le Bel in Due. The Sw.' Stat. to terrify by noise and clamour. From the notion of a humming. G. IIL st. primarily the ramparts of a town. — Bump. It. sound. 1305. bodem. c. by corruption boulevart.' ' mettre au billon. a floor. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. droning. scaffold. Du. bommele. 2. from boden. beat a — Hal. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. propugnaculum. 2. c. vallum. buller-brook. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. buller-jaan (bully. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. block-werck. 9 E. botm. a blunderhead. Bum-bailiff. bottom.' agger. the soil. A. baluarte. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . For bottom. furious man. to . ierd-boeyme. honunele. John). a hectoring. &c. 'lega. a noisy blustering fellow. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. ^Bully-rook.. 1687). argentum and silver. agrees with e. G.the ramparts. bottn. bulderen. bomtnen. a boisterous. The Stat. ierd-beame. violent overbearing person. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. buller-bas. Bum. boene. biihne.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. or work of defence. 2. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. boulevard. to make a droning Du.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. To Bum. blunder-buss. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Miege in Hal. provides. blaterare. 10. ground.D. buene.d. clamour. Kil. to dun. Bailey. bustle. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. noise. Fris. minari verbulderen.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. To bum. Bully-rock. St.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. violent. polterer. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. but now is the central part of the town. perturbare saevis dictis. blunder-buss.' reals of standard currency. a bumble-. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. to drum Lat. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . G. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. boisterous fellow. a stage. then in general a rampart. up was termed monnaie de billon.' for the purpose of exchange. bolderen. debacchari. resonare. c. The decried coin. buller-bas.D. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Du. ON. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. Fr. un faux brave. 14. Fris.. a. Sw. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. Hal. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. III. and porter au billon. is called bumping or bells. legaggio di metallo. bastion. — — plate d'argent. Du. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Kiittner. To bum. bombilare.

bungersome. S. to . Hal. bans. a knob. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Bumpkin. a bump. pwmp. pumpa. Bung^. from knock) It. OSw. A clumsy. a. bamgetroffen. Bun. Thus e. botn. butt end. gibber. &c. passes Sw. knuckles. a boil (punkos bot. a bunch Magy.^Cot.pummel. bung. Bony. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . H. or to the mass by which it is given. one ever saw the word in that shape. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bune or boon. poumpi. gibbus. — round fruit. See Boss. poumpido. a large . a round mass . callus. trunk.D. a heap. dial. . and signifies consequently a mass. bottom. bannock. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Then. bunsen. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Suffolk bonnka. protuberance. — — de dor bunsen. Gael. E.). knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bon. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bmidt. Dunchyn or bunchyn.P. bottom. and related with ON. clown. Fr. while bulch was traced through Gris. bugnone. stubble Manx bun. bump. awkward.S. Related on the one side to Pl. bunnion. to . to bang. Radically identical with Dan. bugno. bun eich. E. should probably be a short tail. Fl. bmike. mto Sp. pompette. a knotty stick) Sw. bunka. bunch— Hal. Bang sen. — — Bun. bund. the Pr. strapping. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bunken. Hence E. a bud.D. bugno. ! — knocking. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a bag or sack. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a dried hemp-stalk. bunan. calamus. bunki. Manx bonkan. a heap. Dan. a person employed to dun one for a debt. any round knob or bunch. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. awkward clown. Roding. explaining E. . Moor. Bums it's hit. bundle. stock. stock. a boss Lith. It. lenten loaves.' Bun. to bang ON. Pm. bunga. binge.. Bumboat. a heap OSw. Pr. so the form btmk. bulscha. stem or base. stump. . are dim. bunga. Forby. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. 1. bulto. Pm. bignet. bulse. pompon.! . applied to young persons. banke. Probably for bun-boot. a hemp-stalk. —Bunny. Pl. bunny. bun with ON. a bunch. . a rabbit. Lang. il me pousse. a into Dan. pumpurras. a boil or blain. a swelling. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. to ' . a knob. — — Bun. tundo. stalk. a pumpion or gourd. He fult dat et bunsede. from bunsen. especially girls. any round knob or bunch. inconsiderately. Bunk. Bunch. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bumsen. bottom bun feoir.D. strike E. a bowl P1. Kyx or bunne. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. ner. . a purse . boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. hdk passing and E. bu<rnone. bunkc. to swell out E. dial. noise. throw down with a bang. . or grete knobbe. bolsa. Bunch. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. . See Bounce. bull. E. round mass of anything. cluster. a tail (Macleod). The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Pl. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Bunewand. Mrs Baker. abrupt manbuns-wise. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. hay stubble . Dan. clumsy. . Ir. bugnet. a heap or cluster. signifying one who does things in a thumping. bum-boot. to knock . a lump on the foot bunny.. — stalk . knob or heap. boi7ieog. a wallet. buns. Hal. a. seems to unite Gael. bonge. truss E. bunke. nor would it concern the public if he did. Sc. to bang down. Again. bumtel. large. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. A Du. — Marine Diet. to beat. Hal. Daal bu7iseti. Holland and Flanders. Du. as in other cases. Bump.' he fell with a bang. — — — — ' — knock. a heap Wall. blain. Li cake. bonuach. . banga. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bunt. He buncheth me and beateth me. root. BUNCH bum-bailiff. lungeous. to beat. foundation w. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Pm.— Bunnion. a hump. To bam. Gael. .' Palsgr. Fr. . the tail of a hare. a Sp. stubble of beans. a knock. a rabbit. to strike so as to give a dull sound. an old stump of a horse. to thump. . w. a pocket Sw. lump. See Bunch. forms. a button.— Pr. root. Probably from bump. as we have seen E. Sc. Hal.-^Fl. w. bun. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a dry No . Bumsen. knochen.D. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bonnock. pwmpl. bongie. a swelling from a blow. pwmpio. . stump. . a knob . bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow.

and van t' vat. So in Pol. G. dicimus rufum. to gingle. to bud forth. The word is flags are made. boei. banga. to work ineffectually. contignatio. with the head. rumble as the bowels.— . G. Fl. to stnmi on an instrument. to bear. Fr. 202. colligatio. something bound together (Mrs Baker). bouche. a wisp of hay or straw. stiimpeln. bondeau. clumsy performance. sprig. The stopper for the hole in a boia. boya. Prov.Fris. Burden. tinker . byrthen. the bung of a barrel Lim. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. the middle part of it. that the primitive meaning of shackle . bondel-loos. russet. bui. boj. the loose open grow big about or gross. Sp. burion.' Festus in Diez. Fr. to float. buove. clogs. dark. To bunt. shove . to knock. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. So Du. to push. Pl. bundel. from beran. Bung of a tonne or Lith. — btiruii. Sp. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. OFr. and E. Hal. Banff. Fr. a cork. loosed from bonds. — Bureau. Burganet. bang. to knock. biirde. on. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. Bunny. however. racket. fascis. bunta. OFr. to cobble. tap. The Italian buio. shackles. Kil. To Bunt. bury. the noise of drums. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Bunting. — — To Bungle. ghebundte. bove. and bomme. a bungler. bourguignote. Burly. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bond. bote. bongun. coassatio et Du. p. to work at carpentry bangan. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. fetters. to strum on an instrument. bourgeon. to botch. OG. whence bunting. punishments for prisoners. . in is Fr. Cot. dial. Bundle. working in wood (especially with an axe). la Borgonota. to Somerset is to sift. bundt. A Dan. To burgeon. Sw. Biu'geon. bonde. to kick. Sw. Prov. banghagr. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Johansen. byndel. especially in wood. AS. anchor or of a net boyar. generally known as the material of which bud. an anchor buoy. bommen. Burden. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Muratori. the float of an bundle. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bindini. borboUar. a water bubble made by rain. Cat. also a piinple in the face. of a song. Russ. bundle. bouchon. and Du. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. halm-tapp. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. a drum . A load. Compare G. stilmpern. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. properly a Burgundian helmet. gyves. is originally a wisp or bunch . the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to stop. bongani. and now more Bailey. to hum. boucher. to bolt meal. . bolting-cloth. dark grey bura. A bubble. To do anything awk- wardly. It. bonde. or used as a receptacle for papers. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. Sw. buret. or putting forth of a vine. Burble. to hum. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. stocks or such OSw. bangla. — — . the stopper of a cask). * Buoy. Bret. to resound. ho-tapp. racket . a bung. Lat. bang. tapp (whence tceppa. bondir. a sort of helmet. klimpem. — . do a thing bunglingly. to in to stop the hole. B. Sp.punt. buie. bou^e. a bunch. and the Sw. bummle. bourjon. Rietz. knock. the young cloth used for sifting flour. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. bungande. a botch. bounta. burboloti. bon. Palsgr. klempern. to hum. unskilful working. borgonota. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . modem bummle. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. to gingle. The Fr. would be the earliest float for an anchor. to bungle. driving in the bung. E. B. See Borel. bondelj bundell. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. are from bouscfie. bondon. Bung. Fr. knocking. See Barbarous. The belly or hollow of a sail. or tuft.D. bangla. See Bun. bimge. whence in bure. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. boil or bubble up. bunsen. See Bourdon. to stop. guggle as water. to pype. was formerly pronounced buro. dial. ' — work . Bunt. on. buret. . To bunt in Burgundian fashion. a boye. to push with the head del. . From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. knocking. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. tinkle. AS. N. to shove. Sp. reddish brown. . bag to catch the wind. Du. The Magy. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. bourion. a bunch Burbulas. to push ghebondte. noise.

a bladder. brynsten. to bud . robber. See under Bore. and Dan. buirleadh. big. fire. boura. a margin. burgen. he rustle. Sw. to ridicule. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to roar. explaining the E. a wine skin. and OG. and the Burnish. bruse. brunir. burly.. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. a lie. From Fr. to ridicule. OFr. Nat. ^Notk. boure. In the manu. with Dan. ^ttsa. from bryii. — — . a spring a robber. to roar (as lions. E. blow. 56. borr. Sw. Sp. an &c. broil. ON. to sharpen. brinii. The in. an edge. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Burglar. to Gael. brAler. Lang. roguing beggars. like. ample of polishing metal. . born. 122. bears. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. repartee . to effervesce. tahko. brunna. sbornoi. to bouronna. a bubble to spring as water. a knob. sea. Bret. j. barrel. Burly. as the / in purl. like the wind in trees. singe or scorch with fire. Fl. toast. embraser. It is probable indeed that Fr. bunch. bururus. to swell oneself out as birds borras. a whetstone. sicut sound. schleiffen. Castrais bourril. From the same root E. protuberance. sidiary element. brinnen or Also ein roar. with little iron nippers called burling irons. tumentum. the flocks.. burgeois. briis^. Compare also Piedm. and the Burin. which has given much trouble to etymologists. brasa. purra. brunnr. A — — . to burgen or wax big. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. crackle wood in burning Hal. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. watery. become big and proud. to make a So from Fin. borracka. to burn. lorra. OE. compared with G. to bourda. lerre.). cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to polish helmets. like straw or small . Pren7ien. borrelen.— Pr. bourou. dial.j'own.' Cot. to swell. bouril. burlare. BURNISH i5«r/. It. brustle. leo Fin. boiirre. brima. Bav. . Pm. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. Bouffer. language of folly or ridicule. Pr. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. to fiy. a gurgling ^. Antiq. &c.. to swell with pride. — .. to polish. Limousin bourdo. Swiss Rom. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. the roaring surge of the — — — . Burryn. Fr. pur (see Burgeon). surge or dashing of the sea .latus rei angulatas talikoincn. burgensis. de Vaud. a jest. condemnentur morti. swell up or strout out. is connected with brim. has also borr. to tell lies. to rub. joking. bremmen.ireui£r:e. to puff up borr^ . strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu.or bubbling up. knob. So also Sw. angular . burle of cloth. a fountain. to surge.. from the roaring sound of flame. it of the knots. G. Goth. Fr. See Burr. thence. — — . brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Burler. Burgh. flocks.sharpen. a bud. . to hum. The Gael. to grind on a whetstone. bururus. as of suggests. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Hence Bridel. as in cousteau. It. to roar. brunnen. a prominent eye borracka. brustolare. to sharpen on a whetstone. brun. is an Thus G.). bourglairs. i5«r4 biiirte. burn. Walach. Todd. occupying much space. Probably a modifica. in Schm. See Burgeon. — — . to roar. burgi latro. to To Bum. brim or edge of anything. to puff. warbling. a bubble. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. borujon. tion of the root which gave the OE. Burn. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. brimmen. is termed burling. must be explained on the same principle from G. burren. explaining Sp. OFr. A burl. brusler being a faulty spelling. N. ends of thread. borni. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. jest of. Fl. G. Swiss Rom.Ps. a blaze. Fr. to burn. bruzir. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Cot. taunt. to murmur. tahkoa. fires up. purrata. a purling hiwe brennen. mockery. — Han to bruser op. In the same way ON. Burgess. pressa puret. — . Bestiary. brook. . Burgher. as Diefenbach bud. abourioner. Burlesque. to roar 5. ends of thread. to roar. laer. The primary origin of the word. purling. from Lat. See Berough. OE. brase.' a jibe. to set on fire. Gael. the word seems Pm.— . swelling borr-shuil. Probably. ' rugiens. brausen. It. grancelli. A legal term from the Lat. a well.bryna. the er is a dresser of cloth. the J in OFr. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. bud or sprout forth. Schm. ridicule. a jest. to give an edge to. Bav. bourd. brinna. water. brandung. Supp. Dief. Prov. Lang. spring-water bumach. ii6 BURGESS Gael. to polish. de Vaud.).

from Fr. purr. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. birgan. a barn or cupboard. Burr. Swiss burren. Dan. ' ' — — burren. borra. Du. an exchange. dial. a purse. brast. and thence flocks 'of wool. 5150. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. verbergen. The root forms brik. a harness or collar maker) . brist. root borr. Burse. of a body hurled through the air. its own protection. Du. prsnuti. byrigels. talk fast and indistinctly.— . To Bury. and spelling. beorgan. burgisli. berstan. A rabbit burmotion. barza. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. borre. signifying protrude. Shelter. a pad. 2. brico. bristen. a place of defence. leather. Jam. whence Kil. brista. break . when they spring So in W. -burse.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. dial. G. — Clare. To Burst. Port. bourrelet. Burrow. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. to burst. a port. borsa. to hide. karborre. mentioned under Burgeon. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. It. Fris. &c. brokil and brotil. — Translated by Kemble. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. ptcrren. as from Sp. skin. g. moss. bergen. cwning-gaer. . foretell great storms at 3. It. brisd. Cot. byrsa. In OE. as in Northumberland. borsia. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. With a slightly different ghen. caer is a — — — ' ' : . makes the disbursements of the college. impetus. See Bulge. shearing of cloth. hair. explained E. but it is more probably a development of It. husks. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. . Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. bur. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . swell. to bury . brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. byrgels. ON. Fr. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. ber•whirr to whizz. ' BURR AS. bur. i5(7&a. and met. as it is still pronounced in N. burre. a wallet or scrip. borra. bris. brown. 225. bolgia. also ' any such trash as chaff. bourse. to P'air. Bursar. G. See Burgeon. save. &c. borrow. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. bourrer. perruque. Sw. iii. . bersten. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. stuffing. keep. ON. shelter. shuffling.. bres- — tan. bourre. an annular swelling. burra. brit. straw. Brun on bane. Burser.Lat. briser. to hide . the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. blurra. Compare also OE.' The same word with burgh. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. brest. bourse. Burial. Hence Fr. to break. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a sepulchre. OHG. whirr.' Harris in Todd. borsa. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . briketo. birigean. bris. tomb. ultimately resting on the Gael. britar. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Fr. a purse. to mutter Sw. that birds make their nests with. of England. bolsa to It. brizeto.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes.' edge grew weak. some people in pronouncing the letter r. to stuff. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. chips or anything else Fl. preserve. Mid. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. bourlet. beurs. E. idiom if 4. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. any kind of quilting or stuffing. a. AS. This word seems safety. brickie. byrstan. the — — castle or fortress. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. brittle. OHG. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. bristeach. Fr. AS. coo. pipaa. brisdeach. Sw. as for the protection of a child's head. a morsel. brjota. buscha. burial place. from whence we pass through Sp. be more in accordance with AS. Sexy. Gael. the officer who bears the purse. -Grisons bulscha. borre. from AS. Hal. to buzz. any rapid whirling biarga. cover. S w. briso. force. to save. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. also all such stuff as hay. brist. birr. Beowulf. brittle. Burse. and. fortify. preserve. shales. I. Burr is related to buzz as protect. peluca to Fr. byrgan. In a met. whirr and burr. appears under the Lang. byrgen. casting bullets. a rabbit burrow.

bausen. box wood to bush.P. and we actually find bushel. OFr. make ready. to prepare.-^Bushel. bua. a bundle. ' . That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. in the For Skirnis .' a box. hjul-bosse. See Bust. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. buxula.— ' ii8 {chreo. Fr. Sw. brake. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. to dress. the past participle of the same verb bua. at bua sig. Ptg. Thence byrigean. which would later have truast. The word frequency with which to busk is used. a box. Prov. diminutives. a wisp. In to Brutaine. apparently a secondary verb. to sepulchre. bos. iriCtf -ifoe.' The word is explained by — — . gave Lat. —Busk. for at buasc. to turn. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. It. and from the Fr. Harold G. bousIn the other copy ser. a bush. . borghen. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. a little box Dan. busse. -idis. a tuft. ' . tuft. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. BUSH hreaw. a corpse). a rampart. we have Fr. bussellus. a tuft of hair. Brunne. . to keep. abdere. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bousche. to enclose in a case or box. boistel. at buast. Du. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bush.Lat. and not directly (as Du. or — Busk. boxta.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Sc. projection. clusprobably Morocco leather. and thence Mid. barst. wisp. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. bustellus. So from Fr. buskr. To prepare. a tuft guini. whence bouchon. that the lend had lorn thorn. the idea of knocking. a box. roquies. It. AS. the Moors and of Morocco. Mid. hunch Du. Du. Gr. to forest of Eyda. bossida. truasc. Bush. is thus accounted for. a tuft. mount. to swell. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. bussel. a troop. ch). AS. borcegui. defence. bundle. bousse. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a been written buasc. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. beorgan. Bush. boucher. Malberg. Thus Froister . busken. bunch.' The buskin is said Bret. See Box. They busked and malced them boun. ' —P. a bunch of twigs. thicket {buski. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. to bow. then a tuft Sp. or the like. The bone in a woman's stays. grapes. the land. 2. To Busk. Bouchet. verb. Sibriht that I of told. tow.) to hide in the ground. Brunne. berghen.' sheath. The primary sense of hair . rad. and he cites wisp bauschen. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. busk. bossen. induere vestes . preserve. lump. basse. besom). to stop. as synonymous with to inake one boun. bairgan. signifying to entomb. boisseau. a clot of phlegm sart. cluster. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. G. Fris. buxta.boisteau. a box for measuring corn. bulge. ' . bramble. to bend one's steps. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. in OE. whente beorg. van wijnbesien. buxida. fiast. occultare K. to dress. Sir Tristram. a bunch. bo7ich (Fr. to bury. bosc. bundle * Buskin. bustula. from the ON. bussare. bosta. to direct one's course towards. . bouche. burial mound. a -tavern bush. bosch (a diminutive ?). . basse.fiasc. ' . bulk. bush. qualster-boscken. boissa. borseof trees. The radical idea is seen in Goth. a hump. biichse. protect . pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. barsc in Heimskringla.Lat. 410. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. aheap of stones. dead. a grove bosch van haer. thicket of thorns . knot. 'at bua sik. OFr. oneself. Du. : — . brodequin tout noir. il fut couch6 l^jkema). . ieorh. Layamon. R. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Le roy Richard mort. brodiquin.gur bidst austur um EySascog. buysschen. And her ful sone tuft. boiste. whence at bua sik. a gun biichse. as boun is simply buinn. sur une litifere. a bush. condere. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. .

Sw. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. kiss. . also a busk. busto. bussen. The form brust. hipista. AS. ON. inde discurro et operosus sum. statue of the upper part of Fr. Busk. otarda. basiuin. Lang. borcegui. bisg. Xerqui. Bustard. employment bisgan. bysgian. busc. in Diaz Gris. bust. as in ON.' ON. Buss.). fe^a. Namur — Champagne Fr. A A busquer (Sigart). a tree. Cot. bisegung. outard. With respect to bust. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a.' Plin. Fr. So Wes- terwald munds. putschen. thick end. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. busta. 119 bi{tr. . betarda. of the human body (Grandg. would explain the G. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Bust. crack . a fishing vessel. beezig. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. bu. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). smack. 10. I. a Mid. to make a splash in the water. Cat. ^A.> Also written buskle. chest. 2l box. snout. of a doublet. 1555. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. ship Sp. Rouchi. small. the long. log . love gestures. bus and Pol. buz. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. mosequin. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. a large cljest or particular applibox. tarda. stump. 2. brusc. besongne. mohedairova. bussa. body. or Cherqui. a kiss. ' BUSY 2.— . busche. and supposes that the common Arab. worn to make the body straight . bruskras well as buskr. plated body or other quilted thing. lips. I go strepo) .bezig. busy. body without arms and legs. brostia as well as bostia. signifying trunk of a the body. Prov. So in Fin. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Hence probably au-tarda. — clattering about. a kiss. windbutsch. sunt quas Hispania aves . knock. lip. to make use of. body. an affair. lip. a blow. — Thus we should have mocherqui. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. bulk. Nained from Proximse iis zia. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Fr. Lat. a mouth. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. trunk. or avutarda. Sp. geidha. Bust. mogangas from gonj. austarda. butz. — — — — It is like the smouldering. buc. Swiss butschen. sera. a projection. ottarda. a bulk or trunk without a head. mouth. forms morseqiiill. buquer. bysgje. On the other hand. putta. abutarda. a blow. Walach. body of garment. a busk. to knock . inserts an r after the initial b J bruc.D.d. stump. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Business. busch. trunk of a tree. BUSS Dozy from Arab. says. and by transposition morchequi. avuDiez. morsequi. buc. knock. Port. a kiss of reverence. kiss. from jnund. The proceedings of Parliament. kupata. representing a blow. Sp. trunk of Cot. mons. cata — . Fr. buyse. mouth. A wisp.pjik.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. a bush. busch. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. to occupy. B. besoigAe. Box. box. stir. lump. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. and then with avis again prefixed. a stroke of wind. ViM. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Hal. bnist. bist. body . then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a backstock. a bust. — hardly be distinct from Fr. biseg. to bustle. Gael. a bunch of flowers . buc. Prov. Busitiess :c3iVi . Edrtst. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. a ship of some size. also a It. Lindenbr. brut. beso. an ostrich. Prov. abotarda. — — difications of the same word. or chest in which the vitals are contained. btcc. vessel employed in the herring fishery. To hurry or make a great B. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Fr. A great sluggish fowl. the trunk. Pol. especially of a woman's dress. a sleeveless truss or doublet. The Prov. bus. a great billet Cot. bisgung. Bav. Sp. outarde. to Swab. work. bacio. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. buta. 22. I.Lat. ON. occupation. business. bukr. — . Du. baiser. bustla. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. arbor ramis trunGloss. Fl. a log. occupied bezigen. 1372. forest. pussa. bucha. as in moharra from harbe. its slowness of flight. body of a man. utarda. the point of a lance. trunk. Comp. busq. Fris. a boat or small vessel . To Bustle. body of a woman's dress It. ' bistardej It. bus. tuft. the body without arms busque. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. bust. stem. I bustle. made stiff. the breast. and also a sounding blow. See Boss. a kiss. biist. Bulch. 7o\. Busy. also a flagon. but.

' ' write. Whatever is in addition to Butler. body of a shirt w. bag. Butler. ont jhi^ton. a budget. boucher. the servant in charge of the original object. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. be out. hull of a ship. bute. botilla. A A .' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. sup- meat and drink. original sense of without. If that where now we should compiler. the name must have arisen before the within. boquier. of the wine and drink. ways. bocin. we find ben. the mouth). But In Sc. a butcher. which the word corresponds to the Fr. boccino. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. G. bodifie. mais. hollow case. barriga.' there is really a negation to be supplied. the principal apartment. bisgung. botte. without the house kept in bottles. a goat.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. without punishment . is well explained by Tooke. bola. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. belly. boteria. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . bag made of the entire skin of an animal. and the real origin of the and within . As a conjunction but is in every portion. wooden receptthing to be done. my is called the adversative use of but. bout. from as. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. without. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. Buttery. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bochier. without buiten-man. beyond the Piedm. beccaria. Du. an outlaw from bouche. large barrel. Sp. rotundity of the body. . besides that . add. Sp. Fr. ' There is leathern bottle. AS. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. Butt. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. a barrel. bounds of.' Thus Chaucer says. Ben-house. without care. but one thing. Fr. gives at least two pounds sterling. — . (children) boc.streets. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . bountifully. then hoUow trunk. the body of an animal. bouz. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. bitlga. belly. bouteillier. a butchery. the store of ten. trunk.in which his brethren are included. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. bous. So in Italian from becco.' — — ' . by the mode in which he is treated. the body of a tree or of a man. earthen which the debtor has adverted. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. ' Besides all that. bolgia. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. the full expres. Fr. the present day we should say. the precise correlative of but. from boc. butan ce. a small winebag. Sp. the Perhaps besogne — . plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. a goat (and not besides . that which would be translated by Fr. a cask. Tooke's dis. calf of the ' say. in addition. moreover. the belly. ox. a wooden cask. bhcciero.jamin. botija. But It. Where at an earthen jar . and bot. Here the but implies the existence of an. similar train of thought is seen in ON. Prov. bolr. "PLT) . But when will you pay it ? the belly. It. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. beccaro. viz. biitait slaughterer of goats . a butcher . a bottle. buta. Wall. properly a butan wite. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. is put in a class by himself. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. those in beccaio. The E. Lang. young mais. outside that moreover. butan. to-boot. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Lang. viz. and with It. calf. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. equivalent of AS. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. the jug and in E. a leathern bag. belly. the trunk or body of an animal. being wholly unten. bole of a tree. binnan. OFr. beta. . Butcher. skin-bag. bol._ bitten j biiten door. rumpf. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. a baiTel . slaughter-house.The Sp. able. except. are. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. also a hollow vessel . as Pantler. without law. tinction between but. — we acle for liquors. the bottles. collection of casks. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. bitten dai. or what in in charge of the pantry.' or ' there is not but one body of a man.

Gr. Fr. clumsy . e. a button. the thick end. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. To Butt. a buttress Cot. W. buttern. Du. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. stump of a tree Fr. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. to strike. a mound of turf in a field to sup. rabodd. nourrisson. From Du. a blow. by boE. to heap up earth or ihrust. — A . botten. : . butter. Fr. bottich. boil. butt of a person. Buttel-triib. butt. a stroke di animal. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a flying buttress. — A . a ribbed glass for dient. pwtiaw. end . Fr. in the R. short thick thing pimple. bodi'. gigot.arbre. Fr. a hill. to throw . Halma. Bav. submit shaking up salad sauce. to abut on. courtaud. an etwas anstossen.thum and not button. to abut a stone roof. at. botta.rejected thing. give way. a buttrice. Du. the prick in the middle of a target. a boss. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. bouton. hillock . a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . a barrel. from notirrir. a dle . AS. Hal. to be con. a tub. clunis. a boss. bout. pwt. nourrissons. thrust forwards. The Bavarian potig. boutis. a. The word body itself seems identical with G. from bugan.. fowl. the edge forwards. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Bout van het schouderIt. stump. butt. From Grisons biitt. bocsam. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. Kil. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to thrust. to butt. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. thrust. An erection built up as a Fr. as if from Povg. suddenly . boter-schijte. butyrum. bata. poke. povrvpov. the thigh of a goose. put. a button. a bot. leg of lamb. bouter.to push.. a button. from stossen. * Buxom. butte. a little push . butz. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. buttals. a thrust the thigh-bone. tout seat or breech. Mur-buttant.— BUTT leg . on. strike. Perhaps corrupted Lat. to thrust Fr. Grandg. bot. Kil. a mound. waste ground. G. a leg of mutton. large head. Button.' thick from shaking. R. Gael. &c. the rosebud. from bouter. A — — — . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground.putan. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. boutoir. Lang. Btetter-schmalz. oir spike with a k coup . to boult flour. &c. pied. or or shore post. to blad. a scope. boter-vliege. so as to make a sounding blow. a heap of merly called pushes. To come full butt against a butts. bottig. Du. butter. a blow. to touch at the end. a large belly. or person Schmeller . of the present day. . a. Du. thick. any small projection. ment being supposed to resemble butter. So in English pimples were fora clod. bot blijven staan. a bolt. Buttrice. grease that sets by merely standing. to femur. bocgsuin. but. Bav. to thrust. Fr. as rejeton.against another which needs support . bothog. any short thick thing. the store of while bottich. from rejeter. Schmell. to cast. butteln. Hal. nursling. Fr. and the true derivation boar. the trunk. It. buhsom. potacha. a but in the W. See Butler. but this is probably from Fr. a cask. botto. Butter. bot. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Fris. a bun. the Butter-fly. i. bott. W. Boutje. to push earth . Sp. obedient. bouter. lams-bout. buter. Kil. to so close to the Fr. caput scapula bout van f been. — . — — — — . from the large knobbed head of botto. Butter-glass. boiUer. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . obeto shake backwards and forwards. Gris. fle>(ible. able that Chaucer. boter-vogel. w. botta. butter un. tress. signify a cask or tub. bout. — . It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Buttock. Boutant. buttare. a stump or club foot. of E. botwm. are the strips at the edges of the field. bouton. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Buttress. trapu. a corner horses' hoofs. then the thigh or leg of an to push . what is kept in a blow. To strike with the head bags. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. -ez. aim whence to make a support to a wall. dripping. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. Buttery. Du. having a rotundity . bud. Cot. coxa. butt. butte. both. boding. Fr. to thrust. From the noise of drinkables in a house. geboogsaem. botte. to thrust . as in G. Schmell. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . bodi. buttock of beef is called butr. to bow. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. humble. striking end. . an ox. . is formed the augmentative buttatich. a wall butor butt on. boteria.

and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. a beetle. G. as heedless as a cock-chafer. 116. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. By-law. to pass by. bi. AS. confusedly. a meke thynge with — alle. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. lb. from by. to sell. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness.busardj Prov. 200. to whisper. who makes abigg. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. \s\xy. iii. from whom it was addressed. . a buzzard or puttock. Goth. and it is of good will. favourable. See Abie. a by-path is a side path . to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. favourably to a petition.in N. cow-house. Sw. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. The sense of buxom. and would have been lost in E. Buzzard. Lat. byar-log. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. ii. bugjan. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. Etynj. Mercy hight that mayde. AS. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. . 519. to wit. as Fr. train of thought which has become obso. Verstegan in R. and boxome of speche xviii. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. It. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious.— Diet. a town. Originally the law of a particular town. Many good mological explanation. Dan. bygge. & Q. Cabal. . to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. bohte. leges urbanse ON. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bar. a borough. bylag. P. bycgan. bei. buzarg.. to swear with him by . but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. —gracious of speech. farm. buso. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. lete. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. frabttg- To Buzz. buzzicare. Too used a Foxes Martyrs.— P. byr. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. 3. to jan. bylove. harty prayers and God speedes. also say. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. groat in token of his good heart towards him. bi. town having separate jurisdiction. son. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. depends upon a esteem in falconry. called Cabala or Tradition. bauhta. p. indistinctly. to stand at his side . jus municipii. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. It. — 122 BUY P. To Buy. 21. OE. bees. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. A by. The ON. CABAL Goth. buteoj Fr. Du. good-humoured one. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience.. bij. big. byar-rettr. ON. gracious. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . Then applied to speaking low. village. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Sw. tions by one. buzac. Pecock Repressor. to buzz.P. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. A ful benygne buirde. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. blessing me with their of side. abozzago. A A We — — — days' wonder. bozzago. as in Da. to purchase for money. Byre. stall.

— Tarbe. — . The Sp. cabarino. for the origin of which see Carabine. prostratio ad terram. gatsch. It. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. headed. to put or pack up in a frail. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. deponat a store closet. overwhelm (Diet. Gaggle. or cadable. covering. The double a in the OFr. come the Fr. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. Brushwood — — B. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Lang. OFr. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. gaggi. cabaii. cabo. has kabbel.. su/Furari. signifying properly a rope's end. Fr. Cot. Mid. cabuccio. as Turk.ticula. capanna. case. traboccare. — Kil. a covering. cadabola. a cloak of felt or Cack. Very generally used. It. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. —Diet. kabane. cabbage. a rope. whence Lang. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. caboche. Finn. dirty. Etym. chadabula.). a car- We convasare. originally an Gael. to crush. Imitative of the cry of hens. disgust cac. calabre. bad. To steal or pocket. Sp. cab lis. a shed. cadabalum. &c. and Or. Common to Lat. surripere. round or great headed. nasty. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. and Finnish lanLat.Gr. dirt and the Fr. or as an interjection of disMod. (ca/coe. Castr. as it must have stood in French. cadabulum. ckaable. cabus. Antiq. chaable. caable. manganare. Cabbage. chaable. laitue cabusse. cabulus. gabardme. whence Fr.. gaggele. mdhaigner. dirty. cadabulum. cabasser. ! — . Du. filth. the bowels. overwhelm. main. Cabinet. disgusting such an engine was exerted. geese.Lat. serious injury — In like manner It. cabre. Tugurium. a tunic. to keep or Du. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. as an expression of Gr. cadabula. and Ptg. an engine for casting stones. Didot. kabas. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cacare. To Cabbage. wilful). sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . kakaloH. Cot. giiare. signifies down. properly windfalls. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. precisely in the sense of the lari E. kabaSsen. 'habl. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. cabo. Mid. Fr. a head (whence cabochard. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. agge. cab. — . from trabocco. lactuca capitata. It. caable. Du. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cacare . origin is the OFr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. a jacket Fr. aak! tandi like Fr. aeggi. cabane. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Sp. a rope. hut. to strain in such a manner . Fr. — Ibid. : — from violence without blood. a rope or cable. &c. akista. band. maim. is probably unconnected. Lith. would correspond to cable.. Fr. a rope. . especially shepherd's frock. E. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Cappa in OSp. form kactal. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. stercus. w. caables. brassica — capitata. Item habeat vocant. aakkat'a. a frail. Kil. or rush basket. to hurl in Nat.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum.Lat.Lat. . cabre. a booth or hut. Coticesserint Swiss aa. OFr. forms indi. Lat. the Prov. gaban. The name of the engine. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Mid. cdble. vile. . . — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. disgust. caqueter. Capstan. cabuyskoole. a cabbage . name of the projectile engine. hoard together. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. to hurl down. E. From It. Due. head. cables. cabacho. Celtic. cable . capuccio. cabas. caable (in legal language). capo. . dung. string. Neckam — by the wind. hovel. as Diez supposes). agge machen (in nurses' language). accablcr. vincially used in E. a headed cole or cabbage . OSp. kabat. agga. from manganum. Cablisb. . it would seem fundain children's language. in which sense are explained The the OFr. headed or cabbage lettuce. and as we find stones Mid.. the Slavonian. chabla. Due. Sw. and the Arab. Choux cabus. heady. OFr. Cabin. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. It. Ptg. ceach / exclamation of guages. havyar to caviare. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. to chatter.' Due. — the ON. Katr-iT-aKt. manticuKil. Du. kakla. Fr.

a lump or large piece. kalfi. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Du. pi. Turk. calcis. misfortune. Lat. is probably delusive. kalfvan hout. It. loss. Caitiff. 124 prattle . a wheel . without loss. Calp is riadh. little chief. calentura. a cylinder. calamus. Cajol. calf of leg. Flo. cageoler. Due. Fr. the bore of a cannon. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. hot . pith. a mischievous dial. captive. to cage. kolyaska. calibre. Turk. kolo. a counter used in casting accounts. cage. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). The Lat. To Cajole. cadence. Lat. boy. cauldron. A — fall. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. calx. hot. Sp. a waggon . to treat like lime. master. kolasa. the pith or soft part of wood. cadet. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. limestone. To Calender. Calamity. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. kat. just falling. roller. a wheel . Calc-. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. gabberen is identical with E. ever and anon. kola. of oxen and similar animals. from calendcE. cake. chattering. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. a fever. one unduly indulged by. whence Lat. kaad. kolo. Sw. Sw. or prattle. It is another form of the E. a wretch. Russ. from the ink-bag which it contains. Cot. See Kiddier. cadenza. gabble. (in the augm. chaudron. its mother. Mrs B. or smooth Hnen cloth. A . calba. chaudiere. kuchen. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Roman reckoning. Lat. caldarius. Lat. Gascon capdet. Lat. pet lamb. signifies a waggon. Arab. kauwe. calentar. Cage. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. kolo. Calendar. kolyasochka. an ugly waggon kolaska. chetif. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. for green fields. ben- kalf. to throw themselves into the sea. a car. Lat. Fr. calidus. cykevie. Fr. frisky. kolesnitza. cha'cmie cadence.— Calliper. babbhng. Cot. Fr. taking it Sp.— . It. N. or colpa na coise. . a wheel. Calf of the Leg. the pi. pen Mod. The young G. capitetum. cabdillo. Cadge*.Gr. a corpse. KaKKat. the younger son of a family said to be from . a common cart. B. Pol. calculo. Caddy. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. and troublesomely attached to. Tea-caddy. to heat. Lat. a tea-chest. form) calderone. kukje. collop. Calamary. . rattaat (wheels). Sp. javioler. unruly . ' . Calash. kalem. calamitas. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Cadence. reed-pen. kaeckelenj Gr. As Du. caioler. Lat. ratas. Fr. Sw. an inkstand . Calandre. loss. colibro. a caFr. lindrus. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Calcialate. calesa. of the nature of lime to calcine. to gabble. prate. Du. to cackle . gaggle. dead body. caliche. a reed. Lat.warmth . . kakulla. cadaver. Cot. naXaiidpi. Dan. Lat. * Cade. gaggia. cuttle-fish. lord. from the Chinese catty. G. cattivo (from Lat. gabbia. . especially of something soft. It. calendarium. marrow. wretched. A hooded carriage. Fr. capCalenture. * Calibre. cavea. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. a calesh. — in a kiln. Sp. calessa. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. En kaka br'od. a cake or loaf. to — Fr. kdfich. Fr. a dence. a loaf of bread. G. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Lat. bad . to prate much to little purpose. Du. calidus. Gael. whence calash. It. incolumis. An open travelling chariot. From lerie. koeck. a roller. Originally from a Slavonic source. Perhaps from w. KxiKivh^o^. a circle. Cadet. gabbia. safe.— Cot.uv. kage. cage. Cake. The Calf. a falling. calendrer. frolicsome kaad mund. joyous . to compute. A cuttle-fish. coll. Calocli. Fr. — — — Dan. a calash . &c. kalb. a wheel . calpa. desire of land. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. from Gr. the lump and the increase. It. It. to . caldaria. cadere. wanton. gavia. kolesb. Du. coop. —Atkinson. jabber. ON. dial. disease of sailors from tivus). Caldron. calibre. lime whence calcareous. a vessel for heating water. Dan. so gabble corresponds with Fr. In the same way Fin. a hollow place. from calculus. kail. Cauldron. Serv. principal and interest. the calf of the leg. . hence musical rhythm. kaka. on. to sleek hence a den. of which. a low note. Cadaverous. a small stone. when they are said to poor. kdtr.

scold.piicede Lat. Call. overscalmaccio. calclover. can be distinct from ODu. a drab. voice. the latter of chamber. or caliever. calibre. a soldier who the It.. Among these were the turn. coluber. koluvre. them &c. the Fr. AS. to burn. chatter. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. calcaich. dragonder. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Sp. form in the kalib. calca. to say. moso. KaXka. — — — — — . i. abto suppose that E. Caliph. colubrina. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Fin. to calk.en~ kinds of firearms. sence of wind. scalmato. Fr. Sc. a good calling. dragoon. Ca. . saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. and dragon.' But it is hard Du. from Calicut in the E. to call. Kil. by many that the weapon Callous. Unfledged. licht stuk The change from a. but is only a jda-kallo. Gael. drive. whereas in troth it is not. depreciatory term for a woman. brawny. alta voce ploro. serpentina. It. Fr. callus. Antiq. ram. culverin. a feathers. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. Du. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. To drive tow or oakham. Calm. calare. u to an I in such a colubrum. quA librd. kalla. chatter kallen. to prattle.— . to be of a good or bad quality. The reference to heat is preserved in. Sir John Smith in Grose.' Chaucer. Diez. and E. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Heb. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. moist. The word was also written cawme in OE. Callow. Derived by some from Arab. form. Turk. saucy. to tread. calat of leude demeaning. tittle-tattle. kol. Fr. Indies. word of mouth . whence couleuv. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. kind heat of the sun. . to rail or scold .(jaa= ice). 'A callet of boundless tongue. tapulta. Diet. Sp. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). the Fr. The origin is Gr. To century was Squalibre. calleting. According to Jal (Gl. To call. the scalp or skull. calibre. heat. done with heat Alt. calor. the heat of Now these Du. caillette. Dief. Fin. to cram. hollaing. people's remarks. coluber also.position is much less common than the geschut. on. however. Lang. faint. to hear. cotton cloth. Lat. vulgo Coluvrine. a last.' Whitby Gl. dial. * Callet. a. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. NE. Mid.' Winter's Tale. CALICO Calliper-compasses. — Fl. The primitive colubrina bombarda. B. oldire from audire. coulevrine. whehce it was first brought. trull. kahcwe. heat. push violently. kallo. which has its memory preserved in Du. try. colubraria canna. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. to affirm. kal. an adder. Sup. the hard surface of the ground.meaning of the word. the day. having a thick skin. harquebus or handgun. caluw. qAlab. ululo Turk. piece of bigger circuite. given. calc. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. CALM to press or stuff. to abuse . cauma. longior. Ptg. caliver. ' pert. Due. Hard. donderbuchs Sp. klover. calme. cahna. to proclaim. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . and heat. calma. calgua. Mil. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. bald. calvus. diameter of a ball. 125 Prov. E. * Caliver. Kavfia. calicot. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. sclopus. Calico. harden by pressure. cauque. femme frivole et babillarde. sound. hallottaa. Bi. hot. a successor. ' rine.Lat. a round of abuse. bombarda Cauma incendium. water-tight. calo. or languishing drought is . which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. of a column. prattle. to callet. To Calk. Kil. overheated. to call. or mould. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. glotton. Mahn derives it from Lat. and sometimes a handgun. calcare. calk. calma. Ibid. — — — — — . couleuvre. Fr. quiet. into the seams of vessels to make Lat.from Ka'tm. faint. Gr. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. of the bore of a firearm met. which is as much as to say. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. So It. kael. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. callum. khalif. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. serpens. gossiping. kal. quality. Lat. nautique). skin hardened by labour. sestus. fistula.' Slange. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. kil-u-kal.

The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. campagne. Lat. the space of false imputation. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. to jut. Fr. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. a may have acquired that signification from plain. Fr. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. se cameloter. the bed of a stream. frank and sincandidatus. a field Greek monk. higher in the middle than Fr. cainahelus. . E. From fluting or furrow in a column . an eating. camelus. campus. Properly calver in the field during a war. a caught. KafitjUe. chaitcre. campagna. crooked-stick. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party.Gr. Calyx. hooked. callar. co7nbar. field . Sp. to the force of the wind. Fr. properly good country.. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. the spersed with white flakes like curd. toile some of whom. campaign. also an eatmg sore. Sanson khanda. canalis. to warp. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. water chamlet . crooked.who their language. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Camel.— Chandelier. a' Sc. Cambric. a piece. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. champagne. good. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. KafivTu.— Hackluyt in R. — B. Pers. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. ation. ko/utuXoc. clothed in white. or Caribs. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. cam^e. Lat. Canker. Ptg. a.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. chamold man. brought from Fr. cambre. camelot. A — the Cannibals. Camisade.—Jam. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. to avoid enemy in their shirts. at the ends. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. kanna. arch. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. nia. cancello. Cot. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. lattice. It. campagna. lame. Peter Martyr. Cambrel. salmon. across — Bellenden in Jam. icaSoytipoe. aged. Gr. whence the noun signifying an applicant. is Cambering. Mid. canistrum. It. Camlet. spot for cattle. Cameo. w. white. calutmiia. camaien. champ. camp. Canibal. sugar. Bret. cere : Lat. India Islands. from xaXbg. canis. Lat. a goblet bud. Sp.conduit-pipe. to glow. to break. Campaign. chandelle. slander. cambr^. the type of a hollow pipe. Arab. It. to bend. different sections of the like the Chinese. crook. cup. cAouma. Fr. arched. . Kakoycpos. Gr. camiscia. campren. open and level ground. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. campo. cambrer. a crab. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Mod.—Candidate. had no r in de bric— Cot. Candy. Cambrav—Cam. from candere. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. callour. B. aspirant. whence the Fr. paign. canna. to bend._ kamm. cancer. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. cambren. sore. See Canker. a dog.— B. arched.' Forme of Cury in Way. camber-nosed. mg Canister. Lat. Canine. camisa. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. camisade. Sp. catmneo. a. cup. candela. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. It. camiscieia. Lat. Caloyer. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. a large drinking . E. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. samon. It.—Cambrel. crooked. It was distinfrom work. having an aquiline nose. In a different application It. Camp. Or the word Lat. — Lat. camafeo. From campus was formed Lat. camahutus. the calix. Fr. unwater chamelot . the heat. and yspiuv. lie level. calj'x. Calumny. Fr. on. when its substance appears inter. Candid. It. crooked.' ' Quhen a lattice. Cann. fair. E. Calver of cane. Lat. Canal Channel. chommer. would plenier. Palsgr.Lat. An eater of human flesh. to bow. The Grisons cauina. monk. Fr. fresh. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. candidus. Cambray. a basket. whence Fr. — Cancel. — — — A — — escume de saumon. B. ckaouma. or hollow of a flower. Fr. bis. Cancer. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. is Candle. died in 1526. Lat. campo. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Turk.

See Chape. Fr. Jonson. contain. hamlet. canonici. ON. territorial hundred. gnat. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. able to receive. Fr. a cover Turk. a drinking glass. coarse hempen cloth Fr. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. quarter. It. . Prov. Canoe. a scull- — here. a rule or standard of excellence. the tried list of saints. was formed Kavtiiv. a gelding. Germanis kdppen.n. and the sex- &c. canonicus. Cantle. a cap. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. shut. cantred. signifying cover. a reed. From Gr. side. KCLvva. canvas. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Hence Lat. capa. schlappen. covered. Sp. it would have been found in the continental languages. trine. Gugel. Canton. like a torch or candle. chape.^on. Mod. being a yard or thereabouts . The meserseum and the mesentericum. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. name. cantref. can. cappa. a tube. Canvas. say. and hence a gobbet. Goldast — in in Schmid. Alamannis. a straight rod. A piece of anything. properly a large Prov. cannone. From Lat. hemp. a hundred. To canvas — . OFr. to contain.CANNEL vessel. capax. cane. Kil. A slow gallop. &c. a torch. border. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. canapaccia. chanteau. Cope. chantel. cane. cannu. a cantle of bread. leiwan kanta. Fr.. cane. or cantell of bread. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Cannoii. W. clqse. kanta. root cap. Picard. as a cantle of bread. . The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. as. The — . canto. Du. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. a cane. kq. quito curtain. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Swab. To his judicial And trowl the tile. margo panis diffracta. capello Italis. KaTTiram. kynnel. kantr. Capari. kaput. Esthon. cantina. kyndel. cane. cover . has kahn. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Canteen. language. a ship canot. Schwab. a side. Mod. cantle then is a corner of a thing. regular. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. capace. canton. coat. to put upon sacred writers. which is not the case. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. lump.Gr. kwvwxIi. call. Sp. cope. It. carcase . a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. measure for cloth. . a cloak. Palsgr. A . B.— Cot. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. a ruler. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. cantone. tain. quarter .Gr. Cape. a — A — Cannel Coal. corner. Again we have Lat. the part easiest broken off. But it may be different source. speech. cainnt. the quartile. Canopy. from a Canter. Capacious. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. pipe. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a small boat. Canon. capevole. cappe. canteau. Gael. the heel. Kavt\. Lat. a door . canapa. cover kapi. and met. Diez. Cot. It. To Canonise. or hold. hood. canon. &c. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. a corner. a Fr. astrology. a reed. If the word had been from cantherius. kapamak. to con- rummer. It. part. hemp. coarse hemp. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. caparazon. from cant. It. to shut. Fin. region. It. a horn of the moon . and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. is found languages of very different stocks. Sp. edge. cannevaccia. cheese. Probably only the augmentative of canto. to sing. cannevo. that the G. a boat. from Dan. also a measure. N. . a wine-cellar or vault. from canna. border Dan. rumme. kand. kandt-broodts. haitt. and tref. See Capt-. Coal burning with bright flame. canoa. a cloak kapali. a division of a country. It. hirnschlapple. cannabis. the heel. Capable. Wtb. a pipe. canevas. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Cant. he discourseth of dissection. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. schlapp. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. a hunch of bread. from . cappe. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. cape.

shivering. of a coach. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. cappriccio. caj)o. capparis. to twitter as birds. Fr. brezilia. It is probable that Gr. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. wriggle. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. castrated. capriol or caper in dancing. hi. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. <I>pi'?oe. It. the head. sault. cover of a saddle. explained by Diez from capra. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. p. curl. or Lat. hair. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat.impressions on the ear. It. It. It.— Fl. rissoler. capillus. compared with Bret. Cot. fansuddenly angry. It. frisser {frissement d'un trait. where Burton adds in a note. a separate division of a matter. horripilation. and with an initial gr instead of br. heath. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. to broil. caprice. with joy' Vikram. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. rihrczzoso. a yearning through sudden fear.) grezille marid. Griller d'im' patience. Acad. to from capitulum. brug. horror. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. 75. grug. a . ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. a kid. — — A a hair. as Fr. Lat. brisciare. grillcr. Arab. and 7tucc. a head. alcaparra. A . To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . airoKOTrrw.Gr. the head. of a tremtdoiis sound. capriole. or other things. Lat. a buck. a goat. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. a hedge-hog. frizzle. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. according to the Hindoos. bruco. Genevese bresoler. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. eruca compared with It. ^piKos. G^' Many words — ' ndv. caprice It. Caprice. Torriano. a ch illness. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. the initial mute of forms like Gr. brissle. herissonnement. to shudder. Capers. capar. Fr. to crackle. is either wholly lost. principal. then find the symptoms of shivering. curly. or goat's leap (done by a horse). prickly husk of chestnut. gricciare.' Cot.— 128 CAPE a rustling. gives rise to Sc. kid. to fry. aggricciare. h^risser. of a fowl. greziller. to . grisser. the hair to stand on end. a chevret. s'hdrisser. as Fr. crackling sound Cape. Lat. And similarly to yearn. end. abridge amKoTroq. hedge-hog. capriola. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . Caper. a caper in dancing. cApre. Fl. to desire earnestly. A headland. gricciare. See Chief.standing on end. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. To treat Capitulate. Capital. erica. to parch. they longed extremely to see it. So from Sw. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. I have shivered with love. roughening of the skin. ericius. Lang. brisciare. CAPRICE twittering.) d'etre The It. brisoler.'— Trev. as in Lat. . as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. also the capriole. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. capitalis. ticchio. grisser. gives rise to brezza. a capriol. Sp. knis-hujwud . because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. then to be in a state of vibration. brisciare. castrated cock. or. arricciarsi. shivering. chattering of the teeth. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . a young kid met. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir.' — (Supp. shrub. curling. to crackle. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. then to shiver or shudder. birsle. chief. frisson- ner . It. Fr. Fr. a caterpillar. caper j caprio. as the means of earning profit. the principal part of the debt. upon terms Sp. The true derivation lies in a different direction. bristling. bristling. algabr. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. for which he cites the Comask nucia. to shiver. Lat. The same imitation of Capon. knis. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. to shiver for cold. and OHG. cut off. riccio. w. Capillary.). capitulare. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. II bresole (Gl. Hal. Hair-like. Mod. belonging to From caput. Unexpected pleasure. to ruffle the surface of water. frissoner. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. as Fr. cut. ribrezzo. or represented by the syllable e. the hair to stand on end. It. the singing'bone). humorous. — to yearne. It. arricciarsi. frort^Lat. a little head. toy. and his body bristled We to castrate. ziki. greziller. to broil. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. Hence capitalis the sum lent. capro.

also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Du. capp%tccio.or -cib-. cabrestante (whence e. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. however. recipio. one odd. receptus. Captain. tnoschetta. a sudden will. . a. also to carry on a car . It. Carabin. to take to. Lat. Carabine. calabrin. recibir. Du. Fr. Capuchin. a sawing-block or trestles. a head man. carabin. trestle. a coffer. Fl. caprice. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. and of captus to an e. kerren. to this is It. Passing on into E. Cot. Cart. karra. caricare. Fr.s.). a cart. cams. See Caper. calabrino. di cappa. whence capture. chirriar. a cloke) capuccino. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. captus. a hooded friar. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. In the S. karrende waegen. Crab. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. precept. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. as the dragoons (Du. recipere. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. bock. It. -cept. Fr. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. and has accordingly been lost in E. accept. as in accipio. G. to accept. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Fr. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. as in OFr. where it forms a very large class of compounds. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. Thus the musket. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. 129 — receive. conceit. sels. a creaking waggon. Caseneuve in Diet. capio. of capsa. deception. verbs gives rise to the element . where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. also tresFl. Carbine. de- price. i The meaning Car. conceive. to carry . cabestan. capitis. caput. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Capriole. oisr. It. Cot. deceit. concipere. -cept. from head. to take baclc. crab s. carro. conception. Fin. charrier. capra. Sp. and has thus descended unaltered to English. &c. and tropically. an engine for throwing stones. cabra. Nordfoss. capitano. at least. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a she-goat. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. charret. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . cabestrantej Fr. acceptus. Lat. krul. dim. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. It. was a kind of horse soldier. decepte. concebir. recevoir. to receive receptio. a. of the Sp. also a kind of rack. to take. a taking back. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. Fr. commander. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. crepo. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. was originally a missile . shivering fit (Altieri). &c. the -cevofthe Fr. Sp. The It.). exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. It. capsula. Neumann. was converted into -ceb. It. Capt-. a hood (dim. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. karista. cabreia. Lat. contain. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. or the (capo-riccio). a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. karren. — —Diet. a capuchin. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. -ceive. intercept. captivate. It. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Capsule. Carry.. case. Etym. &c. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Capstern. a windlass. — — Capstan. a sudden fear apprehended. hold. to creak. desire. capuccio. concept. Lat. charger. latterly. carretta. chevre. to load . perceive. concevoir. a fantastical humour. char. box. fancy. chirrion. Fr. fantastic. Kiittner.of these compound verbs. except. Derivatives are Fr.. a reception.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). recepte. In cases. Fr. to creak. strideo. seize. OSp. a kind of torture. captive. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. caThe hrestante. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. It is a standing crab. Castr. to please. the p was commonly not pronounced in French.

&c. ancient springald. Lith. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a firelock. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . the case of the flesh. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. An implement for dressing wool. OHG. It. a ripple for flax. avSpaS. karszti. to comb. Bohem. Caravel. of carbo). &c. carmiiiarc. Fr. kerwan. Gr. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. to curry horses karsztuwas. a skeleton. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Sp. of the same Caravan. . cassa. is the word used in modern Lat. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. skeleton.z. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. a winding staircase. Exot.' From the same source are SicU. caracal. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Carbonaceous. carbh. Cat. garafa. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. a lock of wool ... Gr. designated in the case of G. coming to four grains. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. a twist. Ptg. Gael. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. curry-comb. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. silique. the name might naturally Mod. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. Gael. I. a machine for casting large darts. Card. a coffer. carere. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. ON. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Cot. a prison. turn of a horse. to card wool. winding.Gr. carta. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. cdrlag. carate. AS.Gr. to draw in. a quiver. carcaij. Comp. eit. Gael. is the chine. cabra. chevre by the name of the goat. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . quilato. card. a ship. decanter. Sp. caravela. military engines made for hurling stones.. Sp. Sp. karri. Carcax. cabrita. for a gun. an ulcer. Carboy. cardo. a case or chest . contract. the dead body of any creature. Pers. car. shell. also (as Gr. carcasa. a collar or chain for the neck. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. . Parmesan cassiron. carquasse. See Carpenter. carquan. It. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. skeleton toise. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. or framework. winding carach. p. cramp. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. carcanet. a snail. KtpaTwv. an engine for hurling stones. carabe. krciti. black dye. a card or comb .. espi7igarda. Fr.charcoal . burning coal. It. . to card wool. the husk or cod of beans. kard boyd. to comb wool . the trunk or chest of the body . to creak. skeleton. carabba. case. Carcase. also a small weight. vitriol. . Venet. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. «capa'|8i. cabreia. carcanada. carquois. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a battering-ram). tcapKaai. The Trjg xeXwwac. W. seed of carob. a quiver . restraint . From the battering-ram. a wool card. a gem resembling a live coal. carcame. a kind of ship. matter. Cot. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a thistle. &c. Arab. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. the carcase of a fowl. quse vocant karabd. bock and Fr. The radical meaning .— — — . properly a siege machine. to turn. constraining . a he-goat. caraffa. the core of fruit . carduus. Gael. copperas. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Lat. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a quiver. a small weight. Sp. poison eiz. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. eitar. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a thistle. — seems to be something holding together. caraffe. confining. Carrob. ' Vasa vitrea. fire . a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the carob bean.applied to a battering-ram (G. Carbuncle. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. to ripple flax. Fr. alia sunt majora. It. boch. a goat. wool card. Fr. bend. Derived in the first edition from Mod. carch. Caraool. kirat. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. casso. to hiss (as gee^e). and catapulta. the .. word is only an adoption of the Turk. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. . carbo. karra. a quiver . carbunculus (dim. Carat. mural attack. cerran. turning. Lat. in the same way that the Sp. Mod. a crane. wine- bottle. It. the shell of a torcarcasso. a dead carcase.

camovale. caMid. cargo.Lat. Cot. caricatura. the old theory of humours. quarreG. caritia. carriera. kumra. to care unkarja. carena. meet at a head. 1S66. compared with Fin. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. grolU. Gael. Carled peas. love. immediately before the long fast of Lent. fundamental. 8. Lat. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Probably the origin of the word is the . to love. to scratch. Ptg. Bret. regar. the time during which to Rom. carina. Fin. stingy. cargar. soUicitus OSax. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. act of moaning. a highway. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. morosus. chartre. giierlir. see Garble. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. the keel of a vessel. A place where four roads Mid. cearian. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. carian. It. or grumbling —Due. gakaran. carnal. Farewell flesh. ress. karry. zanken . what is felt as grievous. carena.— CARD karr-kambar. Fr. a man. charie. de Parthenay. carriire. ceorl. in N. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. For the root of carminare. From. to whirr (schnurren). weyes. cearig. at murmuring. Fr. surrata. quaver a lazar's clack. Champ. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. be anxious. — Carfax. msstus. sorrow. Cath. parched or carled. Caricature. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. W. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Fr. grief. Chart. carrefourg. the keel. ON. like connection may be seen between Fin. tenax. the several meanings of the words above Rom. or street. Cot. the load of a ship. Bois crolant d'un ladre. karg. Coll. dear. . . Fr. Cargo. as quadrivium from Carnaval. cardo. carcare. from carrus. Charnel. charg. Carnal. to fry or broil. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. the hull of a ship. and sum. record. a hinge. w. x'»P'"^s)) paper. to fry. solicitous. Carenare. 273. affection. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. karista. moeThe Lat. voce strepo stridente. male person. place for exercise on horseback. sgritudo animi. to eat flesh. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. four. . murahtaa. cdrle. Mur. Carl. croller. from Lat. Fr. quadrifurcum from quameet. Venet. from caricare. carminare. Carlings. stridere. caru. sensual. morosus sum. from the keel to the water . kargr. G. in St Jerome. Sept.. A medical term from line —Boerio. and thin. charnage. & Q. A mod-carag. to comb wool. carcus. strideo. .. murren. care.— Charter. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. that Fl. and G. OHG. rixosus. Groler. carFrom carrus. to growl. tremble. Cark. charneux. a card. — — . charag. murista. — To Careen. Properly. It. to load. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. to comb flax or hemp. graller. and compare Bret. Carnage. winding. carener. charta (Gr. to load. carnis. It. combing them out like the knots in wool. a deed. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. karout. appertaining to the flesh. bottom. carnasciale. care on. and murhet. It. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. to clean the bottom of the ship. in Carp. It. AS. principal. to lie on its side. No ' place there had. to take Goth. carezza. . to load. scharren. careless take care of. beans. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. carnalis.Lat. to card wool. Peas steeped and fried. to distress growl. ignarus. p. Sp. niggardly . an endearment. Lat. kroU-erbser. Sp. caricare. to parch. carnavale. essere in carena. asper. — — — Caress. intrasset caro. cura may be ror. ON. crawl. It. Cot. carch. Card. a turn. an overloaded representation of anything. . Properly a car-road. G. sorrow. piger. charger. also a career on horseback. cura intenta. one of those ac- 9 * . caresse. car. Translated in MS. tuorfurcm (Burguy). 2. AS. to scrape . is to say. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Fin. Fl. as carminare. karantez. kummer. road. charnel. that on wliich the matter hinges. crowl. hoed. Fr. cardinis. the flesh of animals . Carminative. fleshy . It. Dan. karl. Fr. is This however Shrove tide. &c. kurista. wool cards. clown or churl. mutter. kara. from carus. Fr. kribina. Care. Cartel. — — Diez. Roquef. W. Bret. W. A quirito ut infans. karrig. . E. .' Slceat. AS. crosier. astutus. to rumble. whence carricare. — — — : Cardinal. as peas. to shake. OFr. Trin.

krapati. Carnelevale.: . the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. or loose as a couch without further preparation. Sp. and Carnem laxare (It. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Pm. Shrove Tuesday. I quaught. a dance. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Ant. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. biheld without. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. W. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. cited by Marsh. A. used for stuffing mattresses. zimmerspan.' says Motley (United Neth.gonnella. carpenticre. Discov. — . 760. Lat. yede tham about. Here's to you still my captains friend. carbh. a wheelwright. as Fr. ship. The tippling sots. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. In Dominica d'autant. a carder. Other names of the sea. cxciv. Mid. qui sacco. 1 1 30. Fr. carpita. chariot carbad. carpo. maker of waggons It. Olr. Palsgr. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. Properly a round dance. to reel. chatter skra/a. The ' ' a chariot. to talk. lint. bier. Biheld within. carpetam (a quilt?). carpia. to chatter coroli. Pref. Analogous R. fabulor. to rustle.Lat.' Ordo Eccles.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. ' ' — . garrire. CarTo quaff carouse do use. carnelascid). course. ballare. zimmer. Carnevale. as E. chatter. carpende fast Carol. a plank. Bohem. in Due. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. to pluck.D. From Lat. as the Lat. Sup. tymmer. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. carduz. carpere. act of drinking a full Eq. differing To Carp. charpentier. all aus). Lat. e. 94).'— Stat.— R. ON. Mid.Why give's some wine then. On the other hand bumper to one's health. i. a song accompanying a dance then. — — ' ' — — — I — — . To pledge them thou refuse. peta. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. querole. Teut. . Carpitam habeat in lecto. The word seems of Celtic origin. Lat. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. 216. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit.— Drant in R. quoted by Carpentier. as carnaval from carnelevamen. So gone they forthe. to dance. culcitra. pluck at. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. on that. The karole of the stones behelde. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. is erroneous. The custom. carpentum. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Gower in Way. ! Carouse. Pr. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Carpyn or talkyn. to gather. chirp. to dance. of Guiana. koroll. Templariorum — ' — Due. skraf. pluck. Carole. carpat (Stokes). On this. a wheelwright. tattle.— Patriarchi. litter. carpetrix. linteamen. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Bret.Lat.Lat. Gael. Cot. in Nat. at midnight which derivation from kroes. to find fault with.' Reg. Beggars Bush. in Carp. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. a drinking cup. to pull asunder. All out B. 2. Fr. gonna. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. i. Chanson de carole. balade from It. Mediol. vel coopertorio carebit. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. sense. Nomin. Carpet. In a MS. charpie. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. was formed Mid. Alluz (G. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat.]e bois Carnelevale. and F. . or a carouse fully drunk up. 2. garrulo. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. cardos. Carpenter. worker in timber Fr. carpenter only in the latter sense. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. whence the form carnasciale. carpenta. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. .— Neum.' Raleigh. I drink all out. Dief. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. Ein we find the signification transferred from . krapanj. gar aus / all out is correct. a car carpentarius.

to crack. As defence from shells became more important. casa. quash. a paper case. kasseren.' Fl. Cot. to convey in a cart. Case. It. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Casket. and the OE. To duash. casaque. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Gael. Fr. Fr. ignominiously exposed. something that actually occurs. the money chest. cassa. ceorfan. coffin of paper for groceries. discharge. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. luggage. caxa. casuelj Fr. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. a car. to notch. Rouchi caroche. to cut or carve . properly to convey in a car. of carro. caisse. to break. an act of falling. AS. To Cashier. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. cartouche. to — — also casse. a loopscale the wall. Rouchi carpHe. It. — FI. caro. cancel. from Lat. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. G. a long coat. a hut. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. carriaggio. Carrot. case-maiej Sp. mata. casso. packing ' cloth. It. krat.— Fl. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . blotted out. not reaching to the height of the ditch. It. a fall. helmet. card. a merchant's cash or counter. Ready money. Lat. caroach. turn out of service. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. kerben. from It. from the sound it makes when Alban. cassa.' Cot. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. hull of a ship. a coffer or small case for jewels. Cash. casualis. casser. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Fr. coffer. afterwards any written challenge. discharge It. It. augmentatives of carro. crown of a hat. Carriage. cartella. hung up in some place and to be removed. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Flor. Sp. ' Casa-matta. bitten. empty.' Bailey. kerpu. To quash an indictment. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Fr. See Case. where Fr. the charge of — — Fr. break to pieces. casag. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. house. carrosse. — Cartoose. It. Du. kirpti. case. cancelled. Fr. Fr.to annul. caisse. cascade. a car. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. and that apparently from capio. from It. fall It. See Card. Case. Walach. charrier. charogne. to an- — Kil. CartOTicli. Sp. gristle. one who reasons on cases put. carroc- carrozza . like all the names of tendon. for the security of the defenders. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. to fall. casitiste. annul. OE. Hence casket. cassus. a chance or accident. Rouchi carone. It.. Cask. Casuist. cartone. — Cartridge. shell or carcase of a house. Cartel. Fl. Probably. carreaggio. a of water. cartoccio. cascare. gristle. as we . Lat. pasteboard. casa-maita. — — nul the proceeding. caisse. des rideaux A'carp^ie. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. cashiered. fortuitous. casco signifies a skull. made void. carroccio. Du. a canonry or slaughterhouse. It. To Carve. quasser. Cascade. Fr. casus. cartilage. Fr. Carrion. cia. tion from Sp. slaughter-house. Hence a challenge openly hung up. to slay. cassere. void cassare. Fr. long man's gown with a close body. Casual. Cart. and matar. to hold. To Carry. Lith. cut with scissors. from casa. to fire on the enemy. cascata. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. bag and baggage of a camp. a chest. charrette. AS. an augmentative from Lat. Fl. mord-grube. Fr. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. corresponding to the G. hollow. Lat. See Gristle. Fr. carota. also the carriage. paper. to shear.' — Hdcart. Cassock. casacca. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. The Sp. to dash. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. cassette. Cartoon. dim. Preparatory drawing of a It. to bear or carry. Case-mate. mord-keller. carretto. subject for a picture. Casque. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Lat. capsa (Diez). abrogate. of carta. Fr. caroche. augm. carretta. Rouchi carter. carogna. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. vault hole in a fortified wall. Cot. kerven. — — . crush. cascar. It. The carrying of anything.

cat. B. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Fr. . Fr. bot-kotis. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. mino. to make clean or chaste. torture. katze. tails. cat-o'-nine. under chi caleur. kottr. fer toTa. Catalogue. race. chaleur. kaJoivad. The Diet. to hurl See Awgrim. a fortified place. cacciare fuora. . cacciarc. It. of sarabands does Gr. It. Fr. . castello. while kiss / Pol. to crackle. to drive away. KarapaKrr]g. a little house or hut. kotas. second chase. coming to us through different dialects of French. was introduced. Pic. Fr. Fr. probably from an imita. to is Essentially the Sp. or Rouchi cat. the stalk of plants. _G. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. to clack. a Cataract. kasta. Pm. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Gael. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . Gr. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. kic' kicil are used chasser. catch. an enumerlist. drive away. ichasses. n. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. sue. 120. ' Catchyn away abigo. which has been retained in E.Rouchi Scaches. &c. to torture. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. stilts. like that of It. Catastrophe. ON.'— Pr. KaraXoyog. It. Thus we have Caste. to look at. fall. and from the castus. execu. dash. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Castanets. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. however. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Fr. handle of an axe. dashing it to pieces. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. casule. a chesnut . Mid. castro. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. . To It. chasser. OFr.to drive out. castana. shaft of a 1 push. ating. Fr. Lat. rack. Lang.Lat. So also from It.out cacciare . to break. Others explain it from Kara. Lat. same word with break. puss / for calling them. V. Cast. a vault. down. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. 134 CAST Catacomb. Castle. to crack. down. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. chat. and KviilSog. KaTaarpifm. to Fl. koshka. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Fr. chasser. to end. a whip on the other into latch. Isidore — in Diez. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. kasi. cash. kotas. dim. of castrum (castra). to dash. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. to turn overturn. the earlier sense of catch. Sp. from water Karappaaaiii. kat. cojz^/a. arpi^m. to drive Cat o' nine tails. the castanets for or implement . represented by the syllable quash. in the fire. Etym. to hunt. follow after.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. a garment for performing the mass in. lance. on. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. a cat koshki. first made ordinary Fr. the ground . Cot. a cat . puras E. . punch. Hal. speak of dashing a thing down. kakka. castanetazo. Cat. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. a thump. castellum. chasuble. perhaps from which we have E. ecrevisse. signifying breed. R. or bruise together. away. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. casupola. to fall as over a precipice. catar. Pol.. cascar. In the dialect of Picardy. dashing it out of the window. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. The E. which. kissa. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Roukind. casulla.. klakka. burst cascare. To Catch. — We a cavity. casser. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. or comba. Brunne. image accasciare. cast. and tomba. Hence castaneta. 'Vaaaw. force j Rouchi equerviche. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Yz. Sp. to cast or beat to tioner . cassa / cry for the same purpose. squash. from the first of Castrate. to scourge. V Lith. Fr. being Fin. name. cacciuolo. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. casipola. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. Chase. is not satisfactory. Gr. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). to lash. heat .the / or c respectively. KaTappaKTrjQ. squash. to close.— Fl. crush . accastiare.

kletse. Ptg.s. a pill. a whip. glcu. chenille {canicula. P. to catch strength. snatching it with a any one. klatscherei. a cornIn the s. — Catcli-poll. the OE. fragor kletsoore. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. a carter's Pat. i. flap klatsche. e. E. to the crack. seize. which all .from Bard and ayopsw. . chacepol. Kil. ' Fr. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. KaTtix'so. — Kiittner. Du. formerly called cliket. whip. de Bray. klatsch. bichano (pussy). to teach by oral instruction. GaUa catchiza. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Cot. caucht. insect. E. c or ^. Du. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. ' ' word catch. to harangue. — tinman. to snap. woodlice. dainties. a whip. latch. Caterer. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. G. an officer of taxes.V. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Wal. to A bailiff. Kartiyopta (/cari. ictus resonans. predicament. * Caterpillar. instruction in forms. in order). a clap. to crack GATES cache. 135 — Aasen. gliong. 'Horxa. a. Guernsey chafer. Fr. klinke. pedes. catc?u. cat is not apparent. to kythe D. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. . dainty vic- a form lash. is said that he got a claucht of it. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. resono ictu lash. smack. head. clap. . Kil. Claucht. sound.' ^Jam. snatched. from shutting with a click. chachara. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie.) . companaige. has both or of charming by sound. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . the distance to which the ball is struck. icarrix'Ki^. to snatch (said of dogs). to chatter with the teeth cake. ketsoore. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. OFr. a whip or Kuttner. Grandg. a caterpillar Milanese can. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. catch. Cates.. happe-chair. wild-beast. chase. blow.V. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. 'Bxn. and answer. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. a smack.P. s. Cot. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Metivier. chassoire. door when it is shut. devouring mite or weevil. — . klatsche and Norm. Chate peleuse. latch of. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. * Cates. to take. Guernsey pilleure. the elements of a science. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). .yopl(. kaetse. children's name for cat . an accusing. with and without an / after the c. to chat. silkworm. Du. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. ArbaUte de courte chasse. snatching. Sc. — explained. Gael. millecaterpillars. ecachoire. apprehend a person. Diez. a whip Rouchi cachoire. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Gael. chink. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. — B. as of the latch of a As ! — . . And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. gingle. gattola. chasse. weevils. Rouchi clincailleux. Gr. a — gatta. the the same principle he was Fr. — with a whip. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. E. quincailler. chatter . verberare kUts. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. a. called dog or Galla catchamza. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . Sp. caker. Swiss Lombard G. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. e. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. clap with the hand. cagnon (a dog). worm. Fr. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Tutschek. claquer. Fr. catch-flesh. On Catechism. clatter. kletsen. from Gr. klatschen. to clap hands. In the XV'e. cross-bow that carries but a From poll.' CATCH Fr. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. bicho. a little dog). Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. compare G. catch. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. resound. called in Fr. such a sound or the stroke which produces it.j. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. chatter. cache. or any kind of relishing food tuals.

a The peel. Diez). in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. caballus. and at the rich man's cost By sea. chaudiire. a pavement. Cattle. calidus.^ acheter (Lat. kitten kotki. . fur. Caution.. ce^l. klopfend knallen. koparet. B. cavaliere. Cavalier. . chausser.. quire. whence cathedralis. Jonson in R. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Cave. accattare. hollow. kautsije. chaussJe. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. lamb. also to pave . Lat. having the property of cleansing. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. to buy. cabbage). Cathartic. Ka^afriKOQ. a mare. hazel. caple. a horse.^Hal. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Kil. to shale or peel. and hence a skull-cap. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. via strata. from chaud. Caudle. a kind of skull-cap. causa. On the other hand. a paved road. CATHARTIC sense. Fr. G. chatideau. It. the caul of the liver. Mid. calotte. choufleur {choii. a receptacle for small things. Rete. Delycates. catkin mitz. catons. a road calceata. kin. what . A warm comforting drink. cautis. fur in general. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. catkin Magy. hot. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Caballus. flue. a seat. Lat. — Cauterise. to shoe. capull. is used in the sense of cat-skin.Y\\Xea. caudex . Kavrijp. acater. Gael. Lat. Port. katte. — — cavallo. challe was ther of a temple. CAVE Caul. kocianki. Kavrfipiov. Fr. Gr. minon. Lat. dumpf tonen. to shoe . accapitare Rouchi acater. a horse . Provider. caldo. and spareth for no perell. Fr. Pol. Palsgr. Russ. the. The word — . achepter. w.Lat. Fr. is Prologue. chevalier. katteken. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. a branding from koiio. ' Gr. to beware. Du. kobyla. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. otherwise written kell. calceata. cavus. . to burn. chauderon. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. but the acates that are sent him. It. little cat. cautus). net or caul-work. a kettle for heating water. reticella. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. It. kobuiV. to ac- — Fr. cale. KaPaWrii. • — — See Chattel. KiwariKog. despencier. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Pr. Cavalcade. Fr. Fr. Bessie of Bednall. a stalk. deyntie meates. flock. adcaptare. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Causeway. &c. any Fl. Dryden in R rete. to purge. Cathedral. puss. calceta. apt to burn iron. OE. by land. Fin. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille.' Elyot in Way. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Sx. little cap is . puss. walnut with the husk on challer. Du. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. the stones of a street. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. kocie. kopista. puss. Caustic. Cavalry. cauHs. acaptar. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. from caveo (p.p.—— — 136 correct. KaHSpa. kaussijde. kassije. mudet. . also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Thus Bav. 4. a horse .' B. Lat. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Fr. 2. Lat. cabbage-stalk. to sound like a blow . chair. from KaSaipio. Chaud. rete A — Prov. cabbage. Catkin. cheval. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Palsgr. . Gr. macska.Lat. cal^ar. Cause. green husk of a calon. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. hot. It. cat maczoka. Boethius. primitive is meaning a shale or off. catkins . kopano. mutz. Cavern. Fr. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Jaubert. It. Gr. a pulpit. Cavity. Wyatt in R. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. make clean. That he was ay before in his estate. Cauldron. Fr. Richly she feeds. catkin Pol. a horseman. from delf^gato. kdtzchen. Fr. Manciple's Tale. shaled or picked Fr. — . . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science.willow. cale. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. . calqada. chaudroii. Mid.

. cedo. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. plank. coffer. exceed. — komo tain). Ceiling. Hence concede. ciel is so unbroken. menuiserie. dScis. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. in Hal. the testern of a bed. It. flooring E. door-sill J Sc. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. The importation of Fr. of cavezza. Plancher. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. a fir-plank. thiling. Sherwood. . a canopy. give place. caveqon. kapp-zaum. kommata. a hut. del into English without ' translation gave cele. cease. little house. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. Sir 137 pit . to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. in Jam. ciel de lit. to canopy siled. board . rafter.). as. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. proceed. a boarded floor. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. p. —Decease. seele. were met. also a seeling of boards. a log. Cot. . served in halle Under a siller of sillc. a head. recede. Sp. A — A false accommodation produced G. Lat. augm. in Jam. Fr. The line of descent from Fr. departure. the roof of a coach. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. to cut. to panel or wainscot MHG. . tester of a bed. to plank or floor with planks. . thil. thilja. step away. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. — — — toyour soverane. jaa. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. 5. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. dille. . yield. is applied to a canopy. syl. cellar. In the same way G. and that from Sp. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. komista. ceiling. . The sense of roofing. heaven. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. . komo. beam. Hal. cielo. sill in window-sill. pp. bridle. hollow ice . The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. Boyd in Jam. and zaum. a canopy. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. thel. or of a bed. -ceed. thili. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. hung. a board. curved. cesso. So from Fin. cavezzone. deal. IV. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. -cede. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa.' Rutland papers. . column E. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Lat.' del. -cess. Lat.. syle. crooked kopio. to seele or close with boards plancher. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. the deck of a ship at thilja. that. empty. hivtmel. Cede. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven.'— Z. Gawaine & Sir Gol. To seele a room. wall.' Hall. . heaven. succeed. &c. See -cede. with their substantives concession. Fr. Lat. cabegon. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. Soc. lambris. canopied. decessus. wainscot thiljar (in pi. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. sky. B. of E . H. a severe bridle. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. cessum. to argue capto tiously. wuoren komo. a log. The It. Cease. selar. to go forth. E. and Gol. 43. Cavil. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. and then to gape. as if from happen. sill. plank. a cavern in a mountain {wuora.). applied to a canopy. to plank ON.' Ordinances and Reg. In the N. semely on syll. cavillor. a halter. &c. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. death. p. . excess. CAVESON kopera or kowera. 32. . Cam. post. cyling (W. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. koppeli. thil. quibble. 7. -cease. an aquiline nose. hollow. ceiling. dil. Fr. And seik — Cessation. cabega. sybire. Fr. hollow.. a plank. . &c. dayntily diglit. a log. nailes will begin to cling. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . VIII. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. — . selure. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. &c.' Marriage of James IV. departure from this life. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry.' — Gawan . a planking or boarding tkilian.j have come from this source. lambrisser une chambre seeling. sus-lambris. — . but hang around at the sides. a beam.' Cot. Wore. thelu. the inner roof of a room of state.

swift. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. abundance. Lat. Century. Sc. censura. or any bird's. -cepere. Lat. a Cemetery. and thence censer. pick out. to blindfold. decebre) . a registration of one's self.. It. Lat. Celerity. or expression of Ennius. in Marsh. sile. S.cern.— Chafing-dish. Lat. centum.of the r. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. to concern. cillier. Lat. distinIt. Lat. keep in It. observe. his office. estimate. to sleep). cigliare. The term cilium. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. and thence to conceal. Sherwood. but was gradually lost in conceit. concernor. to -sum. calefare.). to prick. to bury). heaven. from censeo. deceipt. and — — — possessions. Gr. Prov. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot.j 138 thill. as in some places burnt. festive. &c. -cern. — . Cot. — . -cipio. solemn (of per. -cebre ifoncebre. Ta^oe. a tomb. 1. Accelerate. goad. Assize. conceipt. also grave opinion. to separate. to take. a numerous con. celeber certus. the talk of men. . materials It. (and thence also) to hoodwink. oil.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Lat. to rub for the purpose a hut. capturn. confounded ist from It. Fr. Chafe. the point round which a circle is drawn. concerner. judge Lat. -cevoir. tax. to visit in numbers. Gr. Gr. cenio. see. -ciper. It. rubble. stones to the production of heat. criticism. zens according to their property. — . age. Lat. of heating. census. sift. chaufferette. Fr. See Celibacy. guish. family. cencer. much frequented. — — Cenotapli. Census Censor. a hundred centuria. chauffer. Lat. assess. incense. -ceit. eschattffer.— Cellar. cot. -CEIVE a shaft. Fr. the officer appointed to take such returns . we have a modified form of (of a place). a hundred of what- — . the hollow the Lat. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to think. — . To seel or close the eyes. Fl. Certain. irot\oe. to take. {cori)cipere. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. receipt. to sepap rate. encens. To Incense. ciglio. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Fr. — A . cretum. a storehouse Chafe. the place where the de. a valuation of every man's estate. to course of people. judge. /ctj/rsw. an eyelash. To chafe is for wine. deceit. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. celer. a prick. a solemnity. Lat. a religious observance. -cess. Centre. Cot.' Celebritas. for building. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Censor. oil. with the eyes. mortar. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to incense. sacred show. is totally distinct from the foregoing. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. capio. to heat. rough from the quarry. -cense. in accordance with the Fr. in comp. cilibat. judge. make angry. &c. as entering largely into the derivative certo. to contend. concetto. Ceremony. to burn incendo.unmarried. Cell.ing a room where there is not fire. riscaldarsi. -ceive. ceremonia. single or unwedded life. a shaft horse. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. to seele or sew up the eyelids . -i^oivre. Take the nedyll and threde. -cepire. Censure. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Incensum. Cereal. to attend on object with. -oept. cella. from Saa-rw. quarters for slaves. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. appertain. what to set in a chafe. OFr. empty. See Cede. Lat. Lat. Cess. K^'ivut. become heated with anger. contend. sting. point.. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Assess. a solemnity. ' . decide. Gr. In Celebrate. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. value. renown be embodied with. Fr. thence belonging to or connected with corn. to rate. census. and so of that other. — . is the opposite of disora virum. to seal a pigeon's eye. crevi. with transposition hence (of a day). parted sleep. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. -ceptjun. sure. to warm. tax.' Book of St Albans. to distinguish. ciller. Fr. blind. to twinkle darkness. caber. Censer. camentum. in comp. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. Fr. cerealis. dchauffer. Centurion. Lat. candeo. and met. Coehim. KsvTpov. being taken from Fr. For sess from assess.). siller les yeux. to be regarded as one celebro. to celebrate. to set on fire. cceremonia. and put it through the over eyelydde. thronged the participle cretus. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. eyelid. . Celebrity. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. to chafe. — . calefacere. then to rub without reference Cement. to glow. Fr. Cij(fe5j. hollow. syll.

rustle Challenge. hordeum vel let. on. E. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. call in question for an ley). movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E.' Rayn. kuhista.nium. songe. keffen. khah. 35. a rustling noise. havOFr. sborfare. cadena gives chain. fa sagramen de calompnia. Wall. kdfer. G. kahista. muzzle. . kuhuja. difficulty . OFr. Fr. Cot. Fr. a jackdaw. now a chair. The jaw chafty. from the shark-skin. B. fume. a goba rustling . breathe KaOa^oiiat. chaine. swelling with anger. dispute. Fr..sure carriage. Prov. baras of ants. Came. . great chafe. from of the G. puff. thick and short. much more Genoese sagrind. crooked. Hal. far lima-lima. calx. false accusation. In like manto huff. to tattle. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. — — — — — — . a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. charge with. Pers. rustling corn. chamar. keuchen. to bark. — — — . &c. a pulpit Cot. From the To Chaff. ^Altieri. Perhaps Pm. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. chawe. Prov. kahuja. cadieira. kaff. shaIt. kiamta. chatter. to call. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. a chain. Piedm. chafing. Cot. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. chafeter. ON. chagrin. de Brai. have a mind to parley. To buy and sell. Fr. Du. jaw. that leneth e per I'autra. kedja. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. So from dominio. kaff. Fr. or puff with snorting. to calumpnjamen. in a monstrous fume. grief. also to prattle. ckapfare. any insect of the beetle kind. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. cup. tronfio. . to gnaw. a pulpit. kahu. Chair. as. Probably from According to Diez. to action arose. cathedra. to caw chawer. Kaiiapa. to fret inwardtronfo. — — ' — — — A . limare. camera. Gr. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. chaire. bargain. Lat. 11. vel susurro. Bouffard. snort. ing rapidly repeated cries. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. a double operation * Chafer. Cheffern. preise. Bav. chaulx. a chough. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. gewolb. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. ceaf. cathedra. clamare. care. refuse barley . much blowing. chaffare. yap. KoBiSpa. chambre. — — — . from Swiss kafeln. leviter crepo Then. Adelung. vis. kiaftr. green sagrin. calice. ing a hard case to their wings. Lat. calix. Fl. refuse. kuhata. — . Pat. as a carriage is a moveable seat. Lat. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. to ner It. hiss. quisquilise offence. kauchen. catena. Kuttn. to sit. kuhina. care. to buzz. kdfelen. Chagrin. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. hght Chalk. and signifies to consume with anger. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. chaise.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. sagri. cauvette. Chayire. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. Lat. rally one. . matter by combat. to puff and blow. to move the jaws. kever. Fr. rustling motion challenge. Ayenbite. idle words. Pr. chaene. tattle cheep. to file. of. tattle. (ca'e'ra) to chair. calumnia. in a cana. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. . jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Gr. kiqfta. De Ir4. Fr. lime. chicane. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Chain.. cadera. place See Cheek. to claim. to pant. Chalice. often puffing. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. chalanger. G. signal by drum or P. to a seat. p. to dispute. to gnaw. to babble. cadena. Fr. chayire. haggle. lime . From Port. without chap/are makiinde. taubes korn oder hafer. P. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Camera. Fr. Halma. to Latin calumniare. Du. In vulgar language. contestation. Due. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Lat. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Fr. ceafer. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to institute anforensic action. a vault or arched roof. puffed or ruffled with ly. breathe hard. dongio. snuff. calonjar. calonja. talkative. with a:n arched roof. and as this was the beginning of man. chaps Chamber. ple^. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Prov. a prattling woaction.— — . From to go to law. cam. sagrindse. Fin. grief. avena vilior. fern-chafer. Lat. Lat. to chatter or talk lightly.

gekrUmmt. Fr. ciamberlano.Lat. . divided game. keiiipe. The G. zs jeopardy. dial. kablys. contest. to talk. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. Champion. mesleiare. termediaries between them and the judge. kapp. kabe. Partnership. surpassing. kibti. nels. to quarrel (comp.' melleia. at the railings. Fr. boys speak of capping verses. a jaw kianisa.140 CHAMBERLAIN . therewithal. rare. difficulty . cempa. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . chance. Fr. G. kinipen. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. a court of justice. Lat. hng. kampeln. bickering. chanfreindre. to hollow out. to excel. received the petitions of the suitors. a bundle. . a hollow chanfreiner. . — Ch-amberlain. To hollow out in chanPtg. Prov. to slope out the . fight. zampettare. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. . Commonly derived from campus. which seems another form of the root. chain. compound. dial. Sup. to hold . — masterly Sp. chajnbellan . champ. and mesUe.' SherI'altro ' ' . to paw the ground E. To Chamfer. to fasten oneself to another . kappd). move the jaws. i. a feat. E. act of falling. who stood ad cancellos. champ. to strive at games . kanip. as swine. wood. chaude mesUe. s. It will. reusement — fight in single combat. sukibti. ing. luctare. Pm. E. accidere. to cample. Chamfron. dial. Lat.edley. kabMe. to bevel. chamble. contention kappi. campus.—Tutschek. to Hal. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. The happening of things Chance. a field of battle. to fall). schmatzen s. Chancery.' ' Pr. head armour. or less ignorant. champion Du. and acted as inofficers of . — KiL . Meleare. Dief. e. champ. Fin. to . or player at football. tsammogni. ON. cazer. When the to quarrel. to groove bevel off a right angle. giving rise to the as. to stick to. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . cahir. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . So in e. to happen {ad and cadere.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. dial. a horse-race. Lat. kimpUma. tsamtsogni. chanfrein. chance. a game at football. Get campers a ball To camf . the chafldn. Chancel. to chew. excellent. champ. certare. Hence (with the nasal) w. kempa. jocus partitus. M. campar. — Hal. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. to hang. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. kabinti. kimppu (Lap. kampen. to — — champ. Carpentier. kampa. Campar. fight. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Sp. from chaud. . chdance. hero Sw. Chance-n3. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Lat. kimpustella. to to chew champ. as in It. a hook . camp. dispute Hal. from Fr. cameratus. fighting place. —Chamfrain. kempen. Lith. kiammi. athlete. kippo. fray. cadere. kampeln. combat. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. ciambellano. calidameya. caer. top of a borehole. contend or argue G. hot. pinch. chanfrar. Sp. The word is preserved in E. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. a scufSe. to be eminent. . accident. . to wrestle. escazenza. hamper. to flute as a column. chanfrein. — ^Tusser. Magy. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). to fasten oneself on to another . cancelli. a warrior. . kimbu. Chancellor. chamfrain. campear. Prov. prize-fighter. kiinp. kabintis. ON. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. calida et sans aguet. dial. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. The E. To cope or contend with. to wrestle. gewolbt. to slope. to move the jaws kiamt. champ parti. Fr. CHANCEL It. Fr. game campio. pedilusor. Fr. is explained by serrarsi. camerlengo. Champarty. kriimmen gebogen. Ptg. to fasten on. to debate. to tread The sound heavily. to smack the lips in eating. camp. jeu parti. broil. Gall. an athlete. campus partitus . slope of a bevelled angle. cample). to make a noise with the teeth in chewing.—Charfron E. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. Champ. Champaign. from cheoir. dricka i kapp. ON. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. camp. Du. See Camp. bundle. to fall.

may be compared with ON. hard bodies. wood. kappen. a small plate of flat metal. To Change. ON. Chap. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Da. Fr. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. is used in the same sense . Sp. 140. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. kapoti. A fellow. chapeletas de imbornales. Chap. 2. Lang. a jaw. Bret. Walach. chanter. chiappa. shift. —Ordericus Vitalis. from clap. to apply one flat thing to another. Chap. to — cut. schimbu. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. the clappers of the scupper holes. cambium. debeant conjurare. to swap. exchange schimbatoriu. Channel. camjar. ceaplas. a money-changer. kjaakaa. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. kemma. chapear. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Lat. kiceft. See Chant. as those on a trunk. muzzle. cobio. chap. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. ^Jam. to deal. Cheek. chandelier. Hal. Du. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Fr. esclapa. chaps. prune. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. to break . See Chop. to chap at a door. chop. while the broader vowels a. a reed. to strike. Aasen. Hence It. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to coat. . The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. canalis. leather. as It. esclapo. — — —Marculfus in Due. to creak. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. chapa. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . — . gab. lips of an animal. to cut. to spht a chip. kiceft as well as kjakje. flat . That wide were sentin their spicery. Chip. like the knocking of hard things together. as chancery . In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. waterconduit. a strip of metal plate. Sp. chancery. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to change. cheek. and the modern canal. Chandler. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. a pipe. properly in a hard body. klepan. Hence chantry. changer. a dealer in candles then. Prov. schimbd. Chop. Probably from chap. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. kennel. the place where candles ler. or the like chapar. to hack. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. chap. Commonly derived from capella. ceaflas. Da. to strike with a sharp edge. from canna. chop. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. chapelete de una bomba. kaupa. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. to plate. . cambiar. to plate. Compare chark. .^. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. kvar kjceften.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. jaw. to truck. cambiare. cangiare. —Chantry. to sing. the chaps . AS. Chapel. to strike. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. E. as skin chapped hands. Fr. I. chancellerie. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. exchange. clapet. Hal. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. throat of an animal. the gutter that runs along a street. skipta. the mouth. chapilla. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. and also to chap or crack. In like manner Walach. cantare. or the cracking of one. exchange. Man of Law's Tale. also a clap. Sc. not a soul. W. Russ. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. to cut off . any hollow for conveying water. to put on fresh clothes. And N. hack . surfaces striking together. chapeta. as corn-chandChandry. to paw like a horse . a chap is a crack or fissure. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Molbech. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. — : Lat. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. extended to other trades. a small metal plate Port. . as to chap hands. jaw. It is also used in the sense of the E. to peck. . are kept. to peck. to cut up into small pieces. Fr. Lith. from chandler. Chape. Chaps or chops.

a mark of a mountebank. From Norm. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. of chapel. a garland of roses. It. Mid. used in the sense of magic Fl. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . as. Fr. siarad (pronounced — sharad). . to tattle. Gr. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. czirbti. capitolo. to charcoal. Sp. capital. gadka. (eucharistie. Fr. Charcoal was ciarlare. occasional turn. turn. Lith. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. from capitulum. Sup. a The OFr.Lat. Boh.. which was incantation. —— . from cape or cope. It. Justin. it is my turn. babbling. cluck. from capa. charitas. kurkelis. Lay on. eapitulo. Swiss. chirlar. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Lat. cha. AS. Character. It. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Charge. Chare. chirriar. a turn cerran. w. Charlatan. * Charcoal. Fr. chapel. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. burning without consuming the substance. krachzen). An enchantment. Charlock. a merchant. chapelet. and in It. a head or division of a book. hiss Lith. affection. . also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. to . ghirlanda seor garland. charlar. Sp. Sp. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi.). properly to place — . char. Du. in turns. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. ject). See Charlatan. Cot. kurkti. cabildo. — — — turned to coal. from gadai. a riddle. creak. wreath for the head. czurksti. go. — spell. charge an enemy is to lay on. Fr. called kedlock. called in Sp. car. Lang. enough. charlatan. twist. the nature of a thing. to chirp. babdistinction. a riddle. tegere. a hood. karout. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. in To ness Charity. a verse. to love. . surris seu Lat. the turtle pitre. cluck kirklys. to chirp. Chark. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. charcoal burners. And damned be he who first cries Hold. dear. Chaplet. condo il volgar francese. ciarlatore. cearcian. wood to coal. chapitre. cam.whirr. carmen. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. to of the governing body. a rhyme. 2. w. be- e. schreien. Lat. canne. Inst. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. 370. prattling quacksalver. Ptg. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. chatter. to converse. capella. dim. as a beetle. jabber. cedeleac. a dispute . eyre. Charade. to turn. caricare. charger. twitter. cerran. colliers that charred coal. a mark made on a thing. It. Mundart. to dove . . to croak as a frog . turn about. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. The crash. a cricket karkti (schnarren. talking. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Lat. To Char. from carrus. es ist mi cheer.' Boccaccio in Diez. Deutsch. AS. gnash. carmo. OE. keeren. Prov. charade. hadka. to chirp as sparrows. return. grave or make incised marks on an ob. to prattle. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. to creak. seems to be derived charade. charer. chara. carricare. from Charade. pohadka. chirk.charme. for the same reason rosario. carus. Bret. chatter. clack. . that turned decken . Yx. kirkti. gaggle . to load . czurliwoti. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. dear(in both senses). bler. tattler. beloved. decken. See Cheap. Macduff. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. capellare. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Chirk. creak. A weed among com AS. The G. to prattle. &c. a charm. to sing or chirp as birds. to talk . corona. caritas. cher um cher. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Fr. In that work the verb is written caire. ceap-man. — a car. Hence carminare.czirksti. carregar. to turn Gael. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Chapman. chat. Chapter. as Pol.

kastaa. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. Gr. in Jam. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. or suckers on rough borders. Cot. Chasm. a word. Lat castigare. kippen. — Palsgrave.house. ferire. to chirp. whence a charm of goldfinches. . %aafi. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. a crack or a flaw . Du. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. occasionally Forby. From carinen was formed It. i. clap.a. chikat'. magpie. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object.). as turnip-chaits. to set a jewel. Chary. to chirp. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). schioppare. snap. chaste. clatter. To Chase. — — . gazzettare. talk much . —Jam. chip. flesh. Lat. Fr. karigh. converse. —Charter. a shrine for a relic. enchasser. to wet. root of the Lat. as we speak of olive branches. gadu-gadu. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. whistle. the noise of birds. a plate of metal. An imitative word. chip. to care). clean. —Bailey. limpid. czysty. scraps of for fuel. also to hatch. To chitter or chipper. a twig Suffolk chaits. to crack. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. chip. It. It. prate. Fl. la chasse d'une rose. be wide open. xi'i-'^vui. little sticks cudere. knacken..ppen. karg. germinate . s. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. jackdaw . gazzolare. to make a noise. Fr. csaterdzni. chaste. chary. shout OE. careful. blackthorn-chats. It. chair. from purus. or equivalent forms. kna. as in the E. gazeuiller. nome and . a chatter-box. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. as purgare Fr. To chip is then to crack. Chat. to clap. chykkyn (Pr. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. pure. chatter. Chat-wood. geug. to baptize. as. sordidus. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. warble. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. ch&tier. — sharp sound of a crack. used to represent a sharp note. — We ornamental work the to signify E. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. fragments. eclats. chit in the latter sense Du. tittle-tattle. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. an enchantress. To work plate as silversmiths do. chick. the handle of a razor . cassa s. make a noise as birds do. gazzogliare. clean. Chaste. parcus. castus. to chirp as a bird to cheep. — = Chats. castus. Chart. the young shoots . gaddc. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . a flock of those birds. to talk. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. Fr. Diez. the cry of the bat. to burst open. a young man . as from nomen It. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Parallel with E. See Card. V. a churchyard or charnel-house. to separate in morsels. It t. clack. . letters p. kata-kata. prattle. So in Gael. to cut and faggoted. It. or a bird out of the egg. In like manner Russ. or pop. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. carme and Fr. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. cearig (from cearian. — The . kata. OE. — Fr. The egg is chipped. also to germinate or spring forth. g. caro. — Yorkshire chat. Kil. Chamel. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. cyrm. a branch. Kil. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. See Catch. talk. gazzerare. from pure. To talk. pure. charmer. noise. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. incassare. from xoAn. tenax. fragments or leavings of food. carmen is presented in AS.— Chatter. chits. Hal. Pm. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Russ. csacsogni. To Chasten. cs E. See Cistern. warble. Magy. shivers. — Hal. to which it bears the same relation as chape. chick. to crack. chat. gallan or ogan. carnisj bones kept. splinters. the calix of a rose. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. nommer. Fl. crackle. noise. csacsogany. charm. B. to gape. speak . pure. knatiern. the bird is iiown.). is to represent the chamier. To Chase. ch). Pol. niggardly. clean. or the cry of a bird or the like.— Chit. discourse. csatora (Magy. a yawning. Malay. a branch and a young female. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to chatter or prattle . chisf. to cry as a chicken . chit. also a youth. CHATS fit 143 to name. Fr. racket . clear. Cot. a gap. chit-chat. D. Pol. —Chastise. G. To chit. to enchase it .

a young boy or girl. cara. Fl. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur.— . chatel. Chear. from Lat. prattlingchete. cattle. Then. NE. gagkezen. Ingulphus. Faire bonne chire.. Fr. Bohem. See Cheek. to laugh. while it Bret. cera. CHEEK zitella. giggling. kaupiti. Sp. koopen. to negotiate. KaviiXog. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. kauf. kaupa. retching. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Hence to cheat. chaptel. It — Brompton in Due. sob E. to clear the throat . Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. with Dief. G. chuckle. . The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. a dealer. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Bav.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. chatal. any cheating. mandibula. gig.ing. sale. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. jaw. cozener. a canting knave. to deal ON. the Confessor. — We ' . cattle. chop. Soc. to act as a rogue. Slav.— Chaps. goods. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. force of the word. tradesman. in widely separated languages by the Lat. kaupon. to fetch the breath with difficulty. OFr. changing. Pm. kaufen. to coff—Yisi. Ek dry and hard. look. Chew. a frequent change of the initial k into ch.. Cheat. . to — . welcome heartily. farm for farm. the countenance Fr. visage. favour. to cough and hence either buying or selling. to nauseate (to retch). the Lat. capitale. ceap. exAS. to chop and change. a cheater. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. It. horse-couper. kok. laughing. are represented piti. OFr. chear in the sense of victuals. Fin. The gutGoth. . keck. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. — To check an account. . . where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. kak. cheeks. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. It. — — —Chowl. chavylbone or chawlbone. s. us. the tongue. ceaflas. kakkaset. to buy. stuttering. catalliim. lower. kichen. a willing look and unwilling heart.' kezen. which is used in the to stutter. ceafl. entertainment. et juxta catalla sua. in Fr. chire. kakaista. chiere. and hence the E. sense of bargaining. cita. Gr. to stutter gigken. choule. to vomit. snout.of the throat in coughing. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. to coup s. with the exception of land. kek. a repulse. hawkmann. citello. which is the word in ceap. a rogue or person who used the canting language. lead to OE. to swap goods . &c. cachinnari. bon marche. the principal ' colloquial E. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. goods. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Modern Slang. Lat. upon a checked cloth. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. agreeing upon. to buy. e. See Chess. kikottaa. giving or taking in exchange. Cam. the face.' to exchange to gasp. Pro v. kik. a piece of moveable property. ku. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. a tavern-keeper. stuttering. Fr. price. to . a dealer in horses. Check. Hal. to cluck like a hen. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. whence captale. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse.kakot. entertain kindly. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions.— Chole. Pr. from AS. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. and. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. dchec. truffa. Du. ceahhetan. to make inarticulate sounds in . caupo. Cot. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. sum in a loan. gagkern. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. 'li^'opa jord i jord. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. syllables ^ag-.— Cattle. CHATTELS has ciio. Sc. teeth . the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . frown. aspect of a man. 144 the It. Chattels.-^. chapman. cattle. thers. jaws. Cheek. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. countenance..—Choke. equiva. society.

An imitative word. schach. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Fr. giffle. w.cirieggia. food. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Sp. to kep. kjceve. a cricket. cisty G. mouth kek. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. kces. cegio. Analo. kasiiUPr. to make a noise different word. a heap. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. Lith. kistej Lat. treat with affection. to choke with laughter. See Alchemy. — 10 . by laying up in a covered heap. kopen. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. mollium congeries. Chess. kastr. As the board to gasp i. . cese. to kasa. the final guttural is retained in writing.EP CHEVRON 145 on. to heap up such things for the purchoke. chops.' to w. dear. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. rennet. cheeks. The name of creak as shoes. Sp. It. frame by which the exertion is made. Thus "we are brought din. Cher. G.pose of acidifying them kasadr. accomplishment cayed. chesten. OHG. . who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. to prevent the attack of cavalry. kjcebe. cherir. kok. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. Achievement. kikna of dorum coacervatio. hasten. ichec. e. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Lith. Du. rupted into chess. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner.). gous forms are G. carnium. as. squeak as a mouse. to gape gab. CHE. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Hence chesten-nut. quok. castaneusj Fr. ition from a guttural to a labial termin.D. kdkel. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Pm. Fr. chests in OE. gill of fish AS. scacco. jaw. prevail with. cerise j G. kdke. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. subacidus. (Kil.Xo belch. to belch. cams. See Chess. cabiron. Lat. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. .D. quoka. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. rafters in heraldry. Cherry. geafl. chAtaigne. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Fr. From them the plish. — — . achever. Lat. like a young chicken. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. chiffe.. throat. make an end. xaque. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. E. w. subjected to this process with that which the throat . cabrio. for cheese itself. N. kaecke. Fr. E. Fr. the loose the game of checks. jaws Sw. ca' — . chevron.perly head. a rafter . the palate Chequer. gullet. kirsche. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. as meat and butter. Prothroat of an animal . It would Cheese. . jaw. Pl. Prov. kastanie. Fris. the The use of the word kcesir. gap. cufd. Du. equal squares of opposite colours. a chicken. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. cheek. ceg. the throat. clear the throat. Lat. caru. czypti. acquisition.. chevir. Sc. cerasus. Hence kikna is identical with OE. jaw . Chef. kasa. schach. incaseatus. the mouth. ost.their struggle for independence. Sc. to year. Chekenyd or querkenyd. Fin. — — . which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. whence kasa-leipa. Tutschek. w. takes place in the formation of cheese. king). the hke. /Ji2^/(W. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. to gasp. E. Da. ation. cista. . jowl. to bring to an end. nish source. whence czypulas. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. to boken. Jam. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. AS. cyse. dersen . kapen. skratt. To Cheep. Sw. to hold dear. cough. throat. to choke. In these latter forms we see the transIt.G. — — . then end. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. chasi. See Case. to love. Kil. X'C&s. suffo. Cherish. E. ceocian. veluti piscium. F*-. ceac. cheken. old bread. Chevaux de frise. the neck. Chemistry. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. to geahl. Chevisance. Sw. AS. jouffle. ceaplas. jaws. chaps. &c. by laying it in come to an agreement with. condition of being taken. kikna. gaghel. rattle in the throat. geagl.peep in the same sense. The Sw. Lat. caws. gapen. kesten. AS.koppen. chops. to swallow. cheek. G. cheek. cireggia. ON. kjakje. gabe. caseus. To make a shrill noise Chest. things Da. made rancid koka. ceaflas.

signifying properly shivering. kimme. keichen. zitterti. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. has probably the same origin. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. pi. G. from the second Lat. It..). a cup cibaw. to use the jaws. Lat. : — a lump. captain. pululo. the throat. — Fin. gills of a fish. deer's horn. from the first of which is Lith. Pm. tremble. killen. Tintillo. chawbone. to pettifog. chillar. See Chimmer. cebr. sonorous. then cold. to twitter. Palsgr. hiss as meat on the gridiron. a finch. machouere. kop. rafter. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. And hence. Chick. or the broken noise of birds. alter. the least imaginable jot. a chicken. twitter. . mouth. Probably from Fr. chiler. Payer chiguet A chiguet. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Fin. pipio. grelot). kind. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G.^ to resound as a bell. kopf Du. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. Child. choule. queror. and from the third E. Swiss kiden. cabriones. a small cask OFr. or qf people talking rapidly. CHJME the radical form is unusual. crepo. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. when the vibrations become very rapid. Gattel. To Chide. branchy. as. kauwe. Sp. chimb. cabar. — Du. ' . kaau•wen. ]). to contest. Chitter. Fr. E.— . cabar beinne. kitista. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to chew. tremble with cold. caferu. CHEW . . — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. to raise the rim. pipe. a chicken. Fl. A To Chew. Gael. — It. chavel. to crackle. Fl. doubtless originally a chicken Lap.D. the rim or edge of a vase. Fin. — — Mother Hubbard. killen. lead through the synonymous E. tiukkua. jaw.— Cot. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. the Ptg.. ach.peep. chieftain. capo. W. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. chin. a jaw. kieken. rafter . . Chaw. chikat'. Chime. k'imm s. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. tiukkata. Fin. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. tintelen van koude. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. kippa. chef. to smart. Pl. Brezza. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. cidan. chavel. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . then as G. chillrar. Du. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Now gan some courage unto him to take. cap. De chic en chic. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. capete. cheek. Magy.' my finger tingles with cold. kimista^ . kauchen. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. — . kibr. the head. chicken. Du. the jole. Walach. to scold. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. rafter . kimia. Fr. a cup. cica cica. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. from little to little. the same principle I regard On birds. horn wood. kaw. to go. by driblets. Halm. the young of animals in general. kime. kouwe. caput. gosling. to Du. Prov. to titter is Du.^ Hal. beam. a head. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. kindeken. chiquei. quivering sound which passes. tyuk. pole. in Walach. w. Pm. E. chaps. kuwe. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Chief. cabarach. mountain top . s. a little bit. kinderen. capu. chillness or shivering. Chimb. to gasp for breath (Hal. knit the brow cib-led. head. the cry of young . to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. greloter is to shiver for cold. G. tiuk. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. For the see word Doit. also the horizon. a young bird. aner. kidata. creak.D. stake. cib. czypulas. AS. a chicken. Chigue. knirschen. Fr. 'Among these the G. Pr. kauen. are formed Du. kilderkin. a hen. chicaner. The loss of the syllable it in Du. chicoter. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa.— Gattel. To chitter. term is ssaru fu. The Pl. or chick. knarren. antler. a cup. chic. pip. to the brim. jaws . klagend tonen. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. cild. into a continuous shriU sound. chew or chaw. chill. pipio. tiukka. De finger killet mi for kalte. E.. to chime. Pr. ultimate origin of the Mite. Kil. while the Magy. strideo. Bret. chol. as pointing out the origin of the E. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Imitative of a loud clear sound.. to contest about trifles. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. horns of the house. caprioru. or as E. 146 brial. acute. jaw.-ill. Chill. Russ. Da. and not vice versd. a quid of tobacco.

verynge or dyderinge. Magy. i. To Chimmer. a szemrcU. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. as a large bell .to chirp. bone . also vibrans. Gower in Hal. Primarily a shrill sound. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat.to divide or Du. . yivtiov.. Chit. genou (pi. Bret. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to open chirriar. the jaw. It. in Hal. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate.. Bav. simmer. from the geon's lancet. fyr. chin . kieck hoest. cinne. sound. chhint. To chirp or twitter. Sw. czirszkti. to tremble. Chink. schina. cheek. pork) . Huloet. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. plodere. as a bell kommata. to sound. — . Sp. the whooping cough. hiss chirlar. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Chink-cough. disCot. clashing of weapons. skina. kink hoest. a thorn. Prov. tinnire. Chisel. Lith. Chat. to chirre. to prattle czirpti. the mouth (jaws) . to murmur. eschiner. genawi. The desig. .czirbti. cleft. sounding deep. kumina. epine. Pm. chirp. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. to chink. a thorn. Gascoigne in Todd. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. et garrire . or chyFrigutus. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Chitter. Du. . cinan. in the same crack. vincially used in the sense of a crack. backe. cisello. as the/ is preserved tering. chink. chatter . flaw Hal. and from a similar sound to boil gently. sound on beginning to boil. pare also Walach. Chimera.sharp. Du. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. to chirp. keich husten. schetteringe. Sp. caperd. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra.er. Chip. to squeak in It. cisaille. stridere. cincel. AS.). in- — by the syllable clink or chink. quavering of the voice. — . hiss Pm. cheminde. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. spina. applied to tremulous motion. Chine. schiena. a Kuttn. esquina. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. j^lf. sonus the backbone Lat. ciseau (for cisel). to tattle. bx-eak the back of schena. name Then. to creak. to chine. A . hollow. . klincken. and the Du. It. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. To Chitter. eschin^e (de pore). from 10 * ' Chia. Caminatum.iron. Kil. then to any narrow crack or AS. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. In the same sense. Chimney. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. See Bright. clipping of coin. representing connected together. hus. kumista. Chin-coug^h. caminsects. fissure. Chitterling. The change from the sound ter \s. See Chark. a surkik hosta. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. It. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . ter. shiver and the chyver of Pr. gena. rustle. crepare. Fr. are In like manner E.Huloet in Hal. ykvvQ. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. tsengeni. the chine. gen. Chymerynge. It. tsongeni. Sp. to gape. quivering or shakyng for colde. all these imitative terms being minata. G. to creak. Fr. G. Hindost. Chintz. have been used to designate the spine. twitter caminus. It. sonants. — . Fr. kinne. komista. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. komia. the cheek (jaw) . tschirpen. to sound deep or the Gr. sparkle. Ptg. tremulous motion. squittire. resonance . Gloss. the cheek. a fire-place. To chink with laughter. as the chink of money. as birds the mouth. schrick. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Chyrme or chur. then of a fabulous monster part goat. ciarlare. eschine.Lat. 147 kimina. zirken. to chirp . Lat. caminata. zirpen. Sp. killed by Bellerophon. but or cry as a parrot. twinkling light. a chap. and chim-mer. esquena. chick. chits. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. . dial. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. Pr. schetteren. backBut she withal no worde may soune. the jaw.' Phaer's Virg. to simmer. clangor tinniens kummata. See Chap. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . and bodily movement in shimm. the chin . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Cot. part lion. up and down. from Lat. — . to chink with laugh2. E. Fr. companied. spina. a chink or fissure. Fr. and light. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. to sizel. to prattle . KinneGr. — — — — — . Diez de. a hall Mid. See Chats. The small entrails of a hog. do.schricken. E.

a wine taster. chaup. gustare. the ridges prove. Fr. to tempt. chap hands. to exchange horses. — Chock-full. arkiusan. select. all seem slate .' At last he dwelt . Choice is probably direct from Fr. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. * To Choose. to try. chimp. kor6n. civette. Equivalents in the SlaFr. Jam. The I go to prove them. experience valerie. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . as with a blow. specially with an application to theatrical performances. cive. Schmid. called cMtters in the N. approve. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. full to overflowing. Swiss kust. to taste. kustigen. — — — . Warwickshire coff. Fr.ffrill. G.D. chippe. Gr. to shiver. and It. Fr. Chuck-full. to break off in small shive. Choice. G. . to taste . — See Cheek. choix. gusten. to clap up Hal. Swab. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. — Cholera. anger. to stop geschoppt voll. propagated. . ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. schiefer. The Sc. haslets. to taste. word is more likely to be from Lat. shoot . the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. The . greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. &c. causir. okusyti. whence Lat. curly . Chivalry. a ruff or frill. heaped measure. wkusit' prikushat. 19. ON. chorus. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. kieser. a calf's pluck or chaldron . Serv. .— B jag E. pieces . of E. Body and Soul. kushevati. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. ON. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . the inwards of an animal. to hack. and N. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers.gust. kbhren. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. ruffs. coro. The manners and senti. x^poc. taste. choppe. to choose. seallion or unset leek. to taste. kalbs gekrose. a knight. kruszki. keuren. from kraus. to taste. and in this sense the * small pieces. friller. an onion. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to strike hands . and in kosten. kiezen. to taste. schoch. to experience. of an angry — — — ' ' — . then to try. G. a chive. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Gr. or original meaning is preserved in G.. prove. whence choleric. Chap. skifa. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. I. lead us on to Lat. To Chop. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. also calPs. chives.ceosan. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. g'schochet voll. Choleric. ent quarter. kiusan. Prov. a heap. . to palpitate . pluck. kausjan. Luc. kiusan. cke. chattering. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. the small parts of the roots of plants. Walach. a small slice or slip of anything . as green as leeks.vonic languages are Pol. a twittering. Cavalry. try. wein didder for cold. chibble. a company of singers or dancers. ^S. shiver. taste. CHOP kros. xiv. ments of the knightly class. Goth. a young . an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. To Choke. to wrinkle. to ^cleave . As kushnuti. chawdron. crammed Choir. a ruff. are used in the same sense. a rag. to Compare also Pol. Lat. by which they are Fr. to chap at a door . cepa. kushati. gekrose. signify to kiss.. OHG. Boh. to prove. . Enn Sigridur sem ' .' Verie coinme Cot. chife. i. scheve. rare. chceur. kiesen. kusid. —Chorus. chock full. to ing is doubtless to taste. cape.' who shall not taste death. then to shiver. . Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly.yEuffM. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. &c. See try. cut up into — See Chats. and Vf. gdnse gekrose. from chevalier. it is probable that the root kus. %o\ifa. fine threads of flowers. coup. developments of the same radical image. disposition. wrath. caperd. to try. fresure. bile. to try . a goose's giblets. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Gr. chiffe. Chives. full.V)^x. in the same language. . a calf's chaldern of E. Yr. Chives are also a kind of small onion. krussyi. to try. chatter. schevel-steen. ^euw. •- Russ. keypa. 2. a scale or fragment P1. koren. try. to turn. to chap. a fragment. a blow. kaup.freze. from %u\i).

— Quabbe. to strike in the hand. soul-couper. Chub. E. xop5>}. p. to clack. cangiare. Cot. E. to speak thieves' slang. E. To coup. or miller's kaycke . Chough. Chuck. cauvette j Fr. chapineria. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. thick-set. civetta. a messenger or envoy. choucas.\^s. chop. See Change. quappe. — Chrisom.povucd. dial. chub. Chopino. the intestine of an animal.— Chevin. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. to chatter. an offence against the fitness of times. Come. kaulhaupt (club-head. who took in the Turk- clack. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. xftovoq. kaufen. connected with G. in Chaucer. to overturn. chack. Wall. See Chaff. claquer. — — — . . capita. cob. yiSA. Sw. Sp. clogs. Chronicle. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. a thick piece. chrisme. from kloppen. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed.(. capitone. chronicles. XpvaaXic. Anachronism. prattle . Jam. forms are Chrism. the same word with the It. as Du. cauc. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. syllables chat. To Chouse. . a small fish with a large head. — Dief. gold.' Jam. A jackdaw. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Gr. Lat. clat. the string of a musical instrument originally. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. cheviniau. ' ' What's that? Dap. chevin. chouquette. In the Alchemist. -chron-. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . P. chroniques. caqueter. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Alchemist. monedula. whence apparently the Sup. caphatenus. time ra . kauwe. that will thank chiaus — you richly. to cant. short piece kubbug. merchant. slipper . equivalent to the E. kobe. A fish with a thick snout and head. 49. a The What dhy ^. noble Doctor. kolbe (club). If I discover. Ant. Fr. Kil. cresmeau. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. kowe. chapma?i. Fr. we find the following passage Dap. Gr. whence e.• — . by the Robert Shirley. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. as in Fr. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. From the Turkish Chiaus. chevane. What do you think of me.— Landnamabok. Fr. cambiare. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. one who buys and sells horses or cows. 4. kowej Sax. &c. xpi'^lia. ON. Madam. E.xl—Shirbe ridiculous.sohola.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. —Shakespeare. I bring you the Cloughs.. applied to an owl in that language. kaw. and we actually find champman for chapman. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. for to defraud. ley in Giiford. chatter . shop where clogs and pattens are sold. i. traffic. whence the Fr.). gull. Du. of which such strings are made. a stump. a lump or piece chump. cow-couper. chevane. to knock. fat. Du. chuet.).' They are forebuyers of quheit. — . a bullhead. Fr. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. kubbr. Chord. dealing. cheap. high clog. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. The Turk was here As one should say. which was written 27. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. in i6io. thumb Fl. kaej Lith.. To Chop logick. cavena. klompe.—Chuokstone. In Sc. the teeth to chatter . capito. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. peace. gull. Borgoens happen. sent before him a Chiaus. dial. ceo. caker. bearand aits. e.X. AS. to turn over. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. whence — E. Chrysalis. That Face. kubb. chrysalis (Plin. plump. Gr. Marin. gobio capitatus. e. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Confounded with the bullhead. Gr. chouette. OE. Nominale in Nat. because she would not endure this husband chopping. overset. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. capitanus. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. Peace. klopper. G. chapin. a trafficker in souls. Picard. Fr. koppe. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking.

— — A — ' ' — . to strike clatter. incido. Sicerawry face ceffata. so as to make the happen . . the snout of an animal. ON. then the on oh StX iv roXt. . chuffy. C^z^j^ churHsh. Lat. Fr. as a board. to separate the kernel of the milk. dial. chack or stane-chacker. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. a lump. G. accido. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description).for the residue of stone coal. in the face. Chunk. residue of burnt coals. Hence -cid-. Cider. a man. an old man. kjami. sive piratiam facere sciant. x^^i?. joffu. kernjen. kerl.' And cold. to cut decide. -cise. — of the two words.^. KaxXij?. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. from Lat. whence ON. have given rise. blow on the I io6 in Mur. a man. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. thence a belt. kirna. to fall at or on. cut off. Aasen. or. i. or choice part of a thing . -cido. to turn from blossom to fruit. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. sintel. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. sindra. chops. Du. G. As AS. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Chuff. a girding on. to fall. ashes. joufflu. as Fr. spuma metalli. Du. cidre. but by way of explan. ceffo. tie about). to fall upon decide. See Ceiling. Cieling. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. e. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. flower. chofu. whence deciduous (of trees). 24. to Newsp. as water running over rocks or stones. ON. with It the Lord's house. calculus. to make a rippling noise. The derivation from Kvpiasov. in circumcision. tindra. Ir. Jennings. a pebble. to make a aiKipa. ceaplas. giffle. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. pith. however. &c. ladre from Lazare. to sparkle. e.' he adds. -cis-. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. to cause the milk to grain. surly. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. to churn. cendre. kiorne. calx. cheek. Churn. that the word is an adoption of Fr. sindr. a douse on the tores. male person.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. ChurL husbandman. Ka-^aiva. jaws. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. cinders used disjunctively. * Cinder. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. To chuck in the fall from. sindel. OFr. as in E. from Lat. a fellow. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. a cutting an old chuff. countryman. to him a sudden blow. -cide-. a miser. casum (in comp. karl. to gird. Lat. Lat. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. klakka. marrow. . chife. It is certain. cinctus. Gothic nations. See Cheek. lamak. a cutting round. sinter. Cob. . See Cheek. a husband. ccedo. dust. Fr. Lat. Sc. a man.D. pp. a resounding object. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. ceffore. Gr. AS. set kerti. — . cheeks Cincture. Du.. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. KvptaKolg. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . Diss. comp. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. The origin ation. AS.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). -eris. a pebble . Probably from It. a rustic . cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. -cisuiri). chack-stone. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Sw. in Sc. as Epkema explains it. Cleland in Jam. log of wood. . and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Da. cinis. swollen or puffed up Cot. fat-cheeked.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. cinctura {cingo. Wall.rendered by Kil. The spelling of chider has Chump. the kernel. domhnach.— . to throw out sparks. Wall. ON. Fris. Church. to jaw chack or snap. chofe (Grandgagnage).V//a'6'?. cado. ceorl. geaflas. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. kern. kaerle. to form grains of butter. i. we have to chack. . to To Chuckle. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. ciuffo. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. chakil. to determine incision. &c. ceaflas. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. Gr. kakka. scoria. whence church. sicera.— Chu%. chaps.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. In Sc. gffe.

Du. kluV. ring. to clap at a theatre. -cis-. klabb. the place of . Fr. a reservoir Probably from Lat. to summon or call on. to cry out. to chatter. E. prattle. Fr.— . . klak. outcry. clump. around. a city. circ2tlus. to knock. to cleanse. cit^. rattle . either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. * Ciplier. and. Fr. twig. a Lat. Lat. klammer. lump. klumbr. -cite. sip. klimp. See Circle. chupon. sifr. slam. clack-box. a lump Lat. clangor avium . bunch . cisterna. — (Dozy) ing blow. a circle. ruin. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. may cite w. sound- — hands figures. claquet de moulin. trunk. whence cistiti. Mack. suck). is traced by Gr. Citron. biw. lump. a lemon tree. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. cion. a judgment cern. clobyn. kringla. CION See Tinder. to toll . empty Golius. babble . radical identity of the Fr. kringr. scion. with an initial s instead of c.to suck. E. clapping of klacke. crack. crack. Scion. a for water. a circle. to call by name. klappen. stimulate. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. claquer. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. mass . It. Gr. for Cion. in the frequentative form. excite. Recite. circum. Alt. as in Sp. a city. the tongue. . cion. a hiding-place. a clod. a mass. Circle. clamp. Sp. Gael. sajira. See -cid-. Citadel. &c. to call. claim. accordingly find the roots dab. klateren. as caverna from cavus. . a circle. klqb. Lat. and clash. chatter . lump of wood or with the nasal. The syllables clap. To Claim. klump. Du. cittd. ball kloben. klemte. clog. It. cifra. circum. a block. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. from chupar. a rattle Fr. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. or clap-dish. clap. parallel root is slam. Lat. ciste. It. clamras. Chaste. as. Lap. fall. a knob. cittade. a clod Russ. hringr. or split with noise. a Pol. cista. compared with It. dob. clap. to appeal. to go. Du. citujn. G. to set in motion by means of the voice. chijfre. clapper. klap. lump. Sw. Dan. W. scion or sucker. a ball. City. cisterna. . In Fr. klubb. a young and tender plant. Comp. Dan. a'upiav. KpiKoe. From Arab. a shoot.. a cleansing place.' sione. belonging to cities or social life . ON. klepati. dim. KipKog. rattle. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. to chatter. gutter. vociferation. clot ON. Cite. creak les dents. lump . a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. log. area. noise — — a cistern. clack. a citizen . lash . civitas. to be empty. klacke-busse. glam. Hence Incite. Clamp. a kind of pipe. . often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. clatCot. Lat. to clatter. wasserkasten (water chest). claquer. clasp. ern. to bawl. clack. about. and Sp. clamer. 'mass. Arab. to strike. klekotati. Cot. claquer crash. sound of blow. to mention. citrus. We . Clam. Lat. globus. . of citta. clamare. sound. noise. . uproar. Lat. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. a block. to make to go. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. clambar. to clack. cry. to call. Circum-. or quill to draw waier through Fl. sindri. circa. to gnash the teeth. a boss . domern. cito. Gr. We . also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). glambar. a ball. a lump Du. sphere gleba. klappe. cry out . cluster. So a light. Hal. around. to chatter . civilis. ter. klambr. a kind of rattle. a ring. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. * Cistern. The notion of a lump. . Fr. Bohem. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. G. crack. smack. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. circle. cittadella. prattle. city. Lat. tinnitus . a rattle . To Clack. klopati. Gael. a whip. —Circuit. glamm. —Civil. Sw. a whirlwind. Excite. and E. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . chest. a cistern. . . bunch. a pop-gun. klacken. a place See place hiddern. klompe. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a loud uksa slamketi. clat. . Clump. klater-busse. civis. ON. a split. The Gr. castus). clack-dish. sprig. chupon. to cluck. klamp. clamp. lump. the door was slammed J slamem. ON. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. lucerna. cieo. a. forms — — — parent plant. See Crankle.

to knock. To Clamber. clandestine. to climb . a sound. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. . the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. These words To are closely connected with damp. to seize. kleben. . The root which gives rise to klibb. compress. is a nasalised form of gripper. klamre. gripe. Clamp. klammern. and hence to pinch . prison. to starve. cramp. Bohem. G. to hook things together. G. — Lat. whence sala. who occuG. dank. cream Manx doan. tight.' klibba. to climb. apprehend . run to lumps Clandestine. contraction.' to take coals to Newcastle. as the clapping of hands. cling. Du. klavre. grimper. ancestor. clang. also to clog up. Swiss kldbem. to clap. chatter. klam7n. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. clap. salaan. to climb. tenacious. pressed close or hard together. klank. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. closely analogous to that of the fast. Dan. dambar. Lang. G.er. clapas. sound object . hands or claws to grasp. narrow. dam immediate modifications — . klamm. dam. dial. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . to. clear sound. bandage. to claw oneself up. and hence moist. for tame conies. G. klamme. Fr. dang. dientes. klemmen. a bird of prey. clasp. resonance klingen. clangor. klepati. klam. and that from celo. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. to glue. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. a trap. to clap on. klemmen. klopfen. dapier. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. conceal. E. clibby. accent. the in many languages. clamber. a sound made by a still . a hawk. See Clam. as the Lat. dam. klibber. — Climb. strait. to climb. uproar. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. klang. klimmeii. dam. klemmen. holdfast. Mampe. klynge sig op. hold. a stick. brawl. nature . viscous. kleppe. to dame. from birdlime. Halma. to stick conceal. G. take hold of. . kleppen. tingle. chief. offspring. club .. to do anything with a clap. Bav. klette. rattle. dee. massy. children. a claw. cramp-iron. dem. scendants. clav\f. to hold fast with the . klampen. cleave. clann. or klamp-vogel. a place underground where rabbits breed. damor. of the children. solid. buckle klamp. to hold to pinch. seize. Lat.p correspond- ' without order. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klobber-saen. tone. Clan. chatter. Du. dial. E. to stick or glue. klatten. to Hal. dren. sound . yf. damras. is used in the sense of secretly. klappre. a sound made by a lighter clink. descendants . A i. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. Clink. klammer. privately. compression. to knock. B. substances of a stickydam. clap. kloben. glambar. Dan. cluster. Salainen. from the w. klepanie. klubber. OE. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. klebern. to cleave or stick. in a hidSen place. Sw. sticky Hal. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. clammy brace. klem-vogel. E. celo produces Fin. — . dienklebber. klappen. a burr. The equivalent of Lat. dink Du. Clang. tattle. hook. dapier. originally a heap of large stones. a craCmp. gum. Gael. rumour. a claw . beat. To sticky. a heap of stones or other things piled up . viscosity . . ney. but perhaps not directly from it. clapper of conies. &c. . G. to glue. Clamour. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. Du. to climb. Du. klettern. stick. anything hidden. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. AS. children. crowd . Russ. — — . In like manner Du. Clap. pinching. with cramp-irons. of which the locative case. grasp. — with hunger. to beat. sound of the trumpet . Clapper. to pinch. tremble . dandestinus. a whip. klepel. of money Gael. a heap of stones. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. adopted Lat. dapi^. To clap in E. klynge. kluppel.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. tinkle. c). The E. G. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to cling. a rattle . a stone See Claim. ring as metal. to gingle. bond. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. Clank. clink.1. coagulated cream. sound. knocking. . diver. daver. to patronus. dap up. to climb. Swiss kletten. Dan. kleppe. clajnmy. beating. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. strain . to hide. These are imitations of a loud. dia. to clamp. salafa. E. to clutch or cling oneself up. B. to Sw^. Hence the Fr. to daub pinch. gliong. sound. a noose . klappen. The Fr. klippe. — Cot. a loud tingle. Dan. where- A — unto they retire themselves.

e. The b readily passes into gleba. and shrill-sounding trumpet. a clasp. biichse. Gr. or as G. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. klatscha pop-gun. Russ. Sw. from the resemblance to a key. dap. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . clavus. klc^i. —Kil. Fr. a key origmally a crooked nail. klot. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat.w or u on the other. contraction. fracas. glcis. a nail. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. globus. to fasten together . chiizjj-o. Du. Analogous Jam. to do anything with a . whence kleuer. and through v into a. It. kleeven. a clod. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. from its use in fastening things together. buckle. classis. But clasp or elapse. locket of a door. chiarello. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. From claudo. chiarino. — Clarion. klauwe. — Clarinet. in the sense of a claw. subrubidum. Clause. Nawith stavis. klos. Owl and that by which cleave to. as G. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. teren. to fasten. a. Fr. The form clew. to animals Sp. diver. clavis. crying. Thus from clamp. under three modifications dava. Pol. chatter. a sphere . globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. sauna de classes. klijven. clamp. a lash. Du. compression.ck a whip. clairon. . . KXeiSi. to ring in such a manner for the dead. chasguear. forms are the Du. cinnamon. claw (what fastens together. seizes) . uproar. Class. Originally clasis. Commonly made. clas. — tells us. the collar-bone. kleuen. Claret.oi. nawith stanis. straight-mouthed. Rayn.It. the primary origin clapa. — Kiittner. thwack . klucz. schnalle. a lump . Lat. klampvoghel. vin claret. klatschen. klatschen. a claFr. Du. Lang. globus. which signifies a ball in E. klouwe. to shut. clairon of a trumpet— It. From clairet. with a reddish tint. Clasp. klouwe (Kil. klamme. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. a claw.to cra. we pass to the E. a key KKtitid. he of white and red grapes mingled together. a lump. clew. insularum nexus . clew or fasten upon a thing. mass. a. Dan. So Pol.— CLARET clamp. flap. Du. Thus from Lat. Fr. Lat. Mask ! plask ! thwick. to patter. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. and clavis.\x\xvn. Prov. 269.). sound of the foregoing description. gaspe. kluczka. E. clausula. &c. Klatsch- a pop-gun . klaequivalent to clack or clap. cloi. Clew. Clash. a key. skeria-klasi. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. klaterbusse.Z. ivy. Du. K\a. The collar-bone. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. klaeret. pet. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. an ending. Serv . syrtium junctura. Kil. clausum. klatsche. rubellum. stop of an organ. to clash as arms. klauw. a water made of aquavitse. and old red rose-water. is preserved in Lang. mass. Lat. clopa. applied in their harness. ictus resonans. Eau clairette. waU. a club or massy stick. Cot. hawk. a heap. somewhat clear. same class with w. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. a little hook . biichse. it is called clamming. klampe. ansa. kiosk bicza. Du. a bird with powerful talons. clair. to draw it up into a bunch. Claw. In E. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. assembly. claret win e. from scknallen. a complete sentence. Identical with ON. as Mod. in the sense of a mass or lump. chiaro clear. vinum helvolum. nail. sphaera. clarin. pellet . Sp. clatter. also a knell for the dead. as it is written by Chaucer. from clinging to the tree which supports it. a ball. kletse. i. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. &c. klase. rion. is used in Sc. noise.Gr. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Wyutoun in Jam. clump. clarinado. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. an on the one hand. klaskad. a buckle. a kind of small. Clavicle. Lat. hook. to knock. ghespe. row aii/iaTos. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. to end. thence a definite head of an edict or law. In the same way is formed the OE. vin clairet. to rattle . To clew. It. to cleave. to snap. cluster.. blab. fragor . G. the cracking of a whip. a distribution of things into groups. bawling. fibula. puUs. to clap . Eya-klasi. climp. a bunch. Clatter. Nightingale.

This is probably one of the clean. rivet. Gael. a latch. Thus from G. an object is simply cleft. conserere antklankjan. pure . words applicable sight. Du. Cleft. Clinch. Clay. to glitter. kla:g. bright. klutsch. E. from the clinking of the latch. as the Du. geklonken. famous. Mar. klink. klieuen. klinke. found in other cases. Du. clean. to stick to. klinka. rive. from nitere. to 2. Cleat. . Da. a noose. a noise. calm. it cleave together. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. cliquet. See Clam. to cleave. Sc. give a shrill sound Jr. a cleft. a cleft or fissure. The proper meaning of the word is shining. a fissure. Lat. danche. chaps in the skin. (Cot. opposite senses. Du. clear. glent. glindse. ON. the To Cleave. polished. . clink. pellet. klinke. celebrated . klinken.Q. hook. klijveii. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. to clink or sound. a lump. G. dinquet kleeven. to shine . either by the coherence To Clepe. pure. that was Torriano. to clinch GB. Sc. G. a — — . to fasten. klinken. To call. Lat. B. glbr. kleg. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. dams. kleben. Sw. G. Clemency. klank. to tear or cleave asunder. kleevig. viz. Die zaak is zS. vissticky . kloben. Dan. This word is used in two business is finished off. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. date is AS. kluftholz. klceg. the original . a plate. a flash. . is fast and sure. G. ON. E. split. sticky . See Clog. that was a striking proof. to Brilliant. deot. glbram. a clincher. clean. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. nitidus. a claw or talon. clay . loam. to be composed.— Claggy. gleit. Wilbraham. bend in a stream. To Clench. from diquer. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. a lump. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. dag. clear. The word may be — . cleave. a bunch of When flax). speech . door-latch. gentle. as ON. a key. and Celtic glan. as Fr. a in that of sphtting. a one end. polish . shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. kleg. to fasten. neat. clean. splendid pohshed. kloben. kldnkelein. From dob.' was nailed to a rock. vice. to shine. mud. seem formed dial. Du. glan. glor-mhor. Kil. Bav. Omklinken. smooth. and. rift. provinciaUy termed dout. glan. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . a cleft. to sound or make a noise . klirre. kluit. klove The Dan. klinken. pure. dench. doff. klouen. dial. W. pretty. From clap. The word is . ON. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. kloue. klincke. sticky earth. kluft. glandse. Da. as explained under G. kloben. clear. the two parts of Du. . And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. river. to clench. gingle. klieben. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . kluyte. a fissure or division See Cleave. . lump. or from being divided into two parts. Clean. 154 CLAY dutch. 2. a mass. of iron worn on shoes by country people. clash. Probably a modification of the word doitt. Da. klirren. Fr. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klyft. to chink. neat. kleverig. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. Halma. klov. glatt. klag. together . — : A rivet. glance . The Dan. as Lat.). a mass. in two ways. radiant. cloven wood. the latch of a door. to fasten E. diquetcr. glint. to dag ox dog. glorious. sticky. to separate into parts. Clear. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. to stick or adhere . and Dan. glitta. dut. and E. klor. clibby. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. merciful. klafwa. A — A Clement. bogs cous. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. klouen. daggy. klinke. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. or of a tree. doggy. clout.— Clag. Du. glan. Sw. the fork of the body. Du. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. . to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. i. explained from the klinken. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . shine. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. holding together. G. dedgy.— . AS. sleek. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. viz. Sw. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. dags. tongs. E. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. to clinch a nail. Axletree clouts. gaklankjan. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. clemens. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. clean. glitnir. voice.

crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. Klover i munden. Climax. would have been derida. a lot. clatter. a claw or clutch. klinket. KkrifoQ. Hence Lat. &c. a figure mentioned. littus. and hence deik. pulsare. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc.— Clicket. score7i clif. an inclination. deudi. Happen. a sphere. —Vocab. klok klep- crepitare. dook (identical with E. it must be observed. on. dial. the clergy. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . to seize. klever. one admitted to the tonsure. clif. a clicket or clapper. scar. de ripa. and (with the nasal) — clincher. in the sense of active.. deuch. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. Sp. clif- stanas.) Brai. speak. deik. cliff. has kl'dver. a tumbril. dever. to talk as a parrot. to cry. AS. light-fingered.dergie! Wiclif in R. to move. . to wink. call. deik. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. kliket. dutch). gleg.— Clue. Norm. dicher. diofian. dek. cliquet. duik. Sc. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. hamraklif. klif. clever. to confess . to bend. a lazar's clicket or clapper. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. corresponding to Fr. IS5 Du. to tattle. a precipice. Dunbar in Jam. 3. syn. Claw. . dink. klikker. CLERK sound of a blow. klaiv. duke. skard. from clifian. Jam. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. crackle. crack. as Lat. Chaucer. a clerk . dichet. lively. the dick of a latch or a trigger. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. as a click with the tongue. temperature. name. a latch . said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. derecia. klinge. klev. In I Peter v. prattle. Du. highest is attained. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. -Toe (from KXivm. klinke. cligner. abrupta rupes . or an object character- Clerical. has also deik. . dial. — have the notion of a short quick in E. cleft in a rock. to catch. Cliff. a hook. Det er en Mover kerl. to cleave.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. klouwe. kliv. agile. Bav.' ii. to catch. a cliff. stein- kluppen. Sw. in precisely the same sense as the E. See AS. ginally from dob (extant in W. dough. a child's or clack . cleopian. G. Da. klaffen. Clever. one of the clergy. derjon. glomus. . See Clamber. ready of speech. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. CLINCH De . from Gael glac. Lat. Lat. Cot. Du. Clew. chatter. precipice. to teU tales. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . declivity. clima. exactly Gr. Climb. kloof. clerus. dial. But the Dan. cautes. verge). a baU of yarn. 3. with hamarskard. to rattle. chatter.Lat. above the pole. icXi/ja?. klika. pen. Du. kleppen. claw or talon to dek or deik. nimble. derigon. G. Lat. the knocker of a door. ized . cleft. clyf. clypian. the clergy clericus. as from derido. kleppe. sink. click. to prate. a mill-clack . whence Fr. Climate. snatch. a hump. sonare. a ball of twine. quick of perception. /cXi'fia. a cleft in a rock . on. klippe. d See Clan. click. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. neither as having lordship in the. cliquer. dexterous. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. dob. which in Mid. is NE. clap. See Clench. or Sc. catching. call. ravine. The origin is the Gr. klippe. expeditious. a hold. a clew. a latch. a latch. Clerk.). to stir. Clam. precipices. rugged ascent. clack. cleugh. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. cliof. cleft of a hill. a lump. to sound an alarm to clap. babble. — — A . click it. OE. and hence climate. rock. deuck. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. frap- per rudement une personne. seize (Hal. We movement catch. to clack. cleke. diver. Client. that is a clever feUow. rupes . Boh. klikklakken. e. dergi. quick in motion. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. Now the OE. in rhetoric. click. The Sc. Gr. globus. a ladder. rapidus from rapio. climate. cave . clep. Click. what so men clappe or crie. Fr. region not observe it. Commonly derived from deliver. Rouchi cliche. corresponding to the Sc. chatter. to tattle. slope . clever. rock. which is used in Scotch and N. crepare. Clergy. derigo. as Sc. say. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. a trigger. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. chat. cart that tilts over. had a form. to snatch. Somner. diquette.

kol- The word . klicke. iissura. clock is a variation of clack. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. klocke. difficulty . to bend downwards . -atum. klak. or bagging clothes. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. klynge. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. whence E. See Cowl. to knock. Da. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. a lump G. to lean backwards. Lat. schnippen. clinke. to strike. at first probably on a wooden board. to shrink up. dial. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to slope or bend . klinka.. ON. a clock. Sw. S w. nip. — a mantle. clinker. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . cochl. a bell. ON. to resound. also to wink . four of the bell. to lean.. clino. sloping forwards. to clunge. to snip. Decline. clog. . to snap kneipen. . as we now say three or four o'clock. cloche. Du. klincke. Ir.' for a dry stick. speaks of a ' clung bat. a hood. glungelin. klinken. to . glocke. parva ruptura. Flem. as to snip in the same sense from snap. knot klynge.D. &c. pinch. E. Clink. kima. kukla. hlinian. hlinen. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. to make a loud noise. to snap tongs. difficulty. klupen. rima. cloak. like cling. dial. kluppe. kldpp. to beat.. clangere. acclivis. Bohem.' From Pl. N orman clincailler. toga. ' . to wither. disposed to a thing. verklungeln. and so' to contract. to beat on the board. G. klippur. klo^gen. quincailler. Ang. To Clip.— KSS. G. G. hluccti. Lat. klok. Swiss klungele. chcng. knippchen. a tinman. klaka. dial. dag. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. by bits. ring clag. met. bow. Esthon. pallium. declivis. club). brett-glocke. a snare. clato make a noise. klippa. knippe. Swiss klokken. also to form a compact mass. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. To stick to. klipa. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. ten. -CLINE make pinch. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. clivus. a beU. clique. G. sticky. Du. G. Walach. klocke. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. Du. klippa. outcry. klippen. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. To Cling. Pl. a cluster. kleppe. to form one mass with. to wither. noise. gUong. klunker. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to cling to a thing. kolki-laud. a faction. a rising ground. pinch. to snap or fillip schnippen. to clink auf. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. 2. a woman's mantle . clingan. dial. kolbe to E. sloping downwards . Du. a bell. to ring.— Clot. . E. . 'Till famine cling thee. as G. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. a separate portion. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. kluben. in Schmeller) klunk. to AS. to pinch klupe. compress . but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. The notion of a loose moveable substance. klepalo. . I. Bohem. knippen. ON. from klepati. Cliofue.'— Shaks. incline. klunge. Serv. To cut with shears. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. 156 -cline. klocka. clips. to pinch. kXiVu. G. shears. Kil. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. Fr. OHG. The E. sloping upwards procUvis. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack.D. -cliv-. as thick or curdled liquids. Cloak. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. to cluster. fetter. to crowd together klynge sig ved. a ball of thread . toga muliebris. Sussex peasant AS. and a similar syllable without the /. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. to crowd or squeeze chingy. recline. related to clock.ginglej Fr. . Hal. kliks. clutch. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. gang. Fr. Bi klik uti klak. . w. klingen. — clot. Sw. hill . Sw. hooded . claw. Clock. hluk. and 'E. klungeln. to clip. incline. Een kliks bolter. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. a clog or fetter for a beast .. Gael. Sw. to shrink up. globulus' (Gl. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. . especially of something soft or clammy. a lump. Gr. klippe. to clap or clack. klik. Sw. slant. tuft. g. to sound sharp. a lump of butter. klungelin. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. . straits.und zuk-lippen. See Clang. * Clod.

His heart was franlc without a flaw.D. from claudo. congeler. Russ. -clusum. and Gael. plod. lob. to lobberig. Pr. AS. . . Lat. klottern. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. without. to shut. pattens G. spatter. paddle or dabble in the wet.— Clothe. g. clotted locks Dan. dirt. klunkern. lopin. rattle. tuditare. splash. slops slodderen. to claggock. to dabble. . . I clodde.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. lobberen. schlotter. zocco. a clod. close. Gr. wabbling from Du. to rattle. klos-bane. lobbig. chiuso. loose mud. whence klack. kloster. to cling locks. dangle. je amoncele. paludosus. from Du. clammy loam. A — — A Thus from Bav. log. Cloister. a babbler. The origin of clod and clot is to .D. lump of butter. Pr. lobberen. 3.'^ Palsgr.. IV. kl'dnken. fors. Fr. clogs. claudo. clausum. of a body of any kind. be found rattle. . da- . and E. Du. mire. klakk. then liquid or loose substance.). fat. a blot. or loppern. Bav. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. slops). slobbe. foreclose. bowl . To Clog. curdled. to shut in. tJokok. a portion of something soft and adhesive. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). Fr. is connected with pludder. dab. klotzschuh. in forms like Du. klod. a skittle-ground klos- sen. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. like G. klag. motzen. -clus-.1a. a field inclosed clos. clorre. bemired. TZoxapov. dial. slobberen. to flounder in the wet. beklakken. to dash like heavy rain. • lump. loblolly. aspersion. meat from Du. schlattern. miry laggerit. shut up. . Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to flap as loose clothes. slab. in accordance with It. a blot. to dabble. to play at bowls. to spill liquids. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. loppered (of milk). or Sc. a clod Swab. E. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. a dirty wench claggy. separate part. kleck or lack. claggy. paddle. klos. of something clammy or heavy. to rattle. clatk. a lump from Du. and Du. laggyn. . a Christmas log. Mat. Sc. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. G. It. kloten. klokotat. pludre. doitre. ! . E. He was a man without a dag. MHG. geschlotter (as E. to wabble. -cludo. motte. to bubble. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. dirt. . klateren. Closhe. kloteren. we pass to E. from Fr. to bedaub. thick spoon . mud. an imputation. or E. lumps of butter. Idppern. claque. be&c. lump of something soft . Fr. clot. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. Lat. lunch. . Pm. forbidden by 17 Ed. is a blot on one's character. a spot. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. zoccoli. spot of dirt. schlottern. hanging loose and full. kloden. The game called ninepins. Dan. klakken. klotz. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Klak also. to slop or spill liquids. to shut. to rattle or shake to and fro. with Fr. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. clog or overshoe. and thus seem endowed . we pass to Schlatter. . kleck. . Yule-clog. clos. a bal!. figer. a block. lump of mud on the clothes . daggerey. lopperig. thick sour milk. or drablyn with separate existence. to close against one. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions.dial. Close.rge lump. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. I clodde. to shut up. kloteispaen. lag. daustrum. a clog. Swiss schlott. loppe. klot. Clog. in comp. -close. A . . a log. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. G. loose trowsers. to a. a log. loose. to bodies. Du. clos. bespotted with mire E. neither spot nor hang loose. compared with clump. the radical sylla. I doda clod. dag. slabberen. chiudere. schlettern. . klac. Pl. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. bloutre. m&se noch stain. closed. in accordance with Pl. finish . . The word is probably formed on an Cloth. clotted milk klotte. Hence inclose. clausum. clogs for the feet klakk. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. analogous plan to clod or club. dunch). truncus. Fr. shut up. terminate. inclose. Klottermelck. enOE. slob. slobber. schlott. boil. to paddle in the wet. slop.' end. wide bagging clothes. to sup up liquid food. laggery. watery. . shaky. a monastery. cloth.. unctuous. tramp in wet or mire. kladde. In the same way Dan. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. blot. gelatinous. mud klcEg. a trowelful of mortar.

Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. puddle. nagelein. ball of thread Russ. a bousche. tuft. clot. motte. Imitative of the note of a society.158 . dial. knob. klubb. as Fr. to cloy. warm. sheltered . lunch). cobio. a thick mass.Fris. Gael. a log. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. sheltered up warm. Du. milk run to lumps. of thumping clumsy action. w. . to strike . Fr. dys. klotz. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. . The significations of a clod or lump. klever. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. E. clou de girofle. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . Du. and closely do conspire. Du. klunds. a log. dabosser. Then applied to a lump of mate. a cover or coverture .). It. a breach. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. daggy. lump of earth aria. loggish. AS. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. — . a ball. AS. Club. to cherish. a clubfoot klabb. zolla. clods. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). also homo obtusus. N. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. dial. clumhar. a clove of garlick. Du. clavo di especias. Sp. clobyn. klu77ip. klqb. to curdle. del mattond. a lump. de Champ. — — — . warm clothes {dillad. a lump. To Cloy. So Fr. . Coventry Mysteries in Hal. lie clyd. CLOUD an awkward clod . to beFr. Cloud. formed lump or thick mass. clyd. clothe. To Cluck. G. klubba. clothes). A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . Sw. a bobbin. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. block. chiodo di girofano. The priClout. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. a boss. Gael. a clod or clot. sticky. In the same way E. clunch. clump of a clout on the head. ON. . the air. a nail) Fr. Move. klotzig. log. G. shel- kloen. klotsen. nelke (dim. to strike. cobble. and tapp. mud (Pat. a. when something has got into the touch-hole. klcBdi. dabaire. and clay. kUid. Du. mass. boucher. Properly that which covers and Du. lumps of curd. a patch. piece Cot. a sky Cot. ser. Clump.clod. unpolished. choke or stop up. the terms expresssplit. From dog. warm place . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Du. but confounded with cailler. blockish. kl'dnne. clump. probably from daboter. I. G. cloud Delfortrie. Dan. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout.). Das volk hat sich in splitten. to lump mend clumsily. dump. rustic. kloete. to a lump. from W. from OFr. Clown. clunch. kluV. diboter. botch. klieven. are often connected. a . klaven. cluster. mire. a clod. Kiittner. dote. to splash. from kloven. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. and clout d eudaich. warm. klonte. lump.D. spice) G.D. A kind of spice resembling Du. aglio. of sloppy materials. klubbe. to stop. klumba. mary sense is a blow. a sticky.ft. a knot of people. . to cleave. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. Pl. E. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Clumpered in balls of clouds. coarse. clot . dirt. a clot or keeps one warm. Cld. lump. bunch. ON. hebes (Kil. w. eine to slop. lump. cob. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. clot. klebek. clothes ment. to tramp in the kluyve. duthaich. dial.' Sanders.D. Rouchi dapoter. dash (Cot. clue. make warm. esdaboter (Roquef. . group of people Sw. kldverj P1. matte.). G. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. clotted milk or cream. cludadh. little nails. dob. Sw. cludaim. Met. a bunch. davus. kluppe. E. More in R. Mabousfrom Lat. Clover. klove. zolla dell' . a ball. in the same sense. stock. and -the word Clove. a fissure. and of a rustic unpolished person. from Du. klobbersaen. a clown. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. knob. wisp. to cleave or the splashing of water. een klaven kruflook. clod is used in both senses . kloven. to cover Bret. naegel. caillebottes. clydion. CLUCK rustic. a bunch. 2. a ball of twine . a nail. dillad bumkin. Ir.bar.). a ball. A division of a root of garlick. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. are also used in the sense of a stopper. klubb. eene ODu. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. klumpfot. clod. of a lump of earth and that figure. a curdled sky. of nagel. a blabber. indispalte knoblauch. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. cluth mhor. with lout. a garthas. clammy earth. klump. dut. botsen. The radical sense seems to be an unE. strike. clog. tered . nourish . a bunch. (kruyd =.

from laver. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. klocken. Hence cleik. klunsen. Ray. Muster. clotted cream. inclusive. a coach. fingers (familiar). koetblockish. Du. — . klonte. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. 130.' Benecke. dek. Analogous forms with a tongs. OE. from klupen. rial. Hence snatching. kichlemmit. clook. klomje. paste. obstructum. . MHG. a ball . as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. wagen. But clunchy. Lincolns. ' . as clumper. -cludo. From the notion of sticking together. Du. dek. clabosser. carriage in which you klodset. The Fr. a clod clunter. klummerhdndt. clutch. -elude. crooked inwards . A group. wooden sole. klampa. to lie. klont. Compare Swiss klupe.' Wycliff. a litter. Pl. G. smart motion. Coach. a pinching time. close. Clutter. Gr. idle. G. cleik. a bunch. klumpern. Fr. G. Sw. Sw. Fr. klomen. through the senses of lumpish. seize. klumpig. klemma. the word is more probably connected with OE. coccolare. wooden shoes. dussomed (Wilbrabam). enervatus. kluntfrom KKvKdi. er. clip or pinch. to grip. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . koetsen. klamen. differing only in the absence of the duik. . beklommen.' Comfort ye dumsid. E. a clove Sw. dial. kol. cluster. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. to curdle. ball of snow on horse's foot . — Cot. a lump. klikonosy.D. as from seken. verkommelen. properly to do anything Fr. from ON. ether comelia P. In the same way Du. log. Champ. a clod or lump. conclusion. dumpse. awkward. heavily. lay hold of. clointer. a nasalised form of club. clutch. klette. —To Clumsyd.'— animal. — Hence include. Lat. -close. Isaiah. * Clumsy. dial.D. unfashioned. ON. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action.' Vegecius in Way. klikaty. Boh. verklomen. finish. ' Uorte (for clogs. benumbed with cold. also a cluster.D. clump. eviratus. exclude. ill-made . cliboter. dumps. klemmen.mene tied. to rinse. klump. See -elude. to paddle or dabble. a block. dial. to to snatch. pladdern. to wash. ball as snow. claudo. n. with a quick. -olus-. Pl. klisse. Ang. havi. beklummen.D. bunch. duke. koetsDa. G. to shut. Clump. — ' — — tonista. kohle. to gingle. klamp.P. hooknosed. &c. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. pinched. Clutch. eviratus.E. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. cleche. strum on an instrument. Lat. are the nasalised forms of klotte. with E. to tramp. * Clump. acomelydfor could Pr. to klotz. Du. Hesse. and make ye strong feeble knees. algidus. may recline. klunt. splash. . unhandy. Sc. glousser. Sp. as Fr. xXvariip. — sen. klister. of garlick. The sense of awkward. cleuk. ment. Beklummen van kelde. MHG. Du. an instrument for nasal form e. of Du. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. calling her chickens. Teulazy. Cluster. klods. —More. klos.forklomme (Outzen).— — . or aclommyde. clumsy. OHG. a ball. Graff in Klamjan. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. -clusum. E. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl.pare P1. dial. esclaboter. hand to cleuk. a clot klissen. to tramp. might be reached from clump. viscous material. to pinch. klcise. klonte. a lump or compact mass. Com. to wash. doquear. dumpers. whence koetse. See reclusion. Fr. clopiner. awkward.D. unhandy. Variation of clatter. limp. in comp. to tramp or tread heavily. Coal. koetsie. and klonteren. klompen. and klotteren. ' Thou clontsest for cold. to curdle. having the Pl. a claw. lump of soft mate. Hindust. a clod or lump. lavesen. claw. eene beklum. gelidus. tight — — . Cheshire. klummklummshandt. clausum. conclude.. -clus-. a noise. Riwle. to syllable click. glocire. Pm. . a couch. or from Sw. to squeeze.e. It. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. COAL dumpish. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klimpern. a clod or The noclot. plad or plod. Fris. to collect in lumps. hands stiff with cold. to benumb with cold. dystere. -CLUDE hen Du. a lump. klobber in klobbersaen. and koetse. claws. 159 E. in v. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. klontet. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds.Ancr. Du. to stick together . Cath. cluntClyster. hondis. to curdle. coucher became in unhandy. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. ' Clumper. thick and clumsy. unwieldy Hal.

to . CooMneal. E. k'dlla. quele. large coals. — — . koljarn. dial. a sow. the one of thump. also a coast. to worship. See Cot. Coalesce. burning. . tuft. When the . The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. cokes was a simpleton. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. The Fris. Coat. cofasse. H^cart. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. and hobble. a crea. ordinary as in the expression of course. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. It. a bungler. Outzen. . cokes or fool of him. itself is Nescock . a woodlouse. . universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. to beCoax. to strike. v. imbecille. pustule. a rib. Coalition. cob. to peck as a hen cobyn. a spider. or cobble. A plausible origin. bredouiller. s. cobble. Dan. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. to bungle . Colina' the place where a fire is made. bijamie. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. to pdt with We may cite Fr. inflammation. acomelyd or aclommyd. says Varro.' Nares. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. Du. to stutter. cochinilla.). frock. Lat. a nest. to cob. sweets and the other of poisons. Pm. and thence a lump cobnut. pockbecility and liability to imposition. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. To cobble. Trevoux. to burn. Sanscr.— Cobble. quilet. glowing embers. may be A found in Sw. e. to wheedle or gull vermin). large stones . koppen-gespin. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. a large round nut cobstones. of cochina. ignem.the water boils. e. kop-ar. from bearing a bag. kop. Flem. Du. The contrast between the bee • Cob. as shown in dob and cob. Pm. klabbsmed. or E. The OE. from some fancied resemblance. viz. koppe. In the E. pustule. to stammer. ailina or colina. verkommelen. gull. small pox (pocks) .. a bubble. to speak or act confusedly. klabba. caleo. staggering or halting.a spider. to hobble .. to bungle Sc. a tuft. according to the ordinary run of events. Lat. OE. ridi. dial. verklomen. plaisant. then to work unskilfully .. It. in Du. to be hot. Coast. spinne-ivebbe. COCHINEAL Cobber. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. The dirt. to cobble shoes. cluster. Fin. is one of thump. a firesteel Lat. a kitchen. boil. * To Cobble. rivation are found in Sw. and the spider as collectors. klabbare. s.' — Thus from (Hal. things. — Pr. and jval. habble. tempered clay for building. . to knock. flame. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . that is.' And colo. a bunch. hakkelen. are round stones or round coals of small size. . as in arr.. to glow . The form attercop seems to him into doing something. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. and E. are often connected. cotte. to kindle or cause to burn . — — — E. ON. walk clumsily. Fr. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w.). kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. a knock. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. long standing. a coat or frock. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. cule cocosse. to grow together. pryf-