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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. The syllables moo (mu. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. or. is given to a cow or calf. in other words. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. but nothing she herself knows the animals. come Moolls. and. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. name of the cow. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and mully or mully cow is the . children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. the present day. and where we are seeking. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. mind of the of the animal. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. the baaing of the sheep. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. persons of different tongues at the present day. the closer we shall approach to the . thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. or Mollein. muK) and mae (rfie. to the syllables which are significant to the child. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. with an initial m or I. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. by whom the be understood. when we is represent to our children of the cow. when neither name for the object to be designated. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. Molli. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. in language of the present day. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking.NURSERY IMITATIONS.

and which we might express thus. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. for things. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech.' he says. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. repulsive to eat. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. to For instance. fiafifi&v (Hesych. Finally an n was placed before it. analogous to Magyar mammogni. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. . had nim. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. Heinicke. mumm. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed.' In ordinary speech mump. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. to eat. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. A member of my own new sfop. Gradually. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. 72). which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. for bad. when hungry. and nim came to signify everything edible.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. nineteen years old. partly from sounds which the child caught. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. nim. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. for everything fit to eat. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. I had watched the growth of this word. hm. On one occasion he said^e nim. then. He would now say good. p. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. schipp. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. he called to to drink. First. as well as the mind of the utterer. Gr. by the natural humming sound. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. family. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. . his nurse adopting the word with him. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. became more perfect. and some were very clear and distinct. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. &c. to work over with the mouth. We have.). in children's language.. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words.

or word-making. mumpfen. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). tidbits nama . to eat. Vei (W. to take. agreeing with Ein. p. 1 86). and the crab — p. stolen. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. the Scotch poet. food (Tylor. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. Swedish dialect gamsa. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words.ONOMATOPCEIA. to taste . Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.minis.' says Quintilian. clangorqae tubarum. nam. at hiamske i sig. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . to mump. greedy . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Soosoo (W. as well as the Sw. mumble. iii. nyam nyam. Primitive Culture.' says the author of Modern Slang. to fill the mouth. as to . savory. . mujnpa. to chew laboriously. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen).' — Lersch. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. ' Motherwell. we can call them so. eating. aptantes adfectibus vocem. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. and some of them . Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. to be pleamind .' And Diomedes. crab nam buckra man. mumpfeln. make djamdjam). namnam. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. i. nobis vix permittitur. to move the lips in continued chewing. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. ' id est. dial. Wolof nahenahe. and the fizzing (and Series.). to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. ut tinnitus aeris. Galla djam djeda. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. jumla. and thence to be tasteful. sweet (Koelle). jamsa (yamsa). delicacies. Gothic niman. j ing . memmexen. to eat mampfen. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. oves lalare. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. to smack in eat. 130-1. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. taken up hastily on the sly. buckra man's language the white man. jammla.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. yamming. lita. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. to Sw. voracious. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. (in chil- dren's language). aves tinnire. A negro proOr. South Jutland hiamsk. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. palatable. i8o. Africa) nimnim. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. nvrnma. snatched (Whitby Gl. on. Nimm'd up. Africa) nimi.

hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. before the in other words. yelping. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. between dog and harking.' — We speak of a cow. bellowing of bulls.' he says. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. p. sparrow and chirping. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. chirping of sparrows or crickets. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. or. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. when circumstances required. howling. Indeed. twittering of swallows. might be used. purring or mewing of cats. ^6^. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. baaing or maeing of lambs. cackling or gaggling of geese. whether it deserves the name of language. chattering of pies or monkeys. snarling of dogs. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. anything connected with it. lowing of oxen. dove and cooing. but of a dog. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. und growling. We . mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. hooting of owls. 'I doubt. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. barking. snarling. do not speak of a bowwow. Yet we ing. croaking of frogs or ravens. a lamb. not of a baa. cooing or crooing of doves. not of a moo of Lect. that there is When Man. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. or thoughts of our hearer.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. neighing or whinnying of horses. 89) with less hesitation. might be used as the designation of it. for the purpose of bringing the animal. yelping. gobbling of a turkey-cock. bleating of sheep. bumping of bitterns.' And elsevs^here (p. grunting or squealing of hogs. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. intended in the instance to represent the cry.

IMITATIVE NAMES. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo.' common sense. sound).. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. crow. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. whose sound (Pictet. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. in g. Columbia kahkah. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. is kuM) for the cuckoo. e. Bav. it announces (Salaberry). Manchu The kaha. in is Gr. or quawk. and Bavaria respectively. We imitate the sound with a modulated. kuho. Malay gdgak. coccolare. a bird that is be driven away. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. a crow (Pictet). and the sound of that direction. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. kauwe. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Sometimes the hoarse i . In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. kae. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka.). ist ed. kdka. Kdrava. Arabic kdk. and gaggele or gagkelein. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. 349. KOKKvi. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven.). caller. a crow. Barabra koka. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and means a shouter. Georgian quaki. 4th ed. 'Kdka. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Picard cau. Sauscr. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. a daw. according to Durga). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. layitavya . caw kuhii-rava (rava. having a general predicative power. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. gackem. 380. crow. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Hungary. In Lat. ghak. a a crier (p. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. In Basque. fi-om apakd- i. birds. lion. He to is therefore derives kdka.' kd). village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Aoo-Aoo. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka.

in the North of England. wood-pigeon. kukko. the name of an animal will gen- .. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Du. tbrtora. lulo. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. great variety of oKokv^uv. kruk. and e. turtle) as the Lat. and e. kuku. Heb. The consonants p. Dutch kievit. uhu. kraukti. either in the same or in related dialects. coucouva. k. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. to crow. Ibo akoka. Scotch peeweip. reduplicate form. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. and sometimes both together. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Walachian coucouveike. gugu.. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. name of its is the bird. a crow lish Lith. tortbla. German kielitz. while crouk. German luhu. to cry loudly. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . yell. synonymous forms of similar structure). lUyrian kukurekati. a crow . kraeye. tuquheit. Arabic tdtwit. giving turtur (and thence It. as well as of Sanscr. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. the name for a crow. French dishuit. t. by the verbs gurren or girren. tor. to croak.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. krauklys. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. to crow. Zulu kuku. cock. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Albacuculi a dove. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. xi. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. korren. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. libufs. The crowing of cot in Fr. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Esthonian kikkas. gufo. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. coqueri- Languedoc. 219. name. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. lilits.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. German and Eng- krahen. girre. So we have Polish krukac. ghughu. or Gr. It. hibou. Da. to howl or Lat. Du. to croak. are represented. "Welsh hwan from hwa. to hoot. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. Swedish kowipa. Sp. kukhuta. Yoruba koklo.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. 6. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. koeren. tur. Malay kukuk. kurre. kraeyen. teewhoop. krahe. Hindi. p. coccovaec. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. another. Fr. tbrtola. Pers. Lettish kiekuts.Gr. a crow. Mod. Magy. kirren.

Speaking of a cricket he says. The name of the cricket indeed. g. growling. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. grille. g. Lat. there are infinite varieties. resounding of musical instruments.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. or a gnat fly. — Catafogo. to rustle. in allusion to its music. The Arabic sarsor. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3.IMITATIVE NAMES. Arabic tantanat. ' Sanscr. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. dhran. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. German hummel. Naturalist on the tocano. Sc. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. to chirp J may be compared with . 337. kong-kong. g. North of England. glass cracking (Schmeller). In the N. din. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. horniss and from the buzzing The. to shrill sound sharp. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. zirken. resound. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. droning is . Fin. German drohne. ta-na-nd. words imitative of humming . cricket is from crick. PofijivXwg. whirr). with or Fr. grillen. Lith. flight its sting considered as a horn. and yelping cry. pip-pi-ta.' —Tennyson.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. grylhis. knetta. to chirp . The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. sirkka. e. little intermission. bee. Lithuanian tranas. bambhara. a drone. swirplys with 6. oE.or bumble-bee. to creak Bret. the drone or non-working bee . erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. Sanscr. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. a beetle druna. hollow noise.' — i. Danish dron. the humble. common. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). buzzing. from schrick. Danish gnaddre. skryle. to be compared with Sanscr. (Jieuschrecke) . representing a short sharp sound. schwirren. i. humming. a small as hawk is . a sharp sound as of a 6. and probably indicates that g. German dronen. and he kong-ko-rong. Albanian tsentsir. 'The natives call it tanand. to grumble. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. schrickel. schrecke. Gaelic dranndan. a hornet. sound.' Amazons. skril with n. Northern Farmer. a fly (Tylor) . buzzing. to hum. succeeding each other — with noise. as . bamba. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. thunder. Australian bumberoo. give a faint sound. Corean sirsor. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . a bee. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. gives rise to chwymores.vf3. The Welsh chwyrnu. booming. We may cite Gr. The drone peal. ajo. from the humming. loud rumour. schirke. to sound. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. skirl. shrill. which they make in their flight very . chirk. of England it is to the b 2 . ' — Pictet . and not from E.

a heifer. to . a drum . to low or bellow. and thence Lat. to low. w. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. amuse. to or bark. The Piedm. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. or a z to the imitative syllable. verb is evidently identical with our shout. maukati. to make a noise. lulauti (to hoo-loo). From the same lioao). bucula. and in Hottentot baa was the . bwla. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bukati. to sound. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. bugle. bullock. (iove. Illyr. bolt. a buffalo. Galla boa. to make. that the imitative syllable are Lith. make poo. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Piedmontese fi bau. forms a. k or g. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. representing the mew of a cat. bubenti. w. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. buculus. The Galla lilbil. and from to ring. muJiati. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. mamoo-heeheek. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. a cow. to weep. bull. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr.XX called booing. agreeing exactly with Lith. Zulu lulula. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. from the imitative moo instead of boo. as the Illyr. to the uses goda. bae. or bau-l-i. in same way. to make. Manx booa. to mew. bu. has bilbilgoda. His analysis leads cow. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. shoot . From baa. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Norse bu. bovis. to beat hard. mugire. bugler. in a imitation of a ringing sound. With these analogies. Da. bubati. grumble as distant thunder . btibleti. a bull. fivKaofiai. to make a loud deep sound. boo. and djeda. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). — ^Tylor. mugler. say. the Fr. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. the animal. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. to low . OFr. bos. or formed Lat. bae. Hottentot bou (Dapper). the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. bullus and e. to bump as a bittern Illyr. be-l-er. Lat. Fr. bo. Gael. loge. Cult. to bellow like a bull. to from bau. are (with a subsidiary k). On the same principle. or moo. miau-l-er. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. is inadmissible. mae. as that of the cow by boo. Fr. to ba-L-are. to bow- own bawl. biibnas. to shout. p. ox. Lat. baula. Thus from miau. whence baula. to shout. representmake bow. make to it laugh. to boohoo. verbal form given to the say. Lat. a Geiger. cattle. a bullock. bauli. It. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. or with on. 167. bue.

hadg- Magy. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. grumble. Fr. although the imitation embodied in Lat. meigeal. Illyr. houch. does not produce a e. /xj/caScj. karra. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. ' In driving. purr). signifying a snarling. a sheep or a goat. by which the shingle gives rise to It. grogner. and of (maelon). knurfisk. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. G. and thence groin. meugler. or in any ! way ! persuading. a sow. grunlike a pig in eating. From the imitative mae. Among dog. may be identical with Esthon. Da. name of a sheep. as lou of an ox. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. to bleat. a goat. name of the animal itself. to bleat . grumpf. Welsh and Breton). Moreover. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). it and e. hwch. a wolf. in Wolof bae. smack and naski. Africa laa. Idgge (Rietz). to growl. for the voice of the ox). a goat. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. lekavica. It is probable also that e. the snout of a pig. . The g. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. to rumble. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. from hundama. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. lek-eg-ni. curmurring. kurren. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. grumble. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. Gr. sound. a pig. cite as by grunt. with the root ypaipm. leknuti.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Illyr. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. sus-sus. lecco. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. 6. meckern. in v. a dog. hound. Gr. Kurren und murren. and with the subsidiary k or g. ^. Gr. a sow. rumbling. / The same Gr. grugno. a hog. Hence Breton hoc ha. we have Sanscr. mutter. this obstinate race. corresponding to ohg. And it is true there between hog and grunt. a sheep. It. as the proper name of a tame sheep.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. leg-et-ni. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a. sheep or goat. and hoc'h. may with to snarl. to themselves. to grunt. hundi). . meketati. kurre. groin. cry). appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Manx meilee. undoubtedly imitative. he would hardly. a sheep or ewe. grunt. name. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. to grunt. hunon. a sheep (Lowe). remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a pig Fin. a (Hesych. the designations of a dog the term cur. grunny. nire.). mecati. Fr. a grunt. guttural tone. menAda (ndda. and snorke. a goat firixal^ta. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen.' Moor's Suffolk words. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Magy. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. hund. to howl. and Circassian maylley. grumbhng. from knurre. Gael. mekegni. goats. oe. naskia. (iriKov of forms like Sw. meil. hunt (gen. With gen. and grumphie. . Illyr. to bleat. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. — . a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. growl. lambs. /xijeao/iat.

while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. humma. Thus we are led to the Fr. hobben. . from the cry animal. cockade. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. hobby. such as cuckoo. coquelicot. ^6<. houpy in Craven. hiine.. . to whine. hobin. g. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. 91. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. turn a horse to the is In Finland. like artificial flowers. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). So Sanscr.). Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. a little am- bling horse. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. coquette. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold.' ticular bird. Esthonian hoibo. to go backwards. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. a mare. without a — we root. M). In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. (Craven Gloss.' 2nd Series. If onomatopoeias can . when he found peculiarity.. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. hottihuh. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. There are of course some names. p. hoppe. e. Sc.). But words of this kind are. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock.root. as in Yorkshire highly right.' — ist Series. of the character in question. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. a horse. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. to the left. animal. p. the cry to stop or back a horse. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound.

animals or certain kinds of sound. signified It. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. hresh. . ance or habits of the animal. Du. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. Irieschen. wrena. ginniken. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. xxiii ginal object. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. frenschen. Sw. hukkup. moan. whitename in in- throat. to Sanscr. nounced with a guttural). hennir. to neigh. hikkd. wrenska. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Lettish sweegt. Pl. but whether there kind between them and other words. hross. woodpecker. redpole. g. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. swift. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. groan. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. Sp. horse. wiehern.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Sanscr. creeper. than to the sounds represented. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. little speak for themselves. form corresponding hresh. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. fehtati. hresh. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. giggle. diver. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. command of language was attained. titter. goatsucker.D. wagtail. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. lapwing. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. as sigh. e. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. Bohem. rinchar. cough. sol. nitrire. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Fr. runniken.

are familiar in ' to every one. mer. pump. atchini. to ham. strippstrapp-stroll. — Sanders. to knock. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . to beat. for the sound of milking. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. banga. bang. atchian.' 'Haw. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. heart tick-tack. the dashing of the sea .' ! ! ! ! — dong. hoo. ting-ting. for that of breaking. shriek. &c.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. pit-a-pat. for the for the sound of . Zulu bongo. to hammer .' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. lumm. for in such sound of blows.' it both sides went. or the w. debhes-lungotais (deifies. . Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. for blows with a rod. thunder (Tylor) . for a small one. aritischane. haw. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . beat. heaven). —Brem. Da. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. snore. the God of thunder . and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. It is represented in e. for the sound of a fall. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. a large bell. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. to sneeze. knarr. clap ! A smack Puff.' So imac. plitsch-platsch. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. tisio (tisho). and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. on the chops is represented also by pratx. a more expressive than the e. klatsch. 1865. in a nail Let. bang ' ! trenches. knack. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. Vei gbangba. went the cannon. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the creaking of a wheel. beat of a clock child . haitshu. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. White Lies. bangas. or tliat is accomit. a kind of drum. Wtb. Mei gbengben.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. hoo ping ping. for the sound of a blow. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. root kshu. fitsche-falsche. ding. dong Read. DingBang. snort. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . Australian bungbung ween. snukkup). Of a like forma- drum . wheeze. scream. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. an attempt would be made to by the voice. &c.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. to throw violently down. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. banke. to drive on. ping came the bullets about their ears. oren : Klapp. hang. tlirob.

) a chick. peep. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. In cases such as these. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. child. pigolare. pu. laugh. and so forth. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. a (young) pigeon.' instead. Gr. a fife or musical pipe. piou. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. as k. The pi. Lat. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pigione. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. of a word will appear supposed to represent. has been un- employed to designate fixity. a chicken or gosling. young child . or the uneducated different consonants are man. to cry like imrli^u). which he added to intensify the expression.sc. . xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. He Yet asks. pipelni. and their relations. Magyar pip. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. Lat. pipio. is of expression. mobility excavation and hollow ^. G. cry of young birds . pi. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. to designate cavity and hollow. doubtless. a or cheep. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pippione. pigiolare. — . chickens (Tylor). It seems to him that the teeth t. is pfeife. bleat. Florio. Mantuan pipiare. used as a call to . to squeak. peep. far pipi. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. ducing the sound. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. piou. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. De Brosses. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. the voice of chickens (Cot. pipegni. cry. part of the What consciousness has the child. Fr. to peep It. pipare. —Lyndsay. pipio. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. piccione. or a piailler. pipe. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. a fowler's bird call is lost. pule. pipilo. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. to cheep like a bird or a young It. young bird. e. pipe. as in other subjects of study. as the simplest implement for proFr. not- . and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. to cry pi. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. had been used laugh ? two. a whelp. calls S. and whimper. scream. piauler.

The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. borrelen. cluck. where the variation. knuks. a sharp short one. and lugh. rumble. kniks. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley).. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . Hindustani karak is rendered. as the click of a latch or a trigger. along with Du. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. of something fine and thin. vaake gorgor) . a prolonged sharp sound. a closed or obscure sound. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to crackle like in boiling . Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to hawhaw or laugh loud. murren. bubble. kuruk. to gargle . there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. tontonare. tonare. girren. i. sound of dry breaking. cricli. knurren. make wood a clinking noise. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to grate the teeth . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. . the side of g. It.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to laugh. sound). grumble. to growl. u. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word.Gr. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. rumble. as representing the sound made when something breaks. loud laughter. karkarana. is very common. lachen. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Pacific aka-aka. garren. or kaka-faka. lachachen. knaks. Pefuxela. to ring pipio. to pant bejii- zela.) Mod. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . kirkirdnd. to grumble. creak. pi . to grumble). chack. like the noise of a glass breaking . to bubble. Hindoo tomtom. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. a short sharp sound. when it force than biscuit. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. Poppopvi^to. murmur (by . preserved by Kilian. thunder oil . to jar. Manchu kaka-kiki. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word.. to rattle. of a loud strong sound. in German. crack. {to It. Zulu raraza. crash. some small vowel or consonantal sound. kniks. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to cry pi. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. a drum W. to fizz like fat in frying. rumble (Fl. the clucking of a j hen . to be compared with Sc. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to thunder. or springing back. to clack. tintino. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). it is If laugh were written as pronounced. a. to gurgle. to gorgogHare rattle. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . turtur. laqfF. to creak knirren. to pant violently (Colenso). Indian chack-chack. to cluck. . gurren. &c. be cate to go on laughing loud . Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. along with tinnio. coo.

to the purling of a brook. or to Du. The whispering of the wind I. to be compared with g. Fr.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. as Fr. the sound of a stringed instrument. E. and the imitative nature of tivgle. Manchu kaka. and her heart went thump. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. while cacd / used in e. chinking of coin. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. shout. cry. for the sound of privy whispering. tubh. especially one who beats. the tingling Ming-Hang. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. for the ringing of illustrate bells. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. muro and e. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. Maori pata. brings us to Fr. KaKog. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. word. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. to giggle. and Gr. Sanscr. spring of water in the a bell. clank. ding-dong. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. . as of Tamil muromurmur. to knock. tumult. clash of arms. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. is based on the same imitation as the e. or the bubbling up of to a spring. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. 368).and e. drops of i. at an accelerated note. a nightingale. croaking of frogs. rain (Tylor. e. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. thump. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. bad. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water.' Member for Paris. or of bells ringing. a smith. 1871. bubble up. Prim. The syllables lil-bil. tup. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. jingle. corresponding in e. to whisper. rifiirayov. kiling-kalang. agrees with g. wail. and bilhila. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. awater* ' The Mme P. a nightingale. halaidlac'h. Calt. call. Newman). simmer. and e. for chut-chiit-er. chut. sound). sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . may be compared with Australian pitapitata. borrelen. clink. fumtu.* the heart. disturbance (F. quarren. coughing or clearing the throat. a drum . caca and Finnish adkkd. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. tumwata. box on the ear imitation of the . indicating the origin of Gr. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. uproar. hala-hald-faMa (falda. and Gr. kl'mg-kling. Turk. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. a boy's whistle. csam-csogni. for a tTviror). to ring or jingle. bulbiil. is Manchu tang-tang. are applied to the is excrements of children. Scotch sough or sooch. klirren. champ. clango. sound. Tiie Galla gigiteka. chuchoter. to beat. of keys or tinkling of bells. rvir (in tvittio. correspond to e. a workman. . for the clinking Lat. to say chut. Magyar csamm-ogni. to strike. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. djeda (to say tub). make djamdjam). repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. identical with g. jangle. bent her head. noise. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). the gingling of glasses. Galla tuma. koXiw. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. compared with Gr. 192). the clink of glasses kalar-kilir.

Fr. without the intervention of orthodox roots. tinkle. It. whine. by rubadub. to fall. rap. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. clatter. smack. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. So in Fr. or v^hether jectional. gargle. dabble. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. paddle. according to the strictest phonetic rules. thump. swash. puff. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. 'pat. jingle. tomber. bang. at a door tarapatan. to is blow. douse. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. while e. tingle. thump. blubber. and soufflet. bubble. clank. w. patter. splutter. craunch. and the French pouf. thump. gurgle. hum. pop. flop. tumbian (to beat the ground). and Fr. mutter. brumberum.. But although and also found in Lat. whizz. disturbance. clink. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. for (Sanders). but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. Nevertheless. rattle. creak. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. flap. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. The use of g. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. squeal. whack. ' Der puff. plump. ring. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. dash. crash. whirr. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. the Germans puff. to dance. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . squeak. murmur. hiss. clash. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. in e. crack. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. twang. fizz. din. rumble. chink. guggle. boom. we have buffet or cuff. tymmesll. snap. blow. Humboldt. chatter. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. and Grimm. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. slash. rataplan or rantanplan. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. splash. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. a applied as well to the force of the bang. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. squall. souse. The beating of drum is represented in e. smash. clang. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows.' — Nohden. report of a gun. thwack. it is fallj AS. sputter. tap. clack. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. tum-ultus. answering to g. parapatapan. lash. crunch. clap.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp.

by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. are made known by an instinctive cry. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. of horror. wringing the hands. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. by the nature of the cry. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. and uttering plaintive sounds. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. because they are spontaneous. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. the kind of action that is desired of them. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation .' . hay. If. stractions. the inteij. or of any if wood. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. without a thought of symbolising to them. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. the interj. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. or any unsatisfied want. and found in the building of be burnt up. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. in the case of the animal or of the infant. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. Grimm or Bopp. but if we must not complain on the beach. little who has time to want of her nurseling.'. in the rushing waters. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. every little pain. that he has taken the step in rational speech. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea.' If chaos. and thus they become signs of despair. p. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. 94. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. an imitation of a sigh . xxix on the contrary. knows them. formerly cited. At the first beginning of life. grief. ugh . he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. or stubble is meaner name. is Thus ah!. Crying.

so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. 344. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. coughing. Language begins where interjections end. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. he cites from Home Tooke. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. the lowing of a cow. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. more eloquent than a long speech. p. interjections. they are involuntary interjections. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. or which is of me as suffering pain. as who them spontaneous utterances. 32. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have.. shrieking. He says. And again. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. p. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. should be remem- .' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. more to the point. If I wish to make a person of an .' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. sneezing. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. which are frequently so toned down cance. and the eye. be more powerful. and some of them the composition of words. of all the mouth. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. ^6g And to the same effect 371.' — ist Series. to solve the I shall call first. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley.' p. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. may become traditional. One short interjec- tion may fact. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. groaning. them to exercise it.

is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. in Magy. loud laughter.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. some kind of language might have been formed. Lat. cachinno. Koxafw. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. Kayxa^u). by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . in Fin. Tooke in truth. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. hohottaa. speaking. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. interjections. bered. for example. he says. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. but the less am at a loss what to say. and thus. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. demolishing here. and others from interjections. and more or less limited . Gr. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. hahota. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. when I arp humming and hawing. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. kahkahah. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. then speech begins. hahottaa. it them. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. I am not hearer.

The following account is given by Kruse. and go where we now say stand. of the nature of this great movement. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. words receiving the meanings they now bear. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. dumb is the language of signs. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. a Picture-language. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. a deaf-mute himself. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. if taken as a whole. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. makes them stand and walk upon the table. Though. What strikes him . of the world. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and not. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. It as has ing their most striking features. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. But here nature soon conies to his help. . There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. like peewit and cuckoo. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. the critical question should be. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. And so in the case of language.' he says. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative.

many when or but these. he. for the agent. such as than the educated man. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. thou. And is. what more. or the verb to be. and we have roast goose. to name. the whole secret. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. and And thus he makes himself a language. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. called Gesture-language. most striking outline of an object. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. but if I depress it instead. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and fully serves to j . and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. thought is already broken. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. xxxiii him between one thing and another. walked. such objects. his action. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and it is flesh or meat. and to taste. push it towards the person addressed for thou. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. can do better and more easily abstract terms. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. for single objects. nay. particular sense in properly so called. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands.GESTURE most. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. that signifies great . it seems. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. as it now opens out.' In the Institutions. and forms further and further. that air. that. for child. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . for walk. The of sign for left hand. the sorecalling them to his memory. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. letter To hold the two fingers apart. he. and with his thought. among themselves. like a V. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. becomes roast meat. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. walkest. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. The same sign stands and the act itself. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. signs are taught for yet. it means little. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and gestures. or To pull and flap with the arms.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. walker.

gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. might be the knife. when I say. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. in expressing such relations as those indicated above.' dener's knife. would be simply beginning of speech. as But when it is meant door. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. in fact. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. according to the circumstances of the case. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. as in die it is a noun. putting it into his pocket. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. or something of the kind. the garden. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. depend entirely upon the use. . struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. He gave door a bang. it called an interjection. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. When a verb. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. When I say. whether by additions or otherwise. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. in other instances sentence. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. or a quality. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. You beaten . it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. qualifies the against the wall. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. I say. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature.xxxiv asking. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. a number of alternatives are suggested. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. or an act. Do not bang the it is a verb. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. and thus performs the part of an adjective. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. and so is an adverb. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. substantive or adjective. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. the ture of white term pink is and red. as when Bang ! went the gun. a colour red. or action. and the as. The same word . to indicate the action of a certain person. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. Who is has beaten you ? would be. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or a passive scene of existence.

and may be used language. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. commencement of speech. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. Jii ta. whereof. . or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. wherehy. which is an old y ting (use stick). in the is indicated by the syllable y. in the sense of great. or with elements expressing relations of time.^ — Miiller I. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. the man is great. middle. 255. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. or some relation between it and another object. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. but often self-evident. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. grie^ horror. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. greatness. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. wherefore. coalesces with the personal pronouns. a groan. inquiry. wherewith. that admits itself in of audible representation. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. and to be great. that is. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. verb nor noun has yet been developed. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. contempt.. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. Latin. a sigh of oppression and . Thus tafu signifies a great man. whereto. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. pain. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. wonder. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. inside. a noun. some outward display of the affection. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. or nei. &c. as kuo cung. as cung. with a stick.

&. ai. wehen (Schmeller). ache. guai. Lat. Fr. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. the pangs of childbirth. gwe-l-a. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. weh schreien. pain. grief. djamdjam goda (goda. vce. g. j. representing Illyr. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. la. och. 6. to lament. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to groan. ochan. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. jao. to gargle. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. and to bark . We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. mostly a ! %. och. mew. cece. ing action I. found in g. hei. a groan or lamentation vir. to wail or cry alas . ohi. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. 6. Let. woe. suffering. guaj-ire. w. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. Jar lau-lau. at the close of the radical syllable. die wehen. wd. Gr. . are ol-ire. as. gwae. waiidt. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. wAwa. first person. is w. to make bow-wow. Illyrian vaj. to ache. representing a cry of pain. lament from oimi. to yell formed e. is Ay di me I Gr. to bewail oneself. It. . xxxvi grief. It. headache.-l-are.ez. aiai^to. e. oh. grief. on. vce. wai-l. g. weinen. lament. It. guaj- or cry out pitifully. ah. o'i. ach. to injure. form. on. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. n. misery. Gael. ochan. to do woe. axofiai. to . or r. in Gr. to rriourn. w^wa. wai. oh. al. oval. miau-n-is. jaoh. gwae. The form corresponding to Lat. to cause pain. ui. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. . It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. wai. wehthun. to cry at. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. Thus from springs otjucifw. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. ace. misfortune. ochain. weh. to weep. to wail. howl. to chirp. to sound yapyap. Such are g. miau-l-er. dchzen. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. to weep. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to hurt Let. ocAJ. Bret. It. to cry n. och. ah.. ach. ach. ohg.'). The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. pain. Gr. oimare. e. to make). miau-l-is. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. Illyr. grief] affliction. and cacak djeda (to say crack. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. to ache. has more kopfweh. achen. Gr. probably a deeper groan. as. guajo. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . I oi[iot. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. oi. to lament. . to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. vaj. A widespread It. pain. woe. tirr-djeda. . lau-l-e. In this way from the root guai. however. e. vei-a. seen in Gr. ! ! Goth. w. ahi. Lat.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. for instance. is-te). because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.' person. to here . nurseries. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. Phil. thata (ta-ta). or that it is.' this. a specified were by pointing him out. as to express. . case. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. and by a variety of expressions besides. or give me it. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. more emphatically roSj)j that. but the truth is. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. and so on. this here. 'nay.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. give me that cheese. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. properly (give) be compared with by which a g.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. der da-ige. Sanders (Germ. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. when 1859. says da-da-da. ToSe (or in Attic E. the nursery da-da. • The child. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object.' then points to his wife. or carry me thither. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. When we pointing. or wants to name something. child. saying : there the ad- Trans. as. da. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. ' sees an object. that is it. that gratifies me. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. Diet. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. that. his trowsers' pocket. as it Dieser da (as Lat. we may translate this by there (it is). Thank you. when he wants something. Please. The Fr. word da repreIn the language of Tonga.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. according to Menage. I add) . ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). implying the direction of its good will towards them. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. But. a word of many applications in g. and may be rendered. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. da. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. give. Sie. is we I believe. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. In the expression Da. Dr Lottner observes. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. Bav. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong.' all is is — their consent. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. indeed. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. well as Goth.

the original is that which he places first. tattle. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. p. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. thinking. stutter. sounds. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. to tion to another. . standing. make dadada). The da is dodem. sinking. Thus Gr. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence.^ its ' utters : a cry. to say to oneself. to move step by step. pay. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life.' says Lottner interior. its desire.' • liv ANALOGY. or dalliance. beat. speech. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. takes it — as When the soul. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. to walk. strike. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. and shapes it into an . by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. then instinctively interest. to knock.' says Muller. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. tasting. moving. or metaphor. reality. — Cot. to beat. which thus exertion. in every mode of expressing the idea. of which any one may. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. dadee. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. and one in particular must. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. childish toying. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. to chatter. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. meanings.

sprageti. as. to ring. knittre. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to sound clear In Galla. beorhtian. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to glitter. snudra. man of nice taste. iclat (in Old Fr. Lith. savour. and thence e. while sapere itself. chime). ghsten. signified a clear sound. scheteren. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. rattle. prudent. sapere (which signifies the nose. to shine. judicious. think. a dis- cernment. to ring as a glass willata. discreet. may be it explained . to smack or taste. to flash. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. the equivalent of g. esclat). &c. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. outcry. to sniff out. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. fiapfiaipw. to shine. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. snotor. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. tinkling. in popular language. may be quoted gUt. bilbil). to glitter e. to be wise. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. In the same way the Goth. and figuratively. to sniff. to have Sapiens. pracht. smell. to . In the case of sparkle. schmecken. suspect Bav. as kilind. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. brilliancy. scTiateren. Bavarian bracht. clang. then to sparkle. from the . kimistd. So firom Lat. to glitter. firom the Gael. Again. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to snilF. to crackle. snuff the sniiten. to shriek with laughter . gnittre. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. schiteren. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. . tintelen. noise. Heo Du. bilbilgoda (to make . a rustling sound Gr. snot. beam. snutrs. (parallel bilbila. to glisten Dan. make a loud noise. on. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. wamara. a brilliant light kilid. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. we have and the and beorht. extended to the exercise of the understanding.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to 5 ghtter. wilistd. knistre. same imitative root with Sw. and. sense of brightness. bright. 1654. to tinkle. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. wilahtaa. to quiver. a with kimmaltaa. and schmecker. splendour. also wise. air. to crackle gnistre. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . Finnish. a ringing . is used in the origin. which in ohg. The 6. tumult. wise. to sparkle. kiimottaa. properly a clap or explosion. spraka. taste. sound. for example. . unlella. Fr. search . magnificence. to glitter. smell. to resound. splendour. in the domain of movement. Du. — 1.

was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. tremour. briars. whirl. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. kvTOQ. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. the neighing of horses. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. Tpa)(yg. roughness. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. 6\tadaveii'. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. is felt Lana. which The Stoics. rough both ways. pvfi^Civ. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. then in rpd/xoe. he framed the words ivSov. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. soft. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. of dressing loud. 1. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. rough. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. power of the letter-sounds. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. oily. and vepres. to slide.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. discusses the tone of a picture. accordance with the way in which by touch. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. he says. flow and flux. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. eo ut res vol. extremely loose. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. within. mel. The BpavEiv. rough to the ear. or . KoWiiSije. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). in of his works. wool. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. &c. v. itself letters are felt as sofl. break. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. rough. in truth. rend. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. shatter. ipuKuv.' he says. gluey. as soft by the ear. And observing that n kept the voice within. we hear of screaming colours. Acre. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. inside. crux. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. \nrap6e. Kpovtiv. the bleating of sheep. Kep^arl'ieiv. pleasure soft to the ear . the clank (stridorem) of chains. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. strike. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. fitting the letters to the sense. . He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. the cross. smooth. sharp. Much of the same has been often quoted.

as when. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. jog. jih. shag. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. for exis ample. p. ii. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. shog. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. t. g. stag (in stagger. dig. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. 138). Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. tug. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. to reel abruptly from side to side). joli. jag. k. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. a rough and sudden . Fr. cular effort Again. the case of the voice. A greater felt. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. degree of roughness sound. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. dag.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. d. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. rug. sag-oter. 'and consequently form. stab. and in the utterance of a high or or low. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. jig. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. to signify varieties of movement. p. to jogj sac-cade. corresponding to the ineor. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . or checks as they are called by Muller. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes.

tech-tech. or check. zack. chique. in cases like the foregoing. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. The syllable suk is jerk. to move rapidly to and fro. to On the same principle j we have g. a quid of tobacco. is made to signify movement. to beat or play on a musical instrument. to take a thing on tick. Dutch kicken.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. It. that we never can be sure. a small bodily object. figuratively. To tick a thing off. Illyrian migati. Bolognese tocc. (mitsati). Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. a stroke with a French toucher. to touch. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. kik. mik. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . cica. Thus we have B. and analogous movements. a piece or bit of anything. a crum. chic. to utter a slight kick. also to stir. e. motion. not to utter a syllable. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. The analogy then carried a step further. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. to pulses being knock. Fr. to tickle. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. S-panish miga. micare. sound Fr.. as tot. mot.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. mica. to incite by light touches. The Mipen or pencil. and It. a . to mark it with a touch of the pen . then. as Italian tocco. so to Italian toccare. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tack. Sukkeln. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. movement. chicoter. properly a small lump'of . tock. tecche-tocche. Mucken. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. however. zigzag. to mutter. Brescian toch. a playiug-marble. Then. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . like English tick. an old worthless horse or carriage. Ene olde suksuk. is lanese toch. schockeln. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. schuckeln. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. &c. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. passing to the signification of motion. an infant . and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. and e. kuk. to glitter. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. it produces Dutch micken. Fr. to strike It. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. used interjectionally to represent a . foot. Accordingly the g. Hence Lat. to have it ticked or marked on the score . a jog. Welsh cicio. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. g. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. then. The production of sound. toch-toch. lead to Spanish tocar. chiquet. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. a cracker. for the sound of knocking at a door. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. mie. rough horse. to winkj micati is Lat. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. a little bit. sound barely audible. to say a word . a good piece of road . to ring a bell. to stir. The train of . is so frequent a consequence of movement.

iki. . to dot. to touch lightly with a pen. taut. 0. anything . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. motte. totle. motta. 48) cites from the African Tumale. subdued manner. syllable mot. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . there (further of!) ao. not because the pendulum makes a different left. and mite. mote. a tot . titter. . tot. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. eo. to tremble. or the like its It. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. a sparrow). at where the order is inverted. But the same is language has re Javan. little j to that of a small bodily object. to make a slight mark. corresponding to the personal pronouns. zitella. here (close hand). tot. to e. that. and a small lump of something. titilh. a light quick blow. Then. and dot. . as in e. So. a small bird. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. zitio. a bit. to jog. e. tit. or o toi. seesaw. for the beating of a clock. clay . mot. mossche. gno. little. you. 199).) . this . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. Halliwell. a morsel girl . Pm. This kind. and he. tot. or the converse. a e. ika. lump of earth. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto.- a jot or little It. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to whisper (Pr. mutter j dust. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. for the three personal pronouns. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . tozzo. mutter. we have e. there '(at a short distance). n. ticktack. anything small flax. a girl. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. of movement in totter. a bit. Du. mut. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. I. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). to movement of the pen . The vowel changes from to tick-tack. fragments It. further off. not an atom . Fr. tottle. i. titmouse (Du. a little titty. bunch or flock of wool. To jot. . . where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. neither moit nor an atom. a morsel. (Halliwell) Da. Cult. a small lump or pat. a small kind of lark. Malagasy to. this. fait. a small quantity. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. . tiny. gnu. jot. small of kind. lix Sp. the least visible insect. small titlark. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. here. tot. The following table from Tylor (Prim. ri that. a. tit. to touch. is shown in murmur. . either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. move slightly to . a certain conception. and out there. citto. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. that iku. gni. e. to jot down or note with a fro. In a similar the relations of place. . tittle.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. there. often entirely arbitrary. not to utter a syllable. and toddle like a child titter. the vowel sound. a small horse. the same organ touched with the man. a lad citta. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. a whisper. chico.n.

this . .. there. here . /mya. ojOo. ni.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. Magyar ez. Mm. me probable that • Vei also little. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Mutsun ne. an old woman chacha. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. minution further. probably initial of distinction that the k. is father. to. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. that. he. mother. . you. Then. ni. ita. and a for the female. w. father. Tarahumara ibe. respectively. Gr. man erne. j Canarese ivanu. Guarani nde. Carib ne. ^. ukko. km. here this . this fi. Chilian tva. that. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. . an old . here j ka. as the act of pointing was ta. child. ne. ndi. Abchasian aSn.. Japan ko. 6. there. and origin.. here .) nna. that. there. that. Sahaptin (America) kina. usho. It Carib lala. Botocudo ati.. . here 5 Yoruba na.) pronunciation of i or e. this <t. mother. is Here. It seems to (fen. Dhimas isho. no constant rule is observed. tiiio. uta. .araM. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. this . bi. mother. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. thou . there. this ole. father k . nne. biii. /e«. femina ama. child. . this . owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Tamul i. loo). akha. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. there. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. thou. Ossetic am. he. that in the distance. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. little. that. /wo. that. that (intermediate) j wana. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. qu. there. small (Pott. (tt). thou ni. . that. there. young one. mas cheche. . this . ofj. here j abe. I . as in Italian Fin. Lat. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Fernandian az. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. here feraa. as Mr Tylor remarks. Zulu ajoa. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. that.e^. ta to ka. for the male. olo. ulri. that.

keeh. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. has tittafrem. to peep. for the . just beginning to appear. stairs.' making the voice as small as possible. From cases like the foregoing. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. Thus we have Wolof sopa. repetition It. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. to feet. as j money. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. nipple. whence Fr. lift 8. pepin. The Sw. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. trappa.) . nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. A little weeny thing. is to express simple continuance of action. to make its way through the bursting envelope. fretful. for a succession of light blows low-wow. the pip or pippin. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. &c. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. knob. nab. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. of smaller things. to teet. dance (Kil. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. — Douglas Virgil. . for instance. titta. The sound trapp . and in the Pacific dialects. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. the nursery few j Sc. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. wean. as ding-dong. to tread. analogous to winy-piny. the idea is called. don-don. sound of bells . wenig.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. murmur. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. trSpigner. at pippe frem is to spring forth. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. trippen. looking through between obstacles.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. to peep through. And perhaps the E. 401. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. A little wee face with little.' — Merrv Wives. Clank represents the sound of something large. or chink. to begin to appear . the simplest mode by the g. to leap. in old e. Fr. little. a child. a step. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. a little yellow beard. trippelen. i Sw. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. the principle of reduplication. din-din. trappen. barking of a dog. or even. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. nil. trap. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. little To sup up. Top. Da. tion.

a spot. could readily be conceived. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. rack click. tach-et-er. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. serves to show and in this way. i. ayunayunan. child . for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. Susa di.. So from clamo. ratsi-ratsi. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. mawhitiwhiti. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. kenda. smallness. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. racket. rack. didi. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. And generally. or a little tee--ny thing. to pant.' expression is — ^Tylor. a cradle. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. (to use a to speak. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. The same principle of 196. cliqu-et-is. keep spots. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). click. Malay ayun. er. if very young. lololoa. from Maori muka. sopasopa. are echoed by the rudimentary et. 99). a clattering noise. &c. . to or rub. tache. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. to skip. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. kendagenda. the lungs. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. or el. mpolu is uttered. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. very long (Pott. and Fr. or rdtchi. to vi^alk about for flax. Thus in E. the and clique. clash of weapons. Mandingo ding. . to to call. to cover e. bad . or imitative syllables. the comparative degrees of greatness. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. Again. puka- puka. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. the agent in panting . ding-ding. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. clamito. to rock. to talk at to walk. to treat with contempt. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. or very very great. repetition or continsignify long. puka. Cult. to love. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. child . calling.Ixii REPETITION. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. or in Fr. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. random . in familiar use with ourselves. rapidity and strength. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. 97). In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . is language. to call frequently from Fr. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to say pooh It is ! to. very great. kamha-gamla. hardness. Thus in the Pacific loa. instead of being actually repeated. amusement. very bad. little child (p. mawhiti. properly speaking. and the words express a continued sound of rack. loloa. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. a grasshopper.

to make a succession of shoves. shuffle. or omitted. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. from puka. compared with g. to rock or wag. mew and baa . to rock. rubber. kneel. miauler andpiauler. without the intervention of the frequentative element.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. he who rubs. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. to make a succession of grabs . syllable clat . draggle. or by association. to hand. in Fr. joggle. wagas ging. and in as. waggle. to bark like a dog. crack. it. wankeln. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. to move to and fro. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. In like manner crack imitates the sound made .Jicol. to make bau-bau. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. by the side of wanken. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. such asjlap. The Fr. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. or in e. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to crackle. The contrivance with any particular noise. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. a from ayun. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. in some applications. g. dab. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. or Maori puka-puka. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . rynel. wankel. others. Ihre remarks under gncella. wavering. as to handle. guggle. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. wancol. In cases like these. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. a succession of cracks to rattle. to puff. to make gug. to wail woe . as mAS. the knie-en to E. to hand-le. bubble. where all direct connection with sound is lost. Jickfacken. Piedmontese bau-l-S. smack. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. dabble. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. bub. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. or fi bau. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. fickle. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. itself. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. is In e. the lungs (the puffers of the body). which. are to cry mew and pew . jogging. to continue dragging. miauler and beler correspond to E. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound.

or how generally. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. although it is not difficult. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. will continue to be felt in daily speech. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. by a hard body breaking. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and comparatively few easily deceived. Polish. the breach. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. or in mode of use. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. moreover. it is obviously a mere chance how long. Dupe comes to us from the French. on a moment's reflection. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. which. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. to the separation between the broken parts. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. There is. at was more familiarly known. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. known in Italian. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. Breton. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. or in aptness to combine with other elements. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. A gull or a dupe same sense. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. to cry ugh at. which is the origin of the word. deceit.

As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. is. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. founded in manifest blunder. Hitl^erto. nor any limited of ideas.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. . it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. and the word is used in a secondary sense. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. language is . That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. life. however. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue.

peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. Naturalist on the Amazons. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. in the course of many years' isolation. 330. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . change. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. hearing. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. out. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. evique. therefore. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. Welsh. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. I think it very probable. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. compared with the duration of man. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. French. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. guages in South America. and vescovo. and 'Russian. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. circle perpetrates a new slang term. episcopus. If English. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. unintelligible to other hordes. of material things. i. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates.

Nor is there one of the letters. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. is MN. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. and . ancient Greek M .COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. which are idenr Figures 5. 7. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. 6. or whatever the proportion may be. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. to be taken (Prim. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . i. it will leave figures 3 and 4. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ao8). 9. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. Cijlt. 8. the actual it which would to represent. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. . as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. as shown in the subjoined illustration. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. A key must unlock more doors than this. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. The combination of the symbols I and 2.

un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . and it has been established in a wide range of examples. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. had its origin in imitation of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or.' should be discovered. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. in the shape either of direct inspiration.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. leading him to utterances. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. what comes to the same thing. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and the only safe beneficent Creator. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. which either by direct resemblance of sound. for instance. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence." the use of a change of vowel in as. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. known to us as yet. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. his fellows.

or of their own reflected thoughts . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . and rose towards a higher state of being. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and when we look back as far as history will reach. for instance. by animal without a trace name of Man. the conduct of Ixix life. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and sooner or later. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. of using imitative conduct . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. that he started from the lowest grade. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or beavers. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. as elephants. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. race were speaking men or not. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . until the progeny. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. or else.COMPLETION OF MAN. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . or not. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . in the course of generations. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare.

English. dial. Dueange. Gothischen 1851. Couzinid. Bavarian. AS. 1850. 1857. Due. Cimbrisch. Cotgrave. Cot. Diet. 1737. Esthonian. de la langue Cat. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Infimse Latini- D. Castr. Bav. Brem. Bremisch. Dief. Da. Dn. Carpentier. Gr. ^Ifr. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Dutch. Wtb. Catalan. Supplement to Dueange. Anglo-Saxon. Cimbr. Elfric's Fl. Diet. Diefeiibach. Sup. Supplement to Bret. .TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.Nieder. Bigl. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Finnish. Fin. Bohemian or Czech.V. at the end of Somner's Diet. Teutonico-Lat. 1768. E. 1654. Danish. Dief. Biglotton seu Diet. or Dan.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Romano - Cas- traise. Diet. dialect of the Sette Commune.. Grammar Boh. Fr. Douglas' Virgil. B.-Eng. Diefenbaeh. Dueange. 1766. Esth. Baile/sEngl. Provincial dialect. Carp.



sveritet Asknace r.. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> .>. buque 118 brodiquin r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. haverie crtOT r. r. willekom Blab r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . (/ijtf r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.percurrunt kimista^x. kilistaa bugiie r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.5 ERRATA. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. word allagerr.nokkutama willekem. yjnaifia r. r. woman r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. plowied budowaer. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. baltresca nokkutomax. Blob plowied r. puHti r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. cruccio deyrie. r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. alUger ahaverie r. Askance woud r. ^i?^i2! r. cti. katowai perairrantr. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.


In Lat. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Thus ip N3S. AS. whatever he be. a/tan. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . to awake. rule. particular 1 . but now )bsolete). and secondarily in that of command. The word Ban is common orders. ar. to subdue. ibandonner.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. away. from a is to wake to abide. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. Abaft. ab. on. vs. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. in the same sense. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. abs. of-dune. Again. Dent posture. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. To abuse is to use iway. plesyt him. Parson's Tale. said. us. Ab-. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. his. announcement. a washing off to abstain. 843. have entire dominion over. bandon in French. Jvery man shewid baft. as. . dominion. as. a. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. until the event jlace . erwachen. to arise. ir. implying a completion of J. Hence on-bceftan. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. baftan. on-bsec . out of. Abandon.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Abs-. ifter. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. A. from. Thou spelds of mychty iction. OHG. compounds. the er. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn.he Goth. onis aback. off. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. "rom a height. this word beand Spanish. into the Romance ftrseg . and — Chaucer.t G. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. behind. state of sleep . abaft. away from. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. literally. AS. be-ceftan. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. in a manner other than it should be ablution. er. command. an edict or proclamation. ur. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. alike. iway from. —Bruce. sion of 'an abandoned character. among. power : Than Wallace thing. downwards. o/j of or . orders. Immediately from Fr. Lat. to sauff the king or spill. in. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Passing tongues. on. K . 244. to hold . on-lic. dominion.

esba. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. A. bawi. castle. as ravish. astony. It. merely the terminations ons. abbatere. abbattre. to diminish the force of any. burny was formerly burnish . to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. or society of abbots or monks. uncontroUedly. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. terminedly. Abbey.— R. to make lower. betrash. baer. esbahissais. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. his mouth. abaundunem-ent. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. faire tomber.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. To Abate. Hart in Jamieson. and that from Syrian abba. to strike Froiss.' the surrender of a ' K. abbatere dal prezzo. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. astonish. 1 1 8. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Milton. Originally. depress. to ruin. and it that that it — . impetuously.esbawi. de. vol. impulse.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. other. son bandon. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr.down.fournir. his eyen shene. adverbial expressions at abandon. so common in the found in the OFr. to abaw or astonish. effect of shame. ant. Cotgr. law term abatement. Abbess. to astonish.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. drink.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. abbas. of fear. — — . 364s. overthrow. by Wall. may be explained. ne more vermeille. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Bate. et prirent terre. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. or admiration. abbatia. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Fr. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to gape. an abbey. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Abbot. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille.) . with or without a final sh. abbatis. polish. And he thereof was all abashed. baba. of the Fr. to put to con. lish to abaisse orabaish. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. to overthrow. where custom (Grandg. On the other in use as well as hand. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. R. bandon. beer.Prov. to bate something of the price abbatersi. Beat. confound. Castrais. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. and the verb was written in Eng. Wall. iv. to The . to take possession of an estate. Baba ! Mod. to beat furnish. of wonder. d. down. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. father. person. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. I was abawid for merveille. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. . to strike sail .polir. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. 1520. shame. Hence Lat. esbahir. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. abate. to hit. More correctly written abbat. thing abbatere le vela. c. Custom. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. to happen.On princes. See . esbahissant. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Hence the OE. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . to light upon. abandonly. R. at his own the lips. to excite admiration. burny. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. In or. from ravir. from Lat. ais. and grooms besmeared with gold. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. — Neccham.— — . and sets them all agape. weaken. in the active form. See Abide. . when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. R.

Cat. Quant voit le serpent. forbearance. were called Brothers. expectation. to stay. and in E. abaier. beidan. From abahier. open the mouth. deceit. to remain or endure. on the one hand. regarder. which is certainly related to It. ' ' .Fr. trick abetar. syllable ba. beijden. abeyance. badare. baer. Abele. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. bida. Ducange. from Halo. Prov. Du. OFr. songer. baier. to wait. gridare. ceive. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. beguiling on the other. to hook. Abie. See Abide. Gloss. intent observation. also to OFr. delay. or do we AS. abet. to wait. us. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. look for another. qui iaaille. Corresponding to keep in suspense. suffer b. is idenwait. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to attend to. inciting. bida. compared with (Bosworth). E. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. abbadare. or in Fr. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. endurArt thou he that should come. delay. bidan. exciter. signifies the direction of tend. badigliare. beguile. abeter.— Chaucer. ne wist what way to chuse. . 366. delay. bder. to look. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. beijen. which the mind to an object. to stay. Norm. wait. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to be intent upon. ne chastised them. to deanimer. expectation. desirer (Roquef. Fabl. suspense. — signifies to suspend action. wait To Abide. to gape . to suffer death in Du. or absorption watching. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . Thus G. bocca badata. de Berri) Prov. to open the mouth. pense. badare. incite . John. bouche bdante. attendre See Bait. watch. white. verbeijen Sw. while the monks under his control ing. expectfamily. covet. in Fr. to In great amaze. beijen. badar. abayer. to open bader. to expect. guardare. the verb of abeyance. listen.— Roquef. have seen abide. bialodrze-w. bie compared with Dan. to ance. badare. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. endurance. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. to attend on . forms with the d effaced are OFr. K. aspire to. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. and E. tenere a bada. a right in suspense .) abayer. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. . to tarry. tical with It.to wait. desire. warten. says. listening. lingering. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. Ni engigner ni abiter. to yawn. inciter. abSiance. to deceive. bana. to abide . othres abidan' The effacement expect. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Gloss. abie. .. (Vocab. tarrying . to It. to desire. a bay or opening in the coast. tity of E. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. in Dan. Boethius. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. The white poplar. bhr. with badia. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Goth. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. abetter. tempting. usbeisnei. de Champ. to mind. to be intent upon. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. take notice. take care. The verb atwaiting. baier compared with It. with open mouth . F. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. gola badada. Q. Guernsey beth. and Prov. b^er. Thus we have It. — ABELE Epiphanius. to wait. to expect gabeidan. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. ^couter avec dtonnement. Pol. bide of the d endure. to desire earnestly. abidan. . literally white tree. waiting. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. speaking of the Holy places. bada. —Raynouard. aspirer. — II. deceiving. abie. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. beidan. we sceolon ON.was formerly used in the sense of look. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. attendre avec en^pressement. . — . abiiance. Norm. Corant sens lui. house. m Abeyance.' is in AS. beter. 1 • . To Abet. In We . Cat. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. and alluring to his own destruction.— ^richer. bie. abet. baier. bouche b^ante.

use. abie to Goth. Merch. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. . abide. 2. sufficient. expert. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Fr. — P. strong. Abie. a board. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. able. and death for handsel pay. or bie. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. abeye. within the ship. Dr. abidge. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. For on board. The —Boucher. ! ! Cotgr. aboleo. O If tion. abycgan. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. bord. abilej Prov. must suffer for it. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. L. — e. P. i. to . Spenser. abie. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Q. Tr. suffer the Jul. willing to schewe his wrathe. If it badare. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. was often used in the same sense. bide. habile. consequences of anything . when compared with Aboard. Wickliff in Richardson. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. to perish. Mids. without special reference to the notion of retribution. on board . God — dear. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. forbid for mother's children should abye. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. bidan. fault being simply clothing. while in later examples As I . Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. within the walls of a ship. Fr. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. powerful. the Fr. Chaucer. from AS. It. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . the Sir Tristrem. to redeem. power. abicgan. adapted . F. P. to wear away. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. Innan bords. 2nd Tale. habilis is closely preserved. Lat. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. the Pardoner In the original. beidan. N. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Prol. Boucher. from Lat. him with che. — Able. to have . God tokeneth and assigneth the times. properly abuy. and the simple buy. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. to dress hemp.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. R. though sometimes confounded with it. God. and Cr. atling hem to her proper offices.^and to make his power knowne. fit. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Cassar. habilis (from habeo. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. abilh. R. is the verb abie. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. to pay the purchasemoney. abigg. at kasta fyri bord. Milton. abolir. to pay the penalty. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. ON. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. purpose. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. —Bacon in R. at hand). to draw fowls. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. al- be found so some will dear abide it. AS. She shall abie that trespass dere. the side of a ship. durance in both applications. as E. have-like.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. being disabled in the highest degree. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. as habiller du chanvre. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. in for any special purpose. In this to erase or annul. convenient. &c. de la volatile.ynes.

foda signifies to beget. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. abufan. for ligeth butan. and also to abridge. Kiittner. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. currence. draw out. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. as withotityn and without. to let sleep. Abrdger itself. boven. seems aras. . leading immediately to Fr. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. the hair grow. adolere. Melibaeus. to snatch. which may God avert. Virg. To abray or abraid. while the verb alleThe root el. Goth.) . break out. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. bufan. OSw. Sc. to turn. To Abound. to nourish. above. way Sw. For on broach. AS. Thence to regard greugetat. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. AS. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. Abray. from Fr. the vital spark. to progress. parent. and in-d-oles. to grow up. pedigree from brevis. — ' — — preceding verb. as the duty of nourdisposition. OE. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. alUger. on high. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. snatch In English we speak of away. Prov. outward.. side. gravity. to bring up.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. around on the out.ger. be-ufan. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. See To Bray. alan. The primitive idea seems that of beget. but from Lat. to main. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. without. Quod abominor. agredge. Severe the threatened evil. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. ABOMINABLE adolesco. disastrous portent in some passing oc. literally. the idea of breaking about . butan. abracan. al is growth. Du. and also. abominor (from ab and omen. as AS. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. Of these synonymous adolescere. s —Casdmon. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat.writers in the sense of starting out of rence.ymbutan. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. ufan. Tale.— Abbreviate. life. from . to start. Abundant.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. is a ively. or young forth. a portent). nurse Lat. or cut short. Lat. to awake. ala. abrdger.' Ymb hancred utan. while the sense of beget. — . common in Chaucer and Abominable. to aggravate.aboon. becomes leu in Prov. and bidden him abregge. the identity of which with ting. hard.the older form. that greatly agredge their sin.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. nurse. See -und-. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. Gael alaich. by the to bring up. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. ol. is not from G. AS.' Parson's rence. which passed into English under Abominate. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan.. to feed. to beget or give birth to children. d. onbutan. kindling.1. below. heavy. So in Lat. OE. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to AS. to rear. progeny.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. coalesco. breaking out in language. to grow together. motion. and alere flammain. to break off. oil. levis to the Romance languages. en. nourish. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. giving birth to. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. abrcBgdan. abutan. awaking. gravis. abbreviare. whence the Fr. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. vital PI. Fr. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. about cockcrow. The radical idea is to feed the flame. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abowen. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. the form a&^^. to produce. the man dwindles away. be-utan. to fatten. full ofte his words for to Fr. natural ed direct from the latter language. to rear. . to light a fire the Abraid. Finnish stock. to feed. agreujar. explains soboles Lat. brood. of any kind . is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. ala is made to signify to rear. titan. In the same brevis . abredan. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. Thonne Abroach. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. sec seftre — Chaucer. his contemporaries. the OSw. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. abbrechen. D. abbrechen. greu. af-oleii. to cut short. alan. and to do something to avert abbreviate. Then. Above. af-oolden. alere capillos.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


part. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. to strain. avri^ava. Apartment. incus. to imitate gestures. i. from ante. press. Jorioc.is to be given. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. bread. Antidote. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. what Roman civilisation. a block to hammer on. Lat. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. vex. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. ab. and devils. anticus. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. AS. from Stephanus. a preventative . To ape. Fr. to display pario. verberas. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. to have. separate. or antique single chamber.. Fr. in Shakespear. Thus from gabe. Pezron fiUist. antefn. amboltj Du. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. something ler in R. and claret wine. transferred to the grotesque characters. finally applied to a whether grotesca. to sound in answer. Hall's Chron. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. were chiefly of the former class. anfilts Pl. panis. a puppet or an anti^hona. Lat. stem. —Spencer. d. as the Italians. were andouiller the second. gabeigs. from in and cudere. as posticus. a few. before. to support. from the imitative habits of monkeys. plenteously with red. from eigan. Gr. white. rich. eigs. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Antler. Lat. left as the . one. a gift. Apartment. all of gold. Percutere. swaged. : . and ig. Otfried. antifena. cenig. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. such as savages. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. aperio. like a jack-pudding. Fr. separate purpose. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. on. strangle. to open. a small quantity. Anxious. Prov. As the browcalled antiques. To go antiquely. a termination equivalent to Goth. See Cover. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. choke. or in a ridiculous dress. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. So Lat. before. Hence the applica. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Lat. ReApe. apatiar. to strike. In like manner. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. apanage. fauns. Aphorism. work. Anvil. . one at the least. aside. Aperient. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. as from as.legacy of given against. AS. younger child.— . three antike pillers. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. to bring forth. trouble. to strike G. but the expresent day. ambeld. from avTiipoiuia). Apart. anapoz. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. from an and — - . d<popi(xnbs. of. as we call it. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Gr. whence anthem. from an. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt.made out. from. to nourish.D. G. from. inAgain from the same author cudis. wealth. surimitation of the ancient models. villan Gloss. should be received. anxi. — — — . something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Ilvtwotov. whence Prov. apertum. panar. Antick. one having wealth. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. which by anvild. burnished. the anticks — behind. Antique. set aside. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. anxius. to go in strange disguises. af. post. Gr. from ango. E. Any. a definite . Ful- Apanage. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Mannequin. some one. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. andouillers. AS.—Aperture.

array. like. whether through age or sudden teiTor. ciously than nede is. Mod. Apo- good time. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. prover. taking. apal. apprehendere. 'LaX. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Apostle. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. despatch on some service. oVooroXof. . The PI. equal. to come near. APO sentence opoQ. probare. to announce. aparelhar. Gr. Appease. a thing for one's purpose. To Appear. approcdare. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. 23 . To Appraise. H. —^Apparent. S^. habiliments. to suit. A — . Fabian in R. purpose. lAfiaam. Approach. peler. near. ar. (cited by Diez from a late author). in data. pragigua or prixcoda. diminutive pariculus. to call for judgment. the good. apropchar. plight.propius). were formed appropiare ejar. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. quoth the frere. in commendation. to store or put Appal. one the MLat. to lose one's senses. away. ap. to understand. And among other of his famous deeds. to approach. to accord. a'^opi'Jw. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour.prix. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. obolys. esteem. Sp. From Lat. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Cent Nouv. properly to join like to like. —Diez.parecchio. after his mind . from aTroorlXXu. Fr. a price. whence the e. in fact. Gr. ^wss. From Lat. jabloko. Formerly apricock. to seize. 11. Hence It. appareo. appartenir. Gr. a crime. apparecchiare. horror. become dizzy . 'L-zX. They werin his approvirs privily. to commend. to learn. to send to. diroTrXriaatii. preparation. OFr. Fr. of. Cotgr. in good season prendre son d. Fr. Epistle. corresp. par. laven is used both as E. Apprehend. one is in. apin R. APRICOT off. to catch hold of.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. manner. Ir. apar. Nouv. Parson's Tale. Pliny. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Fr. to — — . appaiser. to dress in this fashion.his giving evidence against his principal. Apple. kind of action. to set a price on. to approve. like. to fit. Appareil. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. . pretium. . poind. prohts. to mark to define a bound. off. to assign or grant over unto. to send off. to rate. to strike down. Cotgr. to learn. a learner. when the . to deaden. And whanne sum men Lat. cepl. Fr. Yr. apprise. The Fr. En peach. Gr. prize. apprendre. allow. or E. dress. apal. i. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. agree. to deem good. e. To cause to pall (see Pall). iwKjToKri. known. in Chaucer. poind. habilUr. — Apprise. D. apropid. ON. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. from paix. one sent out. Fr. aptly.parejo. to disable oftat. Hence appoind. From Gr. piteux poind. one for his defence. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Friar's Tale. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. approcher. approver. to make a thing Apparel. trim. prope (comp. 5w. — Appurtenance. peace. and also as appraise. To praise. from. — prehendere. value apprdder. Apoplexy. to Lat. landmark. xv. word was specially applied to clothing. appris. Fr. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Fr. Prov. w. to be open to view. Lith. appellare. case. fit- — ness. to call. mine. appareiller. order. find Then like Fr. d-n-o. and in the sense of condition.pareil. consent unto. It. ai. Apotliecary. to finish a controversy. Lat. Cotgr. Prov. pertain or belong to. avail. opportunity. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. For their acquaintance was not come of new . to which it is often referred. pronounce good. or the like. proper time came. to take away or lose the vital powers. — dirondtfiu. Palsgr. apprentis. Yr. good. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. an epistle or letter. I prise ware. — Approve. N. make a composition between parties. is a man who has lost his vigour through age.—Apprentice. An old appalled wight. Walach. AS.probare. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. set a price on. decree. They were considered To Appoint. agreeing with "LtA. praise. that it outfit. seiden of the stones.— . Wholly unconnected with/a/^. and appoinder (to find fitting. rise to \t.t. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. diroBrjKr}. irpaiKOKiaov. pronounce fitting). annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. : — — speak 'Lz. to deter- to strike. to — .

by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. a lot. aptus.) E. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. It is certain that the apricot oracle. however. and taken away before dessert. Maan initial . arpa. and sortilegus ation. . con. P. a pleasure-ground. 2. water Which that benchid was. intensitive of nape. auguror. conjicio. The loss or addition of n very common. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. doubtless is the origin of E. OE. scr. short. From OE. nompire herbs being no longer apparent.o. and the one who gives oracles. Thus we have natiger and auger.meaning at Shrewsbury. divining rod. words derived from arpa. Lat. Now we find in Fin. Lat. arwelo. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. aha. Freshly turnid Arable. derived. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. — .gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. and a protection of the clothes. Beryn. aestimo. sortium ductor. as ihe diminutive. account for either of these significations. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. naperon. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Lat. to decide by lot. herbere. ahva. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. to plough. arbitrium. sorcerer. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. J. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Gr. This path Aqueous. aa. She made. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. aqua. of of divination arpa-mies. is taken in is a soothsayer. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. grande nappe. . arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. Alban. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Arbour. nawl and awl. — napkin is Naperon. symbol. Naprun. arbiter in re censendS. Marsh. or eft. Pr. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. Hall. . a lot. and with turfis new Goth. arbitror arwaaja. ear. As is a pretty parlour. garden. Albanian. or barm-cloth. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. aro. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. C. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages.' —About. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi.. properly the arwella. Pm. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. opinio.] in the N. Aquatic. a cloth. sestimatio arbitraria. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. 31. Roquefort. quod he. arbiter. a lot. the spelland umpire. tion under trial. {mies ^=ia3. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. most conspicuous situation in the garden . and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. wata. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. a river. hariolus arpelen. ughe.sors. man. P. fastened close. suitable. It may be doubted. From OFr. Flower and Leaf. pracoqua was not an adapt. arwaus. rofe and all. however. found in Fin. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. Prol. ap. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. 331. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. a soothsayer.shrubs {arbor). la nappe. shortdr. nected. conjectura conjec^ra. Arbitrate. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. proper. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. . OHG. as an eye-witness. A. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. delon. be That it inne groweth. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. to preserve it from stains. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. Now one of the points — — — . and thence fit.

the terminaGael. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. * ArchjAiTaxit.is the natural weapon of offence. to arm. 2. det arrigste snavs.— Army. Langobard. are formed the participial nouns. adjective. Area. erz in G. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. ardor. ars. and our army. Perhaps erz-wticherer. an arrant usurer. Uo^a^. vescovo. sly. area. high. patus). shoulder Boh. morally bad. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Gr. ruling by the nobles. Fr. Alisaunder. From the verb armare. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Arcadia in R. a burning or setting on fire. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . arch-bishop. from nixa. exercise lordship). — degree when appHed to a bad quality. ramend). AS.' the Gr. erg. Cot. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. sly. apx^iv. weapon. and must be identified with Dan. arrig. Du. curved line. i. from areo. it signifies roguish. bad. apxh. arson. un petit rusd. ' — Argue. especially shoulder-joint. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. arwe. worker. argr. . difficult to reach. wretched OE. arma. arm'ee. erz-bischof. arm. Ardent. to Arch. arsum. Fr. vocaveris. curved. armee. to demonstrate.' Paul Warnefrid. a. aridus.. a bare plot of ground. . Dan. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. gwyrek. Ardour. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. to rule. bad of its kind. apxtlov. A construct. Arduous. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. From apxeiov was formed Lat. man. bravest. lofty. government. Arid. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. the court of a magistrate. Arson. aj-f. Applied in modern E. ON. Lat. Arch in composition. ancient. Aristocracy. un malin enfant. Lat. which is derived from it. and not with apx. arga. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. kpxi- beginning. earh. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. ardre. Lat. Arcliives. a bow. wanton. Lat. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. weapon may be simply an application of annus. Arm. to be on fire. — Wtb. een erg kind. Sp. arrant Arms. arg. . a court yard. ein arger knabe. signifies chief or principal. shoulder. earg. There can be no doubt that E.4 rir/. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). to burn . fainthearted. ramo (pi. and Kpurka. contemptible. troublesome. first. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. make clear or prove. And thou as arwe coward. to be in comp. argvitugr. Gr. Lat. whence the body of the nobles collectively. TiKToiv. Lat. arguo. branch. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. bad. mischievous. an arch-deceiver . though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. while the Fr. The . part of a circle anything of a bowed form. is essentially the same word. the best. in Due. ^Argument. 3340. burning heat. Sax. apxtipfve.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. faint-hearted. . et vulgari verbo. a threshing-floor. G. W. D. arduus. armata. ers-betriiger. arm. Du. sluggish. as in E.' Lex.In E. apxri. an extent of flat surface. ardeo. arcus. malicious. a rule (princiruler. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris.aioj. Fr. gwyro to bend. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. Brem. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. by Russ. archangel. raineno. a noble. taxed with cowardice. to dry. earm. ardIn G. the most arrant trash. fabricate). an arrant rogue. mischievous. a branch. ill-tempered. rame. forearm . It. an arch boy. as the arch of a bridge. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. a chief builder. armada. Lat. stuff. — Architect. arcA in e. receptacle where the public acts were kept. the a brute. which has been referred to W. Lat. timid. Gr. . G. Gr..


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

shouting. similar connection is seen in Sp. trouble. afbalka. It. heap up. bal. ban. to cause another to miss pustule. the ballet of the theatres. bola.ing. balka. on. . ache. from bacquet. N. baalie. a pestilence. bolyatchka. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a pail. a globe. to plank. bealwes. probably Lat. (Hesych. It. Ugutio in Due. baalien. a ball or pack. tum. torment. to pack Da. It. are applied to a From the same analogy. ne leaving any balke. to partition off . sickness. bielke. a clump . Bohem. to grieve . plague. boleii. A balk. as in a barn or cow-house. to paddle in water . which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. taich. a beam. a ballot). Ball. bold. dial. to wave. ing. Wotton. bol. Du. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. may exhibit the original development of the signification. Mid. Venet. separaison. Pol. w. to signify washy drink. pallo. other while. ballar). to by beams. balla (with the augm. the object of his expectation. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . Fr. balja. balle. mass. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Fin. It. Ballata. ill. malefacGower in R. 2. to stir. bbllr bulla J. In like manner Fr. calamity. a clapping or flapping of wings. a ball. to on Holmedon's plain. Da. to dance. hooting. to be balker. to be ill. ballare. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. bolyaf. weak liquor. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. balle. bolker. vacillare. ball.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . . with the perhaps from balg. at giore en balk. dial. baler. Sw. Sw. Du. Q. G. destruction. a clod of earth water. bol. ballare.). vcdra bdlkr. bal. pallo. blister. .' speak gibberish champurrar. a pill. a washing-tub. to rock. a ball. balloon. a But making way for death at large to walke. Sw. to ail. .Fr. Bret. bacgtteter. a wooden partition . a beam. wickedtorment ON. Bale. stage or scaffold. hue et illuc inclinare. uveirs bolk. pilula. pallukka. to avoid it. to ache. floor. cka. a ball balla. a ball. palcare. balle. boll. to bale out. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Sp. a boil. . Hence Dan. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a scene acted in dancmg. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. to see-saw. misery Du. bala. Fr. a division of the old laws. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. Rouchi ban. balk. a dance. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. grieve . balk. pila. balka bunge. chapurrar. balken. ballare. See Gall. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. balka hopar. as we say. whether of wood or stone. — A — — . Bowl. pallikka. Sw. Hence. ballo. a. on. balva-vesei. a ball. on the shore. Dan. dial. palloilla. Sw. To Bale out water. e. Baulke of land. ON. balle. to shake or jog. Fr.of men . OSw. palla. ballan. bdlkr. Sw. i. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. balk. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. It. maleficium. to speak an un. ballet. ' is a piece or confused talking. maan pallikka. Sw. pain. * Balk. Grief. package of goods. TtaKKa a pail or tub . balkr. Ball. gen. a continued noise of waves gently beating . Russ. AS.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a bubble. ballone. 3. a separate portion. dial. to roll. ball. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. OHG. Boll. I. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. bollr. G. The primary sense seems as in G. a water-skin dim. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). the breadth from side to side . to Not sparing wight. a ballad. globule. a together in the form of a ball. To baulke the Sir H. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. to dance. ball. bolawy. to plough for a boundary between lands. ball. the beam of a ship. wickedness ness . says Ray. Gael. Gr. lealo. a balk of foul weather. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Da. sick. to move. Balloon.Lat. Goth. balge. bjdlki. roof. balken.— Ballet. baloier. a partition. We have then separate dial. sorrow. on. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. Ballot. a skin. and the dim. and evil in general. OFr. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. balare. bal. Sw. a great ball. E. ballotta. balveins. balk. F. . . a dance. beaten road. bal-daed.—Ballad. Perhaps on.

A — — . To Ban. ranked on the outside of cloisters. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. to enchant. &c. Fr. small railing. bumbazed. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. baranda. curse. inutilis sarcina. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. Venet. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Sept. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. the act of walking. To deceive. inutile onus. Cotgr. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. enchanter. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. in the first place. If bambocciolare were child of one. It is explained back by Adelung. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal.000 tons. To Bamboozle. denounce. To proclaim. Balm. This is the backload. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. of balusters. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. balconies. bag-las. age. Du. bamboccio. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Bamour. to walk. Balsam. from bara or vara. seems the original form of the word.' And Kil. like Fr. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. deceive. Lest. . for a load or goods (Roquef. . R. railing around altars. ballustres. deceiver. a fragrant gum. The Sp. Dan. is in Sweden and Norway. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. a useless load. a false tale or jeer. But Fr. a small balustrade. make fun of a person. fonts. or ballast of a ship. barandado. but loadage. to preserve equilibrium. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. the backload. forbid. objects to the foregoing derivation. ballustre) is a corruption. the flower of the pomegranate. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. more frequently than outward-bound. bambocciolo. It. The Baltic sea. Gr. urtica. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. When a ship discharges. from Lat. baU. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. puzzled. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. lestage. as he says. bertesca. lest. also with flatteries and . ballast. barauste. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. Sc. But because baglast is not found in the written documents.that the going vessels. Sp. bam.Lat. baltresac. dial. or movement of one who walks. Said to be from balaustia. bamein. To make fun of a person. Mr Marsh whether the a load. and Mid. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. it is forced to take in stones or sand. 43 — Cot. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. back of the ship. sorcerer. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. Balluster. Report Pennsylv. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army.). analogous to what is seen in It. command. a rod. bag-lest. ^Arbuthnot in R. last. mare Balticun. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. 1.. To Bam. for want of other freight. Bret. a battlement . The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. Baltic. lastra. endormir par des contes. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. galleries. an Old dotard or imbambolare. a nettle. a duty on goods last. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. astonished. Bret. paid for the right of carriage. balsamum. little round and short pillars. ^a\Ba\iov. Ballast. bambolo. Lat. i860. — — oltriga. lastagium signified not only ballast. baUa. baume. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. more serious objection is . 1854. lastre. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. explains ballast. &c. Fr. It.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. balustrade barandilla. because. terraces. In OSw. called Bait. by met. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. a young babe.

Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. &c. It. Fr. bindan. bandon was used in the same sense. Goth. G. bande. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. whether by way of injunction or for- command. says Muratori. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). i. A. bundun. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. It. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought.e. and It. sostener Torriano. Bandus. at his own discretion. curse. banda. Sp. he bannede his ferde. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. In Fr. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. . 1. parti. region. E. Ripuar. eiiseigne. margin. to follow a faction. Mag. banda. bannire exercitum. bando. power. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. a company. banda the colour or material. is That with which anything AS. v. Thus the word is also used in both senses. to . Bandear. 26. ligue Taboada). tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. biddal. bound. Sw. and thence to any proclamation. To Bandy. See Abandon.Lat. — R. Cot. band. Se il — Romance languages. to excommunicate {lysa. acquired the sense of proclamation. It.is further developed. the ensign or banner. we constantly find the expression. &c. then the signification w. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. bandi. authority. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. to ban. from at the Lord's courts. — excommunication bann-lysa. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. bann. theodscipe ut abannan. bandera ground at his mill. Car. summoning to serve So in Swiss. fahne. There is some doubt how Fr. 2. 15. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. bande. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. 19. change to the feminine gender in banda. Commun^ment son bandon. admolendinum. 813. It seems this signification has arisen. R. R- He Translated by Chaucer. in Fr. — To partito d'alcuno. permission. OE. . those who side together (bande. a coast. to bring corn to be fahne. populum. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. to take one to task.. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. to reprove. and in E. Goth. —R. banns pany of footmen serve. Diss. to ctide. Sp. to form parties. faction.^ bandy. border. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. bandon somewhat party. flag. Capitul. side. Band. in hostem convocare. In a special sense the term company itself. to publish) banna. bande. Assises de Jerusalem. The to . bannire in exercitum. Fr. Les saiges avait et les fols d. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. to side or to bandy (Florio). Baud. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. D. bannum or bandum. From the verb to banda. side. Wyntoun. 'A son bandon.—John Villani in Due. ba?idare. also the band or of marriage. he assembled his host. hoc est vexillo. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. banner marked the place of assembly. Leg. to unite with a band. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. band. passing on from proclamation to command. Spebifid. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . ex.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. etc. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. tener da alcuno.

so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. A Shipman's Tale. bow. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. stir. bent as a bow. to slay. bank of river. and therefore tied up. counter.: . Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. language of W. To Bandy. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. banka. clouds. ruptus. back of a knife. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. — Kil. . canis vinculis assuetus. to hammer in a nail. a long raised seat. — Paulus drive in a nail. bana. has bang-bang. ON. AS. The ridge of a hill is AS. at canis peciiarius. whence the mod. The ing. Bantze. a bench. bang. a rising bank. to knock. ON. hricg. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. From Mid. band-hond. Draw. benk. banqueroute. bandi. bander. de sable. &c. bandire. Benvoglio. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. —^Vocab. bana. Africa. a blow. in the sense of a pirate. distinguishes bekkr. the same verb the It. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Tibalt. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. Bacon in R. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Fl. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. was formed the OFr. banish. Fr. desk. de- party. Lat. bandear. bance. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. bannire. se reunir. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. tumult bangas. Bane. banditti acquired the like signification. Bandy legs are crooked legs. It is in this sense nounce. banca fallita. follow a party. a bankrupt merchant. murderer. Fr. death-sickness. death-blow . to beat. in the same way that E. . Forbannitus is used in the Leg. bakke. bank of Dan. many a bang. panca. It. 45 — — Bandit. Mid. dorsum was applied to ject. s'associer. — — whence E. Roquefort. from banc. With many a stiff thwack. beating. large dog kept for a guatd. seat . . the slope of a hill. to join in league with others against Cotgn. a counter. eminence. When a man fails Lat. death-wound. banke. bana-sott. N. Bank. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Diaconus in Due. See Banish. It. forbear this outrage. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. bander tin arc. ON. a i. se joindre. beat. a de Vaud. a table. bana. Bang. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. in the sense of place of business. The child cries bang! fire. the former Fr. g. in R. a bench. and bakki. The word is in E. b'ang. banc. rap hatike et som The Susu. 2. to knock. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). See Band. bana-sdr. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. to bend a. Milton in R. a sand-bank. Banditti. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. the back. Ripuar. Lingua.z. Diez. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . among rotta. and poise Their lighter wings. a bench. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. to work in wood. broken. bank. to proclaim. for shame. — . shoal. From a desk . home — Bandog. standard. and OFr. destruction . Goth. bankruptcy. Hudibras. . hammering. a wound OHG. Your stool. Benchi. See Balluster. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. outlam came to signify a robber. and hence. roupt. eminence. put under the ban of the law. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat.HG. Banister. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. banco. bank of a river. AS. &c. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis.^ knock. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Bandy. band-dog. Du. bane. disturbance banga. . a bank. Bankrupt. banca his creditors. bench. Banner. banja. to cabal. to make a stir banke. E. — Fr. of bandying words. Dan. as of an explosion or a blow. to foment factions. banc G. pastoralis. that the word is used by Romeo. bander. Fr. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. Mercutio. bench. bank. It. But natheless wife at I bank. Brewer. Sw. to publicly order one out of the realm.

in Gr. The original import of their own banner in the field. Barb. banda. barreau. benda. to beckon . dim. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. bar. and with an initial s. E. ^oTrriKio. Barbe. &c. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. a tree). Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. manu anto make signs nuere. barrou-gwez. branches of a tree {gwezen. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. to wrap. A It. of a sign in general. banne.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. OHG. banneret. Bret.aTa Kul nest. privileged to raise Barbarous. Barb. senhal. senh. either in the Gr. Lat. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. a war-beacon or war-signal. Fr. ing term appears in other languages. probably corSymbol. ON. speaking of battle. It may be thing. In a similar manner are formed yearling. and even of calling it banter. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. banda hendi. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. knight Bardd. chan. OHG. from reifa.hinder. ingly very generally known by a name branches. E. barrer. Hence Fr. — We A .. BARBAROUS reiflingr. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. and the work is done.the analogous syllable viur. E. Lat. merki. sbarra. Bap. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. barbed or trapped as a great horse. a beam or long pole of wood. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. 3. i. men. top. sparre. Leduchat. . 2. brushwood. barba. Gr. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. and from ensign or banner Prov. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. sign. jSa'pjSapoc. Fr. wrapped. arineXov. indeed. out of a wound. barbarus. the word came to signify rude.cruel. Banneret. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. It. Duo. hence a repast. jSdirTO). a bench or table . and he would seem to derive Goth. senhal. Celtic bar. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. such as the Roman Eagle. which is surely in barbed arrow. barre. banchetto. The barb of an arrow is the sign .8ap6^o)voe. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. bannereti. or of this bantering. to wash. Fr. It. a which the barrister addresses the court. summit. milites bannarii. —Cot. banner.. an animal a year old. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. barriire. signuin. then branches. ON. then fell among the foot. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. senheira. rarii. says. bandva. a bantling. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. banneret was a higher class of knights. period vexillarii. and it was accord. to dip. from the same source. barra. According to Diez the It. To mock or jeer one. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. of wind. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. branch. a sign. uncivilised. Thus Ovid. to bend. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. barde. heri-pau. nestling. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. sparro. barbe. Gr. iandvo. The spar. The origin is in all probability Goth.46 BANNERET . rod of any rigid substance. Fr. would rupted from Fr. himself in Pontus. ban- Baptise. inur. of banco. remarked. barrack. G. a. as they call it. Banquet. that the noise of voices Bantling. to having that signification. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Barbar. Gael. To Banter. Fr. token. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Hence ner. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Fr. banniire.— Swift in R. Flesche barbeUe. inferior to a baron. Lat. OFr. by a repetition of the syllable bar. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a barrier or stoppage. &c. bandiera. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. Sw. a ban. It. a bearded or Cot.

The Pers. bhasad. Gr. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. Bardeau. bds. bar. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Fl. back. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. skirmish. a rumbling. Bret. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Festus in Diet. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Cotgr. g. borbollar. loophole in a wall to shoot out at.— BARBEL merit of water. quarrel . such as houses are covered Bardelle. .) to wrangle. jargon. barbelin. in Fr. brim. and foolishly. a shingle or small board. baares geld. Thus the on. borborinha. — . muttering. which was of talking. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. /3opj3opwJu. the quilted with. barbel. gibberish. skialldar-bard. Diez. is lb. Barde. albarda'ah. open. barda. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. a jetty or outnook in a building. Lith. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. to prattle. Exposed to view. in the sense of fight. or more properly (says fer. — Cot. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. to bubble or spring up. Pr. saddle-cloth. a tumultuous assembly. barboter. Etym. used 2. Russ. barefooted Sanscr. barbarkama. name Fr. bdsas. w. to It. skirt. unqualified. horse armour covering the front. tattle. mutter. barguigner. It. border. to make an outcry . But Sp. twcEtta. barbulla. Hindost. Bargain. to rumble. An outwork for the defence of a gate. upper chamber. to grunt. brabble in the making of a bargain. the flap of a hat. G. Fr. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. powdered all over. barbeum. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. coping. fortia —Strabo. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Mod. barbier. and in Flanders to vociferate. Barber. Barbican. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Cot. Lex. haggle. stutter. albardilla. It. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Sp. to gurgle. guazzolare. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. ready money. Bard. and flanks. twattle. waschen. Arab. lb. Gr. borbulhar. guaszare. borboglio. Port. also to bind or tie across. — — Hence. Lucan.— — Pm. Barberry. the nakedness of a woman. bare baskojis. barz. also to wallow like a seething pot. and Sc. as well as thwcEtta. to bubble or boil. uncovered. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Barder. A7 to the and warlike. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. axilla. to stammer. scouthouse. formerly used in the sense of tattle. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. barbeau. skola. bardes. bdsiis. bdla-khaneh. /3£pjSepi^w. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. Hatt-bard. Etym. small pack-saddle. baar. Applied in E. to wash. bardd. Sp. to mumble or mutter words. Cotgr. Barbel. barbaris. barda. barS. albarda. a pack-saddle. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. Port. to barbe or trap horses. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought.— Fl. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. murmur . Bare. Mod. on. baragouin. barbugliare. dial. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. to plash or dabble. as well as the modern twaddle.' Cot. — — — men. in poetic language Bard for poet.) . — . grumble (Lowndes. uproar. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. i. barbacane. berj G. Hall in R. the beard. to boil or bubble up . OFr. speak confusedly. Fr. barbar. tree. Fr. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. border of a garden bed. ala. a bardelle. boil. to stammer. barbeter. a long saddle for an ass or mule. berries. Fr. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. borbotar. . and the word was used in OE. Sp. to chafbargain.

varen. As Goth. Leg. barms. The older form in e. bark . So ON. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Rayn. skutr. bamagh. To Bark. tion of the sound. baron)^ Fr. the G. Uzen. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. a boat. See formed Yeast. also to exchange. barlys. disorder. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. was barlic. prasepe . . barnis. berm. —Bark. See Barm. the fore or after end of a boat . limpets. barii. — battle. barn. quant a perdu sa barja. tumult. brenig. baralha. Lith. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. bargain. astringent. edge. Sw. ON. bere. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. bern.' bardagi. as in the case of Lat. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. at barka. lap. baaren. a cap . — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Port. barley. 2. strife. bard). E. meta foeni. . These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. OSw.. to shufSe. ON. trouble. quarrel Port. then the bows pectus navis. Provj bar (ace. barja. a beak. Acervus. barafustar. from an imita- Barley. (Ihre. we pass to the vert) barguigner. ber (ace. a load. contest. Barge. Garlick. barizeins indicates a noun baris. to wrangle. a barn. Baron. barmr. — de Berri. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. Dan. the or prow of a ship. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. as well as Scandinavian tongues. a heap. and is probably a true bartig. bernac. AS. a heap . baratta. So also ON. ON. On the other hand. barone. Bark. charlock. baarn. Tarn baronem quam feminam. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. put to confusion. borkr. louzou. bcern. beer. strife. barnacles. Barn. beornt. berm. a receptacle for barley or corn. barlys {bara. barki. Spectacles. a lap. barajar. barahunda. quarrel. baimeach. barafunda. bcerme. v. Bemiques. one who stirs up strife. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. the rack or manger. From Fr. Du. the slimy substance brewing of beer. to scold. border. baarm. in the Brim. husband. am. as. baron. Antiq. Leg. baragouin. Sp. giving rise to It. barlich. confusion. berma. prominent part of a thing. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. OFr. squabble. and the word. hlaSa. but the woman for the man. Alam. the A — Ihre. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. corn-shed. limpets . bosom. ON. Gael. to rout. Romance barsie. and ern. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. baniffa. in Nat. dregs of oil. . bread-corn. altercation.Barum vel feminam. and 1. bosom . is simply the Bret. hemlock. kani. ThS man was not created for the woman. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. bread. Sp. baerm. entangle. and llysiaw. Bailey. and hence probably (by a metaphor. hay-loft. name being given to spectacles. as baces-ern. W. a place. a baking place or oven. Isidore in Rayn. dispute barattare. w. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. fray. also a boat . a lantern. to all the barca. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Sp. Cornub. — Barnacle. dispute . dispute. barley. Ibid. to chop. It. Gl. i. Swab. Prov. 2. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. skuta. barn. chaffer. as. Manx bayrn. to cheat. mhg. limpet. OFr. strife. dispute . also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. to skin over barkandi. barley. herbs. berm hoys. Port. — Zeuss. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Ripuar. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. houbartij fsnile. dispute. bern. Dan. Barbour in Jam. barge. adj. baratta. The origin may be throat. Du. AS. Camus. Originally man. to strive. spectacles.^Voc^. aheap. hladi. barn. baaring. struggle. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. beorcan. plants). The Goth.. a. barretor. a stack. It. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. then honoured man. wine. .) lihtes-ern. contest. Kil. berem. commonly explained from bere. Vocab. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. dial. baralhar. Bret. * Barnacles.

— A . Fr. became bidre. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. cover. uncultivated. sterilis. Barrack. a. Antiq. bera. S. Barren. baronculi. boar. AS. cise formation of the word. a hiU. bara. The Sp. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. borov'. gravis et authenticus vir. (Schmeller). berewe. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. baroncelli. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. bark&n. Bohem. a man. Gael. and not from Fr. barraca. a bar. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. AS.root signifying confused noise. iver. G. E. were sometimes confounded. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. barrack. Baron andfemme. Nominale of the from braeckland. Bamnculus a baronet. baronetti. The feudal tenants next Fr. seem to be radically the same with Lat. fear. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. where baronetti is written in the printed copies.parchanttuech. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. It was not until the time of James I. from a tree to which a man is hanged.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. It should be observed that. in the first instance. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. heap. a hut or booth. See Bar. It. facture. bearg . barre. by early examples. fallow. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. baragan. hut. a horse. Barratry. qui have not much light on the pre. bouracan.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. mound. composed of dry branches ofer. branches. which would barragdn. Bargus or moreland. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. beorgan. to * Barragan. ^Vocab.' that Barrier. barril. barrique. Barrister. or simply bahre. vir. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Barricade. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. man and wife. from beran. barrique. strife. bahre. to carry. beorg. breinej Du. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. a bier. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. Bern. over him. booth. bredhan. habeant. dispute. Bret. like bargain. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. from cavallo. 2. rolls of Parliament. barri. nobles. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Fr. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. MHG. Sp. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. Gael. garment still used in Morocco. An ing. then traffick4 Barrow. bara. staves. This word introduced into Fr. Sp. sepulchre. as. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. todtenbahre. Joshua vii. barBombicinus. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.have been named from the haggling and gant. w. D.. barrila. — — 15th Cent. baronuU. A. semen non accipiens landiEL. shed. ^Barrator. baraignej Picard. baracca. tomb. See Barter. braeck. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. OFr. ibid. as cavalcade. bier. calico.. a barrow. signifying. a castrated hog . barague. fortification. brushwood. a word is always used in the plural number. the two names. Sp. litter. a kind of coarse camlet. barile. also termed bannerets. to shelter. change of goods seems.' Op. 1. an obstruction. vair. OE. Russ. gwr. in Nat. implement for carryAS. whenever Barrow-hog. squabble. Barrel. a barrel. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. Goth. a. barchent. On chet — We — — their resemblance. It. Formed from Fr. alongside of barrow. StiU he shows conclusively. barrier. whence Barrow.— Gibbon. and in several instances. G. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. vel pretiosos burellos. perhaps through Prov. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. 26. man. especially those killed in battle. beorh. berwen. — Kil. It. the braw. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse.

To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. G. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. fits de bas. It. crassus. Gr. bran. Lend me your hands. It is mentioned as . There is not one that. BassuS. would be. bassin. HoUinshed. bast-reb. barter. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. basta.). the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. found in Turkish . Sw. barter. . baste. beretun. submovet omne Lucan. and Bret. also the demesne lands of a manor. Bass. but he dreth presently.D. from /3aR. discourse Nay. exchange. Sp. partieren. The like property hath the iasilisk. on a. a bastard. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. To stitch. foist in bargaining. to bind hand and foot. to bind. It. to baste piece of cloth. piiiguis. — hanging. ^Is de bast. mock not. then cheating. fornication. lift me above Parnassus. back. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. pressed down. . which covers the grain Ger. OFr. basso. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. w. according from Gael. flat. barley. cheating. a ipgli So Turk. to cheat. Du. Bartizan. shallow. bark. to bargain. berewic. — in Rich. baraand especially teria. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. mean . commonly A joined with the word binda. lust. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . plaiting of splinters basged. to truck. To Baste. Sw. a halter. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. baste. of the same sense.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. unrighteous gain. baratear. the manorhousfe itself. /«r<fSp. PaaiKhms. It. court-yard. Al is dai. him. Bastard.' Papias. . to long — a British word by Martial. descended of an honorable lineage. inclosure. rope for — . baratar. lattice-work. 516.looketh upon his eyes. to cheat. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Fr. embastir. Kil. scale in music. See Brattice. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . to deceive. to baste. netting. a bass rope. Apparently of Celtic origin. Fr. bestcn. Pl. The original meaning. chasa.' Gl. exchange. said Base. AS. Halliwell. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. husk bast van koren. Fr. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. bareter. It. ing for profit. basgod. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. MHG. F. beguile. corn-farm. from bere.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. leviter consuere. ohg. peel. or wic. MS. thick. humilis. MHG. a tying. Barbara de pictis veni patch. Sicamb. baraet (from Fr. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). bds. pdrdt. at basta og binda. hoops of a cask. low note. It. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. but born in baste. low part of the Hickes in Rich. more noble in blood than notable in learning. chasa ogli a bastard. as the diadem of the basilisk. bast-maatte. mavult dicere Roma suam. fornication. also to Cotgr. baste. come near. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. bast. tierer. bdtir. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. HaU in HaUiwell. See Bath. to bind. the a wide open vessel. binding. beortun. ibid. i. God it wot. to stitch . Bast. a deceiver. Dan. besst-u-b£nd&t. cog. Basilisk. To Bask. Fris. to Diez. HaUiweU. But according And Dan. aiKcig. fhe outhouses and yards. basta. Du. a court-yard. oe. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. preparatory stitching. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Sp. Swed. bast. or running away with the ship. ' Bosworth. dwelling. low. imbastire. Isidore. ' He was begetin o bast. n' is n' is bacino. as It. stitch. bas. Lap. basso. bestan. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Basket. baxoj w. It. which sets up its hood when angry. Sp. the thin skin Dan. Arthur and Merlini. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. over-reaching. imbastire. Dan. the — — to kill those that look upon it. a ftiesh. truck. fraud. a basket masg. besst. baos. a king. A fabulous serpent. bast. Newman. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). curtus. Barton. OFr. bass-matting. Bassus. Sylvester's Dubartas. bastear. low. he. basg. — Bassoon. and tun. Bass.

frame. a sconce. Cot. . — — Fl. dial. a bird which. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. beysta. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. It. devise. a blockhouse. iastir. frotter. flyinge best.Lat. Bastinado. night-bat. to devise or begin.. a packsaddle. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. * Bat. a bastion. set up. Prov. vespertilio.— . p. natt-blakka. Pm. to stroke. To beat or bang soundly. club. set up. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. also to cudgel. bastonnir. To donjon. compared with blakka. ment. BAT neither. to build. Perhaps baska. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. badger. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Sw. bastia. which in the E. to whip. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . a pad. Sp. E. — — — . It seems to me that the sense of stitching. bastonada. Cot. whence ledrblaka. pre. to rub gently. to drub. has bastine. contrive. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. beating. to flap. For the loss of the / in back. nade. and Arabs. like the owl and the bat. business (Altieri). raise. basa. bastilde. is explained by Cot. Sw. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . guerra bastir. to pack a saddle i. the winged . a stick. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. bakie-bird . baston. blacta. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. translation to a bat. the original has corneille.stick. Sw. back. Fr. Rayn. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. Mid. the bat . Sp. For the origin of baston see Baste. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. a. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. a things prepared for future use. as weU as besteau. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Dan. to thrash . blows. contriving. comp. from Fr. a with a stick. worth (Nat. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. bak. explains Sp. iinbastire. to lay the Sp. the clapper of a bell. to rub. bastimento. a barSp. blakra. blatta. bastione. bastine. packsaddle. to teach one before. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. military term of a bat-horse). For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. aftonbakke. a pad or packsaddle. batta lucifuga.— Bailey. R. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Sw. e.-^ Chaucer. to beat. . the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. settiilg up. to give him a sound bastingi 3.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. ari instruineht for beating. bastonFr. a blow cloth for dinner. which to rest the load. in the use of the E. boste. also the ricado. dial. 2. to cudgel. cudgelling. Dieiif.fortress or castle furnished with towers. Pr. I. to quilt or stitch wool into it. the E. It. Fr. to beat. to Due. victuals. R. quelqu'un son roulet. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. baston. It. To baste one's hide . which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. bastida. staff. bastir. liiake. — Bakke.stitching in general. 11864. ON. put it together. vespertilio. Fr. Antiq. stryka. Fr. That yche blak y dar wel telle. bast. Derived by Diez from iasi. bastir.'CaB. or implement for 4 * A . but this is hardly satisfactory. 2. to set on foot a war Bastion. and Cot. to belabour. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. bastear. and ditches bastion. 164). passage Imbasto. blatta. bat. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. vledermus. bladier. Florio. blakta. bdion. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to spread bread and butter. Supp. to build. Sc. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. Dan.baste or knock soundly. bastille. 2. basta. blakka. All from bastir. provisions. in the Romance languages. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. niammal. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . the night-jar or goat-sticker. 'iJipistreUo. disposer. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. stryk. basto. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. erect. blaka.

as E. allay . signifying to give repeated blows. Bate.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. Pr. batna. sich bakern. to warm. to bathe. a battle. to for fighting. more. I baske. to bathe oneself. Fr. remit. battere. cudgel. to betake oneself. Sw. beat. baquetazo. Pm. From OFr. bdda vidjor. a band of armed men arranged basa. Batyn. bdt. w. to fire or in the sun. G. a washing beetle. Bret. badda. is a simple adoption of Fr. Jeddris and covering. The bat with which a brot bdhen. the heat of the It. Holz bdhen. flour. certain bend. a main battle. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. to thrive. bataille. battaglia. a from ON. to beat. Bailey. better. and about an inch thick. a blow with a light instrument. Eggs. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. and as a verb. bet. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Battery. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. — Cot. Fr. Battle. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. beat. oneself at the A into faggots. to fell. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. bada. to beat. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to dial. quell. as E. Barbour in Jam. to foment. To thrive. gebdcke. batador. and with staffslyng. fortress or castle. on. Slav. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. Ayenst the sunne. adapted for defence. Flem. In OE. Sp. Battlement. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Plkkis. A batch as wood.— . to beat. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. to fight. to flutter with the wings. is in falling. to refresh oneself in language. To Batten. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. to foment with hot applica. a battalion. to be profited. batterie. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . e. in the sun. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. abattre. From bat in the sense of rod . From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Florio. 2. Hence pro. made of bats. squadron. baz. an arrangement for giving blows. Jurgor. baden. to get better. batacazo. or break down. . to foment. Strife. to cudgel. Fr. Fr. or a dry stick. badask. to become fat. Fr. Batter. heat. dial. as signifying warm baths. battre. baka. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. PLD. dispute. water whether warm or cold. Bat. in the case of a wall. To Bate. baeddu. bludgeon. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. betten. from on. quhar he suld assaill. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. the root of e. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Pr. badda. on the fire. to warm oneself. perhaps first used adjectivally. abate. Du. bat-en. busk. then to warm by the application of hot water. In some parts of England it is striking. to toast bread. makebate. beat down. gebdck. to heat. as wood-en.Hence in the augmentative form It. dial. battions. fashes basking in the sun squadron. Baka sik vid elld. E. a stirrer-up of strife. . bake. bat. to beath wood Battledoor. from battre. ON. hot. Battery. also. to feed. a blow. strife. battle was used beath wood. G. G. dial.— To Bask. by projections or in any licoure. Fr. solen baddar. — — — ' — . Mgy. gabatnan. I bathe in water viz. Gael. Battalion. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Goth. a beating. basa. howis. battere. Sp. battre. It. to warm oneself at the fire. — To . a stick. and milk beaten up together. Pm. dial. or make debate. battre las ailes. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. altercation. tagUone. trahtr to It. bdda.Bathe. a great seems related to baden as Fr. a Baiffi. whence the sun burns . . buask made like a fortress. bastille. a staff. See Better.' Palsgr. to beak. debat. term in falconry . Batten. lessen. A Bath. for biia sik. batte sig. Chaucer. was formed bastilU. of bread is so much baked zX one time. to beat se battre. pak. made of — A made by one Batcii. bdhen. Sw. to heat . I. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. wet linen in washing. Hal. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. tradire. batir. It. solbase. to become convalescent. also a sun badfish.

propugnaculum. BAWSON Swiss. was simply a field gold. exactly corresponds Fr. to me-wl. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. OFr. vacillo. Batylment of a wall. It is all bawdy. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. From ! an interjection of disgust. speckled. — Pm. Lat. W. because made of cloth of white. Hal. The word may perhaps be sticks. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. Filthy. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. a lump.. dente. Pr. bauch.guage). bobbin or cluster of thread. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. Bagdad. Baldrick. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a white mark Bawdy. Gael. dacchino. In like manner Grisons filthy. a horse marked with a procession. whence pouacre. baubare. Cotgr. fields. Irel. baugant. Descript. and Sp. bau. from Baldacca. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. disgusting. P. toys. dung. babsmall toy to play withal. Sc.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. a belt.— P. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). faisceau. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. to talk Lacombe. brush faggot. fooleries or fond To Bawl. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. bal. bouaila. trifles. Ball. obstrepere. to bark. balbob. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. dirty. a horse with white legs. A name of the badger. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . librillo. spotted. or sheaf of Bridel. filth. or the animal so marked. an embattled wall. filth. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. instead oi s. bauU. E. bow-wow. or toys. to play the babby. An analogous noisily. collar. bablyn or waveryn. babiole. b \% bouala. baudrat. tab. Pm. child. zano. divided between black and white. It. a spot. dial. Beaus^ent. horse. baue. and to-tore also. Bavin. ball. Swiss Rom. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. a gavel. the Swiss baben. fe bau. to make the noise Baudrick. — — ' Lydgate. or Cot. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. is Bagdad stuff. to low or bellow as corn. fagot. ballach. dirt. sorry. to cry. a zan. cluster. The It.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. —R. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. miauler. bausan. P. also the canopy carried part of his body. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. tille. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. excrement. baula. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. spot. sword-belt. 8. scarf. ! Bauble. Bawson. R. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. a dog). the face. to bark . from Fr. i. to 53 manure the To baw. ish baubles. to void the bowels. OFr. Zalli. baban. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. s. Cot. lewd . Fr. mew. E. balGael. the white of his leg or foot. ground. expressive of disgust. Baw — . to vociferate. is used for a sented by bau. From Bret. c. Formed from baw. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. bad. a plot of Chaucer. pie- . pegma. represented by the syllable miau. Piedm. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. It. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Cloth of gold. Jam. E. Cot. Pr. Fr. Fr. Ball-seirc. E. also more Bawdekin. s. trifle. and authorities in note. It. bobine. to trifle away ment.. a tassel or hanging bunch . P. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. whence the E. Prov. baw. rotten. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a tassel. having a white streak down Bagdad. baudrdj OHG. Fl. to the same origin. balderich. baffe. as Fr. in OE. javelle. guigaw. ON. whimwham. babbole. an — — — A — g — — — . 2. an object. nastiness.' ' Pegma. a lump or cluster babhaid. bow (as in our nursery Diez. on the face of animals. bal. form with an initial seen in Fr.

baya. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. It. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. To Bay.—Journal Soc. at his last gasp. grapes or nuts. which however. he turns and faces his pursuers. . expresr sion tenere a bada. large window in a handsome . Fr. to keep one waiting. laurel of the ancients. batibari. window-sill. It. put to his last shifts. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. to be Bohem. w. It. — Schmid. bay. A stag is said to stand at bay. house . a dagger. Fr. the step is the same as from It. so called from its bearing bays. bate. Q. It. Sp. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. window . —Bay-windo'W. — A At Bay. living Ir. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. to open. trahir. From Cat. baiare. life. Bay. to stand watching one. barn of two bays. S. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. The word bay. or berries. baga. is perhaps not directly from Lat. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. berry. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. See Bald. Swiss beie. to on anything. baye. AS. &c. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. baja. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Catalan hadia. beo. or recess in an apartment in modern times. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. a hole. bioth. ist. From the former verb is the It. living thing . that from ba. siege of Bayonne in 1665. dehiscere . Sp. . to iiitent nected PoL white. buidhe- The ruadh. |8i'os. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Arts. the cod or husk of beans or the like. Bayonet.' Bailey. a'uno. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. especially beans. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. to open as a blossom. Bay-tree. bilyejiti. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. See Bawl. life. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. BE Probably conRuss. yellow . BauSfi)/. gate. bijel. stare. F. berries. buidhe. Cot. Gael. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. bialo. baionette. Holland's Pliny in R. bay. Swab. &. badius. Lat. by the term rendre les abpis. bahia. from badar. to betray. husk. the cod of peas. a beast. Feb. Piedm. open the mouth. 25. —Diez. and zndly. white. baher. as gazing. and the To bark as a dog. Fr. beonj Gael. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. The — Fr. to mark. bai./^ bau. &c. Vielp. It has been shown under Abie. to keep at a bay. abbabayer. alive. bdcr. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Bay. Fr. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Fr.— Stalder. Drayton in R. to amuse stare a bada. It. the world Gr. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Abide. OSp. or to have been first used at the Cot. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. badarc. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. beothach. desiring. a berry. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. 1859. baccello. bagaid. Sp. Prov. as if to signify a window of curved outline. badia to Sp. See At Bay. hddhe-dhonn. bilyega. tradire to Fr. corrupted into Bow-window.. baie. baca. 1. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. watching intently. * To Be. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. in order to keep the enemy in check. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. bayo. baier. from an imitation of the sound. Lat. like a pie. badarse. weary of running. Fr. Such Antaeus seemed to me. bajo.. Gr. aux dehniers abois. Q. and keeps them in check for a while.' — — 54 bald. —F. Mod. Gael. bde. or window ' (in Fortification). overture. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. bahia. to gape. Serv. BAY marked with bjly.c. arose two forms of the verb. when. baer. baca. bayen-stein. a cluster of bacon. dividere. ing-floor. a mark. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. bacca. stood watching him stoop. to split. . . waiting . Earth — By Nature made to till. the laurel-bay. or at bay. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada.

salve his hurts. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which.. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. AS. beacnian. bean. — to bow or nod . bakkje. Beacon. Gael. Bear. beic. as. It. as well as f& or fav. To Bear. bank. a nod OHG. bek. bokan. Farrar. It forms a. Chapters on Lang. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. ffaen. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. a single bean. Q wait upon him. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. l^ax. faba is Kvavoq. to nod . The immediate shore of the Menage. He says. or any action done with a pointed thing. according to of Sanscr.from AS. signifying individuality. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. beugler. . Du. baum. as. on. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Gr. Lat. Be. however. . through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Fr. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr.' Hall's Chron. Moreover the name. Beak. Catalan becar. pig. beacen. or however. post. The origin seems preserved in E. Fr. bead. —F. Beadle. Trans. baun. E. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. signifying a point. like most nautical terms. fora-bauhan.fuis5e.' Suetonius in Diez. a sign. A Esthon. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Beach. bohnej ON. -phxr. 54. not applied to the yelping of dogs. and Lat. Thus the final en. be. a tree. W. badmr. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. bar. bairan. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. a beak. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. ffci. bM. the part overflowed by the tide. G. or beic. It is BEAR SI court. g. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. faba. bearti. nokkima. Netherlands or North Germany.ad. to produce young. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Sw. bob. A two-year old nephew of mine p. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Goth. to wait. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. a single bean. stock. bedm. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. «va\ioQ. boom. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. The nutu significare. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. tale of prayers or doxologies. * Beagle. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking.to have a French origin. to wait-. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. to nod the head. Miss Gurney in Philolog. ON. . bohne. atUndre. Bret. gebed. a prayer. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Gael. Bret. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. beck. Beck. into a snjall river. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. into France. rising ground. bidan. Goth. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. G. — : Beam. vol. Slavon.fui. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Gael. beans. to carry. N. backe. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. a curtsey. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. would say. ohg. Beckon. Boom. bydel. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. — bedeau. It. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. AS. bidello. was introduced from England sea. support. prodigy bauhnjan. W.' adheres to the root. Bean. OSax. bdkna. fromthe danger. becco. which is. bakke.fer-re j Gr. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Pardoner's Tale. vii. beic. See To Bid. fd or faVf beans. fero. a tree. to bellow. an attendant. a presage. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. a hill. The wild beast. — Bellenden in Jam. or breathing. Hackluyt in R. to beckon. bee. bauhan. ON. bagms. pierced for hanging on a string. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i.

living.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. — .AS. agreeable. comely. befit. to happen. birth. bcek. Secondarily applied to a hat. to attain to the lot of any one. to be a part of his to. I do thee pray. R. barf.fit. our taste. G. from beau. befall. to shore. babrad. biivre. Beat. — A — A — . E. taste. biber. The quadruped. Beck. Lat. to get. and to acquire. a. baviire. or a feeling to be gratified. bekkr. 2. to G. handsome. baba. formerly a happen. to fall. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. fitly . slobber.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. brook . Thcem. Chaucer. W. Fr. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. barba. bobr. bur.getiman. Goth. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. becuman. i.' are equivalent expressions. bett. dushmak. produce. 1.we call the arrangement becoming. i. beauts. get J ' He got very angry. The OFr. badi. con. Do no To It fallith favour. E. proper. tidig. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. limpian. riviera. Bedizen. bequem. Diez. rying. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. E. and also in that of birth. as the babble of the child. Beck. chin. happening as it ought. Sp. which. It. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to happen. . G. to come to or upon. G. Lat. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. That thou mayest attain Goth. it is probable that here also the to become. dress with unbecoming richness . From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. Bosworth. duty. G. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. In like manner condition. fit. to happen. bava. fiber. fitanimal. or river. bard. when up. Beaver. behkr. edge. Perhaps from Pol.— Kiittner. a lip. nod or sign. Now the Beast. bebrus. talkative.' ' He became very angry. limplice. place to lie down. bellus. the ece thurhwuniath. Lat. As rivus. bave. to carry. Beauty. OSw. Slav. blast. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Lat. byw. See becymth anfeald yvel. to those goods which endure for ever. e. pleasing. Prick of Conscience. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. and on. decorous. an notion of being convenient. To load with ornament. gelimplic. judgment. obtain. He becom on sceathan. Fr. Prov.of being very angry. to hem. dize or dtzen. to live. See Bank. to dabble . R. fallinn. ON. g. to fall mode of being. to assume a certain form or Turk. because made of the fur of the beaver. bib or slobbering cloth. timan. a bank. perhaps a living thing. baurthei. battere. gabaurths. as. and Fr. whence baveux. bello. bring forth. godum with ON. the beard. o. den. if sound of a sharp blow. ON. convenient. to happen. ziemen. AS. Boeth. becuman. to be fulfilled. Beckon. from the same in the sense of bear2. gebank. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bel. The fitting or suitable. to please. AS. bart. bekommen. riviire. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. or special purpose. name applied originally to the bank then proper . receive. bavec. to the good hapHalbard. bearing. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. e. G. beatanj It. but now a river only.' every way suited to a prince. opportune. Thus OY. covered the face. a brook. byrcti. Fr. the latter are derived It. now confined To Become. bobrowai. It. pretty. bedr. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to the brook itself. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. bestiaj Gael. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. On the same principle.to clothe to slobber. ON. border. to wade through the water like a beaver. pens unmixed evU. to appertain. while from Shep. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. brook.S6 fero. suitable. brada. See Bat. from baver. Russ. a bank. ON. Bo. bave i. Lith. beo. to sleep on. venient. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Fr. Cal. to arrive at. connected with ripa. to be incumbent upon him. iida. tidy. The moveable part of a helmet. proper . limpan. ting. to bear children. See Beacon. bach. nothing to thy name make. to fall in with our bavard. Fr. decent. suitable. seemly. Dan. gefallen. boroda. agreeable. to happen.

de Fierabras in Diez. a wasp. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. from leberen. 1. Pett. pude-vaar. G. water. KXlvoTTiT^e. from blood. by-flugaj G. bitel. Lat. to change . bibere is a re. . Fin. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. kiissen-biere. biiren. g. Bernese. . may be shpped on and off. to parget or rough-cast . a Properly a cover that biiren. Fr. a wasp. clog for a dog b'oteln. to drink. It. turn. bukva. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. sela que environna la terra. The beer al for te shenche bate. from the hos. the ox. to become Beech. to coagulate. prigione. Gael. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. piwo. bossen. poculum. may be from K. bbtel. betel. G.— B. to curdle or lopper. thick. taglio.ON. and in driving piles. to fall. The meanpainting. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. E. I A pillow-beer. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. Confined to bed. bably named from the destructive quali| T. Esthon. from risan. Arab. * Beestings. In a passage of an Old Fr. It. curded or beesty. fall. Bee. batAfter mete in sale. 57 — Palsgr. to knock. E.'— GL ^Ifr. bletumj Gr. Gr. . biest-milch. buka. in Nat. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. briesch-milch. beest. cousin. buk.(paddi. bove. woman that is newly delivered. the biter. on. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. drink. /SXirov. For that was law of lend. red curdled Arab . a paviour's beetle batail. fagus.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. byst. vaar. a agulatum in the original Latin. . a cup or implement for AS. Pl. PI. 1 to drink. which also 2. by the analogy of bedaivb. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond.— JI14.cz//aj.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Fr. desert. sang vermeilh betatz. ris. a horse-fly . beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Rom. an inhabitant of the desert. cushion-cover . a wandering Prov. imperative pi. prisons Venet. cited by Diez. beetle also signified the impiti.D. Slav. tree. Originally.D. boytle. whose face is clotty. a bee. and lebermer in G. erroneously modified in form. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. Lat. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. briest. AS. 1. kivih. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. to twist poorma. pital of St Mary.). the meat of spinach. a pillow case. blow or thrust. to poordma. turn (a garment). a pillow-case. I dysyn a dystaffe. translation beOj. Cot. a drink potus. D. cozen. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. comb. crespir. a bed-tick. The first milk after a dizen. Bav. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. the loppered sea. a clapper. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. an ox. mars betada. thick. also bienst. used for boull.^ drink. cogionare. stakes. in Schmeller. bedawi. as the milk of a that purpose in London. paralyticus. speach._t from the root pi. . AS. Fr. a stinging bieUe. But possibly bedizen 2. of beatmg. trees in a forest . bet. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. waarin. Horn. also the bite or sting of a bees. cow has calved. buche. to rough- cast. door. AS. The honey-producing insect. garden-herb. from Lat. pettiriso. extant in Bohem.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. case. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. whence familiar. beta. bette or blettej Lat. to colour with lime-wash. ir'm. a cover. Fr. to and ale. ' MordiThe Lat. 1156. beyki. Grimm. from jtst-. a mallet. Bethlehem. a pad or cushion). to flatten In OE. badigeonner. beutel. an Beetle.' So Gr. Bedouia. qui de lecto surgere non potest . bedskiissen-bUren. bytl. to turn. Beet. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. I put the flax upon it to spin. to beat bossel. GaeL bior. It. beost. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. 'La Gl. bovis. calleBedlam.. duplicated form of the root. . G. Cot. bedde-redirj ohg. Fr.' the last word corresponds to cofly .possible. beer. Dan. beach-each. Bed-ridden. biene. i. Beetle. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. bos. &c. doubtless. as in It. as. a malsense of drink. Let. drink. ProBeer. wedges. bitela.ing of the word is curdled. boeuf. P1. Fr. ^. beach. Beef. Ant. knock. cugino. madhouse.

quently used in OE.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. P. although it ' the future. to arise. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. V. sel. P. Of brede full ycrammed. yivofiai. incipere. is formed pocair. yivwajcw. to bear young. beitel. To produce children is to acquire. Lollards. Gr. su with gold. to be able. & go a begging. beis- plement driven by blows. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. origin. Bruce. pose-pilte. Vocab. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. P.— . Nov. Du. a bag. a — wedge. yiyvo/uat. a beggar-boy. in E. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Du. above quoted to get beaten ON. of Gr. y/yvo/iat. V. referred gan this Erie alight. a beggar . cans. From w. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . a stone-cutter's chisel. Ancren Riwle. P. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. It. anfangen. OHG. ken. to cleve. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. When Q. He did alight. steinbosil. is com. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. 58 BEG BEGONE G. P. Goth. Florio. chisel. signifying to conceive. aginnan. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. at geta talad. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. or Of a pure poor man. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Mod. 40. on further examination.' about undern he got down. V. as alighting is a momentary operation. a bag . P. in Lat.3. image is cleft out of the trunk. on the tramp. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . Into the are D. To Begin. ' . The tother seand the dint cum. &c. 1867. capere. ' ' . bertola. on the bag. can. beitel. to begaan. lapidicinus. ysgrepan. P. Creed. Schm. from whete G. 'Dz. whence the E. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. Si'Xa/coc. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. not began to alight.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. 2. taking up. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Beghardus. ykvog. to reduce him to beggary. 168. word. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. krapszas. bag {baigean. to get children .D. covered with gold D. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. to beg. a wallet. Barbour. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. beissel. Cold-begone. baigeir. genus. affected. air a . iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. ip AS. beginning. 1430. giving in Gr. a beggar. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. Fr. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. ken. kind. to be acquire. viii. onginnan. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. oppressed with woe. literally. It will . woe-begone. seizing. the fundamental notion of attaining to. but probably erroneously. beutel. a chisel. a bag or poke. be^nnan. Skinner's derivation from bag. P. P.' for ye shall lament and weep. in D. ornamented phoc. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. fangen and Lat. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. duginnan. vir mendi.bag full of the G. gen. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Lith. a little bag). beriolare. — yivsaiQ. chap. hags. to begin. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. — Stillingfleet. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. In Luc vi. 'Aboutin undern monly. 'ex quo. to go a begging. and Lat. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Deutsch.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Du. to be born. So from Gael. 142. AS. ysgrepanu. but in the same language from poc. iv. to know. a scrip. also called Bigots. touched with emotion — . &c. gigno. To Beg. begging. ' Begone. a scrip euXaiciJoi. can. begger.n. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. appears improbable at first. tale.' A. a wedge for cleaving wood. to take. P. one after that other. Mundart. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii.pose. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. 25. ytyvwfT'Kw. it is both to acquire and to beget. gan. two betels —a grete oke. yivtrri. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. Political Songs.

to feed. hevja.to vow. a follower. to be fit. Kiittn.the figure of throwing at a mark. behaviour. advantage. se porter) to fare well or ill. bound. To place are most naturally ex. to keen or hold. right. behold. to be named. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. adjust. behete. The seyn. Sw. to raise. hovast. habban. K. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. It. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. heeten willekem. tail. to command. the distance of anything. G. 17. use. promise or a command. hafwa bort. hces. the two verbs seem radically the same. beholden to him. keeping. hatan. to lift. to turn one out . to follow. to hit the mark. to carry. to gehouden. to tend. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to call. the name adapt. to vow. hafjan. to bers of the body. N. the equivalent of E. and (as Fr. hofwa. have the sense of calling or naming. laborare. to carry. hantyri. AS. zu etwas gehalten haitan. from tragen. Sw. commonly expressed.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. At the back of The re. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to take away. gehaben. gehalten seyn. AS. to R. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. behefe. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. according as the * To Behove. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to have. ifl fact. to name. to meet. guardare. keeping. to heave. at the tail of. To Behave. AS. tion. or necessary. gehouden. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. Plautus. OE. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. gehat. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to fit. habere. take heed of. or purpose. to lead. to be obliged to one. when the verb will hoof. R. to call. Sw. hafwa ram. behatan. The Lat. vow. as in the case of E. and their senses intermingle. to halten. To look steadily upon. is supported by many analogies. Robert in Warton. promise. to command. fixed upon any object). G. seeing to. to lift. hafwa. servare. beperson addressed. heave. to behave. to promise. to cast or throw. is on the top of or opposite to. to carry corn into the barn . Goth. behoof. betragen. to the equivalent of Du. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to vow. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. hove. zijn. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . nittaa. take yourself off. injunccommand. heeten. healdan. to keep. And so from hania. G. premi curi alicujus rei. to hold. portarsi. vow. to bring forwards. to be obliged to do a thing. to keep. hafwa. G. hcef tig bort. —Hest. to regard. to be well pleased out. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. AS. ufhaban. hevja. Aan iemand bid one welcome. observe. taking notice or care of (Gloss. han- — js Kil. Command. To be expedient. name of the head is used to express what hbva. ward. invoke. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. To Behold. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to be be named. solicitum esse. exhort.for throwing it. But. promise . to carry. or the hence advantage.— . Paladino. garder. G. obliged. behat. behces. to hold. heita. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. is also found in the sense of looking. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. AS. G. behind.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to be suitable or becoming . what he wishes another to do . Thus in Finnish the heave. on. what is so required. us-hafjan. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct.' Richardson. hcefwa in seed.). furtherance. to look. and the E. The It. to look upon it as true . to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. — Behest. gecall. by the compound observare. holding is originally derived from that of looking. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. ge' hatan.

esteeming good and valid. to sanction an arrangement. — . Fr. ornament. under the forms belfredum. a tower. honoured. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. leave . certain rate. To praise is essentially Xo prise. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. — Diicange.. to give leave.alyfan. and Du. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. a. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. and E. AS. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . overspread. to believe. promiser. to make it fast. Du. pro3. to a loud noise. Du. ley/a. galaubs. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . a vessel made for dishonour. Fair sir and Fair lady. Goth. then. and E. are other modifications of the same imitative root. hesfa. fitness. bellow. Du. battefredum. and. galaubjan. Fr. permitting or giving leave. To Believe. to fix a price upon one's wares. to believe. bolken. 6o BELAY BELL loven.. Pl. legsel. we have Goth. bell. It. In Mid. is (Sternberg). the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. on. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. turris. to express approval. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. bervrit. stand. to praise. In the middle voice hofwas. —F. filu-galaubs. See Gain. to resound. bulken. for purposes of low estimation . to extol the worth of anything. to promise. reach.. to bolk. verloben. . border. beau sire and bel dame.Lat. beffroi. with the consent of the heirs. praise. tain a certain end. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. true. — mankind. if a narration. to hit hafi. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. portion. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. lofa. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. Sw. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to sound loudly . Hence to simple approbation. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. bylja. were civil terms of address. bertefredum. promising. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to der swaren lave.D. resonare. lyfan. to promise or engage. to give leave. boare. glauben. peal. . to boke. bettifredo. bellan. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. ON. to roar. to permit. loven. Pl. Det er ofwer er hofwa. from mhG. behove. lov. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to lay the cable round the bits. Northamptonshire. beset. to protect. bealcan. to lay be- around. berfroi. belief . OFr. ON. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. is an easy progress. on. P1. praising. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to praise. to put a high price or value on. To Belay. esteemed . allow. reputation. to bellow. to believe. to be required for a certain purpose. From AS. then. Then. gelyfan. frid. in nautical language. a little shed. loben. aim. belja. To Belch. The word be- Belfry. distance to which a piece will carry. b'ola. or house. or high estimation. AS. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. erlauben. OHG. if a promise. appearing in Mid. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. mark ON. fringe. satisfaction. beffroit. precious. are innate . met. Another application of the same word is in Pl. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. G.D. to give leave Dan. moderation. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . Du. or a sconce. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman.D. bercvrit. orloven. permission. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. measure. bealcettanj OE. bialla. to to make A Templorum campana boant. . ungalaub kas. a watch tower. is used in the sense of approving. to befit. laubjan. Q. an implement for making a loud noise. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. cela est audessus de votre portde. properly belonging to the church tower.D. bounds. and bergan. consent. laven. loven. leaf geleafa. garnish. Bell. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. a tower for defence . to estimate them at a To believe. laven. to belay. to praise. range. beleggen. locus securitatis Schilter. to cry out bell.Lat. giving leave or permission.

Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. rushes. benefacere. bandoir. the womb. a spring. or fyle with myre. . It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. pervenire. from cwcsthan. Javanese perfume. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. welt of a shoe. benedicere.pinuz.' — Hie fimus. to belong. a leather bag. Bav. G.. wallet. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. To Bequeath. poX^ri. bander un arc. Benediction. To Belong'. See Nether. a bellows. Bench. In E.— Belly. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. ball. balteus . pino3. means seeds of plants. volva. balg. to hold to one. wallet Benefit. bless. kind. Lat. G. Sw. from Arab. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. generous. was in Mid. or a It is times the to signify services. balg. ON. fyle To dirty." — — . disposed to oblige. . to come to the crown belangen. . from benedictio. to ring. — ray. pertinere. leather sack.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to hallow. bags or bellows. is a kindred form. benaigon. est matris in lucem editus. to bend a bow . se bander. taken absolutely. attinere. are stripped off whole blase-balg. benejicium. fens et hie liraus. See Bank. bolg. to say. pouch. hence with ashes. . incense of Java. — See Numb. bilbila. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. J'emboue. to touch. skin. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. bimaissen. Benedico. Belt. a round or bubble-shaped root. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. ^To Beray. to arrive at. to attain to. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bag. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Lat. a water-bubble builge. I say). cod or husk of pulse. Fr. To Bend. attinere. belly. Gum benjamin. as concerning that. belch. OFr. bellows. Ptg. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. on. to. hem. bendan. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Du. Was das belanget. as. from another modification of the word for bubble. benehusk.' The term had been previously planation. the skin of those animals that factor. belt. a blow. G. a speaking well of one. See I .polch. benedictio {bene^ and dico. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. benjoin. Bret. border. bene/actum. dirt. Dozy. G. gelangen. bendaj as. to attain belangen. or sometimes louban. bilbil-goda. Benign. a good deed. pod. . OUG. To Benum. Gael. by itself. vulgarly the belly. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. ' I beraye. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bellows. belliJ Lat. to concern. pertinere. Benefactor. w. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Bent. one who does good. is The word balg. well. ray. bienfait. to become one's property .videtur. benir. needs no ex. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to do good to one . Lat. Quoth. to bless. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. or simply djawt. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. a bellows . applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. I soyle it or araye it. a kindness. gwaldas. langen. a accusative. benjoim. bell. From OFr. has assumed a plural form. bimpsen. belly. — root consisting of concentric skins. skin. bellows. to touch one. See Bind. vulva. belgr. to concern. Benignant. Benzoin. Eenison. a border. a benefit. I marre a thyng. becwathan. Lat. . bolg. benignus (opposed to malignus). ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Fr. bcelg.' Palsgr. loubdn djawt. a blessing. attingere. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. to stretch it on a frame. the word. an inflated Lat. bolch. to reach. ' . expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Gael. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. — Ducange. Beneath. . from which is also bulbus. Fr. to make bilbil. because bcelg. to exert force. beneison. To belong is thus to reach up to. The ing-skin. welt of a shoe gwald. binsen.Fr. Benefice. Lat. binssen. ON. Lat. blister balgan-snamha. Kil. rise against external force . to use words of good omen. blast-bcelg. I araye. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and .

because used for making besoms. ship for a make amend. rubbish. dung . in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. To Bestow. G. It is the restore fyr betan. an incendiary. Grose.bhaksh. put forth. AS. to fall with roisto. as. to mend. to strip. and Du. repair. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. So Lat. bouter. or the space kept clear betan. protect . So roto rattle down. basya.D. * Berth.fish the other hand. Du. besmas. dirt. Beit. Devon. On the other hand. Beet. to light the fire . dust rojahtaa. bet.irova. put. R. but it is specially applied mister. Fin. bestow. Du. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. position. amendment. to entreat. basjaj Du. to amend. making better. is to perform a serviceable office to him. arwe. BEREAVE Wall. think more probable. to make better. in the sense ctf beria. To Gl. to put on the saddle. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. E. to make it. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. better. vi. same word with the provincial barth. to be-place. 3. Zeitschr. Berry. small eatable fruit. solicit. the side bhakshya. het vuur The serise of Boeten. So too Yorkshire arf. See Better. supporting on the one side Lat. a place . roju. ^•n. brem-bessen. Kil. Sw. p. fearful.t. bacca. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. Esthon. preferably. burrow. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. betan. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. to To Bereave. vol. barthless. reparation. earh. to give a place to. berry. boutefeu.X. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. Besom. I from lew. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. baete. a fire. supply. ariierf to 113. To seek something from a person. to thrust. rods. make better . from AS. to stand one in good stead. * To Bete. advantage. profit. Hfence backing. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. stealth from steal. betan. to on the other Goth. to defend. jnore. lay out. as Du. OE. — Biglotton.— VixHsm. broom twigs. Rob. Goth. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. fall with sound. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Du. as bouter selle. as in growth. To help.iooA. to kindle the fire. beseech. roe. to exercise on a definite object. hva mannan. scopse spartis. noise. from grow. Du. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. the origin of which is to be found in ON. sets fire to. to the place boarded off in a. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. ^akka. bal oppbota. R. of ffeed a fire. to fire a funeral pile of . ropahtaa. it seems hard to separate as. what does it better a man. to cast. boeten. a berry. — amendment. . but in practice. See Reave. sweepings. berwham.ot-i. as conversely a besom is called broom. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. houseless. bur-we. stow. To bete his Jam. Fr. Bestead. peto.—^fake. Best. to word is shelter. or. or to bestead one. one who shelter. buttare. compared with bargham. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. stede. from It. what does it boot. barfham. besen. lewth. buttafuoco. bat. botesward. From abet. mud. boeten. place. boteith Goth. bereafian. to thrust. Tha het he micel fyr betan. AS. as. a horse collar. and on which the wager is laid. the guardian . as. — . G. reafian. — Chaucer. p. The origin is AS. berwe. Fr. fyrbotare. bdt. encouraging. — bota. Beere. besnij Pl. beorgan. The dry. sheltered from the wind. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . To Beseech. roju. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. might have been . and also to entreat. Tusser. as. To Bet. improve. seems twigs or rods. bota. to supply a want. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. to to deprive of. BETE dirty'. dirt . E. reparation. The proper meaning of the bale. advantage. earg. besIn sen. When men of mekeness him baet. dial. AS. baete. person to lie in. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw.• 62 Antiq. to seek. boeten. Sw. besje^ Sanscr. an incendiary.— Hal. bdt. Ihre. barth may be for barf. . besein.

bevere. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. betweoh. Bav. To Beteem. R. batista. e. BETEfiM translated. wrogia. find in one's heart. In like manner folissais. dispose (whence schicksal. betest. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. OE. G. awry. E. are there Regt R. to happen. bibere. a bevy. A — drink. Bevy. of pheasants. as trahissons. Ober D. tradere. Now the stirring of an object.D. a brood. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. from Fr. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. in the same way Lat. betaemen. roebucks. In like manner from twain is fothied between. bouter davantaige. -to appoint. to happen. which may be compared as to form with amid. 88. zemen. proficere. it bewrays itself. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. progress. Sahissais. whence beveraggio Fr. in the middle of twain. for measuring angles. Fris. become. deign. suitable. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. e. gatiman. to cheat. some attention. Chaucer. twain. &c. better.' Dialogue on Witches. Slant. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. bat. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. Lat.— . i. sloped off. wreia. to deliver up in breach of trust. tweoh. — that schickiich. larks. tradire. . from Lat. betweohs. two. deem suitable. In the water anon was seen His nose. x. It. his eyen sheen. Best. more. bedriegen. is treason. To Bewray. abash j from polir. bevde. from. To Betray. betera. To boot in coursing (i. suitable. AS. lot). Dii. traditor. fitting. Fl. treachery. From the former of these are AS. what does It is forward him. trahison. trahir. better. to Hence It. against. a traitor. not to have the heart to give up a thing. as one would have it fall. are commonly to one's lot. bet. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. betst. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. — Betwixt. trahissais. springs from ON. Dit tungomal rendered in E. to stir. Cot. by two. dir. AS. by a final sh. Mich self a good glass of wine. Golding's Ovid in R. E. as tlock. thy speech bewrayeth thee. traitre. his mouth. to Teem. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. pair of compasses. bet. to fall. r'ojer dig. Friar's Prol. from invadere. G. is used for the — R. Du. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. said he. Tinia eigi at lata eit. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. ziemen. betweox. has — In a like sense tanie>i. as from obdir. Pl. — See To Bete. Better. and thence twegen. I approve of beveau. to deceive. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. order. The as. On the same principle ON. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. to discover. Fr. Thus from dbahir. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. to fall Some call it a bevel. /alia. To vouchsafe. Between. tima. afford. to drink . a different form of twa. Ik tame mi dat nig. Percy Soc. Det sig sjelft. Fr. It. verbs in ir with a double ss. Fr. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. regen. tima. obeish. trakir. moveable and compass branches. kein leben mehrin no signs . find it good: Goth. the being pushed to the frbnt. better. an instrument opening like a a thing. *Ah. polish. i. fate. Fr. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. or with again. Goth. baet. From It. gezimet eines dinges. beverage. obdissais. zimet. amiddes. be fitting or suitable. ON. G. to make forwards. Sw. G. beuvrage. of quails. evidence of life. betwuxt. batizo. roja. gesiemen. taemen. to accuse. e. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. in the middle of two.D. best. spritigs from schicken. amidst. Buveau. betwuh. R. to deliver tip. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. as envahir. Hence last G. vrohjan. taemen. E. — of the authorities. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. riigen. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. Car son umbre si le trahit. betriigen. advance. beva. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. make manifest. Pl. ON. fallinn. betray. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. ruogia. The inflections of Fr. a drinking . R. Goth.

a Galilean. it becomes (Jz-. (according to the Fr. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. To Bezzle. to dispute. Hal- — do something aslant. . bibaculus. bezling or skueing.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. ice . the papyrus. Biseau. bis. —Dozy. to give signs of life. to well up with Cot. bending. bickeler. poison. baverole.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. inferiority. though such a change of form would be very unusual. like guzzle. Du. Bezel.two. I Wallon. To Bib. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. 172.{ioin dua. whence Du. sbriscio. To Bicker. bickai.a. sliding. snout. two- footed. Misc. It. dial.' bibble. oblique.as in Biped. bavon. biais. bebble. It. bisdare. to glide or slip as upon. to creep or crawl sideling. b&zahr. him. kwijlen. baviere. Bias. . bescompte. Sardin. Yes. specially in a bottle. See Wriggle. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. love first begins to life signs of him. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Schiitze. lips. sbrisciare. Lat. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Fr. Mantuan. in two ways for duis. Prov. shows the P1. To Bibble. a sloping edge. to the stirring of their conscience.to drink much. to shake. a bezle. Cat. petit-lait. Hal. sbrissare. sbieco. edge of a plate of looking-glass. a fragment bieco. dial. presence. Fr. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. biax. has a singular stone-picker. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Pers. used in precisely stone . An excellent Basil. biberer. To bicker in NE. Piedm. tailU en biseau. expelling or preserving against. misFr. roggle. The It. It is especially applied in Sc. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. beslei. —Bickering'. Sp. crooked. evident. bickel. babbefore the eyes. Piedm. its clothes. kwijl-bab. biascia. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . he is Wtb. discover. to sip. sik beregen. Bice. winding or crawling in and out.D. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. . wraggeln. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Dan. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. bes-azur. sbiscio. the basil Sc. Fris.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. or kwijl-slab. rogge. to it evident to sense. Pl. in Fr. Fr. metaphor). Fr. bible. Bezoar. — Bi-. Uprogen. Gr. to make tongue Du. Ant. to stir. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. E. aslope sbisciare. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. bring under ' Thy accuse.or from obliquus. to Jam. To skirmish. bickel-sieenken. asure-bice (Early E. twice. per\'erted belief. biberen. it were the mouth. to slaver or drivel. Bibelsworth in Nat. which good bibbeler. and zahr. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. wrogen. to be a paring. Bible. to slaver . A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Lat. biascio. In Arab. biberon. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Oh when shall I bizzle. of the sliced off. aslope. Ci^. besanca. reveal. Bisect. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. or by any rapid motion. one who drinks in excess. sbias. To drink hard. The train of thought is then. kwijllap. bias-wise. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. Cat. sbrisso. Fr. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Hzzle f Deldkar in R. /3i/3Xof a book originally. a slabbering-bib. liwell. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Jamieson. slippery. An inferior blue. to cut in two. to stir. rogt un bogt sik nig. beregen. is explained to clatter. — crooked. to tipple. . from pdd-. the word became bddizahr. Sard. stock still. pddzahr. bickelen. Diet. Probably. bisel. to stir. sloped. a bibber. sbiasciai. slanting . pible. Bib. by throwing of stones. bibo. biaiser. in him. sbiesso. to a fight with stones. bestemps. 78). to stir up . whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. bihais. convicts thee of being drink. as an eel or a snake. notice. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. In comp. to move. to tipple. sbiescio. whey count . babbi. a stone-hewer . sbiagio. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. bark of which paper was first made. makes ble. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. Fr. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. foul weather.D. or in and out. . wrangle. to purl.s bellum for duellum. OE.

The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to arrange. G. which is stiU. bced. the meaning of bid.' Pope in R. belly. gebodenj G.Leta). is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. bouwen. besides the professedmonks and nuns. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations.uddered len heart. bieten. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bend. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to marry. to bend. iiQ. beidast. It must be observed that the word bidja. consisting both of men and women. The loss of the / gives Dan. einen vor Gericht bieten. from bidan. inhabit Du. belly. . signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. ' Bug as a Lord. From Gr. to bend. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. The original Swollen. form. to inhabit. an entire skin. byggia. to abide or wait on. to build. a chip. W. as. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bog. to bulge. bidel. 1. to start out. to have one called before him. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bidjan. bis and in comp. Jam. Bickelen. to build G. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. rising up. OSw. To Bid ' Big . G. praestare. ON. the belly of a ship. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bua. To bid the banns. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bidan. inhabit. to swell. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. qucero. a suitor. or third order of penitence. bulge. or. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. be bug. athird class. by seek and beseech.t. porrigere.' Addison. and the Sw. cultivate. to curve. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bag. from belgia. to offer. as G. to forbid .. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. To Big. to forbid . bulge. of More ' in Richardson. The 'La. bug. bead. bieden. called the tertiary order. bauen to cultivate. ON. swoln. ten. bolginn. — prepare. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. repair. BIGOT beidan. — — — Halliwell. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bend of a shore or of a rope. to dwell. Bigamy. proud. has leta. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bath. to inflate E. boa. AS. . bolgna). balg. or bad.peto. The ON. a flexure. beodan. bulk. bi-. The ." buque with E. to ask. and yajiBui. abidan. to cultivate. bulky. buga. bugne (answering to ON. faurbjudan. R. a swelling. to look for. G. Palsgrave in Halliwell. ON. explaining the Sc. Two verbs are here confounded. spelling seems to used in the N. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. Analogous expressions are G. Du. are also used in the sense of asking for. swelling. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to belly. Bigot. to ask. may plausibly be derived from Goth. Kil. P. bugt. Einem einen guten tag bieten. BID of stone. beadle. Hence Sc. bow. — To Bid. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. ON. quiring something to be done. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. to E. bygga. A bjudan in anabjudan. to build. Bight or Bought. Wallace in Jam. Big-swol- . Big. to presimpler pare. twice. ewes. from seek. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to pro- command. praebere. anleta. bedun. related to big or bug. biegen. to look for. bugan. biddan. becoming in Lat. to bicker. OSw. who. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. England for swollen. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. With respect to logical pedigree. build. as tears from the eyes. bolga. Compare also Sp. to move quickly. to solicit. bilge or bulge. pray. bidan. to offer one the wish of a good day. forwards.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. to bid one good day. swaggering. A pose to one to come to dinner. byggan. bigan. bat . gebeden j G. AS. bo. to offer it to public notice. in the sense of ask for. bit- bidja. The ON. 2. AS. to pray one to dinner. offerre. bidill. verbieten. pressing on one's notice. and Gael.

Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. was formed bigello. 1243. &c. begutta. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. bighiotto. bigotta. honesti plebeii amictus. grey. and hence the variations bigutta. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. A. natural grey or sheep's russet.' says an Venet. vocati Fraticelli. borel. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. with reference to A.— BIGOT bigardo. biso. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto..D. alii Apostolici. In a similar manner from bigello. absque votorum religionis emissione. a blockhead. and Q. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. the other form Per te Tribune. alii de paupere viti. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. signifying bagmen or beggars.' translated by Muratori.D. Bizoccki. S. Bighini. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. A.a. bigio. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . ix. rustical. In the same way Fr. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. xx. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.D. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. probably from biso. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. Beguttce. the nobles to Rienzi. all apparently derived from Ital. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto.' Matthew Paris. They wore a similar dress. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. beghart. homespun cloth.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Bizocco. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. D. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. Bighiotti). speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. vol.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. to adopt a similar course of life. Flor. 560. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. ac labores manuum detestantes. perch^ i Terziari di S. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. G.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. which must not be confounded with begardo. coarse woollen cloth.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. beghino. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.' Chart.— Ducange.' says one of of bigio. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. grey. 15 18. says. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. bighellone. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. both men and women. From bigio. aliqui Begardi. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. face VIII. as well as bizocco. clownish. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. dark-coloured cloth. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. sed maxim^ in muliebri. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Francisci communiter appellabant. 1499. a dunce. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. corruption would easily creep in. author quoted in N.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. and also unlearned common men. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Augustini dotarint. A. Hence the OE. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate.

boeye. bui. So in Gr. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . Prov. weapon . a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. a negro. OFr.. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. procella Kil. buail. ferrese quam ligneae. inscriptum. in the same sense. and dziobas. 2. Thus we find in It. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. e. Deutsch. Du. to pick a millstone. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). hence the cudgel in the play at trap . bil. Tartuffe. Langued. AS. Gael. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. horn of an animal. an axe. bwyell. bigot. In the same way are related Pol. See Bull. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. fluctus maris. as craneberry. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. billard or billart. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. buoy [i. a hypocrite. Johansen. Ludwig. In English the meaning has received a further development. the bill of a bird. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. biilge. to swell with rage). 2. — Cot. The Du. belgan. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Fr. a beak. billet is the diminutive of this. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. a of the sea. Bille. an axe. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. deceit. bulghe. Billette. the beak of a bird. top. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. To defraud one of expected sinking. Gascoigne in R. used in legal proceedings. is properly a sealed instrument. that of swell. gleischner (Frisch). 5 * . billard also signified at billyards. in the sense of a writing. bull-berries. seems to be rather the unda. the swelling G. a sword. Bojce. a hatchet. to be angry (i. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. clog to a fetter. Lat. abelthe fetter itself. to strike. boia. Bilge. bigot. — — ' . G. an adze . The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Dan. dziobad. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. of boja. from Mid. Mundart. an axe . blamand. the trunk of a tree. loi. Kil. The proper meaning bylgia. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. boja. to strike. Sw. A lorum tam in — Diez. w. might be taken to express a hypocrite. bullet. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. Bilbo. now A Bilboa blade. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. as a bill of indictment. of E. blaa. bla-berry. b'olja. . a man who rests on a stick in walking. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. beil. 'tumidi fluctus. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. bille. a shackle. from OSw. Sw. AS. and in Lat. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. names bill-berries. fetters. genus vincu- Bilboes. An instrument for hewing. I. an ingot. bill of exchange. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. . bisoch. an ingot of gold or silver. axe. a seal. belghen. a short note. Du. person of religion leading a loose life. bigotto. Lat. billot. from the dark colour. symbolum. crowberry. whortle-berries. Bohem. at sea Billet. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Kil. however. to peck. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. e. bolghe. AS. buie. an axe. BILBERRY nated. a name given to a. Roquef. ^Billiard. bigardo. . NFris. gan. blue . Sw. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Bill. 3. Sp.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. bulla. See Bulk. A slang term for a sword. plog-bill. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Dan.' mariners. tepati.— — — . beghart. a bigot or hypocrite. Billow. obsolete. The origin of the term is probably from bole. to job. dziob. Bigin. — bigardia. bill. Aurelles. bulgja. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Piedmontese bigot. Fr. Bill. bizocco. Billet. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. To Bilk. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. bill in parliament. billet. and a billard. Du. topor. Fr. the o changing to an i to express diminution. a devotee. Bilberry. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. bila. p. a seal.' bilio. a floating log to mark the place of some. on. bile. dissimulation .' in Richardson.

a bump or knob. videt. to hang. . bundle. forth. from Lat. a truss. Sw. The bitol. We — A Birth. to knot nets for fish. brid. to bulge. overlooker. the young of an animal. a bunch. pippione. bircej Sw. In like manner from knot. a female dog hindinn. Fr. pittjo. See Breed. bhurja. to form a knotted structure. Lat. a bitch. Bitch. band. bjork. admota non Bit. — — . evigue. a house. Bindweed. ON. Goth. a heap. E. is in Scotland applied to ivy. qui nisi propius Blind. G. hiindiiin. terial. betsel. the young of birds . to fasten it together. to bear. Gr. biccej ON. pin-ti. evegue. beize. a pig petz. fowl. a heap. a little dog. When compared with Fr. poule. which is expressed in E. AS. bikkia. Fr. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. — Surrey in R. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. also a stone weight. bund. . doubtless a stone. a weight. Bailey. poultry. e. bij sienigh. G. to cook). and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. from pondus. bunt. To — — —D. or ben-wood. life. Thus I suppose the Gr. a hind or female stag. See To Bear. a bitch applied also to other animals. episcopus. to bind at . from \t3\. Bind. burt. earnes brid. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Lat.. Du. properly a young pigeon. biscuit. a weight of 48 pounds. an overseer. The term ON. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. EpisETTiTOOTToe. berkas (z=:Fr. H. Lith. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. and of Fr. 'tumens sequor. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. binda nat. isfiw. Birch. j). as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. V. Bittacle or Binnacle. or baked. — Kil. by the verb knit or net. are commonplaces. BITTACLE /Siof. Bird.' and the like. expressed by Sw. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. binge. pinnu. a bitch. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Fr. AS. an eagle's young G. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Fr. — properly near-sighted. Lat. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. It. &c. IV. wine. The proper meaning is a heap. to net. vescovo. AS. See Belly. It. to bind together. Fr. bita. AS. Bisom. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. beitsl.68 BIN Bio-./«idere. Bizened. Lith.. or petze. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. a corn. than vice versi. bunki. a habit- Binnacle. lusciosus et myops. Habitacle. twice cooked. . Dan. to plait. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. i. to swell. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. piiiti. Bin. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bundun. ON. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. and especially to a small poor horse. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. . bitill. piccione. where the compass stands. to twine. ge- from AS. to bring Biscuit. or bin. I would derive the verb to knit. evesgue. beran. pullus. i. Lap. bundle. to be derived from Ibfiaq. bunga. bitacora. Bine. beitan. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. bigne. copus. G. Lat. . To Bite. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. is rendered in ON. bund. bij sien. from Gr. brut. Sp. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bunch. beorth. AS. v. a female stag. bundt. bindan. sc. — See Bittacle. Then added division in a granary.. a knob. Sw. while bind-wood. propius videre bij sicndc. pundas. bundt. habitacle. bin-wood. G. bindan. AS. hith. bord. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. truss. pinnii. Sanscr. in Swabia. beisseii. viz. a brood or hatch of young. . biscotto. Bisson. biclie. Bisen. a bear. by binda. to wreathe. Bing. Goth. nodus. to build. a gallinaceous bird.

from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Ai-mstrong. fallow . to bivouac. white. in contempt. pale. pale. Fr. to watch. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. as of water gently beating the shore. to loll it out. Sp. x. discoloured . leohte .' It would thus acle. blebberis. Bohem. quoted by Ihre. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. confusedly. buft". pale yellow . bitones. chatter babbler . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. a stammerer. a childe dothe gasouille. Lydgate. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. bihovac.. babbe. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. Gael. 't huisje. to To blabber blabber with the lips. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. bleg. from wachen. blob. yellow . synonymous with baber-lip. ' plabraich. In Legrand's Fr. shine. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. blab. blabbre. whitish. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). plappem. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. blac-hleor ides. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. . A a rail. blunt we say it will not bite. Fieldfare. as is seen in sputter and splutter. gabble. round which the cable is made fast. blubber-lipped. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. to wax pale or bleaked. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. a shelter for the steersman. Bav.. maculS. is apprehension of danger. as of wings . small guard-house. things —Palsgr. In a similar manner Gael. a large lip. AS. Se bleek. It. G. Bittern.€i. bites. Deutsch. /ealo-/or. blob. apparently from its biting the tongue. Hal. pale. bleich.' by Gudmund. unintelligible talk plabair. black. bitr. a beam in a house or ship. Sp. pale yellow. The bitas. to chops. Fr. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. To Blab the anchor. 156. mona mid Dan. is placed. night guard. 'fuscus. whitish. brunblakk. bleikr. bitor. ON. Black. blakki. white. . from whence we have adopted the. blobach. Bivouac. Je N. —Neumann. pale brown . corrupted in Fr. Mag. bitter. blakk. light-coloured. cut. iroxafealo. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. 't kompas huis. — cheeked maid. a tati. blake. faded. fallow fawn-coloured. Wit hung her mourn. first. obscurus. Blabber-lip. white lead. Du. the palebleff. The Gz. blesmer. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. AS. an additional watch. beiwache. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus.plab is used to . on. biti. Mantuan babbi. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. to let out whai should have been concealed. to babble. stutterer. — Collins in Hal. Gael. yellowish.' G. blank. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. garrulous. "uivac. — Hollyband. or water beating gently on the beach . beitr. as in that of pale and white on the other.— Blabber-lip. babbling. blabbern. To or he can speake. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. Percy Soc. shining. faded. v. as of a body falling into water. Pl. Fr. to babble. Cot. ^aj'/^r. . a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Hist. In like manner E. out the tongue. Sp. mouth. beuni. blob. baboyer. whiteness (candor sine It. thoughtlessly . a continued soft sound. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. bittour. an edge is sharpest sword. viz. ' Biovac. on the one side. quick. NE. plabartaich. to talk much. blanc. bittore. ON. Cotgr. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. to speak Dan. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. blepLith. 332. Nagt huis. Again. ^chops. Applied in Hin ON. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . even humour seemed and beuin. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. pins of the capstern. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Alex. baitrs. bird of the heron tribe. dark. blabhdach.. ON. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale.D. Why presumest And laam's asse. biacca. butorj OE. gulblakk. term. Fr. a babbler. a flapping. a fluttering noise. bitts of Bitts.). Goth. blabaran. ON. So Fr. I blaber. G. Hald.' by Haldorsen. to the sharpness of a weapon. Mund. his blacan light. mouth. a large coarse lip . Bleak. a* mast . Sp. dusky. Sw. indistinctly.

Blain. Dan. to disappoint. 86. &c. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. and others engaged in dirty work. plat. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. the origin of . blank. bladder. white. name originally given Blackguard. bladder . a blanket a bed. Blame. as. pass over. polished. blad. to Hence Ital. imbrunire. to make or become white blanc. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. variable than the signification of words designating colour. Sc. revile. or a mass of bubbles. — — — to jabber.. and E. blather. or of an oar G. blatter. 1854. irXariQ. speak impiously. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. leaves. blanchir. Now. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger.—Blatant. p. mire. leafy. bladder. Hist. commonly called the Black-guard. cited in N. Reliqu. bladeren. blena. from candere. on.. a bubble. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. his meat burnt. or blafich. blanchet. blasphemare. reproach. a blank ticket. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. tattle. also white woollen cloth . bladder.— Kil. vagrants. Play in Nares. blame. and the agitation of liquids. to glitter. Fr. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. also tanned by the sun. flap of a Du. on. to shine. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Blank "verse. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. blanc. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. white. Du. a pustule . in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household.— ^o thehotsun. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. to vocifer- — Cot. borrelen. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. to omit. Perhaps from blegen. The present forms then should be classed with blether. . and wandering men and women. Sw. blegen. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. as. to blow. 7. and he shall be sure to have O. vagabonds. Dan. Wott. smore. Eadmer. coat. sheet of paper. blad.—Blatter. boys. smother. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. whitish. to To bellow. Du. piatto. moere. pimple. Du. and G. blanchet. blister. biasimare. G. blister. candidus. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. whitish. gabble. The radical bubble. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. madder. Blade. to dabble in water. blegne. branches . a bladder or pustule. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. also jabber. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Torriano. blether. to blanch. as Lat. Bav. in R. leaf. biastner. plate. a leaf. G. and Q. a white or unwritten ticket. bladre. . dripping-pans. Bacon in R. See Blubber. to shine. waschen. I am degraded from a cook. — . Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Fr. roar. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. the leaf of a tree. to bubble. linkboys. or as E. defame. to glow. blactra. blinken. black. Sw. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. blaeren. skola and thwatta. Dan. plat. leaf of a. to —Blaspheme. bladdra. G. chatter. Du. pallido. is identical with Flanders borlen. 5/^a/^ of colour. bladra. blaere. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. —^Webster. the ON. pladdern. livido . To Blare. a boil. PI. Blancli. mud. Lat. It.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. — rura. blister. Blank. — Sw. Gr. pluddre. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. blein. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. blister. Jan. rogues and wanderers. chatter. as blader. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Fr. and thence to babble. Cot. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. broad. But perhaps a more Gr. Du. mus-blackt. a buible. blatter. slush. To blank. board. shining. tree. to bleak in the sun. a bubble. blahen. a. blanqne. . as scullions. to purl. Blanket. with all other loose idle masterless men. Besides the examples of this connection given above. —We Bladder. foolish talk. dial. D. Sir. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. pXaatpiiiiHv. blather. which we . Fr. probably ate. blatt. e. most complete example of leafy structure. mud. contracted from bladeren.

Du. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. The other derivation. Sw. beast. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. friend Cornelius. it is manifest. blesse. blaodhrach. i. shield or surcoat. Gudmund. oured. gloriosus. the matter incendiary . a loud noise. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. Blatant. The AS. biter. redness . as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. noisy blor. Blast. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. Lye. ill-speaMng their proper colours . laudes (Kil. abroad. blase. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. With inversion of the liquid. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . on whose behalf the herald appeared. proflare tues. To Blaze. blezo. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. and. coloured prints. Du. an empty and two theories are proposed. blaesen. much plausibility. If armour. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. blorach. to trumpet forth. Cot. to publish the praises. and to make him word blaze. a whisperer. Fr. magniloquus. like the in English. . a flame. by stripping off a portion of the bark. bawling. blus. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. braise. ther it was erst not knowe. bleis. blysa. a torch. blasoen. AS. ventosus. Du. — ' — stroy. 'op een trompet blaazen. indeed. light-coli. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. quus. blase. blasonner. Sc. OE. — ^Jam. or blazening. is from AS. blaodh. G. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. commendation blason funebre. . to blow. But now. each of boaster. G. Blaze. blossi. AS. is used in the sense of manifestatio. ON. proclaim the virtues of. visui patet. bldsse. blcese. splendour. also only pains and excellent endurance. oron-blasare. how. a blast. used. to extol. a voice Jr. blcEsan. Gael. kept up. whence Blazonry. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. . Cot. also praeblczse. blasa. in that of praise. Du. or to the sound which it produces. might spring from the same origin by a . Fr. and which. First from the E.' to fastum . to blow. To blast. declaratio. loud . a lamp blasere.whence the Fr. baladron. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Dan. blazen. to blaze Sp. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. blose.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue.' painted or figured . to publish. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blaterare. thraso. to set on fire. a flame . to blow . is the imme. fire. a funeral oration . To blow AS. The origin of this exSp. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. also blazon or the blazSpenser. of an animal. besides blesse. bliEsan. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. boasting. blcesett. brasa. to spread news. a shining spot. live coal . blason. to de. a shield. somewhat different train of thought. an conium. Fr. senses. She roade at peace through his heraldry. blaser vid. As Kilian.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. A gust of wind. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. in the same way as we 2. 2. pale. Troilus and Cressida. blaze. to cut off prematurely. Dan. blaeteren.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a coat of arms. baladrar. Kil. ON. a MS. to proclaim. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. has also blencke. blass. — Elazen. embraser. blatero. A blaze is so intimately Then. a flame. Blanches illuminies. blcEsan. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. a shout. Du. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves.). blateroon. I. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. ing of arms. blast. — — ' : bless. among other . blason. magnilo. to bellow.— . a torch . g. blesse. See Blare. the noisy. blcest. clamorous. as a verb. brasa. stultd loqui. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet.sound a trumpet. might And sain. Sw. Golden Book in R. Du. e. Prov. abroad. A strong flame. blis. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blys. bles.

More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. to spot. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. So in Sw. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. To totally different from the foregoing. to make him feel blank. 242. a been distinct. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light.v. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. bleikr. from on. . in the expression reputation. sinen langen tranen. a spot. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. Mac. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. pimple . Blear-eyed j having sore i. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. to bleat as sheep. Bleed. blcecan. Palsgr. inflamed eyes. or blemish. ' He blarrede or roar. Gower in R. blesmir. . and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. plama. to wink the eye. a spot. a red watery eye. The term blear. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. blench came to be used for a trick. bldmi. livor. a disgrace. — blink the question is to shrink from it. a blotch plerr. . stain flack pa ens a crying eye. tutnan is a cloud. Manuel de Pecch&. G. guenchir. to soil.P. ^Blencher. See Black. N. like one that has long P1. spla7nU sie. Sir J. Bailey. Richardson. what blenched him therwith.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. goda nainn. BLENCH obfusco. paleness. blemissemeiit. — — R. wheal. blot. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. while the agent ac- From . bloken. livid. blister. And By a similar metaphor Pol. a blemish in one's 2. blot. wanness. geplerr. to start away from. to disgrace one's name. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. Fr. on. Gr. Blear. a stain. (faith or creaunce) Be war. or to low as oxen. flack. a spot. ' . pale Du. AS.' to deceive one. color plumbeus bldma. to become livid. start vor den augen. pale . bleakness. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. light-coloured. tumanid. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. pier vor den augen eyes. See Blood. to cast a mist before the eyes.filerren. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. ' — — eye. exposed. the formal equivalent of English wink. to stain one's honour or reputation. to cry or weep. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. ' — — ' : — — . a spot. Blancher. And now are these but mansbond (i. Ancren Riwle. Bleak. From the OFr. Schmel. is Blench. to blare been weeping. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. dead-coloured Cotgr. Bleb. wan. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. to bleach. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. I chaunge colour. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. . drop of water. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. souiller. or blemysshen — blaken. from the than schal I go. Sw. Pol. A Blab. c. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . Blemisli. splamii!. As AS. the livid colour of a bruise. 115. blarren. B. 419. confound him. boggle at something. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. blesmissure. A stain in a man's reputation. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to wink at it. sugillatio. .'he cried till the tears ran down. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. blur before their eyes. whitish. Bejaune. novice. darkness of vices. To salir. p. to spot . blakna. as of dust or mist . So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. blink. avoid looking it in the face. blema. which are blurred with the have shewed you. to blear one's eye. a blot or smear blanking one. spSt. a boil.' God in his wordes. a fault.' the devil makes a vain back. tacher. and thence to a bruise. See Black. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. To Bleat.D. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. to humbug. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. ^Xiixaoftai.

Swiss (obsolete). Russ. —Brera. blotzen. lightning. as a vatn i vin. pockets. blindr. wink. to blithsian. Du. lighten. to flash. bludder. money. to dash wine with water. The term then self or others. Thence apblinds.' To — blunge clay. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blende. blinzler. Du. Wtb. to dilute too much . tative source of the word is wholly lost. to pro. to shut the eyes G. to rejoice. blac. the Slavonic languages. blinzeln. Serv. blitz. Tany. a. make these hands 3. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. . glimpse. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. ^Jam. but by no means therefore a pre. .. . To Bless. — A A — . trix. seems the simple netel. The inblissful. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. happy . Blight. to act like a — . blissian. Du. joy. sertion of the nasal. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blincken. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to make happy. a glance. to bless. sweet. blanssen. well blagaya. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. as in the case of blaze. Pol. ON. happy . blink-eyed. moment. although in the in the next article.corn. to shine. — . . weaklaveny. Biglotton. to stir or puddle. wink of sleep . mixing in general. III. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. to glitter ful . a dead nettle. lightning. blessed. lovely Bohem. the verb to bless is some. vious one in the order of formation. plonsen. pale. burn up. in potters' language. . blago. AS. Blink. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. a wink. doors. a. tire. lightning sweet blago. mix from blekken. to twinkle. blinde fenster. joy . blet. riches blajennii blicksem. to dazzle . To blunder water.blunda. a look. to glitter . as in Du. graceful. window-blind. a nounce happy. . De Sonne ' verblekken. or nettle which does form. OHG. glitter.wink . a flash. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to mix. a gleam. to consecrate .Q. blahos. blitzen. tless —Gamm. blent. Blind. Nares. to make a rumbling noise. glance. pearance of the blighted . G. happy . Needle. . livid. blican. blendian. Sw. sung. blich-fiur. happily. 375. . to bluiter. blithe.not sting thiiren. blind.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blund.blinkard . blind- ON. bliss look . the G. F. Kiittner. G. good. false windows. to dabble in water. blend.eyed. bleg. to bluiter up with water. and joys of Paradise bliden. is I shall Gurt. plotzen. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. Bliss. . Dan.blinze. A . bluiter. G. Swab. flash of light . Blazena Bea. to glance.D. to shut the eyes. . fortunately. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Paradises blidnissu. to glitter. j). AS. to be blind. readily passes into a /. a glance Swiss blenden. blogi. blick. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. gladness. a blick-ooghen. to — make it thick and muddy. an entry which leads to nothing . to rejoice. blink. be glad flash. to bless . AS. — Goth. a blessing. a wink With the bletsian. to merry. blicksem. blessed. blidu. Deprived of sight. Du. ' Pl. also to wink. thou knave. blindselen. blithe blis. blatida. blicken. To Blend. The sound of k before an s. AS. — when he — Bailey. dazzle . OHG. giving (Fr. to shine. blinzdugig. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. glitter. to shine. joyful. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. with or without the nasal. (=bene dicere).blinken. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Sc. to plunge. riches . Sc. . Owl and Nightingale. well blahy blick and blink. blaziti. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to churn. Du. glitter. From the action of the hand making Sw. blag. I hold thee a grote thee. as taschen. cascultare. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blide. . csecubrandish. glad.nasal. blazeny. G. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. joy. goods. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. gives blinzen. blicken. as a blind entry. to lighten. shine. liquid filth to bluther.

Cotgr. For this. . blad. blcesma. or blinde-kiih. to blow.—Bloater. A solid blouquette blisters. Blob. And so from squatter. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Svt. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing.plisg. Block. or bleb. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. soaked. to cure by smoke. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. The stem or trunk of a tree. as blinzeln. expressed by cognate roots. kostua. To Bloat. also to set See Bless. whence blast. to bubble. a small lump of anything thick. a blain. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Ibid. in Nares. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Bleb. B. G. an unformed mass. gentle OHG. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. pods. Sw. to blissom. a blister. puff. G. It may be formed Blithe. plub. blot. bluster. soft. blesme. bloated. ^vaaa. a ram. to block up the way. —Bailey. Gael. ^Jam. or is inserted or omitted. Egillson. blinzel-maus. See Blot. the unhewn bole of a tree. speaking rapidly any . The roots /. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. to blow. lagga i blot. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought.— Bailey. Fr. blister blasan. blide. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. B. is also used in the sense of swelling . repre- pusula. a . noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. it is must be observed. in gusts. a bubble. husks.. bausen.— Hal. blithe. Fr. mild. sloppy dirt. Goth. in bulk. swell. — — — — — From blabber. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. round. blod. must be referred to AS. Jonson. stone. blote. blot. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. is formed squad. Gael. blouca and Fr. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. fish blind person. buckle. boucler. separate portion. blond. in the sense of a soft tint. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. inde humiditate tumidus. a dirty blister. blister. to swell. soft. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. blijde. a blister . blab. Sw. Hence. Blister. joyful. a block or log en bloc. and easily changes its place. Boyd in Jam. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. pausten. Bav. A under this name was imported into England. Blob. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. soak in water cured fish. Dan. Thus we have blab and babble. in the lump or mass of wood. shells. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. to to puff and be noisy. . buclde. while Lat. and inarticulately. a bubble. Hence E. a blot or spot. blaud. and bouclette. senting the dashing of water. pimple. . strawclod.—Bloated. as in E. In Fin. must be classed with forms like Gr. to soak. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. Kil. weak. like clot. Langued. Mod. blautr. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. merciful ON. bleiths. blidr. . Dan. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. blobbes or droppes of water. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. bloc. pusula. bloc. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. bubble and blubber. any lump or mass of things. viscid. blobber. blaustem. The blow E. kostia. Lat. to blow. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Sc. to steep. pustula. as a blab of ink. bluyster. I believe. or the mark which it makes. — Sw. like manner the coloured. to desire the male. light yellow. cooking. blotfisk. To Blissom. having an unsound swollen look. to breathe hard. orbicular. mild. a lumpish head plubach. — . biota. W. and pisg. taken altogether. To a smoking or drying by the fire. N. Du. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. as if soaked in water. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Du. a See Blot. blot. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Blond.pusta. blindsehn. to dash liquid. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. ON. formed spot. soft. and F. signifying in the first instance to soak. or the like. fiustula. from blcsr. a little blisg. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. — Blob. blindman's-buff. to close it with a solid mass. blubber. a drop of water. mass. Of sheep. busten. frequentative. a bubble. ON.

redness. gammon. E. to strike . a flower. livid . ' — . bliithe. Sc. Du. whence plader. Dan. blad. Schilter. bliihen. Dan. skam. to spot or blot. dirty spot on the cheek. blatte. to From . parallel form with ON. light. blue . Russ. probably connected with Pol. bleustern. Plots. blauwel. bliise. couleur livide. . blady. The G. bloi. blue. blodelsa and blawelsa. bloedsd. D. . ON. Bloom. AS. platsch-voll. Fr. . See Blow. coloured (Diaz. dial.properly to scatter liquid . blus. to dash down Du. OFr. to glow. blaeuw. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. —Barbour. a torch blusse. blue. Sw. . — Stalder . lidmr. blond en blaauw slaan. bluish. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. to dabble in water. flower. to dash down. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. to squat or lie close. plottra. Harmar in R. livid marks. from G. the bright colour of the cheeks . to splash. pladern. to patter. the bright to blot paper morsels. blond is used in blatt. lustre. blotte. bloutre. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. E. a The form platschefz. ON. glister . blase. to flame. Du. glus. blotting-paper. to glisten .D. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). a flower. Du. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. — — . Blow. of a blow with something lios. Erploten. Wflz<^«. Ir. . bletister. Blot. pladdern. glossi. a drop of water or colour. blou. blistaf. Sw. bloi. to strike with something soft or flat. plet. . blond. E. j^ blottir. Lat.^ Kil. a pelting shower). leme. to strike with such these objects exhibit. . to grow pale). Florio). plotterwis. on. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. a spot or blot. a flower. It should be of filth blak-blatte. a Schmid. a beater. E. AS. or the sound of it . to slap. a blot or spot. blomstr. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a Usaae. bleistern. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. from the bright colour which 7'vci. to be red with blot. — Cot. bloi. blat. Schmid. en blau ach. Du. to sparkle. Blotcli. bldts. PI. platschern. blondheid. a Halm a. E. sbiadare. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to dirty. to dabble in water . Fris. G. See Blow. to blot the land was in a leme. biado (of which the evidence plattern. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bloed. to be red. spots in the sun. fall down . yellow. soft or flat. blosem. S-wiss pladern. Fris. blois. blotter. a water ploutsche. white blatte. Jios. a. to shine . Blad.— . a blow. 2. splashing full. spot pletter i solen. ])erly Du. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. gleam. lump of anything soft to blad. cow-dung. a deli. blooth. wan. blaeuwen. — gush. bldmi. E. Pl. bloetnsel. brilliancy. Schwenck. glasi. ^lys. to blaze . glose. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. blostma. a blaze. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. to blaze.' the rain is driving and blue . pale. shine . splendour . pale biavo. blosen. . blue. Hatch. a lump. blust. mud. ^Bleed. blue. gfyssa. blaeuwe ooghe. G.blauschlagen. Ein platsch milch. blysa. kuh-plader. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blawels. Blood. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blose.platter. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a gush of milk . blosma. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. great leaf of cabbage. bloemen. to squander. as the skin or hair.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to scribble. Wendish blodo. a black eye Du. to slap. proto shine with bright colours . bit by bit. (of cattle) to dung. plants which prepares the seed. fair in en blat vand. Stalder. fall to overflowing. platz-voll. lump flower. blosa. Sc. a nature. dial. bloeme. pale tint. platz-regen. Sw. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. plattata. to blush . Dan. in v. a cow-dung. platt-voll. blut. Blossom. kobladde. — Blotch-paper. Prov. blowen. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. It. colour of the cheeks. clod. gloss. bloto. bfys. to exists in biadetto. ON. straw. yellowish It's G. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du.

to bruise Roquef.' Hamburgh Archives. is very frequent.nify bubble. It is howbliuwen. to Plodern. to shine with bright From colours. blodyn. bloom. a bruise. plustrig. foam. . glede.Jlasa. disordered. to show flower. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. blahen. — To Blubber. glansj Ir. to beat. Kil. . y\r)yi»v. the same root which gives the designation of the blood.D. especially with respect to the hair. to gabble. to fade. OFr. like manner Lat. Pl. to spot. AS. blois. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. v. grey. pale. a gurgling . ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blubonciti. 2. glas. to blurt out. B. a herb Gr. flower OHG. fqded. G. Prov.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to beat with a mallet. . a fat. plusig.— . heath. To Blow.D.. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to blow. little apparent resemblance. grug. Du. bliihen. withered. a blast. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. 1. pale. Du. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. Pludern. glas. G. Langued. cheeks bedabbled with tears. to glow. ' BLUE or guggling. gloeyen. plubartaich. sponds with Sw. gUd. blut. . blazi. These are — Bludder. A. grow pale. blebber. blau. plubraich. meurtrissure Roquefort. blubbern. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. chatter. glowing coal . pludern. fiubbem. gloeden. blawan. bluther. ^Jam. piusen. blass. bliithe. Blowzy. Notwithstanding the We . Blue. to inflate. corre. P1. to flap like loose clothes. E. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. plodern. blau. and thence. a Blossom. sense. to make bubbles in drinking. ler. blubbern. tache. blava. To Blow. marking some application from that bladder. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. blady. closely difference in of blabber. toused. in rapid or indistinct utterance. Sik upplustem. br. plubair. Mund. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blazir. The aUied forms. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. jabber. Bret. — Bluther. We . The radical sense is shown in Gael. blodern. is confined to the — . to flourish. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Raynouard. G. to breathe bouteiUis. blosen. to'disorder. blezir. red-faced bloted wench. bloeyen. Pl. boasting.D. bloemen. bluod. florere. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water.xo'»'. blao. d in Sc. |8A)'. OHG. /idXavoc. to glow. glow. w. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blodelsa. to blow. bloeden. Chaucer. Wtb. flower w. Jla-re. to puff up. to gush. to make blue. wan. to guggle. And. Chaucer. —SchmelIt. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). -ii. Bav. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. — . to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. where the word may be compared bliggman. OHG. blue. . (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. G. blust. bl. bloes. to breathe G. Blowze. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. It. to exhibit bright colours.D. dirty. pale . bliuwan. Tumbled. to blow. to fade. . a continued noise of agitated water. to with Bohem. a. Her sweet bloderit face. bludder. or gr. bruk. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. bluh. Deutsch. — — Mundart.' — Palsgr. fem.to blossom. a paddling in wate r. MHG. blaw j biavo. to hard. bloi. — To blubber. in E. puff. Danneil. to fade. a blow. gliihen. and the forms mentioned under Swab. sound like water. bldt. into flower. boil. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. bruised Prov. coup. The primary sense is to shine. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. wan.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Gr. blow. disordered in head-dress. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. pale OFr. vi^ound. — . and closely allied with Du. blduen. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. to bubble up. 51. 92. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. In agitation of water. Lat. gliihen. E. Gael. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. bliihen. may cite for example G. green. The interchange of an initial gl. 1292. bledniai. Deutsch. fied vowel. blue . a flower. the red fluid of the body . glaodh and blaodh. quod bloot et blawe dicimus.

fallow. in the same way as from It'. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. pludder. in water dobbelen. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. And blunders on and staggers every pace. corn. planus. Ditton in R. Roquefort. tradire to Fr. Du. used for the work of an unskilful performer. Romance bluiter. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. A bluff manner. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. to become pale or wan. Pl. ploffen. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. blunderhead. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place.in mud or water. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. find accordingly It. abrupt. sloppy drink. Du. and then generally idle talk. glundra. Analogous forms are Du. G. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blavus. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to blunge clay. pale straw-coloured. a flounder.. and bustle . 't — —Hal. Palsgr. and sbiadare. jaune. a shore abruptly rising. dial. Roquefort. Kil. blandum. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. To blunder is then. to work To blunder out a fronto. It then signifies something done at once.//aay. Hence we pass to Prov. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. contrasted with the dle. all representing the — . polterer. Bodge. his business with much noise. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. blac. corn. to mix it up with water. We Blunder. confusion. rustic. buller-bak. originally growing up turf and water. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. which is rendered by Florio. Bladum. to dabble in the mud. a blunderbuss. from an imitation of the sound. puddle. bawling. blue. blue. to lose colour. Biada. Then with the nasal. Dryden in R. plo-wy. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Sw. discoloured {plowiee. Bluff. to dabble Biglotton E. mix It. yellow. to fade). The Du. Hence a Slcelton in R. bluish. Blunt. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. and metaphorically. bulmanner. tutte le semente ancora in erba. blaf. to agitation of liquids. and biavo (Diez). mistake. blake (identical with AS. The word is here synonymous with amplus. From G. The Du. like the Celtic glas. trahir. See Blurt. verdure. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. biada. poltern. Blunderer or blunt worker. . - reddish yellow. to fall suddenly on the ground. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Hal. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blahir. and Du. yellowish red. to become pale. buller-bas. fawn-coloured. Kil. G. Dief. sbiavare. is. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. pale yellow. Halma. . Lat. bUich. — . applied to green as well as blue. Kiittner. flav-us. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . flodderen (Weiland).make a noise. E. — Pr. segetes virentes. blond. liebefactor.D. blutter. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. bullern. Altieri. blunder. Pol. from the brilliant green of the young E. to become pale or livid. biavo. something. a boisterous violent man. glundr. bloi. without image or superscription. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. I blonder. herauspoltem or sloping shore. to confound. having a bluff forehead. blanssen. falb. verdoyer. in plur.' trouble. OFr. pale. — — — . blunt. plomp. disturb. to puddle. a fore. Blavoyer. blunder. like Du. polter-hans. blue. to plump into the water. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Blaffart. Flor. je perturbe. non rotunda. Pm. sense of yeUow. bleu et blanc. speech. earth and water mixed together. See Blunt. Supp. herbe. blave is moreover. Bohem.— . pale) is provincially used in the. from the Lat. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. or an abrupt manner. as well as biado. to blunder water. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary.• BLUFF biado. G. devenir vert blavoie. Dan. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . superficie plani. It is remarkable however that the E. an ill-done job. as well as sbiadafe. a plain coin herausplatzeu. biava. G. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. has donder-bus.

ang. Q. that it not easy to discover the connection. hebes. blatte. the absence of sharpness. Bluntet. of a knife which not cut. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. Sir T. to make a noise of such a Stalder. Blaitie-bum. as Sw. Ford in R. Sc. without Maolaich. blutten. bald. is thrown. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. stupid fellow. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. naked. awkwardly. Chaucer. platz-regen. nis. in Richardson.— — — . Plump. rough. clumsy. Kiittner. More in Richardson. unfledged Sw. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Kiittner. bus. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. plump. it will be well to point out a sense. silly. blait. and. to bring it suddenly out. blait. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. with or without the nasal.—D. awkward. The syllables blot. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Now the Swiss bluntsch. bleak. poor Sc. pressions. Dan. Sw. plains The large bech. azure. a portion To inquire for slaves. insensible. plump. clownish. Then cometh indevotion. from the loud report a fire-arm. wan. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. Du. maol. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Swab. viz. Blunt. Stalder. bloss. heavy. naked. G. V.plompen. a thick and will person. but of something soft thrown on the ground. bare. F. rude. blunt. like a thing thrown down with a noise. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. good plump person. plutz T)\i. plump. plumbeus. blott. dial. obtusus. used in both senses. fling down . edgeless. and an unintelligent. forestis. blue. Pol. as cow-dung. to blunt a thing out. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. thick. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. plump J to plump out with it. is The word dull. blotta sanningen. bare. duU. naked. V. united in Gael. seems to be derived. viz. dull. bare or blunt. blat. obtusus. that the sense of bare. or blab out a thing Kiittner . figuratively. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. heavy. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. blunder. and in the same sense. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. rudely. biotto. naked. massive. as in E. — — pidus. blout. blunsch. and the like. — blunt. blunt. A modification of the same root. without horns. bluntschen. It is from this notion of suddenness. plump. pale. — Kil. to handle a thing bluntly. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Dan. blockish. heavy. pointless. to blurt. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. without preparation. without the nasal. . A light blue colour.pludse. plotsen. to plump down. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. homo stolidus. Woddis. it will be observed. Bare and blunt. V. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Sc. identical with E. Won by degrees. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. —D. platzen. a blot. plotz. unceremonious manner. sheepish. unpolished. It will be seen that the G. Halma. through which a man is so blont. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. inactive Swiss bluntschi. fooUsh. exactly corresponding to the G. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. to plump into the water. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. . down. unwrought. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . to make foliage. It. dull. a simpleton. ineffectual reason. plonsen. Molof something wet. Plump mit etwas umgehen. blunt. void. —D. a bluntie. nature. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. and hath swiche languor in his soul. biosso. Probably radically hlekit. Plontp. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. raw. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. inaKil. The blait body. absence of preparation. or heraus plumpen. G.to fall into the water. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. blunt.

Du. a mist before the eyes plerren. berd. or bog also thread. common. to be out of temper. lacerta. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. to dangle. my dear. rude. — To Bob. blubber. bora. — — . blaste?i. bord. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. &c. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to jabber. borrar. Gael. bausen. Related to blutter. bar. gabble. Supp. As the as.v. hot. The to radical meaning D. sudden. bakke bleustern.pusten. blodern. Fr. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P.y. bot-voet. a bladder . Sverris Saga. as in Du. blotch and botch. Wright's ed. an ear of corn. blarra. — From mouth. boistous. bladdra. a blotch. bit. stellio. to blore. whence bordvidr. bur.' — Red Riding-hood. 156. Sc. or blurt with one's mouth. Du. Wtb. brett. large. BOB 79 — To Blur. a baU of thread the mud. e. primarily signify loud noise. imitated by has also In like . short pieces of any filthy mud. Gael. cluster. Bav. bludder. blaustem. It. dial. ground. De Boat. a dangling object. OE. a grows to a great bigness. a smear. margin. border. flat. to make a noise with the mouth. chicchere.—Bobbin. plump. To Blurt. to talk quick and indistinctly . to render indisbhir. or backwards and forwards. rude. cocodrUlus. boord. . baiag. then applied to indistinct vision .the syllable bot. to blurt out. bleuster. blader. blirt of greeting. fringe. voce intonare. on. beer. to puff. bobine. Wallace. and when applied to vaunting language. Blush. AS.plodem. a mistiness. mire. Hal. AS. pustern. to chatter. and boisterous. Du. E. to bounce. dial. Board. it implies that it is empty sound. to roar. an end or stump. c. a board or plank. puddle. margin. blot. blunt. Pull the bobbin. batello. to puff. geplerr. margin. an edge. bdd. to glow . a club foot . but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. to snuff. blosken. blose. like the parapets (viggyrdil. a blot. to make a noise in boiling. a Jam. to rumble. bhis. as splurt to splutter. edge. pluddre. outward edge. to blur. to give a crack. lindwurm. beacon fire. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. to brag grande loqui. board. It. this root are formed Sc. — — — * Boast. strong. blurra. Dan. whence bob. to breke. See Blossom. bliise. Fr. will fly up. properly noisy. a torch blusse. to blubber. Schmeller. Boost is used for the boast. Bot zeggen. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. G. Kil. violent G. a small lump. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. bobbin. of the word seems . Bluster. pludern. a. to sound like water boiling. To move quickly up and down. a flurt with one's fingers. pof. bateau. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. a tassel. bdtr. bdta. P. blast. It. w. aper. boa. G. to blush. to smear. blasen and See Burr. 9396. and the latch . representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. and Du. to bark. pfludern. Explained by Jam. . a burst of tears. blot. AS. V. A large snake. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. eafor. violent. To splirt. or blurt ^ih one's uppi.plerr. to threaten. skin. Swiss blodern. E. To tinct. ever-swin. acre.D. to endeavour to terrify. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to guggle. Du. The elision of the d is very to chatter. gabble Sw. dull. swagger. G. ader. Pl. the Brem. Lat. Fl. planks or boards. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. BLUR Boar. literally edge-wood. boccheggiare. pausten. table. crack made by bursting open. to spurt out. a short thick body. to disfigure with E. 1. See Boisterous. a blow . . i. bluther. Sc. bord. To brag and to crack. botte.— . coarse. to puff. bord. to blaze. and swimmeth very well. bludder. be a crack or loud sound. to blow. Comp. blusse i ansigtet. both used in the sense of boasting. to dabble. boot. To blow in puffs. bluter. a tassel. burra. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. bot. 'Ba. ON. Du. Boa. the sound of a blow poffen. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. splurt and spirt. blaffen and baffen. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Boa. table. to dirty. blaere. to say bluntly. Du. . — a blaze. cheeks glow. baban. to make mouths. 274. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to crying. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Halma. Slur. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. a border. and E. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. 29. bustuous. edge. blur. Hal. is formed Du. planks raised up outside the roofs. puffen. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. stupid. . Fl. — ' Dief. eber. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. Du.

French bouter. a quagsoft. The signification of the root bot. . See To Botch.gmh:t. gogach. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Ir. It introduced from Ireland. whence Fr. a command. shaking . nodding. quagmire). stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. to butt. Supp. to roll. the belly. a bog or morass. Shakespear has badged with blood. potahha. woman's stays. 43. the boss of a buckler. a body. bodat. bogle. To Bodge. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. corset from corps. boll. bayonet. mud. biodag. potig. rounded. toss. See Bid.. In like manner E. of which the E. by the syllable patsch. VI. gagoula. to prick. a prickle. — 2. as a horn. to commit a blunder. Russ. to stick. corpset. strike with the horns. waving. agitate. bodig. bagges. bottich are derivatives. unsteady. To Bode. ' boggle at every unusual appearance.' Bogglie. to thrust. anything soft. or bag. unsteady. bot. stumpy. arise E. . formerly bodies. the stem of a tree . Thy i. gog. AS. dies. Gael. barrique. Ptg. ON. Bog. to deliver a message. So BOB To Bob. W. and the word is well explained by Bailey. an announcement. from fitting close to the body.a (i\ia. Banff. e.\\i\c\iset. nave of a wheel. the body. quakmg. bole. expression hogglin an bogglin. Schmel. to fail. Now unskilful action is conmire. goggle. bodhag. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. bodies. Cot. bogan. Gael. so large a feature in the country. Bohem. To mock. exhibit another modification of the root. gago. to be unsteady tich. '£. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. pall. a messenger . boftich. — H. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. BOGGLE trunk and G. . bod. calf of the leg. meaning the round part of his body. speak of the barrel of a horse. busti. baboyer. to waver. Wall.rabodi. moist mire. then from the yielding. bogadaich. to dabble or paddle. to scruple. . And waves. bog (equivalent to E. Miracle-plays. To make bad work. badyti. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips.! . bolr. bod. to bodge. to fail. a cask. bodian. a prick. anything protuberant. barriga. bodnu. Gl. bodak. where bogs form Gael. gog in gog-mire. . corset. bodetz. body of a shirt bol. . of broken efforts or brokeii movements. corpses pot. bodi. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. needle. precept. patsche. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. and E. whence paUchen. bob. Lap. The Sp. move. message boda. to start start and back as from a bugbear. the body of a shift gaguejar. thrust with something pointed. is identical with Fr. or a pair of bodies. AS. to push with the horns. stutter gogmire. a . cask bottich. Ptg. — as well as the body of an animal. Bret. to make. 3. bottig. stuttering. shake. — Grandg. to bob. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. bodi. belly.hollow. unsteady nature of a soft substance. . To portend good or bad. is a lump. With With this we charged again We bodged again. Bodice. a puddle. Lith. See Baber-lipped.' A — Sherwood's Diet. Gael. to stammer. Crist. bayonet . point. bodilo. stitch. daubed or dabbled with blood. a ghost . body and G. Bodkin. as in stammering or staggering. bo tich. Body. as signifying anything spherical or round. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. palleg. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. swelling.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. gag. potacha. to be uncertain what to do. to blurt a thing out. biodeachan. bothog. a dagger. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. to smack. butt. gagei. gebod. an awl. bog. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. a cask. or stem of a tree. a spur. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. wavering. bodene. bogach. a round body both. . the thick part of anything. We . * To Boggle. ^Jam. Reliq Antiq. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. a sting . Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bogadh. fickle . to make a mow at. bog. to stir. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. the trunk of the animal body. potacha. . her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . moving backwards and forwards. Commonly explained as if from Sc. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. round.

in the sense of handsome . glass phial.. OG. — ' — tagliare. caput scapulse. round the first instance to the materials with . the gurgling sound of water rush. gerade signifies straight to the mark. and manace for to de. to boil. merry. whence bulla. bulr. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. obex. 374. bolle. as E. Du. is probably a modification of boll. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. pustule. bhster. which are not used for a similar purpose. flax-boU. bolt. tartalear. bolzBold. — 6 . It. Mund. belc'hj. Kit. bolzen. to swell. as.w. w.' Mrs Baker. bald. up of bubbles. see Boast. gluma. swelling. pillow. to stumble. Du. haughty. * Boisterous. boly. * Bolster. pusten. a boil or swelling Du. E. — — which the cushion is stuffed. Pm. to stammer. tulum. Kil. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. to give a hoUow sound. brave. or the like.palleg. a swelling in ice. trunk of a tree . free. the lir. from the branches. bog. bolstar. bullire. bolleken. ohg. boggle. stud. proud. ON. In the same way Sc. This iv. he will speak out. to tattle. bolster. bula. Magy. The round stem of a tree. a bubble. rough. The bob. the body of a man or of ter. boss. the husk of nuts.Du. See Bulk. bagaji. bol. strong. a head . baud. excellent. ON. bol. Du.). folliculus grani. a bakazikni. ^Boistous. a bubble. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bul. prince. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. the body . Bustuous. beule. chaff of corn siliqua. G. Properly noisy. a quaking mire. bold. bold. boil . to the belly as the or dislike. Wall. bolc'h. Fr. stameln vel bochken. by which it is moved to and fro. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. Westerwald bollern. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Fr. perpendicular. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. puilen. styffe or rude . — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). roydeur. Swab. intrepid. wag. boll. Bole. globular bod)'. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . Goth. .rounded part of the body. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. to waver or hesitate. polc'h. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. dint in a metal vessel. notes. quick. may be identified with It.— D. strong. bok. huge. ON. animal as distinguished from the limbs. buile. to stagger. Da. in speaking. puile. stramenta. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. tartle. as baltha. ballr. Boil. Stalder. Lap. to hesitate from doubt. a fastening for a door. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. OHG. confident. capitellum. chatter. treated under Bowl.— — . 45. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bog. 304). bSlstr. Daring. impetuosity. but that Bolt. buller. balder. blow. Pr. to be at a loss a shirt. and then applied to other husks. V. from Du. ON. Love. pall. balldr. the. E. boutpijl. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. 1430 in Deutsch. as. hero. b^gayer. to puff. bolr. To Bolter. bolt upright. warlike. Du. tartajear. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Gael. pimple ON. then violent. biiilen. bout. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bochken (titubare. A. bol. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. Sw. fiausten. a cushion. bulla. bald. Sp. a bump. Lat. G. Boystous. insolent baude. Me doth awate. bold. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. Bret. poppy (Bailey). hollow. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . Cot. bola. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bola. i. shake. noise. used. bulla. stutSw. as those of nuts. ^Vocab. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. furfures. hakogni. bald. The term applies in — — impressed . to stammer. (of Mons) b^guer. also a blister. bout is explained by Kil. a bubble. bolla. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus.D. . tomentum. capiing into a cavity. courageous. properly represent belly. Boll. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. repagulum. Test. G. . cheerful. bul. tar. sels of flax. swelling. bouil. strong. scruple. bal. Lat. Chaucer. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. cows the people from speaking. To Boil. bolster. bollen (Kil. courageous. G. . coarse. to be prominent. bealder. Chaucer seems Dan. boystousnesse. Fr. Sc.

crotlar. bolting to that of form. to form lumps. a round glass ending — bultig. Prov. taratarrum. to spring forth E. btilt. OFr. as a rabbit from its baritel. So also we pass from Lat. a club-foot. we see that the one consists of a words. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. staff which sounds tar. a crashing or racketing noise. bolt. Pl. abolter. bulstrig. The ment and the operation. buUire. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. barutela. Fr. bulio. Here the radical image is the violent O. tuft. — — — . a clod cloth.u. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. I boulte meale in a boulter. fied bot. bultig. pultare. Supp. . to talk pulzen.noise {brattle of thunner. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. blotttre.). loud and fast. Schiitze. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. pattern. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. Sw. to bolt flour burato. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. . the sense of right on end. OFr. buretter{CQ\. bluter.— . lumpy. tumultuari. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. a bolter Prov. we der Brocket). ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. or a racer from the course. to start with palpitate. as of a trumpet. one after the other. a clump of turf. we pass to Du. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. in S'W plotter. barutare. bolt-foot. gebolder. and the Thus from So. projecting eyes pul. tling or crashing noise. Lang. bulk. grasbulten. then to knock. uneven. a rattle. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. croler. poll. to bolt meal barutel. P1. a clod.nature of the operation. bortelen. to clack. by the representation of a racketing sound. or the like. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Lat. bolzen. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. 2. taratantarum.agitation of the meal in the bolter. Brem. je bulte. to knock. a clap of thunnences.i5a//^«. . as Fr. Du. MHG.protuberance. a small portion.). rugged. crash.. protuberance.D. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. to start out. . we have Du. On this account Mid. And as the agitation of cream in . burclct. cro. also to curdle. uneven. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. : ' — — . to coagulate. to bolter. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. knob. to come rattling downstairs. tar. / is transposed in Fr. to bolt meal barutel. a . as snow balling on a horse's foot. bolzauget) Sp. clump.through a cloth of loose texture. brattle. representing a rat. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . Dan. bolzaugen. Hence Palsgr. poltern. Wtb. zen. budeln daz mele . bulla. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. to become lumpy. ' Holler poller / bulter. swelling. mole-hill. kloteren. hulch. hammer. barutela. Du. ler. rugged. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. . vessel with narrow opening. racket gepolter. jolting. beluter. It. pull. OFr. from G. G. buletel. Bulte-pook or bulstar. . beliitea. holier poller. small heap. a millpoltzet augen. ex•wagen. agitari (Kil. hump. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. baruta. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. or ill. buletare. to significance of the term was overlooked.D. have Lat. the wheels groaned.D. taraabout. . bolt head is a retort. Bav.thump or blow. Mid. die treppe pressed.by forms like G. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. buideln. hammer. crod. Pm. . Sanders. to make a knocking. with E. as above explained. a rattling carriage. The ulti.) E. projections. hulter de bulter. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter.fe/2?. series of jolts or abrupt impulses..clack.D. Pl. Pr. cruddle. to E. on the one hand. tantara. sestuare. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. curdle. boss. hole. a bunch. ' — — ! ! : — . zare.as the essential element signifying the talum. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. to agitate. Dauphiny a sudden movement. bullern.On the same principle. poltern. Champagne burtcau. and to crash. bultred. Hence.Lat. a bolter or implement for bolting. a sod (Schiitze). a rattling noise and a jolting motion. to shake. bulk or quantity . rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. In the next place.

Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. assuming the of leg : special signification W. G. Need you any ink and bonibase. or trunk word in W. Banstead. buidelen. to shake down fruit from a tree. G. stump. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. ^o/j. to thump W. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. raw silk. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. Near 6 * . a thundering noise bomre. G. bwmbwr. bein. bauniwolle. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. as in .). biire. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. term is appropriated in G. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. a string. and also the leg.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. iuttern. bambagioj whence It. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. bureau. to which the leg. a —Bombasine. boulenger. In legal language. It. &c. It. to beat a drum. Bonfire. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. to resound. bon. — bombast came guage. PoUitriduare. a hollow sound. borel. band. the leg. to shake (as to shake the head. Mid. lana lignea. bombice. bombasine. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. beil'n. the shank the shoulder-bone. gunpowder. .bast. Castrais barato. to thunder. sije. bombasin. bommen. HoUybandin R. however. and called in Mid. and Mod. bunden. beuteln. . and Bond. Fr. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. sye. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. bombicina. It. and Du. ties. Antiq. — AS. been. breast-bone. a stock. i. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. stuff. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bombast. bambacium.Su?. an implement of binding. . . whence bomme. tiffany. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . has repeatedly varied. the murmuring of the sea. bone of the . baum-bast. tie. bond. we speak of a gun to resound. again. Dan. It. gossipium. Fr. Fl. baun. OE. The material called by this name. from teu. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. builen. 155. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bongam. brust-bein. bommer.D. buidelen. — Bombard. burato. a ligature. a word of which we have traces in several English names. and in fact we find the and Du. coarse. banitola (Fl. d. bwmbwry mar. the Fr. bomba. bombarda. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. bande.^Altieri. and that from Fr. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. derivation. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. sericum arboreum. thick. barate. tree. to bolt meal. bras. bulter from It. produced the Pl. . tie. is supported by the analogy of G. cotton stuff. Bomb. bombdra. bonds. Butterglas. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. agreement. 83 Gr. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. the contracted form of Du. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. thick-legged. also thick-shanked. Moreover. buttel trueb (of liquids). as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. silk-worm. Bone. basin. E. In E. cotton. achsel bein. bureau. rimbombare. as Banbury. from boom. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. the silk-worm. . bambagino. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. It. bonog. Du. . signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. From builen. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. a baker. crook-shanked bondew. As cotton was used for padding clothes. q. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bombase. a stem or base. When ture. to ring bells. Gascoi^e in R. sijde.Lat. to bind G. to boult meal. Du. a churn for butter. thick from shaking. Du. butteln. Kil. bonfras. bombe. Dan. band pi. ODu. booming over the water. e. bindan. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. band. a drum bombammen. to cast to and fro. a boulter of meal. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. a beacon. to shake. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . bolting-cloth. It. silk. beuteln. Schm. Bibelesworth in Nat. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. — having a stem or stalk.) . must be explained Fr. bopin. a bone in general. butteln.

lofty. booby. to cultivate. Hal. simpleton. and from AS. Bonnefyre. comes bondi. of wonder On the same principle Sp. a bag of skin or leather. by arbitours sholde bote the P. Fr. Boor. G. bote. bid). Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. Pm. ON. Trans. writing bokos. stabulum. from Du. is Du. . Gael. been. Du. boia. boandi. wall hangings. set in order. house. bos. 232. without ad- . Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. to gape. A favour. But bosg. Du. to litter bosu. OSlav. The latter is the original AS. to aid. gawney. Fr. bonnet. to gape. where a cross (or a gun. gehyred. whence ban-ffagl. as a lying-place for cattle. ass. w. Kil. pero. from gape. boo. Hal. b'ukvdry. a tree. . . babb^o. a scribe G. Hufwud-bonad. Kil. betere thing werse. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. a lying-place for dogs or swine. Bootless. . bd. fool. Boot. a head-dress. a bonfire. Book. Sp. bas. the name of the letter b. as the Brecknockshire Banns. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. tapestry. a good turn or re- meaning. Fr. relief from sorrow. till. Mrs Baker. from beida (E. bose. prayer. at everything. . litter. . Mrs Baker explains bun. bds. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. tigh. Thin ben Luke i. but stall. to yawn. to cultivate. ON. literally cow-house. The character of folly is i860. Binau Brychyniog. Boom. and Ban in w. Build. the stubble of beans. See Bomb. help.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. AS. to dress. bobo ! interj. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Schm. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. 13. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. bowwen.—Bootless. bua. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. b&ber.Boos. G. botte. Goth. — e. beiSne. and thence Rouchi baia. Palsgr. — . babau. dress. are formed Fr. head-dress wai^g. bonad. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. the scriptures bokareis. bonad. pig-sty. signifying beech.^ —P. Wall. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. swinbusa. . Pr. boutig. badaud. inhabit. boubair. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Busk. dial. boten-shoen. Ox. nachbar. E. although in the OG. \ais-band. From bo. N. a silly fellow. gaping hoyden — Cot. desire. biikui. Prov. feu de behourdis. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. pole. bossen. boer. in Phil. the possessor of the farm. a letter Russ. the cultivator. netis stall. dress. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . dolt. bdn. ON.n. Boot of bale. gaby. succour Bailey. Swab. by itself for head-dress. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. Perhaps. bota. Booby. beam. bolt. a vessel for holding liquids. Du. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. till. tall. The origin of the word is probably the W. clown. and fig. Thus from the syllable ba. bobo. in w. b^er. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. A peasant. or Vanns. E. A stall for cattle. busu. a letter . botta. — — . a simpleton. the alphabet. bene. See Butt. reparation. boutig. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. however. ben. bonaid. bAkva. The i. bosig. inhabit. the first consonant of the alphabet. . It. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. bosih. See Bown. short boots. Jr. a dry stalk. to strew with straw. baier. from badare.. buandi. OW. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. — To boot. buch-stab. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. — From the participle present. petition. . boom. chaff. — Bailey. prayer. the mouth. bommen. dial. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. bauer. Gl. also called Brecknock Beacons. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. Boon. Bun. bauen. and Gael. to set in order. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. high. G. bua. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. letter. a lofty blaze. hu?idbusa. dog-kennel. wondering signifies not only straw. blockhead. to ask. p. Bonnet. ON. remedy of evil. ty Gael. ganian. build. which one gaping and staring about. Fr. remnants of hay or straw. To Boot. quest. . foolish. to prepare. boubi^. a. a hollow skin. AS. a stall. * Boose. a. countryman. In nautical language. botte. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Basa. master of the house. build. It is commonly explained as identical with It. babin. boa. petition. one who dwells nigh.

Pol. chewed food for infants. borino. dust. a word. Magy. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. to bite. burin. borracha. to profit Goth. purra. to bite. Mag. hem or gard of a garment. mat-bod. to surge. bardure. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. bordi. a shop.por. 3. swell bara. to mend. In the Fin. a shed. differs only in termination. and thence to eat build. from bord. make . purro. OSw. scsdes-bod. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. G. The cor. puras. bata. sawroot. to anything Neither G. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view.. — ON. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. to foam. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. a border. It. a cupboard. bite. to quench one's thirst . &c. chisel. Palsgr. and meta- Fr. Another derivation from Fin. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. Gael. ON. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. admovere titiones. limbus. to . . 266. a granary . a chisel. to profit. . betan fyr. which are probably from the same root. to swell. wave. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. Sp. • — To Bore. furni. margin. beute. bottino. or anything pointed. and E. of an edge that will not bite. exchange or divide. See Burgeon. bothag. puras. cottage. scalpo. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. to build buda. biorag. pi.— Return from Parnassus I inR. fire. boeye. rof. Fin. barn. Booth. as afford a satisfactory explanation. on. . Alexand. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. tent. piercer. The ON. wine-skin. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. boeten het vier. better. pointed. making good again . Booty. Fl. are parret. limbus. amendment boeten. urboro. butin is explained by Flor. See Bower. a. is purin. . a borer . a hut. to restore. recovery bata. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. a bladder. sculpo 05\xiik. fimbria. cup- awl. terebra sculptoria purastoa. To Bore. . . Kil. and parrets. cure Sw. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. And so in ON. pu purro (saha =: saw . . cellar. Fin. a hut or tent. uzboro. to patch. bothan.. A phorically a drunkard. comminuted by either kind of action. to hut. ON. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. bud. But probably the E. drillen. an engraver's chisel. forare. ON. repair. ora. Du. to divide. bdra. It is admitted that Fr. Lat. a borer.. purra. lappolone. nor E. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. puru. Fin. boete. Du. to boot. boede. puru. from borra. Gael. baara. and hence to fine. Gael. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. remedy. to to . bdt. the . butin. Esthon. baete. furd. to repair. to pierce. It. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. bolino. The as G. lappalare. BoracMo. from deila and skipta. N. aid. are derived from G. bord. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. terebro.par. byte points to the verb byta. hut. AS. Fr. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. a shelter of branches. sharp. yfirbdt. a bothy. bauda. both. Bete. a tusk. botjan. Compare Manx birrag. borracha. to stick unto as a bur. a responding forms . . Fr. bauen. BOOTH vantage. budka. dens mordens vel caninus. or the gradual working a hole in anything.—Burin. kvit-bara. a great bur. to The Sw. a leather bag or bottle for wine. to bore. in Lap. extremitas Bore. Bohem. a wave. bora. a booth or shed. welt. in Ihre. Border. OHG. edge. p. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. bohren. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). See To We speak in E. amendment. budowai. to build. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Esthon. Burke in R. abode. a shop budowati. reparation. boards. bower. a borer. . to bete the properly to mend the fire. to importune. batr. to expiate boeten den dorst. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. struere ignem. 1. The Fin. a sharp-pointed tooth.

cormpted. an eminence. byrig. So Du. a pushing or striking out. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. the sun sets. to contain. storm. knock and a knob . a blow. boss sound. hollow bucklers. cnag signifies both a clergy. See found in Bav. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. Du.bucklers. boss of the side. borough or chief constable. knur. I. Goth. Newbury. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. bos. busse. borealis. surety. (1867). . /3oraMK6f. bump. — — — A — . a herb. to conceal. borgese.' if thou give money on loan. in instead of without. cnoc. poor. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. ^o^^flj. brown cloth. vain. . to pick or cull plants. a boor. gesylle. to give a hollow bizo. pitch. — ' wind burya. botch. less. Hence borhes ealdor. boussi. secure. basse. a bunch or hump. or perhaps it may be See Bury. Fr.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. Gr. And that unsittynge is to here degre. G. of bail throughout the country. a tower.' Vegetius in Diez. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. bundle. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. to save. ' — — . when that system was forgotten. agrees with E. in the body struck.' every man be under bail. connected. tive idea seems to bring under cover. which now signifies a knob. the Sc. knob. D. a boss. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . beorgan. butsen. viipyoc. . Turk. a knob. pego. rude. Cot. a bouncing baby . the hollow between the Borsholder. V. borg. borel. bergen. cnap. to strike . into borsholder. a city . ' pledge. useCanterbury. ON. is probably radically Boss. E. Hence knot. bossen.. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. bierge. boss or knob of a buckler . clownish. bump is used in lump or piece. and borough in the sense of a town. Lat. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. nonsense. from their grey clothing. the must have arisen burgensis. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. i. bourg.mass. the N. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. cob. Altieri. the ordinary a swelling. destitute. the North Wind. bttssel. It. from AS. a giving rise to It.any round sweUing. The origin seems to be the Goth. empty. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. projection. Boreal. Borowholder. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. hollow. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. or because a blow berga. bosseu. bom. plain rude fellow. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. In like manner It. The primi. borough-holder. and thus could not shake off the old burr. botch.' or system of bail. bos. burgess. Bunch. Botany. a citizen. 106. to take in. (Bridel). gum vocant. Borrow. is used in the sense of bussare. a surety. boschen. primarily signifying coarse sound . both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. borg.' the chief of the ' borh. head. ^ma. botse. northern. Du. f graauw. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. baurgs. to strike so as to Bureau. a little blow. rustic. or perhaps also To Borrow. Sc. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. Borough. while Gael. huschen. &c.ribs and the side. bosh. undyed wool of brown sheep. Fr. bussi. Fr. to protect. loan. burel. tempest. bussa coarse. empty. butse. botsen. without. a. tuft. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. poor. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. to save. AS. Lang. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. to protect. bosse. Jam. that which biirge.vr\. Hal. was origin of the term is the OFr. a citizen. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Bailey. whence the burg. to give bail or answer for an. Bos a surety. formerly used in the sense of knocking. boss. pegou. . Russ. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. grey). borgo. one who sticks to you like a bore. Swiss Rom. whether from the fact preserve G. to keep. borh. striking. by which of or belonging to plants. beorgan. Bosh. or head-borough. a wen. bourgeois. to save Sw. The other. empty. knocking. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. burh. AS. as we speak of a thumping potato. unpolished. to knock or strike. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. coarse cloth made of the Du. bunch. as if from the verb to hold. borei. AS. blow on a hollow object. to become is emitted by a hollow body. It. plant. bail biirgen. boss. Jam.

Prov. ledge It. G.D. boccia. a bottle. contusion . bativa. however. * To Bother. to stir and mix together . ^kvBoQ. pocciar. dabble). podge. what pushes outwards. buddeln. patch. • Bott. bottigUa. to podge. — duj Lett. to we have OHG. abbi. Danneil. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. beggtaj Goth. Boa two. Jtidu. ON. botel foenn. bdt. a humpback. bile. Bouteille. On — Du. botola. to make better. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. H^cart. stock. the lowest part. botm. a bunch. both. Lith. bodem. Wedu. Judwi. disturbance to . — . puddle. Mudu. a tinker schuhbiisser. On the other hand. a slop. a plague-boil Kil. A bottom depth. to work without order or know. E. bSn. bun. gen. Hal. a lump of somebatschen. Parmesan poccia. Diez. ba. Fl. &c. scuohbuzere. gling piece of work. bundle. burgi vel pontis refectionem. Gael. To Botch. A horses.— Hal. nets. a cobbler. a waterfall. . signify a in OE. a bottle. to froth as beer .^Dec. a pit. ixorapudder. bulder. mend. . to smack. See Boss. See Butt. bdsser. Dan.— Swift in R. a slop. to simmer. empty or hollow. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. bozza. Hal. gipuozan. A — oba-dwaj Lat. batschen. ambo. a depth. blister. N. stump. boil. a. — — . Botcli. a root. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. of botta. Gael. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. i. pozzanghera. to knock. See To Bodge. to mend. boute. bethia. to bcBta. It. buideal. butsen. It. Here the radical image seems a bubble. bAdtr. 212. a cask. a cess. mutter. a botcher of shoes. pimple. bots. Bottle. Pl. they two. AS. House-bote. to rage. shoes. is also a bubble. boiteal. bunch.ments of the same root. And so we speak of an eruption. e. Bret. . cation of which may be preserved in puddle . — Dief. hurly-burly. Bouds. Decorde. as a push or windgaU. — Fl. — . buazen. to put on a patch. ON. bozza. schuhbosser. to from the root bot. an abyss or bottoniless pit. fire-bote. BOTCH understood). oba. Fl. abbi-diwij Slavon. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. . seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. abyss. noise. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Lith. a bundle of straw or hay. from the dashing of water. is boteau. Fr. in the sense of mend the fire. knock. or plague sore . botn. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. a cesspool pass. — — A 2. corresponding to . a bott . The Gr. Stalder. j3i/9os. whisper. noise.— . G. stem or base. botsen. we have Swiss batscken. Du. Leg. we two. bulderen. bund. was called a push. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. thing soft batsch. to strike . the science or knowledge of plants. ing out. Podge. to make a make a noise. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. turmoil. buts. as Fr. ON. blow. butse. Du. by met. botse. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. a wisp. to stir and mix together. ubhau. abbu. the bud of a flower . maggots in barley. Fr. See Bound. botte. you two. . mess. fundus. Bochu. dial. to dash about . any round ball or bowl to play withal. a knock. pozzo. btitse. Kil. boiteag. bide. stock. From the dim. Both. buddl. blain. the other hand. poltern. and E. bosser. to give a sounding blow. abbution. whence the name ol pool to podge. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. putra. bossu. bluster. a bubble. Bailey. botch. stroke. bouteille. Fyre to botme. Canut. Butu. a patch patschen. botel. any plain round viol glass bozzo. potra. boden . bottle is provincially used in the same sense. AS. to botch or patch. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. — Bottom. . Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. a maggot. boss. and ajSvamg. To confuse with noise. disturbance. w. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. an imperfect and bunbutt end. boitean. bot. a bottle of hay. the first rough draught 2. pother. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. repara- — — See To Bete. I. especially in Gael. biissen. tumour. for a bud. a pit. AS. to dip in liquid (to Gael. a boil or swelling Halma.) . dim. — Jidwi. butwo. a bump or swelling. to fall : with a sound batsch. botus.of a ball of thread. a vessel for holding liquids. botte. OSax.' to the fiery Csedm. Ancren Riwle. baiothsj Sanscr.foundation. round lump. to mend (kettles. ' G. bottom. &c. a pock. botte. Lat. Again. It. . mess. — — belly-worm. kessel-biisser.

2. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. has hot. from AS. contusi. boujtce. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. 136. 3. Sw. bons. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. the smaller ones. Fr. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals.D. to make a loud noise. boss of a buckler. jump. language a * Boulder. buUersten. Bodinare. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . mere. bonna. tnndo. The W. baby. as a bout of fair or foul weather. bay. Bough. Bunche. thumping. Pm. Bought. To Bounce. geration. ing. bottom. a blow. round. Probably from the Celtic root bon. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. ni motz brugir.' B. I assure you. . Ni gacha cor bondir. bouncwhen coiled in a circle.— Boundary. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. E. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. bouton. dial. So It. signifying in nautical coil of rope. frequently used in the same sense with bound. in the absence of actual e. pimple Richards bothog. To Bound. a blister. Nor a centinel whistle. iv. To Boult. carpet. Bough-pot. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. strapping. volta. Bonny. bonndn. signifies a sliort thick mass. a boss.' round and round in similar circles. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. Raynouard. From Sw. and F. a round body both. nave of a wheel bothel. Dan. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. to fix limits. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Halma. — strike.. from volgere. Coxcomb. debodinare. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body.— — — - 88 BOUGH . botwm. Q. pothel. bend. — — leap. bolder.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. to spring. And the new stools set out. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . in contrast to klappersten. Primarily to strike. mcn-bomi. bondir. root (see Bottom). to thunder. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. The Bight of Benin. a bud. a turn or time. to hum. bugt. butina. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. bunsen. bun. from bugan. to resound. Bret. Alpine Re- — gions. The branch of a tree. march. to turn. See To Bolt. as that of E. a large stone rounded by the action of water. like bobbin.'— Charter of K. turn. the hollow of a bay. bunda. bog. or Bow-pot. Pr.— F.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. a bouncing apple. bugan. the larger kind of pebbles. a large pebble.>a bout. an de dor bunsen. Bowlder. he fell so that it sounded. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Boulderstone. whence buj7isen. bullra. winding. to knock at the door. dial. boriie. bodina. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. A Langued. See Bunch.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. . to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. boundina. bamsen. — — Bight. the bay of Benin. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. Du. to knock. Webster. till The dat et bunsede. bumper. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. a bound. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Fr. and Prov. bend. .— Cot. nor horn sound. as a nosegay. a stock. an occasion. its kind. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. ni frestelar. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Bout. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Fr. — No i ausiratz parlar. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. a boundary stone (men stone). Bound." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. Ducange. jungen. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Mid. bonzen. the verb bondir in OFr. knock it sounds again. see Boss. bounbounejha. Brem. to bow. — Take care my house be handsome. limit. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. of thread. by Bujns or Buns. to thundering big one hum. came home with his face all to-bounced. bone. to set bounds. to spring. Wtb. AS. boh. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. p. a button. gulf. to set out by metes and bounds.

and not in the sense of curvature in general. to hum as a bee. an arch. a drone of a bagpipe. bogr.bass of a stringed instrument. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bending. a sing-song. brummen. spelling the word iox bound. Gael. deceit. It is remarkable that we find vary. pot. shoulder-blade. lance. Du. game. Sw. pausen. Lat. Chaucer in R. . — — . It is the participle past buinn. jest. beygja. to swell. set out. and that probably from a Celtic root. cudgel. warbling. — — — A pare. ready. bugne. . Burden. to take breath. Cot. Bourd. The meaning of bound. different modification gives ON. Eown. buyse. bordon. has also buirleadh. fresh* water. the burden of a song. Burgeon. grumble Sw. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. prepared for. Sw. . which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. to take deep draughts. Gael. btiga. bog. as was for. brausen. bonus. to bow or incline the . bontS. AS. bausen. trick. schenkelbug. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. bonitas. a. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. from spring. pre. bow to shoot with. a humming noise Macleod. drink deep. saufen. bordone. i. A —Cot. Fr. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. a brook. buga. epaule du vaisseau. to take one in. on the whole. bog. to tope. burd. must be referred to the same root. bwa. brunna. bogna. explaining Sw. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. whether by sound or gesticulation. Immediately from Fr. ing. G. to bow. on. fun of one . potio. a corToward the garden. bugna. Bow. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. borne. drone of a bagpipe. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. spring. bourde in the same sense. it is probable that the It. bue. a drone or dor-bee. tinton. — probably through this latter signification. purlBav. bend Sw. Fr. bending of a joint knie-bug. When used alone it . to draw a deep breath. a prop. bourd. to drink deep. buzz. language of folly or ridicule. joke. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bound. ^<7r«i?. repartee. sport. a pot. good. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. burdan. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . g. Bound. Du. to banter or laugh at. is. Sw. Comp. Bourdon. to mutter. bdgi. to our bous. a well. a go to. Spenser in R. bourdon. verb bua. a bow. Du. . a mill-post. Dan. Swiss bausen. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. bugna. ready to pike or spear . burn. the shoulder of the vessel. G. burdan. Du. a jibe. patesten. to hum. Dan. sotich. Gael. Fr. Prov. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. steady. curvature. Gael. a. buizen. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. address. sausen. buzzing of bees. identical with E. souf. to tope W. taunt. firm. staff. . Dan. to draw a deep breath. in Fr. ruption of bonne. bov. to trick. Gael. So Sc. head Fr. the ting of a bell. belly out. G. way ba7n. a humming noise. biegen. burlare. buys. like quaff. bourdon.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse.which see. The foregoing derivation seems. when we speak of. bend. Dan. Cot. Bounty. pared. the Bourdon. purra. G. flagon. burt. to bulge. kroes. Bret. a from Du. that ON. Bourdon. drunken. bunaiteach. bommen. bogen. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. a — — . springbiirn. are applied to the bow of a ship. a cup kroesen. to pre2. Sp. bugan. to drink deep. to — Hal. addressed to. of the ON. cheat. gurgling. puff out. Goth. to indulge in his cups . or of an Gael. As the Gael.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. A water. their time -With "wailful tunes. beogan. . biugan. Sc. bage. bordo. whence buysen. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. also the humming or ON. a jibe Shaw bururus. analogous to Fr. bending. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. w. bug. schulter-bug. to tipple. And there in mourning spend Sw. hous^ Man in the Moon. It. pusta. bovne. crutch. a for New York. limit. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. buigen. ridicule buirte. the fixed.. bogha. It is bov. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. sense durd. bagna. mockery. burreti. Borden. . hence musical accompaniment. the big end of a club.

fyn. a thing of liquid. or in e. Du. A Bulk. Cable. . the crop of a bird. tumour . boil. a box. as well as the name of a. hollow. kupukka. convex. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. a hump on the back rossbollen. in walking appears in a . . belly of a cask. box in both senses. bulka. E. intrenchment. a hen-coop . a box. W. acsian. . buigen. bur. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. busskai. kupula. to puff up. bogla. In like manner the Pol. knob From the former modification we have bolla. buchsbaum. a drop of pullistaa. a knot. AS. . Bowl. ttuJic. . to yield to one. Gr. AS. mausbollelein. Sp. the skull or brainpan . bulb of an onion bolleyield. to bubble up. polla. Fr. beutel. the head. round bead. pocket. globular body. Bower. the box-tree and articles made of it G. bhugna. (in pass . . ne. as in E. zich onder jemand under to him. hiidel. biicken. bowel Box. the box-tree It. dial. biisse. and to a coachbox in particular. . Sw. Bret. hollow place Fr. a bubble Fin. Sanscr. bow. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. busse. box. bulge. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. without the and grits. kupu. buello. a parlour. . — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. an outhouse AS. bocka. bolla. a wardrobe . water pulli. w. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. ^o/a. swoUei) Lat. lump . buckelig gehen. bolne. a chamber swefnbur. the box-tree. bucka. a protuberance. buckel. Bohem. buga. to guggle. passing on stud. . to stoop. a pot. ON. a box. botulus. Sw. signified by forms like Gael. budello. with inversion of the round. . trestle. boel. pullo. bubble. a box Lat. a little box . to make crooked . crooked. bouzellou. bubble. . a ball. Bret. pusspan. a wine-can . Fr. From the other form are G. Bav. . bugyani. . boss. W. biichse. . . cumena-bur. hollow wooden case. bulk compared with Sw. bending. . prominence. . to raise the back boll OHG. . See Boil. to stoop biickling. honse-bur. bur. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bow. bulla in aqua. blister. belly. See MHO. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. spring as water bugya. then by the loss of the /. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. ku^o.. a iDubble. kuppelo. Sw. globe or spherical body. G. buk. a round glass or bolg. bolle. bowels. bhuj. the barrel of a gun.\s. Fr. boudin. Buckle. a buck.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. a bundle. Du. bulcken. bog. gut. ON. wisp of straw . Lat. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav.a. to swell. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. guestchamber . bouellou. is applied to a coach-box. round glass phial. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. a box. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. budel. . bulla. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bol.). crown of a hat. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . fata-bur. inclinare se (Kil. OE. boxtree pusska. bulne. boucle. a bubble. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. boxtree. a stud. to buckle G. ken.). a bowl. to bend. biiske. puffy. bock. give in to. bugyni. folliculus . * Bowels. compared with Fr. ON. The / a bow. bukke. PLD. a black pudding. make obeisance. bola. &c. globular. of a wooden ball to play with and — . to bend down. and on swollen. bugy. purse. Du. bolgna. buis. koziel. a bubble. a bubble bolli. . bollen. OFr. bugyola. swell. a sack. a croft by a house. in both senses. peated in Magy. The word may probably be identical with Fris. . bug. iri'iaQ. G. a. ask. a polla. anything globular. Pol. to bulge. at the e. Hal. It is more probably from the G.D. Thus we have Esthon. bent. bossola. a ball . . ^o«/«. similar shape. an inclosure. as in AS. to puff up pullakka. a bud. boss.. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. sausage. . tumour. a swelling or rising up.) to incline oneself . Boll. beuz. bowl . horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. different position in ODu. the head. Dan. bouge. boor. Dan. belly. heafod bolla. A . convexity. bwra. utibur. Hence. spherical Dan.cup Du. the bogna. to bow buck. See Crab. bol. head of a cabbage. hill. stream forth bugyogni. bolla. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. . a boil. bog.flask It. bwr. bosso. buxus. a separate apartment . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. or. painter's easel. a ball. a sleeping-room . bugna.

The different meanings of the brageux. . bracon. priated to the original sense. brakke grund. his eyes are failing him). brae. land spoilt Kil. See Brake.. and string of his bow. a bubbling dura del mun. babble. bracco. wristband. bruxula. braic. cramp-iron holding things together . brek. bray. brace on and Du. in R. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. suppuration. a grown youth Cimbr. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. Prov. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. . to burst. Du. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . bragos. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. To fight with the fists. braque. to box the ears. Bracket. boy bouba. a bog or pass Fr. dog in general. from a root brak. breptati. isolated part of the text. bouibo. by the same inversion of J and k. salsus. — . need. want. — — . ON. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . Pm. breuque. In like manner the It. to give a gebrechen.D.. a braceOFr. to fall. — . ratch. Hdcart. whelp as. parallel with OK. root). It. unmarried man . boiste. posh. to smack the hand batschen. brechen ihm. ' — A — — — . s. ON. defect. BOX To Box.nated by dirt. Lat. Sp. flap. boussole. compressing. Fr. bracil. a box. brague. strike. 91 the Dan. to give a sounding blow defect. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. — . To Brabble. It. Swiss bub. G. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. salo sive aqua marinS. &c. clay. Ptg. a pair of braces. race. armour for the arm. jabber. odorinsecus. braco. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. breach. a boy pupa. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. brageuses. briche. boy. Fr. . putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. a guard to torf. See Broker. Heligoneed. Sp. brae. Swab. Brack. . dog Sw. . Brack. brakke Bracelet. One girl. con. AS. bue. want. let. bube. to give a blow with the fists.puddle. s. — . an languages. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. to is derived brestr. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. rakki. defect. a crack. . a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. or bracer Cot. buah. the arm. Pr. On the same principle from the buksteht. Du. quarrel Bohem. Prov. and then Pl. which sigof straining. is a rope holding G. G. break. It is B. rack. disturb.. bracke. brostia. bou^ba. matter. V. and F." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. to stammer. Fr. fuse. pus. Kil. A to halt between two derivations. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. confining. brechen. . brae.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. To brace is to draw together. to want. Brach. variation of babble. to crack.D. Prov. rakka. mud. Pl. wrack. bracket. fault. to stutter. brack. flaw. bask. foul. . Bracelet. brasselet. Kil. dog that hunts by scent. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . ghebreck. beagle. or defect. braco. MHG. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. braquet. then from break. OFr. — . loud smack. Thus brack. filth .— D. a sounding blow. as noticed under Box. spaniel. taneous talking. A brace probis. youth. want. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. thwack. brek. Water rendered boubo. Boy. braca. braecke. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. baukscheht. land batsken. Kil. dirty. brassard. in R. damaged board a ship. brae. a comworld Rayn. Swiss Rom. acidus. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Rouchi Then as an adj. Brackish. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Cot. OE. Lett. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Prov. ing from a mixture of salt. breach. fault . to slap. . pube. mud. moral or physical. bitch Du. lalear-eyed Prov. brago. It. baske. brack. bresta. Gael. La ville ou y avait Brace. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. brabbelen. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. pupus. murmur. bracer.. Brak-goed. defect Du. Fr. I sal slyng. OFr. the first instancebya physical tie. to be wanting. rakke. corruptse. A — — . refuse. by an overflow of sea water. Sp. a girl. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. brec. wnzC/J.with a noise. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. flaw. bracha. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. merely in our mode of considering them. to Swiss batschen. mud.

the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . to boast or brag. also tion of this was brayeul. excellent.Shepherd's Cal. se donner trop de licence. se pavaner. bullying. From brayel. Walloon bress. braga. binding anything together. brag or jet it braguard.explosion. Hence E. a roisterer. Fris. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. bravo. or from braie itself. to flaunt. to crack. fine. Fr. fine. used in the sense of force. or by gaudy dress and show. the arm. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. valiant The head are sumptuous. brazo. to brail up a sail. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. empty pride. breyne.hy which this idea is con\eyed. an iron for holding Zalli. braies. &c. handsome. Bret. From sprouted corn. brachittm. To Brail. gay. — From W. vaunting. proud. bragging of his own valour. and that from e. boast. gay. the feathers ON. well-dressed. braga. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. stately. subigere. — Chaucer. . Chaucer. to stand upon terms. cry. Brail. braszketi. bravache.. Bret.i5nz^. finery. . brag. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. flaunting. The meanings included under — Bragget. in order to prevent its catching the wind. Haldorsen Gael. braga. compressing. braka. brabhdair. is identical with Gael. bragd. i. brake in the sense of constraining. would be to brace. affront. bravado j Fr. that will carry no coals. se parer de beaux habits. ative fellow. to cord a bale of tie up. It. as the type of exertion and strength. braggard also valiant. Primarily to crack. vanter une chose. is Cot. gayly dressed. goods. gallant (in apparel) also proud. drawers. gallant. torture . In like manner to crack is used for boasting.. brake is. AS. fine. hectoring. de Vaud. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. brae. . to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). . brao. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed.—— . sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. blusterer.breeches. a carriage for breaking in horses . to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. A — Hal. slight modificajoining the two legs. — A — . spot. Brain. gorgeous. . braguer. Sc. Cot. bragaireachd. From Fr. Sp. braske. idle talk. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. bra!. Brake. . Dan. brails. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. brabhdadh. breghe. stout. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. brave. brayete. crack. Langued. strength. make a noise . w. To Brag. brave. splendid. to shout. in numerous dialects. to swagger. bragio. h-avare and Fr. also derived Fr. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Lith. The meanings of brake are very numerous. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. noisy ostentation. — Equivalent forms are Gael. the opposite of which. Brake. Dan. —Spenser in R. flaunt in fine clothes . swaggerer. Thus Bret. Faire le brave. about the hawk's fundament. Cot. brave. dhbrailler. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. called by our braggard. brag. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. also insolenter se gerere .aburst. It is certain that the word for arm is. BRAG Piedm. subduing. to sprout malt. braka. brave. breagh. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . The plant y^r«. Thus we are brought to the OE. Fr. bully . instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . bravacherie. power. Hecart. . fine. Lat.%. and it is very likely that the root brak. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. to strut. courageous. 92 Cot. beautiful. to make a noise. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . to Rouchi brMer. riches. to unbrace or let down the breeches. See Brace. 2. Bray. smart. boasting.^Vocab. brave. braicli. an inclosure for cattle . be noisy . braw. was formed brayele. confining. breghen. See Bray. be found. in the sense of the Lat. . To Braid. showy bravery. breach. braegenj Du.^ Sp. — . ^Brave. to rattle. crash ON. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. braske. Cot. brav. Rom. crash. Wallachian bratsou. a noisy talkboasting. Brag was then used brisk. bragging. braver. vain glory. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . swagger. expensive. bushy . to boast of his own worth.

e. Gael. brage. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. quarry from Fin. to subdue. The Fr. to fracture. de Vaud. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. el arco. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. game. a marsh. Brake. We — . by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. to distinct.D.bracan. braca. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. In ON. bush. brushwood. —Ovid. brook. briers. to break. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. brega. brage. is formed murd. brcekke. 2. breaking in the operation. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. braken. as in the case of horse-breaking. broilium. as well as in the case of the e. t° moisten. in usus braca.' It. braecken het vlasch. to pound. brak is a frame in which strip. It. Brake. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. tnurdma. bush. or overthrow of trees by the wind. gebiisch. to break. ing of flax or hemp. G. broken fratta. broyer. the lever by which the string was drawn up. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. brambles. where from Esthon. braeken. — Fl. watered. is braukti. bruch. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. properly braking or subduing them. a spinning-wheel. P&. Corrfeze bredgea. thing is brought under control. subigere. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. Dan. Gr. frangere linum. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. thicket. pasture. in northern climates. marsh or swamp. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. as in Du. breuil. bregar. a harrow. In the case of the ne. brog. to stiffen against Taboada). to break or fracture. —Bracken. have thus Du. brolium. OFr. break of such a kind. flachs brechen. marsh. to harrow (Lat. bregar brake. or A A ' . Dan. Sp.D. any thicket of brakes. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brake. for — Due. Dan. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. 3. might come to signify a swamp. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. iSpsx". copse-wood. — — . It may be sus- . Swiss Rom. Biglotton. Fr. In like manner Lat. to rub. bregille. braquer un canon. broillet. a fen. and G. gilum.— . to exert force in different ways. to bend a bow. broeck. referred brake. a stream. braka. brog or brake. ^raca. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). brog above mentioned. murrokko. gebrUche. a brace on board a ship. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. tris). BRAKE to external force. dial. to knead or mix up in a mortar. been confounded with the verb break. brambles. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. fratto. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. brake. Lat. to bend or direct a cannon. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. casser le \va. or a wood in a marshy place . it is not surprising that the word has here. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. a swampy Mid. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. a thicket. murtaa. Pl. farinam in mortario subigere. murran. Prov. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. brook. a horse's a horse's twitch. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. cover G. to head must be bit. cetur. brook. gebroge. bushes. . glebas subigere. Fr. nemus. conSo in G. as in Sp. to bray in a mortar. broor bushy place Hal. break flax PLD. To the same bend a bow. to The ON. and Lat. to row. word. brego. signifying to sweep. Voc. to brush. gebroge. bredza. the original meaning of G. It. brogille.. In the sense of a thicket. riguus. gebroge. low wet land bruch. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. briser. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. and when once thrown down. gebrUche. Fr. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. broil.

Fr. a rod or twig. brandr. piece of anything. and thence a shoot. heath ON. heath. to burn. gebriiche. titio. bushes. as. thicket of brambles Cot. . a firebrand. burning brennen. also a marshy low ground or fen . snotty . Brancare. It will be found that shrubs. Dan. —Ducange. branco. brog. constrain. also pfriemkraut. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. brano. bruch. bran. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. cack. It. ordure . bit by bit. bren. The naof strain. — branca. . apiece orbitbrandone. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. . As ON. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brin d. brous. Sir Topaz. may be so called in analogy with Bret. pfropf. virgultum. brein. chaff. brin (as It brano). a briery plot. a bud. the thorn apple or stramonium. bro7n. ground full of briers. dirt . the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brushwood. The same form becomes in It. brouskoad. brand. brass. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. AS. bran. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. Pl. sedge burkni. in the same sense. brom. thorns and Gen. clutch. compress. braeme. . Fr. Thornas and bremelas. young twig {brom-beisser. pfriemen. or with It. a single plant of heath. to or iron. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. Broom. brem. branchia. from Lat. brarn. Pl. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . broembel-CBppel. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. pfriem in the sense of an awl. brok. Bav. from Servian pnit. . Fr. iii. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. See Brush. Piedm. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. bronbo. 1 8. &c. brughera. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. It. bruch. a bud It. sawdust. nasty. heath. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. That beareth the red hepe." The bmno a • on . as AS. restrain. Fr. from brug. ear-wax mud. branche. breanan. a bud. Bran. to gripe. w. bruk. a small deri\'ation . the bull-finch. brugek. a vine twig Bav. bruk. or other plants of a like nature. Gael. broccoli. Bramble. G. a thick bush. or ling. i. Bret. stink . Then by comparison with claws or arms. broussaille. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. brandello. broem. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. hallier. breme j Sw.G. brank. sprouts. bromboli. braam. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . w. bruskoad. broom.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Thus we have w. So Swiss gaggi. a shoot. 2. gebroge. G. brosst. brank. a roA. young buisson fort epais. Port. to bridle. . G. brenna. Bret.. . to brank. brang. Brank. what is cast out as worthless. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. Gael. G. bracken or fern . to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Bret. heath. pected that brake.). prufye. broom. Bret. Brand. a shrub from Bret. brug). that is to say. heath (Bret. Grisons bruch. A mark made by burning. brejo. . brwnt. brancas. from brand. it glitters — — . The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. bren. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. brenda. Branch. Russ. broust. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. a dunghill. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brandmurk. a halter. brandiiialil. wood composed of twigs. bretnel. from virga. breun.D. brambles. the branch of a tree. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. berneux. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. and waste growths. excrement. But we find It. brenn. a heath. to -brugen. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. sweet broom. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. . bruk. — . the twigs of a besom from brenneti. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a burning fragment of wood. a shoot or twig. is the draff or excrement of the com. from gaggi. in the sense oi fern. brug. piecemeal brindelles. a shrub . Thus in Lat. In like hrst. bramble Du. Diez. brake. heath. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. a bridle or bit . E. brin. Rouchi bren d'orMe. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. briars.D. cabbage sprouts Fl. brenn hesken. and E. &c. Serv.

a fragment. brand. put. Du. brausen. Lye. It. bruciare. perplex. So. to blaze. bransella. to dash. brush. Braser. Ija. De Goes. a pan of hot coals. to braze or lute. before the discovery of America in the brandir. brasil. to burn. then brandr. Fr. — . prasseln. is bntan. Milan. to solder iron. a round dance. to roar. bruan. brastlian. brandolare is exbrandish. The name Brandy. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. Sw. Chron. to bicker 2nd. to distil . to glisten or flash. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. brus^. plained by Florio. splinter. Diez. eldibrandr. Bailey. hot Fr. bra?ier. conbillet. to burn. De Barros considers vinum ardens. braise. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Brasil. to hurl with great force. bum. The corresponding form in Gael. In the same way the set on fire . live coals. spirit distilled from wine. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Brase. to make sense of a bright red dye. Manx bransey. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. brangle or brawl in E. branler. brennen. crackle. E. billet. bresil. bracia. brasca. brustle. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. to Bailey. as Jamieson explains it. fire-wood. stake. It. gebrannter wein. V. to shake. AS. aqua ardens. was in use Fr. bruzi. a To Brandish. With top trimbling. Brangle. G. Fl. braise. urens. became ashes Pied. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. make an outcry. weinbrenner. to brangle. Fr. brazeiro. brascct. To brand. to burn. braza. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to murmur. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. branler. and bruir. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. set on fire. firebrand. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Kil. bracea. Hume in brand in ON. flagrans. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr.pan of coals. To brase AS. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. or in stick. to and fro in the hand. brandigh. N. brin. to confuse. — . apparently very distinct from each other. Gris. brandiller. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. — ting to confusion. totter.well. shake. comes from thence. du Roi et laine. to make shine with shaking. to shake The word brisil. noise. E. to sound of the Fr. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. a roaring fire. from used in dyeing cloths. briiler. glowing embers . faire fracas. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. G. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. to make display . but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. bransle. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. crackle. embraser. Formerly brandy-wine.. ist. brandende wijn. to shog. as Fr. braser. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. not. Guill. to brandle or The It.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. bragia. Jam. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. Chron. the spelling to kindle. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. all. to rustle. and scold. distilled wine. to French brawl or brangle. brane-wood. brouir. Fr. to quarrel. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. Fr. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. the colour than hitherto known. bragale\ wood. incendium. forms brasil. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. e. brandiller. a brusler. given to the country. firewood. brazil. d'Angl. Thus the bound up again. ish. branla. Sw. to totter.^Brandle. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. n. 59. to shake. and branchis shaiand D. hoisting to the fall. to crackle . The tre brangillis. bruire. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Bret. brasa. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . brasca. a stick. to brustle. to brandle. as again by well as the blade of a sword. bryne. make a — . brasa. from to vociferate. It. Fr. — . Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. morsel. so. Port. WaUon. braise or hot coals. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. in Marsh.

calf of the leg. Fr. Brangle. ^Altieri. buttock Sc. Kil. bratidone.— Remade.^ — Sverris Saga. ship. breteque.' BRASS BRAY et AS. slut. A. braiio. brces. bruir. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. brettys. strepitus 2. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. brass.brettysing. saillies. braser Fargent. See Bray. A.D. Brawl. bras. is The word — uous name for a woman. a lump. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Cot. a contempt- banner. calf of the leg. bartisan. The same correspondence is seen between It. braon. whether contracted from brabble. discord. at brasa. bratach. to tear piecemeal. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Fr. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. bronze. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . KiL Prov. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. It . brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. bratdn). ' A vraale. as rashers upon quick burning coals. apron. to solder. baltresca. braeye. a rag . bran. ferruminare. bratid calf of the leg. Fris. a rag. OFr. to copper. bronzare. tasce. Circumeunt cibertesca. a lump of flesh. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. 368. Sup. Gael. from branler. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. le repasser un peu sur la braise. Cot.— Diez. bretesche. Sp.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. frequentative of braire. frame of laths. slibro. bred.96 Roquefort. Betrax of a —^Jam. Mundart. OHG. roar. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. Bailey. 1156. braoilich. 1224. It. —^Bronze. bransle. bribe de viande. Westphal. OFr. the buttocks. to talk at bralle op. luncheon. brazen. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. to carbonado. AS. brandillo. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Jam. brat. G. Brat. Many gambes. Swiss bradle. Sc. as scrawl from scrabble. pan- — Rayn. brat. bradlete. A land of dance. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. burning coals. slibro {neita.— Braid. boarding being sbranare. Du. bartising. borderinge. as lattice. braodhlach. Certainly a little girl. See Brandish. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. Bartizan. P1. a cloak. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Fr. Pm. a contemptuous name for a young child. Dan. equivalent to the Du. Brattice. a — A from the confused noise. fraiche. brdto (ace. A dispute or squabble. to cry. a rag . a slabbering-bib. braede. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. lat'te. and bronzo. in the first instance of boards.D. muscular parts of the body. a loud noise. The muscular part of the body. cloth. —-Jam. braion. as a brawling brook. flesh of a leg of pork. &c. rag. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. So also See Brag. breyon de kinds of . a lump of flesh. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. from Fr. bretays). to shake. bronzacchiare. Lorraine bravon. a battle-girdle. any piece. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. neita girl). squall. Wall. a plank or board. Brave. a fortification. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. Brawn. The verb is probably derived from the brase. brailler. contignatio. Brass. slakker-bortchen. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. — Deutsch. as criailler of crier. . Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. brat. Florio. coassatio. or whether it be from Fr. ni autres choses sur Due. a. to braze. a mantle. esbraotier. I. a Lap. especially that used in the working of iron . 2.walle — Pr. cob. W. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. branle.' Hal.propugnaculum. Paris. It. a lath. bradon. solder. noise. or on the top of a wall. bas morceau de viande brawhng. bralle. from Sc. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bretesque. breyon. a patch of cloth. to scold . boutures. Hist. trul. the calf of the leg. Math.D. pil. — . Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. deblaterare. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. then a parapet. a wooden tower. Pisana in Mur. bmhon for brado7i. Cologne broden. a clout. breyon d'chaur. a parapet. ON. brett.— Fl. berd. to Gael.

kind. make a disturbance. plait. V. to rub Fr. Gr. bragd is also applied nets. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. Prov.g. R.. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. crackle . . to knead. paste or dough. k. a rag f . yell. Ppvxia. to bawl. 2. on. rustle. to pretend. relation is seen between Lat. OE. Then. disturbance. ser. bradar. broyer. Bailey. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to break Fr. V. to braid acquires the sense of bend. rattle. Cot. vapna-brak. From the or brack in a wall. and to signify the fracture itself. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. starts crackling up. E. noise . fish. as the notion of turning crack. bregda. to braid. to snatch. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. bruire. explaining a very obscure application of the E. See Brake. AS. as the voice of the ass.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. fractus j Gr. to bray like an ass. twist. to tear Bret. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to cry out. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. paxog. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. soft . ON. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. riAprjyvvfu. ^p&xia. to sound very loud and very harshly. brot. with or without a final d. to braid. brak. Then is simply. ON. to work up in a mortar. roar. The same He might don us both a villany. will.^ Fr. — . a wink. the sound — of arms. to rush. braidar. Bread. &c.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. ybrayid. D. brand.fracas. Cat. to N. to crash. crash. a crash. Swiss bratschig. and fracasously. bratsche. to braid the hair. brage. to roar or bellow. instantane. brame.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. fragor. bregar. Fr. G. Fin. &c. to bellow. roar. broad. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. or wound. Goth. Chaucer. Wal. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. brugier. G. R. the sword was out break.' To Bray. the miller's dog. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. D. W. braidir. 7 . we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to resemble. to break. appearance Hal. mos. To Break. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. baiyl. rogi. at braga eftir euium. a mill. And with a traid I tumyt me about. at once. abraid. &c. to smack or the eye. The ON. Bret. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. which has given much trouble to commentators. braid. and frangere. weave The ON. brice. . a breach Cot. to resemble. bru. a brack. to resemble him. F. e. to cry out. brak. imitate or resemble one. to crash. &c. Breach. or cry out loudly . father. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. V. to roar as the sea. brikan. braa. to t. to roar. resound . bray. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. Q. braea. Prov. — koa. a . rangere. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. since such are the manners of Frenchmen.ear rog. brechen. iU-favouredly — in Jam. ing. I'll live and die a maid. And at a braid he gun it bende. to cry Port. a rent. to the seijauntes. To rub or grind down Sp. as OE. braa.y. regi. to have the lineaments of one's ON. breach. to The cup was uncoverid. cyprinus latus. is . breche. yell. braire. — — — explained motus loud noise. 145.ch. a brake for hemp or flax. bregar. verb to break. Du. Lat. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to scold. bruzir. at a braid. bragr. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. and make a hideous noise. to bray in a mortar. Beryn. D. to rumble. Chaucer. father. . augnabragd. bragd — ON. in Jam. Fr. crepo and E. to break. i. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. upbraid. breuan. The Lat. Bread. to break. gestus. turn. Dunbar braessem. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. to start. crash.

bris. Piedm. grill. Swiss brdtsch. Fr. AS. forms. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. to bray. Breast. Dtyden. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. brire. breath. See Brick. to simmer. are in like manner ' . drive the cattle gadding through the wood. brugga. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. rubbish. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. braia J OFr. bryi^ga. Swiss AS. The Breech (Prov. of trees. bris de charbon. vapour. breson. brissle. as. then to broil. Prov. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brezzare. dial. brusc. de Vaud. — . morsel. bris. brezza. bre- I'os qui bresole. G. Bracha. a crum Du. Fris. applied to shivering. Fr. brijsen. burst. Originally probably the word signified steam. orts. braga. a box. to breech. corresponding to G. braux. E. braie. may be from the wurh fesser. . a to lay fly-flap. . bridsen. windy withal. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. to be misty and cold. fitzen. broil. breost. Sw. their stings draw . Prov. Goth. G. the bust. bresilles. so AS. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. . coaldust.t. as. Dan. E. brison. griller. briosa./ssus. representing the sound of a blow.D. of E. Gl. brew. brcEth. bandage or truss for a rupture. brcekur j It. bretilles. the soler. Piedm. a girdle. Breeze. bremse. briosat'. a cold and windy mist or frost . brok. and brought beneath between the legs. remains of leaves. trembling. instead of being derived from 'La. brossi!. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. murmur—Vocab. a crum.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. simmer. drawers. properly to crackle. w. To Brew. The Teutonic verbs. an into shiver. but more probably the E. /esses. a cool wind. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. switch. Dev. brinisa. de bridse geveii. as by the Sc. with It. brimsa. brosame. . break. Du. bruzun. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. bruise. braguier. briig. to fry Then from a Gl. little bits of wood Berri briser. a cramp-iron for holding things together. braich. brasiuiii. peitschen. Breeze. the dry spines of furze broken off. Compare OE. breeze. So ON. It. the breech or buttocks. bark Fr. bracecs . fastening . Lat. in Schilter. Rom. bruzir. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. brumtnen. brisd. siibligar. and other rubbish dibris. of straining. and E. to crush to break. from brace. Breath. Breeches. to feize or feaze. braies. Biglotton. simmering. braga. to resound.98 borst. brciz. as the G. Gael. binding. AS. — Brist. Gl. point to G. braciarc. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. to hum. malt. b}-as. are related to Prov. Bret. Brize. a twitch for a horse. singing bone. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to rattle (as hail). brist. briste.vare. Isidore and Tatian. bratscher. zare. xyligogio castigare. from ligare. crush. breinse. Gael. — . bragues. brijselen. fail. rubbish. einem de britze geven. grillare. brasser. cloven. noise. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. &c. to murmur. to burst. a horse's twitch. Du. Swiss Rom. broden. braca. briiz. brodel. brasiare. chillness or shivering. as commonly explained. to shiver for cold. broza. Fr. forms analogous to E. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brodem. to buzz. braucn. Du. brisciare. G. Lat. broiiwen. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. chilly. trusts. G. polenta. . to break. also to chill and shiver with cold. We bragezj on. sheep's droppings bruss. G^nev. a gadfly. a smack. brisoler. to whip. G.). Russ. brdtschen. brache.britschen. subligaculum. Breeze. braies. i5r(Z^. to fry .'— Gl. brise. murmur. —Briss. — — strument for smacking. malt. an odour. sprouted corn. breme. as in the case of twitter. — And blood. brezling. — Halma. brimme. Briss and buttons. scent. bra. body brostia. to brew. bruc. from AS. britze. Bruise. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. brustia. braca. PI. to roast. — See Broth. clout for a child. met de bridse slaan. briosa. Bret. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. Hence the Lat. grillen. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. to smack. . to bind. to brew. brut. to crackle. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. or the blow itself. OFr. QNtsterviald) pritschen. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Hume in Jam. Du.

It. boiling up brocoliere. E. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. it is applied to the letter to OE. and ODu. brutg. brug. conjux. jipaaaiii. AS.pritil . lipdZu}. brood. a cheat. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. a man. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Neumann. a sow. a lump of bread. a briole. to beg one's bread. E. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. bryd-gutna. funeral. bretonica. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. bro is applied not only to a bridge. of burial. broken victuals. httle bit. bara briw. See Broth. E. A — A — . bruk. pavement Lith. bread. Brewis. Bridal. a Bride. If the foregoing were not so clear.privatus. buskins. Grisons bruch. but probably Bricoteau. . The original sense thus seems to be to ram. Gl. brique de pain. bably contracted from brigantine. broosekens. bruith.It. briw. priod-ferch. W. It — is Kil. is still used in this sense. grug. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. division of an army. a lump of bread briber. one's ovin. fervere. brahi. brygga. fastningar-ol. AS. So It. bidsel. sugga. Rouchi brife. ter-in-law. a bride Brig. from the Normans. bricge j G. . Diez. a rogue. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. fit. broken bread. birbone. brasser. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. . Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. It. betony brulicame. a quoit of stone. Trovarfor bride-ale. owned also propriate. beaten way Dan. Fr. stone-bridge bnikkoti. braut. brukkas. a bush. crew. peculiar. a fragment.bergantino. briicke. to rub. Goth.Fr. jetty. Pro(merch=:maid). briiths. piece of burnt clay. a little king's writs. frayer. guma. remarkable that the Gr. Ducange. ap. — . bricou. — . brilt. ' — . bryd-eale. then the marriage itself. heath. to press. appropriate. privus. to brew. hlafes brice. broken. Fl. especially to a letter or command. to pave brukkti. fraoch. Lang. a beggar. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . to boil. in the sense of OSw. to boil. . a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. . as so. In E. Lat. Sp. whence berw. In the G. E. to break to pieces bricalio. to Isrew. Cot. a fragment. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. bride. . a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. pier. as. pavement. Fr. — — — — — — .. . Fr. brocaly. Brique. consort with. Hdcart. bro. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. bruskr and buskr. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. to boil. birbante. a boiling. bulicame. Du. Ihre. berwedd. OSw. bridge. Priodi.rough with brambles and bushes. company. from bit. bro.gfiugga. brieden. a bride. troop. bride. Applied ous words derived from break. any jot or crum. Gael. G^n^v. feast. sponsa. betonica. feast of espousals. to press in. with transposition of the r. bribour. bribe de pain. A bribe is A — — arval. breve or brevis. gf2o. or brizo. brar. and berweddu. to pave. a married man or woman Lat. brughiera. son. brigantine. to circulate. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . to break. Brick. AS. collect bits of food. brigata. The origin of the word is the w. bruarium. .' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. the equivalent of to the dial. OHG. to appropriate. Walach. brigade. a heath brughera. Pol. w. a brig or priodor. a rogue . Diefenbach com. In the patois of briccia. bruk. a proprietor. imprint. BRIGADE dead. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. married. twopares Lat. brau.groom. bo. Dan. brice. to stamp. Bridge. has briguer. from Bret. pavement brolegge. two-masted vessel. graf-ol. fragment. briwo. to meet together. The Sw. groom (mab=:son). from Bridegroom. a heath. the newly. Brief. masted vessel. AS. Due. Bridle. brittil. corresponding or letter. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. malt. bitill. daughheath. bygga. Brier. Thom. Brigade. ibrukkti. nurus G. priod. brere. barren land priodas. served (Patois de Bray). a bit. Flor. the Fr. ' . Gael. AS. brA. the marriage si in brigata. arf-ol. to tlie brico. buckler J ON. a crum. berwi. brakes of high-grown ferns. and that from It. . from the last 99 of which. Mid. to prepare. Bribe. thick appropriated. bridelj OHG. but to a paved road. bruyere. Hence OE. AS. ON. malt. which however is undoubtedly from brace. a married man guma. Bridal. a lump of bread. a crum. So in The Prov. a wedding priod-fab. ment of anything broken.

noise. bracht. Brigata. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. kilistua. brigare. hell. secondarily. to reservavit. transparent.shine. It. Bright. Heo — song That AS. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. inde squammatus. willata. and the E. brcEhtin. Bav. tion. tinkle. Gall. — Due. sound. splendour. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. \oice. to sound. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. from hall. 312. The primary meaning of Sp. briegen.pracht. representing a sudden noise. Brigand. to resound. loo BRIGAND lor. to shift for with care. splcnornd de brigandine. to contend with another. So G. bragen. Lat. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. rixa. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. splendour. bray. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. twinkling. and led it away. glamra. etincelle. in the first instance. that of Fr. necessary business. brdgen. beorht. then. to rove. to rob. the bench-notes resounded. Florio. In Fin. to cry. braid. tinnitum clarum movco.D. the gleeman's song. glitter. brawl. a pirate. brigare. praht. bryhtm. splendens . and. Goth. glir. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. clear.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. briga.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Xa/iTTii). glbram. in later times a robber or highway-man. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. — Briganbriga. — A A . clear. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.— . tuilahtaa. moment. and. 1351. in the sense of a robber. It. bregar. kii:'a.' The sense of strife or combat express. It. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. clear. AS. wilella. a sound. —Capgrave. combat. A. at a later period. to glamr. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. — Probably then to strive. tinnitus. to make a loud noise. a spark. schateren. to shine. speech. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. OHG. and to associate with them. 1654. to ring. pugna. malandrini. Schmeller. brak. XafXTTpoQ. riis ' — Chron. — brigante. strife. dine. Brilliant. Gr. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten.' torum. Swab. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . Flor. squamma . brebrigare. to strive for. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag.glampa. brigant. Due. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. manifest ON. and diligence. shriek with laughter. lay was sung. a small light pinnace pro. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Wilista. cange has 'Veles.' The passage from the sense of a light. brigandare. with respect either to sound or colour. to shine. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . clear sound. Owl and beorhtian. brigan. to glitter.' in Due. Beorktode bene sweg. Adelung. bright bearhtm. briga. to cry 'Schmid OE. . is easily understood. rover either by sea or land. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. also called briganders. a noise. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. clarus. jurgia. — Brigantine. — Beowulf. From ON. The Ir. dine.dorem clarum reflecto. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . there are many armour. the grew high. glamm. schiteren.clare ^tinniens. clangour. See Brake. Mid.Lat. They or brigantini. — — . to piracy. outcry. a brigantine. and secondly. labour. clare lucens. to bend a bow It. show the origin of Lat. a glittering. — brigante. may play the pirate or thief at sea. biartr. himself to serve men of merit. clang. and ner me hit iherde. A strepere. bairhts. on his — own account. In the same way to strive is. . It. The E. tumult. Du. seems to be to exert force gar el area. and hence be explained glampi.

The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v.D. briller (related to each other as OFr. bar. bry7ie. and 1. Rugere. to shimmer. Hence with an initial s. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. clangor tinniens. AS. ring. Tresiller. fringe (Lat. Brindled. grisser. In the same way Sw. which seems identical with rim. lap of a garment . grdzil. barm. brennistein. Wtb. brand-krossottr. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. to shine. broiled. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. fringe . to storm. brumft. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. brimmen. It. crackle. ter. brmdottr. breziller. — . brame. ous. Dan. Supp. the heat of animals. the lap or bosom. Thus Lat. Kil. to shine. Tutschek. bray as an ass bramire. spraing. to crackle. lap. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. brastlian. as of meat in broiling . appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. — — — . to fret . kimista.) brimi. kiimottaa. parched. the meaning is transL' amour. earnestly . to creak. frequently interchange. bramar. E. to resound. Fr. The expression is now confined to the sow. 1. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. Rayn. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. vigorHal. a stick. the sow is brimming. Sw. Sc. dial. brant. bryn. pMiller. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. striped or streaked. border. a long. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. a streak. Subo. glit. — Rim. shine. breziller. bramer. bresoler (Gloss. greDiet. as in Langued. AS. brim Magy. whence bilbil-goda (literally.— Brinded. s. Closely connected is OE. ling noise and a sparkling light. originally the lap folding over the breast. border. Fl. The E. that the original meaning of the Sc. In Fr. fire. also to reflect. to burn. kommata. to long for a thing. : ' — bone). brommen. rugire (cervorum. identical with passion. a border. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to glitter . rym^. brunft. brama. G. burning stone. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. breme. The identity of ON. as is the case also with Pl. the eye-brow. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. brissle. Swiss Rom. Prov. kimina. It. briller. Lith. chime).— BRIM . voux. from brandr. the edge.its vent in cries and roaring. to glitter distance . Said of swine when in heat. reecho. to glitter. to crackle. broil . to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion.' d'etre marie . Dief. the singing of Sodom — — . to . Brim. is used of raging. bremas. 154. rugire. leonum). properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. hence the bosom. noise made by meat in broiling. coloured in stripes. Streaked. fierce. grullo. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. the verbs Flor. komista. have then in Fr. a borDu. der. gresiller. brandr and Fr. to sparkle. rut. brow of a hill. ON. tience. grisler. from bringe.ioTiviS acutus.preni. to roar. whether of desire or anger. fimbria) . brezil. lip of a vessel. s. brdnnsten. brinfire. to shake. and corresponding to these. . or violent action. Brem. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. to shine. barm-cloth or barmskin. of the eye. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. kimmaltaa. 754. ON. to broil. beam. post. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. glisten. cross-barred in colour. to quaver with the voice. margin. to sound deep or hollow. on. . os qui bresole. bramar. furious. . To Brim. The meaning of the Fr. an apron. (poet. to creak. briller. 1 1 64. brummen. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. griller d'impatience. A . gresiller. Sc. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. — — So Fr. the heat of animals. It. komottaa. brame. border. edge Pol. barmr. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). small gravel. surface of the ocean. crackle . griller). sparkle. breme. Du. to make bilbil). ardere desiderio. finds the Fr. — g. Langtoft. brisoler. Brimstone. sonitum edere bremen. brummen : de soge brummet. brullo. ON. to parch. perent. a rod. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. with an initial br instead of gr. burning. to make a crackling noise. sprainged. FJ. to roar. excited.). bremmen. to twinkle.' Elyot in Way. brim. as well as bl and gl. bramire. to utter cries. kajata. vattubryn. to wish or covet. griller. bremmen. brillare. greedily to covet Cot.

Sp. the twigs of a besom. The Pl. brim (poet. i. broc. Lat. Sc. sour. Russ. brin. are used in the sense of brittle. brust. an awl. to stitch. and forms on. G. a crum. britar. is to erect the hair. Fr. suddenly angry. Prov. Hal. brijn (Kil. . to spur. braidsj ON. Liquamen vel garum. Prov. Fr. .). Bohem. to broach a business. brocar. Da. expression. — bryme. a bud. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. birstle. a spit. Mid. shoot.D. bringue. chest. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. .' Nat. breidr. to thrust. and Sc. bros. NE. Pectusculum. craw of a bird. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. to break. harsh vin brusque. cK) the . Brittle. a clasp. — A . bringe traced through the brano. flames. Brocade. as. brittle. a brooch. Prov. humorous. stitch. fierce. Brym. Fr. brusque. Brine. brich. bruckle. broccata. brisciare. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. and hence. b. to set it a going. to spur. brissko). a morsel . man's throat. brindelles de balai. Breeze been connected with the Sc. hot-tempered. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. emotions which produce it.procio. roar of the sea saltr. bricho (with the diminutives. to put one in a rage . the surf. . ON. to burn. brocher. Fris. byrst. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. — — . or — . rash. Bret. to broil. ' breast. to scorch. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. broccare. bruched (Fr. p. to break. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Cot. to begin upon it. to roar. sticking up . rebursiis. coli. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. Fr. sprocco. Du. to spit. brusco. brittle. brusk. It. birs. bruskett. as a noun. Port. to shoot. rude. borzen. a brad or tack. to shiver for Sold or for fear. metaphorically. a cold and windy mist or frost. the surf. to break. form bris.. eager. Commonly explained as from Fr.rcendij'i. a skewer. brddj Goth. brcit. See To Brim. brickie. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. as. briocho. brocco. brim. a bud. setting the hair on end. Walach. ruffling. ribrezzoso. crabbed. a bit . See Spread. Brisket. e. In the N. bringe. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. breaking out into growth. of E. bros. to goad. against the grain . Alfr. a morsel. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. a stitch brocher. birsle. Ptg. briota. wine of a sharp. 222. a fragment. brime. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Boh. sprouts. very salt brimi. brim. brytan. angry. Compare also E. Brickie. to set up one's birse. brockle. borstel. Zeuss. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Brisk. Salte sand is called brimsand. bryde. fiscbryne. lively. breaking of the waves brim sior. as unripe fruits. Hence ribrezzare. It. flame. like the Broad. broca. britchet. Palsgr. spur. or the full • . Antiq. to turn up the point of anything. Brooch. Sc. 'V^. and. reburrus. a belly. bresk. a rebours. brocco. broche. a shoot or sprig. a button broche. to crack. the brisket or . briser. fantas'* tical. Then as the effect of shivering. Bristle. to birstle. borzos (struppig). britar. brog. to bud. bronchus. borst. brezza. a projecting tooth It. .Lat. startling. brezzare. brioshko. a rod or twig. from break. brodden. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. whence may be explained the Sc. bristly . a slip or sprig of an herb . brisk in taste. from brande. . broca. of astonishment. Bret. thick — A elastic hair. saulmeure. Formerly written brotil. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso.). Gl. brot. fragile. brissle. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. It. trembling. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. rebrousser. brocciare. Gr. birssy. Du. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Abroacli. spricka. setting the hair on end compare It. See Brand. Russ. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum.g. a peg sbrocco. brote. a deluge.'— Vita'abbatum S. /3pE^m. ' . Fr. to stab Gael. strong itself. sharp. brichet. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. birse. quick. a stormy brimsea . Sw. — in Due. Dan. apt to break. smart taste. prick with Sw. bryne. brandello. grim. to stick. brocchus. has under It. as. brimme. It. — . from AS. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. briota. Fr.. brimhliod. breast. Swiss to stand out . sprout. aculeus. is called a birssy day. Berri.

AS. parti-coloured. the shoot of corn. Icnotty. Fr. prod. a mole. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. to crackle. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. silkes-borda. brasbrasciuolare. The ON. brasiller. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. q. brullare. trouble. broccuto. spots. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. bj'oil. Bret. R. broud. — Gower in It. Grisons brascla. So from Pol. Fr.tumultuous.sound. a confused streaked face of the animal. houx. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. to burn. Thus brod. an edge. rustle. from the white. parch. to darn. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. bram. a brecJi. bordo. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. fundamental origin. broukit. to stud broccoso. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. brusler. broder. brerd. bawling. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. brych. to On the other hand the Sp. a flake of snow sion. — brissle. Sc. froco. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. broiled. a b?-ustolare.— B. a brim. a brouhaha. grislement. to instigate. or glowing coals broged. or roast on the braise. . to crackle. — . to burn. brooked. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. to crackle. storms. Compare G. embroidery. here. to scorch. a freckle. whence broccare. brindled. has grisser. Surrey in R. Ihre has guU-bord. grullo. age was termed a pricket. briz. forming to jumble. border. v. The Bret. or snag. with Sc. W. to crackle. Hal. sting. the line of development has been something different. birsle. gold and silver. Sc. brychau. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. B. parched. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brouFr. ToBroider. hart of two years old. broglio. briefh. Florio. E. broighlich. b?-od. 103 embroidered. brucach. a point. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Dan. onbryrdan. Gael. broil. blusters. ornamented with a raised pile. shuffle. point to an origin in Bret. Fr. bustling. or salted fish on coals. a fallingThe sense has been out. broc. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. brasolare. brocach. braird. to prick. Cot. Cot. noisy. thread. kled breac. carbonado. Compare also AS. border ornamented with silk. sparks E. Broker.. tufted ornaments. piebald . — — . brastlian. Sp. speckled. noise. to broil. gresiller. broc.. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. parti-coloured. It. trouble. bordar. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. scorch. a flock or Gael. It. bramowanie. To roast upon hot coals. It of br the Fr. a badger. a peg. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. brodio. to crackle as a shell in the fire. knobby . ciare. Here to ornament with needle-work. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. frecSee Brawl. borprick. stump. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . From direct imitation of Brock. frocadura. badger . to boss. brod. A fried or boiled steaks). — Fl. to parch or broil. bmsciare. freckled. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brusuole. tumult broighleach. agree in being the extremity of a thing. embroidering. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. of pointing out their latent defects. brouda. precisely analogous to the Sc. a border ornamented with gold. margin. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. hurly-burlies. initial . broccato was used to signify stuff . brocco. and bord or bred. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. speckled. . dar seems derived from borde. Gael. to knots or loops. streaked. Contracted from Fr. Ptg. and w. — The proper sense is that of Fr. a freckle. brocart. prasseln. motes. a prick. to spur. brucilare. Brocket. broice. tori shows that. brasiller. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. brustle. to embroider. A badger. brasuole. or It. a quarrel. a border. breard. rinj'. creak. atoms . spotted. brizen. bruler. a To Broil. to streaked or speckled in the face. and AS. broil. to embroider. confound.

Pro v. OFr. insects. See Brackish. ordure. e. Adelung. to pick and choose. dial. briiten. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. to scorch. Jam. spittle . bronze. refuse. fermenting. wraken. to hatch. See Wreak. . hrak. refuse brakovat. and fishes . . pan metal. The Langued. sort. bronze. brokers' goods. whence the modern courtier. refuse Fr. to roast on the embers. find fault with. to hatch. abbronzanchiare. to garble. Pl. to reject. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. rejected. bronze. To blame mens ware. w. with. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Bronze. to hatch G. In the . It may be compared with It. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. brak. inspection. in which sense the OHG. to . wreak. The use sunburn. from break. Brood. blur. a cough Hal. lack. Prov. screatio Junfus . Alb. racher. bracker. the spawn of fishes.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. to copper. spittle. • .D. Kil. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. to blame. brunds. brack. . fault censure. cherish. in the sense of rejection. racaille. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. In those countries the term braker. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. raca. try out. — Fl. Lat. refuse wares. Sc. embers to brund. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. brack-gut (Sanders). ON. want.D. term was correcfo^ir. to brew. For the same reason the Kiittner. mud. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. 396. correctarius. a broker. refuse goods. an outcast or rejected sheep. brae. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. It. wrack-good. to — garble. a chicken. Du. brands. — a spark. . vrage. but from the primary sense of the It. brumo. buy and sell by commission. Pl.— Breed. On • tliis principle the G.— — . fish-spawn broden. Dan. a brood . bronce. Abbronzare. glowing coals. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. bredan. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. brasa. Tooke's Catherine. progeny of birds. brod. Bret. designation is indkler. trumpery. merchandises de rebut G. Pl. bronzo. i. G. make out.— Lib. Grisons brinzla. If to vomit . — broeden. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. filth. analogous to Bohem. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. ODu. embers. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. G. . cracker. dirty. broen. cast Lith. slaae vrag paa. a breach or flaw. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. bring eggs and spawn into active life. sunburnt. See Broth. to be wanting. wrak. brot. Sp. stain. find fault — — — fuse matter. to criticise. broiid. to sort brakovanie. brass does to Sp. hraki. to pro- to reject . bric-a-brac. brid. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. or brascla. — . keep warm.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. mediationem quorundam J. to be hot. Du. Alb. Teutonic class : Du. brack-gut. vile. to braze. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. brokoti. brasa. rejection Pol. an . inspect. damaged. Fl. to pick. phlegm. 38. brod. find fault with. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Fr. warm. and to reject the damaged and unsound. brokas.D. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. : ' . to throw blame upon. S. brak. to nourish.D. and as an adj. from makel. whnake. which E. brwd. brieden. brakyne. tan. damaged. abject. to spit . corrector. matter of blame weak place. Bronzare. selection. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. the young of any animal . raquer. to sit on eggs. on. Per manus et old worthless horse. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. Russ. try . nounce unsound. hot. This word shows the same relation to It. — point out the faults. an operation performed over hot coals. couratier. to sort goods . reject. a makeln. et A. a fault. criticise (makeln). 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. sbrinzlar. refuse brakowad. brydio. bridde. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. . brackefi. to sparkle. has exactly the force of G. braeck goed. embers. goods damaged by sea-water. To correct an exercise is to Lib. tussis. burning. as. refuse. faulty. brut. braken. brechen. vile. to emit sparks. G. hot.

hut. a sprig. to boil. signifying low wet land (Brem. sproc. A — . brew . of which the variety of forms. pottage. brost. &c. eye-lash . to murmur. OHG. margin. Sp. It is Brother. brewis. brozia. a shore. shore. breh. Kil. and Slavonic families. buds." Serv. a caldron. fabric consists. ale . brow of a hill. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit.spross. shrub with leafless pointed edging. G. brouskaol. The AS. brau. brucan. bree. and also border. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. shoots. . bud. bruich. cabbage soup . 'Lzt. browys. a . brlgh. Gael. Browse. brosses. a bruth. who is steaming with sweat. juniper. Limousin broudi. bruithim. OFr. Tam de terrS.brink.braubiti. brawdj Slavon. as rhododendrons. broza. steam from heated bodies. was originally used in the innocent sense of . dumetum.D. Fr. to use bruks. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. a little house or cottage of timber. bratrj Lat. plants composed of twigs. . See Bramble. properly boiling water briihen. bordel. brmi. G. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. to use. To digest. bros. eye-brow. to browse. bntdien. bruach. and It. brun. thairj w. a river. BROOK brook w. useful G. brus. braun. Bohem. bryn. G. . Sp. Du. cabbage water. Du. braces. vigour. sap. Bav. b7-un. Prov. of plants broust. &c. briihe. broo. Gael. . brstiti. The softening down of the consonant bud. brad. sense the Sc. . to boil. or broken up . brocco. to boil. bruitheati. brennen. a sprout. broth. seethe. circuindedit cum familia. G. pith. Sc. juice of meat. Brothel. hovel. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. grow brossa. brous. brotar. — . pour boiling water over. brauwe. w. to Pl. a source Gael. bruceti. augen-braune. Gael. Mid. iVlanx broogh. pfriemkraut. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Brow. sprout. on. Bohem. Prov. Bret. — exiit et heath. . bryn. bruich. signifying twigs. a little . protecting the eye. wood . briar. bordeau.' Due. branches. riviera. bruddeln. bank.— Overyssel Almanack. edge. chen. Commonly Teutonic. . Russ. bregh. — . shore . . — ' . sprout. Dan. bruth. bank. bor. brov. a hut or cottage It. break out brewet. &c. brouter. eye-lid. G. broca. as small-pox. (for brodem). edge. heath. Bret. from ripa. broem bark. eye-brow. rage. brosst. breg. spuma. and Sc. broden. juice of briars. Pl. to bubble up with noise. to use. Fr. kail brose. Gael. a hill. eye-brow. brass. strength. has briw. in which brinnan. bushes. eminence . mettle. infusion the barley bree. sprouts . brwd. Celtic. sodden. It. may be connected with Russ. to browse. brouches. a bud. hot. a bud brous-koad. to spring .) . The origin is a re. brost. brst. sprot. waves. Cot. Gris. bank. brink. broccola. brodo. breg. broud. Here we find throughout the Romance. Roquef. low The AS. Russ. brouet. t— Cot. Fr. Sanscr. dialects is very different. sprocco. house of ill fame. brd. a shrub broust. noise. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . simmer from the murmuring AS. ceales briw. shoot. grow into a bush. cia. fur Broom. Fr. to bear patiently.D. frui.brons. It. a hill. surface of Broth. sordes seu strigmata young branch. to roar.. to border. bryii. verge. from Goth. to burn. eye-brow. Fr. the colour of things burnt. brow. OHG. . frater. Ppim. brotar. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. broieii. thick bush brousta. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. 105 Brook. brudi. Due. . Manx broie. eat. riviere. brabruach. Gr. It. broth the ocean Sw. w. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brogues. broi. brodem. surDu. . Serv. brosses. warmth ch'an. bros. . brpuster. to sprout. Pol. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. meal. a confused noise of winds. strength Ir. brouic. broth Brown. to shoot. Lat. braussa. laissent Domunculum. Wtb. heat. vigour. brushbroccoli. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. . The ridge surrounding and To Brook. heath. Ger. borde. But the Walach. braew. on. borda. Catalan brossa. bank. as Fr. to boil bruithe. broc. thicket. brue . brukjan. brothas. bruith. AS. broth. face. a spring. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. broeye. brouser. brio. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. . shrubs. &c. brdtaj Gael. bruno. broth is sometimes used . brusmalt. briu. awl-plant. bruscosd quam de arabili. heat explaining the Prov. the bubbling or springing up of water. or bushes and scrubby growths. or shoot. frucius. a derived from the boards. rerum decoctarum. spirit. . forms appear related to the Ir. infusion. bruc. broit. AS. boiled . perhaps burnt coloilr. border. eye-lid. to scald. broth brothaire. enjoy Goth. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. Bohem. . breg. bhratrj Zend.

brus. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Gael. To brush then would be to dust. brizeto. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . to break. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. A. brik. tuft of grass or hay. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. bruskr. Prov. E. a brush Swiss bruske. Alexander. Castr. — those signifying a sprig. E. Sw. brusg. bross. Prov. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. wool-card. — Fr. insultus. Brush. Brunt. seems named from burst(on. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Fr. brusco. remnants of hay or fodder. desbrisar. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. —Chaucer. a crum. ca7-bo>i. shoot brouskoad. ling or heath for brushes. a brush . bris. a brush. bushy ground. to crush. quasi twigs. Cot. wool-card. quisquilise. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. insilio. a brush . tremely. bris. biirste. Gael. coal See Breeze. Beryn. a tuft of heath . brMt. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. shock. The same relation holds good between G. as It. brista) or breaking out . a brush . heath. . and It. —Fabyan. a little brizal. appearin Goth. brusco. Pr. brustia. bruscolo.— Palsgr. to strike the foot against an obstacle. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. 134. Poems. to cleanse. or shoot. briketo. brugir. britar. a — — (Agea) said. bud.). flax-comb brossettes. . field. . . dust. a briser. brikan. brise. blow burcar. or sodenly comyn' dust. twig. to break. brysan. brico or brizo. escousse. brist. bris. a bristle. fasx . See next article. Pr. brisar. Pr. ON. 201. AS. It. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. brushwood. a noise. bruscolo. It. to break or burst. bruyere. brunt. abroncar. a shrub composed of small twigs . while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. briiis (in the pi. and also Brush. Brunt of a daunger. broustia. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. a brush . a flax comb. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. The Bav. and . bruc. biirste. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. brist. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. effort. into a multitude of points. brit. brosse. bruit. splinters. rubbish. Fr. dust. and in the second place a besoiB. broust. a brush. brous. modification of the same root which gives the E. E. 174. brous. and actually come in collision. Palsgr. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. rods. bruire. Diez. NE. brisd. broken. dust. chips. . broza. G. brustid. Lang. to stumble. borste. bruis (sing. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. And that best is. B?-usske. Pm. That in all haste he wouli. bruiser. a bristle. K. burs. crush. Pm. also a head-brush. borste. . twig. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Sw. In E. mg Cat. Sp. a bush of hair. bruscia. brossa. brosst. Text Soc. bush. Lang. bruito. Gael. an enmy.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Prov. On the other hand. bricalio. wood composed OE. brusc (Diet. bruzir. p.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. to make brusshes on. brustia. a blow. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. crum bit . broza. wool-card. rubbish. irruo. brousso. it schall be al Sw. Bav. britar. bross. brosse. break. brusca. Fr. borste. borst. to brush. OE. to butt. and sighid therewithal. Fr. shivers. — OE. a bud. Broach. Bruise. a bud or sprout Bret. Fr. sordes. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. * Brunt. a brush. borste. brossa. Piedm. burt. a horse-brush. Hall in R. Wicliff. — a bush. a mote. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Piedm. borste. It. brist. briser. brosst. Fl. dust. brust. Pr. . brossar. Gael. bruise exOFr. a rumbling. brusca. Bruit. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. to make a rumbling. bris. Prov.). G. Port. to break to bits .). Allit. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre.— — i. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. detergere . fragments. of twigs. Cot. orts. The Lat. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. brottcher. OFr. brist j Port. and Piedm. Bret. fescue . rubbish.

pukkata. . does not hold. wood. Illust.-wtt miekki. a bubble. bub. to strain. buck-ashes. pup. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. bubiti. pokka7na. Bret. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. Sp. . open lath-work. BUBBLE bruschetta. bwch. This bubette.buchen.tare. and as a verb. rap. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. boh. bublati. 17th century. The cipally on the Spaniards. Magy. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). Dan. It. to filter. bub. bugada. the first wheal. bouk. faire la lessive. tuft. a fescue.byka. 1857. because bucare does not in Marsh). the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs.' Palsgr. de la Floride. Esthon. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. to Gael. Magy. Fin. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. watery bud. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. says Laudon. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Sc. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. . knock. when soap was tion is commonly taken. . bukke. and Fr. to murmur. . set of pirates in the spread. bouc. bubBuck. . mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bucquer.biiken j Svi. boc. buerj It. to a place used for the mouillir. top. I. blast or strike with the forehead. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. to soak foul linen before washing. From an imita. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. bubauti. lye. In G. blister. to stick. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. soft. bucking. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. was called bucking the linen. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. mokry. Cot. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. who resorted to the islands beichen. It.steep or soak. . which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. The male goat. Gael. a. A . tap . bucaIndies. Formerly. bubseti. buquer. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Pol. bugd. to butt or jurr Dan. was called in Fr. buborek. The place of such a 2. It. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to buck. to soften . to soak. buck-ashes. bucata. to bubble. drying of produce. thunder gently . soft It. and the bunch.lessiver. mollire. a ashes. moist. moczyd. it is beuchen. hump. also applied Una. bube. a bubble. Bubble. tender. Pref A. But see Bristle. caned' Hence those who established them. a push. boil animals. and exercised their cruelties prin. as a buck rabbit. from weich. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. Bohem. a knock word. bog-aske. from colar. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble.D. soft. to soften. to which in their language they call bou.boukaat. Sp. The term bocan is still ap. or mok. soft . to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . to butt. molle. hog dressed whole). of wind.derivation has been much discussed. a bubble . Diet. at a door. w. designation of a knob. to wet Pol. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. maban and baban. as G. or projecTo Buck. bubbola. colada. The name. 1586. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. buquer. bifbel. tender. The natives of Florida. March 28. hump. a hole. Bohem. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog.wet Lat. the upper for coifee. See Dupe. mieknad. Pol. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bokni. in which the flesh dish.to allow a free current of air. is 1. a to the male deer. Etym. Bret. mote. ac. erweichen. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. not so plentiful a commodity. to soften. to soak. very generally designated by the same puk. smokipg meat were called buccaniers.— . — . But the analogy nih-e (Hist. boucaner. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to bump as a bittern. bduclien. a steep for flax. and then to other wild tumour Lith. different form. News. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. plied in the W. the linen at buck. boc. to butt. The word was very generally Buccanier. Fr. lye. Fr. the lower soak in lye. soft. — — ' A : ' ' . w. byge. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. a. . buchen. Fr.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. — .

to pen cattle.stumpy man.stuff. Russ. push forwards. scion. Budget. a . Bret. hump. in the beginning of to pierce holes. of bac. mani. water message. weich. a little coffer or turgidus. call bo. ' .goa.pode. bouton. a boy. jSouKoXiKog. Gael. bump. In Lat. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. ble. a pustule bout. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. bunch . rump of fowls . boglyn. Mid. a boss. Fr. botzen. bloquier. don't a baby). pulga. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. Budge. Prov. a bubble three thyngis. ' . don't stir from hence. W. boccula. a tuft. to butt. boucle. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. call. bullion. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. . put. a buclder or shield budge. bloca. a budget. cattle. Du. a ring. — . clump. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. bougette. w.t-le!L{ * Bud.r//'. to thrust. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. Bret. as in Fr.' Hal. bulais daqui. weich.— . the radical image seems to be a set plants. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. knob .) as to soak. bouk is a pail and with the dim. protuberance. bub. — — . It. a navel. Sw. male or botzen. stud. to boil. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. noise . a buckle or protuberance. pwtio. inboachen. fur. boucler. Mid. case of leather . thrust. bouger. The knob or projection formN. Bus. skins pushit'. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Fr. bucket Fl. soft. brobrocchiere. and the reference to It. probably from the notion of bubbling. bouter. dim. a shoot. bucherare. Dan. Swab. bug. bud butzen. to swell. a small shallow and open tub. Hardly identical with Fr. Hence quel. boiling. lump. It. Dan. . words is converted into b. prick in a target. .. to word. call.chissima. Lat. Fr. bdden. bougette. like a bean. no wheel bogeilio. Prov. boulj. . bulga. Pied. bunch. pulga. knob dwfr yn boglynu. It. gjeit-klauv. built. above mentioned. a short thick man. boucle. Cot. Pol. and weichen. a pail or flowers. bouge. The Fr. budge. Buckler. from bugr. . to line with fur. become bochen. bucolicus. no business to do that. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bloca. OFr. to budge. with a central boss. boucaran. boss of a shield.) . a leathern sack. a wallet. ON. turgere buczendig. motus creber. of bouge.poot. loud Cot. a boss. of a surface. a stump buckle up. . bul. clasp of a book. weichen. .). dint . whom it is still much in use. dinted. potz. butt . II I'a feru desor I'escu. A water-plant with leaves and gille. boach. excrescence. to 'soak. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. having a boss. bucherame. a bump. goat's hoof. ein.Lat. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. or male of to boil . ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. a cowherd. set of a plant in bulk. bollire. a bud. pote. blow. bod. * Buckle. bocla. Bucolic. bulb. to stir. bolgetta. — — . from Gr. G. convexity. To thrusting part of a long body.. Wtb.anything short of its kind. bouljein. Fr. wallet. from bo. bouprobably identical with inok. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. butzen K.' Schm. belonging to the calling of the chen. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bode. great pouch. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. rabodS.. to boss or swell out G. a dumpy gin. Fr. — . is to shrivel up. Port. Buck-bean. knock. were To Budge. bulla. Bav. buckel. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. butzen. A buckle or fastening for botch.' And this sacrament bus have dial. to poke. It termination is lost. macero. the word w ' — . swelling. . buachazlle. boss. K. to bud or bocla. w. child. to graft or bud trees. Prov. botzen. The word is a ddyn. is doubtless fallacious. stir. bukke-blad. with which it was ornamented.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. * Bucket. boaLat. a trough). seen in Hesse botz. bugnir. OHG. bedde. bouclier. boqueranmis. Behoves. bog and G. This expression boglire. butzen (Du. imbuere. . The dressed fur of lambs. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch.may probably be explained by N. a servant. a curl.' Boccaccio. See Bulk. also a leather tuft . * Bud. swelling. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. a budget. explaining Fr. ' . trunk of wood covered with leather.n. and of the Lat. a fold ceilio. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. It. agreeing with Gael. where the G. So on. pwt o Fr. bo. need. bogla. to un bout d'homme. Du. the root of the Slavonic words gran./a. a shield. bulka. butzen. bolgia. ornamental stud. NE. boucle. bod. Sp. sboge. . butze. stroke. with let. The entire train of thought is bucket. butz. Fr. Fr. Bav. to move. crack.

Bufetarium. as Diez remarks. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. to signify an indefinite object of terror. The cry made to excite terror is then used. caupo. Buffeter.' perfield. Lat. thus be translated to tap. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. to a representation of his voice. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. a hobgoblin. scarecrow . colour. puff. or wild ox. — Bogle. bwg. Mid. bufogni. Cot. buffare. made by a person. rebuff. dial. bugs. Buff. bw! It. buffet. blurt or puff with one's mouth. Thus buffet would a tapster. pulse . Swiss baui. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. a goblin). Pl. as from Lith. sounds. God's boast seemed feare children. — retailing buffeter buffetier. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. buMagy. stupid. &c. It. air. A blow. Lith. buffa.' La Crusca. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. duff^ dull. to blow . to bellow .— Buflae. Cot. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. or hath been Cot. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. word other cases. —Boggart. breath. bolgetta. a clap. buffle-headed. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. popo. tabernarius. Magy. buffets. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. bufHe. the place whence the wine was drawn. Fr. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. bubiti. Teet-bo. buffle. boman. w. Sc. wauwau. E. bukow Ikow. baubau. while in Sp. as emblematically making light of an object. buffer. and in Fr. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . Fr. — — — Buffet. him but Boyd iugges. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. It. often blown upon. for this purpose is very widely spread. a puff. also the skin or heck of a buffe. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. deadened. bumann.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. 265. Limousin bobal. btifetarius. to beat. Pl.D. to excite terror in Macleod. of colours. buffet. dausinti. a skin. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. buffet. From buff! of terror. bo ! an interj. bobaow. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy.D. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. a jester. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. bauwi. Gael. Buffoon. ' They rether puffed at him. site The two — — iii. yar^aa. also a G. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. as wine that hath taken wind. human. to strike face to represent the unknown. often covering his E. buffen. Fr. dausa. bugle. bufogni. It. From bulga. leathern bucket. to jest or sport. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. . een duffen toon. Fl. a side-board. mumming. Buff. bouffer. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. buffeteur. A puff with — Fl. to puff. mingled with water. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. Lat. The use of the exclamation children. things in Jam. — La Crusca. buff leather. Lith. It. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. buffare. a block-headed noddy. A — Bug. to give benti. from souffler. senses. a hollow sound. Romola. Fr. made to —Bugbear. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. bau ! children. bw. bubach. bolgia. bouffer. to frighten . to blow. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. a In . G. Sc. Buffalo. to rePl. from It. buffetto. confused. cuff . then peeping out again to see how she bore it. bubaRuss. Esthon. to give a as of a blow. botffon. tastes. The children were playing in an oppocomer.D. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. soufflet. dull sound. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bugbear. the buffe. Hence the E. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. boo. by metaphor. W. wine may The verb in taverns. sense of buffeter seems to Fr./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . le reste emplissant d'eau. a buffle or a bugle. — Z. smells . a budget. a bugbear. a dull BUG From 109 — A . — thence it has been transferred in E. to puff. bubus. a cuff or buffet. either alone or with various terminations. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. buffalo. Fr.—Buffet. buivol. to blow souffleU. to marre often tasting it .

a proud overbearing man pujat'. is very common. big. See The name terror).Fr. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. Grisons bau. and is Deutsch. bbgni. bug dung-beetle. BUGLE Tentennino. baco. i. Big. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. protuberant. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. booggen. given in Chaucer. bogle. bug-bear. a misshapen person. bucula. Parolone. . bugbear.. buffle. bogk. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. bogk. affright. . shepe and gootes. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. then a horn for drinking. bauginti. forSc. high-sounding words. any disgusting animal. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. to roar Aasen. a buffalo.Lat. xiv. bukati. The final guttural of W. with more or less modification represents bau. pujalo. bug-bear. bogil. pugaf. rose-bug. Lett. Illyr. vermin. threatening. bug. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. and a boggarty ing. Bdronie. — . pugalo. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . (Spurrell). scarecrow . a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. to creeping things. 493. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. a bugbear for children.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. — — . Bugle. roo. Serv. quos what produces dread or disgust. also a bug-bear. Manx boa. mask ' . poggl. tion of the beetle tribe. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. language any kind of insect. 3. a goblin. Fl. as Buffalo. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. used in the same sense. bok. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. blustering. fierce. a boogg. bold. bogil bo (e. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. to take bug. and in Lat. It. larva (a bug-bear. Mid. to take fright. the word is lin) bbgge. bobal. Bogge. of pipes sewn on. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. and bugle. E. is the dim. * 2. to bellow. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Magy. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. . Swiss booggen. insect. swollen. buba. Sw. a rabme. Grose. bwgar. according to Coles. 2. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. An ornament of female dress condread. : no BUG . the black a maggot. tumble-bug. iv. Mundart. dial.. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. Magy. earwig bau da grascha.3uhtii&:. The w. roarHal. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Chaucer. superbire.loud noise. coco. especially to beetles or winged insects. great or bug words. The name of bug is — . A similar applica. W. fear. hert. Bug as a lord. also a baco-baco. as an object of dread. an object of terror. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. oxen. boeuf sauvage. threatening. an insect. — — ' . to origin in the expression bugs words. — — terror. Fl. worm. w. the Devil. buculus. il brutto Demonio. Schmidt. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. bau (Pureiglia. . Sp. Cheval de trombugti. bug-bear. provincially an insect. Lith. beugler. biignt. insect. to take fright. 1551. bukashka. terrifying ward. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. paws the ground . to bellow.— . Deut. bugle. disgust. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. long. bwg and E. gad. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. It. Swelling. Russ. Bug. a beetle. ghost. bwgwl. Same as buffle. high. also a bug-bear. bugar. monster. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. boo. fette. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. I. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. bugler. of bugabo was given. the buggaboo w. Hal. a silk-worm. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. proud. b'dgni. boa-peep. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. a bug-bear. well as the terrific object. Stalder bog. thus connected with bug. Swiss ing. — boogg. a. buggabod). Hence bugle-horn. troll. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. to frighten scarecrow. banian boube. a bug-bear. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. Lap. saucy. Bible. Lesachthal. and in child's Magy.

hull of a ship. or feminine termination gives Bav. bua. swollen OE. . whence bylja. bol. It. bulbus. . bubble. to raise a habitation. See how this tode bolneth. bolgna. . blow. dial. Ptg. anything prominent. 1388.' Anat. puff. Bourser. biilken. skin flayed whole. to blow. a prominence. the capacity or burden of a ship. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. vulva. Bav. Lat. knobby. wallet. pimple. balg. a round bulky body bwlgan. unevenness Sw. The addition of a dim. bulka. Lith. the head of an onion. mass. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. to build. and bulbukd.' Palsgr. formed a farm. Kil. — . — — . bladder. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. projection. bole. chest. bulge or convex part of a cask. bol. the belly. bugue. Melancholy. as water beginning to boil bolg. . to puff up bolginn. bulki. bukr. stuffed bag. bag. ne. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. van loock. G. bubble {palgan tiisge. habitaculum. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. or bear out as a full purse. bolle. to undo the cargo. To Build. belly Cat. belgja. of E. a leather sack or budget Fr. bulgen. blister Manx bolg. bolg. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. skin of an animal. trunk of the body.pulks. husk. gebolgen. to swell. boss of a buckler. bilge. were a habitation. or cargo of a ship. straight will he 2. be protuberant. bauch. Bulk. hollow. .— . Mandeville. mass. inhabit. ball. bubble. balcone. swell. lump. the potato G.' Festus. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. m um Placentiae. and put it home. (3oX|8oc. bubbling up. Lett. crowd. belly. . of an inflated skin. OSw. PoXj3a. From till. Gr. a bubble Gael. a tuberous or bulbous root . . a protuberance. Dan. See Bulk. Muratori. belly Sw. body of an animal. boss. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. byli. belly. . tumidus. head . Boss^. . OSw. . in Sc. to spring. pocket. — — . I. He found a country fellow dead drunk. blister. and N. The radical sense is shown in Russ. a heap. a straw corn-vessel. — — . bed of a river.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Pr. balgs. . pouch builgeadh. ON. bug. bale. belly. bulk. snorting on a bulk. G. bellows builgean. or. bulbe. globule bolg-lhuingey. Hence e. the body Du. bulked or bumped out. G. a globe. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. to bol. buk. With these must probably be classed ON. Bulch. For the latter sense ' — My . a leathern sack or portmanteau. Bulge. bwlg. bubble. . Pm. hold or bilge of a ship. Sp. Bolke or hepe. ' . bulwis. a stage or scaffold. herd^ swarm pulkd. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. swell. ' .' Cot. buc. womb. bulkaf.). bulge or bilge. Here stand behind this bulk. to throw out a convexity. knob.' Fl. turgeo bolnyd. belly van de kerche. — Bulb. belgr. In the representation of natural sounds. Pr. . to swell. The Walach. bolgan. a water-bubble). has bulbuk. knob. a lump or mass. bouge. thorax buick. bulne. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. belly. bulle. Gr. cultivate. swollen. a bunch. in vessel. trunk. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. boulge. bo. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bulgen. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. nave or body of the church van 't schip. pulkas. at riufa bulkann. bulk is a partition of boards. the carcase. in bulk. blister. ^ — . leather sack. jnake bulch. principal portion. . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. . Lat. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. . Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. pod ON. it again. domicilium. balg. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. bulk or capacity of anything. Jno. bolgia. boss of shield. bulbe. beuck. boss. knot in thread. bolgetta. tumeo. to break bulk. ON. Dan.'— Cot. a bulb Du.d. villa. w. sedes. buhe. cumulus. bauen. body. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. Mister. . A — ' — Bulk. bullka. to bubble up Pol. bol. the position of liquids in the word In English. skin bag. swell. See bollekeii next article. — . belly. bolle. body of a ship . boa. compare Da. bolnyn. bolso. acervus. a. Othello. to gather. MHG. as well as is very variable. Hal. ' . lump. a dint in a metal . Pm. a bubble. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Palco. to belly out. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. as it was merly written in English to bylle. balco. a. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. the womb. to bubble up. bulg. the contents of the hold. bulcke. on. bunch or projection. bouk. trunk. Lith.

Dan. BulUiead. a seal. also a parFl. Du. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. as a mill-dam or the like. bwlas. bulk. b2iggaboo. pollach. elves. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . boss. a wasp. A papal rescript. Fr. a scare-bug. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. is called a ball. Bullet. dial. signifying roaring. but is more probably iden- palchetto. bulk of a thing. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. beams or boards. bauli. bouillon. bal. embossed work. The final element tergeist. — — Bull. a hobgoblin. &c. a seal. lumpheaded . bellow. bullos. on the contrary. bulke. to emboss . a stud. biitzibau. from Lat. Du.Gr. to boil. hhint. a little fish nearly all head. bwbach. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. 2. a noisy violent fellow. many to protuberant objects. boillon. G. coarse. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. polten.D. it is boulet de canon. from the use of the equivalent terms. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. ba. bole or trunk of a tree. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. This word is used in several senses. stamped money. See Billet. stamp. a beam or rafter. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. w. . a bull. w. the seal affixed to the document.' do not go by the dangerous water. large. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Fr. i. bulderen.. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. thick.D. stud. Gold or silver uncoined. lumpish. dim. it may be observed that a bullet in E. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. W. to tical with Sw. round glass phial. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bubble. baula. A lace tree. assito. as It. also of the tadpole or young frog. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. /SouWivu. stupid . Scot's Deso. as in E. pimple. And The word bullerbak. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. to bellow. G. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a bowl. as geting. bietebau. a bulox polos. bugbear. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. balgeting.. bouillon. bollon. Cot. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. boss or stud. whence bullire. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. from baula. pwl. Lith. witches. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. from the noise. a framework of balks. — Fl. large of its kind. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. leraures nocturni nigri. Terriculamentum. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. brass-headed nail . a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. of the ox kind. a bull Swiss bullen. bullern. a bul-begger. is of a class with Pl. — A tition in a ship. N. to bubble. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Bret. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. however.. of boule. G. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. urchens. sloes. The wild plum. any embossed work. bulla. penbwl. bulla. poli-cheannan. blister. bolli. Bullbeggar. bulle. bollar.' Baret's Alveary in Hal.. Bully. bullocks.Fris. any great-headed or studded nail. and thence terror. It. bolos Fr. bwla. See Bowl. BuUiou. in N. of Witchcr. Pm. boulct. a cow. bolli. Eullrusli. tition of deals instead of a wall. 2. whence Mod. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. to seal. 3. blunt. billon. spirits. which may probably be the origin of the name.D. Gael. G.'— ' Palsgr.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. the matrix or die . Du. The bullfrog. poll-cheannach. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Bullfrog. Du. stud.lle de fusil. The male W. Bullace. scarecrow. a blockhead. a hobgoblin. poltern. bullebak. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. I. bolla. a tadpole. billoti in Fr. in the sense of base metal. bollos de relieve. bellocier. from the Lat. a tadpole . It. eth and frighteth. Pl. Sp. ON. and vellon in Sp. bulloi. from Fr. a hornet. bullus. as the ornanails. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows.

— Bumto . agrees with e. Hal. bottom. Kil. blunder-buss. hum. droning. ierd-boeyme. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. to make a droning Du.' Again. propugnaculum. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. Philip le Bel in Due. block-werck. by corruption boulevart. Fris. ^i^/«. bastion. poltem. buller-bak. AS. buller-bas. Bailey. — — plate d'argent. ground. Fr. Thus ' ble. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . c. — Bump. St.' reals of standard currency. 'lega. boulevard.D. The Sw. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. John). 2. c. bombilare. or work of defence. Du. Bully. but now is the central part of the town. bol-werck.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. bulderen. bommele. Bully-rock. — bombam?nen. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. From the notion of a humming. Miege in Hal. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. — Boom.' agger.d. and porter au billon. debacchari. to make a noise . a hectoring. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. provides. bodem. A. Sw.. noise. is bullion — A — buller. G. clamour. It. ON. a floor. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. bustle. For bottom. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. 4 Hen. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Fris. ierd-beame. honunele. blunder-buss.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. 9 E. buller-brook. violent. Du. 1687). where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. The cry of the bittern. biihne. The Stat. c. argentum and silver. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur.the ramparts. To bum. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. or a humblebee. 14. from boden. IV. 10. G. vallum. BULLY with which coins were stamped. provides..' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. boisterous fellow. The 27 Ed. III. on the other hand. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. violent overbearing person. beat a — Hal. ^Bully-rook. un faux brave. furious man. to . que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. a boisterous. resonare. a noisy blustering fellow.D. a stage. a bumble-. intonare. to dun. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. &c. primarily the ramparts of a town. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. perturbare saevis dictis. Hence — . Bum-bailiff. baluarte. a blunderhead. G. botm. the soil. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. D. bottn. minari verbulderen.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . is called bumping or bells. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. Kil. Etym. then in general a rampart. polterer. blaterare.' Stat. The decried coin. Kiittner. Du. up was termed monnaie de billon. IIL st. 2. To bum. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. scaffold. To Bum. buller-jaan (bully. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. sound. to terrify by noise and clamour.' ' mettre au billon. Bum. boene. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. buller-bas. legaggio di metallo. To bully is to bluster. buene. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. Hence bom and ban. bolderen. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. a. 1305. bomtnen. to drum Lat. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. 2. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark.' for the purpose of exchange.

Moor. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. . a bag or sack. bannock. bulse. boi7ieog. butt end. Probably for bun-boot. pumpurras.-^Fl. any round knob or bunch. A clumsy. Bump. bulto. applied to young persons. a dry No . to ' . . a swelling from a blow. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. especially girls. bugno. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. . bundle. bonge. stalk. bulscha. . pumpa. mto Sp. Hal. root. bottom. . Dunchyn or bunchyn. bugnet. a heap Wall. a bunch Magy. . a hemp-stalk. Suffolk bonnka. knochen. Bony.' he fell with a bang. bottom. . banga. bunny. to bang down. a heap. a rabbit.' Palsgr. a. bu<rnone. bunke. Fr. a purse . w. calamus. lenten loaves. Gael. Again. Then. a knob . bamgetroffen. — stalk . poumpido. bun eich. are dim. a heap or cluster. a wallet. Bumpkin. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. bolsa. Mrs Baker. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. bottom bun feoir. See Boss. noise. bunan.— Bunnion. Daal bu7iseti. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . callus. Bung^. . Bun. Roding. a Sp. to . . throw down with a bang. . explaining E. A Du. bund. to bang ON. stock. Sc. dial. a heap. Pl. a button. E. stump. bun. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). ! — knocking. He fult dat et bunsede. Hence E. Bunk. Dan. the Pr. clumsy. a bunch. the tail of a hare. from knock) It. a bump. root. . gibbus.). — — — — ' — knock. while bulch was traced through Gris. Gael. so the form btmk. abrupt manbuns-wise. bum-boot. — — Bun. stem or base. any round knob or bunch.. Bunch. truss E. seems to unite Gael. bump. to knock . hdk passing and E. tundo. knuckles. to thump. Bumsen. from bunsen. BUNCH bum-bailiff. pwmpio. a pumpion or gourd. stubble of beans. stubble Manx bun. one ever saw the word in that shape. bull. should probably be a short tail. a round mass . a lump on the foot bunny. blain. dial. a knock. Pm. bungersome. or grete knobbe. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Bunch. a knotty stick) Sw. Pm. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. gibber. bunga. bunch— Hal. To bam. to strike so as to give a dull sound. bonnock. il me pousse. pompon. round mass of anything. stock. binge. a person employed to dun one for a debt. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. to swell out E. or to the mass by which it is given. bans. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bongie. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bunkc. &c. protuberance. to beat. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. large. to .D. . Pm. Bunewand. bumtel. bmidt. bugnone. a. bunka.' Bun. E. bunken. a heap OSw. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. a swelling. lump. nor would it concern the public if he did. clown. bung. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. Bumboat. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. It. a into Dan. See Bounce. a boil or blain. — round fruit. —Bunny. pwmpl. The word is probably to be explained from Gael.D. poumpi. awkward.P. foundation w. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Li cake.^Cot. an old stump of a horse. a rabbit. Pl. a boss Lith. bonuach. botn. Radically identical with Dan. bumsen. buns. Ir. See Bunch. bmike. cluster. w. — — Bun. — — de dor bunsen. inconsiderately.pummel. trunk. — Marine Diet. ner. a bud. bune or boon. to bang. pompette. forms. stump. Kyx or bunne. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Hal. a pocket Sw. Pr. H. Fr.D. a dried hemp-stalk. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Dan. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Forby. Hal. awkward clown. a knob. strapping. bunga.— Pr. a boil (punkos bot. Bums it's hit. Bang sen. bunsen. Manx bonkan. a bowl P1. bugno. bon. Lang. 1. knob or heap. and signifies consequently a mass.! . the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. hay stubble . Related on the one side to Pl. and related with ON. bun with ON. bunki. strike E. a knob. lungeous. Holland and Flanders. pwmp. bunnion.S. a tail (Macleod). a large . S.D. banke.. Hal. OSw. as in other cases. . bunt. Fl. to beat. He buncheth me and beateth me. passes Sw. Sc. a hump. Du. . E. bignet. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Probably from bump. as we have seen E. Thus e.

Burden. to botch. in is Fr. ghebundte. whence bunting. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. bon. The word is flags are made. loosed from bonds. AS. clumsy performance. or tuft. to stop. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bounta. Kil. Fr. bouche. to bud forth. bindini. the middle part of it. coassatio et Du. Bunny. Sp. a cork. buove. Burly. fascis. Hal. bangla. and Du. Du. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bury. See Borel. B. buie. bondeau. byndel. something bound together (Mrs Baker). and now more Bailey. bourion. boj. the bung of a barrel Lim. a botch. Bunting. with the head. bou^e. noise. tapp (whence tceppa. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. also a piinple in the face. bourjon. Bundle. and bomme. that the primitive meaning of shackle . So Du. colligatio. bourguignote. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Sp. Prov. Bret. It. tap. bimge. boil or bubble up. . bang. to hum. especially in wood. to hum. bove. bangla. modem bummle. Sw. B. russet. to knock. knock. bummle. The stopper for the hole in a boia. Sp. Biu'geon. to gingle. guggle as water. p. bonde. on. a bung. was formerly pronounced buro. Cot. to bungle. properly a Burgundian helmet. To burgeon. . specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. a bungler. to kick. The Fr. biirde. G. to shove. . Banff. the noise of drums. whence in bure. of a song. banga. bond. would be the earliest float for an anchor. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. halm-tapp. Burganet. reddish brown. boya. Bunt. to work at carpentry bangan.D. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. the loose open grow big about or gross. Compare G. — . bag to catch the wind. Sw. do a thing bunglingly. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. boei. buret. The Magy. bundt. or used as a receptacle for papers. knocking. to bear. A bubble. shackles. Muratori. to push. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind.' Festus in Diez. the float of an bundle. unskilful working. burboloti. bui. to work ineffectually. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. . bote. E. driving in the bung. bunsen. Fr. a drum . To Bunt. punishments for prisoners. Bung. AS. . klimpem. to hum.— . — Bureau. — — . to resound. Sp. The Italian buio. 202. A Dan. racket. tinker . burion. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. OFr. dicimus rufum. on. to bolt meal. bunta. bouchon. the young cloth used for sifting flour. and E. to stnmi on an instrument. OG. to gingle. * Buoy. Russ. a boye. to float. dark grey bura. or putting forth of a vine. The belly or hollow of a sail. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. rumble as the bowels. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. A load. to pype. racket . bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bundle. sprig. an anchor buoy. bolting-cloth. working in wood (especially with an axe). OFr. bundel. fetters. klempern. bondir. anchor or of a net boyar. however. stiimpeln. to in to stop the hole. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. the stopper of a cask). a wisp of hay or straw. bondon. banghagr. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. See Bourdon. ho-tapp. bongani. bonde. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. borgonota. dark. to Somerset is to sift. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. See Bun. tinkle. byrthen. bondel-loos. dial. Johansen. Fr. clogs. bang. Fl. So in Pol. and van t' vat. Fr. generally known as the material of which bud. stilmpern. bommen. — — To Bungle. to cobble. to push ghebondte. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . To bunt. shove . bungande. Lat. bondelj bundell. knocking. to knock. bourgeon. to strum on an instrument. gyves. bongun. See Barbarous. Sw. boucher. and the Sw. a bunch Burbulas. Pl. Palsgr. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. buret. Cat. — btiruii. a bunch. to stop. from beran. a water bubble made by rain.punt. Burble. N. Rietz. is originally a wisp or bunch . are from bouscfie. stocks or such OSw. la Borgonota. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. borboUar. Prov. Burden. to push with the head del. contignatio.Fris. dial. To do anything awk- wardly. ' — work . a sort of helmet. G.

^Notk. to ridicule.j'own. Hence Bridel. borracka. See under Bore. bunch. to hum. has also borr. to bourda. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. a knob. Bav. burgi latro. a bubble to spring as water. to roar (as lions. tumentum.sharpen. to roar 5. brunna. embraser. briis^. i5«r4 biiirte. a gurgling ^. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Burgess. spring-water bumach. with Dan. — . the roaring surge of the — — — . Walach. pressa puret. laer. a purling hiwe brennen. The in. Burler. repartee . E. is an Thus G. burn. the flocks. knob. A burl. Lang. to roar. burlare. Goth. born. bourou.. and OG. . to puff. Antiq. become big and proud.' a jibe. to polish. See Berough. tahko. burgensis. swell up or strout out. the word seems Pm. surge or dashing of the sea . brimmen. broil. ^ttsa. explaining the E. to set on fire. Cot. ample of polishing metal. purra. brandung. to make a So from Fin. . the er is a dresser of cloth. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to burn. swelling borr-shuil. brAler. taunt. is termed burling. leo Fin. Sw. singe or scorch with fire. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Swiss Rom. to Gael. BURNISH i5«r/. A — — . brausen. brima. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. a bubble. brinnen or Also ein roar. bruzir. a well. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. bruse. to roar. G. Nat. is connected with brim. sea. abourioner. a wine skin. brunnr. to rub. as in cousteau. and the Burin. . brunir. brustle. N.or bubbling up. See Burr. from Lat. to bud . with little iron nippers called burling irons. Burgh. to sharpen on a whetstone. Fr. to swell with pride. 56. purrata. Burglar. to swell oneself out as birds borras. de Vaud. Supp. a spring a robber. In the same way ON. bears. to grind on a whetstone. A legal term from the Lat. Bestiary. a jest. burle of cloth. like. OFr. bururus. — . — — . mockery. to surge. robber. to burn.. Bav. Pr. borni. Pm. a jest. — — . a blaze. Probably a modifica. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. to burgen or wax big. a bud. brinna. from the roaring sound of flame. Todd. buirleadh. brunnen. tahkoa. brinii. big.' Cot. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. brook. borr. like straw or small . to polish helmets.ireui£r:e. flocks. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. to swell. Dief. to bouronna. a fountain. to polish. Pren7ien. It is probable indeed that Fr. protuberance. ON. Sp. sidiary element. Burryn. from bryii. as Diefenbach bud. OE. Compare also Piedm. It. &c. to fiy. toast.Ps. a margin. Schm. sicut sound. bud or sprout forth. burgeois. purling. burgen. to roar. . crackle wood in burning Hal. tion of the root which gave the OE. 122. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Sw. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. sbornoi. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. to effervesce. grancelli. Fr. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Bouffer.). angular . bururus. boiirre. brim or edge of anything. brase. to To Bum. brusler being a faulty spelling. de Vaud. From the same root E. The Gael. Prov. ridicule. OE. In the manu. boure. j. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. an edge. Swiss Rom. watery. brynsten. as of suggests.). OFr. Lang. he rustle.). thence. From Fr. boura. borujon. brustolare. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. — — . to sharpen. Fl. schleiffen. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. Burgher. jest of. brasa. Fl.. water. an &c. pur (see Burgeon). a prominent eye borracka. barrel. G. a lie. See Burgeon. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. Burn. Burlesque. — Han to bruser op. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. ii6 BURGESS Gael. compared with G. blow. as the / in purl.. Gael. the J in OFr. Fr. burren. Burly. to murmur. explaining Sp. Bret. It. occupying much space. bourglairs. condemnentur morti. ends of thread. to puff up borr^ . in Schm. dial. borrelen. It. fire. Limousin bourdo. lerre. bourd. ends of thread. Probably. a whetstone. language of folly or ridicule. to give an edge to. joking.— Pr. brun.bryna. bouril. must be explained on the same principle from G. a bladder. burly. The primary origin of the word. which has given much trouble to etymologists. ' rugiens. warbling.. and Dan. bremmen. it of the knots. lorra. to roar. So also Sw. like the wind in trees. fires up. roguing beggars. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. to ridicule. Castrais bourril.— . and the Burnish. to tell lies.

bristeach. briketo. dial. byrsa. but it is more probably a development of It. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. The root forms brik. borra. that birds make their nests with. foretell great storms at 3. save. dial. Jam. byrgan. a pad. a purse. Fr. brist. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . break . a purse. It. Bursar.' The same word with burgh. shearing of cloth. Brun on bane. brown. burre. OHG. brist. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. birr. &c. This word seems safety. hair. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. brjota. Burr is related to buzz as protect. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. from whence we pass through Sp. brista. shelter. a sepulchre. force. burra.' Harris in Todd. whirr and burr. appears under the Lang. Sw. chips or anything else Fl. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. briso. A rabbit burmotion. peluca to Fr. byrgels. See Burgeon. bourrer. Burse. a wallet or scrip. borsa. its own protection. as from Sp. borsia. Cot. an exchange. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. ptcrren. Hal.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. husks. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. to P'air. Port. whirr. cover. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. To Burst. burgisli.. 225. brico. borrow. See Bulge. bolgia. Fris. Mid. brest. byrgen. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. of England. bourrelet. bourse. ber•whirr to whizz. Sexy. AS. borre. bourse. ' ' — — burren. brast. pipaa. Dan. 5150. from Fr. . ultimately resting on the Gael. also ' any such trash as chaff. G. briser. Burser. -burse. tomb. stuffing. brickie. Shelter. In a met. to buzz. to mutter Sw. bourlet. a.Lat. fortify. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. the officer who bears the purse. barza. karborre. britar. beorgan. With a slightly different ghen. birgan. byrigels. -Grisons bulscha. preserve. and met. Swiss burren. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Fr. Sw.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. . Burrow. prsnuti. whence Kil. &c. bersten. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. to bury . purr. Fr. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. borre. moss. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. borra. when they spring So in W. bristen. swell. brizeto. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. Du. as in Northumberland. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. be more in accordance with AS. explained E. It. of a body hurled through the air. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. i5(7&a. shuffling.' edge grew weak. verbergen. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . ON. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. ON. root borr. talk fast and indistinctly. Du. makes the disbursements of the college. E. shales. cwning-gaer. brittle. the — — castle or fortress. beurs. OHG. Beowulf. 2. bris. In OE. Burse. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. bourre. . preserve. ' BURR AS. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. a harness or collar maker) . bres- — tan. leather. a morsel. g. bur. a place of defence. and. — Translated by Kemble. Compare also OE. brisdeach. G. any rapid whirling biarga. any kind of quilting or stuffing. to break. bris. straw. as for the protection of a child's head. casting bullets. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. coo. impetus. mentioned under Burgeon. burial place. bolsa to It. signifying protrude. Gael. S w. iii. Burial. from AS. caer is a — — — ' ' : . AS. I. byrstan. bergen. keep. to save. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. buscha. some people in pronouncing the letter r. idiom if 4. birigean. blurra. to hide. to hide . brokil and brotil. and spelling. as it is still pronounced in N. and thence flocks 'of wool. to burst. also all such stuff as hay. a barn or cupboard. perruque. brittle. skin. brit. to stuff. To Bury.— . borsa. a rabbit burrow. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Burr. an annular swelling. brisd. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. a port. Hence Fr. — Clare. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. berstan. bur.

Gr. to dress. Du. bussel. 410. to forest of Eyda. to keep. we have Fr. that the lend had lorn thorn. Fr. roquies. Malberg. to turn. Brunne.) to hide in the ground. a bush. or — Busk. busk. a grove bosch van haer. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. beorgan. buxula. a box. Bouchet. ieorh. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. to bow. bausen. bussellus. bundle. basse. buysschen. barsc in Heimskringla. make ready. bustellus. clusprobably Morocco leather. basse. brodequin tout noir. .boisteau. a tuft. See Box. -idis. ch). in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. bousche. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. a tuft of hair. bush. The radical idea is seen in Goth. bulge. a -tavern bush. bush. rad. a bunch. truasc. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. bustula. a been written buasc. Du. to enclose in a case or box. and he cites wisp bauschen. or the like. apparently a secondary verb. . And her ful sone tuft. ' —P. and we actually find bushel. 2. a box for measuring corn. . a tuft guini. and from the Fr.— ' ii8 {chreo. Du. BUSH hreaw. hjul-bosse. bramble. and not directly (as Du.' a box. induere vestes . buskr. bossida. It. to sepulchre.fiasc. van wijnbesien. to bend one's steps. Thence byrigean. . Bush. bossen. . Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. signifying to entomb. knot. bulk. for at buasc.-^Bushel. OFr. verb. . whence bouchon. the past participle of the same verb bua. brodiquin. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. to dress. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. a gun biichse. thicket {buski. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. See Bust. a troop. preserve. at bua sig. R. oneself. in the For Skirnis . busse. Le roy Richard mort. So from Fr.gur bidst austur um EySascog. buxida. busken. Fris. projection.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. bussare. borseof trees. at buast. in OE. besom). Layamon.' The buskin is said Bret. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. bouche. a box. bousIn the other copy ser. brake. abdere. barst.' sheath. sur une litifere. The primary sense of hair . It. then a tuft Sp. bairgan. bosc. a corpse). Sir Tristram. tow. ' . berghen. ' . boiste. occultare K. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. a wisp. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. is thus accounted for. borghen. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. boxta. bos. as boun is simply buinn. bo7ich (Fr. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. thicket of thorns . Sw. To prepare. grapes.Lat. Sc. boisseau. a clot of phlegm sart. tuft. protect . cluster. boissa. biichse. AS. Mid. to direct one's course towards. Prov. a tuft. the Moors and of Morocco. a little box Dan. dead. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. to stop. gave Lat. OFr. bua. mount. bousse. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. the idea of knocking. borcegui. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bunch.Lat. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. AS. Ptg. In to Brutaine. Sibriht that I of told. To Busk. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. qualster-boscken. The bone in a woman's stays. a bundle. Thus Froister . burial mound. condere.' The word is explained by — — . The word frequency with which to busk is used. box wood to bush. as synonymous with to inake one boun. bundle * Buskin. whence at bua sik. Bush. to prepare. the land. and thence Mid. hunch Du. a bush. diminutives.P. fiast. Brunne. a bunch of twigs. —Busk. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. wisp. buxta. ' . lump. iriCtf -ifoe. 'at bua sik. boistel. boucher. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. whente beorg. which would later have truast. : — . il fut couch6 l^jkema). a rampart. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . aheap of stones. bosta. to swell. G. from the ON. defence. ' . to bury. They busked and malced them boun. a hump. bosch (a diminutive ?). Harold G.

utarda. a tree. a kiss.). the point of a lance. a fishing vessel. brostia as well as bostia. Swiss butschen. — hardly be distinct from Fr. busy. beezig. and by transposition morchequi. austarda. buta. outard. Edrtst. besoigAe. a kiss. bussa. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. bisgung. Fr. Port. inde discurro et operosus sum. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. putta. trunk of Cot. Fris. as in moharra from harbe. made stiff. Sp. vessel employed in the herring fishery. in Diaz Gris. biist. busch. as in ON. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. a projection. knock. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. windbutsch. sera. bysgian. — — difications of the same word. trunk. work. Fl. especially of a woman's dress. also a It. the trunk. 1555. busc. ^A. The Prov. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. the body without arms busque. to knock . ' BUSY 2. B. . trunk of a tree. Pol. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Gael. a blow. tarda. I bustle. tuft. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. lips. So Wes- terwald munds. chest. cata — . bus. brut. busq. besongne. ' bistardej It.> Also written buskle. baiser. Cat. lump.' ON. says. busch. butz. forms morseqiiill. box. mosequin. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). busto. On the other hand. from jnund. Bust. the breast. buyse. or avutarda. a ship of some size. knock. bussen. morsequi. buc. a bust. to bustle. . buz. kiss. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. fe^a. stump. The proceedings of Parliament. bust. stump. Sp. a mouth. mons.d. Namur — Champagne Fr. busche. smack. bnist. body of a man. a bush. To Bustle. body of garment. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. Bust. outarde. putschen. forest. beso. Walach. a kiss. body . bus. AS. ship Sp. also a busk. Prov. The form brust. to make use of.— . 22. kupata. sunt quas Hispania aves . a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. or Cherqui.bezig. So in Fin. mohedairova. and then with avis again prefixed. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a. To hurry or make a great B. 2. a log. Box. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana.D. BUSS Dozy from Arab. its slowness of flight. — — — — It is like the smouldering. and supposes that the common Arab. a busk. busta. Lat. a kiss of reverence.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. mogangas from gonj. A A busquer (Sigart). employment bisgan. 7o\. mouth. or chest in which the vitals are contained. basiuin. Bulch. crack . Xerqui. I. See Boss. biseg. statue of the upper part of Fr. ottarda. a sleeveless truss or doublet. occupation.pjik. the long. pussa. plated body or other quilted thing. A great sluggish fowl. bu. ON. Prov. abutarda. Busy. a bulk or trunk without a head. abotarda. arbor ramis trunGloss. trunk. ViM. Fr. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. brusc. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Busitiess :c3iVi . business. Lindenbr. a great billet Cot. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. ON. Fr. Cot. a bunch of flowers . bust. Busk. of a doublet. Bav. 1372. geidha. bisg. Lang. I go strepo) . — Thus we should have mocherqui. otarda. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. Hence probably au-tarda. worn to make the body straight . thick end. lip. betarda. 119 bi{tr. bisegung. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Business. buc. btcc. bustla. also a flagon. buc. bist. body. Hal. a blow. representing a blow. I. body of a woman's dress It. bysgje. lip. Nained from Proximse iis zia. — clattering about. Buss. 2l box. signifying trunk of a the body. of the human body (Grandg. occupied bezigen. a stroke of wind. Prov. Bustard. body. bacio. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. snout. bulk. 10. body without arms and legs. A wisp. a backstock. log . small. bus and Pol. and also a sounding blow. buquer. bukr. bruskras well as buskr. to Swab. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. a boat or small vessel . Sp. a Mid. bucha.Lat. hipista. Fr. to make a splash in the water. borcegui. — . to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. stir. With respect to bust. an ostrich. Sw.' Plin. a large cljest or particular applibox. Rouchi. but. Comp. to occupy. avuDiez. stem. would explain the G. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Du. mouth. love gestures. kiss. an affair.

boteria. butan. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . "PLT) . without.' there is really a negation to be supplied.jamin. or what in in charge of the pantry. the store of ten. buta. the present day we should say. and the real origin of the and within . botilla. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. original sense of without. Fr. the servant in charge of the original object.' ' write. the body of a tree or of a man. gives at least two pounds sterling. Fr. large barrel. the principal apartment. a butchery. bouz. AS. bous. boccino. viz. by the mode in which he is treated. body of a shirt w. skin-bag. beyond the Piedm. viz. moreover. a baiTel . Sp. and bot. Buttery. the body of an animal. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Lang. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. bhcciero.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. the bottles. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bolr. Fr. that which would be translated by Fr. Tooke's dis. trunk._ bitten j biiten door. biitait slaughterer of goats . Where at an earthen jar . ont jhi^ton. from boc. belly.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. bocin. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. As a conjunction but is in every portion. earthen which the debtor has adverted. in addition. (children) boc. is put in a class by himself. without buiten-man. of the wine and drink. . the mouth). Sp. Sp. belly. Whatever is in addition to Butler. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. but Benjamin has a five-fold But.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. without the house kept in bottles. Wall. bodifie. except. properly a butan wite. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. my is called the adversative use of but. bitlga. bute. Lang.in which his brethren are included. ' Besides all that. botija. add. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. the trunk or body of an animal. similar train of thought is seen in ON. beta. bochier. without care. rotundity of the body. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. hollow case. ' There is leathern bottle. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. Butler. without law.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G.streets. a budget. belly. bola. the belly. bisgung. a bottle. bole of a tree. which the word corresponds to the Fr. botte. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. to-boot. a butcher . is well explained by Tooke. But when will you pay it ? the belly. we find ben. Ben-house. then hoUow trunk. — we acle for liquors.' — — ' . ways. bouteillier. bolgia. without punishment . Butt. a cask. a small winebag. calf of the ' say. bounds of. being wholly unten. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. barriga. boucher. a wooden cask. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . hull of a ship. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Here the but implies the existence of an. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. rumpf. It. collection of casks. But In Sc. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. a leathern bag. mais. binnan. bag. bountifully. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. young mais. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. G. a goat. but one thing. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . sup- meat and drink. from as. bitten dai. OFr. a barrel. . Du. So in Italian from becco. But It. beccaria. able. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. the full expres. calf. those in beccaio. ox. beccaro.The Sp.' Thus Chaucer says. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. wooden receptthing to be done. the Perhaps besogne — . The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. a goat (and not besides . tinction between but. — . boquier. If that where now we should compiler.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. and with It. bol. besides that . Butcher. outside that moreover. equivalent of AS. butan ce. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. the name must have arisen before the within. as Pantler. Prov. slaughter-house. the jug and in E. also a hollow vessel . a butcher. A A . the precise correlative of but. an outlaw from bouche. are. The E. bout. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. be out.

Fr. Fr. buttare. butter. boter-vogel. or person Schmeller . a. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . W. Fr. are the strips at the edges of the field. Butter-glass. a leg of mutton. from rejeter. ment being supposed to resemble butter. Bav. bouton. a buttrice. Buttery. boteria. boter-schijte. boding. botta. Button. From the noise of drinkables in a house. on. a bolt. of E. a buttress Cot. * Buxom. end . strike. G. a button. trapu. to femur.rejected thing. butt. to strike. botto. bata. what is kept in a blow. The word body itself seems identical with G. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. give way. bout. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. To Butt. povrvpov. obedient. from stossen. courtaud. thrust forwards. an ox. from bugan. a button. to throw . Buttel-triib. Du. to thrust Fr. as in G. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Halma.putan. — — — — . oir spike with a k coup . but this is probably from Fr. a stroke di animal. butyrum. Fr. signify a cask or tub.— BUTT leg . from bouter. poke. waste ground. submit shaking up salad sauce. the thick end. butt. to thrust. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. Fr. from notirrir. stump of a tree Fr. Fr. Bout van het schouderIt. boil. short thick thing pimple. &c. Sp. tout seat or breech. R. to be con. to boult flour. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. w. Schmell. Butter. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. to thrust. to abut a stone roof. to blad. pied. nursling. and the true derivation boar. pwtiaw. A — — — . From Grisons biitt. bottich. Gris. suddenly . — A . bottig. a button. It. a tub. a stump or club foot. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. is formed the augmentative buttatich. a bot. Kil. Du. a bun. Du. e. : . Cot. buttals. bocsam. at. by boE. a boss. a blow. Du. Kil. the rosebud. nourrisson. bothog. or or shore post. Mur-buttant. From Du. Buttrice. clumsy . both. Bav. thick. bot. butter un. nourrissons. a. in the R. AS. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. W. grease that sets by merely standing. Hal.arbre. pwt.' thick from shaking. butt. as if from Povg. bouton. to thrust . botten. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. bouter. thrust. a mound of turf in a field to sup. having a rotundity . a corner horses' hoofs. to bow. a scope. Gael. rabodd. gigot. any small projection. a ribbed glass for dient. dripping. to push earth . butz. lams-bout. Boutje. bot. To come full butt against a butts. the edge forwards. To strike with the head bags. obeto shake backwards and forwards. botwm. a hill. so as to make a sounding blow. humble. The Bavarian potig. a heap of merly called pushes. a but in the W. Btetter-schmalz. the thigh of a goose. botta. bocgsuin. a dle . from the large knobbed head of botto. of the present day.. but. striking end. the store of while bottich. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a blow. stump. . the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. to touch at the end.thum and not button. bodi'. butteln. the trunk. butte. tress. caput scapula bout van f been. — . a boss. to heap up earth or ihrust. Grandg. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. bott. Lang. coxa. . a wall butor butt on. — A . Du. a barrel. fle>(ible. &c. -ez. a mound. buhsom. geboogsaem. See Butler. boutoir. buttock of beef is called butr. Schmell. to abut on. leg of lamb. An erection built up as a Fr. to so close to the Fr. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. bodi. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. boiUer. a little push . a cask. buttern. a large belly. buter. fowl. boutis. Perhaps corrupted Lat. aim whence to make a support to a wall. bout. So in English pimples were fora clod. Buttock. Buttress. butte. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. butt of a person. an etwas anstossen. to thrust. put. butter. able that Chaucer. bot blijven staan. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. . bouter. the Butter-fly. — . large head. Fr. i. as rejeton. a thrust the thigh-bone.against another which needs support . always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . Hal. botte. a flying buttress. to cast.to push. Kil. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. clunis. hillock . Boutant.. bud. to butt. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. boter-vliege. the prick in the middle of a target. potacha. any short thick thing. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. Gr. Fris.

good-humoured one. son. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. jus municipii. AS. Byre. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. a meke thynge with — alle. a buzzard or puttock. big. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Buzzard. from by. bei. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Lat. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bar. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. harty prayers and God speedes. ON. to buzz. bycgan.— Diet. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. & Q. tions by one. p. 3. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. Sw. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Dan. bij. to stand at his side . lb. \s\xy. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. —gracious of speech. favourably to a petition. to pass by.P. as heedless as a cock-chafer. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. to wit. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. The sense of buxom. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. to sell. bugjan. depends upon a esteem in falconry. abozzago. Pecock Repressor. bygge. 21. ... Sanscrit abhi (Dief). A A We — — — days' wonder. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. leges urbanse ON. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. Sw. bylove. byar-log. . By-law. bi. from whom it was addressed. . to swear with him by . and boxome of speche xviii. — 122 BUY P. bylag. as in Da. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Goth. bi. lete. who makes abigg.— P. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. buso.in N. Originally the law of a particular town. and would have been lost in E. Mercy hight that mayde. The ON. 200. farm. ii. CABAL Goth. gracious. Du. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. bauhta. bohte. called Cabala or Tradition. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. favourable. buzac. iii. G. 519. OE. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. a town. blessing me with their of side. Cabal. It. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. to abie ' rhyme with rigg.busardj Prov. byar-rettr. Then applied to speaking low. See Abie. Etynj. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. bees. It. Verstegan in R. Many good mological explanation. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. and it is of good will. To Buy. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . a beetle. A by. P. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. buteoj Fr. town having separate jurisdiction. buzzicare. to whisper. a borough. to purchase for money. a by-path is a side path . as Fr. buzarg. to jan. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. 116. train of thought which has become obso. bozzago. confusedly. frabttg- To Buzz. village. A ful benygne buirde. cow-house. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. stall. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. also say. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. indistinctly. byr. AS.

Castr. name of the projectile engine. and Finnish lanLat. Lang. &c. overwhelm. Du. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. main. serious injury — In like manner It.. Neckam — by the wind. as an expression of Gr. Finn. Antiq. cab. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. chadabula. as Diez supposes). laitue cabusse. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. dung. a tunic. Gaggle. cabo. Katr-iT-aKt. Cabin. cabacho. To Cabbage. caable (in legal language). chabla. the Slavonian. Etym. cabre. Didot. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus.ticula. or cadable. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. ! — . nasty. gaggi. Sp. gabardme. cabane. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. OFr. to hurl down. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. OSp. cabarino. properly windfalls. Du.Lat. Mid. from trabocco. Tugurium. wilful). string. calabre.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum.. hut. : — from violence without blood. form kactal. case. aeggi. OFr. maim. Cabbage. cabo. cadabulum. Mid. covering. originally an Gael. an engine for casting stones. cabuyskoole. a jacket Fr. to crush. to chatter. and Ptg. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . especially shepherd's frock. kakaloH. bad. vile. ceach / exclamation of guages. cabus. cacare. Very generally used. Celtic. Common to Lat. agga. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. CABBAGE effecting a purpose .. Ptg. It. dirty. signifying properly a rope's end.). Kil. E. the Prov. has kabbel. head. Cappa in OSp. a covering. geese. Item habeat vocant. —Diet. cable . for the origin of which see Carabine. mdhaigner.Gr. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. capuccio. Sw. kabat. caable. or rush basket. to hurl in Nat. dirt and the Fr. and Or. or as an interjection of disMod. heady. akista. — . 'habl. as Turk. . caqueter. It. cabuccio. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. cdble. as it must have stood in French. cadabulum. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. su/Furari. is probably unconnected. disgust. a rope. cabasser. Lat. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. The name of the engine. overwhelm (Diet. hoard together. chaable. . a shed. traboccare.Lat. gatsch. come the Fr.Lat. Fr. . giiare. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. . a frail. agge. aak! tandi like Fr. vincially used in E. cadabalum. Due. Fr. caboche. filth.' Due. Du. It. to put or pack up in a frail. Choux cabus. cabbage. whence Lang. stercus. cadabola. Fr. . Cot. ckaable. manticuKil. forms indi. headed or cabbage lettuce. whence Fr. Lith. &c. agge machen (in nurses' language). — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cabaii. origin is the OFr. disgusting such an engine was exerted. a cabbage . Sp. deponat a store closet. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. — the ON. and as we find stones Mid. chaable. cabulus. headed. From It. prostratio ad terram. caables. — Kil. — Ibid. Fr. havyar to caviare. a rope. brassica — capitata. cabre. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Cabinet. The double a in the OFr. and the Arab.. Fr. disgust cac. capanna. to keep or Du. a car- We convasare. signifies down. kakla. kabane. to strain in such a manner . seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. a head (whence cabochard. cables. caable. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. To steal or pocket. accablcr. would correspond to cable. The Sp. it would seem fundain children's language. . round or great headed. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. a rope. kabas. capo. manganare. Imitative of the cry of hens. (ca/coe. cadabula. precisely in the sense of the lari E. — Tarbe. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. a cloak of felt or Cack. Capstan. from manganum. cabas. cacare . band. hovel. — . Mid. It. Due. aakkat'a. a rope or cable. w. Brushwood — — B. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Coticesserint Swiss aa. Cablisb. E. the bowels. gaggele. dirty. surripere. OFr. kabaSsen. in which sense are explained The the OFr. gaban. cab lis. a booth or hut. Cot. a headed cole or cabbage . as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. lactuca capitata. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty.

Fr. Russ. Cajol. pi. a mischievous dial. a corpse. kdtr. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. a caFr. Lat. . to cackle . coll.— . kalb. Fr. a wheel. to sleek hence a den. to treat like lime. one unduly indulged by. a vessel for heating water. calendrer. cadenza. kolo. kolasa. Lat. a lump or large piece. a wheel . directly representing the chattering cries of birds. a wheel . Fr. calpa. Flo. It. As Du. a circle. colibro. Calp is riadh. hot . calentura. &c. kakulla. calcis. a car. on. naXaiidpi. cadet. roller. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Du. a roller. gavia. It. the calf of the leg. from Gr. pen Mod. G. Tea-caddy. It. Sp. caliche. gabble. to compute. Cauldron.— Cot. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. a dence. bad . dial. cabdillo. From lerie. kuchen. javioler. to cage. cadaver. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. to throw themselves into the sea. Calamity. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. kat. of the nature of lime to calcine. In the same way Fin. a falling. a common cart. chaudiere. ' . form) calderone. whence Lat. a cake or loaf. calf of leg. kolo. KxiKivh^o^. cauldron. is probably delusive. or colpa na coise. an inkstand . Calamary. from calendcE. calculo. caldarius. The young G. kola. a reed. Cadence. Lat. the bore of a cannon. calamus. An open travelling chariot. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. principal and interest. Gael. . Cot. a wretch. A . calessa. or prattle. loss. wretched. kauwe. from the ink-bag which it contains. kolesnitza. master. an ugly waggon kolaska. Cake. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. calidus. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. of oxen and similar animals. kail. G. a calesh. reed-pen. To Cajole. to prate much to little purpose. lime whence calcareous. It. the lump and the increase. Sw. ON. Sw. unruly . cage. Caddy. babbhng. Sp. Lat. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. a loaf of bread. Cadet. Sw. Du. Perhaps from w. Fr. 124 prattle . to gabble. calidus. cageoler. from the Chinese catty. frolicsome kaad mund. wanton. a cylinder. limestone. without loss. koeck. calibre. cage. loss. calentar. calibre. collop. hence musical rhythm. kdfich. Calash. Lat. just falling. whence calash. especially of something soft. Fr. gaggia. calendarium. little chief. pet lamb. Calandre. Caldron. incolumis.uv. . marrow.— Calliper. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. when they are said to poor. dead body. safe. Lat. captive. to heat. calesa. or smooth Hnen cloth. so gabble corresponds with Fr. cadere. Sp. to . kalem. It. signifies a waggon. prate. kaad. from calculus. kolesb. caldaria. ratas. Calcialate. Roman reckoning. A hooded carriage. The Calf. disease of sailors from tivus). Serv. Cot. a fever. En kaka br'od. KaKKat. kalfvan hout. misfortune. and troublesomely attached to. Turk. kalfi. of which. the pi. kukje. Dan. cake. lord. . eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. chattering. Gascon capdet. calba. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. to — Fr. Calocli. — — — Dan. lindrus. —Atkinson. — in a kiln. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). A cuttle-fish. its mother. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cuttle-fish. Fr. Mrs B. capCalenture. for green fields. taking it Sp. Originally from a Slavonic source. . Turk. Lat. coop. frisky. cattivo (from Lat. a waggon . kaeckelenj Gr. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. a small stone. ever and anon. Caitiff. kolo. Calf of the Leg. Lat. gaggle. a hollow place. Arab. calx. It is another form of the E. the pith or soft part of wood. Cage. Lat. * Cade. the younger son of a family said to be from . a calash . Cot. Pol. Du. A — fall. cha'cmie cadence. kaka. caioler. Lat. (in the augm. desire of land. kolyaska. cadence. jabber. The Lat. gabberen is identical with E. cykevie. Cadaverous. * Calibre. Fr. Lat. cavea. To Calender. N. calamitas. chetif. Fr. gabbia. a tea-chest. Dan. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. a wheel . gabbia. rattaat (wheels). B. hot. See Kiddier. Cadge*. Du. Calc-.Gr. a low note. capitetum. kolyasochka. boy.warmth . kage. pith. chaudron. Due. Calendar. a counter used in casting accounts. It. joyous . ben- kalf.

trull. whehce it was first brought. Calm. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. . cotton cloth. calleting. a drab. Gr. kol. longior. harden by pressure. done with heat Alt. To call. cauque. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. donderbuchs Sp. tapulta. Hard. the day. Derived by some from Arab. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. moist. Mahn derives it from Lat. chatter kallen. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). So It. given. heat. tittle-tattle. by many that the weapon Callous. The origin is Gr. a feathers.en~ kinds of firearms. Fin. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. faint. harquebus or handgun. Sc. calvus. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. word of mouth . The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. fistula. callus. calclover. bombarda Cauma incendium.' Winter's Tale. to abuse . calme. form. calgua. to proclaim. piece of bigger circuite. Mid. coluber also. kahcwe. sclopus.. them &c. According to Jal (Gl. chatter. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. serpentina. i. kil-u-kal. NE.' Chaucer. femme frivole et babillarde. calibre. To century was Squalibre. form in the kalib. Mil. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. dial. the scalp or skull. to tread. the hard surface of the ground. calcaich. To Calk. koluvre. calma. AS. a last. sound. to affirm. Sup. Fr. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. voice. calc. water-tight. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. 125 Prov. ' pert. Kil. Ptg. coulevrine. scalmato. into the seams of vessels to make Lat.' Slange. and E.' Whitby Gl. to calk. dragoon.' But it is hard Du. serpens. Ca. To drive tow or oakham. khalif. E. nautique). Gael. from Calicut in the E. vulgo Coluvrine. CALM to press or stuff. and sometimes a handgun. the Fr. the latter of chamber. the heat of Now these Du. overscalmaccio. caliver. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). having a thick skin. Among these were the turn. culverin. a. to call. ululo Turk. calat of leude demeaning. Call. moso. push violently. calare. quality. Kil. Turk. which is as much as to say. quA librd. Dief. Ibid. glotton. The word was also written cawme in OE. Lat. to cram. a good calling. a soldier who the It. however. coluber. kind heat of the sun. colubrina. Unfledged. Fr. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. calk. calicot. to prattle. Bi. and heat. — — — — — . The reference to heat is preserved in. whereas in troth it is not. * Caliver. u to an I in such a colubrum. Fr. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Due. Callow. depreciatory term for a woman. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z.position is much less common than the geschut. — Fl. or languishing drought is . diameter of a ball. of the bore of a firearm met. calca. Calico. couleuvre. saucy. to call. bald. Fin. the Fr. sestus. Sp.meaning of the word. drive. hallottaa. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. to burn. can be distinct from ODu. — — — — — . a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. ' rine.from Ka'tm. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . whence couleuv. but is only a jda-kallo. Heb. Lang. sence of wind. ram. Diez. hot. calcare. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Indies. a round of abuse. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . kal. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. cahna. a successor. and dragon. Fr.(jaa= ice). * Callet. licht stuk The change from a. which has its memory preserved in Du. or mould. prattle. . The primitive colubrina bombarda. Sir John Smith in Grose. quiet. overheated. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. an adder. oldire from audire. of a column.Lat.— . Du. kael. on. Lat. to callet. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. It. calma. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. to say. to hear. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. qAlab. Diet. calor. calo. klover. heat. caluw. Caliph. try. hollaing. kalla. dragonder. to rail or scold . cauma.piicede Lat. scold. brawny. KaXka. callum. abto suppose that E. or caliever. caillette. gossiping. faint. Sp. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Kavfia. kal. kallo. B. alta voce ploro. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Antiq. to be of a good or bad quality. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calibre. colubraria canna. skin hardened by labour. people's remarks.

properly good country. open and level ground. crook. paign.—Candidate. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Sp. a' Sc. arch. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. when its substance appears inter. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. having an aquiline nose. Cambric. sugar in pieces or lumps khand.' Forme of Cury in Way. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. or Caribs. Campaign. an eating. cancer. It. salmon. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. arched. . chommer. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Lat. to bend. Gr. a large drinking . camiscia.who their language. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Bret.conduit-pipe. Turk. whence the Fr. to glow. Fr. and yspiuv. campo. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. icaSoytipoe. Properly calver in the field during a war. Fr. camisa. campagna. cancello. the calix._ kamm. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Lat. campaign. sugar. Lat. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. had no r in de bric— Cot. E. kanna. chamold man. cambren. cup. the type of a hollow pipe. a.— B. canis. Cameo. to the force of the wind. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. calj'x. spot for cattle. nia. Fr. camaien. E. Calver of cane. Or the word Lat. field . 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. It. — B. on. Sanson khanda. water chamlet . sore. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Arab. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Sp. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. monk. India Islands. across — Bellenden in Jam. camp. a piece.' ' Quhen a lattice. Gr. Mod. Cot. — — — A — — escume de saumon. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. cambr^.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. campagne. From campus was formed Lat. ation. at the ends. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. callar. mg Canister. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Fr.— Chandelier. from xaXbg. Calyx. Camp. a basket. KafitjUe. campagna. a may have acquired that signification from plain. — Lat. would plenier. cup. Ptg. the heat. clothed in white. Cambray. In a different application It. is Candle. campo. champ. whence the noun signifying an applicant. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. is Cambering. died in 1526. aged. It.— Hackluyt in R. a goblet bud. Lat. ckaouma.Lat. Lat. lie level. Canal Channel. cere : Lat. A — the Cannibals. campus. champagne. Cann. fair. . callour. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. a dog. cambre. camber-nosed. to bow. Fr. chaitcre. lattice. It. Palsgr. See Canker. Kakoycpos. Canker. Calumny. Mid.Gr. slander. whence Fr. cam^e.. candidus. co7nbar. It. camelus. to avoid enemy in their shirts. camelot. catmneo. or hollow of a flower. w. It. From fluting or furrow in a column . An eater of human flesh. B. aspirant. cainahelus. Fr.—Cambrel. canalis. cambrer. Canibal. frank and sincandidatus. Peter Martyr. to warp. Lat. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Camisade. — Cancel. the spersed with white flakes like curd. It was distinfrom work. also an eatmg sore. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. lame. from candere. ko/utuXoc. a. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. B. E. cAouma. brought from Fr. to jut. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. KafivTu. Candid. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. chandelle. the bed of a stream. candela. fresh. campren. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. unwater chamelot . camafeo. canistrum. Fr. good. to bend. the space of false imputation. Sp. toile some of whom. bis. Canine. Camlet. to break. camiscieia. Lat. Pers. a field Greek monk. Fr. camahutus. samon. The Grisons cauina. se cameloter. canna. higher in the middle than Fr. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W.—Jam. calutmiia. Caloyer. Candy. camisade. a caught. crooked. Camel. crooked-stick. hooked. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. Cambrav—Cam. crooked. white. Cancer. different sections of the like the Chinese. Cambrel. crooked. arched. a crab.

he discourseth of dissection. territorial hundred. clqse. But it may be different source. from . cheese. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. and tref. Fr. a hundred. N. cannone. a — A — Cannel Coal. canonicus. can. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. quarter . a cantle of bread. to sing. Capari. Wtb. . See Chape. cantone. a drinking glass. astrology. Gugel. a rule or standard of excellence. Kil. canonici. cantred. haitt. canapa. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Fin. It. Esthon. contain. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. cannevaccia. a side. . root cap. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. ON. from Dan. gnat. Gael. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. See Capt-. hood. speech. from a Canter. lump. cover . and met. to shut. The — . a cap. capax. kandt-broodts.— Cot. Capable. Canon. properly a large Prov. coarse hempen cloth Fr. kantr. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. the part easiest broken off. call. Again we have Lat. able to receive. to contain. KCLvva. margo panis diffracta. Sp.Gr. like a torch or candle. Germanis kdppen. chanteau. Mod. capa. was formed Kavtiiv. Sp. Jonson. which is not the case. capevole. kyndel. or cantell of bread. canvas. Of vena cava and of vena porta. The meserseum and the mesentericum. schlapp.^on. . Swab. Schwab. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. coarse hemp. side. is found languages of very different stocks. a reed. kapamak. or hold. language. region. cantina. a reed. canoa. signifying cover. &c. a straight rod. kand. and the sex- &c. cope. Canteen. a wine-cellar or vault. kq. it would have been found in the continental languages. KaTTiram. the quartile. a cane. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. leiwan kanta. It. . A piece of anything. kynnel. quito curtain. a small boat. kanta. cannu. kaput. It. covered. Palsgr. from cant. to con- rummer. pipe. edge. Diez. a tube. cape. the heel. corner. The word seems to be taken from Gael. canon. Canoe. chape. cannevo. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. canteau. a ship canot. cane. &c. cover kapi. a corner. name. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. coat. Canvas. OFr. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. cane. Mod. Fr. a pipe. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. To his judicial And trowl the tile.n. quarter. has kahn. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. measure for cloth. capace. B. a cloak kapali. Du. a hunch of bread. Coal burning with bright flame. a Fr. cappa. a cover Turk. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. a gelding.Gr. as. It. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. canton. the heel. To canvas — . and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. From Gr. schlappen. cantref. say. cane. W. a ruler. Lat. From Lat. a scull- — here. capello Italis. hemp. a torch. canapaccia. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. a door . a division of a country. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. hemp. It. Kavt\. to put upon sacred writers. A .. cappe. A slow gallop. caparazon. cane. cainnt. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. carcase . Cant. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. border Dan. part. border. being a yard or thereabouts . Cape. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a cloak. To Canonise. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Goldast — in in Schmid. Cantle. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Alamannis. a horn of the moon . trine. Cope. cappe. Capacious. as a cantle of bread. It. shut. regular. Fr. Canton. and hence a gobbet. tain. cannabis. from canna.CANNEL vessel. that the G. Hence Lat. the tried list of saints. Picard. chantel. kwvwxIi. hirnschlapple. It. canto. also a measure. Sp. Cannoii. If the word had been from cantherius. Canopy. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. a boat. Cot. hamlet. Probably only the augmentative of canto. Prov. canevas. rumme.

— Fl. I have shivered with love. capillus. belonging to From caput. — to yearne. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. a ch illness. curling. as Fr.) grezille marid. castrated cock. and with an initial gr instead of br. frisson- ner . It. bruco. caprice. capriol or caper in dancing. It is probable that Gr. greziller. chattering of the teeth.Gr. knis-hujwud . humorous. the head. compared with Bret.— 128 CAPE a rustling. So from Sw. airoKOTrrw. to crackle. capriole. herissonnement. for which he cites the Comask nucia. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Hair-like. It. a buck. Fr. cover of a saddle. gricciare. then to be in a state of vibration. Lat. w. brug. s'hdrisser. as Fr. a yearning through sudden fear. alcaparra. a young kid met. to ruffle the surface of water. gricciare. to parch. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. algabr. gives rise to Sc. shrub. and OHG. Hence capitalis the sum lent. arricciarsi. brezilia. A headland. brisciare. It. brisciare. they longed extremely to see it. a little head. also the capriole. capriola. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Capital. Fr. according to the Hindoos. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. riccio. Griller d'im' patience. cappriccio. or. bristling. capro. aggricciare. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . curly. the initial mute of forms like Gr. or other things. Fl. frisser {frissement d'un trait. frort^Lat. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame.impressions on the ear. Lang. Hal. CAPRICE twittering. cut. II bresole (Gl. as Fr. grisser. fansuddenly angry. capitulare. as the means of earning profit. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . cut off. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. to shudder. prickly husk of chestnut. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. The true derivation lies in a different direction. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. as in Lat. hair. sault. to shiver. castrated. It. the hair to stand on end. capar. to twitter as birds. Fr. to from capitulum. capparis. a goat. of a fowl. 75. capitalis. horripilation. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. It. roughening of the skin. to shiver for cold. to crackle. ziki. Torriano. Caper. grisser. a head. a capriol. Fr. Lat.) d'etre The It. principal. Capillary. arricciarsi. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. where Burton adds in a note. <I>pi'?oe.' Cot. caprice It. frizzle. a chevret. grug. Unexpected pleasure.'— Trev. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. shivering. upon terms Sp. It. cApre. the head. chief. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. a separate division of a matter.' — (Supp. crackling sound Cape. a caterpillar. eruca compared with It. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. Lat. Acad. a . the singing'bone). To treat Capitulate. Lat. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. gives rise to brezza. of a coach. And similarly to yearn. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . or Lat. wriggle. bristling. — — A a hair. and 7tucc. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. ^piKos. to broil. It. the principal part of the debt. caj)o. knis. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. A . brisoler. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. with joy' Vikram. to . The same imitation of Capon. erica. ribrezzo. horror. rissoler. See Chief. end. to broil. p. or represented by the syllable e. hedge-hog. . caper j caprio. shivering.standing on end. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. Mod. a hedge-hog. of a tremtdoiis sound. the hair to stand on end. abridge amKoTroq. a caper in dancing. h^risser. Genevese bresoler. then find the symptoms of shivering. brisciare. brissle. grillcr. is either wholly lost. toy. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. and his body bristled We to castrate. Cot.). frissoner. kid. curl. G^' Many words — ' ndv. It. birsle. or goat's leap (done by a horse). Capers. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. greziller. then to shiver or shudder. a kid. Caprice. explained by Diez from capra. ericius. heath. to fry. ticchio. Arab. rihrczzoso. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Sp. hi. to desire earnestly. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn.

to accept. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. concevoir. verbs gives rise to the element . . or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Neumann. Capstern. intercept. a hooded friar. cabra. Capsule. the -cevofthe Fr. a cart. or the (capo-riccio). Fr. a creaking waggon. accept. to receive receptio. tnoschetta. caput. It is a standing crab. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. a head man. -cept. &c. Cart. case. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. deceit. capp%tccio. -cept. See Caper. Fl. Carry. a sudden fear apprehended. It. capuccio. Derivatives are Fr. a cloke) capuccino. of capsa. as in accipio. In the S. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. hold. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. a capuchin. recipere. of the Sp.). seize. It. Captain. a. caprice. fantastic. a windlass. cams. a kind of torture. to this is It. also tresFl.. chirriar. at least. crab s. cabestan. Etym. Capt-. to creak. also to carry on a car . to creak.of these compound verbs. Sp. captivate. Du. and of captus to an e. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. char. commander. to take baclc. cabreia.or -cib-. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. capitis. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. — —Diet. conception. capra. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. kerren. &c. Cot. Fr. a reception. Lat. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Fin. Cot. to load . perceive. carro. Nordfoss.. di cappa. concebir. from head. Carbine. precept. calabrino. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Lat. capsula. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. Fr. as in OFr. Kiittner. Lat. was converted into -ceb. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. conceit. calabrin. It. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. karista. Caseneuve in Diet. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. chevre. a coffer. recevoir. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. to take. de- price. a she-goat. bock. was a kind of horse soldier. one odd. conceive. and tropically. Passing on into E. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. also a kind of rack. It. Capriole. caricare. whence capture. charret. oisr. Du. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. &c. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. Carabin. carabin. Fr. charrier. however. In cases. crepo.). which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. Carabine. charger. captus. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . 129 — receive. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. to take to. and has accordingly been lost in E. Crab. a taking back. box. capio. chirrion. caThe hrestante. dim. contain. Fr. a sawing-block or trestles. karren. OSp. concept. krul. acceptus. shivering fit (Altieri). — — Capstan. a. as the dragoons (Du. Capuchin. was originally a missile . Castr. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. except. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Sp. and has thus descended unaltered to English. cabestrantej Fr. decepte. It. concipere. G. cabrestante (whence e. Fr. fancy. latterly. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. It. sels. receptus. It. recepte. the p was commonly not pronounced in French.s. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. carretta. Thus the musket. captive. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. desire. to please. recipio. trestle. karra. an engine for throwing stones.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). to carry . a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. -ceive. a fantastical humour. a sudden will. capitano. deception. a hood (dim. karrende waegen. recibir. The It. i The meaning Car. Lat. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Fr. strideo. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels.

Pers. burning coal. espi7igarda. mural attack. a case or chest . I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. eitar. chevre by the name of the goat. a wool card. a machine for casting large darts. kirat. garafa. carmiiiarc. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Gael. Fr. copperas. is the chine.z. cabra. KtpaTwv. the carcase of a fowl. the trunk or chest of the body . a quiver. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. AS. to hiss (as gee^e). It. carcaij. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a quiver . designated in the case of G. carcame. turning. karri. carcasa. Mod. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . carate. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. to curry horses karsztuwas. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Parmesan cassiron. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Carbuncle. carquan. skeleton toise. wool card. Sp. ON.applied to a battering-ram (G. Gael. decanter. to ripple flax. a card or comb . caracal. silique. An implement for dressing wool. Caraool. carbunculus (dim. the carob bean. See Carpenter. a goat. carduus. . a skeleton. Sp. «capa'|8i. Fr. an ulcer. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a coffer. winding. alia sunt majora. cdrlag. Carbonaceous. Sp. The Trjg xeXwwac. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. OHG. the case of the flesh. cramp. a kind of ship. Fr. to turn. Gr. Carcase. Card. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). shell. a winding staircase. It. skeleton. casso. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. properly a siege machine. caraffa. cardo. quse vocant karabd. The radical meaning . A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. a quiver..Gr. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . p. to card wool. a thistle. carch. . a crane. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. cabreia. carcanet. carquasse. a he-goat. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. cerran. to comb. the core of fruit . cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a prison. boch.' From the same source are SicU.. &c. the name might naturally Mod. to comb wool . the husk or cod of beans. Fr. &c.charcoal . and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. carere. cassa. contract. in the same way that the Sp. also a small weight. winding carach. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Gael. carta. an engine for hurling stones. also (as Gr. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. constraining .Gr. From the battering-ram. a gem resembling a live coal. ' Vasa vitrea. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. carbh. vitriol. black dye. a quiver . &c. Carcax. a small weight. Carboy. Carat. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. Lith. a firelock. card. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Cat. military engines made for hurling stones. caravela. wine- bottle. fire . Cot. a battering-ram). tcapKaai. ancient springald. Venet. carbo. Ptg. avSpaS. the shell of a torcarcasso. karra. a lock of wool . caraffe. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles.. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Lat. I. kerwan. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. to draw in. is the word used in modern Lat. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. W. Cot. a snail. for a gun. Sp. car. karszti. Lat. eit. the . to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. quilato. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. carcanada. of the same Caravan. carabba. matter. kard boyd. to card wool. . Exot. carabe. and catapulta. coming to four grains. Derived in the first edition from Mod. a twist. confining. carquois. cabrita. a ripple for flax. bend. krciti. to creak. Sp. a dead carcase. seed of carob. turn of a horse. curry-comb. Arab. Caravel. or framework. poison eiz.. — seems to be something holding together. It. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. Carrob. It. case. . the dead body of any creature. bock and Fr..— — — . It. Gael. a thistle. a collar or chain for the neck. . skeleton. a ship. Gr. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. Bohem. of carbo). Comp. word is only an adoption of the Turk. restraint .

Lat. kara. to scrape . moeThe Lat. Cark. to load. carnavale. care on. a man. cearian. Carenare. & Q. grief. road. ON. Fr. charneux. karrig. cdrle. carener. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. that Fl. quadrifurcum from quameet. Trin. G. carrefourg. Sp. a card. car. quaver a lazar's clack. hoed. caMid. the keel. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. the load of a ship. to growl. Gael. Carminative. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. Chart. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Coll. AS. kroU-erbser. quarreG. weyes. kummer. . Cath. sensual. Fr. to clean the bottom of the ship. sorrow. It. Carled peas. to scratch. charnage. carnalis. Fr.Lat. Cot. asper. karl. a turn. the several meanings of the words above Rom. like connection may be seen between Fin. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. . caricare. from the keel to the water . Carnal. From. to care unkarja. Peas steeped and fried. a deed. AS. charger. as carminare. four. A place where four roads Mid. winding. Dan. the flesh of animals . scharren. or grumbling —Due. rixosus. It. No ' place there had.— Charter. carnasciale. murren. Card. from caricare. E. the old theory of humours. p. . from Lat. that on wliich the matter hinges. to fry or broil. croller. charg. Bret. carriire. to distress growl. Fin. murahtaa.. immediately before the long fast of Lent. caritia. fundamental. in St Jerome. Farewell flesh. male person. combing them out like the knots in wool. Care. — — . zanken . graller. intrasset caro. affection. Cargo. in Carp. and compare Bret. astutus. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. ignarus. . carian. kribina. carnal. crowl. in N. Fr. Carl. karout. It. It. Fr. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. from carus. beans. &c. . the time during which to Rom. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. act of moaning. cargo. kurista. W. is This however Shrove tide. whence carricare. mutter. W. ceorl. grolU. to comb wool. to rumble. It. — — — Caress. carnis. cearig. to fry. Groler. strideo. — Carfax. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. OHG. Bret. and thin. carcus. G. caru. A medical term from line —Boerio. giierlir.— CARD karr-kambar. appertaining to the flesh. ress. to lie on its side. Properly a car-road. place for exercise on horseback. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. is to say. be anxious. charie. kargr. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. what is felt as grievous. and murhet. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. the keel of a vessel. voce strepo stridente. one of those ac- 9 * . charta (Gr. or street. chartre. and G. Bois crolant d'un ladre. regar. and sum.. cargar. carcare. Fr. Cartel. carch. to eat flesh. to load. Fl. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. karg. to love. an overloaded representation of anything. tremble. to take Goth. Carlings. parched or carled. AS. soUicitus OSax. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. wool cards. kumra. A quirito ut infans.Lat. carezza. a hinge. Fin. an endearment. w. ON. 8. to shake. Fr. x'»P'"^s)) paper. Ptg. caresse. care. to load. cardinis. A mod-carag. murista.' Slceat. essere in carena. cura may be ror. also a career on horseback. camovale. 273. crosier. carminare. Cot. 2. cardo. OFr. careless take care of. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. the hull of a ship. meet at a head. surrata. compared with Fin. stridere. fleshy . a highway. For the root of carminare. from carrus. morosus. sorrow. Carnage. Fr. — — — : Cardinal. to parch. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. morosus sum. caricatura. piger. to card wool. tenax. at murmuring. karista. see Garble. de Parthenay. karantez. Champ. gakaran. karry. crawl. stingy. Properly. carriera. niggardly . carena. Roquef. Mur. Sept. Cot. to whirr (schnurren). tuorfurcm (Burguy). carina. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. . — To Careen. carena. charnel. . dear. principal. record. Lat. as peas. It. solicitous. Caricature. msstus. Probably the origin of the word is the . clown or churl. W. to comb flax or hemp. Venet. charag. It. . sgritudo animi. cura intenta. — — Diez. Sp. love. as quadrivium from Carnaval. bottom. carFrom carrus. 1S66. Translated in MS. Charnel. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae.

is erroneous. charpentier. as carnaval from carnelevamen. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. carpenta. qui sacco. Carnelevale. Mediol. course. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben.Lat. in Carp. at midnight which derivation from kroes. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Bohem. — — ' ' — — — I — — . to find fault with. The karole of the stones behelde.— Drant in R.D. pluck at. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. 94). And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. A. So gone they forthe. charpie. sense. chatter skra/a. In a MS. to talk. Carnevale. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century.gonnella. was formed Mid. or a carouse fully drunk up. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. fabulor. Gower in Way. yede tham about. quoted by Carpentier. . a song accompanying a dance then. carpia. tymmer. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. All out B. cited by Marsh. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Lat.Lat. zimmerspan. litter. carduz. a car carpentarius. Chanson de carole. to chatter coroli. cxciv.'— Stat.— Neum. to reel. skraf.Why give's some wine then. carbh. Bret. lint. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Sp. linteamen.' Raleigh. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. a carder. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. cardos.— Patriarchi. Olr. worker in timber Fr. Pref. Lat. cariielevamen or carnis levamen.: . used for stuffing mattresses. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. To pledge them thou refuse. W. and F. to rustle. Carpet. as Fr. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Ant. a plank. Templariorum — ' — Due. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. as the Lat. Properly a round dance. Pm. Fr. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. gar aus / all out is correct. to dance. Mid. 760. whence the form carnasciale.]e bois Carnelevale. Biheld within. carpenter only in the latter sense. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Teut. 1 1 30. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. in Nat. ON. carpita. garrire. carpentum. ' ' — . ballare. permitted in anticipation of the long fast.Lat. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. The ' ' a chariot. . querole. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. Nomin. 216.— R. The tippling sots.' says Motley (United Neth. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. carpende fast Carol.' Reg. a wheelwright. gonna.' Ordo Eccles. — . Discov. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Here's to you still my captains friend. pluck. i. act of drinking a full Eq. ship. carpetrix. Alluz (G. and Carnem laxare (It. carpetam (a quilt?). a drinking cup. Fr. biheld without. Palsgr. a dance. chatter. to gather. From Lat. Carpitam habeat in lecto. krapanj. i. Sup. 2.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. krapati. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Carole. I quaught. to pull asunder. Cot. .' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. e. carpenticre. a wheelwright. garrulo. zimmer. Shrove Tuesday. Lat. On this. of Guiana. vel coopertorio carebit. ! Carouse. The word seems of Celtic origin. to pluck. Gael. all aus). was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. as E. Beggars Bush. chirp. maker of waggons It. Dief. In Dominica d'autant. carpat (Stokes). tattle. carnelascid). The custom. carpere. Carpenter. or loose as a couch without further preparation. chariot carbad. on that. Analogous R. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Ein we find the signification transferred from . to dance. peta. culcitra. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. koroll. Mid. balade from It. Other names of the sea. bier. Pr. carpo. CarTo quaff carouse do use. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Carpyn or talkyn. differing To Carp. I drink all out. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. 2. in Due.

Hence a challenge openly hung up. Casket. Flor. a chance or accident. dim. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. AS. hung up in some place and to be removed. a car. charrette. quash. Du.' — Hdcart. Sp. to — — also casse. Sp. Fr. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. discharge. shell or carcase of a house. not reaching to the height of the ditch. a loopscale the wall. ignominiously exposed. Cassock. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. cartilage. cartouche. Rouchi carpHe. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. cassus. house. It. hull of a ship. a hut. Casual. something that actually occurs. cancelled. crush. The carrying of anything. Fr. Cartoon. a merchant's cash or counter. for the security of the defenders. ' Casa-matta. hollow. mord-keller. made void. casuelj Fr. an act of falling. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. fall It. Fr. cancel. to hold. Casuist. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. To quash an indictment. It. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. cascar. It. properly to convey in a car. Fr. pasteboard. afterwards any written challenge. It. to fire on the enemy. Carriage. casus. gristle. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. As defence from shells became more important. slaughter-house.' Fl. carota. Cot. to dash. Fr. a car. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Cash. packing ' cloth. of carta. of carro. kerpu. caisse. vault hole in a fortified wall. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. cartoccio. Lat. Carrot. caisse. the money chest. cascade. mord-grube. cia. carroccio. kerben. Fr. a of water. and that apparently from capio. and the OE. casser. It. Carrion. casacca. a long coat. G. to slay. See Case. caisse. helmet. ceorfan. where Fr. kerven. krat. charrier. from Lat. a chest. It. empty. casso. Cot. Fl. discharge It. Fr. Cart. cassa. OE. To Carry. Casque. — FI. to crack. caroach. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Case. void cassare. Hence casket. See Card. case. Cascade. like all the names of tendon. It. Fr. augmentatives of carro. bag and baggage of a camp. casa-maita. carroc- carrozza . casco signifies a skull. coffin of paper for groceries. augm.. Walach. carogna. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cartella. a fall. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. — Cartoose. to bear or carry. It. cut with scissors. an augmentative from Lat. To duash. coffer. to shear. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. CartOTicli. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Lat. Lith. Rouchi carone. to notch. from It. mata. also the carriage. Ready money. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. casa. — — nul the proceeding. Case. from It. one who reasons on cases put. blotted out. charogne. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. cascare. Lat. the charge of — — Fr. Rouchi carter. corresponding to the G. — Cartridge. Gael. and matar. See Gristle. To Cashier. Fl. kirpti. casitiste. caxa. tion from Sp. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . kasseren. to break. Du. cassa. carriaggio. caroche. casag. subject for a picture. Cartel. a coffer or small case for jewels. case-maiej Sp. from the sound it makes when Alban. crown of a hat. cartone. turn out of service. Probably. carretta. long man's gown with a close body. — — . Lat. casaque. card. casualis. Preparatory drawing of a It. to convey in a cart. to fall. gristle. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Cask. capsa (Diez). Fr. carreaggio. Case-mate. Rouchi caroche. a paper case. to cut or carve . paper. caro. des rideaux A'carp^ie.— Fl. to an- — Kil. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. a canonry or slaughterhouse. cashiered. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. luggage. abrogate. annul. cassette. Fr. carrosse. cassere. carretto. Fr. The Sp. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves.' Bailey.to annul. Fr. cascata. It. as we . Eune tapisserie dicarpite. from casa. To Carve. bitten. AS. fortuitous. break to pieces. Originally a — — A — Cartilage.' Cot. quasser.

In hke manner Rouchi cacher. . speak of dashing a thing down. Fr. KaTaarpifm. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. to fall as over a precipice. to drive away. a Cataract. Others explain it from Kara. or Rouchi cat. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. The Diet. V Lith. casulla. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion.Lat. first made ordinary Fr. is not satisfactory. down. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Fr. signifying breed. castanetazo. KaTappaKTrjQ. casule. koshka. a thump. to cast or beat to tioner . Etym.'— Pr. So also from It. dashing it to pieces. cacciarc. castana. shaft of a 1 push. _G. Fr. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Catastrophe. under chi caleur. burst cascare. Fr. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. To Catch. It. while kiss / Pol. KarapaKrr]g. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. name. Yz. . away. . to close. Mid. kaJoivad. a vault. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. kic' kicil are used chasser. and KviilSog. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. ating. punch. to lash. 120. chasser. Catalogue. force j Rouchi equerviche. to bring to an crack given by the joints.— Fl. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio.out cacciare . The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. kottr. an enumerlist. &c. mino. B. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. arpi^m. R. Fr. Sp. the stalk of plants. kasi. Hence castaneta. the ground . puras E. fer toTa. n. kotas. to break. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. 'Vaaaw. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. puss / for calling them. Fr. casser. casupola.the / or c respectively. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. tails. probably from an imita. To It. was introduced. or bruise together. . to clack.to drive out. klakka. or comba. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta.Rouchi Scaches. It. image accasciare. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. In the dialect of Picardy. KaraXoyog. handle of an axe. crush . the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. represented by the syllable quash. Gael. from the first of Castrate. chaleur. being Fin. heat . a fortified place. cash. castro. Fr. It. a cat koshki. in the fire. on. Cast. Isidore — in Diez. like that of It. accastiare. Cat. kotas. bot-kotis. OFr. down. castellum. Thus we have Caste. Pm. ecrevisse.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. cast. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. squash. of castrum (castra). Pic. catar. and from the castus. Fr. same word with break. — We a cavity. chasuble. The E. stilts. a cat . Castle. . to scourge. which. to crack. to Fl. of sarabands does Gr. Lang. however. Hal. and tomba. Chase. the castanets for or implement . rack. to make clean or chaste. cacciare fuora. to hurl See Awgrim. to end. Roukind. to crackle. to hunt. kissa. a whip on the other into latch. catch. Gr. ichasses. dim. to dash. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — .. kakka. execu. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. V. katze. cat. which has been retained in E. to turn overturn. sue. squash. drive away. to is Essentially the Sp. to torture. cojz^/a. to drive Cat o' nine tails. cacciuolo. kasta. a little house or hut. from water Karappaaaiii. Cot. castello. Gr. 134 CAST Catacomb. Pol. dashing it out of the window. cassa / cry for the same purpose. Lat. chat. lance. second chase. a garment for performing the mass in. race. Castanets. cascar. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Brunne. torture. follow after. Fr. cat-o'-nine. fall. dash. Lat. Sp. perhaps from which we have E. the earlier sense of catch. ON.. chasser. coming to us through different dialects of French. kat. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to look at. ' Catchyn away abigo. casipola. a chesnut . Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.

pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. from Gr. chatter. which all . gliong. — . to catch strength. verberare kUts. * Caterpillar. . cagnon (a dog).V. worm. a whip Rouchi cachoire. Swiss Lombard G. Kartiyopta (/cari. Guernsey chafer. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. kletsen. klatsch. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. chatter . clap with the hand. cache. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. chink. OFr. the OE. .P. e. a. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction.from Bard and ayopsw. . — Catcli-poll. Kil. Gael. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. a smack. — Kiittner. gingle. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. the the same principle he was Fr. Caterer. an accusing.yopl(. glcu. dainty vic- a form lash. klinke. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. icarrix'Ki^. resound. weevils. predicament. s. to take. chachara. a pill. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. a caterpillar Milanese can.s. ArbaUte de courte chasse. a whip. — B. catch-flesh. Ptg. G. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. Cot. to snap. formerly called cliket. klatsche and Norm. c or ^. lash of a whip corresponding to the G.V. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch.' CATCH Fr.. called dog or Galla catchamza.' ^Jam. the distance to which the ball is struck. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. flap klatsche. * Cates. to the crack. with and without an / after the c. a — gatta. to chatter with the teeth cake. E. a whip or Kuttner. catch. snatched. In the XV'e. chassoire. 'Horxa. Grandg. compare G. to A bailiff. — explained. — with a whip. claquer. ketsoore. clatter. kletse. and answer. Du. or any kind of relishing food tuals. dainties. Sc. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. whip. happe-chair. — tinman. to clap hands. . gattola. a cornIn the s. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. smack. cat is not apparent. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. chenille {canicula. to teach by oral instruction. de Bray. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). to snatch (said of dogs).) . called in Fr. Gael. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. klatschen. seize. On Catechism. from shutting with a click. Kil. Fr. as of the latch of a As ! — . wild-beast. chacepol. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. kaetse. to kythe D. ictus resonans. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. klatscherei. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. 135 — Aasen. Fr. sound. Metivier. devouring mite or weevil. E. a carter's Pat. GaUa catchiza. 'Bxn. a. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. chasse. pedes. a little dog). blow. companaige. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. bicho. latch of. Du. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. snatching it with a any one. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. caucht. e. insect. Du. Chate peleuse. to harangue. in order). to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. i. has both or of charming by sound. ' ' word catch. Sp. resono ictu lash. the elements of a science. woodlice. Rouchi clincailleux. ' Fr. Cates. fragor kletsoore. door when it is shut. head. chase. millecaterpillars. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . caker. an officer of taxes. Cot. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. instruction in forms. E. Diez. Tutschek. apprehend a person. Wal. KaTtix'so. Fr. snatching. to crack GATES cache. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . . clap. ecachoire. latch. a whip. Claucht. quincailler. Guernsey pilleure. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. children's name for cat . silkworm. to chat. bichano (pussy). And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . Gr. P.j. a clap. catc?u. is said that he got a claucht of it. catch.

It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. to ac- — Fr. to shale or peel. Ka^afriKOQ. chausser. via strata. make clean. causa. despencier. Delycates. kocie. minon. Du. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. macska. chevalier. Mid. CATHARTIC sense. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. OE. Cavalry. . ce^l. apt to burn iron. Cavern. from delf^gato. to sound like a blow . Boethius. ' Gr. It. Fr. Gr. the caul of the liver. flock. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. a horse. Provider. Sx. G. catons. a kind of skull-cap. hot. kin. and hence a skull-cap. Lat. Cavalier. catkin mitz. Pr. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . a stalk. to burn. chaussJe. . is used in the sense of cat-skin. a pulpit. Caution. klopfend knallen. cale. cavus. Gr. chaudroii. It. koparet. Diez). Thus Bav. kdtzchen. a road calceata. mutz. to shoe . — Cauterise. accattare. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. to buy. a branding from koiio. chair. catkin Pol.' Elyot in Way. a horse . calceta. It. Jonson in R. Kavrijp. Caudle. Lat. walnut with the husk on challer. It. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. KaHSpa. Gr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Russ. shaled or picked Fr. 4. Jaubert. cale. . dumpf tonen. puss. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. cal^ar. Chaud. acater. Fr. Rete. KaPaWrii. katteken. flue. kassije. kocianki. and spareth for no perell. Fr. Port. Fr. from caveo (p. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Cathedral. a The peel. kitten kotki. by land. Du. net or caul-work. chaudiire. a receptacle for small things. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. a paved road. Fr. also to pave . primitive is meaning a shale or off.. green husk of a calon. Kil. Cavalcade. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Fr. and at the rich man's cost By sea. cautus). The word — .—— — 136 correct. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. . chauderon. calotte. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. It. kobuiV. cauHs. Lat. On the other hand. . and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. — . the. fur. Caballus. any Fl. hollow. Bessie of Bednall. puss. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. A warm comforting drink. hazel. fur in general. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Manciple's Tale. calqada. acaptar. That he was ay before in his estate. &c. cat maczoka. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. caple.. chatideau. what . Lat.^ acheter (Lat. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. hot. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. rete A — Prov. catkins . caldo. quire. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. caballus. Causeway. a pavement. Pol.' B.Lat. Palsgr. reticella. Fin. Kavrfipiov. caudex .^Hal. kopista. catkin Magy. Caustic. adcaptare. from chaud. • — — See Chattel. .p. Catkin. to purge. kaussijde. choufleur {choii. Mid. Cattle. lamb. to shoe. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. cabbage. Fr. the stones of a street. Fr. from KaSaipio. accapitare Rouchi acater. a mare. Fr. kautsije. deyntie meates. having the property of cleansing. — — cavallo. w. Cause. cheval. Wyatt in R. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. 2. Lat. Palsgr. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. challe was ther of a temple. Fr. Cavity. capull. a horseman. kopano. little cap is . cavaliere. Gael. cabbage). cabbage-stalk. but the acates that are sent him. Richly she feeds. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. cautis. to beware. little cat. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Lat. calceata. Dryden in R rete.Lat.willow. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Cathartic. achepter. . katte. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. kobyla. Cauldron. calidus. a horse . CAVE Caul. otherwise written kell. B. puss. a kettle for heating water.Y\\Xea. mudet. whence cathedralis. KiwariKog. a seat. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Cave. is Prologue.

komista. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. ceiling. &c. a fir-plank. . a severe bridle. . wainscot thiljar (in pi. heaven. 7. Cavil. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . seele. — . post. hung. A — A false accommodation produced G. -cede. Sir 137 pit . Hal. an aquiline nose. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. . Cot. nailes will begin to cling. that. of E .'— Z. &c. cesso. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. departure. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. little house. a log. sill in window-sill. Fr. cabega. give place. is applied to a canopy. jaa. of cavezza. bridle. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. — komo tain). the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS.' del. &c. to go forth. To seele a room. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. dil. ciel is so unbroken. thil. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. Lat. and Gol. . kommata. door-sill J Sc. Boyd in Jam. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. selure. plank. and that from Sp. column E. recede.' Rutland papers. a canopy. deal. to cut. a halter. thilja. cielo. p. Cam.' Marriage of James IV. The importation of Fr. thili. in Jam. a hut.). hollow. applied to a canopy. a log. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. thel. sky. as if from happen. a board. a canopy. In the N. . cabegon.. . selar. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. lambrisser une chambre seeling. hivtmel. Fr. thiling. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. Gawaine & Sir Gol. -ceed. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. . and then to gape. a log. the deck of a ship at thilja. wall. quibble. flooring E. See -cede. E. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. the inner roof of a room of state. augm. cease. ciel de lit. 'A celler to hange in the chamber.' Ordinances and Reg. — — — toyour soverane. menuiserie. 43. In the same way G. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. death. The line of descent from Fr. thelu. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. hollow ice . sybire. It. koppeli. the testern of a bed. to canopy siled. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. . a planking or boarding tkilian. cavezzone. IV. 32. thil. syle. cessum. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. yield. The sense of roofing. board . del into English without ' translation gave cele. Hence concede. B. Cease.j have come from this source. Lat. or of a bed. Cede. komo. in Jam. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. were met. caveqon. Lat. pp. -cess. to argue capto tiously. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. coffer. departure from this life. a head. but hang around at the sides. heaven. syl. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. wuoren komo. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. curved. &c. as. -cease. empty. the roof of a coach. in Hal. Fr. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. sus-lambris. cavillor. So from Fin. also a seeling of boards. plank. beam. Ceiling. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. . Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. semely on syll. with their substantives concession. . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Sp. Lat. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. exceed. And seik — Cessation. hollow. Fr. . H. to seele or close with boards plancher.. to plank or floor with planks.' Hall. dayntily diglit. a plank. a beam. . tester of a bed. to plank ON. decessus. rafter.). lambris. cellar. Wore. step away. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. to panel or wainscot MHG. cyling (W. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. succeed. dille. canopied. CAVESON kopera or kowera. sill. VIII. proceed. a boarded floor.' — Gawan . dScis. kapp-zaum. —Decease. and zaum. excess. Soc. Sherwood. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. . crooked kopio. ceiling. 5. The It. p. — .' Cot. Plancher. cedo. a cavern in a mountain {wuora.

— Chafing-dish. to rub for the purpose a hut. Fr.j 138 thill.cern. or expression of Ennius. — . receipt. Lat. a Cemetery. quarters for slaves. and thence censer. See Cede. eyelid. K^'ivut. judge. decide. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. deceit. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. censura.ing a room where there is not fire. is the opposite of disora virum. -CEIVE a shaft. heaven. {cori)cipere. swift. To chafe is for wine. Cot. to contend. Gr. — . — . ciller. to twinkle darkness. stones to the production of heat. conceipt. (and thence also) to hoodwink. a hundred centuria. . Celerity. of heating. a solemnity. -cess. the hollow the Lat. — A . riscaldarsi.). a registration of one's self. a prick. to bury). ' . a religious observance. rough from the quarry. we have a modified form of (of a place). mortar. Census Censor. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. Gr. to prick. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. and put it through the over eyelydde. Certain. to attend on object with.. cenio. to take. ciglio. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Chafe. Lat. cencer. then to rub without reference Cement. goad. Fr. estimate. in comp. to incense.of the r. to concern. Lat. crevi. Sherwood. Lat. and — — — possessions. distinIt. value. irot\oe. a valuation of every man's estate. much frequented. Fr. Prov. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Celebrity. in comp. to rate. to separate. -ceptjun. Lat. zens according to their property. sure. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. &c. To Incense. It. single or unwedded life. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Assess. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. Centre. -ceive. cella. S. -cepere. — . to blindfold. syll. decebre) . a solemnity. and thence to conceal. solemn (of per. -cipio. and so of that other. to glow. from censeo. Lat. to set on fire. to distinguish.. become heated with anger. Ta^oe. -cevoir. tax.unmarried. dchauffer. appertain. incense. Ceremony. guish. materials It. Cess. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. parted sleep. Lat. census. being taken from Fr. in Marsh. Cot. Lat. Fr. See Celibacy.' Celebritas. -cebre ifoncebre. oil. chaufferette. to sepap rate. a tomb. — . . make angry. OFr.). empty. Coehim. the point round which a circle is drawn. caber. -oept. as in some places burnt. to celebrate. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. &c. thronged the participle cretus. The term cilium. judge. to warm. Take the nedyll and threde. tax. to chafe. cceremonia. census. is totally distinct from the foregoing. 1. Cij(fe5j. as entering largely into the derivative certo. from Saa-rw. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Centurion. hollow. -ceit. calefare.' Book of St Albans. Censor. calefacere. Fl. a numerous con. family. Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. celer. Censer. his office. cot. Incensum. oil. confounded ist from It. see. sile. point. candeo. sift. a hundred of what- — . Cell. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Fr.— Cellar. Lat. criticism. chauffer. to -sum. — — Cenotapli. what to set in a chafe. blind. in accordance with the Fr. For sess from assess. cillier. keep in It. It. pick out. cretum.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Cereal. to burn incendo. /ctj/rsw. deceipt. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. -cense. camentum. with transposition hence (of a day). sting. the place where the de. Gr. Sc. rubble. Fr. or any bird's. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. to think. to heat. -cepire. the talk of men. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. — . capio. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. the officer appointed to take such returns . In Celebrate. age. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. encens. an eyelash. cigliare. -cern. cerealis. thence belonging to or connected with corn. -i^oivre. Fr. Fr. a shaft horse. to take. centum. Accelerate. to sleep). renown be embodied with. ceremonia. celeber certus. -ciper. sacred show. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. to visit in numbers. Century. eschattffer. Assize. assess. festive. to be regarded as one celebro. Lat. also grave opinion. concetto. To seel or close the eyes. observe. to course of people. with the eyes. judge Lat. a storehouse Chafe. Gr. cilibat. concerner. capturn. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. siller les yeux. abundance. Lat. for building. contend. Censure. but was gradually lost in conceit. Lat. concernor. and met. KsvTpov.

chaire. fa sagramen de calompnia.nium. ceafer. ple^. refuse. sagrindse.— — . to fret inwardtronfo. B. fume. . a vault or arched roof. rustling motion challenge. chafeter. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage.' Rayn. From to go to law. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. to file. to calumpnjamen. hiss. calice. Fr. to puff and blow. Chayire. breathe hard. haggle. cadena gives chain. a rustling noise. In vulgar language. 35. cam. to sit. kdfelen. Fr. great chafe. Du. to a seat. or puff with snorting. to buzz. In like manto huff. kiqfta. calonja. Fr. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. on. contestation. also to prattle. Fr. fern-chafer. cadena. (ca'e'ra) to chair. to caw chawer. calumnia. Due. kiamta. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. lime . the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. 11. kever. G. jaw. to call. Pat. kahuja. clamare. call in question for an ley). Piedm. puffed or ruffled with ly. in a monstrous fume. from Swiss kafeln. Lat. chawe. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. to babble. OFr. Kuttn. cauvette. kuhista. — — — . much blowing. chicane. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Lat. to Latin calumniare. To buy and sell. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. place See Cheek. a double operation * Chafer. chafing. KoBiSpa. Gr. ckapfare. Fr. cup. swelling with anger. tattle cheep. a pulpit. . The jaw chafty. ceaf. keffen. Fin. . Fr. and as this was the beginning of man. tattle. grief. and signifies to consume with anger. green sagrin. Cot. as a carriage is a moveable seat. ing a hard case to their wings. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . a chough. with a:n arched roof. to chatter or talk lightly. kuhata. Chagrin. Camera. Fr. chaise. chaulx. preise. kahista. rally one. . Fr. gewolb. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Cot. rustling corn. kaff. So from dominio. to gnaw. care. Prov. cathedra. — .. kahu. without chap/are makiinde. thick and short. Pr. E. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. havOFr. to ner It. — — — . sagri. from of the G. khah. &c. kuhuja. grief. chatter. From the To Chaff. calonjar. idle words. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. hordeum vel let. Halma. to bark. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. — — ' — — — A . Fl. kedja. Came. Chair. kiaftr. sborfare. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. as. chalanger..' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. that leneth e per I'autra. Wall. Ayenbite. Chalice. care. now a chair. puff. matter by combat. breathe KaOa^oiiat. kaff. chamar. in a cana. — — — — — — . avena vilior. a jackdaw. a goba rustling . keuchen. talkative. Perhaps Pm. chaene. false accusation. Probably from According to Diez. to dispute. far lima-lima. to tattle.sure carriage. cadieira. Fr. calix. chaffare. catena. dongio. difficulty . Lat. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to institute anforensic action. to claim. Hal. Lat. Du. charge with. de Brai. Bouffard. Lat. tronfio. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Lat. limare. chaine. shaIt. Pers. kauchen. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. yap. rustle Challenge. chayire. signal by drum or P. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. muzzle. from the shark-skin. vis. chagrin. calx. kdfer. to pant. chambre. hght Chalk. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. From Port. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. taubes korn oder hafer. De Ir4. cadera. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. a prattling woaction. have a mind to parley. camera. to action arose. p. ^Altieri. P. Adelung. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. a pulpit Cot. chaps Chamber. Prov. cathedra. of. refuse barley . lime. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. ing rapidly repeated cries. Chain. G. vel susurro. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. much more Genoese sagrind. kuhina. baras of ants. Lat. dispute. Gr. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. Bav. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Cheffern. ON. to gnaw. Kaiiapa. Prov. often puffing. songe. . Fr. leviter crepo Then. snuff. to move the jaws. bargain. snort. crooked. quisquilise offence. any insect of the beetle kind. a chain.

a court of justice. ing. M. kabe. dial. — Hal. The E. kampen. Sup. chanfrar. kabintis. to smack the lips in eating. Lat.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. termediaries between them and the judge. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp.' melleia. as swine. e. to slope. to chew. a field of battle. Fr. to fasten oneself to another . To Chamfer. — masterly Sp. reusement — fight in single combat. mesleiare. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. ON. So in e. kapp. to quarrel (comp. to groove bevel off a right angle. from cheoir. to flute as a column. to talk. to fall). to bevel. Chance-n3. Chancery. to move the jaws kiamt. . Ptg. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. which seems another form of the root. cancelli. Commonly derived from campus. The word is preserved in E. dial. from Fr. Fin. campus partitus . calida et sans aguet. Carpentier. campus. and acted as inofficers of . kimbu. camp. hng. fight. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). tsamtsogni. Partnership. fray. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. cempa. to wrestle. pedilusor. The G. kiinp. rare. as in It. the chafldn. Campar. zampettare. move the jaws. top of a borehole. compound. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping.140 CHAMBERLAIN . excellent. champ parti. boys speak of capping verses. Meleare. kriimmen gebogen. kimpUma.Lat. schmatzen s. Gall. bickering. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. and mesUe. Lith. Magy. cameratus. fighting place. Prov. bundle. Champaign. divided game. to cample. camp. . chaude mesUe. who stood ad cancellos. cample). or less ignorant. to happen {ad and cadere. jeu parti. an athlete.' SherI'altro ' ' . a bundle. . See Camp. kabinti. Fr. dial. caer. kempa. dispute Hal. a hook . kibti. jocus partitus. Champion. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. accidere. to strive at games . Champarty. kimppu (Lap. To hollow out in chanPtg. calidameya. champion Du. Pm. chdance. kiammi.—Charfron E. prize-fighter. to hang. tsammogni. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. chanfrein. kampeln. cazer. a jaw kianisa. from chaud. kinipen. champ. To cope or contend with. to stick to. pinch. campar. kabMe. surpassing. ON. champ. champ. CHANCEL It. chamfrain. Du. hot. Lat. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. to debate. to tread The sound heavily. . E. ON. zs jeopardy. Fr. It will. Hence (with the nasal) w. i. a scufSe. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. slope of a bevelled angle. . chain. broil. game campio. head armour. chanfrein. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . gekrUmmt. chance. therewithal. contention kappi. . at the railings. kempen. to fasten oneself on to another . campear. Chancellor. chanfreindre. accident. act of falling. fight. dricka i kapp. — KiL . luctare. hero Sw. gewolbt. — Ch-amberlain. to hold . E. kanip.edley. camp. kappd). When the to quarrel. Fr. to fall. difficulty . a feat. to slope out the . contest. ciamberlano. kampa. to hollow out. Lat. ciambellano. escazenza. Chamfron. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . athlete. to paw the ground E. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. Dief. nels. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. kippo. Sp. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. G. kablys. a horse-race. Get campers a ball To camf . kampeln. received the petitions of the suitors. chamble. Chancel. Sp.' ' Pr.—Tutschek. hamper. a game at football. The happening of things Chance. Fr. to Hal. — ^Tusser. Prov. dial. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. keiiipe. a warrior. Champ. chajnbellan . to — — champ. Fr. combat. dial. sukibti. s. to to chew champ. to be eminent. champ. to . giving rise to the as. kimpustella. chance. cahir. wood. Lat. camerlengo. a hollow chanfreiner. cadere. or player at football. —Chamfrain. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. to excel. is explained by serrarsi. contend or argue G. to fasten on. to wrestle. certare. . . governed by laws of which we are more OFr.

Sp. . . schimbd. Chop. Chap. kemma. like the knocking of hard things together. kaupa. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. debeant conjurare. exchange. jaw. E. leather. — . The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. from clap. Fr. waterconduit. cantare. kappen. See Chant. to change. chap. muzzle. Channel. kvar kjceften. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. are kept. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. ceaflas. In like manner Walach. Walach. cambium. Aasen. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. as to chap hands. chaps. And N. —Ordericus Vitalis. the clappers of the scupper holes. to chap at a door. Fr. throat of an animal. to truck. a money-changer. chanter. as corn-chandChandry. kennel. while the broader vowels a. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. a strip of metal plate. as skin chapped hands. chancellerie.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Compare chark. to deal. Chap. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. as those on a trunk. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. kiceft. a small metal plate Port. to cut. Hal. esclapo. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. chap. prune. kiceft as well as kjakje. — : Lat. Hal. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. cambiare. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. to apply one flat thing to another. Da. wood. Chape. Fr. as It. cambiar. chandelier. Du. canalis.^. schimbu. to strike with a sharp edge. See Chop. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. properly in a hard body. chapa. klepan. to hack. camjar. cheek. Hence chantry. Lith. Lang. flat . Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. from canna. kapoti. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Sp. 140. ON. to strike. AS. extended to other trades. Prov. chapilla. hack . changer. chapear. I. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. shift. Hence It. chapeletas de imbornales. exchange. to creak. Chap. Cheek. exchange schimbatoriu. and the modern canal. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chandler. a dealer in candles then. W. skipta. to cut off . any hollow for conveying water. lips of an animal. It is also used in the sense of the E. jaw. and also to chap or crack. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to plate. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. That wide were sentin their spicery. Chip. kjaakaa. chapelete de una bomba. the gutter that runs along a street. from chandler. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. gab. A fellow. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. to strike. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. to put on fresh clothes. chop. to swap. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to plate. a small plate of flat metal. the loose flesh of the cheeks. esclapa. or the cracking of one. Molbech. to coat. chancery. a pipe. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. chiappa. the chaps . to sing. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Sc. cobio. a chap is a crack or fissure. To Change. may be compared with ON. Da. Lat. chop. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Chaps or chops. or the like chapar. Commonly derived from capella. a reed. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. is used in the same sense . surfaces striking together. Man of Law's Tale. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. ceaplas. to peck. ^Jam. clapet. as chancery . These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. a jaw. Bret. to cut up into small pieces. not a soul. to peck. — — —Marculfus in Due. . also a clap. hard bodies. chapeta. Chapel. Fr. . 2. to break . . the mouth. to spht a chip. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. —Chantry. cangiare. Russ. the place where candles ler. Probably from chap. to paw like a horse . In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. to — cut.

chatter.' Boccaccio in Diez. carricare. * Charcoal. twitter. corona. of chapel. a riddle. schreien. From Norm. from cape or cope. to croak as a frog . charge an enemy is to lay on. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. Lat. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. chirlar. Chapter. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. from capa. It. hiss Lith. Cot. dim. which was incantation. Ptg. Lay on. Yx. charade. properly to place — . as. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. To Char. to sing or chirp as birds. a mark of a mountebank. tegere. And damned be he who first cries Hold. a charm. it is my turn. a merchant.. Lang. dear(in both senses). grave or make incised marks on an ob. . Fr. in To ness Charity.Lat. keeren. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. Charlatan. eyre. capellare. as Pol. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. be- e. to love. creak. Du. Boh. called in Sp. Sp. — a car. An enchantment. Charade. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt.charme. in turns. for the same reason rosario. w. It. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Lith. babbling. decken. Sup. car. charlar. charer. carmen. called kedlock. cha. AS. a rhyme. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. karout. cerran. to prattle. from capitulum. Chirk. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Chaplet. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. ject). Macduff. a head or division of a book. clack. affection. Mid. cher um cher. It. to dove . a The OFr. gadka. w. babdistinction. chirk. seems to be derived charade. Fr. —— . enough. a riddle. a cricket karkti (schnarren. czurksti. cam. a verse. caritas. pohadka. Hence carminare. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. tattler. The crash. Character. . prattling quacksalver. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Charge. to turn Gael. cabildo. Chare. Fr. to chirp. — — — turned to coal. occasional turn. cluck. kirkti. to charcoal. capella. Chark. the turtle pitre. surris seu Lat. dear. Sp. charitas. Mundart. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella.czirksti. Gr. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. 2. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. go. wood to coal. &c. chirriar.). It. . to load . one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. czirbti. Chapman. creak. . a dispute . Sp. cluck kirklys. ghirlanda seor garland. See Charlatan. ciarlatore. Swiss. a mark made on a thing. carregar. es ist mi cheer. kurkti. to talk . colliers that charred coal. to . 370. chara. Prov. Justin. charger. See Cheap. as a beetle. from gadai. chapitre. capital. Deutsch. A weed among com AS. . as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . burning without consuming the substance. a turn cerran. and in It. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. (eucharistie. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. to of the governing body.whirr. chapelet. a hood. return. twist. Charcoal was ciarlare. bler. Bret. the nature of a thing. gnash. hadka. chatter. to prattle. that turned decken . condo il volgar francese. chapel. The G. Inst. from Charade. wreath for the head. a garland of roses. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. capitolo. to turn. charlatan. carus. to creak. Lat. Charlock. used in the sense of magic Fl. canne. caricare. — spell. ceap-man. chat. eapitulo. kurkelis. In that work the verb is written caire. jabber. carmo. siarad (pronounced — sharad). beloved. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. AS. Fr. from carrus. talking. OE. char. charcoal burners. to chirp. Lat. to chirp as sparrows. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Fr. gaggle . cedeleac. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. czurliwoti. turn. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. turn about. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. krachzen). cearcian. to converse. to tattle.

chits. It. to chatter or prattle . a hum or low murmuring ijoise. To Chase. magpie. It. clear. a plate of metal. snap. OE. Lat. nommer. Pol. enchasser. as from nomen It. — Hal. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. the bird is iiown. Pol. Cot. Chamel. tittle-tattle. crackle. %aafi. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. csacsogni. . the noise of birds. carme and Fr. noise. Pm. xi'i-'^vui. blackthorn-chats. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. chary. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. To chip is then to crack. Gr. flesh. g. a branch. To chit. to cut and faggoted. the cry of the bat. Magy. root of the Lat. An imitative word. gazzettare. to separate in morsels. sordidus. fragments or leavings of food. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. Parallel with E. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. karg. —Charter. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. prate. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. little sticks cudere. talk.. Fr. chaste. a churchyard or charnel-house. talk much . a word. kastaa. to burst open. Diez. or a bird out of the egg. as we speak of olive branches. discourse. clean. It. Chat. to clap. a gap. speak . as in the E. chair. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. —Jam. karigh. or the cry of a bird or the like. occasionally Forby. To Chasten. D.a. It. Russ. chatter. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Lat castigare. as purgare Fr. knacken. a flock of those birds. from xoAn. —Bailey. — = Chats. converse. clatter. chit in the latter sense Du. So in Gael. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. a shrine for a relic. to wet. jackdaw . chykkyn (Pr. chip. —Chastise. whence a charm of goldfinches. — The . prattle. chat. cearig (from cearian. shivers. s. also to hatch. CHATS fit 143 to name. Kil. To chitter or chipper. V. — We ornamental work the to signify E. chick. gaddc. pure. to talk. gazzolare. Kil. . To work plate as silversmiths do. la chasse d'une rose. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. kna. kata. or equivalent forms. — Palsgrave. eclats. to baptize. gadu-gadu. csaterdzni. gallan or ogan. to crack. incassare. letters p. — Fr. gazzogliare. shout OE. the calix of a rose. czysty. to crack. kippen. From carinen was formed It. castus. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. gazeuiller. chikat'. whistle. See Catch. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. to care). or pop.house. Chat-wood.— Chit. cyrm. Hal. scraps of for fuel. is to represent the chamier. to chirp. Chaste. See Card. be wide open. to gape. — — . Du. used to represent a sharp note. chit. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. chick. Fr. ch&tier. a chatter-box. The egg is chipped. chit-chat. noise. B. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. Cot. In like manner Russ. as. — Yorkshire chat. warble. to cry as a chicken . the young shoots . to make a noise. pure. Chart. knatiern. to chirp as a bird to cheep. as turnip-chaits. castus. fragments. a young man . in Jam.— Chatter.ppen. Chasm. also to germinate or spring forth. nome and . to chirp. to enchase it .). the handle of a razor . schioppare. racket . clack. a twig Suffolk chaits. clap. Fl. a branch and a young female. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. germinate . chip. or suckers on rough borders. To Chase. clean. i. csatora (Magy. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). chaste. Fl. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. a yawning. a crack or a flaw . niggardly. also a youth. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. chip. csacsogany. Fr. — sharp sound of a crack. pure. carmen is presented in AS. parcus. G. cassa s. tenax. gazzerare. Malay. careful. warble. cs E. It t. from purus. kata-kata. limpid. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Chary. splinters. charmer. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. To talk. geug. an enchantress. charm. caro. ferire. carnisj bones kept. from pure. make a noise as birds do. chisf. to which it bears the same relation as chape. See Cistern.). I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. ch). clean. to set a jewel. Fr.

prattlingchete. — To check an account. sale. See Cheek. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. the principal ' colloquial E.-^. snout. sum in a loan. changing.— Cattle. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Cam. stuttering. to coup s. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur.' to exchange to gasp. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. capitale. kak. Cheat. to act as a rogue. Sp. kakaista. kikottaa. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. which is used in the to stutter. a cheater. lead to OE.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. goods. exAS. Pro v. cera. Ingulphus.kakot.— Chole. kek. truffa. ku. kauf. bon marche. Modern Slang. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . It. a repulse. chear in the sense of victuals. chaptel. which is the word in ceap. kaupon. cattle. while it Bret. the Lat. to laugh. ceafl. and. . in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. and hence the E. equiva. Cheek. to — . with the exception of land. keck. chapman. caupo. cozener.—Choke. laughing. Then. jaw. stuttering.. to buy. dchec. a tavern-keeper. Hal. Slav. in Fr. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. sob E.— . favour. Soc. koopen. aspect of a man. a canting knave. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. lower. whence captale. Fl. with Dief. Fr. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. syllables ^ag-. kaufen. are represented piti. jaws. chatel. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. horse-couper. force of the word. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. the Confessor. Gr. a rogue or person who used the canting language. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. upon a checked cloth. . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse.. to stutter gigken. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. farm for farm. cara. to swap goods . to make inarticulate sounds in . retching. the face. Hence to cheat. Chew. chire. to nauseate (to retch). — — —Chowl. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. giving or taking in exchange. teeth . a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. sense of bargaining. frown. mandibula. Chattels. chop. ceap. Bav. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Faire bonne chire. Ek dry and hard. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. cheeks. visage. agreeing upon. — We ' . buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. Lat. to negotiate. cattle. Fin. chuckle. cachinnari. thers. chatal. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. countenance. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Bohem. kik. in widely separated languages by the Lat. to vomit. us. &c. ceahhetan. kichen. price.of the throat in coughing. gagkezen. to fetch the breath with difficulty. giggling. See Chess. chiere. any cheating. from AS. . 'li^'opa jord i jord.. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Du. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. gagkern.— Chaps. a dealer. kakkaset. to chop and change. G. gig. et juxta catalla sua. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Fr. kaupa. Pr. Pm. the countenance Fr. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. to buy. a piece of moveable property. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. citello. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. the tongue. e. hawkmann. a young boy or girl. to clear the throat . . to . 144 the It. Check.ing. chavylbone or chawlbone. entertain kindly. ceaflas. OFr. kok. The gutGoth. s. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. CHEEK zitella. society. It — Brompton in Due. Chear. to deal ON. Cot. goods. tradesman. . choule. to coff—Yisi.' kezen. a willing look and unwilling heart. welcome heartily. from Lat. to cluck like a hen. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. entertainment. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. cita. catalliim. OFr. It. Sc. a dealer in horses. NE. KaviiXog. cattle. kaupiti. look. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. CHATTELS has ciio. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl.

jouffle. cese. accomplishment cayed. kikna of dorum coacervatio. to love. kopen. Hence chesten-nut. kdkel. Fr. Fris. Thus "we are brought din.cirieggia. E. rattle in the throat. chesten. Fr. — 10 . See Chess. From them the plish. cegio. ceaplas. Lat. kapen. In these latter forms we see the transIt. quoka. cerasus. food. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. cams. veluti piscium. dear. . It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. rupted into chess. Du. G. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. ceg. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin.pose of acidifying them kasadr. rafters in heraldry. cough. To make a shrill noise Chest. practice seems to have been communiChevron. subjected to this process with that which the throat . gapen. scacco. rennet. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. skratt. geagl. prevail with. jaw. make an end. cista. As the board to gasp i. chiffe. chests in OE. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. . geafl. ost.D. The name of creak as shoes. schach. squeak as a mouse. clear the throat. gill of fish AS. cisty G. mollium congeries. to kep. a cricket. Pl. kastanie. takes place in the formation of cheese. E. Cherish. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. the hke. the palate Chequer. Da. schach. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. czypti. to belch. to boken. caseus.perly head. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Du. kaecke. throat. Sc. E. The Sw. Lith. kasa. Cherry. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. nish source. w. whence kasa-leipa. Sp. Fr. suffo. Jam. See Case. caws. ca' — . xaque. a heap. to geahl. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. made rancid koka. the neck.D. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. jaw . for cheese itself. To Cheep. w. Kil. w. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. by laying it in come to an agreement with. kdke. cheek. whence czypulas. then end. Pm. acquisition. the mouth. cheken. gaghel. e. kesten. to choke with laughter. chevron. treat with affection. gullet. kces. throat. Sc.EP CHEVRON 145 on. /Ji2^/(W. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. Chef. Lith.peep in the same sense. as meat and butter. Tutschek. Chess. kasiiUPr.. cufd. X'C&s. mouth kek. — — . AS. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. frame by which the exertion is made. cerise j G. kok. cabrio. Fr. cheek. kjceve. It would Cheese. chAtaigne. king). cherir.G. kirsche. a chicken. chops. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. Analo. Lat. . ceaflas. chops. giffle. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to hold dear. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Sw. hasten. Prov. ON. to year. N. carnium. chasi. . ition from a guttural to a labial termin. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. F*-.. AS. ceocian. to accomThis they call hdrsk. gap. cireggia. cabiron. cyse. AS.koppen. like a young chicken. Sp. — — . — — . ceac. quok. gabe. Achievement. the final guttural is retained in writing. It. Fr. achever. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. to swallow.Xo belch. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. a rafter . to make a noise different word. gous forms are G. old bread. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. the throat. subacidus. dersen . caru. An imitative word. ation. Fin. kikna. ichec. Chemistry. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . to choke.). breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. to bring to an end. jaws. . kistej Lat. equal squares of opposite colours. Lat. to kasa. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. as. Sw. chevir.' to w. OHG. E. castaneusj Fr. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. jaws Sw. Prothroat of an animal . jowl. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. things Da.their struggle for independence. cheek. incaseatus. Chekenyd or querkenyd. See Alchemy. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Chevaux de frise. kastr. CHE. kjakje. G. the loose the game of checks. by laying up in a covered heap. kjcebe. jaw. Cher. Hence kikna is identical with OE. chaps. &c. cheeks. to gape gab. (Kil. Chevisance. Lat. condition of being taken. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. to prevent the attack of cavalry. the The use of the word kcesir. to gasp.

twitter. chill. The loss of the syllable it in Du. to pettifog. cidan. caferu. Chief. Child. grelot). alter. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Chigue. caprioru. cabar beinne.. a hen. to the brim. tintelen van koude. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Payer chiguet A chiguet. creak. chicoter. Fl. Imitative of a loud clear sound. CHJME the radical form is unusual. pole. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. kime. by driblets. kitista. cabriones. are formed Du. cib. chic. Fr. queror. cheek. Pr. kauchen. a cup.— Gattel. tiuk. the same principle I regard On birds. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Prov. a little bit. kidata. — . ach. kauwe. tyuk. Chimb. pululo. pipe. — It. chawbone. — Du. a cup. tremble with cold. De chic en chic. s. knarren. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. jaws . to crackle. chillness or shivering. the cry of young . Bret. kimme. Tintillo. crepo. a chicken. a jaw. kinderen. . cabar. Pm.^ to resound as a bell. kippa. to go.). Chitter. Pl. choule. Da. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Fl. pipio. Fin. then cold. kaw. gosling. caput. Walach. rafter . 146 brial. pip. a cup cibaw. chiquei. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. or the broken noise of birds. from little to little. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. a small cask OFr. AS. Brezza. stake. czypulas. to use the jaws. chavel. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. ' . antler. Now gan some courage unto him to take. Probably from Fr. k'imm s. W.D. Pr. — — Mother Hubbard. has probably the same origin. a quid of tobacco. tiukka. when the vibrations become very rapid. aner. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. to contest about trifles. while the Magy. jaw. cebr. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. pi. gills of a fish. Du. quivering sound which passes. Chaw. Magy. to gasp for breath (Hal. Fr. from the second Lat. chicaner. kibr. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. mouth. chin. E. the jole.D. tiukkua. while didder is to shiver or citteren. ]).— . It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. the throat. from the first of which is Lith. or qf people talking rapidly. And hence. To Chide. a young bird. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. to smart. sonorous. or as E. cabarach. chol. Fr. horns of the house. E. and not vice versd. horn wood. Sp. kind. killen. as. For the see word Doit. to titter is Du. Gattel. Fin. killen. rafter . De finger killet mi for kalte. kilderkin. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. G.— Cot. also the horizon. deer's horn. kindeken. Palsgr. chicken. chieftain. Russ. kuwe. 'Among these the G. in Walach. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. ultimate origin of the Mite. chavel. kieken. E. acute. Fin. klagend tonen. term is ssaru fu. CHEW . jaw. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. mountain top . cild. a chicken.peep. kop. Swiss kiden. chiler. It. as pointing out the origin of the E. captain. greloter is to shiver for cold. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. or chick. zitterti. Gael. chaps. into a continuous shriU sound. chef. the least imaginable jot. chikat'. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. to raise the rim. kimista^ . . lead through the synonymous E. the rim or edge of a vase. capete. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. capu. kauen. machouere. A To Chew. kaau•wen. kopf Du. beam. chew or chaw. Kil. to contest. to chew. G. kouwe. See Chimmer. to chime. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. tremble. and from the third E. the young of animals in general. kimia. . Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Chill. tiukkata. chillar.. : — a lump. the Ptg. Pm. knirschen.^ Hal. head. a head. a chicken. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. pipio. Halm.-ill. The Pl. Chick. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. hiss as meat on the gridiron. to Du.. Du.' my finger tingles with cold. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. chimb. keichen. w. — Fin. to twitter. To chitter. to scold. a finch. cica cica.. Chime. rafter. strideo. chillrar. signifying properly shivering. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. then as G. capo. the head. knit the brow cib-led. branchy. cap. Lat.

genawi. to simmer. which differ from each other only as Chirk. the jaw. kumina. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. a chap. cisello. sonants. klincken. to squeak in It. eschiner.). sonus the backbone Lat. hus. spina. . — . do. to sound deep or the Gr. ykvvQ. kinne. flaw Hal. clipping of coin. a Kuttn. to chirre. Chimera. to chine. in Hal. Chit. pare also Walach. czirszkti. representing connected together. hollow. crepare. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. — . yivtiov. the cheek. E. name Then. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. Kil. Prov. cinne. fissure. in the same crack. In the same sense.to divide or Du. KinneGr. Chymerynge. squittire. to chirp. caminata. applied to tremulous motion. Chin-coug^h. It. AS. cincel. epine. cinan. resonance . Chitterling. Chimney. Caminatum. as a bell kommata. Magy. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. kink hoest. gena. fyr. the whooping cough. komia. Fr. are In like manner E. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Du. Chitter. Cot.Huloet in Hal. hiss chirlar. to sound. to sizel. caperd. a crowing sound in recovering breath. the chin . to murmur. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Sp. bx-eak the back of schena. to creak. a thorn. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Gascoigne in Todd. sound on beginning to boil. The small entrails of a hog. Lat. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Lith. j^lf. — . schiena. killed by Bellerophon. tsongeni. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. chatter . i. schetteren. shiver and the chyver of Pr. quavering of the voice. ciarlare. See Chats. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. twitter caminus. eschin^e (de pore). ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. a fire-place. G. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . To chink with laughter. to tattle. ciseau (for cisel). simmer. Sw. from Lat. as the chink of money. . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. clangor tinniens kummata. also vibrans. Bret. Pr. to prattle . the jaw. Pm. kumista. Chine. — . eschine. . Fr. chits. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. then of a fabulous monster part goat. caminsects. zirpen. A . Chink-cough. komista. up and down. as a large bell . to chink with laugh2. to creak. et garrire . a surkik hosta. esquena. Primarily a shrill sound. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat.. from 10 * ' Chia. have been used to designate the spine.' Phaer's Virg. cleft. or chyFrigutus. Chisel. quivering or shakyng for colde. a szemrcU. It.er. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. to tremble. and chim-mer. the cheek (jaw) . to chink. schina. Huloet. sound. schetteringe. spina. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. backBut she withal no worde may soune. genou (pi. Chintz. rustle. . backe.Lat. Du. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. as birds the mouth. and light. cheminde. skina. Gower in Hal. E. tinnire. Fr. disCot. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . chick. the chine. to prattle czirpti. tschirpen. — — — — — . chink. Sp. ter. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. keich husten. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. 147 kimina. Bav. Fr.czirbti. Ptg.iron. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. tsengeni. and from a similar sound to boil gently. . twinkling light. zirken. tremulous motion. all these imitative terms being minata. and the Du.sharp. plodere. Chip. chin .to chirp. as the/ is preserved tering. the mouth (jaws) . Chat. Chyrme or chur. Gloss. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. G. See Chap. Sp. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. To chirp or twitter. Hindost. kieck hoest. schrick. Sp. but or cry as a parrot. vincially used in the sense of a crack. to chirp . See Chark. Chink. esquina. The desig. sounding deep. then to any narrow crack or AS. It. clashing of weapons. pork) . companied. a chink or fissure. To Chimmer.. verynge or dyderinge. cisaille. a hall Mid. from the geon's lancet. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke.schricken. a thorn. part lion. It. It. bone . chhint. sparkle. gen. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Fr. dial. to open chirriar. hiss Pm. cheek. chirp. See Bright. and bodily movement in shimm. The change from the sound ter \s. stridere. to gape. Diez de. To Chitter.

full. skifa. the ridges prove. x^poc. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. Choleric. arkiusan. shiver. a ruff. to ing is doubtless to taste. okusyti. of E. called cMtters in the N. Luc.V)^x. coup.. keuren. disposition. to exchange horses. friller. or original meaning is preserved in G. CHOP kros. taste. schevel-steen. and N. whence Lat. to taste.ffrill. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. of an angry — — — ' ' — . anger. The Sc. fine threads of flowers. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. to chap at a door . %o\ifa. kiesen. kalbs gekrose. a small slice or slip of anything . civette. to taste. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. G. a wine taster.D. approve. The manners and senti. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . to chap. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. select. gdnse gekrose. ON. Goth. caperd. &c. Chives.' Verie coinme Cot. chives. to break off in small shive. whence choleric. cape. specially with an application to theatrical performances. to palpitate . Chap. 2. to taste. wein didder for cold. Warwickshire coff. Gr. a scale or fragment P1. gustare. See try. Body and Soul. to taste. kieser. kruszki. and It. to wrinkle. to shiver. curly . Schmid. Lat. Choice. krussyi. to try . ON.ceosan. Chivalry. experience valerie.' who shall not taste death. Choice is probably direct from Fr. schiefer. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to hack. a heap. and in kosten. . the inwards of an animal. To Chop. choix. — Chock-full. kausjan.vonic languages are Pol. bile. are used in the same sense. also calPs. fresure. * To Choose. kushati. then to shiver. a fragment. a calf's chaldern of E. Fr. to taste. to try. Chives are also a kind of small onion. kor6n. to strike hands . Fr. cive. chattering. prove.freze. from chevalier. chorus. coro. G. cke. Prov. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. Cavalry. shoot . cepa. Swiss kust. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to clap up Hal. ent quarter. a young . Chuck-full. choppe. wrath.gust. a ruff or frill. by which they are Fr. kbhren. kiusan. G. it is probable that the root kus. chatter. Serv. chife. to stop geschoppt voll.. I. — — — . by the vibrations of sound or motion. Walach. causir. — See Cheek. Equivalents in the SlaFr. lead us on to Lat. a blow. Swab. chiffe. a knight. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. 19. crammed Choir. scheve. —Chorus. chock full. full to overflowing. to ^cleave . wkusit' prikushat. OHG. . gusten. ^euw. pluck. •- Russ. g'schochet voll. from kraus. To Choke. a company of singers or dancers. ^S. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. chceur. a chive. ruffs. Gr.— B jag E. to taste . and Vf. chippe. kushevati. &c. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Fr. The . then to try. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. chaup. kustigen. — Cholera. keypa. chap hands. try. in the same language. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. . rare. try. kiezen. a calf's pluck or chaldron .yEuffM. kusid. . to tempt. Jam. signify to kiss. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. haslets. a twittering. i. heaped measure. as green as leeks. chibble. Enn Sigridur sem ' . the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . developments of the same radical image.' At last he dwelt . cut up into — See Chats. pieces . Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. an onion. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. to prove. Gr. As kushnuti. . a goose's giblets. The I go to prove them. Boh. word is more likely to be from Lat. taste. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. to try. seallion or unset leek. as with a blow. koren. and in this sense the * small pieces. to choose. . the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. to try. the small parts of the roots of plants. propagated. to experience. gekrose. chawdron. chimp. a rag. xiv. schoch. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. all seem slate . ments of the knightly class. from %u\i). . stone which splits off in shives or shivers. kaup. to Compare also Pol. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. Yr. to turn. kiusan.

In Sc. whence — E.). high clog. Chopino. To Chop logick. noble Doctor. 49. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Chrysalis.—Chuokstone.(. &c. as Du. Wall. P. chouette. dealing. Chough. kauwe. the teeth to chatter . e. Fr. chronicles. yiSA. dial.). e. Madam. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. ley in Giiford. capitanus. the intestine of an animal. Chord. quappe. clogs. traffic. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. to speak thieves' slang. consecrated oil to be used in baptism .' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Lat.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. thick-set. ceo. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. kobe. A fish with a thick snout and head. Gr. kaulhaupt (club-head. chroniques. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Fr. cob. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. kaej Lith.' Jam. a messenger or envoy. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Chronicle. chapma?i. i. xpi'^lia. gull. — — — . To Chouse. kolbe (club). . applied to an owl in that language. OE. In the Alchemist. to strike in the hand. gobio capitatus. capita. chack. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. E. kaw. peace. in Chaucer. caqueter. I bring you the Cloughs. which was written 27. kaufen.. a The What dhy ^. to overturn. . chapin. Du. Marin. sent before him a Chiaus. ON. -chron-. Confounded with the bullhead. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. cheap. Chuck. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. to chatter. G. of which such strings are made. cheviniau. plump.povucd.— Chevin. and we actually find champman for chapman. Borgoens happen. from kloppen. If I discover. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin.— Landnamabok. fat. to clack. chevane. Picard. as in Fr. kowe. an offence against the fitness of times. See Chaff. overset. gull. caphatenus. klompe. who took in the Turk- clack. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. E. slipper . whence the Fr. Nominale in Nat.. time ra . kubb. Cot. koppe. chevin. to cant. choucas. klopper. cavena. Gr. a thick piece. connected with G.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. civetta. cauvette j Fr. Fr. whence e. because she would not endure this husband chopping. — . chub. cauc. to turn over. Sp. prattle . The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. equivalent to the E. chrisme. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. cangiare. Come. cambiare. XpvaaXic. chrysalis (Plin. Jam. What do you think of me. xop5>}. cow-couper. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. claquer.sohola. That Face. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. a trafficker in souls.• — . a stump. — Quabbe. Chub. Sw. See Change. gold. by the Robert Shirley. bearand aits. kowej Sax. To coup. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Alchemist. p. we find the following passage Dap. Fr. chevane. or miller's kaycke . Gr. whence apparently the Sup. soul-couper. — Chrisom. in i6io. caker. syllables chat. E. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. chouquette. AS. Fr. — Dief. A jackdaw. dial. chapineria.\^s. capito. a bullhead. merchant. the string of a musical instrument originally. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. a small fish with a large head. chatter . kubbr. a lump or piece chump. Ant. xftovoq. that will thank chiaus — you richly. the same word with the It. Peace. Anachronism. 4. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. —Shakespeare. Gr. one who buys and sells horses or cows. for to defraud. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. From the Turkish Chiaus. cresmeau. Du. The Turk was here As one should say. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Kil. short piece kubbug. to knock. forms are Chrism. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. chuet. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. monedula. ' ' What's that? Dap. thumb Fl. E. clat. chop. capitone.X.

karl. sindra. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. Fr. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). chaps. ChurL husbandman. a girding on. to fall at or on. kiorne. surly. a douse on the tores. chack-stone. flower. a fellow. log of wood. ON.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. kaerle. Lat. sindel. to make a rippling noise. tie about). a pebble . Lat. kakka. .for the residue of stone coal. to cut decide. . -cis-. -cide-. See Ceiling. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). Ir. C^z^j^ churHsh. then the on oh StX iv roXt. an old man. Lat. to fall upon decide. — — A — ' ' — . Cieling. giffle. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. 24. to turn from blossom to fruit. x^^i?. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . or. domhnach. e. pith. kirna. i. with It the Lord's house. sive piratiam facere sciant. Sc. scoria. -eris. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. to determine incision. Cob. so as to make the happen . however. Du. Cleland in Jam. The origin ation. jaws. . Gothic nations. dial. cheeks Cincture.rendered by Kil. Jennings. KvptaKolg. chuffy. we have to chack. kjami.. whence church. Cider. set kerti. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. to gird. cendre. Probably from It. Churn. . . Du. countryman. Fris.^. e. sindr. a miser.D. the snout of an animal. In Sc. Wall. chakil. kern. chife. — of the two words. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Gr. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. * Cinder. cinctus. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. cidre. to To Chuckle.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. to sparkle. residue of burnt coals. a rustic . cut off. as water running over rocks or stones.' And cold. to fall. comp. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . chofu. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. Wall.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. from Lat. KaxXij?. as Fr. a man. sintel. geaflas. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A.' he adds. ceorl. swollen or puffed up Cot. The derivation from Kvpiasov. in circumcision. ccedo. the kernel. sinter. -cido. . G. joffu. Lat. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. AS. -cisuiri). as in E.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. to strike clatter. to Newsp. to him a sudden blow. to churn. tindra.— . Gr. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. cheek. lamak. See Cheek. Ka-^aiva. in Sc. ceaplas. whence ON. Aasen. &c. Fr. a lump. incido. ashes. as a board. has been impugned which it has really no connection. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. — . sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. thence a belt. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. As AS. casum (in comp. fat-cheeked. or choice part of a thing . to form grains of butter. that the word is an adoption of Fr. cinis. Chuff. To chuck in the fall from. as Epkema explains it. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. joufflu. Diss. i. OFr. kerl. cinctura {cingo. to jaw chack or snap. a man. gffe. ceffore. kernjen. dust. See Cheek.V//a'6'?. to cause the milk to grain. ON. klakka. Du. to make a aiKipa. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. to throw out sparks. sicera. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. pp. a man. in the face. chops. a husband. The spelling of chider has Chump. ON. a resounding object. spuma metalli. calculus. cinders used disjunctively. have given rise. Chunk. cado. calx. male person. a cutting round. from Lat. &c. Hence -cid-. ceaflas. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. accido. ladre from Lazare. G. Da.— Chu%. Sicerawry face ceffata. but by way of explan. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. to separate the kernel of the milk. ceffo. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. It is certain. a cutting an old chuff.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. a pebble. chack or stane-chacker. whence deciduous (of trees). -cise. AS. Sw. ciuffo. chofe (Grandgagnage). marrow. Church.

either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. babble . ON. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . klappe. to bawl. a citizen . Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. The notion of a lump. ern. to cluck. prattle. In Fr. compared with It. . cit^. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup.' sione. log. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. * Ciplier. to cry out. ring. city.to suck. a rattle . Fr. Clam. sprig. suck). castus). to chatter . around. Sw. ciste. a hiding-place. to call. Fr. klamp. and. a lemon tree. is traced by Gr. a pop-gun. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. . cry out . creak les dents. klemte. a for water. a Lat. lump of wood or with the nasal. citrus. Comp. ON. klepati. klammer. in the frequentative form. From Arab.. cittd. . ON. lump. &c. cisterna. klompe. klambr. dim. claquer. clatCot. clack-box. —Circuit. biw. glambar. circa. a ball. trunk. the door was slammed J slamem. a lump Du. a ball. See Crankle. klappen. a rattle Fr. clamer. klap. lucerna. a split. to knock. klump. . often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a loud uksa slamketi. from chupar. sajira. or quill to draw waier through Fl. accordingly find the roots dab. to go. cion. to be empty. E. Bohem. Gr. Citadel. clamare. as caverna from cavus. may cite w. Lat. The syllables clap. clump. clack-dish. a city. cittade. bunch . a ring. prattle. circle. forms — — — parent plant. Lat. crack. mass . Fr. KipKog. claquer. claquer crash. to mention. — (Dozy) ing blow. a mass. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. klimp. Mack. a cistern. cittadella. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Fr. sindri. a kind of pipe. sphere gleba. Sp. a kind of rattle. Gael. and Sp. Lat. klacken. a cleansing place. cifra. globus. Scion. To Clack. noise — — a cistern. klak. Hal. to clap at a theatre. to chatter. The Gr. klqb. Cite. Circle. clapper. kluV. fall. area. Arab. klacke-busse. outcry. glam. the tongue. claquet de moulin. cry. Dan. Excite. a clod Russ. Lap. to make to go. It. . radical identity of the Fr. crack. a reservoir Probably from Lat. We . claim. lump. scion or sucker. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. G. klubb. a Pol. Du. domern.— . Gr. . lash . We . chupon. Hence Incite. . citujn. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. klumbr. slam. CION See Tinder. clack. dob. chijfre. Sw. clat. excite. cieo. a'upiav. glamm. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Alt. and E. and clash. E. uproar. -cite. kringla. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. with an initial s instead of c. chatter . or clap-dish. as in Sp. wasserkasten (water chest). to clack. Lat. to appeal. belonging to cities or social life . bunch. klopati. a block. stimulate. to set in motion by means of the voice. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. chest. clobyn. Cot. KpiKoe. Dan. sound- — hands figures. to call by name. around. ter. to clatter. to toll . sifr. a young and tender plant. clangor avium . It. City. klateren. clamp. of citta. sound. for Cion. whence cistiti. klabb. lump. clamras. clasp. a circle. clap. a city. to call. So a light. about. sip. 'mass. to gnash the teeth. See -cid-. cluster. Gael. Citron. ruin. empty Golius. It. kringr. clot ON. civilis. Clamp. a clod. a knob. civitas. Lat. klekotati. circum. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. rattle. lump . a shoot. civis. . a boss . to summon or call on. a circle. To Claim. Chaste. Circum-. . clambar. clog. a. clamp. Clump. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a place See place hiddern. clack. to strike. Lat. a block. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a whip. to cleanse. W. a whirlwind. -cis-. chupon. parallel root is slam. noise. vociferation. cito. lump. gutter. * Cistern. or split with noise. . crack. cista. G. ball kloben. twig. Lat. a lump Lat. smack. sound of blow. the place of . —Civil. Du. to chatter. cisterna. scion. See Circle. rattle . as. hringr. circum. circ2tlus. cion. clapping of klacke. Du. Recite. klater-busse. clap. a judgment cern. . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a circle. tinnitus .

dank. Gael. clap. klam. to climb. . . Dan. to knock. to glue. These are imitations of a loud. club . clav\f. beat. — — . dapi^. G. klammern. clajnmy. to clap on. klepati. bond. to climb . B. cleave. to patronus.er. dee. children. children. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. a noose . . klem-vogel. klepel. klappen. a heap of stones or other things piled up . scendants. klavre. Bav. ancestor. narrow. OE. the in many languages. Clang. salafa. to hide. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. G. brawl. rumour. buckle klamp. The Fr. viscous. to climb. dapier. sound object . yf. to hold fast with the . dia. klammer. a sound. to Hal. See Clam. klang. Du. Clank. cling. clap. offspring. seize. to. Dan. G. tone. klynge. descendants . klank. of money Gael. for tame conies. Lang. a craCmp. a bird of prey. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . holdfast. E. gum. Clapper. and hence moist. dienklebber. cramp-iron. sticky Hal. Swiss kldbem.. clibby. clammy brace. of which the locative case. The E. stick. clangor. as the Lat. dren. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. cramp. rattle. G.1. in a hidSen place. or klamp-vogel. kluppel. Clink. klubber. to seize. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. uproar. klamre. klopfen. compress. . a place underground where rabbits breed. Clan. tattle. tingle. sound. to climb. tremble . klepanie. to Sw^. klemmen. a heap of stones. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. clang. The root which gives rise to klibb. take hold of. a sound made by a still . dial. klam7n. E. klamm. to claw oneself up. sound. G. Hence the Fr. clann. G. nature . whence sala. Clamour. klettern. klibber. and hence to pinch . klobber-saen. to clamp. to hold to pinch. Halma. Bohem. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. solid. Lat. Clamp. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. salaan. anything hidden. to daub pinch. celo produces Fin. dam. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. grimper. to dame. klatten. hands or claws to grasp. to gingle. dang. a whip. daver. Clap. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . E. from birdlime.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. dandestinus. AS. chief. cream Manx doan. to starve. pinching. Sw. adopted Lat. dam immediate modifications — . gripe. and that from celo. strait. cluster. to clutch or cling oneself up. klappre. sound . with cramp-irons.' klibba.p correspond- ' without order. conceal. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. Du. to do anything with a clap. bandage. dial. klamme. klynge sig op. Du. E. A i. kleppe. Du. run to lumps Clandestine. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. . dam. who occuG. In like manner Du. grasp. Mampe. apprehend . a loud tingle. Dan. hook. clapas. to knock. compression. klemmen. — with hunger. to stick conceal. beating.' to take coals to Newcastle. Russ. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. a stick. &c. closely analogous to that of the fast. dambar. is used in the sense of secretly. tenacious. klebern. to cleave or stick. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. klimmeii. ring as metal. hold. dem. sound of the trumpet . to pinch. tinkle. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. G. a claw . clamber. strain . to glue. crowd . as the clapping of hands. a stone See Claim. To clap in E. dap up. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. from the w. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. glambar. kleben. clink. accent. chatter. also to clog up. dientes. clear sound. dam. resonance klingen. ney. prison. chatter. knocking. — Cot. klampen. klemmen. contraction. To sticky. Swiss kletten. pressed close or hard together. a hawk. kloben. kleppe. coagulated cream. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. klette. damras. clandestine. — Climb. These words To are closely connected with damp. Dan. to climb. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. . The equivalent of Lat. klappen. — Lat. privately. dink Du. kleppen. to climb. originally a heap of large stones. Salainen. to clap. of the children. where- A — unto they retire themselves. substances of a stickydam. to stick or glue. diver. gliong. a claw. is a nasalised form of gripper. Fr. to hook things together. damor. klippe. massy. a rattle . c). viscosity . a burr. dapier. To Clamber. but perhaps not directly from it. clapper of conies. to cling. — . a trap. a sound made by a lighter clink. to beat. B. tight. clasp.

uproar. Class.Z. a complete sentence. fragor . &c. Eau clairette. vin clairet. a bird with powerful talons.— CLARET clamp. to draw it up into a bunch. a clod. claret win e. Pol. — tells us. —Kil. Fr. Prov. globus. chiizjj-o. clavis. nail. Clause. the cracking of a whip. the primary origin clapa. to animals Sp. Clavicle. clair. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. kletse. Du. Kil. Du. clamp. a ball. an on the one hand. Du. It. same class with w. seizes) . klamme. Commonly made. an ending. buckle. From clairet. Clash. mass. a key. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. From claudo. rion. pellet . sauna de classes. e. glcis. mass. klos. K\a. vinum helvolum. klauwe. to shut. nawith stanis. Eya-klasi. in the sense of a mass or lump. as Mod.oi. rubellum. klouwe (Kil. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. is used in Sc. skeria-klasi. fibula. somewhat clear. klatschen. klase. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Lang. a distribution of things into groups. waU. forms are the Du. Du. — Clarion. Fr. Gr. teren. klot. klauw.to cra. Klatsch- a pop-gun . applied in their harness. Owl and that by which cleave to. Du. clopa. to clap . Serv . is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. globus. Analogous Jam. a heap. chiarino. Lat. klampe. klaterbusse. Fr. biichse. Thus from clamp. insularum nexus . Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. E. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. clew or fasten upon a thing. assembly.Gr. as G. to fasten together . clairon of a trumpet— It. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. &c. — Kiittner. a. puUs. sphaera. KXeiSi. klatschen. Lat. syrtium junctura. kluczka. clas. Originally clasis. a key KKtitid. a kind of small. with a reddish tint. klc^i. to patter. it is called clamming. To clew. The b readily passes into gleba. flap. to snap. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Du. ictus resonans. clarinado. Sw. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. contraction. dap. to fasten. under three modifications dava. klaequivalent to clack or clap. chasguear. kleuen. kleeven. row aii/iaTos. — Clarinet. clairon. in the sense of a claw. cinnamon. klouwe. klampvoghel. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Thus from Lat. a. . diver. to clash as arms. a sphere . an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. gaspe. is preserved in Lang. clarin. thwack . Lat. ivy. chiaro clear. It. . crying. from its use in fastening things together. a claFr. and clavis. The form clew. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . a bunch. klaeret. a key origmally a crooked nail. as it is written by Chaucer. Cot.w or u on the other. ghespe. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. compression. claw (what fastens together. locket of a door. subrubidum. clatter. chiarello. clausum. Russ. Claw. a water made of aquavitse. a lump. to do anything with a . Claret. a buckle. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. sound of the foregoing description. a clasp. a lash. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. hawk. kiosk bicza. Identical with ON. clavus. to rattle . clump. and old red rose-water. a club or massy stick. chatter. blab. and shrill-sounding trumpet.. the collar-bone. klaskad. Clasp. from scknallen. Nightingale. Dan. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. So Pol. In the same way is formed the OE. Lat. he of white and red grapes mingled together. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^.ck a whip. Rayn. biichse. cluster. which signifies a ball in E. Nawith stavis. i.\x\xvn. fracas. from clinging to the tree which supports it. 269. klatsche. Sp. a nail. G. Wyutoun in Jam. The collar-bone. vin claret. to end. In E. pet. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. clausula. climp. klijven. classis. ansa. Clew. to cleave. stop of an organ. noise. to ring in such a manner for the dead. klatscha pop-gun. schnalle.). m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Clatter. But clasp or elapse. to knock. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy.It. also a knell for the dead. a lump . a claw. cloi. klucz. or as G. we pass to the E. bawling. whence kleuer. a little hook . from the resemblance to a key. clew. and through v into a. hook. straight-mouthed.

Da. dut. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. split. kluft. This word is used in two business is finished off. From dob. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . glbr. gingle. A — A Clement. that was a striking proof. klinka. vice. a claw or talon. glbram. the fork of the body. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. an object is simply cleft. nitidus. explained from the klinken. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. to shine . G. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. dinquet kleeven. clay . glan. klieuen. G. Clay. Clemency. B. together . river. a fissure. sticky . pure . 2. a noose. in two ways. to fasten. klinken. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. glindse. clean. a mass. Clinch. klyft. and. bogs cous. Dan. The word may be — . kleverig. Clean. klouen. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. i. of iron worn on shoes by country people. glitta. Sw. to separate into parts. dag. clean. (Cot. . kleg. . Omklinken. pretty. speech . Du. conserere antklankjan. glan. the To Cleave. glan. to shine. Mar. gentle. clear. as Fr. geklonken. E. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. as Lat. klinke. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. klinke. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. klijveii. klafwa. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. as explained under G. a one end. clean. a key. a plate. Cleat. dams. neat. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. 154 CLAY dutch. smooth. to tear or cleave asunder. Probably a modification of the word doitt. is fast and sure. ON. rive. To Clench. a lump. kluit. merciful. give a shrill sound Jr. to clench. klag. a in that of sphtting. provinciaUy termed dout. The proper meaning of the word is shining.— Claggy. to clinch GB. — : A rivet. Sw. to glitter. kloben. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. glatt. to clinch a nail. cliquet. a mass. E. clink. shine. . door-latch. either by the coherence To Clepe. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. Sc. klouen. rift. to dag ox dog. to chink. pellet. klor. a flash. a cleft or fissure. doggy. glitnir. klinken. opposite senses. kloben. Da. kluftholz. kleg. from the clinking of the latch. glandse. Clear. Fr. Kil. kloue. kluyte. G. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. Die zaak is zS. klutsch. Du. klceg. the latch of a door. klinke. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. to clink or sound. calm. a — — . sticky. From clap. This is probably one of the clean. viz. G. found in other cases. kloben. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. kleevig. The word is . to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. to sound or make a noise . voice. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. from nitere. klov.— Clag. glance . kla:g. mud.' was nailed to a rock. seem formed dial. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. clear. dial. as the Du. a cleft. to stick or adhere . sleek. gaklankjan. or from being divided into two parts. pure. dench. bend in a stream. sticky earth. dedgy. chaps in the skin. radiant. glint. Du. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. deot. glent. klank. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. holding together. date is AS.).Q. viz. the two parts of Du. lump. and E. tongs. Thus from G. Lat. celebrated . rivet. to fasten. famous. cleave. cloven wood. Du. Gael. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Da. See Clog. See Clam. clean. diquetcr. klove The Dan.— . to 2. ON. glor-mhor. doff. klieben. Cleft. clear. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. Bav. . glorious. and Dan. danche. AS. W. klincke. . hook. polish . a bunch of When flax). bright. dags. to stick to. words applicable sight. or of a tree. a lump. clemens. Du. that was Torriano. ON. clout. klink. klirre. a latch. a noise. Sc. it cleave together. clibby. . as ON. pure. neat. klinken. Du. kleben. vissticky . polished. daggy. gleit. splendid pohshed. klirren. clash. to Brilliant. Axletree clouts. loam. a clincher. To call. and Celtic glan. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. to fasten E. to be composed. Lat. Halma. kldnkelein. a fissure or division See Cleave. The Dan. G. to cleave. from diquer. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. the original . Wilbraham. E. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a cleft. Sw.

chatter. agile. kliv. de ripa. Norm. corresponding to Fr. deudi. to cleave. duke. rugged ascent. a clerk . kloof. Claw. derjon. ginally from dob (extant in W.— Clicket. to move. to tattle. a lot. Commonly derived from deliver. Cot. 3. Clever. which in Mid. Clerk. a ladder. dever. in rhetoric. a cliff. deuck. —Vocab. to seize. to confess . 'not as being lords over God's heritage. klippe. to wink. sonare. dergi. clack. derigo. derecia. clif. hamraklif. -Toe (from KXivm. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. precipice. diofian. deuch. kleppen. nimble. one admitted to the tonsure. to stir. cleugh. KkrifoQ. Client. a tumbril. — have the notion of a short quick in E. glomus. We movement catch. But the Dan. to clack. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. kleppe. Lat. precipices. frap- per rudement une personne. Boh.' ii. seize (Hal. IS5 Du. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. snatch. the clergy clericus. and hence deik. dexterous. pen. an inclination. klinke. — — A . with hamarskard. temperature. above the pole. a claw or clutch. claw or talon to dek or deik. as from derido. cliquer. dial. gleg. to prate. clyf. dook (identical with E. Clergy. Climate. ready of speech. clap. babble. Sp. Klover i munden. score7i clif. or Sc. a hump. ravine. to bend. cliff. CLINCH De . Happen. scar. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . icXi/ja?. klikker. klok klep- crepitare. Cliff. 3. a child's or clack . a lazar's clicket or clapper. cart that tilts over. klinge. dob. a lump. klever. deik. one of the clergy. on. the clergy. klikklakken. Du. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. to snatch. a latch. See Clench. clep. cleft in a rock. See Clamber.). cligner. lively. corresponding to the Sc. &c. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. to sound an alarm to clap. rock. Du. dichet. Bav. Now the OE. Lat. CLERK sound of a blow. click it. from clifian. d See Clan. a mill-clack . Sc. call. The Sc. what so men clappe or crie. a baU of yarn. climate. to talk as a parrot. klouwe. cleft of a hill. /cXi'fia. or an object character- Clerical. a figure mentioned. skard. and hence climate.. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. klika. Clam. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. rupes . it must be observed. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. Clew. Click. diquette. dial. duik. clif- stanas. to catch. clerus. G. a hold. . klippe. abrupta rupes . a hook. call. dough. in precisely the same sense as the E. cave . Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. from Gael glac. a sphere. cliof. Climax. light-fingered. sink. to cry. Hence Lat. a cleft in a rock . klev. pulsare. as Lat. speak. has also deik. has kl'dver. name. . is NE. AS. stein- kluppen. Da. cleke. the knocker of a door. ized . Sw. to teU tales. chat. to tattle. whence Fr. clever. Chaucer. . a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. the dick of a latch or a trigger. cleft. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. diver. as a click with the tongue. clima. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Lat. Du. a clicket or clapper. chatter. highest is attained. Det er en Mover kerl. prattle. expeditious. exactly Gr.Lat. Rouchi cliche. a latch . click. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. a ball of twine.dergie! Wiclif in R. cliquet. clypian. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). OE. e. crackle. klaffen. In I Peter v. catching. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. a clew. slope . a trigger. quick of perception. to rattle. The origin is the Gr. would have been derida.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. clever. chatter. Dunbar in Jam. rock. to catch. crepare. Fr. a precipice. See AS. dutch). on. and (with the nasal) — clincher. dink. quick in motion. klaiv. dial. clatter. narrow hollow between precipitous banks .— Clue. Climb. that is a clever feUow. . a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. klif. G. click. dicher. neither as having lordship in the. kliket. say. click. Jam. deik. klinket. as Sc. a latch. in the sense of active. cleopian.) Brai. littus. which is used in Scotch and N. dek. Somner. globus. crack. had a form. region not observe it. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. cautes. verge). Gr. derigon. declivity. rapidus from rapio. syn.

globulus' (Gl. or bagging clothes. kolbe to E. hlinian. clangere. chcng. -cliv-. klinka. klak. to pinch. Cliofue. knot klynge. to resound. cloche. klupen. disposed to a thing.— KSS. hluk. klynge. club). klippa. kleppe. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. to ring. and so' to contract. &c. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. noise. also to wink . . Clink. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. to bend downwards . shears. klipa. clinke. ten. E. Ang. to lean. a separate portion. glocke. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. bow. to slope or bend . . klippur. clips. ON. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. To Cling. dial. fetter. klicke.D. klok. dial. ' . as we now say three or four o'clock. to clink auf. verklungeln. to cling to a thing. a beU. a lump G. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Lat. S w. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. G. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . Decline. klunge. to shrink up. kliks. hill . incline. to clap or clack. to clip. . Walach. hluccti. parva ruptura. pinch. Sw. to snip. klocke. . gUong. quincailler. klocka. to shrink up. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. kolki-laud. — clot. a bell. Een kliks bolter. ring clag. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. To cut with shears. whence E.und zuk-lippen. kXiVu. klepalo. to wither. E. 'Till famine cling thee. from klepati. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. clique. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. to . 156 -cline. to crowd or squeeze chingy. at first probably on a wooden board. Sussex peasant AS. sticky. as thick or curdled liquids. Swiss klokken. Bohem. to AS. N orman clincailler. OHG. Du. To stick to. . rima. to form one mass with. Swiss klungele. dial. pinch. Flem. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. and 'E. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. The notion of a loose moveable substance. * Clod. klocke. -atum. straits. klippa. Gr. Du. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Lat. G. difficulty. clutch. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. Sw. to crowd together klynge sig ved. Serv. Clock. kukla. G. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. met. to lean backwards. Sw. klingen. Gael. w. sloping upwards procUvis. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. as to snip in the same sense from snap. also to form a compact mass. to snap tongs. kima. a snare. clino. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. toga. The E. Du. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. a rising ground. iissura. Cloak. sloping forwards. clinker. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. like cling. sloping downwards . to strike.. G. a clock. klinken. hooded . . kldpp. klunker. a cluster. . a bell.D. Da. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Hal. kluppe. . klungeln. glungelin. Sw. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Ir. to cluster. dial. knippe. and a similar syllable without the /. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. pallium. cochl. g. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. nip. brett-glocke. as G. by bits. acclivis. compress . speaks of a ' clung bat. four of the bell. in Schmeller) klunk. Esthon. kluben. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. To Clip. to clunge. cloak. — a mantle. Sw. klo^gen. Kil. outcry. I. to beat on the board. G. to sound sharp. to snap kneipen. recline.' for a dry stick. ON. . klik. tuft. a faction. Bi klik uti klak. a lump. related to clock. difficulty . gang. klincke. to beat. G. clingan. 2.. clato make a noise.— Clot. klaka. kol- The word . dag. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. clog. to knock. klungelin. hlinen. a hood. to wither. See Cowl. declivis. Fr. clivus.' From Pl. to snap or fillip schnippen. incline. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Du. knippen. a woman's mantle . to pinch klupe. to make a loud noise.. Fr. klippe. especially of something soft or clammy. a lump of butter. a tinman. toga muliebris. Bohem. a ball of thread .'— Shaks. knippchen. slant. -CLINE make pinch. clock is a variation of clack. a clog or fetter for a beast . ON.. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. See Clang.ginglej Fr. schnippen. klippen. Pl. claw.

tuditare. klotzschuh. a bal!. a block. loblolly. kl'dnken. klac. laggyn. kloteispaen. lunch.. forbidden by 17 Ed. to lobberig. . dirt. AS. slobber. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. . pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. inclose. to play at bowls. slab. klottern. I clodde.'^ Palsgr. to rattle. bespotted with mire E. like G. dangle. compared with clump. Closhe. beklakken. in accordance with It. kloteren. To Clog. paludosus. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. to sup up liquid food. bemired. hanging loose and full. meat from Du. paddle or dabble in the wet. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. from Fr. fat. to slop or spill liquids. to bubble. gelatinous. Klottermelck. wide bagging clothes. or E. Close.' end. pattens G. blot. Cloister. In the same way Dan. with Fr. slops).cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. • lump. slop. . shaky. klateren. we pass to Schlatter. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. a Christmas log. to shut. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. motte. a clod Swab. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. to wabble. Du. foreclose. and thus seem endowed . -close. . a portion of something soft and adhesive. IV. to shut in. a field inclosed clos. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. da- . clausum. figer. then liquid or loose substance. 3. dab. is connected with pludder. and Du. mud klcEg. motzen. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to dabble. watery. claudo. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. schlott. klod. schlotter. or drablyn with separate existence. clausum. a lump from Du.). klot. we pass to E. tramp in wet or mire. lumps of butter. slabberen. ! . His heart was franlc without a flaw. from claudo. curdled. tJokok. clorre. aspersion. clogs. Mat. Lat.1a. to cling locks. to a. Clog. pludre. to shut up. mire. splash. I clodde. rattle. a monastery. klos-bane. kleck or lack. without. of something clammy or heavy. G. He was a man without a dag. to claggock. shut up.. enOE. lopperig. schlettern. lobberen. a trowelful of mortar. . analogous plan to clod or club. truncus. clatk.dial. . a clog. doitre. klotz. loppered (of milk). loppe. Pl. be found rattle. kloten. . to dabble. loose. slobberen. kloden. shut up. dirt. to flap as loose clothes. g. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. a dirty wench claggy. thick spoon . whence klack. . -clusum. I doda clod. bowl . The game called ninepins. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. an imputation. Russ. Dan. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. claque. lobberen. . lump of something soft . or Sc. . lob. . fors. chiuso. Swiss schlott. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. slobbe.rge lump. clos. in forms like Du. lag. Idppern. slops slodderen. TZoxapov. The origin of clod and clot is to . finish . klokotat. Sc. boil. . daggerey. to dash like heavy rain. mud. lopin. a babbler. or loppern. neither spot nor hang loose. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. klakken. Klak also. unctuous. a blot. paddle. clotted locks Dan. plod. slob. is a blot on one's character. . klos. congeler. claggy. separate part. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. klag. bloutre. to rattle. A . Fr. Hence inclose. close.— Clothe. Fr. in comp. G. Yule-clog. dunch). dag. MHG. to flounder in the wet. clot. wabbling from Du. a log. Pr. to paddle in the wet. a spot. laggery. kloster. from Du. loose trowsers. daustrum. lobbig. cloth. E. clogs for the feet klakk. closed. to rattle or shake to and fro. terminate. log. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. spot of dirt. chiudere.D. the radical sylla. clammy loam. m&se noch stain. clotted milk klotte. dial. loose mud. to shut. kleck. to close against one. to bodies. zoccoli. . thick sour milk. and Gael.D. schlottern. Pr. E. It. zocco. and E. in accordance with Pl. -cludo. . Pm. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. clos. schlattern. lump of butter. Gr. a clod. Bav. spatter. be&c. to spill liquids. A — — A Thus from Bav. Fr. Lat. -clus-. a skittle-ground klos- sen. clog or overshoe. klunkern. geschlotter (as E. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. to bedaub. a log. kladde. Du. miry laggerit. Fr. je amoncele. a blot. lump of mud on the clothes . klakk. of a body of any kind.

Properly that which covers and Du. cluth mhor. een klaven kruflook. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. knob. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. as Fr. Cld. . in the same sense. Fr. lunch). a thick mass. knob. a clove of garlick. A kind of spice resembling Du. klubbe. AS. clog. milk run to lumps. clot. group of people Sw. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). from kloven. a boss. log. wisp. are often connected. klever. Du. sheltered up warm.D. clumhar. The priClout. and -the word Clove. dillad bumkin. a bobbin. kl'dnne. klumba. to cherish. Kiittner. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. G. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. The radical sense seems to be an unE. So Fr.D. klebek. also homo obtusus. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. to a lump. warm clothes {dillad. a bousche. klumpfot. dirt. dial. dump. E. Mabousfrom Lat. unpolished. lump of earth aria. cluster. Clover. dut. I. Du. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. klotz. a fissure. indispalte knoblauch. ball of thread Russ. To Cluck. little nails. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. to cover Bret. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . CLUCK rustic. are also used in the sense of a stopper. boucher. and of a rustic unpolished person. kluppe. chiodo di girofano. a lump. matte. G. coarse. but confounded with cailler. probably from daboter. esdaboter (Roquef. lump. to cloy. the terms expresssplit. It. . as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. clunch. dash (Cot. a log. rustic. klubb. a blabber.ft. Gael. botsen.Fris. lump. a ball. warm. to splash. klubba. ON. block. E. of sloppy materials. a knot of people. Du. Sw. clod is used in both senses . Du. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. to stop. a clod. a patch. dote. nelke (dim. a clod or clot. clobyn. Cloud. dabosser. clothes ment. dial. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. . it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. CLOUD an awkward clod . choke or stop up. — . cludaim. to curdle. warm. clunch. clump of a clout on the head. a bunch. Das volk hat sich in splitten. a ball of twine . From dog. clot . Sw.' Sanders. aglio. mud (Pat. the air. klunds. dob. lumps of curd. lie clyd. clods. lump. diboter. stock.). dial. to strike. ON. to strike . Gael. of a lump of earth and that figure. to beFr. a bunch. loggish. zolla dell' . Du. to lump mend clumsily. del mattond. naegel. Rouchi dapoter. klubben und klicken aufgeloset.D. piece Cot. to tramp in the kluyve. clotted milk or cream. formed lump or thick mass. clothes). warm place . clump. ser. Ir. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. klump. a clubfoot klabb.bar. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. a clown. w. tered . G. Clump. a ball. bunch. dabaire. caillebottes. klubb. hebes (Kil. (kruyd =. kldverj P1. Imitative of the note of a society. Pl. de Champ.158 . a breach. Then applied to a lump of mate. More in R. a clot or keeps one warm. — — — . tuft. kloven. kloete.). E. klaven. AS. duthaich. clammy earth. a. . klieven. cob. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. eine to slop. klotsen. clue. clydion. klotzig. a ball. Move. N. from Du. nourish . A division of a root of garlick. dys. Clumpered in balls of clouds. davus. a curdled sky. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. klove. Dan. In the same way E. mire. Clown. cloud Delfortrie. 2.). sheltered . nagelein. mary sense is a blow. . clou de girofle. a nail. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. when something has got into the touch-hole. kluV. clot. a bunch. a log. and closely do conspire. motte. daggy. to cleave or the splashing of water. from OFr. a . make warm. G. a sky Cot. shel- kloen. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. klonte. eene ODu. cludadh. cobble. of thumping clumsy action. a lump. Du. sticky. puddle. klobbersaen. clyd. and clout d eudaich. Sp. and clay. cobio. from W. spice) G. klu77ip. strike.).clod. a nail) Fr. clothe. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. with lout. mass. botch. of nagel. clavo di especias. The significations of a clod or lump. Club. blockish. a sticky. zolla. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. Met. a garthas. To Cloy. a cover or coverture . to cleave. clod. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . klqb. klcBdi. . and tapp. w. kUid. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours.

a lump. See -elude. 159 E. and koetse. a nasalised form of club. . rial. Cluster. acomelydfor could Pr. obstructum. kichlemmit. hand to cleuk. glousser. Teulazy. xXvariip. conclude. G. fingers (familiar). to tramp. pladdern. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. clutch. From the notion of sticking together. klumpig. beklummen. COAL dumpish. Sw. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. Boh. finish. ball as snow. clabosser. — Cot. Du. * Clump. MHG. klette. klobber in klobbersaen. dial. a block. Ray. klemma.D. Riwle. to curdle. klummklummshandt. properly to do anything Fr. wagen. of garlick. paste. also a cluster. eviratus. -elude. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. awkward. But clunchy. a clove Sw. as Fr. a clot klissen. lay hold of. klampa. Coach. Muster. klister. havi. thick and clumsy. Sw. a lump.D. of Du. and make ye strong feeble knees. ether comelia P. enervatus. ' Uorte (for clogs. Compare Swiss klupe. seize. unhandy. ON. klods. Cheshire. whence koetse. to wash. to curdle. duke. In the same way Du. .D. pinched. OHG. Fr. Fr. The Fr. G. ' Thou clontsest for cold. Lat. klumpern. n.forklomme (Outzen). A group. claw. through the senses of lumpish. a claw. Hindust. klump. from laver. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. klomje. clointer. heavily. Lincolns. —To Clumsyd. clump. 130. klcise. See reclusion. clutch. klomen. idle. — ' — — tonista. with a quick. &c. -cludo. benumbed with cold. or from Sw. * Clumsy. dussomed (Wilbrabam). to tramp or tread heavily. dumpse. with E.pare P1. a bunch. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. to stick together . klonte. klisse. klont. klimpern. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. koetsen. dek. from ON. clotted cream. hondis. Du. -close. might be reached from clump. Du. Champ. inclusive. koetblockish. exclude. splash. Pm. Fris. koetsie. dumpers. a clod clunter. a ball.D. dumps. a coach. lump of soft mate. verkommelen. as from seken. a clod or lump. to pinch. Hence snatching. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. beklommen. Gr. strum on an instrument. clip or pinch. MHG.mene tied. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. in comp. ment. or aclommyde. — . lavesen. glocire. as clumper. ill-made .. koetsDa. Sc. unhandy. a clod or lump.'— animal. dial. eene beklum. -clus-. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. claudo. dial.— — . to squeeze. Clutter. Clump. Variation of clatter. klikonosy. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. differing only in the absence of the duik. to shut. hands stiff with cold. clumsy. cleuk. Du. Pl. claws. eviratus. clook. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. ' Clumper. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. -olus-. coucher became in unhandy. a ball . — Hence include. to grip. Isaiah. doquear. klontet. to to snatch. calling her chickens. a couch. close. wooden sole. viscous material. awkward. Analogous forms with a tongs.E. crooked inwards . the word is more probably connected with OE. klonte. Clutch. klikaty. kohle. unwieldy Hal. coccolare. ball of snow on horse's foot . clopiner. tight — — . bunch. limp. a litter. plad or plod. Com. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. unfashioned. kluntfrom KKvKdi. klocken. to tramp. esclaboter. are the nasalised forms of klotte. to rinse. and klotteren. to paddle or dabble.Ancr. and klonteren. Hesse. Graff in Klamjan.' Vegecius in Way. dystere. klummerhdndt. to curdle. to lie. a lump or compact mass. Sp.P. to gingle.D. . Du. klunsen. a pinching time. cleik. dial. an instrument for nasal form e. smart motion. . verklomen. klompen. to klotz. Cath. The sense of awkward. G. algidus. — sen. a noise. —More. Coal. klemmen.e. E. E. er. Fr. -clusum. to wash. G. to syllable click. conclusion. dek. cluntClyster. to benumb with cold. to collect in lumps. Pl. clausum. Beklummen van kelde. ' . to clump or tramp with heavy shoes.' Comfort ye dumsid. hooknosed. -CLUDE hen Du. carriage in which you klodset. klunt. Hence cleik. It. cliboter. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. may recline. in v. Ang. a clod or The noclot. klamp. kol. from klupen. having the Pl. wooden shoes. gelidus. cleche. OE. log. Lat.' Wycliff. cluster.' Benecke. klamen. klos.

A plausible origin. cokes or fool of him. — Cobbler. kop-ar. kop. cob. to be inflamed . dial. or upper . to grow together. in Du. to . The contrast between the bee • Cob. to wheedle or gull vermin). only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. cofasse. a knock. to speak or act confusedly. e. are round stones or round coals of small size. numb. bredouiller. klabba. to kindle jvAla. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. to strike. a spider. e.. to glow .). Cocasse. See Cot. k'dlla. also a coast. Fin. of E. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. dim. a spider (/r)^=grub. ON. imbecille. . as shown in dob and cob. Flem. to hobble . poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. Coalesce. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. a darling. to stutter. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. cock or nescock. top cobio. probably from the Fr. When the . from bearing a bag. cotte. Fr. Coalition. tempered clay for building. COCHINEAL Cobber. .(pi. large coals. to stammer. as in arr. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. properly to daub. verklomen. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . to burn.— Cobble. to be hot. in Essex Jow*2c^. any kind of coat. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant .inflated with air or liquid. to cob. coste. pockbecility and liability to imposition. cobble. staggering or halting. pustule. 3. Du. v. united. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. nursery lang. Colina' the place where a fire is made. or E. according to the ordinary run of events. koljarn. klabbare. used in — . ailina or colina. koppen-gespin. inflammation. or cobble. a crea. blaze. a similar According to Ihre. a sow.' And colo. to beCoax. pock. CooMneal. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. A spider's web. — Pr. and E. spinne-ivebbe. to knock.). the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. viz. and fig.). Fr. Pm. niais. and hobble. atter-kop. It. to stutter. Coat. dial. and thence a lump cobnut. cochinilla. sweets and the other of poisons. hakkelen. klabbsmed. a thumper. To cobble. dial. Lat. a firesteel Lat. a bunch. quilet. H^cart. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. side . glowing embers. an egg. glow. Outzen. long standing. The OE. a woodlouse. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb.. cotta. a rib. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. ridi. Fr. to kindle or cause to burn . says Varro. cob is a dumpy horse. things. plaisant. an old idiot. coalesce. In the E. and imperfect or unskilful action. give the full meaning of the word. to worship. are often connected. a great falsehood. a bubble. — — — E. dial. probably left his home. habble. Trevoux. to cobble shoes. cluster. . kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble.. The Fris. and jval. walk clumsily. to peck as a hen cobyn. — Cleveland Gl. may be A found in Sw. woman is said to be very ordinary. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. Sp. bijamie. however. burning. a bungler. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone.