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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. with an initial m or I. when we is represent to our children of the cow. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. come Moolls. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. but nothing she herself knows the animals. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. by whom the be understood. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. in other words. and. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and mully or mully cow is the .NURSERY IMITATIONS. to the syllables which are significant to the child. in language of the present day. the present day. persons of different tongues at the present day. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. or Mollein. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. when neither name for the object to be designated. and where we are seeking. The syllables moo (mu. the baaing of the sheep. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. name of the cow. the closer we shall approach to the . mind of the of the animal. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. Molli. or. is given to a cow or calf. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. muK) and mae (rfie. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped.

to For instance. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. nineteen years old. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. then. for bad.' In ordinary speech mump. as well as the mind of the utterer. and nim came to signify everything edible. nim. partly from sounds which the child caught. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. hm. analogous to Magyar mammogni. repulsive to eat. when hungry. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Gr. Finally an n was placed before it. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. had nim. I had watched the growth of this word. Heinicke. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. p. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. by the natural humming sound.).' he says. &c.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. for everything fit to eat. family. became more perfect. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist.. schipp. Gradually. and some were very clear and distinct. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. We have. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. mumm. to work over with the mouth. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. and which we might express thus. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. for things. to eat. First. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. his nurse adopting the word with him. 72). . I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. . in children's language. fiafifi&v (Hesych. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. He would now say good. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. he called to to drink. A member of my own new sfop. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. On one occasion he said^e nim.

mumpfeln. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. nyam nyam. p. Africa) nimi. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). South Jutland hiamsk. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). nam. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. ut tinnitus aeris. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. to mump. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. agreeing with Ein. to be pleamind . 130-1. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . Sprach-philosophie der Alten. to eat. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. to fill the mouth. (in chil- dren's language).' White man eat [or steal] the crab. clangorqae tubarum. i8o. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). jammla. and the fizzing (and Series. ' Motherwell. to Sw. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech.ONOMATOPCEIA. to smack in eat. as well as the Sw. i.' And Diomedes. palatable. to chew laboriously. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. at hiamske i sig. Primitive Culture. make djamdjam). stolen. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. iii. and thence to be tasteful. mumpfen. savory. Soosoo (W. the Scotch poet. Africa) nimnim. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. on. 1 86). to taste . mujnpa.' — Lersch. nvrnma.' says the author of Modern Slang. and the crab — p. Gothic niman. or word-making. food (Tylor. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln.minis. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. aves tinnire. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. to take. oves lalare. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . and some of them . to move the lips in continued chewing. to eat mampfen. we can call them so. Swedish dialect gamsa. crab nam buckra man.' says Quintilian. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. yamming. voracious. nobis vix permittitur. snatched (Whitby Gl. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. jamsa (yamsa).). Galla djam djeda. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). jumla. ' id est. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. mumble. as to . Wolof nahenahe. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. sweet (Koelle). the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. . eating. taken up hastily on the sly. buckra man's language the white man. j ing . memmexen. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. namnam. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. aptantes adfectibus vocem. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Nimm'd up. lita. delicacies. Vei (W. greedy . dial. tidbits nama . Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. A negro proOr.

hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. whether it deserves the name of language. We .xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. yelping. lowing of oxen. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. Indeed. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. before the in other words. hooting of owls. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. dove and cooing.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. cooing or crooing of doves. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. might be used. chirping of sparrows or crickets. anything connected with it. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. or. bumping of bitterns. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. ^6^. or thoughts of our hearer. twittering of swallows. purring or mewing of cats. Yet we ing. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. bellowing of bulls. that there is When Man. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. p. but of a dog.' And elsevs^here (p. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs.' — We speak of a cow. croaking of frogs or ravens. chattering of pies or monkeys. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . when circumstances required. snarling. between dog and harking. baaing or maeing of lambs. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. sparrow and chirping. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. und growling. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. 89) with less hesitation. not of a moo of Lect. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. barking. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. bleating of sheep.' he says. snarling of dogs. a lamb. not of a baa. grunting or squealing of hogs. do not speak of a bowwow. might be used as the designation of it. yelping. cackling or gaggling of geese. for the purpose of bringing the animal. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. gobbling of a turkey-cock. intended in the instance to represent the cry. 'I doubt. neighing or whinnying of horses. howling. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow.

and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. Hungary. gackem. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. and means a shouter.). We imitate the sound with a modulated. 4th ed. Aoo-Aoo. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck.). Bav. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. kauwe. a crow. ist ed. birds. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. is kuM) for the cuckoo. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. crow. a crow (Pictet). coccolare. ghak. and the sound of that direction. and Bavaria respectively. He to is therefore derives kdka. kae. Arabic kdk. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. fi-om apakd- i. e. Columbia kahkah. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Picard cau. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. sound). I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces.' kd). Barabra koka.IMITATIVE NAMES. In Basque. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. and gaggele or gagkelein. according to Durga). which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. layitavya . an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. or quawk. Kdrava. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. it announces (Salaberry). a daw. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. 'Kdka. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. a bird that is be driven away. having a general predicative power. Malay gdgak. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Manchu The kaha. whose sound (Pictet. lion. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). Sometimes the hoarse i . kuho. crow. Georgian quaki.' common sense.. kdka. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. a a crier (p. in is Gr. In Lat. caw kuhii-rava (rava. caller. Sauscr. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Origines Indo-Europeennes). 349. 380. in g. KOKKvi.

Walachian coucouveike. a crow lish Lith.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. kuku. tbrtora. German kielitz. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. korren. Arabic tdtwit. kukko. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. as well as of Sanscr. in the North of England. krahe.. teewhoop. Swedish kowipa. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. kraukti. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. It. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. German luhu. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. kurre. to croak. to crow. tur. turtle) as the Lat. the name for a crow. p. kirren. giving turtur (and thence It. lUyrian kukurekati. coucouva. Heb. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Zulu kuku. tortbla. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. cock. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to howl or Lat. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. gugu. another. lilits. synonymous forms of similar structure). coqueri- Languedoc. to crow. French dishuit. Du. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. a crow . Fr. Sp.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. Esthonian kikkas. libufs. Dutch kievit. ghughu. hibou. Mod. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. xi. German and Eng- krahen. to cry loudly. and e. The crowing of cot in Fr. gufo. Ibo akoka. wood-pigeon. name. lulo. reduplicate form. yell. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. t. either in the same or in related dialects. Lettish kiekuts. or Gr. 219. by the verbs gurren or girren. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. a crow. to croak. "Welsh hwan from hwa. k. tor. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. So we have Polish krukac. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. to hoot. are represented. kruk. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. great variety of oKokv^uv. and sometimes both together. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. The consonants p. Magy. kraeye. Malay kukuk. 6.. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. tbrtola. Scotch peeweip. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Pers. the name of an animal will gen- .xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. girre. coccovaec. Hindi.Gr. Albacuculi a dove. Da. Du. koeren. krauklys. while crouk. tuquheit. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. kraeyen. name of its is the bird. and e. Yoruba koklo. uhu. kukhuta.

hollow noise.' —Tennyson. whirr).IMITATIVE NAMES. the drone or non-working bee . and probably indicates that g. Speaking of a cricket he says. dhran. sound. ' — Pictet . a hornet. a bee.vf3. knetta.' Amazons. succeeding each other — with noise. PofijivXwg. ta-na-nd. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). schrecke. a sharp sound as of a 6. as . to chirp . German dronen. a small as hawk is . of England it is to the b 2 . Sanscr.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. a beetle druna. a fly (Tylor) . chirk. skryle. sirkka. to hum. skril with n. to shrill sound sharp. with or Fr. and yelping cry. words imitative of humming . e. Albanian tsentsir. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. to sound. in allusion to its music. zirken. g. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. give a faint sound. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. horniss and from the buzzing The. Sc. Gaelic dranndan. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. grillen. droning is . In the N. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. growling. the humble. Lat. Lithuanian tranas. German hummel. i. din. pip-pi-ta. skirl. resounding of musical instruments.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba.or bumble-bee. and not from E. grille. swirplys with 6. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. ajo. to chirp J may be compared with . to creak Bret. buzzing. bee. schirke. g. bamba. a drone. oE. booming. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. 'The natives call it tanand. schwirren. Lith. German drohne. 337. ' Sanscr. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. representing a short sharp sound. and he kong-ko-rong. bambhara. which they make in their flight very . to rustle. from schrick. North of England. — Catafogo. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. (Jieuschrecke) . The drone peal. grylhis. common. resound. Arabic tantanat. to grumble. to be compared with Sanscr. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. thunder. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. Danish dron. Fin. Northern Farmer. gives rise to chwymores. schrickel. The Welsh chwyrnu.' — i. humming. We may cite Gr. Naturalist on the tocano. shrill. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. The Arabic sarsor. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. kong-kong. or a gnat fly. glass cracking (Schmeller). g. there are infinite varieties. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. buzzing. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. flight its sting considered as a horn. loud rumour. cricket is from crick. Australian bumberoo. from the humming. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. little intermission. Danish gnaddre. Corean sirsor. The name of the cricket indeed. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo.

The Piedm. to from bau. His analysis leads cow. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to bellow like a bull. to the uses goda. miau-l-er. From the same lioao). bull. shoot . The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to low. ox. Galla boa. lulauti (to hoo-loo). With these analogies. is inadmissible. to make a noise. or with on. a cow. the Fr. bucula. bolt. The Galla lilbil. agreeing exactly with Lith. It. w. bo. Norse bu. p. verbal form given to the say. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. in a imitation of a ringing sound. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. fivKaofiai. a drum . a bull. Hottentot bou (Dapper). verb is evidently identical with our shout. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. bugler. whence baula. Lat. as that of the cow by boo. to make. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Fr. mugler. btibleti. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bos. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Da. to bump as a bittern Illyr. amuse. bu. k or g. to bow- own bawl. are (with a subsidiary k). mamoo-heeheek. On the same principle. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. — ^Tylor. to make. forms a. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. or a z to the imitative syllable. to or bark. or bau-l-i. Thus from miau. Fr. mae. representmake bow. bue. to low . baula. bovis. has bilbilgoda. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to sound. bullus and e. bubati. OFr. grumble as distant thunder . Zulu lulula. to . In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. maukati. bullock. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bauli. biibnas. muJiati. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. make poo. to boohoo. and thence Lat. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bwla. in same way. Manx booa. bae. buculus. Cult. say. as the Illyr. and djeda. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah.XX called booing. (iove. Lat. representing the mew of a cat. Piedmontese fi bau. a heifer. mugire. w. to weep. a bullock. Gael. bae. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. 167. bukati. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. to beat hard. loge. to ba-L-are. bugle. or formed Lat. or moo. boo. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to shout. to mew. Lat. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. bubenti. cattle. to make a loud deep sound. and in Hottentot baa was the . be-l-er. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to shout. a Geiger. Illyr. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. and from to ring. that the imitative syllable are Lith. a buffalo. to low or bellow. the animal. make to it laugh. From baa.

and hoc'h. name of a sheep. purr). It is probable also that e. nire. to grunt. ^. grumble. may with to snarl. a sheep (Lowe). menAda (ndda. Illyr. houch. grugno.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. . . hunt (gen. or in any ! way ! persuading. 6. naskia. meil. undoubtedly imitative. from knurre. and of (maelon). Gael. to grunt. for the voice of the ox). hundi). Manx meilee. hadg- Magy. kurre. a wolf. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. goats. a sow. a goat. a sheep or ewe. groin. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. to growl. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a sow. / The same Gr. meckern. grumble. mecati. from hundama. Idgge (Rietz). as lou of an ox. karra. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. cry). may be identical with Esthon. a pig. although the imitation embodied in Lat. a pig Fin.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. Kurren und murren. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a hog. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. Welsh and Breton). If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. a (Hesych. lambs. by which the shingle gives rise to It. the designations of a dog the term cur. and grumphie. Da. rumbling. oe. does not produce a e. lekavica. Gr. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. in Wolof bae. kurren. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. and thence groin. sus-sus. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. Gr. mekegni. . knurfisk. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). to themselves. Among dog. Africa laa. lecco. meugler. grunlike a pig in eating. And it is true there between hog and grunt. signifying a snarling. The g. a. and snorke. smack and naski. as the proper name of a tame sheep. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. to rumble. grogner. corresponding to ohg. meigeal. and Circassian maylley. it and e. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. he would hardly. Illyr. Magy. hwch. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Fr. With gen. curmurring. leknuti. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. mutter. grumpf. ' In driving. grumbhng. /xj/caScj. guttural tone. Illyr. Moreover. cite as by grunt. with the root ypaipm. sheep or goat. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. grunt. a sheep. a sheep or a goat. this obstinate race. sound. we have Sanscr. lek-eg-ni. name. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. a goat. to bleat . G. a goat firixal^ta. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. and with the subsidiary k or g. name of the animal itself. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. (iriKov of forms like Sw. in v. /xijeao/iat. From the imitative mae. a dog.' Moor's Suffolk words. grunny. to bleat. to howl. meketati. the snout of a pig. leg-et-ni. a grunt. Fr. It.). Gr. Hence Breton hoc ha. to bleat. — . hunon. growl. hound. hund.

a little am- bling horse. Sc. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. like artificial flowers. ^6<. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. of the character in question. coquette. such as cuckoo.' ticular bird. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. . There are of course some names.' — ist Series. . which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. a horse. animal. to the left. But words of this kind are. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho.. coquelicot. hobben. hobin.. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. when he found peculiarity. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). e.' 2nd Series. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.root. M). to go backwards. Thus we are led to the Fr. Esthonian hoibo. to whine. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. without a — we root. hoppe. hottihuh. cockade. g. a mare. houpy in Craven. hobby. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. humma. (Craven Gloss. the cry to stop or back a horse. as in Yorkshire highly right.).). it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. 91. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. p. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. turn a horse to the is In Finland. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. If onomatopoeias can . Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. p. hiine. So Sanscr. from the cry animal. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate.

With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. wiehern. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. xxiii ginal object. swift. wrenska. little speak for themselves. sol. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. hikkd. hross. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. than to the sounds represented. hresh. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. runniken. wagtail. Fr. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. goatsucker. Lettish sweegt. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. . groan. Bohem. diver. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . frenschen. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. form corresponding hresh. redpole. to Sanscr. command of language was attained. Pl. signified It. ginniken. e. Sp. whitename in in- throat. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. ance or habits of the animal. cough. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. giggle. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. horse. nitrire. lapwing. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. hresh. g. woodpecker. as sigh. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. animals or certain kinds of sound. moan. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. to neigh. Sanscr. rinchar. fehtati. hennir. Irieschen.D. hukkup. Du. but whether there kind between them and other words. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. wrena. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. creeper. titter. nounced with a guttural). Sw.

for the sound of a fall. for the creaking of a wheel. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. plitsch-platsch. hoo. Australian bungbung ween. knack. heart tick-tack. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. mer. debhes-lungotais (deifies. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. to beat. to throw violently down. tlirob. to drive on. heaven). — Sanders. lumm. are familiar in ' to every one. aritischane. for in such sound of blows. went the cannon. on the chops is represented also by pratx. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. snort.' ! ! ! ! — dong. to sneeze. to hammer . Da. scream. —Brem.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. Of a like forma- drum . DingBang. bangas. ting-ting. &c. shriek. banke.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. snukkup). fitsche-falsche. to ham. Vei gbangba. It is represented in e. a more expressive than the e. klatsch. hang. a large bell.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. &c. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. atchini. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. the dashing of the sea .' So imac. ding. atchian. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . beat of a clock child . oren : Klapp. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. or tliat is accomit. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . for the sound of milking. the God of thunder . Mei gbengben.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. strippstrapp-stroll. for that of breaking. Wtb. banga. a kind of drum. bang. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . for the for the sound of . to knock. beat. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. snore. 1865. for a small one. pit-a-pat. clap ! A smack Puff. for blows with a rod. bang ' ! trenches. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. knarr. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. wheeze. White Lies. haitshu. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. in a nail Let. tisio (tisho).' it both sides went. an attempt would be made to by the voice. hoo ping ping. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. dong Read. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. . or the w. pump.' 'Haw. thunder (Tylor) . ping came the bullets about their ears. haw. for the sound of a blow. root kshu. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Zulu bongo. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation.

as in other subjects of study. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. is of expression. used as a call to . a or cheep. to cry pi. which he added to intensify the expression. chickens (Tylor). the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. young child . Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pipare. De Brosses. It seems to him that the teeth t. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. cry. laugh. peep. e. piccione. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pu. as k.sc. to cheep like a bird or a young It. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. a whelp. Fr. — . pipe. a chicken or gosling. Gr. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. bleat. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pi. child. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. not- . He Yet asks. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. is pfeife. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. of a word will appear supposed to represent. . or a piailler. Lat. the voice of chickens (Cot. scream. piou. pipe. young bird. pipio. calls S. In cases such as these. pule. to designate cavity and hollow. a (young) pigeon. cry of young birds . The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. peep.' instead. pigolare. and their relations. doubtless. —Lyndsay. had been used laugh ? two. piauler. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. mobility excavation and hollow ^. has been un- employed to designate fixity. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. Magyar pip. to cry like imrli^u).FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. pippione. pigione. as the simplest implement for proFr. pipegni. a fowler's bird call is lost. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. and whimper. part of the What consciousness has the child. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident.) a chick. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. pigiolare. pipilo. ducing the sound. far pipi. pipio. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. pipelni. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. to squeak. and so forth. Florio. G. a fife or musical pipe. Mantuan pipiare. piou. The pi. Lat. to peep It.

sound of dry breaking. the side of g. Pacific aka-aka. to creak knirren. to laugh. u. a drum W. kniks. to grate the teeth . to clack. of something fine and thin. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to be compared with Sc. is very common. to cluck. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. crash. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). knuks. chack. kniks. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. rumble (Fl. to crackle like in boiling . to ring pipio. be cate to go on laughing loud . or kaka-faka. to hawhaw or laugh loud. Pefuxela. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. thunder oil . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . cluck. rumble. gurren. to grumble. coo. as representing the sound made when something breaks. murmur (by . and lugh. lachen. knaks. a prolonged sharp sound. tontonare. to fizz like fat in frying. along with Du. karkarana. turtur. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. Zulu raraza. vaake gorgor) . Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. tonare. make wood a clinking noise. a closed or obscure sound. tintino. kirkirdnd. to pant violently (Colenso). to gorgogHare rattle.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. borrelen. Hindustani karak is rendered. to bubble. as the click of a latch or a trigger. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. ioriogliare (to make borbor). what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. along with tinnio. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to pant bejii- zela. to cry pi. to grumble).. to growl. . murren. knurren. laqfF. Poppopvi^to. garren. grumble. to jar. kuruk. sound). in German. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. a. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. the clucking of a j hen . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du.) Mod. of a loud strong sound. loud laughter. a short sharp sound. to rattle. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . preserved by Kilian. when it force than biscuit. pi .Gr. i. to gurgle. It. a sharp short one. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . to thunder. {to It. where the variation. creak. &c. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. .. girren. Indian chack-chack. lachachen. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . crack. cricli. Manchu kaka-kiki. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. Hindoo tomtom. some small vowel or consonantal sound. or springing back. rumble. bubble. like the noise of a glass breaking . to gargle .

tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. Sanscr. E. tup. rifiirayov. cry. or of bells ringing. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. ding-dong. to strike. Manchu kaka. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. chinking of coin. chuchoter. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. call. thump. to the purling of a brook. champ. drops of i. and Gr. KaKog. the tingling Ming-Hang. shout. are applied to the is excrements of children. box on the ear imitation of the . for the ringing of illustrate bells. brings us to Fr. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. sound. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. is based on the same imitation as the e. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. make djamdjam). 368). . bubble up. borrelen. Magyar csamm-ogni. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. croaking of frogs. of keys or tinkling of bells. Calt. 1871. spring of water in the a bell. at an accelerated note. kl'mg-kling. muro and e. and Gr. for the sound of privy whispering. djeda (to say tub). 192). and her heart went thump. rain (Tylor. to whisper. is Manchu tang-tang. Maori pata. Galla tuma. correspond to e. to giggle. a boy's whistle. for the clinking Lat. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. while cacd / used in e. bent her head.* the heart. to beat. klirren. and the imitative nature of tivgle. especially one who beats. bulbiil. a nightingale. . Hindustani bhadbhad trees. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . may be compared with Australian pitapitata. identical with g. tumult. sound). Fr. chut. Scotch sough or sooch. to be compared with g. word. indicating the origin of Gr. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. The syllables lil-bil. uproar. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. corresponding in e. the sound of a stringed instrument. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. as of Tamil muromurmur. The whispering of the wind I. or to Du. clango.and e. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. to say chut. koXiw. a smith. wail. a nightingale. for a tTviror). Prim. halaidlac'h. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). caca and Finnish adkkd. e. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. kiling-kalang. Tiie Galla gigiteka. a drum . disturbance (F. rvir (in tvittio. fumtu. quarren. awater* ' The Mme P. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. jangle. and e. agrees with g. Newman). simmer. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. for chut-chiit-er. or the bubbling up of to a spring. as Fr. to ring or jingle. bad. clink. tumwata. coughing or clearing the throat. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. a workman. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir.' Member for Paris. compared with Gr. Turk. csam-csogni. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. the gingling of glasses. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . noise. to knock. hala-hald-faMa (falda. tubh. clash of arms. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. clank. and bilhila. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. jingle. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain.

to dance. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. paddle. crack. Fr. clang. in e. without the intervention of orthodox roots. craunch. guggle. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. tinkle. chink. dabble. slash. whine. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. snap. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. flap. to fall. gargle. mutter. ring. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. and Fr. Nevertheless. the Germans puff. smash. squeal. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. and soufflet. thump. pop. while e. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. disturbance. thump. Humboldt. blubber. smack. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. sputter. tymmesll. clack. and Grimm. bang. parapatapan. blow. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. plump. report of a gun. So in Fr. dash. twang. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. hiss. crunch. we build our science like an arch of a bridge.' — Nohden. we have buffet or cuff. swash. squall. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. clap. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. clatter. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. jingle. and the French pouf. It. gurgle. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. splash. tomber. flop. hum. But although and also found in Lat. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. rumble. to is blow. tumbian (to beat the ground). or v^hether jectional. souse. creak. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. ' Der puff. rataplan or rantanplan.. a applied as well to the force of the bang. thump. tap. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. crash. for (Sanders). The beating of drum is represented in e. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. The use of g. din. patter. tingle. douse. at a door tarapatan. rap. thwack. rattle. answering to g. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. according to the strictest phonetic rules. clash. tum-ultus. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. murmur. squeak. boom. clink. bubble. brumberum. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. chatter. lash. whizz. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. fizz. whirr. splutter. by rubadub.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . it is fallj AS. clank. puff. w. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. whack. 'pat. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments.

the kind of action that is desired of them. of horror. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. every little pain. p. are made known by an instinctive cry. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. in the case of the animal or of the infant. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. the inteij. is Thus ah!. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. or any unsatisfied want. Crying. or stubble is meaner name. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. formerly cited. grief. wringing the hands.'. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. that he has taken the step in rational speech. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. without a thought of symbolising to them. and thus they become signs of despair. little who has time to want of her nurseling. knows them. If. in the rushing waters. or of any if wood. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. and found in the building of be burnt up. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. stractions. Grimm or Bopp. but if we must not complain on the beach. xxix on the contrary. an imitation of a sigh . exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. ugh . the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. the interj.' If chaos. At the first beginning of life. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. and uttering plaintive sounds. by the nature of the cry. hay. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. because they are spontaneous. 94. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows.' .

coughing. be more powerful. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. more eloquent than a long speech. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371. And again. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. sneezing. may become traditional. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. If I wish to make a person of an . or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. 32. One short interjec- tion may fact. them to exercise it. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh.' — ist Series. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. should be remem- . they are involuntary interjections.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. p.. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. the lowing of a cow. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. he cites from Home Tooke. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. or which is of me as suffering pain. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed .' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. and some of them the composition of words. which are frequently so toned down cance. shrieking.' p. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. as who them spontaneous utterances. and the eye. 344. groaning. of all the mouth. interjections. more to the point. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. p. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. to solve the I shall call first. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. Language begins where interjections end. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. He says.

But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. speaking. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. and more or less limited . it them. hahota. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Koxafw. interjections. when I arp humming and hawing. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. kahkahah. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. Tooke in truth. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Lat. Gr. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. demolishing here. and others from interjections. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. some kind of language might have been formed. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. hohottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. for example. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. I am not hearer. bered. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. loud laughter. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. Kayxa^u). he says. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. but the less am at a loss what to say. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. hahottaa. cachinno. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. in Fin. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. then speech begins. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. in Magy. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. and thus.

words receiving the meanings they now bear. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. dumb is the language of signs. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. Though. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. What strikes him . and not.' he says. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. if taken as a whole. The following account is given by Kruse. of the nature of this great movement. It as has ing their most striking features. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. makes them stand and walk upon the table. a deaf-mute himself. of the world. But here nature soon conies to his help. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and go where we now say stand.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. a Picture-language. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. the critical question should be. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. . for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. like peewit and cuckoo. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. And so in the case of language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes.

To seize the is the principal movement of an action. thou. The same sign stands and the act itself. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and to taste. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and we have roast goose. for the agent. letter To hold the two fingers apart. the sorecalling them to his memory. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. xxxiii him between one thing and another.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. signs are taught for yet.' In the Institutions. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and fully serves to j . to name. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . it means little. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. push it towards the person addressed for thou. as it now opens out. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. like a V. what more. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and with his thought. he. the lan- guage cultivates itself. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. it seems. that. and it is flesh or meat. becomes roast meat. for single objects. The of sign for left hand. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. walkest.GESTURE most. walked. but if I depress it instead. such as than the educated man. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. his action. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. can do better and more easily abstract terms. particular sense in properly so called. walker. And is. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. many when or but these. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. such objects. and And thus he makes himself a language. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. nay. that signifies great . most striking outline of an object. he. or To pull and flap with the arms. and forms further and further. for walk. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. and gestures. called Gesture-language. or the verb to be. thought is already broken. the whole secret. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. that air. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. among themselves. for child. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case.

to indicate the action of a certain person.' dener's knife. and the as. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. putting it into his pocket. I say. in fact. or an act. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. . a colour red. He gave door a bang. Do not bang the it is a verb. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. Who is has beaten you ? would be. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. would be simply beginning of speech. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. depend entirely upon the use. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. when I say. according to the circumstances of the case.xxxiv asking. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. or something of the kind. the garden. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. might be the knife. The same word . When a verb. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or a quality. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. or a passive scene of existence. a number of alternatives are suggested. and thus performs the part of an adjective. and so is an adverb. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. qualifies the against the wall. When I say. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. it called an interjection. substantive or adjective. as in die it is a noun. the ture of white term pink is and red. as But when it is meant door. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. whether by additions or otherwise. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. in other instances sentence. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. as when Bang ! went the gun. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. You beaten . or action. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye.

as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. but often self-evident. with a stick. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. pain. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . or nei. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. as cung. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. a sigh of oppression and . grie^ horror. commencement of speech. middle. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. a groan. in the is indicated by the syllable y. that is.. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. in the sense of great. wherewith. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. coalesces with the personal pronouns. contempt. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. and to be great. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. 255. Jii ta. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. that admits itself in of audible representation. wonder. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. and may be used language. inquiry. wherefore. inside. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns.^ — Miiller I. or with elements expressing relations of time. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. wherehy. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. &c. or some relation between it and another object. whereto. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. a noun. Latin. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. some outward display of the affection. which is an old y ting (use stick). it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. Thus tafu signifies a great man. as kuo cung. .NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. greatness. whereof. the man is great. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek.

djamdjam goda (goda.'). Gr. wai-l. jaoh. die wehen. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. Lat. In this way from the root guai. The form corresponding to Lat. guai. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. wai. at the close of the radical syllable. weinen. as. 6. I oi[iot. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). guajo. pain. oimare. g. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. It. ach. ohi. to groan. to weep. to sound yapyap. and cacak djeda (to say crack. w. to cry n. 6. gwae. weh schreien. ochan. is w. mew. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. to do woe. to lament. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. miau-n-is. xxxvi grief. seen in Gr. e. to gargle. woe. la. oi. . DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. on. Gael. vaj. guaj-ire. howl. headache. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . miau-l-is. n. Illyr. vce. to wail. in Gr. to make bow-wow. tirr-djeda. Gr. wehen (Schmeller). waiidt. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to make). woe. o'i. oh. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. e. ach. to injure. is Ay di me I Gr. Let. &. on. ocAJ.. g. ing action I. to cause pain. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. however. are ol-ire. ah. w. achen. Such are g. pain. wai. the pangs of childbirth. Gr. axofiai. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. to ache. It. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. Jar lau-lau. to weep. wd. ai. aiai^to. to bewail oneself. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. vce. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. j. or r. and to bark . wAwa. lament from oimi. wehthun. och. first person. It. pain. Lat. A widespread It. grief] affliction. a groan or lamentation vir. ohg. to chirp. probably a deeper groan. dchzen. has more kopfweh. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. cece. as. lau-l-e. oval. hei. och. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. representing Illyr. weh. och.-l-are. ochan. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. w^wa. Bret. vei-a. lament. ace. ui. to hurt Let. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. misery. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. ah. e. ! ! Goth. to lament. misfortune. . found in g. . Fr. grief. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. gwae. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. to yell formed e. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ahi. Thus from springs otjucifw. to ache. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to rriourn. to cry at. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. form. to . (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. . guaj- or cry out pitifully. ach. oh. al. grief. mostly a ! %. ache. ochain. jao.ez. representing a cry of pain. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to wail or cry alas . suffering. miau-l-er. gwe-l-a. It. . Illyrian vaj.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' sees an object. as. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze.' this. properly (give) be compared with by which a g.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. or wants to name something. and so on. Thank you. Bav. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. ToSe (or in Attic E. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. that gratifies me. or that it is. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. case. the nursery da-da. is we I believe. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. da. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. says da-da-da. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. as it Dieser da (as Lat. give me that cheese. and by a variety of expressions besides. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). Sanders (Germ.' person. The Fr. this here. 'nay. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. that is it. or carry me thither. and may be rendered. his trowsers' pocket. Dr Lottner observes. according to Menage.' then points to his wife. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. a word of many applications in g. child. • The child. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. for instance. when 1859. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. indeed.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. da. I add) . When we pointing. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. der da-ige.' all is is — their consent. but the truth is. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. a specified were by pointing him out. But. to here . . Diet. Sie. that. as to express. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. when he wants something. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Please. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. well as Goth. we may translate this by there (it is). saying : there the ad- Trans. give. Phil. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. nurseries. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. In the expression Da. implying the direction of its good will towards them. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. more emphatically roSj)j that. is-te). or give me it. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. thata (ta-ta).

tasting. . idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. p. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. for which Johnson gives seventy taken.' says Muller. moving. make dadada). to tion to another. to move step by step. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. standing. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89.^ its ' utters : a cry. or dalliance. or metaphor. strike. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. dadee. sounds. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. takes it — as When the soul. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. Thus Gr. the original is that which he places first. speech. pay. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. to beat. meanings. childish toying. stutter. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. which thus exertion. in every mode of expressing the idea. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. of which any one may. and one in particular must. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem.' says Lottner interior. to chatter. then we have a pronoun demonstrative.' • liv ANALOGY. sinking. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. — Cot. thinking. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. to say to oneself. The da is dodem. then instinctively interest. to knock. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. its desire. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. beat. tattle. and shapes it into an . a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. reality. to walk. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series.

The 6. Fr. smell. fiapfiaipw. to quiver. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to sound clear In Galla. &c. and figuratively. noise. discreet. So firom Lat. tinkling. magnificence. Finnish. in the domain of movement. In the case of sparkle. iclat (in Old Fr. make a loud noise. tumult. splendour. then to sparkle. a ringing . then which is a modification of the to twinkle. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. and schmecker. splendour. signified a clear sound. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. clang. search . probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. Again. a rustling sound Gr. knittre. is used in the origin. man of nice taste. kimistd. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to sniff out. snutrs. . to . tintelen. we have and the and beorht. and. to flash. snudra. to 5 ghtter. snot. sapere (which signifies the nose. sound. rattle. to smack or taste. Bavarian bracht. — 1. esclat). suspect Bav. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. for example. wise. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. a dis- cernment. as. pracht. also wise. in popular language. wilahtaa. bilbilgoda (to make . and thence e. prudent. to shine. snuff the sniiten. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to snilF. to be wise. from the . In the same way the Goth. may be quoted gUt. gnittre. to tinkle. 1654. sense of brightness. air. Du. scTiateren. sprageti. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. ghsten. to resound. It is The word bright had a similar In as. while sapere itself. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to have Sapiens. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. unlella. to crackle. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. wamara. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. spraka. snotor. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. may be it explained . to glisten Dan. scheteren. wilistd. to crackle gnistre. bright. outcry. bilbil). to glitter e. think. on. schiteren. to ring. to shine. kiimottaa. to sniff. beorhtian. Heo Du. smell. as kilind. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. beam. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. (parallel bilbila. the equivalent of g. to glitter. to sparkle. to ring as a glass willata. to glitter. savour. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. a brilliant light kilid. which in ohg. chime). In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to glitter. taste. Lith. same imitative root with Sw. schmecken. knistre. to shriek with laughter . firom the Gael. brilliancy. judicious. properly a clap or explosion. a with kimmaltaa. .

seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. .Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. the cross. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. ipuKuv. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. &c. to slide. as soft by the ear. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. and vepres. v. break. then in rpd/xoe. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. shatter. \nrap6e. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. in of his works. briars. Acre. the clank (stridorem) of chains. kvTOQ. discusses the tone of a picture. Tpa)(yg. fitting the letters to the sense. is felt Lana. oily. And observing that n kept the voice within. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. 6\tadaveii'. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. pleasure soft to the ear . with these the similitude of touch comes into play. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. gluey. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. wool. within. inside. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. Kep^arl'ieiv. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. which The Stoics. mel. whirl. smooth. we hear of screaming colours. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. the bleating of sheep. itself letters are felt as sofl. 1. Much of the same has been often quoted.' he says. rend. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. pvfi^Civ. rough. strike. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. flow and flux. eo ut res vol. accordance with the way in which by touch. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. soft. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. The BpavEiv. rough to the ear. of dressing loud. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. or . It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. tremour. rough both ways. the neighing of horses. he says. Kpovtiv. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. roughness. crux. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. he framed the words ivSov. in truth. sharp. power of the letter-sounds. KoWiiSije. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. extremely loose. rough.

dag. g. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. stag (in stagger. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . the case of the voice. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. 'and consequently form. to signify varieties of movement. for exis ample. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. ii. tug. to reel abruptly from side to side). degree of roughness sound. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. rug. p. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. shag. and in the utterance of a high or or low. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. as when. sag-oter. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. jag. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. a rough and sudden . dig. cular effort Again. corresponding to the ineor. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. Fr. t. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. shog. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. 138). smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. p. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. d. A greater felt. jih.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. k. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. joli. jog. to jogj sac-cade. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. or checks as they are called by Muller. jig. stab.

The syllable suk is jerk. is lanese toch. It. schuckeln. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. or check. figuratively. zigzag. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. a jog. it produces Dutch micken. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. to utter a slight kick. cica. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. Illyrian migati. to stir. chiquet. then. g. tock. tack. movement. a quid of tobacco. The analogy then carried a step further. Then. is so frequent a consequence of movement. schockeln.. sound Fr. kuk. used interjectionally to represent a . chicoter.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. like English tick. motion. Mucken. to ring a bell. mik. and e. Ene olde suksuk. to say a word . sound barely audible. to strike It. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. to move rapidly to and fro. Fr. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. as Italian tocco. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. rough horse. zack. to glitter. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a . a cracker. to have it ticked or marked on the score . to beat or play on a musical instrument. mot. and analogous movements. chique. mica. a stroke with a French toucher. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to mutter. as tot. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. kik. then. The production of sound. to incite by light touches. properly a small lump'of . To tick a thing off. an old worthless horse or carriage. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. &c. The train of . an infant . Hence Lat. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. toch-toch. is made to signify movement. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. in cases like the foregoing. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. Brescian toch. a good piece of road . a playiug-marble. passing to the signification of motion. Welsh cicio. e. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. lead to Spanish tocar. to pulses being knock. to tickle. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. foot. also to stir. micare. tech-tech. to touch. Bolognese tocc. Dutch kicken. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to mark it with a touch of the pen . however. mie. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. not to utter a syllable. tecche-tocche. a piece or bit of anything. S-panish miga. to take a thing on tick. a crum. Thus we have B. that we never can be sure. Accordingly the g. Fr. a little bit. and It. The Mipen or pencil. for the sound of knocking at a door. Sukkeln. so to Italian toccare. chic. a small bodily object. to On the same principle j we have g. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. (mitsati). to winkj micati is Lat. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac.

The vowel changes from to tick-tack.- a jot or little It. a morsel. mut. mutter. here. zitella. to make a slight mark. for the beating of a clock. zitio. (Halliwell) Da. there (further of!) ao. not because the pendulum makes a different left. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a small kind of lark. gnu. gno. 0. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. a whisper. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. and he. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . as in e. seesaw. tottle. lix Sp. bunch or flock of wool. a small bird. Cult. The following table from Tylor (Prim. neither moit nor an atom. you. motta. . to tremble. a light quick blow. In a similar the relations of place. the least visible insect. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. to whisper (Pr. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. But the same is language has re Javan. a small horse. a little titty. small titlark. a girl. tot. To jot. i. syllable mot. to e. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. titter. a bit. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). iki. tot. mutter j dust. to touch. here (close hand). anything small flax. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. to touch lightly with a pen. mossche. titmouse (Du. clay . to movement of the pen . this . this. totle. to jog. that. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. ri that. a certain conception. . and a small lump of something. tit. and dot.n. ika. or the converse. titilh. and out there. citto. fragments It. . e. a. anything . 199). chico. I. e. So. subdued manner. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . fait. jot. further off. mote. Malagasy to. move slightly to . a morsel girl . . and toddle like a child titter. a lad citta. little j to that of a small bodily object. This kind. motte. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. a small lump or pat. a e. lump of earth. . or the like its It. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. that iku. taut. small of kind. ticktack. . gni. a small quantity. not to utter a syllable. for the three personal pronouns. a sparrow). tit. tot. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. n. or o toi. Du. Fr. eo. and mite. tot. the same organ touched with the man. of movement in totter. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. little. not an atom . is shown in murmur. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. at where the order is inverted. tittle. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. to dot. we have e. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. corresponding to the personal pronouns. 48) cites from the African Tumale.) . . either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. tozzo. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. the vowel sound. Halliwell. a bit. . Pm. to jot down or note with a fro. tiny.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. Then. often entirely arbitrary. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. there. a tot . there '(at a short distance). mot.

6. that. ulri. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix.. no constant rule is observed. Carib ne. that in the distance. that. an old . km. Ossetic am. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Magyar ez. this . father. tiiio. little. there. Abchasian aSn. that.) pronunciation of i or e. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee.) nna. this fi. It Carib lala. minution further. as in Italian Fin. here . and a for the female. mas cheche. probably initial of distinction that the k. Chilian tva. here this . that (intermediate) j wana. femina ama. ^.. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel.e^. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. Botocudo ati. . Zulu ajoa. he. here j ka. that.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). /mya. there. me probable that • Vei also little. father k . as the act of pointing was ta. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. he. usho. as Mr Tylor remarks. this <t. /e«. j Canarese ivanu. young one. there. mother. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. /wo. ni. and origin. . . Lat. this . thou . . ofj. akha. there. . It seems to (fen. (tt). child. thou. this . for the male. here 5 Yoruba na. ta to ka. that. nne. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. child. w. ni. . ita. Japan ko. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. . uta. Mm. Fernandian az. mother. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. you. that. Dhimas isho. is Here. ndi. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Gr. bi. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. ojOo. that. Mutsun ne. Then. mother. man erne. to. there. here j abe. there. respectively. loo). Guarani nde. Sahaptin (America) kina. here feraa. that. Tamul i.. I . there. biii. that. is father. thou ni. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. qu. this ole. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. olo. . Tarahumara ibe. an old woman chacha. this . small (Pott. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. ne. here .araM. ukko..

&c. as j money. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. A little wee face with little.) . to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. din-din. lift 8. The Sw. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. knob. Top. to peep through. fretful. or even. Clank represents the sound of something large.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. The sound trapp . of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. to leap. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. looking through between obstacles. or chink. trappa. trap. to teet. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. And perhaps the E.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. and in the Pacific dialects. the principle of reduplication. little. just beginning to appear. Fr. 401. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. stairs. analogous to winy-piny. trSpigner. From cases like the foregoing.' making the voice as small as possible. trippelen. don-don. titta. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. wean. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. nipple. a little yellow beard. wenig. trappen. to make its way through the bursting envelope. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. — Douglas Virgil. pepin. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. little To sup up. for a succession of light blows low-wow. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. murmur. trippen. nab. repetition It. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. keeh. barking of a dog. to begin to appear . is to express simple continuance of action. has tittafrem. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. the nursery few j Sc. at pippe frem is to spring forth. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. a child. to tread. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. Thus we have Wolof sopa. a step. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. Da. as ding-dong. to feet.' — Merrv Wives. for the . the pip or pippin. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. nil. of smaller things. whence Fr. A little weeny thing. dance (Kil. the idea is called. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. in old e. sound of bells . to peep. tion. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. for instance. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. the simplest mode by the g. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. i Sw. .

the and clique. mawhitiwhiti. to skip. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. to vi^alk about for flax. sopasopa. in familiar use with ourselves. Cult. the comparative degrees of greatness. puka- puka. to rock. 97). rack click. or el. to treat with contempt. tach-et-er. rack. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. (to use a to speak. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. a grasshopper. to or rub. cliqu-et-is. keep spots. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. or rdtchi. or a little tee--ny thing. the agent in panting . the lungs. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. kenda. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. if very young. Mandingo ding. little child (p. very great. instead of being actually repeated. bad . to say pooh It is ! to. mpolu is uttered. very bad. could readily be conceived. didi. smallness. ayunayunan. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. Susa di. clash of weapons. serves to show and in this way. Again. to talk at to walk. to pant. a spot. properly speaking. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. lololoa. Thus in the Pacific loa. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. to love.. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. er. to to call. ding-ding. calling.Ixii REPETITION. So from clamo. amusement. mawhiti. racket. . wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). and Fr. are echoed by the rudimentary et. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. The same principle of 196. and the words express a continued sound of rack. or imitative syllables. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. from Maori muka. rapidity and strength. tache. child . hardness. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. a clattering noise. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. click. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. is language. 99). .' expression is — ^Tylor. And generally. repetition or continsignify long. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. kendagenda. i. a cradle. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to cover e. &c. random . very long (Pott. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. loloa. child . to call frequently from Fr. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. kamha-gamla. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. puka. or in Fr. Thus in E. ratsi-ratsi. clamito. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. or very very great. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. Malay ayun.

to make gug. In cases like these. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to make a succession of grabs . guggle. a from ayun. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. joggle. from puka. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. Jickfacken. to hand. syllable clat . to bark like a dog. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. smack. to crackle. mew and baa . compared with g. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. or fi bau. by the side of wanken. bubble. wagas ging. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . which. The Fr. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. itself. are to cry mew and pew . wankeln. to make bau-bau. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. as mAS. as to handle. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to hand-le. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. rubber. to puff. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to rock. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. fickle. the lungs (the puffers of the body). and in as. he who rubs. Piedmontese bau-l-S. a succession of cracks to rattle.Jicol. to move to and fro. wancol. jogging. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. to continue dragging. in some applications. to make a succession of shoves. crack. miauler and beler correspond to E. to rock or wag. rynel. or Maori puka-puka. kneel. draggle.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. bub. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . without the intervention of the frequentative element. shuffle. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. wankel. or in e. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to wail woe . where all direct connection with sound is lost. it. in Fr. The contrivance with any particular noise. the knie-en to E. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. others. g. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. or by association. dabble. waggle. Ihre remarks under gncella. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. is In e. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. dab. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. or omitted. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. such asjlap. miauler andpiauler. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. wavering.

the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. moreover. at was more familiarly known. or in mode of use. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. or how generally. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. to the separation between the broken parts. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. Dupe comes to us from the French. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. the breach. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. which. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . no sort of difference either in outward appearance. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Polish. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. by a hard body breaking. will continue to be felt in daily speech. Breton. known in Italian. although it is not difficult. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. There is. or in aptness to combine with other elements. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. to cry ugh at. A gull or a dupe same sense. on a moment's reflection. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. which is the origin of the word. and comparatively few easily deceived. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. deceit. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source.

language is . the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. . In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. founded in manifest blunder. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. however. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. Hitl^erto. nor any limited of ideas. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. life. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. and the word is used in a secondary sense. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. is. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly.

In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. hearing. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. If English. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. evique. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. guages in South America. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . circle perpetrates a new slang term. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. and vescovo. out. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. in the course of many years' isolation. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). and 'Russian. unintelligible to other hordes. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. i. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. of material things. French. compared with the duration of man. I think it very probable. therefore. 330. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. change. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. Welsh. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. Naturalist on the Amazons. episcopus.

9. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. ao8). 8. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. it will leave figures 3 and 4. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 7. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. to be taken (Prim. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Nor is there one of the letters. Cijlt. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. and . Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. or whatever the proportion may be. is MN. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. A key must unlock more doors than this. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. The combination of the symbols I and 2. i. ancient Greek M . as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. which are idenr Figures 5.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. the actual it which would to represent. 6. . Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as shown in the subjoined illustration. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain.

Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. what comes to the same thing. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. If new 'modes of phonetic expression.' should be discovered. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. which either by direct resemblance of sound. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. or. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. leading him to utterances. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. his fellows.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. and the only safe beneficent Creator. for instance. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. known to us as yet. had its origin in imitation of sound. in the shape either of direct inspiration. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us." the use of a change of vowel in as.

that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. as elephants. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . or of their own reflected thoughts . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or else. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. or not. and sooner or later. the conduct of Ixix life. of using imitative conduct . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. that he started from the lowest grade. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . race were speaking men or not. and rose towards a higher state of being. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves.COMPLETION OF MAN. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. until the progeny. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. in the course of generations. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . by animal without a trace name of Man. or beavers. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. for instance. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and when we look back as far as history will reach. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race .

Diefeiibach. dialect of the Sette Commune. Diet. Biglotton seu Diet.. Brem.Nieder. Dn. Carpentier. English. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Grammar Boh. Cimbrisch.V.-Eng. Baile/sEngl. Provincial dialect. ^Ifr. Finnish. or Dan.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Due. Diet. Da. 1857. Gr. Diet. Bremisch. Bavarian. Douglas' Virgil. B. Supplement to Dueange. Couzinid. at the end of Somner's Diet. dial. Cot. Dueange. Gothischen 1851. Teutonico-Lat. Romano - Cas- traise. Anglo-Saxon. 1768. Catalan. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Cotgrave.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Dief. Fin. 1850. AS. Supplement to Bret. Esth. Wtb. Dutch. Carp. Danish. . Esthonian. Cimbr. Bav. de la langue Cat. 1766. Bigl. Infimse Latini- D. 1654. Dueange. 1737. Dief. Sup. Fr. Castr. Elfric's Fl. E. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Bohemian or Czech. Diefenbaeh.



Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. puHti r. cruccio deyrie. alUger ahaverie r. katowai perairrantr. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. r.nokkutama willekem. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. r. yjnaifia r..percurrunt kimista^x. buque 118 brodiquin r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. woman r. baltresca nokkutomax. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . (/ijtf r.5 ERRATA. r. haverie crtOT r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. ^i?^i2! r. kilistaa bugiie r. plowied budowaer. willekom Blab r.>. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. Askance woud r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. word allagerr. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. sveritet Asknace r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. cti. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. Blob plowied r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^.


on. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. on. literally. ar.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. until the event jlace . Lat. this word beand Spanish. Abandon. In Lat. dominion. o/j of or . in. and secondarily in that of command. abs. dominion. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. among. ir. into the Romance ftrseg . Immediately from Fr. ifter. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. baftan. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. as. power : Than Wallace thing. abaft. Abs-. a. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. from. said. a/tan. away from. away. vs. a washing off to abstain. onis aback. 244. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. particular 1 . Parson's Tale. downwards.t G. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will.he Goth. ibandonner. ab. to sauff the king or spill. sion of 'an abandoned character. whatever he be. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. compounds. To abuse is to use iway. rule. Dent posture. alike. to arise. to hold . ur. 843. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. Jvery man shewid baft. Abaft. plesyt him. as. but now )bsolete). be-ceftan. off. implying a completion of J. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. K . Thou spelds of mychty iction. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . erwachen. have entire dominion over. A. the er. in the same sense. to awake. command. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. The word Ban is common orders. out of. his. Thus ip N3S. AS. us. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. —Bruce. and — Chaucer. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. bandon in French. . on-lic. er. an edict or proclamation. announcement. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. behind. iway from. in a manner other than it should be ablution. OHG. from a is to wake to abide. AS. on-bsec . orders. Again. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. to subdue. "rom a height. state of sleep . to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. Ab-.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Passing tongues. Hence on-bceftan. of-dune. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do.

confound. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. depress. and that from Syrian abba. of fear. On the other in use as well as hand. from ravir. In or. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. abbattre. Custom. to strike sail . and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. esbahissant. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. to astonish. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. shame. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. son bandon. abandonly. to gape. R. esbahir. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. as ravish. et prirent terre. Abbot. abate. and sets them all agape. burny. astonish. Hart in Jamieson. law term abatement. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. his mouth. terminedly. of wonder. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Abbess. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. See . Cotgr. Abbey. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish.On princes. To Abate. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. R. Baba ! Mod. to take possession of an estate. iv. 364s.— — . c. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. 1 1 8. to strike Froiss. polish.polir. overthrow. to bate something of the price abbatersi.fournir. weaken. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba.Prov. to diminish the force of any. to hit.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. where custom (Grandg. esbahissais. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. and grooms besmeared with gold. Beat. his eyen shene. Many English verbs of a similar deriv.— R. Bate. and it that that it — .) . or society of abbots or monks. uncontroUedly. astony. of the Fr. vol. to put to con. esba. to happen. to overthrow.' the surrender of a ' K. — Neccham. adverbial expressions at abandon. merely the terminations ons. father. so common in the found in the OFr. impetuously. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. drink. Milton. lish to abaisse orabaish. faire tomber. and the verb was written in Eng. . In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. . by Wall. to ruin. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. de. to The . from Lat. Hence the OE. 1520. abbas. beer. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. Castrais. abaundunem-ent. abbatia.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. abbatis. may be explained. ant. d. It. down. And he thereof was all abashed. baer. Wall. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. at his own the lips.down. betrash. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. to excite admiration. R. person. impulse. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. ais. See Abide. abbatere. effect of shame. A. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor.esbawi. abbatere dal prezzo. Hence Lat. an abbey. ne more vermeille. to light upon. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. Fr. — — .' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. I was abawid for merveille. thing abbatere le vela. to beat furnish. castle. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. More correctly written abbat. Originally. baba. or admiration. other. bandon. in the active form. bawi. with or without a final sh. to abaw or astonish. burny was formerly burnish . It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. to make lower.

inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). inciter. to expect. badar. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. warten. . listening. The white poplar. aspire to. . exciter. to be intent upon. Fabl. also to OFr. b^er. K. we sceolon ON. abetter. delay. abie. Pol. Ducange. Norm. to stay. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. to attend to. ' ' . bada. Du. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. and alluring to his own destruction. to suffer death in Du. In We . 1 • . to desire. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer.— Chaucer. compared with (Bosworth). and in E. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. bie compared with Dan. Gloss. or do we AS.. Boethius. Abie. The verb atwaiting. (Vocab. lingering. a right in suspense . F. inciting. — signifies to suspend action. de Berri) Prov. open the mouth. beidan. to desire earnestly. to ance. in Dan. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . abiiance. to open bader. badare. Corant sens lui. tarrying . attendre See Bait. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. is idenwait. abet. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. — ABELE Epiphanius. abSiance. bidan. take care. Quant voit le serpent. beijen. bide of the d endure. Prov. house. beguiling on the other. — II. baier. or absorption watching. Thus G. Cat. bida. wait To Abide. delay. Thus we have It. desire. badare. waiting.to wait. to wait. while the monks under his control ing. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. — . to In great amaze. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to remain or endure.' is in AS. desirer (Roquef. Cat. watch. badigliare. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. pense. ne wist what way to chuse. beidan. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. a bay or opening in the coast. delay. the verb of abeyance. which the mind to an object. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. wait. speaking of the Holy places. abaier. to expect gabeidan. beguile. —Raynouard. tempting. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father.— ^richer. bhr.Fr. to open the mouth. deceiving. Gloss. m Abeyance. verbeijen Sw. expectation. bida. endurance. bder. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. See Abide. attendre avec en^pressement. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. to attend on . gridare. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. . deceit. abbadare. regarder. From abahier. to wait. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. Q. bocca badata. abeter. trick abetar. baer. were called Brothers. tical with It. or in Fr. with open mouth . beijen. baier compared with It. white. bouche b^ante. from Halo. ceive. says. suspense. to wait. abidan. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. abeyance. incite . Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Norm. bana. . to mind. abie. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. abayer. on the one hand. have seen abide. expectfamily. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. tenere a bada. signifies the direction of tend. OFr. which is certainly related to It. 366. beter. baier. beijden. listen. look for another. forms with the d effaced are OFr. in Fr. bie. expectation. covet. take notice. and Prov. and E. us. . to tarry. to be intent upon. abet. to hook.was formerly used in the sense of look. bialodrze-w. to gape .— Roquef. qui iaaille. to It. Ni engigner ni abiter. to look.) abayer. ^couter avec dtonnement. endurArt thou he that should come. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. aspirer. guardare. ne chastised them. gola badada. E. to deanimer. intent observation. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. usbeisnei. bouche bdante. with badia. tity of E. literally white tree. Abele. syllable ba. songer. to deceive. de Champ. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. to stay. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. suffer b. Goth. To Abet. Guernsey beth. forbearance. badare. to abide . othres abidan' The effacement expect. John. to yawn.

the Pardoner In the original. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. ON. —Bacon in R. forbid for mother's children should abye. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. abeye. able. God. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. . — e. abidge. 2nd Tale. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. L. The —Boucher. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Tr. and the simple buy. abilej Prov. to redeem. 2. Chaucer. For on board. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. abicgan. when compared with Aboard. atling hem to her proper offices. to have . habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. adapted . How dearly I abide that boast so vain. If it badare. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. ! ! Cotgr. fit. R. habilis (from habeo. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. bidan.ynes. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. strong. Wickliff in Richardson. purpose. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Milton. abide. from Lat. have-like. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. P. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . on board . or bie. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. God — dear. Cassar. a board. and Cr. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. abie to Goth. within the ship. at kasta fyri bord. though sometimes confounded with it. to pay the penalty. abycgan. without special reference to the notion of retribution. — Able. to perish. &c. sufficient. habile. Prol. beidan.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Boucher. bord. willing to schewe his wrathe. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. N. in for any special purpose. being disabled in the highest degree. P. durance in both applications. abigg. She shall abie that trespass dere. Dr. suffer the Jul. fault being simply clothing. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. as habiller du chanvre. while in later examples As I . Lat. de la volatile. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. — P. Fr. F. Abie. Spenser. the Sir Tristrem. from AS. abie. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. habilis is closely preserved. to . i. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Fr. convenient. bide. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. Q. to dress hemp. Innan bords. to wear away. al- be found so some will dear abide it. expert. power. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear.^and to make his power knowne. use. Mids. him with che. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. was often used in the same sense. the side of a ship. Merch. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. abilh. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. as E. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. properly abuy. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. O If tion. must suffer for it. R. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. It. within the walls of a ship. AS. aboleo. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. the Fr. consequences of anything . powerful. abolir. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. In this to erase or annul. at hand). The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. to draw fowls. to pay the purchasemoney. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. and death for handsel pay. is the verb abie.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight.

draw out. Abray. full ofte his words for to Fr. . is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. by the to bring up. giving birth to. Abrdger itself. break out. while the verb alleThe root el.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. the hair grow. to awake. To Abound. the idea of breaking about . The primitive idea seems that of beget. Thence to regard greugetat. abufan. and alere flammain. Abundant. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. and also to abridge. to beget or give birth to children. s —Casdmon. d. sec seftre — Chaucer. to cut short. abominor (from ab and omen. snatch In English we speak of away. from Fr. becomes leu in Prov. af-oolden. and bidden him abregge. parent. nurse. literally. boven. OE. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. hard. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. as the duty of nourdisposition. to nourish. See To Bray. of any kind . vital PI. abbreviare. — ' — — preceding verb..' Ymb hancred utan. Virg. Quod abominor. to turn. Goth. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. but from Lat. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to main. as AS. and in-d-oles. be-utan. titan. Prov. agreujar. Kiittner. breaking out in language. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to AS. heavy. as withotityn and without. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates.the older form. which passed into English under Abominate. Finnish stock. — . The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. AS. So in Lat.foda signifies to beget. ala is made to signify to rear. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. which may God avert. Then. or young forth. explains soboles Lat. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). the form a&^^. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. around on the out. al is growth. Sc. to feed. alUger. greu. below. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. To abray or abraid. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. pedigree from brevis. natural ed direct from the latter language. OSw.' Parson's rence. levis to the Romance languages. abowen. to grow up. while the sense of beget. Thonne Abroach. seems aras. . adolere. Gael alaich. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to feed. to rear. brood. to rear.ger. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. abracan. AS.. and also. that greatly agredge their sin. alan. gravis.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. coalesco. In the same brevis . to produce. nurse Lat. abutan. outward. common in Chaucer and Abominable. on high. abredan. side. gravity. disastrous portent in some passing oc. for ligeth butan. is a ively.ymbutan. Fr. nourish. awaking. ABOMINABLE adolesco. D. to progress. For on broach. en. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. Of these synonymous adolescere. be-ufan. af-oleii.1. way Sw. to let sleep. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. bufan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. Lat. is not from G. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan.) . kindling. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. The radical idea is to feed the flame. without. the identity of which with ting. to aggravate. life. OE. to break off.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. the OSw. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. abrdger. about cockcrow. above. abbrechen. See -und-. alere capillos. Above. his contemporaries. a portent). leading immediately to Fr. to bring up. ufan. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. motion. or cut short.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. progeny. ala. alan.aboon.— Abbreviate. onbutan. and to do something to avert abbreviate. whence the Fr. Tale. Du. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. AS. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. currence. agredge. abrcBgdan. abbrechen. the vital spark. to light a fire the Abraid. oil. Severe the threatened evil. from . Melibaeus. to fatten. to start. ol. to snatch. to grow together. butan. the man dwindles away.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


cenig. incus. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. to support. to imitate gestures. rich. which by anvild. younger child. Jorioc. the anticks — behind. Pezron fiUist. and claret wine. To go antiquely. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. strangle. Mannequin. on. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. So Lat. before. ab. To ape. to strike. whence Prov. to strike G. some one. Gr.is to be given. trouble. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. as the Italians. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG.legacy of given against. to bring forth. before. eigs. apertum. panar. part. to nourish. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. finally applied to a whether grotesca. separate. one. anticus. like a jack-pudding. AS. E. swaged. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Anvil. from. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. d<popi(xnbs. Fr. should be received. . Antique. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. or in a ridiculous dress. Lat. : . as posticus. from eigan. aside. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Antick. Lat. to open. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. choke. a puppet or an anti^hona. amboltj Du. bread.D.made out. a few. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Apartment. Lat. Thus from gabe. and devils. to strain. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. villan Gloss. left as the . from ango. wealth. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. from an. or antique single chamber.th centuries the recognised models of antic. inAgain from the same author cudis. —Spencer. separate purpose. Ful- Apanage. Hence the applica. and ig. anxius. plenteously with red. from in and cudere. as we call it. aperio. Lat. avri^ava. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Antidote. ambeld.. Apartment. Prov. to display pario. Antler. post. d. Otfried. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. such as savages. panis. all of gold. were andouiller the second. af. one having wealth. work.— . fauns. something ler in R. burnished. andouillers. whence anthem. from Stephanus. three antike pillers. — — — . something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. AS. Percutere. Anxious. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. from the imitative habits of monkeys. from ante. See Cover. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. were chiefly of the former class. from. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Ilvtwotov. apanage. one at the least. from an and — - . Fr. antefn. ReApe. apatiar. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. a small quantity. Aphorism. anfilts Pl. white. a termination equivalent to Goth. of. from avTiipoiuia). to go in strange disguises. Fr.—Aperture. AS. press. verberas. gabeigs. Aperient. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. anapoz. to have. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. i. Apart. Any. surimitation of the ancient models. As the browcalled antiques. in Shakespear. vex. a preventative . which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. Gr. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. G. Hall's Chron. but the expresent day. set aside. to sound in answer. transferred to the grotesque characters. a definite . what Roman civilisation. a gift. anxi. Gr. a block to hammer on. stem. In like manner. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. as from as. antifena.

in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. seiden of the stones. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. The Fr. . For their acquaintance was not come of new . in Chaucer. avail. to — . to be open to view. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. agreeing with "LtA. allow. to finish a controversy. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. diroBrjKr}. to dress in this fashion. whence the e. And among other of his famous deeds. Prov. Fr. Formerly apricock. Fr. jabloko. A — . piteux poind. w. to deter- to strike. and in the sense of condition. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. properly to join like to like. Fr. Nouv.propius).were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. to seize. to send off. plight. Apoplexy. purpose. To Appear. Fr. landmark. to lose one's senses. irpaiKOKiaov. to assign or grant over unto. one the MLat. Mod. It. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Cotgr. Walach. to — — . make a composition between parties. appareiller. from. quoth the frere. good. apropchar. to come near. away.— . oVooroXof. mine. laven is used both as E. apprentis. Fabian in R. in good season prendre son d. 11. ON. AS. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Gr. ar. 5w. H. — prehendere. equal. to catch hold of. an epistle or letter. peace. when the . appareo. Epistle. N. the good. Gr. pragigua or prixcoda. become dizzy . dress. pertain or belong to. From Gr. near. agree. opportunity. obolys. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. Fr. Hence appoind. Friar's Tale. 'L-zX. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Ir.parejo. word was specially applied to clothing. a thing for one's purpose.t. to understand. prope (comp. to disable oftat. that it outfit. — dirondtfiu. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Fr. to announce. Parson's Tale. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. i. S^. to commend. Apo- good time. apprehendere. a learner. From Lat. after his mind . in commendation. one is in.parecchio. poind. OFr. to deem good. Lat. to set a price on. Sp. Apple. d-n-o. ^wss. praise. to make a thing Apparel. aparelhar. From Lat. cepl. par. aptly. appaiser. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. prohts. ap.—Apprentice. Apprehend. apal. Pliny. D. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. approcher. APRICOT off. xv. diminutive pariculus. (cited by Diez from a late author). — Apprise. trim. to rate. pronounce fitting). They were considered To Appoint. Yr. apprise. esteem. to mark to define a bound. to deaden. a crime. Cent Nouv. a price. decree. to Lat. appartenir. to send to.prix. diroTrXriaatii. ai. Appareil. from paix. array. case. peler. They werin his approvirs privily. apprendre. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. — Appurtenance. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. probare. Lith. prover. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. apropid. poind. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. Gr. Cotgr. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Apostle. And whanne sum men Lat. proper time came. to approach. I prise ware. or the like. appellare. or E. lAfiaam. set a price on. habiliments. pretium. Hence It. like. Palsgr. like. prize. were formed appropiare ejar.probare. : — — speak 'Lz. known. apparecchiare. to suit. preparation. whether through age or sudden teiTor. from aTroorlXXu. . to strike down. Approach. Yr. Apotliecary. Prov. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. to fit. to call.his giving evidence against his principal. e. —^Apparent. fit- — ness. ciously than nede is. Fr. of. approcdare. —Diez. appris. in fact. consent unto. Appease. corresp. manner. habilUr. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. pronounce good. Gr. rise to \t. Fr. value apprdder. to take away or lose the vital powers. apar. to learn. to call for judgment. one for his defence. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. taking. apin R. 23 . to accord. to which it is often referred. . En peach. iwKjToKri. despatch on some service. order. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. to approve. To cause to pall (see Pall). to learn. a'^opi'Jw. and also as appraise. — Approve. in data. 'LaX. approver. to store or put Appal. To Appraise. one sent out. An old appalled wight.pareil. kind of action. horror. APO sentence opoQ. and appoinder (to find fitting. The PI. off. find Then like Fr. apal. To praise. Cotgr.

where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. properly the arwella. ahva. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit.meaning at Shrewsbury. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. It is certain that the apricot oracle. and sortilegus ation. sorcerer. 31. arbiter. Lat. hariolus arpelen. From OFr. aptus. scr. Pm. . to preserve it from stains. A. aa. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. auguror. conjectura conjec^ra. Roquefort. divining rod. herbere. shortdr. most conspicuous situation in the garden . la nappe. This path Aqueous. ap.sors. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. arwelo. Lat. {mies ^=ia3. however. a river. OHG. a lot. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. and the one who gives oracles. short. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. a pleasure-ground. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. . It may be doubted. Arbour. The loss or addition of n very common. Maan initial . symbol. of of divination arpa-mies. rofe and all. arbiter in re censendS. and thence fit. Prol. P. 331. Gr. found in Fin. however. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. aha. as an eye-witness. pracoqua was not an adapt. and taken away before dessert. a lot. aestimo. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . C. fastened close. As is a pretty parlour. Now we find in Fin. Arbitrate. J. P. opinio. OE. garden. .shrubs {arbor). delon. From OE. suitable. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Hall. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. Marsh. Naprun. sestimatio arbitraria.. — napkin is Naperon. naperon. Thus we have natiger and auger. She made. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. Pr. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. and a protection of the clothes. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. grande nappe. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. Lat. 2. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. account for either of these significations. Albanian. — . ughe. doubtless is the origin of E. nected. and with turfis new Goth. Flower and Leaf. . is taken in is a soothsayer. proper.' —About. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. wata. aro. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. arbitror arwaaja. arbitrium. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. the spelland umpire. quod he. arpa. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. man. derived. a lot. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. sortium ductor. Now one of the points — — — . be That it inne groweth. Aquatic. or barm-cloth. Beryn. Alban. words derived from arpa. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. arwaus.o. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. to decide by lot. tion under trial. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. to plough.] in the N. or eft. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin.) E. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. water Which that benchid was. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. con. nawl and awl. conjicio. Freshly turnid Arable. a soothsayer. a cloth. aqua. intensitive of nape. as ihe diminutive. ear.

an arrant usurer. Sax. There can be no doubt that E. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Arcadia in R. forearm .. Alisaunder. ramend).is the natural weapon of offence. ON. arga. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. gwyrek. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. 3340. Ardour. worker. taxed with cowardice. A construct. ardor. to Arch. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. high. difficult to reach. to be in comp. arguo. rame. It. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. ruling by the nobles. ramo (pi.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. first. AS. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. apx^iv. aj-f. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. apxtipfve. The . archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). as in E. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. Arm. branch. een erg kind. an arch-deceiver . arwe. it signifies roguish. Gr. the terminaGael. an arrant rogue. armada. arm.4 rir/. curved. Ardent. Arcliives. morally bad. From apxeiov was formed Lat. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. area. ^Argument. Arduous. lofty. the most arrant trash. Area. Lat.. ers-betriiger. a threshing-floor. patus). government. i. Aristocracy. the best. Langobard. especially shoulder-joint. raineno. are formed the participial nouns. which has been referred to W. in Due. stuff. and Kpurka. arg. Arson. arcA in e. . from nixa. G. Gr.In E. Perhaps erz-wticherer. ancient. Du. ardIn G.' the Gr. Lat. arcus. ein arger knabe. arch-bishop. shoulder. mischievous. ill-tempered. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. a. to dry. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. to demonstrate. un petit rusd. apxtlov. Fr. kpxi- beginning. Arid. Lat. to arm. the court of a magistrate. receptacle where the public acts were kept. fabricate). gwyro to bend. a chief builder. Dan. a noble. shoulder Boh. erz-bischof. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. timid. G. a bare plot of ground. ardre. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. armata. Gr. wretched OE. a court yard. Fr. by Russ. . a branch. * ArchjAiTaxit. arm.' Lex. man. and not with apx. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . curved line. argr. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus.aioj. — Architect. Lat. earh.— Army. . W. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. a rule (princiruler. fainthearted. burning heat. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. apxh. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. an arch boy. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. vescovo. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. earg. armee. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. arson. the a brute. erz in G. arsum. weapon may be simply an application of annus. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. et vulgari verbo. to burn . and our army. Brem. which is derived from it. an extent of flat surface. is essentially the same word. Sp. Fr. D. mischievous. argvitugr. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. bad. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. ardeo. arduus. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. arrant Arms. exercise lordship). and must be identified with Dan. bad of its kind. from areo. faint-hearted. ' — Argue. adjective. un malin enfant. sly. apxri. sluggish. From the verb armare. troublesome. earm. a burning or setting on fire. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. arma. weapon. Cot. . Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. erg. to rule. bravest. Lat. bad. wanton. contemptible. Lat. a bow. Gr. Arch in composition. 2. . archangel. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. to be on fire. make clear or prove. aridus. Lat. Applied in modern E. while the Fr. signifies chief or principal.' Paul Warnefrid. malicious. — Wtb. arrig. Uo^a^. Du. sly. arm'ee. Lat. det arrigste snavs. as the arch of a bridge. TiKToiv. And thou as arwe coward. vocaveris. ars.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

to by beams. to roll. G. . a great ball.—Ballad. probably Lat. Da. bdlkr. taich. dial. to partition off . ball. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. . Ballata. from the more general notion of moving up and down. balle. to ache. baler. Fr. OFr. It. pallikka. to ail. a ball. to plough for a boundary between lands. roof. balva-vesei. Rouchi ban. a balk of foul weather. Ballot. similar connection is seen in Sp. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. other while. Mid. Bale. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a ballad. N.— Ballet. a ballot). In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bacgtteter. OSw. maleficium. a clump . whether of wood or stone. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. a ball balla. Bret. Sw. ballar). . trouble. sickness. vcdra bdlkr. bjdlki. bbllr bulla J. balken. a clapping or flapping of wings.Lat. ne leaving any balke. palloilla. palla. A balk. stage or scaffold. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. baalien. pain. heap up. ballet. to move. balka bunge. malefacGower in R. Sw. as in a barn or cow-house. mass. It. a dance. a globe. blister. bala. to dance. on. Sw. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. torment. (Hesych. balveins. uveirs bolk. Bohem. a clod of earth water. balge. Wotton. bolawy. F. globule. . balka hopar. pallo. balja. dial. ballo. a beam. on. Dan. to see-saw. ban. 3. to dance. to grieve . — A — — . to bale out. from bacquet. i. on the shore. balk. Grief. a skin. a water-skin dim. To Bale out water. The primary sense seems as in G. baloier. to on Holmedon's plain. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. a pail. palcare. Hence. ballare. balken. TtaKKa a pail or tub . Perhaps on. I. a separate portion. plague. Baulke of land. a wooden partition . a partition. balle. to avoid it. ball. a ball. bal. destruction. pila. pallukka. bol. Ball. chapurrar.). to stir. balare. bola. balle. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a bubble. Gael. gen. To baulke the Sir H. and evil in general. a division of the old laws. floor. Pol. bal. wickedness ness . See Gall. to speak an un. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. ballotta. sick. grieve . separaison. bolker. Boll. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. to be balker. sorrow. ing. Russ. package of goods. a beam. hooting. Fr. balloon. the breadth from side to side . a ball. to wave. Du.' speak gibberish champurrar. a boil. ballan. Sw. tum. the object of his expectation. balle. a ball. bold. a pill. Sw. to be ill. to plank. Du. balkr. bolyaf. to rock. Sw. and the dim. bol.of men . Sw. balk. Da.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . pallo. a continued noise of waves gently beating . ballare. .or industriously left untouched by the puzar. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Fin. at giore en balk. wickedtorment ON. boll. are applied to a From the same analogy. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . balk. the beam of a ship. as we say. Balloon. says Ray. ball. the ballet of the theatres. cka. ' is a piece or confused talking. bollr. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. Sw.ing. ON. bielke. ballare. We have then separate dial. Gr. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. misery Du. a dance. to pack Da. In like manner Fr. balla (with the augm. dial. to shake or jog. to Not sparing wight. may exhibit the original development of the signification. . ballone. shouting. Q.Fr. beaten road. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a pestilence. a. a washing-tub. vacillare. OHG. dial. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. afbalka. AS. Goth. baalie. Bowl. * Balk. ache. hue et illuc inclinare. G. balka. weak liquor. Fr. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). maan pallikka. ball. . balk. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. e. It. 2. bal-daed. bal. calamity. Ugutio in Due. w. on. bealwes. to signify washy drink. pilula. a scene acted in dancmg. lealo. bolyatchka. a ball or pack. Hence Dan. Ball. to paddle in water . It. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. to cause another to miss pustule. a But making way for death at large to walke. Sp. boleii. E. ill. a together in the form of a ball. with the perhaps from balg. It. Venet.

like Fr. from bara or vara. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. analogous to what is seen in It.). the act of walking. called Bait. mare Balticun. bam. more serious objection is . There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. Bret. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. it is forced to take in stones or sand. enchanter. lest. age. and Mid. lestage. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. It. barauste. sorcerer. Dan. little round and short pillars. the flower of the pomegranate. seems the original form of the word. ballast. But Fr. — — oltriga. balustrade barandilla. ^Arbuthnot in R. or ballast of a ship. bamboccio. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. To deceive. more frequently than outward-bound. puzzled. Balsam. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. command. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. a small balustrade. the backload.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. A — — . Gr. ballustre) is a corruption. It is explained back by Adelung. to walk. inutile onus. 1854. Report Pennsylv. barandado. a battlement . in the first place. of balusters. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. baume. astonished. for want of other freight. Sc. because.000 tons. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Cotgr. endormir par des contes. a young babe. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship.that the going vessels. curse. Fr. bag-lest. a duty on goods last. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase.' And Kil. R. bumbazed.. i860. . lastre. explains ballast. Venet. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Baltic. Sp. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. It. back of the ship. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. denounce. ballustres. The Sp. Bret. make fun of a person. is in Sweden and Norway. This is the backload. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. an Old dotard or imbambolare. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. terraces. as he says. for a load or goods (Roquef. last. forbid. inutilis sarcina. lastra. from Lat. lastagium signified not only ballast. Du. fonts. In OSw. urtica. Lat. Fr. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Balm. also with flatteries and . by met. to preserve equilibrium. ranked on the outside of cloisters. Bamour. baranda. To proclaim. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. small railing. a nettle. but loadage. Sept. a fragrant gum. baUa. a useless load. deceiver. Said to be from balaustia. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. deceive. balsamum. or movement of one who walks. bag-las. paid for the right of carriage. bambolo. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. a false tale or jeer. bambocciolo. Mr Marsh whether the a load. When a ship discharges.Lat. railing around altars. baltresac. dial. . ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. 43 — Cot. To Ban. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. If bambocciolare were child of one. objects to the foregoing derivation. a rod. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. Balluster. bamein. ^a\Ba\iov. To make fun of a person. Lest. To Bam. &c. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. balconies. baU. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. to enchant. Ballast. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. To Bamboozle. 1. &c. The Baltic sea. galleries. bertesca.

to reprove. border. banner marked the place of assembly. he bannede his ferde. bande. fahne. The to . bindan. bandera ground at his mill. — R. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Bandear. Baud. It. and It. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Band. theodscipe ut abannan. bann. Goth. permission. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . tener da alcuno. — To partito d'alcuno. the ensign or banner.is further developed. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. banda. There is some doubt how Fr. Ripuar. bande. Fr. E. power. Se il — Romance languages. side. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Fr. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. D. It. a company. A. to unite with a band. Sw. ligue Taboada). Commun^ment son bandon. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. In Fr. also the band or of marriage. —R. bundun. Car. i. Sp. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. to follow a faction. ba?idare. and in E. bannum or bandum.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. region. ex. says Muratori. to ban. to excommunicate {lysa.Lat. To Bandy. banda the colour or material. bannire in exercitum. banns pany of footmen serve. to ctide. Capitul. bande. in hostem convocare. and thence to any proclamation.^ bandy. admolendinum. G. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. v. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. we constantly find the expression. bandi. &c. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. acquired the sense of proclamation. sostener Torriano. to side or to bandy (Florio). curse. authority.e. side. change to the feminine gender in banda. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. . Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. to . and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. in Fr. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. See Abandon. band. 15.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. those who side together (bande. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. faction. eiiseigne. Sp. 26. to publish) banna. flag. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. etc. 19. Wyntoun. he assembled his host. then the signification w. 2. to take one to task. Goth. From the verb to banda. from at the Lord's courts. margin. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. banda. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. 1. . Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. It. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. bound. In a special sense the term company itself. populum. passing on from proclamation to command. is That with which anything AS. 'A son bandon. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. at his own discretion. parti. R- He Translated by Chaucer.—John Villani in Due. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. &c. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Cot. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. to form parties. Leg. Spebifid. Diss. hoc est vexillo. summoning to serve So in Swiss. band. OE. 813.. whether by way of injunction or for- command. biddal. It seems this signification has arisen. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. bandon somewhat party. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Mag. Bandus. a coast. to bring corn to be fahne. Assises de Jerusalem. bando. — excommunication bann-lysa. bandon was used in the same sense. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. bannire exercitum. R.

bance. beating. a wound OHG. bent as a bow. to knock. A Shipman's Tale. bang. To Bandy. in the same way that E. and OFr. Bacon in R. to slay. banca his creditors. for shame. has bang-bang. a bankrupt merchant. to foment factions. bana-sdr. From a desk . Tibalt. the same verb the It. banc. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Bankrupt. Lingua. It is in this sense nounce. a i. Du. bana. s'associer. rap hatike et som The Susu. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. Fr. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. a sand-bank. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. seat . de sable. large dog kept for a guatd.: . Bandy legs are crooked legs. band-hond. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. shoal. . from banc. a counter. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Mid. destruction . Hudibras. It. Africa. g. a de Vaud. to proclaim. Bang. distinguishes bekkr. forbear this outrage. the former Fr. Sw. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . benk. to bend a. and bakki. Diaconus in Due. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. The ridge of a hill is AS. Goth. the slope of a hill. and therefore tied up. a rising bank. roupt. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. With many a stiff thwack. ruptus. home — Bandog. the back. bana. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Diez. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. clouds. a table. banca fallita. Your stool. bana. to join in league with others against Cotgn. hricg. eminence. band-dog. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. See Balluster. among rotta. Banner. and hence. broken. to make a stir banke. de- party. bank. bana-sott. language of W. AS. a long raised seat. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. ON. Fl. banja. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. was formed the OFr. bench. as of an explosion or a blow. a bank. —^Vocab. bane. bakke. death-blow . bank of a river. in the sense of place of business. The word is in E. — Paulus drive in a nail. bannire. a bench. ON. &c. 2. pastoralis. bank of river. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. &c. Fr. bank of Dan. tumult bangas. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. The child cries bang! fire. bank. See Band. Bank. death-sickness. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. . Banditti. stir. eminence. canis vinculis assuetus. desk. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. many a bang. whence the mod. se joindre. Bantze. But natheless wife at I bank. bander. that the word is used by Romeo. b'ang. — Fr. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. . se reunir. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. to hammer in a nail. and poise Their lighter wings. Brewer. murderer. ON. panca. Ripuar. standard. When a man fails Lat. bandi. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Milton in R. . death-wound. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. a bench. banish. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Bandy. It. Roquefort. of bandying words. bander. — — whence E. banke. banditti acquired the like signification. N. Dan. banqueroute.HG. — Kil. counter. in the sense of a pirate.z. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. From Mid. in R. bander tin arc. to beat. Fr. Benchi. beat. bankruptcy. . dorsum was applied to ject. Draw. AS. to publicly order one out of the realm. bandear. to work in wood. to knock. to cabal. Mercutio. outlam came to signify a robber. at canis peciiarius. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. follow a party. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. banc G. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bench. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell.^ knock. hammering. Bane. It. — . 45 — — Bandit. Benvoglio. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. Banister. a bench. bandire. Lat. disturbance banga. banka. E. bow. See Banish. put under the ban of the law. The ing. banco. a blow. back of a knife.

brushwood. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. and it was accord.8ap6^o)voe. a beam or long pole of wood. G. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. probably corSymbol. Barb. ON. barriire. a ban. banda hendi. A It. Hence Fr. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. Bret. to having that signification. Lat. a sign. Flesche barbeUe. Gr. from reifa. of wind. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. inferior to a baron. senhal.. then branches. senh. inur. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. It may be thing. and even of calling it banter. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves.hinder. a which the barrister addresses the court. Sw. BARBAROUS reiflingr. . child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. It. iandvo. nestling. Hence ner. Banneret. Thus Ovid. knight Bardd. The barb of an arrow is the sign .46 BANNERET . Fr. either in the Gr. banner. Duo. of a sign in general. as they call it. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. &c. barbarus. remarked. banne.cruel. barbe. a bench or table . men. Gr. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. to wash. ingly very generally known by a name branches. would rupted from Fr. in Gr. benda. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. Lat. banneret. wrapped. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. which is surely in barbed arrow. E. Barb. jSa'pjSapoc. and with an initial s. a bearded or Cot. period vexillarii. — We A . Fr. himself in Pontus. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. It. token. of banco. barreau. barra. a tree). ON. uncivilised. says. to dip.. top. —Cot. banda. ban- Baptise. In a similar manner are formed yearling. Lat. manu anto make signs nuere. to beckon . a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. bar. To mock or jeer one. sbarra. barbed or trapped as a great horse. E. a war-beacon or war-signal. speaking of battle. &c. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. banneret was a higher class of knights. a bantling. branches of a tree {gwezen. Fr. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. bannereti. OFr. jSdirTO). OHG. branch. that the noise of voices Bantling. from the same source. an animal a year old. banchetto. senhal. hence a repast. barrou-gwez. Barbar. milites bannarii. dim. barrer.aTa Kul nest. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. such as the Roman Eagle. merki. OHG. the word came to signify rude. and he would seem to derive Goth. 2. Fr. Barbe. chan. to wrap. and from ensign or banner Prov. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. ing term appears in other languages. barrack. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. privileged to raise Barbarous. a. 3. To Banter. Bap. E. indeed. rod of any rigid substance. Leduchat. bandiera. and the work is done. sparre. signuin. barre. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. banniire. It. i. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. bandva. ^oTrriKio. a barrier or stoppage. sign. The origin is in all probability Goth. or of this bantering. Banquet. then fell among the foot. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. barba. out of a wound.the analogous syllable viur. heri-pau. The spar.— Swift in R. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. to bend. Fr. barde. According to Diez the It. Celtic bar. summit. Gael. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. Fr. The original import of their own banner in the field. arineXov. rarii. sparro. by a repetition of the syllable bar. senheira. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j.

waschen. Lith. Fr. barbaris. barbel. open. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. bhasad. A7 to the and warlike. barbulla. skirt. Barber. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. borboglio.) . The verb borrelen signifies in Du. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Pr. used 2. bardes. haggle. skirmish. tattle. ready money. borbollar. But Sp. Thus the on. Cotgr. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. on. a long saddle for an ass or mule. border of a garden bed. Etym. ala. Mod. baragouin. dial. and in Flanders to vociferate. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. lb. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. bare baskojis. Applied in E. quarrel . skola. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. a rumbling. G. Bardeau. brabble in the making of a bargain. Fr. bdsiis. Fl. Barder. barbar. borbotar. berj G. Russ. scouthouse. tree. — . OFr. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. and flanks. barda. berries. w. barbacane. barbeter. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to wash. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Diez. Barde. barbeum. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Cot. uproar. murmur . stutter. . mutter. to bubble or spring up. Gr. to barbe or trap horses. a bardelle. Fr. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. coping. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. fortia —Strabo. to gurgle. to stammer. barbier. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. barbeau. and Sc. axilla. barbelin. and the word was used in OE. upper chamber. The Pers. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. barz. or more properly (says fer. Gr. It. and foolishly. Lex. Exposed to view. Cotgr. Etym. skialldar-bard. to grunt. to rumble. Bret. to mumble or mutter words. horse armour covering the front. Sp. Port.— BARBEL merit of water. gibberish. It.' Cot. powdered all over. in poetic language Bard for poet. Fr. barguigner. barefooted Sanscr. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. the quilted with. such as houses are covered Bardelle. the nakedness of a woman. in the sense of fight. a tumultuous assembly. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. to make an outcry . i. the edge of a shield hval-barct. the flap of a hat. Barbel. Arab. twcEtta. twattle. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Hall in R. /3£pjSepi^w. — — — men. bds. baares geld. as well as thwcEtta. grumble (Lowndes.— — Pm. boil. — . barS. Mod. baar. which was of talking. Sp. to bubble or boil. barbarkama. name Fr. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. guazzolare. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. bardd. bar. uncovered.) to wrangle. barbugliare. /3opj3opwJu. to prattle. formerly used in the sense of tattle. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. barboter. brim. Bard. — — Hence. Barbican. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. unqualified.— Fl. bdsas. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Hindost. Bare. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. saddle-cloth. is lb. albarda. Lucan. to chafbargain. small pack-saddle. An outwork for the defence of a gate. to stammer. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . bdla-khaneh. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. a pack-saddle. to It. in Fr. albardilla. a shingle or small board. — Cot. g. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. Sp. albarda'ah. to boil or bubble up . borbulhar. the beard. jargon. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. back. speak confusedly. Barberry. guaszare. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Bargain. Hatt-bard. borborinha. a jetty or outnook in a building. also to wallow like a seething pot. barda. Festus in Diet. Port. as well as the modern twaddle. border. also to bind or tie across. to plash or dabble. muttering. .

barafustar. strife. ber (ace.' bardagi. baimeach. .) lihtes-ern. The origin may be throat. bread-corn. It. Gael. dial. barge. — de Berri. the rack or manger. quant a perdu sa barja. bosom. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. berm. tumult. bcern. Ibid. in Nat. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. the fore or after end of a boat . baron. bargain. and the word. barja.. So ON. Bailey. OFr. berm hoys. barley. charlock. limpet. (Ihre. OSw. prasepe . bosom . Du. barlys {bara. Port. baratta. skuta. dispute. Bemiques. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. mhg. put to confusion. as in the case of Lat. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Garlick. houbartij fsnile. to chop. the or prow of a ship. Antiq. 2. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. to rout. 2. baratta. we pass to the vert) barguigner. also a boat .. to all the barca. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. as baces-ern. a load. ThS man was not created for the woman. Barge. barajar. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. bere. Rayn. to skin over barkandi. baaren. bamagh. — battle. . Baron. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Sp. Gl. trouble. commonly explained from bere. baralhar. —Bark. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barnis. bread. tion of the sound. to scold. a place. barley. Port. the A — Ihre. Dan. barlich. meta foeni. Alam. From Fr. a baking place or oven. Uzen. limpets. So also ON. — Zeuss. . louzou. but the woman for the man. See Barm. astringent. to cheat. a heap. barahunda. contest. is simply the Bret. berem. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. AS. E. varen. Barn. Isidore in Rayn. strife. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. W. at barka. Manx bayrn. disorder. Romance barsie. dispute . bcerme. border. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. a receptacle for barley or corn. struggle. Dan. to strive. plants). hlaSa.^Voc^. Swab. and 1. Leg. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. in the Brim. am. Originally man. herbs. See formed Yeast. giving rise to It. It. strife. also to exchange. confusion. barafunda. and is probably a true bartig. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. and llysiaw. to shufSe. kani. On the other hand. Barbour in Jam. the G. bard). beer. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. ON. as. Vocab. name being given to spectacles. fray. entangle. The older form in e. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. contest. prominent part of a thing. Bark. a lap. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. barnacles. a stack. barii. To Bark. baragouin. barone. ON. Kil. v. one who stirs up strife. a barn. baarm. Du. Provj bar (ace. borkr. altercation. w. a beak. adj. — Barnacle. ON. hemlock. wine. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Sp. baerm. ON. i. beornt. aheap. dispute . edge. chaffer. AS. barretor. Acervus. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. baralha. from an imita- Barley. lap. OFr. dispute. baaring. a. skutr. berm. the slimy substance brewing of beer. spectacles. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. Lith. dregs of oil. limpets . barki. quarrel. quarrel Port. barn. baron)^ Fr. beorcan. then the bows pectus navis. was barlic. bern. * Barnacles. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. The Goth. baarn. Spectacles. barms. hladi. bark . husband. and ern. barn. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Camus. a boat. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. to wrangle. a heap . Prov. barley. Leg. . Cornub. dispute barattare. then honoured man. berma. a lantern. as. bern. Bret. barn. a cap . The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens.Barum vel feminam. Sp. Ripuar. barlys. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Sw. barmr. brenig. baniffa. bernac. as well as Scandinavian tongues. squabble. As Goth. hay-loft. and hence probably (by a metaphor. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. corn-shed.

It. baragan. OE. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. — Kil. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. The Sp. then traffick4 Barrow. a. sterilis. StiU he shows conclusively. an obstruction. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. gwr. Barren.root signifying confused noise. baronetti. the braw. Sp. Gael. a bar. Sp. It. baronculi. brushwood. man. Bret. fallow. vel pretiosos burellos. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. 1. litter. barrique. cover. bearg . a bier. gravis et authenticus vir. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. and in several instances. — — 15th Cent. berewe. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. or simply bahre. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. barri. Baron andfemme. baroncelli. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. bara.— Gibbon. shed. barile. G. Barricade. Gael. AS. barraca. borov'. nobles. An ing. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. baronuU. change of goods seems. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. It was not until the time of James I. It should be observed that. baraignej Picard. squabble. facture. strife. — A . over him. mound.. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. vair. Sp.have been named from the haggling and gant. w. breinej Du. G. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. the two names. AS. branches. also termed bannerets. bara. calico. composed of dry branches ofer. E. ibid. as. bouracan. like bargain. whenever Barrow-hog. bark&n.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. tomb. Nominale of the from braeckland. from a tree to which a man is hanged. (Schmeller). and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult.' that Barrier. from beran. uncultivated. whence Barrow. qui have not much light on the pre. iver. sepulchre. a kind of coarse camlet. The feudal tenants next Fr. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. 26. in Nat. to carry. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. See Barter. S. It. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. a hiU. as cavalcade. became bidre. Fr. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Formed from Fr. barrila. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a horse.parchanttuech. vir. bahre. a man. Goth.' Op. barril.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. seem to be radically the same with Lat. baracca. dispute. a castrated hog . Spelman found bannereti in the MS. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. barrack. semen non accipiens landiEL. On chet — We — — their resemblance. rolls of Parliament. Bargus or moreland. Bohem. perhaps through Prov. especially those killed in battle. barchent. Barrack. and not from Fr. D. boar. braeck. barrique. to shelter. were sometimes confounded. ^Barrator. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. a barrow. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. hut. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. a. bredhan. staves. Bamnculus a baronet. cise formation of the word. beorg. OFr. implement for carryAS. Joshua vii. Russ. habeant. fortification. beorh. This word introduced into Fr. which would barragdn. by early examples. signifying. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro.. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. from cavallo. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. todtenbahre. berwen. heap. barague. Bern. MHG. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. a word is always used in the plural number. in the first instance. Barrister. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. beorgan. barBombicinus. barre. Barratry. booth. to * Barragan. Fr. bera. barrier. A. fear. a barrel. a hut or booth. 2. alongside of barrow. ^Vocab. garment still used in Morocco. bier. Barrel. See Bar. Antiq. man and wife.

PaaiKhms. To stitch. to bargain. hoops of a cask. pdrdt. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. baratar. bassin. bdtir. MHG. barter. crassus. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. at basta og binda. MHG. inclosure. HoUinshed. as It. mean . — in Rich. It. bran. Sw. G. Halliwell. The original meaning. bast. imbastire. . a king. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. to truck. — Bassoon. the thin skin Dan. Bartizan. bast-maatte. Du. lust. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). But according And Dan. beretun.). bast. . low part of the Hickes in Rich. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . or running away with the ship. then cheating. Bastard. would be. God it wot. See Brattice. over-reaching. Basilisk. OFr. baratear. Bast. to bind. Sicamb. a tying. It. lift me above Parnassus. Apparently of Celtic origin. n' is n' is bacino. a ipgli So Turk. barter. baraet (from Fr. Fr. the — — to kill those that look upon it. thick. from bere. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. a bass rope. dwelling. bds. Gr. To Bask. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. a deceiver.looketh upon his eyes. to long — a British word by Martial. bast-reb. HaU in HaUiwell. HaUiweU. cheating. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. of the same sense. according from Gael. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. submovet omne Lucan. stitch. Bass. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . exchange. — hanging. he. to bind hand and foot. basgod. peel. Sp. foist in bargaining. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. said Base. netting. Fris. fornication. See Bath. a bastard. ' Bosworth. BassuS. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. which sets up its hood when angry. to baste. Du. commonly A joined with the word binda. tierer. which covers the grain Ger. lattice-work. cog. the a wide open vessel. basg. bareter. him. A fabulous serpent. bass-matting. Lap. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. low. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. truck. unrighteous gain. ibid. baxoj w. preparatory stitching. flat. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. Fr. Arthur and Merlini. also to Cotgr. The like property hath the iasilisk. baste. F. Bass. pressed down. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E.' Papias. fraud. chasa ogli a bastard. but born in baste. To Baste. baste. besst-u-b£nd&t. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. AS. to cheat. ^Is de bast. Dan. It. Barbara de pictis veni patch. embastir. a halter. partieren. come near. fornication. plaiting of splinters basged. basso. fits de bas. corn-farm. baraand especially teria. and tun. piiiguis. binding. low note. more noble in blood than notable in learning. basso. and Bret. Sp. ' He was begetin o bast. Lend me your hands. ohg. the manorhousfe itself. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. There is not one that. to deceive. Sw. berewic. mavult dicere Roma suam. husk bast van koren. from /3aR. exchange. It. Dan.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. w. descended of an honorable lineage. Isidore. It. scale in music. bark. aiKcig. to baste piece of cloth. Pl. but he dreth presently. to bind. to cheat. beguile. Basket. bastear. rope for — . Barton. back. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. a court-yard. OFr. or wic. basta. court-yard. bast. beortun. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. found in Turkish . chasa. bestcn. to Diez. curtus. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. low. also the demesne lands of a manor. fhe outhouses and yards. barley. to stitch . leviter consuere. a basket masg. Al is dai. bestan. on a. 516. Newman.' Gl. i. bas. It. besst. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). as the diadem of the basilisk. Fr. Bassus. It is mentioned as . . Sp. Swed.D. baos. baste. MS. ing for profit. /«r<fSp. basta. mock not. Kil. oe. humilis. shallow. imbastire.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Sylvester's Dubartas. discourse Nay. a ftiesh.

To donjon. Fr. All from bastir. to give him a sound bastingi 3. Sw. bastonada. stryk. Fr.Lat. ment. nade. It. settiilg up. contrive. Supp. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. military term of a bat-horse). blakta. to beat. blakra.stitching in general. niammal. 'iJipistreUo. bastonFr. badger. beysta.baste or knock soundly. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. devise.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. to build. beating. Pr. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. . flyinge best. basa. Antiq. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. Derived by Diez from iasi. Dan. boste. It. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. E. Perhaps baska. Florio. a barSp. to whip. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. bak. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. 164). ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. Sw. For the origin of baston see Baste. batta lucifuga. to teach one before. blows. Fr. Pm. bastilde. packsaddle. set up. bladier.'CaB. To beat or bang soundly. bakie-bird . Dan. to devise or begin. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. back. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. natt-blakka. a things prepared for future use. also to cudgel.fortress or castle furnished with towers. BAT neither. iastir. contriving. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. That yche blak y dar wel telle. stryka. a pad or packsaddle. a stick. e. pre. to beat. bastir. the night-jar or goat-sticker. bastione. to quilt or stitch wool into it. * Bat. blatta. bastine. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. ari instruineht for beating. to thrash . like the owl and the bat.— Bailey. a packsaddle. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to Due. bat. 11864. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. bastear. — — — . to lay the Sp. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . Rayn. bdion. the winged . victuals. the E. frame. explains Sp. or implement for 4 * A . I. Sp. is explained by Cot. Sw. cudgelling. translation to a bat. bastimento. passage Imbasto. baston. a pad. to rub gently. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. to stroke. comp. baston. basto. dial. the clapper of a bell. bastonnir. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. and ditches bastion. — — Fl. also the ricado. a blockhouse. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. ON. to drub. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Sw. put it together.— . bastir. raise. from Fr. to cudgel.-^ Chaucer. R. vespertilio. 2. which in the E. business (Altieri). a bastion. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed.. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . a sconce. a with a stick. to flap. R. guerra bastir. aftonbakke. bastida. 2. blacta. to build. disposer. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. to belabour. Cot. quelqu'un son roulet. Sc. iinbastire. whence ledrblaka. as weU as besteau. blakka. To baste one's hide . p. — Bakke. to rub. worth (Nat. a bird which. Prov. to set on foot a war Bastion. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. but this is hardly satisfactory. blaka. set up. club. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. vespertilio. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. frotter. vledermus. Mid. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. in the use of the E. Bastinado. which to rest the load. liiake. Cot. . to spread bread and butter. 2. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. night-bat. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. in the Romance languages. provisions. the original has corneille. bastia. For the loss of the / in back. It. basta.stick. Fr. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. has bastine. a blow cloth for dinner. compared with blakka. the bat . to pack a saddle i. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. bast. bastille. erect. and Arabs. blatta. staff. dial. Dieiif. a. and Cot. Sp. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr.

A Bath. batte sig. Bat. flour. bake. bdda vidjor. in the sun. Florio. Pm. to get better. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Jurgor. beat down. whence the sun burns . howis. In some parts of England it is striking. to beat. — To . oneself at the A into faggots. the root of e. pak. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. then to warm by the application of hot water. I baske. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Slav. and milk beaten up together. Bret. or a dry stick. E. PLD. Holz bdhen. Batyn. fortress or castle. baeddu. to for fighting. signifying to give repeated blows. was formed bastilU. remit. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. betten. certain bend. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Pr. gebdck. bataille. also. in the case of a wall. a blow with a light instrument. It. from battre. or break down. to foment. Gael. badask. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to heat . allay . Fr. Battlement. Du. to betake oneself. battre. Batter. to flutter with the wings. To Bate. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Pm. the heat of the It. to become fat. a Baiffi. a battle. bludgeon. hot. G. trahtr to It. to cudgel. baden. Bailey. bdda. also a sun badfish. solbase. batir. to warm oneself at the fire. From OFr. to fell. quhar he suld assaill. to feed. G. water whether warm or cold. cudgel. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . bdt. heat. From bat in the sense of rod . Battery. a blow. w. to bathe oneself. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. . I. Fr. makebate. bat-en. dial. Sp. a washing beetle. Battalion. Fr. a great seems related to baden as Fr. a band of armed men arranged basa. abate. battere. Bate. dial. as wood-en. Sw. battre las ailes. a staff. Batten. or make debate. In OE.Hence in the augmentative form It. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt.Bathe. to become convalescent. altercation. dial. made of bats. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. ON. on the fire. quell. I bathe in water viz. to warm. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. e. a beating. Baka sik vid elld. a stirrer-up of strife. dial. badda. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. solen baddar. Sp. to beath wood Battledoor. dispute. a main battle. Strife. batacazo. A batch as wood. batador. bat. 2. better. badda. bada. to thrive. gebdcke. a battalion. . a from ON. is a simple adoption of Fr. to fight. to beat. . The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow.' Palsgr. Jeddris and covering. battere. and about an inch thick. beat. on. fashes basking in the sun squadron. The bat with which a brot bdhen. an arrangement for giving blows. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. to beat se battre.— To Bask. tradire. more. battaglia. adapted for defence. battions. lessen. perhaps first used adjectivally. buask made like a fortress. bet. to fire or in the sun. wet linen in washing. for biia sik. to dial. Chaucer. batna. baka. Eggs. Hence pro. tagUone. to foment. busk. to toast bread. Sw. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Flem. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. batterie. — — — ' — . To thrive. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. from on. to heat. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Barbour in Jam. It. to beat. See Better. Fr. by projections or in any licoure. to bathe. Pr. Fr. Fr. Goth. to be profited. a stick. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Battery. baz. is in falling. made of — A made by one Batcii. Ayenst the sunne. beat. Hal. to warm oneself. — Cot. as signifying warm baths. squadron. as E. basa. Mgy. to beak. bdhen. to refresh oneself in language.— . debat. battle was used beath wood. Plkkis. bastille. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. gabatnan. as E. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. To Batten. G.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. abattre. battre. term in falconry . and as a verb. baquetazo. and with staffslyng. sich bakern. strife. to foment with hot applica. Battle.

brush faggot. ground. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. baudrat. a horse with white legs.. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . a zan. Filthy. bausan. in OE. a tassel. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. obstrepere. From Bret. bablyn or waveryn. bal. bauch. guigaw. c. Beaus^ent. Descript. Ball. a belt. fe bau. Bagdad. collar. child. Fr. bau. ball. ballach. mew. ish baubles. form with an initial seen in Fr. faisceau. E. Hal.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. dung. to play the babby. Bawson. trifles. a lump or cluster babhaid. baubare. speckled. also more Bawdekin. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. to me-wl. an — — — A — g — — — . Cot. divided between black and white. miauler. from Fr. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a white mark Bawdy. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. zano. dente.' ' Pegma. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. also the canopy carried part of his body. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Irel. Swiss Rom. BAWSON Swiss. a lump. E. E. bobbin or cluster of thread. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. bal. a spot. the white of his leg or foot. and to-tore also. bad. OFr. horse. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. dirt. The word may perhaps be sticks. because made of cloth of white. Baw — . babiole. tille. whimwham. bouaila. to trifle away ment. s. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. or sheaf of Bridel. — Pm. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. scarf. Fr. to make the noise Baudrick.. balGael. to bark. dirty. Fr. balbob. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. a dog). Gael. Pr. P. javelle. tab. s. sorry. It. Pm.— P. From ! an interjection of disgust. trifle. Jam. Piedm. a gavel. the face. babsmall toy to play withal. was simply a field gold. baudrdj OHG.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. whence pouacre. b \% bouala. — — ' Lydgate. bobine. Cloth of gold. baugant. It is all bawdy. excrement.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). to 53 manure the To baw. Formed from baw. An analogous noisily. baban. instead oi s. disgusting. or the animal so marked. a tassel or hanging bunch . baw. P. filth. R. bow-wow.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. Batylment of a wall. baula. Pr. the Swiss baben. lewd . from Baldacca. to bark . cluster. babbole. Sc. Zalli. OFr. filth. nastiness. pegma. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. on the face of animals. librillo. to void the bowels. exactly corresponds Fr. propugnaculum. It. or toys. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. or Cot. vacillo. sword-belt. i. spotted. baffe. ON. an object. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. toys. In like manner Grisons filthy. fooleries or fond To Bawl. Cotgr. is used for a sented by bau. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. dial. fields. bauU. W. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. Lat. The It. whence the E. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. represented by the syllable miau. expressive of disgust. balderich. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. 8. baue. dacchino. Fl. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. Bavin. to vociferate. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Ball-seirc. Cot. to cry. pie- . It. rotten.guage). spot. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. E. to the same origin. is Bagdad stuff. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. bow (as in our nursery Diez. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. fagot. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. A name of the badger. as Fr. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. an embattled wall. —R. a horse marked with a procession. Baldrick. and Sp. P. ! Bauble. and authorities in note. Prov. to low or bellow as corn. a plot of Chaucer. having a white streak down Bagdad. to talk Lacombe. 2.

Arts. — A At Bay. See At Bay. to keep at a bay. by the term rendre les abpis. bay. Feb. baiare. which however. Vielp. BE Probably conRuss. badia to Sp. Cot. bdcr. See Bawl. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. a hole. baie. Bay-tree. baccello. bajo. window-sill. batibari. Sp. BAY marked with bjly. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. as if to signify a window of curved outline. berries. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. Lat. yellow . white. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bilyejiti. Swiss beie.' Bailey. desiring. A stag is said to stand at bay. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. living Ir. stare. Fr. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Prov. badius.— Stalder. or window ' (in Fortification). bagaid. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Q. a dagger. or to have been first used at the Cot. Gr. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. See Bald. a berry. baionette. OSp. Q. weary of running. &.' — — 54 bald. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. a'uno. It. is perhaps not directly from Lat. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. . bate. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. the cod of peas. bacca. bayo. Fr. Gael. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. —Diez. abbabayer. Sp. baier. * To Be. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Earth — By Nature made to till. ing-floor. Bay. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. window . baher. Swab. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. house . trahir. baer. large window in a handsome . &c. ist. Piedm. It has been shown under Abie. buidhe- The ruadh. Catalan hadia. dividere. To Bay. — Schmid. BauSfi)/. . 25. to iiitent nected PoL white. to amuse stare a bada. —Bay-windo'W. buidhe. —F. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bahia. life. bai. from badar. a beast. Holland's Pliny in R. It. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. bahia. to split. The word bay. a mark. baca. to gape. to mark. Gael./^ bau. and zndly. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. in order to keep the enemy in check. Bay. Mod. a cluster of bacon. or recess in an apartment in modern times. when. and keeps them in check for a while. to keep one waiting. corrupted into Bow-window. husk. beo. baca. tradire to Fr. Abide. berry. like a pie. Bayonet. It. baya. beothach. Such Antaeus seemed to me. Fr. the cod or husk of beans or the like. bioth. to open. watching intently. F. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. baga. Sp. to be Bohem. |8i'os. w. From the former verb is the It. siege of Bayonne in 1665.. the laurel-bay. bde. grapes or nuts. or at bay. . life. AS. It. as gazing. to stand watching one. living thing . he turns and faces his pursuers. open the mouth. &c. dehiscere . or berries. Fr. from an imitation of the sound. Lat. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. to betray. barn of two bays. to open as a blossom. . then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. bay. alive. 1. Fr. so called from its bearing bays. overture. S. Drayton in R. beonj Gael. badarse. Fr. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. badarc. arose two forms of the verb. to on anything. that from ba. 1859. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. bijel. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. especially beans. baja. laurel of the ancients. and the To bark as a dog. It. the world Gr.. bialo. put to his last shifts. waiting . The — Fr. aux dehniers abois. gate. From Cat. hddhe-dhonn. Serv.c. baye. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. stood watching him stoop. the step is the same as from It. bayen-stein. bilyega. representing the sound made in opening the mouth.—Journal Soc. expresr sion tenere a bada. at his last gasp. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet.

and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. bank. ON. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. l^ax. Goth. to carry. as well as f& or fav. Trans. like most nautical terms. would say.fui. Beckon. nokkima. Beadle. faba. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Goth. bohne. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. to bellow. Du. beacen. pig. It. fora-bauhan. * Beagle. bob. bokan. The nutu significare. or beic. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. stock. to wait. Gr. G. beic. which is. a prayer. Miss Gurney in Philolog. OSax. AS. prodigy bauhnjan. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. See To Bid. It forms a.ad. g. bakke. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. on. fd or faVf beans. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. bakkje. to nod . a single bean. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. To Bear. a beak. bdkna. bar. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Gael. It. as. signifying individuality. faba is Kvavoq.fer-re j Gr. boom. support. A Esthon. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Netherlands or North Germany. bean. Bret. to wait-. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Beach.. tale of prayers or doxologies. baum. The wild beast. to produce young. bek. rising ground. bidan. into a snjall river. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. a hill. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. beacnian. vol. signifying a point. Q wait upon him. Hackluyt in R.' Hall's Chron. the part overflowed by the tide. beck. — : Beam. E. as. ffaen. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. bee. Bear. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Be. Farrar. an attendant. according to of Sanscr. post. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. or breathing. Gael. Gael. bauhan. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. . ffci. W. gebed. It is BEAR SI court. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Beacon. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. not applied to the yelping of dogs. ON. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Moreover the name. Pardoner's Tale. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. be. however. He says. Catalan becar. -phxr. — to bow or nod . 54. a sign. Fr. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. was introduced from England sea. to beckon. becco. bedm. or however. The immediate shore of the Menage. N. or any action done with a pointed thing. W. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. beic. — bedeau. Slavon. Chapters on Lang. beans. fero. bagms.' Suetonius in Diez. bohnej ON. A two-year old nephew of mine p. salve his hurts. G. bM. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. . through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. a tree. a presage. Beak. into France. backe.' adheres to the root. pierced for hanging on a string. Bean. vii. Fr. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. a tree. fromthe danger. beugler. bead. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. . a single bean. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. baun. — Bellenden in Jam. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin.to have a French origin. «va\ioQ. bearti.from AS. atUndre. Beck. The origin seems preserved in E. bairan. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. bydel. a curtsey. to nod the head.fuis5e. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. AS. Lat. a nod OHG. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Bret. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Sw. and Lat. —F. bidello. Thus the final en. badmr. Boom. ohg.

' ' He became very angry. place to lie down. edge. bellus. baurthei. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. battere. proper . dushmak. judgment. talkative. — A — A — . when up. agreeable. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. AS. to carry. happening as it ought. tidy. to wade through the water like a beaver. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS.fit. barba. bobrowai. obtain. ting. rying. badi. a bank. Beauty. pleasing. slobber. . G. See Bat. Bosworth. gefallen. pretty. the latter are derived It. 2. bekommen. to assume a certain form or Turk. chin. fitly . to fall.S6 fero. brook . to happen. behkr. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. to be fulfilled. godum with ON. perhaps a living thing.' every way suited to a prince. Dan. brook. to live. taste. bequem. beo. Boeth. fiber. connected with ripa. burdr is used in the sense of a car. gabaurths. On the same principle. to those goods which endure for ever. E. See Bank. as. Fr. Now the Beast. bard. it is probable that here also the to become. baba. riviera. limpian. becuman. to get. bart. I do thee pray. limpan. to fall mode of being.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. to attain to the lot of any one. to fall in with our bavard. living. covered the face. It. i. barf. As rivus. Secondarily applied to a hat. Beaver. OSw. which. to appertain. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. because made of the fur of the beaver. or river. Fr. and also in that of birth. a bank. blast. bava. fitanimal. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. bur. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. to sleep on. byw. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. to hem. suitable. ziemen. timan.of being very angry. Slav. E. bcek.getiman. receive. and Fr. or a feeling to be gratified. biivre. bello. bavec. from beau. — . Bedizen. AS. The OFr. gelimplic. bett. agreeable. bebrus. venient. R. bach. as the babble of the child. Do no To It fallith favour. iida. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. ON. the beard. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. The quadruped. Fr.AS. o. proper.to clothe to slobber. opportune. brada. handsome. an notion of being convenient. Bo. bave. fallinn. Goth. Lith. ON. formerly a happen. bring forth. G. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. bearing. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. riviire. convenient. Beck. e. to be a part of his to. e. Russ. to dabble .— Kiittner. from the same in the sense of bear2. dize or dtzen. den. G. a lip. g. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. dress with unbecoming richness . E. to happen. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. limplice. bel. a. produce. to happen. He becom on sceathan. con. to G.we call the arrangement becoming. The fitting or suitable. nod or sign. R. while from Shep. See becymth anfeald yvel. To load with ornament. 1. decent. birth. comely. In like manner condition. to bear children. name applied originally to the bank then proper . and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. tidig. pens unmixed evU. to happen. to be incumbent upon him. if sound of a sharp blow. to the good hapHalbard. befall. suitable. becuman. to come to or upon. to the brook itself. and on. Prick of Conscience. W. bekkr. G. babrad. boroda. Thus OY. See Beacon. Beat. beatanj It. beauts. Lat. bobr. Thcem. i. That thou mayest attain Goth. byrcti. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Diez. Lat. and to acquire. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. biber. or special purpose. to happen. fit. Chaucer. whence baveux. duty. Beckon. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. The moveable part of a helmet. Lat. bestiaj Gael. now confined To Become. bedr. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Prov. Lat. baviire. ON. bib or slobbering cloth. Fr. our taste. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. decorous. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. Cal. to please. ON. but now a river only. Fr. seemly. a brook. Sp. nothing to thy name make. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. Perhaps from Pol. befit.' are equivalent expressions. the ece thurhwuniath. to shore. from baver. to arrive at. G. bave i. get J ' He got very angry. It. gebank. Beck. border.

g. a pad or cushion). door. in Schmeller. cushion-cover . thick. buk. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. bibere is a re. to curdle or lopper. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. from Lat. thick. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. to rough- cast. bet. speach. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. water. and in driving piles. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. betel. Fr.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Originally.(paddi. a stinging bieUe. beest. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. . E. to become Beech. Bav. as the milk of a that purpose in London. a clapper. Horn.' the last word corresponds to cofly .cz//aj. cugino. GaeL bior. doubtless. beutel. case. to change . /SXirov. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. in Nat. bbtel. to turn. bitel. biest-milch. a Properly a cover that biiren. a pillow case. . Grimm. woman that is newly delivered. boytle.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. on. Lat. Esthon. ris. bossen. biiren. qui de lecto surgere non potest . to parget or rough-cast . from the hos. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. Fr. fall. AS.. which also 2. wedges. pude-vaar. . from risan. also bienst. from jtst-. to fall. cited by Diez. used for boull. bedawi. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. to coagulate. waarin. &c. E. Ant. turn. to beat bossel. erroneously modified in form. Arab. comb. bletumj Gr. I dysyn a dystaffe. drink. batAfter mete in sale. sela que environna la terra. Beet. Bedouia. red curdled Arab . extant in Bohem. In a passage of an Old Fr. fagus. Fr. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. blow or thrust. It. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.D. Bethlehem. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. cousin. ' MordiThe Lat. cogionare. tree. The first milk after a dizen. whose face is clotty. to flatten In OE. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. turn (a garment). a bee. bos. pital of St Mary. byst. taglio. as. by the analogy of bedaivb. ProBeer. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. a cover. The meanpainting. . a drink potus. I A pillow-beer. to and ale. Pl. 57 — Palsgr. Cot. to knock. whence familiar. from blood. crespir. beta. poculum. beach._t from the root pi.' So Gr. 'La Gl. drink. imperative pi. stakes. vaar. an ox. * Beestings. briesch-milch. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. and lebermer in G. as in It. Pett. a wandering Prov. a bed-tick. beost. For that was law of lend. Lat.D.ing of the word is curdled. i. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. I put the flax upon it to spin.'— GL ^Ifr. Confined to bed. paralyticus. garden-herb. But possibly bedizen 2. mars betada. to drink. buka. Gael. buche. PI. It. Fin. Fr. briest. Dan. 1 to drink. to poordma. clog for a dog b'oteln. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. KXlvoTTiT^e. AS. an Beetle. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Bed-ridden. bovis. Bee. The beer al for te shenche bate. beetle also signified the impiti. 1. de Fierabras in Diez. Slav. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. curded or beesty. a malsense of drink. may be from K. 1. bedde-redirj ohg. calleBedlam. a wasp.— JI14. beach-each. to twist poorma.^ drink. cozen.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. also the bite or sting of a bees. beer. desert. cow has calved. Beef. pettiriso. translation beOj. G. a mallet. bably named from the destructive quali| T. duplicated form of the root. prisons Venet. D. knock. boeuf. the ox.). . biene. Fr. an inhabitant of the desert. Fr. The honey-producing insect. Bernese. Gr. bitela.possible. Let. bukva.ON. ^. bedskiissen-bUren. bove. P1. the meat of spinach. of beatmg. beyki. badigeonner. may be shpped on and off. from leberen. kiissen-biere. 1156. Rom. a paviour's beetle batail. Cot. a horse-fly .— B. the loppered sea. to colour with lime-wash. by-flugaj G. sang vermeilh betatz. kivih. prigione. ir'm. trees in a forest . The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. AS. . a agulatum in the original Latin. bytl. madhouse. a pillow-case. piwo. G. bette or blettej Lat. Beetle. a wasp. It. G. the biter. a cup or implement for AS.

also called Bigots. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. 2. beginning. P. Mundart. ' ' .D. &c. Lollards. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. beitel. a wedge for cleaving wood. a scrip euXaiciJoi. anfangen. be^nnan. chisel. duginnan. To produce children is to acquire. to get children . origin. beriolare. yivwajcw. on the bag. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. a stone-cutter's chisel. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. a beggar. is formed pocair. P. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. P. 40. It. 168. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. although it ' the future.' for ye shall lament and weep. incipere. ornamented phoc. in Lat.n. on the tramp. begger. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. whence the E. Of brede full ycrammed. literally. beis- plement driven by blows.' A. ykvog. to know. Vocab. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. woe-begone. Beghardus. Si'Xa/coc. When Q. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. signifying to conceive. sel. giving in Gr. 'Dz. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. vir mendi.bag full of the G. two betels —a grete oke. y/yvo/iat. He did alight. 25. Barbour.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. iv. to beg. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. Bruce. capere. in D. genus. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . a wallet. In Luc vi. — yivsaiQ. V. It will . image is cleft out of the trunk. pose-pilte. seizing. appears improbable at first. Cold-begone. Goth. gen. Mod. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Creed. can. baigeir. P. beutel. from whete G. su with gold. steinbosil. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. Deutsch. To Begin. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. to begaan. a chisel. as alighting is a momentary operation. ' Begone. yiyvo/uat. a beggar-boy. but in the same language from poc. 1867. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. krapszas. tale. kind. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. to reduce him to beggary. and Lat. a beggar . — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. Into the are D. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . gan. beissel. chap. Du. Ancren Riwle. ken. is com. to begin. From w. Nov. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. 1430. ken. The tother seand the dint cum. V. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Du. cans. above quoted to get beaten ON. affected. Gr. &c. beitel. a — wedge. viii. ysgrepan. but probably erroneously. to bear young. To Beg. 'Aboutin undern monly. P. Skinner's derivation from bag. it is both to acquire and to beget. OHG.quently used in OE. covered with gold D. P. can. one after that other. 142. ' . a bag . at geta talad. bertola. ip AS. to be acquire. 58 BEG BEGONE G. P. Du.pose. — Stillingfleet. begging. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . oppressed with woe. gigno. So from Gael. a scrip. onginnan. Fr. to arise. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. lapidicinus. yivofiai. on further examination. ysgrepanu. Lith. to cleve. in E. P. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. bag {baigean. fangen and Lat. to go a begging. touched with emotion — . air a . to take. a bag. of Gr. word. & go a begging. or Of a pure poor man. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E.3. yivtrri. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Schm. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. V. referred gan this Erie alight. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. to be able. not began to alight. aginnan. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. AS. ytyvwfT'Kw. Political Songs. a bag or poke. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. to be born. P. 'ex quo.' about undern he got down. a little bag). Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. hags. P. Florio.— . taking up.

for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . commonly expressed. OE. at the tail of. behold. to turn one out . beholden to him. to carry corn into the barn . ge' hatan. habban. to have. premi curi alicujus rei. 17. is also found in the sense of looking. nittaa. The seyn. beperson addressed. to carry. hafwa. obliged. han- — js Kil. to behave.to vow. to feed. It. to be suitable or becoming . heita.— . behat. to bers of the body. to carry. At the back of The re. to hold. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to bring forwards. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. tail. or the hence advantage. G. G. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. portarsi. hafwa bort. behete. invoke. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. Paladino. AS. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to cast or throw. to keep. or purpose. Robert in Warton. hove. hafjan. hcefwa in seed. heeten. behoof. to lead. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. is supported by many analogies. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to be fit. se porter) to fare well or ill. gehaben. or necessary. as in the case of E. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. injunccommand. keeping. according as the * To Behove. To Behave. hafwa. Goth. exhort. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to heave. N. Thus in Finnish the heave. AS. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to hit the mark.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. G. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. and (as Fr. taking notice or care of (Gloss. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to look upon it as true . heave. G. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to be obliged to one. to lift. and their senses intermingle. AS. behatan. to command. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. To be expedient. — Behest. to regard. seeing to. the distance of anything. to tend. solicitum esse. hevja. hatan. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. Kiittn. to halten. to be well pleased out. to follow. To place are most naturally ex. G. to vow. hces.' Richardson. guardare. to hold. take heed of. Command. adjust. behind. promise. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. Sw. the name adapt. gehouden. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. a follower. hevja. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. R. when the verb will hoof. to be obliged to do a thing. holding is originally derived from that of looking. habere. by the compound observare. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. gecall. zijn. The Lat. furtherance. behces. laborare. K. hofwa. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. ufhaban. to command. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. Sw. us-hafjan. to take away. To look steadily upon. betragen. use. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. hcef tig bort.). garder. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to fit. ifl fact. vow. from tragen. to lift.for throwing it. to keep. take yourself off. to look. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. To Behold. hafwa ram. to carry. to call. to raise. on. healdan. to R. what is so required. promise . heeten willekem. Sw. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — .' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. vow.the figure of throwing at a mark. The It. promise or a command. what he wishes another to do . gehat. —Hest. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to promise. gehalten seyn. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. tion. behaviour. servare. fixed upon any object). to be named. hantyri. and the E. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. is on the top of or opposite to. behefe. right. advantage. to meet. to call. to name. to be be named. to keen or hold. AS. ward. the equivalent of E. And so from hania. to gehouden. bound. But. Plautus. keeping. have the sense of calling or naming. to vow. observe. G. hovast. the two verbs seem radically the same. AS. to the equivalent of Du.

to believe. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to make it fast. to lay the cable round the bits. bellan. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to boke. Du. bell. to permit. belja. beleggen. to belay. gelyfan. leaf geleafa. then. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. lyfan. 6o BELAY BELL loven. distance to which a piece will carry. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. moderation. to estimate them at a To believe. AS. legsel. Du. overspread. turris. to hit hafi. Pl. battefredum. met. lov. a. ley/a. bounds. laven. frid. appearing in Mid. border. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to bolk. orloven. in nautical language. to sound loudly . consent. verloben. is an easy progress. garnish. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. a tower for defence . to resound. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. aim. to praise. and bergan. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . to express approval. allow. to to make A Templorum campana boant. esteeming good and valid. mark ON. permitting or giving leave. or a sconce. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . properly belonging to the church tower. beau sire and bel dame. bealcettanj OE. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. —F. to give leave. locus securitatis Schilter. In the middle voice hofwas. The word be- Belfry. true. To Belay.Lat. praising. See Gain. Sw. to promise or engage. and Du. satisfaction. Bell. glauben. AS. Du. promising. with the consent of the heirs. Det er ofwer er hofwa. a little shed. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. to fix a price upon one's wares. a watch tower. praise. portion.D. peal. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. ON.D. range. loben. Fr. P1. erlauben. berfroi. bervrit. reputation. on. to praise.alyfan. bellow. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. ornament. beset. Fair sir and Fair lady. Then. filu-galaubs. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . or house. to praise. ungalaub kas. tain a certain end. reach. — mankind. is (Sternberg). Hence to simple approbation. to protect. loven. to sanction an arrangement. loven. we have Goth. behove. bialla. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. Another application of the same word is in Pl. to cry out bell.D. . b'ola. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. . to extol the worth of anything. OHG. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness.. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry.D. to believe. Goth. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. cela est audessus de votre portde. To praise is essentially Xo prise. giving leave or permission. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. an implement for making a loud noise. to a loud noise. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. if a promise.. and E. galaubs. . on. to promise. to der swaren lave. In Mid. permission. beffroit. precious. promiser. Pl. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. leave . it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. are other modifications of the same imitative root. from mhG. pro3. laubjan. belief . Doubtless an imitation of the sound. beffroi. to give leave. if a narration. Du. resonare. lofa. stand. Northamptonshire. bulken. were civil terms of address. to be required for a certain purpose. certain rate. to roar. honoured. It. bylja. From AS. a vessel made for dishonour. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. and E.Lat. OFr. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. bettifredo. and. ON. measure.. for purposes of low estimation . bertefredum. fitness. to lay be- around. then. G. — Diicange. are innate . is used in the sense of approving. galaubjan. to put a high price or value on. — . bolken. hesfa. To Belch. to give leave Dan. fringe. To Believe. under the forms belfredum. Fr. bealcan. or high estimation. to believe. boare. Q. a tower. bercvrit. laven. to befit. to bellow. esteemed . and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman.

balteus .. a benefit. a blessing. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. skin. pod. bolg. G. bolch. attinere. Benediction. generous. to reach. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. belch. benehusk. In E. to touch. binssen. benjoin. Bret. to exert force. to hallow. or fyle with myre." — — . means seeds of plants. welt of a shoe. fyle To dirty. See Bind. binsen. See Nether. to make bilbil. well. are stripped off whole blase-balg. Gael. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. belt. pino3. Dozy. from which is also bulbus. from benedictio. vulva. bags or bellows. benaigon. attinere.polch. . I soyle it or araye it. or simply djawt. Lat. has assumed a plural form. to hold to one. to attain to. bilbila. Bench. ball. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to ring. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . benedicere. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Benefactor. pertinere. . Fr. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. pervenire. . — ray.— Belly. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. belly. Du. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. bag. bene/actum.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. wallet Benefit. fens et hie liraus. Eenison. to say. Quoth. Benefice. to bend a bow .' The term had been previously planation. wallet. se bander. beneison.' Palsgr. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. balg. to do good to one . vulgarly the belly. hence with ashes. gwaldas. bcelg.pinuz. Fr. — root consisting of concentric skins. Bav. ' I beraye. Benzoin. I marre a thyng. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. a water-bubble builge. from Arab. bless. Bent. . to concern. Lat. ON. by itself. Benedico. or a It is times the to signify services. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. one who does good.videtur. a leather bag. to stretch it on a frame. welt of a shoe gwald. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. volva. from cwcsthan. bolg. bell. Sw. was in Mid. — See Numb. bimpsen. G. to. Benignant. hem. . rushes. to use words of good omen. Ptg. rise against external force . becwathan.Fr. — Ducange. as. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. disposed to oblige. a spring. a round or bubble-shaped root. border. benignus (opposed to malignus). incense of Java. cod or husk of pulse. to belong. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat.' — Hie fimus. to attain belangen. Javanese perfume. taken absolutely. G. leather sack. The ing-skin. Gael. a blow. to touch one. G. ^To Beray. as concerning that. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. the womb. See Bank. gelangen. w. Belt. Lat. to become one's property . a bellows. To Bequeath. To belong is thus to reach up to. belly. belliJ Lat. blister balgan-snamha. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. From OFr. est matris in lucem editus. benedictio {bene^ and dico. an inflated Lat. the word. bendan. Lat. Benign. Lat. Commentary on Neccham in Nat.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bimaissen. bandoir. a kindness. a good deed. OFr. to come to the crown belangen. on. . benefacere. pertinere. Gum benjamin. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. a accusative. skin. pouch. to arrive at. is a kindred form. attingere. or sometimes louban. Kil. I say). to bless. ' . I araye. from another modification of the word for bubble. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. a bellows . benjoim. because bcelg. bellows. bellows. bienfait. Lat. bilbil-goda. ON. J'emboue. ray. kind. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. loubdn djawt. needs no ex. is The word balg. bellows. blast-bcelg. bander un arc. a speaking well of one. langen. . to concern. See I . To Benum. OUG. Beneath. benejicium. To Bend. dirt. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). belgr. benir. the skin of those animals that factor. Fr. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Was das belanget. a border. poX^ri. To Belong'. balg. bendaj as. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek.

from AS. dial. a horse collar. ariierf to 113. to be-place. stow. To Beseech. arwe. to seek. from grow. berry. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. Tha het he micel fyr betan. ship for a make amend. AS. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. to defend. as. better. profit. houseless. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to on the other Goth. reparation. I from lew. encouraging. beseech. Rob. To seek something from a person. from It. to make it.— VixHsm. To bete his Jam. buttafuoco. fearful. bur-we. bdt. it seems hard to separate as. R. to cast. ^•n. sets fire to. or to bestead one. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. to exercise on a definite object. might have been . Fr. advantage. buttare. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. as Du. . bereafian. supporting on the one side Lat. Berry. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. put forth. peto. solicit. fall with sound. Beit. basjaj Du. Besom. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. lay out. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . besein. stealth from steal. think more probable. making better. place. When men of mekeness him baet. Du. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. The dry. Tusser. a place . barth may be for barf. So too Yorkshire arf. BEREAVE Wall. Beere. what does it boot. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. to entreat. to amend. as in growth. put. See Better. See Reave. as conversely a besom is called broom. Fin. earh. roju. boteith Goth. lewth. Ihre. fyrbotare. mud. To Bet. a fire. Hfence backing. vi. The proper meaning of the bale. boeten. reparation. to light the fire . dust rojahtaa. Sw. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. improve. hva mannan. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. To Bestow.bhaksh. to put on the saddle. the guardian . E. berwe. seems twigs or rods.irova. So roto rattle down. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. vol. a berry. R. repair. to to deprive of. To Gl. to kindle the fire. E. p. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to.ot-i. what does it better a man.D. Goth. reafian. to fire a funeral pile of . scopse spartis. — Biglotton. 3. — amendment. to supply a want. to the place boarded off in a. rubbish. to stand one in good stead. dirt . bestow.iooA. to thrust. berwham. Du. to thrust. as. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. advantage. to To Bereave. sweepings. From abet. bota. basya. roju. bouter. an incendiary. ropahtaa. or. Beet. Zeitschr. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Kil. boeten. barthless.• 62 Antiq.fish the other hand. compared with bargham. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. to strip. Bestead. The origin is AS. * Berth. as bouter selle. burrow. an incendiary. small eatable fruit. On the other hand. bat. beorgan. rods. and on which the wager is laid. AS. one who shelter. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. of ffeed a fire. in the sense ctf beria. dirt. to make better. OE. BETE dirty'. Du. boutefeu. and Du. eld up- On is to be placed A — . protect . — bota. as. p. besen. as. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. brem-bessen. to mend. besje^ Sanscr. is to perform a serviceable office to him. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. bal oppbota. but it is specially applied mister. because used for making besoms. baete. noise. barfham. betan. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. dung .—^fake. It is the restore fyr betan. or the space kept clear betan. G. Best. to word is shelter. broom twigs. — . boeten. So Lat. Grose. baete. bacca. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. the origin of which is to be found in ON. To help. — Chaucer. botesward. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. but in practice. jnore. . make better . to fall with roisto. G. preferably. betan. amendment. to give a place to. stede. position. Esthon. * To Bete. earg. Fr. Sw. besnij Pl. Du. person to lie in. sheltered from the wind. and also to entreat. besmas. besIn sen.— Hal. bdt.X.t. Devon. ^akka. supply. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. same word with the provincial barth. roe. AS. the side bhakshya. bet.

polish. Buveau. awry. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. obeish. zimet. treachery. as tlock. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. not to have the heart to give up a thing. betwuh. a brood. The as. Ik tame mi dat nig. E. Fr. find in one's heart. To Betray. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. zemen. as from obdir. beuvrage. beverage. thy speech bewrayeth thee. r'ojer dig. Fr. 88. lot). gezimet eines dinges. OE. Goth. from invadere. trahison. to stir. a drinking . taemen. in the same way Lat. ON. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. a bevy. -to appoint. dispose (whence schicksal. To Beteem. e. roebucks. amiddes. said he. a traitor. batizo. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. two. Pl. Det sig sjelft. betriigen. ruogia. Between. to deliver tip. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. R. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. fitting. From the former of these are AS. to make forwards. find it good: Goth. verbs in ir with a double ss. AS. are there Regt R. Fr. more. from Lat. springs from ON. whence beveraggio Fr. a different form of twa. Dii. . i. i. G. to accuse. make manifest. dir. *Ah. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. become. pair of compasses. betweohs. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. to fall. the being pushed to the frbnt. betera. — See To Bete. To boot in coursing (i. — of the authorities. vrohjan. tradire. deem suitable. for measuring angles. Mich self a good glass of wine. to deliver up in breach of trust. as envahir. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. &c. an instrument opening like a a thing. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. trahir. better. it bewrays itself. betst. taemen. R. as one would have it fall. evidence of life. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. betweoh. To Bewray. x. gesiemen. what does It is forward him. Bevy. G. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. better. to fall Some call it a bevel. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. to Hence It. are commonly to one's lot. suitable. to happen. suitable. or with again. Bav. to Teem. betray. Golding's Ovid in R. bedriegen. To vouchsafe. betaemen. abash j from polir. Cot. deign. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. Now the stirring of an object.' Dialogue on Witches. of pheasants. e. — that schickiich. to discover. some attention. sloped off. order. Ober D. be fitting or suitable. baet. bet. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. Better. wrogia. proficere. of quails. in the middle of two. advance. Tinia eigi at lata eit. In like manner folissais. R. Chaucer. Hence last G. has — In a like sense tanie>i. Best. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. obdissais. tima. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. Slant. Du. Sw. Percy Soc. Sahissais. kein leben mehrin no signs . by two. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. G. best. Fl. by a final sh. which may be compared as to form with amid. in the middle of twain. BETEfiM translated. traitre. his mouth. trakir. bouter davantaige.— . or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. In like manner from twain is fothied between. In the water anon was seen His nose. is treason. progress. bevere. Thus from dbahir. E. Car son umbre si le trahit. tradere. twain. spritigs from schicken. amidst. bet. — Betwixt. /alia. gatiman. betest. G. and thence twegen. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. Pl. to cheat. On the same principle ON. Friar's Prol. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed.D. batista. e. betwuxt. to drink . Lat. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. ziemen. riigen. AS. It. trahissais. his eyen sheen. is used for the — R. wreia. as trahissons. moveable and compass branches. A — drink. ON. bibere.D. tweoh. Goth. larks. to deceive. From It. afford. fate. betweox. against. It. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. bevde. better. to happen. traditor. fallinn. tima. Fr. roja. Fris. beva. I approve of beveau. E. bat. The inflections of Fr. Dit tungomal rendered in E. from. from Fr. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. regen.

Piedm. ber-laita (for bes-laita). or by any rapid motion. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. An inferior blue. Jamieson. In Arab. and zahr. babbefore the eyes. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. to tipple. Cat. — Bi-. dial.two. though such a change of form would be very unusual. biascia. to Jam. sbiescio. to move. Fr. bible. To skirmish.a. used in precisely stone . babbi. E. the papyrus. him. kwijlen. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. to make tongue Du. as an eel or a snake. it were the mouth. Fr. Fr. to a fight with stones. its clothes. Bibelsworth in Nat. liwell. Prov.{ioin dua. sbrisso. edge of a plate of looking-glass. convicts thee of being drink. roggle. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. specially in a bottle. to stir up . Pers. a bezle. bias-wise. metaphor).as in Biped. dial. bihais. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . lips. to dispute. Probably. to tipple. in two ways for duis. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. baviere. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. See Wriggle. sbiesso. biais. reveal. Sard. Lat. To drink hard. by throwing of stones. Gr. Oh when shall I bizzle. whey count . Pl. a bibber. bisel.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne.or from obliquus. like guzzle. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. to shake. which good bibbeler. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. crooked. Uprogen. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). biberon. to the stirring of their conscience. to be a paring. oblique. beregen. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. wraggeln. Bezoar. beslei. . It. — crooked. Mantuan. . notice. wrogen. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. Bias. petit-lait. it becomes (Jz-. in Fr.' bibble. bes-azur. bis. the basil Sc. bezling or skueing. Ant. Dan. a stone-hewer . snout. sbrisciare. sbrissare. bibaculus.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. a sloping edge. I Wallon. . Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. a fragment bieco. to stir. bring under ' Thy accuse. 172. to stir. Misc. presence. sbriscio.D. b&zahr. kwijllap. . sbiscio. bibo.to drink much. Fr. bickelen. foul weather. To Bibble. aslope sbisciare. bescompte. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. bickai. to sip. To Bib. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. one who drinks in excess. Cat. to it evident to sense. or in and out. biascio. biaiser. a slabbering-bib. wrangle. is explained to clatter. Lat. rogge. has a singular stone-picker. sliding. sik beregen. twice. evident. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. Bezel. biberen. It. (according to the Fr. baverole. bark of which paper was first made. he is Wtb. Ci^. pible. —Dozy. whence Du. bebble. The It. Hal- — do something aslant. a Galilean. sbieco. In comp. To bicker in NE. to stir.D. two- footed. slippery. aslope. Fr. It is especially applied in Sc. kwijl-bab. Bice. Hal. asure-bice (Early E. rogt un bogt sik nig. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. to well up with Cot. Fris. to creep or crawl sideling. bisdare. Sardin. to give signs of life. to slaver . expelling or preserving against. besanca. inferiority. The train of thought is then. misFr. Sp. pddzahr.s bellum for duellum. tailU en biseau. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). OE. to purl. sbias. shows the P1. To Bicker. of the sliced off. Bib. /3i/3Xof a book originally. bending. in him. sbiasciai. from pdd-. Biseau. Du. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Bisect. bickel-sieenken. 78). Schiitze. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. To Bezzle.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. —Bickering'. stock still. winding or crawling in and out. Bible. ice . love first begins to life signs of him. Yes. bavon. to glide or slip as upon. . Fr. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. poison. discover. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. per\'erted belief. Piedm. to cut in two. slanting . bickeler. Diet. the word became bddizahr. bestemps. or kwijl-slab. sbiagio. biberer. biax. sloped. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. makes ble. bickel. An excellent Basil. to slaver or drivel.

A pose to one to come to dinner. bugan. of More ' in Richardson. Analogous expressions are G. Big. bit- bidja. a chip.. beidast. offerre. has leta. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. abidan. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to E. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to start out. bath. from seek. praebere. by seek and beseech. rising up. Hence Sc. be bug. the belly of a ship.' Pope in R. inhabit Du. The ON. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. or bad. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to ask. to look for. form. 2. an entire skin. Big-swol- . To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. anleta. einen vor Gericht bieten. iiQ. Bight or Bought. to offer one the wish of a good day. bieden. bulge. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to look for.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. G. Du. and yajiBui. besides the professedmonks and nuns. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. and Gael. explaining the Sc. bolgna). A bjudan in anabjudan. Two verbs are here confounded." buque with E. called the tertiary order. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bieten. bend. OSw. bugne (answering to ON. bugt. to move quickly. to abide or wait on. beadle. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bidel. to dwell. to build G. P. . to arrange. bead. qucero. are also used in the sense of asking for.Leta). With respect to logical pedigree. to belly. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. twice. a flexure. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. AS. to bend. bygga. to offer it to public notice. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. or. becoming in Lat. boa. swelling. ' Bug as a Lord. to bicker. ON. — — — Halliwell. ON. repair. a suitor. — To Bid. bend of a shore or of a rope. proud. To Big. byggia. The . who. Kil. — prepare. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. swoln. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bi-. to ask.peto. bug. gebeden j G. To Bid ' Big . as tears from the eyes. consisting both of men and women. to curve. AS. The 'La. bauen to cultivate. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. inhabit. biddan. pray. build. to pro- command. the meaning of bid. bow. to build.t. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. BID of stone. buga. faurbjudan. . bolga. ewes. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bidan. belly. bidill. W. from bidan. which is stiU. BIGOT beidan. to have one called before him. or third order of penitence. bidan. ten. porrigere. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. ON. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bog. to inhabit. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. to forbid . bulge. The loss of the / gives Dan. Bigamy. swaggering. as. The ON. bolginn. bo. It must be observed that the word bidja. beodan. bag. bigan. Einem einen guten tag bieten. to pray one to dinner. pressing on one's notice. ON. R. Bickelen. to bulge. AS. verbieten. byggan. to cultivate. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. gebodenj G. G. to marry. Bigot. bulky. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. quiring something to be done. to bend. G. bidjan. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to solicit. forwards. to build. to bid one good day.uddered len heart. bat . spelling seems to used in the N. To bid the banns. to presimpler pare. Jam. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. to inflate E. a swelling. bced. praestare. bua. England for swollen.' Addison. related to big or bug. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. 1. as G. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bouwen. in the sense of ask for. bilge or bulge. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bedun. bulk. from belgia. From Gr. belly. The original Swollen. Wallace in Jam. to offer. bis and in comp. athird class. biegen. OSw. Compare also Sp. cultivate. to forbid . to swell. and the Sw. balg. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers.

D.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. In a similar manner from bigello. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. which must not be confounded with begardo. with reference to A. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.' says one of of bigio.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Flor. borel. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. rustical. S. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. A. perch^ i Terziari di S. grey. They wore a similar dress. biso. beghart. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. beghino. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. was formed bigello. dark-coloured cloth.' Chart. clownish. From bigio. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . vocati Fraticelli. 1499. author quoted in N. In the same way Fr. aliqui Begardi. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. alii de paupere viti. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. Bighiotti). Hence the OE. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' Matthew Paris. &c. 1243. absque votorum religionis emissione. both men and women. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. ac labores manuum detestantes..— Ducange. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. signifying bagmen or beggars. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. 560. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. homespun cloth. all apparently derived from Ital. sed maxim^ in muliebri. as well as bizocco. Bizocco.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. ix. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. alii Apostolici. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. 15 18. natural grey or sheep's russet. Augustini dotarint. says. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. corruption would easily creep in. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores.— BIGOT bigardo.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude.' says an Venet. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. bigio. face VIII. grey.D. vol. a dunce. begutta.' translated by Muratori. the nobles to Rienzi. A. Bizoccki. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. Francisci communiter appellabant. a blockhead. and also unlearned common men. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. Beguttce. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. honesti plebeii amictus. coarse woollen cloth.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. and Q. to adopt a similar course of life. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. and hence the variations bigutta. G. Bighini. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. bigotta. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. the other form Per te Tribune. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.D. bighiotto.a. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. xx. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. probably from biso.D. bighellone. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. A.

axe. Bohem. Tartuffe. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. symbolum. bill of exchange. dziobad. To Bilk. blue . w. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. from OSw. fetters. that of swell. to peck. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. at sea Billet. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. A lorum tam in — Diez. bwyell. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. clog to a fetter. the swelling G. ferrese quam ligneae. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. See Bulk. Kil. the beak of a bird. seems to be rather the unda. bizocco. billet. a short note. Dan. and a billard. Thus we find in It. Bilberry. from Mid. A slang term for a sword. whortle-berries. Bojce. the bill of a bird. on. billard or billart. BILBERRY nated. I. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. buie. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. bulghe. a devotee. procella Kil. bisoch. The origin of the term is probably from bole. gan. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. horn of an animal. bulgja. Billette. bille. from the dark colour. Dan. a of the sea. OFr. plog-bill. Gael. to strike. Du. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. Fr. to job. bla-berry. Sw. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Bilbo. an ingot. bulla. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. In English the meaning has received a further development. a sword. however. an axe. Fr. Lat.— — — . the trunk of a tree. top. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. So in Gr. buoy [i. Piedmontese bigot. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. of E. beil. bigotto. to be angry (i. an axe . Fr. false pretender to reUgious feeling. a bigot or hypocrite. Roquef. biilge.' in Richardson. in the same sense. Du. Bigin. an ingot of gold or silver. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Bilge. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Bill. an adze . Deutsch. Gascoigne in R. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. bill. p. billot. fluctus maris. an axe. in the sense of a writing. boja. loi. G. belghen. a name given to a. dissimulation . Billet. . might be taken to express a hypocrite. of boja. Langued. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen.' bilio. to pick a millstone. See Bull. AS. Prov. an axe. a floating log to mark the place of some. 'tumidi fluctus. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Sw. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla.' mariners. — bigardia. bigot. is properly a sealed instrument. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . bil. Johansen. and in Lat. ^Billiard. crowberry. Kil. deceit.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. person of religion leading a loose life. AS. bill in parliament. bigardo. Lat. bullet. buail. . The Du. beghart. blaa. topor. the o changing to an i to express diminution. 5 * . as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. boia. e. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. a shackle. Mundart. 3. dziob. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. inscriptum. billet is the diminutive of this. — Cot. a seal. bigot. Du. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. gleischner (Frisch). belgan. a hatchet. To defraud one of expected sinking. as a bill of indictment. genus vincu- Bilboes. tepati. billard also signified at billyards. obsolete. Sp. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bui. b'olja. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). blamand. Sw. In the same way are related Pol. NFris. abelthe fetter itself. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. as craneberry. 2. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. a seal. to swell with rage). AS. Bill. 2. boeye. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. bila. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Billow. to strike.. Aurelles. a hypocrite. names bill-berries. bolghe. . now A Bilboa blade. The proper meaning bylgia. — — ' . but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. An instrument for hewing. Bille. a beak. bull-berries. and dziobas. used in legal proceedings. bile. Ludwig. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . irons or set in a kind of stocks. weapon . a negro. e.

' and the like. to plait. a brood or hatch of young. bund. The proper meaning is a heap. I would derive the verb to knit. Sanscr. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. to bind together. Habitacle. pundas. j). Goth. to wreathe. overlooker. Bisom. from \t3\. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. and especially to a small poor horse. poultry. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. To Bite. the young of birds . The bitol. doubtless a stone. by binda.68 BIN Bio-. E. — See Bittacle. ON. and of Fr. a habit- Binnacle. It. pippione. bord. hith. bunki. admota non Bit.. bjork. To — — —D. brut. When compared with Fr. beran. biclie. Bind. . a knob. Dan. beitan. See To Bear. a female stag. Lat. Bine. AS. brid. Fr. berkas (z=:Fr. AS. from Gr. Thus I suppose the Gr. a hind or female stag. — Kil. to net. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Birch. Bird. to bind at . to twine. bhurja. pin-ti. Sp. or bin. to be derived from Ibfiaq. bikkia. which is expressed in E. Lat. Sw. a gallinaceous bird. G. a bump or knob. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. Fr. Du. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. bundun. beorth.. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. to cook). Lith. — — . bita. Goth. v. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. bundt. bundt. forth. i. an eagle's young G. is in Scotland applied to ivy. a heap. expressed by Sw. wine. nodus. Bittacle or Binnacle. or baked. biscotto. viz. G. to bear. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. e. burt. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. a bitch. a pig petz. evegue. beize. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. bitill. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. pullus. See Belly. bunga. . to fasten it together. Bizened. a bitch. by the verb knit or net. G. Gr. bitacora. a little dog. Bailey. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. &c. bunch. bundle. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. is rendered in ON. AS. truss. poule. than vice versi. to bring Biscuit. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. habitacle. bindan. . H. bircej Sw. betsel. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. bundle. in Swabia. — properly near-sighted. a female dog hindinn. 'tumens sequor. biccej ON. Fr. from Lat. vescovo. terial./«idere. pinnu. bunt. are commonplaces. It. binda nat. copus. pittjo. to hang. also a stone weight. In like manner from knot. to knot nets for fish. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. bindan. EpisETTiTOOTToe. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Sw. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. AS. Bisson. AS. to swell. The term ON. Bindweed. beisseii. a house. Bitch. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. piccione.. bij sien. piiiti. ON. bigne. IV. while bind-wood. to build. an overseer. pinnii. where the compass stands. a truss. BITTACLE /Siof. a bear. evigue. propius videre bij sicndc. fowl. AS. a heap. beitsl. sc. — Surrey in R. band. a bitch applied also to other animals. bin-wood. a weight of 48 pounds. biscuit. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. or petze. a corn. evesgue. Fr. Then added division in a granary. hiindiiin. . a bunch. Lat. Lap. to bulge. bij sienigh. isfiw. or ben-wood. . Fr. We — A Birth. i. properly a young pigeon. videt. Bisen. episcopus. See Breed. from pondus. . Lat. G. qui nisi propius Blind. Lith. to form a knotted structure. life. Bing. binge. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. a weight. Bin. twice cooked. ge- from AS. V. bund. lusciosus et myops. earnes brid. the young of an animal.

It is in fact radically identical with Fr. as in that of pale and white on the other. whiteness (candor sine It. blunt we say it will not bite. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking.' G. from wachen. confusedly. 156. . ON. Blabber-lip. Fr. Sp. ' plabraich. mona mid Dan. on the one side. iroxafealo. ^chops. 't huisje. —Neumann. first. It. to chops. NE. term. 't kompas huis.. cut. brunblakk. gabble. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. to bivouac. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. yellow .plab is used to . blake. ON. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Cotgr. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. black. ON. Pl. a fluttering noise. bleich. beuni. Du. v. plappem. blank. unintelligible talk plabair. The bitas. blakk. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. garrulous. Se bleek. mouth. a tati. gulblakk. To or he can speake. small guard-house. fallow . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. light-coloured. Bittern. blobach. baboyer. babbe. bird of the heron tribe. apparently from its biting the tongue. Bleak. biti. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. things —Palsgr. Fieldfare. a flapping. as is seen in sputter and splutter. corrupted in Fr. Sp. Bohem. yellowish. Cot. blebberis. Fr. /ealo-/or. In like manner E. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. to let out whai should have been concealed. dusky. ' Biovac.' by Haldorsen. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. bitones. — cheeked maid. Fr. to To blabber blabber with the lips. Bivouac. "uivac. Wit hung her mourn. pale brown . chatter babbler . a babbler. quoted by Ihre. dark. — Collins in Hal. Fr. In a similar manner Gael. or water beating gently on the beach . an additional watch. thoughtlessly . bittour. beitr. Sp. discoloured . Mund. Hald. his blacan light. G. to babble. . as of wings . a childe dothe gasouille. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. A a rail. as of a body falling into water. buft". I blaber. to the sharpness of a weapon. Je N. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. ^aj'/^r. a* mast . bleg. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. blabhdach. blabbern.. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. blesmer. x. Goth. — Hollyband. mouth. shining. on. Gael. maculS. Again. pale. Mantuan babbi. leohte . whitish. The Gz. blab. Black. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. faded. bihovac. round which the cable is made fast. bitor. 'fuscus. to wax pale or bleaked. Bav. ON. blob. blakki. Hist. Gael. blubber-lipped. bitts of Bitts. viz. Hal.€i. the palebleff. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. a stammerer. a continued soft sound.). butorj OE. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. a beam in a house or ship. babbling. night guard. To Blab the anchor.D. Alex. out the tongue. whitish. white. Nagt huis. Percy Soc. synonymous with baber-lip. Applied in Hin ON. Mag. shine. blabaran. to speak Dan. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blepLith. Lydgate. is apprehension of danger. Why presumest And laam's asse. bittore. white.' It would thus acle. to loll it out. Sp. obscurus. blob. bites. to babble. In Legrand's Fr. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. biacca.' by Gudmund. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake.— Blabber-lip. pale. indistinctly. stutterer. to talk much. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. baitrs. from whence we have adopted the. white lead. 332. blanc. pale. to watch. bitter. bleikr. Ai-mstrong. a shelter for the steersman. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. bitr. pins of the capstern. is placed. even humour seemed and beuin. plabartaich. So Fr. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . as of water gently beating the shore. blabbre. a large lip. Deutsch. blob. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. an edge is sharpest sword. G. pale yellow . . blac-hleor ides. fallow fawn-coloured. beiwache.. AS. Sw. faded. AS. pale yellow. a large coarse lip . quick. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. in contempt. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim.

with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. to bubble. and E. to make or become white blanc. defame. as. —We Bladder. to disappoint. broad. blanchet. a bubble. candidus. Hist. blether. Wott. or of an oar G. slush. blad. Play in Nares. bladder. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. a. — — — to jabber. Sw. But perhaps a more Gr. Dan. . white. blad. Eadmer. waschen. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. Sw. blactra. Blank "verse. blegne. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. bladeren. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. tattle. Du. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. mud. also jabber. p. to blanch. plat. G. to glow.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. Blame. pXaatpiiiiHv. polished. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. mire. 5/^a/^ of colour. bladra. to Hence Ital. Reliqu. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. a white or unwritten ticket. Bacon in R. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. his meat burnt. commonly called the Black-guard. . — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. blatter. bladder . rogues and wanderers. board. madder. blather. 1854. leaf of a. bladder. also white woollen cloth . The radical bubble. whitish. leafy. vagrants. To blank. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. variable than the signification of words designating colour. leaves. to bleak in the sun. D. with all other loose idle masterless men. PI. vagabonds. 7. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. to To bellow. G. blasphemare.—Blatant. and Q. bladder. blanchet. See Blubber. to vocifer- — Cot. Fr. blatt. on. and he shall be sure to have O. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. pass over. or a mass of bubbles. —^Webster. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. blegen. and wandering men and women. a blanket a bed. bladre. blaere. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. Jan. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. Gr. chatter. sheet of paper. a blank ticket. to omit. and the agitation of liquids. a bubble. Besides the examples of this connection given above. linkboys. the ON. shining. pallido. Du. The present forms then should be classed with blether. blister.. or as E. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. the origin of . or blafich. Dan. most complete example of leafy structure. skola and thwatta. — . blanchir. on. plate. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. white. Now. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. borrelen. plat.—Blatter. to —Blaspheme. is identical with Flanders borlen. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Sc. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. also tanned by the sun. blatter. branches . Torriano. a buible. black. a leaf. irXariQ. Du. to shine. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. pimple. gabble. Dan. imbrunire. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Fr. to purl. To Blare. tree. as blader. — Sw. blahen. blister. blank. as Lat. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. mus-blackt. Lat. a pustule . G. moere. to glitter. e. Bav. revile. the leaf of a tree. blister. name originally given Blackguard. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. a boil. blena. boys. as. piatto. whitish. Blade. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. blaeren. biasimare. probably ate. blanc. Blanket. 86.. dripping-pans. dial. reproach. Perhaps from blegen. roar. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blister. chatter. a bladder or pustule. and G. It. Blancli. to shine. from candere. to blow. Cot. cited in N. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Sir. &c. I am degraded from a cook. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. smother. and thence to babble. coat. pladdern.— Kil. flap of a Du. as scullions. Blank. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. bladdra. — rura. and others engaged in dirty work. pluddre. smore. mud. leaf. blinken. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Fr. Du. foolish talk. blather. blame. biastner. in R. speak impiously. Du. contracted from bladeren. blein. blanqne. Blain. to dabble in water. which we . Fr. .— ^o thehotsun. livido . concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way.

To blast. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. braise. to spread news. brasa. Du. To Blaze. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings .sound a trumpet. a funeral oration . a whisperer. and to make him word blaze. blcese. is from AS. biter. Sw. also praeblczse. Cot. Sc. Blast. If armour. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. blase. Gael. G. blaser vid. A blaze is so intimately Then. thraso. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. blason. also only pains and excellent endurance.). a MS. noisy blor. blossi. A gust of wind. — ' — stroy. to publish the praises. boasting. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. blaodh. 'op een trompet blaazen. i. or blazening. Gudmund. gloriosus. Golden Book in R. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. blaeteren. oured.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. indeed. also blazon or the blazSpenser. ing of arms. blcesett. Blatant. a torch . Blaze. oron-blasare. blys. OE. bleis. blatero. ON. much plausibility. whence Blazonry. a lamp blasere. blus. blesse. A strong flame. magniloquus. and which. blcEsan. ventosus. blezo. a flame. blose. . as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. to proclaim. blaterare. Du. each of boaster. blaesen. an conium. See Blare. Dan. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. by stripping off a portion of the bark. senses. is the imme. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. magnilo. to bellow. of an animal.' painted or figured . proflare tues. First from the E. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. . a coat of arms.whence the Fr. has also blencke. Fr. somewhat different train of thought.' to fastum . commendation blason funebre. to blow. blesse. is used in the sense of manifestatio. e. kept up. splendour. The other derivation.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. G. embraser. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. clamorous. friend Cornelius. to cut off prematurely. like the in English. blcEsan. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. a loud noise. blis. a torch. ther it was erst not knowe. But now. Du. fire. blasa. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blazen. bldsse. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. to blaze Sp. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. blason. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. AS. I. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. — ^Jam. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. declaratio. — — ' : bless.— . blcest. light-coli. Du. coloured prints. bles. live coal . The origin of this exSp. blorach. to blow . blasonner. a flame. blass. Sw. the noisy. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. besides blesse. among other . a flame . how. blaodhrach. Lye. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. With inversion of the liquid. stultd loqui. the matter incendiary . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. pale. baladron. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. bawling. To blow AS. beast. it is manifest. in that of praise. 2. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. to trumpet forth. blaze. baladrar. an empty and two theories are proposed. used. visui patet. Du. on whose behalf the herald appeared. As Kilian. ON. shield or surcoat. Fr. quus. The AS. to de. Fr. as a verb. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. blateroon. Blanches illuminies. Troilus and Cressida. ill-speaMng their proper colours . blysa. a shout. Du. bliEsan. might spring from the same origin by a . abroad. to publish. Cot. a voice Jr. a blast. a shining spot. She roade at peace through his heraldry. blasoen. a shield. — Elazen. abroad. to set on fire. and. or to the sound which it produces.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. might And sain. blast. laudes (Kil. AS. . brasa. Kil. in the same way as we 2. Prov. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. redness . blase. proclaim the virtues of. loud . g. to blow. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. to extol. Dan.

— — R. start vor den augen. a disgrace. To totally different from the foregoing. to bleach. blesmir. blot. tacher. darkness of vices. blur before their eyes. N. Mac. Sw. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. And By a similar metaphor Pol. on. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. from on. blench came to be used for a trick. in the expression reputation. which are blurred with the have shewed you. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. and thence to a bruise. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. a spot.P. a boil. splamii!. As AS. plama. Richardson. 115.filerren. to become livid. to spot. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. whitish. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . AS. color plumbeus bldma. livid. Bleak. So in Sw. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Blear-eyed j having sore i. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. to wink the eye. From the OFr. Bleed. p. from the than schal I go. ' — — eye. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. ^Blencher. to start away from. c. the formal equivalent of English wink. to stain one's honour or reputation. Gower in R. a been distinct. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. 419. sugillatio. or blemish. . Palsgr. bleakness. to soil. BLENCH obfusco. to cast a mist before the eyes. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. A Blab. a red watery eye. inflamed eyes. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. wheal. pier vor den augen eyes. . geplerr. a spot. blcecan. dead-coloured Cotgr. See Black. light-coloured. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. tutnan is a cloud. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. Bleb. Ancren Riwle. To salir. to blare been weeping.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. blister. a blemish in one's 2. pale Du. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. exposed. Sir J. blema. a blot or smear blanking one. to wink at it. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. confound him. or to low as oxen. To Bleat. blakna. what blenched him therwith. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. novice. tumanid. spSt. B. guenchir.' God in his wordes. blot. to bleat as sheep.D. blarren. bleikr. Blemisli. 242. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. bldmi. goda nainn. a stain. Fr. ^Xiixaoftai. a fault. blemissemeiit. pimple . flack. is Blench. G. ' — — ' : — — . see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. a spot. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Bailey. to spot . while the agent ac- From .' to deceive one. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. paleness. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. The term blear. to blear one's eye. (faith or creaunce) Be war. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale.' the devil makes a vain back. pale . is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. blesmissure. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows.v. blink. — blink the question is to shrink from it. spla7nU sie. to cry or weep. ' He blarrede or roar. to disgrace one's name. Blancher. . Schmel. . like one that has long P1. I chaunge colour. bloken. sinen langen tranen. boggle at something. livor. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. A stain in a man's reputation. to make him feel blank. wanness. And now are these but mansbond (i. See Blood. Pol. Blear. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. souiller. Bejaune. avoid looking it in the face. to humbug. See Black. drop of water. a blotch plerr. a spot. Gr. Manuel de Pecch&. as of dust or mist . or blemysshen — blaken. the livid colour of a bruise. .'he cried till the tears ran down. ' . wan.

Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. Russ. Owl and Nightingale. Du. blatida. Dan. to merry. Swab.blinken. thou knave. joyful. plotzen. AS. blican. to blithsian. wink. a. blend. pearance of the blighted . The inblissful. I hold thee a grote thee. blende. a. sertion of the nasal. From the action of the hand making Sw.not sting thiiren. blent. or nettle which does form. a wink. doors. blinde fenster.blinkard . . to make happy. a dead nettle. to rejoice. Kiittner. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. Du. Blink. to bluiter. blindselen. the Slavonic languages. sung. AS. OHG. a gleam. blicken. . as a blind entry. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blind. joy . De Sonne ' verblekken. bleg. Du. be glad flash. plonsen. to pro.Q. — A A — . glance. ^Jam. sweet. glimpse. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. happily. Wtb. a blessing. to stir or puddle. blanssen. blink-eyed. blich-fiur. glitter. to lighten. blitzen. to act like a — . moment. is I shall Gurt. blinzeln. blahoslaviti to twinkle.blunda. a flash. glitter. blahos. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blicken. flash of light . blet. Pol. To Blend. vious one in the order of formation. lightning. riches blajennii blicksem. Blind. Tany.. tless —Gamm. gladness. blincken. AS. blago. the verb to bless is some. to make a rumbling noise. blac. mixing in general. Blazena Bea. good. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. Biglotton. weaklaveny. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. mix from blekken.D. ' Pl. csecubrandish. G. blessed. blidu. fortunately. window-blind. to dash wine with water. Sw. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. (=bene dicere). blogi. readily passes into a /. Du. although in the in the next article. goods. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. to glitter ful . liquid filth to bluther. . to bless . Sc. blithe blis. . to rejoice. a glance Swiss blenden. tire. blick. blicksem. lightning. Needle. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. G. . —Brera. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. Serv. to — make it thick and muddy. happy . burn up. to twinkle. Nares. blendian. . lighten. to shut the eyes G. G. a wink With the bletsian.corn.wink . to be blind. as in Du. as taschen. to flash. lightning sweet blago. trix. gives blinzen. blindr. to dabble in water. blink. shine. blund. Swiss (obsolete). and joys of Paradise bliden.blinze. bliss look . joy. a blick-ooghen. graceful. riches . For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. the sign of the cross while blessing one. F. Sc. glitter. . A .' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blaziti. AS. Blight. a nounce happy. to shine. false windows. lovely Bohem. Deprived of sight. blazeny. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. bluiter. in potters' language. as a vatn i vin. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. bludder. blotzen. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to glance. blessed.eyed. blitz. To Bless. joy. to churn. happy . j). well blagaya. to fall into water with a sudden noise. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. . — Goth. to glitter . to shine. The sound of k before an s. Du. to plunge. livid. to dilute too much . to dazzle .' To — blunge clay. an entry which leads to nothing . to bless. but by no means therefore a pre.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. with or without the nasal. cascultare. to consecrate . glad. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. The term then self or others. blag. — when he — Bailey. blissian. the G. pockets. . plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. wink of sleep . to bluiter up with water. well blahy blick and blink. III. — . . a glance. to mix. blinzdugig. a look.nasal. Thence apblinds. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. make these hands 3. to shut the eyes. ON. to glitter. Paradises blidnissu. Bliss. blithe. dazzle . pale. blide. money. seems the simple netel. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to shine. To blunder water. happy . to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. . also to wink. as in the case of blaze. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. 375. blinzler. G. OHG. blind- ON. . giving (Fr.

like manner the coloured. a dirty blister. a block or log en bloc. is formed squad. blot. cooking. blaustem. to blow. Bleb. must be classed with forms like Gr. inde humiditate tumidus. Sw. a bubble. is also used in the sense of swelling . blindman's-buff. blidr. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. expressed by cognate roots. Blob. to blissom.. Block. to soak. Egillson. . to dash liquid. merciful ON.pusta. blaud. repre- pusula. kostua. in the sense of a soft tint. Hence E. swell. W. blide. Blond. B. ON. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. —Bailey. The roots /. as if soaked in water. shells. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. any lump or mass of things. a lumpish head plubach. and easily changes its place. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. . buckle. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Blister. taken altogether. bubble and blubber. blijde. whence blast. Kil. It may be formed Blithe. signifying in the first instance to soak. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image.plisg. blister blasan. a little blisg. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Goth. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. pusula. to bubble. bloc.— Bailey. separate portion. . blouca and Fr. or bleb. a blister . in imitative an exceedingly movable element. blesme. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. as blinzeln. blote. to steep. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. bausen. senting the dashing of water. biota. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann.—Bloater. G. ^vaaa. Lat. pausten. ^Jam. to desire the male. mild. For this. — Sw. to blow. in gusts. Thus we have blab and babble. The blow E. and pisg. . as in E. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. And so from squatter. soft. bleiths. stone. fish blind person.—Bloated. like clot. Sw. mass. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. also to set See Bless. a bubble. buclde. a drop of water. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. an unformed mass. a See Blot. a blot or spot. pustula. round. — Blob. bloated. soaked. — . or is inserted or omitted. formed spot. a . horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. having an unsound swollen look. gentle OHG. lagga i blot. In Fin. to breathe hard. sloppy dirt. orbicular. puff. blot. in bulk. soak in water cured fish. the unhewn bole of a tree. pods. Gael. husks. Cotgr. Dan. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. strawclod. Bav. blister. pimple. To Blissom. to close it with a solid mass. Du. G. Dan. Blob. or the mark which it makes. light yellow. bluyster. as a blab of ink. I believe. must be referred to AS. Langued. viscid. — — — — — From blabber. ON. soft. blinzel-maus. busten. blubber. A solid blouquette blisters.— Hal. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. a bubble. blcesma. See Blot. weak. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Gael. kostia. or the like. fiustula. from blcsr. Hence. in Nares. a blister. a blain. Fr. soft. plub. and inarticulately. Du. B. to block up the way. Boyd in Jam. Svt. The stem or trunk of a tree. blod. mild. while Lat. frequentative. speaking rapidly any . blond. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Jonson. bluster. a ram. to cure by smoke. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. or blinde-kiih. blotfisk. Sc. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. it is must be observed. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. A under this name was imported into England. to to puff and be noisy. joyful. and F. bloc. blithe. to blow. blautr. boucler. a small lump of anything thick. Ibid. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. blot. blindsehn. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Fr. To Bloat. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. Mod. N. Of sheep. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. and bouclette. To a smoking or drying by the fire. in the lump or mass of wood. blobber. to swell. blab. blobbes or droppes of water. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blad.

clod. bit by bit. ' — . E. . The G.properly to scatter liquid . to flame. cow-dung. glasi. brilliancy. livid . Fris. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. blauwel. j^ blottir. to sparkle. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. blue. platt-voll. —Barbour.blauschlagen. blooth. blotter. a The form platschefz. See Blow. spots in the sun. . spot pletter i solen. — — . blond. a pelting shower). of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blosma. . to slap. Blood. great leaf of cabbage. Blad. the bright to blot paper morsels. bloed. blosem. to dash down Du. Plots. Schwenck. Du. from G.— . to dash down. Hatch. ON. Sc. blodelsa and blawelsa. AS. the bright colour of the cheeks . a gush of milk . It should be of filth blak-blatte. couleur livide. light. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blat. blond is used in blatt. E. kuh-plader. dirty spot on the cheek. a Usaae. livid marks. ON. Florio). Dan. pale tint. colour of the cheeks. shine . — Cot. blut. plot of land is a spot or small rage. . yellow. dial. blawels. dial. parallel form with ON. . blase. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. bloemen. biado (of which the evidence plattern. Wflz<^«. plottra. gleam.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blostma. E. blosen. lump flower. bloedsd. See Blow. OFr. from the bright colour which 7'vci. bleustern. blaeuwen. to squat or lie close. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. to be red with blot. . platz-regen. . Ein platsch milch. glus. sbiadare. blus. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Jios. Ir. skam. gloss. to blaze. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. blondheid. a beater. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blaeuw. plattata. fall to overflowing. blois. to patter. blaeuwe ooghe. pladern. Blossom. a black eye Du. a torch blusse. It. pale biavo. Bloom. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to be red. lidmr. a blow. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti.platter. . of a blow with something lios. Stalder. bloi. glose. to scribble. blosa. to exists in biadetto. bloto. a. ON. bletister. glossi. ^lys. Blotcli. platschern. Du. lustre. bluish. (of cattle) to dung. fall down . Prov. platsch-voll. to grow pale). D. blose. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. splendour . a spot or blot. Sw. to glisten . blust. to dirty. blue. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a blot or spot. Lat. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. pladdern. gfyssa. bloeme. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. probably connected with Pol. to blaze . leme. to squander. plotterwis. a flower. a flower. coloured (Diaz. blistaf. flower. blatte. G. Blow. blad. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. 2. as the skin or hair. bliise. PI. a blaze. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Blot. E.D. blond en blaauw slaan. to shine . kobladde. redness. to From . blotting-paper. a water ploutsche. gammon. proto shine with bright colours . bloutre. Dan. E. yellowish It's G. blowen. Russ. bliithe. — gush. blue. soft or flat. en blau ach. ^Bleed. — Blotch-paper. splashing full. plants which prepares the seed. Pl. Dan. a cow-dung. a drop of water or colour. in v. bleistern. Wendish blodo. S-wiss pladern. Du. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). to blush . white blatte. bfys. a deli. blou. plet. bloetnsel. blue . to strike with such these objects exhibit. Du. bloi. G. on. Sw. pale. Fris. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. to slap. lump of anything soft to blad. a Halm a. to dabble in water. ])erly Du. to strike .^ Kil. a lump. bldmi. whence plader. Harmar in R. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Schilter. Erploten. or the sound of it . bloi. to strike with something soft or flat. to splash. blysa. blomstr. to dabble in water . mud. Sc. AS. to blot the land was in a leme. blady. to spot or blot. E. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. to glow. — Stalder . bliihen. straw. platz-voll. Sw. wan. a nature. a flower. Schmid. glister . Fr. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. bldts. blotte. blue. a Schmid.' the rain is driving and blue . fair in en blat vand.

sense. y\r)yi»v. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bludder. ^Jam. glow. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. sponds with Sw. blazi. Tumbled. a gurgling . — . a continued noise of agitated water. Kil. 1. Du. blaw j biavo. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. a blow.' Hamburgh Archives. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. — To blubber. withered. to fade. where the word may be compared bliggman. |8A)'. The radical sense is shown in Gael. G. plusig. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). — Bluther. Sik upplustem. . OHG. fem. meurtrissure Roquefort. gloeden. tache. It. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. And. to flourish. fied vowel. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. bluther. corre. blut. in E. jabber. MHG. blass. a blast. to flap like loose clothes. 92. Lat. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to shine with bright From colours. blduen. florere. to make blue.D. to make bubbles in drinking. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. Chaucer. heath. Gael. . flower OHG. wan. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. Pl. — — Mundart. grey. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to fade. plubraich. bl. glas. to beat. blodelsa. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. piusen. /idXavoc. blois. d in Sc. green. boasting. G. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. 51. Gr. coup. To Blow. blodern. Chaucer. Deutsch. blava. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. — .D. br. like manner Lat. to Plodern. bliithe. to beat with a mallet.D. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. P1. cheeks bedabbled with tears. Du.Jlasa. a bruise. Pludern. blazir. The aUied forms. Wtb. to gabble. Prov. wan. to blurt out.xo'»'. to glow. Blowzy. glas. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. bloi. pale. plodern. -ii. bledniai. 2. w. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. to with Bohem. marking some application from that bladder. Her sweet bloderit face. or gr. blau. pale. to show flower. a Blossom. bliuwan. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. bloom. blau. and thence. In agitation of water. to fade. especially with respect to the hair. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. bluh. to breathe bouteiUis.— . fqded. plustrig. OHG. bruk. flower w. glaodh and blaodh. plubartaich. gliihen. . may cite for example G. to glow. blue. gloeyen. Blowze. . glede. the red fluid of the body . We . and the forms mentioned under Swab. to breathe G. a herb Gr. disordered. bruised Prov. blubbern. blosen. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. a. glansj Ir. bliihen. These are — Bludder. bloeden. sound like water. foam. A. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. gliihen. — To Blubber. to'disorder. E. E. 1292. blow. disordered in head-dress. blebber. Jla-re. a paddling in wate r. G. Raynouard. into flower. blezir. grug. to blow. grow pale.. G.D. Blue. to puff up. It is howbliuwen. The interchange of an initial gl. Pl. Bav. to guggle. is very frequent. to gush. AS. ' BLUE or guggling. Langued. little apparent resemblance. vi^ound. Bret. bloeyen. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blao. plubair. blodyn. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. toused. glowing coal . bloemen. puff. bldt. to hard. —SchmelIt. Notwithstanding the We . gUd. fiubbem. blawan. ler.to blossom. . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. The primary sense is to shine. v. chatter. blady. closely difference in of blabber. blue . Deutsch. to bruise Roquef. to spot. pale . whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. pludern. and closely allied with Du. to blow. blubonciti. Danneil. pale OFr. to exhibit bright colours. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner.nify bubble.' — Palsgr. OFr. . blubbern. is confined to the — . to inflate. a fat. dirty. Mund. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. bliihen. bluod. To Blow. to bubble up. red-faced bloted wench. to blow. bloes. B. a flower. boil. blahen. blust. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered.

or an abrupt manner. his business with much noise. Hence a Slcelton in R. Palsgr. Romance bluiter. E. polterer.' trouble. which is rendered by Florio. Analogous forms are Du. plomp. corn. Roquefort. Kiittner. having a bluff forehead. verdure. from an imitation of the sound. 't — —Hal. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. abrupt. biada. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. to confound. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Blavoyer. bullern. to puddle. Bohem. pale. — Pr. to blunder water. as well as sbiadafe. A bluff manner. find accordingly It. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. sense of yeUow. to become pale. It is remarkable however that the E. to agitation of liquids. pale yellow. polter-hans. planus. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. Blunderer or blunt worker. and biavo (Diez). Sw. a shore abruptly rising. superficie plani. something.//aay. a flounder. Pl. and sbiadare. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. applied to green as well as blue. plo-wy. blue. See Blunt. a blunderbuss. bluish. blunder. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. liebefactor. to fall suddenly on the ground. ploffen. Roquefort. To blunder is then. and Du. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. sbiavare. used for the work of an unskilful performer. has donder-bus. herbe. Bladum. Bodge. and metaphorically. Blunt. is. From G. Halma. Dief. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. mix It. blond. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. See Blurt. from the brilliant green of the young E. blunderhead. bloi. bleu et blanc. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. a boisterous violent man.in mud or water. dial. devenir vert blavoie. without image or superscription. Pm. blahir. to blunge clay. The Du. Kil. to work To blunder out a fronto. yellow. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. blave is moreover. It then signifies something done at once. And blunders on and staggers every pace.. confusion.— . trahir. G. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. bUich. non rotunda. Altieri. The Du. and then generally idle talk. buller-bak. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. Pol. segetes virentes. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . blandum. blunder. fallow. flodderen (Weiland). flav-us. an ill-done job. glundr. Du. biavo. to dabble Biglotton E. yellowish red. and bustle . bawling. tradire to Fr. blue. to fade). to become pale or wan. rustic. Hal. to lose colour. Supp. Biada. all representing the — . like the Celtic glas. verdoyer. Du. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. corn.• BLUFF biado. . The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. tutte le semente ancora in erba. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. Dan. blue. poltern. Then with the nasal. I blonder. pale) is provincially used in the. in water dobbelen. Flor. fawn-coloured. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Dryden in R. . jaune. falb. pale straw-coloured. — — — . bulmanner. a plain coin herausplatzeu. je perturbe. disturb. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Bluff. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blavus. blunt. G. speech. G. pludder. We Blunder. mistake. originally growing up turf and water. — .D. Hence we pass to Prov. blaf. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . blake (identical with AS. Ditton in R. to become pale or livid. blutter. - reddish yellow. Kil. in plur. puddle. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. Blaffart. buller-bas. in the same way as from It'. earth and water mixed together. OFr. Lat. like Du. a fore. sloppy drink. contrasted with the dle. The word is here synonymous with amplus. herauspoltem or sloping shore.make a noise. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. blac. glundra. blanssen. to dabble in the mud. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. as well as biado. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. to plump into the water. biava. from the Lat. discoloured {plowiee. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. G. to mix it up with water.

is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. that the sense of bare. Halma. Pol. biotto. as cow-dung. rudely. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. figuratively. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. silly. through which a man is so blont. plump J to plump out with it. unwrought. plumbeus. stupid fellow. Then cometh indevotion. like a thing thrown down with a noise. —D. heavy. blotta sanningen. clownish. Kiittner. G. fooUsh. plump. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. to blurt. massive. and in the same sense. Probably radically hlekit. A modification of the same root. united in Gael. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Plump. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. and the like. Dan. bus. a portion To inquire for slaves. exactly corresponding to the G. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. plump. seems to be derived. it will be observed. is The word dull. Blunt. biosso. nature. platzen. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. naked. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Molof something wet. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. plonsen. pale. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root.to fall into the water. fling down . a bluntie. to handle a thing bluntly. —D. dull. without the nasal. Plontp. Kiittner. blunt. Swab. to make a noise of such a Stalder. forestis. insensible. dial. or heraus plumpen. to plump into the water. naked. it will be well to point out a sense. naked. to make foliage. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. sheepish. with or without the nasal. and. V. void. hebes. Blaitie-bum. viz. and an unintelligent. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. Woddis. The blait body. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. homo stolidus. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. blunt. Won by degrees. without preparation. Chaucer. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. unpolished. Sw. . without horns. Sc. ang. Bare and blunt. edgeless. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. It is from this notion of suddenness. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. rude. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. to blunt a thing out. azure. A light blue colour. Sc. duU. bleak. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. clumsy. in Richardson. unfledged Sw. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. pressions. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. is thrown. Stalder. blutten. blait. poor Sc. awkward. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. bald. blait. but of something soft thrown on the ground. inaKil. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . wan. obtusus. — Kil. Plump mit etwas umgehen. Q. V. blunder. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. naked. heavy. rough. blat. The syllables blot. identical with E. plains The large bech. V. heavy. blockish. dull. down. — — pidus. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. used in both senses. a blot. It will be seen that the G. Du. plump. maol. as Sw. plotz.plompen. that it not easy to discover the connection. without Maolaich. Sir T. blatte. pointless. thick. Dan. inactive Swiss bluntschi. and hath swiche languor in his soul. as in E. Bluntet. platz-regen. mit etwas heraus-platzen. unceremonious manner. bare or blunt. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. viz. the absence of sharpness. blue. Ford in R. raw. . it is taken as the type of everything inactive. It. blout. blunt. a thick and will person. from the loud report a fire-arm. plump. blott. a simpleton. bloss. G.— — — . to plump down. good plump person. obtusus. of a knife which not cut. nis. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. More in Richardson. blunt. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. bare. bare. plutz T)\i. blunsch.pludse. F. ineffectual reason. to bring it suddenly out. — blunt. or blab out a thing Kiittner . absence of preparation. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. plotsen. awkwardly. bluntschen.—D.

both used in the sense of boasting. beacon fire. table. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. to jabber. a board or plank. It. to blaze. a baU of thread the mud. Fr. 156. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. G. blusse i ansigtet. ever-swin. blotch and botch. Lat. gabble. V. Boa. to glow . blubber. to brag grande loqui. fringe. geplerr. margin. Pl. is formed Du.v. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. planks or boards. voce intonare. Related to blutter. a flurt with one's fingers. bot-voet. blodern. pustern. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. blader. Bluster. then applied to indistinct vision . to make mouths. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to be out of temper. chicchere. Bav. rude. to bark. 274. to blush. Sverris Saga. a small lump. Schmeller. BOB 79 — To Blur. See Boisterous. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. blot. a club foot . to snuff. bausen. c. boistous. Du. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. botte. 'Ba. an ear of corn. Fr. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. of the word seems . properly noisy. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. pausten. G. Gael. short pieces of any filthy mud. Slur. to threaten. to rumble. a blot. outward edge. and the latch . to guggle. boa. baiag. a short thick body. puddle. to dangle. to blow. — ' Dief. and swimmeth very well. gabble Sw. a blotch. blosken. blaffen and baffen. bhis. to make a noise in boiling. . P. hot. boord. mire. bora. my dear. Gael. Du. 29. this root are formed Sc. Fl. bobbin. a tassel. Du.pusten. Fl. . planks raised up outside the roofs. to blurt out. Du. — To Bob. Board. E. Hal. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. an end or stump. bobine. strong. Du. baban. — — . to dabble. 9396. or bog also thread. splurt and spirt. It. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. A large snake. to puff. to bounce. To move quickly up and down. E. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to endeavour to terrify. a torch blusse. blaere. flat. it implies that it is empty sound. border. table. dull. to sound like water boiling. burra. Swiss blodern. whence bordvidr. borrar. large. w. pof.the syllable bot. blunt. on. imitated by has also In like . blirt of greeting. 1.— . a mist before the eyes plerren. edge. boot. rude. a dangling object. bustuous. to puff. blose. aper. a tassel. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. beer. puffen.' — Red Riding-hood. coarse. a blow . but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. Du. to crying. . and boisterous. or blurt with one's mouth. to disfigure with E. batello. BLUR Boar. bludder. board. eafor. To splirt. common. cluster. bliise. blaste?i. boccheggiare. be a crack or loud sound. blot. margin. Sc. Bot zeggen. ON. lindwurm. Pull the bobbin.plerr. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. edge. and E. blaustem. bord. Supp. to dirty. stellio. bladdra. The to radical meaning D. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. dial. bateau. cheeks glow. swagger.D. pludern. to puff. like the parapets (viggyrdil. a burst of tears. OE. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Boa. skin. Wright's ed. bot. To blow in puffs. literally edge-wood. bord. bluther.—Bobbin. to talk quick and indistinctly . bit. Kil. cocodrUlus. Sc. To tinct. Hal. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. G. crack made by bursting open. bdtr. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. acre. to make a noise with the mouth. a mistiness. as in Du. sudden. — From mouth. margin. AS. the sound of a blow poffen. will fly up. bord. — — — * Boast. to breke. e. bluter. blast. It. violent G. lacerta. a Jam. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. AS. bdd. to blore. to give a crack. blarra. pfludern. blurra. to blubber. bleuster. — a blaze. a. brett. Wallace. To Blurt. violent. to smear. AS. &c. Du. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Blush. bludder. Boost is used for the boast. Dan. a bladder . to roar. plump. as splurt to splutter.y. bar. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. pluddre. an edge. to render indisbhir. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. See Blossom. to blur. and when applied to vaunting language. to say bluntly.plodem. De Boat. a border. ground. or backwards and forwards. whence bob. . . a grows to a great bigness. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Comp. and Du. stupid. bur. To brag and to crack. to chatter. bakke bleustern. bdta. primarily signify loud noise. eber. Wtb. ader. Halma. to spurt out. the Brem. a smear. i. dial. blur. berd. As the as. Explained by Jam. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. blasen and See Burr.

woman's stays. mud. The Sp. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Ptg. stumpy. to deliver a message. — H. to fail. palleg. bob. to roll. corset from corps. body of a shirt bol. anything protuberant. to make. corset. unsteady. to fail. bottig. We . * To Boggle. potacha. butt. stitch. bolr. . whence paUchen. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . message boda. daubed or dabbled with blood. bogadh. barriga. Miracle-plays. nave of a wheel.\\i\c\iset. as a horn.' A — Sherwood's Diet. With With this we charged again We bodged again. Banff. busti. so large a feature in the country. Now unskilful action is conmire. as signifying anything spherical or round. Lith. Bodice. to waver. Gl. pall. Bohem. arise E. body and G.rabodi. swelling. . . It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. an announcement. gago. ^Jam. badyti. Crist. a cask. gogach. Cot. Reliq Antiq. anything soft. gog in gog-mire. bayonet . precept. as in stammering or staggering. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. a spur. bod. the stem of a tree . represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. goggle. bo tich. round. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. or stem of a tree. bog. to stammer. needle. See Baber-lipped. an awl. The signification of the root bot. Commonly explained as if from Sc. the body of a shift gaguejar. bot.a (i\ia. bodies. formerly bodies. And waves. moist mire. To portend good or bad. move. a bog or morass. the belly. gog. to be uncertain what to do. Ptg. belly. is a lump. and E. BOGGLE trunk and G. the thick part of anything. Russ. biodeachan. is identical with Fr. point. VI. bodak. wavering. Thy i.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. bagges. Wall. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Supp.! .. To Bode. See To Botch. rounded. — Grandg. barrique. to smack. bottich are derivatives. thrust with something pointed. bog (equivalent to E. bodian. . to make a mow at. to scruple. Bog. quakmg. a . strike with the horns. stuttering. fickle . bole.' Bogglie. bodilo. See Bid. to start start and back as from a bugbear.gmh:t. cask bottich. bodi. — as well as the body of an animal. a quagsoft. It introduced from Ireland. where bogs form Gael. e. or bag. bogadaich. — 2. patsche. nodding. bayonet. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Ir. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Schmel. . . the boss of a buckler. 3. a prick. to bodge. to stir. speak of the barrel of a horse. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. whence Fr. Body. and the word is well explained by Bailey.hollow. dies. the trunk of the animal body. AS. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. agitate. Shakespear has badged with blood. . bogach. bodi. gagoula. bodat. exhibit another modification of the root. gag. shake. a sting . gagei. to prick. Bret. gebod. moving backwards and forwards. bog. Bodkin. then from the yielding. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. a body. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. unsteady. AS. boftich. potahha. French bouter. of which the E. a command. a puddle. W. . bodhag. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. corpses pot. To make bad work. '£. a round body both. To Bodge. boll. meaning the round part of his body. a dagger. a messenger . The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. 43. a ghost . baboyer. corpset. To mock. shaking . Gael. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. Gael. bodnu. toss. to stick. from fitting close to the body. a prickle. bothog. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. by the syllable patsch. potig. bodig. to be unsteady tich. Lap. to thrust. or a pair of bodies. ON. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. So BOB To Bob. bogan. waving. bodetz. calf of the leg. to commit a blunder. bogle. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. to dabble or paddle. Gael. . potacha. a cask. bodene. quagmire). stutter gogmire. to bob. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. to butt. to blurt a thing out. the body. In like manner E. bod. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. biodag. expression hogglin an bogglin. to push with the horns. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated.

rounded part of the body. bochken (titubare. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. flax-boU. then violent. G. bald. fiausten. bola. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. stameln vel bochken. Stalder. bolr. Boystous. bulr. ON. repagulum. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. bold. bol. buile. to be at a loss a shirt. Sp. free. bol. obex. beule. Lat. strong. and manace for to de. bolleken. bolt upright. bolster. gerade signifies straight to the mark. OHG. glass phial. bhster. The round stem of a tree. notes. boystousnesse. also a blister. bag or bog are derived Piedm. or the like. pillow. 304). capitellum. blow. Swab. Du. dint in a metal vessel. cheerful. pustule. G. * Bolster. Fr. E. to swell. the body . b^gayer. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. shake. — ' — tagliare. bold. boutpijl. Chaucer. a boil or swelling Du. tulum. cows the people from speaking. courageous. bealder. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. bolzBold. sels of flax. polc'h. as those of nuts. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). prince. Kil. chaff of corn siliqua. balder. trunk of a tree . ON. a swelling in ice. to puff. Me doth awate. . to stumble. Sc. bolla. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up.w. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bSlstr. ON.. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. To Boil. the husk of nuts. the lir. ohg. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. noise. Cot. to be prominent. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. courageous. * Boisterous. to stammer. perpendicular. in the sense of handsome .Du. treated under Bowl. scruple. tar. tartle. warlike.— — . the. Gael. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. The bob. a fastening for a door. coarse. bolster. bollen (Kil. bog. Test. excellent. insolent baude. stud. bouil. Boil. to waver or hesitate. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. wag. Westerwald bollern. rough. Lap. to give a hoUow sound. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. tartalear. but that Bolt. gluma. huge. by which it is moved to and fro. ON. Love. is probably a modification of boll. bulla. w. G. bul. puilen. swelling. bold. globular bod)'. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. G. (of Mons) b^guer. . bolle. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . hero. boly. haughty. to boil. he will speak out. the gurgling sound of water rush. swelling. tartajear. Du. bagaji. the body of a man or of ter. a head . bout is explained by Kil. 374. as baltha. bul. to stammer. Pr. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. capiing into a cavity. Properly noisy. Sw. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. This iv. to tattle. bola. Du. proud. puile. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. chatter. which are not used for a similar purpose. ^Vocab. furfures. belc'hj. a bubble. bolt. bullire. Wall. E. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . bog.D. brave. bok. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Bret. In the same way Sc. in speaking. bald. animal as distinguished from the limbs. as. to hesitate from doubt. hakogni. and then applied to other husks. bula. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. poppy (Bailey). as. Magy. biiilen. Kit. A. a quaking mire. i. a bump. 45. Bustuous. as E. stramenta. strong. balldr. round the first instance to the materials with . Lat. Fr. used. Fr. boss. pusten. pall. may be identified with It. from Du. It. a cushion. Chaucer seems Dan. baud. up of bubbles. Boll. Da. merry. — — which the cushion is stuffed. stutSw. Bole. intrepid. — 6 . to the belly as the or dislike. ^Boistous. see Boast. confident. OG. hollow. roydeur. bol. bolc'h. . to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. . a bubble. folliculus grani. buller.). styffe or rude .palleg. Mund. boggle. strong. Pm. Daring. boll.— D. bald. 1430 in Deutsch. whence bulla. V. See Bulk. to stagger. a bakazikni. a bubble. bolstar. bolzen. caput scapulse. quick. pimple ON. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. bal.' Mrs Baker. tomentum. boil . bulla. from the branches. bout. ballr. properly represent belly. impetuosity. To Bolter. Du. Goth. The term applies in — — impressed .

to come rattling downstairs. tuft. burclct.On the same principle. bortelen. It. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. to become lumpy. bultig. uneven. crotlar. loud and fast. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. baruta. So also we pass from Lat. Du.nature of the operation. by the representation of a racketing sound. pattern. bolt. . we pass to Du. croler. rugged. we der Brocket).D.D. budeln daz mele .) E. a bolter Prov. gebolder. we have Du.protuberance. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. a millpoltzet augen. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting.i5a//^«. Pl. also to curdle. bulla. : ' — — . bulstrig. tumultuari. abolter. The ulti. . Pl. crod. bullern. mole-hill. protuberance. a clod cloth. Supp. to agitate. as of a trumpet. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. The ment and the operation. ' Holler poller / bulter. or a racer from the course. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. bluter.u. to shake. poltern. curdle. to start with palpitate. je bulte. bolt-foot. hulter de bulter. knob. blotttre. In the next place. OFr. . Du. to significance of the term was overlooked. hump. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. pultare. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. a small portion. in S'W plotter. we see that the one consists of a words. and the Thus from So. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Fr. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. grasbulten. poll. agitari (Kil.fe/2?. to form lumps.through a cloth of loose texture. to spring forth E. Wtb. kloteren. poltern. from G. clump. bulk. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. with E. buUire. Sanders. 2. a clod. . hump-backed (to be compared A ' . bolzen. holier poller.. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. MHG. tar. die treppe pressed. buletel.. barutela. zare. . projecting eyes pul. on the one hand. lumpy. a rattling carriage. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. bultred. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. to bolt meal barutel. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. crash.clack. Prov. On this account Mid. then to knock. hammer. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. Dauphiny a sudden movement. cruddle. bulio. vessel with narrow opening. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. barutela. Lang. jolting.agitation of the meal in the bolter. G. racket gepolter. bolting to that of form. fied bot. to coagulate. hulch. to knock. OFr.as the essential element signifying the talum. as above explained. taraabout. a bunch. Champagne burtcau. sestuare. to start out. taratarrum. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. pull. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. small heap. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap.thump or blow. bulk or quantity . beluter. Pr. Mid. buletare. as a rabbit from its baritel.). P1.— . ' — — ! ! : — . And as the agitation of cream in . representing a rat. uneven. staff which sounds tar. bolzauget) Sp. to make a knocking. and to crash. Hence. boss. zen. barutare. hammer. Hence Palsgr. OFr. beliitea. as Fr. Here the radical image is the violent O. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. or the like. btilt. to bolt flour burato. — — — . one after the other. taratantarum. the sense of right on end. a bolter or implement for bolting. tling or crashing noise. a club-foot. ler. bolzaugen. a round glass ending — bultig. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. a sod (Schiitze). Schiitze. a . Passing from the sense of movement burattare. ex•wagen. clattering other of a series of projections or emi.D. Bulte-pook or bulstar.). swelling. Lat. rugged. cro. Dan. to clack.by forms like G. a clump of turf. Pm. buideln. Sw. .noise {brattle of thunner. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. or ill. hole. bolt head is a retort. the wheels groaned. . a rattle. Brem. projections. to E. I boulte meale in a boulter. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. . a rattling noise and a jolting motion. tantara. / is transposed in Fr. to bolter. a crashing or racketing noise. buretter{CQ\. to talk pulzen.D. Bav. to bolt meal barutel.Lat. brattle. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. a clap of thunnences. have Lat.

sye. barate. as in . to shake (as to shake the head. band. 83 Gr. Need you any ink and bonibase. booming over the water. the contracted form of Du. thick. is supported by the analogy of G. bureau. and called in Mid. It. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. bwmbwr. baum-bast. band pi. HoUybandin R. ^o/j. ODu. to which the leg. beil'n. a beacon. and that from Fr. It. boulenger. breast-bone. Dan. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. d. Bomb. burato. It. buttel trueb (of liquids). term is appropriated in G. bambagino. bombe. lana lignea. bureau. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. Bibelesworth in Nat. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. borel. — AS. a ligature.bast. from teu. a churn for butter. When ture.^Altieri. has repeatedly varied. Du. to shake down fruit from a tree. an implement of binding. stuff. bras. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . q. builen. rimbombare. It. buidelen. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr.Su?. the leg. . gunpowder. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. . agreement. brust-bein. From builen. Schm. PoUitriduare. G. i. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. butteln. Dan. Gascoi^e in R. as Banbury. a thundering noise bomre. derivation. . bein. In legal language. raw silk. Mid. tiffany. bolting-cloth. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bopin. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Du. bomba. — bombast came guage. bombasin. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. and Bond. &c. from boom. to cast to and fro. a boulter of meal. and in fact we find the and Du. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. Moreover. to thump W. bonog.Lat. to boult meal. and also the leg. bwmbwry mar. In E. Fr. a stem or base. assuming the of leg : special signification W. also thick-shanked. the murmuring of the sea.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bombase. to bolt meal. . sericum arboreum. . a drum bombammen. tree. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. cotton stuff. Bonfire. — Bombard. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. E. to ring bells. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. ties. achsel bein. the Fr. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. however. 155. a bone in general. we speak of a gun to resound. buidelen. G. the shank the shoulder-bone. coarse. Butterglas. to resound. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bone of the . to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bombicina. thick from shaking. bambagioj whence It. tie. banitola (Fl.). been. Near 6 * . again. sijde. butteln. The material called by this name. beuteln. bunden. bommer. gossipium. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. a —Bombasine. bonfras. a hollow sound. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. Fl.D. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. As cotton was used for padding clothes. tie. thick-legged. G. Fr. It. Banstead. to beat a drum. silk-worm. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. the silk-worm. a stock. bindan. Kil. to thunder. a baker. bongam. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. and Du. bommen. bauniwolle. . bombasine. beuteln. bulter from It. bonds. bond. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Antiq. — having a stem or stalk. basin. a string. iuttern.) . Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. biire. bombarda. crook-shanked bondew. to bind G. baun. Du. bande. silk. OE. whence bomme. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. cotton. to shake. band. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. or trunk word in W. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bombast. sije. bon. must be explained Fr. . Bone. produced the Pl. bombdra. stump. e. It. and Mod. bambacium. Castrais barato. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. bombice.

to yawn. feu de behourdis. to aid. the mouth. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. succour Bailey. dial. . Bonnet. the name of the letter b. inhabit. boutig. G. . to litter bosu. A stall for cattle. N. . pig-sty. prayer. Kil. Boor. but stall. Bun. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. beiSne. the stubble of beans. Swab. From bo. OW. boandi. from beida (E. wondering signifies not only straw. Boon. E. — From the participle present. and Ban in w. to prepare. busu. and Gael. petition. Hufwud-bonad. bauer. Boom. bos. a simpleton. Booby. Boot. comes bondi. dial. foolish. ON. stabulum. E. ganian. dress. G. master of the house. the alphabet. are formed Fr. of wonder On the same principle Sp. . a. a lofty blaze. a tree. 13. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. AS. Thus from the syllable ba. from Du. bobo. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. a vessel for holding liquids. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. bonaid. Gael. writing bokos. botta. bAkva. But bosg. as the Brecknockshire Banns. blockhead. a silly fellow. bds. also called Brecknock Beacons. and thence Rouchi baia. booby. Schm. pero. bauen. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. as a lying-place for cattle. ON. chaff.—Bootless. a head-dress. . house. Busk. Hal. b^er. The latter is the original AS. bdn. Trans. bossen. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. hu?idbusa. bota. short boots. remedy of evil. to ask. . Du. Book. whence ban-ffagl. inhabit. Mrs Baker. ty Gael. Goth. bas. bolt. Build. boo. Palsgr.Boos. . tall. to set in order. desire. gawney. litter. Sp. bosih. boutig. bonad. head-dress wai^g. which one gaping and staring about. The i. gaping hoyden — Cot. often cut for burning and lighting fires. without ad- . clown. Du. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . a good turn or re- meaning. * Boose. Mrs Baker explains bun. countryman. p. bonad. by itself for head-dress. — — . Gl. tigh. a hollow skin. AS. bote. simpleton. bobo ! interj. gaby. ON. OSlav. from gape. It is commonly explained as identical with It. a stall. dolt. — Bailey. Du. Jr. buandi. Perhaps. Hal. in w. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. G. To Boot. petition. set in order. and fig. biikui. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. by arbitours sholde bote the P. 232. Fr. prayer. help. the scriptures bokareis. lofty. b'ukvdry. It. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. to dress. boten-shoen. — . to gape. A peasant. netis stall. nachbar. the possessor of the farm. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. where a cross (or a gun. Fr. w. buch-stab. the cultivator. a lying-place for dogs or swine. a letter . till. to strew with straw. quest. build. till. \ais-band. tapestry. fool. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. in Phil. bommen. signifying beech. b&ber. . is Du. beam. to gape. Kil. a letter Russ. been. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. bosig. badaud. swinbusa. See Bown. — To boot. however. Bonnefyre. boer. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. — e. ben. bd. bose. and from AS. bid).n. remnants of hay or straw. literally cow-house. gehyred. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Pm. Prov. to cultivate. build. botte. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. dog-kennel. one who dwells nigh. a bag of skin or leather. a dry stalk. letter. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. relief from sorrow. Wall. See Butt. boubair. to cultivate. Boot of bale. . boa. babb^o. pole. Binau Brychyniog. although in the OG. Thin ben Luke i. ass. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. The character of folly is i860. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. babin. high.^ —P. Basa. boom. See Bomb. Ox. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. bowwen. from badare. ON. betere thing werse. boubi^. Fr. baier. . A favour. a. bene. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Fr. bua.. bua.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. dress. the first consonant of the alphabet. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. reparation. babau. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. wall hangings. a scribe G. bonnet. or Vanns. botte. Bootless. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Pr. a bonfire. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. at everything. In nautical language. boia. The origin of the word is probably the W.

Booth. uzboro. abode. Du. . bud. Palsgr. N. . chisel. . and hence to fine. puras. from deila and skipta. an engraver's chisel. remedy. from borra. and meta- Fr. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. terebra sculptoria purastoa. a hut. to boot. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . are derived from G. hut. Another derivation from Fin. betan fyr. a border. to patch. boeye. make . bordi. to stick unto as a bur. boards. barn. pu purro (saha =: saw . — ON. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. . Fin. Booty. lappalare. to . bora. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. a leather bag or bottle for wine. to swell. . fimbria. And so in ON. G. the . a chisel. . to build. bottino. a shop. Fr. See Burgeon. A phorically a drunkard. drillen. margin. Kil. a great bur. Lat. bothag. OSw. scalpo. hem or gard of a garment. bdra. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. to anything Neither G. Gael. to mend. both. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. a borer. Bete. a borer . Gael. cup- awl. ora. &c. edge. struere ignem. . BoracMo. byte points to the verb byta. OHG. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. . bauda. terebro. amendment. a bladder. Border. a responding forms . to bete the properly to mend the fire. is purin. purro. puru. tent. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. to importune. aid. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. kvit-bara. bite. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. purra. boete. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. In the Fin. boeten het vier. Fl. or anything pointed. mat-bod. piercer. bothan. to divide. a bothy. The ON. AS. baete. a. to bore. fire. rof. To Bore. puras.par. pointed. Pol. from bord. comminuted by either kind of action. yfirbdt. burin. budowai. biorag. as afford a satisfactory explanation. to repair. purra. nor E. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. a shelter of branches. . to quench one's thirst . It is admitted that Fr. See To We speak in E. a borer. admovere titiones. bdt. bower. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to hut. to expiate boeten den dorst. to foam. a shed. sculpo 05\xiik. Esthon. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. pi. bolino. in Ihre. a hut or tent. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. better.—Burin. and E. borracha. ON. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. BOOTH vantage. making good again . schare of a man of a prise in warre time.por. a booth or shed. welt. amendment boeten. Fr. Magy. scsdes-bod. chewed food for infants. It. baara. bardure. Fin. Mag. botjan. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. and thence to eat build. to restore. Sp. reparation. recovery bata. bauen. sawroot. 266. The Fin. bohren. or the gradual working a hole in anything. It.. a tusk. to profit Goth. differs only in termination. bord. Du.— Return from Parnassus I inR. borracha. in Lap. which are probably from the same root. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. ON. a granary . boede. • — To Bore. a sharp-pointed tooth. dust. 1. wine-skin. forare. budka.. swell bara. Bohem. Alexand. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. dens mordens vel caninus. beute. are parret. 3. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. Esthon. But probably the E. Compare Manx birrag. and parrets. borino. p. sharp. to to . repair. butin. furni. Gael. a wave. to The Sw. lappolone. to surge. a word. cellar. butin is explained by Flor. urboro. a shop budowati. on.. of an edge that will not bite. limbus. to bite. Fin. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. exchange or divide. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. See Bower. Burke in R. wave. The cor. batr. bata. cottage. The as G. to profit. ON. extremitas Bore. to bite. to pierce. puru. furd. to build buda. limbus. cure Sw. a cupboard. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur.

bussa coarse. . a. knur. cormpted. destitute. botse. ' pledge. unpolished. to save. projection. or perhaps it may be See Bury. i. or because a blow berga. or head-borough. one who sticks to you like a bore. the North Wind. AS. surety. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. 106. cnap. a knob. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. bos. and borough in the sense of a town. The other. nonsense. the must have arisen burgensis. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. clownish. borel. a tower. from their grey clothing. /3oraMK6f. whence the burg. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. which now signifies a knob. beorgan. Hence knot. less.bucklers. borg. bom. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. empty. Borough. Fr. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. Bunch. Borrow. blow on a hollow object. boss of the side. boschen. bump is used in lump or piece. Bos a surety. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. boussi. when that system was forgotten. secure. the hollow between the Borsholder. byrig. bosseu. to strike . Boreal. a city . connected. ^ma. — ' wind burya. a boss. . to save Sw. coarse cloth made of the Du.' Vegetius in Diez. borg.' the chief of the ' borh. Sc. knocking.' every man be under bail. cob. primarily signifying coarse sound . Lat. bourg. G. Gr. The primi. D. borei. boss sound. as if from the verb to hold. agrees with E. Hal. Jam. a wen. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. bierge. f graauw. bossen. It. tempest. gum vocant. brown cloth. storm. to give bail or answer for an. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. cnoc. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. formerly used in the sense of knocking. basse. Newbury. bump. (1867). &c. striking. Du. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report.. huschen. botch. Turk. poor. and thus could not shake off the old burr. So Du. butsen. or perhaps also To Borrow.' if thou give money on loan. Borowholder. Bosh. Goth. bergen. ^o^^flj. borough or chief constable. Altieri. botch. busse. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. bussi. loan. ON. hollow bucklers. a little blow. the ordinary a swelling. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas.ribs and the side. plant. — — — A — . an eminence. vain. See found in Bav. cnag signifies both a clergy. borgo. was origin of the term is the OFr. a citizen. a pushing or striking out.' or system of bail. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Hence borhes ealdor. to save. pego. rustic. empty. the sun sets. to become is emitted by a hollow body. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. the N. tive idea seems to bring under cover. is probably radically Boss. botsen. bunch. in instead of without. It. Botany. viipyoc. beorgan. And that unsittynge is to here degre. a bouncing baby . I. without. bourgeois. head. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. whether from the fact preserve G. . knock and a knob . that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. empty. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. a boor. bosse. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. burel. burgess. Du. bos. northern.mass. to give a hollow bizo. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . . The origin seems to be the Goth. while Gael. to knock or strike. tuft. knob. a bunch or hump. to take in. bttssel. borh. useCanterbury. plain rude fellow. Jam. In like manner It. in the body struck.any round sweUing. boss or knob of a buckler . gesylle. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. undyed wool of brown sheep. pegou. grey). V. bosh.vr\. by which of or belonging to plants. Russ. from AS. Lang. (Bridel). as we speak of a thumping potato. baurgs. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. a citizen. the Sc. bail biirgen. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Swiss Rom. hollow. borealis. butse. of bail throughout the country. to protect. to contain. borgese. Cot. boss. a surety. that which biirge. is used in the sense of bussare.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. borough-holder. to strike so as to Bureau. a blow. to pick or cull plants. Fr. poor. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. ' — — . burh. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Fr. to protect. Bailey. pitch. to conceal. bundle. AS. rude. to keep. boss. into borsholder. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. a giving rise to It. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. a herb. AS. E.

both. as a push or windgaU. gling piece of work. a maggot. podge. dial. botte. abbi. butsen. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. noise. boil. as Fr. to simmer. . to stir and mix together . ON. they two. ubhau. boss. OSax. boute. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. bozza. See Boss. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a knock.— . Fl. AS. w. To confuse with noise. Ancren Riwle. any plain round viol glass bozzo. — — belly-worm. a pit. buddeln. bSn. what pushes outwards. Lith. bottom. a cask. a tinker schuhbiisser. bide. boiteag. bundle. Gael. a humpback.of a ball of thread. . the other hand. — — . to froth as beer . On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. . Dan. Lith. Jtidu. Hal. bosser.' to the fiery Csedm. AS. Prov. ledge It. It. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. to fall : with a sound batsch. Du. pocciar. a. bots. to mend. Butu. bluster. Decorde. mess. Again. a pock. the first rough draught 2. a botcher of shoes. a bunch. a waterfall. especially in Gael.foundation. stock. — Dief. bottigUa. bAdtr. botte. bethia. to rage. an abyss or bottoniless pit. pother. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. to podge. ON. to dash about . to put on a patch. any round ball or bowl to play withal. empty or hollow. blister. abbu. a patch patschen. Canut. Parmesan poccia. to mend (kettles. dabble). i. a boil or swelling Halma. Leg. puddle. a slop. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. Danneil. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. * To Bother. mess. Botcli.D. bun. See To Bodge. Pl. ambo. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Bouteille. bossu. to give a sounding blow. E. To Botch. On — Du.— Swift in R. to knock. bdt. knock. bodem. kessel-biisser. . a vessel for holding liquids. It. to make better. Kil.) . the bud of a flower . to bcBta. stroke. burgi vel pontis refectionem. Podge. a bundle of straw or hay. round lump. j3i/9os. however. abbi-diwij Slavon. repara- — — See To Bete. Fr. It. &c. putra. Bouds. disturbance. stock. Here the radical image seems a bubble. boitean. I. noise. pozzo. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. botola. a bottle of hay. Wedu. a cobbler. a bott . bund. Gael. patch. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. a pit. pozzanghera. or plague sore .— Hal. to make a make a noise. boccia. a cess. corresponding to . stump. abyss. schuhbosser. bot. batschen. Stalder. is boteau. A horses. to stir and mix together. — Bottom. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a depth. to smack. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . buts. to botch or patch. buddl. The Gr. we have Swiss batscken. bulderen. we two.^Dec. Bailey. See Bound. Bottle. bunch. From the dim. mutter. Bochu. G. ba. to from the root bot. ixorapudder. baiothsj Sanscr. for a bud. to strike .ments of the same root. ON. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. fire-bote. pimple. butse. Fyre to botme. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. the science or knowledge of plants. botsen. buideal. Diez. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. hurly-burly. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bozza. poltern. and ajSvamg. botus. botch. from the dashing of water. by met. bouteille. gipuozan. A bottom depth. and E. tumour. botm. a bottle. e. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. to we have OHG. biissen. a lump of somebatschen. whisper. bulder. — Fl. contusion . G. . abbution. boiteal. is also a bubble. Mudu. you two. a root. 212. And so we speak of an eruption. botte. BOTCH understood). botn. See Butt. AS. bile. Hal. &c. ' G. scuohbuzere. a wisp. oba. the lowest part. • Bott. stem or base. Fl. Du. a cesspool pass. turmoil. dim. — Jidwi. H^cart. botel foenn. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. btitse. maggots in barley. — duj Lett. bativa. . an imperfect and bunbutt end. Fr. blain. disturbance to . a bottle. gen. a bump or swelling. buazen. — . bdsser. a plague-boil Kil. thing soft batsch. blow. was called a push. fundus. ^kvBoQ. a slop. — — A 2. Lat. to work without order or know. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. Both. potra. House-bote. shoes. beggtaj Goth. nets. mend. boden . to dip in liquid (to Gael. botse. whence the name ol pool to podge. A — oba-dwaj Lat. of botta. butwo. ing out. signify a in OE. . — . Boa two. On the other hand. a bubble. N. Bret. botel. Judwi. in the sense of mend the fire.

winding. a stock. . the smaller ones. to bow. Bonny. bumper. baby. to turn. came home with his face all to-bounced. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to spring. bouton. See Bunch. the hollow of a bay. an occasion. — No i ausiratz parlar. boriie. iv. boujtce. Pr.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. whence buj7isen. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. till The dat et bunsede. Du. .— Boundary. bonndn. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. language a * Boulder. . ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Boulderstone. as that of E. bunda. jungen. bonzen. bugan. — strike. 2. gulf. signifying in nautical coil of rope. pimple Richards bothog. Coxcomb. bunsen.>a bout. Nor a centinel whistle. to spring. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. a boundary stone (men stone). contusi. And the new stools set out. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. bamsen. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound.' round and round in similar circles. Sw. Fr. a bouncing apple. 136. ing. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. bone. Bunche. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. see Boss. a large stone rounded by the action of water. I assure you. boundina. Probably from the Celtic root bon. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. strapping. the verb bondir in OFr. ni motz brugir. in the absence of actual e. bonna." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. of thread. a large pebble. and Prov.— Cot. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. he fell so that it sounded. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. to hum. Bowlder. and F. Raynouard. To Bounce. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. to knock at the door. Bout. a bud. tnndo. Primarily to strike.D. from bugan. — Take care my house be handsome. thumping. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. carpet.'— Charter of K. geration. bottom. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Pm. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Bodinare. Bough. turn. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . pothel. from volgere. — — leap. jump. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. bend. bullra. A Langued. has hot. dial. limit. to make a loud noise. Fr. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. to set out by metes and bounds. volta. bons. Brem. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Bound. as a nosegay. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. bolder. To Boult. dial. Ni gacha cor bondir. Fr. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. bodina. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. to set bounds. Wtb. Mid. Webster. — — Bight. to fix limits.— F. in contrast to klappersten. The W. Halma. ni frestelar.' B. E. So It. mcn-bomi. Bret. p. as a bout of fair or foul weather. to thunder. 3. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. root (see Bottom). nor horn sound. from AS. From Sw. to thundering big one hum. bounbounejha. Ducange. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . boss of a buckler. an de dor bunsen. round. knock it sounds again. the larger kind of pebbles. bugt. a turn or time. The Bight of Benin. Bough-pot. its kind. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. nave of a wheel bothel. Alpine Re- — gions. a bound. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to knock. by Bujns or Buns. a boss. mere. the bay of Benin. a button. or Bow-pot. bog. bend. To Bound. See To Bolt.— — — - 88 BOUGH .' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Dan. Bought. bun. a blow. to resound. butina. The branch of a tree. signifies a sliort thick mass. AS. debodinare. march. a blister. boh. botwm. bondir. Q. bay. a round body both. like bobbin. buUersten..

repartee. explaining Sw. a jibe Shaw bururus. — — — A pare. buzzing of bees. a humming noise. must be referred to the same root. to hum as a bee. to bulge. joke. in Fr. buigen. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. burlare. a pot. to pre2. bwa. Sc. patesten. buzz. bog. bordone. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bourdon. Bourdon. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. a humming noise Macleod. beygja. on the whole. tinton. bordon. to bow. the burden of a song. . Gael. biegen. firm. borne. Du. bourd. to — Hal. the fixed. Chaucer in R. . a corToward the garden. hous^ Man in the Moon. Du. a sing-song. saufen. bugne. Bourdon. good. bending. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bogna. burn. buizen. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . hence musical accompaniment. a. bdgi. a — — . When used alone it . gurgling. mockery. and that probably from a Celtic root. AS. Bret. Du. to draw a deep breath. . bovne. bow to shoot with. as was for. to our bous. is. set out. Burgeon. G. biugan. a well. purlBav. analogous to Fr. Fr. crutch. drunken. Bourd. bogr. burt. deceit. brummen. . fun of one . Dan. puff out. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him.bass of a stringed instrument. different modification gives ON. to drink deep.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. brausen. i. Bow. ing. like quaff. The foregoing derivation seems. bordo. G. ^<7r«i?. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. . sense durd. belly out. Cot. Spenser in R. burdan. bug. pausen. Dan. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. bage. It is remarkable that we find vary. Prov. Fr. game. the big end of a club. Du. to mutter. bonus. also the humming or ON. Immediately from Fr. cudgel. on. It is the participle past buinn. Goth.. Gael. to swell. Gael. bontS. bend. drink deep. a go to. It is bov. bov. staff. beogan. Bound. pot. ruption of bonne. epaule du vaisseau. Dan. Bounty. Dan. bunaiteach. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. whether by sound or gesticulation. a drone of a bagpipe. of the ON. Burden. Comp. G. bound. an arch. schenkelbug. A water. address. bausen. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. g. ready to pike or spear . springbiirn. sotich. sport. — — . to indulge in his cups . bog. buys. to bow or incline the . bogen. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. the shoulder of the vessel. pre. to tope W. bugna. cheat. Borden. ridicule buirte. a brook. head Fr. A —Cot. potio.which see. addressed to. to hum. bugan. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. bending. a. to take breath. from spring. a for New York. to take deep draughts. Gael. language of folly or ridicule. to tope. w. their time -With "wailful tunes. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. to banter or laugh at. — probably through this latter signification. bending of a joint knie-bug. to drink deep. Lat. that ON. a from Du. And there in mourning spend Sw. flagon. lance. way ba7n. limit. kroes. Sw. Fr. spelling the word iox bound. verb bua. bagna. drone of a bagpipe. As the Gael. prepared for. pusta. buga. ready. a drone or dor-bee. grumble Sw. Sp. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. burdan. the Bourdon. spring. the ting of a bell. bugna. when we speak of. jest. a mill-post. trick. bonitas. to take one in. to draw a deep breath. Eown. It. a jibe. a cup kroesen. bogha. to tipple. Sw. whence buysen. buyse. souf. to trick. fresh* water. bourdon. purra. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. brunna. a bow. has also buirleadh. G. burreti. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. a prop. steady. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. curvature. Cot. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. identical with E. The meaning of bound. pared. Swiss bausen. warbling. it is probable that the It. schulter-bug. are applied to the bow of a ship. sausen. bend Sw. or of an Gael. taunt. So Sc. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. btiga. burd. Gael. . shoulder-blade. bue. bommen. Sw. bourde in the same sense. .

heafod bolla. then by the loss of the /. and to a coachbox in particular. beuz. boss. a black pudding. A Bulk. buxus. boor. bola. a bubble Fin. bouellou. bow. koziel. a buck. Thus we have Esthon. bog. cumena-bur. bhugna. bwr. boss. globular. Lat. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. bugna. pullo. belly of a cask. busskai. Hal. kupula. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. convex. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. fyn. bolle. budel. a little box . the barrel of a gun. boudin. The / a bow. a parlour. . budello. a round glass or bolg. similar shape. different position in ODu. bowel Box. Hence. a box. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . hill. ON. to stoop. bulka. kupu. in walking appears in a . guestchamber . ttuJic. Fr. bugyola. Sp. or in e. a bundle. ON. the bogna. give in to. Gr. the box-tree and articles made of it G. bossola. Sanscr. to puff up. bubble. a hen-coop . bug. kuppelo. bolla. a box. a chamber swefnbur. W. bowels. dial. a hump on the back rossbollen. blister. with inversion of the round. zich onder jemand under to him. a knot. to bend down. Bohem. intrenchment. boxtree pusska. make obeisance. water pulli. bulla in aqua. ku^o. a box. a drop of pullistaa. beutel.\s. . tumour . It is more probably from the G. . . . folliculus . swoUei) Lat. See MHO. pusspan. polla. bucka. bolgna. a bowl. In like manner the Pol. See Crab. Buckle. a bubble. the skull or brainpan . a sack. bog. globular body. E. to guggle. to puff up pullakka. as in E. buis. lump . bulla. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. buello. mausbollelein.) to incline oneself . Boll. box in both senses. a bubble. anything globular. the head. signified by forms like Gael. a ball. bouzellou. From the other form are G. kupukka. bowl . the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bolla. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. ken. a polla. head of a cabbage. Bower. the box-tree. a swelling or rising up. round glass phial. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. bent.D. stream forth bugyogni. ^o/a. trestle. as in AS. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bulk compared with Sw. bock. a sleeping-room . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. . a thing of liquid. AS. gut. tumour. . busse. swell. to raise the back boll OHG. to stoop biickling. a protuberance. bol. iri'iaQ. box. the head. buk. is applied to a coach-box. at the e. botulus. without the and grits. bhuj. fata-bur. hollow. Bav. to buckle G. bulb of an onion bolleyield. a ball. a bubble bolli. Dan. ^o«/«. sausage. Cable. a box Lat. . bugy.). . bulge. boel. Du. a. to bend. . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. W. Sw. Sw. Dan. belly. hiidel. . buckel. Sw. globe or spherical body. knob From the former modification we have bolla. . — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. * Bowels. compared with Fr. belly. bogla. buga. . bosso. a wardrobe . boucle. a stud. Du. The word may probably be identical with Fris. hollow place Fr. wisp of straw . painter's easel. ask. an inclosure. (in pass . Fr. . Bret. bwra. bol. biisse. G. A . See Boil. OE. AS. a pot. a box. ON. spring as water bugya. buigen. crown of a hat. a bud. to bulge. PLD. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. honse-bur. . bocka. bugyni. to swell. . biicken. . a ball . . bur. passing on stud. purse. bubble. bolne. bollen. buchsbaum. in both senses. biichse. bukke. a separate apartment . of a wooden ball to play with and — . G. . an outhouse AS. convexity. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. or. crooked. round bead. boil. acsian.cup Du. as well as the name of a. buckelig gehen. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a croft by a house. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. spherical Dan. Bret. to bow buck. biiske. hollow wooden case.a. bur. . .flask It. . &c. bow. puffy. the crop of a bird. . utibur. bulcken. to bubble up. bulne. Du. prominence. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. Fr. bending. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. Pol. bugyani.). a wine-can . a boil. bouge. a the other by the loss of the / into ON.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. the box-tree It. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. to make crooked . The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. . ne. boxtree. w.. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. and on swollen. inclinare se (Kil. a iDubble.. Bowl. to yield to one. pocket. OFr. peated in Magy.

breuque. disturb. bube.puddle. boy. break. bresta. a box. Bracelet. brack.. Fr. Swiss Rom. moral or physical. rakki. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. posh. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. ing from a mixture of salt. mud.with a noise. braco. salo sive aqua marinS. OE. bracke. a grown youth Cimbr. It. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. brostia. In like manner the It. brabbelen. ghebreck. con. brago. to give a gebrechen. Prov. brek. is a rope holding G. cramp-iron holding things together . dog Sw. . the arm. jabber. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. Pm. to slap. as noticed under Box. It. BOX To Box. fault . an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . or defect. want. bruxula. to stammer. To brace is to draw together. to burst. briche. bue. Du. — . Sp. Ptg. Fr. s. to give a sounding blow defect. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. a girl. mud. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. refuse. baukscheht. bracer. matter. Brackish. brechen. Water rendered boubo. brae. defect. by an overflow of sea water. Swab. . Heligoneed. Brak-goed. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. in R. braco. It is B. Kil. to be wanting.— D. Brack.nated by dirt. variation of babble. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. pus. brageuses. To Brabble. pupus. bracco. foul. brace on and Du. confining. clay. breach.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn.. dirty. wristband. bracket. fuse. boussole. pube. . unmarried man . a crack.D. to box the ears. rakka. . . . or bracer Cot. braic. Lat. babble. defect Du. rakke. Sp. &c. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. Gael. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. bask.. — . to want. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. A brace probis. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. spaniel. parallel with OK. to is derived brestr. defect. The different meanings of the brageux. to fall. Sp. One girl. boy bouba. Thus brack. Cot. bray. boiste. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. flap.. baske. brechen ihm. a boy pupa. G. braca. and F. Prov. taneous talking. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . bracha. a braceOFr. bitch Du. A — — . V. to Swiss batschen. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. s. strike. brakke grund. It. loud smack. See Broker. Rouchi Then as an adj. filth . beagle. Boy. Fr. Pr. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. — . — . I sal slyng. dog in general. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. corruptse. G. Lett." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. fault. AS. buah. to crack. brae. the first instancebya physical tie. ON. a bog or pass Fr. OFr. a pair of braces. Bracket. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. Hdcart. To fight with the fists. brack. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. odorinsecus. which sigof straining. flaw. Brack. from a root brak. brek. Prov. brae. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. race. armour for the arm. braque. bou^ba. Kil. murmur. isolated part of the text. lalear-eyed Prov. brae. 91 the Dan. Du. his eyes are failing him). to stutter. breptati. ' — A — — — . flaw. bouibo. bragos. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . La ville ou y avait Brace. . bracon. MHG. let. root). OFr. wnzC/J. wrack. and string of his bow. brassard. Pl. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. an languages. mud. brasselet. in R. quarrel Bohem. brakke Bracelet. Brach. compressing. . Prov. ratch. youth. by the same inversion of J and k.D. whelp as. brec. merely in our mode of considering them. Kil. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. want. — — . A to halt between two derivations. a sounding blow. See Brake. which has many representatives in the other Europe. a guard to torf. acidus. want. brague. and then Pl. braquet. — . bracil. breach. a comworld Rayn. land spoilt Kil. braecke. Swiss bub. to give a blow with the fists. a bubbling dura del mun. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. to smack the hand batschen. On the same principle from the buksteht. priated to the original sense. Fr. . salsus. need. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. suppuration. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. then from break. dog that hunts by scent. rack. damaged board a ship. ON. thwack. land batsken.

— From W. Langued. in the sense of the Lat. gorgeous. brachittm. .i5nz^. brave.explosion. gallant (in apparel) also proud. bragio. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. valiant The head are sumptuous. to rattle.aburst. crack. also tion of this was brayeul. Thus we are brought to the OE. brails. braicli. brabhdair. . Cot. brave. swaggerer. Brake. To Brail. to make a noise. 92 Cot. Thus Bret. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . stately.%. fine. brazo. blusterer. braga. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . dhbrailler. proud. — Chaucer. Fris. is Cot. binding anything together. idle talk. in order to prevent its catching the wind. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. Sc. flaunt in fine clothes . But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. . the arm. power. be noisy . BRAG Piedm. confining. a carriage for breaking in horses . From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. spot. boasting. fine. drawers. vanter une chose. bullying. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. and that from e. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. stout. an inclosure for cattle .—— . brake in the sense of constraining. as the type of exertion and strength. . Fr. brag. Chaucer. gayly dressed. Bray. to Rouchi brMer. It is certain that the word for arm is. vain glory. breyne. and it is very likely that the root brak. brave. Brail. Wallachian bratsou. . — Equivalent forms are Gael. Dan. to swagger. the feathers ON. brae. h-avare and Fr. smart. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. se parer de beaux habits. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. Cot. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. bravado j Fr. to strut. See Brace. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . It. braegenj Du. excellent. . breghen. de Vaud. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. fine. in numerous dialects. From brayel. Hence E. . Brake. torture . that will carry no coals. splendid. bushy . also insolenter se gerere . gallant. braske. bravo. brag or jet it braguard. Lith. or by gaudy dress and show. to sprout malt. Brag was then used brisk. From Fr. —Spenser in R. i.. braske. braver. hectoring. to cord a bale of tie up. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. riches. brag. Cot. ^Brave. breghe. bragaireachd. bra!. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. would be to brace. AS. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel .breeches. Rom. 2. w. breagh. to stand upon terms. brao. to shout. is identical with Gael. Primarily to crack. fine. courageous. brabhdadh. Bret. also derived Fr. a roisterer. Sp. brave. braszketi. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. braga.hy which this idea is con\eyed. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Dan. empty pride. . to boast or brag. bragging. subigere. braggard also valiant. See Bray. Bret.. affront. to crack. strength. noisy ostentation. — . compressing. or from braie itself. subduing. to brail up a sail. &c. brav. breach. se donner trop de licence. gay. expensive. crash. braga. braw. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. The meanings of brake are very numerous. braka. make a noise . braies. slight modificajoining the two legs. about the hawk's fundament. be found.Shepherd's Cal. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. vaunting. bravache. brayete. the opposite of which. to boast of his own worth. bragd. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). a noisy talkboasting. swagger. bully . crash ON. bravacherie. Turk bazu are used in both senses. braguer. The meanings included under — Bragget. A — Hal. showy bravery. gay. finery. Walloon bress. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. Hecart. beautiful. called by our braggard. braka. Faire le brave. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. To Brag. Fr. To Braid. goods. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . to unbrace or let down the breeches. Lat. well-dressed. flaunting. boast. bragging of his own valour. brave. handsome. brake is. The plant y^r«. was formed brayele.^ Sp. Brain. From sprouted corn. — A — .^Vocab. an iron for holding Zalli. ative fellow. used in the sense of force. to flaunt. Haldorsen Gael. cry. se pavaner.

In the sense of a thicket. Voc. properly braking or subduing them. to head must be bit. flachs brechen. Fr. broilium. Gael. Dan. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. a stream. in usus braca. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. cover G.D. to rub. to stiffen against Taboada). bregar brake. been confounded with the verb break. gebroge. might come to signify a swamp. gebroge. to subdue. subigere. ^raca.' It. broillet. pasture. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brolium. a thicket. to pound. brego. G. braken. word. gebiisch. brogille. as in Sp. to break or fracture. marsh or swamp. broil. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. . braecken het vlasch.bracan. bredza. braca. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. to exert force in different ways. it is not surprising that the word has here. to bray in a mortar. — Fl. to break. a horse's a horse's twitch. to bend or direct a cannon. to break. brook. dial. for — Due. el arco. nemus. brushwood. braeken. brog. brake. brak is a frame in which strip. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. P&. the original meaning of G. It. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. braquer un canon. 3. is formed murd. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. to fracture. a fen. gilum. quarry from Fin. Corrfeze bredgea. iSpsx". briser. as in the case of horse-breaking. bush. bush. —Ovid. as in Du. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. have thus Du. break flax PLD. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. riguus. Swiss Rom. or a wood in a marshy place . brog above mentioned. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. braka. game. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. a spinning-wheel. Dan. glebas subigere. Pl. e. murran. breaking in the operation. tris). It. to harrow (Lat. —Bracken. Fr. to row. To the same bend a bow. brage. marsh. and G. broeck. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. Gr. brambles. conSo in G. brage. is braukti. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground.D. brog or brake. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . low wet land bruch.— . by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Sp. referred brake. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. broor bushy place Hal. Fr. t° moisten. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to brush. a marsh. briers. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. in northern climates. break of such a kind. Prov. Dan. cetur. It may be sus- . a harrow. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. where from Esthon. tnurdma. gebroge. bushes. murrokko. brambles. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. In like manner Lat. brake. frangere linum. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. de Vaud. broyer. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. farinam in mortario subigere. signifying to sweep. Lat. We — . or overthrow of trees by the wind. OFr. brcekke. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. to knead or mix up in a mortar. broken fratta. thicket. gebrUche. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. or A A ' . In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. fratto. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. and when once thrown down. murtaa. the lever by which the string was drawn up. as well as in the case of the e. bregar. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. copse-wood.. Biglotton. a swampy Mid. — — . watered. BRAKE to external force. brook. and Lat. brega. 2. bregille. to bend a bow. Brake. to The ON. breuil. The Fr. brook. thing is brought under control. casser le \va. ing of flax or hemp. In ON. bruch. any thicket of brakes. In the case of the ne. a brace on board a ship. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. gebrUche. Brake. to distinct. which originally designated a broken mass of wood.

brushwood. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. G. bramble Du. Thus we have w. brenna. E. brem. Diez. In like hrst. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. also a marshy low ground or fen . the bull-finch.D. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Thus in Lat. brancas. bromboli. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. . bit by bit. heath. brank. w. It. brugek. That beareth the red hepe. brandmurk. or other plants of a like nature. Fr. . breme j Sw. iii. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. a halter. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. prufye. Bramble. Sir Topaz. brass." The bmno a • on . Rouchi bren d'orMe. as. Bran. . a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. heath ON. heath. sedge burkni. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. brang. branche. from brug. Brancare. Bret. the leafless plant of which besoms are made.). Branch. virgultum. brin (as It brano). . a dunghill. from Lat. to bridle. a small deri\'ation . Brand. a briery plot. Fr. 1 8. the thorn apple or stramonium. restrain. heath. gebriiche.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. bruskoad. a thick bush. hallier. brandiiialil. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. in the sense oi fern. to brank. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . — . a roA. compress. heath. excrement. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. sprouts. thorns and Gen. brin d. a bud. berneux. It. brenn hesken. nasty. Gael. dirt . . sweet broom. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. piecemeal brindelles. Broom. &c. bran. Pl. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. ground full of briers. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brwnt. from brand. Brank. . brein. pfropf. brug. brok. Bret. a single plant of heath. a shrub . Thornas and bremelas. and thence a shoot. ear-wax mud. burning brennen. what is cast out as worthless. braeme. G. bushes. a burning fragment of wood. it glitters — — . Russ. But we find It. in the same sense. and E. and waste growths. from Servian pnit. briars. as AS. from gaggi. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brouskoad. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. broembel-CBppel. The naof strain. may be so called in analogy with Bret. AS. brom. bran. a bridle or bit . breanan. brenn. a bud It. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. G. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. to -brugen. from virga. pected that brake. brosst. clutch. to gripe. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . cabbage sprouts Fl. broem. apiece orbitbrandone. A mark made by burning. Piedm. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brous. constrain. brarn. . brog. bruch. brin. brano. i. ordure . —Ducange. broust. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. &c. is the draff or excrement of the com. The same form becomes in It. chaff. brank. Fr. broom. So Swiss gaggi. Bret. bruk. breun. pfriem in the sense of an awl. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. bruk. . .. brejo. the branch of a tree. a shoot or twig. young twig {brom-beisser. or with It. 2. Dan. piece of anything. broom. bren. titio. brambles. bro7n.G. that is to say. a vine twig Bav. branchia. braam. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. thicket of brambles Cot. broussaille. bren. brand. brenda. brake. See Brush. brug). pfriemen. Bret. bretnel. bruk. brandr. Bav. w. heath (Bret. a shoot. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. branco. It will be found that shrubs. bronbo. cack. a bud. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . Serv. brandello. young buisson fort epais. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. or ling. a firebrand. Gael. wood composed of twigs. bracken or fern . the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. As ON. Grisons bruch. brughera. — branca. snotty . The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. to burn. a heath. a rod or twig. sawdust. a shrub from Bret. also pfriemkraut. stink . bruch.D. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. gebroge. Pl. Fr. broccoli. Port. G. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. to or iron.

To brase AS. It. flagrans. — . But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. and branchis shaiand D. Formerly brandy-wine. With top trimbling. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. was in use Fr. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to brandle or The It. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. brandende wijn. bransle. shake. bragia. to hurl with great force. — . Manx bransey. brasca. so. braza. the spelling to kindle. Fl. bracea. brouir. brandolare is exbrandish. WaUon. — ting to confusion. to shake. brangle or brawl in E. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. to rustle. brausen. branler. to burn. bruire. n. the colour than hitherto known. put. to murmur. ish. make an outcry. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to blaze. Port. G. N. Fr. briiler. a stick. braise. brandiller. set on fire. e. and bruir. V. brandigh. braser. to bicker 2nd. to shake The word brisil. So. bruciare. firebrand. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. forms brasil. crackle. Milan. In the same way the set on fire . Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. Kil. a round dance. crackle. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. The tre brangillis. Jam. to solder iron. Chron. brennen. firewood. bracia. spirit distilled from wine. brush. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. given to the country. noise. Lye. Brase. make a — . bransella. Brasil. apparently very distinct from each other. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. 59. It. ist. prasseln. aqua ardens. Thus the bound up again. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. branler. as again by well as the blade of a sword. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. and scold. To brand. is bntan. or in stick. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . all. brasca. The name Brandy. Bret. bresil. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. perplex. bragale\ wood. De Goes. Braser. to burn. bra?ier. to sound of the Fr. G. braise. to make sense of a bright red dye. to totter. a brusler. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. to braze or lute. brandiller. comes from thence. Fr. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. to brangle. distilled wine. Hume in brand in ON. Fr. morsel. to roar. to Bailey. It. to dash. E. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. De Barros considers vinum ardens. brasa. from used in dyeing cloths. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to brandle. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. bryne. gebrannter wein. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Fr. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. incendium. E. before the discovery of America in the brandir. The corresponding form in Gael. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. eldibrandr. splinter. brasa. as Jamieson explains it. Guill. to brustle. to shake. a fragment. Brangle. to make shine with shaking. brasil. from to vociferate. faire fracas.^Brandle. Sw. brastlian. Ija. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. — . Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. bruzi. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. not.. urens. hoisting to the fall. d'Angl. to quarrel. glowing embers . brand. a roaring fire. Chron. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. to confuse. weinbrenner. brascct. brustle. Du. Sw. totter. as Fr. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. to glisten or flash. Diez. Gris. in Marsh. Fr. live coals. bruan. hot Fr. AS. to and fro in the hand. Bailey. plained by Florio. bum. a To Brandish. billet. to make display . brin. conbillet. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. fire-wood. to crackle .well. to distil . to shog. branla. then brandr. brus^. brane-wood. stake. became ashes Pied. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to French brawl or brangle. du Roi et laine.pan of coals. a pan of hot coals. brazil. brazeiro. braise or hot coals. to burn. embraser.

baltresca. frame of laths. Dan. brandillo. brett. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. to braze. brazen. Lorraine bravon. fraiche. Pm. breyon. I. a rag . apron. the buttocks. — Deutsch. bras. bretesque.— Diez. a. borderinge. a contemptuous name for a young child. is The word — uous name for a woman. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. bratach. ' A vraale. a fortification. A land of dance. solder. a wooden tower. as rashers upon quick burning coals. neita girl). See Brandish. breyon d'chaur. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal.— Remade. Gael. a Lap. KiL Prov. bronzacchiare. Cologne broden. The same correspondence is seen between It. Brattice. squall. &c. to copper. W. ON. bronzare. It . Fr. brat. A. Cot. brces. Kil. as lattice. slibro. OFr. G. a lump of flesh. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . from Fr. a rag . Paris. ship. bransle. braion. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. bred. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. bartising. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). boarding being sbranare. flesh of a leg of pork. Sp. from branler. Florio. 1156. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. bradon. braser Fargent. bran. discord. Brave. It. or whether it be from Fr. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. —^Bronze. ferruminare. Certainly a little girl.brettysing. berd. to tear piecemeal. a parapet. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. a slabbering-bib. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. The muscular part of the body.' BRASS BRAY et AS. 2.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. breteque. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water.— Fl. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. brass. Brangle. braede. boutures. bronze. Betrax of a —^Jam. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. any piece. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. bartisan. A dispute or squabble. Hist. a loud noise.propugnaculum. Cot. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. and bronzo. brdto (ace. Jam. as criailler of crier. whether contracted from brabble. P1. bruir. a contempt- banner. to Gael. A. strepitus 2.D.walle — Pr. frequentative of braire. bralle. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. a battle-girdle. bratidone. especially that used in the working of iron . — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. deblaterare. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Wall. buttock Sc. brettys.96 Roquefort. slut. AS. a plank or board. a clout. rag. a lath. a cloak. tasce. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. pan- — Rayn. in the first instance of boards. OHG.' Hal. then a parapet. to talk at bralle op. Brat. brat. Westphal. It. Bartizan. Bailey. a mantle. . braiio. at brasa. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis.— Braid. See Bray. Fr. —-Jam. saillies. luncheon. braon. Math. Sup. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Brass. equivalent to the Du. a patch of cloth. Du. cob. breyon de kinds of . slakker-bortchen. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Many gambes. braeye. branle. from Sc. as a brawling brook. a rag. ni autres choses sur Due. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. esbraotier. Mundart. Pisana in Mur. Brawn. a lump of flesh. roar. bradlete. lat'te. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Sc. bratdn). coassatio. muscular parts of the body. to scold . pil. The verb is probably derived from the brase. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. to solder. braoilich.D.^ — Sverris Saga. calf of the leg. For the application to a^child compare Bret. contignatio. bribe de viande. slibro {neita. Swiss bradle. braodhlach. OFr. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. bmhon for brado7i. to shake. Fr. trul. to cry. as scrawl from scrabble.D. Circumeunt cibertesca. le repasser un peu sur la braise. Brawl. Fris. ^Altieri. — . bratid calf of the leg. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. cloth. to carbonado. brailler. So also See Brag. burning coals. 368. a lump. brat. 1224. calf of the leg. the calf of the leg. a — A from the confused noise. noise. or on the top of a wall. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. bretays). bretesche.

g. augnabragd. and to signify the fracture itself. to break. disturbance. fractus j Gr. braidir. R. abraid. to resemble. braidar. to bawl. Fin. verb to break. Chaucer. From the or brack in a wall. V. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. D. Dunbar braessem. noise . to the seijauntes. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to break. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. ybrayid. resound . brand. to resemble him. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. Fr. bragd — ON. a wink. ^p&xia. crash. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. a brack. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. — koa. ON. as the voice of the ass. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. soft . Bret. Cot. bratsche. and fracasously. bregar. regi. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. Breach. G. which has given much trouble to commentators. to braid. R. a brake for hemp or flax. relation is seen between Lat. D. F. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. crepo and E. brice. rogi. See Brake. to crash. yell. weave The ON. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. And with a traid I tumyt me about. bruzir. braire.^ Fr. 2. and frangere. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. to resemble. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. paxog. to rush. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. 7 . twist. to roar. to smack or the eye. to tear Bret. to scold. the miller's dog. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. . and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. instantane. is . with or without a final d. broad. a . baiyl. W. OE. to bellow. brak.ear rog. Ppvxia. bray.. make a disturbance. a rag f . E. to bray like an ass. and make a hideous noise. cyprinus latus. braa. brage. to N. braid. riAprjyvvfu. The Lat. braea. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. the sword was out break. to start. a crash. ON.y. breuan. rattle. to braid the hair. a breach Cot. will. appearance Hal. as the notion of turning crack. Prov. upbraid. to have the lineaments of one's ON. crackle . Wal. the sound — of arms. brugier. ser. The ON. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. kind. bragd is also applied nets. to sound very loud and very harshly. Bread. breach. to The cup was uncoverid. to break Fr. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. I'll live and die a maid. to knead. 145. at once. in Jam. brame. yell. paste or dough.fracas. &c. the clash of ai-ms Dan. as OE. to rumble. father. to pretend. e. brak. Bailey. plait. bragr. roar. breche. imitate or resemble one. to bray in a mortar. Goth. to break. Swiss bratschig. a mill. &c. to braid. ing. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to braid acquires the sense of bend. on. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. brikan. Then is simply. to rub Fr. or cry out loudly . iU-favouredly — in Jam. explaining a very obscure application of the E. To Break. fish. — — — explained motus loud noise. — . Prov. to roar or bellow. AS. Bread. i. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. Du. braa. bregda. fragor. gestus. to roar as the sea. at braga eftir euium.ch. at a braid. rangere. Cat. Q. V.' To Bray.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. broyer. to cry out. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. G. Fr. . brot. Then. Beryn. bregar. bruire. starts crackling up. crash. or wound. brechen. to snatch. Gr. To rub or grind down Sp. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. &c. Chaucer. &c. vapna-brak.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. V. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. to t. bradar. D. turn. Lat. a rent. k. mos. father. to cry out. rustle. to work up in a mortar. bru. to crash. The same He might don us both a villany. roar. to cry Port. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. . And at a braid he gun it bende.

brasser. from ligare. are related to Prov. braca. but more probably the E. brossi!. Dev. a crum Du. to crackle. met de bridse slaan. burst. G. brimsa. Bret. Briss and buttons./ssus. cloven. briste. in Schilter. bris. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. forms analogous to E. Swiss AS. brut. an into shiver. de bridse geveii. so AS. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. binding. point to G. sprouted corn. brasiuiii. then to broil. brinisa. break. Russ. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Hume in Jam. little bits of wood Berri briser. G. a twitch for a horse. to feize or feaze. E. brcekur j It. chilly. . See Brick. Bracha. bra. Swiss Rom. rubbish. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. i5r(Z^. Swiss brdtsch. braucn. Piedm. to bind. braies. — And blood. remains of leaves. bris. chillness or shivering. one on the breech so that (klatschet). breost. malt. applied to shivering. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. &c. brasiare. the soler. to resound. Breeches. the dry spines of furze broken off. . — — strument for smacking. . as. to fry Then from a Gl. crush. brise. grill. to crush to break. britze. Fr. to burst. brciz. brumtnen. from brace. Breeze. QNtsterviald) pritschen. murmur—Vocab. fail. braciarc. braich. corresponding to G. broden. To Brew. It. Breeze. a to lay fly-flap. to smack. bremse. bryi^ga. Du. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. a crum. brison. a smack. as in the case of twitter. to fry . The Breech (Prov. OFr.D. The Teutonic verbs. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. Biglotton. Du. G. of straining. a horse's twitch. bridsen. brodem. griller. Du. of trees. E. Isidore and Tatian. bre- I'os qui bresole. a cold and windy mist or frost . trembling. bracecs . G^nev. bragues. brew. Prov.britschen. to bray. Dtyden. w. bruzir. to breech. bandage or truss for a rupture. simmering. — . Hence the Lat. broil. Du. Prov. and other rubbish dibris. Fr. brimme. the bust. Gl. instead of being derived from 'La. Breast. Lat. bresilles. We bragezj on.). A fierce loud buzzing breeze. a cramp-iron for holding things together. briiz. briosa. with It. from AS. grillen. Fris. may be from the wurh fesser. brissle. broza. murmur. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Originally probably the word signified steam. brisd. So ON. to brew. brugga. PI. a girdle. xyligogio castigare. braies. to shiver for cold. peitschen. malt. siibligar. properly to crackle. brosame. briig. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. polenta. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. to roast. a cool wind. brcEth. braga.t. body brostia. de Vaud. zare. clout for a child. to brew. Compare OE. . to buzz. to rattle (as hail). briosa. Breath. noise. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. are in like manner ' . an odour. brijselen. brusc. — Brist. bruc. . coaldust. — See Broth. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack.vare. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. — Halma. representing the sound of a blow. bruzun. morsel. Bret. AS. bruise. simmer. breinse. to murmur. Dan. broiiwen. Bruise. dial. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . sheep's droppings bruss. scent. brodel. —Briss. brisciare. Sw. brisoler. the breech or buttocks. drawers. a gadfly. b}-as. bretilles. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. and brought beneath between the legs. breson. einem de britze geven. as.'— Gl. a box. breath. switch. forms. to whip. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. Rom. bark Fr. trusts. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. briosat'. brok. .98 borst. Lat. brijsen. and E. Breeze. to break. singing bone. as by the Sc. bris de charbon. brezling. Piedm. breeze. subligaculum. G. also to chill and shiver with cold. breme. brire. as the G. Gael. of E. rubbish. brist. Gl. to hum. braguier. grillare. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. vapour. /esses. braux. brezza. their stings draw . brdtschen. fitzen. brezzare. brache. to be misty and cold. G. — .) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. brustia. Goth. braca. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. or the blow itself. Brize. to simmer. windy withal. braia J OFr. as commonly explained. fastening . bratscher. braie. AS. orts. Fr. braga. Gael.

BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. pavement. . See Broth. fraoch. It. from Bridegroom. remarkable that the Gr.rough with brambles and bushes. or brizo. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. briwo. appropriate. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. bryd-gutna. but to a paved road. crew. from the last 99 of which. broosekens. Gael. Bribe. has briguer. bride. a rogue . to break to pieces bricalio. Brique. briicke. brar. Diefenbach com. pavement Lith. brigata. Lat. Gl.groom.privatus. . Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. the newly. a heath. . whence berw. and ODu. Walach. brigantine. a brig or priodor. broken. funeral. brique de pain. married. . Du. Mid. Brier. httle bit. betonica. a Bride. it is applied to the letter to OE. bruskr and buskr. bably contracted from brigantine. broken bread. Flor. Bridal. Hence OE. brittil. bribour. E.gfiugga. ' . to tlie brico. to boil. son. brau. brygga. W. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. Brick. Thom. nurus G. Priodi. Brigade. a wedding priod-fab. hlafes brice. lipdZu}. Neumann. beaten way Dan. to pave brukkti. — . a briole. peculiar. buckler J ON. Fr. bryd-eale. Dan. Lang. .It. E. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. from bit. buskins. to press. privus. brug. birbone. berwi. bruk. sugga. bidsel. especially to a letter or command. Bridle. Ihre. fastningar-ol. priod-ferch. a cheat. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. Pro(merch=:maid). . bride. Gael. from Bret. fervere. a fragment. a crum. brukkas. Diez. stone-bridge bnikkoti. the equivalent of to the dial. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. So It. sponsa. as so. . bridelj OHG. boiling up brocoliere. conjux. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. brere. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . to break. Cot. and that from It. Sp. a lump of bread briber. Brief. with transposition of the r. ibrukkti. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. to rub. AS. to brew. groom (mab=:son). any jot or crum. ap. Grisons bruch. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. In the G. a proprietor. feast. guma. to boil. AS. bro. frayer. collect bits of food. — — — — — — . of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . birbante. daughheath. a fragment. Goth. is still used in this sense. corresponding or letter. Bridal. brA. jetty. brilt. arf-ol. brakes of high-grown ferns. betony brulicame. a boiling.Fr. brocaly. If the foregoing were not so clear. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. malt. brigade. bridge. OSw. one's ovin. to stamp. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Due. malt. bara briw. brice. a bride Brig.pritil . owned also propriate. Ducange. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. Pol.bergantino. AS. to pave. thick appropriated. fit. bruarium. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. brahi. barren land priodas. E. priod. Rouchi brife. a beggar. ' — . feast of espousals. gf2o. ment of anything broken. bitill. to prepare. bribe de pain. brood. G^n^v. twopares Lat. bricge j G. a heath brughera. to boil. Bridge. a bride. brutg. bro. a crum. masted vessel.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. a lump of bread. heath. Fl. a married man guma. bretonica. Fr. then the marriage itself. to circulate.. a bit. troop. graf-ol. . A bribe is A — — arval. and berweddu. Hdcart. In the patois of briccia. E. It — is Kil. of burial. bro is applied not only to a bridge. to beg one's bread. pavement brolegge. ter-in-law. a lump of bread. to appropriate. a sow. So in The Prov. bruyere. bo. The Sw. a little king's writs. OHG. w. A — A — . a bush. bygga. piece of burnt clay. ON. to press in. AS. briw. Fr. in the sense of OSw. bricou. The origin of the word is the w. to meet together. brughiera. BRIGADE dead. as. breve or brevis. jipaaaiii. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. a rogue. a married man or woman Lat. AS. Applied ous words derived from break. broken victuals. company. AS. a man. . It. Trovarfor bride-ale. brasser. served (Patois de Bray). bruith. division of an army. fragment. the Fr. consort with. Brewis. which however is undoubtedly from brace. from the Normans. briiths. brieden. imprint. berwedd. bruk. but probably Bricoteau. pier. grug. to Isrew. two-masted vessel. braut. — . In E. bread. a quoit of stone. bulicame. the marriage si in brigata.

and diligence. to strive for. briga.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Lat. splendour. clear sound. tinkle. to reservavit. bragen. — A A . brigan. glbram. praht. cange has 'Veles. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. a sound. bray. glamra. with respect either to sound or colour. Gall. Heo — song That AS.shine. malandrini. the gleeman's song. there are many armour. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. brigare. and to associate with them. a brigantine. —Capgrave. bregar. in later times a robber or highway-man. is easily understood. to cry 'Schmid OE. to glamr. at a later period. outcry. inde squammatus. From ON. a small light pinnace pro. the grew high. Mid. schiteren. It. Swab. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set .D. brcEhtin. to piracy. transparent.— . 1351. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. to cry. AS. shriek with laughter. — Beowulf. Xa/iTTii). similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. himself to serve men of merit. clang. may play the pirate or thief at sea. hell. splcnornd de brigandine. A.glampa. brak. rixa. bright bearhtm. OHG. tinnitum clarum movco. clangour. a pirate. kilistua. Adelung. It. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. Wilista. It. glitter. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. tion. jurgia. See Brake. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. brigare.Lat. wilella. moment. Goth. Beorktode bene sweg. representing a sudden noise. and secondly. twinkling. Du. splendens . Bav.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. Gr. labour. to bend a bow It. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. secondarily. loo BRIGAND lor. bryhtm. — brigante. and hence be explained glampi. brdgen. to shine. Flor. glir. — Probably then to strive. to ring. splendour. They or brigantini. squamma . brigandare. Florio. A strepere. strife. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. show the origin of Lat. bairhts. kii:'a. to make a loud noise. bracht. XafXTTpoQ. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey .dorem clarum reflecto. glamm. a glittering. tuilahtaa. brigant. to shift for with care. \oice. schateren. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. tinnitus. clarus. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. Brilliant. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. pugna. riis ' — Chron. Brigand. — Briganbriga. and the E. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. manifest ON. to rob. — Due. brawl. in the sense of a robber. — — . The E. 312. . Owl and beorhtian. combat. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . 1654. and. to shine. clear. and. briga. necessary business. then. briegen. rover either by sea or land. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. So G. Bright. seems to be to exert force gar el area. tumult. to sound. lay was sung. to contend with another. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds.clare ^tinniens. . etincelle. to resound.' The sense of strife or combat express. a spark. Due. beorht. to rove. In the same way to strive is. and ner me hit iherde. to glitter. It. biartr. clare lucens. noise. on his — own account. The Ir. dine. the bench-notes resounded.pracht. dine. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. in the first instance. and led it away. speech. sound. willata. also called briganders. The primary meaning of Sp. braid.' in Due. clear. In Fin.' torum. from hall. brebrigare. clear.' The passage from the sense of a light. Schmeller. Brigata. — brigante. a noise. — Brigantine. that of Fr.

greDiet. to sound deep or hollow. AS. Lith. the meaning is transL' amour. bremmen. ON. to roar. to parch. to sparkle. bresoler (Gloss. to shimmer. gresiller. originally the lap folding over the breast. to twinkle. Prov. ling noise and a sparkling light. to creak. Swiss Rom. brommen. brandr and Fr. and 1. crackle . grdzil. barmr. to broil. bryn. briller. that the original meaning of the Sc. Thus Lat. Fl. from brandr. to make bilbil). ring. to shine. rugire. sparkle. Said of swine when in heat. kimmaltaa. to wish or covet. vigorHal. to glitter distance . kajata. glisten. griller). brim Magy. as of meat in broiling . pMiller. fringe . To Brim. to shine. Dan. Closely connected is OE. Brem. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. crackle. dial. a borDu. brim. brennistein. os qui bresole. The E. — g. Supp. breziller. noise made by meat in broiling. brummen : de soge brummet. brumft. Tresiller. In the same way Sw. hence the bosom. the edge. Hence with an initial s. or violent action. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. frequently interchange. bremmen. brastlian. as in Langued. is used of raging. It. briller (related to each other as OFr. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to make a crackling noise. bramer. earnestly . to burn.ioTiviS acutus. burning stone. rugire (cervorum.' d'etre marie . cross-barred in colour. Tutschek. surface of the ocean. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. Sw. Sc. the verbs Flor. to fret . barm-cloth or barmskin. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. chime). a streak. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Rugere. to shine. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. have then in Fr. which seems identical with rim. The meaning of the Fr. brimmen. broiled. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to quaver with the voice. fire. s. — — So Fr. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. . breme. — . identical with passion. It. griller. brmdottr. as well as bl and gl. brow of a hill. barm. griller d'impatience. — — — . the eye-brow. brillare. bar. broil . rym^. to . grisser. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. reecho. shine. the heat of animals. whence bilbil-goda (literally. fierce. fimbria) . border.' Elyot in Way. striped or streaked. a stick. sprainged. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. small gravel. brame. brant. brama. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. also to reflect. bramar. ON. and corresponding to these. The identity of ON. Subo. kiimottaa. kimina. 154. s. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. border. edge Pol. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. brisoler. bramire.its vent in cries and roaring. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Brimstone. gresiller. G. Wtb. a rod. coloured in stripes. brissle. bremas. Langtoft. to creak. E. the lap or bosom. the sow is brimming. perent. Rayn. on. clangor tinniens. (poet. . FJ. grullo.— BRIM .D. spraing. : ' — bone). to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brezil. to glitter. glit. — Rim. the singing of Sodom — — . border. burning. breme. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. brunft. bry7ie. der. ardere desiderio.). to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. an apron.preni. ter. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. AS. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). brummen. to long for a thing. Brim. briller. of the eye. brullo. 754. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. bray as an ass bramire. margin. as is the case also with Pl. to crackle. Streaked. kommata. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. to roar. vattubryn. to storm.— Brinded. sonitum edere bremen. komottaa. The expression is now confined to the sow. 1 1 64. rut. leonum). Brindled. brand-krossottr. Dief. Fr. A . brame. whether of desire or anger. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to utter cries. In Fr. . bramar. post. It. parched. breziller. beam. excited. lap of a garment . furious. finds the Fr. 1. greedily to covet Cot. ous. to glitter . a long. voux. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. to crackle. ON. grisler.) brimi. kimista. with an initial br instead of gr. komista. Du. to shake. brdnnsten. from bringe. Sc. the heat of animals. Kil. brinfire. a border. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. lip of a vessel. tience. lap. fringe (Lat. to resound.

brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. the surf. Fr. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. In the N. borzen. and Sc. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. setting the hair on end. to scorch. Da. lively. 222. to put one in a rage . Fr. bryde. ' breast. is to erect the hair. a stormy brimsea . of astonishment. from AS. to crack. to broil. brandello. the brisket or . brimhliod. to burn. .D. and forms on. brisk in taste. shoot. bryne. chest. to break. spricka. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. quick. to goad. bristly . has under It. to spur. brimme. Ptg. angry. Brittle. brot. Bret. i. to break. Berri. form bris. to thrust. brddj Goth. Then as the effect of shivering. to set up one's birse. brocher. against the grain . stitch. metaphorically. . can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. briser. — in Due. Du. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brittle. to roar. Hal. birse. thick — A elastic hair. Walach. to spit. to shoot.Lat. whence may be explained the Sc. Sc. bruched (Fr.. bricho (with the diminutives. rebursiis. a clasp. broccare. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Antiq. a morsel. bresk. Alfr. . as. trembling. a bit . Gl. It. bringue.' Nat. aculeus. brocciare. briota. 'In sua to stand up of Corn.). flame. a belly. suddenly angry. a rebours. bruskett. a brooch. coli. a button broche. man's throat. brcit. broca. to set it a going. Dan. rash. roar of the sea saltr. Commonly explained as from Fr. Russ. fiscbryne. brocco. Palsgr. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. fragile. rude. bringe traced through the brano. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. /3pE^m. brusk. borzos (struppig). bringe. apt to break. brime. brim. breaking out into growth. to shiver for Sold or for fear. Hence ribrezzare. a projecting tooth It. Compare also E. p.). Salte sand is called brimsand. a rod or twig. to bud. a bud. Bret. Prov. Gr. See Brand. reburrus. smart taste. crabbed. Boh. Du. . like the Broad. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. briocho. brim. fierce. sour. — . to birstle. Prov. brytan. Swiss to stand out . a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. saulmeure. very salt brimi. Russ. breidr. Brickie. brickie. to stitch. humorous. wine of a sharp. sprout. brijn (Kil. prick with Sw. rebrousser. eager. . to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Port. emotions which produce it. setting the hair on end compare It. to stab Gael. cK) the . a skewer. fantas'* tical. brocchus. Sw. startling. bronchus. birssy. 'V^. braidsj ON. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. brich. sharp. Fris. bruckle. flames. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. sprouts. a cold and windy mist or frost. Sp. an awl. a spit. Fr. Formerly written brotil. a slip or sprig of an herb .'— Vita'abbatum S. brote. brezza. a crum. brog. brusque. spur. byrst. Brisket. brocco. See To Brim. broccata. brisciare. to begin upon it. breaking of the waves brim sior. Brocade. . expression. grim. borstel. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. borst. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. brioshko. brichet. b. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. — A . ' . brin. the twigs of a besom. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Bristle. sticking up . as unripe fruits. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod.. NE. a morsel . ribrezzoso. birs.g. Lat. britar. brust. britar. a peg sbrocco. and hence. brim (poet. a bud. ON. The Pl. craw of a bird. a fragment. as a noun. Liquamen vel garum. Zeuss. bros. e. strong itself. Sc. hot-tempered. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Cot. or — . is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Pectusculum. of E. Fr. to broach a business. brodden. breast. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Fr. It. Abroacli. to stick. brittle. as. brissle. — bryme. broca. birstle. a shoot or sprig. brusco. brindelles de balai. Prov. Mid.rcendij'i. Fr. from break. birsle. Brym. a deluge. are used in the sense of brittle. britchet. to turn up the point of anything. broc. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. to break. bros. — — . brockle. ruffling. is called a birssy day. brocar. from brande. Bohem. broche. the surf. Brine. a stitch brocher. harsh vin brusque. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. sprocco. G. briota. Brooch. and. brissko). to spur. It. brezzare. It. or the full • . a brad or tack. Brisk.procio. as. See Spread.

to crackle.. Fr. bawling. Contracted from Fr. a point. bordar. E. Fr. braird. v. has grisser. the shoot of corn. fundamental origin. Ihre has guU-bord. broice. Thus brod. or It. spots. It. gold and silver. embroidering. Gael. to crackle. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. brasolare. brucach. silkes-borda. or snag. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. It of br the Fr. brastlian. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. freckled.sound. broc. brych. thread. creak. brasbrasciuolare. a freckle. initial . Dan. Compare G. here. piebald . R. broil. or salted fish on coals. bmsciare. brooked. a flock or Gael. or glowing coals broged. to On the other hand the Sp. brasiller. brindled. to knots or loops. tori shows that. to scorch. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. broud. to crackle. briefh. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. brusler. broglio. Surrey in R. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. broccato was used to signify stuff . broder. Icnotty. a brouhaha. brustle. brizen. Here to ornament with needle-work. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. scorch. a freckle. It. parch. a border ornamented with gold. speckled. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . kled breac. point to an origin in Bret. Bret. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. prod. bj'oil. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). a border. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. sparks E. A fried or boiled steaks). brocco. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. a prick. brasiller. hart of two years old. — . the line of development has been something different. to prick. bruler. of pointing out their latent defects. . The ON. brocart. noise. spotted. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. from the white. knobby . trouble. brullare. to burn. whence broccare. rinj'. b?-od. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. frocadura. a badger. B. The Bret. broukit. brychau. a brecJi. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. a fallingThe sense has been out. to crackle as a shell in the fire. and AS. storms. trouble. a b?-ustolare.tumultuous. to instigate. precisely analogous to the Sc. bramowanie. to broil. Brocket. to spur. to stud broccoso. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. ornamented with a raised pile. forming to jumble. So from Pol. ToBroider.— B. Compare also AS. birsle. bordo. and w. froco. frecSee Brawl. tumult broighleach. border. parched. brerd. carbonado. margin. Broker. — Fl. a flake of snow sion. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. 103 embroidered. broil. borprick. noisy. brouFr. parti-coloured. onbryrdan. a quarrel. to burn. brocach. Ptg. to embroider. A badger. ciare. grislement. shuffle. brusuole. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. brod. bustling. sting. Cot. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. dar seems derived from borde. . Hal. streaked. a brim. grullo. brucilare. speckled. bram. with Sc. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. AS. to parch or broil. embroidery. hurly-burlies. agree in being the extremity of a thing. q. to streaked or speckled in the face. a To Broil. to crackle. to boss. broiled. to embroider. brasuole. to darn. stump. border ornamented with silk. brouda. badger . Gael. that these are themselves modifications of a common original.. a peg. Sp. Florio. and bord or bred. Cot. briz. — The proper sense is that of Fr. houx. confound. brodio. breard. a mole. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. To roast upon hot coals. — — . brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. From direct imitation of Brock. Sc. prasseln. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. broc. atoms . — Gower in It. rustle. broighlich. tufted ornaments. gresiller. parti-coloured. blusters. motes. or roast on the braise. Grisons brascla. broccuto. a confused streaked face of the animal. — brissle. Sc. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. an edge. W. age was termed a pricket. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. Fr.

a fault. the young of any animal . to sort goods . brass does to Sp. briiten. to brew. fault censure. blur. G. want. to reject. Lat. bracker. brak. — broeden. brot. to garble. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Kil. For the same reason the Kiittner. bring eggs and spawn into active life. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. brieden. Sp. an . racaille. Sc. in which sense the OHG. Du. It.D. try out. It may be compared with It. warm.— Lib. If to vomit . abbronzanchiare. ordure. to sparkle. hraki. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. e. brackefi. brack-gut (Sanders). to hatch. the spawn of fishes. spittle . brae. selection. — point out the faults. Dan. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. in the sense of rejection. pan metal. vrage. refuse goods. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. broiid. from makel. brokas. to — garble. on. Prov. goods damaged by sea-water. couratier. braeck goed. reject. Fl. hot. racher. to pick and choose. Bronzare. Per manus et old worthless horse. braken. wrak.— — . refuse. . to . Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. tan. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. On • tliis principle the G. which E. brasa. This word shows the same relation to It. brasa. a makeln. Pl. Grisons brinzla. brwd. burning. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. sbrinzlar. corrector. find fault with. G. and fishes . faulty. • . See Wreak. bronzo.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. to nourish. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. abject. raca. To blame mens ware. The Langued. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. whnake. embers. bronze. inspect. but from the primary sense of the It. and to reject the damaged and unsound. damaged. filth. mediationem quorundam J. brod. Pl. glowing coals. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. trumpery. fermenting. Pro v. an operation performed over hot coals. Teutonic class : Du. nounce unsound. embers. brack-gut.D. . to hatch. To correct an exercise is to Lib. to sit on eggs.D. 396. refuse wares. make out. . bronze. refuse brakovat. ON. i. brunds.D. has exactly the force of G. try . : ' . — a spark. wraken. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. whence the modern courtier. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. wrack-good. Abbronzare. hot. brechen. Bret. analogous to Bohem. brokoti. brands. to pick. See Broth. merchandises de rebut G. to throw blame upon. refuse brakowad. Alb. keep warm. to emit sparks. Fr. lack. a cough Hal. brut. spittle. stain. insects. cherish. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. brumo. or brascla. hrak. brak. phlegm. refuse Fr. bridde. vile. OFr. w. to spit . find fault with. a chicken. Brood. a breach or flaw.— Breed. a brood . Tooke's Catherine. bric-a-brac. brid. to be hot. dial. progeny of birds. to be wanting. matter of blame weak place. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. refuse. cracker. vile. Bronze. Du. correctarius. ODu. — . — Fl. criticise (makeln). to scorch. tussis. bronze. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. buy and sell by commission. inspection. brydio. Pl. The use sunburn. Jam. In the . to sort brakovanie. with. to copper. brokers' goods. damaged. designation is indkler. sunburnt. . Alb. from break. to pro- to reject . Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. sort. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. embers to brund. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. raquer. as. and as an adj. cast Lith. rejection Pol. In those countries the term braker. Russ. bredan. brod. dirty. to roast on the embers. to blame. brack. term was correcfo^ir. S. an outcast or rejected sheep. find fault — — — fuse matter. et A. fish-spawn broden. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. rejected. to braze. to criticise. a broker. slaae vrag paa. wreak. Adelung. 38. to hatch G. broen. mud. bronce.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. . screatio Junfus . G. See Brackish. brakyne. .

to burn. brudi. thicket. surDu. sap. cabbage water.) . brost. braun. brstiti. bank. sordes seu strigmata young branch. border. may be connected with Russ. brouser. Celtic. to use. . ceales briw. It is Brother. sprocco. broud. Gr. broza. brabruach. . Pl. broit. w. Brothel. shore. bntdien. rage. . riviere. to boil. warmth ch'an. was originally used in the innocent sense of . simmer from the murmuring AS.D. iVlanx broogh. plants composed of twigs. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. &c. a hill. bor. pith. on. Here we find throughout the Romance. Ger. breg. of which the variety of forms. bushes. a sprig. to murmur. bratrj Lat.brons. The AS. brushbroccoli. bruth. to use. to spring . and Sc. vigour. brusmalt. brotar. Bret. . Fr. brawdj Slavon. a spring. broth.D. brd. branches. bhratrj Zend. eye-brow. bank. Dan. broth is sometimes used . Pol. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. has briw. eye-lash . forms appear related to the Ir. to scald. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. eye-lid. Lat. broo. pottage. brus. brink. dialects is very different. eye-lid. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. . brotar. brewis. brwd. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. or broken up . Fr. brennen. steam from heated bodies. To digest. shore . broth brothaire. fabric consists. brmi. Bohem. riviera. briar. bruno. break out brewet. sprot. to Pl. thick bush brousta. brous. the colour of things burnt. . broi. a bud brous-koad. brass. brpuster. bree. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. heat explaining the Prov. bruddeln. briihe. brst. Prov. from Goth. brue . spuma. bruith. Fr. borda. surface of Broth. shoot. Sc. bruitheati. — . broth Brown. Catalan brossa. brodo. frui. . a derived from the boards. shoots. brost. b7-un. enjoy Goth. frater. brosses. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. to browse. protecting the eye. bruithim. Fr. bruich. 'Lzt. sproc. a . bruich. cia. Kil. juniper. broth the ocean Sw. juice of briars. broieii. a caldron. sprout. broeye. signifying low wet land (Brem. a sprout.. — . Sp. Gael. noise. verge. low The AS. face. hovel. A — . to make sprouts brous-gwezen. shrubs. Brow. Du. brushbrothas) gives the OE. heat. Bret. . Gris. and It.spross. breg. breh. Roquef. juice of meat. Du. broccola. Sanscr. heath. circuindedit cum familia. Wtb. house of ill fame. brun. Cot. bryii. . AS. meal. as Fr. broca. pour boiling water over. sense the Sc. the bubbling or springing up of water. brew . bordel. a bruth. Mid. boiled . &c. braces. . useful G. broem bark. brouet. a confused noise of winds. augen-braune. G. brov. to shoot. to roar. bordeau. to border. &c. . waves. Prov. brosses. BROOK brook w.— Overyssel Almanack. to bear patiently. margin. breg. spirit. broth. a shrub broust. . awl-plant. OHG. bruscosd quam de arabili. brukjan. briu. to browse. brauwe. bank. Bav. borde. Limousin broudi. chen. . to boil. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. braew. It. brio. or shoot. grow into a bush. eat. G. Serv. broc. on. infusion the barley bree. . Sp. Commonly Teutonic. brogues. and Slavonic families. grow brossa. — ' . bregh. brau. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. properly boiling water briihen. It. bryn." Serv. perhaps burnt coloilr. seethe. bank. a little house or cottage of timber. strength Ir. shrub with leafless pointed edging. to boil. a source Gael. t— Cot. or bushes and scrubby growths. brow. brow of a hill. a little . laissent Domunculum. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. fur Broom. broden. eye-brow. bruc. brosst. rerum decoctarum. a bud. of plants broust. It. a river. vigour. brodem. and also border. eminence . brocco. cabbage soup . a hill. OHG. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. pfriemkraut. mettle. Russ. See Bramble. frucius. Gael. Gael. brothas. bros. in which brinnan. Manx broie. to bubble up with noise. as small-pox. Ppim. a shore. bros. ale . brouskaol. browys.brink. to boil bruithe. &c. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. w. wood . But the Walach. bruceti. hot. sprouts . heath. brad. thairj w. sprout. brozia. edge. — exiit et heath. brouter. Browse. braussa. eye-brow. signifying twigs. Bohem. dumetum. Fr. eye-brow. bud. Russ. G. buds. strength. brouic.' Due. bruach. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. hut. who is steaming with sweat. to use bruks. G. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. The origin is a re. brouches. bryn.braubiti. brlgh. infusion. Gael. Due. Bohem. brdtaj Gael. AS. . edge. from ripa. (for brodem). as rhododendrons. The softening down of the consonant bud. G. Tam de terrS. to sprout. a hut or cottage It. kail brose. . brucan. OFr. 105 Brook. sodden.

chips. bruire. burt. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. to break or burst. a mote. To brush then would be to dust. brottcher. Brunt. Text Soc. Gael. * Brunt. a brush . A. brusc (Diet. brunt. Prov. It. brustid. . See next article. E. dust. Sp. a brush. Fl. brosse. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Fr. . fescue . Pr. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brusca. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. bruc. Prov. Piedm. briser. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. a blow. brit. borste. brizeto. rubbish. field. bris. shivers. . impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. appearin Goth. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. brossar. a flax comb. Cot. mg Cat. dust. sordes. Hall in R. crum bit . to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. escousse. break. briketo. as It. borst. biirste. brosst. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. splinters. AS. broust. B?-usske. It. E. borste. twig. shock. bruis (sing. —Chaucer.— — i. seems named from burst(on. Pr. rubbish. and It. irruo. On the other hand. flax-comb brossettes. biirste. — OE. . p. dust. a bristle. borste. borste. Prov.— Palsgr.). brisd. . Broach. brus. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. brousso. a horse-brush. brusco. brossa. bud. a — — (Agea) said. fragments. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruzir. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brusco. a brush. a brush Swiss bruske. Pm. bruscolo. britar. . — those signifying a sprig. brugir. dust. Beryn. to butt. brist. brysan. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Bret. to cleanse. a rumbling. ca7-bo>i. rubbish. Bruit. and Piedm. brist. borste. heath. Fr. brMt. to stumble. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. bruscolo. Allit. The Bav. wool-card. brustia. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Cot. a briser. remnants of hay or fodder. bross. Sw. brist j Port. . a noise. wood composed OE. —Fabyan. brusg. broustia. to brush. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Palsgr. brust. modification of the same root which gives the E. insilio. a tuft of heath . E. Pr. broza. it schall be al Sw. — Fr. G. ling or heath for brushes. brist. bushy ground. and sighid therewithal.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. britar. or shoot. a brush . a bush of hair.). or sodenly comyn' dust.). broza. brusca. to make brusshes on. brous. crush. a bud. In E. brushwood. Brunt of a daunger. brico or brizo. insultus. briiis (in the pi. Prov. and actually come in collision. Gael. Bruise. bruit. burs. Gael. quasi twigs. Poems. into a multitude of points. also a head-brush. 201. tremely. a brush. a brush . to strike the foot against an obstacle. detergere . a crum. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. and . K. an enmy. brista) or breaking out . coal See Breeze. OFr. and in the second place a besoiB. Sw. of twigs. bruito. ON. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. shoot brouskoad. a shrub composed of small twigs . bruise exOFr. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. brisar. Fr. bris. Brush. 134. bruscia. brous. brustia. Diez. The same relation holds good between G. Bav. Fr. to break. bruskr. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. desbrisar. Fr. brosst. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . broken. abroncar. brise. rods. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. bush. Lang. The Lat. brossa. bruiser. G. Wicliff. Piedm. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Pr. Pm. bricalio. orts. to break. a little brizal.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. That in all haste he wouli. fasx . bross. wool-card. brosse. a bud or sprout Bret. tuft of grass or hay. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. — a bush. Alexander. Lang. NE. blow burcar. to break to bits . a bristle. to make a rumbling. and also Brush. twig. Port. Castr. And that best is. brikan. a brush . this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bruyere. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. 174. effort. brik. It. bris. OE. to crush. Gael. bris. quisquilise. wool-card.

the lower soak in lye.— . boc. bouk. BUBBLE bruschetta. to which in their language they call bou. to butt or jurr Dan. . also applied Una. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. a push. does not hold. March 28. The place of such a 2. mollire. Sp. — . In G. bugd. soft. and as a verb. a to the male deer. faire la lessive. because bucare does not in Marsh). It. I. buquer. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. molle. plied in the W. says Laudon. bubiti. buck-ashes. to butt. or projecTo Buck. buerj It. Dan. pukkata. moist. from colar. to bump as a bittern. Bret. A . a. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. and Fr. . w. Pol. to wet Pol. the linen at buck. Formerly. bog-aske. different form. soft It. But see Bristle. Etym. and the bunch. to murmur. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. to soften. 1586. very generally designated by the same puk. Magy. hump. . bucaIndies. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to soften.biiken j Svi. Fr. bukke. bifbel. to bubble. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce.tare. who resorted to the islands beichen. is 1. and exercised their cruelties prin. knock. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. pup.steep or soak. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. 1857. See Dupe. soft. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. bouc. News. — . soft. pokka7na. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bubauti. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). a steep for flax. bubseti. lye. mote. Bohem. thunder gently . the first wheal.buchen.byka. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . was called bucking the linen. a bubble . a. The term bocan is still ap. Bubble. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. Diet. to butt. The cipally on the Spaniards.' Palsgr. as a buck rabbit. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. a fescue. The name. The word was very generally Buccanier. . to Gael. Esthon. The male goat. tender. This bubette. bucata. at a door. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. Bohem. soft . bugada. bucquer. smokipg meat were called buccaniers.-wtt miekki. bduclien. to strain. to stick. to buck. Fin. a knock word.D. boc. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun.lessiver. . little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw.wet Lat. Pref A. open lath-work. maban and baban. a hole. bwch. as G.boukaat. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. blast or strike with the forehead. rap. when soap was tion is commonly taken. bubbola. . From an imita. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bube. boil animals. Sp. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. Gael. bublati. to soak foul linen before washing. Sc. buchen. mokry. and then to other wild tumour Lith. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. or mok. — — ' A : ' ' . moczyd. a bubble. Cot. de la Floride. to a place used for the mouillir. bub. a ashes. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. bubBuck. Pol. blister. set of pirates in the spread. . erweichen. drying of produce. buck-ashes. w. buquer. Fr. it is beuchen. hump. to soften . It. to filter. Fr. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. ac. designation of a knob. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. Bret.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. lye. bub. tuft. was called in Fr. a bubble. in which the flesh dish. bucking. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. wood. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. Magy. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. boh. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. from weich. watery bud. bokni. hog dressed whole). called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. mieknad. tender. .derivation has been much discussed. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. tap . top. to soak. the upper for coifee. colada. byge. buborek. Illust. caned' Hence those who established them. 17th century. It. The natives of Florida. not so plentiful a commodity. boucaner. of wind. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. to soak.to allow a free current of air.

II I'a feru desor I'escu. bdden. bouton. having a boss. Dan. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. protuberance. bolgia. a budget. the word w ' — . pulga. bucolicus. is doubtless fallacious. above mentioned. a ring. the radical image seems to be a set plants. boaLat. . bump.t-le!L{ * Bud. Bus. case of leather . bulb. of a surface. w. a small shallow and open tub. w. bouk is a pail and with the dim. a buckle or protuberance. to boss or swell out G. butzen K. crack. So on. . bog and G.' Hal.) as to soak. Bucolic. — — . a boy. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. G. a bubble three thyngis. bulais daqui. . knob . thrust. Fr.poot. pwt o Fr. This expression boglire. . Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. excrescence. imbuere. weich. Fr. also a leather tuft . explaining Fr. a budget. Du. a short thick man. Budget. bo. seen in Hesse botz. to budge. a pail or flowers. bud butzen. boulj. Hardly identical with Fr. boqueranmis. bucherare. a boss. call.n. NE. boss of a shield. ' . Budge. boss. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. bouter. buckel. Russ. a wallet. dinted. bul. bug. mani. brobrocchiere. botzen. bulka. boach. butt . Bret. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Lat. a servant. a boss. butzen (Du. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. bucket Fl. noise . a stump buckle up. ON. to move. Prov. Bret. ' .pode. Buckler. trunk of wood covered with leather. It. stud. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. K. buachazlle. set of a plant in bulk. dint . Hence quel. to 'soak. boiling. bocla. The knob or projection formN. The entire train of thought is bucket. need. like a bean. where the G. whom it is still much in use. — . sboge. pulga. macero. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. to swell.' And this sacrament bus have dial. blow. wallet. with which it was ornamented. bunch. Fr. rump of fowls . put. a shoot. bolgetta. stir. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. rabodS. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim.stumpy man. Buck-bean. stroke. In Lat. The dressed fur of lambs. become bochen. botzen. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. to graft or bud trees.— . ornamental stud. with a central boss. dim. jSouKoXiKog. inboachen. cattle. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. The word is a ddyn. bollire. don't stir from hence. a trough). goat's hoof.pastoral nations of Slavonic race.) . skins pushit'. * Buckle. Fr. ' . Fr. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. To thrusting part of a long body. * Bucket. Sp. bunch . a bud. no wheel bogeilio. a fold ceilio. bogla. clump. Prov. potz. bouprobably identical with inok. no business to do that. to butt. OFr. loud Cot. the end or rise or bear out in the middle.. bouljein. Dan. bode.stuff. Port. bod. butzen. of bac. Gael. . — . bouge. Pol. bloca. boucle. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. probably from the notion of bubbling. soft. motus creber. belonging to the calling of the chen. call bo. swelling. from bo. — — . to word. pote. boccula. water message. It termination is lost. Pied. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu.may probably be explained by N.. agreeing with Gael. Mid. bougette. of bouge. Behoves. bloquier. bugnir. bedde. to un bout d'homme. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. a buclder or shield budge. butze. and the reference to It.Lat. OHG. pwtio. bod. call. a cowherd.r//'. a leathern sack. to line with fur. bougette. knob dwfr yn boglynu. don't a baby). butz. weich. Cot. swelling. bukke-blad. is to shrivel up. It. with let. fur. and weichen. push forwards. the root of the Slavonic words gran. a little coffer or turgidus. . It.' Boccaccio. to poke. to thrust. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. boucler. A water-plant with leaves and gille. W. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. A buckle or fastening for botch. bub. bulla. Du. Prov. and of the Lat.' Schm. turgere buczendig. The Fr. a tuft. great pouch. In the dialect of the Setti Cem.anything short of its kind. a dumpy gin. as in Fr. boucle./a. . a curl. . to boil. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. convexity. ble. Bav. or male of to boil . prick in a target. a bump. bouger. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. to bud or bocla. child. boucle. to pen cattle. bulga. weichen. in the beginning of to pierce holes. from bugr. Bav. budge.chissima. a pustule bout. a navel. scion. hump. bloca. from Gr. Swab. ein..). It. Sw. were To Budge. words is converted into b. lump. Mid. a shield. clasp of a book. gjeit-klauv. boucaran. . Fr. See Bulk. boglyn. knock. Fr. butzen. * Bud.goa. . bullion. bouclier. a . bucherame. built. Wtb. male or botzen. to stir.

to blow souffleU. Sc. a buffle or a bugle. baubau. Lat. often blown upon. often covering his E. Lith. buMagy. . Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. &c. — — — Buffet. btifetarius. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. bugs. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Buffoon. Swiss baui./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. boman. popo. to beat.' La Crusca. duff^ dull. een duffen toon. buffen. Buff. breath. dausinti.' perfield. buffare. things in Jam. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. bumann. him but Boyd iugges. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. to signify an indefinite object of terror.D. as from Lith. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. It. dull sound. buffle-headed. boo. and in Fr. bubiti. buffetto. Fl. to a representation of his voice. It. buffet. buff leather. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Buff. —Boggart. senses. confused. Teet-bo. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. — La Crusca. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to puff. Thus buffet would a tapster. bufogni. to rePl. bukow Ikow. a hollow sound. a block-headed noddy. Cot. for this purpose is very widely spread. buffalo. a bugbear. Sc. to jest or sport.D. botffon. to marre often tasting it . to puff. also the skin or heck of a buffe. bau ! children. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. cuff . bufogni. — Bogle. God's boast seemed feare children. bubach. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. stupid. the place whence the wine was drawn. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. wine may The verb in taverns. bw! It. leathern bucket. mumming. Lith. to strike face to represent the unknown. to frighten .D. Pl. Lat. Buffeter. a budget. bugle. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. to blow . while in Sp. bw. buffle. or wild ox. bubus. caupo. made by a person. a goblin). as wine that hath taken wind. w. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. mingled with water. Esthon. 265. sounds. bouffer. to bellow . Mid. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. a cuff or buffet. bubaRuss. Fr. blurt or puff with one's mouth. site The two — — iii. le reste emplissant d'eau. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. a dull BUG From 109 — A . deadened. word other cases. dial. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Limousin bobal. a side-board. to excite terror in Macleod. A blow. bolgetta. Fr. tastes. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bolgia. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. soufflet. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. a puff. buffer. It. The cry made to excite terror is then used. Fr. thus be translated to tap.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. either alone or with various terminations. buffet. Magy. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Fr. smells . from souffler. scarecrow . bobaow. buffeteur. pulse . Buffalo. Gael. The use of the exclamation children. made to —Bugbear. A puff with — Fl. tabernarius. Romola. wauwau. Fr. A — Bug.— Buflae. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. G. air. ' They rether puffed at him. or hath been Cot. a skin. a In . buffets. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. dausa. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bouffer. — Z. bugbear. to blow. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals.—Buffet. Hence the E. buivol. Bufetarium. a clap. Pl. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. also a G. Cot. rebuff. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. buffa. W. yar^aa. from It.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. the buffe. to give benti. puff. E. as emblematically making light of an object. From bulga. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. bauwi. bwg. to give a as of a blow. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. by metaphor. a hobgoblin. buffet. colour. From buff! of terror. The children were playing in an oppocomer. a jester. bo ! an interj. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. bufHe. buffare. — thence it has been transferred in E. of colours. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. human. It. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. as Diez remarks.

Big. Lap. 3. a bug-bear. quos what produces dread or disgust. threatening. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. protuberant. Hal. — boogg. baco. also a bug-bear. scarecrow . Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Magy. insect. Bible. to bellow. bwgwl. worm. roarHal. — — terror. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. troll. . 1551. language any kind of insect. Illyr. W. BUGLE Tentennino. rose-bug. Russ. to creeping things. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. Sw. disgust. bucula. 493. The name of bug is — . biignt. A similar applica. and in child's Magy. xiv. b'dgni. i. with more or less modification represents bau. — — ' . The w. bug. Bug. shepe and gootes. Stalder bog. mask ' . 2. terrifying ward. Bug as a lord. pugalo. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . bug dung-beetle. An ornament of female dress condread. is very common. to roar Aasen. and a boggarty ing. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Fl. to frighten scarecrow. bugbear. provincially an insect. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. bauginti. Chaucer. boo.— . and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'.loud noise. w. . pujalo. a goblin. bug-bear. I. and bugle. ghost.Fr. oxen. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. earwig bau da grascha. superbire. of bugabo was given. coco. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. iv. and is Deutsch. pugaf.. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. bugar. vermin. * 2.Lat. used in the same sense. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. high-sounding words. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. bau (Pureiglia. to take bug. boa-peep. Cheval de trombugti.. bold. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Fl. any disgusting animal. fette. the black a maggot. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bukati. bogk. also a bug-bear. bugler. an object of terror. monster. poggl.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. dial. Lith. roo. thus connected with bug. the Devil. buculus. fear. Bugle. Parolone. Bogge. Swelling. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Schmidt. il brutto Demonio. saucy. a misshapen person. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. big. buba. insect. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Serv. bogil bo (e. blustering. Deut. Grisons bau. boeuf sauvage. Grose. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. the word is lin) bbgge. booggen. a bug-bear. then a horn for drinking. buffle. bogil. buggabod). Hence bugle-horn. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. threatening. long. a rabme. is the dim. larva (a bug-bear. Lesachthal. : no BUG . a buffalo. bogle. bwgar. Same as buffle. bug-bear. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. a proud overbearing man pujat'. fierce. — . paws the ground . a. of pipes sewn on. bwg and E. an insect. The final guttural of W.3uhtii&:. — — . especially to beetles or winged insects. a silk-worm. high. according to Coles. affright. Sp. bugle. Mid. bukashka. beugler. to take fright. (Spurrell). forSc. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Bdronie. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Mundart. a bugbear for children. also a baco-baco. Swiss booggen. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. as an object of dread. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. a beetle. to take fright. swollen. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. well as the terrific object. banian boube. to bellow. bogk. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. hert. See The name terror). hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. a boogg. Swiss ing. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. It. bobal. Manx boa. and in Lat. . tumble-bug. E. proud. bug-bear. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. as Buffalo. Lett. Magy. to origin in the expression bugs words. given in Chaucer. great or bug words. gad. bok. bbgni. tion of the beetle tribe. . It. the buggaboo w.

a. . straight will he 2. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. a bubble. Pr. hold or bilge of a ship. or bear out as a full purse. Gr. stuffed bag. a. Jno. bolgan. Lett. balg. to blow. body of a ship . w. as it was merly written in English to bylle. OSw. Kil. Bulch. formed a farm. lump. on. dial. buk. Muratori. boss. The addition of a dim. bolnyn. bladder. pocket. bolso. head . 1388. Hal.' Anat. boss. . From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. Lat. leather sack. boss of shield. boulge. belly. belly. swell. whence bylja. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bulked or bumped out. Lith. bulwis. MHG. or feminine termination gives Bav. bag. See bollekeii next article. a leathern sack or portmanteau. hollow. as water beginning to boil bolg. bolgetta. cultivate. pouch builgeadh. . a lump or mass. He found a country fellow dead drunk. bulbus. Melancholy. bale. skin flayed whole. See how this tode bolneth. chest. — . — — . blister. balco. Mister. Palco. bol. bulk. inhabit. . belly.' Palsgr. a globe. PoXj3a. swell. swollen. tumidus. . — Bulb. Mandeville. blister Manx bolg. the body Du. the contents of the hold. trunk of the body. . Pm. byli. belgja. herd^ swarm pulkd. to throw out a convexity. bua. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. snorting on a bulk. bo. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. trunk. anything prominent. ball. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. skin bag. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. the position of liquids in the word In English. ' . . also the bunt or hollow of a sail. a round bulky body bwlgan. ' . wallet. — — . Hence e. m um Placentiae. bulbe.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). to swell. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. ON. acervus. bukr. Here stand behind this bulk. . A — ' — Bulk. bulka. it again. bole. bulge or bilge. blow. I. or cargo of a ship. belly Sw. to swell. to build. Dan. a bunch. to spring. Boss^. at riufa bulkann. swollen OE. ON. thorax buick. of E. habitaculum. body of an animal. of an inflated skin. bulne.' Fl.d. projection. bulk or capacity of anything. globule bolg-lhuingey. a dint in a metal . sedes. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. gebolgen. in vessel. OSw. tumeo. The radical sense is shown in Russ. cumulus. (3oX|8oc. turgeo bolnyd. to gather. bugue. buhe. crowd. trunk. principal portion. bolgia. balcone. puff. belly Cat. In the representation of natural sounds. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. as well as is very variable. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bwlg. — . and bulbukd. belly. a water-bubble). to belly out. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. Bolke or hepe. biilken. — — . a prominence. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. . buc. bulki. in bulk. bol.' Cot. a stage or scaffold. bed of a river. the capacity or burden of a ship. domicilium. ne. has bulbuk. bolle. to bubble up. husk. lump. bubble. For the latter sense ' — My . bulcke. . bulg. . G. Othello. Pm. bulle. to puff up bolginn. bunch or projection. . hull of a ship. a heap. and N. the potato G. knot in thread. balgs. bubble {palgan tiisge. villa. bubble. ' .). a straw corn-vessel. were a habitation. boss of a buckler. skin of an animal. knobby. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. See Bulk. bolg. bulgen. womb. G. bulk is a partition of boards. . bubbling up. . the womb. be protuberant. . mass.' Festus. van loock. a leather sack or budget Fr. pimple. With these must probably be classed ON. knob. Bulge. bauch. Sp. jnake bulch.— . Bulk. bug. a tuberous or bulbous root . in Sc. or of what is shaped like a bubble. to bubble up Pol. unevenness Sw. boa. Bourser. blister. bulkaf. bellows builgean. belgr. G. . . bulge or convex part of a cask. belly van de kerche. Dan. bolgna. ^ — . compare Da. pod ON. The Walach. balg. pulkas. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. It. a bubble Gael. body. Gr. to raise a habitation. From till. to break bulk. bulgen. or. Pr.'— Cot. the carcase. Bav. knob. Lith. Lat. bauen. vulva. to undo the cargo. belly. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. the head of an onion. to bol. bolle. bubble. bouk. a bulb Du. To Build. bouge. beuck. swell. a protuberance. bulbe. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bol.pulks. Ptg. and put it home. the belly. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bullka. bilge. mass.

bwbach. — Fl. any great-headed or studded nail. from baula. bullus. scarecrow. to seal. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. from the Lat. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. dim. N. /SouWivu. — A tition in a ship. Lith. bolos Fr. to emboss . Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. blister. also of the tadpole or young frog. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. poli-cheannan. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. G. of boule. round glass phial. blunt. W. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bellow. a bull. bolli.D. — — Bull.Fris. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. baula. Cot. coarse. a tadpole . billoti in Fr. pwl. stamp.lle de fusil. bouillon. leraures nocturni nigri. The male W. to boil. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble.. bullos. Du. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a beam or rafter. See Bowl. elves. Dan. a hornet. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. Pm. signifying roaring. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. a cow. is of a class with Pl. boss or stud. but is more probably iden- palchetto. a seal. any embossed work. pimple. Fr. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. bollon. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. balgeting. bellocier. bulk. BuUiou. in N. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. bal. bullebak. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bolla. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a stud. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. G. bulderen. See Billet. lumpish. a little fish nearly all head. many to protuberant objects. &c. a seal. thick. the matrix or die . as a mill-dam or the like. A lace tree. 2. a bowl. It. 3. Du. bwla.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. a scare-bug. of Witchcr. Gold or silver uncoined. Bullfrog. which may probably be the origin of the name... and vellon in Sp. biitzibau. to tical with Sw. The final element tergeist. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow.'— ' Palsgr. . bolli. a noisy violent fellow. poltern. it may be observed that a bullet in E. as It. to bellow. bubble. bulla.D. large. w. Terriculamentum. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. a blockhead. Scot's Deso. bulle. from Lat. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. It. bauli. as geting. spirits. it is boulet de canon. Bret. bullocks. a tadpole. whence bullire. as the ornanails. however. w. whence Mod. witches. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Gael. as in E. The wild plum. poll-cheannach. is called a ball. I. and thence terror. bollar. 2. bulk of a thing. from Fr. stud. Du. A papal rescript. billon. a hobgoblin. from the use of the equivalent terms. also a parFl. hhint. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. eth and frighteth. Bullbeggar. a framework of balks.. of the ox kind.' do not go by the dangerous water. G. dial. lumpheaded . Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bwlas. Bullet. bouillon. a wasp. to bubble. b2iggaboo. boss. Eullrusli. Du. bugbear. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bole or trunk of a tree. brass-headed nail . in the sense of base metal. sloes. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. a bull Swiss bullen.D. tition of deals instead of a wall. bulke. a bulox polos. bulla. The bullfrog. from the noise. stud. on the contrary. child by the represents the hobgoblin. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. Fr. G. ON. bullern. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Sp.Gr. stupid . while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. Bully. bollos de relieve. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. stamped money. Bullace. Pl. large of its kind. i. penbwl. urchens. a hobgoblin. pollach. boulct. polten. the seal affixed to the document. embossed work. ba. And The word bullerbak. a bul-begger. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. This word is used in several senses. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. bulloi. BulUiead. beams or boards. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. assito. bietebau. boillon.

then in general a rampart.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Hal. poltem. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Fris.D. baluarte. 4 Hen. The Sw. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. G.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Kil. Kiittner. D. 2. Bum-bailiff. AS. blaterare. a stage. From the notion of a humming. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. argentum and silver. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. resonare.' Again.' reals of standard currency. blunder-buss. Hence — . To bum. 9 E. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. 2. buller-bas. Bully-rock. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Du. to dun. provides.. or work of defence. Du. G. G. bommele. buller-bas. vallum. noise. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. and porter au billon. III. bottn. primarily the ramparts of a town. A. legaggio di metallo. The Stat. ground. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. to drum Lat. ON. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. buene. Hence bom and ban. bulderen. debacchari. bastion. to make a droning Du. intonare. Miege in Hal. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. up was termed monnaie de billon. 'lega. IIL st. bottom. or a humblebee. IV.' Stat.' for the purpose of exchange. It. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. c. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. blunder-buss. violent overbearing person. minari verbulderen. Du.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. a. honunele. block-werck. To bully is to bluster. a hectoring. boulevard. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. buller-bak. the soil. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. propugnaculum. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. bombilare. bodem. St. Thus ' ble. bolderen. ierd-beame. on the other hand. perturbare saevis dictis. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. — Bump. hum. buller-brook. 2. To bum. The decried coin. botm.d. To Bum. but now is the central part of the town. Philip le Bel in Due. agrees with e. by corruption boulevart. — bombam?nen. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. boene. is bullion — A — buller. un faux brave. 1305. biihne. &c. The cry of the bittern. buller-jaan (bully. to . Fris. a boisterous. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . For bottom. John). c. Sw. a blunderhead. ^i^/«. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. bustle. a floor.. a noisy blustering fellow. to make a noise . 10. — — plate d'argent. 14. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark.' ' mettre au billon. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. — Boom. clamour. Fr. — Bumto . boisterous fellow. BULLY with which coins were stamped. droning. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. scaffold. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. ^Bully-rook.D. bol-werck. beat a — Hal. c. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. ierd-boeyme. bomtnen. polterer. 1687). violent. The 27 Ed. Bully. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. a bumble-. Bailey. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. furious man.the ramparts. sound. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . Etym. is called bumping or bells. Kil. to terrify by noise and clamour. provides. from boden.' agger. Bum.

bun. an old stump of a horse. to beat. bun with ON. bamgetroffen. Mrs Baker. should probably be a short tail. signifying one who does things in a thumping. boi7ieog. bunsen. any round knob or bunch. bans.S. hay stubble . binge. . . OSw. stubble Manx bun. a bowl P1. a Sp. Probably for bun-boot. — round fruit. pwmpio. Holland and Flanders. a button. a swelling. root. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . lenten loaves. E. a bunch Magy.' Palsgr. as we have seen E. a swelling from a blow. passes Sw. bunch— Hal. . to beat. to ' . a hump. Thus e. pwmpl. or to the mass by which it is given. a boil (punkos bot. Bunch. Bunk.D. banke. Bony. bunga. a heap Wall. . Pm. Related on the one side to Pl. also for taking a pilot to a ship. a dry No . bannock. inconsiderately. banga. Then. Daal bu7iseti. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a heap. bunt. to strike so as to give a dull sound. bugnone. poumpi. a round mass . Hal.! . ner. bignet. bu<rnone. and signifies consequently a mass. Lang. butt end.-^Fl. Fr.D. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. . — stalk . The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. to bang down. See Bounce. bunka.). ! — knocking. Bumboat. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. pumpa. a rabbit.. bundle. seems to unite Gael. a wallet. bunke. . buns. bunken. dial. knochen. Li cake. Bang sen. Bun. abrupt manbuns-wise.^Cot. bonge. poumpido. knob or heap. bum-boot. dial. bmike. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. nor would it concern the public if he did. Hal. a purse . knuckles. Probably from bump. bumsen. bottom. Dunchyn or bunchyn. bugno. a dried hemp-stalk. clumsy. bunkc. Dan. bulscha. stump. Ir. He buncheth me and beateth me. Dan. so the form btmk. blain. stock. while bulch was traced through Gris. bon. awkward clown. from bunsen. Pl. A clumsy. applied to young persons. foundation w. bolsa. He fult dat et bunsede. Radically identical with Dan. bull. lungeous. gibber. Moor. a lump on the foot bunny. and related with ON. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. to . pumpurras. trunk. clown. Du. a. to bang ON. E. bmidt. bunnion. a bud. Pr. Bumpkin. E. . to knock . lump. from knock) It. Hal. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. bulse. bunan. a hemp-stalk. —Bunny. Bunewand. bun eich. throw down with a bang. a heap. to thump. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Again. To bam. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. . bugnet.— Bunnion. especially girls. awkward. . round mass of anything. the tail of a hare. to swell out E. Roding. Bums it's hit. a knotty stick) Sw. a knob. or grete knobbe. bottom bun feoir. Pm. Pl.' he fell with a bang. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bungersome. bung. a knob. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a heap OSw. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Hence E. Bumsen. root. . a rabbit. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bunki. bulto. — — Bun. a boss Lith. bottom. a heap or cluster. bonuach. large. a bag or sack. Sc. one ever saw the word in that shape.' Bun. bunny. Bump. a tail (Macleod). Forby. pompon.pummel. Fr. stalk. stem or base. hdk passing and E. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. explaining E. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. — Marine Diet. It. 1. a large . strapping.P. bund. stump. Suffolk bonnka. are dim. See Bunch. noise. Sc. a person employed to dun one for a debt. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. w. calamus. stubble of beans. to . Hal. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. — — — — ' — knock. as in other cases. Manx bonkan. the Pr. a knob . and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. S. Gael. protuberance. bunga. bumtel. mto Sp. gibbus. See Boss. pwmp. . a very wide boat used by fishers in S. A Du. any round knob or bunch. pompette. truss E. . On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. a knock. a bunch. — — Bun.. Gael. — — de dor bunsen. .— Pr.D. a pumpion or gourd. Bung^. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. cluster. to bang. bonnock. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a bump. bune or boon. a boil or blain. bongie. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. strike E. callus. Kyx or bunne. w. bump. stock. . il me pousse. tundo. a pocket Sw. Pm. forms. botn.D. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). &c. a. bugno. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. H. Fl. Bunch. a into Dan.

to bud forth. buret. to stop. the stopper of a cask). A Dan. bondon. reddish brown. guggle as water. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. fascis. — — To Bungle. colligatio. fetters. a bung. racket. knocking. to knock. to Somerset is to sift. to botch. p. The Fr. biirde. to work at carpentry bangan. . tap. byrthen. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. Sp. something bound together (Mrs Baker). a bungler. boil or bubble up. burion. Burly. borgonota. to kick. Sw. The stopper for the hole in a boia. Bunny. that the primitive meaning of shackle . — — . bourgeon. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. a bunch Burbulas. to hum. bon. dicimus rufum. bondir. banga. Russ. the young cloth used for sifting flour. clumsy performance. tinker . Bung of a tonne or Lith. a wisp of hay or straw. Burble. to bungle. whence in bure. stilmpern. anchor or of a net boyar. Johansen. The Magy. bag to catch the wind. Lat. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. halm-tapp. bonde. boya. boj.Fris. bunta. Bundle. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bundt.— . punishments for prisoners. The word is flags are made. or used as a receptacle for papers. . to resound. to stnmi on an instrument. the float of an bundle. to stop. bongani. Fr. to gingle. bunsen. Fr. Fr. working in wood (especially with an axe). byndel. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to push. Palsgr. OFr. boucher. N. A load. OG. and van t' vat. burboloti. A bubble. bongun. clogs. ho-tapp. It. was formerly pronounced buro. to push ghebondte. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. B. bouche. bolting-cloth. Burden. buove. dark. bury. Rietz. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. contignatio. to shove. tapp (whence tceppa. Pl. klempern.D. racket . Muratori. to hum. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bouchon. G. See Borel. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. stocks or such OSw. Bret. bondeau. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. ' — work . Fl. Bung. to in to stop the hole. to bear. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. ghebundte. Bunt. from beran. Kil. To burgeon. coassatio et Du. and Du. bourion. and bomme. and E. a sort of helmet. dial. The Italian buio. See Bun. Fr. however. Bunting. a water bubble made by rain. bang. G. Sw. to bolt meal. unskilful working. gyves. banghagr. Banff. See Barbarous. with the head. bourguignote. . — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. rumble as the bowels. on. in is Fr. AS. buie. To bunt. Biu'geon. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Burganet. bundel. knock. the bung of a barrel Lim. bindini. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. tinkle. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. . Sp. — Bureau. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. the noise of drums. klimpem. Cat. a boye. to float. bundle. stiimpeln. bond. whence bunting. bounta. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bungande. — btiruii. boei. . bummle. is originally a wisp or bunch . and the Sw. Hal. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. to push with the head del. to cobble. russet. Prov. to strum on an instrument. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bommen. * Buoy. to knock. loosed from bonds. a bunch. of a song. buret. and now more Bailey. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. noise. bou^e. a drum .punt. the middle part of it. To Bunt. also a piinple in the face. generally known as the material of which bud. — . sprig. Burden. Cot. To do anything awk- wardly. bui. shackles. bote. to work ineffectually. bonde. Sw. do a thing bunglingly. So Du. or tuft. properly a Burgundian helmet. on. borboUar. Sp. AS. modem bummle. bangla. to gingle. The belly or hollow of a sail. an anchor buoy. especially in wood. knocking. Compare G. OFr. bangla. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. bove. 202. driving in the bung. a cork. bondelj bundell. a botch. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. Prov. Du. la Borgonota. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to hum. bourjon. are from bouscfie. dark grey bura. the loose open grow big about or gross. Sp. E. or putting forth of a vine. B. bimge. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. See Bourdon. shove .' Festus in Diez. bondel-loos. to pype. So in Pol. dial. bang.

embraser. flocks. lerre. burgi latro. Sp. has also borr. is an Thus G. Fr. sidiary element. to tell lies. Burler. compared with G. from Lat. taunt. — — . Probably. sea. Fl. brustle. bears. borni. borr. Nat. schleiffen. . is termed burling. bururus. Burgher.— Pr. swell up or strout out. boiirre. to make a So from Fin. G. Pren7ien. Bav. explaining the E. to bouronna. the roaring surge of the — — — . toast. abourioner. ^Notk. joking. tion of the root which gave the OE. Castrais bourril. It is probable indeed that Fr. water. OE. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. brunnen. briis^. borracka. Burly. leo Fin. purling.' a jibe. Burglar. to rub. brustolare. a gurgling ^.bryna. ii6 BURGESS Gael. sbornoi. language of folly or ridicule. jest of. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to murmur. brim or edge of anything. Fr. Lang. to ridicule. to polish. a blaze. bourou. Fr. The Gael. to puff. to sharpen. OFr. to set on fire. BURNISH i5«r/. a whetstone. to burn. to burgen or wax big. sicut sound. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab.sharpen. &c.' Cot. brausen. brAler. — Han to bruser op. brinii. Pr. as the / in purl. ^ttsa. the flocks. brusler being a faulty spelling. to bud .latus rei angulatas talikoincn. to Gael. a wine skin. to fiy. ends of thread. warbling. angular . ends of thread. laer. Walach. brimmen.j'own. Antiq. 56. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. to swell with pride. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. roguing beggars. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. purrata. tahko. tumentum. brima. tahkoa. i5«r4 biiirte. bururus. to swell. borrelen.). a fountain. ' rugiens. 122. to grind on a whetstone. E. crackle wood in burning Hal. fire. From the same root E. Burryn. protuberance. as in cousteau. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. like the wind in trees. condemnentur morti. knob.. brinnen or Also ein roar. become big and proud. Hence Bridel. as of suggests. dial. to burn. Bav. singe or scorch with fire. purra. G. Bret. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. . OE. the er is a dresser of cloth. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Todd. In the same way ON. mockery. burly. The in. like straw or small . to surge. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. a prominent eye borracka. bruzir. brook. Probably a modifica. and Dan. bud or sprout forth. an &c. and the Burin. See Burr. Schm. a knob. In the manu. Prov. a margin. to roar. a spring a robber. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. brynsten. See under Bore.— .). it of the knots. fires up. from the roaring sound of flame. burgeois. burren. Dief. de Vaud. Bestiary. to polish helmets. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. boura. a bladder. must be explained on the same principle from G. to roar. It. N. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to roar (as lions. boure. Bouffer. It. The primary origin of the word. brinna. is connected with brim. a bubble. A — — . born. to bourda. pur (see Burgeon). facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. with little iron nippers called burling irons. Pm. with Dan. like. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Swiss Rom. lorra. a jest. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. a jest. bouril. See Berough. burle of cloth. to sharpen on a whetstone. ridicule. a well. from bryii. Limousin bourdo. Cot. robber. brunna. — — . — — . explaining Sp. OFr. big. borujon. brun. to roar. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. and OG. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. So also Sw. to ridicule. to roar 5.. brunir. blow. bourd. a lie. grancelli. an edge. to effervesce. ON. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. bruse. burgensis. A burl. to polish. A legal term from the Lat. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Burgh. Burlesque. the J in OFr. burlare. — . Burn. Sw.. Supp. surge or dashing of the sea . Gael. . repartee . brase. See Burgeon. Compare also Piedm. buirleadh. From Fr. to give an edge to. bremmen. Fl. and the Burnish. — . burgen. which has given much trouble to etymologists. Goth. Burgess. . Swiss Rom. watery. broil.). a purling hiwe brennen.. to puff up borr^ . swelling borr-shuil. as Diefenbach bud. to To Bum. he rustle. j. burn. Sw.Ps. ample of polishing metal. bourglairs. brunnr. thence.ireui£r:e. bunch. brasa..or bubbling up. to roar. a bubble to spring as water. a bud. pressa puret. de Vaud. barrel. brandung. in Schm. the word seems Pm. Lang. occupying much space. to hum. spring-water bumach. It.

and. ptcrren. bris. brit. Shelter. root borr. i5(7&a. bourse. and met. Burse.— . to hide. also all such stuff as hay. Fris. birigean. byrsa. To Burst. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. fortify. ber•whirr to whizz. Hence Fr. brico. a sepulchre. brittle. force. S w. . cwning-gaer. Bursar. borra. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. I. to buzz. burra. brisd. bur. &c. brisdeach. See Bulge. brist. an annular swelling. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. cover. idiom if 4. In a met. break . This word seems safety. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. as in Northumberland. burre. to mutter Sw. as from Sp. its own protection. straw. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Burial. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. when they spring So in W. brast. from Fr. shelter. brickie. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. The root forms brik.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. ' BURR AS. be more in accordance with AS. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. briketo. a pad. chips or anything else Fl. birgan. a wallet or scrip. ' ' — — burren. bristen. borsa. borsa. and spelling. Jam. Mid. bolsa to It. Beowulf. as for the protection of a child's head. OHG. a purse. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a sepulchre chreoburgium — .' edge grew weak. purr. to break. preserve. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. but it is more probably a development of It. foretell great storms at 3. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. byrigels. bristeach. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bolgia. ON. hair. borrow. keep. byrgan. verbergen. bourrer. any kind of quilting or stuffing. husks. AS. . In OE. bourse. whirr and burr. to stuff. OHG. any rapid whirling biarga. stuffing. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. save. buscha. signifying protrude. to P'air. -burse. shearing of cloth. brittle. beorgan. from whence we pass through Sp. dial. Burse. &c. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . . It. g. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. skin. pipaa. bourre. ultimately resting on the Gael. of a body hurled through the air. a. bur. borre. shuffling. a harness or collar maker) . burgisli. brista. burial place. brokil and brotil. that birds make their nests with. See Burgeon. mentioned under Burgeon. a rabbit burrow. peluca to Fr. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. G. 2. talk fast and indistinctly. Compare also OE. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. brokenharpstringed-like cattle.' Harris in Todd. from AS.Lat. whence Kil. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. brizeto. barza. byrgels. moss. brjota. It. Burr is related to buzz as protect.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. Cot. borsia. berstan. — Translated by Kemble. brest. shales. to bury . to hide . blurra. a morsel. karborre. ON. also ' any such trash as chaff. With a slightly different ghen. some people in pronouncing the letter r. byrgen. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. Fr. appears under the Lang. caer is a — — — ' ' : . iii. to burst. explained E. E. Dan. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. beurs. Burr. Swiss burren. bourlet. -Grisons bulscha. bersten. bris. briser. and thence flocks 'of wool. Fr. bergen. Burser. to save. Fr. Du. a purse. whirr. 225. Burrow. a barn or cupboard. bres- — tan. an exchange. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. of England. makes the disbursements of the college. brown. casting bullets. tomb. Brun on bane. preserve. brist. impetus. Port. coo. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. dial. Du. borre. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. as it is still pronounced in N. leather. the officer who bears the purse. AS.. byrstan. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. A rabbit burmotion. a port. Sw.' The same word with burgh. Sexy. briso. bourrelet. borra. To Bury. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. G. 5150. Gael. prsnuti. Sw. perruque. the — — castle or fortress. britar. a place of defence. Hal. — Clare. birr. swell.

to stop. a box for measuring corn. a little box Dan. G. wisp. busken. boucher. bosc.fiasc. Bush. Du. at bua sig. as boun is simply buinn. whence at bua sik. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. ch). It. projection. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. buxula. bush. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Sibriht that I of told. diminutives. a wisp. a gun biichse. bausen. In to Brutaine. . —Busk. and from the Fr. Du. a troop. To prepare. a rampart. -idis. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. at buast. basse. bousse. besom). a bundle. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. bustellus. AS. a hump. fiast. knot. dead. grapes.— ' ii8 {chreo. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a bush. and thence Mid. burial mound. a tuft. bundle. tuft. a bunch. The bone in a woman's stays. Thus Froister . to direct one's course towards. qualster-boscken. bouche. a grove bosch van haer. Thence byrigean. 2. to dress. induere vestes . To Busk. make ready. signifying to entomb. borseof trees. thicket {buski. barsc in Heimskringla. barst. And her ful sone tuft. the idea of knocking. The word frequency with which to busk is used. Sc. bush. verb. They busked and malced them boun. bo7ich (Fr. BUSH hreaw. and we actually find bushel. buxta. buysschen. a tuft guini. to prepare. to sepulchre. Malberg. is thus accounted for. a bush. borcegui. bos. to bow. . ' —P.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. bundle * Buskin. The primary sense of hair . mount. Bush. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. cluster. basse. condere. bulge.Lat.' The word is explained by — — . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. ' . boisseau. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. . clusprobably Morocco leather. iriCtf -ifoe. busk. in the For Skirnis . bossida. apparently a secondary verb.boisteau. Brunne. hunch Du. ' . are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a -tavern bush. : — . Brunne. Fris. bunch. box wood to bush. sur une litifere. Harold G. the land. Prov. tow. bussellus. ' .gur bidst austur um EySascog. bousIn the other copy ser. then a tuft Sp. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. AS. bossen. thicket of thorns . Fr. abdere. OFr. See Bust. Du. bua. which would later have truast. buskr. to forest of Eyda. brodiquin. and he cites wisp bauschen. See Box. It is certain that buast must once have Fr.) to hide in the ground. bosch (a diminutive ?). and not directly (as Du.-^Bushel. bairgan. occultare K. whence bouchon. from the ON. a tuft. aheap of stones. a box. ' . bussel. or — Busk. berghen. to enclose in a case or box. the past participle of the same verb bua. Mid. biichse. hjul-bosse. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. busse. R. brodequin tout noir. protect . to bend one's steps. OFr. Ptg. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. Sw. whente beorg. to keep. lump.P. So from Fr. . rad. in OE. buxida. truasc. that the lend had lorn thorn.Lat. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. the Moors and of Morocco. boiste.' The buskin is said Bret. a corpse). Gr. It. a box. borghen. a bunch of twigs. 'at bua sik. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. il fut couch6 l^jkema). to dress. we have Fr. a been written buasc. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. boissa. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bousche. a clot of phlegm sart. a tuft of hair. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. to bury. beorgan. boistel. bussare. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. . gave Lat. . 410. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . oneself.' a box. bosta. for at buasc. bramble. Bouchet.' sheath. boxta. to swell. ieorh. Le roy Richard mort. defence. to turn. as synonymous with to inake one boun. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Sir Tristram. bustula. brake. roquies. van wijnbesien. preserve. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. or the like. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. bulk. Layamon. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss.

lips. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. smack. of the human body (Grandg. fe^a. the body without arms busque. AS. otarda. also a It.). 22. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Sp. statue of the upper part of Fr. log . body of a woman's dress It. bulk. See Boss. mouth. ON. bisegung. Xerqui. busto. bus. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. knock. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Buss. a kiss. austarda. mogangas from gonj. the breast. — — difications of the same word. bacio.' Plin. to bustle.Lat. a busk. pussa.' ON. Fr. vessel employed in the herring fishery. snout.pjik. to make use of. body. ' bistardej It. baiser. geidha. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. knock. bysgje. BUSS Dozy from Arab. 1372. a sleeveless truss or doublet. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. buta. stem. Prov. would explain the G. 2l box. Bav. Prov. abotarda. buc. an ostrich. ottarda. ^A. Bust. besongne. occupied bezigen. chest. busche. a blow. arbor ramis trunGloss. betarda. — hardly be distinct from Fr. plated body or other quilted thing. putschen. or avutarda. bus and Pol. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. kiss. a kiss. — Thus we should have mocherqui. Sp. brusc. or chest in which the vitals are contained. putta. made stiff. inde discurro et operosus sum. also a flagon. mouth. a ship of some size. So in Fin. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. to occupy. busy. and also a sounding blow. Hence probably au-tarda. A wisp. . lump. a mouth. With respect to bust. says. Rouchi. a tree. work. Hal. hipista.bezig. The form brust. stir. bus. the trunk. bysgian. business. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . thick end. biist. bukr. Swiss butschen. mohedairova. forms morseqiiill. 119 bi{tr. beso. cata — . cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. sunt quas Hispania aves . Cot. brostia as well as bostia. and by transposition morchequi. as in moharra from harbe. trunk of Cot. Du. its slowness of flight. Gael. biseg. a blow. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. I. windbutsch. On the other hand. bu. trunk. bnist. The proceedings of Parliament. buyse. I. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. representing a blow. 7o\. . a boat or small vessel . Fl. bussa.D. an affair. small. body. Comp. kiss. a bush. Port. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. busc. Namur — Champagne Fr. abutarda. outarde. in Diaz Gris. btcc. Business. a Mid. Busy. as in ON. to Swab. — clattering about. Edrtst. utarda. and then with avis again prefixed. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. bruskras well as buskr. bist. from jnund. a great billet Cot. Pol. ViM. sera. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. body of a man. a kiss. besoigAe. B. to knock . a kiss of reverence. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Fr. also a busk. Lang. but. Bulch. especially of a woman's dress. forest. ship Sp. and supposes that the common Arab. or Cherqui. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. body of garment. bust. Fr. A A busquer (Sigart). love gestures. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. 10. worn to make the body straight . borcegui. — . bustla. trunk of a tree. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. signifying trunk of a the body. mosequin. a bulk or trunk without a head. Box. a. tarda. a projection. The Prov. stump.d. busch. occupation. Fr. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. a log. Busk. 2. buc. Cat. outard. bust. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Busitiess :c3iVi . Sw. crack . A great sluggish fowl. To Bustle. beezig. Fris. busta. employment bisgan. box. to make a splash in the water. buc. a large cljest or particular applibox. ' BUSY 2. bisgung. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. butz. — — — — It is like the smouldering. Walach. tuft.— . To hurry or make a great B. busch. bucha. brut. body . Prov. a bust. avuDiez. Lat.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. bisg. mons. lip. a fishing vessel. Sp. basiuin. Bustard. of a doublet. the long. I bustle. busq. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. body without arms and legs. bussen. Bust. kupata. ON. lip. I go strepo) . Lindenbr. buquer. buz. a stroke of wind. a backstock. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. 1555.> Also written buskle. So Wes- terwald munds. the point of a lance. a bunch of flowers . stump. trunk. morsequi.

belly. bountifully. "PLT) . the bottles. bhcciero. botija. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. boucher. bolr. the mouth). botilla. bocin. botte. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. young mais. or what in in charge of the pantry. also a hollow vessel . But In Sc. then hoUow trunk. Fr.' or ' there is not but one body of a man.' ' write. without care. Wall. Prov. bola. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. those in beccaio.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. bochier.' Thus Chaucer says. bute. my is called the adversative use of but. the body of a tree or of a man. It. earthen which the debtor has adverted. a butcher . as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Tooke's dis. Ben-house. gives at least two pounds sterling. Sp. beccaria. Sp. So in Italian from becco. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. equivalent of AS. Whatever is in addition to Butler. without. by the mode in which he is treated. but one thing. . collection of casks. a baiTel . from boc. bitten dai. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . is well explained by Tooke. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. the belly.streets.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. being wholly unten. a leathern bag. the trunk or body of an animal. binnan.in which his brethren are included. — we acle for liquors. properly a butan wite. outside that moreover. beta. AS. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. the full expres. viz. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. Fr. If that where now we should compiler. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. calf. bous. the jug and in E. without the house kept in bottles. viz. bout.The Sp.' — — ' . G. which the word corresponds to the Fr. hollow case. the precise correlative of but. be out. As a conjunction but is in every portion. ' Besides all that. — . butan. a goat. to-boot. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. A A . ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. rumpf. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bolgia. as Pantler. slaughter-house. rotundity of the body. But when will you pay it ? the belly. tinction between but. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. Du. ox. bounds of. belly. calf of the ' say. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. in addition. Sp. the name must have arisen before the within. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . bag. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. able. we find ben. trunk. and the real origin of the and within . and bot. Buttery. OFr. is put in a class by himself. Butler. belly. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. that which would be translated by Fr. The E. bole of a tree.' there is really a negation to be supplied. moreover. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. similar train of thought is seen in ON. without buiten-man. bitlga. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. mais. Fr.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. bodifie. Butcher. a barrel. without punishment . skin-bag. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. ont jhi^ton. bol. boteria. Butt. a butchery. large barrel. boquier. ways. the Perhaps besogne — . But It. a budget. a cask.jamin. sup- meat and drink. the principal apartment. (children) boc. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. a wooden cask. Lang. and with It. body of a shirt w. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . bouteillier. wooden receptthing to be done. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. . buta. the store of ten. original sense of without. besides that . without law. of the wine and drink. add. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. a bottle._ bitten j biiten door. biitait slaughterer of goats . The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. beccaro. beyond the Piedm. the present day we should say. bouz. an outlaw from bouche. the body of an animal. ' There is leathern bottle. boccino. a goat (and not besides . the servant in charge of the original object. hull of a ship. except. butan ce. Lang. Here the but implies the existence of an. are. barriga. a butcher. a small winebag. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. Where at an earthen jar . from as. bisgung.

' thick from shaking. is formed the augmentative buttatich. buttern. W. A — — — . . Hal.— BUTT leg . as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. what is kept in a blow. a thrust the thigh-bone. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. &c. Bout van het schouderIt. Butter-glass. e. boter-vliege. oir spike with a k coup . large head. a wall butor butt on. give way. butte. from stossen. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. so as to make a sounding blow. bout.thum and not button. Buttel-triib. botte. nourrissons.arbre. a heap of merly called pushes. buter. to thrust. buhsom. the thigh of a goose. . having a rotundity . humble. a bolt. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Grandg. from bugan. and the true derivation boar. Fris. on. bothog. the trunk. to femur. as in G. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Fr. a scope. grease that sets by merely standing. butz. a stroke di animal. w. — — — — . a bot. R. an ox. the Butter-fly. bocgsuin. a tub. thrust forwards. tress. to be con. Buttock. a dle . &c. a bun. Fr. a boss. strike. botto. striking end. pwt. thick. Butter. a button. Cot. — . a button. a buttress Cot. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. to thrust. botta. signify a cask or tub. bud. Kil. Btetter-schmalz. The word body itself seems identical with G. or person Schmeller . a ribbed glass for dient. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. from bouter. buttare. Bav. butter. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to abut on. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. An erection built up as a Fr. a. fowl. Schmell. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. lams-bout. Boutje. leg of lamb. a barrel. bodi. potacha. trapu. suddenly . coxa. to cast. — A . : . The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. Perhaps corrupted Lat. bouter. buttock of beef is called butr. from the large knobbed head of botto. aim whence to make a support to a wall. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Schmell. butyrum. by boE. Hal. a stump or club foot. a hill. a boss. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. any short thick thing. a corner horses' hoofs. are the strips at the edges of the field. boteria. to throw . any small projection. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. To strike with the head bags. a little push . Buttrice. to push earth . short thick thing pimple.. waste ground. able that Chaucer. gigot.. butt. . Boutant.to push. obeto shake backwards and forwards. a but in the W. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. Du. To Butt. to so close to the Fr. It. botten. bott. i. bottig. butter. — A . Gris. — . in the R. as if from Povg. See Butler. as rejeton. to blad. boutis. -ez. the edge forwards. AS. povrvpov. botwm. butt of a person. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Du. a blow. at. thrust. bouton. bouter. butt. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. from notirrir. fle>(ible. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to thrust Fr. bata. boter-schijte. buttals. Fr. Mur-buttant. pied. botta. obedient. of E. a large belly. clunis. G. butter un. The Bavarian potig. Du. bout. Buttery. Gr. bouton. the rosebud. Kil. but. end . stump. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . to thrust . put. From Grisons biitt. both. boil. Lang. a blow. a button. Button. a cask. ment being supposed to resemble butter. a flying buttress. Halma. of the present day. nourrisson. an etwas anstossen. caput scapula bout van f been. boding. Buttress. From Du. geboogsaem. From the noise of drinkables in a house. bodi'. Fr. W. boiUer. pwtiaw. bot. to strike. So in English pimples were fora clod. submit shaking up salad sauce. butte. bot blijven staan. Bav. butteln. from rejeter. boter-vogel. Gael. a mound. tout seat or breech. Fr. to abut a stone roof. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Sp. Fr. to heap up earth or ihrust. a.rejected thing. dripping. to butt. the prick in the middle of a target. bocsam. To come full butt against a butts. a leg of mutton. * Buxom. courtaud.putan. or or shore post. bottich. to thrust.against another which needs support . Fr. stump of a tree Fr. Du. to boult flour. rabodd. the thick end. Kil. hillock . nursling. a buttrice. the store of while bottich. bot. to bow. but this is probably from Fr. to touch at the end. butt. Du. boutoir. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . clumsy . poke.

favourably to a petition. 200. Pecock Repressor. confusedly. to sell. Dan. a by-path is a side path . leges urbanse ON. OE. ii. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. See Abie. to jan. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. jus municipii. \s\xy. & Q. good-humoured one. —gracious of speech. to pass by. ON. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. Etynj. lete. A ful benygne buirde. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. groat in token of his good heart towards him.— P. bylove. a borough. harty prayers and God speedes. big. as in Da. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. to buzz. tions by one. bohte. buzarg. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. farm.. from whom it was addressed. to wit. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. The sense of buxom. and boxome of speche xviii. bygge. AS. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. p. . It. a town. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. . G. town having separate jurisdiction. By-law. to stand at his side . Du. Lat. as Fr. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. 519. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. bugjan. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative.— Diet. frabttg- To Buzz. Goth. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. 21. buzac. Byre. 116. Sw. a buzzard or puttock.. a beetle.in N. stall. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. bauhta. 3. abozzago. bycgan. and would have been lost in E. Sw. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bozzago. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. blessing me with their of side. who makes abigg. A A We — — — days' wonder. called Cabala or Tradition. .busardj Prov. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. A by. from by. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. and it is of good will. buso. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . favourable. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. to purchase for money. a meke thynge with — alle. bij. depends upon a esteem in falconry. to swear with him by . cow-house. bi. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. iii. son. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. bei. bi. Originally the law of a particular town. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. bar.P. village. bylag. Many good mological explanation. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. Mercy hight that mayde. byar-rettr. as heedless as a cock-chafer. byr. AS. bees. P. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. to whisper. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Verstegan in R. Buzzard. It. Cabal. train of thought which has become obso. — 122 BUY P. buteoj Fr. buzzicare. indistinctly. The ON. gracious. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. CABAL Goth. also say. lb. To Buy. byar-log. Then applied to speaking low.

deponat a store closet. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cadabulum. cacare . w. forms indi. giiare. bad. a head (whence cabochard. and the Arab. cadabulum. E. To Cabbage. gaggi. a frail. Lat. hovel. gaban. Etym. gabardme. Sp. gatsch. form kactal. round or great headed. ceach / exclamation of guages. cabre. disgust. origin is the OFr. to chatter. capuccio. — . string. The double a in the OFr. chaable. cadabola. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. brassica — capitata. a jacket Fr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. dirt and the Fr. and Or. a rope. cabulus. a rope or cable. vincially used in E. Castr. dung. the bowels. — Kil. nasty. cabo. It. serious injury — In like manner It. a tunic. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Sw. Finn. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. . cabasser. manganare. Very generally used. vile. — Tarbe. OSp. agge. gaggele. Cappa in OSp. kabaSsen. accablcr. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. &c. Cablisb. OFr. cabus. and Ptg. and as we find stones Mid. Tugurium. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. 'habl. a cabbage . especially shepherd's frock. and Finnish lanLat. an engine for casting stones. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. aakkat'a. cabuyskoole. Mid. cab. Mid. main. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. cables. to hurl down. agge machen (in nurses' language).Lat. From It. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . It. a rope. to put or pack up in a frail. cabbage. — Ibid. cabane. cabo. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Item habeat vocant. Du. chadabula. Antiq. as an expression of Gr. Ptg. to crush. &c. maim. The name of the engine. Didot. signifying properly a rope's end. kakaloH. as Diez supposes).Gr. Cot. manticuKil. Fr. dirty. cdble. kabas. kakla.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. The Sp. for the origin of which see Carabine. hoard together. cabacho. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . caables. hut. case. Du. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. in which sense are explained The the OFr. chaable. cabuccio. It. Imitative of the cry of hens. caable. or rush basket. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. su/Furari. a rope. whence Fr. Fr. Kil. Lang. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. caboche.. It. — the ON. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. capo. or cadable. a shed. capanna. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. cadabalum. Fr. to keep or Du.' Due. signifies down. ! — . Due. Celtic. OFr. . Cot. whence Lang. ckaable. —Diet. from trabocco. Capstan. stercus. havyar to caviare. to hurl in Nat. overwhelm (Diet. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. chabla. Katr-iT-aKt. Lith.). secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. would correspond to cable. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cab lis. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. calabre. as Turk.. . as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. a booth or hut. wilful). as it must have stood in French. headed or cabbage lettuce. caable. disgust cac. prostratio ad terram. a headed cole or cabbage . aak! tandi like Fr. or as an interjection of disMod. a cloak of felt or Cack. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. properly windfalls. Cabin. cabas. Cabinet.Lat.Lat. disgusting such an engine was exerted. a car- We convasare. cadabula. cabre. (ca/coe. precisely in the sense of the lari E. covering. it would seem fundain children's language. aeggi. Fr. Du. has kabbel. filth. Neckam — by the wind. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. Common to Lat. caable (in legal language). scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. akista. laitue cabusse. geese. originally an Gael. Due. . agga. . to strain in such a manner . . Cabbage. caqueter. cacare.. — . Brushwood — — B. cabarino.ticula. cable . dirty. cabaii.. band. OFr. come the Fr. heady. Fr. from manganum. the Prov. Gaggle. the Slavonian. is probably unconnected. kabat. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a covering. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. mdhaigner. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. name of the projectile engine. Choux cabus. E. overwhelm. headed. lactuca capitata. traboccare. surripere. Sp. To steal or pocket. Mid. : — from violence without blood. kabane. head.

caldaria. kola.— Calliper. kalfi. From lerie. To Cajole. En kaka br'od. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Calamity.Gr. (in the augm. a wheel . a fever. a common cart. kaad. Cadet. a small stone. a cake or loaf. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. B. kdtr. to cackle . calibre. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. cadet. chaudron. and troublesomely attached to. of the nature of lime to calcine. calpa. Cot. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. desire of land. kukje. Due. Cajol. a corpse. a caFr. or prattle. ' . Sp. a wheel . the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. naXaiidpi. Fr. from calculus. coop. Lat. It. calentura. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. calendarium. colibro. a hollow place. Gascon capdet. Fr. KaKKat. Lat. principal and interest. Calc-. taking it Sp. captive. the pith or soft part of wood. pith. the younger son of a family said to be from . calesa. to treat like lime. to — Fr. a calash . It. to throw themselves into the sea. or colpa na coise. from the ink-bag which it contains. It. cuttle-fish. Du. It. reed-pen. kolasa. —Atkinson. hence musical rhythm. Cauldron. the pi. kaeckelenj Gr. calidus. bad . — — — Dan. Cadaverous. Du. unruly . a lump or large piece. Arab. Du. . Originally from a Slavonic source. Lat. cabdillo. ben- kalf. from the Chinese catty. loss. just falling. kalfvan hout. frisky. of oxen and similar animals. gabberen is identical with E.uv. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. joyous . calessa. Calash. calx. Caitiff. cake. &c. Tea-caddy. kolyasochka. . without loss. rattaat (wheels). calf of leg. Sp. a cylinder. chetif. especially of something soft. kolesnitza. the calf of the leg. cage. ON. cadence. kage. on. Gael. kolyaska. KxiKivh^o^. Cake. disease of sailors from tivus).warmth . ratas. from calendcE. Sp. is probably delusive. to sleek hence a den. prate. whence Lat. Lat. calamitas. It is another form of the E. a dence. gabbia. G. whence calash. cadenza. Fr. calculo. Dan. master. cavea. gaggia. * Calibre. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. incolumis. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. kaka. misfortune. so gabble corresponds with Fr. capitetum. In the same way Fin. marrow. caldarius. Du. cattivo (from Lat. to gabble. To Calender. Dan. from Gr. . a calesh. a mischievous dial. N. G. to cage. an ugly waggon kolaska. calibre. a vessel for heating water. to compute. calendrer. Lat. calba. dead body. gabble. Caddy. Fr. gavia. lime whence calcareous. — in a kiln. wretched. an inkstand . Cadge*. a falling. kat. boy. when they are said to poor. Serv. Calandre. a car. Turk. See Kiddier. Pol. It. the lump and the increase. cykevie. collop. a roller. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. capCalenture.— . a reed. kdfich. An open travelling chariot. Russ. calamus. Mrs B. to heat. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. The Calf. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Fr. signifies a waggon. Calocli. Calendar. . jabber. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Cadence. Lat. * Cade. a loaf of bread. 124 prattle . cageoler. koeck. lindrus. of which. dial. ever and anon. Roman reckoning. Caldron. Fr. Lat. pen Mod. safe.— Cot. chaudiere. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. to . cadere. the bore of a cannon. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Lat. pi. As Du. babbhng. hot. coll. a wheel. gabbia. Lat. . for green fields. frolicsome kaad mund. wanton. Cage. cadaver. A cuttle-fish. Cot. little chief. Lat. cage. Cot. caioler. chattering. kail. kolo. a circle. Calp is riadh. kolo. roller. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. a waggon . Fr. Turk. Flo. a wheel . loss. a tea-chest. It. Sw. kuchen. hot . caliche. form) calderone. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Sw. its mother. A — fall. Sw. Fr. javioler. one unduly indulged by. kakulla. lord. a wretch. calcis. Calcialate. calentar. The young G. A . A hooded carriage. kolesb. calidus. kalem. pet lamb. cauldron. cha'cmie cadence. Perhaps from w. to prate much to little purpose. a counter used in casting accounts. Calf of the Leg. kauwe. or smooth Hnen cloth. The Lat. gaggle. Lat. kolo. Calamary. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. kalb. limestone. a low note.

calc. to proclaim. chatter kallen. Mahn derives it from Lat. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. calo. quA librd. To drive tow or oakham. Antiq. Bi. sound. donderbuchs Sp. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Sup. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. which has its memory preserved in Du.(jaa= ice). Diez. B. chatter. tittle-tattle. abto suppose that E. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. kal. Sp. Sc. saucy. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. ululo Turk. callum.en~ kinds of firearms. diameter of a ball. CALM to press or stuff. calcare. Gr. calclover. of the bore of a firearm met. to be of a good or bad quality. which is as much as to say. Calm. Fr. Kil. coluber also. nautique). kallo. The origin is Gr. or mould. oldire from audire. voice. To call. calat of leude demeaning. According to Jal (Gl. trull.' Winter's Tale. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Heb. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. Callow. glotton. a last. To century was Squalibre. to calk. Hard. u to an I in such a colubrum. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. in which dangerous to place implicit faith.' But it is hard Du. 125 Prov.from Ka'tm. Mil. licht stuk The change from a. the heat of Now these Du.' Slange. Calico. caluw. scold. serpens. Sir John Smith in Grose. a drab. calme. calibre. The reference to heat is preserved in. Due. to tread. cauque. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Lat. calleting. prattle. Ptg. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. CALICO Calliper-compasses. bombarda Cauma incendium. faint. — — — — — . calicot. Caliph. them &c. the scalp or skull. can be distinct from ODu.' Whitby Gl. i. ' rine. to prattle. Fr. having a thick skin. hallottaa. kahcwe. Dief. to cram. It. faint. 'A callet of boundless tongue. water-tight. culverin. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. ' pert. The word was also written cawme in OE. the hard surface of the ground. Du. of a column. Lang. kal. piece of bigger circuite. skin hardened by labour. calk. callus. calibre. on. couleuvre. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. a. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. So It. brawny. to call.Lat. quality. ram. however. sence of wind. overscalmaccio. coulevrine. Sp. hot. kael. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Among these were the turn. drive. NE. colubraria canna. Turk. caliver. the Fr. people's remarks. Indies. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. qAlab.— . . to affirm. cotton cloth. To Calk. dragonder. kind heat of the sun. koluvre. sclopus. Fin. Ibid. femme frivole et babillarde. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Kil.piicede Lat. calgua. khalif. Fr. whehce it was first brought. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calare. Call. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. bald. calor. colubrina. serpentina. fistula. the latter of chamber. whereas in troth it is not. the Fr. sestus. try. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. cahna. to abuse . which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. — — — — — . or languishing drought is . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). * Caliver. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Fin. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . calca. harquebus or handgun. a good calling.meaning of the word. and E.position is much less common than the geschut. done with heat Alt. Ca. to hear. — Fl. . from Calicut in the E. Unfledged. caillette. form. vulgo Coluvrine. given. calma. heat. a soldier who the It. calma. word of mouth . Fr. klover. form in the kalib. to rail or scold . Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. Derived by some from Arab. to call. alta voce ploro. Gael. tapulta. scalmato. E. a successor. and dragon. or caliever. gossiping. whence couleuv. dragoon. moist. harden by pressure. Kavfia. calvus. kalla. an adder. Mid. kol. moso. by many that the weapon Callous. to say. calcaich. depreciatory term for a woman. AS. KaXka. quiet. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. hollaing. heat. and heat. push violently. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. the day. dial. Diet. but is only a jda-kallo. Lat. kil-u-kal. and sometimes a handgun. to callet. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. a round of abuse. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). overheated. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. * Callet. longior. cauma.. coluber. a feathers. to burn.' Chaucer.

to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. samon. to break. fair. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Candid. Fr. camelus. ko/utuXoc.Lat. canistrum. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Campaign. camafeo. Sp. a may have acquired that signification from plain.conduit-pipe. See Canker. Properly calver in the field during a war. open and level ground. good. would plenier. or hollow of a flower. slander. to the force of the wind. chamold man. a large drinking . Fr. It. crooked. a. frank and sincandidatus. cam^e. Sanson khanda. In a different application It.— B. to glow. E. cambr^. campagna. KafitjUe. to bow.' ' Quhen a lattice. across — Bellenden in Jam. the calix. Camisade. a caught. lame. Camlet. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. campagne. at the ends. a. higher in the middle than Fr. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t.— Chandelier. aged. Cambray. Calumny. different sections of the like the Chinese. . catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. camp. the spersed with white flakes like curd. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. to avoid enemy in their shirts. se cameloter. a field Greek monk. chaitcre. sugar. the salmondis faillis thair loup. nia. Camp. An eater of human flesh. camelot. camisa. B. hooked. Sp. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. candidus. kanna. campus. to warp. lattice. champagne. cere : Lat. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. Canker. Cot. cAouma. campo. ckaouma. Canine. a dog. Lat.' Forme of Cury in Way. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. aspirant. and yspiuv. Fr. sore. A — the Cannibals. whence the Fr. arch.Gr. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. canna. It. It. a basket. Ptg. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Or the word Lat. camisade. to bend. to bend. Cambrel. paign. monk. Bret. From campus was formed Lat. camaien. the space of false imputation.—Cambrel. canalis. Fr. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. mg Canister. the bed of a stream. cambren. calutmiia. Calver of cane. candela. It. Turk.—Jam._ kamm. — — — A — — escume de saumon. a crab. white. It was distinfrom work. Palsgr. Cann. — B. Cambric. a' Sc. From fluting or furrow in a column . Gr. when its substance appears inter. Lat. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. E. icaSoytipoe. a goblet bud. the heat. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Caloyer.—Candidate. water chamlet . brought from Fr. cancer. campagna. camiscia. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. camahutus. Peter Martyr. Gr. the type of a hollow pipe. Cameo. Fr. having an aquiline nose. toile some of whom. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. field . a piece. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Lat. Arab. w. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. crooked. champ. cambrer. India Islands. Mid. or Caribs. had no r in de bric— Cot. cancello. Sp. callar. Fr. The Grisons cauina. chandelle. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. bis. Kakoycpos. to jut. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. B. arched.who their language. properly good country. Canal Channel. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. callour. an eating. cup. ation. salmon. E. It. is Cambering. cup.. clothed in white. campren. crook. fresh. It. Camel. unwater chamelot . a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. campaign. is Candle. Calyx. Mod. — Lat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. from xaXbg. canis. chommer. camiscieia. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Lat. Lat. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. Candy. Fr. campo. camber-nosed.— Hackluyt in R. KafivTu. . The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. catmneo. Canibal. lie level. whence the noun signifying an applicant. cainahelus. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. calj'x. Pers. arched. co7nbar. spot for cattle. on. crooked-stick. Fr. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. also an eatmg sore. cambre. Cancer. died in 1526. Lat. Lat. whence Fr. from candere. Cambrav—Cam. — Cancel. crooked.

canapaccia. See Chape. It. Hence Lat. cappe. a scull- — here. gnat. Canoe. region. . or hold. a cover Turk.CANNEL vessel. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. kwvwxIi. Sp. kand. cainnt. border Dan. chape. Gael. It. cape. cane. B. Mod. that the G. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Canteen. to contain. capello Italis. cantref.Gr. Coal burning with bright flame. from cant. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. Mod. call. capace. say.^on. Alamannis. being a yard or thereabouts . The — . Cannoii. a cantle of bread. cantone. hirnschlapple. canonici. It. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. a small boat. a ruler. Kavt\. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. rumme. a door . cappa. Swab. edge. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. properly a large Prov. . Fin. Canton. covered. a hundred. Cantle. To canvas — . can. hemp. Schwab. ON. the part easiest broken off. canoa. carcase . cantred. A slow gallop. or cantell of bread. Canon. hood. If the word had been from cantherius. cantina. Germanis kdppen. cane. name. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. shut. Kil. leiwan kanta. Fr. cannabis.. language. also a measure. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. capa. canapa.Gr. schlappen. . Sp. as a cantle of bread. From Gr. See Capt-. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. to put upon sacred writers. W. and hence a gobbet. corner. from a Canter. Canopy. the tried list of saints. a drinking glass. was formed Kavtiiv. a cane. a corner. a ship canot. A piece of anything. a horn of the moon . like a torch or candle. cheese. kynnel. Esthon. lump. Cape. has kahn.n. Sp. Fr. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. cantle then is a corner of a thing. coarse hempen cloth Fr. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. . to con- rummer. speech. border. coarse hemp. part. Capable. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. a torch. clqse. canvas. schlapp. cover kapi. a pipe. canton. cannone. a Fr. a boat. &c. Prov. kapamak. to shut. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. Palsgr. a wine-cellar or vault. as. kq. canon. trine. Capacious. a cap. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. The meserseum and the mesentericum. root cap. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. chantel. coat. &c. territorial hundred. kandt-broodts. Fr. To Canonise. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Of vena cava and of vena porta. A . haitt. quarter . Capari. measure for cloth. It. kantr. canevas. It. a hunch of bread. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a gelding. a reed. a cloak kapali. Jonson. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. side. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. It. Cant. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. cover . Gugel. To his judicial And trowl the tile. a rule or standard of excellence. canto. cannu. a — A — Cannel Coal. and met. the quartile. a division of a country. But it may be different source. kanta. from canna. KCLvva. signifying cover. and the sex- &c. cope. cappe. margo panis diffracta. Again we have Lat. capax. pipe. capevole. a tube. OFr. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. cane. caparazon. contain. from Dan. It.— Cot. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. and tref. regular. cannevaccia. is found languages of very different stocks. canonicus. which is not the case. Diez. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. cane. canteau. hamlet. able to receive. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Wtb. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. chanteau. a straight rod. a reed. the heel. Canvas. kyndel. from . astrology. Picard. From Lat. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. he discourseth of dissection. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. to sing. cannevo. Cot. KaTTiram. the heel. kaput. Lat. Goldast — in in Schmid. quito curtain. quarter. Du. a cloak. tain. it would have been found in the continental languages. a side. Cope. N. hemp.

<I>pi'?oe.'— Trev. To treat Capitulate. A headland. shrub. eruca compared with It. riccio. capparis. Cot. upon terms Sp. caj)o. Torriano. end. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle.— Fl. and with an initial gr instead of br. capriol or caper in dancing. rissoler. or. as Fr. A . erica. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . Caprice. airoKOTrrw. to parch. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Hair-like. principal. curl. to crackle. the hair to stand on end. greziller. It. cut off. s'hdrisser. Unexpected pleasure. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . grisser. Fr. cappriccio. a capriol.— 128 CAPE a rustling. p. with joy' Vikram. to shudder. a buck. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. a ch illness. ericius. and his body bristled We to castrate. to from capitulum. horripilation. It.impressions on the ear. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. the head. Hence capitalis the sum lent. the initial mute of forms like Gr. or represented by the syllable e. of a coach. to broil. and 7tucc. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. — — A a hair. curling. horror. Hal. I have shivered with love. Griller d'im' patience. then to be in a state of vibration. So from Sw. — to yearne. II bresole (Gl. the head. w. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver.Gr. cApre. crackling sound Cape. frisser {frissement d'un trait. to broil. Mod. grug. birsle. to twitter as birds. grisser. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. castrated cock. a caterpillar. a young kid met. compared with Bret. abridge amKoTroq. heath. hedge-hog. Sp. or Lat. ^piKos. brisoler. then find the symptoms of shivering. arricciarsi. It. Fr. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. gricciare. Lat. aggricciare. a caper in dancing.). shivering. brisciare. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. And similarly to yearn. It. to fry. they longed extremely to see it. brezilia. Fr. hair. frisson- ner . roughening of the skin. frort^Lat. Acad. for which he cites the Comask nucia. also the capriole. humorous. caper j caprio. The true derivation lies in a different direction. brisciare. It. and OHG. fansuddenly angry. capar.' Cot. as Fr. a kid. capriole.) d'etre The It. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. brisciare.' — (Supp. or goat's leap (done by a horse). chattering of the teeth. frissoner. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. The same imitation of Capon. bristling. Capers. as in Lat. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. wriggle. It is probable that Gr. the singing'bone). to chill and chatter with one's teeth. hi. Lat. Capillary. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. castrated. Capital. a chevret. to desire earnestly. gives rise to brezza. bristling. sault. Fl. arricciarsi. Caper.) grezille marid. of a tremtdoiis sound. to . The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. gricciare. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. herissonnement. capitalis. capriola. the principal part of the debt. to ruffle the surface of water. It. Lat. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . ticchio. then to shiver or shudder. caprice. to shiver for cold. Genevese bresoler. a little head. is either wholly lost. algabr.standing on end. according to the Hindoos. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. brissle. to crackle. curly. to shiver. bruco. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. grillcr. a head. a hedge-hog. ziki. shivering. caprice It. rihrczzoso. as the means of earning profit. capro. brug. as Fr. where Burton adds in a note. h^risser. Arab. a separate division of a matter. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. cut. kid. It. 75. the hair to stand on end. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. cover of a saddle. . See Chief. explained by Diez from capra. knis. capitulare. ribrezzo. Fr. chief. knis-hujwud . CAPRICE twittering. capillus. a goat. a . Lang. toy. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. frizzle. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. alcaparra. It. gives rise to Sc. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. a yearning through sudden fear. Lat. belonging to From caput. greziller. of a fowl. or other things. prickly husk of chestnut. G^' Many words — ' ndv.

calabrin. to creak.). a hooded friar. was a kind of horse soldier. Fr. and has accordingly been lost in E. also tresFl. Du. hold. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. It. Carabin. — —Diet.. a cloke) capuccino. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. sels. 129 — receive. and of captus to an e. desire. Kiittner. tnoschetta. Lat. to take baclc. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. to this is It. Sp. karren. also a kind of rack. Cot. crepo. a coffer. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. box. crab s. Carbine. also to carry on a car . from head. deceit. -cept. kerren. capuccio. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . fancy. capitis. calabrino. OSp. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. conceive. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. capsula. one odd. however. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. strideo. cabestrantej Fr. — — Capstan. Crab. Neumann. Fin. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. Carabine. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. krul. charger. concipere. recepte.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). to take. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Castr. seize. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. recipio. Sp. cabra. chirrion. recevoir. cabreia. oisr. a windlass. It. capio. concevoir. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. conception. decepte. of the Sp. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. captus. and has thus descended unaltered to English. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. except. to load . exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. caprice. trestle. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. &c. at least. perceive. a she-goat. char. In the S. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. a sudden will. chirriar. case. a. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. concebir. of capsa. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Cot. commander. It. caricare. fantastic. intercept. Fl. recibir. caput.or -cib-. Cart. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. to carry . a machine for rais- ing heavy weights.). karra. a kind of torture. was converted into -ceb. latterly. a sawing-block or trestles. as the dragoons (Du. to accept. concept. to receive receptio. as in OFr. was originally a missile . Etym. charrier. a fantastical humour. deception. acceptus. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. capp%tccio. accept.of these compound verbs. Fr. In cases. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. a capuchin. de- price. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Lat. G. karista. It. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. as in accipio. a sudden fear apprehended. karrende waegen. cams. precept. whence capture. -cept.s. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. It. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Fr. Caseneuve in Diet. to please. a cart. Capuchin. &c. carro. an engine for throwing stones. a head man. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. caThe hrestante. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. charret. conceit. i The meaning Car. Capsule. carabin. Fr. bock. It. Capt-. Capstern. a taking back. It is a standing crab. a hood (dim. a. di cappa. to creak. Lat. receptus. a reception. Passing on into E. Captain. shivering fit (Altieri). Du. the -cevofthe Fr. -ceive. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Capriole. or the (capo-riccio). Fr. and tropically. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. . capitano. cabestan. capra. Fr. verbs gives rise to the element . &c. The It. a creaking waggon. Fr. Thus the musket. Derivatives are Fr. recipere. See Caper. Nordfoss. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Lat. contain. It. captive. dim. to take to. cabrestante (whence e. captivate. carretta. Carry.. chevre. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull.

carduus. Derived in the first edition from Mod. It. tcapKaai. a machine for casting large darts. fire . the shell of a torcarcasso. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. copperas. ancient springald. cassa. From the battering-ram. . carbh. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. Carrob. winding. burning coal.Gr. confining. a crane. Lat. bend.charcoal . and catapulta. a battering-ram). The radical meaning . The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. ON. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. carcanet. or framework. to draw in. It.. Exot. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . a goat. a collar or chain for the neck. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. caracal. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. the . The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. It. kard boyd. avSpaS. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. caravela. the case of the flesh. turning. Comp. caraffe. I. a thistle. a thistle. Ptg. alia sunt majora. cerran. OHG. to ripple flax. p. karszti. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise.— — — . to curry horses karsztuwas.. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. carmiiiarc. . in the same way that the Sp. «capa'|8i. designated in the case of G. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a small weight. a twist. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. carch. W. It. of the same Caravan. cabreia. carcanada. to creak. &c. Arab. See Carpenter. bock and Fr. a coffer. Gr. &c. An implement for dressing wool. Parmesan cassiron. Carat.. Fr. quilato. karra. constraining . Mod. quse vocant karabd. . a kind of ship. properly a siege machine. carcaij. restraint . Sp. — seems to be something holding together.' From the same source are SicU. Caraool. the husk or cod of beans. to card wool. shell. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. kerwan. curry-comb. carbo. mural attack. a case or chest . It. a quiver. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. coming to four grains. a prison. also a small weight. Sp. skeleton. Cat. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. The Trjg xeXwwac. &c. carate. a quiver . Venet. carquois. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a card or comb . vitriol. seed of carob. a wool card. a he-goat. . cardo. a quiver. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Gael. the trunk or chest of the body . carcasa. Carcase. KtpaTwv. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. Caravel. carere. the carob bean. eit. Fr. to hiss (as gee^e). to comb. AS. wool card. a ship. Fr. carabe. Lith. for a gun. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. carquan. Gael. caraffa. chevre by the name of the goat. carquasse. the carcase of a fowl. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . silique. Gael. a firelock.z.applied to a battering-ram (G. Sp. the dead body of any creature. word is only an adoption of the Turk. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. karri. carta. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Cot. Gr. . Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). cdrlag. a skeleton. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. Carbonaceous. car. to turn. an ulcer. Gael. poison eiz. Carcax. kirat. Cot. winding carach. is the chine. casso. Carboy. a dead carcase. wine- bottle. Sp. a lock of wool . matter. carbunculus (dim. skeleton. Sp. is the word used in modern Lat. an engine for hurling stones. decanter. krciti. cabrita. card. to comb wool . carabba.. Lat. skeleton toise. contract. Card. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. cramp. turn of a horse. Pers. eitar.. a winding staircase. to card wool. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. the core of fruit . Fr. Carbuncle.Gr. espi7igarda. garafa. a quiver . carcame. military engines made for hurling stones. cabra. the name might naturally Mod. Bohem. of carbo). boch. ' Vasa vitrea. a gem resembling a live coal. also (as Gr. a ripple for flax. a snail. case. black dye.

OFr. cdrle. 273. Chart. Ptg. to comb flax or hemp. ress. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. — — . dear. Cot. Carnage. 2. Care. meet at a head. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. murista. A place where four roads Mid. Sept. Venet. to load. a deed. morosus. It. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. From. carFrom carrus. Fin. voce strepo stridente. — — — Caress. an overloaded representation of anything. Coll. Mur. solicitous.. For the root of carminare. quadrifurcum from quameet. to growl. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. from the keel to the water . giierlir. a man. male person. an endearment. caricare. is This however Shrove tide. ON.' Slceat. AS. intrasset caro. . moeThe Lat. piger. the time during which to Rom. murren. & Q. to whirr (schnurren). fleshy . Cath. karrig. care on. kurista. caresse. a card. niggardly . to care unkarja. as quadrivium from Carnaval. from carrus. carina. . quarreG. karista. sorrow. caMid. Carlings. ignarus. carezza. kroU-erbser. to comb wool. like connection may be seen between Fin. to fry. . Fr. carriera. surrata. murahtaa. beans. from Lat. karl. stingy. Lat. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. AS. It. de Parthenay. kribina. Carled peas. grief. weyes. essere in carena. to rumble. ON. zanken . stridere. msstus. Carl. G. strideo. morosus sum. Translated in MS. karg. cearig. in St Jerome. immediately before the long fast of Lent. a hinge. cura intenta. karry. and G. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. W. be anxious. winding. crawl. carriire. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Roquef. that on wliich the matter hinges. crosier. karantez. A medical term from line —Boerio. clown or churl. Cot. Fr. Cartel. Sp. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. carrefourg. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. crowl. in N. charger. It. place for exercise on horseback. care. Fr. carena. cardinis. kara. to take Goth. scharren. charta (Gr.Lat. Cot. carcus. Gael. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. grolU. Carenare. 1S66. from carus. . Probably the origin of the word is the . tenax. It. carener. from caricare. . the keel of a vessel. wool cards. or grumbling —Due. a highway. Fl. ceorl. charg. in Carp. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. . one of those ac- 9 * . to distress growl. or street. astutus. tremble. to card wool. rixosus. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Peas steeped and fried. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. W. the several meanings of the words above Rom. sorrow. carnal.— Charter. the flesh of animals . carch. chartre. croller. carnis. Groler. road. sensual. carian. Farewell flesh. and thin. the keel. to parch. charie. love. carena. kargr. Carnal. Bret. and murhet. Fr. charnage. also a career on horseback. see Garble. a turn. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. combing them out like the knots in wool. . cardo. asper. to fry or broil. AS. to clean the bottom of the ship. to lie on its side. soUicitus OSax. the old theory of humours. what is felt as grievous. Carminative. record. caru. — — Diez. at murmuring. regar. affection. Properly a car-road. carnavale. that Fl.— CARD karr-kambar. Bret. Lat. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. carnasciale. Champ. Fr. camovale. tuorfurcm (Burguy). w. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. four. Cargo. fundamental. and sum. Fin. kummer. to shake. karout. Cark. kumra. — — — : Cardinal. It. gakaran. No ' place there had. carminare. caricatura. act of moaning. as peas. to eat flesh. &c. W. whence carricare. parched or carled. bottom. graller. appertaining to the flesh. 8. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. hoed. charag. Card. charnel. Bois crolant d'un ladre. G. principal. is to say. carnalis. Charnel. A mod-carag. Trin. Sp. — Carfax. to scrape . . cearian. It. x'»P'"^s)) paper. mutter. to load. sgritudo animi. p. Fr.Lat. It. cargo. Fr. — To Careen. quaver a lazar's clack. Dan.. charneux. E. car. cura may be ror. caritia. compared with Fin. and compare Bret. to scratch. Properly. Caricature. OHG. cargar. Fr. to love. carcare. A quirito ut infans. the load of a ship. careless take care of. the hull of a ship. to load. as carminare.

The karole of the stones behelde. Shrove Tuesday. carnelascid). In Dominica d'autant. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. to pluck. krapanj. The ' ' a chariot. Properly a round dance. Carnevale. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Fr. Lat. sense. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. culcitra.' Raleigh. quoted by Carpentier. querole. on that. . The tippling sots. Templariorum — ' — Due. krapati.D. used for stuffing mattresses. The word seems of Celtic origin. pluck at. to chatter coroli. Pref. skraf. a wheelwright.: . a car carpentarius. all aus).' Ordo Eccles. lint. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. charpentier. linteamen. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Sup. in Nat. Discov.'— Stat. a carder. a plank. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. carbh. 216. Alluz (G. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. to rustle. ON. Here's to you still my captains friend. 94). maker of waggons It. to talk. cxciv. Mid. at midnight which derivation from kroes. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. ! Carouse. i. in Carp. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. to dance. whence the form carnasciale. act of drinking a full Eq. Other names of the sea. carpentum. fabulor. is erroneous. and F. garrulo. Ant. cardos. gonna. From Lat. differing To Carp. to dance.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. Lat. carpenter only in the latter sense. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. W. in Due. Bohem. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. carpende fast Carol. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. — . 1 1 30. Dief. Pm. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol.]e bois Carnelevale. gar aus / all out is correct. carpenta. ' ' — . charpie.' Reg. zimmerspan. worker in timber Fr. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. a wheelwright. peta. Nomin. Mediol. koroll. Sp. carpita. carpo. ship. All out B. tattle. — — ' ' — — — I — — . yede tham about. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. e.— Drant in R. Teut. as the Lat. of Guiana. Cot. I quaught. zimmer. carpat (Stokes). this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Bret. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.gonnella. Pr. to find fault with. carpia. The custom. Carnelevale. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor.' says Motley (United Neth. carpetrix. garrire.— R. a drinking cup. Carpet.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. or a carouse fully drunk up. to pull asunder. I drink all out. balade from It. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. 2. Lat. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. So gone they forthe. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. or loose as a couch without further preparation.Lat. chirp. Olr.— Neum. as Fr. as E. chariot carbad. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. 2. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Ein we find the signification transferred from .Lat. Carpenter. chatter. bier. Carpyn or talkyn. tymmer. Palsgr. Biheld within. On this. Chanson de carole. In a MS. as carnaval from carnelevamen. litter. Analogous R. ballare.— Patriarchi. a dance.Lat. On the other hand bumper to one's health. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. course. to reel. 760. Fr. Gower in Way. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. pluck. Carole. and Carnem laxare (It. carduz. A. i. cited by Marsh. a song accompanying a dance then. To pledge them thou refuse. Mid. carpetam (a quilt?). was formed Mid. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. qui sacco. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. . chatter skra/a. . Beggars Bush. vel coopertorio carebit. carpenticre. to gather.Why give's some wine then. biheld without. Gael. carpere.

cassette. It. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. To Carry. Fr. Rouchi carter. quash. coffer. coffin of paper for groceries. made void. house. casco signifies a skull. cassa. Lat. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. mata. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. casuelj Fr. void cassare. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. hollow.' — Hdcart. caro. The carrying of anything. It. to — — also casse. Gael. dim. Casket. ' Casa-matta. crush. cascar. a merchant's cash or counter. something that actually occurs. slaughter-house. cancelled. casacca. a chest. also the carriage. Flor. Casual. Du. from casa. casus. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. to dash. helmet. It. It. Rouchi carone. a hut. to slay. CartOTicli. — Cartoose. mord-grube. Fr. cashiered.' Fl. Fl.. a canonry or slaughterhouse. AS. casaque. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. of carro. for the security of the defenders.' Bailey. charrette. card. kerven. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. a coffer or small case for jewels. quasser. afterwards any written challenge. carroccio. Du. Cask. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. properly to convey in a car. bag and baggage of a camp. from It. annul. kasseren. cassus. cancel. Cot. cia. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. tion from Sp. Sp. Lith. where Fr. bitten. Carriage. crown of a hat. blotted out. cut with scissors. to fire on the enemy. a chance or accident. Walach. Hence a challenge openly hung up.— Fl. Fr. gristle. — Cartridge. Cascade. Cartel. Cassock. cassere. casa-maita. It. to an- — Kil. ignominiously exposed. a car. Fr. To Cashier. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. Fr. It. and the OE. Fl. casso. abrogate. Case-mate. break to pieces. not reaching to the height of the ditch. to notch. to fall. luggage. pasteboard. an augmentative from Lat. kerben. case. to hold. Fr. the money chest. carota. an act of falling. packing ' cloth. Lat. casitiste. to crack. Carrot. cartilage. charogne. cascata. vault hole in a fortified wall. Fr. a loopscale the wall. gristle. casser. — — nul the proceeding. Cartoon. paper. a paper case. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. To quash an indictment. carretto. Probably. caxa. cascare. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it.' Cot. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. discharge It. Fr. cascade. Hence casket. It. Fr. and matar. a of water. It. to convey in a cart. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. casualis. cartone. Cot. the charge of — — Fr. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. as we . OE. subject for a picture. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. hull of a ship. discharge. cassa. caroche. Fr. from Lat. caroach. fall It. casa. empty. carrosse. carroc- carrozza . augmentatives of carro. casag. kirpti. Rouchi caroche. charrier. long man's gown with a close body. Cart. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. of carta. See Card. to bear or carry. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. augm. AS. caisse. capsa (Diez). To Carve. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. krat. carreaggio. Case. Preparatory drawing of a It. carriaggio. hung up in some place and to be removed. — FI. Fr. one who reasons on cases put. ceorfan. To duash. It. — — . Casuist. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. and that apparently from capio. Fr. like all the names of tendon. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. caisse. shell or carcase of a house. Case. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Lat. As defence from shells became more important. to cut or carve . See Gristle. to break. a car. case-maiej Sp. caisse. from the sound it makes when Alban. Carrion. mord-keller. turn out of service. carretta. The Sp. a long coat. Lat. carogna. Casque. Cash. des rideaux A'carp^ie. kerpu. Sp. Rouchi carpHe. cartoccio. corresponding to the G. a fall. fortuitous.to annul. to shear. from It. cartella. See Case. Ready money. G. cartouche.

to dash. Mid. handle of an axe. kakka. speak of dashing a thing down. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Others explain it from Kara. ' Catchyn away abigo. squash. chasser. Fr. kotas. and KviilSog. puras E. . is not satisfactory. to close. The Diet. or comba. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. Cot. cat. down. kottr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. KaTaarpifm. a chesnut .'— Pr. cash. . To Catch. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Fr. KaTappaKTrjQ. Hal. the stalk of plants. to fall as over a precipice. . Hence castaneta. . drive away. a fortified place. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. of castrum (castra). Pol.. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . shaft of a 1 push. probably from an imita. kotas. name. cacciarc. castello. ichasses. cojz^/a. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Lang. a whip on the other into latch. chaleur.— Fl. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. from the first of Castrate. It. first made ordinary Fr. koshka. Brunne. same word with break. image accasciare. squash. however. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). mino. It. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Chase. a cat . the ground . ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. dashing it to pieces. to turn overturn. Fr. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Sp. Thus we have Caste. coming to us through different dialects of French. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. lance. Fr. to look at. execu.Lat. So also from It. cascar. away. cacciuolo. to make clean or chaste. or Rouchi cat. race. cassa / cry for the same purpose. of sarabands does Gr.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. 'Vaaaw. or bruise together.to drive out. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times.. casser. burst cascare. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Cast. signifying breed. &c. like that of It. Catalogue. 120. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. catar. dashing it out of the window. In the dialect of Picardy.Rouchi Scaches. — We a cavity. bot-kotis. to hurl See Awgrim. chasser. casulla. castanetazo. to cast or beat to tioner . on. a Cataract. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . while kiss / Pol. _G. down. The E. castellum. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. kasi. to lash. kasta. heat . the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. n. the castanets for or implement . a garment for performing the mass in. KaraXoyog. to crackle. a thump. crush . Fr. tails. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Castanets. klakka.the / or c respectively. stilts. Lat. Sp. to crack. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. to scourge. chat. arpi^m.out cacciare . being Fin. fer toTa. V Lith. a cat koshki. the earlier sense of catch. katze. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. 134 CAST Catacomb. a little house or hut. To It. casule. and from the castus. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. from water Karappaaaiii. castro. Castle. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. to Fl. Pm. Gael. ON. V. kaJoivad. casipola. puss / for calling them. an enumerlist. to hunt. . accastiare. in the fire. represented by the syllable quash. rack. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. casupola. Fr. Fr. which. Yz. Isidore — in Diez. chasuble. to is Essentially the Sp. to bring to an crack given by the joints. to drive away. cat-o'-nine. force j Rouchi equerviche. second chase. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. to torture. Gr. Pic. Lat. R. Catastrophe. KarapaKrr]g. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. B. Fr. ating. torture. catch. OFr. and tomba. under chi caleur. Fr. fall. was introduced. which has been retained in E. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. ecrevisse. a vault. follow after. by the loss of with several pitched cords. kissa. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. dim. to clack. to break. kat. perhaps from which we have E. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. dash. Cat. cast. punch. Etym. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. sue. castana. to end. kic' kicil are used chasser. It. Roukind. Gr. cacciare fuora.

with and without an / after the c. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch.j.. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . Du. a smack. a caterpillar Milanese can. chase. Cot. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . klatsch. door when it is shut. Cot. KaTtix'so.' CATCH Fr. clatter. bichano (pussy). klinke. a whip Rouchi cachoire. Fr. P. dainty vic- a form lash. e. to crack GATES cache. has both or of charming by sound. Ptg. Rouchi clincailleux. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. kletse. Tutschek. Gr.V. to kythe D. — Kiittner. formerly called cliket. the distance to which the ball is struck. verberare kUts. Sc. happe-chair. 'Bxn. gingle. Kartiyopta (/cari. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. chatter .from Bard and ayopsw. an officer of taxes. cache. ketsoore. * Cates. a pill. a whip. klatscherei. ' Fr. flap klatsche. G. to take. Guernsey chafer. . of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. ' ' word catch. Claucht. chenille {canicula. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. ArbaUte de courte chasse. a cornIn the s. cat is not apparent.' ^Jam. * Caterpillar. wild-beast. Swiss Lombard G. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. a carter's Pat. the the same principle he was Fr. clap. chasse. catch. catc?u. to chat. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. ictus resonans. smack. Gael. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. to catch strength. as of the latch of a As ! — . obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. and answer. a. — explained. worm. apprehend a person. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. E. fragor kletsoore.) . which all . the elements of a science. an accusing. devouring mite or weevil. dainties. seize. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. E. snatching. latch. bicho. . And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . chatter.s. ecachoire. a whip or Kuttner. Du. resono ictu lash. latch of. GaUa catchiza. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. to the crack. a little dog). Gael. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. companaige. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. to harangue. . quincailler. to A bailiff. to chatter with the teeth cake. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. icarrix'Ki^.P. predicament. from Gr. a whip. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Caterer. Sp. — B. instruction in forms. Metivier. — . i. gattola. Fr. from shutting with a click. whip. claquer. e. snatching it with a any one. kletsen. millecaterpillars. children's name for cat . sound. Chate peleuse. called in Fr.V. glcu. kaetse. klatsche and Norm. called dog or Galla catchamza. to teach by oral instruction. . cross-bow that carries but a From poll. klatschen. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. chacepol. — tinman. catch. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart.yopl(. . Grandg. s. clap with the hand. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. cagnon (a dog). is said that he got a claucht of it. chink. blow. Guernsey pilleure. 135 — Aasen. or any kind of relishing food tuals. snatched. gliong. 'Horxa. head. pedes. a. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. chachara. On Catechism. In the XV'e. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Du. catch-flesh. to snap. silkworm. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. chassoire. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Fr. weevils. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. Kil. resound. caker. Cates. woodlice. to snatch (said of dogs). in order). to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. — with a whip. caucht. Kil. compare G. insect. the OE. a clap. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. a — gatta. — Catcli-poll. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. c or ^. OFr. E. Wal. to clap hands. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. de Bray. Diez.

yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Jonson in R. little cat. A warm comforting drink. and spareth for no perell. calidus. Fr. koparet. chaudroii. a branding from koiio. from caveo (p. accattare. Provider. Fr. CATHARTIC sense. chausser. Cavity. cale. a pavement. G. walnut with the husk on challer. kitten kotki. Fin. cal^ar. Cave. . Fr. to sound like a blow .Lat. Lat. quire. deyntie meates. kin. to buy. Cauldron. whence cathedralis. Kavrijp. 2.^ acheter (Lat. Cattle. ' Gr. Caballus. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Kil. Pol. fur. CAVE Caul. Chaud. adcaptare. chauderon. lamb. from KaSaipio. Palsgr. kocie. a kettle for heating water. little cap is . dumpf tonen. Cavalcade. KaHSpa. also to pave . a horse . shaled or picked Fr. Fr. Pr. kopista. the stones of a street. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Mid. Du. calceata. That he was ay before in his estate. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. achepter. . by land. hot. ce^l. catkin mitz. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. rete A — Prov. kobuiV. a paved road. Cathedral. to beware. to shoe. mudet. . mutz. hot. Caustic. It. to purge. catons. On the other hand. cheval. . minon. Lat.^Hal. Delycates. Caudle. kdtzchen. chevalier. cabbage. acater. a kind of skull-cap. capull. kaussijde. kopano. chaudiire. Catkin. Fr. . 4. Kavrfipiov. flue. Wyatt in R. catkin Magy. kocianki. primitive is meaning a shale or off. It. Cavern. the caul of the liver. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. cat maczoka. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. accapitare Rouchi acater. otherwise written kell. from chaud.Y\\Xea. Sx. a horseman. caudex . to shoe . For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Fr. reticella. cabbage). puss. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Fr. having the property of cleansing. — — cavallo. a The peel. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Cavalry. caldo. It. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. calotte. Boethius. cale. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Gr. challe was ther of a temple. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. cabbage-stalk. Ka^afriKOQ. hazel. Du. It. katteken. flock. Fr. a stalk. chatideau. — Cauterise.. cauHs. calceta. choufleur {choii. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. klopfend knallen. Port. Thus Bav. and at the rich man's cost By sea. but the acates that are sent him. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . caple. acaptar. Diez). KaPaWrii. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. puss. The word — . to burn. a pulpit. a receptacle for small things. a road calceata. Gr. Lat. a horse. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. from delf^gato. OE.' B. kobyla. Jaubert. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. catkin Pol. Richly she feeds. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Cavalier. Russ. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. macska. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Lat. Fr. despencier. Cathartic. Gael. a seat. • — — See Chattel. &c. Caution. a mare. kautsije. cautus). a horse . via strata. katte. Lat. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. B. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. and hence a skull-cap. calqada.' Elyot in Way. Gr. chaussJe. Causeway. hollow. Fr. chair. cavaliere.p. cautis. any Fl. make clean.. Rete. Dryden in R rete. Mid.Lat. Palsgr.willow. the. caballus. what . applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. . Lat. puss. It. KiwariKog. net or caul-work.—— — 136 correct. Bessie of Bednall. to ac- — Fr. Cause. — . . catkins . is Prologue. Manciple's Tale. cavus. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. causa. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. to shale or peel. fur in general. w. apt to burn iron. green husk of a calon. kassije.

Lat. a beam. step away. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. koppeli. cavillor. sill in window-sill. to argue capto tiously. . &c. the inner roof of a room of state.' Rutland papers. plank. Cede. — . In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. 32. It. curved. The sense of roofing. E. Boyd in Jam. with their substantives concession. flooring E. See -cede. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven.. a boarded floor. a halter. 7. -cess. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . &c. — komo tain). rafter. in Jam. to panel or wainscot MHG. . . Fr. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. So from Fin. is applied to a canopy. quibble.' Cot. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. or of a bed. as if from happen. an aquiline nose. door-sill J Sc. beam. Sp. a head. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. cedo. a hut. wuoren komo. sill. a canopy. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. pp.' Marriage of James IV. Plancher. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. p. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. selure. The importation of Fr. to cut. a canopy. ceiling. Gawaine & Sir Gol. heaven. exceed. H. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. . a fir-plank. Hence concede. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. kommata. the deck of a ship at thilja. the testern of a bed. Lat. To seele a room. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. cabega. Soc. give place. lambris. and Gol. Cease.' Ordinances and Reg. cavezzone. Cavil. A — A false accommodation produced G. komista. — — — toyour soverane. Hal. caveqon. wall. cellar. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. cesso. succeed.j have come from this source. And seik — Cessation. a log. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. cielo. applied to a canopy. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. . of cavezza. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. dScis. lambrisser une chambre seeling. hivtmel. empty. thelu. decessus. ciel is so unbroken. cyling (W. to go forth. menuiserie. to canopy siled. a log. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. hung. Lat. komo. hollow. Ceiling. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. Wore. crooked kopio. a plank. .' del. tester of a bed. thilja. syle.. little house. dayntily diglit.). wainscot thiljar (in pi. recede. seele. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. . heaven. a planking or boarding tkilian. dil. del into English without ' translation gave cele. kapp-zaum. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. . obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. -cease. 5. . IV. semely on syll. thiling. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. selar. . Cam. jaa. and that from Sp. in Jam.'— Z. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. syl. Cot. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. nailes will begin to cling. hollow ice . dille. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. In the N. -ceed. Fr. board . cabegon. thil. also a seeling of boards. a board. Fr. CAVESON kopera or kowera. post. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. deal. 43. Sir 137 pit . sybire.' — Gawan . proceed. VIII. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. &c. -cede. thel. coffer. Lat. to seele or close with boards plancher. the roof of a coach. The line of descent from Fr. that. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings.). a log. to plank ON. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. . ceiling. thil. p. departure. were met. plank. augm. to plank or floor with planks. of E . Sherwood. death. — . . —Decease. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. hollow. as. departure from this life. sky. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. . a severe bridle. thili. excess. ciel de lit. The It. Fr. In the same way G. column E. but hang around at the sides. canopied.' Hall. B. sus-lambris. cease. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. cessum. yield. and then to gape. bridle. &c. and zaum. in Hal. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel.

See Celibacy. to visit in numbers.of the r. observe. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. as entering largely into the derivative certo. sile. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Fr. pick out. appertain. -oept. -cipio. dchauffer. a solemnity. but was gradually lost in conceit. -cern. K^'ivut. to concern. Ceremony. cella. Incensum. chaufferette. is totally distinct from the foregoing. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Century. calefare.. a hundred of what- — . heaven. assess. a storehouse Chafe.— Cellar. and so of that other. as in some places burnt. crevi. materials It. quarters for slaves. — . goad. Lat. tax. to be regarded as one celebro. -i^oivre. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. irot\oe.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. to blindfold. Celebrity. Sherwood. Lat. Lat. renown be embodied with. cretum. hollow. to twinkle darkness. parted sleep. chauffer. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. candeo. solemn (of per.' Celebritas. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Fr. the hollow the Lat. celer. Accelerate. Census Censor. -cepere. -cevoir. is the opposite of disora virum. -ceptjun. Certain. sacred show. with the eyes.' Book of St Albans. siller les yeux. in comp. the talk of men. to warm. sure. to separate.unmarried. also grave opinion. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. — . of heating. KsvTpov. — — Cenotapli. OFr. Gr. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to sepap rate. Gr. — . called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. or expression of Ennius. cenio. To Incense. -CEIVE a shaft. in comp. conceipt. festive. thence belonging to or connected with corn. a tomb. his office. to chafe. incense. then to rub without reference Cement. Cereal. a religious observance. Cot. caber. Assize. capturn. Lat. deceit. Coehim. Lat. to sleep). to contend. celeber certus. in Marsh.— Chafing-dish. — A . Gr. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. centum. to celebrate. a hundred centuria. from censeo. to take. age. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. . ciller. In Celebrate. -cense. a valuation of every man's estate. the officer appointed to take such returns . much frequented.ing a room where there is not fire. &c. a Cemetery. calefacere. swift. Censure.. to -sum. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. cceremonia. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. from Saa-rw. oil. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. census. — . see. censura. or any bird's.). a registration of one's self. See Cede. Cess. Fl. to course of people. concernor. and met. to attend on object with. in accordance with the Fr. to glow. a numerous con. deceipt. a shaft horse. sting. point. distinIt. for building. Chafe. to take. criticism. Fr. concerner. Centre. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. the point round which a circle is drawn. judge Lat. encens. Ta^oe. to burn incendo. syll. {cori)cipere. Cot. To chafe is for wine. and thence censer. -ciper. empty. ceremonia. a solemnity. &c. Lat. to heat. Lat. sift. capio. stones to the production of heat. Fr. Lat. -ceive. -ceit. a prick. riscaldarsi. ciglio. Sc. S. to rub for the purpose a hut. and put it through the over eyelydde. Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. to bury).cern.). the place where the de. eyelid. we have a modified form of (of a place). to incense. Lat. mortar. To seel or close the eyes. to think. abundance. Lat. become heated with anger. Take the nedyll and threde. to set on fire. Fr. Cell. Centurion. It. cerealis. For sess from assess. -cess. -cebre ifoncebre. The term cilium. rubble. zens according to their property. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Celerity. to rate. Fr. keep in It. single or unwedded life.j 138 thill. Lat. decebre) . Lat. cigliare. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. (and thence also) to hoodwink. judge. oil. cilibat. receipt. -cepire. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Fr. Gr. estimate. Censor. eschattffer. value. judge. 1. It. and — — — possessions. guish. — . family. cillier. Cij(fe5j. Fr. camentum. being taken from Fr. tax. ' . contend. rough from the quarry. confounded ist from It. make angry. an eyelash. decide. cot. Censer. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Assess. and thence to conceal. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. with transposition hence (of a day). thronged the participle cretus. what to set in a chafe. blind. — . Prov. /ctj/rsw. to prick. concetto. . cencer. census. to distinguish.

From to go to law. Fr. Chagrin. Kaiiapa. (ca'e'ra) to chair. muzzle. Du. fa sagramen de calompnia. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). kuhuja. Fr. rustling corn. to file. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Due. Cot. ing rapidly repeated cries. kiamta. cadera. on. Pr. kuhina. clamare. Wall. far lima-lima. G. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. baras of ants. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. haggle. Gr. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Came.' Rayn. Chain. gewolb. calonjar. lime . tattle. rustling motion challenge. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. signal by drum or P. to calumpnjamen. with a:n arched roof. have a mind to parley. to buzz. chaene. to fret inwardtronfo. as a carriage is a moveable seat. E. chicane. ^Altieri. Chayire. charge with. much more Genoese sagrind. Fr. often puffing. kdfelen. kedja. ple^. and as this was the beginning of man. avena vilior. or puff with snorting. swelling with anger. any insect of the beetle kind. kahu. catena. from of the G. De Ir4. great chafe. to Latin calumniare. Lat. rally one. chaine. thick and short. — — — . bargain. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Lat. a chain. Fr. G. to claim. call in question for an ley). matter by combat. sborfare. . kuhata. . Fr. cadena gives chain. kiqfta. a goba rustling . kdfer.sure carriage. a rustling noise. leviter crepo Then. to tattle. In vulgar language. chawe. breathe KaOa^oiiat. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. de Brai. to action arose. calix. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Cheffern. snuff. Kuttn. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. a chough. . lime. in a monstrous fume. chatter. Du. Lat. hordeum vel let. To buy and sell. hiss.— — . calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. contestation. a prattling woaction. — . cam. cathedra. Lat. havOFr. much blowing. chaire. Chair. p.. — — ' — — — A . puffed or ruffled with ly. place See Cheek. puff. to call. care. cauvette. 11. kiaftr. difficulty . limare. cadieira. from the shark-skin. chayire. Prov. that leneth e per I'autra. cup. Lat. Chalice. green sagrin. to dispute. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. chamar. sagri. calonja. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. to gnaw. tronfio. fume. chaulx. keuchen. — — — . Fl. kahista. kever. camera. ON.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. grief. care. snort. refuse. to move the jaws. &c. taubes korn oder hafer. to a seat. khah. calumnia. quisquilise offence. . dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Pat. from Swiss kafeln. From the To Chaff. P. to caw chawer. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. now a chair. Fr. kaff. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Lat. In like manto huff. Prov. ckapfare. ing a hard case to their wings. preise.. kahuja. — — — — — — . without chap/are makiinde. crooked. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Fr. a double operation * Chafer. So from dominio. to ner It. sagrindse. The jaw chafty. Bouffard. KoBiSpa. to pant. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . chalanger. Fin. calx. chaps Chamber. ceafer. Gr. as. Adelung. kauchen. cathedra. Halma. and signifies to consume with anger. of. From Port. B. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Lat. jaw. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Prov. Fr. a pulpit. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. idle words. vis. to gnaw. to sit. chaffare. rustle Challenge. . kuhista. tattle cheep. chambre. talkative. chafing. vel susurro. a pulpit Cot. refuse barley . breathe hard. a vault or arched roof. 35. Fr. OFr. to babble. hght Chalk. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Probably from According to Diez. to bark. Hal. songe. chaise. Perhaps Pm. Bav. Fr. fern-chafer. Pers. dongio. false accusation. to institute anforensic action. kaff. dispute. Cot. Ayenbite. Piedm. shaIt. also to prattle. calice. to puff and blow. keffen. to chatter or talk lightly. a jackdaw. cadena. grief. ceaf. in a cana. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. chagrin. chafeter. Camera.nium. yap.

cempa. kapp. pinch. Lat. champ. Sp. Carpentier. — Ch-amberlain. difficulty . . kiammi. E. dricka i kapp. chamfrain. Meleare. chajnbellan . game campio.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. to Hal. Partnership. dial. . differs only in the transposition of the letter m. chance. Champarty. to fasten on. accident. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. jeu parti. and acted as inofficers of .—Tutschek. to chew. champ. The word is preserved in E. surpassing. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. fight. — ^Tusser. cameratus. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. Ptg. luctare. nels. gekrUmmt. campus. Du. cazer. kabe. hot. certare. caer. combat. Fr. act of falling. chanfrein. fight. Chancery. tsammogni. Lat. The happening of things Chance. M. kimpUma. To hollow out in chanPtg. a horse-race. mesleiare. kimpustella. Chancellor. Magy. Fr. CHANCEL It. contend or argue G. campus partitus . to hang. to bevel. kippo. sukibti. chanfrein. Chamfron. rare. chamble. kabMe. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . therewithal. pedilusor. to slope. kriimmen gebogen. hamper. campear. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Lat. The G. ciambellano. to excel. schmatzen s. from cheoir. Chancel. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. camp. a game at football. cample). to talk. Fr. E. to groove bevel off a right angle. Sup. dial. camerlengo. from Fr. ON. to fall. kinipen. See Camp. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. to happen {ad and cadere. Campar. — Hal. kimppu (Lap. boys speak of capping verses. as in It. . Get campers a ball To camf . kabintis.' SherI'altro ' ' . camp. — KiL . Pm. chdance. or less ignorant. to to chew champ. kablys. kimbu. Lat. kabinti. campar. chance.140 CHAMBERLAIN . kampeln.—Charfron E. calida et sans aguet. kampen. a jaw kianisa. zampettare. a hook . to . slope of a bevelled angle. keiiipe. Gall. chanfrar. Fr. move the jaws. The E.Lat. to hold . to paw the ground E. Dief. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . tsamtsogni. top of a borehole. ciamberlano. an athlete. or player at football. . And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. fray. wood. Prov. ON. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. champ parti. So in e. ON. Champaign. e. Commonly derived from campus. bundle. termediaries between them and the judge. escazenza. a warrior. contest. is explained by serrarsi. dial. athlete. who stood ad cancellos. . and mesUe. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. To Chamfer. calidameya. to fasten oneself to another .edley. at the railings. to fasten oneself on to another . Fin. dispute Hal. to strive at games . excellent. chanfreindre. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. head armour. a feat. Champion. bickering. fighting place. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). received the petitions of the suitors. contention kappi. camp. broil. Lith. kanip. jocus partitus. . chain. cadere. hng. s. divided game. accidere. To cope or contend with. ing. from chaud. dial. cancelli. . Sp. to hollow out. the chafldn. to tread The sound heavily. Prov. a court of justice. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. to stick to. Fr. to be eminent. cahir. champ. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. chaude mesUe. G. Champ. reusement — fight in single combat. as swine. to move the jaws kiamt. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. kibti. champion Du. kempen. zs jeopardy. dial.' melleia. hero Sw. kempa. When the to quarrel. kiinp. —Chamfrain. to wrestle. a bundle. compound. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . — masterly Sp. giving rise to the as. to quarrel (comp. Fr. kappd). prize-fighter. a scufSe. a field of battle. It will. which seems another form of the root. Chance-n3. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. kampeln. Hence (with the nasal) w. to cample. champ. to smack the lips in eating.' ' Pr. kampa. to — — champ. to fall). to debate. . to wrestle. a hollow chanfreiner. i. to slope out the . gewolbt. to flute as a column.

Chap. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. to plate. Aasen. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. as skin chapped hands. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Channel. Hence chantry. Bret. I. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. chop. . to cut up into small pieces. chiappa. chancellerie. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Chap. to spht a chip. gab. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. wood. exchange. to truck. 140. Lith. AS. chanter. chancery. to sing. the place where candles ler. chap. chapa. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. to apply one flat thing to another. Chaps or chops. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Sp. Chop. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. ^Jam. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. a reed. a small metal plate Port. ON. cangiare. chapelete de una bomba. from chandler. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. camjar. esclapo. A fellow. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. surfaces striking together. a dealer in candles then. Compare chark. to change. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. esclapa. and the modern canal.^. hard bodies. from canna. or the like chapar. to put on fresh clothes. cheek. Chape. to peck. Chandler. — . the chaps . Fr. flat . cambiar. kapoti. — — —Marculfus in Due. kjaakaa. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. to cut off . Lang. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. kappen. In like manner Walach. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. shift. jaw. as It. the mouth. to — cut. to paw like a horse . Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. Chap. klepan. —Ordericus Vitalis. a jaw. extended to other trades. Fr. 2. kaupa. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. as those on a trunk. to strike with a sharp edge. . Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Chip. Sp. clapet. W. lips of an animal. Russ. any hollow for conveying water. chaps. to cut. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to break . prune. chandelier. to strike. leather. the clappers of the scupper holes. the loose flesh of the cheeks. is used in the same sense . To Change. chapeta. schimbd. Commonly derived from capella. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the .— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. to coat. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Hal. Fr. to strike. Walach. canalis. kemma. skipta. a small plate of flat metal. cobio. That wide were sentin their spicery. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to swap. changer. Man of Law's Tale. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. . . kennel. Molbech. a chap is a crack or fissure. the gutter that runs along a street. And N. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Sc. jaw. Probably from chap. schimbu. and also to chap or crack. to chap at a door. to plate. Prov. as chancery . Lat. — : Lat. Da. Hence It. waterconduit. a money-changer. from clap. muzzle. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Cheek. as corn-chandChandry. or the cracking of one. cantare. Du. cambium. Hal. chapeletas de imbornales. . See Chant. exchange. E. a strip of metal plate. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. chapilla. chapear. also a clap. as to chap hands. a pipe. to hack. Fr. to deal. may be compared with ON. chop. throat of an animal. exchange schimbatoriu. to peck. debeant conjurare. cambiare. Da. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. See Chop. kiceft as well as kjakje. Chapel. hack . It is also used in the sense of the E. like the knocking of hard things together. ceaflas. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. kiceft. not a soul. to creak. kvar kjceften. —Chantry. ceaplas. chap. while the broader vowels a. properly in a hard body. are kept.

creak. Sup. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. cabildo. charcoal burners. Macduff. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. From Norm. It. w. a mark of a mountebank. to love. gnash. Lat. pohadka. Fr. to prattle. cluck kirklys. hiss Lith. beloved. Lith. char. a rhyme. from gadai. to charcoal. to dove . creak. caricare. cher um cher. chatter. car. capitolo. Chark. to of the governing body. prattling quacksalver. .charme. Chapman. cha. as Pol. * Charcoal.. for the same reason rosario. chat. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . occasional turn. AS. called in Sp. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. grave or make incised marks on an ob. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. to croak as a frog . chirriar. Charade. chirlar. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. An enchantment. Lang. called kedlock. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Charlock. a riddle. surris seu Lat. from carrus. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Sp. bler. a merchant. to tattle. Lay on. Mid. keeren. A weed among com AS. chapel. decken. es ist mi cheer.Lat. Deutsch. See Cheap. it is my turn. caritas. cedeleac. corona. ject). And damned be he who first cries Hold. OE. dear(in both senses). from capa. eapitulo. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. 370. a mark made on a thing. Sp. cerran. kurkti. ciarlatore. capital. charge an enemy is to lay on. to turn. Charge. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. The crash. charlatan. Lat. The G. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. charlar. a charm. Inst. Chirk. from Charade. Character. 2. from cape or cope. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Cot. czurksti.czirksti. Fr. hadka. that turned decken . charitas. Mundart. Lat. return. Bret. a verse. wood to coal. See Charlatan. carus. carmo. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . as. chara. carmen. capella. go. tegere. wreath for the head. a hood. — a car. seems to be derived charade. in To ness Charity. In that work the verb is written caire. ceap-man. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. carricare. w. babbling. to prattle. Fr. a The OFr. ghirlanda seor garland. kurkelis. charer. Justin. the nature of a thing. cluck. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. krachzen). And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. . Prov. schreien. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Ptg. . be- e. Boh. talking. to talk . a riddle. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. &c. a head or division of a book. babdistinction. cam. Chaplet. Fr. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a garland of roses.). — spell. Du.whirr. as a beetle. — — — turned to coal. to . Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Yx. tattler. Chapter. of chapel. (eucharistie. czirbti. dim. Swiss. a turn cerran. properly to place — . twitter. Charcoal was ciarlare. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. a dispute . kirkti. and in It. . to chirp as sparrows. carregar. chatter. It. canne. charade. It. . which was incantation. Chare.' Boccaccio in Diez. eyre. It. twist. Sp. the turtle pitre. burning without consuming the substance. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. turn. to chirp. cearcian. Charlatan. karout. gadka. capellare. condo il volgar francese. to creak. gaggle . but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. to converse. to chirp. used in the sense of magic Fl. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. to load . from capitulum. To Char. Gr. a cricket karkti (schnarren. chapitre. enough. clack. affection. chapelet. to turn Gael. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Fr. colliers that charred coal. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Hence carminare. dear. charger. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. turn about. AS. siarad (pronounced — sharad). in turns. jabber. chirk. czurliwoti. to sing or chirp as birds. —— .

a hum or low murmuring ijoise. castus. From carinen was formed It. to wet. from purus. csatora (Magy. a plate of metal. splinters. kata. Du. the handle of a razor . in Jam. Fr. gadu-gadu. Chasm. castus. to chirp as a bird to cheep. csaterdzni. OE. cs E. la chasse d'une rose. chick. talk much . kata-kata. Chaste. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. To chit. Fl. chykkyn (Pr. clean. So in Gael. to clap. to make a noise. To Chasten. a chatter-box.). niggardly. gallan or ogan. schioppare. is to represent the chamier. chisf. kna. Pm. Chary. to cut and faggoted. discourse. letters p. also to hatch. also a youth. to gape. carnisj bones kept. tenax. V. — Palsgrave. It. —Chastise. to baptize. Diez. To chip is then to crack. as we speak of olive branches. Kil. prattle. Malay. geug. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. noise. speak . chip. to which it bears the same relation as chape. Lat castigare. D. to chirp. Fr. Chat. —Charter.). ch). a crack or a flaw . snap. noise. the bird is iiown. a gap. a shrine for a relic. limpid. a churchyard or charnel-house.house. It. G. as from nomen It. chikat'. The egg is chipped. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. shivers. racket . CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. pure. from xoAn. make a noise as birds do. karg. also to germinate or spring forth. to crack. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. blackthorn-chats. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . or the cry of a bird or the like. chaste. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. to chatter or prattle . — Yorkshire chat. pure. clean. — Fr. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. To work plate as silversmiths do. shout OE. pure. B. knatiern. Lat. as. fragments. cassa s. chary. CHATS fit 143 to name. Fr. — We ornamental work the to signify E. scraps of for fuel. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. an enchantress. to enchase it . root of the Lat. kippen. Gr. or pop. gazzolare. chair. the young shoots . to burst open.— Chit. — sharp sound of a crack. parcus. chat. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. . warble. careful. gazeuiller. clack. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). kastaa. csacsogany. czysty. the cry of the bat. Chat-wood. or equivalent forms. karigh. chatter. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. It t. to chirp. Kil. germinate . enchasser. talk. chip. a young man . I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. %aafi. —Bailey. — Hal. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. as purgare Fr. a branch. to talk. used to represent a sharp note. cearig (from cearian. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. ferire. To chitter or chipper. jackdaw . Cot. chick. clap. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. to cry as a chicken . gaddc. clear. to separate in morsels. crackle. a twig Suffolk chaits. It. nommer. warble. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. Chamel. incassare. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. chit-chat. or suckers on rough borders. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. To Chase. Fl. Fr. To talk. to crack. g. chit. xi'i-'^vui. To Chase. to care).— Chatter. See Catch. eclats. to set a jewel. Chart. gazzogliare. occasionally Forby. the noise of birds. flesh. Pol. — The . charm. knacken. a flock of those birds. chip. See Card. as turnip-chaits. Russ. clatter. Cot. Magy. ch&tier. charmer. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. csacsogni.. Hal. i. whence a charm of goldfinches. gazzerare. or a bird out of the egg. See Cistern. converse. — = Chats. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. a word. . Parallel with E. gazzettare. Pol. — — . chaste. clean. as in the E. nome and . chits. s. from pure. An imitative word. the calix of a rose.ppen. —Jam. a yawning. tittle-tattle. whistle. be wide open.a. little sticks cudere. prate. In like manner Russ. caro. a branch and a young female. carme and Fr. carmen is presented in AS. chit in the latter sense Du. fragments or leavings of food. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. It. magpie. cyrm. sordidus.

. ceafl. sale. kek. and hence the E. to — . a metaphor taken from the game of chess. to laugh. any cheating. kauf. kichen.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. chear in the sense of victuals. the tongue. a willing look and unwilling heart. hawkmann.-^. teeth . Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. to swap goods . the face. Cheek. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. society. to cluck like a hen. which is used in the to stutter. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. upon a checked cloth. stuttering. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. entertain kindly. price. ceaflas. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. CHATTELS has ciio. Soc. with Dief. cattle. ceahhetan. — — —Chowl. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. kakaista. tradesman. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. keck. chuckle. lead to OE. us. See Cheek. It. et juxta catalla sua. It — Brompton in Due. Sc. cozener. See Chess. a canting knave. chire. G. ceap. a dealer in horses. to make inarticulate sounds in . chapman. a piece of moveable property. a rogue or person who used the canting language. CHEEK zitella. a dealer. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. chiere. Ingulphus. horse-couper. cattle. cita. ku. whence captale. choule. Then. &c. and.— . NE. Pr. Pm. from Lat. cachinnari.—Choke. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. kaupa. with the exception of land.— Cattle. Sp. aspect of a man. the Confessor. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd.— Chole. Hence to cheat. Cot. look. . Faire bonne chire. farm for farm. Fin. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. gig. in widely separated languages by the Lat. Fr. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. cara. a cheater. the principal ' colloquial E. to stutter gigken. Chear. kaufen. Chattels. laughing. kikottaa. agreeing upon. caupo.' kezen. countenance. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. giggling. a young boy or girl. mandibula.' to exchange to gasp. cattle. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. . kakkaset. Slav. Hal. to deal ON. jaws.. chavylbone or chawlbone. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. gagkern. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. sum in a loan. in Fr. welcome heartily. Modern Slang. Fl. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Bav. thers. to buy. chatel. lower. koopen. changing. to coff—Yisi. goods. giving or taking in exchange. sob E. Cam. It. stuttering. to cough and hence either buying or selling. while it Bret. OFr. the countenance Fr.— Chaps. Ek dry and hard. favour. truffa. kak. to coup s. a repulse. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . . equiva. sense of bargaining. Du. from AS. dchec. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. frown. 144 the It. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum.ing. kik. cheeks. chatal. chaptel. snout. . to chop and change. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. 'li^'opa jord i jord. kok. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Gr. entertainment. which is the word in ceap. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Check. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. kaupon. visage. kaupiti. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. chop. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme.of the throat in coughing. — We ' . Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. jaw. to . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. The gutGoth.kakot. to vomit. Fr. catalliim. Cheat. to clear the throat . exAS.. cera. KaviiXog. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. goods. are represented piti. to act as a rogue. Chew. syllables ^ag-. bon marche.. to negotiate. the Lat. s. prattlingchete. force of the word. citello. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. Pro v. Bohem. gagkezen. Lat. to nauseate (to retch). e. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. to buy. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. — To check an account. a tavern-keeper. capitale. OFr. retching.

kces. It would Cheese. the mouth. takes place in the formation of cheese. Fris. schach. geagl. w. gullet. then end. Lith.G. /Ji2^/(W. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. kesten. to hold dear. prevail with. cegio. . Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. by laying it in come to an agreement with. Lat. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to kep. chevir. cams. Hence chesten-nut. Fr. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl.). jaws Sw.D. to year. Sc. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. Chevisance. Lat. chevron.pose of acidifying them kasadr. e. E. dersen . Tutschek. incaseatus. geafl. chasi. gous forms are G. cireggia. ichec.' to w. kasa. kasiiUPr. See Chess. To make a shrill noise Chest.. Pl. chaps. To Cheep. ation. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. E. jouffle. CHE. old bread. kirsche. — — . Chef. xaque. ost. cabiron. chests in OE. ON. carnium.Xo belch. jowl. ceocian. Lat. X'C&s. cyse. w. gaghel. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. scacco. Du. frame by which the exertion is made. throat. things Da. G. throat. Sp. cese. a chicken. caru. giffle. rafters in heraldry. acquisition. See Case. ceaflas.D. w. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. hasten. Sw. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. cisty G. the The use of the word kcesir. Sp. treat with affection. kjcebe. chops. kistej Lat. the neck. kikna. Pm. See Alchemy. The name of creak as shoes. cheek. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. — 10 . ca' — . Fr. Chess. chops. cough. subjected to this process with that which the throat . as. cufd. gill of fish AS. kdke. accomplishment cayed. caws. kikna of dorum coacervatio. kjceve. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. Jam. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. clear the throat. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. Chemistry. cista. squeak as a mouse. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. cerise j G.perly head. Fr. the loose the game of checks. the throat. chiffe.their struggle for independence. Achievement. nish source. to prevent the attack of cavalry. jaws. cheek. whence kasa-leipa. caseus. to kasa.. czypti. . cheken. as meat and butter. for cheese itself. Cher. N. gapen. Sc.cirieggia. Chekenyd or querkenyd. . — — . a cricket. a heap. veluti piscium. to gasp. ceac. jaw. E. Du. castaneusj Fr. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. Cherish. mollium congeries. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. condition of being taken. It. jaw . kastanie. G. . gabe. cheek. king). to accomThis they call hdrsk. cherir. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. to love. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . As the board to gasp i. The Sw. In these latter forms we see the transIt. the palate Chequer. to geahl. whence czypulas. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. F*-. to belch. Analo. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. a rafter . used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. quok. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Thus "we are brought din. From them the plish. AS. kjakje. Lith. cabrio. to make a noise different word. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. achever. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Chevaux de frise. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to swallow.EP CHEVRON 145 on. &c. make an end. Fin. Prov. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. (Kil. Da. Sw. suffo. skratt. to gape gab. the hke. E.peep in the same sense. Kil. Prothroat of an animal . Hence kikna is identical with OE. ceg. rennet. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. AS. quoka. by laying up in a covered heap. to choke with laughter. food. dear. ceaplas. chesten. kdkel. kopen. kapen. gap. jaw. kastr. like a young chicken. — — . Fr. mouth kek. An imitative word. schach. cerasus. OHG. to choke.koppen. . kok. to bring to an end. rattle in the throat. Cherry. rupted into chess. kaecke. equal squares of opposite colours. made rancid koka. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. the final guttural is retained in writing. subacidus. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. chAtaigne. Fr. AS. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Lat. cheeks. to boken.

hiss as meat on the gridiron.. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. kauen.peep. Gattel. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. chicaner. a small cask OFr. Russ. when the vibrations become very rapid. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. beam. pi. the young of animals in general. a finch. a hen. kop. machouere. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. alter. cebr. chin. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Probably from Fr. ach. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. cabarach. tremble. It. kime. chaps. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. the jole.). W.. cabar. capu. aner. kimia. A To Chew. from the second Lat. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. acute. a jaw. to crackle. deer's horn. k'imm s. klagend tonen. To chitter. kind. Lat. strideo. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. antler. Fin. Du. queror. CHJME the radical form is unusual. — It. kuwe. the same principle I regard On birds. the rim or edge of a vase. tiukka. Pl. . a head. For the see word Doit. to contest about trifles. kitista. kindeken. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. Swiss kiden. Bret. chew or chaw. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. kippa. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Chitter. tiukkua. Chigue. — . ultimate origin of the Mite. are formed Du. Pr. kimme. Prov. knarren. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal.. Halm. the Ptg. chimb. Chimb. capete. while didder is to shiver or citteren. kieken. chol. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Child. . czypulas.— Cot. Now gan some courage unto him to take. Fr. E. kopf Du. Fin. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. s. kauwe. as pointing out the origin of the E. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. G. pipe. keichen. 'Among these the G. rafter . but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Magy. mouth. to gasp for breath (Hal. caput. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. ' . or chick. from little to little. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Tintillo. chic. tiukkata. Pm.-ill. lead through the synonymous E. and not vice versd. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. Fl. G. Pr. gosling. Brezza. signifying properly shivering. . w.D. greloter is to shiver for cold. chawbone. E. CHEW . a little bit.— . — Fin. stake. cib. quivering sound which passes. Chime. chavel. grelot). kauchen. mountain top . pululo. See Chimmer. jaw. chiquei. or the broken noise of birds. cild. chillar. to scold. E. in Walach. De finger killet mi for kalte. Gael. cabar beinne. as. Du. — — Mother Hubbard. the throat. rafter . knit the brow cib-led. choule. Sp. De chic en chic. knirschen. Imitative of a loud clear sound. chavel. chillrar. to pettifog. Chill. to the brim. and from the third E. Pm. pipio. to twitter. a cup. cidan. Fl.— Gattel. twitter. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. capo. chef. horn wood. then cold. cica cica. kinderen.^ Hal. tyuk. caprioru. to contest. the head. Chick. Payer chiguet A chiguet. kimista^ . kaw. while the Magy. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. kouwe. to raise the rim. tintelen van koude. AS. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . To Chide. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. — Du. rafter.. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. tremble with cold. crepo. cap. chillness or shivering. The loss of the syllable it in Du. cabriones. a chicken. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. kilderkin. killen. to use the jaws. Fr. has probably the same origin. Fin. Kil. Chief. zitterti.' my finger tingles with cold. branchy. chicoter. chikat'. a chicken. head. a cup cibaw. kibr. chieftain. a chicken. cheek. or qf people talking rapidly.D. Chaw.^ to resound as a bell. pole. horns of the house. Da. sonorous. from the first of which is Lith. a young bird. the least imaginable jot. or as E. gills of a fish. the cry of young . a quid of tobacco. And hence. to chime. tiuk. to Du. then as G. captain. into a continuous shriU sound. to chew. Walach. kidata. jaw. chicken. chiler. by driblets. 146 brial. jaws . kaau•wen. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. to titter is Du. also the horizon. pipio. : — a lump. a cup. pip. caferu. to go. to smart. term is ssaru fu. ]). Fr. chill. killen. creak. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. The Pl. Palsgr.

to creak. — . spina. gen. . cisaille. the chine. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. a chap. chits. and the Du. zirken.czirbti. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. as the/ is preserved tering. In the same sense. Sw. caminsects. are In like manner E. bone . to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. fyr. to sound. to chink. cinan. Lat. — — — — — . To Chimmer. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. cisello. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. to sound deep or the Gr. yivtiov. esquina. See Chark. Chitter. is applied to the separation of the broken parts.Huloet in Hal. Du. KinneGr. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. from Lat. skina. Chip. Diez de. See Bright. then of a fabulous monster part goat. eschin^e (de pore).to chirp. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. schina. the cheek (jaw) . Chin-coug^h.. a thorn. crepare. kumina. up and down. backBut she withal no worde may soune. dial. name Then. a chink or fissure. a Kuttn. rustle. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. clashing of weapons. ter. 147 kimina. sonants. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . The desig. The small entrails of a hog. j^lf. to tremble. i. Chyrme or chur. a surkik hosta. Chimney. gena. Chit. verynge or dyderinge. . kinne. applied to tremulous motion. Chink-cough. to simmer. Pm. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. genou (pi. the jaw. To chirp or twitter. sparkle. a fire-place. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. caperd. Fr. Sp.). and bodily movement in shimm. Gascoigne in Todd.er. To chink with laughter. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick.schricken. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. chink. See Chap. as the chink of money. clipping of coin. also vibrans. It. cheminde. Fr. the chin . to gape. E. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. . to chink with laugh2. squittire. Sp. and from a similar sound to boil gently. killed by Bellerophon. esquena. pork) . so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. hollow. Chink. cleft. Chisel. schetteren. It. the cheek. in the same crack. sound. ciseau (for cisel). komia. E. kumista. Cot. caminata. as a bell kommata. as birds the mouth. Chymerynge. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Chine. ciarlare. Fr. Du. The change from the sound ter \s. chick. Chat. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Gloss. to chirp. to open chirriar. a szemrcU. Sp. Chintz. Fr. cinne. Pr. Sp. Caminatum. hiss chirlar. See Chats. tschirpen. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. twitter caminus. or chyFrigutus. It. komista. disCot. quavering of the voice. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. zirpen. a crowing sound in recovering breath. a thorn. — . et garrire . tsongeni. stridere. Ptg. sonus the backbone Lat. do. klincken. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. ykvvQ. part lion. clangor tinniens kummata. genawi. flaw Hal. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. have been used to designate the spine. . from 10 * ' Chia. sound on beginning to boil. backe. cincel. Hindost. hiss Pm. and light. eschine. to squeak in It. the whooping cough. tremulous motion. twinkling light. Primarily a shrill sound. the jaw. pare also Walach. the mouth (jaws) . to prattle czirpti. to sizel. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. hus. sounding deep. chhint.iron. cheek. .sharp. — . AS. kieck hoest. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. all these imitative terms being minata. Gower in Hal. chatter . Fr. to chirp . Lith. It.. to chirre. czirszkti. Prov. in Hal. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to prattle . schrick. shiver and the chyver of Pr. and chim-mer. then to any narrow crack or AS. It.to divide or Du. a hall Mid. epine. to tattle. A . Magy. to creak. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Kil. keich husten. vincially used in the sense of a crack. Chitterling. tsengeni. fissure. chin . x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. G. resonance . to murmur. as a large bell . schetteringe.Lat. quivering or shakyng for colde. G. Bav. kink hoest. simmer. to chine. schiena. Bret. tinnire. eschiner. but or cry as a parrot. companied. Chimera. Huloet. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. — . spina. bx-eak the back of schena. To Chitter. from the geon's lancet. representing connected together.' Phaer's Virg. plodere. chirp. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne.

. caperd. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. CHOP kros. The Sc. fine threads of flowers. chceur.ceosan. friller.. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. Luc. to tempt. to try. causir. The . a rag. also calPs. experience valerie. Gr. by which they are Fr. rare. cke. Choice is probably direct from Fr. chatter. Goth. to taste. coro. kausjan. OHG. schevel-steen. chawdron. Equivalents in the SlaFr. Yr. gusten. pieces .freze. from chevalier. . to try. it is probable that the root kus.yEuffM. kustigen. •- Russ. to experience. Chives are also a kind of small onion. heaped measure. cut up into — See Chats. — Cholera. g'schochet voll. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to try . to taste. and in this sense the * small pieces. called cMtters in the N. Boh. anger. — — — . Warwickshire coff. to exchange horses. Swab. developments of the same radical image. to taste . to turn. wein didder for cold. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers.' At last he dwelt . lead us on to Lat. and It. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. whence choleric. xiv. to chap.' Verie coinme Cot. ^S. a company of singers or dancers. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Enn Sigridur sem ' . . From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. &c. choppe. prove. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to ^cleave . . cepa. i. a scale or fragment P1. a wine taster. to taste. chap hands. to ing is doubtless to taste. Choice. a twittering. Swiss kust. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. chimp. a knight. a ruff or frill. okusyti. Prov. Body and Soul. ruffs. To Chop. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. Chives. coup. &c. kruszki. approve. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. and N. to choose. gekrose.gust. chippe. . 2. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to try. ments of the knightly class. to chap at a door . taste. as green as leeks. chock full. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . as with a blow. to palpitate .V)^x. a blow. arkiusan. Fr. in the same language. signify to kiss. from %u\i). or original meaning is preserved in G. to break off in small shive. kbhren. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. kiesen. kalbs gekrose. crammed Choir. try.vonic languages are Pol. Jam.. chife. and Vf. Fr. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. G. kieser. G. bile. — See Cheek. are used in the same sense. x^poc. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. skifa. kusid. I. —Chorus. Serv. whence Lat. kiezen. propagated. to strike hands . to wrinkle. See try. Chuck-full. ON. 19. a small slice or slip of anything . keypa. civette. .D. cape. try. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. full. of E. to shiver. a calf's pluck or chaldron . the ridges prove. a calf's chaldern of E. and in kosten. ^euw. disposition. ON. a goose's giblets. to stop geschoppt voll. keuren. Lat. gdnse gekrose. schoch. Cavalry. The I go to prove them. Gr. then to try. kushati. Fr. koren. ent quarter. to Compare also Pol. Chap. to taste. kushevati. then to shiver. Choleric. select. As kushnuti. fresure. a young . to hack. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. shiver. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . gustare. to prove. an onion. taste. krussyi. chibble. to taste. Schmid. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. chattering. full to overflowing. chiffe. choix. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. seallion or unset leek. kiusan. pluck. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. a chive. haslets. chorus. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile.' who shall not taste death. curly . a ruff. To Choke. %o\ifa. a heap. the inwards of an animal. word is more likely to be from Lat. wkusit' prikushat.ffrill. cive. kaup. * To Choose. Chivalry. the small parts of the roots of plants. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. a fragment. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets.— B jag E. G. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. . scheve. Gr. all seem slate . chaup. — Chock-full. schiefer. kiusan. The manners and senti. wrath. shoot . Walach. from kraus. to clap up Hal. chives. kor6n.

Gr. i. e. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. which was written 27. in Chaucer. an offence against the fitness of times. noble Doctor. In Sc. cauc. claquer.— Chevin.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. P. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. kolbe (club). the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. to overturn. gull. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. slipper . Alchemist.. the string of a musical instrument originally. gobio capitatus. chevin. the intestine of an animal. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. a lump or piece chump. chrisme. for to defraud. chapma?i. Nominale in Nat. E. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper..X. kubbr. What do you think of me. — Chrisom. equivalent to the E. cauvette j Fr. kaulhaupt (club-head. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chouquette. From the Turkish Chiaus. kobe. Fr.' Jam.' They are forebuyers of quheit. capito. E. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. or miller's kaycke . To coup. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. cheap. caphatenus. traffic. dealing. kaw. xpi'^lia. a bullhead. chub.povucd. sent before him a Chiaus. thumb Fl. Chub. Chrysalis. Wall. ' ' What's that? Dap. quappe. the same word with the It. cheviniau. chrysalis (Plin. to speak thieves' slang. Chopino. gull. chack. plump. I bring you the Cloughs. chapin. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. caqueter. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. fat. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. e. merchant.• — . because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. short piece kubbug. who took in the Turk- clack. G. That Face. gold. a trafficker in souls. a messenger or envoy. a The What dhy ^. Gr. Gr. chevane. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby.\^s. a thick piece. A jackdaw. Sp. connected with G. . peace. chroniques. from kloppen. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. soul-couper. in i6io. cow-couper. — — — . syllables chat. high clog. of which such strings are made. to strike in the hand. E.— Landnamabok. p. chevane. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Sw.(. Come. chuet. Fr. monedula. whence the Fr. klopper. cavena. -chron-. kubb. . kowej Sax. civetta. chatter . Chord. applied to an owl in that language. — Dief. chapineria. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. choucas. forms are Chrism. cresmeau. Gr. to clack. by the Robert Shirley. to cant. a small fish with a large head. cambiare. 49. klompe. chouette. whence — E. Madam. prattle . dial. Peace. Kil. clogs. ceo. ON. whence e.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. kauwe. capita. Cot. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . because she would not endure this husband chopping. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. Chuck. See Change. If I discover. In the Alchemist. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. xop5>}. kowe. overset. koppe. Anachronism. Lat. E. as in Fr. chronicles. — Quabbe. Chough. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og.). one who buys and sells horses or cows. clat. Confounded with the bullhead. Fr. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. to chatter. cangiare. OE. Marin. The Turk was here As one should say. whence apparently the Sup.sohola.). Du. dial. and we actually find champman for chapman.—Chuokstone. that will thank chiaus — you richly. &c. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. bearand aits. AS. XpvaaXic. we find the following passage Dap. yiSA. caker. Borgoens happen. as Du. See Chaff. a stump. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. — . Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Fr. 4. Du. kaufen. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. thick-set. kaej Lith. A fish with a thick snout and head. capitanus. the teeth to chatter . To Chop logick. xftovoq. Ant. —Shakespeare. To Chouse. Picard. capitone. to turn over. ley in Giiford. Fr. chop. time ra . to knock. cob. Chronicle. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Jam.

rendered by Kil. chofe (Grandgagnage). ceffore. chife. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. -cisuiri). geaflas. to him a sudden blow. ON. kaerle. -cide-.— . marrow.' And cold. Cider. as in E. — . Cieling. G. then the on oh StX iv roXt. domhnach. 24. It is certain. a resounding object. to make a rippling noise. or. cinctus. blow on the I io6 in Mur. ON. -cis-. — — A — ' ' — . rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. i. as Fr. gffe. as a board.V//a'6'?. a man. . dust. log of wood. ceaflas. cidre. sinter. e. accido. or choice part of a thing . Ka-^aiva. Gr. as water running over rocks or stones. calx. to make a aiKipa. Fr. Fr. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. See Cheek. to strike clatter. jaws. chops. . Gr. The derivation from Kvpiasov. whence deciduous (of trees). cheek. . hot iron is beaten on the anvil. a fellow. chofu. to sparkle. cheeks Cincture. pp. the kernel. C^z^j^ churHsh. See Ceiling. Church. e. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. Jennings. Da. to fall. &c.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. ciuffo. sintel. in circumcision. in the face. kirna. cut off. x^^i?.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. The origin ation. Du. chack or stane-chacker. Gothic nations. Du. from Lat. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. the snout of an animal. to separate the kernel of the milk. i. swollen or puffed up Cot. a rustic . joffu. with It the Lord's house. kiorne. The spelling of chider has Chump. See Cheek. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. G.' he adds. cado. to fall at or on. sindra. to turn from blossom to fruit.for the residue of stone coal. lamak. Hence -cid-. ChurL husbandman. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. . kern. chakil. a lump. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. residue of burnt coals. fat-cheeked. to form grains of butter. a pebble. pith. calculus. Chuff. male person. KaxXij?.D. AS. in Sc. * Cinder. Wall. ccedo. comp. karl. -cise. kernjen. OFr. to cut decide. sive piratiam facere sciant. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. -cido. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Cleland in Jam. klakka. Churn. Lat. -eris. ceaplas. Probably from It. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). incido. as Epkema explains it. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Diss. a pebble . Du. to cause the milk to grain. tindra. tie about). to fall upon decide. we have to chack. whence ON. Fris. flower. to To Chuckle. countryman. to churn. Chunk. thence a belt. ON. ashes.^.— Chu%.. cinis. a cutting round. a man. a girding on. ceffo. &c. Lat. dial. to jaw chack or snap. sindr. a douse on the tores. but by way of explan. kjami. ceorl. giffle. a miser. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. to gird. Sicerawry face ceffata. cinders used disjunctively.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. Sw. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. chack-stone. has been impugned which it has really no connection. chaps. to determine incision. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. casum (in comp. however. kerl. . See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. To chuck in the fall from. Ir. spuma metalli. a man. an old man. from Lat. ladre from Lazare. chuffy. kakka. that the word is an adoption of Fr. As AS. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). cinctura {cingo. Sc. AS. whence church. KvptaKolg. to Newsp. surly. have given rise. a cutting an old chuff. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. sicera. sindel. scoria. Lat. a husband. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. cendre. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. joufflu. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. . to throw out sparks. — of the two words.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. set kerti. so as to make the happen . a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. In Sc. Wall. Aasen. Lat. Cob.

sindri. . clamer. clasp. Citron. a pop-gun. lump. . hringr. Mack. and clash. lump . a boss . latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. a ball. a young and tender plant. a lemon tree. klekotati. Du. cisterna. clack. klappen. accordingly find the roots dab. It. globus. klompe. a citizen . klateren. bunch . cion. Gr. . about. klater-busse. sound- — hands figures. uproar. glam. clamare. to cry out. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. lump. a mass. to go. radical identity of the Fr. twig. &c. clapping of klacke. to make to go. To Clack. lash . cittade. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a lump Du. a city. . outcry. -cite. suck). klappe. civilis. clog. clap. clobyn. parallel root is slam. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). a city. the place of . to call. Citadel. . Du. area. is traced by Gr. wasserkasten (water chest). claim. mass . prattle. chijfre. city. creak les dents. to gnash the teeth. Lat. 'mass. circum. klak. a block. the door was slammed J slamem. to bawl. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. clack-dish. klubb. . babble . a Lat. stimulate. and E. cry out . ON. G. from chupar. E. Sw. the tongue. chatter . Lat. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . whence cistiti. around. may cite w. ciste. crack. fall. slam. Circle. and. klacken. clangor avium . From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. circum. a loud uksa slamketi. kringla. clump. or clap-dish. klambr. Cite. ruin.. cluster. circ2tlus. klemte. clat. Dan. to call by name. * Ciplier. Du. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. to clack. a clod Russ. a reservoir Probably from Lat. in the frequentative form. It. klammer. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. a ring. a judgment cern. a rattle . kluV. See -cid-. The syllables clap. noise — — a cistern. vociferation. to be empty. a whirlwind. to chatter. sifr. Sp. domern. a circle. sound. to clap at a theatre. . Lat. ball kloben. chest. Alt. claquer crash. cit^. Clamp. . compared with It. smack. castus). to cleanse. klamp. clamp. Dan. a block. chupon. to strike. civis. a whip. citrus. to call.— . Gael. ON. klepati. klumbr. to mention. lump of wood or with the nasal. * Cistern. excite. Clam. a knob. See Circle. a Pol. belonging to cities or social life . sajira. a rattle Fr. ern. circle. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Bohem. dim. Lat.' sione. . It. biw. cittd. claquet de moulin. civitas. cisterna. Fr. tinnitus . sound of blow. sprig. Gr. klimp. a split. From Arab. as in Sp. Sw. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. clack-box. KpiKoe. klap. to appeal. clot ON. to set in motion by means of the voice. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. —Circuit. clamp. Clump. The notion of a lump. a place See place hiddern. crack. cittadella. ter. trunk. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. We . lump. gutter. G. sip. glambar. log. a cistern. a kind of pipe. rattle. Cot. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. -cis-. to cluck. Lat. klopati. dob. scion or sucker. a kind of rattle. empty Golius. scion. bunch. or quill to draw waier through Fl. E. to knock. a. with an initial s instead of c. Hence Incite. Comp. to toll . —Civil. for Cion. a hiding-place. clambar. Hal. Fr. cieo. Recite. sphere gleba. CION See Tinder. Scion. around. . as. ring. a clod. circa. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. cry. klabb. clapper. citujn. . a circle. clap.to suck. crack. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. The Gr. as caverna from cavus. to summon or call on. Lap. Circum-. W. So a light. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. cito. See Crankle. We . In Fr. klump. or split with noise. cifra. chupon. clatCot. kringr. to chatter . — (Dozy) ing blow. KipKog. forms — — — parent plant. a ball. and Sp. klqb. noise. Fr. Fr. clack. lucerna. Lat. City. a circle. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. glamm. rattle . Chaste. a lump Lat. cion. Gael. ON. to clatter. prattle. a cleansing place. lump. Lat. claquer. Arab. Excite. a for water. claquer. to chatter. a shoot. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a'upiav. klacke-busse. clamras. of citta. To Claim. cista. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr.

' klibba. klavre. salaan. G. and hence moist. Gael. Clan. sound of the trumpet . to knock. klampen. a heap of stones. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to hold fast with the . clangor. Du. In like manner Du. grasp. pinching. dapier. damor. cluster. anything hidden. to cleave or stick. E. dia. seize. stick. dem. solid. brawl. damras. dapier. to Hal. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. to Sw^. who occuG. to clap. a claw. klem-vogel. klopfen. cramp. coagulated cream. Dan. conceal. to climb. a place underground where rabbits breed. to pinch. G. clav\f. buckle klamp. Mampe. beat. klam7n. The Fr. from birdlime. to cling. E. clap. dam. klappen. klammern. or klamp-vogel. sound.p correspond- ' without order. rumour. Halma. sticky Hal. dial. klynge. but perhaps not directly from it. klang. to climb. klobber-saen. cling. dang. a sound made by a still . a loud tingle. a noose . a claw . massy. glambar. narrow. klammer. beating. clamber. clink. The root which gives rise to klibb. tone. scendants. — with hunger. . also to clog up. klubber. klippe. klappen. dee. Lat. to glue. Dan. compression. clajnmy. klepanie. descendants . to patronus. club . dial. Clamp. G. clapper of conies. to claw oneself up. knocking. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. OE. with cramp-irons. to. ring as metal. clasp. . viscous. G. to climb .' to take coals to Newcastle. and that from celo. originally a heap of large stones. klette. Clink. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . klepati. whence sala. a trap. dam. dam. substances of a stickydam. Hence the Fr. tattle. a sound made by a lighter clink. bandage. — — . . Russ.1. Clapper. G. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. To sticky. children. — . c). a rattle . to beat. hook. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. B. as the clapping of hands. G. These are imitations of a loud. bond. klam. where- A — unto they retire themselves. crowd . salafa. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . clann. nature . of the children. The equivalent of Lat. to do anything with a clap. to stick or glue. chatter. to starve. &c. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. to daub pinch. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. clang. tight. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. clandestine. celo produces Fin. klebern. is used in the sense of secretly. Du. in a hidSen place. klatten. resonance klingen. as the Lat.er. tingle. a craCmp. dap up. a hawk. offspring. strait. To Clamber. take hold of. Lang. to clutch or cling oneself up. gliong. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. ancestor. hold. uproar. tremble . to glue. klynge sig op. tenacious. a sound. to seize. Bav. a stone See Claim. privately. clapas. — Climb. tinkle. kluppel. kleppen. a stick. Fr. . klamre. AS. to clap on. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. — Lat. dandestinus. sound. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. These words To are closely connected with damp. Du. Clang. The E. clear sound. Du. closely analogous to that of the fast. dank. dapi^. strain . to climb. chatter. adopted Lat. to knock. klamm. gum. sound object . Salainen. from the w. Clap. prison. hands or claws to grasp. klepel. diver. compress. kloben. viscosity . to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. kleppe. Clamour. pressed close or hard together. kleben. to climb. A i. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. accent. yf. run to lumps Clandestine. klank. See Clam. dren. and hence to pinch . of money Gael. sound . ney. clibby. Dan. a heap of stones or other things piled up . dam immediate modifications — . to climb. . Swiss kletten. gripe. Swiss kldbem. for tame conies. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. Bohem. rattle. is a nasalised form of gripper. a whip. to clamp. klettern. kleppe. children. Dan. klibber. dink Du. to gingle. G. the in many languages. cream Manx doan. clap. E. dambar. klamme. E. dienklebber. cleave. klemmen. grimper. to dame. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. cramp-iron. Sw. clammy brace.. a bird of prey. to hook things together. to hold to pinch. klemmen. B. . to stick conceal. daver. klimmeii. holdfast. to hide. of which the locative case. Clank. klemmen. apprehend . a burr. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. chief. dientes. klappre. — Cot.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. contraction. To clap in E.

&c. to rattle . is used in Sc. clas. — Kiittner. Lat. ghespe. chiarello. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. clausula. Lat. klauw. Class. kletse. a distribution of things into groups. kluczka. globus. to shut. Sw. &c. Claret. Du. . assembly. ansa. claret win e. thence a definite head of an edict or law. — Clarinet. which signifies a ball in E. teren. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. klatscha pop-gun. as G. locket of a door. Wyutoun in Jam. and through v into a. to draw it up into a bunch.oi. Than thai wald clew upon his banis.). but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Dan. klatschen. Klatsch- a pop-gun . an ending. dap. from scknallen. E. a clasp. flap. clamp. a water made of aquavitse. cloi. row aii/iaTos. Du. to fasten. waU. puUs. Kil. somewhat clear. Cot.Gr. sound of the foregoing description. a lump. clarin. a sphere . it is called clamming. and clavis. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. sphaera. vin clairet. klouwe (Kil. a bunch. diver. a. chatter. to animals Sp. whence kleuer. klase. thwack . Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. Clause. Mask ! plask ! thwick. vinum helvolum. the collar-bone. applied in their harness. cinnamon. klamme. Sp. Clasp. climp. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. clair. Clatter. klatschen. klaequivalent to clack or clap. a key KKtitid.Z. clew. a kind of small. Clash. glcis. Owl and that by which cleave to. in the sense of a claw. The form clew. a heap. chiizjj-o. biichse. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. klot. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . klauwe. to snap. ictus resonans. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. crying. a key origmally a crooked nail. But clasp or elapse. —Kil. uproar. a lump . clopa. Clew. to fasten together . to patter. contraction. or as G. pet. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. pellet . biichse. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion.to cra.w or u on the other. Nightingale. a claw. nail. K\a. nawith stanis. as Mod. Lang. The b readily passes into gleba. skeria-klasi. Clavicle. Lat. Serv . Prov. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. schnalle. as it is written by Chaucer. Claw. from its use in fastening things together. chiaro clear. KXeiSi. . clausum. rion.— CLARET clamp. klouwe. Du. clew or fasten upon a thing. in the sense of a mass or lump. a bird with powerful talons. classis. claw (what fastens together. buckle. a buckle. — Clarion. klaeret. Lat. to end. So Pol. In E. to knock. a key. klucz. Rayn. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. mass. klampvoghel. globus.ck a whip. with a reddish tint. bawling. compression. syrtium junctura. klampe. to ring in such a manner for the dead. a nail. also a knell for the dead. klc^i. Eau clairette. Eya-klasi. a claFr.. clavis. Fr. Identical with ON. Thus from Lat. hawk. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Du. noise. gaspe. Analogous Jam. From clairet. from the resemblance to a key. a club or massy stick. Du. Nawith stavis. klaterbusse. a. straight-mouthed. and old red rose-water. kiosk bicza. klijven. to do anything with a . blab. The collar-bone. a lash. and shrill-sounding trumpet. mass. i. to clap . fibula. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. forms are the Du.It. — tells us.\x\xvn. stop of an organ. a ball. a complete sentence. the primary origin clapa. To clew. clairon of a trumpet— It. Du. Pol. In the same way is formed the OE. klaskad. fracas. a clod. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. From claudo. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. the cracking of a whip. to clash as arms. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. hook. G. Fr. insularum nexus . to cleave. an on the one hand. Originally clasis. vin claret. cluster. kleeven. Commonly made. It. e. clump. chasguear. Russ. he of white and red grapes mingled together. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. we pass to the E. klatsche. a little hook . sauna de classes. is preserved in Lang. subrubidum. clarinado. seizes) . ivy. clairon. clavus. same class with w. Fr. clatter. under three modifications dava. klos. rubellum. kleuen. fragor . 269. It. from clinging to the tree which supports it. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. chiarino. Thus from clamp. Gr.

and Dan. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. Cleat. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. the fork of the body. to dag ox dog. polish . 154 CLAY dutch. . G. The word may be — . hook. door-latch. glan. gingle. sticky. klinke.). from diquer. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. vissticky . klinke. daggy. to be composed. kleverig. bogs cous. Lat. G. klank. a cleft. a fissure. conserere antklankjan. to sound or make a noise . pure. doff. kluft. vice. Sw. it cleave together. that was a striking proof. and. a lump. explained from the klinken. clink. lump. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. glorious. opposite senses. is fast and sure. i. sticky earth. klirren. to clinch a nail. rive. famous. kleg. E. gentle. Omklinken. kldnkelein. a noose. calm. holding together. sleek. to shine. glint. gleit. deot. the two parts of Du. to glitter. a fissure or division See Cleave. G. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a one end. that was Torriano. The proper meaning of the word is shining. glbram. as ON. dial. Axletree clouts. kluftholz. radiant. Da. to fasten E. clear. clean. neat. date is AS. Sw. river. The word is . celebrated . to stick or adhere . pure. cliquet. to Brilliant. diquetcr. Kil. Du. B. speech . Du. klinka. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. glitta. AS. kloue. a flash. either by the coherence To Clepe. This word is used in two business is finished off. glitnir. viz. cleave. G. Clinch. to clink or sound. See Clog. Gael. klor. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . dams. splendid pohshed. dedgy. W. kloben. ON. . Bav. . Da. Du. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. kleg. to fasten. to cleave. to chink. kla:g. kloben. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. klceg. as Fr. to fasten. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. Die zaak is zS. clean. provinciaUy termed dout. kleben. dag. pellet. a key. This is probably one of the clean. or from being divided into two parts. cloven wood. klieuen. bend in a stream. dags.— Clag. to clinch GB. E. dut. the To Cleave. Du. as the Du. clay . ON. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. Cleft. (Cot. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. as explained under G. to shine . To call. klinke. rivet. glance . piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Wilbraham. a — — . klov.— Claggy. klag. Du. pure . as Lat. clean. a cleft or fissure. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. and E. klieben. voice. doggy. sticky . klijveii. clout. together . gaklankjan. found in other cases. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. klincke. glan. an object is simply cleft. to tear or cleave asunder. glan. polished. a lump. a plate. bright. klouen. chaps in the skin. in two ways. klafwa. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. to 2. the latch of a door. from nitere. Da. klove The Dan. kluyte. Dan. and Celtic glan. . neat. Sw. a cleft. Sc. mud. a mass. a latch. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. viz. dinquet kleeven. a clincher. 2. or of a tree. Clean. glindse. from the clinking of the latch. loam. — : A rivet. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. kleevig. klyft. See Clam. Sc. Mar. geklonken. glor-mhor. E. ON.' was nailed to a rock. . Clay. A — A Clement. glent. nitidus. klinken. split. merciful. clear. to stick to. a noise. From clap. To Clench.— . klutsch. klinken. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. pretty. klouen. clash. a bunch of When flax). clear. a in that of sphtting. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. Thus from G. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . glbr. the original . The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. rift. clibby. smooth. Probably a modification of the word doitt. Clemency. to clench. a mass. G. Lat. of iron worn on shoes by country people. kluit. The Dan. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. . tongs. seem formed dial. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. glatt. From dob. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. Halma. Du. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. Fr. kloben. to separate into parts. danche. glandse. Clear. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. give a shrill sound Jr. clean. klink. words applicable sight. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. klinken. shine. dench. a claw or talon. clemens. klirre.Q.

Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. syn. has kl'dver. klikklakken. Clever. with hamarskard. to tattle. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). klever. to wink. cliff. cave . a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. a latch . say. We movement catch. the dick of a latch or a trigger. above the pole. Claw. or Sc. 3. the clergy. CLINCH De . in the sense of active. icXi/ja?. AS. Jam. dial. Da. The origin is the Gr. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. dutch). from clifian. dexterous. a tumbril. deudi. derecia. In I Peter v. dicher. cart that tilts over. clif- stanas. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . Click. deuch. an inclination. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. a figure mentioned. a clicket or clapper. diquette. a lump. chatter. a hump. crackle.. corresponding to the Sc. Clergy. G. pulsare. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. a latch. clack. Climate. derigon. corresponding to Fr. or an object character- Clerical. to move. Gr. Klover i munden. clep. to cleave.) Brai. derigo. a hold. precipice. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. neither as having lordship in the. Du. klaiv. The Sc. &c. 3. Boh. and hence deik. cleopian. on. duke. score7i clif. to talk as a parrot. ' — — by a movement of such a nature.— Clue. Clerk. as a click with the tongue. speak. ginally from dob (extant in W.Lat. a mill-clack . click. to seize. pen. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. clima. But the Dan. ized . quick in motion. click. cautes. a baU of yarn. abrupta rupes . quick of perception. Sw. dob. diver. a ball of twine. Clam. and hence climate. skard. a clew. rugged ascent. Rouchi cliche. clatter. Lat. ready of speech. seize (Hal. Climb. slope . littus. OE. clyf. clever. dichet. a ladder. d See Clan. to snatch. dough. catching. to teU tales. sink. See Clamber. name. Commonly derived from deliver. to bend. a cliff. from Gael glac. . in precisely the same sense as the E. chatter. Norm. derjon. klippe. IS5 Du. as from derido. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. nimble. rock. klinge. clap. Dunbar in Jam. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. Clew. a lazar's clicket or clapper. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. as Sc. cleft. . crepare. cliquer. call. to prate. babble. climate. frap- per rudement une personne. Hence Lat. Bav. klika. cligner. a hook. chatter. rupes . to catch. cleft of a hill. a child's or clack . a clerk . a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . to clack. klaffen. a cleft in a rock . klouwe. a trigger. klinke. Du.' ii. whence Fr. to tattle. claw or talon to dek or deik. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Cliff. lively. dek. Cot. kloof. klikker. expeditious. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. a precipice. duik. CLERK sound of a blow. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. cleft in a rock. declivity. to confess . rock. ravine. G. deik. one of the clergy. KkrifoQ. which is used in Scotch and N. Chaucer. Du. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. glomus. in rhetoric. exactly Gr. has also deik. klinket. would have been derida. to stir. Sp. what so men clappe or crie.). globus. cleugh. temperature. dook (identical with E. Climax. dial. Somner. Fr. —Vocab. Lat. chat. Client. region not observe it. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. kliket.— Clicket. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. agile. cliquet. clever. a lot. cleke. clif. precipices. snatch. dink. — have the notion of a short quick in E. stein- kluppen. See Clench. verge). is NE. cliof. one admitted to the tonsure. a latch. crack. kleppe. had a form. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. diofian. the knocker of a door. — — A . deuck. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. scar. klif. on.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. to cry. kleppen. Lat. e. Det er en Mover kerl. light-fingered. klok klep- crepitare. dever. click. deik. dergi. to catch. the clergy clericus. Now the OE. gleg. to rattle. /cXi'fia. rapidus from rapio. as Lat. Sc. klev. which in Mid. sonare. call. klippe. dial. that is a clever feUow. a sphere. . -Toe (from KXivm. prattle. See AS. it must be observed. highest is attained. to sound an alarm to clap. hamraklif. kliv. . click it. a claw or clutch. and (with the nasal) — clincher.dergie! Wiclif in R. de ripa. clerus. clypian. Happen.

to clip. To Cling. kXiVu. incline. klinken. klocke. knippe. to clap or clack. to lean backwards. sticky. or bagging clothes. dag.' From Pl. hlinen. pallium. to resound. gUong. Swiss klungele. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. noise. Flem. bow. to crowd or squeeze chingy. in Schmeller) klunk. declivis. as thick or curdled liquids. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. G.D. Fr. to shrink up. kukla. Bohem. cloche. . ON. to form one mass with. disposed to a thing. Pl. shears. pinch. klo^gen. acclivis. clato make a noise. ten. N orman clincailler. to bend downwards . ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. Cliofue. klak. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. hooded . also to form a compact mass. parva ruptura. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Sussex peasant AS. Cloak. Sw. * Clod. I. Bohem. to cling to a thing. to knock. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. as we now say three or four o'clock. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . Kil. a woman's mantle . because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. klunge. nip. kldpp. -cliv-. a hood. kleppe. klipa. outcry. knippchen. . also to wink . CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. to crowd together klynge sig ved. ON. recline. to lean. hill . and a similar syllable without the /. pinch. to clunge. clino. clinke. Sw. verklungeln. to snap kneipen. a tinman. met. Hal. klippe. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. speaks of a ' clung bat. Du. kol- The word . klippur.. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to shrink up. klik.. dial. . Lat. klocke. hluccti. to pinch. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. at first probably on a wooden board. clock is a variation of clack. whence E. dial. The notion of a loose moveable substance. to snip. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. G. chcng. Sw. difficulty . . a bell. schnippen. Du.— Clot. to snap tongs. knippen. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. toga. OHG. The E. klupen. kolki-laud. to strike. a cluster. clog. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Fr. sloping forwards. slant. G. a snare. tuft. a clock. a ball of thread . rima. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. clique. dial. ring clag. &c. -atum. incline. g. to wither. quincailler. a separate portion. dial. klynge. cochl. Lat. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. a lump of butter. klunker. kliks. G. cloak. klincke. clinker.. to . as G. w. klippa.' for a dry stick. klicke. a rising ground. To stick to. E. See Clang. klungelin. toga muliebris. clivus. Du. gang. and so' to contract. . . To cut with shears. — a mantle. Decline. a lump G. kluben. hlinian. straits. Walach. ON. a clog or fetter for a beast . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. compress . to slope or bend .und zuk-lippen. clips. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. claw. difficulty. Clink. klingen. klaka. To Clip. kluppe. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. . sloping upwards procUvis. Ang. Sw. Swiss klokken. klok. iissura. especially of something soft or clammy. — clot.— KSS. globulus' (Gl. knot klynge. related to clock. klinka. S w. Ir. E. Gael. klocka. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. . klippa. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. to pinch klupe.'— Shaks. 2. and 'E.ginglej Fr. club). like cling. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. klippen. a faction. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. ' . Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch.. Een kliks bolter. by bits. G. fetter. from klepati.D. sloping downwards . Du. 'Till famine cling thee. clutch. a bell. Bi klik uti klak. to ring. -CLINE make pinch. to make a loud noise. Sw. to snap or fillip schnippen. Serv. to clink auf. to cluster. a beU. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. to AS. . glocke. glungelin. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. four of the bell. to beat. klungeln. kolbe to E. to wither. clangere. Esthon. as to snip in the same sense from snap. hluk. G. Clock. klepalo. 156 -cline. a lump. brett-glocke. to beat on the board. Gr. clingan. to sound sharp. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. kima. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Da. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. See Cowl.

to bedaub. a skittle-ground klos- sen. is connected with pludder. be found rattle. motte. figer. klos. with Fr. clotted milk klotte. to shut up. loblolly. . a clog or wooden shoe Mod. schlotter. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. lobberen. a portion of something soft and adhesive. Pl. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. claudo. loppe. Yule-clog. unctuous. lag. klotz. . bloutre. Clog.). to spill liquids. from claudo. clogs. or drablyn with separate existence. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. to slop or spill liquids. g. Closhe. It.D. terminate. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. aspersion. to rattle. dab. to dabble. klotzschuh. like G. to dash like heavy rain. a spot. slab. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. clos. -clusum. paddle. mud klcEg. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material.— Clothe. lobbig. to paddle in the wet. bespotted with mire E. klot. rattle. clorre. . dangle. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. kloteispaen. a trowelful of mortar. a dirty wench claggy. slobber. separate part. kloteren. the radical sylla. lumps of butter. schlottern. paddle or dabble in the wet. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. curdled. lump of mud on the clothes . -close. from Fr. claggy. a clod Swab. clausum. klunkern. be&c. Gr. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. to rattle or shake to and fro. G. whence klack. . . then liquid or loose substance. kloster. loose. Swiss schlott. daggerey. a Christmas log. lump of something soft . . He was a man without a dag. E. in accordance with It. wabbling from Du. da- . finish . a bal!. to rattle. Fr. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. to shut in. clausum.. fat. . boil. we pass to Schlatter. foreclose. Cloister. klottern. tJokok. hanging loose and full. . a block. paludosus. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. close. loose trowsers. zoccoli. inclose.D. dirt. a blot. and Du. Klottermelck. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. pattens G. or Sc. His heart was franlc without a flaw. to flounder in the wet. clot. beklakken. and E. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. je amoncele. . klod. . tramp in wet or mire. . motzen. thick sour milk. E. to sup up liquid food. cloth. geschlotter (as E. we pass to E. Pr. Pr.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. lobberen. doitre. Du. . congeler. To Clog. shaky. from Du. . clos. to flap as loose clothes. compared with clump. Idppern. shut up. plod. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. to a. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. and thus seem endowed . laggery. 3. forbidden by 17 Ed. schlott. Russ. a lump from Du. G. AS. to shut. shut up. of a body of any kind. Klak also. slobberen. watery. tuditare. or loppern. clog or overshoe. -clus-. loose mud.. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). Fr. closed. klac. The origin of clod and clot is to . TZoxapov. Lat. kleck or lack. Dan. I doda clod. klos-bane. without. Sc. splash. Fr. slops slodderen. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. clatk. to shut. dial.'^ Palsgr. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. is a blot on one's character. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. meat from Du. spot of dirt. an imputation. pludre. gelatinous. a field inclosed clos. clotted locks Dan. lump of butter. slabberen. IV. to close against one. ! . zocco. a babbler. bowl . or E. to lobberig. clammy loam. kloten. wide bagging clothes. to play at bowls. I clodde. laggyn. blot.rge lump. dag. Du. neither spot nor hang loose. a blot. daustrum. m&se noch stain. lob. to claggock. truncus. klakk.' end. in forms like Du. The game called ninepins. to dabble. lopperig. mud. . dunch). in accordance with Pl. . lunch. a log. Bav. clogs for the feet klakk. of something clammy or heavy. to wabble. klokotat. A — — A Thus from Bav. Close. Fr. fors. to cling locks. to bodies. loppered (of milk). mire. claque. in comp. slops). schlattern.dial. enOE. I clodde. log. analogous plan to clod or club. klateren. a clog. lopin. schlettern. MHG. slobbe. kl'dnken. A . to bubble. Lat. • lump. In the same way Dan. bemired. a log. slop. miry laggerit. spatter. kloden. and Gael. -cludo. chiudere. klakken. chiuso. Pm. slob. Hence inclose. klag. kladde. thick spoon . a monastery. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Mat. a clod. dirt. kleck. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger.1a.

davus. to cover Bret.bar. nelke (dim. zolla dell' . kluV. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. a log. unpolished. a fissure. CLUCK rustic. from kloven. .). and clay. of nagel. dial. I. ser. eene ODu. To Cluck. Clumpered in balls of clouds. klebek. a sticky. lump. sheltered up warm. to cleave. sheltered . to splash. a bunch. to cloy. nourish . CLOUD an awkward clod . clod. 2. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours.). the terms expresssplit. mary sense is a blow. E. Rouchi dapoter. a. a blabber. — — — . vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. nagelein. indispalte knoblauch. a breach. when something has got into the touch-hole. del mattond. klaven. Du. clump. a ball. a clubfoot klabb. kloete. a ball of twine . to strike .ft. . to cherish. a clot or keeps one warm. to strike. zolla. and -the word Clove. dabosser. stock. clump of a clout on the head. mire. and tapp. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. klotz. from OFr. . E. cloud Delfortrie. A division of a root of garlick. a ball. dob. the air. to beFr. It. klu77ip. group of people Sw. Mabousfrom Lat. clavo di especias. warm place . in the same sense. chiodo di girofano. coarse. Fr. klotzig. to lump mend clumsily. hebes (Kil. Move. G. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. Sw. a patch. klubb. Met. dabaire. block. More in R. duthaich. From dog. warm. clobyn. Ir. Das volk hat sich in splitten. a lump. klunds. wisp. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. to a lump. boucher. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. to cleave or the splashing of water. Sw. lump of earth aria. E. Properly that which covers and Du. from W. a boss. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R.158 . eine to slop. ON. lump. (kruyd =. and clout d eudaich. make warm. AS. knob. The radical sense seems to be an unE. — . Clover. cob. lumps of curd. A kind of spice resembling Du. clyd. cludaim. rustic. warm. shel- kloen. dial. tered . Then applied to a lump of mate. dash (Cot. Du. motte. cluth mhor. Du. a clod or clot. also homo obtusus. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . piece Cot. lump. klumpfot. daggy. Gael. klobbersaen. Du. a knot of people. a ball. little nails. To Cloy. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. botch. a thick mass. clou de girofle. Cld. klove. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). bunch. a curdled sky. G. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. puddle. a clove of garlick. diboter. clot. de Champ. clydion. Du. dote.D. klonte. a cover or coverture . of sloppy materials. caillebottes. ball of thread Russ. of a lump of earth and that figure. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. cluster. Du. klubba. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. In the same way E. of thumping clumsy action. a sky Cot. aglio. kluppe. clot. a bousche. clods. Clump. Gael. klubbe. lunch). as Fr. are also used in the sense of a stopper.). the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . kldverj P1.D. Clown.Fris. are often connected. G. a . klcBdi. So Fr. G. Club. klever. cobio. clod is used in both senses . formed lump or thick mass. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. clumhar. spice) G. AS. dial. Dan. klqb. clot . to curdle. clothe. botsen. . vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. a nail) Fr. loggish. with lout. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. a lump. clothes). klumba. een klaven kruflook. dillad bumkin. mass. Sp. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. and of a rustic unpolished person. clue. kloven. clotted milk or cream. a clod. naegel. The significations of a clod or lump.' Sanders. probably from daboter. log. and closely do conspire. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. a log. The priClout. esdaboter (Roquef. klump. dys. ON. Pl. Imitative of the note of a society. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. to stop. klubb. kl'dnne. a nail. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. klieven.clod. clothes ment. kUid. a garthas. klubben und klicken aufgeloset.D. cludadh. dut. N. w. Cloud. w. cobble. tuft. dirt. dump. a bunch. knob. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. to tramp in the kluyve. a bobbin. . blockish. clunch. mud (Pat. a bunch. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. clammy earth. from Du. matte. clog. choke or stop up. lie clyd. klotsen. but confounded with cailler.). sticky. milk run to lumps. warm clothes {dillad. strike. a clown. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. Kiittner. . clunch.

E. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. may recline. having the Pl. The sense of awkward. verklomen. -cludo. koetsen. awkward. klunsen. OE. klumpern. to stick together . and klotteren. a ball .D. klumpig. tight — — . close. to rinse. obstructum. to curdle. cleik. koetblockish. might be reached from clump. lump of soft mate. clook. of garlick. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. verkommelen. of Du. kol. unhandy. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. 159 E. kichlemmit. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. algidus. hondis. unwieldy Hal. also a cluster. Analogous forms with a tongs.D. glocire.' Comfort ye dumsid. klomen. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. -clus-. OHG. . exclude. cluntClyster. to to snatch. Lat. ON. beklommen. unfashioned. from laver.pare P1. a clove Sw. dial. klobber in klobbersaen. to pinch. clausum. Clump. koetsDa.E.. dussomed (Wilbrabam). ' Uorte (for clogs. strum on an instrument. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. klemma. Hesse. properly to do anything Fr. to paddle or dabble. clopiner. ether comelia P. conclusion. G. Du. * Clumsy. klods. heavily. See reclusion. Du. Hence snatching. and make ye strong feeble knees. Fr. G. But clunchy. to tramp or tread heavily. are the nasalised forms of klotte. doquear. idle. cleche. or aclommyde. to wash. Hence cleik. cluster. smart motion. Du. inclusive. E. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. to squeeze. viscous material.forklomme (Outzen). klcise. klemmen. esclaboter. through the senses of lumpish. a coach. claws. and klonteren. hooknosed. a lump. klimpern. Isaiah. klampa. klontet. Gr. wagen. dumpse. klont. MHG. G. klamen. Cheshire. cleuk. See -elude. Sc. the word is more probably connected with OE. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. xXvariip. dek. G. a bunch. MHG. Boh. Muster. clutch. a lump or compact mass. In the same way Du. bunch. Fris. a lump. an instrument for nasal form e. a clod or lump. — sen. carriage in which you klodset. — ' — — tonista. a clot klissen. dumps. &c. as clumper. -clusum. klonte.Ancr. unhandy. ' . kluntfrom KKvKdi. klamp. klister. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. splash. conclude. clabosser. lay hold of. coucher became in unhandy. a clod or The noclot. glousser. dial. clip or pinch.' Vegecius in Way. klump. -CLUDE hen Du. to klotz. Pl. to curdle. a litter. to grip. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Clutch. Ray. klocken. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. eene beklum. to curdle. limp. Variation of clatter. a ball.D. to syllable click. beklummen. crooked inwards . acomelydfor could Pr. From the notion of sticking together. Riwle. er. ball of snow on horse's foot . It. Coach. a claw. Lincolns. A group. -close. ' Thou clontsest for cold. awkward. klompen. dial. Graff in Klamjan. eviratus. ' Clumper. n. with a quick. havi. gelidus. The Fr. -olus-. koetsie. dek. Compare Swiss klupe. dystere. Coal. Du. klisse. rial. clointer. ball as snow. Sw. -elude. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material.D. clutch.mene tied. to wash. Teulazy. klomje. — . Du. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. . hands stiff with cold. 130. calling her chickens. with E. clotted cream. — Cot. to benumb with cold.' Wycliff. * Clump. to gingle. a clod clunter. cliboter. wooden sole. Lat. clumsy. to shut. klummklummshandt. fingers (familiar). klummerhdndt. duke. Beklummen van kelde. plad or plod. — Hence include. klikaty. a clod or lump. as Fr. a block. paste. klette.'— animal. to lie. enervatus. pinched. a pinching time.P. to tramp. lavesen. Clutter. Cluster. in v. wooden shoes. to tramp. —To Clumsyd. and koetse. Hindust. ill-made . Fr. in comp. or from Sw.— — . dumpers. as from seken. hand to cleuk. whence koetse. ment. a couch. eviratus. finish. kohle. thick and clumsy. Sw. a noise. . Pl. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. Fr. klikonosy. coccolare. Cath. benumbed with cold.D. —More. Sp. Champ. a nasalised form of club. seize. claudo. COAL dumpish. claw. Com. dial. klonte. clump. Pm. to collect in lumps.e.' Benecke. klos. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . from klupen. klunt. Ang. from ON. log. differing only in the absence of the duik. pladdern. .

to speak or act confusedly. nursery lang. Coast. costa. to worship. to stutter. dial. to be inflamed . and hobble. . a spider. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. according to the ordinary run of events. ignem. cluster. of E. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider.' — Thus from (Hal. are round stones or round coals of small size. to wheedle or gull vermin). quele. to stutter. T' waerkopet. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. Fr. are often connected. blaze. kuppa. Flem.). staggering or halting. to burn. broddelen. or E. H^cart.). a kitchen. throw a blow. things. dim. * To Cobble. koljarn. gull. glow.. to bungle Sc. also a coast. Du. gull. imbecille. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. pryf-coppyn. bredouiller. to Lett. cochinilla. to form an union with another coalitus. klabbare. to strike. sweets and the other of poisons. a similar According to Ihre. Lat. from some fancied resemblance. kop-ar. as shown in dob and cob. The contrast between the bee • Cob. to . i6o COALESCE on in lumps. Fin. atter-kop. a bungler. koppen-gespin. . tempered clay for building. cotta. acomelyd or aclommyd. niais. koppe. to grow together. a bubble. hakkelen. may be A found in Sw. ailina or colina. walk clumsily. . Fr. the one of thump. To cobble. Coat. Trevoux. burning. petrilla. dial. one Pr. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. properly to daub. Coalition. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. Dan. is one of thump. Pm. to pdt with We may cite Fr. a thumper. pockbecility and liability to imposition. — Cleveland Gl. probably left his home. cock or nescock. kylla. Sanscr. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. dial. viz. large stones . to peck as a hen cobyn. cobble. and jval. boil. to kindle jvAla. a woodlouse. meaning that she is plain and coarse. k'dlla. to stammer. a knock. cobcoals. to glow . cob. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . The Fris.inflated with air or liquid. — Cobbler. coalesce. tuft. cokes or fool of him. Coalesce. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. glowing embers. flame. kop. cotte. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . e. a crea. and E.' And colo. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. kolna.' Nares. of E.—Atkinson. dial. to cobble shoes. The OE. coste. . Du. long standing.(pi. cofasse. OE. as in arr. and thence a lump cobnut. a darling. E. Outzen. an old idiot. numb. or upper .. cule cocosse. s. a great falsehood. verklomen.. itself is Nescock . w. to hobble . A spider's web. to cob. — Pr. Fr. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. When the . a spider (/r)^=grub. in Du. side . the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. large coals. rivation are found in Sw. then to work unskilfully . woman is said to be very ordinary.the water boils. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. e. cokes was a simpleton. to kindle or cause to burn . from bearing a bag. v. glow jvalaya. niais. united. or cobble.a spider. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. Sp. — — — E. cob. CooMneal. . dial. and imperfect or unskilful action. grown together. a large round nut