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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. the present day. in other words.NURSERY IMITATIONS. in language of the present day. name of the cow. the baaing of the sheep. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. to the syllables which are significant to the child. Molli. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and. persons of different tongues at the present day. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. or. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. or Mollein. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. by whom the be understood. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. muK) and mae (rfie. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The syllables moo (mu. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. mind of the of the animal. is given to a cow or calf. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. come Moolls. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and mully or mully cow is the . The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. with an initial m or I. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. the closer we shall approach to the . and where we are seeking. when neither name for the object to be designated. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language.

it changed to the more articulate wn and im. hm. . fiafifi&v (Hesych. We have. . And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. nineteen years old. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. analogous to Magyar mammogni. &c. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. repulsive to eat. mumm.. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. to eat. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. First. Gr. for things. and some were very clear and distinct. became more perfect.). as well as the mind of the utterer. He would now say good. Heinicke. for bad. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. schipp. family. had nim. when hungry. by the natural humming sound. his nurse adopting the word with him. in children's language. and which we might express thus. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. to work over with the mouth. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. On one occasion he said^e nim. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. p. then. he called to to drink. Finally an n was placed before it. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. for everything fit to eat.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. A member of my own new sfop. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes.' In ordinary speech mump. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. I had watched the growth of this word. Gradually. and nim came to signify everything edible. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation.' he says. nim. partly from sounds which the child caught. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. to For instance. 72). which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds.

' Motherwell. Nimm'd up. Africa) nimi. nobis vix permittitur. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. iii. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . on. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. clangorqae tubarum. food (Tylor. sweet (Koelle). p. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. i8o. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. we can call them so. jumla. crab nam buckra man.ONOMATOPCEIA. Swedish dialect gamsa. dial. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. aptantes adfectibus vocem. Soosoo (W. to smack in eat. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. . The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. ut tinnitus aeris. make djamdjam). to chew laboriously. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. and the crab — p.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. taken up hastily on the sly. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). ' id est. greedy . eating. to take. or word-making. namnam. mumble. to eat mampfen. Africa) nimnim. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.' says the author of Modern Slang. agreeing with Ein. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Primitive Culture. j ing . jammla. South Jutland hiamsk. (in chil- dren's language). Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to move the lips in continued chewing.' says Quintilian. jamsa (yamsa). fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. 130-1. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. mumpfeln. to mump. mumpfen. voracious. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. to fill the mouth. and thence to be tasteful. to taste .minis. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. buckra man's language the white man. at hiamske i sig. and some of them . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. savory. as to . aves tinnire. A negro proOr. and the fizzing (and Series. nam. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. yamming. delicacies. to be pleamind . Gothic niman. oves lalare. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. nyam nyam. memmexen. the Scotch poet. snatched (Whitby Gl. Galla djam djeda. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to Sw. lita. tidbits nama .). palatable. to eat. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). i. stolen. nvrnma. as well as the Sw. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. Vei (W.' — Lersch. mujnpa. Wolof nahenahe. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere.' And Diomedes. 1 86).

or thoughts of our hearer. 'I doubt. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. bellowing of bulls. hooting of owls.' he says. cooing or crooing of doves. do not speak of a bowwow. neighing or whinnying of horses. intended in the instance to represent the cry. snarling. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. We .' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. bumping of bitterns. 89) with less hesitation. might be used as the designation of it. before the in other words. Yet we ing. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. dove and cooing. p. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. not of a baa. cackling or gaggling of geese. grunting or squealing of hogs.' — We speak of a cow. twittering of swallows. but of a dog. chirping of sparrows or crickets. between dog and harking.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. und growling. ^6^. chattering of pies or monkeys. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. snarling of dogs. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. Indeed. bleating of sheep. or. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. whether it deserves the name of language. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. howling. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. when circumstances required. gobbling of a turkey-cock. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African .' And elsevs^here (p. purring or mewing of cats. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. lowing of oxen. not of a moo of Lect. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. might be used. baaing or maeing of lambs. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. sparrow and chirping. yelping. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. yelping. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. barking. anything connected with it. croaking of frogs or ravens. a lamb. that there is When Man. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. for the purpose of bringing the animal.

Malay gdgak. birds. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. a bird that is be driven away. Arabic kdk. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Sometimes the hoarse i . having a general predicative power. a daw. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. and gaggele or gagkelein. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. a crow. kuho. coccolare. a crow (Pictet). lion.' common sense. 349. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. crow.). as which is unmistakeably the source Du. ghak. caller. 380. In Basque.IMITATIVE NAMES. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. according to Durga). 4th ed. kae. it announces (Salaberry). We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. In Lat. Picard cau. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. KOKKvi. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. and Bavaria respectively. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. caw kuhii-rava (rava. Manchu The kaha. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Bav. Kdrava. Sauscr. fi-om apakd- i. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. layitavya . Origines Indo-Europeennes).). ist ed. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. in g. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces.' kd). in is Gr. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Hungary. Aoo-Aoo. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. Georgian quaki. a a crier (p. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. He to is therefore derives kdka. whose sound (Pictet. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. kdka. kauwe. sound). is kuM) for the cuckoo. gackem. crow. Columbia kahkah. or quawk. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. and the sound of that direction. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and means a shouter. e. Barabra koka. 'Kdka. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among.

Lettish kiekuts. Ibo akoka. Hindi. yell. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . cock. tur. as well as of Sanscr. Scotch peeweip. and e. the name for a crow. tuquheit. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. p. and e. tbrtora. The consonants p. a crow . are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. Pers. name of its is the bird. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Dutch kievit. name. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to croak. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. great variety of oKokv^uv. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kurre. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Sp.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. kukko. t. wood-pigeon. to cry loudly. koeren. kraeyen. another. Arabic tdtwit. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. kukhuta. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. lulo. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. lilits. teewhoop. Fr. Yoruba koklo. hibou. tbrtola. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. are represented. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. German luhu. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. or Gr. Malay kukuk. French dishuit. korren. coucouva. giving turtur (and thence It. in the North of England. Magy.Gr. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. to hoot. It. to crow. tortbla. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Albacuculi a dove. while crouk. to howl or Lat. krauklys. kraukti. Mod. kruk. Walachian coucouveike. girre. German and Eng- krahen.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. k. 6. gufo. ghughu. coqueri- Languedoc. 219. Esthonian kikkas. So we have Polish krukac. turtle) as the Lat. gugu. libufs. Du.. xi. to crow. uhu. the name of an animal will gen- . and sometimes both together. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. krahe. Heb. coccovaec. kuku. German kielitz. by the verbs gurren or girren. Du. kirren. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. to croak. synonymous forms of similar structure). Zulu kuku. either in the same or in related dialects. The crowing of cot in Fr. Swedish kowipa. tor. reduplicate form. kraeye. a crow. "Welsh hwan from hwa.. a crow lish Lith. lUyrian kukurekati. Da.

Northern Farmer. The drone peal. gives rise to chwymores. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). grille. Albanian tsentsir. as . hollow noise. give a faint sound. pip-pi-ta. of England it is to the b 2 . loud rumour. i. Australian bumberoo. and he kong-ko-rong. bee. and probably indicates that g. skryle. The Welsh chwyrnu. bambhara. schrecke. swirplys with 6. ' — Pictet . Gaelic dranndan. dhran. grylhis.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. In the N.' —Tennyson. buzzing. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. a drone. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. from schrick. German dronen. knetta. German hummel. to chirp . g. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. the drone or non-working bee . resound.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. kong-kong. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. to chirp J may be compared with . The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. or a gnat fly. e. sound. The name of the cricket indeed. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. shrill. to grumble. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry.or bumble-bee. oE. droning is . chirk. in allusion to its music. thunder. humming. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. a beetle druna. Sanscr. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Fin. and yelping cry. to rustle. 'The natives call it tanand. whirr). from the humming. to hum. ajo. Danish gnaddre. Arabic tantanat. schwirren. schrickel. to creak Bret. little intermission.vf3. German drohne. booming. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. horniss and from the buzzing The.IMITATIVE NAMES.' — i. g. North of England. a hornet. Corean sirsor. 337. sirkka. a fly (Tylor) . ta-na-nd. ' Sanscr. skril with n. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. resounding of musical instruments. The Arabic sarsor. and not from E. a sharp sound as of a 6. buzzing. glass cracking (Schmeller). Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. the humble. growling. which they make in their flight very . zirken. to shrill sound sharp. Danish dron. Lith. PofijivXwg. Speaking of a cricket he says. skirl. cricket is from crick. bamba. flight its sting considered as a horn. representing a short sharp sound. din. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . words imitative of humming . — Catafogo. g. succeeding each other — with noise. common. Naturalist on the tocano. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. with or Fr. Lithuanian tranas. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. (Jieuschrecke) . and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. a small as hawk is . to be compared with Sanscr. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. grillen. there are infinite varieties. schirke.' Amazons. Lat. We may cite Gr. to sound. Sc. a bee.

The Galla lilbil. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to low . a name preserved in our bugle-horn. On the same principle. to bow- own bawl. as the Illyr. a bull. a cow. to shout. biibnas. k or g. buculus. to low or bellow. are (with a subsidiary k). NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. — ^Tylor. bwla. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to boohoo. to sound. and djeda. bubenti. Zulu lulula. bauli. Illyr. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bae. Gael. cattle. the animal. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. to the uses goda. muJiati. ox. The Piedm. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. from the imitative moo instead of boo. fivKaofiai.XX called booing. verb is evidently identical with our shout. w. grumble as distant thunder . and from to ring. bucula. btibleti. Manx booa. to make. Lat. bue. to shout. bae. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. and in Hottentot baa was the . maukati. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. p. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. amuse. a bullock. make poo. 167. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. a buffalo. Thus from miau. bukati. has bilbilgoda. to make a loud deep sound. (iove. bos. Fr. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. Cult. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. a Geiger. to mew. to weep. be-l-er. agreeing exactly with Lith. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. miau-l-er. bo. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. and thence Lat. or with on. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. Lat. bugle. OFr. Hottentot bou (Dapper). to or bark. to make. bu. to . or a z to the imitative syllable. to from bau. w. or formed Lat. bolt. Lat. From baa. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to ba-L-are. Norse bu. bullock. His analysis leads cow. or bau-l-i. bugler. or moo. bovis. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to bump as a bittern Illyr. loge. is inadmissible. mamoo-heeheek. shoot . in a imitation of a ringing sound. boo. the Fr. to low. bubati. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. a drum . verbal form given to the say. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to make a noise. From the same lioao). mugler. Piedmontese fi bau. With these analogies. forms a. mae. baula. to beat hard. that the imitative syllable are Lith. Fr. bull. to bellow like a bull. make to it laugh. as that of the cow by boo. representmake bow. It. Galla boa. a heifer. in same way. representing the mew of a cat. whence baula. mugire. bullus and e. Da. say.

Gr. to themselves. we have Sanscr. hunon. ^. hwch. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. a sheep. to bleat . sus-sus. to grunt. a pig Fin. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. meil. grumble. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. hund. signifying a snarling. from knurre. to rumble. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. nire. name of the animal itself. it and e. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Da. he would hardly. to bleat. a sow. karra. in Wolof bae. to grunt. meigeal. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. menAda (ndda. undoubtedly imitative. may be identical with Esthon. With gen. Africa laa. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. grogner. Among dog. the designations of a dog the term cur. and thence groin. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. (iriKov of forms like Sw. . to bleat. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. leg-et-ni. Welsh and Breton). hundi). applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. — . as lou of an ox. name.). Manx meilee. hunt (gen. oe.' Moor's Suffolk words. Illyr. and with the subsidiary k or g. cite as by grunt. a sheep or ewe. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. may with to snarl. a. / The same Gr. by which the shingle gives rise to It. kurre. and of (maelon). And it is true there between hog and grunt. . Moreover. a (Hesych. grumpf. 6. grumbhng. to howl. Hence Breton hoc ha. lambs.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. Idgge (Rietz). grunny. a goat. leknuti. a pig. a sow. grunt. G. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. and snorke. Illyr. or in any ! way ! persuading. Gr. meugler. to growl. Kurren und murren. Gael. mekegni. knurfisk. does not produce a e. mecati. in v. /xj/caScj. with the root ypaipm. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. meketati. sound. groin. kurren. Fr. the snout of a pig. goats. lecco. grugno. grumble. It. sheep or goat. cry). a sheep (Lowe). /xijeao/iat. smack and naski. curmurring. meckern. a grunt.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. . In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. a sheep or a goat. Illyr. and hoc'h. mutter. It is probable also that e. a goat. Fr. The g. guttural tone. houch. growl. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. From the imitative mae. a goat firixal^ta. a wolf. grunlike a pig in eating. rumbling. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. lek-eg-ni. and Circassian maylley. a dog. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. purr). lekavica. name of a sheep. a hog. Magy. ' In driving. for the voice of the ox). corresponding to ohg. naskia. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. hound. hadg- Magy. from hundama. this obstinate race. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. Gr. although the imitation embodied in Lat. and grumphie.

Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal.. cockade. .). But words of this kind are. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. Esthonian hoibo.' 2nd Series.. such as cuckoo. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. coquelicot. without a — we root. p. So Sanscr. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. to the left. from the cry animal. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. 91. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. a mare.root. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. a horse. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. (Craven Gloss. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed.). hoppe. like artificial flowers. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. to whine. houpy in Craven. the cry to stop or back a horse. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. animal. ^6<. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. hiine. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. There are of course some names. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). hobin. Sc. If onomatopoeias can . Thus we are led to the Fr. g. hobby. a little am- bling horse. as in Yorkshire highly right. turn a horse to the is In Finland. humma. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. coquette. e. to go backwards.' — ist Series. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. xxii MULLER ANSWERED.' ticular bird. when he found peculiarity. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). of the character in question. hottihuh. p. M). . hobben.

hross. goatsucker. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. Sw. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. but whether there kind between them and other words. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. xxiii ginal object. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. swift. ginniken. to Sanscr. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Du. Lettish sweegt. giggle. Sp. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. ance or habits of the animal. whitename in in- throat. woodpecker. titter. than to the sounds represented. creeper. diver. signified It. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. hresh. nitrire. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. wrenska. Fr. nounced with a guttural).IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. Irieschen. wagtail. hennir. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. fehtati. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown.D. to neigh. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. as sigh. sol. hikkd. horse. groan. Pl. animals or certain kinds of sound. wrena. g. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. lapwing. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. Bohem. moan. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. rinchar. runniken. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. hukkup. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. Sanscr. hresh. little speak for themselves. redpole. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. cough. command of language was attained. e. frenschen. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. wiehern. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. . form corresponding hresh.

Zulu bongo. to knock. shriek. debhes-lungotais (deifies.' So imac. clap ! A smack Puff. 1865. mer. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. strippstrapp-stroll. to throw violently down. root kshu. to drive on. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. White Lies. to beat. wheeze. to hammer . are familiar in ' to every one. It is represented in e. ding. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . for the creaking of a wheel. a kind of drum. knarr. thunder (Tylor) . by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. to sneeze. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. atchian. lumm. DingBang. fitsche-falsche. heaven). for the report of a musket (Colenso) . &c. for the sound of a blow. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. the God of thunder . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. the dashing of the sea . Australian bungbung ween. hoo ping ping. banga.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. knack. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. . in a nail Let. for a small one. Wtb. an attempt would be made to by the voice.' it both sides went.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . on the chops is represented also by pratx.' 'Haw. tisio (tisho). snort. for that of breaking. —Brem. bang ' ! trenches. snore. Vei gbangba.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. hang. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. klatsch. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. plitsch-platsch. snukkup). beat. pit-a-pat. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound.' ! ! ! ! — dong. bangas. Of a like forma- drum . beat of a clock child . bang. heart tick-tack. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. ting-ting. oren : Klapp. atchini. a more expressive than the e. a large bell. for the sound of milking. tlirob. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. Mei gbengben. aritischane. for the sound of a fall. banke. went the cannon. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. or the w. — Sanders. for blows with a rod. to ham. hoo. for in such sound of blows. or tliat is accomit. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. &c. Da. ping came the bullets about their ears. haw. haitshu. for the for the sound of . dong Read. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. pump. scream.

scream. to cry like imrli^u). has been un- employed to designate fixity. doubtless. bleat. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. which he added to intensify the expression. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. as the simplest implement for proFr. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. Fr. In cases such as these. laugh. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. Lat. Lat. not- . Florio. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. used as a call to . to peep It. pipe. or a piailler. a (young) pigeon. pipegni. pigiolare. pipare. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. It seems to him that the teeth t. a or cheep. pigolare. as in other subjects of study. is pfeife. pi. to designate cavity and hollow. calls S. De Brosses. cry of young birds . Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. pipio. mobility excavation and hollow ^. piou. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. e. pu. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. Gr. The pi. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. cry. of a word will appear supposed to represent. G. had been used laugh ? two. chickens (Tylor). pipelni. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. young bird. as k. the voice of chickens (Cot. piauler. He Yet asks. pipe. peep. and whimper. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. pipilo. pipio. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. a fowler's bird call is lost. pule. piou. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. ducing the sound. to squeak. . pippione.sc. pigione. peep. and so forth. a whelp.) a chick. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. child.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. piccione. —Lyndsay. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. a fife or musical pipe. or the uneducated different consonants are man. to cheep like a bird or a young It. young child . is of expression. Mantuan pipiare.' instead. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. — . far pipi. part of the What consciousness has the child. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. Magyar pip. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. and their relations. a chicken or gosling. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. to cry pi.

. knaks. along with Du. to rattle. to creak knirren. or springing back. knuks. to be compared with Sc. cricli. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. It. gurren. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . a. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham.Gr. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. a short sharp sound. Zulu raraza. cluck. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. borrelen. grumble. kniks.. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to gurgle. pi . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to crackle like in boiling . laqfF. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. coo. to fizz like fat in frying. to cry pi. kirkirdnd. u. lachen. to grumble. to bubble. karkarana. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. Indian chack-chack. . to gorgogHare rattle. to jar. a prolonged sharp sound. rumble. tonare. turtur. loud laughter. be cate to go on laughing loud . crack. to clack. some small vowel or consonantal sound. kniks. to laugh. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. preserved by Kilian. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. murmur (by . garren. like the noise of a glass breaking . knurren. to grate the teeth . {to It. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. to thunder. to pant violently (Colenso). or kaka-faka. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . it is If laugh were written as pronounced. rumble. lachachen. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). tontonare.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to pant bejii- zela. where the variation. crash. chack. of something fine and thin. and lugh. make wood a clinking noise. to cluck. ioriogliare (to make borbor). Pefuxela. tintino. Poppopvi^to. sound of dry breaking. in German. bubble. when it force than biscuit. Pacific aka-aka. the clucking of a j hen . a closed or obscure sound. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. kuruk. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. vaake gorgor) . murren. Hindustani karak is rendered. thunder oil . to grumble). to hawhaw or laugh loud. girren. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. creak.) Mod. to gargle . a sharp short one. sound). Manchu kaka-kiki. as the click of a latch or a trigger. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka.. is very common. of a loud strong sound. &c. along with tinnio. rumble (Fl. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. the side of g. Hindoo tomtom. to ring pipio. to growl. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). a drum W. i.

thump. Newman). to say chut. or to Du. Magyar csamm-ogni. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Scotch sough or sooch. simmer. or of bells ringing. bent her head. the tingling Ming-Hang. is Manchu tang-tang. and her heart went thump. Sanscr. muro and e. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Tiie Galla gigiteka. and the imitative nature of tivgle. corresponding in e.and e. e. Galla tuma. fumtu. to strike. koXiw. disturbance (F.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. correspond to e. of keys or tinkling of bells. for the sound of privy whispering. spring of water in the a bell. chut. a nightingale. a drum . has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. to knock. for the clinking Lat. noise. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. is based on the same imitation as the e. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. ding-dong. cry. . caca and Finnish adkkd. the gingling of glasses. tubh. csam-csogni. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. The whispering of the wind I. chinking of coin. chuchoter. brings us to Fr. bad. clash of arms. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . for a tTviror). indicating the origin of Gr. word. a nightingale. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. borrelen. hala-hald-faMa (falda. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. kiling-kalang. 368). rvir (in tvittio. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. . to be compared with g. djeda (to say tub). Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. Manchu kaka. are applied to the is excrements of children. agrees with g. awater* ' The Mme P. jangle. and Gr. halaidlac'h. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. Calt. or the bubbling up of to a spring. compared with Gr. to the purling of a brook. to whisper. Maori pata. croaking of frogs. sound). champ. Fr. as Fr. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. Turk. bulbiil. tumwata. rifiirayov. E. identical with g. at an accelerated note. clank. box on the ear imitation of the . a smith. drops of i. clink. tup. bubble up. a workman. make djamdjam). clango. KaKog. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. uproar. and e. rain (Tylor. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. The syllables lil-bil. klirren.* the heart.' Member for Paris. tumult. for the ringing of illustrate bells. shout. while cacd / used in e. kl'mg-kling. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. call. 192). and bilhila. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. a boy's whistle. quarren. especially one who beats. 1871. for chut-chiit-er. wail. to giggle. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. sound. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. to beat. as of Tamil muromurmur. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . the sound of a stringed instrument. coughing or clearing the throat. jingle. and Gr. Prim. to ring or jingle.

we build our science like an arch of a bridge. w. snap. guggle. or v^hether jectional. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. answering to g. rap. for (Sanders). Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. souse. murmur. smash. plump. whine. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. we have buffet or cuff. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. while e. tap. brumberum. clink. dash. a applied as well to the force of the bang. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. disturbance. tumbian (to beat the ground). The use of g. boom. rumble. din. clash. at a door tarapatan. and the French pouf. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. tingle. chatter. fizz. slash. tomber. to fall.' — Nohden. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. clatter. douse. in e. and soufflet. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. squall. blow. So in Fr. hiss. tymmesll. flop. without the intervention of orthodox roots. paddle. according to the strictest phonetic rules. patter. it is fallj AS. squeak. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. lash. to is blow. The beating of drum is represented in e. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. the Germans puff. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. craunch. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. whack. puff. to dance. dabble. tum-ultus. mutter. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . squeal. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. crack. whizz. hum. creak. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. clack. jingle. Humboldt. whirr. parapatapan. thump. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. crash. gargle. report of a gun. Fr. bang. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. gurgle. ring. It. rataplan or rantanplan. by rubadub. chink. But although and also found in Lat. splash. thump. bubble. smack. blubber. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. clank. and Fr. and Grimm. 'pat. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. tinkle. clang. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. Nevertheless. rattle. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. swash. sputter. thump. ' Der puff. twang. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun..' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. splutter. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. thwack. pop. flap. crunch. clap. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat.

stractions.' . man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. or any unsatisfied want. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. Crying. an imitation of a sigh .'. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. or of any if wood. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. that he has taken the step in rational speech. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. and thus they become signs of despair. grief. because they are spontaneous. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. If. xxix on the contrary. At the first beginning of life. wringing the hands. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. little who has time to want of her nurseling. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. Grimm or Bopp. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. knows them. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. p.' If chaos. in the rushing waters. every little pain. the inteij. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. by the nature of the cry. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. or stubble is meaner name. 94. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. but if we must not complain on the beach. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. in the case of the animal or of the infant. ugh . hay.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. of horror. and found in the building of be burnt up. formerly cited. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. are made known by an instinctive cry. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. the kind of action that is desired of them. without a thought of symbolising to them. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. the interj. is Thus ah!. and uttering plaintive sounds.

One short interjec- tion may fact. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. to solve the I shall call first. ^6g And to the same effect 371. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. which are frequently so toned down cance. sneezing.' — ist Series. 344. more eloquent than a long speech. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. interjections. p. of all the mouth. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. them to exercise it. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. and some of them the composition of words.. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. he cites from Home Tooke. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. If I wish to make a person of an .XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. may become traditional. groaning. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. Language begins where interjections end. p. shrieking. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. they are involuntary interjections. or which is of me as suffering pain. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. coughing.' p. He says. as who them spontaneous utterances. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. should be remem- . passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. more to the point. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. and the eye. 32. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . And again. the lowing of a cow. be more powerful. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.

is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Gr. and others from interjections. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. in Fin. then speech begins. speaking. in Magy. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. some kind of language might have been formed. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. interjections. but the less am at a loss what to say. loud laughter. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. and thus. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. Koxafw. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. for example. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. and more or less limited . hahottaa. I am not hearer. Kayxa^u). and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. it them. kahkahah. hahota. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. when I arp humming and hawing. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. bered. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. he says. demolishing here. Lat. Tooke in truth. cachinno. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. hohottaa.

when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. It as has ing their most striking features. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. What strikes him . But here nature soon conies to his help. of the nature of this great movement. a Picture-language. if taken as a whole. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. dumb is the language of signs. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. the critical question should be. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes.' he says.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. The following account is given by Kruse. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. Though. and go where we now say stand. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. And so in the case of language. words receiving the meanings they now bear. makes them stand and walk upon the table. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. . and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. a deaf-mute himself.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. and not. of the world.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. like peewit and cuckoo. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes.

And is. or To pull and flap with the arms. what more. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. The same sign stands and the act itself. for walk. nay. signs are taught for yet. such as than the educated man. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and forms further and further. called Gesture-language. and we have roast goose. and with his thought. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. his action. as it now opens out. that signifies great . xxxiii him between one thing and another. letter To hold the two fingers apart. but if I depress it instead. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. The of sign for left hand. and it is flesh or meat.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. to name. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. walker. and gestures. he. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. among themselves. thought is already broken. thou. it seems. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. many when or but these. the lan- guage cultivates itself.GESTURE most. walked. for the agent. the sorecalling them to his memory. most striking outline of an object. he. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. for single objects. and fully serves to j . walkest. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. it means little. that. such objects. becomes roast meat. particular sense in properly so called. and And thus he makes himself a language. and to taste. for child. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. or the verb to be. the whole secret. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . push it towards the person addressed for thou. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. that air. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas.' In the Institutions. like a V. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger.

and the as. it called an interjection. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. as in die it is a noun. or a quality. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or an act. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or action. or something of the kind. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. and so is an adverb. Do not bang the it is a verb. would be simply beginning of speech. the garden. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. I say. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or a passive scene of existence. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. in other instances sentence. whether by additions or otherwise. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. depend entirely upon the use. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. the ture of white term pink is and red. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. to indicate the action of a certain person. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. . as when Bang ! went the gun. You beaten . in fact.xxxiv asking. a number of alternatives are suggested. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. The same word . When I say. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. qualifies the against the wall.' dener's knife. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. He gave door a bang. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. might be the knife. according to the circumstances of the case. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. putting it into his pocket. and thus performs the part of an adjective. when I say. Who is has beaten you ? would be. When a verb. substantive or adjective. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. a colour red. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. as But when it is meant door.

The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. Jii ta. pain. wherewith. in the is indicated by the syllable y. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. a noun. . the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. whereof. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. inquiry. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. the man is great. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. wherehy. as kuo cung. or nei. wherefore. a groan. or some relation between it and another object. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. inside. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. that is. which is an old y ting (use stick). and to be great. but often self-evident. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word.. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. &c. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. coalesces with the personal pronouns. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. as cung. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception.^ — Miiller I. in the sense of great. that admits itself in of audible representation. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. 255. grie^ horror. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. some outward display of the affection. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. or with elements expressing relations of time. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. and may be used language. a sigh of oppression and . moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. Thus tafu signifies a great man. commencement of speech. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. middle. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. wonder. greatness. contempt. Latin. with a stick.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. whereto. verb nor noun has yet been developed.

och. are ol-ire. ohi. to sound yapyap. n. 6. e. or r. ah. aiai^to. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). w. to bewail oneself. to make bow-wow. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to lament. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. vei-a. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. ah. to . Jar lau-lau. probably a deeper groan. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. grief. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. . wehen (Schmeller). representing Illyr. to gargle. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. I oi[iot. &. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. vaj. g. och. to cry at. to injure. 6. al. is w. in Gr. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . wai. grief. to weep. ache. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. ahi. ach. wai-l. lament. ! ! Goth. ochan. to cause pain. ochain. vce. oi. to yell formed e. Fr. mew. jao. hei. It. . to weep. guaj- or cry out pitifully. axofiai. Lat. . och. j. jaoh. miau-l-is. is Ay di me I Gr. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. cece. oh. Illyr. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to wail or cry alas . Gr. . Illyrian vaj. ui.. die wehen. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. as. It. woe. suffering. seen in Gr. the pangs of childbirth. gwae. pain. to ache. tirr-djeda. has more kopfweh. guai. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. o'i. howl. lament from oimi. la. djamdjam goda (goda. Thus from springs otjucifw. a groan or lamentation vir. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. A widespread It. waiidt. weinen. to cry n. guajo. to groan. on. to make). Gael. headache. Lat. guaj-ire. to wail. ohg. In this way from the root guai. wAwa. . ing action I. Gr. weh schreien. dchzen. to ache. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. representing a cry of pain. to lament. wai. and cacak djeda (to say crack. as. wehthun. vce. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. however. mostly a ! %. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. e. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. e. oimare. g. miau-l-er. pain. miau-n-is. misery. ai. to rriourn. ach. found in g. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. w.ez. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. It. ace. Let. ochan. wd. Gr. to hurt Let. xxxvi grief. Bret. achen. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. gwe-l-a. It.-l-are. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. lau-l-e. woe. at the close of the radical syllable. grief] affliction. on. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. to chirp. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. form. gwae. misfortune. to do woe. weh. oh. The form corresponding to Lat.'). ocAJ. and to bark . first person. ach. oval. pain. Such are g. w^wa.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. to here . word da repreIn the language of Tonga. when 1859. give. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory.' all is is — their consent. this here. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. nurseries. as it Dieser da (as Lat. that is it.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. a specified were by pointing him out. In the expression Da. that gratifies me. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.' this. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. and by a variety of expressions besides. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. give me that cheese. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. is-te). But. as to express. child.' person. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. Dr Lottner observes. case. When we pointing. thata (ta-ta).) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. Please. for instance. or that it is. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). and may be rendered. that. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Phil. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. or give me it. when he wants something. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. but the truth is. der da-ige. Diet. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. Sie. ' sees an object. Bav. da. says da-da-da. Sanders (Germ.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. or wants to name something. indeed.' then points to his wife.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. implying the direction of its good will towards them. more emphatically roSj)j that. ToSe (or in Attic E. da. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. I add) . that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. the nursery da-da. well as Goth. or carry me thither. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. saying : there the ad- Trans. and so on. The Fr. is we I believe. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. • The child. we may translate this by there (it is). Thank you. according to Menage. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. 'nay. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. as. a word of many applications in g. . When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. his trowsers' pocket.

or dalliance. childish toying. tasting. and one in particular must. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. speech. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. to walk. — Cot. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. or metaphor. stutter. thinking. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. make dadada). become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language.' • liv ANALOGY. to move step by step. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. p. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. . becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. takes it — as When the soul.' says Lottner interior. to say to oneself. beat. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. sounds. in every mode of expressing the idea. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. then instinctively interest. sinking. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. and shapes it into an . Thus Gr. to knock. dadee. pay. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall.' says Muller. to tion to another. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to chatter. of which any one may. strike. reality. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. to beat. the original is that which he places first. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. moving. meanings. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. its desire. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The da is dodem.^ its ' utters : a cry. which thus exertion. tattle. standing.

bilbil). think. as. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to sound clear In Galla. and. noise. savour. a dis- cernment. fiapfiaipw. Heo Du. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. a rustling sound Gr. taste. chime). then to sparkle. splendour. gnittre. to shine. to ring. sense of brightness. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. bilbilgoda (to make . sapere (which signifies the nose. to shriek with laughter . beorhtian. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. snotor. to ring as a glass willata. smell. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. splendour. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . judicious. properly a clap or explosion. to have Sapiens. to snilF. In the case of sparkle. &c. . properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. Finnish. the equivalent of g. snuff the sniiten. and figuratively. esclat). smell. to shine. beam. extended to the exercise of the understanding. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to glitter. to glisten Dan. from the . iclat (in Old Fr. kimistd. sound. to tinkle. suspect Bav. prudent. to glitter. which in ohg. outcry. while sapere itself. same imitative root with Sw. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. Bavarian bracht. search . to flash. Du. So firom Lat. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. It is The word bright had a similar In as. in the domain of movement. discreet. pracht. 1654. wise. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to 5 ghtter. (parallel bilbila. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. air. we have and the and beorht. Fr. brilliancy. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. make a loud noise. wilistd. kiimottaa. sprageti. snot. In the same way the Goth. and schmecker. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. in popular language. . to sniff. ghsten. schiteren. knistre. The 6. may be quoted gUt. to glitter. to sniff out. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. wilahtaa. scTiateren. snudra. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to be wise.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. may be it explained . to sparkle. magnificence. is used in the origin. tintelen. — 1. to quiver. signified a clear sound. man of nice taste. tumult. knittre. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to glitter e. bright. to crackle. Lith. for example. also wise. Again. a with kimmaltaa. firom the Gael. unlella. tinkling. clang. and thence e. as kilind. on. wamara. to crackle gnistre. to resound. schmecken. spraka. a ringing . to . the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. rattle. a brilliant light kilid. to smack or taste. scheteren. snutrs.

we hear of screaming colours. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. Kep^arl'ieiv. which The Stoics. soft. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. the clank (stridorem) of chains. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. to slide. is felt Lana. accordance with the way in which by touch. fitting the letters to the sense. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). And observing that n kept the voice within. and vepres. KoWiiSije. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. or . discusses the tone of a picture. The BpavEiv. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. the bleating of sheep. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. &c. \nrap6e. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. he says. in truth. sharp. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. Acre. . ipuKuv. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. flow and flux. strike. shatter.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. whirl. the neighing of horses. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. power of the letter-sounds. gluey. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. he framed the words ivSov. of dressing loud. 1. in of his works. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. v. the cross. 6\tadaveii'. kvTOQ. eo ut res vol. inside. rough to the ear. Much of the same has been often quoted. itself letters are felt as sofl. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. roughness. as soft by the ear. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. tremour. rough. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. pleasure soft to the ear . extremely loose. Kpovtiv. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas.' he says. wool. rough both ways. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. mel. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. crux. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. Tpa)(yg. rend. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. smooth. within. rough. break. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. oily. pvfi^Civ. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. briars. then in rpd/xoe.

The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. tug. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. rug. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. k. sag-oter. corresponding to the ineor. p. stag (in stagger. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. joli. dag. A greater felt. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. 138). Fr. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. the case of the voice. a rough and sudden . that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. to jogj sac-cade. as when. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. d. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. dig. shog. to reel abruptly from side to side). Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. to signify varieties of movement. jog. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. ii. stab. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. p. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. shag. g. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. and in the utterance of a high or or low. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . jih. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. degree of roughness sound. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. jig. jag. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. or checks as they are called by Muller. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. t. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. 'and consequently form. for exis ample. cular effort Again. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.

tock. foot. to mark it with a touch of the pen . to strike It. like English tick. kuk. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to On the same principle j we have g. a quid of tobacco. &c. zack. e. chicoter. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. a . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. The analogy then carried a step further. however. to have it ticked or marked on the score . as Italian tocco. micare. zigzag. lead to Spanish tocar. Thus we have B. tack. Then. not to utter a syllable. a piece or bit of anything. Brescian toch. S-panish miga. to tickle. mik. The production of sound. motion. chiquet. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. to winkj micati is Lat. Hence Lat. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. then. Bolognese tocc. to beat or play on a musical instrument. to touch. g. Sukkeln. sound barely audible. to pulses being knock. It. properly a small lump'of . and e. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. to say a word . an old worthless horse or carriage. passing to the signification of motion. to incite by light touches. a good piece of road . Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. that we never can be sure. and analogous movements. mot. a cracker. to glitter. chic. cica. as tot. mica. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Fr. a small bodily object. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. is so frequent a consequence of movement. an infant . Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. it produces Dutch micken. a stroke with a French toucher. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. a crum. or check. figuratively. also to stir. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. to move rapidly to and fro. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. marked by the change of vowel from i to a.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. Mucken. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a playiug-marble. in cases like the foregoing. schockeln. is made to signify movement. movement. to ring a bell.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. then. The syllable suk is jerk. to utter a slight kick. used interjectionally to represent a . kik. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. Welsh cicio. a little bit. chique. The Mipen or pencil. tech-tech. a jog. sound Fr. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. is lanese toch. Fr. mie. Ene olde suksuk. to mutter. to take a thing on tick. The train of . rough horse. toch-toch. for the sound of knocking at a door. so to Italian toccare. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. to stir. Accordingly the g. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. and It. schuckeln. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. To tick a thing off. tecche-tocche.. (mitsati). Illyrian migati. Dutch kicken.

to movement of the pen . But the same is language has re Javan. zitio. lix Sp. seesaw. So. to jot down or note with a fro. iki. . a light quick blow. gni. taut. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. tot. tozzo. chico. a morsel. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. tittle. a certain conception. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. here (close hand). here. Du. this. mote. 48) cites from the African Tumale. for the three personal pronouns. Fr. not because the pendulum makes a different left. gno. tot. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. is shown in murmur. titmouse (Du. the same organ touched with the man. a small quantity. . for the beating of a clock. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. Malagasy to.n. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. a bit. motte. neither moit nor an atom. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. subdued manner. you. there '(at a short distance). The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. tiny. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. a girl. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. titter. to dot. (Halliwell) Da. corresponding to the personal pronouns. anything . . fait. . u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to touch lightly with a pen. a small lump or pat. 0. to jog. a lad citta. eo. further off. move slightly to . and dot. that iku. to whisper (Pr. a e. there (further of!) ao. . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag.- a jot or little It. or the like its It. e. and he. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty.) . a sparrow). a small kind of lark. and toddle like a child titter. to make a slight mark. little j to that of a small bodily object. clay . mutter. . to excite by slight touches or movenjents. e. zitella. a whisper. and out there. tit. 199). motta. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. that. or o toi. the least visible insect. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). light — to note a thing hastily on paper . a bit. titilh. not to utter a syllable. mut. bunch or flock of wool. a tot . at where the order is inverted. of movement in totter. a. and a small lump of something. tot. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. anything small flax. In a similar the relations of place. . and mite. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . little. Pm. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a morsel girl . the vowel sound. To jot. totle. as in e. This kind. i. to tremble. there. to touch. a small horse. ticktack. mossche. not an atom . I. we have e. tot. . n. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. gnu. syllable mot. ri that. mutter j dust. fragments It. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. this . a little titty. or the converse. often entirely arbitrary. citto. tit. ika. tottle. Then. Cult.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. to e. lump of earth. The following table from Tylor (Prim. small titlark. small of kind. Halliwell. a small bird. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. jot. mot.

which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. Guarani nde.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. me probable that • Vei also little. this fi. and origin. man erne. that. j Canarese ivanu. that. there. mother. minution further. Dhimas isho. . It seems to (fen. ndi. that. tiiio. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. It Carib lala. young one. this <t. here j abe. I . 6. biii. femina ama.. /wo. is father. w. an old .) pronunciation of i or e. here this . Botocudo ati. this ole. child. that. Sahaptin (America) kina. Chilian tva. Gr. thou.araM. Lat. ofj. that. . by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. mother. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. there. is Here. ulri. here j ka. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. . Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. Ossetic am. ta to ka. probably initial of distinction that the k. this . (tt). as Mr Tylor remarks. Abchasian aSn. no constant rule is observed. this . father. an old woman chacha. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. you. as in Italian Fin. there. for the male. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. thou ni. olo. Japan ko. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). little.. /mya. mother. there. ni. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. to. as the act of pointing was ta. Mm.. that in the distance. respectively. here 5 Yoruba na. that. there. bi. he. mas cheche. Tarahumara ibe.) nna. akha. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. uta. here feraa. . ^. ne. and a for the female. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. he. . Mutsun ne. nne. child. Zulu ajoa. father k . there. there. loo). here . Carib ne. Tamul i. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. ni.e^. thou . small (Pott. ita. ukko. usho. . that (intermediate) j wana. Fernandian az. here . /e«. km. that. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. Then. qu. . that. this . ojOo. Magyar ez. that. this . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee..

while the special nature of the action intended syllable. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. i Sw. Da. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. Fr. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. The Sw. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. din-din. A little weeny thing. trap. barking of a dog. fretful. to tread. is to express simple continuance of action. trappen. repetition It. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. trippelen. to feet. tion. as j money. the pip or pippin. A little wee face with little. And perhaps the E. keeh. a step. a little yellow beard. to make its way through the bursting envelope. 401. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. — Douglas Virgil. Top. for the . wean. The sound trapp . The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du.' — Merrv Wives. nab. for instance. the principle of reduplication. little To sup up.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. to leap. Thus we have Wolof sopa. the simplest mode by the g. &c. stairs. pepin. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. at pippe frem is to spring forth. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. analogous to winy-piny. a child. lift 8. of smaller things.' making the voice as small as possible. From cases like the foregoing. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. . wenig. trSpigner. to begin to appear . weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. knob. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. trappa. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. the nursery few j Sc. sound of bells . or even. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. little. in old e. to teet. as ding-dong. murmur. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. trippen. Clank represents the sound of something large. to peep. whence Fr. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. titta. dance (Kil. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening.) . the germ from whence the plant is to spring. and in the Pacific dialects. the idea is called. looking through between obstacles. just beginning to appear. nil. has tittafrem.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. for a succession of light blows low-wow. nipple. don-don. to peep through. or chink.

to pant. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. instead of being actually repeated. or el. the agent in panting . Cult. cliqu-et-is. ratsi-ratsi. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages.' expression is — ^Tylor. (to use a to speak. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. very great. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. are echoed by the rudimentary et.Ixii REPETITION. or in Fr. a clattering noise. mawhitiwhiti. Susa di. rapidity and strength. serves to show and in this way. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. repetition or continsignify long. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. mawhiti. lololoa. er. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. could readily be conceived. the comparative degrees of greatness. . the and clique. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. or imitative syllables. i. And generally. click. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. kendagenda. smallness. clamito. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. bad . a spot. rack. kamha-gamla. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. puka- puka. 97). keep spots. to call frequently from Fr. child . and the words express a continued sound of rack. So from clamo.. random . very long (Pott. or rdtchi. Malay ayun. The same principle of 196. Again. a cradle. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. or very very great. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. loloa. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. in familiar use with ourselves. amusement. is language. if very young. from Maori muka. to cover e. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. mpolu is uttered. puka. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. to or rub. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. clash of weapons. to to call. racket. to vi^alk about for flax. properly speaking. to skip. little child (p. tach-et-er. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. to talk at to walk. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. to say pooh It is ! to. Mandingo ding. hardness. child . wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. &c. calling. 99). to love. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. and Fr. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. or a little tee--ny thing. Thus in E. to rock. didi. kenda. ayunayunan. ding-ding. to treat with contempt. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. . very bad. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . sopasopa. tache. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. a grasshopper. the lungs. rack click. Thus in the Pacific loa.

as mAS. bub. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to make gug. it. to move to and fro.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. smack. Jickfacken. where all direct connection with sound is lost. to rock or wag. guggle. to make a succession of grabs . or omitted. miauler andpiauler. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. dab. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. such asjlap. kneel. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. miauler and beler correspond to E. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . a from ayun. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. wankel. to continue dragging. in some applications.Jicol. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. fickle. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. from puka. Piedmontese bau-l-S. a succession of cracks to rattle. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . joggle. draggle. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to puff. Ihre remarks under gncella. itself. In cases like these. syllable clat . wancol. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to rock. or in e. as to handle. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . wankeln. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. jogging. g. shuffle. which. to crackle. bubble. mew and baa . to wail woe . rubber. to make bau-bau. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. and in as. to hand-le. he who rubs. The contrivance with any particular noise. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. or by association. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to bark like a dog. dabble. The Fr. in Fr. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. others. to make a succession of shoves. or fi bau. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. is In e. rynel. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. the knie-en to E. compared with g. the lungs (the puffers of the body). or Maori puka-puka. by the side of wanken. are to cry mew and pew . without the intervention of the frequentative element. crack. wagas ging. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to hand. wavering. waggle. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound.

or how generally. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . deceit.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. to cry ugh at. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or in aptness to combine with other elements. which. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). although it is not difficult. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. or in mode of use. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. A gull or a dupe same sense. to the separation between the broken parts. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. will continue to be felt in daily speech. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. moreover. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. at was more familiarly known. it is obviously a mere chance how long. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. on a moment's reflection. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. There is. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. Dupe comes to us from the French. the breach. known in Italian. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. Breton. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. Polish. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. and comparatively few easily deceived. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. which is the origin of the word. by a hard body breaking.

is. nor any limited of ideas. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. and the word is used in a secondary sense. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. language is . No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. founded in manifest blunder. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. Hitl^erto. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. life. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. however. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. . but this than should be expected corruption from various causes.

of material things. and vescovo. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. episcopus. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. French. circle perpetrates a new slang term. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. unintelligible to other hordes. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. Naturalist on the Amazons. hearing. change. If English.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. I think it very probable. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. i. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. out. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. compared with the duration of man. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye).' — But even tendency to in civilised life. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. evique. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. guages in South America. therefore. and 'Russian. Welsh. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. 330. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. in the course of many years' isolation. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects.

ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as shown in the subjoined illustration. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. 9. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Cijlt. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. to be taken (Prim. ancient Greek M . tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. 7. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. The combination of the symbols I and 2. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. ao8). although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. Nor is there one of the letters. which are idenr Figures 5. the actual it which would to represent. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. or whatever the proportion may be. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. it will leave figures 3 and 4. is MN. and . 6. A key must unlock more doors than this. i. . that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. 8. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question.

many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . for instance. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. had its origin in imitation of sound. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery.' should be discovered. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. leading him to utterances. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. which either by direct resemblance of sound. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. If new 'modes of phonetic expression." the use of a change of vowel in as. in the shape either of direct inspiration. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. his fellows. what comes to the same thing. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. known to us as yet. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. and the only safe beneficent Creator.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. or. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered.

and rose towards a higher state of being. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . or else. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. race were speaking men or not. for instance. or beavers. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or of their own reflected thoughts . by animal without a trace name of Man. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . as elephants. the conduct of Ixix life. or not. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. that he started from the lowest grade. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. in the course of generations. and when we look back as far as history will reach. of using imitative conduct . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. until the progeny. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence.COMPLETION OF MAN. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and sooner or later.

V. Bavarian. Finnish. 1737. ^Ifr. 1857. 1768. Dueange. dial. Due. at the end of Somner's Diet. Carpentier. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Supplement to Bret. B. dialect of the Sette Commune. Cot. AS. Dief. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Grammar Boh. Diet. Gr. Diefenbaeh. Provincial dialect. Bremisch. Fr.Nieder. E. Diefeiibach. 1766. Cotgrave. Fin. Douglas' Virgil. Cimbr. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Catalan. 1850. Romano - Cas- traise. Sup. Bigl. or Dan.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Da. Couzinid. Castr. Baile/sEngl. Wtb.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Infimse Latini- D. Bav. Dn. Gothischen 1851. Dueange. Supplement to Dueange. Biglotton seu Diet. Anglo-Saxon. Bohemian or Czech. Diet. Diet. Elfric's Fl. Teutonico-Lat. Dief. . 1654.-Eng. Esthonian. Brem. Dutch. Esth. Carp.. Danish. Cimbrisch. de la langue Cat. English.



3 14 21 i5^//2 r. kilistaa bugiie r. plowied budowaer.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. Blob plowied r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. buque 118 brodiquin r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. baltresca nokkutomax. (/ijtf r. cti. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. willekom Blab r. katowai perairrantr. r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . r. woman r. ^i?^i2! r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. Askance woud r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . 7 28 2 13* head ' ^.>." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. r.5 ERRATA. alUger ahaverie r. word allagerr.nokkutama willekem. haverie crtOT r. cruccio deyrie. puHti r. sveritet Asknace r.. yjnaifia r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.percurrunt kimista^x.


as. on-lic. to sauff the king or spill. K . said. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. Hence on-bceftan. Again. from a is to wake to abide. literally. us. OHG.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Abandon. ibandonner. Thou spelds of mychty iction. Immediately from Fr. an edict or proclamation. on. Parson's Tale. Abaft. in a manner other than it should be ablution. plesyt him. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. iway from. dominion. abs. off. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. In Lat. a. behind. out of. have entire dominion over. abaft. on. Jvery man shewid baft. to hold . ir. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. his. in the same sense. AS. 843. ab. on-bsec . particular 1 . to arise. as. Abs-. onis aback. but now )bsolete). state of sleep . —Bruce. a/tan. o/j of or . in. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. er. sion of 'an abandoned character. announcement. Ab-. . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . ar. Thus ip N3S. to subdue. Passing tongues. until the event jlace . from. AS. dominion. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. rule.he Goth. and — Chaucer. the er. alike. baftan. Dent posture. a washing off to abstain. among. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. vs. Lat. of-dune. To abuse is to use iway.t G. and secondarily in that of command. into the Romance ftrseg . I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. ifter. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. whatever he be. this word beand Spanish. implying a completion of J. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. compounds. downwards. away. orders. ur. away from. power : Than Wallace thing. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. The word Ban is common orders. erwachen. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. "rom a height. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. command. bandon in French. to awake. be-ceftan. 244. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. A.

To Abate. to ruin. R. bandon. betrash. astony. abaundunem-ent. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. of the Fr. abbas. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. thing abbatere le vela. depress. impetuously.Prov. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to The . abate. abbatere. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. to bate something of the price abbatersi. beer. esbahir.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. Castrais. Originally. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to beat furnish. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . to hit. to astonish. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. to overthrow. 1520. from Lat. abbatere dal prezzo. his eyen shene. esbahissant. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. down. his mouth. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. to make lower. abbatis. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. at his own the lips. Abbey. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. Many English verbs of a similar deriv.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. with or without a final sh. to put to con. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. to take possession of an estate. castle. Abbess. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. R. bawi. Hence Lat. et prirent terre. ais. Cotgr. of fear. I was abawid for merveille. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. an abbey. and grooms besmeared with gold. to happen. and that from Syrian abba. so common in the found in the OFr. person. iv. in the active form. Milton. Beat. esbahissais. c. abbattre. Fr. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. or admiration.— R. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. adverbial expressions at abandon. may be explained. polish. d. lish to abaisse orabaish. to excite admiration. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. uncontroUedly. where custom (Grandg. de. terminedly. More correctly written abbat. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. . vol. Bate. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. and it that that it — . The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. to light upon. and sets them all agape. — Neccham. 1 1 8. Abbot. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general.esbawi. to diminish the force of any. baba. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. Custom. — — . son bandon.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. other. burny was formerly burnish . merely the terminations ons.On princes. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. abandonly. shame. to abaw or astonish. ant. abbatia. In or. . See .— — . cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground.down. and the verb was written in Eng. or society of abbots or monks. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. On the other in use as well as hand. Hart in Jamieson. overthrow. 364s. effect of shame. confound. Wall. faire tomber. Hence the OE. ne more vermeille. See Abide. to gape. from ravir. esba. of wonder.) . drink. astonish. R. It. impulse. Baba ! Mod. baer. as ravish. weaken.' the surrender of a ' K.polir. to strike Froiss. by Wall. burny. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. A. father. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to strike sail .fournir. And he thereof was all abashed. law term abatement.

— Roquef. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. a right in suspense . to desire. to It. . we sceolon ON. tempting. de Berri) Prov. — signifies to suspend action. with open mouth . to In great amaze. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. abet. abSiance. and alluring to his own destruction. tenere a bada. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. abiiance. desire. — ABELE Epiphanius. abie. desirer (Roquef. badare. wait. and Prov. gola badada. beijen. have seen abide. —Raynouard. to hook. to tarry. Abie. speaking of the Holy places. The white poplar. says. bialodrze-w. bana. to ance. the verb of abeyance. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). deceit. tical with It. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to deanimer. endurance. bida. badigliare. beguile. bocca badata. bder. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. expectfamily. suspense. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. look for another. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. bhr. b^er. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. to attend on . expectation. abbadare. . songer. a bay or opening in the coast. . abidan. to be intent upon. Cat. tarrying . Quant voit le serpent. abie. Corant sens lui. to open bader. and in E. with badia. is idenwait.. were called Brothers. delay. Boethius. ceive. beter. m Abeyance. bida. John. abayer. beidan. bouche bdante. which is certainly related to It. Cat. take notice.' is in AS. tity of E. to abide . take care. Gloss. us. or do we AS. on the one hand. abeter. to stay. or absorption watching. in Dan. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. The verb atwaiting. regarder. inciting. house. to yawn. forbearance. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. 366. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . Goth. F. to wait. Norm. suffer b. trick abetar. signifies the direction of tend. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. bouche b^ante. de Champ. lingering. to suffer death in Du.to wait. open the mouth. inciter. waiting. to look. ne wist what way to chuse. or in Fr. Prov. beijen. to deceive. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. To Abet. while the monks under his control ing. attendre See Bait. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to wait. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. forms with the d effaced are OFr. aspirer. Q.) abayer. to expect. Ni engigner ni abiter. beijden. abet. deceiving. 1 • . bidan. to expect gabeidan. badar. to attend to. qui iaaille. watch. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. listening. to gape . to wait. Guernsey beth. to mind. ne chastised them. delay. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. Corresponding to keep in suspense. badare. (Vocab. pense. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. covet. abaier. Thus G. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. See Abide. aspire to. verbeijen Sw. Du. intent observation. attendre avec en^pressement. In We .— ^richer. Norm. expectation. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. gridare. usbeisnei. Fabl. Gloss. Pol. in Fr. — II. incite .— Chaucer. beidan. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. ^couter avec dtonnement. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. othres abidan' The effacement expect. and E. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. delay.Fr. Abele. From abahier. listen. endurArt thou he that should come. to remain or endure. bie compared with Dan. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. badare. which the mind to an object. to stay. baier. baer. warten. to open the mouth. ' ' . compared with (Bosworth). beguiling on the other.was formerly used in the sense of look. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. literally white tree. guardare. wait To Abide. also to OFr. syllable ba. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. K. to desire earnestly. to be intent upon. from Halo. bada. bie. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. Thus we have It. — . white. abeyance. Ducange. baier compared with It. . OFr. E. baier. abetter. bide of the d endure. . exciter.

The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Tr. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. 2. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. was often used in the same sense. to pay the purchasemoney. within the walls of a ship. when compared with Aboard. She shall abie that trespass dere. in for any special purpose. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. habilis is closely preserved. at hand). It. have-like. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. P. as habiller du chanvre. and the simple buy. abeye. Fr. O If tion. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. the Fr. . to . at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. expert. — P. to have . Spenser.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. a board. while in later examples As I . the Pardoner In the original. at kasta fyri bord.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. habilis (from habeo. abilej Prov. bord. aboleo. the side of a ship. — e. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. to wear away. Prol. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. on board . properly abuy. able. P. power. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. the Sir Tristrem. convenient. &c. from AS. willing to schewe his wrathe. suffer the Jul.^and to make his power knowne. powerful. — Able. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. to redeem. Mids. Innan bords. Boucher. without special reference to the notion of retribution. use. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. For on board. atling hem to her proper offices. durance in both applications. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. or bie. fault being simply clothing. In this to erase or annul. Fr. though sometimes confounded with it. habile. God. him with che. being disabled in the highest degree. Cassar. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. R. sufficient. Abie. —Bacon in R. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. consequences of anything . bide. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. purpose. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. is the verb abie. abie to Goth. to dress hemp. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. beidan. strong. Merch. within the ship. L. to draw fowls. Chaucer. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. abycgan. Milton. abidge. ON. bidan. abilh. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. al- be found so some will dear abide it. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. to perish. must suffer for it. abigg. adapted . and Cr. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Dr. abie. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. Q. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . abicgan. from Lat. forbid for mother's children should abye. F. ! ! Cotgr. as E. If it badare. 2nd Tale. God — dear.ynes. fit. N. R. de la volatile. and death for handsel pay. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. AS. Lat. to pay the penalty. Wickliff in Richardson. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. The —Boucher. abolir. i. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. abide.

The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. See To Bray. sec seftre — Chaucer. of any kind . to feed. af-oolden. Then. heavy. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. the vital spark. abracan. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur..' Parson's rence. parent. ala is made to signify to rear.foda signifies to beget. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. full ofte his words for to Fr. to progress.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. Prov. to aggravate. to cut short. a portent). around on the out. abredan. seems aras. as withotityn and without. to turn.ger. way Sw. be-utan. Goth. common in Chaucer and Abominable. al is growth. agreujar. Finnish stock. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. boven. is a ively. kindling. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. levis to the Romance languages. the form a&^^. to start. oil. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. to main. and also to abridge. to fatten.) . en. and bidden him abregge. Du. Abrdger itself. explains soboles Lat. D. af-oleii. Abundant. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. leading immediately to Fr. . So in Lat. life. greu. See -und-. the man dwindles away. which may God avert. giving birth to. that greatly agredge their sin. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. Thence to regard greugetat. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to break off. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. to rear. ABOMINABLE adolesco. or young forth. brood. to grow up. and also. The radical idea is to feed the flame. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. or cut short. s —Casdmon. — . to AS. by the to bring up. alan. olet become worthless through gam De manji af.1. Quod abominor. abrcBgdan. below. alere capillos. alan. alUger. and to do something to avert abbreviate. ol. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. break out. to produce. Gael alaich. which passed into English under Abominate.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. nurse. butan. currence.ymbutan. progeny. to light a fire the Abraid. to snatch.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. natural ed direct from the latter language. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate.— Abbreviate. draw out. abufan. whence the Fr. ala. Tale. nourish. AS. hard. as AS. Above. to grow together. as the duty of nourdisposition. but from Lat. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to bring up. adolere. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. abominor (from ab and omen. abbrechen. the idea of breaking about . literally. Severe the threatened evil. For on broach. disastrous portent in some passing oc. outward. nurse Lat. on high.' Ymb hancred utan. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. is not from G. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. his contemporaries. to feed. AS. AS. to nourish. Kiittner. while the sense of beget. the OSw. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat.. onbutan. bufan. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. In the same brevis . abbrechen. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. Melibaeus. above. to beget or give birth to children. without. breaking out in language. Of these synonymous adolescere. pedigree from brevis. abowen. gravity. snatch In English we speak of away. to let sleep. ufan. Sc. and in-d-oles. gravis. abbreviare. vital PI. To Abound. side. be-ufan. for ligeth butan. the hair grow. Virg.the older form.aboon. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. Thonne Abroach. from . to awake. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. motion. d. To abray or abraid. OSw. about cockcrow. Lat. and alere flammain. becomes leu in Prov. titan. agredge. Abray. awaking. while the verb alleThe root el. — ' — — preceding verb. from Fr. abutan. OE. abrdger. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. Fr. . the identity of which with ting. coalesco. OE. to rear. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


anxius. work. a small quantity. and devils. surimitation of the ancient models. anxi. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. and claret wine. gabeigs. from in and cudere. antefn. stem. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. See Cover. af. i. anticus. plenteously with red. from an and — - .— . wealth. AS. Hall's Chron. Apartment. three antike pillers. a definite . one at the least. or in a ridiculous dress. one having wealth. to have. . a puppet or an anti^hona. Jorioc.made out. to strike G. ambeld. Thus from gabe. to nourish. Prov. AS. Aphorism. d<popi(xnbs. Apartment. in Shakespear. As the browcalled antiques. Aperient. all of gold. a preventative . part. to display pario. Hence the applica. separate purpose. Lat. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. anapoz. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. and ig. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. : . ab. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. should be received. before. Fr. aside. press. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. Antler. to strain. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. to go in strange disguises. burnished. a few. trouble. —Spencer. apatiar. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. or antique single chamber. AS. from. set aside. choke. rich. from an.D. but the expresent day. from avTiipoiuia). such as savages. Percutere. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Ful- Apanage. fauns. ReApe. In like manner. To go antiquely. which by anvild. vex. were chiefly of the former class. Antick. To ape. Gr. Lat. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. apanage. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. from. a gift. Lat. before. the anticks — behind. to support. aperio. separate. Fr. post. white. bread. Lat. younger child. one. to open. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. Antidote. from ante. villan Gloss. strangle. from ango. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. inAgain from the same author cudis. anfilts Pl. like a jack-pudding. G. Antique. Otfried. d. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Anvil. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. apertum. left as the . cenig. — — — . a termination equivalent to Goth. panis.is to be given. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Ilvtwotov. what Roman civilisation. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. whence Prov. Any. Fr. E. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. So Lat. some one. to sound in answer. verberas. Mannequin. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. to strike. Apart. as we call it. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. something ler in R. Gr. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. of. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. andouillers. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. on. Pezron fiUist. incus. as posticus. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to imitate gestures. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. were andouiller the second. as the Italians. Gr. avri^ava. transferred to the grotesque characters. to bring forth. as from as. antifena. panar.th centuries the recognised models of antic.legacy of given against. eigs. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. whence anthem. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld.. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. from eigan. swaged. a block to hammer on.—Aperture. from Stephanus. Anxious. amboltj Du.

to rate. The Fr. manner. Fr. known. A — . apprentis. a thing for one's purpose. . proper time came. Ir. a price. cepl. approver. Gr. appartenir. Cent Nouv. a learner. to fit. Epistle. corresp. probare. To cause to pall (see Pall). 'L-zX. Apostle. to disable oftat. From Gr. a crime. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. apropchar. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. aptly. —Diez. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. jabloko. array. Gr. poind. despatch on some service. Fr. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. S^. equal. (cited by Diez from a late author). Apo- good time. opportunity. — prehendere. Fr. — dirondtfiu. diroBrjKr}. appareo. whence the e. H. N. in commendation. to seize. agree. to deter- to strike. apprise. purpose. And whanne sum men Lat. aparelhar. I prise ware. Apple. kind of action. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Prov. horror. seiden of the stones.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. to approach. to come near. Formerly apricock. Palsgr. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Lith. in good season prendre son d. apal. par. Sp. make a composition between parties. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. to Lat. Apprehend. to call for judgment. in data. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to send to. Yr. to catch hold of. an epistle or letter. Gr. rise to \t. esteem. dress.t. to — . he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. properly to join like to like. Walach. piteux poind. AS. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. ap. diminutive pariculus. to commend. like. approcher. to deem good. Fr. apar. To Appear. one is in. Parson's Tale. preparation. oVooroXof. consent unto. Fr. of. to finish a controversy. Gr. diroTrXriaatii. or E. From Lat. APRICOT off.—Apprentice. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Yr. from aTroorlXXu. near. apprehendere. xv. and metaphorically to take the meaning. order. iwKjToKri. to store or put Appal.— .his giving evidence against his principal. habiliments. apropid. avail. Cotgr. apin R. allow. to approve. to suit. to call. Nouv. and also as appraise. obolys. i. For their acquaintance was not come of new . good. one for his defence. appareiller. ar. that it outfit. Cotgr. apprendre. case. after his mind . one sent out.parejo. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing.prix. the good. pronounce good. to send off. ON. to lose one's senses. Prov. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Fabian in R. a'^opi'Jw. An old appalled wight. — Appurtenance. and appoinder (to find fitting. . that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. trim. to set a price on.probare. and in the sense of condition. 23 . agreeing with "LtA. Appareil. prize. prohts. find Then like Fr. Hence appoind. to dress in this fashion. ^wss. prover. word was specially applied to clothing. appris. to learn. pretium. — Approve. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. 'LaX. . point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to make a thing Apparel. apparecchiare. habilUr. Friar's Tale. to mark to define a bound. : — — speak 'Lz. like. w. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. ai. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. To praise. — Apprise. lAfiaam. Mod. taking. to be open to view. d-n-o. En peach. Fr. value apprdder. Cotgr. to deaden. from. They werin his approvirs privily. —^Apparent. approcdare. Apoplexy. to learn. in Chaucer. Lat. Apotliecary. landmark. OFr. fit- — ness. And among other of his famous deeds. were formed appropiare ejar. when the . Fr. D. set a price on. mine. apal. Approach. to which it is often referred. prope (comp. to assign or grant over unto.pareil. from paix. e. pronounce fitting). peler. or the like. peace. Pliny. APO sentence opoQ. It. to strike down. to take away or lose the vital powers. 5w. to understand. irpaiKOKiaov. one the MLat. Appease. pragigua or prixcoda. Fr. ciously than nede is. poind.parecchio. appellare. To Appraise. plight. From Lat. praise. Hence It. become dizzy . They were considered To Appoint. appaiser. 11. to announce. away. decree. The PI.propius). gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. off. pertain or belong to. quoth the frere. laven is used both as E. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. to accord. in fact. to — — .

or barm-cloth. grande nappe. Thus we have natiger and auger.. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. words derived from arpa. Hall. aha. a cloth. a river. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . to preserve it from stains. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. divining rod. nected. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. She made. tion under trial. Pr. derived. Freshly turnid Arable. Now one of the points — — — . a soothsayer. It is certain that the apricot oracle. and with turfis new Goth. It may be doubted. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. quod he. Roquefort. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. Pm. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. herbere. ap. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. symbol. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. auguror. as an eye-witness. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Now we find in Fin. Lat. doubtless is the origin of E. a lot. hariolus arpelen. .meaning at Shrewsbury. 2. or eft. aa. aestimo. Marsh. fastened close. conjectura conjec^ra.] in the N. pracoqua was not an adapt. sortium ductor. naperon. con. opinio. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. arbiter. proper. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. properly the arwella. P. nawl and awl. Arbour. scr. arwelo. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. rofe and all. to decide by lot. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. — napkin is Naperon. short. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. suitable. shortdr. and sortilegus ation. This path Aqueous. OHG. garden. arpa. aro. delon. most conspicuous situation in the garden .o. a lot. arbitrium. A. ahva. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. however. 31. found in Fin. {mies ^=ia3. Lat. wata. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. ughe. Gr. intensitive of nape.shrubs {arbor). Albanian. From OFr. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. P. . originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Arbitrate. and taken away before dessert. Aquatic. to plough. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Alban. sorcerer. J. the spelland umpire. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. Lat.sors. . . 331. OE. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. and the one who gives oracles. nompire herbs being no longer apparent.' —About. As is a pretty parlour. Naprun. a pleasure-ground. C. ear. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. arwaus. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. The loss or addition of n very common. Maan initial . account for either of these significations. as ihe diminutive. conjicio.) E. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. man. Beryn. Prol. water Which that benchid was. however. From OE. sestimatio arbitraria. be That it inne groweth. aptus. arbitror arwaaja. Flower and Leaf. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. a lot. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. — . arbiter in re censendS. is taken in is a soothsayer. and a protection of the clothes. aqua. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. of of divination arpa-mies. la nappe. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . and thence fit.

receptacle where the public acts were kept. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . forearm . government. arga. the terminaGael. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. to Arch. curved line. Uo^a^. . which has been referred to W. From the verb armare. Arid. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. And thou as arwe coward. Lat. The . particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. exercise lordship). ers-betriiger. armata.' Paul Warnefrid. Du.. argr. Applied in modern E. the most arrant trash. erg. Arm. Lat. arsum. shoulder Boh. Arcliives. Arduous. erz in G. . Langobard. det arrigste snavs. an arrant rogue. Fr. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Fr. . gwyrek. troublesome. Aristocracy. Ardent. aj-f. bravest. et vulgari verbo. Lat. faint-hearted. a threshing-floor. Lat. . which is derived from it. arrant Arms. worker. apxtipfve. to burn . gwyro to bend. to arm. TiKToiv. arson. vocaveris. an arch boy. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. arrig. is essentially the same word. a rule (princiruler. vescovo. timid. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. raineno. ardre. ' — Argue. arguo. a court yard. make clear or prove. a. Du. malicious. arm. apxh. bad of its kind. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. arcA in e. to dry. it signifies roguish. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. G. lofty. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. Arcadia in R. to be in comp. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. man. arwe. Brem. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. Dan. i. weapon may be simply an application of annus. from nixa. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. high. archangel. earm. difficult to reach. to demonstrate. a bare plot of ground. armee. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). branch. armada. ars. arcus. Lat. especially shoulder-joint. bad. a burning or setting on fire. ramend). earg. There can be no doubt that E. a branch. Fr. apx^iv. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. AS. kpxi- beginning. arch-bishop. Gr. 2. signifies chief or principal. apxri. un petit rusd. ardIn G. curved. ^Argument. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. ill-tempered. Alisaunder. mischievous. Lat. Area. ein arger knabe. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. in Due. the a brute. to rule. 3340. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. adjective. wretched OE.. sly. an arrant usurer. and must be identified with Dan. morally bad. Perhaps erz-wticherer. and not with apx. Sp. a chief builder. It. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. an extent of flat surface. the court of a magistrate. Cot. sly. fabricate). fainthearted. arm'ee. weapon. patus). As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. Gr. first. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. apxtlov. as the arch of a bridge. ON. mischievous. while the Fr. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. arm. Lat. ramo (pi. — Architect. Lat. earh. as in E. contemptible. wanton. een erg kind. ancient.' Lex.' the Gr. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. W. from areo. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Gr. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. arma. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. This particle takes the form of arcz in It.In E. arg. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. G.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. a noble. to be on fire. bad. are formed the participial nouns. aridus. an arch-deceiver . stuff. Ardour. taxed with cowardice. and Kpurka. area. ardor. Sax.— Army.aioj. rame. A construct. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit.is the natural weapon of offence. Arson. ardeo. ruling by the nobles. the best. sluggish. argvitugr. by Russ. D. un malin enfant. a bow. From apxeiov was formed Lat. erz-bischof. burning heat.4 rir/. — Wtb. . apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Arch in composition. * ArchjAiTaxit. and our army. shoulder. Gr. arduus.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a ball. malefacGower in R. palla. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a But making way for death at large to walke. It. Mid. baalien. balare. calamity. a pail. Fr. a dance. ache. afbalka. a beam. Bohem. ballare. balle. bolker.of men . as in a barn or cow-house. lealo. torment. a washing-tub. — A — — . to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. to partition off . to paddle in water . Russ. to dance. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. sickness. bjdlki. A balk. ballan. plague. to be ill. (Hesych. globule. bacgtteter. ne leaving any balke. trouble. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. pallo. may exhibit the original development of the signification. from bacquet. the ballet of the theatres. and evil in general. a clapping or flapping of wings. to on Holmedon's plain. Goth. wickedtorment ON. Sp. balk. ball. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . as we say. to signify washy drink. I. Q. destruction. ON. a dance. ill. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. Du. balka bunge. a skin. Boll. ban. grieve . ballotta. maan pallikka. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. Sw. ballone. balk. bol. a boil. TtaKKa a pail or tub . balka. Du. pain. to cause another to miss pustule. shouting. a continued noise of waves gently beating . to ache. . OFr. to move. a partition. pila. beaten road. Sw. Gr. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. floor. similar connection is seen in Sp. w. a division of the old laws. Bale. a ballot). ballet. dial. to bale out. probably Lat. Hence. stage or scaffold. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. G. pallukka. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. balja. dial. on. F. Ballot. 2. balle. to shake or jog. to wave. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a pill. a ball. In like manner Fr. . a beam. Rouchi ban. are applied to a From the same analogy. hooting. * Balk.Fr. with the perhaps from balg. a globe. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). the object of his expectation. N. Ugutio in Due. Hence Dan. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. bold. at giore en balk. bolyatchka. roof. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. chapurrar. to by beams. Bowl. Venet. Baulke of land. We have then separate dial. OSw. bol. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. .— 42 BALE to BALL heap . It. a bubble. ballo. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. bdlkr. gen. It. to plough for a boundary between lands. ballar). to rock. weak liquor. a. palcare. bola. vcdra bdlkr. says Ray. ball. to plank. wickedness ness . 3. ' is a piece or confused talking. balk. maleficium. Sw. . bollr.— Ballet. Grief. a water-skin dim. boleii. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. To baulke the Sir H. separaison. on. boll. and the dim. to stir. to dance. Perhaps on. Wotton. mass. baloier. bala. uveirs bolk. bbllr bulla J. a together in the form of a ball. to Not sparing wight. Ball. balka hopar. bolyaf. bealwes. Dan. Sw. bal. Balloon. the beam of a ship. bolawy.' speak gibberish champurrar. balla (with the augm. ballare. a great ball. to speak an un. tum. The primary sense seems as in G. cka. G. balge. balle. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to roll. ing. i. blister. balloon.). Fin. a ballad. palloilla. AS. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Sw. pallo. to ail. sorrow.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Fr. a clump . bielke. dial. to see-saw. on the shore. Pol. a clod of earth water. balveins. Sw. to be balker. a balk of foul weather. balkr. ball. pilula. See Gall. a ball. a wooden partition . a pestilence. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. OHG. bal. pallikka. hue et illuc inclinare. whether of wood or stone. Sw. Da. e. . to pack Da. the breadth from side to side . a scene acted in dancmg. package of goods. balle. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. It. a separate portion. Fr. sick. vacillare. Ballata. .ing. dial. baalie. Da. heap up. Bret. misery Du. to avoid it. taich.—Ballad. . ball. a ball balla. other while. balken. To Bale out water. on. balken. a ball or pack. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. balk. bal-daed. ballare. Gael. to grieve . baler. bal. Ball. a ball.Lat. E. It. Sw. balva-vesei.

it is forced to take in stones or sand. Bret. the backload. baranda. lastre. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. for want of other freight. endormir par des contes. ballast. a small balustrade. Fr. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made.. from Lat. 1.000 tons. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. Sept. objects to the foregoing derivation. This is the backload. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. as he says. sorcerer. Balsam.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. balsamum. The Sp. dial. last. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. balconies. also with flatteries and . of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. to preserve equilibrium. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. — — oltriga. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. puzzled. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. a duty on goods last. baltresac. When a ship discharges.). bam. the act of walking. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. ballustres.' And Kil. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. analogous to what is seen in It. bamboccio. make fun of a person. But Fr. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. . because. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Report Pennsylv. called Bait. Lat. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Balluster. Venet. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. bambocciolo. in the first place. Baltic. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption.Lat. deceive. terraces. In OSw. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. Mr Marsh whether the a load. balustrade barandilla. a useless load. curse. bambolo. inutilis sarcina. If bambocciolare were child of one. the flower of the pomegranate. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. Sp. Cotgr. ranked on the outside of cloisters. urtica. To Ban. small railing. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. from bara or vara. To proclaim. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. or movement of one who walks. deceiver. forbid. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. barandado. Bamour. Sc. seems the original form of the word. railing around altars. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. . Balm. a nettle. baU. Said to be from balaustia. like Fr. R. Du. to enchant. lestage. astonished. of balusters. baUa. baume. to walk. fonts. To Bamboozle. bertesca. a battlement . Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. age. by met. bag-las. more serious objection is . It. a false tale or jeer. an Old dotard or imbambolare. It is explained back by Adelung. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. ^a\Ba\iov. 1854. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. To make fun of a person. inutile onus. explains ballast. or ballast of a ship. command. lastagium signified not only ballast. Fr. Ballast. 43 — Cot. barauste. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. a fragrant gum. Gr. little round and short pillars. and Mid. ballustre) is a corruption. Bret. ^Arbuthnot in R. but loadage. Dan. enchanter. paid for the right of carriage.that the going vessels. It. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. mare Balticun. for a load or goods (Roquef. bag-lest. To deceive. lastra. denounce. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. To Bam. &c. a young babe. The Baltic sea. a rod. i860. more frequently than outward-bound. Lest. &c. A — — . bumbazed. lest. is in Sweden and Norway. bamein. back of the ship. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. galleries.

Les saiges avait et les fols d. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bandon somewhat party. &c. says Muratori. Band. banda. at his own discretion. — R. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. etc. fahne. a company. band. we constantly find the expression. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. In Fr. bando. Assises de Jerusalem.is further developed. to excommunicate {lysa. a coast. in Fr.. 15.e. — excommunication bann-lysa. to bring corn to be fahne. bound. From the verb to banda. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. 813. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. to side or to bandy (Florio). bande. ex. There is some doubt how Fr. authority.Lat. . populum. 'A son bandon. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Sw. Ripuar. R- He Translated by Chaucer. bannum or bandum. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. those who side together (bande. See Abandon. Fr. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. faction. bann. Spebifid. to ctide. bandon was used in the same sense. Baud. Diss.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. E. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. Leg. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . biddal. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Goth. It. to . curse. Capitul. i. side. — To partito d'alcuno. Commun^ment son bandon. 26. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. bindan. Mag. margin. Goth. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. bundun. power. from at the Lord's courts. eiiseigne. ligue Taboada). acquired the sense of proclamation. To Bandy. banda. 19. he bannede his ferde. G. R. sostener Torriano. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. he assembled his host. to reprove. tener da alcuno. Car. Thus the word is also used in both senses. and It. border. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). bandi. to take one to task. v. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. ba?idare. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. change to the feminine gender in banda. passing on from proclamation to command. The to . admolendinum. in hostem convocare. bannire in exercitum. bande. bannire exercitum. bandera ground at his mill.^ bandy. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. 2. parti. band. hoc est vexillo. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. . summoning to serve So in Swiss. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. to ban. —R. banda the colour or material. theodscipe ut abannan. Wyntoun. side. banner marked the place of assembly. region. Bandus. It seems this signification has arisen. then the signification w. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Cot. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. OE. flag. 1. also the band or of marriage. Sp. &c. D. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. to form parties. In a special sense the term company itself. to publish) banna. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. is That with which anything AS. It. banns pany of footmen serve.—John Villani in Due. to unite with a band. Sp. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. to follow a faction. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. Se il — Romance languages. and thence to any proclamation. It. Fr. bande. and in E. permission. whether by way of injunction or for- command. the ensign or banner. A. Bandear.

— Fr. . — . bakke. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun.HG. banca fallita. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Your stool. bank of Dan. Bankrupt. bandire. many a bang. bandi. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. the back. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. bana-sdr. large dog kept for a guatd. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. has bang-bang. roupt. death-wound. Fr. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. &c. to join in league with others against Cotgn. hammering. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Diaconus in Due. and OFr. at canis peciiarius. Milton in R. a i.^ knock. put under the ban of the law. in R. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. and hence. Dan. banka. forbear this outrage. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. was formed the OFr. to bend a. de sable. Bandy. to slay. back of a knife. canis vinculis assuetus. to publicly order one out of the realm. clouds. stir. shoal. banditti acquired the like signification. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. bana. N. a de Vaud. and poise Their lighter wings. bankruptcy. bana. eminence. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . disturbance banga. whence the mod. bow. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Draw. follow a party. bandear. Fr. death-sickness. beat. banco. To Bandy. Bandy legs are crooked legs. ruptus. bent as a bow. . to knock. death-blow . hricg. 45 — — Bandit. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. banc G. b'ang. to proclaim. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. bench. for shame. With many a stiff thwack. Lingua. bana. to beat. — Paulus drive in a nail. ON. AS. as of an explosion or a blow. to make a stir banke. bank. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. beating. . counter. Diez. bander. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Fl. Benvoglio. desk. ON. se joindre. Lat. tumult bangas. home — Bandog. rap hatike et som The Susu. a long raised seat. bance. See Band. Bang. a bankrupt merchant. to foment factions. Brewer. seat . The child cries bang! fire. See Balluster. ON. Banner. bana-sott. de- party. bannire. se reunir. bench. a blow. banc. Sw. a bench. From a desk . Bane. in the sense of place of business. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. outlam came to signify a robber. bang. Benchi. bank of river. band-hond. benk. banca his creditors. — — whence E. to cabal. murderer. It. See Banish. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. and bakki. The ridge of a hill is AS. destruction . It. Bank. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Bacon in R. bank. Tibalt. . to knock.z. the same verb the It. to work in wood. panca. bane. banish. broken. pastoralis. Hudibras. When a man fails Lat. Roquefort. among rotta. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. a bench. But natheless wife at I bank. banqueroute. The ing. a bench. —^Vocab. AS. bander. &c. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. It is in this sense nounce. in the sense of a pirate. a bank. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Fr. banja. from banc. in the same way that E. Du. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Banditti.: . From Mid. dorsum was applied to ject. a wound OHG. It. s'associer. A Shipman's Tale. bank of a river. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). a counter. Mid. Goth. The word is in E. distinguishes bekkr. eminence. Africa. Mercutio. that the word is used by Romeo. standard. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. — Kil. Ripuar. of bandying words. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. bander tin arc. . to hammer in a nail. g. Banister. a sand-bank. band-dog. Bantze. and therefore tied up. E. language of W. 2. a table. the former Fr. banke. the slope of a hill. a rising bank.

2. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. to wash. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. and from ensign or banner Prov. knight Bardd. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. wrapped. that the noise of voices Bantling. benda. ing term appears in other languages. Lat. It. barbed or trapped as a great horse. . barde. ^oTrriKio. chan..aTa Kul nest. and it was accord. barrer. In a similar manner are formed yearling. Fr. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. Gael. branches of a tree {gwezen. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Fr. senheira. Banquet. It.cruel. Hence Fr. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Fr. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. a. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. from reifa. merki. hence a repast. barbe. ingly very generally known by a name branches. E. ban- Baptise. It. or of this bantering. an animal a year old. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. branch. a bearded or Cot. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barre.the analogous syllable viur. banneret. barrou-gwez. period vexillarii. then fell among the foot. &c. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. Gr. OHG. Gr. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. indeed. as they call it. to bar or stop the way as with a bar.— Swift in R. BARBAROUS reiflingr. A It. a barrier or stoppage. from the same source. senhal. privileged to raise Barbarous. which is surely in barbed arrow. sparro. To mock or jeer one. nestling. of a sign in general.. rod of any rigid substance. remarked. sbarra.8ap6^o)voe. ON. banchetto. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. inferior to a baron. in Gr. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Fr. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. Bret. milites bannarii. heri-pau. top. To Banter. E. says. The original import of their own banner in the field.hinder. It may be thing. Celtic bar. manu anto make signs nuere. 3. to beckon . Leduchat. bandiera. such as the Roman Eagle. jSdirTO). is to virtue of the number of their retinue. barriire. a sign. banniire. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. barrack. a bench or table . Besides it must be by Barbary horse. bandva. senhal. ON. The origin is in all probability Goth. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. barreau. E. According to Diez the It. banner. Barbar. inur. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. barba. OFr. iandvo. token. Duo. Fr. Flesche barbeUe. banne. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. Lat. of banco.46 BANNERET . men. himself in Pontus. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. the word came to signify rude. and even of calling it banter. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. dim.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. out of a wound. Barb. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. would rupted from Fr. and with an initial s. a ban. G. Bap. uncivilised. Hence ner. signuin. to bend. to wrap. —Cot. banda hendi. Barb. to having that signification. banneret was a higher class of knights. sign. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. bannereti. and he would seem to derive Goth. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. a tree). &c. Banneret. Fr. a war-beacon or war-signal. either in the Gr. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. then branches. speaking of battle. senh. Lat. Barbe. arineXov. Thus Ovid. and the work is done. rarii. to dip. a bantling. of wind. i. bar. jSa'pjSapoc. a beam or long pole of wood. summit. brushwood. barbarus. banda. Sw. OHG. barra. probably corSymbol. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. sparre. — We A . be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. a which the barrister addresses the court. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. The spar.

a shingle or small board. fortia —Strabo. gibberish. Lith. Fr. axilla. and in Flanders to vociferate. Festus in Diet. Cotgr. powdered all over. to make an outcry . bhasad. unqualified. ready money. But Sp. It. baares geld. A7 to the and warlike. Port. Bret. bardd.' Cot. albarda'ah. upper chamber. twattle. Hatt-bard. skirt. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Bare. also to bind or tie across. berries. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Bard. barguigner. and flanks. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. murmur . or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. G. and Sc. . Barber. It. ala. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. borborinha. to wash. bdsiis. barbugliare. Russ. barboter. border of a garden bed. is lb. Diez. borbulhar. Mod. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. formerly used in the sense of tattle. baragouin. — Cot. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. /3£pjSepi^w. Fr. bar. berj G. stutter. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. to It. lb. border. to grunt. grumble (Lowndes. jargon. An outwork for the defence of a gate. a pack-saddle. Arab. mutter. Sp. small pack-saddle. speak confusedly. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. brim. Barbican. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. on. barbarkama.— BARBEL merit of water. in Fr. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling.— — Pm. as well as thwcEtta. albarda. barda. the beard. Mod. which was of talking.) to wrangle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Applied in E. barbaris. Cotgr. to chafbargain. guaszare. skialldar-bard. horse armour covering the front. Fr. barbeum. to stammer. a jetty or outnook in a building. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . i. to barbe or trap horses. Bardeau. albardilla. — . Barde. borbotar. baar. Pr. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. Gr. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. barbeau. Etym. bds. . OFr. the flap of a hat. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Barder. Barbel. to mumble or mutter words. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Hall in R. a bardelle. twcEtta. skola. bdsas. Lucan. the nakedness of a woman. barbier. uproar. to gurgle. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. a rumbling. scouthouse. borboglio. Gr. to boil or bubble up . to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Port. Lex. dial. the quilted with. brabble in the making of a bargain. barda. as well as the modern twaddle. Hindost. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to plash or dabble. quarrel . — — — men. a long saddle for an ass or mule. — — Hence. Etym. barbelin. and the word was used in OE. in poetic language Bard for poet. bardes. borbollar. bdla-khaneh. saddle-cloth. boil. bare baskojis. name Fr. such as houses are covered Bardelle. barbulla. uncovered. used 2. Fl. the edge of a shield hval-barct. to rumble. muttering. Fr. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Bargain. Barberry. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. The Pers. or more properly (says fer. skirmish. /3opj3opwJu. Sp. barefooted Sanscr. Exposed to view. also to wallow like a seething pot. barbeter. a tumultuous assembly. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. barbacane.— Fl. barbar.) . open. haggle. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. in the sense of fight. Cot. coping. tree. barS. barbel. waschen. barz. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. tattle. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. and foolishly. back. guazzolare. g. w. to stammer. to bubble or spring up. Sp. Thus the on. — . to prattle. to bubble or boil. A shrub bearing acid Diet.

dispute . bern. Prov. Baron. Dan. Sp. Gl. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. bosom . Du. Romance barsie. to cheat. strife. plants). Bark. barnis. W. baratta. and llysiaw. barretor. barajar. tion of the sound. am. Vocab. a lap. baron. Ibid. On the other hand. and may therefore be an Eastern word. as baces-ern. kani. baerm. barn. baratta. barnacles. Barbour in Jam. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. ber (ace. to skin over barkandi. —Bark. bcerme. hemlock. to shufSe. bcern. Sp. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. Leg. put to confusion. Port. as in the case of Lat. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barja. berma. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Barn. a beak. ON. ThS man was not created for the woman. bere. a receptacle for barley or corn. Ripuar. baragouin. as. the rack or manger. To Bark. It. Spectacles. louzou. quarrel Port. Alam. — Zeuss. Bailey. Originally man. E. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. a cap . a heap . trouble. was barlic. a heap. — de Berri. * Barnacles. ON. w. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. barii. Manx bayrn. quarrel.. Dan. husband. — battle. the which is equivalent of the lys in w.. a place. confusion. as well as Scandinavian tongues. berm. aheap. . the slimy substance brewing of beer. limpets . to scold. the A — Ihre. baarn. a stack. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. baron)^ Fr. — Barnacle. Provj bar (ace. Sp. brenig. baralhar. adj. in the Brim. barahunda. is simply the Bret.Barum vel feminam. barlys. berm hoys. barizeins indicates a noun baris. bamagh. barley. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. and 1. edge. limpets. 2. wine. squabble. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. houbartij fsnile. dispute. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. i. bosom. . astringent. Barge. giving rise to It. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. ON. Garlick. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . bern. baralha. AS. a. bark . chaffer. Isidore in Rayn. The origin may be throat. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. corn-shed. prasepe . to wrangle. hladi. we pass to the vert) barguigner. OFr. Antiq. meta foeni. bread. Leg. The older form in e. bargain. skutr. baarm. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. OSw. then the bows pectus navis. baimeach. limpet. barge. Rayn. but the woman for the man. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. So also ON. mhg. barn. AS. beornt. commonly explained from bere. See formed Yeast. prominent part of a thing. border. barmr. berem. Camus. 2. Acervus. strife. spectacles. a boat. lap. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. barafunda. from an imita- Barley. bread-corn. dispute. Sw. tumult. barms. hay-loft. Swab. quant a perdu sa barja. dispute . (Ihre. strife. to strive. name being given to spectacles. struggle. contest. Du. Uzen. in Nat. and hence probably (by a metaphor. ON. to all the barca. barki. skuta. barafustar. and is probably a true bartig. dregs of oil. Kil. OFr. entangle. baniffa. Bemiques. the or prow of a ship.' bardagi. altercation. as. to chop. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. v. contest. one who stirs up strife. It. at barka. a load.^Voc^. dispute barattare. bernac. So ON. beorcan. a barn. charlock. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. As Goth. the G. varen. See Barm. hlaSa. disorder.) lihtes-ern. Lith. . barlys {bara. barley. barley. barone. also a boat . a lantern. The Goth. dial. barn. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Gael. to rout. baaring. and the word. also to exchange. berm. herbs. . Cornub. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Bret. bard). Port. borkr. the fore or after end of a boat . then honoured man. From Fr. and ern. barlich. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. beer. fray. a baking place or oven. baaren.

(Schmeller). barril. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. the two names. Barricade.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. a horse. breinej Du. as. then traffick4 Barrow. booth. by early examples. implement for carryAS. barBombicinus. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. also termed bannerets. w. a barrel. AS. barrier. The Sp. sterilis. uncultivated. barri. Gael.root signifying confused noise. were sometimes confounded. fortification. to carry. hut. barague.' that Barrier. alongside of barrow. Russ. Sp. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. a kind of coarse camlet. a. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. It. barchent. barraca. Bohem. barre. sepulchre. barrack. Bern. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. beorg. E. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Formed from Fr. bark&n. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. barrila. It. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. G. bara. from a tree to which a man is hanged.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. A. as cavalcade. baracca. Sp. Barren. a. qui have not much light on the pre. like bargain. Nominale of the from braeckland. D. signifying.— Gibbon. bara. braeck. cise formation of the word. garment still used in Morocco. whenever Barrow-hog. Goth. a bier. squabble. baragan. litter. It should be observed that. fallow. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. bearg . 2. An ing. vir. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. facture. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter.. ^Barrator. a man. branches. Baron andfemme. heap. became bidre. baronuU. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. a castrated hog . a bar. Gael. or simply bahre. bier. an obstruction. bouracan. gravis et authenticus vir. composed of dry branches ofer. barrique. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. to * Barragan. Barrel. man. OE. G. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. barrique. calico. which would barragdn. S. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse.have been named from the haggling and gant. vel pretiosos burellos. gwr. See Bar. berewe. a barrow. a word is always used in the plural number. whence Barrow. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. 1. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. Barrister. to shelter. OFr. vair. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. mound. bredhan. from cavallo. tomb. Joshua vii. and not from Fr. boar. Barrack. Fr. rolls of Parliament.' Op. — A . barile. Antiq. borov'. a hut or booth. bera. baraignej Picard. semen non accipiens landiEL. On chet — We — — their resemblance. baronetti. todtenbahre. It. the braw. seem to be radically the same with Lat. brushwood. change of goods seems. a hiU. The feudal tenants next Fr. over him. It was not until the time of James I. nobles. especially those killed in battle. habeant. This word introduced into Fr. baronculi. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. beorgan. and in several instances. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. in Nat. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. from beran. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. in the first instance. strife. berwen. iver. 26. bahre. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. Bret. AS. See Barter. baroncelli. MHG. perhaps through Prov. ^Vocab.. fear. Sp. StiU he shows conclusively. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. man and wife. ibid. Fr. dispute.parchanttuech. staves. Bamnculus a baronet. — — 15th Cent. beorh. Bargus or moreland. — Kil. cover. Barratry. shed. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart.

Swed. See Bath. which covers the grain Ger. mean . binding. bass-matting. i. Halliwell. bassin. the — — to kill those that look upon it. fornication. beguile. mavult dicere Roma suam. baste. leviter consuere.' Gl. bastear. of the same sense. from /3aR. baratear.). Bass. a bass rope. Bass. but he dreth presently. MHG. But according And Dan. to bind. A fabulous serpent. Sp. inclosure. basta. rope for — . as It. — hanging. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Kil. Barbara de pictis veni patch. barley. then cheating. basta. HaUiweU. It. tierer. Fr. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. to baste. cheating. There is not one that. crassus. G. to cheat. the thin skin Dan. Sylvester's Dubartas. unrighteous gain. ing for profit. embastir. 516. according from Gael. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. to long — a British word by Martial. Sp. and tun. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. fornication. thick. Dan. Sicamb. the manorhousfe itself. from bere. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. mock not. It. bas. or running away with the ship. a tying. baste. berewic. court-yard. — in Rich. low part of the Hickes in Rich. him. to deceive. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). ' He was begetin o bast. BassuS. Sp. fraud. bestcn. Bast. preparatory stitching. Arthur and Merlini. partieren. found in Turkish . to bind hand and foot. Bastard. lift me above Parnassus. basso. baraand especially teria. imbastire. . fits de bas. a ftiesh. flat. Sw. to stitch . aiKcig. See Brattice. Du. Bassus. To stitch.D. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. basgod. baste. commonly A joined with the word binda. Lap. exchange. Isidore. descended of an honorable lineage. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. also to Cotgr. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. discourse Nay. to cheat. submovet omne Lucan. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. also the demesne lands of a manor. Apparently of Celtic origin. Bartizan. barter. to Diez. To Baste. barter. n' is n' is bacino. scale in music. oe. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. beortun. a basket masg. Gr. low. . ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Barton. It. MHG. God it wot. husk bast van koren. pdrdt. a bastard. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. on a. at basta og binda. It. to truck. bdtir. he. to bind. To Bask. back. Newman. It. baxoj w. bds. or wic. Basket. exchange. baos. more noble in blood than notable in learning. besst-u-b£nd&t. . ^Is de bast. — Bassoon. ' Bosworth. bran. HaU in HaUiwell. foist in bargaining. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). plaiting of splinters basged. AS.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Fris. fhe outhouses and yards. Fr. come near.looketh upon his eyes. bast. PaaiKhms. piiiguis. low note. said Base. corn-farm. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. truck.' Papias. lattice-work. the a wide open vessel. to baste piece of cloth. a ipgli So Turk. stitch. bast-reb. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Al is dai. humilis. baratar. a king. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. MS. to bargain. Sw. and Bret. It. basso. w. bast. peel.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. bestan. It is mentioned as . The original meaning. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. chasa. Basilisk. OFr. Du. a halter. bareter. imbastire. Dan. basg. hoops of a cask. OFr. but born in baste. besst. low. pressed down. Pl. over-reaching. chasa ogli a bastard. beretun. a court-yard. HoUinshed. cog. curtus. lust. Fr. The like property hath the iasilisk. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. ibid. which sets up its hood when angry. would be. as the diadem of the basilisk. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . shallow. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. F. baraet (from Fr. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. ohg. bast. Lend me your hands. bast-maatte. a deceiver. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. dwelling. /«r<fSp. bark. netting. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem.

Sw. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. worth (Nat. — — Fl.— . bastonFr. business (Altieri). nade. bastille. set up. For the loss of the / in back. vledermus. . ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. provisions. as weU as besteau. to build. Bastinado. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to give him a sound bastingi 3. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. is explained by Cot. Supp. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. and Arabs. basto.Lat. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. cudgelling. frotter. For the origin of baston see Baste. back. put it together. packsaddle. basa. To beat or bang soundly. to rub.baste or knock soundly. Sp. Rayn. 164). pre. badger.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. the E. a sconce. Antiq. to pack a saddle i. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to set on foot a war Bastion. 11864. staff. blacta. Cot. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. bat. blakka. has bastine.'CaB. bastimento. a things prepared for future use. liiake. iinbastire. in the use of the E. Dan. It. It. to belabour. R. bastida. Fr. passage Imbasto. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. comp. or implement for 4 * A . blatta. a blockhouse. blakra. ari instruineht for beating. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. ment. Mid. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. I. like the owl and the bat. to thrash . Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. baston. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. the original has corneille. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. Sc. aftonbakke. dial. the winged . . It. R. p. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . blakta. Dieiif. Fr. Derived by Diez from iasi. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. To donjon. to drub. beysta. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. blaka. bakie-bird . compared with blakka. Cot. to stroke. bastia. — Bakke. Fr. bastonada. to teach one before. to build. Pr. frame. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. which to rest the load. also the ricado. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. devise. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. bastine. to lay the Sp. 2. translation to a bat. a pad. to spread bread and butter. stryka. 2. niammal.— Bailey. bak. Perhaps baska. beating.-^ Chaucer. blows. bladier. erect. contriving. boste. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . military term of a bat-horse).. a with a stick. flyinge best. quelqu'un son roulet. disposer. the night-jar or goat-sticker. a. to devise or begin. and ditches bastion. Sw. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. baston. from Fr. All from bastir. Sw. to beat. ON. Sp. which in the E. basta. — — — . 2. That yche blak y dar wel telle. settiilg up. a packsaddle. Pm. iastir. bastonnir. to quilt or stitch wool into it. bdion. Prov. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Fr. dial. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. victuals. a barSp. vespertilio. also to cudgel. but this is hardly satisfactory. stryk. raise. Florio. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. * Bat. bastilde. to cudgel. contrive. a stick. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. natt-blakka. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. club. bast. a blow cloth for dinner. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. to beat. a pad or packsaddle. E. set up. a bastion. Sw. and Cot. To baste one's hide . Dan.fortress or castle furnished with towers. a bird which. e. to whip. guerra bastir. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. to flap. the clapper of a bell. night-bat. to rub gently. bastear. vespertilio. whence ledrblaka. batta lucifuga. 'iJipistreUo. bastione.stitching in general. bastir. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. blatta. BAT neither. to Due. the bat .stick. bastir. explains Sp. in the Romance languages.

To Bate. is a simple adoption of Fr. is in falling. on the fire. Fr. a stick. an arrangement for giving blows. by projections or in any licoure. Ayenst the sunne. strife. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. battle was used beath wood. to warm oneself at the fire. Goth. quell. battere. to beak. to beat se battre. gebdck. dial. ON. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. dispute. basa. heat. 2. baden. or make debate. tradire. to bathe. G. tagUone. battre las ailes. bdda. bastille. To Batten. on. E. to beat. Battlement. A Bath. Chaucer. Pr. also. w. to thrive. oneself at the A into faggots. From bat in the sense of rod . fashes basking in the sun squadron. Fr. to feed. Florio. batir. badask. Fr. In some parts of England it is striking. badda. trahtr to It. signifying to give repeated blows. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. to warm. to refresh oneself in language. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. battre. e. Pm. bada. Batten. a main battle. Sw.— To Bask. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. sich bakern. as wood-en. Battery. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. Flem. Sp. from on. Strife. battere. or a dry stick. battions.Bathe. . as E. . a washing beetle. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. battaglia.Hence in the augmentative form It. pak. solbase. remit. in the case of a wall. solen baddar. bat-en. made of — A made by one Batcii. Sp. Holz bdhen. and with staffslyng. Jurgor. a battle. Sw. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. Pm. batna. Bat. In OE. gabatnan. whence the sun burns . to fell. battre. and about an inch thick. to dial. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. and milk beaten up together. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. dial. dial. The bat with which a brot bdhen. beat down. I. beat. term in falconry . G. gebdcke. Bailey. and as a verb. batacazo. From OFr. a blow with a light instrument. to foment. wet linen in washing. Hal. to foment. Fr. flour. a band of armed men arranged basa. in the sun. It. a beating. to cudgel. to heat . to beat. to warm oneself. Mgy. of bread is so much baked zX one time. baeddu. bdhen. It. to for fighting. abate. PLD. to fight. abattre. or break down. Slav. from battre. Plkkis. allay . to become convalescent. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . bat. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to flutter with the wings. bludgeon. to foment with hot applica. I bathe in water viz. G. Barbour in Jam. Baka sik vid elld. Hence pro. also a sun badfish. To thrive. Pr. to toast bread. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. adapted for defence. bet. the heat of the It. a blow. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Fr. better.' Palsgr. I baske. howis. a battalion. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Battle. batte sig. to beath wood Battledoor. cudgel. Bate. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. debat. buask made like a fortress. baka. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Eggs.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. a staff. bdt. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Du. Batter. Bret. bdda vidjor. quhar he suld assaill. vel seminare discordias vel discordare.— . hot. Battery. fortress or castle. Gael. . and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. dial. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Batyn. squadron. as E. more. was formed bastilU. Fr. to heat. a Baiffi. Jeddris and covering. bataille. a from ON. to become fat. — — — ' — . a stirrer-up of strife. to fire or in the sun. — To . water whether warm or cold. as signifying warm baths. perhaps first used adjectivally. Battalion. to be profited. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. betten. baz. certain bend. — Cot. to get better. altercation. badda. batador. bake. busk. A batch as wood. for biia sik. batterie. to betake oneself. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to beat. then to warm by the application of hot water. made of bats. the root of e. lessen. to bathe oneself. beat. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. baquetazo. makebate. See Better.

because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. to vociferate. rotten. was simply a field gold. having a white streak down Bagdad. Pr. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. sword-belt. zano. baula. baw. ish baubles. Cot. bow-wow. scarf. Fr. ball. fields. ground. R. P. divided between black and white. Sc. Lat. It. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. propugnaculum. and Sp. to talk Lacombe. The word may perhaps be sticks. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. a spot. is Bagdad stuff. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Fr. bobine. E.. babiole. javelle. to trifle away ment. an embattled wall. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. An analogous noisily. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. form with an initial seen in Fr. dirty. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. Cloth of gold. baubare. E. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. a gavel. vacillo. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. mew. OFr. horse. A name of the badger. dente. dacchino. faisceau. baudrat. in OE. a dog).' ' Pegma. a plot of Chaucer.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. Formed from baw. Pr. fagot. an — — — A — g — — — . expressive of disgust. bausan. bouaila. tab. bal. i. whence the E. spotted. c. filth. to void the bowels. a tassel. P. pegma. to play the babby. BAWSON Swiss. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. the face.. P. E. baffe. It is all bawdy. Gael. Descript. whimwham. Batylment of a wall. a horse marked with a procession. or sheaf of Bridel. to 53 manure the To baw. disgusting. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. b \% bouala. Zalli. the white of his leg or foot. and authorities in note. E. baudrdj OHG. Bagdad. bobbin or cluster of thread. a tassel or hanging bunch . bauch. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. librillo. excrement. s. to bark . child. Hal. whence pouacre. Beaus^ent. a lump. OFr. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. bad.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. —R. It. In like manner Grisons filthy. Fl.— P. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. trifles. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. a white mark Bawdy. exactly corresponds Fr. because made of cloth of white. collar. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. represented by the syllable miau. guigaw. From ! an interjection of disgust. Baldrick. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. to cry. Filthy.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. fooleries or fond To Bawl. lewd . bal. Piedm. and to-tore also. fe bau. balGael. — Pm. ! Bauble. tille. an object. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. brush faggot. to make the noise Baudrick. obstrepere. Cot. is used for a sented by bau. Prov. as Fr. to me-wl. dung. — — ' Lydgate. ON. to bark. Pm. bau. pie- . also more Bawdekin. balderich. cluster. dirt. baban. speckled. It. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). dial. bauU. trifle. to low or bellow as corn. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. s. baue.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. toys. bablyn or waveryn. bow (as in our nursery Diez. from Fr. to the same origin. Ball-seirc. Ball. or Cot. from Baldacca. baugant. a belt. Swiss Rom. From Bret. a horse with white legs. or toys. nastiness. the Swiss baben. on the face of animals. instead oi s. Cotgr. W. Irel. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. Bavin. sorry. 2. a zan. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. The It. miauler.guage). babbole. filth. Jam. Fr. Bawson. a lump or cluster babhaid. babsmall toy to play withal. 8. also the canopy carried part of his body. ballach. spot. Baw — . or the animal so marked. balbob.

See Bald. badarc. Vielp.. to gape. house . bayen-stein. Bay. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. especially beans. Fr. A stag is said to stand at bay. —Diez. the cod or husk of beans or the like. The word bay. or at bay. and keeps them in check for a while. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. the world Gr. BAY marked with bjly. w. F. Fr. BE Probably conRuss. Gael. — A At Bay. badia to Sp. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. Q. and zndly. window-sill. he turns and faces his pursuers. husk.' — — 54 bald. &c. bate. living Ir. A hollow in the 'line of coast. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. It. bdcr. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Bayonet. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. BauSfi)/. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. Feb. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Gr. to split. bai. bialo. beonj Gael. that from ba.c. From Cat. to on anything. baer. dividere. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. large window in a handsome . I will not keep you waiting with a long story. or window ' (in Fortification). overture. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. Sp. Abide. tradire to Fr. to be Bohem. a'uno. weary of running. batibari. * To Be. baier. waiting . Q. Such Antaeus seemed to me. The — Fr. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. is perhaps not directly from Lat. a dagger.—Journal Soc. OSp. a mark. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. See Bawl. bahia. life. to keep one waiting. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bagaid. ing-floor. Bay. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. See At Bay. bahia. It. Arts. from badar. stood watching him stoop. To Bay. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. to iiitent nected PoL white. baiare. 1. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. Drayton in R. from an imitation of the sound. Fr. at his last gasp. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. . expresr sion tenere a bada. which however. or berries. a berry. . From the former verb is the It. berry. Sp. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. Fr. so called from its bearing bays. bayo. the step is the same as from It. It. Mod. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. the laurel-bay. laurel of the ancients. . when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. bacca. alive. —F. |8i'os. It has been shown under Abie. by the term rendre les abpis. beothach. yellow . berries. gate. to open. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. to stand watching one. baja. a hole. Sp. to keep at a bay. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. buidhe. It. white. Catalan hadia. — Schmid. as if to signify a window of curved outline. bajo. bijel. when. Serv. in order to keep the enemy in check. Prov. desiring. or recess in an apartment in modern times. to mark. dehiscere . As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. stare. trahir. a cluster of bacon. siege of Bayonne in 1665. It. like a pie. bde. baye. baie. Earth — By Nature made to till. aux dehniers abois. badarse. watching intently. &. 1859. baccello. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. to open as a blossom. hddhe-dhonn. Piedm. —Bay-windo'W. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. grapes or nuts. a beast. baher. and the To bark as a dog. baya.— Stalder.. S. badius. baca. AS. Cot. Lat. to betray. corrupted into Bow-window. bay. Holland's Pliny in R. Gael. window ./^ bau. buidhe- The ruadh. bay. as gazing. Swiss beie. life. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. open the mouth. Swab. Fr. 25. living thing . garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. barn of two bays. the cod of peas. or to have been first used at the Cot. arose two forms of the verb. &c. baga. . ist. put to his last shifts. baionette. baca. Bay-tree. to amuse stare a bada.' Bailey. abbabayer. beo. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. bilyejiti. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Fr. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bilyega. bioth. Lat.

Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter.from AS. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. bean. Slavon. nokkima. Moreover the name. Thus the final en. which is. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead.' Suetonius in Diez. and Lat. Beak. Trans. Gael. gebed. or any action done with a pointed thing. atUndre. bM. vol. fora-bauhan. N. g. was introduced from England sea. bank. ffci. into a snjall river. salve his hurts. to produce young. «va\ioQ. Gael. fero. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. bead. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. The nutu significare. E. fromthe danger. It. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Netherlands or North Germany. Pardoner's Tale. a single bean. backe. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bohnej ON. beacen. The immediate shore of the Menage. bee. bauhan. Gael. bakke. a curtsey. a presage. ffaen. signifying a point. pig. -phxr. Chapters on Lang.fuis5e. bairan. To Bear. or however. The wild beast. baum. or breathing. not applied to the yelping of dogs. beacnian. — Bellenden in Jam. G. on. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. bidello. . Goth. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. a hill. bearti. to wait. Bean. Fr. It. faba. be. boom. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. It is BEAR SI court. beck. Gr. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. baun. Be. Miss Gurney in Philolog. bagms. beic. bakkje. or beic. a tree. Du. G. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. He says. vii. W. Beckon. a sign. Sw. ON. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. ON. — to bow or nod . To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. into France. . bydel. . A Esthon. a single bean. A two-year old nephew of mine p. the part overflowed by the tide. post. Bear. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers.to have a French origin. —F. to bellow. beugler. Beacon. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. stock. rising ground. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. OSax. to nod the head. bdkna. Fr. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. would say. bob. — bedeau. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. * Beagle.. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. bokan. Hackluyt in R. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. an attendant. Bret. AS. fd or faVf beans. It forms a. Beck. Catalan becar. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. to wait-. Beadle. beans. a tree. as well as f& or fav. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. W. — : Beam. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. faba is Kvavoq. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. a nod OHG. bek. bohne. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. according to of Sanscr. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr.ad. Bret. like most nautical terms. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. pierced for hanging on a string. bidan. a beak. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. beic. ohg. 54.fui. Lat. to beckon. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin.fer-re j Gr. as. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. AS. Beach. signifying individuality. prodigy bauhnjan. to nod . See To Bid. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. as. bar. badmr. l^ax. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. Boom. a prayer. Q wait upon him. however.' Hall's Chron. to carry. Your hat no lib that place you put him in.' adheres to the root. Goth. becco. support. The origin seems preserved in E. bedm. tale of prayers or doxologies. Farrar.

opportune. bach.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. baviire. to hem. befit. Lith. as the babble of the child. dress with unbecoming richness . It. birth. a. limpan. Fr. I do thee pray. bave. connected with ripa. That thou mayest attain Goth.AS. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. e. Lat. bearing. happening as it ought. Do no To It fallith favour. bellus. to sleep on. con. nod or sign. and Fr. covered the face. Diez. because made of the fur of the beaver. proper . Beaver. den. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen.S6 fero. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. timan. ON. Bedizen. or river. ziemen. judgment. bel. 1. place to lie down. brook . R. and to acquire. Boeth. produce. to the brook itself. to be incumbent upon him. if sound of a sharp blow. bave i. Russ. gefallen. suitable. Beauty. barba. rying. G. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. name applied originally to the bank then proper . which.getiman. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. On the same principle. — A — A — . fallinn. ON. biivre. G. Chaucer. from the same in the sense of bear2. E. Bo. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. G. See Bank. a brook. bring forth. In like manner condition. To load with ornament. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. to happen. nothing to thy name make. Slav. o. The quadruped. limplice. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. riviera. blast.to clothe to slobber. to the good hapHalbard. W. i. gelimplic. perhaps a living thing. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. duty. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. or special purpose. R. bett. . brook. to get. pretty. to arrive at. E. Fr. 2. to fall. beatanj It. to live. Prov. while from Shep. He becom on sceathan. to happen. convenient. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense.' ' He became very angry. bava. fitanimal. tidy. from baver. get J ' He got very angry. Lat. to those goods which endure for ever. bart. slobber. It.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. befall. bobr. to assume a certain form or Turk.' are equivalent expressions. burdr is used in the sense of a car. becuman. to carry. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to happen. Beck.we call the arrangement becoming. G. baurthei. to wade through the water like a beaver. to fall in with our bavard. godum with ON. Lat. G. Now the Beast. chin. to shore. suitable. agreeable. bekommen. taste. to be fulfilled. decent. — . babrad. ON. byw. Thus OY. as. a lip. to appertain. bedr. bib or slobbering cloth. becuman. bestiaj Gael. boroda. tidig. battere. brada. a bank. Beckon. living. our taste. now confined To Become. The moveable part of a helmet. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. bekkr. pens unmixed evU. ting. and on.of being very angry. fit. E. to come to or upon. fitly . from beau. and also in that of birth. AS. biber. dize or dtzen. or a feeling to be gratified. Lat. badi. The fitting or suitable. In a second sense to become is to be ing children.— Kiittner. Perhaps from Pol. bavec. bebrus. dushmak. Goth. Thcem. to happen. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. edge. bello. Fr. behkr. talkative. As rivus. seemly. beo. pleasing. to dabble . gebank. byrcti.' every way suited to a prince. fiber. decorous. beauts. agreeable. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. bequem. Cal. bur. Beat. to G. an notion of being convenient. OSw. to happen. to attain to the lot of any one. ON. Secondarily applied to a hat. The OFr. Bosworth. barf. to be a part of his to. Prick of Conscience. Sp. riviire. when up. it is probable that here also the to become. AS. Beck. but now a river only. to bear children. limpian. See Bat. to fall mode of being. proper. Fr. e. formerly a happen. the beard. bobrowai. obtain. iida. receive. whence baveux. baba. venient. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bcek.fit. See Beacon. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. the ece thurhwuniath. a bank. border. Dan. the latter are derived It. Fr. comely. See becymth anfeald yvel. gabaurths. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. bard. to please. g. i. handsome.

Beef. G. ^. garden-herb. a horse-fly . which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. mars betada. briest. a pillow-case. PI. . beutel. badigeonner. a Properly a cover that biiren. from the hos. But possibly bedizen 2. paralyticus. bibere is a re. bedskiissen-bUren. doubtless. Gael. a malsense of drink. as in It. cow has calved. may be from K. beach-each. on. briesch-milch. bitela. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne._t from the root pi. Pett. Fr. E. a bed-tick. buk. a paviour's beetle batail. a pad or cushion). 1. ir'm. cogionare. betel. cugino. 'La Gl. stakes. drink. cozen. Rom. bbtel. beost. Bethlehem. pude-vaar. a stinging bieUe. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. Bav. P1. Esthon. waarin. as. biiren. AS. prigione. blow or thrust.' the last word corresponds to cofly . to drink. to curdle or lopper. bedawi. Lat. red curdled Arab . in Schmeller. de Fierabras in Diez. a bee.possible. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. to change . a wasp. Grimm. I put the flax upon it to spin. sela que environna la terra. to become Beech. kiissen-biere. curded or beesty. from blood. to twist poorma. a agulatum in the original Latin. I A pillow-beer. from jtst-. fagus.ON. wedges. The first milk after a dizen. Fr. . In a passage of an Old Fr. Let. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. bably named from the destructive quali| T. buka. beer. boytle.cz//aj. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. cushion-cover . trees in a forest . sang vermeilh betatz. turn (a garment).' So Gr. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor.D. 1156. the loppered sea.). 1 to drink. bovis. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. qui de lecto surgere non potest . Pl. an ox. comb. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida.ing of the word is curdled.D. bletumj Gr. in Nat.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. biest-milch. thick. speach. beetle also signified the impiti. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. &c. a wandering Prov. beyki. 57 — Palsgr. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. piwo. to coagulate. from leberen. kivih. extant in Bohem. translation beOj. of beatmg. Dan. an inhabitant of the desert. crespir. pettiriso. cited by Diez. woman that is newly delivered. bos. bukva. to fall. ris. an Beetle. AS. Fr. whence familiar. bitel. byst. Confined to bed. It. a wasp. It. . bossen. the meat of spinach. clog for a dog b'oteln. Fr.^ drink. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. a cover. The honey-producing insect. For that was law of lend. Bernese. fall. to poordma. a mallet. water. /SXirov. to and ale. to turn. by-flugaj G. bedde-redirj ohg. It. Arab. pital of St Mary. as the milk of a that purpose in London. to knock. to colour with lime-wash.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. boeuf. a pillow case. Ant. by the analogy of bedaivb. . from risan. Slav. bette or blettej Lat. GaeL bior. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Lat. Beet. to rough- cast. to parget or rough-cast . Cot. to flatten In OE. 1. Beetle. Cot. may be shpped on and off. a clapper. also bienst. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. AS. bytl. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Bed-ridden. from Lat. I dysyn a dystaffe. buche. biene. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Bee. bove.. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. * Beestings. i. door. Originally. Fr. Gr. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. The meanpainting. Horn. prisons Venet. whose face is clotty. vaar. madhouse. batAfter mete in sale.— B. cousin. also the bite or sting of a bees. G. thick. which also 2. the ox. a cup or implement for AS. Bedouia. The beer al for te shenche bate. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. beach. drink.'— GL ^Ifr. G. tree. ProBeer. ' MordiThe Lat. taglio.— JI14. desert. turn. g. case. . and in driving piles. E. used for boull. the biter. erroneously modified in form. calleBedlam. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. duplicated form of the root. . to beat bossel.(paddi. KXlvoTTiT^e. a drink potus. poculum. Fin. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. knock. beta. beest.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. D. Fr. and lebermer in G. bet. imperative pi.

onginnan. to get children . a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. appears improbable at first. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. y/yvo/iat. baigeir.pose. Gr. ' . a bag. Into the are D. at geta talad. tale. yivtrri. to take. a stone-cutter's chisel. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. referred gan this Erie alight. beis- plement driven by blows. P. incipere. 168. He did alight. although it ' the future.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Barbour. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. gan. The tother seand the dint cum. to know. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. In Luc vi. 1867. a beggar-boy. in D. Lith. a wedge for cleaving wood. 'Dz. whence the E. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. to arise. Du. 142. begging. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . duginnan.quently used in OE. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. oppressed with woe. Mod. When Q. covered with gold D. on the bag. Si'Xa/coc. to cleve. can. giving in Gr. ykvog. P. V. pose-pilte. P. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. above quoted to get beaten ON. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. ornamented phoc. a bag . yivwajcw. &c. a beggar . ' ' . origin. Florio. krapszas. Goth. P. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word.' for ye shall lament and weep. gen. touched with emotion — . & go a begging. Schm. a scrip euXaiciJoi. beutel. lapidicinus. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. to be able. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. 58 BEG BEGONE G. 'Aboutin undern monly. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. beissel. To produce children is to acquire. Lollards. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. ken.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. woe-begone. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . a scrip. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. V. Du. cans. on the tramp. P. iv. Skinner's derivation from bag. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. the fundamental notion of attaining to. — yivsaiQ. a little bag). 'ex quo. to be born. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. From w. Creed. ' Begone. Ancren Riwle. affected. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. beriolare. beitel. a chisel. P. to be acquire. one after that other. or Of a pure poor man. as alighting is a momentary operation. gigno. is formed pocair. aginnan. So from Gael.' A.n. P. a bag or poke.3. but probably erroneously. To Begin. P. 25. Political Songs. two betels —a grete oke. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . bertola.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. to begin. &c. begger.' about undern he got down. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. can. in Lat. image is cleft out of the trunk. sel. Of brede full ycrammed. yiyvo/uat. kind. anfangen. of Gr. to bear young. ytyvwfT'Kw. V. literally. but in the same language from poc. chap. signifying to conceive. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. on further examination. yivofiai. steinbosil. 2. chisel. capere. viii. — Stillingfleet. not began to alight. bag {baigean. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. beginning. It. su with gold. Du. be^nnan. is com. genus. to reduce him to beggary. Beghardus. To Beg. ip AS. a beggar. from whete G. in E.— . Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. word. seizing. P. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. ken. fangen and Lat. hags. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to.D. beitel. to beg. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. AS. a — wedge. also called Bigots. 1430. Vocab. Cold-begone. 40. Fr. air a . to begaan. and Lat. Bruce. it is both to acquire and to beget. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. ysgrepanu. taking up. P.bag full of the G. It will . a wallet. ysgrepan. OHG. Deutsch. Mundart. vir mendi. Nov. to go a begging.

to keen or hold. what he wishes another to do . to meet. hove. Sw. To Behave. vow. take yourself off. to hold. and the E. to lift. servare. behefe. nittaa. to lead. G. at the tail of. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. on. garder. heita. To be expedient. To place are most naturally ex. to cast or throw. to tend. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to look upon it as true . when the verb will hoof. a follower. promise. heave. or the hence advantage. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. beperson addressed. Robert in Warton. hafwa.— . command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. furtherance. It. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself.for throwing it. AS. behoof. behat. The It. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. hevja. to be named. to hold. according as the * To Behove. to fit. what is so required. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. Sw. 17. to lift.' Richardson. AS. The seyn. keeping. taking notice or care of (Gloss. gehalten seyn. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. hevja. to be suitable or becoming . to be well pleased out. use. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. AS. or purpose. gehouden. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. ward. K. hantyri. to be obliged to one. to R. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. fixed upon any object). At the back of The re. to take away. to turn one out . to keep. is supported by many analogies. R. to look. habere. hovast. to vow.). to carry. hcefwa in seed. to command. to command. to carry corn into the barn . But. is on the top of or opposite to. heeten. invoke. han- — js Kil. hatan. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to call. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc.to vow. tion. to be obliged to do a thing. promise . healdan. to the equivalent of Du. heeten willekem. laborare. and their senses intermingle. —Hest. se porter) to fare well or ill. habban. beholden to him. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. ge' hatan.the figure of throwing at a mark. to be fit. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. behces. to halten. to gehouden. zijn. betragen. tail. the distance of anything. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. Kiittn. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. the equivalent of E. to carry. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to hit the mark. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. gecall. holding is originally derived from that of looking. G. N. observe.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. is also found in the sense of looking. to feed. to have. hafwa ram. us-hafjan. hofwa. behatan. to be be named. Goth. the name adapt. hcef tig bort. behind. to regard. behete. AS. G. Paladino. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. G. guardare. — Behest. the two verbs seem radically the same. behold. exhort. right. bound. To Behold. ufhaban. ifl fact. seeing to. G.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. Command. To look steadily upon. Plautus. name of the head is used to express what hbva. promise or a command. obliged. from tragen. gehaben. have the sense of calling or naming. Thus in Finnish the heave. to call. advantage. hafwa bort. to behave. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. behaviour. to vow. and (as Fr. G. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . or necessary. to raise. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. vow. to carry. to bring forwards. OE. to heave. And so from hania. to keep. to promise. The Lat. keeping. as in the case of E. hces. hafjan. hafwa. take heed of. to follow. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. injunccommand. commonly expressed. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. gehat. to name. Sw. AS. premi curi alicujus rei. solicitum esse. adjust. by the compound observare. portarsi. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to bers of the body. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. The supposition then that the notion of preserving.

to put a high price or value on. or high estimation. to promise or engage. to befit. bertefredum. leaf geleafa. precious.Lat. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. promiser. peal.D. to bolk. filu-galaubs. 6o BELAY BELL loven. ornament. beau sire and bel dame. to express approval. berfroi. The word be- Belfry. laven. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to make it fast. to cry out bell.Lat. loben. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. allow. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. Pl. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. bolken. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. battefredum. portion. with the consent of the heirs. for purposes of low estimation .alyfan. laubjan. . to boke. reach. to be required for a certain purpose. To Belay.D. a. to give leave. From AS. mark ON. legsel. b'ola. —F. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . bellow. Another application of the same word is in Pl. locus securitatis Schilter. to permit. verloben. to believe. loven. to hit hafi. Du. to roar. are innate . if a narration. to extol the worth of anything. if a promise. to lay be- around. and. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to der swaren lave. to protect. a little shed. ON. bounds. resonare. lyfan. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. To Belch. Q. Du. bettifredo. bialla. lov. then. to belay. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. properly belonging to the church tower. bylja. fringe. Fr. beleggen. to fix a price upon one's wares. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. loven. bealcan. Goth. ungalaub kas. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. galaubs. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave.. To praise is essentially Xo prise. . OFr. praising. reputation. to believe. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . Northamptonshire. bervrit. and bergan. to lay the cable round the bits. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. In Mid. permitting or giving leave. frid. laven. and Du. and E. Du. garnish. moderation. Bell. Hence to simple approbation. to praise. promising. tain a certain end. leave . In the middle voice hofwas. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. esteeming good and valid. glauben. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. ON. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. measure. Pl. were civil terms of address.D. It. or house. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. gelyfan. esteemed . consent. or a sconce. Fr. honoured. cela est audessus de votre portde. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to give leave Dan. See Gain. galaubjan. to to make A Templorum campana boant. — Diicange.D. a vessel made for dishonour. is an easy progress. overspread. an implement for making a loud noise. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. beffroi. beset. and E. bercvrit. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. met. to bellow. ley/a. To Believe. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. orloven. distance to which a piece will carry. to praise. — mankind. praise. AS. hesfa. Du. to promise. bealcettanj OE. lofa. . to believe. in nautical language. pro3. P1. certain rate. aim. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. Then. belief . we have Goth. to a loud noise. G. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. is (Sternberg). stand. Fair sir and Fair lady. under the forms belfredum. to sound loudly . to give leave. Det er ofwer er hofwa. a tower. to sanction an arrangement. behove. belja. a tower for defence . from mhG. fitness. giving leave or permission. erlauben. Sw. OHG. satisfaction. range. beffroit. AS. border. to estimate them at a To believe. is used in the sense of approving. are other modifications of the same imitative root. bell. on. permission. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. — . then. true. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. bellan. appearing in Mid. bulken. on.. turris. to resound. boare. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . a watch tower. to praise..

is The word balg. border. I araye. becwathan. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. benignus (opposed to malignus). Beneath. — ray. a good deed. leather sack. the womb. to hold to one. Fr. balteus . bendaj as. Bav. to hallow. a bellows . from another modification of the word for bubble. loubdn djawt." — — .' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. one who does good. bilbila. pod. ray.' Palsgr. blister balgan-snamha. on. vulgarly the belly. a benefit.. means seeds of plants. .— Belly. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. or a It is times the to signify services. ON. to arrive at. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. See Bind. Benzoin. to do good to one . . the skin of those animals that factor. rushes. pino3. binsen. because bcelg. benejicium. belliJ Lat. was in Mid. bag. The ing-skin. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. as concerning that. Belt. hence with ashes. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. a speaking well of one. a water-bubble builge. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. volva. Gael. ball. wallet. a blessing. In E. balg. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. est matris in lucem editus. belgr. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. binssen. Kil. G. pouch. incense of Java. Eenison. gelangen. To Benum. to exert force. belt. benjoin. Gum benjamin. bimaissen.pinuz. se bander. to stretch it on a frame. a border. generous. to say. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. as.videtur. a kindness. beneison. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Lat. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. — Ducange. balg. langen. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Sw. to attain belangen. blast-bcelg. welt of a shoe gwald. Dozy. bellows. the word. G. OFr. to attain to. Benedico. To Bend. I marre a thyng. bene/actum. Lat. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. to become one's property . kind. bolch. pervenire. from Arab. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Fr.polch. bolg. are stripped off whole blase-balg. belch. to use words of good omen. Lat. pertinere. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. To Belong'.' The term had been previously planation. a spring. Benignant.' — Hie fimus. or simply djawt. welt of a shoe. Benefactor. See Nether. vulva. ' . is a kindred form. cod or husk of pulse. to. bellows. to ring. to touch. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. a round or bubble-shaped root. benefacere. — root consisting of concentric skins. Benediction. bimpsen. bcelg. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. needs no ex. from cwcsthan. G. a leather bag. . from benedictio. Gael. or sometimes louban. G. to touch one. benehusk. to belong. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. To belong is thus to reach up to. See Bank. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Lat. to bless. bolg. I say). by itself. bilbil-goda. Fr. benedictio {bene^ and dico. skin. . To Bequeath. Ptg. ON. disposed to oblige. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. J'emboue. bander un arc. bless. I soyle it or araye it. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. ' I beraye. Bent. w. fyle To dirty. belly. Bret. belly. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. benedicere. — See Numb. Bench.Fr. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. taken absolutely. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . an inflated Lat. poX^ri. pertinere. . ^To Beray. From OFr. attinere. . to make bilbil. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. dirt. bienfait. a accusative. to concern. Quoth. hem. to come to the crown belangen. gwaldas. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. . a bellows. Du. Lat. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. bags or bellows. benjoim. fens et hie liraus. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. benaigon. Lat. bellows. bandoir. has assumed a plural form. benir. to bend a bow . bendan. attinere. Benefice. wallet Benefit. from which is also bulbus. OUG. to reach. well. Benign. See I . skin. a blow. bell. attingere. Was das belanget. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. to concern. Javanese perfume. rise against external force . or fyle with myre.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation.

berwham. the origin of which is to be found in ON. dung . or. advantage. The dry. Bestead. Ihre. To help. put forth. boeten. besnij Pl. roju. stede. small eatable fruit. So roto rattle down. basya. When men of mekeness him baet. as. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. stealth from steal. Fr. same word with the provincial barth. fyrbotare. sweepings. to word is shelter. hva mannan. earg. E. Hfence backing. solicit.— Hal. burrow. rods. — amendment. beseech. or the space kept clear betan. p. a berry. So too Yorkshire arf. think more probable. sets fire to. buttafuoco. position. protect . bet. scopse spartis. as conversely a besom is called broom. to make it. berwe. as. beorgan. an incendiary. AS. Grose. improve. from grow. to supply a want. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. supply. ariierf to 113. to exercise on a definite object. because used for making besoms. to mend. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. BEREAVE Wall. sheltered from the wind. barth may be for barf. Tusser. but it is specially applied mister.— VixHsm. brem-bessen. it seems hard to separate as. the guardian .—^fake. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. but in practice. as bouter selle.t. to thrust. G. to strip. ship for a make amend. AS. * Berth. lewth. bacca. Sw. is to perform a serviceable office to him. mud. baete. reafian. . vol. Fr. to defend. See Better. Goth. On the other hand. buttare. put. what does it better a man. peto. earh. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. lay out. basjaj Du. R. arwe. p. boeten. Tha het he micel fyr betan. dial. making better. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. eld up- On is to be placed A — . — . a fire. supporting on the one side Lat. Du. to To Bereave. het vuur The serise of Boeten. bestow. ropahtaa. to be-place. and on which the wager is laid. Beere. So Lat. From abet. from AS. and Du. betan. what does it boot. Du. to fall with roisto. as. broom twigs. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in.D. besmas. an incendiary. better. might have been . reparation.irova. bereafian. roju. boutefeu. botesward. Besom. Best. To seek something from a person. Du. make better . profit. in the sense ctf beria. vi. bdt. seems twigs or rods. boeten. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. besIn sen. betan. stow.ot-i. to give a place to. — Chaucer. to stand one in good stead. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. besein. compared with bargham. dirt. Fin. barthless. dust rojahtaa. Du. To Bestow. bota. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. from It. advantage. fall with sound. reparation. baete. To Beseech. * To Bete. Devon. boteith Goth. Rob. AS. Beet. To Bet. The origin is AS. to amend. barfham. as in growth. noise. bdt.iooA. berry. G. ^•n. roe. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. besen. ^akka. OE. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. jnore. dirt .fish the other hand. rubbish. preferably.bhaksh. encouraging. . that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. See Reave. or to bestead one. besje^ Sanscr. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet.• 62 Antiq. to seek. — bota. E. one who shelter. to put on the saddle. as Du. to to deprive of. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to cast. as. The proper meaning of the bale. Sw. repair. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. to entreat. amendment. to light the fire . Kil. Beit. To bete his Jam. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. BETE dirty'. To Gl. a place .X. 3. bouter. and also to entreat. I from lew. Berry. — Biglotton. to make better. fearful. to thrust. It is the restore fyr betan. to fire a funeral pile of . of ffeed a fire. to on the other Goth. Zeitschr. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. houseless. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. place. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. to kindle the fire. bur-we. to the place boarded off in a. bat. the side bhakshya. person to lie in. a horse collar. Esthon. bal oppbota. R.

ON. e. better. are commonly to one's lot. . fitting. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. some attention. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. AS. beverage. order. roja. kein leben mehrin no signs . A — drink. gatiman. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. from Lat. against. gezimet eines dinges. tima. dir. by two. a bevy. in the middle of twain. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. ziemen. i. springs from ON. betwuh. *Ah. Fl. pair of compasses. treachery. bet. find it good: Goth. is treason. taemen. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. — See To Bete. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. Dit tungomal rendered in E.' Dialogue on Witches. tradire. in the middle of two. E. /alia. In like manner folissais. more. thy speech bewrayeth thee. R. traitre. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. an instrument opening like a a thing. trahison. become. Dii. Better. said he. BETEfiM translated. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. a brood. obdissais. G. advance. two. suitable. Fr. spritigs from schicken. trakir. as tlock. In like manner from twain is fothied between. AS. from invadere. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. OE. polish. roebucks. 88. in the same way Lat. to make forwards. Det sig sjelft. bevere. Tinia eigi at lata eit. to drink . It. Ik tame mi dat nig. the being pushed to the frbnt. Fr. E. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. Now the stirring of an object. whence beveraggio Fr. To Bewray. fate. beva. R. From the former of these are AS. tima. From It.D. afford. twain. best. — that schickiich. progress. E. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. to deceive. to fall Some call it a bevel. regen. Fris. The as. larks. better. G. from Fr. Pl. To vouchsafe. beuvrage. Car son umbre si le trahit. and thence twegen. betst. bet. make manifest. as envahir. as from obdir. wrogia. from. ruogia. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. or with again. betweohs. tweoh. are there Regt R. to Teem. has — In a like sense tanie>i. betest. abash j from polir. suitable. of quails. bat. of pheasants. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. is used for the — R. Best. trahir. G. by a final sh. R. betriigen. to deliver up in breach of trust. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. betaemen. vrohjan. The inflections of Fr. bibere. Thus from dbahir.— . trahissais. evidence of life. to happen. To Beteem. traditor. betray. taemen. Slant. Sw. fallinn. Bav. Du. lot). i. To Betray. to cheat. find in one's heart. amidst. e. as one would have it fall. betweoh. Golding's Ovid in R. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. amiddes. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. ON. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. awry. bevde. deem suitable. betwuxt. as trahissons. sloped off. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. a traitor. Chaucer. dispose (whence schicksal. zimet. to stir. Ober D. zemen. To boot in coursing (i. deign. what does It is forward him. to accuse. to happen. his mouth. verbs in ir with a double ss. r'ojer dig. be fitting or suitable. for measuring angles. not to have the heart to give up a thing. -to appoint. Sahissais. It. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. to Hence It. Friar's Prol. — of the authorities. x. I approve of beveau. to discover. Between. moveable and compass branches. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. bedriegen. Cot. which may be compared as to form with amid. proficere. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. e. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. a drinking . obeish.D. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. better. his eyen sheen. Buveau. Fr. baet. In the water anon was seen His nose. Pl. Bevy. Goth. gesiemen. G. it bewrays itself. batista. bouter davantaige. betweox. tradere. betera. riigen. — Betwixt. Mich self a good glass of wine. Lat. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. to deliver tip. wreia. a different form of twa. to fall. &c. Hence last G. Goth. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. Percy Soc. Fr. batizo. On the same principle ON.

Fris. though such a change of form would be very unusual. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. love first begins to life signs of him. sbiscio. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. It. a bezle. it were the mouth. it becomes (Jz-. to stir. a stone-hewer . winding or crawling in and out. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant.two. Fr. To skirmish. Sard. slippery. sbrisciare. in him. of the sliced off.D. pible. to stir. like guzzle. baviere. a fragment bieco. To Bicker. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. Oh when shall I bizzle. Misc. Du. 172. It. liwell. sloped. wraggeln. evident. reveal. aslope. beslei. whence Du.s bellum for duellum. In comp. bezling or skueing. to make tongue Du. convicts thee of being drink. kwijlen. b&zahr. Jamieson. ber-laita (for bes-laita). bickel-sieenken. or kwijl-slab. he is Wtb. to move. In Arab. biberer. Ci^. Fr. To drink hard. a sloping edge. sik beregen. Dan. sbiasciai. bickel. (according to the Fr. To Bibble. beregen. poison. sliding. Bib. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. expelling or preserving against. . Piedm. biais. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. the papyrus. crooked. Yes. wrangle. foul weather. Cat. —Bickering'. bickelen. Bezoar. to creep or crawl sideling. is explained to clatter. babbi. E. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Fr. Pers. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. biascio. to purl.as in Biped. specially in a bottle. I Wallon.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. kwijl-bab. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound.{ioin dua. To bicker in NE. in Fr. or in and out. Bias. wrogen. to be a paring. To Bib. Gr. tailU en biseau. . sbias. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. Bice. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Probably. to tipple. /3i/3Xof a book originally. him. The train of thought is then. bebble. a slabbering-bib. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to slaver . Ant. and zahr. to cut in two. one who drinks in excess. bring under ' Thy accuse. lips. bihais. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . bark of which paper was first made. a Galilean. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. bending. — crooked. in two ways for duis. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Bible. Fr. bible. baverole. roggle. edge of a plate of looking-glass. Schiitze. 78). discover. biascia. to stir. to dispute. the basil Sc. twice. bavon. . Bezel. See Wriggle. Bibelsworth in Nat. kwijllap. sbriscio. misFr. oblique. a bibber. Lat. aslope sbisciare. sbieco. An excellent Basil. dial. The It. Bisect. to Jam. from pdd-. bibaculus. to tipple. bickai. to stir up . Mantuan. bescompte. sbiesso. or by any rapid motion. An inferior blue. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). makes ble. bis. It is especially applied in Sc.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. To Bezzle. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. notice.D. per\'erted belief. bickeler. metaphor). to well up with Cot. babbefore the eyes.a. bibo. whey count . by throwing of stones.or from obliquus. — Bi-. to shake. its clothes. the word became bddizahr. to sip. OE. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Prov. . sbrissare. Fr. biberon. Cat. Piedm. shows the P1. Diet. bestemps. sbrisso. slanting . to hew resemblance to sbiescio. rogt un bogt sik nig. Hal- — do something aslant. bes-azur. Sardin. biaiser. to the stirring of their conscience. bisel. presence.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. Uprogen. petit-lait. which good bibbeler. Pl. two- footed.to drink much. ice . used in precisely stone . . Fr. sbiagio. snout. bias-wise. bisdare. to give signs of life. sbiescio. biax.' bibble. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. Biseau. as an eel or a snake. besanca. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. asure-bice (Early E. Sp. pddzahr. inferiority. to it evident to sense. biberen. Hal. stock still. —Dozy. has a singular stone-picker. Lat. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. to glide or slip as upon. rogge. to slaver or drivel. to a fight with stones. dial.

spelling seems to used in the N. . bolga. G. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. bieden. anleta.peto. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. bend of a shore or of a rope. Bigot. abidan. Two verbs are here confounded. to offer. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. R. beodan. bead. to ask. Du. Bickelen. called the tertiary order. BID of stone. to build.t. — prepare. of More ' in Richardson. The 'La. praebere. A bjudan in anabjudan. bidill. bidjan. porrigere. bis and in comp. ten. has leta. from belgia. explaining the Sc. Wallace in Jam. to offer it to public notice. to build G. pressing on one's notice. bi-. G. who. verbieten. to build. from seek. AS. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bo.Leta). by seek and beseech. G. Palsgrave in Halliwell. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. offerre. iiQ. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bolgna). be bug. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. qucero. besides the professedmonks and nuns. to forbid . which is stiU. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. ON. consisting both of men and women. einen vor Gericht bieten. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. Bight or Bought. Bigamy. bieten. 2. OSw. bolginn. related to big or bug. a flexure. bygga. bidel. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to presimpler pare. swaggering. From Gr. form. buga. ' Bug as a Lord. to bulge.' Addison. boa. Hence Sc. The original Swollen.. Jam. from bidan. — To Bid. praestare.uddered len heart. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. W. build. and Gael. beidast. proud. bog. bced. to E. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. may plausibly be derived from Goth. the meaning of bid. bend. the belly of a ship. athird class. England for swollen. bug. a swelling. BIGOT beidan. or third order of penitence. swoln. to abide or wait on. bigan. ON. To bid the banns. to curve. a suitor.' Pope in R. to ask. ON. and the Sw. bouwen. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. Big. AS. biegen. P. bedun. rising up. to belly. becoming in Lat. byggia. faurbjudan. to marry. inhabit Du. Einem einen guten tag bieten. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. 1. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. and consequently ordering or reGoth. Compare also Sp. to offer one the wish of a good day. to cultivate. to swell. bulk. swelling. AS. to bend. forwards. Analogous expressions are G. to have one called before him. Big-swol- . — — — Halliwell. to pray one to dinner. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. to pro- command. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. gebeden j G. bugan. to bicker. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bat . is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. bulky. or. The . bauen to cultivate. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to bid one good day. to inflate E. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to bend. byggan. With respect to logical pedigree. ON. are also used in the sense of asking for. ewes. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. as. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. gebodenj G. to inhabit. Kil. bilge or bulge. bulge. to dwell. to arrange. cultivate. To Bid ' Big . balg. pray. To Big. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. quiring something to be done. A pose to one to come to dinner. bugne (answering to ON. . The ON. in the sense of ask for. belly. bulge. a chip. to look for. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. beadle. bua. to move quickly. bath. It must be observed that the word bidja.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. to start out. bow. twice. bidan. as tears from the eyes. bidan. an entire skin. to look for. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. or bad. bag. to solicit. and yajiBui. bit- bidja. to forbid . The ON. belly. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. OSw. inhabit. bugt. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. as G. biddan." buque with E. repair. The loss of the / gives Dan.

a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. 1243.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. a blockhead. bighellone.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. all apparently derived from Ital. corruption would easily creep in. probably from biso. perch^ i Terziari di S. 560.' says an Venet. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.— Ducange. Bizocco. Flor. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. 15 18.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. In a similar manner from bigello. natural grey or sheep's russet. was formed bigello. ix.D. Hence the OE. bighiotto. a dunce. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. aliqui Begardi. Bighini. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. borel. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores.— BIGOT bigardo. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. They wore a similar dress. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. 1499. In the same way Fr. A. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. grey. rustical. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. alii de paupere viti. grey. bigotta. &c. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. the other form Per te Tribune. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. vocati Fraticelli. G. absque votorum religionis emissione.' says one of of bigio. vol. dark-coloured cloth. homespun cloth. honesti plebeii amictus. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. author quoted in N.a. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. A. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. and also unlearned common men. to adopt a similar course of life. bigio. signifying bagmen or beggars. face VIII.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio.' translated by Muratori. Augustini dotarint. S. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . which must not be confounded with begardo. Beguttce. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. ac labores manuum detestantes.. beghart. and hence the variations bigutta. as well as bizocco. xx. From bigio. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. with reference to A.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. alii Apostolici. Bighiotti). Francisci communiter appellabant. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. sed maxim^ in muliebri. biso. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.D.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. begutta. coarse woollen cloth.' Matthew Paris. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. says. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. D.D.' Chart. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. the nobles to Rienzi. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. clownish. both men and women. and Q. Bizoccki. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. beghino.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. A. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum.

from the dark colour. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. irons or set in a kind of stocks.' mariners. as a bill of indictment. Bohem. bila. bla-berry. b'olja. the bill of a bird. a short note. on. An instrument for hewing. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. loi. a man who rests on a stick in walking. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. 'tumidi fluctus. fetters. bolghe. Prov. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. bulla. belghen. Dan.. Du. to strike. See Bulk. . su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. bui. whortle-berries. a sword. Lat. Billow. . bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Aurelles. plog-bill. To Bilk. BILBERRY nated. ferrese quam ligneae. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. tepati. Gael. — Cot. billot. abelthe fetter itself. Mundart. Kil. axe. and in Lat. to pick a millstone. Sw. The Du. ^Billiard. Fr. Bill. dziobad. bigot. bill in parliament.— — — .The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. as craneberry. Bill. billet is the diminutive of this. boia. Johansen. I. bisoch. fluctus maris. clog to a fetter. billet. to swell with rage). the beak of a bird. bwyell. gleischner (Frisch). bizocco. topor. a hatchet. Billette. Sw. in the same sense. to strike. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Sw. Thus we find in It. of boja. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Du. NFris. AS. gan. a of the sea. boja. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. blamand. and a billard. a shackle. bill of exchange. a seal. might be taken to express a hypocrite. 3. In English the meaning has received a further development. an axe. Billet. an ingot of gold or silver. from OSw. buail. blue . The origin of the term is probably from bole. Bojce. In the same way are related Pol. Bigin. To defraud one of expected sinking. of E. A slang term for a sword. 2. the swelling G. bigotto. boeye. bille. a negro. bill.' bilio. bull-berries. AS. bulgja. w. Kil. symbolum. crowberry. A lorum tam in — Diez. to job. 2. Ludwig. an adze . dissimulation . to peck. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Piedmontese bigot. Gascoigne in R. bulghe. deceit. now A Bilboa blade. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. genus vincu- Bilboes. an ingot. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . to be angry (i. is properly a sealed instrument. at sea Billet. bigot. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. weapon . — bigardia. billard or billart. seems to be rather the unda. the o changing to an i to express diminution. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. from Mid. names bill-berries. billard also signified at billyards. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. an axe. beil. Dan. a floating log to mark the place of some. buie. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. a name given to a. the trunk of a tree. OFr. G. inscriptum. a seal. a beak. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bile. See Bull. a hypocrite. biilge. Tartuffe. used in legal proceedings. AS. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. Bille. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Bilbo. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu.' in Richardson. however. So in Gr. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. person of religion leading a loose life. Du. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. top. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. belgan. bigardo. Sp. procella Kil. Fr. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Lat. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. horn of an animal. dziob. bil. Bilge. Bilberry. — — ' . obsolete. beghart. blaa. an axe. Deutsch. e. p. an axe . that of swell. Langued. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. a devotee. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. in the sense of a writing. e. The proper meaning bylgia. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Roquef. a bigot or hypocrite. buoy [i. 5 * . and dziobas. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. bullet. Fr. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . .

G. — properly near-sighted. to net. Bisom. Bird. . to twine. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. IV. a bitch. a female stag. propius videre bij sicndc. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. pin-ti. or bin. Dan. to cook). Birch. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. to form a knotted structure. from \t3\. a heap.. — — . from pondus. admota non Bit. Sanscr. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. a bunch. to knot nets for fish. a female dog hindinn. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. to bind together. to build. vescovo. to bring Biscuit. AS. to plait. bindan. truss. and of Fr. bunt. H. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. ON. from Gr. G. a gallinaceous bird..' and the like. Bing. biccej ON. pittjo. Sp. bikkia. Then added division in a granary. Fr. evegue. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. beize. AS. which is expressed in E. bircej Sw. pinnii. The bitol. Goth. doubtless a stone. — Surrey in R. bindan. G. or petze. bundt. videt. a brood or hatch of young. is in Scotland applied to ivy. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. ON. sc. the young of an animal. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. BITTACLE /Siof. brid. bhurja. &c. poultry. j). See Belly. Fr. piiiti. . an overseer. It. evigue. qui nisi propius Blind. beorth. to be derived from Ibfiaq. in Swabia. EpisETTiTOOTToe. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. e. a pig petz. Bin. AS. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. piccione. biclie. bundle. burt. a house. bord. Lat. a bump or knob. AS. bitacora. properly a young pigeon. to hang. bunki. 'tumens sequor. poule. bigne. ge- from AS. terial. episcopus. Bittacle or Binnacle. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. biscuit. — See Bittacle. See Breed. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. life. is rendered in ON. the young of birds . i. bunch. wine. biscotto. earnes brid. and especially to a small poor horse. a bitch applied also to other animals. Bisson. or baked. See To Bear. bundun. pullus. habitacle. Bine. The proper meaning is a heap. Lat. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. E. a corn. bundt. evesgue. to wreathe. than vice versi. bitill. bjork. or ben-wood. Fr. To — — —D. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. a bitch. berkas (z=:Fr. to swell.68 BIN Bio-. band. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn.. bij sienigh. by binda. brut. Du. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. v. an eagle's young G. Gr. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. from Lat. hiindiiin. bund. Thus I suppose the Gr. twice cooked. a hind or female stag. a habit- Binnacle. bij sien. . Fr. also a stone weight. . a little dog. by the verb knit or net. beran. Lat. AS. to bind at . a weight. pinnu. Fr. isfiw. Goth. To Bite. bundle. Bind. hith. where the compass stands. It. . bin-wood. Sw. beisseii. to fasten it together. betsel. pippione. AS. Bailey. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. G. forth. Lat. while bind-wood. Bizened. beitsl. Sw. fowl. bund. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. In like manner from knot. binge./«idere. nodus. Bitch. Lap. copus. Habitacle. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. are commonplaces. a heap. Bindweed. — Kil. We — A Birth. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. binda nat. viz. pundas. i. . When compared with Fr. to bulge. I would derive the verb to knit. The term ON. expressed by Sw. a knob. bunga. beitan. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. a weight of 48 pounds. overlooker. a truss. Lith. to bear. lusciosus et myops. Bisen. V. a bear. Lith. bita.

bitones. Ai-mstrong. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. bittore. Fr. Fr. stutterer. blesmer.. BITTER dwelling or abiding place.' It would thus acle. to the sharpness of a weapon. Mag. obscurus.. blanc. babbe. blabhdach. fallow fawn-coloured. 332. blabaran. ^chops. AS. white. Gael. things —Palsgr. bleich. faded. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. an additional watch. 156. Bittern. — cheeked maid. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . AS. yellow . Du. baboyer. Cot. ^aj'/^r. G. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Sp. black. faded. To or he can speake. 't huisje. confusedly. a large coarse lip . Fieldfare. pale brown . synonymous with baber-lip. to speak Dan. in contempt. Goth. — Collins in Hal. as in that of pale and white on the other. bites. blebberis. to To blabber blabber with the lips. gulblakk. gabble. Hald. fallow . /ealo-/or. Again. Deutsch. pale. pale yellow. ' plabraich.. bitor. plabartaich. ON. a fluttering noise. unintelligible talk plabair. ON. bitr. It. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). 't kompas huis. from whence we have adopted the. an edge is sharpest sword. Alex. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. bihovac. bleg. dark. thoughtlessly . In Legrand's Fr. . as is seen in sputter and splutter. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. to chops. whiteness (candor sine It.plab is used to . as of a body falling into water. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. a beam in a house or ship. Mund. a* mast . Hal.' G. Sw. blank. brunblakk. whitish. night guard. light-coloured. . a stammerer. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. 'fuscus. bitter. cut. pale. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. to talk much. his blacan light. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. blab. Se bleek. garrulous. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. the palebleff. Hist. Wit hung her mourn. Gael.€i. blac-hleor ides. NE. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. ON.D. maculS. blabbern. pale yellow . a childe dothe gasouille. buft". blubber-lipped. In like manner E. blobach. blakk. blepLith. to wax pale or bleaked. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Je N. blakki. a flapping. Bivouac. blabbre. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. Fr. leohte . beuni. a tati. pale. white lead. on the one side. . beitr. I blaber. even humour seemed and beuin. as of water gently beating the shore. "uivac. butorj OE. quick. mona mid Dan. blake. to let out whai should have been concealed. baitrs. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. v. blob. biti. yellowish. bitts of Bitts. mouth. a shelter for the steersman. Lydgate. to watch. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. The Gz. on. as of wings . corrupted in Fr. Cotgr. chatter babbler . Bleak. round which the cable is made fast. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Blabber-lip. a large lip. mouth. small guard-house. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. In a similar manner Gael. out the tongue. blob. term. quoted by Ihre. babbling. Mantuan babbi. to babble. blob. dusky. G. pins of the capstern.— Blabber-lip. from wachen. discoloured .). So Fr. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. Percy Soc.' by Gudmund. shine. whitish. Why presumest And laam's asse. biacca. — Hollyband. Sp. shining. A a rail. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. bird of the heron tribe. Sp. first. ' Biovac.' by Haldorsen. white. —Neumann. Bohem. To Blab the anchor. x. Pl. to babble. to loll it out. bittour. Bav. is apprehension of danger. Black. beiwache. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. blunt we say it will not bite. indistinctly. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. plappem. Fr. is placed. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. apparently from its biting the tongue. Applied in Hin ON. bleikr. The bitas. a babbler. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. to bivouac. iroxafealo. Nagt huis. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. a continued soft sound. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. or water beating gently on the beach . ON. Sp. viz.

I am degraded from a cook. The present forms then should be classed with blether. variable than the signification of words designating colour. — . linkboys. to glow. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. also white woollen cloth . The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. from candere. blegne. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Blame. 86. a bubble. Fr.—Blatter. dripping-pans. also jabber. blather.. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. 1854. and thence to babble. black. Now. as blader. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. — — — to jabber. To blank. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. But perhaps a more Gr. Cot. madder. blister. sheet of paper. To Blare. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. bladeren. chatter. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Reliqu. pladdern. biastner. and others engaged in dirty work. to bubble. chatter. Perhaps from blegen. commonly called the Black-guard. p. Fr. pluddre. Du. dial. revile. to make or become white blanc. . vagrants. bladre. The radical bubble. blegen. mire.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. plat. Jan. —^Webster. is identical with Flanders borlen. or as E. G. a buible. speak impiously. mus-blackt. bladder. tattle. most complete example of leafy structure. blether. to shine. to Hence Ital. Besides the examples of this connection given above. blanchir. boys. to disappoint. and wandering men and women. and the agitation of liquids. Torriano. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. &c. . bladder. —We Bladder. to —Blaspheme. coat. Blank "verse. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. blad. Sw. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blatter. Gr.—Blatant. blad. Sir. Blanket. slush. in R. and G. contracted from bladeren. blaere. waschen. 5/^a/^ of colour. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. blinken. white. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. pimple. bladra. borrelen. roar. blanchet. on. piatto. a white or unwritten ticket. a pustule . Wott. shining. as. candidus. a blank ticket. mud. branches . Blain. smother. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. e. on. Dan. and he shall be sure to have O. imbrunire. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. Eadmer. whitish. 7. rogues and wanderers. pXaatpiiiiHv. Fr. his meat burnt. Play in Nares. a bubble. Du. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. pass over. Dan. gabble. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Sc. smore. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. bladder . blatter. Du. broad. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. as. white. the ON. blena. mud. defame. which we . leaf. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. to vocifer- — Cot. — rura. to glitter. to blanch. See Blubber. leaves. to bleak in the sun. Blancli. Hist. . a leaf. PI. skola and thwatta. or blafich. blame. polished. board.— Kil. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. plate. tree. blanqne. a boil. to blow. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. biasimare. blahen. or a mass of bubbles. D.— ^o thehotsun. Du. blister. Blade. Dan. blactra. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. a blanket a bed. pallido. and Q. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. to purl. the leaf of a tree. leaf of a.. blein. the origin of . blister. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Blank. name originally given Blackguard. Bav. Bacon in R. G. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. blaeren. blasphemare. and E. also tanned by the sun. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Lat. blather. G. with all other loose idle masterless men. irXariQ. whitish. plat. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. bladdra. to shine. vagabonds. foolish talk. moere. cited in N. blatt. — Sw. flap of a Du. blister. or of an oar G. to To bellow. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. to dabble in water. as scullions. blank. a bladder or pustule. Fr. leafy. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Sw. blanc. as Lat. reproach. blanchet. a. livido . It. Du. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. bladder. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. probably ate. to omit.

blcEsan. somewhat different train of thought. bldsse. blossi. blaesen. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. Kil. might And sain. blateroon. A strong flame. blasoen. to blow. loud . ill-speaMng their proper colours . a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. G. biter. A blaze is so intimately Then. brasa. blasonner. Blast. friend Cornelius. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. a blast. oron-blasare. an empty and two theories are proposed. a coat of arms. Blatant. ventosus. to publish the praises. A gust of wind.' painted or figured . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion.). as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. Dan.' to fastum . or to the sound which it produces. If armour. laudes (Kil. besides blesse. . light-coli. G. a lamp blasere. Lye. quus. the matter incendiary . blazen. blase. proclaim the virtues of. clamorous. blaeteren. and which. blason. To Blaze. bles. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . ON. bliEsan. blaterare. the noisy. . Sw. and. Du. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. in the same way as we 2. blys. indeed. blus. abroad. Sw. But now. blaze. The other derivation. blast. Du. Fr. blase.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind.— . As Kilian. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. in that of praise. . To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Du. ther it was erst not knowe.whence the Fr. among other . Gael. Blanches illuminies. blysa. — Elazen. a shining spot. redness . boasting. to spread news. stultd loqui. baladrar. blesse. OE. To blow AS. bleis. a voice Jr. a torch.sound a trumpet. Sc. blass. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. blis.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. splendour. Fr. Du. Golden Book in R. — ^Jam. a torch . as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blaodh. Cot. to extol. on whose behalf the herald appeared. oured. blason. blaser vid. commendation blason funebre. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. — — ' : bless. much plausibility. blcesett. 'op een trompet blaazen. See Blare. a MS. a funeral oration . coloured prints. also praeblczse. blesse. To blast. magnilo. is the imme. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. brasa. Gudmund. to bellow. beast. Du. each of boaster. blasa. 2. e. braise. pale. a whisperer. a shout. to de. First from the E. blaodhrach. like the in English. to cut off prematurely. it is manifest. Blaze. has also blencke. a flame. blatero. shield or surcoat. magniloquus. i. blorach. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. The AS. Du. whence Blazonry. baladron. used. proflare tues. blose. thraso. a flame. ing of arms. an conium. fire. and to make him word blaze. gloriosus. to blow . senses. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. declaratio. ON. kept up. live coal . to blow. The origin of this exSp. a shield. to blaze Sp. Fr. visui patet. of an animal. to publish. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. g. to set on fire. abroad. Troilus and Cressida. AS. how. I. is from AS. blcest. AS. — ' — stroy. also blazon or the blazSpenser. to trumpet forth. blcEsan. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. as a verb. Prov. noisy blor. She roade at peace through his heraldry. might spring from the same origin by a . backPerhaps the expression of blazing. With inversion of the liquid. Cot. blezo. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. bawling. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. or blazening. also only pains and excellent endurance. a flame . Dan. embraser. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. to proclaim. blcese. a loud noise. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. by stripping off a portion of the bark.

bldmi.D. spla7nU sie. sinen langen tranen. A stain in a man's reputation. 115. See Black. Palsgr. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. ^Xiixaoftai. . although he professe nought to say when he should speak. from the than schal I go.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. Sir J. inflamed eyes. p. A Blab. bloken. Bleak. a disgrace. . blarren. The term blear. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. to cry or weep. tutnan is a cloud. Bailey. (faith or creaunce) Be war. Blemisli.filerren.v. plama. a spot. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. darkness of vices. Schmel. drop of water. a blotch plerr. a spot. N. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . to bleat as sheep. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Blear-eyed j having sore i. which are blurred with the have shewed you. So in Sw. paleness. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. And now are these but mansbond (i. Blancher. bleakness. To totally different from the foregoing. blesmir. wan. wheal. livor.'he cried till the tears ran down. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. confound him. or blemysshen — blaken. .P. dead-coloured Cotgr. boggle at something. souiller. color plumbeus bldma. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. like one that has long P1. start vor den augen. what blenched him therwith. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. From the OFr. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. sugillatio. blema.' to deceive one. Pol. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. To Bleat. livid. Mac. — — R. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. novice. blesmissure. splamii!. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blister. 242. geplerr. to blare been weeping. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. or blemish. tacher. to disgrace one's name. to blear one's eye. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. the livid colour of a bruise. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to stain one's honour or reputation. blemissemeiit. pier vor den augen eyes. Ancren Riwle. blakna. avoid looking it in the face. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. goda nainn. from on. Manuel de Pecch&. bleikr. . An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. blcecan. pale Du. ' — — ' : — — . Gr. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. blench came to be used for a trick. I chaunge colour. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. See Blood. to wink at it. Bejaune. AS. a boil. blot. as of dust or mist . to wink the eye. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. while the agent ac- From . to humbug. Bleed. ^Blencher. . to make him feel blank. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. to start away from. — blink the question is to shrink from it. a spot. to spot . blur before their eyes. light-coloured. Blear. ' — — eye. pale . Bleb. Sw. See Black. in the expression reputation. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. spSt. To salir. to become livid. tumanid. to cast a mist before the eyes. B. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. 419. a spot. a red watery eye. a stain. guenchir. Fr. a fault.' God in his wordes. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. blink. on. ' He blarrede or roar. BLENCH obfusco. is Blench. a been distinct. whitish. wanness. ' .' the devil makes a vain back. G. a blot or smear blanking one. And By a similar metaphor Pol. Gower in R. to bleach. exposed. the formal equivalent of English wink. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. and thence to a bruise. to soil. flack. to spot. c. blot. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. a blemish in one's 2. As AS. or to low as oxen. Richardson. pimple . — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows.

Bliss. well blahy blick and blink. .D. Du. dazzle . blinzler. to shine. bludder. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. j). weaklaveny. to glance. seems the simple netel. Swiss (obsolete). flash of light . blazeny. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. blanssen. to glitter. blinzeln.nasal. To blunder water. pale. to fall into water with a sudden noise. Blind. to glitter . . OHG. — A A — . blahoslaviti to twinkle. blink. blessed. to dash wine with water. ^Jam. blotzen. (=bene dicere). to blithsian. but by no means therefore a pre. although in the in the next article. mixing in general. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited.blinkard . Nares.Q.. lovely Bohem. a wink With the bletsian. . . gives blinzen. blendian. blind- ON. to lighten. blogi. G. to stir or puddle. make these hands 3. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. lightning sweet blago. . Blink. blahos. a wink. . to merry. the verb to bless is some. goods. From the action of the hand making Sw.blinken. — . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . is I shall Gurt. riches blajennii blicksem. thou knave. — when he — Bailey. Owl and Nightingale. Du. Sc.blinze. Dan. Biglotton. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. doors. blindr. Wtb. to flash. also to wink. to make happy. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. blick. glad. joy. pearance of the blighted . tire.not sting thiiren. — Goth. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. to bless . and joys of Paradise bliden. glitter. A . blund. Du. window-blind. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. a look. to dabble in water. joy. to bluiter up with water. Needle. with or without the nasal. Pol. happy . well blagaya. graceful. AS. . Sw. The inblissful. burn up. Du. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. a dead nettle. blet. to shut the eyes. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Kiittner. blent. lighten. III. blincken. Blight. to bless. To Bless. joyful. fortunately. De Sonne ' verblekken. blaziti. tless —Gamm. to glitter ful . a nounce happy. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to make a rumbling noise. wink. tative source of the word is wholly lost. blicken. G. blidu. Russ. liquid filth to bluther. joy . . a gleam. Deprived of sight. blag. to rejoice. blithe blis. to — make it thick and muddy. plotzen. money. Swab. good.wink . blac. glimpse. wink of sleep . blend. to shine. F. to shut the eyes G. as in Du. . lightning. bleg. csecubrandish. in potters' language. the Slavonic languages. to dazzle . Sc. a blessing.eyed. 375. as a blind entry.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. gladness. blissian. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. a glance. blink-eyed.' To — blunge clay. false windows. blitz. blago. blicksem. be glad flash. to plunge. glitter. Serv. to consecrate . to be blind. to mix. as taschen. a glance Swiss blenden. I hold thee a grote thee. or nettle which does form. blich-fiur. shine. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blessed. Tany. Paradises blidnissu. to shine. To Blend. lightning. blide. The sound of k before an s. glitter. as a vatn i vin. . . blican. blitzen. trix. to act like a — . BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. a flash. ' Pl. mix from blekken. sweet. to twinkle. blatida.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blinzdugig. plonsen. blicken. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. to dilute too much . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. a blick-ooghen. as in the case of blaze. blende. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. to pro. AS. blindselen. a. giving (Fr. happy . to rejoice. readily passes into a /. to bluiter. blithe. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink.blunda. OHG. G. ON. riches . sung. moment. a. G. blind.corn. happily. bliss look . is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blinde fenster. an entry which leads to nothing . sertion of the nasal. bluiter. glance. livid. Blazena Bea. Thence apblinds. AS. . HalliwelL Of this latter the E. pockets. —Brera. AS. vious one in the order of formation. cascultare. to churn. The term then self or others. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Du. happy . the G.

Blond. Block. stone. or is inserted or omitted. swell. must be classed with forms like Gr. Goth. a See Blot. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. to dash liquid. bleiths. senting the dashing of water. to close it with a solid mass. Egillson. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. Bav. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. having an unsound swollen look. See Blot. as a blab of ink. Mod. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. bluster. B. sloppy dirt. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. soft.plisg. a small lump of anything thick. must be referred to AS. Blister. N. inde humiditate tumidus. expressed by cognate roots. pimple. Sw.— Bailey. blot. ^vaaa. Sc. orbicular. I believe. blod. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. blubber. bluyster. soft. Of sheep. strawclod. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. kostua. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. blaustem. fiustula. For this. in Nares. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. or bleb. soft. blindsehn. any lump or mass of things. kostia. to desire the male. or the like. Gael. the unhewn bole of a tree. blautr. buckle. a bubble. blithe. Blob. buclde. Fr. blaud. in the sense of a soft tint. busten. .pusta. light yellow. frequentative. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. like manner the coloured. as if soaked in water. blote. blot. pods. signifying in the first instance to soak. In Fin. a little blisg. bloated. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. . G.—Bloated. to soak.—Bloater. Hence E. G. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. and easily changes its place. And so from squatter. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. fish blind person. pusula. to cure by smoke. a bubble. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. to blow. mild. Du. Lat. shells. an unformed mass. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. — Blob. as blinzeln. cooking. round. gentle OHG. as in E. blot. bloc. boucler. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. a blot or spot. bubble and blubber. to blow. merciful ON. Kil. also to set See Bless. — — — — — From blabber. and inarticulately. Hence. Dan. ON. Langued. a ram. blcesma. Dan. soak in water cured fish. blobbes or droppes of water. is also used in the sense of swelling . in bulk. viscid. W. —Bailey. a lumpish head plubach. B. a blister. and bouclette. a drop of water. mass. weak.— Hal. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. — Sw. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. a . a bubble. it is must be observed. to swell. To Blissom. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blotfisk. A under this name was imported into England. . blad. plub. to breathe hard. blister. A solid blouquette blisters. in gusts. puff. to block up the way. a block or log en bloc. formed spot.. bloc. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. a blister . Blob. repre- pusula. soaked. biota. whence blast. Bleb. a dirty blister. blindman's-buff. husks. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. from blcsr. mild. Jonson. The stem or trunk of a tree. to steep. joyful. Cotgr. blesme. like clot. Du. blobber. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. to blow. and pisg. to blissom. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. blond. Fr. — . flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Thus we have blab and babble. and F. blouca and Fr. ON. taken altogether. To a smoking or drying by the fire. while Lat. ^Jam. The blow E. blinzel-maus. blab. pustula. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. The roots /. or blinde-kiih. Boyd in Jam. a blain. to bubble. pausten. or the mark which it makes. bausen. in the lump or mass of wood. Sw. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. It may be formed Blithe. Gael. To Bloat. lagga i blot. to to puff and be noisy. speaking rapidly any . is formed squad. separate portion. Svt. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. blijde. Ibid. blide. blister blasan. . blidr.

Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. on. Du. a pelting shower). blue. biado (of which the evidence plattern. Schmid. Blad. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. yellow. j^ blottir. OFr. blosen. Russ. platt-voll. Schilter. Fr. soft or flat. a drop of water or colour. blotter. whence plader. Du. to dirty. blaeuwen. to patter. blaeuw. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Erploten. blysa. brilliancy. to spot or blot. Du. bloto. mud. to glow. pladdern. Ein platsch milch. ON. bloi. Sw. blostma. S-wiss pladern. Blot. bloi. E. Stalder. platz-voll. Blossom. 2. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. pale biavo. blose. a spot or blot.properly to scatter liquid . to squander. to be red with blot. pale tint. to slap. Jios. clod. blond is used in blatt. glister . Dan. coloured (Diaz. fall down . pladern. Wflz<^«. blomstr. of a blow with something lios. Sw. pale. . Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. a cow-dung. bletister. bloutre. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). from the bright colour which 7'vci. Florio). Du. blust. ON. probably connected with Pol. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. shine . in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. to blaze . to dabble in water . Sw. to grow pale). a flower. to scribble. bleistern. wan. D. en blau ach. platschern. to blot the land was in a leme. ON. — Stalder . tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a blot or spot. Hatch. blooth. gfyssa. Blow. in v. the bright to blot paper morsels. Ir. to shine . See Blow. —Barbour. bldts. a blaze. Plots. blistaf. . — Blotch-paper. The G. Blood. Pl. bloetnsel. dirty spot on the cheek. fall to overflowing. a gush of milk . Lat. — — . to splash. spot pletter i solen. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . blue. a beater. to squat or lie close. Sc. E. Blotcli. plattata. Fris. a black eye Du. bliise. ])erly Du. platsch-voll. fair in en blat vand. blotting-paper. to be red. blodelsa and blawelsa. . a lump. (of cattle) to dung. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. blue . a water ploutsche. flower. to dabble in water. blus. Prov. dial. blawels. plants which prepares the seed. to strike with such these objects exhibit.D. blou. bloemen. yellowish It's G. sbiadare. blue. PI. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. straw. . couleur livide. a torch blusse. — Cot. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. blotte. skam. blaeuwe ooghe. a deli. bloi. glossi. Dan. blauwel. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blue. ^Bleed. livid marks. to blaze.' the rain is driving and blue . a Schmid.blauschlagen. a The form platschefz. gloss. light. to sparkle.platter. to glisten . lustre. to slap. splendour . a Usaae. glus. bleustern. It. as the skin or hair. blut. a nature. to dash down Du. blady. Dan. blosma. glasi. glose. leme. bloedsd. lidmr. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. blowen. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. to strike . of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. ^lys. . proto shine with bright colours .^ Kil. . E. . ' — . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. E. bldmi. splashing full. lump flower. lump of anything soft to blad. blatte. to From . to strike with something soft or flat. parallel form with ON.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blad. kobladde. kuh-plader. Bloom. plottra. a blow. blosa. a Halm a. bit by bit. dial. blois. plot of land is a spot or small rage. gleam. from G. blond en blaauw slaan. or the sound of it . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. .— . Harmar in R. Schwenck. bliihen. bliithe. blondheid. a. See Blow. great leaf of cabbage. to flame. plotterwis. — gush. plet. Sc. AS. Fris. blat. spots in the sun. to dash down. bloed. to blush . colour of the cheeks. redness. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. cow-dung. the bright colour of the cheeks . blosem. AS. blond. bfys. bluish. bloeme. Wendish blodo. livid . to exists in biadetto. E. G. a flower. blase. E. a flower. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. It should be of filth blak-blatte. platz-regen. G. white blatte. gammon. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon.

to blow. red-faced bloted wench. to guggle. blezir. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. a herb Gr. blazi. Du. br. to fade. To Blow. plustrig. sponds with Sw. to bruise Roquef. v. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. OHG. toused. Pl. blodern. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. ' BLUE or guggling. where the word may be compared bliggman. Blue. It is howbliuwen. . chatter. blahen. boasting. . one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. Blowzy. G. to hard. gliihen. MHG. Bret. to make blue. to bubble up.D. piusen. Pl. to spot.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. bl. to flourish. blois. Jla-re. bliithe. E. — . or gr. Kil. to flap like loose clothes. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. to fade. a blow. a continued noise of agitated water. like manner Lat. Chaucer. |8A)'. . Prov. fiubbem. glede. P1. to shine with bright From colours. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. bludder.Jlasa. bruised Prov. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. a Blossom. to with Bohem. fqded. heath. pale.D. 1. Du. glas. bloeden. .' — Palsgr. a flower. blue. to make bubbles in drinking. meurtrissure Roquefort. bluh. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. a bruise. closely difference in of blabber. . ^Jam. — To Blubber. plubair. Lat. OFr. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. It. to'disorder. Danneil. fied vowel. bloeyen. blady. gloeden. blebber. in E. Gael. blao. to beat. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to breathe bouteiUis. blava. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). . The aUied forms. /idXavoc. to exhibit bright colours. boil. plusig. pludern. The radical sense is shown in Gael. w. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to glow. These are — Bludder. florere. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. AS. disordered in head-dress. blduen. flower OHG. blubbern..D. G. to gabble. Notwithstanding the We . — . Blowze. jabber. to beat with a mallet. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. and closely allied with Du. OHG. is very frequent. wan. y\r)yi»v. glaodh and blaodh. G. bliihen. to glow. Sik upplustem. and thence. into flower. cheeks bedabbled with tears. plodern. fem. The primary sense is to shine. coup. blubbern. glow. — — Mundart. Chaucer. B. corre. A. Pludern. to blow. bledniai. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to fade. E. ler. blodelsa. Gr. grey. — To blubber. pale . ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. sense. plubartaich. blow. plubraich. blass. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. disordered. gloeyen. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. blue . 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. blust. bldt.' Hamburgh Archives. may cite for example G. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. withered. blau. to blurt out. bluod.nify bubble. Wtb. little apparent resemblance. Her sweet bloderit face. to blow. 51. tache. is confined to the — . bloi. pale OFr. the red fluid of the body . We . d in Sc. to Plodern. green. G. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. And.D. a blast. foam. bruk. to show flower. blawan. dirty. a gurgling . in rapid or indistinct utterance. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. blubonciti. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. blut. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. puff. blodyn. blau. 1292. blosen. glowing coal . Deutsch. especially with respect to the hair. bluther.xo'»'. glas. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. grow pale. blaw j biavo. wan. bloom. vi^ound. gliihen. bliuwan. gUd.— . bloes.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. The interchange of an initial gl. and the forms mentioned under Swab. to breathe G. pale. Tumbled. bloemen. Bav. blazir. Deutsch. to inflate. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. -ii. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. marking some application from that bladder. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. 2. sound like water. grug. Langued. Raynouard. bliihen. Mund. —SchmelIt. glansj Ir. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. — Bluther. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. To Blow. to puff up. to gush. a. a paddling in wate r. 92. a fat.to blossom. flower w. In agitation of water.

' trouble. Roquefort. . abrupt. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. which is rendered by Florio. contrasted with the dle. to fade). tradire to Fr. blue. discoloured {plowiee. in plur. and Du. to blunder water. buller-bak. yellow. bleu et blanc. Bluff. sbiavare. Halma. See Blurt. all representing the — . a boisterous violent man. rustic. blue. applied to green as well as blue. flav-us. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. Dief. Analogous forms are Du. find accordingly It. to dabble in the mud. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. flodderen (Weiland). having a bluff forehead. pale yellow. Kiittner. to agitation of liquids. sense of yeUow. blandum. to lose colour. to become pale or livid. Ditton in R.• BLUFF biado. and biavo (Diez). blutter. A bluff manner. Blunt. jaune. in water dobbelen. mistake. has donder-bus. bluish.— . superficie plani. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Blunderer or blunt worker. The Du. plo-wy. is. Pol. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. OFr. to become pale. E. And blunders on and staggers every pace. puddle. to plump into the water. - reddish yellow. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Hence we pass to Prov. pale straw-coloured. polterer. biada. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Palsgr. glundra. G. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Pm. Sw. speech. verdoyer. to dabble Biglotton E. Biada. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home.D. a flounder. and metaphorically. like the Celtic glas. planus. bulmanner. a shore abruptly rising. from the brilliant green of the young E. to mix it up with water. The Du. Bodge. — Pr. a blunderbuss. Kil. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. from an imitation of the sound. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . blaf. Dryden in R. devenir vert blavoie. G. blahir. See Blunt. It is remarkable however that the E. and then generally idle talk. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . blond. bawling. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. blave is moreover. Flor. something. sloppy drink. blac. earth and water mixed together.make a noise. pale) is provincially used in the. an ill-done job. to confound. Bladum. Dan. ploffen. to puddle. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Hence a Slcelton in R. and bustle . Blavoyer. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. dial.. plomp. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. and sbiadare. a plain coin herausplatzeu. verdure. falb. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. bloi. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. originally growing up turf and water. — . polter-hans. liebefactor. to fall suddenly on the ground. blunder. Kil. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Lat. biava. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Then with the nasal. je perturbe.//aay. to blunge clay. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. in the same way as from It'. poltern. as well as biado. or an abrupt manner. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. fallow. from the Lat. Du. blunt. glundr. non rotunda. confusion. . without image or superscription. used for the work of an unskilful performer. like Du. Supp. Blaffart. trahir. blue. pludder. corn. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. his business with much noise. The word is here synonymous with amplus. From G. bUich. corn. segetes virentes. blanssen. Du. blunderhead. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Roquefort. pale. We Blunder. biavo. blavus. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up.in mud or water. I blonder. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. — — — . G. Hal. blake (identical with AS. yellowish red. as well as sbiadafe. 't — —Hal. To blunder is then. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. to become pale or wan. blunder. disturb. fawn-coloured. a fore. buller-bas. Bohem. bullern. to work To blunder out a fronto. G. herbe. It then signifies something done at once. Romance bluiter. Pl. Altieri. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. mix It.

that the sense of bare. plotz. without preparation. unceremonious manner. Swab. G. plumbeus. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . plains The large bech. platzen. Dan. —D. platz-regen. A modification of the same root. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. unwrought. — blunt. inactive Swiss bluntschi. G. plutz T)\i. Sc. to blunt a thing out. plump J to plump out with it. through which a man is so blont. dull. Pol. a portion To inquire for slaves. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blait. biotto. and. blotta sanningen. naked. bare. as in E. Ford in R. blutten. figuratively. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. united in Gael. unpolished. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. bloss. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Blunt. bus. without Maolaich. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. fling down . and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. blunt. a blot. bluntschen. Stalder. bare. ang. as Sw. blunsch. azure.pludse. blait. a simpleton. void. Bluntet. Won by degrees. to plump into the water. More in Richardson. silly. blunt.to fall into the water. obtusus. nis. exactly corresponding to the G. dial. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. homo stolidus. a thick and will person. that it not easy to discover the connection. unfledged Sw. rudely. blat. hebes. A light blue colour. it will be well to point out a sense. stupid fellow. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Kiittner. pointless. blunder. heavy. Chaucer. The syllables blot. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Sw. clownish. to make a noise of such a Stalder. from the loud report a fire-arm. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. of a knife which not cut. naked. to plump down. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. the absence of sharpness. and an unintelligent. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. sheepish. —D. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. and hath swiche languor in his soul. a bluntie. thick.—D. is The word dull. viz. with or without the nasal. or heraus plumpen. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . raw. V. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Molof something wet. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. and in the same sense. inaKil. without horns. It will be seen that the G. F. blue. edgeless. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. V. to handle a thing bluntly. duU. naked. Sir T. Plontp. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Blaitie-bum. good plump person. blockish. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Plump. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Du. as cow-dung. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. pressions. Dan. nature. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. clumsy. plotsen. it will be observed. Bare and blunt. plump. maol. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. It is from this notion of suddenness. Then cometh indevotion. heavy. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. dull. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. seems to be derived. blunt. biosso. It. plump. obtusus. bleak. is thrown. Halma. Woddis. massive. to make foliage. pale. to blurt. awkwardly. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. blout. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Sc. plonsen. absence of preparation. bald. plump. The blait body. bare or blunt. viz. to bring it suddenly out. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. wan. poor Sc. . and the like. awkward. Kiittner. Plump mit etwas umgehen. blott. identical with E. Probably radically hlekit. — Kil. plump. rude.— — — . ineffectual reason. rough. . We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. mit etwas heraus-platzen. forestis. used in both senses. blatte. blunt. V. without the nasal. like a thing thrown down with a noise. naked.plompen. in Richardson. — — pidus. insensible. Q. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. heavy. down. fooUsh.

From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. to render indisbhir. AS. Bav. brett. a bladder . OE. cocodrUlus. batello. pausten. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. . Slur. G. bit. an ear of corn. literally edge-wood. Boa. to say bluntly. berd. it implies that it is empty sound. blusse i ansigtet. to sound like water boiling. i. Gael. ground. a small lump. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. e. bord. to puff. blodern. bustuous. rude. Board. boa.' — Red Riding-hood. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. violent G. Wright's ed. stupid. to make a noise with the mouth.the syllable bot. coarse. blaffen and baffen. pof. The elision of the d is very to chatter. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. beer. boord. Bot zeggen. and when applied to vaunting language. Du. bhis. strong. Du. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. swagger. 274. bladdra. Explained by Jam. bobbin. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. dial. to guggle. — To Bob. to spurt out. a club foot . blot. a tassel. to roar. See Blossom. to talk quick and indistinctly . to make a noise in boiling. The to radical meaning D. or blurt with one's mouth. chicchere. Schmeller. 9396. 'Ba. lacerta. P. a short thick body. blaere. lindwurm. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Pl. E. a Jam. Sverris Saga. a blow . and E. whence bob. primarily signify loud noise. bludder. . It. an end or stump. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. aper. sudden. gabble. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. baiag. to be out of temper. 29. to blush. to glow . short pieces of any filthy mud. blaustem. Swiss blodern. AS. Lat. ever-swin. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to blaze. will fly up. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. — — . To splirt. dial. c. Du.—Bobbin. blaste?i. table. To tinct. a blotch. flat. a mistiness. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. or backwards and forwards. a baU of thread the mud. Halma. a mist before the eyes plerren. Wallace. bakke bleustern. hot. to disfigure with E. blosken. &c. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Wtb. burra. to blow. as splurt to splutter. Dan. Du. edge. G. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blasen and See Burr. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. — — — * Boast. common. Blush. as in Du. blot. bliise. See Boisterous. pustern. Gael. Fr. pfludern. boccheggiare. As the as.y. A large snake. bdtr. to bark. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Bluster. To brag and to crack. a board or plank. imitated by has also In like . bdta. Fl. bdd. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. planks raised up outside the roofs. blader. is formed Du. It. baban. gabble Sw. voce intonare. Boost is used for the boast. to bounce. bateau. border. this root are formed Sc. G. properly noisy. — a blaze. Supp. blotch and botch. — From mouth. Du. to dangle. dull. to brag grande loqui. To move quickly up and down. bord. acre. bleuster. cluster. bludder. . little knob hanging by a piece of thread. bord. blunt. eber. to blubber. blirt of greeting. to make mouths. on. crack made by bursting open.plodem. Sc. It. Hal. to dirty.plerr. a border. blast.— . bot-voet. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. a smear. Sc. bora. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. boot. puddle. skin. Kil. to rumble. blose. puffen. splurt and spirt. bur. board. margin. Fl. stellio. AS. . rude. pluddre. to breke. eafor. outward edge.pusten. table. Fr. and swimmeth very well. a dangling object. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. beacon fire. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. BLUR Boar. to dabble. to blore. cheeks glow. the Brem. an edge. of the word seems . bluther. bot. blurra. the sound of a blow poffen. borrar. bar. botte. and the latch . mire. Comp. BOB 79 — To Blur. then applied to indistinct vision . to endeavour to terrify. to puff. a grows to a great bigness. and Du. both used in the sense of boasting. planks or boards. to smear. to blurt out. pludern. Du. blarra. to threaten. to puff. ader. Hal. To Blurt. my dear. w. whence bordvidr. ON. or bog also thread. 1. To blow in puffs. V. plump. De Boat. margin. to give a crack. Boa. E. be a crack or loud sound. large. 156. fringe. blubber. to snuff. a. . Du. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. a blot. bobine. a flurt with one's fingers. edge. bluter.D.v. to blur. to jabber. Related to blutter. blur. and boisterous. Pull the bobbin. — ' Dief. violent. a burst of tears. a torch blusse. a tassel. bausen. geplerr. margin. boistous. to crying. to chatter.

. . biodeachan. an awl. so large a feature in the country. the body. to bob. precept. gago. gog in gog-mire. To Bode. nave of a wheel. to be uncertain what to do. BOGGLE trunk and G. corset from corps. by the syllable patsch. bayonet. to scruple.\\i\c\iset. . bottig. a round body both. Russ. message boda. Schmel. Thy i. rounded. boll. See Baber-lipped. where bogs form Gael. to commit a blunder. The Sp. bogadaich. ^Jam. to make. is a lump. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. bottich are derivatives. Ir. body and G. to fail. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. To portend good or bad. agitate. Bodkin. or a pair of bodies. . — Grandg. the body of a shift gaguejar. Shakespear has badged with blood. stutter gogmire. ON. palleg. daubed or dabbled with blood. calf of the leg. a sting . Supp.rabodi. e. Reliq Antiq. bog. bagges. .' But the radical Glanville in Todd. a ghost . AS. arise E. to be unsteady tich. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. a dagger. And waves. Gl. See Bid. bodi. to butt. — 2. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. To Bodge. Lap. potahha. dies. gagei. cask bottich. bogan. to stir. * To Boggle. to stammer. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. to prick. as a horn. With With this we charged again We bodged again. quakmg. Crist. patsche. stumpy. exhibit another modification of the root. a . Bret. or stem of a tree. Gael. bodian. bodetz. . thrust with something pointed. — as well as the body of an animal. bod. Bog. To make bad work. Lith. as signifying anything spherical or round. unsteady nature of a soft substance. potacha. bayonet . Banff. butt. barrique. to fail. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bog (equivalent to E. bole. a prick. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. nodding. stitch. bodies. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. gag. wavering. mud. bodat. pall. the boss of a buckler. Commonly explained as if from Sc. bodi.' Bogglie. gogach.gmh:t.hollow. . In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bolr. to smack. bob. bogach. Gael. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. gagoula. Cot. a quagsoft. bogadh. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. an announcement. a cask. whence paUchen. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. bodhag. formerly bodies. AS. bodnu. Miracle-plays. the stem of a tree . to start start and back as from a bugbear. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. the thick part of anything. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . from fitting close to the body.a (i\ia. W. Bohem. speak of the barrel of a horse. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. a cask. bodak. is identical with Fr. moist mire. biodag. badyti. Body. to roll. quagmire). We . as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. a puddle. Bodice. Now unskilful action is conmire. shake. anything soft. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. toss. move. a command. gebod. and the word is well explained by Bailey. swelling. '£. bog. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. Gael. Ptg. to waver. bot. To mock. The signification of the root bot. Wall. waving. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. to deliver a message. a spur. woman's stays. bodene. the trunk of the animal body. corpset. It introduced from Ireland. 43. shaking . a prickle. of which the E. belly. expression hogglin an bogglin. a body.! . In like manner E. to dabble or paddle. bodig. to thrust. bothog. whence Fr. a messenger . unsteady. moving backwards and forwards. anything protuberant. gog. strike with the horns. VI. to bodge. to blurt a thing out. bodilo. to push with the horns. . The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr.' A — Sherwood's Diet. as in stammering or staggering.. bogle. See To Botch. boftich. goggle. busti. needle. body of a shirt bol. meaning the round part of his body. potig. to stick. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. or bag. barriga. baboyer. and E. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. corpses pot. then from the yielding. stuttering. bo tich. the belly. So BOB To Bob. Ptg. to make a mow at. point. round. corset. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. fickle . In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. — H. 3. French bouter. potacha. bod. . unsteady. a bog or morass.

To Boil. bold. then violent. bollen (Kil. buile. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. huge. the gurgling sound of water rush. ON. — ' — tagliare. E. bochken (titubare. Chaucer seems Dan.Du. i. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. coarse. To Bolter. a boil or swelling Du. or the like. Pr. Cot. he will speak out. pall. bog. A. bolla. tomentum. Lap. Love. the lir. confident. shake. Du. a bubble. Kit. buller. swelling. See Bulk. . Bustuous. strong. hollow. gerade signifies straight to the mark. . a bakazikni. bald. bout is explained by Kil. from Du. bullire. blow. but that Bolt. brave.— — . Lat. It. Du. bhster. Magy. swelling. is probably a modification of boll. 45. bog. bolzen. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. . Sp. Daring. to tattle. to boil. to stammer. cheerful. bol. Swab. as. The term applies in — — impressed . also a blister. In the same way Sc. Westerwald bollern. puilen. ^Boistous. bolt. This iv.palleg. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Sw. the husk of nuts. to be at a loss a shirt. bolr. bald. round the first instance to the materials with . bula. Test. Pm. b^gayer. bolle. insolent baude. repagulum. Kil. hakogni. G. noise. bul. prince. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . to waver or hesitate. bola. Stalder. stameln vel bochken. bolstar. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. capitellum. quick. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). sile hurled in a clap of thunder. Bole. to stammer. a bump. bok. bulla. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Fr. boutpijl. — 6 . and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. 1430 in Deutsch. up of bubbles. bald. beule. perpendicular. and manace for to de. as E. biiilen. roydeur. globular bod)'. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. tulum. as. in speaking. bSlstr. gluma. styffe or rude . tar. sels of flax. Bret. bealder. . strong. bolster. stramenta. courageous. treated under Bowl. Gael. The bob. 374. Boil. w. bolt upright. boll. chatter. pillow. Chaucer. to stagger. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. haughty. Boll. a head . * Bolster. free. balldr. Me doth awate. used. bulr. furfures. belc'hj. The round stem of a tree. may be identified with It. bol. balder. a quaking mire. G. rough. fiausten. to puff. strong. animal as distinguished from the limbs. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. ohg. boggle. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bal. to stumble. polc'h. stud. bola. cows the people from speaking. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. as baltha. 304). Goth. bolleken. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. bolster. pusten. boss. a bubble. — — which the cushion is stuffed. dint in a metal vessel. glass phial. in the sense of handsome . wag. to be prominent. impetuosity. bouil. trunk of a tree . the body . Properly noisy. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. a fastening for a door. merry. OHG. E. pustule. Du. hero. a bubble. Fr. baud. intrepid. boil .D. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bold. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. whence bulla. G. scruple. bout. the body of a man or of ter. G. boystousnesse. bul. Wall. and then applied to other husks. caput scapulse. pimple ON. * Boisterous. chaff of corn siliqua. poppy (Bailey). notes. Lat. warlike. ^Vocab. Du.. Boystous. boly. ON. stutSw. bolzBold. Mund. folliculus grani. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. a swelling in ice. to the belly as the or dislike. flax-boU. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bulla. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. obex. courageous.w. puile.). V. from the branches. (of Mons) b^guer. the. see Boast. a cushion. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. properly represent belly. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. Fr. Sc. excellent. to hesitate from doubt. to give a hoUow sound. tartajear. by which it is moved to and fro. bol. tartle. bagaji. OG. to swell. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. bolc'h. ON. ballr.' Mrs Baker.rounded part of the body. capiing into a cavity. Da. proud. bold. ON. as those of nuts. tartalear. which are not used for a similar purpose.— D.

hulter de bulter. Pm.i5a//^«. small heap. bolt-foot. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. as snow balling on a horse's foot. projections. to coagulate. uneven. pultare. crash. brattle. to bolt flour burato. racket gepolter.). Bulte-pook or bulstar. . gebolder. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. .agitation of the meal in the bolter. Here the radical image is the violent O. a club-foot. bultig. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Hence.).— . Hence Palsgr. bullern. poltern. So also we pass from Lat. crod. jolting. . Pr. a round glass ending — bultig. 2. Brem. projecting eyes pul. Wtb. bulio.. a clap of thunnences. lumpy.noise {brattle of thunner. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. loud and fast. Mid. to shake. by the representation of a racketing sound. burclct. . tumultuari. clump. buideln. and to crash. pattern. .D.thump or blow. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. representing a rat. crotlar. je bulte. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. buretter{CQ\. tar. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. in S'W plotter. a . knob. to E.) E. curdle. bluter. — — — . Sw. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Prov. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. a bunch. to bolt meal barutel. bolzauget) Sp. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. also to curdle. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to make a knocking. zare. the wheels groaned. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. and the Thus from So. I boulte meale in a boulter. to significance of the term was overlooked. baruta. Bav. OFr. Sanders. to start out.D. to come rattling downstairs. we see that the one consists of a words. bortelen.protuberance. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. a rattling carriage. The ulti. cro. ex•wagen. MHG. die treppe pressed. bulla. And as the agitation of cream in . uneven.u. or a racer from the course. to start with palpitate. ' Holler poller / bulter. beluter. tantara. bolt. blotttre. to knock. mole-hill. to bolt meal barutel. buUire. the sense of right on end. Schiitze.On the same principle. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a clod. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Lat. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. as of a trumpet. to become lumpy. . hole. budeln daz mele . to spring forth E. zen. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. bolzen. btilt. as Fr.by forms like G. Du. a rattle. kloteren. Pl. with E. buletel. from G. to bolter. bolzaugen. a bolter or implement for bolting.clack. hump. barutela. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. Champagne burtcau. sestuare. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief.D. we der Brocket). a millpoltzet augen. we pass to Du.D. barutela. tuft. one after the other. on the one hand. a sod (Schiitze). to form lumps.through a cloth of loose texture. Supp. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. croler. grasbulten.nature of the operation. then to knock. . have Lat.Lat. taraabout.fe/2?. as above explained. poll. tling or crashing noise. . The ment and the operation. staff which sounds tar. Du. rugged. hulch. to talk pulzen. a small portion. Lang. On this account Mid. a clod cloth. to agitate. vessel with narrow opening. or ill. barutare. abolter.as the essential element signifying the talum. bolt head is a retort. bultred. bulk or quantity . bulstrig. ' — — ! ! : — . beliitea. as a rabbit from its baritel. Dan. protuberance.. ler. fied bot. a bolter Prov. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. hammer. In the next place. G. It. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. Pl. taratantarum. Fr. we have Du. OFr. a clump of turf. agitari (Kil. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. poltern. bulk. buletare. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. or the like. hammer. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. / is transposed in Fr. cruddle. pull. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. : ' — — . a crashing or racketing noise. rugged. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. holier poller. to clack. swelling. Dauphiny a sudden movement. P1. taratarrum. OFr. boss. bolting to that of form.

been. we speak of a gun to resound.Su?. a ligature. Schm. bonog. barate. In legal language. bombasin. a —Bombasine. Bonfire. bombe. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. HoUybandin R. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Dan. bambagioj whence It. lana lignea. or trunk word in W. Gascoi^e in R. It.^Altieri. Fr. Castrais barato. — having a stem or stalk. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bras. the silk-worm. a stock. to thump W. again. bande. a stem or base. As cotton was used for padding clothes. sije.). buidelen. thick from shaking. breast-bone. The material called by this name. a churn for butter. gunpowder. . a baker. a beacon. booming over the water. bombarda. bombice. G. burato. Fr. . Banstead. bambacium. and Bond. &c. bambagino. and Mod. — bombast came guage. Mid. Kil. i. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. . the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. to bind G. stump. as Banbury. bulter from It. the contracted form of Du. 155. buttel trueb (of liquids). baum-bast. however. a hollow sound. to thunder. bommer. a drum bombammen. . a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. the Fr. band. Near 6 * . is supported by the analogy of G. In E. to ring bells. coarse. cotton stuff. ^o/j. bolting-cloth. bonfras.D. and Du. thick. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. whence bomme. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. . It. Du. borel. bombase. boulenger. to boult meal. a word of which we have traces in several English names. from teu. term is appropriated in G. bureau. bein. a boulter of meal. agreement. the shank the shoulder-bone. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. produced the Pl. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. Bomb. bommen. from boom. to bolt meal. Bone. beuteln. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. OE. to resound. butteln. It. q. bombast. bond. Du. bombdra. sericum arboreum. bomba. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. When ture. PoUitriduare. has repeatedly varied. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. . bwmbwry mar. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. gossipium. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. e. and in fact we find the and Du. It. the murmuring of the sea. and called in Mid. sijde. G. to shake. beil'n. . — Bombard. derivation. stuff. band. sye. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bombicina. cotton. a bone in general. silk. to shake down fruit from a tree. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. builen. tiffany. d. Fl. tree. beuteln. bureau. bone of the . Butterglas. a string. crook-shanked bondew. — AS. From builen. thick-legged. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. and also the leg. bon. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . biire. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. to which the leg. Moreover. butteln. band pi. bongam.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. Need you any ink and bonibase. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. baun. must be explained Fr. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. ties. It. an implement of binding. rimbombare. Bibelesworth in Nat. a thundering noise bomre. Antiq.) . also thick-shanked.Lat. to shake (as to shake the head. Du. the leg.bast. and that from Fr. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. silk-worm. Dan. raw silk. to beat a drum. E. tie. bwmbwr. bombasine. bopin. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. iuttern. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. ODu. banitola (Fl. brust-bein. bauniwolle. assuming the of leg : special signification W. basin. 83 Gr. as in . bindan. G. It. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. buidelen. bonds. bunden. tie. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. achsel bein. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. to cast to and fro.

are formed Fr. of wonder On the same principle Sp. bd. In nautical language. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. biikui. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. a. a letter Russ. Pr. a dry stalk. a silly fellow. busu. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. till.. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. bAkva. Trans. dolt. . It. help. to yawn. \ais-band. — . Boor. blockhead. also called Brecknock Beacons. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. letter. bose. in Phil. bonad. Booby. OSlav. AS. inhabit. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. house. dress. Prov. prayer. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. boutig. ass. fool. Du. feu de behourdis. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. dial. bauer. to gape. boten-shoen. . It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. The origin of the word is probably the W. and from AS. at everything. pig-sty. beiSne. G. gehyred. bommen. to strew with straw. buandi. booby. . Jr. AS. a simpleton. Kil. Ox. as a lying-place for cattle. A favour. Basa. — From the participle present. Hal. lofty. Fr. bobo. head-dress wai^g. to prepare. to gape. a letter . betere thing werse. whence ban-ffagl. petition. and thence Rouchi baia. a lying-place for dogs or swine. ON. Thus from the syllable ba. botta. ganian. the cultivator. Schm. bid). boubi^. without ad- . Gael. by itself for head-dress. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. the scriptures bokareis. b^er. however. bota. dial. foolish.^ —P. botte. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . chaff. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. bolt. w. hu?idbusa. dog-kennel.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. a vessel for holding liquids. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. ON. till. often cut for burning and lighting fires. babin. is Du. from beida (E. Boot. the first consonant of the alphabet. to dress. a head-dress. . the stubble of beans. the name of the letter b. boo. relief from sorrow. bonad. bua. where a cross (or a gun. ben. Palsgr. bonaid. to ask. Hufwud-bonad. pole. from badare. and fig. to set in order. to litter bosu. beam. — Bailey. from Du. Thin ben Luke i. netis stall. A peasant. Mrs Baker explains bun. bds. Gl. A stall for cattle. nachbar. boer. bdn. gaby. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. The character of folly is i860. simpleton. badaud. bua. a stall. G. boutig. pero. high. botte. a good turn or re- meaning. — e. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Sp. tapestry. Du. But bosg. bobo ! interj. one who dwells nigh. See Bomb. short boots. G. Boot of bale. bosih. buch-stab. From bo. or Vanns. b&ber. build. Hal. swinbusa. — — .Boos. baier. Kil. bas. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. signifying beech. Fr. a. bossen. Bonnefyre. Fr. boia. Mrs Baker. by arbitours sholde bote the P. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. boom. and Ban in w. in w. Binau Brychyniog. the mouth. bos. gaping hoyden — Cot. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. succour Bailey. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. clown. stabulum. which one gaping and staring about. ON. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Swab. the alphabet. the possessor of the farm. Boom. . See Butt. tall. Book. b'ukvdry. Boon. . Fr. Pm. bote. but stall. Perhaps. gawney. It is commonly explained as identical with It. comes bondi. Busk. been. OW. a bag of skin or leather. petition. ty Gael. E. — To boot. The latter is the original AS. remnants of hay or straw. boandi. build. although in the OG. N. See Bown. writing bokos. . 13. bonnet. The i. to cultivate. ON. prayer. . . bowwen.n. litter. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. bosig. babb^o. a bonfire. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. inhabit. 232. Goth. boa. as the Brecknockshire Banns. from gape. quest. To Boot. Bootless.—Bootless. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bauen. Du. boubair. a hollow skin. bene. wondering signifies not only straw. countryman. set in order. dress. E. p. wall hangings. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. a scribe G. a tree. to aid. desire. Bonnet. . — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. babau. Build. master of the house. to cultivate. and Gael. literally cow-house. Wall. * Boose. a lofty blaze. Bun. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. remedy of evil. reparation. tigh.

bauen. a borer. bothan. aid. tent. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Sp. chisel. a leather bag or bottle for wine. bdt. Booty. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . sculpo 05\xiik. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). furd. butin is explained by Flor. on. ON. to divide. Magy. urboro. in Ihre. bora. And so in ON. of an edge that will not bite. to expiate boeten den dorst. N. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Mag. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. pointed. and meta- Fr. piercer. a sharp-pointed tooth. bardure. to stick unto as a bur. extremitas Bore. a hut or tent. borino. to hut. puru. 3. bauda. struere ignem. a shed. edge. furni. to repair. bothag. Compare Manx birrag. AS. an engraver's chisel. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. admovere titiones. Kil. Pol. BoracMo. a booth or shed. Fin. puras. It. limbus. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. See To We speak in E. to bete the properly to mend the fire. cup- awl. is purin. from deila and skipta. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. See Bower. Palsgr. It is admitted that Fr. or anything pointed. margin. a shelter of branches. pu purro (saha =: saw . as afford a satisfactory explanation. a bladder. to importune. yfirbdt. differs only in termination. a wave. p. and E. Bohem. cottage.. a hut. bite. purra. uzboro. Gael. chewed food for infants. and parrets. reparation. bud. a granary . • — To Bore. in Lap. to foam. cure Sw. baete. forare. . Alexand. The ON. and hence to fine. Gael. exchange or divide. bottino. batr. Fl. boards. recovery bata. borracha. The cor. boede. Fin. to mend. from borra. bdra. make .—Burin. amendment. It. Gael. . lappalare. bordi. scalpo. wave. rof. to profit Goth. making good again . hem or gard of a garment. a great bur. mat-bod. a tusk. boeten het vier. Lat. bord. are derived from G. terebra sculptoria purastoa. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. byte points to the verb byta. a bothy. to . ON. Fin. betan fyr. OSw. or the gradual working a hole in anything. See Burgeon.por. pi. terebro. . drillen. a responding forms . In the Fin. a. hut. Another derivation from Fin. purra. butin. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. to profit. borracha. purro. a borer. a borer . Esthon. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. fire. budowai. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. the . Esthon. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. to bite. to bore. a shop budowati. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. dust. to quench one's thirst . a chisel. to swell. to surge. biorag. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. ON. . TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. a shop. Border. Bete. . to pierce. repair. The Fin. &c. which are probably from the same root. dens mordens vel caninus. baara. bower. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to to . bata. BOOTH vantage. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. kvit-bara. to build buda. lappolone. wine-skin. a border. limbus. bohren. But probably the E. a cupboard. sawroot. better. OHG. comminuted by either kind of action. remedy.— Return from Parnassus I inR. Booth. boeye. Fr. . ora. A phorically a drunkard. abode. The as G. boete. budka. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. Du. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. puru. fimbria. both. to build. amendment boeten. beute.. barn. To Bore. and thence to eat build. are parret. 1. to boot. Burke in R. 266. . bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. . than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. Du. burin. to bite. bolino. nor E. from bord. a word. puras. to The Sw. botjan. . flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. cellar. welt. scsdes-bod. — ON.par. to anything Neither G. swell bara.. to patch. to restore. Fr. G. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. sharp.

whence the burg. Turk. And that unsittynge is to here degre. northern. Hence knot. Boreal. knock and a knob .. Lat. Borrow. ON. Borough. Du. bossen. boussi. Swiss Rom. bergen. knocking. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. connected. secure. botch. Sc. borough-holder. huschen. Newbury. plant. botsen. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. cnap. while Gael. pego. a blow. bos. .ribs and the side. botse. unpolished. a surety. to strike so as to Bureau. Bosh. bom. borel. a knob. pitch. butse. to conceal.bucklers. knob. G. bourg. to keep. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. boss or knob of a buckler . baurgs. botch. ^o^^flj. Du. tive idea seems to bring under cover. to become is emitted by a hollow body. of bail throughout the country. The other. when that system was forgotten.mass. burgess. to give a hollow bizo. to strike . a little blow. or head-borough. Jam. burel. D. brown cloth. the Sc. to knock or strike. gesylle. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. storm. or because a blow berga. Fr. was origin of the term is the OFr. formerly used in the sense of knocking. i. a tower. empty. beorgan. bump is used in lump or piece.' the chief of the ' borh.' if thou give money on loan. a boor. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . is probably radically Boss. bourgeois. AS. I. (Bridel). grey). Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. — — — A — . or perhaps also To Borrow. . rude. &c. beorgan. to contain. whether from the fact preserve G. borei. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. borg. a wen. empty. or perhaps it may be See Bury. butsen. borh. in the body struck. a boss. to protect. which now signifies a knob. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. a pushing or striking out. to pick or cull plants. ^ma. busse. Bunch. viipyoc. bussi. Lang. vain. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. is used in the sense of bussare. gum vocant. Fr. surety. to save. bump. bttssel. rustic. loan. V. Borowholder.' every man be under bail. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. Gr. bosse. cob. boss. an eminence. 106. /3oraMK6f. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. . and thus could not shake off the old burr. boss of the side. Fr. borgese. borg. burh. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. See found in Bav. less. bosh. ' — — . the must have arisen burgensis. nonsense. borgo. bunch. boschen. into borsholder. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. a citizen. — ' wind burya. empty. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. AS. bundle. agrees with E. without. striking. . a giving rise to It. bierge. borough or chief constable. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. from AS. cnag signifies both a clergy. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. destitute. Jam. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. (1867). Botany. to give bail or answer for an. The primi. the North Wind. tuft. It.' or system of bail. plain rude fellow. cnoc. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. clownish. Altieri. knur. bussa coarse.' Vegetius in Diez. basse. In like manner It. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. So Du. It. and borough in the sense of a town. primarily signifying coarse sound . one who sticks to you like a bore. boss sound. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. Cot. borealis. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. bos. AS.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. coarse cloth made of the Du. pegou. Hence borhes ealdor. Bailey.any round sweUing. bosseu. Russ. the ordinary a swelling. to protect. the N.vr\. a bouncing baby . bail biirgen. as we speak of a thumping potato. useCanterbury. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. byrig. to save Sw. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. a herb. Goth. cormpted. Hal. as if from the verb to hold. a bunch or hump. a. poor. that which biirge. E. head. f graauw. from their grey clothing. in instead of without. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. blow on a hollow object. the sun sets. Bos a surety. projection. by which of or belonging to plants. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. poor. to take in. undyed wool of brown sheep. a citizen. a city . hollow bucklers. hollow. the hollow between the Borsholder. to save. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. boss. The origin seems to be the Goth. tempest. ' pledge.

bundle. House-bote. Hal. and E. to botch or patch. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. The Gr. butsen. a patch patschen. botte. bide. blister. to work without order or know. Gael. Boa two. maggots in barley. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. a slop. empty or hollow. Du. abbu. AS. puddle.— Hal. beggtaj Goth. Bottle. dial. It. bund. ON.ments of the same root. contusion . buazen. as a push or windgaU. BOTCH understood). to strike . for a bud. a vessel for holding liquids. mutter. bot. Danneil. It. abbution. a wisp. H^cart. Fl. was called a push. a lump of somebatschen. a. AS. a waterfall. in the sense of mend the fire. gipuozan. — — . the lowest part. a bump or swelling. — — A 2. boiteal. you two. Bouds. burgi vel pontis refectionem. schuhbosser. abbi-diwij Slavon. to podge. bulder. disturbance to . Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. to simmer. gling piece of work. mess. fundus. is boteau. thing soft batsch. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. ambo. by met. what pushes outwards. Parmesan poccia. mend. a depth. bativa.D. — Bottom. a humpback. bouteille. to stir and mix together . dim. a cesspool pass. as Fr. they two. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. both. Kil. To confuse with noise. however. Lat. Gael. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. Podge. boccia. ON. boden . pozzanghera. Hal. a knock. Stalder. a bottle. Botcli. a botcher of shoes. boil. w. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. whence the name ol pool to podge. tumour. a pock. Mudu. bSn. — Dief. pimple. Decorde. a bundle of straw or hay. bluster. an imperfect and bunbutt end. bottigUa. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. Butu. is also a bubble. boitean. A bottom depth. stock. the bud of a flower . blain. a slop. a bubble. . j3i/9os. Fl. noise. I. bosser. bAdtr. botel. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia.^Dec. botus. bdsser. the science or knowledge of plants. we two. Bochu. — Jidwi. of botta. a plague-boil Kil. we have Swiss batscken. nets. Fr. to bcBta. bethia. Lith. to make better. bodem. See Bound. batschen. Again. . repara- — — See To Bete. . botn. turmoil. a pit. ^kvBoQ. ledge It. . botte. noise. E. Both. a bott . ba. e. botse. A horses. buddeln. to put on a patch. ' G. oba. a bottle. Leg. See Boss. stem or base. to rage. Dan. boiteag. ubhau. pozzo. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a maggot. any round ball or bowl to play withal. to mend (kettles. * To Bother. It. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Here the radical image seems a bubble. biissen. to we have OHG. corresponding to . podge. — Fl. bdt. From the dim. round lump. the first rough draught 2. botsen. to knock. a bottle of hay. poltern. bots. a bunch. — duj Lett. Bouteille.foundation. abbi. Du. boute. Wedu. signify a in OE. scuohbuzere. &c.' to the fiery Csedm. knock. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. See Butt. bozza. Bret. blow. To Botch. G. stock. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. bottom. to mend. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. especially in Gael. disturbance. a pit. On the other hand. butwo. buideal. gen. to fall : with a sound batsch. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. hurly-burly.of a ball of thread. boss. botch. and ajSvamg. ixorapudder. buddl. AS. ON. bozza. whisper. Fr. abyss. OSax. bossu. Lith. Ancren Riwle.) . ing out. Diez. bulderen. an abyss or bottoniless pit. kessel-biisser. Fyre to botme. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. or plague sore . And so we speak of an eruption. Pl. a cess. botte. . the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a root. stroke. bun. mess. potra. N. to smack. dabble). — . the other hand. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . i. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. to froth as beer . botm. &c. baiothsj Sanscr. a cask. botola. to stir and mix together. Judwi. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bile. from the dashing of water. pother. to dash about . btitse. . shoes. to give a sounding blow. a cobbler. putra. buts. — . .— Swift in R. to from the root bot. • Bott. botel foenn. Canut. patch. butse.— . 212. Bailey. See To Bodge. bunch. G. Jtidu. to make a make a noise. fire-bote. a tinker schuhbiisser. any plain round viol glass bozzo. Prov. pocciar. On — Du. — — belly-worm. to dip in liquid (to Gael. stump. a boil or swelling Halma.

mcn-bomi. A Langued. bondir. see Boss. to thunder. bunda. to set out by metes and bounds. Boulderstone. To Bounce. bone. Bonny. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. boujtce. Fr. volta. language a * Boulder. 2. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Raynouard. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. bamsen. Alpine Re- — gions. boundina. Brem. boss of a buckler. Bunche.' round and round in similar circles. pothel. a blow. in contrast to klappersten. The W. to hum. boriie. Primarily to strike. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. to turn. bend. as that of E. E. a button. a turn or time.. to spring. bugt." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. jump. dial. bullra. and F. bay. p. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. signifies a sliort thick mass. strapping. a boss. baby. carpet. Bough-pot. 136. To Bound. to thundering big one hum.D. bons. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. tnndo. — Take care my house be handsome.' B. limit. march. Bowlder. a blister.— Cot. from AS. Webster.— F. contusi. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. an occasion. round. mere. Ni gacha cor bondir. geration. . Du. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. the bay of Benin. a round body both. till The dat et bunsede. Pm. Bout. to bow. frequently used in the same sense with bound. bonndn. — strike. I assure you. bunsen. and Prov. bumper. bog. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. The Bight of Benin. Bodinare. signifying in nautical coil of rope. a large stone rounded by the action of water. pimple Richards bothog. to knock at the door. From Sw.— Boundary. turn. the hollow of a bay. root (see Bottom). Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. as a nosegay. bun. Bought. dial. the verb bondir in OFr. thumping. Nor a centinel whistle. as a bout of fair or foul weather. has hot. nave of a wheel bothel. AS.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. bend. bugan. bodina. from bugan. to make a loud noise. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . Q. Mid. to fix limits. came home with his face all to-bounced. bottom. bouncwhen coiled in a circle.'— Charter of K. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. — No i ausiratz parlar. gulf. a bud. buUersten. Wtb. in the absence of actual e. . winding. the larger kind of pebbles. the smaller ones. a stock. a large pebble. debodinare. whence buj7isen. knock it sounds again. by Bujns or Buns. to resound. Fr. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Coxcomb.>a bout. to spring.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. to knock. To Boult. an de dor bunsen. a bouncing apple. 3. Bound. . a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Bough. jungen. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. — — leap. botwm. to set bounds. or Bow-pot. Bret. he fell so that it sounded.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. See To Bolt. bouton. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. bounbounejha. Fr. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. of thread. Sw. See Bunch. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. like bobbin. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. bonzen. a boundary stone (men stone). a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. ni frestelar. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Probably from the Celtic root bon. Pr. iv. its kind. bolder. bonna. Ducange. And the new stools set out.— — — - 88 BOUGH . For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . ing. So It. from volgere. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. ni motz brugir. a bound. Halma. Dan. boh. butina. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. nor horn sound. — — Bight. The branch of a tree.

hence musical accompaniment. explaining Sw. tinton. Du. Gael. bound. i. limit. sense durd. a jibe. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. Gael. to swell. buizen. staff. patesten. lance. Dan. burn. as was for. has also buirleadh. bourdon. buzzing of bees.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. warbling. to hum as a bee. to bulge. to take deep draughts. that ON. a drone or dor-bee. flagon. Goth. identical with E. bommen. bonus. biugan. a prop. a. also the humming or ON. a bow. bourdon. Gael. mockery. curvature. Du. to indulge in his cups . set out. burdan. the big end of a club. Bourdon. to draw a deep breath. to our bous. a jibe Shaw bururus. Sw. burd. language of folly or ridicule. jest. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. . the ting of a bell. springbiirn. . Dan. whence buysen. repartee. grumble Sw. Burgeon. drone of a bagpipe. bordon. firm. buys. to drink deep. bordone. g. must be referred to the same root. bugan. bage. drink deep. ruption of bonne. game. to take one in. sotich. bending. Sc. burdan. G. to take breath. steady. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. from spring. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. bogha. verb bua. A water. to tope W. bwa. Dan. Borden. puff out. bonitas. bue. bend Sw. pot. Swiss bausen. Bret. to hum. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good .bass of a stringed instrument. Fr. Burden. bunaiteach. souf. good. The meaning of bound. of the ON. way ba7n. are applied to the bow of a ship. a cup kroesen. bagna. Sw. Eown. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. is. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Du. bordo. w. to mutter. different modification gives ON. G. trick. pre. Du. crutch. a brook. brummen. in Fr. A —Cot. borne. . bontS. . to draw a deep breath. . Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. ridicule buirte. purra. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ.. pared. pusta. bow to shoot with. spelling the word iox bound. prepared for. pausen. — — . As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bogna. a. It is remarkable that we find vary. like quaff. bending of a joint knie-bug. a pot. to trick. burt. to pre2. brausen. belly out. to bow or incline the . the Bourdon. schulter-bug. kroes. brunna. it is probable that the It. And there in mourning spend Sw. on. the fixed. the shoulder of the vessel. a from Du. Sp. buzz. Comp. It. Bourd. As the Gael. Immediately from Fr. AS. Dan. buigen. to tope. a humming noise Macleod. bovne. G. Chaucer in R. spring. bausen. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. bug. bogr. and not in the sense of curvature in general. to tipple. ready to pike or spear . schenkelbug. bugne. beygja. joke. address. a well. cheat. Bound. ready. drunken. cudgel. So Sc. a humming noise. an arch. . biegen. analogous to Fr. Cot. a — — . sausen. burlare. buga. Bourdon. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. deceit. a corToward the garden. and that probably from a Celtic root. It is the participle past buinn. taunt. saufen. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. Bow. Gael. gurgling. head Fr. on the whole. to — Hal. bending. Spenser in R. fresh* water. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. bogen. fun of one . bdgi. Fr. to drink deep. Gael. whether by sound or gesticulation. a mill-post. epaule du vaisseau. to banter or laugh at. G. bog. Cot. Bounty. Fr. bend. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bourde in the same sense. beogan. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. sport. — probably through this latter signification. a go to. Lat. The foregoing derivation seems.which see. Sw. when we speak of. ing. the burden of a song. hous^ Man in the Moon. — — — A pare. addressed to. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. It is bov. ^<7r«i?. purlBav. a for New York. bugna. to bow. or of an Gael. burreti. buyse. . shoulder-blade. Prov. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. When used alone it . a drone of a bagpipe. bourd. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. potio. btiga. bov. bog. bugna. a sing-song. their time -With "wailful tunes.

Dan. Du. head of a cabbage. bog. . Bav. OE. bolgna. See Boil. swoUei) Lat. . a bubble Fin. kuppelo. compared with Fr. a bubble bolli. and to a coachbox in particular. painter's easel. . zich onder jemand under to him. an outhouse AS. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. a parlour. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. See Crab. . hollow. bol. belly. E. W. a. bossola. It is more probably from the G.a. a bubble. busskai.. a sleeping-room . mausbollelein. Lat. cumena-bur. G. Hal. or. wisp of straw . bubble. bulk compared with Sw. bol. a swelling or rising up. a ball . boxtree. bulla. a ball. honse-bur. bugyni. as in AS. boor. bow. bouzellou. tumour . similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. buchsbaum. a little box . Du. Boll. iri'iaQ. give in to. . the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bulge. to puff up. .). peated in Magy. convex.D. to raise the back boll OHG. bhuj. (in pass . Sw. to bend. AS. . a box. Sanscr. to swell. . as well as the name of a. a bubble. make obeisance. globe or spherical body. bug. Cable. the head. bulb of an onion bolleyield. budello. a pot. buello. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. . to bend down. ttuJic. . box. heafod bolla. hollow wooden case. crown of a hat. . convexity. ON. a chamber swefnbur. . a protuberance. ON.). guestchamber . biicken. ask. See MHO. AS. a box. to puff up pullakka. to bubble up. hollow place Fr. bolle. a box. and on swollen. bolla. beutel. bent. round bead. a bowl. acsian. a wine-can . bending. to bow buck. The word may probably be identical with Fris. blister. buga. bur. to stoop biickling. hill. a knot. to guggle. a thing of liquid. boucle. budel. fyn. the box-tree. puffy. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bugyani. bowels. In like manner the Pol. utibur. From the other form are G. sausage. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. boel. . in both senses. * Bowels. Bret. water pulli. biisse.cup Du.\s. swell. pocket. purse. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. a polla. A . while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. Bret. .flask It. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. . a hump on the back rossbollen. kupula. different position in ODu. buckelig gehen. Bower. buxus. bog. . anything globular. bucka. to make crooked . spherical Dan. the crop of a bird. G. an inclosure. a box. round glass phial. .. in walking appears in a . ku^o. a box Lat. W. bulla in aqua. similar shape. bwr. Hence. ne. tumour. Sw. bock. OFr. without the and grits. or in e. bulcken. bugna. bugyola. bugy. boudin. Du. Fr. the box-tree and articles made of it G. biiske. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. globular body. biichse. bow. bulne. a round glass or bolg.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. buckel. A Bulk. passing on stud. a ball. . . boxtree pusska. with inversion of the round. botulus. crooked. polla. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . to buckle G. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. Bohem. to bulge. Dan. Gr. a black pudding. boil. at the e. Buckle. bolne. Sp. dial. . Bowl. spring as water bugya. knob From the former modification we have bolla. buis. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Thus we have Esthon. bukke. bola. stream forth bugyogni. to stoop. pusspan. a croft by a house. beuz. . a hen-coop . a buck. then by the loss of the /. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. ken. PLD. pullo. ^o«/«. prominence. buk. &c. of a wooden ball to play with and — . kupu. a bud. the head. trestle. Fr. the box-tree It. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. the barrel of a gun. belly. bubble. bowl . bocka. a bundle. Fr. fata-bur. the bogna. a sack. ON. boss. bulka. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. . the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. is applied to a coach-box.) to incline oneself . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. as in E. a boil. buigen. signified by forms like Gael. bowel Box. boss. bhugna. koziel. bollen. box in both senses. bur. gut. busse. intrenchment. a stud. belly of a cask. . to yield to one. globular. bouge. The / a bow. bolla. bosso. bouellou. bwra. inclinare se (Kil. folliculus . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. lump . kupukka. a separate apartment . a wardrobe . Sw. the skull or brainpan . a iDubble. bogla. w. a drop of pullistaa. hiidel. ^o/a. . much plausibility from the figure of a pul. Pol.

bruxula. variation of babble.nated by dirt. confining. Boy. Fr. quarrel Bohem. Ptg. G.D. defect. clay. brostia. dog in general. whelp as. boussole. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. — . breach. and then Pl. the arm. braquet. lalear-eyed Prov. Sp. merely in our mode of considering them. bitch Du. his eyes are failing him). brassard. briche.D. acidus. It. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. G. OFr. bracer. is a rope holding G.. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . foul. to be wanting. bracon. Rouchi Then as an adj. La ville ou y avait Brace. baukscheht. brae. Kil. Brak-goed. Pm. See Broker. It. then from break. need. ghebreck. bue. to fall. brakke Bracelet. disturb. bracil. ON. Fr. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Water rendered boubo. a boy pupa. pupus. or bracer Cot. ratch. . Bracelet. dirty. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. One girl. bouibo. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. 91 the Dan. root). bray. Brack. bask. land batsken. to stutter. BOX To Box.puddle. Pl. taneous talking. want. which sigof straining. rakki. moral or physical. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. by the same inversion of J and k. corruptse. V. youth. to box the ears. mud. OE. to Swiss batschen.— D. Sp. want. from a root brak. — . brago. MHG. . flaw. a pair of braces. &c. breuque. break. to stammer. Hdcart. fuse. to want. boy bouba. or defect. a crack. brae. A to halt between two derivations. mud. thwack. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. to slap. con. a bog or pass Fr. isolated part of the text. beagle. loud smack. brek. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Swiss Rom. Fr. Kil. Kil. s. a bubbling dura del mun. by an overflow of sea water. bresta. salo sive aqua marinS. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. . A — — . brae. brageuses. . jabber. braecke. as noticed under Box. in R. To brace is to draw together. dog that hunts by scent. It is B. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. ' — A — — — . brague. babble. to is derived brestr. let.with a noise. a comworld Rayn. Brack. — . Prov. brae. a sounding blow. unmarried man . filth . murmur. Fr. wrack. Prov. It. ON. baske.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. brack.. wnzC/J. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. to smack the hand batschen. A brace probis. armour for the arm. matter. want. to give a blow with the fists. fault. defect Du. bracco. strike. a grown youth Cimbr. bracket. and string of his bow." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. . Lat. On the same principle from the buksteht. The different meanings of the brageux. buah. compressing. bou^ba. ing from a mixture of salt. wristband. land spoilt Kil. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. bube. flaw. to give a sounding blow defect. — — . a braceOFr. Swiss bub. . braco. — . posh. pube. Cot. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. Du. Brackish. priated to the original sense. flap. See Brake. braco. race. braque. brakke grund. rakke. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. mud. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. AS. In like manner the It. To fight with the fists. . bracha. salsus. to burst. Du. brasselet. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. Brach. — . an languages. cramp-iron holding things together . a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. . to crack. a box. Lett. Prov. I sal slyng. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. braca. spaniel. suppuration. brek. Thus brack.. rack. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. to give a gebrechen. in R. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. boiste. Swab. defect. breptati. a girl. brechen. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. parallel with OK. brabbelen. Pr. odorinsecus. pus. dog Sw. and F. breach. brace on and Du. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Sp. refuse. s. To Brabble.. bracke. Prov. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Heligoneed. brechen ihm. bragos. rakka. fault . OFr. brec. braic. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. the first instancebya physical tie. a guard to torf. brack. boy. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. Bracket. Gael. . damaged board a ship.

subduing. brails. braies. Walloon bress. braka. brabhdadh. bravache. gallant (in apparel) also proud. be noisy . sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. crack. stout. swaggerer. a roisterer. also derived Fr. brave. hectoring.^Vocab. Hecart. power. Fris. Fr. a carriage for breaking in horses . as the type of exertion and strength. braggard also valiant. excellent. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. breghen.%. Bret. torture . to Rouchi brMer. To Brag. to boast of his own worth. brae. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Cot. Thus we are brought to the OE. . brao. crash. brazo. goods. . fine. swagger.Shepherd's Cal. — Equivalent forms are Gael. brabhdair. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . stately. . bravo. or by gaudy dress and show. Sc. also tion of this was brayeul.explosion. to flaunt. noisy ostentation. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. breach. braga. A — Hal. breagh. From sprouted corn. Fr. splendid. The plant y^r«. in the sense of the Lat. fine. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. Chaucer. — . But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. to unbrace or let down the breeches. braegenj Du. would be to brace. ^Brave. bra!. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. Lat. bragging.i5nz^. is identical with Gael. brag. and that from e. . the feathers ON. brake is. expensive. Dan. vanter une chose. handsome. braske. vaunting. cry. be found. Bret. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . the arm. brave. also insolenter se gerere . drawers. fine. was formed brayele. Cot. smart. binding anything together. Primarily to crack. Langued. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). brave. . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. brachittm. w. that will carry no coals. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. braw. Lith. The meanings of brake are very numerous. vain glory. valiant The head are sumptuous. brave. braga. . to rattle. gay. flaunt in fine clothes . breyne. finery. to brail up a sail. fine. braguer. flaunting. ative fellow. compressing. braszketi. used in the sense of force. make a noise . de Vaud. Brake. Brag was then used brisk. Rom. Brain. See Brace. breghe. From Fr. — Chaucer. and it is very likely that the root brak. se parer de beaux habits. brag or jet it braguard. boast. Dan. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. or from braie itself. See Bray. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. . Hence E. bragd. an iron for holding Zalli. to stand upon terms. is Cot. brag. to sprout malt. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . confining. —Spenser in R. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . beautiful. in numerous dialects. courageous. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. The meanings included under — Bragget. braske. bravado j Fr. to strut. affront. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. proud. bragaireachd. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . idle talk. .. well-dressed. bragio. to shout. bushy . slight modificajoining the two legs. From brayel. to swagger. bravacherie. in order to prevent its catching the wind. Haldorsen Gael. Brail. Faire le brave. braga. to cord a bale of tie up. gay. gallant. To Braid. the opposite of which. about the hawk's fundament. 92 Cot. a noisy talkboasting. braicli. Brake. boasting. bragging of his own valour. braver.aburst. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. an inclosure for cattle . braka. spot.—— . BRAG Piedm. brav. It is certain that the word for arm is. empty pride. strength.breeches. Thus Bret. To Brail. gorgeous. gayly dressed. &c. showy bravery. riches. Cot. h-avare and Fr.^ Sp. AS.. se pavaner. brave. dhbrailler. 2. Wallachian bratsou. bullying. to boast or brag. It. brake in the sense of constraining.hy which this idea is con\eyed. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. crash ON. — From W. called by our braggard. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. se donner trop de licence. to make a noise. Bray. blusterer. brayete. subigere. bully . i. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. to crack. — A — . Sp.

BRAKE to external force. —Bracken. murrokko. as in the case of horse-breaking. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. to head must be bit. and when once thrown down. tnurdma. in usus braca. to bray in a mortar. Dan. might come to signify a swamp. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. been confounded with the verb break. to pound. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. it is not surprising that the word has here. pasture.' It. broil. a swampy Mid. to harrow (Lat. In the case of the ne. to brush. Voc. bushes. Corrfeze bredgea. is braukti. In the sense of a thicket. fratto. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. brook. de Vaud. to exert force in different ways.. 3. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. thing is brought under control. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brcekke. — Fl. flachs brechen. cetur. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. conSo in G. break of such a kind. marsh. properly braking or subduing them. It. OFr. Sp. as in Sp. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. bredza. riguus. brego. gilum. Prov. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead .bracan. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. In like manner Lat. brak is a frame in which strip. Fr. brog or brake. thicket. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. gebroge. braecken het vlasch. el arco. brake. bruch. casser le \va. The Fr. for — Due. a marsh. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. bregar. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. to bend a bow. quarry from Fin. to bend or direct a cannon. to stiffen against Taboada). broeck. breaking in the operation. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. in northern climates. referred brake. ing of flax or hemp. Brake. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. signifying to sweep. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. Brake. . while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. brage. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. a harrow. tris). brook. broilium. or a wood in a marshy place . to break or fracture. braka. to break. broken fratta. broyer. murtaa. ^raca. braken.D. Biglotton. It. broor bushy place Hal. Gael. break flax PLD.D. braquer un canon. Lat. bush. Dan. farinam in mortario subigere. brega. as in Du. Fr. the lever by which the string was drawn up. Pl. dial. marsh or swamp. to row. brogille. briers. have thus Du. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. subigere. brake. frangere linum. breuil. brog. glebas subigere. braca. as well as in the case of the e. cover G. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. gebroge. or overthrow of trees by the wind. word. the original meaning of G. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. t° moisten. watered. a brace on board a ship. bregille. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. 2. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. bregar brake. copse-wood. to subdue. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. G. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. a stream. to knead or mix up in a mortar. braeken. — — . the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. where from Esthon. —Ovid. briser. Swiss Rom. It may be sus- . e. brog above mentioned. or A A ' . Dan. to The ON. and G. low wet land bruch. brambles. murran. to distinct. to break. a fen. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). game. brook. To the same bend a bow. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. Gr. brolium. nemus. bush. a horse's a horse's twitch. broillet. gebrUche. brambles. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. In ON. We — . any thicket of brakes. Fr. a thicket. to rub. brage. to fracture. gebroge. gebiisch. a spinning-wheel. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. is formed murd.— . brushwood. P&. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. gebrUche. iSpsx". this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. and Lat.

Gael. from Lat. and thence a shoot. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. Bav. clutch. So Swiss gaggi. a roA. the bull-finch. brenda. branchia. a shoot. brank. a bud It. broccoli. a small deri\'ation . a burning fragment of wood. bruch. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. bruk. thicket of brambles Cot. the thorn apple or stramonium. sedge burkni. pfriemen. from Servian pnit. broem. constrain. cack. apiece orbitbrandone. brarn. prufye. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. to -brugen. . And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. heath. Serv. piecemeal brindelles. Pl. a bridle or bit . The same form becomes in It. G. pfriem in the sense of an awl. from brand. a shrub . thorns and Gen. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . Thus we have w. — branca. bretnel. a firebrand. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. brandiiialil. brenn.D. or other plants of a like nature. Fr. w. Bran. bren. sawdust. Rouchi bren d'orMe. brom. bro7n. Bret. The naof strain. . also pfriemkraut. i. But we find It. brughera. bruskoad. brushwood. cabbage sprouts Fl. Grisons bruch. is the draff or excrement of the com. breme j Sw. it glitters — — . bruch. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brejo. Pl. nasty. a heath. chaff. brous. Thus in Lat. Bret. Fr. young buisson fort epais. brouskoad. a rod or twig. stink . broom. brem. excrement. piece of anything. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. a vine twig Bav. brake. w. snotty . and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. brang. heath. wood composed of twigs. to bridle. Thornas and bremelas. . a shrub from Bret. braam. to or iron. brano. pfropf. brambles. brosst. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. heath ON. brancas. Gael. G. . restrain. brwnt. ear-wax mud. braeme. a single plant of heath. Brand. bren. E. brin d. in the same sense. a briery plot. or ling. As ON. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. in the sense oi fern. young twig {brom-beisser. — . as. Fr." The bmno a • on . the branch of a tree. brug). branco. and waste growths. may be so called in analogy with Bret. brass. It will be found that shrubs. brug.G. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor.D. bit by bit. brin (as It brano). broussaille. . Brancare. Piedm. and E. bromboli. brin. That beareth the red hepe. that is to say. broust. a halter. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. gebroge. brandr. . heath. See Brush. from brug. iii. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. a bud. Brank. G. to brank. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. compress. . from gaggi. &c. brok. brandello. Bramble. brein. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. a thick bush. bracken or fern . titio. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. It. brank. broembel-CBppel. or with It. berneux. &c. a shoot or twig. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. dirt . all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. also a marshy low ground or fen . The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. sprouts. . briars. Russ. Sir Topaz. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. virgultum. . Branch. ground full of briers. from virga. as AS.. branche. In like hrst. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. G. ordure . heath. —Ducange. Fr. 1 8. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. pected that brake. brand. bruk.). bushes. Bret. AS. Bret. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. bronbo. brenn hesken. heath (Bret. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. bran. what is cast out as worthless. Broom. Port. broom. a dunghill. brog. brandmurk. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. a bud. hallier. breanan. bramble Du. to gripe. sweet broom. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. burning brennen. Diez. bran. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . Dan. It. gebriiche. brugek. to burn. A mark made by burning. 2. breun. bruk. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brenna.

^Brandle. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to rustle. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. brennen. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. N. plained by Florio. to burn. to make display . 59. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. put. n. incendium. V. bruire. as Fr. G. brascct. bracia. a To Brandish. a brusler. make a — . Fr. So. — .. Ija. from to vociferate. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. in Marsh. To brase AS. to quarrel. brastlian. from used in dyeing cloths. Du. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. brasca. Hume in brand in ON. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. to distil . so. Formerly brandy-wine. — ting to confusion. Jam. De Goes. d'Angl. and branchis shaiand D. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. braise or hot coals. to and fro in the hand. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. crackle. perplex. — . also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. bragale\ wood. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. bra?ier. firewood. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. It. Thus the bound up again. Bret. fire-wood. bransella. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brustle. to confuse. brandiller. distilled wine. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. bracea. to make sense of a bright red dye. braise. to burn. to braze or lute. Braser. or in stick. Gris. Sw. bruan. to murmur. To brand. Manx bransey. live coals. Fl. Chron. to shake. brandiller. e. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. before the discovery of America in the brandir. WaUon. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. It. to hurl with great force. braza. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. branler. braise. make an outcry. a round dance. brausen. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. urens. brasa. gebrannter wein. stake. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . brandende wijn. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. conbillet. Fr. E. prasseln. a stick. The tre brangillis. Lye. brus^. weinbrenner. a pan of hot coals. splinter. all. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. E. to crackle . embraser. to solder iron. firebrand. brasa. bruciare. Brasil. a roaring fire. to make shine with shaking. comes from thence. brand. crackle. braser. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. noise. It. The corresponding form in Gael. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du.well. to roar. and bruir. faire fracas. brane-wood. morsel. The name Brandy. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. bryne. In the same way the set on fire . brangle or brawl in E. to burn. brasca. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to dash. and scold. flagrans. brasil. branla. Milan. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. hoisting to the fall. Fr. brazeiro. Fr. du Roi et laine. ist. then brandr. as Jamieson explains it. to Bailey. Sw. spirit distilled from wine. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. the colour than hitherto known. to sound of the Fr. to shake. to bicker 2nd. briiler. G. branler. to shake The word brisil. shake. to French brawl or brangle. Brase. brazil. bragia. bransle. ish. brouir. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. given to the country. to shog. as again by well as the blade of a sword. Kil. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. set on fire. brandigh. AS. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. hot Fr. brandolare is exbrandish. to blaze. became ashes Pied.pan of coals. Bailey. forms brasil. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. bum. Guill. Port. to brandle or The It. to brustle. Chron. brush. is bntan. — . With top trimbling. Fr. to glisten or flash. to brandle. eldibrandr. Brangle. was in use Fr. bresil. the spelling to kindle. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. to brangle. brin. a fragment. totter. bruzi. glowing embers . billet. not. to totter. aqua ardens. apparently very distinct from each other. Diez.

brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. A. solder. OFr.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Paris. OHG. bribe de viande. brat. burning coals. G. bmhon for brado7i. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. brdto (ace. Sc. brass. bran. muscular parts of the body. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. — .brettysing. to braze. noise.— Braid. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. Brawl. borderinge. lat'te. luncheon. to solder. as lattice. bruir. ^Altieri. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. to talk at bralle op. discord. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. rag.' Hal.' BRASS BRAY et AS. a rag. breteque. pil. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bartisan. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Brattice. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. braede. 368. The muscular part of the body. apron. Brat. a Lap. to cry. frequentative of braire. the buttocks. tasce. Mundart. a contemptuous name for a young child.walle — Pr. bratdn). saillies. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. brandillo. brett. ship. ni autres choses sur Due. P1. ferruminare. ON. contignatio.propugnaculum. bronze. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Jam. baltresca. boutures. a loud noise. a lath. bartising. fraiche. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Lorraine bravon. . Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. bretesque. brat. Brawn. braon. bas morceau de viande brawhng. A. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a slabbering-bib. W. Kil. Cot. a lump of flesh. bretays). a plank or board. to shake. at brasa. as criailler of crier. from Sc. the calf of the leg. breyon de kinds of . A dispute or squabble. Westphal. and bronzo. especially that used in the working of iron . Math. a — A from the confused noise. flesh of a leg of pork. strepitus 2.D. Wall. The verb is probably derived from the brase. a lump. The same correspondence is seen between It. berd. a cloak.— Remade.D. See Bray. a clout. braser Fargent. brailler. as scrawl from scrabble. Pisana in Mur. Fr. For the application to a^child compare Bret. breyon d'chaur.— Fl. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town.96 Roquefort. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. to Gael. cloth. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Fr. branle. bronzare. bred.^ — Sverris Saga. braoilich. any piece. a mantle. bras. Bartizan. Hist. Cologne broden. equivalent to the Du. to tear piecemeal. Brave. from Fr. Florio. It. It . a fortification. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. bratidone. calf of the leg. deblaterare. AS. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. to carbonado. a rag . buttock Sc. as a brawling brook. trul. brat. cob. bransle. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. or whether it be from Fr. brces. A land of dance. a. See Brandish. It. &c. Swiss bradle. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building.— Diez. —^Bronze. Dan. to scold . wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. slakker-bortchen. Certainly a little girl. a lump of flesh. So also See Brag. bratach. bradlete. Bailey. slut. is The word — uous name for a woman.D. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. to copper. Circumeunt cibertesca. roar. neita girl). a parapet. OFr. a wooden tower. squall. bronzacchiare. brettys. Sp. bratid calf of the leg. braion. KiL Prov. — Deutsch. Cot. I. pan- — Rayn. brazen. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. Brangle. in the first instance of boards. esbraotier. slibro. from branler. breyon. bralle. braeye. le repasser un peu sur la braise. bradon. Brass. Sup. 1156. Fris. calf of the leg. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. bretesche. a battle-girdle. Betrax of a —^Jam. Fr. then a parapet. 1224. ' A vraale. a contempt- banner. a patch of cloth. braiio. coassatio. as rashers upon quick burning coals. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Du. 2. or on the top of a wall. Many gambes. Gael. braodhlach. boarding being sbranare. whether contracted from brabble. Pm. frame of laths. a rag . —-Jam. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. slibro {neita.

— koa. Beryn. crackle . brikan. bratsche. on. riAprjyvvfu. to crash. noise . a wink. fragor. bruzir. a mill. Dunbar braessem. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. Cat. to bray like an ass. roar. relation is seen between Lat. paste or dough. as OE. bregar. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. broad. brak. Prov. bru. Goth. to scold. soft . to the seijauntes. braidar.g. ON. See Brake. braa. braidir. verb to break. &c. Then. twist. Swiss bratschig. Fr. F. which has given much trouble to commentators. or cry out loudly . R. as the notion of turning crack. resound . brak. to cry out. R. I'll live and die a maid. rattle. weave The ON. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. Lat. to smack or the eye. rangere. bray. to knead. and frangere. gestus. to rumble. baiyl. — — — explained motus loud noise. rogi. with or without a final d. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to cry Port.^ Fr. rustle. or wound. to braid. at a braid. crepo and E. yell. augnabragd. to resemble. 7 . brame. to break. And with a traid I tumyt me about. Breach. E. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. cyprinus latus. explaining a very obscure application of the E. brand. brot. . ing. &c. make a disturbance. to braid. bragd is also applied nets. will. The same He might don us both a villany. at once.y. upbraid. the miller's dog. crash. breach. W. 145. to crash. to roar as the sea. disturbance.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. — . the clash of ai-ms Dan. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. AS. a rag f . braire. Fr. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. V. the sound — of arms. to bawl. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Fin. appearance Hal. Bread. e. vapna-brak. fish. to bray in a mortar. bradar. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. to cry out. ybrayid. to resemble. brugier. to have the lineaments of one's ON. paxog. Chaucer. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. V. OE. G. to tear Bret. Cot. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. bragr. brice. a brake for hemp or flax. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to work up in a mortar. k. From the or brack in a wall. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. . Then is simply.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. ser. the sword was out break. to roar. instantane. to break. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. mos. to N. roar. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. braea. a rent. fractus j Gr. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to t. The Lat. breuan. Chaucer. plait. &c. bregar. to roar or bellow. The ON. And at a braid he gun it bende. breche.ear rog. father. D. D. braa. a . bregda. and fracasously. ^p&xia. to resemble him. ON. brechen. to bellow. starts crackling up.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. to rub Fr. To Break. to break Fr. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. . a brack. &c. kind. broyer.. imitate or resemble one. 2. to start.ch.' To Bray. Bret. to The cup was uncoverid. To rub or grind down Sp. turn. in Jam. and to signify the fracture itself. iU-favouredly — in Jam. yell. at braga eftir euium. regi. as the voice of the ass. a breach Cot. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. crash. Prov. Bailey. to break. bragd — ON. Ppvxia. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. bruire. a crash. Q. to braid acquires the sense of bend. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to snatch. G. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it.fracas. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. Gr. to braid the hair. to rush. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. brage. to sound very loud and very harshly. to pretend. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. Wal. braid. Du. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. abraid. i. Bread. V. and make a hideous noise. father. is . D.

burst. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. breeze. representing the sound of a blow. The Teutonic verbs. to breech. as the G. from ligare. simmer. murmur—Vocab. but more probably the E. as by the Sc. to be misty and cold. brumtnen. Breast. as in the case of twitter. AS. — — strument for smacking. noise. brciz. siibligar. from AS. b}-as. trusts. Prov. bris. switch. braie. G. brezling. brok. binding. braucn.D. Du. bris. . xyligogio castigare. de Vaud. G. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. a box. brimme. /esses. bris de charbon. bra. to brew. Russ. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. a girdle. Briss and buttons. with It. or the blow itself. brinisa. the breech or buttocks. and brought beneath between the legs. brcekur j It. a gadfly. brcEth. brison.98 borst. a smack. briosat'. break.). of E. properly to crackle. . QNtsterviald) pritschen. Biglotton. an odour./ssus. forms analogous to E. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. bratscher. Lat. trembling. bragues. sheep's droppings bruss. brijselen. brezzare. Du. .britschen. a crum. corresponding to G. britze. Bret. a cool wind. a to lay fly-flap. . chilly. chillness or shivering. G^nev. are in like manner ' . forms. Gl. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. so AS. Dan. a horse's twitch. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. vapour. We bragezj on. . braca. See Brick. instead of being derived from 'La. de bridse geveii. as. braia J OFr. the soler. grillare. brasser.vare. Swiss Rom. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. to brew. Prov. remains of leaves. — And blood. Breeches. — Brist. fastening . to burst. to crackle. and other rubbish dibris. clout for a child. braguier. as commonly explained. to roast. breinse. simmering. brire. fitzen. brisciare. Gl. bruise. E. bre- I'os qui bresole. from brace. brew. Piedm. windy withal. grill. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. briosa. point to G. bretilles. orts. an into shiver. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. to fry Then from a Gl. scent. brodel. to feize or feaze. breost. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. AS. rubbish. Piedm. Brize. Goth. braies. rubbish. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. Bruise. bremse. and E. Fr. to resound. morsel. brisd. body brostia. PI. brut. briosa. griller. To Brew. their stings draw . malt. cloven. Breath. brodem. brache. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. briig. Fr. w. zare. applied to shivering. So ON. . to whip. to bray. one on the breech so that (klatschet). brasiare. einem de britze geven. singing bone. i5r(Z^. Fr. murmur. Hume in Jam. brosame. brimsa. braux. to simmer. Lat. brist. It. fail. brustia. brugga. peitschen. briiz. bridsen. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brusc. OFr. Breeze. to bind. — . Rom. Bracha. then to broil. met de bridse slaan.t. bracecs . briste. may be from the wurh fesser. little bits of wood Berri briser. &c. Gael. breath. braciarc. to hum. G. to crush to break. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. broza. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. the bust. Breeze. polenta. —Briss. bandage or truss for a rupture. E. braich. crush. Originally probably the word signified steam. breme. dial. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. to murmur. bruzun. as. to break. — See Broth. broil. brasiuiii. The Breech (Prov. broiiwen. braga. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. brisoler. Bret. — Halma. Swiss AS. coaldust. the dry spines of furze broken off. to fry . the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. brijsen. G. Fris. also to chill and shiver with cold.'— Gl. to shiver for cold. a crum Du. G. Compare OE. Sw. brezza. grillen. bruzir. Du. to smack. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. braga. broden. bryi^ga. Isidore and Tatian. Hence the Lat. subligaculum. bresilles. bruc. Gael. of straining. brossi!. Dev. of trees. to buzz. Breeze. brdtschen. Swiss brdtsch. to rattle (as hail). braies. in Schilter. Du. are related to Prov. a twitch for a horse. brise. breson. drawers. brissle. sprouted corn. — . bark Fr. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. a cramp-iron for holding things together. braca. Dtyden. a cold and windy mist or frost . malt.

from bit. E. E. as. from Bridegroom. In E. a lump of bread. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. bidsel. to beg one's bread. to meet together. A — A — . priod-ferch. to circulate. masted vessel. Lat. brar. consort with. Diez. the equivalent of to the dial. a wedding priod-fab. a bride Brig. ment of anything broken. w. In the G. Diefenbach com. to press. bread. a bride. bryd-gutna. Brigade. brique de pain. remarkable that the Gr. brug. imprint. broken. a rogue . has briguer. Bridge. ' — . . brygga. brice. malt. If the foregoing were not so clear. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. breve or brevis. Rouchi brife. bruk. a briole. with transposition of the r. a rogue. whence berw. buskins.It. bruskr and buskr. company. to press in. Gael. berwi. berwedd. OHG. See Broth. brere. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. grug. AS. conjux. braut. The Sw.. Brewis. the Fr. of burial. or brizo. bricge j G. ter-in-law. Sp. and berweddu. fit. bride. bo. malt. briwo. a man. brahi. one's ovin.rough with brambles and bushes. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Priodi. frayer. W. fastningar-ol. It — is Kil. heath. Bribe. a quoit of stone. bitill. brittil. A bribe is A — — arval. two-masted vessel. . fraoch. briiths. bribour. graf-ol. a fragment. birbante. from Bret. but to a paved road. to stamp. Hence OE. a proprietor. nurus G. Goth. Fr. httle bit. broosekens.privatus. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. pavement Lith. bridelj OHG. sponsa. to pave brukkti. as so.bergantino. . In the patois of briccia. So It. arf-ol. funeral. Ducange. AS. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Brief. a boiling. briicke. division of an army. brA. bulicame. gf2o. brieden. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. OSw. lipdZu}. bricou. to boil. peculiar. but probably Bricoteau. brigata. a bit. Fl. a heath brughera. a crum. Lang. It. a bush. a fragment. barren land priodas. pavement brolegge. to prepare. stone-bridge bnikkoti. thick appropriated. jipaaaiii. bro is applied not only to a bridge. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. brocaly. any jot or crum. brood. served (Patois de Bray). Bridle. piece of burnt clay. to rub. Bridal. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. in the sense of OSw. to tlie brico. AS. bygga. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . So in The Prov. bryd-eale. Applied ous words derived from break. fragment. groom (mab=:son). bruarium. briw. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. a married man guma. a brig or priodor. bridge. hlafes brice. Dan. crew. pavement. to Isrew. the marriage si in brigata. a married man or woman Lat. brukkas.Fr. a little king's writs. guma. broken victuals. bara briw. a Bride. brughiera. to brew. to appropriate. AS. — — — — — — . G^n^v. corresponding or letter. betony brulicame. . the newly. beaten way Dan. bribe de pain. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. brilt. a crum.gfiugga. brau. Fr. from the Normans. bride. brigade. . brasser. Ihre. it is applied to the letter to OE.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. brutg. Gl. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. a beggar. priod. Due. Hdcart. especially to a letter or command. to boil. bro. then the marriage itself. E. Brier. broken bread. to pave. bruk. . and ODu. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. pier. fervere. brakes of high-grown ferns. . privus. — . bretonica. ON. — . a heath. Mid. Brick. to break. It. twopares Lat. Neumann. jetty. Pro(merch=:maid). brigantine. E. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . bro. feast. troop. Grisons bruch. is still used in this sense. sugga. bruith. Fr. bruyere. feast of espousals. birbone. . collect bits of food. .pritil . Gael. BRIGADE dead. Trovarfor bride-ale. to boil. AS. and that from It. ibrukkti. boiling up brocoliere. from the last 99 of which. a lump of bread. ap.groom. Thom. appropriate. owned also propriate. Bridal. daughheath. Du. to break to pieces bricalio. AS. a lump of bread briber. ' . a cheat. Flor. Cot. bably contracted from brigantine. married. betonica. The origin of the word is the w. a sow. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Pol. buckler J ON. Brique. Walach. son. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall.

the gleeman's song. Gall. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. bracht. a noise. They or brigantini. combat. Brigata. sound. glamm. Schmeller. to cry 'Schmid OE. may play the pirate or thief at sea. brebrigare. willata. The Ir. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. — Brigantine. transparent. to bend a bow It. glbram. necessary business. brigan. praht. clear. brawl. Du. bryhtm. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. glir. See Brake.' torum. In Fin. Flor. Goth. glamra. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. and secondly. A. briga. Adelung. So G. It.' The sense of strife or combat express. and. to reservavit. and diligence. — Probably then to strive. riis ' — Chron. XafXTTpoQ. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. beorht.— . clarus. a spark. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. wilella. to glitter. and led it away. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . hell. — — . representing a sudden noise. — brigante. schiteren. in the first instance. to rob. dine. kii:'a.' The passage from the sense of a light. Wilista. to sound. manifest ON. tion. and to associate with them. tumult. to make a loud noise. to piracy. malandrini.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Lat. Florio. also called briganders. that of Fr. the bench-notes resounded. rixa. splcnornd de brigandine. and. show the origin of Lat. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. there are many armour. loo BRIGAND lor. —Capgrave. braid. brigare. clare lucens. 312. It. clangour. 1351. clear sound. shriek with laughter. It. — brigante. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. . Swab.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. briegen. brigandare. bray. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. The E. — A A . speech. \oice. 1654. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. on his — own account. a glittering. It. tinnitus. Xa/iTTii). to strive for. to shine. moment.shine. . tinnitum clarum movco. A strepere. at a later period. Due. Brigand. seems to be to exert force gar el area. bragen. clear. then. Mid.dorem clarum reflecto. clang. a pirate. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. labour. and hence be explained glampi. outcry. — Briganbriga. and ner me hit iherde. is easily understood. a brigantine. bright bearhtm. a small light pinnace pro. From ON. tuilahtaa.' in Due. AS. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. pugna. inde squammatus. to ring. lay was sung. twinkling.pracht. — Due. Owl and beorhtian. noise. to glamr. to cry.Lat. squamma . rover either by sea or land. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. strife. splendour. schateren. and the E. splendour. The primary meaning of Sp. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set .glampa. from hall. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. jurgia. himself to serve men of merit. brcEhtin. secondarily. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. biartr. brak. bregar. brdgen. the grew high. Beorktode bene sweg. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. briga. to rove. brigant. brigare. etincelle. Bright. cange has 'Veles. splendens . — Beowulf. In the same way to strive is. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to shift for with care. kilistua. glitter. Brilliant. to contend with another.D. Bav. in the sense of a robber. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. dine. Gr. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. in later times a robber or highway-man. clear. a sound. to resound. with respect either to sound or colour.clare ^tinniens. Heo — song That AS. tinkle. OHG. bairhts. to shine.

burning. grdzil. brimmen. whether of desire or anger.D. to shine. brow of a hill. kiimottaa.) brimi. bray as an ass bramire. barm. as in Langued. sonitum edere bremen.its vent in cries and roaring. to sound deep or hollow. komista. . Prov. brastlian. fringe . bremas. Rugere. brame. brand-krossottr. Tresiller. to roar. Dief. to broil. an apron. — . from bringe. 1 1 64. reecho. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Sc. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. furious. s. vigorHal. voux. to make a crackling noise. A . lap. brim Magy. small gravel. gresiller. parched. to crackle. hence the bosom. striped or streaked. to glitter . — g. have then in Fr. It. originally the lap folding over the breast. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. fire. s. vattubryn. brummen : de soge brummet. grisler. bremmen. fierce. G. lap of a garment . bramire. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. to shine. Rayn. der. Fr. breme. dial. with an initial br instead of gr. clangor tinniens.ioTiviS acutus. Kil. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. the singing of Sodom — — . In the same way Sw. Sw. AS. kajata. brame. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. cross-barred in colour. Said of swine when in heat. to parch. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to glitter. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. ring. brinfire. the lap or bosom. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. In Fr. glit. kimmaltaa. ling noise and a sparkling light. Tutschek. to . The E. to resound. brisoler. bramar. ON. breziller. brullo. gresiller. to creak. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. greedily to covet Cot. lip of a vessel. to shimmer. sparkle. griller d'impatience. Du. bry7ie. kimista. the verbs Flor. bremmen. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. brennistein. and corresponding to these. Supp. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. or violent action. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. perent. glisten. brissle. identical with passion. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to storm. ardere desiderio. greDiet. ON. post. to creak. to fret . Thus Lat. sprainged. to twinkle. to crackle. to utter cries. 1. which seems identical with rim. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. — — So Fr. to shine. frequently interchange. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. to sparkle. Hence with an initial s. 754. Brindled. of the eye. Langtoft. Subo. border. as well as bl and gl. a long. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. fringe (Lat. brumft. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. ON. ous. the heat of animals. kimina. to glitter distance . AS. bramar. briller. also to reflect. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). crackle.preni. Dan. FJ. noise made by meat in broiling. to make bilbil). the heat of animals. crackle . to shake. surface of the ocean. breme. grisser. brim. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. a stick. to quaver with the voice. . Brem. brillare. from brandr. brant. brunft. os qui bresole. coloured in stripes. to roar. It. the meaning is transL' amour. a rod. (poet. as is the case also with Pl. brdnnsten. earnestly . brandr and Fr. spraing. finds the Fr. rugire. brummen. griller). leonum). margin. broiled. Brimstone. breziller. Wtb. the sow is brimming. The identity of ON. as of meat in broiling . is used of raging. broil . rut. To Brim. bramer. ter. to wish or covet. pMiller. E. whence bilbil-goda (literally. The meaning of the Fr. brezil. on. the eye-brow. border. the edge. . komottaa. Sc. to long for a thing. bresoler (Gloss. griller. border. bryn. — Rim. Fl. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. Lith. to burn. brama. a streak. — — — .— BRIM . shine. Streaked. grullo. briller. brmdottr. chime). from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne.). burning stone. briller (related to each other as OFr. Brim. The expression is now confined to the sow. barm-cloth or barmskin. a border. that the original meaning of the Sc. excited. Closely connected is OE. bar. brommen.— Brinded. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. beam. tience. It. 154. fimbria) . and 1. edge Pol. rym^. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. rugire (cervorum.' d'etre marie . Swiss Rom. barmr.' Elyot in Way. a borDu. : ' — bone). kommata.

to break. craw of a bird. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. i. bricho (with the diminutives. and hence. G. a slip or sprig of an herb . as. very salt brimi. Da. See Brand. ON. Salte sand is called brimsand. sour. a rebours. fragile. to burn. e. Brym. to thrust. a bit . brocchus. brisciare. Fris. has under It. the surf. and Sc. a belly. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. is to erect the hair. or the full • . Brisk. Bret. to bud. Fr. Brickie.). Abroacli.. grim. rebursiis. — — . p. bryne. It. borzen. brusk. spricka. breidr. fantas'* tical. quick. brioshko. brisk in taste. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. brocar. smart taste. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. brimhliod. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. bruched (Fr. metaphorically. coli. brichet. braidsj ON. to roar. to goad. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Fr. brust. roar of the sea saltr. — . birse. sharp. It. . Sp. — bryme. a peg sbrocco. borst. to crack. Port. breast. Brooch. broche. spur. prick with Sw. brddj Goth. Berri. Hence ribrezzare. briser. to broil. Brittle. brissle. apt to break. brime. Zeuss. to spur. suddenly angry.' Nat. brytan. 'V^. byrst. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Prov. a cold and windy mist or frost. reburrus. bryde. a brooch. birs. a projecting tooth It. emotions which produce it. britar. birssy. are used in the sense of brittle. Du. brot. strong itself. the twigs of a besom. is called a birssy day. and. birsle.'— Vita'abbatum S. like the Broad. See To Brim. It. Brocade. fiscbryne. harsh vin brusque.rcendij'i. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). brim. a morsel. Bristle. brittle. to shoot. Antiq. fierce. brickie. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. trembling. Sc. ' breast. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. sprout. Fr. Breeze been connected with the Sc. a brad or tack. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. brote. bresk. to spit. In the N. bros. Ptg. startling. Palsgr. brocciare. the surf. wine of a sharp. flames. saulmeure. birstle. Prov. chest. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Brisket. a bud. Du. brandello. a spit. crabbed. Hal. Mid. brimme. to spur. borstel. Pectusculum. a rod or twig. expression. lively. Bohem. breaking of the waves brim sior. to begin upon it. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. bringue. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. brcit. of E. Russ. Formerly written brotil. broca. brim (poet. britar. from brande. a deluge. brog. brockle. brindelles de balai. to broach a business. Fr. Alfr. a skewer. flame. b. broccata. Walach. Sw. brusco. Fr. rude. Cot. sticking up . because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. a stormy brimsea . a morsel . . hot-tempered.. sprouts. to set it a going. eager. rash. as a noun.g. from break. Lat. cK) the . brezza. britchet. brezzare. — A . . Boh. as. bristly . a button broche. as. sprocco. 222. a stitch brocher. aculeus. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brissko).procio. brusque. broc. an awl.D. The Pl. angry. to put one in a rage . Bret. stitch. bruckle. brocco. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It.). brittle. Fr. a bud. /3pE^m. briocho. to shiver for Sold or for fear. to turn up the point of anything. . ribrezzoso. as unripe fruits. Then as the effect of shivering. to break. brocher. a fragment. Commonly explained as from Fr. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brijn (Kil. to scorch. bringe traced through the brano. shoot. ' . an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. ruffling. to stab Gael. NE. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. brin. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Compare also E. breaking out into growth. briota. Sc. against the grain . Brine. bronchus. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. brocco. brodden. from AS. man's throat. of astonishment. Liquamen vel garum. borzos (struppig). Prov. bringe. Gr. broca. brim. . briota. It. humorous. thick — A elastic hair. Gl. and forms on. or — . brich. bruskett. to break. the brisket or . setting the hair on end compare It. . Dan. Russ. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. — in Due. to birstle. a clasp. to stick. bros. a crum. form bris. whence may be explained the Sc. Swiss to stand out .Lat. rebrousser. See Spread. broccare. to set up one's birse. to stitch. a shoot or sprig. setting the hair on end.

broiled. a border. with Sc. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. frecSee Brawl. ciare. To roast upon hot coals.tumultuous. fundamental origin. a mole. broc. freckled. streaked. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. brastlian. brod. broighlich. to broil. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification.. kled breac. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. A badger. brerd. a brecJi. A fried or boiled steaks). broccuto. an edge.sound. . point to an origin in Bret. — Gower in It. hurly-burlies. to instigate. So from Pol. brizen. here. noise. embroidering. a quarrel. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. Cot. birsle. b?-od. a flock or Gael. brullare. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. or roast on the braise. rustle. bawling. brychau. to crackle as a shell in the fire. hart of two years old. creak. to boss. a flake of snow sion. broglio. houx. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. or glowing coals broged. to crackle. bmsciare. a To Broil. Broker. brindled. borprick. and AS. brych. a freckle. broder. bj'oil. brodio. a prick. Gael. blusters. to embroider. Thus brod. stump. Florio. parched. motes. confound. tufted ornaments. bordar. ornamented with a raised pile. Compare G. briz. and bord or bred. From direct imitation of Brock. to knots or loops. Ptg. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. brasuole. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. a b?-ustolare. Ihre has guU-bord. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). badger . gresiller. trouble. 103 embroidered. brouda.. brasolare. Cot. a confused streaked face of the animal. prasseln. piebald . to burn. Compare also AS. R. broc. or snag. to prick. broud. sparks E. brucilare. forming to jumble. knobby . to streaked or speckled in the face. . grullo. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. embroidery. to crackle. agree in being the extremity of a thing. brocart. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brocach. storms. brocco. parch. spots. froco. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. Icnotty. W. — Fl. initial . Fr. Bret. B. Grisons brascla. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. broukit. brasiller. brusler. a brouhaha. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. to embroider. of pointing out their latent defects. speckled. tori shows that. bram. to darn. to On the other hand the Sp. v. and w. Contracted from Fr. The ON. thread. the line of development has been something different. scorch. to stud broccoso. margin. a point. brusuole. has grisser. parti-coloured. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. — — . onbryrdan. grislement. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. a freckle. — brissle. Surrey in R. brasiller. rinj'. sting. frocadura. a fallingThe sense has been out. broil. from the white. It. ToBroider. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. trouble. It of br the Fr. to parch or broil. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. brustle. or salted fish on coals. Dan. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. noisy. a brim. to scorch. Fr. to crackle. a border ornamented with gold. broccato was used to signify stuff . bordo. precisely analogous to the Sc. whence broccare. Gael. Here to ornament with needle-work. silkes-borda. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. Fr. Brocket. E. broil. brooked. bramowanie. to crackle. bruler. speckled. broice. It. Sc. briefh. age was termed a pricket. breard. carbonado. a badger. bustling. Sc. parti-coloured. prod. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. gold and silver. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. braird. brucach. border ornamented with silk. q. to burn. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. Hal. atoms . border.— B. AS. — The proper sense is that of Fr. Sp. spotted. a peg. to spur. tumult broighleach. or It. The Bret. — . dar seems derived from borde. the shoot of corn. shuffle. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. brasbrasciuolare. brouFr.

brack-gut (Sanders). to pro- to reject . to nourish.D. goods damaged by sea-water. hrak. bronce. vrage. to blame.— — . inspection. bronzo. brack. brid. cracker. hot. Du. to be wanting. refuse. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. : ' . to brew. term was correcfo^ir. Teutonic class : Du. braken. brunds. brod. fermenting. brechen. See Wreak.D. bring eggs and spawn into active life. dial. from makel. Prov. bracker. See Brackish. — broeden. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. bronze. to pick and choose. analogous to Bohem. refuse brakowad. to . selection. Pl. Alb. pan metal. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. Jam. sort. brumo. matter of blame weak place. to sort goods . slaae vrag paa. For the same reason the Kiittner. 396. try . keep warm. Lat. brydio. brod. which E. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. tan. corrector. wrack-good. burning. embers. wraken. Fl. sbrinzlar. rejection Pol. refuse goods. cherish. nounce unsound. couratier. inspect. G. find fault with. • . Pl. This word shows the same relation to It. abject. If to vomit . spittle . abbronzanchiare. bronze. damaged. refuse brakovat. brot. broiid. wreak. Alb. broen. and fishes . — a spark. brack-gut. to braze. want. a fault. tussis. brae. the spawn of fishes. to sort brakovanie. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. brands. but from the primary sense of the It. or brascla. Fr. Kil. phlegm. brokers' goods. refuse Fr. 38. buy and sell by commission. hraki. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. to emit sparks. brak. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. Russ. lack. make out. Bret. embers to brund. whnake. The use sunburn. Bronze. faulty. warm. find fault with. Per manus et old worthless horse. to copper. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. to hatch. from break. try out. It may be compared with It. Bronzare. hot. brasa. to sparkle. On • tliis principle the G. racaille. insects. — . Abbronzare. Adelung. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. fault censure. vile.— Lib. . Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. raquer. to garble. braeck goed. to pick. trumpery. Pro v. correctarius. to criticise. Tooke's Catherine. to be hot. a makeln. brackefi. with. brasa. Grisons brinzla. dirty. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. S. glowing coals. . brokas. spittle. stain.D. cast Lith. Sp. bridde. brak. G. merchandises de rebut G. to reject. The Langued. . to throw blame upon. brwd. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. and as an adj. Pl. in the sense of rejection. i. a chicken. whence the modern courtier.D. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. has exactly the force of G. et A. as. to sit on eggs. filth. ODu. mud. In the . an . OFr. an operation performed over hot coals. w. to hatch. sunburnt. . and to reject the damaged and unsound. . mediationem quorundam J. criticise (makeln). In those countries the term braker. brakyne. the young of any animal . brokoti. bric-a-brac. a broker. refuse wares. briiten. blur. a breach or flaw.— Breed. It. ordure. racher. Brood. damaged. ON.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. refuse. find fault — — — fuse matter. fish-spawn broden. to spit . to scorch. to — garble. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. — Fl. To blame mens ware. bredan. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. brass does to Sp. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. G. to roast on the embers. brieden. reject. . The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Du. a cough Hal. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. progeny of birds. a brood . screatio Junfus . rejected. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. wrak. vile. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Dan. raca. on. — point out the faults. Sc. brut. embers. e. See Broth. To correct an exercise is to Lib. an outcast or rejected sheep. bronze. to hatch G. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. in which sense the OHG. designation is indkler.

to boil. bratrj Lat. sprout. broth. a sprig. sap. brov. brus. The softening down of the consonant bud. It. brudi. w. shrubs. G. braussa. brouet. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . dialects is very different. eye-lash . bruach. Bohem. a hut or cottage It. to shoot. to sprout. bruno. brodo. brost. . plants composed of twigs. 'Lzt. . A — . hut. to use. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. juniper. bruth. Gael.brink. — ' . brouic. eye-lid. brlgh. . breh.spross. steam from heated bodies. brocco. bruceti. to bubble up with noise. G. Gael. warmth ch'an. Here we find throughout the Romance. or broken up . The origin is a re. Manx broie. waves. brun. . borde. a shore. bank. eye-brow. to Pl. Fr. thicket. . Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. eye-lid. brotar. riviere.D. brow of a hill. w. grow brossa. brusmalt. pith. chen. a . seethe. brouter. pottage. Pl. breg. mettle. Ppim. face. brukjan. frater. and Slavonic families. &c. vigour. a river. iVlanx broogh. . brothas. brpuster.. as Fr. a bud. braces. to boil bruithe. rage. a spring. broeye. breg. or bushes and scrubby growths. Fr. to border. brabruach. Brothel. a little . broieii. Due. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Celtic. — . brad. . deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. broi. To digest.braubiti. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brd. grow into a bush. bordel. broth is sometimes used . dumetum. signifying low wet land (Brem. spirit. and also border. brosst. heat explaining the Prov. a hill. break out brewet. a hill. spuma. brous. fabric consists. buds. broden. Sc. bruscosd quam de arabili. Serv. thick bush brousta. OHG. shoot. eat. Prov. .' Due. to browse. braew. &c. bryn. briar. shrub with leafless pointed edging. brst. bruithim. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. juice of briars. Tam de terrS. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. bruddeln. of which the variety of forms. . broccola. and It. brau. thairj w. surDu. t— Cot. 105 Brook. brue . bruith. bryn. fur Broom. cia. and Sc. boiled . Brow. brink. Gr. Bav. ale . brosses. has briw. circuindedit cum familia. cabbage soup . strength. pour boiling water over. Limousin broudi. brouches. Ger. — . Sanscr. Bret. brennen. braun. properly boiling water briihen. bank. on. G. (for brodem). G. . sprot. Gael. a bruth. as rhododendrons. a bud brous-koad. broit. Du. broth. Bret. Sp. was originally used in the innocent sense of . It is Brother. bros. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. bregh. bruc. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. See Bramble. bryii. to roar. Sp. perhaps burnt coloilr. on. Fr. Gael. forms appear related to the Ir. may be connected with Russ. brouskaol. of plants broust. bree. Browse. bntdien. rerum decoctarum. Fr. as small-pox. shore . AS. broth the ocean Sw. brdtaj Gael.) . Fr. to burn. brwd. broud. brushbrothas) gives the OE. broza. Pol. heath. the colour of things burnt. OFr. to browse. brew . infusion the barley bree. bor. simmer from the murmuring AS. briu. broth Brown. margin. a little house or cottage of timber. wood . border. vigour. sproc. juice of meat. infusion. or shoot. meal." Serv. Lat. protecting the eye. bordeau. to murmur. eminence . sprouts . &c.D. brost. brawdj Slavon. house of ill fame. borda. Dan. strength Ir. eye-brow. bhratrj Zend. sordes seu strigmata young branch. riviera. — exiit et heath. Kil. Bohem. brow. frucius. It. to boil. frui. bruitheati. . in which brinnan. OHG. surface of Broth. broc. brewis. shoots. b7-un.— Overyssel Almanack. useful G. brotar. . BROOK brook w. bud. breg. sodden. enjoy Goth. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. edge. to scald. broca. hovel. But the Walach. brouser. Cot. to boil. from ripa. Roquef. Russ. . maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. the bubbling or springing up of water. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. kail brose. browys. Mid. It. brio. Catalan brossa. branches. cabbage water. pfriemkraut. AS. heath. The AS. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. bushes. G. shore. bruich. to bear patiently. brosses. &c. Russ. a caldron. Wtb. bros. edge.brons. brucan. brozia. . brodem. sprocco. a source Gael. noise. augen-braune. brushbroccoli. who is steaming with sweat. a derived from the boards. Prov. broem bark. brstiti. Du. bank. brauwe. broth brothaire. brmi. Bohem. to spring . signifying twigs. eye-brow. a shrub broust. Gris. . briihe. awl-plant. ceales briw. brass. from Goth. heat. hot. . verge. laissent Domunculum. a confused noise of winds. bank. broo. to use bruks. low The AS. eye-brow. sprout. brogues. to use. sense the Sc. Commonly Teutonic. bruich. a sprout.

Sw. — Fr. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. and also Brush. of twigs. bruscolo. brista) or breaking out . The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. — OE. Lang. a noise. Wicliff. Pr. E. twig. Fr. B?-usske. brosse. to break. britar. Pr. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. borste. blow burcar. shock. wool-card. a brush. bruise exOFr. wool-card. brist. insilio. Allit. The same relation holds good between G. OFr. brustia. brust. broza. . brusg. bruscolo. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. shivers. also a head-brush. — a bush. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. bruiser. a brush . brossa. to brush. brushwood. 174. biirste. wool-card. brisd. Fr. ca7-bo>i. Gael. brunt. Cot. Gael. to crush. a crum. brousso. Pm. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. —Fabyan. brysan. borste. bush. Bruit. it schall be al Sw. a blow. a bristle. — those signifying a sprig. Cot. or shoot. and sighid therewithal. Fr. bruito. wood composed OE. as It. tuft of grass or hay. a bud or sprout Bret. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. and actually come in collision. Gael. broken. Bruise. brottcher. brosst. brico or brizo. A. insultus. and . p. brusca. or sodenly comyn' dust. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. To brush then would be to dust. Hall in R. to strike the foot against an obstacle. a briser. ON. seems named from burst(on. orts. Poems. 201. The Bav. brusca.). irruo.). . . It. appearin Goth. It. to make a rumbling. . K. a brush Swiss bruske. a brush. field. dust. brous.). bruire. Port. brossar. rubbish. Prov. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. briser. effort. dust. Piedm. ling or heath for brushes. briiis (in the pi. G. bushy ground. E. bruzir. rubbish. burt. Bav. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. broustia. flax-comb brossettes. * Brunt. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. brizeto. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. bruskr. brusc (Diet. bricalio.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. remnants of hay or fodder. detergere . a tuft of heath . tremely. an enmy. Text Soc. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. escousse. Piedm. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . brik.— — i. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. bris. bruscia. rods. Brunt. sordes. It. a brush. a brush . Prov. In E. Fl. a mote. coal See Breeze. desbrisar. borst. and in the second place a besoiB. Sw. Bret. a rumbling. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brikan. a horse-brush. to butt. brosst. quasi twigs. chips. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. crush. Sp. bruc. a little brizal. into a multitude of points. Pr. to stumble. a bud. dust. Lang. britar. . . brusco. bruyere. bris. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Beryn. borste.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. to break or burst. a brush . An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. And that best is. bross. a bristle. brit. twig. . Prov. The Lat. abroncar. brosse. brus. broza. Brush. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. NE. a — — (Agea) said. E. Diez. to break. Fr. brist j Port. Broach. Pr. borste. broust. —Chaucer. That in all haste he wouli. a flax comb. OE. Gael. splinters. Castr. bud. dust.— Palsgr. brise. 134. bris. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. mg Cat. modification of the same root which gives the E. to break to bits . rubbish. and Piedm. and It. brMt. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. brustid. Brunt of a daunger. to make brusshes on. to cleanse. Prov. Alexander. fragments. crum bit . brist. See next article. AS. a shrub composed of small twigs . shoot brouskoad. On the other hand. brusco. burs. brisar. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brist. Pm. bross. break. Fr. borste. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. bris. fescue . brustia. brugir. brous. heath. G. bruit. briketo. quisquilise. a bush of hair. fasx . or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bruis (sing. biirste. brossa. Palsgr. a brush .

to stick. designation of a knob. bubBuck. was called in Fr.biiken j Svi. buborek. hump. In G. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. plied in the W. bubseti. It. set of pirates in the spread. the first wheal. bog-aske. It. thunder gently . bukke. a push.wet Lat. the lower soak in lye. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. faire la lessive. buchen. The word was very generally Buccanier. mote. w. to soak foul linen before washing. soft. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies.' Palsgr. of wind. bube. . buck-ashes. Fin. when soap was tion is commonly taken.buchen. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Sp. hump. molle. Pol. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. a hole. Esthon. to Gael. bubiti. buck-ashes. Cot. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. Formerly. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. to wet Pol. bucquer. moczyd. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. BUBBLE bruschetta. to bump as a bittern. a bubble . tuft. moist.to allow a free current of air.boukaat. mokry. it is beuchen. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. The term bocan is still ap. to a place used for the mouillir. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Etym. top. March 28. Fr. as G. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. Pref A. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to soften. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. wood. — . a steep for flax. hog dressed whole).steep or soak. and the bunch. who resorted to the islands beichen. a to the male deer. See Dupe. bucata. mollire.tare.byka. to soak. bubauti. Bret. boil animals. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. to which in their language they call bou. to murmur. soft . to filter. Our next illustration represents the Bocan.derivation has been much discussed. The cipally on the Spaniards. blast or strike with the forehead. says Laudon. and Fr. boc. soft. bifbel.D. to soften . buquer. bouk. buquer. erweichen. a bubble.lessiver. is 1. or projecTo Buck. 17th century. — . from colar. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. 1586. to soften. Bret. different form. to strain. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. From an imita. lye. to butt or jurr Dan. But see Bristle. bub. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. . mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. tender. colada. pup. Fr. . a. lye. bugada. w. bublati. Sp. News. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. de la Floride. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. Bohem. Gael. Pol. boc. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. bduclien. and uninhabited places in the West Dan.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. drying of produce. a bubble. 1857. boh. a knock word. to soak. The natives of Florida. and then to other wild tumour Lith. not so plentiful a commodity. Magy. . very generally designated by the same puk. The male goat. bwch. Sc. blister. The name. buerj It. knock. to butt. bugd. the upper for coifee. Diet. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. . also applied Una. at a door. . and exercised their cruelties prin. bokni. a ashes. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. because bucare does not in Marsh). rap. I. soft. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). maban and baban. the linen at buck. Bohem. soft It. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. pokka7na. or mok. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. was called bucking the linen. mieknad. as a buck rabbit. tap . — — ' A : ' ' . to buck. bucking. . a fescue. . open lath-work. ac. caned' Hence those who established them. Bubble. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. Illust. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. Magy. It. to bubble. bub. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. A . from weich. a. Fr.— . bouc. Dan. in which the flesh dish. The place of such a 2. byge. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. pukkata. to butt. boucaner. tender. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. watery bud. does not hold. and as a verb.-wtt miekki. This bubette. bucaIndies. bubbola.

budge. Mid.Lat. It is explained by Miiller (MHG.. a buckle or protuberance. Fr. a wallet. swelling./a. a boy. Prov. jSouKoXiKog. bouton. to swell. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. of bac. Bav. bouljein. w.goa. Budget. goat's hoof. . bulla. w. Du. become bochen. swelling. dim. explaining Fr. boucle. To thrusting part of a long body. — . a small shallow and open tub. to un bout d'homme. Fr. bdden. words is converted into b. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. is doubtless fallacious. pwt o Fr. knock. Gael. where the G. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. It. skins pushit'. and weichen. a dumpy gin. Hardly identical with Fr. Fr. and the reference to It. W. G. bouter. Russ. water message. soft.' Hal. butzen. also a leather tuft . from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. a leathern sack.stumpy man. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. The entire train of thought is bucket. brobrocchiere. bunch. K. boss. * Buckle. bouk is a pail and with the dim. the root of the Slavonic words gran. II I'a feru desor I'escu. call bo. butzen. Fr.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. to butt. macero. rabodS. It.) as to soak. * Bucket. clump. Pol. Lat. bougette. to thrust. excrescence. Bus. to move. Budge. a boss. bucket Fl. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. ' .pode. Bav. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. * Bud. ble. a bump. scion. from Gr. ornamental stud. Sw. buckel. bunch . Cot. bedde. A buckle or fastening for botch. . bug. from bugr. like a bean. with a central boss. trunk of wood covered with leather. butzen K. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It.anything short of its kind. to boil. a cowherd. pote. seen in Hesse botz. a ring. bulb. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. from bo. ON. Pied. wallet. the word w ' — . sboge. bo. boglyn. clasp of a book. with let. knob dwfr yn boglynu. rump of fowls . . of a surface. Du. buachazlle. stud. knob . bouclier. bub. crack.. . . dinted. were To Budge. call. boqueranmis. as in Fr. boach. boucaran. bloca. to 'soak. bog and G. a curl. botzen. pulga. . Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. This expression boglire. A water-plant with leaves and gille. gjeit-klauv. a buclder or shield budge. boss of a shield. butze. — — . no business to do that. boucle. Sp. bouprobably identical with inok.n. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. bloca. to budge. no wheel bogeilio. botzen. a navel. above mentioned. Bucolic. NE. Port. bocla. don't stir from hence.stuff.may probably be explained by N. noise . to boss or swell out G. great pouch. bloquier.chissima. bul. a short thick man. bucherare. stroke. mani.' Boccaccio. It. a little coffer or turgidus. motus creber. a budget. bouger. Fr. a budget. a tuft. to graft or bud trees. bogla. convexity. a . Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. case of leather . . child. bucolicus. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. boccula. lump. to pen cattle. in the beginning of to pierce holes. Fr. a boss. . to stir. bougette. potz. It termination is lost. Buck-bean. with which it was ornamented. butzen (Du. ' . having a boss. In Lat. and of the Lat. boulj. inboachen. whom it is still much in use. OFr. blow. Dan. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. to word. ' . a fold ceilio. agreeing with Gael. So on. male or botzen. to bud or bocla. Behoves. is to shrivel up. It. bullion. Buckler. . Hence quel. bod. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bollire. bolgetta. bucherame. bulga. turgere buczendig. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. butz. a pustule bout. Dan. a shield. bod. bolgia. of bouge. Mid. Fr. bode. . buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bouge.) . belonging to the calling of the chen. don't a baby). cattle. bud butzen. Swab. boaLat. a shoot.poot. protuberance. bulais daqui. the radical image seems to be a set plants.— . Prov. a servant. thrust. weich. weich. Bret. pulga. a bud. The Fr. to poke. a stump buckle up. push forwards. loud Cot. boucler. The word is a ddyn. ein. See Bulk. a trough). prick in a target. weichen. Prov. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. imbuere.). pwtio. call. butt . — — .. hump. bugnir. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. a bubble three thyngis. The dressed fur of lambs.r//'. to line with fur.' Schm. a pail or flowers. The knob or projection formN. dint . fur. OHG. probably from the notion of bubbling. — . built. set of a plant in bulk. put. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. need.' And this sacrament bus have dial. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Bret. bump. bulka. or male of to boil . boiling. bukke-blad. stir. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. boucle. Wtb.t-le!L{ * Bud.

often covering his E. Fr. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. From buff! of terror. wine may The verb in taverns. bugbear. bufogni. — thence it has been transferred in E. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. buffare. A puff with — Fl. bubaRuss. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir.D. yar^aa. Fl. to give a as of a blow. Buffoon. botffon. cuff . bo ! an interj. as Diez remarks. Lith. bolgetta. a clap.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. from souffler. It.D. sounds. or wild ox. buff leather. or hath been Cot. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bau ! children. Fr. The cry made to excite terror is then used. as wine that hath taken wind. stupid. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. from It. to signify an indefinite object of terror. Fr. Pl. mumming. a bugbear. the buffe. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. scarecrow . to rePl. Hence the E. It. to a representation of his voice. buffare. baubau. bugs. A — Bug. Buffalo. Thus buffet would a tapster. often blown upon. to blow souffleU. Mid. the place whence the wine was drawn. blurt or puff with one's mouth. puff. —Boggart. buffle. Teet-bo. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. buffalo. also the skin or heck of a buffe. buffle-headed. wauwau.— Buflae. as from Lith. A blow. tabernarius. Lat. buffet. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. made to —Bugbear. dial. a hollow sound. caupo. while in Sp. een duffen toon. . breath. Magy. to marre often tasting it . buivol. a goblin). bufHe. bubach. buffer. tastes. Lith. buffet. a hobgoblin. boo. Lat. — La Crusca. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. buffets. From bulga.D. bumann. smells . such as that conjured up by children in the dark. buffen. bw! It. Gael. ' They rether puffed at him. Cot. by metaphor. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. to puff.—Buffet. — Bogle. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. to strike face to represent the unknown. either alone or with various terminations. to give benti. colour. Buffeter. It. also a G. to jest or sport. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. duff^ dull. pulse . 265. W. a In .' perfield. made by a person. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. a dull BUG From 109 — A . God's boast seemed feare children. a cuff or buffet. le reste emplissant d'eau. confused. a buffle or a bugle.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Cot. bouffer. The children were playing in an oppocomer. and in Fr. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. a block-headed noddy. Buff. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. Limousin bobal. popo. a skin. Esthon. bugle. him but Boyd iugges. bukow Ikow. a budget. bouffer. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. a side-board. buMagy. buffet. to puff. bw. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. human. dausinti. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . bobaow. mingled with water. to bellow . a jester. Swiss baui. to frighten . Bufetarium. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . — retailing buffeter buffetier. to excite terror in Macleod. things in Jam. It. air. dull sound. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . rebuff. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Sc. Fr. to blow .' La Crusca. bubus. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Pl. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. of colours. E. dausa. bwg. soufflet. The use of the exclamation children. thus be translated to tap. Sc. senses. leathern bucket. Buff. buffa. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. bauwi. Fr. a puff. word other cases. deadened. bubiti. bolgia. to beat. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. w. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. buffetto. as emblematically making light of an object. to blow. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. G. boman. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. for this purpose is very widely spread. bufogni. — Z. site The two — — iii. &c. buffeteur. btifetarius. Romola. — — — Buffet.

tion of the word signifying an object of 2. bwg and E. boa-peep. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. Grisons bau. bau (Pureiglia. the black a maggot. Swelling. Bible. Parolone. See The name terror). but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. A similar applica. Stalder bog. beugler. bwgwl. boeuf sauvage. Magy. language any kind of insect. Fl. to bellow. Bdronie. Sp. * 2. modern English is appropriated to the OFr.. vermin. a misshapen person.Lat. proud. E. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. bugle. banian boube. bug-bear. buffle. Manx boa. to frighten scarecrow. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. and bugle. roarHal. booggen. threatening. — — ' . used in the same sense. bugbear. the buggaboo w. Magy. 3.. buculus. provincially an insect. to take bug. Bugle. and in child's Magy. affright. Schmidt. a beetle. Mundart. 493. to take fright. an insect. is very common. — . Hal. bugar. to bellow. insect. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. BUGLE Tentennino. 1551. dial. monster. bogle. It. . to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. The name of bug is — . any disgusting animal. Swiss ing. to take fright. according to Coles. bold. bogk. a bug-bear. Chaucer. threatening. disgust. a rabme. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Swiss booggen. buba. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. swollen. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bucula. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. rose-bug. a goblin. pugaf. Bug. biignt. b'dgni. is the dim. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. . as an object of dread. a silk-worm. bug. fierce. : no BUG . The w. also a bug-bear. ghost. bukati. high. — boogg. W. fette. insect. The final guttural of W. a. Fl. Mid. . Big. the word is lin) bbgge. given in Chaucer. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. hert. — — . pugalo.loud noise.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bug-bear. also a baco-baco. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Deut. a proud overbearing man pujat'. bogk. the Devil. bbgni. pujalo. iv. bug-bear. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Hence bugle-horn. Lith. Cheval de trombugti. big. i. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. bogil. gad. roo. — — terror. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. of bugabo was given. paws the ground .3uhtii&:. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . as Buffalo. An ornament of female dress condread. bogil bo (e. mask ' . then a horn for drinking.Fr. an object of terror. Bogge. a boogg. It. bugler. oxen. bukashka. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. (Spurrell). I. il brutto Demonio. blustering. poggl. thus connected with bug. worm. saucy. Serv. long. to origin in the expression bugs words. earwig bau da grascha. high-sounding words. forSc. great or bug words. Grose. shepe and gootes. terrifying ward. and a boggarty ing. larva (a bug-bear. scarecrow . Sw. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. well as the terrific object. to roar Aasen. to creeping things. w. bobal. 2. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. fear. bauginti. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. bug dung-beetle. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Bug as a lord. a bug-bear. quos what produces dread or disgust. . Lett. bwgar. xiv. also a bug-bear. a bugbear for children. Lesachthal. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. protuberant. Same as buffle. baco. tumble-bug. with more or less modification represents bau. Illyr. coco. tion of the beetle tribe. Lap. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Russ. buggabod). bok. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. of pipes sewn on. and is Deutsch. a buffalo. and in Lat. superbire. troll. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. boo.— . especially to beetles or winged insects.

knot in thread. compare Da. ON. . bo. bilge. trunk. OSw. . belly Cat. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bolnyn. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. belgja. bolgna. sedes. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bolg. balg. buc. globule bolg-lhuingey. pod ON. be protuberant. . and N. bed of a river. beuck. and put it home. knob. belly van de kerche. bulbe. body. bol. principal portion. belly. boa. balgs. acervus. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bug. to undo the cargo. Bourser. and bulbukd. the head of an onion. to swell. villa. or. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. mass. hollow. a prominence. head . belgr. blister Manx bolg. blow. biilken. . With these must probably be classed ON. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. tumidus. . a globe. The Walach. in Sc. lump. the potato G. It.' Fl. ^ — . or feminine termination gives Bav. skin flayed whole. — — . G. Bav. bulge or bilge. bauch. a dint in a metal . bukr. to bubble up Pol. . balg. in vessel. trunk. Here stand behind this bulk.' Anat. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. a. Lett. a leathern sack or portmanteau. . to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Mister. lump. ON. . Dan. bulk is a partition of boards. A — ' — Bulk. vulva. the belly. herd^ swarm pulkd. bulne. Bulge. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. as water beginning to boil bolg. a water-bubble). Gr. to spring.'— Cot. bol. bellows builgean. a tuberous or bulbous root . to bubble up. bulg. bol. womb. bulked or bumped out. balcone. Jno. whence bylja. formed a farm. . a lump or mass. snorting on a bulk. cultivate. 1388. bulbe. to build. Lith. tumeo. were a habitation. to blow. Bolke or hepe. The radical sense is shown in Russ. crowd. — — . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. it again. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. PoXj3a. For the latter sense ' — My . belly. bolle. boss. swollen. the position of liquids in the word In English. a. bolso.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. husk. In the representation of natural sounds. buk. MHG. hull of a ship. pimple.' Palsgr. bole. See bollekeii next article. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare.' Festus. — — . chest. swell. belly. Hal. bubble. bulgen. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. ' . wallet. to break bulk. bolgetta. bauen. puff. bag. To Build. — . bulkaf. Pr. byli. m um Placentiae. bolgan.' Cot. bua. habitaculum. ' . — Bulb. Melancholy. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. ne. Bulk. or of what is shaped like a bubble. gebolgen. in bulk. or cargo of a ship. the carcase. buhe. as well as is very variable. a leather sack or budget Fr. Sp. Lat. dial. the womb. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. boss of a buckler. of an inflated skin. bulgen. at riufa bulkann. pocket. hold or bilge of a ship. Ptg. Lith. a protuberance. bulka. pulkas. belly Sw.— . to belly out. van loock. nave or body of the church van 't schip. From till. . mass. skin of an animal. thorax buick. G. G. OSw. knobby. the contents of the hold. — . a stage or scaffold. . bulge or convex part of a cask. domicilium. to bol. blister. bulk or capacity of anything. skin bag. bouk. bouge. to swell. w. boss of shield. bulcke. bubble {palgan tiisge. Lat. swell. Othello. anything prominent. See Bulk. bladder. to throw out a convexity. boulge. a bubble. Dan. boss. Gr. as it was merly written in English to bylle. Hence e. swell. projection. the capacity or burden of a ship. Boss^. bulbus. Palco. a bubble Gael.pulks. The addition of a dim. straight will he 2. stuffed bag. has bulbuk.d. bwlg. to raise a habitation. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bulwis. to puff up bolginn. a bunch. pouch builgeadh. body of a ship . Bulch. (3oX|8oc. unevenness Sw. belly. See how this tode bolneth. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bullka. bubble. bugue. Muratori. cumulus. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. body of an animal. balco. . bolgia. jnake bulch. inhabit. of E. bolle. ball. Pm. . a heap. leather sack. the body Du. knob. ' . swollen OE. bulle. . turgeo bolnyd. Pm. bubble. Kil. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. belly. to gather. Pr. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. . a straw corn-vessel. bulki. . blister. He found a country fellow dead drunk.). bubbling up. bale. on. or bear out as a full purse. . trunk of the body. a bulb Du. a round bulky body bwlgan. bunch or projection. I. Mandeville. bulk.

W. bulla. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. bollar. The male W. bollos de relieve. stupid . a bull Swiss bullen. 3. BulUiead. a hobgoblin. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. from Lat. from Fr. bugbear. poltern. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. a little fish nearly all head. a bowl. and thence terror. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bulle. Scot's Deso. as the ornanails. of boule. bwlas. to bubble. bulla. a wasp. it is boulet de canon. embossed work. Du. beams or boards. of the ox kind.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. assito. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Du. The wild plum. Fr. brass-headed nail . Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. which may probably be the origin of the name. The bullfrog. Bully. and vellon in Sp. boulct. See Bowl.D. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. boss. bullos. bwbach. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. w. biitzibau. coarse. Lith. Sp. thick. signifying roaring. bulke. a seal. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. — Fl. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. Bullet. but is more probably iden- palchetto. boillon. poli-cheannan. i. a cow. Du. a bull. BuUiou. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. a tadpole. I. whence bullire. a seal. the matrix or die . large of its kind. bullern. bauli. it may be observed that a bullet in E. on the contrary. bubble. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . balgeting. bulloi. witches. bole or trunk of a tree. a hornet. bolos Fr. Gold or silver uncoined. /SouWivu. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. The final element tergeist. poll-cheannach.'— ' Palsgr. dim. billon. a noisy violent fellow. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. to seal. Bullace. bellocier. G. Pm. ba. child by the represents the hobgoblin. pimple. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre.lle de fusil. to emboss . A lace tree. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. lumpheaded . to boil. from the noise. Terriculamentum. It. blister. large. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble.. bollon. pwl.' do not go by the dangerous water.. a bulox polos. 2. stud. — A tition in a ship. N. eth and frighteth. bullus. in N. bulk of a thing.Fris. boss or stud. dial. hhint. And The word bullerbak. stamp. scarecrow. Cot. polten. of Witchcr. many to protuberant objects. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. as It. bellow. G. as a mill-dam or the like. whence Mod. elves. sloes. . The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. a scare-bug. bietebau. spirits. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bwla. also a parFl. a framework of balks. billoti in Fr. Gael. Fr. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. See Billet. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. tition of deals instead of a wall. Bret. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. as in E. also of the tadpole or young frog. as geting. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch.D. &c. blunt. from the use of the equivalent terms. G. bolla. Eullrusli. to tical with Sw. bouillon. from the Lat. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. bouillon. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. to bellow. the seal affixed to the document. from baula. Du. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a bul-begger. is called a ball. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. bullocks. ON. Bullfrog. a stud.D. urchens. Bullbeggar. a blockhead. w. round glass phial. Dan. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. — — Bull. however. a beam or rafter. lumpish. bulk. any embossed work. bulderen. in the sense of base metal. leraures nocturni nigri. stamped money. is of a class with Pl.. bullebak. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket.Gr. penbwl. This word is used in several senses. stud. It. bolli. bal. bolli. 2. b2iggaboo. a hobgoblin.. any great-headed or studded nail. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. A papal rescript. pollach. Pl. a tadpole . G. baula.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow.

that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. sound. The Stat. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. or work of defence. resonare. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. boene. 'lega. primarily the ramparts of a town. 2. ON. 1305. For bottom. bulderen. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. biihne. a noisy blustering fellow. Philip le Bel in Due. bol-werck.' Again. noise. to drum Lat. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. The Sw. blaterare. bottn. AS.d. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. furious man. 2. Du. then in general a rampart. clamour. buene. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . In England the fortunes of the word have been different. agrees with e. The cry of the bittern. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. vallum. provides. Bum. IV. Bum-bailiff. ierd-beame. a blunderhead.' ' mettre au billon. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud.. violent. is bullion — A — buller. Fr. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. botm. propugnaculum. Thus ' ble. polterer. 9 E. debacchari. to . Bully-rock. by corruption boulevart. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. Du. droning. bastion. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. bottom. 1687). — Bumto . IIL st. ^Bully-rook.D. bodem. G. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Kiittner. Bully. D. a boisterous.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. hum. to dun. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. provides. G. and porter au billon. bustle. The 27 Ed. It. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. — Bump. or a humblebee. From the notion of a humming.' agger. from boden. To bully is to bluster. is called bumping or bells.' Stat. Miege in Hal. violent overbearing person. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Hence — . The decried coin. Hal. 4 Hen. a hectoring. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. &c. up was termed monnaie de billon. intonare. A. to terrify by noise and clamour. c. Fris. 14.. bomtnen. baluarte. beat a — Hal. Kil. buller-bas. bombilare. ground. to make a droning Du.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. c. bolderen. perturbare saevis dictis. Etym. 10.the ramparts. 2. St. buller-bak. To Bum. John). on the other hand. buller-brook. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. buller-jaan (bully. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. boisterous fellow. Kil. a floor. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. Du. a bumble-. To bum. c. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings.' for the purpose of exchange. argentum and silver. — bombam?nen. To bum. — — plate d'argent. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. legaggio di metallo. buller-bas.D.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. poltem. Hence bom and ban. BULLY with which coins were stamped. block-werck. blunder-buss. G. Sw. ^i^/«. III. Bailey. but now is the central part of the town. the soil.' reals of standard currency. ierd-boeyme. honunele. to make a noise . bommele. — Boom. blunder-buss. boulevard. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . un faux brave. minari verbulderen. scaffold. a. Fris.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. a stage.

large. Bunch. a bowl P1. to bang ON.D. Pl. clown. knuckles. the Pr. Pm. bulto. Lang. to thump. Bumsen. bunken. — stalk . seems to unite Gael. while bulch was traced through Gris. stalk. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Forby.' Palsgr. bulscha. hdk passing and E. — — — — ' — knock. a boil or blain. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a boil (punkos bot. a bunch Magy. a swelling. a swelling from a blow. bonnock.! . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bonge.D. Dunchyn or bunchyn. bump. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bunch— Hal. root. Manx bonkan. bull. a bag or sack.pummel. . Bunch. It. to . . Bumpkin. bum-boot. bunsen. to swell out E. Sc. bmike. ! — knocking. Roding. Then. and signifies consequently a mass. lenten loaves. — — de dor bunsen.— Pr. one ever saw the word in that shape. truss E. 1. to ' . bun. Mrs Baker. — — Bun. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. A Du. To bam. bignet. Hal. bulse. protuberance. Bunewand. E. to bang. dial. Pm. to beat. ner. . bune or boon. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. S. or grete knobbe. a heap. bugno. stubble Manx bun. Bunk. dial. Daal bu7iseti. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bunnion. bu<rnone. a pocket Sw. See Bunch. Probably from bump.-^Fl. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. any round knob or bunch. root. H. a bunch. hay stubble . Li cake. buns. a dried hemp-stalk. Bang sen. passes Sw. a knob. a heap Wall. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . . a knob. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. bunny. gibbus. stump. Dan.). a heap or cluster. pwmpio. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. to . a round mass . bunt. awkward. . gibber. poumpido. Hal. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Fr. Ir. . . Dan. bumsen. poumpi. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. . as we have seen E. awkward clown. Bump. a knock. strapping. to beat. the tail of a hare. cluster. Gael. w. Holland and Flanders.^Cot. an old stump of a horse. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. stem or base. bumtel. Bumboat. bolsa. from knock) It. w. a. — — Bun. nor would it concern the public if he did. Thus e. strike E. a rabbit. should probably be a short tail. a Sp. stock. forms. a bump. Hal. lump. bugnet. bunki. bonuach. Radically identical with Dan. Bunfeaman (stump-tail).P. a heap. bunkc. pumpa. He buncheth me and beateth me. bun with ON. are dim. Probably for bun-boot. banke. abrupt manbuns-wise. OSw. a hemp-stalk. A clumsy. foundation w. a bud. Du. from bunsen. lungeous.' he fell with a bang. blain. or to the mass by which it is given. bung. bugno. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. so the form btmk. Hence E. bunga. butt end. botn. Bun. round mass of anything. . Fl. bottom. binge. Sc. a tail (Macleod). bongie. Hal.— Bunnion.. signifying one who does things in a thumping. knob or heap. bannock. applied to young persons. — Marine Diet. and related with ON. bugnone. a into Dan. il me pousse. knochen. a heap OSw. trunk. a knob . a button. bundle. bund. &c. mto Sp. . tundo. bunan. bottom. clumsy. bunga. bun eich.D. pompette. pompon. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Bung^. bunka. pwmpl. Pr. a pumpion or gourd. Fr. . bunke. boi7ieog.S. a dry No . boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. a boss Lith. a hump. See Boss. .. BUNCH bum-bailiff. callus. He fult dat et bunsede. Pm. E. stock. Moor. a wallet. . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. a lump on the foot bunny. throw down with a bang. to knock .D. to bang down. as in other cases. a rabbit. Bums it's hit. a. to strike so as to give a dull sound. — round fruit. stubble of beans. bans. especially girls. banga. E. bmidt. Suffolk bonnka. Again. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. any round knob or bunch. bon. See Bounce. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bamgetroffen. inconsiderately. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Gael. —Bunny. bungersome. a large . Kyx or bunne. noise. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Pl. a knotty stick) Sw. calamus. bottom bun feoir. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. pwmp. stump. Bony. Related on the one side to Pl. .' Bun. pumpurras. a purse . explaining E. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed.

that the primitive meaning of shackle . hence the name would seem to have been boundica. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bangla. bang. Sw. Fr. la Borgonota. buove. modem bummle. N. gyves. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. — — To Bungle. on. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. to work at carpentry bangan. borgonota. tinker . Bung. to bud forth. Cat. Fl. bundel. Bunny. to strum on an instrument. ho-tapp. See Bourdon. dicimus rufum. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. B. guggle as water. bindini. of a song. bonde. properly a Burgundian helmet. the loose open grow big about or gross. To Bunt. . to bungle. — btiruii. Bung of a tonne or Lith. a bunch Burbulas. 202. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bangla. Sp. a bunch. Burden. Banff. bummle. loosed from bonds. bongani. to push with the head del. on. whence bunting. banga. bou^e. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. * Buoy. also a piinple in the face. . working in wood (especially with an axe). bommen. buie. bundt. Russ. bunta. stocks or such OSw. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. boj. racket. a botch. and bomme. to stop. dark. bouchon. the float of an bundle. or used as a receptacle for papers. bon. bondir. a water bubble made by rain. bourion. bang. Palsgr. Sw. . To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Sp. The belly or hollow of a sail. in is Fr. See Bun. coassatio et Du. . to knock. Burble. The Fr. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. an anchor buoy. To do anything awk- wardly. to bear. AS. Bret. bote. the middle part of it. russet. rumble as the bowels. bolting-cloth. bourguignote. bond. knock. Cot. Pl. biirde. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. unskilful working. to resound. anchor or of a net boyar. with the head. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. a wisp of hay or straw. generally known as the material of which bud. to stop. dark grey bura. G. boil or bubble up. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Burly. klimpem. bondel-loos. to pype. sprig. E. to botch. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. OFr. or putting forth of a vine. noise. Bunting. to in to stop the hole. and E. racket . Bunt. The Italian buio. a drum . to push ghebondte. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bongun. It. Biu'geon. A Dan. Lat. and now more Bailey. to hum. bunsen. Sp. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. OFr. are from bouscfie.— . halm-tapp. to push. knocking. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. a bung. bag to catch the wind. the bung of a barrel Lim. Burden. was formerly pronounced buro. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. dial. stiimpeln. The word is flags are made. See Borel. tinkle.' Festus in Diez. burion. knocking. to knock. bimge. punishments for prisoners. fascis. bondon. buret. Du. byrthen. Bundle. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. AS. and van t' vat. the young cloth used for sifting flour. borboUar. boya. Muratori. Fr. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. to kick. Fr. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. bourgeon. bury. to work ineffectually. to cobble. Prov. Prov. bove. byndel. — — . clogs. buret. The Magy. would be the earliest float for an anchor. bourjon. shove . bondeau. Burganet. banghagr. Hal. The stopper for the hole in a boia. to bolt meal. to gingle. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. — . tapp (whence tceppa. stilmpern. G. Johansen. the noise of drums. clumsy performance. B. A bubble. a boye. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. Sw. OG. contignatio. whence in bure. especially in wood. To burgeon. or tuft. ghebundte. bui. to stnmi on an instrument. bouche. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel.punt. to Somerset is to sift. p.D. tap. — Bureau. See Barbarous. bonde. bondelj bundell. boei. is originally a wisp or bunch . bundle.Fris. klempern. ' — work . to float. however. a cork. Rietz. So Du. Fr. a sort of helmet. dial. reddish brown. to gingle. to hum. do a thing bunglingly. a bungler. So in Pol. driving in the bung. and Du. Kil. to hum. fetters. colligatio. Compare G. bungande. To bunt. and the Sw. A load. boucher. shackles. Sp. from beran. burboloti. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to shove. . bounta. the stopper of a cask).

pressa puret. to puff up borr^ . an edge. he rustle. sidiary element. like straw or small . See under Bore. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. to grind on a whetstone. bururus. barrel. to sharpen. as Diefenbach bud. a margin. thence. big. Dief. a bubble. the word seems Pm. borrelen.or bubbling up. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. G. Bav. In the manu. the flocks. It. Lang. burle of cloth. Gael. blow. to bourda. So also Sw. Probably a modifica. a blaze. born. Swiss Rom. From Fr.. sbornoi. Schm. to roar. to bouronna. repartee . to rub. from bryii.). from the roaring sound of flame. a fountain. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. Fr. to Gael. tumentum. Pm. Burn. boiirre. . — Han to bruser op. flocks. Todd.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. . broil. tahko. it of the knots. to burn. to sharpen on a whetstone. burn. . See Berough. ' rugiens. to roar (as lions. ^Notk. tahkoa.' Cot. is connected with brim. a spring a robber. — . boure. and OG. to hum. A legal term from the Lat. Fl.. mockery. Nat. brynsten. borr. ON. laer. to fiy. to To Bum. tion of the root which gave the OE. brasa.bryna. ends of thread. robber. Sp. a lie. A — — . abourioner. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to make a So from Fin. is an Thus G. to roar. bouril. Limousin bourdo. taunt. . Goth. borujon. brase. de Vaud. bears. compared with G. Walach. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. brAler. 56. as the / in purl. as in cousteau. — — . to swell with pride. explaining Sp. brinii. brausen. and the Burnish. Supp. to roar 5. Bret. to puff. to polish. dial.. to murmur. ends of thread. brunir. — . Sw. Burgher. a prominent eye borracka. fires up. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. Bestiary. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. the roaring surge of the — — — . From the same root E. grancelli. Compare also Piedm. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Fr. swelling borr-shuil. borni. a jest. Burglar. joking. to polish helmets. Bav. leo Fin. the er is a dresser of cloth. boura. is termed burling. must be explained on the same principle from G. to burn. brim or edge of anything. brinnen or Also ein roar. burgen. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. brustolare. language of folly or ridicule. 122. swell up or strout out. de Vaud. lerre. with little iron nippers called burling irons. watery. with Dan. Castrais bourril. The in. lorra. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. pur (see Burgeon). G. brima. to burgen or wax big. brinna. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Burryn. and the Burin. surge or dashing of the sea . Burgh. bremmen. to have acquired the sense of polishing. buirleadh.— Pr. Antiq. the J in OFr. to roar. like the wind in trees.. Burgess. — — . brun. bunch. become big and proud. brustle. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. brunnr. Hence Bridel. ridicule. spring-water bumach. and Dan.' a jibe. angular . a bladder. protuberance. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Cot. water. BURNISH i5«r/. Burlesque. fire. OFr. to set on fire. a purling hiwe brennen. a knob. Burly. to bud . condemnentur morti. to ridicule. Burler. knob. singe or scorch with fire. Lang. an &c. embraser. in Schm. bourd. brimmen. i5«r4 biiirte. a gurgling ^.Ps. OE. The primary origin of the word. warbling. occupying much space. to swell oneself out as birds borras. See Burgeon. a wine skin. to surge. a jest. Prov. Probably. brusler being a faulty spelling. to effervesce. to polish. burly. ii6 BURGESS Gael. — — . toast. bruse. burren. purra. purrata.). bourglairs. &c. to roar. to ridicule. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. A burl. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. bruzir. burgeois. brook. to give an edge to. a bubble to spring as water. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. Sw. briis^. sea. sicut sound. a well. Fl. Pren7ien. borracka. N. In the same way ON. ^ttsa. It is probable indeed that Fr. E. burgensis. brunna. to tell lies. purling. schleiffen.sharpen. Bouffer.— . crackle wood in burning Hal. j.. from Lat. Pr. brandung.ireui£r:e. which has given much trouble to etymologists. burgi latro. burlare. brunnen. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. bururus. a bud. Fr. OFr. to swell. jest of. a whetstone. See Burr. The Gael.j'own. It. OE. bourou. ample of polishing metal. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. roguing beggars. Swiss Rom.). explaining the E. It. like. has also borr. as of suggests. bud or sprout forth.

shearing of cloth. to stuff. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. from whence we pass through Sp. to burst. to hide . fortify. bourrer. bersten. i5(7&a. brisdeach. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. impetus. but it is more probably a development of It. from AS. 225. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. See Burgeon. as it is still pronounced in N. preserve. G. a sepulchre chreoburgium — .' edge grew weak. karborre. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. preserve. borsa. husks. borsia. birr. of a body hurled through the air. I. In a met. brisd. ptcrren. brickie. break . byrgels. to mutter Sw. OHG. explained E. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. an exchange. ' ' — — burren. Cot. any rapid whirling biarga. and spelling. Sexy. Jam. -Grisons bulscha. byrigels. Fr. ' BURR AS. stuffing. Burrow. to save. that birds make their nests with. whence Kil. byrgen. brista. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. byrgan. pipaa. a place of defence. borre. Gael. bolsa to It.— . a rabbit burrow. byrsa. Burr is related to buzz as protect. brico. Shelter. bourlet. brown. -burse. shales. ultimately resting on the Gael. caer is a — — — ' ' : . With a slightly different ghen. mentioned under Burgeon. In OE. root borr. borre. . to P'air. makes the disbursements of the college. bourrelet. ber•whirr to whizz. brest. brist. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. borra. Port. iii. . a wallet or scrip. keep. bres- — tan. Bursar. Burse. talk fast and indistinctly. moss. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. and met. also all such stuff as hay. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. Burial. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. g. Fr. briso. any kind of quilting or stuffing. to break. bur. S w. bolgia. a purse. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. The root forms brik. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. dial. borsa. bergen. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. whirr. chips or anything else Fl. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. force. This word seems safety.. skin. dial. hair. bourse. borra. Fr. A rabbit burmotion.' The same word with burgh. beorgan. of England. save. bourre. 5150. the — — castle or fortress. ON. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . shelter. an annular swelling. be more in accordance with AS. briser. a. berstan. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. signifying protrude. Burr.Lat. appears under the Lang. when they spring So in W. To Bury. Burser. bristen. straw. borrow. byrstan. a morsel. OHG. a pad. cover. Du. beurs. coo. verbergen. Burse.' Harris in Todd. a sepulchre. burra. brast. a barn or cupboard. as in Northumberland. birgan. and. bristeach. shuffling. swell. to buzz. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. AS. brittle. . brjota. to hide. Compare also OE. burgisli. and thence flocks 'of wool. perruque. AS. Fris. purr. Hal. ON. Sw. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. briketo. Brun on bane. from Fr. the officer who bears the purse. buscha. foretell great storms at 3. To Burst. idiom if 4. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Hence Fr. Du. tomb. barza. Swiss burren. also ' any such trash as chaff. whirr and burr. See Bulge. brizeto. blurra. — Clare. peluca to Fr. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. leather. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. casting bullets. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. Beowulf. It. prsnuti. burre. as for the protection of a child's head. &c.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. Mid. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. bris. to bury .' Matrimonial Vanity borough. Dan. brit. a purse. brittle. bris. its own protection. some people in pronouncing the letter r. a port. brist. G. a harness or collar maker) . bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. as from Sp. bourse. birigean. E. burial place. 2. Sw. bur. &c. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. — Translated by Kemble. cwning-gaer. brokil and brotil. britar. It.

a bundle. a tuft guini. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. barst. to enclose in a case or box. that the lend had lorn thorn. besom). bundle * Buskin. condere. the land. It. to swell. clusprobably Morocco leather. a gun biichse. bosch (a diminutive ?). The radical idea is seen in Goth. bousche. berghen. il fut couch6 l^jkema). we have Fr.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. biichse. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. Thence byrigean.P. dead. defence. The bone in a woman's stays. bulge. or — Busk. projection. -idis. gave Lat. boxta. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. In to Brutaine. 410. Du. to bend one's steps. busk. to forest of Eyda. a bunch of twigs. to sepulchre. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. Bouchet. bua. buskr. a bush. boiste. a -tavern bush. OFr. Fr. box wood to bush. brodiquin. cluster. . the Moors and of Morocco. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. boistel. The word frequency with which to busk is used. bosc. Fris. a been written buasc. brake. diminutives. a clot of phlegm sart. See Bust. bosta. . pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. make ready. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. rad. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. signifying to entomb. whente beorg. Sw. busse. thicket of thorns . boucher. beorgan. brodequin tout noir. sur une litifere. bossida. They busked and malced them boun. bundle. ch). basse. to turn. bustula. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. abdere. . for at buasc. to bury. a box. hjul-bosse. . and from the Fr. bausen. and he cites wisp bauschen.' a box. tuft. The primary sense of hair .Lat. a corpse). : — . and we actually find bushel. truasc. And her ful sone tuft. bousIn the other copy ser. to stop. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . and not directly (as Du. induere vestes .fiasc. which would later have truast. tow. iriCtf -ifoe. Le roy Richard mort. and thence Mid. buxta. the idea of knocking. van wijnbesien. OFr. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. a wisp. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. Bush. ieorh. a troop. protect . a box for measuring corn. in OE. grapes. a grove bosch van haer. at bua sig.) to hide in the ground. Gr. as synonymous with to inake one boun. apparently a secondary verb. qualster-boscken. bossen. Prov. Ptg. Sir Tristram. To Busk. the past participle of the same verb bua. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. bousse. So from Fr. as boun is simply buinn. verb. or the like. thicket {buski.' The buskin is said Bret. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. bussellus. It. AS. . bussel. mount. roquies. borseof trees.boisteau.-^Bushel. then a tuft Sp. boissa. 'at bua sik. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. ' . occultare K. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. Sibriht that I of told. Du. AS. ' . wisp. buxida. bouche. bo7ich (Fr. Du. Harold G. bustellus. ' .' sheath. bussare. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. Sc. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. ' . Mid. at buast. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. buxula. to prepare. . barsc in Heimskringla. bush. Malberg. bulk. —Busk. Brunne. a little box Dan. lump. buysschen. a tuft. BUSH hreaw. bos. To prepare. to dress. knot. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. to keep. burial mound. a hump. bairgan. bramble. Bush.— ' ii8 {chreo.gur bidst austur um EySascog. a bunch. preserve. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a bush. bush. in the For Skirnis . G. whence bouchon.Lat. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. a tuft. whence at bua sik. 2. to bow. fiast. to dress. boisseau. borghen. is thus accounted for. See Box. Thus Froister . a box. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. R. busken. to direct one's course towards. bunch. Brunne. hunch Du. from the ON. a tuft of hair. aheap of stones. basse. oneself.' The word is explained by — — . ' —P. borcegui. a rampart. Layamon.

1555. ON. biist. says. outard. especially of a woman's dress. inde discurro et operosus sum. A great sluggish fowl. a kiss. ^A. So in Fin. Prov. an affair. to occupy. Box. and then with avis again prefixed. See Boss. Fr. worn to make the body straight . as in moharra from harbe.D. a backstock. borcegui. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. I. Fr. knock. ' BUSY 2. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Pol. Cot. of the human body (Grandg. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. a large cljest or particular applibox. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. knock. a fishing vessel. smack. The proceedings of Parliament. 22. Prov. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. outarde. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. mogangas from gonj. bnist. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. bulk. bisegung. Hal. in Diaz Gris. To hurry or make a great B. beezig. a bunch of flowers . body . From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection.> Also written buskle. box.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. lip. Fr. avuDiez. Fris. sunt quas Hispania aves . a sleeveless truss or doublet. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. bus and Pol. busto. a. Busk. a tree. The Prov. chest. Bulch. busy. buyse. Busy. busche. stem. occupation. forest. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito.— . to make a splash in the water. btcc. 7o\. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Buss. a blow. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. bust. bisgung. bussa. sera. signifying trunk of a the body. bruskras well as buskr. utarda. trunk of a tree. kiss. from jnund. to knock . The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Lindenbr. lip. or avutarda. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Cat. tarda. brusc. a bulk or trunk without a head. 119 bi{tr. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . — hardly be distinct from Fr. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. I. otarda. busq. as in ON. of a doublet. arbor ramis trunGloss. mouth. — clattering about. bysgian. ViM. brut. body of a woman's dress It. bysgje. employment bisgan. representing a blow. putta. Lat. Bust. B. ship Sp. Xerqui. bist. to make use of. love gestures. busch. business. buta. beso. bukr. or chest in which the vitals are contained. body of a man. — Thus we should have mocherqui. trunk. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. Namur — Champagne Fr. snout. AS. mons.' ON. and by transposition morchequi. fe^a. body. biseg. a bush. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Business. Sp. busta. Edrtst. a Mid. With respect to bust. trunk of Cot. trunk. So Wes- terwald munds. a great billet Cot. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Sw. body of garment. bacio. bus. a log. or Cherqui. brostia as well as bostia. occupied bezigen. also a It. bisg. Bust. but. besoigAe. a mouth. basiuin. a bust. and supposes that the common Arab. geidha. a projection. Fl. bustla. 2. bu. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. work. log . The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). To Bustle. to Swab. hipista.). austarda. A wisp. bust. The form brust. a ship of some size. — — — — It is like the smouldering. Sp. a busk. thick end.d.pjik.Lat. windbutsch. ottarda. crack . busch. plated body or other quilted thing. the body without arms busque. abutarda. 2l box. BUSS Dozy from Arab. Rouchi. the long. buz. cata — . A A busquer (Sigart). I bustle. Hence probably au-tarda. mosequin. small. . a kiss of reverence. Busitiess :c3iVi . mouth. tuft. I go strepo) . buc. mohedairova. Port. the trunk. to bustle. the point of a lance. ' bistardej It. buc. busc. body. the breast. kiss. and also a sounding blow. forms morseqiiill. — . a stroke of wind. buquer.bezig. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Lang. an ostrich. made stiff. stir. Bav. stump. buc. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Swiss butschen. abotarda. 1372. a kiss. Walach. a boat or small vessel . betarda. lump. — — difications of the same word. stump. body without arms and legs. Fr. putschen. Du. besongne. bucha. a kiss. also a busk. baiser. bus. lips. its slowness of flight. kupata. bussen. morsequi. On the other hand. pussa. . 10. Gael. a blow. Comp. ON. would explain the G. Sp. Prov. butz. statue of the upper part of Fr. also a flagon. Bustard. A large bird of the gallinaceous order.' Plin.

A A . ' Besides all that. Butler. (children) boc. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. and bot. tinction between but. the name must have arisen before the within. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . bitten dai. ways. belly. the belly. and the real origin of the and within . from as. bout. Du. body of a shirt w. Sp. belly. outside that moreover. the present day we should say. buta.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. biitait slaughterer of goats . Butcher. bol. a cask.' there is really a negation to be supplied. bountifully. bola. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. bodifie. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. boucher. be out. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. a small winebag. Lang. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. the precise correlative of but. a baiTel .in which his brethren are included. But It. collection of casks. gives at least two pounds sterling. and with It. If that where now we should compiler. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. calf of the ' say. also a hollow vessel . Ben-house. bocin. which the word corresponds to the Fr. Fr. sup- meat and drink. slaughter-house. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. of the wine and drink. trunk. bhcciero. boteria. calf. an outlaw from bouche. Butt. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. beyond the Piedm. bisgung. a butchery. young mais. is put in a class by himself. the jug and in E. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. bochier. boquier. . original sense of without. moreover. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. bolr. hull of a ship. the full expres. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. as Pantler. So in Italian from becco. without the house kept in bottles. Fr. large barrel. the trunk or body of an animal. a butcher . Lang. are. hollow case. butan ce. besides that . a goat (and not besides . boccino. botte. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. similar train of thought is seen in ON. bitlga. a leathern bag.' — — ' . Fr. Sp. without buiten-man.jamin.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bole of a tree. wooden receptthing to be done. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . without punishment . a budget. binnan. rumpf. barriga. by the mode in which he is treated. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. Buttery. we find ben. skin-bag.streets. butan. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. bute. belly. to-boot. botilla. the store of ten. then hoUow trunk. or what in in charge of the pantry. Where at an earthen jar ._ bitten j biiten door. those in beccaio. Sp. being wholly unten. a goat. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. — . — we acle for liquors. the servant in charge of the original object. "PLT) . bag. a butcher. in addition. beccaro.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. beta. without law. add. bouteillier. . It. a wooden cask. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. botija. Whatever is in addition to Butler. bouz. properly a butan wite. AS. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. from boc. The E. Here the but implies the existence of an. ox. ont jhi^ton. viz. rotundity of the body. the body of a tree or of a man. a bottle. the mouth). ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. ' There is leathern bottle. As a conjunction but is in every portion. Prov. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. mais. the Perhaps besogne — . the principal apartment. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. beccaria. G. is well explained by Tooke. Wall. able. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. my is called the adversative use of but. the body of an animal. bounds of. earthen which the debtor has adverted. OFr.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. bous. except. bolgia.' Thus Chaucer says. equivalent of AS.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. the bottles. viz. without. a barrel. But when will you pay it ? the belly.The Sp. Tooke's dis. but one thing. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. that which would be translated by Fr.' ' write. without care. But In Sc.

nourrisson. nursling. buter. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . poke. tout seat or breech. a bolt. a button. any small projection. to abut on. butte. botta. R. to thrust Fr. waste ground. a buttrice. bocgsuin. oir spike with a k coup . Hal. to thrust. From the noise of drinkables in a house. of the present day. to femur. boter-schijte. thrust. a ribbed glass for dient.' thick from shaking. hillock . bot blijven staan. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. boter-vogel. a dle . Fr. boiUer. large head. thick. bott. povrvpov. to blad. fowl. — A . To strike with the head bags. both. bouton. as if from Povg. coxa. a hill. a leg of mutton. Hal. Fr. put. aim whence to make a support to a wall. So in English pimples were fora clod. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. from rejeter. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. tress. the rosebud. AS. bottich. Schmell. Fr. the trunk. Btetter-schmalz. butter. from notirrir. . bocsam. grease that sets by merely standing. geboogsaem. a boss. submit shaking up salad sauce. s'arrgter tout ^ coup.. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. i. bot. buttern. rabodd. See Butler. bouton. Bav. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. are the strips at the edges of the field. a buttress Cot. a cask. botte. boteria. botwm. From Grisons biitt. a stump or club foot. bout. buttock of beef is called butr. butter. butteln. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz.rejected thing. a barrel. -ez. botten. Fris. * Buxom. the thick end. a boss. bothog. botta. Du. leg of lamb. Kil. . but. Buttress. Du. to heap up earth or ihrust. able that Chaucer. Butter. butt. any short thick thing. the prick in the middle of a target. stump of a tree Fr. signify a cask or tub. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. an etwas anstossen. as in G. a mound. a bot. Perhaps corrupted Lat. bout. — — — — . obedient.— BUTT leg . or or shore post. Fr. Fr. a wall butor butt on. obeto shake backwards and forwards. to push earth . Halma. An erection built up as a Fr. from bugan. pwt. Gr. thrust forwards. to cast. G. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. to touch at the end. Buttery. butz. a little push . boutis. the Butter-fly. a corner horses' hoofs. a bun. buhsom. a flying buttress. boter-vliege. to strike.arbre. bata. a stroke di animal. on. The word body itself seems identical with G. lams-bout. a but in the W. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. It. a blow. clunis. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. the store of while bottich. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. to be con. a. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. — . Cot. butt of a person. short thick thing pimple. dripping. of E. trapu. to butt. Du. W. but this is probably from Fr. Grandg. Buttrice. — A . — . Schmell. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . buttare. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. from the large knobbed head of botto. Du. Buttel-triib. a button. The Bavarian potig. a tub. gigot. bottig. to thrust . to thrust. a. w. pied. Butter-glass. From Du.thum and not button. Kil. nourrissons. bot. to thrust. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. fle>(ible. butte. or person Schmeller . and the true derivation boar. W. &c. Boutant. potacha. butt. Du. boding. to throw . butyrum.against another which needs support . a thrust the thigh-bone. A — — — . humble. strike. to boult flour. at. butt. from stossen. a scope. To come full butt against a butts. . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. pwtiaw. clumsy .putan. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. bodi'.. bouter. the thigh of a goose. boil. so as to make a sounding blow. is formed the augmentative buttatich. Fr. Fr. Gris. Sp. a button. Mur-buttant. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Boutje. Bav. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bouter. to bow. &c. as rejeton. caput scapula bout van f been. a heap of merly called pushes. a large belly.to push. bodi. Kil. by boE. To Butt. Buttock. in the R. from bouter. what is kept in a blow. courtaud. to so close to the Fr. striking end. having a rotundity . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. end . a blow. the edge forwards. an ox. Bout van het schouderIt. Gael. buttals. Button. bud. : . Lang. e. then the thigh or leg of an to push . to abut a stone roof. boutoir. ment being supposed to resemble butter. botto. butter un. give way. stump. suddenly .

bycgan. as heedless as a cock-chafer. leges urbanse ON. indistinctly. called Cabala or Tradition. ii. frabttg- To Buzz. OE. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. See Abie. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. also say. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. cow-house. Buzzard. farm. \s\xy. Then applied to speaking low. big. . AS. & Q. Mercy hight that mayde. as in Da. a town. town having separate jurisdiction. son. gracious. to swear with him by . . bylag. Many good mological explanation. byar-log. The sense of buxom. a beetle. By-law. G. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. buzarg. The ON. It. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. CABAL Goth. stall. bauhta. from whom it was addressed. to pass by. Lat. 116. to sell. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. bar. lete. A by. a meke thynge with — alle. bei. It.in N.— Diet. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). a buzzard or puttock. to purchase for money. A A We — — — days' wonder. Pecock Repressor. 3. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. who makes abigg. confusedly. Sw. bij. blessing me with their of side. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. —gracious of speech. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. jus municipii. 200. buzzicare. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. . Du. iii.. and would have been lost in E. bozzago. harty prayers and God speedes. bi.P. lb. Verstegan in R. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. to jan. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. and boxome of speche xviii. 21. to stand at his side . train of thought which has become obso. bugjan. To Buy. buso. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. from by. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. byar-rettr. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God.. 519. Cabal. bi. abozzago. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. P. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. favourably to a petition. village. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. AS. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. Goth. good-humoured one. Byre. — 122 BUY P. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Originally the law of a particular town. buzac. bohte. to wit.— P. buteoj Fr. and it is of good will. byr. bygge. Etynj. bylove. to whisper.busardj Prov. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Sw. Dan. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. tions by one. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. A ful benygne buirde. bees. favourable. as Fr. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. a borough. to buzz. a by-path is a side path . as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. groat in token of his good heart towards him. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. p. ON. depends upon a esteem in falconry.

&c. traboccare. Neckam — by the wind. . as an expression of Gr. caable. cabuyskoole. chaable. cabo. OFr. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. cadabalum. Coticesserint Swiss aa. Celtic. cdble. . Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. giiare. as Turk. maim. E. head. Du. headed or cabbage lettuce. caable. case. precisely in the sense of the lari E. The Sp. ckaable. chaable. Didot. to crush. Etym. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. and as we find stones Mid. cadabula. w. vile. cable . Du. 'habl. (ca/coe.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. OFr. — Ibid. manticuKil. E. to strain in such a manner . Sw.. Imitative of the cry of hens. It is remarkable that the Esthon.Lat. signifies down. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. or cadable. Du. the bowels. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. Cot. disgust. headed. it would seem fundain children's language. hovel. string. Fr. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. cadabulum. to keep or Du. an engine for casting stones. It. brassica — capitata. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. is probably unconnected. Fr. mdhaigner. Fr. covering. Fr. a cloak of felt or Cack. Kil. It. or as an interjection of disMod. hut. disgust cac. originally an Gael. chadabula. the Slavonian. — . archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. ! — . dirt and the Fr. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. round or great headed. heady. deponat a store closet. a covering. capanna. in which sense are explained The the OFr. and Finnish lanLat. kabat. dirty. caqueter. to chatter. the Prov. as it must have stood in French. name of the projectile engine. stercus. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. caables. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. disgusting such an engine was exerted. cacare . — Kil. dung. Mid. cabo. agge. gabardme. agge machen (in nurses' language). —Diet. a car- We convasare. bad. capo. Katr-iT-aKt. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . lactuca capitata.. forms indi. Cabinet. OSp.ticula. cabasser. &c. su/Furari. would correspond to cable. Item habeat vocant. aeggi. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cabaii. Finn. kabane. . come the Fr. cabre.. — the ON. Due. Common to Lat. It. surripere. To Cabbage. a cabbage . to put or pack up in a frail. Capstan. Castr. cabbage. from manganum. Mid. gatsch. Cot. vincially used in E. cab. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. a rope or cable. kakaloH.' Due. gaggele. as Diez supposes). main. caable (in legal language). capuccio. signifying properly a rope's end. overwhelm. Lat. from trabocco. . . to hurl down. chabla. Gaggle. Mid. cadabulum. Very generally used. cabulus. Sp. Lith. form kactal. akista. caboche. cabarino. Brushwood — — B. agga. has kabbel.Gr. a head (whence cabochard. manganare. gaggi. whence Fr. Due. and Ptg. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cabus.). . Cabbage. accablcr. a rope. The double a in the OFr. cacare. gaban.. — Tarbe. Cabin. Lang. cabane. OFr. kabas. for the origin of which see Carabine. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. To steal or pocket. or rush basket. Choux cabus. Sp. origin is the OFr. It. a rope. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Ptg. : — from violence without blood. cabre. overwhelm (Diet. serious injury — In like manner It. a shed. cabas. — . a headed cole or cabbage . caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cadabola. aakkat'a. wilful). Cappa in OSp. and Or. From It. calabre. filth. prostratio ad terram. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . kakla. properly windfalls.Lat. a frail. a rope. especially shepherd's frock. cab lis. nasty. The name of the engine. and the Arab. ceach / exclamation of guages. havyar to caviare. Cablisb. cabacho. Fr. a jacket Fr. laitue cabusse. Antiq. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. whence Lang. aak! tandi like Fr. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Tugurium. band. cabuccio. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. to hurl in Nat. cables. dirty. hoard together. geese. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. kabaSsen. a booth or hut. a tunic.Lat.

The young G. cadenza.— . kdtr. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. kola. a calash . cage. a fever. Sw. collop. Calash. Cot. gaggle. taking it Sp. Turk. Calamary. Calcialate. Lat. Roman reckoning. kat. . a dence. kdfich. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. captive. Lat. calamitas. Fr. naXaiidpi. kolesb. From lerie. cage. Sp. Lat. Lat. to sleek hence a den. rattaat (wheels). kukje. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a waggon . kalfi. Lat. caioler. a tea-chest. a small stone. without loss. the bore of a cannon. the pi. Calocli. Fr. calcis. kage. from Gr. a wheel . The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. a reed. hot. Du. cuttle-fish. Lat. chattering. kail. a roller. just falling. The Lat. Cake. calendarium. Cot. Turk. Cauldron. Serv. kalem. . a car. Dan. wretched. Sw. kalb. Fr. . Originally from a Slavonic source. from the Chinese catty. to . kuchen. caliche. calpa. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. to compute. prate. from calculus. It. Sp. to treat like lime. for green fields. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Fr. a cylinder. to heat. frolicsome kaad mund. chetif. calesa. a low note. * Calibre. safe. Du. KxiKivh^o^. ben- kalf. whence calash. Mrs B. or prattle. babbhng. It is another form of the E. Fr.— Cot. Calandre. Russ. from the ink-bag which it contains. Calamity. marrow. a caFr. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. coop. Fr. jabber. See Kiddier. . En kaka br'od. Dan. loss. kolyaska. Cadence. Gael. signifies a waggon. Perhaps from w. pith. of the nature of lime to calcine. gavia.Gr. Cadet. ever and anon. pi. of oxen and similar animals. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Arab. an inkstand . It. a wheel . The Calf. reed-pen. N. G. Lat. A hooded carriage. — — — Dan.uv. to cackle . a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Du. To Cajole. Du. caldarius. and troublesomely attached to. gabble. ON. B. to throw themselves into the sea. kalfvan hout. or smooth Hnen cloth. cadaver. Calendar. Cage. a cake or loaf. Caldron. calentura. a falling. calidus. cavea. Pol. calculo. kolo. lime whence calcareous. To Calender. — in a kiln.— Calliper. its mother. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Lat. kakulla. so gabble corresponds with Fr. cadence. Cadaverous. Due. kaad. capitetum. limestone. or colpa na coise. a corpse. chaudron. lord. * Cade. a hollow place. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. Cot. a calesh. In the same way Fin.warmth . A — fall. pen Mod. cattivo (from Lat. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Lat. Calp is riadh. coll. the lump and the increase. dial. Caitiff. a wheel . Fr. little chief. disease of sailors from tivus). misfortune. It. kaka. calf of leg. a wheel. gabberen is identical with E. It. dead body. As Du. ratas. cha'cmie cadence. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. cauldron. Sp. KaKKat. hot . Cadge*. cykevie. Gascon capdet. caldaria. wanton. from calendcE. gaggia. a loaf of bread. joyous . Sw. bad . hence musical rhythm. &c. desire of land. It. cake. gabbia. calba. a mischievous dial. unruly . is probably delusive. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. A cuttle-fish. Tea-caddy. G. A . an ugly waggon kolaska. cabdillo. roller. kolasa. javioler. An open travelling chariot. It. the younger son of a family said to be from . capCalenture. Flo. (in the augm. a common cart. calentar. Fr. when they are said to poor. pet lamb. a wretch. a vessel for heating water. calx. colibro. calamus. the calf of the leg. kaeckelenj Gr. kauwe. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. of which. kolyasochka. kolo. on. calendrer. Calf of the Leg. a lump or large piece. kolo. loss. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. to — Fr. a counter used in casting accounts. ' . Caddy. calessa. form) calderone. to gabble. frisky. one unduly indulged by. principal and interest. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). whence Lat. cadet. a circle. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Calc-. —Atkinson. the pith or soft part of wood. cageoler. cadere. Lat. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. to prate much to little purpose. boy. 124 prattle . chaudiere. . Lat. master. to cage. kolesnitza. Cajol. gabbia. especially of something soft. calibre. calidus. incolumis. lindrus. koeck. calibre.

given. KaXka. scold. on. a good calling. calibre. Bi. water-tight. calvus. — — — — — . Mahn derives it from Lat. ' rine. brawny. The origin is Gr. harquebus or handgun. Antiq. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. to prattle. . chatter kallen. calicot. word of mouth . kahcwe. vulgo Coluvrine. nautique). and sometimes a handgun. to burn. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. To Calk. To drive tow or oakham. kal.— . colubrina. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. tittle-tattle. calma. * Caliver. cotton cloth. overscalmaccio. Calm. the Fr. Fin. coluber also. Lat. a last. alta voce ploro. to proclaim. caluw. Due. kil-u-kal. Ibid. callum. heat. Lang. moso. koluvre. fistula. having a thick skin. skin hardened by labour. quiet. which is as much as to say. dial. calca. to cram. to callet. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. sclopus. Fr. i. oldire from audire.' Chaucer. calat of leude demeaning. or mould. which has its memory preserved in Du. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. whence couleuv. to tread. to say. to call. to affirm. the latter of chamber. Gael. Kavfia. Diez. Kil. The primitive colubrina bombarda. dragoon. sound. form in the kalib.from Ka'tm. from Calicut in the E. calcaich. faint. Among these were the turn. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Caliph. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. Sp. Mil. Calico. NE. klover. kol. to calk. 'A callet of boundless tongue. an adder. a feathers. Sup. calleting. a round of abuse. glotton. Fin. Diet. callus. CALM to press or stuff. quA librd. So It. gossiping. prattle. a successor. Lat. but is only a jda-kallo. Fr. Fr. Hard. serpens. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. piece of bigger circuite. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). moist. a soldier who the It. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . try. ululo Turk. hallottaa. push violently. and E. trull. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. of a column. AS. Dief. longior. caliver. sestus. calc. femme frivole et babillarde. of the bore of a firearm met. cauma. couleuvre. coluber.. Derived by some from Arab. Sc. to hear. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. harden by pressure.' Slange. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. licht stuk The change from a. abto suppose that E. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z.piicede Lat. cahna. According to Jal (Gl. calgua. Callow. calibre. to rail or scold . To call. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. by many that the weapon Callous. It. Du.(jaa= ice). drive. however. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. calme. . B. Ptg. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . chatter. Indies. coulevrine. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. a drab. Gr. kallo. heat. u to an I in such a colubrum. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Heb. calclover. — Fl.en~ kinds of firearms. overheated. kind heat of the sun. kalla. serpentina. bombarda Cauma incendium.Lat. Unfledged. kal. kael. Ca. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. cauque. calor. the day. qAlab. depreciatory term for a woman. to call. to be of a good or bad quality. ram. To century was Squalibre. calma. khalif.meaning of the word. the scalp or skull. * Callet. Fr. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. Turk. Call. The word was also written cawme in OE. — — — — — . hot. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. culverin.' But it is hard Du. the Fr. to abuse . scalmato. bald. or languishing drought is . Mid. ' pert. and heat. calare. hollaing. donderbuchs Sp.position is much less common than the geschut. or caliever. whereas in troth it is not. Sp. form. tapulta. colubraria canna. the hard surface of the ground. people's remarks. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. can be distinct from ODu. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calo. dragonder. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. faint. and dragon. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). saucy. sence of wind. them &c. Kil. The reference to heat is preserved in. Sir John Smith in Grose. calcare. E. the heat of Now these Du. done with heat Alt. calk. caillette.' Winter's Tale. 125 Prov.' Whitby Gl. whehce it was first brought. a. diameter of a ball. quality. voice.

—Cambrel. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. From fluting or furrow in a column . camaien. Lat. canis. at the ends. camp. candidus. kanna. See Canker. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. chamold man. Fr. from candere. Calyx. — Cancel. a caught. Lat. Kakoycpos.' Forme of Cury in Way. ation. mg Canister. Fr. Lat.Lat. Fr. a basket. campagna. whence the Fr. Arab. Lat. Cot. to avoid enemy in their shirts. cancer. fresh. B.— Hackluyt in R. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. camiscieia. cambr^. died in 1526. Gr. camisa.' ' Quhen a lattice. canna._ kamm. to bend. . It. camelot. salmon. a dog. callar. calls them Cannibals or Caribees.— B. calutmiia. Gr. clothed in white. lattice. Candid. chaitcre. arched. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Sp. Fr. when its substance appears inter. Canine. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. a piece. paign. and yspiuv. It. A — the Cannibals. The Grisons cauina. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. from xaXbg. camelus. campo. cambren. Camp. Fr. Peter Martyr. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. frank and sincandidatus. an eating. campus. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Cancer. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Cambric. also an eatmg sore. E.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. open and level ground. to warp. good.—Jam. Turk. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. hooked. campo. champagne. Camel. camafeo. campagna. fair. From campus was formed Lat. lame. a large drinking . white. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. cambre. cambrer. whence Fr. Or the word Lat. samon. nia. the space of false imputation. It. canistrum. a field Greek monk. ckaouma. Canibal. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. cainahelus. cup. camber-nosed. Fr. arched. KafivTu. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. w. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. had no r in de bric— Cot. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. icaSoytipoe. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. crooked. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Campaign. cancello. Pers. properly good country.. sore. cere : Lat. monk. — Lat. camahutus. Cann. Camisade. se cameloter. aged. the heat. bis. Fr. India Islands. to break. campren. to glow. Sp. — B. different sections of the like the Chinese. Fr. a. Lat. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. cAouma. Mid. aspirant. Canker. camisade. brought from Fr. crooked. field . a' Sc. a. It was distinfrom work. Ptg. arch. Caloyer. Lat. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Canal Channel. Cambrav—Cam. Palsgr. It. Sanson khanda. or Caribs. It. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. sugar. Candy. chandelle. chommer. camiscia. the bed of a stream. Cambray. whence the noun signifying an applicant. a crab. callour. canalis. the type of a hollow pipe. water chamlet .Gr. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. campagne.who their language. crooked-stick. would plenier. Calver of cane. or hollow of a flower. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. — — — A — — escume de saumon. E. Lat. a may have acquired that signification from plain. to jut. a goblet bud. Bret. KafitjUe. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. . crook. Properly calver in the field during a war. Cameo. campaign. to bow.—Candidate. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. ko/utuXoc. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. spot for cattle.conduit-pipe. Mod. Sp. is Candle. the spersed with white flakes like curd. E. the calix. In a different application It. candela. cam^e. is Cambering. cup. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. unwater chamelot . slander. Cambrel. crooked. calj'x. It.— Chandelier. Camlet. co7nbar. Calumny. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. lie level. An eater of human flesh. higher in the middle than Fr. to the force of the wind. to bend. B. the salmondis faillis thair loup. catmneo. across — Bellenden in Jam. on. having an aquiline nose. champ. toile some of whom.

a boat. Cope. canton. a cap. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. gnat. Mod. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. call. Wtb. canapa. Lat. a cloak kapali. cannevo. a cane. Cannoii. cappa. N. covered. rumme. a hundred. cantle then is a corner of a thing. properly a large Prov. language. cappe. cannone. Canton. contain. border. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Cape. A . Kil. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. kwvwxIi. kapamak. canvas. region. coarse hemp. a pipe. to contain. was formed Kavtiiv. Kavt\. capa. Canopy. and hence a gobbet. cantina. that the G. Canon. canto. It. kanta. corner. capace. root cap. cainnt. to con- rummer. territorial hundred. &c. a torch. and the sex- &c. cannu. to sing. It. clqse. has kahn. being a yard or thereabouts . carcase . a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. is found languages of very different stocks. chantel. Germanis kdppen. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. canteau. Esthon. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine.CANNEL vessel. the heel. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. It. It. kynnel. cappe. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. quarter . also a measure. But it may be different source. haitt. a drinking glass. and met. . Probably only the augmentative of canto. canon. a reed. caparazon. kaput. A piece of anything. canonici.. coarse hempen cloth Fr. &c. measure for cloth. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. the quartile. able to receive. cantred. Jonson. to shut.— Cot. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Alamannis. quarter. See Chape. part. a reed. capello Italis. from cant. cannevaccia. a ship canot. Gugel. he discourseth of dissection. schlapp. capevole. side. a ruler. border Dan. ON. It. a — A — Cannel Coal. B. tain. regular. a cantle of bread. shut. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Sp. To Canonise. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. . formerly called a Canterbury gallop. leiwan kanta. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. Again we have Lat. cape. Diez. Fr. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. A slow gallop. Schwab. can. to put upon sacred writers. a Fr. Cant. a horn of the moon . If the word had been from cantherius. from . cane. cantone. lump. . pipe. kantr. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. as. To his judicial And trowl the tile. from Dan. It. a small boat. hemp. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. canapaccia.n. cane. and tref. Fr. Capable. margo panis diffracta. Canoe. a side. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. KCLvva. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a cover Turk. schlappen. Canvas. kandt-broodts. a division of a country. Canteen. a straight rod. Cot. It. a wine-cellar or vault. a door . hirnschlapple. Cantle. OFr. KaTTiram. From Lat. a gelding. cane. a rule or standard of excellence. The — . chanteau. speech. Capari. the part easiest broken off.Gr. Du. cane. canoa. . from canna. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. trine. Picard. chape. kyndel. cantref. like a torch or candle. Fin. hood. astrology. Sp. or cantell of bread. a hunch of bread. say. Hence Lat. the tried list of saints. Coal burning with bright flame. edge. signifying cover. quito curtain. coat. it would have been found in the continental languages. canonicus. Goldast — in in Schmid. capax. Capacious. a cloak. or hold. See Capt-. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. name. Gael. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. cheese. cover .Gr. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. the heel. Sp. a corner. a scull- — here. cope. which is not the case. From Gr.^on. kq. canevas. cover kapi. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. cannabis. Swab. Palsgr. hamlet. Prov. Fr. Mod. from a Canter. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. kand. a tube. as a cantle of bread. To canvas — . hemp. W.

as Fr. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. roughening of the skin. 75. It. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . Hence capitalis the sum lent. algabr. then to shiver or shudder. — — A a hair.' — (Supp. Lang. capar. cut. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. It. <I>pi'?oe. or Lat. fansuddenly angry. Fr. And similarly to yearn. I have shivered with love. frisson- ner . grisser. to ruffle the surface of water. — to yearne. Caprice.impressions on the ear. hair. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. cut off. the head. as in Lat. and his body bristled We to castrate. a capriol. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Capers. Fr. capitalis. greziller. Caper. Fr. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. riccio. to crackle. or.'— Trev. curl. toy. Hair-like. cappriccio. a ch illness. or represented by the syllable e. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. airoKOTrrw. caprice. Griller d'im' patience. frizzle. shrub. curling. and with an initial gr instead of br. to shudder. II bresole (Gl. ribrezzo. eruca compared with It. frisser {frissement d'un trait. to parch. Acad. p. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. rihrczzoso. or other things.— 128 CAPE a rustling. a caterpillar. prickly husk of chestnut. a goat. to crackle. compared with Bret. curly. then to be in a state of vibration. The true derivation lies in a different direction. A headland. caper j caprio.Gr. horripilation. horror. to shiver for cold. Mod. with joy' Vikram. a young kid met. gives rise to brezza. a chevret. brisoler. they longed extremely to see it. shivering. is either wholly lost. Lat. Genevese bresoler. capriola. as the means of earning profit. also the capriole. brisciare. G^' Many words — ' ndv. a separate division of a matter. grisser. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. knis-hujwud . shivering. Sp. of a tremtdoiis sound. belonging to From caput. a yearning through sudden fear. Torriano. h^risser. a . the head. the hair to stand on end.) d'etre The It. a head. caprice It. brisciare. w. castrated. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . Hal. gricciare. capriole.) grezille marid. Lat. as Fr. humorous. erica. CAPRICE twittering. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. cover of a saddle. a kid. capparis. the singing'bone). Arab. where Burton adds in a note. Capillary. to from capitulum. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. ticchio. to broil. abridge amKoTroq. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. alcaparra. a buck. greziller. capro. brug. crackling sound Cape. arricciarsi. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end.' Cot. knis. frissoner. It. explained by Diez from capra.— Fl. heath. chief. ziki. Fr. ericius. brisciare. capillus. to twitter as birds. cApre. Capital. gricciare. to fry. wriggle. to desire earnestly. hedge-hog. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. See Chief. and OHG.standing on end. the principal part of the debt. Cot. gives rise to Sc. capitulare. Lat. ^piKos. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. for which he cites the Comask nucia. It. birsle. grug. bristling. arricciarsi. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . It is probable that Gr. of a fowl. Fl. frort^Lat. to . aggricciare. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. to shiver. and 7tucc. caj)o. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. A . to tingle {I'os qui bresole. grillcr. kid. a caper in dancing. hi. It. according to the Hindoos.). The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. the hair to stand on end. brissle. To treat Capitulate. herissonnement. sault. or goat's leap (done by a horse). . are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. s'hdrisser. Lat. So from Sw. bruco. castrated cock. principal. It. of a coach. rissoler. It. chattering of the teeth. then find the symptoms of shivering. end. the initial mute of forms like Gr. It. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. upon terms Sp. a hedge-hog. brezilia. a little head. capriol or caper in dancing. to broil. Unexpected pleasure. bristling. as Fr. The same imitation of Capon.

a. a kind of torture. Lat. Neumann. to take baclc. perceive. — — Capstan. conceit. It. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. Fr. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. Cot. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. was a kind of horse soldier. to creak. fancy.. capra. It. as in OFr. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. was converted into -ceb. Cot. Carabine. &c. to take to. receptus. Capuchin. bock. Sp. In cases. oisr. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. Derivatives are Fr. hold. a windlass. the -cevofthe Fr. fantastic. precept. karista. caricare. also a kind of rack. a hood (dim. carro. Fr. as in accipio. Thus the musket. &c. recevoir. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. capitano. a taking back. was originally a missile . karra. accept. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. also tresFl. cabestan. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels.of these compound verbs. karren. Captain. cabestrantej Fr. Fr. commander. recipio. It. It. to accept. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Du. carabin. Fr. to please. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . also to carry on a car . 129 — receive. decepte. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Nordfoss. In the S. Du. or the (capo-riccio). Capsule.). captive. a creaking waggon. one odd. deceit. Lat. captus. conceive. Fr. of the Sp. a head man. at least. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. and tropically.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). krul. capuccio. Crab. G. Capriole. Carbine. chirriar. captivate. calabrino. charret. Capstern. Fl. to carry . acceptus. crab s. to load . karrende waegen. latterly. shivering fit (Altieri). dim. a she-goat. caput. . of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. where it forms a very large class of compounds. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. recipere. Caseneuve in Diet. concebir. case. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. an engine for throwing stones. a sawing-block or trestles. except. di cappa. Carry. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. capp%tccio. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. charger. sels. &c. Fr. a fantastical humour. from head. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. to take. recepte. a sudden fear apprehended. a cloke) capuccino. trestle. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. to creak. char.). concevoir. — —Diet. OSp. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. contain. concept. caprice. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. to receive receptio. capitis. a hooded friar. It is a standing crab. It. a cart. a coffer. i The meaning Car. as the dragoons (Du. deception. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. chevre. cabreia. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. verbs gives rise to the element . It. carretta. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. desire. Carabin. cams. seize. cabrestante (whence e. and has thus descended unaltered to English. and of captus to an e. kerren. Lat. strideo.or -cib-. Capt-. -cept. The It. Kiittner. Castr. a reception. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. of capsa. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. to this is It. capio. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. -cept. conception. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. recibir. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a sudden will. and has accordingly been lost in E. Lat. whence capture. caThe hrestante. See Caper. capsula. Fr. a. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. however. intercept. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Passing on into E. a capuchin. concipere. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal.s. Fin. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Etym. -ceive. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. de- price. box. It. tnoschetta.. Sp. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. charrier. crepo. Cart. cabra. calabrin. chirrion.

eit. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. carate. An implement for dressing wool... Carboy. a thistle. Gael. black dye. carcaij. a skeleton. skeleton toise. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. Ptg. a kind of ship. winding carach. a quiver. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. carere. &c. a quiver . a ship. The radical meaning . a card or comb . «capa'|8i. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. carcanet. ancient springald. &c. to turn. carcanada. . It. krciti. . turn of a horse. a he-goat. Gr. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. the carcase of a fowl. for a gun. Card. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Bohem. to ripple flax. cardo. Gael. carch. a ripple for flax. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Fr. p. to comb wool . Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. an ulcer.— — — . bend. matter. designated in the case of G. boch. fire . The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Exot. curry-comb. to creak. avSpaS. the . carcame. winding. Venet. tcapKaai. silique. eitar. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. kirat. Sp. Gr.z. wool card. carquois.' From the same source are SicU. cdrlag. a dead carcase. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. It. carbo. carcasa. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. &c. also (as Gr. It. quse vocant karabd. a firelock. the name might naturally Mod. shell. a snail. The Trjg xeXwwac. Gael. word is only an adoption of the Turk. Mod. coming to four grains. a crane. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. Carbuncle. Lith. mural attack. the trunk or chest of the body . constraining . card. cerran. cabreia. Fr. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. to card wool. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . I.Gr. carquan. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. karszti. karra. caravela. Cot. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Carbonaceous. cassa. Cot. Sp. car. of the same Caravan. chevre by the name of the goat. casso. and catapulta. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. karri. cabra. Pers. a wool card. a goat. also a small weight.. a prison. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. carbunculus (dim. seed of carob. Sp. case. carta. It. a battering-ram). to hiss (as gee^e). vitriol. From the battering-ram. of carbo). KtpaTwv. a twist. Carat. the case of the flesh. a case or chest . the shell of a torcarcasso. Cat. Arab. Fr. Carcase. OHG. copperas. cabrita. in the same way that the Sp. caracal. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. a machine for casting large darts. cramp. confining. .. Comp. decanter. a lock of wool . carquasse. properly a siege machine. Fr. caraffa. burning coal. the dead body of any creature. skeleton. contract. the husk or cod of beans. a winding staircase. wine- bottle. carmiiiarc. Caraool. to draw in. Parmesan cassiron. kard boyd. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. to comb. turning. bock and Fr.charcoal . a coffer. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a gem resembling a live coal. carabba. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Caravel. the core of fruit . ON. the carob bean. carabe. — seems to be something holding together. a collar or chain for the neck. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. See Carpenter. to curry horses karsztuwas. military engines made for hurling stones. caraffe. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. W. an engine for hurling stones. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. is the chine. Lat. It. ' Vasa vitrea. a quiver. quilato. .. carduus. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. a quiver . . a thistle. Lat. espi7igarda. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. AS. skeleton. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first .Gr. Sp. poison eiz. or framework. Carrob. carbh. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. a small weight. Gael. to card wool. is the word used in modern Lat.applied to a battering-ram (G. restraint . alia sunt majora. Carcax. Sp. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. garafa. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Derived in the first edition from Mod. kerwan.

to take Goth.— Charter. Fr. to care unkarja. carcus. AS. . . CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. W. compared with Fin. bottom. Fr.Lat. clown or churl. Ptg. . kargr. It. ress. care on. caricare. affection. from caricare. love. a deed. to scratch. Probably the origin of the word is the . to eat flesh. a highway. cdrle. charnel. to fry or broil. Caricature. essere in carena. moeThe Lat. A medical term from line —Boerio. AS. and thin. murahtaa. surrata. It. appertaining to the flesh. de Parthenay. cearian. Dan. crowl. voce strepo stridente. asper. Carminative. carrefourg. Lat. carezza. sensual. tuorfurcm (Burguy). or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Carlings. morosus sum. Card. at murmuring. A mod-carag. ignarus. mutter. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. to clean the bottom of the ship. 1S66. caritia. tenax. to distress growl. giierlir. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. carminare. male person. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. G. carriera. a man. and murhet. carcare. be anxious. w. in Carp. crawl. niggardly .. quadrifurcum from quameet. charnage. intrasset caro. one of those ac- 9 * . chartre. — To Careen. record. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. and G. murista. A place where four roads Mid. — — — Caress. cardinis. grief. the load of a ship. karg. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. to parch. — Carfax. four. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. murren. A quirito ut infans. carnis. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. It. to scrape . hoed. to shake. Translated in MS. Cath. caru. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. immediately before the long fast of Lent. tremble. fundamental. Carled peas. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. charie. Charnel. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. karry. as quadrivium from Carnaval. stridere. the several meanings of the words above Rom. the keel of a vessel. Fin. in N. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. principal. ON. karantez. camovale.Lat. kroU-erbser. from carus. an endearment. crosier. morosus. Champ. From. Mur. Cartel. cearig. what is felt as grievous. No ' place there had. to load. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. piger. regar. It. also a career on horseback. the time during which to Rom. carch. that Fl. E. Care. careless take care of. to comb wool. road. ceorl. to lie on its side. or street. 8. carena. Gael. Venet. to load. 273. It. carener. an overloaded representation of anything. combing them out like the knots in wool. Carnal. Cark. to whirr (schnurren). parched or carled. a hinge. to fry. msstus. carnasciale. Groler. Bret. Carl. Lat. AS. carriire. carina. G. Carnage. 2. caresse. act of moaning. Fr. from carrus.' Slceat. Roquef. soUicitus OSax. Fin. W. fleshy . — — . Coll. For the root of carminare. Properly a car-road. It. charg. weyes. Fr. Cot. ON.— CARD karr-kambar. a card. kummer. is to say. car. Farewell flesh. strideo. OHG. Peas steeped and fried. quarreG. or grumbling —Due. kara. Trin. cargo. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. scharren.. caMid. Sp. karrig. from the keel to the water . Fr. cura may be ror. charger. Bois crolant d'un ladre. charag. cargar. as carminare. Sp. carnalis. like connection may be seen between Fin. charneux. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. gakaran. to load. & Q. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. the flesh of animals . to card wool. sorrow. — — — : Cardinal. Cot. a turn. . croller. Carenare. carFrom carrus. It. astutus. as peas. sorrow. . Chart. rixosus. grolU. carnavale. x'»P'"^s)) paper. meet at a head. to rumble. that on wliich the matter hinges. whence carricare. quaver a lazar's clack. cura intenta. the keel. kumra. &c. Sept. dear. kurista. to growl. Fl. charta (Gr. in St Jerome. Fr. kribina. to love. place for exercise on horseback. sgritudo animi. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. Bret. W. . the old theory of humours. . Fr. carena. graller. karout. Fr. carnal. Cot. karista. from Lat. — — Diez. OFr. care. see Garble. cardo. Properly. is This however Shrove tide. Cargo. and compare Bret. solicitous. wool cards. carian. p. . caricatura. stingy. beans. winding. the hull of a ship. and sum. zanken . karl. to comb flax or hemp.

or loose as a couch without further preparation. Templariorum — ' — Due. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. all aus).Why give's some wine then.' says Motley (United Neth. to rustle. . to pluck. Biheld within.D. . Pref. Discov. The word seems of Celtic origin. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. zimmerspan. So gone they forthe. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. a wheelwright. Dief. was formed Mid. Carnevale. Sp. charpie. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. carpere. vel coopertorio carebit. Lat. Carpyn or talkyn. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. i. In Dominica d'autant. 216. ' ' — . qui sacco. as carnaval from carnelevamen. carpetam (a quilt?). is erroneous. 94). all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. carpat (Stokes). cariielevamen or carnis levamen.— Drant in R. tattle. gar aus / all out is correct. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Analogous R. as the Lat. ! Carouse. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. balade from It. culcitra. litter. carpo. Fr. Sup. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Gael. Mediol. a carder. I quaught. krapanj. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. 2. ballare. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. differing To Carp. to find fault with. Carpenter.Lat. lint. — . disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. course. Pm. Cot. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. charpentier. On this.' Reg. a dance. 1 1 30. chirp. peta. Nomin. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Olr. carpia. carpenter only in the latter sense. in Carp. Alluz (G. Chanson de carole. All out B. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. To pledge them thou refuse. on that. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. as Fr. carnelascid). chariot carbad. cardos. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Gower in Way. zimmer. i.' Ordo Eccles. Ant. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. at midnight which derivation from kroes. in Due. ship. carpita. to gather. 760. koroll. Fr. From Lat. chatter.— Neum. carpentum. A. a drinking cup. Here's to you still my captains friend. to reel. Ein we find the signification transferred from . krapati. a car carpentarius. Shrove Tuesday. carbh.— Patriarchi. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. cxciv. carduz. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. chatter skra/a. cited by Marsh.: . a plank. sense. Bret. 2. carpenta. carpende fast Carol. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Bohem.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Carpitam habeat in lecto. fabulor. as E.gonnella. or a carouse fully drunk up. gonna.Lat. The karole of the stones behelde.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. — — ' ' — — — I — — . pluck. of Guiana.' Raleigh. in Nat. garrulo. carpetrix. to dance. to pull asunder. to chatter coroli. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Properly a round dance. act of drinking a full Eq. Palsgr. pluck at. Carnelevale. garrire. In a MS. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. skraf. Carpet. Lat. and F.Lat. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. whence the form carnasciale. The tippling sots. a wheelwright. bier. to dance. e. Beggars Bush. Mid. biheld without. CarTo quaff carouse do use. quoted by Carpentier. The ' ' a chariot. W. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. maker of waggons It. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. a song accompanying a dance then.— R. linteamen. Teut. I drink all out. The custom. . Carole. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Other names of the sea. Mid. ON. Lat. worker in timber Fr. used for stuffing mattresses. Pr. to talk.'— Stat. querole. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. tymmer. yede tham about. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. and Carnem laxare (It. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. carpenticre.]e bois Carnelevale.

bitten. coffin of paper for groceries. and the OE. Carrion. Cartel. a chest. case. corresponding to the G. Fr. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. house. Lat. It. To Carry. from the sound it makes when Alban. Fr. It. AS. Gael. shell or carcase of a house. caroche. Casuist. hollow. to break. Fr. Fr. an augmentative from Lat. OE. Sp. Fl. CartOTicli. charogne. a car. Carriage. Cash. Cot. cartella. a chance or accident. Rouchi carter. a paper case. Ready money. augm. carrosse. helmet. krat. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. pasteboard. casaque. Carrot. to fall. carretto. subject for a picture. cartoccio. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. hung up in some place and to be removed. augmentatives of carro. luggage. vault hole in a fortified wall. Du. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. — — . discharge. casus. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. fall It. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. caro. cassus. casser. As defence from shells became more important. Fr. cia. a loopscale the wall. cassette. cancel.. for the security of the defenders. case-maiej Sp. cashiered. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. To Carve. cartilage. Fr. mord-keller. Cot. It. empty. paper. break to pieces. Cartoon.— Fl. See Card. — — nul the proceeding. casacca. The Sp. dim. To duash. Fr. It. Du. a hut. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. the charge of — — Fr. crown of a hat. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. to shear. caisse. Case. caroach. a of water. casualis. afterwards any written challenge. casa. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. a merchant's cash or counter. Lat. carretta. carogna. Casual. to an- — Kil. Walach. blotted out.to annul. to cut or carve . to notch. It. Rouchi carone. Fr. Fr. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. cassa. casuelj Fr. carreaggio. Fr. casco signifies a skull. from It. Lat. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. like all the names of tendon. Fl. to bear or carry.' Bailey. Case-mate. caxa. See Gristle. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Preparatory drawing of a It. annul. Lat. Probably. G. kasseren. The carrying of anything. carroc- carrozza . bag and baggage of a camp. and matar. something that actually occurs. mata. carota. casso.' — Hdcart. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. cassa. Case. cascade. slaughter-house. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. from Lat. properly to convey in a car. card. charrier. casitiste. carriaggio. ' Casa-matta. It. to fire on the enemy. quasser. It. a car.' Cot. Hence casket. Cassock. hull of a ship. tion from Sp. Cart. abrogate. turn out of service. a fall. caisse. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. a coffer or small case for jewels. kirpti. an act of falling. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. It. to crack. See Case. where Fr. of carro. cartouche. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. a long coat. Cascade. cascar. cancelled. long man's gown with a close body. kerpu. charrette. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . — Cartridge. void cassare. cassere. AS. mord-grube. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. packing ' cloth. made void. also the carriage. of carta. the money chest. — Cartoose. to dash. capsa (Diez). Fr. Fr. casag. from It. caisse. one who reasons on cases put. cascata. Flor. from casa. and that apparently from capio. Rouchi caroche.' Fl. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. gristle. Sp. Rouchi carpHe. to hold. fortuitous. to convey in a cart. kerben. Cask. ignominiously exposed. carroccio. cascare. casa-maita. to slay. Casque. gristle. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. Casket. Lith. To quash an indictment. Hence a challenge openly hung up. to — — also casse. crush. a canonry or slaughterhouse. It. coffer. discharge It. — FI. cut with scissors. as we . cartone. To Cashier. ceorfan. des rideaux A'carp^ie. not reaching to the height of the ditch. kerven. quash.

Fr. Lat. . Catastrophe. kic' kicil are used chasser. to drive Cat o' nine tails. in the fire. KaraXoyog. signifying breed. probably from an imita. to bring to an crack given by the joints. ichasses. 134 CAST Catacomb. castello. puss / for calling them. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. first made ordinary Fr. chaleur. a cat . to make clean or chaste.the / or c respectively. dashing it to pieces. KarapaKrr]g. cash. castana. Others explain it from Kara. to turn overturn. Fr. to Fl. Lang. castanetazo. of sarabands does Gr. the stalk of plants. to crack. tails. bot-kotis. to end. 120. or comba. The E. cacciuolo. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. cat-o'-nine. Pol. Pm.Lat. Lat. to hurl See Awgrim. mino. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. however. kasi. from the first of Castrate. dash. to look at. to hunt. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . heat . quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. castro. Roukind. V Lith.— Fl. follow after.Rouchi Scaches. while kiss / Pol. Sp. drive away. to clack. Gr. kaJoivad. on. casipola. same word with break. Castle. Yz. squash. image accasciare. Fr. Catalogue. Fr. is not satisfactory. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. which.to drive out.. like that of It. lance. kotas. the castanets for or implement . to break. dashing it out of the window. Fr. klakka. casser. and from the castus. It. coming to us through different dialects of French. casupola. Thus we have Caste. down. chat. or Rouchi cat. ' Catchyn away abigo. &c. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. Castanets. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. name. perhaps from which we have E. down. by the loss of with several pitched cords. to dash. cascar. 'Vaaaw. arpi^m. cacciarc. squash. being Fin. or bruise together. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. . V. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. Cast. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. . shaft of a 1 push. casule. to cast or beat to tioner . Gael. R. crush . ecrevisse. a garment for performing the mass in. kat. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba).' ' Catchyn or The Fin. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. force j Rouchi equerviche. fall. KaTappaKTrjQ. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. to torture. Fr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. rack. n. To Catch. to is Essentially the Sp. KaTaarpifm. kasta. speak of dashing a thing down. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. ating. a thump. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. cojz^/a. stilts. which has been retained in E. Mid. kotas. to crackle. cast. In the dialect of Picardy.. the earlier sense of catch. cassa / cry for the same purpose. Cot. Hence castaneta. a little house or hut. ON. second chase. handle of an axe. cacciare fuora. Hal. Fr. chasser. a whip on the other into latch. casulla.'— Pr. punch. . and KviilSog. kottr. katze. accastiare. away. chasser. The Diet. koshka.out cacciare . under chi caleur. kissa. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. catch. So also from It. to drive away. cat. dim. Fr. from water Karappaaaiii. a vault. sue. Sp. Etym. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. — We a cavity. torture. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. execu. fer toTa. It. of castrum (castra). To It. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. a chesnut . castellum. a fortified place. . catar. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Cat. chasuble. a cat koshki. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. the ground . Gr. B. _G. to close. It. and tomba. Pic. represented by the syllable quash. was introduced. to scourge. Isidore — in Diez. Fr. puras E. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. to lash. Brunne. a Cataract. an enumerlist. kakka. OFr. burst cascare. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Chase. race. to fall as over a precipice. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis.

a. Kartiyopta (/cari. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. Du. door when it is shut. klatscherei. chassoire. cagnon (a dog). resono ictu lash. catch-flesh. Claucht. — . let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. — tinman. Cot.yopl(. called in Fr. Tutschek. . Cot. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . Ptg. snatched. dainties.' CATCH Fr. Sp. worm. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. s. with and without an / after the c. or any kind of relishing food tuals. klatsche and Norm. . In the XV'e. E. the distance to which the ball is struck. OFr. Gael. de Bray. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. weevils. flap klatsche. On Catechism. clap. Gr. ' ' word catch. chink. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. to kythe D. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. * Cates. predicament. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. dainty vic- a form lash. 135 — Aasen. children's name for cat . chatter . sound. 'Bxn. gliong. catc?u. a whip. * Caterpillar. clap with the hand. which all . Guernsey chafer. c or ^. kletsen. Du. blow. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. apprehend a person. verberare kUts. Metivier. KaTtix'so. bichano (pussy). cache. P. Grandg. clatter. catch. smack. Kariicatching one a box on the ear.) . Diez. latch of.P. to snap. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. to take. . glcu. has both or of charming by sound. Kil. to chat. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart.V. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. an accusing. a little dog). to snatch (said of dogs). millecaterpillars. the the same principle he was Fr. called dog or Galla catchamza. latch. a pill. snatching it with a any one. E. chasse. caucht. the elements of a science. an officer of taxes. gingle. wild-beast. cat is not apparent. head. seize.from Bard and ayopsw. Wal. to teach by oral instruction. 'Horxa. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry.V. a smack. . to crack GATES cache. Sc. to catch strength. to the crack. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. a whip. a — gatta. ArbaUte de courte chasse. ictus resonans. Guernsey pilleure. to A bailiff. a clap. . Du. Fr. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . Fr. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis.j. to harangue. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. chatter.. G. compare G. GaUa catchiza. bicho. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . chase. klatschen. ecachoire. ' Fr. to clap hands. happe-chair. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. woodlice. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. kaetse. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. i. a. Fr. — Kiittner. insect. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. chenille {canicula. icarrix'Ki^. a whip or Kuttner. resound. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound.s. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. — explained. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). a whip Rouchi cachoire. a caterpillar Milanese can.' ^Jam. chacepol. the OE. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. gattola. — B. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. chachara. snatching. from shutting with a click. to chatter with the teeth cake. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. silkworm. klinke. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. e. quincailler. Rouchi clincailleux. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. is said that he got a claucht of it. Chate peleuse. as of the latch of a As ! — . instruction in forms. — Catcli-poll. Caterer. catch. and answer. from Gr. claquer. Swiss Lombard G. e. companaige. a carter's Pat. Cates. ketsoore. a cornIn the s. Kil. kletse. whip. formerly called cliket. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Gael. caker. — with a whip. E. devouring mite or weevil. in order). klatsch. fragor kletsoore. pedes.

a kind of skull-cap. Lat.Lat. what . chevalier. by land. the stones of a street. chatideau. 4. a horse . choufleur {choii. caudex . achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. kobyla. . catnever sells — — Cauliflower. . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Port. Thus Bav. w. to purge.Lat. Fr. Jaubert. cauHs. kocie. — — cavallo. Fr. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. calotte. The word — . the caul of the liver. . cautis. . caple. via strata. Bessie of Bednall. On the other hand. Fin. apt to burn iron. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Lat. a horse . Hence achates or acates signified purchases. a The peel. Jonson in R. catkin Magy. a pavement. Wyatt in R. &c. kdtzchen. Provider. kopano. cavaliere. also to pave . from delf^gato. having the property of cleansing. Rete. chausser.' Elyot in Way. Kavrfipiov. G. adcaptare. Du. It.. Manciple's Tale. challe was ther of a temple. katte. and spareth for no perell. Causeway. chaudiire. shaled or picked Fr. from caveo (p. Cathedral. Gael. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. from KaSaipio. a seat. make clean. Caudle. causa. lamb. calceata. Fr. Fr. fur. Kil. mutz. Fr. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. chauderon. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. any Fl.—— — 136 correct. klopfend knallen. little cap is . A warm comforting drink.. kin. • — — See Chattel. Fr. reticella. a stalk. hot. mudet. catkins . kobuiV. ' Gr. a paved road. B. Chaud. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. puss. catkin Pol. primitive is meaning a shale or off. chaudroii. It. CAVE Caul.^ acheter (Lat. a horse. Boethius. cabbage-stalk. to shale or peel. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. and hence a skull-cap. minon.^Hal. hot. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Cattle. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. KiwariKog. quire. cal^ar. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. It. Cavity. Pol. cautus). to sound like a blow . ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Fr. Gr. Cauldron. flock. caldo. cabbage. OE. hollow. kaussijde. Ka^afriKOQ. is Prologue. chair. Pr. . . to burn. catons. CATHARTIC sense. Caution. net or caul-work. Richly she feeds. a mare. Gr. green husk of a calon. kopista. cale.Y\\Xea. Diez). macska. puss. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. the. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Cave. calqada. cheval. Palsgr. calceta. from chaud. cale. a pulpit. Lat. hazel. otherwise written kell. That he was ay before in his estate. rete A — Prov. chaussJe. puss. accapitare Rouchi acater. despencier. Fr. koparet. cabbage). catkin mitz. KaHSpa. It. Cavern. cavus. Kavrijp.willow. to ac- — Fr. — . walnut with the husk on challer. Lat. Lat. accattare. a branding from koiio. 2. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Du. Delycates. whence cathedralis. Dryden in R rete. Sx. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. It.p. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. deyntie meates. to shoe. a receptacle for small things. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. a road calceata. Palsgr. Gr. a kettle for heating water. a horseman. to beware.' B. Mid. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. capull. calidus. Cavalier. but the acates that are sent him. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Cause. to shoe . acaptar. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. little cat. katteken. Russ. achepter. Cavalcade. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. kocianki. Catkin. cat maczoka. kitten kotki. Cathartic. — Cauterise. to buy. dumpf tonen. fur in general. Caballus. flue. kautsije. Lat. acater. KaPaWrii. Caustic. Fr. kassije. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Cavalry. Mid. Fr. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. ce^l. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. . caballus.

-cease. decessus. lambris. little house. death. and then to gape. H. So from Fin. kommata. -cede. syle. departure from this life. — . a plank. that. give place.' Hall. nailes will begin to cling. ciel de lit. . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. heaven. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. heaven. 5. Fr. sybire. of E .. thelu. — komo tain). and it was even applied to the planking of the floor.' del. in Jam. VIII. dScis. thel. Wore. as. and Gol. A — A false accommodation produced G. pp. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile.' Cot. sill. kapp-zaum. a log. and zaum. a canopy. to panel or wainscot MHG. dayntily diglit. . in Jam. p. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. a planking or boarding tkilian. ceiling. a canopy. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. Lat. . sus-lambris. selar. IV. a board. . the testern of a bed. . but hang around at the sides. koppeli. to cut. cavezzone. E. a fir-plank. the deck of a ship at thilja. Hal. wuoren komo. column E. ciel is so unbroken. Lat. thiling. 32. a halter. komista. to canopy siled. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. cesso. hollow. exceed. In the N.. seele. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. a severe bridle. cyling (W. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. Cease. Plancher. . semely on syll. succeed. . cabegon. sill in window-sill. Lat. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. to plank ON. an aquiline nose. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson.). the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. yield. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. bridle. step away. a log. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. Cavil. sky. . a boarded floor. to plank or floor with planks. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. coffer. a log. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. komo. Ceiling. beam. Lat. Gawaine & Sir Gol. Soc. Hence concede. canopied. excess. a hut. or of a bed. &c. and that from Sp. crooked kopio. a head. departure. dille. rafter. door-sill J Sc. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. augm. Fr. Fr. See -cede. deal. Boyd in Jam. hollow. wall. &c. To seele a room. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. hung. is applied to a canopy.' Ordinances and Reg. p. -ceed. cedo. .'— Z. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. to argue capto tiously. Sp. . And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. &c. — — — toyour soverane. also a seeling of boards. Cede. The line of descent from Fr. B. to go forth. syl. —Decease. CAVESON kopera or kowera. -cess. flooring E. of cavezza. with their substantives concession.' — Gawan .' Marriage of James IV. thilja. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. cease. 7. del into English without ' translation gave cele. applied to a canopy. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. post. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. caveqon. Cot. — . &c. were met. plank. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka.' Rutland papers. quibble. . hollow ice . as if from happen. to seele or close with boards plancher. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. . and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. thili. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . cellar. tester of a bed. The It. in Hal. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day.). Cam. cielo. . The sense of roofing. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. ceiling. board . selure.j have come from this source. It. empty. thil. The importation of Fr. And seik — Cessation. proceed. Fr. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. wainscot thiljar (in pi. the roof of a coach. curved. cabega. cavillor. 43. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. Sherwood. jaa. plank. hivtmel. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. thil. dil. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. cessum. the inner roof of a room of state. lambrisser une chambre seeling. a beam. recede. Sir 137 pit . In the same way G. menuiserie.

cot. to distinguish. Fl. guish. Fr. to rate. being taken from Fr. siller les yeux. See Cede. a storehouse Chafe. -cern. To chafe is for wine. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. For sess from assess. Cess. Lat. to bury). to burn incendo. thence belonging to or connected with corn. to sepap rate. hollow. to glow.). empty. an eyelash. To Incense. Cereal. of heating. cella. -cess. sting. in comp. Celebrity. the hollow the Lat. — A . and — — — possessions. conceipt. or any bird's. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. judge. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. estimate. contend. and put it through the over eyelydde. Lat. tax. -ceive.cern. Lat. rubble. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. to heat. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. -ceit. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Fr. Assize. chaufferette. — . -cense. concernor. riscaldarsi. camentum. -ciper. pick out. censura. or expression of Ennius. — . to think. to -sum. to visit in numbers.j 138 thill. cceremonia. Lat. Lat. -cevoir. to seele or sew up the eyelids . and met. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. — . decebre) . his office. a registration of one's self. become heated with anger. keep in It. Lat.. goad. to set on fire. blind. stones to the production of heat. a solemnity. in comp. deceipt. Century. solemn (of per. cilibat. Lat. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. ciglio. Fr. a hundred of what- — . syll. in accordance with the Fr. Censor. ceremonia.' Book of St Albans. a numerous con. sift. a prick. tax. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. capturn. In Celebrate. census. ciller. a solemnity. candeo. as entering largely into the derivative certo.). calefare. KsvTpov. calefacere. cillier. a Cemetery. zens according to their property. single or unwedded life. see. Lat. oil. See Celibacy. centum. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. 1. deceit. /ctj/rsw. cretum. to incense. concerner. criticism. as in some places burnt. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. dchauffer. Fr. a religious observance. rough from the quarry. Certain. heaven. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. Lat. distinIt. the place where the de. also grave opinion. Ceremony. to concern. to separate. sile. K^'ivut. to rub for the purpose a hut. from Saa-rw. the point round which a circle is drawn. receipt.' Celebritas. make angry. Centre. Fr. and so of that other.ing a room where there is not fire. to be regarded as one celebro. Fr. Cot. to warm. Gr. -ceptjun. to sleep). chauffer. to seal a pigeon's eye. thronged the participle cretus. Census Censor. in Marsh. . point. &c. Censer. to prick. a shaft horse. Cell.unmarried. crevi. to attend on object with. Censure. assess. value. -cebre ifoncebre. abundance. is the opposite of disora virum. for building. judge. capio. family. — . mortar. materials It. observe. Accelerate.of the r. the officer appointed to take such returns . but was gradually lost in conceit. Take the nedyll and threde. cenio. -oept. Gr. Prov. ' . a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. concetto. — — Cenotapli.— Chafing-dish. cerealis. age. S. To seel or close the eyes. renown be embodied with. from censeo. to take. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. what to set in a chafe. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. cigliare. Sherwood.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. cencer. Cij(fe5j. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. census. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. and thence censer. parted sleep. — . -cipio. -cepire. — . ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. we have a modified form of (of a place). oil. Cot. to twinkle darkness. a hundred centuria. to course of people. Gr. judge Lat. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to celebrate. to chafe. Sc. quarters for slaves. caber. eyelid. Fr. festive. and thence to conceal.— Cellar. Gr. Lat. . Chafe. to contend. the talk of men. Lat. a tomb. Lat. decide. confounded ist from It. {cori)cipere. -civer {conciver— Roquef. incense. Incensum. to blindfold. OFr. swift. &c. with transposition hence (of a day). with the eyes. Coehim.. -CEIVE a shaft. Celerity. to take. irot\oe. eschattffer. much frequented. It. The term cilium. then to rub without reference Cement. a valuation of every man's estate. It. Assess. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. sure. Ta^oe. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. -cepere. sacred show. celer. appertain. encens. -i^oivre. celeber certus. Lat. Centurion. (and thence also) to hoodwink. Fr.

keuchen. To buy and sell. from of the G. taubes korn oder hafer. also to prattle. G. chamar. — — — . Prov. ^Altieri. Perhaps Pm. rustling corn. refuse barley . Chair. to move the jaws. to action arose. Piedm. Halma. to gnaw. chaene. care. Pr. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. cathedra. to caw chawer. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. much more Genoese sagrind. So from dominio. swelling with anger. Lat. to calumpnjamen. Lat. . to a seat. to Latin calumniare. or puff with snorting. ing rapidly repeated cries. Cot. . Chain. catena. de Brai. Fr. grief. Chalice. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. kuhata. snuff. cathedra. chagrin. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. a chough. Chagrin. — — ' — — — A . chaffare. fa sagramen de calompnia. kiaftr. crooked. kahista. cam. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. kuhina. OFr. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. much blowing. — — — . to babble.. care. lime . any insect of the beetle kind. fume. great chafe. avena vilior. In vulgar language. difficulty . Gr. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. ceaf. . to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . a goba rustling . calonja. Bouffard. chayire. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Prov. The jaw chafty. dispute. chatter. of. baras of ants. a pulpit Cot. from the shark-skin. Fr. chafeter. kiamta. chaine. chafing. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. to claim. a jackdaw. E. ceafer. Prov. a vault or arched roof. chawe. kuhista. to buzz. to gnaw. G. chicane. ing a hard case to their wings. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence.nium. signal by drum or P. Lat. to institute anforensic action. to pant. Due. have a mind to parley. tattle cheep. Fr. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. De Ir4. Came. calumnia. to chatter or talk lightly. kahuja. Kuttn. muzzle. on. ON. Fr. to dispute. Fr. sagrindse. dongio. Cot. From Port. — — — — — — . From to go to law. gewolb. often puffing. to call. Hal. quisquilise offence. chaulx. in a cana. contestation. in a monstrous fume. cadieira. Lat. kaff. leviter crepo Then. cadena. now a chair. chaps Chamber. to fret inwardtronfo. tattle. jaw. havOFr. Probably from According to Diez. cup. vel susurro. Chayire. puff. kdfer. 35. keffen. idle words. calix. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Wall. . Adelung. matter by combat. Du.' Rayn. cauvette. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Fr. charge with. . clamare. breathe KaOa^oiiat. sborfare. Fl. kahu. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. songe. bargain. place See Cheek. a rustling noise. snort. From the To Chaff. hiss. Lat. breathe hard. to file. B. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. kuhuja. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Fr. from Swiss kafeln. (ca'e'ra) to chair. to tattle. yap. limare. kauchen. Camera. kdfelen. calice. lime. sagri. that leneth e per I'autra. Fin. a chain. shaIt. &c. Gr. kaff. haggle. fern-chafer. rustle Challenge. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. as. p. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. talkative. green sagrin. chambre. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). calx. Pers. P. call in question for an ley). As the loss of a ^ in breathe. preise. Pat. — . KoBiSpa. Du. rally one. ple^.. vis. Fr. chalanger.— — . cadera. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. a double operation * Chafer. rustling motion challenge. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Lat. Fr. and signifies to consume with anger. Ayenbite. cadena gives chain. In like manto huff.sure carriage. Kaiiapa. Bav. chaire. hordeum vel let. to puff and blow. puffed or ruffled with ly. Fr. to ner It. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. grief. false accusation. 11. and as this was the beginning of man. refuse. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. a prattling woaction. with a:n arched roof. far lima-lima. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. to bark. chaise. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. camera. ckapfare. hght Chalk. kiqfta. to sit. a pulpit. Lat. Cheffern. kedja. without chap/are makiinde. as a carriage is a moveable seat. kever. tronfio. thick and short. khah. calonjar.

chaude mesUe. fray. to cample. Champ. The E. to move the jaws kiamt. chdance. When the to quarrel. champ. to groove bevel off a right angle. accident. kempen. camerlengo. to wrestle. chance. a hook . element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. a scufSe. chanfrein. The G. Champarty. is explained by serrarsi. Magy. . luctare.' ' Pr. bickering. received the petitions of the suitors. ciambellano. broil.' SherI'altro ' ' . surpassing. from chaud. to fasten oneself on to another . to happen {ad and cadere. i. Prov. Lat. Pm. fighting place. campear. a jaw kianisa. ON. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. jocus partitus. chance. . keiiipe. Fr. kappd). champ parti.—Tutschek. Partnership. fight. Champion. cameratus. kampen. kimbu. to hold . attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. which seems another form of the root. Fr. kabintis. dial. a court of justice. Sp. to flute as a column. kampeln. to fall. Chancel. Hence (with the nasal) w. dricka i kapp. champ. schmatzen s.—Charfron E. to smack the lips in eating. contest. Get campers a ball To camf . to hang. cancelli. fight. dial. zampettare. ON. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. chain. kimppu (Lap. kriimmen gebogen. kabMe. Lat. —Chamfrain. to paw the ground E. to Hal. game campio. giving rise to the as. Prov. to slope. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. kampa. campar. at the railings. from cheoir. to hollow out. zs jeopardy. Sup. gewolbt. to tread The sound heavily. Commonly derived from campus. wood. reusement — fight in single combat. cadere. kabinti. as swine. mesleiare. M. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. gekrUmmt. to slope out the . escazenza. a horse-race. chamfrain. to fasten oneself to another . to wrestle. champ. kapp. tsammogni.' melleia. Du.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. dispute Hal. boys speak of capping verses. Sp. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. It will. kibti. to talk. kinipen. combat. jeu parti.edley. prize-fighter. Champaign. . Chancery. To cope or contend with. kimpustella. Campar. pedilusor. Gall. Carpentier. kippo. who stood ad cancellos. Chancellor. rare. tsamtsogni. champion Du. ciamberlano. chajnbellan . origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . Dief. Fr. hot. Meleare. certare. pinch. head armour. kempa. . and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. kabe. Fin. sukibti. accidere. kanip. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. — KiL . hamper. to bevel. cempa. a hollow chanfreiner. So in e. campus partitus . an athlete. caer. chanfrar. dial. Fr. or player at football.Lat. a bundle. CHANCEL It. bundle. Lat. as in It. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. nels. Chamfron. a game at football. ON. act of falling. camp. To hollow out in chanPtg. to fasten on. dial. to stick to. or less ignorant. hero Sw. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. move the jaws. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. The happening of things Chance. divided game. slope of a bevelled angle. the chafldn. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. E. dial. camp. excellent. chanfreindre. Lat. therewithal. to strive at games . kampeln. chanfrein. . champ. to . — Ch-amberlain. from Fr. See Camp. — ^Tusser. top of a borehole. Fr. cahir. difficulty . kimpUma. to quarrel (comp. a feat. a warrior. and acted as inofficers of . djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). kiinp. Chance-n3. calidameya. campus. ing. To Chamfer. G. Ptg. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . .140 CHAMBERLAIN . — masterly Sp. e. contend or argue G. cample). the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. hng. s. . Lith. to — — champ. to excel. to chew. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. kablys. kiammi. to fall). cazer. camp. to be eminent. termediaries between them and the judge. The word is preserved in E. Fr. contention kappi. to to chew champ. to debate. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. . and mesUe. E. calida et sans aguet. athlete. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . chamble. — Hal. compound. a field of battle.

a dealer in candles then. Chaps or chops. throat of an animal. Chap. See Chant. ceaflas. . chapear. to sing. kvar kjceften. leather. from chandler. a strip of metal plate. changer. Sp. chancellerie. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. cangiare. Chap. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. the loose flesh of the cheeks. chancery. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. kjaakaa. A fellow. flat . as chancery . Chapel. E. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. Fr. the place where candles ler. to creak. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. and also to chap or crack. Commonly derived from capella. to change. to swap. to put on fresh clothes. Compare chark. to truck. schimbd. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. surfaces striking together. cambiare. prune. to spht a chip. hack . AS. to hack. Aasen. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. waterconduit. debeant conjurare. from clap. to cut up into small pieces. chapa. chanter. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. In like manner Walach. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . clapet. Chop. skipta. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. chap. It is also used in the sense of the E. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . muzzle. Probably from chap. Bret. cobio. Channel. extended to other trades. the gutter that runs along a street. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. chiappa. Fr. Du. Chap. Fr. ON. a reed. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Hal. —Chantry. chandelier. Cheek. kapoti. wood. kiceft as well as kjakje. jaw. Chandler. Sp. a small plate of flat metal. Prov. . Lat. to chap at a door. To Change. to deal. —Ordericus Vitalis. and the modern canal. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. any hollow for conveying water. chapilla. Hence It. cambiar. a small metal plate Port. cheek. 2. Fr. Lith. is used in the same sense . the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. not a soul. as It. Da. properly in a hard body. like the knocking of hard things together. kiceft. to plate. or the cracking of one. chapelete de una bomba. kaupa. esclapa. . exchange. chop. — : Lat. as to chap hands. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. may be compared with ON. W. canalis. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. And N. chaps. to strike with a sharp edge. jaw. shift. the clappers of the scupper holes. to paw like a horse . The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. from canna. Lang. as corn-chandChandry. — — —Marculfus in Due. to peck. exchange. Walach. Russ. to — cut. a money-changer. klepan. the mouth. while the broader vowels a. Man of Law's Tale. chapeletas de imbornales. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. kemma. Hal. ^Jam. . also a clap. to peck. Chip. the chaps . every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. chop. camjar. to cut. I. schimbu. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. a chap is a crack or fissure. to apply one flat thing to another. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Sc. hard bodies. See Chop. gab. Chape. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. to coat. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. lips of an animal. chapeta. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. to plate. ceaplas. That wide were sentin their spicery. to break . to cut off . . a jaw. kappen. Molbech. chap. Hence chantry. to strike. kennel. as those on a trunk. to strike. Da. esclapo. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. 140. exchange schimbatoriu.^. cantare. or the like chapar. are kept. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. as skin chapped hands. — . a pipe. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. cambium.

that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. be- e. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Lat. a riddle. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. eyre. gaggle . corona.). Du. a charm. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. called kedlock. a rhyme. babbling. Lay on. caritas. It. creak. 370. affection. chirriar. babdistinction. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. a head or division of a book. keeren. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. car. kurkelis. cearcian. 2. . a dispute . wreath for the head. Character. Yx. ghirlanda seor garland. Fr. to love. turn about. AS. (eucharistie. czurliwoti. . to prattle. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. char. cluck kirklys. Charge. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . hadka. to prattle. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. dim. kurkti. gadka. es ist mi cheer. return.charme. It. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. to creak. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. from capa. A weed among com AS. chapel. carmen. charge an enemy is to lay on. a mark made on a thing. go. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. colliers that charred coal. that turned decken . Lat. Sup. charger. carus. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. chapelet. siarad (pronounced — sharad). . capital. charlar. dear(in both senses). surris seu Lat. It. Fr. &c. w. From Norm. charcoal burners. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. chara. as a beetle. in turns. karout. Charlock. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. An enchantment. — a car. Lith. Fr. Chapman. Gr. to load . capitolo.. burning without consuming the substance. * Charcoal. w. to dove . which was incantation. a hood. twist. to chirp. Mid. Hence carminare. Sp. dear. to sing or chirp as birds. It. Chaplet. a garland of roses. chirlar. krachzen). 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. ciarlatore. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. — spell. Chare. to croak as a frog . tegere. cerran. of chapel. jabber. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. in To ness Charity. Swiss. caricare. schreien. The crash. to . rightly explained by Tooke from AS.' Boccaccio in Diez. chatter. And damned be he who first cries Hold. called in Sp. from gadai. to turn Gael. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . carregar. cher um cher. the nature of a thing. capellare. Chirk. carricare. turn. cabildo. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Boh. a merchant. tattler. chapitre.whirr. chatter. Sp. clack. Macduff. as Pol. from cape or cope. chat. to talk . to converse.Lat. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Deutsch. Cot. a turn cerran. canne. Sp. a verse. to of the governing body. Inst. grave or make incised marks on an ob. kirkti. from Charade. a riddle. cam. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Lang. twitter. . capella. charer. charade. to charcoal. Charlatan. In that work the verb is written caire. condo il volgar francese. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. a cricket karkti (schnarren. used in the sense of magic Fl. properly to place — . Ptg. carmo. to tattle. Lat. AS. from carrus. as. for the same reason rosario. — — — turned to coal. Prov. ject). Justin. Chark. Fr. enough. and in It. cedeleac. to chirp. Bret. eapitulo. . Mundart. occasional turn. seems to be derived charade. cluck. charlatan. The G. gnash. See Charlatan. to turn. talking. hiss Lith. creak. it is my turn. OE. czurksti. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. cha.czirksti. ceap-man. a The OFr. decken. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Fr. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. chirk. To Char. czirbti. Charade. Charcoal was ciarlare. wood to coal. Chapter. —— . the turtle pitre. charitas. beloved. to chirp as sparrows. a mark of a mountebank. pohadka. prattling quacksalver. bler. from capitulum. See Cheap. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal.

the cry of the bat. chip. It. So in Gael. a yawning. as we speak of olive branches. Pm. to cry as a chicken . To Chasten. the handle of a razor . — Palsgrave. a plate of metal. ch). chit in the latter sense Du. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . — Fr. Fr. to baptize.ppen. pure. CHATS fit 143 to name. Du. clean. — Hal. cs E. careful. a gap. or the cry of a bird or the like. D. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. a shrine for a relic. Fr. letters p. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. gazzerare. clap. Lat castigare. warble. to talk. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. carmen is presented in AS. Parallel with E. It. —Charter. noise. flesh. la chasse d'une rose. chits. B. csacsogni. a branch. snap. eclats. prattle. root of the Lat. is to represent the chamier. clear. talk. cearig (from cearian. Malay. to make a noise. to which it bears the same relation as chape. csacsogany. See Catch. a word. Fr. See Cistern. speak . Kil. Diez. make a noise as birds do.). . to chatter or prattle . s. Kil. fragments. sordidus. a young man . magpie. jackdaw . The primary import of the syllable a great number together. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. Chary. kata. a crack or a flaw . . i. chatter. also to germinate or spring forth. To Chase. charm. chick. gadu-gadu. prate. To chitter or chipper. occasionally Forby. ch&tier. parcus. niggardly. kna. to cut and faggoted. to set a jewel. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. to chirp. chit. as from nomen It. knacken. tenax. Cot. blackthorn-chats. a twig Suffolk chaits. From carinen was formed It. enchasser. used to represent a sharp note. as in the E. to burst open. chip. carme and Fr. little sticks cudere. — We ornamental work the to signify E. to chirp as a bird to cheep. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. OE. To talk. cassa s. nommer. Hal. chip. czysty. Fl. or pop. It. a branch and a young female. chykkyn (Pr. limpid. germinate . Fr. gaddc. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. from pure. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). nome and .house.— Chit. shivers. to clap. warble. shout OE. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. whistle. or suckers on rough borders. chick. chit-chat. — The . the young shoots . —Bailey. racket . clack. See Card. be wide open. noise. csaterdzni. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. schioppare. to crack. ferire. cyrm. discourse. pure. whence a charm of goldfinches. kata-kata. To chit. knatiern. G.). And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. to crack. splinters. xi'i-'^vui. carnisj bones kept. the calix of a rose. Magy.— Chatter. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. also to hatch. —Jam. or equivalent forms. or a bird out of the egg. gazzolare. caro. to care). The egg is chipped. — sharp sound of a crack. csatora (Magy. as. gazeuiller. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. as purgare Fr. — Yorkshire chat. clean. Chart. Chat-wood. in Jam. chair. To Chase. Chaste. It. talk much . chary. An imitative word. to chirp. V. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. clean.. karigh. Chat. to wet. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. kippen. %aafi. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. karg. Cot. — = Chats. Fl. chaste. converse. gazzogliare. To work plate as silversmiths do. Chamel. also a youth. — — . crackle. fragments or leavings of food.a. chikat'. kastaa. In like manner Russ. to gape. Russ. Gr. the bird is iiown. gallan or ogan. castus. to separate in morsels. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. an enchantress. from xoAn. as turnip-chaits. charmer. a churchyard or charnel-house. gazzettare. geug. tittle-tattle. the noise of birds. scraps of for fuel. chaste. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. Chasm. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. castus. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. —Chastise. incassare. Pol. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. from purus. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. to enchase it . chisf. pure. clatter. Lat. It t. g. Pol. a flock of those birds. To chip is then to crack. chat. a chatter-box.

and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. to act as a rogue. OFr. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Lat. Ek dry and hard. kichen. Fin. countenance. Sc. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. thers. to chop and change. force of the word. ceap. hawkmann. welcome heartily.. from AS. sense of bargaining. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Fr. KaviiXog. chuckle. cozener. Faire bonne chire. gagkezen. chiere. to make inarticulate sounds in . jaws. are represented piti. chatal. cattle. laughing. a repulse. kaupon.. ku.of the throat in coughing. — To check an account. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum.kakot. Soc. farm for farm. Pro v. Hal. . ceafl. chaptel. bon marche. kaupiti. to buy. to swap goods . cera. teeth . retching. tradesman. — We ' . entertain kindly. snout. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. OFr. a dealer. prattlingchete. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. . It. &c. equiva. See Cheek. kaupa.-^. to coff—Yisi. entertainment. cheeks. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. the Confessor.—Choke. keck. Chear. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . stuttering. citello. caupo. exAS. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. dchec. Chew. lead to OE. . ceaflas. cara. the face. and. et juxta catalla sua. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Fl. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Bohem. e. NE. See Chess. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. look. sob E. chatel. kakkaset.— . to cluck like a hen. Cot. a cheater. CHEEK zitella. to negotiate. lower. choule. Sp. kak. a piece of moveable property. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. mandibula. from Lat. cattle. to stutter gigken. Modern Slang. chapman. visage.. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. s. It. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. in Fr. kaufen. while it Bret. which is used in the to stutter. . Cam. sale.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. frown. It — Brompton in Due. any cheating. agreeing upon. capitale. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. a tavern-keeper. chavylbone or chawlbone. and hence the E.— Chaps. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. gig. kikottaa. in widely separated languages by the Lat.ing. CHATTELS has ciio. favour. the Lat.' kezen. Chattels. the principal ' colloquial E. to buy. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. upon a checked cloth. giggling. aspect of a man. Du. Pm. price. to clear the throat . with the exception of land. to laugh. chire. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. koopen. stuttering. 144 the It. sum in a loan. Bav. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Slav. ceahhetan. a canting knave. cita.— Chole. goods. — — —Chowl. . kakaista. Gr. to fetch the breath with difficulty. cachinnari. giving or taking in exchange.— Cattle.' to exchange to gasp. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. Pr. goods. The gutGoth. kauf. society. Then. a young boy or girl. horse-couper. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. G. us. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Ingulphus. to nauseate (to retch). The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. Cheek. a willing look and unwilling heart. changing. to . Hence to cheat. catalliim. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. kek. kik. syllables ^ag-. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. cattle. Cheat. to vomit. chop. truffa. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. Fr. with Dief. to — . is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. gagkern. whence captale. which is the word in ceap. a dealer in horses. kok. the tongue. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Check. to deal ON. to coup s. the countenance Fr. jaw. chear in the sense of victuals. to cough and hence either buying or selling. a rogue or person who used the canting language.

rupted into chess. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh.. F*-. kastanie. cheek.koppen. kapen. X'C&s. w. Lat. Kil. to belch. Lith. jowl. e. Chekenyd or querkenyd. then end. achever. to swallow. Sp. jaws Sw. gous forms are G. cheek. throat. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. gabe. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. kjcebe. the loose the game of checks.EP CHEVRON 145 on. ceac. acquisition. castaneusj Fr. chops. ca' — . to geahl. AS. E. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. whence kasa-leipa. skratt. — — .peep in the same sense. (Kil. condition of being taken. Du. quok. See Case. caws. Lith. subacidus. N. ation. to bring to an end. treat with affection. Cher. like a young chicken. by laying it in come to an agreement with. kistej Lat.' to w.G. It. ceg. CHE.their struggle for independence. whence czypulas. dear. scacco.perly head. cista. kjceve. AS. as. Hence chesten-nut. chasi. Thus "we are brought din. to kasa. quoka. Fr. kdkel. old bread. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. kikna of dorum coacervatio. Cherry. to year. dersen . the mouth. the final guttural is retained in writing. cabrio. — — . kirsche.D. Du. — 10 . G. geafl. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. to prevent the attack of cavalry. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable.cirieggia. . acquiring a flavour of old cheese. chevron. cerise j G. jaw. things Da. to choke. squeak as a mouse. accomplishment cayed. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. — — . cerasus. to kep. To make a shrill noise Chest. kesten. Chevaux de frise. the neck. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. AS. a chicken. ceaplas. . ost. Chef. cegio. a rafter . jaw. Fin. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. the palate Chequer. kasiiUPr. mollium congeries. chops.D. schach. to heap up such things for the purchoke. Prothroat of an animal . rennet. As the board to gasp i. make an end. Pm. geagl. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . from the cry of check 1 (Pers. . kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. ceocian. to gape gab. ichec. prevail with. E. for cheese itself. subjected to this process with that which the throat . caseus. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Chevisance.pose of acidifying them kasadr. the throat. throat. caru. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. cisty G. mouth kek. Fr. Chess. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON.. hasten. gullet. Fris. cyse. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Chemistry. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. From them the plish. w. practice seems to have been communiChevron. cheeks. Prov. Sc. Achievement. . frame by which the exertion is made. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. incaseatus. jouffle. kaecke. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source.Xo belch. See Chess. kastr. gill of fish AS. kok. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. kdke. king). cherir. veluti piscium. E. clear the throat. See Alchemy. Tutschek. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. made rancid koka. equal squares of opposite colours. to make a noise different word. OHG. the hke. jaw . nish source. gap. Lat. Lat. kces. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. The Sw. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. the The use of the word kcesir. Fr. Sp. to boken. giffle. cams. gaghel. kjakje. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. G. czypti. Sw. to love. Jam. /Ji2^/(W. It would Cheese. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. gapen. kasa. to accomThis they call hdrsk. by laying up in a covered heap. chests in OE. Analo. rafters in heraldry. as meat and butter. chesten. cough. chAtaigne. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. The name of creak as shoes. a heap. carnium.). Hence kikna is identical with OE. Sw. chiffe. cufd. ceaflas. cese. Pl. to hold dear. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. Fr. food. Lat. cheken. Fr. a cricket. cheek. E. xaque. ON. rattle in the throat. cabiron. schach. An imitative word. Da. kopen. cireggia. kikna. jaws. w. chaps. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. chevir. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. &c. Sc. to choke with laughter. suffo. To Cheep. Cherish. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. . to gasp. takes place in the formation of cheese.

queror. E. chimb. pipio. Magy. Sp. kaw. as. cica cica. tyuk. kimme. to chew. capo. cebr.^ to resound as a bell. by driblets. and not vice versd. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. a chicken. kauwe. Kil. strideo.. klagend tonen. Palsgr.D. AS. captain. acute. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. head. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. kime. Da. Pl. It. the jole. a cup cibaw. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Chick. kippa. the least imaginable jot. Chime. to twitter. — — Mother Hubbard. Du. Probably from Fr. horns of the house. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. ach. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. as pointing out the origin of the E. Pm. W. rafter. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. or the broken noise of birds. to raise the rim. then as G. kilderkin. to contest. k'imm s. Du. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. to Du. into a continuous shriU sound. chawbone. the same principle I regard On birds. a little bit. pi. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. cabar beinne. the cry of young . Walach. To Chide. chavel. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Chimb. To chitter. kibr. Gael. to the brim. kind. the young of animals in general. while didder is to shiver or citteren. mouth. tiukka. chillness or shivering. kimia. has probably the same origin. Tintillo. chillar. pululo. s. from the second Lat. kauen. G. rafter . w. cheek. cib. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. Fin. Pr. Halm. are formed Du. kopf Du. beam. to use the jaws. stake. kouwe. a chicken. E. — It. hiss as meat on the gridiron. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. or qf people talking rapidly. chol. cap. a finch. creak. alter. Lat.— Cot. a young bird. the throat. deer's horn. a cup. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. pipio. chew or chaw. tintelen van koude. zitterti. then cold. cabarach. Fr. Pm. pip. knirschen. And hence. chieftain. The loss of the syllable it in Du. machouere. For the see word Doit. Swiss kiden. to smart. rafter . Now gan some courage unto him to take. ' . G. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. a small cask OFr. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. — . tremble. pole. to chime. while the Magy. capete. 'Among these the G. kieken.— Gattel. De chic en chic. lead through the synonymous E. choule. chill. twitter. Imitative of a loud clear sound. caferu.-ill. horn wood. De finger killet mi for kalte. Brezza. when the vibrations become very rapid. Chief. to go. chicoter. Russ. chavel. Chaw. jaw. the head. Chill. kitista. grelot). kindeken. a jaw.^ Hal. to gasp for breath (Hal. crepo. mountain top .). Prov.. tiukkua. E. antler. capu. cidan. chiler. a hen. — Du. and from the third E. quivering sound which passes. kuwe. . chikat'. in Walach. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. ultimate origin of the Mite. The Pl. Fl. caprioru. the rim or edge of a vase. knit the brow cib-led. See Chimmer.peep. Chitter. kidata. kaau•wen. . The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. cabar. killen. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. chiquei. jaw. Fr. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Fin. chef. Chigue. Fr. chic. to scold.. tiukkata. Pr. : — a lump. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. tiuk. or chick. to chirp or peep like a chicken. ]). chin. killen. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. A To Chew. gosling. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. jaws . kauchen. Payer chiguet A chiguet.' my finger tingles with cold. 146 brial. or as E. a chicken. cild. to pettifog. caput. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr.— . kinderen. Fl. — Fin. czypulas. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. aner. knarren. signifying properly shivering. kop. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Gattel. Bret.. sonorous. CHJME the radical form is unusual. branchy. Child. chaps. greloter is to shiver for cold. a head. a cup. Fin. tremble with cold. from the first of which is Lith. CHEW . term is ssaru fu.D. keichen. from little to little. to crackle. kimista^ . . to titter is Du. cabriones. also the horizon. chillrar. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. pipe. to contest about trifles. the Ptg. gills of a fish. a quid of tobacco. chicaner. chicken.

zirpen. chin . Primarily a shrill sound. in the same crack. ciseau (for cisel). Gloss. caperd.iron. cincel. then to any narrow crack or AS. schrick. to sound deep or the Gr. kinne. To chirp or twitter. hiss chirlar. or chyFrigutus. It. to prattle . — . to chirre. See Chats. The change from the sound ter \s. fyr. genawi. E. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Fr. to chine. from Lat. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. the mouth (jaws) . Prov. flaw Hal. applied to tremulous motion. hollow. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. to simmer. Sp. yivtiov. Du.czirbti. the chin . clangor tinniens kummata. the chine. czirszkti. Fr. . and bodily movement in shimm. tsengeni. twinkling light. are In like manner E. schina. See Chap. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to chink. spina. Chin-coug^h. sonus the backbone Lat. twitter caminus. j^lf. the jaw. chhint. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. and the Du. It. stridere. bx-eak the back of schena. in Hal. the jaw. rustle. eschine. the whooping cough. 147 kimina. bone . representing connected together. clipping of coin. killed by Bellerophon. kumina.er. caminata. Sp. do. — — — — — . ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. as birds the mouth. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. keich husten. a hall Mid.sharp. sound. pare also Walach. cinne. E. to tattle. shiver and the chyver of Pr. The small entrails of a hog. Kil. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. a thorn. to prattle czirpti. Chine. up and down. and light. esquena. sonants. G. kink hoest. — . Chimera.. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Chintz. from the geon's lancet. Chit. quivering or shakyng for colde. crepare. to chirp. to sizel. Gower in Hal. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne.to divide or Du. a surkik hosta. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. pork) . sparkle. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Bret. squittire. a szemrcU. ciarlare. as a bell kommata. chick. Gascoigne in Todd. KinneGr. to sound. kumista. then of a fabulous monster part goat. all these imitative terms being minata. Lat. spina. — . eschiner. A . hiss Pm. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . It. Bav. The desig. and chim-mer. a crowing sound in recovering breath. AS. cheek. See Bright. to murmur. sound on beginning to boil. Fr. In the same sense. from 10 * ' Chia. cinan. chits. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. as the chink of money. skina. kieck hoest. chatter . tinnire. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. tsongeni. cisaille. the cheek. Chink. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Chymerynge. to gape. gen. See Chark. epine.Lat. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body.schricken. eschin^e (de pore). It. Chip. To chink with laughter. It. to chirp . plodere. Chyrme or chur. klincken. Fr. simmer. to chink with laugh2. as a large bell . — . vincially used in the sense of a crack. . name Then. Fr. part lion. Chisel. the cheek (jaw) . Sw. fissure. resonance . schiena. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat.Huloet in Hal. companied. chirp. G. caminsects. Diez de. Cot. schetteren. cleft. verynge or dyderinge.. to tremble. . to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. a thorn. Pr. zirken. komista. cheminde. . Du. hus. gena. Pm. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. Ptg. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. to open chirriar. . To Chimmer. ter. sounding deep. disCot. Chitterling. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . and from a similar sound to boil gently. Chink-cough.). a chap. to squeak in It. To Chitter. a fire-place. et garrire . cisello. Magy. schetteringe. chink. Sp.to chirp. dial. ykvvQ. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. but or cry as a parrot. tremulous motion. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Caminatum. Huloet. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to creak. i. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. to creak. Chat. esquina. tschirpen. Hindost. backe. Sp. Lith.' Phaer's Virg. have been used to designate the spine. komia. Chimney. quavering of the voice. genou (pi. Chitter. a Kuttn. clashing of weapons. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. as the/ is preserved tering. also vibrans. a chink or fissure.

ceosan. Chives. chap hands. by which they are Fr. Chivalry. to taste. Fr. I. 19.. to choose. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. of E. —Chorus. •- Russ. developments of the same radical image. and N. Swab. it is probable that the root kus. to prove. shoot . cepa. Gr. gustare. haslets. to taste. friller. of an angry — — — ' ' — . to experience. Gr. try. a ruff or frill. chippe.' At last he dwelt . fresure. try.ffrill. a heap. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. cive. to taste. taste. Boh. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. the ridges prove. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. a calf's pluck or chaldron . a twittering.yEuffM. %o\ifa. As kushnuti. coup. stone which splits off in shives or shivers.V)^x. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. Chap. a company of singers or dancers. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. to palpitate . to strike hands . ^euw. and in kosten. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. Yr. okusyti. a knight. Swiss kust. pluck. to exchange horses. chawdron. Choice. g'schochet voll. Schmid. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. an onion. . fine threads of flowers. wein didder for cold. chceur.. the inwards of an animal. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. experience valerie. to taste . kiesen. to clap up Hal. to try. from kraus. a small slice or slip of anything . choppe. prove. chimp. The . Fr. cke. a calf's chaldern of E. Jam.freze. a chive.gust. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . to shiver. then to shiver. to wrinkle. and in this sense the * small pieces. the small parts of the roots of plants. cape. The Sc. as green as leeks. Equivalents in the SlaFr. kruszki. Luc.' who shall not taste death. kor6n. See try. kushevati. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. keypa. to hack. seallion or unset leek. choix. anger. called cMtters in the N. . kalbs gekrose. ^S. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. from chevalier. Gr. caperd. full to overflowing. gdnse gekrose. 2. also calPs. kausjan. a rag. as with a blow.vonic languages are Pol. keuren. to ing is doubtless to taste. — Cholera. all seem slate . ments of the knightly class. krussyi. &c. in the same language. ruffs. crammed Choir. .' Verie coinme Cot. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. kushati. gekrose. Choice is probably direct from Fr. select. word is more likely to be from Lat. kieser. disposition. whence Lat. — See Cheek. specially with an application to theatrical performances. kiusan. approve. to try. are used in the same sense. kaup. ON. wrath. chives. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. chattering. to chap. . to taste. a scale or fragment P1. taste. signify to kiss. to tempt. chaup. chorus.D. Fr. or original meaning is preserved in G. Serv. G. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. . and It. pieces . to stop geschoppt voll. bile. chiffe. — Chock-full. to chap at a door . lead us on to Lat. chock full. Walach. To Chop. kusid. schoch. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. schevel-steen. Prov. causir. G. arkiusan. schiefer. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. a blow. to taste. kbhren. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. G. . to Compare also Pol. scheve. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to break off in small shive. a goose's giblets. chatter. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. kiusan. Cavalry. Warwickshire coff. Goth. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. by the vibrations of sound or motion. cut up into — See Chats. The I go to prove them. Enn Sigridur sem ' . shiver. — — — . * To Choose. rare. and Vf. OHG. kiezen. a young . CHOP kros. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . to turn. x^poc. chibble. civette. Chuck-full. from %u\i). whence choleric. To Choke. wkusit' prikushat. . gusten. kustigen. ent quarter. The manners and senti. a wine taster. a ruff. full. heaped measure. Chives are also a kind of small onion. curly . coro. then to try. skifa. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. i. Lat. to try. Choleric. &c. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. propagated. ON. koren. to ^cleave . xiv. chife. Body and Soul. to try . a fragment.— B jag E.

applied to an owl in that language. kubbr. chack.sohola. Chuck. Chopino. caker. Fr. yiSA. high clog. &c. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E.). to overturn. kaufen. E. to strike in the hand. chuet. Du. in i6io. cauvette j Fr. short piece kubbug. capitanus. XpvaaXic. xftovoq. To Chouse. chevane. chatter . cambiare. caphatenus. quappe. Alchemist. claquer. a stump. Gr. kowej Sax. In Sc. e. Marin. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. for to defraud.— Landnamabok. kolbe (club). chapineria. kobe. Chrysalis. Fr. cow-couper.' They are forebuyers of quheit. kubb. to knock. thumb Fl. chrisme. caqueter. by the Robert Shirley. Chub. kaulhaupt (club-head. — Chrisom. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. chouquette. syllables chat. E. and we actually find champman for chapman. plump. cangiare. Chough. gold. chub. 4. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. From the Turkish Chiaus. Du. a small fish with a large head. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia.• — . traffic. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Nominale in Nat. P. — . — Dief. koppe. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Picard. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face.(. the same word with the It. A jackdaw. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. to turn over.' Jam.povucd. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. because she would not endure this husband chopping. p. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . gobio capitatus.X. That Face. sent before him a Chiaus. . Chronicle. gull. Cot. klopper. A fish with a thick snout and head. slipper . peace. noble Doctor. cauc. monedula. Fr. gull.). connected with G. chroniques. one who buys and sells horses or cows. Come. Fr. that will thank chiaus — you richly. whence — E. xop5>}.. — Quabbe. To Chop logick. whence apparently the Sup. equivalent to the E. See Change. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. G. Confounded with the bullhead. cob. Jam. chrysalis (Plin. we find the following passage Dap. chevane. a messenger or envoy. Ant. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. —Shakespeare.\^s. e. I bring you the Cloughs. The Turk was here As one should say. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. chapma?i. choucas. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. ceo. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. thick-set. — — — . 49. ley in Giiford.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. from kloppen. xpi'^lia. Gr. E. kauwe. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. chouette. Peace. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. to speak thieves' slang. time ra . E. kowe. chapin. Borgoens happen. Gr. cheap. Kil. See Chaff. a The What dhy ^. If I discover. -chron-. which was written 27. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. dial. forms are Chrism. ON. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. a lump or piece chump. a bullhead.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Lat. To coup. of which such strings are made. dealing. Wall. chevin. soul-couper. fat. AS. clat. dial. to chatter. cavena. bearand aits.—Chuokstone. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Fr. prattle . In the Alchemist. cheviniau. to clack. as Du. to cant. ' ' What's that? Dap. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. What do you think of me. the intestine of an animal. who took in the Turk- clack. Sw. klompe. civetta. Gr.. capita. overset. chop. capito. kaej Lith. an offence against the fitness of times. a thick piece. OE. Chord. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. . whence the Fr. clogs. Anachronism. kaw. chronicles. a trafficker in souls. merchant. Madam. the teeth to chatter . Sp. the string of a musical instrument originally. whence e. or miller's kaycke . capitone. i. cresmeau. in Chaucer.— Chevin. as in Fr.

AS. so as to make the happen . karl. ON. &c. as Epkema explains it. . To chuck in the fall from. Lat. cinctura {cingo. -cido. cidre. to strike clatter.— . Chunk. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. Ir. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. sicera. -cide-.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. cinis. ciuffo. Diss. as Fr. Gothic nations. Church. residue of burnt coals. . that the word is an adoption of Fr. cinctus. calx. or choice part of a thing . a man. KaxXij?. joffu. e. a man. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. in circumcision. incido. to him a sudden blow. ashes. Chuff. a girding on. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. a cutting an old chuff. chops. a miser. Du. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. — . joufflu. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. ceaflas. kernjen. sindel is although only this canon directly dis.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Fris. chofe (Grandgagnage). It is certain. Fr. in the face. to determine incision.for the residue of stone coal. As AS. G. Du. a resounding object. to form grains of butter. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . dust. chofu. a cutting round. chakil. -eris. sindra. calculus. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. &c. then the on oh StX iv roXt. surly. to gird.^. fat-cheeked. to sparkle. the snout of an animal. e. to fall upon decide. chaps. KvptaKolg. or. AS. casum (in comp. OFr. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. jaws. The origin ation. to make a rippling noise. comp. chack or stane-chacker. to jaw chack or snap. log of wood. -cisuiri). it is carrying scruples to In Germany . In Sc.D. cheeks Cincture.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. a lump. chuffy. swollen or puffed up Cot. Lat. ceffore. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. Fr. See Cheek. but by way of explan. as a board. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. from Lat. sintel. Wall. spuma metalli.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Wall. a rustic . ccedo. . lamak. a husband. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. cendre. ON. . Sc. whence deciduous (of trees). ceaplas. a douse on the tores.. Da. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. blow on the I io6 in Mur. domhnach. Lat. thence a belt. kakka. -cise. G. gffe. ceorl. Gr.' he adds. Churn. to To Chuckle. sive piratiam facere sciant. sindel. ladre from Lazare. pith. — — A — ' ' — . from Lat. kern. sindr. . x^^i?. have given rise. to cause the milk to grain. pp. we have to chack. whence church. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. Lat. dial. a pebble . Cleland in Jam. * Cinder. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Sicerawry face ceffata. i. male person. Aasen. Probably from It. Jennings. a pebble. ceffo. giffle. klakka. set kerti. an old man. in Sc. ON. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. scoria. Cider. Ka-^aiva. to churn. geaflas.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. to Newsp. to separate the kernel of the milk. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Gr. tindra.V//a'6'?. -cis-. to make a aiKipa. Cieling. to fall. — of the two words. kaerle. to turn from blossom to fruit. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. chack-stone.' And cold. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. as water running over rocks or stones. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them.rendered by Kil. Du. See Ceiling. kiorne. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. accido. ChurL husbandman. kirna. to fall at or on. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Sw. a man. chife. cinders used disjunctively. flower. a fellow. cut off. has been impugned which it has really no connection. kerl. Hence -cid-. however. countryman. kjami.— Chu%. See Cheek. whence ON. the kernel. tie about). to cut decide. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. cheek. 24. with It the Lord's house. Cob. sinter. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). to throw out sparks. marrow. The spelling of chider has Chump. as in E. . i. C^z^j^ churHsh. cado.

cry out . klqb. It. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Cot. Fr. klammer. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . dob. to gnash the teeth. noise. CION See Tinder. clap. wasserkasten (water chest). It. chest. to make to go. a Lat. to call by name. klemte. radical identity of the Fr. To Claim. See Circle. . cista. . noise — — a cistern. &c. The notion of a lump. to chatter. to cry out. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. empty Golius. crack. Hal. Sw. Clump. klacken. sindri. circum. klambr. of citta. clangor avium . clambar. a Pol. civilis. lump of wood or with the nasal. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. to call. clamp. and Sp. compared with It. to knock. accordingly find the roots dab. to toll . city. sphere gleba. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. with an initial s instead of c. to appeal. ON. rattle . klekotati. smack. citujn. G. claquer crash. as in Sp. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. clack-dish. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. kluV. Lat. a judgment cern. klappen. a young and tender plant. . to strike. globus. . tinnitus . klacke-busse. a ball. So a light. Lat. as caverna from cavus. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . G. may cite w. W. a split. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. to cleanse. sajira. Clam. klopati.. ring. Bohem. klubb. klabb. clot ON. From Arab. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. to bawl. We . sifr. and E. clat. See -cid-. KpiKoe. cieo. a kind of rattle. cion. a rattle . bunch. cittd. lash . a reservoir Probably from Lat. -cis-. . clasp. Lat. clamare. claquer. Comp. . klateren. twig. a city. about. ON. a city. a cistern. clack. cifra. cittadella. cry. cisterna. klamp. the place of . a circle. klak. mass . Lat. klimp. klater-busse. kringla. ON. cion. cit^. to clack. City.— . Recite. castus). dim. or split with noise. -cite. log. We . whence cistiti. clamras. to go. a. to set in motion by means of the voice. to cluck. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. sound- — hands figures. —Civil. a block. the door was slammed J slamem. as. Cite. vociferation. ruin. claquet de moulin. To Clack. a clod Russ. domern. is traced by Gr. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea).' sione. a kind of pipe. Gael. Dan. prattle. cisterna. In Fr. cittade. clack-box. area. cluster. sip. to call. Circle. sound. for Cion. ball kloben. . outcry. to summon or call on. klumbr. uproar. citrus. Sp. rattle. the tongue. 'mass. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Gael. klappe. excite. clap. a whirlwind. crack. Gr.to suck. Circum-. kringr. clapping of klacke. lump. It. a hiding-place. clatCot. suck). Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. claim. circa. babble . to clatter. and. Hence Incite. Lat. Du. slam. klap. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. * Ciplier. a ring. . chupon. a circle. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. clump. belonging to cities or social life . to clap at a theatre. a knob. ter. klump. lump. in the frequentative form. Lap. glam. Chaste. E. clobyn. Lat. scion or sucker. a whip. crack. chupon. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. . Fr. lucerna. . Mack. Citadel. cito. ciste. or quill to draw waier through Fl. sprig. around. Excite. lump. a pop-gun. to chatter . a circle. a cleansing place. Alt. bunch . trunk. clamp. claquer. Dan. Scion. civitas. circ2tlus. circle. Arab. a'upiav. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. sound of blow. Sw. prattle. a citizen . a mass. clamer. klepati. a lump Du. gutter. * Cistern. stimulate. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Fr. glambar. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Citron. Du. or clap-dish. klompe. The Gr. to mention. biw. from chupar. lump. a boss . a ball. glamm. E. parallel root is slam. See Crankle. creak les dents. Du. scion. a clod. a lemon tree. chijfre. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. Fr. hringr. a loud uksa slamketi. ern. and clash. . clapper. fall. a block. lump . a place See place hiddern. Gr. a for water. civis. Lat. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. chatter . a rattle Fr. around. a lump Lat. — (Dozy) ing blow. to chatter. KipKog. —Circuit. a shoot. circum. clog. forms — — — parent plant. to be empty. Clamp. The syllables clap. clack.

To Clamber. to daub pinch. G. klopfen.' to take coals to Newcastle. G. adopted Lat. tone. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. a sound. klamm. Du. seize. beat. . children. ney. stick. AS. These words To are closely connected with damp. klubber. klang. klampen. clapas. klemmen. — with hunger.er. to do anything with a clap. dem. clang. ring as metal. clangor. clamber. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. and that from celo. hands or claws to grasp. sound. To clap in E. sound. Russ. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . resonance klingen. yf. klappen. uproar. Clamour. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. a claw . E. massy. klappre. clapper of conies. beating. OE. to cleave or stick. Clank. glambar. klavre. dee. Swiss kldbem. cramp-iron. To sticky. substances of a stickydam. privately. These are imitations of a loud. Du. viscous. Fr. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. dren. to clutch or cling oneself up. klepanie. to hide. dientes. a bird of prey. B. klebern.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. a claw. but perhaps not directly from it. dank. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to. klam. Mampe. grasp. brawl. narrow. klank. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to hook things together. chief. originally a heap of large stones. — Climb. Du. buckle klamp. descendants .p correspond- ' without order. to knock. a heap of stones. sound of the trumpet . to seize. a sound made by a still . kleben. kleppe. kleppe. a loud tingle. bond. — Cot. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. clink. sound . clajnmy. dam. of which the locative case. to dame. clap. &c. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klappen. to glue. crowd . Salainen. is used in the sense of secretly. gum. Dan. klatten. knocking. compress. the in many languages. to knock. tinkle. G. as the clapping of hands. apprehend . clibby. B. anything hidden. dandestinus. Swiss kletten. to Hal. tingle. klammer. pressed close or hard together. klem-vogel. — — . to beat. klettern. diver. The root which gives rise to klibb. and hence to pinch . a trap. a sound made by a lighter clink. to claw oneself up. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. to clap. kluppel. to climb. klibber. to Sw^. in a hidSen place. The E. dapier. to stick conceal. a heap of stones or other things piled up . a stick. Halma. dapi^. nature . rattle. offspring. dia. is a nasalised form of gripper. Bav. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. solid. ancestor. a noose . G. from the w. to hold fast with the . the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. salafa. Du. compression. club . Lat. cream Manx doan. clap. clann. run to lumps Clandestine. who occuG. tattle. dial. .1. salaan. Dan. Lang. a whip. Clap. accent. klette. dambar. cling. Gael. bandage. tight. tenacious.. G. to climb. dapier. to hold to pinch. whence sala. klepati. kloben. G. The equivalent of Lat. from birdlime. cleave. rumour. klepel. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. take hold of. where- A — unto they retire themselves. a stone See Claim. celo produces Fin. viscosity . klemmen. as the Lat. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. a place underground where rabbits breed. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. c). . Sw. to gingle. Clamp. klippe. of the children. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. sticky Hal. klamre. to clamp. to climb. to climb . to climb. and hence moist. klamme. to clap on. G. damor. Clink. E. klynge. hook. Dan. to cling. — Lat. clasp. clammy brace. Clapper. to climb. dang. a hawk. chatter. children. a burr. to starve. a rattle . See Clam. of money Gael. scendants. hold. Clang. Bohem. gliong. Hence the Fr. strain . or klamp-vogel.' klibba. cluster. coagulated cream. clear sound. damras. clav\f. — . sound object . E. prison. klimmeii. strait. dam immediate modifications — . cramp. klemmen. A i. dienklebber. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . to glue. gripe. closely analogous to that of the fast. conceal. kleppen. dap up. dam. holdfast. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. dial. dam. to stick or glue. pinching. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. tremble . to pinch. In like manner Du. to patronus. chatter. Dan. contraction. . . for tame conies. grimper. with cramp-irons. clandestine. Clan. daver. a craCmp. klam7n. also to clog up. . klammern. The Fr. klynge sig op. E. klobber-saen. dink Du.

It. rion. Clew. glcis. noise. to rattle . kiosk bicza. blab. mass. sauna de classes. in the sense of a claw. Lat. clarinado. a water made of aquavitse. the collar-bone. — Clarinet. ivy. chiaro clear. and through v into a. as Mod. subrubidum. klatschen. crying. In E. Russ. diver. klatschen. from scknallen. forms are the Du. In the same way is formed the OE. to draw it up into a bunch. Du. the cracking of a whip. a lash. a bunch. &c. from clinging to the tree which supports it. a complete sentence. a key. a lump. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. nawith stanis. climp. Claw. Dan. an on the one hand. a claFr. Claret. Eya-klasi. klauw. Nawith stavis. row aii/iaTos. a. a bird with powerful talons. klase. Analogous Jam. Thus from clamp. Clavicle. to cleave.Z. locket of a door. So Pol. a nail. we pass to the E. clump. Du.). But clasp or elapse. stop of an organ. with a reddish tint. chiarello. a clasp. teren. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. cloi. Du. Fr. also a knell for the dead. Sp. Owl and that by which cleave to. classis. a lump . but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. Wyutoun in Jam. to fasten. claw (what fastens together. Clause. a claw. clew.oi. To clew. nail. a key KKtitid. Clatter. a clod.It. clairon. . clew or fasten upon a thing. rubellum.. biichse. from its use in fastening things together. ictus resonans. clopa. Thus from Lat. a club or massy stick. klampvoghel. klampe. chasguear. seizes) . Gr. Serv .— CLARET clamp. to clash as arms. gaspe. KXeiSi. hook. Nightingale. syrtium junctura. Fr. to knock. somewhat clear. Identical with ON. a. — Clarion. waU. to snap. he of white and red grapes mingled together. fibula. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. e. clausula. and old red rose-water. fragor . clavus. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. vin claret. E. puUs. applied in their harness. clamp. Lat. schnalle. Originally clasis. Du. which signifies a ball in E. pellet . flap. Fr. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. to animals Sp. klaeret. vinum helvolum. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. klaskad. to ring in such a manner for the dead. klijven. clas. The form clew. chiizjj-o. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. cinnamon. to end. straight-mouthed. in the sense of a mass or lump. globus. klot. Du. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. It. from the resemblance to a key. a sphere . kleeven. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. i. klatscha pop-gun. fracas. 269. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Eau clairette. a ball. assembly. Lat. an ending. Rayn. klucz. &c. a heap. or as G. The collar-bone. . From claudo. a key origmally a crooked nail. a little hook . kluczka. mass. Sw. compression. vin clairet. chatter. to patter. Lang. to shut. Class. as it is written by Chaucer. as G. to fasten together . and clavis. thwack . is preserved in Lang. Clasp. —Kil. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw.\x\xvn. Mask ! plask ! thwick.ck a whip. buckle. kleuen. From clairet. Commonly made. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. klouwe (Kil. biichse. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Clash. chiarino. klaterbusse. same class with w. a distribution of things into groups. under three modifications dava. a buckle. Du. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du.to cra. Lat. klouwe. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. G. insularum nexus . and shrill-sounding trumpet. claret win e. whence kleuer. klamme. the primary origin clapa. K\a. clausum. clair. sphaera. Prov. klatsche. klauwe. Cot. cluster. bawling. Kil. clairon of a trumpet— It. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. clavis.Gr. sound of the foregoing description. globus. thence a definite head of an edict or law. to clap . Pol. klos. dap. it is called clamming. hawk. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. kletse. ghespe. contraction. ansa. clatter. — tells us. to do anything with a . clarin. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. is used in Sc. skeria-klasi. The b readily passes into gleba. Klatsch- a pop-gun . klc^i. — Kiittner. a kind of small. uproar. klaequivalent to clack or clap. pet.w or u on the other.

— Claggy. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. klouen. as ON. doggy. To Clench. (Cot. Axletree clouts. a latch.' was nailed to a rock. loam. Gael. doff. i. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. to sound or make a noise . Da. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs.). Da. chaps in the skin. from nitere. clear. a cleft or fissure. The word is . vice. glatt. speech . E. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. gaklankjan. a key. split. pretty. Sw. Kil. Du. glitnir. Da. B. to Brilliant. gleit. glance . klinke. glbram. the original . a — — . To call. . a noise. dedgy. . conserere antklankjan. Clean. to cleave. glindse. words applicable sight. a mass. or of a tree. The Dan. klceg. clean. klinken. kldnkelein. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Du. opposite senses. a lump. to clinch a nail. and. A — A Clement. Probably a modification of the word doitt. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . dial. bend in a stream. from the clinking of the latch. Die zaak is zS. to shine. hook. glan. 154 CLAY dutch. to be composed. splendid pohshed. kleevig. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. clear. klinke. bright. viz. glan. the To Cleave. to 2. of iron worn on shoes by country people. kloben. pure. clear. klinke. Du. The proper meaning of the word is shining. . mud. klijveii. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. dams. kleg. klinka. a clincher. ON. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. famous. G. daggy. as the Du. dag. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. This word is used in two business is finished off. AS. dut. door-latch. clash. diquetcr. viz. lump. in two ways. to shine . Clear. give a shrill sound Jr. from diquer. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. Lat. smooth. clean. Dan. klirren. a bunch of When flax). The word may be — . CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klyft. merciful. a cleft. sleek. Cleat. kluyte. danche. that was a striking proof. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. klafwa. klinken. W. Cleft. glbr. is fast and sure. Clinch. Sc. geklonken. klieben. a claw or talon. a plate. an object is simply cleft. Lat. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . klag. kluit. G. klutsch. a flash. to dag ox dog. dinquet kleeven. a mass. rift. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Thus from G. polish . tongs. Clay. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. together . kloue. ON. kluft. seem formed dial. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts.Q. to glitter. rive. . clean. cliquet. pure. as explained under G. the latch of a door. to fasten E. voice. klove The Dan. pellet.— Clag. Sw. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. dags. to clinch GB. klouen. either by the coherence To Clepe. a cleft. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. klirre. as Fr. Sc. deot. vissticky . — : A rivet. kloben. kluftholz. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. kleverig. neat. From dob. Mar. G. holding together. . river. a fissure. G. glent. glorious. glan. to chink. klor. to stick or adhere . a in that of sphtting. clemens. Du. gentle. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. ON. nitidus. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. cleave. clean. neat. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. 2. found in other cases. kla:g.— . calm. radiant. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. Fr. to separate into parts. and E. a one end. sticky earth. to stick to. This is probably one of the clean. Du. clink. to tear or cleave asunder. clibby. E. and Dan. date is AS. Clemency. explained from the klinken. to clench. See Clog. polished. celebrated . klov. to fasten. glitta. gingle. klieuen. glandse. E. Sw. to clink or sound. G. clay . glint. the fork of the body. that was Torriano. klink. to fasten. klincke. provinciaUy termed dout. klinken. Du. a lump. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. kleg. glor-mhor. bogs cous. clout. klank. and Celtic glan. a noose. sticky. Wilbraham. See Clam. pure . to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. Halma. a fissure or division See Cleave. it cleave together. kleben. shine. Omklinken. Bav. sticky . kloben. cloven wood. or from being divided into two parts. . a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . From clap. dench. as Lat. rivet. the two parts of Du.

cautes. which in Mid. a latch . verge). Now the OE. agile. dergi. score7i clif. as Lat. klikker. kliv. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. CLERK sound of a blow. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . one of the clergy. to cleave. is NE. littus. Da. klippe. Happen. klikklakken. 3. dook (identical with E. to catch. But the Dan. globus. clypian. kleppe. Click. say. Client. Clergy. chatter. kloof. a cleft in a rock . claw or talon to dek or deik. a baU of yarn. AS. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. Climax. to teU tales. dial. Clever. clima. rupes . catching. kliket. Bav. to clack. to move. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. 3. would have been derida. cart that tilts over. — have the notion of a short quick in E. crepare. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. name. to tattle. crackle. clep. gleg. IS5 Du.). Sw. Hence Lat. had a form. derigo. Climate. to confess . duke. precipices. See Clamber. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. klika. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded.. cleke. to rattle. clyf. highest is attained. cleft of a hill. on. diofian. a clew. Boh. dek. Du. a figure mentioned. neither as having lordship in the. dexterous. to catch. a sphere. that is a clever feUow. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. on. cliquet. dutch). derigon. rapidus from rapio. cligner. dial. a clicket or clapper. exactly Gr. Cliff. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. the dick of a latch or a trigger. icXi/ja?. . The Sc. Sp. to sound an alarm to clap. a tumbril. diver. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. a trigger. a child's or clack . klaiv. a hump. d See Clan. We movement catch. what so men clappe or crie. klinket. klippe. ginally from dob (extant in W. deuch. click. See AS. klouwe. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. Sc. a latch. klinge. chatter. See Clench. Cot. crack. a hook. klif. abrupta rupes . or an object character- Clerical. clever. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. duik. seize (Hal. diquette. Climb. . to bend. Gr. a cliff. call. G. to prate.' ii. clack. rock. — — A . as from derido. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. a claw or clutch. cliof. clif. clif- stanas. with hamarskard. . ready of speech. de ripa. Fr. G. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. frap- per rudement une personne. klinke. babble. has kl'dver. the clergy clericus. Du. a precipice. corresponding to Fr. Norm. klok klep- crepitare. it must be observed. ized . Lat. to talk as a parrot. e. in rhetoric. Clam. to seize. Somner. temperature. Lat. cliff. rock. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. a ladder.— Clue. dink. Du. from Gael glac. above the pole. prattle. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. region not observe it.) Brai. &c. . to stir. clever. or Sc. which is used in Scotch and N. Clerk. In I Peter v. deik. has also deik. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. pulsare. chat. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). a lump. deik. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Det er en Mover kerl. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. clatter. -Toe (from KXivm. Clew. glomus. Chaucer. dicher. to wink. dichet. precipice. skard. whence Fr. a clerk . dob.Lat. CLINCH De . Commonly derived from deliver. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . kleppen. the clergy. Jam. Lat. ravine. derecia. as Sc. climate. cleft in a rock. call. light-fingered. clap. syn. speak. sink.dergie! Wiclif in R. /cXi'fia. click. cleopian. to snatch. a mill-clack . Dunbar in Jam. nimble. as a click with the tongue. to tattle. corresponding to the Sc. dial. KkrifoQ. sonare. pen. dever. from clifian. cave . Klover i munden. a ball of twine. and (with the nasal) — clincher. deudi. quick in motion. klaffen. in the sense of active. chatter. lively. the knocker of a door. hamraklif. click. rugged ascent. cleugh. click it. snatch. an inclination.— Clicket. slope . and hence deik. one admitted to the tonsure. klev. cleft. and hence climate. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. quick of perception. stein- kluppen. clerus. Claw. klever. derjon. deuck. The origin is the Gr. OE. —Vocab. declivity. a lot. expeditious. scar. in precisely the same sense as the E. a hold. cliquer. a latch. to cry. dough. Rouchi cliche.

to wither. clato make a noise. a clog or fetter for a beast . to sound sharp. as we now say three or four o'clock. dag. speaks of a ' clung bat. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. 'Till famine cling thee. to cluster. Cliofue. Lat. . See Cowl. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. kolki-laud.. knippe. sloping upwards procUvis. Bohem. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. klincke. N orman clincailler. and 'E. kleppe. I. sticky. schnippen. Serv. Sw. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. klak. claw. met. kliks. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. incline. 2. Decline. &c. hooded . Da. kolbe to E. To stick to. to AS. dial. tuft. to cling to a thing. klungeln.. to clink auf. Pl. and so' to contract. cloche. glungelin. klippa.D. klynge. quincailler. G. clivus. Fr. glocke.' for a dry stick. a lump G. a ball of thread . kima. Hal. difficulty. G. Walach. to strike. G. hlinian. clingan. klaka. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. Lat. klicke. four of the bell. slant. toga muliebris. Clock. Clink. The E. a separate portion. To Cling. clique. at first probably on a wooden board. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. to ring.und zuk-lippen. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. straits. kluben. clock is a variation of clack. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. a bell. as to snip in the same sense from snap.ginglej Fr. noise. globulus' (Gl. like cling. Een kliks bolter. ON. E. iissura. klippen. gang. cloak. difficulty . rima. hluccti. to lean backwards. a clock. shears. Sw. Swiss klungele. Sussex peasant AS. . Swiss klokken. sloping forwards. . knippen. Kil. a rising ground. ' . klok. . a bell. or bagging clothes. clips. whence E. related to clock. to shrink up.' From Pl. to clunge. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. knot klynge. chcng.— Clot. Esthon. compress . kukla. klik. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. a woman's mantle . . to snap tongs. a hood. hill . disposed to a thing. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. klocka. Fr. bow. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. kluppe. to form one mass with. . klupen. . to make a loud noise. dial. klippe. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. ON. Du. to wither. clino. a snare. to snap kneipen. pinch. as thick or curdled liquids. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Sw. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. Du. in Schmeller) klunk. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. to beat on the board. to knock. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klinken. knippchen. to snip. to slope or bend . a faction. — a mantle. klocke. — clot. by bits. and a similar syllable without the /. pinch. Gr. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. -atum. . klippur. Ir. declivis. clinke. OHG. sloping downwards . klepalo. klingen. to .'— Shaks. clog. ten. w.D. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. Du. also to form a compact mass.. To cut with shears. * Clod. See Clang. verklungeln. a beU. especially of something soft or clammy. klunge. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. dial. from klepati. clangere. klungelin. pallium. cochl. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . . G. G. a cluster. 156 -cline. Sw. klocke. to clip. E. recline. club). to crowd or squeeze chingy. kXiVu. clinker. Bi klik uti klak. clutch. to lean. parva ruptura. brett-glocke. To Clip. klippa. to snap or fillip schnippen. ON. Bohem. -cliv-. klunker. a tinman. nip. to resound. kol- The word . S w.— KSS. dial. ring clag. Flem. fetter. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. -CLINE make pinch. hluk. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. to shrink up. klipa. toga.. Ang. hlinen. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Gael. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. gUong. also to wink . to crowd together klynge sig ved. a lump of butter. as G. klo^gen. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. klinka. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to pinch klupe. a lump. to clap or clack. G. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. to bend downwards . Cloak. Sw. acclivis. to pinch. kldpp. to beat. incline. Du. The notion of a loose moveable substance. g. outcry.

E. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. a block. lump of something soft . He was a man without a dag. to close against one. to flap as loose clothes. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. Du. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. da- . from Fr. foreclose. kloten. loose trowsers. and thus seem endowed . lump of mud on the clothes . to shut in. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. klottern. hanging loose and full. slop. wabbling from Du. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. to play at bowls. clogs for the feet klakk. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. clotted locks Dan. rattle. splash. log. loppe. IV. shaky. klateren. klakken. I doda clod. dab. lob. klotzschuh. Klak also. I clodde. thick spoon . in accordance with It. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. daustrum. a clod Swab. an imputation. bemired. to paddle in the wet. klos. Mat. pattens G. shut up. claudo. Lat. slobberen. lobberen..D. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. Fr. Close. a spot. to lobberig. klotz. spatter. . . slab. . to shut. kleck. terminate. to dabble. . watery. kl'dnken. pludre. a clod. a monastery. klokotat. E. to shut. of a body of any kind. thick sour milk. forbidden by 17 Ed. The game called ninepins. a bal!. claggy. motte. blot. loppered (of milk). Hence inclose. clammy loam. His heart was franlc without a flaw. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. finish . to wabble. fat. with Fr. clorre.rge lump. kloden. Dan. meat from Du. -clus-. klos-bane. Idppern.). paddle or dabble in the wet. AS. slob. to dash like heavy rain. G. schlotter. lopperig. . kleck or lack. bloutre. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. Clog. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. dangle. kloteispaen. Pr. to rattle. to dabble. Pm. boil. slabberen. bowl . or loppern. zocco. MHG. a portion of something soft and adhesive. lopin. The origin of clod and clot is to . from Du.D. Closhe. compared with clump. close. claque. slobbe. Cloister. the radical sylla. daggerey. a skittle-ground klos- sen. clos. lump of butter. Russ. to slop or spill liquids. be found rattle. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Lat. to flounder in the wet. lobberen. mud. to rattle. slobber. cloth. a log. is connected with pludder. loose. curdled. I clodde. clausum. to cling locks. a blot. clogs. G. a trowelful of mortar. like G. m&se noch stain. clotted milk klotte. . enOE. It. inclose. wide bagging clothes. from claudo. . clot. to bubble. loose mud. beklakken. dial. we pass to Schlatter. in forms like Du. tramp in wet or mire. schlottern. . paludosus. be&c. then liquid or loose substance. spot of dirt. paddle.' end. mud klcEg. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. loblolly. kladde. to rattle or shake to and fro. truncus. 3. je amoncele. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. in accordance with Pl. neither spot nor hang loose. lobbig. dirt. Klottermelck. motzen. a field inclosed clos. fors. tJokok. schlattern. to spill liquids.1a. • lump. without. klac. Bav. . To hinder by the adhesion Sc. separate part. chiudere. congeler. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. Sc. to bedaub. tuditare.'^ Palsgr. kloster. aspersion. gelatinous. slops). analogous plan to clod or club.— Clothe. .. lumps of butter. of something clammy or heavy. or E. . we pass to E. or drablyn with separate existence. Fr. bespotted with mire E. . a lump from Du. dunch). . clausum. TZoxapov. schlott. mire.dial. plod. a clog. unctuous. lunch. A — — A Thus from Bav. shut up. a dirty wench claggy. to shut up. doitre. Pr. in comp. and Du. slops slodderen. Pl. g. to a. Du. Yule-clog. zoccoli. laggery. -clusum. schlettern. miry laggerit. -cludo. dirt. Swiss schlott. to bodies. klunkern. kloteren. To Clog. a blot. whence klack. a Christmas log. Fr. to claggock. dag. Fr. Gr. lag. to sup up liquid food. ! . is a blot on one's character. a log. figer. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. In the same way Dan. klod. closed. geschlotter (as E. klot. . sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. chiuso. A . -close. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). and E.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. a babbler. laggyn. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. clog or overshoe. and Gael. clos. klag. klakk. . clatk. or Sc.

ON. a thick mass. de Champ. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. with lout.). klubb. a log. clotted milk or cream. To Cluck. from kloven.D. Gael. AS. cluster. N. dial. a patch. klubba. Clumpered in balls of clouds. lump. a breach. warm. wisp. Gael. It. Pl. 2. esdaboter (Roquef. to lump mend clumsily. klu77ip. clump of a clout on the head. E. dash (Cot. spice) G. to splash. Then applied to a lump of mate.D. klaven. To Cloy. zolla dell' . Sp. clunch. Move. dial. lunch). Clover. Cloud. w. mass. clothes). clod is used in both senses . vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. a knot of people. mud (Pat. a ball. klump. nourish . a bunch. klubbe. also homo obtusus. kloven. puddle. Cld. to stop. clunch. boucher. from OFr. coarse. caillebottes. a clod or clot. to strike . a clown. tuft. The priClout. to cleave or the splashing of water. klonte. indispalte knoblauch. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. Club. lump. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. group of people Sw. clot . a clove of garlick. klunds. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. block. kUid. formed lump or thick mass.clod. shel- kloen. and clay. piece Cot. to beFr. dys. ball of thread Russ. are also used in the sense of a stopper. a clubfoot klabb. nelke (dim. cludaim. loggish. . Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Properly that which covers and Du. and clout d eudaich. in the same sense. a bobbin. klotz. a bousche. . bunch. del mattond. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Kiittner. dump. eene ODu. kldverj P1.). lumps of curd. clue.Fris. Ir. a log. make warm. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. to strike. clou de girofle. klumba. tered . to tramp in the kluyve. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. kluV. clog. CLOUD an awkward clod . kluppe.bar. botsen. G. a lump. matte. klubb. E. botch. warm place . mary sense is a blow. warm clothes {dillad. clot. clump. a sticky. a ball. blockish. little nails.D. diboter. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. hebes (Kil. a clod. More in R. dabosser.). as Fr. eine to slop. a bunch.158 . as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . klqb. to cleave. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. AS. a boss. ser. — — — . cob. Sw. — . naegel. choke or stop up. A kind of spice resembling Du. sheltered . . zolla. I. dob. knob. when something has got into the touch-hole. dut. dote. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. but confounded with cailler. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. lump. a sky Cot. the air. The radical sense seems to be an unE. a cover or coverture . lie clyd. Met. cobio. (kruyd =. a.' Sanders. chiodo di girofano. . the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . probably from daboter. dial. . klumpfot. Imitative of the note of a society. warm. motte. a . kloete. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Du. a ball of twine . clavo di especias. a blabber. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. to cover Bret. The significations of a clod or lump. from cates the application of the root dab to Du.ft. aglio. clothes ment. a garthas. E. Clump. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. klotzig. a clot or keeps one warm. Fr. clod. clyd. strike. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. klcBdi. G. w. of thumping clumsy action. are often connected. clydion. duthaich. cobble. of sloppy materials. a ball. Du. klever. G. and closely do conspire. from W. klieven. dillad bumkin. knob. cludadh. from Du. Clown. klove. milk run to lumps. clot. Du. Sw.). a lump. of a lump of earth and that figure. log. and -the word Clove. a nail) Fr. klobbersaen. and of a rustic unpolished person. clods. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). sticky. een klaven kruflook. stock. dabaire. and tapp. the terms expresssplit. a curdled sky. to curdle. Du. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. ON. cloud Delfortrie. lump of earth aria. nagelein. In the same way E. klebek. Dan. to cherish. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. G. rustic. clobyn. to cloy. dirt. cluth mhor. clothe. Das volk hat sich in splitten. . clumhar. davus. a fissure. kl'dnne. klotsen. unpolished. CLUCK rustic. A division of a root of garlick. mire. Rouchi dapoter. a nail. clammy earth. Du. to a lump. From dog. daggy. Mabousfrom Lat. Du. sheltered up warm. a bunch. of nagel. So Fr. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R.

to tramp. awkward. clopiner. algidus. klos. Clump.forklomme (Outzen). Sc. dek. —More. clotted cream. unhandy. beklommen. duke. klette. verkommelen. claw. doquear. G. inclusive. dial. &c. -cludo. to grip. to collect in lumps. from ON. G. The Fr. -clusum. kichlemmit. awkward. thick and clumsy. heavily. dek. dial. a claw. klump. and koetse. kluntfrom KKvKdi. MHG. a lump. Muster. dial. are the nasalised forms of klotte. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . klampa. cliboter. Fris. Cluster. koetsDa. cluntClyster. to wash. dumps. A group. acomelydfor could Pr. n. conclude. exclude. Lat. wagen. klonte. Pm. koetsen.D. enervatus. cleik. klikaty. Hesse. Variation of clatter. MHG. tight — — . klummerhdndt. Du. eene beklum. a clod or lump. But clunchy. clutch.' Wycliff. unfashioned. havi. to curdle.' Benecke. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. OE. Clutch. as clumper. and klotteren. cleche. a lump or compact mass.P. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. — . splash. to squeeze. -CLUDE hen Du. Champ. the word is more probably connected with OE. ' . an instrument for nasal form e. Isaiah. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. Cheshire. . — sen. whence koetse. properly to do anything Fr. klumpern.e. glocire. klont. kol. through the senses of lumpish. Du. a coach. a clove Sw. Fr. to syllable click. from klupen. lay hold of. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Pl. to rinse. hands stiff with cold. Du. klomen. clointer. Graff in Klamjan. or aclommyde. rial. Clutter. a clod clunter. to benumb with cold. * Clumsy. Teulazy. seize. Sw. OHG. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold.— — . a noise. klister. lump of soft mate. E. differing only in the absence of the duik. klocken. of Du. klunsen. unhandy. idle. may recline. to gingle. viscous material. Com. clump. to pinch. eviratus. a litter. close. Riwle. Du. koetblockish. ill-made . a ball. Sw. klemmen. plad or plod. having the Pl. klomje. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold.Ancr. — Hence include. a clod or lump. — Cot.D. ment. The sense of awkward. -olus-. Sp. in comp. Du. a clot klissen. to tramp or tread heavily. to stick together . klimpern. esclaboter. koetsie.' Vegecius in Way. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. clook. klummklummshandt. klamp. cluster. Coal. Fr. to tramp. as Fr. clabosser. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. ball of snow on horse's foot . Cath. pladdern. Lincolns. might be reached from clump. wooden shoes. wooden sole. of garlick. Compare Swiss klupe. It. Analogous forms with a tongs. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. Ang. E. and make ye strong feeble knees. ' Thou clontsest for cold. -close. klcise.D. Lat. klisse. kohle. to klotz.. dumpers. dumpse. claudo. gelidus. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. a clod or The noclot. paste. 130. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. Gr. dystere. Boh. dial. fingers (familiar). glousser. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. beklummen. G. dussomed (Wilbrabam). G. . finish. to paddle or dabble. Beklummen van kelde. also a cluster. klamen. . obstructum. eviratus. klumpig. pinched.pare P1. with E. a nasalised form of club. claws. * Clump. Hence cleik. Fr. strum on an instrument. bunch. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. to lie. a lump. coucher became in unhandy. to to snatch. and klonteren. klonte. . COAL dumpish. klompen. clumsy. hondis. ' Uorte (for clogs. carriage in which you klodset. coccolare.E. smart motion.' Comfort ye dumsid. ' Clumper. in v.D. — ' — — tonista. From the notion of sticking together. limp.mene tied. verklomen. unwieldy Hal. a ball . Hindust. to wash. to curdle. clip or pinch. -elude. or from Sw. from laver. —To Clumsyd. a pinching time. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. Ray. a couch. calling her chickens. er. a bunch. Hence snatching. In the same way Du. Coach. a block. See -elude. lavesen. hand to cleuk. klikonosy.'— animal. as from seken. klunt. ball as snow. ether comelia P. klontet. hooknosed. to shut. with a quick. clutch. cleuk. clausum. 159 E. klobber in klobbersaen. See reclusion. Pl. ON. klods. crooked inwards . tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. -clus-. conclusion. to curdle. xXvariip. log. klemma. benumbed with cold.D.

Pm.' Nares.the water boils. cobcoals. T' waerkopet. one Pr. — Pr. numb. are round stones or round coals of small size. kop-ar. flame. It. from some fancied resemblance. The Fris. may be A found in Sw. bredouiller. Trevoux. a rib. tuft. to Lett. or cobble. dial. imbecille. Fr. koppe. k'dlla. koljarn. burning. dim. ignem. The OE.inflated with air or liquid. A spider's web. Sp. to stutter. unfledged bird. to kindle jvAla. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. and the spider as collectors. throw a blow. plaisant. large stones . according to the ordinary run of events. s. gull. probably left his home. klabba. to stammer. a bunch. Fr. cofasse. ridi. kylla. a darling. the one of thump. to glow . cotte. side . hakkelen.). a firesteel Lat. — Cleveland Gl.(pi.' — Thus from (Hal. gull. verkommelen. then to work unskilfully . itself is Nescock . also a coast. acomelyd or aclommyd. . a spider (/r)^=grub.' And colo. to grow together. — — — E. and E. top cobio. a great falsehood. a pock mark. says Varro. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. an egg. to pdt with We may cite Fr. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . to bungle Sc. e. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. to be hot. to peck as a hen cobyn. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering.a spider. united. In the E. to cobble shoes.. properly to daub. quele. a similar According to Ihre. s. a kitchen.. pock. cock or nescock. a bungler. coalesce. * To Cobble. cokes was a simpleton. a cobweb. a woodlouse. To cobble. . — Cobbler. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. A plausible origin. H^cart. are often connected. staggering or halting. cokes or fool of him. inflammation. cotta. any kind of coat. verklomen. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. spinne-ivebbe. and imperfect or unskilful action. niais. woman is said to be very ordinary. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. however. cule cocosse. cobble. Outzen. When the . the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. to . w. ordinary as in the expression of course. Dan. to kindle or cause to burn . Lat. Fr. E. of E. Fin. Cocasse. dial. It. a large round nut cobstones. habble. to strike. broddelen. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. — — . The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . COCHINEAL Cobber. costa. or upper . probably from the Fr. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . is one of thump. to knock. e. to hobble . bijamie. in Du. large coals. to worship. Colina' the place where a fire is made. to bungle . OE. of E. and jval. to stutter. Du. kolna. boil. long standing. pryf-coppyn. CooMneal. used in — . small pox (pocks) . cob. as in arr. cob is a dumpy horse. grown together. Sanscr. caleo. atter-kop. a bubble. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. to be inflamed . i6o COALESCE on in lumps. haggle. a spider. dial. of poison. 3. things. a crea. to form an union with another coalitus. a tuft. a nest. Coast. kuppa. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. pustule. frock.— Cobble. tempered clay for building. glowing embers. Du. . and hobble. klabbsmed. to beCoax. rivation are found in Sw. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. quilet. . Coarse.). Flem.). in Essex Jow*2c^. Lat. cochinilla. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. niais. ailina or colina. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. dial. ON. See Cot. that is. pockbecility and liability to im