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Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

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  • DOCTRINE OF MAX MULLER. ix
  • XX NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS
  • NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. xxi
  • SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. xxvii
  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • EXPRESSION OF HORROR. xxxvii
  • ENJOYMENT. DISGUST. xlv
  • OFFENCE. CONTEMPT. xlvii
  • OFFENSIVE SMELL. xlix
  • MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. lix
  • EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. Ixi
  • Ixii REPETITION. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS
  • Ixvi CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE
  • COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. Ixvii
  • Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT."
  • COMPLETION OF MAN. Ixix
  • 2 ABASH
  • ABBOT
  • ABELE
  • ADJUST
  • AJFRAY
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • ALLAY
  • ALOFT
  • APHORISM
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 26 AROMATIC
  • ASSAY
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • ATTIRE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BAFFLE
  • BALL
  • BALLAST
  • BARBEL
  • BARGAIN A7
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BICKER
  • BILBERRY
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLARE
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BLUFF
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • BRANDISH
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BREWIS
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIGHT
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • BUILD
  • My
  • BULLION
  • BULLY
  • BURNISH
  • BUSKIN
  • BUSY 119
  • CABAL
  • CABBAGE
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • I30 CARACOL
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CARPET
  • CARRIAGE
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CATCH
  • 136 CATHARTIC
  • CAVE
  • CAVESON
  • 140 CHAMBERLAIN
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHARNEL-HOUSE
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • CHJME
  • CHITTERLING 147
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CINDER
  • CLAM 151
  • CLARET
  • CLERK
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • CLUCK
  • COAL 159
  • COCHINEAL
  • COCK
  • COGNISANCE 163
  • COLLATION
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COMPATIBLE
  • CONSTABLE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • COWL-STAFF
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • CURTSY
  • DAFFODIL
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIPLOMA
  • DIRE
  • DIVAN
  • DOILEY
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • DRIBBLE
  • EDIBLE
  • EMBARRASS
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • ENGROSS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • ESPLANADE
  • ESQUIRE
  • EXPEDITE
  • FANATIC
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FEEBLE
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FIDDLE
  • FLABBY
  • FLACK
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLATTER
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • 276 FRANCHISE
  • FRECKLE
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GALLON
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • GARGLE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GAT-TOOTHED
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLARE
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GNOSTIC
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • GOOSE
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRACE
  • GRAPE
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GUILD
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • HARICOT
  • HASEL
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • IGNEOUS
  • INSULAR
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • LEPIDOPTERA 383
  • LETTUCE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LINIMENT
  • LIVELIHOOD
  • LOLLARD 395
  • 400 LUBRICATE
  • LULL
  • LURID
  • LYRE 403
  • MAGIC
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • MARSUPIAL
  • MASSACRE
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MAZZARD
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MISCREANT
  • MITE 425
  • MUSLIN
  • NASTY
  • NATION
  • NEIVE
  • NIGGARD
  • NIGGLE
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • OSPREY
  • PAD
  • PALETTE
  • PALTER 459
  • PANNIER
  • PARAPET 461
  • 462 PARAPHERNALIA
  • PARROT
  • PATE
  • PATENT
  • PEARL
  • PEART
  • PEEL 467
  • PELLET
  • PERIWINKLE
  • PESTER 471
  • PHASE
  • PINCH
  • PITTANCE 479
  • PLASH
  • PLASTER
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • PONTIFF
  • PORCELLANE 489
  • POSNET
  • POTATOE 49
  • PRATE
  • 494 PREROGATIVE
  • 49S PRODIGAL
  • PROP
  • PROPAGATE
  • PSALM
  • 50O PUERILE
  • PULLET
  • PURFLE
  • QUICK
  • QUID
  • QUINTAIN 5"
  • QUIVER
  • QUOIN
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RAMIFY
  • 520 RAMPALLION
  • RANGER OF A FOREST
  • RARE
  • RASCAL
  • RASPBERRY 523
  • RAVE
  • RAVEL
  • RECRUIT
  • REEF 529
  • RELAY S3I
  • S32 RELEASE
  • RET
  • RIDDLE
  • RIME
  • RIMPLE
  • ROSARY
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • RUSSET
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SATURATE
  • SCANTLING
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCAVENGER
  • SCORN
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCRAGGLE
  • SCUD
  • SCUFF
  • 566 SCULPTURE
  • SCURVY
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SEPULCHRE
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SEXTON
  • SHAMBLES
  • SHATTER
  • SHAVE
  • SHELTER
  • SHELVE
  • SHOE
  • SHRIMP
  • SHRINE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLADE
  • SLAG
  • SLAVER
  • SLUBBER
  • SLUR 603
  • SMATTERING 60S
  • SMIRCH
  • SMITH 607
  • SNICKER
  • SNOOZE
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOLACE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SORREL
  • SPADE
  • SPOKE
  • SPRINGALD
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUAB
  • SQUABBLE
  • SQUASH 635
  • SQUINT
  • STAKE
  • STANCHION
  • STARE
  • STARK
  • STATIONER 643
  • 644 STATUE
  • STEAD
  • STEAK
  • STENCH
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STOUP
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STRAY
  • STRUT
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SUPPLE
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TASTE
  • TEDIOUS
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • TESTER
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • TRAITOR
  • TREPIDATION
  • TROLL
  • TRUSS
  • TRUST
  • TUSSOCK
  • TUSTLE
  • TYRANT
  • VENISON
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 7IO VOLLEY
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WHITTLE
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • WITNESS
  • WITTERING
  • Dm
  • 744 ZANY ZYMOTIC

^

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031471711

Cornell University Library

arW8581

A

dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711
olin.anx

:

A DICTIONARY
OF

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY

BY

HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD,
LATE FELLOW OF CHE. COLL. CAM.

THOROUGHLY REVISED AND ENLARGED

;

WITH AN INTRODUCTION ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGK,

LONDON
TRUBNER &
CO.,
8

&

60,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

1872.
[All Sights
reserved.']

INTRODUCTION.

ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE.
It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of

Europe
a

to recognise their division into four or five
dialects,

main

classes,

each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have

so

much

in

common

of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the

whom

they are spoken, are the progeny, with

more

or less mixture of foreign elements, of a

common
Swedish,

ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a

common
to

language.

The

relation

between Danish and Swedish

is

of

the closest kind, that between

cannot

fail

Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance

is

found in the other

classes.

The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and

common

common
to leave

to both,

and so

much

identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing

them

as

branches of a

common
as

Celtic stock.

And

so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,
is

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish
life.

so great

argue a

much

longer separation of the national

vi

THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries

where

French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,

We

accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and

we

account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the

With

Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to

us,

fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a

as

well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-

common

stock.
tliis

Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be

in

where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sitions
sister, are

equally universal.
signification,

Many
life,

of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the

most

and actions of ordinary

are part

common

property.

Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.

From

this

primeval tribe

it

is

supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their

new

settlements, grtew

up

into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their

own

peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European
speech.

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of
resolves

LIMIT OF ANALYSIS.
men, or
in the

vii

mixture of speech brought about by the

vicissitudes

peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every

way

to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or

The

part

diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the

language.

It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of

we
is

understand the word
as

an enemy, which

felt

the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes
itself

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,
;

we

distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a

noun

in

the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am

tion

with

;

and

in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.
ogist
is

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance

among
is

the founders of Language.

The

speech of

man

in his

mother

tongue

not,

among

children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.

The

expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from
is

whence
inter-

the language of each of us
course of those in

derived.

The

child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-

viii

FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE.
his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which
arises,

was not taught

their

language by their parents.

The

question then

how

did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of

man

spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced

?

Or

is it

possible,
less

among

the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or

abundant

known

language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had

not

command
is

of that great instrument of thought, though, in
?

every natural capacity the same as ourselves

When

the question

brought

to this definite stage, the

same step

will

be
re-

gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the

made

in geology,

when

it

was

phenomena of the

science

powers, such as are

known

to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.

The

investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with

intellectual

powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-

terranean

fires.

A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the
leads
'

origin of language

modern German school of
possibility

philosophers,

whose theory
of mutism.
the

them
is

to

deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state

Man

only

man by

speech,' says

W.

v.

Humboldt,
Professor
'

'

but in order to discover
Miiller,

speech he must already be man.'

And

Max

who

cites

epigram, adopts the opinion

it

expresses.

Philosophers,' he says (Lectures

on

the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that

man

how

the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally

acquired.

DOCTRINE OF MAX MULLER.
It
is

ix

surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the

German

paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that

we

all

are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those

who

are cut off by congenital deafness from

all

opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by

whom
own

they

may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual

signs,

but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage
voice.

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is

wantmg

who

life,

and others

who

never attain

it

at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was
his

in existence at a period

when
is

the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could
beasts,

manage

and maintain
us.

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor

Max

Miiller as a linguist,
to

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes
imitations,

but 'phonetic types produced
in his

nature.

Man
at

neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces

may

be reduced, are

remain

the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as

when

the purpose for which
as in

it

was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate
his

instinct the primitive

Man

was en-

expression to the rational conceptions

of
his

mind.

He

was *

irresistibly

impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called
it

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with
<

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the
it

At

the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an
its

instinct,

an

instinct of the

mind

as in-esistible as

any other
fact.

instinct.

p. 370.

+ The
received

faculty peculiar to

man

in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,

n.

X

NO FOUNDATION
had
its

IN EX;PERIENCE.
ftilfilled

brain a phonetic expression,'

object

in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well
as

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or

desires.

By

other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct

is

retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the
families,
first

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different
It
is

down

to the present day.

practically such an instinct

which

Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.

In

all

the languages of the Indo-European family, he says

'

from the Ganges

to

the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of

standing,

while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.

is

as

widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay

down

the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.
:

The

signification
v.

thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance
boldt,
is

the conception, says
as

W.

Hum-

as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'
It
is

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no
of

distinct experience.

If

it

were true that there
felt

is

in the constitution

man

a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be

by

all

mankind

alike,

and

it

should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.
nection.
I

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is

and

to

an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,

and

speech came in that

way

to primitive
its

Man

is

simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of

acquisition.

A

rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

answer
and do

problem

we

are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

GESTURE NATURAL TO MAN.
himself a system of vocal signs.
'

xi

ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,

'

wonder how man ever began these
around
us,

houses, palaces,

and

some philosopher were to vessels which we see

The

savage

we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'
first

who

first

floated

on the

trunlc

of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be

made

for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we
life.

are required to explain the origin of the

com-

plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human

intfelligence

accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and
is

when

the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed
apprehension,

Now

if

by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,

ing.

Nor

is

there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,
call

'

if

we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven
represent
person.'
it
;

nor voice and wished to
as

attention to something,
?

well

as

we

could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,
iif

we

should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,
as

we

should

by

as

near an approach

we

could

make

to an imitation in our

own

in the case of
lar

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after

The

instinctive

Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.
crying
'

the imitative or symbolical gestures

When

Laura once spoke to

me

of her

own

when

a

little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to

Knowledge,

vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers
tears.'

down

the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would

also

accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural


^"

MAN NATuKALLY

VOCAL.
in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.

which

were

certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive
it

To

to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary

mode
voice,'

to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally
is

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.

Man

then

a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities
as

making

instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.

When
same

it

happened

a prominent feature of the matter
instinct

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.
terrified

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm
his

A person

raw Englishman

as

making known

his

wants

in France.

Moo

!

I cried for

milk

If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set

agoing,

And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom
.

the author wrote.

A jest
therefore

must be addressed

to the

most superficial

capacities

of apprehension, and

may

often

aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

Englishman
dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,

who

being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative
!

was

eating, turned
?

round

to his native

Quack, quack
*
thet

The

servant answered.

Bowwow

intimating as clearly as if he
lovelh,

Me
me

tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet
hateth.

me

and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,

254.

which are naturally produced by the opening lips. come Moolls. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. the present day. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. name of the cow. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. come Moolls (Mrs Baker).NURSERY IMITATIONS. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. muK) and mae (rfie. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. in other words. or. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. when we is represent to our children of the cow. when neither name for the object to be designated. is given to a cow or calf. by whom the be understood. and. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. but nothing she herself knows the animals. or Mollein. and mully or mully cow is the . mind of the of the animal. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. and where we are seeking. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. to the syllables which are significant to the child. in language of the present day. persons of different tongues at the present day. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. Molli. The syllables moo (mu. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. the closer we shall approach to the . In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. with an initial m or I. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). the baaing of the sheep. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation.

which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. . in children's language. 72). &c. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. First. to For instance. he called to to drink. He would now say good. On one occasion he said^e nim. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. as well as the mind of the utterer. analogous to Magyar mammogni. schipp. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself.. Finally an n was placed before it. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. when hungry. then. for everything fit to eat. . gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. and nim came to signify everything edible. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. to work over with the mouth. hm. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating.' he says. partly from sounds which the child caught. for things. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. his nurse adopting the word with him. became more perfect. fiafifi&v (Hesych. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. and which we might express thus. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. mumm. and some were very clear and distinct. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited.). family. Gr. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. by the natural humming sound. had nim. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. We have. p.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. to eat. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. nineteen years old. A member of my own new sfop. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. repulsive to eat. nim. I had watched the growth of this word. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. for bad. Heinicke.' In ordinary speech mump. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Gradually.

crab nam buckra man. to mump. oves lalare. ut tinnitus aeris. nyam nyam. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. to move the lips in continued chewing. and the crab — p. sweet (Koelle). agreeing with Ein.' — Lersch. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. i. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. at hiamske i sig. palatable. Primitive Culture. jamsa (yamsa). to fill the mouth. Vei (W. the Scotch poet. clangorqae tubarum. and some of them . jumla. namnam.' And Diomedes. Africa) nimi. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. 1 86). mujnpa. make djamdjam). food (Tylor. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). Nimm'd up. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. or word-making. as well as the Sw.' says Quintilian. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam.ONOMATOPCEIA. to smack in eat. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Galla djam djeda. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. tidbits nama . ' id est. nobis vix permittitur. voracious. delicacies. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem.' says the author of Modern Slang. aves tinnire. mumble. . djamdjamgoda (to say djam. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . snatched (Whitby Gl. (in chil- dren's language). savory. on. j ing . to chew laboriously. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. as to . greedy .). and thence to be tasteful. nvrnma.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. nam. 130-1. mumpfeln. to eat. Africa) nimnim. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. dial. and the fizzing (and Series. Wolof nahenahe. to Sw. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to eat mampfen. A negro proOr. taken up hastily on the sly. Soosoo (W. to take. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). aptantes adfectibus vocem. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. jammla. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. to be pleamind . Swedish dialect gamsa. ' Motherwell. South Jutland hiamsk. yamming. iii. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. lita.minis. eating. p. to taste . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). buckra man's language the white man. memmexen. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . Gothic niman. mumpfen. i8o. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. stolen. we can call them so.

' he says. chirping of sparrows or crickets. purring or mewing of cats. but of a dog. yelping. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. ^6^.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. 'I doubt. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African .xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. bleating of sheep. hooting of owls. croaking of frogs or ravens. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. not of a baa. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. snarling of dogs. might be used as the designation of it. sparrow and chirping. lowing of oxen. We . it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. that there is When Man. 89) with less hesitation. p. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. chattering of pies or monkeys. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. howling. between dog and harking. cackling or gaggling of geese. whether it deserves the name of language. neighing or whinnying of horses. yelping. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. do not speak of a bowwow. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. might be used. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. a lamb. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. or thoughts of our hearer. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. not of a moo of Lect. gobbling of a turkey-cock. before the in other words. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. Indeed.' And elsevs^here (p. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. when circumstances required. twittering of swallows. dove and cooing. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. bellowing of bulls. intended in the instance to represent the cry. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. Yet we ing. grunting or squealing of hogs.' — We speak of a cow. und growling. cooing or crooing of doves. anything connected with it. bumping of bitterns. barking. or. for the purpose of bringing the animal. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. snarling. baaing or maeing of lambs.

But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. layitavya . koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. e. ist ed. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Bav. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. Malay gdgak. 4th ed. crow. gackem. 380. a crow. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. in g. caller. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. it announces (Salaberry). having a general predicative power. Barabra koka. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. He to is therefore derives kdka. Georgian quaki.' kd). a a crier (p. kauwe. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. and gaggele or gagkelein. Sometimes the hoarse i . which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. whose sound (Pictet. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. In Lat. and Bavaria respectively. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. kae. crow. and means a shouter.). is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. a crow (Pictet). birds. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. KOKKvi. is kuM) for the cuckoo. a daw. In Basque. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. according to Durga). roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. in is Gr. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. 'Kdka. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects.). sound). Manchu The kaha. fi-om apakd- i. caw kuhii-rava (rava. 349. and the sound of that direction. kuho. or quawk. We imitate the sound with a modulated. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Picard cau. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted.' common sense. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages.IMITATIVE NAMES. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Kdrava.. a bird that is be driven away. ghak. Aoo-Aoo. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Arabic kdk. Columbia kahkah. Sauscr. coccolare. kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. Hungary. lion.

cock. yell. Dutch kievit. 6. uhu. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. krauklys. and e. wood-pigeon. Walachian coucouveike. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. ghughu. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. libufs. German luhu. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Lettish kiekuts. the name for a crow. German and Eng- krahen. to cry loudly. Arabic tdtwit. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . Malay kukuk. to croak..' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. Scotch peeweip. coccovaec. kraeye. tbrtola. great variety of oKokv^uv. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. and e. giving turtur (and thence It. kirren. coucouva. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. to crow. Sp. tuquheit. It. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. or Gr. coqueri- Languedoc. either in the same or in related dialects. Swedish kowipa. while crouk. as well as of Sanscr. name. korren. Albacuculi a dove. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Yoruba koklo. p. koeren. kukhuta. by the verbs gurren or girren. kukko. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Hindi. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. and sometimes both together. k. Ibo akoka. Da. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Mod. Du. to hoot. The consonants p. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. lilits. synonymous forms of similar structure). the name of an animal will gen- . kurre.. tur. "Welsh hwan from hwa. kraeyen. krahe.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. to croak. reduplicate form. kuku. kraukti. another. tortbla. French dishuit. German kielitz. Fr. to crow. tor. Magy. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. gufo. tbrtora. in the North of England. lulo. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. So we have Polish krukac. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. turtle) as the Lat. a crow. Du. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. kruk. The crowing of cot in Fr. are represented. t. a crow .Gr. Pers. to howl or Lat. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. name of its is the bird. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. teewhoop. Esthonian kikkas. Zulu kuku. a crow lish Lith. gugu. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. 219. xi. Heb. hibou. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. lUyrian kukurekati. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. girre.

Gaelic dranndan. resounding of musical instruments. Corean sirsor. a fly (Tylor) . kong-kong. grillen. the humble. The name of the cricket indeed. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd.' —Tennyson. from schrick. to creak Bret. buzzing. little intermission. g. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. shrill. schrecke. words imitative of humming . Australian bumberoo. zirken. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry.' Amazons. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Northern Farmer. humming. bee. give a faint sound. to sound.or bumble-bee. to chirp J may be compared with . Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. In the N. ' — Pictet . grylhis. The Welsh chwyrnu. as . Speaking of a cricket he says. in allusion to its music. with or Fr. dhran. German dronen. and he kong-ko-rong. We may cite Gr. g. g. flight its sting considered as a horn. (Jieuschrecke) . The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. to be compared with Sanscr. pip-pi-ta. schirke. a bee. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. Danish gnaddre. bamba. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). which they make in their flight very .' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Lith. loud rumour. and yelping cry. sirkka. The Arabic sarsor. skril with n. ajo. and not from E. Naturalist on the tocano. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. growling. e. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. North of England. to shrill sound sharp. booming. skirl. or a gnat fly. Fin. i. German drohne. there are infinite varieties. 'The natives call it tanand. Sanscr. to hum. PofijivXwg. the drone or non-working bee . swirplys with 6. horniss and from the buzzing The. glass cracking (Schmeller). sound. representing a short sharp sound. resound.IMITATIVE NAMES. bambhara. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. skryle. Arabic tantanat. gives rise to chwymores. whirr). Lat. chirk. succeeding each other — with noise. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. cricket is from crick.' — i. din. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Lithuanian tranas. and probably indicates that g. 337. schrickel. thunder. a small as hawk is . Sc. The drone peal. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. knetta. a beetle druna. droning is . of England it is to the b 2 . — Catafogo. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. grille. ' Sanscr. from the humming. German hummel. schwirren. Danish dron. Albanian tsentsir.vf3. to grumble. ta-na-nd. to chirp . common. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . hollow noise. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. to rustle. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. a sharp sound as of a 6. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. a drone. oE. buzzing. a hornet.

that the imitative syllable are Lith. to make a noise. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. bolt. cattle. and thence Lat. mae. to low. 167. w. is inadmissible. bucula. shoot . From baa. the Fr. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. OFr. a heifer. On the same principle. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. bovis. and djeda. Lat. make to it laugh. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. maukati. are (with a subsidiary k). as that of the cow by boo. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. or formed Lat. The Galla lilbil. a Geiger. bubati. k or g. to bump as a bittern Illyr. to make. Zulu lulula. to make a loud deep sound. has bilbilgoda. the animal. representing the mew of a cat. in same way. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to beat hard. buculus. to bellow like a bull. mamoo-heeheek. to low or bellow. bullus and e. as the Illyr. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Thus from miau. to shout. fivKaofiai. to the uses goda. His analysis leads cow. Hottentot bou (Dapper). a name preserved in our bugle-horn. forms a. grumble as distant thunder . a drum . Fr. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. bugler. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. Gael. bu. and from to ring. whence baula. It. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Fr. Galla boa. With these analogies. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. or with on. — ^Tylor. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. a cow. to weep. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. verbal form given to the say. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. to or bark. bue. bugle. bull. or bau-l-i. to boohoo. baula. Cult. The Piedm. and in Hottentot baa was the . to sound. biibnas. Piedmontese fi bau. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bos. muJiati. Lat. bae. miau-l-er. make poo.XX called booing. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to from bau. be-l-er. bauli. to ba-L-are. (iove. bo. bubenti. a bullock. bae. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to low . Norse bu. to shout. a buffalo. Da. verb is evidently identical with our shout. or a z to the imitative syllable. a bull. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. btibleti. From the same lioao). mugire. in a imitation of a ringing sound. agreeing exactly with Lith. Lat. bwla. to mew. bullock. to bow- own bawl. or moo. bukati. to . boo. representmake bow. Illyr. p. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Manx booa. amuse. loge. mugler. ox. w. to make. say. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav.

a goat firixal^ta. a goat. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. Africa laa. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. with the root ypaipm. and with the subsidiary k or g. cry). from knurre. to grunt. a sheep. grumbhng. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). a sow. mekegni. oe. a grunt. naskia. meigeal. Magy.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. Welsh and Breton). grunt. Moreover. a sheep (Lowe). a dog. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen.' Moor's Suffolk words. grunny. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. sound. or in any ! way ! persuading. a pig Fin. Hence Breton hoc ha. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. it and e. Idgge (Rietz). Gael. mutter. may with to snarl. Illyr. corresponding to ohg. grunlike a pig in eating. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Among dog. Gr. hundi). And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. a sow. With gen. in v. in Wolof bae. grumble. hunon. hunt (gen. hwch. and snorke. menAda (ndda. Da. meketati. 6. a wolf. rumbling. And it is true there between hog and grunt. hund. to rumble. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. kurren. we have Sanscr. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. nire. . /xijeao/iat. Gr. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. may be identical with Esthon. / The same Gr. meil. as lou of an ox. name of a sheep. Illyr. guttural tone. sheep or goat. lecco. From the imitative mae. the designations of a dog the term cur. as the proper name of a tame sheep. a pig. although the imitation embodied in Lat. groin. cite as by grunt. goats. hound. by which the shingle gives rise to It. The g. to howl. leg-et-ni. lek-eg-ni. hadg- Magy. houch. — . to bleat . a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. grogner. undoubtedly imitative. It is probable also that e. meugler. curmurring. from hundama. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. G. lekavica. mecati. Gr. a goat. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. . smack and naski. does not produce a e. and grumphie. karra. for the voice of the ox). and Circassian maylley. he would hardly. Kurren und murren. to bleat. to grunt. purr).). ' In driving. knurfisk. kurre. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. signifying a snarling. grugno. Manx meilee. to growl. . the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. the snout of a pig. leknuti. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. name of the animal itself. Illyr. and hoc'h. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. It. a hog. grumpf. (iriKov of forms like Sw. /xj/caScj. Fr. growl. and thence groin. Fr. meckern. name. to bleat. and of (maelon). a sheep or ewe. sus-sus. ^. a (Hesych. to themselves. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a. grumble. this obstinate race. lambs. a sheep or a goat.

to go backwards. hobben. M). Thus we are led to the Fr. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased.). as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. . So Sanscr. g. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). and it is behind that wall that language really begins. cockade. . In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. Sc. to whine. the cry to stop or back a horse. as in Yorkshire highly right. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. hoppe. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. humma. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. There are of course some names. when he found peculiarity. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. a horse.root. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal.. p. animal. hottihuh. coquelicot. 91. such as cuckoo. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named.). from the cry animal. hobby. coquette. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da.' ticular bird. of the character in question.. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. p. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. But words of this kind are. ^6<. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. e. to the left. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil).' 2nd Series. hobin. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot.' — ist Series. If onomatopoeias can . like artificial flowers. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. a little am- bling horse. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. a mare. Esthonian hoibo. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. hiine. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. houpy in Craven. turn a horse to the is In Finland. (Craven Gloss. without a — we root.

Indian It is not unlikely that the on. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. wrena. as sigh. groan. nounced with a guttural). The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. moan. whitename in in- throat. xxiii ginal object. hross. wiehern. cough. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. hresh. wagtail. Sanscr. swift. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. goatsucker. sol. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. redpole. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. to neigh. form corresponding hresh. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. runniken. lapwing. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Du. titter. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. frenschen. Lettish sweegt. hikkd. Irieschen. hresh. rinchar. creeper. hennir. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. woodpecker. Sp. fehtati. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. signified It. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. ginniken. Fr. Pl. but whether there kind between them and other words.D. nitrire. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. animals or certain kinds of sound. little speak for themselves. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. e. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. Bohem. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. ance or habits of the animal. wrenska. to Sanscr. giggle. Sw. than to the sounds represented. . Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. diver. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. hukkup. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. g. horse. command of language was attained.

Zulu bongo. clap ! A smack Puff.' ! ! ! ! — dong. klatsch. for the sound of a fall. for in such sound of blows. for the sound of milking. beat. scream. root kshu. Vei gbangba. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. on the chops is represented also by pratx.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow.' So imac. for that of breaking. White Lies.' it both sides went.' 'Haw. knarr. lumm. for a small one. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. Mei gbengben. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. oren : Klapp. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. pump. shriek. —Brem. to hammer . haw. haitshu. bang. fitsche-falsche. for blows with a rod. dong Read. Of a like forma- drum . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. ping came the bullets about their ears.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . &c. Australian bungbung ween. pit-a-pat. for the creaking of a wheel. atchian. the God of thunder . And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. beat of a clock child . or the w. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the sound of a blow. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Da. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . to throw violently down. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. in a nail Let. snore. tisio (tisho). snort. a more expressive than the e. to knock. Wtb. heaven). aritischane. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . or tliat is accomit. knack. wheeze. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. mer. strippstrapp-stroll. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. to sneeze. — Sanders. for the for the sound of . . to drive on. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. went the cannon. 1865. ding. bangas.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. snukkup). debhes-lungotais (deifies. hoo. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. to beat. a kind of drum. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. atchini. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. hang. are familiar in ' to every one. tlirob. the dashing of the sea . plitsch-platsch. a large bell.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. bang ' ! trenches. DingBang. heart tick-tack. thunder (Tylor) . banke. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. &c. ting-ting. an attempt would be made to by the voice. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. to ham. banga. It is represented in e. hoo ping ping.

xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. It seems to him that the teeth t.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. part of the What consciousness has the child. a fowler's bird call is lost. to squeak. used as a call to . to cheep like a bird or a young It. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. pipio. bleat. mobility excavation and hollow ^. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. Fr. Mantuan pipiare. peep. young child . to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. which he added to intensify the expression. G. not- . a chicken or gosling.) a chick. doubtless. Lat. chickens (Tylor). pipegni. and whimper. pipio. pigione. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pigiolare. has been un- employed to designate fixity. calls S. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. —Lyndsay. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pipe. pipare. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. and their relations. He Yet asks. Lat. In cases such as these. had been used laugh ? two.sc. to cry pi. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. the voice of chickens (Cot. a fife or musical pipe. pipe. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. piccione. to cry like imrli^u). At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. pipelni. — . or the uneducated different consonants are man. piou. to peep It. Gr. child. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. a whelp. peep. pule. laugh. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. ducing the sound. pipilo. pu. piauler. to designate cavity and hollow. The pi. Magyar pip. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. is of expression. Florio. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. a (young) pigeon. . of a word will appear supposed to represent. is pfeife. pigolare. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. a or cheep. and so forth. pi. e. as in other subjects of study. as the simplest implement for proFr.' instead. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pippione. young bird. De Brosses. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. scream. piou. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. as k. or a piailler. far pipi. cry of young birds . cry.

) Mod. sound of dry breaking. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). a prolonged sharp sound. to gargle . turtur. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. a drum W. loud laughter. to be compared with Sc. lachen. kuruk. to crackle like in boiling . borrelen. to grate the teeth . Indian chack-chack.Gr. grumble. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. karkarana. to grumble. rumble (Fl. Manchu kaka-kiki. crack. as the click of a latch or a trigger. in German. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. of a loud strong sound. {to It. tintino. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. lachachen. where the variation. to cry pi. u. bubble. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. kniks. to pant bejii- zela. rumble. garren. to fizz like fat in frying. to cluck. to thunder. or springing back. chack. a short sharp sound. knaks. to jar. cluck. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to gurgle. creak. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. murmur (by . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to laugh. and lugh.. to pant violently (Colenso). p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. preserved by Kilian. to growl. to hawhaw or laugh loud. to clack. pi . make wood a clinking noise. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. ioriogliare (to make borbor). gurren. kniks. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. kirkirdnd. when it force than biscuit. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to rattle. of something fine and thin.. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. rumble. along with tinnio. vaake gorgor) . coo. crash. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. . Hindoo tomtom. It. the side of g. tonare. a closed or obscure sound. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to grumble). to bubble. tontonare. to gorgogHare rattle. a. along with Du. Hindustani karak is rendered. like the noise of a glass breaking . is very common. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. Pacific aka-aka. i. knurren. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Poppopvi^to. laqfF. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to creak knirren. be cate to go on laughing loud . sound). xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. knuks. the clucking of a j hen . by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. girren. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . cricli. some small vowel or consonantal sound. . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . Pefuxela. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. murren. a sharp short one. thunder oil .' We te he ! quoth Tyb. or kaka-faka. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to ring pipio. Zulu raraza. &c.

Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. and Gr. djeda (to say tub). sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . for a tTviror). bubble up. rvir (in tvittio. to be compared with g. of keys or tinkling of bells. while cacd / used in e. The whispering of the wind I. and the imitative nature of tivgle. to the purling of a brook. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. coughing or clearing the throat. noise. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. corresponding in e. and Gr. hala-hald-faMa (falda. Galla tuma. word. awater* ' The Mme P. the sound of a stringed instrument. and e. E. for the sound of privy whispering. csam-csogni. sound). kiling-kalang. koXiw. Newman).' Member for Paris. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. rifiirayov. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. agrees with g. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. call. jingle. the tingling Ming-Hang. to strike. thump. sound. box on the ear imitation of the . Hindustani bhadbhad trees. a nightingale. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. kl'mg-kling. drops of i. wail. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. klirren. tubh. Prim. for the ringing of illustrate bells. chut.* the heart. a nightingale. tumwata. cry. shout. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. and bilhila. croaking of frogs.and e. Calt. rain (Tylor. Scotch sough or sooch. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. bent her head. a smith. compared with Gr. make djamdjam). disturbance (F. is based on the same imitation as the e. for the clinking Lat. simmer. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . borrelen. Maori pata. identical with g. jangle. to knock. is Manchu tang-tang. a drum . ding-dong. Fr. 368). to ring or jingle. to giggle. and her heart went thump. for chut-chiit-er. muro and e. e. tumult. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. tup. brings us to Fr. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. Manchu kaka. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. are applied to the is excrements of children. Tiie Galla gigiteka. clash of arms. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. Turk. 192). The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. . a workman. especially one who beats.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. uproar. halaidlac'h. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. indicating the origin of Gr. as of Tamil muromurmur. Magyar csamm-ogni. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. clango. chinking of coin. caca and Finnish adkkd. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. champ. correspond to e. bulbiil. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. the gingling of glasses. as Fr. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to whisper. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to beat. quarren. KaKog. 1871. at an accelerated note. clank. to say chut. fumtu. The syllables lil-bil. or of bells ringing. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). Sanscr. or the bubbling up of to a spring. a boy's whistle. chuchoter. . clink. bad. spring of water in the a bell. or to Du.

creak. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. in e. chatter. craunch. ring. tingle. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. crack. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. douse. squall. we have buffet or cuff. dabble. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. hiss. parapatapan. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. fizz. 'pat. whack. bang. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. slash. Fr. But although and also found in Lat. clack. whine. crunch. twang. to fall. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. thump. the Germans puff. clash. at a door tarapatan. clank. and Grimm. squeal. squeak. thump. swash. crash. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. whizz. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun.' — Nohden. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. thwack. snap. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. hum. flap. clap. to dance. clatter. blow. and Fr.. souse. ' Der puff. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . mutter. smack. or v^hether jectional. paddle. and soufflet. The use of g. plump. murmur. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. bubble. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. tap. flop. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. rataplan or rantanplan. clink. brumberum. and the French pouf. sputter. rumble. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. report of a gun. clang. So in Fr. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. boom. Nevertheless. tinkle. tomber. w. tumbian (to beat the ground). chink. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. tum-ultus. splash. to is blow. disturbance.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. while e. without the intervention of orthodox roots. it is fallj AS. rattle. dash. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. thump. gargle. puff. patter. splutter. jingle. It. pop. gurgle. for (Sanders). answering to g. smash. guggle. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. lash. by rubadub. tymmesll. blubber. din. Humboldt. according to the strictest phonetic rules. whirr. rap. a applied as well to the force of the bang. The beating of drum is represented in e. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these.

and uttering plaintive sounds. xxix on the contrary. and found in the building of be burnt up. the inteij. of horror. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . by the nature of the cry. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. p. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. the kind of action that is desired of them. and thus they become signs of despair. Crying. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. but if we must not complain on the beach. hay. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. formerly cited. because they are spontaneous. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. or of any if wood. grief.' . in the case of the animal or of the infant. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. knows them.' If chaos. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. If. little who has time to want of her nurseling. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain.'. the interj. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. in the rushing waters. without a thought of symbolising to them. every little pain. or stubble is meaner name. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. stractions. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. ugh . by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. are made known by an instinctive cry. an imitation of a sigh . wringing the hands. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . At the first beginning of life. Grimm or Bopp. 94. that he has taken the step in rational speech. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. or any unsatisfied want. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. is Thus ah!. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother.

And again. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. more to the point. Language begins where interjections end. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. which are frequently so toned down cance. shrieking. He says. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals.' — ist Series. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. may become traditional. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. to solve the I shall call first. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. p. groaning. p. One short interjec- tion may fact. they are involuntary interjections. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. ^6g And to the same effect 371. and the eye. of all the mouth. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. 344. coughing. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. If I wish to make a person of an . to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. as who them spontaneous utterances. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. sneezing. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. interjections.' p.. he cites from Home Tooke. more eloquent than a long speech. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. 32. and some of them the composition of words. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. them to exercise it. or which is of me as suffering pain. the lowing of a cow.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. should be remem- . be more powerful.

Gr. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. in Magy. for example. Lat. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. bered.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. it them. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. when I arp humming and hawing. then speech begins. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and thus. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. hahottaa. he says. interjections. Kayxa^u). Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. cachinno. but the less am at a loss what to say. speaking. some kind of language might have been formed. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. Tooke in truth. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. hohottaa. loud laughter. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. and more or less limited . tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. demolishing here. Koxafw. kahkahah. I am not hearer. hahota. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. in Fin. and others from interjections.

but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. . It as has ing their most striking features. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.' he says. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. a deaf-mute himself.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. And so in the case of language. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. dumb is the language of signs. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. and go where we now say stand. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. But here nature soon conies to his help. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. makes them stand and walk upon the table. like peewit and cuckoo. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. of the nature of this great movement. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. Though. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. words receiving the meanings they now bear. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. and not. The following account is given by Kruse. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. a Picture-language. have understand them studying as claim to consideration.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. What strikes him . imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. if taken as a whole. the critical question should be. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. of the world.

When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. he. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. among themselves. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. letter To hold the two fingers apart. the whole secret. can do better and more easily abstract terms. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. nay. and forms further and further. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. for child.GESTURE most. that air. that. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. his action. or To pull and flap with the arms. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. called Gesture-language. And is. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. for single objects. thought is already broken. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and we have roast goose. he.' In the Institutions. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. The of sign for left hand. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. or the verb to be. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. it means little. and with his thought. thou. that signifies great . walker. such objects. many when or but these. walkest. and gestures. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . it seems. The same sign stands and the act itself. to name. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and to taste. and And thus he makes himself a language. the lan- guage cultivates itself. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and it is flesh or meat. particular sense in properly so called. the sorecalling them to his memory. for walk. what more. and fully serves to j . becomes roast meat. like a V. walked. signs are taught for yet. for the agent. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. but if I depress it instead. such as than the educated man. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. as it now opens out. most striking outline of an object.

as But when it is meant door. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. I say. The same word . or a quality. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. in other instances sentence. might be the knife. . as when Bang ! went the gun.' dener's knife. and the as. it called an interjection. putting it into his pocket. or a passive scene of existence. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. when I say. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object.xxxiv asking. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. the ture of white term pink is and red. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. Who is has beaten you ? would be. When a verb. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. or action. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. qualifies the against the wall. a number of alternatives are suggested. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. depend entirely upon the use. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. whether by additions or otherwise. and thus performs the part of an adjective. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. and so is an adverb. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. or something of the kind. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. substantive or adjective. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. He gave door a bang. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. a colour red. the garden. When I say. according to the circumstances of the case. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. You beaten . as in die it is a noun. to indicate the action of a certain person. would be simply beginning of speech. Do not bang the it is a verb. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. in fact. or an act.

the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. verb nor noun has yet been developed. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. wherehy. pain. with a stick. as kuo cung. Jii ta. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. . or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. in the is indicated by the syllable y. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. a sigh of oppression and . wherefore. a groan. some outward display of the affection. coalesces with the personal pronouns. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great.. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. in the sense of great. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. 255. grie^ horror. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough.^ — Miiller I. that is. whereto. Latin. inquiry. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. commencement of speech. and to be great. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. inside. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. or with elements expressing relations of time. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or nei. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. middle.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. and may be used language. wonder. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. greatness. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . which is an old y ting (use stick). but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. contempt. as cung. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. &c. whereof. Thus tafu signifies a great man. a noun. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. the man is great. but often self-evident. wherewith. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. that admits itself in of audible representation. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. or some relation between it and another object.

when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. Lat. lau-l-e. 6. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. wehthun. ohg. The form corresponding to Lat. wehen (Schmeller). vce. wd. mostly a ! %. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. vaj. ai. in Gr.-l-are. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . to bewail oneself. gwae. as. j. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. to groan. hei. oi. misery. oh. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. guaj-ire. as. A widespread It. representing Illyr. wai-l. ache. probably a deeper groan. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. the pangs of childbirth. lament. pain. och. ing action I. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. It. miau-l-is. jaoh. djamdjam goda (goda. It. g. to yell formed e. w^wa. ach. vei-a. xxxvi grief. oimare. Such are g. guai. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ah. wai. and to bark . to lament. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. are ol-ire. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. guajo. Illyrian vaj. . It. to . Gr. ah. headache. weinen. or r. . misfortune. first person.'). I oi[iot. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. ohi. grief] affliction. e. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. miau-l-er. to ache. has more kopfweh. Thus from springs otjucifw. . ochan. wAwa. gwae.ez. mew. howl. cece. to weep. suffering. oh. to wail. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to ache. miau-n-is. ochain. Jar lau-lau. Lat. la. to cry n. grief. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. grief. Gael. guaj- or cry out pitifully. seen in Gr. In this way from the root guai. is Ay di me I Gr. vce. oval. found in g. form. waiidt. o'i. . lament from oimi. w. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. gwe-l-a. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. ahi. w. al. ocAJ. weh schreien. tirr-djeda. and cacak djeda (to say crack. e. a groan or lamentation vir. Illyr. 6. to make bow-wow. on. to cry at. e. dchzen. achen. wai. to sound yapyap. Bret. to weep.. pain. to gargle. to do woe. n. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to hurt Let. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. Gr. at the close of the radical syllable. woe. Fr. . Let. g. It. is w. ace. pain. ! ! Goth. to lament. &. och. axofiai. woe. och. representing a cry of pain. jao. to wail or cry alas . to cause pain. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. to chirp. however. ochan. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to make). ach. to rriourn. die wehen. Gr. on. ach. aiai^to. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. weh. ui. to injure.

!

; '

!

EXPRESSION OF HORROR.
(Florio)
;

xxxvii

from

Let.

waiman

I

waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to
signification.

lament,

showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same

Now
it

if
is

we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah
let

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer

know

that the speaker

is

in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.

The

interjection in Italian coalesces also
:

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS

!

alas for

him

(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the
first

is

not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.
!

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the

sufferer

cowers together with

his

arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of

which

will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is

which

associated.

Hence,

in the first place, the interjection

ugh!

(in

German uh! Then
form of
the

hu

!

in

French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.
losing
its

ug

or hug, as the root of verbs

and

adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.
in

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence
at.

The

oe.

ug or houge was used

The

rattling

drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout

What

his

kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.

—Jamieson,
how

Sc. Diet.

In

a

passage of

Hardyng

cited

inghame, having cut off her

own

by Jamieson nose and

it is

related

the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,
'

Counselled

al

her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly
right
sight.

Here,

as

Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the

word

ugly as signifying
its

original

what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
Ugh!
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.

xxxviii

ASTONISHMENT.
observed that

It

may be

we

familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the
syllable
is

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-

what

causes horror.
silence of the nycht

The

uffsomeness

and

In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.

—Douglas,

Virgil.

the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.

From

things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.

is

done

which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai

!

LAT. BABjE

!

VA.YM

\

The

manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the

instinctive

opening of the mouth,

is

familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his

hammer

thus,

The

whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,
tailor's

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.

The

physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes
;

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
wonder,
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or
it,

sound that

may

proceed from

the

mouth

instinctfairest

ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.

Now

the exertion of the voice at the
is

moment

of

opening the

lips

produces the syllable ha, which

found

as

the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of
!

The

repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one

who

stares

with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.
;

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)

eshawi.

Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious
tlieir

pomp which

waits

On

princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses

led

Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu

we

find hahaxa,

to astonish.

The

significant syllable

is

;!

ATTENTION, SILENCE.
strengthened by a final d in several of the

xxxix
('

Romance

dialects

the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in

It.

ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto
to

open door

;

Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
ished.
d, gives
;

Breton badalein, to yawn

;

bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final

Old

Fr. baer, baier, beer,

to

be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open
is

mouth

;

bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,

'

^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.

quenti.'

The

adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.

At

sight of her they

sudden
forced

all

arose

In great amaze, ne wist which

way

to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless

them

to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or

transition

from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,
is

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the

mind

to,

and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with

which

is

radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad

hym

sty

on

lofl:,

And

wejiie aftir

our four shippis

aflir

us doith dryve.

As

the vowel of the root

is

thinned
X""''*^'

down from

a to

j

in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,
It.

we

learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.

HUSH

!

HIST

!

A representation
longed sh or
ss,

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of

whisht

!

G.

ps

!

psch 1 pst I husch

!

tusch

!

Da.

tys !

Sw.

tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,

Piedm.

cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,
.sfo
!

silsd,

I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!

Fernandian

sial listen! tush!

Yoruba

pshaw!
all

(Tylor, Prim. Cult.

I.

178.)

The

interjection

seems in

cases to arise
it

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may
as

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the

first

place

it

may be
it is

understood

an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or
;

more

urgently, not to let even a whisper
to

but more generally perhaps

be understood

as

in-

xl

LISTENING.
Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which

purpose

it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly

still.

Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.

Jam.

Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.

The
least

It. %itto is

used exactly
sentirse

in

the same
zitto,
;

way

;

non fare

zitfo,
;

not to

make

the

sound ;

non

un

not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be

silent.

Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;
Fl.

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.
noise,

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing
!

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !

6.

husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through

the

' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that

is

heard in the bushes, or
ai,

as

an intimation to
Fernandian
sileo,

listen to
!

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry
ai,

hush
sia
!

to

The it. command

Gr.

ai'Ci^,

to give

silence,

showing
hush.

that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of
be

Hence must be
l-o,

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or

silent.

In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to

put

to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,

calm.

To keep

a

calm souch

;

to

keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an
like
I

after the initial

w, f, or

h.

Thus

firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I

we

wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.

The
;

primitive

mute

then

falls

away, leaving the
;

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp

Du.

luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)

synon-

ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.
is

The
lips

notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct

^

sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are
;

mot ;

It.

non fare ne motto ne
;

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

SILENCE, CONCEALMENT.
mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.

xli

mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce

Plowman

in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you

may

sooner

Than

get a

mum
way

of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by
Palsgr.

ellipse

of the negative,

mum !

silence
as,

!

Fr.

Mom !

ne parlez plus
!

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

—Trevoux.
With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei
silent,

dumb,

are essentially identical with our

mum,

;

;

;

185.

The
from
E.

ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that

juufo)

we readily pass
mus
est

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.
(Sp.

the representative
to

no decir mus

ui

chus)
;

we

Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,
'

be

silent,
les

and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens
:

musse, a private hoard.

Cil

que

musce

furmens,

escoramenge

qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'

parallel

Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied
is

to

what

done

in secret,

and mucker,

to lay

up

a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.

The
lias

interj.

hem

/

ahem
call

I

hm

t

hum /

represent the sound

made

in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin

it

frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely

another

mode
Here!

of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est
is

when

the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves
as

attention.

Hem! Davum
tam
glabrae,

tibi

:

scabrae sunt,

hem,

manus

:

quam

smooth, see here

!

as this

hand.

When addressed

to a person

xlii

THE PRONOUN ME.
it

going away
is

has the effect of stopping

him

or calling

him

back.

explained by Weiland an eKclamation to

make

a person stand

still:

Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.
hier,

haWol hark

there.

Mr

touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel
to

an

interj.

of prohibition.— Brem.

Wtb.
wbll

Hence hamm

holln,

keep one

in

check, to restrain.
shall stay

Du

sast

mi
do

hamm

holln,

you

shall attend to

my hamm !

where

I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of
I

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,

hammen,

to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'

A

of

a

garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it

out.

The
and
as

point of greatest interest about the interj.

hem

is

that

it

offers a possible,

seems

to

me

a far

shown

in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call

who

utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of
is

in Latin
occidi
see
!

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used
!

Hem
.

misera

Ah wretched me

!

I

am

lost.

Hem
feci,

!

scio jam quid

vis dicere.

Let

me

I

know what you would

say.

In the line
in

Me, Me, adsum qui

me

convertite tela,

we might
The

read the passage without
!

alteration of the
!

meaning.

Hem Hem
speaker himself,
is

adsum qui

feci.

use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of

m

or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this

mode

of

designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.
first

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,

first

person

is

ma, me, mi, man, na,
the

with

m and

n

as

personal prefixes.

And

word

is

formed on the same

plan in almost

all

families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and
*

S.

America,

ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,
interj.

Mr

Tylor

cites the derivation of G.
!

hemmen,

'

to stop, check, restrain,'

from the

hem
in

!

signifying stop

as

an obvious extravagance.

Tliere
it is

is

close a connection

meaning between the

interjection

and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds
inter-

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from
jections.

THE PRONOUN ME.
whoSe pronoun of the
first

xliii

person

is

written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of
kind

the voice within the person of the speaker,
is

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate

way

with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.

:

in other

words,

it

might serve

as

the basis

Nor

is

the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any

means

a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius

(as

quoted by A. Gellius,
first

1.

x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the

person

{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word
presses.

is

naturally adapted to the

meaning
is

it

ex-

He

probably
it

felt

the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of
It
is

which there

certainly

no

hemming
employed

in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that
as

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis

we

have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and

its

correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,

which

is

the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.

The
be

application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,

would

strictly parallel to

the use of

It.

n

and

vi,

properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.

Humboldt

in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.

Thus

Tonga, mei

signifies hither,

motion
to,

towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like
It.

and
e.

d

and

vi)

for

me

or us and you.
i.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell

tell

me

or us

;

tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is
is

to

have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the
suffix
s,

me and

fu, for

which

remarkable
a

Tonga
which

has totally different words, au and coy.
originally

In Armenian there

means

this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a

Thus

hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.

my

father.

man

speaks

of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of
tion,

in the utterance of the

m

or n

may

explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.

The

earliest

type

of rejection

is

the

closing

of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered

breast,

and the inherent

; ;

xliv

NEGATION. ENJOYMENT.
is

propriety of the symbolism

obvious.

De

Brosses observes that the articulations

n and

s,

both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to

sig-

nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples
tunato.

the words infinity and
.s

It. sfor-

He

overlooks the

fact,

however, that

this It.

is

merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,
letter.

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two
is

channels, he says (ch. xiv.
it

§

29),

by which

the voice

emitted, the nose
it

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of
nasals
is

The

expression of negation
ju?;,

by means of
it is

exemplified
erne,

in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,

m-

Vei

ma

;

Haussa

n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea

by

visible signs.-

— Schou.

Mr
a7/7a,

the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
Fernandian
'nt, all

kin,

Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn
Tylor
cites

signifying not.

ENJOYMENT AND DISGUST.
The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life

is

the appe-

food,

and

it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.

The

savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his

lips

or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.

Thus

Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes
at

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads

says,

'

The

astonishment and delight of these people

our

and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired
great,

was

'

our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration

by

a peculiar

smacking or clacking with

their

They expressed mouth and lips.'
the
lips or
in

— Australia,
The
tongue
the

p.

^2^.

syllable smack,

by which
is

we

represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,
taste.

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,
taste
;

the sense of
taste.

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the
ta-ite;

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the
;

lips

;

maisto, taste
.s

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.

The

initial

is

lost also in Fris.

macke, to

kiss.

The

initial

consonant

is

somewhat

varied without impairing the imitative effect in

Bohemian

mlaskati, to

eating

;

mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,

;

and

in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith

the

mouth

showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,
;

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.

ENJOYMENT. DISGUST.
Again,

xlv
as

we

have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the
is

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.

employed

for the

same purpose.
to apply
it

We spsak
smack
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do
derive

not happen
lip),

to the

The Welsh
this

has gwefusglec (gwefus,

a

smack with the
sound of an

From
is

source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl

The
some
say

or gl

readily

confounded with that of
tlick

tl

or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly
click.

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands
;

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the

mouth.

From

smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I
;

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling
at,

to-

gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial
tl

or dl

became

distasteful to Latin ears,

it

would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella
for

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.
in

It

is

true that an intrusive

vowel
garded

such cases

as the

foregoing

is

commonly (though
arisen

not universally) short,

but the long
as

e in these

words may have

from

their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.

The

attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.
in

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-

lators.

I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but
'

Would

to

-

occasionally interrupted their speeches

by

spitting

and uttering a noise
It
is

like

pooh !
this

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that

!

xlvi

OFFENCE.
fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and

like

it,

in-

tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in
!

his African
spitting

'To-o-h!

Tuh

exclaims the

Muzunga,

with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of
;
;

Africa, a. 346.
initial

The sound of spitting
puhwa,
dain
;

is

represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out

;

Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial

t,

t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting

;

Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook

mamook

took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to

make

tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj
;

Arabic
;

tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting
disdain
iTTVd)
;

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English
is

tuff, to spit

Hke

a cat.

In Greek
sounds.

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the

initial

BLURT

!

PET
his

!

TROTZ

The

feelings of

one dwelling on
a

own

merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath
nostril
is

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,

drawn

in

deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.

Her

fairy nostrils out.
is

—Tennyson.
Tiuff,

The sound
whiff,

qf hard breathing or blowing
is

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,
It.

whence a huff

a

fit

of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or
is

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.
;

The

luffa

explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.

—-Melchiori.

we

call shirping.'

Then,

as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or

cheat

;

heffarsi, to

laugh

at

luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used
rision.'

or disdain

is

uttered with exaggerated feeling

it

pro-

duces an explosive sound with the
as

lips,

represented by the syllable Hurt,
'

which

an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of
is
'

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.

a

Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring

it

out with a sudden explosion
is

ting something out of the
crying.

mouth.

A
is

Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
prt,
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I

is
;

explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie

approbation.

— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the

The

It.

petto, a blurt, petteggiare,

mouth

or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!

the

mouth

in
!

contempt (Sadler), explain the
tut
!

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw

nonsense

!

Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.

Decorde.

;

OFFENCE.
From
of anger
;

CONTEMPT.
we
have
e. pet, a fit
;

xlvii

the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,
is

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence
it

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips

Then

as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a
lip
is

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,

in

De-

vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the
lips.

ill-will

by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese
Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;
poutet,

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a
It.

a kiss

;

poutouno, a darling.

Again,

as in the case
ill-will to

of

hvffa, heffa,

above-mentioned,

we

pass

from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts

(to

be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.

The

E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking
lips,

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives

the

provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a
tut,

projecting

underjaw; on.

tota,

snout

;

Sw.

Da.

tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.

A

more

forcible representation of the explosive
r, as

sound

is

given by the introlips
;

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta
;

d

hesta, to

sound with the
snort,

to a horse in

make him go on
well as
is

Sw. pnista, to
sneeze.

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,
at,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not

sneezed

not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.
the

man

— that
Ayens

is

unbuxome
!

all

his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.

And
Hence
are

seyth Prut

I.

3016.

E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the
sullen,

West of E. (with
pout, to
surly,

form of purt,

to

be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.

Then,

from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment
trick
;

we

have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a

trick.

And

as

from the form pet
I

was derived Swiss
lip,

Romance

potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a

and

figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as

The

imitation of the explosive sound with an initial

in

ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's

lip
lips

or

Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-

xlviii

DEFIANCE.
;

DISGUST.
of such a description in driving

courage a horse
animals
Fr.
:

on. trutta, to

make

a noise

vox

est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.
man
make
the

Hence
from
trutas,
is

trut/

(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to

(Cot.);
;

which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the

lips,

a snout

to be out of

temper;

trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.

From

same source

the

6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.
to

;

trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to

of;

trotzig,

haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;

Valencian

trotar,

to deride, to

make

a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen

humour

;

to take the dorts, to

be in a pet

;

dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure

is

to

send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a

mouth,
(Fl.)
;

is

to

be explained

It.

truccare, to send, to trudge or

pack

away nimbly
away.

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of

be

oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same

way.
Lyere

— was nowher welcome,

for his

Over

al

yhonted, and yhote, trusse.

manye

tales
v.

Piers PI. Vis.

1316.

To

hete truss

is

an exact equivalent of g. trotz

bieten.

In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge

.'

all leysare

was

to

long.— Gascoigne.

FAUGH
There
sight
is

!

FIE

!

a strong analogy

and hearing.
air

When we
as

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the
ive

through the
;

nostrils, as

we

eagerly swallow food that

is

agreeable

to the palate

and

we

spit

out a disagreeable morsel, so

we

reject
air

an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected
lips,

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our
protruded

lips

pu.

when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded
'

lips,

a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,
air.

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the
;

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.
;

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced

puh),

Illyr.

puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

OFFENSIVE SMELL.
CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with

xlix

TheSanscrit
lungs,

may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

blow.
like the foregoing

From forms
at a

we

pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains

pu/

as

an

interj.

representing the sound

made by blowing through
'

the barely opened

lips,

and
alte

thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.
mist.'

Ha puh I
iii

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and
(Forcell.),

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !
-b..

disgust at a

bad smell

is

expressed

manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !
like
effect
if

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah

the

utterance

accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.
is

Accordingly
civet
;

we have

Sanscr. pu,
;

pMka,

stinking

;

puti, putrid, stinking matter,
;

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten
stench.
says

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus
;

Jahfals

ist :

by

this

time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad
bitter.

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,

Han
ill

va fal aat

os,

he was

enraged with us.

The

e.

equivalent

is foul,

properly

smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,
life.

underhand

in the transactions

of

ON. Fulyrdi, foul words

;

falmenni, a scoundrel.

From

the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or
foul.

d^le, to make foul

;

and Jllth, that which makes

The

disagreeable impressions of smell produce a
all

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his
in.

And

probably the

earliest

would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the
live.

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language
it

supplies

its

place by

—Farrar,

He

says,

The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him
say,

Where

live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.

d

1

REPROBATION.
interjection fy
it is
!

HATE.
do

The

expresses in the

first

instance the speaker's sense of a bad
is

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That
j

dirty

;

and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that

;

pleased at being touched

by

strangers.
inteij.

When
Thus
in
-e,.

used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the

often

assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in

faugh

I

ovfoh

/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly

employed

in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.
also

Yx.f, I

commonly

expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent
it.

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to

turn

up

one's nose at

it,

to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,

we

shall

easily believe that
it

pu !
it

as

an expression of reprehension,

is

the

source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,

cries

pu

!

on

me

;

pudeo, I

lie

under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the
fie
!

interj.

fu

!

being thus
:

analogous to
ein

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.
ings
;

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus

The

fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,
nostrils
'

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.

'

stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!

foh!

addressed

especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and

;

NURSERY WORDS.
foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave

to

If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.

PAPA,

MAMMA.
all

^ A small class of words
them
(in the sense

is

found in

languages analogous
papa,

to,

and many of

identical with, the e. forms,

mamma,

mammy,

daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,

as

well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-

A

man
Is

in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which
vi.

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.

It

appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,

am,

at, an.

We

find m,a, me, mi,
all

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense
;

moma, mother, and
fafa,fawa,
father
;

less

frequently nearly

the

same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father
be,
b'l,

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,
;

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,

tite,

unina, ananak, mother.
as

common

to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each

other,

'If

we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently

those

which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and

mother.'

—De

Brosses,

i.

215.

The speech
articulate

of the mother

may

form

to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms
ter;

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,
fia/iovKi^ia,

babelen, to babble, mutter

;

mammer,

to

mut-

Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)
to

Mod.Gr.

mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the
term
for

of them.

Thus

Lat.
as

mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,

the

mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

m
and the same
is

NURSERY WORDS.
the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,

breast

;

mammen,

to give suck.

When

one of the imitative

ma had
ta,

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,
e.

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or

nipple

;

Goth, dadd-

The name of
which

the laly himself also

is

gives their designation to so

many

representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs
it

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.

The

nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the

To

the

first

of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna
lull

nanna, to

a child

;

ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language
la

nanna, bed, sleep.
sleep.

Far

In the

Mpongwe

of

nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).
It.

The

imitation

gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a
el

little girl;

Milanese nan,
Sp.

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.

Caro

mi nan,
is

my

darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
ninny
it is

Mod.Gr.

vivlov, a

young

child, a simpleton,

and in

e.

transferred to a person of childish understanding.

From

the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.

is

extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,

From

the

same source

and

e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.
lyu,

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,

whence

lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE.
Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation

may

name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a
will,

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.

The

testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

saying : there the ad- Trans. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. Phil. da.' all is is — their consent. The Fr. But. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. or carry me thither. the nursery da-da. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. give. ' sees an object. that. well as Goth. In the expression Da.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. child. and may be rendered. his trowsers' pocket. Bav. and so on. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. . and by a variety of expressions besides. da. Dr Lottner observes. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Thank you. says da-da-da. we may translate this by there (it is). for instance. or give me it. a specified were by pointing him out. thata (ta-ta). Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. that gratifies me. implying the direction of its good will towards them. Sanders (Germ. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. 'nay. I add) . a word of many applications in g. When we pointing. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. but the truth is. Diet. when he wants something. more emphatically roSj)j that.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. or that it is. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. that is it. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. is-te). give me that cheese. is we I believe.' this. indeed.' then points to his wife.' person. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. as to express. • The child. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. to here . ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). as it Dieser da (as Lat. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. as. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. ToSe (or in Attic E. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. according to Menage. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. when 1859. nurseries. or wants to name something. case. Please. this here. Sie. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. der da-ige. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.

in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. childish toying. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. strike.' says Lottner interior. moving. its desire. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. sounds. to say to oneself. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sinking. tasting. and shapes it into an . or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. The da is dodem. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. meanings. standing. the original is that which he places first. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. then instinctively interest. tattle. or dalliance.^ its ' utters : a cry. pay. and one in particular must.' • liv ANALOGY. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. . to knock. to beat. which thus exertion. Thus Gr. beat. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. of which any one may. stutter. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to tion to another. or metaphor. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. reality. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. p. to walk. — Cot. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. to chatter. to move step by step. dadee. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. speech. takes it — as When the soul. in every mode of expressing the idea. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression.' says Muller. thinking. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. make dadada).

judicious. to smack or taste. snot. pracht. wise. prudent. firom the Gael. Lith. magnificence. bilbilgoda (to make . The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. &c. to resound. 1654. knittre. snudra. savour. the equivalent of g. to snilF. to shine. schmecken. knistre. outcry. on. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to glitter. to crackle gnistre. sense of brightness. properly a clap or explosion. Bavarian bracht. from the . bilbil). while sapere itself. same imitative root with Sw. discreet. wilahtaa. in the domain of movement. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. man of nice taste. as. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to . gnittre. in popular language. a brilliant light kilid. snuff the sniiten. sprageti. a ringing . ghsten. to sniff.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. and thence e. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. wilistd. snutrs. — 1. unlella. signified a clear sound. is used in the origin. tintelen. to flash. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. Again. Heo Du. wamara. noise. and figuratively. extended to the exercise of the understanding. chime). In the same way the Goth. think. to glitter e. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. a rustling sound Gr. to ring. to 5 ghtter. Finnish. The 6. to crackle. to glitter. to sparkle. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. which in ohg. beorhtian. snotor. kimistd. beam. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. scheteren. make a loud noise. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. search . brilliancy. splendour. to tinkle. scTiateren. may be quoted gUt. may be it explained . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. kiimottaa. (parallel bilbila. splendour. rattle. Du. . to glisten Dan. a with kimmaltaa. Fr. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. clang. as kilind. to have Sapiens. and schmecker. schiteren. for example. we have and the and beorht. tinkling. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . It is The word bright had a similar In as. iclat (in Old Fr. smell. So firom Lat. to shine. to sniff out. In the case of sparkle. esclat). to be wise. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. . tumult. then to sparkle. bright. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. air. to ring as a glass willata. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. smell. suspect Bav. to quiver. to glitter. taste. a dis- cernment. sound. sapere (which signifies the nose. and. to shriek with laughter . also wise. fiapfiaipw. spraka. to sound clear In Galla.

rough. Kep^arl'ieiv. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. Kpovtiv. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. . is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. gluey. rough. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. roughness. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. oily. he framed the words ivSov. soft. 1. within. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. he says. inside. and vepres.' he says. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. Acre. briars. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. mel. the clank (stridorem) of chains. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. whirl. strike. pleasure soft to the ear . flow and flux. rend. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. tremour. break. rough both ways. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. power of the letter-sounds. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). The BpavEiv. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. Tpa)(yg. we hear of screaming colours. &c. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. as soft by the ear. discusses the tone of a picture. pvfi^Civ. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. in truth.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. itself letters are felt as sofl. then in rpd/xoe. sharp. \nrap6e. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. or . in of his works. Much of the same has been often quoted. ipuKuv. rough to the ear. smooth. accordance with the way in which by touch. the neighing of horses. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. is felt Lana. wool. the bleating of sheep. eo ut res vol. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. shatter. which The Stoics. fitting the letters to the sense. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. the cross. And observing that n kept the voice within. v. crux. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. of dressing loud. extremely loose. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. kvTOQ. KoWiiSije. to slide. 6\tadaveii'. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. with these the similitude of touch comes into play.

The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. jog. 'and consequently form. tug. p. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. dag. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. and in the utterance of a high or or low. sag-oter. ii. jig. cular effort Again. a rough and sudden . stag (in stagger.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. the case of the voice. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. jih. shag. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. 138). the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. p. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. to reel abruptly from side to side). degree of roughness sound. d. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. shog. t. to signify varieties of movement. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. or checks as they are called by Muller. g. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. jag. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. to jogj sac-cade. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. corresponding to the ineor. rug. dig. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. for exis ample. joli. stab. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. Fr. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. A greater felt. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. k. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. as when.

The syllable suk is jerk. to utter a slight kick. zack. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. passing to the signification of motion. a piece or bit of anything. The train of . as Italian tocco. toch-toch. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. also to stir. Ene olde suksuk. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. The production of sound. is made to signify movement. mica. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to say a word . a playiug-marble. mot.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE.. then. Sukkeln. it produces Dutch micken. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. to pulses being knock. figuratively. Thus we have B. a good piece of road . foot. then. an old worthless horse or carriage. to winkj micati is Lat. chique. as tot. to On the same principle j we have g. a jog. chiquet. used interjectionally to represent a . Then. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. and analogous movements. tecche-tocche. Bolognese tocc. zigzag. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . to mark it with a touch of the pen . a small bodily object. g. a cracker. Mucken. Illyrian migati. to touch. (mitsati). properly a small lump'of . being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. It. chic. S-panish miga. that we never can be sure. schockeln. tack. to beat or play on a musical instrument. sound Fr. to stir.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to ring a bell. Dutch kicken. cica. sound barely audible. to have it ticked or marked on the score . motion. Brescian toch. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. rough horse. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to tickle. a crum. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. &c. micare. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. to move rapidly to and fro. and e. The analogy then carried a step further. to take a thing on tick. to strike It. however. in cases like the foregoing. so to Italian toccare. to glitter. is lanese toch. Accordingly the g. a quid of tobacco. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. tech-tech. chicoter. schuckeln. tock. a . To tick a thing off. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. The Mipen or pencil. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. a stroke with a French toucher. like English tick. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to incite by light touches. or check. movement. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. a little bit. kik. to mutter. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. Hence Lat. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. an infant . lead to Spanish tocar. e. Welsh cicio. not to utter a syllable. and It. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Fr. for the sound of knocking at a door. is so frequent a consequence of movement. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. Fr. mik. kuk. mie. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke.

clay . ri that. . you. a light quick blow. for the three personal pronouns. tot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. a certain conception. to movement of the pen . a tot . a small horse. a small quantity. to make a slight mark. gni. to dot. anything . motte. Pm. mutter j dust. there. a whisper. But the same is language has re Javan. gnu. lix Sp. tot. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. to jog. mossche. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. that iku. not because the pendulum makes a different left. . mote. totle. a girl. a small bird. Cult. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character.n. . or the like its It. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit.) . fait. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . for the beating of a clock. 48) cites from the African Tumale. motta. a. chico. small titlark. a lad citta. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. a little titty. I. a bit. subdued manner. jot. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. mot. the least visible insect. or o toi. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. there (further of!) ao. The following table from Tylor (Prim. Malagasy to. the vowel sound. lump of earth. here (close hand). or the converse. Then. to e. (Halliwell) Da. not to utter a syllable. further off. tottle. mutter. bunch or flock of wool. to touch lightly with a pen. to jot down or note with a fro. . where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. Du. titilh. ticktack. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. . and toddle like a child titter. zitio. and dot. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. seesaw. mut. To jot. a morsel. . a small kind of lark. 199). a bit. and a small lump of something. as in e. little. and he. to tremble. fragments It. little j to that of a small bodily object. tiny. . to touch. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. move slightly to . to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). this . titmouse (Du.- a jot or little It. eo. neither moit nor an atom. 0. and mite. tit. a small lump or pat. tozzo. to whisper (Pr. is shown in murmur. gno. a morsel girl . zitella. that. and out there. a e. Fr. tittle. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. Halliwell. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. this. i. of movement in totter. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. there '(at a short distance). tot. taut. small of kind. citto. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. here. . a sparrow). we have e. corresponding to the personal pronouns. iki. anything small flax. not an atom . titter. This kind. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. at where the order is inverted. tit. often entirely arbitrary. ika. the same organ touched with the man. So. In a similar the relations of place.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. e. n. syllable mot. tot. e. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea .

that. ni.e^.. akha.. ukko. this . /e«. is Here. respectively. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. biii. as Mr Tylor remarks. an old . Carib ne.. here j abe. there. femina ama. there. mas cheche. that. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. . Magyar ez.. to. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. loo). Japan ko. Mutsun ne. . for the male. nne. that. father k . an old woman chacha. small (Pott. uta. I . /mya. w. Tamul i. ofj. ni. child. ulri. mother. ndi. tiiio. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. and a for the female. . km. usho. this . Lat. that. you. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. that in the distance. ^. Abchasian aSn. Mm. . as in Italian Fin. this . that. ojOo. Then. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. It seems to (fen. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. . but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. here . he. here 5 Yoruba na. that (intermediate) j wana. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Tarahumara ibe. mother. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Gr. no constant rule is observed. there. olo. little. ita. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. there. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. that.araM. here . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. Zulu ajoa. this ole. Guarani nde. ta to ka. young one. thou. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Sahaptin (America) kina. this . as the act of pointing was ta. thou . mother. . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. there. that.) pronunciation of i or e. ne. (tt). probably initial of distinction that the k. thou ni. Botocudo ati. 6. bi. father. /wo. he. Ossetic am. this fi. . Dhimas isho. here feraa. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). qu. j Canarese ivanu. Chilian tva. here j ka. man erne. this <t. and origin. minution further.) nna. me probable that • Vei also little. is father. Fernandian az. there. that. . It Carib lala. child. there. here this . that.

sound of bells . while the special nature of the action intended syllable.) . for a succession of light blows low-wow. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. fretful.' — Merrv Wives. repetition It. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. the principle of reduplication. trSpigner. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. 401. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. barking of a dog. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. A little weeny thing. as j money. the pip or pippin. keeh. to begin to appear . to make its way through the bursting envelope. in old e. trippelen. the simplest mode by the g. or chink. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. knob. trap. Da. &c. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. stairs. to feet. the nursery few j Sc. for the . speaking in a pipy tone of voice. . a child. pepin. nab. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. nipple. The sound trapp . trappen. trappa. as ding-dong. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. don-don. — Douglas Virgil. and in the Pacific dialects.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. i Sw. lift 8. analogous to winy-piny. to peep through. just beginning to appear. The Sw. for instance. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. the idea is called. Top. dance (Kil. murmur. titta. whence Fr. Thus we have Wolof sopa. to tread. little To sup up. A little wee face with little. or even. a step. Fr. And perhaps the E. looking through between obstacles. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. of smaller things. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. a little yellow beard. little. to leap. to peep. wenig. to teet. wean. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. Clank represents the sound of something large. nil. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. has tittafrem. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. trippen. at pippe frem is to spring forth. din-din. tion. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi.' making the voice as small as possible. From cases like the foregoing. is to express simple continuance of action.

Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. puka- puka. to vi^alk about for flax. mpolu is uttered. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. . to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. very long (Pott. or a little tee--ny thing. The same principle of 196.Ixii REPETITION. instead of being actually repeated. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. kamha-gamla. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. mawhiti. ding-ding. er. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. little child (p. to skip.' expression is — ^Tylor. bad . and the words express a continued sound of rack. calling. didi. racket. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. or rdtchi. . to call frequently from Fr. child . Cult. to or rub. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. the lungs. could readily be conceived. sopasopa. if very young. very great. tach-et-er. very bad. the agent in panting . It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. (to use a to speak. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. to to call. Susa di.. kendagenda. rack click. Malay ayun. clash of weapons. from Maori muka. Again. to talk at to walk. to say pooh It is ! to. Thus in E. clamito. puka. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. ratsi-ratsi. tache. amusement. And generally. or imitative syllables. to cover e. to treat with contempt. a cradle. is language. and Fr. rack. keep spots. 97). for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. or in Fr. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. a grasshopper. cliqu-et-is. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. click. rapidity and strength. a spot. child . are echoed by the rudimentary et. properly speaking. to pant. &c. So from clamo. or very very great. Mandingo ding. 99). i. Thus in the Pacific loa. the comparative degrees of greatness. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . smallness. kenda. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. hardness. in familiar use with ourselves. loloa. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). a clattering noise. to rock. ayunayunan. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. random . ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. lololoa. mawhitiwhiti. the and clique. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. serves to show and in this way. to love. or el. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. repetition or continsignify long. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface.

to continue dragging. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. Piedmontese bau-l-S. as to handle. to move to and fro. or by association. wagas ging. to make gug. jogging. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. rynel. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. by the side of wanken. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. The contrivance with any particular noise. crack. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. or Maori puka-puka. rubber. the knie-en to E. syllable clat . fickle. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. the lungs (the puffers of the body). miauler and beler correspond to E. and in as. kneel. it. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. In cases like these. wankel. the part that moves on a hinge up and down.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . is In e. smack. as mAS. bub. to puff. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . wankeln. compared with g. wancol. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. joggle. itself. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to hand. to crackle. from puka. draggle. in some applications. to make a succession of grabs . dab. to make bau-bau. mew and baa . to rock. wavering. bubble. The Fr. are to cry mew and pew . to rock or wag. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. where all direct connection with sound is lost. without the intervention of the frequentative element. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to wail woe . to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. Ihre remarks under gncella. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. or in e. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. others. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. dabble. Jickfacken. waggle. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word.Jicol. guggle. or fi bau. shuffle. to hand-le. miauler andpiauler. he who rubs. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. which. such asjlap. in Fr. a from ayun. g. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. or omitted. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. a succession of cracks to rattle. to bark like a dog. to make a succession of shoves. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan.

we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. by a hard body breaking. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. on a moment's reflection. Polish. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . There is. known in Italian. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. or how generally. Breton. which is the origin of the word. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. A gull or a dupe same sense. the breach. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. to the separation between the broken parts. which. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. although it is not difficult. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. or in mode of use. deceit. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. and comparatively few easily deceived. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. or in aptness to combine with other elements. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. at was more familiarly known. moreover. Dupe comes to us from the French. to cry ugh at. it is obviously a mere chance how long. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. will continue to be felt in daily speech.

it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. language is . or are afford satisfaction arising origin. Hitl^erto. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. life. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. . the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and the word is used in a secondary sense. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. founded in manifest blunder. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. nor any limited of ideas.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. is. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. however. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes.

Welsh. out. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. 330. compared with the duration of man. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. and 'Russian. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. of material things. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. hearing. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. evique. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. therefore. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. and vescovo. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. in the course of many years' isolation. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. change. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. i. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. I think it very probable. French. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. circle perpetrates a new slang term. If English. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. episcopus. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. guages in South America. unintelligible to other hordes. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. Naturalist on the Amazons.

Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. to be taken (Prim. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. A key must unlock more doors than this. Nor is there one of the letters. . or whatever the proportion may be. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. is MN. 7. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. ancient Greek M . 9. as shown in the subjoined illustration. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Cijlt. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. 6. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. and . i. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. 8. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. which are idenr Figures 5. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. the actual it which would to represent. it will leave figures 3 and 4. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. The combination of the symbols I and 2. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. ao8).

and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife." the use of a change of vowel in as. and the only safe beneficent Creator. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . had its origin in imitation of sound. for instance. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. his fellows. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. what comes to the same thing. leading him to utterances. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. known to us as yet. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. in the shape either of direct inspiration. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment.' should be discovered. which either by direct resemblance of sound.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech.

as elephants. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. or not. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. the conduct of Ixix life. of using imitative conduct . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. by animal without a trace name of Man. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . for instance. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and rose towards a higher state of being. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. and when we look back as far as history will reach. race were speaking men or not. that he started from the lowest grade. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint.COMPLETION OF MAN. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. until the progeny. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . or else. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. or beavers. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. in the course of generations. or of their own reflected thoughts . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and sooner or later. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life.

Diet. Teutonico-Lat. Dueange. 1850. Diet. B. Carp. at the end of Somner's Diet. Sup. Fin.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Bav. Da. Elfric's Fl. E. Carpentier. Wtb. 1857. Cimbr. de la langue Cat. Douglas' Virgil. Bohemian or Czech. Bigl. Supplement to Dueange. Dief. Supplement to Bret. Diefeiibach. Biglotton seu Diet. Cotgrave. Castr. Cot. Bavarian. Finnish. English. Dutch. ^Ifr.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Provincial dialect. 1654. Grammar Boh.-Eng. Diefenbaeh. Brem.V. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Esthonian. Danish. Dn. Gothischen 1851. Dief. 1737. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Catalan.. Gr. Romano - Cas- traise. Due. Baile/sEngl. or Dan. 1766. . Cimbrisch. Bremisch. dialect of the Sette Commune. Couzinid. dial. Esth. AS. Infimse Latini- D.Nieder. Dueange. Fr. Diet. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. 1768. Anglo-Saxon.

Mid.Lat. .TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.

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>. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. yjnaifia r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. buque 118 brodiquin r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.5 ERRATA. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. alUger ahaverie r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. kilistaa bugiie r. r. sveritet Asknace r. katowai perairrantr. Askance woud r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. woman r. (/ijtf r. r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. word allagerr. cruccio deyrie. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. plowied budowaer. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . willekom Blab r.percurrunt kimista^x. haverie crtOT r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.nokkutama willekem." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. puHti r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. r. ^i?^i2! r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . cti. baltresca nokkutomax. Blob plowied r.. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.

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ir. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. but now )bsolete). on-bsec . to arise. command. Abaft. a. Dent posture. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. this word beand Spanish. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. to hold . of-dune. and — Chaucer. on. Jvery man shewid baft. particular 1 . away. 843. an edict or proclamation. rule. his. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. er. Passing tongues. literally. a washing off to abstain. ur. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. . Hence on-bceftan. whatever he be. away from. as. Ab-. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. the er. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. AS. off.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. 244. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. Thus ip N3S. and secondarily in that of command. abs. have entire dominion over. plesyt him.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. iway from. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. bandon in French. to sauff the king or spill. sion of 'an abandoned character. Abs-. Parson's Tale. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. implying a completion of J. To abuse is to use iway. behind. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. in a manner other than it should be ablution. AS. to subdue. state of sleep . first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. K . abaft. erwachen. on. orders. ab. baftan. in. as. a/tan. to awake. Thou spelds of mychty iction. ar. OHG. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. in the same sense. dominion. Abandon. A. Immediately from Fr. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. compounds. announcement. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. dominion. —Bruce. out of. from. us. on-lic. Again. downwards. o/j of or . came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. alike. among. into the Romance ftrseg . Lat.t G. In Lat. onis aback. vs. ibandonner. until the event jlace . A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. from a is to wake to abide. "rom a height. The word Ban is common orders. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. power : Than Wallace thing. be-ceftan. said. is commonly :he remnant of the AS.he Goth. ifter.

of the Fr. Wall. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to happen. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. . to excite admiration. Fr. to bate something of the price abbatersi. weaken.) . Custom.On princes. to ruin. overthrow. — Neccham. polish. Hence Lat. other. R. abandonly. and it that that it — .down. ais. law term abatement. bawi. to make lower. Castrais. Abbey. ant. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. Milton. confound. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. 1 1 8. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. to strike sail . burny was formerly burnish . from Lat. esbahir. 1520. Hart in Jamieson. where custom (Grandg. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. as ravish. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. merely the terminations ons. More correctly written abbat. 364s. to beat furnish. Cotgr.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. to gape. iv.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. and that from Syrian abba. Beat. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. and the verb was written in Eng. castle. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was.' the surrender of a ' K. to overthrow. drink. to diminish the force of any.— — . Bate.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. father. adverbial expressions at abandon. terminedly. esbahissais. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. impetuously. depress. beer. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. et prirent terre. of fear. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground.esbawi. effect of shame. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. de. Abbot. astonish. c. to take possession of an estate. burny. to The . ne more vermeille. by Wall.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. uncontroUedly. an abbey. It. Abbess. or society of abbots or monks. A. to hit. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come .fournir. son bandon. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. — — . to meet with abbatersi in una terra. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. so common in the found in the OFr. of wonder. abbatis. On the other in use as well as hand. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. in the active form. And he thereof was all abashed. his mouth. may be explained. thing abbatere le vela.Prov. See . See Abide. and grooms besmeared with gold. esbahissant. betrash. with or without a final sh. impulse. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. bandon. I was abawid for merveille. to put to con. d. R. . A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. person.— R. to astonish. down. abate. from ravir. or admiration. vol. abbatia. abbatere dal prezzo. abbattre. Hence the OE. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. esba. lish to abaisse orabaish. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Baba ! Mod. faire tomber. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. baer. to abaw or astonish. abbas. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. In or. shame. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. his eyen shene. to strike Froiss. and sets them all agape. abbatere.polir. astony. To Abate. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. R. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. at his own the lips. baba. Originally. to light upon. abaundunem-ent.

badar. to tarry. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). and E. bide of the d endure. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. beguile. to look. bana. b^er. pense. abie. Pol. Thus we have It. baier. Abele. m Abeyance. or in Fr. endurArt thou he that should come. to desire earnestly. and Prov. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. from Halo. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to yawn. to ance. intent observation.— Chaucer. usbeisnei. tical with It. bder. we sceolon ON. wait. open the mouth. to be intent upon. attendre avec en^pressement. syllable ba. a bay or opening in the coast. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Goth. tarrying . abSiance. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. beijen. Prov. while the monks under his control ing. to suffer death in Du. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. aspire to. . tenere a bada. . — signifies to suspend action. beter. ne wist what way to chuse. The verb atwaiting. OFr. deceiving. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to open bader. desirer (Roquef. baier compared with It. to be intent upon. us. bie. Ni engigner ni abiter. white. delay. listen. bialodrze-w. bouche bdante. waiting. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to expect. to wait. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to wait. beidan. a right in suspense . which is certainly related to It. warten. look for another. bidan. F. delay. songer. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . The white poplar. See Abide.to wait. covet. Gloss.— ^richer. listening. abiiance. Fabl. to gape . forms with the d effaced are OFr. to attend to. deceit. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. In We . From abahier. with open mouth . compared with (Bosworth). — II. suspense. badigliare. to open the mouth. to attend on . bada. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. or absorption watching. . tity of E. trick abetar. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. Norm. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. 1 • . to stay. abeter. Du. abayer. house. ^couter avec dtonnement. E. literally white tree. to In great amaze. forbearance. gola badada. . signifies the direction of tend. qui iaaille. says. attendre See Bait. or do we AS. to It. Cat. endurance. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. ne chastised them. the verb of abeyance. expectation. abie. take care. aspirer. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. bie compared with Dan. tempting. Ducange. abeyance. abaier. bocca badata. Guernsey beth. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. delay. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. inciter. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. —Raynouard. Q. ' ' . to mind. and in E. beguiling on the other. to wait. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. in Dan. abetter. Boethius. To Abet. is idenwait. Norm. Gloss. were called Brothers. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. bida. wait To Abide. to deanimer. expectfamily. baer. to abide .) abayer. (Vocab.— Roquef. abbadare. exciter. Quant voit le serpent. in Fr. and alluring to his own destruction.Fr. bida. badare. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. othres abidan' The effacement expect. bhr. John. expectation. ceive. verbeijen Sw.. badare. gridare. have seen abide. beijen. abet. on the one hand. — . also to OFr. K. with badia. bouche b^ante. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. baier. beijden. badare. beidan. suffer b. lingering. incite .' is in AS. . abidan. guardare. — ABELE Epiphanius. to expect gabeidan. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to hook. desire. to desire. abet. which the mind to an object. inciting. Corresponding to keep in suspense. de Berri) Prov. take notice. Corant sens lui. to remain or endure. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. 366. to stay.was formerly used in the sense of look. regarder. Thus G. Cat. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. speaking of the Holy places. watch. to deceive. de Champ. Abie. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable.

to pay the purchasemoney. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish.^and to make his power knowne. abicgan. abie. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. For on board. as habiller du chanvre. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Dr. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. without special reference to the notion of retribution. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. to redeem. Spenser. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. Abie. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. fit. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. L. as E. to wear away. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war .am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. use. abidge. al- be found so some will dear abide it. power. to have . the Pardoner In the original. when compared with Aboard. the Sir Tristrem. abeye. him with che. abide. R. habilis is closely preserved. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. while in later examples As I . Merch. and the simple buy. from Lat. to . abycgan. Boucher. 2nd Tale. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. sufficient. abolir. habile. powerful. to perish. Fr. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. God — dear. abilh. Prol. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. strong. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. If it badare. within the walls of a ship. on board . AS. Milton. must suffer for it. to pay the penalty. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Cassar. bide. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. to draw fowls. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. O If tion. durance in both applications. The —Boucher. consequences of anything . within the ship. forbid for mother's children should abye. at kasta fyri bord. expert. — Able. and death for handsel pay. P. 2. convenient. willing to schewe his wrathe. N. It. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. at hand). ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. atling hem to her proper offices. God. R. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Chaucer. was often used in the same sense. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. abie to Goth. the side of a ship. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. P. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. —Bacon in R. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. bidan. de la volatile. or bie. though sometimes confounded with it. purpose. from AS. fault being simply clothing. — e. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Mids. — P. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. bord. to dress hemp. suffer the Jul. aboleo. She shall abie that trespass dere. beidan. abilej Prov. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. &c. . have-like. ON. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. In this to erase or annul. Tr. Innan bords. Fr. Lat. is the verb abie.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. in for any special purpose. properly abuy. i. the Fr. being disabled in the highest degree. a board. able. and Cr. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. abigg. ! ! Cotgr. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. F. Wickliff in Richardson.ynes. habilis (from habeo. Q. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. adapted .

For on broach. ol. common in Chaucer and Abominable.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. af-oleii. or young forth. break out. to feed. Abundant. outward.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. literally. the form a&^^. motion. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. Abrdger itself. the man dwindles away. gravis. whence the Fr. for ligeth butan. awaking. alere capillos. to fatten. explains soboles Lat. around on the out. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. to start. Of these synonymous adolescere. sec seftre — Chaucer. So in Lat. to awake. gravity. that greatly agredge their sin. agredge. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. to feed. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. agreujar. titan. brood. be-ufan. to cut short. abbrechen. a portent). and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. leading immediately to Fr. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. to nourish. The radical idea is to feed the flame. pedigree from brevis. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. Then. the vital spark. In the same brevis .1. s —Casdmon. nurse Lat. See -und-. Finnish stock. nourish..— Abbreviate. abbreviare. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. giving birth to. the OSw. Gael alaich. abracan. See To Bray. Tale. to rear. alUger. life.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. from Fr. coalesco. above. Lat. heavy. and alere flammain. about cockcrow. of any kind . To Abound. AS. Sc. vital PI. Thonne Abroach. and also. to grow together. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. adolere. currence. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. Kiittner. OSw. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. abowen. AS.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. below. Du. — ' — — preceding verb. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. disastrous portent in some passing oc.' Ymb hancred utan. abominor (from ab and omen. Above.' Parson's rence. is a ively.ger.foda signifies to beget. progeny. while the sense of beget. way Sw. oil. abufan. hard. ufan.the older form. as withotityn and without. al is growth. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. The primitive idea seems that of beget. as AS. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. alan. to light a fire the Abraid. the hair grow. parent. abrdger. Quod abominor. the idea of breaking about . AS. to grow up. abredan. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. Severe the threatened evil. to AS. en. to snatch. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. nurse. without. greu. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. . the identity of which with ting. OE. and in-d-oles. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. Fr. which may God avert. but from Lat. and bidden him abregge.ymbutan. Melibaeus. Thence to regard greugetat. bufan. OE.) . to progress.. Prov. to aggravate. kindling. his contemporaries. as the duty of nourdisposition. . becomes leu in Prov. full ofte his words for to Fr. onbutan. abutan. side. boven. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. ABOMINABLE adolesco. or cut short. natural ed direct from the latter language. — . seems aras. which passed into English under Abominate. Goth. to turn. on high. levis to the Romance languages. to let sleep. draw out. butan. to bring up. snatch In English we speak of away. by the to bring up. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to produce. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. while the verb alleThe root el. af-oolden. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. ala is made to signify to rear. is not from G. To abray or abraid.aboon. breaking out in language. from . aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. to main. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. to break off. abrcBgdan. to rear. alan. and also to abridge. ala. d. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. be-utan. abbrechen.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. D. to beget or give birth to children. and to do something to avert abbreviate. Virg. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. Abray.

;

6

ABROAD
thrust, butt,

ACCOUTRE
In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as

way

the G. stossen, to
is

push with the horns, &c.,

He

who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their

m

Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato
;

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to

own

country.

taught.

But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.

Accede.

—Access. —Accessory.

Lat.

Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,
ill

Fr.

abscez,

humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,
or
;

;

the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.
Cic.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as
:

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the


; ;

;

ACCRUE
vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.
;

AD
Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.

7

sacristan
clesice

Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

Ludwig.
sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem

dium

accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.

The

original

meaning

of

would thus be to perform the
;

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance
is

Grimm

akran,

fruit,

;

;

Achromatic.
free
tive,

Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe
!

and Ache.

A

is

your

joy.

same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the
rest,

Kilttn.

cries of grief.
is

The

Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some
impending

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.

—A

of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion

a.

;:

8

ADAGE
Adage.
Lat.

ADJUST
W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.

OHG

adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be

'

'

swouning,

—to

dawne

that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.
;

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.
9.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs
I

or

com

or

addle

my

ninepence every day.

— Hal.

hay

Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,
:

'

;

A

attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly

satisfactory,

were

it

not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo
its

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run
crease.

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

ADJUTANT
Dte
sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

ADVOCATE
Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.
to

9
puts

that

one

was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and
title

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
to
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival

E.

advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,

'

Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.
from
videri,

;

Captain-general Church.

of

the

Holy Roman with
The
'

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.
Sire,'
'

Hence

In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.
;

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be

wouM

So

that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.

ded

That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to

;

We

flatter.

from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,

Adult.

grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.

Whence

He

Weened

looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,
son,

boy,

lo

ADVOWSON
call for help, to

AJFRAY

to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal

person

ket,

Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded
was
c?i}ii^6.

the cause of another,

who whence
a

patromis.

afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after

Advowson.

From

the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in
affeerers

Due.
Affiance.

—Affidavit.

From_/?ifi?j,

was

formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to
;

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.
like

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.
fil,

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And

putte

hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon

hit

walde him

for-

Adze.

AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.

wSisthetios.
oiT0i)mc,

The

science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —

;

AFFRONT

AGHAST

n

eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under

Tho

in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.

With

The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to

Gower

in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.

The

Jam.

Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.

;

AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose
;

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,
to
irritate;

agga, to
to

irritate,

disturb.

gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

horror.
the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.
.

The French exclaimed
All the whole

vi.

Probably the word

may be

explained

.

;

12

AGISTMENT
Fris.

AIM
dial.

In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-

from

guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.

—Baker.

;

;

Fr.

had ghir,

to

lie

;

whence
;

giste,

a

able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.
;

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan
fits

Ague.

A fever

Journal.

Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.
'1

Si

non qu'une

fiivre

aigue vous presse

les cotds.

Raynouard.

The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.

A

On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue

A

Aid.
tare,

Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-

;

tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,

For

in

swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve

Whan

that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a

Agog.

quagmire.

— Hal.

'

He is

all

agog to

go.'

shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,

To
;

'

A

!

;

AIR
his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.

ALERT
tions.

13

— —

Las.!

Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched

me

!

Alas

M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.

—Raynouard,
me
I

You have how Uttle

it

given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

Alchemy.

The

;

A

;

;

;

;

.

;

;

!

A

;

;

14

ALGATES
som a
fair

ALLAY
gull
saei.'

Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
another.
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was

as

used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.

Always
manner

itself is

Algebra.

From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as
;

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly

Two

&

Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.

Quo

be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran
;

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was
this,

— Catafogo.

To
alienus,

alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,
Lat.
foreign.

Alien.

And

make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
That
shall alegge this bitter blast,

ybore.

To Alight.
(from
lei,

Dan.
light),

lette,

Du.

ligt,

signify to

lift,

ligten to

And

slake the winter sorrowe.

make

from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have
;

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.

Tempest.

;

So

to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other

ever.

tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-

and

continuance
series,

throughout

an

extended

or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.

!

;

;

ALLEDGE
would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour
It

ALLOW

15

AUggid much of my In the original,
I.fi

languor.

—R.

R.

voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf

ma

douleur.

So

in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.
i

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief
'

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

France.
Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-

And

times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular
octals-jord,
;

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.
'

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic
laws,

—an ancient inheritance, from
and
an

Eetas, antiquitas,

allda-vinr,

alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-

from

aller, to go.

Alligator.

The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded
;

Two

i.

'

i6

ALLOT
il

ALMS
week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que

English
This
First

:

And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.

think

age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a
'

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to
tie
;

alligare, to tie to, to unite.

'

The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to
'

Almanack.

'

coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.
It.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to
hire.

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont
'

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare

and

allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the
'

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—
i\iriiio(Tvvri,

Alms.

— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals

'

would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

ALOFT
dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a
fices

AMAY
;

17

were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.

To

Alter.
it is

To make something
;

ot'vr

cupboard.

Almonarimn,

almorietum,

than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,

luft,

ON.

lopt,

loft,

OE.

lift,

the

air,

the

another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,

to

on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
sky.
*
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;

Kil.

eral.

Trop fesoient miex

cortoisie

A

Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and
;

A

toute gent

lonj: cc

que

erent..

Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.

Hence
initial

selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of
place,

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,

A

quell.

and dlugo,

long.

Upon

the walls the Pagans old and
still,

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the

The

Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.

hwom

OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,
dull,
spiritless,
;

to abate,
G.

matt,

faint.

It.

matto,

mad,

foolish

wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.
;

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.
R.

R

1737.

In the original

Derived

—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to
;

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,

&c

To Amay.
dispirit
;

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,

Altar.

The

fire-place

on which

sacri-

despond

;

desmayar
2

se,

to faint

;

OPort.

i8

AMBASSADOR

AMERCEMENT
The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was

And
So

his
all

menye

at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and

for

He

amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms

are,

according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a
ant,
;

serv-

OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,
ambaht,
office.

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time

;

the

word was becoming

obsolete.

Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '

;

'

'

'

'

:

;

'

:

'

A

;

:

;

;

AMNESTY
cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.
First,

AN
for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and
also,

19

an

al

hys ost

An

thogte anon

amorwe

strong batayle do. R. G. 319.

Secondly,

and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.

Which

Affeer.

were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I

man

Amnesty.
fivao/iai,
I

Gr.

aiivijirTHa

{a

priv.

&

remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if

(/"and

and if

or simply

an

I

pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest
sei-vant

my

boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou

dalliest,

then

I

am

thy foe.
in

Ben Jonson

R.

In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.
;

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is

extremely

difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against

evil.

From

Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.

To

give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,
sensible
level.

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as

The

upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand
;

;

;

2 *

;

20
these

ANA
propositions
as

ANGER
equally

thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;

certain,

wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.
;

'

'

'

when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of
ality

— Palsgr.
forth.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,
ing.

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.
AS.

;

See Atom. Ancestor.
Lat.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense
;

;

;

'


;

Pied. Diez.

Sicil.

anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na
That
is

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.

Ancle.

Bruce,

i.

235.

bably

Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,

I

have had.

— R.

R.

Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.

;

;

And.

See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.

andela,

hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the


; ;

;

ANGLE
compression, tightness.
pressed,
tus,
strait,

ANTHEM
G.

21

narrow;

eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the
;

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.
;

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium
;

'

aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
in
odi, hate, disgust
; ;
;

;

'

;

the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.
spirit,

life

Anodyne.

Gr.

avt\ioq,

from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,

oSvvrt,

pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,
Gr.
dvdifioKoe
(a

to blow.

Anomalous.
and
i/iaXbg,

priv.

glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.
fire

To Anneal.

To

level,

fair),

irregular, devi-

And
I

lilce

a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-

tinually.

aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

Answer.
in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,

to

From

AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on

fire,

and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to

engage

for, to

assure.

Marsh.
* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.

The

Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.

What

in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.

A

surimitation of the ancient models. to have. Antique. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. but the expresent day. separate. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. E. to imitate gestures. avri^ava. panar. Antidote. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. left as the . one having wealth. which by anvild. some one. a puppet or an anti^hona. d. in Shakespear. as the Italians. as posticus. Aperient. and devils. Lat. a block to hammer on. — — — . which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. rich. from an. . the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. : .th centuries the recognised models of antic. Mannequin. before. press. Fr. whence anthem. to sound in answer.. a preventative . and claret wine. such as savages. choke. anxius. were andouiller the second. cenig. Fr. to nourish. Aphorism. See Cover. to strike. set aside. from eigan. were chiefly of the former class. Apartment. AS. ambeld. inAgain from the same author cudis. trouble. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. Thus from gabe. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. antifena. Lat.is to be given. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. Ilvtwotov. Gr. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. on. from avTiipoiuia). Ful- Apanage. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Antler. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Percutere. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. fauns.D.made out. to strain. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. from ante. should be received. G. white. anapoz. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. ab. eigs. from an and — - . Hence the applica. i. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. burnished. anticus. Gr. swaged. a small quantity. from the imitative habits of monkeys. anfilts Pl. from. work. all of gold. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. anxi. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices.— . as from as. villan Gloss. amboltj Du. As the browcalled antiques. aside. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. finally applied to a whether grotesca. panis. to strike G. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. a definite . wealth. ReApe. or antique single chamber. Otfried. something ler in R. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Fr. part.—Aperture. before. of. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. from in and cudere. incus. from. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. So Lat. Anvil. stem. To ape. Anxious. strangle. d<popi(xnbs. a few. Prov. AS. what Roman civilisation. a gift. to open. Lat. younger child. three antike pillers. like a jack-pudding. Gr. antefn. one at the least. andouillers. plenteously with red. Apartment. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. bread. to support. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. Any. and ig. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. from ango. from Stephanus. or in a ridiculous dress. af. aperio. apatiar. transferred to the grotesque characters. Antick. In like manner. post. the anticks — behind. To go antiquely. Hall's Chron.legacy of given against. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. vex. apanage. gabeigs. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. —Spencer. Pezron fiUist. verberas. whence Prov. Jorioc. apertum. as we call it. one. to go in strange disguises. to display pario. Apart. a termination equivalent to Goth. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. to bring forth. AS. Lat. separate purpose.

apropchar. agreeing with "LtA. one the MLat. — dirondtfiu. pertain or belong to. rise to \t. aptly. —^Apparent. piteux poind. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to rate. in Chaucer. prize. peler. diroTrXriaatii. approcdare. habilUr. Gr.parecchio. Cotgr. — prehendere. horror. Walach. Apple. appris. and in the sense of condition. value apprdder. array. Pliny. from aTroorlXXu. apropid. ^wss. properly to join like to like. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. And whanne sum men Lat. to approve.pareil. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. w. order. off. were formed appropiare ejar. whence the e. 'LaX. ai. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. apal. 5w. (cited by Diez from a late author). to strike down. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. to suit. obolys. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. From Lat. like. to learn. when the . ciously than nede is. apprentis. from. e. allow. taking. pronounce fitting). — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. The Fr. to assign or grant over unto. jabloko. landmark. to be open to view. quoth the frere. in data. agree. prover.—Apprentice. A — . Fr. to commend. to call. Gr. to mark to define a bound. apin R. Cent Nouv. to approach. decree. Cotgr. make a composition between parties. dress. appaiser. to Lat. good. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. apprendre. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Fr. to disable oftat. to come near. become dizzy . habiliments. corresp. near. to send off. aparelhar. to send to. one is in. to deaden. And among other of his famous deeds. Apostle. OFr. S^. irpaiKOKiaov. Appease. peace. Yr. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. pragigua or prixcoda. Fr. I prise ware. Parson's Tale. ar. Apo- good time. and also as appraise. away. to deem good. — Appurtenance. to seize. one sent out. to make a thing Apparel. Hence It. — Apprise. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. preparation. to finish a controversy. Gr. APRICOT off. to — . H. in fact. apprise. 'L-zX. to call for judgment. a'^opi'Jw.prix. an epistle or letter.parejo. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. xv. despatch on some service. diroBrjKr}. or E. one for his defence. poind. a thing for one's purpose.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. apar. to dress in this fashion. to store or put Appal. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. Apprehend. Prov. to announce.probare. Prov. To cause to pall (see Pall). appareiller. prohts. D. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to accord. Approach. oVooroXof. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Appareil. approver. apparecchiare. Fr. that it outfit. —Diez. a crime. — Approve. To Appear. to understand. or the like. Fr. to set a price on. to lose one's senses. From Gr. approcher. opportunity. the good. Epistle. Fr. plight. kind of action. 23 . praise. appartenir. manner. Cotgr. Lith. from paix. AS. Palsgr. fit- — ness.his giving evidence against his principal. : — — speak 'Lz. apal. To Appraise. To praise. and appoinder (to find fitting. From Lat. after his mind . avail. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Friar's Tale. to take away or lose the vital powers. They were considered To Appoint. Ir. like. i. Fr. APO sentence opoQ. Fr. iwKjToKri. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. trim. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. prope (comp. appellare. purpose. probare. par. known. 11. Nouv. to catch hold of. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Apotliecary. to — — . was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. proper time came. to deter- to strike. . N.— . Fabian in R. word was specially applied to clothing. lAfiaam. Sp. a learner. laven is used both as E. d-n-o. Yr. Apoplexy. in commendation. En peach. ap. esteem. whether through age or sudden teiTor. They werin his approvirs privily. Hence appoind. consent unto. . seiden of the stones.t. apprehendere. ON. to fit. diminutive pariculus. pronounce good. appareo. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. case. Mod. of. It. equal. find Then like Fr. to which it is often referred. Lat. An old appalled wight. Gr. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. The PI.propius). . pretium. set a price on. mine. in good season prendre son d. a price. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. cepl. poind. to learn. Formerly apricock.

as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. delon. wata. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . con. The loss or addition of n very common. arbitror arwaaja. arwaus. Pr. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. a river. arpa. OE. and taken away before dessert. . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. arbiter in re censendS. ear. rofe and all. account for either of these significations. Lat. to plough. arbitrium. — .' —About. doubtless is the origin of E. however. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. 331. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. It may be doubted.) E. 31. words derived from arpa. intensitive of nape. naperon. and the one who gives oracles. to preserve it from stains.. 2. tion under trial. aqua. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Gr. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. Naprun. scr. proper. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. water Which that benchid was. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. P. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added.o. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. opinio. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. suitable. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. Flower and Leaf. and a protection of the clothes. is taken in is a soothsayer. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. be That it inne groweth. This path Aqueous. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. aha. a soothsayer. however. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. and with turfis new Goth. sestimatio arbitraria. Lat. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit.meaning at Shrewsbury. Arbour.sors. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. ahva. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. aro. or barm-cloth. Now we find in Fin. J. la nappe. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. A. shortdr. sorcerer. the spelland umpire. pracoqua was not an adapt. arwelo. From OFr. grande nappe. short. nected. to decide by lot. aptus. Pm. . a lot. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. aestimo. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. of of divination arpa-mies. Aquatic. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. a lot.] in the N. as an eye-witness. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. She made. divining rod. sortium ductor. Prol. Now one of the points — — — . The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. Albanian. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. herbere. and sortilegus ation. or eft. Arbitrate. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. Hall. Thus we have natiger and auger. properly the arwella.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. arbiter. hariolus arpelen. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Beryn. a pleasure-ground. found in Fin. symbol. . as ihe diminutive. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. and thence fit. ughe. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. quod he. Alban. auguror. Marsh. Maan initial . a lot. conjicio. ap. {mies ^=ia3. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. fastened close. Freshly turnid Arable. man. Roquefort. a cloth. . Lat. It is certain that the apricot oracle. aa. C. As is a pretty parlour. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. nawl and awl. From OE. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner.shrubs {arbor). P. derived. garden. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . — napkin is Naperon. OHG. conjectura conjec^ra. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve.

from areo. weapon. 3340. earg. Perhaps erz-wticherer. wanton. arsum. * ArchjAiTaxit. ON. G. earm.. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. Applied in modern E. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. ancient. high. sly. receptacle where the public acts were kept. arwe. contemptible. apxtipfve. Aristocracy. raineno. an extent of flat surface. as in E. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. det arrigste snavs. Arduous. D. Sax. Arch in composition. arm'ee. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. ill-tempered. signifies chief or principal. . TiKToiv.aioj. curved line. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. troublesome. make clear or prove. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). bad. man. a bow. weapon may be simply an application of annus. the most arrant trash. et vulgari verbo. Lat. a burning or setting on fire. Lat. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. arson. un petit rusd.' Lex. erg. apx^iv. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. sly. faint-hearted. timid. Fr. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit.is the natural weapon of offence. Lat. to be in comp. — Wtb. arrant Arms. stuff. to dry. It. arma. which is derived from it. a threshing-floor. arch-bishop. i. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. Cot. From apxeiov was formed Lat. arcus. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition.In E. archangel. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. a court yard. Lat. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. ardor. un malin enfant.4 rir/. malicious. fabricate). argvitugr. From the verb armare. arguo. aj-f. to burn . arg. arga. to rule. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. een erg kind. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. curved. Fr. fainthearted. A construct. mischievous. ruling by the nobles. Du. worker. Brem. a branch. 2. ardre. from nixa. taxed with cowardice. sluggish. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. ^Argument. Arid. kpxi- beginning. to be on fire. arduus. Gr. mischievous. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . whence the body of the nobles collectively. erz in G. apxtlov. . Gr. a. arrig. an arrant rogue. Arcliives. armata. ers-betriiger. government. and not with apx. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Uo^a^. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Fr. the court of a magistrate. ars. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. an arch boy. AS. branch. There can be no doubt that E. an arrant usurer. Lat. arm. vescovo. Lat. gwyrek. a noble. to demonstrate. is essentially the same word. it signifies roguish. Ardour. bad of its kind. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. argr. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. and must be identified with Dan. as the arch of a bridge.' Paul Warnefrid. the terminaGael. a rule (princiruler. aridus. arcA in e. Ardent. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. vocaveris. to arm. apxh. apxri. Sp.. Arcadia in R.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. ardeo. Arson. Gr. The .— Army. lofty. especially shoulder-joint. And thou as arwe coward. to Arch. — Architect. while the Fr. wretched OE. armada. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. G. ramo (pi. shoulder. the best. bravest. . ' — Argue. gwyro to bend. the a brute. W.' the Gr. which has been referred to W. burning heat. Area. patus). exercise lordship). area. in Due. first. Langobard. a bare plot of ground. Gr. armee. Alisaunder. earh. bad. ein arger knabe. . by Russ. Dan. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. ramend). an arch-deceiver . Lat. rame. Lat. erz-bischof. are formed the participial nouns. a chief builder. arm. Arm. . Du. ardIn G. adjective. morally bad. forearm . as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. difficult to reach. and Kpurka. shoulder Boh. and our army.

;


; ;

26

AROMATIC
dispose,
see

ARSENAL
prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.

order,
is

The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from

apufia,

sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and

;

;

;

;

;

.^

From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

Jamieson.
orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.
Ptg.

Arrack.

araca,
;

From

Arab.

a7-ac,

sweat

to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize

seems

;

his person.

To Arrive.
come

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming

;

more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the
^

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and

Saga

ciple

It.

Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.
'

To Array.
or

It.

dispose

beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,

and

in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,
is

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament

OFr.

array er,

arrier,

to

of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the

:

:

ARSON
Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

AS
and
thence the modern Fr.
atelier,

27

—Engelmann

a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod

eligantur

duo

vadant

cum

officiali

Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense

Arson.

See Ardent.

Art.

in the production of

;

:

trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.

omnes
of

alias artillarias sibi

com-

A Statute
qui

Edward

II.

was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the

We

of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the

Book

of

bow and

'

'

'

'

'

Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,
;

xii.

795.

word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,
;

xii.

782.

Quod

sit

i.

e.

whom men

held as without equal of
'

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis

dicta.

—Due.

his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er

ist,'

—such a one

28
.

ASCETIC
R. Brunne.

ASSASSIN
synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.
.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.

En

But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.

etclenk-

=

;

;

alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.

^

Askew.
schief,

ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,

schdf,

wry

Hence
Ash.

the idea of exercising rigorous
I.

self-discipline.
2.

The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.
Dust.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.
;

Ashlar.
Sc. aislair.

Hewn
'
:

stone.
le

OFr.

aiseler,

From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put

Entur

temple— fud un

out of

its

place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz

awry.

Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a
the

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam
then,

in centering. in

Aisselier,

carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or
esselier,

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.
;

A

;

— —

;

'

;

;

;

;

; ;

ASSAY
of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.
;

ASSOIL
to fix

29

these behests, the

name

a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—

de

I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,
'
;

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
weight.
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.

OE.

Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it

in

weighing,

a

trial,
;

standard
i^ayiiiZui,

weight.

And

suffice

not for asseth.

—P.

Plowman,

'Efayioj/, pensitatio

examine,
ampu-

p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus
tetur,

And
left to

Pilat willing to

make

aseeth to the people

in

Due.
tit

quoque,

fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,

quemadmodun

vultis ponderate.

—Zeno,
the

ibid.

gio, a proof, trial,
;

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe
'

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.

satis-

facio.

rise

'

;

—Vulgate.

'

simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.
.

From

Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,
Pol.

syt, syty, to satisfy.

satisfied,

full

;

The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.

;

samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as

thai
I

harde say.
in

Wyntown

Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set
;

;

Jam.

day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse

And

iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,

;

Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a

Y

;

;

;

30

ASSUAGE
pour.

ATTAINDER
Atmosphere.
Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges

Atom.

and

Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,

&c.

To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei

Were

wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.
ripe

Mais moult m' assouagea
translated

1'

oingture

—R.

R.

wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,

Lod.

Is

there
?

division

twixt
;

my

Lord and

Cassio

Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult
breathing.

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love

I I

would do much
Othello.

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.

The

idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one

Or

amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.
;

Fab.

et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.

oneden

Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.
;

put

Pm.
Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,
;

stunned.
Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the

Astute.

Asylum.

to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.
;

commence war
;

to

engage in battle
fire

il

on

:

globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or

;

ATTIRE
convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the
attitude.

AUGER

31

ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,

Attorney.

Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed

by

put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est
cil

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.

Auburn.

Now

applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call
hair,

tress.

The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good
navie.

—Ibid.

The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-

By

tores,
isti,

&c.

Men

&c.'

—Due.

Hoc

viderunt et audierunt
is

At the present day the term

confined

Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.

attour.
Polit.

— R. R.
ajuster,

Songs.

OFr.

to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.

atirer,

attirer,

atirier,

See Oaf
holes,

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer
:
:

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.

—Palsgr.

Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible

prima

facie to say

whether an n has


;

;• ;

32

AUGHT
in the

AVER
the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,
;

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.

Avalanche.

A

fall

of

snow

sliding

down from higher ground
Carp.

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a
thing.

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.

A

!

They

left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.
!

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.

A

Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.
!

venire, to

come.
;

Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.

A

and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied
airbc,

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,

.

power.

Automaton.
udoiim,
I stir

Gr.
;

avrSixarot,

self-

moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,

and

noua

Autumn.
times

myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou
averia,

;

AVERAGE

AVOID
mes
avei-s.
I

33

of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.

il

oocist

We

The general meaning damage by accident or

;

'

;

'

'

'

'

3

;

34

AVOIR-DU-POISE
Here the word may be interpreted

AWARD
^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the
:

modern meaning.

So
:

in the following
I

A

passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do

dissuade

Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.

And

my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted
bid
ieria,

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.

Prov.

avoutrador, OE.

avowterer,

an
;

adulterer.

A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):

;

;

-

superior.
Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-

modo

Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.

cabit,

nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.

;

;

AWE

AWK
I

35

—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.
is

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were
three,

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.
reken,
I

barons the wisest that

And
And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look
let

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons

That

hii

and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.
;

To

stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was
this;

lo

1

That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.
;

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.

Ac

is

That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.

—Holland,
of,

Pliny in R.
a/,

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.
lb.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

no.
Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.
;

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;
ofiig-fleiri,
left

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,
terrify,

a

flat-fish

with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo

w

Awgrim.
As

Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri
;

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,
foolish,

mad.
different G.

And no

thing availith.

The
p. 414.

Political

Poems, Cam. Soc.

ous

;

forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *

;

36
sinister
;

AWL
d.
dial,

BABE
abech,
dbicht,

primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
abich,
; ;

The

Awl.

ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,

ever.

alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,

Awn.

A

Esthon. aggan,
*

chaff.

or

Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may
;

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,

by

Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.
:

;

B
To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe

On

this

matere

I

might

Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.

P.

same meaning with
the syllable ma.

babble

was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;

:

;;

BABOON
prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a

BACKET

37

plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age

mamma

or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty

work

There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had

;

any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape
;

;

inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-

backwards,

verted

;

Russ. opako, naopako, wrong

paki

man. Bachelor.
root.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.
girl,

servant,

make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to
;

;

;

;

;

A

;

A

was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,
bachalUer,
;

young

soldier,

;

;

Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j

It.

bacinetto,

a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open

;

38
;

BACKGAMMON

BADGER

Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.

—H^cart.

Baokgammon.
(also bakke-bord),

a

tray,

From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur

(says

Ducange)

doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.
'

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or
;

by Shakespeare
blood.

in the sense of dabbled.
all

Their hands and faces were

—Macbeth.

badged with

ODu.

The

Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.

(insignc)

feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer

Now
les

(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the

sow.

analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the

Bad.

G. base,
I

Du.

boos,

malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus
a
little

perversus, malignus.

Unconnected,

Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et

A

caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on

Bage

signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,

would

The

For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a
;


;

;

BAFFLE
skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie
;

BAGGAGE
man
is

39

and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is

A

We

;

;

;

We

;

:


:

;

f

undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.
;

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Derived
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,
tie,

Baggage.

— —

40.
'

BAIL

BAIT
half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.
'

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.

Bailiwick.

The

vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,
i.

e.

servuli,

Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive

officer

limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.
son
et
d'elle.

hommage

— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam

'

lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,
;

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.

;

'

BAIZE
to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.
signified
ball.

BALDERDASH

41

made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely
;

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,
beta,

beita,

Sw.

spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;

fledged.

Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,
is

.

.

Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white
its

skin above

beak.

The

real identity of the

word bald

in

'

;

;

;

the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.
;

;

en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to
;

His head was hallid and shone as any

glass.

Chaucer.
Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;

bdl,

bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,
;
;

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,

;

;

;

;

;

palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it

or

ceiling

scaffold.

;

chatter,

talk

;

dov-dask, chatter
;

fit

to

Fl.

deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a
;

Q. * Balk. a. e. balloon. a ball or pack. balle. pallukka. a ball. bal. the beam of a ship. TtaKKa a pail or tub . at giore en balk. Baulke of land. a ballad. Hence Dan. taich. maleficium. on the shore. bolyaf. torment. ballet. hue et illuc inclinare. to shake or jog. to on Holmedon's plain. 2. are applied to a From the same analogy. maan pallikka. balken. bacgtteter. a beam. to partition off . balken. lealo. Bret. Sw. a clod of earth water. bealwes. floor. Wotton. trouble. ache. F. dial. Ballot. ballare. baalien. Da. Du. destruction. balkr. ing. G. a boil. It. To baulke the Sir H. In like manner Fr. a washing-tub. . To Bale out water. a partition. Sw. Da. to pack Da. a together in the form of a ball. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. a water-skin dim. bielke. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. bolker. bdlkr. Ballata. baler. ON. to plough for a boundary between lands. mass. to stir. the object of his expectation. blister. Grief. whether of wood or stone. Gr. to rock. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . to bale out. balveins. a skin.Lat. a dance. balk. plague. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. .of men . to roll. a pail. Ball. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. to be ill. beaten road. OHG. Fr. Bowl. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise.Fr. balle. says Ray. Mid. bola. a clump . wickedtorment ON. Russ. ban. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. misery Du. vcdra bdlkr. bolawy. Fr. Bohem. N. ballare. to plank. ball. pallo. ne leaving any balke. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. OFr. bal-daed. a wooden partition . which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. to by beams. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. ballar). to speak an un. bjdlki. i. bala. bold. a ball. It.' speak gibberish champurrar. A balk. It. Fin. It. Sw. afbalka. ball. 3. (Hesych. hooting. from bacquet. on. to ache. bollr. dial. Sw. to see-saw. balka bunge. Boll. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a ball. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. See Gall. to signify washy drink. shouting. a division of the old laws. . ballotta. Pol. . a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. ' is a piece or confused talking. from the more general notion of moving up and down. balka hopar. It. chapurrar. on. to Not sparing wight. The primary sense seems as in G. malefacGower in R. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. as we say. balge. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. gen. a scene acted in dancmg. ill. G. balle. tum. ballan. wickedness ness . a ball. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . to dance. I. Rouchi ban. a pill.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. calamity. dial. w. dial. palcare. Sw. Sw. vacillare. balva-vesei. ball. Sw. a ballot). heap up. balk. . to paddle in water . a But making way for death at large to walke. bol. boll. pilula. palloilla. sickness. the ballet of the theatres. pallikka. sorrow. balk. bal.— Ballet. pain. to move. to grieve . grieve . globule. a dance. Ball. a globe. baalie. Sw. to be balker. OSw. bbllr bulla J. We have then separate dial. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. pila. cka. Du. the breadth from side to side . to avoid it. and the dim. a balk of foul weather. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. as in a barn or cow-house. Gael. palla. . to ail. a clapping or flapping of wings. Balloon. weak liquor. may exhibit the original development of the signification. with the perhaps from balg. stage or scaffold. a bubble. Hence. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). a separate portion. balare. Fr. bal. separaison. AS.—Ballad. probably Lat. balka. ballo. Perhaps on. a beam. ball. Bale. boleii. similar connection is seen in Sp.ing. ballone.). balja. Sp. . a continued noise of waves gently beating . a great ball. on. balle. — A — — . a pestilence. Goth. pallo. E. balla (with the augm. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. roof. to dance. a ball balla. bolyatchka. package of goods. to wave. Ugutio in Due. Venet. other while. uveirs bolk. balk. sick. ballare. baloier. to cause another to miss pustule. bol. Dan. and evil in general.

Bret. ballast. lestage. a useless load. a false tale or jeer. more serious objection is . bambocciolo. balconies. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. To proclaim. enchanter. a nettle. curse. bertesca. to walk. It is explained back by Adelung. an Old dotard or imbambolare. terraces. i860.. bam. Du. a fragrant gum. lastra. is in Sweden and Norway. Sept. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. ballustre) is a corruption. balustrade barandilla. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Balluster. astonished. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. Dan. ranked on the outside of cloisters. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. back of the ship. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. deceiver. analogous to what is seen in It. Balm. lastagium signified not only ballast. If bambocciolare were child of one. inutilis sarcina. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. make fun of a person. Gr. Ballast. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. But Fr. R.' And Kil. railing around altars. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. a small balustrade. A — — . urtica. barauste. Bret. command. Cotgr. Venet. the flower of the pomegranate. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. of balusters. more frequently than outward-bound. from bara or vara. to enchant. Fr. To make fun of a person. baranda. last. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. To Ban. . a young babe. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. explains ballast. ballustres. paid for the right of carriage. Sp. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. To deceive. little round and short pillars. puzzled. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. Report Pennsylv. The Baltic sea. bamboccio.000 tons. for want of other freight. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. To Bam. bag-lest. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. Fr. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. bumbazed. The Sp. the act of walking. sorcerer. because. the backload. bambolo. and Mid. or movement of one who walks. by met. baUa. &c. as he says.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. 1.Lat. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. for a load or goods (Roquef. in the first place. balsamum. a duty on goods last. When a ship discharges. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon.that the going vessels. ^Arbuthnot in R. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. objects to the foregoing derivation. small railing. lest. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. but loadage. In OSw. or ballast of a ship. Balsam. ^a\Ba\iov. baume. Bamour. This is the backload.). baltresac. — — oltriga. &c. from Lat. a battlement . like Fr. inutile onus. barandado. It. Lat. baU. . fonts. denounce. galleries. age. a rod. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. bag-las. mare Balticun. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. Mr Marsh whether the a load. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. To Bamboozle. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. 43 — Cot. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. also with flatteries and . forbid. called Bait. bamein. deceive. It. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. seems the original form of the word. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Lest. lastre. 1854. Said to be from balaustia. endormir par des contes. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Sc. to preserve equilibrium. dial. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. Baltic.

cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. ligue Taboada).the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. 26. populum. to follow a faction. in Fr. etc. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. banda. whether by way of injunction or for- command. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Commun^ment son bandon.is further developed. he assembled his host. It seems this signification has arisen. band. Baud. &c. to ctide. ba?idare. faction. to ban. in hostem convocare. bannire in exercitum. Bandus. bound. eiiseigne. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. he bannede his ferde. acquired the sense of proclamation. passing on from proclamation to command. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. sostener Torriano. 813. Thus the word is also used in both senses. band. the ensign or banner. at his own discretion.e. — excommunication bann-lysa. to publish) banna. to side or to bandy (Florio). v. to bring corn to be fahne. Ripuar. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. See Abandon. Cot. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Sp. — To partito d'alcuno. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . 15. D. bande. fahne. It. Assises de Jerusalem. also the band or of marriage. — R.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. To Bandy. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. curse. Sp. Se il — Romance languages. admolendinum. authority. flag. Leg. Capitul. Car. bande. biddal. Sw. bande. banns pany of footmen serve. Band. Goth. —R. In Fr. It. and in E. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS.. . parti. margin. to excommunicate {lysa. R.—John Villani in Due. 1. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. a coast. summoning to serve So in Swiss. A. permission. change to the feminine gender in banda. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. a company. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. says Muratori. In a special sense the term company itself. Les saiges avait et les fols d. i. R- He Translated by Chaucer. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. from at the Lord's courts.^ bandy. Diss. bindan. to . The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. 'A son bandon.Lat. side. hoc est vexillo. Fr. . From the verb to banda. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. It. bandon somewhat party. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to unite with a band. ex. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Bandear. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. region. to take one to task. is That with which anything AS. bandi. to reprove. banda the colour or material. and thence to any proclamation. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. banda. side. bann. then the signification w. &c. Spebifid. Mag. Fr. to form parties. power. bannum or bandum. bando. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. tener da alcuno. E. bandon was used in the same sense. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Wyntoun. bundun. bannire exercitum. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. those who side together (bande. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. 2. banner marked the place of assembly. OE. 19. we constantly find the expression. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. G. There is some doubt how Fr. The to . Goth. border. and It. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. theodscipe ut abannan. bandera ground at his mill.

to bend a. a blow. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. se joindre. . Bandy legs are crooked legs. desk. bandear. a de Vaud. ON. — Kil. Bacon in R. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. clouds. seat . beat. g. canis vinculis assuetus. — Fr. s'associer. ON. a bench. beating. Mid. dorsum was applied to ject. to work in wood. Diaconus in Due. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. banc G. language of W. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. See Balluster. b'ang. It is in this sense nounce. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. banka. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. . participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. and hence. bandire. hricg. to beat. . banish. death-sickness. bank of Dan. Bandy. The child cries bang! fire. Your stool. se reunir. a long raised seat. Sw. the slope of a hill. pastoralis. banke. in the same way that E. A Shipman's Tale. band-dog. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). banco. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Fr. to slay. From Mid. bana. put under the ban of the law. Ripuar. &c.HG. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . a rising bank. of bandying words. large dog kept for a guatd. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. the former Fr. It. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Bankrupt. at canis peciiarius. to cabal. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. E. — — whence E. back of a knife. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. shoal. To Bandy. It. in R. bow. and bakki. AS. benk. counter. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Benchi. a counter. bana. bander tin arc. bana-sott. roupt. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. 2. broken. to hammer in a nail. Africa. Bane. death-blow . and poise Their lighter wings. Bantze. and OFr. forbear this outrage. It. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. Diez. Brewer. The ridge of a hill is AS. as of an explosion or a blow. Draw. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. &c. Benvoglio. bank. eminence. that the word is used by Romeo. Goth. Milton in R. a bench. a wound OHG. From a desk . disturbance banga. The word is in E. bank of a river. home — Bandog. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. banc. Lingua. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. But natheless wife at I bank. band-hond. to knock. Fl. Bang. tumult bangas. the back. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. a bench. in the sense of a pirate. Banister. bana. The ing. follow a party. When a man fails Lat. bench. a sand-bank. banqueroute. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. to publicly order one out of the realm. bander. death-wound. rap hatike et som The Susu. banca fallita. bander. N. de- party.z. de sable. banja. was formed the OFr. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. bankruptcy. to knock. hammering. distinguishes bekkr. See Band. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Lat. to make a stir banke. a bankrupt merchant. 45 — — Bandit. whence the mod. banca his creditors. bance. AS. — Paulus drive in a nail. Fr. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. bane. among rotta. . Mercutio. the same verb the It. bang. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. bench. panca. has bang-bang. ruptus. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. ON. murderer. . Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. to proclaim. bank. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. See Banish. from banc. Fr. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. eminence. bannire. bana-sdr. Banditti. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Bank.^ knock. standard.: . outlam came to signify a robber. and therefore tied up. a table. bent as a bow. to join in league with others against Cotgn. bakke. in the sense of place of business. With many a stiff thwack. Hudibras. — . Tibalt. destruction . Du. banditti acquired the like signification. —^Vocab. for shame. a bank. to foment factions. Banner. a i. bank of river. stir. Roquefort. many a bang. bandi. Dan.

Barbar.aTa Kul nest.46 BANNERET .. banda hendi. OHG. senheira. senhal. ing term appears in other languages. It. a ban. top. Gr. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. Gr. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. barriire. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. benda. — We A . or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. Thus Ovid. Banneret. Barb. Hence ner. E. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. the word came to signify rude. E. a. The barb of an arrow is the sign . indeed. i. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. . barre. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. The spar. rarii. E. According to Diez the It. banchetto. Fr. probably corSymbol. an animal a year old. knight Bardd. In a similar manner are formed yearling. hence a repast. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. to dip. or of this bantering.8ap6^o)voe. brushwood. It may be thing. Banquet. barba. &c. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. a bearded or Cot. To Banter. privileged to raise Barbarous.hinder. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. a which the barrister addresses the court. chan. iandvo. Celtic bar. branch. Bret. from the same source. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Sw. milites bannarii. banneret was a higher class of knights. Lat. a barrier or stoppage. Lat. banne. Lat. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. to bend. summit. out of a wound. himself in Pontus. Leduchat.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. branches of a tree {gwezen. by a repetition of the syllable bar. barrack. Duo. jSdirTO). bannereti. A It. manu anto make signs nuere. banniire. heri-pau. It. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet.. that the noise of voices Bantling. and it was accord. which is surely in barbed arrow. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. sparre. and he would seem to derive Goth.cruel. Fr. Flesche barbeUe. It. banda. bar. barrou-gwez. to beckon . jSa'pjSapoc. and the work is done.— Swift in R. to wash. and from ensign or banner Prov. dim. speaking of battle. G. as they call it. barrer. from reifa. men. token. in Gr. a sign. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. 3. Fr. The original import of their own banner in the field. BARBAROUS reiflingr. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. remarked. inferior to a baron. To mock or jeer one. nestling. &c. Gael. ^oTrriKio. a tree).the analogous syllable viur. barbe. to wrap. to having that signification. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. sign. a bench or table . ingly very generally known by a name branches. rod of any rigid substance. banneret. uncivilised. says. Fr. a beam or long pole of wood. Barb. Bap. a war-beacon or war-signal. barreau. and even of calling it banter. either in the Gr. and with an initial s. inur. would rupted from Fr. merki. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. Fr. then branches. sbarra. barde. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. of banco. then fell among the foot. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. wrapped. a bantling. sparro. such as the Roman Eagle. senhal. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. ban- Baptise. banner. Fr. period vexillarii. The origin is in all probability Goth. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. barra. barbarus. bandva. of a sign in general. ON. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. barbed or trapped as a great horse. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. 2. bandiera. OFr. Hence Fr. senh. ON. Barbe. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. OHG. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. arineXov. of wind. —Cot. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. signuin. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking.

— — Pm. borbulhar. guazzolare. baragouin. Applied in E. baares geld. and Sc. Lucan. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . borbotar. a long saddle for an ass or mule. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. — . barbel. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. is lb. a bardelle. ready money. skirmish. murmur . speak confusedly. and flanks. powdered all over. bardd. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. to bubble or spring up. Sp. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Fr. mutter. barbulla. quarrel . the flap of a hat. scouthouse. coping. barbaris. boil. Barder. w. horse armour covering the front. Diez. to stammer. tree. It. to bubble or boil. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. the quilted with. . guaszare. G. barbar.' Cot. barguigner. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. — Cot. Gr. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. bhasad. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Gr. or more properly (says fer. Barbel. a rumbling. borbollar. barbeter. lb. OFr. Port. twattle. Sp. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. haggle. also to bind or tie across. to grunt. Festus in Diet. in poetic language Bard for poet. berj G. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Bard. ala. barbugliare. Cotgr. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. saddle-cloth. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Hall in R. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Cot. Mod. stutter. which was of talking. barda. also to wallow like a seething pot. border. fortia —Strabo. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. grumble (Lowndes. Russ. Bardeau. i. Bret. upper chamber. bardes. barboter. /3£pjSepi^w. bar. berries. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Pr. on. brabble in the making of a bargain. barda. Fr. back. Etym. skola. waschen.— Fl. such as houses are covered Bardelle. a tumultuous assembly. .— BARBEL merit of water. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. and foolishly. small pack-saddle. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Thus the on. bare baskojis. Bare. to rumble. Fr. a jetty or outnook in a building. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Sp. — — Hence. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Hindost. to mumble or mutter words. to wash. used 2. uncovered. bdsas. to stammer. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. in the sense of fight. tattle. Port. barz. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. unqualified. barbier. Barber. dial. and the word was used in OE. uproar. barbarkama. a shingle or small board. — . Mod. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. Barberry. to It. to prattle. Exposed to view. barbacane. to chafbargain. barS. skirt. Hatt-bard. to barbe or trap horses. Bargain. to boil or bubble up . barefooted Sanscr. as well as the modern twaddle. bdla-khaneh. the beard. to gurgle. bdsiis. barbeum. a pack-saddle. border of a garden bed. albarda'ah. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Barde. The Pers. gibberish. muttering. — — — men. to plash or dabble. as well as thwcEtta. Fr. open. A shrub bearing acid Diet. borborinha. Lex. A7 to the and warlike. Cotgr. borboglio. and in Flanders to vociferate. Lith. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. albardilla. baar. brim. to make an outcry . in Fr. Etym. Arab. bds.) . skialldar-bard. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. /3opj3opwJu. twcEtta. barbeau. It. g. the nakedness of a woman. albarda. name Fr. Fl.) to wrangle. jargon. Barbican. barbelin. axilla. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. But Sp. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald.

^Voc^. put to confusion. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. mhg. disorder. W. bosom . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. bamagh. berm. bargain. barley. baralha. contest. a lantern. Acervus. also a boat . barone. baarm. dispute . Spectacles. as. To Bark. baragouin. as well as Scandinavian tongues. corn-shed. ber (ace. Ibid. dial. a. a heap . v. to all the barca. aheap. See Barm. ON. As Goth. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. bark . hladi. Romance barsie. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. struggle. beorcan. Dan. berm. dispute. am. a stack. limpets. barlys {bara. and ern. Baron. to cheat. in the Brim. baratta. was barlic. plants). baniffa. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barley. adj. houbartij fsnile. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. barn. a beak. Sp. From Fr. E. varen. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. barafustar. bern. one who stirs up strife.' bardagi. then the bows pectus navis. dregs of oil. ThS man was not created for the woman. louzou. barmr. as in the case of Lat. Lith. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. squabble. dispute . barn. strife. a barn. is simply the Bret. hemlock. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. baimeach. to shufSe. w. — Zeuss. barahunda. to chop. limpet. barki. quant a perdu sa barja. On the other hand. skutr. The older form in e. giving rise to It. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Barge. AS. Gl. a boat. the A — Ihre. barretor. a place. but the woman for the man. bcerme. baratta. ON. . baaring. strife. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Vocab. . bread-corn. barja. barlich. baron)^ Fr. contest. Gael. barafunda. a receptacle for barley or corn. * Barnacles. barms. trouble. entangle. fray. barizeins indicates a noun baris.. and hence probably (by a metaphor. bere. Alam. So also ON. to wrangle. barnacles. It. edge. we pass to the vert) barguigner. AS. (Ihre. berm hoys. border. limpets . Rayn. as baces-ern. the rack or manger. chaffer. bern. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. barge. Tarn baronem quam feminam. OFr. Cornub. Barbour in Jam. also to exchange. in Nat. barley. Sp. baarn. at barka. lap. Bark. ON. tumult. barii. bard). OFr. Originally man. to rout. Kil. the slimy substance brewing of beer. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. the fore or after end of a boat . the or prow of a ship. See formed Yeast. quarrel Port. OSw. Ripuar. then honoured man. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. It. quarrel. i. prominent part of a thing. and the word. hlaSa. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell.. baralhar. Bemiques. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. astringent. Bailey. barlys. dispute. bernac. the G. to skin over barkandi. — battle. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Garlick. — de Berri. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. baerm. Isidore in Rayn. bread. bcern. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Port. beer. skuta. Du. Camus. berma. strife. beornt. altercation.Barum vel feminam. Sp. — Barnacle. Manx bayrn. Antiq. baron. Dan. charlock. confusion. dispute barattare.) lihtes-ern. Leg. brenig. hay-loft. and 1. commonly explained from bere. meta foeni. Sw. Prov. The Goth. herbs. and llysiaw. a load. borkr. The origin may be throat. barajar. a heap. prasepe . Swab. a baking place or oven. bosom. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Bret. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. as. ON. kani. wine. So ON. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. 2. name being given to spectacles. berem. . —Bark. Du. tion of the sound. Leg. a lap. to scold. 2. baaren. barn. Barn. . a cap . and is probably a true bartig. Provj bar (ace. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. barnis. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Port. to strive. from an imita- Barley. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . spectacles. Uzen. husband.

barre. baronetti. whence Barrow. It should be observed that. a barrel. a man. bera. a horse. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. and not from Fr. See Bar. ^Barrator. change of goods seems. Bamnculus a baronet. gravis et authenticus vir. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. This word introduced into Fr. Bret. Gael. Sp.— Gibbon. baronuU. bearg . and in several instances. barrique. 1. barrique. barrack. baraignej Picard. The Sp. a hut or booth. staves. Bern. — — 15th Cent. beorg. fallow. calico. baracca. The feudal tenants next Fr. mound. man. a. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. from cavallo. Gael. MHG. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. from a tree to which a man is hanged. todtenbahre. also termed bannerets. by early examples. perhaps through Prov. baronculi. dispute. habeant.have been named from the haggling and gant. Formed from Fr. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Sp.root signifying confused noise. OFr. barril. Bohem. fortification. borov'. bark&n. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a bar. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. a barrow. fear. iver. — A . bara. OE. squabble. ibid. beorgan.' that Barrier. the two names. became bidre. a. over him.. w. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth.parchanttuech. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. AS. seem to be radically the same with Lat. barrila. brushwood. berewe. barraca. implement for carryAS. a castrated hog . E. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. G. signifying. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. beorh. barile. branches. were sometimes confounded. barrier. Bargus or moreland. Barrister. (Schmeller). A. sterilis. hut. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. StiU he shows conclusively. in the first instance. D. bier. 26. which would barragdn. Baron andfemme. Nominale of the from braeckland.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. 2. tomb. the braw. as. vel pretiosos burellos. braeck. vair. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.' Op. an obstruction. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. from beran. ^Vocab. to carry. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. especially those killed in battle. breinej Du. AS. uncultivated. litter. Russ. cise formation of the word. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. — Kil. S. a kind of coarse camlet. semen non accipiens landiEL. bouracan. rolls of Parliament. a hiU. barchent. alongside of barrow. in Nat. man and wife. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. boar. to shelter. booth. baroncelli. Sp. sepulchre. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. heap. bahre. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Fr. It was not until the time of James I. It. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Antiq. barri. then traffick4 Barrow. See Barter. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. strife. a word is always used in the plural number. barBombicinus. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. composed of dry branches ofer. Barrack. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. An ing. bara. a bier. Barricade. vir. Barratry. whenever Barrow-hog. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. garment still used in Morocco. like bargain. cover. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. facture. qui have not much light on the pre. nobles. bredhan. Goth. baragan. gwr. Barren.. shed. Barrel. or simply bahre. barague. to * Barragan. G. as cavalcade. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. Fr. It. Joshua vii. It. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. berwen. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro.

court-yard. unrighteous gain. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Swed. from bere. low. then cheating. chasa ogli a bastard. There is not one that. MS. fornication. AS. baraand especially teria. It.). would be. OFr. Bast. at basta og binda. a king. — in Rich. bdtir. BassuS.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. the a wide open vessel. aiKcig. Barbara de pictis veni patch. basta. lattice-work. Pl. to bind. mock not. a basket masg. him. inclosure. submovet omne Lucan. to deceive. bark. bestcn. Sicamb. bass-matting. To Baste. said Base. See Bath. It. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . back. to cheat. over-reaching. or running away with the ship. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. dwelling. It is mentioned as . bran. as the diadem of the basilisk. Bastard. bestan. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. as It. fits de bas. bastear. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. mavult dicere Roma suam. See Brattice. to long — a British word by Martial. Bass. a ftiesh. . 516. beortun. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. lift me above Parnassus. beretun. chasa. Apparently of Celtic origin. imbastire. To Bask.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. according from Gael. baos. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. to truck. to baste piece of cloth. commonly A joined with the word binda. Fr. Bass. tierer. Bartizan. to bargain. cheating. baste. which sets up its hood when angry. G. F. the manorhousfe itself. the thin skin Dan. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Al is dai. Du. berewic. — Bassoon. but born in baste. baratar. . Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. to stitch . — hanging. hoops of a cask. bds. Fris. to cheat. Fr.' Papias. bas. Kil. a deceiver. n' is n' is bacino. leviter consuere. come near. Gr. from /3aR. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. cog. exchange. he. ^Is de bast. ibid. to baste. barley. a halter. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. a tying. which covers the grain Ger. discourse Nay. Halliwell. netting. Lend me your hands. basso. bast. mean . partieren. Fr. a bass rope. Sw. barter. corn-farm. and Bret. Basilisk. curtus. /«r<fSp. . bast-maatte. Sp. Arthur and Merlini.D. baraet (from Fr. w. pdrdt. ' He was begetin o bast. imbastire. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. baste. shallow. besst-u-b£nd&t. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. more noble in blood than notable in learning. It. preparatory stitching. piiiguis. embastir. ohg. basgod. basta. Bassus. HoUinshed. to bind. It. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. Barton. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). low. MHG. bast. fraud. or wic. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. Sylvester's Dubartas. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. The like property hath the iasilisk. Lap. besst. To stitch. low note. It. a ipgli So Turk. Dan. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. plaiting of splinters basged. found in Turkish . foist in bargaining. baxoj w. ing for profit. Newman. crassus. thick. bareter. It. husk bast van koren. ' Bosworth. flat. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. scale in music. on a. a bastard. fhe outhouses and yards. a court-yard. also to Cotgr. Basket. HaU in HaUiwell. but he dreth presently. The original meaning. Sw. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. to bind hand and foot.' Gl. baratear. God it wot. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is .looketh upon his eyes. barter. i. also the demesne lands of a manor. bast. humilis. PaaiKhms. OFr. pressed down. peel. bast-reb. descended of an honorable lineage. low part of the Hickes in Rich. exchange. rope for — . basso. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. MHG. But according And Dan. Sp. and tun. basg. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Du. lust. Sp. HaUiweU. binding. of the same sense. to Diez. beguile. truck. Dan. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. bassin. baste. A fabulous serpent. stitch. fornication. Isidore. oe.

beysta. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. pre. bast. R. bastir. basa. Derived by Diez from iasi. passage Imbasto. natt-blakka. blatta. set up. translation to a bat. Prov. bastille. frotter. basta. devise. baston. to set on foot a war Bastion. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. cudgelling.baste or knock soundly. boste. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. Supp. but this is hardly satisfactory. . a bird which. a stick. ON. back. bastine. . It. Perhaps baska.stick. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. ment. raise. set up. bdion. to rub gently. frame. blakra. blacta. has bastine. It. Mid. contrive. to quilt or stitch wool into it. to spread bread and butter. p. packsaddle. disposer. staff. a barSp. It. 2. iinbastire. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. to cudgel. the night-jar or goat-sticker. E. to lay the Sp. to build. dial. liiake. Fr. to Due. to whip. 11864. Antiq. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to rub. Bastinado. flyinge best. which in the E. to belabour. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. 'iJipistreUo. vespertilio. bladier. Sp. the bat . Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bastonFr.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. compared with blakka. For the loss of the / in back. Pm. comp. Dan.fortress or castle furnished with towers. or implement for 4 * A . dial. Sp. and Arabs. batta lucifuga. contriving. put it together. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. to thrash . Cot. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. to give him a sound bastingi 3. niammal.— . bastimento. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. and Cot. in the Romance languages. club. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Dan. — — — . as weU as besteau. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. a blow cloth for dinner. the winged . I. blakta.. bastear. bastia. To baste one's hide . to drub. stryk. basto. Sw. business (Altieri). blaka. to beat. whence ledrblaka. a things prepared for future use. To beat or bang soundly. 2. bat. bastonnir. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. blows. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr.'CaB. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. like the owl and the bat. night-bat. military term of a bat-horse). also the ricado. badger. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. — — Fl. provisions. bastida. is explained by Cot. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. to teach one before. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. explains Sp. Rayn. the clapper of a bell. Sw. quelqu'un son roulet. and ditches bastion. the original has corneille.stitching in general. baston. vledermus. Fr. Dieiif. to beat. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. aftonbakke. — Bakke. Florio. to build. bastilde. a blockhouse. a pad or packsaddle. ari instruineht for beating. nade. which to rest the load. Pr. That yche blak y dar wel telle. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. from Fr. vespertilio. Fr. e. to flap. Cot. a pad. blatta.-^ Chaucer. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush.— Bailey. beating. settiilg up. 2. erect. a. iastir. victuals. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. R. bastonada. also to cudgel. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. guerra bastir. To donjon. to stroke. BAT neither. * Bat. bastione. a bastion. Sw. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. bak. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. bakie-bird . For the origin of baston see Baste. Fr. in the use of the E. the E. to pack a saddle i. a sconce. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. 164). a packsaddle. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . stryka. a with a stick. Sw. to devise or begin.Lat. worth (Nat. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . blakka. bastir. Sc. All from bastir.

In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. on the fire. ON. bludgeon. From bat in the sense of rod . Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. better. to fire or in the sun. strife. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. a from ON. betten.Hence in the augmentative form It. bastille. bdhen. Hal. and about an inch thick. To thrive. Sp. Flem. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. It. tagUone. busk. badda. in the case of a wall. and as a verb. from on. Batten. to beath wood Battledoor. dial. — Cot. for biia sik. to thrive. Sp. to bathe oneself. See Better. Batter. bet. Fr. quhar he suld assaill. more. as wood-en. whence the sun burns . and milk beaten up together. also a sun badfish. solbase. to become fat. Pm. bdt. allay . solen baddar. to toast bread. bdda vidjor. bdda. In OE. to be profited. was formed bastilU. Fr. or a dry stick. Plkkis. made of — A made by one Batcii. from battre. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. beat. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. Goth. to beat. the root of e. Bate. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. In some parts of England it is striking. abattre. pak. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. a washing beetle. badda. to beat se battre. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. — — — ' — . wet linen in washing. Bat. From OFr. I baske. to foment. term in falconry . a battalion. to cudgel. batir. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. altercation. Battery. E. lessen. abate. a staff. to beak. sich bakern. Du. basa. baz. by projections or in any licoure. bake. e. to heat . hot. to betake oneself. baeddu. or break down. battle was used beath wood. batte sig. is a simple adoption of Fr. dispute. Pr.— . remit. Gael. To Bate. to warm oneself. an arrangement for giving blows. battre. buask made like a fortress. to refresh oneself in language. Battle. water whether warm or cold. a stirrer-up of strife. battaglia. to warm. To Batten. Pr. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Barbour in Jam. to for fighting. Slav. batterie. to become convalescent. to foment. I. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. PLD. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON.— To Bask. bat. as signifying warm baths. to dial. Ayenst the sunne. batacazo. a main battle. w. to flutter with the wings. cudgel. batna. or make debate. makebate. the heat of the It. Sw. to get better. to heat. made of bats. beat down. to feed. fortress or castle. signifying to give repeated blows. trahtr to It. Battalion. bada. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Fr. battre las ailes. to beat. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. baka. to warm oneself at the fire. G.' Palsgr. battions. A batch as wood. bataille. . heat. gabatnan. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Battlement. Jurgor. baquetazo. of bread is so much baked zX one time. debat. . Jeddris and covering. Holz bdhen. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a beating. to fell. a blow with a light instrument. bat-en. dial. Battery. in the sun. A Bath. The bat with which a brot bdhen. baden. Baka sik vid elld. perhaps first used adjectivally. G. also. howis. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . flour. dial. Pm. Florio. a blow. Mgy. . as E. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. squadron.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. battere. Batyn. Fr. on. Fr. and with staffslyng. tradire. Fr. certain bend. Sw. G. I bathe in water viz. to beat. fashes basking in the sun squadron. to foment with hot applica. badask. to bathe.Bathe. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. batador. a Baiffi. Hence pro. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Bret. Eggs. battere. is in falling. battre. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to fight. Chaucer. a band of armed men arranged basa. Strife. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. then to warm by the application of hot water. Bailey. gebdcke. dial. oneself at the A into faggots. as E. adapted for defence. beat. a stick. It. 2. a battle. quell. — To . gebdck.

divided between black and white. Ball. and to-tore also. baula. expressive of disgust. Fl. Filthy.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. bauU. dial. balGael. Bavin. to trifle away ment. Formed from baw. zano. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. a plot of Chaucer. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. fields. bad. bauch. An analogous noisily. a spot. Gael.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. balbob. Bagdad. having a white streak down Bagdad. is Bagdad stuff. From ! an interjection of disgust. instead oi s. E. whimwham. baudrdj OHG. Baw — . represented by the syllable miau. exactly corresponds Fr. In like manner Grisons filthy. the white of his leg or foot. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). Lat. Piedm. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. — Pm. form with an initial seen in Fr. nastiness.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Beaus^ent. Baldrick. vacillo. P.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. brush faggot. fooleries or fond To Bawl. ground. miauler. also the canopy carried part of his body. as Fr. OFr. the face. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. to make the noise Baudrick. whence the E. ballach.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. pie- . to vociferate. ish baubles. i. to bark. an — — — A — g — — — . a horse marked with a procession. Cloth of gold. From Bret. because made of cloth of white. a tassel or hanging bunch . The It. javelle. spot. guigaw. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. bobine. fagot. to talk Lacombe. and authorities in note. bouaila. a lump. cluster. a belt. babsmall toy to play withal. a white mark Bawdy. It. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. bausan. Pr. librillo. faisceau. 8. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. tille. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. baugant. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. dirty. trifle. a tassel. tab. s. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. dung.— P. b \% bouala. to low or bellow as corn. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. from Fr. mew. bablyn or waveryn. excrement. obstrepere. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. the Swiss baben. a dog). pegma. W. to void the bowels. was simply a field gold. spotted. Pr. dacchino. Cot. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. collar. It. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. A name of the badger. babbole. P. P. Zalli. Sc. ! Bauble. an embattled wall. a gavel. s. to play the babby. bal. — — ' Lydgate. disgusting. horse. bow (as in our nursery Diez.. sorry. balderich. lewd . Fr. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. a horse with white legs. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. E. Swiss Rom. or Cot. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. on the face of animals. Pm. a lump or cluster babhaid. or sheaf of Bridel. bal. Fr. The word may perhaps be sticks. Cotgr. 2. whence pouacre. Cot. and Sp. Bawson. from Baldacca. baudrat. to 53 manure the To baw.. dirt. sword-belt. to bark . or the animal so marked. Jam. It. OFr. or toys. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. scarf. speckled. It is all bawdy. babiole. to me-wl. a zan. baubare. in OE. E. filth. baue. also more Bawdekin. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . to cry. Prov. rotten. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face.' ' Pegma. Descript. c. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. bow-wow. Irel. baban. dente. —R. is used for a sented by bau. ball. trifles. baw. baffe. Batylment of a wall.guage). Hal. toys. to the same origin. filth. fe bau. BAWSON Swiss. child. bau. ON. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Fr. R. Ball-seirc. bobbin or cluster of thread. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. an object. E. propugnaculum.

bde. baya. expresr sion tenere a bada. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. dividere. Piedm. large window in a handsome . beonj Gael. Prov.. — A At Bay. |8i'os.—Journal Soc. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. a'uno. beothach. the world Gr. and the To bark as a dog. Drayton in R. —Bay-windo'W. bilyega. especially beans. abbabayer. BAY marked with bjly. baja.— Stalder. From Cat. and keeps them in check for a while. baier. barn of two bays. grapes or nuts. beo. to open as a blossom. that from ba. Bay-tree. a hole. baye. bacca. Q. the cod or husk of beans or the like. the step is the same as from It. Fr. OSp. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. or berries. to keep at a bay. Abide. to on anything. to open. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Sp. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. A stag is said to stand at bay. baga. to amuse stare a bada. bay. 1. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. waiting . to split. See Bawl. laurel of the ancients. F. aux dehniers abois. Fr. Bayonet. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. a cluster of bacon. Fr./^ bau. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. stood watching him stoop. bay. It. Serv. bai. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. living Ir. Gael. or recess in an apartment in modern times. is perhaps not directly from Lat. bijel. It. siege of Bayonne in 1665. Earth — By Nature made to till. —Diez. ist. open the mouth. baher. Gael. alive. weary of running. bajo. Gr. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. It. husk. desiring. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. batibari. * To Be. Mod. bdcr. to keep one waiting. See Bald. BauSfi)/. It. baca. To Bay. It. house . Swab. or to have been first used at the Cot. baccello. S. he turns and faces his pursuers. in order to keep the enemy in check. Sp. BE Probably conRuss. dehiscere . and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. . berry. from an imitation of the sound. window . baionette. w. corrupted into Bow-window. bahia. Holland's Pliny in R. A hollow in the 'line of coast. AS. See At Bay. baiare. hddhe-dhonn. buidhe. Swiss beie. Sp. 1859. living thing . a mark. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. the laurel-bay. &c. to gape. so called from its bearing bays. put to his last shifts. Catalan hadia. Arts. Vielp. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. berries. It has been shown under Abie. arose two forms of the verb. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. to iiitent nected PoL white. a beast. baer. 25. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. bayo.' — — 54 bald. —F. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. and zndly. gate. a dagger. Lat. Fr. &c. tradire to Fr. . to stand watching one. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. bilyejiti. watching intently. The — Fr. . As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Bay. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Cot. ing-floor. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. baca. from badar. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. bialo. which however. baie. stare. white. a berry. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. badius. overture. by the term rendre les abpis. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. badarse. when. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. to betray. Fr. at his last gasp. bioth. Bay. or at bay. buidhe- The ruadh. Fr.' Bailey. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Lat. life. to mark. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. Feb. — Schmid. bahia. badia to Sp. bate. to be Bohem. as gazing. as if to signify a window of curved outline. &. . window-sill.c. or window ' (in Fortification). bagaid. bayen-stein. The word bay. like a pie. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Q. life. the cod of peas. badarc. yellow . trahir. From the former verb is the It.. Such Antaeus seemed to me.

or however. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. salve his hurts. — : Beam. like most nautical terms. Q wait upon him. rising ground. fero. to nod the head. beugler. Bear. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. Gael. a tree. bead. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. or beic. ON. N. ffaen. Farrar. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Trans. on. Goth. Beach. W. Fr. beacen. bauhan. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Be. * Beagle. Goth. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. backe. Beckon. The immediate shore of the Menage. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. a prayer. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. — Bellenden in Jam. A Esthon. The wild beast. bagms. Sw.from AS. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. would say. atUndre. post. Netherlands or North Germany. a nod OHG. pierced for hanging on a string. vii. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. bidello. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. G.' Suetonius in Diez. Pardoner's Tale.ad. bakke. E. Catalan becar. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Gael. to bellow. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Du. The origin seems preserved in E. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. G. badmr. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. a single bean. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Miss Gurney in Philolog. —F. as. ON. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. prodigy bauhnjan. bek. into France. fromthe danger. bokan. be. nokkima. to beckon. «va\ioQ. beans.fer-re j Gr. bar. AS. Bean. Beadle. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. baum. becco. a curtsey.' Hall's Chron. signifying a point. or breathing. -phxr. Beak. stock.fui. or any action done with a pointed thing. W. See To Bid. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. boom. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Beacon. Chapters on Lang. bydel. bM. which is. a tree. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. bdkna. Hackluyt in R. Beck. according to of Sanscr. bohnej ON. vol.' adheres to the root. gebed. — bedeau. fd or faVf beans. and Lat. g. a beak.to have a French origin. Moreover the name. to wait. beck. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. ohg. Slavon. ffci. It. fora-bauhan. a single bean. 54. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Thus the final en. baun. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Lat. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. pig. Fr. l^ax. faba is Kvavoq. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bedm. It. bob. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. a presage. support. . bearti. however. bairan. as. faba. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. . — to bow or nod . bean. It forms a. bee. bidan.. was introduced from England sea. into a snjall river. OSax. Bret. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. as well as f& or fav. the part overflowed by the tide. Gael. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. to wait-. He says. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. a sign. bakkje. bank. Bret. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. . or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. It is BEAR SI court.fuis5e. beacnian. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. To Bear. to produce young. AS. A two-year old nephew of mine p. an attendant. a hill. Boom. beic. beic. signifying individuality. to nod . scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. bohne. to carry. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. not applied to the yelping of dogs. tale of prayers or doxologies. Gr. The nutu significare. We haled our bark over a bar of beach.

dress with unbecoming richness . pretty. OSw. timan. from beau. edge. Slav. biber. pleasing. bett. i. bcek. as the babble of the child. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to carry. Beauty. to the brook itself. or a feeling to be gratified. beatanj It. Lat. g. or special purpose. to fall in with our bavard. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bib or slobbering cloth. Fr. Diez. To load with ornament. handsome. gabaurths. AS. bearing. beauts. Sp. Thcem. proper. get J ' He got very angry. taste. gelimplic. a bank. rying. befall. an notion of being convenient. e. to G. The fitting or suitable. happening as it ought. proper . It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. when up. Beckon. See Bat. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. to shore. Bosworth. biivre. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. — A — A — . I do thee pray. agreeable. burdr is used in the sense of a car. fallinn. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. badi. and also in that of birth. Boeth. agreeable.' every way suited to a prince. con. covered the face. becuman. In like manner condition. — . bello. decent. fit. talkative. baba. limpan. suitable. to dabble .AS. fitanimal. Chaucer. Thus OY.fit. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. from the same in the sense of bear2. ziemen. our taste. which. bobr. nothing to thy name make. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Prov. . signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. riviire. and Fr. W. e. to get. brook . limpian. a brook. Dan. and on. the latter are derived It. gefallen. Prick of Conscience. connected with ripa. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. produce. bebrus. to bear children. judgment.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. to be a part of his to. bave i. receive. ON. to be fulfilled. formerly a happen. E. to appertain. if sound of a sharp blow. See becymth anfeald yvel.getiman. opportune. bekkr. behkr. dushmak.S6 fero. byrcti. to be incumbent upon him. Now the Beast. to assume a certain form or Turk. to arrive at. to sleep on. bavec. to fall. border. baurthei. It. Fr. to the good hapHalbard. R. living. blast. Beat. befit.— Kiittner. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. bur. suitable. bava. because made of the fur of the beaver. G.' ' He became very angry. o. Bedizen. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. a lip. The moveable part of a helmet. R. to happen. Beck. it is probable that here also the to become. to wade through the water like a beaver. Lat. to please. bellus. slobber.to clothe to slobber. Fr. bring forth. comely. duty. the beard. Bo. to happen. becuman. Lat. See Bank. a. G. Fr. bave. seemly. place to lie down. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. iida. ON. as. On the same principle. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. bedr. chin. whence baveux. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. to live. nod or sign. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. limplice. bequem. babrad. tidig. name applied originally to the bank then proper . ON. The quadruped. fitly .' are equivalent expressions. Fr. Lith. Russ. barf. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. godum with ON. E. AS. the ece thurhwuniath. It. to those goods which endure for ever. See Beacon. bart. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to happen. Lat. i. dize or dtzen. byw. perhaps a living thing. venient. to attain to the lot of any one. fiber. to fall mode of being. bestiaj Gael. while from Shep. convenient. obtain. riviera. G. and to acquire. G. from baver. That thou mayest attain Goth. bel.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. bekommen. Perhaps from Pol. tidy. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. Beck. or river. birth. G. bobrowai. to happen. He becom on sceathan. to happen. boroda. decorous. bach. bard. a bank. pens unmixed evU. E.of being very angry. den. to hem. Beaver. to come to or upon. brada. The OFr. battere. baviire. 2. Do no To It fallith favour. barba. brook. beo. As rivus.we call the arrangement becoming. Goth. now confined To Become. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. gebank. ON. Cal. 1. ting. but now a river only. Secondarily applied to a hat.

bitela. trees in a forest . The meanpainting. 1156. . a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. 1. and lebermer in G. a clapper. a stinging bieUe. briesch-milch. Beef. door.ing of the word is curdled. In a passage of an Old Fr. beost. bably named from the destructive quali| T. to fall. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. wedges. cugino. Fr. which also 2. tree. a agulatum in the original Latin. Beet. the ox. Lat. bovis. E. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. duplicated form of the root. blow or thrust. extant in Bohem. to colour with lime-wash. bedawi. fall. g. to flatten In OE. a cover.cz//aj. Gael. to curdle or lopper. in Schmeller. buk. biest-milch. a malsense of drink. a cup or implement for AS. 1 to drink. /SXirov. I A pillow-beer. beta. a drink potus. from jtst-. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. cow has calved. batAfter mete in sale. a pad or cushion). comb. speach.D. GaeL bior. Slav. betel. water. drink. prisons Venet. It. . or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. a mallet. PI. G. ' MordiThe Lat. a wasp. I put the flax upon it to spin. Grimm. byst. Ant. to and ale. bitel. Bed-ridden. P1. It. bibere is a re.' So Gr. G. red curdled Arab . the loppered sea. Horn. turn (a garment). from leberen. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. an ox.' the last word corresponds to cofly . Gr. biiren. clog for a dog b'oteln. bbtel. may be from K. bletumj Gr. cited by Diez. ir'm. ^. madhouse. Fr. used for boull. &c. Bav. buka. buche. by the analogy of bedaivb. It. thick. Lat. Fin. briest. from the hos. boytle. KXlvoTTiT^e. beach. Fr. cozen. prigione. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. cogionare.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. bukva. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Esthon. bossen. to parget or rough-cast .. of beatmg. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. a paviour's beetle batail. bedskiissen-bUren. doubtless. translation beOj. beach-each. to poordma. beest. Confined to bed.— B. thick. ProBeer. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. and in driving piles. G. The honey-producing insect. piwo. the biter. garden-herb.'— GL ^Ifr.ON. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. bedde-redirj ohg. from Lat. to rough- cast. waarin. cushion-cover . biene. a wandering Prov. to become Beech.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. case.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Cot. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. Fr. an inhabitant of the desert. whence familiar. beyki. crespir. bette or blettej Lat. i. may be shpped on and off. imperative pi. pude-vaar. sang vermeilh betatz. AS. kiissen-biere. beetle also signified the impiti. to twist poorma. qui de lecto surgere non potest . Dan. as. pettiriso. Originally. on. paralyticus. 1. Bethlehem. taglio. to knock. sela que environna la terra. Bernese. E. cousin. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. Fr. For that was law of lend. to beat bossel. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs.(paddi. AS. a wasp. calleBedlam. But possibly bedizen 2.). Pett. a bee. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. to turn. boeuf. stakes. Fr. from risan. also the bite or sting of a bees. mars betada. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. The first milk after a dizen. a bed-tick. a horse-fly . Rom. from blood. as in It. knock. a pillow case. to coagulate. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. in Nat. the meat of spinach. by-flugaj G. . The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. de Fierabras in Diez. pital of St Mary. vaar._t from the root pi. bytl. . to drink. drink. 'La Gl. The beer al for te shenche bate. . comprehending both wine let for beating flax. an Beetle. AS. bove. Bedouia. * Beestings. bet.possible. ris. Bee.— JI14.^ drink. Arab. turn. poculum. a Properly a cover that biiren. erroneously modified in form. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. bos. 57 — Palsgr. fagus. badigeonner. I dysyn a dystaffe. to change . beutel. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Pl. whose face is clotty. desert. kivih. a pillow-case. Beetle. as the milk of a that purpose in London. Let. also bienst. . woman that is newly delivered. D. beer. curded or beesty.D. Cot.

Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. ' . viii. begging. to be born. oppressed with woe. sel. in D. to be able. OHG. beitel. to go a begging. capere. word. one after that other. ysgrepan. in Lat. P. tale. Nov. Into the are D. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. a beggar. P. is com. as alighting is a momentary operation. Creed. begger. Deutsch.pose. on further examination. In Luc vi. genus.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. although it ' the future. ykvog. Florio. it is both to acquire and to beget. ken. Bruce.D.' for ye shall lament and weep. on the bag. to cleve. P. V. air a . a beggar-boy.' about undern he got down. signifying to conceive. To produce children is to acquire. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Si'Xa/coc. or Of a pure poor man. covered with gold D. Du. in E. be^nnan. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. Political Songs. to be acquire. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. 142. and Lat. to arise. whence the E. chap. y/yvo/iat. Mundart. to know. 'Dz. the fundamental notion of attaining to. &c. to reduce him to beggary. image is cleft out of the trunk. hags. ytyvwfT'Kw. krapszas. but probably erroneously. Cold-begone. P. ip AS. a wallet. also called Bigots. Vocab.bag full of the G. appears improbable at first. From w. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. a scrip euXaiciJoi. Lith. V. to bear young. So from Gael. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. 168. su with gold. but in the same language from poc. To Begin. incipere. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE.quently used in OE. Mod. a stone-cutter's chisel. beitel. a little bag). V. Barbour. P. at geta talad. vir mendi. ' ' . gan.3. P. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. ken. seizing. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. to take. It. lapidicinus. can. beis- plement driven by blows. P. AS. Beghardus. 'ex quo. a scrip. kind. bag {baigean. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. iv. not began to alight. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. a bag or poke. affected. Du. Gr. baigeir. It will . which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. 2. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. yiyvo/uat. from whete G. — yivsaiQ. origin. 1867. When Q. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. woe-begone. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. — Stillingfleet. beutel. touched with emotion — . in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. to get children . beriolare. yivofiai. P. beginning. ' Begone. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. 25. 'Aboutin undern monly. P. Du. 1430. a — wedge.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. literally. steinbosil. aginnan.' A. The tother seand the dint cum. above quoted to get beaten ON. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. to beg. can. giving in Gr. Fr. gigno. Skinner's derivation from bag. anfangen. &c. Schm. gen.n. & go a begging. two betels —a grete oke. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . P. of Gr. taking up. duginnan. onginnan. beissel. a chisel. 40. ornamented phoc. fangen and Lat. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Goth. pose-pilte. yivtrri. To Beg. to begin. ysgrepanu. a bag . to begaan. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. a beggar . a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. a wedge for cleaving wood. on the tramp.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . Of brede full ycrammed. a bag.— . Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. bertola. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. cans. referred gan this Erie alight. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. Ancren Riwle. 58 BEG BEGONE G. yivwajcw. chisel. Lollards. is formed pocair. He did alight.

behoof. to vow. to take away. hcefwa in seed. to look upon it as true . beholden to him. Sw. invoke. use. gecall. The seyn.for throwing it. to halten. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. hantyri. as in the case of E. to be fit. Robert in Warton. behaviour. the equivalent of E. adjust. to have. G. hafwa. gehouden. Thus in Finnish the heave. to keen or hold. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe.' Richardson. se porter) to fare well or ill. exhort. AS.to vow. heeten willekem. to feed. the two verbs seem radically the same. ge' hatan. to carry corn into the barn . promise or a command. behefe. to be well pleased out. N. Kiittn. promise . right. And so from hania. to call. is on the top of or opposite to. vow. Sw. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . from tragen. taking notice or care of (Gloss. heave. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. holding is originally derived from that of looking. heita. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. ifl fact. behces. G. to keep. when the verb will hoof. To Behold. tail. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. hafwa bort. behete. betragen. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. hcef tig bort.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to be obliged to one. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. gehat. K. to hit the mark. 17. zijn. gehalten seyn. to lift. the name adapt. to hold. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. take yourself off. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. han- — js Kil. what is so required. and (as Fr. to hold. to be obliged to do a thing. injunccommand. advantage. hevja. what he wishes another to do . gehaben. to be named. hafwa ram. tion. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. nittaa. to follow. G. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. hevja. to bring forwards. to fit. hovast. — Behest. fixed upon any object). Sw. Plautus. to be be named. healdan. to tend. to be suitable or becoming . bound. guardare. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to command. The It. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. observe. The Lat. and the E. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. beperson addressed. to raise. hafjan. To be expedient. portarsi. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. hofwa.— . —Hest. solicitum esse. Aan iemand bid one welcome. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. ufhaban. garder. G. to carry. At the back of The re. to carry. name of the head is used to express what hbva. R. us-hafjan. to carry. obliged. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. a follower. hove. AS. servare. behatan. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. according as the * To Behove. furtherance. to call. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. AS.). Command. or the hence advantage. To Behave. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to cast or throw.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. and their senses intermingle. keeping. to name. Goth. to lead. is also found in the sense of looking. keeping. to keep. behat. habban. to meet. by the compound observare. on. to lift. to vow. or purpose. is supported by many analogies. vow. to regard. It. commonly expressed. AS. behind. to turn one out . seeing to. OE. to R. to gehouden. Paladino. promise.the figure of throwing at a mark. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. heeten. G. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to bers of the body. at the tail of. have the sense of calling or naming. laborare. premi curi alicujus rei. or necessary. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. habere. hatan. to the equivalent of Du. to behave. To look steadily upon. take heed of. G. hces. to promise. AS. To place are most naturally ex. the distance of anything. to heave. to look. hafwa. behold. to command. ward. But.

To praise is essentially Xo prise. To Belch. or house. a. lov. to fix a price upon one's wares. loven. Du. properly belonging to the church tower. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. bellow. from mhG. leave . bervrit. are innate . the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. frid. to bolk.. an implement for making a loud noise. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. satisfaction. to believe. distance to which a piece will carry. loven. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. laubjan. tain a certain end. Bell. esteemed . . under the forms belfredum. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. belief . probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to express approval. lofa. for purposes of low estimation . a vessel made for dishonour. esteeming good and valid. ON. Then. — Diicange. leaf geleafa. The word be- Belfry. Fr. Pl. beffroi. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave.Lat. we have Goth. —F. to extol the worth of anything. is an easy progress. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. a tower for defence . to believe. filu-galaubs.alyfan. to promise or engage. to make it fast. to resound. if a promise. border. consent. boare. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. praising. are other modifications of the same imitative root. permission. overspread. ley/a. pro3. Another application of the same word is in Pl. giving leave or permission.D. to permit. bolken. legsel. Northamptonshire. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. certain rate. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. beleggen. bettifredo. From AS. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. Fair sir and Fair lady. to give leave Dan. OHG. fitness. aim. to cry out bell. portion. to befit. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages.D. ON. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to bellow.D. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. a tower. allow. erlauben. and bergan. if a narration. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. and Du. is used in the sense of approving. to give leave. Goth. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to der swaren lave. See Gain. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. Q. ornament. OFr. or a sconce. In Mid. on. stand. with the consent of the heirs.D. then. true. were civil terms of address. to give leave. Fr. Pl. orloven. to boke. cela est audessus de votre portde. belja. range. bellan. met. verloben. lyfan. to be required for a certain purpose. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . — mankind. b'ola. reach. beffroit. loben. and E. resonare. behove. P1. bell. to lay be- around. gelyfan. Hence to simple approbation. . a watch tower. bealcettanj OE. to praise. Du. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to lay the cable round the bits. or high estimation. laven. fringe. . In the middle voice hofwas. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to praise. bounds. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to believe. beau sire and bel dame. then. to sanction an arrangement. praise. 6o BELAY BELL loven. bulken. promiser. bertefredum. It. ungalaub kas. and. bercvrit. mark ON. to hit hafi. permitting or giving leave. is (Sternberg). berfroi. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to put a high price or value on. on. Sw. a little shed. To Believe. appearing in Mid. bialla. and E. To Belay. locus securitatis Schilter. AS. turris. promising.. honoured. precious. moderation. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. to protect. — . reputation. Du. measure. in nautical language. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . peal. galaubjan. battefredum. to roar. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. AS. glauben. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to sound loudly .. Det er ofwer er hofwa. bealcan. beset. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. garnish. galaubs. bylja. hesfa.Lat. to promise. laven. to estimate them at a To believe. to a loud noise. G. to praise. to belay. Du.

The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. . belliJ Lat. loubdn djawt. Benignant. ^To Beray. The ing-skin. leather sack. the word.— Belly. a round or bubble-shaped root. generous. Belt. balg. benignus (opposed to malignus). G. I soyle it or araye it. benefacere. — See Numb. OFr. To belong is thus to reach up to. I araye. Lat. bimpsen. from cwcsthan. pervenire. binsen. from another modification of the word for bubble. Gael.' — Hie fimus. to reach. fens et hie liraus. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. bolg. Fr. From OFr. In E. blast-bcelg. a speaking well of one. See I . used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. to attain belangen. Bent. balteus . Benedico. vulva. or sometimes louban. rise against external force . or fyle with myre. benjoin. Bench. are stripped off whole blase-balg. welt of a shoe gwald. bcelg. to say. benaigon. G. to bless. langen. as.' The term had been previously planation. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. to concern. bless. to make bilbil. benehusk. attinere. a border. blister balgan-snamha. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. disposed to oblige. bimaissen. to do good to one . from Arab. a leather bag. pertinere. one who does good. benedicere. Lat. Eenison. . ' . cod or husk of pulse. ball. balg. to hallow. Gael. to bend a bow . bilbila. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to belong.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. ' I beraye. Benediction. Sw. as concerning that. bienfait. fyle To dirty. to attain to. an inflated Lat. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). bellows. pino3. bandoir. Lat. Benefactor. to ring. G. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. . I marre a thyng. a kindness. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. . a benefit. incense of Java. bellows. To Bequeath. is a kindred form. bag. . which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit." — — . se bander. bilbil-goda. a water-bubble builge. skin.. pod. skin. Javanese perfume. to come to the crown belangen.Fr. Quoth. ON. has assumed a plural form. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. the womb. beneison. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. from which is also bulbus. border. Ptg. belly. Benign. bolch. needs no ex. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. Lat. Beneath. poX^ri. bendaj as. a blessing. benjoim. volva. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. belgr. See Bank. from benedictio. or simply djawt. Dozy. benir.polch.' Palsgr. on. means seeds of plants. ray. I say). See Bind. wallet. Gum benjamin. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. a bellows. attinere. — ray. was in Mid. OUG. to stretch it on a frame. wallet Benefit. to exert force. a spring. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. a good deed. bendan. to touch one. the skin of those animals that factor. to touch. welt of a shoe. To Bend. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. G. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to. belt. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. . benedictio {bene^ and dico. — root consisting of concentric skins. pertinere. a bellows . a accusative. gelangen. rushes. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Was das belanget. Fr. bellows. ON. est matris in lucem editus. attingere. taken absolutely. To Belong'. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. benejicium. to use words of good omen. Lat. bander un arc. bags or bellows. binssen. kind. to concern. to arrive at. hence with ashes. Bret. to hold to one. because bcelg. to become one's property . Benefice. Benzoin. a blow. See Nether. Bav. by itself. Fr.videtur. vulgarly the belly. well. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. becwathan.pinuz. gwaldas. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. J'emboue. or a It is times the to signify services. w. — Ducange. bene/actum. pouch. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Du. Kil. To Benum. belly. bolg. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Lat. is The word balg. belch. hem. . bell. dirt.

boeten. See Better. bacca. to give a place to. to fire a funeral pile of . — Chaucer.— VixHsm. a place . besIn sen. to amend. place. broom twigs. R. — Biglotton. supporting on the one side Lat. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. Du. advantage. from It. betan. improve. bouter. Du. eld up- On is to be placed A — . So too Yorkshire arf. to strip. Du. dial. sheltered from the wind. to on the other Goth. as conversely a besom is called broom. think more probable. to make better. So roto rattle down. basjaj Du. het vuur The serise of Boeten. besmas. as. See Reave. a horse collar. AS. mud. The dry. same word with the provincial barth. because used for making besoms. It is the restore fyr betan. Berry. to cast. besnij Pl. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. to seek. buttare. lewth. as. as bouter selle. lay out. barth may be for barf. E. to supply a want. * To Bete. From abet. ariierf to 113.fish the other hand. botesward. to light the fire . noise. Kil. To seek something from a person. to to deprive of. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. reafian. an incendiary. vol. in the sense ctf beria. Best. bal oppbota. Esthon. but it is specially applied mister. or to bestead one. sets fire to. ^akka. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. repair. BEREAVE Wall. ropahtaa. solicit. boutefeu.• 62 Antiq. Fin. baete. from AS. put. scopse spartis. Grose. compared with bargham. To Bet. vi. I from lew. betan. bestow. profit. Beet. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to make it. Fr. to defend. The origin is AS. besen. an incendiary. Beere. dust rojahtaa. To help. Tha het he micel fyr betan. dirt. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. To Gl. To Beseech. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. berwham. Du. baete. small eatable fruit.t. is to perform a serviceable office to him. roe. OE. a berry. Zeitschr.D. to entreat. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. . ^•n. bat. G. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. the guardian . Sw. fall with sound. boeten. one who shelter. stealth from steal. bereafian. — bota. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. stow. supply. R. beorgan. seems twigs or rods. roju. E. fyrbotare. bdt. berry. — amendment. might have been . as Du. and also to entreat. barthless. rubbish.—^fake. as in growth. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as.— Hal. AS. as. what does it better a man. to put on the saddle. * Berth. bdt. Besom. AS. position. fearful. better. basya. sweepings. to thrust. Bestead. to mend. Rob.iooA. When men of mekeness him baet. the side bhakshya. dung . advantage. but in practice. and Du. To bete his Jam. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. bur-we. or the space kept clear betan. to stand one in good stead.irova. BETE dirty'. Goth. to To Bereave. to word is shelter. protect . p. barfham. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. a fire. earh. put forth. roju. Devon. from grow. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Ihre. Hfence backing. to fall with roisto. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. rods. hva mannan. burrow.ot-i. houseless. So Lat. the origin of which is to be found in ON. bota. peto. boeten. 3. dirt . of ffeed a fire. encouraging. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. p. or. boteith Goth. preferably. arwe. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. berwe. to the place boarded off in a. making better. to be-place. stede. and on which the wager is laid. beseech. G. it seems hard to separate as. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. On the other hand. Fr. what does it boot. The proper meaning of the bale. Beit. bet. Sw. reparation. to kindle the fire.X. buttafuoco. person to lie in. — . to thrust. as. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. Tusser. To Bestow. make better . jnore. besje^ Sanscr.bhaksh. brem-bessen. ship for a make amend. besein. reparation. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. amendment. . earg. to exercise on a definite object.

R. r'ojer dig. Du. ziemen. Fr. lot). find it good: Goth. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. for measuring angles. bet. a brood. Ober D. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. an instrument opening like a a thing. G. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. betweoh. some attention. to happen. become. fallinn. from Fr. Goth. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. The as. betweox. amiddes. roja.D. zemen. In like manner folissais. On the same principle ON. A — drink. be fitting or suitable. Fr. bet. suitable. more. moveable and compass branches. in the middle of twain. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. to cheat. against. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. find in one's heart. *Ah. to Hence It. Thus from dbahir. make manifest. gesiemen. e. better. betriigen. larks. the being pushed to the frbnt. twain. — that schickiich. AS. by two. deign. wreia. advance. order. is treason. R. or with again. G. beuvrage. afford. dir. and thence twegen. which are from a tradire and totally different' root.' Dialogue on Witches. batizo. gatiman.— . to deceive. Bevy. is used for the — R. as from obdir. BETEfiM translated. Lat. fitting. springs from ON. a drinking . x. Car son umbre si le trahit. his mouth. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. i. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. bedriegen. dispose (whence schicksal. &c. tradire. bouter davantaige. Friar's Prol. e. as tlock. Percy Soc. Fr. kein leben mehrin no signs . — See To Bete. From the former of these are AS. evidence of life. suitable. proficere. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. trahison. In like manner from twain is fothied between. It. Sw. in the same way Lat. what does It is forward him. betwuxt. polish. to deliver up in breach of trust. fate. Golding's Ovid in R. trahissais. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. Between. as trahissons. bevere. awry. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. regen. two. E. Bav. to Teem. a different form of twa. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. to deliver tip. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. -to appoint. It. /alia. From It. roebucks. bat. abash j from polir. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. Goth. betray. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. betst. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. Pl. tima. in the middle of two. which may be compared as to form with amid. pair of compasses.D. traditor. to accuse. Sahissais. G. Cot. baet. OE. riigen. are commonly to one's lot. progress. In the water anon was seen His nose. Fris. beverage. bibere. betweohs. best. — Betwixt. verbs in ir with a double ss. Now the stirring of an object. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Dii. as one would have it fall. thy speech bewrayeth thee. tradere. to make forwards. To Beteem. taemen. — of the authorities. to fall Some call it a bevel. to drink . To boot in coursing (i. better. Fr. e. gezimet eines dinges. trahir. Dit tungomal rendered in E. The inflections of Fr. vrohjan. E. I approve of beveau. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. To Bewray. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. . betaemen. i. from Lat. Buveau. obeish. treachery. to stir. ON. better. batista. Mich self a good glass of wine. it bewrays itself. his eyen sheen. Hence last G. To vouchsafe. traitre. Ik tame mi dat nig. taemen. Fl. Chaucer. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. spritigs from schicken. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. To Betray. wrogia. bevde. G. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. a bevy. tima. Slant. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. a traitor. as envahir. betwuh. amidst. deem suitable. 88. Det sig sjelft. to discover. ON. has — In a like sense tanie>i. to happen. to fall. AS. whence beveraggio Fr. obdissais. of pheasants. zimet. Best. R. from. E. not to have the heart to give up a thing. sloped off. Better. betest. betera. are there Regt R. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. trakir. Pl. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. of quails. from invadere. beva. by a final sh. ruogia. said he. tweoh.

Gr. sliding. In Arab. Bibelsworth in Nat. the word became bddizahr. /3i/3Xof a book originally. asure-bice (Early E. presence. specially in a bottle. bible. in Fr. sbiasciai. Dan. a Galilean. poison. shows the P1. from pdd-. discover. bibaculus. the papyrus. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. 172.to drink much. rogge. or by any rapid motion. Probably. petit-lait. Bice. Jamieson. Prov. babbi. convicts thee of being drink. Lat. to be a paring.D. oblique. love first begins to life signs of him. Hal. has a singular stone-picker. though such a change of form would be very unusual.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Fr. to creep or crawl sideling. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Fr. winding or crawling in and out. expelling or preserving against. beregen. Pers. bisel. Yes. bickel. a slabbering-bib. dial.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. to dispute. per\'erted belief. beslei. pddzahr. E. notice. a sloping edge. to tipple. Oh when shall I bizzle. rogt un bogt sik nig. aslope sbisciare. sbriscio. biberer. to stir. biberen. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. sbrisciare. sbiagio. inferiority. Biseau. roggle. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. bickel-sieenken. slanting . . bezling or skueing. bias-wise.two. To bicker in NE. which good bibbeler. of the sliced off. to stir. bihais. sbieco. Sp. ice . misFr. twice. biascio. The train of thought is then. To Bezzle. baviere. biais. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. sbiscio. Bias. It is especially applied in Sc. aslope. bis. liwell. to move. Schiitze. Misc. biascia. — Bi-. bavon. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. biberon. to glide or slip as upon. bickeler. Ci^. and zahr. To Bib. b&zahr. Cat. —Bickering'.D. crooked. Piedm. besanca. bibo. evident. . like guzzle. Bezel. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. kwijlen. wraggeln. he is Wtb. to stir up . Fr. kwijllap. Sard. sloped. Bible.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. by throwing of stones. lips. dial. bring under ' Thy accuse. In comp. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Fr. him. the basil Sc. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. babbefore the eyes. (according to the Fr. to stir. . Du. sik beregen. . bickai. bescompte. I Wallon. The It. bestemps. sbiescio. makes ble. whey count . To drink hard. to slaver . to purl. tailU en biseau. kwijl-bab. to it evident to sense.{ioin dua. slippery. baverole. foul weather. its clothes. — crooked. Cat. two- footed. as an eel or a snake. or kwijl-slab. Fr.s bellum for duellum. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. To skirmish. Piedm. . one who drinks in excess. Hal- — do something aslant. Bezoar. To Bibble. stock still. wrogen. Fris. —Dozy. Mantuan. it becomes (Jz-. to the stirring of their conscience. Uprogen. to a fight with stones. pible. An excellent Basil. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Bib. a bibber. Ant. To Bicker. to Jam. It. Bisect. to cut in two. whence Du. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. a bezle. An inferior blue. in him. sbiesso.as in Biped. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. See Wriggle. It. bark of which paper was first made. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. is explained to clatter. ber-laita (for bes-laita). bickelen. biax. or in and out. biaiser. metaphor). sbrisso. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. sbias. to make tongue Du. to give signs of life. it were the mouth. Fr. Sardin. Diet. bebble. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. in two ways for duis. Lat. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. used in precisely stone . Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to well up with Cot. OE. a fragment bieco.or from obliquus. bending. to slaver or drivel. to sip. Pl. bisdare. to shake. bes-azur. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). reveal.' bibble. a stone-hewer . 78).a. snout. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). edge of a plate of looking-glass. sbrissare. to tipple. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . wrangle.

bugne (answering to ON. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. Palsgrave in Halliwell. verbieten. forwards. swaggering. related to big or bug. inhabit Du.t. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. beidast. Einem einen guten tag bieten. G. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bit- bidja. BID of stone. biegen. byggia. bend. to build. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. byggan. praebere. faurbjudan. pressing on one's notice. porrigere. bygga. to bicker. proud. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bidill. bath. The ON. Big. of More ' in Richardson. Jam. may plausibly be derived from Goth. The ON. to E. bced. Two verbs are here confounded. to belly. to inhabit. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. The original Swollen. to pray one to dinner. repair. or bad. . bilge or bulge. boa. to abide or wait on. — To Bid. to bid one good day. to offer it to public notice. bouwen. Bigamy. to look for. pray. explaining the Sc. BIGOT beidan. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. balg. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. inhabit. ewes. besides the professedmonks and nuns. to forbid . gebodenj G. consisting both of men and women. bi-. AS. quiring something to be done. to bulge. Du. the belly of a ship. bugt. Bickelen. — — — Halliwell. be bug. to build G. AS. an entire skin. to cultivate. bulge. to start out. Hence Sc. to arrange. From Gr. Bight or Bought. A pose to one to come to dinner. A bjudan in anabjudan. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. beodan. einen vor Gericht bieten. 2. offerre.peto. The . buga. qucero. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow.. With respect to logical pedigree. bow. To bid the banns. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb.' Addison.Leta). from belgia. rising up. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. bieten. bigan. in the sense of ask for. to curve. from seek. bedun. bat . to marry. bulky. Kil. as. to bend.uddered len heart. and Gael. bidel. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to dwell. anleta. called the tertiary order. R. athird class. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. ON. a swelling. ON." buque with E. To Big. beadle. build. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. To Bid ' Big . AS. bolgna). to forbid . It must be observed that the word bidja. ' Bug as a Lord. to have one called before him. which is stiU. bend of a shore or of a rope. bog. bolga. a suitor. The loss of the / gives Dan. praestare. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. gebeden j G. are also used in the sense of asking for. Bigot. to move quickly. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to solicit. to build. W. ten. form. swoln. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. by seek and beseech. bolginn. bug. bulk. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. G. G. the meaning of bid. and the Sw. Big-swol- . becoming in Lat. to presimpler pare. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. a flexure. swelling. cultivate. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bidan. to ask. as G. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. a chip. belly. to pro- command. P. bulge. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick.' Pope in R. bugan. to offer one the wish of a good day. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. OSw. ON. bo. spelling seems to used in the N. bua. . belly. or third order of penitence. bieden. bis and in comp. twice. OSw. 1. to offer. bauen to cultivate. as tears from the eyes. Compare also Sp. to bend. who. and yajiBui. iiQ. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. or. ON. to look for. — prepare. abidan. England for swollen. Wallace in Jam. has leta. Analogous expressions are G. bidan. from bidan. to inflate E. to ask. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to swell. The 'La. bag. bead.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bidjan. biddan.

vocati Fraticelli.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. absque votorum religionis emissione. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. and also unlearned common men. beghart. A.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Flor.D. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. the nobles to Rienzi. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. In the same way Fr. bighiotto. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. both men and women. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. sed maxim^ in muliebri.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. A.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. In a similar manner from bigello. grey. as well as bizocco. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. dark-coloured cloth. probably from biso. a dunce. Bighiotti). aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. homespun cloth. 560. which must not be confounded with begardo. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. the other form Per te Tribune. bighellone. and Q. natural grey or sheep's russet. honesti plebeii amictus. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. was formed bigello. Bizocco. aliqui Begardi. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.. signifying bagmen or beggars.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. coarse woollen cloth. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. xx. a blockhead. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. biso.' Chart. bigio. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. says.— BIGOT bigardo. S. with reference to A. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. to adopt a similar course of life. bigotta. clownish. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. alii Apostolici. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. beghino. and hence the variations bigutta.' Matthew Paris. Beguttce. D. A. begutta. 1499. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • .' says an Venet.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.a. ix. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. &c. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. rustical. author quoted in N. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. ac labores manuum detestantes. Augustini dotarint. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. Bizoccki.D. Francisci communiter appellabant. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.D. vol. corruption would easily creep in. borel. G. Hence the OE. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.' says one of of bigio. all apparently derived from Ital. grey. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. alii de paupere viti. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. face VIII. From bigio. perch^ i Terziari di S.— Ducange. They wore a similar dress. 1243. Bighini.' translated by Muratori. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. 15 18. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.

a negro. bull-berries. The proper meaning bylgia. billet. the bill of a bird. Billet. a sword. bwyell. and dziobas. an axe. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. of boja. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Du. tepati. topor. now A Bilboa blade. 5 * . Langued. — Cot. 'tumidi fluctus. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. bigot. Johansen. plog-bill. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. seems to be rather the unda. procella Kil. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. dissimulation . bill of exchange. Bilberry. bulghe. OFr. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. weapon . Sp. and in Lat. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. I. bill. a devotee. horn of an animal. bolghe. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . a stick to tighten the cord of a package. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. See Bull. buail. Ludwig. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. bizocco.' bilio. genus vincu- Bilboes. bulla. blamand. from the dark colour. to peck. Fr. fluctus maris. beil. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Du. the beak of a bird. loi. in the same sense. the o changing to an i to express diminution. e. dziob. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. to be angry (i. — — ' . an ingot. blaa. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Kil. Bilge. an axe. might be taken to express a hypocrite.— — — . Billette. 2. a shackle. . person of religion leading a loose life. symbolum. from Mid. Bilbo. p. Sw. on. fetters. Dan. A lorum tam in — Diez. Prov. to job. in the sense of a writing. beghart. Tartuffe. of E. gleischner (Frisch). AS. ferrese quam ligneae. a name given to a. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Piedmontese bigot. To defraud one of expected sinking. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Sw. . blue .' mariners. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Bille. axe. buie. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. AS. AS. billard also signified at billyards. bui.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. bile. See Bulk. from OSw. to pick a millstone. bille. bisoch. NFris. So in Gr.. ^Billiard. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . is properly a sealed instrument. e. whortle-berries. Aurelles. . crowberry. a seal. bla-berry. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. billet is the diminutive of this. bill in parliament. BILBERRY nated. Bill. a bigot or hypocrite. the trunk of a tree. Fr. a short note. b'olja. a floating log to mark the place of some. 2. boja. Bohem. as a bill of indictment. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. and a billard. a hypocrite. boeye. names bill-berries. irons or set in a kind of stocks. A slang term for a sword. biilge. Bill. Dan. bulgja. The Du. 3. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). syngraphum In Danish the are reversed.' in Richardson. as craneberry. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bigot. to strike. however. Du. An instrument for hewing. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. Kil. buoy [i. Deutsch. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Mundart. gan. that of swell. Bojce. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. bigardo. The origin of the term is probably from bole. an axe . Billow. a beak. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Gascoigne in R. a of the sea. to strike. In English the meaning has received a further development. billot. at sea Billet. Lat. a hatchet. belgan. Lat. inscriptum. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. to swell with rage). used in legal proceedings. abelthe fetter itself. Bigin. an ingot of gold or silver. bullet. bil. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. w. deceit. G. an axe. belghen. boia. bila. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. top. clog to a fetter. the swelling G. Roquef. Gael. an adze . — bigardia. To Bilk. bigotto. Thus we find in It. a man who rests on a stick in walking. a seal. Fr. Sw. dziobad. billard or billart. In the same way are related Pol. obsolete.

Fr. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bhurja. Bisson. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. bundt. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. &c. When compared with Fr. pinnu. Lat. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. . to cook). to knot nets for fish. G. overlooker. The term ON. EpisETTiTOOTToe. a habit- Binnacle. to bind together. V. berkas (z=:Fr. propius videre bij sicndc. IV. bitacora. beitan. To — — —D. . sc. bunch. To Bite. a house. isfiw. qui nisi propius Blind. G. and of Fr. twice cooked. In like manner from knot. evegue. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. pundas. beisseii. betsel. a bitch applied also to other animals. beran. . Bird. a knob. from Lat. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. from \t3\. to be derived from Ibfiaq. bitill. AS. Lap. G. bundun. See Belly. piiiti. nodus. to net. Fr. Sanscr. evesgue. — Kil. — See Bittacle. Then added division in a granary. H. life. Sw. is rendered in ON. biccej ON. bundle. It. a female stag. Sw. to wreathe. 'tumens sequor. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. bundt. a heap. where the compass stands. in Swabia. biscuit. It. while bind-wood. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. band. ON. to bring Biscuit. a weight of 48 pounds. E. a corn. a weight. or ben-wood. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. or baked. a pig petz. a heap. a bump or knob. or bin. by binda. bunt. Fr. — Surrey in R. copus. ge- from AS. expressed by Sw. is in Scotland applied to ivy. fowl. Lat. bindan. i. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. I would derive the verb to knit. brut. bij sienigh. biclie. a bear. Birch. pin-ti. properly a young pigeon. pullus. a gallinaceous bird. Goth. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. Bind. bund. Gr. poule. bita. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. Bailey. See To Bear. bindan. to plait. hith. also a stone weight. vescovo. bikkia. a female dog hindinn. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. bunga. BITTACLE /Siof. to form a knotted structure. bundle. pittjo. v. by the verb knit or net. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. to bear. Lat. bjork. AS. Bine. habitacle. Fr. AS. piccione. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. beorth. to bind at . episcopus. the young of an animal. Bin. bunki. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. than vice versi. pippione. . bin-wood. biscotto. Fr. wine. a bitch. Goth. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. . pinnii. which is expressed in E. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. videt. bij sien. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E.. ON. Bindweed. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop.' and the like. burt./«idere. . to bulge. a brood or hatch of young. Thus I suppose the Gr. Bitch. Sp. a bunch. to swell. hiindiiin. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. j). bigne. earnes brid. Habitacle. bord. AS. an overseer. brid. bircej Sw. We — A Birth.. Lat. Bittacle or Binnacle. binda nat. an eagle's young G. lusciosus et myops. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. to fasten it together. The proper meaning is a heap. G. — — . The bitol. admota non Bit. — properly near-sighted. poultry.. a hind or female stag. e. binge. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. bund. beize. Dan. to twine. Bisen. Lith. See Breed. a truss. AS. viz. evigue. Bizened. truss. i. to build. Lith. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. a little dog. a bitch. or petze. the young of birds . are commonplaces. to hang. Bisom. terial. forth.68 BIN Bio-. Du. AS. from Gr. beitsl. from pondus. Bing. doubtless a stone. and especially to a small poor horse.

to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. 't huisje. butorj OE. Bleak. Bivouac. Mund. yellow . Sp. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. a stammerer. babbe. bleg. apparently from its biting the tongue. 332. In Legrand's Fr. Cot. pale. baitrs. is placed. bleikr. ON. to let out whai should have been concealed. from whence we have adopted the. quick. a continued soft sound. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. baboyer. Hal. blesmer. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. cut. pale.' It would thus acle. 156. blab. discoloured . even humour seemed and beuin. blabbern. biti. 't kompas huis. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. ON. a childe dothe gasouille. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. is apprehension of danger. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. a large lip. blac-hleor ides. Fr. . to watch. v. gabble. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. ON. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. Wit hung her mourn. Goth. — Hollyband. things —Palsgr. pins of the capstern. on. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. as of wings . maculS. synonymous with baber-lip. white. Cotgr. to babble. AS. Blabber-lip. black. Sp. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). So Fr. bitter. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. bittore. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. a tati. to loll it out. to talk much. Pl. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. pale yellow .plab is used to . blabhdach. Gael. The bitas. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. G. his blacan light. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. The Gz. white lead. the palebleff. to bivouac. Fieldfare. to speak Dan. Hald. To Blab the anchor. pale. night guard. to To blabber blabber with the lips. light-coloured. To or he can speake. Mag. as of a body falling into water. iroxafealo. to babble.' by Gudmund. quoted by Ihre. Applied in Hin ON. bleich. in contempt. to the sharpness of a weapon. blabbre. Fr. dusky. Why presumest And laam's asse. or water beating gently on the beach . Black. thoughtlessly . to wax pale or bleaked. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. mona mid Dan.— Blabber-lip. —Neumann. blebberis. blob. blubber-lipped. BITTER dwelling or abiding place.. blakki. bihovac. faded. whiteness (candor sine It. an additional watch. Percy Soc. Fr. whitish. on the one side. term. /ealo-/or. round which the cable is made fast. blake. bird of the heron tribe. bites.. dark. to chops. a babbler. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. buft". In like manner E. I blaber. AS. "uivac. It. x. bittour.' G. Bohem. brunblakk. a shelter for the steersman. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. a beam in a house or ship. biacca. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. bitr. fallow . blobach. Deutsch. bitones. a fluttering noise. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Ai-mstrong. 'fuscus. ^aj'/^r. Je N. Sp. white. beuni. blunt we say it will not bite.D. a flapping. Alex. shine. pale brown . blanc. garrulous. Sp. blob. ' Biovac. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. an edge is sharpest sword. stutterer. ON. bitts of Bitts. leohte . Bav. whitish. yellowish. unintelligible talk plabair.). a large coarse lip . Mantuan babbi. faded.€i. fallow fawn-coloured. Du. plabartaich. out the tongue. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. shining. first. NE. confusedly. as in that of pale and white on the other. Gael. In a similar manner Gael. . Bittern. Nagt huis. pale yellow. beiwache. ^chops. bitor. blabaran. blob. a* mast . Hist. gulblakk. babbling. obscurus. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. G. blank. Se bleek. mouth. indistinctly.' by Haldorsen. Fr. beitr. Lydgate. plappem. ' plabraich. Again. viz. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . Sw. from wachen. . — Collins in Hal. — cheeked maid. chatter babbler . corrupted in Fr. blakk. small guard-house. mouth. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. as of water gently beating the shore. A a rail.. as is seen in sputter and splutter. blepLith.

smore. from candere. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. blether. pimple. branches . G. Besides the examples of this connection given above. to make or become white blanc. polished. a leaf. leafy. board. Fr. mud. Jan. waschen. the origin of . as scullions. blanchet. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. pass over. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. a white or unwritten ticket. Hist. skola and thwatta. black. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. — rura. borrelen. linkboys. blaeren. Du. vagrants. as. a bladder or pustule. to —Blaspheme. G. bladeren. to To bellow. Perhaps from blegen. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Bav. rogues and wanderers. blaere. flap of a Du. G. probably ate. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. blanqne. Fr. 7. candidus. Fr. blein. Du. Blank. pXaatpiiiiHv. a pustule . revile. blather. blatter. e. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. leaf. Wott. also jabber. Sw. broad. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. blank. a blanket a bed. his meat burnt. as blader. a. a bubble. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. bladder. vagabonds. reproach. bladre. to blow. Now. blanchir. Sc. biasimare. . Blank "verse. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. mud. livido . name originally given Blackguard. shining. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Dan. gabble. to Hence Ital. blister. plat. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. See Blubber. sheet of paper. &c. a blank ticket. Blame. tree. I am degraded from a cook. leaves.— Kil. bladder. which we . chatter. or blafich. is identical with Flanders borlen. blame. defame. blister. or as E. on. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. and Q. —^Webster. 1854. imbrunire. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. blinken. tattle. blegne. It. and G. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. mire. most complete example of leafy structure. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blanchet. coat. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. or a mass of bubbles. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. piatto. Blanket. blegen. contracted from bladeren. to glitter. also white woollen cloth . in R. madder. with all other loose idle masterless men. Blade. blanc. D.—Blatter. pallido. chatter. commonly called the Black-guard. blatter. as Lat. a boil. and he shall be sure to have O. blad. pladdern. The present forms then should be classed with blether. Play in Nares. and thence to babble. and wandering men and women. cited in N. boys. Blain. biastner. to disappoint. Cot. —We Bladder.—Blatant. foolish talk. blactra. to purl. Dan. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. blather. dial. whitish. Sir. plate. blasphemare. leaf of a. smother. whitish. Blancli. blatt. PI. blena. Gr. blister. — — — to jabber. But perhaps a more Gr. 86. dripping-pans. to vocifer- — Cot. to dabble in water. and E. . bladra. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. to shine. slush. and others engaged in dirty work. or of an oar G.— ^o thehotsun. Fr. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. moere. to glow. blister. blad. Du. Dan. Torriano. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. white. pluddre. a buible.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. — Sw. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. p.. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. the leaf of a tree. to bubble. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. the ON. also tanned by the sun. roar. white. to blanch. plat. variable than the signification of words designating colour. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. as. . who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. to omit. and the agitation of liquids. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. Du. Bacon in R.. to bleak in the sun. mus-blackt. The radical bubble. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. — . verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Eadmer. To Blare. on. blahen. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Reliqu. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. speak impiously. Lat. irXariQ. a bubble. to shine. bladdra. Sw. bladder . bladder. Du. To blank. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. 5/^a/^ of colour.

Dan. or blazening. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. also only pains and excellent endurance. blose. is used in the sense of manifestatio. fire. blazen. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. magniloquus. a MS. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. See Blare. quus. bles. To blast. light-coli. blis.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blcese. blase. kept up. I. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. baladrar. proflare tues. shield or surcoat. a shield. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. redness . is the imme. blcest. senses. blason. a whisperer. also blazon or the blazSpenser. baladron. ther it was erst not knowe. proclaim the virtues of. AS.whence the Fr. or to the sound which it produces.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. . Troilus and Cressida. . as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. Cot. blason. blcesett. Blanches illuminies. loud . blus. bliEsan. blast. a torch . live coal . blasoen. an conium. e. abroad. to bellow. stultd loqui. magnilo. blasonner. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. like the in English.' to fastum . blaesen. a shout. to trumpet forth. Kil. blys. Golden Book in R. Sw. blaser vid. a flame. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. it is manifest. coloured prints. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. gloriosus. — ' — stroy. a flame . .sound a trumpet. to blow . abroad. A blaze is so intimately Then. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blateroon. noisy blor. She roade at peace through his heraldry. by stripping off a portion of the bark. Du. blysa. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. The other derivation. of an animal. blorach. somewhat different train of thought. G. OE. G. a shining spot. clamorous. to proclaim. — Elazen. a voice Jr. declaratio. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. blaodh. Prov. to blow. ON. To blow AS. an empty and two theories are proposed. 'op een trompet blaazen. has also blencke. among other . blaodhrach. The origin of this exSp. biter. blass. oured. ill-speaMng their proper colours . With inversion of the liquid. in the same way as we 2. on whose behalf the herald appeared. — — ' : bless. thraso. besides blesse. Dan. Du. — ^Jam. to de. Gael. to publish the praises. But now. To Blaze. Sw. blesse. a blast. as a verb. blossi.). Blaze. blezo. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Gudmund. how. Blast. ventosus. the noisy. AS. blasa. bawling. is from AS. commendation blason funebre. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Du. Fr. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. Du. pale. Blatant. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Fr. blaze. ing of arms. brasa. to blow. to blaze Sp. a flame. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blcEsan. indeed. to spread news. might And sain. each of boaster. The AS. to extol. Du. As Kilian. whence Blazonry. Fr. Cot. a coat of arms. a torch. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. to publish. in that of praise. laudes (Kil. ON. braise. visui patet. g. 2. oron-blasare. bleis. splendour. and which. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. Du. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. a loud noise. blaeteren. and to make him word blaze.— . to cut off prematurely. a funeral oration . was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. blesse. A gust of wind. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blcEsan. the matter incendiary . used. and.' painted or figured . First from the E. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. i. A strong flame. Lye. embraser. blase. might spring from the same origin by a . also praeblczse. blaterare. to set on fire. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. bldsse. beast. brasa. a lamp blasere. boasting. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. If armour. much plausibility. Sc. friend Cornelius. blatero.

filerren. blur before their eyes. in the expression reputation. Gr. blarren. splamii!. to blear one's eye. a spot. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P.' the devil makes a vain back. the livid colour of a bruise. a red watery eye. bleakness. Fr. bldmi. darkness of vices. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. So in Sw. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. guenchir. blcecan. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold.' God in his wordes. . gif thou blenche from ony of tho. See Blood. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. plama. livid. See Black. wan. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. and thence to a bruise. paleness. bloken. a been distinct. Blemisli. from the than schal I go. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. goda nainn. start vor den augen. inflamed eyes. wheal. A stain in a man's reputation. The term blear. pier vor den augen eyes. Bleak. wanness. pale Du.P. Blear-eyed j having sore i. to disgrace one's name. blakna. As AS. pimple . from on. . ^Blencher. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blink. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Sw.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. sinen langen tranen. a fault. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to soil. flack. Bleed. avoid looking it in the face. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. G. a blotch plerr. souiller. 419. to make him feel blank. To salir. A Blab. AS. tutnan is a cloud. From the OFr. (faith or creaunce) Be war. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. novice. — blink the question is to shrink from it. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. what blenched him therwith. blot. Schmel. Palsgr. pale . to bleach. to stain one's honour or reputation. while the agent ac- From . a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. ' He blarrede or roar. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. blesmir. BLENCH obfusco. boggle at something. . dead-coloured Cotgr. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. geplerr. a spot. exposed. . — — R. Pol. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. 115.'he cried till the tears ran down. a spot. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. is Blench. to cry or weep. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. I chaunge colour. Gower in R. livor.' to deceive one. Blear. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Mac. a stain. color plumbeus bldma. to spot. the formal equivalent of English wink. a spot. like one that has long P1. confound him. Ancren Riwle. a blot or smear blanking one. to humbug. which are blurred with the have shewed you.D. drop of water. or blemysshen — blaken. a disgrace. And now are these but mansbond (i. light-coloured. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. blemissemeiit. whitish. c. to wink the eye. to wink at it. blema. to spot . to become livid. Sir J. spla7nU sie. tacher. to blare been weeping. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. ' — — eye. Bleb. or blemish. ' . blesmissure. Blancher. Bailey. blench came to be used for a trick. ' — — ' : — — . B. a blemish in one's 2. bleikr. spSt. Bejaune. See Black. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. Richardson. to cast a mist before the eyes. 242. p. as of dust or mist . tumanid. to bleat as sheep. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. blot. Manuel de Pecch&. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. . The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. a boil. or to low as oxen. blister. ^Xiixaoftai. sugillatio. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. To totally different from the foregoing. To Bleat. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. And By a similar metaphor Pol. to start away from. on. N.v.

Du. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. pale. . blinzeln. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blithe blis. seems the simple netel. blind. to bless . the G. lighten. with or without the nasal. Bliss. but by no means therefore a pre. — Goth. Sc. mix from blekken. csecubrandish.not sting thiiren. AS. joy. to twinkle.blunda. blinde fenster. giving (Fr. . Pol. Needle. blaziti. Sc. and joys of Paradise bliden. mixing in general. blund. a look. graceful. Blazena Bea. a gleam. the verb to bless is some. Tany. De Sonne ' verblekken. pockets. to merry. to glitter. OHG.nasal. . as a vatn i vin. G. The inblissful. blend. blithe. a dead nettle. blitzen. happily. Blink. Biglotton. Sw. a. j). as a blind entry. — A A — . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. gladness. in potters' language. . HalliwelL Of this latter the E. glad. . blag. lovely Bohem. glitter. (=bene dicere). to dash wine with water. to make a rumbling noise. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. glitter. sertion of the nasal. blitz. a glance. blissian. to fall into water with a sudden noise. gives blinzen. a. to shine.' To — blunge clay. blich-fiur. glitter.. Swab. to bless. blinzler. wink of sleep . blidu. to shut the eyes G. happy . 375. Swiss (obsolete). to bluiter up with water. goods. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. To Blend.blinze. blincken. blanssen. to plunge. riches . blican. fortunately. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. G. a flash. to lighten. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. liquid filth to bluther. make these hands 3. blahoslaviti to twinkle. blatida. Russ. blicksem. blet. Blind. good. a wink. window-blind. Nares. To blunder water. . blazeny. — when he — Bailey. . a nounce happy. to — make it thick and muddy. as in Du.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. bludder. sung.D. Deprived of sight. plotzen. to dazzle . . although in the in the next article. Dan. blessed. to churn. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. the sign of the cross while blessing one. A . to dash cream up and down with a plunger .blinkard . blinzdugig. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. blessed. — . lightning sweet blago. I hold thee a grote thee. blink-eyed. joyful. to be blind. AS. to rejoice. to blithsian. to make happy. Du. a wink With the bletsian. blink. to rejoice. glance. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. weaklaveny. . vious one in the order of formation. to flash. be glad flash. . a blessing. blago. blind- ON. to glitter . blahos. trix. Du. . joy . joy. to glitter ful . to mix. blogi. OHG. blide. dazzle . The sound of k before an s. lightning. AS. blende. to shine. sweet. Du. Thence apblinds. ' Pl. From the action of the hand making Sw. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. happy . bliss look . to consecrate . to dabble in water. lightning. plonsen. tless —Gamm. ON. readily passes into a /. to dilute too much . Owl and Nightingale. flash of light . blent. F. to stir or puddle. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. happy . tative source of the word is wholly lost. Wtb. burn up. —Brera. Du. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blicken. pearance of the blighted . To Bless. money.Q. G. doors. The term then self or others. or nettle which does form. well blagaya. as taschen. wink. Kiittner. is I shall Gurt. G. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. shine.eyed. moment. glimpse. riches blajennii blicksem. to bluiter. blindselen. thou knave.blinken. also to wink.corn. livid. ^Jam. Blight. blindr. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. to act like a — .passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to pro. AS. a blick-ooghen. Serv. blotzen. blicken. to shut the eyes. to shine. bluiter. . blendian. III. bleg. as in the case of blaze. tire. a glance Swiss blenden. cascultare. blick. blac. an entry which leads to nothing .wink . well blahy blick and blink. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. Paradises blidnissu. to glance. the Slavonic languages. false windows.

Hence E.pusta. blide. Jonson.plisg. blote. Sw. joyful. biota. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. To Bloat. Lat. bluyster. separate portion. blautr. blidr. . blesme. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blaustem. blobbes or droppes of water. pausten. while Lat. senting the dashing of water. For this. — Sw. like clot. to blow. husks. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. cooking. fish blind person. to bubble. blotfisk. Fr. Du. like manner the coloured. blot. the unhewn bole of a tree. a small lump of anything thick. Langued. and bouclette. soaked. an unformed mass. boucler. blaud. Hence. from blcsr. to desire the male. Bleb. to block up the way. as blinzeln. a lumpish head plubach. To a smoking or drying by the fire. A solid blouquette blisters. blouca and Fr. to to puff and be noisy. . blcesma. strawclod. blubber. . weak. blister blasan. bubble and blubber. pusula. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. light yellow. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. blond. pods. whence blast. a block or log en bloc. The stem or trunk of a tree. G. signifying in the first instance to soak. merciful ON. and pisg.— Hal. blinzel-maus. Blob. to blow. as a blab of ink. The blow E. pimple. stone. a ram. a bubble. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. it is must be observed. must be classed with forms like Gr. to blissom. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. bloc. formed spot. or the like. Gael. A under this name was imported into England. In Fin. Boyd in Jam.— Bailey. Cotgr. having an unsound swollen look. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. kostua. N. and inarticulately. Mod. Ibid. blindsehn. buckle. as if soaked in water. blobber. And so from squatter. Thus we have blab and babble. a dirty blister. mass. — Blob. pustula. any lump or mass of things. Gael. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. viscid. to blow. a blister. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. gentle OHG. in the sense of a soft tint. blod. . ^Jam. Egillson. in bulk. soak in water cured fish.. to swell. round. orbicular. to dash liquid. buclde. Du. G. bausen. or blinde-kiih. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. Sw. To Blissom. blot. Dan. blindman's-buff. or is inserted or omitted. speaking rapidly any . in Nares. a little blisg. must be referred to AS. to soak. taken altogether. bleiths. also to set See Bless. blijde. shells. swell. frequentative. sloppy dirt. is also used in the sense of swelling . a blot or spot. See Blot. ON. B. blister. bloated. mild. or the mark which it makes. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. is formed squad. blithe. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. ^vaaa. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. or bleb. Goth. soft. Of sheep. lagga i blot. Dan. busten. expressed by cognate roots. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Svt.—Bloater. ON. blab. a bubble. blad. a drop of water. soft.—Bloated. plub. Kil. to steep. kostia. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. bloc. in gusts. soft. Blob. It may be formed Blithe. a See Blot. bluster. a blain. — — — — — From blabber. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. Blond. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. to cure by smoke. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. puff. —Bailey. repre- pusula. Bav. Fr. B. Block. W. to breathe hard. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. and easily changes its place. a bubble. mild. I believe. a blister . in the lump or mass of wood. inde humiditate tumidus. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. blot. Blister. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. fiustula. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. — . to close it with a solid mass. as in E. a . a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. Sc. The roots /. and F.

blaeuwen. to splash. . plotterwis. bloedsd. S-wiss pladern. bloed. lump of anything soft to blad. Fris. bloeme. proto shine with bright colours . bloi. gfyssa. sbiadare. to shine . platz-regen. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blotter. fall down . G. Sc. yellow. a nature. blou. a black eye Du. a water ploutsche. blue. Blow. — Blotch-paper. gleam. dial. glus. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a pelting shower). from G. 2. to dabble in water. Wflz<^«. clod. a. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. bldmi. blue . blust. Florio).D. blosma. white blatte. parallel form with ON. to glisten . blond en blaauw slaan. Blossom. Sw. blaeuwe ooghe. Du. blooth. gammon. en blau ach. bleistern. — Cot.blauschlagen. a blot or spot. pale tint. a The form platschefz. Blood. blostma. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. ON. livid .— . E. It should be of filth blak-blatte. — gush. glister . to scribble. bletister. Erploten. to blot the land was in a leme. to be red with blot. dial. colour of the cheeks. livid marks. AS. ^Bleed. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Du. lidmr. . D. blat. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to From . bliise. blotte. to blush . a drop of water or colour. bloemen. Dan. Harmar in R. Dan. Jios. Russ. on. bldts. PI. It. whence plader. E. blodelsa and blawelsa. bit by bit. pladdern. See Blow. cow-dung. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. or the sound of it . E. the bright to blot paper morsels. a flower. kobladde. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Ir. a blow. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Fris. a lump. bluish. ' — . plet. bloetnsel. from the bright colour which 7'vci. Bloom. ])erly Du. . blad. bloutre. to squat or lie close.platter. fall to overflowing. ON. blue. to slap. . leme. E. to patter. Schwenck. plottra. a cow-dung. pladern. ^lys. blotting-paper. blase.properly to scatter liquid . . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. bfys. Dan. to exists in biadetto. shine . blond. blawels. to grow pale). skam. to dash down Du. gloss. to strike with such these objects exhibit. blatte. a torch blusse. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. —Barbour. blysa. couleur livide. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bloto. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blue. lustre. Blotcli. blue. straw. blois.^ Kil. mud. blomstr. pale biavo. Stalder. a beater. blosa. blond is used in blatt. blaeuw. Pl. See Blow. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Sc. to dirty. biado (of which the evidence plattern. Schmid. E. brilliancy. bleustern. spots in the sun. ON. to glow. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Prov. platt-voll. to squander. G. . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. a flower. coloured (Diaz. yellowish It's G.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. pale. to slap. in v. AS. Wendish blodo. blut. . blauwel. a Halm a. The G. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. plattata. of a blow with something lios. a Usaae. j^ blottir. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a blaze. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Blad. OFr. fair in en blat vand. flower. Fr. redness. blus. bliithe. a Schmid. glasi. to dabble in water . Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. plot of land is a spot or small rage. platsch-voll. bliihen. probably connected with Pol. a spot or blot. Sw. blady. dirty spot on the cheek. Hatch. (of cattle) to dung. the bright colour of the cheeks . to strike . glossi. bloi. to spot or blot. — Stalder . a deli. wan. to sparkle. blowen. kuh-plader. soft or flat. to blaze. bloi. blosem. spot pletter i solen. Sw. E. to blaze . Plots. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blosen. Schilter. a flower. splashing full. Blot. Du. splendour . great leaf of cabbage. . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. to strike with something soft or flat. blistaf. blose. a gush of milk . to dash down. plants which prepares the seed. platz-voll.' the rain is driving and blue . as the skin or hair. Du. glose. to flame. lump flower. platschern. to be red. — — . Ein platsch milch. light. blondheid. Lat.

Jla-re. Gr. is very frequent. sponds with Sw. Blue. to puff up. sound like water. blust. to breathe G. bloes. — To blubber. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. a herb Gr. to fade. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. gliihen. y\r)yi»v. to flourish. and closely allied with Du. tache. 92. Kil. And. Her sweet bloderit face. toused. Chaucer. a Blossom. bledniai. . especially with respect to the hair. in rapid or indistinct utterance. G. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. /idXavoc. Lat. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. a continued noise of agitated water. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. — . Chaucer. Blowzy. 1.' — Palsgr. To Blow. blosen. jabber. -ii. and the forms mentioned under Swab. bluod. glow. The primary sense is to shine. |8A)'. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. a blast. glansj Ir. to blow. or gr. bloeyen. E. ler. The interchange of an initial gl. bruised Prov. pale . to exhibit bright colours. florere. blubbern. Du. where the word may be compared bliggman. gloeyen. flower w. to blow. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Pl. dirty. Blowze. blodyn. to shine with bright From colours. to spot.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. blazir. OHG. . OHG. Mund. Tumbled. bliuwan. into flower. heath. 2. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. plubartaich. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit.Jlasa. a fat. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. corre. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. a flower. to fade.nify bubble. to glow. to beat. to inflate. to gabble. blodelsa. bliihen. bldt. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. disordered. blaw j biavo. . fiubbem. a gurgling . glowing coal . blau. glas. to bubble up. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. AS. bloeden. wan. fem.xo'»'. B. to hard. bliithe. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. To Blow. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blebber. It is howbliuwen. bloi. vi^ound. d in Sc. bruk.D. may cite for example G. to glow. to make blue. The aUied forms. blue . Raynouard. grow pale. blow.. to fade. blezir. Wtb. br. — Bluther. blut. plubair. in E. These are — Bludder. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). Pludern. withered. blao. a blow.' Hamburgh Archives. bliihen. E. to guggle. and thence. G. Deutsch. bluh. sense. Bav. little apparent resemblance. pludern.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. to'disorder. blazi. —SchmelIt. G. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. plubraich. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blava. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. to blurt out. to blow. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. blady. MHG. blawan. gUd. Bret. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. plodern. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. foam.D. — To Blubber. bludder. blois. blass. glede. a bruise. Deutsch. closely difference in of blabber. to bruise Roquef. grey. boasting. is confined to the — . v. — .D. blduen. Gael. to breathe bouteiUis. .D. blodern. We . In agitation of water. fqded. bloom. plusig. glas. disordered in head-dress. like manner Lat. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. green. Langued. blubonciti.— . to make bubbles in drinking. to show flower. Notwithstanding the We . I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to with Bohem. pale OFr. bluther. blue. Danneil. bl. It. pale. pale. w. Prov. chatter. Sik upplustem. to Plodern. — — Mundart. ' BLUE or guggling. 51. Pl. piusen. wan. puff. a. Du. the red fluid of the body . bloemen. red-faced bloted wench. marking some application from that bladder. a paddling in wate r. G. blahen. . gloeden. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to beat with a mallet. A. gliihen. . P1. coup. meurtrissure Roquefort. boil.to blossom. OFr. blau. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. flower OHG. cheeks bedabbled with tears. blubbern. plustrig. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. 1292. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. glaodh and blaodh. grug. fied vowel. to flap like loose clothes. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. ^Jam. to gush.

pale yellow. blue. to become pale. Du. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. originally growing up turf and water. a shore abruptly rising. biavo. Kiittner. plomp. to agitation of liquids. — . sloppy drink.• BLUFF biado. confusion. bleu et blanc. all representing the — . poltern. to become pale or livid. verdure. The word is here synonymous with amplus. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. Analogous forms are Du. The Du. See Blunt. Halma. Sw. From G. blond. and Du. a fore. Supp. a blunderbuss. rustic. Du. Bohem. blavus. a plain coin herausplatzeu. flodderen (Weiland). pale.. . The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. find accordingly It. bawling. like the Celtic glas. from the brilliant green of the young E. herbe. G. Pl. G. liebefactor. sbiavare. Hence we pass to Prov. Ditton in R. Hal. to dabble Biglotton E. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . his business with much noise. superficie plani. devenir vert blavoie. as well as biado. blave is moreover. E. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. sense of yeUow. blake (identical with AS. like Du. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Pol. blac. speech. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. bulmanner. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. to fall suddenly on the ground. and biavo (Diez). yellow. in the same way as from It'. an ill-done job. and metaphorically. discoloured {plowiee. The Du. Kil. from an imitation of the sound. glundr. G. I blonder. to puddle. Palsgr. - reddish yellow. in plur. mix It. corn. bloi. To blunder is then. pludder. pale) is provincially used in the. non rotunda. which is rendered by Florio. used for the work of an unskilful performer. Blavoyer. and bustle . — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. biada. buller-bak. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. mistake. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. glundra. without image or superscription. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. And blunders on and staggers every pace. to dabble in the mud. ploffen. and then generally idle talk. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. jaune. and sbiadare. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. See Blurt. blanssen. disturb. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. a flounder. . fawn-coloured. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. dial.make a noise. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. having a bluff forehead. biava. It then signifies something done at once. blunder. Blunt. Bluff. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. applied to green as well as blue. verdoyer. Kil. to lose colour. Hence a Slcelton in R.in mud or water. G. to confound. herauspoltem or sloping shore. pale straw-coloured.' trouble. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. is. je perturbe. puddle. Altieri. Dief. Romance bluiter. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Dryden in R. to blunge clay. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to mix it up with water. A bluff manner. abrupt. to fade). polterer. to blunder water. Pm.//aay. Blunderer or blunt worker. blunder. polter-hans. in water dobbelen. Bodge. from the Lat. blunt. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. blandum. trahir. flav-us. blunderhead. bUich. blaf. to become pale or wan. Roquefort. It is remarkable however that the E. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. Blaffart. — — — . to work To blunder out a fronto. buller-bas. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. planus. Bladum. blutter. blue. 't — —Hal. tradire to Fr. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. something. We Blunder. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow .D. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. has donder-bus. blue. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. plo-wy. segetes virentes. contrasted with the dle. Lat. to plump into the water. blahir. bullern. corn.— . or an abrupt manner. bluish. Dan. Then with the nasal. as well as sbiadafe. yellowish red. Roquefort. OFr. earth and water mixed together. falb. a boisterous violent man. — Pr. Flor. fallow. Biada.

— Kil. viz. dull. blait. blunt. bleak. clumsy. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. ang. a thick and will person. or heraus plumpen. F. Sc. nature. blunt. Stalder. plutz T)\i. and hath swiche languor in his soul. fooUsh. to plump into the water. Bluntet. blunt. blunsch. seems to be derived. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Halma. azure. absence of preparation. bluntschen. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. is The word dull. a bluntie. rough. and an unintelligent. blott.— — — . biosso. raw. and the like. It will be seen that the G. blue. naked. duU. plains The large bech. Sc. thick. plump. united in Gael. to bring it suddenly out. of a knife which not cut. Molof something wet. plump. good plump person. bare or blunt. —D. obtusus. plump. to handle a thing bluntly. like a thing thrown down with a noise. as in E. naked. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. naked. blutten. Probably radically hlekit. mit etwas heraus-platzen. that the sense of bare. Kiittner. blunder. identical with E. — blunt. plotsen. pale. stupid fellow. Plump mit etwas umgehen. inaKil. the absence of sharpness. poor Sc. —D. plotz. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. V. blout. platz-regen. bloss. Now the Swiss bluntsch. that it not easy to discover the connection. to make a noise of such a Stalder. A light blue colour. without preparation. inactive Swiss bluntschi. a blot. bare. to plump down. bus. heavy. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . unpolished. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. rudely. figuratively. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. Bare and blunt. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. but of something soft thrown on the ground. and. unfledged Sw. Ford in R. dial. awkwardly. Sw. massive. A modification of the same root. down. G. it will be observed. from the loud report a fire-arm. pressions. void. naked. used in both senses. viz. Dan. biotto. unwrought. maol. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. to blunt a thing out. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Plontp. More in Richardson. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Sir T. exactly corresponding to the G. nis. a portion To inquire for slaves. The blait body. homo stolidus. sheepish. Swab. Blaitie-bum. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. blatte. as cow-dung. rude.—D. without the nasal. V. Q. as Sw. blunt. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. in Richardson. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. plumbeus. — — pidus. Woddis. Pol. Plump. . clownish. is thrown. platzen. edgeless.pludse. plump. plonsen. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. The syllables blot. fling down . blat. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . hebes. awkward. G. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. forestis. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. without horns. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blockish. heavy. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word.to fall into the water. . without Maolaich. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. plump J to plump out with it. heavy. a simpleton. V. Won by degrees. silly. unceremonious manner. Dan. wan. to blurt. obtusus. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water.plompen. bare. Blunt. It is from this notion of suddenness. dull. bald. ineffectual reason. or blab out a thing Kiittner . and in the same sense. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. pointless. it will be well to point out a sense. Kiittner. blotta sanningen. Chaucer. Du. It. to make foliage. insensible. Then cometh indevotion. with or without the nasal. blait. through which a man is so blont.

. to sound like water boiling. Schmeller. gabble. aper.— . a short thick body. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. bit. Comp. AS. to make mouths. a blot. to spurt out. Board. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. To tinct. to blubber. — — — * Boast. violent G. to say bluntly. or backwards and forwards. to give a crack. a tassel. edge. cluster. puddle. bladdra. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. to blurt out. ader. Du. to render indisbhir. — — .v. to dabble. Sc. blubber. Du. pfludern. to blore. bakke bleustern. bluther. G. blurra. bobine. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. batello. Boa. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. this root are formed Sc. to disfigure with E. outward edge.the syllable bot. 156. blur. bdtr. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to blur. 1.' — Red Riding-hood. 9396. pluddre. bateau. to guggle. be a crack or loud sound. a blow . like the parapets (viggyrdil. ON. OE. Du. De Boat. rude. Related to blutter. See Blossom. To blow in puffs. to brag grande loqui. burra. table. borrar. or bog also thread. mire. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. fringe. Sc. To splirt. baban. 274. — From mouth. a. boccheggiare. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. blirt of greeting. dull. flat. pustern. to rumble. blotch and botch. voce intonare. bhis. cheeks glow. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to chatter. whence bob. bdta. both used in the sense of boasting. planks raised up outside the roofs. to puff. to bounce. strong. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. skin. rude. and E. E. to blow. and the latch . blusse i ansigtet. margin. to make a noise in boiling. Explained by Jam. Fl. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. swagger. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. will fly up. To move quickly up and down. bustuous. pludern. to puff. bleuster. to dirty. coarse. Slur. blast. baiag. to glow . — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to blush. a dangling object. boord. bobbin. an ear of corn. . Kil. A large snake. to breke. a grows to a great bigness. bludder. Bot zeggen. and when applied to vaunting language. a burst of tears. Du. a small lump. Pull the bobbin. bliise. boot. margin. to crying. board. acre. as in Du. to endeavour to terrify. bur. sudden. and swimmeth very well. splurt and spirt. to bark. then applied to indistinct vision . Bluster. . it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Boa.D. blose. bdd. c. BLUR Boar. bord. geplerr. cocodrUlus. the Brem. primarily signify loud noise. border. to smear. blot. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. e. and boisterous. or blurt with one's mouth. lindwurm. To Blurt. a bladder . a tassel. hot. a board or plank. Lat. bot. Wallace. AS. an edge. a mist before the eyes plerren. whence bordvidr. bar. margin. large. the sound of a blow poffen. pausten.y. to roar. G. to snuff. Sverris Saga. of the word seems . — To Bob. — a blaze. Fr. 'Ba. Wright's ed. bluter. It. pof. violent. w. blunt. berd. is formed Du. edge. lacerta. stellio. imitated by has also In like . dial. a torch blusse. P. blosken. bord. a baU of thread the mud. &c. Gael. blaustem. Boost is used for the boast. blaste?i. . Swiss blodern. It. a club foot . the red colour of the cheeks Dan. 29. to talk quick and indistinctly . an end or stump. literally edge-wood. Hal. a border. eber. Bav. Dan. on. blot. to threaten. as splurt to splutter. to blaze. to dangle. properly noisy.plodem. bludder. my dear. botte. — ' Dief. blader.pusten. boa. common. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. puffen. bot-voet. Pl. Gael. blaere. bora. ever-swin. . brett. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. it implies that it is empty sound. E. blodern. to puff. Blush. and Du. V. ground. to be out of temper. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. Du. To brag and to crack. gabble Sw. crack made by bursting open. G. The to radical meaning D. a mistiness. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. a Jam. a blotch. a smear. to make a noise with the mouth. boistous. Du. blasen and See Burr. blaffen and baffen. As the as. Hal. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. AS. short pieces of any filthy mud. bausen. stupid. bord. chicchere. dial. It. planks or boards. a flurt with one's fingers. plump. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Halma. Fl. eafor. blarra. to jabber. BOB 79 — To Blur. See Boisterous. Du. table. Wtb. Fr. i. beer. Supp.plerr.—Bobbin. beacon fire. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist.

shake. whence paUchen. or bag. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Wall. a command. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. bole. a cask. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. to bodge. gog in gog-mire. And waves. to make a mow at. bodian. whence Fr. gebod. gagoula. Lap. formerly bodies. bot.! . or stem of a tree. To mock. fickle . bodak. bodhag. shaking . W. strike with the horns. In like manner E. corset. cask bottich. 3. unsteady. barrique. . a puddle. a cask. bog. a prick. is a lump. a quagsoft. to fail.' Bogglie. bodnu. Ir. Crist. to be unsteady tich. dies. Gael. a . to scruple. To Bodge. bodetz.' A — Sherwood's Diet. barriga. biodeachan. quagmire). bodat. — 2. . to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Lith. * To Boggle. woman's stays.rabodi. bodi. Body. to waver. baboyer. round. Commonly explained as if from Sc. . gog. bogle. bagges. a sting . e. to deliver a message. unsteady. from fitting close to the body. The Sp. to stammer. . See Bid. bolr. Thy i. stitch. to commit a blunder. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. a ghost . potacha. is identical with Fr. to fail. precept. mud. rounded. AS. a dagger. stumpy. and the word is well explained by Bailey. Bodice. ^Jam. to stick. needle. waving. the belly. an announcement. the thick part of anything. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bodilo. Bohem. to push with the horns. where bogs form Gael. arise E. gogach.hollow. swelling. — H. to butt. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. a messenger . To portend good or bad. stutter gogmire. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bottich are derivatives. bodig. potig. badyti. to dabble or paddle. AS. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc.a (i\ia. Gl. gag. It introduced from Ireland. With With this we charged again We bodged again. corpset. the stem of a tree . potahha. stuttering. speak of the barrel of a horse. wavering. Bog. body of a shirt bol. Cot. corset from corps. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. 43. . bottig. — as well as the body of an animal. to bob. Schmel. nave of a wheel. a round body both. point. thrust with something pointed. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bodies. moving backwards and forwards. ON. Ptg. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. a bog or morass. — Grandg. bodene. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. goggle. To Bode. Ptg. anything protuberant. Bret. pall. so large a feature in the country. meaning the round part of his body. BOGGLE trunk and G. move. an awl. butt. by the syllable patsch. to prick.gmh:t. to stir. bog (equivalent to E. bog. exhibit another modification of the root. the body. or a pair of bodies.\\i\c\iset. VI. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. To make bad work. bogadaich. . biodag. Shakespear has badged with blood. Gael. to blurt a thing out. quakmg. anything soft. bod. as in stammering or staggering. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. as signifying anything spherical or round. Bodkin. to start start and back as from a bugbear. of which the E. potacha. belly. See Baber-lipped. the body of a shift gaguejar. to roll. then from the yielding. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . French bouter. Gael. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. . The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. busti. calf of the leg. to be uncertain what to do. agitate. bo tich. We . and E. daubed or dabbled with blood. Now unskilful action is conmire. to smack. bod. a prickle. bayonet . bayonet. a spur. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. to thrust. gagei. So BOB To Bob. bogadh. to make. toss. bob. Supp. . a body. Russ. Miracle-plays. moist mire.. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. boftich. expression hogglin an bogglin. bodi. nodding. See To Botch. as a horn. bogan. '£. boll. . corpses pot. bothog. patsche. palleg. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. the boss of a buckler. the trunk of the animal body. Reliq Antiq. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. bogach.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. gago. The signification of the root bot. body and G. Banff. message boda.

bouil. boil . the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. stramenta. bul. bul. Chaucer seems Dan. G. — 6 . bolle. E. ballr. bolt upright. G. pillow. bog. notes. Sc. Bret. globular bod)'.palleg. bollen (Kil. courageous. pimple ON. bol. Du. bulla. bulr. OHG. bula. intrepid. the husk of nuts.Du. rough. and manace for to de. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. Daring. a boil or swelling Du. To Bolter. bolster. chatter. bold. bolr. w. as. boggle.). scruple. bola. Mund. bolstar. ohg. It. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. a bakazikni. see Boast. V. animal as distinguished from the limbs. to hesitate from doubt. dint in a metal vessel. merry. puilen.rounded part of the body. Lat. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . bol. trunk of a tree . tulum. . To Boil. . in the sense of handsome . bochken (titubare. caput scapulse. Swab. Properly noisy. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bealder. as those of nuts. to stumble. Sp. Cot. Fr. hollow. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. ^Vocab. from Du.— — . boystousnesse. ON. Du. The bob. bhster. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. E. gluma. or the like. sels of flax. OG. strong. — ' — tagliare. he will speak out. bolla. bSlstr. This iv. also a blister. Lat. styffe or rude . puile. The term applies in — — impressed . cheerful. a head . sile hurled in a clap of thunder. b^gayer. ^Boistous. bold. tomentum. glass phial. courageous. the. huge. bout. balldr. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. the body . prince. Gael. Me doth awate. a bubble. quick. the lir. Boll. Pm. to boil. haughty. In the same way Sc. tar. * Boisterous. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad.. up of bubbles. boss. Fr. boll. Westerwald bollern. baud. buile. beule. to be prominent. Da. bout is explained by Kil. furfures. a quaking mire. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. Goth. * Bolster. a bubble. bola. tartajear. bol. as baltha. Du. bolleken. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Boystous. bulla. G. flax-boU. i. in speaking. Fr. then violent. bold. properly represent belly. bag or bog are derived Piedm. blow. Test. Lap. boly. to stagger. a cushion. belc'hj. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. a fastening for a door. bullire. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. to tattle. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. strong. Bustuous. fiausten. stameln vel bochken. to be at a loss a shirt. stud. Wall. to stammer. used. 1430 in Deutsch. buller. warlike. is probably a modification of boll. Boil. See Bulk. as. bald. perpendicular. Kil.D. Kit. bolt. bagaji. ON. ON. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. roydeur. The round stem of a tree. but that Bolt. 304). bald. swelling. balder. shake. to puff. polc'h.' Mrs Baker. Magy. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. stutSw. bolzBold.— D. strong. Love. folliculus grani. ON. hero. pall. confident. excellent. boutpijl. biiilen. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. coarse. whence bulla. bolc'h. tartle. Sw. Bole. a bump. from the branches. the gurgling sound of water rush. insolent baude. brave. free. — — which the cushion is stuffed. to stammer. noise. proud. G. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. a bubble. the body of a man or of ter. obex. by which it is moved to and fro. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. tartalear. 45. bald. to the belly as the or dislike. bok. round the first instance to the materials with . Chaucer. capitellum. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. hakogni. . to give a hoUow sound. 374. and then applied to other husks. may be identified with It. to swell. swelling. capiing into a cavity. (of Mons) b^guer. repagulum. Du. to waver or hesitate. bog. bolzen. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. A. . treated under Bowl. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . a swelling in ice.w. pusten. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. bal. Stalder. poppy (Bailey). pustule. impetuosity. as E. chaff of corn siliqua. wag. bolster. which are not used for a similar purpose. gerade signifies straight to the mark. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. cows the people from speaking. Pr.

have Lat. . or the like. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. hulch. bulla. a bunch. to become lumpy. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. on the one hand. to start with palpitate. a clod cloth. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. then to knock. Sw.clack. curdle. Here the radical image is the violent O. crod. a millpoltzet augen. rugged. a sod (Schiitze).— . tantara. agitari (Kil. Bav. to E. to agitate. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. pull. bolting to that of form. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. 2.). ex•wagen. P1. to spring forth E. as above explained. . the wheels groaned.D. or ill. to form lumps. burclct. bolzauget) Sp. knob. rugged. kloteren. Pm. tling or crashing noise. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. taraabout.by forms like G. . with E. Sanders. Bulte-pook or bulstar. as of a trumpet. zare. Prov. gebolder. holier poller. tar. as Fr. bullern. bultred. uneven.fe/2?. Dauphiny a sudden movement. cro. to bolt meal barutel. to knock. or a racer from the course. projections. taratarrum.nature of the operation. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. croler. . abolter. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. tumultuari. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. cruddle. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. vessel with narrow opening.Lat. . brattle.D. bultig. to talk pulzen. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. and to crash. bolt. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood.through a cloth of loose texture. buUire. ler. . from G. Lat. we pass to Du. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. bolt-foot. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. tuft. poll. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. uneven. a bolter or implement for bolting. staff which sounds tar. Pr. bulstrig. barutare. hulter de bulter. crotlar. . the name of bolter mixed flour and water. btilt. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. hump. G. fied bot. poltern. a rattling carriage. jolting. Brem. a small portion.) E. buletare. to coagulate. clump. Supp. to bolt meal barutel. blotttre.). as snow balling on a horse's foot. swelling. — — — . Du. hole. to bolt flour burato.u. racket gepolter. boss. mole-hill. Fr.i5a//^«. pultare. I boulte meale in a boulter. bulk or quantity . taratantarum. bluter. ' Holler poller / bulter. to clack. Pl. crash. a . The ulti. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot.thump or blow. OFr. representing a rat. the sense of right on end. we der Brocket). Champagne burtcau. a crashing or racketing noise.D. Pl. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. a clap of thunnences. beluter. to make a knocking. by the representation of a racketing sound. a clod. It. bolzaugen. small heap. a round glass ending — bultig. Hence Palsgr. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. grasbulten. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. we have Du. The ment and the operation.as the essential element signifying the talum.. to bolter. hammer. protuberance. a clump of turf. to significance of the term was overlooked. budeln daz mele . Schiitze. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. Lang. poltern. pattern. Mid. to come rattling downstairs. and the Thus from So. Dan. bulio. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. . barutela. in S'W plotter. je bulte. barutela. clattering other of a series of projections or emi.D. buletel. we see that the one consists of a words. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . a club-foot. a bolter Prov. sestuare. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. Hence. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. to shake. Du. Wtb.. bolzen. OFr. In the next place.agitation of the meal in the bolter. : ' — — . lumpy. / is transposed in Fr. MHG.protuberance. baruta. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. bolt head is a retort. OFr. die treppe pressed. a rattle. to start out. bulk. ' — — ! ! : — . hammer. as a rabbit from its baritel. So also we pass from Lat. zen. also to curdle. And as the agitation of cream in .On the same principle. one after the other. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. bortelen. buretter{CQ\. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. On this account Mid. buideln. projecting eyes pul. beliitea. loud and fast.noise {brattle of thunner.

It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. ties. silk-worm. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bombase. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. we speak of a gun to resound. Kil. 155. the Fr. Bibelesworth in Nat. Fl. as Banbury. or trunk word in W. as in . sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. raw silk.). borel. buidelen. bombasin. baum-bast. . breast-bone. From builen. to thunder. When ture. 83 Gr. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. bonfras. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . lana lignea. and that from Fr. crook-shanked bondew. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. to ring bells. band pi. . A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. whence bomme. an implement of binding. bombe. . a baker. — Bombard. a ligature. to bind G. Dan. It.Lat. tie. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. to bolt meal. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bolting-cloth. Dan. from boom. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. barate. iuttern. Need you any ink and bonibase. stuff. to beat a drum. — bombast came guage. banitola (Fl. PoUitriduare. sericum arboreum. burato. butteln. and also the leg. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. and in fact we find the and Du. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. OE. beuteln. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. sye. cotton stuff. Antiq. however. bombast. a hollow sound. bongam. E. derivation. buttel trueb (of liquids). and Mod. bauniwolle. brust-bein. Fr. It. thick-legged. It. boulenger. Bone. gunpowder. a word of which we have traces in several English names. butteln. rimbombare. HoUybandin R. agreement. In legal language. q. Bomb. bureau. bras. bambagino. Moreover. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. sijde. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bonog. baun. has repeatedly varied. Schm.bast. the leg. been. bommen. also thick-shanked. . G. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. assuming the of leg : special signification W. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. booming over the water. Near 6 * . Bonfire. thick from shaking. the contracted form of Du. again. Du. bond. tiffany. bon. builen. the silk-worm. to which the leg. the shank the shoulder-bone. bomba.Su?. cotton. i. Gascoi^e in R. to resound. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. to shake down fruit from a tree. Castrais barato. d. Butterglas. bwmbwry mar. a bone in general. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. bombicina. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. and Bond. band. tie. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bombarda. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. achsel bein. to shake. ^o/j. gossipium. bommer.D. The material called by this name. bombasine. Du. and called in Mid. G. ODu. bopin. bunden. bombice. a —Bombasine. — having a stem or stalk. a thundering noise bomre. Banstead. bein. to thump W. to cast to and fro. to shake (as to shake the head. G. It. and Du. term is appropriated in G. coarse. It. a string. biire. to boult meal. a churn for butter. beuteln. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. a beacon. a stem or base. It. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. — AS. must be explained Fr.) . bande. Mid. bonds. In E. buidelen. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. bambacium. a stock. bwmbwr. bulter from It. a drum bombammen. Du. stump. .— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. . silk. basin. tree. beil'n. is supported by the analogy of G. Fr. &c. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. . bindan. the murmuring of the sea. bureau. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. band. bambagioj whence It. As cotton was used for padding clothes. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . thick. e. sije. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. therefore fairly identify bone with the W.^Altieri. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. produced the Pl. bone of the . bombdra. a boulter of meal. from teu.

tapestry. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Fr. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. bowwen. But bosg. pole. bosig. Mrs Baker explains bun. to yawn. It is commonly explained as identical with It. Basa. buandi. to ask. a letter . The word seems of Scandinavian origin. ON. set in order. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. bas. Palsgr. help. pig-sty. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. bua. ass. . dress. without ad- . literally cow-house. 232.. inhabit. a lofty blaze. to aid. bauen. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. . the possessor of the farm. to cultivate. ON. is Du. feu de behourdis. Boot of bale. botta. till. E. p. a tree. a stall. the first consonant of the alphabet. Hal. netis stall. Schm. betere thing werse. badaud. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. Fr. are formed Fr. bose. the stubble of beans. To Boot. succour Bailey. bosih. quest. G. boubi^. by arbitours sholde bote the P. the name of the letter b. in w. a silly fellow. G. nachbar. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. A favour. — — .n. . Gael. Hufwud-bonad. a hollow skin. dial. Swab. Book. reparation. but stall. AS. In nautical language. Build. Goth. a scribe G. swinbusa. gawney. bos. to gape. boom. head-dress wai^g. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Du. bd. The latter is the original AS. — Bailey. to prepare. bdn. a head-dress. The origin of the word is probably the W. booby. Boor. build. Bun. wondering signifies not only straw. Kil. G. Thin ben Luke i. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. in Phil. tigh. The character of folly is i860. although in the OG. comes bondi. as a lying-place for cattle. master of the house. bote. Mrs Baker. fool. Pr. boa. AS. bonad. Bonnet. Busk. a bonfire. bene. babin. often cut for burning and lighting fires. as the Brecknockshire Banns. Boot. litter. Prov. bommen. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. a dry stalk. botte. b'ukvdry. biikui. It. a good turn or re- meaning. the alphabet. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. bonad. and fig. Binau Brychyniog. to cultivate.Boos. blockhead. the cultivator. boer. b^er. letter. relief from sorrow. Boon. b&ber. from gape. till. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. . .^ —P. Du. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. one who dwells nigh. a bag of skin or leather. or Vanns. to strew with straw. to dress. gehyred. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Perhaps. and from AS. whence ban-ffagl. babb^o. stabulum. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. botte. — From the participle present. lofty. . ON. the scriptures bokareis. OSlav. pero. writing bokos. remnants of hay or straw. Pm. which one gaping and staring about. w. of wonder On the same principle Sp. beiSne. bAkva. petition. chaff. clown. by itself for head-dress. Ox. at everything. babau. Kil. Gl. 13. to set in order. bolt. buch-stab. bid). enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. desire. Trans. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. N. Thus from the syllable ba. build. dolt. remedy of evil. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. high. petition. a letter Russ. a. beam. Jr. bauer. Fr. . and Ban in w. bds. Bootless. bota. wall hangings. boandi. OW. Wall. from badare. to litter bosu. A stall for cattle. The i. been. dog-kennel. inhabit. boutig. . signifying beech. \ais-band. — . foolish. and thence Rouchi baia. the mouth. bossen. gaping hoyden — Cot. ganian. a vessel for holding liquids. short boots. See Bown. hu?idbusa. ty Gael. prayer. where a cross (or a gun. See Butt. busu. boutig. however. a simpleton. a. a lying-place for dogs or swine. Hal. bonaid. See Bomb. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. to gape. from Du. dress. bobo ! interj. boo. bua. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. and Gael. . dial. boubair. Fr. From bo. Bonnefyre. countryman. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. tall. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. house. bobo. Sp. * Boose. simpleton. prayer. — To boot. . Booby. ben. gaby. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. — e. bonnet. A peasant.—Bootless. Boom. E. from beida (E. baier. boia. ON. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. also called Brecknock Beacons. boten-shoen. Du.

the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to swell. exchange or divide. furd. BOOTH vantage. It. to anything Neither G. Gael. bothan. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. a shed. boede. ON. recovery bata. . an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . cup- awl. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. batr. dens mordens vel caninus. budowai. It is admitted that Fr. Pol. a bladder. purro. pi. bord. uzboro. bauda. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. are derived from G. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. to to . from deila and skipta. comminuted by either kind of action. remedy. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. cure Sw. a borer. puras. ON. or the gradual working a hole in anything. burin. A phorically a drunkard. . from bord. bite. dust. The Fin. wine-skin. furni. hut. to stick unto as a bur. to foam. to repair. forare. which are probably from the same root. a word. to bite. a sharp-pointed tooth. Magy. boeye. limbus. a great bur. bottino. to build buda. in Lap. sculpo 05\xiik. 266. to pierce. abode. cottage. . leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. See Bower. chewed food for infants. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest.—Burin. extremitas Bore. — ON. a granary . borino.. a chisel. or anything pointed. Palsgr. a bothy. nor E. and E. and parrets. both. bud. Fr. But probably the E. botjan. puras. bardure. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. repair. piercer. making good again . OSw. to build. to The Sw. a borer . a hut. beute. to profit. See To We speak in E. reparation. Esthon. amendment boeten. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. differs only in termination. swell bara. boete. Burke in R. fimbria. Booth. The ON.par. Fin. make . baara. borracha. to patch. Fr. bohren. bdt. welt. Compare Manx birrag. bolino. biorag. admovere titiones. AS. edge. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. p. a borer. sawroot. byte points to the verb byta. are parret. a leather bag or bottle for wine.. a. to hut. Du. Booty. purra. a shelter of branches. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to boot. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. bower. wave. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). barn. Bohem. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. Gael. an engraver's chisel. as afford a satisfactory explanation. butin is explained by Flor. to bite. Border. the . but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. lappolone. hem or gard of a garment. ora. &c. from borra. a booth or shed. baete. a border. The as G. butin. chisel. bothag. to bore. a tusk. • — To Bore. . budka. puru. boeten het vier. limbus.por. BoracMo. Bete. To Bore. a responding forms . bata.. and thence to eat build. pointed. yfirbdt. of an edge that will not bite. and meta- Fr. mat-bod. . lappalare. to mend. The cor.— Return from Parnassus I inR. boards. scsdes-bod. amendment. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. to restore. to quench one's thirst . cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. 3. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. is purin. to surge. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. . Another derivation from Fin. to divide. bordi. in Ihre. tent. In the Fin. on. a shop. See Burgeon. . to profit Goth. It. Fin. puru. a wave. Du. And so in ON. fire. urboro. borracha. Sp. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. a cupboard. bora. bdra. margin. betan fyr. ON. Fin. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. . purra. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. to expiate boeten den dorst. Esthon. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. 1. scalpo. Fl. G. Kil. Gael. Lat. aid. terebra sculptoria purastoa. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. a shop budowati. terebro. rof. sharp. . Alexand. Mag. to importune. to bete the properly to mend the fire. pu purro (saha =: saw . cellar. kvit-bara. to . and hence to fine. bauen. OHG. better. struere ignem. a hut or tent. N. drillen.

to give a hollow bizo. whether from the fact preserve G. Gr. the sun sets. burel. The primi. striking.vr\. Borowholder. Bailey. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. cormpted. beorgan. V. boschen. Bunch. empty. bosh. i. secure. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. to contain. AS. plant. boss. cnoc. is probably radically Boss. 106. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. a knob. vain. borgo. knocking. . a pushing or striking out. hollow. D. . a little blow. a. bosse. as if from the verb to hold. Sc. cnag signifies both a clergy. botsen. to pick or cull plants. botse. northern. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. in contradistinction to the more polished knock.' the chief of the ' borh.' every man be under bail. from AS. borg. Lang.any round sweUing. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. a tower. to keep. to conceal. cnap. Swiss Rom. into borsholder. boss. busse. huschen. to strike so as to Bureau. borei. to protect. a herb. the must have arisen burgensis. to protect. is used in the sense of bussare. Borough. bos. to save. a wen. butsen. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. Jam. a bunch or hump. Bosh. pitch. projection. I. ' pledge. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. knock and a knob . Lat. as we speak of a thumping potato. a citizen. useCanterbury. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. nonsense. pegou. basse. coarse cloth made of the Du. borgese. ON. in instead of without. and borough in the sense of a town. Hal. to become is emitted by a hollow body. to give bail or answer for an. bourgeois. empty. tuft. bussi. destitute. gesylle. or because a blow berga. the North Wind. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. a bouncing baby . ^ma. connected. cob. blow on a hollow object. the ordinary a swelling. a blow.ribs and the side. The origin seems to be the Goth. (1867). was origin of the term is the OFr. undyed wool of brown sheep. rustic. burh. byrig. to save. boussi. Boreal. beorgan. borel. one who sticks to you like a bore. f graauw.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. or perhaps it may be See Bury.bucklers. Borrow. borough-holder. in the body struck. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. borealis. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. empty. The other. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. bom. whence the burg. &c. So Du. baurgs. knur. Altieri. pego. /3oraMK6f. bttssel. a citizen. a boss. that which biirge. borg. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. bosseu. and thus could not shake off the old burr. or perhaps also To Borrow. of bail throughout the country. — — — A — . when that system was forgotten. Turk. grey). butse. boss of the side. less. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . clownish. bump is used in lump or piece. botch. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. E. bundle. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. bos. Fr. hollow bucklers. Du. bunch. a surety. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. rude. bail biirgen. poor. the hollow between the Borsholder. bump. ' — — . which now signifies a knob. without. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. viipyoc. tempest. a giving rise to It. Hence borhes ealdor. boss sound. plain rude fellow. head. an eminence. Goth. And that unsittynge is to here degre. the N. a boor. Du. In like manner It. to strike . primarily signifying coarse sound . botch. surety. from their grey clothing. borough or chief constable.' if thou give money on loan. to save Sw. agrees with E. gum vocant. — ' wind burya. Fr. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. It. burgess. to take in. AS. the Sc. to knock or strike.mass. storm.' or system of bail. loan. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. poor. boss or knob of a buckler . bergen. knob. unpolished. ^o^^flj. or head-borough. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. It. G. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Jam.. Hence knot. . Russ. while Gael. Fr. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. bierge. (Bridel). brown cloth. by which of or belonging to plants.' Vegetius in Diez. Botany. Newbury. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. . AS. bussa coarse. tive idea seems to bring under cover. bourg. See found in Bav. bossen. Bos a surety. a city . borh. Cot.

• Bott. tumour. Prov. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. burgi vel pontis refectionem. they two. A horses. to dip in liquid (to Gael. * To Bother. a bottle of hay. to smack. AS. ON. I. botel foenn. e. . A bottom depth. &c. bundle. Mudu.' to the fiery Csedm. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. blister. knock. to simmer. abbi-diwij Slavon. botte. a. to make a make a noise. a slop. a waterfall. From the dim. boden . any plain round viol glass bozzo. a bump or swelling. pimple. in the sense of mend the fire. to dash about . a maggot. biissen. to put on a patch. a botcher of shoes. gen. stock. Here the radical image seems a bubble. disturbance. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. dial. It. to fall : with a sound batsch. a pit. Gael. is also a bubble.D. potra.— . a lump of somebatschen. abbu. bottigUa. a plague-boil Kil. Jtidu. abbution. AS. whisper. repara- — — See To Bete. blain. gipuozan. whence the name ol pool to podge. a knock. ledge It. to we have OHG. ^kvBoQ. — . cation of which may be preserved in puddle . both. thing soft batsch. as a push or windgaU. to bcBta. buazen. hurly-burly. — Fl. botte. botn. to stir and mix together . to podge. a bubble. butse. Bailey. . boss. bot. . a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. batschen. the bud of a flower . Fl. Ancren Riwle. a cess. Both. E. Kil. a bottle. bAdtr. N. Bouteille. disturbance to . a pock. to stir and mix together. to botch or patch. Fyre to botme. to make better. a boil or swelling Halma. On — Du. See Boss. a depth. btitse. blow. AS. a root. stump. G. Butu. bide. contusion . bulderen. mess. bile. bozza. abyss. . to knock. nets. bodem. H^cart. Danneil. To Botch. Parmesan poccia. Hal. a cask. boitean. ambo. turmoil. Hal. a bunch. bossu. any round ball or bowl to play withal. to work without order or know. Wedu. — Dief. a bott . bulder. Du. as Fr. corresponding to . fire-bote. bativa. ' G. poltern. schuhbosser. and ajSvamg. A — oba-dwaj Lat. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. Lat. . — — belly-worm. — . stroke. bots.— Swift in R. i. Bottle. to from the root bot. beggtaj Goth. Fr. to mend (kettles. abbi. botse. ON. bouteille. w. Pl. podge. bosser.of a ball of thread. bluster. mend. the first rough draught 2. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. bozza. signify a in OE. patch. botel. butwo. Boa two. Decorde. Fr. pocciar. See To Bodge. a wisp. bunch. botola. to rage. bun. we have Swiss batscken. a vessel for holding liquids. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. a pit. for a bud. Gael.foundation. pozzanghera. butsen. buddeln. maggots in barley. boute. mutter. bdt. G. to mend. bethia. — duj Lett. a patch patschen. Stalder. Lith. dim. gling piece of work. botch. — Bottom. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. OSax. pozzo. botm. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. a bottle. House-bote. boiteal. Dan. bund. kessel-biisser. bdsser. &c. a humpback. 212. boiteag. boil. shoes. mess. On the other hand. ing out. It. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. especially in Gael. stock. . With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. the science or knowledge of plants. from the dashing of water. pother. buddl. Judwi. was called a push. Canut. Lith. what pushes outwards. buts. Again. To confuse with noise. of botta. noise. an imperfect and bunbutt end. noise. we two. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. puddle. dabble). botte. a tinker schuhbiisser. to give a sounding blow. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a slop. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. you two.) . See Bound. is boteau. and E. ba. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. however. ON. to strike . Bret. buideal. oba. or plague sore . BOTCH understood).^Dec. botsen. bSn. a cobbler. j3i/9os. ubhau. Bochu. boccia. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. Du. And so we speak of an eruption. empty or hollow.— Hal. fundus. bottom. Podge. stem or base. a bundle of straw or hay. the other hand. The Gr. — — . by met. Leg. Botcli. baiothsj Sanscr. — Jidwi. an abyss or bottoniless pit. . — — A 2. See Butt. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. scuohbuzere. round lump. ixorapudder. botus.ments of the same root. a cesspool pass. Diez. Fl. the lowest part. Bouds. It. putra. to froth as beer .

Bodinare. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. a bouncing apple. to set out by metes and bounds. I assure you. its kind. round. — Take care my house be handsome. to thundering big one hum. limit. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to knock. knock it sounds again.— F. Bowlder. mere. jungen. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. bun. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. buUersten. bottom. bay.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. an occasion. — — leap. signifies a sliort thick mass." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. a stock. Bough-pot. Fr. So It. See To Bolt. debodinare. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Brem. bend. a boundary stone (men stone). To Boult. Ducange. p. has hot. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Alpine Re- — gions. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. jump. a turn or time. Primarily to strike. Probably from the Celtic root bon. he fell so that it sounded. in the absence of actual e. Ni gacha cor bondir. — — Bight. bumper. to spring. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. to set bounds. a blow. . — strike. Wtb. the hollow of a bay. ni motz brugir. boujtce. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. bog. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Q. bunda. or Bow-pot. see Boss. Webster.. The Bight of Benin. The W. — No i ausiratz parlar. a round body both. as a bout of fair or foul weather. volta. bend. and Prov. like bobbin. an de dor bunsen. winding. march. To Bounce. bonndn. contusi.'— Charter of K. in contrast to klappersten. 3. ing. bugt. to bow. bone. bolder. a bud. bounbounejha. a blister. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. to thunder. to turn. Boulderstone. the smaller ones. thumping. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . Du. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. butina. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. from AS. Coxcomb. carpet. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. geration. bunsen. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. bouton. From Sw. to hum. Bought. root (see Bottom). whence buj7isen. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. a large pebble. And the new stools set out. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. as a nosegay. and F. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. till The dat et bunsede. to resound. signifying in nautical coil of rope. . is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bullra. the bay of Benin. frequently used in the same sense with bound. nave of a wheel bothel. bodina. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way.' round and round in similar circles. by Bujns or Buns. strapping. 136. a bound. See Bunch.D. dial. Fr. to make a loud noise. boh.— Boundary. Nor a centinel whistle. nor horn sound. E. to knock at the door. Pm. Mid. Bout. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Bret. bamsen.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. Bough. mcn-bomi. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. tnndo. botwm. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Sw. Pr. AS. pothel.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Bound. a button.' B.— Cot. bons. pimple Richards bothog. a boss. bondir. Bonny. . of thread.— — — - 88 BOUGH . Raynouard. Dan. ni frestelar. To Bound. turn. Halma. boundina. boriie. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. dial. a large stone rounded by the action of water. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. bonzen. Fr. bugan. bonna. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. the larger kind of pebbles. from volgere. the verb bondir in OFr. from bugan. iv. language a * Boulder. Bunche. to fix limits. baby.>a bout. came home with his face all to-bounced. boss of a buckler. A Langued. as that of E. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to spring. 2. The branch of a tree. gulf.

Bourdon. potio. an arch. limit. belly out. explaining Sw. a humming noise Macleod. Cot. spring. Borden. different modification gives ON. patesten. souf. to hum as a bee. ruption of bonne. a sing-song. bage.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. burdan. buigen. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. It is bov. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Du. bourdon. bontS. hous^ Man in the Moon. pausen. jest. bovne. brunna. spelling the word iox bound. It is the participle past buinn. Sw. w. brausen. It. burlare. Gael. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. G. buys. head Fr. btiga. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. trick. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. bue. like quaff. are applied to the bow of a ship. a mill-post. purra. Dan. It is remarkable that we find vary. a corToward the garden. firm. bugna. to draw a deep breath. the big end of a club. bourd. ^<7r«i?. Sp. Du. Spenser in R. bagna. to our bous. bordo. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. beygja. fresh* water. and not in the sense of curvature in general. is. to mutter. in Fr. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. to take one in. Burgeon. flagon. So Sc. — — — A pare. — probably through this latter signification. Fr. Bret. a drone or dor-bee. to drink deep. . bogr. gurgling. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. deceit. the Bourdon. Eown. bending of a joint knie-bug. whence buysen. the ting of a bell. Bow. a cup kroesen. hence musical accompaniment. The meaning of bound. Prov. Chaucer in R. Swiss bausen. saufen. schulter-bug. puff out. . to swell. beogan. lance. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . prepared for. game. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. to trick. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. cheat. a jibe Shaw bururus. When used alone it . addressed to. whether by sound or gesticulation. Bounty. to tope W. when we speak of. . a — — . or of an Gael. Comp. bourde in the same sense. bdgi. a jibe. set out. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bog. Dan. a. grumble Sw. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. on the whole. to take breath. bend. pared. Fr. Sc. epaule du vaisseau. to tipple. bordon. Du. . Immediately from Fr. . a go to. biegen. to take deep draughts. bogen. verb bua. to tope. burreti. drunken. bug. i. pusta. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. bonus. a brook. mockery. buzz. way ba7n. bound. pre. brummen. bourdon. bend Sw. drink deep. bausen. language of folly or ridicule. G. bonitas. good. of the ON. a from Du. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Sw. a humming noise. to drink deep. their time -With "wailful tunes. and that probably from a Celtic root. steady. a well. ready. must be referred to the same root. crutch. Du. Bourd. Gael. Bourdon. sport. tinton. sausen. repartee. also the humming or ON. borne. bugna. joke. As the Gael. the fixed. bov. the shoulder of the vessel. Fr. that ON. bending. sotich. kroes. fun of one . Cot. to hum. a for New York. cudgel. bommen. schenkelbug. purlBav. bwa. burd. the burden of a song. Dan. identical with E. Bound. . bow to shoot with. G. g. to indulge in his cups . bog. bugan. ing. address. a pot. bending. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. warbling. to — Hal.bass of a stringed instrument. Gael. on. buga. AS. to bow or incline the . a prop. biugan. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. shoulder-blade. sense durd. taunt. Gael. ridicule buirte. G. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth.. buizen. Lat. Burden. bugne. A water. springbiirn. buyse. it is probable that the It. bordone. burt. as was for. The foregoing derivation seems. to draw a deep breath. Dan.which see. drone of a bagpipe. to bow. . bogha. to bulge. staff. ready to pike or spear . a. from spring. a drone of a bagpipe. burn. And there in mourning spend Sw. has also buirleadh. Gael. bunaiteach. curvature. Goth. analogous to Fr. A —Cot. burdan. buzzing of bees. pot. Sw. to pre2. a bow. — — . bogna. to banter or laugh at.

a round glass or bolg. to bubble up. A . Dan. . ne. the skull or brainpan . Cable. anything globular. the barrel of a gun. buis. busse. . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. heafod bolla. bulka. a buck. bubble. Dan. round glass phial. a stud. bossola. swoUei) Lat. boor. Du. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a iDubble. bulne. . buckel. w. bulcken. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box.). a parlour. belly. bowl . bog. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. bogla. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl.). bolla. beutel.\s. a box. . bol. polla. G. zich onder jemand under to him. to guggle. and to a coachbox in particular. a box. G. . bulge. See Boil. convexity. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. a pot. buk. a bubble. kuppelo. a boil. . trestle. a. as in AS. fyn. hollow place Fr. a black pudding. a thing of liquid. with inversion of the round. a ball. ttuJic. ask. to swell. Gr. (in pass .a. bollen. . crown of a hat. Bower. a sack. bending. Pol. bwr. Bret. make obeisance. bosso. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bowels. a separate apartment . ^o«/«. the box-tree It. boel. Bav. or. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. hollow. boil. . ^o/a. inclinare se (Kil. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. iri'iaQ. biiske. The / a bow. bulb of an onion bolleyield. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. folliculus . It is more probably from the G. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. . Bret. an inclosure. a bud. a hump on the back rossbollen. Fr. blister. bulla in aqua. See Crab. a box Lat. a bundle. to make crooked . bolle. bugyola. bugyani. a drop of pullistaa. tumour . AS. bulla. bow.. at the e. crooked. budel. Bowl. as well as the name of a. ken. boucle. to puff up. as in E. fata-bur. pullo. to bend down. a bubble bolli. AS. hollow wooden case. bolla. a wine-can . tumour. puffy. convex.D. Du. pusspan. different position in ODu. hill. a knot. box. utibur. Fr. passing on stud. globe or spherical body. a bowl. to puff up pullakka. boss. biichse. lump . bent. . . box in both senses. See MHO. a ball . bouge. the box-tree and articles made of it G. the crop of a bird. ON.flask It. globular. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bugy. a box. to raise the back boll OHG. Fr. peated in Magy. in both senses. . in walking appears in a . kupukka. bouellou. biisse. buigen. to yield to one. . a chamber swefnbur. the box-tree. a ball. prominence. mausbollelein.cup Du.) to incline oneself . bukke. stream forth bugyogni. signified by forms like Gael.. bulk compared with Sw. boxtree pusska. honse-bur. bouzellou. . pocket. bubble. koziel. a little box . . is applied to a coach-box. OFr. Hal. bhuj. to bow buck. Bohem. * Bowels. . intrenchment. In like manner the Pol. a bubble Fin. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bolgna. spring as water bugya. or in e. budello. ON. globular body. head of a cabbage. similar shape. a sleeping-room . busskai. Du. water pulli. buckelig gehen. bocka. biicken. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bow. give in to. acsian. bhugna. and on swollen. Boll. . buello. dial. Buckle. without the and grits. hiidel. guestchamber . knob From the former modification we have bolla. kupula. a hen-coop . .ige\y illustrated under Bulk. buxus. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. belly of a cask. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. an outhouse AS. W. bug. gut. Sw. ON. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. spherical Dan. compared with Fr. Hence. OE. W. bugna. the bogna. round bead. kupu. . to buckle G. buchsbaum. . to stoop biickling. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. then by the loss of the /. . bola. the head. boxtree. bol. The word may probably be identical with Fris. E. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. bur. beuz. boudin. to bend. bur. From the other form are G. bolne. Sanscr. &c. cumena-bur. a bubble. to stoop. purse. A Bulk. a polla. botulus. a box. PLD. bog. Lat. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bugyni. Sw. swell. . boss. a protuberance. bock. a croft by a house. ku^o. wisp of straw . belly. bucka. painter's easel. to bulge. a swelling or rising up. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. buga. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. Thus we have Esthon. a wardrobe . bwra. Sp. . the head. bowel Box. sausage. Sw. .

From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. bracke. brechen. defect Du. OFr. Cot. flap. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers.with a noise. refuse. which sigof straining. a pair of braces. fault. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. braic. brack. s.nated by dirt. rack. A — — . bragos. want. — . brae. bracket. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. unmarried man . thwack. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Swiss bub. brec. to smack the hand batschen. boy bouba. odorinsecus. — . isolated part of the text. to be wanting. and string of his bow. brasselet.puddle. mud. s. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. dirty. to slap. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Thus brack. taneous talking. the first instancebya physical tie. cramp-iron holding things together . to box the ears. It is B. youth. brassard. wnzC/J. brague. — — . Brack. V. buah. armour for the arm. dog that hunts by scent. to want. fuse. Lett. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Ptg. wristband. bou^ba. the arm. breach. breptati. breach. flaw. On the same principle from the buksteht. Fr. La ville ou y avait Brace. — . boy. Brak-goed. Brach. a boy pupa. Rouchi Then as an adj. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. to give a gebrechen. a guard to torf. bracil. — . brostia. a bog or pass Fr. . Prov. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. want. dog in general. braecke. Du. to fall. from a root brak. bube. suppuration. mud. brek. baukscheht. is a rope holding G. disturb. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. A to halt between two derivations. jabber. fault . Bracket. Sp. Prov. a crack. Prov. a grown youth Cimbr. root). brek. rakka. rakki. Water rendered boubo. priated to the original sense. AS. pus. Pr. let. bask. salsus. a girl. a bubbling dura del mun. BOX To Box. boussole. to stammer. compressing. Fr. &c. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. quarrel Bohem. . boiste. to crack. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . lalear-eyed Prov. acidus. brabbelen. by the same inversion of J and k. confining. Kil. clay. Lat. It. wrack. and F. a braceOFr. to give a sounding blow defect. It. want. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. as noticed under Box. rakke. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. brago. Bracelet. Pl. flaw. I sal slyng. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. Heligoneed. ratch. a sounding blow. loud smack. Pm." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . MHG. to stutter. his eyes are failing him). brageuses. In like manner the It. to give a blow with the fists. It. Kil. Fr. strike. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity.D.— D. con. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. breuque. murmur. filth . ghebreck. by an overflow of sea water. or defect. mud. braco. Boy. Du. foul. brack. G. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. defect. briche. bruxula. need. OE. . a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. salo sive aqua marinS. beagle. 91 the Dan. pupus. . One girl. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . bracer. bitch Du. to is derived brestr. break. then from break. in R. bouibo. brae. — . brechen ihm. in R. Hdcart. Brack. To fight with the fists. braquet. matter. baske. ing from a mixture of salt. braque. brae. posh. ON. Swiss Rom. Prov. babble. bue.. land batsken. brace on and Du. . a box. brakke grund. See Brake. Sp. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. See Broker. Kil. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. braca. parallel with OK.. to burst. Sp. and then Pl. bracon. a comworld Rayn. or bracer Cot. moral or physical. corruptse. variation of babble.D. bracha. OFr. bracco. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. . ' — A — — — . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Swab. . to Swiss batschen. an languages. pube. damaged board a ship. . defect. merely in our mode of considering them. To brace is to draw together. G.. ON. land spoilt Kil.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. Brackish. To Brabble. bray. braco. whelp as. The different meanings of the brageux. bresta. spaniel. . race. brakke Bracelet. A brace probis.. brae. Fr. Gael. dog Sw.

brag. bragd. h-avare and Fr. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. brao. affront. torture . breghen. braka. also tion of this was brayeul. The meanings included under — Bragget.explosion. and it is very likely that the root brak. bullying. de Vaud. See Brace. brake is. Rom. expensive. brayete. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. be found. to boast of his own worth. to brail up a sail. gay.aburst. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. in order to prevent its catching the wind. . to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. se parer de beaux habits. Brain. to cord a bale of tie up. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. brag or jet it braguard. to rattle. blusterer. To Brail. flaunting. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . breagh. Dan. Langued. See Bray. also insolenter se gerere .breeches. gayly dressed. bra!. in numerous dialects. swagger. Cot. — A — . to swagger. . subduing. smart. To Brag. ative fellow. braicli. valiant The head are sumptuous. From sprouted corn. called by our braggard. &c. a carriage for breaking in horses . crash ON. to boast or brag. slight modificajoining the two legs. . i. brav. . bravado j Fr. . is identical with Gael. beautiful. used in the sense of force. excellent. to stand upon terms. A — Hal. in the sense of the Lat. Hence E. Fr.%. fine. binding anything together. empty pride. Chaucer. brave. idle talk. would be to brace. Fris. crack. brae. braga. bragaireachd. braske. BRAG Piedm. brachittm. breach. dhbrailler. Thus we are brought to the OE.—— . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . noisy ostentation. 92 Cot. bravo. . vaunting. be noisy . bully . braga. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Sc. was formed brayele. riches. Fr. braszketi. to make a noise. Faire le brave. AS. Lith. brave. bushy . finery.^Vocab. It. — . to crack. The plant y^r«. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. splendid. also derived Fr. bragging of his own valour.i5nz^. Bret. brazo. is Cot. boast. ^Brave. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. se pavaner. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. brabhdadh. bragio. stately. fine. to flaunt. The meanings of brake are very numerous. power. Sp. Primarily to crack. bravache. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. about the hawk's fundament. Turk bazu are used in both senses. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. Wallachian bratsou. Bret. to strut. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. w. vain glory. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. Thus Bret. Brail. stout. gallant (in apparel) also proud. handsome. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. an inclosure for cattle . braegenj Du. brave. — Equivalent forms are Gael. showy bravery. From Fr. brake in the sense of constraining. se donner trop de licence.hy which this idea is con\eyed. a noisy talkboasting. It is certain that the word for arm is. compressing. braw.^ Sp. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. goods. Cot. an iron for holding Zalli. braver. bravacherie. Brake. make a noise . 2. Lat. to sprout malt. braggard also valiant. Brag was then used brisk. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . fine. to unbrace or let down the breeches. gallant. flaunt in fine clothes . Dan. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . — From W. breyne. braske. boasting. brabhdair. gay. From brayel.Shepherd's Cal.. brave. to shout. to Rouchi brMer. braguer. drawers. confining. the feathers ON. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. — Chaucer. Walloon bress. . hectoring. courageous. gorgeous. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. fine. bragging. Hecart. well-dressed. braga. swaggerer. cry. Brake. vanter une chose. spot. brag.. the arm. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). a roisterer. braka. or from braie itself. the opposite of which. breghe. as the type of exertion and strength. or by gaudy dress and show. brave. To Braid. —Spenser in R. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. subigere. Haldorsen Gael. crash. that will carry no coals. braies. . Cot. and that from e. brails. proud. strength. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. Bray.

Gael. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. briers. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. break of such a kind. ing of flax or hemp. to pound. properly braking or subduing them. to The ON. a spinning-wheel. flachs brechen. 3. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. referred brake. or A A ' . Fr. gebroge. it is not surprising that the word has here. breuil. fratto. Gr. game. gebiisch. —Ovid.D. or overthrow of trees by the wind. murran. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. bregar brake. murrokko. farinam in mortario subigere. — Fl. quarry from Fin. gilum. and when once thrown down. breaking in the operation. riguus. It. G. cover G. to bend or direct a cannon. braecken het vlasch. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. Fr. Fr. murtaa. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. broyer. marsh or swamp. to bend a bow. to break. It may be sus- . a marsh. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing.bracan. any thicket of brakes. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Biglotton. a thicket. brega. bushes. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. a brace on board a ship. in northern climates. BRAKE to external force. broillet. tnurdma. to subdue. bredza. brushwood. brego. brolium. — — .. We — . the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. thing is brought under control. in usus braca. Voc. broken fratta. frangere linum. gebroge. watered. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. where from Esthon. nemus. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. signifying to sweep. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. In the case of the ne. and G. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. t° moisten. is braukti. gebroge. break flax PLD. brage. to distinct. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. cetur. a stream. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). and Lat. word. brake. might come to signify a swamp. briser. bregille. tris). subigere is used for any kind of dressing. to fracture. subigere. brcekke. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. to exert force in different ways. to rub. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. Dan. copse-wood. brak is a frame in which strip. P&. to break or fracture. have thus Du. bush. bregar. pasture. brogille. gebrUche. to harrow (Lat. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead .— . Dan. braka. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. In like manner Lat. Prov. brook. Pl. a horse's a horse's twitch. brage. —Bracken. It. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. broilium. gebrUche. the original meaning of G. thicket. the lever by which the string was drawn up. Brake. low wet land bruch. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. to break. as in Sp. Swiss Rom. braken. to brush. Dan. Corrfeze bredgea. Sp. brook. marsh. a fen. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. iSpsx". brog. for — Due. to bray in a mortar. In ON. Lat. e. glebas subigere. or a wood in a marshy place . brog above mentioned. braquer un canon. brambles. is formed murd. el arco. as in Du. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. as in the case of horse-breaking.' It. In the sense of a thicket. The Fr. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. broeck. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. to row. brambles. de Vaud. bruch.D. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. To the same bend a bow. ^raca. to stiffen against Taboada). bush. brog or brake. . as well as in the case of the e. brake. Brake. OFr. a harrow. dial. conSo in G. broil. brook. broor bushy place Hal. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. 2. braeken. a swampy Mid. been confounded with the verb break. braca. to head must be bit. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. casser le \va. or the instrument by which the action is exerted.

breun. i. to bridle. broccoli. brosst. Russ. bren. breanan. heath (Bret. w. breme j Sw. brandello. . Fr. ear-wax mud. bruch. . In like hrst. Brancare. pfriemen. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. broom. may be so called in analogy with Bret. brenn hesken. wood composed of twigs. sedge burkni. a firebrand. brandiiialil. thorns and Gen.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth.. heath. broust. and waste growths. a heath. a bud.G. brass. brem. heath. — . from brand. Gael. the branch of a tree. as AS. The same form becomes in It. piecemeal brindelles. &c. apiece orbitbrandone. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Piedm. in the sense oi fern. . As ON. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brin (as It brano). a thick bush. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. bit by bit. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. brug). a shrub . from Servian pnit. sweet broom. from Lat. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brake. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. . brushwood. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brejo. 1 8. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. bruskoad. prufye. pfropf. the bull-finch. brein. That beareth the red hepe. to -brugen. But we find It. bran. It will be found that shrubs. as. Thus in Lat. restrain. Brand. dirt . heath. bruk. 2. young buisson fort epais. Branch. broembel-CBppel. bruk. Serv. G. bracken or fern . to burn. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. a bud. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. bruk. or ling. young twig {brom-beisser. or other plants of a like nature. Bramble. E. G. Sir Topaz. ordure . brancas. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. bretnel. from virga. Bret. a dunghill. that is to say. A mark made by burning. Diez. a rod or twig. G. also a marshy low ground or fen . and E. brugek. iii. a bridle or bit . The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brwnt. brank.). AS. It. brughera. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Bret. sawdust. brom. bro7n. thicket of brambles Cot. a single plant of heath. . brandr. a small deri\'ation . to gripe. Dan. Pl. Rouchi bren d'orMe. brin d. Bret. pfriem in the sense of an awl. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. brok. bran. Bav. bruch. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. &c. .D. a shoot. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. a shrub from Bret. Gael. The naof strain. Thornas and bremelas. See Brush. ground full of briers. brano. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . —Ducange. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. bren. heath ON. berneux. So Swiss gaggi. the thorn apple or stramonium. also pfriemkraut. branchia. Fr. titio. and thence a shoot. brambles. it glitters — — . burning brennen. a burning fragment of wood. bushes. compress. . excrement. w. from brug. brouskoad. heath. hallier. constrain. virgultum. Fr. clutch. brog. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. branco. a halter. braeme. It. brand. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. Brank. broem. nasty. gebroge. cack. in the same sense. . G. bramble Du. brarn. brenn. broom. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. cabbage sprouts Fl. brank. pected that brake." The bmno a • on . a briery plot. Bran. a vine twig Bav. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. Then by comparison with claws or arms. a roA. chaff. a shoot or twig. broussaille. branche. brous. what is cast out as worthless. stink . sprouts. Pl. a bud It. brin. . a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. piece of anything. Grisons bruch. — branca. brang. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . snotty . Port. or with It. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. is the draff or excrement of the com. brenda. from gaggi. briars. brenna. bronbo. Broom. braam. to brank.D. Thus we have w. Fr. brandmurk. gebriiche. brug. to or iron. bromboli. Bret. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture .

brandolare is exbrandish. incendium. brasa. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. to shog. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Braser. braser. fire-wood. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. as again by well as the blade of a sword. and scold. bransella. The tre brangillis. ish. prasseln. given to the country. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. brandiller. — . To brand. to burn. The corresponding form in Gael. braise. live coals. Ija. to make display . to solder iron. to make shine with shaking. brascct. — ting to confusion. Brase. to brandle. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. Fr. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. branler. distilled wine. the spelling to kindle. to roar. Thus the bound up again. to totter. forms brasil. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Brangle. branler. du Roi et laine. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. N. flagrans. Bailey. WaUon. V. a roaring fire. bruzi. the colour than hitherto known. to bicker 2nd. in Marsh. Sw. spirit distilled from wine. to distil . of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. then brandr. aqua ardens. Fr. is bntan. bragale\ wood. bra?ier. to murmur. or in stick. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. brand. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. morsel. to quarrel. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Fl. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel.pan of coals. hoisting to the fall. crackle. bum. Chron. bracia. stake. With top trimbling. to burn. branla. Bret. Formerly brandy-wine. weinbrenner. Brasil. apparently very distinct from each other. make an outcry. brastlian.. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to crackle . — . It. In the same way the set on fire . Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. firewood. — . De Barros considers vinum ardens. to French brawl or brangle. Chron. brouir. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. Fr. conbillet. To brase AS. to Bailey. bragia. hot Fr. brasa. brangle or brawl in E. Manx bransey. as Fr. a round dance. d'Angl. braise. e. to braze or lute. bracea. Gris. brustle. 59. gebrannter wein. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. The name Brandy. Lye. bryne. Kil. Jam. brane-wood. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. It. as Jamieson explains it. bruan. to confuse. brin. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to shake. a pan of hot coals. became ashes Pied. not. to and fro in the hand. Port. Fr. brandende wijn. E. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. AS. Sw. brandiller. to brandle or The It. De Goes. shake. n. brush. eldibrandr. E. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. to blaze. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. bransle. plained by Florio. glowing embers . braza. all. G. make a — . with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks.well. a stick. bresil. to make sense of a bright red dye. crackle. brasil. was in use Fr. to brustle. from used in dyeing cloths. It. briiler. noise. firebrand. from to vociferate. So. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. bruciare. urens. bruire. brazil. brennen. embraser. splinter. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. perplex.^Brandle. to sound of the Fr. Hume in brand in ON. Du.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to burn. brus^. to shake The word brisil. comes from thence. totter. billet. before the discovery of America in the brandir. to rustle. so. to brangle. Milan. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . brausen. G. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. brasca. Diez. braise or hot coals. a To Brandish. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Fr. to shake. put. a fragment. and bruir. and branchis shaiand D. a brusler. Guill. to hurl with great force. brandigh. set on fire. to glisten or flash. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to dash. faire fracas. brazeiro. brasca. ist.

brat.^ — Sverris Saga. a plank or board. as scrawl from scrabble. as criailler of crier. deblaterare. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. It. braeye. I. The verb is probably derived from the brase. brces. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. Kil. bratidone. braiio. Fr. to carbonado. le repasser un peu sur la braise. or whether it be from Fr. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. bretesche. Math.' BRASS BRAY et AS. baltresca. bas morceau de viande brawhng. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. bratdn).walle — Pr. brandillo. breyon.D. Sup. Paris. a mantle. Hist. to solder. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. brettys. W. in the first instance of boards. roar. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. —^Bronze.propugnaculum. is The word — uous name for a woman. A. discord. to copper. Lorraine bravon. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a rag . See Bray. It . brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. a cloak. — . Dan. and bronzo. braoilich. slibro. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. A dispute or squabble. Swiss bradle. noise. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). breteque. braon. apron. ship. a parapet. Brawl. OFr. Florio.— Diez. Mundart. a battle-girdle. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal.— Fl. brat. a lump of flesh.' Hal. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.— Braid.96 Roquefort. tasce. bred. Betrax of a —^Jam. boarding being sbranare. Fr. bras. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. ON. bronzare. Du. cob. solder. equivalent to the Du. a slabbering-bib. brailler. a lath. So also See Brag. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. to scold . bradon. Pisana in Mur. rag. pan- — Rayn. from Sc. It. Bartizan. neita girl). A. to braze. a rag . 1224. 2. a Lap. at brasa. Cologne broden. 368. the buttocks. Sc. Brass. a. A land of dance. Many gambes. brdto (ace. flesh of a leg of pork. Brave. Brattice. breyon de kinds of . bmhon for brado7i. a lump of flesh. Fr. 1156. a lump. especially that used in the working of iron . Pm. muscular parts of the body. G. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bronzacchiare. bransle. P1. to tear piecemeal. —-Jam. Brat. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. bralle. Circumeunt cibertesca. Cot. contignatio. ferruminare. cloth. from branler. a contempt- banner. ni autres choses sur Due. whether contracted from brabble. bruir. brass. Brangle. squall. to cry. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a fortification. slut. a patch of cloth. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. braede. brat. as a brawling brook. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Brawn. Westphal. the calf of the leg. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. to shake. berd. bratid calf of the leg. strepitus 2. brett. OFr. bratach. any piece. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple.brettysing. bran. Fris. from Fr. saillies. bartising. braser Fargent. frequentative of braire. See Brandish. The same correspondence is seen between It. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. brazen. braion.D. bribe de viande.D. ^Altieri. . braodhlach. pil. branle. boutures. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. KiL Prov. borderinge. as rashers upon quick burning coals. bretays). — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. fraiche. burning coals. luncheon. or on the top of a wall. bronze. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. buttock Sc. breyon d'chaur. — Deutsch. Wall. calf of the leg. frame of laths. a contemptuous name for a young child. bradlete. slibro {neita. Gael. bartisan. AS. trul. to talk at bralle op.— Remade. a — A from the confused noise.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. a loud noise. bretesque. to Gael. Sp. a clout. lat'te. a wooden tower. For the application to a^child compare Bret. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. a rag. slakker-bortchen. coassatio. calf of the leg. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. ' A vraale. as lattice. Cot. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. then a parapet. The muscular part of the body. Bailey. OHG. &c. esbraotier. Certainly a little girl. Jam.

plait. roar. rustle. brikan. a . And at a braid he gun it bende. as the notion of turning crack. appearance Hal. AS. rattle. 145. braa. roar. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. To rub or grind down Sp. — — — explained motus loud noise. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. to work up in a mortar. the sword was out break. braidar. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. relation is seen between Lat. starts crackling up. &c. ^p&xia. the miller's dog. to bellow. vapna-brak. Bread. Beryn. Fin. Wal. Fr. yell. V. Cot. yell. bregar. ing. bragr. ser. fish. riAprjyvvfu. regi. to pretend. braid. Gr. bruzir. fragor. a breach Cot. See Brake. From the or brack in a wall. a rent. Bret. to break. broyer. Then is simply. disturbance. . and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to roar. i. to snatch. to braid. baiyl. augnabragd. . Cat. to braid. bradar. k. &c. V.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. and make a hideous noise. Dunbar braessem. brak. bray. the clash of ai-ms Dan. at once. R. brice. And with a traid I tumyt me about. fractus j Gr. Bread. to knead. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. Lat. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. to roar as the sea. is . to cry Port. gestus.^ Fr. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. Breach. and to signify the fracture itself. to braid the hair. D. on. to N. Then. breach. braire. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. W. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Q. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. a crash. a wink. and fracasously. with or without a final d. to have the lineaments of one's ON. in Jam. V. soft . instantane. to rush. bratsche. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. father. to resemble. broad.' To Bray. Ppvxia. imitate or resemble one. to sound very loud and very harshly.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. will. which has given much trouble to commentators.fracas. — koa. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. E. make a disturbance. Prov. paxog.y.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. to The cup was uncoverid. twist. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to cry out. noise . Fr. e. at a braid. to the seijauntes. crackle . D. Swiss bratschig. crash. bragd is also applied nets. rangere. or wound. upbraid. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. abraid. to cry out.g. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. ON. brand. crepo and E. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. crash. brage. Goth. and frangere. bragd — ON. Chaucer. — . to scold. D. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. brot. breche. paste or dough. braa. brugier. To Break. to crash. rogi. weave The ON. &c. ON. to break Fr. as OE.ch. cyprinus latus. brame. Prov. to smack or the eye. R. a mill.ear rog. to resemble. to bray like an ass. Chaucer. turn. or cry out loudly . to crash. bruire. to roar or bellow. at braga eftir euium. to t. bru. bregda. brechen. explaining a very obscure application of the E. to break. I'll live and die a maid. to start. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to bray in a mortar. Bailey. 2. bregar. a brack. &c. mos. resound . as the voice of the ass. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. braidir. to break. brak. to bawl. The Lat. to resemble him. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. iU-favouredly — in Jam. The same He might don us both a villany. G. F. breuan. ybrayid. . Du. a brake for hemp or flax. the sound — of arms. to rub Fr. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. kind. braea. The ON. to rumble. a rag f . verb to break. father.. OE. to tear Bret. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. G. 7 .

to rattle (as hail).t. Russ. briosa. and other rubbish dibris. break. morsel. Isidore and Tatian. may be from the wurh fesser. malt. to brew. burst. to simmer. Prov. brok. grillen./ssus. bra. braux. bretilles. braich. Lat. Bret. of straining. corresponding to G. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. crush. as the G.'— Gl. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brison. brisoler. Swiss brdtsch. So ON. breath. bris. braies. simmering. to whip. to buzz.vare. To Brew. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. of trees. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. scent. Fr. instead of being derived from 'La. G. briosat'.98 borst. cloven. fastening . murmur—Vocab. little bits of wood Berri briser. grill. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. bresilles. OFr. are in like manner ' . braguier. brezzare. to crush to break. G. siibligar. briiz. braucn. zare. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. applied to shivering. brew. Gael. Rom. vapour. forms. dial. brut. broden. QNtsterviald) pritschen. . Gl. malt. Originally probably the word signified steam. braciarc. bratscher. Fr. Breath. G. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. bridsen. then to broil. are related to Prov. de Vaud. — And blood. G. breme. bris. bruzun. brist. chillness or shivering.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. drawers. forms analogous to E. G. brissle. briste. sprouted corn. braca. brasiare. E. singing bone. broiiwen. so AS. or the blow itself. bre- I'os qui bresole. /esses. einem de britze geven. bark Fr. of E. brasser. broil. from brace. brciz. a box. bruzir. Fr. as. . binding. See Brick. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. representing the sound of a blow. brache. &c. the bust.britschen. Bret. Prov. brise. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Sw. the breech or buttocks. an odour. their stings draw . as by the Sc. Du. brosame. a to lay fly-flap. to be misty and cold. to burst. braca. We bragezj on. simmer. — Halma. —Briss. G^nev. b}-as. — . remains of leaves. fitzen. The Breech (Prov. brezling. the dry spines of furze broken off.). . grillare. a crum Du. — See Broth. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. as commonly explained. a cold and windy mist or frost . Breast. clout for a child. bris de charbon. polenta. the soler. Brize. Gael. briosa. properly to crackle. brinisa. but more probably the E. to breech. and brought beneath between the legs. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. brustia. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. Swiss AS. a cool wind. Hence the Lat. a twitch for a horse. It. as in the case of twitter. switch. Breeze. to crackle. chilly. bryi^ga. Compare OE. a cramp-iron for holding things together. to murmur. to hum. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. Fris. AS. brijsen. trusts. brijselen. Lat. to fry Then from a Gl. braga. britze. Biglotton. Breeze. a gadfly. briig. brusc. to shiver for cold. Dan. griller. coaldust. rubbish. brugga. xyligogio castigare. Swiss Rom. bruise. Du. bremse. brcEth. to feize or feaze. windy withal. a girdle. i5r(Z^. to roast. peitschen. bandage or truss for a rupture. braies. brisciare. PI. Gl. — Brist. The Teutonic verbs. bragues. Bruise. braia J OFr. brimme. Du. broza. breson. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. . and E. bracecs . to break. Breeches. brossi!.D. brodem. to smack. bruc. Breeze. E. brumtnen. from AS. also to chill and shiver with cold. braie. as. Dtyden. sheep's droppings bruss. to bray. Bracha. brasiuiii. subligaculum. Du. a smack. met de bridse slaan. Goth. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. — . point to G. braga. to bind. . brcekur j It. rubbish. . A fierce loud buzzing breeze. Piedm. trembling. body brostia. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. Piedm. murmur. brodel. a crum. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. to fry . a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. orts. to brew. fail. — — strument for smacking. brimsa. Briss and buttons. in Schilter. brezza. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. brisd. from ligare. one on the breech so that (klatschet). brdtschen. a horse's twitch. brire. an into shiver. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. breost. noise. de bridse geveii. with It. breinse. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. to resound. AS. Dev. breeze. Hume in Jam. w.

E. Pol. . brasser. a sow. bitill. Priodi. the equivalent of to the dial. a proprietor. bro. buckler J ON. broken bread. a bush. ment of anything broken. Brief. to pave brukkti. appropriate. funeral. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. — . but probably Bricoteau. as. brieden. . or brizo. Du. crew. briiths. a rogue. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . fragment. priod. . a heath brughera. bridelj OHG.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. In the patois of briccia. — . a married man or woman Lat. Brier. a beggar. bryd-gutna. bruith. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. consort with. collect bits of food. a married man guma. brar. E. feast. Trovarfor bride-ale. to break. feast of espousals. bretonica. Hdcart. a crum. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. in the sense of OSw. frayer. bruk. In the G. Lat. sugga. lipdZu}. groom (mab=:son). — — — — — — . son. briwo. If the foregoing were not so clear. served (Patois de Bray). It — is Kil. . stone-bridge bnikkoti. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Neumann. brittil. to beg one's bread. a cheat. ' — . Sp.groom. with transposition of the r. gf2o. owned also propriate. AS. Gl. brau. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. Walach.rough with brambles and bushes. troop. priod-ferch. malt. to stamp. pavement brolegge. buskins. broken victuals. bo. Gael. barren land priodas. ter-in-law. especially to a letter or command. Brick. a rogue . bably contracted from brigantine. Mid. So in The Prov. daughheath. married. AS. G^n^v. . peculiar. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . fastningar-ol. a bride Brig. to tlie brico. to boil. Ducange. bidsel. The Sw. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. broken. Dan. brughiera. Brewis. to break to pieces bricalio. the Fr. bara briw. . . bro. Bridle. AS. brocaly. graf-ol. birbante. to boil. Fr. broosekens. pavement Lith. Goth. A — A — . a bit. w. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. brakes of high-grown ferns. betonica. fervere. . It. from the last 99 of which. bricge j G. bruskr and buskr. thick appropriated. A bribe is A — — arval. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. a boiling. AS. beaten way Dan. bride. a heath. it is applied to the letter to OE. two-masted vessel. httle bit. bruk. bruarium. brilt. the newly. brutg. Lang.It. It. a quoit of stone. Bridal. bulicame. jipaaaiii. to pave. division of an army. conjux. grug. Due. Ihre. corresponding or letter. OHG. of burial. Rouchi brife. whence berw. brA. Bribe. from bit. brigata. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. arf-ol. imprint. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. any jot or crum. Pro(merch=:maid). and berweddu. masted vessel. BRIGADE dead. Fr. pavement. is still used in this sense. bread. piece of burnt clay.. nurus G. boiling up brocoliere. pier. Fr. briw. the marriage si in brigata. brigantine. So It. betony brulicame. Flor. bride. birbone. a wedding priod-fab. a man. brique de pain. E. W. brygga. ON.bergantino. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. a brig or priodor. from Bret. Thom. from Bridegroom. berwi. Applied ous words derived from break. has briguer. hlafes brice. bribe de pain. and ODu. a fragment. to rub. bryd-eale. Grisons bruch. brice. The origin of the word is the w. a briole. one's ovin. to brew. a crum. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. and that from It. which however is undoubtedly from brace. as so. to meet together. company. a lump of bread. fit. from the Normans. a bride. jetty.Fr. to appropriate. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. then the marriage itself. a little king's writs. Bridal.privatus. Diez. bribour. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. but to a paved road. a Bride. privus. Bridge. ' . OSw. to circulate. AS. Cot. Brique. brukkas. to boil. guma. twopares Lat. brere. AS. remarkable that the Gr. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. berwedd. bruyere. E. a lump of bread briber. Brigade. bridge. See Broth. fraoch. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. brug. heath.gfiugga. malt. brigade. In E. to prepare. to press in. Fl. bygga. sponsa. breve or brevis. Diefenbach com. to press. . brahi. a lump of bread. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bricou. a fragment.pritil . brood. briicke. Gael. ap. braut. to Isrew. ibrukkti. Hence OE.

brigan. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. there are many armour. dine. squamma . A strepere. to rob.' The sense of strife or combat express. . — A A . Bav.Lat. to bend a bow It. Mid. tion. — brigante. Goth. Heo — song That AS. to glitter.' The passage from the sense of a light. In Fin. the bench-notes resounded. schateren. clare lucens. sound.— . — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. bairhts. Flor. brcEhtin. loo BRIGAND lor. rixa. to contend with another. kilistua. a sound. and hence be explained glampi. pugna. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. — — . to reservavit. noise. It. 312. may play the pirate or thief at sea. brak. combat. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. to shift for with care. . Gr. to ring. kii:'a. bryhtm. tumult. The Ir. Due. and. brigare. beorht. necessary business.' torum. to sound. OHG. outcry. clear. briga. twinkling. a spark. clarus. clangour. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. and led it away. brigare. and the E. the gleeman's song. schiteren. Brilliant. to shine. lay was sung. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. a glittering. bray. to resound. XafXTTpoQ. labour. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. also called briganders. to piracy. Florio. etincelle. brdgen. to cry. brigandare.D. cange has 'Veles. willata. splcnornd de brigandine. on his — own account. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. 1351. secondarily. splendens . were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. with respect either to sound or colour. bragen. speech. bregar. and to associate with them.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . — Brigantine. — brigante. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. brebrigare. hell. seems to be to exert force gar el area. clear sound. AS. and. Schmeller. glir. glitter. Swab. riis ' — Chron. a brigantine. a pirate. a noise. Brigand. bracht. Gall.' in Due. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. — Probably then to strive. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. briegen. — Briganbriga. brawl.dorem clarum reflecto. from hall. The primary meaning of Sp. clang. to make a loud noise. manifest ON. strife. Beorktode bene sweg.shine. to glamr. inde squammatus. \oice. glbram. to rove. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. wilella. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. Adelung. the grew high. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. braid. They or brigantini. Wilista. representing a sudden noise. Owl and beorhtian. dine.glampa. 1654. himself to serve men of merit. splendour. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . in the first instance. to shine. and diligence. brigant.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. a small light pinnace pro. It. tuilahtaa. clear. biartr. See Brake. to strive for. praht. Lat. — Due. briga. Bright. In the same way to strive is. and ner me hit iherde. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Xa/iTTii). then. —Capgrave. malandrini. It. The E. tinnitus. Brigata. tinnitum clarum movco. to cry 'Schmid OE. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. shriek with laughter.pracht. show the origin of Lat. in the sense of a robber. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. It. and secondly. rover either by sea or land. bright bearhtm. glamra. is easily understood. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . in later times a robber or highway-man.clare ^tinniens. moment. jurgia. splendour. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. A. Du. that of Fr. So G. glamm. transparent. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. tinkle. From ON. — Beowulf. clear. at a later period.

Fl. ous. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. briller (related to each other as OFr. furious. Brimstone. ON. excited. pMiller. hence the bosom. to burn. brant. grdzil. as of meat in broiling . briller. brumft. A . a rod. barmr. Dan. noise made by meat in broiling. Sc. glisten. from brandr. to quaver with the voice. an apron. greDiet. brandr and Fr. E.preni. of the eye. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). breziller. rym^. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. shine. the sow is brimming. Swiss Rom. Lith. grisler. a stick. originally the lap folding over the breast. ling noise and a sparkling light. kimmaltaa. Brem. It. a streak. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface.ioTiviS acutus. coloured in stripes. bramar. brissle. 1. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. to storm. gresiller. kimina. G. post. brummen. kimista. edge Pol. margin. to twinkle. to sparkle. brand-krossottr. Supp. broiled. breziller. brinfire. sonitum edere bremen. to roar. brullo. sprainged. griller d'impatience. fringe . to glitter . Langtoft. to resound. brim. as in Langued. glit. from bringe. Tresiller. kiimottaa. beam. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. the verbs Flor. as is the case also with Pl. brim Magy. is used of raging.— BRIM . to crackle. reecho. The expression is now confined to the sow. striped or streaked. to creak. bry7ie. a border. also to reflect. a borDu. ardere desiderio. to make bilbil). — . to creak. identical with passion. burning stone. to long for a thing. burning. to utter cries. on. brennistein. — — So Fr. to sound deep or hollow. cross-barred in colour. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. brillare. ON. surface of the ocean. the eye-brow. kommata. Rugere. lip of a vessel. leonum). gresiller. Tutschek. finds the Fr. AS. ter. rugire (cervorum. Dief. It. ring. s. crackle. 1 1 64.D. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. to fret . tience. and corresponding to these. kajata. The identity of ON. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. clangor tinniens. — Rim.— Brinded. barm-cloth or barmskin. : ' — bone). the heat of animals. bramer. Du. Prov. crackle . seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. der. Brim. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. (poet. and 1. Subo. barm. chime). 154. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. Closely connected is OE. — g. grisser. Hence with an initial s. Streaked. ON.) brimi. griller. bramar. brommen. AS. bresoler (Gloss. Wtb. brama. earnestly . to roar. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. to make a crackling noise. Sc. Kil. s. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. parched. bar. to wish or covet. the heat of animals. the meaning is transL' amour. brastlian. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. . It. a long. to glitter. FJ. bremmen. In the same way Sw. rugire. bray as an ass bramire. briller. brow of a hill. bremmen.' d'etre marie . fierce. frequently interchange. brmdottr. dial. grullo. have then in Fr. to shimmer. broil . spraing. border. brimmen. perent. the edge. whence bilbil-goda (literally. border. fimbria) . vattubryn. brummen : de soge brummet. fire. or violent action. the singing of Sodom — — . komottaa. . brame. greedily to covet Cot. rut. brdnnsten. — — — . to shine. 754. brame. to crackle. border. . fringe (Lat. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. griller). to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. small gravel. to . The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. Said of swine when in heat. Rayn. bramire. to shine. brunft. whether of desire or anger. komista. Thus Lat. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. brisoler. Sw. as well as bl and gl. breme. Brindled. to shine. with an initial br instead of gr. os qui bresole. To Brim. to shake. to broil. that the original meaning of the Sc.). brezil. bremas.its vent in cries and roaring. vigorHal. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. Fr.' Elyot in Way. to parch. The meaning of the Fr. which seems identical with rim. The E. the lap or bosom. voux. to glitter distance . appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. bryn. breme. lap. lap of a garment . sparkle. In Fr.

originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. a deluge. — — . to put one in a rage . Salte sand is called brimsand. and hence. Formerly written brotil. Brisk. bruched (Fr. lively. very salt brimi. to break. Du. bresk. broccata. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brittle. a stormy brimsea . a skewer. . NE. apt to break. It. grim. A similar relation may be observed between Sp.Lat. cK) the . brin. . — in Due. borst. brime. a fragment. is to erect the hair. fiscbryne.). to roar. brusco.. a spit. brisciare. Russ. broca. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. brocco. brickie. from break. to stab Gael. a shoot or sprig. ruffling. hot-tempered. bryne. a cold and windy mist or frost. It. Berri. Brisket. to spit. broca. It. brote. a projecting tooth It. Then as the effect of shivering. Gl. Brym. to stitch. G. Mid. eager. Lat. It. bruskett. a rebours. setting the hair on end compare It. brytan. to spur. to broach a business. to birstle. bryde. saulmeure. to goad. Boh. prick with Sw. Abroacli. breast. a button broche. brusk. spricka. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. 222. stitch. bricho (with the diminutives. to begin upon it. to shiver for Sold or for fear. breaking out into growth. brocco. as. brodden. Russ. brisk in taste. fantas'* tical. a slip or sprig of an herb . Liquamen vel garum. a morsel . a stitch brocher. a bud. Walach. Brocade. See Spread. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. spur. to set up one's birse. to shoot. suddenly angry. brocciare. brcit. Hence ribrezzare. a bit . bringue. the twigs of a besom. See To Brim. metaphorically. bringe traced through the brano. birse. borstel. britchet. fragile. shoot. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. brddj Goth. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. smart taste. flames. ' breast. ' . — A . an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. braidsj ON. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. birssy. Fr. as. brindelles de balai. brijn (Kil. Prov. to break. from AS. Sw. Hal. brichet. Bohem. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. brissle. as unripe fruits. . borzen. the surf. to bud. an awl. Alfr. . a morsel. Bristle. Brittle. sticking up . brimme. 'V^. . crabbed. i. brioshko. a brad or tack. birsle. aculeus. rebrousser. brocchus. broccare. as a noun. rash. from brande. startling. brocher. of astonishment. brezza. britar. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. broc. breidr. brezzare. sour. Brooch. bristly . birs. Du. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Fr. brust. briocho. byrst. brandello. quick. angry. brusque. humorous. e.'— Vita'abbatum S. of E. a bud. to break. brog. coli. to burn.g. rebursiis. bringe. wine of a sharp. a crum. is called a birssy day. harsh vin brusque. like the Broad. Prov. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. The Pl. and Sc. Bret. brim (poet. brimhliod. a brooch. to set it a going. broche. rude. . In the N. to spur. Fr. to broil. emotions which produce it. or — . briota.' Nat. ON.). britar. bronchus. or the full • . a peg sbrocco. See Brand. a rod or twig.procio. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). craw of a bird. Palsgr. Brine. bros. a belly. sprocco. strong itself. birstle. Gr. the brisket or . Swiss to stand out . or from that of a splinter or small fragment. ribrezzoso. has under It. bruckle. brockle. to turn up the point of anything. setting the hair on end. borzos (struppig). Fr. Commonly explained as from Fr. are used in the sense of brittle. flame. Zeuss. as. form bris. fierce. Sp. chest. Sc. Breeze been connected with the Sc. thick — A elastic hair. whence may be explained the Sc. brich. Pectusculum. sharp. to crack. Cot. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. sprout. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. and forms on. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. sprouts. b. Fr. brocar. trembling. Prov. /3pE^m. roar of the sea saltr. brot. briser. brim. reburrus. Dan. Bret. Brickie. to stick. brim. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. Ptg. brittle. a clasp. brissko). to thrust. expression. — bryme. against the grain . Compare also E. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm.D. Da. Sc. and. briota. p. the surf.rcendij'i.. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. — . man's throat. Fr. Fris. to scorch. Port. Antiq. breaking of the waves brim sior. bros.

Fr. Gael. brasiller. bramowanie. to darn. bawling. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. parch. or salted fish on coals. brychau. broud. or It. — Gower in It. scorch. ciare. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. a b?-ustolare. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. 103 embroidered. to embroider. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. broder. brooked. brasolare. ornamented with a raised pile. creak. to crackle. Cot. from the white. point to an origin in Bret. Sc. gold and silver. a badger. . But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. The ON. or roast on the braise. brod. brouda. brucach. shuffle. to scorch. trouble. and AS. brindled. brusuole. Icnotty. blusters. brasiller. v. a fallingThe sense has been out. grullo. R. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. streaked. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. broc. birsle. broice. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brustle. a brim. briefh. to knots or loops. bustling. broukit. a quarrel. brusler. A badger. embroidering. a flake of snow sion. broglio. The Bret. the line of development has been something different. It. Compare G. — brissle. To roast upon hot coals. tumult broighleach. tori shows that. bordo. a freckle. noisy. to boss. atoms . or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. brucilare. — . Gael. borprick. brasuole. frocadura. bram. breard. thread. spots. Florio. E. Ihre has guU-bord. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. braird. Fr. a To Broil. to crackle. tufted ornaments. parched. brych. bruler. to On the other hand the Sp. noise. carbonado. embroidery. a border. Broker. — — . .tumultuous. to streaked or speckled in the face. brocach. of pointing out their latent defects. speckled. Contracted from Fr. a border ornamented with gold. Ptg. broiled. the shoot of corn.. From direct imitation of Brock. a prick. It of br the Fr. brastlian. hart of two years old. Compare also AS. to crackle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to stud broccoso. bordar. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. Surrey in R. A fried or boiled steaks). brasbrasciuolare. houx. to parch or broil. Thus brod. a brouhaha. rinj'. — The proper sense is that of Fr. and bord or bred. Cot. froco. kled breac. Sp. age was termed a pricket. piebald . broighlich. Bret. a point. to spur. prasseln. Dan. motes. confound. here. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary.. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. margin. speckled. to instigate. or snag. to crackle. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. So from Pol. knobby . Grisons brascla. border ornamented with silk. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. Fr. has grisser. Here to ornament with needle-work. broil. b?-od. q. Brocket. bj'oil. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. initial . brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. AS. broccuto. Hal. to crackle as a shell in the fire. precisely analogous to the Sc. — Fl. to prick. brizen. a peg. grislement. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. rustle. Sc. bmsciare. hurly-burlies. brouFr. broc. border. a flock or Gael. onbryrdan. badger . and w. forming to jumble. an edge. brocart. frecSee Brawl. B. gresiller. to broil. a freckle.— B. parti-coloured. to burn. to burn. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. whence broccare. or glowing coals broged. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . to embroider. agree in being the extremity of a thing. a mole. prod. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brodio. with Sc. W. ToBroider. fundamental origin. It. dar seems derived from borde. broil. brerd. a confused streaked face of the animal. brocco. storms. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. briz. parti-coloured. sparks E. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl.sound. sting. spotted. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. freckled. trouble. broccato was used to signify stuff . silkes-borda. a brecJi. brullare. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. stump.

the spawn of fishes. Bronze. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. raquer. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. from break. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. Pro v. For the same reason the Kiittner. progeny of birds. embers. ODu. to copper. brydio. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. — a spark. burning. refuse brakovat. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. want. brokoti. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. sbrinzlar. embers to brund. Pl. to be hot. Alb. analogous to Bohem. — broeden. dial. phlegm. brut.— — . Kil. brieden. 396. fault censure. whnake. nounce unsound. OFr. . to roast on the embers. filth. It may be compared with It. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. keep warm. To blame mens ware. to throw blame upon. pan metal. a broker. wrack-good. a chicken. In those countries the term braker. brunds. from makel. refuse goods. as. tan. to pro- to reject . briiten. make out. a makeln. dirty. . This word shows the same relation to It. slaae vrag paa. correctarius. bridde. to scorch. w. a brood . rejected. brechen. wreak. to — garble. . Dan. et A. brokers' goods. insects. buy and sell by commission. and fishes . vile. Pl. try . has exactly the force of G. cherish. Fl. — point out the faults. ordure. to criticise. bronze. to hatch G. rejection Pol. a fault. brod. spittle . Tooke's Catherine. See Broth. refuse Fr. In the . 38. See Brackish. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. find fault — — — fuse matter. fish-spawn broden. tussis. wraken. If to vomit . selection. G. Fr. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. vile. Russ. and as an adj. Bret. criticise (makeln). Brood. which E. but from the primary sense of the It. Teutonic class : Du. — . refuse. bronzo. trumpery. Prov. sunburnt. brack-gut. bronze. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. Bronzare. to brew. brakyne. on. . brumo. mediationem quorundam J. G. matter of blame weak place. try out. to reject. ON. an . warm. whence the modern courtier. wrak. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. The Langued. brokas. . stain. reject. corrector. brak. to sparkle.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. The use sunburn. in the sense of rejection. cracker. : ' . brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei.D. inspection. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. See Wreak. to spit . to sit on eggs. e. brackefi. faulty. inspect. blur. couratier. to pick. Abbronzare.D. Grisons brinzla. mud.— Breed.D. damaged. designation is indkler. to sort brakovanie. brass does to Sp. to hatch. hraki. brwd. bronce. brack-gut (Sanders). • . and to reject the damaged and unsound. to be wanting. brak. to emit sparks. a cough Hal. find fault with. bronze. i. to . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. to braze. bracker. It.— Lib. bredan. screatio Junfus . Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. vrage. goods damaged by sea-water. an operation performed over hot coals. find fault with. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. a breach or flaw. bring eggs and spawn into active life. refuse. merchandises de rebut G. damaged. to garble. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. bric-a-brac. sort. abbronzanchiare. Pl. brack. to pick and choose. brands. hot. brod. braeck goed. broiid. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. or brascla. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. S. Du. spittle. G. braken. the young of any animal . Alb. embers. . bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. fermenting. refuse wares. glowing coals. broen. refuse brakowad. to nourish. to blame. to sort goods . term was correcfo^ir. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. with. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. Lat. — Fl. hrak. abject. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Sp.D. racher. brot. in which sense the OHG. cast Lith. brid. Jam. to hatch. Adelung. To correct an exercise is to Lib. brae. racaille. On • tliis principle the G. an outcast or rejected sheep. brasa. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. raca. Du. Per manus et old worthless horse. lack. hot. Sc. brasa.

buds. Gael. grow into a bush. to sprout. bank. to burn. Fr. Bret. &c. broth the ocean Sw. To digest. bank. Kil. juice of briars. Catalan brossa. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. meal. low The AS. plants composed of twigs. brau. b7-un. Manx broie. bruceti. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. and Slavonic families.) . sprot. w. Prov. brushbroccoli. sprout. borda. thicket. Fr. seethe. Lat. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. borde. . juice of meat. w. brun. brothas. eye-brow. Bret. eye-lid. Tam de terrS. bregh. brad. sense the Sc. to browse. bruth. eye-brow. pfriemkraut. house of ill fame. brushbrothas) gives the OE. broem bark. Fr. to Pl. brink. awl-plant. sproc. brucan.D. shrub with leafless pointed edging. The AS. broieii. breg. brocco. brew . It. Due. 105 Brook. boiled . brost. Pl. brodem. Celtic. brawdj Slavon. protecting the eye. hot. wood . to scald. braew. broccola. was originally used in the innocent sense of . . sap. bushes. surface of Broth. Browse. Prov. brouet. Gael. briihe. infusion the barley bree. thick bush brousta. breg. brlgh. AS. thairj w. brstiti. riviera. Sanscr. ceales briw. &c.D. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. strength Ir. Mid. broit. . brauwe. shore . shrubs. . broth brothaire. broc. eye-lid. brov. Gris. and It. Wtb. may be connected with Russ. pottage. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. broth. eminence . brue . brow. and also border. vigour. edge. edge. But the Walach. Roquef. to murmur. to boil bruithe. a caldron. Bohem. brosses. who is steaming with sweat. brous. broza. iVlanx broogh. from ripa.— Overyssel Almanack. to shoot. a hill. enjoy Goth. broi. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. bruno. bruithim. to browse. a derived from the boards. — . bruich.brons. braun. dumetum. heath. pour boiling water over. brodo. Ger. breg. . brotar. t— Cot. brdtaj Gael. bud. bank. bryn. bank. signifying twigs. shoot. margin. brst. G. bree. breh. — ' . rage. Russ. warmth ch'an. BROOK brook w. bruich. A — . broca. a source Gael. face. chen. or shoot. Sc. a little house or cottage of timber. bor. bruscosd quam de arabili. bryn. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. . a sprig. to boil. from Goth. brus. The origin is a re. shoots. a confused noise of winds. Brow. to spring . or broken up . laissent Domunculum. on. bros. to boil. simmer from the murmuring AS. heath. Gr. Fr. as Fr. braussa. broud. Bav. . mettle." Serv. bhratrj Zend. . .braubiti. broo. OHG. broden. bordel. a . briu. eye-lash . . Serv. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. perhaps burnt coloilr. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. broth. to border. brio. Sp. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. frater. . brouser. as small-pox. It. heat. eat. eye-brow. the colour of things burnt.brink. broeye. brudi. brass. sodden. riviere. G. properly boiling water briihen. waves. browys. bordeau. bruc. frui. &c. Du. has briw. . spirit. bruach. G. Limousin broudi. a shrub broust. AS. brukjan. a bud. a hill. to use. brennen. Sp. . Ppim. dialects is very different. cia. brouic. Du. Cot. rerum decoctarum. hut.spross. to bear patiently. bryii. — exiit et heath. (for brodem). Dan. noise. a little . brusmalt. as rhododendrons. heat explaining the Prov. juniper. brotar. and Sc. the bubbling or springing up of water. Pol. bntdien. frucius. sordes seu strigmata young branch. 'Lzt. Russ. circuindedit cum familia. brow of a hill. — . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. . brogues. to boil. to use. bruddeln. broth is sometimes used . a bruth. brewis. bruith. to use bruks. sprocco. See Bramble. brd. braces. It. signifying low wet land (Brem. in which brinnan. grow brossa. Bohem. brozia.. steam from heated bodies. briar. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Gael. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. shore. verge. a hut or cottage It. forms appear related to the Ir. eye-brow. Here we find throughout the Romance. break out brewet. sprouts . branches. or bushes and scrubby growths. brosst. brabruach. border. . brouskaol. OHG. Brothel. to bubble up with noise. a spring. a bud brous-koad. It is Brother. a shore. Fr. bratrj Lat. G. surDu. a river. brouter. brwd. brpuster. hovel. ale . to roar. vigour. of which the variety of forms. on. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . brosses. OFr.' Due. cabbage soup . The ridge surrounding and To Brook. cabbage water. fabric consists. augen-braune. The softening down of the consonant bud. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. brouches. bros. Commonly Teutonic. brmi. strength. . brost. of plants broust. useful G. a sprout. &c. infusion. Gael. bruitheati. kail brose. G. pith. fur Broom. sprout. spuma. Bohem. broth Brown.

134. The Lat. bruit. remnants of hay or fodder. . coal See Breeze. . Brunt. bruzir. That in all haste he wouli. brust. OFr. bud. to make brusshes on. quisquilise. and It. bruc. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. a crum. Sw. a bud. Fl. Piedm. an enmy. tuft of grass or hay. desbrisar. a horse-brush. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. briser. brusca. brikan. shivers.). Cot. ca7-bo>i. bruis (sing. brusc (Diet. Brush. mg Cat. brosst. bushy ground. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. brisd. a flax comb. brugir. shoot brouskoad. Port. — Fr. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. brusca. Palsgr. Bruise. Prov. ling or heath for brushes. broken. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. a little brizal. Gael. a bristle. borste. sordes. See next article. — OE. E. irruo. brottcher. brosse. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Text Soc. into a multitude of points. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. broza. seems named from burst(on. or sodenly comyn' dust. fasx . brista) or breaking out . rubbish. bris. Fr. . a blow. Wicliff. wool-card. brousso. Lang. borst. 201. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. rods. blow burcar. to break to bits . also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. borste. brist. bruskr. biirste. a brush . brossa. bris. heath. burt. borste. as It. a shrub composed of small twigs . are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. The Bav. borste. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. a briser. a bud or sprout Bret. Piedm. E. Pr. brustia. to break. brist. a brush . Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire.). a brush. . Gael. briiis (in the pi. and in the second place a besoiB. a tuft of heath . britar. B?-usske. brMt. a noise. brit. Pm. In E. to brush. brus. appearin Goth. dust. bris. borste. brustia. to break. brossar. It. a mote.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. and sighid therewithal. Diez. AS. a brush . The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. — a bush. broustia. On the other hand. chips. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. quasi twigs. wool-card. brunt. twig. Pr. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. bruscolo. brusco. brous. modification of the same root which gives the E. Gael. Poems. p. a — — (Agea) said. abroncar. flax-comb brossettes. brous. shock. brosst. It. * Brunt. . rubbish. Sw. a bristle. . a bush of hair. Fr. insultus. Pr. NE. to butt. a rumbling. or shoot. bruscolo. to strike the foot against an obstacle. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. To brush then would be to dust. brysan. a brush . The same relation holds good between G. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Brunt of a daunger.— Palsgr. bruyere. dust. Lang. bris. and also Brush. broza. Broach. bruire. Pr. brossa. bruise exOFr.— — i. brusco. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . dust. a brush. brik. crush. detergere . —Fabyan.). brusg. Bav. E. brushwood. Bret. brico or brizo. Castr. crum bit . — those signifying a sprig. break. Alexander. 174. splinters. OE. and Piedm. bruscia. brizeto. bross. to cleanse. effort. brist j Port. A. Allit. field. bush. Hall in R. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. Cot. brist. G. Prov. twig. Prov. to crush. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Sp. but on whom it schall to brisen him. It. —Chaucer. a brush. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. fragments. Fr. brise. Fr. wood composed OE. bricalio. Prov.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. it schall be al Sw. rubbish. briketo. also a head-brush. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. to make a rumbling. fescue . biirste. brosse. and actually come in collision. Pm. Gael. Beryn. ON. bruito. britar. brustid. . Bruit. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. a brush Swiss bruske. G. burs. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. broust. K. dust. bross. and . wool-card. orts. escousse. bruiser. And that best is. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. insilio. to stumble. to break or burst. of twigs. brisar. tremely. Fr.

to wet Pol. very generally designated by the same puk. to butt. Fr. or mok. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. Diet. Esthon. boc. faire la lessive. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. soft. Bohem. mokry. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. to soak. bukke.lessiver. rap. maban and baban. . — . who resorted to the islands beichen. thunder gently . in which the flesh dish. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. to soften . bifbel. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . and the bunch. Bret. a bubble . moczyd. as G. at a door. bubiti. . to butt. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti.' Palsgr. In G. says Laudon. set of pirates in the spread. wood.buchen. tap . to Gael.byka. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. buquer. Bohem. bubBuck. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. pup. Fin. as a buck rabbit. boc. buchen. to bump as a bittern. molle.D. lye. . w. Dan. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. But see Bristle. tender. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. This bubette. a to the male deer. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Sp. a. . buck-ashes. it is beuchen. the lower soak in lye. buborek. The male goat. A . to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. to which in their language they call bou. buck-ashes. Illust. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. 17th century. bub. because bucare does not in Marsh). . bwch. a push.-wtt miekki. mollire. a bubble.steep or soak. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. ac. from weich.to allow a free current of air. blister. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. the first wheal. bucking. pukkata. The name. buerj It. designation of a knob. hump. to buck. bubbola. bouc. soft. Pref A.wet Lat. The term bocan is still ap. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. of wind. Cot. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. to murmur. The cipally on the Spaniards. The word was very generally Buccanier. 1586. and Fr. and then to other wild tumour Lith. Fr. bucata. hump. not so plentiful a commodity. a steep for flax. . See Dupe. blast or strike with the forehead. It. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to soften. — . to soak foul linen before washing. pokka7na. lye. Gael. bube.boukaat. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. from colar. to stick. boh. top. bub. was called bucking the linen. open lath-work. bugada. soft. Magy. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. is 1. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. Sc. March 28. a bubble. a knock word. soft . and exercised their cruelties prin. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. tender. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). bubauti. News. Fr.tare. was called in Fr. plied in the W. does not hold. buquer. caned' Hence those who established them. or projecTo Buck. to butt or jurr Dan. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. a ashes. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. 1857. erweichen. boil animals. drying of produce. colada. different form. Sp. to strain. Bret.— . also applied Una. w. . bduclien. to a place used for the mouillir. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. mieknad. boucaner. watery bud. tuft.derivation has been much discussed. knock. to soak. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. the linen at buck. From an imita. bublati. a. The place of such a 2. bucquer. bugd. bog-aske. a fescue. mote.biiken j Svi. It. byge. to soften. I. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. Formerly. the upper for coifee. Bubble. The natives of Florida. Magy. Etym. soft It. de la Floride. Pol. bouk. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. moist. when soap was tion is commonly taken. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. a hole. . bucaIndies. bokni. to bubble. bubseti. BUBBLE bruschetta. hog dressed whole). and as a verb. It. to filter. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Pol. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. — — ' A : ' ' .

Buck-bean. bouclier. to graft or bud trees. ble. bunch. This expression boglire. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. to boil. ein./a. bud butzen. Budge. buckel. hump.' And this sacrament bus have dial. to stir. Fr. bullion. fur. a buckle or protuberance. Bret. a stump buckle up. bode. stroke. built. where the G. the root of the Slavonic words gran. It. Russ.) . a tuft. to swell. convexity. W.stuff. So on. sboge. to word. brobrocchiere. boccula. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. clasp of a book. of bouge. macero. a buclder or shield budge. and of the Lat. bucherame. bulais daqui. goat's hoof. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. Fr.— . a small shallow and open tub. pulga. ' . is to shrivel up. pote. a bud. w. Hardly identical with Fr. butze. to line with fur. It. boucaran. to pen cattle. OHG. . bump.anything short of its kind. bub. agreeing with Gael. pwt o Fr. set of a plant in bulk. ornamental stud. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. scion. like a bean. explaining Fr. Fr. boiling. to butt. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. bunch .. from Gr. Du. Budget. blow. Fr. put. to bud or bocla. motus creber. clump. The word is a ddyn. butz. * Bud. boulj. and the reference to It. rabodS. dinted. buachazlle. to 'soak. . above mentioned. wallet. bolgetta. Dan. bucket Fl.goa. dim. The dressed fur of lambs. from bo. excrescence. gjeit-klauv. a budget. — . Pol. also a leather tuft . and weichen. child. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. a cowherd. stir. to move. bloca. butzen K. with which it was ornamented. butt . K. knock. bocla. bollire. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. crack. Fr. call. ' . of a surface. potz. noise . bod. a fold ceilio. a dumpy gin. Lat. to thrust. A buckle or fastening for botch.pode. probably from the notion of bubbling. In Lat. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bouprobably identical with inok. trunk of wood covered with leather. boach. Du.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. a boss. Port. bogla. * Bucket. Mid. a . bloca. . The knob or projection formN. as in Fr. bulb.may probably be explained by N. butzen. a boss. ON.chissima.t-le!L{ * Bud. — — . a navel. bouge. pulga. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. a servant. Prov. bedde.. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Pied. to budge. push forwards. a little coffer or turgidus. * Buckle. butzen. . great pouch.' Boccaccio. See Bulk. weich. case of leather . It termination is lost. . from bugr. swelling. were To Budge. It. bo. or male of to boil . thrust. bulla. boucle. jSouKoXiKog. a wallet. no wheel bogeilio. butzen (Du. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. Dan. The Fr. To thrusting part of a long body. Cot. with a central boss. bul. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. Fr. ' .poot. botzen.) as to soak. Bav. call. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. inboachen. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. II I'a feru desor I'escu. bod. Prov. imbuere. a ring. Behoves. A water-plant with leaves and gille. boucle. water message. mani. seen in Hesse botz. need. Bucolic. a trough). . no business to do that. the word w ' — . Buckler. Sw. to boss or swell out G. bouljein. a leathern sack. prick in a target. to un bout d'homme. a shoot. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. Bret. male or botzen. bolgia. a short thick man. loud Cot. Bus. — — . protuberance. boss. G. . a boy. bug. don't a baby). NE. Sp. boaLat. bougette. belonging to the calling of the chen. boucle. a pustule bout. the radical image seems to be a set plants. knob . weich. bdden. bulka. bulga. boucler. having a boss. . a budget. cattle. a bump. dint . turgere buczendig. rump of fowls .). Prov.Lat. bouter. OFr. is doubtless fallacious. soft.r//'.' Hal. Swab. bouk is a pail and with the dim. whom it is still much in use. boqueranmis. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bougette. Wtb. w. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel.. Bav. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. The entire train of thought is bucket. to poke. . boss of a shield. skins pushit'.' Schm. bloquier. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. Gael. boglyn. words is converted into b. swelling. lump. Mid. knob dwfr yn boglynu. Hence quel. weichen. bukke-blad. budge. a shield. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. — . botzen. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. a bubble three thyngis. . bugnir. become bochen.stumpy man.n. bouger. don't stir from hence. with let. bucolicus. Fr. bucherare. in the beginning of to pierce holes. a pail or flowers. bog and G. call bo. bouton. stud. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. a curl. It. of bac. pwtio.

to a representation of his voice. buffet. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. as wine that hath taken wind. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. also a G. Buff. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. tastes. bw. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. to strike face to represent the unknown. le reste emplissant d'eau.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. colour. often blown upon. deadened. Fr. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. Lat. thus be translated to tap. site The two — — iii. mingled with water. Fr. buffeteur. Mid. bufHe. from It. bolgetta. a block-headed noddy. buffle-headed. things in Jam. bugbear. Pl. cuff . made to —Bugbear. buffare. A — Bug. confused. w. Esthon. Fr. buivol. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Thus buffet would a tapster. — Bogle. A blow. tabernarius. buMagy. — — — Buffet.' La Crusca. bubaRuss. Cot. buffen. word other cases. to frighten . breath. soufflet. Bufetarium. Buffalo. or wild ox. — thence it has been transferred in E. dausa. to marre often tasting it . to beat.D. while in Sp. caupo. bufogni. senses. to give benti. a side-board. buffalo. to blow souffleU. dausinti. From buff! of terror. — retailing buffeter buffetier. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. as from Lith. Cot. a cuff or buffet. bukow Ikow. the place whence the wine was drawn. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. From bulga. The cry made to excite terror is then used. a hobgoblin. rebuff. It. bouffer. God's boast seemed feare children. buffet. made by a person. The children were playing in an oppocomer. to puff. popo. buff leather. bugs. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Lith. leathern bucket. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. smells . for this purpose is very widely spread. bubach. boo. and in Fr. Lith. or hath been Cot. Pl. Sc. buffle. to excite terror in Macleod. — Z./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . the buffe. as Diez remarks.D. bugle. baubau. also the skin or heck of a buffe. A puff with — Fl. buffa. Hence the E. Romola. blurt or puff with one's mouth. puff. btifetarius. a goblin). to blow. boman. een duffen toon. botffon. a hollow sound. by metaphor. —Boggart. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. dull sound. &c. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. buffer. as emblematically making light of an object. a skin. Fr. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. a bugbear. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. Fr. Lat. The use of the exclamation children. bwg. bw! It. bubiti. E. Buffoon. Swiss baui. to blow . a jester. buffetto. Teet-bo. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. to bellow . buffet. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. stupid. 265. him but Boyd iugges. a puff. Buffeter. human. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bouffer. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. pulse . bumann.D. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. a budget. wine may The verb in taverns. bauwi. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. air. to give a as of a blow. It. a dull BUG From 109 — A . a buffle or a bugle. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. dial. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. from souffler. Magy. It. It. duff^ dull. to rePl. to puff. bolgia. scarecrow . bufogni. bubus. G. Gael. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both .' perfield. yar^aa. Buff. .BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. W. ' They rether puffed at him. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. buffets. bobaow.— Buflae. to signify an indefinite object of terror. bo ! an interj. Fl. of colours. sounds. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. often covering his E. Limousin bobal.—Buffet. a In . bau ! children. to jest or sport. Sc. a clap. mumming. either alone or with various terminations. buffare. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. — La Crusca. wauwau.

or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bugbear. a boogg. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati.— . E. the word is lin) bbgge. with more or less modification represents bau. earwig bau da grascha. the buggaboo w. of bugabo was given. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Schmidt. and in Lat. bug. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. language any kind of insect. Bugle. bogil bo (e. baco. also a bug-bear. a proud overbearing man pujat'. blustering. Fl. . to frighten scarecrow. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. a rabme. and a boggarty ing. terrifying ward. boa-peep. — — terror. superbire. bogk. mask ' . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre.. boo. The w. Parolone. iv. buggabod). bok. i. bug-bear. Grisons bau. is very common.Lat. — — ' . monster. pugaf. to roar Aasen. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Magy. Big. bug-bear. oxen. provincially an insect. Bible. a beetle. 2. a goblin. The final guttural of W. Same as buffle. Bug as a lord. — . BUGLE Tentennino. (Spurrell). tion of the beetle tribe. as Buffalo. Mundart. biignt. quos what produces dread or disgust. troll. w. buba. buffle. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. larva (a bug-bear. roo. Hal. gad. See The name terror). well as the terrific object. ghost. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. * 2. bugar. according to Coles. shepe and gootes. Grose. great or bug words. A similar applica. long. bwgwl. paws the ground . bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Bug. tumble-bug. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. a. boeuf sauvage. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. fierce. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Lesachthal. Serv. Stalder bog. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. bau (Pureiglia. bukashka. to take bug. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. insect. an insect. scarecrow . Mid. Illyr. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. bogil. banian boube. and in child's Magy. : no BUG .loud noise. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. of pipes sewn on. high. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. forSc. and bugle. a silk-worm. Hence bugle-horn. beugler. the Devil. I. fette. booggen.3uhtii&:.Fr. 1551. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. It. bukati. Bogge. threatening. bug-bear. used in the same sense. disgust. given in Chaucer. pujalo. Manx boa. Lith. to bellow. also a bug-bear. Sp. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. threatening. . — boogg. thus connected with bug. . bbgni. 493. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Swelling. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. swollen. buculus. bogle. is the dim. then a horn for drinking. also a baco-baco. vermin. fear. b'dgni. and is Deutsch. il brutto Demonio. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. bogk. a buffalo. pugalo. Russ. W. saucy. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Lap. . an object of terror. The name of bug is — . Fl. bwgar. bucula. as an object of dread. It. roarHal. the black a maggot. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. hert. bold. rose-bug. to origin in the expression bugs words. Cheval de trombugti. any disgusting animal. to bellow. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. a bug-bear. bugle. Lett. proud. worm. a bug-bear. insect. Swiss ing. a bugbear for children. high-sounding words. poggl. to take fright. bobal. — — . bauginti. Bdronie. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — .. to take fright. protuberant. coco. Chaucer. xiv. bug dung-beetle. Deut. especially to beetles or winged insects. Magy. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. 3.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. to creeping things. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bwg and E. big. Swiss booggen. dial. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. a misshapen person. bugler. An ornament of female dress condread. Sw. affright.

Pr. bulwis. in Sc. the capacity or burden of a ship. straight will he 2. the potato G. head . or feminine termination gives Bav. Pr. swell.pulks. a bunch. and put it home. bolg. bed of a river. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. whence bylja. — — . a protuberance. (3oX|8oc. boss of shield. boulge. bunch or projection. Dan. bouk. G. gebolgen. to break bulk. balco.). Lith. blister. wallet. the contents of the hold. body. bulbe. ' . bulk. bulgen. bolnyn. pimple. In the representation of natural sounds. bulcke. buhe. a prominence. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bolgia. buk. boa. Pm. a round bulky body bwlgan. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. trunk. bwlg. The radical sense is shown in Russ. unevenness Sw. bulgen. Palco. Kil. a bulb Du. OSw. vulva. a tuberous or bulbous root . . Melancholy. to swell. knot in thread.' Anat. at riufa bulkann. to spring. I. He found a country fellow dead drunk. ne. bubble. Mandeville. knob. ^ — . Bourser. to build. bellows builgean. With these must probably be classed ON. a leathern sack or portmanteau. nave or body of the church van 't schip. Pm. thorax buick. bolle. to bubble up. the belly. bulk or capacity of anything. bulki. buc. swell. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. belly. womb. tumeo. to puff up bolginn. and N.' Cot. body of an animal. to throw out a convexity. bug. domicilium. From till. body of a ship . the body Du. OSw. . to undo the cargo. hollow. . For the latter sense ' — My . . skin of an animal.' Fl. the position of liquids in the word In English. belly. of E. skin bag. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. formed a farm. . . jnake bulch. — Bulb. stuffed bag. a straw corn-vessel. to raise a habitation. Hence e. Bav. in bulk. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. G. belly Sw. balg.d. or cargo of a ship. bulkaf.— . be protuberant. biilken. in vessel. ball. cumulus.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. anything prominent. a bubble Gael. bulle. . 1388. globule bolg-lhuingey. It. herd^ swarm pulkd. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. Ptg. The Walach. Lith. boss. — — . boss of a buckler. bubbling up. cultivate. Lett. and bulbukd. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. crowd. belly van de kerche. swollen. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. . bulbus. belly. a globe. Lat. or bear out as a full purse. bolso. ' . See how this tode bolneth. bouge. the head of an onion. of an inflated skin. ON. bulg. bale. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. Bulch. Here stand behind this bulk. a stage or scaffold. turgeo bolnyd. . bulbe. inhabit. G. Lat. pocket. leather sack. lump. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. ' . bubble. to bubble up Pol. van loock. balgs. PoXj3a. skin flayed whole. a bubble. snorting on a bulk. tumidus. bole. — — . trunk. Gr. to gather. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. A — ' — Bulk. sedes. belgr. to blow. byli. a. principal portion. bolgetta. bauen. Bolke or hepe.'— Cot. . . Jno. bulk is a partition of boards.' Palsgr. a. a dint in a metal . bol. compare Da. a lump or mass. bo. bubble. w. a leather sack or budget Fr. dial. . Muratori. m um Placentiae. habitaculum. bua. . Dan. as well as is very variable. bol. the womb. ON. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bulked or bumped out. has bulbuk. To Build. bugue. Bulge. Bulk. Gr. bolle. bubble {palgan tiisge. or of what is shaped like a bubble. as it was merly written in English to bylle. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. a heap. a water-bubble). the carcase. bukr. . Sp.' Festus. Othello. bulge or bilge. balg. bauch. husk. bulka. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. beuck. Boss^. balcone. hold or bilge of a ship. hull of a ship. . — . to belly out. belly Cat. belgja. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). trunk of the body. were a habitation. belly. or. blister Manx bolg. knob. bilge. See Bulk. boss. bulne. to bol. it again. swollen OE. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. bullka. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. See bollekeii next article. lump. mass. bulge or convex part of a cask. on. bol. bladder. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. puff. pulkas. swell. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. pod ON. . to swell. blister. — . chest. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. MHG. as water beginning to boil bolg. knobby. pouch builgeadh. projection. Mister. The addition of a dim. bolgan. bolgna. . mass. belly. blow. bag. acervus. villa. Hal.

bollos de relieve. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. See Billet. The wild plum.. any embossed work. Fr. bollon. N. bulderen. however. tition of deals instead of a wall. a little fish nearly all head. Dan. poll-cheannach. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a seal. as geting. any great-headed or studded nail. brass-headed nail . dim. from Fr. bellocier. from the noise. pimple. billon. BulUiead. bellow. from Lat. lumpheaded . while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. bulle. from the Lat. boulct. a bowl. The bullfrog. bolli. bouillon. a hobgoblin. bolos Fr. Pl. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. a tadpole. biitzibau. in N. to emboss . a tadpole . also of the tadpole or young frog. round glass phial. boillon. bullern. stamped money. And The word bullerbak. boss or stud. a bul-begger. G. balgeting. as the ornanails. Pm. beams or boards. of Witchcr. as a mill-dam or the like. See Bowl. w.lle de fusil. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. of the ox kind. bouillon. 2. eth and frighteth. Sp. spirits..' Baret's Alveary in Hal. Bully. . it may be observed that a bullet in E. as It. W. Lith. a bull. 2. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Bullbeggar. bietebau. Gael. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. Bullace. to tical with Sw. a beam or rafter. which may probably be the origin of the name. bwlas.D. bwbach. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. BuUiou. penbwl. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. The male W. baula. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. Gold or silver uncoined. stud. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. whence Mod. the seal affixed to the document. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. 3. I. to bubble. polten. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bugbear. a blockhead. bulla. stud. bullos. Scot's Deso. to bellow. a bulox polos. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. a noisy violent fellow. a bull Swiss bullen. leraures nocturni nigri. a framework of balks. whence bullire. Eullrusli. a stud.. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. from the use of the equivalent terms. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. the matrix or die . a hobgoblin. a hornet. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. Bullet.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . boss. lumpish. and thence terror. on the contrary. from baula. &c. bollar. many to protuberant objects. in the sense of base metal. bulk of a thing. hhint. Du. is called a ball. A papal rescript. w. bulloi. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. child by the represents the hobgoblin. of boule. large of its kind. but is more probably iden- palchetto.Gr. bullocks. witches. scarecrow. Terriculamentum. a seal. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. Bret. assito. — — Bull. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. Fr. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. G. /SouWivu.D. sloes. bolli. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. bauli. to seal. and vellon in Sp. dial. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. blister. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn.'— ' Palsgr. G. as in E. Du. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. pwl. urchens.' do not go by the dangerous water. Du. bullus. bwla. bulke. poltern. pollach. i. A lace tree. a cow. G. stamp.D. ON. it is boulet de canon.. It. — Fl. bullebak. Du. bolla. b2iggaboo. is of a class with Pl. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. poli-cheannan. blunt. Cot. coarse. signifying roaring. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. This word is used in several senses. It. ba. bubble. elves. billoti in Fr. a scare-bug. — A tition in a ship. embossed work. bole or trunk of a tree. a wasp. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. to boil. large. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. bulla. Bullfrog. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. thick. stupid .Fris. bulk. also a parFl. bal. The final element tergeist.

Hence — . primarily the ramparts of a town. blunder-buss. buller-bak. c. Bailey. boene. provides. or a humblebee. perturbare saevis dictis. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. to make a noise . where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. Fris. To bum. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. bustle. bastion. baluarte. and porter au billon. boisterous fellow. up was termed monnaie de billon. a hectoring. a noisy blustering fellow. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Philip le Bel in Due.' Stat. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. bulderen. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. honunele. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. The 27 Ed.the ramparts. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. droning. minari verbulderen. ierd-beame. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . — Bumto . block-werck. to drum Lat. It. 2. a floor. — Bump. polterer.' Again. c. bomtnen. John). 14. 1305. Du. then in general a rampart.' reals of standard currency. beat a — Hal. IIL st. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. 9 E. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. intonare. St. buller-jaan (bully. Fr. — bombam?nen. III. violent overbearing person. D.' ' mettre au billon. propugnaculum. a boisterous. Fris. For bottom. The Sw. &c. 4 Hen. 2.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. a.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. a bumble-.D. is bullion — A — buller. ground. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. or work of defence. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. — — plate d'argent. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. blaterare. botm. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. furious man. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Sw. legaggio di metallo. Etym. ^i^/«.. debacchari. a blunderhead. ierd-boeyme. AS. but now is the central part of the town. G. noise. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud.' agger.' for the purpose of exchange. is called bumping or bells. IV.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. by corruption boulevart. Du. bommele. c. Bully. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. — Boom. agrees with e. Thus ' ble. buene. Kil. un faux brave. to make a droning Du. 10. to terrify by noise and clamour. Du.D. to . clamour.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Bum. the soil. bodem. ^Bully-rook. Bum-bailiff. buller-bas. biihne. buller-bas. 2. resonare. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. a stage. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. 'lega. violent.. G. bol-werck. To bum. Kil. To Bum. bottn. blunder-buss. hum. Kiittner. From the notion of a humming. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Bully-rock. poltem. bombilare. 1687). to dun. bottom. boulevard. buller-brook. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. from boden. vallum. provides. A.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Hence bom and ban. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. ON. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. The decried coin. G. Hal. sound. argentum and silver. bolderen. Miege in Hal. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. on the other hand.d. To bully is to bluster. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. scaffold. The Stat. BULLY with which coins were stamped. The cry of the bittern.

Bunch. from bunsen. a button. a knob. bunch— Hal. a hemp-stalk. bugnone. .-^Fl. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. He buncheth me and beateth me. Dan. bun eich. a pumpion or gourd. trunk. Pm. to . Sc. Mrs Baker. banke. . bunsen.pummel. &c. bottom. E. Bunk.^Cot. A clumsy. bonge. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bunga. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. lump. strike E. bun with ON. truss E. butt end. E. a tail (Macleod). 114 BUMBOAT Bun. awkward. gibbus. pompette. Fl. to swell out E. a hump. bignet. Dunchyn or bunchyn.). knob or heap. the Pr. tundo. cluster. to bang. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bon. a heap. bun. Thus e. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. . . Sc. bugnet. one ever saw the word in that shape. Forby. Ir. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. a boss Lith. E. — — Bun. buns. protuberance. lenten loaves.D. bunka. Holland and Flanders. signifying one who does things in a thumping. bonuach. bannock. bugno. He fult dat et bunsede. . Bumpkin. Gael. a rabbit.P. — — de dor bunsen. to bang ON. a bag or sack. pwmpio.' Palsgr. round mass of anything. a heap Wall. w. hay stubble . a boil (punkos bot. bune or boon. bum-boot. bump. forms. pwmpl. bumtel. bu<rnone. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. bulse. It. bamgetroffen. —Bunny. to bang down. See Bunch. w. from knock) It. — — — — ' — knock. a. or grete knobbe. any round knob or bunch. and signifies consequently a mass. Lang. bunkc. root. to . Roding. to thump. Hal. knuckles. a knob. a rabbit. See Boss. lungeous. large. bungersome. the tail of a hare. Related on the one side to Pl. BUNCH bum-bailiff. an old stump of a horse. a bunch.— Bunnion. applied to young persons. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. knochen. Hal. a large . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Pm. Probably for bun-boot. il me pousse. . Bumboat. a. . On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Bunewand. ! — knocking. bottom bun feoir. a knock. to ' . 1. bongie. a person employed to dun one for a debt. blain. a round mass . Bun. bugno. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). as in other cases. to beat.— Pr. a wallet. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Then. so the form btmk. Pr. a dried hemp-stalk. foundation w.. A Du. seems to unite Gael.! . abrupt manbuns-wise. a bump. inconsiderately. clumsy. . a bowl P1. Moor. a Sp. pwmp. mto Sp. Kyx or bunne. Manx bonkan. .D. Hal. pompon. . Dan. a purse . passes Sw. a knotty stick) Sw. bunt. bull. any round knob or bunch. Bump. stem or base. bmike. bmidt. banga.. noise. a pocket Sw. bundle.S. to strike so as to give a dull sound. a lump on the foot bunny. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bottom. a heap OSw. .D. Bung^. bulto. — stalk . Fr. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. a heap or cluster. Li cake.' he fell with a bang. dial. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. to knock . binge. bunga. Bunch. bans. a swelling from a blow. botn. Probably from bump. stump. Gael. Radically identical with Dan. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. pumpurras. bunke. a bunch Magy. Du. H. are dim. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. stubble Manx bun. Fr. dial. while bulch was traced through Gris. clown. strapping. a dry No . . — round fruit. ner. to beat. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Pm. Pl. awkward clown. stock. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Daal bu7iseti. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a boil or blain. stump. bunan. throw down with a bang. a bud. Hence E. calamus. poumpido. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bunnion. or to the mass by which it is given. . bumsen. boi7ieog. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Bums it's hit. bunki. a swelling. Bony. a into Dan. Bumsen. nor would it concern the public if he did. See Bounce. S. Suffolk bonnka. To bam. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. stubble of beans. as we have seen E. bund. bunny. a knob . stalk.' Bun. pumpa. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. explaining E.D. bolsa. OSw. bulscha. poumpi. callus. Again. a heap. bung. Hal. Bang sen. should probably be a short tail. Pl. — Marine Diet. gibber. . stock. and related with ON. especially girls. hdk passing and E. bonnock. root. bunken. — — Bun.

bondeau. bondelj bundell. Rietz. to knock. to push ghebondte. rumble as the bowels. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. ' — work . a sort of helmet. OG. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. The Fr. an anchor buoy. AS. Burden. bondel-loos. or used as a receptacle for papers. bourgeon. to Somerset is to sift. Bunting. sprig. bote. stilmpern. So in Pol. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. that the primitive meaning of shackle . gyves. Cat. Fr. boil or bubble up. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. however. See Bourdon. Bung of a tonne or Lith. a wisp of hay or straw. to float. the noise of drums. bounta. Sp. Bunny. Sp. something bound together (Mrs Baker). Biu'geon. with the head. See Borel. Burly. shove . fetters. bimge. to bungle. — . loosed from bonds.Fris. buret. See Bun. bang. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. dicimus rufum. russet. the young cloth used for sifting flour. to stop. modem bummle. bourjon. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. a bungler. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. on. whence bunting. to push with the head del. the float of an bundle. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. to resound. the bung of a barrel Lim. and bomme. halm-tapp. to hum. stocks or such OSw.D. Sw. la Borgonota. Fr. shackles. bondir. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bundel. to botch. Prov. contignatio. Compare G. to gingle. bonde. and the Sw. * Buoy. stiimpeln. Johansen. bonde. borboUar. Lat. bundt. biirde. to hum. to bolt meal. on. or tuft. clumsy performance. Bunt. byndel. p. Prov. Sw. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. racket . To do anything awk- wardly. and now more Bailey. banga. a cork. to strum on an instrument. — — To Bungle. a boye. bon. bui. bouche. Bung. guggle as water. — — . bangla. burion. bangla. is originally a wisp or bunch . transferred to the wooden log which bonir. . G. To burgeon. especially in wood. boucher. tinker . . to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Du.punt. Bret. reddish brown. bury. The Italian buio. AS. Sw. bond. knocking. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. Hal. klempern. — btiruii. The word is flags are made. to in to stop the hole.' Festus in Diez. knocking. a water bubble made by rain. from beran. tapp (whence tceppa. bou^e. anchor or of a net boyar. a botch. Muratori. punishments for prisoners. to work at carpentry bangan. do a thing bunglingly. to work ineffectually. to bud forth. bourguignote. buret. A bubble. dial. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. bondon. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. OFr. . From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. OFr. to kick. to stop. To bunt. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bunsen. A load. a drum . driving in the bung. bindini. and E. N. are from bouscfie. byrthen. burboloti. fascis. bove. noise. colligatio. buie. banghagr. to knock. the stopper of a cask). Fr. The stopper for the hole in a boia. The Magy. the middle part of it. bongani. unskilful working. racket. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bang. dial. also a piinple in the face. ho-tapp. Burble. knock. was formerly pronounced buro. the loose open grow big about or gross. B. bag to catch the wind. — Bureau. Kil. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. G. to hum. 202. to stnmi on an instrument. So Du. buove. A Dan. in is Fr. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. to cobble. a bung. would be the earliest float for an anchor. bouchon. bummle. working in wood (especially with an axe). Sp. B. to pype. borgonota. Pl. bommen. Bundle. bundle. dark grey bura. Banff. or putting forth of a vine. dark. bourion. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. Cot. of a song. and Du. To Bunt. a bunch. Russ. .— . bongun. ghebundte. whence in bure. boj. . tap. bungande. generally known as the material of which bud. to gingle. Fl. bolting-cloth. See Barbarous. klimpem. to push. clogs. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Burganet. It. Palsgr. bunta. The belly or hollow of a sail. properly a Burgundian helmet. and van t' vat. Fr. to shove. coassatio et Du. tinkle. Sp. boei. a bunch Burbulas. Burden. E. to bear. boya.

to fiy. Bav. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. tahko. . a fountain. angular . The in. to roar. compared with G. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. burly. borracka. brunir. .. brase. the er is a dresser of cloth.). jest of. Lang. to burgen or wax big.— . burn.. grancelli. bruse. flocks. pur (see Burgeon). OFr. as the / in purl. fire. is connected with brim. abourioner. E. A legal term from the Lat. Swiss Rom. borni. brunna. to polish. protuberance. So also Sw. to set on fire. sicut sound. to murmur. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. In the manu. — Han to bruser op. The primary origin of the word. . Bav. a bubble. Lang. to roar (as lions. a knob. a prominent eye borracka. Burly. Gael.). bourglairs. to Gael. ends of thread. Burgher.. has also borr. ^Notk. a bud. 56. to roar. It. a jest. toast. lorra. to rub. and OG. singe or scorch with fire. like the wind in trees. ' rugiens. brunnen. &c. to ridicule. bourd. a jest. repartee . OE. which has given much trouble to etymologists. swell up or strout out. — . to burn. — — . Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. ON. — — .— Pr. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. Probably a modifica. tahkoa. spring-water bumach. burgen. as in cousteau. burren. is an Thus G. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. brinii. brausen. from the roaring sound of flame. a wine skin. water. Bestiary. Cot. big. must be explained on the same principle from G. Bouffer. Bret. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. to burn. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Burgess. Nat. a bubble to spring as water. and Dan. sidiary element.' a jibe. briis^. roguing beggars. to have acquired the sense of polishing. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to surge. Walach. brinna. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. In the same way ON. See under Bore. ample of polishing metal. with Dan. lerre. ridicule. to sharpen. — — . he rustle. to ridicule. Compare also Piedm. a whetstone. Fl. It is probable indeed that Fr. the J in OFr. From Fr. language of folly or ridicule. bremmen. brun. an &c. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu.or bubbling up. condemnentur morti. to roar. bourou.sharpen. G. broil. Hence Bridel. brynsten. Burler. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. Fr.).' Cot. OE. sbornoi. brimmen. joking. Goth.. brusler being a faulty spelling. brasa. j.bryna. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling.j'own. Burlesque. and the Burnish. warbling. brunnr. an edge. to bourda.ireui£r:e. . with little iron nippers called burling irons. Sw. like. to swell oneself out as birds borras. a lie. to roar 5. Prov. born. Pm. de Vaud. Limousin bourdo. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. a blaze. to grind on a whetstone. See Burr. buirleadh. purling. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. the flocks. borujon. occupying much space. ii6 BURGESS Gael. N. to puff. de Vaud. Sp. to effervesce. mockery. Fr. robber.Ps. brustle. schleiffen. brima. to roar. bunch. See Burgeon. See Berough. i5«r4 biiirte. laer. swelling borr-shuil. bouril. fires up. Todd. tion of the root which gave the OE. From the same root E. 122. surge or dashing of the sea . a spring a robber. Burglar. burle of cloth. borr. bears. Burn. burgeois. Fr. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. watery. borrelen. to puff up borr^ . The Gael. to give an edge to. to bud . crackle wood in burning Hal.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. from bryii. to bouronna. ^ttsa. brustolare. as Diefenbach bud. is termed burling. to sharpen on a whetstone. a bladder. to hum. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. from Lat. burgensis. bururus. to tell lies. explaining Sp. A — — . embraser. Sw. leo Fin. Schm. thence. brAler. Pren7ien. as of suggests. burgi latro. BURNISH i5«r/. OFr. the word seems Pm. — . knob. explaining the E. sea. Antiq. barrel. Burgh. boiirre. the roaring surge of the — — — . Dief. and the Burin. to To Bum. brim or edge of anything. in Schm. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. ends of thread. bururus. a gurgling ^. a well. pressa puret.. purra. It. become big and proud. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Castrais bourril. Swiss Rom. to polish. Burryn. boure. a purling hiwe brennen. bud or sprout forth. it of the knots. tumentum. Probably. like straw or small . burlare. Fl. a margin. to swell. bruzir. to make a So from Fin. to swell with pride. dial. taunt. boura. to polish helmets. purrata. blow. brook. brinnen or Also ein roar. A burl. brandung. Pr. G. Supp. It.

It. ultimately resting on the Gael. brit. the officer who bears the purse. borra. OHG. Hal.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. brast. Sw. beorgan. whirr. casting bullets. borra. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. &c. skin. borsa. borre. byrgen. caer is a — — — ' ' : . tomb. the — — castle or fortress. from AS. birigean. Brun on bane. . a morsel. brown. brokil and brotil. byrstan. verbergen. iii. With a slightly different ghen. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. brisdeach. -burse. E. To Bury. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. AS. whence Kil. bourse. bourre. a harness or collar maker) . buscha. cwning-gaer. to burst. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. when they spring So in W. AS. Jam. force. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. Port. to break. save. a wallet or scrip. bolsa to It. Cot. &c. Beowulf. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. as in Northumberland. bur. preserve. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist.' The same word with burgh. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. and thence flocks 'of wool. — Translated by Kemble. g. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. leather. bolgia. impetus. a rabbit burrow. also all such stuff as hay. . In OE. — Clare. birgan. byrgan. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. to buzz. birr. briser. Bursar. burra. brist. Gael. to hide. Burr is related to buzz as protect. Du. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . Fr. In a met. a. preserve. makes the disbursements of the college. an annular swelling. Burse. mentioned under Burgeon. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. hair. pipaa. to P'air. I. bristen. peluca to Fr. also ' any such trash as chaff. cover. signifying protrude. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. borsia. blurra. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Fris. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. that birds make their nests with. S w. coo. swell. Swiss burren. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. whirr and burr. karborre. shelter. burial place. talk fast and indistinctly. i5(7&a. idiom if 4. See Burgeon. Compare also OE. Du. bris. be more in accordance with AS. See Bulge. brista. bur. -Grisons bulscha. its own protection. 225. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. A rabbit burmotion. prsnuti. fortify.' Harris in Todd. ON. any rapid whirling biarga. barza. Shelter. bersten. and. brisd. to stuff. briso. . bourse. 5150. to hide . the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Burser. To Burst. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. borrow. burgisli. explained E. root borr. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. G. brittle. from Fr. ' BURR AS. as for the protection of a child's head. ptcrren. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. dial. and spelling. Burial. Burse. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . brickie. to mutter Sw. keep. britar. borre. ber•whirr to whizz. ' ' — — burren. Hence Fr. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. Fr. OHG. chips or anything else Fl. Fr. to bury . brist. briketo. Sexy. bourrelet. byrsa. an exchange. brest. byrigels. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. shuffling. 2.— . of England. ON. as from Sp. berstan. brico. Burr. burre. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. husks. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. perruque. bris. but it is more probably a development of It. purr. bristeach. a port. a purse. This word seems safety. of a body hurled through the air. appears under the Lang. byrgels. a sepulchre. borsa. It. Dan. break . shales.Lat. beurs. stuffing. shearing of cloth. bergen. Burrow. a barn or cupboard. brizeto. brittle. a place of defence. Mid. bourlet. G. bourrer. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc.' edge grew weak.. brjota. bres- — tan. dial. from whence we pass through Sp. any kind of quilting or stuffing. and met. as it is still pronounced in N. straw. moss. some people in pronouncing the letter r. The root forms brik. a pad. foretell great storms at 3. Sw. to save. a purse.

verb. to turn. to dress. buysschen. G. The word frequency with which to busk is used. to bow. 410. boiste. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. OFr. Bouchet. They busked and malced them boun. It. to stop. ch). truasc. bua. bustula. a box. and he cites wisp bauschen. or the like. a little box Dan. a bunch. at bua sig. to bend one's steps.' a box. the land. apparently a secondary verb. bush. boisseau. boucher. OFr.Lat. a tuft. and thence Mid. aheap of stones. buxta. signifying to entomb. Sw. biichse. bunch. to keep. abdere. bulk. See Box.boisteau. 2. Thence byrigean. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. a wisp. : — . to enclose in a case or box.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Malberg. berghen. wisp. dead. to bury. bouche. cluster. bush. ' . Bush. BUSH hreaw. a hump. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a bush. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. brake. iriCtf -ifoe. roquies. —Busk. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. van wijnbesien. bussel. boistel. Gr. a troop. buxula. oneself. a bunch of twigs. Sir Tristram. at buast. Fr. bossida. R. as synonymous with to inake one boun. induere vestes . or — Busk. which would later have truast. Prov. from the ON. bussellus. bosch (a diminutive ?). . mount. The bone in a woman's stays. to forest of Eyda. . bausen. boxta. boissa. bossen. the past participle of the same verb bua. a bush. a gun biichse. borcegui. a tuft guini.fiasc. Fris. a rampart. the Moors and of Morocco. besom). Layamon. for at buasc. Du. a box for measuring corn. condere. To Busk. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. Le roy Richard mort. busken. brodequin tout noir. to dress. rad. preserve. whente beorg. See Bust. bos. bulge. busse. buxida. buskr. and from the Fr. To prepare. bousIn the other copy ser. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. 'at bua sik.' The buskin is said Bret. make ready. bousse. thicket {buski. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. barsc in Heimskringla.gur bidst austur um EySascog. a bundle. whence bouchon. sur une litifere. bo7ich (Fr. Sc. borghen. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. we have Fr. tow. -idis. borseof trees. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. Brunne. and we actually find bushel. then a tuft Sp. Brunne. It. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. clusprobably Morocco leather. . ' . whence at bua sik. a been written buasc. busk. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. to sepulchre. Harold G. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bundle. bundle * Buskin. that the lend had lorn thorn. hunch Du. in the For Skirnis . AS. hjul-bosse. gave Lat. in OE.' sheath. Du.-^Bushel. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. bustellus. fiast. thicket of thorns . to swell. ' .' The word is explained by — — . The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bousche. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. The radical idea is seen in Goth. . box wood to bush. bairgan. as boun is simply buinn. knot. Du. projection. Bush. to direct one's course towards. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one.Lat. Thus Froister . grapes. bosta. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. bussare. protect . basse. burial mound. tuft. a -tavern bush. to prepare. the idea of knocking. and not directly (as Du. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. a grove bosch van haer. barst.— ' ii8 {chreo. a box. brodiquin. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bramble. lump. ' . Sibriht that I of told. In to Brutaine. Mid. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a tuft. The primary sense of hair . AS. a clot of phlegm sart. bosc. a corpse). diminutives. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. So from Fr. beorgan. . defence. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. . Ptg. il fut couch6 l^jkema).P. is thus accounted for. a tuft of hair. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. ieorh.) to hide in the ground. occultare K. And her ful sone tuft. basse. ' —P. qualster-boscken.

from jnund. a large cljest or particular applibox. buc. a kiss. buc. hipista. its slowness of flight. also a It. a projection. outarde. betarda. busch. bysgje. bust. buz. the trunk. morsequi. ' BUSY 2. bruskras well as buskr. To hurry or make a great B. Xerqui. 1555. of a doublet. With respect to bust. plated body or other quilted thing. box. an affair. chest. arbor ramis trunGloss. buyse. to bustle. I bustle. bussa. log .). Fr. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. — . — — difications of the same word. Pol. Buss. Box. a. a blow. busc. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. a bulk or trunk without a head. also a busk. busch. of the human body (Grandg. Bust. B. or Cherqui. Fr. bus. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. A wisp. Hence probably au-tarda. Sp. trunk of Cot. besoigAe. the body without arms busque. biseg. geidha. Gael.— . employment bisgan. The form brust. Cot. a blow. the breast. a log. bu. I. bisg. knock. bus. A great sluggish fowl. buta. Sp.bezig. as in ON. putschen. bustla. a boat or small vessel . tuft. Prov. mohedairova. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Edrtst. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. brusc. See Boss. bisgung. Fris. to occupy. 2l box. occupied bezigen. ^A. abutarda. Hal. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. — clattering about. especially of a woman's dress. and also a sounding blow. Lang. bucha. bnist. austarda. body. vessel employed in the herring fishery. AS. Du. beso. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a sleeveless truss or doublet. biist. but. Busy. mosequin. bysgian. Swiss butschen. lip. inde discurro et operosus sum. representing a blow. and by transposition morchequi. Fl. sunt quas Hispania aves . Bust. Bav. mouth. fe^a. kiss. forms morseqiiill. windbutsch. kiss. So in Fin. lip.D. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. trunk of a tree. work. a mouth. bist. outard. buquer. busto. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa.> Also written buskle. to make use of. Bulch. Fr. . abotarda. made stiff.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. Sw. The proceedings of Parliament. a bust. ship Sp. brostia as well as bostia. mouth. 22. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . ottarda. a great billet Cot. Prov. would explain the G. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. busy. a tree. I go strepo) . but Dozy cites the OldPtg. BUSS Dozy from Arab. cata — . stem. a kiss of reverence. otarda. kupata. Busk. and then with avis again prefixed. baiser. lips. forest. utarda. body without arms and legs. trunk. 2. Bustard. Cat. stir. ON. On the other hand. btcc. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. bussen. I. stump. a stroke of wind. an ostrich. Namur — Champagne Fr. mons. Lat.' ON. body of a woman's dress It. Prov. busq. a bunch of flowers . basiuin. lump. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. a kiss. — Thus we should have mocherqui. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. to Swab. knock. bulk. occupation. The Prov. the point of a lance. A A busquer (Sigart). thick end. statue of the upper part of Fr. — — — — It is like the smouldering.pjik. Rouchi. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc.' Plin. body of a man. smack. Lindenbr. love gestures. Fr. a backstock. bus and Pol. busche. avuDiez. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. or avutarda. a kiss. Walach. ViM. Port. buc. 7o\. trunk. to knock . a ship of some size. beezig. stump. bukr. Business. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. — hardly be distinct from Fr. says. a bush. business. besongne. 1372.Lat. So Wes- terwald munds. Comp. or chest in which the vitals are contained. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. snout. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. borcegui. a Mid.d. butz. tarda. ' bistardej It. brut. body . body of garment. putta. ON. the long. crack . and supposes that the common Arab. worn to make the body straight . To Bustle. bacio. to make a splash in the water. a fishing vessel. bust. 10. . a busk. also a flagon. Sp. in Diaz Gris. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Busitiess :c3iVi . pussa. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. small. 119 bi{tr. mogangas from gonj. as in moharra from harbe. body. signifying trunk of a the body. busta. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. bisegung. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. sera.

add. . bute. from as. equivalent of AS. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. But It. able. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. calf. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Whatever is in addition to Butler. calf of the ' say. without punishment . — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. bol. Du. the precise correlative of but. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. bhcciero. bous. the mouth). the body of an animal. besides that . being wholly unten. a bottle. Sp. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. OFr. also a hollow vessel . So in Italian from becco. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . the store of ten. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh .probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. Where at an earthen jar . belly. or what in in charge of the pantry. beccaria. hollow case. the body of a tree or of a man. the belly. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. bolgia. tinction between but. to-boot. — we acle for liquors. ' Besides all that. bounds of. beyond the Piedm. a butchery. young mais. gives at least two pounds sterling. and the real origin of the and within . but one thing. The E. bountifully. without care. the present day we should say. the jug and in E. a goat (and not besides . As a conjunction but is in every portion. bag. beccaro. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. by the mode in which he is treated. butan ce. a barrel. biitait slaughterer of goats . butan. But In Sc. binnan. If that where now we should compiler. the bottles. bole of a tree. Butler. Sp. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. without the house kept in bottles. mais. and with It.' there is really a negation to be supplied. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. are.The Sp. bola. G. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . Wall.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. botija. belly. boucher. . except. a cask. body of a shirt w. the principal apartment. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. It. Sp. botilla. properly a butan wite. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. Lang. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. (children) boc. AS. which the word corresponds to the Fr._ bitten j biiten door. bout. Buttery. viz. a butcher . bolr. boccino. Butcher. is well explained by Tooke. outside that moreover. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree.' — — ' . Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. bitlga. bisgung. Fr. without.in which his brethren are included. botte. in addition. Ben-house. without buiten-man. belly. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Tooke's dis. boquier. a goat. boteria. sup- meat and drink. bocin. Fr.streets. ' There is leathern bottle. — . from boc. is put in a class by himself. earthen which the debtor has adverted. as Pantler. without law. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. a budget. a wooden cask. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bochier. bouz.' Thus Chaucer says. then hoUow trunk. skin-bag. barriga. moreover. original sense of without. ox. collection of casks. Fr. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. trunk.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. a leathern bag. my is called the adversative use of but.jamin. viz. similar train of thought is seen in ON. But when will you pay it ? the belly. the name must have arisen before the within. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. hull of a ship.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. Butt. bitten dai. rumpf. slaughter-house. "PLT) . bouteillier. beta. bodifie. those in beccaio.' ' write. that which would be translated by Fr. Here the but implies the existence of an. ont jhi^ton. the servant in charge of the original object. rotundity of the body. a baiTel . when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. the full expres. A A . and bot. a butcher. we find ben. ways. of the wine and drink. a small winebag. the trunk or body of an animal. be out. the Perhaps besogne — . Lang. buta. large barrel. Prov. an outlaw from bouche. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. wooden receptthing to be done.

a boss. Fr. short thick thing pimple. Boutje. a large belly. -ez. hillock . to be con. a leg of mutton. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . Buttock. botten. a hill. * Buxom. From the noise of drinkables in a house. a wall butor butt on. bot. a. a buttress Cot. butz. R. to heap up earth or ihrust.against another which needs support . the thigh of a goose. butteln. butter un. boutoir. boutis. a blow. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. w. botta. gigot. a. Du. from rejeter. Du. Buttrice. bouton. to boult flour. W.putan.. aim whence to make a support to a wall. boter-schijte. bouter. boding. botte. to push earth . From Grisons biitt. boil. thick. . a buttrice. a little push . the Butter-fly. to thrust Fr. boiUer. bout. to abut on. Fr. buhsom. to thrust. a heap of merly called pushes. what is kept in a blow. ment being supposed to resemble butter. a dle . nourrissons. pwt. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. to so close to the Fr. humble. obedient. are the strips at the edges of the field. : . bot blijven staan. See Butler. — . Kil. a mound. Hal. Hal. the edge forwards. or or shore post. a button. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Fr. — — — — . boter-vogel. butt.thum and not button. An erection built up as a Fr. to strike. a tub. to blad. to thrust. is formed the augmentative buttatich. to throw . the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. W. thrust. give way. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bouter. — A . a cask. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. . bothog. dripping. as in G. bodi. by boE. butter. i. &c. Bav. From Du. to femur. bocgsuin.' thick from shaking. Halma. . potacha. Kil. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. buter. Gael. Butter-glass. a thrust the thigh-bone. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. to touch at the end. bout. a flying buttress. bata. trapu. to thrust. poke.arbre. bottich. having a rotundity . butte. bodi'. nourrisson. to bow. nursling. Sp. It. The Bavarian potig.to push. stump. from bouter. to cast. to thrust . butt. of the present day. a but in the W. Du. Fr. fle>(ible. a scope. an ox. as rejeton. of E. to abut a stone roof. Buttress. A — — — . an etwas anstossen. a bolt. a bot. Kil. buttock of beef is called butr. Fr. the thick end. buttare. from stossen. bottig. the trunk. Boutant. fowl. geboogsaem. the store of while bottich. boter-vliege. Buttel-triib. Du. a blow. Cot. or person Schmeller . botto. butte. a barrel. waste ground. — A . tout seat or breech. &c. the prick in the middle of a target. any small projection.— BUTT leg . striking end. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. AS. bocsam. Buttery. pied. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Gr. obeto shake backwards and forwards. Bav. Fr. Lang. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. submit shaking up salad sauce. a ribbed glass for dient. butt. the rosebud. grease that sets by merely standing. thrust forwards. so as to make a sounding blow. Gris. Fr. at. Button. a button. e. To Butt. bouton. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Schmell. courtaud. Butter. from notirrir. able that Chaucer. suddenly . a stump or club foot. a button. large head. bot. both. and the true derivation boar. Grandg. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. boteria. clumsy . tress. lams-bout. botwm. leg of lamb. butt of a person. from bugan. oir spike with a k coup . butter. G. signify a cask or tub. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. a boss. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. but.. end . Fris. clunis. a bun. To strike with the head bags.rejected thing. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to butt. but this is probably from Fr. The word body itself seems identical with G. coxa. povrvpov. on. So in English pimples were fora clod. put. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bud. pwtiaw. in the R. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Mur-buttant. — . are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Btetter-schmalz. any short thick thing. caput scapula bout van f been. strike. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Perhaps corrupted Lat. a stroke di animal. a corner horses' hoofs. bott. Schmell. butyrum. from the large knobbed head of botto. To come full butt against a butts. stump of a tree Fr. buttern. buttals. Bout van het schouderIt. botta. as if from Povg. rabodd. Du. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout.

and boxome of speche xviii. byar-rettr. A ful benygne buirde. Mercy hight that mayde. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro.in N. — 122 BUY P. favourably to a petition. groat in token of his good heart towards him. a by-path is a side path . buteoj Fr. 116. Du. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. bozzago. farm. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. OE. stall. Etynj. abozzago. a buzzard or puttock. Sw. who makes abigg. iii. buzac. Cabal. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. To Buy. byar-log. A A We — — — days' wonder. called Cabala or Tradition. to sell. bij.— Diet. bei. cow-house. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. to pass by. Dan. a meke thynge with — alle. a beetle. AS. Verstegan in R.— P. bycgan. bi. Then applied to speaking low. also say.. harty prayers and God speedes. A by. train of thought which has become obso. as Fr. 3. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. son. See Abie. village. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. to swear with him by . a town. leges urbanse ON. ON. p. Pecock Repressor. It. confusedly. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. and it is of good will. The sense of buxom. bi. Many good mological explanation. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view.. G. . Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. from whom it was addressed. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. to purchase for money. big. Byre. 519. to jan. gracious. . The ON. to buzz. bar. lb. P. ii. from by. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. Lat. a borough. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God.busardj Prov. bauhta. tions by one. Sw. By-law. depends upon a esteem in falconry. 21. bohte. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. indistinctly. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. bygge. . The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. & Q. Goth. buso. blessing me with their of side. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. bylag. as in Da. bugjan. town having separate jurisdiction. CABAL Goth. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. buzarg. to wit. \s\xy. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. buzzicare. byr. —gracious of speech. to stand at his side . Buzzard. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. good-humoured one. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . bylove. favourable. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. lete. frabttg- To Buzz.P. Originally the law of a particular town. AS. jus municipii. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. to whisper. It. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. and would have been lost in E. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bees. 200. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside.

to strain in such a manner . cadabalum. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. for the origin of which see Carabine. Ptg. Tugurium. It is remarkable that the Esthon. signifies down. Du. cabo. lactuca capitata. chabla. as it must have stood in French. wilful). hut. whence Lang. a tunic.' Due. and Or. caables. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Antiq. mdhaigner. the bowels. form kactal. heady. — Tarbe. disgust. kabane. a head (whence cabochard. Didot. cadabula. or rush basket. akista. (ca/coe. su/Furari. headed or cabbage lettuce. case. cadabulum. a cloak of felt or Cack. agge. or as an interjection of disMod. a rope. Castr. cab lis. to chatter. . Imitative of the cry of hens. or cadable. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . as an expression of Gr. the Slavonian. an engine for casting stones. — Ibid. in which sense are explained The the OFr. It. serious injury — In like manner It. cabarino. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. OFr. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. Capstan. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . name of the projectile engine. giiare. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. Common to Lat. agge machen (in nurses' language). Cabbage. to put or pack up in a frail. Coticesserint Swiss aa. It. — . .. cadabola. vincially used in E. Du. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. a rope or cable. kabat. a rope. OFr. Mid. Mid. E. Fr. cacare. Cablisb. caable (in legal language). dirty. Gaggle. Fr. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. . a covering. ! — . magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. band. Kil. cables. the Prov. &c. covering. Sw. and Finnish lanLat. Brushwood — — B. cabane. The double a in the OFr. originally an Gael. laitue cabusse. headed. cabuccio.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Mid. and as we find stones Mid. surripere. bad. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. cabus. caqueter. cdble. signifying properly a rope's end. Katr-iT-aKt. Fr. OSp. a shed. Item habeat vocant. OFr. — the ON.). chaable. round or great headed. prostratio ad terram. kakaloH. string. Due. ceach / exclamation of guages. to crush. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Etym. 'habl. aak! tandi like Fr. capo. accablcr.Gr. cabasser. Cappa in OSp. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Neckam — by the wind. The name of the engine. origin is the OFr. capuccio. cabre. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable.Lat. a cabbage . It. The Sp. a car- We convasare. Sp. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. gaggi. caable. E.ticula. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. manticuKil. cabbage. precisely in the sense of the lari E. traboccare. Cot. cabaii. Cot. hovel. cabacho. brassica — capitata. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. caable. To Cabbage. overwhelm (Diet. cabulus. .. overwhelm. kakla.. main. Fr. geese. a headed cole or cabbage . To steal or pocket. —Diet. a booth or hut. come the Fr. gaban. capanna. hoard together. Due. w. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. properly windfalls. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. as Diez supposes). &c. disgusting such an engine was exerted. gaggele. gabardme. Sp. . Choux cabus. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. cable . aakkat'a. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. dirt and the Fr. disgust cac. maim. Celtic. from manganum. Very generally used. kabas. — . agga. Cabin. stercus. cabas. dung. Lith. cadabulum. it would seem fundain children's language. aeggi. has kabbel. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. from trabocco. calabre. chadabula. Finn. cabre. chaable. whence Fr. . is probably unconnected.. to hurl down. Lat. a rope. manganare. filth. Du. a frail. a jacket Fr. and the Arab. and Ptg. Fr. and a cabal is a conclave of persons.Lat. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. From It. — Kil. especially shepherd's frock. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . to hurl in Nat. havyar to caviare. dirty. forms indi. cabuyskoole. caboche. as Turk. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. gatsch. cab. deponat a store closet. would correspond to cable.Lat. : — from violence without blood. ckaable. vile. Cabinet. It. kabaSsen. cacare . Lang. to keep or Du. nasty. cabo. head.

kolyaska. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. chaudron. signifies a waggon. Sp. a cake or loaf. Turk. Cadge*. Due. without loss. Cot. lindrus. whence calash. captive. naXaiidpi. cavea. safe.Gr. kakulla. to compute. Lat. Originally from a Slavonic source. ON. Caitiff. an ugly waggon kolaska. taking it Sp. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. dial. kolesb. ben- kalf. a lump or large piece. the pith or soft part of wood. Serv. . kaad. kolo. gaggle. Russ. calentura. Cot. calidus.— Calliper. calendarium. to — Fr. calibre. gabbia. the bore of a cannon. A hooded carriage. Sw. Lat. ever and anon. Du. A — fall. to cackle . — — — Dan. calcis. an inkstand . a wheel . It. Cake. Caldron. javioler. calentar. caliche. An open travelling chariot. cake. Calp is riadh. a wheel . Roman reckoning. calidus. calesa. loss. Du. chetif. kalfvan hout. gabble. a calesh. a corpse. Fr. caioler. a loaf of bread. Calocli. Fr. a wheel . kolo. kolo. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. cadaver. a roller. principal and interest. jabber. kat. misfortune. Calamity. joyous . analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Calandre. It. and troublesomely attached to. a waggon . just falling. to prate much to little purpose. From lerie. capCalenture. kail. unruly . Sw. N. A . Cauldron. To Calender. a falling. of the nature of lime to calcine. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. kuchen. KaKKat. the calf of the leg. to . KxiKivh^o^. Lat. dead body. calamus. kaka. cattivo (from Lat. As Du. the younger son of a family said to be from . &c. It is another form of the E. Lat. pet lamb. from Gr. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. Lat. a hollow place. kdfich. whence Lat. chattering. roller. cage. B. cageoler. In the same way Fin. wanton. of which. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. a car. a counter used in casting accounts. . a fever. bad . Calamary. cuttle-fish. calpa. Turk. —Atkinson. Pol. It. its mother. boy. the pi. G. lord. to heat. loss. A cuttle-fish. frisky. See Kiddier. Lat. kolyasochka. hot. gabbia. chaudiere. * Calibre. kolesnitza. Du. Dan. Lat. Cadence. caldarius. Sp. Cadet. when they are said to poor. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Fr. kalb. calessa. capitetum. Cajol. cykevie. a calash . Fr. from the Chinese catty. a tea-chest. a low note. (in the augm. Tea-caddy. calf of leg. marrow. Lat. Lat. To Cajole. hot . kauwe. the lump and the increase. . . * Cade. cadet. pen Mod. calibre. to gabble. cabdillo. kukje. disease of sailors from tivus). prate. 124 prattle .— . Gascon capdet. Mrs B. a wretch. a reed. ratas. a caFr. or prattle. Arab. cadenza. kaeckelenj Gr. incolumis. Dan. pith. collop. coop. Calash. from the ink-bag which it contains. Calc-. Cage. of oxen and similar animals. kdtr. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. so gabble corresponds with Fr.warmth . a wheel. Gael. little chief. Sw. form) calderone. especially of something soft. Caddy. master. kolasa. Sp. coll. Cot. reed-pen. cage. kalem. to treat like lime. kola. cha'cmie cadence. It. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a vessel for heating water. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Fr. colibro. kage. . from calculus. a cylinder. Calf of the Leg. Flo. Cadaverous. one unduly indulged by. Calendar. calamitas. limestone. The young G. — in a kiln. pi. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. It. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. a common cart. ' . Fr. babbhng. to cage.uv. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. cadere. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. G. Lat. hence musical rhythm. Du. calendrer. calculo. a small stone. a mischievous dial. The Calf. Fr. a dence. rattaat (wheels). The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. gabberen is identical with E. from calendcE. cauldron. gavia. frolicsome kaad mund. desire of land. Fr. to throw themselves into the sea. caldaria. gaggia. Perhaps from w. koeck. calba. En kaka br'od. cadence. wretched. It. is probably delusive. The Lat. kalfi. a circle. Calcialate. for green fields.— Cot. on. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Lat. calx. lime whence calcareous. or smooth Hnen cloth. to sleek hence a den. or colpa na coise.

u to an I in such a colubrum. an adder. Sir John Smith in Grose. — — — — — . kael. qAlab. It. sound. Diez. scalmato. harden by pressure. brawny. So It. Fr. and E. ' rine. couleuvre. Kil. calibre. sestus. Fin. a good calling.Lat. cotton cloth. chatter. to rail or scold . hollaing. ram. Caliph. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calibre. a soldier who the It. calk.' Slange. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. Turk. calvus. — Fl. Sp. licht stuk The change from a. CALM to press or stuff. skin hardened by labour. bombarda Cauma incendium. of a column. hot. kind heat of the sun. * Caliver. coluber also. quality. and dragon. Hard. to abuse . dragoon. on. heat. ' pert. Fr. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. whehce it was first brought. Mahn derives it from Lat. donderbuchs Sp. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. the heat of Now these Du.(jaa= ice). piece of bigger circuite. . Lang. vulgo Coluvrine. the Fr. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). which has its memory preserved in Du. and sometimes a handgun. The origin is Gr. Fr. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. saucy. 'A callet of boundless tongue. scold. to say. to affirm. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. To Calk. the hard surface of the ground. To century was Squalibre. Calico. a successor. heat. KaXka.from Ka'tm. caillette. drive. kal. a drab. serpens. i. whereas in troth it is not. calo. to cram. khalif. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. CALICO Calliper-compasses. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. To drive tow or oakham. The primitive colubrina bombarda. by many that the weapon Callous. calma. kil-u-kal. to burn. caliver. calclover. * Callet. but is only a jda-kallo. try. however. cauma. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. to be of a good or bad quality. a last. a round of abuse. NE. calma. Callow. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. or caliever.' Whitby Gl. The word was also written cawme in OE. Lat. Calm. Du. coulevrine. form. done with heat Alt. koluvre. diameter of a ball. and heat. colubrina. or mould. Fr. E.' Chaucer. faint. kal. Sup. Among these were the turn. form in the kalib. given. femme frivole et babillarde. Dief. overheated. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. moist. Indies. Bi. Mil. moso. trull. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. Antiq. Fin. from Calicut in the E. Kavfia. cahna..position is much less common than the geschut. sclopus. tapulta. B. chatter kallen.' But it is hard Du. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. to call. which is as much as to say. a. push violently. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. water-tight. serpentina. Derived by some from Arab. people's remarks. a feathers.en~ kinds of firearms. Heb. kahcwe. them &c. Gael. hallottaa. to prattle. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . kol. harquebus or handgun. sence of wind. calca.meaning of the word. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. bald. calcare. to hear. calcaich. prattle. caluw. faint. the day. oldire from audire. of the bore of a firearm met. AS. quiet. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Due. kallo. to calk. or languishing drought is . calc. . calare. coluber. the scalp or skull. Diet. 125 Prov. abto suppose that E. colubraria canna. to proclaim. — — — — — . kalla. callus. can be distinct from ODu. Mid. dragonder. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. calat of leude demeaning. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. quA librd. Gr. alta voce ploro. Kil. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. to call. culverin. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Ca. the Fr. whence couleuv. calme. To call.piicede Lat. calleting. klover. fistula. voice. calgua. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. tittle-tattle. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Lat. calor. Ptg. Unfledged. The reference to heat is preserved in. gossiping. Sc. calicot. glotton. having a thick skin.' Winter's Tale. Ibid. nautique). forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Sp.— . to tread. word of mouth . longior. dial. callum. Call. cauque. the latter of chamber. depreciatory term for a woman. to callet. overscalmaccio. ululo Turk. According to Jal (Gl.

a may have acquired that signification from plain. Camlet. a crab. Cann. a piece. higher in the middle than Fr. — Cancel. clothed in white. cere : Lat. callour. a. would plenier. India Islands. crook. Gr. a field Greek monk. Bret. open and level ground. Lat. lame. Fr. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. chamold man. camisade. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. the heat. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. cAouma. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Fr. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. across — Bellenden in Jam. candidus. camber-nosed. fair. calutmiia. It. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. toile some of whom. champagne. white. campagna. Mid. ko/utuXoc. canalis. is Candle. to warp. Fr. Cot. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. KafivTu. Lat. Canine. Fr. Sp. mg Canister. B. crooked. campaign. Lat. Mod. the salmondis faillis thair loup. arch. good. An eater of human flesh. cainahelus. crooked. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Cambric. to glow. Kakoycpos. Fr. whence the Fr. Sanson khanda. E. Caloyer. to jut. It. the bed of a stream. Calyx. lie level. cambren. Canker. Camp. is Cambering.— Chandelier. Canal Channel. a dog. the spersed with white flakes like curd. different sections of the like the Chinese. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. It was distinfrom work. samon. slander. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Properly calver in the field during a war. cambr^. . a.— Hackluyt in R. ation. champ. ckaouma. E. cup. Turk. icaSoytipoe. to bend. co7nbar. sugar. Fr.Gr. Canibal. Camel. A — the Cannibals. a basket. The Grisons cauina. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. bis.Lat. Cambray. chandelle. or Caribs. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. campagne. the type of a hollow pipe.' Forme of Cury in Way. Or the word Lat. brought from Fr. to bend. to bow. Pers. water chamlet . Camisade._ kamm. to the force of the wind. camafeo. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. salmon.—Cambrel. camelot. campren. campagna. From campus was formed Lat. aged. chommer. Gr. It. camiscieia. at the ends. to avoid enemy in their shirts. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. cam^e. Cameo. a' Sc. an eating. In a different application It. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. fresh. frank and sincandidatus. Candid. from xaXbg. arched. aspirant. — B. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Cambrel. cup. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. canis. Lat. a goblet bud. spot for cattle. Lat. died in 1526. KafitjUe. See Canker. callar. Calumny. catmneo. from candere. Candy. canna. arched. Lat. lattice. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. the calix. cancello. campus.. Lat.—Jam. camisa. w. B. Calver of cane. It. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. calj'x. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. camaien. Cancer. having an aquiline nose. camiscia. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. Campaign.conduit-pipe. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. unwater chamelot . a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Ptg. E. canistrum. the space of false imputation. camahutus. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Peter Martyr. — — — A — — escume de saumon. had no r in de bric— Cot.—Candidate.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. kanna. It. Sp. a caught. when its substance appears inter. . Fr. camp. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. campo. or hollow of a flower. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t.— B. It. cambre. monk. campo. also an eatmg sore. Sp. hooked. cancer. sore. Cambrav—Cam. nia. cambrer. a large drinking . properly good country. Arab. candela. Fr. se cameloter. paign. — Lat. From fluting or furrow in a column . chaitcre. Palsgr. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. field . crooked. whence Fr. on. and yspiuv.who their language. camelus. crooked-stick. to break.' ' Quhen a lattice.

as. a drinking glass. canevas. hemp. a corner. cane. schlapp. See Chape. measure for cloth. Canoe. It. has kahn. carcase . cannu. capa. a wine-cellar or vault. cappe. covered. canapa. cheese. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. cantred. cantone. capello Italis. and met. kanta. capevole. Fin. lump. hamlet. kapamak. kandt-broodts. From Lat. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. a ship canot. capax. caparazon. To canvas — . a door . It.Gr. OFr. cover kapi. a cloak. a small boat. Wtb. the quartile. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. kynnel. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. . coarse hempen cloth Fr. margo panis diffracta. or hold. shut. &c. Du. canvas. chantel. The meserseum and the mesentericum. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. border. cane. canonicus. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. a rule or standard of excellence. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. It. cappe. &c. To Canonise. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. to shut. root cap. as a cantle of bread. hemp. speech. a straight rod. able to receive. Goldast — in in Schmid. the part easiest broken off. cappa. Gugel. A . ON. If the word had been from cantherius. which is not the case. kyndel. quarter. Canton. Again we have Lat. region. Germanis kdppen.— Cot. Canopy. cantref. Picard. a side. Kavt\. The — . from . a ruler. he discourseth of dissection. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. kand. chape. a reed. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. From Gr. Canteen. Sp. a scull- — here.. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. capace. Fr. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Gael. Cot. gnat. name. kaput. chanteau. Prov. a hundred. Jonson. Cant. clqse.Gr. canoa. like a torch or candle. kq. call. A piece of anything. cantle then is a corner of a thing. say. language. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Cope. a gelding. B. It. Sp. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. a boat. Canon. KCLvva. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. A slow gallop. kwvwxIi. Sp. Mod. To his judicial And trowl the tile. being a yard or thereabouts . is found languages of very different stocks. to sing. Fr. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Hence Lat. cannabis. to put upon sacred writers. and the sex- &c. from a Canter. signifying cover. or cantell of bread. to contain. a cane. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Cantle. territorial hundred. to con- rummer. It. the heel. Swab. Kil. Esthon. that the G. coat. schlappen. kantr. a torch. It. a division of a country. border Dan. tain. from cant. quito curtain. a — A — Cannel Coal. side. cannevaccia. Probably only the augmentative of canto. cannone. a reed. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. and hence a gobbet. from canna. regular. canteau. . cope. astrology. Mod. Palsgr. Coal burning with bright flame. can. corner. haitt. edge. a cap. hirnschlapple. It. coarse hemp. a hunch of bread. a pipe. a cantle of bread. cape. Cape. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. N. canapaccia. cantina. the heel. Capable. quarter . and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. But it may be different source. a cover Turk. cover . Cannoii. a Fr. . rumme. Alamannis.CANNEL vessel. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Diez. KaTTiram. from Dan. cainnt.^on. contain. Lat. trine. a tube.n. pipe. canto. it would have been found in the continental languages. was formed Kavtiiv. the tried list of saints. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. Schwab. hood. part. Fr. canton. canonici. Of vena cava and of vena porta. canon. properly a large Prov. Capari. W. also a measure. See Capt-. Canvas. cane. a horn of the moon . cannevo. cane. a cloak kapali. Capacious. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. . leiwan kanta. and tref.

to crackle. knis. a . ticchio. ^piKos. a young kid met. chattering of the teeth. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . rihrczzoso. 75. It. with joy' Vikram. brisciare. I have shivered with love. or represented by the syllable e. as the means of earning profit. the principal part of the debt. capriola. curl. or other things. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. chief. the initial mute of forms like Gr. brug. and his body bristled We to castrate. to crackle. Hair-like. <I>pi'?oe. Hence capitalis the sum lent. Mod. Fr. and 7tucc. castrated cock. Cot. horror. a buck. See Chief. grisser. frissoner. or goat's leap (done by a horse). a chevret. hi.). brissle. To treat Capitulate. It is probable that Gr. as in Lat. The same imitation of Capon. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. It. a separate division of a matter. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. Lat. a caper in dancing. greziller. Unexpected pleasure. grisser. gives rise to brezza. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent.impressions on the ear. as Fr. w. Caprice. erica. and with an initial gr instead of br. to broil. Capillary. greziller. frisson- ner . that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. gricciare. to broil. a kid. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi.— 128 CAPE a rustling. castrated. upon terms Sp. cover of a saddle. a little head. eruca compared with It. to twitter as birds. gives rise to Sc. or Lat. gricciare. It. Arab. to parch. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. grug. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Fr. to shudder. shivering. alcaparra. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. brisciare. bristling. humorous. capitulare. cappriccio. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. then find the symptoms of shivering. arricciarsi. Hal. to .) grezille marid. a ch illness. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. frisser {frissement d'un trait. for which he cites the Comask nucia. The true derivation lies in a different direction. hair.) d'etre The It. Fr. algabr. wriggle. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to fry. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. crackling sound Cape. Lang. caprice. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. s'hdrisser. frort^Lat. of a tremtdoiis sound. h^risser. of a fowl. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. caprice It. as Fr. cut off. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. they longed extremely to see it. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. Torriano. cut. curly. ziki. Capers. heath.' — (Supp. belonging to From caput. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. brisciare. capro. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. toy. Acad. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. riccio. And similarly to yearn. It. Capital.Gr. cApre. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Griller d'im' patience. capillus. the hair to stand on end. caj)o. It. It. a capriol. a goat. curling. Fl. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. to desire earnestly. kid. to ruffle the surface of water. where Burton adds in a note. a head. as Fr. sault. So from Sw.standing on end. caper j caprio. A . bristling. grillcr. airoKOTrrw.'— Trev. rissoler.' Cot. aggricciare. horripilation. brezilia. Lat. according to the Hindoos. abridge amKoTroq. then to be in a state of vibration. the head. the head. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. shrub. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . Lat. to from capitulum. — — A a hair. Genevese bresoler. explained by Diez from capra. capparis. is either wholly lost. roughening of the skin. II bresole (Gl. capriole. to shiver for cold. prickly husk of chestnut. CAPRICE twittering. Lat. A headland. also the capriole. G^' Many words — ' ndv. to shiver. compared with Bret. It. p. Sp. the hair to stand on end. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body.— Fl. capriol or caper in dancing. fansuddenly angry. or. herissonnement. arricciarsi. a hedge-hog. then to shiver or shudder. It. brisoler. capar. knis-hujwud . ribrezzo. and OHG. end. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. Caper. ericius. frizzle. hedge-hog. . a yearning through sudden fear. shivering. of a coach. the singing'bone). Fr. bruco. birsle. capitalis. — to yearne. principal. a caterpillar.

hold. Etym. to please. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. Lat. Thus the musket. concevoir. &c. and has thus descended unaltered to English. recipere. except. recevoir. a taking back. a windlass. a cart. calabrin. latterly. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. Capuchin. The It.). capio. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. also tresFl. a hooded friar. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . to load . concipere. cabrestante (whence e. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. It is a standing crab. precept. It. a capuchin. cams. accept. Lat. kerren. recipio. bock. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Cot. a sudden fear apprehended. to this is It. recibir. Fin. karista. It. char. See Caper. or the (capo-riccio). to receive receptio. Carry. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. It. desire. charret. — — Capstan. captive. cabreia. capra. Crab. as in accipio. the -cevofthe Fr. Capriole. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Sp. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. concept. Capsule. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. carabin. Derivatives are Fr. Fr. . krul. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. from head. caput. Fl. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. as the dragoons (Du. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. capuccio. a. box. shivering fit (Altieri). a fantastical humour. chevre. Fr. to creak. was a kind of horse soldier. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. to take. fancy. G. crab s. a she-goat. as in OFr. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. sels. was converted into -ceb. In cases. Castr. Fr.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). chirrion. tnoschetta.. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Fr. Caseneuve in Diet. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. however. calabrino. de- price. caprice. Fr. Du. contain. to carry . conceit. a head man. and has accordingly been lost in E. Cot. — —Diet. receptus. karren. also to carry on a car . Lat. karra. case.s. It. intercept. whence capture. karrende waegen. capp%tccio. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. captus. Captain. recepte. a sawing-block or trestles. -cept. perceive. -cept. a reception. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. dim. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. Passing on into E. fantastic. di cappa. oisr. carro. charger. at least. a cloke) capuccino. Fr. to take to. a kind of torture. Carabine. cabra. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Du. caricare. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. capitano. decepte.of these compound verbs. deceit. deception. Lat. was originally a missile . a sudden will. captivate. verbs gives rise to the element . and of captus to an e. charrier. also a kind of rack. to creak. of capsa. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Neumann. conception. cabestan. carretta. acceptus. of the Sp. trestle. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a hood (dim. OSp. It. &c. an engine for throwing stones. seize. a coffer. a creaking waggon. commander.. -ceive. In the S. chirriar. strideo. i The meaning Car. Carabin. capsula. It. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. Capstern. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French.). caThe hrestante. concebir. to accept. &c. conceive.or -cib-. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. and tropically. Nordfoss. Sp. Carbine. It. Capt-. Kiittner. one odd. crepo. a. to take baclc. 129 — receive. Fr. capitis. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Cart. cabestrantej Fr.

to ripple flax. contract. cabrita. an engine for hurling stones. mural attack. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. of carbo). skeleton. ancient springald. cabreia. a quiver. for a gun. a wool card. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. a winding staircase. winding carach. also (as Gr. carabba. It. Caraool. caravela. carcasa. chevre by the name of the goat. karri. avSpaS. to comb wool . — seems to be something holding together. ' Vasa vitrea. carate. &c. properly a siege machine. carbo. a twist. Carcax. a crane. Sp. the case of the flesh. Venet. a ship. Lat. of the same Caravan. karra. to card wool. a kind of ship. confining. a coffer.charcoal . &c. constraining . kard boyd. carquasse.' From the same source are SicU. burning coal. a thistle. cramp.. matter. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. Parmesan cassiron. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. KtpaTwv. alia sunt majora. fire . Pers. The radical meaning . Cot. skeleton toise.Gr. carcanada. carduus. cdrlag. poison eiz. carere. is the word used in modern Lat. Sp. also a small weight. a dead carcase. bock and Fr. car. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. Gr. black dye. kirat. the name might naturally Mod. It. carcaij. casso. to draw in. a he-goat. turning. quilato. carquois. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. It. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. garafa. Bohem. carquan. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. the dead body of any creature. a battering-ram). a collar or chain for the neck. in the same way that the Sp. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. and catapulta. carbh. Gael. cabra. a quiver . decanter. vitriol. card. or framework. the trunk or chest of the body . a quiver. Comp. It. carch. military engines made for hurling stones. Carboy. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning.. The Trjg xeXwwac.— — — . krciti. a goat. W. AS. case. a thistle. cassa. carcanet. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. . and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Cat. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. OHG. It. karszti. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. to card wool.Gr. Sp. the shell of a torcarcasso. is the chine. Arab. boch. Cot. Lat. From the battering-ram. kerwan. winding. to curry horses karsztuwas. bend. See Carpenter. Fr. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. turn of a horse. Derived in the first edition from Mod. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. skeleton. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. tcapKaai.z. the carob bean. Gael.. I. carta. eitar. Sp. Carrob. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. coming to four grains. Carbuncle. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. a lock of wool . . the husk or cod of beans. Carbonaceous. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a quiver . an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. An implement for dressing wool. &c. shell. a snail. silique. quse vocant karabd. a gem resembling a live coal. Fr. Ptg.. Fr. espi7igarda. carbunculus (dim. p. copperas. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. caraffe. restraint . designated in the case of G. Card. eit. to comb. curry-comb. cerran. wine- bottle. Gr. Exot. the . . ON. a firelock. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a machine for casting large darts. Sp. wool card. «capa'|8i. a small weight. to hiss (as gee^e).applied to a battering-ram (G. a card or comb . Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. caracal. to turn. seed of carob. Lith. the core of fruit . half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. . a case or chest . cardo. a ripple for flax. caraffa. carabe. . Caravel. a prison. carcame. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Carcase. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a skeleton. to creak. an ulcer. Gael. the carcase of a fowl. Gael. carmiiiarc. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg.. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Carat. Mod. Fr. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram.

to load. p. Carlings. It. carminare. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. regar. carriire. cargo. carena. Fr. Trin. Roquef. de Parthenay. Dan. Fr. record. Card. sorrow. E. carriera. male person. carcus. cura intenta. A quirito ut infans. Cot. charag. Cot. murahtaa. to comb wool. Carnal. is This however Shrove tide. quarreG. Fr. piger. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. kumra. From. kargr. Bois crolant d'un ladre. Cargo. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. to clean the bottom of the ship. to take Goth. that Fl. G. — — — : Cardinal. the hull of a ship. caMid. carian. morosus sum. and compare Bret. from carus. to shake. winding. mutter. from the keel to the water . from carrus. place for exercise on horseback.' Slceat. fundamental. wool cards. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Caricature. karg.— CARD karr-kambar. meet at a head. asper. Care. Bret. a turn. that on wliich the matter hinges. or grumbling —Due. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. act of moaning. a card. the old theory of humours. karry. — — — Caress. Carnage. carener. charie. clown or churl. — To Careen. AS. and thin. in St Jerome. Sp. solicitous. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. also a career on horseback. carina. Bret. crowl. Cartel. & Q. appertaining to the flesh. cargar. to lie on its side. OHG. sorrow. ON. stridere. from caricare. as carminare. Ptg. road. Translated in MS. be anxious. charnel. tenax. . Carenare. kribina. to load. car. cearig. principal. crosier. to growl. It. immediately before the long fast of Lent. a man. surrata. to parch.. karantez. W. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. 8. cdrle. — — .. to eat flesh. cardo. strideo. Champ. the several meanings of the words above Rom. charta (Gr. graller. kroU-erbser. Fin. the keel of a vessel. an endearment. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. compared with Fin. 2. ress. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. in Carp. love. Carminative. kummer. carrefourg. the keel. camovale. essere in carena. charger. what is felt as grievous. caresse. — Carfax. soUicitus OSax. stingy. an overloaded representation of anything. a deed. care. carnis. Coll. intrasset caro. Sp. w. one of those ac- 9 * . the time during which to Rom. four. A mod-carag. Fr. G. weyes. caru. — — Diez. charg. Fr. A medical term from line —Boerio. . astutus. murista. quaver a lazar's clack. kurista. fleshy . Properly. karrig. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. msstus. to scratch. grief. . &c. Carl.— Charter. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. to whirr (schnurren). kara. Fr. ceorl. to fry or broil. ignarus. . but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. carezza. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Properly a car-road. to scrape . ON.Lat. Fr. hoed. Gael. It. It. to rumble. like connection may be seen between Fin. Chart. Farewell flesh. carnal. tremble. niggardly . care on. at murmuring. to fry. to comb flax or hemp. cura may be ror. Mur. the flesh of animals . crawl. For the root of carminare. OFr. Lat. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. to love. rixosus. and G. moeThe Lat. cearian. karout. morosus. carnavale. caritia. carFrom carrus. . . to care unkarja. see Garble. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. to load. to distress growl. It. Fin. carch. carcare. . W. Groler. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. a highway. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. the load of a ship. to card wool.Lat. from Lat. scharren. bottom. Venet. carena. Probably the origin of the word is the . karl. charnage. and sum. Cark. and murhet. dear. voce strepo stridente. murren. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. A place where four roads Mid. gakaran. 273. whence carricare. Charnel. or street. Lat. carnasciale. beans. Sept. Cath. caricare. zanken . The object of carminatives is to expel wind. It. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. giierlir. W. parched or carled. affection. as peas. sensual. AS. Fr. 1S66. It. chartre. Carled peas. a hinge. x'»P'"^s)) paper. careless take care of. Fl. AS. in N. Cot. is to say. combing them out like the knots in wool. karista. . No ' place there had. sgritudo animi. quadrifurcum from quameet. charneux. croller. cardinis. Peas steeped and fried. carnalis. tuorfurcm (Burguy). caricatura. grolU.

— Drant in R. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. course. act of drinking a full Eq. sense. e. Mid. vel coopertorio carebit. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. a song accompanying a dance then.Why give's some wine then. as carnaval from carnelevamen.' says Motley (United Neth. was formed Mid.Lat. to dance. and Carnem laxare (It.' Ordo Eccles. carpere.' Reg. Pr. garrire. Pref. carbh. on that. W. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. charpie. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. to pluck. carpende fast Carol. as Fr. biheld without. is erroneous.Lat. all aus). 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. differing To Carp. Carpitam habeat in lecto. carpat (Stokes). ballare. Templariorum — ' — Due. ! Carouse. 216. pluck at. The custom. Carole. to dance. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. in Due. 2. Fr. a car carpentarius. Bret. Cot. carpo. zimmer. of Guiana. garrulo. carpita. Mediol. peta. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Sup. bier. quoted by Carpentier. litter. Bohem. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. CarTo quaff carouse do use. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. querole. linteamen. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Alluz (G. in Nat. a drinking cup. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. — . culcitra. charpentier. lint. carnelascid).Lat. a plank. ship. i. qui sacco. cardos. Lat. Lat. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Carpyn or talkyn.]e bois Carnelevale. . 760. Beggars Bush. a wheelwright. In a MS. koroll. carpia. to pull asunder. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. to chatter coroli.: . carpenter only in the latter sense. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. worker in timber Fr. to rustle. fabulor. chatter skra/a. Sp. krapati. Chanson de carole. In Dominica d'autant. 2. All out B. Lat. The karole of the stones behelde. On the other hand bumper to one's health. zimmerspan. Mid. Palsgr.— R. Carnevale. Teut. as E.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. carpetrix. Gower in Way. carpetam (a quilt?). Here's to you still my captains friend. I quaught.gonnella. to talk. carpenta. maker of waggons It. Dief. The tippling sots. The ' ' a chariot. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. at midnight which derivation from kroes. chatter. cited by Marsh. The word seems of Celtic origin. chirp. ' ' — .' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. carduz. in Carp. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Shrove Tuesday.'— Stat. pluck. 94). chariot carbad. to reel. 1 1 30. to find fault with. From Lat. Gael. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Carpet. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing.D. Ant. So gone they forthe.' Raleigh. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Properly a round dance. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. On this. tattle. Analogous R. Olr. to gather. . krapanj. Carnelevale. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. carpentum. Carpenter. skraf. carpenticre. Ein we find the signification transferred from . and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. as the Lat. . a carder. Nomin.— Neum. Pm. A. I drink all out. gar aus / all out is correct. Discov. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. used for stuffing mattresses. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Biheld within. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. a dance. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. whence the form carnasciale. yede tham about. and F.— Patriarchi. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. i. To pledge them thou refuse. ON. or loose as a couch without further preparation. a wheelwright. gonna. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. tymmer. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. or a carouse fully drunk up. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. balade from It. Other names of the sea. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Fr. cxciv.

to dash. house. casus. cascata. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. something that actually occurs. Du. Walach. and matar. gristle. ceorfan. case-maiej Sp. cassere. of carro. caroach. dim. Flor. casaque. to fall. cascade. casa. Casque. Fl. Rouchi carone. Lat. cancelled. Sp. Du. cassa.. caroche. caisse. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. crown of a hat. afterwards any written challenge. Rouchi carter. — FI. a loopscale the wall. case. casso. hollow. Hence a challenge openly hung up. To Carry. It. Hence casket. one who reasons on cases put. gristle. Lat. not reaching to the height of the ditch. casuelj Fr. Lith. a canonry or slaughterhouse. To quash an indictment. all manner of carts or carriage by carts.' Fl. cassus. to — — also casse. The Sp. kasseren. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. long man's gown with a close body. of carta. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. abrogate. It. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. from Lat. Carrot. Fr. Fr. cut with scissors. the charge of — — Fr. bitten. Cart. to crack. Cartel. carreaggio. to slay. Casuist. The carrying of anything. cia. charrette. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. cascare. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. a chest. to convey in a cart. Cot. pasteboard.' Bailey. properly to convey in a car. ignominiously exposed. made void. from the sound it makes when Alban. Casual. and that apparently from capio. to an- — Kil. caxa. charrier. to break. carogna. turn out of service. charogne. Probably. slaughter-house. Fr. empty. casa-maita. for the security of the defenders. ' Casa-matta. mata. an augmentative from Lat. AS. It. See Gristle. Ready money. from It. Case. Fr. hull of a ship. Fl. It. carota.— Fl. caisse. — — . Carrion. to bear or carry. cartoccio. Case-mate. Cascade. mord-keller. the money chest. casco signifies a skull. vault hole in a fortified wall. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Cassock. des rideaux A'carp^ie. — Cartridge. fall It. OE. Fr.to annul. a car. annul. casacca. Casket. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. discharge It. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Lat. casser. It. casitiste. quash. Fr. corresponding to the G. cartella. packing ' cloth. carroccio. and the OE. AS. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. carrosse. cassa. kirpti. Cartoon. a hut. to shear. crush. Cash. as we . cartone. Fr. Fr. kerben. a long coat. Case. caisse. Cot. carretta. casualis. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . also the carriage. a paper case. Lat. bag and baggage of a camp. To Cashier. carriaggio. a of water. a fall. Cask. a car. Rouchi carpHe. hung up in some place and to be removed. casag. from It. — — nul the proceeding. to hold. It. Carriage. CartOTicli. carretto. cascar. to fire on the enemy. Sp. to cut or carve . where Fr. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. To Carve. coffin of paper for groceries. an act of falling. It. coffer. luggage. paper. discharge. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. cartouche.' — Hdcart. It. — Cartoose. As defence from shells became more important. helmet. It. subject for a picture. Fr. Gael. cassette. kerven. carroc- carrozza . to notch. from casa. quasser. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers.' Cot. a merchant's cash or counter. fortuitous. card. mord-grube. break to pieces. augm. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. caro. Fr. cartilage. blotted out. Fr. kerpu. like all the names of tendon. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. void cassare. See Card. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. To duash. cancel. Preparatory drawing of a It. shell or carcase of a house. tion from Sp. G. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. augmentatives of carro. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. capsa (Diez). is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. krat. a chance or accident. cashiered. Fr. a coffer or small case for jewels. Rouchi caroche. See Case.

by the loss of with several pitched cords. cast. Isidore — in Diez. castanetazo. It.— Fl. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. It. cat-o'-nine. kat. however. speak of dashing a thing down.Rouchi Scaches. to look at. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. of sarabands does Gr. Fr. Yz. Hence castaneta. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. to torture. koshka. away. Lat. cascar. arpi^m. a thump. a whip on the other into latch. to bring to an crack given by the joints. . cacciare fuora. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. while kiss / Pol. a cat koshki. kissa. Fr. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. coming to us through different dialects of French. under chi caleur. Fr. The E. KaTappaKTrjQ. and tomba. lance. to clack. is not satisfactory. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. to crackle. like that of It. Castle. V Lith. Lat. to lash. puras E. It. to crack. on. a little house or hut. casulla. . chaleur. klakka. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. In the dialect of Picardy. casipola. Cat. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). probably from an imita. to fall as over a precipice. ' Catchyn away abigo. Pic. an enumerlist. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. cassa / cry for the same purpose. force j Rouchi equerviche. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Gr. sue. from the first of Castrate. Roukind. KaraXoyog. Fr. to end. Gr. dashing it to pieces. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. . to turn overturn. signifying breed. being Fin. Cast. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. chat. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. &c. accastiare. follow after. casule. shaft of a 1 push. handle of an axe. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Etym. was introduced. first made ordinary Fr. to drive away. kotas. down. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . punch. . Pm.'— Pr. kaJoivad. squash. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . a Cataract. to cast or beat to tioner . image accasciare. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. in the fire. perhaps from which we have E. a cat .. same word with break. catch. down. kic' kicil are used chasser. castro.out cacciare . cacciuolo. torture. Hal. represented by the syllable quash. mino. cat. OFr. Sp. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. bot-kotis. ichasses. a garment for performing the mass in. Fr. Cot. stilts. a fortified place. to scourge. to drive Cat o' nine tails. KarapaKrr]g. katze. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. or Rouchi cat. B. to break. Fr. Fr. to dash. fall. to make clean or chaste. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. chasser. drive away. kasi. cacciarc. chasuble. tails. to hurl See Awgrim. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. castana. . Mid. to Fl. R. 'Vaaaw. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. ecrevisse. n. heat . Brunne. execu. dim. second chase. name. Lang. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. V. the earlier sense of catch. Catastrophe. To It. to is Essentially the Sp. which has been retained in E. catar. Fr. a chesnut . Gael. ating. crush . kottr. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. which.to drive out. of castrum (castra). castello. Pol. kotas. casupola. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. kakka. or bruise together.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. casser. chasser. race. Sp. and KviilSog. Catalogue. the stalk of plants.Lat. _G. Chase. burst cascare. to close. squash. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. kasta. To Catch. or comba. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.. Castanets. cojz^/a. puss / for calling them. The Diet. 120. cash. from water Karappaaaiii. the ground . Fr. — We a cavity. to hunt. So also from It. and from the castus. rack. dash. fer toTa. Thus we have Caste. a vault. castellum. KaTaarpifm. Others explain it from Kara. 134 CAST Catacomb.the / or c respectively. dashing it out of the window. the castanets for or implement . ON.

the the same principle he was Fr. smack. a. — Catcli-poll. a — gatta. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. chenille {canicula. a pill. Kil. — tinman. ' Fr. Wal. Cot. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . to snatch (said of dogs). dainties. ArbaUte de courte chasse. Gael. latch. resono ictu lash.' CATCH Fr. lash of a whip corresponding to the G.V. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. gattola. caucht. head. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. or any kind of relishing food tuals. silkworm. . wild-beast. predicament. formerly called cliket. Gael. chacepol. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Fr. — . bicho.V. devouring mite or weevil. to kythe D. Fr. . Kartiyopta (/cari. Guernsey pilleure. fragor kletsoore. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. a smack. snatched. Rouchi clincailleux. chasse. Metivier. Cot. chase. klatsch. chink.yopl(. woodlice. G. which all . chatter. from shutting with a click. icarrix'Ki^. gingle. . compare G. to crack GATES cache. Cates. to snap. kletsen. instruction in forms. the distance to which the ball is struck. called dog or Galla catchamza. companaige. — explained. — Kiittner. cache. a whip. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. bichano (pussy). On Catechism. — B. clap with the hand. to A bailiff. from Gr. Gr. Sp. Du. catch-flesh.. E. to chat. Grandg. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . a whip or Kuttner. 135 — Aasen. with and without an / after the c. as of the latch of a As ! — . catc?u. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Ptg. Fr. a clap. a cornIn the s. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. chatter . weevils. a carter's Pat. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. In the XV'e. snatching. Tutschek. clatter. OFr. chassoire. to take. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. 'Bxn. happe-chair. sound. e. ecachoire. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. to teach by oral instruction. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. door when it is shut. cagnon (a dog). with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. e. the elements of a science. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. an accusing. a caterpillar Milanese can. kaetse. Chate peleuse. to chatter with the teeth cake. Kil. caker. verberare kUts. glcu. s. and answer. * Cates. latch of. klatschen. claquer. P. klatscherei.) . the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Caterer. Du. Swiss Lombard G. to the crack. clap. apprehend a person. Claucht. a little dog). i. children's name for cat . a whip Rouchi cachoire. snatching it with a any one. ketsoore. catch. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . a whip. de Bray.from Bard and ayopsw. resound. dainty vic- a form lash.j. called in Fr. a. to clap hands. * Caterpillar. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. 'Horxa. seize. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. insect. whip. — with a whip. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Sc. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. quincailler. GaUa catchiza. the OE. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. E.' ^Jam. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. blow. KaTtix'so. cat is not apparent. ictus resonans. Du. is said that he got a claucht of it. to harangue. Guernsey chafer. to catch strength. kletse. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. ' ' word catch. catch.s. . Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. in order). above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. millecaterpillars.P. worm. has both or of charming by sound. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. . chachara. klatsche and Norm. gliong. flap klatsche. klinke. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. an officer of taxes. E. pedes. Diez. c or ^.

kocianki. cauHs. flock. despencier. kin. Wyatt in R. G. Cavalcade. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Caution. chauderon. caldo. ' Gr. Fr. to shoe . catons. Fin. cautus). capull. to purge. It. a mare. chausser. calqada. Catkin. Ka^afriKOQ. whence cathedralis. a horse . Cavern. to shale or peel. Jaubert. . Gr. acater.Y\\Xea. flue. cabbage-stalk.^ acheter (Lat. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Cave. to buy. calotte. minon. It. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cautis. reticella. little cat. Fr. cale. cale. ce^l. accattare. catkin mitz. lamb. kopista. It. Jonson in R. via strata. accapitare Rouchi acater. Cavalry. chaudroii. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. &c. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Rete. Provider. make clean. Bessie of Bednall. — Cauterise. Mid. Fr. what . KiwariKog. chevalier. Fr. achepter. is used in the sense of cat-skin. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Kil. a horse . Fr. kassije. katte. a kettle for heating water. Cavity. chaussJe. Pr. Fr. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Palsgr. chair. kaussijde. Causeway. chatideau. puss. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. It. That he was ay before in his estate. puss. the stones of a street. 2. koparet. Diez). OE. Thus Bav. from KaSaipio.Lat. catkin Pol.' B. and spareth for no perell. Caballus. KaHSpa. adcaptare. choufleur {choii. the caul of the liver. chaudiire. hazel. a horse. to ac- — Fr. Gr. hollow. apt to burn iron. CAVE Caul. Port. Mid. It. rete A — Prov. caple. is Prologue. caudex . a pavement. Chaud. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. kautsije. Sx. Fr. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. by land. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Cause. to burn. green husk of a calon. the. mutz. from chaud.p. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. also to pave . Lat. cabbage). Cathartic. Kavrfipiov. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. otherwise written kell. Dryden in R rete. Cauldron. Pol. calceta. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. katteken. Delycates. acaptar. mudet. Lat. shaled or picked Fr. primitive is meaning a shale or off. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Du. catkins . from caveo (p. — — cavallo. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. cavus. Lat. Caustic. a branding from koiio. CATHARTIC sense. a seat.' Elyot in Way. challe was ther of a temple. quire. dumpf tonen. a receptacle for small things. Gr. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. .^Hal. Cathedral. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Palsgr.. and hence a skull-cap. — . Boethius. w. Manciple's Tale. . puss. hot. . a The peel. kopano. Gael. cheval. causa. . Du. calceata. . a horseman. fur. a kind of skull-cap. B. caballus.. cat maczoka. cavaliere. kocie. any Fl. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. a paved road. 4.willow. . hot. kitten kotki. On the other hand. KaPaWrii. The word — . little cap is . Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Lat. Cattle. kobuiV. klopfend knallen. Caudle. Lat. from delf^gato. cal^ar. kdtzchen. A warm comforting drink. • — — See Chattel. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. of delicates the most Her cater seeks.—— — 136 correct. Kavrijp. a stalk. Russ. a pulpit. deyntie meates. to beware. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. catkin Magy. a road calceata. Cavalier. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound.Lat. fur in general. calidus. but the acates that are sent him. net or caul-work. Richly she feeds. Fr. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. having the property of cleansing. cabbage. Fr. to shoe. to sound like a blow . Fr. kobyla. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Lat. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. macska. walnut with the husk on challer.

a fir-plank. dScis. In the N. door-sill J Sc. Soc. p. Hence concede. the bowl of a pipe koppamato.. thilja. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. To seele a room. cedo. thelu. Lat. sill. B. sounding as an empty vessel koppa.' Marriage of James IV. So from Fin. VIII. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. to seele or close with boards plancher. sus-lambris. semely on syll. menuiserie. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. cielo. a board. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. in Jam. Wore. yield. Cot. syl. cellar. Gawaine & Sir Gol. a planking or boarding tkilian. See -cede. cavezzone. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. nailes will begin to cling. . a plank. and Gol. . &c. sill in window-sill. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. &c.' Rutland papers. ciel is so unbroken. column E. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. Lat. Lat. to canopy siled. augm. heaven. selar. dille. tester of a bed. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead.' — Gawan . CEILING The kynge to souper is set. cease. . step away. -cede. CAVESON kopera or kowera. Sp. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. also a seeling of boards. koppeli. a head. a beam. jaa. as if from happen. The importation of Fr. 32. to panel or wainscot MHG. Cede.). thil. of cavezza. of E .' Cot. ciel de lit. a boarded floor. recede. Hal. as. &c. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. departure from this life. an aquiline nose. Sir 137 pit . the roof of a coach. a hut. pp. . thili. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. . komista. wainscot thiljar (in pi. or of a bed. to argue capto tiously. to plank ON. kommata. lambrisser une chambre seeling. coffer. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. sky. selure. del into English without ' translation gave cele. a halter. Fr. . and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. &c. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. syle. komo. post. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. deal. cavillor. a severe bridle. Plancher. caveqon. Fr. cabegon. cesso. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. hivtmel. Cavil. thel. flooring E. a log. . but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. empty. and that from Sp. proceed. thiling.' Ordinances and Reg. the deck of a ship at thilja. Sherwood. wuoren komo. little house. — . and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. to plank or floor with planks. Lat. that. 5. E. rafter. . H. heaven. -cease. dil. board . And seik — Cessation. and zaum. A — A false accommodation produced G. — . cessum. plank. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. seele. and then to gape. were met. a log. Boyd in Jam. crooked kopio. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. 43. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. p. the inner roof of a room of state. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. ceiling. give place. -cess. Fr. thil. In the same way G. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. cyling (W. in Hal. . — — — toyour soverane. -ceed. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. departure. The It. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. succeed. a log. kapp-zaum. a canopy. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. excess. hollow. . dayntily diglit. hollow ice . bridle.' Hall. Cam. to cut. cabega. but hang around at the sides. quibble. decessus. Fr. lambris. —Decease. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . a canopy. 7. . . in Jam. Ceiling. curved. . ceiling. the testern of a bed.. hollow. beam. death. IV. It.'— Z. sybire. — komo tain). exceed. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. with their substantives concession. hung. is applied to a canopy. applied to a canopy.). wall. The sense of roofing. plank. canopied. The line of descent from Fr.' del.j have come from this source. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. to go forth. Cease. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing.

to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Coehim. For sess from assess. with the eyes. Fl. tax. 1. cretum. assess. value. Cot. It. -CEIVE a shaft. also grave opinion. Gr. Lat. cigliare. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. guish. Centurion. hollow. of heating. a solemnity. decebre) . Cereal. camentum. stones to the production of heat. concernor. from censeo. Lat. single or unwedded life. and — — — possessions. much frequented. Sc. calefacere. confounded ist from It. to visit in numbers. to sepap rate. cilibat. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. festive. Centre. or any bird's. irot\oe. and put it through the over eyelydde. In Celebrate. in comp. Ta^oe. an eyelash. &c. to heat. to course of people. -ciper. See Celibacy. Fr. to incense. See Cede. Fr. To chafe is for wine. and met. — A . pick out. eschattffer. a hundred centuria. dchauffer. To Incense. Fr. a tomb. to separate. cot. contend. to rub for the purpose a hut. sift. thronged the participle cretus. to warm. Gr. then to rub without reference Cement. K^'ivut. Ceremony. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. judge.j 138 thill. goad. S. estimate. a religious observance. Cess. sile. The term cilium. abundance. keep in It. a registration of one's self. KsvTpov. appertain. from Saa-rw. and so of that other. It. distinIt. Gr. -civer {conciver— Roquef. concetto. we have a modified form of (of a place). — . Take the nedyll and threde. in comp. Celebrity. Lat. to think. the point round which a circle is drawn. a prick. Assize. celer. Lat. chaufferette. -ceive. judge. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Assess. to rate. (and thence also) to hoodwink. family. Census Censor. rough from the quarry. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. the hollow the Lat. Fr. in Marsh. Prov. census. deceit. -cepire. Fr.unmarried. Cij(fe5j. Lat. Century. centum. become heated with anger. capio. tax. siller les yeux. syll. materials It. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. -cevoir. with transposition hence (of a day). -cern. mortar. renown be embodied with. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. -ceit. or expression of Ennius. to take. his office.' Celebritas. to seele or sew up the eyelids . and thence to conceal.— Cellar. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. /ctj/rsw. decide. cencer. blind. the officer appointed to take such returns . sacred show. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to concern. criticism. to chafe. sting. — . to attend on object with. to set on fire.ing a room where there is not fire. to burn incendo. to glow.' Book of St Albans. deceipt. ceremonia.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Cell. Lat. judge Lat. make angry. to take. Lat. see. Certain. Lat. census. caber.of the r.). to distinguish. -cebre ifoncebre. cerealis. Accelerate.). solemn (of per. . Gr. — . a numerous con. concerner. oil. incense. parted sleep. is the opposite of disora virum. conceipt. zens according to their property. censura. ciller. -cense. encens. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. a storehouse Chafe. crevi. -ceptjun. to contend. ' . -cepere. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Lat. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. cella. quarters for slaves. Fr. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. Sherwood. Censure. a hundred of what- — . Lat. — . to be regarded as one celebro. — . heaven. Censor. in accordance with the Fr. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Celerity. to seal a pigeon's eye. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. Censer. — — Cenotapli. &c. rubble. and thence censer. capturn. -cipio. observe. Chafe. To seel or close the eyes. Incensum. Lat. to bury). -oept. OFr. age. empty. to celebrate. — . Fr. . what to set in a chafe. Fr. thence belonging to or connected with corn. cenio. Lat. a shaft horse. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. to blindfold. cceremonia. to prick. to twinkle darkness. celeber certus. calefare. to sleep). point..— Chafing-dish. is totally distinct from the foregoing. riscaldarsi. a valuation of every man's estate. to -sum. eyelid. as in some places burnt. ciglio. candeo. the talk of men. a solemnity.. Cot. {cori)cipere. the place where the de. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Lat. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. swift. oil. cillier. a Cemetery. being taken from Fr. for building. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. receipt. chauffer. -cess. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. sure.cern. -i^oivre. but was gradually lost in conceit.

rustling corn. a jackdaw. Prov. vis. Fl. Lat. chaffare. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Cot. Wall. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Lat. chambre. E. Du. to caw chawer. to ner It. G. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Cot. much blowing. hordeum vel let. keuchen. ceaf. Prov. to fret inwardtronfo. chicane. KoBiSpa. kiaftr. — — — — — — . of. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. taubes korn oder hafer. Fr.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Fr. So from dominio. kuhista. kahu. a pulpit. B. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. rustling motion challenge. kdfelen. Fin. grief. hght Chalk. care. Fr. Came. P. kdfer. to move the jaws. cathedra. kuhuja. Lat. often puffing. rustle Challenge. In vulgar language. also to prattle. jaw.. crooked. to dispute. any insect of the beetle kind. &c. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. ceafer. — — ' — — — A . refuse barley . to tattle. ckapfare. Probably from According to Diez. clamare. Fr. have a mind to parley. in a monstrous fume. De Ir4. Kuttn. grief. Fr. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. — — — . camera. chalanger.sure carriage. kuhina. To buy and sell. without chap/are makiinde. Due. sborfare. . quisquilise offence. calice. Chayire. tattle cheep. rally one. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. chatter. From Port. Fr. (ca'e'ra) to chair. . a chough. gewolb. The jaw chafty. cadena gives chain. call in question for an ley). Pat. chayire. Piedm. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief.' Rayn. chagrin. songe. to institute anforensic action. Halma. muzzle. snort. chafeter. de Brai. calonja. Fr. a vault or arched roof. Chair. haggle. . Fr. dispute. chawe. kever. ON. snuff. a goba rustling . green sagrin. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. kuhata. calix. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Prov. signal by drum or P. dongio. to gnaw. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. from of the G. great chafe. kahuja. from Swiss kafeln. a rustling noise. ing a hard case to their wings. Bouffard. Hal. In like manto huff. — — — . cauvette. G. on. ^Altieri. yap. puff. to pant. Camera. to buzz. and as this was the beginning of man. Lat. fume. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. chaene. to a seat. to puff and blow. sagrindse. to claim. bargain. to call. Lat. chaire. Fr. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. kiqfta. avena vilior. chaine. place See Cheek. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. from the shark-skin. breathe KaOa^oiiat. calx. to Latin calumniare. with a:n arched roof. OFr. lime . idle words. to file. puffed or ruffled with ly. Chagrin. talkative. ing rapidly repeated cries. Gr. Lat. Du. thick and short. swelling with anger. or puff with snorting. as. chafing. keffen. Cheffern. kedja. From the To Chaff. preise. kauchen. a pulpit Cot. p. cup. chaps Chamber. in a cana. cam. limare. . to action arose. kiamta. tattle. a prattling woaction. a chain. cathedra. lime. matter by combat. Pers. 11. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. chamar. to calumpnjamen. contestation. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . hiss. kaff. khah. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Fr. catena. charge with. vel susurro. From to go to law. to chatter or talk lightly. leviter crepo Then. Lat. chaise. cadena. . calumnia. and signifies to consume with anger. kahista.nium. Chain. fern-chafer. kaff. cadieira. to babble. now a chair. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Kaiiapa. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. much more Genoese sagrind. baras of ants. shaIt. as a carriage is a moveable seat. 35. Chalice. to sit. breathe hard. to bark. chaulx. havOFr. fa sagramen de calompnia. far lima-lima. to gnaw. Ayenbite. refuse. sagri. calonjar. care.— — . Pr. — . Adelung. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. cadera. Gr. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. that leneth e per I'autra. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr.. difficulty . CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. tronfio. ple^. a double operation * Chafer. false accusation. Bav. Perhaps Pm.

To Chamfer. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat.—Tutschek. to quarrel (comp. — ^Tusser.' ' Pr. the chafldn. termediaries between them and the judge. The word is preserved in E. chanfrein. kabinti. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. i. reusement — fight in single combat. to debate. . kempen. kempa. cancelli. to move the jaws kiamt. dispute Hal. to flute as a column. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. camp. chajnbellan . to smack the lips in eating. — Hal. Chance-n3. dial. to slope out the . as swine. kabMe. . to talk. To them naturally fell the office of keep- .140 CHAMBERLAIN . Sup. to slope. cadere. nels. fight. Chancellor. received the petitions of the suitors. keiiipe. Campar. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. camerlengo. champ. to hollow out. a field of battle. ON. schmatzen s. cahir. Pm. to fall). cameratus. Gall. — KiL . champ. ON. contest. is explained by serrarsi. contend or argue G. from cheoir. Lith. a feat. Champarty. hero Sw. The G. pedilusor. athlete. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . kabe. Partnership. fighting place. zampettare. When the to quarrel. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to excel. to strive at games . . fight. to to chew champ. and mesUe. luctare. to happen {ad and cadere. Lat. Champion. CHANCEL It. kabintis. To hollow out in chanPtg. s. a bundle. Prov. sukibti. act of falling. a hook . Fr. Du. kiinp. kiammi. ciambellano. bundle. as in It. tsammogni. . kampa.Lat. Fr. chain. calidameya. campear. broil. Lat.edley. a court of justice. excellent. certare. chdance. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Champaign.—Charfron E. chaude mesUe. who stood ad cancellos. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. game campio. to groove bevel off a right angle. at the railings. to fasten oneself on to another . a warrior. dial. kappd). Champ. to cample. a game at football. champ. kinipen. escazenza. compound. and acted as inofficers of . — Ch-amberlain. G. Fin. The E. Prov. Chancery. from chaud. . to be eminent. slope of a bevelled angle. or less ignorant. Fr. campus partitus . champ parti. champion Du. chanfrar. difficulty . kampen. —Chamfrain. to hold . chamble. to chew. camp. cempa. . . Lat. To cope or contend with. mesleiare. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Chancel. e. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to paw the ground E. which seems another form of the root. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. wood. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. kampeln. tsamtsogni. So in e. to bevel. chance. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. E. calida et sans aguet. a hollow chanfreiner. kablys. a scufSe. kapp. cample). Meleare. M. to wrestle. contention kappi. It will. camp. gekrUmmt. hng. Fr. gewolbt. to — — champ. kanip. ciamberlano. Magy. kibti. E. — masterly Sp. surpassing. chanfrein. from Fr. move the jaws. kimpUma. dricka i kapp. rare. Chamfron. Fr. Sp. dial. kriimmen gebogen. combat. kippo. kimpustella. an athlete. accident. champ. a jaw kianisa. The happening of things Chance. to fall. Hence (with the nasal) w. kimppu (Lap. to fasten oneself to another . hot. Ptg. See Camp. to hang. zs jeopardy. giving rise to the as. boys speak of capping verses. Lat. . to fasten on. prize-fighter. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. head armour. accidere. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Dief. campus.' SherI'altro ' ' . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. ing. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). divided game. pinch. top of a borehole. or player at football. caer. bickering. to tread The sound heavily. chance. therewithal. chanfreindre. to stick to. to wrestle. dial. to Hal. kampeln. cazer. to . hamper. dial. Sp. Get campers a ball To camf . jeu parti.' melleia. Carpentier. fray. chamfrain. a horse-race. ON. jocus partitus. Commonly derived from campus. campar. Fr. kimbu. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping.

Chaps or chops. — : Lat. and also to chap or crack. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. I. are kept. to plate. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Chap. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. W. as to chap hands. Fr. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . as chancery . camjar. hack . See Chop. to paw like a horse . to strike. the mouth. to peck. schimbu. — . as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. ON. to hack. properly in a hard body. A fellow. esclapa. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. chancellerie. from clap. to apply one flat thing to another. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. chaps. a chap is a crack or fissure. a money-changer. flat . Hal. to cut off . Fr. kjaakaa. Hence It. to — cut. surfaces striking together. See Chant. chapelete de una bomba. while the broader vowels a. like the knocking of hard things together. the gutter that runs along a street. to creak. cangiare. . may be compared with ON. chancery. AS. chap. a strip of metal plate. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. a small metal plate Port. Molbech. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. to coat. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Lang. or the cracking of one. to plate. kvar kjceften. It is also used in the sense of the E. waterconduit. Chip. chapeta. To Change. chapeletas de imbornales. kaupa. as skin chapped hands. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . ^Jam. Sc. from canna. Sp. as corn-chandChandry. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to change. ceaflas. the clappers of the scupper holes. chop. debeant conjurare. lips of an animal. kemma. E. the place where candles ler. is used in the same sense . as It. Probably from chap. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. to cut. chiappa. as those on a trunk. to put on fresh clothes. 140. . Lat. Chapel. chop. Da. Du. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Fr. cambium. Channel. canalis. Man of Law's Tale. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Lith. Walach. not a soul. schimbd. to chap at a door. chapa. muzzle. Russ. cambiar. exchange. jaw. and the modern canal. kiceft. prune. hard bodies. also a clap. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Hal. . Chape. — — —Marculfus in Due. shift. a pipe. exchange schimbatoriu. cobio. klepan. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Commonly derived from capella.^. jaw. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. And N. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. a dealer in candles then. clapet. from chandler. Sp. to truck. Compare chark. Hence chantry. 2. Chap. extended to other trades. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. Prov. kapoti. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. chapear. exchange. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. throat of an animal.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Fr. That wide were sentin their spicery. a jaw. to spht a chip. Cheek. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. chanter. to sing. . a small plate of flat metal. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to break . Chop. kappen. . cantare. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. ceaplas. chapilla. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. leather. —Chantry. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. —Ordericus Vitalis. cheek. gab. to strike with a sharp edge. or the like chapar. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. kennel. Aasen. Bret. a reed. Chap. the chaps . Da. kiceft as well as kjakje. to cut up into small pieces. to swap. cambiare. chandelier. to strike. In like manner Walach. to peck. wood. Chandler. changer. esclapo. any hollow for conveying water. skipta. chap. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to deal. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new.

to talk . — a car. AS.Lat. turn about. Fr. bler. it is my turn. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to dove . tattler. colliers that charred coal. from Charade. Inst. to creak. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. It. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. talking. Lat. es ist mi cheer. a riddle. chapitre. creak. caritas. charge an enemy is to lay on. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Sp. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. Mundart. dear(in both senses). 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. krachzen). gnash. occasional turn. Macduff. pohadka. hiss Lith. Charge. Chark. affection. chatter. Lang. car. to turn. Justin. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . A weed among com AS. to load . &c. Chare. Fr. ciarlatore. a turn cerran. a verse. 2.charme. —— . of chapel. chirk. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. gadka. czirbti. to love. to turn Gael. dear. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. a riddle. Chaplet. . — — — turned to coal. chapelet. It. cha. AS. a dispute . From Norm. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. the turtle pitre. twitter. Lat. Chapter. a cricket karkti (schnarren. Yx. as Pol. properly to place — . a mark of a mountebank.. dim. a charm. to croak as a frog . capellare. Charcoal was ciarlare. enough. from carrus. from capitulum. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Charlock. canne. used in the sense of magic Fl. chapel. carus. The G. to prattle. ghirlanda seor garland. karout. chat. ject). Ptg. cabildo. It. carregar. go. to converse. ceap-man. siarad (pronounced — sharad). carmo. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. to sing or chirp as birds. a mark made on a thing. to tattle. . condo il volgar francese. caricare. to chirp. cluck. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. to of the governing body. capital. . a hood. An enchantment. charitas. Charlatan. decken. charcoal burners. be- e. tegere. (eucharistie. It. charade. called kedlock. wood to coal. carricare. Character. The crash. Gr. from cape or cope. a rhyme. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. surris seu Lat. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. jabber. Charade. eapitulo. Fr. Mid. chirriar. Prov. from capa. * Charcoal. chara. w. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. to charcoal. kirkti. eyre. In that work the verb is written caire. hadka. charlar. Bret. charger. Fr. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. 370. to chirp. — spell. Deutsch. to prattle. Swiss. a The OFr. turn. beloved. babdistinction.whirr. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. a merchant. in turns. from gadai. Lat. chirlar. Boh. keeren. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. prattling quacksalver. return. corona. char. And damned be he who first cries Hold. gaggle . OE. clack. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Sp. the nature of a thing. kurkelis. cher um cher. which was incantation. schreien. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. for the same reason rosario. charlatan. twist. . cluck kirklys. to chirp as sparrows. . babbling. Sup. To Char. and in It. Lay on. carmen. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . cam.). capella. burning without consuming the substance. as a beetle. creak. Chirk. in To ness Charity. a head or division of a book.czirksti. Du. cedeleac. to . czurksti. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. charer. Sp. wreath for the head. kurkti. a garland of roses. cerran. chatter. Cot. seems to be derived charade. that turned decken . xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. Fr. See Charlatan. Lith. Chapman. grave or make incised marks on an ob. capitolo. See Cheap. Hence carminare. w. as. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. called in Sp. czurliwoti.' Boccaccio in Diez. cearcian.

— Hal. chair. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. knatiern. Chaste. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. to crack. blackthorn-chats. Gr. Fr. racket . to chirp. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. czysty. It t. Pol. gazeuiller. to talk. To chitter or chipper. kata. noise. a crack or a flaw . chaste. V. gazzerare. chick. kata-kata. charmer. is to represent the chamier. discourse. crackle. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. %aafi. See Cistern.a. the bird is iiown. Cot. chit-chat. It. pure. as from nomen It. nommer. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. caro. See Catch. splinters.). The egg is chipped. as purgare Fr. as we speak of olive branches. whistle. Parallel with E. — Palsgrave. chisf. noise. to chatter or prattle . And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. clean. ch). . incassare. Chart. a shrine for a relic. To chip is then to crack. cyrm. or pop. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. prattle. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. gazzolare. kastaa. B. converse. g. eclats. as. — The . from pure. To Chase. enchasser. tenax. Kil. —Bailey. chip. geug. scraps of for fuel. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. or equivalent forms. careful. chip. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. csacsogany. chit. to chirp as a bird to cheep. a plate of metal. letters p. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. D. — Fr. a word. make a noise as birds do. castus. a churchyard or charnel-house. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. kna. or a bird out of the egg. in Jam. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. flesh. clean. To Chase. clap. It. a branch and a young female. sordidus. pure. Chasm. to care). CHATS fit 143 to name.. In like manner Russ. Chary. To talk. ferire. G. to separate in morsels. Fl. — sharp sound of a crack. niggardly. a flock of those birds. chits. to burst open. chaste. —Charter. Cot. la chasse d'une rose. the noise of birds. carmen is presented in AS. chick. clatter. a gap. fragments. warble. fragments or leavings of food. To Chasten. a twig Suffolk chaits. Russ. to wet. Du. the cry of the bat. to enchase it . snap. clear. the calix of a rose. whence a charm of goldfinches. limpid. parcus. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. gaddc. chary. s. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. — — . karigh. To chit. pure. ch&tier. carme and Fr. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Chat-wood. charm. Chamel. Hal. to crack. So in Gael. to set a jewel. chatter. occasionally Forby. Chat. a chatter-box. — We ornamental work the to signify E. castus. —Jam. gadu-gadu. gallan or ogan. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. the young shoots . an enchantress. Fr. — = Chats. clean. or the cry of a bird or the like. or suckers on rough borders. also to hatch. jackdaw . and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . schioppare. be wide open. magpie. as in the E. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. chat. chikat'. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. It. to baptize. i. Pol. also to germinate or spring forth. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. speak . nome and . from xoAn. kippen. cs E. gazzettare. to gape.— Chit. Malay.— Chatter. cassa s. from purus. Lat. karg. to clap. Fl.house. knacken. clack. to cut and faggoted. An imitative word. to make a noise. Fr. Pm. Diez. a branch. csaterdzni. to which it bears the same relation as chape. It. root of the Lat. —Chastise. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. . gazzogliare. — Yorkshire chat. From carinen was formed It.). a young man . carnisj bones kept. Lat castigare. talk much . to cry as a chicken . germinate . chip. cearig (from cearian. little sticks cudere. xi'i-'^vui. a yawning. tittle-tattle. To work plate as silversmiths do. shivers. shout OE. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to chirp. warble. csatora (Magy. used to represent a sharp note. chit in the latter sense Du. See Card. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. Fr. csacsogni. Magy. chykkyn (Pr. OE. also a youth.ppen. the handle of a razor . Kil. talk. as turnip-chaits. prate. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud.

jaw. stuttering. to clear the throat . teeth . It. to act as a rogue. G. Chear. It. . lead to OE. kaupa. Fin. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. to coup s. the Confessor. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. a cheater. thers. Pro v. laughing. with Dief. Bohem. bon marche.. welcome heartily. changing. chaptel. Pr. koopen. sob E.ing. cattle. to nauseate (to retch). ceafl. The gutGoth. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. cheeks. choule. a tavern-keeper. a repulse. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. kok. chavylbone or chawlbone. in widely separated languages by the Lat. mandibula. — We ' . snout. to coff—Yisi. a dealer in horses. kauf. whence captale. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Cheek. — — —Chowl. e. Ek dry and hard. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness.— Chaps. chatal. chear in the sense of victuals. stuttering. in Fr. Cheat. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. the principal ' colloquial E. s. from AS. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Cam. Fr. entertain kindly. Faire bonne chire. to swap goods . et juxta catalla sua. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. chiere. agreeing upon.kakot. horse-couper. a canting knave. Then. prattlingchete. giving or taking in exchange. to deal ON. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. gig. Sp. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Fl. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as.of the throat in coughing. price. Chew. kakaista. Modern Slang. Hence to cheat. gagkezen. gagkern. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. countenance. to make inarticulate sounds in . caupo. to cluck like a hen. aspect of a man. catalliim.. favour. . chire. cita. to vomit. kek. kak. Ingulphus. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. chuckle. which is the word in ceap. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. ceap. goods. force of the word. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. and. to stutter gigken. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. It — Brompton in Due. farm for farm. sense of bargaining. cattle. chop. society. Chattels. cera. ceahhetan. hawkmann. OFr. Bav. to buy.' kezen. upon a checked cloth. visage. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. to — . from Lat. dchec. which is used in the to stutter. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. are represented piti. kik. to fetch the breath with difficulty. See Cheek. entertainment. jaws. Slav. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. kakkaset. Gr. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. any cheating. a rogue or person who used the canting language.— Chole. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . while it Bret. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere.— .— Cattle. Sc. look. kaufen.-^. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. 'li^'opa jord i jord. kikottaa. capitale. kaupiti. Pm. Lat. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop.' to exchange to gasp. a piece of moveable property. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Soc. us. KaviiXog. the Lat. Cot. with the exception of land. sale. sum in a loan. cachinnari. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. syllables ^ag-. tradesman. to laugh. a dealer. to chop and change. . cattle. chapman. exAS. the countenance Fr. ku. to negotiate. kaupon. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. See Chess. cara. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. truffa. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. . The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. frown. retching. and hence the E. citello. Check. OFr. Fr. keck. NE. &c. goods. lower. CHEEK zitella. a willing look and unwilling heart..—Choke. cozener. ceaflas. Hal. giggling. the face. equiva. Du. . kichen. to cough and hence either buying or selling. chatel. to buy. the tongue. to . — To check an account. a young boy or girl. CHATTELS has ciio. 144 the It.

Pm. As the board to gasp i. food. to geahl. condition of being taken. made rancid koka. carnium. . kastanie. gap.pose of acidifying them kasadr. It. cese. cyse. to make a noise different word. to belch. chAtaigne. chops. Sp. dersen . jaws Sw. hasten. geagl. the throat. — — . kasa. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. throat. king). G. for cheese itself. cabiron. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. like a young chicken. kjakje. ON. cerasus. Chemistry. kasiiUPr. kikna. gabe. chevir. N. Chef. kjcebe. whence kasa-leipa. a cricket. by laying it in come to an agreement with. Lat. Sp. the final guttural is retained in writing. From them the plish. treat with affection. ceac. quok. Fin. To make a shrill noise Chest.D. Prothroat of an animal . kjceve. jaws. ation. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. frame by which the exertion is made. cheken. jowl. Cherish. . a heap. Fr. Hence kikna is identical with OE. &c. kastr.G. Du. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. — — . Da.their struggle for independence. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. ost. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper.Xo belch. cufd. cough. the hke. skratt. Cher.. practice seems to have been communiChevron. the neck. cams. then end.EP CHEVRON 145 on. It would Cheese. Jam. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. Fr. the loose the game of checks. to hold dear. jouffle. suffo. kirsche. Sw. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Fris. as. Tutschek. a chicken. Hence chesten-nut. . bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. subacidus. ceaplas.peep in the same sense. cisty G. ceg. See Case. to choke with laughter. AS. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. (Kil. nish source. Lat. See Alchemy. throat. kaecke. caws. to kasa. cerise j G. E. to gape gab. Lat. gous forms are G. kikna of dorum coacervatio. as meat and butter. the mouth. — 10 . The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Fr. kces. kok. to bring to an end. cheeks. ceaflas. chiffe. quoka. scacco. w. To Cheep. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. accomplishment cayed. cista.koppen. to prevent the attack of cavalry. geafl. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. czypti. w. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. cabrio. cheek. chops. F*-. /Ji2^/(W. . Lat. to year. chevron. kdke. Analo. to choke. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. Chess. cireggia.cirieggia. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. rupted into chess. rattle in the throat. gapen. jaw. to love. OHG. ca' — . old bread. gullet. See Chess. squeak as a mouse. Lith. E. gill of fish AS. to kep. to swallow. kistej Lat. Du.. Prov. Sw. rennet. kesten. chaps. dear. caru. Pl. takes place in the formation of cheese. Chekenyd or querkenyd. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. e. to accomThis they call hdrsk. mouth kek. incaseatus. Fr. a rafter . Kil. — — . AS. . In these latter forms we see the transIt. equal squares of opposite colours. The Sw. ceocian. ichec. make an end. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Chevaux de frise. kapen. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. gaghel. chasi. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. The Lapps prepare much of their compass.' to w. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. AS. E. Cherry. the palate Chequer. jaw . the The use of the word kcesir. whence czypulas. castaneusj Fr. G. mollium congeries. w. Sc. CHE. Achievement. by laying up in a covered heap. acquisition. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. cherir. kdkel. to heap up such things for the purchoke. Sc. giffle. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. An imitative word.perly head. prevail with. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Lith. to boken. cheek. xaque. jaw. chests in OE. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. schach. cegio. rafters in heraldry.). caseus. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. X'C&s. achever. chesten. The name of creak as shoes.D. things Da. Fr. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Thus "we are brought din. subjected to this process with that which the throat . clear the throat. kopen. E. Chevisance. veluti piscium. schach. cheek. to gasp.

Fin. creak. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. caferu. kippa. . captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice .D. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. chicoter.' my finger tingles with cold. A To Chew. See Chimmer.^ Hal. kauchen. kaw.-ill. twitter. jaw. kind. chavel. the least imaginable jot. tiukkua. a chicken. the throat. a chicken. Pr. or as E. tintelen van koude. cabarach. from little to little. to twitter. as pointing out the origin of the E. to Du. pipe.D. — — Mother Hubbard. cebr. chieftain. knirschen. tremble with cold. Probably from Fr. kidata. caprioru. chin. w. a head. CHJME the radical form is unusual. the young of animals in general. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. chavel. capo. Da. tiukkata. Du. rafter. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. Imitative of a loud clear sound. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. the chirping of a sparrow Magy.— Cot. ach. chic. a cup. from the first of which is Lith. Du. into a continuous shriU sound. chaps. Russ. hiss as meat on the gridiron. kindeken. branchy. tyuk. Pm. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. cild. pip. kaau•wen. chicken. Chigue. Sp. to gasp for breath (Hal. cica cica. Pm. Chimb. Fl. to contest. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. kinderen. in Walach. To Chide. czypulas. Child. W. antler.. It. Fin. AS. G. the same principle I regard On birds. kilderkin. grelot). cabar beinne. to raise the rim. chikat'. the rim or edge of a vase. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver.— . pululo. ' .peep. a jaw. Fr. to go. s. by driblets. to use the jaws. and not vice versd. Fr. machouere. to chew. kopf Du. Gael. 'Among these the G. head. Bret.— Gattel. choule. tiukka. kuwe. Gattel. strideo. To chitter. tremble. chill. alter. pipio. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. cabriones. beam. kime. Walach. Halm. then cold. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. pipio. Fl. kauen.). Prov. jaw. kimme. klagend tonen. 146 brial. Chaw. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. CHEW . keichen. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. a hen. Chime. cheek. captain. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chew or chaw. term is ssaru fu. capete. — Du. chillrar. to titter is Du. deer's horn. or qf people talking rapidly. Brezza. to smart. chillness or shivering. chiquei. Payer chiguet A chiguet. the cry of young . Lat. kauwe. from the second Lat. The loss of the syllable it in Du. a quid of tobacco. to scold. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. — It. Chitter. cap. chol. chillar.. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. to chirp or peep like a chicken. For the see word Doit. Pr. cib. a finch. when the vibrations become very rapid. zitterti. E. kieken.^ to resound as a bell. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. capu. tiuk. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. knarren. cidan.. Chief. Fr. a chicken. E. knit the brow cib-led. horns of the house. E. crepo. chicaner. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. signifying properly shivering. a cup cibaw. queror. chiler. kitista. mouth. while the Magy. Chick. . rafter . horn wood. rafter . gills of a fish. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. And hence. kimia. has probably the same origin. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. a little bit. kouwe. caput. then as G. De finger killet mi for kalte. while didder is to shiver or citteren. kop. lead through the synonymous E. Kil. Palsgr. killen. stake. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. to chime. ]). Chill.. a cup. : — a lump. greloter is to shiver for cold. as. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. Now gan some courage unto him to take. a small cask OFr. to crackle. Tintillo. sonorous. also the horizon. kibr. or chick. the Ptg. — . acute. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. De chic en chic. . pi. and from the third E. chef. the head. quivering sound which passes. are formed Du. ultimate origin of the Mite. — Fin. to pettifog. k'imm s. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chawbone. Fin. mountain top . aner. pole. cabar. to contest about trifles. to the brim. jaws . killen. or the broken noise of birds. kimista^ . The Pl. the jole. chimb. Magy. gosling. G. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. a young bird. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Pl. Swiss kiden.

chatter . simmer. to chirp. Huloet. j^lf. to tattle. to prattle . a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. rustle.. to sizel. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. esquena. a hall Mid. E. bx-eak the back of schena. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Fr. schina. a surkik hosta. companied. Chimney. See Chark. eschiner. gena. Prov. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. skina. Fr. to gape. Fr. tinnire. schetteren. Hindost. the chin . to prattle czirpti. sounding deep. klincken. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Chin-coug^h. to creak. are In like manner E. flaw Hal. chick. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. pare also Walach. backBut she withal no worde may soune. chink. pork) . from Lat. as birds the mouth. tsengeni. to open chirriar. fissure. Gower in Hal. ter. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Fr. from the geon's lancet. schetteringe.Huloet in Hal. The small entrails of a hog. Du. hiss Pm. It. E. applied to tremulous motion. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol.iron. zirken.er. Diez de. Pm. quavering of the voice. See Bright. . ciseau (for cisel). resonance . A . then of a fabulous monster part goat. from 10 * ' Chia. It. See Chats. AS. genawi. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Caminatum.to chirp. Chimera. to simmer. The desig. then to any narrow crack or AS. Chink-cough. ykvvQ. as a bell kommata. Chyrme or chur. sparkle. kink hoest. the chine. cheek. a chink or fissure. Ptg. eschin^e (de pore). to chine. G. to murmur. sound. Chitterling. part lion. a crowing sound in recovering breath. To chink with laughter. Pr. Chink. cleft. cheminde. as the chink of money. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. hollow. We make of a French niff an English chitterling.schricken. cisello. have been used to designate the spine. To Chitter. a fire-place. a thorn. keich husten. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. cincel. up and down.). also vibrans.. the cheek (jaw) . Sp. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. in Hal. tsongeni. and chim-mer. to sound deep or the Gr. sound on beginning to boil. plodere. clangor tinniens kummata. schiena. representing connected together. Chymerynge. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. caperd. The change from the sound ter \s. . disCot. KinneGr. caminata. sonants. ciarlare. to squeak in It.sharp. a szemrcU.czirbti. twinkling light. Sp. and from a similar sound to boil gently. the jaw. esquina. — . to chink. which differ from each other only as Chirk. It. kumista. a chap. — . tschirpen. Kil. It. the jaw. Chisel. See Chap. eschine. Primarily a shrill sound. Lith. the mouth (jaws) . komia. Lat. 147 kimina. hiss chirlar. chhint. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. yivtiov. spina. crepare. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. . — — — — — . Du. chin . Chip. as a large bell . and the Du. It. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. to chirre. czirszkti. and bodily movement in shimm. to creak. gen. Sp. twitter caminus. kumina. Chat. zirpen. komista. Chitter. cinan. and light. name Then. caminsects. the whooping cough. do. clashing of weapons. all these imitative terms being minata. the cheek. to tremble. but or cry as a parrot. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . dial. a Kuttn. fyr. Bav. Gascoigne in Todd. sonus the backbone Lat. to sound. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Chit. killed by Bellerophon. to chink with laugh2. Chine. genou (pi. .to divide or Du. epine. tremulous motion. chits. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. . also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. To Chimmer. — . cinne. kinne. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. stridere. i. clipping of coin.' Phaer's Virg. kieck hoest.Lat. vincially used in the sense of a crack. bone . To chirp or twitter. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. backe. or chyFrigutus. a thorn. chirp. Bret. Chintz. et garrire . Sw. spina. verynge or dyderinge. Cot. as the/ is preserved tering. schrick. — . to chirp . hus. cisaille. Sp. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. squittire. Gloss. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Fr. in the same crack. quivering or shakyng for colde. shiver and the chyver of Pr. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. G. In the same sense. Magy.

shoot . rare. a goose's giblets. as green as leeks.' who shall not taste death. kustigen. ON. to taste. to choose. ON. Yr. it is probable that the root kus. chippe. to taste. G. the small parts of the roots of plants. Gr. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Warwickshire coff. schevel-steen. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. a scale or fragment P1. 19. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix.— B jag E. ruffs. chattering. g'schochet voll. Prov. and in kosten. select. chceur. kushati. bile. a chive. anger. kaup. Boh. to taste . lead us on to Lat. . chife. experience valerie. try. prove. a fragment. kiusan. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . chawdron. gusten. To Choke. from %u\i). ^euw. signify to kiss. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. coro. a twittering. a rag. cape. whence choleric. approve. Chives are also a kind of small onion. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Chivalry. choppe. in the same language. chives. to hack. — — — . by the vibrations of sound or motion. a knight. x^poc. as with a blow. and N. . ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. Cavalry. cive. . disposition. and It. shiver. chiffe. to ^cleave . Body and Soul.' At last he dwelt . kor6n. to turn. wkusit' prikushat. The I go to prove them. a ruff. a wine taster. fine threads of flowers. a heap. Jam. schiefer. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting.V)^x. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. i. Fr. chibble. chatter. try. whence Lat. Equivalents in the SlaFr. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. Chuck-full. Choice is probably direct from Fr. to experience. choix. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather.yEuffM. koren. The Sc. from kraus. to chap at a door . ments of the knightly class. a small slice or slip of anything . a company of singers or dancers. Chives. kusid. To Chop. haslets. propagated. to tempt.freze.ceosan. kushevati. kieser. . Fr. xiv. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. keypa. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Fr. — Chock-full. chaup. to strike hands . fresure. skifa. a blow. Gr. a calf's pluck or chaldron . or original meaning is preserved in G. kalbs gekrose. chap hands. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. schoch. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . caperd. gustare. Schmid. chock full. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets.gust.vonic languages are Pol. — See Cheek. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. The manners and senti. I. gdnse gekrose. and in this sense the * small pieces. &c. to ing is doubtless to taste. an onion. Goth. to exchange horses. &c. The . to stop geschoppt voll. pieces . Gr. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. . seallion or unset leek. pluck. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. Enn Sigridur sem ' . the ridges prove. Serv. taste. full. — Cholera. then to try. ^S. kruszki. full to overflowing. wein didder for cold. krussyi. developments of the same radical image. Choice.ffrill. kiesen. curly . taste. chorus. Choleric. crammed Choir. of E. by which they are Fr. %o\ifa. OHG. to try. word is more likely to be from Lat. Chap. Swab.. keuren. Walach. to prove. . •- Russ. CHOP kros. kiezen. and Vf. to Compare also Pol. to try . from chevalier. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. a calf's chaldern of E. are used in the same sense. chimp. arkiusan.. wrath. friller. G. gekrose. coup. to chap. all seem slate . to try. to palpitate . In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. okusyti. —Chorus. civette. scheve. to break off in small shive.' Verie coinme Cot. to taste. then to shiver. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. As kushnuti. to shiver. * To Choose. ent quarter. called cMtters in the N. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. a ruff or frill. cke. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. also calPs. kiusan. G. See try. to wrinkle. the inwards of an animal. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. heaped measure. to clap up Hal. kbhren. Lat. to taste. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. causir. Swiss kust.D. a young . Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. to taste. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. cepa. Luc. 2. to try. kausjan. cut up into — See Chats. .

&c.—Chuokstone. kaej Lith. short piece kubbug. Anachronism. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. cheviniau. chop. dial. Fr. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. xpi'^lia. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. chevin. quappe.— Chevin. Wall. applied to an owl in that language. Sw. chroniques. overset. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. and we actually find champman for chapman. From the Turkish Chiaus. i. gold. caphatenus. civetta. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Chough. to chatter. Picard. the same word with the It. If I discover. time ra .xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Du. The Turk was here As one should say. to turn over. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. whence — E. cob. Ant. Fr. capitone. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. kubbr. P. from kloppen. thick-set. — Quabbe. — . the string of a musical instrument originally. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. slipper .(. ley in Giiford. chatter . copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. forms are Chrism. caker.X. klopper. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Chrysalis. xftovoq. E. or miller's kaycke . e. sent before him a Chiaus. ceo. 49. Confounded with the bullhead. E. which was written 27.• — . yiSA. because she would not endure this husband chopping. an offence against the fitness of times. chouquette. fat. Come. In the Alchemist. whence e. cambiare. Nominale in Nat. gull. chack. In Sc. cow-couper. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. Du. xop5>}. Chuck. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . — Chrisom. plump. -chron-. Fr.' Jam.. cheap. of which such strings are made. capito. gull. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. for to defraud. — — — . Cot. Jam. a messenger or envoy. capita. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. kaw. chouette. to overturn. a lump or piece chump. to cant. 4.sohola. gobio capitatus. merchant. in Chaucer. Chub. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. . journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Chronicle. What do you think of me. as Du. To Chouse. chrysalis (Plin. chub. one who buys and sells horses or cows.— Landnamabok. prattle . to knock. dealing. Borgoens happen. that will thank chiaus — you richly. a small fish with a large head. chapma?i. — Dief. kolbe (club). kubb. kaulhaupt (club-head. E. by the Robert Shirley.\^s. Gr. capitanus. monedula. kowej Sax. . G. a thick piece. A jackdaw. AS. to clack. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. thumb Fl. To coup. traffic. cangiare.. chevane. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. chevane. A fish with a thick snout and head. Chord. in i6io.povucd. chrisme. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. klompe. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. I bring you the Cloughs. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. whence the Fr. To Chop logick.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Sp. a bullhead. who took in the Turk- clack. clogs. we find the following passage Dap. whence apparently the Sup. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. kaufen. kobe. Lat. Fr. clat. chronicles. cresmeau. soul-couper. claquer. the intestine of an animal. OE. Gr. cauvette j Fr. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chuet. Chopino.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Madam. Alchemist. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. cavena. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Peace. Fr. a stump. See Change. to speak thieves' slang. kowe.). e. caqueter. high clog. chapineria. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Kil. —Shakespeare. ON. syllables chat. XpvaaXic. equivalent to the E. Gr. kauwe. bearand aits. the teeth to chatter . chapin.). p. choucas. See Chaff. to strike in the hand. E. Marin. noble Doctor. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. cauc. peace. dial. koppe. Gr. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. a trafficker in souls. as in Fr. That Face. ' ' What's that? Dap. a The What dhy ^. connected with G.

Da. set kerti. comp. G. to Newsp. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. AS. Cob. in circumcision. Chunk. As AS. cidre. a man. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. Sc. AS. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. &c. pith.— . with It the Lord's house. Ka-^aiva. ceaflas. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach .' he adds. kjami. chack-stone. Gothic nations. as in E. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. a man. sindel. in Sc. chofu. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. a miser. e. residue of burnt coals. Lat. log of wood. kakka. Sw. fat-cheeked. Jennings. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. to fall. Lat. ON. pp. whence church. male person. tindra. scoria. a fellow. joffu. cinis. spuma metalli. a douse on the tores. Gr. or choice part of a thing . so as to make the happen . Cleland in Jam. The origin ation. sinter. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. the snout of an animal. to cause the milk to grain. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. lamak. Fris. gffe. cinctura {cingo. sintel. KvptaKolg. to make a aiKipa. or. — — A — ' ' — .' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. G. ciuffo. to strike clatter. kaerle. ON. as a board. KaxXij?. in the face. to turn from blossom to fruit. Lat. to jaw chack or snap. sive piratiam facere sciant. have given rise. then the on oh StX iv roXt. -cis-. sindr. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. The spelling of chider has Chump. kerl. i. .' And cold.V//a'6'?. chakil. dust. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. from Lat. . ccedo. Fr. ceffore. Du. to To Chuckle. a cutting round. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. incido. Wall. &c. to sparkle. ladre from Lazare. Church. geaflas. Diss. chuffy. to cut decide. -cisuiri). ceaplas.rendered by Kil. from Lat. to separate the kernel of the milk. In Sc. to fall upon decide. OFr. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. cheek. we have to chack. Fr. kirna. kernjen. Du. It is certain. whence deciduous (of trees). has been impugned which it has really no connection. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. to determine incision. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. to fall at or on. jaws. — of the two words. as Epkema explains it. chife. sindra. cendre. to churn. Cider. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. i. a cutting an old chuff. to make a rippling noise. countryman.D. cheeks Cincture. sicera. * Cinder. accido. See Cheek. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. chaps. to form grains of butter. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Hence -cid-. Sicerawry face ceffata.. to gird. Chuff. surly. 24. a pebble. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. ashes. x^^i?. C^z^j^ churHsh. e. cinders used disjunctively. Probably from It. dial. the kernel. however. a lump.— Chu%. See Ceiling. but by way of explan. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. -eris. a pebble .with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. — . See Cheek. whence ON. chops. The derivation from Kvpiasov. an old man. Aasen. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. thence a belt. to him a sudden blow. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). cinctus. klakka. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . -cide-. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. calx. a rustic . joufflu. .for the residue of stone coal. -cise. to throw out sparks. ChurL husbandman. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). marrow. kern. calculus. as water running over rocks or stones. karl. Du. chofe (Grandgagnage). a resounding object. tie about). cut off. To chuck in the fall from. Lat.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. casum (in comp. ON. chack or stane-chacker. Churn. a man. blow on the I io6 in Mur. kiorne. cado.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. ceffo. a husband. Gr. Wall. a girding on. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church.^. . -cido. flower. . to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. domhnach. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Ir. ceorl. giffle. as Fr. Cieling. swollen or puffed up Cot. .

cito. suck). -cite. to chatter. a circle. city. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. smack. prattle. to knock. Gr. and clash. to bawl. glam. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. rattle . either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. clamer. a knob. circ2tlus. ON. The notion of a lump. clap. cry out . claquer. gutter. . to summon or call on. a whip. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. to cluck. Mack. cista. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Alt. noise — — a cistern. Dan. a mass. klompe. a pop-gun. a kind of pipe. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a'upiav. domern. Sw. citrus. clapper. klubb. belonging to cities or social life . a city. Dan. creak les dents. &c. sprig. a shoot. Lat. a boss . and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. circum. area. twig. chest. sphere gleba. kringr. W. To Clack. Clump. clamp. ern. globus. 'mass. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . or quill to draw waier through Fl. bunch. klater-busse. clasp. a circle. ciste. rattle. clump. a lump Du. outcry. circle. klammer. cluster. . vociferation. Chaste. It. lucerna. ON. . -cis-. It. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. Lat. clangor avium . a Lat. klambr. Citron. scion or sucker. cittade. clat. klappen. a clod Russ. to gnash the teeth. Clamp. to strike. Sp. sound- — hands figures. or clap-dish. of citta. . On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. klacke-busse. ring. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. dob. cittadella. a young and tender plant. as. babble . tinnitus . a cleansing place. with an initial s instead of c. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Circle. may cite w. crack. a for water. empty Golius. fall. in the frequentative form. Lat. klamp. The syllables clap. civis. . clatCot. Cite. See -cid-. to clatter. to clap at a theatre. clot ON. klekotati. citujn. scion. civitas. The Gr. clack. lump. about. accordingly find the roots dab. klacken. klap. See Circle. klak. Arab. lump. chupon. a ball. to make to go. the place of . Lat. So a light. a reservoir Probably from Lat. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. crack. —Civil. sip. G. Hal. or split with noise. clobyn. . In Fr. mass . also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). We . crack. E. Fr. . prattle. a citizen . Gael. a lump Lat. cit^. Hence Incite. Sw. wasserkasten (water chest). Lat. claim. Du. klabb. Du. ON. klemte. a Pol. a hiding-place. forms — — — parent plant. klappe.' sione. Fr. log. a rattle . lump. clamare. Fr. clap. a ball. cion. to mention. to chatter. sound. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. KipKog. lash . klumbr. a city. * Ciplier. klimp. —Circuit. We . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a kind of rattle. claquer crash. clamp. dim. civilis. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. See Crankle. chupon. clambar. Lat.— . and E. to go. around. Circum-.. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. compared with It. stimulate. Lap. and Sp. Gr. cry. . for Cion. Citadel. klqb. to cry out. claquer. klepati. sindri. clack-dish. klump. lump of wood or with the nasal. glamm. is traced by Gr. Cot. and. whence cistiti. sifr. the tongue. circum. ball kloben. Lat. E. ter. — (Dozy) ing blow. to chatter . a cistern. biw. a split. to be empty. Gael. . KpiKoe. kringla. slam. cieo. bunch . glambar. Comp. cittd. hringr. as in Sp. to clack. noise. around. to call. From Arab. to toll . * Cistern. a lemon tree. a. to call. as caverna from cavus. . Scion. sajira. It. kluV. a clod. clack-box. radical identity of the Fr. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. Excite. trunk. cifra. City. klopati. ruin. Bohem. excite. cisterna. to call by name. the door was slammed J slamem. claquet de moulin. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. lump. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. lump . clapping of klacke. Clam. sound of blow. a rattle Fr. to cleanse.to suck. G. from chupar. circa. clamras. Du. a block. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. klateren. To Claim. clog. parallel root is slam. clack. to set in motion by means of the voice. castus). a place See place hiddern. to appeal. a ring. cisterna. uproar. CION See Tinder. chatter . . cion. a circle. a judgment cern. chijfre. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a whirlwind. a loud uksa slamketi. Recite. a block. Fr.

klam. sound of the trumpet . salafa. scendants. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. E. nature . clajnmy. resonance klingen. Dan. to climb. klank. strait. cramp-iron.' klibba. to clamp. accent.1. klammer. clandestine. a loud tingle. tattle. to climb . is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. celo produces Fin. take hold of. klammern. dientes. . clibby. klang. to hook things together. beating. tingle. Clink. hands or claws to grasp. cramp. klam7n. sound . dem. To clap in E. Gael. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. privately. Lat. to Hal. a hawk. sound object . See Clam. Clamp. klemmen. and hence moist. dink Du. beat. daver. to climb. . to glue. sound. the in many languages. The equivalent of Lat. klopfen. a sound made by a still . dia. compress. Clapper. klamre. chatter. and hence to pinch . a rattle . is used in the sense of secretly. clammy brace. Sw. clapas. to clutch or cling oneself up. tight. clear sound. of the children. from birdlime. to clap. Clank. dang. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. buckle klamp. yf. klamm.p correspond- ' without order. contraction. run to lumps Clandestine. Dan. In like manner Du. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. from the w. a place underground where rabbits breed. sticky Hal. rattle. or klamp-vogel. offspring. cluster. klatten. Du. to hide. klynge. to daub pinch. dial. to do anything with a clap. dapi^. a stone See Claim. pinching. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. a sound made by a lighter clink. a stick. B. hook. to Sw^. klebern. G. . a claw . club . The E. hold. bandage. Du. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. . dam. tenacious. dam. dank. to pinch. clasp. to dame. klamme.. children. pressed close or hard together. — Cot. to stick conceal. Dan. Mampe. crowd . seize. a craCmp. — . tinkle. klavre. AS. grasp. a heap of stones. To Clamber. — Climb. to glue. where- A — unto they retire themselves. is a nasalised form of gripper. cream Manx doan. damor. tremble . klepanie. clav\f. coagulated cream. klynge sig op. dap up. children. klepati. viscous. clap. Du. to knock. with cramp-irons.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. . E. compression. dee. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. klobber-saen. prison. G. To sticky. G. in a hidSen place. bond. kleppen. a heap of stones or other things piled up . massy. Lang. as the clapping of hands. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . a burr. ring as metal.' to take coals to Newcastle. clap. These words To are closely connected with damp. diver. to seize.er. Russ. Clan. a bird of prey. Halma. klappen. to. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. damras. B. adopted Lat. Hence the Fr. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to hold to pinch. sound. G. Salainen. narrow. to clap on. G. a noose . chief. klampen. clann. kleben. a whip. to cleave or stick. but perhaps not directly from it. klimmeii. kleppe. — with hunger. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. OE. dam. apprehend . G. holdfast. originally a heap of large stones. klippe. klettern. gliong. Fr. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. to patronus. to hold fast with the . to beat. E. Dan. Clap. knocking. klemmen. dial. a trap. — Lat. klappre. ney. to climb. kluppel. chatter. to climb. also to clog up. — — . stick. Bav. gum. dandestinus. descendants . anything hidden. a claw. ancestor. Clamour. dambar. Du. G. of money Gael. dapier. to cling. as the Lat. to starve. rumour. klepel. clapper of conies. for tame conies. Clang. clang. to climb. clangor. klubber. kloben. klappen. who occuG. conceal. grimper. cling. to claw oneself up. Swiss kletten. The root which gives rise to klibb. gripe. strain . a sound. . klemmen. clink. clamber. c). to stick or glue. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. cleave. tone. A i. solid. klette. to knock. dam immediate modifications — . These are imitations of a loud. klem-vogel. and that from celo. dapier. whence sala. Swiss kldbem. uproar. closely analogous to that of the fast. E. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . Bohem. salaan. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. viscosity . dienklebber. dren. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. &c. brawl. kleppe. to gingle. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klibber. of which the locative case. glambar. The Fr. substances of a stickydam.

biichse. Gr. a club or massy stick. . kleuen. a water made of aquavitse. Klatsch- a pop-gun . a bird with powerful talons. clew or fasten upon a thing. is preserved in Lang. vin claret. an on the one hand. Claw. somewhat clear. Fr. So Pol. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. It. Thus from Lat. Nawith stavis. globus. ansa. pellet . Du. as Mod. Lat. klase. clarin. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. gaspe. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. thwack . klampvoghel. a lash. clavus. klaequivalent to clack or clap. in the sense of a mass or lump. to shut. Commonly made. klijven. clausum. and through v into a. In E. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. the primary origin clapa. to snap. Eya-klasi. rubellum. klouwe (Kil. from scknallen. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. From claudo. and clavis. From clairet. biichse. klatscha pop-gun. klampe.w or u on the other.— CLARET clamp. Sw. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Lat. a bunch. kletse.). globus. Sp. Identical with ON. K\a. contraction. chasguear. blab. chiaro clear. Dan. It. dap. clopa. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up.oi. hawk. also a knell for the dead. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Du. with a reddish tint. chiarello. &c. applied in their harness. chiizjj-o. Russ. kiosk bicza. Originally clasis. Du.It. but not the full red of ordinary red wine.\x\xvn. G. to animals Sp. to do anything with a . puUs. clair.to cra. mass. Fr. a distribution of things into groups. But clasp or elapse. buckle. To clew. glcis. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. to fasten.ck a whip. . clatter. Clatter. — Kiittner. Clew. The collar-bone. Du. a buckle. claw (what fastens together. Lang. Cot. an ending. under three modifications dava. In the same way is formed the OE. a key KKtitid. a claFr. a. E. klauwe. The b readily passes into gleba. klucz. a ball. flap. a key origmally a crooked nail. stop of an organ. locket of a door. — Clarion. in the sense of a claw. klauw. a lump. Prov. thence a definite head of an edict or law. a clasp. the cracking of a whip. Class. klaterbusse. clarinado. klos. row aii/iaTos. KXeiSi. Rayn. klamme. sphaera. Lat. Lat. vin clairet. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. sauna de classes. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. a clod. clump. and old red rose-water. syrtium junctura. Nightingale. is used in Sc. to patter. it is called clamming. hook. clamp. as it is written by Chaucer. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. 269. cinnamon. a complete sentence. Eau clairette. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. ghespe. pet. straight-mouthed. Du. nail. skeria-klasi. clairon. klatschen. and shrill-sounding trumpet.. a nail. fragor . to ring in such a manner for the dead. nawith stanis. to knock. ictus resonans. to draw it up into a bunch. the collar-bone. which signifies a ball in E. cluster. clavis. klatschen. Owl and that by which cleave to. as G. climp. Claret. klaeret. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. chatter. Clause. to fasten together . teren. vinum helvolum. Du. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. a lump . to end. Fr. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . e. seizes) . to clap . insularum nexus . claret win e. klot. compression. Wyutoun in Jam. a claw. mass. from clinging to the tree which supports it. to cleave. Clasp. kleeven. klouwe. klc^i.Z. Mask ! plask ! thwick. clairon of a trumpet— It. noise. from the resemblance to a key. cloi. classis. fracas. assembly. crying. fibula. klatsche. to clash as arms. Pol. clas. a heap. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. ivy. to rattle . whence kleuer. schnalle. Thus from clamp. diver. Analogous Jam. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. subrubidum. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Clash. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. rion.Gr. or as G. clew. same class with w. a sphere . Clavicle. a key. klaskad. chiarino. The form clew. bawling. — tells us. clausula. forms are the Du. Serv . i. sound of the foregoing description. &c. uproar. waU. Kil. — Clarinet. kluczka. we pass to the E. a little hook . a kind of small. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. a. from its use in fastening things together. —Kil.

explained from the klinken. glent. neat. The proper meaning of the word is shining. gaklankjan. klirre. to fasten E. clean. words applicable sight. clean. viz. kluftholz. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. that was a striking proof. Clinch. rive. klor. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers.— . bright. klyft. mud. to fasten. deot. Da.— Claggy. speech .— Clag. date is AS. This is probably one of the clean. is fast and sure. G. from nitere. pure. give a shrill sound Jr. sticky earth. See Clam. Du. to cleave. glor-mhor. klincke. kleg. hook. . kloben. clout. G. dut. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a key. kluyte. E. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. klov. the two parts of Du. as Fr. E. of iron worn on shoes by country people.' was nailed to a rock. provinciaUy termed dout. gingle. klag. a flash. glance . a — — . the latch of a door. a one end. B. klove The Dan. dinquet kleeven. Clear. doff. to stick to. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. a fissure or division See Cleave. dench. as the Du. klirren. i. Da. to glitter. to stick or adhere . vice. klinken. it cleave together. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. clay . Du. to clinch a nail. Du. . klceg. door-latch. ON. Du. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. kldnkelein. to sound or make a noise . . dedgy. sticky. clear. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. klieben. klouen. from diquer. 154 CLAY dutch. to be composed. rift. Fr. clear. rivet. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. the fork of the body. klinken. Wilbraham. Da. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. kleg. klouen. . lump. a fissure. Sw. voice. bend in a stream. to Brilliant. as ON. the original . river. . E. danche. klinke. ON. The word is . found in other cases. to chink. glindse. holding together. seem formed dial. A — A Clement. and. the To Cleave. Sc. famous. a claw or talon. Du. dags. polish . Sw. to tear or cleave asunder. klutsch. kleverig. merciful. glbram. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. a latch. splendid pohshed. G. smooth. 2. glan. . klank. kluit. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. Clemency. Mar. glbr. Lat. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. G. cloven wood. viz. a plate. sticky . Thus from G. pure. Dan. chaps in the skin. cleave. The word may be — . Axletree clouts. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . clibby. to clench. polished. daggy. Cleat. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. bogs cous. kloben. neat. klijveii. in two ways. celebrated . ON. a noise. to dag ox dog. — : A rivet. AS. pellet. a mass. to 2. klinka. shine.). a mass. Clay. Sw. gentle. klink. a clincher. glandse. diquetcr. either by the coherence To Clepe. a cleft or fissure. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. loam. a bunch of When flax). glint. to clinch GB. an object is simply cleft. cliquet. Gael. vissticky . Kil. opposite senses. glorious. clear. glatt.Q. a cleft. clink. a in that of sphtting. or of a tree. nitidus. Lat. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. to fasten. kloue. The Dan. doggy. Du. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. To call. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. Cleft. or from being divided into two parts. split. kluft. glan. kla:g. radiant. sleek. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . klafwa. a lump. kleben. gleit. clean. clemens. and Celtic glan. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. See Clog. dag. a noose. From clap. as explained under G. Clean. Omklinken. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. W. tongs. conserere antklankjan. that was Torriano. glitnir. clash. and E. Bav. klinken. a lump. This word is used in two business is finished off. a cleft. to shine. Sc. glan. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. calm. clean. pure . The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. to shine . klinke. geklonken. dams. G. From dob. together . klinke. glitta. as Lat. kleevig. To Clench. from the clinking of the latch. and Dan. dial. Die zaak is zS. (Cot. kloben. to clink or sound. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. Probably a modification of the word doitt. pretty. klieuen. Halma. to separate into parts.

Rouchi cliche. klif. in the sense of active. the knocker of a door. click. ized . prattle. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . to talk as a parrot. klika. a mill-clack . cliof. to clack. Boh. OE. cliff. klinge. has also deik. had a form. dook (identical with E. snatch. crack. CLERK sound of a blow. Sp. klikker. corresponding to the Sc. a latch . clypian. to prate. chat. with hamarskard. klinket. a hold. dial. the clergy clericus. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Lat. a tumbril. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. a latch. e. to stir. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. quick in motion. Climb. declivity. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Cliff. kleppe. seize (Hal. — have the notion of a short quick in E. See AS. clack. clep. Jam. derjon. cligner. from clifian. highest is attained. dicher. hamraklif. quick of perception. from Gael glac. klok klep- crepitare. deuck. The origin is the Gr. a claw or clutch. Bav. click. klaiv. Det er en Mover kerl. expeditious. Klover i munden. cliquer. gleg. clatter. a precipice. klev. precipice. Click. dough. &c. Clam. one admitted to the tonsure. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. the dick of a latch or a trigger. klinke. cleugh. clima. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. it must be observed. dial. a figure mentioned. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. one of the clergy. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. to rattle. climate. AS. dichet. Gr. . Dunbar in Jam. 3. Fr. babble. deudi. has kl'dver. cleft in a rock. sonare. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. littus. clyf. speak. click it. icXi/ja?. to confess . cleft.Lat. Clerk. as a click with the tongue. a child's or clack . dexterous. a cleft in a rock . In I Peter v. kloof. dial. to bend. slope . agile. a clerk . derecia. -Toe (from KXivm. . rupes . sink. light-fingered. a hook. pen. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. See Clamber.. rock. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. deik. to cleave. and (with the nasal) — clincher. Claw. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. or Sc. a clew. dek. chatter. rugged ascent. to teU tales. on. cave . Cot. an inclination. klaffen. call. Du. to catch. IS5 Du. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. globus. Norm.) Brai. klouwe. klikklakken. score7i clif. clever. G. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Da. cleke. what so men clappe or crie. a trigger. as from derido. We movement catch. But the Dan. d See Clan. dink. region not observe it. that is a clever feUow. crepare. Clergy. and hence climate. clif. the clergy. to catch. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. which is used in Scotch and N. cautes. derigon. whence Fr. a lump. above the pole.— Clue. Clever. diver. dergi. deuch. ginally from dob (extant in W. dever. cleft of a hill. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. rapidus from rapio.dergie! Wiclif in R. Lat. which in Mid. name. to cry. skard. —Vocab. Somner. to seize. to tattle. Lat. to snatch. syn. lively. kliket. . a baU of yarn. or an object character- Clerical. klever. neither as having lordship in the. say. chatter. ready of speech. nimble. as Sc. to move. diofian. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . a lot. See Clench. pulsare. Climate. Client. Sw. precipices.' ii. to wink. Du. abrupta rupes . kleppen. in precisely the same sense as the E. kliv. de ripa. Commonly derived from deliver. — — A . frap- per rudement une personne. to tattle. in rhetoric. is NE. and hence deik. duke. click. Happen. clap. a hump. Du. G. claw or talon to dek or deik. catching. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. a clicket or clapper. KkrifoQ. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). a ladder. exactly Gr.). dob. glomus. on. duik. derigo. 3. clerus. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. Hence Lat. as Lat. CLINCH De . cliquet. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. a ball of twine. klippe. The Sc. cleopian. verge). /cXi'fia. Now the OE. corresponding to Fr. Chaucer. to sound an alarm to clap. . deik. stein- kluppen. diquette. scar. clever. cart that tilts over. Sc. a cliff. Climax. call. crackle. klippe.— Clicket. a latch. a sphere. Clew. ravine. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. clif- stanas. rock. chatter. temperature.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. would have been derida. dutch).

In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. to clunge. to pinch. parva ruptura. iissura. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. To stick to. klippe. kluben. klaka. to clink auf. Clink. knippen. cochl. difficulty . rima. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. schnippen. glungelin. gUong. knippe. ' . klak. by bits. Du. clutch. quincailler. klocke. also to wink . claw.. to cling to a thing.D. ring clag. 156 -cline. disposed to a thing.ginglej Fr. To Cling. Du. clock is a variation of clack. to cluster. Clock. . a beU. klocka.— Clot. -cliv-. recline. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. klincke. .. klippen.. brett-glocke. glocke. knippchen. klik. . to pinch klupe. klepalo. to wither. hill . Cloak. The E. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. to snap kneipen. club). klipa. to beat on the board. nip. Walach. toga muliebris. declivis.D. sloping upwards procUvis. . incline. shears. klingen. klo^gen. ON. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. S w. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. Gr. to resound. Sw. kleppe. to make a loud noise. to crowd or squeeze chingy. See Clang. Fr. clino. klungelin. to snip. sloping forwards. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. sticky. in Schmeller) klunk. klippur. G. and a similar syllable without the /. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. acclivis. G. Esthon. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. Sw. pallium. noise. kukla. Bohem. w. tuft. G. pinch. a clog or fetter for a beast . dial. . ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. to lean. Een kliks bolter. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. To Clip. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. slant. clivus. sloping downwards . . clinker. klinken. at first probably on a wooden board. Gael. klunge. as thick or curdled liquids. to . kldpp. verklungeln. hluccti. klocke. kXiVu. also to form a compact mass. kolki-laud. — clot. a separate portion. outcry. Bi klik uti klak. G. and so' to contract. I. Cliofue. clingan. Decline. clinke. to strike. to slope or bend . or bagging clothes. a lump G. . to crowd together klynge sig ved. hlinen. — a mantle. to clap or clack. Sw. E. Du.' From Pl. to beat. knot klynge. Sw. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. -atum. and 'E. g. OHG. pinch. as G. globulus' (Gl. klok. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. clips. Kil. a rising ground. clangere. straits. G. E. ON. a tinman. ten. a bell. to snap or fillip schnippen. four of the bell. klungeln. to shrink up. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Ang. To cut with shears. . a cluster. klunker. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. kluppe. dial. bow. Du. clato make a noise. like cling. Swiss klokken. a faction. klynge. . Sw. a snare. to sound sharp. kolbe to E. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. to wither. clog. to knock.und zuk-lippen. 2. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klupen. Fr. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. to lean backwards. Sussex peasant AS. cloak. a lump. klippa.— KSS. clique. kliks. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. klicke. whence E. a lump of butter. a woman's mantle .. incline. Flem. See Cowl. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. Bohem. Pl.' for a dry stick. dial. to ring. 'Till famine cling thee. Ir. chcng. gang. kol- The word . hluk. hlinian. dag. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. as we now say three or four o'clock. * Clod. Serv. a bell. compress . kima. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. to form one mass with. to clip. toga. ON. Da. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. &c. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. a clock. to bend downwards . to AS. G. cloche. speaks of a ' clung bat. fetter. klinka. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. hooded . klippa. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . Swiss klungele.'— Shaks. as to snip in the same sense from snap. related to clock. a hood. to snap tongs. especially of something soft or clammy. -CLINE make pinch. N orman clincailler. to shrink up. Lat. a ball of thread . Hal. met. dial. difficulty. Lat. from klepati.

to shut. a babbler. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. G. pattens G. fat. a clog. spot of dirt. The game called ninepins. laggery. kleck. klokotat. kleck or lack. motzen. . to flounder in the wet. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. Du.). closed. then liquid or loose substance. lopperig. lag. slops). be found rattle. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. lumps of butter. Klak also. neither spot nor hang loose. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. terminate.dial. of something clammy or heavy. Swiss schlott. to dabble. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. bloutre. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. dab. to a. . clorre. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. m&se noch stain. to rattle or shake to and fro. loppe. Pr.'^ Palsgr. to shut. E. G. a clod Swab. from claudo. lopin.D. Pm. a bal!. rattle. slab. a spot. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). Fr. Bav. a dirty wench claggy. . forbidden by 17 Ed. Pl. unctuous. foreclose. to flap as loose clothes. analogous plan to clod or club. daggerey. to dabble. shaky. compared with clump. mud. dirt.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd.1a. . I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. laggyn. I clodde. Russ. . klag. and Du. . klunkern. clausum. to sup up liquid food. fors. inclose. slops slodderen. bespotted with mire E. dirt. clogs. we pass to Schlatter. . thick spoon . clatk. finish . a Christmas log. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. klotz. to claggock. klod. close. Fr. claggy. g. Cloister. klottern.rge lump. aspersion. or Sc. klac. separate part. hanging loose and full. is a blot on one's character. clotted milk klotte. without. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. dangle. ! . daustrum. lump of butter. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. In the same way Dan. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. to paddle in the wet. clausum. splash. Lat. to shut up. clog or overshoe. loose.D. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. tJokok. I clodde. paddle. clammy loam. motte. of a body of any kind. MHG. -close. lump of something soft . -clusum. an imputation. to wabble. His heart was franlc without a flaw. a skittle-ground klos- sen. loblolly. . da- . schlattern. dial. paddle or dabble in the wet. like G. from Du. I doda clod. Clog. or E. kl'dnken. zocco. klot. klakken..— Clothe. kloden. kloteispaen. is connected with pludder. zoccoli. to slop or spill liquids. loppered (of milk). shut up. shut up. slobber.. a monastery. Idppern. to bedaub. thick sour milk. loose mud. klos. curdled. to bubble. to shut in. spatter. Klottermelck. It. to rattle. lobbig. whence klack. To Clog. tuditare. bemired. Fr. wabbling from Du. kloten. . clogs for the feet klakk. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. Closhe. in accordance with Pl. kladde. Hence inclose. beklakken. wide bagging clothes. klakk. clotted locks Dan. cloth. a blot. to dash like heavy rain. kloteren. clos. to close against one. Mat. slobberen. geschlotter (as E. A . to cling locks. and E. paludosus. . Gr. -cludo. figer. Fr. schlottern. watery. Pr. or loppern. a blot. a block. IV. E. in forms like Du. . lobberen. clot. lunch. tramp in wet or mire. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. and Gael. chiudere. . to spill liquids. to bodies. claque. a field inclosed clos. He was a man without a dag. lump of mud on the clothes . dunch). • lump. plod. miry laggerit. A — — A Thus from Bav. klos-bane. truncus. loose trowsers. in comp. Du. bowl . Sc. . the radical sylla. boil. pludre. a log. schlott. Lat. TZoxapov. blot. Dan. meat from Du. . a trowelful of mortar. schlettern. a lump from Du. lob. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. 3. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. mud klcEg. with Fr. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. klateren. or drablyn with separate existence. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a