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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


mind of the of the animal. and mully or mully cow is the . and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. when we is represent to our children of the cow. or. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. to the syllables which are significant to the child. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The syllables moo (mu. come Moolls. or Mollein. is given to a cow or calf. by whom the be understood. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. when neither name for the object to be designated. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. and where we are seeking. Molli. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. muK) and mae (rfie. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. the baaing of the sheep. the present day. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. name of the cow. persons of different tongues at the present day. with an initial m or I. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. in other words. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language.NURSERY IMITATIONS. in language of the present day. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. the closer we shall approach to the .

fiafifi&v (Hesych. We have. .' In ordinary speech mump. by the natural humming sound. Heinicke. for everything fit to eat.. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. then. and which we might express thus. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. hm. nim. when hungry. nineteen years old. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. analogous to Magyar mammogni. became more perfect. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. had nim. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. in children's language. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. 72). so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. and some were very clear and distinct.' he says. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. to work over with the mouth. schipp. partly from sounds which the child caught. family. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. On one occasion he said^e nim. Finally an n was placed before it. &c. repulsive to eat. for things. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. p. I had watched the growth of this word. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. First. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. for bad. A member of my own new sfop. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. to eat. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. as well as the mind of the utterer. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. He would now say good. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. mumm. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. Gradually. Gr. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. and nim came to signify everything edible. . his nurse adopting the word with him. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw.). he called to to drink. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. to For instance.

Primitive Culture. South Jutland hiamsk. yamming. lita. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.).minis. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. A negro proOr. dial. palatable.ONOMATOPCEIA. make djamdjam). it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes.' says Quintilian. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). agreeing with Ein. oves lalare. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. Gothic niman. mujnpa. i8o. greedy . And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. mumpfen. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . nobis vix permittitur. (in chil- dren's language). while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. at hiamske i sig. iii. clangorqae tubarum. aves tinnire. jammla. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. j ing . ' id est. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. taken up hastily on the sly. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). delicacies. namnam. we can call them so. and thence to be tasteful. sweet (Koelle). to be pleamind . as well as the Sw. voracious. eating. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. ' Motherwell. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). to chew laboriously. 130-1. memmexen. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. and the crab — p. Wolof nahenahe. p. to Sw. to smack in eat. stolen. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. aptantes adfectibus vocem. buckra man's language the white man. as to . tidbits nama . . The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. Galla djam djeda. jamsa (yamsa). to eat. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to move the lips in continued chewing. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Nimm'd up. nyam nyam. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. and the fizzing (and Series. 1 86). or word-making. ut tinnitus aeris. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period.' And Diomedes. to mump. mumble. to fill the mouth. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . to take. nam. Vei (W. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. Swedish dialect gamsa. and some of them . Africa) nimi. mumpfeln. Africa) nimnim.' says the author of Modern Slang. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. to taste . Soosoo (W. savory. i. on. food (Tylor. nvrnma. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. crab nam buckra man. to eat mampfen. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. the Scotch poet. jumla.' — Lersch. snatched (Whitby Gl.

anything connected with it. croaking of frogs or ravens. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. that there is When Man. whether it deserves the name of language. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. und growling. We . hooting of owls. bleating of sheep. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. bellowing of bulls. might be used as the designation of it. howling. Indeed. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. chirping of sparrows or crickets. for the purpose of bringing the animal. but of a dog. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. p.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. dove and cooing.' — We speak of a cow. or thoughts of our hearer. Yet we ing.' he says. not of a moo of Lect. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. cooing or crooing of doves. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. might be used. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. yelping.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. ^6^. baaing or maeing of lambs. before the in other words. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . when circumstances required. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. twittering of swallows. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. barking. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. chattering of pies or monkeys. 89) with less hesitation. sparrow and chirping. intended in the instance to represent the cry. cackling or gaggling of geese. grunting or squealing of hogs. 'I doubt.' And elsevs^here (p. between dog and harking. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. gobbling of a turkey-cock. not of a baa. a lamb. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. purring or mewing of cats. neighing or whinnying of horses. lowing of oxen. snarling. or. do not speak of a bowwow. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. bumping of bitterns. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. yelping. snarling of dogs.

derived fi-om a root ru or kru. fi-om apakd- i. KOKKvi. Georgian quaki. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. having a general predicative power. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. He to is therefore derives kdka.). We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. 'Kdka. Sauscr. a a crier (p. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Kdrava. We imitate the sound with a modulated. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place.IMITATIVE NAMES. whose sound (Pictet. Manchu The kaha. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. coccolare. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. crow. caw kuhii-rava (rava. lion. it announces (Salaberry). ist ed. Bav. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii.' common sense. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. crow. 349. is kuM) for the cuckoo. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. in is Gr. and Bavaria respectively. gackem. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. caller. birds. and the sound of that direction. according to Durga). a daw. kauwe. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. kdka. Malay gdgak. Sometimes the hoarse i . a crow (Pictet). 380. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck.). Columbia kahkah. and means a shouter. Aoo-Aoo. e. layitavya . a bird that is be driven away. Barabra koka. sound). 4th ed. Picard cau. and gaggele or gagkelein. Hungary.' kd). a crow. In Basque. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Arabic kdk. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. or quawk. in g. kuho. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. In Lat. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. Origines Indo-Europeennes). ghak. kae. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces.. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco.

to howl or Lat. great variety of oKokv^uv. turtle) as the Lat. Walachian coucouveike. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. name of its is the bird. koeren. a crow lish Lith. synonymous forms of similar structure).Gr. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. as well as of Sanscr. xi. hibou. "Welsh hwan from hwa.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Ibo akoka. and e. to croak. Pers. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Arabic tdtwit. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. tuquheit. or Gr. coucouva. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. libufs. to crow. French dishuit. a crow . In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . k. 6. lUyrian kukurekati. to crow. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. gufo. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. kukko. another. either in the same or in related dialects. giving turtur (and thence It. a crow. kurre. kraukti. German and Eng- krahen. korren. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. while crouk. kraeyen. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. kraeye. kruk. ghughu. 219. Hindi. uhu. p. Swedish kowipa. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. cock. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . tbrtola. tor. Dutch kievit. Fr. German luhu. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. wood-pigeon. gugu. Sp. and e. kuku. Mod. and sometimes both together. in the North of England. So we have Polish krukac. to croak. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. to cry loudly. Heb.. The consonants p. Magy. Yoruba koklo. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. coqueri- Languedoc. lilits. Albacuculi a dove. lulo. tbrtora. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Du. Lettish kiekuts. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. teewhoop. yell.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. to hoot. coccovaec. are represented. It. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. tur. German kielitz. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. The crowing of cot in Fr. by the verbs gurren or girren.. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kirren. Scotch peeweip. the name of an animal will gen- . girre. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. name. t. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. tortbla. reduplicate form. Zulu kuku. Du. Esthonian kikkas. Da. kukhuta. the name for a crow. krahe. krauklys.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Malay kukuk.

n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). gives rise to chwymores. representing a short sharp sound. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. to grumble. a hornet. succeeding each other — with noise. in allusion to its music.IMITATIVE NAMES. skryle.' Amazons. German drohne. to rustle. oE.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Sc. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. to chirp . North of England. chirk. and yelping cry. whirr). zirken. a small as hawk is . a bee. Lithuanian tranas. skril with n. buzzing. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. with or Fr. booming. flight its sting considered as a horn. knetta. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. The Arabic sarsor. to chirp J may be compared with . common. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. Gaelic dranndan. dhran. ' Sanscr. of England it is to the b 2 . German dronen. and he kong-ko-rong. bamba. a sharp sound as of a 6. e. g. The name of the cricket indeed. little intermission. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. ajo. droning is . bambhara. cricket is from crick. a beetle druna. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. Naturalist on the tocano. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. 337. give a faint sound. Australian bumberoo.vf3. Arabic tantanat. The Welsh chwyrnu. g. to sound. and probably indicates that g. Danish gnaddre. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. hollow noise. — Catafogo.' —Tennyson. 'The natives call it tanand. growling. sirkka. din. to be compared with Sanscr. which they make in their flight very . resound. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. German hummel. pip-pi-ta. Speaking of a cricket he says. to creak Bret. g. swirplys with 6. We may cite Gr. grille.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Danish dron. skirl. schirke. glass cracking (Schmeller). In the N. Fin.or bumble-bee. to hum. resounding of musical instruments. thunder. sound. loud rumour. Lith. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. buzzing. shrill. as . words imitative of humming . schwirren. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. i. the drone or non-working bee . and not from E. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. PofijivXwg. to shrill sound sharp. Sanscr. grillen. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Lat. The drone peal. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. kong-kong. there are infinite varieties. humming. the humble. Albanian tsentsir. Corean sirsor. Northern Farmer. ' — Pictet . schrecke. ta-na-nd. from schrick. grylhis. (Jieuschrecke) .' — i. or a gnat fly. from the humming. bee. a fly (Tylor) . horniss and from the buzzing The. schrickel. a drone.

Da. and thence Lat. verbal form given to the say. whence baula. Norse bu. be-l-er. in a imitation of a ringing sound. grumble as distant thunder . families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. From the same lioao). the animal. maukati. The Galla lilbil. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). lulauti (to hoo-loo). muJiati. bauli. 167. Galla boa. bu. Zulu lulula. from the imitative moo instead of boo. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bovis. to ba-L-are. btibleti. to shout. to low. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. bolt. to low . w. or a z to the imitative syllable. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to or bark. or bau-l-i. mugler. a Geiger. bugler. or moo. Fr. say. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. representmake bow. representing the mew of a cat. Gael. shoot . to mew. and djeda. bae. to beat hard. Fr. OFr. to boohoo. make to it laugh. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. agreeing exactly with Lith. bukati. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. His analysis leads cow. or formed Lat. The Piedm. bwla. is inadmissible. bullock. Cult. — ^Tylor. and in Hottentot baa was the . it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. to make a noise. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. as the Illyr. mugire. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. w. a heifer. verb is evidently identical with our shout. bue. to sound. buculus. Manx booa. p. to make. bubati. a bullock. that the imitative syllable are Lith. or with on. as that of the cow by boo. a drum . to from bau. With these analogies. to shout. mamoo-heeheek. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Piedmontese fi bau. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. amuse. a cow. to the uses goda. It. (iove. to bellow like a bull. baula. bo. a bull. miau-l-er. to bump as a bittern Illyr. in same way. forms a. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. to low or bellow. a buffalo. are (with a subsidiary k). loge. to make. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. k or g. Lat. fivKaofiai. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. has bilbilgoda. ox. cattle. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to . Lat. mae. From baa.XX called booing. bubenti. On the same principle. and from to ring. to weep. bullus and e. Hottentot bou (Dapper). the Fr. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. Thus from miau. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bugle. to make a loud deep sound. Illyr. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. bucula. bull. bae. to bow- own bawl. Lat. bos. biibnas. boo. make poo.

And it is true there between hog and grunt. guttural tone. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a sheep or a goat. sound. a goat. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. a goat firixal^ta. a sheep. from knurre. or in any ! way ! persuading. sus-sus. grunt. a sheep (Lowe). a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. lekavica. hwch. Illyr. Fr. name of a sheep. to howl. to grunt. . meigeal. / The same Gr. leknuti. Da. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. karra. /xj/caScj. and Circassian maylley. to bleat . houch. does not produce a e. leg-et-ni. growl. a sow. Manx meilee. hundi). a goat. rumbling. /xijeao/iat. The g. Africa laa. grumble. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). lecco. Gr. by which the shingle gives rise to It. hunon. he would hardly. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. groin. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Kurren und murren. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. G. Fr. mutter. from hundama. to themselves. kurren. ^. name of the animal itself. this obstinate race. grumpf. oe. Magy. With gen. (iriKov of forms like Sw. name. — . in Wolof bae. mecati. hunt (gen. may be identical with Esthon. as lou of an ox. undoubtedly imitative. and with the subsidiary k or g. to grunt. although the imitation embodied in Lat. with the root ypaipm. naskia.).' Moor's Suffolk words. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. a wolf. the designations of a dog the term cur. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. for the voice of the ox). of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. and grumphie. purr). Idgge (Rietz). as the proper name of a tame sheep. Among dog. Moreover. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. lambs. curmurring. hound. 6. a pig Fin. to growl. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. Gael. ' In driving. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. hund. Illyr. . leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. cry). In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. grumble. sheep or goat. a hog. and snorke. a. Gr. a pig.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and hoc'h. meil. lek-eg-ni. and of (maelon). ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. Illyr. corresponding to ohg. to bleat. meketati. Welsh and Breton). mekegni. to bleat. menAda (ndda. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. hadg- Magy. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. It is probable also that e. a sheep or ewe. we have Sanscr. Gr. grunny. From the imitative mae. signifying a snarling. a (Hesych. kurre. may with to snarl. nire. and thence groin. smack and naski. grumbhng. cite as by grunt. to rumble. Hence Breton hoc ha. meckern. a sow. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. a dog. it and e. grogner. the snout of a pig. a grunt. meugler.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. grugno. . It. goats. grunlike a pig in eating. in v. knurfisk. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs.

as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. But words of this kind are.' — ist Series. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. hiine. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. such as cuckoo.' ticular bird. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. a mare. turn a horse to the is In Finland.). cockade. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. hottihuh. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. like artificial flowers. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. hobben. houpy in Craven. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). coquette. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. hobby. ^6<. to the left. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. the cry to stop or back a horse. of the character in question. Esthonian hoibo. Thus we are led to the Fr. There are of course some names. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. g. So Sanscr. to whine. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.).' 2nd Series. p. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. when he found peculiarity. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. .. a little am- bling horse. coquelicot. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.. animal. from the cry animal. 91. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share.root. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. . to go backwards. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. humma. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. p. (Craven Gloss. hobin. hoppe. M). Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. without a — we root. a horse. Sc. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. as in Yorkshire highly right. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. If onomatopoeias can . as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. e.

hukkup. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. horse. command of language was attained. to Sanscr. fehtati.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. swift. hross. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Bohem. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. hennir. Sw. ance or habits of the animal. Sanscr. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. wiehern. giggle. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. goatsucker. signified It. than to the sounds represented. runniken. nounced with a guttural). wrena. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. to neigh. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . g. creeper. nitrire. Du. wrenska. Fr. diver. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Pl. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. form corresponding hresh. Sp. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. as sigh. xxiii ginal object. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. animals or certain kinds of sound. rinchar.D. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. little speak for themselves. cough. lapwing. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. ginniken. . sol. Irieschen. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. hresh. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. frenschen. hikkd. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. redpole. whitename in in- throat. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. groan. e. titter. hresh. woodpecker. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. but whether there kind between them and other words. moan. Lettish sweegt. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. wagtail.

the God of thunder . bangas. snukkup). wheeze. fitsche-falsche. hang. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. for the sound of milking. Da. plitsch-platsch. pump. to sneeze. 1865. beat of a clock child . went the cannon. for the for the sound of . or the w. knarr. for blows with a rod. bang ' ! trenches. on the chops is represented also by pratx. to knock. DingBang. snort.' So imac. ping came the bullets about their ears. debhes-lungotais (deifies.' ! ! ! ! — dong. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo.' it both sides went. are familiar in ' to every one. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. atchian. heaven). When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. the dashing of the sea . . White Lies. to drive on. knack. to ham. atchini. a kind of drum. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . haw. shriek. for a small one. lumm. clap ! A smack Puff. —Brem. tlirob. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. for the sound of a fall. to hammer . heart tick-tack. mer. Of a like forma- drum . From the other sister representing the sound a child of my .' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. for the creaking of a wheel. ding. snore. aritischane. tisio (tisho). pit-a-pat. for that of breaking.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. Australian bungbung ween. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. for the sound of a blow. to beat. for in such sound of blows. to throw violently down. beat. Vei gbangba. haitshu. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. Mei gbengben. It is represented in e. or tliat is accomit. hoo ping ping. strippstrapp-stroll. oren : Klapp. in a nail Let. ting-ting. bang. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. dong Read. Zulu bongo. banke. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. klatsch. &c.' 'Haw. a large bell. &c. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. — Sanders. root kshu. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. banga. a more expressive than the e. hoo. thunder (Tylor) . Wtb. scream. an attempt would be made to by the voice.

pipelni. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. to cry like imrli^u). He Yet asks. a whelp. piauler. which he added to intensify the expression. pigione. is pfeife.) a chick. pi. used as a call to . To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. Mantuan pipiare. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. It seems to him that the teeth t. to cry pi. The pi. chickens (Tylor). to squeak. piou. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pipio. and their relations. pipe. child. a chicken or gosling. bleat. Lat. a or cheep. In cases such as these. the voice of chickens (Cot. as in other subjects of study. ducing the sound. had been used laugh ? two. to designate cavity and hollow. and whimper. Lat. part of the What consciousness has the child. of a word will appear supposed to represent. or a piailler. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. peep. as the simplest implement for proFr. young bird. Magyar pip. and so forth. G. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Fr. mobility excavation and hollow ^. pipio. to peep It. a fowler's bird call is lost. pigiolare. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. pippione. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. . we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. pigolare. is of expression. laugh. Gr. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. cry. piou. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. — .sc.' instead. De Brosses. peep. e. scream. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pipe. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. far pipi. Florio. to cheep like a bird or a young It. a fife or musical pipe. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. calls S. not- . has been un- employed to designate fixity. as k. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pipare. pule.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. doubtless. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. young child . rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. a (young) pigeon. pipilo. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. —Lyndsay. pu. cry of young birds . Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. piccione. pipegni. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter.

a prolonged sharp sound. along with Du. to gurgle. as representing the sound made when something breaks. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. kirkirdnd. pi . as the click of a latch or a trigger. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . a. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . lachachen. Zulu raraza. to jar. Hindustani karak is rendered. u. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to cluck. coo. grumble. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. {to It. to thunder. rumble. to laugh. chack. sound). murren. laqfF. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. . to hawhaw or laugh loud. to gorgogHare rattle. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. kniks. i. cluck. preserved by Kilian. or springing back. to gargle . creak. to pant violently (Colenso). there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. to cry pi. thunder oil . crash. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to grumble). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. turtur. murmur (by . tontonare. Indian chack-chack. in German. a short sharp sound. be cate to go on laughing loud . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . borrelen. kuruk. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. is very common. cricli. to be compared with Sc. Poppopvi^to. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. to rattle. to creak knirren. or kaka-faka. Manchu kaka-kiki. of a loud strong sound. knaks. the clucking of a j hen . to growl. to grate the teeth .. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. the side of g. tintino. some small vowel or consonantal sound. loud laughter. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. Pefuxela.. knurren. to pant bejii- zela. where the variation. a closed or obscure sound. to ring pipio. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. rumble (Fl. make wood a clinking noise. &c. when it force than biscuit. Pacific aka-aka.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. sound of dry breaking. lachen. It. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. knuks.Gr. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO.) Mod. kniks. gurren. girren. and lugh. rumble. to clack. along with tinnio. to crackle like in boiling . bubble. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to bubble. like the noise of a glass breaking . vaake gorgor) . a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). of something fine and thin. Hindoo tomtom. to grumble. garren. to fizz like fat in frying. ioriogliare (to make borbor). a drum W. tonare. . karkarana. crack. a sharp short one. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented.

repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. are applied to the is excrements of children. clash of arms. and her heart went thump. Maori pata. Newman). the gingling of glasses. jangle. bubble up. brings us to Fr. a nightingale. correspond to e. box on the ear imitation of the . sound). and the imitative nature of tivgle. make djamdjam). e. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. rvir (in tvittio. halaidlac'h. 192). djeda (to say tub). answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. indicating the origin of Gr. cry. word. csam-csogni. champ. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. to strike. Prim. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. Calt. for chut-chiit-er. chinking of coin. especially one who beats. a workman.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. tup. ding-dong. The whispering of the wind I. Magyar csamm-ogni. fumtu. drops of i. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. to ring or jingle. the sound of a stringed instrument. caca and Finnish adkkd. to giggle. and Gr. or the bubbling up of to a spring. borrelen. tumult. Galla tuma. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. or of bells ringing. kiling-kalang. croaking of frogs. wail. quarren. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. or to Du. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. jingle. identical with g. coughing or clearing the throat. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. Turk. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . 1871.' Member for Paris. bulbiil. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. to whisper. clink. . as Fr. tubh. while cacd / used in e. to knock. for the ringing of illustrate bells. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. as of Tamil muromurmur. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. E.and e. a drum . in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. 368). a boy's whistle. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. KaKog. for the clinking Lat. to say chut. thump. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Manchu kaka. and Gr. a smith. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. for the sound of privy whispering. Fr. simmer. chut. The syllables lil-bil. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. sound. at an accelerated note. call. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. kl'mg-kling. of keys or tinkling of bells. the tingling Ming-Hang. clank. . to be compared with g. clango. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. koXiw. agrees with g. to the purling of a brook. Tiie Galla gigiteka. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. spring of water in the a bell. disturbance (F. to beat. uproar. is based on the same imitation as the e. chuchoter. for a tTviror). rain (Tylor. shout.* the heart. compared with Gr. corresponding in e. muro and e. noise. hala-hald-faMa (falda. awater* ' The Mme P. a nightingale. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. Sanscr. and bilhila. tumwata. bad. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). is Manchu tang-tang. klirren. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. and e. bent her head. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . Scotch sough or sooch. rifiirayov.

It. hum. ring. and soufflet. jingle. w. clatter. fizz. according to the strictest phonetic rules. squall. twang. without the intervention of orthodox roots. rattle. clink. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. rumble. tymmesll. smash. to is blow. rataplan or rantanplan. douse. report of a gun. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . smack. in e. clash. whizz. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. splash. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. at a door tarapatan.' — Nohden. we have buffet or cuff. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. crunch. So in Fr. mutter. craunch. tinkle. 'pat. Humboldt. whirr. squeal. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. slash. paddle. Fr. and the French pouf. plump. clank. and Fr. thump. splutter. The use of g. to dance. crash. blubber. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. thump. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. clang. disturbance. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. and Grimm. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. clap. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. murmur. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. lash. tingle. whack. souse. din.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. guggle. while e. puff. it is fallj AS. tumbian (to beat the ground). boom. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. bang. flop. thump. ' Der puff. The beating of drum is represented in e. crack. chatter. squeak. tomber. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. swash. snap. whine. dash. answering to g. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. brumberum. a applied as well to the force of the bang. pop. hiss. dabble. Nevertheless. thwack. tap. the Germans puff. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. sputter. to fall. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. flap. rap. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. blow. gargle. creak. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. bubble. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. gurgle. patter. or v^hether jectional. clack. But although and also found in Lat. by rubadub. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS.. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. chink. for (Sanders). tum-ultus. parapatapan. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement.

but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. At the first beginning of life. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. because they are spontaneous. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. formerly cited. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. wringing the hands. the kind of action that is desired of them. that he has taken the step in rational speech. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. in the rushing waters. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. ugh . every little pain. and thus they become signs of despair.' If chaos. knows them. but if we must not complain on the beach. p. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. are made known by an instinctive cry. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. by the nature of the cry. the inteij. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. or stubble is meaner name. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. or any unsatisfied want. without a thought of symbolising to them. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. little who has time to want of her nurseling. is Thus ah!. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. If. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. 94. stractions. or of any if wood. Grimm or Bopp.'. and found in the building of be burnt up.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. and uttering plaintive sounds. of horror. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. hay. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. in the case of the animal or of the infant. the interj. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. an imitation of a sigh . —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. xxix on the contrary.' . ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. grief. Crying.

sneezing. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. One short interjec- tion may fact. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. of all the mouth. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. groaning. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. they are involuntary interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. He says. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and some of them the composition of words. should be remem- . and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. 32. And again. shrieking. or which is of me as suffering pain.' — ist Series. as who them spontaneous utterances. and the eye. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots].. If I wish to make a person of an . p. p. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. interjections. may become traditional. be more powerful.' p. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . the lowing of a cow.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. 344. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. to solve the I shall call first. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. coughing. more eloquent than a long speech. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. Language begins where interjections end. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. he cites from Home Tooke. them to exercise it. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. more to the point. which are frequently so toned down cance.

kahkahah. hahottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. in Magy. then speech begins. cachinno. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. and others from interjections. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. he says. and thus. Lat. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. Tooke in truth. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. hohottaa. I am not hearer. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. for example. demolishing here. Kayxa^u). Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. in Fin. loud laughter.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. some kind of language might have been formed. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. but the less am at a loss what to say. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. and more or less limited . but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. speaking. interjections. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . when I arp humming and hawing. it them. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. Koxafw. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. hahota. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. bered. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. Gr. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging.

for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. a deaf-mute himself. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. dumb is the language of signs. and go where we now say stand. if taken as a whole. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. of the world. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. What strikes him . the critical question should be. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. It as has ing their most striking features. makes them stand and walk upon the table. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and not. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation.' he says. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. And so in the case of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. like peewit and cuckoo. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. of the nature of this great movement. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. But here nature soon conies to his help. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. . Though. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. a Picture-language. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. words receiving the meanings they now bear. The following account is given by Kruse.

walker. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. among themselves. many when or but these. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. his action. and we have roast goose. as it now opens out. The same sign stands and the act itself. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. thou. and with his thought. walkest. and forms further and further. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and And thus he makes himself a language. it means little. and it is flesh or meat. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. most striking outline of an object. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. that signifies great . he. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself.' In the Institutions. like a V. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. particular sense in properly so called. the sorecalling them to his memory. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. the whole secret. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. nay. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. letter To hold the two fingers apart. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. to name. or the verb to be. called Gesture-language. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and to taste. what more. the lan- guage cultivates itself. signs are taught for yet. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. such objects. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. can do better and more easily abstract terms. The of sign for left hand. he. such as than the educated man. push it towards the person addressed for thou. or To pull and flap with the arms. it seems. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. And is. for single objects. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. for the agent. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. for walk. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. becomes roast meat. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. and fully serves to j . that. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . thought is already broken. but if I depress it instead. for child. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. that air.GESTURE most. and gestures. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. walked.

VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. Do not bang the it is a verb. or action. when I say. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or a passive scene of existence. and thus performs the part of an adjective. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. to indicate the action of a certain person. Who is has beaten you ? would be. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. as when Bang ! went the gun. When I say. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. a number of alternatives are suggested. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. qualifies the against the wall. might be the knife. or an act. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. a colour red. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. putting it into his pocket. or something of the kind. depend entirely upon the use. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. . The same word . Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. according to the circumstances of the case. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. I say. the ture of white term pink is and red. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. When a verb. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. it called an interjection. You beaten . it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. the garden. and so is an adverb. and the as. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. substantive or adjective. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. He gave door a bang. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun.xxxiv asking. would be simply beginning of speech. whether by additions or otherwise. as in die it is a noun. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. in fact. as But when it is meant door. or a quality.' dener's knife. in other instances sentence.

or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. a groan. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting.^ — Miiller I. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. coalesces with the personal pronouns. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. Latin. which is an old y ting (use stick). and may be used language. a sigh of oppression and .. grie^ horror. inside. Jii ta. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. greatness. that admits itself in of audible representation. wonder. &c. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. a noun. that is. in the sense of great. as kuo cung. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. the man is great. wherefore. whereof. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. middle. and to be great. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. inquiry. . or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. pain. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. as cung. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. in the is indicated by the syllable y. or with elements expressing relations of time.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. with a stick. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. contempt. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. but often self-evident. wherewith. wherehy. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. verb nor noun has yet been developed. 255. commencement of speech. Thus tafu signifies a great man. or some relation between it and another object. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. some outward display of the affection. or nei. whereto.

grief. Gr. to gargle. to lament. ah. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. to chirp. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. . pain. dchzen. to yell formed e. and to bark . to do woe. die wehen.-l-are. oi. o'i. It. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. miau-n-is. weinen. wAwa. ah. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ace. to ache. to weep. guai. howl. to cry at. to cry n. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. e. 6. oh. has more kopfweh. It. I oi[iot. is Ay di me I Gr. Jar lau-lau. are ol-ire. form. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. lau-l-e. The form corresponding to Lat. headache.. the pangs of childbirth. tirr-djeda. vaj. w^wa. seen in Gr. wai. 6. aiai^to. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . representing a cry of pain. to rriourn. ahi. ! ! Goth. e. . gwe-l-a. Illyr. It. mostly a ! %. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. misfortune. ach. ocAJ. suffering. weh schreien. Gael. as. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. oh. guaj-ire. al. to cause pain. och. oval. however. wehthun. and cacak djeda (to say crack. jao. oimare. In this way from the root guai. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. representing Illyr. n. ach. woe. Let. Illyrian vaj. wd. ai. axofiai. la. first person. ache. w. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. guaj- or cry out pitifully. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. xxxvi grief. to sound yapyap. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to weep. miau-l-is. . to injure. is w. to hurt Let. to . is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to wail. weh. . at the close of the radical syllable. mew. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. pain. djamdjam goda (goda. to make). ing action I. misery.ez. g. guajo. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). in Gr. w. grief] affliction. on. a groan or lamentation vir. Thus from springs otjucifw. A widespread It. ochan. probably a deeper groan. or r. ohi. e. gwae. to lament. found in g. j. grief. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to groan. lament. achen. It. on. as. vce. g. miau-l-er. Such are g. Gr. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. wai. to bewail oneself. to make bow-wow. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. lament from oimi. ui. &. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. Gr. hei. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. och. wai-l. to ache. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ochain. vei-a. Fr. waiidt. ach. Bret. jaoh. cece. . vce.'). ohg. och. Lat. wehen (Schmeller). to wail or cry alas . gwae. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. pain. Lat. ochan. woe.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

or give me it. for instance. Please. When we pointing. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. says da-da-da. give me that cheese. Sie. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. or wants to name something. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. da. is-te). Thank you. and so on.' person. Diet. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. as.' all is is — their consent. In the expression Da. well as Goth. give.' then points to his wife. der da-ige. thata (ta-ta). ToSe (or in Attic E. The Fr. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. the nursery da-da. • The child.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. more emphatically roSj)j that. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. ' sees an object. to here . Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Phil. or that it is. Bav. child. indeed. I add) . that gratifies me. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. 'nay. and by a variety of expressions besides. a specified were by pointing him out. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. case. we may translate this by there (it is).THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. as to express. a word of many applications in g. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. implying the direction of its good will towards them. . is we I believe. But. or carry me thither. Dr Lottner observes. nurseries. when he wants something. that is it. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent.' this. Sanders (Germ. but the truth is. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. and may be rendered. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. saying : there the ad- Trans. that. this here. as it Dieser da (as Lat. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. according to Menage. his trowsers' pocket. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). when 1859. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. da.

sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. strike. childish toying. to beat. then instinctively interest. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. to move step by step. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. to walk. p. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. of which any one may. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. and one in particular must. . The da is dodem. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. moving.^ its ' utters : a cry. which thus exertion. sinking. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89.' says Muller. meanings. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. pay. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. tasting. takes it — as When the soul. standing. to tion to another. to chatter. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. in every mode of expressing the idea. beat. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. the original is that which he places first. or dalliance. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. speech. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. and shapes it into an . sounds. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. dadee. to say to oneself. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going.' • liv ANALOGY. reality. make dadada).' says Lottner interior. stutter. its desire. Thus Gr. tattle. thinking. or metaphor. to knock. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. — Cot. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da.

may be it explained . then to sparkle. to crackle. to . schiteren. sapere (which signifies the nose. tumult. Heo Du. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to ring. smell. Bavarian bracht. wilahtaa. to glitter. and schmecker. . to tinkle. to shine. clang. brilliancy. schmecken. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to flash. gnittre. outcry. Lith. bright. magnificence. signified a clear sound. to be wise. and. It is The word bright had a similar In as. wamara. sound. wilistd. savour. to glitter. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. a rustling sound Gr. knistre. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. man of nice taste. to glitter e. to ring as a glass willata. kimistd. snotor. In the case of sparkle. while sapere itself. bilbilgoda (to make . noise. Fr. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. same imitative root with Sw. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. rattle. 1654. sense of brightness. think. ghsten. sprageti. knittre. to glisten Dan. So firom Lat. bilbil). The 6. discreet. beorhtian. as. unlella. Again. to sparkle. we have and the and beorht. to snilF. fiapfiaipw. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. as kilind. may be quoted gUt. to glitter. for example. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. — 1. Finnish. a brilliant light kilid. snudra. from the . scTiateren. splendour. and thence e. make a loud noise. in the domain of movement. snutrs. search . taste. snuff the sniiten. esclat). . iclat (in Old Fr. to smack or taste. in popular language. a ringing . to resound. suspect Bav. beam. to quiver. Du. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. kiimottaa. and figuratively. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. scheteren. a dis- cernment. on. air. to sniff. to 5 ghtter. smell. tintelen. to crackle gnistre. (parallel bilbila. to sound clear In Galla. the equivalent of g. firom the Gael. In the same way the Goth. to sniff out. to shine. tinkling. spraka. judicious. prudent. which in ohg. to shriek with laughter . a with kimmaltaa. chime). —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. splendour. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. pracht. snot. extended to the exercise of the understanding.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to have Sapiens. properly a clap or explosion. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. wise. also wise. &c. is used in the origin.

briars. pvfi^Civ. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. rend. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. flow and flux. \nrap6e. he framed the words ivSov. the bleating of sheep. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. mel. soft. rough both ways. eo ut res vol. in truth. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. Much of the same has been often quoted. in of his works. v.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. rough. rough. fitting the letters to the sense. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. 6\tadaveii'. kvTOQ. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. . whirl. Tpa)(yg. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. he says. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets.' he says. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. discusses the tone of a picture. pleasure soft to the ear . coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. break. smooth. And observing that n kept the voice within. accordance with the way in which by touch. KoWiiSije. sharp. we hear of screaming colours. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. is felt Lana. itself letters are felt as sofl. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). ipuKuv. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. Kpovtiv. which The Stoics. roughness. and vepres. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. crux. power of the letter-sounds. Acre. Kep^arl'ieiv. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. within. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. inside. to slide. of dressing loud. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. oily. the neighing of horses. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. strike. extremely loose. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. the cross. rough to the ear. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. then in rpd/xoe. wool. the clank (stridorem) of chains. 1. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. shatter. or . cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. tremour. gluey. &c. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. The BpavEiv. as soft by the ear. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r.

jag. t. a rough and sudden .' It is on account of the roughness of pain. 138). when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. tug. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. p. to jogj sac-cade. degree of roughness sound. as when. A greater felt. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. g. ii. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. stag (in stagger. joli. jih. k. shag. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. p. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. dag. 'and consequently form. the case of the voice. stab.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. and in the utterance of a high or or low. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. to reel abruptly from side to side). while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. rug. Fr. jig. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. cular effort Again. corresponding to the ineor. to signify varieties of movement. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . for exis ample. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. dig. or checks as they are called by Muller. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. shog. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. sag-oter. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. d. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. jog. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface.

Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. mica. a small bodily object. to have it ticked or marked on the score . then. Fr. a playiug-marble. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. (mitsati). tick-tack for the beat of a clock . for the sound of knocking at a door. Dutch kicken. foot. an old worthless horse or carriage. lead to Spanish tocar. movement. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to say a word . tecche-tocche. figuratively. a stroke with a French toucher. to move rapidly to and fro. It. sound Fr. Bolognese tocc. Illyrian migati. mot. e. that we never can be sure. and e. schockeln. Hence Lat. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. Then. mik. g. to strike It. cica. is lanese toch. an infant . to glitter. sound barely audible. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. or check. to incite by light touches. is so frequent a consequence of movement. a crum. passing to the signification of motion.. tack. a . which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. tock. also to stir. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. a piece or bit of anything. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. The production of sound. to ring a bell. Accordingly the g. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. not to utter a syllable. Welsh cicio. zigzag. kuk. Fr. so to Italian toccare. Thus we have B. to mutter. and It. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. chicoter. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. chiquet. The train of . used interjectionally to represent a . it produces Dutch micken. to utter a slight kick. Mucken. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. The Mipen or pencil. a jag or sharp projection zickzack.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. chic. tech-tech. kik. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . a jog. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. S-panish miga. mie. however. &c. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. Sukkeln. chique. To tick a thing off. then.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to mark it with a touch of the pen . to touch. to tickle. The analogy then carried a step further. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. and analogous movements. schuckeln. is made to signify movement. to take a thing on tick. to winkj micati is Lat. as Italian tocco. in cases like the foregoing. a little bit. to pulses being knock. toch-toch. The syllable suk is jerk. properly a small lump'of . like English tick. zack. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. a cracker. Brescian toch. Ene olde suksuk. motion. to On the same principle j we have g. as tot. micare. a quid of tobacco. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. to beat or play on a musical instrument. to stir. rough horse. a good piece of road .

there (further of!) ao.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. I. (Halliwell) Da. a certain conception. a sparrow). tot. taut. Du. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. we have e. small titlark. to e. often entirely arbitrary. a tot . titmouse (Du. Then. and toddle like a child titter. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. totle. subdued manner. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. . anything small flax. at where the order is inverted. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . that. e. a e.n. here. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. motte. lump of earth. and he. chico. The following table from Tylor (Prim. Pm. ika. This kind. Halliwell. Fr. In a similar the relations of place. zitio. gnu. to dot. a. n. syllable mot. further off. tiny. . But the same is language has re Javan. small of kind. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. or o toi. to touch lightly with a pen. . The vowel changes from to tick-tack. not to utter a syllable. to make a slight mark. Cult. citto. gni. a small bird. move slightly to .- a jot or little It. . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. to touch. jot. fait. not because the pendulum makes a different left. tit. e. . there. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . ri that. and dot. eo. a whisper. seesaw. this. to whisper (Pr. a small lump or pat. a bit. little j to that of a small bodily object. to jot down or note with a fro. tot. titter. a morsel. there '(at a short distance). bunch or flock of wool. clay . here (close hand). a morsel girl . to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. of movement in totter. . a lad citta. a girl. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. mossche. tozzo. zitella. and a small lump of something. tot. mut. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. anything . or the like its It. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. 48) cites from the African Tumale. that iku. a light quick blow. 0. Malagasy to. fragments It. to movement of the pen . to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. tot. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. . this . corresponding to the personal pronouns. a small horse. for the beating of a clock. mutter. for the three personal pronouns. a little titty. little. is shown in murmur. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. i. motta. to jog. tit. neither moit nor an atom. you. To jot.) . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. as in e. . iki. 199). tittle. lix Sp. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. and mite. to tremble. tottle. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. So. the same organ touched with the man. mote. mutter j dust. or the converse. ticktack. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. gno. mot. the vowel sound. not an atom . and out there. a small quantity. the least visible insect. titilh. a small kind of lark. a bit. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit.

no constant rule is observed.. Fernandian az. father. this <t. . The vowels a and o sound of the voice.. there. this fi. ne. that. ulri. ni. . Gr.araM. Mm. Tarahumara ibe.. olo. that. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. thou . an old . is father. that. that. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. that in the distance. thou. there. that. ukko. . here . small (Pott. Lat. child. ndi.) nna. ofj. probably initial of distinction that the k. for the male.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. biii. that (intermediate) j wana. It Carib lala. that. thou ni. ^. loo). Zulu ajoa. here . as in Italian Fin. here j abe. ojOo. I . Botocudo ati. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. Mutsun ne. and a for the female. Chilian tva. here 5 Yoruba na. . 6. j Canarese ivanu.e^. w. there. Carib ne. . he. Tamul i. there. minution further. child. (tt). /e«. ita. mother. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. Japan ko. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. Guarani nde. Magyar ez. as Mr Tylor remarks. this . is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. mas cheche. Sahaptin (America) kina. this . and origin. little. . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. to. mother. Ossetic am. this . Abchasian aSn. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. here j ka. akha. ta to ka. you. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. /mya. qu. there. here this . usho. there. Dhimas isho. bi. respectively. he. me probable that • Vei also little. an old woman chacha. young one. . as the act of pointing was ta. that. femina ama. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. km. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. that. there. man erne. here feraa. this . ni. nne. father k . uta.. mother.) pronunciation of i or e. . is Here. /wo. Then. It seems to (fen. that. this ole. tiiio.

i Sw. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. trap. &c. wean. fretful. pepin. 401. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. for a succession of light blows low-wow. has tittafrem. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. trappen. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. stairs. tion. to peep through. Clank represents the sound of something large. the nursery few j Sc. at pippe frem is to spring forth. Da. The Sw. of smaller things. From cases like the foregoing. — Douglas Virgil. keeh.' making the voice as small as possible. Fr. dance (Kil. trSpigner. for the . The sound trapp . to tread. a step. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. . In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. little. don-don. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. to begin to appear . of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. Thus we have Wolof sopa. to peep. the simplest mode by the g. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. lift 8. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. wenig. as ding-dong. just beginning to appear. titta. repetition It. analogous to winy-piny. a child. trippen. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. nil. and in the Pacific dialects. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. din-din. trippelen. a little yellow beard. nab.) . to teet. to leap. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. whence Fr. for instance. little To sup up. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. is to express simple continuance of action. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. A little weeny thing. looking through between obstacles. as j money. Top. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. murmur.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood.' — Merrv Wives. to make its way through the bursting envelope. nipple. the pip or pippin. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. the idea is called. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. barking of a dog. in old e. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. or even. A little wee face with little. knob. the principle of reduplication. And perhaps the E. or chink. to feet. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. sound of bells . trappa. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse.

tach-et-er. from Maori muka. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. clash of weapons. didi. instead of being actually repeated. Again. rack. a cradle. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. or very very great. loloa. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. the agent in panting . child . Thus in the Pacific loa. repetition or continsignify long. ratsi-ratsi.' expression is — ^Tylor. kamha-gamla. very bad. to vi^alk about for flax. Mandingo ding. a clattering noise. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . to skip. very long (Pott. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. or imitative syllables. rapidity and strength. sopasopa. amusement. or a little tee--ny thing. ayunayunan. is language. er. to treat with contempt. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. mawhiti. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to rock. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. child . to love. calling. serves to show and in this way. clamito. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. properly speaking. . little child (p. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. and the words express a continued sound of rack. kenda. hardness. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. tache. in familiar use with ourselves. to say pooh It is ! to. cliqu-et-is. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. or in Fr. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. And generally. a spot. to talk at to walk. or el. very great. mawhitiwhiti. Cult. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. bad . mpolu is uttered. Malay ayun. 97). and Fr. random . Thus in E. &c. Susa di. i. to cover e. racket. or rdtchi. kendagenda. could readily be conceived. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. click. puka. the comparative degrees of greatness. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). rack click. The same principle of 196. So from clamo. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to call frequently from Fr. to pant. the lungs. are echoed by the rudimentary et. a grasshopper. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. (to use a to speak. to or rub. lololoa. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. if very young.Ixii REPETITION. puka- puka. 99). the and clique. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. keep spots.. to to call. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. smallness. . ding-ding.

where all direct connection with sound is lost. to hand. from puka. kneel. or by association. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. wagas ging. or Maori puka-puka. the knie-en to E. wancol. are to cry mew and pew . By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to crackle. to move to and fro. and in as. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. a from ayun. to hand-le. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. crack. to wail woe . bubble. guggle. to rock. or omitted. to puff. to make a succession of grabs . to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. he who rubs. draggle. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. Ihre remarks under gncella. Jickfacken. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. miauler and beler correspond to E. waggle. rynel. mew and baa . seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. is In e. joggle. to make bau-bau. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to make gug. compared with g. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. to rock or wag. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. others. g. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. in some applications. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. or in e. in Fr. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. syllable clat . has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. bub. wankel. it. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. wankeln. as mAS. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to make a succession of shoves. dabble. to continue dragging. such asjlap. which. dab. the lungs (the puffers of the body). fickle. a succession of cracks to rattle. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. The contrivance with any particular noise. by the side of wanken. jogging. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to bark like a dog. rubber.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. as to handle. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. or fi bau. wavering. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. itself. smack. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. The Fr. In cases like these. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table.Jicol. shuffle. miauler andpiauler.

leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. Polish. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. on a moment's reflection. Dupe comes to us from the French. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or in aptness to combine with other elements. deceit. by a hard body breaking. A gull or a dupe same sense. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. the breach. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- .Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. will continue to be felt in daily speech. There is. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. although it is not difficult. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. Breton. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. or in mode of use. and comparatively few easily deceived. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or how generally. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. to cry ugh at. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. which. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. it is obviously a mere chance how long. which is the origin of the word. moreover. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. known in Italian. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. to the separation between the broken parts. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. at was more familiarly known.

can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. founded in manifest blunder. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. life. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. . And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. is. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. and the word is used in a secondary sense. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. language is . nor any limited of ideas. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. however. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. Hitl^erto. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural.

! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. episcopus. i. If English. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. Naturalist on the Amazons. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. unintelligible to other hordes. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . of material things. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. Welsh. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. in the course of many years' isolation. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. guages in South America. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. and 'Russian. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. change. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. circle perpetrates a new slang term. hearing. I think it very probable. therefore. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. compared with the duration of man.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. evique. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye).Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. 330. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. French. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. out. and vescovo. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects.

Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. 8. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. is MN. the actual it which would to represent. to be taken (Prim. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 7. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. . it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. it will leave figures 3 and 4. i. and . as shown in the subjoined illustration. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ancient Greek M . which are idenr Figures 5. Nor is there one of the letters.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. 9. The combination of the symbols I and 2. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. 6. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. A key must unlock more doors than this. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. or whatever the proportion may be. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. Cijlt. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. ao8).

of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language." the use of a change of vowel in as. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. in the shape either of direct inspiration. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. known to us as yet. what comes to the same thing. We must either suppose that in a civilised state.' should be discovered. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. for instance. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . If new 'modes of phonetic expression. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. leading him to utterances. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. his fellows. and the only safe beneficent Creator. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. had its origin in imitation of sound. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. which either by direct resemblance of sound.

Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. of using imitative conduct . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or not. as elephants. race were speaking men or not. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. by animal without a trace name of Man. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. or beavers. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that he started from the lowest grade. for instance. and rose towards a higher state of being. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and sooner or later.COMPLETION OF MAN. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. until the progeny. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . or of their own reflected thoughts . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. in the course of generations. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. and when we look back as far as history will reach. or else. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . the conduct of Ixix life. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life.

Gothischen 1851. Supplement to Bret. Castr. Dn. Danish. Diet. Supplement to Dueange. Da. Couzinid. B. Esth. Diefeiibach. English. dialect of the Sette Commune. or Dan. Romano - Cas- traise. Baile/sEngl. Diet. Diet. Diefenbaeh. Bav. Bigl. Grammar Boh. . Biglotton seu Diet. Brem.V. 1654. Bavarian. Sup. Dief. de la langue Cat. Dueange. Elfric's Fl. Dief. Cimbr. at the end of Somner's Diet. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Cotgrave.Nieder. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. ^Ifr. Dueange.Saehsiches Worterbueh. 1766. Bremisch.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Provincial dialect. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Wtb.-Eng. Finnish. AS.. Gr. Infimse Latini- D. E. Catalan. 1737. Carpentier. Fin. Douglas' Virgil. Teutonico-Lat. 1850. Bohemian or Czech. Esthonian. 1768. 1857. Carp. Cimbrisch. Fr. Cot. Due. Dutch. dial. Anglo-Saxon.



Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. woman r. Blob plowied r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. ^i?^i2! r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. puHti r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . katowai perairrantr. r. baltresca nokkutomax. haverie crtOT r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. buque 118 brodiquin r. word allagerr. willekom Blab r. r.>." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. yjnaifia r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. plowied budowaer.. Askance woud r. alUger ahaverie r.percurrunt kimista^x. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. sveritet Asknace r. (/ijtf r. kilistaa bugiie r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r.nokkutama willekem. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. cti. r. cruccio deyrie. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.5 ERRATA.


this word beand Spanish. an edict or proclamation. Dent posture. AS. as. until the event jlace . in a manner other than it should be ablution. us. plesyt him. Thus ip N3S. particular 1 . dominion. to hold . implying a completion of J. Ab-.he Goth. and — Chaucer. bandon in French. power : Than Wallace thing. said. to sauff the king or spill. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. AS. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. command. whatever he be. 244.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. K . A. The word Ban is common orders. sion of 'an abandoned character. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. on-bsec . baftan. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. Immediately from Fr. state of sleep . of-dune. abaft. abs. among. Hence on-bceftan. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. announcement. iway from. behind. out of. and secondarily in that of command. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. erwachen. In Lat. to subdue. to arise. Lat. 843. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. ur. on-lic. ab. Abs-. Again. in. Passing tongues. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. . from a is to wake to abide. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. to awake. orders. on. ar. onis aback. dominion. downwards. —Bruce. er. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. be-ceftan. as. ibandonner. To abuse is to use iway. from. away from. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. a/tan. vs.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. the er. into the Romance ftrseg . Abandon. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . on. o/j of or . a. "rom a height.t G. off. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. OHG. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. ir. ifter. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. compounds. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. away. rule. in the same sense. his. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. Thou spelds of mychty iction. Parson's Tale. a washing off to abstain. Abaft. literally. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. alike. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Jvery man shewid baft. have entire dominion over. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. but now )bsolete).

to ruin. burny was formerly burnish . and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. to make lower. Abbot. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. law term abatement. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . person. c. to take possession of an estate. Beat. More correctly written abbat. drink. abbatia. See Abide. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. at his own the lips. bandon. to strike Froiss. Bate. Wall. Hart in Jamieson. overthrow. terminedly. 1520. to diminish the force of any.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. and it that that it — . abbatere. betrash.) . baer. to light upon.down. ant. impetuously. of fear. baba. weaken. adverbial expressions at abandon. and the verb was written in Eng. beer. See . by Wall. abbas. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. or admiration. to strike sail . 1 1 8. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter.fournir. Abbess. castle. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. It.esbawi. iv. Originally. uncontroUedly. and sets them all agape.Prov. down. astonish. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. . has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. esbahissais. Hence the OE. On the other in use as well as hand.— R. 364s. abaundunem-ent. lish to abaisse orabaish. burny. bawi. to abaw or astonish. or society of abbots or monks. esba. to astonish.' the surrender of a ' K. of wonder. vol. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Fr. abbattre. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to hit.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Cotgr. from Lat. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. so common in the found in the OFr. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. R. . ne more vermeille. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Custom. astony. I was abawid for merveille. his mouth. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. impulse.On princes. R. may be explained. Baba ! Mod. to gape. abbatere dal prezzo. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. abbatis. effect of shame. R. polish. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. ais. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. esbahir.polir. d. confound. And he thereof was all abashed. as ravish. father. depress. merely the terminations ons. abandonly. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. de. and that from Syrian abba. to bate something of the price abbatersi. to happen. esbahissant. faire tomber.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. to overthrow. with or without a final sh. — — . where custom (Grandg. to The . an abbey. To Abate.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. thing abbatere le vela. in the active form. — Neccham. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. abate. his eyen shene. Castrais. In or. et prirent terre. from ravir. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Hence Lat. A. shame. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to put to con. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Milton. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. of the Fr. Abbey. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg.— — . to beat furnish. to excite admiration. other. and grooms besmeared with gold. son bandon.

de Berri) Prov. to hook. 1 • . In We . to wait. beijden. bhr. Corresponding to keep in suspense. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. usbeisnei. a bay or opening in the coast. in Dan. tenere a bada. gola badada. take notice. to In great amaze. abie. bidan. bada. deceit. bialodrze-w. expectfamily. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. to look. beter. suffer b. desire. See Abide. abeter. speaking of the Holy places. intent observation. to expect gabeidan. Goth. expectation. literally white tree. Pol. The verb atwaiting. listening. lingering. bana. badigliare. — ABELE Epiphanius. Norm. is idenwait.' is in AS. bide of the d endure. have seen abide. To Abet. to stay. inciter. badare. Fabl. 366.— ^richer. and E. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. Boethius. desirer (Roquef. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. abet. b^er. wait. Guernsey beth. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . and in E. suspense. chaand either from feelings of such a nature.. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. — signifies to suspend action. —Raynouard. Gloss. baier. F. beijen. Cat. ' ' . Quant voit le serpent. (Vocab. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Thus G. Abele. to suffer death in Du. to mind. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. to expect. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. badar. beguiling on the other. Abie.) abayer. take care. bouche b^ante. to ance. baier. Norm. The white poplar. we sceolon ON. to attend on . to wait. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. . and alluring to his own destruction. From abahier. delay. ceive. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. beguile. to desire. aspire to. says. abet. while the monks under his control ing. abidan. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. bie. to attend to. de Champ. delay. covet. to remain or endure. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. to wait. . abetter. waiting. bouche bdante.Fr. to be intent upon. Q.was formerly used in the sense of look. in Fr. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. OFr. with badia. wait To Abide. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. delay. deceiving. watch. the verb of abeyance. abie. a right in suspense . incite . from Halo. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to stay. tity of E. John. to open bader. qui iaaille. white. Ni engigner ni abiter. Ducange. abbadare. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. tarrying . E. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). inciting. warten. ne chastised them. to yawn. songer. to desire earnestly. to It. to be intent upon. . gridare. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. Corant sens lui. or in Fr. which is certainly related to It. abeyance. — . to deceive. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. attendre avec en^pressement. guardare. beidan. also to OFr. baer. or do we AS.to wait. forms with the d effaced are OFr. were called Brothers. Gloss. aspirer. badare. trick abetar. bocca badata. Thus we have It. compared with (Bosworth). Prov. othres abidan' The effacement expect. regarder. pense. badare. syllable ba. to gape . abaier. and Prov. open the mouth. to deanimer. verbeijen Sw. bder. . endurArt thou he that should come.— Roquef. expectation. . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. with open mouth .— Chaucer. abayer. attendre See Bait. ^couter avec dtonnement. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Cat. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. us. listen. K. exciter. beijen. tempting. — II. m Abeyance. Du. to abide . or absorption watching. signifies the direction of tend. beidan. baier compared with It. which the mind to an object. bida. look for another. tical with It. ne wist what way to chuse. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. bida. house. abSiance. on the one hand. to tarry. forbearance. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to open the mouth. endurance. abiiance. bie compared with Dan.

at kasta fyri bord. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. have-like. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. being disabled in the highest degree. Abie. abie. on board . to pay the purchasemoney. P. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . abidge. Chaucer. If it badare. abigg. R. is the verb abie. to redeem. bord. within the walls of a ship. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. though sometimes confounded with it. L. 2nd Tale. Prol. abicgan. abolir. and Cr. Q. powerful. the Pardoner In the original. bide. Milton. &c. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. O If tion. purpose. abilej Prov. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. at hand). suffer the Jul. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Spenser. — e. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. to have . Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. expert. while in later examples As I . strong. as habiller du chanvre. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. sufficient. and the simple buy. Merch. from Lat. Cassar. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. For on board. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. habilis is closely preserved. to wear away. consequences of anything . apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. convenient. to dress hemp. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Fr. Dr. was often used in the same sense. aboleo. to perish. i. fit. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. able. bidan.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. abycgan. —Bacon in R. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. to pay the penalty. abie to Goth. ! ! Cotgr. use. willing to schewe his wrathe. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. AS. beidan. within the ship. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. al- be found so some will dear abide it. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. Lat. The —Boucher. must suffer for it. God. without special reference to the notion of retribution. atling hem to her proper offices. Tr. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. forbid for mother's children should abye. Mids. — P. Innan bords. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. N. him with che. durance in both applications. abide. F. and death for handsel pay. the side of a ship. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Boucher. the Sir Tristrem. habilis (from habeo. a board. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. — Able. as E. de la volatile. the Fr. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. Fr. to . ON. in for any special purpose. P. R. abilh. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. fault being simply clothing. . 2. She shall abie that trespass dere. habile.ynes. from AS. God — dear.^and to make his power knowne. or bie. Wickliff in Richardson. when compared with Aboard. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. abeye. to draw fowls. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. In this to erase or annul. properly abuy. adapted . Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. power. It.

and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. al is growth. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. pedigree from brevis. abrdger. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. from Fr. Severe the threatened evil. parent. abracan. Quod abominor. adolere. to fatten. gravis. To Abound.foda signifies to beget. ABOMINABLE adolesco.. to rear. which may God avert. below.aboon. disastrous portent in some passing oc. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. AS.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. titan. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. abutan. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere.the older form. natural ed direct from the latter language.1. becomes leu in Prov. agreujar. without. Melibaeus. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abowen. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. See -und-. Goth. butan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to nourish. brood. to grow up. the form a&^^. AS. a portent). breaking out in language. while the verb alleThe root el. above. To abray or abraid. ala is made to signify to rear. vital PI.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. snatch In English we speak of away. coalesco. Tale. to feed. agredge. Fr. gravity.) . greu. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. draw out. outward. be-utan. ufan. hard. about cockcrow. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. and also to abridge. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. of any kind . af-oleii. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. onbutan. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. — . sec seftre — Chaucer. af-oolden. to AS. ol. OE. to start. abbreviare. Gael alaich. to turn. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. the identity of which with ting.. or young forth. en. oil.' Parson's rence. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. Finnish stock. alan. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. seems aras. See To Bray. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. Du. and also. boven. alan. to break off. as the duty of nourdisposition. while the sense of beget. but from Lat. Kiittner. the OSw. In the same brevis . to light a fire the Abraid. and alere flammain. to cut short.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. kindling. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. break out. to rear. leading immediately to Fr. is a ively. motion. side. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. alere capillos. to let sleep. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. The radical idea is to feed the flame. d. as AS. life. to aggravate. to main. progeny. the idea of breaking about .ger. ala. is not from G. The primitive idea seems that of beget. Virg. D. Prov. abufan. by the to bring up. Thonne Abroach. Lat. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. Sc. currence. to awake.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. alUger. the man dwindles away. abrcBgdan. OE. the vital spark. for ligeth butan.— Abbreviate. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. Abray. olet become worthless through gam De manji af.ymbutan. OSw.' Ymb hancred utan. . Abundant. abominor (from ab and omen. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. s —Casdmon. explains soboles Lat. around on the out. and in-d-oles. common in Chaucer and Abominable. from . bufan. — ' — — preceding verb. . levis to the Romance languages. nurse. awaking. his contemporaries. Above. to beget or give birth to children. which passed into English under Abominate. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. to bring up. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to feed. as withotityn and without. way Sw. Of these synonymous adolescere. on high. to produce. abbrechen. abbrechen. Then. For on broach. heavy. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. nurse Lat. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. AS. the hair grow. and to do something to avert abbreviate. or cut short. abredan. to progress. full ofte his words for to Fr. nourish. Abrdger itself. and bidden him abregge. be-ufan. So in Lat. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. whence the Fr. literally. giving birth to. to grow together. Thence to regard greugetat. that greatly agredge their sin. to snatch.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


aside. Ful- Apanage. or antique single chamber. Antick. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. all of gold. antifena. on. To go antiquely. Anvil. Any. Ilvtwotov. from in and cudere. — — — . Otfried. to sound in answer. ab. incus. choke. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. . Antidote. from an. the anticks — behind.—Aperture. Fr. a few. apatiar. from ango. should be received. Apart. andouillers. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. to strike. fauns. So Lat. Prov. some one. set aside. but the expresent day. a gift. To ape. separate. what Roman civilisation. See Cover. Lat. Hall's Chron. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Anxious. af. apanage. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Aperient. apertum. as the Italians. white.legacy of given against.is to be given. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. and claret wine. E. panar. a termination equivalent to Goth. were andouiller the second. Fr. to have. cenig.. villan Gloss. Antler. anxi. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. antefn. whence anthem.made out. from avTiipoiuia). trouble. rich. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. from. Gr. press. panis. as we call it. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. such as savages. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Antique. in Shakespear. anticus. d<popi(xnbs. Thus from gabe. to support. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. avri^ava. as from as. AS. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. were chiefly of the former class. from Stephanus. one. before. to strike G. AS. ReApe. gabeigs. As the browcalled antiques. like a jack-pudding. as posticus. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Mannequin. Gr. Percutere. and devils. Apartment. which by anvild. to open. to bring forth. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. anxius. a definite . a small quantity. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Jorioc. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. amboltj Du. to display pario. three antike pillers. from. of. Fr. vex. Lat. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. transferred to the grotesque characters. strangle. surimitation of the ancient models. Apartment. and ig. wealth. a puppet or an anti^hona. something ler in R. anfilts Pl. In like manner. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. burnished. from eigan. finally applied to a whether grotesca. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. post.— . anapoz. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Gr. a block to hammer on. i. or in a ridiculous dress. inAgain from the same author cudis. : . from ante. before. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. plenteously with red. one having wealth.D. Pezron fiUist. AS. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. verberas. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. to imitate gestures. one at the least. younger child. whence Prov. aperio. from an and — - . —Spencer. ambeld. Lat. part. to go in strange disguises. Lat. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. d. work. stem. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Hence the applica. to nourish. separate purpose. Aphorism. to strain. bread. a preventative . swaged. left as the .th centuries the recognised models of antic. eigs. G.

: — — speak 'Lz. and in the sense of condition. Fr. to take away or lose the vital powers. To praise. Fr. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. to mark to define a bound. S^. — dirondtfiu.t. i. set a price on. to dress in this fashion. — Appurtenance. appartenir. to — — . to send off. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. like. poind. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. — Apprise. to learn. kind of action. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. to strike down. apropid. apprentis. Fabian in R. diminutive pariculus. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. ar. to deter- to strike. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. in fact. ^wss. Pliny. to rate. Apotliecary. good. 23 . is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. appaiser. to commend. Hence appoind. To Appraise. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Friar's Tale. apar. or the like. — prehendere. value apprdder. Apo- good time. off. Apple. Mod. Sp. Nouv. Fr. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Ir. avail. Gr. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. one is in. proper time came. piteux poind. And whanne sum men Lat. whether through age or sudden teiTor. D. cepl. pragigua or prixcoda. obolys. case. Lith. apal.parejo. iwKjToKri. to deaden. to deem good. make a composition between parties. to disable oftat. Approach. to be open to view. a price. to make a thing Apparel. . purpose. apprehendere. They werin his approvirs privily. habilUr. apropchar. Walach. to approve. — Approve. It. Apprehend. prohts. to call. 5w. w. Cotgr. to fit. diroTrXriaatii. Parson's Tale. to lose one's senses. xv. landmark. after his mind . poind.—Apprentice.prix. in commendation.his giving evidence against his principal. Apoplexy. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Gr. praise. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Yr. order. laven is used both as E. approcdare. agreeing with "LtA. to seize. . corresp. like. one for his defence. Apostle. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. The Fr. Prov. horror.pareil. diroBrjKr}. Epistle.parecchio. From Gr. to store or put Appal. away. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. to send to. prope (comp. Lat. habiliments. equal. irpaiKOKiaov. peler. to announce. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. And among other of his famous deeds. peace. approcher. despatch on some service. become dizzy . I prise ware. e. opportunity. fit- — ness. Appease. pronounce good. 'LaX. to Lat. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Cotgr. one the MLat. From Lat.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. the good. taking. decree. apprendre. 'L-zX. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. mine. a'^opi'Jw. were formed appropiare ejar. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to which it is often referred. rise to \t. to set a price on. to call for judgment. En peach. word was specially applied to clothing.— . but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. preparation. aptly. Hence It. d-n-o. quoth the frere. An old appalled wight. from paix. and metaphorically to take the meaning. —Diez. a learner. an epistle or letter. lAfiaam. plight. OFr. to come near. Fr. From Lat. from aTroorlXXu. allow. Prov. . Cent Nouv. jabloko. near.propius). To cause to pall (see Pall). or E. Palsgr. pronounce fitting). (cited by Diez from a late author). prize. oVooroXof. find Then like Fr. consent unto. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. to learn.probare. —^Apparent. to accord. from. esteem. ai. Appareil. properly to join like to like. and appoinder (to find fitting. to — . Yr. Gr. Fr. to finish a controversy. Formerly apricock. approver. To Appear. whence the e. A — . Fr. probare. APRICOT off. pretium. apal. prover. Cotgr. ap. Fr. appareiller. The PI. known. one sent out. aparelhar. Fr. to understand. and also as appraise. in good season prendre son d. to assign or grant over unto. appareo. in Chaucer. They were considered To Appoint. seiden of the stones. that it outfit. ciously than nede is. N. apin R. agree. a thing for one's purpose. trim. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. when the . apparecchiare. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. a crime. to catch hold of. 11. manner. in data. array. pertain or belong to. APO sentence opoQ. dress. appris. of. par. to suit. to approach. Gr. apprise. appellare. ON. H. AS.

from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. scr. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. con. nawl and awl. Alban. Pm. words derived from arpa. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Albanian. Pr. a pleasure-ground. hariolus arpelen. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. man. 331. to plough. Hall. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. A. Roquefort. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. arpa. OE. short. suitable. aa. ughe. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit.sors. The loss or addition of n very common. ahva. a soothsayer. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. shortdr. garden. divining rod. 2. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. ap. arbiter in re censendS.shrubs {arbor). {mies ^=ia3.] in the N. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. and thence fit. a lot. fastened close. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. properly the arwella. a lot. She made. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. sortium ductor. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Now we find in Fin. arwelo. P. opinio. a river. symbol. 31. wata. to preserve it from stains. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. however. doubtless is the origin of E. OHG. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. Now one of the points — — — . arbitrium. account for either of these significations. — napkin is Naperon. to decide by lot. aha. Prol. arbitror arwaaja. arbiter. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. a cloth. — . proper. Aquatic. Beryn. J. aqua. As is a pretty parlour. la nappe. delon. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. Lat. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. Maan initial . Arbitrate. ear. It may be doubted. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. aestimo. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. Arbour. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. water Which that benchid was.o. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. conjectura conjec^ra. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. and sortilegus ation. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . derived. From OFr. however. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. . grande nappe. auguror. rofe and all. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. tion under trial. quod he. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. and a protection of the clothes. herbere. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. as ihe diminutive. arwaus. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. pracoqua was not an adapt. sestimatio arbitraria. the spelland umpire. and taken away before dessert. Naprun.' —About. be That it inne groweth.meaning at Shrewsbury. Gr.. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. Flower and Leaf. aro. Lat. naperon. of of divination arpa-mies.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. It is certain that the apricot oracle. a lot. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . conjicio. . as an eye-witness. C. This path Aqueous. Thus we have natiger and auger. is taken in is a soothsayer. . sorcerer. nected. Lat. Freshly turnid Arable. and with turfis new Goth. and the one who gives oracles. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. aptus. or eft. P. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. or barm-cloth. . Marsh. most conspicuous situation in the garden .) E. found in Fin. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. From OE. intensitive of nape.

apxtlov. det arrigste snavs. sly. Arch in composition. Arduous. to burn . TiKToiv. Du. the terminaGael. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . stuff. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. to arm. weapon may be simply an application of annus. Lat. curved line. Alisaunder. * ArchjAiTaxit. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. AS. W. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. sluggish. is essentially the same word.is the natural weapon of offence. exercise lordship). in Due. armata. A construct. bravest. wretched OE. as the arch of a bridge. archangel. There can be no doubt that E. arm. make clear or prove. Aristocracy. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. Arcliives. apxh. arwe. Gr. Area. — Architect. an arch-deceiver . armada. Cot. it signifies roguish. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. a court yard. Lat. earg. kpxi- beginning. arson. arm. argvitugr. worker.' Paul Warnefrid. an arrant rogue. a rule (princiruler. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. forearm . lofty. aridus. G. Fr. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag.' Lex. Sp. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. Arm. Lat. . Lat. the court of a magistrate. ruling by the nobles. Perhaps erz-wticherer. man. malicious. Ardent. morally bad. erz in G. vescovo. ramend). a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. a bow. ein arger knabe. arguo. From the verb armare. ardor. receptacle where the public acts were kept. especially shoulder-joint. mischievous. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Arcadia in R. to rule. a burning or setting on fire. arcA in e.. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. D. which is derived from it. the best. apxri. Lat.— Army. sly. a branch. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Brem. et vulgari verbo. Lat. government. fainthearted. contemptible. arduus. arcus. weapon. From apxeiov was formed Lat. to be on fire. Du. arrant Arms. troublesome. Fr. The . are formed the participial nouns. arch-bishop. Lat. arsum.' the Gr. 2. from areo. timid. Sax. Fr. ' — Argue. Uo^a^. a chief builder. Gr.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. burning heat. bad. earm. a. ^Argument. bad. shoulder. a bare plot of ground. first. high. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. argr. from nixa. ill-tempered. an arch boy. an arrant usurer. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. the a brute. to dry. an extent of flat surface. rame. erg. and not with apx. . and must be identified with Dan. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. G. apx^iv. gwyro to bend. patus). And thou as arwe coward. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. armee.. Gr. which has been referred to W. ardre. fabricate). Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. signifies chief or principal. whence the body of the nobles collectively. adjective. ars.In E. ancient. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. as in E. 3340. bad of its kind. .4 rir/. Ardour. earh. a threshing-floor. ON. taxed with cowardice. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. faint-hearted. vocaveris. and Kpurka. a noble. mischievous. to be in comp. raineno. un petit rusd. area. arm'ee. erz-bischof. Gr. — Wtb. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). to demonstrate. the most arrant trash. arg. arma. It. while the Fr. shoulder Boh. Arid. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. ardIn G. branch. aj-f. difficult to reach.aioj. curved. Applied in modern E. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. apxtipfve. Lat. Langobard. Arson. . ardeo. een erg kind. gwyrek. arga. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. . arrig. ers-betriiger. un malin enfant. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. and our army. Dan. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. ramo (pi. wanton. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. i. to Arch. by Russ.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a. baloier. balloon. shouting. sickness.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . It. malefacGower in R. Fr. bold. ban. Bohem.Lat. a pestilence. ballan. vcdra bdlkr. a skin. pila. wickedtorment ON. bolawy. balare. to grieve . that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. Venet. taich. bal-daed. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. a clod of earth water. ballotta. weak liquor. a dance. a ball. torment. may exhibit the original development of the signification. Q. separaison. dial. a pail. TtaKKa a pail or tub . lealo. a pill. a water-skin dim. It. Gael. to cause another to miss pustule. Sw. pain. bolker. ON. a great ball. blister. balkr. bealwes. AS. a partition. Sw. Dan. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing.— Ballet. mass. ballare. balka bunge. Gr. balk. as we say. maan pallikka. to roll. Fin. a together in the form of a ball. To baulke the Sir H. palla. probably Lat. . The primary sense seems as in G. — A — — . whether of wood or stone. cka. ball. E. Boll. a globe. baalie. F. 2. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Da. Ball.' speak gibberish champurrar. balle. palcare. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. bal. bacgtteter. Baulke of land. dial. a But making way for death at large to walke. Russ. a division of the old laws.ing. pilula. . at giore en balk. G. to dance. ing. . a scene acted in dancmg. a ballad. OHG. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. ill. G. . globule. hue et illuc inclinare. to shake or jog. to speak an un. a separate portion. hooting. a dance. and the dim. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. bola. Fr. balken. a boil. OSw. balka hopar. balka. Sw. a ballot). beaten road. sorrow. balk. on. Bret. floor. a balk of foul weather. bolyatchka. ball. e. to bale out. Ugutio in Due. It. vacillare. says Ray. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. 3. Ballot. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise.—Ballad. Hence. boleii. a ball balla. calamity. Da. In like manner Fr. from bacquet. to dance. a ball. bol.). bollr. bala. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. a bubble. See Gall. the ballet of the theatres. to be ill. Rouchi ban. Bowl. the beam of a ship. It. on the shore. to rock. . ballar). or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. package of goods. Sw. the breadth from side to side . Hence Dan. bdlkr. to ache. boll. other while. I. balk. a ball or pack. Fr. i.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. trouble. a washing-tub. palloilla. to ail. Du. ache. bjdlki. bbllr bulla J. Sw. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. balveins. bolyaf. afbalka. Wotton.of men . to be balker. ballet. heap up. are applied to a From the same analogy. similar connection is seen in Sp. chapurrar. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. a continued noise of waves gently beating . dial. destruction. balk. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. ballare. Sw. balla (with the augm. baalien. Mid. pallo. with the perhaps from balg. . Sw. Goth. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). to paddle in water . balja. Grief. to by beams. grieve . Pol. to wave. ballone. A balk. Perhaps on. pallikka. a ball. on. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a wooden partition . plague. stage or scaffold. misery Du. to stir. gen. pallukka. ball. We have then separate dial. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. balle. Bale. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. to move. on. as in a barn or cow-house. sick. Sp. Balloon. balge. balken. baler. w. roof. pallo. to Not sparing wight. It. Du. ne leaving any balke. bal. ballo. the object of his expectation. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. ' is a piece or confused talking. . a beam. dial. N. Ball. bal. (Hesych. ballare. uveirs bolk. OFr. ball. to avoid it. Ballata. Sw.Fr. a clump . to signify washy drink. * Balk. balle. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . bielke. wickedness ness . to see-saw. to on Holmedon's plain. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. to plough for a boundary between lands. maleficium. to plank. balle. balva-vesei. a beam. to partition off . and evil in general. to pack Da. To Bale out water. tum. bol. a ball. a clapping or flapping of wings.

an Old dotard or imbambolare. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. Sc. seems the original form of the word. R. Baltic. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Ballast. Lest. fonts. ballustres. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. inutile onus.000 tons. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. Balm. . To make fun of a person. for want of other freight. lest. like Fr. Sp. more serious objection is . comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. 43 — Cot. a battlement . also with flatteries and . it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. from Lat. This is the backload. barandado. bumbazed. small railing. bertesca. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. The Sp. — — oltriga. age. Venet. . barauste. analogous to what is seen in It. lastre. bamein. Balsam. To Bamboozle. ^Arbuthnot in R. Said to be from balaustia. To deceive. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. endormir par des contes. i860. enchanter. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. baU. puzzled.' And Kil. ranked on the outside of cloisters. a fragrant gum. deceive. urtica. forbid. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. make fun of a person. In OSw. 1854. the flower of the pomegranate. To Ban. lastagium signified not only ballast. or ballast of a ship. mare Balticun. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. to walk. If bambocciolare were child of one. inutilis sarcina. baUa.that the going vessels. of balusters. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. When a ship discharges. To Bam. deceiver. bambolo. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. as he says. Gr. terraces. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. &c. bag-las. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. Bret. Sept. bag-lest. Du. Balluster. a useless load. To proclaim. bambocciolo. It. baume. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. or movement of one who walks. &c. balustrade barandilla. more frequently than outward-bound. it is forced to take in stones or sand. because. balconies. baranda. ^a\Ba\iov. Mr Marsh whether the a load.. But Fr. by met. lestage. It.Lat. A — — . There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. last. Fr. to enchant. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. ballast. paid for the right of carriage. the backload. and Mid. but loadage. back of the ship. 1. objects to the foregoing derivation. curse. for a load or goods (Roquef. command. Bret. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. denounce. Report Pennsylv. dial. The Baltic sea. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. is in Sweden and Norway. bam. balsamum. from bara or vara.). baltresac. Dan. a duty on goods last. It is explained back by Adelung. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. little round and short pillars. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. to preserve equilibrium. bamboccio. Fr. a rod.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Lat. Cotgr. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. astonished. sorcerer. ballustre) is a corruption. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. explains ballast. railing around altars. a young babe. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. a small balustrade. a false tale or jeer. the act of walking. galleries. lastra. in the first place. Bamour. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. called Bait. a nettle. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25.

in Fr. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. — To partito d'alcuno. R- He Translated by Chaucer. hoc est vexillo. margin. It. says Muratori. ex. v. It. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. band. to unite with a band. and thence to any proclamation. at his own discretion. parti. from at the Lord's courts. —R. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. banda. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. OE. faction. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. 26. to ctide.. 19. A. acquired the sense of proclamation. to take one to task. populum. and It.Lat. bannire exercitum. to side or to bandy (Florio). Sp. to follow a faction. border. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. etc. 15. i. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. band. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought.—John Villani in Due. It. 813. whether by way of injunction or for- command. banns pany of footmen serve. Goth. Fr. Spebifid. To Bandy. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. to .^ bandy. In a special sense the term company itself. then the signification w. The to . In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. — R. biddal. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Band. a company. R. bandera ground at his mill. bandon somewhat party. side. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. bannum or bandum. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. in hostem convocare. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. bandon was used in the same sense. Baud. to bring corn to be fahne. Se il — Romance languages. sostener Torriano. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Mag. 1. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. he assembled his host. E. bann. the ensign or banner. eiiseigne. summoning to serve So in Swiss. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. bande. and in E. is That with which anything AS. . Goth. we constantly find the expression. those who side together (bande. banda the colour or material. bound. There is some doubt how Fr. theodscipe ut abannan. to ban. banda. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Sw. also the band or of marriage. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. D. flag. passing on from proclamation to command. region. From the verb to banda. a coast.e. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. admolendinum. Diss. Capitul. bande. 'A son bandon. he bannede his ferde. authority. 2. Bandear. ligue Taboada). Wyntoun. to publish) banna. Cot. Thus the word is also used in both senses. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. tener da alcuno. ba?idare. to form parties. Commun^ment son bandon. &c. Ripuar. bannire in exercitum. Bandus. bando.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. side. It seems this signification has arisen. bundun. Leg. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. See Abandon. change to the feminine gender in banda. Sp. G. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando.is further developed. to reprove. permission. Car. Assises de Jerusalem. fahne. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Fr. — excommunication bann-lysa.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. . But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . a number of persons associated for some common purpose. &c. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. curse. bindan. to excommunicate {lysa. bande. power. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. In Fr. banner marked the place of assembly. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. bandi.

to proclaim. follow a party. ON. AS. to beat. a de Vaud. hammering. Diez. seat . destruction . a bench. banqueroute. to make a stir banke. was formed the OFr. bance. — Kil. 2. Diaconus in Due. Bang. bank of river. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Bane. N. to knock. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. panca. — Fr. band-dog. to slay. . The child cries bang! fire. broken. many a bang. in R. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. bank of a river. It. Hudibras. E.HG. for shame. roupt. bakke. The ing. dorsum was applied to ject. in the same way that E. to publicly order one out of the realm. the back. banja. banke. Bank. bannire. of bandying words. Goth. —^Vocab. that the word is used by Romeo. bench. bandire. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. and hence. bank of Dan. Banister. It. beat. to cabal. hricg. and poise Their lighter wings. pastoralis. s'associer. bank. It is in this sense nounce. se joindre. bent as a bow. Bankrupt. clouds. b'ang. &c. the slope of a hill. Du. banca his creditors. — — whence E. disturbance banga. language of W. to knock. large dog kept for a guatd. eminence. a i. g. Fr. See Balluster. bandear. Brewer. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. death-wound. banco. among rotta. de sable. banditti acquired the like signification. Africa. banc G. . beating. death-sickness. The ridge of a hill is AS. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. A Shipman's Tale. benk. Bandy.z. a long raised seat. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. Milton in R. ON. AS. and therefore tied up. ON. se reunir. Lingua. From Mid. Bandy legs are crooked legs. has bang-bang. 45 — — Bandit. bankruptcy. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bana. banka. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Mid. Ripuar. bow. bang. a rising bank. . a blow. Roquefort. in the sense of a pirate. From a desk . and bakki. distinguishes bekkr. a counter. stir.: . banc. tumult bangas. bana. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Fr. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. shoal. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. Banner. to foment factions. bank. standard. a sand-bank. See Banish. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. bana-sdr. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. death-blow . banish. But natheless wife at I bank. the same verb the It. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Banditti. Your stool. the former Fr. de- party. The word is in E. Bantze. counter. in the sense of place of business. Dan. It. bane. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. With many a stiff thwack. Sw. a bench. a table. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. bana. put under the ban of the law. to bend a. bander. Fr. See Band. Benvoglio.^ knock. a bench. a bank. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. bander tin arc. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. and OFr. whence the mod. home — Bandog. to hammer in a nail. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . — . rap hatike et som The Susu. Tibalt. eminence. ruptus. at canis peciiarius. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Benchi. Fl. bander. a bankrupt merchant. a wound OHG. banca fallita. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. bench. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. forbear this outrage. outlam came to signify a robber. as of an explosion or a blow. bana-sott. from banc. . band-hond. When a man fails Lat. Bacon in R. bandi. &c. Draw. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. canis vinculis assuetus. Mercutio. To Bandy. Lat. — Paulus drive in a nail. . murderer. back of a knife. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). desk. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. to work in wood.

banneret. i. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. arineXov. token. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Gr. or of this bantering. nestling. chan. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. According to Diez the It. a war-beacon or war-signal. ban- Baptise. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. men. top. to bend.— Swift in R. Thus Ovid. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. a bantling. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. a beam or long pole of wood. says. OHG. The spar. Gael. manu anto make signs nuere. Barbar. a barrier or stoppage. himself in Pontus. To Banter. Bap. out of a wound. . rarii. wrapped. by a repetition of the syllable bar. barreau. speaking of battle. barrer. bannereti. inur. of banco. privileged to raise Barbarous. of a sign in general. Banquet. banner. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. The barb of an arrow is the sign . from the same source. signuin. in Gr. Lat. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. barbe. 3. &c. It may be thing. a sign. Leduchat. banda hendi. Fr. and even of calling it banter. summit. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. Hence Fr. a. senheira. Barbe. banne. ing term appears in other languages. a which the barrister addresses the court. of wind. Sw. Barb. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. E. to beckon . barrack. ON. Fr. dim. Fr. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. inferior to a baron. barde. senhal. to having that signification. probably corSymbol. benda. In a similar manner are formed yearling. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. barriire. The original import of their own banner in the field. Fr. period vexillarii. banneret was a higher class of knights. Celtic bar. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. E. sign. an animal a year old. and with an initial s. that the noise of voices Bantling. senhal. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi.hinder. It. brushwood. from reifa.aTa Kul nest. jSdirTO). of ensign would be a flag or streamer. and from ensign or banner Prov. either in the Gr.cruel. would rupted from Fr. &c. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Fr. knight Bardd. Hence ner. branch. Gr. as they call it. barba. which is surely in barbed arrow.the analogous syllable viur. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. Duo. and the work is done. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. OHG. branches of a tree {gwezen. sparro. uncivilised. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. It. Flesche barbeUe. — We A . Barb. sbarra. bandva. barrou-gwez. and he would seem to derive Goth.. banchetto. remarked. senh. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. It. a ban. a bench or table . barbarus. barbed or trapped as a great horse. ON. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. milites bannarii. merki. A It. Lat. G. such as the Roman Eagle. hence a repast. To mock or jeer one. banniire. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. a tree). as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. Banneret. then fell among the foot. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse.8ap6^o)voe.. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. sparre. to wash. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. to wrap. barre. then branches. jSa'pjSapoc. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. E. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. banda. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. 2. OFr. and it was accord. indeed.46 BANNERET . iandvo. heri-pau. rod of any rigid substance. bandiera. Lat. barra. ^oTrriKio. —Cot.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. Fr. a bearded or Cot. to dip. Bret. bar. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. the word came to signify rude. The origin is in all probability Goth.

in Fr. skola. also to wallow like a seething pot. — — — men. a pack-saddle. Etym. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. and foolishly. and flanks. Bard. uncovered. g. barbeum. It. in poetic language Bard for poet. to wash. barbulla. berries. baares geld.) to wrangle. baar. back. barbeter. quarrel . An outwork for the defence of a gate. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. to bubble or spring up. Hatt-bard. as well as thwcEtta. Hall in R. borbotar. — Cot. Lex. barbacane.) . on. Fr. fortia —Strabo. to chafbargain. and Sc. Bret. the quilted with. such as houses are covered Bardelle. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. But Sp. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. Festus in Diet. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. to plash or dabble. boil. skirmish. barboter. Fr. Applied in E. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. bare baskojis. barz. bdsas. to stammer. haggle. to grunt. brim. . Russ. twattle. w. Bargain. Sp. to make an outcry . The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. borbulhar. muttering. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. barbugliare. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. and the word was used in OE. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . berj G. Fl. to barbe or trap horses. ready money. ala. lb. albardilla. is lb. borbollar. OFr. Gr. Gr. Fr. bar. Sp. Cotgr. open. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Thus the on. Etym. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. barbar. used 2. Port. — . also to bind or tie across. borborinha. Fr. Exposed to view. Mod. a shingle or small board. guazzolare. in the sense of fight. Cot. saddle-cloth. baragouin. The Pers. bardd. guaszare. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. the beard. to gurgle. to prattle. the edge of a shield hval-barct. to It. to rumble. albarda. or more properly (says fer. barda. and in Flanders to vociferate. small pack-saddle. a long saddle for an ass or mule. . made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. mutter. barbeau. axilla. the flap of a hat. stutter. the nakedness of a woman. barbel. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. A shrub bearing acid Diet. barS. skialldar-bard. gibberish. as well as the modern twaddle. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. to boil or bubble up . Bare. horse armour covering the front. tattle. Pr. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. barbarkama. bdla-khaneh. barda. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. barbaris. border. G. Lith. waschen. barbelin. Hindost. formerly used in the sense of tattle. to bubble or boil. Barberry. name Fr. borboglio. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. barguigner.— — Pm. A7 to the and warlike. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. barefooted Sanscr. skirt.— BARBEL merit of water. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. a bardelle. Barbican. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Bardeau. a tumultuous assembly. Cotgr. bds. bhasad. powdered all over. a rumbling. murmur . is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. a jetty or outnook in a building.— Fl. dial. Barde. uproar. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. — . Port. bardes. unqualified. /3opj3opwJu. It. scouthouse. speak confusedly. Barber. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. bdsiis. to stammer. Arab. barbier. Barder. coping. — — Hence. Mod. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. albarda'ah. grumble (Lowndes. Sp. Diez. which was of talking. tree. i. /3£pjSepi^w. to mumble or mutter words. twcEtta.' Cot. Barbel. jargon. upper chamber. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. brabble in the making of a bargain. border of a garden bed. Lucan.

the or prow of a ship. baaring. The Goth. to strive. dispute . piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. ber (ace. barmr. ON. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Prov. bere. —Bark. Gael. from an imita- Barley. brenig. limpet. dispute barattare. The older form in e. Sp.) lihtes-ern. tion of the sound. Romance barsie. Tarn baronem quam feminam. bcerme. lap. AS. barone. So ON. Bret. border. OFr. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. On the other hand. barahunda. hay-loft. a lantern. Leg. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. in Nat. baron)^ Fr. one who stirs up strife. Spectacles. also to exchange. am. baratta. Port. a. and ern. charlock. astringent. barlys {bara. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. So also ON. — Zeuss. It. barn. Acervus. As Goth. contest. Du. dial. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. giving rise to It. Sw. confusion. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. bamagh. a heap . E. baniffa. dispute. the A — Ihre. at barka. to wrangle. Bark. baimeach. the fore or after end of a boat . Cornub. then the bows pectus navis. — Barnacle. barley. as. Swab. a baking place or oven. Dan. tumult. altercation. baarn. barley. a receptacle for barley or corn. skutr. Manx bayrn. Antiq. as. put to confusion. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. husband. Kil. barge. hlaSa. bread-corn. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. Bailey. . houbartij fsnile. squabble. strife.. name being given to spectacles. mhg. limpets . berem. Provj bar (ace. bernac. kani. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. ON. — de Berri. bargain. Garlick. plants). Baron. also a boat . to cheat. berm. disorder. bosom . a boat. and hence probably (by a metaphor. To Bark. Lith. the slimy substance brewing of beer. baralha. in the Brim. Isidore in Rayn.. v. barajar. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. barja. as baces-ern. prasepe . a lap. a place. trouble. and may therefore be an Eastern word. and llysiaw. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. bern. The origin may be throat. then honoured man. adj. louzou. See formed Yeast. quarrel. baaren. corn-shed. barms. bread. i.' bardagi. bard). Dan. is simply the Bret. 2. Alam. was barlic. ThS man was not created for the woman. barki. beer. barn. barlich. baerm. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. barnacles. a cap . Ripuar. bosom. edge. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. to chop. spectacles. to all the barca. as well as Scandinavian tongues. From Fr. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. and 1. varen. . baragouin. See Barm. wine. quarrel Port. OFr. limpets. strife. herbs. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Barge. baralhar. struggle. to rout. hladi. bern. contest. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. bcern. beorcan. quant a perdu sa barja. to skin over barkandi. strife. Barn. bark . the which is equivalent of the lys in w. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. barii. Vocab. to scold. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. Leg. — battle. barafunda. a stack. chaffer. but the woman for the man. AS. entangle. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Uzen. Ibid. Du. skuta. hemlock. Port. baarm. Barbour in Jam. It. prominent part of a thing. fray. aheap. . we pass to the vert) barguigner. barnis. OSw. berm. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. as in the case of Lat. the rack or manger. Originally man. * Barnacles. barley. baratta. commonly explained from bere.Barum vel feminam. and is probably a true bartig. meta foeni. a barn. barlys. W. a heap. the G. berm hoys. barafustar. to shufSe. Gl. Bemiques. (Ihre. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. . berma. beornt. a load. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. and the word. Camus. Sp. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. w. barretor. barn. dispute . ON. Sp. dispute. a beak.^Voc^. Rayn. baron. borkr. ON. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. 2. dregs of oil.

breinej Du. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. bredhan. from cavallo.. Barratry. Bamnculus a baronet. garment still used in Morocco. iver. the braw. a bar. implement for carryAS. branches. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. which would barragdn. especially those killed in battle. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. barchent. semen non accipiens landiEL. a kind of coarse camlet. todtenbahre. baragan. (Schmeller). vel pretiosos burellos. Goth. or simply bahre. by early examples. Barrack.. beorh.' that Barrier. a bier. vir. to carry. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. It was not until the time of James I. bera. brushwood. barile. were sometimes confounded. An ing. D. qui have not much light on the pre. Formed from Fr. a horse. Nominale of the from braeckland. bara. ^Barrator. man. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. bara. staves. borov'. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. w. barraca. 26. boar. StiU he shows conclusively. signifying. facture. It should be observed that. over him. beorg. from beran.have been named from the haggling and gant. Bargus or moreland. a hut or booth.— Gibbon. bearg . braeck. a. barBombicinus. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Gael. berewe. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. barril. Baron andfemme. rolls of Parliament. hut. nobles. Fr. bouracan. The Sp. See Barter. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. to * Barragan. On chet — We — — their resemblance. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. barrack. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. ^Vocab. barrier. Sp. bier. MHG. uncultivated. ibid. berwen. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. Barrel. vair. booth. a barrel. in the first instance. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. a hiU. heap. sterilis. a word is always used in the plural number. The feudal tenants next Fr. from a tree to which a man is hanged. Fr. and not from Fr. 1. composed of dry branches ofer. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. fear. It.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. strife. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. S. sepulchre. Bohem. habeant. shed. See Bar. baronculi. also termed bannerets. — — 15th Cent. in Nat. G. as. gwr. Sp. a barrow. — Kil. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. and in several instances. a man. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. then traffick4 Barrow. 2. an obstruction. barrique. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. Joshua vii. barri. man and wife. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. barrila. a castrated hog . where baronetti is written in the printed copies. beorgan. alongside of barrow. OE. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. tomb. Bret. baronetti. G. baroncelli. AS. Sp. Gael. barague. Russ. Barrister. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. OFr. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. seem to be radically the same with Lat. as cavalcade. dispute. cover. Barren. AS. — A . became bidre. This word introduced into Fr. barrique. baronuU. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. cise formation of the word. It.' Op. fallow. bahre. bark&n. to shelter. baracca. It. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. perhaps through Prov. a. change of goods seems. like bargain. whenever Barrow-hog. whence Barrow. E. Antiq.parchanttuech. Barricade. the two names. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. mound. calico. A. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. gravis et authenticus vir. squabble. fortification. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Bern. baraignej Picard. barre.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. litter. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter.root signifying confused noise.

fornication. to baste. F. bestcn. Fr. Kil. bran. a ipgli So Turk. lattice-work. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. Sw. It. There is not one that. the a wide open vessel. It. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. bestan. or wic. cheating. mock not. and Bret. Basket.' Papias. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. bast. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Swed. basg. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. bark. basta. HoUinshed. Sp. lift me above Parnassus. Dan. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). but born in baste. lust. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. fits de bas. 516. — Bassoon. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Barbara de pictis veni patch. It. him. baste. a ftiesh. to cheat. Isidore. Sicamb. . baxoj w. chasa. Halliwell. Dan. netting. bast. humilis. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. baste. baratar. To stitch. bassin. To Bask. husk bast van koren. God it wot.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. cog. See Brattice. to deceive. found in Turkish . to Diez. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. Newman. — in Rich. tierer. pressed down. Sylvester's Dubartas. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. said Base. Al is dai. bass-matting. peel. shallow. to bind. exchange. n' is n' is bacino. piiiguis. court-yard. HaU in HaUiwell. according from Gael. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. See Bath. more noble in blood than notable in learning. to cheat. Arthur and Merlini. descended of an honorable lineage. beretun. a basket masg. from /3aR. binding. ^Is de bast. basso. stitch. mavult dicere Roma suam. then cheating. commonly A joined with the word binda. Bassus. but he dreth presently. The original meaning.). Sp. to bind. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. — hanging. To Baste. bastear. Sp. come near. rope for — . basso. foist in bargaining. a court-yard. the — — to kill those that look upon it. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. OFr. inclosure. Bast. It. low part of the Hickes in Rich. the thin skin Dan. bast-reb. also to Cotgr. Basilisk. chasa ogli a bastard. i. A fabulous serpent. ' Bosworth. baos. G. Apparently of Celtic origin. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. AS.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Bastard. plaiting of splinters basged. barter. to stitch . BassuS. over-reaching. beortun. Pl. ' He was begetin o bast. partieren. barley. crassus. Du. to baste piece of cloth. mean . would be. on a. OFr.' Gl. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. bds. ing for profit. Barton. curtus. preparatory stitching. oe. bast. Sw. fhe outhouses and yards. from bere. Fris. a deceiver. w. ohg. which covers the grain Ger. besst-u-b£nd&t. to long — a British word by Martial. baraand especially teria. low. fraud. besst. fornication. which sets up its hood when angry. bast-maatte. or running away with the ship. a halter. back. aiKcig. Fr. as the diadem of the basilisk. basgod. MHG. embastir. It. unrighteous gain. imbastire. to bind hand and foot. HaUiweU. Lend me your hands. Lap. bas. . low. PaaiKhms. beguile. bareter. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ .D. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. discourse Nay. imbastire. low note. But according And Dan. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. he. /«r<fSp. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. scale in music. basta. the manorhousfe itself. also the demesne lands of a manor. a bass rope.looketh upon his eyes. and tun. Fr. baraet (from Fr. Gr. to bargain. corn-farm. baratear. a tying. exchange. flat. truck. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Bass. pdrdt. of the same sense. . thick. a bastard. It. MHG. berewic. bdtir. Bartizan. Du. dwelling. baste. at basta og binda. leviter consuere. as It. submovet omne Lucan. It is mentioned as . to truck. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. The like property hath the iasilisk. MS. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. ibid. hoops of a cask. a king. Bass. barter.

natt-blakka. devise. bastida. to beat. Bastinado. comp. bastonada. It. It. 164). the E. 2. vespertilio. provisions. to flap.'CaB. . bdion. to Due. set up. to set on foot a war Bastion. beating. to spread bread and butter. Sc. basa. and Cot. Florio. aftonbakke. It. victuals. the night-jar or goat-sticker. Sw.— . frame. from Fr. I. 11864. to lay the Sp. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. in the Romance languages. erect.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. p. staff. Derived by Diez from iasi. nade. Sw. Fr. dial. vledermus. ment. blakta. or implement for 4 * A . Fr. which to rest the load. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . Dieiif.stick. a with a stick. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . has bastine. e. cudgelling. to whip. also to cudgel. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. Prov. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. a packsaddle. to stroke. a things prepared for future use. R. blakra. That yche blak y dar wel telle. to quilt or stitch wool into it. club. E. to beat. baston. To baste one's hide . whence ledrblaka.. dial. to cudgel. Antiq. To beat or bang soundly. Fr. All from bastir. batta lucifuga. ari instruineht for beating. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . bast. settiilg up. the bat . R. business (Altieri). * Bat. a. bastine. bak. bastir. pre. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a blockhouse. Fr. blatta. blakka. badger. Sw. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. to give him a sound bastingi 3. contriving. bakie-bird . and ditches bastion. niammal. to build. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. contrive. To donjon. to drub. to devise or begin. bastimento. bastonFr. to thrash . Pr. bastia. passage Imbasto. flyinge best. compared with blakka. like the owl and the bat. frotter. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. a barSp. Sp. also the ricado. Pm. Sp. military term of a bat-horse). Mid. to belabour. the original has corneille. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. which in the E. packsaddle. put it together. Rayn. Dan. BAT neither. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. 2. set up. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. bat. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. raise. Perhaps baska. — Bakke. bladier. a bastion. blatta. quelqu'un son roulet. to rub gently. the winged . guerra bastir. — — Fl. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. ON. bastir. vespertilio. but this is hardly satisfactory. worth (Nat. liiake. a pad. For the origin of baston see Baste. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. a sconce.baste or knock soundly. as weU as besteau.fortress or castle furnished with towers. a pad or packsaddle. beysta. blacta. 2. a bird which. blaka. disposer. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Dan. and Arabs. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. translation to a bat. iastir. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. a stick. Cot. back. basto. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. to rub. stryka. bastilde. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. 'iJipistreUo. to teach one before. iinbastire. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. is explained by Cot. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. bastione. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. . in the use of the E. to pack a saddle i. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch.Lat. — — — . bastear. For the loss of the / in back.— Bailey. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head.stitching in general. Sw. blows. to build. the clapper of a bell. baston. Supp. night-bat. bastonnir. a blow cloth for dinner. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. basta. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. bastille. boste. Cot. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching.-^ Chaucer. explains Sp. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. stryk. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose.

a stick. 2. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. . w. quhar he suld assaill.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. also. dial. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. lessen. signifying to give repeated blows. Jurgor. bdda vidjor. battere. Battery. busk. makebate. to fell. Fr. to dial. Sp. to become convalescent. remit. to beath wood Battledoor. Batten. to foment with hot applica. battere. an arrangement for giving blows. a band of armed men arranged basa. Holz bdhen. bat-en. Battalion. fashes basking in the sun squadron. In OE. Fr. . for biia sik. howis. as signifying warm baths. solbase. badda. Batter. in the case of a wall. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. term in falconry . debat. as E. quell. or a dry stick. Battle. Strife. altercation. a main battle. the root of e. and with staffslyng. to thrive. tradire. Barbour in Jam. From OFr. batador. battle was used beath wood. Pm. A Bath. batacazo. PLD. to fire or in the sun. bdt. Sw. to foment. as E. Pr. a from ON. by projections or in any licoure. to warm oneself at the fire. or break down. trahtr to It. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Chaucer. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. bludgeon. I. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. e. solen baddar. to warm oneself. made of — A made by one Batcii. and milk beaten up together. batterie. to bathe oneself. G. Hal. Fr. oneself at the A into faggots. on. The bat with which a brot bdhen. bet. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. perhaps first used adjectivally. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . to heat. gebdck. battre. made of bats. was formed bastilU. — To . battre las ailes. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. is a simple adoption of Fr. a stirrer-up of strife. heat. a battalion. a blow. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Bate. battaglia. a beating. a blow with a light instrument. to flutter with the wings. cudgel. from battre. — — — ' — . also a sun badfish. dial. — Cot. betten. from on. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. to beat. to for fighting. dial. beat down. gebdcke. to beak. pak. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. Mgy. certain bend. It. Sw. Slav. Jeddris and covering. Eggs. Gael. Flem. to cudgel. to beat se battre. to beat. It. baquetazo. dispute. Fr. Bat. I baske. wet linen in washing.Hence in the augmentative form It. badask. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. to get better. battre. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Goth. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. ON. Bret. baz. beat. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. strife. in the sun. the heat of the It. to refresh oneself in language. to betake oneself. as wood-en. dial. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Batyn. to fight. baden. batte sig. batna. whence the sun burns . a great seems related to baden as Fr. Hence pro. basa. batir. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. tagUone. Bailey. Battlement. . G. to foment. fortress or castle. To Bate. abate. Baka sik vid elld. Pm. to be profited. Plkkis. on the fire. abattre. flour. In some parts of England it is striking. bataille. baka. Du. Sp. water whether warm or cold. allay . bdhen. better. to bathe. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. battions. Fr.— . baeddu. I bathe in water viz. beat. adapted for defence. A batch as wood. hot. bdda. Florio. From bat in the sense of rod .' Palsgr. squadron. to become fat. bada. E. and as a verb. bastille. is in falling. badda. to beat. buask made like a fortress. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . To Batten. Battery. To thrive. more. to heat . Fr. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. to toast bread. Ayenst the sunne. then to warm by the application of hot water. a battle. to feed. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. and about an inch thick. a staff.Bathe.— To Bask. a washing beetle. or make debate. bat. sich bakern. a Baiffi. to warm. bake. See Better. Pr. G. gabatnan.

bal. to bark. Cotgr. baw. spotted. babiole. whence the E.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. bad. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . to bark . icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. cluster. BAWSON Swiss. was simply a field gold. to void the bowels. obstrepere. Gael. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). having a white streak down Bagdad. dung. E.. scarf. bablyn or waveryn. From Bret. excrement. or toys. mew. Formed from baw. trifle. It is all bawdy. Beaus^ent. divided between black and white. bauU. expressive of disgust. whence pouacre. to cry. — — ' Lydgate. Sc. dirt. baue. form with an initial seen in Fr. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. The It. bow-wow. 8. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. an embattled wall. Prov. is used for a sented by bau. fields.' The origin of the word is tab or bob.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. filth.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. baula. W. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. balbob. disgusting. a plot of Chaucer. sorry. to the same origin. dacchino. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. A name of the badger. Bawson. miauler. P. dial.' ' Pegma. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. bauch. bobbin or cluster of thread. rotten. bausan. a spot. guigaw. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. exactly corresponds Fr. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a tassel. vacillo.. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. s. Fr. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. a lump or cluster babhaid. to low or bellow as corn. a white mark Bawdy. E. because made of cloth of white. E. to trifle away ment. b \% bouala. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. fooleries or fond To Bawl. as Fr. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. to play the babby. toys. a horse marked with a procession. i. Descript. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. babbole. Pr. ! Bauble. Pr. on the face of animals. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. P.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. R. fe bau. horse. —R. Irel. a zan. or the animal so marked. from Fr. or sheaf of Bridel. is Bagdad stuff. Ball-seirc. to talk Lacombe. baudrdj OHG. It. Pm. ground. a gavel. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. child.— P. to vociferate. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. propugnaculum. balGael. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. bal. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. babsmall toy to play withal. ON. An analogous noisily. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. It. P. From ! an interjection of disgust. Baw — . represented by the syllable miau. tille. Cot. to me-wl. Zalli. the Swiss baben. nastiness. s. Fr. and to-tore also. librillo. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. also more Bawdekin. a horse with white legs. Fl. The word may perhaps be sticks. an — — — A — g — — — . brush faggot. ish baubles. tab. in OE. filth. balderich. It. bouaila. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. — Pm. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Bagdad. faisceau. In like manner Grisons filthy. OFr. an object. also the canopy carried part of his body. bow (as in our nursery Diez. instead oi s. Swiss Rom. trifles. fagot. from Baldacca. spot. pie- . oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. lewd . to make the noise Baudrick. dente. and Sp. baffe. a tassel or hanging bunch . and authorities in note. pegma. 2. Cot. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. Piedm. c. javelle. bau. Filthy. sword-belt.guage). OFr. Batylment of a wall. Ball. ball. ballach. or Cot. E. speckled. Baldrick. a dog). Jam. the white of his leg or foot. baugant. whimwham. Hal. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. the face. baubare. baban. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. bobine. dirty. Lat. a lump. Bavin. zano. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. Cloth of gold. baudrat. to 53 manure the To baw. a belt. collar. Fr.

—Diez. 1859. It. bay. to betray. baja. Sp. in order to keep the enemy in check. dividere. The — Fr. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. house . Swab. to mark. From the former verb is the It. is perhaps not directly from Lat. 25. the cod or husk of beans or the like. baca. and the To bark as a dog. window-sill. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. bay. Abide. A stag is said to stand at bay. and keeps them in check for a while. or window ' (in Fortification). Feb. watching intently. F. . To Bay. so called from its bearing bays. Arts. It. — Schmid. a hole. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. when. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. The word bay. a berry. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent./^ bau. to split. baiare. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. Fr.' Bailey. bate. Such Antaeus seemed to me. from an imitation of the sound. beothach. Drayton in R. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. living Ir.— Stalder. life. See At Bay. a cluster of bacon. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste.c. bilyega. the laurel-bay. Sp. baya. to open as a blossom. to gape. would give but a partial explanation of the expression.. the world Gr. tradire to Fr. Cot. A hollow in the 'line of coast. desiring. bagaid. a mark. ist. It. Earth — By Nature made to till. Lat. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. to keep at a bay. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Bay-tree. berries. S. Mod. white. bahia. Q. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. to be Bohem. especially beans. expresr sion tenere a bada. yellow . baie. Fr. open the mouth. barn of two bays. baccello. or berries. Lat. baionette. Gael.. he turns and faces his pursuers. beonj Gael. window . stare. living thing . Prov. bijel. weary of running. badarc. aux dehniers abois. &. that from ba. — A At Bay. gate. Bayonet. Swiss beie. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. badia to Sp. badarse. Gr. which however. . as they do not obstiruct the light or air. waiting . AS. Bay. See Bald. siege of Bayonne in 1665. baye. BAY marked with bjly. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. &c. |8i'os. Fr. to amuse stare a bada. overture. —F. or recess in an apartment in modern times. OSp. 1. bde. a beast. baier. bdcr. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. the step is the same as from It. bayo. See Bawl. buidhe- The ruadh. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Catalan hadia. abbabayer. &c. alive. bilyejiti. —Bay-windo'W. grapes or nuts. beo. It. Fr. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. husk. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. or at bay. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Q. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. dehiscere . large window in a handsome . It has been shown under Abie. baga. Fr. as gazing. stood watching him stoop. It. to open. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. w. Sp. bayen-stein. From Cat. Holland's Pliny in R. badius. baca. bacca. BauSfi)/. to keep one waiting.' — — 54 bald. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. bahia. berry. trahir. like a pie. at his last gasp. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. baher. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. bajo. corrupted into Bow-window. Vielp. or to have been first used at the Cot. Bay. to stand watching one. . from badar. ing-floor. by the term rendre les abpis. bialo. laurel of the ancients. * To Be.—Journal Soc. baer. the cod of peas. as if to signify a window of curved outline. to iiitent nected PoL white. batibari. put to his last shifts. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. buidhe. Gael. . Serv. arose two forms of the verb. Piedm. Fr. and zndly. BE Probably conRuss. a'uno. life. bioth. bai. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. hddhe-dhonn. to on anything. a dagger.

baun. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G.' Hall's Chron. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. as well as f& or fav. to produce young. prodigy bauhnjan. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Bret.fuis5e. bead. Chapters on Lang. bohnej ON. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. Fr.ad. Goth. vii. beans. boom. Gr. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. Moreover the name. a beak. bidello. It. signifying a point. Beak. to nod the head. a tree. It is BEAR SI court. a curtsey. Slavon. faba is Kvavoq. bokan. beck. W. according to of Sanscr.' Suetonius in Diez. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. into a snjall river. a single bean. Bret. — : Beam.. Gael. into France. Thus the final en. beic. pig. baum. a presage. fd or faVf beans. which is. like most nautical terms. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bauhan. pierced for hanging on a string. bohne. N. bdkna. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. signifying individuality. 54. To Bear. backe. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. The immediate shore of the Menage. «va\ioQ. or beic. becco. Lat. Gael. G. Bean. Miss Gurney in Philolog. a hill. or any action done with a pointed thing. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Du. . A Esthon. Fr. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. See To Bid. badmr. and Lat. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. ohg. The wild beast. bank. Boom. Farrar. be. —F. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. to nod . Your hat no lib that place you put him in. beacen. Beacon. Gael. bidan. AS. Bear. — bedeau. stock. Trans. bakkje. not applied to the yelping of dogs.fui. bean. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. fero. bM. bearti.to have a French origin. the part overflowed by the tide. ffci. . G. A two-year old nephew of mine p. bar. He says. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. bakke. as. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. gebed. a nod OHG. ffaen. salve his hurts. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. would say. — to bow or nod . * Beagle. or however. It forms a. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Beckon. E. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. to wait-. Catalan becar. a single bean. however. bee. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. beacnian. -phxr. support. bydel. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Goth. post. or breathing. vol. l^ax. Beadle. rising ground. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. a prayer. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. faba. Be. fromthe danger. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. fora-bauhan. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit.from AS. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Sw. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Beach. It. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. The origin seems preserved in E. The nutu significare. a tree. ON. g. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Pardoner's Tale. was introduced from England sea. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. on.fer-re j Gr. tale of prayers or doxologies. Hackluyt in R. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. bob. AS. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. — Bellenden in Jam. to wait. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. bairan.' adheres to the root. an attendant. nokkima. Q wait upon him. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. bek. ON. . W. atUndre. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bedm. beugler. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. Netherlands or North Germany. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. to beckon. bagms. OSax. a sign. to bellow. as. beic. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. to carry. Beck.

iida. con. proper. bavec. bcek. to happen. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. proper . bebrus. Thcem. Lat. to happen. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. fiber. suitable. Fr. G. produce. ON. e. ziemen. to fall in with our bavard. a bank. It. a brook. but now a river only. godum with ON. Fr. pens unmixed evU. bur. nod or sign. convenient. to happen. Goth. fitly . a lip. ON. birth. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. bring forth. I do thee pray. get J ' He got very angry. to wade through the water like a beaver. Beauty. 1. Diez. bestiaj Gael. to please. bard. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. Sp. which. to those goods which endure for ever. badi. to G. it is probable that here also the to become. G. See Bank. and on. chin. fallinn. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to be a part of his to. R. Bo. to hem. bart. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. and also in that of birth. to come to or upon. Chaucer. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. bobr. It. agreeable. obtain. befall. riviire. bekkr. to attain to the lot of any one. . opportune. whence baveux. bearing. Thus OY. seemly. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. ON. to shore. living. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to sleep on. baurthei. tidy. G. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Beckon. pleasing. biber. to arrive at. bave i. from baver. to fall.AS. decorous. the beard. now confined To Become. comely. bave. The OFr. Cal. beauts. agreeable. gelimplic. bequem. bello.of being very angry. to happen. perhaps a living thing. our taste. Secondarily applied to a hat. place to lie down. bel. bobrowai. Russ.S6 fero. AS. 2. or a feeling to be gratified. Bosworth. bava. covered the face. border. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. boroda. name applied originally to the bank then proper . dushmak. decent. bach. beatanj It. The moveable part of a helmet. Prov. E. happening as it ought. As rivus. rying. E. AS. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. See Beacon. to carry. becuman. fit. The quadruped. a.getiman. to dabble . Beck. befit. gabaurths. brook . riviera. receive. — A — A — . baviire. See Bat. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. from the same in the sense of bear2. to the brook itself. limpan. to bear children. as the babble of the child. when up. Lat. To load with ornament. or special purpose. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat.— Kiittner. to the good hapHalbard. gebank. — . The fitting or suitable. Do no To It fallith favour. an notion of being convenient.' ' He became very angry. because made of the fur of the beaver. bellus. R. edge. E. the ece thurhwuniath. i. and to acquire. to appertain. G. gefallen. to be fulfilled. Lat. formerly a happen. Bedizen. a bank. baba. to be incumbent upon him. Now the Beast. limpian. W.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. judgment. dress with unbecoming richness . BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. barba. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. He becom on sceathan. barf. if sound of a sharp blow. e. Fr. blast. to fall mode of being. babrad. See becymth anfeald yvel. bedr. Boeth. brada. behkr. Perhaps from Pol. suitable. to happen. slobber. timan.' every way suited to a prince. biivre. o. Beck. burdr is used in the sense of a car. pretty. talkative. That thou mayest attain Goth.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. den. Lith. Beat.' are equivalent expressions. as. Dan. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2.we call the arrangement becoming. becuman. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bekommen. venient. In like manner condition.to clothe to slobber. the latter are derived It. from beau. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. Slav. i. Prick of Conscience. Fr. brook. bib or slobbering cloth. ON. duty. tidig. On the same principle. beo. bett. Beaver.fit. while from Shep. Lat. to live. dize or dtzen. ting. taste. or river. nothing to thy name make. fitanimal. limplice. to get. Fr. and Fr. G. connected with ripa. battere. to assume a certain form or Turk. OSw. handsome. byw. g. byrcti.

buk. sang vermeilh betatz. bedskiissen-bUren. erroneously modified in form. beetle also signified the impiti. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. bovis. speach. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. buche. AS. Ant. &c. Fr. turn.' the last word corresponds to cofly . a pad or cushion). which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. pital of St Mary. also the bite or sting of a bees. bytl. betel. kivih. calleBedlam. to become Beech. imperative pi. thick. Lat. beer. It. used for boull. cozen. doubtless.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Fr.ON. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. ^. from blood. waarin. a stinging bieUe. . qui de lecto surgere non potest . in Schmeller. prigione. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. to knock. a malsense of drink. duplicated form of the root. pettiriso. drink. . crespir. The beer al for te shenche bate. thick. an ox. batAfter mete in sale. Cot. KXlvoTTiT^e.^ drink.— B. Dan. garden-herb. beest. to poordma. a paviour's beetle batail. of beatmg. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. boytle. to colour with lime-wash.. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. a bed-tick. biest-milch. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. the ox. the meat of spinach. Esthon. 'La Gl. a Properly a cover that biiren.ing of the word is curdled. AS. prisons Venet. boeuf. Bethlehem. . drink. a pillow case. E. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. which also 2. to and ale. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. bukva. i. Fr. ProBeer. whose face is clotty. cited by Diez.'— GL ^Ifr. madhouse. the loppered sea. Bee. For that was law of lend. Bed-ridden. .— JI14. Horn._t from the root pi. It. to drink. Fr. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. I A pillow-beer. bably named from the destructive quali| T. to flatten In OE. Originally. bos. to change . and in driving piles. Rom. bedawi. Gael. wedges. a wasp. water. a agulatum in the original Latin.D. a cup or implement for AS. 57 — Palsgr.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. G. a wandering Prov. beost. woman that is newly delivered. to beat bossel. bitela. extant in Bohem. vaar. buka. beach-each. an inhabitant of the desert. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. whence familiar. may be shpped on and off. I put the flax upon it to spin. Fr. briest. Arab. G. It. a pillow-case. from Lat. a horse-fly . The same metaphor is seen in Fr.' So Gr. from leberen. cugino.possible. cow has calved. But possibly bedizen 2. byst. bette or blettej Lat. Grimm. from risan.). paralyticus. cushion-cover . beach. to fall. from the hos. sela que environna la terra. also bienst. Bav. from jtst-. stakes. as the milk of a that purpose in London. and lebermer in G. clog for a dog b'oteln.(paddi. bet. to coagulate. Fr. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. /SXirov. Bedouia. an Beetle. mars betada. E. poculum. beta. G. biene. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. * Beestings. Let. curded or beesty. ' MordiThe Lat. Cot. I dysyn a dystaffe. case. ris. fagus. 1156.D. a wasp. a cover. The meanpainting. Fin. by-flugaj G. Confined to bed. in Nat. The first milk after a dizen. Lat. Slav. de Fierabras in Diez. Bernese. turn (a garment). bibere is a re. as. The honey-producing insect. bove. pude-vaar. desert. Beef. Gr. Pl. a mallet. PI. to curdle or lopper. to turn. to rough- cast. on. GaeL bior. 1. kiissen-biere. briesch-milch. may be from K. cogionare. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. ir'm. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater.cz//aj. comb. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. fall. Beet. the biter. taglio. knock. beyki. as in It. trees in a forest . to twist poorma. badigeonner. AS. . Beetle. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. bedde-redirj ohg. bitel.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. piwo. g. P1. a clapper. bbtel. by the analogy of bedaivb. bossen. bletumj Gr. 1 to drink. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. In a passage of an Old Fr. beutel. cousin. blow or thrust. Pett. red curdled Arab . to parget or rough-cast . tree. D. translation beOj. door. 1. a drink potus. biiren. . a bee.

from whete G. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. Du. The tother seand the dint cum. to begin.pose. a — wedge. ' ' . a little bag). to be acquire. 25. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. chisel. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Political Songs. ornamented phoc. a beggar-boy. on the bag. a beggar . Schm. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Nov. although it ' the future. Vocab. vir mendi. 1430. to arise. He did alight. Deutsch. ysgrepanu. a scrip euXaiciJoi. is com. to cleve. to begaan. to be born. cans. can. Of brede full ycrammed. onginnan. a scrip. Mundart. begging. on the tramp. When Q. viii. image is cleft out of the trunk. beginning.' for ye shall lament and weep. Lollards. ' Begone. sel. be^nnan. It. 168. to take. a beggar. It will . y/yvo/iat. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. one after that other. gigno. steinbosil. in D. incipere. a wedge for cleaving wood. Cold-begone. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. 142. gen. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. a stone-cutter's chisel. Goth. & go a begging.D. woe-begone. but probably erroneously. iv. — yivsaiQ. ken. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. above quoted to get beaten ON. yiyvo/uat. P. yivwajcw.n. Creed. or Of a pure poor man. P. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. su with gold. ykvog. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. From w. as alighting is a momentary operation. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. touched with emotion — . lapidicinus. ip AS. V. Florio. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . pose-pilte. literally. V. ysgrepan. oppressed with woe. begger. fangen and Lat. beitel. tale. two betels —a grete oke. 'Dz. yivofiai. in Lat. ' . is formed pocair. to get children . seizing. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. beissel. a wallet. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Bruce. at geta talad. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Ancren Riwle. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. ken.quently used in OE. beriolare.' about undern he got down. whence the E.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. 40. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . in E. appears improbable at first. P. Lith. word. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. giving in Gr. 'ex quo. Into the are D. signifying to conceive. 58 BEG BEGONE G. kind. a bag or poke. genus. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. Skinner's derivation from bag. — Stillingfleet. &c. In Luc vi. P. AS. baigeir. 'Aboutin undern monly. So from Gael. beitel. 2. aginnan. to beg. Du. yivtrri. To Beg. P. hags. affected. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. not began to alight. duginnan. Gr. gan. of Gr. air a . Barbour. and Lat. also called Bigots. beis- plement driven by blows. Mod. taking up. a bag . chap. Beghardus. Fr. a bag. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai.3. capere. P.' A. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. OHG. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. to bear young. to reduce him to beggary. &c. 1867.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. beutel. can. P. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. it is both to acquire and to beget. To Begin. V. on further examination. covered with gold D. P. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. P. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. a chisel. to go a begging.— . and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. to know. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. To produce children is to acquire. ytyvwfT'Kw. Du. P. bag {baigean. referred gan this Erie alight. to be able.bag full of the G. Si'Xa/coc. but in the same language from poc. anfangen. krapszas. bertola. origin. by the help of wedges and beetles an N.

hcefwa in seed. 17. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . The Lat. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. Sw. ufhaban. vow. But. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. tion. G. on. G. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to bers of the body. Kiittn. At the back of The re. AS. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. servare. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. habere. habban. when the verb will hoof. hevja. Aan iemand bid one welcome. behefe. to regard. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . and their senses intermingle. and (as Fr. zu etwas gehalten haitan. OE. to hold. behold. hofwa. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. garder. gehat. to have. from tragen. to bring forwards. bound. to command. the distance of anything. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to hit the mark. AS. to halten. by the compound observare. To Behold. to carry.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. keeping. to lift. to carry corn into the barn . hovast. hevja. to feed. guardare. to turn one out . K. to heave.' Richardson. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to cast or throw. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. se porter) to fare well or ill. us-hafjan. Robert in Warton. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa.to vow. or purpose. a follower. to behave. beholden to him. to be obliged to one. behind. to name.for throwing it. is supported by many analogies. the equivalent of E. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. to raise. behoof.— . right. vow. to be well pleased out. to hold. gehalten seyn. to the equivalent of Du. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to gehouden. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to be be named. heita. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to vow. commonly expressed. furtherance. or the hence advantage. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. To place are most naturally ex. exhort. to be obliged to do a thing. — Behest. The seyn. G. betragen. have the sense of calling or naming. hafwa ram. N. to vow. AS. Thus in Finnish the heave. to R. Command. or necessary. to keen or hold. what he wishes another to do . observe. to keep. to carry. G. To look steadily upon. solicitum esse. promise or a command. Goth. And so from hania. promise . invoke. hafwa. healdan. to look.). To Behave. to keep. obliged. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. seeing to. zijn. to be fit. It. hafjan. laborare. hatan. behces. beperson addressed. han- — js Kil. behaviour. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. behat. heave. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. AS. to call. to call. Plautus. nittaa. taking notice or care of (Gloss. tail. what is so required. G. advantage. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. behete. hces. injunccommand. gecall. Sw. heeten willekem. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to be named. hantyri. hcef tig bort. gehaben. to promise. to command.the figure of throwing at a mark. gehouden. to carry. —Hest. as in the case of E. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. adjust. keeping. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. take heed of. ward. fixed upon any object). according as the * To Behove. premi curi alicujus rei. take yourself off. the name adapt. to take away. portarsi. to tend. to look upon it as true . and the E. behatan. ifl fact. use. to be suitable or becoming . hove. hafwa bort. at the tail of. R. Paladino. to follow. the two verbs seem radically the same. Sw. to meet. to lead. AS. is also found in the sense of looking. to fit. promise. ge' hatan. G. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. heeten. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to lift. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. The It. is on the top of or opposite to. To be expedient. hafwa.

Sw. promiser. to praise. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. ON. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. — mankind. to lay be- around. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. precious. bealcettanj OE. beffroi. glauben. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to put a high price or value on. to resound. legsel. properly belonging to the church tower. under the forms belfredum. to boke. bealcan. we have Goth. to praise. Fr. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. AS. Hence to simple approbation. stand. to praise. . to permit. Fr. bell.D. to lay the cable round the bits. Q. in nautical language. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to to make A Templorum campana boant. garnish. laven. a.D. b'ola. loven. Det er ofwer er hofwa. to hit hafi. . and. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman.. Pl. to express approval. bounds. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. bettifredo. Then. to promise or engage. a vessel made for dishonour.alyfan. are other modifications of the same imitative root. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. beffroit. boare. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. orloven.Lat. to der swaren lave. fitness. ornament. leave . built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. Fair sir and Fair lady. is an easy progress. P1. To Belay. to belay. galaubs. bercvrit. bulken. laven. is (Sternberg). from mhG. and Du. to sanction an arrangement. appearing in Mid. tain a certain end. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . to cry out bell. if a narration. a little shed. giving leave or permission.Lat. It. bellow. esteeming good and valid. a watch tower. to believe. beau sire and bel dame. Pl. praising. Du. portion. — .D. certain rate. to fix a price upon one's wares. behove. frid. then. OFr. to estimate them at a To believe. ON. . to give leave. aim. Du. reach. to a loud noise. Northamptonshire. to bolk.. berfroi. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to give leave Dan. to give leave. esteemed . range. resonare. on. and E. bervrit. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . consent. Bell. and E. overspread. mark ON. belief . See Gain. hesfa. distance to which a piece will carry. laubjan. are innate . — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. fringe. In the middle voice hofwas. — Diicange. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. with the consent of the heirs.D. reputation. bellan. To praise is essentially Xo prise. galaubjan. loven. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. Du. to be required for a certain purpose. locus securitatis Schilter. praise. lov. battefredum. bialla. beset. or high estimation. or house. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. bolken. honoured. for purposes of low estimation . to befit. To Believe. In Mid. a tower for defence . a tower. belja. promising. allow. verloben. Goth. were civil terms of address. if a promise. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. gelyfan. The word be- Belfry. to roar. Du. to sound loudly . an implement for making a loud noise. is used in the sense of approving. peal. to make it fast. moderation. permission. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. —F. and bergan. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. bylja. to promise. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. then.. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . 6o BELAY BELL loven. G. border. loben. turris. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. To Belch. ley/a. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. permitting or giving leave. to believe. lofa. met. to bellow. satisfaction. cela est audessus de votre portde. measure. From AS. ungalaub kas. beleggen. bertefredum. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. on. lyfan. or a sconce. true. OHG. leaf geleafa. filu-galaubs. to extol the worth of anything. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. to protect. AS. Another application of the same word is in Pl. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to believe. erlauben. pro3.

To belong is thus to reach up to. or a It is times the to signify services. skin. ray. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. bolch. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. a speaking well of one. Bent. cod or husk of pulse. To Belong'. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Bav. Belt. a benefit. a blessing. ' . See I . ball. from another modification of the word for bubble. See Bind. Gael. gwaldas.. Benign.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. well. becwathan. benedicere. incense of Java. bellows. Lat. to come to the crown belangen. OUG. welt of a shoe. Javanese perfume. Benzoin. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. balg. To Bend. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. the skin of those animals that factor. . belly. to stretch it on a frame. benehusk. attinere. Beneath. belt. a accusative. loubdn djawt. dirt. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. .' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines.' — Hie fimus. a bellows. one who does good. bell. vulgarly the belly. to bend a bow . are stripped off whole blase-balg. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. The ing-skin." — — . which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. to concern. blister balgan-snamha. poX^ri. pervenire.— Belly. Fr. balg. is a kindred form. To Benum. wallet Benefit. rushes. from which is also bulbus. a good deed. to reach. to attain belangen. vulva. or simply djawt. has assumed a plural form. G. ON. from Arab. bolg. to make bilbil. Fr. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. Lat. Eenison. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members.videtur. skin. a water-bubble builge. to do good to one .polch. ' I beraye. bellows. OFr. attinere. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. binsen. Ptg. Quoth. to ring. bilbila. beneison. . as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . langen. To Bequeath. fens et hie liraus. Bench. an inflated Lat.' Palsgr. benedictio {bene^ and dico. G. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bimaissen. Kil. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. benir.' The term had been previously planation. I marre a thyng. border. generous. to arrive at. to. a round or bubble-shaped root. pertinere. est matris in lucem editus. from benedictio. to belong. kind. a border. a blow. Benefice. benaigon. bienfait. a leather bag. to use words of good omen. pertinere. means seeds of plants. — Ducange. pod. From OFr. G. bellows. . benjoin. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. as. w. ON. bless. bcelg. disposed to oblige. Du.Fr. to bless. bendaj as. se bander. benignus (opposed to malignus). Lat. hem. needs no ex. I araye. — See Numb.pinuz. Gael. belly. bolg. belliJ Lat. See Nether. is The word balg. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Benefactor. Lat. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. bilbil-goda. G. the word. volva. because bcelg. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. ^To Beray. wallet. pino3. bander un arc. Fr. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. on. or fyle with myre. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. to attain to. binssen. benejicium. — ray. balteus . Benedico. Bret. to touch one. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. In E. to concern. to touch. . . a spring. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Lat. bendan. bandoir. leather sack. belch. bimpsen. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. rise against external force . . was in Mid. or sometimes louban. Lat. a kindness. to say. Benediction. I soyle it or araye it. blast-bcelg. from cwcsthan. Benignant. Dozy. Gum benjamin. attingere. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. gelangen. taken absolutely. by itself. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. belgr. welt of a shoe gwald. the womb. benefacere. hence with ashes. to hold to one. Was das belanget. — root consisting of concentric skins. J'emboue. to hallow. Sw. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. bene/actum. See Bank. bags or bellows. to exert force. I say). a bellows . benjoim. as concerning that. to become one's property . bag. pouch. fyle To dirty.

as. amendment.— VixHsm. as. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. person to lie in. p. Sw. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. boteith Goth.ot-i. advantage. the origin of which is to be found in ON. . vi.fish the other hand. as in growth. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. to to deprive of.— Hal. improve. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. So too Yorkshire arf.iooA. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. to be-place. berwham. to light the fire . roe. fearful. profit. roju. From abet. Devon. and also to entreat. — amendment. boeten. in the sense ctf beria. to amend. or. buttafuoco. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . It is the restore fyr betan. boutefeu. to fall with roisto. mud. I from lew. Bestead. bota. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. dust rojahtaa. besje^ Sanscr. to the place boarded off in a. Du. fall with sound. to word is shelter. to strip. ropahtaa. G. what does it boot. ^•n. stealth from steal. — Biglotton. it seems hard to separate as. an incendiary. to seek. The proper meaning of the bale. to cast.• 62 Antiq. baete. Hfence backing. Best. botesward. barth may be for barf. sets fire to. berwe. to fire a funeral pile of . OE. peto. bdt. E. G. a fire. dial. See Reave. as bouter selle. barfham. the guardian . reparation. So Lat. — Chaucer. small eatable fruit. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. rods. as conversely a besom is called broom. to put on the saddle. but it is specially applied mister. AS. ^akka. R. betan. So roto rattle down. jnore.irova. repair. E. bacca. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. making better. to kindle the fire. a horse collar. — bota. BEREAVE Wall. bdt. an incendiary. berry. to defend. AS. put forth. Beere. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. earh. Besom. position. arwe. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. noise. place. from AS. BETE dirty'.X. supporting on the one side Lat. to make it. to give a place to. the side bhakshya. Fr. basjaj Du. sweepings. stede. basya. bet. dirt . To Beseech.t. Tusser. To seek something from a person. barthless. baete. Kil. . Beit. dung . Du. advantage. dirt. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. as Du. To Bet. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. better. besnij Pl. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to make better. rubbish. ship for a make amend. bereafian. — . lay out. R. boeten. besein. Fr. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. AS. because used for making besoms. bal oppbota. Zeitschr. to entreat. to mend. Esthon. betan. supply. On the other hand. as. and Du. Berry. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. earg. preferably. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. besIn sen. to thrust. make better . Tha het he micel fyr betan. beseech. fyrbotare. put. but in practice. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to supply a want. to on the other Goth. a place . burrow. Du. Goth. from grow.D. boeten. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. is to perform a serviceable office to him. one who shelter. To bete his Jam. Du. what does it better a man. eld up- On is to be placed A — . stow. think more probable. scopse spartis. besen. to To Bereave. to exercise on a definite object. The origin is AS. or the space kept clear betan. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. p. from It. same word with the provincial barth. The dry. encouraging. or to bestead one. might have been . roju. * To Bete. To Bestow. as. Grose. seems twigs or rods. protect . to thrust. See Better. hva mannan. reparation. besmas. 3. ariierf to 113. bouter. reafian. beorgan. and on which the wager is laid. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. bur-we. lewth. sheltered from the wind. Ihre. to stand one in good stead. Sw. Beet. vol. compared with bargham. houseless.—^fake. a berry. To Gl. of ffeed a fire. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. broom twigs.bhaksh. brem-bessen. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. bat. Fin. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. bestow. solicit. To help. * Berth. Rob. When men of mekeness him baet. buttare.

88. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. by two. Fl. bibere. On the same principle ON. in the middle of two. or with again.' Dialogue on Witches. Pl. thy speech bewrayeth thee. awry. It. larks. To boot in coursing (i. tradere. find it good: Goth. tima. afford. his eyen sheen. for measuring angles. in the same way Lat. Better. from Fr. amiddes. to Hence It. r'ojer dig. gezimet eines dinges. Between. beva. betriigen. The as. tima. against. G. Sahissais. Chaucer. to fall. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. make manifest. an instrument opening like a a thing. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. betwuxt. a traitor. riigen. It. roebucks. Goth. from invadere. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. e. whence beveraggio Fr. Dii. suitable. Slant. To vouchsafe. is treason. which may be compared as to form with amid. E. betray. Hence last G. R. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. has — In a like sense tanie>i. it bewrays itself. A — drink. e. of quails. Det sig sjelft. as envahir.D. i. Fris. *Ah. E. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. In like manner from twain is fothied between. fitting. some attention. /alia. amidst. to happen. OE. his mouth. treachery. two. zimet. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Ober D. trakir. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. pair of compasses. bevde. AS. of pheasants. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. are commonly to one's lot. R. dispose (whence schicksal. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Friar's Prol. In like manner folissais. gatiman. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. Fr. to stir. a drinking . And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. as trahissons. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. R. betst. moveable and compass branches. to deliver up in breach of trust. traitre. — of the authorities. bat. batista. better. Du. proficere. Goth. not to have the heart to give up a thing. AS. betwuh. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. vrohjan. verbs in ir with a double ss. beverage. Car son umbre si le trahit. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. BETEfiM translated. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. betera. E. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. order. advance. kein leben mehrin no signs . to fall Some call it a bevel. Mich self a good glass of wine. a different form of twa. ON. Fr. spritigs from schicken. regen. From the former of these are AS. obeish. i. from Lat. dir. to accuse. tweoh. — Betwixt. beuvrage. Sw. more. Bav. lot). ON. betweox. deign. &c. a bevy. Now the stirring of an object. to make forwards. to drink . Lat. best. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. e. wrogia. — that schickiich. as one would have it fall. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. better. roja. find in one's heart. . which are from a tradire and totally different' root. to happen. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. betweohs. tradire. better. be fitting or suitable. twain. the being pushed to the frbnt. Buveau. -to appoint. To Beteem. Pl. are there Regt R. bevere. I approve of beveau. gesiemen. trahison. Percy Soc. taemen. trahir. to Teem. Bevy. Best. taemen.— . betweoh. by a final sh. to cheat. from. bedriegen. Cot. become. and thence twegen. obdissais. From It. said he. evidence of life. to discover. baet. G. fate. deem suitable. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. polish. betaemen. Dit tungomal rendered in E. in the middle of twain. To Bewray. The inflections of Fr. To Betray. as from obdir. bouter davantaige. Fr. springs from ON. batizo. wreia. traditor. sloped off. a brood. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage.D. Golding's Ovid in R. fallinn. what does It is forward him. bet. G. betest. Thus from dbahir. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. ziemen. suitable. Ik tame mi dat nig. is used for the — R. trahissais. x. — See To Bete. abash j from polir. to deliver tip. to deceive. In the water anon was seen His nose. progress. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. ruogia. Fr. zemen. bet. G. as tlock.

to drink much. to glide or slip as upon.two. Bice.a. to stir. a slabbering-bib. — crooked. Bezel. stock still. babbi. biberer. sbias. a bezle. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. whence Du. sbiagio. crooked. lips. kwijl-bab. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. the basil Sc. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. to shake. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. biberon. evident. makes ble.D.' bibble. inferiority. bickeler. besanca. to it evident to sense. to move. . petit-lait. to make tongue Du. one who drinks in excess. snout. the word became bddizahr. sloped. to well up with Cot. bis. An inferior blue. To skirmish. kwijlen. bihais. Cat. oblique. Ci^. misFr. Fr. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. to Jam. to purl. Piedm. aslope. a bibber. roggle. sbieco. sbriscio. To drink hard. beregen. Dan. Sard. Bibelsworth in Nat. which good bibbeler. bezling or skueing. To Bezzle. See Wriggle. Fris. used in precisely stone . It. bark of which paper was first made. its clothes. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Hzzle f Deldkar in R. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. to slaver or drivel. To bicker in NE. dial. to give signs of life. Fr. To Bibble. a Galilean. I Wallon. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. Biseau. in two ways for duis. per\'erted belief. to the stirring of their conscience. dial. to creep or crawl sideling. (according to the Fr.s bellum for duellum. Lat. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. of the sliced off. bavon. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). sik beregen. Fr. Bisect. sliding. OE. is explained to clatter. foul weather. as an eel or a snake. pddzahr. like guzzle. to a fight with stones. b&zahr. winding or crawling in and out. Ant. in Fr. Sardin. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. —Bickering'. Bib. rogge. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. The train of thought is then. bickel.as in Biped. It. kwijllap. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. bisdare. it becomes (Jz-. or by any rapid motion. Oh when shall I bizzle. expelling or preserving against. bibaculus. a fragment bieco. a sloping edge. to tipple. Sp. E. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. . to cut in two. to dispute. to sip. Diet. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. by throwing of stones. Cat. bes-azur. biais. sbiesso. When the edge of a joiner's trickle.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. or in and out. tailU en biseau. wrogen. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . sbiasciai. ice . to stir up . and zahr. liwell. sbiescio. sbrisso. wrangle. to stir. — Bi-. whey count . pible. Gr. aslope sbisciare. bebble. Fr. It is especially applied in Sc. convicts thee of being drink. presence.or from obliquus. An excellent Basil. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. reveal. to slaver . in him. poison.D. Probably. —Dozy. Misc. Uprogen. Hal- — do something aslant. 172. slanting . babbefore the eyes. bias-wise. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Fr. though such a change of form would be very unusual. sbrisciare. baviere.{ioin dua. bickelen. love first begins to life signs of him. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. bestemps. In Arab. bickai. Mantuan. Pl. Bible. biaiser. two- footed. Bias. the papyrus. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. The It. wraggeln. To Bicker. biascio. /3i/3Xof a book originally. has a singular stone-picker.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Jamieson. In comp. edge of a plate of looking-glass. To Bib. asure-bice (Early E. it were the mouth. bisel. bickel-sieenken. metaphor). Pers. 78). Fr. biascia. bible. . from pdd-. Hal. Schiitze. sbrissare. Yes. to tipple. bending. discover. baverole. or kwijl-slab. sbiscio. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. bescompte. rogt un bogt sik nig. Bezoar. he is Wtb. slippery. shows the P1. bring under ' Thy accuse. to be a paring. to stir. biberen. him. . Prov. Piedm. Du.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Lat. beslei. . bibo. twice. a stone-hewer . specially in a bottle. biax. notice.

seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. praebere.t. To Bid ' Big . from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. bced. and consequently ordering or reGoth. the meaning of bid. to look for. R. to E. porrigere. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. It must be observed that the word bidja. to look for. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. an entire skin. to build. bidjan. to offer. anleta. may plausibly be derived from Goth. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. G. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. Kil. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bugan. bulky. bolginn. to forbid . beadle. The loss of the / gives Dan. pray.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. 1. AS. The ON. related to big or bug. offerre. in the sense of ask for. bend. The 'La. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. — prepare. biegen. bua. explaining the Sc. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. besides the professedmonks and nuns. qucero. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. With respect to logical pedigree. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. ON. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. beidast. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bow. . twice. From Gr. bulge. einen vor Gericht bieten. Big. The ON. bouwen. and Gael. proud. as. ON. bugt. to bend. or bad. bilge or bulge.Leta). bauen to cultivate. a swelling. Wallace in Jam. to solicit. Bight or Bought. to forbid . byggan. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bo. rising up. repair. Bigamy. Analogous expressions are G. bedun. pressing on one's notice." buque with E. to curve. bygga. swelling. ON. bolgna). without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. quiring something to be done. the belly of a ship. ewes. becoming in Lat. to build. or third order of penitence. Bigot. are also used in the sense of asking for. buga. Hence Sc. to move quickly. to belly. A bjudan in anabjudan. and the Sw. to ask. to dwell. to presimpler pare. 2. which is stiU. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. verbieten. to arrange. To bid the banns. bulge. swaggering. to pray one to dinner. who. bat . bath. to offer it to public notice. bigan. byggia. Jam. boa. G. bidan. from belgia. bidill. abidan. from seek. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. England for swollen. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. from bidan. inhabit. The original Swollen. to build G. Du. gebeden j G. consisting both of men and women. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. forwards. spelling seems to used in the N. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. praestare. to bend. The . Bickelen. Compare also Sp.' Pope in R. Two verbs are here confounded. biddan. bis and in comp. OSw.uddered len heart. faurbjudan. bead. To Big. OSw. belly. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. BIGOT beidan. build. to have one called before him. BID of stone. W. be bug. to pro- command. to cultivate. Palsgrave in Halliwell. a flexure. as G. bieden. by seek and beseech. bi-. to inflate E. A pose to one to come to dinner. to start out. to bulge. beodan. to inhabit. to offer one the wish of a good day. bog. of More ' in Richardson. gebodenj G. G. bag. athird class. to ask. called the tertiary order. AS. balg. bug. ON. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. . bit- bidja.peto. Big-swol- . bugne (answering to ON. and yajiBui. belly. bidel. or. iiQ. has leta. inhabit Du. bulk. a suitor. to bicker. ' Bug as a Lord. to swell. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bend of a shore or of a rope. AS. — To Bid. to bid one good day. P. to marry. to abide or wait on. cultivate. swoln. as tears from the eyes. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. form. bolga.' Addison. — — — Halliwell. Einem einen guten tag bieten. ten. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. a chip.. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. bidan. bieten.

Flor. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. Bighiotti).— Ducange. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. vol. which must not be confounded with begardo.' says one of of bigio. the nobles to Rienzi. both men and women. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. 560. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. grey. D. biso.a. corruption would easily creep in.' says an Venet. S.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. natural grey or sheep's russet. perch^ i Terziari di S. and Q. borel. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. 15 18. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. homespun cloth. begutta. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. Beguttce. Augustini dotarint. rustical. They wore a similar dress. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. clownish. dark-coloured cloth. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. aliqui Begardi. beghart. bighiotto. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. Bizoccki.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. alii de paupere viti. a dunce. the other form Per te Tribune.' Chart. was formed bigello. probably from biso. coarse woollen cloth. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. a blockhead.' Matthew Paris. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. bigotta. &c. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. honesti plebeii amictus. alii Apostolici. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. author quoted in N. A. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. vocati Fraticelli. and also unlearned common men. 1499.. sed maxim^ in muliebri. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. bigio. A. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. signifying bagmen or beggars. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. face VIII. 1243. says. to adopt a similar course of life. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. grey.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. with reference to A. beghino. Hence the OE.D.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.D. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. absque votorum religionis emissione.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Bighini. and hence the variations bigutta. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.— BIGOT bigardo. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. ix. bighellone.D.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. A.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. G. Francisci communiter appellabant.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. all apparently derived from Ital. In the same way Fr. ac labores manuum detestantes.' translated by Muratori. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. xx. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. Bizocco. as well as bizocco. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. In a similar manner from bigello. From bigio.

G. false pretender to reUgious feeling. to job. OFr. from OSw.' bilio. procella Kil. A slang term for a sword. Ludwig. to strike. ^Billiard. AS. 2. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. whortle-berries. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. w. bolghe. Du. 3. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. a bigot or hypocrite. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . To defraud one of expected sinking. used in legal proceedings. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. boeye. An instrument for hewing. bigot. So in Gr. a of the sea. clog to a fetter. bil. Aurelles. gan. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). might be taken to express a hypocrite. bui. on. and a billard. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. as craneberry. billet. genus vincu- Bilboes. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. however. bile. bill of exchange. an adze . su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. person of religion leading a loose life. The origin of the term is probably from bole. an axe. irons or set in a kind of stocks. an axe . b'olja. bigardo. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bull-berries. the beak of a bird. the bill of a bird. The proper meaning bylgia. blue . Kil. . Dan. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. to be angry (i. The Du. Fr. biilge. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. is properly a sealed instrument. blaa. top. fluctus maris. to swell with rage). Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. deceit. bulgja. Billet. e. . Langued. that of swell. Deutsch. bille. Johansen. Gascoigne in R. In the same way are related Pol. A lorum tam in — Diez. a hatchet. belghen. Tartuffe. bulla. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Bigin. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. loi. Billow. Prov.. See Bulk. horn of an animal. from the dark colour. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. AS. . a negro. bwyell. bla-berry. boia. Piedmontese bigot. Du. See Bull. NFris. names bill-berries. a hypocrite. — — ' . of boja. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Bill. a shackle. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. AS. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du.— — — . buie. topor. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. Mundart. a sword. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. and in Lat.' in Richardson. buail. the o changing to an i to express diminution. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Lat. a beak. Kil. blamand. billard also signified at billyards. in the same sense. 5 * . abelthe fetter itself. belgan. Gael.' mariners. plog-bill. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. a name given to a. bigot. BILBERRY nated. dziobad. to peck. bulghe. In English the meaning has received a further development. Fr. beil. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. axe. a short note. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. weapon . To Bilk. Bille.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. billard or billart. crowberry. Thus we find in It. an axe. billet is the diminutive of this. 'tumidi fluctus. the trunk of a tree. Bilberry. Bojce. beghart. Sw. an axe. the swelling G. tepati. to pick a millstone. as a bill of indictment. seems to be rather the unda. dissimulation . an ingot. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. and dziobas. bizocco. obsolete. from Mid. Sw. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. to strike. p. 2. Bill. — bigardia. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . bila. Dan. — Cot. bill. Bilge. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. a devotee. dziob. bisoch. bigotto. Roquef. Billette. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. Sp. in the sense of a writing. an ingot of gold or silver. a floating log to mark the place of some. I. Bohem. Du. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Lat. of E. ferrese quam ligneae. buoy [i. Sw. Fr. now A Bilboa blade. e. at sea Billet. boja. a seal. bullet. inscriptum. Bilbo. bill in parliament. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. billot. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. gleischner (Frisch). a seal. fetters. symbolum.

properly a young pigeon. piiiti. Lith. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. berkas (z=:Fr. where the compass stands. to plait. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. i. piccione. pundas. Bin. Goth. to bind together. a gallinaceous bird. while bind-wood. from Lat. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. Fr. to form a knotted structure. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. The proper meaning is a heap. binda nat. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. evesgue. bitill. is rendered in ON. poultry. See Belly. bundt. to hang. doubtless a stone. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. AS. EpisETTiTOOTToe. a female stag. the young of an animal. bord. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. evegue. Birch. V. a hind or female stag. ON. j). a bump or knob. Gr. videt. Then added division in a granary. Fr. bindan. or baked. to bear. a bitch. brut. ON. a weight. a bitch. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. a heap. Bitch. bij sien. life.. Habitacle. Sw. hiindiiin.68 BIN Bio-. forth. bundle. episcopus. Lat. In like manner from knot. bikkia. admota non Bit. or petze. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. to fasten it together. bund. to knot nets for fish. bhurja. — Kil. Lat. to cook). AS. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. a truss. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. IV. in Swabia. viz. biscotto. Bindweed. E. Bing. It. bircej Sw. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. . a female dog hindinn. is in Scotland applied to ivy. sc. Bind.. beitan. habitacle. to bind at . or bin. to be derived from Ibfiaq. bund. a weight of 48 pounds. . lusciosus et myops. Lat. to swell. terial. beorth. vescovo. G. bitacora. expressed by Sw. bundun. Lat. AS. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. AS. pinnii. an eagle's young G. Goth. &c. Lap. beitsl. or ben-wood. biclie. propius videre bij sicndc. bunt. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. truss. copus. beran. Fr. To — — —D. Sanscr. a habit- Binnacle. bita. to build. H. bunch. by the verb knit or net. burt. and especially to a small poor horse. betsel. Bisen. a heap. 'tumens sequor. the young of birds . Sp. poule. ge- from AS. a house. bundt. to twine. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. BITTACLE /Siof. a little dog. Du. band. to bring Biscuit. to net. Dan. from pondus. v. bij sienigh. Bizened. AS. G. The bitol. — — . and of Fr. AS.. pin-ti. — See Bittacle. which is expressed in E.' and the like. bundle. Fr. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bigne. a bear. pippione. bin-wood. from \t3\. brid. hith. pullus. Bittacle or Binnacle. bunki. binge. . overlooker. Fr./«idere. than vice versi. a knob. To Bite. fowl. Lith. also a stone weight. beize. I would derive the verb to knit. from Gr. The term ON. . Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. bjork. — properly near-sighted. biccej ON. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. to bulge. — Surrey in R. pittjo. Bird. It. . part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. by binda. qui nisi propius Blind. wine. a brood or hatch of young. G. See Breed. a bunch. Bine. bunga. an overseer. G. isfiw. Sw. Bailey. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. i. Thus I suppose the Gr. a pig petz. beisseii. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. See To Bear. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Bisson. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. nodus. earnes brid. e. bindan. a corn. When compared with Fr. Bisom. We — A Birth. biscuit. are commonplaces. to wreathe. a bitch applied also to other animals. . pinnu. evigue. twice cooked.

baitrs. Mag. A a rail. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. pale. a* mast . a large lip. 332. a fluttering noise. blabbern. biti. Mantuan babbi. bleich. The Gz. obscurus. To or he can speake. to wax pale or bleaked. cut. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. to babble. bleg. pale yellow. faded. out the tongue. Again. maculS. bittour. confusedly. — Hollyband. white. on the one side. an additional watch. whitish. to talk much. to watch. from whence we have adopted the. Sp. Goth. as of a body falling into water. Ai-mstrong. Black. Pl. bitter. baboyer. blakki.plab is used to .' It would thus acle. brunblakk. Bleak. is placed. pale. NE. Blabber-lip. an edge is sharpest sword. mona mid Dan. in contempt. a babbler. 156. Deutsch. even humour seemed and beuin. fallow fawn-coloured. shining. . Pepper is bitter and bites hard. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . to babble. pins of the capstern. plappem. Lydgate. blabhdach. round which the cable is made fast. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. So Fr. dark. things —Palsgr.' by Gudmund. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. blac-hleor ides. bitor. white lead. blebberis. Sp. Fr. indistinctly. his blacan light. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. blakk. "uivac. as is seen in sputter and splutter. Applied in Hin ON. Alex. Cot. a tati. night guard.. Gael. bites. I blaber. Bittern. small guard-house. to let out whai should have been concealed. — cheeked maid. blake. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. plabartaich. iroxafealo. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. G. first. whiteness (candor sine It. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). quoted by Ihre. Se bleek. light-coloured. Wit hung her mourn. as in that of pale and white on the other. a shelter for the steersman. unintelligible talk plabair. Sp. fallow . ^chops. ON.€i. bitr. Du. ' plabraich. a large coarse lip . from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. black. apparently from its biting the tongue.' G. pale. 't kompas huis. AS. as of wings . ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. v. biacca. Gael. — Collins in Hal. Hist. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. to the sharpness of a weapon. Bohem. blanc. Cotgr. mouth. a beam in a house or ship. gabble. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. yellow . gulblakk. mouth. ^aj'/^r. babbling. In Legrand's Fr. ON. In like manner E. is apprehension of danger. blabbre. Hal. bitones. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Fr. as of water gently beating the shore.' by Haldorsen. blob. bird of the heron tribe. to bivouac.. beitr. blesmer. blubber-lipped. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. viz. buft". blunt we say it will not bite. Nagt huis. The bitas. blepLith. shine. a stammerer. term. /ealo-/or.D. Percy Soc. blab. Fieldfare. butorj OE. Sp. a flapping. ON. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. bihovac. faded.— Blabber-lip. Je N. . babbe.. leohte . Bivouac. 'fuscus. dusky. bleikr. discoloured . In a similar manner Gael. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. beiwache. synonymous with baber-lip. ON. Fr. or water beating gently on the beach . yellowish. Mund. to speak Dan. to loll it out. x. pale yellow . a childe dothe gasouille. Bav. 't huisje. white. from wachen. pale brown . garrulous. Hald. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. blabaran. blobach. G. . corrupted in Fr. To Blab the anchor. AS. Fr. a continued soft sound. whitish. beuni. stutterer. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. bitts of Bitts. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. to To blabber blabber with the lips. the palebleff. It. bittore. —Neumann. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Why presumest And laam's asse. thoughtlessly . ' Biovac. on. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. blank. quick. It is in fact radically identical with Fr.). The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. Sw. blob. blob. chatter babbler . to chops.

a. blanchir. a bubble. to glow. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. tree. Sc. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. foolish talk. &c. mire. most complete example of leafy structure. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. G. dripping-pans. to bleak in the sun. boys. a boil. revile. bladder . BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. 86. . also white woollen cloth . blinken. Gr. black. to —Blaspheme. and G. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. D. a bubble. . gabble. roar. and the agitation of liquids. blaeren. Blank. to blanch. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. irXariQ. blister. to vocifer- — Cot. pimple. chatter. probably ate. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. a white or unwritten ticket. reproach. 5/^a/^ of colour. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. smore. blatter. smother. a buible. blaere. bladder. Blade. or of an oar G. blegen. Bacon in R. to omit. blather. blad. PI. or blafich. contracted from bladeren. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. chatter. Torriano. blanchet. from candere. Hist. plat. the ON. bladder.. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. or a mass of bubbles. Du. as. vagabonds. Besides the examples of this connection given above. leaves. on. Blancli. blad. to Hence Ital. his meat burnt. I am degraded from a cook. also tanned by the sun. madder. blister. biasimare. . concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. Fr. mus-blackt. blether. Du. speak impiously. candidus. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. Du. the leaf of a tree. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Fr. To blank. It. Blanket. or as E. Sw. imbrunire. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. pass over. — Sw. Du. pXaatpiiiiHv. Dan. — — — to jabber.. dial. whitish. flap of a Du. Dan. — . and thence to babble. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. as blader. Cot. pluddre. bladdra. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blank. to purl. to disappoint. slush. piatto. moere. blanc. G. Bav. branches . broad. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. to shine. mud. blame. and others engaged in dirty work. and he shall be sure to have O. and wandering men and women. name originally given Blackguard. Fr. Jan. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. sheet of paper. Wott. The radical bubble. Eadmer. plate. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. a leaf. commonly called the Black-guard. waschen. blister. 1854. white. which we . p. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. G. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. in R. mud. blasphemare. The present forms then should be classed with blether. Dan.— Kil.—Blatant. blatter. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. blena. leaf of a. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. a blanket a bed. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. to blow. leafy. Perhaps from blegen. —^Webster. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. the origin of . variable than the signification of words designating colour. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G.— ^o thehotsun. Du. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. e. shining. biastner. See Blubber. —We Bladder. linkboys. and Q. to dabble in water.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. Sw. Play in Nares. blatt. to To bellow. with all other loose idle masterless men. plat. on. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. Blain. as. But perhaps a more Gr. blister. to glitter. blactra. to shine. blather. livido . bladder. Sir. pallido. is identical with Flanders borlen. Blank "verse. polished. — rura. bladra. blegne. Now. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. a blank ticket. vagrants. To Blare. defame. 7. blanqne. bladre. blein. board. cited in N. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blahen. blanchet. borrelen. bladeren.—Blatter. coat. white. and E. leaf. to make or become white blanc. also jabber. Lat. whitish. a bladder or pustule. pladdern. skola and thwatta. tattle. as scullions. Blame. Fr. a pustule . as Lat. Reliqu. to bubble. rogues and wanderers. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables.

blasonner. used. As Kilian. live coal . ther it was erst not knowe. She roade at peace through his heraldry.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. as a verb. blesse. blcese. blus. blossi. brasa. magnilo. ON. blazen. bleis. thraso. to spread news. G. by stripping off a portion of the bark. braise. Du. friend Cornelius. But now. Dan. blateroon. blasoen. a whisperer. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. pale. noisy blor. coloured prints. oured. A gust of wind. Du. Kil. Cot. blason. If armour. the matter incendiary . in that of praise. or blazening. 'op een trompet blaazen. how. loud . to extol. declaratio. Du. a voice Jr. redness . Cot. 2. to blaze Sp.' painted or figured . Fr. Gudmund. in the same way as we 2. kept up.).whence the Fr. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. blesse. besides blesse. I. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. and to make him word blaze. See Blare. Prov. laudes (Kil. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Sw. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blaeteren. to de. blaodh. a blast. With inversion of the liquid. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. a flame. g. a flame. a shout. biter. among other . baladrar. to proclaim. blass. like the in English. visui patet. The AS. i. also only pains and excellent endurance. blcesett. Sw. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. stultd loqui. Du. light-coli. OE. abroad. blcEsan. whence Blazonry. blaze. Dan. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. baladron. blatero. blason. and. Blaze. bles. splendour. has also blencke. to cut off prematurely. .' to fastum . — ' — stroy. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. G. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Blatant. to bellow. bawling. blase. a torch. Troilus and Cressida. To blow AS. commendation blason funebre. beast. e. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. First from the E. the noisy. and which. A blaze is so intimately Then. ing of arms. a shield. blys. A strong flame. to blow. — — ' : bless. The origin of this exSp. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. might And sain. a loud noise. a lamp blasere. To Blaze.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. might spring from the same origin by a . Fr. much plausibility. AS. quus. is the imme. shield or surcoat. oron-blasare. bliEsan. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . is from AS. — Elazen. blcEsan. blcest. proclaim the virtues of. AS. to publish the praises. to blow . blasa. Blast. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Golden Book in R. or to the sound which it produces. a funeral oration . a flame . a MS. blaodhrach. . ON. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. blose. blase. Du. each of boaster. proflare tues. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. embraser. fire. blaterare. Lye.— . Du. a shining spot. gloriosus. Gael. of an animal. ill-speaMng their proper colours . to trumpet forth. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. magniloquus. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. also praeblczse. blysa. to blow. to set on fire. blaser vid. a torch . blaesen. . bldsse. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. To blast. Sc. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. an empty and two theories are proposed. blorach. blast. senses. blezo. The other derivation. to publish. somewhat different train of thought.sound a trumpet. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. ventosus. also blazon or the blazSpenser. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. brasa. — ^Jam. Fr. boasting. blis. a coat of arms. an conium. abroad. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. it is manifest. Blanches illuminies. clamorous. is used in the sense of manifestatio. indeed.

AS. A stain in a man's reputation. The term blear. from on. livor. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. inflamed eyes. Gower in R. G. light-coloured. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. or blemish. the formal equivalent of English wink. . pimple . from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. the livid colour of a bruise. Palsgr. on. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. sugillatio. a red watery eye. color plumbeus bldma. ^Blencher. darkness of vices. . plama. blink. Gr. Sw. To Bleat. blister. a blot or smear blanking one. See Blood. blot. — — R. to blare been weeping. start vor den augen. — blink the question is to shrink from it. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. a spot. 242. splamii!.P. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. goda nainn.v. to wink at it.' the devil makes a vain back. pale Du. ' — — ' : — — . it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. Schmel. ^Xiixaoftai. to spot . which are blurred with the have shewed you. a spot. souiller. tumanid. dead-coloured Cotgr. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. Blear. to cry or weep. And now are these but mansbond (i. Bejaune. exposed. To salir. To totally different from the foregoing. bloken. to become livid. to humbug. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. to bleat as sheep. Manuel de Pecch&. blesmir. Fr. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. or to low as oxen. bleakness. avoid looking it in the face. to wink the eye. to disgrace one's name. BLENCH obfusco. from the than schal I go. blema. wan. ' He blarrede or roar. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. ' . stain flack pa ens a crying eye.' to deceive one. flack. drop of water.' God in his wordes. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. blarren. or blemysshen — blaken. as of dust or mist . to whiten by exposure to sun and air . Bailey. wanness. to spot. a spot. Blancher. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. ' — — eye. what blenched him therwith.filerren. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. paleness. bleikr. sinen langen tranen. spla7nU sie. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. a disgrace. a blotch plerr. . and thence to a bruise. to stain one's honour or reputation. to start away from. guenchir. Pol. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. c. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. From the OFr. 419. Bleed. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. blesmissure. a spot. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. . See Black. to soil. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. blemissemeiit. blcecan. in the expression reputation. blench came to be used for a trick. p. wheal. a been distinct. geplerr. Sir J. Bleb. spSt. A Blab. a blemish in one's 2. See Black. (faith or creaunce) Be war. boggle at something. I chaunge colour. novice. pale .— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. like one that has long P1. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. pier vor den augen eyes. So in Sw. Blear-eyed j having sore i. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. to blear one's eye. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. Mac. to bleach. a boil.'he cried till the tears ran down. And By a similar metaphor Pol. Blemisli. bldmi. blot. a fault. whitish. blakna. confound him. 115. livid. is Blench.D. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. . to cast a mist before the eyes. a stain. As AS. Richardson. while the agent ac- From . Ancren Riwle. blur before their eyes. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Bleak. N. tacher. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. to make him feel blank. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. B. tutnan is a cloud.

blican. to blithsian. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. to shine. to shut the eyes G. to twinkle. to make a rumbling noise. to act like a — . ' Pl. weaklaveny. A . a blick-ooghen. happy . burn up. F. gives blinzen. glitter. money. I hold thee a grote thee. Blink.blinkard . blissian. blitzen. blet. a nounce happy. blend. gladness. j). Du. Sc. G. blotzen. . riches . Tany. window-blind.eyed. Bliss. is I shall Gurt. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Du. to flash. The sound of k before an s. tless —Gamm. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. happy . glimpse. moment. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to shut the eyes. Swab. — . pearance of the blighted . a wink With the bletsian. glitter. blago. lightning. blicken. to rejoice. tative source of the word is wholly lost. thou knave. to make happy. Sw. to plunge. to consecrate . — when he — Bailey. . Kiittner. blitz. To blunder water. blicken. giving (Fr. an entry which leads to nothing . . joyful. a blessing. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Deprived of sight. pockets. doors. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to churn. G. blaziti. Serv.wink . De Sonne ' verblekken. or nettle which does form. Thence apblinds.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. — A A — . to glance. Needle. blazeny. bleg. bluiter. glitter.D. . . plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Sc. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing.' To — blunge clay. To Bless.blinken. lovely Bohem. to — make it thick and muddy. blind. (=bene dicere). pale. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. mix from blekken. . 375. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. dazzle . To Blend. to glitter . to dabble in water. vious one in the order of formation. blund. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to fall into water with a sudden noise. flash of light . Biglotton. readily passes into a /. the G. a. to pro. although in the in the next article. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. to bluiter. Owl and Nightingale. the verb to bless is some. good. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. to be blind. blinzdugig. Russ. blahoslaviti to twinkle. with or without the nasal. — Goth. . blithe. shine. be glad flash. to shine. happily. to mix. . a glance Swiss blenden. liquid filth to bluther. to glitter. blahos. blag. blanssen. fortunately. blincken. as in Du.nasal. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. goods. Wtb. blich-fiur. cascultare. sung. Blight. a gleam. III. to stir or puddle. mixing in general.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blessed. as taschen. blick. trix. in potters' language. blac. bliss look . glad. joy. csecubrandish. blendian. sertion of the nasal. From the action of the hand making Sw. blidu. riches blajennii blicksem. Paradises blidnissu. and joys of Paradise bliden. ^Jam. lightning sweet blago. well blahy blick and blink. AS. blicksem. blende. joy . The term then self or others. lightning. Du. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. AS. the Slavonic languages. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. —Brera.corn. OHG. Swiss (obsolete). whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. joy. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. G. blide.blinze. G. plonsen. . livid. a glance. seems the simple netel. Blazena Bea. . to shine.not sting thiiren. but by no means therefore a pre. blinde fenster. to rejoice. to lighten. blink-eyed. AS. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. wink of sleep . a wink. ON. Dan..blunda. . well blagaya. Du. a flash. sweet. blent. blessed. OHG. graceful. as a vatn i vin. The inblissful. to dilute too much . AS. wink. a look. to glitter ful . blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blink. bludder. Du. glance. as in the case of blaze.Q. a. also to wink. lighten. as a blind entry. blinzler. blogi. make these hands 3. blatida. blithe blis. tire. a dead nettle. Blind. blind- ON. Pol. Nares. to merry. false windows. blindr. to bless . blinzeln. to bluiter up with water. plotzen. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. . happy . to dazzle . to bless. blindselen. to dash wine with water.

blab. plub.plisg. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. — Sw. and bouclette. blesme. sloppy dirt. bausen. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Cotgr. blad. merciful ON. The stem or trunk of a tree. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Block. blot. blouca and Fr. blote. husks. bubble and blubber. must be classed with forms like Gr. blobbes or droppes of water. or is inserted or omitted. biota. strawclod. to breathe hard. bloc. repre- pusula. — . Gael. signifying in the first instance to soak. —Bailey. Sw. bloated. is also used in the sense of swelling . sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. a blister . Of sheep. Blister. and pisg. A under this name was imported into England. to dash liquid. soaked. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus.—Bloated. soft. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. Blond. to soak. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. puff. orbicular. a blot or spot. in Nares. blindman's-buff. G. as a blab of ink. busten. while Lat. blcesma. bluster. a drop of water. Dan. Goth. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. ^Jam. a dirty blister. Fr. swell. to blissom. as blinzeln. blobber. Fr. blijde. frequentative. B. in the sense of a soft tint. joyful. blautr. to to puff and be noisy. as in E. For this. Blob. blister. lagga i blot. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. blaustem. pausten. buckle. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. blubber.pusta. Gael. a ram. cooking. or the mark which it makes. pusula. gentle OHG. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. or blinde-kiih. is formed squad. It may be formed Blithe. bloc. to block up the way. it is must be observed. taken altogether. like manner the coloured. weak. . blithe. bleiths. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. mass. and easily changes its place. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. a bubble. stone. in the lump or mass of wood. W. to desire the male. as if soaked in water. Egillson. ON. and F. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. also to set See Bless. — — — — — From blabber. N. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. pods. to blow. soft. Blob. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. The blow E. Bav. expressed by cognate roots. pimple. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blotfisk. in bulk. a lumpish head plubach. bluyster. kostua. or bleb. formed spot. And so from squatter. in gusts. a small lump of anything thick. blindsehn. Sw. senting the dashing of water. a blain. or the like.. mild. a little blisg. boucler. Du. Ibid. an unformed mass. to close it with a solid mass. shells. fish blind person. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. To Bloat. Hence. to swell. Lat. blond. viscid. Langued. and inarticulately. inde humiditate tumidus. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it.— Hal. Kil. to cure by smoke. a bubble. G. blot. a block or log en bloc. to blow. Jonson. blinzel-maus. To Blissom. blidr.—Bloater. to steep. a See Blot. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blot. soak in water cured fish. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. speaking rapidly any . blide. To a smoking or drying by the fire. a . ^vaaa. Du. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. must be referred to AS. Hence E. the unhewn bole of a tree. Sc. Bleb. like clot. blister blasan. a blister. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. soft. to blow. ON. a bubble. fiustula. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend.— Bailey. See Blot. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. In Fin. B. from blcsr. separate portion. pustula. any lump or mass of things. Mod. Svt. whence blast. . to bubble. — Blob. I believe. . round. buclde. Dan. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. blod. . kostia. blaud. mild. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Thus we have blab and babble. light yellow. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. A solid blouquette blisters. having an unsound swollen look. The roots /. Boyd in Jam.

a deli. Schmid. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Du. — Cot. . blue . blond is used in blatt. blut.^ Kil. Stalder. to sparkle. bloed. blodelsa and blawelsa. from the bright colour which 7'vci. Sw. Schwenck. bfys. to slap. blois. bloetnsel. blond en blaauw slaan. blus. gloss. clod. AS. to blaze . to blaze. . — gush. blotting-paper. to blot the land was in a leme.— . to strike . platsch-voll. to splash. Sc. platt-voll. bit by bit. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. . glister . (of cattle) to dung. Prov. Fris. to strike with such these objects exhibit. Dan. to scribble. bldmi. to From . Fr. a blot or spot. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blomstr. light. to squander. a. blase. fall to overflowing. Blad. blaeuwe ooghe. from G. to dabble in water . spots in the sun. to patter. or the sound of it . dial. bluish. bloto. splendour . Sc.blauschlagen. a spot or blot. blue. splashing full.platter. D. Pl. bliihen. parallel form with ON. blat. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. soft or flat. Hatch. colour of the cheeks. — Stalder . Dan. bloi. a flower. blotter. a flower. a water ploutsche. blistaf. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. skam. lump of anything soft to blad. a nature. glasi. to strike with something soft or flat. a black eye Du. 2. j^ blottir. to shine . a lump. pale tint. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. plottra. The bright-coloured part to portion of land.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blou. The G. probably connected with Pol. ' — . plet. Plots. to glisten . Bloom. white blatte. fair in en blat vand. the bright to blot paper morsels. glus. a flower. a beater. bleustern. . on. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Wendish blodo. blady. wan. It should be of filth blak-blatte. in v. ])erly Du. blose. Du. gfyssa. great leaf of cabbage. blooth. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. dirty spot on the cheek. platschern. AS. ^Bleed. to exists in biadetto. whence plader. a Usaae. gammon. of a blow with something lios. blue. blaeuwen. Sw. ^lys. blatte. Erploten. blysa. en blau ach. to slap. a blaze. Jios. E. fall down . blosen. —Barbour. blondheid. shine . bliithe. Wflz<^«. E. Fris. to flame. Blotcli. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. bleistern. plants which prepares the seed. lump flower. Ir. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blosa. blond. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. See Blow. yellowish It's G. OFr. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. E. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. blaeuw. bletister. bldts. to grow pale). E. . biado (of which the evidence plattern. platz-regen. plotterwis. to be red. a drop of water or colour. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a The form platschefz. to spot or blot. leme. blust. Dan. mud. Russ. bloemen. — — . Blot. Du. lidmr. plattata. Ein platsch milch. Harmar in R. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. pale biavo. Sw. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. . couleur livide. ON. . to blush . E. See Blow. Schilter. bliise. livid marks. Blood. livid . blostma. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. a Schmid. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. to dash down Du. bloi. G. coloured (Diaz. the bright colour of the cheeks . a blow. blowen. S-wiss pladern. G. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). Blow. bloeme. blue. to dirty. a gush of milk . pladern.properly to scatter liquid . PI. to dabble in water. brilliancy. to glow. pladdern. a Halm a. blosma. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Lat. a pelting shower). Blossom. cow-dung. lustre. spot pletter i solen. yellow. bloi. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. straw. blad. gleam. kuh-plader. blotte. — Blotch-paper. sbiadare.D. blue. to dash down. . to be red with blot. a cow-dung. as the skin or hair. Du. Florio). ON. pale. platz-voll. kobladde. a torch blusse. blawels. flower. glossi.' the rain is driving and blue . blauwel. bloedsd. to squat or lie close. glose. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. proto shine with bright colours . ON. redness. dial. E. blosem. bloutre. It.

G. Kil. To Blow. in rapid or indistinct utterance. fied vowel. Raynouard. to make bubbles in drinking. And. blosen. OHG. ' BLUE or guggling. Lat. to bruise Roquef. — . blezir. is confined to the — . Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. P1. Du. a paddling in wate r. Pludern. a continued noise of agitated water.nify bubble. . ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). to blow. to puff up. bliihen. jabber. blazi. G. a gurgling . blass. glansj Ir. gliihen. fqded. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. Gr. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. E. plubair. meurtrissure Roquefort. gliihen. corre. to blow. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying.D.. to fade. to with Bohem. to breathe bouteiUis. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. It. Tumbled. — . glaodh and blaodh. bl. to fade. bliihen. a bruise. bloeyen. — Bluther. y\r)yi»v. bliuwan. where the word may be compared bliggman. Her sweet bloderit face. OHG. to fade. to hard. blue . blodelsa. sense. and thence. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. tache. or gr. Deutsch. plubraich. — — Mundart. plodern. ^Jam. chatter. a herb Gr. -ii. Mund.' — Palsgr. toused.xo'»'. piusen. wan. OFr. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. Chaucer. to bubble up. glas. bliithe. /idXavoc. vi^ound. bldt. marking some application from that bladder. disordered. to blurt out. in E. blois. to spot. Prov. and the forms mentioned under Swab. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . G. In agitation of water. Wtb. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blaw j biavo. sponds with Sw. To Blow. Du. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. blubbern. to glow. A. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to flourish. gloeyen. to glow. blebber. withered. . closely difference in of blabber. Chaucer. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Danneil. Pl. Pl. Langued. bruk. pale. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. a flower. It is howbliuwen.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Jla-re. w. blut. bluod. Bav. boasting. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. The radical sense is shown in Gael. —SchmelIt. bledniai. B. little apparent resemblance. into flower. pale . bruised Prov. blawan. a. sound like water. red-faced bloted wench. puff. to make blue. the red fluid of the body . to breathe G. We . green. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig.Jlasa. grey. blazir. blubonciti. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. . v. plusig. to gabble. br. gUd. blodyn. fem. — To Blubber. a blast. a blow. d in Sc. bluther.D. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. The aUied forms.' Hamburgh Archives. blow. E. especially with respect to the hair. to inflate. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. to guggle. Blowze. blady. is very frequent. — To blubber. blue. boil. to shine with bright From colours. coup. |8A)'. Blue. Sik upplustem. blahen. blava. blau. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. grow pale. to beat with a mallet. a fat. like manner Lat. These are — Bludder. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. 92. blubbern. blao. bluh. blduen.D. disordered in head-dress. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to flap like loose clothes. may cite for example G. flower w. flower OHG. to'disorder. pale OFr. Blowzy. glowing coal . bloeden. . bludder. to beat. 1.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. Deutsch. plubartaich. glow. and closely allied with Du. pale. heath. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. The primary sense is to shine. 2. to exhibit bright colours. .to blossom. bloemen. G. to blow. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. to show flower. blodern.— . Bret. bloom. florere. dirty. blau. cheeks bedabbled with tears. . Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. to gush. a Blossom. to Plodern. bloes.D. The interchange of an initial gl. plustrig. glas. glede. ler. fiubbem. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. grug. gloeden. 51. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. AS. bloi. Notwithstanding the We . wan. Gael. 1292. blust. MHG. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. foam. pludern.

pale. It is remarkable however that the E. Hence we pass to Prov. a fore. Dryden in R. bawling. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. like Du. to work To blunder out a fronto. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. . glundra. has donder-bus. Du. to blunder water. buller-bas. Supp. to lose colour. bleu et blanc. a blunderbuss. Dief. Blavoyer. to become pale or wan. in water dobbelen. verdoyer. to fall suddenly on the ground. blunt. to become pale. Kil. blunder. G. G. flav-us. pludder. is. blaf. non rotunda. See Blunt. Dan. to confound. his business with much noise. speech. - reddish yellow. Blaffart. OFr. trahir. blandum. Blunderer or blunt worker. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. herbe. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble.• BLUFF biado. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to fade). It then signifies something done at once. Altieri. biava. originally growing up turf and water. The Du. dial. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to become pale or livid. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. confusion. like the Celtic glas. blue. poltern. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. an ill-done job. discoloured {plowiee. Hence a Slcelton in R. and bustle . So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. blavus. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. See Blurt. a boisterous violent man. blutter. Roquefort. and biavo (Diez). idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. sbiavare.//aay. ploffen. Palsgr. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid.' trouble. having a bluff forehead. from the Lat. Kil. tradire to Fr. mix It. pale yellow. as well as sbiadafe. je perturbe. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Bodge. blue. rustic. bluish. used for the work of an unskilful performer. yellow. bloi. pale) is provincially used in the. Bohem. abrupt. verdure. Kiittner. applied to green as well as blue. The Du. I blonder. in plur. herauspoltem or sloping shore. blahir. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Flor. flodderen (Weiland). blue. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . in the same way as from It'. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft.in mud or water. find accordingly It. From G.. corn. Pl. falb. without image or superscription. liebefactor. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. planus. a shore abruptly rising. a flounder. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. Pol. Roquefort. to dabble Biglotton E. or an abrupt manner.D. Pm. pale straw-coloured. puddle. sloppy drink. from an imitation of the sound. and Du. And blunders on and staggers every pace. corn.make a noise. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blake (identical with AS. Analogous forms are Du. all representing the — . — Pr. to puddle. polter-hans. G. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. bUich. yellowish red. Lat. biavo. plomp. plo-wy. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. Sw. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. To blunder is then. fallow. which is rendered by Florio. . Blunt. disturb. E. Du. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. blunder. blond. bulmanner. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. mistake. Hal. Ditton in R. — — — . to plump into the water. buller-bak. segetes virentes.— . and sbiadare. blac. and then generally idle talk. to dabble in the mud. tutte le semente ancora in erba. We Blunder. earth and water mixed together. to mix it up with water. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. to agitation of liquids. glundr. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. a plain coin herausplatzeu. 't — —Hal. sense of yeUow. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. A bluff manner. jaune. The word is here synonymous with amplus. Then with the nasal. devenir vert blavoie. — . He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. blave is moreover. fawn-coloured. Halma. superficie plani. polterer. something. biada. and metaphorically. bullern. blunderhead. contrasted with the dle. to blunge clay. blanssen. from the brilliant green of the young E. Bluff. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. Biada. Bladum. G. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Romance bluiter. as well as biado.

a bluntie. is The word dull. from the loud report a fire-arm. blat. plains The large bech.to fall into the water. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. — — pidus. A light blue colour. platz-regen. unpolished. to blurt. with or without the nasal. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. as Sw. as in E. heavy. bare or blunt. Ford in R. V. without the nasal. dull. plump.pludse. pointless. to blunt a thing out. and in the same sense. bare. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. inaKil. It. Won by degrees. insensible. . through which a man is so blont.plompen. exactly corresponding to the G. The blait body. bare. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. unfledged Sw. bloss. platzen. V. naked. It will be seen that the G. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blunder. naked. blutten. F. It is from this notion of suddenness. dull. viz. to plump down. G. inactive Swiss bluntschi. heavy. Halma. Then cometh indevotion. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. biosso. sheepish. to make a noise of such a Stalder. blockish. Plump mit etwas umgehen. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. . in Richardson. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. absence of preparation. Sw. obtusus. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. blott. the absence of sharpness. edgeless. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Stalder. unceremonious manner. blunsch. clumsy. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. bald. clownish. and hath swiche languor in his soul. bluntschen. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Dan. without horns. thick. Plump. Probably radically hlekit. Molof something wet. forestis. blunt. and. —D. — Kil.— — — . V. void. hebes. fling down . represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Now the Swiss bluntsch. ineffectual reason. to plump into the water. it will be observed.—D. ang. seems to be derived. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. mit etwas heraus-platzen. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. blout. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Bare and blunt. is thrown. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. used in both senses. obtusus. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. rudely. plump. down. pale. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. it will be well to point out a sense. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. blait. like a thing thrown down with a noise. maol. poor Sc. More in Richardson. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . plonsen. wan. plumbeus. raw. Dan. A modification of the same root. Bluntet. but of something soft thrown on the ground. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . nature. that it not easy to discover the connection. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Sc. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. Blaitie-bum. to handle a thing bluntly. blait. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. duU. to bring it suddenly out. rude. Chaucer. a portion To inquire for slaves. united in Gael. as cow-dung. good plump person. viz. bus. blunt. Plontp. Kiittner. blatte. without Maolaich. blotta sanningen. blue. —D. plump. and an unintelligent. Du. blunt. Sc. bleak. fooUsh. G. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. figuratively. — blunt. Blunt. Q. naked. unwrought. Woddis. The syllables blot. naked. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. rough. plotz. a thick and will person. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. azure. plump. Kiittner. and the like. blunt. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. biotto. identical with E. that the sense of bare. awkward. or blab out a thing Kiittner . dial. of a knife which not cut. plump J to plump out with it. plotsen. nis. stupid fellow. pressions. to make foliage. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. or heraus plumpen. without preparation. massive. a simpleton. Pol. a blot. homo stolidus. awkwardly. Swab. silly. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Sir T. heavy. plutz T)\i.

bdd. Gael.—Bobbin.y. To move quickly up and down. De Boat. It. 9396. a club foot . blow vioAn augmentative from lently. an edge. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. bluter. boord. to sound like water boiling. cocodrUlus. this root are formed Sc. Pl. lacerta. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. pluddre. blader. to endeavour to terrify. table. dull.the syllable bot. to blaze. Blush. boccheggiare. G. To splirt. the Brem. planks raised up outside the roofs. G. Du. to rumble. Hal. to puff. coarse. to snuff. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. blasen and See Burr. a Jam. Lat. Pull the bobbin. The elision of the d is very to chatter. Fr. to be out of temper. a torch blusse. bar. borrar. dial. edge. Du. pof. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. bateau. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. bord. and when applied to vaunting language. a flurt with one's fingers. 29. margin. Bav. blast. 156. blubber. a smear. to bark. an end or stump. to blubber. to dirty. bliise. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. OE. BOB 79 — To Blur. bleuster. To blow in puffs. blodern. blusse i ansigtet. planks or boards. eber. eafor. Du. berd. splurt and spirt. To Blurt. to smear. a burst of tears. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. bdtr. ON. and Du. bot. bobine. bakke bleustern. as splurt to splutter. a board or plank. to make a noise with the mouth. blaste?i. beer. ever-swin. a tassel. a tassel. Sverris Saga. brett. sudden. to make a noise in boiling. bludder. It. pludern. blot. boistous. to make mouths. to threaten. blose. chicchere. and boisterous. bustuous. then applied to indistinct vision . puffen. Hal. literally edge-wood. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to dangle. Related to blutter. i. to blore. Wtb. rude. bluther. a mist before the eyes plerren. fringe. a blow . — From mouth. border. mire. AS. a short thick body. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. outward edge. Boa. — — . Swiss blodern. geplerr. baiag. Bot zeggen. Gael. to spurt out. Explained by Jam. bit. margin. a mistiness. E. Du. properly noisy. my dear. and E. to give a crack.v. Du. the sound of a blow poffen. to crying. . rude. a bladder . Bluster. gabble Sw. Dan. both used in the sense of boasting. See Boisterous. large. . 1. Boost is used for the boast. common. cheeks glow. aper. blirt of greeting. will fly up. table. baban. . A large snake. Schmeller. ground. a dangling object. to puff. cluster. whence bob. Fr. on. hot. — ' Dief. G. or bog also thread. to guggle. to breke. w. bobbin. or blurt with one's mouth. AS. pfludern. board. Comp. it implies that it is empty sound. See Blossom. lindwurm. bdta. V. to dabble. — a blaze. imitated by has also In like . The to radical meaning D. a blot. strong.— . to render indisbhir.' — Red Riding-hood. burra. as in Du.pusten. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. whence bordvidr. skin. E. to blur. a blotch. ader. Sc. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Wright's ed. As the as. bot-voet. to roar. crack made by bursting open. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. to glow . Du. to disfigure with E. blur. acre. Du. blaustem. to jabber. 274. like the parapets (viggyrdil. short pieces of any filthy mud. to brag grande loqui. blosken. a. Wallace. voce intonare. BLUR Boar. blaffen and baffen. To brag and to crack. flat. to talk quick and indistinctly . the red colour of the cheeks Dan. — — — * Boast. batello. botte. beacon fire. and swimmeth very well. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. bausen. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. Supp. a baU of thread the mud. Sc. a border. . blaere. bord. . puddle. blarra. to say bluntly. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. violent. to bounce. bord.D. bhis. primarily signify loud noise. Halma. stellio. Board. 'Ba. violent G. be a crack or loud sound.plerr. &c. and the latch . Kil. AS. boot. swagger. dial. of the word seems . It. bora. gabble. blurra.plodem. margin. an ear of corn. a grows to a great bigness. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. — To Bob. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bur. blotch and botch. edge. e. To tinct. to blow. blot. c. plump. bludder. to blush. is formed Du. Slur. to puff. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. a small lump. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. or backwards and forwards. stupid. blunt. Fl. P. pustern. to blurt out. to chatter. Fl. pausten. bladdra. boa. Boa.

bogach. bob. boll. . bo tich. pall. Ptg. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. '£. — Grandg. bodat. formerly bodies. gog in gog-mire. bogadh. or a pair of bodies. and E. barrique. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. potahha. unsteady nature of a soft substance. rounded. bod. to bob. quakmg. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. exhibit another modification of the root. bothog. from fitting close to the body. . bayonet. to be uncertain what to do. to blurt a thing out. The Sp. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. whence Fr. See To Botch. to prick. potacha. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. bodi. bodilo. To mock. a cask. Bog. Now unskilful action is conmire. Body. AS. where bogs form Gael. to fail. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. — H. gagei. is a lump. gagoula. an announcement. bagges. ^Jam. gag. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . shaking .a (i\ia. bodnu. and the word is well explained by Bailey. To Bode. — 2. bogadaich. body of a shirt bol. To Bodge. Miracle-plays. VI. to make. See Baber-lipped. It introduced from Ireland. butt. to fail. wavering. gago. Lith. See Bid. gogach. Gael. 3. to be unsteady tich. belly. bodies. Gael. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. biodeachan. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. to thrust. Russ. ' boggle at every unusual appearance.' A — Sherwood's Diet.gmh:t.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. a prick. — as well as the body of an animal. a round body both. to stick. message boda. by the syllable patsch. unsteady. bottich are derivatives. . waving. a body. bod. Bohem.\\i\c\iset. Schmel. so large a feature in the country. a cask. to bodge. shake. corpses pot. dies. or stem of a tree. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. gog. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden.rabodi. point. or bag. Reliq Antiq. whence paUchen. Lap. bottig. a bog or morass. unsteady. potacha. W. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. Bret. To make bad work. . bog. bodetz. bodi. to start start and back as from a bugbear. as signifying anything spherical or round. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. palleg. as a horn. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. a messenger . nodding. barriga. badyti. boftich. ON. Crist. to scruple. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bodak. the body of a shift gaguejar. is identical with Fr. arise E. to push with the horns. The signification of the root bot. . Ptg. toss. a prickle. busti. of which the E. then from the yielding. Gl. to stir. the boss of a buckler. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. stutter gogmire. In like manner E. gebod. French bouter. So BOB To Bob. To portend good or bad. round. the stem of a tree . the body. corset. e. Bodkin. With With this we charged again We bodged again. as in stammering or staggering. daubed or dabbled with blood. . meaning the round part of his body. corset from corps. woman's stays. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. . body and G. corpset. BOGGLE trunk and G. bodig. the thick part of anything. We . to make a mow at. Gael. Ir. bogan. to smack. Shakespear has badged with blood. anything soft.! . swelling. And waves. bog. quagmire). a dagger. anything protuberant. bogle. calf of the leg.. baboyer. potig. bodian. a sting . a command. AS. expression hogglin an bogglin. to waver.' Bogglie. stumpy. biodag. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. agitate. to butt. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. to deliver a message. patsche. goggle. moist mire. to stammer. an awl. Wall. 43. needle. bodene. to dabble or paddle. bole. bog (equivalent to E. cask bottich. stitch. a spur. * To Boggle. bodhag. move.hollow. . . Bodice. a puddle. to commit a blunder. precept. Banff. bot. stuttering. Thy i. a . the belly. bolr. strike with the horns. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Commonly explained as if from Sc. the trunk of the animal body. to roll. a ghost . Cot. mud. thrust with something pointed. moving backwards and forwards. bayonet . speak of the barrel of a horse. Supp. fickle . nave of a wheel. a quagsoft.

. Cot. as. as. Lap. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. hero. Magy.— — . excellent. bagaji. to waver or hesitate.D. buller. in the sense of handsome . ballr. tartle. 45. the gurgling sound of water rush. a bump. pall. folliculus grani. Pm. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. OG. stutSw. fiausten. gerade signifies straight to the mark. swelling. obex. boly. Pr. pimple ON. Bole.rounded part of the body. chaff of corn siliqua. to hesitate from doubt. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). 304). perpendicular. to boil. . warlike. ON. pillow. by which it is moved to and fro. bSlstr. ^Boistous. to stammer. To Bolter. bold. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. or the like. bulla. The round stem of a tree. b^gayer. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . noise. Fr. may be identified with It. bolstar. a fastening for a door. G. The bob. In the same way Sc. from the branches. bold. . bul. Sc. Love. dint in a metal vessel. Properly noisy. Westerwald bollern. Chaucer seems Dan. i. Du. a bakazikni. (of Mons) b^guer. bola. wag. bald. cheerful. intrepid. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. bouil. to give a hoUow sound. — 6 .w. as E. beule. bolt. 1430 in Deutsch. bolr. ON. the lir. brave. boggle. G. tulum. tartajear. is probably a modification of boll. a boil or swelling Du. boil . ^Vocab. to stammer. hakogni. bolzen. buile. balldr. which are not used for a similar purpose. puilen. * Boisterous. See Bulk. to stumble. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. puile. capiing into a cavity. round the first instance to the materials with . notes. to swell. * Bolster. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. stud. Test. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. capitellum.— D. boutpijl. boystousnesse. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. a bubble. see Boast. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bol. confident. courageous. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. insolent baude. ON. to be at a loss a shirt. trunk of a tree . quick. bald. haughty. polc'h. . G.' Mrs Baker. globular bod)'. bout. huge. a cushion. impetuosity. a head . bolt upright. animal as distinguished from the limbs. A. bealder. — — which the cushion is stuffed.Du. scruple. as those of nuts. Bret. bolster. OHG. properly represent belly. Wall. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. Daring. bold. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. styffe or rude . 374. free. treated under Bowl. Fr.). used. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. The term applies in — — impressed . to stagger. tar. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. gluma. . V. courageous. w.palleg. strong. coarse. the husk of nuts. belc'hj. Boil. Mund. bolleken. proud. bollen (Kil. Me doth awate. Boll. sels of flax. the body . boll. Da. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. also a blister. G. rough. hollow. stameln vel bochken. balder. — ' — tagliare. the body of a man or of ter. baud. a bubble. This iv. cows the people from speaking. to puff. Gael. bal. pustule. boss. a quaking mire. to be prominent. Chaucer. bok. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. but that Bolt. as baltha. bhster. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. Kit. up of bubbles. tomentum. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Sw. ON. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . repagulum. bout is explained by Kil. glass phial. Du. Du. strong. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bog. bochken (titubare. bula. It. to the belly as the or dislike. Swab. a bubble. bolzBold. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. poppy (Bailey). bol. Goth. Sp. and then applied to other husks. bolster. biiilen. stramenta. furfures. bald. bol. bola. and manace for to de. bul. shake. in speaking. Bustuous. bullire. Lat. strong. prince. Du. bolc'h. roydeur. E. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. bulr. then violent. Kil. chatter. blow. merry. the. ohg. whence bulla. from Du. caput scapulse. he will speak out. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. Lat. Fr. Boystous. bolla. tartalear. To Boil. swelling. a swelling in ice. Stalder. bog. bolle. E. bulla. to tattle. pusten. flax-boU.

Hence. taraabout. Lang. and the Thus from So. bluter. . bortelen. blotttre. also to curdle. a rattling carriage. jolting. a rattle. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. as Fr. beliitea. Pr. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. as a rabbit from its baritel. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. to coagulate. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. hammer. bolzauget) Sp. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. kloteren. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap.. protuberance. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. hole. to make a knocking. buletel. The ment and the operation. Mid. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot.Lat. a clod cloth. small heap. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . pultare. hulch. taratarrum. Du.D. hammer. a clump of turf. bullern. bulla.agitation of the meal in the bolter. crotlar. the sense of right on end. a round glass ending — bultig.D. a bolter Prov. .). to E. 2. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. zare.through a cloth of loose texture. The ulti. projecting eyes pul.u. a bunch.D. Sw. to clack. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. buideln. ' — — ! ! : — . zen. hump. then to knock. Lat.noise {brattle of thunner. fied bot. and to crash.. / is transposed in Fr. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. a . die treppe pressed. to bolt meal barutel. In the next place. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. uneven. . swelling. to become lumpy. Brem. ler. racket gepolter. as of a trumpet. tling or crashing noise. taratantarum. lumpy. tumultuari. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. poltern. Dan. to spring forth E. bolt head is a retort. to start out. or a racer from the course. rugged. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket.by forms like G. to form lumps. the wheels groaned. mole-hill.thump or blow. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. to start with palpitate. Supp. poll. bulio. Here the radical image is the violent O. we pass to Du. one after the other. a clap of thunnences. curdle. G. as above explained. to bolt flour burato. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. with E. Wtb. from G. agitari (Kil. OFr. Pl. grasbulten. . ex•wagen. rugged. loud and fast. in S'W plotter. poltern. Bav. Fr. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. knob. — — — .). And as the agitation of cream in . indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering.) E. bultred. pull. a sod (Schiitze). to significance of the term was overlooked. crod. uneven. or the like. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. So also we pass from Lat. beluter. P1. tantara.protuberance. btilt. to shake. barutela. . Bulte-pook or bulstar. bolzen. on the one hand. clump. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. gebolder. we see that the one consists of a words. a small portion. bulk. burclct. I boulte meale in a boulter. to come rattling downstairs. MHG. a club-foot. by the representation of a racketing sound. bulk or quantity . It. Du. to bolt meal barutel. we have Du. to knock. je bulte. abolter. to talk pulzen. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. a clod. boss. to bolter. . sestuare. On this account Mid. a crashing or racketing noise.i5a//^«. . representing a rat. or ill.On the same principle. hulter de bulter.fe/2?. budeln daz mele . Pm. bulstrig. buUire.as the essential element signifying the talum. buretter{CQ\. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. vessel with narrow opening.D. . Prov.nature of the operation. cro. bultig. projections. Champagne burtcau. holier poller. bolzaugen. Sanders. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack.clack. tar. bolting to that of form. we der Brocket). bolt. barutela. croler. ' Holler poller / bulter. bolt-foot. OFr. staff which sounds tar. pattern. as snow balling on a horse's foot. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. Schiitze. have Lat. OFr. to agitate. barutare. tuft. : ' — — . cruddle. baruta. brattle.— . crash. Hence Palsgr. Dauphiny a sudden movement. buletare. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. a bolter or implement for bolting. a millpoltzet augen. Pl.

bombarda. the contracted form of Du. to shake (as to shake the head. thick from shaking. as Banbury. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. a churn for butter. a beacon. bras. — Bombard. barate. crook-shanked bondew. Antiq. rimbombare. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. It. gunpowder. It. band pi. bambagino. breast-bone. . — bombast came guage. . . Fr. or trunk word in W. — having a stem or stalk. silk-worm. From builen. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. buttel trueb (of liquids). band. G. buidelen. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. When ture. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . to shake down fruit from a tree. biire. Du. the shank the shoulder-bone. achsel bein. the leg. buidelen. cotton. bombasin. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. It. bommen. brust-bein.). bwmbwr. bone of the . and in fact we find the and Du. It. from boom. ^o/j. Schm. been. butteln. bonfras. produced the Pl. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. stump. booming over the water. 83 Gr.^Altieri. The material called by this name. bombdra. a boulter of meal. bauniwolle. G. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bande. a —Bombasine. bond. and also the leg. — AS. tie. an implement of binding. a stock. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. and Mod. however. bambacium. bombase. bureau. bureau.bast. baum-bast. d. bombice. Fr. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. to ring bells. It. bombe.) . Du. bommer. tiffany. again. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. It. &c. basin. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bon. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. Bonfire. PoUitriduare. is supported by the analogy of G. Need you any ink and bonibase. builen. tree. to thunder. Kil. a thundering noise bomre. butteln. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . thick-legged. and Du. Banstead. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bein. a bone in general. to resound. tie. bongam.Lat. q. band. thick. iuttern. and called in Mid. . derivation. bombast. has repeatedly varied. bambagioj whence It. cotton stuff.D. bombicina. . a hollow sound. i. the murmuring of the sea. to bind G. baun. beuteln. Dan. to shake. E. Butterglas. we speak of a gun to resound. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. to thump W. Moreover. Bomb. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. bonds. from teu. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. a drum bombammen. In legal language. beil'n. whence bomme. as in . stuff. banitola (Fl. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr.Su?. bindan. gossipium. As cotton was used for padding clothes. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. sye. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bopin. Dan. . bunden. Du. the Fr. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. G. a ligature. Bibelesworth in Nat. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. Castrais barato. a stem or base. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. sije. a baker. lana lignea. term is appropriated in G. . beuteln. and that from Fr. to bolt meal. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. assuming the of leg : special signification W. bombasine. boulenger. ODu. bulter from It. and Bond. sericum arboreum. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. sijde. e. Fl. coarse. raw silk. ties. to cast to and fro. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. to boult meal. 155. bomba. bonog. Gascoi^e in R. burato. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bolting-cloth. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. agreement. a string. OE. must be explained Fr. HoUybandin R. borel. silk. to beat a drum. Bone. to which the leg. the silk-worm. also thick-shanked. Mid. Near 6 * . In E. bwmbwry mar.

Goth. bonaid. w. bd. also called Brecknock Beacons. writing bokos. a vessel for holding liquids. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Hufwud-bonad. Pr. countryman. bds. Du. blockhead. Gl. the stubble of beans. ON. — . — e.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. b&ber. beam. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Fr. See Butt. head-dress wai^g. — Bailey. gaby. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. till. a dry stalk. bote. a lying-place for dogs or swine. boer. comes bondi. desire. prayer. bauen. Du. * Boose. bos. booby. remedy of evil. to cultivate. OW. and Ban in w. gawney. OSlav. Mrs Baker explains bun. Thus from the syllable ba. stabulum. Swab. babb^o. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. AS. letter. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. a stall. Jr. The latter is the original AS. To Boot. master of the house. Boor. or Vanns. wall hangings. betere thing werse. are formed Fr. Basa. the scriptures bokareis. the mouth. \ais-band. quest. set in order. is Du. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. to aid. E.—Bootless. boom. Bun. Bonnet. . — — — representing the opening of the mouth. dress. Binau Brychyniog. relief from sorrow. boo. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Build. AS. bua. babin. from badare. busu. — From the participle present. bota. and thence Rouchi baia. a lofty blaze. swinbusa. a simpleton. tall. buch-stab. Busk. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. to cultivate. gehyred. nachbar. Kil. See Bown. fool. Thin ben Luke i. Fr. It. bobo. to gape. . to set in order. bobo ! interj. dog-kennel. Mrs Baker. Boot. Hal. dolt. petition. boa. tapestry. ON. bdn. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. remnants of hay or straw. to dress. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. boten-shoen. a bag of skin or leather. a. Kil. inhabit.^ —P. Ox. a letter Russ. Bootless. and fig. the alphabet. bowwen. The origin of the word is probably the W. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. In nautical language.n. a silly fellow. Boot of bale. botte. The character of folly is i860.. From bo. one who dwells nigh. high. Hal. netis stall. a good turn or re- meaning. build. Gael. literally cow-house. ass. boutig. . Fr. as the Brecknockshire Banns. Bonnefyre. . . foolish. chaff. badaud. bolt. the cultivator. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. ty Gael. but stall. bossen. Prov. G. bonad. to gape. to strew with straw. bosih. E. Wall. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. bonnet. a head-dress. 232. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. build. boutig. . dress. a. to ask. simpleton. Du. of wonder On the same principle Sp. Sp. in w. . as a lying-place for cattle. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. Boon.Boos. boandi. pig-sty. bonad. boubi^. although in the OG. Palsgr. ON. by arbitours sholde bote the P. at everything. been. Fr. boubair. Book. b^er. biikui. G. Pm. bosig. bas. by itself for head-dress. G. litter. Trans. buandi. however. Perhaps. A favour. b'ukvdry. bauer. petition. from Du. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . prayer. a tree. clown. bua. which one gaping and staring about. the first consonant of the alphabet. wondering signifies not only straw. the possessor of the farm. often cut for burning and lighting fires. bAkva. to litter bosu. beiSne. pole. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. . ON. from gape. baier. The i. to yawn. ganian. Schm. dial. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. feu de behourdis. till. the name of the letter b. . hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Boom. babau. bene. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. from beida (E. A peasant. to prepare. whence ban-ffagl. It is commonly explained as identical with It. a scribe G. inhabit. hu?idbusa. — — . ben. lofty. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. See Bomb. tigh. and from AS. gaping hoyden — Cot. boia. and Gael. a letter . — To boot. botte. Booby. where a cross (or a gun. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. But bosg. dial. p. bose. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. a bonfire. pero. . bid). signifying beech. A stall for cattle. 13. a hollow skin. N. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. help. reparation. without ad- . in Phil. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. succour Bailey. bommen. short boots. house. botta.

from bord. baara. bardure. a leather bag or bottle for wine. OHG. cup- awl. an engraver's chisel. puras. . See Burgeon. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. barn. bdt. from borra. borino. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. pointed. hem or gard of a garment. Esthon. hut. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur.. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. yfirbdt. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a granary . . to restore. in Ihre. burin.. a booth or shed.— Return from Parnassus I inR. scsdes-bod. which are probably from the same root. rof. puru. and hence to fine. purro. as afford a satisfactory explanation. Gael. to mend. Fin. Du. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. nor E. make . swell bara. chewed food for infants. to build buda. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. furni. scalpo. It. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. sawroot. Lat. fimbria. bdra. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. N. Fin. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). boards. to importune. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. Kil. a border. uzboro. a borer. botjan. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. piercer. to swell. to profit. drillen. cellar. budowai. beute. a shelter of branches. in Lap. 1. to repair. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. Magy. or anything pointed. puru. a shop. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. biorag.por. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. bora. Booty. boeye. Burke in R. &c. to bete the properly to mend the fire. . purra. bud. from deila and skipta. and parrets. a shed. a. is purin. a hut. mat-bod. It. See To We speak in E. to . butin is explained by Flor. to boot. AS. Bohem. repair. and thence to eat build. to pierce. lappolone. pi. better. . The ON. abode. pu purro (saha =: saw . puras. a bladder. to bite. comminuted by either kind of action. It is admitted that Fr. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. or the gradual working a hole in anything. a great bur. to quench one's thirst . extremitas Bore. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a responding forms . bordi. sharp. Mag. . welt. A phorically a drunkard. In the Fin. bothag. differs only in termination. — ON. ora. budka. chisel. exchange or divide. OSw. • — To Bore. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . are parret. . to stick unto as a bur. margin. a borer. BoracMo. kvit-bara. Du. Sp. bothan. Fr. urboro. wine-skin. recovery bata. aid. tent. boeten het vier. struere ignem. admovere titiones. limbus. Gael. bottino. bord. forare. butin. cure Sw. to hut. ON. to surge. The as G. the . bower. boede. Bete. amendment. to patch. fire. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. lappalare. Another derivation from Fin. to anything Neither G. a sharp-pointed tooth. edge. Border. limbus. ON. betan fyr. To Bore. and meta- Fr. See Bower. . bauda. a hut or tent. bolino. a borer . . dust. a tusk. Fl. ON. Fr. making good again . reparation. Esthon.—Burin. a cupboard. 266. remedy. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. terebra sculptoria purastoa. purra. cottage.par. to profit Goth. dens mordens vel caninus. Booth. The Fin. Compare Manx birrag. on. of an edge that will not bite. wave. . are derived from G. batr. to foam. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. Alexand. a word. to The Sw. amendment boeten. both. bauen. boete. borracha. bata. The cor. terebro. Palsgr. a wave. Pol. a shop budowati. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. to expiate boeten den dorst. But probably the E. to divide. bite. BOOTH vantage. furd.. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to bite. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Gael. a bothy. And so in ON. to build. Fin. to to . bohren. a chisel. 3. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. p. sculpo 05\xiik. to bore. baete. borracha. byte points to the verb byta. and E. G.

loan. rude. pitch. bttssel. borealis. bump is used in lump or piece. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. bossen. useCanterbury. gesylle. a bunch or hump. borough-holder. knur. (1867). to save. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. that which biirge. Borowholder. baurgs. bom. Hal. blow on a hollow object. Bunch. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. northern. the N. formerly used in the sense of knocking. a city . Goth. bourgeois. Boreal. borei. Sc. boschen. a bouncing baby . botsen. See found in Bav. grey). Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. AS. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. 106. a citizen. gum vocant.any round sweUing. And that unsittynge is to here degre. botse. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. to protect. to save. borgese. . clownish.' the chief of the ' borh. the Sc. cormpted. by which of or belonging to plants. a wen. knob. or perhaps it may be See Bury. to knock or strike. knock and a knob . The other. Newbury. plant. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. the North Wind. a. poor. empty. or because a blow berga. Hence borhes ealdor. striking. Bailey. Gr. AS. to pick or cull plants. from their grey clothing. empty. Fr. a tower. Du. is probably radically Boss. vain. borel. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. ' — — . — — — A — . butsen. a knob. Altieri. rustic. nonsense. to keep. Hence knot. bosseu. bourg. a giving rise to It. to strike so as to Bureau. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. and borough in the sense of a town. bosh. borh. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. is used in the sense of bussare. whence the burg. V. the hollow between the Borsholder. the ordinary a swelling. burgess. botch. a blow. the must have arisen burgensis. Turk. bunch. head.. which now signifies a knob. as if from the verb to hold. Bosh. to conceal. It. ' pledge.' if thou give money on loan. tempest. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. into borsholder. boss or knob of a buckler . So Du. bussi. a little blow. Botany. AS. agrees with E. f graauw. coarse cloth made of the Du. The origin seems to be the Goth. beorgan. storm. in the body struck. Russ. one who sticks to you like a bore. Du. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . to protect. bos. pego.ribs and the side. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Jam. D. both senses of a blow and a protuberance.' or system of bail. In like manner It. bussa coarse. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. hollow bucklers. poor.' every man be under bail. the sun sets. to save Sw. whether from the fact preserve G. boussi. bergen. cnag signifies both a clergy. hollow. boss of the side. . bos.bucklers. a boor. secure. to contain. bosse. a surety. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. Fr. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. without. Borrow. Borough. cnap. — ' wind burya. tive idea seems to bring under cover. or head-borough.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. to take in. bail biirgen. projection. a citizen.mass. . busse. huschen. I. borough or chief constable. ^o^^flj. of bail throughout the country. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. connected. Fr. to strike . ON. pegou. Bos a surety. boss. to give a hollow bizo. G. Lang. primarily signifying coarse sound . E. botch. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. in instead of without. Swiss Rom. i. to give bail or answer for an. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. bump. burel. bundle. . Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. brown cloth. less. while Gael. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. Jam. ^ma. borg. byrig. a pushing or striking out. boss sound. destitute. viipyoc. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. when that system was forgotten.vr\. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. a herb. The primi. surety. empty. /3oraMK6f. Lat. unpolished. borgo. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. an eminence. It. or perhaps also To Borrow. Cot. basse. butse. beorgan. tuft. &c. from AS. bierge. and thus could not shake off the old burr. as we speak of a thumping potato. burh. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. knocking. a boss. boss. was origin of the term is the OFr. undyed wool of brown sheep. cnoc. (Bridel). borg.' Vegetius in Diez. cob. plain rude fellow.

bosser. as a push or windgaU. disturbance to . any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. they two. — duj Lett. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Bailey. a slop. shoes. . botel. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. On the other hand. bluster. ON. It. abbu. See Bound. buddeln. blain. to fall : with a sound batsch. . was called a push. bots. It. the lowest part. botel foenn. and ajSvamg. pother. a bunch. burgi vel pontis refectionem. patch. to knock. a pit. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. bide. btitse. — — belly-worm. ubhau. noise. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. blister. baiothsj Sanscr. bunch. putra. to make better. boil. G. puddle. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. fundus. To confuse with noise. Parmesan poccia. to mend. to strike . Fr. to rage. by met. or plague sore . a depth. Du. of botta. a lump of somebatschen. buideal. a bundle of straw or hay. signify a in OE. to bcBta. stroke. to podge. 212. abbution. stock. — Fl. H^cart. as Fr. a tinker schuhbiisser. scuohbuzere. Du. . a knock. w. botus. dim. what pushes outwards. butwo. pimple. a humpback. bile. Fl. and E. bAdtr. Judwi. to make a make a noise.' to the fiery Csedm. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. Danneil. especially in Gael. Leg. bot. a. — Bottom. bulder.— Swift in R. boccia. noise. Fr. fire-bote. to mend (kettles. to botch or patch. Butu. we two. &c. Again. e. beggtaj Goth. butsen. Gael. boiteag. AS. Here the radical image seems a bubble. ON. boss. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. both. a bott . an abyss or bottoniless pit. from the dashing of water. butse. a vessel for holding liquids. Fyre to botme. &c. a bottle of hay. — Jidwi. pozzanghera. an imperfect and bunbutt end. the science or knowledge of plants.ments of the same root. a plague-boil Kil. empty or hollow.^Dec. A — oba-dwaj Lat. tumour. for a bud. whence the name ol pool to podge. turmoil. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. ledge It. abbi. Hal. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Jtidu. AS. bossu. to dip in liquid (to Gael. See To Bodge. a patch patschen. abyss. a cask. ON. botsen. Hal. bodem. On — Du. mess. stock. And so we speak of an eruption. See Boss. Bottle. bundle. buazen. a cobbler. a pit. mess. bdt. you two. A bottom depth.— Hal. we have Swiss batscken. bozza. a waterfall.— . bottom. . Lith.foundation. Both. Lith. abbi-diwij Slavon. Decorde. AS. any round ball or bowl to play withal. ba. schuhbosser. is boteau. thing soft batsch. House-bote. dabble). a wisp. bun. Podge. to work without order or know. gen. botte. The Gr. a cess. buts. * To Bother. Bouds. Stalder. Lat. E. i. to smack. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. gipuozan. Dan. however. ixorapudder. Prov. a slop. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . ' G. any plain round viol glass bozzo. to stir and mix together. maggots in barley. repara- — — See To Bete. — . botte.) . round lump. corresponding to . bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. poltern. a bottle. From the dim. I.of a ball of thread. botse. bulderen. Diez. To Botch. to stir and mix together . pocciar. See Butt. bdsser. in the sense of mend the fire. hurly-burly. kessel-biisser. bund. Fl. — — . G. stem or base. bozza. to from the root bot. blow. . ambo. Wedu. a root. It. is also a bubble. boute. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. N. dial. botn. a maggot. the bud of a flower . Gael. — Dief. buddl. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. to froth as beer . boitean. bouteille. Canut. Bouteille. a boil or swelling Halma.D. Kil. the other hand. a bubble. stump. a cesspool pass. oba. bativa. . podge. — — A 2. botch. nets. pozzo. — . to we have OHG. bottigUa. botola. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. • Bott. boden . a bottle. Botcli. j3i/9os. a botcher of shoes. OSax. A horses. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Boa two. the first rough draught 2. ing out. to give a sounding blow. a bump or swelling. Pl. . BOTCH understood). to put on a patch. a pock. bethia. bSn. contusion . batschen. Bret. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Ancren Riwle. mend. botte. whisper. to dash about . botm. boiteal. gling piece of work. ^kvBoQ. Bochu. mutter. biissen. potra. Mudu. knock. to simmer. disturbance. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss.

the hollow of a bay. . and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. a round body both. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. contusi. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Bonny. the verb bondir in OFr. ni motz brugir. nave of a wheel bothel. a turn or time. Dan. bunda. geration. Raynouard. bouton. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bay. Fr. Mid. to thundering big one hum. To Bound. bolder. march. Alpine Re- — gions. a button. Ducange. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. Boulderstone." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. to resound. Fr. a blow. to hum. Coxcomb. from volgere. to bow. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. to fix limits. its kind. boh. — — leap. nor horn sound. . and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. . a large stone rounded by the action of water. see Boss. bone. 3. an occasion. Pr. ni frestelar.' round and round in similar circles. — No i ausiratz parlar. Fr. a boundary stone (men stone). E. tnndo. to knock at the door. — Take care my house be handsome. Brem. bugan. whence buj7isen. jump. a blister. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. came home with his face all to-bounced. limit. Primarily to strike. Bout. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . a bouncing apple. thumping. knock it sounds again. To Bounce. iv. jungen. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. a stock. the larger kind of pebbles. bonzen. Bough. bonndn. a boss. till The dat et bunsede. Webster. dial. baby. or Bow-pot. as a nosegay. boss of a buckler. From Sw. Bough-pot. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Wtb. from AS. a large pebble. to make a loud noise. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Sw. Bound. Probably from the Celtic root bon. to turn. to set bounds. AS. carpet.'— Charter of K. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. a bud. Q. the bay of Benin. pothel. bumper. The W. to spring. Bowlder. round. The branch of a tree. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. buUersten. in contrast to klappersten. Ni gacha cor bondir.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. from bugan. 136. bounbounejha. boujtce. bodina. bun. Du. turn. Nor a centinel whistle. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. and F.— F. language a * Boulder. bunsen.— Boundary. signifying in nautical coil of rope.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. and Prov.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. ing. Halma. butina. mcn-bomi. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. dial. The Bight of Benin. an de dor bunsen. See Bunch. to thunder. bullra.— — — - 88 BOUGH . bend. the smaller ones. 2. To Boult. bondir. to set out by metes and bounds. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bonna. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. So It.. strapping. p. botwm. bamsen. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. — strike. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. as a bout of fair or foul weather. of thread. Bought.' B. he fell so that it sounded. in the absence of actual e. volta. Pm. Bret. has hot. bog. a jar to set boughs in for ornament.— Cot.>a bout. winding. A Langued.D. gulf. bend. bugt. pimple Richards bothog. I assure you. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. And the new stools set out. boriie. debodinare. a bound. — — Bight. to spring. Bunche. as that of E. by Bujns or Buns. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. mere. Bodinare. bons. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bottom. root (see Bottom). And in the spreading of a bough-pot. like bobbin. See To Bolt. to knock. signifies a sliort thick mass. boundina. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl.

Bourd. Dan. the shoulder of the vessel. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. a — — . repartee. on the whole. Bound. hence musical accompaniment. that ON. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. a. the big end of a club. Sp. to banter or laugh at. Fr. Dan. borne. G. to bow. bourde in the same sense. It is bov. bug. a go to. fun of one . to pre2. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bend Sw. Bow. steady. warbling. pared. Lat. addressed to. kroes. a for New York. bordon. bugne. bausen. burlare. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. w. flagon. ready to pike or spear . spring. or of an Gael. to hum as a bee. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. brummen. bordone. Comp. Bounty. bugna. to our bous. and not in the sense of curvature in general. beygja. ^<7r«i?. game. way ba7n. purlBav. from spring. drink deep. bugna. on. hous^ Man in the Moon. has also buirleadh. Bourdon. a sing-song. Swiss bausen. gurgling. bow to shoot with. bugan. patesten. bogna. are applied to the bow of a ship. — — — A pare. a prop. A water. It. to bow or incline the . Gael. an arch. fresh* water. Gael. it is probable that the It. bourdon. spelling the word iox bound. a corToward the garden. A —Cot. drunken. explaining Sw. to draw a deep breath. a drone or dor-bee. cheat. It is remarkable that we find vary. buzzing of bees. bunaiteach. bommen. bound. jest. the ting of a bell. a well. prepared for. Burden. a jibe. Gael. Chaucer in R. to tipple. sense durd. . when we speak of. puff out. drone of a bagpipe. limit. Bourdon. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Fr. trick. bonus. to indulge in his cups . sotich. analogous to Fr. bonitas. Cot. pre. bov. the burden of a song. burd. curvature. tinton. to — Hal. buga. — probably through this latter signification. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. of the ON. ruption of bonne. a from Du. schulter-bug. bdgi. is. bend. pusta. mockery. joke. good. Prov. ridicule buirte. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bogen. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Du. verb bua. sausen. pot. burdan. a humming noise. pausen. . a ship bound pilgrim's staff. . different modification gives ON. as was for. saufen.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. beogan. to take deep draughts. springbiirn. also the humming or ON. bog. G. firm. taunt. the Bourdon. bue. Fr. Bret. . and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. schenkelbug. Burgeon. Immediately from Fr. shoulder-blade. burdan. burreti. brunna. buys. a mill-post. purra. staff. Gael. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. The foregoing derivation seems. And there in mourning spend Sw. — — . btiga.bass of a stringed instrument. grumble Sw. Du. more probable than the one formerly given from Du.which see. burn. bordo. to drink deep. bage. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. ready. like quaff. crutch. Dan. brausen. So Sc. address. Dan. Du. g. Goth. bourdon. a jibe Shaw bururus. Borden. bogr. and that probably from a Celtic root. bogha. Spenser in R. bending. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. to take one in. Eown. buigen. Sw. The meaning of bound. bovne. It is the participle past buinn. their time -With "wailful tunes. deceit. bending. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. ing. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. a bow. set out. i.. to bulge. belly out. Sw. Sw. bagna. bontS. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. . epaule du vaisseau. head Fr. potio. bwa. to tope. lance. burt. buyse. language of folly or ridicule. biugan. to hum. to take breath. to mutter. to drink deep. buizen. G. biegen. to trick. bog. souf. sport.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. Cot. in Fr. whether by sound or gesticulation. AS. the fixed. bending of a joint knie-bug. must be referred to the same root. a. whence buysen. As the Gael. . a pot. Du. a cup kroesen. Sc. to tope W. G. cudgel. buzz. . identical with E. Gael. a humming noise Macleod. to draw a deep breath. When used alone it . to swell. a brook. a drone of a bagpipe. bourd.

belly of a cask. tumour . Bav. bugyni. . Du. a bud. PLD. then by the loss of the /. Fr. prominence. beutel. kupula. ON. a pot. polla. . bock. . to guggle. hiidel. busse. a swelling or rising up. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. as in E. the head. convex. bugy. E. bubble. . W. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. buis. bola. Fr. dial. painter's easel. to bend. to puff up. stream forth bugyogni. a bubble. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. to bulge. globular. bowel Box. a bubble bolli. bur. buga. a parlour. a chamber swefnbur. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. . similar shape. bolne. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. G. Du. to make crooked . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. convexity. bow. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bouellou. . bocka. * Bowels. round glass phial. sausage. biichse. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bukke. Bower. a sleeping-room . or in e. buk. globe or spherical body. A . a round glass or bolg. a thing of liquid.a. buigen.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. pusspan. bulne. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. bulka. and to a coachbox in particular. . a knot. with inversion of the round. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. Du. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. ask. belly. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. See Boil. Cable. Bowl. bulla in aqua. Dan. biicken. a ball . guestchamber . Bret.cup Du. . pullo. bulb of an onion bolleyield. a protuberance. From the other form are G. biiske. bur. bucka. bulk compared with Sw. signified by forms like Gael. boil. in walking appears in a . bolla. at the e. a ball. buchsbaum. anything globular. botulus. . the crop of a bird. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . . an inclosure. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. w. AS. Dan. different position in ODu. G. a box. to yield to one. Gr. bugna. busskai. a hump on the back rossbollen. hollow. buello. boor. a polla. . a bubble Fin. boxtree pusska. bow. a sack. . bosso. box in both senses. Sw. bog. In like manner the Pol. to swell. fyn. to bend down. blister. a box Lat. a bundle. ^o«/«. bugyani. a box. . pocket. belly. boss. boucle. Lat. wisp of straw . a little box . an outhouse AS. a drop of pullistaa. cumena-bur. the bogna. spring as water bugya. passing on stud. heafod bolla. bugyola. . Hence. swoUei) Lat. buckelig gehen. buckel. &c. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. ttuJic. inclinare se (Kil. The / a bow. tumour. a black pudding. head of a cabbage. . Boll. fata-bur. to stoop. bolgna. bolla. or. the barrel of a gun. See MHO. a box. a boil. . to bow buck. Sw.. bol. Buckle. . swell. a ball. OFr. Thus we have Esthon. spherical Dan. hill. boudin. bollen. as well as the name of a. ON. (in pass . Sp. a buck. box. boss. ken. The word may probably be identical with Fris. bhuj. budel. to bubble up. a bubble. beuz. water pulli. bolle. give in to. bog.). Sw. bulge. peated in Magy. buxus. crooked. . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. acsian. Sanscr. a stud. is applied to a coach-box. to raise the back boll OHG. a separate apartment . a bowl. folliculus . to puff up pullakka. boel. kuppelo. Fr. OE. and on swollen. bent. gut. to stoop biickling. a box. Bohem. ku^o. knob From the former modification we have bolla. biisse. . puffy. globular body. purse. . W. without the and grits. in both senses.D. hollow place Fr. bossola. budello. round bead. AS. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. intrenchment. kupukka. a wine-can . hollow wooden case. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. crown of a hat. koziel. .). bulcken. It is more probably from the G. the box-tree.flask It. the box-tree and articles made of it G. the head. a croft by a house. . make obeisance. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. compared with Fr. ^o/a. See Crab. bowl .) to incline oneself . the box-tree It. bol. a wardrobe . utibur. bowels. bwra. the skull or brainpan . a hen-coop . bug. bouzellou. bending. ON. bogla. .. bulla. mausbollelein. A Bulk. Hal.\s. as in AS. ne. to buckle G. of a wooden ball to play with and — . kupu. Pol. bouge. a. a iDubble. zich onder jemand under to him. trestle. boxtree. lump . the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. iri'iaQ. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bubble. bwr. Bret. honse-bur. bhugna. .

to give a sounding blow defect. fuse.nated by dirt. boy. Pl. bue. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. baukscheht. ' — A — — — . Hdcart.. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. confining. a bog or pass Fr. Swiss bub. to burst. Kil. damaged board a ship. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. On the same principle from the buksteht. A brace probis. dog in general. . To brace is to draw together. to Swiss batschen. want. let. To Brabble. suppuration.D. AS. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. — . the first instancebya physical tie. MHG. wrack. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brae. One girl. wristband. boussole. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. isolated part of the text. OE. Brack. Sp. thwack. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. — . Bracket. mud. as noticed under Box. bray. . might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. whelp as. salsus. jabber. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. by an overflow of sea water. spaniel. acidus. Kil. bracket. &c.puddle. his eyes are failing him). to be wanting. rakke.. salo sive aqua marinS. lalear-eyed Prov. root). Pr. refuse. corruptse. a grown youth Cimbr. quarrel Bohem. youth. and F. to give a gebrechen. taneous talking. Cot. disturb. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. braecke. brago. A to halt between two derivations. G. a girl. filth . braquet. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. Sp. bube. I sal slyng. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. OFr. race. bask. foul. flap. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. 91 the Dan. It. beagle. — — . which sigof straining. breptati. braic. braco. Thus brack. strike. to box the ears. bou^ba. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers.D. bracha. bitch Du. unmarried man .with a noise. . It. loud smack. — . Rouchi Then as an adj. fault. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . baske. See Broker. — . brakke Bracelet. Brack.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. wnzC/J. See Brake. in R. flaw. rakka. Fr. defect. brakke grund. a crack. buah. merely in our mode of considering them. brasselet. a box. brostia. defect Du. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. in R. to want. boiste. A — — . is a rope holding G. moral or physical. bracer. rack. braque. then from break. Fr. compressing. want. bracke. Fr. a boy pupa. bragos. con. by the same inversion of J and k. need. to fall. flaw. brae. BOX To Box. variation of babble. boy bouba. Du.. brack. breach. break. priated to the original sense. Brak-goed. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. to smack the hand batschen. odorinsecus. murmur. La ville ou y avait Brace. brassard. rakki. the arm. ing from a mixture of salt. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. to give a blow with the fists. . OFr. . . Lett.— D. breuque. brae. brabbelen. bracon. want. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. briche. from a root brak. cramp-iron holding things together . braco. to stutter. G. bruxula. Fr. Boy." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. and then Pl. Heligoneed. bresta. mud. ON. brageuses. defect. Du. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. — . fault . as die Augen plainly an imitative word. braca. In like manner the It.. land spoilt Kil. It. brace on and Du. ratch. an languages. bracco. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. Bracelet. a braceOFr. The different meanings of the brageux. Prov. Lat. Brackish. brechen. . parallel with OK. Gael. matter. Prov. a bubbling dura del mun. Kil. pus. brague. Prov. ghebreck. to crack. Swab. brae. Water rendered boubo. bouibo. a pair of braces. land batsken. It is B. to stammer. breach. Sp. s. or bracer Cot. and string of his bow. brec. posh. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Brach. Swiss Rom. brechen ihm. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. dog Sw. Pm. Ptg. or defect. dirty. brek. To fight with the fists. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. Prov. a guard to torf. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . a sounding blow. babble. brack. dog that hunts by scent. ON. V. pupus. pube. a comworld Rayn. s. to is derived brestr. . mud. bracil. to slap. . clay. armour for the arm. brek.

brails. bravache. ative fellow. well-dressed. to swagger. bully . bragging. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). goods.explosion. Sc. crash ON. proud. braw. bullying. gay. to rattle. stout. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. . breghen. — From W. 92 Cot. strength. brabhdadh. bushy . to strut. From sprouted corn. It is certain that the word for arm is. the opposite of which. fine. boasting.breeches. subduing. braske. binding anything together. beautiful. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. braver.Shepherd's Cal. braske. an iron for holding Zalli.^Vocab. to flaunt. brae. to brail up a sail. smart. From brayel. To Braid. Hence E. Dan. Brake. used in the sense of force. Sp. fine. Chaucer. vanter une chose. Fr. brachittm. spot. handsome. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. 2. The meanings of brake are very numerous. breach. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Cot. Cot. Cot. Thus we are brought to the OE. braka. dhbrailler. to shout. bra!. be found. . a noisy talkboasting. bragio. breyne. is Cot. braga. Bray. See Bray. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. flaunt in fine clothes . make a noise . brave. brazo. and that from e. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . also tion of this was brayeul.^ Sp. or by gaudy dress and show. empty pride. would be to brace. Brail. The plant y^r«. crash. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael.aburst. that will carry no coals. Rom. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . brag. Hecart. .—— . subigere. courageous. was formed brayele. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes.. . also insolenter se gerere . the feathers ON. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . de Vaud. Fr. Thus Bret. braga. to sprout malt. brabhdair. is identical with Gael. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. brave. . In like manner to crack is used for boasting. expensive. AS. splendid. breghe. crack. in numerous dialects. the arm. fine. riches.%. brav. BRAG Piedm. braies. gay. power. — . se donner trop de licence. to crack. ^Brave. Wallachian bratsou. — Equivalent forms are Gael. in the sense of the Lat. swaggerer. braga. — A — . brag. or from braie itself. braguer. vaunting. Dan. Fris. and it is very likely that the root brak. bravo. to unbrace or let down the breeches. Faire le brave. — Chaucer. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. Bret. finery. confining. brave. brake is. Lat. To Brag. gorgeous. to stand upon terms. an inclosure for cattle . braicli. to Rouchi brMer. bragging of his own valour. brave. bravacherie. cry. bragaireachd. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. breagh. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. See Brace. a carriage for breaking in horses . braggard also valiant. braka. h-avare and Fr. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . to boast of his own worth. be noisy . A — Hal. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. stately. noisy ostentation. bravado j Fr. bragd. to boast or brag. in order to prevent its catching the wind. Brain. w. also derived Fr. blusterer.. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. The meanings included under — Bragget. to cord a bale of tie up. torture . se parer de beaux habits. brag or jet it braguard. drawers. slight modificajoining the two legs. swagger. se pavaner. boast. brao. fine. To Brail. gallant (in apparel) also proud. . 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . showy bravery.hy which this idea is con\eyed. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. affront. Turk bazu are used in both senses. about the hawk's fundament. Bret. Brake. gayly dressed. valiant The head are sumptuous. From Fr. brayete. It. braszketi. as the type of exertion and strength. excellent. Haldorsen Gael. Lith. i. &c. gallant. brake in the sense of constraining. called by our braggard. vain glory. braegenj Du. Primarily to crack. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. compressing. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud.i5nz^. —Spenser in R. hectoring. flaunting. to make a noise. brave. Walloon bress. . . Brag was then used brisk. a roisterer. Langued. idle talk.

is formed murd.bracan. properly braking or subduing them. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. might come to signify a swamp. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. been confounded with the verb break. brook. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to row. brcekke. de Vaud. Gael. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. brambles. tnurdma. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. 2. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). breaking in the operation. braca. nemus. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss.. brog above mentioned. as well as in the case of the e. marsh or swamp. Sp. murran. murtaa. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. a spinning-wheel. bushes. bush. bregar. signifying to sweep. bredza. to bray in a mortar. broillet. briser. broilium. bush. brak is a frame in which strip. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. to bend a bow. Dan. gilum. ^raca. thicket. gebroge. it is not surprising that the word has here. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to head must be bit. glebas subigere. To the same bend a bow. a horse's a horse's twitch. copse-wood. low wet land bruch. casser le \va. briers. brushwood. . Pl. gebrUche. brage. The Fr. the lever by which the string was drawn up. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. dial. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to exert force in different ways. Voc. break of such a kind. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. and when once thrown down. marsh. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. braeken. We — . It may be sus- . frangere linum. a fen. In ON. Swiss Rom. to stiffen against Taboada). subigere. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. broken fratta. braquer un canon. where from Esthon. quarry from Fin. word. braka. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. Lat. a brace on board a ship. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. braecken het vlasch. In the sense of a thicket. pasture. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. to break. ing of flax or hemp. to distinct. G. bruch. is braukti. breuil. gebiisch. brambles. P&. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. to rub. as in the case of horse-breaking. a harrow. cetur. broil. to subdue. Dan. murrokko. —Ovid. any thicket of brakes. in usus braca. or A A ' . to harrow (Lat. thing is brought under control. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. It. a marsh. to knead or mix up in a mortar. a swampy Mid. broor bushy place Hal. e. in northern climates. to brush. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to bend or direct a cannon. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. gebroge. brake. break flax PLD. OFr. Brake. brake.D. BRAKE to external force. In like manner Lat. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . Brake. have thus Du. referred brake. fratto. bregar brake. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. for — Due. cover G. brego. a thicket. Dan. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition.D.— . a stream. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Corrfeze bredgea. Fr. the original meaning of G. to break. and G. brog or brake. — Fl. Fr. bregille. brog.' It. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. as in Du. brook. watered. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. gebrUche. broyer. to break or fracture. —Bracken. It. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brogille. farinam in mortario subigere. Prov. — — . flachs brechen. game. iSpsx". t° moisten. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. riguus. gebroge. 3. brage. to The ON. brolium. tris). Gr. to pound. or a wood in a marshy place . el arco. and Lat. braken. brook. In the case of the ne. brega. as in Sp. conSo in G. or overthrow of trees by the wind. broeck. to fracture. Biglotton. Fr.

brouskoad. iii. branche. a shoot or twig. G. thicket of brambles Cot. brank. the thorn apple or stramonium. bromboli. as. brang. brandello. brandiiialil. Bret. dirt . Fr. apiece orbitbrandone.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. young buisson fort epais. brandmurk. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. heath. to brank. a small deri\'ation . brank. brin d. breanan. Thus we have w. in the sense oi fern. the branch of a tree. a shoot. A mark made by burning. Bran. a bridle or bit . bruk. bruskoad. a thick bush. w. ear-wax mud. G. Port. Then by comparison with claws or arms. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. hallier. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . a roA. Fr. to or iron. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. also a marshy low ground or fen . a single plant of heath. That beareth the red hepe. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. a briery plot. cabbage sprouts Fl. Thus in Lat. Rouchi bren d'orMe. G. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. as AS. &c. sawdust. burning brennen. In like hrst. Thornas and bremelas. brand. Pl. from Servian pnit. Dan. stink . It. brwnt. brein. brom. Pl. It. a bud. from virga. braeme. bretnel. restrain. broembel-CBppel. broom. brambles. ground full of briers. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. It will be found that shrubs. brosst.). young twig {brom-beisser. pfropf. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. — branca. brous. pfriemen. bruch. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. . Broom. brin. Russ. nasty. bruk. in the same sense. ordure . Branch. broust. branco. broccoli. from Lat. and E. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. bruch. bran. a burning fragment of wood. Sir Topaz. . and waste growths. compress. brenda. from brug. bit by bit. bronbo. Brand. Diez. Fr. bracken or fern . Bret. breme j Sw. . titio. Bav. 2. piecemeal brindelles. brarn. brenn hesken. manner when waved about like a flaming torch.D. heath ON. berneux. a dunghill. braam. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. AS. broem. to burn. —Ducange. brushwood. . Gael. The naof strain. may be so called in analogy with Bret. constrain. bren. pfriem in the sense of an awl. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. The same form becomes in It. bren. See Brush. brejo. prufye. virgultum. or with It. brugek. brandr. Serv. wood composed of twigs. heath. from gaggi. heath (Bret. . briars. pected that brake. the bull-finch. is the draff or excrement of the com. what is cast out as worthless. bushes. G. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. thorns and Gen. branchia. a rod or twig. that is to say. Bramble. brin (as It brano). Grisons bruch.G. broom. brancas. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brano. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. 1 8. or other plants of a like nature. heath. a firebrand. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . &c. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. ." The bmno a • on . bramble Du. gebriiche. brughera. sedge burkni. . As ON. Piedm. E. to gripe. a halter. . piece of anything. to -brugen.. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. bruk. clutch. Brancare. bro7n. Fr. brug. cack. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. breun. Gael. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. i. chaff. sprouts. from brand. broussaille. a bud. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. also pfriemkraut. . w. brenn. or ling. it glitters — — . It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. a shrub . all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . — . a vine twig Bav. brug). So Swiss gaggi. Bret. heath. brem. snotty . a heath. brok. brake. brass.D. brog. brenna. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. bran. and thence a shoot. a bud It. excrement. Brank. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. a shrub from Bret. Bret. But we find It. to bridle. gebroge. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. sweet broom.

to rustle. distilled wine. So. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . the colour than hitherto known. forms brasil. to shake. brasca. as again by well as the blade of a sword. hoisting to the fall. shake.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. Fr. from to vociferate. Fr. to shake. bum. crackle. Bailey. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. prasseln. Bret. WaUon. Brasil. G. The name Brandy. bransle. brasil. and scold. a round dance. brouir. To brase AS. conbillet. Hume in brand in ON. to make sense of a bright red dye. — . With top trimbling. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. before the discovery of America in the brandir. a stick. Sw. given to the country. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. billet. E. Lye. stake. crackle. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. brandende wijn. to murmur. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. brand. put. 59. to solder iron. brascct. Formerly brandy-wine. from used in dyeing cloths. is bntan. to roar. brastlian. weinbrenner. brausen. make a — . then brandr. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. brustle. d'Angl. apparently very distinct from each other. gebrannter wein. a fragment. braise or hot coals. bresil. to sound of the Fr. — . to glisten or flash. brazeiro. faire fracas. du Roi et laine. De Goes. a roaring fire. was in use Fr. brasca. brandigh. firewood. It. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. or in stick. bracea. Jam. to brandle. Fr. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to burn. to blaze. brazil. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. brasa. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Fr. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to Bailey. plained by Florio. braser. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. Kil. incendium. Du. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. Fr. the spelling to kindle. ish. brangle or brawl in E. — . brandiller. brush.pan of coals. perplex. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. splinter. to and fro in the hand. n. V. to totter. bragale\ wood. ist. morsel. Chron. a To Brandish.well. totter. comes from thence. In the same way the set on fire . G. — ting to confusion. bryne. Brase. to burn. braise. to hurl with great force. N. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. firebrand. bruciare. briiler. to make display . was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Braser. The tre brangillis. live coals. E. a pan of hot coals. To brand. a brusler. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. to crackle . bragia. It. hot Fr.^Brandle. De Barros considers vinum ardens. bracia. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. urens. brasa. to distil . braise. Gris. braza. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. brandiller. became ashes Pied. to French brawl or brangle. bruan. fire-wood. brus^. brennen. to make shine with shaking. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. to dash. spirit distilled from wine. bransella. to quarrel. Guill. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. to brandle or The It. Sw. branler. as Fr. Ija. to burn. noise. Fl. to brustle. The corresponding form in Gael. Port. as Jamieson explains it. e. all. make an outcry. brane-wood. bruire. in Marsh. to brangle. branler. and bruir. eldibrandr. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. flagrans. to confuse. not. Milan. bruzi. so. branla. to bicker 2nd. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. and branchis shaiand D. brin. aqua ardens.. to shake The word brisil. to braze or lute. Manx bransey. bra?ier. Brangle. Diez. embraser. glowing embers . BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. to shog. set on fire. It. brandolare is exbrandish. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Chron. Thus the bound up again. AS. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn.

a lath. a patch of cloth. Florio. It . breyon. from Sc. braoilich. any piece. bronze. Jam. — Deutsch. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. ^Altieri. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. 368. The muscular part of the body. bas morceau de viande brawhng. braser Fargent. fraiche. breteque. strepitus 2. Westphal.^ — Sverris Saga. deblaterare. frequentative of braire. a Lap. ON. Sc. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. a lump of flesh.D. is The word — uous name for a woman. pil. Brangle. calf of the leg. discord. Fr. branle. bartisan. —-Jam. as criailler of crier. The verb is probably derived from the brase. bartising. slakker-bortchen. KiL Prov. &c. bradlete. bretesche. It. ferruminare. Cot. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Circumeunt cibertesca. bmhon for brado7i. a parapet. brazen. braede. I. roar. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. 1156. frame of laths.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. braiio. a lump. a lump of flesh. —^Bronze. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. AS. Hist.D. bruir. OHG. lat'te. tasce. neita girl). boutures. Bailey. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . Fr. bratdn).' Hal. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Brave.— Diez. Brass.— Fl. a clout. calf of the leg. to tear piecemeal. as scrawl from scrabble. ' A vraale. then a parapet. — . Pisana in Mur. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. bransle. bribe de viande. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. pan- — Rayn. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. Kil. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. Dan. Many gambes.' BRASS BRAY et AS.D. berd. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. equivalent to the Du. Bartizan. brces. breyon d'chaur. noise. to solder. brass. to shake. A. le repasser un peu sur la braise.— Braid. bran. Brawn. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. a battle-girdle. bralle. See Bray. whether contracted from brabble. Sp. Brat.— Remade.walle — Pr. or whether it be from Fr. A dispute or squabble. boarding being sbranare. slibro {neita. muscular parts of the body. flesh of a leg of pork. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Fr. Betrax of a —^Jam. bradon. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. a. buttock Sc. 1224. coassatio. a mantle. Brawl. brettys. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. A. or on the top of a wall. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. as lattice. bred. a rag. 2. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. luncheon. bratach. cob. Du. to talk at bralle op. ni autres choses sur Due. a contemptuous name for a young child. saillies. bratidone. ship. Mundart. borderinge. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). breyon de kinds of . to Gael. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. bronzare. burning coals. from branler. The same correspondence is seen between It.brettysing. slut. Cologne broden. bretays). Pm. bretesque. Certainly a little girl. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. OFr. a rag . OFr. squall. . cloth. A land of dance. and bronzo. Wall. P1. esbraotier. rag. Fris. It. braeye. So also See Brag. braion. to carbonado. G. braodhlach. to scold . trul. bratid calf of the leg. brailler. the buttocks. Math. Lorraine bravon. Cot. especially that used in the working of iron . ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. brat. the calf of the leg. bronzacchiare. a — A from the confused noise. a wooden tower. a rag . braon. Paris. brdto (ace.96 Roquefort. W. Gael. brat. Sup. a slabbering-bib. a cloak. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. to copper. Swiss bradle. baltresca. a plank or board. brett. contignatio. brat. a contempt- banner. See Brandish. solder. a loud noise. at brasa. apron. in the first instance of boards.propugnaculum. slibro. bras. to braze. Brattice. brandillo. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. to cry. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. For the application to a^child compare Bret. as a brawling brook. from Fr. a fortification.

to snatch. a brake for hemp or flax. a rent. abraid. bruire.ch.' To Bray. Fin. gestus. to t. or wound.. breche. Chaucer. vapna-brak. Cat. Fr. with or without a final d. Prov. as the voice of the ass. braid. D. rangere. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to cry Port. to rub Fr. 145. I'll live and die a maid. braea. to have the lineaments of one's ON. k. to start. a . G. make a disturbance. father. to the seijauntes. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. i. brice. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to braid. to tear Bret. R. Fr. brak. brand. . to bray in a mortar.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. — koa. bruzir. And with a traid I tumyt me about.ear rog. . Chaucer. Gr. a rag f . to smack or the eye. D. The Lat. to bellow. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. soft . quilibet celerior j at bragdi. e. to cry out. bray. V. augnabragd. Q. to break Fr. The ON. to braid acquires the sense of bend. fish. to braid. AS. to crash. brot. V. Bret. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. and to signify the fracture itself. G. relation is seen between Lat. baiyl. turn. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. as OE. plait. roar. to resemble. &c. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. F. crepo and E. a mill. . riAprjyvvfu. ing. breuan. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. &c. verb to break.fracas. Bread. Goth. crash. and make a hideous noise. which has given much trouble to commentators. is . Breach. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. Du. starts crackling up. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. Swiss bratschig. ser. brechen. to scold.^ Fr. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. D. to work up in a mortar. bradar. brak. To Break. See Brake. twist. paxog. paste or dough. ybrayid. explaining a very obscure application of the E. instantane. to bray like an ass. Ppvxia. to break. at a braid. to roar as the sea. Cot. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. to pretend. imitate or resemble one. a wink. a brack. in Jam. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. as the notion of turning crack. Wal. bregar. a breach Cot. the miller's dog. to break. and frangere. the sword was out break. 2. father. brikan. Prov. to resemble. crash. 7 . upbraid. regi. to cry out. fractus j Gr. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. to N. To rub or grind down Sp. OE. roar. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to braid the hair.y. &c. braire. bragd — ON.g. kind. to roar or bellow. The same He might don us both a villany. braidar. rogi. to resemble him. to knead. crackle . to The cup was uncoverid. brame. yell. to rush. E. braa. to roar. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. a crash. bru.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. bregar. ON. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to rumble. broad. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. cyprinus latus. at once. — — — explained motus loud noise. will. From the or brack in a wall. rustle. broyer. and fracasously. to break. to bawl. Lat. Then. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. disturbance. to crash. &c. rattle. breach. W. And at a braid he gun it bende. Bailey. weave The ON. appearance Hal. R. ON. yell. bragr. bratsche. at braga eftir euium. fragor. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. ^p&xia. Then is simply. to sound very loud and very harshly. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. mos. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. V. bregda. brage. Beryn. Dunbar braessem. or cry out loudly . on. noise . brugier. Bread. — . resound . braidir. braa. bragd is also applied nets. the sound — of arms.

in Schilter. briosa. bratscher. brasiuiii. brosame. broiiwen. Rom. to smack. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. remains of leaves. Gael. Dev. brache. to buzz. broil. briig. — Brist. bris de charbon. — . Swiss AS.D.'— Gl. Du. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. instead of being derived from 'La. Biglotton. Breath. We bragezj on. forms analogous to E. chillness or shivering. a smack. . drive the cattle gadding through the wood. brisd. to bray. cloven. briosat'. bracecs . The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. their stings draw . Fr. simmering. point to G. then to broil.98 borst. braga. bandage or truss for a rupture. zare. brison. braux. —Briss. Dan. — Halma. britze. to murmur. — And blood. brustia. are in like manner ' . a word formed from the sound of a loud smack.t. brasiare. a horse's twitch. Fr. the dry spines of furze broken off. brezza. bra. . Swiss brdtsch. bridsen. bruzir. Gl. rubbish. G. to breech. morsel. binding. Piedm. applied to shivering. It. braguier. brist. scent. de Vaud. braciarc. peitschen. Breeze. brise. Gael. representing the sound of a blow. brumtnen. to crackle. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. crush. Lat. orts. brok. braca. from ligare. G.vare. noise. broden. AS. bruc. . to burst. a crum Du. braca. singing bone.). brisciare. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. to break. the bust. sheep's droppings bruss. The Breech (Prov. brijsen. a twitch for a horse. to crush to break. Lat. Russ. Breeches. The Teutonic verbs. Breeze. to rattle (as hail). are related to Prov. bragues. grillen. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. to whip. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. Brize. bremse. i5r(Z^. Bracha. from brace. dial. w. griller. bryi^ga. Hume in Jam. as. fastening . /esses. AS. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. brasser. brinisa. a to lay fly-flap. Bret. chilly. to roast. briosa. brdtschen. properly to crackle. brodem. a crum. rubbish. OFr. as commonly explained. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. to simmer. to fry Then from a Gl. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr./ssus. met de bridse slaan. braia J OFr. and E. with It. braies. but more probably the E. PI. and brought beneath between the legs. briiz. fitzen. Prov. Briss and buttons. so AS. bretilles. Gl. braga. bruise. . brire. forms. switch.britschen. to shiver for cold. malt. brciz. G. Hence the Lat. as by the Sc. breath. . may be from the wurh fesser. — . fail. sprouted corn. brcekur j It. grillare. bark Fr.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. bresilles. breson. an odour. to brew. Sw. Breeze. grill. drawers. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . trembling. Goth. b}-as. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. G. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. briste. break. Piedm. bruzun. the soler. Swiss Rom. breeze. braies. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. a cramp-iron for holding things together. brodel. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. broza. brusc. brugga. brissle. QNtsterviald) pritschen. a girdle. de bridse geveii. E. G^nev. brisoler. brew. brezling. clout for a child. brcEth. siibligar. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Dtyden. einem de britze geven. Fris. a gadfly. So ON. of straining. Du. to bind. breost. Compare OE. polenta. &c. braie. to brew. Breast. Du. an into shiver. coaldust. breinse. Fr. also to chill and shiver with cold. or the blow itself. murmur. xyligogio castigare. brimsa. as the G. brossi!. vapour. brut. E. subligaculum. braucn. burst. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. bris. the breech or buttocks. breme. as. to hum. — — strument for smacking. a cold and windy mist or frost . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. as in the case of twitter. to be misty and cold. . braich. body brostia. to fry . bris. and other rubbish dibris. G. brimme. Bruise. a cool wind. little bits of wood Berri briser. trusts. Bret. bre- I'os qui bresole. To Brew. Prov. to feize or feaze. See Brick. brezzare. windy withal. of trees. — See Broth. Isidore and Tatian. murmur—Vocab. corresponding to G. simmer. Originally probably the word signified steam. to resound. from AS. malt. of E. a box. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brijselen. Du.

berwi. priod. to rub.groom. malt. to tlie brico. Bribe. brigata. groom (mab=:son). a married man guma. ' . a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. a lump of bread. crew.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. funeral. whence berw. or brizo. Bridge. In E. daughheath.privatus. owned also propriate. pavement Lith. brug. Applied ous words derived from break. briw. hlafes brice. a cheat. AS. served (Patois de Bray). bribour. bride. It — is Kil. heath. Brier. Cot. especially to a letter or command. to meet together. bro is applied not only to a bridge. sugga. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. remarkable that the Gr. a Bride. bidsel. a lump of bread. Hdcart. In the patois of briccia. bably contracted from brigantine. Grisons bruch. to beg one's bread. bitill. a bit. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. brahi. sponsa. division of an army. the newly. bruith. to appropriate.pritil . ' — . At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brukkas. E. as so. a rogue. brar. buckler J ON. grug. Diefenbach com. brutg. AS. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. brilt. — — — — — — . The origin of the word is the w. which however is undoubtedly from brace. bruarium. Gl. a fragment. bro. brocaly. bruk. a bride. jipaaaiii. . a brig or priodor. bryd-gutna. Brief. brittil. Fl. bygga. AS. a married man or woman Lat. barren land priodas. brasser. troop. Neumann. to press. boiling up brocoliere.gfiugga. Pro(merch=:maid). bruk. See Broth. the marriage si in brigata. Fr. collect bits of food. breve or brevis. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. brieden. and berweddu. Thom. bridge. pavement brolegge. any jot or crum. a briole. married. birbante. brughiera. Goth. E. of burial. from Bret. bribe de pain. to boil. then the marriage itself. briwo. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. frayer. fervere. bruskr and buskr. in the sense of OSw. A — A — . broken bread. berwedd. a heath brughera. . a beggar. OSw. brique de pain. bro. Gael. birbone. Dan. imprint. bride. to pave brukkti. Lat. appropriate. bo. Bridle. guma. but probably Bricoteau. stone-bridge bnikkoti. but to a paved road. to press in. Flor. to stamp. bricou. bara briw. a quoit of stone. AS. Priodi. Fr. broken. beaten way Dan. brakes of high-grown ferns. . two-masted vessel. Diez. company. . E. fragment. — . brigade. Trovarfor bride-ale. gf2o. . bretonica. brere. from bit. a boiling. as. peculiar. bulicame. the equivalent of to the dial. It. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. conjux. has briguer. Du. . a sow. privus. one's ovin. brood. ment of anything broken. graf-ol. a bush. Mid. nurus G. bridelj OHG. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. to boil. to break. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. . now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. Sp. betony brulicame. malt. from the Normans. buskins. If the foregoing were not so clear. fastningar-ol. ter-in-law. thick appropriated. pavement. bricge j G. pier. Bridal. from the last 99 of which. Walach. arf-ol. w. . Lang. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . feast. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . is still used in this sense. E. Bridal. broken victuals. consort with. and that from It. brA. jetty. Ihre.It. with transposition of the r. briiths. Hence OE. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. brygga. betonica. . to boil. to break to pieces bricalio. Brewis. Brick. — . AS. a bride Brig. brau. feast of espousals. Brique. bread. lipdZu}.Fr. corresponding or letter. to Isrew. and ODu. to brew. brice. Brigade. BRIGADE dead. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. to circulate. it is applied to the letter to OE. from Bridegroom. masted vessel. Due. priod-ferch. a wedding priod-fab.bergantino. ibrukkti. a little king's writs. W. briicke. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. son. ON. to pave. a heath. brigantine. twopares Lat. bruyere. fraoch. a crum. The Sw. braut. ap. It. Pol. Fr. to prepare. the Fr. httle bit. a proprietor. fit. A bribe is A — — arval. In the G. bryd-eale. broosekens. AS. a rogue . So in The Prov. Gael. OHG. piece of burnt clay.. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. G^n^v. Ducange. a lump of bread briber.rough with brambles and bushes. a fragment. a man. So It. a crum. Rouchi brife.

Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. also called briganders. In the same way to strive is. Schmeller. It. and ner me hit iherde. and led it away. in later times a robber or highway-man. Adelung. to ring. a pirate. In Fin. brigant. clang. inde squammatus. secondarily. with respect either to sound or colour. brigare. pugna. . praht. glitter. malandrini.— . — Briganbriga. glamra. wilella. the gleeman's song. outcry. kilistua. 1351. squamma . to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. clangour. a noise. AS. splendens . brigan. 312. a brigantine. bryhtm. splendour. briga.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Goth. bregar. in the sense of a robber. It. hell.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. to shift for with care. glir. — brigante. Owl and beorhtian. to glitter. brigare. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. the bench-notes resounded. to rob. brebrigare. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. Du. bairhts. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. clear. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. seems to be to exert force gar el area. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. So G. to rove. to piracy. at a later period. schateren. dine. Xa/iTTii). dine.' in Due. may play the pirate or thief at sea. — brigante. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . willata.glampa. bright bearhtm.' The passage from the sense of a light. jurgia. Florio. to glamr. The Ir. to strive for. a small light pinnace pro. Swab. clarus. They or brigantini. himself to serve men of merit. clare lucens. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. —Capgrave. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Heo — song That AS. Mid. transparent. moment. and. brigandare. clear sound. and the E. From ON. to sound. a sound.clare ^tinniens. loo BRIGAND lor. tion. braid. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. shriek with laughter. Lat. to shine. \oice. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. cange has 'Veles. from hall. riis ' — Chron. and diligence. 1654. strife. . Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. is easily understood. twinkling. and to associate with them. biartr. there are many armour.pracht. The primary meaning of Sp. show the origin of Lat. bragen.' torum. bray. Wilista. to bend a bow It. The E. brdgen. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. the grew high. then.D. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to make a loud noise. rover either by sea or land. to contend with another. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. — Brigantine. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Gr. briga. and hence be explained glampi. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . brak. Beorktode bene sweg. to reservavit. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. See Brake. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. splcnornd de brigandine. to cry 'Schmid OE. brawl. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. manifest ON. noise. clear. tinnitus. representing a sudden noise. a spark. kii:'a. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. necessary business. Due. tuilahtaa. Flor.shine. It. and. to resound. — A A . Brigata. — Probably then to strive. splendour. glbram. Gall. XafXTTpoQ. OHG. Bright. bracht. Brigand.' The sense of strife or combat express. schiteren. beorht. labour. — — . but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier.Lat. in the first instance. A. combat. clear. that of Fr. a glittering. Brilliant. speech. brcEhtin. lay was sung. rixa. and secondly. on his — own account. — Due.dorem clarum reflecto. etincelle. Bav. It. briegen. to shine. tinkle. sound. to cry. — Beowulf. tinnitum clarum movco. glamm. A strepere. tumult.

grdzil. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. sparkle. to long for a thing. brow of a hill. fringe (Lat. griller d'impatience. bray as an ass bramire. pMiller. Brimstone. breziller. the lap or bosom. breme. s. originally the lap folding over the breast. on. griller. a stick. Swiss Rom. sprainged. a border. brillare. Thus Lat. edge Pol. also to reflect. Lith.' Elyot in Way. 154. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. the sow is brimming.preni. — Rim. as in Langued. post. beam. bry7ie. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. border. kiimottaa. to utter cries. breziller. The meaning of the Fr. a rod. Langtoft. Here it cannot be doubted fremo.— Brinded. A . the heat of animals. It. bremmen. or violent action. Rayn. brdnnsten. brant. fringe . to crackle. the heat of animals. chime). In Fr. ring. to crackle. Sc. brummen. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. greDiet. a borDu. bremas. the singing of Sodom — — . breme. burning. noise made by meat in broiling. to sparkle. to glitter. margin. to glitter distance . brunft. bramire. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. Wtb. Tutschek. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. parched. vattubryn. ardere desiderio. rugire. ter. der. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). s. rugire (cervorum. bramer. brame. os qui bresole. The expression is now confined to the sow. 1. brisoler. and 1. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. broil . crackle . Kil. (poet. identical with passion. burning stone. rut. Said of swine when in heat. 754. kommata. Rugere. to broil. to roar. E. leonum). . kimmaltaa. to make bilbil). to parch.). appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to resound. fierce. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. komista. Dan. the verbs Flor. coloured in stripes. whence bilbil-goda (literally. griller). kimista. ON. gresiller. brezil. to sound deep or hollow. is used of raging. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. bramar. barmr. to shine. broiled. Dief. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. Du. to shimmer. . lap of a garment . brumft. striped or streaked. and corresponding to these. barm. AS. earnestly . as in ing or earnest desire bramare. — g. brmdottr. to wish or covet. have then in Fr. finds the Fr. kimina. To Brim. Tresiller. hence the bosom. cross-barred in colour. grisler. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to fret . bremmen. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. as is the case also with Pl. furious. fimbria) . lap. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. brullo.) brimi. to . sonitum edere bremen. to quaver with the voice. G. Prov. 1 1 64. Brindled. surface of the ocean. rym^. to creak. perent. brommen. border. It.ioTiviS acutus. to make a crackling noise. a long. The identity of ON. bryn. the edge. the meaning is transL' amour. ling noise and a sparkling light. lip of a vessel. bresoler (Gloss. clangor tinniens. brennistein. that the original meaning of the Sc. . to creak. It. brinfire. to shake. Fl. In the same way Sw. Sc. reecho. AS. brama. brummen : de soge brummet. Fr.its vent in cries and roaring. to shine. crackle. from bringe. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. Hence with an initial s. which seems identical with rim. the eye-brow. grullo. ous. brandr and Fr. Streaked. to storm. of the eye. : ' — bone). briller. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. — — So Fr. dial. grisser.— BRIM . border. komottaa. — . tience. ON. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. brastlian. as of meat in broiling . The E. brame. brimmen. excited. small gravel. brim. gresiller. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. to roar. glisten. kajata. Supp. briller. bramar. brand-krossottr. barm-cloth or barmskin. shine. as well as bl and gl. a streak. Closely connected is OE. Brim. with an initial br instead of gr. Sw. glit. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. brissle. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. to shine. to twinkle. spraing. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Brem. to glitter . frequently interchange. to burn. Subo. — — — . vigorHal. brim Magy. briller (related to each other as OFr. whether of desire or anger. from brandr.' d'etre marie . que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. fire. FJ.D. voux. bar. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. an apron. ON. greedily to covet Cot.

Gl. Abroacli. thick — A elastic hair. to shoot. Brooch. a spit. as. an awl. bryde. against the grain . and hence. bruched (Fr. birse. Formerly written brotil. from brande. a bit . a stitch brocher. bruskett. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Antiq. to break. fantas'* tical. sharp. to put one in a rage . A similar relation may be observed between Sp. brimhliod. Brittle. to scorch. briocho. to stab Gael. broche. See To Brim.). whence may be explained the Sc. coli. Hal. to stitch. a deluge. aculeus. to broil. . prick with Sw. Du. setting the hair on end compare It. broca. flame. a morsel. a button broche. a brooch. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. or the full • . as. the brisket or . bringe. Then as the effect of shivering. to stick. Berri. brddj Goth. brissle. Du. and forms on. byrst. wine of a sharp. lively. Fr. fierce. a rod or twig. Gr. brimme. and. to set up one's birse. borzen. a projecting tooth It. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. brodden. Brine. to burn. ribrezzoso. is called a birssy day. NE. brog. broccata. breaking out into growth. Swiss to stand out . briser. Dan. a crum. eager. brcit. to begin upon it. p. . The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. to break. brot. Russ. britar. britchet. brusk. Liquamen vel garum. to goad. rebrousser. a brad or tack. of astonishment. borzos (struppig). crabbed. a skewer. a peg sbrocco. The Pl. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. sticking up . britar. brim (poet. to spur. Alfr. Prov. breaking of the waves brim sior. Commonly explained as from Fr. /3pE^m. to break. Sc. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum.'— Vita'abbatum S. fragile. ' . See Brand. Bohem. birstle. In the N. trembling. quick. — in Due. to thrust. Russ. a stormy brimsea . a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. borstel. Cot. brusque. Sp. expression. Ptg. bryne. Walach.rcendij'i. . a rebours. brote. chest. a belly. the surf. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. the twigs of a besom. to shiver for Sold or for fear. briota. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. a bud. bresk. rebursiis. Fris. Fr. setting the hair on end.g. brich. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. as. to spit. brittle. broccare. Brisket. brisciare. sprouts. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. emotions which produce it. brytan. a bud. It. brusco. Da. Salte sand is called brimsand. as a noun. Bristle. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brocar. of E. brocco. Prov. Boh. — — .Lat. Mid. brezza. Fr. cK) the . because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael.D. brocco. to crack.procio. brioshko. a slip or sprig of an herb . sprocco. Zeuss. ruffling. brittle. spricka. spur. borst. bristly . Brisk. braidsj ON. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. fiscbryne. See Spread. brichet. Prov. metaphorically. brezzare. apt to break. startling. brust. — A . Hence ribrezzare. a morsel . bros. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. b.. — bryme. flames. to roar. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. angry. is to erect the hair. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. to set it a going. Lat. to turn up the point of anything. Pectusculum. grim. Brocade. broc. brim. a shoot or sprig. bricho (with the diminutives. brickie. brim. a fragment. It. form bris. .' Nat. bringue. Bret. to bud. and Sc. briota. roar of the sea saltr. hot-tempered. Bret. birsle. ' breast. humorous. birs. saulmeure. bruckle. from break. man's throat. like the Broad. It. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. sprout. the surf. brijn (Kil. stitch. breast. brocchus. to spur. Sc. ON. brissko). birssy. bros. Port.. from AS. to broach a business. Fr. brin. brockle. very salt brimi. .). harsh vin brusque. . Sw. — . Fr. Palsgr. to birstle. bringe traced through the brano. are used in the sense of brittle. i. G. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Brym. rash. strong itself. Brickie. 222. sour. shoot. brindelles de balai. Breeze been connected with the Sc. bronchus. reburrus. rude. has under It. as unripe fruits. brocciare. smart taste. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. craw of a bird. a clasp. brisk in taste. brandello. or — . the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. brime. 'V^. suddenly angry. breidr. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). e. Compare also E. Fr. broca. brocher. a cold and windy mist or frost. It.

broice. the line of development has been something different. dar seems derived from borde. brasbrasciuolare. a freckle. Compare also AS. grullo. The ON. Bret. noisy. to crackle. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification.. carbonado. precisely analogous to the Sc. speckled. to darn. speckled. brucach. to burn. bj'oil. brizen. Dan. brocco. broccuto. broiled. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. ciare. prod. brychau. brasuole. noise. Hal. From direct imitation of Brock. atoms . parti-coloured. borprick. It. broud. ornamented with a raised pile. piebald . froco. or snag. brastlian. trouble. the shoot of corn.sound. The Bret. silkes-borda. — Gower in It. ToBroider. confound. hart of two years old. gresiller. gold and silver. So from Pol. E. brod. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. a prick. broccato was used to signify stuff . — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. brindled. to parch or broil. or roast on the braise. parched. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. thread. border ornamented with silk. q. to embroider. spotted. birsle. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. trouble. with Sc. or salted fish on coals. and bord or bred. broc. from the white. a brim. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. age was termed a pricket. a border. brouFr. Ihre has guU-bord. braird. bawling. . to prick. storms. Fr. Fr. parch. to spur. Gael. B. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. an edge. Fr. and w. 103 embroidered. here. to scorch. frocadura. stump. brasolare.. bustling. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. bordar. rinj'. onbryrdan. brouda. brucilare. brocach. brocart. W. Gael. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. rustle. forming to jumble. a To Broil. It of br the Fr. streaked. whence broccare. to burn. brerd. sparks E. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. margin. a fallingThe sense has been out. knobby . To roast upon hot coals. It. broc. A fried or boiled steaks). because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brasiller. a freckle. Compare G. or glowing coals broged. v. breard. to instigate. — brissle. border. broil. grislement. to crackle. embroidering. to embroider. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. brasiller. — . broglio. brullare. tufted ornaments. brodio. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. to boss. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. . R. Cot. A badger. Icnotty. Sc. Cot. embroidery. to crackle.— B. point to an origin in Bret. kled breac. bordo. bram.tumultuous. initial . Sp. badger . creak. a quarrel. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. — The proper sense is that of Fr. sting. houx. Here to ornament with needle-work. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brusler. — — . of pointing out their latent defects. Florio. a flake of snow sion. to streaked or speckled in the face. Surrey in R. broder. a confused streaked face of the animal. to crackle. a brouhaha. to broil. blusters. shuffle. a badger. to crackle as a shell in the fire. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. Broker. to On the other hand the Sp. frecSee Brawl. a point. scorch. prasseln. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. broil. Ptg. bruler. Sc. to stud broccoso. or It. to knots or loops. brusuole. broighlich. parti-coloured. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Contracted from Fr. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). agree in being the extremity of a thing. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. motes. a b?-ustolare. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. and AS. briefh. Thus brod. a brecJi. b?-od. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. Grisons brascla. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. hurly-burlies. fundamental origin. a mole. bramowanie. a peg. — Fl. bmsciare. brustle. spots. a border ornamented with gold. tumult broighleach. freckled. briz. has grisser. brooked. AS. a flock or Gael. tori shows that. Brocket. brych. broukit.

G. designation is indkler. a chicken. corrector. ODu. slaae vrag paa. wraken. find fault — — — fuse matter. trumpery. Russ. Pl.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. . brunds. fish-spawn broden. brakyne. to be wanting. buy and sell by commission. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. embers. mediationem quorundam J. a breach or flaw. bredan. See Brackish. rejected. burning. See Wreak. Pro v. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. filth. blur. term was correcfo^ir. • . brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Du. and as an adj. Alb. Kil.D. reject. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. Teutonic class : Du. to brew. bric-a-brac. Jam. in which sense the OHG. sunburnt. has exactly the force of G. brak. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. ordure. broen. refuse. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. w. refuse brakovat. bridde. a fault. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. For the same reason the Kiittner.— Lib. Du. To blame mens ware. spittle . any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. which E. spittle. hrak. inspection. bronze. brack-gut (Sanders). wrak. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. find fault with. nounce unsound. i.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. sort. an operation performed over hot coals. On • tliis principle the G. tussis. — broeden. Brood. refuse brakowad. brokers' goods. Lat. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. In the . If to vomit . . to criticise. — point out the faults. braken. Abbronzare. brae. This word shows the same relation to It. find fault with. Tooke's Catherine. . tan. to hatch. bronce. to . 38. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. whnake. broiid. dirty. brack. brydio. glowing coals. Adelung. to pick and choose. to hatch. the young of any animal . Sc. to scorch. ON. racaille. sbrinzlar. : ' .D. a broker. a makeln. try . inspect. to sort brakovanie. Prov. hraki. See Broth. 396. as. refuse wares. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. abbronzanchiare. to throw blame upon. insects. brwd. In those countries the term braker. to sparkle. from makel. faulty. to pro- to reject . briiten. analogous to Bohem. to pick. an . brieden. screatio Junfus . cracker. brokoti. — a spark. — . OFr. brasa. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. Bronze. cherish. vile. on. to blame. refuse goods. criticise (makeln). progeny of birds. in the sense of rejection. try out. but from the primary sense of the It. vile. . Grisons brinzla. brot. to reject. damaged. hot. brumo. . Per manus et old worthless horse. to spit . couratier. brid. brod. vrage. an outcast or rejected sheep. to emit sparks. abject. The Langued. racher. G. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. dial. goods damaged by sea-water. The use sunburn. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. a brood .D. to hatch G. to roast on the embers. want. Pl. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. the spawn of fishes. Pl. brasa. et A. to braze. brands. brass does to Sp. brut. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. mud. Bret. to sort goods . a cough Hal.— Breed. bring eggs and spawn into active life. to garble. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. wreak. e. selection. It. wrack-good. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. raquer. to be hot. to copper. merchandises de rebut G. lack. G. refuse Fr.— — . — Fl. and fishes . brak.D. braeck goed. hot. keep warm. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. Bronzare. S. or brascla. cast Lith. make out. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. brod. bracker. matter of blame weak place. from break. brokas. To correct an exercise is to Lib. phlegm. brack-gut. refuse. fermenting. to — garble. bronze. . brechen. bronzo. Sp. embers to brund. stain. to nourish. Dan. Fr. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. Fl. whence the modern courtier. correctarius. embers. warm. and to reject the damaged and unsound. brackefi. damaged. with. raca. to sit on eggs. Alb. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. fault censure. pan metal. It may be compared with It. bronze. rejection Pol.

brmi. brodo. . a sprout. (for brodem). to spring . to scald. shore. grow brossa. the bubbling or springing up of water. brlgh. ale . sprocco. to use bruks. broit. fabric consists. It. spirit. bank. Sc. — . Sanscr. bryn. bros. bruno. bank. face. .. frui. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. brocco.spross. shrub with leafless pointed edging. a hill. kail brose. a shore. Gris. Browse. broth. strength. sodden. or broken up . infusion. brd. bruc. has briw. sap. hot. bhratrj Zend. thairj w. A — . . Gael. bruddeln. house of ill fame. to boil bruithe. eye-lid. sprot. hovel. a caldron. Dan. enjoy Goth. &c. riviere. brun. The origin is a re. w. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. to browse. sprouts . It. bruscosd quam de arabili. a little house or cottage of timber. brucan. bruich. — exiit et heath. Wtb. from ripa. brushbroccoli. Bret. frucius. to murmur. Gr. G. brstiti. OHG. eye-brow. brost. Pl. . to burn. bros. bruithim. heath. as Fr. to Pl. rage. G. boiled . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. strength Ir. break out brewet. useful G. branches. brous. bordeau. .D. buds. brouter. Sp. G. and also border. cabbage soup . and Slavonic families. brennen. brst. borda. Due. signifying low wet land (Brem. to boil. brusmalt. to bubble up with noise. broth. and Sc. to shoot. broem bark. 'Lzt. broza. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. The AS. grow into a bush.' Due. brouches. But the Walach. warmth ch'an. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . . pfriemkraut. brotar. Ppim. &c. to border. w. brink. iVlanx broogh. forms appear related to the Ir. Gael. Bohem. OFr. brabruach. cia. brewis. pith. breh. vigour. bntdien. borde. brouskaol.brink. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Brow. brost. frater. of plants broust. braces. as rhododendrons. eye-lid. heath. broden. broth the ocean Sw. sprout. Roquef. a derived from the boards. a river. briar. Russ. Pol. G. brio. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. bruceti. brukjan. brotar. dialects is very different. sense the Sc. bryn. eye-lash . thicket. border. Fr. to use. brushbrothas) gives the OE. . a hill. Mid. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. a bud brous-koad. Limousin broudi. . sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. a spring. a bruth. of which the variety of forms. brauwe. Gael. Fr. shoots. Cot. OHG. as small-pox. to boil. fur Broom. &c. eye-brow. perhaps burnt coloilr. properly boiling water briihen. riviera. Sp. steam from heated bodies. to boil. BROOK brook w. juice of meat. bruach. AS. and It. surface of Broth.brons. brouic. bruitheati. breg. Prov. brozia. . Serv. to bear patiently. Du. broo. brass. eye-brow. bank. meal. Fr. brwd. t— Cot. margin. broud. brov. may be connected with Russ. ceales briw. a source Gael. Bohem. eye-brow. augen-braune. Tam de terrS. breg. heat explaining the Prov." Serv.) . sprout. to roar. a bud. chen. — ' . Ger. to sprout. to use.braubiti. or shoot. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. bruith. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. Prov. braun. breg. bryii. from Goth. sordes seu strigmata young branch. — . broth Brown. brodem. bordel. surDu. a confused noise of winds. AS. G. . broth brothaire. bud. . Celtic. broca. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. verge. shoot. brouser. brpuster. broc. who is steaming with sweat. brow of a hill. . to make sprouts brous-gwezen. bruich. the colour of things burnt. bor. noise. The softening down of the consonant bud. edge. Here we find throughout the Romance. low The AS. brudi. briihe. circuindedit cum familia. broccola. . rerum decoctarum. Kil. shore .D.— Overyssel Almanack. brad. To digest. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. See Bramble. wood . bruth. briu. . Bret. plants composed of twigs. Fr. cabbage water. bushes. spuma. a little . brau. juice of briars. or bushes and scrubby growths. brew . on. laissent Domunculum. a hut or cottage It. Bav. brow. sproc. Commonly Teutonic. protecting the eye. pottage. signifying twigs. broi. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. b7-un. a . brue . Lat. a sprig. Catalan brossa. hut. Bohem. brosses. in which brinnan. broeye. on. It is Brother. mettle. brothas. . infusion the barley bree. Du. browys. brawdj Slavon. waves. braew. eat. It. edge. dumetum. brogues. seethe. juniper. Gael. Russ. brosses. 105 Brook. brdtaj Gael. a shrub broust. pour boiling water over. bank. brosst. awl-plant. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. Fr. broieii. to browse. bregh. broth is sometimes used . Brothel. braussa. brouet. Manx broie. bree. brus. simmer from the murmuring AS. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. &c. vigour. heat. shrubs. . thick bush brousta. eminence . bratrj Lat.

wool-card. rubbish. Alexander. briiis (in the pi. bross. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . ca7-bo>i. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. bruscolo. a brush. dust. Bret. dust. brusca. brista) or breaking out . a tuft of heath . brustia. wool-card. Sw. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brust. And that best is. bushy ground. remnants of hay or fodder. a noise. a flax comb. E. . the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. On the other hand. . brisar. a briser. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. borste. broza. Broach. bruscia. borste. of twigs. break. Lang. broza. a blow. Palsgr. a brush . brosse. The same relation holds good between G. and It. fescue . shoot brouskoad. Bruise. brikan. brusg. Pm. Fr. tremely. or shoot. bruis (sing. — Fr.). briser. into a multitude of points. Poems. Diez. B?-usske. Pr. rods. Brush. brusco. ling or heath for brushes. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bruc. 201. Brunt of a daunger. . bross. AS. a — — (Agea) said. K. bricalio. abroncar. burs. or sodenly comyn' dust. bruyere. burt. a brush Swiss bruske. a brush. Cot. brosst. brous. Sw. brik. insilio. brustia. to break. briketo. In E. escousse. to brush. Fr. crush. brushwood. to break or burst. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among.— — i. brizeto. a crum. bris. brusc (Diet. bruscolo. a rumbling. The Bav. a mote. bush. wool-card. brysan. to stumble. Hall in R. . . shock. Fr. brit. G.). wood composed OE. ON. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. broken. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. The Lat. a bristle. dust. brist. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. fasx . brusca. OFr. brusco. Beryn. insultus. bris. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. rubbish. fragments. Gael. a shrub composed of small twigs . Pr. brous. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Cot. — a bush. Gael. brosse. to strike the foot against an obstacle. mg Cat. a bud or sprout Bret. It.— Palsgr. brunt. brossa. p. Port. Lang. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. brossa. Pm. coal See Breeze. britar. crum bit . See next article. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. field. and actually come in collision. bris. It. borst. irruo. brossar. heath. — those signifying a sprig. brico or brizo. broustia. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. and in the second place a besoiB.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Bav. . Bruit. E. Text Soc. —Fabyan. brist. bruit. brus. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brisd. twig. —Chaucer. bruskr. bruiser. a horse-brush. a brush . Gael. a bristle. brist j Port. 174. Fl. * Brunt. brugir. Pr. borste. britar. dust. biirste. but on whom it schall to brisen him. as It. tuft of grass or hay. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. to crush. bruise exOFr. borste. Prov. Wicliff. quisquilise. rubbish. . which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. OE. brustid. orts. also a head-brush. a bud. to cleanse. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. detergere . a brush . brist. NE. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. Castr. That in all haste he wouli. and . broust. Allit. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. brottcher. Prov. a brush. 134. to make brusshes on. sordes. desbrisar. Pr. and sighid therewithal. shivers. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Prov. Prov.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. modification of the same root which gives the E. brousso. E. bruzir. seems named from burst(on. to break. To brush then would be to dust. a brush . to butt. appearin Goth. brosst. twig. blow burcar. — OE. bud. effort.). a bush of hair. bruito. splinters. to break to bits . Sp. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. a little brizal. and also Brush. Piedm. brise. an enmy. borste. flax-comb brossettes. to make a rumbling. Gael. brMt. biirste. chips. quasi twigs. Fr. Piedm. It. Fr. bruire. A. it schall be al Sw. Brunt. G. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. and Piedm. bris. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there.

different form. It. Gael. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. boucaner. It. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . News. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. The word was very generally Buccanier. boil animals. wood. Sp. in which the flesh dish. 1857. Bohem. lye. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. . Bret. bduclien. it is beuchen. says Laudon. bwch. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. caned' Hence those who established them. bugd. . 17th century. drying of produce. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump.— . The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. bifbel. moist. bucaIndies. Fr. Pref A. bugada. Pol. pokka7na. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. boh. rap. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bublati. mollire. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate.derivation has been much discussed. . faire la lessive. mote. to bump as a bittern. Pol. not so plentiful a commodity. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. a steep for flax. to bubble. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. Dan. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. maban and baban. Sc. to butt or jurr Dan. A . Fr. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. — . from weich. to butt. bube. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. Fr. to buck. thunder gently . bubauti. The cipally on the Spaniards. knock. open lath-work. buquer. bubbola. very generally designated by the same puk. March 28. w. a to the male deer.to allow a free current of air. Bret. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. the first wheal. bub. top. Etym. to wet Pol. Illust. buborek. soft. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. bub. when soap was tion is commonly taken.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. bucquer. Sp. or projecTo Buck. de la Floride.boukaat. because bucare does not in Marsh). watery bud. bucata. moczyd. buquer.-wtt miekki. blister. . mokry. 1586. soft It. byge. bouk.tare. as G. was called bucking the linen. bog-aske. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. This bubette. tuft. plied in the W. buerj It. buck-ashes. tender. It. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. of wind. The term bocan is still ap. designation of a knob.lessiver. boc. tap . to soak. the upper for coifee. to soak foul linen before washing. The male goat. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. set of pirates in the spread. does not hold. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. a ashes. and Fr. who resorted to the islands beichen. w. is 1. In G. to soften .' Palsgr. buchen. tender. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. Bubble. . a fescue. The name.buchen. soft. — — ' A : ' ' . and as a verb. the lower soak in lye. But see Bristle.biiken j Svi. . — . from colar. See Dupe. erweichen. bucking. a. to murmur. bubBuck. to Gael. to butt. and then to other wild tumour Lith. From an imita. blast or strike with the forehead. to soften. . boc. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. I. a bubble. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. bokni. at a door. a push.byka. a bubble. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. or mok. Esthon. BUBBLE bruschetta. to stick. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. soft . ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. soft. pup. to a place used for the mouillir. colada. hump. and exercised their cruelties prin. a bubble . bubiti. ac. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. bukke. Formerly. bouc. Fin. Magy.steep or soak. hog dressed whole). Bohem. mieknad. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). a knock word. also applied Una. to which in their language they call bou. a. to strain. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to soften. molle. hump. to soak. The natives of Florida.D. Magy. bubseti. a hole. as a buck rabbit. the linen at buck. Diet. to filter. lye. pukkata. . buck-ashes. and the bunch. was called in Fr. Cot. The place of such a 2.wet Lat.

push forwards. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. with let. boucler.poot. Swab. pote. a buckle or protuberance. were To Budge. from Gr. Mid. boucle. A water-plant with leaves and gille. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. a boy. built. to move. Lat. . child. bunch.may probably be explained by N. The knob or projection formN. a shoot. . and the reference to It. protuberance.. butz. knock. a servant. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. and of the Lat. OFr.r//'. bouter. soft. rump of fowls . butzen (Du. and weichen. pulga. turgere buczendig. OHG. imbuere. a bump. So on. bedde. . having a boss. in the beginning of to pierce holes. is to shrivel up. a stump buckle up. It is explained by Miiller (MHG.pode. Prov. a budget. bouk is a pail and with the dim.' Hal. Du. boss of a shield. a boss. a tuft. boach. a bud. bunch . It. It. butzen K. a trough). bukke-blad. don't stir from hence.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bouljein. . to stir. boucle. bougette. a ring. buachazlle. bullion.n. Bret. ' . In the dialect of the Setti Cem. pulga. To thrusting part of a long body. w. * Bucket. no business to do that. noise . Gael. seen in Hesse botz. a cowherd. case of leather . Du. or male of to boil . pwt o Fr. with which it was ornamented. ' . bulla. boqueranmis. bud butzen. budge. explaining Fr. to swell. trunk of wood covered with leather. cattle. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Mid.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. male or botzen. bdden. Pied. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. knob . a curl. fur. butze. stud.chissima. to boss or swell out G. knob dwfr yn boglynu.Lat. The Fr. bloca. butt . to butt. Fr. W. ON. to thrust. a short thick man. the root of the Slavonic words gran. where the G. a bubble three thyngis. bloquier. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. Bav. weich. agreeing with Gael. bulais daqui. dinted. call. mani. rabodS. Budget. lump. bog and G. Bucolic. * Buckle. w. bucket Fl. blow. It. goat's hoof. swelling. bocla. bump. bub.stuff. boccula. boiling. K. great pouch.stumpy man. See Bulk. words is converted into b. dint . a navel. call bo. swelling. II I'a feru desor I'escu.. Bret. to budge. a dumpy gin. a little coffer or turgidus. * Bud. boucaran. set of a plant in bulk. a budget. Pol.— . to line with fur. to word. Fr. NE. hump. clump. Buck-bean. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bod. Wtb. bouton. — . to poke. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. bollire. Budge. — — .t-le!L{ * Bud. of bouge. Port. butzen. boss. above mentioned. bul. a leathern sack. weich. water message.' Boccaccio. gjeit-klauv. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence.' Schm. Cot.) . also a leather tuft . Prov. convexity. bouclier. bucherare. Hardly identical with Fr. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need.anything short of its kind. ein. macero. In Lat. Dan. become bochen. botzen. crack. excrescence.) as to soak. of a surface. from bugr. Sp. call. Behoves. . dim. . to boil. Prov. a . Fr. bougette. loud Cot. thrust. bouge. bulka.. to pen cattle. . don't a baby). ornamental stud. a wallet. bugnir. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Bav. . bolgetta. This expression boglire. with a central boss. ble. of bac. — — . a boss. as in Fr. It termination is lost. bo. butzen. to 'soak. bucolicus. stroke. Fr. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bouger. The dressed fur of lambs. . boucle. boulj. the word w ' — . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. Bus. is doubtless fallacious. A buckle or fastening for botch. a small shallow and open tub. Russ. botzen. a pustule bout. to graft or bud trees. pwtio. motus creber. probably from the notion of bubbling. boaLat.). bloca. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. to un bout d'homme. to bud or bocla. weichen. Fr. ' .goa. bod. wallet. bug. potz. buckel. a pail or flowers. The entire train of thought is bucket. belonging to the calling of the chen. bolgia. a shield. whom it is still much in use. Fr. Dan. Fr. G. Buckler. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. a fold ceilio. put. brobrocchiere. inboachen. bulb. bouprobably identical with inok. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. boglyn. jSouKoXiKog. clasp of a book. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bogla. prick in a target. bulga./a. Hence quel. Sw. stir. scion. bucherame. sboge. a buclder or shield budge. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. It. The word is a ddyn. — . no wheel bogeilio. the radical image seems to be a set plants. bode. need. skins pushit'. from bo. like a bean. .

dausinti. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. site The two — — iii. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bolgetta. bugbear. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. word other cases. The children were playing in an oppocomer. Limousin bobal. bufogni. often covering his E. wauwau. buffet. a clap. a In . a jester. puff. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. 265.— Buflae. Gael. caupo. cuff . . from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. dial. Fr. — — — Buffet. boo.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Sc. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. baubau. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. scarecrow . bukow Ikow. to frighten . to marre often tasting it . a cuff or buffet. — Z. It. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. thus be translated to tap. a hollow sound. E. from It. Fr. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. to blow souffleU. God's boast seemed feare children. Lat. often blown upon. Buffalo. leathern bucket. boman. buffare. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. tastes. wine may The verb in taverns. From buff! of terror. of colours. bumann. pulse . the place whence the wine was drawn.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. confused. buffare. Lith. to beat. to excite terror in Macleod. for this purpose is very widely spread. buffle-headed. — Bogle. as from Lith. human. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Esthon. bo ! an interj. to signify an indefinite object of terror. bubach. a skin. Bufetarium. also a G. A puff with — Fl. to puff. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. colour. Mid. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. Pl./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . duff^ dull. to give benti. buffle. bw! It. bubiti. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bouffer. made by a person. soufflet. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bauwi.' La Crusca. a hobgoblin. as Diez remarks. to a representation of his voice. either alone or with various terminations. buffen. to bellow . — retailing buffeter buffetier. Cot. a side-board. a dull BUG From 109 — A . bw. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. buivol. Lith. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. The use of the exclamation children. dull sound. or wild ox.D. Magy. btifetarius. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. Romola. Buffoon. to blow . Fr. popo. from souffler. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. bugle. buMagy. le reste emplissant d'eau. G. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. A blow. sounds. The cry made to excite terror is then used. bobaow.—Buffet. Buff. bugs. Thus buffet would a tapster. A — Bug. to give a as of a blow. a bugbear. ' They rether puffed at him. a goblin). It. senses. buffetto.' perfield. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . as wine that hath taken wind. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Teet-bo. buffet. deadened. and in Fr. Buff. him but Boyd iugges. to puff. a puff. also the skin or heck of a buffe. to rePl. smells . From bulga. or hath been Cot. buff leather. buffer. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. by metaphor. Lat. bufogni. mingled with water. bubaRuss. a buffle or a bugle. to strike face to represent the unknown. mumming. bwg. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. buffa. —Boggart. Sc. &c. a block-headed noddy. bolgia. a budget. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. buffet. buffets. Fr. things in Jam. bouffer. Hence the E. buffeteur. the buffe. yar^aa. while in Sp.D. buffalo. bufHe. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. to blow. breath. Fr. to jest or sport. — La Crusca. dausa. blurt or puff with one's mouth. made to —Bugbear. as emblematically making light of an object. Cot. bubus. rebuff. tabernarius. stupid. Fl. Pl. Buffeter. air. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. Swiss baui.D. — thence it has been transferred in E. w. bau ! children. It. een duffen toon. W. It. botffon.

i. (Spurrell). proud. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. a silk-worm. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. bukashka. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. bukati. to take fright. also a bug-bear. with more or less modification represents bau. to frighten scarecrow. to take bug. — . Fl. coco. The name of bug is — .. language any kind of insect. — boogg. worm. fierce. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . buba. larva (a bug-bear. bogle. a goblin. a buffalo. Swiss booggen. given in Chaucer. is the dim. then a horn for drinking. tion of the beetle tribe. quos what produces dread or disgust. fette. monster. and bugle. bug-bear. Hence bugle-horn. Lap. pugaf. It. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. rose-bug. Swiss ing. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. .Lat. a bug-bear. troll. bug. insect. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Big. high-sounding words. See The name terror). Bugle. Bogge. the black a maggot.loud noise. : no BUG . — — . Grose. and in Lat. threatening. xiv. A similar applica. An ornament of female dress condread. bugbear. booggen. bug-bear. saucy. bugle. Magy.Fr. earwig bau da grascha. great or bug words. to roar Aasen. dial. buggabod). a. and in child's Magy. provincially an insect.— . With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Magy. an object of terror. W. The final guttural of W. also a baco-baco. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Sw. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Russ. well as the terrific object. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. as an object of dread. to origin in the expression bugs words. is very common. a misshapen person. of bugabo was given. It. . w. Bug as a lord. Parolone. to bellow. Manx boa. oxen. beugler. Schmidt. affright. Bdronie. pujalo. the word is lin) bbgge. bugler. high. I. bbgni. Grisons bau. Deut. Swelling. Same as buffle. of pipes sewn on. il brutto Demonio. biignt. paws the ground . Lith.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. superbire. a beetle. especially to beetles or winged insects. baco. bogil. bau (Pureiglia. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. bug dung-beetle. insect. Hal. — — ' . rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Lett. and a boggarty ing. fear. bug-bear. terrifying ward. a boogg. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. poggl. Mid. pugalo. bogk. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. bucula. big.. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. . as Buffalo. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. banian boube. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. 1551. threatening. boeuf sauvage. bugar. Stalder bog. Illyr. mask ' . b'dgni. bwg and E. bobal. the buggaboo w. bwgar. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. an insect. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. used in the same sense. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. 2. Serv. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. 493. also a bug-bear. Lesachthal. iv. protuberant. to creeping things. boa-peep. ghost. bwgwl. any disgusting animal. blustering. bauginti. roo. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. according to Coles. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. to bellow. shepe and gootes. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. a rabme. boo. Fl. Bug. bogil bo (e. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. vermin. Sp. scarecrow . disgust. Cheval de trombugti. E. thus connected with bug. a bugbear for children. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. BUGLE Tentennino. swollen. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Mundart. long. the Devil. buculus. Chaucer. hert. bold.3uhtii&:. 3. . a bug-bear. tumble-bug. bogk. buffle. * 2. Bible. bok. and is Deutsch. to take fright. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. gad. The w. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. roarHal. — — terror. forSc.

mass. to spring. bouk. as well as is very variable. to undo the cargo. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. turgeo bolnyd. bulkaf. principal portion. a bubble. in vessel. ON. bolgetta. to bubble up Pol. bolgna. bauch. . bugue. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. G. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. biilken. jnake bulch. Lat. boss of a buckler. the potato G. has bulbuk. of an inflated skin. tumidus. body of an animal. to gather. cultivate. belly. bwlg. Pm. hold or bilge of a ship. the contents of the hold. . the body Du. bo. — — . the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). w. pocket. . swollen OE. Othello. leather sack. Palco. belly Cat. a dint in a metal . a lump or mass. a water-bubble). byli. the carcase. vulva. domicilium. a. bulbus. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bulge or bilge. bag. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. dial. . to throw out a convexity.'— Cot. boa. gebolgen. knot in thread. or feminine termination gives Bav. knob. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. husk. bubbling up. bulbe. bukr. straight will he 2. acervus. pod ON. Gr. Pr. lump. See bollekeii next article. bolnyn. bulne. blow. balcone. bolle. a heap. bulgen. body. van loock. formed a farm. Muratori. . bulcke. bubble. bunch or projection. trunk. skin bag. a leathern sack or portmanteau. or bear out as a full purse. lump. balco. a tuberous or bulbous root . crowd. hull of a ship. balg. the position of liquids in the word In English. bol.' Festus. bulgen.' Fl. ON. swell. MHG. habitaculum. G. pimple. bulk. Hence e. a bubble Gael. bouge. bolle. to bubble up. in Sc. buc. Bulk. mass. a straw corn-vessel. pulkas. belly. ' . balg. . belly. bulge or convex part of a cask. skin of an animal. trunk. Jno. globule bolg-lhuingey. A — ' — Bulk. the head of an onion. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. to puff up bolginn. cumulus. bolgia. bulked or bumped out. a bulb Du. . also the bunt or hollow of a sail.' Palsgr. a globe. a bunch. . herd^ swarm pulkd. See how this tode bolneth. boss. Hal. OSw. bubble {palgan tiisge. He found a country fellow dead drunk. or. a prominence. hollow. projection. womb. bulle. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. trunk of the body.' Cot. . Ptg. Lith. belly Sw. to break bulk. belgja. Lat. as it was merly written in English to bylle. skin flayed whole. swell. nave or body of the church van 't schip. For the latter sense ' — My .' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. OSw.— . Kil. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. of E. bed of a river. bolg. — — . Bolke or hepe. the capacity or burden of a ship. boss. compare Da. Boss^. G. Dan. — . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. I. — — . buk. villa.' Anat. chest. The addition of a dim. and N. bilge. a. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. it again. head . . beuck. bale. The Walach. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. the womb. . Bulch. to build. stuffed bag. bulg. . were a habitation. bubble. pouch builgeadh. bauen. to raise a habitation. bug. balgs. Here stand behind this bulk. bulk is a partition of boards. in bulk.d. inhabit. to blow. In the representation of natural sounds. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. From till. a protuberance. or cargo of a ship. body of a ship . snorting on a bulk. belgr. It. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bole. Bourser. bulk or capacity of anything. to belly out. knob. Bulge. (3oX|8oc.pulks. bolgan. See Bulk. . With these must probably be classed ON. bua. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. whence bylja. . swollen. ' . Mandeville. . blister. 1388. Lith. on. bladder. and put it home. ^ — . Dan. wallet. bubble. boss of shield. ne. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. Sp. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bulwis. belly van de kerche. tumeo. Gr. bellows builgean. bullka. . m um Placentiae. unevenness Sw. bulka. as water beginning to boil bolg. and bulbukd. sedes. ball. Bav. to bol. bulki. The radical sense is shown in Russ. thorax buick. at riufa bulkann. belly. bulbe. blister. bol. To Build. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. be protuberant. belly. to swell. a round bulky body bwlgan. a leather sack or budget Fr. Mister. — Bulb. Pm. a stage or scaffold. to swell. blister Manx bolg. ' . anything prominent. puff. — . boulge. swell. bol. Melancholy. Lett. bolso. . PoXj3a.). the belly. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. buhe. knobby. Pr.

2. a noisy violent fellow. w. Terriculamentum. bolli. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. Eullrusli. to emboss . to tical with Sw. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows.. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. Pl. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. Fr. W. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. lumpish. bolla. witches. as the ornanails. 3.Fris. bouillon. which may probably be the origin of the name. bollos de relieve. G. in N. is of a class with Pl. bouillon. G. BuUiou. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Du. a framework of balks. bullos. large.lle de fusil. Pm. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Bullfrog. in the sense of base metal.. lumpheaded . any embossed work. and vellon in Sp. from the Lat. a seal. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bulla. bolos Fr. it may be observed that a bullet in E. a hobgoblin. b2iggaboo. See Billet. it is boulet de canon. The male W. . from Fr. blister. scarecrow. stud. See Bowl. It. to bellow. as geting. of Witchcr. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. biitzibau. a bulox polos. boss or stud. as in E. baula. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bulke. poltern. stud. brass-headed nail . bullocks. a little fish nearly all head.D. A lace tree. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a hobgoblin. bugbear. Dan. Bullace. Lith. a tadpole. on the contrary. from Lat. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. Du. bulle. a beam or rafter. a stud. &c. to boil. is called a ball. from the noise. boulct. from the use of the equivalent terms. a cow. pwl. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. bullus. a tadpole . tition of deals instead of a wall. the matrix or die . a bull. i. w. whence bullire. Du. many to protuberant objects. as It. from baula. Sp. stamped money.D. however. The wild plum. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. any great-headed or studded nail. pollach. elves. stupid . where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. Scot's Deso. thick.Gr. bullebak. bellocier. boss. a hornet. a scare-bug. Fr. bellow. G. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. bauli. bwla. G. A papal rescript. a blockhead. /SouWivu. The final element tergeist.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. billon. bollar. to seal. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. dim. leraures nocturni nigri. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. poli-cheannan. as a mill-dam or the like. the seal affixed to the document. Bret. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. signifying roaring. Bully. bwbach. of boule. — A tition in a ship. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. — — Bull. And The word bullerbak. bollon. embossed work. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. pimple. large of its kind. dial.. bole or trunk of a tree. balgeting. bolli. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. whence Mod. polten. a wasp. Bullet. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. blunt. a bul-begger. Bullbeggar. BulUiead.' do not go by the dangerous water. coarse. N. This word is used in several senses. also of the tadpole or young frog. hhint. Gold or silver uncoined. bulderen. urchens. Gael. Cot. assito.'— ' Palsgr. — Fl. bietebau. a bowl. bal. spirits. but is more probably iden- palchetto.D. eth and frighteth. bulla. a bull Swiss bullen. stamp. 2. I. also a parFl. to bubble. a seal. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. penbwl. It. bulk of a thing. bwlas. of the ox kind. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. Du. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bulloi. bulk. ba. ON. boillon. poll-cheannach. The bullfrog. bullern.. beams or boards. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. bubble. round glass phial. sloes. billoti in Fr. and thence terror.

Bum-bailiff. violent.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. ^i^/«. Fris. boulevard. debacchari. Fris. botm. Bum. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. a hectoring. noise. Du. un faux brave. to . baluarte.. bolderen. boene. Kil. bustle.' reals of standard currency. The decried coin. The 27 Ed. perturbare saevis dictis. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . sound. Kil. violent overbearing person. scaffold.the ramparts. bulderen. The cry of the bittern. ground. by corruption boulevart. to dun. Du. but now is the central part of the town. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. buene.' for the purpose of exchange. To bully is to bluster. resonare. 'lega. bodem. c. ierd-boeyme. BULLY with which coins were stamped. — — plate d'argent. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. block-werck. provides. The Stat. Bailey. John). c. to make a droning Du. G.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. to terrify by noise and clamour. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. legaggio di metallo. — bombam?nen. bombilare. Etym. on the other hand. minari verbulderen. To bum. or a humblebee. biihne. AS. buller-bak. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. A. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. argentum and silver. 14. and porter au billon. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . blunder-buss. bottn. Hence — . blaterare. Hal. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. 4 Hen. boisterous fellow. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. G. a blunderhead. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. c. Bully-rock. intonare. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum.' ' mettre au billon. from boden. droning. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. a floor.' Stat. bottom. vallum. primarily the ramparts of a town. polterer. 9 E. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. is bullion — A — buller. a stage.' agger. then in general a rampart. propugnaculum. It. a boisterous. the soil. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. is called bumping or bells. bastion. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. ON. bomtnen. ^Bully-rook. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence.' Again. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. The Sw. bol-werck. clamour. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. For bottom. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. buller-jaan (bully. Fr. From the notion of a humming.d. IIL st. IV. buller-brook. or work of defence. 1305.D. blunder-buss. a bumble-. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. provides. hum. To Bum. To bum. Kiittner. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. D.D. G. a.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. 2. 2.. III. 1687). St. ierd-beame. bommele. — Bumto . Miege in Hal.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. to make a noise . up was termed monnaie de billon. Bully. 2. furious man. Du. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. buller-bas. Sw. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. a noisy blustering fellow. Hence bom and ban. poltem. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. beat a — Hal. Thus ' ble. — Boom.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. agrees with e. — Bump. Philip le Bel in Due. honunele. to drum Lat. 10. buller-bas. &c.

explaining E. S. dial. a dried hemp-stalk. noise. a bud. w. &c. the Pr. bun. as in other cases.D. trunk. any round knob or bunch. It. . E. . A clumsy. butt end. poumpido. while bulch was traced through Gris. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. knob or heap. binge. a boss Lith. a. a rabbit. bans. — — Bun. forms. a into Dan. blain. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. applied to young persons. bungersome. a button. pwmp. bunken. Fl. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Gael. a knob. Hal. Bunk. a bag or sack.D. bunkc. any round knob or bunch. Hence E. bonge.' Bun. Bony. stubble Manx bun. a bunch Magy. Pr. ! — knocking. stalk. — stalk . pumpurras. Bumpkin. a knob . root. Bang sen. hdk passing and E. a tail (Macleod). —Bunny. to beat. Mrs Baker. poumpi. protuberance. to swell out E. bunke. Hal. also for taking a pilot to a ship. or to the mass by which it is given. round mass of anything. . tundo. gibbus. a hump. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. mto Sp. to . and signifies consequently a mass. bung. bugno. Daal bu7iseti. from bunsen. bugnet. bonnock. Again. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. lungeous. strike E. a dry No . E. . a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Ir.— Pr. bugno.' Palsgr. Du. bulscha. Pl. dial. a heap. bannock. as we have seen E. lenten loaves. bumsen. a. a boil (punkos bot. boi7ieog. Dan. knuckles. a bunch. the tail of a hare. . Li cake.P. Probably for bun-boot. lump. bmidt. . one ever saw the word in that shape.D. a round mass . a wallet. to bang down. pwmpio. Sc. a heap Wall. Bunfeaman (stump-tail).). bottom bun feoir. Then. a knock. Kyx or bunne. — — de dor bunsen. stock. pumpa. awkward clown. bottom. banga. a pocket Sw. bunan. bune or boon. — round fruit.. . — — — — ' — knock. . stem or base. a swelling. bamgetroffen. a person employed to dun one for a debt. bunch— Hal. a pumpion or gourd. knochen. stubble of beans. See Boss. a purse . a hemp-stalk. buns. . stock. Thus e. clown. a rabbit. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . bignet. are dim. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Bump. a knob. a heap OSw. bunsen. banke. a heap or cluster. bongie. Holland and Flanders. Pm. pompon. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Pl. OSw.— Bunnion. so the form btmk. strapping. A Du.-^Fl. Bun. Bunewand. Lang. calamus.! . bunga. bon. to beat. stump. cluster.^Cot. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. to knock . abrupt manbuns-wise.D. Hal. bugnone. bun eich. Fr. il me pousse. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. passes Sw.S. to bang ON. Dan. bulto. bumtel. a Sp. . loaves or lumps made of fine meal. callus. an old stump of a horse. E. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. hay stubble . a lump on the foot bunny. bull.pummel. . a boil or blain. ner. See Bunch. bunga. Probably from bump. w. Bumboat. bun with ON. especially girls. awkward. seems to unite Gael.' he fell with a bang. bunki. He buncheth me and beateth me. throw down with a bang. Gael. to strike so as to give a dull sound. large. signifying one who does things in a thumping. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. a knotty stick) Sw. Suffolk bonnka. Bunch. bund. to ' . gibber. a bowl P1. Fr. — Marine Diet. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. truss E. Related on the one side to Pl. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. stump. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Bung^. a bump. Roding. bu<rnone. foundation w. a heap. bunny. bundle. should probably be a short tail. pwmpl. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. clumsy. Sc. Manx bonkan. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. to thump. to . bump. inconsiderately. Pm. Bunch. bmike. Forby. To bam. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Pm. BUNCH bum-bailiff. nor would it concern the public if he did. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bunt. . root. . Radically identical with Dan. bulse. Bumsen. . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. pompette.. bottom. Hal. See Bounce. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. or grete knobbe. botn. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. — — Bun. He fult dat et bunsede. to bang. bonuach. from knock) It. Bums it's hit. and related with ON. 1. bunka. Moor. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a large . bolsa. bum-boot. bunnion. a swelling from a blow. H.

the float of an bundle. boucher. to bolt meal. Sp. dark grey bura. A Dan. klimpem. The Italian buio. See Barbarous. guggle as water. racket . dial. AS. stiimpeln. generally known as the material of which bud. la Borgonota. reddish brown. bondel-loos. See Bourdon. a bunch Burbulas. Russ. and now more Bailey. tinkle. bond. B. or putting forth of a vine. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. the noise of drums. dial. the middle part of it. tapp (whence tceppa. to Somerset is to sift. bou^e. bourguignote. Bunt. boil or bubble up.punt. So in Pol. and E. Cat. Sw. however. anchor or of a net boyar. to bud forth. Bundle. Hal. do a thing bunglingly. — — To Bungle. Cot.Fris. Fl. and the Sw. Lat. to strum on an instrument. working in wood (especially with an axe). to botch. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bungande. and bomme. with the head. tinker . especially in wood. Prov. Bung of a tonne or Lith. on.' Festus in Diez. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. buret. klempern. to work at carpentry bangan. OFr. bangla. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. dicimus rufum. The stopper for the hole in a boia. noise. bourjon. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. borboUar. to stop. a wisp of hay or straw. The word is flags are made. bounta. Sp. bimge. to knock. Muratori. punishments for prisoners. Sp. to pype. Fr. to in to stop the hole. The belly or hollow of a sail. bag to catch the wind. Burganet. Burden. byrthen. To do anything awk- wardly. a bung. halm-tapp. whence bunting. The Magy. to hum. bourgeon. buret. Compare G. to hum. to kick. clogs. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. to resound. bonde. stilmpern. the young cloth used for sifting flour. OG. to knock. bundel. bui. bonde. whence in bure. fetters. to shove. bunsen. and van t' vat. Bung. — . bang. * Buoy. bourion. borgonota. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Sw. bongani. Sp. Sw. bolting-cloth. Burly. knocking. clumsy performance. from beran. To burgeon. modem bummle. banghagr. russet. bundt. colligatio. p. The Fr. to cobble. So Du. rumble as the bowels. that the primitive meaning of shackle . bury. Fr. AS. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. to bear. to hum. Banff. would be the earliest float for an anchor. bundle. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. driving in the bung. in is Fr. tap. — Bureau. burion. E. also a piinple in the face. the stopper of a cask). Palsgr. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. bongun. Burble. . — btiruii. B. OFr. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. boj. Johansen. fascis. G. See Borel. It. or tuft. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. a water bubble made by rain. shackles. to work ineffectually. Fr. boei. Bunny. properly a Burgundian helmet. Bret. an anchor buoy. a boye. gyves. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. A bubble.— . or used as a receptacle for papers. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. a botch. bommen. to gingle. burboloti. — — . To Bunt. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. coassatio et Du. to push with the head del. stocks or such OSw. A load. . a bungler. . Fr. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. something bound together (Mrs Baker). the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. was formerly pronounced buro. of a song. Prov. ghebundte. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. To bunt. biirde. bunta. bouche. dark. See Bun. contignatio. buie. to push. bote. to stnmi on an instrument. bondeau. bouchon. racket. the bung of a barrel Lim. boya. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. Burden. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bove. N. bummle. bindini. bondon. Kil. a drum . bang. to bungle. bondelj bundell. unskilful working. and Du. banga. . to float. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Du. shove . Biu'geon. to stop. Pl. knocking. knock. a sort of helmet.D. buove. are from bouscfie. a bunch. sprig. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. 202. Rietz. ' — work . a cork. to gingle. . Bunting. ho-tapp. bondir. to push ghebondte. G. is originally a wisp or bunch . to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bon. byndel. the loose open grow big about or gross. on. bangla. loosed from bonds.

to roar. to tell lies. to fiy. from Lat. sidiary element. water. brunnr. burgeois. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. burren.. a bladder. to make a So from Fin. roguing beggars.— Pr. sicut sound. to sharpen on a whetstone. Burler. Lang. to ridicule. So also Sw. repartee . an edge. angular . Burgess. brinii. to puff. In the same way ON. ^Notk. Probably a modifica. Fl. a jest. Limousin bourdo.sharpen. A — — . From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. briis^. mockery. tion of the root which gave the OE. like. ends of thread. as of suggests. OE. bunch. Burglar. Bav. burn. to burn. Walach. swell up or strout out. to bourda. as in cousteau. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. G. a whetstone.ireui£r:e. flocks. swelling borr-shuil. brim or edge of anything. to ridicule. must be explained on the same principle from G. See Burgeon. Fr. Burgher. as the / in purl. to polish. — — . jest of. to bud . born. is connected with brim. borracka. schleiffen. brunnen. . Bret. is an Thus G. the J in OFr. brun. barrel. bud or sprout forth. Nat. burlare. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. — . as Diefenbach bud. crackle wood in burning Hal. Hence Bridel. to bouronna. abourioner. OFr. Pr. Supp. brimmen. knob. . big. Sw. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. is termed burling. brinnen or Also ein roar. a fountain. brinna. ^ttsa. From the same root E. to sharpen. Sp. the word seems Pm. to puff up borr^ . It.' Cot. Pm. OE. The in. to give an edge to. occupying much space. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. surge or dashing of the sea . to swell oneself out as birds borras. a margin. robber. The primary origin of the word. — . an &c. to have acquired the sense of polishing. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. 122. a blaze. to roar 5. It. burly. a prominent eye borracka. bururus. burgi latro. spring-water bumach. Dief. . boura. a lie. like the wind in trees. to effervesce. broil. It. G. Fr. to rub. dial. to roar (as lions.). burgensis. brAler. j. compared with G. bururus. boiirre. brusler being a faulty spelling. Sw. from bryii. brustle. which has given much trouble to etymologists. to set on fire. singe or scorch with fire. ample of polishing metal. borrelen. pressa puret. explaining the E. a bubble to spring as water. 56. leo Fin. with little iron nippers called burling irons. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Compare also Piedm. purling. Todd. Probably. condemnentur morti. Lang. tahko.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. brausen. Bav. Schm. warbling.). laer. fire. borr. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. borujon. a well. Swiss Rom. ' rugiens. brook.j'own. boure. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. Burly. i5«r4 biiirte. Gael. in Schm. Castrais bourril. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. to swell with pride. to Gael.. In the manu. buirleadh. tumentum. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. bourd.or bubbling up. brasa. to roar. de Vaud. See Berough. it of the knots. See Burr. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. brynsten. to roar. and Dan. he rustle. with Dan. protuberance. to grind on a whetstone. Swiss Rom. Fr. like straw or small . Burryn. Pren7ien. toast. brandung. bremmen. A legal term from the Lat. lorra. a spring a robber. become big and proud. borni. A burl. and OG. Fl. Goth. fires up. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. a knob. has also borr.Ps. to surge. watery. Burgh. the er is a dresser of cloth. brunna. to hum. joking. a jest. tahkoa. — — . to burgen or wax big. a purling hiwe brennen. bears. — — . bouril. . brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Cot.. the flocks. de Vaud. pur (see Burgeon). See under Bore. to burn. sea. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Bestiary. Burn. burle of cloth.). sbornoi. lerre. Burlesque.' a jibe. brima. the roaring surge of the — — — . Antiq. a bud... which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. blow. It is probable indeed that Fr.— . a gurgling ^. purra. brustolare. to swell. ON. explaining Sp. OFr. burgen. taunt. brase. BURNISH i5«r/. thence.bryna. &c. Bouffer. and the Burin. from the roaring sound of flame. a wine skin. grancelli. bruse. ends of thread. to polish. From Fr. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. embraser. and the Burnish. brunir. bourglairs. purrata. to murmur. N. language of folly or ridicule. ii6 BURGESS Gael. Prov. a bubble. bruzir. to To Bum. E. The Gael. ridicule. — Han to bruser op. to polish helmets. to roar. bourou.

that birds make their nests with. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. to burst.' edge grew weak. caer is a — — — ' ' : . brittle. G. of England. brico. as for the protection of a child's head. briso. I. bur. buscha. burra. Burial. force.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. Burse. briser. i5(7&a. S w. chips or anything else Fl. beurs. any rapid whirling biarga. when they spring So in W. borre. &c. to break. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. appears under the Lang. birgan. to buzz. its own protection. from whence we pass through Sp. &c. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. to P'air. byrgen. burre. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. bris. Burrow. borsa. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. whirr. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. bourlet. Fr. preserve. ultimately resting on the Gael. also ' any such trash as chaff. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. borre. tomb. also all such stuff as hay. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. foretell great storms at 3. Gael. pipaa. of a body hurled through the air. a harness or collar maker) . to mutter Sw. prsnuti. whence Kil. brast. brista. brizeto. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. Du. to stuff. as it is still pronounced in N. a place of defence. See Bulge. Fris. a wallet or scrip. Hal. AS. burial place.' Harris in Todd. borrow. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. It. keep. ptcrren. brisd. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. straw. beorgan. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. bourse. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . as in Northumberland. Burser. The root forms brik. bourre. borra. borsia. an annular swelling. borra. g. a rabbit burrow. from Fr. berstan. explained E. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. shelter. shuffling. a sepulchre. OHG.— . shales. byrstan. bur. be more in accordance with AS. talk fast and indistinctly. ON. husks. and. purr. barza. . Jam. root borr. bristen. as from Sp. Mid. coo. In a met. burgisli. a purse. brjota. A rabbit burmotion. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Compare also OE. Bursar. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. birigean. G. borsa. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. bolsa to It. cover. idiom if 4. To Bury. Dan. In OE.' The same word with burgh. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. Swiss burren. . a morsel. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. — Translated by Kemble. signifying protrude. ' ' — — burren. 5150. . bourrer. bres- — tan. skin. a. Fr. makes the disbursements of the college. blurra. and spelling. bolgia. Sexy.Lat. a purse. Cot. the — — castle or fortress. It. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. byrsa. bristeach. Burr. and met. byrgan. an exchange. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. stuffing.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. impetus. leather. verbergen. 2. Beowulf. bris. -Grisons bulscha. britar. mentioned under Burgeon. from AS. brittle. the officer who bears the purse. briketo. Du.. brisdeach. ON. Sw. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. brickie. OHG. perruque. peluca to Fr. dial. Brun on bane. Burr is related to buzz as protect. E. Port. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. birr. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. Sw. cwning-gaer. a pad. and thence flocks 'of wool. — Clare. ' BURR AS. swell. brist. dial. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. 225. With a slightly different ghen. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. break . byrigels. bersten. to hide. Burse. shearing of cloth. karborre. bourse. Fr. bourrelet. -burse. to save. moss. some people in pronouncing the letter r. brown. Hence Fr. casting bullets. fortify. preserve. AS. bergen. This word seems safety. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. to bury . whirr and burr. brokil and brotil. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. byrgels. iii. but it is more probably a development of It. brit. save. brist. brest. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. ber•whirr to whizz. a barn or cupboard. hair. to hide . a port. Shelter. See Burgeon. To Burst.

fiast. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Harold G. a rampart. a bush. busk. AS. They busked and malced them boun. ' . Gr. See Box. truasc. a bundle.-^Bushel. to dress. bush. van wijnbesien. to dress. Brunne.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. boistel. condere. . barst. Bush. bos. roquies. iriCtf -ifoe. bosta. Layamon. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. a tuft.' The word is explained by — — . —Busk. besom). lump. buxida. beorgan. is thus accounted for. 410. aheap of stones. 'at bua sik. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. or the like. verb. as boun is simply buinn. ' . bramble. borcegui. Bush. Thence byrigean. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. to sepulchre. whente beorg. ch). in OE. OFr. knot. Sir Tristram. boiste. at bua sig. R. bundle * Buskin. clusprobably Morocco leather. The bone in a woman's stays. and from the Fr. busken. Malberg. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. -idis. that the lend had lorn thorn. Le roy Richard mort. bousIn the other copy ser. bossen. oneself. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works.Lat. Prov. bausen.Lat. a box. bousche. from the ON. Fris. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. or — Busk. See Bust. in the For Skirnis . grapes. buysschen. The primary sense of hair . a bush. ' —P. a -tavern bush. box wood to bush. bundle. Fr. OFr. protect . for at buasc. tuft. mount.fiasc. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps.' The buskin is said Bret. Thus Froister .boisteau. occultare K. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. a little box Dan. a box. So from Fr. whence at bua sik. a tuft. bua. to forest of Eyda. bussellus. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. busse. tow. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . To prepare. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. : — . Du. bustellus. a gun biichse. bush.' a box. brodequin tout noir. rad. ieorh. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. barsc in Heimskringla. and he cites wisp bauschen. wisp. . and not directly (as Du. diminutives. ' . brake. bairgan. boucher. basse. which would later have truast. boisseau. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. then a tuft Sp. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. . boissa. the Moors and of Morocco. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. buskr. a been written buasc. It. to bury. bo7ich (Fr. to direct one's course towards.' sheath. make ready. buxula. sur une litifere. ' . the land. The word frequency with which to busk is used. hunch Du. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. buxta. G. The radical idea is seen in Goth. thicket {buski. thicket of thorns . bustula.) to hide in the ground. borseof trees. to turn.— ' ii8 {chreo. to stop. to swell. and we actually find bushel. and thence Mid. a clot of phlegm sart. the past participle of the same verb bua. . Sw. . defence. signifying to entomb. Sc. 2. borghen. dead. bousse. bulk. to bend one's steps. we have Fr. a grove bosch van haer. In to Brutaine. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. . by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. to keep.gur bidst austur um EySascog. bouche. bunch. a tuft of hair. at buast. BUSH hreaw. whence bouchon. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. gave Lat. a hump. brodiquin. It. to enclose in a case or box. to prepare. a corpse). projection. AS. a bunch. Brunne. a wisp. a tuft guini. as synonymous with to inake one boun. cluster. to bow. hjul-bosse. bussare. Ptg. qualster-boscken. Sibriht that I of told. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. a troop. bussel. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. a box for measuring corn. Bouchet. apparently a secondary verb. berghen. Du. bosc. il fut couch6 l^jkema). preserve. And her ful sone tuft. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. To Busk. Du. induere vestes . bosch (a diminutive ?). boxta. the idea of knocking. bulge. basse. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. biichse.P. Mid. a bunch of twigs. burial mound. abdere. bossida.

Lat. buc. tuft. body. Swiss butschen. a kiss. Busitiess :c3iVi . fe^a. busch. brut. as in ON. abutarda. stump.> Also written buskle. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. otarda. Nained from Proximse iis zia. To hurry or make a great B. ON. Bustard. windbutsch. of a doublet. thick end. crack . Edrtst. buyse. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. to make use of. I bustle. a. btcc. busche. basiuin. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. and by transposition morchequi. bnist. Busy. busy. With respect to bust. log .— . an ostrich. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Buss. snout. Pol. — . Sp. a kiss. employment bisgan. 119 bi{tr. ottarda. bysgian.' Plin. The Prov. 7o\. mouth. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Fr. buta. B. bussen. ^A. occupation. body of garment. mohedairova. Bust. Cat.). of the human body (Grandg. Prov. a bush. a blow. Fr. chest. Fris. busto. signifying trunk of a the body. A wisp. — hardly be distinct from Fr. betarda. Fl. and then with avis again prefixed. busta. sunt quas Hispania aves . would explain the G. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. made stiff. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. stem. bulk. a Mid. bruskras well as buskr. bisg. Lindenbr. I go strepo) . bu. hipista. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. geidha. A A busquer (Sigart). buc. outarde. a kiss.bezig.D. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. box. bukr. an affair. a busk. worn to make the body straight . Prov. forms morseqiiill. busq. Prov.pjik. beezig. body without arms and legs. putta. also a flagon. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. buquer. body . Business. baiser. — clattering about. lips. Bav. 2. biseg. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. a large cljest or particular applibox. Sp. Bust. So Wes- terwald munds. cata — . mogangas from gonj. ViM. stir. or chest in which the vitals are contained. the breast. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). trunk of a tree. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Busk. borcegui. Lang. also a It. to occupy. I. a ship of some size. morsequi. knock. busc. as in moharra from harbe. pussa. Sp. its slowness of flight. to bustle. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. 1372. besongne. — — — — It is like the smouldering. from jnund. Du. a sleeveless truss or doublet. bacio. bisgung. On the other hand. bust. a mouth. buz. bus. 1555. BUSS Dozy from Arab. Namur — Champagne Fr. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. stump. besoigAe. busch. a great billet Cot. a fishing vessel. the long. trunk of Cot. bust. Sw. body. body of a woman's dress It. mosequin. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. the trunk. So in Fin. Walach. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. buc. ' bistardej It. bucha. biist.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. occupied bezigen. also a busk. Fr. the body without arms busque. tarda. forest. AS. ON. to knock . mouth.d. Hence probably au-tarda. a kiss of reverence. A great sluggish fowl. I. arbor ramis trunGloss. The form brust. Hal. a boat or small vessel . . says. a backstock. knock. in Diaz Gris. work. bysgje. lip. Comp. Gael.' ON. representing a blow. bist. but. kiss. ship Sp. bus. Cot. vessel employed in the herring fishery. body of a man. trunk. inde discurro et operosus sum. bussa. Rouchi. 22. small. the point of a lance. See Boss. brostia as well as bostia. mons. Port. abotarda. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . business. Bulch. kiss. kupata. or avutarda. Lat. 2l box. . brusc. Xerqui. butz. statue of the upper part of Fr. — Thus we should have mocherqui. to make a splash in the water. trunk. utarda. avuDiez. and supposes that the common Arab. plated body or other quilted thing. a tree. bus and Pol. Fr. sera. and also a sounding blow. a bust. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. bisegung. lump. smack. love gestures. 10. ' BUSY 2. The proceedings of Parliament. putschen. To Bustle. a blow. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. austarda. to Swab. a stroke of wind. a projection. beso. outard. — — difications of the same word. bustla. or Cherqui. lip. a log. a bunch of flowers . especially of a woman's dress. a bulk or trunk without a head. Box.

a cask. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. belly. the belly. are. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. a barrel. my is called the adversative use of but. Sp. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. we find ben. hollow case. Lang. able. sup- meat and drink. a wooden cask. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. rumpf. binnan. Sp._ bitten j biiten door. Fr. bocin. large barrel. a goat (and not besides . bochier. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . by the mode in which he is treated. But It. the body of an animal.jamin. similar train of thought is seen in ON. But when will you pay it ? the belly. ' Besides all that. that which would be translated by Fr. the mouth). G. The E. and with It. belly. the servant in charge of the original object. boquier. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. from as. (children) boc. buta. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. If that where now we should compiler. a butcher . is well explained by Tooke. beccaria. the bottles. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. Lang.' Thus Chaucer says. the present day we should say. a bottle. a budget. without law. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. . a small winebag. bous.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. Where at an earthen jar . the full expres. from boc. But In Sc. OFr. besides that . then hoUow trunk. to-boot. in addition. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. wooden receptthing to be done. original sense of without. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . without the house kept in bottles. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. without punishment . bolgia. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . beccaro. without. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. Ben-house. calf of the ' say. the store of ten. bouz.' there is really a negation to be supplied. trunk. ox. being wholly unten. A A . add. bhcciero. outside that moreover. the principal apartment. without care. — . barriga. mais. botilla. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. without buiten-man. bole of a tree. calf. hull of a ship. the name must have arisen before the within. bodifie. Sp. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. So in Italian from becco. bountifully. Tooke's dis. biitait slaughterer of goats . Prov.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. bisgung. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. the trunk or body of an animal. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. earthen which the debtor has adverted. Butler. bol. bout. rotundity of the body. bounds of. botte. a baiTel . viz. Wall. the precise correlative of but.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bolr. the jug and in E. bute. those in beccaio. butan ce. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. is put in a class by himself. equivalent of AS. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. or what in in charge of the pantry. As a conjunction but is in every portion.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. boucher. of the wine and drink. Butcher. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. ' There is leathern bottle. It. Here the but implies the existence of an.' — — ' . ont jhi^ton. a butchery. collection of casks. gives at least two pounds sterling. an outlaw from bouche. slaughter-house. which the word corresponds to the Fr. a leathern bag. Fr.streets. a goat. Du. be out.The Sp. but one thing. bag. AS.' ' write. Butt. except. butan. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. tinction between but. botija. and the real origin of the and within . belly.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. bitten dai.in which his brethren are included. . body of a shirt w. boccino. — we acle for liquors. bitlga. the body of a tree or of a man. also a hollow vessel . boteria. "PLT) . properly a butan wite. Buttery. Fr. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. young mais. beyond the Piedm. the Perhaps besogne — . viz. beta. moreover. and bot. skin-bag. a butcher. bouteillier. bola. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. as Pantler. ways.

on. . W. clunis. pied.to push. leg of lamb. any short thick thing. from notirrir. buttock of beef is called butr. to abut on.rejected thing. potacha. but this is probably from Fr. Buttress. Lang. signify a cask or tub. From Grisons biitt. to push earth .. give way. Buttrice. Sp. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Schmell. a boss. a but in the W. Buttel-triib. as rejeton. butt of a person. of the present day. a button. a boss. Bav. botta.against another which needs support . a scope. buttals. a blow. a blow. boutis. a mound. having a rotundity . humble. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. by boE. a ribbed glass for dient. the rosebud. — A . s'arrgter tout ^ coup.putan. thrust. waste ground. — A . the thick end. Button. to throw . Gr. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to boult flour. botten. -ez. Fr. buttern. bottig. poke. Butter. Bav. to femur. butter. short thick thing pimple. . to strike. bout. Hal. ment being supposed to resemble butter. : . farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. oir spike with a k coup . any small projection. geboogsaem. &c. Kil. end . povrvpov. w. striking end. botto. stump. bouton. Kil. to cast. large head. an ox. the store of while bottich. a stroke di animal. gigot. to touch at the end. bott. a heap of merly called pushes. Schmell. from the large knobbed head of botto. of E. the prick in the middle of a target. tress. bothog. thrust forwards. pwtiaw. to thrust. to thrust. a button. are the strips at the edges of the field. butteln. Gael. the edge forwards. Fr. . Cot. to thrust. pwt. To come full butt against a butts. to heap up earth or ihrust. or person Schmeller . Fr. Fris. boter-schijte. both. a hill. bot. Gris. Du. nourrisson. bodi. butter un. bodi'. bouter. * Buxom. obeto shake backwards and forwards. nourrissons. butt. or or shore post. Du. stump of a tree Fr. So in English pimples were fora clod. boil. Fr. botwm. Fr. Mur-buttant. from rejeter. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. Kil. hillock . an etwas anstossen. aim whence to make a support to a wall. bot. bocgsuin. rabodd. tout seat or breech. bottich. R. a wall butor butt on. bocsam. a dle . thick. Butter-glass. a. the thigh of a goose. a large belly. the Butter-fly. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. Boutant. butt. butyrum. W.— BUTT leg . G. a bun. submit shaking up salad sauce. Du. to be con. A — — — . a leg of mutton. Perhaps corrupted Lat. put. Du. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Fr. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . to thrust Fr. grease that sets by merely standing. a tub. From Du. See Butler. AS. buter. from bugan. as if from Povg. suddenly . dripping. e. The word body itself seems identical with G. from bouter. a barrel. Buttery. bud. a bolt. Btetter-schmalz. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. buhsom. Boutje. a. — — — — . Bout van het schouderIt. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . Buttock. as in G. To strike with the head bags. then the thigh or leg of an to push . a stump or club foot. fowl. bot blijven staan. boter-vogel. bouton. Grandg. An erection built up as a Fr. butt. is formed the augmentative buttatich. able that Chaucer. boiUer. in the R. so as to make a sounding blow. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. to thrust . Hal. a buttrice. butter. To Butt. a thrust the thigh-bone. bouter. from stossen. butte. botte. boteria. boutoir. to so close to the Fr.. a bot. a little push . bout. a corner horses' hoofs. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. what is kept in a blow. botta. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. boter-vliege. caput scapula bout van f been. to bow. lams-bout. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. bata. — . It. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. fle>(ible. — . a buttress Cot. clumsy . courtaud. trapu. buttare. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to.arbre. coxa. at. butz. butte. the trunk. From the noise of drinkables in a house. and the true derivation boar. nursling. a flying buttress. but. a cask. to butt. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. to abut a stone roof. to blad. Fr.' thick from shaking. i.thum and not button. The Bavarian potig. strike. obedient. Halma. a button. boding. &c. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Du.

Cabal. bylove. son. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness.— Diet. Sw. byar-log. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. to pass by. buzac. also say. bozzago. town having separate jurisdiction. called Cabala or Tradition. bycgan. ON. leges urbanse ON. jus municipii. as Fr. a meke thynge with — alle. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight.— P. Lat. indistinctly. p. bei. — 122 BUY P. —gracious of speech. Buzzard. ii. 3.busardj Prov. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. from whom it was addressed. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. bohte. bauhta. The ON. groat in token of his good heart towards him. buteoj Fr. bugjan.in N. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. bij. Goth. abozzago. to stand at his side . to sell. as in Da. Mercy hight that mayde. By-law. a by-path is a side path . Du. harty prayers and God speedes. to swear with him by . 519. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. big. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Dan. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. 21. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. Byre. Many good mological explanation. favourable. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. depends upon a esteem in falconry. G. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. tions by one. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. to wit. . It. buzzicare. lb. and it is of good will. to jan. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. Verstegan in R. confusedly. See Abie. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). blessing me with their of side. favourably to a petition. 116. to purchase for money. . a borough. frabttg- To Buzz. A by. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. \s\xy.P. bylag. farm. The sense of buxom. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. train of thought which has become obso. to whisper. Originally the law of a particular town. village. to buzz. P. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. cow-house. and would have been lost in E. as heedless as a cock-chafer. a town. A ful benygne buirde. bi. Then applied to speaking low. from by. . Pecock Repressor. Sw. good-humoured one. bees. buzarg. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. It. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. lete. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. a beetle. AS. CABAL Goth. bar. 200. stall... Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. & Q. AS. OE. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . To Buy. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. iii. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. who makes abigg. and boxome of speche xviii. byar-rettr. A A We — — — days' wonder. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. a buzzard or puttock. bi. bygge. gracious. buso. byr. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Etynj.

Cabinet. aak! tandi like Fr. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. caables. from trabocco. Choux cabus. cabas. main. a shed. has kabbel. or cadable. Sp. filth. cabuccio. originally an Gael. Very generally used. headed. overwhelm (Diet. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. kakaloH.. the bowels.. manganare. and Or. to keep or Du. overwhelm. — Tarbe. headed or cabbage lettuce. to chatter. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. gaggi. is probably unconnected. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. a head (whence cabochard. To steal or pocket. E. 'habl. w. hoard together. cacare. OFr. cadabulum. Sw. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cabus. the Slavonian. dung. OFr. to crush. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. ckaable. gaban. Lat. as it must have stood in French. OFr. cadabula. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. or as an interjection of disMod. It. Lang. Coticesserint Swiss aa. deponat a store closet. cabo. capo. cabasser. agge machen (in nurses' language). gaggele. brassica — capitata. Cabin. cabacho. a cabbage . chaable. Brushwood — — B. origin is the OFr. su/Furari. round or great headed. dirty. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cacare . Sp. or rush basket. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. To Cabbage. Didot. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Due. capuccio. chaable. cables. cable . head. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Common to Lat. disgust. manticuKil. Neckam — by the wind. aeggi. form kactal. hovel. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Du. a rope. cab lis. . dirty. traboccare. name of the projectile engine. ceach / exclamation of guages. cabuyskoole. caable. Finn. geese. —Diet. a cloak of felt or Cack. and the Arab. Mid. Cot. Antiq. Fr. disgust cac. — Kil. agga. &c. serious injury — In like manner It. vincially used in E.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. cabulus. Fr. Fr. caable (in legal language). kabat. band. signifying properly a rope's end. a rope or cable. precisely in the sense of the lari E. disgusting such an engine was exerted. It. havyar to caviare. to hurl down. It. — Ibid. a headed cole or cabbage . Imitative of the cry of hens. It. Etym. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Katr-iT-aKt. Mid. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . would correspond to cable. a tunic. akista. aakkat'a. cabarino. a car- We convasare. cadabalum. as an expression of Gr. kakla. cdble. caboche. prostratio ad terram. and Finnish lanLat. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. . accablcr. surripere. cab. and Ptg. Fr. Cablisb. properly windfalls. a rope. it would seem fundain children's language. chabla. heady.Lat. lactuca capitata. Du. Capstan. Fr. signifies down. wilful).' Due. to hurl in Nat. come the Fr. especially shepherd's frock. Celtic. forms indi. Mid. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. — the ON. maim. The double a in the OFr. an engine for casting stones. hut. The Sp. Gaggle. kabane. Cappa in OSp. nasty. gabardme. covering. agge. to put or pack up in a frail. whence Fr. caable. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . The name of the engine. to strain in such a manner . from manganum. . cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. gatsch. From It. a rope..Lat. dirt and the Fr. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. whence Lang. cadabola. : — from violence without blood. cabre. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Cot. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. mdhaigner. string. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. and as we find stones Mid. case. giiare.Gr.ticula. It is remarkable that the Esthon. .). calabre. for the origin of which see Carabine. bad. capanna. as Diez supposes). ! — . Cabbage. a jacket Fr. chadabula. Ptg. OSp. caqueter. Lith. cabaii. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. &c. E. Kil. a frail.. Tugurium. vile. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . — . stercus. as Turk. cabo. kabaSsen. . caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cabbage. — .Lat. a covering. (ca/coe. cadabulum. Castr. Item habeat vocant. cabane. cabre. a booth or hut. . laitue cabusse. the Prov. Due. Du. kabas.

Caddy. cadaver. . Gascon capdet. caioler. to cackle . to cage. kukje. calibre. Caldron. limestone. from calendcE. bad . Lat. and troublesomely attached to. frisky. to sleek hence a den. * Calibre. calculo. wretched. ben- kalf. roller. hot . pith. cake. of the nature of lime to calcine. an inkstand . Tea-caddy. reed-pen. Roman reckoning. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. master. a cylinder. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Lat. Turk. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Fr. chetif. incolumis. kuchen. caliche. cadet. Calocli. capitetum. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. the pith or soft part of wood. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Cajol. is probably delusive. to treat like lime. a vessel for heating water. A cuttle-fish. It. A . pi. caldaria. a corpse. frolicsome kaad mund. kage. calpa. Calamity. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. cage. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Calash. a reed. gaggle. Fr. a falling. to throw themselves into the sea. * Cade. captive. B. a caFr. pen Mod. Sw. lime whence calcareous. It. when they are said to poor. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. (in the augm. a loaf of bread. Cadet. ' . naXaiidpi. a low note. It. or smooth Hnen cloth. loss. chaudron. It. The young G. As Du. —Atkinson. Mrs B. without loss. Sw. kolo. Lat. chattering. kalfvan hout. Lat. misfortune. Dan. kalb.— Cot. form) calderone. a wheel . its mother. . eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. From lerie. calibre. a car. coll. KaKKat. disease of sailors from tivus). safe. Cadge*. gabbia. prate. Sp. babbhng. kola. kolesb. a roller. cadenza. coop. to gabble. a fever. The Calf. of oxen and similar animals. principal and interest. collop. gavia. kauwe. calcis. ratas. Originally from a Slavonic source. calidus. to . calentura. little chief. Lat. caldarius. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. a calesh. Fr. Pol. hot. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. especially of something soft. Du. Lat. cha'cmie cadence. Cot. Fr. desire of land. Lat. It. cageoler. Lat. dial. a lump or large piece. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. cauldron.warmth . a wheel .— Calliper. on. Cauldron. a wheel . An open travelling chariot. Calc-. jabber. Calendar. kakulla. Du. whence calash. so gabble corresponds with Fr. signifies a waggon. Lat. capCalenture. Fr. ever and anon. the calf of the leg. gaggia. wanton. kdtr. cabdillo. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni.Gr. Cot. Perhaps from w. kolasa. a wretch. cadere. boy. G.uv. kolesnitza. Caitiff. rattaat (wheels). cuttle-fish. hence musical rhythm. cavea. kat. kolo. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. from the Chinese catty. a tea-chest. a counter used in casting accounts. to compute. cattivo (from Lat. kaeckelenj Gr. calessa. to prate much to little purpose. kalfi. Du. dead body. En kaka br'od. lord. calesa. the younger son of a family said to be from . koeck. a calash . one unduly indulged by.— . 124 prattle . kaad. to heat. to — Fr. of which. Calp is riadh. calendarium. just falling. pet lamb. kalem. kolyasochka. calf of leg. Cot. Cadence. Sp. whence Lat. . — in a kiln. It is another form of the E. Sw. Fr. unruly . Turk. a hollow place. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. or colpa na coise. Calf of the Leg. calentar. a waggon . reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. colibro. . Fr. Due. the pi. Gael. taking it Sp. javioler. the bore of a cannon. KxiKivh^o^. gabberen is identical with E. kdfich. calendrer. — — — Dan. cadence. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. In the same way Fin. a circle. from calculus. &c. Lat. marrow. To Calender. kolo. calamus. ON. Dan. a mischievous dial. Fr. gabble. gabbia. a wheel. a common cart. . Flo. It. Du. kaka. Calamary. Cage. joyous . prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). an ugly waggon kolaska. a cake or loaf. Sp. Serv. cykevie. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. The Lat. Arab. Calandre. a dence. Cake. Calcialate. calamitas. kolyaska. A — fall. To Cajole. from the ink-bag which it contains. loss. or prattle. N. A hooded carriage. calx. calba. Cadaverous. a small stone. Russ. kail. chaudiere. See Kiddier. Lat. G. lindrus. from Gr. the lump and the increase. for green fields. calidus. cage.

the heat of Now these Du. calma. 125 Prov. calclover. them &c. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim.en~ kinds of firearms. overscalmaccio. — — — — — . to calk. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram.Lat. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. depreciatory term for a woman. Kil. kind heat of the sun. kallo. nautique). to affirm. Mahn derives it from Lat. Fin. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound.— .. harquebus or handgun. colubrina. ' rine. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. oldire from audire. calc. The reference to heat is preserved in. koluvre. and dragon. Du. cotton cloth. dragonder. calvus. calor. The origin is Gr. calcare. diameter of a ball. ' pert. harden by pressure. * Callet. sence of wind. scold. — Fl. abto suppose that E. longior. calleting. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. but is only a jda-kallo. drive. Fr. dial. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. skin hardened by labour. coluber. prattle. cahna. calk. bombarda Cauma incendium. Gael. colubraria canna. Fin. dragoon. calgua. culverin. gossiping. serpens. calicot.' Whitby Gl. Derived by some from Arab. u to an I in such a colubrum. B. which has its memory preserved in Du. Among these were the turn. Calm. cauque. callus. To century was Squalibre. piece of bigger circuite.' Slange. calat of leude demeaning. Sp. According to Jal (Gl. and heat. AS. Ptg. donderbuchs Sp. Indies. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Lat. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. hollaing. khalif. voice. the Fr. Due.' But it is hard Du. quiet. chatter. vulgo Coluvrine. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . quality. which is as much as to say. couleuvre. Caliph. to callet. the scalp or skull. CALM to press or stuff. to prattle. To Calk. qAlab. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. calibre. however. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. saucy. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. and sometimes a handgun. Sup. Fr. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. a successor. caillette. bald. i. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. from Calicut in the E.position is much less common than the geschut. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). sestus. kil-u-kal. Lang. Kavfia. Heb. moso. water-tight. whereas in troth it is not. by many that the weapon Callous. coluber also. fistula. ram. kal. to cram.(jaa= ice). a last. . Sp. to say. Hard. calme. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). calare. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Turk. kol. to tread. callum. moist. sclopus. Lat. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. KaXka. a. to be of a good or bad quality.piicede Lat. kalla. calo. hallottaa. the hard surface of the ground. Callow. calibre. The word was also written cawme in OE. to abuse . Unfledged. calcaich. given. Diet. tapulta. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . To drive tow or oakham. or languishing drought is . kahcwe. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. — — — — — . the day. caliver. Fr. Kil. kal. of the bore of a firearm met.from Ka'tm. Mil. Sc. It. to call. scalmato. hot. Calico. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Fr. a drab. faint. people's remarks. glotton. coulevrine. a soldier who the It. form in the kalib. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. to call. an adder. whence couleuv. heat. can be distinct from ODu. of a column. heat. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. a round of abuse. calma. the Fr. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. To call.' Chaucer. Mid. licht stuk The change from a. having a thick skin. calca. Sir John Smith in Grose. the latter of chamber. whehce it was first brought. Diez. So It. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. Antiq. quA librd. klover. Gr. word of mouth . chatter kallen. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. ululo Turk. to proclaim. to burn. form. . * Caliver. serpentina.' Winter's Tale. to rail or scold . alta voce ploro. caluw. cauma. brawny. kael. Dief. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. NE. done with heat Alt. trull. push violently. Ca. on. try. Ibid. overheated. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. E. faint. femme frivole et babillarde.meaning of the word. to hear. Call. a good calling. a feathers. tittle-tattle. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. and E. Bi. or mould. sound. or caliever.

sugar. Camp. spot for cattle. kanna. cainahelus.conduit-pipe. It. Candid.. Calyx. callour. camber-nosed. canis. brought from Fr. camiscieia. From fluting or furrow in a column . unwater chamelot . camelot refuge from the heat of the day. crooked-stick. ckaouma. toile some of whom. Properly calver in the field during a war. cup. KafitjUe. canalis.Gr. camelus. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Or the word Lat. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. to the force of the wind. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. a piece. aspirant.who their language. Fr. — — — A — — escume de saumon. — Cancel. Sp. See Canker. samon. paign. Cambric. Mid. or Caribs. lame. Caloyer. cancer. chamold man. Cambray. Fr. camahutus. E. the space of false imputation. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. aged. camelot. mg Canister. Sp.— Hackluyt in R. the bed of a stream. campo. campaign. a crab. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Gr. a caught. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. . at the ends. Canker. from candere. to bow. a may have acquired that signification from plain. chandelle. crooked. cambr^.' Forme of Cury in Way. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Canine. Canibal. camisa. candidus. Lat. It was distinfrom work. a dog. Cancer. to glow. Cameo. lattice. the heat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party.Lat.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. cup.' ' Quhen a lattice. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. camiscia. India Islands. to bend.—Candidate. the calix. Cambrav—Cam. Fr. candela. ation. B. catmneo. Kakoycpos. whence Fr. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. to avoid enemy in their shirts. cambrer. calutmiia. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. w. campagne. across — Bellenden in Jam. campo. crooked. champagne. Calver of cane. Lat. Peter Martyr.—Cambrel. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. to bend. Cot. a large drinking . also an eatmg sore. It. Ptg. hooked. KafivTu. crook. higher in the middle than Fr. canistrum. frank and sincandidatus.— B. camisade. Camlet. arched. properly good country. on. had no r in de bric— Cot. died in 1526. E. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. icaSoytipoe.— Chandelier. Canal Channel. clothed in white. camaien. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. having an aquiline nose. water chamlet . catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. B. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Sp. the salmondis faillis thair loup. the spersed with white flakes like curd. — B. lie level. Lat. cambren. — Lat. slander. Camel. cam^e. Lat. Fr. callar. sore. It. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. In a different application It. Candy. to jut. Gr. Fr. It. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. The Grisons cauina. whence the Fr. the type of a hollow pipe. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. campagna. Turk. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. different sections of the like the Chinese. From campus was formed Lat. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. to break. is Cambering. a field Greek monk. white. monk. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. calj'x. fresh.—Jam. a. Fr. whence the noun signifying an applicant. good. campus. Fr. cambre. bis. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. camp. Lat. canna. field . An eater of human flesh. Cambrel. . Calumny. when its substance appears inter. Campaign. cere : Lat. camafeo. se cameloter. to warp._ kamm. E. Camisade. Arab. from xaXbg. a. campagna. Mod. Cann. arched. Sanson khanda. salmon. It. co7nbar. campren. would plenier. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Lat. or hollow of a flower. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. crooked. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. ko/utuXoc. A — the Cannibals. It. is Candle. Fr. a goblet bud. open and level ground. and yspiuv. fair. Palsgr. Lat. Pers. Bret. chaitcre. cAouma. champ. chommer. a' Sc. arch. an eating. cancello. a basket. nia.

speech. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. a side. capace. schlapp. a small boat. B. Probably only the augmentative of canto. cannabis. Canvas. a cloak kapali. hirnschlapple. language. tain. canapaccia. To his judicial And trowl the tile. from . Sp. Gael. shut. canteau. a torch. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. kyndel. Diez. to put upon sacred writers. from a Canter. a cane. and tref. A slow gallop. canonici. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. and the sex- &c. KCLvva. say. which is not the case. To canvas — . to shut. from canna. a cap.Gr. the quartile. Goldast — in in Schmid. cantle then is a corner of a thing. canoa. border. a cover Turk. a pipe. quito curtain. . and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap.CANNEL vessel. cappa. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. caparazon. astrology. gnat. border Dan. a Fr. regular. Cope. a door . canonicus. Cannoii. cape. capello Italis. The meserseum and the mesentericum. coat. cope. To Canonise.— Cot. cannone. cantone. It. covered. Again we have Lat. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. call. canvas. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. also a measure. capax. Gugel. carcase . a ruler. was formed Kavtiiv. Germanis kdppen. Sp. leiwan kanta. can. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Canopy. a ship canot. rumme. trine. See Chape. Fr. kanta. cannu. a drinking glass. signifying cover. root cap. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. clqse. name. hemp. OFr. a reed. a — A — Cannel Coal. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. like a torch or candle. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. edge. a boat. Jonson. Cantle. canto. a gelding. cannevo. cane. cheese. chape. properly a large Prov. margo panis diffracta. Capari. cappe. as. Picard. contain. a division of a country. kantr. Mod. kapamak. a straight rod..n. a tube. cane. See Capt-. Wtb. Kavt\. A . The — . chantel. the heel. Cape. &c. the tried list of saints. Canteen. quarter. Canton. The word seems to be taken from Gael. a wine-cellar or vault. is found languages of very different stocks. &c. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. to con- rummer. Alamannis. Mod. lump. side. Palsgr. . and met. canon. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. It. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Schwab. Canon. a cloak. Canoe. hemp. cane. to sing. Coal burning with bright flame. as a cantle of bread. Of vena cava and of vena porta. being a yard or thereabouts . Fr. It. canapa. region. Sp. from Dan. coarse hempen cloth Fr. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. . or cantell of bread. it would have been found in the continental languages. N. A piece of anything. kynnel. Capable. capa. Kil. measure for cloth. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. pipe. from cant. a rule or standard of excellence. If the word had been from cantherius. Swab. Prov. Capacious. cantred. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. a cantle of bread. that the G. corner.Gr. It. and hence a gobbet. Du. part. coarse hemp. the part easiest broken off. capevole. to contain. schlappen. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Cant. ON. It. cantref. Fr. W. quarter . cane. has kahn. cannevaccia. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. From Gr. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. he discourseth of dissection. a corner. able to receive. cantina. a scull- — here. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Lat. Esthon. Hence Lat.^on. It. a horn of the moon . Fin. canevas. chanteau. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. kand. cover kapi. a hundred. kwvwxIi. KaTTiram. kq. From Lat. canton. kandt-broodts. Cot. haitt. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. hamlet. But it may be different source. the heel. a hunch of bread. kaput. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. cainnt. . It. cappe. hood. a reed. or hold. territorial hundred. cover .

a little head. Hair-like. to from capitulum.standing on end. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. chattering of the teeth. brisciare. Fr. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. to twitter as birds. caprice. the singing'bone). w. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. the principal part of the debt. It. where Burton adds in a note. caprice It.— 128 CAPE a rustling. with joy' Vikram. wriggle. knis. caj)o. frort^Lat. upon terms Sp. Caprice. arricciarsi. cover of a saddle. Hence capitalis the sum lent. to broil. or other things. Fl. as in Lat. Hal. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. It. Capital. brisciare.— Fl. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat.' Cot. crackling sound Cape. of a coach. herissonnement. capitulare. brezilia. cut. a young kid met. kid. a capriol. Unexpected pleasure. frissoner.) d'etre The It. explained by Diez from capra. alcaparra. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. horror. gives rise to Sc. ericius. ^piKos. a kid. I have shivered with love. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. sault. Sp. compared with Bret. of a fowl. to broil. curl. as Fr. of a tremtdoiis sound. ziki. a hedge-hog. It. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. s'hdrisser. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. the head. to . aggricciare. capriola. CAPRICE twittering. a . shivering. It. airoKOTrrw. birsle. as Fr. greziller. belonging to From caput. a ch illness. a head. It. greziller. to shudder. arricciarsi. A . bruco. they longed extremely to see it. capro. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. cappriccio. grillcr. abridge amKoTroq. and with an initial gr instead of br.' — (Supp. eruca compared with It. toy. Lat. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. Lat. fansuddenly angry. a buck. gricciare. horripilation. to crackle. . cut off. 75. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. frizzle. brisoler. Torriano.) grezille marid. the head. capar. a goat. grug. h^risser. or goat's leap (done by a horse). The true derivation lies in a different direction. And similarly to yearn. Fr. capriol or caper in dancing. rihrczzoso. curly. capitalis. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. hair. Genevese bresoler. Lang. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. a chevret. Cot. capparis. then find the symptoms of shivering.). frisser {frissement d'un trait. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end.Gr. The same imitation of Capon. algabr. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. frisson- ner . brissle. Capers. to parch. Capillary. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. the hair to stand on end. heath. to crackle. chief. gricciare. the hair to stand on end. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. hi. and his body bristled We to castrate. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . the initial mute of forms like Gr. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. for which he cites the Comask nucia. as Fr. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. It. is either wholly lost. castrated cock. Mod. Caper. It is probable that Gr. Arab. then to be in a state of vibration. hedge-hog. Fr. brug. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. or. castrated. See Chief. p. gives rise to brezza. erica. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. or Lat. as the means of earning profit. also the capriole. To treat Capitulate. So from Sw. prickly husk of chestnut. bristling. and 7tucc. — — A a hair. to shiver for cold. a caterpillar. then to shiver or shudder. bristling. — to yearne. shivering. according to the Hindoos. end. curling. capriole. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. a separate division of a matter. principal. capillus. a caper in dancing. G^' Many words — ' ndv. <I>pi'?oe. It. to shiver. caper j caprio. roughening of the skin. Lat. ticchio. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. knis-hujwud . humorous. Acad. It. II bresole (Gl. brisciare. shrub. Lat. Griller d'im' patience. grisser. and OHG. rissoler. or represented by the syllable e. Fr. a yearning through sudden fear. ribrezzo. to desire earnestly. to ruffle the surface of water. cApre.impressions on the ear. to fry. riccio.'— Trev. A headland. grisser.

capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip.of these compound verbs. was originally a missile . cabra. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. di cappa.s. a. and tropically. Capstern. Cot. Fr. Fr. to this is It. recevoir. Du. or the (capo-riccio). &c. precept. recepte. a kind of torture. as in accipio. kerren. perceive. carro. calabrin. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo.. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Cot. to take to. a sawing-block or trestles. as in OFr. a hooded friar. charger. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. whence capture. It. and of captus to an e. Sp. Neumann. Lat. capuccio. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. also to carry on a car . sels. Capt-. a cart. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. recibir. commander. concebir. contain. char. Caseneuve in Diet. to take. to please. Derivatives are Fr. carabin. karren. an engine for throwing stones. It. de- price. It. accept. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. capp%tccio. cabestan. Fr. of the Sp. conception. krul. and has accordingly been lost in E. to receive receptio. fancy. trestle. case. Lat. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Captain. a capuchin. caThe hrestante. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. conceive. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Capsule.). latterly. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. of capsa. -ceive. caricare. chirrion. caprice. Carbine. Lat. a taking back. concipere. the -cevofthe Fr. shivering fit (Altieri). a sudden will.or -cib-. capitano. crepo. It. Cart. a head man. It is a standing crab. seize. concevoir. as the dragoons (Du. calabrino. a reception. It. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. deception. hold. to creak. Thus the musket. Nordfoss. &c. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. caput. i The meaning Car. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. cabrestante (whence e. intercept. crab s. captivate. was a kind of horse soldier. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Fin. karista. a sudden fear apprehended. charrier. box. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. — —Diet. Crab. a cloke) capuccino. The It. chirriar. G. and has thus descended unaltered to English. a. at least. It. except. It. acceptus. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. was converted into -ceb. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Fr. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Fr. receptus. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. fantastic. See Caper. decepte. Capriole. dim.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). capitis. Sp. In cases. desire. a hood (dim. a she-goat. 129 — receive. Capuchin. cams. karrende waegen. Passing on into E. . oisr. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a fantastical humour. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. captus. verbs gives rise to the element . where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. OSp. Du. -cept. Etym. concept. In the S. also a kind of rack. capio. however. a coffer. Fr. -cept. Lat. charret. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. from head. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . tnoschetta. Castr.). recipere. conceit. cabreia. chevre. Kiittner. Carry. to take baclc. bock. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. to carry . where it forms a very large class of compounds. Fr. karra. to load . — — Capstan. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. Carabin. Carabine. a creaking waggon. Fl. capsula. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. a windlass. cabestrantej Fr. &c. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. capra. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. deceit. strideo. one odd.. also tresFl. captive. to accept. carretta. to creak. recipio.

a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. alia sunt majora. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. a coffer. winding carach. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. caracal. Gr. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. winding. carcaij. bock and Fr. the . skeleton toise. the core of fruit . a crane. Fr. carbunculus (dim. a goat. a quiver . The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. I. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. Carat. carch. to comb wool . a wool card. Sp. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. &c. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . to card wool. Ptg. . Exot. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. Caravel. the husk or cod of beans. turn of a horse. It. carquasse. &c. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. garafa. OHG. of carbo). eitar. bend. — seems to be something holding together. in the same way that the Sp. vitriol. skeleton. of the same Caravan. constraining . a quiver. to comb. to curry horses karsztuwas. karri. carcanada. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. ' Vasa vitrea. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. carduus. a kind of ship. . carta. Sp. kard boyd. Caraool. decanter. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. a quiver . a lock of wool . seed of carob. &c. the shell of a torcarcasso. to ripple flax. carcanet. Carrob. tcapKaai. a thistle.. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. a battering-ram). to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. wine- bottle. to hiss (as gee^e). Derived in the first edition from Mod. Fr. The radical meaning . skeleton. a case or chest . a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. or framework.Gr.z. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . caraffa. carere. quse vocant karabd. Venet. confining. mural attack. carcasa. to card wool. properly a siege machine. Sp. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a ripple for flax.' From the same source are SicU. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. fire . Carbuncle. casso. Bohem. boch. the carcase of a fowl. Sp. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Cat.. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. From the battering-ram. an engine for hurling stones. and catapulta. Pers. Carcase. Carboy. cassa. for a gun. caraffe. Sp. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. caravela. a thistle. eit. the dead body of any creature. curry-comb. shell.. It. the trunk or chest of the body . . is the chine. carquan. cabrita. avSpaS. «capa'|8i. kerwan. Lat. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. cabreia. a firelock. It. a gem resembling a live coal. cabra. krciti. Card. a ship.applied to a battering-ram (G. turning. to creak. carbo. KtpaTwv. chevre by the name of the goat. military engines made for hurling stones.. also (as Gr. wool card. . carquois.charcoal . the name might naturally Mod. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. An implement for dressing wool. case. . Lith. Fr. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. a twist. kirat. carmiiiarc. quilato. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a snail. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. cardo. cramp. contract. carabe. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Mod. card. Gael. an ulcer. Gael. a small weight. to draw in. W. a machine for casting large darts. Parmesan cassiron. carbh. Carbonaceous. matter. burning coal. Arab. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. silique. poison eiz. The Trjg xeXwwac. a winding staircase. See Carpenter. black dye. ancient springald. AS. carate. p. restraint . Gr. designated in the case of G. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. Cot. is the word used in modern Lat. a he-goat. the case of the flesh.Gr. coming to four grains.— — — . a card or comb . a skeleton. Carcax. ON. a collar or chain for the neck. It. to turn. Comp. Gael. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a prison. It. carabba. a quiver. Cot. Fr. copperas. karszti. cdrlag. cerran.. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. carcame. also a small weight. espi7igarda. car. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. karra. a dead carcase. Gael. Lat. the carob bean.

carian. or street. combing them out like the knots in wool. Dan. ignarus. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Groler. cearig. murren. . caMid. A quirito ut infans. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. caricare. A medical term from line —Boerio. compared with Fin. Bret. quadrifurcum from quameet. ceorl. Bois crolant d'un ladre. fleshy . in Carp. charta (Gr. a deed. morosus. carnis. cearian. that on wliich the matter hinges. a turn. G. weyes. tremble. carena. charnel. Fr. kumra. — — — : Cardinal. kummer. Carnal. 1S66. cardinis. Fl. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. karg. kroU-erbser. road. in N. AS. care. carch. It. a man. Trin. the keel. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. to fry. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. W. cardo. care on. to fry or broil. moeThe Lat.. to lie on its side. record. grolU. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. an endearment. and sum. cura may be ror. to parch. be anxious. mutter. giierlir. car. or grumbling —Due. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. a card. — — — Caress. in St Jerome. karry. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. to take Goth. fundamental. cura intenta. piger. to whirr (schnurren). carina. Fr. the time during which to Rom. wool cards. rixosus. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. No ' place there had. Carlings. one of those ac- 9 * . Gael. to growl. Cot. x'»P'"^s)) paper. to care unkarja. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. crosier. It. Mur. cargar. to comb wool. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. carnasciale. karista. affection. graller. croller. sorrow. Translated in MS. carena. to rumble. de Parthenay. a hinge. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. A place where four roads Mid. Carenare. . principal. also a career on horseback. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. the old theory of humours. to load. tenax. to distress growl. Caricature. . love. caritia. OFr. beans. G. chartre. Lat. appertaining to the flesh. Roquef. 273. — — . essere in carena. the load of a ship.' Slceat. W. what is felt as grievous.. Fin. Lat. Peas steeped and fried. from the keel to the water . from carus. from Lat. carminare. Ptg. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. It. Carnage. gakaran. as quadrivium from Carnaval. parched or carled. quarreG. soUicitus OSax. — Carfax. It. to scratch. murahtaa. male person. to card wool. . immediately before the long fast of Lent. hoed. carezza. charg. careless take care of. sgritudo animi.— Charter. — To Careen. A mod-carag. Fr. to load. carnalis. act of moaning. like connection may be seen between Fin. zanken . For the root of carminare.— CARD karr-kambar. to clean the bottom of the ship. an overloaded representation of anything. Chart. whence carricare. Properly a car-road. that Fl. kara. surrata. Carled peas. quaver a lazar's clack. asper. . msstus. niggardly . Properly. crowl. four. — — Diez. Card. Venet. p. karout. E. karantez. dear. Fin. Fr. carener. Cartel. and murhet. AS. meet at a head. carcare. stridere. and compare Bret. ON. scharren. Cargo. charag. murista. intrasset caro. caricatura. is This however Shrove tide. stingy. and G. and thin. Fr. charger. .Lat. carFrom carrus. to comb flax or hemp. camovale. Champ. carriire. Fr. Cath. carriera.Lat. cdrle. at murmuring. ress. carnavale. From. carcus. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Carl. solicitous. karl. Sp. charnage. OHG. caresse. It. w. to shake. & Q. crawl. It. ON. Probably the origin of the word is the . also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Cot. Charnel. astutus. Cark. caru. the keel of a vessel. cargo. . to load. Farewell flesh. Sp. clown or churl. W. as carminare. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. to love. 2. morosus sum. place for exercise on horseback. sorrow. charneux. is to say. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. carrefourg. from carrus. from caricare. voce strepo stridente. &c. winding. strideo. It. sensual. Sept. the hull of a ship. charie. grief. Cot. . bottom. karrig. a highway. 8. regar. carnal. kribina. Bret. the flesh of animals . to scrape . see Garble. tuorfurcm (Burguy). as peas. AS. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. to eat flesh. Carminative. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Fr. Fr. Care. Coll. kurista. kargr.

zimmerspan. Biheld within. Sp. Olr. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. charpie. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. krapanj. Carole. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Cot. to gather. culcitra.'— Stat. CarTo quaff carouse do use. ! Carouse. chirp. carpenta. The tippling sots. Teut. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.]e bois Carnelevale. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. chatter. lint. whence the form carnasciale. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Gael. Discov. — — ' ' — — — I — — . quoted by Carpentier. ' ' — .' Raleigh. In a MS. bier. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. 2. to dance. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. I drink all out. a wheelwright. all aus). tymmer. gonna. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. qui sacco. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. In Dominica d'autant. The custom. 94). Alluz (G. carpetrix. a wheelwright. is erroneous. on that.— Neum. to find fault with. differing To Carp. to reel. Other names of the sea. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol.: . as E. peta. worker in timber Fr. Pr. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. i. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Bret. Carpitam habeat in lecto. The word seems of Celtic origin. Templariorum — ' — Due. 760. a dance. The ' ' a chariot. carpita. linteamen. carpia.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. carpenticre. Lat. chariot carbad. sense. Carnevale. Palsgr. Shrove Tuesday. Lat.D. Carpet. used for stuffing mattresses. Mediol. or a carouse fully drunk up. yede tham about. in Due. Dief.' Reg. carpende fast Carol. as carnaval from carnelevamen. ON. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. querole. Ant. a car carpentarius. From Lat. To pledge them thou refuse. A. Here's to you still my captains friend.— Drant in R. pluck. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. . a plank. carpat (Stokes). On this. I quaught. gar aus / all out is correct. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. ship. Carnelevale. Chanson de carole. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. carpentum. e. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. 216. Nomin. The karole of the stones behelde. to chatter coroli.gonnella. to pull asunder. Ein we find the signification transferred from .Lat. W. Lat. zimmer. koroll.— Patriarchi. in Carp.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. to pluck. maker of waggons It. pluck at. All out B. a drinking cup. 1 1 30. cardos. litter. Carpenter. garrulo. Mid. Mid. i. Gower in Way. to talk. cited by Marsh. krapati. carpere. as the Lat. of Guiana. Pm. a carder. carnelascid). to rustle. a song accompanying a dance then. course. fabulor. act of drinking a full Eq. carpetam (a quilt?). QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. tattle. 2. . skraf. So gone they forthe. and Carnem laxare (It. carpenter only in the latter sense. Analogous R. charpentier.Lat. Sup.' Ordo Eccles. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Properly a round dance. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Pref. balade from It. to dance. Carpyn or talkyn.' says Motley (United Neth. garrire. carduz. in Nat. vel coopertorio carebit. or loose as a couch without further preparation. Fr. cxciv.Lat. was formed Mid. biheld without. Fr. On the other hand bumper to one's health.— R. Bohem. as Fr. ballare. Beggars Bush. carpo. chatter skra/a. — . The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. and F. . carbh.Why give's some wine then. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.

pasteboard. — Cartridge. To duash. to an- — Kil. caisse. a of water. Casuist. Walach.' — Hdcart. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. As defence from shells became more important.— Fl. caisse. charrier. made void. cancelled. of carta. Hence a challenge openly hung up. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Du. cassus. Sp. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. It. card. house. cascare. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. caroche. Cot. carriaggio. subject for a picture. to convey in a cart. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. mord-grube. and matar. from It. void cassare. and the OE. cia. — — nul the proceeding. Preparatory drawing of a It. augm. a paper case. kasseren. to crack. shell or carcase of a house. cascar. Rouchi carone. discharge It. See Gristle. from casa. cartouche. cassere. casser. Flor. Lith. Du. the money chest. to dash. kerben. AS. ' Casa-matta. Carriage. fortuitous. a merchant's cash or counter. something that actually occurs. gristle. It. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Cash. to break. CartOTicli. casitiste. To Carve. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Carrot. Rouchi carpHe.to annul. Lat. one who reasons on cases put. Fr. empty. a car. an act of falling. turn out of service. vault hole in a fortified wall. a chance or accident. To Cashier. It. cut with scissors. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Cartel. Carrion. packing ' cloth. bag and baggage of a camp. Cassock. It. the charge of — — Fr. helmet. — — . cancel. to fall. casso. a hut. blotted out. dim. annul. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. as we . gristle.. Lat. to cut or carve . kirpti. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. cartone. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. hollow. and that apparently from capio. casag. carogna. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. case. Probably. kerven. also the carriage. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Fr. cassa. casa. Fr. Lat. See Card. Casket. a chest. mata. like all the names of tendon. cassa. corresponding to the G. to shear. caro. Casque. a car. coffin of paper for groceries. casuelj Fr. capsa (Diez). caroach. kerpu. Ready money. Fl. Fr. cartilage. paper. augmentatives of carro. cartella. The Sp. caxa. from Lat. Fr. abrogate. Fr. where Fr. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. AS. charrette.' Bailey. It. Case-mate. Sp. luggage. cassette. Fr. carrosse. charogne. quash. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. casus. ceorfan. casa-maita. casco signifies a skull. Cask. des rideaux A'carp^ie. hung up in some place and to be removed. slaughter-house. Fr. cashiered. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. mord-keller. It. to bear or carry. long man's gown with a close body. carretto. break to pieces.' Fl. krat. caisse. See Case. Gael. of carro. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Fr. The carrying of anything. Fr. not reaching to the height of the ditch. casualis. cascata. bitten. To quash an indictment. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. cascade. to hold. from the sound it makes when Alban. Case. It. carota. Lat. casacca. fall It. crown of a hat.' Cot. to fire on the enemy. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. casaque. Fl. a loopscale the wall. properly to convey in a car. To Carry. a coffer or small case for jewels. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . carroccio. carroc- carrozza . Rouchi carter. Casual. case-maiej Sp. Cascade. a canonry or slaughterhouse. — FI. Hence casket. Fr. tion from Sp. quasser. to slay. crush. Fr. discharge. Rouchi caroche. Cot. from It. a long coat. to notch. cartoccio. Case. carretta. It. coffer. Cart. an augmentative from Lat. a fall. for the security of the defenders. It. ignominiously exposed. carreaggio. to — — also casse. G. OE. Cartoon. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. afterwards any written challenge. — Cartoose. hull of a ship.

Others explain it from Kara. squash. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. shaft of a 1 push. Cot. which has been retained in E. ating. to Fl. . the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. Roukind. Castle. casupola. R. kotas. to dash. to crackle. KaTappaKTrjQ. sue. Cast. burst cascare. which. of castrum (castra). perhaps from which we have E. casule. heat . a whip on the other into latch. Fr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. puss / for calling them. castana. torture. down. Yz. To Catch. stilts. fall. Lat. to hurl See Awgrim. catch. Lang. Lat. . and from the castus. first made ordinary Fr. to torture. to close. katze. casipola. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Fr. kottr. the castanets for or implement . a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. chat. chaleur. accastiare. to scourge. Catastrophe. down. KaraXoyog. to drive Cat o' nine tails. castello. cash. dim. castro. kic' kicil are used chasser. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). bot-kotis. Chase. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. It. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. ON. to turn overturn. cacciuolo. Fr. casulla. by the loss of with several pitched cords. follow after. the ground . a chesnut . . chasuble. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . in the fire. Fr. cacciare fuora. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. 134 CAST Catacomb. execu. a little house or hut. kaJoivad. Gael. to fall as over a precipice. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. tails. dashing it to pieces. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. mino. chasser. Pol. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. a Cataract. dashing it out of the window. In the dialect of Picardy. kasta. from water Karappaaaiii. koshka. crush . or comba. Castanets.the / or c respectively. Fr. under chi caleur. or Rouchi cat. and tomba. Hal. The E. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Isidore — in Diez. away. from the first of Castrate. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. cat-o'-nine. — We a cavity. It. Fr. to hunt. kotas. or bruise together. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Pic. probably from an imita. cacciarc. Gr.Rouchi Scaches. cat. to crack. Fr. while kiss / Pol. cojz^/a. an enumerlist. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. ' Catchyn away abigo. a thump. fer toTa. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. however. Fr. cassa / cry for the same purpose. same word with break. kasi. _G. on. rack. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. KarapaKrr]g. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Brunne. to make clean or chaste. To It. drive away. a garment for performing the mass in. castellum. kakka. to cast or beat to tioner . to end. to look at. Etym. race. image accasciare. It. to bring to an crack given by the joints. speak of dashing a thing down. Sp. lance. catar. Hence castaneta. represented by the syllable quash.. Catalogue. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. . kat. Pm. second chase. n. was introduced. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. cast. ichasses. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. the earlier sense of catch. to lash. Sp. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Thus we have Caste. handle of an axe. kissa. punch. to break. coming to us through different dialects of French. So also from It. ecrevisse. V. 'Vaaaw.to drive out. force j Rouchi equerviche.'— Pr. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. a cat koshki. a fortified place. puras E. Fr. dash. cascar. V Lith. like that of It. . The Diet. KaTaarpifm. 120. and KviilSog. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. OFr. to is Essentially the Sp. chasser. being Fin. squash.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. of sarabands does Gr. &c.out cacciare . to drive away. Gr. arpi^m. a cat . Mid. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times.— Fl. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome.. castanetazo. casser. to clack. klakka. name. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche.Lat. B. signifying breed. a vault. is not satisfactory. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Cat. the stalk of plants.

s. * Cates. Cot. ' Fr. Cot. to crack GATES cache. 'Bxn. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. glcu. caker. a whip. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. e. kletse. a carter's Pat. a pill. cat is not apparent. chassoire. weevils. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. P.) . — with a whip. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . to snatch (said of dogs). Sc. called dog or Galla catchamza.V. an accusing. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. to take. quincailler. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. 'Horxa. Du. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. the elements of a science. . snatched. catch. the the same principle he was Fr. gliong. catch. . chacepol. to kythe D. Wal. clatter. Claucht. . happe-chair. In the XV'e. whip. woodlice. e. — . door when it is shut. — explained. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. KaTtix'so. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Kil. smack. companaige. Rouchi clincailleux. caucht. as of the latch of a As ! — . predicament. to clap hands. from Gr. — Catcli-poll. latch of. claquer. lash of a whip corresponding to the G.j. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie.V. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. head. dainties. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. with and without an / after the c. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. . Tutschek. kletsen. G. apprehend a person. clap with the hand. a whip Rouchi cachoire. — tinman. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. icarrix'Ki^. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. to harangue. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket.' CATCH Fr. fragor kletsoore. — B. Fr. children's name for cat . snatching it with a any one. Sp. flap klatsche. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. Du. worm. to snap.from Bard and ayopsw. dainty vic- a form lash. the OE. clap. in order). ketsoore. Chate peleuse. a cornIn the s.P. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Ptg. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. formerly called cliket. to A bailiff. insect. kaetse. cagnon (a dog). a whip. ictus resonans. Swiss Lombard G. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. klatscherei. sound. Guernsey pilleure. chatter. a. silkworm. Fr. klatsch. cache. a clap.. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. chasse. klatsche and Norm. to chat. chink. wild-beast. klinke. snatching. is said that he got a claucht of it. has both or of charming by sound. compare G. resono ictu lash. instruction in forms. On Catechism. i. E. gingle. Caterer. de Bray. devouring mite or weevil. Grandg. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Cates. OFr.' ^Jam. which all . to teach by oral instruction. GaUa catchiza. ' ' word catch. chachara. chase. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. called in Fr. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. bicho. catc?u. Kartiyopta (/cari. Gr. an officer of taxes. a — gatta. Fr. Gael. latch. Du. — Kiittner. to catch strength. Gael. bichano (pussy). catch-flesh. 135 — Aasen. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. a little dog). a. .s. the distance to which the ball is struck. pedes. blow. chenille {canicula. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. verberare kUts. gattola. Metivier. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. ArbaUte de courte chasse. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. to the crack. millecaterpillars. chatter . ecachoire. and answer. E. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. Kil. a smack. E. a whip or Kuttner. to chatter with the teeth cake. * Caterpillar. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Diez. a caterpillar Milanese can. from shutting with a click. seize. Guernsey chafer.yopl(. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. klatschen. resound. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . c or ^.

from delf^gato. to burn. the. . catkin Magy. kocie. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. challe was ther of a temple. kaussijde. Lat. catkin Pol. to beware. flock. and hence a skull-cap. puss. to shale or peel. cautus). calceta. Fr. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. and at the rich man's cost By sea. fur. what . a horse . and spareth for no perell. from KaSaipio. KaHSpa. chauderon. cheval.Lat. Rete. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Cave. dumpf tonen. • — — See Chattel. a The peel. cauHs. On the other hand. a kind of skull-cap. a paved road. a pulpit. net or caul-work. acater. Lat.' B. a receptacle for small things. . apt to burn iron. whence cathedralis.p. cale. 2. G. Gr. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. accattare. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. adcaptare. mutz. flue. Caution. . accapitare Rouchi acater. Caballus. Cavity. Wyatt in R. It.^Hal. OE. Jaubert. Ka^afriKOQ. macska. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. rete A — Prov. Richly she feeds. quire. via strata. KiwariKog. It. chaussJe. Mid. to purge. Gr. cat maczoka. puss. from chaud. Delycates. hollow. kin. Cavalier. cabbage). make clean. lamb. Fr. It. Fin. mudet. a branding from koiio. Pol. Cauldron. calidus. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates.Y\\Xea. Pr. caldo.willow. chevalier. ' Gr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Gael. a seat. Fr. Cause. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett.' Elyot in Way. Fr. cautis. chair. chausser. capull. Cavalry. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. . cabbage. caudex . achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. a stalk. kobuiV. little cap is . Thus Bav. Fr. chaudiire. from caveo (p. . Kavrfipiov. CAVE Caul. Lat. Russ. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. cale. klopfend knallen. also to pave . Palsgr. Catkin. cal^ar. It. to shoe . ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. green husk of a calon. catkins .Lat. a mare. a horse . is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . ce^l. hot. Manciple's Tale. Gr.^ acheter (Lat. shaled or picked Fr. little cat. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. kopista. catons. Provider. Sx. Fr. catkin mitz. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. a horseman. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Cathedral. Cavalcade. walnut with the husk on challer. Caudle. koparet. — — cavallo. Du. kassije. a pavement. Du.—— — 136 correct. That he was ay before in his estate. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. calceata. Caustic. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Cathartic. Diez). — com en achate or buying Chaucer. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Lat. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. to buy. a road calceata. Jonson in R. Fr. — . achepter. to shoe. katte. hot. w. Causeway. Cattle. Fr. Bessie of Bednall. cavus. minon. by land. is used in the sense of cat-skin. chatideau. kocianki. is Prologue. . but the acates that are sent him. having the property of cleansing. kautsije. 4. Lat. any Fl. fur in general. a horse. causa. deyntie meates. acaptar. . chaudroii. kopano. kobyla. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Chaud. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. CATHARTIC sense. reticella. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Mid. KaPaWrii. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Fr. caballus. calqada. despencier. calotte.. to ac- — Fr. the caul of the liver. Kil. B. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. otherwise written kell. cabbage-stalk. to sound like a blow . Lat. The word — . kitten kotki. A warm comforting drink. &c. a kettle for heating water. Port. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. choufleur {choii. Kavrijp. Dryden in R rete. Palsgr. Cavern. Fr. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. It. Boethius. hazel. the stones of a street. cavaliere. — Cauterise. caple. katteken. puss.. kdtzchen.

a boarded floor. were met. Ceiling. syl. komista. VIII. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. thil. give place. column E. beam. departure from this life. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. seele. Plancher. a log. caveqon. crooked kopio. tester of a bed. komo. Wore. — — — toyour soverane.' Cot. — komo tain). a head. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. ciel de lit. — . —Decease. The sense of roofing. del into English without ' translation gave cele. quibble. of E . The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. to plank ON. a log. Fr. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. ceiling. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. that. p.j have come from this source. to canopy siled. to plank or floor with planks. a planking or boarding tkilian. . Lat. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. heaven. dille. Gawaine & Sir Gol. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. the deck of a ship at thilja. and Gol. as if from happen. cedo.). a canopy. to cut. is applied to a canopy. &c. a board. ciel is so unbroken. kommata. exceed. cellar. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Cam. syle. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. board . thili. to argue capto tiously. sill. -cede. To seele a room. cabega. And seik — Cessation. hollow. The It. — . door-sill J Sc.' Marriage of James IV. In the same way G. coffer. decessus. cessum. . a log. It. . yield. Lat. and zaum. a fir-plank. little house. nailes will begin to cling. and that from Sp. as. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. canopied. excess. Cot. rafter. See -cede. ceiling.' Hall. . The line of descent from Fr. death. . lambris. H. the testern of a bed. Sp. but hang around at the sides. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. jaa. thiling.' — Gawan . curved. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. of cavezza. Lat. The importation of Fr. bridle. -ceed. and then to gape. wuoren komo.). a halter. In the N. cabegon. . to panel or wainscot MHG. . in Hal. to seele or close with boards plancher. thel. menuiserie.. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. thil. wall. . B. applied to a canopy. Hal. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. wainscot thiljar (in pi. &c. flooring E. succeed. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. Hence concede. cielo. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. E. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. a plank. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. plank. Cease. in Jam. -cess. . &c.'— Z. a beam.' Rutland papers. selure. cesso. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. Lat. koppeli. IV. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. hivtmel. to go forth. thelu. kapp-zaum. the inner roof of a room of state. Fr. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. or of a bed. post. step away. with their substantives concession. cavillor. &c. deal. a severe bridle. pp. A — A false accommodation produced G. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson.. an aquiline nose. . empty.' del. cease. thilja. 7. also a seeling of boards. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. -cease. sybire. selar. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. 43. p. 5. Fr. Soc. in Jam. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. CAVESON kopera or kowera. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. dayntily diglit. Sir 137 pit . a hut. . Cede. the roof of a coach. lambrisser une chambre seeling. sill in window-sill. dScis. augm. proceed. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. dil. cyling (W. heaven. hollow ice . departure. Fr. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. Boyd in Jam. 32. semely on syll. . the bowl of a pipe koppamato. sus-lambris. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. . Cavil. Sherwood. hung. recede. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. a canopy. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. So from Fin. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. hollow. sky.' Ordinances and Reg. cavezzone. plank.

being taken from Fr. Lat. or expression of Ennius. parted sleep. 1. the point round which a circle is drawn. Cereal.. Fr. crevi. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. . -cevoir. Ceremony. It. eyelid. celer. cceremonia. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers.ing a room where there is not fire. to prick. /ctj/rsw. Centurion. To Incense. — . a Cemetery. -oept. capio. Censer. to sleep). and thence censer. eschattffer. to sepap rate.). Fr. blind. tax. family. criticism. then to rub without reference Cement. confounded ist from It. -cepere. incense. receipt. to warm. Cot. a shaft horse. Ta^oe. observe. to think. for building. become heated with anger. Gr. to attend on object with. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. — A . ceremonia. decebre) . Fr. Incensum. to blindfold. K^'ivut. Certain. sile. to twinkle darkness. Lat.cern. Lat. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. rubble. Lat. -civer {conciver— Roquef. deceipt. thronged the participle cretus. oil. from censeo. to bury). Celerity. hollow. point. cenio. an eyelash. judge. to rate. see. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Sherwood. OFr. is totally distinct from the foregoing. -cipio. to concern. a tomb. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. in comp. and — — — possessions. Take the nedyll and threde. to -sum. Fr. Prov. the hollow the Lat. conceipt. with the eyes. decide. is the opposite of disora virum. calefacere. Gr. to separate. For sess from assess. Cell. quarters for slaves. the officer appointed to take such returns . Chafe. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. zens according to their property. Fr. assess. heaven. capturn. (and thence also) to hoodwink. To seel or close the eyes. to distinguish. concernor. pick out. or any bird's. — . censura. with transposition hence (of a day). of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. — . Lat. encens. Gr. Fr. census. Lat. a solemnity. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. concerner.unmarried. In Celebrate. Lat. Celebrity. S.' Celebritas. centum. — . single or unwedded life. in accordance with the Fr. and put it through the over eyelydde. festive. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. stones to the production of heat. Lat. a religious observance. a storehouse Chafe. See Cede. from Saa-rw. distinIt. Lat. deceit. ciller. swift. to take. solemn (of per. sure. his office.' Book of St Albans. appertain. sting. a hundred of what- — . Assess. to course of people. cella. syll. caber. cencer. To chafe is for wine. It. Assize.j 138 thill. guish. Lat. to burn incendo. -ceit. Fr.. Lat. rough from the quarry. Gr. keep in It. See Celibacy. Cot. riscaldarsi. {cori)cipere. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. dchauffer. The term cilium. -cess. Censure. to be regarded as one celebro. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. tax. ciglio. value. judge Lat. estimate. to rub for the purpose a hut. to take. sift. Fl. -ceptjun. to chafe. what to set in a chafe. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. oil. Centre. concetto.). provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. to visit in numbers. &c. and met. Cij(fe5j. goad. cretum. a prick. irot\oe. chaufferette. materials It. celeber certus. siller les yeux. in comp. Lat. and so of that other. empty. cerealis. — . chauffer.— Cellar. a registration of one's self. Accelerate. age. KsvTpov. much frequented. Cess. abundance. — — Cenotapli. . and thence to conceal. cigliare. make angry. camentum. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. -ciper.of the r. Century.— Chafing-dish. but was gradually lost in conceit. — . cot. as in some places burnt. Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. contend. as entering largely into the derivative certo. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. ' . the place where the de. Sc. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. renown be embodied with. to glow. of heating. -cern. Coehim. the talk of men. thence belonging to or connected with corn. mortar. candeo. cillier. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. to heat. to celebrate. a hundred centuria. to incense. -cepire. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. to set on fire. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. a solemnity. Censor. to contend. -cebre ifoncebre. Fr. we have a modified form of (of a place). &c. -CEIVE a shaft. -ceive. calefare. -i^oivre. a numerous con. judge. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Census Censor. a valuation of every man's estate. census. -cense. in Marsh. cilibat. also grave opinion. sacred show.

G. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Lat. as a carriage is a moveable seat. dongio. Lat. chagrin. Bouffard. cathedra. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. chaise. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Cot. Fr. much more Genoese sagrind. — — — . chaine. Adelung. ^Altieri. any insect of the beetle kind. chatter. dispute. to buzz. to action arose. much blowing. Chain. a prattling woaction. to claim. Came. kaff. tronfio. that leneth e per I'autra. Lat. to bark. a goba rustling . Fr. chayire. Fin. From the To Chaff. to dispute. refuse. to call. B. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to tattle. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. talkative. bargain. calx. vis. G. Gr. kahista. to gnaw. kiaftr.nium. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. to institute anforensic action. de Brai. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. rustling motion challenge.sure carriage. chaene. Fl. contestation. Chagrin. chawe. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Prov. Fr. Perhaps Pm. to caw chawer. Pers. . clamare. and as this was the beginning of man. Cot. Lat. Piedm. Cheffern. breathe hard. Fr. call in question for an ley). movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Du.. baras of ants. songe. cadena gives chain. from the shark-skin. leviter crepo Then. now a chair. to a seat. chaffare. care. Due. green sagrin. avena vilior. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. to move the jaws. refuse barley . calumnia. swelling with anger. Fr. — — — — — — . sagrindse. Kaiiapa. breathe KaOa^oiiat. with a:n arched roof. to gnaw. cup. and signifies to consume with anger. a double operation * Chafer. Pr. thick and short. chamar. a vault or arched roof. difficulty . Camera. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. chafeter. calonja. cam. vel susurro. fume. a rustling noise. ceafer. puff. fa sagramen de calompnia. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). taubes korn oder hafer. . Fr. puffed or ruffled with ly. . cadera. . P. a jackdaw. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. ing a hard case to their wings. chaps Chamber. calix. — — ' — — — A . a chough. to pant. &c.— — . Fr. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. haggle. snort. grief. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. chaulx. chaire. Pat. KoBiSpa. chafing. preise. a pulpit. calonjar. kever. have a mind to parley. Prov.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. hordeum vel let. From Port. to chatter or talk lightly. 35. sagri. tattle. Hal. kdfelen. In vulgar language. cadena. to calumpnjamen. grief. chalanger. idle words. sborfare. catena. kuhata. rustling corn. in a monstrous fume. to ner It. ceaf. rustle Challenge. tattle cheep. kuhina. ing rapidly repeated cries. Du. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. cauvette. lime. kdfer. as. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Bav. gewolb. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. far lima-lima. to file. To buy and sell. or puff with snorting. in a cana. chicane. from of the G. camera. khah. also to prattle. keuchen. without chap/are makiinde. OFr. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. ckapfare. — . p. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Chayire. Kuttn. matter by combat. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. So from dominio. — — — . to babble. kaff. lime . signal by drum or P. Lat. . a chain. Chair. Lat. keffen. kiamta. Fr. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. crooked. Prov. of. yap.. rally one. place See Cheek. havOFr. kedja. Ayenbite. chambre. From to go to law. to Latin calumniare.' Rayn. 11. Chalice. false accusation. fern-chafer. hiss. kauchen. calice. kahu. often puffing. The jaw chafty. to fret inwardtronfo. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. a pulpit Cot. Fr. great chafe. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. on. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. kuhuja. Probably from According to Diez. care. snuff. hght Chalk. ple^. Lat. jaw. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. In like manto huff. De Ir4. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. quisquilise offence. Halma. muzzle. Wall. cadieira. ON. kahuja. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Fr. from Swiss kafeln. Gr. shaIt. kiqfta. to puff and blow. limare. kuhista. to sit. charge with. E. cathedra.

nels. from Fr. Pm. dricka i kapp. cahir. to fall. i. kempen. or less ignorant. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. therewithal. dial. Fr. To cope or contend with. contention kappi. kippo. kampen. kampa. pinch. ciambellano. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . champ. slope of a bevelled angle. Fr. chamfrain. schmatzen s. kampeln. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. camp. prize-fighter. kiammi. . Champion. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work.' ' Pr. camp. kimppu (Lap. calidameya.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. who stood ad cancellos. to slope out the . Fr. Lat. gekrUmmt. chain. tsammogni. dial. Lat. combat. cample). mesleiare. to be eminent. to tread The sound heavily. Lat. broil. to . bundle. ing. giving rise to the as. dispute Hal. kabe. — Ch-amberlain. . an athlete. cazer. jeu parti. cadere. dial. contest. Meleare. CHANCEL It. certare. kabMe. hot. hero Sw. kablys. zs jeopardy. to Hal.—Charfron E. Dief. chamble. Lat. tsamtsogni. to stick to. to quarrel (comp. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Chamfron. chance. and acted as inofficers of . excellent. compound. kanip. head armour. to wrestle. chdance. to fall). it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. — KiL . It will. a game at football. Sp. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. ON. a scufSe. bickering. received the petitions of the suitors. campear. top of a borehole. cameratus. act of falling. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. the chafldn. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Chancel. and mesUe.Lat. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. a warrior. Get campers a ball To camf . attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. . game campio. from chaud. fight. to happen {ad and cadere. kabinti. chajnbellan . M. to bevel. zampettare. . fray. fight. camp. a horse-race. Sup. Fr. sukibti. jocus partitus. When the to quarrel.140 CHAMBERLAIN . campar. a bundle. campus partitus . caer. difficulty . Magy. E. Champ.edley. move the jaws. to fasten oneself on to another . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. accident. to flute as a column. Fr. to move the jaws kiamt. escazenza. a hook . fighting place. termediaries between them and the judge. a feat. ON. Sp. luctare. which seems another form of the root. kimbu. The E. to groove bevel off a right angle. to fasten oneself to another . calida et sans aguet. — masterly Sp. chaude mesUe. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Fin. a hollow chanfreiner. is explained by serrarsi. Fr. The happening of things Chance. kappd). a jaw kianisa. Chance-n3. to hold . to strive at games . Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. kimpustella. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Prov. Chancery. kiinp. to fasten on. gewolbt. Gall. from cheoir. cancelli. ciamberlano. to cample. Ptg. or player at football. accidere. e. cempa. to slope. kibti. s. as swine.—Tutschek. — Hal. to hollow out. Lith. to talk. surpassing. at the railings. To hollow out in chanPtg. Champaign. dial. pedilusor. champ. chanfreindre. champ. See Camp. campus. champ. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. a court of justice. contend or argue G. kimpUma. Du. hng. Commonly derived from campus. reusement — fight in single combat. kapp. ON. to chew. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. to — — champ. chanfrar. G. champ parti. . Champarty.' melleia. hamper. . boys speak of capping verses. Chancellor. chanfrein. to paw the ground E. to wrestle. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). dial. athlete. E. kempa. The G. Campar. rare. divided game. kampeln. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to excel. —Chamfrain. to debate. as in It. Partnership. . a field of battle. to smack the lips in eating. kriimmen gebogen. . So in e. champion Du. Prov. — ^Tusser. kinipen. The word is preserved in E.' SherI'altro ' ' . camerlengo. keiiipe. to hang. chanfrein. wood. chance. to to chew champ. Carpentier. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Hence (with the nasal) w. kabintis. To Chamfer.

Aasen. to cut off . to break . the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. are kept. Da. kjaakaa. chapeletas de imbornales. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Molbech. leather. Chaps or chops. chapeta. chapelete de una bomba. chancellerie. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. kappen. lips of an animal. to apply one flat thing to another. chap. jaw. Hal. to plate. as It. canalis. Chape. a strip of metal plate. kiceft as well as kjakje. clapet. to cut. kennel. Sc. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. the mouth. extended to other trades. a pipe. And N. — : Lat. a small plate of flat metal. E. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. a small metal plate Port. cambiare. kaupa. exchange. a jaw. not a soul. camjar. to deal. to coat. cantare. Fr. Channel. to chap at a door. It is also used in the sense of the E. cambium. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Chop. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Chip. is used in the same sense . . —Ordericus Vitalis. properly in a hard body. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. chap. . chancery. . from clap. gab. to cut up into small pieces. the loose flesh of the cheeks. a money-changer. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. 140. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. chop. to sing. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. the chaps . also a clap. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. chiappa. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. while the broader vowels a. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. like the knocking of hard things together. cangiare. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. I. — . any hollow for conveying water. flat . hack . throat of an animal. Fr. Chap. Chap. Sp. to strike. changer. chanter. . kiceft.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Commonly derived from capella. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. shift. as skin chapped hands. Chandler. Hence It. 2. to plate. waterconduit. Du. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Sp. Chap. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. chapear. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. . Russ. cheek. as chancery . prune. Hence chantry. ON. chapilla. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. Cheek. jaw. chaps. to swap. and the modern canal. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. to hack. chandelier. the place where candles ler. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. a reed. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. skipta. Hal. —Chantry. from canna. ceaplas. Chapel. to peck.^. cambiar. ^Jam. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. to — cut. to change. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. W. to spht a chip. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. the gutter that runs along a street. chop. Fr. may be compared with ON. debeant conjurare. to creak. ceaflas. Lith. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Man of Law's Tale. as those on a trunk. Walach. the clappers of the scupper holes. Compare chark. To Change. to strike. Lang. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . In like manner Walach. Bret. esclapa. AS. as to chap hands. Fr. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. and also to chap or crack. cobio. from chandler. See Chant. or the cracking of one. exchange schimbatoriu. schimbd. muzzle. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. esclapo. kapoti. to truck. Probably from chap. wood. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. That wide were sentin their spicery. schimbu. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. or the like chapar. A fellow. a chap is a crack or fissure. klepan. Da. See Chop. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. to put on fresh clothes. chapa. to peck. surfaces striking together. Lat. exchange. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. kemma. Prov. to paw like a horse . hard bodies. — — —Marculfus in Due. kvar kjceften. as corn-chandChandry. a dealer in candles then. to strike with a sharp edge.

rightly explained by Tooke from AS. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. a hood. charcoal burners. Yx. corona. tattler. Sp. chat. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. cerran. ciarlatore. to dove . Chare. w. Character. Macduff. In that work the verb is written caire. czirbti. colliers that charred coal. charger. Mundart. Deutsch. gaggle . Fr. charlar. return. babbling. gnash. It. and in It. It. charlatan. to turn Gael. An enchantment. to load . — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Chapman. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. used in the sense of magic Fl. A weed among com AS. canne. Mid. cha. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. charade. beloved. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. from capa. cearcian. w. capitolo. chirriar. from carrus. Lat. Charade. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. to love. kurkelis. as. . surris seu Lat. Ptg. Fr. a cricket karkti (schnarren. a merchant. Lang. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. And damned be he who first cries Hold. keeren. Swiss. to tattle. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. a turn cerran. condo il volgar francese. eyre. — a car. of chapel. charitas. Sp. ject). jabber. Fr. . creak. chatter. a charm. a riddle. kirkti. ceap-man. as a beetle. cedeleac.Lat. that turned decken .whirr. krachzen). a mark made on a thing. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Lat. See Cheap. 2. to charcoal. properly to place — . ghirlanda seor garland. See Charlatan. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. a The OFr. a mark of a mountebank. to prattle. a rhyme. Charcoal was ciarlare. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. decken. . The crash. it is my turn. — — — turned to coal. capella. for the same reason rosario. twitter. * Charcoal. Charlock. bler. creak. carregar. —— . enough. to turn. carricare. chapel. 370. the nature of a thing. called kedlock. a riddle. Du. Justin. Chark. dim. czurliwoti. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. from gadai. kurkti. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. clack. from cape or cope. AS. Sp. a verse. wreath for the head. to . to of the governing body. carus. Prov. to chirp. Chaplet.czirksti. Fr. The G. Lay on. . in turns. be- e. To Char. Bret. chirlar. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. Sup. Charlatan. karout. gadka. carmen. OE. Charge. cher um cher. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. to sing or chirp as birds. to prattle. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Inst. as Pol. es ist mi cheer. charer. from Charade. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Boh. &c. char. charge an enemy is to lay on. a dispute . the turtle pitre. talking. eapitulo. to converse. chara. chirk. hadka. — spell. hiss Lith. . It. a head or division of a book. pohadka. burning without consuming the substance. chapitre. Hence carminare. cabildo. babdistinction. Lith. from capitulum. occasional turn. cluck kirklys. turn about. chapelet. to chirp. to talk . gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. go. capital. prattling quacksalver. wood to coal.. From Norm. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. (eucharistie. It. dear. AS. Chirk. seems to be derived charade. czurksti. Chapter. car. affection. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. called in Sp. tegere.' Boccaccio in Diez. Gr. to croak as a frog . schreien. turn. twist. grave or make incised marks on an ob. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Lat. to chirp as sparrows.charme.). equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. cam. Fr. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. carmo. caricare. siarad (pronounced — sharad). which was incantation. to creak. in To ness Charity. a garland of roses. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. caritas. dear(in both senses). capellare. cluck. chatter. Cot.

chip. ch&tier. make a noise as birds do. chat. To work plate as silversmiths do. An imitative word. talk much . csatora (Magy.— Chatter. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. See Cistern. gazzettare. See Card. used to represent a sharp note. pure. noise. See Catch. The egg is chipped. or a bird out of the egg. as purgare Fr. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. cearig (from cearian. shivers.). It t. noise. Fr. Chasm. as. From carinen was formed It. jackdaw . also to germinate or spring forth. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. chaste. Parallel with E. clean. To Chasten. csacsogni. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. geug. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. the bird is iiown. Chaste. shout OE. Fl. parcus. the handle of a razor . incassare. chisf. — Yorkshire chat. snap. chykkyn (Pr. Chamel. chaste. It. charm. to crack. to make a noise. Lat castigare. to enchase it . carme and Fr. . warble. converse. from purus. kata-kata. limpid. a plate of metal. Chat-wood. clack. To talk. a churchyard or charnel-house. Cot. magpie. root of the Lat. crackle.). — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. also to hatch. G. clap. . In like manner Russ. To Chase. pure. to burst open. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . To Chase. discourse. gazzolare. a yawning. as in the E. csaterdzni. to chatter or prattle . to baptize. — sharp sound of a crack. It. chip. blackthorn-chats. D. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Chat. whence a charm of goldfinches. to care). To chit. a branch and a young female. tenax. from pure. the cry of the bat. as turnip-chaits. carmen is presented in AS. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. a gap. Gr. clean. Kil. or suckers on rough borders. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. clean. from xoAn. So in Gael. —Chastise. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. niggardly. pure. kna. —Bailey. prate. chick. prattle. kastaa. — = Chats. — Hal. a word.house. to chirp as a bird to cheep. g. gazzerare. careful. the young shoots . chikat'. Fr. to crack. schioppare. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. castus. — — . Diez. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. Fl. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. la chasse d'une rose. It. Kil. carnisj bones kept. gazeuiller. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. Fr. to set a jewel. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. the noise of birds. nome and . fragments or leavings of food. knacken. — Fr. warble. castus. It. as from nomen It. speak . Pm. czysty. chit. to cry as a chicken . CHATS fit 143 to name. the calix of a rose. — Palsgrave. karigh. karg. kata. Chart. chit-chat. as we speak of olive branches. tittle-tattle. chatter. occasionally Forby. whistle. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). or equivalent forms. flesh. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. chip. to clap. to wet. or the cry of a bird or the like. scraps of for fuel. gadu-gadu. i.— Chit. in Jam. splinters. to chirp. chary. gaddc. sordidus. to gape. a flock of those birds. chick. kippen. to separate in morsels. letters p. —Jam. charmer. Pol. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. Fr. To chitter or chipper. Du. chair. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. Hal. Magy. cyrm. to which it bears the same relation as chape. Lat. — The .. little sticks cudere. Chary. %aafi. an enchantress. —Charter. chits. germinate . B. Russ. to cut and faggoted. clatter. cassa s. csacsogany. to talk. knatiern. xi'i-'^vui. ch). to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. a shrine for a relic.ppen. ferire. be wide open. or pop. fragments. also a youth. clear. racket . To chip is then to crack. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat.a. gazzogliare. — We ornamental work the to signify E. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. enchasser. Pol. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. a crack or a flaw . s. caro. Cot. eclats. a chatter-box. nommer. gallan or ogan. a twig Suffolk chaits. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. cs E. a branch. OE. V. to chirp. is to represent the chamier. Malay. chit in the latter sense Du. a young man . talk.

Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Cheek. chatel. caupo. kok. kaufen. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. to coup s. to buy. s. G. Fin. Du. Fr. chiere. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. Lat. cita. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Check. Hence to cheat. gagkezen. 'li^'opa jord i jord. . Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. teeth . It. from AS.— Chole.' to exchange to gasp. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. agreeing upon. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. . keck. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. Chattels. us. KaviiXog. lower. with the exception of land. Chew. thers. whence captale.. . Chear. gagkern. exAS. chapman. Faire bonne chire. kakkaset.-^. Ek dry and hard.of the throat in coughing. stuttering. jaw. to make inarticulate sounds in . Cheat. chop. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. giving or taking in exchange. dchec. horse-couper. to . truffa. to negotiate. CHEEK zitella. cheeks. sum in a loan. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. sale.. cera. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. gig. and hence the E. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. visage. kichen. citello. sense of bargaining. choule. . which is used in the to stutter. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. equiva. favour. from Lat. snout. Soc. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. catalliim. to swap goods . sob E. kikottaa. syllables ^ag-. aspect of a man. laughing. to laugh. chavylbone or chawlbone. OFr. ceaflas. kik. to act as a rogue. goods. cattle. It. cattle. are represented piti. stuttering. lead to OE. with Dief. a dealer in horses. 144 the It. Pm. any cheating. to buy. a piece of moveable property.' kezen. tradesman. Cot. cattle. the tongue. entertainment. chaptel. ceap. Fl. which is the word in ceap. Sc. Then. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. while it Bret. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. kauf. welcome heartily. goods. countenance. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. kaupa. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. to deal ON. ceafl. cozener. cara. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions.. entertain kindly. to nauseate (to retch). a willing look and unwilling heart. the face. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to — . Ingulphus. upon a checked cloth. the countenance Fr. Bav. to cluck like a hen. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. a tavern-keeper. NE. a dealer.— Cattle. jaws. ceahhetan.kakot.ing. kak. Fr. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. a canting knave. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. Gr. kakaista. — We ' . as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. mandibula.—Choke. &c. e. chuckle. OFr. farm for farm. chear in the sense of victuals. See Chess. hawkmann. frown. society. — — —Chowl. Modern Slang. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Cam. the Lat. to vomit. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. a cheater. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. kaupon. to coff—Yisi. and. kek. to fetch the breath with difficulty. retching. prattlingchete. capitale. CHATTELS has ciio. Pr. kaupiti. chire. look. Bohem. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. in widely separated languages by the Lat. — To check an account. koopen. . changing.— . The gutGoth. to stutter gigken. a young boy or girl. cachinnari. chatal. Sp. to chop and change.— Chaps. the principal ' colloquial E. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . et juxta catalla sua. force of the word. Hal. in Fr. to clear the throat . to cough and hence either buying or selling. the Confessor. It — Brompton in Due. bon marche. Slav. ku. a repulse.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. See Cheek. giggling. price. Pro v.

jouffle. equal squares of opposite colours. Sp. kastr. jaws. E. to bring to an end. (Kil. chesten. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. cheek. — — . giffle. king). hasten. practice seems to have been communiChevron. chests in OE. geafl. subacidus. F*-. as meat and butter. to boken. Pl. Sc. gous forms are G. make an end. a chicken. E. squeak as a mouse. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. as. chasi. kopen. chiffe. — 10 . to kasa. kdke. nish source. Chef. old bread. AS. chaps. cheeks. throat. Jam. for cheese itself. chevir.koppen. caru. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Cherish. Cher. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Sc. to gape gab. the final guttural is retained in writing.cirieggia. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. carnium. G. to year. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. cese. Fr. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. cista. . rafters in heraldry. Sw. the loose the game of checks. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Lat. gill of fish AS. incaseatus. See Case. geagl. ceocian. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. the hke. Lith. . — — . Prothroat of an animal . jowl. kikna. ceaplas. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. to accomThis they call hdrsk. skratt. treat with affection. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut.' to w. Thus "we are brought din. ON. to gasp. &c. The name of creak as shoes. acquisition. Lat. ceaflas. CHE. w. jaws Sw. cough. G. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. czypti. kjceve. w. then end. cegio. From them the plish. to choke with laughter. gapen. E. suffo. a heap. See Alchemy. condition of being taken. a cricket. gaghel. Hence kikna is identical with OE. rattle in the throat. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. To Cheep. cherir. Lat. like a young chicken. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. the mouth. made rancid koka. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. to belch. ost. kikna of dorum coacervatio.EP CHEVRON 145 on. whence kasa-leipa. Du. accomplishment cayed. . used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. kasiiUPr. cisty G. Tutschek. whence czypulas. schach. Hence chesten-nut. Da. ation. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Fin. schach. Chevisance. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. gabe. Sw. OHG. mouth kek. As the board to gasp i. cams. to hold dear.perly head.D. kok. ichec. achever. AS.D. castaneusj Fr. cerasus. cabiron.G. w. The Sw. subjected to this process with that which the throat . See Chess. frame by which the exertion is made. ceg. the neck. X'C&s. food. AS. things Da. It would Cheese. Chevaux de frise. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Analo. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. . cheek. kistej Lat. Lat. jaw. quoka. caws. chops. chevron. cufd. rennet. chops. takes place in the formation of cheese. gullet. e. clear the throat. kastanie.. mollium congeries. prevail with. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. cerise j G. ca' — . to swallow. An imitative word. cabrio. to heap up such things for the purchoke. E. Chess. a rafter . kjcebe. by laying it in come to an agreement with. dear. cheek. Chemistry. Fr.. cyse. by laying up in a covered heap. Fr. to geahl. Fris. cireggia. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. scacco. Cherry. the palate Chequer. to make a noise different word. throat. kirsche. kaecke. Lith. kesten. rupted into chess. /Ji2^/(W. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. to choke.peep in the same sense. Fr.their struggle for independence. Chekenyd or querkenyd. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. The Lapps prepare much of their compass.). who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. kapen. jaw. gap. Fr. quok. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. to kep. To make a shrill noise Chest. jaw . kdkel. kjakje. dersen . It. ceac. the throat. Pm.Xo belch. In these latter forms we see the transIt. chAtaigne.pose of acidifying them kasadr. to love. kasa. veluti piscium. cheken. caseus. kces. Prov. Sp. Achievement. xaque. Kil. Du. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. — — . the The use of the word kcesir. . which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. N.

greloter is to shiver for cold. cild. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Du. by driblets. kuwe. Brezza. kilderkin. or qf people talking rapidly. Kil. mouth. chimb. — Fin. cheek. chavel. — — Mother Hubbard. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. a small cask OFr. See Chimmer. Fin. Tintillo. then cold. or the broken noise of birds. 146 brial. kindeken. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. a cup. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. to titter is Du. to gasp for breath (Hal. caput. — It. Walach. chin. Fl. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. chef. rafter . strideo. term is ssaru fu. lead through the synonymous E. CHEW . keichen. tintelen van koude. rafter . CHJME the radical form is unusual. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. Pm. Fr. chill. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. to chime. kouwe. beam. a quid of tobacco. then as G. the young of animals in general. capo. cabriones. tiuk. cica cica. De chic en chic. acute. crepo. aner. De finger killet mi for kalte.peep. Pr. E. Bret. chillrar. as. a hen. kauchen. Fin. killen. a chicken. Chime. Pm.. to the brim. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Du. Chigue. kind. pipio. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. Prov. knit the brow cib-led. E. Fl. Halm. a little bit. tremble with cold. grelot). in Walach. tremble. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. knirschen. Chill. caprioru. klagend tonen. to go. alter. a jaw.D. capete. stake. chillness or shivering. to raise the rim. a young bird. knarren. chiler. the same principle I regard On birds. tiukkata. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. . kimia. Lat. capu. kibr. caferu.— Cot. Pl. AS. a head. : — a lump. to Du. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Fr. the head. chavel. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. or as E. pole. chicken. kauwe. Chimb. mountain top .. czypulas. ]). Pr. tyuk. E. To chitter. queror. kidata. while didder is to shiver or citteren. ' . chillar. W. To Chide. pip. a cup cibaw. kime. kauen. and not vice versd. And hence. the cry of young . wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. pipe. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip.^ to resound as a bell. a finch. the Ptg. . the rim or edge of a vase. creak. Sp. Magy. The Pl.).-ill. pululo. to crackle. rafter. jaw. to chew. The loss of the syllable it in Du. horns of the house. a chicken. A To Chew. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. cidan. Chief. choule. pi. For the see word Doit. to contest. the throat. from the first of which is Lith. to smart. gosling. kaau•wen. antler. Chitter. kaw. the jole. Fr. w. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. G. Chaw. . Gattel. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. or chick. chol.' my finger tingles with cold. to scold. while the Magy. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Gael. chiquei. cabar.D. to pettifog. cabar beinne.^ Hal. Payer chiguet A chiguet. quivering sound which passes. chawbone. from the second Lat. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Russ. cap. pipio. sonorous. Fin. chicoter. jaws . zitterti. head. chicaner. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. a cup. machouere. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. It. — Du. twitter. — . kopf Du. signifying properly shivering. has probably the same origin. a chicken. the least imaginable jot. and from the third E. kippa. are formed Du. chieftain. gills of a fish. killen. chew or chaw. chaps. when the vibrations become very rapid. chic. G. ultimate origin of the Mite. kimista^ . jaw. kinderen. captain. tiukka. into a continuous shriU sound. Imitative of a loud clear sound. Swiss kiden..— Gattel. chikat'. s. to contest about trifles. cabarach. branchy. tiukkua. Probably from Fr. deer's horn. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. to use the jaws. horn wood. kieken. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. cebr. k'imm s. Child. 'Among these the G. Da. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. as pointing out the origin of the E. cib. Chick. from little to little. also the horizon. Palsgr. kimme. ach.. to twitter. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. kitista. Now gan some courage unto him to take. kop.— .

also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. to open chirriar. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. kumina. cincel. Fr. crepare. schetteringe.iron. chink. keich husten. the mouth (jaws) . Sp. A . G. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. to gape. sound on beginning to boil. vincially used in the sense of a crack.schricken. i. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. clangor tinniens kummata. kinne. In the same sense. — . verynge or dyderinge. quivering or shakyng for colde.czirbti. clashing of weapons. and chim-mer. 147 kimina. Cot. tsengeni. chick. the cheek (jaw) . simmer. as birds the mouth. Bret.Lat. the chine. genou (pi. eschiner. a thorn. fissure. hollow. sound. chits. esquina. dial. et garrire . Chin-coug^h. ciseau (for cisel). to tattle. to chirp .er. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG.' Phaer's Virg..to divide or Du. also vibrans. chhint. zirken. AS. to sound deep or the Gr. E. a crowing sound in recovering breath. cheek. to murmur. cisello. See Bright. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. — — — — — . sparkle. and light. spina. to creak. Gloss. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. bx-eak the back of schena. — . part lion. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Huloet. zirpen. Pm. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. as the/ is preserved tering. Hindost. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. esquena. cleft. KinneGr. and bodily movement in shimm. Pr. to chirp. To chirp or twitter. resonance . in- — by the syllable clink or chink. have been used to designate the spine. from 10 * ' Chia.Huloet in Hal. bone . to squeak in It. backBut she withal no worde may soune. . ter.to chirp. do. genawi.sharp.. Diez de. komia. klincken. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. komista. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. cinne. twinkling light. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . clipping of coin. eschin^e (de pore). companied. to chine. disCot. To Chitter. Du. sonus the backbone Lat. representing connected together. all these imitative terms being minata. Caminatum. Chisel. fyr. Lat. Chink-cough. tschirpen. Chimera. Primarily a shrill sound. in the same crack. a thorn. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. . . schina. to creak. The desig. hus. applied to tremulous motion. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. gena. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. The change from the sound ter \s. hiss Pm. cinan. the jaw. to chirre. Gascoigne in Todd. from Lat. to sizel. chatter . Chintz.). the whooping cough. hiss chirlar. Bav. tremulous motion. Chip. as a large bell . sounding deep. Sp. kieck hoest. ciarlare. from the geon's lancet. to tremble. It. quavering of the voice. a Kuttn. Chine. then of a fabulous monster part goat. to chink with laugh2. ykvvQ. czirszkti. To chink with laughter. Chat. Fr. in Hal. See Chats. It. It. a chap. To Chimmer. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. tsongeni. . gen. Sw. to chink. It. the cheek. to sound. and from a similar sound to boil gently. chin . Du. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. to simmer. Chitterling. are In like manner E. a surkik hosta. Chymerynge. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. the jaw. tinnire. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. a fire-place. Lith. stridere. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. See Chark. chirp. squittire. Chyrme or chur. E. sonants. caminata. Chit. Ptg. caperd. killed by Bellerophon. shiver and the chyver of Pr. schetteren. — . schrick. pork) . Magy. Sp. a chink or fissure. cisaille. caminsects. j^lf. schiena. plodere. Fr. up and down. kink hoest. G. Chink. to prattle . and the Du. The small entrails of a hog. rustle. Chitter. yivtiov. name Then. cheminde. backe. a hall Mid. spina. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. twitter caminus. It. but or cry as a parrot. as the chink of money. as a bell kommata. skina. or chyFrigutus. Prov. Chimney. Gower in Hal. a szemrcU. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. epine. Fr. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. the chin . . Fr. Kil. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . See Chap. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Sp. to prattle czirpti. flaw Hal. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. kumista. pare also Walach. — . then to any narrow crack or AS. eschine.

In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr.. cut up into — See Chats. Lat. then to shiver. %o\ifa. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. ^euw. chceur. the ridges prove. in the same language. propagated. keuren. schevel-steen. a heap. signify to kiss. Jam. to prove. to try .ceosan. coro. wkusit' prikushat. a chive. ^S. chives. krussyi. g'schochet voll. . crammed Choir. keypa.freze. chattering. As kushnuti. kruszki. caperd. kusid. a scale or fragment P1. a ruff. Boh. to try. Chives. kiezen. a young . Choice is probably direct from Fr. To Choke. Choice.D. to taste . to chap. wrath. choppe. friller. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . Equivalents in the SlaFr. cke. from %u\i). then to try. it is probable that the root kus. •- Russ. Fr. whence choleric. 19. rare. Gr. Yr.— B jag E. Gr. chife. called cMtters in the N. and It. &c. Schmid. choix. to taste. Prov. a small slice or slip of anything . full. . gdnse gekrose. by the vibrations of sound or motion. . kor6n. to strike hands . of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting.' who shall not taste death. select.' At last he dwelt . kiusan. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. cape. bile. taste. chiffe. disposition. a wine taster. to wrinkle. also calPs. prove. as with a blow. gustare. cive. to taste. chorus. skifa. heaped measure. cepa. Walach. okusyti. word is more likely to be from Lat.ffrill. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. kushevati. to stop geschoppt voll. to exchange horses. curly . to ing is doubtless to taste.vonic languages are Pol. full to overflowing.. a knight. — Chock-full. to break off in small shive. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. seallion or unset leek. experience valerie. from kraus. Warwickshire coff. . to shiver.' Verie coinme Cot. the small parts of the roots of plants. kbhren. chawdron. chatter. I. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. Swiss kust. to taste. OHG. kalbs gekrose. i. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. kiesen. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. CHOP kros. to chap at a door . From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. Enn Sigridur sem ' . chibble. G. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. ON. Swab. a blow. &c. haslets. * To Choose. civette. the inwards of an animal. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. try. xiv. to taste. all seem slate . and in kosten. to clap up Hal. . an onion. arkiusan. Goth. Choleric. Gr. whence Lat.yEuffM. by which they are Fr. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. schiefer. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. a ruff or frill. Fr. The Sc. Chivalry. of E. a calf's chaldern of E. try. as green as leeks. to tempt. scheve. kushati. chimp. fresure. a rag. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. x^poc. The I go to prove them.V)^x. are used in the same sense. to experience. to turn. and in this sense the * small pieces. pieces . chippe. ruffs. 2. taste.gust. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. The manners and senti. Serv. approve. Body and Soul. — — — . chaup. To Chop. to ^cleave . fine threads of flowers. to taste. causir. G. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. kaup. shiver. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. a company of singers or dancers. Chives are also a kind of small onion. pluck. Chuck-full. . The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. shoot . from chevalier. See try. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. Chap. kiusan. a calf's pluck or chaldron . developments of the same radical image. —Chorus. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . chap hands. to try. lead us on to Lat. ent quarter. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. coup. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. to Compare also Pol. to hack. Cavalry. G. Luc. and N. kausjan. kustigen. . chock full. a fragment. specially with an application to theatrical performances. anger. koren. Fr. ments of the knightly class. The . to palpitate . or original meaning is preserved in G. to choose. ON. kieser. to try. a twittering. wein didder for cold. schoch. gusten. — Cholera. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. gekrose. of an angry — — — ' ' — . — See Cheek. a goose's giblets. and Vf.

\^s. cambiare. Du.). I bring you the Cloughs. kaej Lith.• — . a lump or piece chump. high clog. If I discover. . G. Sp. chapineria. capito. kobe. xop5>}. Picard. . applied to an owl in that language. cavena. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. p. that will thank chiaus — you richly. whence apparently the Sup. to clack. dealing. to turn over. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. Chopino. a trafficker in souls. ' ' What's that? Dap. because she would not endure this husband chopping. kubb. quappe. kowej Sax. 4.' They are forebuyers of quheit. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Jam. cheap. AS. E.— Chevin. yiSA. or miller's kaycke . chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. plump. gull. To Chop logick. In the Alchemist. — Dief.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. the teeth to chatter . to overturn. cob. monedula. From the Turkish Chiaus. Fr. as Du. bearand aits. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Fr.). to strike in the hand. caqueter. cresmeau. chuet. clogs. Ant. chronicles.— Landnamabok. from kloppen. Gr. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. a thick piece. ON. Wall. capitone. forms are Chrism. dial. chouette. — — — . a The What dhy ^. fat. noble Doctor. gobio capitatus. Gr. whence — E.. to cant. the same word with the It. soul-couper. Kil. to knock. equivalent to the E. chack. Chub. connected with G. The Turk was here As one should say. gull. chop. one who buys and sells horses or cows. thumb Fl. OE. chrysalis (Plin. chapin. cauvette j Fr. cauc. a stump. To Chouse. as in Fr. koppe. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. time ra . consecrated oil to be used in baptism . E. chub. See Change. Lat. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. a messenger or envoy. &c. chouquette.X. kauwe. XpvaaXic. kaufen. kubbr. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Come. in i6io. xpi'^lia. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird.povucd. by the Robert Shirley. Borgoens happen. prattle . In Sc. kaulhaupt (club-head. Confounded with the bullhead. chapma?i. Gr. gold.. a bullhead. thick-set. who took in the Turk- clack. to speak thieves' slang. which was written 27. See Chaff. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. P. civetta. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. short piece kubbug. for to defraud. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. caphatenus. Chough. ley in Giiford. in Chaucer. cheviniau.(. — Quabbe. merchant. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. chevane. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. chrisme. Chronicle. claquer. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Anachronism. Peace. Alchemist. Fr. Sw. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face.—Chuokstone. syllables chat. klompe. Cot. we find the following passage Dap. sent before him a Chiaus. capitanus. Chord. xftovoq. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. of which such strings are made. ceo. chatter . cow-couper. Fr. Fr. To coup. Chuck. chevane. Chrysalis. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. to chatter. dial. clat. an offence against the fitness of times. e. That Face. — . e. klopper. a small fish with a large head. capita. kolbe (club). I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Gr. whence the Fr. the intestine of an animal. chroniques. Nominale in Nat. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. — Chrisom. traffic. A fish with a thick snout and head. kaw. chevin.sohola. E. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. slipper . i.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Marin. A jackdaw. and we actually find champman for chapman.' Jam. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. choucas. 49. whence e. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. overset. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. —Shakespeare. What do you think of me. Madam. peace. kowe. cangiare. Du. E. -chron-. the string of a musical instrument originally. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. caker. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak.

ladre from Lazare. residue of burnt coals. to gird. ON. as water running over rocks or stones. a douse on the tores. chops. comp. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. a rustic . — of the two words. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). gffe. sintel. pp. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. e. Hence -cid-. kernjen. incido. i. a husband. -cise. domhnach. have given rise. casum (in comp. thence a belt.for the residue of stone coal. Gothic nations. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. in the face. in circumcision. whence ON. chack-stone. e. 24. a man. ccedo. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. from Lat. AS. ON. but by way of explan. Du. sindel is although only this canon directly dis.— . Probably from It. to throw out sparks. — — A — ' ' — . a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. swollen or puffed up Cot. a lump. however. kaerle. sindel. in Sc. spuma metalli. the snout of an animal. countryman. See Cheek. . it is carrying scruples to In Germany . has been impugned which it has really no connection. ceorl. Fr. Diss. lamak. -cide-. . as a board. Cieling. then the on oh StX iv roXt. we have to chack. an old man. In Sc. cheek. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. scoria. sindr.. to him a sudden blow. G. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Church. Ka-^aiva. fat-cheeked. kern. blow on the I io6 in Mur. ceffo. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. kjami. as in E. Lat. whence church. Lat.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Cider. — . to separate the kernel of the milk.' And cold. OFr. -cisuiri). . kirna. Sc. ON. a fellow. flower. to determine incision. Cleland in Jam. ashes. to churn. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . corresponding term should have made its way among to G. sinter. Ir. to fall at or on. -cido. Du. Fris.V//a'6'?. giffle. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. The origin ation. a cutting an old chuff. Gr. to cut decide. chack or stane-chacker. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Lat.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. sive piratiam facere sciant. calx. to turn from blossom to fruit. geaflas. &c. to fall upon decide. &c. cheeks Cincture.— Chu%. that the word is an adoption of Fr. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. cinders used disjunctively. a miser. from Lat.^. a man. cinctura {cingo. See Cheek. -cis-. to cause the milk to grain. a girding on. accido. a man. KaxXij?. Fr. sindra. chofu. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. kakka. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). The derivation from Kvpiasov. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. to To Chuckle. karl. KvptaKolg. surly. AS. i.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. dust. Aasen. kerl. to sparkle.D. chife. . tie about). chofe (Grandgagnage). dial. with It the Lord's house. to form grains of butter. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. * Cinder. or. ceffore. to jaw chack or snap. klakka. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Lat. a pebble. as Fr.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. a resounding object. Jennings. Chuff. marrow. ceaflas. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. or choice part of a thing . Sicerawry face ceffata. chakil. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. sicera. ChurL husbandman. calculus. male person. jaws. to strike clatter. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. pith. It is certain. to make a rippling noise.' he adds. Chunk. whence deciduous (of trees). Cob. Sw. as Epkema explains it. cado. to make a aiKipa. As AS. Da. Churn. cinctus. chuffy. to fall. Du. To chuck in the fall from. G. x^^i?. Gr. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. joufflu. C^z^j^ churHsh. tindra. set kerti. cinis. the kernel. -eris. . ciuffo. The spelling of chider has Chump. ceaplas. . to Newsp. cut off. joffu. kiorne. cendre. See Ceiling. a pebble . chaps.rendered by Kil.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. so as to make the happen . log of wood. a cutting round. Wall. cidre. Wall. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter.

Lat. a'upiav. klacken. and E. empty Golius. a pop-gun. Lat. a cleansing place. globus. or split with noise. claquet de moulin.' sione. wasserkasten (water chest). accordingly find the roots dab. the tongue. In Fr. Lat. kluV. Fr. -cite. circa. . lump. to clack. a split. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock.to suck. To Claim. kringr. Clump. glambar. a block. civitas. . dim. castus). clamp. . * Cistern. . —Circuit. bunch. circum. Citadel. chupon. rattle . clog. a clod Russ. lump. —Civil. to chatter . klump. klepati. hringr. Chaste. ON. &c. about. biw. suck). as in Sp. twig. W. in the frequentative form. cion. to summon or call on. Lat. lump. Lat. klateren. area. Dan. compared with It. Lap. cisterna. slam. sindri. ter. Cot. Clam. a ball. KipKog. clambar. a place See place hiddern. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. gutter. circum. rattle. to call. to gnash the teeth. of citta. clapping of klacke. klompe. prattle. To Clack. a judgment cern. klak. We . a Lat. citrus. a hiding-place. cittadella. circ2tlus. is traced by Gr. crack. a block. chupon. Comp. with an initial s instead of c. bunch . — (Dozy) ing blow. E. klamp. to set in motion by means of the voice. . cieo. creak les dents. Citron. scion or sucker. a Pol. klimp. civilis. to bawl. Mack. noise. The Gr. a lemon tree. a clod. crack. Dan. ON. to chatter. excite. to knock. or quill to draw waier through Fl. circle. lucerna. radical identity of the Fr. klater-busse. clap. klubb. citujn. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. claquer. a citizen . a mass. the place of . klopati. around. cluster. Recite. and Sp. civis. to chatter. Gael. cito. uproar. outcry. cry. klqb. cion. from chupar. as caverna from cavus. a cistern. CION See Tinder. Cite. a city. as. to call. cista. clack. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. glamm. clapper. klap. sound. a boss . vociferation. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. belonging to cities or social life . See Crankle. a knob. and clash. sound- — hands figures. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. a. to clatter. See -cid-. to clap at a theatre. dob. trunk. ern. mass . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. sound of blow. clack-dish. cisterna. crack. Hence Incite. Sw. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. ball kloben. lump. a shoot. a circle. a whip. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. clack-box. From Arab. to toll . may cite w. city. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. smack. Scion. sifr. Circum-. to call by name. a loud uksa slamketi. a whirlwind. klambr. claim. See Circle. clasp. . lump . Lat. kringla. a for water. cit^. E. sprig. clat. a rattle Fr. Du. glam. clamer. to mention. . chatter . cry out . the door was slammed J slamem. a rattle . ring. . babble . around. Lat. Fr. cittade. Clamp. clobyn. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Hal. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. Du. klumbr. to strike. The syllables clap. -cis-. domern. to cluck. noise — — a cistern. to appeal. to cry out. whence cistiti. G. klappen. lump of wood or with the nasal. KpiKoe. clamare. It. klappe. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Bohem. fall. tinnitus . a city. a circle. Du. We . Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. a kind of pipe. a reservoir Probably from Lat. for Cion. a ball. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. clack. prattle. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . scion. a young and tender plant. Gr. klemte. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. clap. City. Fr. to be empty. * Ciplier. to make to go. a lump Du. chijfre. So a light. cittd. clamp.. ON. a circle. Excite. a lump Lat. clatCot. a kind of rattle. Sp. chest. Gael. klabb. Circle. sphere gleba. or clap-dish. and. clangor avium . stimulate. to go. clamras.— . forms — — — parent plant. klammer. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). log. G. clump. claquer crash. claquer. cifra. Alt. 'mass. It. Arab. . ciste. sajira. a ring. . lash . Fr. clot ON. parallel root is slam. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. klekotati. klacke-busse. sip. . to cleanse. Sw. The notion of a lump. ruin. It. Gr.

tingle. tone. as the Lat. See Clam. kleppen. The Fr. Lang. celo produces Fin. sticky Hal. to climb. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. G. To clap in E. hook. a sound made by a lighter clink. klobber-saen. seize. to climb. dam. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. in a hidSen place. . to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . to climb . to cling. viscous.er. clangor. E. a sound made by a still . a trap. ancestor. and hence to pinch . descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. accent. to clutch or cling oneself up. sound object . klang. yf. kleppe. In like manner Du. to clamp. klepati. Clamp. a claw . klem-vogel. klubber. Lat. closely analogous to that of the fast. pinching. to stick or glue. to clap. To sticky. clap. compression. also to clog up. klette. klynge. grasp. a hawk. Clamour. clang. clamber. clandestine. diver. compress. A i. G. . Clank. E. crowd . conceal. children. hands or claws to grasp. to glue. Clink. to knock. to glue. Halma. to hold to pinch.p correspond- ' without order. pressed close or hard together. sound. ring as metal. Du. to seize. to climb. a rattle . take hold of. to patronus. — . a place underground where rabbits breed. — Climb. offspring. to stick conceal. tattle. of money Gael. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. to daub pinch. E. dientes. solid. tremble . clapas. sound. dem. knocking. klepel. klynge sig op. clav\f. G. to cleave or stick. is used in the sense of secretly. Clap. G. klatten. clap. clajnmy. to claw oneself up. viscosity . . clann. dam immediate modifications — . clasp. where- A — unto they retire themselves. klamme. and hence moist. gliong. klappre. coagulated cream. dia. G. dren. a burr. to hook things together. klamm. dank. cluster. klappen.1. to clap on. strain . klopfen. Du. to climb. Bohem. children. bond. G. dam. privately. klettern. klemmen. . Gael. cream Manx doan. to climb. Du. rumour. to beat. Salainen. Hence the Fr. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. from the w. contraction. Bav. a stick. Sw. B. — — . The equivalent of Lat. — Lat. run to lumps Clandestine. a heap of stones or other things piled up . sound of the trumpet . To Clamber. or klamp-vogel. to do anything with a clap. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. scendants. clibby. grimper. as the clapping of hands. and that from celo. klippe. klammern. Mampe. to hold fast with the . cramp. klemmen. kloben. hold.' klibba. chatter. These words To are closely connected with damp. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. OE. narrow. kluppel. resonance klingen. tenacious. for tame conies. tinkle. klampen. anything hidden. strait. dapi^. salafa. klibber. Swiss kletten. dial. prison. Dan. klepanie. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. c). buckle klamp. klammer. dap up. klemmen. dang. to Sw^. glambar. clapper of conies. dambar. klappen. uproar. from birdlime. a bird of prey. Fr. to starve. AS. — with hunger. Clan. beat. kleppe. damor. — Cot. cling. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. club . bandage. clink. with cramp-irons. nature . Dan. sound . chatter. of which the locative case. to dame. cramp-iron. gripe. descendants . to hide.. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. beating. dial. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. dandestinus. Dan. originally a heap of large stones. klank. tight. salaan. cleave.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. daver. is a nasalised form of gripper. Swiss kldbem. The root which gives rise to klibb. clear sound. &c. These are imitations of a loud. a stone See Claim. holdfast. G. a heap of stones. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. klebern. a noose . dee. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. ney. klamre. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. but perhaps not directly from it. stick. adopted Lat. of the children. whence sala. a craCmp. to pinch. Clapper. E. dapier. dink Du. who occuG.' to take coals to Newcastle. Dan. . substances of a stickydam. klavre. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . dapier. a claw. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. to knock. the in many languages. rattle. to. Russ. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klimmeii. dam. damras. a whip. Clang. The E. chief. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klam7n. massy. B. clammy brace. a loud tingle. apprehend . kleben. gum. klam. to Hal. brawl. . dienklebber. to gingle. Du. a sound.

— Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. to draw it up into a bunch. clavis. Nightingale. thwack . Commonly made. chiizjj-o. Claw. compression. KXeiSi. a lump. forms are the Du. classis. hawk. diver. a lash. globus. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. blab. as Mod. to fasten together . klucz.— CLARET clamp. It. under three modifications dava. and clavis. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Clavicle. Identical with ON. —Kil. clarinado. it is called clamming. a key. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. clair. claret win e. a ball. the collar-bone. a key origmally a crooked nail. as G. is used in Sc. a claw. klaskad. Cot. klouwe. Thus from Lat. a. klouwe (Kil. to fasten. fracas. ivy. Originally clasis. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. cloi. the primary origin clapa. a lump . to clap . rubellum. Eya-klasi. Clew. &c.ck a whip. hook. klampvoghel. The b readily passes into gleba. klatschen. Russ. a distribution of things into groups. &c. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Eau clairette. clatter. Gr. Claret. Fr.. from the resemblance to a key. But clasp or elapse. a bunch. fibula. to snap. to knock. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. klamme.It. klatscha pop-gun. klauwe. clausum. puUs. Owl and that by which cleave to. and old red rose-water. noise. uproar. clavus. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. mass. mass. a club or massy stick. a buckle. subrubidum. Kil. a kind of small.Z. G. Clause. clopa. we pass to the E. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. glcis. Thus from clamp. chiarino. So Pol. from clinging to the tree which supports it. . klatschen. a nail. klaequivalent to clack or clap. ictus resonans. a complete sentence. Prov. kluczka. — tells us. pet. and through v into a. to patter. Lat. clarin. klatsche. kletse. schnalle. a sphere . Class. kiosk bicza. to cleave. vin claret. which signifies a ball in E. klos. kleuen. a water made of aquavitse. bawling. pellet . but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Du. stop of an organ. Du. Lat. Nawith stavis. Lat. applied in their harness. a heap. — Clarion. to rattle . cluster. row aii/iaTos. or as G. from its use in fastening things together. with a reddish tint. dap. biichse.to cra. Wyutoun in Jam. clump. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. chiarello. sphaera. Sw. Dan. globus.w or u on the other. in the sense of a mass or lump.). 269. as it is written by Chaucer. kleeven. an ending. In the same way is formed the OE. to ring in such a manner for the dead. rion. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. assembly. chiaro clear. and shrill-sounding trumpet. clas. seizes) . an on the one hand.\x\xvn. sauna de classes. i. skeria-klasi. klijven. Clasp. a bird with powerful talons. to clash as arms. same class with w. clairon of a trumpet— It. straight-mouthed. klot. a. klauw. klase. klampe. chasguear. somewhat clear. a key KKtitid. ghespe. Fr. Du. to do anything with a . With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. whence kleuer. vin clairet. vinum helvolum. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. E. Du. e. cinnamon. to shut. Lat. clausula. . biichse. klaterbusse. thence a definite head of an edict or law. clairon. contraction. also a knell for the dead. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. locket of a door.oi. chatter. — Clarinet. — Kiittner. a little hook . he of white and red grapes mingled together. flap. to animals Sp. In E. climp. clamp. nawith stanis. teren. buckle. a clasp. to end. Clatter. Sp. Pol. sound of the foregoing description. Rayn. It. Klatsch- a pop-gun . as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. From claudo. nail. a claFr. klaeret. in the sense of a claw. From clairet.Gr. Analogous Jam. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. insularum nexus . Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. Serv . of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. ansa. gaspe. clew or fasten upon a thing. The collar-bone. To clew. Fr. from scknallen. clew. is preserved in Lang. Clash. crying. klc^i. fragor . Lang. Du. claw (what fastens together. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. The form clew. Du. K\a. the cracking of a whip. a clod. waU. syrtium junctura.

Fr. AS. — : A rivet. clibby. dench. klceg. Probably a modification of the word doitt. glatt. doff. and Celtic glan. klyft. Clear. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. date is AS. pellet. clean. klove The Dan. a claw or talon. opposite senses. . holding together. to clink or sound. to stick to. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Mar. Thus from G. dedgy. Da. klinke. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. ON. conserere antklankjan. to shine. a in that of sphtting. merciful. klag. . celebrated . to clinch GB. calm. geklonken. ON. klincke. rivet. glance . glor-mhor. kleevig. i. vice. dags. clink. the two parts of Du. (Cot. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . From clap. G. cleave. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. glan. glbram. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. klouen. bend in a stream. Sw. Cleat. W. give a shrill sound Jr. daggy. the latch of a door. klirre. shine. that was Torriano. door-latch. to Brilliant. Bav. from nitere. a mass. chaps in the skin. Sw. gingle. This is probably one of the clean. is fast and sure. Clean. klinken. viz. klink.Q. a plate. glent. 2. G. and Dan. to clinch a nail. A — A Clement. kla:g. danche. cliquet. clay . a fissure or division See Cleave. neat. . glan. to be composed. Clemency. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. G. clear. The word is . loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. Du. Lat. explained from the klinken. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . sticky. that was a striking proof. glorious. kloben. a cleft. deot. loam. bogs cous. to shine . kldnkelein. Du. Clinch. Wilbraham. klank. Du. to 2. split. dial. kleg. clean. pure. an object is simply cleft. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. The proper meaning of the word is shining. polished. a latch.' was nailed to a rock. a cleft. E. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. clear. sleek. either by the coherence To Clepe. mud. klinka. Die zaak is zS. voice. Da. a noise. Lat. as the Du. a bunch of When flax). See Clam. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. dinquet kleeven.— Clag. a fissure. to chink. to fasten. klinke.— Claggy. kloben. B. river. radiant. The Dan. klirren. E. glindse. to separate into parts. This word is used in two business is finished off. bright. glitta. klutsch. G. a cleft or fissure. to clench. Du. the To Cleave. a flash. kleverig. vissticky . gaklankjan. diquetcr. the original . to glitter. or from being divided into two parts. clean. 154 CLAY dutch. ON. a one end. as explained under G. klinken. lump. together . nitidus. or of a tree. Du. rive. rift. clear. as ON. pure . from diquer. Kil. klinke. polish . cloven wood. Sc. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. a lump. seem formed dial. To call. glint. klouen. sticky . The word may be — .). gentle. kluit. as Lat. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. famous. klafwa. words applicable sight. dut. as Fr.— . clash. a clincher. provinciaUy termed dout. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klov. From dob. glan. Clay. the fork of the body. klijveii. smooth. . glandse. kleben. clout. Da. See Clog. G. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. dag. Dan. Halma. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. doggy. E. To Clench. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. kloben. kluyte. to sound or make a noise . a — — . it cleave together. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. pretty. klieuen. to fasten. glitnir. Cleft. . sticky earth. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. in two ways. klinken. to dag ox dog. a key. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. a lump. Sc. kloue. to tear or cleave asunder. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Omklinken. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . kluft. klieben. Gael. a noose. Sw. to stick or adhere . dams. Du. speech . klor. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. and. to fasten E. clemens. of iron worn on shoes by country people. kleg. from the clinking of the latch. . kluftholz. Axletree clouts. found in other cases. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. and E. neat. hook. tongs. a mass. pure. to cleave. splendid pohshed. viz. clean. gleit. glbr.

from clifian. a sphere. clyf. exactly Gr. whence Fr. from Gael glac. deik. . ized . neither as having lordship in the. cleugh. Clever. Clergy. a hold. Lat. Climax. klinket. dook (identical with E. it must be observed. in precisely the same sense as the E. a precipice. a cliff. clerus. diquette. Cot. rupes . klever. clima. We movement catch. cleft. to cry. and hence deik. 3. a clerk .. stein- kluppen. See Clamber. clever. babble. as Sc. Commonly derived from deliver. or Sc. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . cave . In I Peter v. a tumbril. clif. dexterous. prattle. rapidus from rapio. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. a ladder. G. clap. scar. click. region not observe it. that is a clever feUow. crack. a lump. Det er en Mover kerl. The origin is the Gr. klikker. name. a hump. Click. to tattle. . dough. on. Rouchi cliche. dek. CLERK sound of a blow. expeditious. Du. deuch. Lat. and (with the nasal) — clincher. had a form. Du. Clam. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. Happen. to cleave. abrupta rupes . diofian. a latch . dial. click. ready of speech. Claw. kleppe. Du. cleopian. corresponding to the Sc. to confess . globus. clif- stanas. cleft in a rock. climate. would have been derida. syn. kleppen. corresponding to Fr. cliff. . a mill-clack . AS. as a click with the tongue. cautes. cleft of a hill. Sc. &c. Cliff. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. chatter. derecia. Klover i munden. to tattle. to sound an alarm to clap. kliket. klok klep- crepitare. has also deik. a clew. dial. pulsare. CLINCH De . a latch. is NE. the clergy clericus. — — A . a trigger. a hook. klika. frap- per rudement une personne. klaiv. lively. catching.— Clicket. sonare. dob. icXi/ja?. to seize. which in Mid. klev. an inclination. e. Sw. ' — — by a movement of such a nature.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. quick in motion. to prate. kloof. hamraklif. to catch. a baU of yarn. a figure mentioned. on. a claw or clutch. rock. G. say. pen. a lazar's clicket or clapper. precipice. Client. chatter. clever. to wink. dial. klouwe. Sp. cart that tilts over. Hence Lat. or an object character- Clerical. gleg. to bend. Somner. derigon. KkrifoQ. clypian. derigo. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. diver. slope . chatter. to stir. Clerk. Climb. click. clatter. one admitted to the tonsure. seize (Hal. OE. Lat. verge). cligner. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). IS5 Du. Now the OE. the dick of a latch or a trigger. Fr. ravine. d See Clan. —Vocab. de ripa. to snatch. declivity. Chaucer. But the Dan. a cleft in a rock . which is used in Scotch and N. nimble. a child's or clack . dink. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. dever. The Sc. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. call. ginally from dob (extant in W.dergie! Wiclif in R. rock. rugged ascent. in the sense of active. See AS. in rhetoric. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . clep. cliof. Da. See Clench. klikklakken. a latch. chat. click it. littus. agile. deudi. to clack. to move. dutch). kliv. Norm.) Brai. crepare. klippe. what so men clappe or crie. -Toe (from KXivm. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. clack. temperature. klif. to teU tales. klippe. has kl'dver. the clergy. dichet. klinge. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. deik. dergi. Clew. Dunbar in Jam. Boh. the knocker of a door. glomus. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. with hamarskard. 3. Bav. dicher. as Lat. snatch. cliquet. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. and hence climate. Gr. klinke. cleke. deuck. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. crackle. Jam. claw or talon to dek or deik. precipices. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a lot. light-fingered. klaffen. cliquer. Climate. duke. speak. one of the clergy. sink. a ball of twine. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. derjon. to talk as a parrot. to rattle.). duik. score7i clif. . a clicket or clapper. as from derido. skard.— Clue. above the pole. call. highest is attained. — have the notion of a short quick in E. to catch.' ii. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. /cXi'fia. quick of perception.Lat.

to shrink up. kolki-laud. Da. fetter. klaka. acclivis. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. clato make a noise. pinch. knippen. &c. sloping forwards. a rising ground. related to clock. -atum. clino. nip. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. especially of something soft or clammy. kleppe. a lump. g. klok. shears. . Walach. Sw. hlinian. to resound. dag. schnippen. quincailler. kukla. brett-glocke. outcry. G. dial. Gael. Kil. a woman's mantle . klynge. to sound sharp. to strike. hooded . iissura. as thick or curdled liquids. a snare. glocke. Sussex peasant AS. disposed to a thing. To cut with shears. to wither. glungelin. difficulty. to cluster. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. clutch. Sw. klinka. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. to beat. Cliofue. to snap tongs. speaks of a ' clung bat. klocke. ' . clock is a variation of clack. knippe. * Clod. klungelin. Swiss klungele. klippen. toga. — clot. Fr. a bell. clique. 156 -cline.' From Pl. Lat. dial. bow. E. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. to form one mass with. to . kliks.— Clot.. a tinman. straits. to pinch. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . met.D. Serv. Een kliks bolter.. kolbe to E. incline. a clock. klincke. See Cowl. recline. to pinch klupe. klunge. sticky. also to form a compact mass. cloche. kluben. knippchen. to beat on the board. at first probably on a wooden board. klippur. a lump G. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. ring clag. 2. a separate portion. Cloak. I. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. claw. Swiss klokken. to cling to a thing. Bohem. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. klak. to crowd together klynge sig ved. clips. gUong. verklungeln. to make a loud noise. Decline.' for a dry stick. clangere. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. sloping downwards . to AS. Lat. Clock..D. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. to slope or bend . clog. G. -cliv-. klocka. chcng. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. klo^gen. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. Fr. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. — a mantle. hluccti. slant. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. kldpp. to crowd or squeeze chingy. Du. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. pallium. Sw. declivis. Du. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. klinken. S w. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to lean. -CLINE make pinch. hill . To stick to. Gr. . Bohem. Flem. toga muliebris. 'Till famine cling thee. to ring. . klipa. hluk. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. cloak. from klepati.ginglej Fr. rima. Sw. club). kXiVu. klippa. as to snip in the same sense from snap. to clink auf. to wither. klupen. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Clink. to lean backwards. clingan.— KSS. Bi klik uti klak. to knock. sloping upwards procUvis. Du. . kluppe. to clip. also to wink . a faction. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. to snap or fillip schnippen. dial. or bagging clothes. klik. G. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Du. to shrink up. four of the bell. See Clang. Ir. Sw. klingen. clivus.'— Shaks. clinke. N orman clincailler. tuft. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. klocke. to snip. as we now say three or four o'clock. a clog or fetter for a beast . Hal.. The notion of a loose moveable substance. globulus' (Gl. klungeln. dial. clinker. Ang. as G. noise. by bits. klepalo. . kol- The word . pinch. ON.und zuk-lippen. klunker. in Schmeller) klunk. to bend downwards . a beU. a bell. a cluster. To Clip. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. to snap kneipen. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. a hood. a lump of butter. knot klynge. Esthon. . gang. hlinen. w. and 'E. . whence E. klippe. compress . difficulty . like cling. ON. kima. Pl. to clunge. a ball of thread . G. ON. and a similar syllable without the /. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klippa. and so' to contract. incline. E. ten. to clap or clack. . The E. cochl. G. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. G. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. To Cling. OHG. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. . klicke. parva ruptura.

but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. log. watery. kladde. To hinder by the adhesion Sc.— Clothe.D. Pl. and thus seem endowed . boil. a trowelful of mortar. klotz. Swiss schlott. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. paddle or dabble in the wet. slob. a block. of something clammy or heavy. is connected with pludder. compared with clump. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. is a blot on one's character. a bal!. 3. hanging loose and full. MHG. a skittle-ground klos- sen. lump of mud on the clothes . fors. kloden. To Clog. lopin. dirt. doitre. Bav. IV. thick sour milk. to bubble. dunch). -close. bowl . curdled. Clog. to wabble. Dan. I clodde. to shut in. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. His heart was franlc without a flaw. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. congeler. cloth. E. chiuso. Idppern. shaky. . a lump from Du. to sup up liquid food. with Fr. . ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. . to slop or spill liquids. tJokok. schlottern. enOE. claque. fat. to bedaub. bloutre. klos. kl'dnken. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. schlattern. a portion of something soft and adhesive. the radical sylla. to bodies. to spill liquids. . lobbig. klakken. Gr. to flap as loose clothes. unctuous. from Du. clausum. lump of something soft . schlott. bemired. . • lump. to rattle. a spot. Fr. to dabble. to dash like heavy rain. loblolly. Fr.dial. terminate. schlotter. laggery. AS. analogous plan to clod or club. klos-bane. to a. lob. Lat. slop. to play at bowls. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. clogs for the feet klakk. ! . splash. bespotted with mire E. paludosus. without. wabbling from Du.. claggy. to paddle in the wet. a monastery. . geschlotter (as E. dag. rattle. Lat. slab. tramp in wet or mire. to rattle. Du. g. figer. clot. like G. foreclose. clogs. in forms like Du. schlettern. A . In the same way Dan. Mat. shut up.1a. dirt. klateren. klottern. -cludo. Fr. thick spoon . an imputation. dial. clausum. The origin of clod and clot is to . klakk. I clodde. -clus-. to lobberig. I doda clod. we pass to E. to shut. klag. mud. finish . Cloister. pattens G. be found rattle. in accordance with Pl. clotted locks Dan. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. a field inclosed clos. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. loppe. and Du. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. forbidden by 17 Ed. be&c. zoccoli. Yule-clog. closed. Hence inclose. . clammy loam. mud klcEg. to claggock. laggyn. gelatinous. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). a blot. tuditare. of a body of any kind. then liquid or loose substance. slabberen. from claudo. paddle. Pr.rge lump. He was a man without a dag. beklakken. whence klack. to rattle or shake to and fro.D. lunch. daustrum. E. The game called ninepins. Pm. Du. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. truncus. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. daggerey. kloster. a clod Swab. or loppern. . da- . plod. spatter. spot of dirt.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. to dabble. to shut up. slops). loose mud. meat from Du. clorre. from Fr. kloteren. m&se noch stain. a clod. slops slodderen. klod. slobberen. to cling locks. a dirty wench claggy. klunkern. and E. zocco. Fr. kloten. G. or Sc. a log. loose.). clatk. slobbe. and Gael. slobber. Close. klokotat. -clusum. G. a Christmas log. we pass to Schlatter. . motzen. Sc. kloteispaen. aspersion. klotzschuh. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. lump of butter. lobberen. clotted milk klotte. Klak also. . separate part. kleck or lack.. Pr.' end. in accordance with It. je amoncele.'^ Palsgr. dangle. shut up. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. to shut. . wide bagging clothes. or E. klot. Closhe. clos. dab. kleck. clos. loppered (of milk). lobberen. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. close. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. a babbler. lumps of butter. claudo. . A — — A Thus from Bav. . neither spot nor hang loose. or drablyn with separate existence. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. mire. miry laggerit. to close against one. loose trowsers. lag. in comp. clog or overshoe. . Russ. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. . TZoxapov. inclose. It. blot. klac. a log. motte. lopperig. Klottermelck. to flounder in the wet. chiudere. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. a clog. pludre. a blot.

klubb. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. a log. a sticky. clobyn. G. klotzig. matte. mass. sheltered . klove. clotted milk or cream. lump. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). a cover or coverture . lie clyd. Pl. . and tapp. G. clothe. esdaboter (Roquef. block. zolla. botsen. clods.). warm place . clunch. to splash. Rouchi dapoter. ON. ser. Fr. Move. a lump. I. blockish. the air. dabosser. warm clothes {dillad. nelke (dim. mary sense is a blow. of nagel. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. G. E. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. sticky. Du. make warm. a knot of people. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. a clove of garlick. de Champ. from W. cobble. a ball. klobbersaen. mud (Pat. a . caillebottes. to tramp in the kluyve. a breach. indispalte knoblauch. Cloud. E. a blabber. aglio. CLOUD an awkward clod . klonte. Clump. — — — .' Sanders. clou de girofle. coarse. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. So Fr. eine to slop. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. dirt. Clumpered in balls of clouds. kUid. klever. a bunch. Imitative of the note of a society. davus. A division of a root of garlick. a thick mass. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. kl'dnne. cludaim. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. Du. lumps of curd. a fissure. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. warm. kluV. boucher. To Cluck. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. dial. clot.). when something has got into the touch-hole. a clod or clot. Du. klunds. from kloven. clot. a bunch. ON. Du. . a clown. a log. chiodo di girofano. dabaire. klubba. of thumping clumsy action. and closely do conspire. cob.clod. w. to a lump. puddle. to cleave. to cover Bret. clammy earth. dash (Cot. kldverj P1. klaven. the terms expresssplit. dump. kloven. klu77ip. clog. zolla dell' . G. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. The radical sense seems to be an unE.bar. del mattond. hebes (Kil. to strike. klotz. Gael. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . kluppe. cludadh. nagelein. a nail. Mabousfrom Lat. formed lump or thick mass. clothes). to stop. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. unpolished. eene ODu. a lump. dial. 2.). from cates the application of the root dab to Du. and -the word Clove. a curdled sky. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Sp. clavo di especias. clot . a clod.D.158 . and clay. a bobbin. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Sw. clod is used in both senses . stock. tuft. as Fr. group of people Sw.). log.Fris. Dan. klubb. dial. and clout d eudaich. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. It. also homo obtusus. probably from daboter. ball of thread Russ. lump. Met. with lout. wisp. knob. . a patch. clyd. to beFr. klumpfot. Das volk hat sich in splitten. tered . . motte. strike. shel- kloen. Properly that which covers and Du. clunch. dut. a ball. cobio. of a lump of earth and that figure. lump. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . . dote. naegel. Gael. warm. to curdle. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. loggish. klieven. are also used in the sense of a stopper. in the same sense. cloud Delfortrie. dillad bumkin. to cleave or the splashing of water. lump of earth aria. Ir. lunch).D. clod.ft. a. klump. een klaven kruflook. a boss. a clot or keeps one warm. clumhar. Club. clothes ment. a nail) Fr. a sky Cot. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. Cld. a bunch. nourish . A kind of spice resembling Du. clydion. E. klebek. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. kloete. dys. Du. klcBdi. N. klubbe. Du. clue. From dog. spice) G. diboter. a ball of twine . mire. choke or stop up. a ball. milk run to lumps. bunch. More in R. . In the same way E. klotsen. to cherish. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. w. klumba. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. duthaich. To Cloy. a bousche. — . Clown. a garthas. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. AS. daggy. knob. (kruyd =. to lump mend clumsily. The significations of a clod or lump. dob. from Du. but confounded with cailler. CLUCK rustic. Clover. klqb. Sw. a clubfoot klabb. to cloy. The priClout. botch. AS. from OFr. cluth mhor. to strike . cluster. little nails. are often connected.D. of sloppy materials. clump of a clout on the head. Then applied to a lump of mate. and of a rustic unpolished person. sheltered up warm. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. piece Cot. rustic. Kiittner. clump.

Beklummen van kelde. Teulazy. and koetse. -elude. glocire. to pinch. 159 E. -clus-. dial. Fris. klonte. Coach. klontet. Muster. esclaboter. verkommelen. from klupen. OHG. thick and clumsy. hondis. beklommen. A group. might be reached from clump. Coal. a litter. * Clumsy. G. pladdern. MHG. with a quick. E. Hesse. or aclommyde. klimpern. dussomed (Wilbrabam). beklummen.. Hindust. Lat. inclusive. differing only in the absence of the duik. klump. lump of soft mate. to tramp. limp. Hence cleik.'— animal. rial. also a cluster. Ang. — Cot. klocken. claw. in comp. Du. koetblockish.mene tied. a clod or lump.pare P1. dumpers. lavesen. the word is more probably connected with OE. dumpse. a lump. ball of snow on horse's foot . cluntClyster.Ancr. The sense of awkward. to gingle. Sw. Du. E. properly to do anything Fr. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. eviratus. acomelydfor could Pr. to tramp. finish. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. Du. It. cliboter. ' Thou clontsest for cold. to wash. koetsDa. Sw. heavily. klont. MHG. kol. unhandy. cluster. dek. dial. Compare Swiss klupe. clip or pinch. xXvariip. kichlemmit.' Comfort ye dumsid.forklomme (Outzen). seize. a pinching time. awkward. log. with E.' Wycliff. conclude. to collect in lumps. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. Ray. whence koetse. ON. eene beklum. unfashioned. —To Clumsyd. See -elude. a clod or The noclot. Boh. G. —More. . Pl. clopiner. Isaiah. . and klotteren. klonte. fingers (familiar). &c. hand to cleuk. koetsie. dumps. a noise. as from seken. klikaty. . kohle. viscous material. But clunchy.P.' Benecke. lay hold of. Fr. clutch. to klotz. to wash. cleche. See reclusion. a clot klissen. to syllable click. a nasalised form of club.D. carriage in which you klodset.D. an instrument for nasal form e. Hence snatching. splash. a clove Sw. a lump. klemma. koetsen. unwieldy Hal. Du. of Du. 130. crooked inwards . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. to tramp or tread heavily. . are the nasalised forms of klotte. klunsen. ment. awkward. From the notion of sticking together. klummerhdndt. Fr. dystere. from ON. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. and klonteren. OE. klikonosy. a block. hands stiff with cold. to paddle or dabble. clumsy. — sen. to benumb with cold. klos. Gr. close. klamp. plad or plod. Lincolns. klamen. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. to stick together . wooden shoes. — ' — — tonista. * Clump. Variation of clatter. Pm. as Fr. Graff in Klamjan.E. conclusion. a claw. from laver. or from Sw.D. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . wagen. algidus. ' Clumper. doquear. Sp. klompen. klumpern. cleik. er.D. klister. klomje. eviratus. benumbed with cold. claws. and make ye strong feeble knees.e. n. Fr. ball as snow. calling her chickens. -clusum. bunch. coccolare. duke. havi. — Hence include. klemmen. dial. -olus-. clotted cream. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. to curdle. ' Uorte (for clogs. hooknosed. Com. klampa. Sc. Pl. klobber in klobbersaen. — . COAL dumpish. may recline. tight — — . enervatus. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. to to snatch. to grip. clausum. paste. ' . -cludo. in v. Clutter. klumpig. Clump. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klcise. Analogous forms with a tongs. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. to shut. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. idle. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. to curdle. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen.D. to rinse. a lump or compact mass. gelidus. -CLUDE hen Du. Du. strum on an instrument. clump. a ball . klummklummshandt. unhandy. klette. kluntfrom KKvKdi. The Fr. clook. a clod or lump. clabosser. -close. a coach. Riwle. claudo. Cluster. cleuk. a bunch. dek. to lie. In the same way Du. G. obstructum. klomen. klods. ether comelia P. verklomen.— — . dial. Cheshire. Lat. Clutch. a couch. of garlick.' Vegecius in Way. klisse. G. Cath. klunt. having the Pl. wooden sole. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. exclude. ill-made . a ball. pinched. to curdle. clutch. a clod clunter. as clumper. smart motion. through the senses of lumpish. coucher became in unhandy. glousser. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. to squeeze. clointer. Champ.

dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . to form an union with another coalitus. . Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. to stutter. and E. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. a firesteel Lat. caleo. v. in Du. . When the . to beCoax.. costa. verklomen. — Cobbler. pock. verkommelen. from some fancied resemblance. Sanscr. sweets and the other of poisons. cotta. Cocasse.' And colo. to glow . quele. cob. or E. hakkelen. Du. and fig. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. according to the ordinary run of events. to worship. walk clumsily. however. an egg. dim. w. Fr. koppen-gespin. burning. a bunch. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. klabba. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. — Cleveland Gl. top cobio. to cobble shoes. Colina' the place where a fire is made. haggle. cobcoals. cluster. Dan. e. a darling. a cobweb. kuppa. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . spinne-ivebbe.inflated with air or liquid. and imperfect or unskilful action. glowing embers. long standing. flame. to kindle jvAla. a spider. habble. a kitchen.). of poison. an old idiot. Fr. bijamie. coalesce. acomelyd or aclommyd.). the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. Pm. a bungler. The dirt. are often connected. cokes or fool of him.. s. cokes was a simpleton. the one of thump. See Cot. properly to daub. large stones . from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. or cobble. koppe. numb. petrilla. tuft. koljarn. pockbecility and liability to imposition. . bredouiller. kop-ar. woman is said to be very ordinary. to peck as a hen cobyn. — Pr. as shown in dob and cob. It. pustule. to grow together. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. Pm. kolna. . Coat. a great falsehood. are round stones or round coals of small size. niais. Formerly written course. to stammer. also a coast. cock or nescock. blaze. cule cocosse. dial. Coalesce.. to be inflamed . dial. The contrast between the bee • Cob. dial. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. itself is Nescock . 3. cobble. and the spider as collectors. throw a blow. things. is one of thump.—Atkinson. small pox (pocks) . then to work unskilfully . ailina or colina. cotte. It. atter-kop. one Pr. as in arr. to burn. to speak or act confusedly. A spider's web. to cob. niais. Coalition. and hobble. any kind of coat. to kindle or cause to burn . a sow. OE. Du. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. Outzen. . used in — . ordinary as in the expression of course. to strike. to bungle Sc.a spider. dial. pryf-coppyn. Cobbles in the N.. k'dlla. to Lett. to be hot. staggering or halting. The OE. Flem. E. a tuft. to . ridi. glow jvalaya. H^cart. cucco (in for the same reaso