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Dictionary of Etymology_1872

Dictionary of Etymology_1872

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  • DOCTRINE OF MAX MULLER. ix
  • XX NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS
  • NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. xxi
  • SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. xxvii
  • GESTURE SIGNS. xxxiii
  • EXPRESSION OF HORROR. xxxvii
  • ENJOYMENT. DISGUST. xlv
  • OFFENCE. CONTEMPT. xlvii
  • OFFENSIVE SMELL. xlix
  • MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. lix
  • EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. Ixi
  • Ixii REPETITION. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS
  • Ixvi CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE
  • COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. Ixvii
  • Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT."
  • COMPLETION OF MAN. Ixix
  • 2 ABASH
  • ABBOT
  • ABELE
  • ADJUST
  • AJFRAY
  • AIM
  • ALERT 13
  • ALLAY
  • ALOFT
  • APHORISM
  • APO
  • 24 APRON
  • 26 AROMATIC
  • ASSAY
  • 30 ASSUAGE
  • ATTIRE
  • BABE
  • BACKET 37
  • BAFFLE
  • BALL
  • BALLAST
  • BARBEL
  • BARGAIN A7
  • BAT SI
  • BELL
  • 62 BEREAVE
  • BETE
  • BICKER
  • BILBERRY
  • BILLOW 67
  • BLACK 69
  • BLARE
  • BLINK 73
  • BLUE
  • BLUFF
  • BOB 79
  • BOLT 81
  • BONFIRE 83
  • BORE 85:
  • BRANDISH
  • ERASE 95
  • BRAY
  • BREWIS
  • BRIGADE 99
  • BRIGHT
  • BRIM
  • BRINDLED lol
  • BUILD
  • My
  • BULLION
  • BULLY
  • BURNISH
  • BUSKIN
  • BUSY 119
  • CABAL
  • CABBAGE
  • CACKLE 123
  • CALM 125
  • CARABINE 129
  • I30 CARACOL
  • CARD
  • CARNAVAL 131
  • CARPET
  • CARRIAGE
  • CASSOCK 133
  • CATCH
  • 136 CATHARTIC
  • CAVE
  • CAVESON
  • 140 CHAMBERLAIN
  • CHAPEL 141
  • CHARNEL-HOUSE
  • CHATS 143
  • 144 CHATTELS
  • CHJME
  • CHITTERLING 147
  • 148 CHIVALRY
  • CINDER
  • CLAM 151
  • CLARET
  • CLERK
  • CLOG
  • CLOTH 157
  • CLUCK
  • COAL 159
  • COCHINEAL
  • COCK
  • COGNISANCE 163
  • COLLATION
  • 166 COMBINE
  • COMPATIBLE
  • CONSTABLE
  • COPE
  • COVE 17s
  • COWL-STAFF
  • CROP
  • CROTTLES 185
  • CRUST 187
  • CULVERT 189
  • CURTSY
  • DAFFODIL
  • DAIRY 19s
  • 2O0 DAPPER
  • DARRAIGN 201
  • DAZE
  • 2o8 DEMIJOHN
  • 212. -. DIDDLE
  • DIPLOMA
  • DIRE
  • DIVAN
  • DOILEY
  • DOIT
  • 220 DOMINION
  • DOSE
  • DRIBBLE
  • EDIBLE
  • EMBARRASS
  • 238 EMPHASIS
  • ENGROSS
  • 240 ENTIRE
  • ESPLANADE
  • ESQUIRE
  • EXPEDITE
  • FANATIC
  • 250 FARRIER
  • FEEBLE
  • FETLOCK 255
  • 256 FETTER
  • FIDDLE
  • FLABBY
  • FLACK
  • FLAGON 261
  • FLATTER
  • FLEE 263
  • 264 FLEECE
  • 266 FLEW-NET
  • FLOCK 267
  • 276 FRANCHISE
  • FRECKLE
  • FREE
  • FREEZE 277
  • 278 FREIGHT
  • FRET
  • FUTTOCKS 285
  • GAFF
  • GALE
  • GALLON
  • GAMBISON 291
  • GAOL 293
  • GARE
  • GARGLE
  • 296 GARNISH
  • GATE
  • GAT-TOOTHED
  • GEE
  • GLADE 303
  • GLARE
  • GLEE 30s
  • GLOP 307
  • GNOSTIC
  • GOBLET 309
  • GOOL
  • GOOSE
  • CORSE 311
  • GRAB
  • GRACE
  • GRAPE
  • GRAVEL 313
  • 3i6 GRAVES
  • GUILD
  • GULF 323
  • GYVES 325
  • HALE 327
  • HARICOT
  • HASEL
  • 344 HIND-BERRY
  • IGNEOUS
  • INSULAR
  • KEEL 367
  • 368 KEELSON
  • KIDDIER 369
  • 370 KIDDLE
  • KING
  • KINK
  • LACHES 373
  • LAD
  • LAKE 37S
  • LECHERY 381
  • LEE
  • LEPIDOPTERA 383
  • LETTUCE
  • 388 LIGHTEN
  • LINIMENT
  • LIVELIHOOD
  • LOLLARD 395
  • 400 LUBRICATE
  • LULL
  • LURID
  • LYRE 403
  • MAGIC
  • MALKIN 405
  • -MAND
  • MARSUPIAL
  • MASSACRE
  • 414 MATERIAL
  • MAZZARD
  • MEASLES 417
  • MESS
  • MILK
  • MINISTER 423
  • MISCREANT
  • MITE 425
  • MUSLIN
  • NASTY
  • NATION
  • NEIVE
  • NIGGARD
  • NIGGLE
  • NUISANCE 449
  • 452 ODIOUS
  • OSPREY
  • PAD
  • PALETTE
  • PALTER 459
  • PANNIER
  • PARAPET 461
  • 462 PARAPHERNALIA
  • PARROT
  • PATE
  • PATENT
  • PEARL
  • PEART
  • PEEL 467
  • PELLET
  • PERIWINKLE
  • PESTER 471
  • PHASE
  • PINCH
  • PITTANCE 479
  • PLASH
  • PLASTER
  • 482 PLATOON
  • 486 PLURAL
  • 488 POLLUTE
  • PONTIFF
  • PORCELLANE 489
  • POSNET
  • POTATOE 49
  • PRATE
  • 494 PREROGATIVE
  • 49S PRODIGAL
  • PROP
  • PROPAGATE
  • PSALM
  • 50O PUERILE
  • PULLET
  • PURFLE
  • QUICK
  • QUID
  • QUINTAIN 5"
  • QUIVER
  • QUOIN
  • RABBLE S13
  • RAFFLE 515
  • RAMIFY
  • 520 RAMPALLION
  • RANGER OF A FOREST
  • RARE
  • RASCAL
  • RASPBERRY 523
  • RAVE
  • RAVEL
  • RECRUIT
  • REEF 529
  • RELAY S3I
  • S32 RELEASE
  • RET
  • RIDDLE
  • RIME
  • RIMPLE
  • ROSARY
  • ROSE
  • RUIN
  • RUSSET
  • SACK 551
  • SAKE
  • 554 SAMPHIRE
  • SATURATE
  • SCANTLING
  • SCARCE 5S7
  • SCAVENGER
  • SCORN
  • SCOUT S6i
  • SCRAGGLE
  • SCUD
  • SCUFF
  • 566 SCULPTURE
  • SCURVY
  • SCUT
  • SEASON 567
  • SEEK
  • SEPULCHRE
  • SETTLE 571
  • SEX
  • SEXTON
  • SHAMBLES
  • SHATTER
  • SHAVE
  • SHELTER
  • SHELVE
  • SHOE
  • SHRIMP
  • SHRINE
  • 590 SIMULATE
  • SKULL 593
  • SLADE
  • SLAG
  • SLAVER
  • SLUBBER
  • SLUR 603
  • SMATTERING 60S
  • SMIRCH
  • SMITH 607
  • SNICKER
  • SNOOZE
  • SOAR
  • SOKE
  • SOLACE
  • SOOL 619
  • SORE
  • SORREL
  • SPADE
  • SPOKE
  • SPRINGALD
  • SPRUCE 633
  • SQUAB
  • SQUABBLE
  • SQUASH 635
  • SQUINT
  • STAKE
  • STANCHION
  • STARE
  • STARK
  • STATIONER 643
  • 644 STATUE
  • STEAD
  • STEAK
  • STENCH
  • STERN 647
  • STOLE 651
  • STOUP
  • STRADDLE 653
  • 654 STRAGGLE
  • STRAY
  • STRUT
  • STUB
  • SULTRY 659
  • SUPPLE
  • SWAP
  • SWIG
  • 668 TACKLE
  • TALL 669
  • TARE 671
  • TASTE
  • TEDIOUS
  • TENDRIL 67s
  • 676 TENNIS
  • TESTER
  • THRIVE 679
  • TICKET 68i
  • 686 TOAST
  • TRAITOR
  • TREPIDATION
  • TROLL
  • TRUSS
  • TRUST
  • TUSSOCK
  • TUSTLE
  • TYRANT
  • VENISON
  • VESTRY 707
  • VOLITION 709
  • 7IO VOLLEY
  • 728 WHISKERS
  • WHITTLE
  • WILE
  • WISE 733
  • 734 WISH
  • WITNESS
  • WITTERING
  • Dm
  • 744 ZANY ZYMOTIC

^

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031471711

Cornell University Library

arW8581

A

dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711
olin.anx

:

A DICTIONARY
OF

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY

BY

HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD,
LATE FELLOW OF CHE. COLL. CAM.

THOROUGHLY REVISED AND ENLARGED

;

WITH AN INTRODUCTION ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGK,

LONDON
TRUBNER &
CO.,
8

&

60,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

1872.
[All Sights
reserved.']

INTRODUCTION.

ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE.
It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of

Europe
a

to recognise their division into four or five
dialects,

main

classes,

each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have

so

much

in

common

of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the

whom

they are spoken, are the progeny, with

more

or less mixture of foreign elements, of a

common
Swedish,

ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a

common
to

language.

The

relation

between Danish and Swedish

is

of

the closest kind, that between

cannot

fail

Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance

is

found in the other

classes.

The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and

common

common
to leave

to both,

and so

much

identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing

them

as

branches of a

common
as

Celtic stock.

And

so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,
is

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish
life.

so great

argue a

much

longer separation of the national

vi

THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries

where

French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,

We

accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and

we

account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the

With

Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to

us,

fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a

as

well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-

common

stock.
tliis

Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be

in

where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sitions
sister, are

equally universal.
signification,

Many
life,

of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the

most

and actions of ordinary

are part

common

property.

Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.

From

this

primeval tribe

it

is

supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their

new

settlements, grtew

up

into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their

own

peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European
speech.

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of
resolves

LIMIT OF ANALYSIS.
men, or
in the

vii

mixture of speech brought about by the

vicissitudes

peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every

way

to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or

The

part

diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the

language.

It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of

we
is

understand the word
as

an enemy, which

felt

the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes
itself

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,
;

we

distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a

noun

in

the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am

tion

with

;

and

in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.
ogist
is

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance

among
is

the founders of Language.

The

speech of

man

in his

mother

tongue

not,

among

children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.

The

expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from
is

whence
inter-

the language of each of us
course of those in

derived.

The

child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-

viii

FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE.
his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which
arises,

was not taught

their

language by their parents.

The

question then

how

did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of

man

spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced

?

Or

is it

possible,
less

among

the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or

abundant

known

language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had

not

command
is

of that great instrument of thought, though, in
?

every natural capacity the same as ourselves

When

the question

brought

to this definite stage, the

same step

will

be
re-

gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the

made

in geology,

when

it

was

phenomena of the

science

powers, such as are

known

to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.

The

investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with

intellectual

powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-

terranean

fires.

A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the
leads
'

origin of language

modern German school of
possibility

philosophers,

whose theory
of mutism.
the

them
is

to

deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state

Man

only

man by

speech,' says

W.

v.

Humboldt,
Professor
'

'

but in order to discover
Miiller,

speech he must already be man.'

And

Max

who

cites

epigram, adopts the opinion

it

expresses.

Philosophers,' he says (Lectures

on

the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that

man

how

the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally

acquired.

DOCTRINE OF MAX MULLER.
It
is

ix

surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the

German

paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that

we

all

are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those

who

are cut off by congenital deafness from

all

opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by

whom
own

they

may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual

signs,

but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage
voice.

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is

wantmg

who

life,

and others

who

never attain

it

at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was
his

in existence at a period

when
is

the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could
beasts,

manage

and maintain
us.

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor

Max

Miiller as a linguist,
to

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes
imitations,

but 'phonetic types produced
in his

nature.

Man
at

neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces

may

be reduced, are

remain

the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as

when

the purpose for which
as in

it

was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate
his

instinct the primitive

Man

was en-

expression to the rational conceptions

of
his

mind.

He

was *

irresistibly

impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called
it

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with
<

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the
it

At

the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an
its

instinct,

an

instinct of the

mind

as in-esistible as

any other
fact.

instinct.

p. 370.

+ The
received

faculty peculiar to

man

in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,

n.

X

NO FOUNDATION
had
its

IN EX;PERIENCE.
ftilfilled

brain a phonetic expression,'

object

in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well
as

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or

desires.

By

other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct

is

retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the
families,
first

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different
It
is

down

to the present day.

practically such an instinct

which

Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.

In

all

the languages of the Indo-European family, he says

'

from the Ganges

to

the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of

standing,

while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.

is

as

widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay

down

the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.
:

The

signification
v.

thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance
boldt,
is

the conception, says
as

W.

Hum-

as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'
It
is

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no
of

distinct experience.

If

it

were true that there
felt

is

in the constitution

man

a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be

by

all

mankind

alike,

and

it

should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.
nection.
I

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is

and

to

an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,

and

speech came in that

way

to primitive
its

Man

is

simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of

acquisition.

A

rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

answer
and do

problem

we

are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

GESTURE NATURAL TO MAN.
himself a system of vocal signs.
'

xi

ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,

'

wonder how man ever began these
around
us,

houses, palaces,

and

some philosopher were to vessels which we see

The

savage

we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'
first

who

first

floated

on the

trunlc

of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be

made

for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we
life.

are required to explain the origin of the

com-

plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human

intfelligence

accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and
is

when

the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed
apprehension,

Now

if

by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,

ing.

Nor

is

there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,
call

'

if

we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven
represent
person.'
it
;

nor voice and wished to
as

attention to something,
?

well

as

we

could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,
iif

we

should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,
as

we

should

by

as

near an approach

we

could

make

to an imitation in our

own

in the case of
lar

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after

The

instinctive

Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.
crying
'

the imitative or symbolical gestures

When

Laura once spoke to

me

of her

own

when

a

little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to

Knowledge,

vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers
tears.'

down

the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would

also

accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural


^"

MAN NATuKALLY

VOCAL.
in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.

which

were

certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive
it

To

to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary

mode
voice,'

to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally
is

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.

Man

then

a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities
as

making

instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.

When
same

it

happened

a prominent feature of the matter
instinct

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.
terrified

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm
his

A person

raw Englishman

as

making known

his

wants

in France.

Moo

!

I cried for

milk

If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set

agoing,

And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom
.

the author wrote.

A jest
therefore

must be addressed

to the

most superficial

capacities

of apprehension, and

may

often

aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

Englishman
dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,

who

being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative
!

was

eating, turned
?

round

to his native

Quack, quack
*
thet

The

servant answered.

Bowwow

intimating as clearly as if he
lovelh,

Me
me

tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet
hateth.

me

and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,

254.

would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. when we is represent to our children of the cow. the present day. come Moolls. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). muK) and mae (rfie. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. but nothing she herself knows the animals. Molli. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. with an initial m or I. is given to a cow or calf. mind of the of the animal. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. to the syllables which are significant to the child. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. in other words. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. or. or Mollein. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. when neither name for the object to be designated. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. and where we are seeking. by whom the be understood. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. The syllables moo (mu.NURSERY IMITATIONS. the baaing of the sheep. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. and mully or mully cow is the . and. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. in language of the present day. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. persons of different tongues at the present day. name of the cow. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. the closer we shall approach to the .

' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. for everything fit to eat. and some were very clear and distinct. p. in children's language. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. schipp. became more perfect. Finally an n was placed before it. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. analogous to Magyar mammogni. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. by the natural humming sound. &c. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. then. A member of my own new sfop. to eat. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. he called to to drink. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. partly from sounds which the child caught. had nim. and which we might express thus.. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. . who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. First. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made.' he says. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. We have. He would now say good. nim. hm. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. . says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. On one occasion he said^e nim.). But soon the growing mind began to generalise. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. I had watched the growth of this word. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. his nurse adopting the word with him. as well as the mind of the utterer. for things. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. nineteen years old. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. to work over with the mouth. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. mumm. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. repulsive to eat. fiafifi&v (Hesych. 72). Gradually. to For instance. and nim came to signify everything edible. for bad. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. when hungry. Heinicke. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. family. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. Gr.' In ordinary speech mump.

A negro proOr. namnam. mumpfeln.' And Diomedes. Wolof nahenahe. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. jamsa (yamsa). i. to take. to Sw. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. mumble. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. ut tinnitus aeris. The Chinese child uses nam for eat.minis. palatable. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. at hiamske i sig. crab nam buckra man. to smack in eat. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). eating. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. Soosoo (W. oves lalare. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. and the fizzing (and Series. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . to eat mampfen. . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. nobis vix permittitur. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. agreeing with Ein. Primitive Culture. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. mujnpa. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem.' — Lersch. make djamdjam). on. ' Motherwell. taken up hastily on the sly.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. as to . Africa) nimi. sweet (Koelle). to chew laboriously. memmexen.' says the author of Modern Slang. jammla. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. iii. nam. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). voracious. Nimm'd up. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. 1 86). i8o. aves tinnire. tidbits nama . Swedish dialect gamsa. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. j ing . South Jutland hiamsk. buckra man's language the white man. nyam nyam. to be pleamind . dial. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. jumla. Gothic niman. as well as the Sw. aptantes adfectibus vocem. stolen. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). savory. Africa) nimnim. or word-making. Galla djam djeda. and some of them . And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. p. ' id est. Vei (W. lita. nvrnma. to fill the mouth. to move the lips in continued chewing. to eat. (in chil- dren's language). and the crab — p. delicacies. mumpfen. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. clangorqae tubarum. snatched (Whitby Gl. food (Tylor. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . and thence to be tasteful. yamming. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to taste . 130-1. to mump. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.' says Quintilian. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. we can call them so.). the Scotch poet. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere.ONOMATOPCEIA. greedy .

that there is When Man. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. or. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. baaing or maeing of lambs. lowing of oxen. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. snarling of dogs. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. grunting or squealing of hogs. between dog and harking. ^6^. We . cackling or gaggling of geese. but of a dog. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. sparrow and chirping. 'I doubt. or thoughts of our hearer. when circumstances required.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. twittering of swallows. gobbling of a turkey-cock. yelping. bellowing of bulls. before the in other words. anything connected with it. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. croaking of frogs or ravens. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . cooing or crooing of doves. do not speak of a bowwow. whether it deserves the name of language. barking. howling. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. hooting of owls. not of a baa. bumping of bitterns. neighing or whinnying of horses. bleating of sheep. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. snarling. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself.' And elsevs^here (p. for the purpose of bringing the animal. intended in the instance to represent the cry. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. Yet we ing. und growling. purring or mewing of cats. chirping of sparrows or crickets. chattering of pies or monkeys. might be used.' he says. p. a lamb. yelping. dove and cooing. not of a moo of Lect. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. 89) with less hesitation. Indeed.' — We speak of a cow. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. might be used as the designation of it. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs.

most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. 349. Sometimes the hoarse i . 'Kdka. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. or quawk. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. We imitate the sound with a modulated.IMITATIVE NAMES. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Georgian quaki. Barabra koka.. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. 4th ed. in is Gr. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. in g. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Malay gdgak. kae. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). caw kuhii-rava (rava. ist ed. sound). Bav. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. kuho. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. In Lat. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. In Basque. a a crier (p. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket.' common sense. kauwe. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. caller. layitavya . KOKKvi.). and the sound of that direction. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. crow. a daw. Origines Indo-Europeennes). kdka. gackem. 380. coccolare. e. is kuM) for the cuckoo. whose sound (Pictet. Columbia kahkah. ghak. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. He to is therefore derives kdka. Kdrava. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. crow. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka.' kd). I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. lion. having a general predicative power. and gaggele or gagkelein. a crow (Pictet). Aoo-Aoo. fi-om apakd- i. Manchu The kaha. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. it announces (Salaberry).). a bird that is be driven away. Sauscr. birds. Hungary. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. Picard cau. according to Durga). an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and means a shouter. a crow. and Bavaria respectively. Arabic kdk.

k. Fr. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. name of its is the bird. gugu. uhu. name. turtle) as the Lat. The consonants p. krahe. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Du. kraukti. Du. lilits. wood-pigeon. Scotch peeweip. and e. teewhoop. the name for a crow. to hoot. great variety of oKokv^uv. gufo. coccovaec. Da. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. 219. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . German luhu. or Gr. Zulu kuku.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. tuquheit. Hindi. kurre. Magy. to howl or Lat. kukko. German kielitz.Gr. tortbla. Ibo akoka. giving turtur (and thence It. Lettish kiekuts. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Pers. and sometimes both together. synonymous forms of similar structure). ghughu. kukhuta. are represented. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. while crouk. German and Eng- krahen. Yoruba koklo. in the North of England. kraeyen. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. to crow. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Albacuculi a dove. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Mod. to croak. another. yell. korren. by the verbs gurren or girren. It. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. kraeye. Sp. kruk. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. Heb. Arabic tdtwit. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. cock. Esthonian kikkas. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. a crow lish Lith. a crow. to crow. to croak. either in the same or in related dialects. tbrtola. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. So we have Polish krukac. coqueri- Languedoc. coucouva. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Dutch kievit. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. girre. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. koeren. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. reduplicate form. xi. 6.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. the name of an animal will gen- . lulo. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre... Swedish kowipa. "Welsh hwan from hwa. tur. p. French dishuit. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. and e. lUyrian kukurekati. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. kuku. krauklys. The crowing of cot in Fr. to cry loudly. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. as well as of Sanscr. hibou. Walachian coucouveike. kirren. a crow . t. libufs. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. tbrtora. tor. Malay kukuk.

The Arabic sarsor. skirl. kong-kong. horniss and from the buzzing The. Naturalist on the tocano. ' Sanscr. We may cite Gr. Corean sirsor. resounding of musical instruments. swirplys with 6. succeeding each other — with noise. Sc. skril with n. cricket is from crick. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. German drohne. the humble. the drone or non-working bee . (Jieuschrecke) . loud rumour. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Australian bumberoo. pip-pi-ta. 'The natives call it tanand. grylhis. of England it is to the b 2 . Fin. In the N. thunder. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. North of England. i. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. whirr). Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. gives rise to chwymores. chirk. grillen. grille. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. The drone peal.or bumble-bee. Lith. Speaking of a cricket he says. common. German hummel. words imitative of humming . ajo. little intermission. — Catafogo. skryle. Danish gnaddre. Sanscr. e. schrickel. bamba. buzzing. buzzing. g. Lithuanian tranas. give a faint sound. and probably indicates that g. a sharp sound as of a 6. representing a short sharp sound. a small as hawk is . as . of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. bee. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. Lat. PofijivXwg. bambhara. and yelping cry. g.vf3. Albanian tsentsir. hollow noise. dhran. growling. which they make in their flight very . the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . Northern Farmer. a bee. and not from E. schirke. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). German dronen. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. droning is . to sound. with or Fr. g. to be compared with Sanscr. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. there are infinite varieties. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. The Welsh chwyrnu. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. ' — Pictet . sirkka.' —Tennyson. din. Arabic tantanat. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. zirken. flight its sting considered as a horn.' Amazons. resound. schrecke. to shrill sound sharp. a fly (Tylor) . oE. 337. to creak Bret. knetta. shrill. booming. a drone. from the humming. ta-na-nd. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. to hum. glass cracking (Schmeller). No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Danish dron. to rustle. a beetle druna. a hornet.IMITATIVE NAMES.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. humming.' — i. to chirp J may be compared with . The name of the cricket indeed. or a gnat fly. schwirren. to grumble. in allusion to its music. from schrick. to chirp . sound. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. and he kong-ko-rong.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Gaelic dranndan.

to low or bellow. make poo. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. bukati. to bow- own bawl. or moo. shoot . it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Galla boa. a cow. a heifer. (iove. 167. to shout. It. bu. to make. the animal. to mew. to beat hard. has bilbilgoda. in a imitation of a ringing sound. k or g. Manx booa. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. fivKaofiai. to make a noise. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. forms a. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. mamoo-heeheek. are (with a subsidiary k). Fr. bubati. grumble as distant thunder . The Piedm. Piedmontese fi bau. biibnas. bo. bue. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. p. w. or with on. a drum . that the imitative syllable are Lith. The Galla lilbil. Illyr. to low . 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. amuse. a bull. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. whence baula. mae. Thus from miau. to or bark. agreeing exactly with Lith. bwla. From baa. bugle. to ba-L-are. lulauti (to hoo-loo). In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. to bellow like a bull. or formed Lat. verb is evidently identical with our shout. or bau-l-i. bubenti. mugler. — ^Tylor. to weep. a bullock. and thence Lat. On the same principle. Gael. miau-l-er. His analysis leads cow. or a z to the imitative syllable. Lat. is inadmissible. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. in same way. representing the mew of a cat. as that of the cow by boo. make to it laugh. be-l-er. Lat. and in Hottentot baa was the . to sound. representmake bow. baula. Hottentot bou (Dapper). Norse bu. bullus and e. to shout. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls.XX called booing. to . loge. bugler. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. and djeda. boo. Lat. maukati. cattle. btibleti. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. OFr. bae. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. bull. the Fr. From the same lioao). to the uses goda. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. With these analogies. as the Illyr. to low. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bucula. Cult. muJiati. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. say. verbal form given to the say. w. bos. bauli. a buffalo. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. Zulu lulula. to make a loud deep sound. bullock. buculus. bae. to make. ox. Da. bovis. a Geiger. to boohoo. Fr. bolt. from the imitative moo instead of boo. mugire. and from to ring. to from bau. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook.

It. Welsh and Breton). in v. curmurring. to bleat. guttural tone. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. leknuti. lecco. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. a pig Fin. to bleat . 6. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. a wolf. knurfisk. cite as by grunt. Da. hunon. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. /xj/caScj. hadg- Magy. Gr. grumpf. Gr. a grunt. signifying a snarling. Manx meilee.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. sound. to grunt. Illyr. may be identical with Esthon. Africa laa. and snorke. hwch. smack and naski. as the proper name of a tame sheep.). grugno. name of a sheep. . we have Sanscr. ^. kurren. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. nire. grumble. grogner. naskia. a dog. Fr. it and e. a sow. hunt (gen. groin. the designations of a dog the term cur. a hog. grunt. although the imitation embodied in Lat. Among dog.' Moor's Suffolk words. (iriKov of forms like Sw. Magy. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a sow. kurre. lambs. meigeal. From the imitative mae. Illyr. and of (maelon). hund. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. mecati. with the root ypaipm. Kurren und murren. purr). a sheep (Lowe). meugler. for the voice of the ox). growl. rumbling. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. to growl. may with to snarl. name of the animal itself. from knurre. meckern. lekavica. a goat. and Circassian maylley. grumbhng. and thence groin. a goat. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. by which the shingle gives rise to It. Idgge (Rietz). G. . Fr. grunlike a pig in eating. Moreover. It is probable also that e. / The same Gr. sheep or goat. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. lek-eg-ni. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. karra. from hundama. leg-et-ni. And it is true there between hog and grunt. a. mekegni. Gael. hound. a goat firixal^ta. mutter. grumble. oe. a (Hesych. to howl. grunny. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. With gen. the snout of a pig. Illyr. a sheep or a goat. a sheep or ewe. corresponding to ohg. — . to bleat. as lou of an ox. a sheep. sus-sus. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. to themselves. Gr. in Wolof bae. The g. and grumphie. hundi). and with the subsidiary k or g. Hence Breton hoc ha. or in any ! way ! persuading. goats. this obstinate race. ' In driving. does not produce a e. /xijeao/iat. to grunt. name. houch. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. he would hardly. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. and hoc'h. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. meil. . cry). menAda (ndda. undoubtedly imitative. to rumble. a pig. meketati. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs.

which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. a mare. as in Yorkshire highly right. Esthonian hoibo.. hottihuh.' — ist Series. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. such as cuckoo. If onomatopoeias can . and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. to the left. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. coquette. a horse.' 2nd Series. houpy in Craven. hiine. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. humma. Sc. 91. hobben. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. hobin. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. M). but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. hobby. . So Sanscr. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. But words of this kind are. to go backwards. like artificial flowers. to whine. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed.root. (Craven Gloss. Thus we are led to the Fr. cockade. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. e.. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. g. animal. turn a horse to the is In Finland. p.). The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. .' ticular bird. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). from the cry animal. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. p. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. without a — we root. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. the cry to stop or back a horse. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. hoppe. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot.). There are of course some names. ^6<. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. of the character in question. a little am- bling horse. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. when he found peculiarity. coquelicot. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee.

and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. titter. woodpecker. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. Fr. runniken. Pl. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. frenschen. command of language was attained. creeper. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. ginniken. g. animals or certain kinds of sound. hikkd.D. as sigh. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. diver. signified It. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. Sanscr. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. cough. nitrire. hennir. wagtail. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. hresh. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. Du. ance or habits of the animal. e. swift. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. nounced with a guttural). and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. lapwing. Bohem. than to the sounds represented. hresh. giggle. wrenska. to neigh. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. but whether there kind between them and other words. Sp. xxiii ginal object. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. wrena. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. Lettish sweegt. horse. sol. moan. form corresponding hresh. goatsucker. Irieschen. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. . and if there all knowledge of the Lat. hross. redpole. rinchar. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. little speak for themselves. hukkup. whitename in in- throat. Sw. groan.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. fehtati. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. to Sanscr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. wiehern. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse .

for a small one. hoo. Wtb. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . bang. debhes-lungotais (deifies. hoo ping ping. for the sound of a fall. knarr. strippstrapp-stroll. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. a more expressive than the e. —Brem. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. pit-a-pat. root kshu. scream. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. wheeze. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. the dashing of the sea . for the sound of a blow. fitsche-falsche. to sneeze. lumm. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. for the for the sound of . a kind of drum. White Lies. are familiar in ' to every one. Vei gbangba.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. a large bell. &c. the God of thunder . mer.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. plitsch-platsch. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. atchini. oren : Klapp. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. Of a like forma- drum . to ham. 1865. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. heart tick-tack. or the w. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. snukkup). by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. hang.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. — Sanders. for blows with a rod. knack. snort. banke. haitshu. &c. aritischane. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound.' ! ! ! ! — dong. klatsch. tlirob. pump.' So imac. banga. heaven). dong Read. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . for that of breaking. to hammer . Da. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. snore. beat. in a nail Let. DingBang. to knock.' it both sides went. to beat. Australian bungbung ween. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. atchian. haw. to throw violently down. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. beat of a clock child . an attempt would be made to by the voice. shriek. for in such sound of blows. clap ! A smack Puff. or tliat is accomit. on the chops is represented also by pratx. Mei gbengben. Zulu bongo.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. to drive on. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. bangas. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. thunder (Tylor) . for the sound of milking. ding. for the creaking of a wheel. went the cannon. It is represented in e. tisio (tisho). bang ' ! trenches. ting-ting. ping came the bullets about their ears.' 'Haw.

Mantuan pipiare. Fr. pipio. to cheep like a bird or a young It. cry. pu. De Brosses. a fowler's bird call is lost. to cry like imrli^u). we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. cry of young birds . peep. had been used laugh ? two. . calls S. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. a (young) pigeon. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. is of expression. piou. the voice of chickens (Cot. pipare. scream.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. of a word will appear supposed to represent. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. part of the What consciousness has the child. — . a chicken or gosling.sc.) a chick. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. child. young bird. pigione. and their relations. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. Lat. has been un- employed to designate fixity. or a piailler. is pfeife. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. chickens (Tylor). a or cheep. bleat. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. not- . pigiolare. pipio. —Lyndsay. ducing the sound. as k. doubtless. mobility excavation and hollow ^. pipegni. a whelp. pule. peep. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. to squeak. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Lat.' instead. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. piauler. Gr. e. It seems to him that the teeth t. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. young child . to peep It. as in other subjects of study. pipe. and whimper. a fife or musical pipe. pipe. to cry pi. pi. which he added to intensify the expression. G. laugh. pipelni. pigolare. In cases such as these. He Yet asks. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. Florio. piou. pipilo. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. The pi. Magyar pip. and so forth. as the simplest implement for proFr. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. to designate cavity and hollow. piccione. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pippione. far pipi. used as a call to . or the uneducated different consonants are man.

rumble. Manchu kaka-kiki. girren. . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. be cate to go on laughing loud . rumble (Fl. cricli. is very common. a. a closed or obscure sound. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to hawhaw or laugh loud. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. chack. a sharp short one. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. kuruk. tontonare. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . It. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. loud laughter.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Hindustani karak is rendered. or kaka-faka. &c. as the click of a latch or a trigger. sound). by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. to grumble). cluck. bubble. Pefuxela. lachen. as representing the sound made when something breaks. sound of dry breaking. u. coo. and lugh. creak. Indian chack-chack. Zulu raraza. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to be compared with Sc. kirkirdnd. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . laqfF. ioriogliare (to make borbor).. along with tinnio. to crackle like in boiling . a drum W. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to growl. knuks. to gorgogHare rattle. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . the side of g. kniks. lachachen. pi . to grate the teeth . crack. preserved by Kilian. Poppopvi^to. rumble. to thunder. of a loud strong sound. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. . Hindoo tomtom. a prolonged sharp sound. to pant bejii- zela. to cry pi. to ring pipio. to rattle. along with Du. some small vowel or consonantal sound. when it force than biscuit. tintino. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. turtur.Gr. murren. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. kniks. to jar. to creak knirren. karkarana. vaake gorgor) . garren. to grumble. tonare. knurren. to bubble.) Mod. to cluck. to gargle . borrelen. of something fine and thin. the clucking of a j hen .. to laugh. a short sharp sound. to pant violently (Colenso). or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. in German. knaks. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. thunder oil . to clack. Pacific aka-aka. or springing back. make wood a clinking noise. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. grumble. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . where the variation. like the noise of a glass breaking . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. to gurgle. to fizz like fat in frying. crash. gurren. murmur (by . i. {to It.

or of bells ringing. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Scotch sough or sooch. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. a nightingale. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. halaidlac'h. at an accelerated note. as Fr. jingle. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . . expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. 1871. and e. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. as of Tamil muromurmur. Fr. chinking of coin. drops of i. djeda (to say tub). hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Manchu kaka. uproar. a workman. to the purling of a brook. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. E. noise. croaking of frogs. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. or the bubbling up of to a spring. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. klirren. kiling-kalang. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. bad. Magyar csamm-ogni. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). kl'mg-kling. 368). The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. bubble up. a nightingale. rifiirayov. champ. 192). sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j .' Member for Paris. brings us to Fr.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and the imitative nature of tivgle.* the heart. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. the sound of a stringed instrument. coughing or clearing the throat. chuchoter. to be compared with g. rain (Tylor. tubh. to strike. tumult. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. . clink. clash of arms. to say chut. corresponding in e. a boy's whistle. and bilhila. to giggle. and Gr. simmer. and Gr. quarren. KaKog. koXiw. the gingling of glasses. sound). for chut-chiit-er. compared with Gr. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. a smith. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. caca and Finnish adkkd. or to Du. cry. Turk. Maori pata. shout. jangle. tumwata. bulbiil. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. of keys or tinkling of bells. csam-csogni. thump. clank. Galla tuma. Sanscr. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. for the clinking Lat. Calt. the tingling Ming-Hang. The whispering of the wind I. chut. clango. for the sound of privy whispering. is based on the same imitation as the e. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. are applied to the is excrements of children.and e. tup. spring of water in the a bell. especially one who beats. while cacd / used in e. Prim. and her heart went thump. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. bent her head. to beat. for the ringing of illustrate bells. to whisper. wail. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to knock. fumtu. disturbance (F. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. Newman). identical with g. borrelen. rvir (in tvittio. ding-dong. to ring or jingle. agrees with g. box on the ear imitation of the . make djamdjam). The syllables lil-bil. is Manchu tang-tang. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. awater* ' The Mme P. correspond to e. for a tTviror). Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. muro and e. e. sound. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. hala-hald-faMa (falda. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. word. Tiie Galla gigiteka. indicating the origin of Gr. call. a drum .

guggle. craunch. Fr. rumble. and Fr. crash. murmur. ring. at a door tarapatan. gargle. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. according to the strictest phonetic rules. Nevertheless. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. w. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. flap. ' Der puff. puff. fizz. by rubadub. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. clack. tingle. twang. rap. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. lash. swash. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. while e. splutter. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. mutter. tomber. blow. souse.' — Nohden. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. bang. plump. and the French pouf. disturbance. and Grimm. the Germans puff. chatter. 'pat. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. brumberum. rattle. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. clang. to fall. smash. thump. report of a gun. bubble. to dance. creak. for (Sanders). So in Fr. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. dabble. jingle. slash. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . chink. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. tinkle. hum. flop. hiss. to is blow. whirr. clink. whizz. whine. rataplan or rantanplan. squeal. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. blubber. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. a applied as well to the force of the bang. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. tumbian (to beat the ground). squeak. answering to g. gurgle. thwack. clatter. parapatapan. paddle. squall. The use of g. we have buffet or cuff. tum-ultus. snap. splash. clash. It. thump. crack. sputter. din. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. tymmesll. clank. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. and soufflet. or v^hether jectional. thump. patter. douse. pop. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. tap. whack. in e. without the intervention of orthodox roots. clap. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. But although and also found in Lat. dash. crunch. The beating of drum is represented in e. it is fallj AS. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. smack.. boom. Humboldt.

intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. If. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . Crying.' . that he has taken the step in rational speech. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. and thus they become signs of despair. Grimm or Bopp. xxix on the contrary. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. little who has time to want of her nurseling.' If chaos.'. wringing the hands. or of any if wood. hay. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and uttering plaintive sounds. is Thus ah!. of horror. ugh . At the first beginning of life. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. in the case of the animal or of the infant. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. because they are spontaneous. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. or any unsatisfied want. formerly cited. and found in the building of be burnt up. grief. by the nature of the cry. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. knows them. p. stractions. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. every little pain. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. or stubble is meaner name. in the rushing waters. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. the kind of action that is desired of them. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. the interj. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. without a thought of symbolising to them. but if we must not complain on the beach. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. an imitation of a sigh . the inteij. 94. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. are made known by an instinctive cry.

There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. sneezing. them to exercise it. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. more to the point. coughing. of all the mouth. the lowing of a cow. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. be more powerful. ^6g And to the same effect 371. to solve the I shall call first. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. as who them spontaneous utterances. 32. p. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. should be remem- . interjections.' — ist Series. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. groaning. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. and the eye. and some of them the composition of words. Language begins where interjections end. He says. shrieking. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . If I wish to make a person of an .XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. And again. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. more eloquent than a long speech. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. 344. or which is of me as suffering pain. One short interjec- tion may fact. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. they are involuntary interjections. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. he cites from Home Tooke. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections.' p. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. which are frequently so toned down cance.. may become traditional. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. p.

tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. hohottaa. cachinno. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. and more or less limited . loud laughter. some kind of language might have been formed. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. hahota. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. in Fin. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. for example. he says. and others from interjections. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Kayxa^u). Koxafw. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. it them. in Magy. but the less am at a loss what to say. kahkahah. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. interjections. I am not hearer. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. demolishing here. hahottaa. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. Tooke in truth.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. bered. Lat. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. and thus. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. speaking. Gr. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. when I arp humming and hawing. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. then speech begins. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is.

it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. makes them stand and walk upon the table. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. of the world. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. dumb is the language of signs. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. if taken as a whole. and go where we now say stand. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. like peewit and cuckoo. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. Though. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. But here nature soon conies to his help. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. the critical question should be.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. a Picture-language. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. a deaf-mute himself. And so in the case of language. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE.' he says. It as has ing their most striking features. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. of the nature of this great movement. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. What strikes him . The following account is given by Kruse. and not. words receiving the meanings they now bear. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. . which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea.

such objects.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. and forms further and further. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. such as than the educated man. and we have roast goose. among themselves. for child. as it now opens out. nay. and gestures. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. xxxiii him between one thing and another. he. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and it is flesh or meat. the sorecalling them to his memory. it seems. called Gesture-language. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /.' In the Institutions. walkest. what more. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. particular sense in properly so called. and with his thought. signs are taught for yet. but if I depress it instead. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. walked. it means little. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. And is. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. The of sign for left hand. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . and to taste. becomes roast meat. that signifies great . for the agent. the lan- guage cultivates itself. or To pull and flap with the arms.GESTURE most. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and And thus he makes himself a language. many when or but these. that. thou. the whole secret. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. walker. letter To hold the two fingers apart. for single objects. most striking outline of an object. can do better and more easily abstract terms. he. push it towards the person addressed for thou. thought is already broken. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. or the verb to be. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. like a V. that air. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and fully serves to j . for walk. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. The same sign stands and the act itself. his action. to name.

When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action.' dener's knife. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. The same word . depend entirely upon the use. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. and the as. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and thus performs the part of an adjective. to indicate the action of a certain person. qualifies the against the wall. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. it called an interjection. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. when I say. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. He gave door a bang. When I say. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. Who is has beaten you ? would be. or something of the kind. a number of alternatives are suggested. You beaten . whether by additions or otherwise. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. substantive or adjective. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. the garden. I say. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. putting it into his pocket. the ture of white term pink is and red. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. in other instances sentence.xxxiv asking. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. in fact. and so is an adverb. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. When a verb. according to the circumstances of the case. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. would be simply beginning of speech. or action. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. . as But when it is meant door. might be the knife. as in die it is a noun. Do not bang the it is a verb. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. a colour red. or an act. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. as when Bang ! went the gun. or a quality. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. or a passive scene of existence. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages.

or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. the man is great. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. grie^ horror. or some relation between it and another object. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. coalesces with the personal pronouns. Thus tafu signifies a great man. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. a sigh of oppression and . or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. contempt. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. but often self-evident. or with elements expressing relations of time. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. pain. whereto. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. wonder. Jii ta. a groan. as kuo cung. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. which is an old y ting (use stick). inquiry. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. inside. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. with a stick. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. Latin. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. commencement of speech. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. wherehy. wherefore. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. 255.^ — Miiller I. that is. in the is indicated by the syllable y. in the sense of great. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . wherewith. whereof. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. a noun. as cung. &c. and may be used language. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. or nei. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. some outward display of the affection. .. and to be great. middle. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. that admits itself in of audible representation. greatness. verb nor noun has yet been developed.

ochain. miau-l-is. wehthun. Lat. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. oh. Thus from springs otjucifw. as. pain. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. . to weep. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. wAwa. waiidt. gwae. Gr. . hei. to sound yapyap. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. djamdjam goda (goda. ui. 6. however. form. ace. has more kopfweh. probably a deeper groan.-l-are. oval. the pangs of childbirth. to chirp. mew. ! ! Goth. to hurt Let. The form corresponding to Lat. achen. e. Jar lau-lau. are ol-ire. as. die wehen. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . gwe-l-a. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. &. to groan. guaj-ire. g. wd. Illyrian vaj. to cry at. a groan or lamentation vir. ach. j. lament from oimi. ochan. Illyr. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. Bret. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. ah. to wail or cry alas . Fr. vei-a. to rriourn. och. to wail. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. jaoh. and cacak djeda (to say crack. pain. woe. ache. oimare. to ache. found in g. to yell formed e. Gael. . The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. to injure. Lat. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). In this way from the root guai. to gargle. It. ach.ez. lau-l-e. weh. guai. in Gr. g. A widespread It. to bewail oneself. tirr-djeda. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. seen in Gr. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. guaj- or cry out pitifully. It. woe. Gr. wai-l. la. ah. gwae. to ache. n. vce. ach. first person. on. oi. e. grief. dchzen. o'i. wai. headache. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. oh. to lament. Gr. lament. ohi.. It. ocAJ. weh schreien. grief. Let. to make). to . at the close of the radical syllable. xxxvi grief. or r. guajo. ing action I. is w. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. misfortune. e. w^wa. weinen. jao. to cry n. to make bow-wow. howl. vaj. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. ochan. al. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. ahi. mostly a ! %. wehen (Schmeller). ai. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. pain.'). to weep. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. is Ay di me I Gr. w. misery. w. Such are g. 6. grief] affliction. . och. cece. representing Illyr. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. wai. I oi[iot. vce. . to cause pain. miau-l-er. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. on. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. to do woe. aiai^to. miau-n-is. ohg. suffering. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. axofiai. och. representing a cry of pain. and to bark . to lament. It. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp.

!

; '

!

EXPRESSION OF HORROR.
(Florio)
;

xxxvii

from

Let.

waiman

I

waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to
signification.

lament,

showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same

Now
it

if
is

we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah
let

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer

know

that the speaker

is

in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.

The

interjection in Italian coalesces also
:

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS

!

alas for

him

(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the
first

is

not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.
!

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the

sufferer

cowers together with

his

arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of

which

will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is

which

associated.

Hence,

in the first place, the interjection

ugh!

(in

German uh! Then
form of
the

hu

!

in

French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.
losing
its

ug

or hug, as the root of verbs

and

adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.
in

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence
at.

The

oe.

ug or houge was used

The

rattling

drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout

What

his

kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.

—Jamieson,
how

Sc. Diet.

In

a

passage of

Hardyng

cited

inghame, having cut off her

own

by Jamieson nose and

it is

related

the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,
'

Counselled

al

her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly
right
sight.

Here,

as

Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the

word

ugly as signifying
its

original

what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
Ugh!
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.

xxxviii

ASTONISHMENT.
observed that

It

may be

we

familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the
syllable
is

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-

what

causes horror.
silence of the nycht

The

uffsomeness

and

In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.

—Douglas,

Virgil.

the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.

From

things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.

is

done

which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai

!

LAT. BABjE

!

VA.YM

\

The

manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the

instinctive

opening of the mouth,

is

familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his

hammer

thus,

The

whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,
tailor's

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.

The

physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes
;

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
wonder,
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or
it,

sound that

may

proceed from

the

mouth

instinctfairest

ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.

Now

the exertion of the voice at the
is

moment

of

opening the

lips

produces the syllable ha, which

found

as

the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of
!

The

repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one

who

stares

with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.
;

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)

eshawi.

Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious
tlieir

pomp which

waits

On

princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses

led

Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu

we

find hahaxa,

to astonish.

The

significant syllable

is

;!

ATTENTION, SILENCE.
strengthened by a final d in several of the

xxxix
('

Romance

dialects

the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in

It.

ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto
to

open door

;

Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
ished.
d, gives
;

Breton badalein, to yawn

;

bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final

Old

Fr. baer, baier, beer,

to

be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open
is

mouth

;

bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,

'

^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.

quenti.'

The

adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.

At

sight of her they

sudden
forced

all

arose

In great amaze, ne wist which

way

to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless

them

to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or

transition

from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,
is

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the

mind

to,

and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with

which

is

radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad

hym

sty

on

lofl:,

And

wejiie aftir

our four shippis

aflir

us doith dryve.

As

the vowel of the root

is

thinned
X""''*^'

down from

a to

j

in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,
It.

we

learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.

HUSH

!

HIST

!

A representation
longed sh or
ss,

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of

whisht

!

G.

ps

!

psch 1 pst I husch

!

tusch

!

Da.

tys !

Sw.

tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,

Piedm.

cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,
.sfo
!

silsd,

I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!

Fernandian

sial listen! tush!

Yoruba

pshaw!
all

(Tylor, Prim. Cult.

I.

178.)

The

interjection

seems in

cases to arise
it

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may
as

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the

first

place

it

may be
it is

understood

an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or
;

more

urgently, not to let even a whisper
to

but more generally perhaps

be understood

as

in-

xl

LISTENING.
Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which

purpose

it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly

still.

Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.

Jam.

Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.

The
least

It. %itto is

used exactly
sentirse

in

the same
zitto,
;

way

;

non fare

zitfo,
;

not to

make

the

sound ;

non

un

not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be

silent.

Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;
Fl.

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.
noise,

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing
!

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !

6.

husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through

the

' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that

is

heard in the bushes, or
ai,

as

an intimation to
Fernandian
sileo,

listen to
!

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry
ai,

hush
sia
!

to

The it. command

Gr.

ai'Ci^,

to give

silence,

showing
hush.

that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of
be

Hence must be
l-o,

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or

silent.

In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to

put

to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,

calm.

To keep

a

calm souch

;

to

keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an
like
I

after the initial

w, f, or

h.

Thus

firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I

we

wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.

The
;

primitive

mute

then

falls

away, leaving the
;

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp

Du.

luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)

synon-

ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.
is

The
lips

notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct

^

sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are
;

mot ;

It.

non fare ne motto ne
;

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

SILENCE, CONCEALMENT.
mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.

xli

mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce

Plowman

in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you

may

sooner

Than

get a

mum
way

of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by
Palsgr.

ellipse

of the negative,

mum !

silence
as,

!

Fr.

Mom !

ne parlez plus
!

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

—Trevoux.
With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei
silent,

dumb,

are essentially identical with our

mum,

;

;

;

185.

The
from
E.

ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that

juufo)

we readily pass
mus
est

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.
(Sp.

the representative
to

no decir mus

ui

chus)
;

we

Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,
'

be

silent,
les

and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens
:

musse, a private hoard.

Cil

que

musce

furmens,

escoramenge

qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'

parallel

Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied
is

to

what

done

in secret,

and mucker,

to lay

up

a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.

The
lias

interj.

hem

/

ahem
call

I

hm

t

hum /

represent the sound

made

in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin

it

frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely

another

mode
Here!

of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est
is

when

the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves
as

attention.

Hem! Davum
tam
glabrae,

tibi

:

scabrae sunt,

hem,

manus

:

quam

smooth, see here

!

as this

hand.

When addressed

to a person

xlii

THE PRONOUN ME.
it

going away
is

has the effect of stopping

him

or calling

him

back.

explained by Weiland an eKclamation to

make

a person stand

still:

Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.
hier,

haWol hark

there.

Mr

touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel
to

an

interj.

of prohibition.— Brem.

Wtb.
wbll

Hence hamm

holln,

keep one

in

check, to restrain.
shall stay

Du

sast

mi
do

hamm

holln,

you

shall attend to

my hamm !

where

I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of
I

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,

hammen,

to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'

A

of

a

garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it

out.

The
and
as

point of greatest interest about the interj.

hem

is

that

it

offers a possible,

seems

to

me

a far

shown

in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call

who

utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of
is

in Latin
occidi
see
!

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used
!

Hem
.

misera

Ah wretched me

!

I

am

lost.

Hem
feci,

!

scio jam quid

vis dicere.

Let

me

I

know what you would

say.

In the line
in

Me, Me, adsum qui

me

convertite tela,

we might
The

read the passage without
!

alteration of the
!

meaning.

Hem Hem
speaker himself,
is

adsum qui

feci.

use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of

m

or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this

mode

of

designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.
first

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,

first

person

is

ma, me, mi, man, na,
the

with

m and

n

as

personal prefixes.

And

word

is

formed on the same

plan in almost

all

families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and
*

S.

America,

ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,
interj.

Mr

Tylor

cites the derivation of G.
!

hemmen,

'

to stop, check, restrain,'

from the

hem
in

!

signifying stop

as

an obvious extravagance.

Tliere
it is

is

close a connection

meaning between the

interjection

and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds
inter-

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from
jections.

THE PRONOUN ME.
whoSe pronoun of the
first

xliii

person

is

written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of
kind

the voice within the person of the speaker,
is

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate

way

with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.

:

in other

words,

it

might serve

as

the basis

Nor

is

the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any

means

a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius

(as

quoted by A. Gellius,
first

1.

x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the

person

{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word
presses.

is

naturally adapted to the

meaning
is

it

ex-

He

probably
it

felt

the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of
It
is

which there

certainly

no

hemming
employed

in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that
as

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis

we

have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and

its

correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,

which

is

the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.

The
be

application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,

would

strictly parallel to

the use of

It.

n

and

vi,

properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.

Humboldt

in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.

Thus

Tonga, mei

signifies hither,

motion
to,

towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like
It.

and
e.

d

and

vi)

for

me

or us and you.
i.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell

tell

me

or us

;

tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is
is

to

have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the
suffix
s,

me and

fu, for

which

remarkable
a

Tonga
which

has totally different words, au and coy.
originally

In Armenian there

means

this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a

Thus

hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.

my

father.

man

speaks

of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of
tion,

in the utterance of the

m

or n

may

explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.

The

earliest

type

of rejection

is

the

closing

of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered

breast,

and the inherent

; ;

xliv

NEGATION. ENJOYMENT.
is

propriety of the symbolism

obvious.

De

Brosses observes that the articulations

n and

s,

both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to

sig-

nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples
tunato.

the words infinity and
.s

It. sfor-

He

overlooks the

fact,

however, that

this It.

is

merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,
letter.

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two
is

channels, he says (ch. xiv.
it

§

29),

by which

the voice

emitted, the nose
it

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of
nasals
is

The

expression of negation
ju?;,

by means of
it is

exemplified
erne,

in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,

m-

Vei

ma

;

Haussa

n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea

by

visible signs.-

— Schou.

Mr
a7/7a,

the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
Fernandian
'nt, all

kin,

Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn
Tylor
cites

signifying not.

ENJOYMENT AND DISGUST.
The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life

is

the appe-

food,

and

it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.

The

savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his

lips

or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.

Thus

Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes
at

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads

says,

'

The

astonishment and delight of these people

our

and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired
great,

was

'

our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration

by

a peculiar

smacking or clacking with

their

They expressed mouth and lips.'
the
lips or
in

— Australia,
The
tongue
the

p.

^2^.

syllable smack,

by which
is

we

represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,
taste.

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,
taste
;

the sense of
taste.

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the
ta-ite;

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the
;

lips

;

maisto, taste
.s

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.

The

initial

is

lost also in Fris.

macke, to

kiss.

The

initial

consonant

is

somewhat

varied without impairing the imitative effect in

Bohemian

mlaskati, to

eating

;

mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,

;

and

in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith

the

mouth

showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,
;

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.

ENJOYMENT. DISGUST.
Again,

xlv
as

we

have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the
is

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.

employed

for the

same purpose.
to apply
it

We spsak
smack
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do
derive

not happen
lip),

to the

The Welsh
this

has gwefusglec (gwefus,

a

smack with the
sound of an

From
is

source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl

The
some
say

or gl

readily

confounded with that of
tlick

tl

or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly
click.

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands
;

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the

mouth.

From

smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I
;

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling
at,

to-

gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial
tl

or dl

became

distasteful to Latin ears,

it

would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella
for

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.
in

It

is

true that an intrusive

vowel
garded

such cases

as the

foregoing

is

commonly (though
arisen

not universally) short,

but the long
as

e in these

words may have

from

their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.

The

attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.
in

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-

lators.

I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but
'

Would

to

-

occasionally interrupted their speeches

by

spitting

and uttering a noise
It
is

like

pooh !
this

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that

!

xlvi

OFFENCE.
fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and

like

it,

in-

tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in
!

his African
spitting

'To-o-h!

Tuh

exclaims the

Muzunga,

with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of
;
;

Africa, a. 346.
initial

The sound of spitting
puhwa,
dain
;

is

represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out

;

Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial

t,

t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting

;

Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook

mamook

took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to

make

tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj
;

Arabic
;

tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting
disdain
iTTVd)
;

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English
is

tuff, to spit

Hke

a cat.

In Greek
sounds.

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the

initial

BLURT

!

PET
his

!

TROTZ

The

feelings of

one dwelling on
a

own

merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath
nostril
is

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,

drawn

in

deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.

Her

fairy nostrils out.
is

—Tennyson.
Tiuff,

The sound
whiff,

qf hard breathing or blowing
is

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,
It.

whence a huff

a

fit

of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or
is

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.
;

The

luffa

explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.

—-Melchiori.

we

call shirping.'

Then,

as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or

cheat

;

heffarsi, to

laugh

at

luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used
rision.'

or disdain

is

uttered with exaggerated feeling

it

pro-

duces an explosive sound with the
as

lips,

represented by the syllable Hurt,
'

which

an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of
is
'

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.

a

Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring

it

out with a sudden explosion
is

ting something out of the
crying.

mouth.

A
is

Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
prt,
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I

is
;

explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie

approbation.

— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the

The

It.

petto, a blurt, petteggiare,

mouth

or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!

the

mouth

in
!

contempt (Sadler), explain the
tut
!

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw

nonsense

!

Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.

Decorde.

;

OFFENCE.
From
of anger
;

CONTEMPT.
we
have
e. pet, a fit
;

xlvii

the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,
is

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence
it

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips

Then

as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a
lip
is

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,

in

De-

vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the
lips.

ill-will

by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese
Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;
poutet,

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a
It.

a kiss

;

poutouno, a darling.

Again,

as in the case
ill-will to

of

hvffa, heffa,

above-mentioned,

we

pass

from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts

(to

be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.

The

E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking
lips,

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives

the

provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a
tut,

projecting

underjaw; on.

tota,

snout

;

Sw.

Da.

tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.

A

more

forcible representation of the explosive
r, as

sound

is

given by the introlips
;

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta
;

d

hesta, to

sound with the
snort,

to a horse in

make him go on
well as
is

Sw. pnista, to
sneeze.

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,
at,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not

sneezed

not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.
the

man

— that
Ayens

is

unbuxome
!

all

his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.

And
Hence
are

seyth Prut

I.

3016.

E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the
sullen,

West of E. (with
pout, to
surly,

form of purt,

to

be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.

Then,

from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment
trick
;

we

have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a

trick.

And

as

from the form pet
I

was derived Swiss
lip,

Romance

potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a

and

figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as

The

imitation of the explosive sound with an initial

in

ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's

lip
lips

or

Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-

xlviii

DEFIANCE.
;

DISGUST.
of such a description in driving

courage a horse
animals
Fr.
:

on. trutta, to

make

a noise

vox

est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.
man
make
the

Hence
from
trutas,
is

trut/

(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to

(Cot.);
;

which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the

lips,

a snout

to be out of

temper;

trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.

From

same source

the

6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.
to

;

trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to

of;

trotzig,

haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;

Valencian

trotar,

to deride, to

make

a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen

humour

;

to take the dorts, to

be in a pet

;

dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure

is

to

send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a

mouth,
(Fl.)
;

is

to

be explained

It.

truccare, to send, to trudge or

pack

away nimbly
away.

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of

be

oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same

way.
Lyere

— was nowher welcome,

for his

Over

al

yhonted, and yhote, trusse.

manye

tales
v.

Piers PI. Vis.

1316.

To

hete truss

is

an exact equivalent of g. trotz

bieten.

In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge

.'

all leysare

was

to

long.— Gascoigne.

FAUGH
There
sight
is

!

FIE

!

a strong analogy

and hearing.
air

When we
as

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the
ive

through the
;

nostrils, as

we

eagerly swallow food that

is

agreeable

to the palate

and

we

spit

out a disagreeable morsel, so

we

reject
air

an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected
lips,

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our
protruded

lips

pu.

when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded
'

lips,

a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,
air.

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the
;

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.
;

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced

puh),

Illyr.

puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

OFFENSIVE SMELL.
CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with

xlix

TheSanscrit
lungs,

may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

blow.
like the foregoing

From forms
at a

we

pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains

pu/

as

an

interj.

representing the sound

made by blowing through
'

the barely opened

lips,

and
alte

thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.
mist.'

Ha puh I
iii

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and
(Forcell.),

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !
-b..

disgust at a

bad smell

is

expressed

manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !
like
effect
if

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah

the

utterance

accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.
is

Accordingly
civet
;

we have

Sanscr. pu,
;

pMka,

stinking

;

puti, putrid, stinking matter,
;

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten
stench.
says

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus
;

Jahfals

ist :

by

this

time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad
bitter.

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,

Han
ill

va fal aat

os,

he was

enraged with us.

The

e.

equivalent

is foul,

properly

smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,
life.

underhand

in the transactions

of

ON. Fulyrdi, foul words

;

falmenni, a scoundrel.

From

the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or
foul.

d^le, to make foul

;

and Jllth, that which makes

The

disagreeable impressions of smell produce a
all

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his
in.

And

probably the

earliest

would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the
live.

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language
it

supplies

its

place by

—Farrar,

He

says,

The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him
say,

Where

live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.

d

1

REPROBATION.
interjection fy
it is
!

HATE.
do

The

expresses in the

first

instance the speaker's sense of a bad
is

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That
j

dirty

;

and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that

;

pleased at being touched

by

strangers.
inteij.

When
Thus
in
-e,.

used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the

often

assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in

faugh

I

ovfoh

/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly

employed

in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.
also

Yx.f, I

commonly

expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent
it.

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to

turn

up

one's nose at

it,

to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,

we

shall

easily believe that
it

pu !
it

as

an expression of reprehension,

is

the

source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,

cries

pu

!

on

me

;

pudeo, I

lie

under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the
fie
!

interj.

fu

!

being thus
:

analogous to
ein

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.
ings
;

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus

The

fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,
nostrils
'

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.

'

stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!

foh!

addressed

especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and

;

NURSERY WORDS.
foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave

to

If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.

PAPA,

MAMMA.
all

^ A small class of words
them
(in the sense

is

found in

languages analogous
papa,

to,

and many of

identical with, the e. forms,

mamma,

mammy,

daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,

as

well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-

A

man
Is

in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which
vi.

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.

It

appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,

am,

at, an.

We

find m,a, me, mi,
all

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense
;

moma, mother, and
fafa,fawa,
father
;

less

frequently nearly

the

same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father
be,
b'l,

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,
;

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,

tite,

unina, ananak, mother.
as

common

to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each

other,

'If

we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently

those

which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and

mother.'

—De

Brosses,

i.

215.

The speech
articulate

of the mother

may

form

to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms
ter;

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,
fia/iovKi^ia,

babelen, to babble, mutter

;

mammer,

to

mut-

Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)
to

Mod.Gr.

mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the
term
for

of them.

Thus

Lat.
as

mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,

the

mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

m
and the same
is

NURSERY WORDS.
the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,

breast

;

mammen,

to give suck.

When

one of the imitative

ma had
ta,

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,
e.

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or

nipple

;

Goth, dadd-

The name of
which

the laly himself also

is

gives their designation to so

many

representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs
it

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.

The

nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the

To

the

first

of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna
lull

nanna, to

a child

;

ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language
la

nanna, bed, sleep.
sleep.

Far

In the

Mpongwe

of

nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).
It.

The

imitation

gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a
el

little girl;

Milanese nan,
Sp.

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.

Caro

mi nan,
is

my

darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
ninny
it is

Mod.Gr.

vivlov, a

young

child, a simpleton,

and in

e.

transferred to a person of childish understanding.

From

the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.

is

extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,

From

the

same source

and

e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.
lyu,

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,

whence

lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE.
Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation

may

name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a
will,

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.

The

testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

is we I believe. or that it is. When we pointing. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. . of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Thank you. and may be rendered. Dr Lottner observes. child. ToSe (or in Attic E. Please. Phil. as. that. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. thata (ta-ta). The Fr. is-te). says da-da-da.' all is is — their consent.' this. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. but the truth is. when he wants something. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. or carry me thither. give. Sanders (Germ. nurseries. more emphatically roSj)j that. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. or give me it. Diet. Sie.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. the nursery da-da. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. we may translate this by there (it is). the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. according to Menage. as to express. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. 'nay. that is it.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. this here. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. In the expression Da. da. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. his trowsers' pocket. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. a specified were by pointing him out. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. for instance.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. give me that cheese. or wants to name something. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. der da-ige. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. implying the direction of its good will towards them. as it Dieser da (as Lat. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. well as Goth. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. that gratifies me. when 1859. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. and by a variety of expressions besides. a word of many applications in g. I add) . to here . A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. But. and so on. • The child. indeed. Bav. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. da.' person. case. saying : there the ad- Trans.' then points to his wife. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. ' sees an object.

and shapes it into an . ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. stutter. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. sounds. standing. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going.' • liv ANALOGY. tasting. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. — Cot.' says Muller. beat. p. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. make dadada). meanings. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. pay. to walk. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. speech. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. reality. to tion to another. to beat. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. dadee. which thus exertion. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. Thus Gr. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. and one in particular must. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to say to oneself. its desire. strike. to move step by step. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. thinking. sinking. .' says Lottner interior. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. in every mode of expressing the idea.^ its ' utters : a cry. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. takes it — as When the soul. childish toying. or metaphor. to chatter. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. or dalliance. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. then instinctively interest. The da is dodem. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. the original is that which he places first. to knock. moving. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. of which any one may. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. tattle.

snudra. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. snuff the sniiten. outcry. a dis- cernment. to resound. to quiver. brilliancy. to snilF. a with kimmaltaa. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. air. to . sapere (which signifies the nose. to be wise. beorhtian. we have and the and beorht. to flash. schmecken. a ringing . properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. make a loud noise. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. same imitative root with Sw. noise. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. schiteren. ghsten. snot. to shriek with laughter . a brilliant light kilid. bilbil). —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. and schmecker. bright. In the case of sparkle. Heo Du. in the domain of movement. Lith. to ring. to shine. . ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. as. prudent. tintelen. knistre. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. Finnish. &c. pracht. Du. may be quoted gUt. on. and figuratively. smell. tumult. to smack or taste. think. . splendour. in popular language. Again. from the . splendour. clang. iclat (in Old Fr. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. beam. to shine. signified a clear sound. It is The word bright had a similar In as. knittre. to glitter. to glitter. to glitter. In the same way the Goth. wilahtaa. scheteren. wise. to crackle gnistre. to sniff out. gnittre. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. — 1. for example. esclat). sense of brightness. unlella. to have Sapiens. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . is used in the origin. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. and thence e. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. as kilind. to sparkle. spraka. to 5 ghtter. sound. tinkling. sprageti. may be it explained . snutrs. The 6. Bavarian bracht. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. to sound clear In Galla. discreet. suspect Bav. rattle. chime). while sapere itself.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to sniff. to tinkle. fiapfiaipw. extended to the exercise of the understanding. wamara. a rustling sound Gr. to crackle. search . properly a clap or explosion. magnificence. to ring as a glass willata. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. (parallel bilbila. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. wilistd. kimistd. the equivalent of g. judicious. Fr. savour. taste. which in ohg. snotor. scTiateren. to glisten Dan. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. 1654. smell. and. to glitter e. then to sparkle. bilbilgoda (to make . firom the Gael. also wise. kiimottaa. So firom Lat. man of nice taste.

crux. \nrap6e. eo ut res vol. briars. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. of dressing loud. we hear of screaming colours. then in rpd/xoe. mel. rend. he says. kvTOQ. in of his works. break. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. the neighing of horses. tremour. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. he framed the words ivSov. in truth. rough. Acre. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. or . accordance with the way in which by touch. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. sharp. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. and vepres. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. the clank (stridorem) of chains. . is felt Lana. 6\tadaveii'. KoWiiSije.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. to slide. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. discusses the tone of a picture. 1. power of the letter-sounds. Much of the same has been often quoted. which The Stoics.' he says. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. rough both ways. gluey. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. as soft by the ear. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. soft. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. ipuKuv. rough to the ear. wool. extremely loose. v. &c. roughness. whirl. itself letters are felt as sofl. And observing that n kept the voice within. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. Kpovtiv. within. flow and flux. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. the bleating of sheep. Kep^arl'ieiv. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. fitting the letters to the sense. pvfi^Civ. smooth. rough. shatter. The BpavEiv. pleasure soft to the ear . Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. oily. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. strike. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. the cross. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. inside. Tpa)(yg.

Fr. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. sag-oter. for exis ample. jig.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. corresponding to the ineor. 138). or checks as they are called by Muller. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. to reel abruptly from side to side). the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . shag. rug. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. jih. dig. stag (in stagger. t. stab. joli. g. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. jag. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. shog. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. a rough and sudden . together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. d. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. A greater felt. and in the utterance of a high or or low. k. dag. the case of the voice. tug. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. degree of roughness sound. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. p. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. as when. cular effort Again. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. to signify varieties of movement. p. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to jogj sac-cade. 'and consequently form. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. jog. ii. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline.

tock. Hence Lat. schockeln. Brescian toch. however. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. then. to glitter. to On the same principle j we have g. The production of sound. and analogous movements. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. kuk. g. e. to pulses being knock. The analogy then carried a step further. sound Fr. Welsh cicio.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. mik. S-panish miga. cica. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. Bolognese tocc. sound barely audible. Accordingly the g. to stir. as Italian tocco. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. tecche-tocche. chiquet. that we never can be sure. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. to mark it with a touch of the pen . a jog. Mucken. mie. Then. to say a word . a small bodily object. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. a little bit. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. an infant . with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. as tot. mica. The train of . also to stir.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. a stroke with a French toucher. a playiug-marble. (mitsati). a quid of tobacco. zigzag. is lanese toch. To tick a thing off.. chicoter. a good piece of road . to beat or play on a musical instrument. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. Illyrian migati. to have it ticked or marked on the score . and e. a crum. an old worthless horse or carriage. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. it produces Dutch micken. Dutch kicken. The Mipen or pencil. then. in cases like the foregoing. used interjectionally to represent a . chic. tack. properly a small lump'of . micare. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. Thus we have B. to touch. passing to the signification of motion. to tickle. toch-toch. Fr. a cracker. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to incite by light touches. to utter a slight kick. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. to strike It. kik. Fr. is so frequent a consequence of movement. to winkj micati is Lat. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to ring a bell. chique. a . not to utter a syllable. or check. movement. zack. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tech-tech. and It. for the sound of knocking at a door. to move rapidly to and fro. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. lead to Spanish tocar. Sukkeln. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. so to Italian toccare. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . foot. figuratively. is made to signify movement. mot. The syllable suk is jerk. like English tick. a piece or bit of anything. to take a thing on tick. It. &c. rough horse. motion. to mutter. Ene olde suksuk. schuckeln.

MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. Halliwell. 199). a small lump or pat. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. gnu. a bit. titter. there '(at a short distance). to movement of the pen . . to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). and mite. tozzo. fragments It. In a similar the relations of place. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. to jot down or note with a fro.- a jot or little It. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. to touch lightly with a pen. a certain conception. tit. there (further of!) ao. a. iki.n. To jot. and dot. a e. tit. gni. as in e. for the three personal pronouns. tot. lump of earth. and a small lump of something. . The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. move slightly to . n. that. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. 0. Then. we have e. to whisper (Pr. . mutter. for the beating of a clock. tot. a morsel girl . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. . and he. . to jog. fait. tottle. tiny. ri that. this. a girl.) . . a small horse. mot. But the same is language has re Javan. So. a small bird. ika. further off. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. here. Pm. not an atom . motta. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. there. This kind. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . a lad citta. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. i. is shown in murmur. a little titty. to touch. at where the order is inverted. tot. a morsel. this . where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. and out there. titilh. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. you. jot. zitella. the vowel sound. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. titmouse (Du. . . to e. or o toi. or the like its It. zitio. a whisper. Malagasy to. chico. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. e. often entirely arbitrary. a small kind of lark. taut. syllable mot. subdued manner. seesaw. a sparrow). little. corresponding to the personal pronouns. small of kind. 48) cites from the African Tumale. citto. of movement in totter. clay . a bit. the least visible insect. the same organ touched with the man. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. little j to that of a small bodily object. mutter j dust. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a tot . motte. mote. The following table from Tylor (Prim. that iku. anything . I. or the converse. Fr. a light quick blow. bunch or flock of wool. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. small titlark. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . not to utter a syllable. tot. (Halliwell) Da. mossche. and toddle like a child titter. ticktack. not because the pendulum makes a different left. e. lix Sp. to make a slight mark. Du. to tremble. here (close hand). tittle. Cult. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. a small quantity. neither moit nor an atom. anything small flax. gno. to dot. totle. mut. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. eo.

ofj. . olo. here feraa. Carib ne.. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. It Carib lala. that. you. Sahaptin (America) kina. w. thou. no constant rule is observed. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. child.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. this fi. qu. ta to ka. Tamul i. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. minution further. man erne. here j abe. here 5 Yoruba na. that. to. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. bi. there. ndi. ni. he. this . ne. that. Tarahumara ibe. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. here . there. mas cheche. Ossetic am. he. ojOo. that in the distance. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. . as the act of pointing was ta. Botocudo ati. an old woman chacha. nne. there. me probable that • Vei also little. /wo. femina ama. Abchasian aSn. father. child. is father. that. that. loo). . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. as Mr Tylor remarks. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. and a for the female. little. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. ita. km. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). this . Zulu ajoa.. that. and origin. mother. ukko. Guarani nde. I . Gr. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. this ole. ni. Japan ko. .) nna. tiiio. Mutsun ne. thou ni. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. j Canarese ivanu. probably initial of distinction that the k. this <t. small (Pott. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. /e«. mother. is Here. Lat. there. ^. Fernandian az. here . thou .) pronunciation of i or e. 6. there. here j ka. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. as in Italian Fin. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. this . ulri. young one.e^. mother. (tt). there. Mm. . akha. here this . Then. father k . . . an old . respectively.. that.araM. for the male. this . that. Chilian tva. usho.. that. It seems to (fen. biii. /mya. Magyar ez. there. that (intermediate) j wana. uta. . Dhimas isho.

for the . titta. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. trappen. nil. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. Da. or chink. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. stairs. Top. looking through between obstacles. at pippe frem is to spring forth. dance (Kil. for a succession of light blows low-wow. murmur. A little wee face with little. The sound trapp . It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. trippen. to make its way through the bursting envelope. A little weeny thing. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. And perhaps the E. wean. don-don. trappa.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. is to express simple continuance of action. the nursery few j Sc. Clank represents the sound of something large. whence Fr. From cases like the foregoing. of smaller things. or even. &c. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. to tread. the pip or pippin. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. repetition It. to peep. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. sound of bells . . in old e. din-din. to feet. little To sup up. Fr. analogous to winy-piny. barking of a dog. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. trap. a child. — Douglas Virgil. a little yellow beard. to peep through.' — Merrv Wives. the principle of reduplication. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. and in the Pacific dialects. fretful. tion. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. the idea is called. as ding-dong.) . to begin to appear . The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. has tittafrem. just beginning to appear. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. as j money. the simplest mode by the g. trSpigner. to teet. wenig. keeh. to leap. lift 8. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. 401. pepin.' making the voice as small as possible. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. Thus we have Wolof sopa. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. nipple. i Sw. The Sw. a step. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. knob. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. nab. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. trippelen.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. for instance. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. little. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape.

That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. and the words express a continued sound of rack. &c. or imitative syllables. or very very great. loloa. 99). is language. Thus in the Pacific loa. (to use a to speak. to treat with contempt. very great. rack click. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . to vi^alk about for flax. kendagenda. . but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. kamha-gamla. 97). Mandingo ding. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. smallness. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. mpolu is uttered.Ixii REPETITION. a spot. clamito. Susa di. instead of being actually repeated. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. the agent in panting . kenda. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. cliqu-et-is. little child (p. from Maori muka. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. child . rapidity and strength. repetition or continsignify long. Malay ayun. if very young. properly speaking. are echoed by the rudimentary et. lololoa. ayunayunan. didi. in familiar use with ourselves. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to say pooh It is ! to. to talk at to walk. tache. or in Fr. to to call. ratsi-ratsi. to pant. child . Thus in E. hardness. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. very bad. to or rub. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. mawhitiwhiti. The same principle of 196. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. Again. to rock. or rdtchi. to cover e. to skip. to love. could readily be conceived. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. the lungs. sopasopa. the comparative degrees of greatness. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). random . So from clamo. i. bad . FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. mawhiti. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. calling. puka- puka.' expression is — ^Tylor. ding-ding. very long (Pott. a cradle. click. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. the and clique.. er. serves to show and in this way. racket. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. And generally. or el. a clattering noise. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. or a little tee--ny thing. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. puka. a grasshopper. . to call frequently from Fr. amusement. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. rack. keep spots. tach-et-er. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. and Fr. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. Cult. clash of weapons.

wancol. In cases like these. or Maori puka-puka. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. joggle. The contrivance with any particular noise. shuffle. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. crack. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . or by association. such asjlap. to make gug. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. to hand. miauler and beler correspond to E. to crackle. rynel. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. syllable clat . or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to rock. a succession of cracks to rattle. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to make bau-bau. others. to move to and fro. mew and baa . where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. to wail woe . The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . in Fr. or omitted. by the side of wanken. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. wagas ging. or in e. to hand-le. miauler andpiauler. kneel. bub. as to handle. the knie-en to E. is In e. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented.Jicol. guggle. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. it. a from ayun. waggle. are to cry mew and pew . as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . in some applications. wankel. where all direct connection with sound is lost. which. or fi bau. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. compared with g. bubble. The Fr. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. dab. g. to continue dragging. to make a succession of grabs . draggle. itself. jogging. wankeln. dabble. as mAS. rubber. he who rubs. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. Ihre remarks under gncella. fickle. the lungs (the puffers of the body). Piedmontese bau-l-S. from puka. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to make a succession of shoves. to puff. and in as. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to rock or wag. Jickfacken. smack. wavering. to bark like a dog. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound.

to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . to the separation between the broken parts. Dupe comes to us from the French. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. or how generally. which is the origin of the word. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. by a hard body breaking. it is obviously a mere chance how long. which. the breach. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. There is. and comparatively few easily deceived. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. moreover. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. on a moment's reflection. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. deceit. or in mode of use. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. to cry ugh at. or in aptness to combine with other elements. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. Polish. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. known in Italian. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. at was more familiarly known. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. A gull or a dupe same sense. although it is not difficult. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. Breton. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. will continue to be felt in daily speech.

Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. however. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. nor any limited of ideas. and the word is used in a secondary sense. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. founded in manifest blunder. is. Hitl^erto. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. language is . if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. . as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. life. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor.

and vescovo. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. 330. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. Welsh. French. If English. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. compared with the duration of man. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. out. guages in South America. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. evique. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. unintelligible to other hordes. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . Naturalist on the Amazons. circle perpetrates a new slang term. I think it very probable. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. therefore.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. in the course of many years' isolation. episcopus. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. of material things. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. change. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. i. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. hearing. and 'Russian. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes.

Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. 7. which are idenr Figures 5. 8. Nor is there one of the letters. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Cijlt. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. i. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. The combination of the symbols I and 2. is MN. it will leave figures 3 and 4. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. 6. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. . 9. and . to be taken (Prim. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. or whatever the proportion may be. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. ancient Greek M .COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. as shown in the subjoined illustration. the actual it which would to represent. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. A key must unlock more doors than this. ao8).

However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. in the shape either of direct inspiration. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. and the only safe beneficent Creator. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. or. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. which either by direct resemblance of sound. had its origin in imitation of sound. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance.' should be discovered. what comes to the same thing. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. known to us as yet. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. leading him to utterances. for instance. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. If new 'modes of phonetic expression." the use of a change of vowel in as. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. his fellows. and it has been established in a wide range of examples.

and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . the conduct of Ixix life. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. as elephants. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. and when we look back as far as history will reach. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. or else. that he started from the lowest grade. by animal without a trace name of Man. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. for instance. in the course of generations. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. race were speaking men or not. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. and rose towards a higher state of being. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes .COMPLETION OF MAN. or of their own reflected thoughts . or beavers. of using imitative conduct . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. until the progeny. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or not. and sooner or later.

or Dan. Elfric's Fl. Brem. Carp. 1857. de la langue Cat. Catalan. Dief. Supplement to Bret. Supplement to Dueange. Infimse Latini- D. . 1737. Cimbr. 1766. Carpentier. Couzinid. Gothischen 1851. Cimbrisch. Wtb. 1768. E. Diefeiibach. Cotgrave. Douglas' Virgil. Da. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Castr. Due. B. 1850. Teutonico-Lat. Sup. Fr. Danish. Dn. Bigl. AS. Esth. Bremisch. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Diefenbaeh.. ^Ifr.Nieder. at the end of Somner's Diet. Grammar Boh. dialect of the Sette Commune. Bav. Diet. Fin.-Eng. Dutch. Romano - Cas- traise. Finnish. Bavarian.V. Dief. Diet. 1654. Cot. Anglo-Saxon. Provincial dialect. Bohemian or Czech. Diet. Biglotton seu Diet.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. English. Dueange. Gr. dial. Esthonian. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dueange.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Baile/sEngl.

Lat.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. . Mid.

.

5 ERRATA. r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. word allagerr. (/ijtf r. sveritet Asknace r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. haverie crtOT r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. katowai perairrantr. r. kilistaa bugiie r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r..? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. woman r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. Askance woud r. plowied budowaer. ^i?^i2! r. alUger ahaverie r. cti. r.nokkutama willekem. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . yjnaifia r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. buque 118 brodiquin r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. puHti r.>. Blob plowied r. cruccio deyrie.percurrunt kimista^x. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. baltresca nokkutomax. willekom Blab r.

.

as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. ar. plesyt him. Jvery man shewid baft. To abuse is to use iway. into the Romance ftrseg . among. dominion. dominion. Abandon. an edict or proclamation. to arise. Thus ip N3S. on-lic. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. Parson's Tale. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. and secondarily in that of command.t G. Thou spelds of mychty iction. onis aback. as. iway from. a washing off to abstain. —Bruce. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. particular 1 . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. ibandonner. the er. ur. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. to awake. 244.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. power : Than Wallace thing. alike. Abs-. "rom a height. in the same sense. whatever he be. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. on. sion of 'an abandoned character. 843. Immediately from Fr. bandon in French. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . Ab-.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. implying a completion of J. us. A. a/tan. out of. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. K . be-ceftan. have entire dominion over. away from. ir. In Lat. downwards. compounds. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. off. Lat. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some.he Goth. OHG. to hold . his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. state of sleep . away. AS. from. behind. on. Passing tongues. Dent posture. to sauff the king or spill. on-bsec . er. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. in a manner other than it should be ablution. this word beand Spanish. Hence on-bceftan. orders. abs. his. from a is to wake to abide. command. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Again. erwachen. AS. baftan. . and — Chaucer. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. a. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. said. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Abaft. o/j of or . but now )bsolete). ifter. as. announcement. to subdue. of-dune. until the event jlace . The word Ban is common orders. literally. in. abaft. vs. ab. rule. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do.

or society of abbots or monks. of the Fr.esbawi.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. Cotgr. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. 364s. and the verb was written in Eng. shame. — — . to abaw or astonish. impetuously. 1520. to meet with abbatersi in una terra.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. abandonly. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. ne more vermeille. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. to put to con. I was abawid for merveille.down. down. of fear. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. abbatere dal prezzo. A. son bandon. effect of shame.On princes. c. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. vol. terminedly. betrash.fournir. weaken. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. It. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Originally. his mouth. baba. R. abbatis. .polir. abate. in the active form. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. to strike Froiss. Bate. adverbial expressions at abandon. so common in the found in the OFr. from ravir. to The . an abbey. burny. Wall.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. To Abate. to strike sail .) . to diminish the force of any. to take possession of an estate. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. and grooms besmeared with gold.— — . The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. . law term abatement. by Wall. lish to abaisse orabaish. iv. R. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. astonish. to make lower. abaundunem-ent. astony. See . to happen. More correctly written abbat. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. where custom (Grandg. or admiration. overthrow. abbas. And he thereof was all abashed. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. In or. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. abbatere. et prirent terre. person. impulse. may be explained. Castrais. 1 1 8. abbatia. Hence the OE. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. depress. confound. See Abide. and it that that it — . de. abbattre. polish. to astonish. to ruin. to excite admiration. Custom. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. ais. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. R. his eyen shene. Milton. Abbess. castle. esbahissais. Hart in Jamieson. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. drink. faire tomber.— R. On the other in use as well as hand.' the surrender of a ' K.Prov. as ravish. to gape. to beat furnish. d. and that from Syrian abba. Abbey. uncontroUedly. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Beat. merely the terminations ons. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. burny was formerly burnish . 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. at his own the lips. bawi. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . to bate something of the price abbatersi. Abbot. Hence Lat. bandon. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. Baba ! Mod. ant. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. and sets them all agape. esbahir. baer. beer. to overthrow. esba. Fr. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to hit.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. — Neccham. of wonder. to light upon. from Lat. other. father. with or without a final sh. thing abbatere le vela. esbahissant. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general.

bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. while the monks under his control ing. badare. beijden.— Chaucer. The verb atwaiting. . — ABELE Epiphanius. and alluring to his own destruction. baier. 366. which is certainly related to It. to stay. — . bidan. to open the mouth. —Raynouard. literally white tree. bder. inciting. bida. aspirer. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. attendre See Bait. inciter. to suffer death in Du. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to In great amaze. speaking of the Holy places. Guernsey beth. syllable ba. badare. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. Goth. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. guardare. or in Fr. baier compared with It. to open bader. delay. tenere a bada. look for another. have seen abide. abet. othres abidan' The effacement expect. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . take notice. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. to look. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. listening. abetter. Norm. bie compared with Dan. desire. tempting. wait To Abide. ne chastised them. Prov. beidan.' is in AS. to gape . the verb of abeyance. Pol. beguiling on the other. Cat. beguile. badigliare. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable.to wait. pense. delay. expectfamily. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. lingering. take care. to remain or endure. K. to be intent upon. b^er. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. is idenwait. listen. Fabl. See Abide. abeyance. tarrying . abaier. to yawn. to desire earnestly. — II. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. m Abeyance. Corant sens lui. tical with It. Corresponding to keep in suspense. bada. . de Berri) Prov. bouche b^ante. Thus we have It. watch. bie. Quant voit le serpent. to wait. Gloss. Boethius. us. qui iaaille. Gloss. says. abSiance. Abie.. abayer. which the mind to an object. Thus G. badar. to expect. we sceolon ON. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. regarder. — signifies to suspend action. The white poplar. to deanimer. open the mouth. abie.— Roquef. In We . bocca badata. were called Brothers. to It. Q. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). ne wist what way to chuse. To Abet. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. to mind. Cat. attendre avec en^pressement. warten. covet. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. abbadare. with open mouth . signifies the direction of tend. expectation. also to OFr. or do we AS. deceit. baer. and E. abiiance. on the one hand. . intent observation. and Prov. Abele.) abayer. to deceive. to attend to. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. bana. bida.— ^richer. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. waiting. aspire to. beijen. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. in Fr. songer. F. John. compared with (Bosworth). baier. incite . badare.was formerly used in the sense of look. to desire. abet. beidan. in Dan. forbearance. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. abidan. Du. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. OFr. tity of E. From abahier. ^couter avec dtonnement. gridare. de Champ. beter.Fr. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to expect gabeidan. to wait. delay. forms with the d effaced are OFr. Ni engigner ni abiter. deceiving. endurArt thou he that should come. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. 1 • . and in E. suffer b. white. bialodrze-w. usbeisnei. a bay or opening in the coast. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. to wait. desirer (Roquef. gola badada. . exciter. . abeter. house. to abide . verbeijen Sw. ' ' . expectation. bide of the d endure. Ducange. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. to hook. Norm. E. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. endurance. to tarry. with badia. or absorption watching. suspense. from Halo. beijen. wait. to ance. to stay. ceive. trick abetar. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. bhr. a right in suspense . (Vocab. to attend on . bouche bdante. abie. to be intent upon.

The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. —Bacon in R. abicgan. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. powerful. Tr. Milton. able.ynes. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. — e. It. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. R. fault being simply clothing. the Sir Tristrem. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. Boucher. strong. abolir. de la volatile. Abie. as habiller du chanvre. R. fit. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. O If tion. beidan. God. &c. 2nd Tale. sufficient. or bie. and death for handsel pay. abilej Prov. is the verb abie. to pay the penalty. without special reference to the notion of retribution. and Cr. ON. the Pardoner In the original. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. him with che. Mids. . For on board. Fr. God — dear. from Lat. power. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. abycgan. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. adapted . swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. suffer the Jul. to perish. forbid for mother's children should abye. P. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. habile. Chaucer. If it badare. durance in both applications. consequences of anything . habilis (from habeo.^and to make his power knowne. N. atling hem to her proper offices. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. The —Boucher. Merch. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. bord. when compared with Aboard. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. ! ! Cotgr. Q. to wear away. Cassar. must suffer for it. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. abide. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. was often used in the same sense. habilis is closely preserved. at hand). a board. abidge. the Fr. — Able. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. the side of a ship. to redeem. properly abuy. Dr. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. — P. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. convenient. within the walls of a ship. to pay the purchasemoney. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. In this to erase or annul. to draw fowls. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. Lat. within the ship. from AS. as E. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. on board . Fr.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. abeye. to . have-like. expert. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. al- be found so some will dear abide it. at kasta fyri bord. Prol. to dress hemp. abilh. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. bide. She shall abie that trespass dere. L. willing to schewe his wrathe. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Spenser. i. abigg. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. purpose. F. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. 2. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. though sometimes confounded with it. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. P. use. to have . and the simple buy. abie. while in later examples As I . Innan bords. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. in for any special purpose. AS. abie to Goth. being disabled in the highest degree. Wickliff in Richardson. bidan. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. aboleo.

Gael alaich. Above. from . abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. Lat. natural ed direct from the latter language. to main. break out. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. to cut short. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. See To Bray. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. Kiittner. outward. AS. above. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete.aboon. Goth. nourish. which passed into English under Abominate. Severe the threatened evil. to bring up.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. the vital spark. Thonne Abroach. vital PI. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. af-oolden. breaking out in language. and in-d-oles. butan. and also to abridge. parent. en. about cockcrow. Abundant. progeny. — . the form a&^^. to aggravate. seems aras. way Sw. abowen. the hair grow. literally. Then. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. becomes leu in Prov. AS. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.1. ufan. snatch In English we speak of away. sec seftre — Chaucer. levis to the Romance languages. around on the out. So in Lat. OSw.ger. Abrdger itself. which may God avert. ala is made to signify to rear. titan. to beget or give birth to children. explains soboles Lat. but from Lat. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. abufan. is a ively. to grow up. . Melibaeus. leading immediately to Fr. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. by the to bring up. af-oleii. To abray or abraid. to awake. brood. See -und-. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. awaking.foda signifies to beget. abredan. or cut short.. alere capillos. abrcBgdan. In the same brevis . gravity. to turn. full ofte his words for to Fr. to light a fire the Abraid. kindling. Tale. heavy. ol.— Abbreviate. currence. D. No doubt if we had not so complete a About.ymbutan. Abray. to fatten. to start.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. the man dwindles away. and to do something to avert abbreviate. adolere. as the duty of nourdisposition. hard. abracan. alan. life. s —Casdmon. is not from G. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. agredge. to nourish. to rear. to rear. abrdger. Thence to regard greugetat. Fr. abominor (from ab and omen. of any kind . onbutan. and alere flammain. to break off. to let sleep.' Ymb hancred utan. while the sense of beget. Virg. without. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. al is growth. or young forth. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. to grow together. from Fr. abbrechen. to feed. gravis. Quod abominor. bufan. — ' — — preceding verb. abbrechen. OE. . Prov. below.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. and bidden him abregge. alan. abbreviare. to progress. nurse. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to produce. a portent). on high. The radical idea is to feed the flame. oil. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. Of these synonymous adolescere. as withotityn and without. the OSw. For on broach. ala. disastrous portent in some passing oc. agreujar. pedigree from brevis. abutan. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat.) . to snatch. his contemporaries. AS.' Parson's rence. To Abound. Sc. OE. draw out.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to AS. be-ufan. nurse Lat.the older form. ABOMINABLE adolesco. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. Finnish stock. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. alUger. side. as AS. coalesco. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. greu. to feed. to and of giving birth to a litter of young.. whence the Fr. the idea of breaking about . for ligeth butan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. common in Chaucer and Abominable. Du. be-utan. while the verb alleThe root el. motion. boven. the identity of which with ting. giving birth to. that greatly agredge their sin. d. The primitive idea seems that of beget. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. and also. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root.

;

6

ABROAD
thrust, butt,

ACCOUTRE
In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as

way

the G. stossen, to
is

push with the horns, &c.,

He

who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their

m

Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato
;

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to

own

country.

taught.

But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.

Accede.

—Access. —Accessory.

Lat.

Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,
ill

Fr.

abscez,

humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,
or
;

;

the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.
Cic.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as
:

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the


; ;

;

ACCRUE
vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.
;

AD
Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.

7

sacristan
clesice

Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

Ludwig.
sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem

dium

accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.

The

original

meaning

of

would thus be to perform the
;

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance
is

Grimm

akran,

fruit,

;

;

Achromatic.
free
tive,

Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe
!

and Ache.

A

is

your

joy.

same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the
rest,

Kilttn.

cries of grief.
is

The

Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some
impending

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.

—A

of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion

a.

;:

8

ADAGE
Adage.
Lat.

ADJUST
W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.

OHG

adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be

'

'

swouning,

—to

dawne

that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.
;

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.
9.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs
I

or

com

or

addle

my

ninepence every day.

— Hal.

hay

Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,
:

'

;

A

attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly

satisfactory,

were

it

not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo
its

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run
crease.

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

ADJUTANT
Dte
sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

ADVOCATE
Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.
to

9
puts

that

one

was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and
title

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
to
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival

E.

advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,

'

Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.
from
videri,

;

Captain-general Church.

of

the

Holy Roman with
The
'

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.
Sire,'
'

Hence

In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.
;

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be

wouM

So

that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.

ded

That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to

;

We

flatter.

from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,

Adult.

grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.

Whence

He

Weened

looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,
son,

boy,

lo

ADVOWSON
call for help, to

AJFRAY

to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal

person

ket,

Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded
was
c?i}ii^6.

the cause of another,

who whence
a

patromis.

afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after

Advowson.

From

the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in
affeerers

Due.
Affiance.

—Affidavit.

From_/?ifi?j,

was

formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to
;

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.
like

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.
fil,

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And

putte

hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon

hit

walde him

for-

Adze.

AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.

wSisthetios.
oiT0i)mc,

The

science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —

;

AFFRONT

AGHAST

n

eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under

Tho

in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.

With

The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to

Gower

in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.

The

Jam.

Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.

;

AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose
;

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,
to
irritate;

agga, to
to

irritate,

disturb.

gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

horror.
the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.
.

The French exclaimed
All the whole

vi.

Probably the word

may be

explained

.

;

12

AGISTMENT
Fris.

AIM
dial.

In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-

from

guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.

—Baker.

;

;

Fr.

had ghir,

to

lie

;

whence
;

giste,

a

able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.
;

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan
fits

Ague.

A fever

Journal.

Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.
'1

Si

non qu'une

fiivre

aigue vous presse

les cotds.

Raynouard.

The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.

A

On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue

A

Aid.
tare,

Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-

;

tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,

For

in

swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve

Whan

that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a

Agog.

quagmire.

— Hal.

'

He is

all

agog to

go.'

shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,

To
;

'

A

!

;

AIR
his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.

ALERT
tions.

13

— —

Las.!

Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched

me

!

Alas

M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.

—Raynouard,
me
I

You have how Uttle

it

given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

Alchemy.

The

;

A

;

;

;

;

.

;

;

!

A

;

;

14

ALGATES
som a
fair

ALLAY
gull
saei.'

Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
another.
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was

as

used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.

Always
manner

itself is

Algebra.

From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as
;

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly

Two

&

Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.

Quo

be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran
;

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was
this,

— Catafogo.

To
alienus,

alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,
Lat.
foreign.

Alien.

And

make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
That
shall alegge this bitter blast,

ybore.

To Alight.
(from
lei,

Dan.
light),

lette,

Du.

ligt,

signify to

lift,

ligten to

And

slake the winter sorrowe.

make

from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have
;

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.

Tempest.

;

So

to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other

ever.

tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-

and

continuance
series,

throughout

an

extended

or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.

!

;

;

ALLEDGE
would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour
It

ALLOW

15

AUggid much of my In the original,
I.fi

languor.

—R.

R.

voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf

ma

douleur.

So

in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.
i

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief
'

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

France.
Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-

And

times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular
octals-jord,
;

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.
'

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic
laws,

—an ancient inheritance, from
and
an

Eetas, antiquitas,

allda-vinr,

alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-

from

aller, to go.

Alligator.

The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded
;

Two

i.

'

i6

ALLOT
il

ALMS
week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que

English
This
First

:

And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.

think

age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a
'

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to
tie
;

alligare, to tie to, to unite.

'

The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to
'

Almanack.

'

coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.
It.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to
hire.

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont
'

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare

and

allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the
'

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—
i\iriiio(Tvvri,

Alms.

— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals

'

would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

ALOFT
dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a
fices

AMAY
;

17

were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.

To

Alter.
it is

To make something
;

ot'vr

cupboard.

Almonarimn,

almorietum,

than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,

luft,

ON.

lopt,

loft,

OE.

lift,

the

air,

the

another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,

to

on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
sky.
*
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;

Kil.

eral.

Trop fesoient miex

cortoisie

A

Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and
;

A

toute gent

lonj: cc

que

erent..

Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.

Hence
initial

selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of
place,

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,

A

quell.

and dlugo,

long.

Upon

the walls the Pagans old and
still,

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the

The

Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.

hwom

OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,
dull,
spiritless,
;

to abate,
G.

matt,

faint.

It.

matto,

mad,

foolish

wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.
;

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.
R.

R

1737.

In the original

Derived

—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to
;

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,

&c

To Amay.
dispirit
;

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,

Altar.

The

fire-place

on which

sacri-

despond

;

desmayar
2

se,

to faint

;

OPort.

i8

AMBASSADOR

AMERCEMENT
The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was

And
So

his
all

menye

at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and

for

He

amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms

are,

according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a
ant,
;

serv-

OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,
ambaht,
office.

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time

;

the

word was becoming

obsolete.

Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '

;

'

'

'

'

:

;

'

:

'

A

;

:

;

;

AMNESTY
cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.
First,

AN
for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and
also,

19

an

al

hys ost

An

thogte anon

amorwe

strong batayle do. R. G. 319.

Secondly,

and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.

Which

Affeer.

were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I

man

Amnesty.
fivao/iai,
I

Gr.

aiivijirTHa

{a

priv.

&

remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if

(/"and

and if

or simply

an

I

pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest
sei-vant

my

boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou

dalliest,

then

I

am

thy foe.
in

Ben Jonson

R.

In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.
;

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is

extremely

difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against

evil.

From

Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.

To

give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,
sensible
level.

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as

The

upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand
;

;

;

2 *

;

20
these

ANA
propositions
as

ANGER
equally

thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;

certain,

wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.
;

'

'

'

when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of
ality

— Palsgr.
forth.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,
ing.

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.
AS.

;

See Atom. Ancestor.
Lat.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense
;

;

;

'


;

Pied. Diez.

Sicil.

anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na
That
is

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.

Ancle.

Bruce,

i.

235.

bably

Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,

I

have had.

— R.

R.

Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.

;

;

And.

See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.

andela,

hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the


; ;

;

ANGLE
compression, tightness.
pressed,
tus,
strait,

ANTHEM
G.

21

narrow;

eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the
;

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.
;

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium
;

'

aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
in
odi, hate, disgust
; ;
;

;

'

;

the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.
spirit,

life

Anodyne.

Gr.

avt\ioq,

from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,

oSvvrt,

pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,
Gr.
dvdifioKoe
(a

to blow.

Anomalous.
and
i/iaXbg,

priv.

glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.
fire

To Anneal.

To

level,

fair),

irregular, devi-

And
I

lilce

a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-

tinually.

aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

Answer.
in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,

to

From

AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on

fire,

and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to

engage

for, to

assure.

Marsh.
* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.

The

Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.

What

in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.

A

apatiar. Antidote. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. to strike G. swaged. part.legacy of given against. Percutere. finally applied to a whether grotesca. anxius. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. something ler in R. trouble. d<popi(xnbs. Antler.th centuries the recognised models of antic. post. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. i. such as savages. transferred to the grotesque characters. gabeigs. rich. anticus. Prov. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. from in and cudere. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. from eigan. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. as the Italians. AS. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. but the expresent day. d. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals.—Aperture. Thus from gabe. should be received. white. a termination equivalent to Goth. a gift. of. incus. Hall's Chron. and devils. verberas. anxi. whence Prov. one. the anticks — behind. what Roman civilisation. Aperient. to display pario. strangle. to strike. as we call it.is to be given. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. or antique single chamber. one at the least. Fr. eigs. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. set aside. left as the . as from as. Anxious. wealth. from avTiipoiuia). Pezron fiUist. : . before.made out. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. anfilts Pl. surimitation of the ancient models. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. from ante. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Apart. bread. panis. Fr. As the browcalled antiques. See Cover. Lat. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. to have. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. amboltj Du. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. stem. Ful- Apanage. Antick.D. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. and claret wine. Gr. press. to bring forth. Apartment. plenteously with red. E. whence anthem. aside. from. to sound in answer. ReApe. to go in strange disguises. Aphorism. To ape. separate. Lat. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. to strain. antefn. or in a ridiculous dress. Hence the applica. Otfried. villan Gloss. separate purpose. from. Lat. from ango. andouillers. choke. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. like a jack-pudding. — — — . before. three antike pillers. panar. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. —Spencer. a definite . Gr. apertum. which by anvild. all of gold.. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. antifena. AS. inAgain from the same author cudis. were andouiller the second. So Lat. anapoz. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. on. from an. some one. avri^ava. Any. aperio. from Stephanus. fauns. Lat. as posticus. The Fr: form antienne stcfn.— . a small quantity. from the imitative habits of monkeys. AS. Gr. af. to imitate gestures. cenig. apanage. work. and ig. ambeld. in Shakespear. a block to hammer on. Antique. a puppet or an anti^hona. a preventative . Apartment. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. were chiefly of the former class. vex. from an and — - . ab. Mannequin. Fr. to open. a few. younger child. Anvil. Ilvtwotov. In like manner. one having wealth. to nourish. to support. burnished. G. To go antiquely. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. . Jorioc. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R.

to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Formerly apricock. is a man who has lost his vigour through age.pareil. 11. poind. Apo- good time. in fact. properly to join like to like. appaiser. iwKjToKri. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. Hence appoind. to fit. kind of action. known. consent unto. Apostle. order. in data. to be open to view. They were considered To Appoint. Lat. one is in. The Fr. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. approcher. whether through age or sudden teiTor. manner. to call. Palsgr. H. From Lat. from aTroorlXXu. Nouv. apin R. To cause to pall (see Pall). equal. — prehendere. — Appurtenance. pronounce fitting). seiden of the stones. appareiller. to deter- to strike. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. to lose one's senses. to commend.— . fit- — ness. one the MLat. Sp. habilUr. or the like. par. aptly. N. to assign or grant over unto. To Appraise. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to deaden. like. off. Gr. word was specially applied to clothing. OFr.—Apprentice. Yr. apprentis. — Apprise. to set a price on.parecchio. Gr. 'LaX. Apple. to send off. Yr. to approach. pretium. praise. A — . value apprdder. esteem. habiliments. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. were formed appropiare ejar. cepl. appris. peler. pragigua or prixcoda. ON. And whanne sum men Lat. jabloko. mine. to understand. apparecchiare. an epistle or letter. when the . to dress in this fashion. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. ^wss. plight. and also as appraise. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. Fr. approcdare. Ir. APRICOT off. Fr. Approach. corresp. a crime. piteux poind. w. to mark to define a bound. apprise. ciously than nede is. case. good. —Diez. appellare. Gr. to finish a controversy. Epistle. from paix. 5w. to make a thing Apparel. opportunity. appartenir. find Then like Fr. — Approve. pronounce good. prover. : — — speak 'Lz. For their acquaintance was not come of new . that it outfit. a learner. make a composition between parties. Cotgr. to — . From Gr. in commendation. in Chaucer. to disable oftat. ap. to learn.propius). and metaphorically to take the meaning.parejo. En peach. prize. apropid. to send to. . to take away or lose the vital powers. to — — . taking. apropchar. Friar's Tale. They werin his approvirs privily. To praise. quoth the frere. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. Fabian in R. a'^opi'Jw. (cited by Diez from a late author). Pliny. to deem good. peace. laven is used both as E. from. Fr.probare. Lith. after his mind . the good. Cotgr. apal. a price. to seize. to call for judgment. Walach. apar. to catch hold of. diminutive pariculus. Fr. despatch on some service. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Cent Nouv. Fr. a thing for one's purpose. Gr. APO sentence opoQ. whence the e. It. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Parson's Tale. —^Apparent. pertain or belong to. diroTrXriaatii. set a price on. lAfiaam. e.prix. AS. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. oVooroXof. probare. of. in good season prendre son d. The PI. trim. . S^. d-n-o. ai. away. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. approver. Apprehend. ar. to rate. 'L-zX. aparelhar. 23 . I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to which it is often referred. appareo. to announce. apprehendere. Fr. An old appalled wight. Fr. or E. obolys. to learn. array. prope (comp. avail. to Lat. From Lat. to store or put Appal. Prov. Appease. Cotgr. irpaiKOKiaov. and in the sense of condition.t. apprendre. poind. proper time came. And among other of his famous deeds. Mod. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. dress. purpose. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. Appareil. one for his defence. Apoplexy. To Appear. to suit. agreeing with "LtA. landmark. become dizzy . one sent out. decree. . allow. Prov. preparation.his giving evidence against his principal. to accord. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. apal. D. rise to \t. Fr. like. Apotliecary. agree. horror. prohts.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. to strike down. — dirondtfiu. near. I prise ware. and appoinder (to find fitting. to come near. to approve. diroBrjKr}. xv. Hence It. i.

however. water Which that benchid was. properly the arwella. Roquefort. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. Gr. a lot. Albanian. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. and the one who gives oracles. short. doubtless is the origin of E. Lat. be That it inne groweth. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. She made. or barm-cloth. nawl and awl.) E. and sortilegus ation. 331.o. is taken in is a soothsayer. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. intensitive of nape. symbol. A.shrubs {arbor). words derived from arpa. man. Now one of the points — — — . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. to plough. ahva. Hall. as ihe diminutive. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. OHG. derived. P. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. ap. scr.sors. and taken away before dessert. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. con. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. or eft. and thence fit. C. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. aa. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. . a pleasure-ground. arwaus. arbitror arwaaja. From OE. divining rod. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . opinio. It is certain that the apricot oracle. a lot. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Pm. suitable.meaning at Shrewsbury. conjicio. sortium ductor. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. OE. sestimatio arbitraria. nected. wata. aestimo. shortdr. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. . Pr. Aquatic. account for either of these significations. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. This path Aqueous. tion under trial. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. Now we find in Fin. arwelo. 2. . Lat. Thus we have natiger and auger. most conspicuous situation in the garden . nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. as an eye-witness. to decide by lot. J. of of divination arpa-mies. aro. Arbitrate. la nappe. found in Fin. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. {mies ^=ia3. ear. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. fastened close. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. Arbour. 31.' —About. arbiter in re censendS. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. a cloth. P. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. It will be observed in how large a proportion of .] in the N. Maan initial . hariolus arpelen. — . grande nappe. Flower and Leaf. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. Alban. Marsh. Freshly turnid Arable. aha. Prol. a river. Beryn. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. aptus. arbiter. and a protection of the clothes. pracoqua was not an adapt. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a lot. rofe and all.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. conjectura conjec^ra. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. auguror. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. sorcerer. naperon. ughe. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. The loss or addition of n very common. From OFr.. proper. arbitrium. the spelland umpire. Lat. a soothsayer. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. delon. and with turfis new Goth. garden. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. aqua. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. to preserve it from stains. Naprun. . an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. — napkin is Naperon. arpa. As is a pretty parlour. however. herbere. It may be doubted. quod he.

particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. a chief builder. sly. the most arrant trash. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. malicious. a branch. gwyro to bend. gwyrek. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. to Arch. arson. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . AS. Sax. a rule (princiruler. a burning or setting on fire. kpxi- beginning. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. erz-bischof. arrant Arms. adjective. arga. patus). bad of its kind. arma. . contemptible. ramend). Arid. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. as in E. it signifies roguish. ars. fainthearted. Du. while the Fr. arm. vescovo. Arcliives. Gr. timid. arrig. wanton. bad. apxri. Arson. aridus. Sp. Gr. aj-f. D. sly. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. A construct. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. * ArchjAiTaxit. from areo. rame. wretched OE. mischievous. un malin enfant. Aristocracy. i. sluggish. TiKToiv. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Dan. to be on fire. . earg. ardre. det arrigste snavs. Lat. et vulgari verbo. apxtipfve. and Kpurka. worker. to demonstrate. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. arcA in e. arch-bishop. especially shoulder-joint. Arduous. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. to be in comp. ON. an extent of flat surface. are formed the participial nouns. burning heat. From apxeiov was formed Lat. and must be identified with Dan. Applied in modern E. un petit rusd. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. arduus.. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. 3340. whence the body of the nobles collectively. a noble. ein arger knabe. There can be no doubt that E. by Russ.' Lex. erz in G. arsum. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. ruling by the nobles. Gr.' Paul Warnefrid. shoulder. first. Lat. branch. arwe. a. G. earh. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. a bow. ' — Argue.is the natural weapon of offence. ardIn G. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt.aioj. make clear or prove. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Alisaunder. taxed with cowardice. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. exercise lordship). an arrant rogue. to burn .. area. argr.4 rir/. erg. It. and our army. weapon. Langobard. armada. G. high.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. signifies chief or principal. ancient. curved. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Ardour. receptacle where the public acts were kept. Lat. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. Lat. bravest. . a court yard. ill-tempered. government. as the arch of a bridge. ardeo. arcus. Fr. . Lat. arg. Area. Lat. a bare plot of ground. W. . of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. armee. ramo (pi. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. in Due. fabricate). lofty. which is derived from it. man. apxtlov. apxh. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Gr. forearm . arguo. and not with apx. Lat. ers-betriiger. weapon may be simply an application of annus. shoulder Boh. raineno. Cot. curved line. faint-hearted. Uo^a^. difficult to reach. archangel. arm. the terminaGael. Fr. earm. an arch-deceiver . to dry. Brem. 2. Du. arm'ee. Arch in composition.— Army. ^Argument. And thou as arwe coward. bad. troublesome. a threshing-floor. an arrant usurer. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. to arm. is essentially the same word. argvitugr. Lat. the court of a magistrate. stuff. apx^iv. the a brute. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Fr. — Architect. morally bad. Arcadia in R. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. From the verb armare. mischievous. Ardent.' the Gr. to rule. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. The . from nixa. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. ardor. which has been referred to W. vocaveris. Arm. armata. — Wtb. een erg kind. Perhaps erz-wticherer. an arch boy. the best.In E.

;


; ;

26

AROMATIC
dispose,
see

ARSENAL
prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.

order,
is

The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from

apufia,

sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and

;

;

;

;

;

.^

From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

Jamieson.
orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.
Ptg.

Arrack.

araca,
;

From

Arab.

a7-ac,

sweat

to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize

seems

;

his person.

To Arrive.
come

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming

;

more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the
^

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and

Saga

ciple

It.

Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.
'

To Array.
or

It.

dispose

beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,

and

in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,
is

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament

OFr.

array er,

arrier,

to

of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the

:

:

ARSON
Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

AS
and
thence the modern Fr.
atelier,

27

—Engelmann

a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod

eligantur

duo

vadant

cum

officiali

Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense

Arson.

See Ardent.

Art.

in the production of

;

:

trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.

omnes
of

alias artillarias sibi

com-

A Statute
qui

Edward

II.

was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the

We

of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the

Book

of

bow and

'

'

'

'

'

Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,
;

xii.

795.

word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,
;

xii.

782.

Quod

sit

i.

e.

whom men

held as without equal of
'

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis

dicta.

—Due.

his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er

ist,'

—such a one

28
.

ASCETIC
R. Brunne.

ASSASSIN
synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.
.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.

En

But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.

etclenk-

=

;

;

alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.

^

Askew.
schief,

ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,

schdf,

wry

Hence
Ash.

the idea of exercising rigorous
I.

self-discipline.
2.

The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.
Dust.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.
;

Ashlar.
Sc. aislair.

Hewn
'
:

stone.
le

OFr.

aiseler,

From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put

Entur

temple— fud un

out of

its

place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz

awry.

Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a
the

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam
then,

in centering. in

Aisselier,

carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or
esselier,

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.
;

A

;

— —

;

'

;

;

;

;

; ;

ASSAY
of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.
;

ASSOIL
to fix

29

these behests, the

name

a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—

de

I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,
'
;

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
weight.
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.

OE.

Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it

in

weighing,

a

trial,
;

standard
i^ayiiiZui,

weight.

And

suffice

not for asseth.

—P.

Plowman,

'Efayioj/, pensitatio

examine,
ampu-

p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus
tetur,

And
left to

Pilat willing to

make

aseeth to the people

in

Due.
tit

quoque,

fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,

quemadmodun

vultis ponderate.

—Zeno,
the

ibid.

gio, a proof, trial,
;

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe
'

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.

satis-

facio.

rise

'

;

—Vulgate.

'

simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.
.

From

Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,
Pol.

syt, syty, to satisfy.

satisfied,

full

;

The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.

;

samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as

thai
I

harde say.
in

Wyntown

Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set
;

;

Jam.

day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse

And

iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,

;

Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a

Y

;

;

;

30

ASSUAGE
pour.

ATTAINDER
Atmosphere.
Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges

Atom.

and

Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,

&c.

To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei

Were

wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.
ripe

Mais moult m' assouagea
translated

1'

oingture

—R.

R.

wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,

Lod.

Is

there
?

division

twixt
;

my

Lord and

Cassio

Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult
breathing.

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love

I I

would do much
Othello.

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.

The

idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one

Or

amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.
;

Fab.

et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.

oneden

Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.
;

put

Pm.
Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,
;

stunned.
Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the

Astute.

Asylum.

to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.
;

commence war
;

to

engage in battle
fire

il

on

:

globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or

;

ATTIRE
convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the
attitude.

AUGER

31

ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,

Attorney.

Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed

by

put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est
cil

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.

Auburn.

Now

applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call
hair,

tress.

The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good
navie.

—Ibid.

The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-

By

tores,
isti,

&c.

Men

&c.'

—Due.

Hoc

viderunt et audierunt
is

At the present day the term

confined

Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.

attour.
Polit.

— R. R.
ajuster,

Songs.

OFr.

to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.

atirer,

attirer,

atirier,

See Oaf
holes,

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer
:
:

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.

—Palsgr.

Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible

prima

facie to say

whether an n has


;

;• ;

32

AUGHT
in the

AVER
the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,
;

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.

Avalanche.

A

fall

of

snow

sliding

down from higher ground
Carp.

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a
thing.

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.

A

!

They

left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.
!

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.

A

Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.
!

venire, to

come.
;

Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.

A

and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied
airbc,

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,

.

power.

Automaton.
udoiim,
I stir

Gr.
;

avrSixarot,

self-

moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,

and

noua

Autumn.
times

myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou
averia,

;

AVERAGE

AVOID
mes
avei-s.
I

33

of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.

il

oocist

We

The general meaning damage by accident or

;

'

;

'

'

'

'

3

;

34

AVOIR-DU-POISE
Here the word may be interpreted

AWARD
^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the
:

modern meaning.

So
:

in the following
I

A

passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do

dissuade

Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.

And

my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted
bid
ieria,

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.

Prov.

avoutrador, OE.

avowterer,

an
;

adulterer.

A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):

;

;

-

superior.
Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-

modo

Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.

cabit,

nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.

;

;

AWE

AWK
I

35

—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.
is

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were
three,

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.
reken,
I

barons the wisest that

And
And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look
let

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons

That

hii

and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.
;

To

stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was
this;

lo

1

That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.
;

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.

Ac

is

That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.

—Holland,
of,

Pliny in R.
a/,

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.
lb.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

no.
Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.
;

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;
ofiig-fleiri,
left

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,
terrify,

a

flat-fish

with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo

w

Awgrim.
As

Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri
;

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,
foolish,

mad.
different G.

And no

thing availith.

The
p. 414.

Political

Poems, Cam. Soc.

ous

;

forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *

;

36
sinister
;

AWL
d.
dial,

BABE
abech,
dbicht,

primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
abich,
; ;

The

Awl.

ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,

ever.

alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,

Awn.

A

Esthon. aggan,
*

chaff.

or

Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may
;

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,

by

Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.
:

;

B
To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe

On

this

matere

I

might

Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.

P.

same meaning with
the syllable ma.

babble

was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;

:

;;

BABOON
prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a

BACKET

37

plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age

mamma

or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty

work

There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had

;

any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape
;

;

inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-

backwards,

verted

;

Russ. opako, naopako, wrong

paki

man. Bachelor.
root.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.
girl,

servant,

make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to
;

;

;

;

;

A

;

A

was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,
bachalUer,
;

young

soldier,

;

;

Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j

It.

bacinetto,

a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open

;

38
;

BACKGAMMON

BADGER

Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.

—H^cart.

Baokgammon.
(also bakke-bord),

a

tray,

From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur

(says

Ducange)

doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.
'

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or
;

by Shakespeare
blood.

in the sense of dabbled.
all

Their hands and faces were

—Macbeth.

badged with

ODu.

The

Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.

(insignc)

feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer

Now
les

(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the

sow.

analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the

Bad.

G. base,
I

Du.

boos,

malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus
a
little

perversus, malignus.

Unconnected,

Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et

A

caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on

Bage

signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,

would

The

For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a
;


;

;

BAFFLE
skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie
;

BAGGAGE
man
is

39

and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is

A

We

;

;

;

We

;

:


:

;

f

undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.
;

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Derived
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,
tie,

Baggage.

— —

40.
'

BAIL

BAIT
half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.
'

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.

Bailiwick.

The

vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,
i.

e.

servuli,

Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive

officer

limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.
son
et
d'elle.

hommage

— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam

'

lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,
;

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.

;

'

BAIZE
to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.
signified
ball.

BALDERDASH

41

made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely
;

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,
beta,

beita,

Sw.

spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;

fledged.

Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,
is

.

.

Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white
its

skin above

beak.

The

real identity of the

word bald

in

'

;

;

;

the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.
;

;

en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to
;

His head was hallid and shone as any

glass.

Chaucer.
Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;

bdl,

bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,
;
;

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,

;

;

;

;

;

palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it

or

ceiling

scaffold.

;

chatter,

talk

;

dov-dask, chatter
;

fit

to

Fl.

deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a
;

pallikka. Ugutio in Due. a wooden partition . Perhaps on. to be ill. to ache. mass. the object of his expectation. to cause another to miss pustule. Mid. sorrow. probably Lat. balare. ing. balka hopar. a ball. bielke. baler. taich. ache. a But making way for death at large to walke. N. Russ. lealo. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. A balk. boleii. Fr. to move. other while. stage or scaffold. I. a clump . i. Hence Dan. Ball. balken. balka. balkr. pilula. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. wickedness ness . a pail. OFr. ill. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. bal. to dance. bacgtteter. a washing-tub. To Bale out water. shouting.— Ballet. to avoid it. on. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. ' is a piece or confused talking.of men . Rouchi ban. Goth. heap up. ne leaving any balke. hooting. bjdlki. to paddle in water . to wave. ballotta. palloilla. ball. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. ballet. gen. balja. destruction. balk. bealwes. Boll. and evil in general. ballare. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. To baulke the Sir H. on. Sw. vcdra bdlkr. package of goods. to rock. Gr. dial. to see-saw. bal. . Q. Fr. a continued noise of waves gently beating . to shake or jog. wickedtorment ON. with the perhaps from balg. a dance. palla. a. to be balker. roof. e. ON. to plough for a boundary between lands. Gael. balle. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. bol. Sw.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Dan. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. malefacGower in R. to bale out. bal-daed. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. a scene acted in dancmg. ballare. a water-skin dim. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. globule. pila. Grief. plague. E. chapurrar. maan pallikka. dial. Bowl. palcare.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . sickness. F. balle. bolker. bolyatchka. ball. a clapping or flapping of wings. Ballata. to pack Da. to partition off . bola. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Baulke of land. balva-vesei. Bret. ballone. a great ball. Balloon. balka bunge. cka. AS. We have then separate dial. a bubble. to ail. ballar). to dance.ing. separaison. grieve . a balk of foul weather. Sw. the breadth from side to side . ball. a boil. bdlkr. the beam of a ship. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. . may exhibit the original development of the signification. a globe. tum. similar connection is seen in Sp. Wotton. on the shore. to Not sparing wight. It. dial. from bacquet. . Pol. ballan. Da. Ballot. Da. hue et illuc inclinare. uveirs bolk. boll. a skin.—Ballad. . (Hesych. as we say. to on Holmedon's plain. a ball balla. a clod of earth water. Sw. at giore en balk. calamity. a division of the old laws. a ballot). balle. balla (with the augm.' speak gibberish champurrar. It. misery Du. a separate portion. baloier. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. pallo. In like manner Fr. the ballet of the theatres. a pill. Sp. sick. trouble. OHG. It. Hence.Fr. a ballad. maleficium. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. says Ray. blister. balken. balle. a partition. 2. Sw. Du. Sw. It. bolyaf. Fin. to roll. to signify washy drink. a pestilence. and the dim. Bohem. are applied to a From the same analogy. a together in the form of a ball. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. a ball. G. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. a ball. a dance. bold. * Balk. bolawy. as in a barn or cow-house. afbalka. to stir. a ball. balge. balk. to plank. Fr. ball. balk. bala. floor. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). bol. See Gall. Sw. to speak an un. weak liquor. bbllr bulla J. whether of wood or stone. G. OSw. — A — — . a beam. bal. TtaKKa a pail or tub . Bale. bollr. Ball. Sw. ballare. beaten road. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. pain. torment. The primary sense seems as in G. to grieve . baalie. balk. Du. vacillare. 3. . baalien. on.). balloon. dial. balveins. pallo. It. . a ball or pack. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . . Venet. ban. to by beams.Lat. ballo. a beam. w. pallukka.

deceive. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. This is the backload. &c. but loadage. command. a fragrant gum. seems the original form of the word. a young babe. lastre. bamein. also with flatteries and . baume. a battlement . ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. Lest. forbid. bag-las. a rod. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. balconies. 43 — Cot. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. called Bait. like Fr. It. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. . and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Fr. Mr Marsh whether the a load. galleries. bamboccio. To make fun of a person. deceiver. 1. inutilis sarcina.. curse. lastra. baltresac. Venet. objects to the foregoing derivation. endormir par des contes. railing around altars. analogous to what is seen in It. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. ^a\Ba\iov. from Lat. paid for the right of carriage. Baltic. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Lat. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. is in Sweden and Norway. bambolo. bam. Bret.Lat. bambocciolo. terraces. to enchant. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. inutile onus. — — oltriga. a nettle. ballustre) is a corruption. The Baltic sea. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Balm. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. sorcerer.). To proclaim. by met. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. ballast. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. baU. To Bamboozle. urtica. a small balustrade. ^Arbuthnot in R. an Old dotard or imbambolare. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. balustrade barandilla. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. barandado. baUa. from bara or vara. But Fr. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. bertesca. small railing. Ballast. When a ship discharges. fonts. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. little round and short pillars. or ballast of a ship. To Bam. bumbazed. . Sc. ballustres. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. lastagium signified not only ballast. enchanter. Report Pennsylv. ranked on the outside of cloisters. more serious objection is . of balusters. make fun of a person. lestage. 1854. lest. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. To Ban. &c. bag-lest. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. denounce. To deceive.000 tons. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. the act of walking.' And Kil. in the first place. for want of other freight. a false tale or jeer. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. It is explained back by Adelung. Bret. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. Fr. Said to be from balaustia. mare Balticun. age. balsamum. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. more frequently than outward-bound. In OSw. back of the ship. to walk. a useless load.that the going vessels. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. last. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Bamour. baranda. Gr. The Sp. the flower of the pomegranate. i860. and Mid. It. to preserve equilibrium. dial. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. R. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. for a load or goods (Roquef. A — — . If bambocciolare were child of one. explains ballast. as he says. Balsam. Cotgr. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Balluster. puzzled. because. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Sept. barauste. Du. astonished. or movement of one who walks. Dan. a duty on goods last. the backload. Sp.

band. says Muratori. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. banns pany of footmen serve. whether by way of injunction or for- command. . side. A. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. tener da alcuno. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. hoc est vexillo. margin. to ban. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. in hostem convocare. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. 19. Sp. Mag. in Fr. ligue Taboada). banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Bandus. theodscipe ut abannan. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. to publish) banna. bandera ground at his mill.is further developed. ba?idare. to reprove.e. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. v. Band. Diss. 26. Sw. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. bannire in exercitum. bannum or bandum. R. and in E. bandi.. bound. Leg. bande. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Baud. band. we constantly find the expression. change to the feminine gender in banda. — excommunication bann-lysa. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. power. permission. bando. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. banner marked the place of assembly. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. curse. Capitul. those who side together (bande. From the verb to banda. Spebifid. admolendinum. It seems this signification has arisen. to take one to task. etc. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. banda the colour or material. In a special sense the term company itself.Lat. from at the Lord's courts. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. Goth. Wyntoun. — To partito d'alcuno. sostener Torriano. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. . feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. &c. 813.—John Villani in Due.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. It. bandon was used in the same sense. Ripuar. &c. populum. is That with which anything AS. authority. side. biddal. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. border. Fr. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. to . to form parties. Goth. D. bann. Cot. Car. OE. bande. to unite with a band. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. To Bandy. region. — R. at his own discretion. also the band or of marriage. It. to bring corn to be fahne. passing on from proclamation to command. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. to ctide.^ bandy. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. a company. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. the ensign or banner. E. and thence to any proclamation. See Abandon. 15. to excommunicate {lysa. The to . 2. Commun^ment son bandon. —R. bande. parti. Bandear. G. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. he assembled his host. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. then the signification w. ex. flag. banda. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Les saiges avait et les fols d. faction. i. fahne. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . banda. In Fr. Fr. There is some doubt how Fr. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. to side or to bandy (Florio). Se il — Romance languages. to follow a faction. and It. R- He Translated by Chaucer. bannire exercitum. summoning to serve So in Swiss. 'A son bandon. 1. It. Assises de Jerusalem. a coast. acquired the sense of proclamation. bundun. bindan. he bannede his ferde. Thus the word is also used in both senses. bandon somewhat party. In like manner we find bannire adplacita.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Sp. eiiseigne.

a bench. Bank. banca his creditors. Banister. shoal. Tibalt. When a man fails Lat. bench. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. s'associer. — Kil. Africa. See Banish. to work in wood. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. bana-sott. Du. banditti acquired the like signification. death-wound. a long raised seat. to slay. E. as of an explosion or a blow. bane. b'ang. many a bang. bakke. ON. Bandy. The ing. banc. for shame. Milton in R. stir. With many a stiff thwack. banja. —^Vocab. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. in R. home — Bandog. Roquefort.z. de- party. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. canis vinculis assuetus. se reunir. Lat. banka. Fr. eminence. Brewer. — — whence E. &c. rap hatike et som The Susu. a bench. and therefore tied up. banke. . ruptus. But natheless wife at I bank. banca fallita. to join in league with others against Cotgn. bance. the same verb the It. a blow. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. to make a stir banke. 2. a rising bank. bank of river. a table. The word is in E. Dan. to cabal. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Benvoglio. Bankrupt. A Shipman's Tale. Bang. Hudibras. the slope of a hill. bannire. See Band. clouds. Your stool. death-blow . the back. from banc. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. It. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. bank. banc G. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Sw. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. a bankrupt merchant. — Paulus drive in a nail. disturbance banga. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. put under the ban of the law.: . The ridge of a hill is AS. Diez. ON. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. of bandying words. Fr. to foment factions. &c. The child cries bang! fire. . bandi. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. From Mid. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. 45 — — Bandit. the former Fr. benk. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. distinguishes bekkr. bana. back of a knife. at canis peciiarius. bandire.HG. It. in the same way that E. a counter. outlam came to signify a robber. It is in this sense nounce. follow a party. From a desk . and hence. and OFr. bent as a bow. was formed the OFr. se joindre. whence the mod. language of W. ON. band-dog. in the sense of place of business. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. — . that the word is used by Romeo. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bankruptcy. bana. bench. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . a de Vaud. desk. Fr. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. and poise Their lighter wings.^ knock. Bantze. Banner. banish. Mercutio. to hammer in a nail. Lingua. Draw. to knock. g. forbear this outrage. eminence. among rotta. de sable. to bend a. broken. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. . compound for-bannir (pannire foras). — Fr. to knock. Bacon in R. N. a i. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. bandear. It. Benchi. a bank. Ripuar. bana-sdr. death-sickness. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. in the sense of a pirate. a bench. Mid. to publicly order one out of the realm. tumult bangas. standard. . a wound OHG. Fl. . dorsum was applied to ject. and bakki. To Bandy. bana. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. banco. AS. banqueroute. bang. See Balluster. band-hond. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. counter. pastoralis. roupt. Bane. large dog kept for a guatd. beat. panca. murderer. beating. Goth. to proclaim. bander. destruction . participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Banditti. bank of a river. Bandy legs are crooked legs. hricg. AS. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. seat . hammering. has bang-bang. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bank. bow. bank of Dan. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. a sand-bank. to beat. bander tin arc. Diaconus in Due. bander.

bar. Banneret. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. According to Diez the It. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. barrou-gwez. then fell among the foot. a beam or long pole of wood. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. a sign. a ban. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. barba. probably corSymbol. banneret. bandiera. a bantling. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. to beckon . from reifa. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. ^oTrriKio. ON. Fr. Sw. Fr. wrapped. Fr. It. Gr. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Fr. Gael. senh. To Banter. banneret was a higher class of knights. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. says. barrer.— Swift in R. Duo. a barrier or stoppage. banda hendi. to bend. barreau.8ap6^o)voe. senhal. signuin. and the work is done. Bap. barbed or trapped as a great horse. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. privileged to raise Barbarous. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. — We A . and he would seem to derive Goth. Barbar.cruel. merki. Lat. chan. iandvo. Hence Fr. and with an initial s. himself in Pontus. hence a repast. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. ban- Baptise. nestling. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. branches of a tree {gwezen. a war-beacon or war-signal. of banco. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. to wrap. to wash. sign. Barb. sparre. rarii. bandva. banne. by a repetition of the syllable bar. arineXov. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. as they call it. which is surely in barbed arrow. and from ensign or banner Prov. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Banquet. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Hence ner. period vexillarii. rod of any rigid substance. to having that signification. a tree). 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. barbarus.. of wind. banda. The origin is in all probability Goth. &c. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. heri-pau.. to dip. BARBAROUS reiflingr. senhal. jSdirTO).aTa Kul nest. Leduchat. E. a. The spar. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. a which the barrister addresses the court. ing term appears in other languages. Flesche barbeUe. from the same source. of a sign in general. bannereti. banniire. Thus Ovid. G. manu anto make signs nuere.46 BANNERET . and it was accord. or of this bantering. that the noise of voices Bantling. then branches. out of a wound. Gr. a bearded or Cot. either in the Gr. ingly very generally known by a name branches.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. . Lat. OHG. In a similar manner are formed yearling. remarked. Bret. banner. OFr. and even of calling it banter. uncivilised. &c. would rupted from Fr. token. banchetto. Lat. It may be thing. inur. men. Celtic bar. such as the Roman Eagle. E. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. The original import of their own banner in the field. ON. barde. jSa'pjSapoc. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. Barbe. 2. brushwood. top. barre. sparro. Fr. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u.the analogous syllable viur. barriire. a bench or table . benda. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. the word came to signify rude.hinder. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. The barb of an arrow is the sign . barbe. E. indeed. It. branch. speaking of battle. senheira. knight Bardd. To mock or jeer one. an animal a year old. sbarra. dim. barrack. OHG. in Gr. barra. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. —Cot. Barb. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. 3. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. It. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. inferior to a baron. summit. Fr. milites bannarii. i. A It.

Sp. Fr. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Barbel. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. /3opj3opwJu. small pack-saddle. barS. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . lb. ready money. G.— BARBEL merit of water. Gr. speak confusedly. A shrub bearing acid Diet. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. Fl. Thus the on. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. borbollar. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. gibberish. also to wallow like a seething pot. Hindost. Cotgr. to barbe or trap horses. waschen. ala. albarda. Gr. to bubble or boil. borboglio. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. is lb. Hall in R. . guazzolare. Lith. Diez. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. twattle. to grunt. Hatt-bard. — — Hence. It. barbarkama. a pack-saddle. guaszare. border of a garden bed. bdsas. open. Lex. — — — men. But Sp. skirmish. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. barboter. the quilted with. tree. barda. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. albarda'ah. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. as well as thwcEtta. Bardeau. Arab. skialldar-bard. unqualified. murmur . barguigner. barda. as well as the modern twaddle. Bare. skirt. the beard. barz. a long saddle for an ass or mule. i. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. to wash. a bardelle. to stammer. and in Flanders to vociferate. mutter. skola. Mod. Port. uncovered. to prattle. barbeum. — .) . muttering. Bargain. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. or more properly (says fer. . Lucan. barbar. bdla-khaneh. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. bds. barbeau. in the sense of fight. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Barberry. albardilla. tattle. haggle. berries. barbeter. baar. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. to It. quarrel . to gurgle. Etym. twcEtta. bar. Fr. Barder. — Cot. back. brabble in the making of a bargain. also to bind or tie across. to chafbargain. Pr. borbotar. Barde. the edge of a shield hval-barct. barbel. name Fr. which was of talking. Festus in Diet. to make an outcry . to rumble. Barbican. Port. a rumbling. w. the flap of a hat. in poetic language Bard for poet. It. upper chamber. Bret. bardd. scouthouse. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. and the word was used in OE. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Cotgr. borbulhar. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. a tumultuous assembly. bare baskojis. borborinha. Sp. /3£pjSepi^w. Russ. barefooted Sanscr. Barber. to bubble or spring up. coping. to mumble or mutter words. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Applied in E. axilla. bdsiis. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. bhasad. dial.' Cot. and Sc. uproar.— — Pm. horse armour covering the front. a jetty or outnook in a building. Cot. jargon. Bard. A7 to the and warlike. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. such as houses are covered Bardelle. Mod. brim.— Fl. barbaris. fortia —Strabo. Fr. Fr. baragouin. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. powdered all over. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. formerly used in the sense of tattle. OFr. in Fr. barbelin. Etym. and flanks. to boil or bubble up . the nakedness of a woman. boil. grumble (Lowndes. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. barbier. barbacane. bardes. used 2. a shingle or small board. stutter. barbugliare. Exposed to view. The Pers. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. barbulla. to plash or dabble. and foolishly. on.) to wrangle. saddle-cloth. border. berj G. — . Sp. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. baares geld. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. g. to stammer. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. The verb borrelen signifies in Du.

tion of the sound. See Barm. baratta. skuta. — Zeuss. baaren. limpets . the or prow of a ship. also a boat . — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Sp. bosom.Barum vel feminam. berm hoys. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. corn-shed. bread-corn. Originally man. v. berm. tumult. So ON. skutr. AS. as well as Scandinavian tongues. barone. . and is probably a true bartig. Garlick. beorcan. a stack. bark . limpets. then the bows pectus navis. a heap. from an imita- Barley. as baces-ern. It. Uzen. the fore or after end of a boat .) lihtes-ern. baralha. Barge. The origin may be throat. and the word. in the Brim. a boat. the G. to all the barca. barn. baimeach. dregs of oil. but the woman for the man. strife. to chop. the rack or manger. barn. at barka. Swab. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. hay-loft. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. barlys. baniffa. and ern. confusion. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. barki.' bardagi. Alam. barnis. i. Ibid. charlock. barley. a beak. Spectacles. baarn. OFr. bamagh. dispute . also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. ber (ace. Barn. contest. AS. Du. meta foeni. bread. edge. trouble. baron. ON. is simply the Bret. baralhar. Leg. hlaSa. barafunda. berem. — battle. barmr. Port. bcerme. giving rise to It. So also ON. dispute barattare. a heap . E. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. — de Berri. a baking place or oven. dispute. baragouin. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Gl. Bailey. squabble. barahunda. as. baerm. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. as. Ripuar. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Isidore in Rayn. barn. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. to rout. ON. From Fr. berm. baarm. name being given to spectacles. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. and 1. strife. to skin over barkandi. Kil. Baron. It. To Bark. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Tarn baronem quam feminam. the slimy substance brewing of beer. prominent part of a thing. wine.. —Bark. Provj bar (ace. baaring. barafustar. 2. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. brenig. husband. Prov. quant a perdu sa barja. bere. was barlic. to strive. Acervus. Romance barsie. bernac. bern. a lap. to shufSe. chaffer. . a. to scold. put to confusion. Du. dial. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. border. houbartij fsnile. lap. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. barnacles. Sw. The Goth. barley. entangle. . disorder. . fray. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. also to exchange. Vocab. herbs. OFr. contest. spectacles. Bark. strife. barlys {bara. barge. OSw. bard). a cap . Antiq. louzou. Camus. am. and llysiaw. beer. W. barlich. quarrel Port. Leg. dispute. Barbour in Jam. altercation. barretor. ON. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. barja. in Nat. to cheat. Dan. plants). commonly explained from bere. Port. varen.^Voc^. barms. limpet. berma. aheap. borkr. prasepe . and hence probably (by a metaphor. bosom . w. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. as in the case of Lat. a receptacle for barley or corn. As Goth. and may therefore be an Eastern word. barley. See formed Yeast. Lith. to wrangle. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. the A — Ihre. kani. one who stirs up strife. Sp. * Barnacles. struggle. astringent. adj. dispute . 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. The older form in e. Bemiques. (Ihre. baratta. barajar. Gael. barii. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. beornt. 2. bcern. ON. quarrel. — Barnacle. ThS man was not created for the woman. mhg. Bret. then honoured man. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. hemlock. Cornub. hladi. baron)^ Fr. barizeins indicates a noun baris. a lantern. bargain. we pass to the vert) barguigner. Sp. On the other hand.. Dan. a place. Rayn. Manx bayrn. a load. bern. a barn.

barre. fortification. It. barrique. Gael. brushwood. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. vir. bahre. a barrel. booth. bearg . vel pretiosos burellos. a man. beorg. a castrated hog . bier. tomb. breinej Du. baronculi. Bret. OE. from a tree to which a man is hanged. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. bara. Sp. sepulchre. were sometimes confounded. whence Barrow. Bargus or moreland. Antiq. A. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. Sp. Barrel. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. heap. barrier. baraignej Picard. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. staves. It. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. change of goods seems. vair. in Nat. a kind of coarse camlet. — — 15th Cent. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. became bidre.have been named from the haggling and gant. barile. sterilis. a bier. gwr. borov'. (Schmeller). bera. the two names. — Kil. over him. On chet — We — — their resemblance. ibid. in the first instance. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Barren. ^Barrator. barrique. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Bern. beorh. whenever Barrow-hog. Gael. baronetti. as cavalcade. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse.' Op. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. a word is always used in the plural number. It should be observed that. StiU he shows conclusively. semen non accipiens landiEL. It was not until the time of James I. 26. squabble. uncultivated. or simply bahre. man and wife. Barrister. dispute. Fr. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. beorgan. a barrow.parchanttuech. todtenbahre. a. fallow. Goth. where baronetti is written in the printed copies.root signifying confused noise. bouracan. AS. and in several instances. from cavallo. also termed bannerets. Barrack. Barratry. It. man. — A . alongside of barrow. qui have not much light on the pre. OFr. Fr. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. a. a hiU. berwen. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. w. to carry. a horse. Bamnculus a baronet. seem to be radically the same with Lat. signifying. AS. baroncelli. berewe. to shelter. composed of dry branches ofer.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. to * Barragan. fear. cise formation of the word. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. baronuU. barague. barril. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. like bargain. mound. G. D. Nominale of the from braeckland. barrila. barraca. ^Vocab. shed. Baron andfemme. This word introduced into Fr. barBombicinus. See Bar.. Russ. as. a hut or booth. Barricade. G. Bohem. The Sp. strife. braeck. which would barragdn. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. the braw. habeant. then traffick4 Barrow. calico. branches.— Gibbon. bara. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. bark&n. barrack. by early examples. baracca.. barchent. MHG. bredhan. especially those killed in battle. The feudal tenants next Fr. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. cover. implement for carryAS. facture. an obstruction. Formed from Fr. 2. iver. An ing. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. rolls of Parliament. a bar.' that Barrier. garment still used in Morocco. Joshua vii. boar. 1. S. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. nobles. litter. perhaps through Prov. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. from beran. See Barter. and not from Fr. hut. E. Sp. barri. gravis et authenticus vir. baragan. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff.

of the same sense. It. to stitch . truck. baratar. Isidore. berewic. i. or running away with the ship. Gr. mavult dicere Roma suam. low part of the Hickes in Rich. humilis. a bass rope. Bartizan. a halter. lattice-work. Kil. a king. to baste piece of cloth. chasa. lust. the thin skin Dan. to deceive. to long — a British word by Martial. aiKcig. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. basso. partieren. plaiting of splinters basged. bast-reb. but he dreth presently. imbastire. imbastire. husk bast van koren. It is mentioned as . a basket masg. to truck. the — — to kill those that look upon it. fhe outhouses and yards. submovet omne Lucan. Dan. netting. to cheat. There is not one that.' Papias. hoops of a cask. peel. besst-u-b£nd&t. Dan. which covers the grain Ger. lift me above Parnassus. fornication. rope for — . bestan. Sp. BassuS. he. to bind.D. Fris. bast. a ftiesh. OFr. baste. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. baraet (from Fr. MHG. basg. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. It. . discourse Nay. It. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. To Bask. God it wot. Du. which sets up its hood when angry. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). AS. a ipgli So Turk. To Baste. basgod. bastear. F. /«r<fSp. The like property hath the iasilisk. more noble in blood than notable in learning. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Lap. low. mean . from /3aR. court-yard. back. bassin. beretun. baxoj w. or wic. baste. baos. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Bast. MS. embastir. bast-maatte. . Fr. corn-farm. also to Cotgr. to baste. bdtir. barter. a court-yard. n' is n' is bacino. fits de bas. then cheating. ohg. but born in baste. Sylvester's Dubartas. Sw. over-reaching. at basta og binda. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. barter. But according And Dan. cog. Du. Barbara de pictis veni patch. ' He was begetin o bast. Basket. fraud. bestcn. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). besst. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. HoUinshed. unrighteous gain. scale in music. It. descended of an honorable lineage.). curtus. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. chasa ogli a bastard. from bere. preparatory stitching. to bind. beguile. 516. Sicamb. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Lend me your hands. Bastard. — Bassoon. pressed down. Bass. bran. tierer. bast. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Halliwell. Sp. bas. the manorhousfe itself. fornication. . See Brattice. Basilisk. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. him. oe. MHG. said Base. to bargain. mock not. exchange. piiiguis. A fabulous serpent. pdrdt. Apparently of Celtic origin. basta. baratear. It.' Gl. commonly A joined with the word binda. foist in bargaining. Bassus. shallow. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. barley. the a wide open vessel. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason.looketh upon his eyes. according from Gael. as the diadem of the basilisk. beortun. bast. Fr. also the demesne lands of a manor. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. to Diez. See Bath. — in Rich. baraand especially teria. ^Is de bast. and tun. cheating. ing for profit. come near. ' Bosworth. Barton. bark. to cheat. thick. — hanging. Arthur and Merlini. PaaiKhms. Al is dai. as It. bass-matting. Fr. stitch. Sw. on a. dwelling. Pl. HaU in HaUiwell. Newman. Bass. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. bds. ibid. baste. a deceiver. w. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. crassus. flat. OFr. to bind hand and foot. binding. low. and Bret. Sp. G. HaUiweU. It. basso. a bastard. bareter. The original meaning. found in Turkish . low note. inclosure. To stitch. exchange. a tying. leviter consuere. would be.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Swed. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. basta.

to Due. Sw. For the loss of the / in back. club. and ditches bastion. — — — . a with a stick. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Sw. vledermus. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. beating. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. ment. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. to whip. put it together. or implement for 4 * A . Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. a sconce. bastille.-^ Chaucer. bast. 2. contrive. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . a bastion. 11864. a packsaddle. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. bakie-bird .stitching in general. To beat or bang soundly. vespertilio. blatta. the night-jar or goat-sticker. Prov. the winged . That yche blak y dar wel telle. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. staff. a pad. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. bastear. explains Sp. is explained by Cot. . beysta. a blow cloth for dinner. to beat. Fr. bastione. R. basa. For the origin of baston see Baste. Pr. 2. Fr. stryka. night-bat. E. Dan. frame. niammal. Cot. It. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. bastonFr. back. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. compared with blakka. to stroke. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. flyinge best. Bastinado. bladier. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. bastida. Sw. also to cudgel. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . bastonnir. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. I.. blacta. stryk. to set on foot a war Bastion. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. Rayn. Mid. the clapper of a bell. Pm. also the ricado. to pack a saddle i. to build. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. bastia. blows. frotter. dial. blakta. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. To baste one's hide . victuals. bastir. e. Dieiif. from Fr. BAT neither. devise. 164). — — Fl. Fr. basto. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bastonada. boste. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. business (Altieri). raise. natt-blakka. Dan. whence ledrblaka. vespertilio. a pad or packsaddle. cudgelling. like the owl and the bat. in the use of the E. 'iJipistreUo. ON. iinbastire.baste or knock soundly. ari instruineht for beating. to rub. All from bastir. Fr. Cot. p. passage Imbasto. Sc. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to spread bread and butter. Perhaps baska.— Bailey. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. to quilt or stitch wool into it. translation to a bat. which in the E. quelqu'un son roulet. basta. the original has corneille. To donjon. has bastine. erect. settiilg up. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. bastir. disposer. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. set up. 2. set up. and Cot.— . term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. a blockhouse. to lay the Sp. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to cudgel. the E. bastimento. a bird which. as weU as besteau. Sp. baston. to beat. to flap. bak. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . aftonbakke. contriving.'CaB. to devise or begin. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. liiake. blakra. It. and Arabs.fortress or castle furnished with towers.stick. bastine. blaka. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. It. a stick. the bat . to drub. Antiq. a. batta lucifuga. dial. in the Romance languages. Florio. to thrash .Lat. guerra bastir. Sw. bastilde.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. bdion. pre. R. Derived by Diez from iasi. but this is hardly satisfactory. military term of a bat-horse). * Bat. which to rest the load. nade. to give him a sound bastingi 3. badger. a things prepared for future use. provisions. baston. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. iastir. packsaddle. to teach one before. to belabour. comp. . — Bakke. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. to rub gently. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. blatta. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. bat. Sp. worth (Nat. a barSp. to build. Supp. blakka.

baden. a Baiffi. gebdcke. to beat se battre. to beak. whence the sun burns . Sp. Baka sik vid elld. and as a verb. to heat. badda. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. to warm oneself. Hal. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. a band of armed men arranged basa. to warm oneself at the fire. to bathe oneself. baquetazo. battle was used beath wood. to bathe. a washing beetle. Batyn. dial. sich bakern. battre las ailes. to fight. howis. Holz bdhen. To Batten. from battre. Du. cudgel. then to warm by the application of hot water. Fr. It. battaglia. to betake oneself. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. Fr. remit. battre. and milk beaten up together. better. on the fire. Bret. to beat. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. busk. Barbour in Jam. bdhen. or make debate. beat. certain bend.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. and about an inch thick. Fr. bada. Battalion.— . Battery. Fr. altercation. — Cot. bludgeon. made of — A made by one Batcii. as E. Fr. batir. a stick. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. gebdck. strife. I. to beat. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Chaucer. I bathe in water viz. Fr.' Palsgr. a blow. a battle. beat down. bat-en. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. dial. To thrive. It. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Pm. solen baddar. a great seems related to baden as Fr. makebate. by projections or in any licoure. dial. hot.Bathe. Bate. on. a main battle. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . a battalion. dispute. as wood-en. Plkkis. baz. to be profited. to heat . to for fighting. baka. tagUone. ON. a staff. battere. Batten. Bailey. bdda vidjor. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. bataille. Pm. to fell. a blow with a light instrument. basa. batna. an arrangement for giving blows. to refresh oneself in language. Eggs. abattre. E. . From OFr. — — — ' — . to toast bread. G. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. to cudgel. Sp. to warm.Hence in the augmentative form It. debat. a from ON. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Florio. flour. bdt. A Bath. in the sun. Hence pro. . badda. or break down. G. the heat of the It. to thrive. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. fashes basking in the sun squadron. pak. to beat. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Gael. bake. betten. or a dry stick. squadron. to become fat. bat. of bread is so much baked zX one time. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. battions. lessen. trahtr to It. also a sun badfish. oneself at the A into faggots. The bat with which a brot bdhen. In OE. to feed. as signifying warm baths. and with staffslyng. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. heat. gabatnan. Battery. to flutter with the wings. Goth. tradire. batterie. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . PLD. baeddu. bet. Slav.— To Bask. To Bate. Jurgor. to foment with hot applica. perhaps first used adjectivally. beat. . badask. Sw. Battle. batte sig. allay . water whether warm or cold. to get better. Ayenst the sunne. Strife. in the case of a wall. made of bats. to fire or in the sun. also. battere. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. for biia sik. bastille. as E. batador. signifying to give repeated blows. A batch as wood. dial. G. fortress or castle. Battlement. is a simple adoption of Fr. is in falling. quhar he suld assaill. — To . to beath wood Battledoor. Mgy. Jeddris and covering. quell. from on. the root of e. adapted for defence. more. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Pr. Batter. battre. term in falconry . In some parts of England it is striking. From bat in the sense of rod . to become convalescent. e. a beating. See Better. to dial. I baske. Pr. was formed bastilU. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. to foment. buask made like a fortress. wet linen in washing. bdda. Bat. batacazo. abate. w. Sw. a stirrer-up of strife. to foment. 2. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Flem. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. solbase.

from Fr. a zan. a tassel or hanging bunch . represented by the syllable miau. s. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. It. Fr. Pr. a horse with white legs. ground. b \% bouala. divided between black and white. baudrdj OHG. or the animal so marked. — — ' Lydgate. sword-belt. pie- . buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla.' ' Pegma. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. brush faggot. miauler. ! Bauble. ON. Fr. a plot of Chaucer. Swiss Rom. bau.. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. whence pouacre. to play the babby. dial. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Ball-seirc. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. horse. E. cluster. to bark . bal.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. to talk Lacombe.guage). bal. nastiness. It is all bawdy. a lump or cluster babhaid. faisceau. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. an object. Cotgr. and to-tore also. A name of the badger. BAWSON Swiss.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. The It. Jam. Baw — . Irel. baudrat. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Formed from baw. Cot. 8. disgusting. trifles. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. ballach. ball. From Bret. baubare. baula. is used for a sented by bau. An analogous noisily. balbob. to make the noise Baudrick. bow-wow. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. fe bau. Lat. bow (as in our nursery Diez. the face. filth. Gael. toys. to bark. bad. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. having a white streak down Bagdad. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. was simply a field gold. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. speckled. bausan. a belt. baffe. propugnaculum. bobine. filth. to low or bellow as corn. to 53 manure the To baw.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Fr. —R. or toys. to void the bowels. to me-wl. s. an embattled wall. P. from Baldacca. to vociferate. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. also more Bawdekin. lewd . a gavel. fields. It. OFr. rotten. bauU. instead oi s. E. zano. dung. Bagdad. on the face of animals. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. bouaila. spot. Cot. to the same origin. scarf. is Bagdad stuff. a lump. bobbin or cluster of thread. c. From ! an interjection of disgust. Bavin. Zalli. excrement. in OE. Baldrick. a spot. balderich. dirt.— P. In like manner Grisons filthy. Bawson. baue. Batylment of a wall. vacillo. dente. spotted. javelle. tab. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. librillo. 2. ish baubles. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. Hal. a horse marked with a procession. Descript. pegma. babbole. R.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. expressive of disgust. baugant. or Cot. P. — Pm. the Swiss baben. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. whimwham. Prov. and authorities in note. i. or sheaf of Bridel. E. a dog). the white of his leg or foot. mew. The word may perhaps be sticks. guigaw. dirty. as Fr. babiole. trifle. form with an initial seen in Fr.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. exactly corresponds Fr. also the canopy carried part of his body. Sc. collar. an — — — A — g — — — . Filthy. Beaus^ent. Cloth of gold. OFr. dacchino. whence the E. It. to cry. bauch. bablyn or waveryn. Pm. balGael. baw. a white mark Bawdy. and Sp. a tassel.. because made of cloth of white. child. W. fagot. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. babsmall toy to play withal. E. Fl. fooleries or fond To Bawl. sorry. P. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Ball. obstrepere. baban. Pr. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. to trifle away ment. Piedm. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). tille. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said.

which however. alive. when. hddhe-dhonn. BE Probably conRuss. OSp. especially beans. &c. ist. baca. the cod of peas. bayo. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. batibari. berries. siege of Bayonne in 1665. baja. It. trahir. baionette. the world Gr. from badar. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. bagaid. arose two forms of the verb. bay. Serv. bijel. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. by the term rendre les abpis. large window in a handsome . bai. bay. a beast. . that from ba. weary of running. a cluster of bacon. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. house . would give but a partial explanation of the expression. yellow . berry. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. laurel of the ancients. baie. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. bayen-stein. baher. buidhe- The ruadh. bdcr. Catalan hadia. Fr. bioth. Swab. badarc. window-sill. living thing . to on anything. a'uno. bilyega. expresr sion tenere a bada. Abide. 1859. so called from its bearing bays. From the former verb is the It. watching intently. |8i'os. The — Fr. Bay. badius. 1. The word bay. Cot. See At Bay. or at bay. to mark. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. F. baye. baiare. BauSfi)/. as gazing. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr.c. he turns and faces his pursuers. —Bay-windo'W. . the cod or husk of beans or the like. gate. at his last gasp. —F. badarse. Fr. stare. as if to signify a window of curved outline.. to open as a blossom. A hollow in the 'line of coast. to open. and zndly./^ bau. Piedm. life. Such Antaeus seemed to me. bahia. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. bate. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. to iiitent nected PoL white. like a pie. Sp. aux dehniers abois. husk. to stand watching one. Q. Gael. window . white. Earth — By Nature made to till. waiting . bialo. It. —Diez. Vielp. Holland's Pliny in R. — Schmid. Q. Mod. Sp. living Ir. buidhe. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. corrupted into Bow-window. life. a dagger. It. bajo. To Bay. a mark. . Bay-tree. It. S. bde. to gape. and keeps them in check for a while. Drayton in R. ing-floor. baya. w.. to betray. bahia. or recess in an apartment in modern times. desiring. Lat.—Journal Soc. &c. badia to Sp. * To Be. — A At Bay. . baccello. is perhaps not directly from Lat. It. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. tradire to Fr. abbabayer. bilyejiti. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. and the To bark as a dog. stood watching him stoop. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. or berries. Gr. From Cat. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. the laurel-bay.— Stalder. Prov. See Bald. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Arts. Lat. Fr. to keep at a bay. dehiscere . as may be seen from the foregoing examples. a hole. grapes or nuts. dividere. barn of two bays. Fr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. to amuse stare a bada. beonj Gael. beothach. Swiss beie. baier. AS. to split. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. overture. BAY marked with bjly. Fr.' — — 54 bald. baca. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. or to have been first used at the Cot. in order to keep the enemy in check. beo. open the mouth. bacca. Sp.' Bailey. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Bayonet. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. See Bawl. a berry. Bay. A stag is said to stand at bay. to keep one waiting. to be Bohem. Feb. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. baga. put to his last shifts. It has been shown under Abie. or window ' (in Fortification). baer. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Fr. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. 25. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. &. from an imitation of the sound. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. the step is the same as from It. Gael.

or breathing. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. beacen. bakkje. ON. as. not applied to the yelping of dogs. N. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. bee. signifying a point. — Bellenden in Jam. a hill. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Lat. be. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G.fuis5e. Hackluyt in R. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. Bret. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. the part overflowed by the tide. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Q wait upon him. bdkna. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. to wait-. . fora-bauhan. «va\ioQ. an attendant. or beic. backe. It is BEAR SI court. baun. Thus the final en. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. bagms. Gael. bidan. bauhan.. stock. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. or however. The immediate shore of the Menage. Bear. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. bank. pierced for hanging on a string. to carry. according to of Sanscr. into a snjall river. Beach. would say. fd or faVf beans. bydel. Boom. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Beacon. E. . AS. bar. Slavon. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. to beckon. 54. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. ON. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. beugler. Goth. a tree. to produce young. prodigy bauhnjan. bead. bedm.from AS. a nod OHG. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. Du. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. beacnian. baum. ohg. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. fromthe danger. rising ground. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. A Esthon. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. beans. Catalan becar. . It. Fr. becco. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. a single bean.' adheres to the root. G. G. nokkima. support. boom. tale of prayers or doxologies. A two-year old nephew of mine p. a beak. The wild beast. Gr. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. vol. ffaen. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. g. — : Beam. Fr. faba. as well as f& or fav. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Gael. Farrar. as. Chapters on Lang. like most nautical terms. bearti. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Bean. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as.fui.' Suetonius in Diez. Moreover the name. bohnej ON. beic. pig. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. atUndre. faba is Kvavoq. bob. a curtsey. Beadle. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Be. bek. beck. on. — to bow or nod . a sign. a single bean. vii. a presage. W. badmr. bakke. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. however. The nutu significare. salve his hurts. bM. Beck. Netherlands or North Germany. The origin seems preserved in E. -phxr. and Lat. fero. It. W. Beckon. Beak. signifying individuality. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. bean. bokan. Bret. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. was introduced from England sea. bidello. Trans. Gael. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. See To Bid. a prayer. beic. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter.fer-re j Gr. bairan. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. Sw. AS. or any action done with a pointed thing. Pardoner's Tale. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Goth. It forms a. gebed.' Hall's Chron.to have a French origin. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. to wait. OSax. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children.ad. to bellow. to nod . that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. * Beagle. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. post. bohne. — bedeau. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. a tree. Miss Gurney in Philolog. to nod the head. ffci. which is. —F. To Bear. into France. l^ax. He says. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living.

' are equivalent expressions. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. fallinn. beauts. border. taste. limplice. limpian. W. an notion of being convenient. ON. to be incumbent upon him. bedr. when up. gabaurths. See Bank. get J ' He got very angry. Russ. nod or sign.S6 fero. tidy. to come to or upon. bequem. covered the face. nothing to thy name make. bard. perhaps a living thing. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. chin. to live. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. dize or dtzen. which. to happen. byw. edge. Sp. venient.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. bebrus. bearing. g. ON. and also in that of birth. Chaucer.— Kiittner. handsome. Bo. biber. That thou mayest attain Goth. fiber. a lip. bart. Slav. slobber. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. or special purpose. bobr. e. See becymth anfeald yvel. The quadruped. dushmak. decorous. burdr is used in the sense of a car. as. to please. Beck. living. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. The moveable part of a helmet.we call the arrangement becoming. As rivus. to fall. seemly. — . as the babble of the child. produce. On the same principle. gefallen. a. becuman.to clothe to slobber. E. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to those goods which endure for ever. or river.of being very angry. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. In like manner condition. obtain. to bear children. The OFr. brada. Goth. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. to fall mode of being. E. godum with ON. i. whence baveux. to happen. AS. OSw.' ' He became very angry. iida. bave i. bach. befall. Prick of Conscience. bavec. to the good hapHalbard. biivre. place to lie down. battere. ON. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. to be fulfilled. decent. Bedizen. bur. Beck. because made of the fur of the beaver. It. proper. timan. bave. Lith. G. byrcti. to assume a certain form or Turk. to dabble . tidig. . is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. to happen.getiman. bobrowai. happening as it ought. To load with ornament. riviire. to shore. and to acquire. Fr. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. Cal. beatanj It. to arrive at. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. now confined To Become. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. brook. convenient. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. connected with ripa. to fall in with our bavard. to get. fit. and on. or a feeling to be gratified. agreeable. G. bestiaj Gael. to sleep on. Prov. Boeth. barba. I do thee pray. fitly . bekommen. from beau. becuman. con. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. the beard. AS. receive. boroda. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. a brook. Bosworth. bello. blast. beo. duty. The fitting or suitable. bib or slobbering cloth. Perhaps from Pol. Dan. ON. bellus. baba. babrad. e. formerly a happen. baurthei. 1. the latter are derived It. bekkr. name applied originally to the bank then proper . brook . suitable. and Fr. badi.AS. R. barf. It. Beauty. Fr. proper . to carry. Secondarily applied to a hat. suitable. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Lat. to happen. ting. Beckon. Fr. Fr. riviera. bel. to the brook itself.fit. to G. i. a bank. bava. talkative. R. the ece thurhwuniath. — A — A — .' every way suited to a prince. limpan. See Bat. judgment. to happen. Thus OY. Do no To It fallith favour. to appertain. baviire. Diez. Beaver. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. 2. if sound of a sharp blow. behkr. while from Shep. but now a river only. from the same in the sense of bear2. Thcem. birth. dress with unbecoming richness . a bank. bcek. gebank. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to hem. G. bett. befit. to be a part of his to. E. agreeable. He becom on sceathan. G. to wade through the water like a beaver. to attain to the lot of any one. Fr. it is probable that here also the to become. pleasing. ziemen. fitanimal. G. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. comely. gelimplic. Beat. den. bring forth. Lat. pretty. See Beacon.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. rying. Lat. pens unmixed evU. Lat. our taste. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. o. opportune. Now the Beast. from baver.

extant in Bohem. ProBeer. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.ing of the word is curdled.'— GL ^Ifr. 'La Gl. AS. Fr. . a Properly a cover that biiren. Beet. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. an Beetle. . Bee. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. in Schmeller. bedskiissen-bUren. a cover. i. a pillow-case. from risan. the loppered sea. Slav. sela que environna la terra. from blood. ir'm. drink. beost. briest. bitela. a horse-fly . and in driving piles. G. Confined to bed. &c. Gr. tree. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. bove.D. In a passage of an Old Fr. crespir. E. 1 to drink. bedde-redirj ohg. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. turn (a garment). drink. Fin. a agulatum in the original Latin. Pett. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. kivih. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. madhouse. to and ale. wedges.— JI14.D. biest-milch. a wandering Prov. bossen. cugino. Horn. the biter. whose face is clotty. to curdle or lopper. to drink. Esthon. bet. Fr. Lat. in Nat. case. The honey-producing insect. bos. a drink potus. beest. g. cozen. clog for a dog b'oteln. used for boull. a clapper. the ox. cousin. as in It. and lebermer in G. by-flugaj G. from the hos. For that was law of lend. pital of St Mary. red curdled Arab . Fr. to fall. boeuf. Fr. ris. beach. to turn. 1. I put the flax upon it to spin. . Arab. cow has calved. boytle. Bav. buk. poculum. KXlvoTTiT^e. betel. sang vermeilh betatz. whence familiar. AS. The first milk after a dizen. D. 1156. calleBedlam. paralyticus. knock. Bed-ridden. piwo. AS. Dan. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. But possibly bedizen 2. cited by Diez. a cup or implement for AS.(paddi. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. * Beestings. Cot. I A pillow-beer. bbtel. woman that is newly delivered. a paviour's beetle batail. water. the meat of spinach. vaar. G. badigeonner. also bienst. Let. turn. garden-herb. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Fr. G. The meanpainting. to change . bletumj Gr. P1. to become Beech. briesch-milch. may be from K. doubtless. to flatten In OE. .). buka. It. ' MordiThe Lat. stakes. ^. bette or blettej Lat. to twist poorma. pettiriso. blow or thrust. translation beOj. cushion-cover . may be shpped on and off. beach-each. on.' So Gr. 57 — Palsgr. as. by the analogy of bedaivb. bedawi. Cot. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. beer. Pl._t from the root pi. a stinging bieUe. de Fierabras in Diez. bukva. PI. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. door. . to coagulate. kiissen-biere. byst. a pillow case. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. bibere is a re. . a bee. imperative pi. taglio. Grimm. /SXirov. beetle also signified the impiti. Rom. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. beutel. buche. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. a malsense of drink. an inhabitant of the desert. fagus. to poordma. erroneously modified in form. a wasp. Fr. as the milk of a that purpose in London. Bethlehem.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox.possible. GaeL bior. qui de lecto surgere non potest . from jtst-. batAfter mete in sale. comb. beta.ON.. bytl. fall. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. bitel. thick. thick. from Lat. from leberen. trees in a forest . It. to rough- cast. duplicated form of the root.substance as to render navigation imtiriso.' the last word corresponds to cofly . cogionare. a wasp. desert.— B. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Bernese. curded or beesty.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. mars betada. biene. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. prisons Venet. to colour with lime-wash. prigione. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. which also 2. a bed-tick. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. E. I dysyn a dystaffe. to beat bossel. Originally. of beatmg. to knock. to parget or rough-cast . Beetle. Ant. Bedouia. a mallet. bovis.^ drink. waarin. pude-vaar. also the bite or sting of a bees. speach. a pad or cushion). a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. The beer al for te shenche bate.cz//aj. an ox. biiren. Beef. bably named from the destructive quali| T. 1. beyki. Gael. Lat. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. It.

and subsequently Down duschit the beist. AS. 'ex quo. Nov. Cold-begone.bag full of the G. kind. tale. from whete G. viii.— . to begin. bag {baigean. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. origin. a beggar-boy. 1867. yivtrri. but in the same language from poc. 2. to go a begging. word. Lith. in E. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. V. It. & go a begging. P. ip AS. beitel. oppressed with woe. 1430. yiyvo/uat. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. beutel. to take. to be acquire. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. air a . Gr. a beggar. and Lat. a scrip euXaiciJoi. To Beg. a bag or poke. to reduce him to beggary. a chisel. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. When Q. ken. P. Ancren Riwle. to beg. a scrip. Goth. yivofiai. y/yvo/iat. P. to know. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . Into the are D. taking up. it is both to acquire and to beget. 142. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. incipere. To produce children is to acquire. affected. anfangen. In Luc vi. is formed pocair. fangen and Lat. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. su with gold. ysgrepan. 'Aboutin undern monly. is com. P. capere. Skinner's derivation from bag. ornamented phoc. beriolare. — yivsaiQ. literally. a beggar . by the help of wedges and beetles an N. a stone-cutter's chisel. OHG. Of brede full ycrammed. Political Songs. two betels —a grete oke. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. beginning. P. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Du. Deutsch.D. V. Beghardus. To Begin. P. as alighting is a momentary operation. Vocab. can. Creed. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. whence the E. image is cleft out of the trunk.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting.' A. to get children . on further examination. ysgrepanu. genus. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . baigeir. beissel. gen. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. — Stillingfleet. to bear young.n. woe-begone. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. above quoted to get beaten ON. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox.pose. a wedge for cleaving wood. not began to alight. gan. sel. The tother seand the dint cum. begger. ' Begone. touched with emotion — . He did alight. ykvog. to cleve. beitel. a wallet. covered with gold D.quently used in OE. krapszas. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. duginnan. P. to be able. steinbosil. ken.3. gigno.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Barbour. iv. P. pose-pilte. a little bag). on the tramp. P. appears improbable at first. in Lat. or Of a pure poor man. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. Fr. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. hags. lapidicinus. 'Dz. giving in Gr. to begaan. chisel. at geta talad. So from Gael. Si'Xa/coc. 168. It will . Du. V. 58 BEG BEGONE G. of Gr. vir mendi. seizing.' for ye shall lament and weep. also called Bigots. Lollards. ' . Mundart. begging. 25. &c. to arise. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. onginnan. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. signifying to conceive. Du. yivwajcw. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . cans. a bag . be^nnan. although it ' the future.' about undern he got down. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. on the bag. &c. beis- plement driven by blows. From w. ytyvwfT'Kw. Schm. bertola. 40. the fundamental notion of attaining to. ' ' . to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. one after that other. Bruce. Florio. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. a bag. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. but probably erroneously. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. P. aginnan. to be born. a — wedge. in D. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. chap. can. referred gan this Erie alight. Mod.

gecall. to command.). to have. vow. 17. AS. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. is also found in the sense of looking. what he wishes another to do . Aan iemand bid one welcome. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. —Hest. adjust. Sw. tail. hofwa. the distance of anything. beholden to him. OE. to vow. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to lift. hevja. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. portarsi. the equivalent of E. promise or a command. advantage. G. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. from tragen. what is so required. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. To place are most naturally ex. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to the equivalent of Du. hafjan. se porter) to fare well or ill. healdan. a follower. habere. Goth. hcef tig bort. hafwa ram. behoof. The seyn. Sw. hafwa. hovast. ge' hatan. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. habban. garder. commonly expressed. to lift. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. Thus in Finnish the heave. and their senses intermingle. Plautus. is on the top of or opposite to. on. hevja. to carry. name of the head is used to express what hbva. laborare. gehouden. to hold. To Behave. behces. or necessary. keeping. behete. to name. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to regard. G. to be obliged to do a thing. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. hcefwa in seed. — Behest. premi curi alicujus rei. invoke. hafwa bort. and (as Fr. zu etwas gehalten haitan. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to feed. behaviour. right. to R. to keep. betragen. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. G. by the compound observare. ifl fact. The Lat. Sw. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. ufhaban. It. to raise. or the hence advantage. furtherance. vow. to be suitable or becoming . taking notice or care of (Gloss. heita. and the E. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. behold. G. at the tail of. to keen or hold. Robert in Warton. to lead. to tend. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. To look steadily upon. to behave. hatan. to take away. K.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. servare. R. to turn one out . behefe. fixed upon any object). seeing to. han- — js Kil. G. to gehouden. keeping. To Behold. to cast or throw. Paladino. promise. exhort. to bring forwards. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. But. zijn. when the verb will hoof. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. G. AS. gehaben.to vow. the two verbs seem radically the same. Kiittn. or purpose. N. Command. use. to halten. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to be obliged to one. And so from hania. to hit the mark. behat. behatan. to be be named. The It. to bers of the body.' Richardson. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. gehalten seyn. to carry corn into the barn .for throwing it. to command. according as the * To Behove. tion. ward. AS. to be fit. to hold. hces. to promise. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such.— . to carry. To be expedient. to keep. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to call.the figure of throwing at a mark. hove. have the sense of calling or naming. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. heeten willekem. to call. to be named. bound. the name adapt. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . take yourself off. to look upon it as true . behind. guardare. heeten. AS. injunccommand. beperson addressed. At the back of The re. is supported by many analogies. hafwa. to look. gehat. take heed of. nittaa. to carry. AS. to heave. us-hafjan. to fit. as in the case of E. promise . for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to follow. obliged. to meet. solicitum esse. to be well pleased out. observe. hantyri. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to vow. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. heave.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid.

then. bellan. giving leave or permission. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. true. met. cela est audessus de votre portde. aim. Bell. G. —F. boare. lov. to promise or engage. to boke. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. to praise. bealcan. resonare. promising. to cry out bell. to estimate them at a To believe. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. Du. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. precious. filu-galaubs. esteemed . beleggen. b'ola. to give leave Dan. verloben. belief . In Mid.alyfan. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. Sw. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. gelyfan. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. and E. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. to make it fast. to lay be- around. bylja. to befit. Fr. galaubjan. beset. The word be- Belfry. Goth. hesfa. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. a little shed. then.Lat. to put a high price or value on. range. or house.D. belja. mark ON. to to make A Templorum campana boant. locus securitatis Schilter. . stand. to resound. bettifredo. and Du. Then. bolken. to a loud noise. tain a certain end. to believe. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. lofa. or a sconce. allow. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to sanction an arrangement. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . and. leaf geleafa. Du. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe.. to praise. to sound loudly . — . Another application of the same word is in Pl. to permit. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. are other modifications of the same imitative root.. ungalaub kas. to give leave. consent. Det er ofwer er hofwa. fringe. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. measure. to express approval. an implement for making a loud noise. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. loven. frid. overspread. ley/a. behove. Pl. praising. loven. permitting or giving leave. from mhG. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. ornament. Pl. distance to which a piece will carry. certain rate. is used in the sense of approving. It. to protect. reputation. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. peal. esteeming good and valid. laven. glauben. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to give leave. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . From AS. lyfan. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. and E. garnish. laubjan. bounds. AS. fitness. To Belch. we have Goth. erlauben. bertefredum. in nautical language. to bolk. bulken. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to .. satisfaction. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. bell. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to extol the worth of anything. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. ON. bellow. to believe. to be required for a certain purpose. to lay the cable round the bits. promiser. to believe.D. P1. a. leave . In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. See Gain. bialla. to roar. — Diicange. loben. Du. is (Sternberg). To Believe. is an easy progress. with the consent of the heirs. Northamptonshire. Fr. . or high estimation. beffroi. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. on. Fair sir and Fair lady. to praise. under the forms belfredum. a tower for defence . In the middle voice hofwas. OFr. berfroi. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. beffroit. orloven. border. honoured. laven. beau sire and bel dame. to promise. if a promise. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to bellow. galaubs. AS. appearing in Mid. . Hence to simple approbation. for purposes of low estimation .D. bercvrit. praise. moderation. a watch tower. reach. properly belonging to the church tower. and bergan. battefredum. a tower.D. on. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr.Lat. Du. ON. were civil terms of address. legsel. permission. if a narration. — mankind. to hit hafi. pro3. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to der swaren lave. to fix a price upon one's wares. OHG. To praise is essentially Xo prise. Q. turris. a vessel made for dishonour. bervrit. To Belay. bealcettanj OE. are innate . portion. to belay.

disposed to oblige. Benediction. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. bellows. See Bind. a bellows. a blessing. pertinere. gwaldas. from benedictio. bolg. — ray. leather sack. blast-bcelg. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and .' — Hie fimus. becwathan. w. bolg. to say. . The ing-skin. a leather bag. border. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. belch. Lat. taken absolutely. to concern. bendaj as.' Palsgr. to touch. To Belong'. from Arab. bimaissen. pouch. est matris in lucem editus. G. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. attinere. belt. cod or husk of pulse. J'emboue. from which is also bulbus. by itself. Kil. to become one's property . beneison. pod. belliJ Lat. a accusative. dirt. ON. To Benum. to bend a bow . Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. volva. langen. a water-bubble builge. OFr. Javanese perfume. Belt. benir. rise against external force . to attain to. was in Mid. To Bend. Ptg. Du. to come to the crown belangen. . pertinere. to hold to one. an inflated Lat. a spring. benejicium. To Bequeath. benignus (opposed to malignus). welt of a shoe. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. bandoir. has assumed a plural form. belgr.videtur. See I . to reach. bene/actum. balg. bimpsen. or a It is times the to signify services.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. fens et hie liraus. poX^ri. Beneath. . to do good to one . benedicere. Benefactor. vulgarly the belly. binsen. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. to make bilbil. a blow. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. incense of Java. — root consisting of concentric skins. wallet. balg. — Ducange. or sometimes louban. bcelg. I araye. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. attinere. hem. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. bellows. a speaking well of one. Fr. to. a border. . From OFr. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. to stretch it on a frame. pino3. attingere. Sw. benehusk.' The term had been previously planation. bellows. Fr. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. I marre a thyng. G. one who does good. or simply djawt. ' I beraye. See Nether. Benign. to ring. the word. to bless. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. as. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. Lat. skin. bilbil-goda. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. to arrive at. Bench. Gael.— Belly. bendan. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. blister balgan-snamha. Lat. the skin of those animals that factor. pervenire. Bent. Bav. kind. a bellows . or fyle with myre. Benedico. benjoim. wallet Benefit. balteus . zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. generous. ON. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. belly. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. from cwcsthan. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. . se bander. OUG. fyle To dirty. a benefit. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. a kindness. to attain belangen. well. bag. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. Benefice. to use words of good omen. . ball. skin. benedictio {bene^ and dico. See Bank. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. ^To Beray. benefacere. bander un arc. means seeds of plants. Lat. I say). benjoin. bless. In E. G. is a kindred form. Gael. Quoth. Dozy. ray. as concerning that. Lat. rushes. bags or bellows. welt of a shoe gwald. Was das belanget. a good deed. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. bilbila. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Bret. . on. To belong is thus to reach up to. Fr. belly. vulva.. to touch one. benaigon." — — . Eenison. ' . bienfait. gelangen. a round or bubble-shaped root. bell. Benignant.Fr. the womb. G. binssen. from another modification of the word for bubble. are stripped off whole blase-balg. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. to hallow. to concern. Gum benjamin. Benzoin. to exert force.pinuz. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. Lat. hence with ashes. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). — See Numb. to belong.polch. needs no ex. loubdn djawt. is The word balg. bolch. I soyle it or araye it. because bcelg.

fall with sound. the guardian . Fr.fish the other hand.X. repair. To Beseech. broom twigs. a fire. Ihre.t. Fin. as. an incendiary. to fire a funeral pile of . So Lat. improve. from It. to supply a want. Esthon. dirt. to cast. to make better. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. what does it better a man. rods. . it seems hard to separate as. E. Sw. fyrbotare. reparation. baete. To Bestow. stow. bat. Goth. in the sense ctf beria. besnij Pl. — Chaucer. of ffeed a fire. To Bet. Devon. to give a place to. Besom. and also to entreat. as. as conversely a besom is called broom. fearful. The proper meaning of the bale. barfham. small eatable fruit. dial. betan. mud. compared with bargham. noise. Grose. BETE dirty'. lay out.— VixHsm. to stand one in good stead. vi. reafian. solicit. boutefeu. E. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. bdt. is to perform a serviceable office to him. — Biglotton. houseless. Tusser. Kil. from grow. to mend.bhaksh. besIn sen. berwham. person to lie in. encouraging. better. to amend. Du. See Better. 3. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. To bete his Jam. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Beere. boeten. ^•n. Tha het he micel fyr betan. — . beorgan. scopse spartis. AS. peto. earg. Fr. basjaj Du. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. From abet. sweepings. I from lew. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. Hfence backing. hva mannan. as. bur-we. to to deprive of. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. reparation. buttafuoco. the side bhakshya. as in growth. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. a horse collar. might have been . * Berth. ropahtaa. bet. place. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. making better. Zeitschr. to entreat. ^akka. besein. seems twigs or rods. baete. To help. to thrust. advantage. Sw. — bota. So roto rattle down. a place . put forth. advantage. beseech. vol. Beet. from AS. to be-place. bouter. to thrust. amendment.• 62 Antiq. boteith Goth.D.— Hal. or to bestead one. boeten. BEREAVE Wall. preferably. * To Bete. supporting on the one side Lat.—^fake. bestow. OE. Rob. arwe. It is the restore fyr betan. p.irova. to light the fire . lewth. roju. When men of mekeness him baet. to word is shelter. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. or. botesward. berry. to put on the saddle. bereafian. to fall with roisto. het vuur The serise of Boeten. earh. basya. besmas. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. but it is specially applied mister. roe. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. To seek something from a person. G. besen. Beit. a berry. to strip. On the other hand. ariierf to 113. dirt . to the place boarded off in a. p. ship for a make amend. to To Bereave. Berry. to seek. because used for making besoms. make better . sheltered from the wind. Du. roju. jnore. stede. bdt. rubbish. or the space kept clear betan. one who shelter. but in practice. dust rojahtaa. sets fire to. boeten. bota. AS. supply. Du. buttare. position. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. barth may be for barf. Bestead. profit. same word with the provincial barth. as bouter selle. G. besje^ Sanscr. to kindle the fire. and on which the wager is laid. Du. brem-bessen. burrow. AS. an incendiary. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. as. The origin is AS. Best. — amendment. to make it. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position.iooA. to on the other Goth. dung . R. the origin of which is to be found in ON. bal oppbota. and Du. protect . in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. . to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. The dry. To Gl. put. as Du. See Reave. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . stealth from steal. what does it boot. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. to exercise on a definite object. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. bacca. betan. to defend. barthless. R. So too Yorkshire arf. berwe.ot-i. eld up- On is to be placed A — . mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. think more probable.

it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. evidence of life. in the middle of two.' Dialogue on Witches. to Teem. as envahir. E. an instrument opening like a a thing. Dii. To Bewray. In like manner folissais. Thus from dbahir. wrogia. by a final sh. R. G. beuvrage. is used for the — R. larks. From It. suitable. progress. batizo. Bav. e. pair of compasses. tima. riigen. afford. amidst. betray. treachery. order. lot). abash j from polir. Mich self a good glass of wine. dispose (whence schicksal. deign. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. from invadere. Slant. whence beveraggio Fr. AS. — Betwixt. moveable and compass branches. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. &c. Ober D. ziemen. to deceive. batista. are there Regt R. better. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. To vouchsafe. betwuh. beva. Det sig sjelft. verbs in ir with a double ss. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. — See To Bete. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. To Betray. are commonly to one's lot. of quails. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. zimet. it bewrays itself. Fr. Sw. to deliver up in breach of trust. from. wreia. what does It is forward him. as tlock. a bevy. betaemen. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. which may be compared as to form with amid. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. Friar's Prol. zemen. betst. OE. trahissais. to fall. spritigs from schicken. betera. — of the authorities. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. not to have the heart to give up a thing. to happen. 88. more. find it good: Goth. as from obdir. to fall Some call it a bevel. in the middle of twain. bat. kein leben mehrin no signs . G. bibere. to drink . Fr. betweoh. Chaucer. by two. bet. Buveau. bevde. to make forwards. tima. A — drink.D. bevere. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. tradire. E. Dit tungomal rendered in E. sloped off. fallinn. has — In a like sense tanie>i. i. Pl. to happen. obdissais. vrohjan. roja. Hence last G. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. as one would have it fall. roebucks. Tinia eigi at lata eit. trakir. bouter davantaige. In the water anon was seen His nose. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. proficere. betweox. Fris. bet. Goth. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. a traitor. In like manner from twain is fothied between. — that schickiich. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. /alia. i. ruogia. dir. of pheasants. x. betest.— . from Lat. as trahissons. to deliver tip. betwuxt. Car son umbre si le trahit. Sahissais. for measuring angles. I approve of beveau. some attention. gatiman. ON. e. The inflections of Fr. taemen. Percy Soc. Between. E. ON. Golding's Ovid in R. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. baet. *Ah. a drinking . Fl. better. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. On the same principle ON. thy speech bewrayeth thee. traitre. springs from ON. Bevy. The as. or with again. traditor. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. tradere. tweoh. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage.D. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. twain. Now the stirring of an object. It. in the same way Lat. a brood. betriigen. G. e. obeish. to accuse. It. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. best. amiddes. Lat. To Beteem. polish. Cot. said he. To boot in coursing (i. Du. trahir. his mouth. Goth. Better. two. gezimet eines dinges. to stir. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Best. trahison. the being pushed to the frbnt. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. regen. beverage. AS. Fr. G. to Hence It. . Pl. fitting. bedriegen. gesiemen. from Fr. find in one's heart. his eyen sheen. to cheat. to discover. r'ojer dig. and thence twegen. BETEfiM translated. suitable. R. advance. awry. fate. is treason. taemen. deem suitable. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. be fitting or suitable. better. make manifest. become. betweohs. Ik tame mi dat nig. a different form of twa. against. Fr. R. From the former of these are AS. -to appoint.

. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to it evident to sense. crooked. Biseau.' bibble. a fragment bieco. Cat. The It. love first begins to life signs of him. the basil Sc. bes-azur.to drink much. rogt un bogt sik nig. bias-wise. babbefore the eyes. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. inferiority. bescompte. bickeler. discover. though such a change of form would be very unusual. oblique. . Fr. petit-lait. Fr. Bias. To bicker in NE. To Bezzle. twice. kwijl-bab. to stir up . sbieco. a Galilean. Fris. bebble. bisel. to well up with Cot. bibaculus. roggle. —Bickering'. Bibelsworth in Nat. as an eel or a snake. baviere. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. Bisect. reveal.{ioin dua. snout. Fr. ber-laita (for bes-laita). it becomes (Jz-. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. — Bi-. . slanting .a. Du. bavon. wrogen. of the sliced off. pddzahr. a bezle. winding or crawling in and out. to stir. a sloping edge. its clothes. ice . bickel-sieenken. To Bicker. besanca. to cut in two.two. is explained to clatter. asure-bice (Early E. Cat. — crooked. bickelen.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. like guzzle. An excellent Basil. OE. Pl. Bice. sik beregen. Piedm. aslope sbisciare. stock still. to a fight with stones. liwell. sbrisciare. Lat. biascio. To Bib. him. Diet. kwijlen. lips. Bib. one who drinks in excess. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. . biais. specially in a bottle.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. sbrissare. a slabbering-bib. b&zahr. dial. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to give signs of life. pible. from pdd-. slippery. It.as in Biped. used in precisely stone . to be a paring.D. whey count . to Jam. to slaver or drivel. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. has a singular stone-picker. to the stirring of their conscience. sbrisso. In comp. by throwing of stones. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). he is Wtb. dial. beregen. /3i/3Xof a book originally. bestemps. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. aslope. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. beslei. 78). foul weather. sbiasciai. bezling or skueing. the papyrus. misFr. Ci^. the word became bddizahr. kwijllap.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. Mantuan. Oh when shall I bizzle. biberer. evident. Hal. Jamieson. Sp. bickel. bring under ' Thy accuse. which good bibbeler. Hal- — do something aslant. It. convicts thee of being drink. bickai. to shake. Fr. sbiagio. to make tongue Du. wrangle.s bellum for duellum. Bible. in Fr. Sardin. biberon. biax. Gr. to dispute. to slaver . To skirmish. Uprogen. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. An inferior blue. tailU en biseau. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). to stir. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. or by any rapid motion. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. bihais. sliding. I Wallon. babbi. Prov. Piedm. E. a stone-hewer . barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. —Dozy. makes ble. biascia. to sip. to purl. It is especially applied in Sc. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. notice. expelling or preserving against. to move. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. sbiscio. (according to the Fr. The train of thought is then. . To Bibble. See Wriggle. bending. wraggeln. bark of which paper was first made. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Bezoar. two- footed. Bezel. To drink hard. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . bis. 172.D. bibo. sbiescio. Misc. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. to stir. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. in him. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. to glide or slip as upon. biaiser. shows the P1. Sard. metaphor). In Arab. Yes. it were the mouth. Lat. baverole. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. biberen. whence Du. Dan. Probably. sloped. and zahr.or from obliquus. presence. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. per\'erted belief. or kwijl-slab. to tipple. rogge. Schiitze. sbiesso. sbriscio. Ant. Fr. bible. poison. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. a bibber. to tipple. bisdare. sbias. Pers. to creep or crawl sideling. in two ways for duis. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Fr. or in and out.

by seek and beseech. boa. beidast. to bid one good day.' Addison. praestare. England for swollen. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. becoming in Lat.t. — prepare. The 'La. bedun. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. to pro- command. ON. and consequently ordering or reGoth. proud. or. G. to bulge. besides the professedmonks and nuns. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. forwards. ON. bead.. to build. bugt. To bid the banns. as tears from the eyes. porrigere. byggan. abidan. and the Sw. to build G. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. inhabit. ten. . buga. bulge. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. to move quickly. bidill. and yajiBui. to forbid . Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. pray. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to marry. bis and in comp. bidel. bulge. faurbjudan. to curve. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. Bigot. bilge or bulge. may plausibly be derived from Goth. Big. anleta. to E. to offer it to public notice. spelling seems to used in the N. the belly of a ship. to have one called before him. repair. to bend. The ON. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bolginn. bend of a shore or of a rope. form. bag. beodan. bend. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bced. belly. Big-swol- . Analogous expressions are G. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to inflate E. from seek. byggia. related to big or bug. bieten. or third order of penitence. bit- bidja. The . swaggering. bauen to cultivate. ON. Einem einen guten tag bieten. the meaning of bid. Two verbs are here confounded. to bicker. qucero. The loss of the / gives Dan. einen vor Gericht bieten. bath. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. bidan. Jam. With respect to logical pedigree.peto.Leta). AS. To Big. 2. biegen. to bend. to forbid . quiring something to be done. a chip. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. has leta. bugne (answering to ON. to solicit. 1. Bigamy. bow. of More ' in Richardson. an entire skin. The ON. gebodenj G. ewes. a flexure. which is stiU. praebere. G. to swell. ' Bug as a Lord. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to look for. From Gr. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to look for. to belly. belly. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. to start out. A bjudan in anabjudan. verbieten. G. as. gebeden j G. be bug. or bad. from bidan. bygga. athird class. from belgia. to dwell. consisting both of men and women. as G. cultivate. and Gael. OSw. AS. It must be observed that the word bidja. Hence Sc. To Bid ' Big . Du. to ask. swoln. The original Swollen. bo. to inhabit. W. Bickelen. bi-. are also used in the sense of asking for. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to abide or wait on. — — — Halliwell. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. inhabit Du. P. bog. bolgna). bua. bugan. R. bigan. to presimpler pare. twice. bieden. bouwen. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. Compare also Sp. called the tertiary order. biddan. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. OSw. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. to cultivate. to pray one to dinner. BID of stone. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. ON. bulk. Wallace in Jam. bug. bidan. . bat . I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. A pose to one to come to dinner. build. who. AS. to offer. to arrange. ein paar verlobte aufbieten.uddered len heart. rising up.' Pope in R. to build. explaining the Sc. pressing on one's notice. a swelling. iiQ. to ask. in the sense of ask for. Kil. bidjan. BIGOT beidan. Bight or Bought. bulky. — To Bid. beadle. balg. to offer one the wish of a good day. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bolga. a suitor. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. offerre." buque with E. Palsgrave in Halliwell. swelling. just as the two ideas are expressed in E.

author quoted in N. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. Flor.a.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh.' Matthew Paris. biso. coarse woollen cloth. ix. 1243.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. bighellone. sed maxim^ in muliebri. vol. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. 15 18. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. signifying bagmen or beggars. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. bigotta. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. D. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. Bighiotti). beghart. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. They wore a similar dress. homespun cloth. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. beghino. Beguttce. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Hence the OE. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. bighiotto. Augustini dotarint. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. rustical. perch^ i Terziari di S. 560. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' says one of of bigio. the other form Per te Tribune. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. says.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. corruption would easily creep in.— BIGOT bigardo. A.— Ducange. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. both men and women. honesti plebeii amictus. grey. the nobles to Rienzi. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Bighini. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. a dunce. alii Apostolici. G. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.' says an Venet. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. absque votorum religionis emissione. aliqui Begardi. was formed bigello. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. and hence the variations bigutta.' translated by Muratori. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. Bizoccki. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati..' They were however by no means confined to Italy. to adopt a similar course of life. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. 1499. and also unlearned common men. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. all apparently derived from Ital. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. which must not be confounded with begardo.D. A. with reference to A. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. vocati Fraticelli. clownish. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans.D. a blockhead.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. begutta. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. ac labores manuum detestantes. and Q. alii de paupere viti. bigio. probably from biso. borel. face VIII. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. natural grey or sheep's russet. dark-coloured cloth. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. grey. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. as well as bizocco. Bizocco.' Chart. A. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Francisci communiter appellabant. S. &c. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. In the same way Fr.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. In a similar manner from bigello.D. xx. From bigio. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.

top. beil. A lorum tam in — Diez. belghen. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Aurelles. false pretender to reUgious feeling.— — — . bulla. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. beghart. tepati. a shackle. names bill-berries. of boja. an adze . Dan. bui. however. from OSw. a devotee. 2. an axe. Fr. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). In English the meaning has received a further development. An instrument for hewing. bolghe. bla-berry. a man who rests on a stick in walking. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. boja. AS. The Du. abelthe fetter itself. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. billard also signified at billyards. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Du. person of religion leading a loose life. dissimulation . a of the sea. bulgja. Kil. Gascoigne in R. Bille. Ludwig. Piedmontese bigot. The proper meaning bylgia. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. now A Bilboa blade. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Lat. So in Gr. to be angry (i. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. in the same sense. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. gleischner (Frisch). Johansen. a negro. 'tumidi fluctus. Sw. bill of exchange. a hatchet. to peck. weapon . bigot. a seal. used in legal proceedings. Billet. boia. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Tartuffe. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. . bwyell. See Bulk. bill. Billow. w. Fr. obsolete. to job. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . an ingot of gold or silver. horn of an animal. Sp. G. Sw. the o changing to an i to express diminution. a seal. I. seems to be rather the unda. In the same way are related Pol. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. an axe . bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Prov. buoy [i. from the dark colour. deceit. — bigardia. b'olja. to pick a millstone. the swelling G. bull-berries. Gael. bile. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . at sea Billet. on. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. an ingot. plog-bill. and in Lat. of E. as craneberry. billot. blaa. axe. to strike. 5 * . billet. — Cot.' in Richardson. bulghe. ferrese quam ligneae. Bill. bigotto. blamand. a beak. bille. loi. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a name given to a. e. p. that of swell. AS. Du. gan. bigardo. — — ' . NFris. Kil. dziob. inscriptum.. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. ^Billiard. Fr. Roquef. buie. To Bilk. dziobad. Langued. bisoch. biilge. To defraud one of expected sinking. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. in the sense of a writing.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk].' bilio. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. procella Kil. whortle-berries. See Bull. irons or set in a kind of stocks. bizocco. crowberry. bigot. boeye. the bill of a bird. Bilberry. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Sw. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. an axe. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. a hypocrite. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. and dziobas. BILBERRY nated. Bojce. belgan. and a billard. Du. bill in parliament. might be taken to express a hypocrite. fluctus maris. Bilge. is properly a sealed instrument. 2. Mundart. . OFr. Bigin. billard or billart. Thus we find in It. topor. the trunk of a tree. e. as a bill of indictment. bila. billet is the diminutive of this. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. to swell with rage).' mariners. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. bil. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Dan. 3. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. fetters. a floating log to mark the place of some. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. blue . Bilbo. genus vincu- Bilboes. a bigot or hypocrite. an axe. AS. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. buail. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. to strike. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. clog to a fetter. Bill. Billette. A slang term for a sword. symbolum. the beak of a bird. Deutsch. . and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. a sword. from Mid. bullet. Lat. Bohem. a short note.

Fr. to bring Biscuit. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. Sw. bitill. Bitch. propius videre bij sicndc. bunki. Bind. viz. a bunch.. e. and of Fr.68 BIN Bio-. beitsl. or ben-wood. v. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. . to bulge. beorth. properly a young pigeon. Bailey. pinnii. i. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. habitacle. . to hang. a heap. to wreathe. Fr. and especially to a small poor horse. When compared with Fr. overlooker. bigne. AS. bundle.. Fr. to bind at . It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. The proper meaning is a heap. are commonplaces. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. a bitch applied also to other animals. Sw. It. while bind-wood.' and the like. To — — —D. Birch. to bind together. Sp. piccione. Bing. Lat. than vice versi. an overseer. a bear. doubtless a stone. to form a knotted structure. videt. . band. Dan. a bitch. bunch. Fr. forth. evigue. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. from pondus. to cook). bundt. Fr. To Bite. copus. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. to bear. ON. &c. terial. a house. AS. evegue. In like manner from knot. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bunga. bikkia. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. . pittjo. bundle. IV. an eagle's young G. which is expressed in E. — — . by the verb knit or net. We — A Birth. hiindiiin. ge- from AS. G. See Breed. sc. a hind or female stag. from Gr. Lat. 'tumens sequor. to build. See To Bear. Goth. a gallinaceous bird.. I would derive the verb to knit. a knob. It. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. biscuit. — Kil. qui nisi propius Blind. . Bisom. pinnu. G. poultry. to be derived from Ibfiaq. Bisen. or petze. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. AS. in Swabia. the young of an animal. V. where the compass stands. biclie. bjork. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. a habit- Binnacle. to net. . is in Scotland applied to ivy. AS. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. bin-wood. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Bindweed. Goth./«idere. betsel. or bin. Gr. piiiti. G. pullus. Thus I suppose the Gr. a pig petz. by binda. a little dog. bund. a bump or knob. a truss. i. from Lat. a weight of 48 pounds. Lith. hith. Bin. beitan. is rendered in ON. biccej ON. biscotto. a corn. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. admota non Bit. bircej Sw. berkas (z=:Fr. isfiw. Bittacle or Binnacle. binda nat. — See Bittacle. beran. Lat. bij sien. brut. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Bisson. earnes brid. beisseii. EpisETTiTOOTToe. See Belly. Bine. AS. evesgue. bindan. j). BITTACLE /Siof. a brood or hatch of young. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. Habitacle. wine. truss. Du. The bitol. a female dog hindinn. pin-ti. bord. AS. lusciosus et myops. H. pippione. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. to fasten it together. bij sienigh. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. bund. brid. bita. a weight. nodus. beize. Lap. or baked. expressed by Sw. from \t3\. also a stone weight. bindan. fowl. to knot nets for fish. the young of birds . Lat. to twine. twice cooked. E. binge. The term ON. Bird. bunt. bundun. bhurja. a female stag. Sanscr. episcopus. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Lith. Then added division in a granary. pundas. burt. bundt. to plait. — Surrey in R. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to swell. a heap. G. Bizened. ON. vescovo. — properly near-sighted. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. bitacora. life. poule. a bitch.

^chops. Cotgr. bitr. pale brown . /ealo-/or. Gael. cut. babbling. 156. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). on. a childe dothe gasouille. ^aj'/^r. Bohem. butorj OE. a continued soft sound. baboyer. In a similar manner Gael. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. is placed. unintelligible talk plabair. blob. blab.. pale yellow . an additional watch. I blaber. To or he can speake. blabbern. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. — Hollyband. beiwache. first. even humour seemed and beuin. to speak Dan. . Alex. blobach. . whitish. to talk much. 't kompas huis. blanc. Sp. Sw. blob. buft". bird of the heron tribe.D. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. quoted by Ihre. x. indistinctly. Deutsch. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. mouth. Mag. pale. biacca. fallow . BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. pale yellow. ' plabraich. blubber-lipped. thoughtlessly . out the tongue. A a rail. a beam in a house or ship. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. his blacan light. Fr. babbe.). Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. whiteness (candor sine It. Mantuan babbi. a large coarse lip . white. in contempt. viz. a flapping. things —Palsgr. To Blab the anchor. beitr. AS. black. — Collins in Hal. ' Biovac.. as of water gently beating the shore. Sp. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. to wax pale or bleaked. leohte . Se bleek. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. plappem. Bav. blabbre. an edge is sharpest sword. to bivouac. G. as in that of pale and white on the other. 332. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. apparently from its biting the tongue. . plabartaich. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. on the one side. Fr.. Mund. Hist. faded. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. to the sharpness of a weapon. Gael. to babble. G. blank. bitones. as of a body falling into water. bleikr. garrulous. Hal. term. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. mona mid Dan. dusky. bittour. AS. Black. 'fuscus. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. obscurus. Fr. from whence we have adopted the. a tati. quick. The bitas. a shelter for the steersman. In like manner E. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Fr. light-coloured. as of wings . night guard. — cheeked maid. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. the palebleff. from wachen. a babbler. shine. bitter.' It would thus acle. white. baitrs. Bleak. synonymous with baber-lip. ON. pins of the capstern. shining. to chops. v. ON. or water beating gently on the beach . All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Sp. biti. ON. blake. blebberis. Pl. Je N. Blabber-lip. Hald. Bivouac. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. blesmer. Percy Soc. brunblakk. faded. discoloured . Sp. to watch. blabaran. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. confusedly. Wit hung her mourn. to loll it out.' by Haldorsen. blac-hleor ides. yellowish. mouth. Goth. stutterer. gabble. chatter babbler . Bittern. So Fr. 't huisje. bites. iroxafealo. blepLith. NE. blob. "uivac. to To blabber blabber with the lips. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . dark. The Gz. white lead.' by Gudmund. pale. are two strong posts standing up on the deck.plab is used to . Lydgate. a* mast . Nagt huis. pale. whitish.' G. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. a fluttering noise. to babble. blunt we say it will not bite. bleich. blabhdach. round which the cable is made fast. ON. fallow fawn-coloured. bitts of Bitts. Ai-mstrong. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. yellow . a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. bitor. bihovac. to let out whai should have been concealed.— Blabber-lip. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. corrupted in Fr. —Neumann.€i. Fieldfare. bleg. gulblakk. Cot. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. Why presumest And laam's asse. is apprehension of danger. Applied in Hin ON. Again. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. as is seen in sputter and splutter. a stammerer. blakki. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. blakk. It. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. a large lip. In Legrand's Fr. Du. beuni. small guard-house. bittore. maculS.

also jabber. as Lat. pXaatpiiiiHv. The radical bubble. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blather. Dan. Play in Nares. to purl. in R. blena. Sw. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. leaves. branches . and wandering men and women. a bladder or pustule. imbrunire. smore. biasimare. boys. G. linkboys. Torriano. — rura. Blame. D. white. and thence to babble. and E. tattle. white. biastner. Hist. . dial. Reliqu. name originally given Blackguard. blanchir. cited in N. commonly called the Black-guard. contracted from bladeren. Jan. Gr. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Blanket. gabble. a pustule . leaf of a. chatter. to blanch. 86. 7. To blank. as. and he shall be sure to have O. blahen. Eadmer. most complete example of leafy structure. blank. blactra. blaere. Sir. Fr. from candere.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. blanc. Lat. blein. —We Bladder. Besides the examples of this connection given above. to shine. G. blister. blanchet. leaf. pimple. madder. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. a bubble. leafy. and others engaged in dirty work. Cot. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. &c. tree. — Sw. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i.. to vocifer- — Cot. Du. Du. on. foolish talk. G. bladeren. variable than the signification of words designating colour. polished. chatter. slush. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. The present forms then should be classed with blether. bladre.—Blatter. as scullions. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Now. skola and thwatta. blame. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. to bleak in the sun. roar. blasphemare. also tanned by the sun. revile. rogues and wanderers. black. plat. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. to glow. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. shining. mus-blackt. pass over. — . and Q. mire. irXariQ. the ON. moere. a buible. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. 5/^a/^ of colour. pladdern. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. is identical with Flanders borlen. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. Fr. blatter. bladder . . Du. Fr. vagabonds. bladder. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. blanqne. flap of a Du. to glitter. dripping-pans. a white or unwritten ticket. a bubble. Du. —^Webster. on. blister. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. coat. blinken. board. Blank "verse. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. borrelen. also white woollen cloth . the origin of . blad. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. smother. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. the leaf of a tree. and the agitation of liquids. to dabble in water. or a mass of bubbles. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. or blafich. a. bladdra. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. which we . blatt. Dan. as. PI. But perhaps a more Gr. a leaf. sheet of paper. as blader. mud. Bacon in R. Blain. blegne. probably ate. pluddre. a blank ticket. waschen. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. speak impiously. broad. to shine. bladder. Dan. reproach. It. blaeren. to Hence Ital. blather. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. a blanket a bed. whitish. to omit. blad. e. blanchet. plate. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. or as E. Du. . whitish. to make or become white blanc. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. — — — to jabber.. piatto. to disappoint. with all other loose idle masterless men. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Blancli. To Blare. plat. I am degraded from a cook. pallido. mud. and G. blister.—Blatant. Bav. bladder. to bubble. Sc. to —Blaspheme. bladra. to To bellow. vagrants. Blank. blister. to blow. a boil. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Blade. p. or of an oar G. candidus. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. blether. blatter. blegen. Fr.— ^o thehotsun. Perhaps from blegen. livido . See Blubber. Sw. Wott.— Kil. his meat burnt. 1854. defame.

Dan. The AS. proclaim the virtues of. See Blare. laudes (Kil. Du. whence Blazonry. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. e. oron-blasare. I. on whose behalf the herald appeared. to proclaim. AS. a loud noise. might And sain. — ^Jam. blysa. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blorach. visui patet. somewhat different train of thought. 2. blazen. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Sw. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. a flame . also only pains and excellent endurance. Blatant. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. of an animal. — — ' : bless. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. noisy blor. blase. by stripping off a portion of the bark. to bellow. G. i. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. in that of praise. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. Troilus and Cressida. and. blaze. bldsse. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. a voice Jr. oured. senses. to spread news. If armour. to blow. how. a flame. blase. bawling. Fr. biter. a shield. Fr. Fr. a lamp blasere. blus.' painted or figured . blateroon. a whisperer. — Elazen. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. ventosus. as a verb. stultd loqui. . blaesen. brasa.— . like the in English.whence the Fr. a MS. a coat of arms. friend Cornelius. to publish the praises. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. is the imme. A gust of wind. She roade at peace through his heraldry. magnilo. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. proflare tues. blose. boasting. kept up. Golden Book in R. The other derivation. Blast. a flame. used. loud . baladrar. But now. fire. Sc. bliEsan. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love.). . Du. blaterare. Blanches illuminies. a torch. magniloquus.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. to trumpet forth. pale. clamorous. a shining spot. blaser vid. blasonner. ON. the matter incendiary . braise. ing of arms. blcest. or to the sound which it produces. ON. thraso. commendation blason funebre. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blesse. A strong flame. blasa. gloriosus. blezo. abroad. splendour. To blast. blis. To Blaze.' to fastum . live coal . blcesett. to blaze Sp. a funeral oration . declaratio. blaodhrach. ill-speaMng their proper colours .would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. among other . to blow . to extol. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. Cot. a blast. With inversion of the liquid.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. embraser. blatero. a torch . Cot. Lye. blcEsan. also praeblczse. OE. First from the E. and which. Dan. indeed. g. also blazon or the blazSpenser. the noisy. Du. Du. Gudmund. bleis. beast. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. and to make him word blaze. blaeteren. The origin of this exSp. coloured prints. each of boaster. quus. Sw. ther it was erst not knowe. . blast. bles. brasa. Kil. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. an empty and two theories are proposed. blcese. shield or surcoat. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blass. is from AS. blossi. redness . blys. to publish. or blazening. to de. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. blesse. to blow. an conium. Gael. G. — ' — stroy. might spring from the same origin by a . as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. AS. As Kilian. baladron. in the same way as we 2. To blow AS. a shout. light-coli. blaodh. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. it is manifest. besides blesse. blasoen. abroad. to cut off prematurely. A blaze is so intimately Then. Du. blason.sound a trumpet. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. much plausibility. blcEsan. Du. Prov. has also blencke. to set on fire. blason. 'op een trompet blaazen. Blaze.

a red watery eye. while the agent ac- From . to cast a mist before the eyes. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. Gower in R. p. (faith or creaunce) Be war. — — R. spSt. A Blab. or blemysshen — blaken. Gr. Palsgr. To Bleat. to disgrace one's name. ^Blencher. livid. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. And By a similar metaphor Pol. blesmir.' the devil makes a vain back. BLENCH obfusco. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. to stain one's honour or reputation. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. Pol. Ancren Riwle. c. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Blemisli. From the OFr. a fault. ' — — ' : — — . a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a spot. blakna. Fr. to bleach. Bailey. blema. pier vor den augen eyes. See Black. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. start vor den augen. wan. Richardson. And now are these but mansbond (i. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. and thence to a bruise. to soil. bloken.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. dead-coloured Cotgr. to bleat as sheep. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. goda nainn. boggle at something. the formal equivalent of English wink. paleness. G. to wink at it. pale . 419. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Mac. To salir. guenchir. as of dust or mist . Blancher. . The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. sinen langen tranen. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. blur before their eyes. to cry or weep. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . confound him. or blemish. bldmi. pimple . a spot. to start away from. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. To totally different from the foregoing. A stain in a man's reputation. to make him feel blank. darkness of vices. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. The term blear.' to deceive one. plama. I chaunge colour. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Bleak. which are blurred with the have shewed you. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. or to low as oxen. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. N.D. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. — blink the question is to shrink from it. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. blench came to be used for a trick. See Blood. a spot. flack. Sir J. Manuel de Pecch&. a disgrace. a stain. livor. tacher. blot. .'he cried till the tears ran down. like one that has long P1. Bleb. B. . Bejaune. light-coloured. ' — — eye. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blemissemeiit. bleikr. to become livid.filerren. . See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. 242. to blear one's eye. 115. to spot. See Black. to spot . AS. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. is Blench. blister. bleakness. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. a been distinct. ' . a blotch plerr. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. blcecan. Sw.v. souiller. spla7nU sie.P. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Bleed. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. exposed. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. So in Sw. from on. what blenched him therwith. from the than schal I go. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. blesmissure. on. Schmel. sugillatio. pale Du. wheal. inflamed eyes. splamii!. tutnan is a cloud. to wink the eye. in the expression reputation. whitish. color plumbeus bldma. tumanid. novice. ' He blarrede or roar. blot. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. a blot or smear blanking one. . Blear. Blear-eyed j having sore i. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. avoid looking it in the face. As AS. blarren.' God in his wordes. to humbug. a boil. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. the livid colour of a bruise. ^Xiixaoftai. wanness. to blare been weeping. blink. drop of water. a blemish in one's 2. a spot. geplerr.

wink. window-blind. glitter. mixing in general. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. G.. Du. lightning. blinzdugig. thou knave. glitter. plonsen. I hold thee a grote thee. well blahy blick and blink. III. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. a dead nettle. to plunge. bleg. Sc. glad. pearance of the blighted . — when he — Bailey. dazzle . mix from blekken. . AS. blogi. riches .wink . a flash. liquid filth to bluther. Wtb. blidu. Deprived of sight. . blazeny. goods.corn. blend. a blick-ooghen. . For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. Swiss (obsolete). is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. livid. Needle. a glance Swiss blenden. blich-fiur. a blessing.blinkard . Pol. to stir or puddle. blissian. blent. csecubrandish. in potters' language. gladness. to make a rumbling noise. (=bene dicere). blindr. blinzler. lightning. trix. blinzeln. ' Pl. a nounce happy. riches blajennii blicksem. Blazena Bea. to glitter. to pro. . sertion of the nasal. . to bluiter up with water. Nares. to merry. blende. blahoslaviti to twinkle. To Bless. ON. . a look. to dash wine with water. cascultare. . to fall into water with a sudden noise. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. as taschen. to churn. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. plotzen. although in the in the next article. To blunder water. graceful. a gleam.not sting thiiren. ^Jam. be glad flash. as a blind entry. happy . blicken. vious one in the order of formation. blink. a. also to wink.D.blinken. to dazzle . blithe. G. readily passes into a /. as in Du. blanssen. Dan. good. gives blinzen. to bless. OHG. to flash.blunda. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning.eyed. to act like a — . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. Sw. blotzen. G. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blitz. glitter. happily. to glance. Paradises blidnissu.' To — blunge clay. the sign of the cross while blessing one. blitzen. pale. blet. blicken. blind. lightning sweet blago. to rejoice. bliss look . The sound of k before an s. to shut the eyes G. blac. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. glimpse. blag. to dabble in water. blind- ON. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. seems the simple netel. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . the G. a wink. tless —Gamm. doors. OHG. make these hands 3. blessed. and joys of Paradise bliden. Russ. The inblissful. blican. . To Blend. to be blind. 375. blendian. AS. happy . fortunately. a wink With the bletsian. . blund. to mix. Bliss. blatida. bluiter. giving (Fr. blincken. to glitter ful . glance. Blind. blink-eyed. F. Owl and Nightingale. lighten. AS. to shine. well blagaya. joy. — . blindselen. to blithsian. . to shine. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. sung. an entry which leads to nothing . as in the case of blaze. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. joy . blanda one or prevent one from seeing. Du. wink of sleep .' or Dat Koorn verblekket. the Slavonic languages. blide. Du. to dilute too much . joyful. bludder. Tany. joy.blinze. De Sonne ' verblekken. to twinkle. From the action of the hand making Sw. to lighten. flash of light . to rejoice. . tative source of the word is wholly lost. to shine. The term then self or others. to shut the eyes. sweet. but by no means therefore a pre. money. Sc. lovely Bohem. happy .nasal. Du. the verb to bless is some. to make happy. to — make it thick and muddy. — Goth. Kiittner. Biglotton. Du. shine. to bluiter. blick. a glance. a.Q. Blight. AS. with or without the nasal. false windows. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blithe blis. blago. to consecrate . — A A — . or nettle which does form. blahos. pockets. Blink. Serv. is I shall Gurt. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. blaziti. weaklaveny. Swab. j). to het dat Koorn is verblekket. Thence apblinds. to bless . —Brera. A . to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to glitter . as a vatn i vin.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. . moment. blinde fenster. tire. G. blessed. blicksem. burn up.

from blcsr. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. To Blissom. Blob. ^vaaa. as if soaked in water. joyful. —Bailey. busten. blinzel-maus.— Hal. blesme. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. repre- pusula. Dan. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. blobber. a bubble. a bubble. Kil. an unformed mass. fish blind person. Gael. blouca and Fr. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. ON. also to set See Bless. — . G. Lat. blot. to to puff and be noisy. In Fin. to breathe hard. bubble and blubber. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. — Sw. and F. or is inserted or omitted. and pisg. soft. blaud. senting the dashing of water. Cotgr. in Nares. Sc. G. For this. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. mild. like clot. B. blotfisk. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. or bleb. or blinde-kiih. a little blisg. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. Du. soak in water cured fish. To a smoking or drying by the fire. a bubble. to blissom. .—Bloater. signifying in the first instance to soak. to steep. Hence. in the sense of a soft tint. Thus we have blab and babble. The roots /. biota. . blond. to blow. lagga i blot. I believe. blithe. And so from squatter. inde humiditate tumidus. in bulk. gentle OHG. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. N. blab. blubber. — — — — — From blabber. to cure by smoke. Of sheep.plisg. blcesma. like manner the coloured. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. Blob. mass. . — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. A under this name was imported into England. husks. stone. ON. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. whence blast. in the lump or mass of wood. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Goth. and inarticulately. or the mark which it makes. sloppy dirt. to dash liquid. Sw. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blijde. bluyster. strawclod. shells. blindman's-buff. and bouclette. as blinzeln. speaking rapidly any . merciful ON. must be classed with forms like Gr. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. pustula. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. blod. To Bloat. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. pusula. in gusts. The blow E. Fr. cooking.— Bailey. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. weak. — Blob. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Jonson. bausen. light yellow. viscid. Boyd in Jam. taken altogether. while Lat. Egillson. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. is also used in the sense of swelling . blister blasan. and easily changes its place. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. Block. Bleb. The stem or trunk of a tree. a drop of water. bloc. a blain. swell. as a blab of ink. to bubble. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. expressed by cognate roots. blidr. blaustem. a blister. formed spot. frequentative. bleiths. to blow. mild. Sw. B. the unhewn bole of a tree. Dan. must be referred to AS. ^Jam. See Blot. blad. blobbes or droppes of water. a block or log en bloc. fiustula. or the like. kostia. as in E. blister. to blow. is formed squad. a See Blot. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. to block up the way. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney.. to desire the male. to soak. a blister . Hence E. Fr. a ram. orbicular. Ibid. soft. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. W. It may be formed Blithe. Blister. A solid blouquette blisters. a blot or spot. puff. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. Langued. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. pausten. blautr. a dirty blister. pods. blindsehn. a small lump of anything thick. it is must be observed. to swell. soft. kostua. blot. Du. Mod. soaked. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. . to close it with a solid mass. blote. any lump or mass of things. a . Bav. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Blond. separate portion. a lumpish head plubach. blide. having an unsound swollen look. Svt. bluster. blot. round. buclde.pusta. buckle. pimple. Gael. bloc.—Bloated. boucler. plub. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. bloated.

cow-dung. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. . gleam. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Ir. a beater. en blau ach. Dan. the bright colour of the cheeks . G. glose. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed.— . — Cot. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blue. a water ploutsche. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. coloured (Diaz. to strike with something soft or flat. a lump. blat. The G. mud.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid.properly to scatter liquid . blosem. to be red with blot. Hatch. Blossom. fall down . to patter. . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. blodelsa and blawelsa. — — . Sw. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. shine . colour of the cheeks. blond en blaauw slaan. bliise. platz-regen. bleistern. a flower. Blood. j^ blottir. to slap. to strike with such these objects exhibit. a The form platschefz. blysa. of a blow with something lios. Du. a black eye Du. Blotcli. Lat. platsch-voll. proto shine with bright colours . . The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. bloeme. bloutre. leme. to be red. great leaf of cabbage. blosa. to shine . Sw. blosen. gloss. to spot or blot. to strike . to dabble in water .blauschlagen. bloi. . ON. Stalder. plotterwis. a blaze. Blow. blotting-paper. . blady. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. a Usaae. in v. Florio). whence plader. blauwel. S-wiss pladern. on. E. a torch blusse. to glisten . dirty spot on the cheek. — Stalder . of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blaeuwe ooghe. bldts. blawels. platt-voll. wan. blistaf. See Blow. redness. bldmi. from the bright colour which 7'vci. to dash down. glossi. It should be of filth blak-blatte. a cow-dung. a Schmid. Sc. Du. to dash down Du. See Blow. blue . Harmar in R. to dirty. D. livid marks. blois. to grow pale). PI. glister . bliihen. flower. blose. to slap. blue. bloetnsel. to blot the land was in a leme. bloedsd. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. bloi. or the sound of it . brilliancy. bfys. gammon. Jios. ON. Blad. ' — . plottra. Fris. It. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. couleur livide. Pl.D. Sw. blooth. plet. spots in the sun. Wendish blodo. blatte. blue. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blosma. blaeuwen. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. a blot or spot.^ Kil. fair in en blat vand. to flame. a gush of milk . platschern. kobladde. pladern. plants which prepares the seed. (of cattle) to dung. blou. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. E. AS. Du. bliithe. to dabble in water. livid . E. bluish. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. to splash. 2. the bright to blot paper morsels. to blush . a nature. pladdern. to squat or lie close. a blow. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . plot of land is a spot or small rage. ^Bleed. ^lys. blowen. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blotte. Blot. Dan. . Wflz<^«. Plots. biado (of which the evidence plattern. to squander. OFr. Schilter. plattata. blad. Erploten. a spot or blot. yellow. a flower. lump flower. Ein platsch milch. Prov. Russ. .' the rain is driving and blue . a. Dan. to sparkle. glus. a pelting shower). bloed. AS. white blatte. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. gfyssa. blond is used in blatt. ON. to glow. soft or flat. bletister. to scribble. G. a deli. Fr. bloi. . to From . sbiadare. straw. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. clod. Schwenck. Fris. a drop of water or colour. blondheid. to blaze. as the skin or hair. to exists in biadetto. a Halm a. dial. lustre. E. blostma. Du. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. splendour . spot pletter i solen. bloemen. ])erly Du. bit by bit. pale tint. bleustern. blus. E. blue. probably connected with Pol. blut. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. yellowish It's G. fall to overflowing. platz-voll. kuh-plader. parallel form with ON. blaeuw. — Blotch-paper. a flower. pale. from G. light. bloto. lump of anything soft to blad. dial. blomstr. — gush. E. Bloom. Sc. skam. to blaze .platter. lidmr. splashing full. blase. glasi. blust. blond. Schmid. —Barbour. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. blotter. pale biavo.

The radical sense is shown in Gael. Sik upplustem. blubbern. to make blue. bruk. . a herb Gr. vi^ound. |8A)'. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. green. B. to fade. bluther. 1292. to make bubbles in drinking. blao. blazir. — . disordered. glas. to blurt out. . in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. blosen.D. pale. blahen. piusen. The primary sense is to shine. dirty. a blow. flower w. to'disorder.. to breathe G. In agitation of water. sound like water. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. the red fluid of the body . pale OFr. Mund. bldt. tache. G. coup. bl. Deutsch. Blowzy. glas. disordered in head-dress. jabber. sense. Blowze. or gr. Tumbled. marking some application from that bladder. meurtrissure Roquefort. a paddling in wate r. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. bliuwan. to beat. Lat. plubartaich. bledniai. grow pale. bliihen. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to spot. MHG. blava. — — Mundart. and thence. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. glede. closely difference in of blabber. v. is very frequent. blois. a continued noise of agitated water. . Jla-re. puff. chatter. — . — Bluther. P1. It. Gael. d in Sc. boasting. G. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. a bruise. withered. Her sweet bloderit face. corre. fem. blust. to glow. 92. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. to breathe bouteiUis. to gabble. blue. heath. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. bloeyen.' Hamburgh Archives. blau. in rapid or indistinct utterance. 51. grug. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. blebber. plusig. And. sponds with Sw. Du. blau. glaodh and blaodh.D. blue . wan. pale. OHG. Chaucer. blazi. where the word may be compared bliggman. blubonciti. thus identify the Celtic glas with G.to blossom. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Pl.Jlasa. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. especially with respect to the hair. toused.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. To Blow. bloemen. bliithe. 1. to fade. a gurgling . plustrig.' — Palsgr. E. y\r)yi»v. bluod. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. ' BLUE or guggling. a blast. bloes. a Blossom. red-faced bloted wench. into flower. foam. bruised Prov. blass. a. w. —SchmelIt. to shine with bright From colours. to flap like loose clothes. Du. to beat with a mallet. To Blow. pludern. Notwithstanding the We . A. plubraich. The aUied forms. . glow. Bav. wan. blezir. to bruise Roquef. to blow. -ii. little apparent resemblance. AS. bludder. Prov. a flower. fied vowel. is confined to the — .xo'»'. br. to flourish. blduen. blut. to gush. in E. to glow. to bubble up. pale . Blue. and the forms mentioned under Swab. Bret. to hard. — To Blubber. a fat. gUd. We . OFr. may cite for example G. gliihen. bloom. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. G. Raynouard. flower OHG. plodern. plubair. glowing coal . gloeden. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. /idXavoc. to guggle. to with Bohem. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. E. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing .D. to inflate. blow. blubbern. ^Jam. florere. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. to exhibit bright colours. to Plodern. fiubbem. Chaucer. bloeden.D. to show flower. Deutsch. — To blubber. OHG. glansj Ir. fqded. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. blaw j biavo. Pludern. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. gliihen. The interchange of an initial gl. bluh. Pl. blodelsa. Gr. and closely allied with Du. Langued. blady. grey. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. blodern. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. These are — Bludder. G. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to blow. ler. Danneil. bliihen. to fade. blawan. bloi. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). gloeyen. like manner Lat. cheeks bedabbled with tears. . blodyn. boil. It is howbliuwen. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. to puff up. 2.nify bubble. Kil. . Wtb.— .' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to blow.

It is a nasal form of such words as blother. . Then with the nasal. sbiavare. yellow. blutter. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. The Du. Dan. Supp. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. contrasted with the dle. puddle. flodderen (Weiland). Halma. Sw.D. and sbiadare. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Du. verdure.' trouble. Palsgr. The word is here synonymous with amplus. segetes virentes. flav-us. from the brilliant green of the young E. Blavoyer. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. The Du. bulmanner. Pm. buller-bas. blahir. G.. bUich. blaf. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp.— . tradire to Fr. sense of yeUow. Biada. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Blaffart. Hence a Slcelton in R. bullern. To blunder is then. dial. trahir. Roquefort. pale) is provincially used in the. je perturbe. 't — —Hal. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. blavus. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. blue. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. blandum. rustic. A bluff manner. - reddish yellow. abrupt. which is rendered by Florio. from an imitation of the sound. blac. confusion. yellowish red. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. in plur. falb. blunder. to blunge clay. and bustle .• BLUFF biado. biava. tutte le semente ancora in erba. fawn-coloured. a boisterous violent man. devenir vert blavoie. something. to dabble in the mud. in the same way as from It'. Blunderer or blunt worker. herbe. to work To blunder out a fronto. all representing the — .in mud or water. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. OFr. From G. having a bluff forehead. G. corn. blunt. a fore. like the Celtic glas. Du. Bodge. Bluff. Flor. G. or an abrupt manner. a blunderbuss. to become pale. pludder. to puddle. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. herauspoltem or sloping shore. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. to lose colour. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. his business with much noise. as well as sbiadafe. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. pale yellow. liebefactor. We Blunder. to plump into the water. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. to confound. mistake. Romance bluiter. an ill-done job. plomp. glundra. find accordingly It. used for the work of an unskilful performer. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. a flounder. applied to green as well as blue. corn. and metaphorically. without image or superscription. to fade). bluish. jaune. Altieri. a plain coin herausplatzeu. superficie plani. blave is moreover. to mix it up with water.//aay. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. glundr. to become pale or wan. originally growing up turf and water. to blunder water. is. Dief. G. mix It. planus. Kiittner. bleu et blanc. Lat. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. and biavo (Diez). Analogous forms are Du. Roquefort. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. bawling. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Pol. I blonder. like Du. from the Lat. Kil. polter-hans. blake (identical with AS. Blunt. blunderhead. poltern. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. disturb. Kil. blond. to become pale or livid. blanssen. buller-bak. E. — Pr. It is remarkable however that the E. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. And blunders on and staggers every pace.make a noise. verdoyer. blunder. to dabble Biglotton E. sloppy drink. and Du. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. fallow. earth and water mixed together. It then signifies something done at once. a shore abruptly rising. speech. discoloured {plowiee. Dryden in R. . Pl. has donder-bus. polterer. — . blue. plo-wy. pale straw-coloured. Ditton in R. as well as biado. to agitation of liquids. See Blunt. and then generally idle talk. ploffen. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. biavo. in water dobbelen. pale. blue. — — — . Hence we pass to Prov. Bohem. See Blurt. Bladum. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. biada. non rotunda. to fall suddenly on the ground. Hal. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. bloi.

and hath swiche languor in his soul. bleak. Du. blat. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. viz. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. forestis. exactly corresponding to the G. platz-regen. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. without Maolaich. that it not easy to discover the connection. plains The large bech. that the sense of bare. naked. Probably radically hlekit. it will be well to point out a sense. unceremonious manner. wan. dull. Chaucer. — — pidus.— — — . Then cometh indevotion. Sc. blunt. to make foliage. blunder. V. plump. poor Sc. A modification of the same root. void. hebes. It is from this notion of suddenness. a simpleton. or heraus plumpen. without the nasal. used in both senses. —D. a blot. viz. and in the same sense. plotz. Molof something wet. as Sw. Halma. blunsch. It will be seen that the G. from the loud report a fire-arm. to blurt. dial. The syllables blot. of a knife which not cut. blue. bluntschen. to make a noise of such a Stalder. blait. inaKil. Dan. unpolished. bare. pointless. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. to blunt a thing out. plump. heavy. sheepish. rudely. it will be observed. clownish. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. nis. is thrown. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Plump. Sc. Stalder. awkward. V. heavy. G. More in Richardson. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. The blait body. — Kil. platzen. pale. . blutten. bare or blunt. bare. Pol. bald. to handle a thing bluntly. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. blott. unfledged Sw. — blunt. identical with E. ang. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. plump. plump. figuratively. a thick and will person. Won by degrees. naked. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . rude. blotta sanningen. as in E. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blunt. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. with or without the nasal. stupid fellow. pressions. biosso. Sw. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. plump J to plump out with it. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. dull. silly. blunt. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. F. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. fooUsh. Blaitie-bum. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. without preparation. a bluntie. obtusus. a portion To inquire for slaves. Bluntet. the absence of sharpness. thick. Q. to bring it suddenly out. A light blue colour. absence of preparation. inactive Swiss bluntschi. but of something soft thrown on the ground. naked. maol.plompen. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. to plump into the water. insensible. plonsen. Sir T. heavy. rough. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. massive. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. blunt. . Plump mit etwas umgehen. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. naked. Dan. Kiittner. plumbeus. clumsy. It. G. Plontp. united in Gael. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. Swab. Ford in R. or blab out a thing Kiittner . blait.pludse. plutz T)\i. fling down . V. plotsen.—D. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. nature. down. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blout. as cow-dung. Woddis. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. seems to be derived. Now the Swiss bluntsch. through which a man is so blont. blockish. edgeless. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. raw. ineffectual reason. in Richardson. without horns. mit etwas heraus-platzen. bus.to fall into the water. blatte. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Blunt. duU. is The word dull. Kiittner. good plump person. biotto. awkwardly. unwrought. bloss. and an unintelligent. —D. Bare and blunt. homo stolidus. azure. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. obtusus. and the like. to plump down. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. and.

large. blubber. Slur. Blush. It. table. — — . whence bob. this root are formed Sc. . bot. De Boat. bot-voet. blaffen and baffen. Sc. The to radical meaning D. an end or stump. lacerta. 29. flat. like the parapets (viggyrdil. bdd. table. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. of the word seems . to puff. BOB 79 — To Blur. to roar. to glow . to blow. Halma. 9396. a tassel. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet.plodem. an edge. and E. planks or boards. To brag and to crack. AS. Sc. See Blossom. To Blurt. It. a short thick body. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. a mistiness. imitated by has also In like . OE. to be out of temper. hot. border. board. Boa. then applied to indistinct vision . To move quickly up and down. strong. pustern. Related to blutter. Wtb. . short pieces of any filthy mud. blaustem.— . coarse. bludder. will fly up. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. common. Wright's ed. and when applied to vaunting language. cheeks glow. E. the sound of a blow poffen. ever-swin. Bot zeggen. G. bobbin. bord. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. . to bounce. The elision of the d is very to chatter. Pl. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. Du. puddle. to give a crack. be a crack or loud sound. bateau. boistous. — To Bob. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. and the latch . Boost is used for the boast. swagger. to dangle. i. as splurt to splutter. or blurt with one's mouth. as in Du. Fl. margin. bliise. blur. to render indisbhir. a board or plank. a blotch. eafor. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. a blow . to crying. to threaten. bausen. a baU of thread the mud. to jabber. Fl. It. planks raised up outside the roofs. Swiss blodern. E. beacon fire. a dangling object. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. a burst of tears. to sound like water boiling. bustuous. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. blosken. blirt of greeting. pluddre. a mist before the eyes plerren. &c. to brag grande loqui. dial. to spurt out. rude. is formed Du. 274. a smear. pof. edge. e. and boisterous. eber. Supp. berd. Fr. stellio. See Boisterous. Sverris Saga. pausten. Boa. geplerr. 'Ba. to bark. pfludern. a border. Explained by Jam. Bav. Lat. both used in the sense of boasting. ground. bar. primarily signify loud noise. or backwards and forwards. blusse i ansigtet. Du. bhis. A large snake. bdta. blotch and botch. Kil. batello. rude. Hal. a small lump. boa. Hal. beer. the Brem.y. literally edge-wood. to blurt out. boot. to blore. To blow in puffs. dull. to make a noise with the mouth. blot. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. a torch blusse. BLUR Boar. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. bleuster. properly noisy. aper. bit. to chatter. AS. G. blurra. outward edge. chicchere. To splirt. to make a noise in boiling. my dear. crack made by bursting open. — — — * Boast.plerr. baiag. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. To tinct. voce intonare. a bladder . 1. AS. on. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to rumble. blaere.v. As the as. Du. c. P. to puff. to disfigure with E.the syllable bot. stupid. ON. puffen. to blush. gabble. it implies that it is empty sound. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. splurt and spirt. bluther. acre. Gael. 156. Du. Schmeller. mire. Wallace. a Jam. bobine. — a blaze. blasen and See Burr. Pull the bobbin. bora. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to dabble. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. dial. edge. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. Fr. Du. skin. Bluster. lindwurm. plump. Comp. to dirty. to smear. to blaze. G. a blot. to make mouths. or bog also thread.D. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. . to talk quick and indistinctly . to puff. boccheggiare. bakke bleustern. margin.—Bobbin. blodern. Gael. margin. bdtr.pusten. to blubber. cluster. cocodrUlus. to breke. an ear of corn. bord. to say bluntly. bludder. a. — From mouth. blast. and swimmeth very well. and Du. fringe. V. brett. . blose. ader. a club foot . to guggle. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bladdra. sudden. Board. botte. a grows to a great bigness. violent. blaste?i. gabble Sw. — ' Dief. borrar. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. violent G. bur. whence bordvidr. burra. a flurt with one's fingers.' — Red Riding-hood. blader. bluter. to blur. Du. w. a tassel. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. Dan. bord. boord. blot. pludern. Du. blarra. to snuff. baban. to endeavour to terrify. blunt.

shake. Thy i. to start start and back as from a bugbear. so large a feature in the country. to fail. The Sp. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. and E. to be uncertain what to do. thrust with something pointed. a ghost . to stick. bodak. precept. bodig. bogadaich. Bog. It introduced from Ireland. or a pair of bodies. speak of the barrel of a horse. Now unskilful action is conmire. .gmh:t. '£.a (i\ia. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. See To Botch. Bodice. by the syllable patsch. body of a shirt bol. AS. potacha. bole. potacha. bodat. a quagsoft. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. whence paUchen. boftich. Gael. a dagger. to commit a blunder. to stir. the trunk of the animal body. to blurt a thing out. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. biodag. Gael. gog in gog-mire. To portend good or bad. unsteady. calf of the leg. potig. stitch. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Bret. goggle. strike with the horns. 43. nave of a wheel. Supp.' Bogglie. message boda. bodi. to deliver a message. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Wall. belly. palleg. bogle. bot. bodian. corpset. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. bodilo. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. to make a mow at. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. is identical with Fr. Gl. bod. fickle . as in stammering or staggering.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. See Baber-lipped. — Grandg. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. potahha. To Bode. VI. stutter gogmire. bodies. to be unsteady tich. Ptg. bob. arise E. a round body both. a bog or morass. . is a lump. gagoula. dies. corpses pot. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Bodkin. the boss of a buckler. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. moist mire. toss. Miracle-plays. exhibit another modification of the root. a messenger . So BOB To Bob. bogach. barrique. anything soft. corset from corps. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. to butt. bottich are derivatives. a spur. an awl. an announcement. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. whence Fr. gagei. gago. Russ. a sting . Ir. to bob. where bogs form Gael. to push with the horns. agitate. . the stem of a tree . to dabble or paddle. stuttering. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. busti. unsteady. Shakespear has badged with blood. from fitting close to the body. Banff. anything protuberant.\\i\c\iset. expression hogglin an bogglin. In like manner E. gebod. daubed or dabbled with blood. e.hollow. rounded. barriga. bog. bodene. point. gog. bayonet . to fail.' A — Sherwood's Diet. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. to smack. mud. Cot. To Bodge. bog.! . . Lap. Bohem. waving.. a prick. stumpy. needle. or stem of a tree. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. cask bottich. bog (equivalent to E. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . With With this we charged again We bodged again. * To Boggle. bogadh. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Lith. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bod. ON. gag. bottig. bodnu. to stammer. formerly bodies.rabodi. pall. to waver. shaking . See Bid. swelling. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. to scruple. To mock. woman's stays. gogach. We . The signification of the root bot. Reliq Antiq. wavering. biodeachan. — 2. bo tich. ^Jam. and the word is well explained by Bailey. round. quagmire). . bodetz. to thrust. Crist. boll. corset. BOGGLE trunk and G. or bag. . Body. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. a prickle. meaning the round part of his body. AS. to bodge. W. Commonly explained as if from Sc. Schmel. the belly. move. bodhag. baboyer. French bouter. as signifying anything spherical or round. of which the E. bogan. a puddle. bolr. to roll. a body. . Ptg. And waves. to prick. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. a command. body and G. nodding. . to blabber with the lips faire la babou. a cask. 3. butt. to make. the body. Gael. a cask. bayonet. — as well as the body of an animal. as a horn. — H. a . bagges. . the body of a shift gaguejar. bothog. To make bad work. badyti. the thick part of anything. moving backwards and forwards. quakmg. patsche. bodi. then from the yielding.

ohg. a swelling in ice. roydeur. is probably a modification of boll. ON. — — which the cushion is stuffed. — ' — tagliare. boly. scruple. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. fiausten. Sc. the husk of nuts. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. impetuosity. bald. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. notes.palleg. bolr. insolent baude. Sw. OHG. bealder. balldr. bulla. The term applies in — — impressed . puile. courageous. Stalder. E. capitellum. to stagger. and manace for to de. a bakazikni. properly represent belly. the gurgling sound of water rush. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. The round stem of a tree. puilen. proud. strong. stramenta. as. a boil or swelling Du. Boll. beule. merry. V. gluma. Du. Cot. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. haughty. Boil. excellent. swelling. bula. to swell. G. the lir. polc'h. bola. Sp. to boil. bout is explained by Kil. Du. G. The bob. bold. wag. Me doth awate. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . Lap. flax-boU. Fr. bol. To Bolter. treated under Bowl. bolc'h. swelling. bolstar. hollow. brave. the. 45. may be identified with It. animal as distinguished from the limbs. to tattle. to give a hoUow sound. . to stumble. Chaucer seems Dan. stameln vel bochken. bol. folliculus grani.— D. bul. bul. b^gayer. the body of a man or of ter. Du. huge. bolleken. . . bolle. Daring. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. tartalear. Du. but that Bolt. * Boisterous. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. a head . shake. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. bochken (titubare. to stammer. tomentum. buller. tulum. To Boil. E. G. a cushion. stutSw. gerade signifies straight to the mark. as E. buile. intrepid. to puff. bal. capiing into a cavity. bald. as. bulr. Gael. boss.' Mrs Baker. he will speak out. chatter. blow. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. to be prominent. bolzBold. bolla. boil . thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. from the branches. a fastening for a door. Bustuous.). pall. by which it is moved to and fro. a bubble. confident. in speaking. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. stud. trunk of a tree . Bole. Kit. tartle. ON. bagaji. cheerful. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bhster. 1430 in Deutsch. in the sense of handsome . cows the people from speaking. repagulum. to hesitate from doubt. ^Vocab. This iv. belc'hj. Swab. bog. bouil. styffe or rude . (of Mons) b^guer. then violent. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bSlstr. up of bubbles. and then applied to other husks. as baltha.rounded part of the body. coarse. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bolzen. bulla. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. chaff of corn siliqua. Test. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. Lat. to waver or hesitate. to be at a loss a shirt. strong. It. Da. strong. hero. a bubble. used. Wall. 374.Du. pimple ON. bullire. caput scapulse. In the same way Sc. Westerwald bollern. as those of nuts. bol. obex. perpendicular. pusten. to the belly as the or dislike. a quaking mire. Lat. . a bump. * Bolster. Properly noisy. tar. ON. courageous. furfures. G. Goth. whence bulla. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. quick.— — . bog. w.D. see Boast. free. to stammer. baud. globular bod)'. also a blister. pillow. boll. boggle. bok. or the like. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). Fr. bolster. balder. glass phial. sels of flax. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. biiilen. poppy (Bailey). 304). boutpijl. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bola. boystousnesse. Chaucer. bolt upright. Kil. Pm. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . bout. the body . bolster. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. warlike. Mund. ballr. from Du. Magy. See Bulk. hakogni. i. bald.w. Bret. bold. rough. noise.. a bubble. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. Fr. — 6 . round the first instance to the materials with . Boystous. Pr. which are not used for a similar purpose. bolt. Love. dint in a metal vessel. pustule. ON. OG. bold. A. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. bollen (Kil. prince. tartajear. ^Boistous.

to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. or the like. taraabout. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. poll. Brem. to knock. bortelen. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. as above explained. lumpy. bolting to that of form. the sense of right on end. bulk or quantity .agitation of the meal in the bolter.Lat. clump. tumultuari.nature of the operation. . OFr. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. croler. Pl.D. bolzauget) Sp. Mid. pattern. to bolt meal barutel. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. loud and fast. On this account Mid. Pr. hole. to come rattling downstairs. swelling. to talk pulzen. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. MHG. to make a knocking. holier poller. kloteren. knob. Du. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. tuft. 2. poltern. buletel.D. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. by the representation of a racketing sound. : ' — — . Champagne burtcau. staff which sounds tar. bolt head is a retort. small heap. OFr. to bolter. buretter{CQ\. to bolt flour burato. rugged. taratantarum. to form lumps. with E. tantara.thump or blow. a small portion. to shake. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. from G. as a rabbit from its baritel. Du. to significance of the term was overlooked. hammer. a crashing or racketing noise. tar. we der Brocket). . have Lat. bolt. buletare. Pm.— . bulla. budeln daz mele . boss. uneven. uneven. beliitea. . cro. And as the agitation of cream in . series of jolts or abrupt impulses. It. Sanders. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. crod.D. . Sw. Dauphiny a sudden movement. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. a clod cloth. OFr. a clod. to agitate. btilt. hulter de bulter. barutela. cruddle. pull. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. Bav. Hence Palsgr. to become lumpy. buUire. Fr. protuberance. P1. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. agitari (Kil. buideln. bolt-foot.noise {brattle of thunner. Bulte-pook or bulstar. jolting. a bolter Prov. vessel with narrow opening. Supp. Wtb. a clump of turf.. bulk.clack.). ' Holler poller / bulter. beluter. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. a round glass ending — bultig. Dan. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. The ment and the operation. fied bot.D. also to curdle. to start with palpitate. zen. or ill.by forms like G. a . crotlar.) E. I boulte meale in a boulter. a bunch. we pass to Du. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. to start out. ex•wagen. a rattle. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. The ulti. hulch. a clap of thunnences. we see that the one consists of a words. bolzaugen. projections. bolzen. to E. and to crash. G.i5a//^«. barutare. sestuare. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. hump. bluter. then to knock. we have Du. bullern. pultare. as Fr. brattle. a millpoltzet augen. bultig. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. and the Thus from So.On the same principle. barutela. die treppe pressed. crash. bulstrig. poltern. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. / is transposed in Fr. baruta. gebolder. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. on the one hand. a rattling carriage. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . Hence. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. in S'W plotter. Lat. . to bolt meal barutel. Prov. grasbulten. je bulte. Here the radical image is the violent O.through a cloth of loose texture.. mole-hill. one after the other. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. rugged. racket gepolter. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. — — — .). Lang. burclct. ler. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. taratarrum. to spring forth E. as snow balling on a horse's foot. tling or crashing noise. Pl. representing a rat. hammer. So also we pass from Lat. bulio.as the essential element signifying the talum. to coagulate. the wheels groaned. . abolter. as of a trumpet. . ' — — ! ! : — . . 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. a sod (Schiitze). Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood.protuberance. a bolter or implement for bolting. projecting eyes pul. a club-foot. In the next place. to clack. bultred. curdle.fe/2?. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. zare. or a racer from the course.u. blotttre. Schiitze.

and Du. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. buidelen. and in fact we find the and Du. . bombast. a thundering noise bomre. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. band pi. and also the leg. a ligature. the silk-worm. sye. bunden. ^o/j. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bombarda. . Banstead. gunpowder. As cotton was used for padding clothes. bonfras. Fl. basin. Dan. tree. Bonfire. a —Bombasine. ODu. thick-legged. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr.Su?. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. bein. a bone in general. the contracted form of Du. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. band. PoUitriduare. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. however. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. . Greek iSa/iliaiciov. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. a baker. thick from shaking. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. band. bonds. Du. bambagioj whence It. The material called by this name. Du. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. Kil. . Bone. and Mod. to beat a drum. brust-bein. bond. booming over the water. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . ties. thick. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. to bind G. cotton stuff. a string. Moreover.^Altieri. It. Dan. bommer. buttel trueb (of liquids). as Banbury. whence bomme. bomba. Gascoi^e in R. bone of the . bureau. G. and Bond. assuming the of leg : special signification W. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. silk-worm. From builen. a hollow sound. also thick-shanked. Need you any ink and bonibase. HoUybandin R. bonog. bambacium. bombasin. has repeatedly varied. Near 6 * . In legal language. to boult meal. butteln. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. OE. Antiq. baum-bast. bolting-cloth. cotton. bulter from It. a beacon. . silk. an implement of binding. agreement. burato. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. Du. It. bombe. e. to cast to and fro. term is appropriated in G. Bomb. Bibelesworth in Nat. stump.Lat. bopin. bande. achsel bein. 155. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. stuff. to which the leg. or trunk word in W. It. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. the shank the shoulder-bone. and called in Mid. coarse. — bombast came guage. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Mid. It. to shake (as to shake the head. bwmbwry mar. tie. from teu. is supported by the analogy of G. derivation. Fr. bras. 83 Gr. Butterglas. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. . we speak of a gun to resound. It. When ture. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bon. produced the Pl. to thunder. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. sericum arboreum. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. — Bombard. beuteln. breast-bone. baun. and that from Fr. banitola (Fl. to ring bells. a boulter of meal. from boom. It. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. the leg. to shake down fruit from a tree. barate. bongam. crook-shanked bondew. bureau. bindan. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. Fr. to shake. G. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. sijde. bombasine. been. lana lignea. to thump W. rimbombare. borel. bauniwolle. — AS. a stem or base. buidelen. a churn for butter. the murmuring of the sea. to resound. gossipium. bommen. again. q. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . sije. i. — having a stem or stalk. the Fr. butteln. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. iuttern. bambagino. to bolt meal.D. raw silk. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. biire. a stock.) . bombice. tie. G. a word of which we have traces in several English names.). beuteln. . When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. beil'n. Castrais barato. must be explained Fr. boulenger. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. as in . a drum bombammen. d. bwmbwr. &c.bast. bombicina. tiffany. E. In E. bombase. Schm. bombdra. builen.

although in the OG. to gape.n. the mouth. The origin of the word is probably the W. Trans. simpleton. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. tall. and fig. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . nachbar. Build. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Busk. literally cow-house. ON. a head-dress. . a stall. reparation. gawney. writing bokos. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. at everything. — . been. from gape. prayer. in Phil. inhabit. head-dress wai^g. A favour. boubair. often cut for burning and lighting fires. also called Brecknock Beacons. babau. without ad- . prayer. botte. Boom. AS. the scriptures bokareis. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. till. Perhaps. See Bown. master of the house. a letter . Kil. but stall. booby. a simpleton. buandi. Fr.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. boutig. dog-kennel. babb^o. petition. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. wondering signifies not only straw. Hal. ty Gael. Gael. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. bonaid. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. stabulum. * Boose. The character of folly is i860. Du. gaby. Book. to litter bosu. — — . bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. remedy of evil. whence ban-ffagl. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. . w. G. Bun. a lofty blaze. Sp. . to cultivate. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. as a lying-place for cattle. Mrs Baker explains bun. build. set in order. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. is Du. beiSne. or Vanns. boom. Gl. ganian. bua. house. relief from sorrow. the name of the letter b. as the Brecknockshire Banns. chaff. Mrs Baker. Bonnet. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. bos. baier. . — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. ass. bote. the stubble of beans. in w. Thin ben Luke i. boer. a. the possessor of the farm. Ox. E. bua. a. \ais-band. Boor. Pr. In nautical language. Booby. bAkva. gaping hoyden — Cot. bossen.^ —P. bauen. Jr. by arbitours sholde bote the P. by itself for head-dress. inhabit. ON. bonad. b'ukvdry. betere thing werse. pero. Hufwud-bonad. Goth. bolt. bid). to cultivate. G. bose. remnants of hay or straw. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. to dress. It is commonly explained as identical with It. high. tapestry. dress. E. — e. Boot of bale. where a cross (or a gun. bowwen. buch-stab. bota. lofty. boia. pole. of wonder On the same principle Sp. from Du. foolish. The latter is the original AS. botte. biikui. a dry stalk. to aid. to ask. short boots. Fr. till. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. — Bailey. See Bomb.—Bootless. gehyred. b^er. a vessel for holding liquids. Boot. dress. one who dwells nigh. the first consonant of the alphabet. A stall for cattle. . The i. Pm. bds. blockhead. a letter Russ. succour Bailey. Bootless. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. OW. a bag of skin or leather. To Boot. Binau Brychyniog. help. Boon. to prepare. signifying beech. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. Hal. a silly fellow. build. tigh. Du. babin. bdn. bauer. Wall. G. and thence Rouchi baia. and Gael. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. bommen. desire. 13. boten-shoen. however. a good turn or re- meaning. the cultivator. and Ban in w.. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. swinbusa. beam. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. boa. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. bonnet. . boandi. fool. Prov. dolt. a scribe G. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. badaud. quest. It. bobo ! interj. feu de behourdis. busu. . countryman. a bonfire. wall hangings. . from badare. p. clown. 232. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. boubi^. pig-sty. a lying-place for dogs or swine. See Butt. letter. petition. Schm. comes bondi. Swab. which one gaping and staring about. to yawn. But bosg. the alphabet. bd. boo. Bonnefyre. netis stall. Du. Fr. OSlav. Fr. ON. A peasant. Palsgr. a hollow skin. litter. b&ber. hu?idbusa. AS. to strew with straw. and from AS. to gape. . bosig. boutig.Boos. N. a tree. bobo. bene. Kil. Basa. . — To boot. ben. bosih. from beida (E. dial. ON. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. to set in order. From bo. dial. Thus from the syllable ba. — From the participle present. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. bonad. bas. are formed Fr. botta.

—Burin. p. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. burin. a responding forms . sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. boeye. bothan. The Fin. terebro. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. nor E. 3. struere ignem. . to bite. in Lap. and parrets. sawroot. a booth or shed. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. as afford a satisfactory explanation. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. bata. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. boards. a borer. Esthon. a borer. both. to swell. an engraver's chisel. to quench one's thirst . to .. amendment. of an edge that will not bite. bdra. bohren. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. Booth. baara. boede. It is admitted that Fr. Burke in R. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. chewed food for infants. BoracMo. bower. the . bolino. limbus. to mend. wave. betan fyr. butin is explained by Flor. a great bur. purra. to build. to bete the properly to mend the fire. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . . ON. to patch. is purin. Fin. Magy. batr. to bite. admovere titiones. The as G. Lat. to anything Neither G. to expiate boeten den dorst. See To We speak in E. It. . &c. . And so in ON. a leather bag or bottle for wine. purro. cottage. ora. a shop budowati. amendment boeten. dens mordens vel caninus. bordi. budowai. recovery bata. See Burgeon.par. BOOTH vantage.— Return from Parnassus I inR. G. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. Gael. baete. scalpo. drillen. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a hut or tent. See Bower. . sharp. to bore. a chisel. fire. extremitas Bore. ON. fimbria. a shelter of branches. boete. ON. hem or gard of a garment. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. to build buda. bud. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. aid. terebra sculptoria purastoa. . Palsgr. cellar. from borra. bauen. make . Compare Manx birrag. borracha. a wave. chisel. abode. or the gradual working a hole in anything. . an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to boot. wine-skin. AS. byte points to the verb byta. Sp. puru. exchange or divide. edge. a granary . and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. sculpo 05\xiik. puru. Gael. tent. The ON. to restore. a shop. a bothy. limbus. yfirbdt. forare. Mag. bdt. Fr. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. welt. from bord. comminuted by either kind of action. a tusk. Pol. are parret. bite. to to . as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. Booty. reparation. Fin. lappolone. to profit. to surge. Fin. puras. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. barn. on. Border. a word. bardure. and meta- Fr. butin. making good again . to hut. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. pointed. urboro. a border. bauda. Bohem. to pierce. and E. It. remedy. purra. bord. 266. or anything pointed. to importune. 1. . a borer .por. bottino. Fr. from deila and skipta. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. cup- awl. uzboro. Another derivation from Fin. to foam. to repair. Fl. and thence to eat build. hut. borracha. OSw. Kil. lappalare. Alexand. repair. Du. beute. puras. mat-bod. Esthon. Gael. kvit-bara. a cupboard.. biorag. to The Sw. a shed. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. OHG. dust. which are probably from the same root. in Ihre. • — To Bore. cure Sw. scsdes-bod. are derived from G. a bladder. borino. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). The cor. furni. and hence to fine. — ON. bothag. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. to stick unto as a bur. . furd.. bora. pi. A phorically a drunkard. Du. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. differs only in termination. to divide. to profit Goth. margin. a. a hut. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. piercer. Bete. swell bara. budka. better. boeten het vier. To Bore. a sharp-pointed tooth. pu purro (saha =: saw . In the Fin. But probably the E. botjan. rof. N.

bos. the hollow between the Borsholder. basse. to strike so as to Bureau. AS. cnag signifies both a clergy. ' pledge. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. loan. Jam. nonsense. Turk. botch. storm. Bunch. in the body struck. an eminence.. burh. Lang.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. knock and a knob . to protect. bosh. a pushing or striking out. a boor. plain rude fellow. Jam. . beorgan. tuft. borgo. 106.mass. butsen. burgess. &c. bump. undyed wool of brown sheep. tive idea seems to bring under cover. by which of or belonging to plants. pego.' if thou give money on loan. to become is emitted by a hollow body. a citizen. botch. Hence borhes ealdor. without. G. northern. botsen. to save. the must have arisen burgensis. bttssel. cob. or perhaps it may be See Bury. Bos a surety. one who sticks to you like a bore. the sun sets. a bunch or hump. borel. to contain. empty. blow on a hollow object. boss of the side. to strike . and thus could not shake off the old burr. cnap. to knock or strike. that which biirge.' or system of bail. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. bom. . Gr. whether from the fact preserve G. borh. AS. borough or chief constable. hollow. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. in instead of without. coarse cloth made of the Du. into borsholder. bump is used in lump or piece. Altieri. a bouncing baby . destitute. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Fr. pitch. head. bos. a. brown cloth. Borrow. clownish. useCanterbury. Du. boss. bunch. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. borei. less. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . bosse. knocking. to give a hollow bizo. The primi. hollow bucklers. a little blow. Sc. (Bridel). Fr. Newbury. whence the burg. is probably radically Boss. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. connected. E.' the chief of the ' borh. boss sound. The origin seems to be the Goth. gesylle. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. poor. Borough. knur. baurgs. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. while Gael. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. f graauw. is used in the sense of bussare. byrig. bossen. poor. surety. In like manner It. Botany. borg. to protect. Hence knot. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. which now signifies a knob. It. a blow. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. rustic. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. bierge. And that unsittynge is to here degre. formerly used in the sense of knocking. borough-holder. borealis. boss or knob of a buckler . bail biirgen. borgese. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. tempest. ON. Swiss Rom. the ordinary a swelling. Borowholder. unpolished. It. . See found in Bav. boss. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Fr. AS. as we speak of a thumping potato. I. the N. . V. the Sc. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. — ' wind burya. ' — — . ^o^^flj. plant. to keep. as if from the verb to hold. bussa coarse. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. bosseu. /3oraMK6f. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. a wen. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. borg. Goth. bussi. knob. a giving rise to It. pegou. Boreal. from their grey clothing. empty. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Bailey. from AS.any round sweUing. or head-borough. grey). Lat. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. bourgeois. was origin of the term is the OFr. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Cot. botse. a knob. ^ma. secure. a herb. bundle. a city . viipyoc. of bail throughout the country.ribs and the side. a boss. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. to save Sw. a citizen. a surety. striking. or because a blow berga. cormpted. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. Russ. boschen. — — — A — . or perhaps also To Borrow. vain. D. to save. butse.bucklers. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. to pick or cull plants. primarily signifying coarse sound . Bosh. a tower. (1867). projection. The other. gum vocant. busse. huschen. and borough in the sense of a town.' every man be under bail. bergen. rude. Du. So Du.vr\. when that system was forgotten. burel. i. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. to conceal. empty. bourg. beorgan. the North Wind. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. to give bail or answer for an.' Vegetius in Diez. Hal. cnoc. agrees with E. to take in. boussi.

fire-bote. abbi.' to the fiery Csedm. butwo. buideal. A — oba-dwaj Lat. Stalder. To confuse with noise. w. The Gr. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. bundle. Both. Hal. It. stock. to rage. gling piece of work. . Pl. any plain round viol glass bozzo. bativa.) .— Swift in R. the bud of a flower . butse. to fall : with a sound batsch. Fr. See Bound. butsen. 212. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. A bottom depth. a depth. House-bote. ixorapudder. a cess. bodem. AS. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. Lat. botse. bdsser. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. to stir and mix together . Butu. boil. a root. both. Diez. maggots in barley. bosser. bethia. a pit. Gael. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. bozza. Prov.— Hal. batschen. to dash about .of a ball of thread. bulderen. a cobbler. ubhau. a maggot. boiteal. a knock. noise. ing out. the first rough draught 2. * To Bother. Bret. bile. to give a sounding blow. pozzanghera. an imperfect and bunbutt end. N. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. nets. botus. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. boss. ON. bottom. stroke. G. they two. bots. — Dief. j3i/9os. signify a in OE. thing soft batsch. the science or knowledge of plants. stock. poltern. to mend. — — A 2. a pit. pocciar. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. Lith. and ajSvamg. . Here the radical image seems a bubble. — duj Lett. for a bud. botsen. beggtaj Goth. E. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. abbution. puddle. to smack. pozzo. a plague-boil Kil. bAdtr. scuohbuzere. pother.D. blain. Ancren Riwle. the other hand. Du. stem or base. Jtidu. botte. Bochu. is also a bubble. an abyss or bottoniless pit. a botcher of shoes. ^kvBoQ. or plague sore . Dan. — Bottom. . bot. putra. repara- — — See To Bete. bdt. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Botcli. a vessel for holding liquids. botch. botte. ' G. Decorde. Bouteille. potra. dim. bund. to froth as beer . podge. Parmesan poccia. to put on a patch. to work without order or know. mend. — — . a slop. Hal. btitse. i. biissen. a bott . — . . hurly-burly. Fyre to botme. Lith. a bubble. Du. to dip in liquid (to Gael. a bottle of hay. &c. disturbance. a pock. G. See To Bodge. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Canut. blister. dabble). ambo. Bottle. is boteau. boden . mutter. bSn. — — belly-worm. BOTCH understood). botte. especially in Gael. Gael. the lowest part. noise. to we have OHG. to podge. botel foenn. ledge It. Podge. a tinker schuhbiisser. shoes. ba. — Jidwi. to mend (kettles. contusion . to strike . fundus. boitean. buddl. boiteag. a cesspool pass. buazen. Mudu. burgi vel pontis refectionem. a slop. as Fr. a waterfall. Judwi. Fl. bide.— . a cask. botm. On the other hand. you two. mess. a bottle. to make a make a noise. botel. bunch. to bcBta. It. . was called a push. to stir and mix together. stump. Again. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. From the dim. in the sense of mend the fire. baiothsj Sanscr. • Bott. — . — Fl. bluster. A horses. empty or hollow. a patch patschen. dial. bun. tumour. It. a humpback. any round ball or bowl to play withal.foundation. Boa two. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. what pushes outwards.^Dec. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. gipuozan. . to knock. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. buts. however. botn. botola. patch. turmoil. OSax. abyss. e. a boil or swelling Halma. a lump of somebatschen. Wedu. Bouds. a bump or swelling. oba. Bailey. On — Du. abbu. &c. a bottle. Leg. to botch or patch. bozza. whisper. To Botch. See Boss. and E. bossu. knock. to make better. to simmer. buddeln. Danneil. And so we speak of an eruption. AS. H^cart. blow. Fl. bulder. boccia. ON. . The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. gen. a wisp. round lump. mess. we two.ments of the same root. I. corresponding to . schuhbosser. abbi-diwij Slavon. boute. kessel-biisser. bottigUa. disturbance to . pimple. whence the name ol pool to podge. to from the root bot. See Butt. ON. we have Swiss batscken. Kil. bouteille. AS. by met. a. as a push or windgaU. a bunch. of botta. Fr. from the dashing of water. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. a bundle of straw or hay.

bottom. geration.. the hollow of a bay. as a nosegay. ni frestelar. tnndo. knock it sounds again. bunsen. p. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. — No i ausiratz parlar. Boulderstone. Primarily to strike." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bumper. And the new stools set out. to spring. To Bound. to spring. signifying in nautical coil of rope. whence buj7isen. To Bounce. in the absence of actual e. nave of a wheel bothel. came home with his face all to-bounced. bunda. boh. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. — strike. to resound. The branch of a tree. like bobbin.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Bunche. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. Nor a centinel whistle. Q. a bud. Fr. see Boss. to knock. Webster. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Fr. carpet. round. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Probably from the Celtic root bon. Bough. a round body both. the larger kind of pebbles. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . a large stone rounded by the action of water. bouton.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. boundina. bolder. a jar to set boughs in for ornament.— F. to set out by metes and bounds. Raynouard. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. 2. bone. bend. The W. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. an de dor bunsen. To Boult. a blow. bondir. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. turn. I assure you. bonndn. the verb bondir in OFr. baby. till The dat et bunsede. debodinare. to thunder. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. from AS. root (see Bottom). a boundary stone (men stone). a turn or time.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. a bound. Robert to a monastery in Poitou.' B.D. See Bunch. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Fr. by Bujns or Buns.>a bout. Bret. bullra. butina. Bodinare. to make a loud noise. bounbounejha. Halma. boss of a buckler. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Ni gacha cor bondir. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. A Langued. — Take care my house be handsome. Bowlder. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Pm. to thundering big one hum. Wtb. a stock. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. gulf. AS. So It. Du. iv. jump. — — Bight. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. winding. boriie. bugan. and F. bay. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. he fell so that it sounded. jungen. a blister. bog. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. to knock at the door. Bout. a large pebble. ing. a bouncing apple. bun. to turn. Bound. 136. bugt. as that of E. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. has hot.— Cot. thumping. . Bonny.'— Charter of K. language a * Boulder.— — — - 88 BOUGH . 3. The Bight of Benin. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. a boss. From Sw. See To Bolt. bons. strapping. mcn-bomi. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. in contrast to klappersten. dial. . The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. of thread. Mid. nor horn sound. Bough-pot. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. the bay of Benin. to set bounds. bamsen. Brem. Dan. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. mere. bonzen. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. or Bow-pot. and Prov.' round and round in similar circles. bodina. signifies a sliort thick mass. dial. botwm. Sw. to hum.— Boundary. to fix limits. Alpine Re- — gions. Bought. Coxcomb. bonna. march. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. boujtce. E. from bugan. from volgere. Pr. ni motz brugir. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. pothel. its kind. — — leap. bend. a button. volta. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. an occasion. pimple Richards bothog. limit. Ducange. buUersten. . the smaller ones. contusi. to bow.

Sw. btiga. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. steady. g. bue. a mill-post. to bulge. bending of a joint knie-bug. warbling. kroes. brummen. in Fr. of the ON. jest. to take breath. their time -With "wailful tunes. repartee. bend. schulter-bug. Sw. to hum as a bee. G. grumble Sw. bugna. head Fr. So Sc. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Dan. address. bugna. gurgling. ridicule buirte. fresh* water. Prov. Gael. A water. language of folly or ridicule. — — . Bourdon. spelling the word iox bound. a go to. — probably through this latter signification. a from Du. The meaning of bound. A —Cot. limit. brausen. puff out. Chaucer in R. buigen. biegen. Eown. Gael. — — — A pare. beygja. a prop. a jibe. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. a for New York. bog. cudgel. . Gael. a. a bow. patesten. crutch. a drone of a bagpipe. burn. buzzing of bees. trick. a. on the whole. to drink deep. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. a drone or dor-bee. a humming noise. is. Bounty. G. and not in the sense of curvature in general. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. w. sport. AS. taunt.which see. Burden. from spring. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Dan. drone of a bagpipe. bordon. sense durd. sotich. mockery. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. to tope W. the shoulder of the vessel. buga. a cup kroesen. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. that ON. . shoulder-blade. Gael. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. cheat. i. . buzz. G. or of an Gael. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. biugan. tinton. it is probable that the It. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bogha. to banter or laugh at. to indulge in his cups . Sw. ing. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. bending. good. addressed to. are applied to the bow of a ship. bage. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. a humming noise Macleod. firm. verb bua. pausen.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. buizen. Spenser in R. bogen. pared. bagna. bordo. bovne. . a corToward the garden. . curvature. pot. the burden of a song. sausen. Bourd. analogous to Fr. a — — . burdan. spring. whether by sound or gesticulation. bourde in the same sense. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . potio. burreti. the ting of a bell. Immediately from Fr. Burgeon. fun of one . to bow or incline the . Bret. schenkelbug. bontS. drunken. bending. Du. bound. the fixed. staff. pusta. lance. When used alone it . bog. Cot. bonitas. pre.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. bov. Sp. beogan. bug. a well. when we speak of. joke. also the humming or ON. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. bend Sw. game. souf. to bow. burd. to hum. flagon. to tope. ready to pike or spear . bow to shoot with. the Bourdon. to take one in. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. ^<7r«i?. buyse. whence buysen. set out. Bourdon. and that probably from a Celtic root. bourdon. It is remarkable that we find vary. purlBav. a pot.. Swiss bausen. as was for. It is the participle past buinn. Dan. Du. ready. Borden. bogr. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Comp. G. to draw a deep breath.bass of a stringed instrument. bugan. a jibe Shaw bururus. bwa. identical with E. And there in mourning spend Sw. a sing-song. purra. deceit. Fr. Sc. Goth. bogna. burt. has also buirleadh. It. As the Gael. to mutter. bunaiteach. Fr. brunna. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. way ba7n. belly out. on. to — Hal. hence musical accompaniment. to take deep draughts. bugne. bordone. like quaff. prepared for. to drink deep. Cot. to our bous. burdan. Du. saufen. must be referred to the same root. burlare. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. Gael. drink deep. It is bov. bourdon. to draw a deep breath. bommen. to tipple. bonus. explaining Sw. Dan. buys. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. The foregoing derivation seems. borne. epaule du vaisseau. ruption of bonne. bausen. to trick. bdgi. hous^ Man in the Moon. Fr. the big end of a club. to pre2. an arch. different modification gives ON. . a brook. Du. springbiirn. Bow. . Lat. Bound. bourd. to swell.

a buck. biicken. mausbollelein. then by the loss of the /. without the and grits. passing on stud. boudin.D. lump . a ball. belly. bwra. tumour . containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. of a wooden ball to play with and — . buis. a box Lat. . stream forth bugyogni. a croft by a house. ttuJic. bulk compared with Sw. buk.. a bud. a box. . bhuj. biiske. bulcken. sausage. a iDubble. . hollow wooden case. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. bukke. . intrenchment. Sanscr. bubble. anything globular. heafod bolla. &c. botulus. to yield to one. a pot. buxus. inclinare se (Kil. trestle. Lat. blister. crown of a hat. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. bowl . Buckle. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm.a. belly. ON. . Bohem. bent. Bav.flask It. a protuberance. boxtree pusska. Cable. bugna. . ken. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. AS. hollow. swoUei) Lat. compared with Fr. . The / a bow. bolla. bol. pocket. the bogna. W. spring as water bugya. bolla. a wine-can . bolle. bosso. From the other form are G. . globular body. hollow place Fr. honse-bur. bola. . to stoop. polla. gut. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. . . to swell. bolne. . a hen-coop . Du. box in both senses. bugyani. to buckle G.) to incline oneself . signified by forms like Gael. boxtree. pusspan. ne. a drop of pullistaa. A . a bowl. in both senses. bow. buckelig gehen. the head. a separate apartment . bending. similar shape. to bend down. to bow buck. an outhouse AS.). painter's easel. budel. bocka. w.\s. a bubble. Bower. Sw. OFr. the box-tree. to make crooked . the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bulb of an onion bolleyield. bugyni. kupu. a ball. tumour. a sack. a stud. purse. Thus we have Esthon. in walking appears in a . round glass phial. the skull or brainpan . See Boil. bog. kupukka. . a thing of liquid. bhugna. and to a coachbox in particular. a wardrobe . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. to guggle. is applied to a coach-box. PLD. E. the barrel of a gun. or. ^o«/«. fata-bur. Fr. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. make obeisance. bulge. box. buello. busse. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Fr. bwr. folliculus . G. to bend. utibur. Du. convex. buigen. * Bowels. a black pudding. a swelling or rising up. bossola. Dan. ON. boel. bucka. biisse. a chamber swefnbur. bugy. boss. See MHO. bur. a bubble Fin. globular. beutel. It is more probably from the G. Pol. bog. to puff up pullakka. belly of a cask. . . kuppelo. koziel. at the e. Sw. to stoop biickling. hiidel. iri'iaQ. with inversion of the round. to bubble up. a bubble. pullo. bouzellou. zich onder jemand under to him.. water pulli. give in to. boss. A Bulk. bulla. bug. budello. as in E. a round glass or bolg. bulla in aqua. a box. bugyola. hill. Dan. ask. guestchamber . See Crab. bow.cup Du. buckel. cumena-bur. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. a hump on the back rossbollen. boucle. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. OE. Fr. to puff up. bouge. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. . the box-tree and articles made of it G. a. bolgna. a box. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. ON. spherical Dan. a boil. fyn. . boil. and on swollen.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. . bowels. bock. Gr. Bret. AS. acsian. the crop of a bird. Boll. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. or in e. beuz. puffy. swell. an inclosure. as well as the name of a. to raise the back boll OHG. a parlour. a sleeping-room . a box. Bret. bollen. bol. Sp. Hal. round bead. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . different position in ODu. convexity. kupula. bur. bulka. buga. Bowl. . . bowel Box. ^o/a. a bundle. W. the head. bouellou. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. biichse. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. . . as in AS. bulne. knob From the former modification we have bolla. Hence. boor. to bulge. G. a bubble bolli. a polla. . bubble. wisp of straw . a ball . a knot. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. a little box . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. globe or spherical body. Du. Sw. The word may probably be identical with Fris. In like manner the Pol. bogla. (in pass .). . dial. crooked. peated in Magy. the box-tree It. ku^o. head of a cabbage. busskai. buchsbaum. prominence.

to give a blow with the fists. Prov. Fr. mud. flaw. as noticed under Box. need. posh. G. pus. is a rope holding G. boiste. a sounding blow. 91 the Dan. boy. rakki. his eyes are failing him). or bracer Cot. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . See Brake. bruxula. brabbelen. brassard. to crack. mud. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. acidus. brostia. want. salo sive aqua marinS. braquet. bouibo. Hdcart. brasselet. — . . bauksch represents the sound of a blow .. compressing. land spoilt Kil. braco. Prov. dirty. ing from a mixture of salt. odorinsecus. Gael. a braceOFr. to stammer. to stutter. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. brechen ihm. fuse.with a noise. braque. pupus.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. baske. bracke. Kil. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. See Broker. G.— D. A brace probis. ghebreck. flaw.. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter.. a bog or pass Fr. loud smack. or defect. s. confining. Sp. a pair of braces. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. wnzC/J. by an overflow of sea water. braic. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. buah. Cot. to Swiss batschen. — — . to burst. by the same inversion of J and k. clay. wrack. beagle. Sp. refuse. damaged board a ship. brek. and string of his bow. — . Brackish. to be wanting. Swab. Swiss Rom. mud. to slap. It is B. from a root brak. — .puddle. a grown youth Cimbr. — . to smack the hand batschen. . race. matter. bue.nated by dirt. rakka. . bou^ba. Pm. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. armour for the arm. a box. moral or physical. baukscheht. the arm. . brae. brakke grund. Fr. Thus brack. defect. It. let. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. brec. murmur. bray. On the same principle from the buksteht. bask. . the first instancebya physical tie. thwack. . which sigof straining. a girl. brae. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. Kil. Brack. Sp. brakke Bracelet. brace on and Du. Water rendered boubo. braca. brague. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers.D. Kil. land batsken.. . filth . youth." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. a bubbling dura del mun. Swiss bub. Ptg. A — — . Bracket. to box the ears. breach. Heligoneed. suppuration. to fall. brae. a boy pupa. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. In like manner the It. in R. . BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. then from break. flap. pube. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. break. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. lalear-eyed Prov. a guard to torf. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. dog that hunts by scent. brageuses. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Fr. and F. brago. which has many representatives in the other Europe. OFr. a crack. La ville ou y avait Brace. Brach. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. to give a gebrechen. strike. Brak-goed. braecke. Boy. Brack. Pl. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. taneous talking. variation of babble. Du. babble. Du. corruptse. breptati. ON. OFr. rack. AS. brack. brae. want. To fight with the fists. One girl. brek. To brace is to draw together. foul. briche. disturb. jabber. bitch Du. to give a sounding blow defect. to is derived brestr. bracil. braco. ON. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. salsus. fault. — . ' — A — — — . spaniel. A bracket is properly a scenting dog.D. To Brabble. want. brechen. It. to want. breuque. A to halt between two derivations. It. Bracelet. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . defect Du. Prov. OE. a comworld Rayn. merely in our mode of considering them. unmarried man . MHG. boussole. root). . bragos. Rouchi Then as an adj. I sal slyng. bracon. parallel with OK. &c. rakke. whelp as. Lett. in R. brack. dog Sw. isolated part of the text. con. BOX To Box. defect. bresta. ratch. bube. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Prov. fault . cramp-iron holding things together . Fr. quarrel Bohem. Pr. bracco. wristband. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. an languages. and then Pl. s. priated to the original sense. boy bouba. dog in general. The different meanings of the brageux. breach. V. bracket. bracer. Lat. bracha. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together.

and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to unbrace or let down the breeches. gallant (in apparel) also proud. affront. bravache. in the sense of the Lat. breghen. h-avare and Fr. bra!. the arm. that will carry no coals. to sprout malt. finery. Hecart. .breeches. boasting. brave. See Brace. courageous. Dan. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . torture . subduing. Cot. Turk bazu are used in both senses. and that from e. called by our braggard. stately. brave. BRAG Piedm. Faire le brave. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. The meanings included under — Bragget. brav. bragaireachd. to rattle. the opposite of which. fine. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . Thus we are brought to the OE. To Brail. w. breagh. Lith. used in the sense of force. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. crash. braggard also valiant. Fr. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. to strut.i5nz^. From Fr. se parer de beaux habits. To Braid. to brail up a sail. 92 Cot. dhbrailler. to stand upon terms. brabhdadh. braies. se pavaner. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . braske. a roisterer. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. brake in the sense of constraining. an inclosure for cattle . fine. See Bray. braske. Primarily to crack. or from braie itself.aburst. braka. flaunt in fine clothes . stout. binding anything together. To Brag. to boast or brag. goods. 2. — Equivalent forms are Gael. It. fine. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). splendid. be noisy . a carriage for breaking in horses . in order to prevent its catching the wind. to flaunt. to Rouchi brMer. brazo. bragging. braver. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. swaggerer. empty pride. Brake. Bray. bullying. AS. From sprouted corn. Fr. brag or jet it braguard. a noisy talkboasting. bragd. well-dressed. Cot. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. vaunting. beautiful. also tion of this was brayeul. braga. Dan. flaunting. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. Wallachian bratsou. bragging of his own valour. also insolenter se gerere . Hence E. brabhdair. . would be to brace. gay. fine. brag. proud. in numerous dialects. was formed brayele. cry. — Chaucer. Sp. subigere. idle talk. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. vain glory. gorgeous. The meanings of brake are very numerous. braguer. and it is very likely that the root brak. braka. brave. It is certain that the word for arm is. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Brain. bravado j Fr. braszketi. drawers. de Vaud. the feathers ON. to boast of his own worth.hy which this idea is con\eyed. also derived Fr. be found.explosion. Walloon bress. Thus Bret. swagger. breghe. gay. braicli. Bret. an iron for holding Zalli. — . strength. spot. crash ON. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. bravacherie. Cot. Brail. &c. is Cot. Rom. brao. showy bravery. . riches. brae. braegenj Du. . as the type of exertion and strength. vanter une chose. The plant y^r«.. gallant. From brayel. about the hawk's fundament. to shout. brag. excellent. is identical with Gael. compressing. breyne.Shepherd's Cal. —Spenser in R. — From W. or by gaudy dress and show. to make a noise. Lat. bragio. brachittm. i. brave. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. smart.—— . Haldorsen Gael. confining. to swagger. Bret. power. valiant The head are sumptuous.^ Sp.%. slight modificajoining the two legs. A — Hal. Brag was then used brisk. gayly dressed. Brake. braga. ative fellow. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. se donner trop de licence. to crack. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . . brayete. hectoring. — A — . Fris. breach. boast. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. bravo. . braw. brails. Chaucer. Langued. brake is. make a noise . . blusterer. ^Brave. noisy ostentation. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. braga.. crack. bully . to cord a bale of tie up. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. Sc. bushy .^Vocab. handsome. expensive. brave. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. .

a horse's a horse's twitch. brega. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. braeken. to brush. brog. glebas subigere. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. a thicket. signifying to sweep. a stream.. break flax PLD. a swampy Mid. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. breaking in the operation. BRAKE to external force. copse-wood. where from Esthon. brook. Fr. —Bracken. is braukti. Gael. . brage. game. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. to break or fracture. might come to signify a swamp. broilium. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to stiffen against Taboada). bushes. Brake. gebrUche. fratto. Gr. brambles. murran. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). riguus. casser le \va. murrokko. In like manner Lat. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. a marsh. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. tris). The Fr. Lat. to exert force in different ways. a fen. Dan. a harrow. murtaa. subigere.' It. farinam in mortario subigere. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. in usus braca. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. gebroge. or a wood in a marshy place . to row. broeck. In the case of the ne. a brace on board a ship. brog above mentioned. Prov. Biglotton. G. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. to rub. braquer un canon. bredza. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. Corrfeze bredgea. and Lat. It. to fracture. briser. to knead or mix up in a mortar.— . bush. brake. to The ON. is formed murd. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. or A A ' . in northern climates. de Vaud. 2. — — . In ON. broil. frangere linum. bush. to bend or direct a cannon. gilum. quarry from Fin. — Fl. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . and when once thrown down. el arco. low wet land bruch. bregar brake. gebrUche. brook. brego. In the sense of a thicket. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. briers. It may be sus- . braecken het vlasch. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. e. to pound. dial. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. Swiss Rom. any thicket of brakes. watered. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to break. brook. bruch. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. referred brake. to harrow (Lat. brambles. brushwood. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. Fr. the lever by which the string was drawn up.bracan. braka. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. Brake. broken fratta. It. to bray in a mortar. marsh or swamp. brake. ^raca. word. broor bushy place Hal. Voc. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. broillet. to distinct. as in Du. as in the case of horse-breaking. bregille.D. as in Sp. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. break of such a kind. to break. To the same bend a bow. to bend a bow. or overthrow of trees by the wind. Dan. pasture. thicket. brcekke. been confounded with the verb break. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. cover G. breuil. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brog or brake. broyer. 3. brage. conSo in G. it is not surprising that the word has here. gebroge. tnurdma. flachs brechen. gebiisch. braca. Fr. cetur. to head must be bit. OFr. gebroge. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. brak is a frame in which strip. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. ing of flax or hemp. brogille. brolium. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. thing is brought under control. to subdue. the original meaning of G. marsh. t° moisten. —Ovid. bregar. have thus Du. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. Sp. properly braking or subduing them. for — Due. a spinning-wheel. We — .D. Dan. Pl. and G. P&. iSpsx". braken. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. nemus. as well as in the case of the e. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages.

piecemeal brindelles. brank. . w.D. sweet broom. a briery plot. Piedm. stink . that is to say. restrain. a bud. a shoot or twig. In like hrst. Brand. the bull-finch. broom. the thorn apple or stramonium. brambles. Thornas and bremelas. brenn hesken. from Servian pnit. a burning fragment of wood. from gaggi.. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. hallier. bruk. to burn. thicket of brambles Cot. G. brin. Pl. 1 8. Dan. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. Sir Topaz. Gael. That beareth the red hepe. It. apiece orbitbrandone. compress. G. cabbage sprouts Fl. bran. brenda. pfropf. in the same sense. broem. brouskoad. titio. bruk. briars. brandello. piece of anything. bruch. brwnt. Brancare. Bramble. brandr. breun. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. a shrub from Bret. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. . excrement. brenn. cack. may be so called in analogy with Bret. is the draff or excrement of the com. a thick bush. berneux. Russ. brughera. from Lat. Port. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. breanan. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. clutch. Thus in Lat. a heath. from brand. . as places overgrown with brakes or fern. Bran. gebroge.D. brin d. Fr. G. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. a halter. heath (Bret. to -brugen. brug. heath. Gael. &c. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brandiiialil. ear-wax mud. bruk. It will be found that shrubs. heath. Then by comparison with claws or arms. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . brugek. brass. as. a shoot. Pl. Fr. brand. ground full of briers. brok. brejo. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. wood composed of twigs. brous. As ON. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. nasty. what is cast out as worthless.). The same form becomes in It. a bud It. w. bruskoad. in the sense oi fern. pfriemen. bracken or fern . braeme. brake. a shrub . bran. sawdust. heath ON. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . branchia. Rouchi bren d'orMe. a rod or twig. snotty . See Brush. constrain. Bav. Broom. or with It. A mark made by burning. Bret. bromboli.G. brarn.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. E. brog. The naof strain. broembel-CBppel. from brug. It. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. brein. bit by bit. Serv. bushes. branche. dirt . sprouts. as AS. heath. broccoli. sedge burkni. brosst. broom. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. to bridle. 2. and thence a shoot. pfriem in the sense of an awl. pected that brake. brandmurk. brushwood. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. i. bren. Brank. virgultum. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. chaff. to or iron. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. bro7n. iii. G. it glitters — — . Thus we have w. and waste growths. brang. . — branca. brenna. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brano. burning brennen. young buisson fort epais. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. to brank. a firebrand. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. Bret. Diez. But we find It. bramble Du. &c. AS. from virga. —Ducange. gebriiche. a vine twig Bav. the branch of a tree. bronbo. . braam. and E. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. thorns and Gen." The bmno a • on . thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. Fr. Fr. bren. a bridle or bit . also a marshy low ground or fen . brem. a bud. . — . brin (as It brano). breme j Sw. a roA. also pfriemkraut. broust. bretnel. or other plants of a like nature. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. Bret. brug). brank. prufye. young twig {brom-beisser. a dunghill. heath. a single plant of heath. . a small deri\'ation . ordure . . Branch. brancas. brom. bruch. Bret. or ling. to gripe. So Swiss gaggi. Grisons bruch. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. broussaille. . branco.

brasca. Gris. embraser. Brase. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. to brandle. So. Port. braise or hot coals. Diez. Manx bransey. De Barros considers vinum ardens. weinbrenner. perplex. — . a roaring fire. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. make an outcry. WaUon. to hurl with great force. braza. plained by Florio. from to vociferate. With top trimbling. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. — ting to confusion. was in use Fr. To brand. brand. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. not. De Goes. the spelling to kindle. to and fro in the hand. spirit distilled from wine. to shake. or in stick. firebrand. to roar. d'Angl. brandende wijn. branla. briiler. then brandr. to burn. to shake. 59. make a — . fire-wood. put. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. n. and branchis shaiand D. Hume in brand in ON. Lye. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to glisten or flash. hoisting to the fall. Fl. brustle. Fr. brasca. E. comes from thence. glowing embers . of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Milan. from used in dyeing cloths. a fragment. as Jamieson explains it. live coals. to brangle. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. the colour than hitherto known. to dash. Chron. bresil. to make sense of a bright red dye. Sw. morsel. to murmur. to shog. Ija. It. brandigh. forms brasil. Braser.pan of coals. bragia. splinter. to totter. firewood. billet. noise. before the discovery of America in the brandir. Chron. braise.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. brazeiro. became ashes Pied. given to the country. brin. gebrannter wein. bruzi. bracia. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. bruan. to crackle . to blaze. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. stake. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. V. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. to brustle. N.well. and scold. Jam. branler. conbillet. E. brasil. urens. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. a pan of hot coals. Brangle. bragale\ wood. hot Fr. bryne. G. Brasil. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. so. brastlian. to Bailey. crackle. to shake The word brisil. incendium. in Marsh. to make display . brandolare is exbrandish. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. apparently very distinct from each other. brane-wood. AS. distilled wine. It. as Fr. To brase AS. set on fire. Fr. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. brausen. to bicker 2nd. as again by well as the blade of a sword. ist. to French brawl or brangle. Bret. and bruir. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. totter. The corresponding form in Gael. The tre brangillis. brasa. Du. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame.^Brandle. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . is bntan. Sw. Fr. e. du Roi et laine. braser. a stick. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. eldibrandr. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. brennen. bransle. to sound of the Fr. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. braise. bruire. In the same way the set on fire . brus^. to confuse. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. flagrans. a brusler. aqua ardens. ish. bruciare. a round dance. to quarrel. — . The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. It. to braze or lute. all. — . to brandle or The It. bracea. Kil. brasa. to solder iron. to make shine with shaking. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. brandiller. Bailey. to distil . Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. brandiller. Fr. Guill. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. faire fracas. Fr.. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. a To Brandish. crackle. branler. Thus the bound up again. prasseln. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. brazil. bra?ier. bum. to rustle. brascct. brangle or brawl in E. G. to burn. brush. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. The name Brandy. Formerly brandy-wine. to burn. brouir. bransella. shake.

W. Certainly a little girl. —^Bronze. strepitus 2. So also See Brag. bras. any piece. a rag. ON. breteque. branle. burning coals. flesh of a leg of pork. Hist.— Remade. Brave. Du. 368. contignatio. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. boutures. bred. from branler. bartising. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. borderinge. bretesche. brandillo. berd. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. as a brawling brook. brdto (ace. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. deblaterare. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. a lath. braiio. a patch of cloth. It. calf of the leg. or whether it be from Fr. as criailler of crier. bratach. 2. trul. Sup. Pisana in Mur. brazen. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. rag. brat. A. bratidone. slut. to solder. bralle. — . testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Math. Fr. &c. lat'te. A land of dance. ^Altieri. Fr. Kil. OFr. slakker-bortchen. For the application to a^child compare Bret. a parapet. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole.D. brat. esbraotier. Gael. Sc. a battle-girdle. coassatio. a loud noise. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. Brawl. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. Brawn. buttock Sc. Bartizan. Betrax of a —^Jam. The same correspondence is seen between It. bradlete. bruir. or on the top of a wall. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. braede. Brattice. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. at brasa. The muscular part of the body. as lattice. a contemptuous name for a young child. Wall. braon. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. braeye. the calf of the leg. Cot. discord.brettysing. Westphal. squall.' Hal. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. roar. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a lump of flesh.— Fl. as scrawl from scrabble.D. bmhon for brado7i. It . Jam. Bailey. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. — Deutsch. ship. brat. Florio. bretesque. braser Fargent. to carbonado.walle — Pr. pan- — Rayn. to shake. Fris. bretays).— Diez. a. tasce. a wooden tower. —-Jam. cob. bronzacchiare. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. from Sc. I. a plank or board. brailler. le repasser un peu sur la braise. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. and bronzo. Cot. breyon. noise. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). boarding being sbranare. OFr. neita girl). a clout. Circumeunt cibertesca. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. See Bray. a — A from the confused noise. to braze. bradon. A dispute or squabble. brces. . to talk at bralle op. A.D. ' A vraale. slibro. Swiss bradle. a lump. bransle. Brass. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. a fortification. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a slabbering-bib. frequentative of braire. KiL Prov. bratid calf of the leg. bas morceau de viande brawhng. braodhlach. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. a lump of flesh. to cry. breyon de kinds of . It. equivalent to the Du. luncheon. P1. brett. Dan. bartisan. ferruminare. Lorraine bravon. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. Mundart. especially that used in the working of iron . Fr. OHG. as rashers upon quick burning coals.96 Roquefort. Paris. a rag . a cloak. Brangle. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Cologne broden. whether contracted from brabble.— Braid. fraiche. a Lap. frame of laths. calf of the leg. brass. Brat. a mantle. to tear piecemeal. Many gambes. in the first instance of boards. bratdn). cloth. to scold . bribe de viande. breyon d'chaur. saillies. then a parapet. to copper. slibro {neita. See Brandish. ni autres choses sur Due.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. AS. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. bronzare. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. apron. G. baltresca. from Fr. to Gael. muscular parts of the body. brettys. 1156. a rag . braoilich. Pm. bronze. 1224. The verb is probably derived from the brase. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bran. solder.propugnaculum. braion.^ — Sverris Saga. pil. is The word — uous name for a woman. Sp. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . the buttocks. a contempt- banner.

braid. brame. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. paxog. ing. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to cry out. brikan. mos. a rent. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. V. imitate or resemble one. bregda. a mill. braea. breuan. father. to break Fr. bru. e. G. bregar. a rag f . to bray like an ass. to have the lineaments of one's ON. The same He might don us both a villany. fractus j Gr. to cry out. From the or brack in a wall.y. and to signify the fracture itself. 7 . as the voice of the ass. which has given much trouble to commentators. Beryn. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. to break. on. cyprinus latus. To Break. Prov. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. to bellow. bragr. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. braire. to resemble him. F. rogi. yell. to break. starts crackling up. 2. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to N. bragd is also applied nets.fracas. to start. rustle. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to bray in a mortar. brak. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. braidar. to knead. roar. &c. OE. R. . Bailey. twist. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. as the notion of turning crack. is . Swiss bratschig.^ Fr. Q. Du. or wound. ON. soft . Dunbar braessem. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. Fr. baiyl. relation is seen between Lat. a wink. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. Then is simply. k. resound . — — — explained motus loud noise. Goth. braa. to snatch. E. Breach. AS. the clash of ai-ms Dan. R. Bread. vapna-brak. a brack. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. and fracasously. To rub or grind down Sp. to work up in a mortar. make a disturbance. Then. . noise . bregar. Bread. paste or dough.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. as OE. brechen. a breach Cot. braa. crackle . to smack or the eye. I'll live and die a maid. to pretend. and make a hideous noise.ch. to rub Fr.' To Bray. . The Lat. to resemble. bratsche. to the seijauntes. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to crash. instantane. bruire. to The cup was uncoverid. ser. regi. abraid. braidir. D. or cry out loudly . See Brake. Fin. gestus. breach. crash. Cat. Bret. to crash. And with a traid I tumyt me about. bray. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. upbraid. W. to roar or bellow. Cot. weave The ON. — . to braid acquires the sense of bend. to roar as the sea. yell. &c. rattle. with or without a final d. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. ON.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. broad. at a braid.. to break. the sound — of arms. to rumble. brice.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. crepo and E. riAprjyvvfu. The ON. Wal. i. to braid. D.g. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Gr. breche. brugier. verb to break. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Fr. Lat. will. at once. ^p&xia. V. to t.ear rog. G. brot. roar. to braid the hair. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. explaining a very obscure application of the E. augnabragd. to tear Bret. the miller's dog. to rush. V. broyer. bradar. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. fragor. to scold. rangere. &c. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. the sword was out break. at braga eftir euium. And at a braid he gun it bende. disturbance. to resemble. bruzir. — koa. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. D. kind. a brake for hemp or flax. brage. &c. to roar. to bawl. a . Chaucer. plait. in Jam. brand. appearance Hal. fish. father. Ppvxia. turn. ybrayid. crash. to braid. Prov. to cry Port. to sound very loud and very harshly. Chaucer. bragd — ON. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. 145. a crash. and frangere. brak.

an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . little bits of wood Berri briser. braga. Breeze. cloven.98 borst. — Brist. bre- I'os qui bresole. to brew. an into shiver. representing the sound of a blow. braga. i5r(Z^. brumtnen. bris. Brize. a smack. brise. from AS. so AS. Piedm. brcekur j It. b}-as. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. to murmur.britschen. to shiver for cold. brijselen. orts. Gl. singing bone. brisd. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. bryi^ga. Originally probably the word signified steam. See Brick. as in the case of twitter. braux. Swiss AS. and brought beneath between the legs. malt. in Schilter. G^nev. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. w. braies. chilly.t. Russ. point to G. brut. a crum. bremse. Lat. bark Fr. noise. rubbish. Briss and buttons. as. /esses. . one on the breech so that (klatschet). to buzz. instead of being derived from 'La. the breech or buttocks. to crush to break. breeze. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. from brace. bresilles. Prov. OFr. as commonly explained. Swiss brdtsch. body brostia. broza. Gl. Du. bra. rubbish. Fr. — . braucn. It. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Bruise. Fr. de bridse geveii. to hum. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. breson. and other rubbish dibris. brdtschen. We bragezj on. brire. to smack. to whip. bruzun. britze. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. E. a cool wind. brusc. Goth. remains of leaves. grillare. brasiare. bretilles. breinse. Compare OE. bruise. a cold and windy mist or frost . — — strument for smacking. brodem. brustia. brinisa. and E. broil. a cramp-iron for holding things together. to fry Then from a Gl. — Halma. siibligar. grill. brist. braich. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. crush. de Vaud./ssus. brodel. of E. . as the G. or the blow itself. — And blood. an odour. sprouted corn. the soler. murmur. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Dtyden. bandage or truss for a rupture. Rom. bruc. with It. brimsa. simmering. bruzir. murmur—Vocab. To Brew. Breath. G. brisoler.). xyligogio castigare. a girdle. . chillness or shivering. Du. Breast.'— Gl. to brew. G. G. but more probably the E. Swiss Rom. Breeze. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. bragues. broiiwen. a crum Du. briiz. Sw. Breeches. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. So ON. may be from the wurh fesser. PI. switch. briosat'. to be misty and cold. then to broil. G. Du. Gael. met de bridse slaan. corresponding to G. brossi!. trembling. briste. fastening . applied to shivering. zare. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. are in like manner ' . the bust.D. . E. a twitch for a horse. malt. — . from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. also to chill and shiver with cold. dial. a to lay fly-flap. brissle. . the dry spines of furze broken off. bris. Gael. brugga. morsel. to resound. properly to crackle. Hume in Jam. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brache. to breech. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. Bret. as by the Sc. drawers. Bracha. brezling. bridsen. to fry . to crackle. bracecs . briosa. fail. Fr. brok. to feize or feaze. G. to burst. from ligare. Dev. AS. brison. break. AS. peitschen. their stings draw . one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. brasser. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. brew. clout for a child. binding. fitzen. braca. The Breech (Prov. scent. brasiuiii. Du. to simmer. as. einem de britze geven. to bray. of straining. Bret. burst. brosame. — See Broth. brisciare. Dan. brciz. Hence the Lat. to roast. to break. braciarc. are related to Prov. Fris. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches.vare. briosa. Isidore and Tatian. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. subligaculum. grillen. sheep's droppings bruss. &c. a gadfly. braca. breath.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to rattle (as hail). forms. coaldust. Breeze. bris de charbon. trusts. of trees. Prov. —Briss. a horse's twitch. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. to bind. briig. broden. breost. The Teutonic verbs. braie. Piedm. brezza. brezzare. polenta. braies. brimme. windy withal. QNtsterviald) pritschen. braguier. a box. simmer. Lat. vapour. braia J OFr. Biglotton. bratscher. brcEth. . brijsen. forms analogous to E. griller. breme.

bretonica. pavement. A — A — . collect bits of food. bridge. the marriage si in brigata. priod. Priodi. . AS. remarkable that the Gr. any jot or crum. which however is undoubtedly from brace. to rub. The Sw. buskins. — — — — — — . brA. bidsel. So It. It. beaten way Dan. Diez. berwedd. served (Patois de Bray). jipaaaiii. a lump of bread. a Bride. Brick. w. . briiths. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Hdcart. bro. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Bribe. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. W. sugga.pritil . a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. betonica. a bush. The original sense thus seems to be to ram.rough with brambles and bushes. broosekens. to meet together. priod-ferch. broken bread. two-masted vessel. bruskr and buskr. a cheat. brutg. but to a paved road. appropriate. bygga. Cot. but probably Bricoteau. OSw. broken. Walach. bably contracted from brigantine. Ihre. it is applied to the letter to OE. from the Normans. Bridle. AS. heath.Fr. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. a boiling. hlafes brice. bruk. bridelj OHG. then the marriage itself. company. bryd-gutna. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. from Bridegroom. bo. birbante. Lang.It. bruith. Bridge. crew. fastningar-ol. ment of anything broken. arf-ol. from Bret. Grisons bruch. to boil. ON. pavement Lith. and berweddu. Hence OE. briicke. from the last 99 of which. Brique. bricge j G. — . broken victuals. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. bro is applied not only to a bridge. a lump of bread briber. brasser. to prepare. betony brulicame. as. son. a crum. brukkas. a crum. In E. bride. division of an army. Applied ous words derived from break.gfiugga. feast of espousals. brau. bruyere. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. to boil. It — is Kil. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Trovarfor bride-ale. to press in. ap. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. ibrukkti. Gael. a fragment. Sp. Thom. bara briw. E. bitill. bruk. Brier. Diefenbach com. ter-in-law. a quoit of stone. bulicame. a heath. brique de pain. and ODu. conjux. corresponding or letter. Brewis. brere. . lipdZu}. If the foregoing were not so clear. BRIGADE dead. a brig or priodor. groom (mab=:son). brakes of high-grown ferns. a lump of bread. brug. peculiar. to pave. briwo. Fr. Pro(merch=:maid). AS. a married man guma. frayer. to beg one's bread. brygga. nurus G. brittil. Dan. Pol. pavement brolegge. troop. brahi. buckler J ON. brar. from bit.. . guma. brocaly. brughiera. AS. bryd-eale. daughheath. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. brigade. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. feast. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. bricou. braut. to stamp. twopares Lat. has briguer. Flor. A bribe is A — — arval. to brew. brice. to boil.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. owned also propriate. In the patois of briccia. brigantine. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. — . Goth. to break. to tlie brico. a heath brughera. a proprietor. is still used in this sense. whence berw. a sow. fit. a rogue . imprint. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . pier. brilt. . fragment. a wedding priod-fab. with transposition of the r. a fragment. consort with. E. bread. Fl. to break to pieces bricalio. a married man or woman Lat. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. bride. Due. birbone. boiling up brocoliere. . piece of burnt clay. It. masted vessel. a briole. the Fr. Fr. a rogue. of burial. Fr.privatus. to pave brukkti. sponsa. as so. See Broth. funeral. So in The Prov. briw. Bridal. brood. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. barren land priodas. Mid. Gl. Gael. a bride. AS. bribour. berwi. Brief. breve or brevis. the equivalent of to the dial. the newly. to circulate. or brizo. malt. especially to a letter or command. malt. . and that from It. The origin of the word is the w. E. ' — . fraoch. bribe de pain. Ducange.bergantino. in the sense of OSw. brieden. brigata. In the G. graf-ol. bruarium. Rouchi brife. to Isrew. a bride Brig. Lat. bro. fervere. married. E. Neumann. . privus. ' . a man. httle bit. AS. a little king's writs. gf2o. Brigade. Bridal.groom. a bit. a beggar. jetty. G^n^v. . thick appropriated. grug. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. one's ovin. OHG. Du. to appropriate. to press.

bairhts. transparent. Gr. tinkle. bryhtm. A. Brigata. brigare. moment. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. inde squammatus. kii:'a. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. rixa. Florio. In the same way to strive is. \oice. glitter. a small light pinnace pro. XafXTTpoQ. to make a loud noise. that of Fr. in the first instance. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. dine. tuilahtaa. splcnornd de brigandine.' in Due. to shift for with care. Goth. loo BRIGAND lor. Schmeller. — Briganbriga. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . clare lucens. Bav. It. 1654. briegen. to shine. Bright. From ON.clare ^tinniens.glampa.shine. dine. combat. — Brigantine. from hall. brebrigare. AS. glamm. a sound. bright bearhtm. the grew high. — — . to reservavit. Beorktode bene sweg.' The sense of strife or combat express. See Brake. schateren. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . — Probably then to strive. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. So G. glbram. clear sound. speech. the bench-notes resounded. twinkling. briga. braid. to cry. to glitter. Du. It. and ner me hit iherde. Adelung. willata. with respect either to sound or colour. 1351.dorem clarum reflecto. tinnitus. The E. It. They or brigantini. praht. biartr. jurgia. clear. Wilista.pracht. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. schiteren. bracht. secondarily. and diligence.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. squamma . glir. brawl. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. the gleeman's song. Lat.' torum. wilella. tion. —Capgrave. tumult. glamra. and. brigandare. to glamr.D. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. bregar. strife. and led it away. a brigantine.— . to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. Heo — song That AS. representing a sudden noise. splendour. splendour. to rob. Brilliant. sound. is easily understood. to shine. to strive for. OHG. 312. splendens . Mid. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. to piracy. at a later period. brak. to bend a bow It. may play the pirate or thief at sea. labour. Xa/iTTii).' The passage from the sense of a light. — brigante. — Due. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. The primary meaning of Sp. and secondly. and. and the E. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Owl and beorhtian. there are many armour. clarus. then. to contend with another. tinnitum clarum movco. manifest ON. noise. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. brdgen. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. — brigante.Lat. In Fin. clear. cange has 'Veles. to resound. to ring. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. malandrini. show the origin of Lat. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. clang. to cry 'Schmid OE. brigan. and hence be explained glampi. clear.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. briga. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. Flor. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. also called briganders. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. in later times a robber or highway-man. etincelle. a pirate. Due. kilistua. to sound. seems to be to exert force gar el area. It. clangour. brigant. a noise. on his — own account. . pugna. — A A . hell. necessary business. shriek with laughter. himself to serve men of merit. beorht. brigare. in the sense of a robber. A strepere. Gall. and to associate with them. The Ir. lay was sung. brcEhtin. outcry. Brigand. — Beowulf. to rove. riis ' — Chron. bray. Swab. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. a spark. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . bragen. rover either by sea or land. a glittering. .

ter. gresiller. whence bilbil-goda (literally. to storm. Brem. Hence with an initial s. To Brim. as of meat in broiling . a long. to broil. brdnnsten. bramar. bray as an ass bramire. with an initial br instead of gr. — g. and 1. to crackle. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. a stick. ardere desiderio. to sound deep or hollow. barm-cloth or barmskin. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. the lap or bosom. rym^. Supp. the heat of animals. cross-barred in colour. Fl. a border. G. crackle. — .— BRIM . brimmen. briller. 154. bresoler (Gloss. rugire (cervorum. to glitter. AS. komottaa. Sw. Sc. Fr. s. as in Langued. . kimmaltaa. to shine. grdzil. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. earnestly . to creak. grisser. the heat of animals. ring. brissle. the singing of Sodom — — . Prov. also to reflect. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer.ioTiviS acutus. dial. kommata. excited. (poet. border. s.' d'etre marie . to utter cries. brandr and Fr. a streak. to shake. ON. In Fr. frequently interchange. Swiss Rom. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Tresiller. to roar. Kil. In the same way Sw. is used of raging. beam. tience. brame. border. . Langtoft. breziller. to glitter . brand-krossottr. ling noise and a sparkling light. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. 754. identical with passion. from bringe. FJ. The expression is now confined to the sow. which seems identical with rim. to resound. brumft.preni. bremmen. to crackle. Rugere. brullo. bremas. a rod. ON. post. bry7ie. brennistein. on. Du. ON. kiimottaa. breme. hence the bosom. to burn. breme. gresiller. broil . brastlian. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. — Rim.D. It. brmdottr. whether of desire or anger. grisler. sonitum edere bremen. margin. sparkle. to creak. It. or violent action. Rayn. Thus Lat. brim Magy. : ' — bone). breziller. to parch. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Sc. to long for a thing. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. parched. perent. griller d'impatience. to quaver with the voice. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. lap of a garment . fire. to sparkle. to . and corresponding to these.' Elyot in Way. Dief. . duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. from brandr. kimista. bramar. to roar. rugire. to make bilbil). Lith. The meaning of the Fr.) brimi. fimbria) . clangor tinniens. A . E. brillare. barmr. greDiet. to wish or covet. 1. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. an apron. Brindled. to make a crackling noise. greedily to covet Cot. bremmen. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. coloured in stripes. border. briller (related to each other as OFr. furious. surface of the ocean. fringe (Lat. griller. brame. bar. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. vigorHal. of the eye. kimina. brant. Dan. brisoler. Wtb. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. shine. the sow is brimming. brezil. brim. Closely connected is OE. glit. bryn. striped or streaked. to shimmer. brummen. to shine. — — So Fr. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. to twinkle. glisten. sprainged. The E. briller. der. leonum). 1 1 64. kajata. bramer. the meaning is transL' amour. noise made by meat in broiling. The identity of ON. small gravel. brommen. — — — . brummen : de soge brummet. barm. Said of swine when in heat. finds the Fr. reecho. as well as bl and gl. grullo. Tutschek. fringe . from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. a borDu. Streaked. crackle . as is the case also with Pl.). the eye-brow. It. lap. bramire. originally the lap folding over the breast. voux. burning stone. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. chime). uses bresoler (il bresole fir. komista. brow of a hill. to shine. broiled. that the original meaning of the Sc. to fret . griller). lip of a vessel. edge Pol. spraing. vattubryn. rut. os qui bresole.its vent in cries and roaring. Brim. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. AS. fierce. to glitter distance . for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. brinfire.— Brinded. the verbs Flor. burning. ous. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. brama. Brimstone. pMiller. the edge. have then in Fr. brunft. Subo.

is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. hot-tempered. as. Brisket. a deluge. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. byrst. a morsel . as. brime. flame. . crabbed. and. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. is to erect the hair.'— Vita'abbatum S. Ptg. The Pl. Gr. spur. Bohem. . . Prov. brisciare. Brooch. a cold and windy mist or frost. brim. has under It. a rebours. It. to break. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. a skewer. Boh. brocar.D. to turn up the point of anything. birs. Berri. Dan. bringue. Fr.). — bryme. briota. Russ. Brine. — — . the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. aculeus. the surf. a clasp. to set up one's birse. Prov. bronchus. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. Brisk. metaphorically. to put one in a rage . Fr. smart taste. a button broche. from AS. brezzare. briser. See Spread. Sp. eager. breaking of the waves brim sior. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. 'V^. brim. to begin upon it. Hal. i. to break. a bud. brusk. wine of a sharp. rash.. bryde. to spit. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brickie. Fr. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Bret. to shiver for Sold or for fear. a belly. brocciare. brocher. to shoot. as unripe fruits. a projecting tooth It. a fragment. brindelles de balai. 222. . fragile. rude. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Bristle. brezza. brocco. setting the hair on end compare It. brich. man's throat. brimhliod. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. brimme. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. brocco. from break. Sc. bricho (with the diminutives. Walach. to burn. brittle. broc. a rod or twig. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Sc. rebursiis. Brocade. briocho. Breeze been connected with the Sc. birse. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. to thrust. sprout. flames. and hence. brog. Brittle. briota. to broach a business.). breast. to set it a going. brodden. Fr. britar. to bud. brote. Bret. a bit . Fr. brocchus. broccare. Lat. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Abroacli. a stormy brimsea . ON. to roar. Cot. bruckle. brot. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. startling. borst. Da. Liquamen vel garum.' Nat. Du. Hence ribrezzare. borzos (struppig). broca. to stick. broccata. bristly . a morsel. Fr. birstle. Port. of astonishment. . brim (poet. It. or the full • . to scorch. chest. craw of a bird. a brooch. bruskett. form bris. prick with Sw. expression. braidsj ON. fiscbryne. ' breast. p. against the grain . thick — A elastic hair. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. sprouts. — A . — . breaking out into growth. trembling. It. bros. Mid. as a noun. of E. are used in the sense of brittle. to birstle. a slip or sprig of an herb . — in Due. Brickie. to stab Gael. broche. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Gl. bros. and forms on. ' . Du. as. Brym. brockle. emotions which produce it. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. harsh vin brusque. Zeuss. brust. is called a birssy day. broca. humorous. to stitch.g. Then as the effect of shivering. britchet. fantas'* tical. the brisket or . quick. the surf. setting the hair on end. bringe traced through the brano. Prov. brichet. Salte sand is called brimsand. /3pE^m. Sw. to goad. spricka. apt to break. to break. Swiss to stand out . to crack. a spit. sharp. rebrousser. birssy. saulmeure. to spur. brittle. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). brandello. bruched (Fr. See To Brim. grim. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. brissko). strong itself. In the N. a peg sbrocco. breidr. a shoot or sprig. Commonly explained as from Fr. brisk in taste.procio. stitch. a brad or tack. to spur. brytan. bresk. cK) the . suddenly angry. brusco. brddj Goth. brissle. G. Compare also E. It. a bud. brijn (Kil. Palsgr. a stitch brocher. brcit. NE. Alfr. britar. ruffling. sour. Fris. brusque. ribrezzoso. shoot. bryne. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. .Lat. an awl. the twigs of a besom. and Sc. sticking up . whence may be explained the Sc. Antiq. sprocco. brin. very salt brimi. to broil.. birsle. borstel.rcendij'i. Russ. angry. borzen. reburrus. roar of the sea saltr. a crum. See Brand. Formerly written brotil. or — . bringe. fierce. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. lively. b. Pectusculum. brioshko. from brande. like the Broad. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. e. coli. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling.

To roast upon hot coals. briz. broice. bmsciare. brasiller. agree in being the extremity of a thing. a peg. brusuole. an edge. brasbrasciuolare. freckled. streaked. gold and silver. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. spots. So from Pol. a flake of snow sion. to broil. ornamented with a raised pile. dar seems derived from borde. broiled. parti-coloured. or snag. — — . or glowing coals broged. The Bret. with Sc. forming to jumble. badger . A fried or boiled steaks). to stud broccoso. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. Compare also AS. W. to crackle. to boss. Sp. prod. thread. The ON. brasuole. Cot.tumultuous. Bret. — . b?-od. Icnotty. a freckle. onbryrdan. broc. rustle. bustling.sound. ToBroider. Surrey in R. sparks E. sting. Dan. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. parti-coloured. border. scorch. point to an origin in Bret. brucach. brych. q. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. to crackle as a shell in the fire. v. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. broil. A badger. a To Broil. initial . Gael. brasolare. Sc. the line of development has been something different. noise. from the white. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment.— B. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. bramowanie. Contracted from Fr. whence broccare. to scorch. storms. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. to spur. hurly-burlies. or salted fish on coals. — The proper sense is that of Fr. It. a brim. braird. tumult broighleach. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. a flock or Gael. bruler. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl.. Brocket. fundamental origin. here. Grisons brascla. to embroider. grullo. noisy. B. broud. Sc. E. . broighlich. Ptg. tufted ornaments. brodio. parch. bawling. or roast on the braise. atoms . bj'oil. brychau. kled breac.. a confused streaked face of the animal. prasseln. speckled. a b?-ustolare. brullare. broc. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to streaked or speckled in the face. Cot. brusler. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. frocadura. to On the other hand the Sp. brocach. confound. carbonado. to crackle. Fr. tori shows that. has grisser. broglio. briefh. — Fl. — Gower in It. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). a border. bordar. grislement. or It. piebald . gresiller. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. Broker. froco. trouble. spotted. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. birsle. brouda. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. to prick. bram. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. broder. broccuto. a quarrel. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. stump. to knots or loops. age was termed a pricket. broil. precisely analogous to the Sc. Fr. embroidery. brustle. a prick. silkes-borda. a fallingThe sense has been out. parched. brouFr. It of br the Fr. frecSee Brawl. the shoot of corn. Ihre has guU-bord. . or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. to burn. rinj'. brocart. embroidering. to burn. bordo. — brissle. a point. brocco. a mole. ciare. a border ornamented with gold. a badger. of pointing out their latent defects. to crackle. broukit. border ornamented with silk. AS. to crackle. to instigate. houx. a brecJi. Hal. and w. speckled. creak. knobby . Here to ornament with needle-work. brooked. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. motes. brindled. trouble. From direct imitation of Brock. 103 embroidered. R. a brouhaha. margin. blusters. Compare G. brastlian. Gael. borprick. Thus brod. brasiller. to embroider. brod. Fr. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. and bord or bred. brucilare. brizen. and AS. to darn. a freckle. breard. shuffle. hart of two years old. Florio. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. brerd. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. It. broccato was used to signify stuff . to parch or broil.

See Wreak. It may be compared with It. but from the primary sense of the It. a fault. to sort brakovanie. In the . the spawn of fishes. rejection Pol. — . whnake. See Brackish. to be hot. : ' . to sit on eggs. term was correcfo^ir. bronze. bredan. in the sense of rejection. Alb. racaille. Adelung. refuse Fr. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. embers. to blame. Alb. braken. to pick and choose. nounce unsound. refuse brakowad. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. wrack-good. Bronzare. corrector. . bric-a-brac. raquer. i. and fishes . ON. to sort goods . 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. refuse. to pro- to reject . want. embers to brund. brwd. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. to scorch.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. a makeln. to pick. et A. mediationem quorundam J. merchandises de rebut G. bronze. tan. find fault with. . broen. bracker. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. raca. brasa. ordure. Prov. Tooke's Catherine. — a spark. and as an adj. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. inspection. an outcast or rejected sheep. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. to copper. brut. criticise (makeln). bring eggs and spawn into active life. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. brid. rejected. brokoti. find fault with. Pl. . brokas. Lat.D. — Fl. hraki. brunds. or brascla. bronze. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. and to reject the damaged and unsound. Pl. brod. Sp. whence the modern courtier. ODu. abject. on. fermenting. bronzo. spittle . — point out the faults. wraken. bronce. to be wanting. from makel. e. • . abbronzanchiare. lack. to roast on the embers. brieden. damaged.— Breed. Fr. Grisons brinzla. in which sense the OHG. designation is indkler. brechen. analogous to Bohem. brack-gut. sbrinzlar. spittle. to sparkle. Bret. S. to nourish. warm. faulty. refuse brakovat. to — garble. 396. which E. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. Pro v. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. to criticise. brakyne. try out. Jam. briiten. to . hot. For the same reason the Kiittner.D. brydio. G.— Lib. refuse. brackefi. brod. from break. brack-gut (Sanders). a breach or flaw. burning. G. an . sunburnt. Sc. tussis. Kil. keep warm. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. Abbronzare. racher. cracker. blur. selection. brass does to Sp. to hatch. correctarius. Fl. mud. buy and sell by commission. to hatch. On • tliis principle the G. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. refuse goods. to garble. In those countries the term braker. brokers' goods. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. bridde. sort. . couratier. fish-spawn broden. to braze. a cough Hal. to brew. Pl. screatio Junfus . The use sunburn. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. braeck goed. To blame mens ware. progeny of birds. embers. vile. brak. The Langued. matter of blame weak place. brands. goods damaged by sea-water. make out. as. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. . dial. trumpery.D. the young of any animal . — broeden. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. Bronze. G. Dan. phlegm. a broker. reject.D. with. insects. an operation performed over hot coals. wrak. to hatch G.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. OFr. See Broth. fault censure. brak. This word shows the same relation to It. . any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. refuse wares. hrak. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. a brood . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. Teutonic class : Du. brasa. vrage. filth. to spit . appointed to classify goods according to their quality. cast Lith. pan metal. to throw blame upon. damaged. w. cherish. Brood. Du. try . to reject. 38. brot. has exactly the force of G. find fault — — — fuse matter. brumo. vile. stain.— — . brae. to emit sparks. Du. hot. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. wreak. dirty. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. inspect. glowing coals. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. If to vomit . slaae vrag paa. Per manus et old worthless horse. It. Russ. brack. a chicken. broiid. To correct an exercise is to Lib.

bud. grow brossa. The AS. thairj w. eye-lid. to boil. sprout. Manx broie. rerum decoctarum. . meal. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. to bubble up with noise. broth the ocean Sw. Gael. brotar. broo. iVlanx broogh. signifying low wet land (Brem. brothas. Gael. braussa. bruith. . bank. . brass. w. shore . brouser. bruscosd quam de arabili. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . eat. . brennen. brouskaol. G. See Bramble. Fr. chen. to Pl. heat. and Slavonic families. brushbroccoli. to murmur. perhaps burnt coloilr. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. and also border. noise. pour boiling water over. protecting the eye. broc. bruno. on. AS. bor. pith. broden. breg. brosses. brad. G. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. broca. pottage. The origin is a re. brauwe. heat explaining the Prov. Here we find throughout the Romance. broth Brown. brmi. shrubs. It. . Tam de terrS. Fr. borde. broit. who is steaming with sweat. bordel. heath. to use bruks. Pl. on. brink. eye-brow. ." Serv. sprouts . briar. bree. sense the Sc. a hut or cottage It. briihe. brew . OHG. To digest. a derived from the boards. spirit. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. may be connected with Russ. OHG. augen-braune. a hill. eye-brow. hot. thick bush brousta. brosses. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. or shoot. &c. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit.D. to roar. sprocco.braubiti. brdtaj Gael. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. broeye. bntdien. properly boiling water briihen. shoot. or bushes and scrubby growths. frui. a little house or cottage of timber. riviere. a bud. to border. a bud brous-koad. useful G. frucius. shore. of plants broust. — exiit et heath. . strength. to browse. a shrub broust. Prov. Fr. mettle. Mid. from Goth. as rhododendrons. . bratrj Lat. a river. grow into a bush. bhratrj Zend. Browse. sap. low The AS. brodo. Sanscr.' Due. Pol. braces. circuindedit cum familia. bruc. Lat. brewis. edge. sproc. brwd. It is Brother. Catalan brossa. brun. brosst. infusion. bruich. (for brodem). brogues. brue . broth is sometimes used . as small-pox. broccola. from ripa. brus. eye-brow. as Fr. bushes. bank. infusion the barley bree. pfriemkraut. Ppim. . fur Broom. &c. to burn. breh. Kil. brushbrothas) gives the OE. a hill. bruitheati. break out brewet. sprot. brucan. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. brpuster. broud. dialects is very different. brouet. braew. eminence . face. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. strength Ir. brusmalt. brd.) . briu. Cot. brudi. brlgh. . — ' . maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. laissent Domunculum. . brost. Commonly Teutonic. awl-plant. hut. . 105 Brook. bregh. simmer from the murmuring AS. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. bros. a shore. Bret. Bav.spross. Du. house of ill fame. warmth ch'an. of which the variety of forms. surface of Broth. — . brow of a hill. brstiti. bordeau. brukjan. Brothel. a spring. brotar. margin. forms appear related to the Ir. branches. borda. to shoot. eye-brow. . brodem. Fr. &c. cia. enjoy Goth. signifying twigs. border. breg. brost. the colour of things burnt. vigour. brau. to bear patiently.brink. ale . sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Due. eye-lash . bros. bruich. sordes seu strigmata young branch. b7-un. brow. brouches. boiled . rage. a sprout. sodden. bruceti. to sprout. cabbage water. Bohem. to use. Bohem. brabruach. But the Walach. Limousin broudi. shrub with leafless pointed edging. broi. braun. Bret. ceales briw. Du. to browse. OFr. . Gr. Gael. G. &c.brons. plants composed of twigs. broza. a bruth. in which brinnan. to spring . Russ.D. broth brothaire. seethe. vigour. The softening down of the consonant bud. . heath. to scald. broem bark. to use. bruddeln. bryii. brozia. brous. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. Brow. a confused noise of winds. fabric consists. cabbage soup . and Sc. surDu. a sprig. Sp. broieii. brio. brouter. kail brose. eye-lid. Serv. w. thicket. brst. waves. — . It. edge. bryn. and It. verge. a . bruth. bank. frater. a source Gael. to boil. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. . Bohem. Gael. a little . Prov. A — . bank. broth. buds. steam from heated bodies. breg. BROOK brook w. Wtb. Sp. juice of briars. brouic. brov. juniper. Fr. bruithim. Roquef. riviera.— Overyssel Almanack. juice of meat. Ger. hovel. Celtic. bryn. broth. It. G. t— Cot. the bubbling or springing up of water. Sc. was originally used in the innocent sense of . has briw. Dan. shoots. dumetum. to boil. Russ. spuma. sprout. wood . G. brocco. 'Lzt. browys. AS. a caldron.. Gris. to boil bruithe. or broken up . brawdj Slavon. bruach.

wool-card. to break. ON. briketo. and in the second place a besoiB. appearin Goth. Wicliff. fasx . brit. a bud. brushwood. escousse. broza. brusco. wool-card. brous. orts. a bush of hair. as It. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. broken. to strike the foot against an obstacle. G. a horse-brush. bris. B?-usske. Lang. Castr. bush. heath. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. coal See Breeze. —Chaucer.). . a bristle. The Lat. sordes. seems named from burst(on. to break or burst. brosse. bushy ground. a rumbling. It. G. brisd. bruc. Gael. bruscia. brossa. To brush then would be to dust. and It.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. an enmy. E. brist. crush. a briser. Prov. Fr. Beryn. Sp. brosse. bud. . bruscolo. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. borste. a brush . or shoot. broza. Fr. Bav. to brush. dust. That in all haste he wouli. brist. ling or heath for brushes. borste. a — — (Agea) said. or sodenly comyn' dust. borst. broust. bruito. a bud or sprout Bret. Prov. 174. britar. Cot. field. a brush. Gael. Text Soc. brusca. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. fescue . a tuft of heath . abroncar. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. burs. shivers. brunt. tuft of grass or hay. to butt. rubbish. 134. chips. rods. bruyere.— — i. to crush. On the other hand.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Gael. Brush. remnants of hay or fodder. rubbish. brise. brossa. to make a rumbling. a brush . Prov. and sighid therewithal. borste. wood composed OE. The Bav. E. brista) or breaking out . Palsgr. brossar. a brush . brusc (Diet. a little brizal. to cleanse. brysan. brust. mg Cat. Piedm. The same relation holds good between G. Bret. . Sw. brosst. desbrisar. Brunt. a noise. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. a blow. Allit. to break to bits . flax-comb brossettes. and . bross. OFr. brosst. a crum. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. borste. brMt. brist. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. OE. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. brusg. Gael. bruire. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. E. effort. Alexander. . brist j Port. — Fr. and actually come in collision. 201. bricalio. Pr. Pm. brik. britar. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. p. burt. A. bris. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. splinters. detergere . AS. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Pr. and Piedm. Prov. and also Brush. a brush . shoot brouskoad. to make brusshes on. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue.— Palsgr. K. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Cot. to stumble. . crum bit . borste. . twig. It. a shrub composed of small twigs . of twigs. but on whom it schall to brisen him. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. blow burcar. Broach. Port. bruzir. Brunt of a daunger. fragments. brikan. brous. dust. bruis (sing. insilio. bross. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. brico or brizo. irruo. brustia. Fr. modification of the same root which gives the E. Bruise. also a head-brush.). brustid. a mote. a brush Swiss bruske. tremely. broustia. biirste. It. bruskr. — those signifying a sprig. twig. Lang. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. break. quisquilise. brugir. shock. insultus. Fr. a bristle. Hall in R. brusco. a brush. * Brunt. ca7-bo>i. Sw. brus. Piedm. Fr. Fl. briiis (in the pi. And that best is. —Fabyan. — a bush. — OE. brousso. brusca. bruit. Poems. brustia. bruiser. quasi twigs. Pr. Diez. brizeto. to break. . or from the materials of which it is itself composed. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface.). The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . a flax comb. NE. brisar. Pm. into a multitude of points. bruscolo. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. it schall be al Sw. Bruit. bruise exOFr. rubbish. bris. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. dust. brottcher. a brush. See next article. Pr. wool-card. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bris. biirste. In E. briser. dust.

to wet Pol. is 1. to soak. soft . Bohem. bucata. or mok. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. and the bunch. bucaIndies. blast or strike with the forehead. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. to murmur. to filter. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. bubseti. blister. a ashes. boucaner. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. maban and baban. 17th century. erweichen. Bret. bub. bucking. byge. bouc. to Gael. as G. designation of a knob. lye. to soften . to soften. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. 1586. The cipally on the Spaniards. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Cot. bog-aske. in which the flesh dish. not so plentiful a commodity. a bubble. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. From an imita. Etym. thunder gently . bouk.D. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . boc. The male goat. The place of such a 2. boc. March 28. it is beuchen. drying of produce. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. the linen at buck. because bucare does not in Marsh). top. pukkata. .buchen.to allow a free current of air. bubBuck. a hole. buerj It. tender. bifbel. the upper for coifee. . Pref A. soft It. The term bocan is still ap. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. to stick. Pol. buck-ashes. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. was called bucking the linen. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. mokry. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. a steep for flax. boil animals. very generally designated by the same puk. who resorted to the islands beichen. a fescue.boukaat. I. soft. Magy. Sp. to soften. colada. Illust. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. buquer. Sc.wet Lat. hog dressed whole). bucquer. Magy. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. mieknad. knock. and as a verb. different form. . from weich. . — — ' A : ' ' .— . Bret. to bump as a bittern. to which in their language they call bou. buquer. soft. bubbola. of wind. Diet.biiken j Svi. Fin. faire la lessive. In G. and exercised their cruelties prin. caned' Hence those who established them. open lath-work. bduclien. Gael. tender. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. News. — . w. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). hump. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. bokni. to butt. It. the first wheal. lye. A . BUBBLE bruschetta. mote.derivation has been much discussed.lessiver. buck-ashes. Bohem. The name. But see Bristle. bube. watery bud. pup. Fr.byka. from colar.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. hump. Esthon. bwch. plied in the W. moczyd. Bubble. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. This bubette. The natives of Florida. w. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. to buck. bugd. Fr. and Fr. the lower soak in lye. ac. 1857. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. soft. set of pirates in the spread. to butt or jurr Dan. . or projecTo Buck. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. buborek. It. . bubiti. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. Formerly. Pol. to soak. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. wood. bub. bublati. pokka7na. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. rap. to soak foul linen before washing. tap . a push.-wtt miekki. — . bubauti. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Dan. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. de la Floride. . becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. does not hold. . molle. was called in Fr. to a place used for the mouillir. moist. Fr. and then to other wild tumour Lith. to bubble.tare. tuft. a. as a buck rabbit. mollire. also applied Una. a bubble . boh. a. when soap was tion is commonly taken. The word was very generally Buccanier. See Dupe. a bubble. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. says Laudon. buchen. bugada.steep or soak. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering.' Palsgr. a knock word. to butt. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. It. a to the male deer. bukke. to strain. Sp. at a door.

It is explained by Miiller (MHG. bucket Fl. seen in Hesse botz. a servant. . bedde. to 'soak. Bucolic. set of a plant in bulk. ' . buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. Dan. bouter. case of leather . bog and G. to stir. bouge. jSouKoXiKog. Mid. boqueranmis. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. lump. with which it was ornamented. rabodS. prick in a target. a cowherd. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bullion. boucaran. like a bean. call. To thrusting part of a long body. need. bollire. or male of to boil . A water-plant with leaves and gille. . agreeing with Gael. motus creber. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. a leathern sack. to line with fur. sboge. Prov. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. — . Prov. ' . from bo. stroke. butzen.chissima. boach. buachazlle. a ring. bukke-blad. Fr. This expression boglire. — .stuff. potz. a bubble three thyngis. knob dwfr yn boglynu. great pouch. stir. boucle. boaLat. stud. bouger. ornamental stud. Fr. boss. Fr. Sp. ein. a curl.stumpy man. is doubtless fallacious. butz. brobrocchiere. . from Gr. Bav. pwtio. probably from the notion of bubbling. to word. rump of fowls . to move. a wallet. bucolicus. boccula. don't stir from hence. G. butzen K. whom it is still much in use. . to budge. ble. bouclier. Fr. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. a shield. bolgetta. from bugr. no business to do that. knob . bulka. bucherame. It. See Bulk.. butt . nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. protuberance. bud butzen.pode. a boy. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. clasp of a book. boulj. a buclder or shield budge. Hence quel.) . bunch. thrust. of bac. Pied. to pen cattle. is to shrivel up. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. boss of a shield. bouton. Mid. gjeit-klauv. a bud. So on. bulga. Budge. a bump.n. also a leather tuft . a budget. Budget. a trough). pulga. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. to boss or swell out G. built. bougette. weich. the word w ' — . bug. child. The dressed fur of lambs. bode. above mentioned. and weichen. . imbuere. OFr. bougette. pulga. bdden. bod. The Fr. Du. bod. bocla. a small shallow and open tub. loud Cot. words is converted into b. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. Hardly identical with Fr. to poke. buckel. of a surface. having a boss. Du. bul. boucle. turgere buczendig. excrescence.anything short of its kind. with let. Swab. The knob or projection formN. bloquier. Cot.' Boccaccio. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. dinted. bloca. It. A buckle or fastening for botch. a budget. macero. scion. call. budge. a boss. botzen. to boil. fur. bolgia. W. with a central boss. — — . It termination is lost. where the G. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. botzen. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. It. . become bochen.may probably be explained by N. * Bucket. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. and the reference to It. boucler. bloca.r//'. w. a pustule bout. no wheel bogeilio.Lat. as in Fr. to graft or bud trees. Fr. Russ. a pail or flowers. Pol. don't a baby). dint . Fr. pwt o Fr. a dumpy gin. butzen. — — . put. Wtb. swelling. ' . hump. bump. The entire train of thought is bucket. . Gael. a shoot. Bret. Fr. and of the Lat. The word is a ddyn. * Bud. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield./a. bunch . bo. bouljein. Buckler. call bo. bulla.' And this sacrament bus have dial. Lat. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bouk is a pail and with the dim. water message. the radical image seems to be a set plants. K. Bav. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog.poot. boucle. pote. to butt. Prov. swelling. were To Budge. a navel. push forwards. Bus. a tuft. Sw. mani. bugnir. a buckle or protuberance. weich. * Buckle. noise . bub. Bret. a short thick man. butzen (Du. a boss. It. skins pushit'. to thrust.t-le!L{ * Bud. crack. wallet. boiling. a fold ceilio. knock. . bulais daqui.' Schm. Behoves. soft. ON..). NE. weichen. inboachen. w. Dan. to un bout d'homme. butze.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. a stump buckle up. Buck-bean. a little coffer or turgidus. the root of the Slavonic words gran. . bogla. OHG. to swell. blow. belonging to the calling of the chen. male or botzen. Port. convexity. bouprobably identical with inok. In Lat. bucherare. the end or rise or bear out in the middle.) as to soak. bulb. goat's hoof. dim.goa. II I'a feru desor I'escu. . and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. a leather strap probably takes its name clump.. cattle.' Hal. clump. a .— . in the beginning of to pierce holes. explaining Fr. to bud or bocla. of bouge. boglyn. trunk of wood covered with leather.

Buff. Romola. Lith. as Diez remarks. A — Bug. mumming. Sc. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Buffoon. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. to give a as of a blow. Sc. bugs. soufflet. buivol. to blow . bubach. Gael. dull sound. to puff. dausinti. — — — Buffet. buffer.D. boman. scarecrow . or wild ox. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Fr. buffare. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. bw. popo. buffetto. — thence it has been transferred in E. to marre often tasting it . while in Sp. le reste emplissant d'eau. word other cases. rebuff. bauwi./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. the place whence the wine was drawn. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. to excite terror in Macleod. made to —Bugbear. Buffeter. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Fr. Pl. blurt or puff with one's mouth. It. bau ! children. buffare.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. to frighten . as emblematically making light of an object. to bellow . Cot. to puff. also a G. The children were playing in an oppocomer.D. bolgia. bwg.—Buffet. Fr. buffet. buffen. often covering his E. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. as from Lith.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. buffle-headed. to a representation of his voice. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. confused. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. wine may The verb in taverns. colour. to jest or sport. a bugbear. bugle. botffon. — Bogle. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. also the skin or heck of a buffe. human. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . a jester.' perfield. —Boggart. a side-board. thus be translated to tap. puff. to blow souffleU. of colours. buffeteur. w. yar^aa. Teet-bo. boo. a budget. buffa. a puff. Fr. Swiss baui. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. from souffler. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. Lat. From buff! of terror. G. duff^ dull. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. him but Boyd iugges. and in Fr. tabernarius. as wine that hath taken wind. to signify an indefinite object of terror. bobaow. 265. sounds. air. buffle. leathern bucket. often blown upon. buffet. a buffle or a bugle.D. Lith. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. made by a person. by metaphor. een duffen toon. a hobgoblin. Fr. — retailing buffeter buffetier. caupo. bo ! an interj. W. bubiti. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. Buffalo. Bufetarium. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. buffets. &c. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. tastes. Thus buffet would a tapster. bugbear. bufogni. . Hence the E. Magy. buff leather. senses. either alone or with various terminations. Lat. Cot. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. to strike face to represent the unknown. bufHe.— Buflae. wauwau. bubaRuss. a hollow sound. a goblin). E. btifetarius. bumann. buffalo. bouffer. Buff. God's boast seemed feare children. — La Crusca. bolgetta. cuff . a cuff or buffet. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bubus. It. smells . a block-headed noddy. A puff with — Fl. Esthon. ' They rether puffed at him. mingled with water. Pl. dausa. buffet. bufogni. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . from It. pulse . the buffe. stupid. baubau. dial. a In . buMagy. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. Fl. The cry made to excite terror is then used. It. breath. Limousin bobal. to give benti. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. to rePl. site The two — — iii. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. bouffer. The use of the exclamation children. From bulga. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. or hath been Cot. things in Jam. a clap. bukow Ikow. for this purpose is very widely spread. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. Che scaccia 1' Ombre.' La Crusca. A blow. It. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. to blow. Mid. to beat. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. deadened. — Z. a skin. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. bw! It. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft.

a rabme. and bugle. baco. also a bug-bear. Illyr. i. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. bogil. of bugabo was given. poggl. the buggaboo w. an insect. a boogg. : no BUG . superbire. used in the same sense. Cheval de trombugti. a. bwgwl. thus connected with bug. Lap. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. well as the terrific object. coco. saucy. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. also a bug-bear. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. — . Sp. bugar. Big. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. insect. given in Chaucer. monster. shepe and gootes. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. then a horn for drinking. 1551. hert. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. beugler.. Lith. (Spurrell). Lesachthal. bug-bear. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. roarHal. troll.Lat.loud noise. ghost. * 2. is very common. paws the ground . to roar Aasen.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Stalder bog. to creeping things. high-sounding words. buculus. 3. to take fright. Mundart. bogle. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. . iv. bugler. Parolone. tion of the beetle tribe. bug dung-beetle. bobal. Bogge. threatening. biignt. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Bible. It. buffle. swollen. a misshapen person. a bugbear for children. the word is lin) bbgge. fette. earwig bau da grascha. bwg and E. disgust. an object of terror. any disgusting animal. boo. boeuf sauvage. It. threatening. — — . BUGLE Tentennino. il brutto Demonio. — — terror. dial. worm. bug. See The name terror). bogil bo (e. to frighten scarecrow. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. as Buffalo. provincially an insect. and in Lat. long. 493. The name of bug is — .. to bellow. Manx boa. larva (a bug-bear. to origin in the expression bugs words. Hence bugle-horn. fierce. proud. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. Swelling. a buffalo. Schmidt. 2. . or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Deut. scarecrow . a beetle. a bug-bear. Swiss booggen. xiv. bukashka. Magy. bug-bear. The final guttural of W. Bugle.— . with more or less modification represents bau. Magy. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Lett. fear. bwgar. big. . w. Same as buffle. is the dim. quos what produces dread or disgust. the black a maggot. as an object of dread. W. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. pujalo. boa-peep. b'dgni. bbgni. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. also a baco-baco. the Devil. and a boggarty ing. a silk-worm. Bug as a lord. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. to take bug. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. I. especially to beetles or winged insects. bugle. great or bug words. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. bucula. bok. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. gad. The w. banian boube. . and in child's Magy. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. — — ' . roo. E. a goblin. Swiss ing. tumble-bug. according to Coles. booggen.3uhtii&:. Grisons bau. Bug. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. Hal. a proud overbearing man pujat'. mask ' . blustering. forSc. A similar applica. and is Deutsch. bau (Pureiglia. Grose. terrifying ward. An ornament of female dress condread. bogk. Fl. vermin.Fr. bugbear. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bold. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. Sw. Bdronie. affright. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. oxen. Chaucer. protuberant. pugalo. bogk. bauginti. bukati. buba. high. Serv. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. language any kind of insect. rose-bug. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. Mid. a bug-bear. of pipes sewn on. to bellow. pugaf. — boogg. buggabod). is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bug-bear. insect. Fl. to take fright. Russ.

PoXj3a. body of an animal. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bullka. to bubble up Pol. body of a ship . To Build. husk. . See Bulk. a dint in a metal . as well as is very variable. . .' Cot. bolle. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. — — . bo. bol.'— Cot. a round bulky body bwlgan. van loock. Mandeville. Melancholy. to break bulk. boss. to blow. — — . the potato G. balgs. bolle. leather sack. body. bua. a leather sack or budget Fr. Here stand behind this bulk. beuck. mass. a. a bubble Gael. trunk. belly. or. snorting on a bulk. Lett. a stage or scaffold. a leathern sack or portmanteau. pocket. G. OSw. as water beginning to boil bolg. boa. to gather. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. bug. Kil. bulgen. bulked or bumped out. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bulg. to spring. bed of a river. were a habitation. bulka. . Ptg. villa. blister. cumulus. Bulk. Lith. globule bolg-lhuingey. From till. a bubble. — . boss. byli. or feminine termination gives Bav. knob. to swell. Mister. . G. knot in thread. pimple. bubble. crowd. cultivate. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). belgr. knobby. For the latter sense ' — My . the womb. . belly Sw. bulkaf. trunk of the body. trunk. buk. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. in Sc. bolso. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. Hal. turgeo bolnyd. skin bag. a water-bubble). head . bilge. In the representation of natural sounds. 1388. bubble. bulbe. Hence e. Pr. Pm. anything prominent. the belly. and bulbukd. a globe. to undo the cargo. He found a country fellow dead drunk. bulki. belly. or cargo of a ship. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bubble. a bunch. womb. OSw.d. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bulcke. The Walach. bulk. projection. With these must probably be classed ON. of an inflated skin. thorax buick. bunch or projection. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bulne. bukr. bulle. the position of liquids in the word In English. the body Du. ' . bolgetta. bauen. principal portion. to puff up bolginn. bolgna. belly Cat. to swell. The addition of a dim. swollen. bulbus. bulge or bilge. swell. compare Da. the head of an onion. a tuberous or bulbous root . . Dan. ^ — . bolnyn. gebolgen. on. . a. — . . unevenness Sw. skin flayed whole. pulkas. be protuberant.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Pm. See bollekeii next article. in vessel. chest. bulk or capacity of anything. ball. . pouch builgeadh. formed a farm. ON. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. hull of a ship. (3oX|8oc. bubbling up. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. Palco. and put it home. . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. bugue. See how this tode bolneth. wallet. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. a prominence.— . belgja. . Bulch. It. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant.). belly. belly.' Fl. Lat. Boss^. bouge. or of what is shaped like a bubble. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. bag. tumidus. boss of shield. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. swell.pulks. — Bulb. I. herd^ swarm pulkd. — — . a protuberance. the contents of the hold. Sp. pod ON. bauch. to throw out a convexity. balco. balcone. belly. bouk. belly van de kerche. to belly out. bulbe. buc. A — ' — Bulk. biilken. mass. lump. whence bylja. The radical sense is shown in Russ. w. bulwis.' Palsgr. puff. a heap. MHG. at riufa bulkann. ne. Gr. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. or bear out as a full purse. bolgan. Dan. to bubble up. bale. acervus. jnake bulch. Bav. stuffed bag. tumeo. . Lat. buhe. ON. swollen OE. Jno. boulge. a straw corn-vessel. domicilium. to build. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. . . a bulb Du. G. sedes. bulk is a partition of boards. bulgen. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. . Bolke or hepe. of E. knob. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. blister Manx bolg. swell. lump. and N. the carcase. as it was merly written in English to bylle. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. skin of an animal. balg. straight will he 2. Lith. a lump or mass.' Anat. bol. dial. it again. bol. Bourser. bole. blister. bolgia. the capacity or burden of a ship. ' . .' Festus. habitaculum. blow. ' . bolg. to raise a habitation. bulge or convex part of a cask. balg. to bol. bladder. Bulge. inhabit. Othello. hollow. Gr. m um Placentiae. Pr. hold or bilge of a ship. vulva. boss of a buckler. bellows builgean. in bulk. bwlg. bubble {palgan tiisge. Muratori. has bulbuk.

. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. as a mill-dam or the like. from the Lat. leraures nocturni nigri. Bullace. signifying roaring. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. Fr. &c. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. balgeting. bullos. bole or trunk of a tree. bullern. Du. it may be observed that a bullet in E. /SouWivu. bullebak. tition of deals instead of a wall. large. billoti in Fr. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. poltern. a wasp.'— ' Palsgr. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. bietebau. Bret. elves. to bubble. also a parFl. as geting. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Dan. embossed work. in the sense of base metal. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. G. a scare-bug. stud. a hornet. See Bowl. to bellow. — Fl. boulct. bolos Fr. hhint. bulderen.Gr.Fris. BuUiou. witches. bellocier. And The word bullerbak. bellow. — — Bull. child by the represents the hobgoblin. to emboss . Scot's Deso. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. bulk of a thing.. It.' do not go by the dangerous water. a tadpole . bulla. spirits. a bull. coarse. bulk. to boil. from baula. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. I. billon. bulloi. 2. and thence terror. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. a bowl. Gold or silver uncoined. 2. dim. whence bullire. ba. Bullfrog. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. from the noise. bolli. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Lith. dial. bugbear. Bully. G. a seal. Terriculamentum. a tadpole. A lace tree. Du.D.lle de fusil.. bolli. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. whence Mod. is of a class with Pl. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. bulle. See Billet. as It. a hobgoblin. any great-headed or studded nail. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. a bul-begger. a bull Swiss bullen. penbwl. a cow. ON. bwla. The final element tergeist. It. a seal. 3. however. a noisy violent fellow. A papal rescript. bouillon. poli-cheannan. boillon. G. This word is used in several senses. i. lumpheaded . bolla. bollon. urchens. bullocks. stud. W. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. round glass phial. a hobgoblin. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. thick. in N. of Witchcr. stamp. w. lumpish. baula. bwlas. Bullet. beams or boards.D. Gael. from Fr. scarecrow. Bullbeggar. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. N. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bauli. polten. eth and frighteth. to seal. Du. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . bubble.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. blister. many to protuberant objects. of boule. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. is called a ball. b2iggaboo. The wild plum. Du.D. large of its kind. also of the tadpole or young frog. any embossed work. it is boulet de canon. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. a beam or rafter. Cot. a little fish nearly all head. Eullrusli. w. which may probably be the origin of the name. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Fr. bulke. Sp. poll-cheannach. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. Pm. bwbach. from the use of the equivalent terms. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. the seal affixed to the document. BulUiead. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. pwl. bouillon. Pl. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bulla. bollar. boss or stud. of the ox kind. bollos de relieve. G. stupid . a sight that frayHigins in Pr. The male W. . assito. biitzibau. pollach. to tical with Sw. bullus. bal. a framework of balks. boss. — A tition in a ship. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. blunt.. brass-headed nail . a stud. a bulox polos. sloes. stamped money. the matrix or die . The bullfrog. and vellon in Sp. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. on the contrary. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. as the ornanails. from Lat. as in E. a blockhead. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. pimple. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug.

^Bully-rook. noise. ierd-beame. to . clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. To bully is to bluster. bodem. To bum.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. buller-jaan (bully. ground. violent. buller-brook. — Boom. AS. A. Thus ' ble.D. sound. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet.. bolderen.. Bully-rock. by corruption boulevart. a boisterous. — Bumto . which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. baluarte. then in general a rampart. primarily the ramparts of a town. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. IV. a bumble-. to make a droning Du. biihne. Sw. to terrify by noise and clamour. scaffold. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. ^i^/«. 14. — bombam?nen. John). clamour. ierd-boeyme.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. It. 4 Hen. Du. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. bottom. From the notion of a humming. buene. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. intonare. but now is the central part of the town. resonare. Kil. Hence bom and ban. a blunderhead. boulevard.D. 'lega. buller-bas. — Bump. poltem.the ramparts. on the other hand. bommele. bastion. is called bumping or bells. Fr. blaterare. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt.d. to drum Lat. bomtnen. IIL st.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. ON. argentum and silver. Hence — . buller-bak. Bum. Kiittner. Du. 2. blunder-buss. 10. and porter au billon. debacchari. For bottom. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. The Sw. 9 E. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. a stage. c. propugnaculum. provides.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. perturbare saevis dictis. bol-werck. Du. bulderen.' for the purpose of exchange. bottn. from boden. furious man. a hectoring. c. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Bully. The 27 Ed. a. Miege in Hal. The cry of the bittern. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. or a humblebee. to dun. or work of defence. G. The decried coin. The Stat. agrees with e. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. up was termed monnaie de billon. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. violent overbearing person. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . BULLY with which coins were stamped. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. Bailey.' ' mettre au billon. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. Kil. block-werck. Fris. droning. III. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. boisterous fellow. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. to make a noise . hum. G. St. 1305. a floor. Hal. blunder-buss. buller-bas. Etym. G. botm. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees.' reals of standard currency. D. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. boene. bombilare. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. c. 1687). and similar restrictions were enforced in France. 2. vallum. un faux brave. beat a — Hal. polterer. Bum-bailiff. provides. legaggio di metallo.' Again. is bullion — A — buller.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. &c. To bum. a noisy blustering fellow. 2. the soil. To Bum.' agger. minari verbulderen. — — plate d'argent. Philip le Bel in Due. honunele. bustle. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark.' Stat. Fris.

a boil (punkos bot. gibbus. A clumsy. stock. awkward. Related on the one side to Pl. stock. See Bunch. as we have seen E. a tail (Macleod). root. banga. . bamgetroffen. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Bunch. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. or grete knobbe. poumpi. Again. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. to thump. Bump. bottom. explaining E. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bon. one ever saw the word in that shape. truss E. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). E. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. bulto.D. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Hal. Pr. Mrs Baker. pumpa. OSw. Bumboat. signifying one who does things in a thumping. poumpido. bunke. ! — knocking.P. pumpurras. Daal bu7iseti. abrupt manbuns-wise. Hence E. to bang ON. Radically identical with Dan. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bannock. any round knob or bunch. hay stubble . an old stump of a horse. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. bunsen. bonge. the Pr. knochen. Bun. to swell out E.! . stalk. root. round mass of anything. bugno. Bums it's hit. a rabbit. while bulch was traced through Gris. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. to knock . buns. Pl. seems to unite Gael. a bud. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a heap or cluster. awkward clown. tundo. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. .' Bun. — stalk . Sc. bum-boot. a swelling. a bunch. . bignet. a rabbit. lump. a boss Lith. banke. a pocket Sw. inconsiderately. should probably be a short tail. and signifies consequently a mass. a bunch Magy. trunk.— Pr.S. . Suffolk bonnka. bulscha. Holland and Flanders. mto Sp. Manx bonkan. . bmidt. a round mass . a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . 1. bmike. Bang sen. bonnock. as in other cases. H.D. bunga. bolsa. passes Sw. BUNCH bum-bailiff. bunny. Bunch.D. a hemp-stalk. callus. It. a purse . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. a knock. —Bunny. throw down with a bang. also for taking a pilot to a ship. . bugno. He buncheth me and beateth me. .. dial. any round knob or bunch. calamus. Pm. bund. Fr. large.' Palsgr. a hump. a knotty stick) Sw. bull. Dan. Hal. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. E. a swelling from a blow. pompette. bunnion. bonuach. Pm. — — Bun. w. a knob . — Marine Diet. bugnone. bottom. ner. cluster. Bunk. a lump on the foot bunny. a. bung. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. butt end. .D. a bump. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bun with ON. dial. A Du. bump. S. Kyx or bunne. Bumpkin. are dim. Du. a heap OSw. bunga. bune or boon. blain. bun. bumsen. He fult dat et bunsede. knob or heap. Lang. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. Sc. — — de dor bunsen. protuberance. Probably for bun-boot. stem or base. a dry No . a button. from bunsen. to . a large . a heap. Moor. a boil or blain. hdk passing and E. knuckles. a wallet. . bunken. to ' . Hal. — — Bun. especially girls. lenten loaves. a person employed to dun one for a debt. bulse. to . Dan. a bowl P1. a pumpion or gourd.-^Fl. stubble of beans. bunkc. il me pousse. — — — — ' — knock. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bungersome. Fl. bundle. stump. bunka. a into Dan. — round fruit.— Bunnion. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Bung^. to strike so as to give a dull sound. noise. Bunewand. bunch— Hal. to bang down. Li cake. Then. Fr. Gael. clown. a knob. bu<rnone. . Probably from bump. and related with ON. Pm. applied to young persons.. pwmpl. Forby. stubble Manx bun.pummel. bumtel. strapping. forms.' he fell with a bang. . Gael. To bam. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bongie. bunt. Hal. a heap Wall. foundation w. bunki. pompon.^Cot. . Ir. Roding. so the form btmk. clumsy. nor would it concern the public if he did. bugnet. . boi7ieog. pwmpio. See Bounce. bans. a knob. to bang. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a heap. w. a dried hemp-stalk. E. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. &c. lungeous. bottom bun feoir. or to the mass by which it is given. Bumsen. Thus e. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. gibber. stump. a. from knock) It. Bony.). . See Boss. botn. Pl. to beat. to beat. pwmp. strike E. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a Sp. the tail of a hare. bunan. bun eich. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. a bag or sack. binge. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON.

coassatio et Du. buret. generally known as the material of which bud. So in Pol. Lat. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. boj. was formerly pronounced buro. Cot. to bear. banga. Bung. racket . klempern. to gingle. the middle part of it. whence bunting. So Du. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. Fr. bundle. G. something bound together (Mrs Baker). bondeau. The Magy. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. dicimus rufum. It. to push ghebondte. tap. to stop. tapp (whence tceppa. to resound. la Borgonota. N. the young cloth used for sifting flour. — . to knock. on. borboUar. to float.' Festus in Diez. bouchon. Cat. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself.Fris. knock. bang. Compare G. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bondel-loos. 202. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. Russ. ' — work . See Barbarous. bunsen. burion. fascis. banghagr. sprig. to in to stop the hole. borgonota. bag to catch the wind. OFr. bonde. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. boya. . to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . to stnmi on an instrument. unskilful working. to botch. bundt. boil or bubble up. to hum. bondelj bundell. loosed from bonds. guggle as water. To burgeon. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Burganet. Sp. — — To Bungle. russet. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. p. ghebundte. and Du. also a piinple in the face. to Somerset is to sift. Burden. racket. clogs. dial. To Bunt. bury. To bunt. . bote. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bondon. that the primitive meaning of shackle .— . boucher. noise. to work at carpentry bangan. dark. bangla. Hal. a boye. stocks or such OSw. AS. to hum. bonde. a cork. the float of an bundle. the stopper of a cask). Fr. G. Fr. punishments for prisoners. Palsgr. the loose open grow big about or gross. boei. fetters. bourion. a water bubble made by rain. a bungler. bond. are from bouscfie. anchor or of a net boyar. reddish brown. a drum . to knock. or putting forth of a vine. To do anything awk- wardly. burboloti. driving in the bung. modem bummle. to stop. knocking. ho-tapp. Fr. the noise of drums. halm-tapp. Burden. bourgeon. to cobble. bunta. to pype. Sp. byrthen. to push with the head del. do a thing bunglingly. however. Muratori.D. bourguignote. bommen. a wisp of hay or straw. Johansen. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. stiimpeln. A load. bondir. Bret. * Buoy. colligatio. to bud forth. B. The stopper for the hole in a boia. Kil. bou^e. on. an anchor buoy. stilmpern. bove. The belly or hollow of a sail. properly a Burgundian helmet. bangla. . buie. to bolt meal. bummle. a bunch. to shove. Sw. Sw. E. Rietz. and van t' vat. and the Sw. contignatio. dial. to gingle. to bungle. dark grey bura. . bang. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. shove . or used as a receptacle for papers. bongani. a sort of helmet. byndel. bundel. Burble. working in wood (especially with an axe). The word is flags are made. bounta. to push. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. The Italian buio. See Bun. See Bourdon. Sp. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. in is Fr. of a song. The Fr. a botch. — Bureau. bui. Sw. tinker . See Borel. or tuft. bouche. Bundle. bimge. OG. and now more Bailey. shackles. A Dan. bongun. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. Bunt. a bunch Burbulas. clumsy performance. AS. Bunting. from beran. to work ineffectually. a bung. bolting-cloth. . Banff. to hum. Burly. Sp. to strum on an instrument. to kick. would be the earliest float for an anchor. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. rumble as the bowels. Pl. OFr. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. gyves. Biu'geon. B. buret. is originally a wisp or bunch . — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe.punt. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bungande. bourjon. — btiruii. biirde. — — . especially in wood. buove. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Bunny. klimpem. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. and bomme. bon. Prov. whence in bure. A bubble. and E. bindini. Fl. knocking. tinkle. Du. Prov. the bung of a barrel Lim. with the head.

56. to burn. big. purling. tion of the root which gave the OE. grancelli.j'own. laer. Burryn. an &c. the flocks. A legal term from the Lat. bremmen. Fr. Lang. Fr. robber. to polish. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. de Vaud. broil. Gael. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew.). borujon. brusler being a faulty spelling. language of folly or ridicule. bourou. to hum. Bret. jest of. to make a So from Fin. brasa. which has given much trouble to etymologists. from the roaring sound of flame. from bryii. to swell with pride. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. a jest. brinii. a jest. buirleadh. ii6 BURGESS Gael. is termed burling. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. dial. to puff. pur (see Burgeon). repartee . as Diefenbach bud. tahkoa. to grind on a whetstone. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. tumentum. as the / in purl. swell up or strout out. brima. brunnen. Sw. tahko. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. . to roar (as lions. It. A burl. Burlesque. Probably. to bouronna.ireui£r:e. Sp. It. and the Burin. The in. to give an edge to. toast. — . brimmen. Prov. Burler.sharpen. 122. See Burr. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. abourioner. The Gael. de Vaud. fire. Cot. brook. like. Bav. to polish helmets. In the manu. a margin. brun. to effervesce. a fountain. brim or edge of anything. to roar.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. as of suggests. Lang. and Dan. joking. a gurgling ^. Probably a modifica. . Limousin bourdo. must be explained on the same principle from G. sbornoi. brausen. a bubble. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. a bud. burgensis. to have acquired the sense of polishing. to roar. pressa puret.bryna. is connected with brim. Hence Bridel. Burgher. knob. ridicule. — Han to bruser op. with Dan. compared with G.' Cot. Burgh. to rub. Bav. It is probable indeed that Fr. a knob. ends of thread.or bubbling up. sidiary element. with little iron nippers called burling irons. burgen.' a jibe. bears. explaining Sp. brase.. crackle wood in burning Hal. Swiss Rom. borracka. So also Sw. borni. bud or sprout forth. surge or dashing of the sea . water. to sharpen on a whetstone. an edge. the er is a dresser of cloth. a whetstone. to To Bum. From Fr. . brandung.). OFr. taunt. a prominent eye borracka. to roar 5. bururus. to bourda. in Schm. bourglairs. i5«r4 biiirte. boura. a purling hiwe brennen. explaining the E. to swell. to surge. a well. Dief. to burn. brinnen or Also ein roar. to sharpen. brunir. Nat. See Berough. burly. to ridicule. — — . protuberance. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Compare also Piedm. E. bunch. sicut sound. flocks. to tell lies. a bubble to spring as water. singe or scorch with fire. to roar. . OFr. watery. boiirre. burgi latro. Antiq. it of the knots. bruzir. warbling. OE. Fl. burgeois. to bud . sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. a blaze. ^ttsa. to burgen or wax big. and OG.). OE. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. &c. BURNISH i5«r/. sea. purrata. to murmur. burlare. Swiss Rom. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. bouril. — — . to ridicule. blow. brustolare. Goth. to swell oneself out as birds borras. and the Burnish. N. — — . he rustle. is an Thus G. bourd. like straw or small . to polish. briis^. occupying much space.Ps. condemnentur morti. Pr. spring-water bumach. roguing beggars. j. angular ..— . bururus. ' rugiens. like the wind in trees. a bladder. In the same way ON. a wine skin. brunna. leo Fin. Fl. to Gael. ends of thread. Burly. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. Bestiary. See under Bore. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. — . ^Notk. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. Pm. Todd. ample of polishing metal.. barrel. a spring a robber. has also borr. Schm. Walach. schleiffen. Pren7ien. burren. brunnr. Fr. Burgess. G.— Pr. to roar. thence. brustle. imitation of the sound of bubbling water.. borr. brinna. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. bruse. ON. G. a lie. the roaring surge of the — — — . A — — . embraser. Supp. Castrais bourril. become big and proud. as in cousteau.. borrelen. lerre. Burglar. fires up. brAler. See Burgeon. mockery. It. swelling borr-shuil. From the same root E. from Lat. to set on fire. born. Burn. lorra. brynsten. burn. The primary origin of the word. burle of cloth. the J in OFr. Sw. the word seems Pm. to puff up borr^ . Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. boure. to fiy. Bouffer. purra.

bourrelet. The root forms brik. casting bullets. to hide. Dan. bourlet. barza. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Burser. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. to burst. brist. brickie. borra. . shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. but it is more probably a development of It. 2. a harness or collar maker) . Shelter. g. brizeto. tomb. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. pipaa. to save. G. a pad. brisdeach. dial. Hal. brokil and brotil. the — — castle or fortress. byrgan. an exchange. Port. root borr. See Bulge. shuffling. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. Sexy. talk fast and indistinctly. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. Burial. i5(7&a. buscha. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. from Fr. to P'air. borre. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. of a body hurled through the air. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. brist. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. a place of defence. Burr. break . that birds make their nests with. borrow. a purse. whence Kil. save. — Translated by Kemble. signifying protrude. bristen. Hence Fr. &c. Du. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . to break.— . brittle. birr. caer is a — — — ' ' : . a barn or cupboard. It. impetus. and spelling. to buzz. burgisli. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. as from Sp.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. borsa. ON. . bolsa to It. brico. Fris. Swiss burren. byrstan. OHG. a purse. preserve. With a slightly different ghen. mentioned under Burgeon. a. the officer who bears the purse. swell. ptcrren. straw.. and met. beorgan. . ' BURR AS. byrgels. byrgen. bourse. Burse. preserve. to hide . perruque. Bursar. fortify. briso. Burr is related to buzz as protect. bourrer. See Burgeon. as in Northumberland. appears under the Lang. bris. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. explained E. purr. burial place. prsnuti. In a met. verbergen. Brun on bane. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. bersten. shales. coo. ON. Gael. OHG. -Grisons bulscha. to stuff. G. brest. makes the disbursements of the college. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. birgan. force. briketo. as it is still pronounced in N. Sw. — Clare. any kind of quilting or stuffing. burre. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. to mutter Sw. byrigels. 225. Compare also OE. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. brit. bris. iii.' The same word with burgh. Burrow. shearing of cloth. To Burst. In OE. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. bur. bristeach. a morsel. brjota. borsa. brast. borra. whirr. from AS. S w. This word seems safety. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. E. also all such stuff as hay. a rabbit burrow. A rabbit burmotion. cwning-gaer. ultimately resting on the Gael. moss. of England. brown. leather. hair. 5150. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. and thence flocks 'of wool. a sepulchre chreoburgium — .of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. Mid. burra. Burse. brittle. blurra. any rapid whirling biarga. stuffing. ber•whirr to whizz. idiom if 4. bourre. I. and. borre. skin.' Harris in Todd. AS. bourse. husks. It. peluca to Fr. Cot. &c. also ' any such trash as chaff. an annular swelling. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. be more in accordance with AS. bur. brista. a sepulchre. borsia. its own protection. whirr and burr. to bury . from whence we pass through Sp.Lat. briser. karborre. when they spring So in W. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. bolgia. Jam. keep. Du. beurs. a wallet or scrip. some people in pronouncing the letter r. AS. cover. chips or anything else Fl. britar. Fr. bres- — tan. -burse. Fr. To Bury. bergen. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. a port. ' ' — — burren. byrsa. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. berstan. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. Sw. dial. brisd. birigean. as for the protection of a child's head. Beowulf. shelter. foretell great storms at 3. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. Fr.' edge grew weak.

. bousIn the other copy ser. Sc. that the lend had lorn thorn.Lat. busk. bosta. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. abdere. borseof trees. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. hjul-bosse. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. or the like. the past participle of the same verb bua. a tuft. whente beorg. So from Fr. bua. bussel. a tuft guini. OFr. a troop. condere. —Busk. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bossen. rad. bush. basse. Layamon. cluster. to keep.' sheath. boxta. Harold G. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bosch (a diminutive ?). a -tavern bush. and not directly (as Du. bundle * Buskin.) to hide in the ground. box wood to bush. Sir Tristram. to bend one's steps. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. Ptg. Mid. a bundle. bramble. fiast. . as synonymous with to inake one boun. clusprobably Morocco leather. borcegui. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. il fut couch6 l^jkema). make ready. and from the Fr. a bunch. 'at bua sik. Thence byrigean. buskr. AS.P. a gun biichse. boisseau. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. occultare K. ieorh. roquies. . to bow. we have Fr. Sibriht that I of told. to stop. and he cites wisp bauschen.gur bidst austur um EySascog. busse.boisteau. oneself. tow. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. . buysschen. in the For Skirnis .' The buskin is said Bret. lump. protect . knot. buxta. to enclose in a case or box. a been written buasc. ' . brodiquin. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. and we actually find bushel. a box. sur une litifere. van wijnbesien. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. ' . ' —P. bousche. Bouchet. in OE. tuft. a wisp.— ' ii8 {chreo. to bury. or — Busk. boistel. Du. whence at bua sik. G. ch). foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. qualster-boscken. Thus Froister . See Box. boiste. It. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. dead. a clot of phlegm sart. besom). verb. a corpse). and thence Mid. wisp. to dress. to dress. bustellus. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Du. Brunne. induere vestes . In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. borghen. bairgan. brodequin tout noir. In to Brutaine. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bausen. whence bouchon. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. ' . a grove bosch van haer. to prepare. a hump. apparently a secondary verb. The primary sense of hair . The word frequency with which to busk is used. aheap of stones. thicket {buski. hunch Du. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. the idea of knocking. Le roy Richard mort. Bush. as boun is simply buinn. Malberg. bussare. -idis.fiasc. biichse. preserve. bulge. bousse. signifying to entomb. OFr. To Busk. To prepare.-^Bushel. busken. bosc. to forest of Eyda. beorgan. . diminutives. Du. bundle. .' The word is explained by — — . bo7ich (Fr. to swell. truasc. a box for measuring corn. to sepulchre. a little box Dan. They busked and malced them boun. See Bust. a tuft. AS. bush. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. bunch. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. to direct one's course towards. Bush. Fr. And her ful sone tuft. a bush. at buast. berghen. to turn. boucher. bos. burial mound. at bua sig. bulk. thicket of thorns . It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. buxida. is thus accounted for. gave Lat. brake. The bone in a woman's stays. iriCtf -ifoe. Gr. 2. bustula. barsc in Heimskringla. a rampart. boissa. Fris. a bunch of twigs. a tuft of hair. the land. BUSH hreaw. ' .' a box. then a tuft Sp. Sw. buxula. from the ON. for at buasc. R. a box. bussellus. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. a bush. It. mount. : — . projection. basse. bouche. defence. barst. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . which would later have truast. bossida.Lat. Brunne. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Prov. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. 410. grapes. the Moors and of Morocco. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp.

Cat. fe^a. So in Fin. busch. cata — . occupied bezigen. I go strepo) . a ship of some size. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. sunt quas Hispania aves . abutarda. busto. but. Comp. 2. bus. buta. a kiss of reverence. a sleeveless truss or doublet. busche. The proceedings of Parliament. Lang. bucha. ON. Busitiess :c3iVi . bruskras well as buskr. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. in Diaz Gris. 22. ^A. windbutsch. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. brusc. plated body or other quilted thing. a stroke of wind. bisegung. Lat. tarda. also a flagon. I. A wisp. smack.d. made stiff. outarde. an ostrich. Rouchi. to make a splash in the water. avuDiez. mouth. bacio. and by transposition morchequi. busta. the trunk.> Also written buskle. body. Fr. kupata. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. To Bustle. baiser. beezig. ' BUSY 2. especially of a woman's dress. a busk. outard. as in ON. a blow. ON. a bush. or avutarda. to bustle. — clattering about. representing a blow. an affair. a bust. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk.' ON. kiss. lump. 7o\. ship Sp. to knock . lips. tuft. Du. otarda. pussa. butz.' Plin. abotarda. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. — — — — It is like the smouldering. statue of the upper part of Fr. bulk. bussen. would explain the G. stump. a bunch of flowers . business. Bust. bus. and also a sounding blow. a Mid. a kiss. bnist. Bulch. a. — Thus we should have mocherqui.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. hipista. beso. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. The form brust. . speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. BUSS Dozy from Arab. kiss. Prov. mons.bezig. chest. worn to make the body straight . basiuin. putschen. Sw. buc. from jnund. trunk of Cot. besoigAe. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. To hurry or make a great B. Sp. Fr. trunk. busch. lip. inde discurro et operosus sum. 1555. Sp. brostia as well as bostia. So Wes- terwald munds. a backstock. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a large cljest or particular applibox. bisg. bussa. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. .pjik. B. thick end. or chest in which the vitals are contained. bist. Buss. Gael. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. body without arms and legs. the point of a lance. crack . then trunk of respect to busk we have on. bus and Pol. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. a log. a great billet Cot. Cot. body of a woman's dress It. Box. mogangas from gonj. love gestures. also a It. — hardly be distinct from Fr. geidha. the breast. box. the long. and then with avis again prefixed.Lat. Hence probably au-tarda. Business. Xerqui. body. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. Fris. Bav. buyse. On the other hand. Pol. also a busk. Bust. a bulk or trunk without a head. Bustard. knock. a fishing vessel. Nained from Proximse iis zia. lip. body . utarda. a tree. Lindenbr. bisgung. bust. trunk of a tree. I bustle. austarda. stem. AS. body of garment. small. bust. betarda. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. trunk. Walach. Sp. Edrtst. Busy. vessel employed in the herring fishery. forms morseqiiill. forest. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. knock. a kiss. mouth. Swiss butschen. arbor ramis trunGloss. biist. to make use of. log . bu. With respect to bust. Hal. Port. its slowness of flight. says. buc. buc. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. A A busquer (Sigart). bustla. putta. a projection. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . to Swab. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). stir.). biseg. bysgian.— . 2l box. Fr. work. Fl. — — difications of the same word. stump. — . Busk. 119 bi{tr. ' bistardej It. busy. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. and supposes that the common Arab. A great sluggish fowl. borcegui. besongne. of a doublet. busq. the body without arms busque. as in moharra from harbe. sera. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. I. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. Fr. buz.D. ViM. morsequi. or Cherqui. Prov. 1372. employment bisgan. of the human body (Grandg. bukr. a kiss. a mouth. to occupy. mohedairova. signifying trunk of a the body. ottarda. a boat or small vessel . brut. bysgje. buquer. body of a man. mosequin. snout. Namur — Champagne Fr. See Boss. btcc. 10. busc. occupation. a blow. The Prov. Prov.

slaughter-house. young mais. It. botte. moreover. belly. bolgia. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. and bot. a leathern bag. botilla.streets. the store of ten. beta. Butt. boquier.The Sp. able. (children) boc. body of a shirt w. Fr. bouteillier. but one thing. bounds of. bocin. a cask. being wholly unten. Butler. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. the body of an animal. Buttery. OFr. If that where now we should compiler. — . Here the but implies the existence of an. those in beccaio. which the word corresponds to the Fr.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. ox.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. Du. Sp. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bag. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . bitlga. without law. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. viz. we find ben. Lang. earthen which the debtor has adverted. the present day we should say. . butan ce. Fr.' Thus Chaucer says. from boc. Lang. bous. But In Sc.' — — ' . the body of a tree or of a man. bout. outside that moreover. bouz. a bottle. mais. trunk. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. rumpf. without buiten-man. beccaro. Butcher. without care. beccaria. beyond the Piedm. Where at an earthen jar .' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. are.in which his brethren are included. and the real origin of the and within . AS. skin-bag. calf. to-boot. the principal apartment. bole of a tree. Ben-house. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Tooke's dis. But when will you pay it ? the belly. the Perhaps besogne — . from as. belly. my is called the adversative use of but. a goat (and not besides . of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. large barrel. bodifie. without. calf of the ' say. boccino. or what in in charge of the pantry. without the house kept in bottles. But It. . Prov. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen.' there is really a negation to be supplied. the full expres. G. equivalent of AS. So in Italian from becco. and it is essentially the same word with Lat.' ' write. except. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. bountifully. as Pantler.jamin. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . "PLT) .' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. that which would be translated by Fr. ont jhi^ton. botija. without punishment . a small winebag. bitten dai. original sense of without. a goat. bhcciero. bochier. then hoUow trunk. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. hollow case. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. the belly. the name must have arisen before the within. by the mode in which he is treated. a butcher. biitait slaughterer of goats . ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. Sp. in addition. The E. Sp. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. the trunk or body of an animal. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. ' There is leathern bottle. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. the mouth). similar train of thought is seen in ON. the servant in charge of the original object. of the wine and drink. rotundity of the body. bol. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. add. wooden receptthing to be done. collection of casks. Wall. is well explained by Tooke. butan. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bolr. a butcher . a wooden cask._ bitten j biiten door. a barrel. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. barriga. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. belly. the jug and in E. properly a butan wite. bisgung. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. also a hollow vessel . ' 1 am that I may have but a but . The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. binnan. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. bute. a baiTel . viz. bola. Fr. the precise correlative of but. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. ways. an outlaw from bouche. is put in a class by himself. tinction between but. As a conjunction but is in every portion. boteria. besides that . gives at least two pounds sterling. the bottles. A A . sup- meat and drink. — we acle for liquors. buta. a butchery. be out. boucher. a budget. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. and with It. ' Besides all that. hull of a ship.

at. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. oir spike with a k coup . to boult flour. a. boutoir. a scope. bout. rabodd. w. boter-schijte. buttock of beef is called butr. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a blow. courtaud. pwt. are the strips at the edges of the field. e. buttern. or person Schmeller . so as to make a sounding blow. ment being supposed to resemble butter. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. bouton. Fr.rejected thing. Perhaps corrupted Lat. Fr. Bout van het schouderIt. to cast. &c. a large belly. bouter. Button. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Du. on. nourrissons.. a buttress Cot. a.— BUTT leg . : . from bouter. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. the thick end. to strike. clumsy . but this is probably from Fr. to femur. to push earth . The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. a stroke di animal. botte. a corner horses' hoofs. boutis. of the present day. a tub. Schmell. from rejeter. strike. butt. as rejeton. the trunk. Buttery. Fr. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . * Buxom. boil. fowl. Grandg. to bow. Mur-buttant. pwtiaw. trapu. waste ground. G. Gael. bouter. a boss. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Bav. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Btetter-schmalz. a button. the thigh of a goose. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. or or shore post. as if from Povg. caput scapula bout van f been. buhsom. To come full butt against a butts. -ez. Buttrice. thrust forwards. a mound. but.to push. a wall butor butt on. Kil. short thick thing pimple. lams-bout. Kil. striking end. as in G. bata. a bolt. submit shaking up salad sauce. to throw . humble. Du. povrvpov. a ribbed glass for dient. Fr. Fr. To strike with the head bags. bott. fle>(ible. Fr. an ox. butz. bottich. to thrust Fr. bothog. bottig. the prick in the middle of a target. The Bavarian potig. From Du. . thick. — . Kil. botten. buttare. to thrust. bot blijven staan. pied. a buttrice. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. to butt. buttals. to be con. the edge forwards.arbre. botta. Hal. Buttel-triib. obedient. Du. a thrust the thigh-bone. then the thigh or leg of an to push . boiUer. a dle . a bun. the store of while bottich. — . a button. the Butter-fly. stump of a tree Fr. geboogsaem. . the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. bodi'. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. bouton. boter-vliege. Du.. From Grisons biitt. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. A — — — . to thrust. having a rotundity . butter un. in the R. Buttress.thum and not button. Gris. a blow.putan. tress. the rosebud. boter-vogel. and the true derivation boar. dripping. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. boteria. — — — — . i. Schmell. Halma. . coxa. butteln. a heap of merly called pushes. from stossen. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Cot. stump. Butter. end . a cask. butte. Butter-glass. of E. by boE. a boss. boding. Fris. — A . a little push . large head.' thick from shaking. able that Chaucer. It. is formed the augmentative buttatich. bodi. W. a flying buttress. bout. obeto shake backwards and forwards. The word body itself seems identical with G. See Butler. gigot. Sp. &c. any short thick thing. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. butt. Boutant. from the large knobbed head of botto. to thrust . what is kept in a blow. butt of a person. thrust. suddenly . To Butt. Hal. Buttock. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . from bugan. bocsam. aim whence to make a support to a wall. botta. to abut a stone roof. AS. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. butyrum. hillock . buter. a barrel. to abut on. Bav. R. a hill. a stump or club foot. from notirrir. So in English pimples were fora clod. butter. botwm. a leg of mutton. W. to so close to the Fr. potacha. butt. An erection built up as a Fr. From the noise of drinkables in a house. botto. Fr. a bot. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . to touch at the end. — A . an etwas anstossen. Lang. a but in the W. poke. give way. bot. bud.against another which needs support . nursling. grease that sets by merely standing. Boutje. Gr. to blad. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. bot. a button. nourrisson. leg of lamb. to heap up earth or ihrust. tout seat or breech. to thrust. signify a cask or tub. bocgsuin. put. Du. butte. any small projection. both. clunis. butter.

before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Byre. frabttg- To Buzz. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. ii. To Buy. bylag. Goth. as in Da. AS. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. leges urbanse ON. A A We — — — days' wonder. from by. Verstegan in R. indistinctly. favourably to a petition. Then applied to speaking low. a borough. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. 200. and it is of good will. to buzz.— Diet. buteoj Fr. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m.. bi. bozzago. bees. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer.P. Lat. good-humoured one. P. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . The sense of buxom. to jan. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. A ful benygne buirde. Originally the law of a particular town. buzzicare. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. buzac. village. bauhta. and boxome of speche xviii. Sw. bohte. 21. byr. — 122 BUY P. a buzzard or puttock. son. a by-path is a side path . CABAL Goth. from whom it was addressed. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. to whisper. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. Many good mological explanation.in N. buso. town having separate jurisdiction. tions by one. blessing me with their of side. cow-house. iii. See Abie. The ON. gracious. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. bugjan. stall. Sw. It. Cabal. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. \s\xy. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. bygge. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. bi. a town. OE. & Q. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. . Too used a Foxes Martyrs. as Fr. a beetle. and would have been lost in E. ON. Du. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. to swear with him by . who makes abigg. bylove. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. to purchase for money. byar-log. Etynj. favourable. big. p. Pecock Repressor. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law.. as heedless as a cock-chafer. buzarg.busardj Prov. G. byar-rettr. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. bar. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. —gracious of speech. called Cabala or Tradition. Mercy hight that mayde. lete. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. By-law. to pass by. 116. to sell. Dan. jus municipii. bij. bei. A by. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. 3. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. to wit. train of thought which has become obso. groat in token of his good heart towards him. abozzago. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. also say. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Buzzard. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. to stand at his side . farm. 519. . harty prayers and God speedes. It. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. bycgan. . depends upon a esteem in falconry. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. confusedly. AS. lb. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. a meke thynge with — alle.— P.

signifies down. a rope. maim. Celtic. whence Lang. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. chaable. or rush basket. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune.). cadabulum. precisely in the sense of the lari E. cadabola. Fr. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. &c. : — from violence without blood. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. dung. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cable . It. form kactal. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . and Ptg. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. for the origin of which see Carabine. — . hovel. it would seem fundain children's language. to put or pack up in a frail. disgust. string. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. The name of the engine. lactuca capitata. OFr. Du. E. disgust cac. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. cacare . Gaggle. as Diez supposes). Mid. cabulus. dirty. From It. heady. a booth or hut. as Turk. gaban. . ! — . Sw. a car- We convasare. the Slavonian. OFr. to strain in such a manner . kabaSsen. headed or cabbage lettuce. cabaii. cab lis. cables. caboche. agge machen (in nurses' language). main. laitue cabusse. cab. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. kabas.Lat. to hurl down. head. — Tarbe. a cloak of felt or Cack. caable (in legal language). a rope. as it must have stood in French. covering. Etym. Tugurium. kakaloH. cadabulum. a headed cole or cabbage .. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Choux cabus. Cabbage. cacare. and as we find stones Mid. gabardme. a cabbage . Fr. . Cot. in which sense are explained The the OFr. — the ON. Due. serious injury — In like manner It. overwhelm. a covering. cabbage. aeggi. havyar to caviare. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. accablcr. overwhelm (Diet. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a shed. signifying properly a rope's end. to chatter. Lang. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. the Prov. ceach / exclamation of guages. — . Fr. manticuKil. Mid. Brushwood — — B. case. to keep or Du. a tunic.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. a jacket Fr. bad. caable. Ptg. originally an Gael. is probably unconnected. Cabin. Du. To steal or pocket. Sp. a rope. nasty. hoard together. The Sp. cdble. dirty. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. cabarino. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. and Finnish lanLat. agga. caqueter. has kabbel. cabre. Lat. and the Arab. Cappa in OSp. kabat. origin is the OFr. To Cabbage.. or cadable. Didot. Common to Lat. akista. deponat a store closet. vincially used in E. cabuccio. Capstan. name of the projectile engine. Neckam — by the wind. stercus. to crush. . as an expression of Gr. or as an interjection of disMod. It. the bowels. chaable. disgusting such an engine was exerted. . 'habl. cadabula. kabane. Imitative of the cry of hens. Castr. traboccare.' Due. E. . cabuyskoole. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Du. ckaable. dirt and the Fr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. &c. gaggi. cabre. vile. Fr. . surripere.. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. Cot. cabas. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. to hurl in Nat. come the Fr. It. Sp. filth. and Or. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . a rope or cable.Lat. prostratio ad terram. —Diet. from trabocco. agge. cabasser. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. cabane. gatsch. properly windfalls. capanna. capuccio. aakkat'a. — Kil. Cablisb.Lat. an engine for casting stones. band. calabre. OSp. Due. wilful). whence Fr. cabacho. cabo. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. round or great headed. capo. a frail. hut. chadabula. giiare. w. kakla. cabus. Katr-iT-aKt. Cabinet. aak! tandi like Fr. Kil. Item habeat vocant. The double a in the OFr. Fr. especially shepherd's frock. — Ibid. caable. OFr.Gr. geese. from manganum. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. cadabalum. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . chabla. Lith. Antiq. Mid. a head (whence cabochard. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. brassica — capitata. Finn. cabo. (ca/coe. for discharging mentally to signify shelter.ticula. manganare. mdhaigner. gaggele.. It. forms indi. su/Furari. would correspond to cable. Very generally used. headed. caables.

kola. hot. whence calash. cadence. B. wanton. a vessel for heating water. kolo. is probably delusive. Sp. when they are said to poor. a calesh. From lerie. pet lamb. Pol. cabdillo. cavea. Cage. a fever. Russ. frolicsome kaad mund. Calamity.— . Lat. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Gascon capdet. Fr. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. without loss. Sw. incolumis. or colpa na coise. a counter used in casting accounts. Serv. Calc-. * Cade. to gabble. kdtr. to . a car. Du. from calendcE. Du. Calash. cadere. Sw. a calash . Cake. Roman reckoning. a cylinder. to treat like lime. to compute. gabberen is identical with E. caioler. to — Fr. Cot. Sp. It. Originally from a Slavonic source. boy. the younger son of a family said to be from . ON. Lat. a caFr. a dence. caldarius. a hollow place. calamitas. * Calibre. It. A . The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. cattivo (from Lat. capitetum. capCalenture. dead body. . —Atkinson. calx. principal and interest. a wheel . kukje. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. G. gabble. Lat. just falling. of the nature of lime to calcine. Fr. The young G. Cadge*. a cake or loaf. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. of which. Du. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. cykevie. cage. calidus. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Cot. &c. an ugly waggon kolaska.uv. kaad. En kaka br'od. pen Mod. or prattle. Turk. kauwe. chetif. Arab. javioler. chattering. Fr. Dan. chaudiere. kolasa. especially of something soft. Lat. To Cajole. cageoler. kail. gabbia. Lat. a waggon . to throw themselves into the sea. on. wretched. or smooth Hnen cloth. Cadaverous. Calcialate. As Du. little chief. kalfi. kakulla. for green fields. gavia. ever and anon. safe. chaudron. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. . a wheel . marrow. Cauldron. loss. naXaiidpi. calpa. calcis. calesa. — — — Dan. so gabble corresponds with Fr. frisky. of oxen and similar animals. kaka. captive. Calamary. a wheel . It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Dan. the bore of a cannon. gabbia. Caitiff. A cuttle-fish.Gr.— Calliper. cuttle-fish. cadenza. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Cadence. Fr. Cadet. taking it Sp. the pith or soft part of wood. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. a tea-chest. cauldron. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. calculo. the lump and the increase. kaeckelenj Gr. In the same way Fin. An open travelling chariot. Calf of the Leg. a roller. calba. Lat. Mrs B. babbhng. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. kalb. disease of sailors from tivus). to cage. Lat. kdfich. Fr. ratas. calf of leg. G. a low note. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. ' . master. See Kiddier. kolo. It. unruly .warmth . A — fall. kolyasochka. Caddy. from calculus. form) calderone. Fr. kolesnitza. one unduly indulged by. Turk. Flo. roller. calendrer. its mother. calibre. Tea-caddy. Caldron. a lump or large piece. calentura. A hooded carriage. . It. hot . . from Gr. ben- kalf. N. whence Lat. KxiKivh^o^. coop. joyous . the calf of the leg. to cackle . calentar. a wretch. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. and troublesomely attached to. kalem. — in a kiln. Lat. prate. pi. cage. Calocli. a mischievous dial. cha'cmie cadence. Lat. caliche. kolyaska. jabber. a falling. loss. rattaat (wheels). calendarium. desire of land. from the Chinese catty. 124 prattle . kat. The Lat. calidus. It. a corpse. Calp is riadh. colibro. calessa. cadaver. misfortune. a loaf of bread. to sleek hence a den. Calendar. pith. an inkstand . Cot. It is another form of the E.— Cot. reed-pen. to prate much to little purpose. The Calf. kolo. calamus. Sw. Fr. kage. Perhaps from w. Due. gaggle. KaKKat. Sp. bad . cadet. lord. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. . Fr. to heat. Lat. lindrus. Du. a reed. hence musical rhythm. Gael. kuchen. signifies a waggon. from the ink-bag which it contains. a small stone. lime whence calcareous. a wheel. a circle. the pi. cake. koeck. calibre. Calandre. coll. caldaria. Cajol. Lat. To Calender. kolesb. kalfvan hout. collop. dial. gaggia. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. (in the augm. It. a common cart. limestone.

coulevrine. to call. a successor. scold. tapulta.' But it is hard Du. the day. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. prattle. Sir John Smith in Grose. Caliph. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Derived by some from Arab. It. licht stuk The change from a. push violently. — — — — — . not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Gr.en~ kinds of firearms. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. B. — — — — — . Probably from the sound of one hallooing. from Calicut in the E. koluvre. Gael. Hard. depreciatory term for a woman. to say. overheated. a soldier who the It. calcaich.' Winter's Tale. CALM to press or stuff. to tread. overscalmaccio.position is much less common than the geschut. form in the kalib. drive. hollaing. Kil. glotton. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. done with heat Alt. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. piece of bigger circuite. calca. having a thick skin. moso. to be of a good or bad quality. and heat. the Fr. harquebus or handgun. them &c. abto suppose that E.piicede Lat. a feathers. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. quiet. Fin. calibre. kind heat of the sun. calc. klover.from Ka'tm. So It. Fr. To Calk. kil-u-kal. 125 Prov. Lat. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . Du. to callet. Callow. or caliever.' Whitby Gl. Call. whence couleuv. culverin. the heat of Now these Du. faint. coluber. calicot. ' pert. Calm. given. The origin is Gr. to call. Sp. dragonder. To drive tow or oakham. calibre. colubrina. Fr. calma. calme. brawny. of the bore of a firearm met. coluber also. bombarda Cauma incendium. Indies. or languishing drought is . skin hardened by labour.(jaa= ice). sclopus. Fr. femme frivole et babillarde. According to Jal (Gl. an adder. Unfledged.meaning of the word. * Caliver. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. u to an I in such a colubrum. Dief. a last. whereas in troth it is not. calcare. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. hallottaa. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Lang. chatter. people's remarks. cotton cloth. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. tittle-tattle. by many that the weapon Callous. Fin. on. serpentina. Heb. saucy. The word was also written cawme in OE. * Callet. chatter kallen. The reference to heat is preserved in. and dragon. calk. Fr. the hard surface of the ground. or mould. Ibid. Among these were the turn. calat of leude demeaning. Ca. . ' rine. moist. water-tight. the latter of chamber.' Slange. cahna. to cram. 'A callet of boundless tongue. kal. couleuvre. ululo Turk. quality. calleting. calclover. the Fr. nautique). which is as much as to say. calvus. calgua. Due. KaXka. kalla. Antiq. calare. a good calling. to abuse . chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). kal. form. and sometimes a handgun. To call. sence of wind. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Sp. to proclaim. khalif.' Chaucer. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. calo. of a column. Lat. i. to calk.— . to rail or scold . harden by pressure. faint. Mid. Bi. to burn. Diet. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. word of mouth . kael. diameter of a ball. and E. Turk. a round of abuse. which has its memory preserved in Du. AS. vulgo Coluvrine. to prattle. Kavfia. callus. bald. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. scalmato. dial.. cauque. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. E. — Fl. sestus. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . but is only a jda-kallo. colubraria canna. calma. Mil. kallo. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. serpens. caluw. Kil. however. to hear. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. kol. fistula. Ptg.Lat. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. caillette. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. the scalp or skull. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. voice. longior. To century was Squalibre. a. ram. callum. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. hot. donderbuchs Sp. Sup. gossiping. alta voce ploro. sound. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Diez. try. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). caliver. a drab. calor. trull. quA librd. . cauma. NE. heat. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. dragoon. Mahn derives it from Lat. to affirm. kahcwe. heat. oldire from audire. Calico. whehce it was first brought. Sc. can be distinct from ODu. qAlab.

camp. KafitjUe. Fr. Sp. a may have acquired that signification from plain. chandelle. water chamlet . to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. crooked. had no r in de bric— Cot. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. the calix. campus. is Candle. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. The Grisons cauina. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. or Caribs. aspirant. to warp. and yspiuv. catmneo. a field Greek monk. Cann. Cancer. when its substance appears inter. sugar.—Candidate. properly good country. Canine. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. bis. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. to avoid enemy in their shirts. An eater of human flesh. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Candy. mg Canister. the salmondis faillis thair loup. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. crook. would plenier. Lat. E. B. Arab.' ' Quhen a lattice. Calyx. good. campagne. Calver of cane. chommer. is Cambering.conduit-pipe. whence Fr. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. w. crooked. candela. camafeo. Cambrel. Calumny. Canibal. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals.—Jam. canistrum. white. crooked-stick. .— Chandelier. camelus. It.—Cambrel. to bend. toile some of whom._ kamm. It was distinfrom work. a. fresh. camisade. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Fr. camiscia. Cameo. Or the word Lat. unwater chamelot . camiscieia. campren. aged. cancer. Lat. a' Sc. brought from Fr. the space of false imputation. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Bret. Sanson khanda. to the force of the wind. se cameloter. Pers. the type of a hollow pipe. a goblet bud. cambrer. also an eatmg sore. cainahelus. cup. paign. or hollow of a flower. samon. Palsgr. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. a caught.who their language. campagna. fair. arch.. hooked. from candere. to break. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens.Lat. Caloyer. a crab. to jut. clothed in white. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Fr. crooked. salmon. kanna. Lat. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. arched. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Camp. whence the noun signifying an applicant. ko/utuXoc. It. Sp. at the ends. Fr. icaSoytipoe. camahutus. From fluting or furrow in a column . Fr. monk. Fr. a basket. to glow. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. It. from xaXbg. Sp. spot for cattle. calj'x.Gr.— B. Ptg. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Camlet. chaitcre. slander. candidus. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. canalis. cAouma. Fr. — Cancel. champ. Cambrav—Cam. cup. — Lat. champagne. the spersed with white flakes like curd. a piece. campaign. the bed of a stream. Canal Channel. Fr. a dog. Properly calver in the field during a war. Candid. It. Mod. on. Cambray. open and level ground. cambre. canna. camaien. callar. It. whence the Fr. to bow. different sections of the like the Chinese. an eating. It. campagna. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. cancello.— Hackluyt in R. — B. A — the Cannibals. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. KafivTu. the heat. chamold man. sore. cam^e. cambren. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. Gr. camelot. Lat. died in 1526. Cot. Cambric. cambr^. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Lat. canis. India Islands. a large drinking . . frank and sincandidatus. Camisade. to bend.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. a. Kakoycpos. E.' Forme of Cury in Way. Lat. lattice. ckaouma. E. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. callour. camber-nosed. campo. Lat. cere : Lat. Mid. Campaign. See Canker. From campus was formed Lat. Turk. lie level. arched. Camel. Gr. B. across — Bellenden in Jam. co7nbar. camisa. Peter Martyr. lame. calutmiia. having an aquiline nose. In a different application It. nia. campo. Canker. higher in the middle than Fr. ation. field . a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes.

It. Prov. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas.. signifying cover. It. Cant. quarter. has kahn. from cant. kantr. chape. coat. a cane. a straight rod. to sing. canonici. KCLvva. cane. from . a ruler. Mod. canoa. . as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. But it may be different source. Lat. Canoe. kandt-broodts. border Dan. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. N. Schwab. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Diez. hemp. kwvwxIi. say. canapaccia. a tube. regular. a cover Turk. Capable. kand. hemp. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. Sp. Goldast — in in Schmid. kaput. It. the quartile. a — A — Cannel Coal. Picard. a cantle of bread. a torch. hamlet. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. and the sex- &c. cannone. Probably only the augmentative of canto. the heel. canto.Gr. &c. as. cannabis. It. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. cover . kapamak.n. cane. is found languages of very different stocks. cover kapi. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. . cope. Swab. can. chanteau. from a Canter. Coal burning with bright flame. schlapp. capello Italis. to put upon sacred writers. properly a large Prov. Gael. Fr. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Capari. Sp. that the G. quarter . Kil. the part easiest broken off. KaTTiram. caparazon. a cloak. OFr. From Gr. territorial hundred. the heel. language. and met. a side. quito curtain. a division of a country.CANNEL vessel. a drinking glass. a corner. clqse. W. Alamannis. Mod. B. To canvas — . Sp. like a torch or candle. The meserseum and the mesentericum. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. from Dan. covered. chantel. the tried list of saints. to con- rummer. leiwan kanta. The word seems to be taken from Gael. capax. name. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. tain. . applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. border. From Lat. corner. canteau. cane. . or cantell of bread. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a scull- — here. speech. a door . It. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. cappe. a reed. Kavt\. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cheese. cappe. To his judicial And trowl the tile. contain. astrology. canvas. a cap. root cap. capace. cane. cantle then is a corner of a thing. cappa. a Fr.— Cot. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. a hunch of bread.Gr. was formed Kavtiiv. cape. a rule or standard of excellence. See Capt-. Canon. which is not the case. capevole. Jonson. it would have been found in the continental languages. and tref. Cot. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. canon. If the word had been from cantherius. Cannoii. cannu. Wtb. being a yard or thereabouts . a reed. kanta. kyndel. coarse hemp. a cloak kapali. cannevaccia. See Chape. Palsgr. Fr. Gugel. lump. A . Capacious. part. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. It. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Cantle. cantina. trine. cannevo. kynnel. ON. Hence Lat. a hundred. or hold. to contain. able to receive. call. A piece of anything. kq. side. Cope. edge. cainnt. Germanis kdppen.^on. haitt. margo panis diffracta. pipe. Canopy. hood. hirnschlapple. canevas. canapa. Canvas. rumme. from canna. measure for cloth. a pipe. schlappen. Fr. canonicus. and hence a gobbet. a wine-cellar or vault. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Again we have Lat. Canteen. carcase . capa. a boat. A slow gallop. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. a ship canot. canton. also a measure. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. gnat. cantref. a small boat. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Of vena cava and of vena porta. cantred. shut. Cape. Canton. region. as a cantle of bread. It. a gelding. cantone. Du. he discourseth of dissection. &c. Fin. to shut. Esthon. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. To Canonise. The — . a horn of the moon .

shrub. of a tremtdoiis sound. belonging to From caput.' Cot. or other things. arricciarsi. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. shivering.' — (Supp. It. a ch illness. to shiver. brisciare. alcaparra. kid. shivering. a caterpillar. curl. riccio. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. grisser. to shudder. cut. Griller d'im' patience. bristling. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. capriola. rissoler. is either wholly lost. a goat. or. Sp. capriole. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. h^risser. ribrezzo. or represented by the syllable e. greziller. curly. hi. It. brezilia. eruca compared with It. Fl. and 7tucc. Fr. or Lat. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Lang. heath. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. Capital. wriggle. II bresole (Gl. also the capriole. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. grisser. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Caprice. knis. as Fr. capar. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. end. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. a capriol. grillcr. ticchio. The same imitation of Capon. frissoner. Capillary. Caper. to . upon terms Sp. to shiver for cold. to broil. the hair to stand on end. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. to fry. as in Lat. brisoler. to broil. explained by Diez from capra. where Burton adds in a note.Gr. Lat. So from Sw. algabr. a head. and with an initial gr instead of br. as Fr. the head. with joy' Vikram. And similarly to yearn. curling. Lat. as Fr. Arab. rihrczzoso. arricciarsi. to crackle. a caper in dancing. then to be in a state of vibration. greziller. It. fansuddenly angry. bristling. Acad. It. the principal part of the debt. caj)o.standing on end. castrated. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . they longed extremely to see it. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end.'— Trev. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. Fr. gricciare. and his body bristled We to castrate. frizzle. to desire earnestly. caper j caprio. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . toy. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. Capers. Genevese bresoler. prickly husk of chestnut. knis-hujwud . erica. A headland. roughening of the skin. Fr. Cot. grug. a yearning through sudden fear. bruco. of a fowl. horripilation. the singing'bone). <I>pi'?oe. frisson- ner . the hair to stand on end. frisser {frissement d'un trait.). s'hdrisser. It. brug. of a coach. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn.— 128 CAPE a rustling. a . abridge amKoTroq. castrated cock. gricciare. Hair-like. humorous. aggricciare. a hedge-hog. Torriano. sault. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. airoKOTrrw. a separate division of a matter. or goat's leap (done by a horse). to ruffle the surface of water. ^piKos. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. A . horror. the initial mute of forms like Gr. brissle. a chevret. cover of a saddle. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. capparis. I have shivered with love. crackling sound Cape. caprice It. for which he cites the Comask nucia. capriol or caper in dancing. Fr. caprice. Hence capitalis the sum lent. a little head. It. capitalis. brisciare. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. gives rise to brezza. to parch. p. hair. a young kid met. brisciare.— Fl. capitulare. capillus. then to shiver or shudder.impressions on the ear. principal. the head. compared with Bret. cappriccio. CAPRICE twittering. gives rise to Sc. cApre. It. chattering of the teeth. cut off. then find the symptoms of shivering. Hal. — — A a hair. herissonnement. a kid. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. capro. to twitter as birds. to from capitulum. Lat.) grezille marid. . Unexpected pleasure. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. as the means of earning profit. chief. according to the Hindoos. It is probable that Gr. birsle. 75. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. a buck. and OHG. To treat Capitulate. G^' Many words — ' ndv. ziki. hedge-hog. w. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. It. See Chief.) d'etre The It. — to yearne. frort^Lat. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. Mod. Lat. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . ericius. The true derivation lies in a different direction. to crackle. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul.

&c. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). a creaking waggon. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. to this is It. Fr. a head man. cabestan. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. charger. Sp. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. a sudden will. Thus the musket. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. di cappa. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. from head. Lat. to take baclc. charrier. and tropically. caricare. latterly. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. Passing on into E. calabrino. It. receptus. Sp. . It. a capuchin. calabrin. capitis. whence capture. crab s. to load . captive. capra. It. chirriar. Lat. precept. -ceive. Lat. It. sels.. Fr. chirrion. caThe hrestante. was converted into -ceb. seize. box. Carry. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Du. captus. to take. conceit. fantastic. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Kiittner. concipere. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. at least. tnoschetta. karista. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. captivate. -cept. cabrestante (whence e. karra. chevre. Fin. to accept. was a kind of horse soldier. capsula. -cept. case. a hooded friar. shivering fit (Altieri). Cot. Derivatives are Fr. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Cart. de- price. deceit. bock. a windlass. oisr. and has thus descended unaltered to English. fancy. Capt-. an engine for throwing stones. and of captus to an e. Fl. a sawing-block or trestles. contain. Captain. charret. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Du. Fr. Cot. In cases. to take to. Lat. It is a standing crab. caprice. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Fr. conceive. deception. the -cevofthe Fr. Castr. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. however. Neumann. to carry . &c. desire. as in accipio. cabra. recepte. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. verbs gives rise to the element . carretta. where it forms a very large class of compounds. strideo. Carbine. concevoir. cams. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. one odd.). It.or -cib-. &c. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. capio. Crab. intercept. or the (capo-riccio). karrende waegen. to receive receptio. capitano. dim. recibir.of these compound verbs. Capsule. was originally a missile . karren. also to carry on a car . except. accept. to please. to creak. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. OSp. Carabine. perceive. a cart. hold. cabreia. cabestrantej Fr.). In the S. krul. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. decepte. char. Carabin. carro. i The meaning Car. a sudden fear apprehended. See Caper. recevoir. It. capuccio. capp%tccio. a coffer. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a kind of torture. commander. — —Diet. a taking back. carabin. Fr. a reception. a she-goat. Nordfoss. acceptus. also a kind of rack. conception. 129 — receive. It. G. Fr. The It. a. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder.. caput. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. as in OFr. Etym. Capstern. also tresFl. crepo. Caseneuve in Diet. a cloke) capuccino. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. and has accordingly been lost in E. of capsa. a hood (dim. trestle. concept. of the Sp. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. a fantastical humour. as the dragoons (Du. a. to creak. Capuchin. recipio. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. concebir.s. Capriole. Fr. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. recipere. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. — — Capstan. kerren.

. karszti. a quiver. a he-goat. turn of a horse. to comb. a card or comb . carmiiiarc. Arab. wine- bottle. of the same Caravan. Sp. car. Fr. alia sunt majora.. and catapulta. carta. in the same way that the Sp. carcasa. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. military engines made for hurling stones. to draw in. copperas. Carcase. The Trjg xeXwwac. carquan. black dye. Lat. From the battering-ram. poison eiz. It. Gael. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. caraffe. the shell of a torcarcasso. a firelock. Caravel. winding. card. to ripple flax. It. An implement for dressing wool. tcapKaai. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. kard boyd. cabreia. It. quilato. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. to curry horses karsztuwas. It. carbunculus (dim. is the word used in modern Lat. carere. Sp. Gael. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a gem resembling a live coal. a twist. a wool card. cabra. cabrita. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. caracal. is the chine. also a small weight. Gael. to creak. case. matter. coming to four grains. Cot. a quiver . &c. to hiss (as gee^e). cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a ship. carcanada. Fr. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot.Gr.. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. — seems to be something holding together. quse vocant karabd. a thistle. Fr. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. burning coal. Cat. carcame. cardo. &c. W. karra. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). the case of the flesh. carduus. a quiver. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. a coffer. Sp. Lat. seed of carob.— — — . eitar. a skeleton. cramp. a winding staircase.charcoal . decanter. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a lock of wool . Mod. carabba. vitriol. properly a siege machine. . caravela. the dead body of any creature. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. carcaij. for a gun. KtpaTwv. to card wool. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. espi7igarda. of carbo). cassa. mural attack. Gr. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. boch. contract. Carcax. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . curry-comb. karri. eit. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. carate. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. carbo. Cot. Carrob. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. See Carpenter. Sp. . to card wool. carcanet. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. confining. fire . the husk or cod of beans. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles.. garafa. chevre by the name of the goat. restraint . I. a small weight. cdrlag. a prison.. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. or framework. Comp. a goat. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. cerran. shell. krciti.. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. Gr. Carbonaceous. The radical meaning . Bohem. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. bock and Fr. carch. a crane. Exot. a snail. a quiver . Carbuncle. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. constraining . the core of fruit . casso. ' Vasa vitrea. Fr. Parmesan cassiron. winding carach. a machine for casting large darts. Pers. carquois. the . The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first .applied to a battering-ram (G. skeleton. an ulcer. Lith.' From the same source are SicU. to comb wool . carquasse.Gr. kerwan. designated in the case of G. an engine for hurling stones. skeleton toise. OHG. a kind of ship. silique. ancient springald. kirat.z. carbh. the trunk or chest of the body . It. avSpaS. a case or chest . a ripple for flax. Sp. to turn. wool card. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. also (as Gr. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a dead carcase. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. Derived in the first edition from Mod. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. . ON. Ptg. the name might naturally Mod. . &c. Carboy. AS. Card. the carcase of a fowl. Carat. turning. carabe. Caraool. Gael. the carob bean. a battering-ram). skeleton. a collar or chain for the neck. bend. Venet. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. p. a thistle. «capa'|8i. caraffa. word is only an adoption of the Turk. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^.

inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. AS. from Lat. to scratch. — — . Fr. compared with Fin. and G. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. — — — : Cardinal. tremble. . from carrus. that Fl. to scrape . grolU. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Lat. Properly. asper. Dan. kargr. Card. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Carminative. . AS. Fr. winding. carch. — Carfax. OFr. It. kroU-erbser. the flesh of animals . A quirito ut infans. karg. to rumble. carriire. affection. carener. x'»P'"^s)) paper. kummer.— CARD karr-kambar. from caricare. Cot. to comb flax or hemp. kara. Fr. — — — Caress. p. a hinge. Sept. tenax. Care. sgritudo animi. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. caricare. and sum. charta (Gr. Fr. carnalis. weyes. . cura intenta. from the keel to the water . It. cargar. Fin. cdrle. Fr. care on. is This however Shrove tide. ress.. charger. Bret. charg. an endearment. Cartel. is to say. a card. a turn. For the root of carminare. msstus. It. Fr. the hull of a ship. . to growl. W. A medical term from line —Boerio. charag. No ' place there had. E. essere in carena. murahtaa. 8. soUicitus OSax. to clean the bottom of the ship. sorrow. intrasset caro. a highway. croller. It. AS. chartre. carFrom carrus. . parched or carled. Carlings. Carled peas. fundamental. principal. morosus sum. at murmuring. in Carp. carrefourg. carcare. carnavale. kurista. one of those ac- 9 * . zanken . to load. surrata. to take Goth. that on wliich the matter hinges. caMid. carminare. grief. love. cargo. G. also a career on horseback. the keel of a vessel. to lie on its side. a deed. A mod-carag. to care unkarja. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. see Garble. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Coll. road. four. carezza. Caricature. crosier. wool cards. karl. karrig. charie. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. hoed. Lat. It. W. cearian. tuorfurcm (Burguy). male person. be anxious. as quadrivium from Carnaval. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. the several meanings of the words above Rom. and murhet. to love. in N. strideo. to card wool. sorrow. karantez. G. carcus. murista. 2. karista. as carminare. niggardly . to eat flesh. ignarus. . scharren. cardo. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Fr. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. Sp. to distress growl. as peas. to shake. careless take care of. Peas steeped and fried. Carnage. graller. beans. OHG. ON. ON. Fr. w. care. record. morosus. act of moaning. Carnal. &c. bottom. carena. Cark. cardinis. the old theory of humours. solicitous. a man. astutus. ceorl. Venet. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. kumra. carena. caritia. in St Jerome. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. caricatura. Cot. From. to load. kribina. — — Diez. voce strepo stridente. an overloaded representation of anything. to fry or broil. appertaining to the flesh. charneux. giierlir. . or grumbling —Due. Bret. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Properly a car-road. Chart. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. the keel. Carl. dear. to comb wool. car. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Sp. W. to whirr (schnurren). crawl. crowl. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. karry. Groler. sensual. . charnage.Lat. combing them out like the knots in wool. carian. the time during which to Rom. carina. stridere. carnasciale. Cot. quarreG. A place where four roads Mid. carnis. to fry. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. moeThe Lat. cearig. whence carricare. fleshy .. stingy. Charnel. meet at a head. to parch. karout.— Charter. mutter. regar. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. It. like connection may be seen between Fin. Bois crolant d'un ladre. and compare Bret. Cargo. Ptg. Carenare. Fl. what is felt as grievous. the load of a ship. carnal. to load.' Slceat. Farewell flesh. camovale. Fin. rixosus. or street. carriera. charnel. 1S66.Lat. Champ. Cath. cura may be ror. Translated in MS. clown or churl. quadrifurcum from quameet. de Parthenay. Roquef. Trin. caru. — To Careen. 273. place for exercise on horseback. from carus. & Q. caresse. Mur. piger. and thin. quaver a lazar's clack. Gael. Probably the origin of the word is the . It. murren. gakaran.

linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Carnelevale. carnelascid). about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. charpie. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Sp. Carpitam habeat in lecto. charpentier. quoted by Carpentier. a song accompanying a dance then. Properly a round dance. Nomin. culcitra. Olr. ' ' — . peta. carpita. zimmer. litter. Teut.— Neum. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. carduz.gonnella. gonna. sense. From Lat. Ein we find the signification transferred from . applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. On the other hand bumper to one's health. or a carouse fully drunk up. or loose as a couch without further preparation. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. whence the form carnasciale. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. vel coopertorio carebit. Other names of the sea. was formed Mid. a dance. chatter. The karole of the stones behelde. a car carpentarius. The ' ' a chariot. carpat (Stokes). cxciv. querole. Gael.' says Motley (United Neth. carpere. to talk. as the Lat. 2. — . maker of waggons It.Lat. The word seems of Celtic origin. koroll. Chanson de carole. On this. Carpyn or talkyn.— R. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. i. carpenta. A. . carpetam (a quilt?). In Dominica d'autant. Gower in Way.— Patriarchi. Lat. Beggars Bush. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. W. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. chirp. Mid. — — ' ' — — — I — — . The custom. Lat. at midnight which derivation from kroes. In a MS. tattle. Fr. chatter skra/a. to find fault with. Biheld within. a wheelwright. Fr.D. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. to dance. carpia. Pr. 2. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. 1 1 30. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. to chatter coroli. To pledge them thou refuse. pluck. Carnevale.: . course. carpetrix. act of drinking a full Eq. to gather. carpentum. CarTo quaff carouse do use. to reel. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat.' Ordo Eccles. worker in timber Fr. carpende fast Carol. ! Carouse. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. carpenticre. zimmerspan. All out B. fabulor. pluck at. and Carnem laxare (It. krapati. Bohem. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. as carnaval from carnelevamen.' Reg. yede tham about.'— Stat. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Templariorum — ' — Due. krapanj. qui sacco.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. . Palsgr. a drinking cup. in Nat. a plank.]e bois Carnelevale. tymmer. Here's to you still my captains friend. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. in Due. Cot. used for stuffing mattresses. as E. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin.Why give's some wine then. linteamen. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. Carpenter. Mediol. Ant. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade.— Drant in R. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. garrire. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. lint. carpenter only in the latter sense. gar aus / all out is correct. a wheelwright. garrulo. Carole. Alluz (G. to rustle. The tippling sots. in Carp. ballare. bier. e. 216. to dance. I drink all out. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. balade from It. ship. ON.Lat. carbh.' Raleigh. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. i. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. is erroneous. Lat. Pref. as Fr. Discov. 94). differing To Carp. Analogous R. 760. chariot carbad. to pull asunder. cited by Marsh. Dief. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. I quaught. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. So gone they forthe. Bret. Shrove Tuesday. biheld without.Lat. to pluck. Pm. Mid. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. carpo. cardos. Carpet. all aus). on that. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. . a carder. skraf. and F. of Guiana. Sup.

hollow. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Flor. It. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. coffer. cartella. kerben. cascata. Fr. quash. To Cashier. Lat. to — — also casse. Rouchi carter. caisse. cut with scissors. augmentatives of carro. caroach. It. to notch. a chest. vault hole in a fortified wall. carroc- carrozza . Cot. cartone. Rouchi caroche. mord-keller. gristle. cartouche.' Cot. cancelled. casag. carrosse. Casque. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. Fr. — — . AS. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Preparatory drawing of a It. Fl. It. to bear or carry. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. to convey in a cart. case. an act of falling. casser. discharge It. a chance or accident. OE. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. mord-grube. from the sound it makes when Alban. gristle. Cart. ' Casa-matta. also the carriage. capsa (Diez). Case. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. ignominiously exposed. cassere. Cassock. Case. cascare. and that apparently from capio. augm. Casuist. charrette. Du. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. bag and baggage of a camp. krat.' Bailey. It. from It. subject for a picture. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. coffin of paper for groceries. bitten. an augmentative from Lat. to fire on the enemy. casco signifies a skull. Fr. kasseren. crush. Fr. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . The carrying of anything. casso. kirpti. tion from Sp. long man's gown with a close body. Fr. caroche. Cot. — Cartoose.' Fl. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Fr. Fl. casaque. Casket. house. corresponding to the G. of carta. to fall. It. Hence casket. from casa. for the security of the defenders. cassa. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. kerven. casa-maita. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. from It. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. paper. The Sp. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. fall It. carota. Lith. Cartel. made void. carretto. It. See Gristle. As defence from shells became more important. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. and the OE. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. Sp.' — Hdcart. to an- — Kil. discharge. a coffer or small case for jewels. casa. fortuitous. Carrion. hull of a ship. a long coat. to crack. Ready money. cashiered. Fr. carogna. charogne. Lat. kerpu. where Fr. a canonry or slaughterhouse. carroccio. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. case-maiej Sp. AS. G. To Carry. to dash. a paper case. Walach. crown of a hat. Carriage. Case-mate. — Cartridge. from Lat. cia. It. dim. a of water. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Cash. Fr. casus. See Card. carreaggio. cassa. Du. a loopscale the wall. empty. carriaggio. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. cartoccio. carretta. to hold. a merchant's cash or counter. CartOTicli. cancel. a fall. caro. a car. casuelj Fr. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. — — nul the proceeding.— Fl. pasteboard. properly to convey in a car. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. a car. caisse. caxa. Fr. Probably. to cut or carve . caisse. Lat. like all the names of tendon. To duash. annul. not reaching to the height of the ditch. Cask. ceorfan. cassus. Fr. casacca. It. cascar.. of carro. void cassare. cartilage. mata. charrier. card. Lat. Carrot. Gael. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. To Carve. cascade. to break. Cartoon. and matar. luggage. It. To quash an indictment. turn out of service. cassette. the charge of — — Fr. casitiste. blotted out. Cascade. — FI. Rouchi carpHe. hung up in some place and to be removed. shell or carcase of a house. packing ' cloth. as we . to shear. See Case. Rouchi carone. the money chest. to slay. quasser. afterwards any written challenge. Fr. slaughter-house. break to pieces.to annul. abrogate. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. des rideaux A'carp^ie. a hut. something that actually occurs. one who reasons on cases put. Casual. helmet. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Sp. Fr. casualis.

like that of It.'— Pr. chat.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. follow after. under chi caleur. kotas. to hurl See Awgrim. kissa. Gr. 134 CAST Catacomb. koshka. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. to fall as over a precipice. Brunne. cojz^/a. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. same word with break. first made ordinary Fr. to cast or beat to tioner . to end. Fr. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. to bring to an crack given by the joints. chasser. catar. or bruise together. or Rouchi cat. image accasciare. To Catch. heat . castello. a chesnut . to torture. 'Vaaaw. to clack. of castrum (castra). castana. Chase. Others explain it from Kara. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. in the fire. which.the / or c respectively.out cacciare . casulla. Lat. Yz. or comba. of sarabands does Gr. to drive Cat o' nine tails. _G. Mid. ichasses. was introduced. Sp. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. castro. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Thus we have Caste. Pol. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. dash. a cat . however. cat-o'-nine. . casser. cacciuolo.. a whip on the other into latch. to drive away. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Fr. on. 120. KaTaarpifm. . bot-kotis. name. tails. KarapaKrr]g. In the dialect of Picardy. It. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . burst cascare. dashing it out of the window. Fr. coming to us through different dialects of French. drive away. to crackle. shaft of a 1 push. chasser. stilts. Fr. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. Cat. OFr. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Gr. to hunt. to look at. cast. from water Karappaaaiii. kakka. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. It. Sp. a cat koshki. to dash. katze. So also from It. Etym. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . . and from the castus. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. to is Essentially the Sp. race. The E. ' Catchyn away abigo. from the first of Castrate. Fr. Cast. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. catch. To It. arpi^m. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. kasta. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. chasuble. V. Lat. the stalk of plants. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Fr. by the loss of with several pitched cords. force j Rouchi equerviche. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. being Fin. lance. Castanets. punch. castanetazo. is not satisfactory. Cot. probably from an imita. puras E. kasi. Pic. cat. KaTappaKTrjQ. a thump. Catastrophe. cascar. a fortified place. The Diet. away. kat. castellum. mino. execu. ecrevisse. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to lash. Fr. speak of dashing a thing down. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. the earlier sense of catch. Lang. which has been retained in E. R. crush . squash. Catalogue. puss / for calling them. squash. down. ating.— Fl. ON. signifying breed. n.Lat. Gael. to turn overturn. casule. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. rack. a vault. Pm. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. cacciare fuora. to close. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. KaraXoyog. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Fr.Rouchi Scaches. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. torture. &c. cash. Roukind. dashing it to pieces. casupola. dim. accastiare. Fr. kotas. a garment for performing the mass in. B. to Fl. casipola. . Castle. and tomba. to break. to scourge. — We a cavity. to crack. kic' kicil are used chasser. sue. fall.. handle of an axe. Isidore — in Diez. klakka. Hal.to drive out. the ground . artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. second chase. to make clean or chaste. kaJoivad. It. V Lith. chaleur. the castanets for or implement . while kiss / Pol. cassa / cry for the same purpose. perhaps from which we have E. cacciarc. down. fer toTa. and KviilSog. . Hence castaneta. a little house or hut. an enumerlist. kottr. represented by the syllable quash. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. a Cataract.

Gr. chacepol. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. Kil. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. verberare kUts. . kletse. — tinman. snatching it with a any one. Fr. with and without an / after the c. Metivier. Du. Guernsey chafer. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. 135 — Aasen. catch. gingle. c or ^. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. to snatch (said of dogs). from shutting with a click. the the same principle he was Fr. e. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. is said that he got a claucht of it. clap with the hand. weevils. kletsen. clatter. to catch strength. fragor kletsoore. Du. quincailler. a. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . happe-chair. . clap. bichano (pussy).from Bard and ayopsw. the distance to which the ball is struck. snatched. KaTtix'so. to chat. the elements of a science. called in Fr. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. chink. apprehend a person. devouring mite or weevil. ' ' word catch. whip. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . a whip. Diez. — . E. gattola. . claquer. a caterpillar Milanese can. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. seize.P. worm. Gael. companaige. catc?u. to teach by oral instruction. a little dog). lash of a whip corresponding to the G. . children's name for cat . to harangue. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. an officer of taxes. ecachoire. to snap. caker. the OE. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. ArbaUte de courte chasse. s. door when it is shut. 'Horxa. 'Bxn. a whip. bicho. GaUa catchiza. Fr. as of the latch of a As ! — . P. catch-flesh. and answer. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. resound. to clap hands. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Fr. Gael. OFr. Kil. Caterer. Kartiyopta (/cari. a pill. flap klatsche. — Kiittner. millecaterpillars. a cornIn the s. chatter.j. latch of. Cates. In the XV'e. * Cates. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. cagnon (a dog). ketsoore. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. cache. Sc. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. klatscherei. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door.s. i. snatching. an accusing. to chatter with the teeth cake. a smack. compare G. — explained. a whip or Kuttner. Cot. or any kind of relishing food tuals. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Sp. ictus resonans. Grandg. to the crack. predicament. blow. which all . — with a whip. — B. wild-beast.' ^Jam. chasse. head. de Bray. glcu. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . in order). and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. woodlice. Ptg. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. — Catcli-poll. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. to A bailiff.) . a. On Catechism. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. dainty vic- a form lash. pedes. to crack GATES cache. resono ictu lash. icarrix'Ki^. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. . chenille {canicula. latch. E. formerly called cliket. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. a clap.' CATCH Fr. chatter . chachara. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. Claucht. Tutschek.yopl(. cat is not apparent. a — gatta. smack. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. called dog or Galla catchamza. caucht. silkworm. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. * Caterpillar. Rouchi clincailleux. ' Fr. E. klatsche and Norm. gliong.V. kaetse. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. to kythe D. Swiss Lombard G. klinke. has both or of charming by sound. chase. a whip Rouchi cachoire. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam.V. G. klatschen. Chate peleuse. instruction in forms. sound. to take. insect. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. e. chassoire. from Gr. klatsch. Du. dainties. Guernsey pilleure. Cot. a carter's Pat.. Wal. catch.

kin. — Cauterise. rete A — Prov. Kavrfipiov. That he was ay before in his estate. a branding from koiio. KaHSpa. . 4. cabbage). cat maczoka. caudex . Lat. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. katte. Diez). acater.Lat. Lat. walnut with the husk on challer. a paved road. koparet. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. hazel. a pulpit. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. katteken. capull. CATHARTIC sense. Fin.^ acheter (Lat. what . Palsgr. to shoe . having the property of cleansing. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. chevalier. kobuiV. Caudle. catkin Magy. a horse . the caul of the liver. kopista. shaled or picked Fr. Cathedral. quire. achepter. chaussJe. Catkin. fur. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Cavern. calceata. to purge. macska. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. reticella. cheval. Pol. puss. kassije. Manciple's Tale. kocianki. a mare. kocie. caballus. Cauldron. OE. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. a horseman. Fr. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . minon. KiwariKog. by land. Cavalier. Gr. a kettle for heating water. calqada. to shoe. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Cavalry. Lat. It. Mid. catons. Fr. chaudroii. mutz. from chaud. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Sx. Pr. Cavity. fur in general. catkin mitz. to burn. Fr. Wyatt in R. the stones of a street. flock. Richly she feeds. . lamb. is used in the sense of cat-skin. B. On the other hand. to shale or peel. cale. causa. kobyla. Cave. puss. Cause.—— — 136 correct. Caballus. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. whence cathedralis. caldo.' Elyot in Way. a stalk. kaussijde. Fr. . Rete. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. also to pave . Cattle. a receptacle for small things. calceta. cavus. a The peel. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Gr. Russ. Jaubert. apt to burn iron. Caution. Provider. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. kitten kotki. hot. Fr. a kind of skull-cap. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Kil. A warm comforting drink. . chair. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Fr. little cap is . Lat. Fr. It. adcaptare. to ac- — Fr. KaPaWrii. ce^l. acaptar. from caveo (p. . make clean. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept.. the. little cat. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. but the acates that are sent him. • — — See Chattel. kopano. Caustic.Lat. It. kdtzchen. &c. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. any Fl. Chaud. Ka^afriKOQ. is Prologue. to beware. to buy. primitive is meaning a shale or off. klopfend knallen. calidus. Jonson in R.. Thus Bav. to sound like a blow . It. a road calceata. Port. accapitare Rouchi acater. cautis. Lat. via strata. Palsgr.willow. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. caple. Du. hot. accattare. a horse . from delf^gato. Causeway. cabbage. cabbage-stalk. choufleur {choii. — . Cavalcade. w. a pavement. Fr. puss. hollow. a seat. and at the rich man's cost By sea.Y\\Xea. dumpf tonen. calotte. . mudet. Cathartic. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. chatideau. net or caul-work. Fr. cal^ar.' B. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Delycates. challe was ther of a temple. and spareth for no perell. green husk of a calon. Boethius. chauderon. catkin Pol. Gr. Gael. . cavaliere. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. It. chausser. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Mid. ' Gr. cautus). The word — . the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour.p. chaudiire. kautsije. from KaSaipio.^Hal. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. a horse. catkins . And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. deyntie meates. Dryden in R rete. despencier. otherwise written kell. Fr. Bessie of Bednall. flue. G. cale. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. cauHs. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. 2. Lat. and hence a skull-cap. Du. — — cavallo. CAVE Caul. Kavrijp. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone.

koppeli. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. to cut. the testern of a bed.). heaven. cedo. to plank or floor with planks. succeed. a canopy. to panel or wainscot MHG. thil. — . Cede. to seele or close with boards plancher. departure. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Ceiling. wainscot thiljar (in pi. jaa. of E .' del. as. selar. to plank ON. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. augm. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. cavezzone. tester of a bed. nailes will begin to cling. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. departure from this life. semely on syll. Hal. and zaum. the roof of a coach. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. curved. that. excess. dille. ciel is so unbroken. with their substantives concession. a log. sus-lambris. . unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. deal. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. a log. wall. thel.'— Z. -cease. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. CAVESON kopera or kowera. door-sill J Sc. is applied to a canopy. recede. lambrisser une chambre seeling. hollow ice .' Rutland papers. Sp. &c. The It. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. thiling. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. give place. sky. post. a severe bridle. -cess. &c. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. . VIII. step away. a board. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. thil. . plank. thili. In the same way G. dScis. . Fr. Soc. exceed. The line of descent from Fr. a log. p. syle. to argue capto tiously. cesso. the inner roof of a room of state. . hollow. 5. —Decease. Wore. So from Fin. ciel de lit. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. Cavil. but hang around at the sides. cavillor. quibble. also a seeling of boards. 32. canopied. Lat. lambris. . crooked kopio. Sherwood. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over.' — Gawan . a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. Cot. cellar.. hung. del into English without ' translation gave cele. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. cessum. a planking or boarding tkilian. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. little house. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. sill in window-sill. ceiling. The sense of roofing. a halter. column E. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. In the N. komista. beam. menuiserie. hollow. death. sybire. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. &c. caveqon. A — A false accommodation produced G.' Cot. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. cease. — komo tain). proceed. . selure. and that from Sp. a plank. cabega. Plancher. and Gol. . cabegon. sill. -cede. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. in Jam. kommata. wuoren komo. To seele a room. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. Boyd in Jam. the deck of a ship at thilja. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. hivtmel. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. bridle. 7. . thilja. a beam. . dil. &c. komo. Fr. cielo. a boarded floor.). syl.. in Hal. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. applied to a canopy. thelu. — . coffer. rafter. Gawaine & Sir Gol. Hence concede. Cease. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. Fr. to canopy siled. Sir 137 pit . H. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. dayntily diglit. were met. . pp. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. a hut.' Ordinances and Reg. Fr. decessus. and then to gape. to go forth. board . obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. Cam. yield. p. B. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. . or of a bed. E.' Marriage of James IV. flooring E. a head. an aquiline nose. IV. empty. seele. kapp-zaum. Lat. . as if from happen. 43. a canopy. of cavezza. ceiling.j have come from this source. See -cede. plank. Lat. — — — toyour soverane. It. cyling (W. heaven.' Hall. The importation of Fr. in Jam. And seik — Cessation. -ceed. Lat. a fir-plank.

abundance. 1. to twinkle darkness. -cepere. centum. celer. incense. to seal a pigeon's eye. make angry. encens. thence belonging to or connected with corn. contend. deceipt. eschattffer. to burn incendo. of heating. sift. In Celebrate. Assize. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. is totally distinct from the foregoing. assess. or expression of Ennius. Accelerate. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. ceremonia. a hundred of what- — . we have a modified form of (of a place). -ceptjun. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. a registration of one's self. S. to set on fire. mortar. Sc. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. but was gradually lost in conceit. decide. riscaldarsi. See Celibacy. Take the nedyll and threde. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. family. OFr. Assess. judge. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. sting. what to set in a chafe. crevi. a religious observance. in accordance with the Fr. Censor. to celebrate. a shaft horse. to blindfold. see. Gr. censura. zens according to their property. ciller. a hundred centuria. .cern. Censure. to rate. K^'ivut. to warm. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Certain. Lat.' Book of St Albans. value. Census Censor. rubble. materials It. -ceive. -CEIVE a shaft. Fr. to chafe.ing a room where there is not fire. — . in Marsh. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. concerner. with the eyes. to heat. or any bird's. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. a storehouse Chafe. observe.' Celebritas. It. For sess from assess. and met. Fr. to incense. Gr. goad. — . — . a numerous con. — .Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Prov. candeo. and — — — possessions. Chafe. guish. Centurion. . sacred show. estimate. eyelid. quarters for slaves. hollow. to attend on object with. Lat. to rub for the purpose a hut. age. Fr. Ceremony. -civer {conciver— Roquef. to take. Celerity. camentum. census. the talk of men. and put it through the over eyelydde. stones to the production of heat. with transposition hence (of a day). To seel or close the eyes. concetto.. empty. calefare. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. sile. cerealis. chaufferette. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. in comp. syll. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. capturn. calefacere. judge Lat. his office. a valuation of every man's estate. ' . caber. Cereal. Fr. -cevoir. Lat. pick out. -cepire. to sepap rate. a Cemetery. to seele or sew up the eyelids . to bury). to sleep). The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. become heated with anger. Gr. to be regarded as one celebro. &c. Lat. -cebre ifoncebre. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Cot. for building. Lat. an eyelash. to concern. renown be embodied with. cencer. appertain. Lat. cillier. oil. heaven. Fr. a tomb. Lat. Cij(fe5j. cenio. celeber certus.— Chafing-dish.. To chafe is for wine. siller les yeux. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. conceipt. a solemnity. point. Century. Lat. to visit in numbers. cceremonia. in comp. being taken from Fr. chauffer. deceit. and thence to conceal. Ta^oe. to course of people. Lat. to think. to -sum. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. concernor. -cern. /ctj/rsw. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. KsvTpov. Fl.). cot. a solemnity. the officer appointed to take such returns . festive. a prick. Cell. -cipio.unmarried. -oept. See Cede. Centre. tax. receipt. thronged the participle cretus.— Cellar. and thence censer. &c. cella. from censeo. Lat. -ciper. confounded ist from It. and so of that other. much frequented. distinIt. Cot. cretum. from Saa-rw. to take. single or unwedded life. solemn (of per. the place where the de. is the opposite of disora virum. oil. the point round which a circle is drawn. -cense. swift. rough from the quarry. -ceit.of the r. It. — — Cenotapli. (and thence also) to hoodwink. -cess. -i^oivre. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. to separate. parted sleep. census. judge. sure. Fr. Lat. criticism. as in some places burnt. cigliare. also grave opinion. to contend. Cess. Fr. irot\oe. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. keep in It. as entering largely into the derivative certo. to prick. cilibat. — . blind. Incensum.). Censer. — . Sherwood. Lat. ciglio. To Incense. Celebrity. The term cilium. Gr. to glow. Fr. decebre) . Coehim. dchauffer. then to rub without reference Cement. capio. the hollow the Lat. tax. {cori)cipere. Lat.j 138 thill. to distinguish. — A .

&c. kaff. refuse. charge with. to buzz. from of the G. rustling corn. Gr. cam. sagrindse. From Port. cauvette. Prov. hordeum vel let. snuff. to caw chawer. 35. puff. rally one. avena vilior. to pant. kdfelen.sure carriage. chaise. In like manto huff. to gnaw. Du. ceaf. much more Genoese sagrind. in a cana. or puff with snorting. 11. . ple^. refuse barley . From the To Chaff. Chain. The jaw chafty. hght Chalk. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Lat. to a seat. to calumpnjamen. thick and short. de Brai. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Fr. quisquilise offence. call in question for an ley). G. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Lat. rustling motion challenge. to ner It. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. from the shark-skin. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. to sit. a pulpit. vel susurro. Prov. Kaiiapa. puffed or ruffled with ly. kedja. fume. to institute anforensic action. gewolb. kever. kuhuja. a double operation * Chafer. . chalanger. KoBiSpa. of. cadena. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Adelung. Lat. Wall. Ayenbite. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. kahista. Gr. a rustling noise. vis. Fr. P. to claim. as. camera. to Latin calumniare. chicane. lime . Lat. kauchen. Fl. kuhista. calix. . as a carriage is a moveable seat. matter by combat.nium. limare. . a chough. a goba rustling . chatter. Pat. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. and signifies to consume with anger. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. calumnia. Fr. fern-chafer. to dispute. and as this was the beginning of man. chaffare. contestation. Fr. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. great chafe. much blowing. sborfare. tattle cheep. keffen. ing a hard case to their wings. with a:n arched roof. ceafer. baras of ants. kahu. dongio. to file. E. kiqfta. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. ckapfare. Chalice. a prattling woaction. . Lat. a vault or arched roof. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Chair. clamare. cadieira. calx. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. swelling with anger. chaire. — — — . to chatter or talk lightly. fa sagramen de calompnia. rustle Challenge. talkative. Lat. to puff and blow. have a mind to parley. care. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. To buy and sell. Came. khah. Bouffard.— — . often puffing. breathe hard. to bark. chambre. calonja. sagri. tattle. chawe. muzzle. Camera.. ON. keuchen. preise. shaIt. any insect of the beetle kind. kaff. kiaftr. kiamta. Pr. haggle. — — — . cathedra. Chagrin. Prov. havOFr. grief. to move the jaws. green sagrin. Fr. difficulty . to babble. bargain. So from dominio. Fin. p. — — — — — — . kuhina. — — ' — — — A . Fr. Fr. false accusation. Cot. calice. Due. Halma. cup. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. lime. grief.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. care. kdfer. catena. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . on. Hal. also to prattle. cadera. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Fr. B. De Ir4. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Kuttn. in a monstrous fume. far lima-lima. Perhaps Pm. Bav. — . now a chair. kuhata. ing rapidly repeated cries. that leneth e per I'autra. chafeter. a jackdaw. Chayire. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Piedm. dispute. a chain. cadena gives chain. Cot. chaine. to call. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. snort. Pers. to fret inwardtronfo. OFr.' Rayn. songe. a pulpit Cot. crooked. tronfio. Cheffern. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. (ca'e'ra) to chair. chafing. leviter crepo Then. Du. calonjar. to tattle. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Probably from According to Diez. chaene. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. In vulgar language. chayire. chagrin. taubes korn oder hafer. chamar. Lat. Fr. cathedra. place See Cheek.. chaps Chamber. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. idle words. From to go to law. from Swiss kafeln. G. chaulx. yap. jaw. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to gnaw. hiss. to action arose. kahuja. signal by drum or P. Fr. without chap/are makiinde. ^Altieri. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence.

Champion. ciambellano. to paw the ground E. pinch. head armour. cadere. To them naturally fell the office of keep- .140 CHAMBERLAIN . . to wrestle. Meleare. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. e. escazenza. . Commonly derived from campus. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. kippo. bundle. zampettare. To hollow out in chanPtg. Carpentier. chance. Lat. from cheoir. Chancellor. to happen {ad and cadere. gewolbt. gekrUmmt.—Charfron E. a court of justice. Hence (with the nasal) w. to groove bevel off a right angle. hero Sw. Champ. excellent. an athlete. i. Magy. Lat. kampen. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. to fall. ing. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. cameratus. champ parti. received the petitions of the suitors. chanfrein. tsamtsogni. athlete. fray. mesleiare. G. cazer. to talk. E. — ^Tusser. slope of a bevelled angle. Fr. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. from Fr. contend or argue G. to excel. the chafldn. Fr. . certare. chanfreindre. champ. to Hal. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to hold . Chancery. as swine. to stick to. to fasten oneself to another . as in It. Campar. Champarty. fighting place. Dief. Fr. kampeln. campear. M. Pm. schmatzen s. to slope. luctare. hot. to wrestle. a hollow chanfreiner. campus partitus .Lat. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. ON. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. therewithal. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. cample). To Chamfer. Lat. move the jaws. kriimmen gebogen. calidameya. Ptg. camerlengo. Prov. kempa. Sp. to slope out the . bickering. kappd). kabintis. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. broil.' SherI'altro ' ' . Fr. to fall). champion Du. a jaw kianisa. to — — champ. Champaign. keiiipe. kanip. chamfrain. Partnership. campar. tsammogni. Chamfron. pedilusor. jeu parti. champ. a hook . . . kibti. When the to quarrel. champ. chdance. ON. kimbu. to . termediaries between them and the judge. kempen. The happening of things Chance. kablys. who stood ad cancellos. chaude mesUe. to strive at games . — KiL . cancelli. act of falling. combat. and mesUe. Chance-n3. So in e. To cope or contend with. CHANCEL It. fight. kampa. nels. ON. Lith. dial. caer. dispute Hal. kimppu (Lap. E. kiammi. calida et sans aguet. kabinti. or player at football. kabe. The G. chamble. dial. . . The word is preserved in E. to move the jaws kiamt. Lat. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. is explained by serrarsi. chance. a horse-race. dial. top of a borehole. chain. s. to bevel. kimpUma. a bundle. to chew. It will. camp. kapp. dial. Fin. a game at football. and acted as inofficers of . Chancel. a warrior. to hollow out. champ.' melleia. or less ignorant. Sp. surpassing. kiinp. Get campers a ball To camf . . rare. jocus partitus. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. divided game. camp. Du. wood. See Camp. a feat. contest. to debate. camp. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. to smack the lips in eating. to be eminent. to fasten oneself on to another . kimpustella.' ' Pr. accidere. campus. to fasten on. to hang. to flute as a column. at the railings. a field of battle. dial.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. ciamberlano. accident. reusement — fight in single combat. which seems another form of the root. —Chamfrain. to tread The sound heavily. to cample. to to chew champ. to quarrel (comp. chanfrein. kabMe. game campio.—Tutschek. sukibti. prize-fighter. zs jeopardy. fight. chanfrar. kinipen. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. boys speak of capping verses. Sup. a scufSe. from chaud. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Prov.edley. giving rise to the as. — masterly Sp. difficulty . Gall. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. The E. cempa. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . kampeln. — Hal. chajnbellan . hamper. hng. compound. contention kappi. cahir. — Ch-amberlain. dricka i kapp. Fr. Fr.

as skin chapped hands. hack . Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. are kept. chiappa. To Change. to cut off . and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. the loose flesh of the cheeks. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr.^. chanter. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Fr. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. to hack. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. properly in a hard body. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to truck. chapeletas de imbornales. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. or the cracking of one. to sing. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to apply one flat thing to another. exchange. — — —Marculfus in Due. Fr. cheek. Chap. surfaces striking together. to plate. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. schimbd. Da. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. 140. kvar kjceften. . prune. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. chancellerie. to chap at a door. cambiar. . Bret. —Chantry. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . schimbu. cambiare. from chandler. chapear. Hence It. Walach. to peck. Sp. Channel. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. any hollow for conveying water. kjaakaa. to strike. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. — : Lat. — . from clap. a money-changer. to strike. kaupa. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. . In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. chop. and also to chap or crack. kemma. and the modern canal. klepan. Chape. Chap. That wide were sentin their spicery. . to cut up into small pieces. E. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . the representation of the sound made by two same manner. a chap is a crack or fissure. In like manner Walach. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Chaps or chops. Probably from chap. to put on fresh clothes. chancery. skipta. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. shift. chop. a dealer in candles then. Chapel. Lang. esclapa. Fr. to — cut. cangiare. ON. Russ. to creak. the gutter that runs along a street. Da. kappen. clapet. muzzle. as chancery . Man of Law's Tale. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. a small plate of flat metal. as It. Prov. a small metal plate Port. chapelete de una bomba. hard bodies. See Chant. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. flat . cobio. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. a reed. W. kiceft. kapoti. chap. And N. the clappers of the scupper holes. cambium. A fellow. kennel. Lith. Sp. chap. the mouth. to plate. a strip of metal plate. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. exchange schimbatoriu. waterconduit. wood. kiceft as well as kjakje. may be compared with ON. . I. the chaps . Hence chantry. Fr. also a clap. from canna. chapa. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. ceaflas. ceaplas. while the broader vowels a. It is also used in the sense of the E. See Chop. to change. Chandler. Chop. AS. to deal. like the knocking of hard things together. Hal. Hal. ^Jam. to break . the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. gab. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Sc. exchange. to cut. camjar. extended to other trades. to spht a chip. Chap. chapeta. debeant conjurare. as those on a trunk. Molbech. esclapo. jaw. Aasen. to paw like a horse . a jaw. as corn-chandChandry. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. a pipe. the place where candles ler. jaw. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. chaps. canalis. Lat. as to chap hands. Cheek. changer. to coat. to strike with a sharp edge. to swap. chapilla. Chip. is used in the same sense . Du. cantare. chandelier. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. not a soul. Compare chark. —Ordericus Vitalis. leather. lips of an animal. to peck. Commonly derived from capella. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. 2. or the like chapar. throat of an animal.

cerran. from capitulum. An enchantment. See Cheap. used in the sense of magic Fl. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. it is my turn. caricare. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. eapitulo. cher um cher. a merchant. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. from gadai. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. a riddle. gadka. Charlatan. Chirk. Hence carminare. OE. grave or make incised marks on an ob. 2. decken. canne. w. to prattle. to of the governing body. charcoal burners. keeren. Gr. ceap-man. ghirlanda seor garland. A weed among com AS. cluck. kirkti. siarad (pronounced — sharad). Sp. Lat. go. 370. babbling. Chark. Sup. jabber. In that work the verb is written caire. carus. charlatan. twist. to dove . charer. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. a cricket karkti (schnarren. capital. to . hadka. Lith. Justin. as Pol. to chirp. . burning without consuming the substance. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. * Charcoal. Chapman. carmen. See Charlatan. AS. Deutsch. ject). to talk . es ist mi cheer. Lang. a rhyme. Fr. babdistinction. enough. cabildo. in turns. . czurliwoti. to turn Gael. To Char. Charlock.. the nature of a thing. Macduff.). to turn. char. Fr. charger. Bret. It. chapel.' Boccaccio in Diez. Charade. ciarlatore. tattler. &c. a mark made on a thing. It. Charge. called kedlock. — — — turned to coal. a riddle.whirr. czirbti. to croak as a frog . that turned decken . and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. a head or division of a book. Ptg. capella. from carrus. —— . of chapel. wood to coal. czurksti. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. colliers that charred coal. Charcoal was ciarlare. Cot. which was incantation. to charcoal. as. a hood. dim. (eucharistie. Lat. capellare. gaggle . charge an enemy is to lay on. Prov. chirk. Chapter. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. charlar. Inst. Mundart. to tattle. cearcian. wreath for the head. charitas. a turn cerran. And damned be he who first cries Hold. . that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. Sp. schreien. chatter. . talking. called in Sp. beloved. hiss Lith. kurkti. Du. to prattle. Sp. surris seu Lat. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. chapelet. The crash. Fr. pohadka.Lat. Lat. cluck kirklys. to chirp. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. occasional turn. affection. Fr. . AS. The G. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. return. carricare. chirriar. capitolo. Character. a garland of roses. to chirp as sparrows. bler. a mark of a mountebank. corona. from Charade.charme. krachzen). Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. to converse. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. turn. properly to place — . a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. carmo. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. — a car. chara. gnash. car. Yx. Chaplet. From Norm. charade. Boh. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. twitter. creak. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. as a beetle. cha. Fr. chat. Lay on. and in It. a charm. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. Swiss. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . from cape or cope. chapitre. caritas. chatter. be- e. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. — spell. karout. Mid. creak. a dispute . to sing or chirp as birds. condo il volgar francese. for the same reason rosario. It. cedeleac. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. dear(in both senses). tegere. eyre. the turtle pitre. to creak. to load . dear. carregar. clack. prattling quacksalver. a The OFr. kurkelis. a verse. chirlar. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. cam. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. to love. seems to be derived charade. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. turn about.czirksti. in To ness Charity. It. Chare. w. from capa.

letters p. — — . And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. clean. germinate . a churchyard or charnel-house. a branch. chaste. to chirp. or equivalent forms. See Cistern. — The . Chart. kna. the young shoots . a plate of metal. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. V. g. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. also a youth. a chatter-box. warble. geug. Malay. See Catch. kata. chary. gazzettare. crackle. noise. to chirp as a bird to cheep. chaste. cyrm. sordidus. from purus. pure. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. csacsogany. Cot.— Chatter. to wet. the cry of the bat. clean. Pol. Fr. gaddc. gazeuiller. talk much . — sharp sound of a crack. —Jam. Fr. a branch and a young female. pure. to chirp. noise. ferire. a twig Suffolk chaits. gallan or ogan. carnisj bones kept. karg.— Chit. shout OE. xi'i-'^vui. be wide open. prate. careful. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. Kil. a shrine for a relic. incassare. gadu-gadu. enchasser. a crack or a flaw . To chitter or chipper. little sticks cudere. chit. castus. clack. Lat castigare. To chit. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. — We ornamental work the to signify E. to cut and faggoted. CHATS fit 143 to name. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. pure. cearig (from cearian. It t. cs E.). chick. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. clap. —Charter. or the cry of a bird or the like. chit-chat. It.. csatora (Magy. to talk. Pol.a. chip. chatter. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. as we speak of olive branches. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Lat. as. castus. make a noise as birds do. or a bird out of the egg. B. a flock of those birds. chair. in Jam. also to germinate or spring forth. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). Chary. ch). kastaa. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. Gr. An imitative word. tenax. — = Chats. — Yorkshire chat. whistle. Fr. to which it bears the same relation as chape. as from nomen It. tittle-tattle. an enchantress. Kil. caro. flesh. charm. the bird is iiown. gazzogliare. charmer. as purgare Fr. chits. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. — Hal. as turnip-chaits. to gape. i. to make a noise. OE. chip. to clap. splinters. Fl. Cot. knacken. snap. chykkyn (Pr. warble. converse. scraps of for fuel. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. czysty. gazzerare. to baptize. Parallel with E. Chat-wood. speak . Magy. cassa s.house. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. ch&tier. carmen is presented in AS. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. . chikat'. gazzolare. carme and Fr. the noise of birds. parcus. It. Hal. a word. jackdaw . or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. To Chase. the calix of a rose. to crack. root of the Lat. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. To talk. kata-kata. Russ. Fr. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. %aafi. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . also to hatch. It. chat. kippen. —Chastise. chit in the latter sense Du. It. fragments. Chat. Du. magpie. karigh. clear. chick. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Diez. a young man . — Palsgrave. as in the E. or suckers on rough borders. limpid. blackthorn-chats. racket . from xoAn. See Card. or pop. la chasse d'une rose. is to represent the chamier. from pure. csacsogni. clean. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. a gap.). discourse. knatiern. prattle. talk. to enchase it . to cry as a chicken . —Bailey. schioppare. Fl. From carinen was formed It. s. clatter. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. used to represent a sharp note. nommer. Pm. to crack. Chamel. a yawning. to set a jewel. Chaste. to care). nome and . — Fr. shivers. To chip is then to crack. occasionally Forby. In like manner Russ. eclats. to chatter or prattle . G. To Chasten.ppen. To Chase. chisf. . To work plate as silversmiths do. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. to burst open. to separate in morsels. Chasm. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. chip. the handle of a razor . So in Gael. niggardly. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. whence a charm of goldfinches. D. csaterdzni. The egg is chipped. fragments or leavings of food.

Modern Slang. &c. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. and.-^. kek. and hence the E. OFr. kaupiti. catalliim. a repulse. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. horse-couper.' to exchange to gasp. while it Bret. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. snout. to clear the throat . to coup s. G. Slav. which is the word in ceap. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. equiva. Cheek. Pro v.— Chaps. Pm. ceafl. welcome heartily. chiere. to laugh. kaufen. farm for farm. KaviiXog. giving or taking in exchange. to make inarticulate sounds in . et juxta catalla sua. society. the Confessor. NE. frown. Fr. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. to — . Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. cara. Pr. dchec. stuttering. to vomit. from AS. entertain kindly. agreeing upon. Soc. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. OFr. Hal. Sp. kakaista.. sum in a loan. kak. giggling. s. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Fl. a dealer in horses. ceaflas. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. capitale. — To check an account. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. kik. in widely separated languages by the Lat. to act as a rogue. chuckle. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. chavylbone or chawlbone. citello. goods. 144 the It. in Fr. chop. to buy. CHATTELS has ciio. chatel. cattle. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Faire bonne chire. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. It. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. jaw. kok. a tavern-keeper. Du. caupo. — We ' . a young boy or girl.kakot. Hence to cheat. Cam. whence captale. Check. bon marche. upon a checked cloth. Chattels. the principal ' colloquial E. to buy. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. retching. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. gig. the face. exAS. entertainment. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Cheat. stuttering.— Cattle. to chop and change. gagkezen. us.. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. . kaupa. Sc. teeth . . kauf. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. from Lat. a cheater. a piece of moveable property. sob E. force of the word. goods. to nauseate (to retch). kikottaa. any cheating. kaupon. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. sense of bargaining. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. a canting knave. the tongue. . . Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough.ing. jaws. to swap goods . Ek dry and hard. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Bohem. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. cheeks. which is used in the to stutter. to coff—Yisi. aspect of a man. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. thers. laughing. are represented piti. to negotiate. cozener. to deal ON. cachinnari. favour. It — Brompton in Due. to cough and hence either buying or selling. kichen. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. mandibula. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. a willing look and unwilling heart. Gr.of the throat in coughing. cita. to cluck like a hen. chatal. chear in the sense of victuals.— . Then. gagkern. Ingulphus. cattle. keck. syllables ^ag-. chaptel. with Dief.' kezen. e. the Lat. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. the countenance Fr. Lat. Fin. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. tradesman.—Choke. hawkmann. cattle. price. See Chess. truffa. It. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. to fetch the breath with difficulty. choule. look. Chew. countenance. a dealer. sale. See Cheek. chapman. cera. Cot. kakkaset. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. to . The gutGoth.— Chole. CHEEK zitella. lower. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Fr. chire. — — —Chowl. visage. ceap. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as.. lead to OE. ku. . the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . with the exception of land. ceahhetan. 'li^'opa jord i jord. koopen. changing. prattlingchete. Bav. to stutter gigken. Chear.

kjakje. kikna. as. ceaflas. To make a shrill noise Chest. Lat. chops. cheek. kopen. prevail with. condition of being taken. Hence kikna is identical with OE. ceaplas. Pl. subjected to this process with that which the throat . takes place in the formation of cheese. jouffle. To Cheep. to hold dear. The Sw.D. Chemistry. AS. ation. jaw. cyse. jowl. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. CHE. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Prothroat of an animal . cheek. Fr. ceac. Du. cese. Achievement. carnium. As the board to gasp i. as meat and butter. kdkel. like a young chicken.. a rafter .their struggle for independence. the throat. &c. to gasp. Jam.EP CHEVRON 145 on. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. incaseatus. ca' — . Analo. N. schach.pose of acidifying them kasadr. cerasus. Tutschek. Sw. Pm. Prov. food.cirieggia.Xo belch. cams. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. An imitative word. w. czypti. Kil. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. quoka. to swallow. kaecke. mouth kek. to make a noise different word. giffle. cista.G. whence kasa-leipa. gaghel. OHG. throat. cerise j G. Fr. quok. rupted into chess. Fr. cisty G. kasa. Cherry. (Kil. Fr. Chess. to prevent the attack of cavalry. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. to year. Sc. Lith. Du. kirsche. achever. kapen. kasiiUPr. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. dersen . cegio. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to kasa. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. X'C&s. ichec. See Chess. rattle in the throat. schach. by laying up in a covered heap. From them the plish. Sc. rennet. castaneusj Fr. Sp. equal squares of opposite colours. . cherir. cheeks. E.' to w. gap. to belch. the hke. F*-. accomplishment cayed. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours.koppen. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. squeak as a mouse. whence czypulas. scacco. caseus. kastr. ceg. the neck. chiffe. things Da. Thus "we are brought din. the mouth or so marked are called chequered.). clear the throat. Lith. geagl. geafl. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. E. Fin.peep in the same sense. suffo. /Ji2^/(W. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. w. a heap. skratt. treat with affection. . Hence chesten-nut. It. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. throat. frame by which the exertion is made. mollium congeries. Chevaux de frise. Sw. xaque. the mouth. to kep. the The use of the word kcesir. . king). G.D. chAtaigne. to boken. gapen. Chef. — — . then end. chests in OE. Chekenyd or querkenyd. Lat. G. gill of fish AS. cheek. cabiron. kces. kjceve. gullet. w. kastanie. subacidus. the loose the game of checks. cheken. acquisition. gous forms are G. to accomThis they call hdrsk. to bring to an end. chaps. Fris. cough. chesten. E. Da. cireggia. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. — 10 . Cherish.perly head. ON. Sp. Chevisance. Fr. cufd. caws. veluti piscium. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. chops. kjcebe. make an end.. — — . E. the palate Chequer. for cheese itself. e. jaws. to gape gab. jaw . to choke with laughter. chasi. a cricket. gabe. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. nish source. to geahl. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. In these latter forms we see the transIt. old bread. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. by laying it in come to an agreement with. ost. kesten. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. a chicken. Lat. kistej Lat. kikna of dorum coacervatio. dear. chevir. kok. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. chevron. . which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. AS. See Case. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. kdke. to love. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. jaws Sw. rafters in heraldry. caru. practice seems to have been communiChevron. . hasten. made rancid koka. See Alchemy. Lat. It would Cheese. ceocian. The name of creak as shoes. jaw. to choke. cabrio. the final guttural is retained in writing. — — . AS. Cher.

caprioru. Magy. kindeken. — — Mother Hubbard. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold.— . pi. to contest about trifles. kimia. Now gan some courage unto him to take. kopf Du. rafter. and from the third E. from the first of which is Lith. to Du. Chitter. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Pr. deer's horn. pole. Payer chiguet A chiguet. G. tiuk. then as G. cabriones. a cup cibaw. kibr. . Child. to contest. in Walach. czypulas. machouere. caput. chiquei. kime. to chime. Halm. to crackle. chavel. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. or the broken noise of birds. grelot). Sp. Chief. while didder is to shiver or citteren. horns of the house. pululo. the Ptg. jaws . jaw. queror. Gattel. Fr. ' . kippa. the same principle I regard On birds. strideo. kuwe. the cry of young . mountain top . cabarach. kitista. to smart. are formed Du. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. mouth. also the horizon. — Fin. to use the jaws. stake. chic. gosling. tremble with cold. as pointing out the origin of the E. 'Among these the G. knit the brow cib-led..peep. signifying properly shivering. Russ. chin. Palsgr. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane.^ to resound as a bell. aner.-ill. cap. kinderen. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. or chick. Pm. chillrar. chavel.. tiukka. chill. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. to go. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. chieftain. capete. Walach. a chicken. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Gael. gills of a fish. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. cica cica. Fin. pipio. a chicken. greloter is to shiver for cold. It. tiukkata. doubtless originally a chicken Lap.' my finger tingles with cold. capu. killen.D. to twitter. term is ssaru fu. pip. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. to raise the rim. Chick. antler. Chigue. Probably from Fr. k'imm s. pipe. to titter is Du. kaau•wen. horn wood. a little bit. by driblets. chew or chaw. Pl. kind. kimme. De finger killet mi for kalte. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. to scold. cheek. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. G. tintelen van koude. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Fin. kidata. a quid of tobacco. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . tyuk. W. kop. pipio.). or as E. kauen. E. chef. while the Magy. creak. to gasp for breath (Hal. Swiss kiden. A To Chew. w. twitter. Brezza. knirschen. kaw. a cup. kimista^ . ach. To Chide. a hen. cild. killen. Fr. See Chimmer. the jole. caferu. and not vice versd. — . from little to little. Da. — Du. Du. cabar beinne. Chimb. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. The Pl. a jaw. Tintillo. kauwe. as. Fl. when the vibrations become very rapid. E. the head.^ Hal. acute. lead through the synonymous E. capo. zitterti. ]).. the young of animals in general. chawbone.— Cot. sonorous. . The loss of the syllable it in Du. the rim or edge of a vase. klagend tonen. Du. kieken. or qf people talking rapidly. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. chikat'. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chol. E. a cup. . It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. chiler. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. captain. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. Chime.. chicoter. knarren. from the second Lat. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Prov. Imitative of a loud clear sound. To chitter. chimb. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. CHEW . chillar. kouwe. head. keichen. cebr. chaps. Pr. chicken. quivering sound which passes. Chill. has probably the same origin. Chaw. And hence. tiukkua. a small cask OFr. into a continuous shriU sound. Fr. choule. chillness or shivering. s. kilderkin. : — a lump. rafter . AS. For the see word Doit. beam. tremble. jaw. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Pm. branchy. cabar.— Gattel. CHJME the radical form is unusual. to chirp or peep like a chicken. a chicken. then cold. De chic en chic. ultimate origin of the Mite. kauchen. Fin. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. to pettifog. the throat. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. alter. 146 brial. the least imaginable jot. cib. to chew. Fl. chicaner. to the brim. a finch. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano.D. crepo. a head. — It. Lat. a young bird. rafter . The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. Kil. Bret. cidan.

Ptg. Chymerynge. caperd. to murmur. . Chitter.czirbti. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . See Chats. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. keich husten. To chink with laughter. gena. the cheek (jaw) . To Chimmer. all these imitative terms being minata. cinan. backe. It. to chirre.sharp. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Chit. cincel. kumista. Du. See Chark. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. cheek. Fr. a thorn. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. applied to tremulous motion. E. Hindost.). zirpen. to sound. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. chin . clangor tinniens kummata. Lat. esquena. and bodily movement in shimm. as birds the mouth. chatter . the jaw. a hall Mid. part lion. ciarlare. — . quavering of the voice. are In like manner E. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. then to any narrow crack or AS. to chine. chink.Lat. eschine. Chink-cough. skina. See Bright. KinneGr. simmer. a chap. Magy. as a bell kommata. killed by Bellerophon. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. The desig. . also vibrans. Chitterling. czirszkti. Lith. the chin . a thorn. Pr. to chirp . Gloss. in Hal. to chink. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. Bav. and from a similar sound to boil gently. kinne. to sound deep or the Gr. kieck hoest. ykvvQ. spina. sonants. schrick. cisello. a surkik hosta. schiena. — — — — — . pare also Walach. Du. hiss chirlar. pork) .er. Gower in Hal. Chintz. — . vincially used in the sense of a crack. as the/ is preserved tering. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. 147 kimina. cheminde. in the same crack. to tattle. tschirpen. to chirp. a szemrcU. chick. clipping of coin. To chirp or twitter. the cheek. komia. to prattle czirpti. sound on beginning to boil. as a large bell . then of a fabulous monster part goat. have been used to designate the spine. and the Du.to chirp. et garrire . crepare. backBut she withal no worde may soune. genawi. — . do. Fr. AS. fyr. Sp. Huloet. See Chap. zirken. sonus the backbone Lat. a Kuttn. caminata. or chyFrigutus. yivtiov. Sp. to prattle . tsengeni. the mouth (jaws) . Sp. bone . Prov. E. flaw Hal.iron. tsongeni. komista. but or cry as a parrot. . sound. and chim-mer. It. the whooping cough. eschin^e (de pore). Chip. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. to gape. hiss Pm.to divide or Du. as the chink of money. To Chitter. to chink with laugh2. twitter caminus. It. The small entrails of a hog. cinne.. Sw. Fr. dial. genou (pi. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. gen. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. In the same sense. to simmer.schricken. spina. Chimera. a fire-place. squittire. to open chirriar. kumina. name Then. klincken. chirp. Chink. Bret. sounding deep. clashing of weapons. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. from Lat. companied. — . It. . up and down. to sizel. chhint. Chisel.Huloet in Hal.. hollow. twinkling light. which differ from each other only as Chirk. schetteren. plodere. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Chat. Chine. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Fr.' Phaer's Virg. Cot. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. fissure. G. epine. tremulous motion. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. chits. the jaw. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. verynge or dyderinge. shiver and the chyver of Pr. bx-eak the back of schena. disCot. sparkle. schina. kink hoest. . representing connected together. Diez de. caminsects. cleft. Sp. schetteringe. Caminatum. to tremble. The change from the sound ter \s. Chin-coug^h. Primarily a shrill sound. A . Kil. the chine. eschiner. Chyrme or chur. G. to creak. hus. from 10 * ' Chia. from the geon's lancet. to squeak in It. It. to creak. tinnire. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . ciseau (for cisel). i. and light. Chimney. quivering or shakyng for colde. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. j^lf. rustle. esquina. Gascoigne in Todd. cisaille. resonance . We make of a French niff an English chitterling. ter. stridere. Pm. a crowing sound in recovering breath. a chink or fissure. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Fr. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body.

* To Choose. kiezen. xiv. try. caperd. kruszki. to taste. to try. a scale or fragment P1. 2. causir. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. schevel-steen. cut up into — See Chats. choppe. a goose's giblets. chife.ceosan. Choice. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. . I. and Vf. a fragment. a small slice or slip of anything . a blow. cive. all seem slate . Chuck-full. gdnse gekrose. haslets. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. Warwickshire coff. from kraus.yEuffM. a calf's pluck or chaldron . chorus. taste. from chevalier. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. schoch. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. kusid. okusyti. gusten. full to overflowing. crammed Choir. lead us on to Lat. gustare. to palpitate . the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. choix. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. kbhren. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. &c. chimp. a rag.' Verie coinme Cot. to taste . arkiusan. a twittering. to prove. bile.D. to taste. Chives. See try. to choose. •- Russ. . chives. . Gr. pluck. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Walach. to turn. — See Cheek. coup. a calf's chaldern of E. curly . To Choke. of an angry — — — ' ' — . then to try. G. krussyi. to clap up Hal. fresure. Yr. to shiver. and in kosten. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. Gr. Fr. of E. Serv. to try . propagated. keypa. Choleric. keuren. to ing is doubtless to taste. civette. %o\ifa. kushevati. wrath. Jam. select. then to shiver. shoot . The I go to prove them. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. chiffe. the small parts of the roots of plants. and N. ON. Chap. The . a young . skifa. prove. to ^cleave . to chap at a door . or original meaning is preserved in G. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Prov. cepa. to tempt. signify to kiss. and in this sense the * small pieces. ^euw. G.gust. kiusan. &c. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. to hack. ON. to experience. chceur. full.. called cMtters in the N. approve. Swiss kust. kalbs gekrose. . Chivalry. pieces . kaup. the inwards of an animal. are used in the same sense. a ruff. it is probable that the root kus. i.' who shall not taste death. developments of the same radical image. G. kausjan. . a ruff or frill. to break off in small shive. to Compare also Pol. to stop geschoppt voll. —Chorus. scheve. to try. kustigen. by which they are Fr. friller. to taste. wein didder for cold. Lat. fine threads of flowers.ffrill. chippe. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. coro. specially with an application to theatrical performances. disposition. gekrose. chap hands. rare. heaped measure. To Chop. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. in the same language. Luc. anger. chawdron. chatter. whence Lat. a chive. to chap. a wine taster. to try. Fr. Cavalry. The manners and senti. Goth. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. kieser. Swab. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. and It. kiesen.' At last he dwelt . — Cholera. koren. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. as with a blow. to wrinkle. — — — . g'schochet voll. Boh. wkusit' prikushat. seallion or unset leek. a heap. kor6n. Enn Sigridur sem ' . In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff.freze. to strike hands .. Choice is probably direct from Fr. shiver. OHG. an onion.— B jag E. Schmid. . x^poc.V)^x. kushati. taste. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. CHOP kros. to taste. as green as leeks. ent quarter. from %u\i). cape. to exchange horses. the ridges prove. a company of singers or dancers. chibble. also calPs. ments of the knightly class. 19. . greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. word is more likely to be from Lat. Gr. — Chock-full. to taste. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus.vonic languages are Pol. The Sc. chock full. cke. ^S. kiusan. chaup. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Equivalents in the SlaFr. a knight. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. Body and Soul. As kushnuti. schiefer. experience valerie. chattering. ruffs. try. whence choleric. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . Fr.

thick-set. . p. fat. kubb. chub. thumb Fl. capito. quappe. the teeth to chatter . connected with G. chrysalis (Plin. The Turk was here As one should say. gobio capitatus. forms are Chrism.\^s. OE. whence e. peace. kubbr.X. &c. Sp. of which such strings are made. to cant. chop. Chough. chronicles. kauwe. kobe. xpi'^lia. a stump. A jackdaw. gull. cavena. dial. — Dief. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. From the Turkish Chiaus. capita.—Chuokstone. chapineria. chouette. noble Doctor. time ra . applied to an owl in that language. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. Come. bearand aits. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. high clog. ' ' What's that? Dap. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. cambiare. overset. e. a lump or piece chump. sent before him a Chiaus. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. — . E. Fr. caker. Jam. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. Fr.' Jam. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise.). chroniques. i.— Chevin. Fr. XpvaaXic.povucd. — Quabbe. koppe. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. Gr. cauc. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . kaulhaupt (club-head. Sw.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Madam.. Picard. — — — . Peace. chapin. cheap. or miller's kaycke . equivalent to the E. chuet. and we actually find champman for chapman. chapma?i. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. chevin. which was written 27. Chrysalis. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. See Change.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Du. ON. To coup. Du. What do you think of me. we find the following passage Dap. whence apparently the Sup. slipper .sohola.— Landnamabok. from kloppen. chatter . cow-couper.(. a thick piece. xop5>}. AS. capitanus. chouquette. Chopino. who took in the Turk- clack. Borgoens happen. whence the Fr. Ant. —Shakespeare. e. the string of a musical instrument originally. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Nominale in Nat. Fr. a The What dhy ^. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. Chub. Cot. cresmeau. whence — E.. cangiare. Lat. kowej Sax. — Chrisom. the intestine of an animal. That Face. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. caqueter. kaufen. syllables chat. A fish with a thick snout and head. a bullhead. merchant. P. as Du. clat. traffic. 4. by the Robert Shirley. to speak thieves' slang. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. clogs. Gr.). chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. gold. a small fish with a large head. to clack. gull. kaej Lith. Kil. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Anachronism. for to defraud.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. E. to chatter. chrisme. ley in Giiford. one who buys and sells horses or cows. that will thank chiaus — you richly. dealing. an offence against the fitness of times. In the Alchemist. 49. to overturn.• — . In Sc. monedula. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. kolbe (club). To Chouse. short piece kubbug. caphatenus. Confounded with the bullhead. cob. to knock. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. E. the same word with the It. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. to strike in the hand. soul-couper. xftovoq. chevane. Marin. klompe. Chronicle. E. kowe. To Chop logick. in Chaucer. as in Fr. . Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. ceo. because she would not endure this husband chopping. Gr. in i6io. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. cheviniau. prattle . chack. claquer. chevane. dial. Alchemist. a messenger or envoy. klopper. Chuck. Gr. capitone. Wall. Fr. plump. See Chaff. kaw. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. -chron-. civetta. choucas. I bring you the Cloughs. G. yiSA. cauvette j Fr. to turn over. a trafficker in souls. Chord. If I discover.

' he adds. casum (in comp. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. The origin ation. lamak. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. Lat. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. G. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. in the face. chakil. kirna. have given rise. . chack-stone. karl. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. Cider. klakka. Lat. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. surly. The spelling of chider has Chump. kjami. a rustic . log of wood. to jaw chack or snap.^. Diss. AS. to To Chuckle. i. tie about). cheek. ceffo. we have to chack. then the on oh StX iv roXt.V//a'6'?. sicera. Cleland in Jam. Du. cinis. an old man.— Chu%. as Epkema explains it. comp. pp. to separate the kernel of the milk. with It the Lord's house. flower. Sicerawry face ceffata.' And cold. sinter. Gr. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. incido. See Cheek. . but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. but by way of explan. See Cheek. whence deciduous (of trees). Gr. thence a belt. KvptaKolg. chofu. countryman. a girding on. whence church. It is certain. a man. Sw. kakka. e. . Du. Lat. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. ceorl. sive piratiam facere sciant. . sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. spuma metalli. a man. a fellow.rendered by Kil. chops. to fall upon decide. residue of burnt coals. a husband. pith. AS. ON. Sc. . OFr. as Fr. In Sc. x^^i?. to determine incision. geaflas.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. domhnach. Church. cinctura {cingo. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). to form grains of butter. Fr. male person. chuffy. in Sc. a cutting an old chuff. — — A — ' ' — . kaerle. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. set kerti.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. To chuck in the fall from. kiorne. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . Wall. a resounding object. to him a sudden blow. ceaplas. kerl. chaps. -cido. whence ON. Ka-^aiva. sindra. Chunk. sindr. Fris. joffu. or. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). 24. ON. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. dial. ccedo. as water running over rocks or stones. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. chack or stane-chacker. The derivation from Kvpiasov. sintel. Gothic nations.for the residue of stone coal. a pebble. a miser. Aasen. C^z^j^ churHsh. ciuffo. the snout of an animal. kernjen. to make a rippling noise. tindra. to Newsp. marrow. to sparkle. -cis-. &c. the kernel. Cieling. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj.. so as to make the happen . dust. a cutting round. cut off. a pebble . cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. e. Da. &c. — of the two words. G. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. ON. from Lat. accido. Hence -cid-. -cide-. that the word is an adoption of Fr. as a board. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. or choice part of a thing . Ir. -eris. giffle. to make a aiKipa. * Cinder. to gird. to cause the milk to grain. a man. . a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. cidre. As AS. to strike clatter. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. ashes. Cob. Fr. cinders used disjunctively. chofe (Grandgagnage). Wall. Lat. — . fat-cheeked. swollen or puffed up Cot. chife. kern. to throw out sparks. a douse on the tores. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Du. to fall. Chuff. has been impugned which it has really no connection. ChurL husbandman. joufflu. scoria. from Lat. as in E. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. calculus. Probably from It. See Ceiling. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Churn. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. KaxXij?. to cut decide. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. to turn from blossom to fruit. ceaflas. ceffore. ladre from Lazare. cendre. cinctus. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. sindel. -cise. calx.— . to fall at or on. Jennings. i. -cisuiri). gffe. cado. jaws.D. a lump. to churn. however.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. in circumcision. cheeks Cincture. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A.

a Pol. Gael. cisterna. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. clapping of klacke. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. claquer crash. to summon or call on. cittadella. to call. klacke-busse. dob. Clamp. Chaste. Du. to cleanse. Lat. cifra. Citron. gutter. klamp. clump. bunch . sindri. civitas. The notion of a lump. Gael. chest. a block. empty Golius. a shoot. scion or sucker. lump. a whirlwind. the door was slammed J slamem. in the frequentative form. cion. chupon. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. dim. from chupar. cista. the tongue. —Circuit. as caverna from cavus. . &c. belonging to cities or social life . and E. a split. a clod Russ. . uproar. KpiKoe. suck). to cry out. a cleansing place. sprig. See Crankle. civilis. or quill to draw waier through Fl. lash . noise — — a cistern. Scion. Citadel. KipKog. klabb. a hiding-place. Recite. It. may cite w. clambar. and Sp. to make to go. Gr. Lat. Circle. klateren. clack. klak. Lat. See -cid-. The Gr. We . vociferation. klimp. sip. or clap-dish. It. lucerna. glam. to clap at a theatre. klap. a citizen . clot ON. around. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. a reservoir Probably from Lat. as. to set in motion by means of the voice. Circum-. to call. cito. trunk. Excite. twig. klacken. . scion. is traced by Gr. Comp. Dan. crack.— . claquet de moulin. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a loud uksa slamketi. parallel root is slam. Clump. for Cion. a boss . radical identity of the Fr. slam. log. ring. clasp. to clatter. to gnash the teeth. area. and clash. citrus. Du. cittade. a lemon tree. In Fr. a lump Du. . glamm. chijfre. a clod. circle. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. to chatter . Lat. to toll . Lat. To Clack. lump. Fr. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. klater-busse. -cite. Bohem. a pop-gun. G. cittd. kringla. E. claim. . to call by name. . clack-box.' sione. around. clap. and. biw. a kind of pipe. babble . chupon. sound of blow. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a young and tender plant. ruin. whence cistiti. klubb. clack. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. domern. a judgment cern. or split with noise. to chatter. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . a mass. forms — — — parent plant. smack. clog. Clam. creak les dents. kringr. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. citujn. ON. sound. accordingly find the roots dab. to chatter. Du. Sp. ciste. . claquer. cieo. ter. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a knob. with an initial s instead of c. It. clapper. lump of wood or with the nasal. city. a lump Lat. clamras. a circle. clatCot. Dan. to appeal. lump. ON. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Hal. To Claim. sajira. clamp. lump . 'mass.to suck. globus. klompe. See Circle. mass . a kind of rattle. So a light. klappe. klqb. Sw. a ring. wasserkasten (water chest). cluster. G. rattle. klump. prattle. clamare. Alt. a city. Fr. a circle. crack. klappen. clat. cry. Cot. sphere gleba. klopati. a for water. castus). a rattle Fr. . klumbr. a. clack-dish. glambar. sifr. Fr. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. to strike. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. cry out . From Arab. a'upiav. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . klepati. kluV. Sw. as in Sp. cit^. a place See place hiddern. . Lat. rattle . W. to clack. noise. of citta. Cite. Mack. clangor avium . civis. hringr. bunch. . a circle. to be empty. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). klammer. E. . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. the place of . a cistern. a whip. about. a rattle . crack.. tinnitus . fall. The syllables clap. * Ciplier. a ball. cion. ball kloben. Lap. a city. ON. Fr. klambr. to mention. clamp. -cis-. Gr. clap. claquer. a Lat. — (Dozy) ing blow. to knock. prattle. a block. circa. Arab. sound- — hands figures. Hence Incite. cisterna. circum. CION See Tinder. a ball. circum. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. circ2tlus. City. * Cistern. to bawl. to cluck. klekotati. Lat. clobyn. stimulate. outcry. to go. —Civil. excite. lump. chatter . compared with It. klemte. We . clamer. ern.

damor. Salainen. a claw. Dan. strait. To clap in E. run to lumps Clandestine. — — . — Lat. to climb. klappen. klepel. G. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. adopted Lat. klappre. brawl. klamre. gum. to do anything with a clap. Lang. kloben. hook. to daub pinch. Swiss kldbem. clandestine. tinkle. to Hal. apprehend . chief. ney. B. klemmen. or klamp-vogel. klampen. clann. &c. B. kluppel. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. klippe. To Clamber. clang. to. G. These words To are closely connected with damp. kleppe. tone. club . clapas. but perhaps not directly from it. Clap. klam7n. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. OE. dee. E. These are imitations of a loud. klette. to dame. children. hold. clink. ring as metal. a noose . scendants. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. to stick conceal.er. to beat. to glue. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. dang. To sticky. E.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. . chatter. celo produces Fin. klubber. prison. AS. clav\f. substances of a stickydam. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. bandage. G. a bird of prey. dambar. dia. pressed close or hard together. — with hunger. Clank. klettern. Du. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. klebern. a place underground where rabbits breed. Clang. gliong. . An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. dapi^. grasp. coagulated cream. sound. clap. dandestinus. a craCmp. Bohem. E. Dan. Clapper. of which the locative case. with cramp-irons. to clamp. cluster. E. bond. klynge. who occuG. cramp. The Fr. salafa. dientes. klappen.1. to pinch. clamber. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. tight. resonance klingen. clapper of conies. closely analogous to that of the fast. klamm. Dan. klammer. klemmen. uproar. daver. a stone See Claim. clear sound. to hold fast with the . the in many languages. a loud tingle. G. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . dem. a trap. a burr. solid. clibby. to clap. kleppen. to climb. for tame conies. is used in the sense of secretly. to hold to pinch. to climb . a hawk. G. Swiss kletten. cling. dam. tenacious. See Clam. yf. dapier. — . viscous. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . kleppe. sticky Hal. to glue. klepanie. dienklebber. klammern. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. dren. dam. salaan. cramp-iron. cleave. a rattle . Sw. Gael.. grimper. to climb. to cleave or stick. klopfen. damras. c). children. klavre. take hold of. privately. strain . anything hidden. sound of the trumpet . to clap on. a claw . Du. Clamp. klamme. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. G. dam immediate modifications — . klynge sig op. . Lat. to stick or glue. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. tattle. dink Du. is a nasalised form of gripper. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. crowd . tingle. a stick. to clutch or cling oneself up. from the w. knocking. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. sound. to claw oneself up. klang. a sound made by a lighter clink. glambar. and hence moist. klibber. gripe. . conceal. Clink.' klibba. klepati. In like manner Du. to knock. clasp. Bav. of the children. to Sw^. offspring. The equivalent of Lat. klobber-saen. Fr. tremble . beat. seize. The root which gives rise to klibb. a whip. Clamour. rumour. compression. chatter. a sound made by a still . to knock. dial. contraction. klank. The E. cream Manx doan. whence sala. in a hidSen place. to hook things together. narrow. to climb. and hence to pinch . Du. to seize. viscosity . massy. from birdlime. sound object . clangor. a sound. as the clapping of hands. holdfast. buckle klamp. ancestor. to climb. Russ. klam. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klatten. dank. klemmen. pinching. Du. sound . A i. klem-vogel. beating. a heap of stones or other things piled up . — Climb. Hence the Fr. originally a heap of large stones. accent. dam. also to clog up. compress. kleben. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws.' to take coals to Newcastle. — Cot. clammy brace. to patronus. where- A — unto they retire themselves. clajnmy. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. hands or claws to grasp. dap up. as the Lat. Dan. to gingle. to hide. to starve. dial. stick. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. Clan. nature . Halma. G. to cling. rattle. Mampe. clap.p correspond- ' without order. descendants . . klimmeii. a heap of stones. dapier. of money Gael. diver. . and that from celo.

Klatsch- a pop-gun . Lat. Clause. is used in Sc. a buckle. Lat. But clasp or elapse. from scknallen. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. So Pol. and clavis. Eau clairette. blab. kleeven. a key. Clash. It. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. klucz. — Kiittner. as it is written by Chaucer. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. To clew. ivy. which signifies a ball in E. to shut.w or u on the other. Prov. klauwe. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. a bunch. Originally clasis.Gr. a key origmally a crooked nail. Du. a clod. The b readily passes into gleba. Lang. from the resemblance to a key. &c. klouwe. uproar. claw (what fastens together.. clairon. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. as G. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Identical with ON. — tells us. crying. Du. chiarino. gaspe. to fasten together . to end.Z. clausum. from clinging to the tree which supports it. The form clew. fracas. Thus from clamp. clopa. chiizjj-o. thwack . From clairet. the collar-bone. &c. locket of a door. clarin. Pol. under three modifications dava. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. a bird with powerful talons. also a knell for the dead. In E. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. ictus resonans. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound.\x\xvn. chiaro clear. sauna de classes. to knock. clausula. The collar-bone. 269. to ring in such a manner for the dead. forms are the Du. applied in their harness. Du. K\a. mass. KXeiSi. Russ. Wyutoun in Jam. syrtium junctura. clatter. kiosk bicza. a. as Mod. glcis. to animals Sp. Dan.). in the sense of a claw. a kind of small. Lat. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. rion. kletse. klaequivalent to clack or clap. a little hook . clavis. clarinado. a nail. Gr. a ball. globus. Sp. ansa. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. chatter. insularum nexus . Rayn. G. klot. clew or fasten upon a thing. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Kil. — Clarinet. klamme. schnalle. Fr. a clasp.oi. a lump . he of white and red grapes mingled together. to fasten. Mask ! plask ! thwick. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. a key KKtitid. e. clavus. — Clarion. Cot. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. fibula. E. to snap. clump.— CLARET clamp. climp. . diver. puUs. clair. Fr. clamp. to clap . Commonly made. skeria-klasi. klaeret. Class. bawling. klatscha pop-gun. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. compression. to rattle . Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. a complete sentence. a heap. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. claret win e. clas. i. a water made of aquavitse. in the sense of a mass or lump. waU. row aii/iaTos. hawk. dap. Eya-klasi. klase. fragor . whence kleuer. somewhat clear. pet. biichse. pellet . Clavicle. vinum helvolum. straight-mouthed. a lump. and shrill-sounding trumpet. sphaera. to cleave. to clash as arms. noise. Nawith stavis. It. teren. chasguear. Du. Owl and that by which cleave to. klc^i.It. it is called clamming. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. kleuen. an on the one hand. klaskad. Clatter. . klatschen. is preserved in Lang. nail. a lash. Clew. klaterbusse. we pass to the E. klos. Lat. nawith stanis. Fr. From claudo. stop of an organ.to cra. klampvoghel. klatsche. vin claret. and through v into a. Analogous Jam. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. with a reddish tint. thence a definite head of an edict or law. to do anything with a . In the same way is formed the OE. a. subrubidum. classis. —Kil. hook. a distribution of things into groups. a club or massy stick. Claw. to patter. Nightingale. mass. rubellum. assembly. Thus from Lat. a sphere .ck a whip. the primary origin clapa. kluczka. clairon of a trumpet— It. or as G. flap. Du. and old red rose-water. a claw. the cracking of a whip. from its use in fastening things together. sound of the foregoing description. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Du. clew. biichse. Claret. Clasp. an ending. buckle. cloi. contraction. a claFr. to draw it up into a bunch. klauw. seizes) . klatschen. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. chiarello. same class with w. vin clairet. globus. klijven. cinnamon. cluster. Serv . Sw. klampe. ghespe. klouwe (Kil.

doff. klov. give a shrill sound Jr. ON. clemens. Halma. E. Sc. words applicable sight. or from being divided into two parts. to be composed. W. Thus from G. dags. to 2. bogs cous. glitta. kluit. klinken. . clean. dut. and Dan. diquetcr. B. . pure. sticky . provinciaUy termed dout. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. a cleft. polished. A — A Clement. dedgy. klirren. . nitidus. a cleft. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. klinka. Clemency. Du. rivet. Clean. to stick to. Fr. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. klag. shine. G. See Clog. to glitter. a mass. Cleat. Lat. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . geklonken. clash. klinke. to chink. as explained under G. voice. dial. ON. to separate into parts.' was nailed to a rock. a one end. clear. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. calm. glitnir. from diquer. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. from the clinking of the latch. gingle. vissticky . shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. viz. kloben. loam. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. the original . a fissure. glan. This word is used in two business is finished off. glbram. kluftholz. Bav. 2. Clear. to fasten.— Claggy. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. or of a tree. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. klouen. glatt. to tear or cleave asunder. kleevig. split. klincke. glan. glor-mhor. sticky. E. to clinch a nail. gaklankjan. From dob. 154 CLAY dutch. klouen. doggy. AS. Omklinken. Du. dams. to fasten. daggy. kloben. dinquet kleeven. and Celtic glan. river. glint. glan. the fork of the body. conserere antklankjan. a in that of sphtting. mud. merciful. klyft. together . to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Sw. klirre. klink. To call. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. the two parts of Du. celebrated . vice. Cleft. opposite senses. and. a noise. that was a striking proof.— . famous. From clap. klinken. an object is simply cleft. Du. klinke. speech . a claw or talon. Lat. as Lat. that was Torriano. Da. viz. as the Du. dag. clear. rive. is fast and sure. G. kldnkelein. bright. kla:g. dench. danche. . to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. to fasten E. kluft. See Clam. Du. rift. i. klinke. sleek. klove The Dan. the latch of a door. to clench. clibby. . kleverig. klafwa. the To Cleave. as Fr. to shine . a flash. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. deot. to cleave. from nitere. clean. Du. — : A rivet. To Clench. tongs. door-latch. Clay. pretty. hook. neat. gleit. a bunch of When flax). to dag ox dog. klieuen. glbr. cliquet. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. kloben. bend in a stream. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. clay . to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. Axletree clouts. G. clean. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. explained from the klinken. a latch. to Brilliant. kloue. clout. lump. chaps in the skin. klutsch. kleg. either by the coherence To Clepe. (Cot. a noose. kleben. to clinch GB. a — — . G. seem formed dial. glent. klank. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. Die zaak is zS. pure. to shine. klijveii. to clink or sound. gentle. a fissure or division See Cleave. klieben. it cleave together. pellet. glandse. Dan. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. Kil. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. E. to stick or adhere . The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. Da. of iron worn on shoes by country people. a cleft or fissure. G. kleg. ON. a key. klor. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. cloven wood. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. klinken. . Sw. sticky earth. as ON. clink. a plate. glance . The proper meaning of the word is shining. found in other cases. Wilbraham. Probably a modification of the word doitt. Sw. The word may be — . date is AS. Mar. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. pure . Sc. a lump. smooth. to sound or make a noise .Q. polish . a lump. splendid pohshed. Gael. klceg.). cleave. in two ways. neat. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. Du. clean. This is probably one of the clean. holding together. The Dan.— Clag. Da. a clincher. Clinch. kluyte. The word is . radiant. glindse. glorious. clear. and E. a mass.

to catch.— Clicket. which is used in Scotch and N. . seize (Hal. cleke. catching. — — A . Sw. kleppe. Claw. cliquer. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. region not observe it. Sp. lively. klouwe. Cot. OE. to talk as a parrot. verge). — have the notion of a short quick in E. click. temperature. klaiv. gleg. to cleave. Click. AS. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. the clergy clericus. clatter. a cliff. cart that tilts over. the clergy. klippe. that is a clever feUow. Climb. precipices. as Sc. ized . Da. littus. to prate. abrupta rupes . Sc. cave . highest is attained. scar. dink. hamraklif. a hump. klinke. to move. G. deik. a hook. Happen. cliff. Climax. clif. or an object character- Clerical. clif- stanas. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. sink. as Lat. to seize. nimble. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. dever. neither as having lordship in the. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. derigo. in rhetoric. clima. a lazar's clicket or clapper. KkrifoQ. a child's or clack . above the pole. rupes .. slope . deuck. dough. 3. quick in motion. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . e. -Toe (from KXivm. de ripa. Client. expeditious. duik. The origin is the Gr. rugged ascent. Boh. stein- kluppen. Fr. is NE. ginally from dob (extant in W. clep. globus. ready of speech. a lump. clyf. Hence Lat. what so men clappe or crie. to clack. pen. and (with the nasal) — clincher. kleppen. has also deik. one admitted to the tonsure. glomus. cleft. Lat. one of the clergy. duke. derigon.' ii. klif. to wink. . to snatch. to bend. icXi/ja?. d See Clan. from Gael glac. on. dial. chatter. ravine. as from derido. claw or talon to dek or deik. cleopian.— Clue. a clerk . implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. We movement catch. CLERK sound of a blow. dook (identical with E. Du. declivity. click. Chaucer. babble. which in Mid. See Clench. clever. cliquet. The Sc. from clifian. to catch. speak. Du. chat. corresponding to Fr. name. exactly Gr. cleugh. a clicket or clapper. crackle. derecia. Now the OE. Jam. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. frap- per rudement une personne. light-fingered. deudi. clerus. precipice. In I Peter v. clever. to confess . cliof. dichet. and hence climate. rock. . a ball of twine. in the sense of active. klinket. prattle. Clever. klippe. as a click with the tongue.dergie! Wiclif in R. 3.) Brai. to teU tales. rock. crepare. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . —Vocab. klaffen. corresponding to the Sc. klev. the knocker of a door. whence Fr. to stir. clypian. . in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. to tattle. a latch. /cXi'fia. Cliff. Norm. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. click it. it must be observed. score7i clif. CLINCH De . crack. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. snatch. diofian. Gr. on. clack. pulsare. to cry. had a form. Clergy. But the Dan. a baU of yarn. Somner. a clew. a sphere. klever. has kl'dver. or Sc. See AS. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. cautes. a mill-clack . a claw or clutch. Climate. skard. a ladder. with hamarskard. dek. to sound an alarm to clap. Du. a trigger. chatter. dial. agile. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. and hence deik. diver. Det er en Mover kerl. dial. deik. derjon. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. clap. chatter. klinge. Clerk. Lat. Klover i munden. diquette. Clew. &c. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Rouchi cliche. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. dexterous. klikker. in precisely the same sense as the E. klikklakken. kliket. a cleft in a rock . The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. G. Lat. a lot. dicher. cleft in a rock. klika. a latch . dutch). Bav. sonare. dob.Lat.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. deuch. a figure mentioned. call. a precipice. an inclination. Dunbar in Jam. IS5 Du. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. klok klep- crepitare. kliv. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. a tumbril. say. a latch. to rattle. Commonly derived from deliver. syn.). Clam. kloof. cligner. the dick of a latch or a trigger. dergi. click. rapidus from rapio. to tattle. would have been derida. a hold. cleft of a hill. See Clamber. call. quick of perception. climate.

I. klinken. kliks. klunker. and so' to contract. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. ON. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. &c. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. to resound. to make a loud noise. Swiss klungele. hlinen. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. klippa.' From Pl. as thick or curdled liquids. Bohem. glocke. club). sloping downwards . Lat. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. ten. Sw. 2. — clot. from klepati. to clink auf. hluccti. Kil. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. klinka. . Serv. difficulty . sloping upwards procUvis. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. klippe. klocke. Cloak. incline.D. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Hal. hill . G. . to lean backwards. clivus. dial.— Clot. hlinian. as G. See Clang. Lat. Gael. Du. related to clock. To cut with shears. at first probably on a wooden board. recline. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. to cluster. . to cling to a thing. klungelin. See Cowl. klocka. to strike. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg.D. clips. to . disposed to a thing. Fr. a rising ground. a ball of thread . Bi klik uti klak.. a lump G. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. a hood. knippen. klik. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. a woman's mantle . kleppe. as we now say three or four o'clock. shears. a separate portion. or bagging clothes. to wither. klepalo. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to snap or fillip schnippen. kldpp. by bits. Esthon. ring clag. also to wink . kolki-laud. * Clod. Clock. Swiss klokken. Du. ' . cloak. compress . declivis. knippe. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. The E. Fr. incline. a clog or fetter for a beast . cochl.'— Shaks. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. parva ruptura. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. sloping forwards. verklungeln. acclivis. To stick to. . to clap or clack. Sw. . kluben. a lump of butter. to beat. klipa. pallium. and a similar syllable without the /. — a mantle. a snare. kol- The word . -CLINE make pinch. dial. To Clip. -atum. as to snip in the same sense from snap. G. klingen. klippur.. dag. knot klynge. a tinman. hooded . speaks of a ' clung bat. klincke. to pinch. gUong. Sw. To Cling. kukla. outcry. to pinch klupe. Sw. to slope or bend . Flem. and 'E. pinch. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. hluk. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. to shrink up. also to form a compact mass. G. clangere. kXiVu. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. clino. brett-glocke. Walach. to clip. Bohem. like cling. clinker. rima. Du. ON. clinke. Ang. bow. g. N orman clincailler. to clunge. a faction. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries.. four of the bell. to snap tongs. Cliofue. clog. Sw. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. a cluster. to lean. Een kliks bolter. to shrink up. to bend downwards . from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. G. Clink. The notion of a loose moveable substance. klok.und zuk-lippen. Sussex peasant AS. knippchen. Da. kima. to crowd together klynge sig ved.— KSS.ginglej Fr. E. dial. noise. to ring. straits. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. E. clutch. clique. whence E. klippa. fetter. slant. tuft. G. to snap kneipen. klunge. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. G. klynge. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds .' for a dry stick. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. to snip. cloche. nip. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. globulus' (Gl. especially of something soft or clammy. to AS. dial. kluppe. a lump. to form one mass with. a beU. klupen. a clock. Ir. claw. pinch. toga. 156 -cline.. klungeln. to beat on the board. . S w. klak. to wither. Pl. to knock. klaka. in Schmeller) klunk. klocke. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. ON. klo^gen. clock is a variation of clack. quincailler. Gr. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Decline. klicke. glungelin. OHG. 'Till famine cling thee. . iissura. kolbe to E. clingan. difficulty. schnippen. sticky. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. klippen. clato make a noise. a bell. to crowd or squeeze chingy. gang. w. Du. -cliv-. . to sound sharp. a bell. toga muliebris. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. . chcng. met.

motzen. ! . tramp in wet or mire. clausum. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. dag.rge lump. to paddle in the wet.1a. klod. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. Du. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. to a. kloster. paddle. clot. Fr. klos. zoccoli. bemired. klokotat. splash. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. miry laggerit. kleck or lack. to bubble. a Christmas log. lump of mud on the clothes . or Sc. a blot. to dabble. to close against one. A . dangle. TZoxapov. Gr. slops). wabbling from Du. slobberen. . Klottermelck. Yule-clog. analogous plan to clod or club. kladde. log. kloteispaen. in forms like Du. daggerey. clausum. da- . I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. rattle. paddle or dabble in the wet. He was a man without a dag. we pass to Schlatter. Dan. klos-bane. klunkern. spatter. with Fr. Mat. klag. laggyn. lob. to cling locks. . mud klcEg. Pl. meat from Du. chiudere. AS. figer. tJokok.'^ Palsgr. mud. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. geschlotter (as E. unctuous. the radical sylla. to dash like heavy rain. to wabble. gelatinous. Close. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Clog. paludosus. The game called ninepins. to shut. clorre. A — — A Thus from Bav. chiuso. . claudo. a lump from Du. be&c. be found rattle. a monastery. a clod Swab. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. of a body of any kind. klateren. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. to shut. a babbler. loose mud. -cludo. bowl . tuditare. clogs. hanging loose and full. a field inclosed clos. Fr. schlott. E. lumps of butter. loppe.). . Russ. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. to lobberig. Bav. . separate part. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. slob. a spot. to flounder in the wet. clatk. lag. to flap as loose clothes. clotted locks Dan. Du. a block. boil. a trowelful of mortar.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. Lat. thick sour milk. closed. is connected with pludder. dirt. klotzschuh. a log. lunch. kleck. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. wide bagging clothes. doitre. to slop or spill liquids.' end. to sup up liquid food. like G. daustrum. Fr. . foreclose. neither spot nor hang loose. truncus. to rattle. Fr. Sc. schlettern. inclose. a skittle-ground klos- sen. clos. cloth. To Clog. bespotted with mire E. Idppern. clos. beklakken. blot. a dirty wench claggy. close. spot of dirt. in accordance with It. or drablyn with separate existence. without. motte. thick spoon . whence klack. claggy. in comp. and Gael. . kloten. then liquid or loose substance. -clus-. a portion of something soft and adhesive. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. pattens G. je amoncele. loose. klakk. to claggock. Pr. we pass to E. Hence inclose. schlattern. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. G. is a blot on one's character.D. schlotter. plod. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. slobber. dab. to play at bowls. . laggery. pludre. klotz. loose trowsers. slobbe. shut up. aspersion. In the same way Dan. . clammy loam. lobberen. slop. lopin. g. dial. a log. clog or overshoe. schlottern. compared with clump. It.— Clothe. of something clammy or heavy. m&se noch stain. to bedaub. to shut in. . MHG. slops slodderen. or loppern.D. to rattle or shake to and fro. a clod. Swiss schlott. to shut up. curdled. mire. slabberen. slab. and E. -clusum. from claudo. shaky. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). Cloister.. lopperig. from Du. lobberen. 3. and Du. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. kloden. to rattle. E. dirt. to spill liquids. kl'dnken. watery. claque. Closhe. finish . lobbig. . kloteren. . lump of butter. klac. Pm. zocco. IV. shut up. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass i